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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 238, July 19, 1890. 


of Entertommuntcattott 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 238, July 19, 1890. 






S. IX. JAN. 4, '90.] 



CONTENT S. N 210. 

NOTES : Capt. J. Smith, 1 B. Burton, 2 Topographical 
Notes, 3 Education Apostolicals " Grand Old Man" 
A Thorough Abridgment" Bank and file," 5 An Old Jest 
Channel Tunnel Verminous Bailhatchet, 6 New Year's 
Day, 7. 

QTTEEIES .-The Cockpit Cock-penny Cockatiels Cockney 
Title of Book Wanted -' Diversions of Purley 'Cathedral, 
7 Byron's Works Heraldic Mirabeau Brockett M8S. 
Blacklegg General C. Martin Castell Zuingli Equi- 
noctial Storm Macaulay's Style Oseney Abbey Funeral 
Shutters, 8 Mrs. Honey Allusion by Macaulay Rules 
J. M. Johnson Cool " The Marleypins " Authors 
Wanted, 9. 

REPLIES: The Couvade, 9 'Teaching of the Twelve 
Apostles 'Sir J. Hawkwood Tennyson J. G. Holman, 10 
Flemish Brass J. Hill Brennus "If I had a donkey," 
11" Prsefervidnm ingenium Scotorum" Park Runes, 12 
Hurrah Heraldic Pigeon's Blood, 13 Compound Words 
Pigs Seeing the Wind Human Leather "Humanity 
Martin," 14 Folk-lore "To stay at home is best" Arms 
Black Cap Column on Calais Pier, 15 Robert Bums 
'Spotted Laddie' Signs Sculptured in Stone Corrigendum 
Skeleton Provincial Publishing, 16 Horatia Nelson- 
Zoroaster ' Arabiniana' Old Scottish Ballad, 17 Foot- 
prints in Snow teething Lane Wellington Heraldic, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
Vol. XXI. Moorsom's ' Historical Companion to Hymns 
Ancient and Modern.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

" Prima lex historise, ne quid falsi dicat." 

Modern research has stripped the protege of 
Princess Pocahontas of many of his self- conferred 
laurels and dispelled much of the romance which 
formerly clung to his name. The truth of a great 
portion of his wonderful adventures and heroic 
deeds has lately been questioned, nay, some 
American writers have even gone so far as to 
denounce him as a blustering braggadocio and 
brand his autobiography as a collection of mere 
traveller's tales and " the gasconades of a beggar." 

Mr. Henry, the vice-president of the Virginia 
Historical Society, referring to this subject in his 
address in 1882, tells us that, " so persistent have 
these assaults been [lately on our author] that it 
seems to be the fashion now with those writers 
who are content to act the part of copyists to 
sneer at the veracity of Smith."* Our experience 
of the species of historians alluded to by Mr. 
Henry does not agree with his, as, to use the words 
of Fuller, "strange performances [such as related 
by Capt. Smith] are cheaper credited than 

* Proceedings of the Virginia Hist. Soc. at the 
Annual Meeting, February 24, 1882, with the Address 

of W. W. Henry with particular reference to the 

late attacks upon Capt. John Smith. Richmond, 1882, 

confuted."* To contradict a writer who professes 
to relate history from personal observation, and to 
prove the contradiction to the hilt, requires more 
study and labour than copyists are wont to 
bestow upon their subject. 

At the suggestion of a friend, I have lately 
examined into that portion of the captain's 
adventures which, according to Purchas, who first 
printed them in his ' Pilgrims,' were taken from 
a book entitled " The Warres of Transiluania, 
Wallachi, and Moldauia, written by Francisco 
Ferneza, a learned Italian, Secretarie to Sigis- 
mnndus Bathor, the Prince [of Transylvania]." 

In performing my task I have, I believe, con- 
scientiously followed the example set by Prof. 
Arber, the able and painstaking editor of the last 
edition of Capt. Smith's ' Works. 'f Like him, I 
have approached the text perfectly free from all 
bias, scanned every assertion of fact most keenly; 
but, I regret to state, the result arrived at vastly 
differs from his, and is anything but satisfactory. 

Prof. Arber seems to attach great importance 
to the statement that the narrative which we are 
about to consider was extracted and translated by 
Purchas from a manuscript, written in a foreign 
tongue, and is therefore not Smith's own account 
of his own doings, but chiefly the narrative of a 
foreigner with no possible motive for his lauda- 
tion. I must join issue with the professor. 
First of all, we have only the captain's word for 
the assertion that the Hungarian, &c., travels 
were extracted and translated by " Master 
Purchas." The latter simply says that he gives 
an account of them as they are "written" in the 
Italian book referred to, and Prof. Arber's 
argument could only hold good if Capt. Smith had 
had no hand in the publication of them. But as 
no one else but he was in a position to supply 
Purchas with an account of his doings while in 
captivity amongst the Tartars, the ' True Travels ' 
were evidently published by some arrangement 
with Smith, and he may have in various ways 
assisted at the preparation of the " copy " for the 
printers. Perhaps Smith made the translation 
himself, but his modesty the latest of virtues 
discovered in him by recent authors prevented 
him from taking credit for the performance. 
Whatever the shortcomings of Fuller may other- 
wise be, in the present instance he seems to have 
hit the nail on the head. Capt. Smith's 

"perils, preservation?, dangers, deliverances seem to 

most men beyond belief, to some beyond truth. Yet we 
have two witnesses to attest them the prose [the text] 
and the pictures both in his own book, and it soundeth 
much to the diminution of his deeds, that he alone is 
the herauld to piiblish and proclaim them." 

The italics are mine. I shall now proceed to lay 

* ' Worthies of England,' London, 1662. 
f Vol. xvi. of the ' English Scholar's Library,' edited 
by Prof. Edward Arber, Birmingham, 1884. 


[7"> S. IX. JAN. 4, '90. 

the captain's case before the reader, to enable him 
to decide how far Mr. Palfrey, the historian of 
New England, is correct, when stating that "a 
comparison of Smith's narrative with the authentic 
history of the south-east of Europe leads to con- 
clusions on the whole favourable to its credit."* 

With regard to Ferneza, I have been at special 
pains to discover the smallest scrap of evidence 
which would convince us that he ever existed in 
flesh and blood ; but my labour has been in vain. 
No copy of his MS. is known to exist, and it does 
not appear to have ever been printed, or if so his 
book has hitherto escaped the notice of biblio- 
graphers. On the other hand, if he is a fictitious 
personage the choice of his nationality must be 
considered a lucky guess on Capt. Smith's part. 

As we know, Prince Sigismund was a staunch 
Roman Catholic, who was carefully brought up by 
the Jesuits in their own school of thought. 
Hence during the whole of his reign the disciples 
of Loyola exerted a most powerful influence upon 
the doings of the court of Alba Julia. His 
confessor and principal adviser, not only .in 
spiritual but also in political matters, was an 
Italian priest, Father Cariglia, and after the death 
of this intriguer another Jesuit, Father Marietti. 
The black coats were, as usual, followed by crowds 
of laymen from the Peninsula beyond the Alps, 
and Sigismund's court soon became wholly 
Italian. Matters became so serious that Parlia- 
ment had, in 1591, to interfere and direct the 
Prince's attention to the enormous sums expended 
on his foreign favourites, and to call upon him to 
enforce the stringent measures decided upon by a 
former Parliament against the Jesuits. 

A contemporary writer has preserved us a list of 
" the names of those Italians who at one time or 
other have stayed at Sigismund Buthori's Court in 
Transylvania."! But although the list is long, it 
may not be complete. It includes pages, painters, 
singers, musicians, a certain "Hannibal Romanus, 
secretarius Sigismundi, dono datus [sic] illi a 
nuncio apostolico Alphonso Visconte"; also a 
horse- trainer, several ball players, manufacturers 
of tennis balls, fencing masters, a cook, a chirurgeon, 
and the court fool, Sicilia ("who was well paid"), 
besides the names of many others. Francesco 
Ferneza is not mentioned in this list, but, of course, 
the omission may be accidental, or he may have 
joined the prince after the latter had left Transyl- 
vania for good. 

On the other hand, it is not impossible, nay it 
seems very probable, that Ferneza has never been 
in the employ of the prince, and that his book 
was compiled in London, perhaps by Capt. Smith 
himself, in English, and that the editor of the 
'Pilgrims' was hoodwinked. Purchas, as we 

' ' History of New England,' vol. i. p. 90. 
f Szamnskiizi in the ' Monumenta Hungarian His- 
torica.' Scriptores, vol. xxx. p. 76. 

know, published Smith's 'Adventures' in 1625, 
and the Hungarian and Transylvanian events were 
by then pretty well known in England, as Knolles-'a 
'General Historic of the Turkes ' had, in 1621, 
already reached its third edition. When reading 
of Smith's wonderful doings, of battles and sieges, 
some of them not recorded elsewhere, one cannot 
help repeating Schiller's well-known lines: 

Ware das Wahre auch neu 

Ware das Neue auch wahr. 

All that is historically correct in Capt. Smith's- 
narrative may have been borrowed by him from 
Enolles, and all that is new in his book and not 
to be found in other authors may not be true, but 
have been invented by the captain to embellish 
his tale. Indeed, everything seems to point to 
one conclusion, viz., that the ' True Travels and 
Adventures ' is a pseudo-historical romance, with 
Capt. Smith for its author and principal hero ; 
and one feels inclined to suspect that he has not 
been at all to the south-east of Europe. 

If he ever had been there and taken the meanest 
part in the events which he professes to describe 
as an eye-witness, surely his ample stock of mother- 
wit ought to have enabled him to steer clear of 
the many blunders with which his book literally 
swarms; and there was no need for his going so far 
astray from history. LEWIS L. KROPF. 

(To be continued.) 

(See 7 th S. vi. 443, 517; vii. 53, 178.) 

I have now for some time past been too busy to- 
be able to read the delightful ' N. & Q.' so atten- 
tively as I should like : but having had of late a 
little more leisure than usual, I have been revelling 
these last few days in vols. vi. and vii. of your 
Seventh Series, which have suggested several 
notes, and more especially one on dear old Robert 

All lovers of Democritus Junior and who that 
knows him does not love him ? owe a deep debt 
of gratitude to ME. PEACOCK for his most interest- 
ing note. There is only one inadvertence in it. 
After saying, rightly, that " the editions published 
during Burton's life do not any of them contain a 
complete text," he proceeds to class the fifth and 
sixth editions as " perfect." He must surely mean 
sixth and seventh, as the fifth was published in 
Burton's lifetime, namely, in 1638. Curiously 
enough, ME. DIXON follows ME. PEACOCK in this 

ME. WARREN'S letter, also, was very interesting 
to me in fact, quite electrified me for I have 
the same 1660 edition that he describes, with the 
same slip over the original publisher's name. I, 
too, have not dared to remove my slip ; but I, too, 
can read the original imprint, as given by ME. 
PEACOCK, by holding the leaf up to a strong light. 

7* S. IX. JAN. 4, '90.] 


One remark only I shall make on MR. WARREN'S 
note. The cavesis is all right, and is in the edition 
of 1652 also ; but it should be written in two words, 
cave, sis, that is, " take care, if you please." 

Well, now for a bundle of queries. Can MR. 
PEACOCK or MR. WARREN, or any other Burton- 
lover tell us anything about Henry Cripps beyond 
what is quite clear, that he was the publisher of 
all the first seven editions of Burton's ' Anatomy ' ? 
And why did John Garway put his new slip over 
the original publisher's name in the edition of 
1660 ? And is anything known of John Garway ? 
And are there any editions of 1660 still to be 
found with the original publisher's name intact on 
the title-page? It is, by the way, on the last 

Having been an ardent lover of Democritus 
Junior for some twenty-two years, I have got 
access, through the kindness of one of the tutors 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, to the edition of 
1652 in our splendid library, bequeathed by our 
late vice-master, the Rev. Coutts Trotter, A.M., 
and I have collated it with my copy of 1660, not 
word for word throughout, but turning over 
every page of each pari passu, and looking for 
crucial tests and endings and beginnings of pages ; 
and I find that to all intents and purposes both 
editions are substantially the same book, with the 
exception that the printers' letters at the foot of 
pages vary, and that the occasional ornamental 
designs vary, and that the ornamental initial 
letters at the commencement of each section are 
throughout different. In these last two matters 
sometimes I prefer my edition, sometimes I prefer 
the edition of 1652. The number of pages, too, is 
the same in both volumes, and generally each page 
begins and ends with the same word in both ; but 
occasionally, owing in great measure to the dif- 
ferent sizes of the ornamental initial letters, there 
is a slight rearrangement of text, so that sometimes 
the last words on a page and the first words on the 
next page are not quite identical in both editions. 
Occasionally, too, there are little trifling differences 
in the spelling of a word, and in these cases 
which are merely accidental, and such as any one 
acquainted with printing knows would occur even 
in a fairly well printed book if not carefully revised by 
an editor or some learned friend for him sometimes 
the edition of 1652 has the advantage, sometimes 
that of 1660. But I am bound to admit in candour 
that on the whole the edition of 1652 is a little the 
better printed. I call it the edition of 1652 because 
that date stands on the title-page, but at the end 
of the volume we have the date 1651, so that 
1651/2 is no doubt the best way of quoting the 

At the same time that I got access to the edition 
of 1652 I also satisfied my curiosity by carefully 
perusing the eighth edition, the edition of 1676, 
also in our Trinity Library. It was plain the reign 

of Henry Cripps was over. Peter Parker, at the 
sign of the " Legg and Starr " in Cornhill, turned 
out very different work. In place of Henry 
Cripps's editions, which are all handsome, and 
very similar in get up, though the matter some- 
what varies in the first six editions, we have a 
sober volume, with about half the number of pages 
of the earlier editions, with about the same num- 
ber, but hardly the same quality, of ornamental 
designs, but only about four ornamental initial 
letters, and a much smaller type, and in two 
columns to boot, not, as before, proudly running 
across the whole page in single column. Ichabod, 
Ichabod ! The glory is departed ! Yet a scholar 
of quiet, sober tastes might enjoy this edition per- 
haps best for its thin compactness, and for its 
being, like Pyrrha, simplex munditiis, and let me 
assure MR. WARREN that it is a faithful copy of 
the sixth edition, and contains the old cavesis. 

One more query, and I conclude. How is it 
that the omnivorous intellectual giant Lord Mac- 
aulay, whom it is the fashion to run down nowadays, 
but who, to quote Mr. Buckle's just words, " will 
long survive the aspersions of his puny detractors 
men who, in point of knowledge and ability, are 
unworthy to loosen the shoe-latchet of him they 
foolishly attack " how is it, I say, that Macaulay 
never seems to mention Burton in any of his 
writings ? It is just the book one would have 
thought Macaulay would have loved, as did John- 
son, and Sterne, and Byron, and .Archbishop 


(Continued from 7 th S. viii. 424.) 

Lichfield. St. Radegund's Chantry in the Cathe- 
dral. Messuages called the Priest's Hall and the 
Priest's Chamber. (Patent Roll, 3 Edw. VI., 
part vi.) Will of Ralph, Lord Basset of Drayton, 
Jan. 17, 1389 : to be buried in St. Cedd's Church, 
Lichfield, by the altar of St. Nicholas. (Ducarel's 
'Registers of the Archbishops of Canterbury,' 
Addit. MS. 6073.) Le Somereforde Street, le 
Wood Street, le Bore Street, St. John's Street ; le 
Parnelfelde. (Patent Roll, 3 Edw. VI., part vii.) 

Lincoln. Order for admission of Robert le 
Dubber to our Hospital of the holy Innocents for 
lepers, outside the city of Lincoln, sustained by 
the Kings of England, to fill the vacancy created 
by the death of Denise de Tokesford. (Close Roll, 
28 Edw. I.) A messuage in the parish of St. 
Mary Magdalen, bounded on the south by the 
tenement of Margaret Ingoldsby, on the north by 
the tenement of the chantry called Burtonchauntrie, 
on the east by the king's highway, and on the west 
by the castle foss and the lane leading to the foun- 
tain; which has the tenement of the Cathedral 
Church of the blessed Mary on the north, the 
tenement of the chantry which Robert Whaplode 


[7* S. IX. JAN. 4, '90. 

has in the Church of St. Peter " ad pTita " on the 
south, the kitchen of the said chantry on the west, 
and the common road on the east. (Close Roll, 
34 Hen. VI.) Licence to elect a chaplain (in the 
room of Lord Richard Sabram, deceased) to the 
perpetual chantry in Le Irons, next to the steps of 
the high altar in Lincoln Cathedral, for the soul of 
Katherine, Duchess of Lancaster. (Patent Roll, 
14 Hen. VII., part iii.) Le Mallandrie, within the 
suburbs of Lincoln. (Close Roll, 1-2 Phil, et 
Mar., part ii.) 

Ludgarshal Order for 20,000 shingles to cover 
the chamber of Edward the King's son at Lud- 
garshal. (Close Roll, 36 Hen. III.) Order to 
repair the hall of Luttegarshale Castle, the cham- 
ber called Lord Edward's chamber, the chapel, and 
the great tower. (Ibid., 33 Edw. I.) 

Lynn. Houses in Southlenn called Jeweshous. 
(Close Roll, 10 Edw. III.) Lynn Episcopi, vico 
vocato le Cheker, ab antique vocato Stokfissh- 
rowe. (Ibid., 34 Hen. VI.) The passage called 
le ferry right between Old Lynne and Lynne Epis- 
copi. (Ibid., 18 Edw. IV.) Will of William Lord 
Bardolf, Sept. 12, 1384 : to be buried in the choir, 
convent of St. Mary of Carmel, Lynn, before the 
high altar. (Ducarel's ' Registers,' Addit. MS. 

Melton Mowbray. Cultura vocata Aungeil 
Wonge, versus le Speney ; le Speneybroke ; Salt- 
gate alias Saltergate ; Alurescrofte. (Close Roll, 
28 Hen. VI.) Melton Mowbray al's Motebrey. 
(Ibid., 2-3 Phil, et Mar., part iv.) 

Newark, co. Notts. Le Pavement Stede, le 
Coningre Meade, le Coningre Wode. (Patent 
Roll, 3 Edw. VI., part iv.) Chantry founded by 
Maud Sawcemer at the altar of St. Mary Magdalen 
in Newark Church. (Ibid., part xi.) Le Payment ; 
le Payment Stede. (Close Roll, 2-3 Phil et Mar., 
part iii.) John Eeaumont, of Thynner Temple, 
sells the manor and lordship of Newark for 1,2002. 
to Thomas Gresham and John Elyott, citizens and 
mercers. (Ibid., part vii.) 

Newcastle on Tyne. Le ffrerecrosse, le Brad- 
chere, le Neweyate, le Denebrigge, le Horsmarket- 
gate, le Barres, Cynydgate, le Sandhil. (Close 
Roll, 8 Edw. III.) Le Denechere, Daltonchere, 
Senedgate, Pilgrymstret. (Ibid., dorso.) Le 
Westrawe, Narowchare alias Colierchare, Pampe- 
denburn, Pampedenyate, le Sandyate, Philipchare, 
le Close, Langstare ; Lyleplace in le Syde, beneath 
the castle ; le Clathe Market, le Northkyrkestile by 
St. Nicholas' Church ; Skynnergate, le Melemarket, 
Dentonchere, le Netemarket, the Chapel of St. 
Mary Magdalen, Pilgrymstreteyate, Alhalowgate ; 
the Hospital of the blessed Katherine, called Thorn- 
ton Hospital. Chantries at the altar of St. Peter in 
All Saints', and at those of St. Eligius and Holy 
Trinity, in St. Nicholas' Church. (Ibid., 8 Hen. VI.) 
Tenement in the Meale Market, bounded by 
the said market on the west, Myddle Streat on 

the east, Common Chare behind, and the tenement 
of Thomas Pattensone, on the south. Tenement 
at Gatyshed, bounded by Sowchare on the north, 
Kynges Street on the west, to Akwell Gate back- 
wardes. (Ibid., 1-2 Phil, et Mar., part i.) 

Norwich. Licence granted, Feb. 2, 1332, to the 
Friars Preachers of Norwich, to acquire land 500 
feet by 400, in the city of Norwich, near their house 
(Manso), for the erection of a church and edificia. 
(Close Roll, 6 Edw. III.) The place called the 
Casteldich, Norwich. (Ibid., 19 Edw. III., parti.) 
St. Botolph of ffybrygate ; Churches of St. Saviour 
and St. Austin. Hospital of Vincent Norman ; 
house of the Lepars. St. Austin's Gates, whence the 
way leads to Catton ; Hospital of St. Mary Mag- 
dalen ; Staple Gate way. (Ibid., 1 Mariae, part ii.) 

Nottingham. The high pavement opposite St. 
Mary's; the tenement called Swan o' the hope ; 
the great marsh at the end of Calvertonlane ; vico 
lozimariorum ; the longrowe ; Rollescrofthill ; the 
Todeholes ; Querrelwong ; the meadow called 
Asshelynholme. (Close Roll, 13 Hen. VI.) 

Oxford. The Hospital of St. John, outside the 
East Gate. (Close Roll, 28 Hen. III.) The 
University of Oxford reports that the pavements 
of the said town are greatly broken, whereby the 
passers-by receive much damage. Let them be 
repaired in the streets and lanes. (Ibid., 10 
Edw. III.) Messuage in the parish of All Saints 
in La Boucherie, next to the messuage of Hugh le 
Hare. (Fines Roll, 10 Edw. I.) Robert de Egles- 
feld, clerk, founded la Quenehalle. (Close Roll, 
1 Ric. II.} Rector and scholars of the House of 
Stapledon, Oxon. (Fines Roll, 8 Ric. II.) The 
College at Oxford called Orielhall. (Close Roll, 9 
Ric. II.) Seynt Marie College de Wynchestre in 
Oxon. (Close Roll, 13 Ric. II., part i.) Messuage 
at Oxford called Wolston Hall. (Ibid., 5 Hen. VI.) 
Licence granted, May 20, 1438, to Archbishop 
Chichele, to found All Souls' College for the souls of 
himself and his ancestors, Henry V., Thomas Duke 
of Clarence, and all nobles killed in the French wars. 
(Patent Roll, 16 Hen. VI., part ii.) Marton 
Halle, Oxon. (Close Roll, 30 Hen. VI.) Kings- 
mede, meadow near Osney ; the water called the 
Temse, from Hidebrigge to the mill below the 
Castle. (Ibid., 2 Edw. IV.) Lincoln College was 
founded by Richard, Bishop of Lincoln, to the 
blessed Mary and All Saints, for a Rector and seven 
scholars, in the Church of All Saints at Oxford. 
(Patent Roll, 15 Hen. VII., part ii.) Frediswides 
ffayer; the College vulgarly called King Henry 
theightes ; the Guild Hall. (Ibid., 3 Edw. VI., 
part xi.) 

Portsmouth. Castle built by Henry VIII., at 
the place commonly called Keates Poynt, called le 
Southcastle de Portsmouth. (Privy Seal Bills, 
June, 1 Eliz.) 

Rochester. Eppelane, Horslane. (Close Roll, 
43 Edw. III.) 

7'" S. IX, JAK. 4, '90.] 


St. Allan's. The Swan, in Churchstrete ; the 
Pecok on the east, the George on the west, Church- 
strete on the south, and the Abbey lands on the 
north. (Close Roll, 37 Hen. VI.) Newbarne 
Farm, in St. Peter's parish ; the marie pytt next 
to Stampford Mill. (16., 2-3 Phil, et Mar., part vii.) 


verbal expression, permit me to submit the follow- 
ing experience. While walking through Belgrave 
Square, a few days ago, my attention was arrested 
by some one hobbling up behind me, and a boy's 
voice inquired the way to Halkin Street West. 
Having directed him, I asked whether he was in 
pain. " My boots hurts me, sir," he said. " Have 
you chilblains 1 " " No, sir ; corns. I have had 
'em ever since I was in the second standard. " Thus 
we find our educational system acting as a chrono- 
logical index to the career of the working classes. 

33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

APOSTOLICALS. Referring to the ' New Diction- 
ary ' for this word, I find that the only information 
given is, " Apostolical, sb., one who maintains the 
doctrine of Apostolical succession/' A quotation 
is given (dated 1839) from Sara Coleridge, in 
which she gives her opinion that, " On some points 
I think the Apostolicals quite right, on others 
clearly unscriptural." This is a very meagre account 
of a word which might have become famous had 
it not been, in the words of a distinguished writer, 
" happily short-lived. " It was the earliest designa- 
tion of the Tractarians. Writing in 1 836, Dr. J. B. 
Mozley remarks, " We are getting stronger and 
stronger every day. What do you think of S. be- 
coming an Apostolical ? "(Introduction to 'Essays,' 
p. xxvii.) Probably the word was used in contra- 
distinction to the cant use of the epithet " Evange- 
lical." It appears as an adjective in ' Tracts for the 
Times,' No. 38, p. 1, " Your religions system, which 
I have heard some persons style the Apostolical." 
This was written in 1834. The " Apostolicals" were 
first nicknamed Newmanites, which name gave 
occasion for Bishop Blomfield's not very brilliant 
joke about the new mania. When this title un- 
happily became inapplicable, they were called Pusey- 
ites and Tractarians. Now, I presume, Ritualists 
is the popular designation. 


Hastings Corporation Reference Library. 

the following worth recording in ' N. & Q.' ? I 
clip it from " Local Gossip " in the Leeds Weekly 
Express of Saturday, November 9 : 

"'The Grand Old Man' is a phrase that is popularly 
supposed to belong to Mr. W. B. Gladstone, and to have 
been invented especially to distinguish him. This is not 
the case. In a speech of ' t' owd Vicar ' of Leeds, the 
late Dr. Hook, made at Manchester about thirty years 

ago, and which I came across a few days since, the rev. 
gentlemen used the phrase in reference to the composer 
Handel. He was addressing a working-class gathering 
at a popular concert, and here is the sentence in which 
the phrase occurred : ' I dare not allude to the sacred 
oratorio "The Messiah " as merely an entertainment and an 
amusement, for I remember that when the oratorio was 
first produced in London, and Handel was congratulated 
or. having " entertained " the town for a whole week, the 
grand old man, in his usual outspoken manner, s aid, " I 
did not wish to entertain the town ; I wished to do it 
good." ' There you have at once an interesting anecdote 
and the precursor of the moat famous sobriquet of modern 


Donald's notion of abridging a previous writer's 
work is not already known to readers of ' N. & Q.,' 
they may care now to hear what it is. In 1881 
Mr. Donald published, through Mr. Thomas D. 
Morrison, Glasgow, a " new edition, with explana- 
tory notes and a glossary," of Henderson's 'Scottish 
Proverbs.' In a short preface, after explaining 
how he has treated Henderson himself, he con- 
tinues : 

" Prefixed to the original edition was an introductory 
essay by the poet Motherwell. This, which the writer 
himself characterized as prolix, is here presented con- 
siderably abridged." 

Apparently Mr. Donald defines "considerably 
abridged " in a very large and comprehensive way, 
for MotherwelTs essay has suffered by his treat- 
ment more than the tail of Tarn O'Shanter's mare 
did at the hands of the witch. The only trace of 
Motherwell's connexion with the original work is 
this editorial allusion the rest is silence. Per- 
haps Mr. Donald is poking fun at the essayist on 
the one hand and his readers on the other, but the 
wit is not particularly manifest, and it certainly 
does not sparkle. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

"RANK AND FILE." A curious mistake has 
crept into Dr. Brewer's ' Phrase and Fable.' Under 
the head of " Rank and File " he says that the 
rank is the depth and the file is the length of 
marching soldiers. In this usage speaking, that 
is to say, of a body of soldiers length and depth 
convey one idea. As the doctor uses them he 
makes them conflict. To march in file is, as John- 
son puts it, " not abreast, but one behind another." 
He should, of course, have put it that rank is 
breadth and file depth in speaking of the rank and 
file of a body of men. One is not so foolish as to 
suppose that the doctor does not know this fully 
as well as any of us. In fact, he says that 
"rank men" stand shoulder to shoulder, which 
settles the point, and that one hundred men four 
deep would make twenty-five files ; but then that 
shows that file stands for depth. I hold that the 
doctor often shows very considerable penetrative 
faculty when confronting difficulties. It makes 



[7 h S. IX. JAN. 4, '90. 

such a slip as this the more instructive to us. Where 
gifts abound mistakes are nothing but proofs how 
sin doth easily beset us. 0. A. WARD. 


AN OLD JEST. (See 7 th S. viii. 485.) To cap 
your account of Pasquil's pleasant jest for Christ- 
mas time, here is the same sentiment to be found 
at the Chateau de Villeneuve, which is one of the 
things to be "done" by visitors to Eoyat les 
Bains. On the walls of the gallery running round 
the court are, among other things, the pictures of 
two hideous monsters. One is frightfully pale and 
thin, and holds in his wolf's jaws a woman dressed 
in the bourgeois costume of the sixteenth century. 
Underneath is this legend : 

Moy quo Ton appelle chiche-face, 

Tres maigre de coleur et de face 

Je suis et bien en eat raiaon, 

Car ne mange en nul saison 

Que femmes qui font le commandeincnt 

De leurs maris entierement. 

Des ana, il y a plus de deux cents 

Que ceste tiena entre mea dena. 

The other monster is rubicund, well fed, and 
many-fleshed. His head is human, his body 
bestial and mythical ; and he has evidently just 
swallowed a man, of whom only the arms are 
visible. Before him two worthy citizens, on their 
knees, implore his grace. His legend explains his 
occupation and raison d'etre : 

Bigorne suis de Bigornoiz 
Qui ne mange figuea ne noiz, 
Car ce n'est mye mon usaige : 
Boris liummea qui le commandement 
Font de leurs femmes entierement 
Je mange d'iceulx a inilliera 
Gros et grans comme piliera." 


Fairburn's name is unknown to me, but I find in 
the New Monthly Magazine for 1836 that he pub- 
lished a book or pamphlet entitled ' The Political 
Economy of Railroads,' in which he proposed many 
engineering feats not yet accomplished : 

"A singular development of means and appliances' 
however, must certainly take place before Mr. Fairburn's 
plans stand much chance of being realized, and a some- 
what larger capital, than even the adventurous spirits of 
our own time possess either the will or the ability to 
furnish, brought into action, before such projects as 
forming a harbour for the town of Dover, three miles out 
at sea, levelling, or, to use Mr. Fairburn's own words, 
' taking down ' the South Downs to fill up the British 
Channel, or establishing a tunnel or suspension bridge 
from Dover to Calais, are likely to engage the attention 
of private or national enterprise. Among the plans, also, 
from which we do not entertain too sanguine expectations 
of deriving much advantage during the term of our own 
natural life, may be reckoned the formation of a rail-road 
between Calcutta and Canton ; or one of rather less 
ambitious character, from the coast of Scotland across 
the Irish Sea ; undertakings of no small utility, no doubt, 
but of the practicability of which we must ask Mr. 
Fairburn's leave still to remain rather sceptical 

Whenever he issues from the Utopia of speculation his 
remarks are really valuble, and show an intimate and 
extensive acquaintance with his subject." 

J. D. C. 

VERMINOUS. Some dictionaries include, and 
others omit, " verminous." The fifth edition 
of Stormonth's, e.g. (in almost every case a trust- 
worthy book of reference), does not give it, nor 
does it appear in ' Chambers's Etymological Dic- 
tionary,' which is a volume much used in Scotland 
by students of words. It is given in a dictionary 
published by the Messrs. Collins, and it is likewise 
in Nuttall'a, which is wonderfully comprehensive 
in its vocabulary. Apparently, however, there is 
an uncertainty about the word in the minds of 
compilers, of whom sundry, taking refuge behind 
the doubt that exists, avoid it, as being no better 
than it should be. The ' Encyclopaedic Dictionary ' 
admits the word, and gives an illustrative quota- 
tion from the St. James's Gazette of 1886. But it 
was recognized and used in literature at least a 
century ago. In ' The Borderers/ written in 1795, 
Wordsworth's villain, arguing for the expediency 
of occasional murders, thus stigmatizes the ad- 
vocates of the new doctrine that life is sacred in 
" all things both great and small": 

We rank not, happily, 

With thoae who take the spirit of their rule 
From that soft class of devotees who feel 
Reverence for life so deeply, that they spare 
The verminous brood, and cherish what they spare 
While feeding on their bodies. 

The subject, no doubt, is not specially attractive ; 
but still the word is there, with what standard 
value a place in ' The Borderers ' can give it, and 
there is no reason why earlier usage should not be 
put in evidence, if possible, so that thereby the 
minds of lexicographers may be set at their ease. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

Gazette of December 2, 1889, contains the following, 
which deserves a niche in ' N. & Q.,' if only to show 
that this marvellously mild autumn produced big 
gooseberries in more ways than one : 

" The London correspondent of the Manchester Guar- 
dian writes : An interesting discovery regarding the 
presence of the Phoenicians in the south-west counties 
has just been made by Mr. W. B. Thorpe, F.S.A. In 
the village of Ipplepen, three miles from Newton Abbot, 
Devon, there has for many centuries resided a family 
named Ballhatchet, the surviving male representative of 
which is Mr. Thomas Ballhatchet. This man ia now 
seventy-four yaars of age, and the facial type is quite 
distinct from that of the natives of Cornwall and Devon, 
and distinctly of a Levantine character. The farm, 
which has been from time immemorial in the possession 
of the family, ia called Ballford, or Baal's Ford, and in 
the centre of the group of buildings ia a large square 
tank of ancient artificial construction. The farm 
evidently stands upon the site of an old Baal temple, of 
which the Ballhatchets whose ancient name was 
evidently Baal-Akhed, corrupted into Baal-Achet, &c. 

. IX. JAN. 4, '0.] 


held the office of Baal-Kamar, or Baal's priest. Im- 
mediately above the farm rises a hill, which is known as 
Baaltown the rock or hill of Baal. The discovery of 
this curious survival is very interesting, as it is in 
harmony with the survival of those ancient names in the 
yeoman classes of the south-western counties." 

The surname in question is simply a corruption 
of Bailhache, a family which has existed in Jersey 
from time immemorial, members of which, like 
those of so many of their compatriots, have doubt- 
less settled on the opposite coast. 



NEW YEAR'S DAT. Under the article " Year " 
in Haydn's ' Dictionary of Dates,' sixteenth edi- 
tion, 1878, the following quotation from Stow is 
given : 

" The English began their year on December 25 until 
the time of William the Conqueror. This prince having 
been crowned on January 1 gave occasion to the English 
to begin their year at that time, to make it agree with 
the then most remarkable period of their history." 

As historians agree and teach that the coronation 
of the Conqueror took place on Christmas Day 
(December 25), it would be interesting to know 
how the conflicting dates are to be reconciled. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

THE COCKPIT, WHITEHALL. The dictionaries 
state " a name given to the room in Westminster 
in which Her Majesty's Privy Council hold their 
sittings"; "the Privy Council Office at White- 
hall." Was the term applied to a Government 
building, as being the same building which Henry 
VIII. built for the sport of cock-fighting, or as 
being built on its site, or built on the site of a cock- 
pit ? How late was it in living use ? Was the 
building ever the meeting-place or office of the 
Privy Council, and at the same time known col- 
loquially as the Cockpit 1 

Our contemporary evidence reaches from 1650 to 
1691: 1649/50, ' Commons' Journal,' Feb. 25 (in 
Carlyle, Cromwell's Letters,' ii. 124), "Resolved 
that the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland have the use 
of the Lodgings called the Cockpit." 1659/60, 
Pepys's 'Diary,' Feb. 20, " My Lord of Dorset and 
another Lord, talking of getting another place at 
the Cockpit." 1670, Land. Gaz., No. 432/4, "Dyed 
at his appartment in the Cockpit, his Grace, George 
Duke of Albemarle." 1691, in ' Hist. Coll. Am. 
Col. Ch. I.,' 9, " The Princess Anne has left the 
cockpit ...... and gone out to live at Sion house." 

Brand, in 'Pop. Antiq.,' s.v. "Cock-fighting," 
speaks of the term in a manner which seems to 
imply that he was quite familiar with it as a cur- 

rent name for some building in Whitehall, but 
does not mention the purpose to which it was 
devoted. 1863, Cox, 'Inst. of Eng. Governm.,' ii. 
vii. 682, says, "After the Restoration, the Treasury 
Board sat at a place called the Cockpit." 


COCK- PENNY. A payment made to masters of 
certain schools at Shrovetide. A remark in Haz- 
litt's ed. of Brand's 'Pop. Antiq.,' seems to imply 
that this payment was made in quite recent times 
at Clitheroe Free Grammar School, and perhaps 
also at other schools ; our latest evidence of its 
contemporary existence is 1721 in the ' Liverpool 
Munic. Rec.' (1886), ii. 74. Information showing 
its existence at a later period, and also on the 
date of its abolishment, if known, is wanted. The 
earliest instance sent in, viz., 1597, 'Pilgrimage 
to Parnassus,' Part I., v. 594, "A companie of 

ragged vicars and forlorne schoolemaisters one 

looking for cockpence in the bottom of a pue,^ 

does not quite support the opinion that it was a 
payment in lieu of bringing a cock to the school. 


COCKATIELS. Will any bird-fancier explain to 
me what these birds are, which one sees advertised 
so often in exchange papers at 15s. to 20s. a pair 1 


COCKNEY. I should be much obliged if anyone 
would tell me the French and American equiva- 
lents for this word, and for any anecdotes of 
personal experiences illustrating cockney wit or 
humour. B. N. H. 

[Anecdotes of the kind demanded will be forwarded to 
our correspondent. We cannot promise insertion. Is 
not the nearest French equivalent badaud f] 

TITLE OF BOOK WANTED. I want title of an 
octavo book by a member of the U.S. Surveying 
Service, containing accounts of the canons in 
Colorado, &c., and an amusing story of a dealer 
in pigs who offered his daughter in marriage to 
the author with a dowry of half the pigs. 


' Diversions of Parley ' there are three speakers 
B., H., and T. Who were they 1 H. is no doubt 
Home Tooke himself before he assumed the 
additional surname. H. E. WILKINSON. 


CATHEDRAL. What is the earliest appearance 
of the word as a noun ? It occurs in Fuller's 
'Worthies' (1650-60), but not in Shakespeare, 
save as an adjective "In the cathedral-church 
of Westminster" ('2 Hen. VI.,' I. ii. 37), which 
was not a true cathedral.J Nor is the word in 



[7"> S. IX. JAN. 4, 'SO. 

Minshew's 'Dictionary' (1625) as a substantive. 
The first use of it would seem to have been between 
1620 and 1650 ; but by whom ? 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

BYRON'S WORKS. I think it must be nearly 
three years since announcement was made that 
Mr. Buxton Forman had been engaged to prepare 
a revised edition of the works of Byron. I had 
reason to suppose that a "centenary edition" was 
intended. But the poet's centennial came and 
went, and the house of Murray made no sign. 
May I inquire through ' N. & Q.' whether there 
really is any "revised edition" in hand ; and, if 
so, when it, or the first volume, will probably 
appear ? G. JULIAN HARNEY. 


HERALDIC. The following arms appear on an 
old seal, but without any tinctures : Howe (Suf- 
folk), A chevron between three wolves' heads 
erased, impaling Party per pale, a chevron between 
three lions rampant counterchanged. According 
to Papworth this latter coat is Lymbrey or 
Hawkins, but I can find no marriage of a Howe 
with a member of either of these families. Can 
any correspondent of ' N. & Q.' help me ? 

E. G. H. 

Biography,' p. 263, Mr. Timbs says : " One of 
the results of his (Mirabeau's) visit to England 
may have been his unscrupulous and unacknow- 
ledged appropriation of whole speeches of Burke." 
Has this been substantiated ? A. FELS. 


BROCKETT MSS. Amongst the MSS. of the 
late W. H. Brockett, of Gateshead, was a volume 
containing transcripts of certain charters which 
once existed in Gateshead Vestry. At one of the 
Brockett sales this volume was bought on com- 
mission by Mr. Rutland, bookseller, of Newcastle. 
Where is it now ? J. R. BOYLE. 

Low Fell, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

BLACKLKOG. I shall be glad of any information 
respecting this family. Edmundson's 'Body of 
Heraldry ' gives the arms as " Sa., two bars or." 


5, Bishop's Court, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

GENERAL CLAUDE MARTIN was a French officer 
in the service of the Nawabs of Oude during the 
latter half of last century. He built and endowed 
the Martiniere College at Lucknow, and a similar 
educational establishment at or near his native 
town in France, the name of which I fail to recall. 
I know not the date of his death, but he was 
buried in the Martiniere at Lucknow. Informa- 
tion regarding him will prove of interest. 


can I find any information concerning this family? 
The last Castell seems to have been a successful 
Parliamentary general. How was it that Sir George 
Downing came into his estates? Either a Cam- 
bridge or Bedford county paper once had an 
account of the last of the Castells. Can any one 
give me the reference 1 What was their coat of 
arms ? Sir George Downing was called a ' ' pedantic 
pedagogue." What is the authority? 


Tadlow, Royston, Cambs. 

ZUINGLI AND PINDAR. In an 'Essai sur la 
Beauty-Morale des Poesies de Pindare,' by Van 
Limburg Brouwer, I read (on p. 134) : 

" Nous pouvons dire de Pindare ce que Ton a dit de 
Platon, qu'il a puis6 a une source divine. Voila, cer- 
tainement, pourquoi le grand Zwinglius, qui ne ferma 
pas, conime bien des docteurs Chretiens, le ciel aux 
pai'ens vertueux estima Pindare au-dessus de tous les 
poetes grecs, et le compara & David et a 1'auteur de Job. 
Certes, en lisant les ouvrages de ces grand hommes de 
1' antiquitS, surtout du sublime poe'te Thebain, nous ne 
pouvons nous deTendre de rep6ter le mot d'un celebre 
pere de I'Sglise : ' II y cut des Chretiens avant Jesus- 
Christ.' " 

Where does Zningli assert this opinion ; and 
who was the Father of the Church quoted ? 


EQUINOCTIAL STORM. The line gale, in sailors' 
parlance, is the name for the bad weather so com- 
mon at the equinoxes. The Spaniards are said to 
call this phenomenon the gale of St. Francis, and 
to hold the storm to be raised by devils driven 
into the sea by the cord of the patron saint of 
Cordeliers. What Spanish writer treats of this 
superstition? JAMES D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

MACAULAY'S STYLE. Mr. Sweet, in a letter 
to Prof. Storm (quoted in Storm's ' Englische 
Philologie,' Heilbronn, 1881, p. 343, note 2), says 
that " Macaulay's style is now considered as stilted 
and vicious." I should like to know whether this 
opinion is shared by many Englishmen. 



OSENEY ABBEY. Can any one tell me what 
became of the old monuments in Oseney Abbey, 
Oxford, when the episcopal see was moved from 
there to the College of St. Frideswide in 1546 ? 
The bells of Oseney are now at Christchnrch. 


Swallowfield, Reading. 

FUNERAL-SHUTTERS. Is this a new candidate 
for lexicographical honours ? Funeral-shutters are 
not designed to " shut up " a shop or office ; but 
are slender slips of black wood, used temporarily, 
as a symbol of mourning, and not neccessarily 
darkening the interior. A. HALL. 

7> S. IX. JAN. 4, '90.] 


MRS. HONEY died in 1843. She appeared at 
Sadler's Wells as Laura Bell, Were those her 
Christian names ? ' Actors by Daylight ' seems to 
denote that they were. Her unmarried surname 
was Young. URBAN. 

ALLUSION BY MACAULAY. Macaulay, in his 
essay on Dryden, written in 1828, says : 

" Puff himself could tell the actor to turn out his toes, 
and remind him that Keeper Hatton was a great dancer. 
We wish that, in our own time, a writer of a very 
different order from Puff had not too often forgotten 
human nature in the niceties of upholstery, millinery, 
and cookery." 

Who is the writer referred to 1 A. 

RULES. I want to know the difference between 
the various rules of the monkish orders, such as 
the " rule of St. Augustine," the " rule of St. 
Francis," and so on. Will some gentleman assist 
me? He can write to me direct or answer in 
*N. & Q.' I want the information for my new 
book, which is already in the press. Time, there- 
fore, is all-important. I do not want all the 
minutiae, which would be very long indeed, but 
only the great principles. I suppose all orders 
were bound to obedience, charity, poverty, and 
chastity. If so, what rendered the rule of an order 
special ? I should like permission to add the name 
of the correspondent as my authority. 


Edwinstowe, Newark, Notts. 

was the second part of his library sold 1 Where 
can particulars further than those supplied in the 
prefatory memoir in the sale catalogue of the first 
part of his library, Gent. Mag. (1815, vol. Ixxxv. 
pt. ii. p. 377; 1817, vol. Ixxxvii. pt. i. pp. 521-6), 
and 'Lord Castlereagh's Despatches '(third series), 
be obtained ? G. F. E. B. 

COOL. What is the meaning of this word in 
such a phrase as, " I won a cool hundred of him 
at cards " ? It was in use in 1760. J. DIXON. 

"THE MARLEYPINS." Can any reader of 
*N. & Q.' suggest a probable derivation for the 
term " The Marleypins," as applied to a very 
ancient stone building existing in the parish of 
New Shoreham, Sussex ? E. P. H. 

The Ethiop's gods have Ethiop eyes, 
Bronze cheeks, and woolly hair, 
The gods of Greece were like the Greeks, 
As keen and cold and fair. 


" Trees are encumbrances upon the earth, and are only 
useful to cut down for the purpose of paying debts." 


Nor gods nor men over the past have power. 
What has been has been, and I have had my hour. 

M. E. 



(7 th S. viii. 442.) 

Although I do not in the least believe that 
the ancient kings of Torelore wherever that 
rpight have been personally suckled the heirs to 
the crown, I may mention an interesting case of 
male lactation. The late Prof. Partridge, of King's 
College, London, used a certain number of stock 
jokes to cheer his class of students of anatomy, 
among whom, if not of whom, it was my good hap 
to be. The best of these jokes was always pro- 
duced while the professor discoursed on the mam- 
mary glands of the " human female," as he 
ungallantly called her. In a tone of rejoicing 
he was accustomed to cry, "Thank God, gentle- 
men, we don't suckle ! " Notwithstanding this 
high authority, I shall prove that the best of 
surgeons is wrong when the observations and 
experience of Franklin, Humboldt, Eichardson, 
Eicheraud, and Majendie are confirmed by a lately 
current instance. Nobody could be expected 
voluntarily to suckle any children but his wife's ; 
but there is no knowing if, when the ladies have 
obtained all their "rights," and the spirit of the 
late Mr. Mill is pacified in the subjugation of the 
inferior sex, politically-minded ladies, having in- 
curred maternity, may not, in revenge, hand over 
the feeding-bottle nay, its natural prototype to 
us poor males. That they may be warned in time, 
and at least endeavour to contract themselves out of 
the function, I take this opportunity of stating to the 
male readers of *N. & Q.' that a distinguished 
author, whose mansion in a southern county is the 
paradise of his friends, has agardener, who has a wife ; 
the wife had a baby, but was so dreadfully upset in 
producing it that her husband's sympathies were 
roused so much that, seeing his spouse incapable 
of affording nourishment to the infant, he worried 
himself night and day. In a short time one of 
those mammae with which, like most of us, he is 
furnished in a rudimentary state, becoming turgid, 
poured forth copious streams of milk, and the 
father was blessed beyond the sons of men. As 
the poor man had a fine time of it with his friends, 
and all parties are now doing well, I refrain from 
giving the name of the suckling gardener. The 
Editor of ' N. & Q.' has personal knowledge of the 
famous author, as well as of O. 

With the desire of promoting the course of 
inquiry followed by MR. TOMLINSON a few remarks 
are offered. Cases of suckling by males are, as he 
states, not unrecorded in modern works. The 
prehistoric evidence available is, however, wider 
than is supposed, and is in the form of tradition 
preserved in language. Sir John Lubbock has 
dealt with mama and other forms used for the 
male parent, and which are not exceptions. The 



[7' h 3. IX. JAN. 4, '0. 

matter is, however, obscured by an old supersti- 
tion among men of learning as to the derivation of 
words for mother. The real derivation where the 
word is a labial was pointed out by me in Nature 
on the basis of an observation of Mr. Alfred 11. 
Wallace, that in many languages words for month 
are labials, for tooth dentals, and for nose nasals, 
as they happen to be in English, and which afford 
good reminders of the philological law. Under 
this derivation the meaning of parent is secondary, 
and is indifferently applied for either parent. It 
is likewise related to breast. It is matter for 
inquiry whether a root (labial or other) for mother 
is not for woman rather than for mother. Not 
only is there traditional evidence that the pre- 
historic word or root was applied to parent with- 
out distinction of sex, but there is evidence of 
milk being so connected. Milk is frequently 
found associated with breast, and has therefore 
been assumed by myself and others to be of 
female relation. In Japanese, which preserves 
many prehistoric elements, the word for breast, 
milk, father, is chichi. HYDE CLARKE. 

During a summer holiday in North Devon I 
was told by an old inhabitant, whose authority is 
unquestionable, that there lived at that time (five 
years ago), in a tiny hamlet not far from Clovelly, 
an old man, descended from Spanish stock, whose 
breasts were large and full, like those of a woman. 
The story went, for the truth of which I cannot 
vouch, that at one period of his life he had to 
nourish a motherless infant, and thus acquired 
this singular development. The possibility of such 
a thing is mentioned in some works on physiology. 
All the glands in the body are capable of great 
development on excitation. A. H. B. 

[A gentleman who died in Charing Cross Hospital 
from the results of an accident claimed the power to 
suckle, but was so mercilessly chaffed, he grew restive 
on the subject.] 

viii. 428). There are several English editions oi 
this recently- discovered document. There is one, 
edited by Dean Spence, published by Nisbet al 
6s.; another, edited by Rev. H. De Romestin, 
published by Parker at 3s. Gd. ; a third, being a 
translation printed as a tract, published by Vin- 
cent, Oxford, at 3d. There is a full bibliography 
in the preface to Mr. De Romestin's edition ; and 
all the learning upon the subject is to be found 
in Dr. G. Salmon's article in the ' Dictionary o: 
Christian Biography.' 


Hastings Corporation Reference Library. 

The MS. of this work was discovered at the 
convent of the Greek Church at Jerusalem b] 
Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, unde 
whose care the text was printed and pnblishec 
in 1883. A new edition, with facsimile text am 

commentary, was edited for the Johns Hopkins 
Jniversity at Baltimore by Prof. Rendel Harris, 
ormerly of Clare College, Cambridge, now of 
laverford College, Pennsylvania. It may be 

obtained at the Cambridge University Press 
iVarehouse, Ave Maria Lane ; and a copy, I may 

remark, is in the Reading Room of the British 
Museum. Let me refer MR. CUNLIFFE, for a care- 
'ul and thoughtful estimate of its date and origin, 
,o the secondedition (pp. 600-617) of Prof. Salmon's 
Historical Introduction to the Study of the Books 

of the New Testament' (Murray, 1886). 

W. T. LYNN. 

The most convenient edition of the ' Teaching 
of the Twelve Apostles' with which I am ac- 
quainted is that by the Rev. A. H. E. De Romestin, 
published by Parker (Oxford). It is a small and 
inexpensive book, containing the Greek text, with 
an English translation and notes and an historical 
introduction. The present Dean of Gloucester, 
Dr. Spence, when Vicar of St. Pancras, issued an 
English translation, with notes and excursus, pub- 
lished by Nisbet. EDMUND VENABLES. 

This was discovered at Constantinople in 1875 
by the Archbishop of Serrse, now of Nicomedia. 
There are many editions of it ; a useful one is by 
the Rev. Henry De Romestin (Parker, 1885). 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

SIR JOHN HAWKWOOD (7 th S. viii. 487). In 
' The Chesters of Chicheley,' vol. ii. pp. 300-10, is 
an interesting account of the Hawkwood family, 
proving conclusively that Antiocha, the wife of Sir 
William de Coggeshall, was the daughter of Sir 
John Hawkwood, the famous condottiere. The 
authority quoted is a letter dated March 3, 
1378-9, preserved in the archives of Venice, 
wherein Hawkwood begs for a safe-conduct for 
his son-in-law, Sir William de Coggeshall. Cf. 
'Calendar of State Papers,' Venetian Series, 
vol. i. p. 26. F. A. BLAYDES. 


TENNYSON (7 th S. viii. 488). Mrs. Ritchie's 
article on Tennyson occupies (with the illustrations 
that accompany it) twenty-two pages of the Christ- 
mas number of Harper's Magazine for 1883. 

0. C. B. 

JOSEPH GEORGE HOLMAN, 1764-1817 (7 th S. 
viii. 486). As his name does not appear in the- 
'Catalogue of Oxford Graduates' (1851), it may 
be, I think, fairly assumed that Holman did not 
take a degree. The 'Dictionary of Living 
Authors' (1816) states that Holman, "after 
receiving a classical education in Soho Square, 

removed to Queen's College, Oxford. But 

in 1784 his love of the drama prevailed over the 
desire of academical honours, and he appeared at 

7">S.IX. JAK. 4,'90.] 



Covent Garden Theatre in the character of Romeo." 
The following curious note, amongst the abstract 
of foreign occurrences in the Gent. Mag. for 
1817 (vol. Ixxxvii. pt. i. p. 618), may possibly 
have escaped URBAN'S eye : 

" A theatrical fracas took place lately at Charleston in 
America. Mr. Holman, the manager, dismissed a Mr 
Caldwell before he had had his benefit; and in con- 
sequence the audience completely gutted the theatre 
The chandeliers, ornaments, benches, and every assail- 
able article but the scenes were utterly destroyed." 

G. F. R. B. 

FLEMISH BRASS (7 th S. viii. 469). Now in the 
possession of the Surrey Archaeological Society. 
MR. BOUTELL was mistaken in calling it Flemish 
it is undoubtedly of English manufacture. A ful 
description, together with a photo-lithograph, 
will appear in the next volume of the Society's 
Collections. MILL STEPHENSON, Hon. Sec. 

8, Danes Inn, Strand, W.C. 

JAMES HILL, VOCALIST (7 th S. viii. 467). 
Possibly the following extract from the obituary 
list in the European Magazine for August, 18 17, may 
refer to the Hill after whom URBAN in inquiring : 
"Lately, at Mount Bay, Jamaica, Mr. Hill, the 
once celebrated singer at Covent Garden and other 
metropolitan theatres " (p. 179). G. F. R. B. 

BRENNUS (7 th S. viii. 305). MR. C. A. WARD 
says : 

" Now pen, I think, and bren would be kindred, and so 
it might serve for the mountain or the leader. That the 
two words are the same may be gathered from the fact 
that brenin is Welsh for king." 

Prof. Rhys no mean authority on Celtic, I ween 
thinks otherwise. In his ' Celtic Britain,' 1882, 
p. 279, he says, speaking about the Brigantes : 

"From the stem brigant- was formed an adjective 
brigant-in-, which wag reduced in Cornish to brentyn or 
bryntyn : it meant noble, free, privileged, the contrary 
of keih, enslaved, while in Welsh it became breenhin, 
now brenhin, & king, which lias nothing to do with 
Brennm, though old-fashioned philologists fancy it 

As to the origin of pen, he writes (' Lectures on 
Welsh Philology,' 1877, pp. 254-5) : 

" At first sight Gaulish would seem to show a similar 
trace of the v retained as o or u in the well-authenticated 
Poeninus and Puoeninus of the numerous votive tablets 
nailed in old times to the walls of the Alpine temple of 
the deity Penn or Jupiter Poeninus (' Revue Celtique,' 
iii. 3), wbence we might be tempted to conclude the Celtic 
stem implied by the forms Poeninus, Penniniu, and 
Tlevvo-ovivdoc, the Early Welsh Qvenvendani, and our 
modern pen, ' a head or top,' 0. Ir. cenn, to have bee 
qvenn-, but the form Puoeninus compels one to assum 
the Gaulish to have been, at least dialectically, a dissyl- 
lable pu-enn-, from a common Celtic qvu-enn-, repre- 
senting a prae-Celtic qvup-enn- or qvupanja-s, of the 
same origin as Lat. caput (for cvaput, like canis for 
cvanis), Gothic haub-ith, ModH.G. haup-t, O.Eng. hedf- 
od, hedf-d, Mod.Eng. hea-d" 

With regard to the origin of the term Pendragon 

your correspondent may refer to Prof. Rhys's 
' Celtic Britain,' pp. 132-3. 

The Paddocks, Palgrave, Diss. 


(7 th S. viii. 468). From the mangled remains of 
a song-book which saw the light some five-and- 
thirty years ago I have transcribed the full text 
for MR. ARCHER MARTIN. In some instances a 
song is headed with the names of its writer and 
composer, and their absence in the present case 
suggests that they were unknown to the compiler. 
The title-page is gone from my copy, but I have 
a kind of hazy idea that there figured upon it 
the name of the immortal Sam Collins. 

If I had a donkey wot wouldn't go, 

D' ye think I 'd wallop him ? no, no, no ; 

But gentle means I 'd try d' ye see, 

Because I hate all cruelty. 

If all had been like me in fact, 

There 'd ha' been no occasion for Martin's Act, 

Dumb animals to prevent getting crackt 

On the head. For 
If I had a donkey wot wouldn't go, 
I never would wollop him, no, no, no ; 
I 'd give him some hay and cry gee O ! 
And come up Neddy. 

What makes me mention this, this morn 
I seed that cruel chap Bill Burn, 
Whilst he was out a crying greens, 
His donkey wallop with all his means; 
He hit him o'er his head and thighs, 
He brought the tears up in his eyes 
At last my blood began to rise, 

And I said 
If I had a donkey, &c. 

Bill turn'd and said to me. then perhaps 
You 're one of these Mr. Martin's chaps 
Wot now is seeking for occasion 
All for to lie an information. 
Though this I stoutly did deny/ 
Bill up and gave me a blow in the eye, 
And I replied, as I let fly 

At his head, 
If I had a donkey, &c. 

As Bill and I did break the peace, 
To us came up the New Police, 
And hiked us off as sure as fate, 
Afore the sitting magistrate. 
I told his Worship all the spree. 
And for to prove the veracity 
I wished he would the animal see ; 

For I said 
If I had a donkey, &c. 

Bill's donkey was ordered into court 
In which he caused a deal of sport ; 
He cock'd hia ears and ope'd his jaws, 
As if he wished to plead his cause. 
I proved I'd been uncommonly kind, 
The ass got a verdict Bill got fined ; 
For his Worship and I were of one mind, 

And he said 
If I had a donkey, &c. 

Bill said " Your Vorship its wery hard, 
But 'tisn't the fine that I regard 



[7 th S. IX. JAN. 4, '90. 

But times are come to a pretty pass 
When you mustn't beat a stubborn asa." 
His Worship gaiii nothing, but shut his book. 
So Billy off his donkey took, 
The same time giving me such a look : 

For I said Bill, 
If I had a donkey, &c. 

24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea. S. W. 

vii. 11, 102). This phrase is an amusing instance 
of the vitality of a misquotation. In the ' General 
Demands concerning the Covenant' (Edinburgh, 
1638, p. 8) we read : 

" That famous and most learned Doctour Rivetus, in 
a late Treatise called 'Jesuita Vapulans,' speaking of 
the judgement of Buchanan and others who taught that 

Subjects might take armes against their Prince pro- 

feeseth that the rasbnesse of these writers is to be 

ascribed partly to the bard and perilous times of persecu- 
tion wherein they lived, and partly 'Scotorum praefer- 
vido ingenio." 

This passage seems to have misled Sir Thomas 
Urquhart, who in his * Tracts ' (Edinburgh, 1777, 
p. 134) assigns the phrase to Rivetus. Dr. Joseph 
Robertson (' Deliciae Literarise,' Edinburgh, 1840, 
p. 154) cites Sir Thomas Urquhart as his authority 
for a similar statement. And MR. WILLIAM 
BATES ('N. & Q./ as above) quotes Dr. Joseph 
Robertson to the same effect. But the phrase in 
its received form does not occur in Rivetus. I 
extract the passage from the ' Jesuita Vapulans ' 
(Lugd. Bat., 1635, p. 275) : 

"Id prseterea observandum est, si quse durissimis 
persecutionum temporibus a Scotis et Anglis nonnullis 
temere scripta fuerunt, ea posse imputari non tarn 
Religioni quam nationum illarum, Scoticanae prasaertim, 
fervido ingenio et ad audendum prompto." 


PARK (7 th S. viii. 427). Sir Henry Ellis, in his 
* General Introduction to Domesday Book,' after 
citing some laws of King Canute and Edward the 
Confessor, says : 

" These Laws, it is probable, gave rise to the Parks, 
which we find entered in the Survey ; some of which 
were of considerable extent. The persons who are 
enumerated as holding Parks, beside the King, are the 
Bishop of Baieux, the Earl of Ow, Earl Roger, the 
Bishop of AVinchester, Ernulf de Hesding, Hugh de 
Grentemaisnil, Peter de Valongies, Walter Giffard, 
Urso, Roger de Laci, the Countess Judith, Hu^h de 
Belcamp, Suein of Essex, the Earl of Moretaine, Robert 
Malet, and Robert Blund. The usual term is ' Parcus,' 
' Parcus bestium* siluaticarum,' or ' Parcus ferarum 
siluaticarum.' The Monastery of St. Alban's seems to 
have had a Park in the Vill adjoining. Stow in his 
'Annals ' and Sir William Dugdale in his ' Hist, of War- 
wickshire' appear to have been misled by John Ross 
into the opinion that the Park of Woodstock in Oxford- 
shire, said to have been made by King Henry the First, 
was the earliest in England " (vol. i. p. 113, London, 

* " Bestium " for Besliarum. 

Kelham, in his ' Domesday Book Illustrated,' Lon- 
don, 1788, has these entries : 

" Pare' bestiis. A Park of leasti" 
" Parcus bestiarum silvaticarum. A park ofleagtifor 
the forest." 

" Purcus ferarum. A park of deer" 
" Parchu'. A park." 
" Parchi e'pi. Of the park of the Bishop." 

The use of the word in Domesday thus appears to 
be the same as at present. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

If MR. RADFORD examines the Domesday Book 
he will find that the term " park," parcus, does 
occur in that record, but not very frequently. But 
he will also find that the sense in which it is used 
is not that of " a demesne or pleasaunce surround- 
ing a mansion " an entirely modern idea, very 
remote from the mind of any Saxon or Norman 
owner at Donyatt or elsewhere but of a tract of 
land, chiefly forest or brushwood, enclosed with 
fences, and devoted to animals of the chase, for 
the recreation of the owner in hunting. It was a 
principle of English law, recognized from the time 
of Canute downwards, that while the forest proper 
belonged to the Crown, freeholders had the right of 
sport in their own lands, which when enclosed be- 
came a park, a word derived from the Celtioparwg, 
Anglo-Saxon pearroc, an enclosure (cf. the modern 
paddock). As Sir Henry Ellis tells us ('Introduc- 
tion to Domesday,' p. xxxv) this survey contains 
mention of some parks of considerable extent, 
among the holders being the King, the Bishops of 
Winchester and Bayeux, the Earls of Eu and Mor- 
tain, the Countess Judith, Walter Giffard, &c. 
Their titles, " parcus bestiarum sylvaticarum " or 
" parcus ferarum," show their purpose. As Domes- 
day proves, parks were known certainly soon after 
the Conquest, probably before. Stow and Dug- 
dale are, therefore, in error in asserting that Wood- 
stock, constituted a park by Henry I., was the 
earliest in England. EDMUND VENABLES. 

RUNES (7 th S. viii. 389, 475). The only notable 
book on runic inscriptions written by an English- 
man is that of G. Stephens, ' The Old Northern 
Runic Monuments,' 1868-84. But the value of it 
depends merely upon the splendid illustrations ; in 
scientific respects it is now overstepped by the 
masterly researches of the Danish scholar Wimmer, 
whose latest great work (' Runeskroftens Oprin- 
delse og Udvikling i Norden,' 1874, second edition, 
' Die Runenschrift,' 1887, written in German) gives 
a final statement of the subject. 

The earliest runic inscription known is a Gothic 
one, written on a spearhead that was found at Kowel, 
in Wolhynia (Russia) ; it dates from the beginning 
of the migration of people, at the end of the fourth 
century A.D. But the runes must have been 
known to the Goths before that time, as their 
Bishop Ulfilas, in the middle of the fourth century, 
used some of the runic letters for the compiling 

7 th S. IX. JAN. 4, '90.] 



of his alphabet. About 400, according to the 
researches of Wimmer, the oldest Scandinavian 
inscriptions set in, whereas the few monuments 
that have been found in Germany are of a more 
recent date. The Anglo-Saxons, again, are sure to 
have known the use of runes before they emigrated 
from the Continent, though most of their inscrip- 
tions date but from the eighth century. There is 
only one Anglo-Saxon inscription on a coin, written 
in an ancient alphabet which Wimmer dates about 
00. After all it is certain that the use of runes 
was extended (about 400 A.D.) over the whole 
Teutonic territory ; it was common to all Teutonic 
tribes, and must consequently go back to the 
period of union. At any rate runes must have 
been known about 200 A.D. ; but as it is most pro- 
bable that the runes have some relation to the 
"notae" mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus 
('Ger mania/ c. x.), their origin perhaps must be 
dated back to a much earlier time. T. HOOPS. 
Brown's Green, Birmingham 

HURRAH (7 th S. viii. 444). For the readers of 
' N. & Q.' Prof. Buchheim's letter to the Times 
does not add anything to what you have before 
edited. It is difficult to see any connexion between 
the supposed Teutonic word, with its inapplicable 
meaning if it have a meaning and use, and the 
actual use of hurrah as a shout of joy. The " bow- 
wow " fancy, Prof. Max Miiller's scorn, is not 
really in its favour, for the sounds and accent differ. 
The derivation I venture to offer, JP"lp|, has the 
advantage of having a clear connexion between the 
ancient Eastern use and meaning and the modern 
Western use of hurrah. The root word, yn, or JJ>"), 
means clangere,jubilare, and so occurs in Psalm ixv. 
13, Ixvi. 1, and c. 1. It seems to be just the Hebrew 
equivalent of hurrah, and is our jubilate, or " make 
a cheerful noise." W. F. HOBSON. 

Temple Ewell, Dover. 

I do not know when this word was first used in 
England, but I greatly doubt concerning Dr. Buch- 
heim's suggestion that " it was first introduced in 
this country in the Anglicized form of hurray." 
In my boyhood, to the best of my recollection, it 
was pronounced, as it was certainly always spelt, 
hurrah. But it has suffered under that degrading 
process by which the first and noblest of vowel 
sounds is being gradually eliminated from our 
speech. Did any one before Thackeray ever spell 
it hurray, or hooray ? C. B. MOUNT. 

I remarked in ' N. & Q.' and in the Times what 
I thought to be the first English use of hurrah or 
hurray. The word occurs in English literature 
for the first time, so far as I have observed, in 
Goldsmith's * She Stoops to Conquer.' Whilst I 
am on the subject again, I may add something. 
Goldsmith spells the word hurrae ; and this seems 
to me to show that he was somewhat undecided 

how to spell it, and that therefore the word was 
not much known in England in his day. In the 
* Mayor of Garratt,' by Foote, the contemporary 
of Goldsmith, the mob shouts huzza ! and this was 
the common exclamation then. Latterly hurrah 
has quite superseded huzza. Sir Walter Scott, at 
the close of last century, uses hurrah in translating 
Burger's ballad. The word is in the original poem. 
I wonder whether this translation had any effect 
in bringing the word into use ; or whether the word 
had become commonly used in the English language 
before the time of Walter Scott. 


HERALDIC (7 th S. viii. 168, 237, 297, 332}. I 
write from memory only, but I think the monument 
to which MR. BAGNALL refers, and which attracted 
my own attention years ago, is that of Bishop Ger- 
vase Babington, who filled the see from 1597 to 
1610. Curiously his arms, Arg., ten torteaux in pile, 
were identical with those of the see. A label azure 
is often added in chief to the Babington arms, but 
I think was not borne by the bishop. If I am 
correct in my supposition, MR. BAGNALL will see 
that there is here no " departure from the laws and 
rules of heraldry." But all bishops did not give 
the place of honour to the arms of the see, as MR. 
BAGNALL will find if he does me the honour to 
read my forthcoming book on 'Ecclesiastical 
Heraldry.' JOHN WOODWARD. 


PIGEON'S BLOOD (7 th S. viiL 468). The query 
at the above reference is as to a saying, " He 
who is sprinkled with pigeon's blood will never 
die a natural death," and refers to an alleged 
incident of a drop of pigeon's blood falling on a 
bust of Charles I. The tale is given in very 
much the same words in Swainson's ' Folk-lore of 
British Birds/ p. 169, citing Dr. Brewer as saying, 
" after the king was beheaded the saying became 
current." It would certainly be interesting to 
know if this is correct, for one is inclined to doubt 
it " A dove flying round and round a person," 
says Mr. Gregor, " was looked upon as an omen 
of death being not far distant," but " at the same 
time, a sure proof that the one so soon to die was 
going to everlasting happiness " (' Folk-lore of the 
N. E. of Scotland,' p. 1 42). The Vicar of Fishlake, 
in the West Biding, informed Mr. Henderson 
that one of his parishioners told him of " a Primi- 
tive Methodist preacher, a very worthy man, who 
had fallen down dead in the pulpit soon after 
giving out his text. ' And not many hours before,' 
she went on, ' I had seen a white pigeon light on 
a tree hard by, and I said to a neighbour I was 
sure summat were going to happen ' " (' Folk-lore 
of the Northern Counties/ p. 49). These are 
instances of the belief in the likelihood of a death 
following the appearance of a pigeon, but have 
nothing to do with any superstition as to the death 



[7'h S. IX. JAN. 4, '90. 

being otherwise than natural. As to pigeon's 
blood, so far from such blood being regarded as of 
evil portent, both in England and France it was 
constantly used in folk- medicine. For example, 
some drops of pigeon's blood let fall from under the 
wing of a young pigeon would cure, it was said, a 
wounded eye, if they fell upon the wound. I for- 
bear to give other examples of the medical use of 
pigeons, as they may be found in every collection of 
folk-lore. What, therefore, I take to be the facts 
are : (1) that pigeons flying near a person were sup- 
posed to indicate approaching death ; (2) that the 
stain on the bust of Charles I. acquired significance 
from the association of ideas familiar among civi- 
lized, as well as savage peoples, which linked 
mystically a person and his bust or his picture. I 
doubt if pigeon's blood were ever regarded as un- 
lucky ; or that, except among personal adherents of 
the Stuarts (if even among them), the " proverb " 
had any common acceptance. It is so desirable to 
be accurate in matter of folk-lore, and to prevent, if 
possible, fictitious folk-lore getting mixed up with 
genuine, that I trust some one may be able to settle 
the question raised in ' N. & Q.' 

1, Alfred Terrace, G!a?gow. 

The pigeon is always a sinister bird in folk-lore. 
It is a common superstition that no one can die 
happy on a bed of pigeons' feathers, and for the 
bird to settle on a chimney portends death. 

C. 0. B. 

viii. 448). Some time ago I had a practical 
difficulty with regard to these. I wanted to 
order a butter-knife by wire, and the com- 
pound word was charged as two words. In 
answer to an expostulation I was informed 
that no word not found in Nuttall's or Webster's 
'Dictionary' is accepted by the Post Office as 
a single word. According to this rule butter- 
knife is not one word, though butter-print is ; 
barn-door is one, house-door is (or are) two. 
This seems somewhat arbitrary; and why should 
the words cited by B. L. R. C. be more "pro- 
vincial " than butter-print or barn-door 1 Some 
of them are certainly necessary. Thus in Lanca- 
shire 6read-loaf is distinguished from tun-loaf and 
plum-loaf. Plum-loaf, by the way, is not in the 
dictionaries, but plum-cake is. I can only sup- 
pose the reason to be that the natural tendency to 
multiply such compounds would soon swamp the 
dictionaries were not a line drawn somewhere. 
But where 1 That, apparently, depends somewhat 
upon "the taste and fancy" of the dictionary- 
makers, for they certainly are not all agreed. 

C. C. B. 

PIGS SEEING THE WIND (7 th S. viii. 367, 
457). That pigs can see the wind in particular 
the east wind is a notion pretty general in the 

Midlands. The belief is current here. In the 
villages near Derby this was a common idea many 
years ago, and perhaps is so now, and the villagers 
always said that the reason why the pigs ran 
squealing when the wind blew in their faces was 
because the wind appeared to them as long streaks 
of fire. At any rate pigs do run before a strong 
wind, a fact to which probably many can testify. 

HUMAN LEATHER (7 th S. vii. 326, 433 ; viii 77, 
131, 252, 353, 437). Will you allow me to add 
my mite to what has been written in your columns 
about human leather? I think none of your learned 
contributors has quoted the following passage of 
Sir Walter Scott : 

" Cressingham was killed in the very beginning of the 
battle [of Stirling], and the Scots detested him go much 
that they flayed the akin from his dead body, and kept 
pieces of it in memory of the revenge they had taken 
upon the English treasurer" (' Tales of a Grandfather,' 
chap. vii.). 

If this is not "legendary lore," it shows that the 
process of flaying men (dead men, at least) was 
not quite unknown to the Scots of the thirteenth 
century. I remember having seen, some twenty- 
five years ago, in a museum at Basle (Switzerland), 
a long piece of skin placed by itself in a case with 
a glass lid. Of course the guide said it was a 
human skin complete, and explained why and 
when it had been flayed, and how it came to the 
said museum ; but I have forgotten everything 
except the fact of having seen, but not touched it. 


I am inclined to doubt whether human skin can 
be used for gloves or shoe-leather, as stated by one 
of your correspondents. Herewith are enclosed 
two pieces for yon to see ; the thick piece is taken 
from the back, the thin from the chest. It was 
removed too thinly to be of much use, and at the 
same time is very rotten. A much larger piece I 
have given to a friend, who has had a book bound 
with it. He would be pleased to show it to any 
of your readers who would care to see it. 

E. C. F. 

" HUMANITY " MARTIN (7 th S. viii. 427, 478). 
In the Times of 22nd and 27th September, 
1884, your correspondent will find two letters 
about the Martins. One of these was written by 
Lieut.-General Fraser ; the other by Miss Harriet 
Martin, a daughter of " Colonel " Richard by his 
second marriage. In the latter I think it is stated 
that he was first married at the age of twenty- 
three, in his father's lifetime. His only son, the 
issue of that marriage, died in 1847-48, aged 
fifty-five, so that he was born in 1792-3 say a 
year after his parents' marriage. This calculation 
would fix the date of his birth in 1769-70. 

Y. S. M. 

7tfa s. IX. JAN. 4, '0.] 



FOLK-LORE (7 th S. viii. 464). I think it was 
"a rule in olden times" that the squire should 
be communicated first, then the gentry, and the 
poor folk last, but in this form an unwritten rule. 
The rubric in the Book of Common Prayer says 
that bishops, priests, and deacons are to receive 
first, and then " the people in order," which last 
words are held to mean according to some rule 
of precedence. Some churches now have a rule, 
men first, then women. Nearly thirty years ago 
I spent a school holiday at a farm-house on the 
Yorkshire wolds. The squire was just dead, and 
on the first Sunday after the funeral nobody stirred 
out of his place in church, at the end of mattins, 
until the late squire's footman had gone to the 
empty family pew and made believe to let some- 
body out. It was a ghostly proceeding which 1 
have never forgotten. W. C. B. 

" To STAY AT HOME is BEST " (7 th S. viii. 447). 
In answer to E. S. E., the lines quoted are by 
Longfellow, but only two verses are given, omitting 
the last as follows : 

Then stay at home, my heart, and rest, 
The bird is safest in its nest ; 
O'er all that flutter their wings and fly, 
A hawk is hovering in the sky ; 
To stay at home is best. 

Some months since I sent you the stanza, and in 
the accompanying notice I made allusion to the 
Latin epitaph on the tomb of Jane Wren, the only 
daughter of Sir Christopher Wren, on her tomb in 
St. Paul's Cathedra], in which the word domiseda 
occurs (a stayer at home), but I cannot supply the 
date of it. W. CHAFFERS. 

From a song in 'Birds of Passage,' by H. W. 
Longfellow (" Albion " edition of ' Poems,' p. 492). 

ARSIS (7 th S. viii. 427). Change the tinctures, 
and they are the bearings of the Scottish name 
Cathcart. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

BLACK CAP WORN BY A JUDGE (7 th S. viii. 449). 
The costume of judges has undergone so many 
changes that it is difficult in a few words to give 
an answer respecting even a small portion of it. 
That which is now called the black cap is said to 
have originated in the old custom of the judge, 
when pronouncing sentence of death, taking off his 
black cornered cap and drawing up the black or 
violet hood from behind, and so covering the close 
white silk coif always worn beneath the cornered 
cap. The cap appears to have been taken off and 
the black or violet hood drawn on to add solemnity 
to this particular office, and perhaps also to veil 
the emotions of the judge. 

The regulations for the apparel of judges, issued 
in 1635, are printed in Dugdale's 'Originales.' It 
is ordered that 

"the judges in term time are to sit at Westminster in 
their black or violet gowns, whither they will, and a 
hood of the same colour put over their heads, and their 
mantles above all, the ends of their hood hanging over 
behind, wearing their velvet caps and coifs of lawn, and 
cornered caps." 

There is much confusion of terms in the various 
descriptions that have come down to us, and an 
artist suddenly called upon to depict accurately 
any legal dignitary of a period before the middle 
of the seventeenth century would find he had a 
difficult subject. It seems that black coifs were 
worn in the time of Elizabeth over white ones, and 
black ones only in the time of Charles II. These 
latter are now represented by the black patch on 
the top of the wig. ALBERT HARTSHORNE. 

In Chaucer's ' Shipman's Tale' is this passage : 

To Seint Denys i-come is daun Johan 

With croune and berd al freisch and newe i-schare ; 

and in Robert Bell's edition, revised by Prof. 
Skeat (London, 1878), from which the above text 
is taken, I find the following note : 

" It is, perhaps, unnecessary to remind the reader that 
all clerks used to shave the crown of the head, a remnant 
of which custom may be observed in the form of the 
wigs of our judges, who in the Middle Ages were gener- 
ally clerks. This tonsure on the crown of his wig the 
judge, in passing sentence of death, covers with a black 
cap, not to give additional solemnity to the occasion, aa 
some suppose, but to show that for the time he lays 
aside his clerical office, it being against the primitive 
canons for a churchman to have anything to do with 
the death of a fellow creature." 

This note, having passed under the revision of 
Prof. Skeat, is worthy of careful attention, though 
no authority is given. J. R. GILLESPIE. 

15, Stratford Grove, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

This cap is part of the judge's full dress. The 
judges wore their black caps annually on Novem- 
ber 9, when the Lord Mayor was presented in the 
Court of Exchequer. Covering the head was a 
sign of mourning among the Israelites, Greeks, 
Romans, and Anglo-Saxons ; and see 2 Samuel 
xv. 30. G. W. BURTON. 

Lee Park, Elackheath. 

COLUMN ON CALAIS PIER (7 th S. viii. 206, 352, 
417, 473). No one, a propos of this matter, has 
yet called attention to the fact that not only the 

iolumn on Calais Pier, but also Calais Pier itself, 
and the whole town of Calais, are henceforth out; 
of reach of the British tourist, unless he delays his 

ourney and makes a detour for the purpose of 
visiting them. Until last year 1889, and especi- 
ally until ten or fifteen years ago, when the rail- 
way was brought to the water's edge, you could 
always spend a few hours pleasaatly at Calais while 
waiting for the express to Paris, or to Brussels, or 
to Basle. You strolled up the pier, past the 
column, through the Hogarth Gate (until they 

mlled it down), and across the wide market- 

>lace, to the "old grey tower of Calais Church," in 



[7* S. IX. JAN. 4, 'SO. 

which church you were pretty sure to find a wed- 
ding or a funeral, or some other function of interest, 
going on. And then, fulfilled with Eustace de St. 
Pierre, and Queen. Mary's heart, and Mr. Ruskin's 
youth, you returned leisurely to the buffet in time 
to enjoy a good luncheon, and afterwards exult 
over the crowd of idiots who came by the second 

But all these joys are at an end ; the new docks 
have cut the traveller off from Calais for ever, and 
left him only a passing and far-away view of it. 
The landing place from England is on the further 
side of the docks, so is the port station, so is the 
new hotel, which I suppose will supersede Dessein's 
and all the other Calais inns. Even the town 
station is half-way to St. Pierre es Calais, so as to 
serve both places, though St. Pierre has also a 
station of its own, having become a suburb almost 
as large as Calais itself. The only consolation is 
that these new docks are a really splendid monu- 
ment of what French energy and resource can do 
even under trying political circumstances. 

Is it not true that Eustace de St. Pierre derived 
his name from that of the village mentioned above ? 

A. J. M. 

ROBERT BURNS THE YOUNGER (7 th S. viii. 466). 
The song referred to by MR. C. W. JACKLIN is 
quoted in full in my copy of Burns's ' Works/ by 
Allan Cunningham (Bonn, London), 1860. It 
commences : 

Hae ye seen, in the calm dewy morning, 
The redbreast wild warbling sae clear ; 
Or the low-dwelling, snow-breasted gowan, 
Surcharg'd wi' mild e'ening soft tear ? 
O, then ye hae seen my dear lassie, 
The lassie I lo'e beat of a'; 

and Robert Burns the younger, in a note, p. 746, 
is said to have been the author. 

Freegrove Road, N. 

' SPOTTED LADDIE ' (7 th S. viii. 445). There is 
a story very like this, though not altogether the 
same, in Straparola. A queen goes to sleep in a 
garden and becomes pregnant, not, indeed, by 
holding her mouth open, but in quite as unsatis- 
factory a manner. In consequence a baby and a 
serpent are born. The serpent is a fairy, and 
protects and befriends her human sister. She is 
quite like Spotted Laddie in this, that she saves 
her sister from danger into which her wilful ways 
have got her. E. YARDLEY. 

SIGNS SCULPTURED IN STONE (7 th S. viii. 306, 
391, 475). The eagle und child is the Stanley 
crest, derived from the Lathoms by marriage. Its 
origin is doubtful, and Lower has referred to it al 
some length in the 'Curiosities of Heraldry. 
Tradition speaks of an illegitimate son having 
been abandoned by its father, and then succourec 
by the king of birds ; but another account states 

hat the parent, despairing of having any lawful 
iffspring, purposely placed the infant in the eyrie, 
md then, taking his wife past the spot as if by 
iccident, and working upon her sympathy, got her 
to adopt the hapless creature, she being totally 
unaware of any of the circumstances that paved 
he way to the supposed discovery. 

The device is frequently met with in different 

parts of the country, and an old Scotch ballad 

refers in dolorous tones to the " swaddled child " 

whose bearer wrought such havoc with his famous 

barge on the field at Flodden. 

If a question is permitted in your reply columns, 
may I ask where these lines are to be found, 
laving lost all reference to them in the lapse of 
years ? J. BAGNALL. 

Water Orton. 

CORRIGENDUM (7 th S. viii. 500). I have to 
thank A. B. H. B. A. for his correction. My 
mistake is inexcusable, for the reason that Sir 
Bernard Butke's account of Lord Trimleston's 
family was before me when I wrote my reply 
relative to " Humanity Martin." 


6, Freegrove Road, N. 

GIGANTIC SKELETON (7 th S. viii. 446). Kirby, 
in his ' Wonderful and Eccentric Museum ' (1820), 
has devoted a chapter to the history of " Gigantic 
Remains," and states that 

" all the public prints make mention of an extraordinary 
monument of gigantic human stature, found by two 
labourers in Leixlip churchyard, on the 10th July, 1812. 
It appeared to have belonged to a man of not less than 
ten feet in height; and is believed to be the same men- 
tioned by Keating- Phelim O'Tool, buried in Leixlip 
churchyard, near the salmon leap, one thousand two 
hundred and fifty years ago. In the place was found a 
large finger-ring of pure gold. There was no inscription 
or characters of any kind upon it. One of the teeth is 
said to have been as large as an ordinary forefinger." 
71, Brecknock Road. 

PROVINICAL PUBLISHERS (7 tt S. viii. 205, 269, 
329). The Jacksons of Louth should always hold 
an honoured place as the printers and publishers 
of "Poems by Two Brothers, 1827," a copy of 
which in boards, uncut, just as it came from the 
press, now lies before me. The workmanship is 
very good, better than the average, and almost 
equal to the best of London at that period. The 
neatness and good taste of the " setting up," tha 
evenness of the impression, and the regularity of 
the colour are admirable. The Jacksons not only 
printed the book of the two grammar-school boys, 
but they gave them 101. for the copyright, and had 
judgment enough to carefully preserve the MS., 
for which I know the survivor of the Jacksons re- 
fused a very large sum a short time before he died. 

Such is properly " printing and publishing." 
Not only to print a book, but to pay the author 

7* S. IX. JAK. 4, '90.] 



or editor, and to bear all the risk. Volumes of 
sermons " published by request," poetry (' Village 
Musings '), parish registers, reports of societies, and 
all things published by subscription do not count. 

The trade is so altered, both men and machinery 
are so different, and printers and publishers now 
generally labour under so many disadvantages in 
small places, that in very few cases can they hope 
to compete with large towns. There may be a 
few exceptions, such as where a man has acquired 
a character for a particular line, or who is an 
enthusiast, and prints books for the love of them 
rather than for profit. But even in such cases, 
a man's living and working in the place is no 
proof that literary taste is common there, but 
rather the reverse; for, loving books, and finding 
no congenial society, he is driven to depend upon 
himself only, and to spend the time in his printing 
office which he would gladly spend in literary 
society if he could find it. The books so produced, 
if of any value, are rarely appreciated by his neigh- 
bours. Gainsborough certainly did not abound 
with either intelligence or taste, although the 
Mozleys printed and published there. And it is 
very difficult to think there was ever mnch taste 
in Bungay, where tons of rubbish bearing the name 
of Childs were printed. And if there were a thou- 
sand printers and publishers in York, so long as 
the hideous statue of the man of unlovely and 
blustering appearance near the railway station is 
allowed to stand, and so long as the inhabitants 
continue to destroy their antiquities, it will be 
evident that, however, numerous the people of taste, 
those without taste are more numerous still. Deeds 
speak stronger than words. Perhaps a York man 
will kindly give the title of any edition of any one 
book of established reputation which has been pro- 
duced there in a creditable manner during the last 
generation never mind about the number of pages. 

E. E. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

HORATIA NELSON (7 th S. viii. 508). Mrs. 
Horatia Nelson Ward died on Sunday, March 6, 
1881, at Beaufort Villa, Woodrising, Pinner, 
Middlesex, in her eighty-first year. Her death 
was announced in the Times of March 8, and a 
short obituary notice appeared in the same paper 
on March 10, 1881. She bequeathed Admiral 
Lord Nelson's pigtail to Greenwich Hospital, and 
it is now to be seen in the Painted Hall 


Hanwell, W. 

ZOROASTER (7 th S. viii. 388, 498). I am obliged 
to MR. H. G. HOPE for his reply, which, however, 
does not exactly meet my question. The passage 
in ' Prometheus ' has little or no connexion with 
Magian dualism ; nor would I have troubled 
readers of ' N. & Q.' for references to so familiar a 
subiect as that. Shelley's lines declare, not a dual 

agency in the universe, but a dual universe itself. 
Of his "two worlds" one is, as it were, the duplicate 
of the other. With regard to the Zoroaster myth 
(from which the above conception appears to have 
been developed), I believe that the idea of seeing 
one's own wraith was a favourite one with Shelley. 
Is not such an experience, in fact, recorded of the 
poet himself ? What I wished to ascertain was, on 
what authority, if any, he attributed a like experi- 
ence to Zoroaster. G. WOTHERSPOON. 

'ARABINIANA' (7 tt S. viii. 408, 490). Mr. 
Serjeant Arabin was a magistrate for Essex when 
I was a boy, and he resided at Beech Hill Park, 
High Beech, near Epping and Waltham Abbey; 
he had another country seat, West Drayton Park, 
near Uxbridge. He married a sister of the first Sir 
Henry Meux, Bart., and was Judge Advocate 
General under Lord Melbourne in 1838-39. He 
died in 1841, when his son, Mr. Eichard Arabin, 
succeeded him in his two properties. See Burke's 
'Landed Gentry.' E. WALFORD, M.A. 

7, Hyde Park Mansions, Jf.W. 

Let it also be recorded that the late Mr. H. B. 
Churchill, under the signatures, "H. B. C.," "Inner 
Templar," and " Fitzhopkins," was a frequent con- 
tributor to 4 N. & Q.' (See 6 to S. ii. 160.) 

W. C. B. 

May I contribute my mite ? According to my 
extracts from the Inner Temple Bar book, Serjeant 
Arabin appears to have been called to the Bar 
May 8, 1801. As MR. PICKERING has been unable 
" to ascertain " this date I feel a shyness in sending 
it, even for what it is worth. J. FOSTER. 

OLD SCOTTISH BALLAD (7 th S. viii. 508). If 
E. E. will take the trouble to look in pp. 418-21 of 
vol. vii. (1887) of our Ballad Society's ' Eoxburghe 
Ballads,' he will there find a full account of this 
pretended Scottish ballad, which is a humorous 
but corrupt modern version of the indisputable 
English original, " Sir Walter Ealeigh sailing in 
the Lowlands, shewing how the famous Ship 
called the Sweet Trinity was taken by a false 
Gaily [i.e., galleon or galley], and how it was again 
restored by the craft of a little Sea-boy, who sank 
the Gaily: as the following Song will declare." 
The first line of the ballad, in the broadside ver- 
sion, is "Sir Walter Ealeigh has built a Ship, in 
the Neatherlands." Having been licensed by Eoger 
L'Estrange, and bearing his initials, the date of 
issue is demonstrable to have been between 1665 
and August, 1685, at latest. Printed for G. Con- 
yers, and therefore probably in 1680. A corrupt 
modern stall-copy, printed at the Pitts press (very 
different from the Pitt Press), is also reproduced 
by me, alongside of the early text, and reference 
is made to Mrs. Gordon's memoir of her father, 
Prof. John Wilson, of Edinburgh, " Christopher 



[7' 8. IX. JAN. 4, '80. 

North" (vol. ii. p. 317, 1862), where the Scotch 
version, as sung often in my hearing by the late 
P. S. Fraser, F.S.A.Scot., is given complete. It 
is also in Logan's ' Pedlar's Pack,' p. 43, 1869. 
The Priory, Molash, by Ashford, Kent. 

(7 th S. viii. 508). The beast was discovered to 
be a common badger, and the storm that the foot- 
prints had caused dropped to dead calm in a single 
day. D. 

[Many similar replies are acknowledged.] 

327, 395). After the quotations given, there can 
be no doubt that Mincing is a corruption of 
Middle English mynechene, Old English mynecenn, 
i.e., the feminine to monk, muni:, Old English 
tnnnuc, a nun, so that the name means originally 
Nun's Lane. To explain the meaning of Seething 
Lane some more quotations, and more ancient 
ones, are wanted. T. HOOFS. 

Brown's Green, Birmingham. 

At the latter reference, MR. MASKELL incident- 
ally refers to Mincing Lane. Is there any doubt 
about this having derived its name from the 
mynchens, or nuns, of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. 
having been holders, or occupiers, of property 
there 1 I have a faint recollection, too, of having 
read somewhere that Seething Lane owed its 
nomenclature to the once thriving business and 
manufactories, or boiling houses, of the wax and 
tallow chandlers of the City of London. 


THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON (7 th S. viii. 429, 
497). The descent of the Duke of Wellington can 
be clearly traced step by step from Robert Cowley, 
Bailiff of Dublin A.D. 1515. The printed State 
Eecords of England and Ireland alone afford quite 
. sufficient information. I have, however, not dis- 
covered any authority for the statement, found in 
some peerages, that Cowley was born in England, 
or that he came of a Rutland family. I believe 
the late duke had an idea that his family was pure 
Irish, the name being originally O'Kolly. This is 
disproved by a letter of Archbishop Loftus, who 
states that his son-in-law, George Cowley, grandson 
of Robert, was of English birth, by which is meant 
English descent. The earliest records of the city 
of Dublin show that Cowleys were citizens in the 
thirteenth century, at which time Dublin was a 
plantation from Bristol. Cowley is also a very old 
Bristol name. The Bristol and Dublin citizens, as 
their names show, were in very many cases from 
the counties of Somerset and Gloucester. Smith, 
in his ' Lives of the Berkeleys,' gives an account o: 
the family of Cowley of Cowley (now Coaley), 
which was a male branch of the great house o: 
Berkeley. Unless some proof can be produced that 

Robert Cowley was English born and from Rut- 
andshire, the probability is that he was a member 
of the Dublin family of Cowley, which with the 
Bristol family of the same name were, it may be 
assumed, of Gloucestershire extraction. Perhaps 
some reader can throw some light on the birth and 
parentage of Robert Cowley, who is at present the 
earliest known ancestor in the male line of the 
Duke of Wellington. 


Your correspondent is in error in thinking 
" there is no evidence to show that the Duke had 
any Celtic blood in his veins." There ia ample 
evidence. The Cooleys, or Cowleys, were for many 
generations stewards in the Ormond household at 
Kilkenny. In this position they put money 
together and became esquires on their own ac- 
count early in the sixteenth century. In the reign 
of Elizabeth one of them rose to legal eminence. 
The branch of the family from which the duke was 
descended adopted the name Wesley, or Wellesley, 
but it is a singular fact that in Sir John Davis's 
report to James I. on the decadence of the English 
interest in Ireland the Wesleys are particularly 
named as having completely adopted Irish habits 
and customs, calling themselves not by their old 
name, but by the Celtic one of MacQuorish or 
McYorish. All these facts are easily accessible, 
but history is sometimes inclined to " boycott " 
truth when it ceases to be fashionable. 


7, Charles Street, St. James's. 

In connexion with this subject permit me to say 
that Sir Bernard Burke gives the reign of Henry 
VII., and not Henry VIII., as the period of the 
immigration of the ancestar (Walter Cowley, of 
Colley, who lived in Drogheda in 1506) of the 
Duke of Wellington into Ireland ; and also that 
Waleran de Wellesley was justice itinerant in 
Ireland in 1261, and was father of Waleran de 
Wellesley, of Brienstown, co. Meath, from whom 
the duke was also descended. It may not be 
out of place to remark that the families named 
were not of English, but of Norman origin. In 
' The Norman People' (Messrs. H. S. King & Co., 
London, 1874), it is recorded that the " Colley- 
Wellesley " family came from " Robert Bordet, of 
Cuilly, near Falaise, Normandy, who witnessed a 
charter of the Count of Anjou in 1050." The 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts is of the same ancestry. 

Freegrove Road, N. 

HERALDIC (7 th S. viii. 368, 414, 476). Excep- 
tions to the rule "colour upon colour or metal 
upon metal is bad heraldry" are far from un- 
known in Italy. Three ancient and illustrious 
Tuscan houses bear metal upon metal. Alighieri : 
Party per pale or and sa., over all a fess arg. 

7 S. IX. JAN. 4, '90.1 



Another coat sometimes borne by this family was 
Az., a wing or. Lotaringo della Stufa : Arg., two 
lions rampant or, supporting a cross gu. Ubaldini: 
Az., in the honour point, on a plate a cross or ; in 
the nombril point the attires of a stag fixed to the 
scalp arg. Koss O'CoNNELL. 

Qarrick Club. 


Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie 

Stephen. Vol. XXI. Garnett Gloucester. (Smith, 

Elder & Co.) 

PUNCTUALLY with the close of the quarter comes the 
new volume of the ' Dictionary of National Biography.' 
The contents are pleasantly varied, and many of the 
lives may be read for their own sake, apart from the 
question of reference. In history the place of honour is 
occupied by the lives of the four Georges. Covering, as 
these do, a period extending from the Restoration to 
the beginning of railways, it is seen how many historical 
events of highest importance are included in the period. 
Two of the lives those of George I. and George IV. 
are in the hands of Prof. Ward. George II. is treated 
by Mr. J. M. Rig?, and George III. is the subject of an 
admirable biography by the Rev. William Hunt, who is 
responsible for other important contributions, including 
Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances ; Geoffrey of Gorham ; 
Geoffrey, Count of Brittany ; Gervase of Tilbury ; and 
Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre. Mr. Leslie Stephen sup- 
plies a fair number of biographies, the most important 
being that of Edward Gibbon, a model in all respects. 
The estimate of Gibbon's personal and literary merits is 
convincing, and a pleasant compliment to the late J. 
Cotter Morieon is paid. It is amusing to find Mr. 
Stephen occupying himself with Charles Gildon. Grace, 
Lady Gethin, is accorded a short notice from his pen, and 
the arduous struggles of Gilford, the editor of the Quar- 
terly, are painted with unusual vivacity. Among Mr. 
Sidney L. Lee's contributions the most interesting, if not 
the most important, is the life of Gayton, the author of 
the ' Festivous Notes to Don Quixote.' To some extent 
this pleasant memoir is a vindication of Gayton, who 
has been treated with scanty courtesy by Wood and 
Hearne. George Gascoigne, the poet of the 'Steele 
Glas,' is also by Mr. Lee. The initials to the volume of 
Gascoigne's collected verse published in his absence are 
conjecturally filled in, H. W. becoming Henry 1 Wotton ? 
and G. T., George Turberville. We wonder if Mr. Lee is 
responsible for this. For this, too, the literary verdict 
will command highest respect. Not less excellent are the 
biographies of Gilbert Gifford, Alexander Gill (first and 
second), and others. 

Among eighteenth century lives those of Gay, the 
poet, and of Gilray, the caricaturist, by Mr. Austin Dob- 
son, are of the most importance. They are written with 
Mr. Dobson's customary insight and lucidity. No life of 
primary importance is sent by Mr. Bullen, who has, 
however, short and interesting accounts of Humphrey 
Giflord, Henry Glapthorne, and Octavius Graham Gil- 
christ, the antiquary. Anne Gilchrist is in friendly and 
family hands, being dealt with by Mr. H. H. Gilchrist. 
The Rev. J. Woodfall Ebsworth deals appreciatively with 
George Gilfillan and with David Cooke Gibson, an almost 
forgotten artist and poet. Gibson, the sculptor, and 
Thomas Girton are in the hands of Mr. Cosmo Monk- 
house. Mr. C. H. Firth sends an excellent account of 
Sir John Gell, the Parliamentarian, concerning whom 
Mrs. Hutchinson had so low an opinion. Geoffrey of 
Monmouth and Thomaa Gent, the York printer, are the 

two most important contributions of Mr. H.R. Tedder; 
Miles de Gloucester, Earl of Hereford, that of Mr. 
Round; and Sir Vicary Gibbs that of Mr. Russell Barker. 
Prof. Tout deals with Owen Glendower; Canon Venablea 
with Thomas Gamier. Mr. Courtney sends lives of Lady 
Elizabeth Germain and Sir John Germain, and Mr. 
Manners Chichester of George Sackville Germain, whose 
mismanagement at Minden so annoyed King George. 
D-. Garnett deals principally with the bearers of his 
own name, and supposedly the members of his family. 
Dr. Norman Moore and Prof. Laughton keep entire con- 
trol of their respective departments, and do highest 
service. Mr. Thomas Bayne, Mr. G. C. Boase, and 
many well-known writers, keep up the standard of the 
work. We had almost forgotten to mention the exhaus- 
tive account of Geoffrey de Muschamp, Bishop of Lich- 
field, by Miss Kate Norgate. 

A Historical Companion to Hymns Ancient and Modern. 

Edited by the Rev. Robert Maude Moorsom, M.A. 

(Parker & Co.) 

IN an elegant and well-printed volume, exactly the size 
to be slipped into the pocket, we have here the original 
hymns, Greek, Latin, German, Italian, French, Danish, 
and Welsh, the translations of which are sung by 
church choirs and congregations. The Latin hymna of 
the first fifteen centuries have been taken so far as 
possible from the Sarum, Hereford, York, and Aberdeen 
Breviaries and the Durham or Anglo-Saxon Hymnary. 
Hymn writers are given in chronological order. By 
means of full indexes the task of finding any hymn is 
simplified. Towards the worthy Anglo- Catholic hymnal 
for the widespread Anglican Church for which the 
editor longs this volume is a contribution. Scholars, at 
least, will be glad to have in so accessible a form hymns 
the beauty of which cannot easily be overstated or 
overpraised. Those portions of certain Psalms which 
are given are from the Vulgate. In the case in which 
the originals of hymns have not been discovered Mr. 
Moorsom appeals for assistance. It is especially in the 
case of hymns translated by the Rev. J. M. Neale from 
the Greek that the source is sought. Many hymns belong- 
ing to the eighteenth century, with which Charles Cofiin, 
principal of the college of Beauvais, enriched the 
Breviary of Paris, are given, though the editor holds 
that more importance than they in themselves deserve 
has perhaps been assigned them. A glossary of Greek 
and Latin words in less common use adds greatly to the 
comfort of the reader not specially well up as regards 
mediaeval forms. 

MB. SWINBURSE, in the Fortnightly, commemorates- 
the death of Robert Browning by what is called a 
"sequence of sonnets." Some of the poems are in Mr. 
Swinburne's happiest vein. Prof. Tyndall's 'Personal 
Recollections of Thomas Carlyle ' will attract and repay 
general attention. Its statements are, of course, intended 
to relieve Carlyle from some of the charges he has in- 
curred. His memory must, however, always be asso- 
ciated with grimness. Following this article comes the 
Bishop of Peterborough's much discussed paper on ' The 
State and the Sermon on the Mount.' Prof. Dowden 
supplies in ' An Eighteenth-Century Mystic ' an account 
of the extraordinary experiments essayed by some of the 
pietists of the last century. No fewer than three of tbe 
Fortnightly articles are unsigned. Two countesses, in 
the Nineteenth Century, write on the very remarkable 
change that has come in recent days over womanhood. 
Lady Cowper deals with ' The Decline of Reserve among 
AVomen,' a matter more noticeable, perhaps, in great 
cities than in the country, but perceptible everywhere. 
She holds that it may almost be said that "in these days 
there is no longer any inward life, for it is so turned 



[7"> S. IX. JAN. 4, '90. 

inside out for all who care to see, that not only is there 
nothing kept private between man and man, but hardly 
is anything allowed to remain sacred between man and 
his Creator." Lady Jersey's ' Ourselves and our Pore- 
mothers ' is, to a certain extent, an apology for her sex. 
In ' The Ascertainment of English ' the late Charles 
Mackay makes some sensible suggestions as to reverencing 
and preserving our language. When he deals with the 
abuses of style of which writers are guilty he is on safe 
ground. Now and then, however, the cloven foot is ex- 
hibited, and the Keltic theories are advanced. Dr. Bam- 
berger describes the ' German Daily Press,' and Mr. 
Huish writes on 'Ten Years of British Art.' To the 
Century Miss Amelia B. Edwards, the honorary secretary 
of the Egypt Exploration Fund, sends ' Bubastes : an 
Historical Study.' It is brilliantly illustrated with de- 
signs of monuments, all of which are now given for the 
first time. Mr. Jefferson's autobiography is pleasantly 
continued. Under the name of Louise Morgan Sill 
appear some lines forcibly recalling Poe. Mr. Henry 
James gives an excellent and a well illustrated account 
of Daumier, the French caricaturist. The grim tragedy 
of the assassination of Lincoln and the subsequent death 
of Booth is told with dramatic effect. Mr. William 
Minto writes in Macmitlan upon ' The New Biography 
of Pope,' speaking favourably of the work in the main, 
but taking exception to portions of the treatment. ' The 
Father of Low German Poetry' deals with the dialect 
poetry of Klaus Groth, the Platt-Deutsch poet, whose 
seventieth birthday has recently been commemorated. 
' Leaves from a Note-Book ' are very interesting. 
' Casanova,' a bold subject for a magazine, is discussed in 
a somewhat restrained fashion in Temple Bar. The early 
portion of Casanova's career alone is, it is needless to 
say, dealt with. ' The Decline of Goethe' is the curious 
title of a not very mature paper. ' The Catastrophe of 
Sedan ' is depicted. Dr. Smiles begins in Murray's a 
dissertation on ' Authors and Publishers.' The ground 
covered is too extensive, but much of interest is said. 
' Madame Schumann and Natalie Janotba ' is compiled 
from the diary, written in Polish, of the late Madame 
Janotha, niece of the pianist. Mr. W. J. Lawrence 
gives in the Gentleman's ' Pantomime in the Far West,' 
which means, of course, in America. The Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould, who has been assiduous of late, writes in charac- 
teristic style on ' The Philosopher's Stone.' The question 
' Who was Robin Hood ? ' is also raised. ' A Realist at 
Work,' by Thomas St. E. Hake, contributed toBelgravia, 
deals with Balzac, and is the only article in the maga- 
zine not belonging to fiction. In the Newbery House 
Mr. Baring-Gould continues his ' Recent Discoveries in 
Christian Archaeology in Rome,' and Mr. A. G. Hill, 
F.S.A., writes on ' The Altar and the Screen.' 'Circuit 
Notes' and 'A Wild Swannery,' in the Cornhill,&re both 
to be commended. As regards both letterpress and en- 
gravings, Sir Frederick Dickson's 'The Straits Settle- 
ments' is the most noticeable of the contents of the 
English Illustrated. A bold experiment is tried by Mr. 
Walter Besant in continuing Ibsen's ' A Doll's House.' 
Mr. Lang's ' Prospective Review,' in Longman's, is very 
happily carried out. ' The Home of Charlotte Bronte ' 
is pleasantlydescribed. Among contributors to Woman's 
World is Mrs. Bancroft. In ' A Summer's Dream,' in 
the New Review, Mr. Swinburne draws nearer to the 
' Triumph of Time ' than he bag done for many years. 
Mr. Gosse writes ' Robert Browning : in Memoriam.' 
Lady Dilke, Mr. Henry James, Mrs. Lynn Linton, Mr. 
Walter Besant, Mr. Hardy, and Mr. Rider Haggard are 
among the contributors. 

THE Bookbinder, No. XXX., gives many admirable 
reproductions of ancient and fine bindings, and a con- 
tinuation of Mr. Quaritch's brief ' History of Decorative 

Binding.' A view, from the Quiver, of Mr. Shore's 
library is curious, as bestowing the name "library" on a 
room apparently almost without books. 

THE Monthly Chronicle of North Country Lore and 
Legend (Walter Scott) maintains worthily its reputation 
as one of the most interesting and valuable of antiquarian 
periodicals. Alnwick Church, Warkworth and Mun- 
caster Castles, and Hebburn Hall are among the places 

THE Rev. John Peake, Vicar of Ellesmere, Shropshire, 
has reprinted, with additions, from Eddowes's Shropshire 
Journal a paper on Ellesmere, with an account of the 
parish church. It supplies much curious and valuable 
information and is liberally illustrated. 

UNDER the editorship of the Rev. J. Charles Cox.LL.D., 
F.S.A., the Antiquary begins a new and improved series. 
It is still published by Mr. Elliot Stock, who also issues 
the Field Club, No. I., a magazine of general natural 
history, and Springtide, an illustrated magazine for 

THE past year has exacted further toll in removing 
from us Frank A. Marshall, a well-known dramatist and 
Shakspearian critic, and a frequent contributor to 'Shak- 
speariana ' and other portions of our columns. More than 
one of Mr. Marshall's dramas displayed very genuine 
ability. His ' Study of Hamlet ' and his edition of the 
' Henry Irving Shakespeare ' are the works by which he 
was best known to our readers. He was born in London 
in 1840, and educated at Harrow and Oxford, and left 
the university without taking a degree. Previous to 
taking up literature as a profession he was six years in 
the Audit Office. His family are well known in York- 
shire and in Cumberland, and have considerable estates 
situated on the English Lakes. William Marshall, his 
father, was M.P. for East Cumberland. Frank Marshall 
was of very amiable and social nature, and will be much 
missed. The origin of his illness was jaundice. He died 
at his residence, 8, Bloomsbury Square, on Saturday last. 

MR. J. M. COWPER promises the ' Registers of the 
Parish of St. Alphage, Canterbury,' being the third of 
the series of "Canterbury Parish Registers" he has 
copied and edited. 

Jlatire* to Carrrgpanttent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

GtJALTERtTLUS (" Barm brack "). A currant bun. A 
corruption of Irish bairigen breac, speckled cake (Dr. 
Murray's ' Dictionary '). 

E. WHITING. Stowe's ' Abridged Summary ' is a work 
of slight pecuniary value. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

S. IX. JAN. 11, '90.] 




CONTENT S . N 211. 

NOTES : Ecclesiatical Antiquities of Berkshire, 21 Shak- 
speariana, 23 Books on Gaming, 24 The Suffix 
"Daughter," 25-Scott and ' Kenilworth 'Paris in 1801, 
26 Hamlet Clerical Culture Reynolds Family Folk- 
Lore, 27. 

QUERIES : Cockle-demois The Virgin Mary Heraldic 
The "Blue-Eyed Maid" Sign Carey Heraldic Punish- 
ments of Ladies The Scene of Caesar's Death, 28 J. P. 
Marat Pantiles Illustration of Holy Communion Tbeale 
Scott Family G. Irwin Lions Be Winter Commerical 
Terms, 29 Sir P. Parravicini Measures Iron Jewellery, 

REPLIES : Old Jokes, 30 St. Mildred's Churches, 31 Stella 
"Humanity" Martin Dictionary Queries Radcliffe 
Bank " Bills," 32 Archdoltes : Foolesopher Heraldic- 
Marat Armorial Bearings Arundel Castle Beauty Sleep, 
33 Tilting Wellington Statue Ste. Nega ' Graduati 
Oxonienses 'Curious Inn Signs, 34" The Rainbow "The 
Wind of a Canon Ball Women executed for Witchcraft- 
Byron and Hoppner, 35 English Friends of Goethe Words 
that are not Wanted Derbyshire History" Four corners 
to my bed" Mistake in 'Dombey and Son,' 36 Tooth- 
brushes " Washing the baby's head "Richardson's Dic- 
tionary 'Confirmation The Bible Platonic Year Turkey- 
Red Dyeing, 37 Carlovingian Legends Clarke Family- 
Death of Husband and Wife Folk-lore A Fool and a 
Physician, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Williamson's Boyne's Trade Tokens ' 
Jacobs's ' Fables of ^Esop.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Though it is now some thirty or forty years since 
the rage for church restoration set in throughout 
the length and breadth of England, and overspread 
the home counties in particular, the practice has 
continued with almost unabated zeal to the present 
day, greatly to the detriment, as many of us have 
learnt when all too late, of the ancient buildings 
in which our forefathers were content to worship. 
Parish has vied with parish in the " thoroughness " 
of the restoration to be undertaken, and where 
funds were most readily forthcoming the work of 
destruction has been the most complete. 

I have before me as I write the reports of the 
Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings 
since its foundation, and melancholy reading each 
one of them presents to all true lovers of ecclesi- 
astical antiquity. It has occurred to me that the 
objects for which that society is striving will appeal 
to many a reader of 'N. & Q.,' and that a brief 
account of the parochial antiquities of this single 
county of Berks as they now exist, and a retrospect 
of what has been done in the way of restoration 
during the last few years may do something to 
arrest the indiscriminate modernization of those 
that still remain to us in an unrestored state. 

When Ashmole visited the county in 1666 he 
took notes of the monumental inscriptions and 

armorial bearings then existing in 120 churches 
and chapels and 16 manor houses. (I quote from 
the original MS. in the Bodleian Library, and not 
from the abridged and imperfect description of the 
county published after his death, in 1719.) There 
were, however, some 50 churches which Ashmole 
did not visit; and the following lists are confidently 
be'ieved to include every ecclesiastical edifice of 
any pretensions to antiquity within the boundaries 
of the county. 

List No. I. contains the names of 40 unrestored 
churches, for which the sympathy of all lovers of 
the past is especially claimed ; List II. the names 
of 100 " restored " churches ; and List III. of 30 
which have been wholly rebuilt in the present 
century. Whilst placing the buildings in List I. 
in the forefront of interest, it is not by any means 
intended to imply that the whole of those in No. 
II. have been despoiled of all their original beau- 
ties during the more or less thorough restoration 
which they have undergone in recent years. So 
far is this from being the case, that, did space 
allow, I could name many instances where nothing 
beyond conservative repair has been attempted 
(Lockinge in the northern, and Warfield in the 
eastern division of the county are good examples 
of reverent and successful treatment); but with 
regard to those in List III., whilst no doubt ad- 
mirably adapted to the requirements of modern 
public worship, it cannot be gainsaid that these are 
at least past praying for. 

I shall be grateful to any correspondent who will 
favour me with additions or corrections in any of 
the three lists, whilst taking this opportunity of 
tendering my best thanks to the many incumbents 
and others who have assisted me in their compila- 

Berkshire Churches which have not been recently restored, 

Aldermaston. E.E. east window. 

Baulking. Early English. 

Boxford. Perpendicular. 

Bucklebury. Norman and Perpendicular work. 

Buscot. Early English chancel. 

Chaddleworth. Norman and Perpendicular work. 

C hallow, East. Good E.E. arches in nave. 

Challow, West. Perpendicular chancel and rood 

Charney. Mixed styles ; some painted glass. 

Coleshill. Mixed styles ; also a good hour-glass stand. 

Compton. Transition Norman. 

Compton-Beauchamp. Decorated chancel. 

Cookham. Early English. 

Coxwell, Little. Very good decorated roof. 

Cumnor. A fine church of mixed styles, with good 
E.E. tower. 

Didcot. Some old painted glass. 

Enborne. Early English chancel. 

Fyfield. Good decorated chancel. 

Goosey. Early English. 

Hampstead-Marshall. Red brick, temp. James I. 

Hatford (disused). Mostly E.E. 

Hinksey, North. Some Norman work. 

Hinksey, South. Good Perpendicular roof. 



[7> S. IX. JAN. 11, '90. 

Hinton-Waldrist. Good E.E. chancel arch. 
Inkpen. A few E.E. windows. 
Letcombe-Regis. Fifteenth century glass. 
Longcot. Good E.E. north doorway. 
Longworth. Plain Perpendicular tower. 
Padworth. Norman. 
Shefford, Little (disused). Perpendicular. 
Shellingford. Fifteenth century glass; E.E. tower. 
Shriven hain. Good Perpendicular tower. 
Sparsholt. A fine decorated church. 
Sulbampstead Abbots. Norman font. 
Sutton-Courtney. Fifteenth century glass and good 

Perpendicular rood screen. 
Tidmarsh. Early English. 
Uffington. Very fine E.E. church. 
Upton. Some Norman work. 
Wantage. Decorated and Perpendicular. 
Yattendon. Perpendicular throughout, about 1450. 
Total 40 unrestored churches. 


Restored Churches in Berkshire, with the Name of the 
Architect employed, and the approximate Date of the 
Last Restoration. 
Abingdon : St. Helen's, 1873, Woodyer : St. Nicholas, 

1881, Dolby. 

Aldworth. 1878, St. Aubyn. 
Appleton. 1883. 

Ardington. 1887, Somers-Clarke and Allin. 
Ashampstead. 1849. 
Ashbury. 1873. 
Aston-Tirrold. 1863, Coleman. 
Aston Upthorpe. 1860, Philip Hardwicb. 
Avington. 1851, liuitei iield, 
Basildon. 1875. 
Beedon. 1882, Dolby. 
Beenham Valence. 1859. 
Besselsleigh. 1788. 
Binfield. 1859. 
Bisham. 1856. 
Blewbury. 1877. 
Bray. 1860, Thomas Wyatt. 
Brightwell. 1858. 
Buckland. 1870. 
Catmore. 1848. 
Chieveley. 1873, Hugall. 
Childrey. 1877. 
Chilton. 1876, Street. 
Cholsey. 1877, Woodyer. 
Clewer. 1858. 
Coxwell, Great. 1882. 
Denchworth. 1856, Street 
Drayton. 1872, Dolby. 
Eaton-Hastings. 1874. 
Englefield. 1857, Scott. 
Faringdon. 1854. 
Farnborough. 1885. 
Finchampstead. 1856. 
Frilsham. 1849. 
Garston, East. 1882. 
Hagbourne. 1-75, Hopkins. 
Hampstead-Norris. 1880. 
Hanney, West. 1880. 
Harwell. 1867. 
Hendred, East. 1861. 
Hendred, West. 1881. 
Hurley. 1852. 
Hurst. 1876. 
Ilsley, East, 1882. 
Ilsley, West. 1881, Dolby. 
Kingston-Bagpuze. 1882, Dolby. 

Kingston-Lisle. 1883. 

Kintbury. 1884, Bodley and Garner. 

Lambourne. 1850. 

Letcombe-Basset. 1882. 

Lockinge. 1886. Allin. 

Lyford. 1875. 

Marlston. 1855, Butterficld. 

Milton. 1851. 

Moreton, North. 1858, Street. 

Moreton, South. 1849. 

Moulsford. 1847, Scott. 

Newbury. 1867, Woodyer. 

Oare. 1852. 

Pangbourne. 1866, Woodman. 

Pusey. Rebuilt in eighteenth century, 1745. 

Radley. 1848. 

Reading : St. Giles, 1873. St. Lawrence, 1868. St. 

Mary, 1883. Grey Friars, 1863, Woodman. 
Remenham. 1870. 
Ruscombe. 1880. 
Sandhurst. 1864. 
Shalbourne. 1873, Bodley. 
Shefford, Great. 1870, Hugall. 
Shinfield. 1857. 
Shottesbrooke. 1852, Street. 
Sonning. 1853. 
Speen. 1860. 

Stanford-Dingley. 1870, Billing. 
Stanford in the Vale. 1851. 
Steventon. 1853, Street. 
Streatley. 1865, Buckeridge. 
Sunningwell. 1877. 
Swallowfield. 1871. 
Thatcham. 1852. 
Wallingford: St. Leonards, 1850, Hake well. St. Mary's 

1854. St. Peter's, rebuilt in 1769. 
Waltham St. Lawrence. 1847 
Warfield. 1876, Street. 
Wargrave. 1848. 
Wasing. 1876. 
Welford. 1886. 

Windsor : St. George's Chapel, 1885. 
Windsor, Old. 1864 
Winkfield. 1888. 
Winterbourne. 1854. 
Wittenham, Little. 1862, 
Wittenham, Long. 1850. 
Wokingbam. 1882. 
Woolstone. 1867. 
Wootton. 1885. Total-100 restored churches. 


Ancient Churches in Berkshire rebuilt during the present 

Century on former Sites. 

Appleford. Rebuilt in 1836 by Scott and Christian, 
riarkham. 1862. 
Bradfield. 1843, Scott. 
Brimpton. 1869. 
Burghfield. 1843. 
Easthampstead. 1867, Hugall. 
Garford. 1880, Dolby. 
Hungerford. 1814. 
Marcham. 1839. 
Peasemore. 1842. 
Purley. 1870. 
Shaw. 1840. 
Sotwell. 1884. 
Stratfield-Mortimer. 1869. 
Sulham. 1838. 
Sunninghill. 1827. 
Tilehurst 1856. 
Ufton. 1862. 

7"" S. IX. JAN. 11, '90.J 



West Woodhay. 1882. 
White Waltham. 1868. 
Wickham. 1849, Ferrey. 
Windsor : St. John Baptist. 1822. 
Woolhampton. 1861. 
Wytham. 1811. 

Old Churches rebuilt on new Sites. 

Midgham. Total 30 rebuilt churchea. 

Tower Hill, Ascot, Berks. 


TION" (7 th S. vi. 342; vii. 302; viii. 103). Let 
me primarily meet MR. GRAY'S answer to my ob- 
jections : 

1. He misrepresents me. I did not say (what- 
ever I might think) that motion in " the drama- 
tists " does not mean " automaton." I only asked 
for the proof that it does so, if it does. MR. 
GRAY does not realize that he is the offender, and 
not I. He asserted that "the word motion is 
sufficiently common in the dramatists in the sense 
of puppet, automaton." It is his business, as ad- 
vancing a new theory, to prove his premises. 
References to " the dramatists " in the lump are 
not what ' N. & Q.' requires. Specific examples 
are needed. I asked for them, and I ask again. 

MR. GRAY has submitted his proof. Let us 
consider it. His allusion to the dramatists is, so 
far, much more cry than wool. Their solid phalanx 
is reduced to a passage from Ben Jonson and 
that useless for its purpose. The motions in a great 
antique clock are not automata. Gifford, in his 
edition of Ben Jonson, explains them as " puppets," 
moved by the pendulum. MR. GRAY misconceives 
what an automaton is. He speaks of the hand of 
a clock as if it were one (vL 343). Neither the 
hands of a clock nor the puppets that sometimes 
indicate the hour are automata. An automaton 
moves of itself. Hence a clock is an automaton; 
but its hands or other external parts of its machinery 
are in no true sense automata. 

2. My critic's second note is very wide of the 
mark. I know that Shakespeare uses " motion " 
with widely various meaning in all kinds of situa- 
tions. He does so nearly ninety times. But in 
its Punch and Judy sense he never does so, save 
jestingly, and I asked if it was a fit symbol of a 
man. That point MR. GRAY evades. All I have 
seen confirms Johnson, whose 'Dictionary' (ed. 
Todd, 1818) has one definition of our word thus : 
"A puppet, and in a sense of contempt." That 
sense of contempt has already been illustrated from 
Shakespeare. It is not a whit contradicted by Ben 
Jonson's 'Cynthia's Revels' (very end of Act I.) 

or his ' Tale of a Tub ' (Act V. sc. v.). Nor does 
Dr. Murray's great ' Dictionary,' voce "Automaton," 
in the slightest affect that position. It rather con- 
firms it than otherwise, for the examples are all 
late, and almost every one of them conveys a note 
of detraction. But in any view they are not in 

I claim that MR. GRAY has given absolutely no 
proof that motion means " automaton." He must 
prove that unequivocally, and explain away the 
sense of contempt, if his suggestion is to have a 
hearing at all. 

3. To say the living body is an automaton is a 
metaphor, as my critic tells me. To say the dead 
body is a kneaded clod is another metaphor. Con- 
join them, and the result is the clumsiest mixture. 
Who ever heard of an automaton, a machine, warm 
or cold, being turned into moulded earth ? If that 
is not mixed metaphor, I shall confess that it de- 
serves a worse name. 

As regards the word move, I call it a verb of mo- 
tion. It may be active, or intransitive, or reflexive, 
"only this and nothing more." I see no difficulty 
whatever. ' Timon,' I. i. 45, is reflexive; ' Macbeth,' 
IV. ii. 22, is intransitive. ' Othello,' IV. ii. 55, is 
not very intelligible, whether it be read " unmov- 
ing " or u and moving." Either way move is an in- 
transitive verb. 

The " sensible warm motion " is in no need of 
this wooden automaton to explain it. I need not 
restate my argument (vii. 303) that motion im- 
plied an idea of living flesh and blood. Stormonth's 
'Diet.,' 1884, defines it, "Animal life and action." 
The 'Imperial Diet.,' 1882, says, "The senses or 
perceptive faculties collectively." Shakespeare him- 
self uses it with such a significance. He speaks in 
' Othello ' (I. ii. 75) of 

Drugs and minerals that weaken motion. 

In ' Cymbeline ' (II. iv. 85) he tells of carvings so 
exquisite that life alone was lacking only 

Motion and breath left out. 

These passages confirm the dictionaries. Sensible, 
warm motion is, in short, little other than "con- 
scious, active, moving life." It is not amiss to say 
that death turns life to clay that sensible warm 
motion becomes a kneaded clod. 

Moreover, sense and motion have long been 
linked together in literature. We saw that in 
Milton (quoted vii. 303). Shakespeare, though 
with another meaning, speaks of " motions of the 
sense " (' Measure for Measure,' I. iv. 59). But 
before Milton and before Shakespeare, Marlowe 
(' Tamburlaine,' part i., Act V. sc. i.), had drawn 
the image of a dead king and queen thus : 

No breath nor sense nor motion in them both. 
Another of Shakespeare's contemporaries, Lord 
Herbert of Cherbury ('Autobiog.,' ed. Ward & Lock, 
p. 32), said," Wisdom is the soul of all virtues, 
giving them as unto her members life and motion." 


[7 th S. IX. JAN. 11, '90. 

And his brother, George Herbert, in a verse run- 
ning strangely parallel with the words of Claudio 
says, in his address to Death (' Temple,' facsimile 
1882, p. 180) : 

For we consider d tbee as at some six 

Or ten years hence 
After the losse of life and sense 
Flesh being turned to dust, and bones to sticks. 

How the ideas of sense and motion and life inter- 
link! In Shakespeare motion has many meanings, 
free from the taint of contempt attaching to its 
" puppet " sense. That for which I argue does not 
preclude a double interpretation uniting the ideas 
of "movement" and "life." To me it appears 
quite adequate, natural, and intelligible. 

I have no desire to push the controversy further. 
When MR. GRAY has replied to this all too lengthy 
note is he willing to accept the finding of the 
majority of a jury of contributors, selected by the 
Editor, who shall himself be foreman and formu- 
late the deliverance ? GEO. NEILSON. 


Cam. I have loved thee, 

Leon. fMake that thy question, and go rot 1 

I. ii. 324-5. 

Leontes was so indignant that Camillo had dared 
to doubt the truth of his accusation, that, deaf 
with passion, he did not so much as hear the inter- 
rupted sentence, " I have loved thee. " Replying 
not to it, but to what had preceded, he burst in with, 
" Make that thy question, and go rot," i. e., If you 
dare to question the truth of my accusation you 
may go rot. 

Good expedition be my friend, and comfort 

fThe gracious queen, part of his theme, but nothing 

Of his ill-ta'en suspicion. I. ii. 458-460. 

I read : 

Good expedition be my friend, and comfort 

The gracious queen's part of this theme, but noting 

Of his ill-ta'en suspicion. 

May good expedition deliver me from the threatened 
danger ; and may comfort be the gracious queen's 
part in this sad affair, if she but note his ill-ta'en 

My good Camillo, 

She ia as forward of her breeding as 
fShe is i' the rear our birth. IV. iv. 590-2. 

The First Folio has an apostrophe before " our," 
marking the elision of " of." This should be re- 
stored. The meaning plainly is, She is as much 
before (or above) us in breeding as she is behind 
(or below) us in birth. A better division of the 
lines would be : 

Flo. My good Camillo, 

She 's as forward of her breeding as she is 
I' the rear 'our birth. 

Cam. I cannot say 'tis pity, &c. 

"Thinkest thou, for that I insinuate or ftoaze from 
thee thy business, I am therefore no courtier." IV. iy. 

The First Folio has " at toaze," and I am surprised 
that the " at " has not been followed as the clue to 
the true reading, " Thinkest thou, for that I in- 
sinuate at ease from thee thy business," &c. Once 
pointed out, I think it will commend itself, and 
that " toaze " will tease no more. 
No more such wives ; therefore, no wife : one worse. 
And better used would make her sainted spirit 
Again possess her corpse, and on this stage, 
Where we 're offenders now, appear soul-vex'd, 
fAnd begin, " Why to me 1 "-V. i. 56-60. 

I much prefer the reading in the First Folio : 

No more such wives, therefore no wife : one worse 
And better used, would make her sainted spirit 
Again possess her corps, and on this stage 
( Where we offenders now appear) soul-vext, 
And begin, why to me ? 

Their appearance on the stage did not make them 
offenders. They were offenders, as all men are, in 
the sight of Heaven. The reading in the Globe 
gives the former false sense ; the reading in the 
Folio the true one. "Appear" must be under- 
stood as repeated, thus : 

One worse, 

And better used, would make her sainted spirit 
Again possess her corps, and on this stage 
(Where we offenders now appear) appear soul-vext. 

We have a similar construction in ' King Lear,' 
IV. vi. 265 : 

To know our enemies' minds, we 'Id rip their hearts. 
(To rip) their papers is more lawful. 

The only change I make is in the punctuation of 
the last line/ which I present thus: 
And begin " Why 1 " to me. 

All were offenders before Heaven. Leontes alone 
had sinned against Hermione. To him alone, were 
she to appear, would she (thought he) address her 
reproach. The one word "Why?" would be 
enough to overwhelm him with shame. Having 
uttered this one word, Hermione, as she continued 
to look on him in reproachful silence, would seem 
to him to say, " Why this kindness to another; 
why such unkindness to me ? " 


P.S. There are two unsavoury obeli on which I 
have not commented : II. i. 134, " I '11 keep my 
stables," on which see Dr. Ingleby's ' Shakespeare 
Sermeneutics,' p. 76 ; and II. i. 143, " land- 
damn," on which see Hanmer. 


(Continued from 7 th S. viii. 483.) 

Returning to our author, we find him bringing 

out his eleventh edition, undated, with the follow- 

ng half-title : " Mr. Hoyle's | Games | Complete. 

| Price 3s. bound." On the verso of this is the 

' Advertisement " and " To the Reader," as usual, 

T* s. ix.jAH.ii t 9o.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


signed by"Tho: Osborne " (autogr.). Following 
this is the title : 

Mr. Hoyle's | Games | of Whist, Quadrille, Piquet, 
Chess, and Back-Gammon, | Complete. | In which are 
contained, | The Method of Playing and Betting, | at 
Those Games, upon equal, or ad- | vantageous Terms. | 
Including also, | the Laws of the several Games. | The 
Eleventh Edition. | London : | Printed for Thomas Os- 
borne, at Gray's Inn ; | James Hodges, near London- 
Bridge; and | Richard Baldwin, in Pater-noster-row. 

The autograph signature of Edmond Hoyle appears 
at the foot of this title ; the verso is blank. 12mo.; 
3 ff. prelim, (including first f. of contents) ; A in 
sixes ; B to I in twelves ; K in eights. " The 
Contents " occupy pp. xii ; then comes the sub- 
title of whist, practically the same as tliat of the 
tenth edition, barring slight typographical differ- 
ences, down to the word " Gent." The next line 
of the former title is here omitted, and the edition 
is not specified. After "Gent.," "The Laws of 
the Game," &c., down to "not hitherto published," 
follow as before, the rest being cancelled. The 
verso of this sub-title is blank. Then follows the 
whist treatise, 81 pp., with blank verso of p. 81. 
Quadrille comes next, the same as before, except 
that the sub- title bears the words "The Third 
Edition. | By Edmond Hoyle, Gent."; verso blank; 
then pp. 85-111, verso of 111 being blank, that 
is, pp. 30, including title. Then comes piquet 
and chess, third edition, title as before, down to 
"Gent.," where it ends; verso blank; then pp. 
115-164, that is, 52 pp., including title. Next 
follows backgammon, with title the same as before, 
down to " Laws of the Game." Then comes "The 
Fourth Edition. | By Edmond Hoyle, Gent."; 
verso blank ; then pp. 167-208, that is, 44 pp., 
including title. (H.H.G., H.J., and J.M.) At 
foot of p. 208 there is a list of errata, for the first 
time. This shows a little increased care on the 
part of the editor. Moreover, the misprints of 
15 for 14, and " take" for make, in law 3 of back- 
gammon, noticed supra, are in this issue at length 

We now come to the twelfth edition (A), which 
appeared, undated (1761), with the following 
title : 

Mr. Hoyle's | Games | of | Whist, | Quadrille, | 
Piquet, | Chess, | and | Back-Gammon. | Complete. | In 
which are contained, | The Method of Playing and Bet- 
I ting, at those Games, upon equal, | or advantageous 
Terms. | Including | The Laws of the several Games. 
The Twelfth Edition. | To which is now first added, 
Two New Cases at Whist, never before printed ; | also 
The New Laws of the Game at Whist, | As Played at 
White's and Saunders's Chocolate- Houses. | London : 
Printed for Thomas Osborne, in Gray's- Inn; | Stanley 
Crowder, at the Looking-Glass, and | Richard Baldwin, 
at the Rose, in Pater-noster-Row. | [Price Three Shil- 
lings, neatly bound.} 

Hoyle's autograph signature is at foot ; on verso 
is that of Tho. Osborne. This edition was adver- 
tised in the London Chronicle } M&rch2Q-28, 1761, 

as "This day published, Beautifully printed 

on a fine Paper, in a small genteel Pocket Volume, 
Price only 3s. neatly bound," &c. [This advertise- 
ment contains also the announcement of the essay 
on chess and the essay on chances, each " Price 
2s. 6d. sewed"; and this part of the advertisement 
was repeated in the London Chronicle, December 
20-22, &c., 1764, with the addition of " 2. edition." 
In the table of contents, p. iv, under chap, xxii., 
note : " The Old Laws relating to the Game (which 
are | also continued for the Use of those who don't 
| chuse to play by the New)." " New Oases at 
Whist, never publish'd 'till 1760," are given, p. 64; 
and, p. 66, the "New Laws at Whist, &c., 1760." 
12mo. ; title, If.; A in sixes ; B to I in twelves ; 
K in eights ; L in twos ; and 1 f. added. Whist 
fills the first 86 pp., after which quadrille (fourth 
edition) extends to p. 115 (verso blank) ; piquet 
and chess (fourth edition) to p. 168 ; and back- 
gammon (fifth edition) to p. 212. At foot of the 
last page is a note of an erratum which is still un- 
corrected, though noted in the list of errata at the 
end of the preceding edition. Then comes an 
added leaf, pp. 213 and 214, on which are " Two 
New Cases at Whist, | Added since this Book was 
printed off," and a list of errata, including the one 
above mentioned and several more. (J.M.) This 
edition was reprinted (B) without the signatures 
(autogr.) of author and publisher on the face and 
back of the title; but they are printed on the verso, 
as before, at the end of the "Advertisement." 
" To the Header " is omitted, and the first page of 
"Contents" is numbered iii. The "Two New 
Cases " appear on pp. 213 and 214, but not the 
list of errata, for the errata have been revised in 
the book. This shows it to have been printed 
later than the former (A) issue. (B.M. and H.J.) 
In another variation (C), on larger paper, the 
author's and publisher's (autogr.) signatures and 
the errata are again wanting, and the lines of 
ornament at the top of pp. 212, 213, are omitted. 

(To be continued.) 

THE SUFFIX "DAUGHTER." In the 'Diary of 
the Rev. John Mill ' (parish minister of Dunross- 
ness, in Shetland, from 1743 to 1803), published a 
few months ago by the Scottish History Society, 
I find the following names, which may be worth 
noting: Andrewsdaughter, Charlesdaughter, Gil- 
bertsdaughter, Hendriesdaughter, Laurencedaugh- 
ter, Mansdaughter,* Robertsdaughter, Sanders- 
daughter, Thomasdaughter, Williamsdaughter. 

I do not know of any other part of Great Britain 
where the suffix daughter is (or was) used in a 
family name. To most English-speaking people 
it would sound rather odd if, on going into a house, 

* A contraction for Magnusdaughter, as Manson is a 
contraction for Magnusson. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. r_7> s. ix. JAN. n, -90. 

a boy were to be asked " What is your name ? " to 
have the reply Peter Williamson, but when the 
boy's sister was asked a similar question to be 
told that her name was Annie Williamsdaughter. 
I presume the practice has now fallen into disuse, 
and that in Shetland, as in other parts of the king- 
dom, the sons and daughters in a family are known 
at the present day by their father's surname only. 
In the Gaelic-speaking part of the Highlands, how- 
ever, a different prefix to the father's, or family 
name, is still used to distinguish sons from daugh- 
ters, viz., Mac and Nic for example, Mac Aoidh 
and Nic Aoidh (son and daughter of Aoidh, or 
lye), Mac Dhomhnuil and Nic Dhomhnuil (son 
and daughter of Donald) ; and yet in English both 
sons and daughters would be called Mackay and 
Macdonald. Here the Gaelic undoubtedly has an 
advantage over the English system. 


anecdote illustrating Sir Walter Scott's accuracy 
with regard to local details may be worth pre- 
serving perhaps the more so that in the same 
novel, ' Kenilworth,' he falsifies history by making 
the Earl of Leicester's marriage with Amy Robsart 
secretand unacknowledged, while it was celebrated, 
I believe, at her father's house, and certainly with 
his knowledge and consent. He must have been 
at some pains in making inquiries with regard to 
the neighbourhood of Cumnor Hall and parish. 

It will be remembered that the low ruffian of 
the book was Mike Lambourne. About the year 
1818 or 1819 my mother was a constant visitor at 
Oumnor Vicarage, and by overhearing one Dick 
Lambourne and another fellow planning the murder 
of her uncle, the vicar, was the means of saving 
his life. I believe that Mr. Slatter was a magis- 
trate, and had sent him to gaol for poaching or 
some other delinquency. Shortly after his abortive 
attempt to murder my great-uncle he was trans- 
ported, for sheep-stealing, I think. Even in my 
day there were Lambournes at Cumnor, a wild, 
reckless lot, with gipsy blood in their veins. 

The " Bear and Ragged Staff," however, was Sir 
Walter's own invention, the present sign to the 
little inn being the gift of some enthusiastic under- 
graduates of Oxford. Cumnor Hall was pulled 
down by Lord Abingdon the year before ' Kenil- 
worth ' came out. 

In ' Ivanhoe ' Scott makes Richard I. return to 
England in secret, the fact being that he returned 
in a sort of triumphant procession, with many 
foreigners in his train. 


St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

WESTON. More than sixteen years ago (4 a S. xi. 
394) a question was asked in ' N. & Q.' which, so 
far as I know, has remained unanswered to the 

present day, regarding the authorship of the fol- 
lowing work : 

A Rough Sketch of Modern Paris; or. Letters on 
Society, Manners, Public Curiosities, and Amusements 
in that Capital, written during the last two months of 
1801 and the first five of 1802. London : Printed for J. 
Johnson, in St. Paul's Churchyard. 1803. 

A copy of the second edition of this book which 
is in my possession gives the name of "J. G. 
Lemaistre, Esq.," on the title-page as the author, 
and I am desirous of learning any particulars re- 
specting that gentleman which may be within the 
knowledge of the readers of ' N. & Q.' He was 
evidently a person who moved in good society, and 
was well informed in matters of art and literature, 
but was apparently affected with that spirit of 
British prudishness which, so long as the outward 
forms of respectability are observed, does not con- 
cern itself overmuch with the essentials of things. 
In 1801 manners in Paris were the subject of a 
strong reaction, and it was erroneous, as well as 
uncharitable, to gauge them by the standard of an 
English country house. But to those who are 
willing to make allowance for Mr. Lemaistre's 
insular views (for which, indeed, he apologizes in 
his preface), and who are interested in perusing 
history by the side-lights thrown on it by society, 
this volume will afford an hour or two of excellent 
reading. It does not seem to have had a wide 
circulation, as, although my copy, which is in the 
original boards, is entitled the " second edition," 
it is easy to see that the only new portions of the 
book are the title, the preface to the second edi- 
tion, and a page of errata at the end. In this 
preface the writer is not quite ingenuous, for he 
alludes to the "rapid sale" of the first edition, 
and apologizes for the typographical errors found 
in it, which " he can only correct in that which is 
now issued by means of an errata." If the volume 
had been really a second impression, there would 
have been no difficulty in making the necessary 
corrections in the text. But the cut sheets and 
the leaves pasted in too clearly reveal the true 
state of the case. 

I am also anxious to learn something of the 
author of another book which was published at the 
same time, and which bears in some respects a 
strong resemblance to Mr. Lemaistre's volume. 
This is entitled 

The Praise of Paris : or, a Sketch of the French 
Capital; in Extracts of Letters from France, in the 
Summer of 1802 ; with an Index of many of the Con- 
vents, Churches, and Palaces, not in the French Cata- 
logues, which have furnished Pictures for the Louvre 
Gallery. By S. W., F R.S., F.S.A. London: Printed 
by and for C. and R. Baldwin, New Bridge-street. 1803. 

The writer of this book was Stephen Weston, a 
list of whose classical and antiquarian works fills 
two columns of Bohn's edition of Lowndes. He 
was the namesake, and perhaps the descendant, of 
an eighteenth- century Bishop of Exeter, and, to 

7 th 8. IX. JAN. 11, '0.] 


judge from this book, was a virtuoso of the Horace 
Walpole type, with a pretty taste for pictures, 
books, and medals. His antiquarian knowledge 
was, perhap?, behind even his age, as he begins 
his book by stating that " Paris is derived from 
Par Isis, because it was built near the famous 
temple of that goddess, not far from the site of the 
Abbey of Saint Germain des Pre^s." The frontis- 
piece to the book is an etching of the goddess Isis. 
But although as an archaeologist he may have had 
something to learn, his little book is vividly 
written, and his descriptions are as clearly cut as 
a cameo. The following extract, which I will ask 
the permission of the Editor to quote, comprises a 
whole chapter, and affords a very fair speci- 
men of his style, to say nothing of its intrinsic 
interest : 

" As long aeo as Addison's time the Parisian milliners 
were in the habit of sending to the famous Madame 

, in Leicester- fields, a doll completely equipped in 

the fashionable robe of the day. The Marchandet des 
Modes in the Palais Royal improve upon this, for they 
dress up a living idol, and lend it to walk round and 
round the garden till all admire it. Many a lady makes 
ter fortune by being a proper peg to hang clothes upon. 
At the opera last night, in the saloon, between the acts, 
I saw several English who had been at Madame 
Recamier's at Clichy to breakfast magnificently at one 
o'clock, and after that they amused themselves as they 
liked, with hunting and shooting, and there was a cry 
for two hours of more fusils, more cabriolets, more 
horses, till every one was served. Madame Recamier 
came the other night to Fraecati, and was followed, I 
believe I told you in a former letter, like the Gunnings 
in St. James's Park. The print, however, made of her 
in England for half a guinea, and sold here (having been 
copied exactly) for half a crown, is the portrait of a 
beauty of Windsor or Hampton Court, and no resem- 
blance of Madame Recamier, who has, as you know, 
something of the Chinese in her countenance, which is 
not much like European features." 

Poor Madame Recamier little suspected that 
the lynx-like eye of a Fellow of the Royal 
Society was engaged in detecting the Mongolian 
in her lovely face. When the private diaries 
of our modern sons of science come to be 
revealed, shall we find similar entries, I wonder, 
concerning the beauties who fill the shop win- 
dows of South Audley Street and the Burling- 
ton Arcade, or the latest modes which the famous 

Monsieur transmits to his fair clients from 

Paris? W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Jaipur, Rajputana. 

It is a well-known fact that 'Hamlet' is the longest 
of Shakespeare's plays, yet, according to Fleay's 
'Shakespeare Manual' (Macmillan, 1878, p. 136), 
' Anthony and Cleopatra ' usurps that position with 
3,964 lines, as against 3,924 attributed to 'Hamlet.' 
A young lady carefully counted the lines in the 
former play, which amounted to 3,083 lines, which, 
if correct, would again place ' Hamlet ' at the head 
of the poll. MORRIS JONAS. 


ENTURY. A Lincolnshire clergyman has lent me 
a letter, of which I send a transcript herewith. It 
was written to the father of the gentleman to 
whom it now belongs. As a specimen of the 
clerical ignorance of former days it is very striking. 
3ne wonders, after reading a document of this kind, 
which might be paralleled by many other ex- 
amples, what amount of ignorance was considered 
as a bar to ministration in the Established 

Church : 

Feb. 5. 1797. 

REVERENT SIR, I give you this notes that i can give 
no more then 20 gines, the ould stipend for sarven my 
curecy of South lofman from the 29 March next. I beg 
your ancer to Sir, your ombel Sarvent 

[Address] Revd Mr Bateman Baredwon. 

"Bared won" is intended to represent Barrowden, 
in the county of Rutland, and " South lofman " 
signifies South Luffenham, in the same shire. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

REYNOLDS FAMILY. The annexed fragmentary 
account of this family is found in a MS. ' Book of 
Precedents of the Royal Peculiar Court of the 
Deanery of Bridgnorth, co. Salop,' dating from 
1730 : 

"John Reignolds and Martha his Wife had Issue 
Martha, Mary, Ann, Jane, Elianor, John, Samuel, 
Thomas, ffrancis and Elizabeth. 

" Martha Marryed one William Haslewood of Stour- 
bridge and she is Dead and left two Children Susannah 
and William Dyed at Stourbridge. 

" Mary Marryed Samuel Perrey and are both Dead at 
London and Left several Children (viz.) Ann, Samuel 
and Joseph. 

" Ann Marryed Mathew Rowley at Colebatch and is 

"Jane Marryed Tho 1 Hickmans of Stourbridge and is 
now Living. 

" Elianor Marryed John Jones and is know Living. 

" John Dyed in the parish of Lydbury and left Issue 
one son John the Minor. 

"Samuel Dyed at Belbroughton in Com. Worcester 
and left Issue John now with ffrancis and several other 

" Thomas Dyed without Issue. 

"ffrancis is Living in the parish of Stctesdon and has 

" Elizabeth marryed Martin Rushbury Clerk and Dyed 
without Issue at London. 
" Martha Reighnolds is still Living." 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

On December 20, 1889, I was summoned by 
one of my parishioners, at Allerston, to baptize a 
child, which during the previous night had bad a 
convulsion fit. On inquiring of the mother what 
she had done to bring the child round and t 
prevent a recurrence of a similar attack, she said 
that she had rubbed the palms of the child s hande 



[7 th S. IX. JAN. 11, '0. 

with a raw onion ; that she had been recommended 
to do this by a neighbour ; that she certainly 
thought it had done the child good ; and that it 
had not had a second fit. I am not aware that any 
notice of this remedy for such form of seizure in- 
cidental to children has appeared in ' N. & Q.,' so 
I venture to send these particulars, as they may be 
of some interest to many of its readers. 

Ebberston Vicarage, York. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

COCKLE-DEMOIS. I should be glad of an ex- 
planation of this term as used in the following 
past-age. I suppose it has been investigated by 
some editor: 

"Next marcht a mock-Maske of Baboons attir'd 

&c all horst with Asses & dwarfe Palfries, with 

yellow foot & casting Cockle- demois about in 
courtesie, by way of lardges." 1613, Chapman, ' Maske 
of the Inns of Court' (' Plays,' 1873), vol. iii. p. 91. 



Dn. MURRAY is doubtless aware that Cockledemoy 
is the name of a character in Scott's translation of 
' Gaetz von Berlichingen.'] 

THE VIRGIN MART. If it is within the pro- 
vince of 'N. & Q.' to admit such an inquiry, I 
should be much obliged to any of your clerical 
contributors if they could direct me to an authority 
of the early Church where the parentage of the 
Virgin Mary is given, or furnish me with any in- 
formation on the subject. The Messianic genea- 
logy of the gospels is that of Joseph, not of his 
wife. A. W. B. 

HERALDIC. What families have a horse's head 
for a crest? F. G. 

THE " BLUE-EYED MAID " SIGN. I believe the 
only public-house in London bearing this sign is 
at No. 173, Borough High Street, Southwark. I 
should be glad to know the date of its erection and 
why so called, and any particulars respecting its 
history. J. K. D. 

CAREY : BUTLER. What connexion existed 
between the Careys, Lords Hunsdon, and the 
Butlers, Earls of Ormonde ? The latter bear the 
quarterings of Carrick, viz., the swan on a chief 
gules, and in addition they bear the supporter on 
the sinister side, and the motto precisely as that 
borne by the Lord Hunsdon, viz., Supporter, a 
male griffin argent, armed, ducally gorged and 
chained or. Motto, " Cornine je trouve." From 
this seal one would infer that the house of Carrick 

in Ireland and Carey of " Smeeton Hall," Essex, 
England, are identical. James Butler, second 
Earl of Ormond, held this manor in 1382 ; also 
James, third earl ; JameSj fourth ; and James, 
fifth earl, who was also Earl of Wiltshire. 
Thomas, the younger brother of James, Earl of 
Wiltshire, had been attainted, but restored by the 
first Parliament of Henry VII. He married Anne, 
daughter and coheiress of Sir Rd. Haukford, 
Knt., by whom he had two daughters, coheiresses, 
Ann, married Sir James St. Leger ; and Margaret, 
married to Sir William Bullen, K.B. He had by 
her Sir Thomas Bullen, in 1525 created Baron and 
Viscount Rochford, and in 1527 Earl of Wilts and 
Ormonde. On his decease, in 1538, he left by 
Lady Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Thomas, 
Duke of Norfolk, George ; Anne, second queen of 
Henry VIII. ; and Mary, married to William 
Carey, by whom she bore Henry, Lord Hunsdon. 
George Bullen, Viscount Rochford, was beheaded 
in 1536. Sir John Cary, Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer in the reign of Richard II., and banished 
to Ireland, was not the son (as has been erroneously 
stated) of Sir William Cary, but of Sir John Cary, 
Knt., bailiff of the forest of Selwood, in Wiltshire. 
Are the Butlers of Ireland descended from the Le 
Bouteilliers of Normandy ? Haimon le Bouteillier 
(cup-bearer) de Albini (see Arundel) was Count 
of Sussex. Robertus le Bouteillier was cup-bearer 
to Ranulpb, Earl of Chester. T. W. CAREY. 

HERALDIC. Fairbairn's ' Crests ' gives a dove 
and olive branch to the names of Allardice and of 
Allen of Creselly, co. Pembroke. Were there any 
Aliens near London in the last century who had 
such a crest ? Particulars requested. 


Sunderland Road, Forest Hill. 

feel much obliged if any of your readers could 
refer me to the original sources of information as 
to the punishment of the following ladies : Mile. 
De Limeuil (maid of honour in France), Madame 
De Linncourt, Madame De Biron, Madame La- 
mothe, Mile. Theroigne de Mericourt, Mile. Du- 
inont, Madame Lapouchin, Madame Bestuschen, 
Countess Orloff, Madame Remuth and her friends, 
Mile. Bogdanow (or Bogdanova), Madame De 
Maderspach, Mile. Doris Ritter (tiiend of Frede- 
rick the Great. Is there any account of the 
execution of her sentence, or was it remitted ?), 
Miss Anne Burden (Quakeress), Miss Nash, Mrs. 
Twitchell, and Miss Josephine Foster (of Cam- 
bridge, U.S.). EMILY MILLAR. 

killed in the Roman Senate. The Senate's meet- 
ing was not in the Capitol, but in a building which 
Suetonius ( 88) calls a curia, and which Plutarch 
distinguishes from the Capitol, and so describes as 

7 th S. IX. JAN. 11, '90.] 



to show that it was the Pompeian Curia (Caes., 
66, 67). So Cicero, 'De Divina,' ii. 9. But 
Shakespeare speaks of the death as in the Capitol. 
Indeed, Chaucer fell into the same mistake. He 
says (I. 8316) : 

And in the Capitoil anoon him bent 
This false Brutus and his other foon, 
And sticked him with boydekins anoon. 

How far back can the blunder be traced ; and how 
could it have originated ? JAMES D. BUTLER. 
Madison, Wis., U.S. 

JEAN PAUL MARAT. In the year 1774 Marat 
resided in Edinburgh, where he taught the French 
language. What induced him to go to Scotland ? 
How long did he remain there ? Did he study at 
the University of Edinburgh ? Did he ever visit 
England? Details of any kind concerning his 
sojourn on British soil and his connexion with us 
will be welcome. 

Should any of your readers be the fortunate 
possessors of copies of " An Essay on a Singular 
Disease of the Eyes, by M. M****"; of an 'Essay 
on Gleets'; or of ' The Chains of Slavery'; any 
other edition, in English, than that of "London: 
J. Almon;T. Payne; and Richardson & Urquhart, 
MDCCLXXIV.," I should be grateful if they would 
allow me to inspect them. Neither is in the British 
Museum. H. S. ASHBEE. 

53, Bedford Square, W.C. 

PANTILES. Is the name of this famous Tun- 
bridge Wells walk derived from the tiles with 
which it was paved, or those which roofed the 
covered part of it ? Those in favour of the first 
derivation point to a few flat square tiles forming 
part of the pavement near the post office, and tell 
us that these are some of the pantiles in question, 
still in situ. In favour of the other derivation it 
is stated that pantiles had a ridge at right angles 
to the plane of the tiles, and therefore must have 
been used only for roofing ; moreover, that Eng- 
lish literature abounds in phrases referring to 
Tunbridge Wells such as "Let us take a walk 
under the pantiles." Can your correspondents 
help with information to decide the question ? 
Local guide-books afford none. THORNFIELD. 

reader of ' N. & Q.' kindly tell me the date and 
title of an English Roman Catholic book of devo- 
tion, which has on p. 466, 

"Herefolloweth a Devout Meditation to be saied before 
the receiuinge of the blessed Sacrament of the Aultar, to 
fltirre vp in our sowles a feare and loue of this most 
Holie Sacrament. ' Who art thou, my lorde, and who 
am I, that I shoulde be so bolde, as to approche vnto 
thee ? ' " 

Above this, at the top of the page, is a curious 
picture, representing a priest, in chasuble, &c., 
administering the Eucharist to six persons at two 
low movable rails, placed at right angles to one 

another. A gentleman (in Elizabethan or Jacobean 
dress) holds one of the bearing-candlesticks or 
torches. On the altar there is no gradine, but two 
burning tapers, book on cushion, paten with Host, 
chalice, and on the south end two cruets, appa- 
rently of glass. All the communicants hold 
rosaries. CHR. WORDSWORTH. 

inform me when this was formed ? It does not 
appear in Domesday, and the village which gives 
its name to the hundred is in the parish of Tile- 
hurst, which is in the hundred of Reading. 

A. A. H. 

SCOTT FAMILY. To what clan or family belong 
the Scotts of East Lothian, who joined the Pre- 
tender and were afterwards proscribed ? I should 
also like to know if a list of those proscribed is in 
existence; and where it can be seen. POKER. 

GYLES IRWIN. I should be glad to obtain the 
names of any of Irwin's works which were pub- 
lished in India. See 4 th S. xi. 34. 

G. F. R. B. 

LIONS WILD IN EUROPE. In recently re-read- 
ing ' Memoirs of Madame Junot ' I find mentioned 
a visit of the then First Consul to the Museum of 
Natural History (recently opened in Paris) where 
was a lioness caught in the neighbourhood of 
Constantinople. Can this be correct? Have 
lions been found in Europe in a wild state within 
historic times ? CHARLES J. HILL. 


is a tradition in a branch of the Matson family 
that a Robert Matson, of Borden, in Kent, married 
a daughter of Admiral De Winter, the Dutch naval 
commander at Camperdown. I shall be glad of 
proof of this statement. HARDRIC MORPHYN. 

I have lately discovered some curious manu- 
scripts and accounts relating to the slave trade 
early in the eighteenth century, and should feel 
greatly obliged to any reader of ' N. & Q.' ac- 
quainted with the commercial phraseology of that 
period for his assistance in explaining them. Two 
of the documents are lists of the goods put on 
board vessels bound to the African coast, with the 
view of purchasing therewith cargoes of slaves. 
The following are some of the items : 

250 paper brawles at 5*. 6d., 681. 15s. 

50 blew Byrampants, 501. 

100 large Niccanees, SQL 

100 small do. 601. 

100 cotton Romals, 601. 

30 Photeas, 201. 

5 cwt. Neptunes, 22 in. in the bottom, 40f. 

15 cwt. Monelas, 561. 

The above are all in one cargo. The second mani- 
fest also contains a quantity of "papered brawles, 



[7 th S. IX. JAN. 11, '0. 

" Niccanees," " Romals," and " Photeas," and has 
the following in addition : 

60 Bejuta pants at 18s., 541. 

60 Blew Cafts at 20*., 601. 

19 Cushlacs at 15s. 6d. t W. Us. 6d. 

2,000 Rangoes, 121. 

50 blew papered Sectias, 201. 

4 casks of Monelas, 511. Us. 9d. 

4i cwt. of Neptunes, 381. Os. 9jjd. 

12 cwt. Bugles, 761. 2s. IQd. 

The remainder of the cargo in each case consisted 
chiefly of items only too intelligible gunpowder, 
cheap muskets and blunderbuses, brandy, gin, &c. 



[Brawl is given in Dr. Murray's ' Dictionary ' " a 
blue and white striped cloth manufactured in India." 
Is not bugle the tube-shaped glass bead ?J 

SIR PETER PARRAVICINI. In vol. viii. Harleian 
Society's publications, among Le Neve's knights is 
stated as follows : 

" Sir Peter Parravicini, born in Italy, came over to 

England He died Feb. ..., 1694, buried at (St. Dun- 

stan's in the East) Wife not known. Daughters, 

Mary, unmarried 1695 ; Qy. if she and her sister did not 
live in Cecil Street, Strand, and died there ... day of May, 
1725, of whom a character in the Penny Post by Heath- 
cote, paper of Wednesday, May 12. She was buried at 
(St. Dunstan in the East)." 

I have searched the British Museum for a Penny 
Post of May 12, 1725, but can find no trace of this 
notice, nor does the name Heathcote appear to be 
known. Can any one inform me where any file o; 
old papers is kept 1 As it appears to me, the 
Museum collection is incomplete. 


MEASURES. In Arnold's 'Chronicle' (temp. 
Hen. VII.), p. 194, in a list of the customs anc 
subsidies payable on merchandise are the follow- 
ing : 

" The Custum of beddis Double Wursted." 
"The subsidie of the Wursted beddis single an 

In Sir M. Bale's ' Concerning the Customs,' iii 
p. 201 (Etargrave's ' Tracts'): 

" For bedds of worsted, viz. : For double bedds, Fo 
half doubles, For single bedds." 

" The custom on the single pece of worsted, Id. : on 
the single bedd, 5d." 

In Richard II. 's time there was a measure called 
"bolt of single worsted " (17 Ric. II. cap. iii.). 

I am unable to discover what quantities thes 
several measures contained. Can any one inform 
me ? Are any of the measures still in use ? ] 
not, when were they disused ? J. S. LEADAM. 

WAR IRON JEWELLERY. Is there any authorit 
for calling the finely-cast Berlin ironwork, often se 
in gold, war jewellery ? There is a tradition amon 
the curiosity dealers that the manufacture was be 
gun at least to supplement the jewels given up b 
the Austrian and German ladies in the great Napo 

on wars. Is this true? I have before me a beauti- 
ul necklace and earrings of iron, gold mounted, 
which look like Tassie's work. On one of the cameo 
ubjects is a number at the back, as often occurred 
n his casts. J. C. J. 

(7 th S. viii. 66, 136, 291, 409, 433.) 

An instance of contemporary ignorance concern- 
ng the Duke of Wellington which " beats hollow " 
hat of the Hampshire peasant occurs in the very 
absurd and painful little book lately published 
under the misleading title of ' The Letters of the 
)uke of Wellington to Miss J.' I say "mis- 
eading," because the reader naturally expects that 
f a volume of letters is announced there should 
>e some few bond fide letters in it, whereas there 
s nothing but a series of curt acknowledgments of 
the tirades with which " Miss J." thought fit to 
jersecute him for years together curt acknow- 
edgments, nearly every one a repetition of the 
other, and which need at the most occupy but 
;hree pages. We are told, p. 2, that Miss J. 
belonged to " the smaller English gentry," and was 
brought up at "one of the best schools in England, 
where many of her companions were of noble 
birth"; and yet this young woman of twenty, in 
the year 1834, when she made her first attack, con- 
fessedly (p. 33) under the belief that she would get 
the duke to marry her, and must, therefore, have 
thought about him more than most young women, 
we are also told, at p. 8, " was not aware that he 
was the conqueror of Bonaparte, and did not even 
know when the battle of Waterloo took place." 
No instance adduced yet comes up to this. 

The present correspondence brings to mind a 
good story of long ago, which may be classed in 
the category of which it treats. A man of no 
education had a foolish habit of pretending to a 
fund of information by constantly asserting "there 
are many fine things in Aristotle that people in 
general know nothing of." A friend, no better 
informed, but who grew irritated by this assump- 
tion of superior knowledge, put him down with 
the rebuff that there might be very fine things 
in Aristotle, but he didn't believe the speaker had: 
ever been near that place, if, indeed, he even knew 
where it was. 

I beg to thank MR. FITZPATRICK for his indulgent 
lines (7 th S. viii. 433), and to assure him I had no 
intention of writing " critically." It was only that, 
in regard to this little bit of homely haberdashery, 
it comes in my way to hear shopmen use the word 

" clocks " familiarly ; so the dictionaries must be 

in error after the manner of dictionaries. 

To turn now to the amusing anecdote of your 

correspondent who signs 0. ; I can make it further 

7 th S. IX, JAN. 11, '90.] 



prove the fact that the same blunder will turn up 
and furnish matter for a joke under a variety of 
circumstances ; for it has many times happened to 
me in different parts of Europe that a peasant, 
when asked the name of a particular peak can 
supply no name for it but " the mountain," or for 
a particular stream nothing but " the river." He 
knows but that one mountain and that one river, 
so has no need to distinguish it. It is, indeed, a 
French stock story that a Gascon, finding himself 
once in Paris, and hearing the Seine so called, 
exclaimed, " Tiens ! vous appelez a ' la Seine'? a 
Bordeaux on 1'appelle ' la Garonne.' " 

Similarly an old lady in the department of the 
Ardeche, from whom I and a fellow traveller had 
been picking up some folk-lore, ventured the obser- 
vation, " Pardon, but I should like to know why 
it is that, though you speak with me the same 
sort of French that other gentry from Paris talk, 
yet you seem to use an altogether different kind of 
French when you speak to each other." She did 
not seem to have the least idea that there was 
more than one language. Something very like it 
happened to us in Spain. 

Coincidently with this correspondence I ob- 
served in a report of the grand dinner given to 
Earnum, that ne said in his toast speech that " it 
has been said all the jokes in the world may be 
reduced to forty original ones." From whom did 
he quote this excellent observation ? 

E. H. BUSK. 

As we have got into our anecdotage in this 
matter, I may perhaps be allowed to add a story 
for the truth of which I can vouch, because I had 
it at first hand and at the time. 

A few years before the recent restoration of the 
abbey church at Tewkesbury a friend of mine went 
over from Cheltenham to see that noble building. 
Having seen it, and finding that he had still an 
hour or two to spare, he ordered luncheon at the 
hotel, and resolved to pay a visit to the battle- 
field, if he could find the way. " Waiter," said 
he ; " do you happen to know the place where the 
battle of Tewkesbury was fought 1 " " Certainly, 
sir," said the waiter; and added that, as work was 
slack just then, he would willingly go thither with 
the gentleman. As they went along, down the 
main street and across the bridge toward the 
meadows on the farther bank, my friend expressed 
his pleasure, not unmingled with surprise, at find- 
ing that his companion was familiar with such a 
battle-field. "For," said he, "it happened long 
ago, you know four hundred years ago." " Four 
hundred years, sir ? " exclaimed the waiter. "Bless 
you, no! I don't believe it's ten years." "I 
think you'll find I'm right," said my friend.' 
" Well, sir," the other replied, " I reckon I ought 
to know, for I was there." At this the stranger 
stopped short and faced that mediaeval waiter. 
" You were there ! " cried he, with unrestrained 

emotion. " Ye?, sir, I were. There 's only one 
Battle o' Tewkesbury as ever I heard on, and 
:hat 's the great fight betwixt Conky Jim and the 
Porky One ! " 

I do not vouch for the names which are taken 
'rorn Punch of these two combatants ; nor do I 
dare to hint at what may have happened to my 
friend and his luncheon after such an fclaircitse- 
ment. A. J. M. 

I can cap O.'s story of the countryman who was 
ignorant of the name of his own river. Some years 
ago, on my first visit to Wimborne, I was going 
down to the station outside the omnibus. Seeing 
a broad river before me, I asked the driver its 
name, thus proving reprehensible ignorance of 
the geography of my own country. His only reply 
to my question was, " Oh, it 's the river." " Yes, 
I know that. But what river? What 's its name?" 
" Sure I don't know ; it 's the river." As with 
the Warwickshire Avon, my Dorsetshire friend 
was, under another dress, giving the river the name 
his Teutonic ancestors had called it by, the Stour, 
or stream. EDMUND VENABLES. 

Here is a variation of the "stupendous ignorance 
of persons with respect to great men" anecdote, 
which I have just come across, and which, even 
taking the "ignorance" to be assumed, may well 
be added to those already given : 

"General Grant was once invited to dine at Apsley 
House by the second Duke of Wellington. A most dis- 
tinguished party assembled to meet him. During a 
pause in the middle of dinner the ex-President, it is 
related, addressing the duke at the head of the table,, 
said, ' My lord, I have heard that^ your father was a 
military man. Was that the case V " 


STREET (V* S. viii. 443, 496). It would be inter- 
esting, I think, if MR. TATE would refer to his 
article in the City Press, and inform us what was 
the number of the congregation of St. Mildred's, 
Poultry, when he attended that church in 1870 ;. 
because, as he seems to imply that it was not so 
very small he says that the City churches were 
not so deserted as some supposed, and does not say 
St. Mildred's was any exception by comparing 
this with MR. BEARD'S experience in 1867, it 
would seem that there was some revival in the 
attendance after that date. My belief that 
that church was taken down nearly thirty 
years ago was merely derived from a remark of a 
clerk coming out of one of the houses of busi- 
ness now on its site, who, in answer to my inquiry 
whether he knew when the demolition took place, 
said, " Our people came here thirty years ago so 1 
suppose the church must have been removed then. 
Of course I took this as only approximate ; b 
thought it would probably be right within two 



[7 th S. IX. JAN. 11, '90. 

three years, and that some reader of ' N. & Q.' 
might be able to give the date more accurately. 
Perhaps NEMO will kindly explain why he thought 
the other St. Mildred's had also been removed, 
which led me to state it to a friend who was in- 
quiring about churches dedicated to that saint. 
One such, I believe, formerly existed at Oxford. 

W. T. LYNN. 

There is an engraving of St. Mildred's, Poultry, 
in the Illustrated London News of May 11, 1872, 
and from the accompanying letterpress it appears 
that the church was demolished in the early part 
of that year. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


St. Mildred's, Poultry, was standing later than 
1863. I think it was demolished in 1872. The 
site was subsequently bought by the Gresham 
Assurance Society, and they have perpetuated the 
name by calling their new premises St. Mildred's 
House. A memorial account was printed under 
the authority of the churchwardens. The benefice 
was united to that of St. Olave's, Jewry, and the 
two were merged recently in that of St. Margaret's, 
Lothbury. EDWARD SMITH. 

Hale End, TValthametow. 

The Antiquary not the monthly magazine 
published by Elliot Stock, but its predecessor, a 
fortnightly medium of intercommunication for 
antiquaries, &c. for June 14, 1872, describes St. 
Mildred'.*, Poultry, as being "now in course of 
removal." This appears to settle the question of 
date of demolition. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

STELLA, LADY PENELOPE RICH (7 th S. vii. 347, 
431 ; viii. 110,311,438). HERMENTRUDE is quite 
right, as she generally is. An earl's daughter 
marrying a baron who is a peer becomes a peeress, 
but she descends two degrees in the scale of pre- 
cedence. If she marries a commoner she, like the 
daughters of dukes and marquesses under similar 
circumstances, retains her original rank and pre- 

Lady Penelope Deverenx became Lady Rich 
when she married her first husband (created Earl 
of Warwick after their divorce). By her second 
marriage she became Countess of Devonshire, as 
MR. A. HALL correctly observes. 

H. MURRAY LANE, Chester Herald. 

"HUMANITY" MARTIN (7 th S. viii. 427, 478; 
ix. 14). MR. H. G. HOPE gives no authority for 
the statement that "the original of Godfrey 
O'Malley, M.P., the uncle of the hero of Lever's 
'Charles O'Malley,' was Dick Martin, the member 
for Galway." I find the fact so stated, however, 
in the ' Life of Charles Lever ' (London, Ward & 
Lock), p. 140. The Dublin University Magazine, 

contrary to MR. PICKFORD'S surmise, contains no 
notice of Dick Martin, so far as I know ; but a 
good deal about him will be found in the volume 
of the Irish Quarterly Review for 1859, pp. 529- 
549. It may, perhaps, be added that strange 
anecdotes of Dick Martin are told by Father Tom 
Burke, in the life of the latter published by Kegan 
Paul, especially in vol. i. pp. 2, 3. 


DICTIONARY QUERIES (7 lh S. viii. 427, 477). 
"James Drury and Co.," "Thomas Preston and 
Co.," "Robert Grimshaw and Co.," and "Ridge- 
way and Co." occur in the earliest ' Manchester 
Directory,' published by Mrs. Ranald in 1772. It is 
possible that earlier instances could be found in 
the 'London Directory' and in the London Gazette. 

E. A. 

RADCLIFFE (7 th S. viii. 287). Arthur and Ed- 
ward Radcliffe, London merchants, who died about 
the middle of the last century, were the last sur- 
viving sons of Edward Radcliffe, of Hitchin, co. 
Herts, Esq., who died in 1727 (will proved in Cur. 
Prer. Cant, the same year). 

Edward Radcliffe the younger was of Devonshire 
Square, London, and died in 1764 without issue 
(will proved in Cur. Prer. Cant, the same year). 
Arthur Radcliffe at time of death was of Bath, 
and died in 1767 without issue (will proved in 
Cur. Prer. Cant, same year). Upon the death of 
their only nephew, John Radcliffe, without issue, 
the Hitchin estates passed into the female line. 

Anthony Radcliffe, of Kell Head, Dumfriesshire, 
cannot have been a lineal male descendant of any 
Earl of Derwentwater, as it has been conclusively 
proved that there are now none such. He may, 
however, have been descended from John Rad- 
cliffe, of Corbridge (died 1669), uncle of the first 
Earl of Derwentwater, who left behind him five 
sons, whose issue have never, so far as I know, 
been traced out, or he may have been descended 
from one of the Cumberland Radcliffes of the Der- 
wentwater tribe, e. g., from Percival Radcliffe, 
Vicar of Crosthwaite during the Protectorate, and 
Rector of Boughton-under-the-Blean, co. Kent, 
after the Restoration (died 1666), who left behind 
him four sons, Timothy, Samuel, Anthony, and 
Jeremiah. Of these Timothy died at Bawtry, co. 
York, in 1696, and Samuel at Keswick, co. Cumb., 
in 1690 ; but the other two I have never been able 
to trace. Perhaps if W. J. P. could give me some 
further clue to this Anthony Radcliffe I could help 
him further. FRANCIS R. Y. RADCLIFFE. 

5, Hare Court, Temple, E.G. 

BANK "BILLS" (7 th S. viii. 488). This reminds 
me of an amusing circumstance that occurred to me 
some twenty years ago. I was travelling in the 
north of Scotland, on the Caledonian Canal route, 
when I was asked if I would lend an American, 
who was travelling with his daughter, some money, 

. IX. JAN. 11, '90.] 



as he had run short, till he got to Inverness. I 
had some conversation with the gentleman, whom 
I found most intellectual and a very good com- 
panion. He said he had nothing but " bills " 
about him, and wanted some small change. I lent 
him five pounds, and on arrival at the end of our 
journey he asked me what hotel he should stop 
at. As I had already ordered my rooms, I invited 
him to stay at the same place. In the morning, 
when the ladies had left the room, I said , " Now about 
your 'bills.' If you will let ,me see them, I will 
see what I can do for you." Imagine my surprise 
and amusement when he produced a roll of Bank 
of England notes ! EDWARD T. DUNN. 

Lonsdale Road, Barnes, S.W. 

ARCHDOLTES : FOOLESOPHER (7 th S. viii. 325, 
431). Ho well would seem to have been fond of 
this word. He uses it also in the 'Familiar 
Letters ' (p. 454, ed. 1726), where he calls Socrates 
" the patient Philosopher (or Foolosopher)," for 
submitting to the tyranny of Xantippe. Howell 
was not a married man. C. C. B. 

HERALDIC (7 th S. viii. 489). Papworth gives 
Gules, a fess chequy argent and azure as borne by 
Hagarthy, or Hagarty, of Ireland, and Haigh, of 
Scotland, quartering Abernethy, Lindsay, Earl of 
Crawford (1398), and Lindsay, Lord Spynie (1590); 
also quartering Abernethy, but makes no mention 
of the Stuarts, county Aberdeen, in connexion 
with such arms. 

With regard to the crest, Fairbairn's work con- 
tains several examples of lions and demi-lions 
rampamt belonging to families of Stuart, both in 
England and Scotland, but says nothing of the one 
with the bleeding paw referred to by your corre- 
spondent H. W. S. 

As both these books are the acknowledged 
authorities on the subjects of arms and crests 
respectively, I am at a loss to any further clue, but 
would be glad to know what is the motto of the 
Stuarts of Aberdeen county. J. BAGNALL. 

Water Orton. 

MURAT, KING OF NAPLES (7 th S. viii. 468). 
M. Thiers, in his ' History,' attributed the fall of 
the empire to six errors, the fourth of which was 
" plunging into the Spanish abyss, which engulfed 
our strength." Napoleon often asserted in 1808 
that at Tilsit the Czar approved his designs upon 
Spain ; and as he had founded, he said, the fourth 
dynasty in France he could not tolerate the Bour- 
bons in that country. Murat (who was denounced 
by Talleyrand, who suspected treachery) was, in 
February, 1808, appointed lieutenant-general of 
the army in Spain, and received a variety of in- 
structions in connexion with the infamous pro- 
ceedings by which it was proposed to conquer 
the country, and his orders were carried out 
with singular capacity. Murat, who had views 

of being himself King of Spain, on the occa- 
sion of an emeute in Madrid acted in a manner 
which Lanfrey characterizes as "a memorable ex- 
ample of cool and calculated cruelty"; but the 
blood shed by Murat was of no avail, in fact it 
proved a fatal blow to Napoleon by filling the 
hearts of the Spanish people with a bitter hatred 
of the French. The want of judgment shown in 
these atrocities committed by Murat was the in- 
ducement, no doubt, for Napoleon to complain 
that affairs were precipitated in Spain, and to 
say, when at St. Helena, that Murat was not only 
one of the great causes of his fall, but also that 
Murat, "a soldier whom I had made a king and 
the husband of my sister, was one of those who had 
betrayed me." HENRY GERALD HOPE. 

Freegrove Road, N. 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS (7 th S. viii. 308, 391, 476). 
Burns never wrote 

The gowd ia not the guinea's worth, 
which is a flat truism, but 

The Bank is but the guinea's stamp, 

The man 'a the gowd for a' that, 
which is an apt and beautiful figure. 


ARUNDEL CASTLE (7 th S. viii. 467). It is theo- 
retically true that the possession of Arundel Castle 
confers a. feudal honour on its owner, the Duke of 
Norfolk ; but if the duke were to sell his castle 
to a Manchester millionaire I much question 
whether the House of Lords would affirm it and 
allow the new purchaser to take his seat as Earl of 
Arundel. The same story has been constantly told 
of Berkeley Castle; but when the late Lord Fitz- 
hardinge brought the question before the House of 
Lords the decision was adverse to his claim. 


Hyde Park Mansions. 

BEAUTY SLEEP (7 th S. viiL 429). The Eev. T. 
Lewis 0. Davies, in his ' Supplementary English 
Glossary,' describes " beauty sleep " to be the 
sleep before midnight, and gives the following 
references to the use of the expression : 

" ' Are you going ] It is not late ; not ten o'clock yet.' 
' A medical man, who may be called up at any moment, 
must make sure of his beauty-sleep.' " Kingaley, 'Two 
Years Ago,' chap. xv. 

" Would I please to remember that I had roused him 
up at night, and the quality always made a point of pay- 
ing four times over for a man's loss of beauty sleep. I 
replied that his loss of beauty sleep was rather improving 
to a man of so high a complexion." Blackmore, ' Lorna 
Doone,' chap. Ixiv. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

Sleep before midnight is called " beauty sleep " 
in North Lancashire. J. F. MANSERGH. 


The sleep secured before midnight is so called 
also in the North Riding of Yorkshire. The 



[7"> 8. IX. JAN. 11, '90. 

'New English Dictionary' quotes in illustration 
of the use of the expression : 

"1857, Kingsley, 'Two Y. Ago,' ii. xv. 148, 'A 
medical man, who may be called up at any moment, 
must make sure cf his beauty-sleep.' " 


TILTING (7 th S. viii. 428). With reference to 
the group in the Tower armoury, alluded to by 
THORNFIELD, I wish to observe that it was not 
Gavin de Fontaine who unhorsed the Duke of 
Clarence at the battle of Beauge". All readers of 
' The Lay of the Last Minstrel ' will recollect the 

And Swinton laid the lance in rest 
That tamed of yore the sparkling crest 
Of Clarence's Plantagenet. 

Canto v. st. iv. 

Swinton knew the duke by his coronet, shining with 
precious stones, " ran fiercely at him with a lance, 
and wounded him in the face."* The distinction 
of having actually slain the duke was claimed by 
Alexander Macausland, of the household of Lord 
Buchan, says the ' Book of Pluscardine ' (book x. 
chap. xxvi.). BLANCHE A. SWINTON. 

19, Eaton Place, S.W. 

WELLINGTON STATUE (7 th S. viii. 349). The 
four figures round the pedestal represent the four 
nationalities of 1815, viz., (1) the British Guards- 
man, (2) the 42nd Highlanders, (3) the Innis- 
killen Dragoons, (4) the 23rd Welsh Fusiliers. 
The statue was unveiled by H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales on December 21, 1888. 


SAINTE NEGA (7 th S. viii. 489). MR. J. 
HOOPER'S remark on the " frankness " of invent- 
ing a saint to be the patroness of lying, reminds 
me of Horace, ' I. Epist.,' xvi. 59-62 : 

" Jane pater " clare, clare qum dixit Apollo, 
Labra movet metuens audiri ; " Pulchra Laverna, 
Da mihi fallere, da justo sanctoque videri, 
Noctem peccatis et fraudibus objice nubem." 

7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

'GRADUATI OXONIENSES' (7 th S. viii. 387). 
There is such a work as the above, but not with 
that title, as it is called " A Catalogue of all 
Graduates in Divinity, Law, Medicine, Arts, and 
Music between October 10, 1659, and Decem- 
ber 31, 1850 Oxford : MDCCCLI." This is the 

last of a series of similar publications, which are 
enumerated in the advertisement prefixed to the 
1 Catalogue,' presumably by Dr. Bliss, the Registrar 
of the University, though his name does not appear 
in the volume. It seems to have been some time 
in the press, as the ' Catalogue,' pp. 1-754 con- 
tains the degrees to October 10, 1848 ; and then 
follows a "Supplement with the Degrees from 

* Hume, ' History of the House of Douglas.' 

that date to December 31, 1850," and the names 
of University Officers, &c., from 1659 to 1851. 
The work originally appeared in 1689, and was 
compiled by Richard Peers, at the suggestion, very 
probably, of Dr. Fell, the Dean of Christ Church. 
This original catalogue was continued in 

1. Proceeders between July 14, 1688, and July 14, 

2. Proceeders between July 16, 1695, and March 23, 

3. Proceeders between March 23, 1699, and March 29, 

These three were paged to correspond with Peers's 
first volume, and were printed, with a general 
title, in 1705. 

4. Proceeders between March 29, 1705, and July 24, 

Forty pages, numbered separately, not con- 
tinuously as the three preceding. 

In 1720 a new catalogue was projected, which 
appeared after seven years. 

5. Proceeders between October 10, 1659, and Octo- 
ber 10, 1726. 

6. Proceeders from October 10, 1726, to October 10, 

7. Proceeders from October 10, 1735, to October 10, 

8. Proceeders from October 10, 1747, to October 10, 

In 1770 the Delegates of the Press determined 
to prepare a new catalogue, under the care of Dr. 
Chalmers, a Fellow of St. John's. 

9. Catalogue of Degrees from October 10, 1659, to 
October 10, 1770. 

All that follow, to 1820, were edited by Mr. 
Gutch, of All Souls, afterwards Registrar of the 

10. Catalogue of Degrees from October 10, 1770, to 
October 10, 1782. 

11. Catalogue of Degrees from October 10, 1782, to 
October 10, 1792. 

12. Catalogue of Degrees from October 10, 1792, to 
October 10, 1793. 

13. Catalogue of Degrees from October 10, 1659, to 
October 10, 1800. 

14. Catalogue of Degrees from October 10, 1659, to 
October 10, 1814. 

15. Supplement of Degrees from October 10, 1814, to 
October lU, 1820. 

16. Catalogue of Degrees from October 10, 1659, to 
December 31, 1850. 

A new edition, bringing the list from 1850 down 
to 1890, is anxiously looked for. This, with a 
fresh supplement for the ten years to the end of 
the century would suffice, and the whole might be 
arranged in one series again from 1659 to 1900. 
The earlier degree lists are being printed by the 
Oxford Historical Society. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

CURIOUS INN SIGNS (7 th S. viii. 386). MR. 
BIRD seems to think that the " Holy Water 
Sprinkle " has not been described. At the risk of 
appearing egotistical, I feel tempted to say that if 

7"> S. IX. JAN. 11, '0.] 



he cares to refer to ' Old South wark Inns and thei 
Associations,' published last year, which my goo 
friend Dr. Rendle and I took infinite pains t 
make as complete as possible, he will find man 
pages devoted to it. The earliest notice we bar 
is contained in a deed of 1585, when it was in 
the tenure of Thomas Bromfyld, and the sign stil 
appears towards the end of the eighteenth centur; 
as "The Three Brushes or Holy Water Sprinklers. 
The building was situated in a small court on th 
east side of the Borough High Street, near the 
back of No. 19, known latterly as Baxter's Coffee 
house, of which perhaps it once formed part 
Both showed considerable signs of antiquity, anc 
were highly decorated. They disappeared in 1830 
when the approaches to new London Bridge wer 
being formed. The site was for a time includec 
within the precints of St. Thomas's Hospital, anc 
is now, I believe, covered by the South-Eastern 
Railway. I have examined Mr. Coleman's deed o 
1624, which does not add materially to our know- 
ledge ; it shows, however, that the Bromfyld or 
Bromfield family still kept up their connexion 
with the house, and that the two adjoining tene- 
ments were called " The Castell" and " The Bell.' 
" The Holy Water Sprinklers " belonged to a class 
of signs common before the Reformation, but most 
of which were changed about that period. " The 
King's Head," not far off still existing, in name 
at least was known as " The Pope's Head " till 
1534. A little further south is " The George,' 
which as late as 1554 was called "The St. George." 
Destroyed by fire in 1676, it was rebuilt on the 
old foundations, and is perhaps the best existing 
specimen of a galleried inn of that period. Further 
south again, another galleried inn, " The Queen's 
Head," marks the site of " The Crowned or Cross 
Keys," which was at one time let as an armoury to 


" You will easily find the Rainbow, it is by the Inner 
Temple Gate, opposite to Chancery Lane This coffee- 
house is one of the most ancient in London. Aubrey, 

in his ' Lives,' speaking of Sir Henry Blount. a fashion- 
able of Charles the Second's day, tells us, ' when coffee 
first came in, he was a great upholder of it, and had ever 
since been a constant frequenter of coffee-houses, espe- 
cially Mr. Farre's at the Rainbow, by Inner-Temple 
Gate.' Here Johnson used to sit." ' Doings in London,' 
1828, p. 353. 


426; viii. 57, 395). Photography has of late years 
enabled a satisfactory study to be made of the 
projectiles from big guns, and instantaneous pic- 
tures of shots during their flight are in existence. 
If in these cases the action of light has been subtle 
enough to give any indication of the movement of 
air before and behind the travelling projectile, as 

the following from Scribner shows that it does in 
the case of the rifle bullet, that which has always 
been a vexed question, viz., the possibility of fatal 
effects resulting from the " wind " of a cannon 
ball, ought to be easily set at rest by experts. 

The rifle bullet being a comparatively small 
object, necessitates the camera being placed so 
much nearer its line of flight than in the case of 
the larger missiles, that some special means had to 
be devised for taking the picture, as no quick- 
acting shutter could act with sufficient rapidity. 
Of course 

" the desired end is accomplished by the aid of electri- 
city. The camera is provided with an extremely sensitive 
plate, and placed in a dark room, through which the 
bullet is made to pass. The instant the bullet is in front 
of the camera it breaks an electric circuit, producing a 
spark which illuminates the bullet for an instant, and 

its image is impressed upon the sensitive plate [Thus] 

a well-defined photograph of an object moving at a greater 
velocity than that of sound is obtained. Such pictures 
show the condensation of the air in front of the bullet, 
the vacuum behind it, and the eddies and currents pro- 
duced in the surrounding atmosphere by its motion." 

The last sentence bears very directly upon the 
question. R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Howell ('Familiar Letters,' I 3, v.) has the 

The French King hath been also before St. John 

d'Angeli, where the young Cardinal of Guise died, being 
struck down by the puff of a Cannon-bullet, which put 
him in a burning fever, and made an end of him." 

0. C. B. 

viii. 486). See some interesting references in 
Buckle's ' History of Civilization,' i. 363, n. It is 
stated, on the authority of Dr. S. Parr, that " two 
witches were hung at Northampton in 1705, and 
in 1712 five witches suffered the same fate at the 
same place." It must be remembered the statute 
abolishing the penalty of death for witchcraft was 
9 George II., c. 5. Addison, in 1712, had not 
made up his mind on the subject of witches (Spec- 
tator, 117); John Wesley's mind was unshaken 
fifty years later. 

Hastings Corporation Reference Library. 

BYRON AND R. B. HOPPNER (7 th S. viii. 507). 
Upon reference to a nonagenarian friend, whom 
knew to have been well acquainted with the late 
r. Richard Belgrave Hoppner (generally known 
as Mr. Belgrave Hoppner), I learn that he was 
ne of the four sons of Hoppner, the well-known 
ainter. After ceasing to be consul at Venice, he 
ad a diplomatic appointment to Lisbon, and sub- 
jquently made his home principally on the Con- 
sent, residing for two years at Grenoble and 
fterwards at Versailles. He died some fifteen or 
ixteen years ago at Turin, where he had passed 
he last two or three years of his life. By his 
marriage with a Swiss lady he had a son and a 



[7 th S. IX. JAN. 11, '90. 

daughter. The former died unmarried, and the 
latter, who was born at Venice, married General 
de Lamarre, a French Crimean officer, who died 
in January, 1880. Madame de Lamarre is still 
living, and has an only daughter married to one of 
the family of La Tour d'Auvergne. Mr. Hoppner, 
I believe, was last in England in 1870. The fourth 
volume of Moore's ' Life ' contains many letters 
from Byron to Hoppner. FREDK. CHAS. CASS. 
Monken Hadley Rectory. 

ENGLISH FRIENDS OF GOETHE (7 th S. viii. 387, 
432, 489). The Naylor of MR. ALFORD'S list is 
Mr. Hare Naylor, son of Bishop Hare and father 
of Archdeacon Julius Hare. He went to live at 
"Weimar in 1805. Of these portraits Henry Crabb 
Robinson writes : 

" I have already mentioned Goethe's fondness for 
keeping portrait memorials, and can only consider it as 
an extreme instance of this that I was desired to go to 
one Schmeller to have my portrait taken, a head in 
crayons, frightfully ugly, and very like. The artist told 
me that he had within a few years done for Goethe more 
than three hundred. It is the kind of Andenken he pre- 
ferred. They are all done in the same style full-face." 
H. G. Robinson's ' Diary,' vol. ii. p. 110. 

Seneca Falls, New York, U.S. 

WORDS THAT ARE NOT WANTED (7 th S. viii. 85, 
133, 311). May the "uniformed hellhounds" of 
the Kerry Sentinel be added to the ranks of the 
rejected ? I do not find in any dictionary that I 
have had the opportunity of looking into uni- 
formed in the sense of clothed in uniform, or the 
very word in any sense ; nor do I find hellhound 
without the hyphen. Yet there is a Miltonian 
ring about the words. Those who to some are 
" liveried angels " to others may seem " uniformed 
hellhounds." KILLIGREW. 

DERBYSHIRE HISTORY (7 th S. viii. 468). I am 
afraid that my ability to oblige A. G. with in- 
formation concerning the records of Eckington and 
Killamarsh, co. Derby, does not keep pace with 
my good will. The family of Sitwell is intimately 
connected with the former place, and its present 
head, Sir George Sitwell, Bart., takes active and 
intelligent interest in Derbyshire antiquities, 
have heard since I left my native county, six years 
ago, that Sir George is engaged (in concert 
with other gentlemen) in laying the founda- 
tions of a really good Derbyshire history, anc 
hope the rumour may be well founded. For 
present reference, A. G. may consult Lysons's 
' Magna Britannia,' v. (Derbyshire), 142-4 ; Cox's 
' Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire,' i. (Hun 
dred of Scarsdale) ; Pilkington's ' View of Derby 
shire,' ii. 374-6, &c. Dr. Cox hints that materials 
for an extended history of the manor of Killamarsh 
(op. cit., ii. 261, note) were accessible to him, but 
as they had no immediate bearing upon the histor 

of the church, he thought it better to abstain from 
ncnmbering his work with them. I do not know 

any place bearing the name of Walmersho. The 

will of Wulfric Spott, A.D. 1002,* mentions "the 
and at Walesho " in the same sentence as " that 

at Eckington." The words are : 

' I bequeath to Morcare the land at Walesho, and that 
at Theddlethorpe, and that at Whitwell, and that at 
Clown, and that at Barlborough, and that at Duck- 
manton, and that at Eckington, and that at Beighton, 
and that at Doncaster, and that at Morleston." 

[t will be seen that, whilst most of the places 
ndicated in this bequest are in the county of 
Derby, there are exceptions, of which Walesho is 
evidently one. It would be impossible to derive 
Walmersho from Chinewolde maresc, which had 
become Kinwaldmarsh in the reign of Edward II., 
and finally Killamarsh. It may be interesting to 
note in this connexion that the manor of Killa- 
marsh was held under the Crown by the tenure of 
a horse of the value of five shillings, a sack, and a 
spur, to be provided, during the space of four 
days, whenever the king's army made war in 

" FOUR CORNERS TO MY BED " (7 th S. viii. 208, 
275, 414, 494). May not the enclosed lines be a 
more correct rendering of the original ? A Suffolk 
nurse-girl, about 1844, taught a child (one for 
whom I now have great esteem) to say the Lord's 
Prayer before getting into bed, and after having 
lain down to say : 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 

Bless the bed I lie upon. 

Five angels standing round my bed, 

At each corner and my head. 

Two to watch and two to pray, 

And one to drive ill dreams away. 

And now that I lie down to sleep, 

I pray the Lord my soul to keep : 

If I should die before I wake, 

I pray the Lord my soul to take. 


This folk-prayer occurs not only, as has been 
remarked, throughout England, but throughout 
the greater part of Europe also. I could give 
plenty of instances from Italy if wanted. 

R. H. BUSK. 

16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. 

(7 th S. viii. 65). The recently published " Charles 
Dickens Edition" (Chapman & Hall) gives Dr. 
Blimber's punishment to Johnson in the following 
words : " Johnson will repeat to me to-morrow 
morning before breakfast, without book, and from 
the Greek Testament, the first chapter of the 
Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians." The mis- 
take, or misprint, in the first edition is singular, 
as Dickens could scarcely have intended, or sup- 

* ' Diplomatarium Anglicum JE v i Saxonici,' p. 45. 

7*8. IX. JAN. 11, '90. J 



posed, the boy capable of committing to memory 
the whole of the epistle in a single evening. 



The mistake looks rather like an ellipsis, as one 
sometimes says " first jEneid." I remember Pro- 
vost Hawkins of Oriel rebuking me for so doing. 
The " Library Edition " of ' Dombey and Son ' has 
" first chapter of the Epistle," which certainly 
would be a more reasonable imposition. 



TOOTH-BRUSHES (7 th S. vi. 247, 292, 354 ; vii. 
29, 291, 414). As, notwithstanding all that has 
been said at the above references, it stili remains 
doubtful when the tooth-brush came into ordinary 
and general use, the following reference to it as a 
familiar article may be worth noting : 

"While you are waiting for a fresh supply of tooth- 
brushesbattering your teeth with the ivory, and prick- 
ing your gums with the bristles, of your old one, com- 
pletely grubbed out in the middle its few remaining 
hairs staring off horizontally on all Bides." 'Miseries of 
Human Life,' 1806, p. 233. 

Near the commencement of the present century 
tooth-brushes evidently were pretty well known. 

"WASHING THE BABY'S HEAD" (7 th S, viii. 
85). This custom seems to be analogous to that 
still very common in Scotland, namely, " washing 
the bridegroom's feet"; or, shortly, "the feet 
washing." This ceremony takes place usually the 
night before a wedding, and consists of a bachelor 
supper-party, with more or less of joviality and 
potations. It is theoretically understood to be 
the bridegroom's farewell to such vanities and 
the society of his single friends. The rite, I 
believe, only obtains among the " better " classes 
of society. ALEX. FERGUSSON, Lieut.-Col. 

Lennox Street, Edinburgh. 

I have been familiar with this saying in the 
form of " wetting the baby's head " for as long as 
I can remember noticing such things. It is very 
common in Liverpool and the neighbourhood. 

C. C. B. 

This expression, as a North Yorkshireism, has 
been familiar to rne from childhood. I have, 
however, always heard it used in the form " wet- 
ting t' barn's head." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

The Paddocks, Palgrave, Diss. 

KICHARDSON'S 'DICTIONARY' (7 th S. viii. 311, 
446). MR. BOCKLEY may claim the credit for 
Dr. Richardson that he gave "a series of quota- 
tions which are not only well selected and 

arranged in chronological order, but also have a 
full reference in most cases appended to them "; 
but notwithstanding this, on which I said not a 

word, it being alien to the chief purport of my 
note, I repeat my firm conviction that he was, 
with able forerunners staring him in the face, a 
bad compiler of a dictionary bad both in his sins 
of omission and in those of commission. 


CONFIRMATION (7 th S. viii. 348, 470). For an 
interesting description of the primary visitation of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Moore), in 
June, 1789, when, accompanied and assisted by 
the Bishop of St. David's (Dr. Horsley), a series 
of confirmation services was held, see Gent. Mag., 
vol. Ivi. pt. ii. pp. 611-12. It is worthy of notice 
that before the beginning of the visitation servive 
in the cathedral the archbishop blessed the clergy 
and congregation from his throne. 


Coatham, Yorkshire. 

May I correct two errors ? Eeppel was Bishop 
of Exeter, not Norwich. It was Bishop Bowyer 
Sparke who confirmed the eight thousand can- 
didates at Manchester (see ' Life of Bishop Blom- 
field,' i. 97). He was twelve hours and a half 
about it. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


DISCOVERIES IN THE BIBLE (7 th S. viii. 249, 
392). I cannot think that Lord Coleridge, or 
indeed any lawyer, would regard the blessing and 
cursing at Judges xvii. 2 as either pronounced for 
the same action or on the same person. Micah's 
mother cursed we are not told whom because 
her money was missing, and afterwards blessed 
her son for restoring it surely quite opposite acts, 
even if by the same person. E. L. G. 

PLATONIC YEAR (7" 1 S. viii. 304, 430, 490). 
Hazlitt, in his essay ' On the Pleasure of Paint- 
ing,' refers to the Platonic year in terms that 
agree better with MR. LYNN'S note than with 
MAJOR-GENERAL DRAYSON'S. He says, speaking 
of his past experience : 

" Oh for the revolution of the great Platonic year, that 
those times might come over again ! I could sleep out 
the three hundred and sixty-five thousand intervening 
years very contentedly ! " 

C. C. B. 

S. viii. 485). Those who look for accuracy in 
' N. & Q. ' I am not one of them, for I do not 
look for it anywhere should ask MR. F. L. 
TAVAR to explain his article at the above refer- 
ence. It may be interesting to inquire whether a 
particular kind of dye was first used in England 
by A. or by B.; but itwould be of far higher interest 
to know for certain whether a son of the last 
governor of the Bastille did settle in England and 
become an Englishman. And this is precisely 
what MR. TAVAR leaves quite uncertain for he 



[7 h S. IX. JAN. 11, '0. 

first states, as of his own knowledge, that a Mr. 
0. L. Delaunay, who died " on October 5 " (1889, 
we infer), was the son of a Mr. L. B. Delaunay, 
and was a grandson of the Marquis De Launay, 
whose name, however, MR. TAVAR spells De 
Launey. He then quotes an article of the usual 
kind from a local newspaper, from which it ap- 
pears that " an old resident " " came in contact 
with our Blackley representative " lately, and 
immediately (being anxious, as old residents 
always are, to supply " our representative " with 
copy) " commenced an interesting conversation 
upon the Delaunay family " (with an a). The 
O.R. "remarked that between the Marquis De 

Launey [sic], whose tragic end is described by 

Oarlyle, and the Delauneys [sic] of Blackley there 
was no connexion whatever." And the O.E. 
added, in his garrulous way, that " such a state- 
ment " namely, the statement that there was a 
connexion between the Marquis De Launay and 
the Blackley Delauneys " was an absolute fabri- 
cation." " Oar representative," having gone home 
and set down " these facts," observes that by them 
" two erroneous statements at least will be cor- 
rected," one of which erroneous statements is, 
saith he, "that the Delaunays [with an a] of 
Blackley were in no way related to the historic 
Marquis De Launey " (with an e). In other words, 
the O.R. affirms one thing, and " our repre- 
sentative " thinks that his affirmation is a proof of 
another thing, which is the exact contrary of what 
he affirmed. 

This is not complimentary to an O.R. who is 
doing his best to provide us with copy. And MR. 
TAVAR quotes these inconsistent views without 
remark, although his own words show that he 
does not agree with the O.R., in spite of that old 
gentleman's "vast amount of knowledge" on the 
subject, and that he does agree with the remark- 
able inference drawn by " our representative " 
from the O.R.'s communications. A. J. M. 

CARLOVINGIAN LEGENDS (7 th S. viii. 487). See 
the article on ' Carlovingian Romance,' by Mr. 
R. J. King, published originally in the 'Oxford 
Essays,' 1856, and reprinted in his interesting 
volume of ' Sketches and Studies.' 



CLARKE FAMILY (7 th S. viii. 467). There is 
some mistake in this query. There is no such 
dignity as a deanery af Batb. 

" The monastery of Bath was dissolved in 1543/4, and 
an Act of Parliament passed (atat. 34 & 35 Hen. VIII., 
cap. 15) for making the Dean and Chapter of Wells to be 
one sole chapter for the Bishop of Bath and Wells." Le 
Neve's ' Fasti Eccl. Angl.,' i. 127, ed. Ox., 1854. 

Le Neve does not mention a Dr. Clarke as con- 
nected with the cathedral of the diocese, and it is 
not likely that in 1802 he could ever have been 

the Rural Dean of Bath, as the order of rural 
deans, after being long in abeyance, was not 
revived till the reign of George IV. (see 7 th S. 
viii. 198). He may, however, have been the rector 
of Bath Abbey Church. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

DAY (7 th S. vii. 345). An affecting instance of 
the death of a husband and wife on the same 
day is reported in the Liverpool Daily Post of 
December 6, 1889 : 

" The landlord and landlady of the well-known hostelry 
;he ' Red Lion,' Chester, died on Wednesday within a 
'ew hours of each other. It was noticed that Mr. Stan- 
;on was greatly depressed after his wife had undergone 
a serious operation on Sunday last. She died from syn- 
:ope at five o'clock on Wednesday morning, and the 
husband very shortly after was seized with apoplexy, 
and died at 10 A.M. Mr. and Mrs. Stanton, who will 
buried in the same grave, were respectively aged 
Forty-six and forty-one." 

In Liverpool, in the same week, a husband died 

two days after his wife, and they were "both 

interred at Fazakerley Cemetery at 1 P.M." on De- 
cember 7. J. F. MANSERGH. 


viii. 388, 458). An instance of turning the coat 
is recorded in Bishop Corbet's poem ' Iter Boreale,' 
describing a journey which he took in company 
with three other university men from Oxford to 
Newark and back again. Lost in the mazes of 
Chorley Forest, they wander 

As in a conjuror's circle William found 
A mean for our deliverance. ' Turn your cloaks,' 
Quoth he, ' for Puck is busy in these oaks; 
If ever you at Bosworth would be found, 
Then turn your cloaks, for this is fairy ground.' 
But ere this witchcraft was performed, we meet 
A very man who had no cloven feet. 
Though William, still of little faith, has doubt, 
'Tis Kobin, or some sprite that walks about. 
" A common instance is that of a person haunted with 
a resemblance whose face he cannot see. If he turn his 
coat or plaid, he will obtain the full sight which he de- 
sires, and may probably find it to be his own fetch, or 
wraith, or double-ganger." Scott's 'Demonology and 
Witchcraft,' p. 148. 

Seneca Falls, New York. 

When a Swedish peasant is misled by a Skogs- 
nufoa (wood-woman) he turns his coat, cap, or 
stockings ; and the same charm is used against the 
Ljeschi (wood-spirit) in Russia. See W. Mann- 
hardt, 'Der Baumkultus der Germanen,' pp. 129 

A FOOL AND A PHYSICIAN (7 th S. vii. 68, 270). 
At the latter reference MR. T. ADOLPHUS TROL- 
LOPE thinks, though doubtingly, that the jeu 
d'esprit related by him was the " retort courteous " 
of Canning to Sir Henry Halford. I fear MR. 
TROLLOPE'S version is hardly correct, as in the 

. IX. JA\. 11, '90.1 



'Encyclopaedia of Wit,' an old jest-book (no date), 
which is an omnium gatherum from all our jest- 
books, Joe Miller's included, there is the follow- 
ing identical repartee : 

"A querulous invalid was telling his physician that 
he, though at an advanced time of life, did not know how 
to manage himself. ' You know, my friend,' says the 
doctor, ' that a man at forty is himself either a fool or a 
physician.' The invalid surveyed the son of Galen, who 
was of that age himself, and shrewdly replied, ' Pray, 
doctor, may not a man be both? ' " 

From the above version it is clear that the 
repartee was not made by Canning, who died, I 
believe, at the age of fifty-seven. 



Trade Tokens issued in the Seventeenth Century. A New 
and Revjsed Edition of William Boyne's Work. By 
George C. Williamson, P.R.Hist.Soc., &c. Vol. I. 

SINCE the appearance in 1858 of Boyne's ' Trade 
Tokens ' a large amount of fresh information upon the 
subject has been gathered. Much of this has been 
printed. It lurks, however, in local records or privately 
printed pamphlets, and can with difficulty be consulted 
by the antiquary or the numismatist. The time, it has 
long been felt, has come when the newly acquired 
information shall be brought together and rendered 
generally accessible. This is now being done in the 
best, indeed in the only practicable way. Boyne's book, 
a very creditable product of industry and knowledge, 
has been taken as the basis and has been supplemented 
by private research. As in the case of the Philological 
Society's ' Dictionary,' which bids fair to be the most 
monumental work of its time, outside labour has been 
employed for the collection of materials, which have 
been arranged and co-ordinated by specially selected 

In the case of tokens the arrangement is necessarily 
local. It has been found expedient, accordingly, to 
dispose them generally under counties, London being 
naturally assigned a place to itself. For these separate 
divisions separate editors have been obtained, each 
editor being responsible for his own share in the work. 
In some cases, however, one writer is responsible for 
more than one county, Mr. Henry S. Gill taking charge 
of counties so widely separated aa Devonshire, Hamp- 
shire, and Staffordshire, and Mr. J. W. Lloyd of 
Hereford, Moumouth, Shropshire, and Wales. Ireland 
is treated as a whole, though many editors are assigned 
it. It does not, however, appear in its place in alpha- 
betical order, but is reserved for the second volume. As 
may be expected, names which are pleasantly familiar 
in 'N. & Q.' are frequently met with in the present 
volume. Mr. J. S. Udal is thus responsible for Dorset- 
shire, and the Rev. B. H. Blacker and Sir John Maclean 
for Gloucestershire. London, meanwhile, which occupies 
close upon two hundred pages of the eight hundred and 
odd comprised in the first volume, is in the hands of Mr. 
G. Eliot Hodgkin, with whom is associated Mr. J. 
Eliot Hodgkin, the latter the possessor of the most 
important collection of trade tokens in existence after 
that of the British Museum, including some four 
hundred or five hundred specimens which that institu- 
tion does not possess. Very much more difficult than is 
generally supposed is the task of classification of tokens. 

Where the name of a place is common great research is 
often necessary to verify the issuer. Mr. Williamson 
holds the copyright of Boyne's book. Each step that 
be has taken has been under the sanction of the Society 
of Numismatists, and the kindred society, that of 
Antiquaries, has warmly sympathized with his labours. 
How important are the additions may be shown in the 
single instance of London. Boyne's book furnished 
some 2,800 descriptions ; the list now given extends to 
3,54o. The London tokens are arranged alphabetically 
under the names of streets. 

In the general introduction very much curious and 
interesting imformation as to tokens is supplied. The- 
amount of light that is cast upon life under the Com- 
monwealth and the following reign is remarkable. In 
the volume alone, however, can be consulted the facta 
which Mr. Williamson has brought together. One fact 
alone, as showing the dissemination of trade in the 
seventeenth century, will we mention. Eighty-three 
traders in Exeter issued tokens, thirty-two in High 
Wycombe, sixty in Rotherhithe, forty in Bury St. 
Edmunds, and twenty in the village of Oundie, in 
Northamptonshire, while but fourteen were struck in 
Manchester, eleven in Liverpool, two in Brighton, and 
one each in Clapham, Sunderland, Gateshead, Stockton, 
Oldham, Bolton, and Bury. In the second part of the 
volume, together with the remaining counties and the 
names of subscribers, will be issued a full series of 
indexes, including indexes of counties, places, sur- 
names, Christian names, initials in the field, devices and 
arms, merchant-marks, shapes, values, and peculiarities. 
By the aid of these it is hoped every collector will be able 
to decipher a token, whatever its condition. Many pages 
of tokens and other illustrations are given. A high 
service is, in fact, in the way of being adequately 

The Fables of ^Esop as First Printed by William Caxlon 
in 1484, with those of Avian, Alfonso, and Poggio. 
Now again edited and induced by Joseph Jacobs. 
2vols. (Nutt.) 

To the very interesting seiies constituting the "Biblio- 
theque de Carabas " Mr. Nutt now adds a reprint of the 
'Book of the Subtyle Historyes and Fables of Esope 
which were translated out of Frensshe into Englysshe by 
William Caxton.' In most respects this reprint makes 
direct appeal to the antiquary, the philologist, the folk- 
lorist, and the bibliophile. It is a reproduction, prac- 
tically in facsimile, of one of the most popular, and con- 
sequently one of the scarcest, of old books. It is a work 
of conscientious and elaborate erudition, and it is in all 
typographical respects a delight. Mr. Jacobs is already 
favourably known to students of folk-lore. His latest 
labour will secure him even more favourable recognition. 
One of the two volumes of his work is occupied wholly 
with preliminary matter or history of JEsop. This is a 
subject on which English scholarship has been remiss, 
little having been done in this direction, as Mr. 
Jacobs points out, since Bentley. In France, mean- 
while, and in Germany the subject has been profoundly 
studied, and tbe latest conclusions of knowledge are em- 
bodied in Mr. Jacobs's historical introduction. Not con- 
tent with treading in the wake of his predecessors, he 
has supplied himself an admirably thoughtful, if in part 
conjectural history of the entire development of the 
fable in Eastern and Western countries. It is hopeless 
to dream of conveying an idea of the labour and tbe 
ingenuity involved in this accomplishment. The literary 
history of each fable is given in the synopsis and 
parallelisms now first supplied. Separate essays on the 
fables of Avian, the facetiae of Poggio, and on the 
fabliaux are given. There are abundant indexes and 
a useful glossary. It is pleasant to bare this work of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. ix. JAN. 11, -90. 

Caxton. Its literary merits are not supreme, but English 
of the fifteenth century baa always interest as well as 
value. One ia forcibly struck with the modesty of Cax- 
ton 's treatment. Even when the works of Poggio,who was 
anything but squeamish, are dealt with, Mr. Jacobs finds 
one fable only he is compelled to omit. In the case of 
* The Matron of Ephesus,' here called ' The Knyght and 
the Wydowe,' the whole, considering the form it takes 
in Petronius Arbiter, Dolapathos, Brantome, and Restif 
de la Bretonne, and a score other writers, is a model of 
reticence. It is long since a piece of work of this class 
so thorough in treatment has been accomplished, and 
author and publisher put in a strong claim upon gratitude. 
The edition is ushered in by a pleasing and characteristic 
poem by Mr. Andrew Lang. 

MESSRS. CASSELL'S publications include Our Own 
Country, which with Tart LX. is concluded. Spots of 
surpassing beauty are reserved for the closing number, 
which includes the Thames from Windsor to Reading 
and the East Sussex coast. Fine views of Henley, Cook- 
ham, Medmenham, and other spots of mingled beauty 
and interest, illustrate the former; the letter being 
graced by a full-page representation of Lewes and 
designs of Pevensey Castle, Hurstmonceaux, Bodiam, 
and Battle. A full index accompanies this pleasing 
picture of modern England, which deserves and enjoys a 
widespread popularity. After quitting Soho Old and 
New London, Part XXVIII., proceeds by St. Giles's to 
Covent Garden. Among very numerous illustrations are 
views of the two great neighbouring patent houses at dif- 
ferent periods in their history, including Covent Garden 
in course of destruction by fire. ' Rich's Glory ' repro- 
duces a curious old caricature. A view of Great Queen 
Street in 1850 shows it still a residential spot. With 
Part LXXII. of the Encyclopaedic Dictionary, the sixth 
and penultimate volume is completed. The part includes 
"Suspired" to ' Tartuffism." Very full information is 
given under "Swedenborgian," "Swine" and its com- 
pounds, " Sword," " Syllogism," " Symmetry," " Syna- 
gogue." and "Tabernacle." Celebrities of the Century, 
Part XII., begins at George Mac Donald and ends ;-.t 
Max Miiller. The two poets Morris, Lewis and William ; 
the two Morleys, Henry and John ; Moody, the preacher; 
Helena Modjeska; Sir John Millais, R.A.; Louise Michel; 
and the Rev. J. P. Mahaffy are among the numerous 
living possessors of celebrity. In The Holy Land and 
the Bille, Part IV., we are in the land of the Philistines, 
and have representations of the supposed site of Gath, 
and of Ashdod, the modern Esdud. The Hill of Adul- 
lam is also depicted. After some revelations concerning 
pearl fishing, Picturesque Australasia, Part XV., takes 
the reader to some portions of Australia worthy of the 
qualifying adjective. Dunedin to Christchurch reveals 
some spots of magical beauty, and much of the scenery 
on the Murray and its tributaries is enchanting. Nau- 
xnann's History of Music, Part XXII., carries English 
music througu the reigns of Henry Fill., Edward VI., 
Mary, and Elizabeth, a brilliant period in our musical 
record. Following this comes the spread of the musical 
" Zopt " over central Europe, with an account of the 
origin of that curious word. The first page of Sebastian 
Bach's autograph pianoforte Fantasia in c minor is given 
in facsimile. Three acts of Macbeth ' are given in Part 
XL VIII. of the Illustrated Shakespeare. No coquetting 
with modern views as to the character of Lady Macbeth 
is visible. That grim heroine is shown large of mould, 
and savage as well as handsome of feature. Macbeth, 
too, is every inch a soldier. 

The last number of Le Lime in its old shape has 
appeared, and brings with it title, indexes, &c., to the 
closing volume. With its brilliant ' Conte pour les Biblio- 

philes ' of MM. Octave Uzanne and Albert Robida, let- 
ting in new li^bt upon the " Romanticists," we should 
regret even more than we do its cessation were it not to 
be succeeded by another Le Livre, to be even more 
attractive. Something, moreover, may be said in favour 
of concluding a set of books while the interest in them ia 
unexhausted. In its class Le Lime has been a distinct 
success, and it will retain a place in all bibliographical 
libraries. Upon its successor it will be time enough to 
speak when it arrives. The same energy and knowledge 
that have made the old Le Livre will support the new. 

Br an oversight Miss Kate Norgate was credited with 
the authorship of the article on Geoffrey de Muschamp, 
Bishop of Lichfield, in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' instead of that on Geoffrey, Archbishop of 

ta Correspondent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

A. E. E. The verses quoted by Carlyle, beginning, 
Work ! and pure slumbers shall wait on thy pillow, 
are by Frances S. Osgood, and are entitled ' Labour.' 

MRS. SCARLETT. The Antiquary is still in existence, 
and will probably answer your requirements. It is pub- 
lished by Elliot Stock, of Paternoster Row. 

S. PASFIELD OLIVER ("J. Durant Breval "). See 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' and ' N. & Q. ' 7th 
S. i. 127, 210. The title of the book of travels is ' Re- 
marks on Several Parts of Europe,' 4 vols , 1723-1738. _ 
2. ("Robert Danvers.") Full particulars concerning 
this colonel of Dragoons, who ultimately became a Fifth 
Monarchy man, are given in the 'Dictionary of National 

A. CALDER ("Miss Glyn "). Isabella Glyn was born 
in Edinburgh, May 22, 1823, of a Presbyterian family, 
and studied acting in Paris under Mich^let. A sketch 
of her career, by the late J. A. Heraud, the particulars 
of which were supplied by herself, appeared in Tallis's 
Dramatic Magazine for December, 1850. A biography 
of this actress may be expected in the next volume of 
the ' Dictionary of National Biography.' 

HOLLAND, THE ACTOR (7 th S. viii. 486). Some replies 
to URBAN dealing with Charles Holland are acknow- 
ledged. The two individuals, however, are not the same. 

H. V. V. (" Man is immortal till his work is done "). 
Asked 6 th S. v. 309, and still unanswered. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at t'ne Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7"> S. IX. JAN. 18, '0.] 




CONTENTS. N' 212. 

NOTES : Capt. John Smith, 41 Queen Anne Boleyn, 43 
Marriages of Thomas, Lord Darcy St. Sativola, 44 Clink 
Distances of the Earth from the Sun Aristides : Theo- 
phrastns Lady de la Beche, 45-Mail Coaches in 1836 
Monument in Lichfield Cathedral" Of a' the airts," 46 
Stained Glass in Angers Cathedral Similar Passages, 47. 

QUERIES : Codger Cob-nuts Cob at Gibraltar Use of 
Flagons at Communion Sir William Milnes, 47 Galway 
Tribes Sir John Jems Andrew Snape Portrait of Shak- 
speare-Abraham Venables Kiddlewink ' The Art of Com- 
plaisance ' Church Boot James Bassett, 48 Lovell 
Boasted Alive Sowcark Origin of Terminations Authors 
Wanted, 49. 

REPLIES: Burning of Women, 49 Silverpoint, 50 Thrus 
House -Rookwood Family, 51 Anna Chamberlayne Earl 
of Deloraine Cromwell Swords-Cog Deaths of near Kin- 
dred Mittens as Funeral Decorations, 52 -Gulf of Lyons 
' History of the Rod '-Portrait of Burns Burial on North 
Side of a Church, 53 Stanzas on Miss Lepel Hares not 
eaten by Gauls Hildebrand Horden Italian Vengeance- 
Practice of the Couvade, 54 Leghs of Acton Burnell Dr. 
Kuper Eve Cathedral Letters of Naturalization Le- 
quarrg Chapel Spenserian Commentary, 55 Robert Burton 
Sir J. Hawkwood The Cockpit, 56 Blunders of Authors 
Early Church in Dover Robert, Earl of Lindsey But and 
Ben, 57 Coronation " Black-letter lawyer "Title of Book 
Wanted, 58 Authors Wanted, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Henry Irving Shakespeare,' 
Vol. VII. Baring-Gould's ' Old Country Life ' Masson's 
' Writings of De Quincey 'Bye's ' Carrow Abbey 'Lloyd's 
Lewis's 'Ancient Laws of Wales 'Owen's 'Gerald the 
Welshman ' Dod's ' Peerage.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(Continued from p. 2.) 

When writing of Ferneza's book I forgot to men- 
tion that, according to Prof. Arber, Don Paacual 
de Gayangos had seen a printed translation of the 
Italian " history " rendered into Spanish by a 
Montalvo.* Let us hope that the Senor will kindly 
favour us with a short description of that biblio- 
graphical curiosity. I have reason to suspect that 
he is mistaken, and it is not impossible that when 
writing to Prof. Arber he had another book in his 
mind, viz., Fray Francisco de Montalbo's ' Historia 
de las Gverras de Vngria,' &c. (Palermo, 1693), a 
copy of which is in the library of the Madrid Aca- 
demia de la Historia, probably the very copy which 
he has seen. 

To revert to Capt. Smith. As his travels and 
doings in Western Europe do not at present con- 
cern us, we will allow him to journey to Venice 
and embark at Malamocco unmolested, and not 
find fault with his route to Gratz either, buL simply 
mention that, according to his narrative,t he crossed 
the Adriatic to Ragusa, and " spending some time 
to see that barren broken coast of Albania and 
Dalmatia," he proceeded to Capo d'Istria, and from 

* Smith's ' Works/ edited by E. Arber, introduction, 
p. xxiii, 

t End of chap. iii. 

there " travelling the maine of poore Slavonia " to 
Lubbiano, he finally reached the capital of Styria, 
where at the court of the Archduke Ferdinand of 
Austria he met "an English man and an Irish 
lesnite " who introduced him to " many brave 
gentlemen of good quality," amongst others " to 
Lord Ebersbaught, the Baron Kisell, General of 
the Archduke's Artillery," and to " Colonel Voldo, 
Earl of Meldritcb," all three bold warriors whose 
names would have remained unknown to posterity 
and their valiant deeds unrecorded in history if our 
conscientious historian had not rescued them from 
oblivion. From Gratz Smith journeyed to Vienna. 
How he fared afterwards is related in the following 

Our author begins the story of his deeds on 
Hungarian soil* by telling his readers that "after 
the losse of Caniza, the Turkes with twentie thou- 
sand besieged the strong Towne of Olumpagh," 
and continues by relating how the garrison got 
into sore straits until he appeared on the scene as 
a deus ex machind, and came to their rescue with a 
" strange invention " of torch-signals and the un- 
usual "stratagem" of employing dummy "mus- 
ketteers" to mislead the unsophisticated Turks. 
The first device enabled " Kisell, the General of 
the Archduke's Artillery," to inform Lord Ebers- 
baught, "the Governour [of the fortress], his 
worthy friend," that he was about to attack the 
Turks at a specified time and hour, and to ask him 
to co-operate with the army of relief. The combined 
attack and sally of the Christians was successful. 
The stratagem of dummies confused the Turks, 
and enabled "Kisell to put 2,000 good soldiers into 
the town before the morning." Many of the Turks 
were killed, the rest of them very much scared, 
and, to cut a long story short, they were obliged to 
raise the siege and return to Kanizsa. In acknow- 
ledgment of the good services rendered by him to 
the Imperial cause Smith was rewarded and made 
captain of 250 horsemen under the mysterious 
" Earle of Meldritch." 

Palfrey and Prof. Arber think that by Olum- 
paghf Ober-Limbach (in Hung. Felso Lendva) is 
meant. A castle of that name exists in Hungary 
close to Kanizsa, but it is impossible to find any 
record of a siege at the period in question. Kanizsa 
as we know, surrendered on Oct. 22, 1600, to 
Ibrahim, the Grand Vizier, who, having placed a 
very strong garrison therein, shortly after re- 
crossed the Save and went into winter quarters at 
Belgrade. The troops thus left behind often sallied 
forth on foraging expeditions into the neighbour- 
hood, but they could have hardly spared 20,000 
men to lay a regular siege to a fortified place. 

Olumpagh was, according to Smith's account, on 
or near the plain of Hysnaburg or, according to 

* Chap. iv. As Smith reprints the narrative from 
Purchaa without comment, he accepts all responsibility, 
f Olimpach, according to Purchas. 



[7 lh S. IX. JAN. 18, '90. 

Purchas, Eysnaburge and a place in its neigh- 
bourhood is named Knousbruck by Smith and 
Konbrucke by Purchas. A river is said to have 
divided the Turks, and after the conclusion of 
the siege and retreat of the enemy Kisell is 
said to have been received with much honour at 
Kerment (i.e., Kormend). With the exception 
of Knousbruck, which I have not been able to 
identify,* all the places named are in the county 
of Vas ; but it is a far cry from Ober-Limbach 
to Eisenburg, the two places being some thirty- 
five English miles apart, and as the dummy 
" musketteers " were placed in the plain of 
Hysnaburg, and must therefore have been masked 
by several groups of mountains lying between 
the two places, it is difficult to understand how 
they could have influenced the course of the 
attack, to say nothing of the range at which 
their sham muskets were called upon to do execu- 

The only point of interest in this chapter of 
which the historian will take notice is that, 
whether the signalling with torchlights described 
by Smith actually took place or not, to him is 
certainly due the honour of having invented, or 
at least first published in print, a code of signal- 
ling many years before that the invention of which 
is variedly ascribed to Admiral Penn or James II. 
when Duke of York. 

The next chapter (chap, v.) treats of the siege oi 
Alba Regalis (or Stuhlweisenburg in German) by 
the Imperial troops under the Duke of Mercoeur, 
during which another invention of Capt. Smith 
was to play an important part, viz., his " fiery 
dragons," made out of " round-bellied earthen- 
ware pots " filled with gunpowder and musket 
balls and covered with a mixture of pitch, brim- 
stone, turpentine, &c. A full recipe is given oi 
the way in which they were prepared. Though 
ordinary bombs were known since 1433, when 
Malatesta, Prince of Rimini, is credited to have 
invented them, this combination of bombs anc 
stinkpots was, we may presume, entirely new, anc 
we need not be astonished, therefore, at the con 
stemation they produced among both Turks anc 
Christians, according to Smith ; though I have con 
suited several contemporary accounts of the siegi 
and not one of them mentions a word about the 
" fiery dragons." The name of the commander o 
the besiegers' artillery is given by Smith as "Sulch, 
by Purchas as "Suits." The "copyist" as w 
see, is nearer the truth and " more scrupulously 
careful" than our eye-witness. It is before thi 
Count von Sultz, well known in history, that Capt 
Smith, as he informs us, carried out on a forme 
occasion his first experiments with the " fier 
dragons " at Komarom, the virgin fortress on th 
Danube, since become famous through its heroi 

* Probably the " Hoheprukh " shown on Mercator 

efence by General Klapka, during the War of 
ndependence in 1848-9. 

The history of the siege of Alba Regalis, its 

main incidents, such, e. g., as Count Russworm's- 

tratagem of surprising and capturing one of the 

uburbs, named Sziget,* at night by wading with hi 

roops through a muddy lake which until then was 

onsidered impassable, are well known. Palfrey 

was very much struck with the occurrence of this 

word "Segeth" in Smith's account of the siege, and 

xclaims, "Here is a strong indication that the 

narrator [i. e., Smith] was an eye- witness, ignorant 

>f the Hungarian language." It is difficult to see 

he force of this argument. The word occurs in 

vnolles on p. 1135 (third edition), and was, no 

doubt, copied with the rest of the story. 

Alba Regalis we know from history, fell on 
Sept. 17, 1601. The events which followed its fall 
are related by Smith in the next chapter (chap, vi.)- 
Authenticated history relates that the new Grand 
Vizier Hassan Djemidji, having arrived too late 
:o prevent the fall of " the right arm of Buda," as 
the Turks called Alba Regalis, endeavoured to 
reconquer it for the Sultan ; but before he could 
attempt a siege he had to wage a battle under it* 
walls with the Duke of Mercoeur's army. He was 
oadly beaten on the plain of Sdrret (? Capt. Smith's 
" Girke "), the Pasha of Buda and the Kiaya 
Mohammed, besides several other high officers, 
being among the slain. He thereupon withdrew 
bis troops and hastened to the relief of Kanizsa, 
which was at that time besieged by the Archduke 
Ferdinand. The Duke of Mercoeur, on the other 
hand, sent Russworm to the assistance of the 
Imperials. Thus far Capt. Smith is borne out by 
established facts. He gives us the additional 
information that he had a horse killed under him and 
was himself wounded ; and further that the " Earl 
of Meldritch," under whom he served, was sent to 
assist " Busca "t against Prince Sigismund of 

In the following chapter (chap, vii.), " the un- 
happie Siege of Caniza" isvery briefly touched upon. 
The opening statement, so far as it relates to the 
unhappy issue of the siege, is perfectly true. We 
are told that " the worthy Lord Rosworme had not 
a worse journey to the miserable Siege of Caniza 
(where by the extremitie of an extraordinary con- 
tinuing tempest of haile, wind, frost and snow 

the Christians were forced to leave their Tents and 

Artillery, and what they had ) than the noble 

Earle of Meldritch had to Transilvania." The 
Archduke Ferdinand, as already mentioned, had 
laid siege to Kanizsa on Sept. 1, 1601, with an 
army of 30,000 men. The defender of the fortress 
was the brave Hasan Teryaki (i. e. , Hassan " the 

* Palfrey is right; "Sziget" means an island in 
Hungarian. In the present instance it is also the name 
of the suburb. 

f Purchas rightly names him Basta. 

7 lh S.LX. JAN. 18,'90.] 



opium-eater "), a man of whom his countrymen are 
justly proud. The siege had already lasted three 
weeks when the news of the loss of Alba Regalis 
reached the camp of the beleaguering army. In 
order to intimidate the garrison, the heads of the un- 
fortunate Pasha of Buda and the Kiaya Mohammed, 
which had been sent by Archduke Matthias to 
Ferdinand,* were stuck on spears and displayed in 
front of the trenches in full view of the defenders. 
But Hassan assembled his soldiers, and in a power- 
ful harangue endeavoured to persuade them that 
the heads were not those of the two pashas. He 
informed them, also, that it was his firm resolution 
to defend the place to the bitter last. " Ibrahim," 
said he, " had not been able to take Kanizsa until 
he had made a solemn vow to devote its revenues 
to the holy city of Medina; and the Prophet 
would never allow a town which belonged to his 
holy tomb to fall into the hands of infidels.' 1 
*' Besides," he added, " the enemies commenced the 
.siege on the very day on which all true believers 
celebrated the anniversary of the birth of the Pro- 
phet," a circumstance, in his opinion, which alone 
made the success of the Giaours utterly impossible. 
The speech had the desired effect. The garrison held 
out until the arrival of the army brought to their 
relief by the Grand Vizier, but more so a tempest of 
snow of unusual violence, accompanied by intense 
cold, compelled the archduke to raise the siege 
on Nov. 18, and decamp.t Thus far as regards 
Kanizsa. What sort of journey " the Earl of Meld- 
xitch " had we are unable to verify. 

( To le continued.) 

In Ashton's preface to his ' Works ' he states : 
"Americans are utterly astonished at the apathy 
shown by the English to the memory of a veritable 
- worthy,' Capt. John Smith. On the other aide of the 
Atlantic they would fain claim him as their own, if they 
could, and they cannot comprehend the indifference to, 
and ignorance of, the details of his life. It cannot be 
from lack of interesting particulars, for his life was one 
peculiarly adventurous, bordering almost on the romantic, 
and his adventures were related by himself, and others, 
with a terse and rugged brevity that is very charming. 
In all Biographies he is styled ' an Adventurer,' and in 
all probability would never have received a notice at all, 
had it not been for the peculiarly romantic connexion 
between him and Pocahontas. Modern scepticism has, of 
course, endeavoured to throw doubts as to the reality of 
Smith's story, but a moment's reflection will show that it 
was put to the severest test, and it was never once con- 
temporaneously questioned. When Pocahontas came over 
here in 1616, Smith wrote a latter to Queen Anne (con- 
sort of James I.) commending her to Her Majesty, and de- 
tailing her various services to himself and the Colony at 
large. Of her saving his life he writes thus : 'After some 
six weeks fatting among those " Salvage Courtiers," at 
the minute of my execution she hazarded the beating out 

* See the Archduke's letter to Archduke Albert in 
' Monumenta Hungarias Historica,' Diplomataria, vol. iii. 
p. 161. 

t Hammer, vol. riii. pp. 9 seq. Knolles, vol. i. p. 795. 

of her own brains to save mine, and not only that, but BO 
prevailed with her father that I was safely conducted to 
James Towne.' Can any one seriously think that if it 
were a fabrication he would so write the Queen, well 
knowing that Pocahontas was here in the country, would 
be sure to be questioned on the matter by every one that 
came in contact with her, and that either she, or her 
husband, John Rolfe, could at once explicitly deny it, 
and thus cause instant discovery, if it were a falsehood ? " 

St. John's Wood. 

MR. LEWIS L. KROPF, in his note on Capt. 
John Smith, says of our Lincolnshire worthy, 
" One feels inclined to suspect that he has not 
been at all to the south-east of Europe." Does 
not MR. KROPF here overlook the fact, so strongly 
insisted on by Prof. Arber in proof of Smith's 
veracity, that in 1614 he named several places in 
Virginia (Cape Tragbigzauld was one) after per- 
sons who had befriended or things that had hap- 
pened to him during his travels ? These designa- 
tions were published by him in his 'Description of 
New England' many years before he had any 
thought of writing his ' True Travels and Adven- 
tures,' and when, apparently, he could have had no 
motive for deception. C. C. B. 

MR. L. L. KROPF has chosen an excellent 
motto. But a reference to its source will enable 
him to make it more exact. It comes originally 
from Cicero : 

" Nam quis nescit, primam esse historiae legem, ne 
quid falsi dicere audeat .' Deinde ne quid veri non 
audeat 1 Ne qua suspicio gratia sit in scribendo ? Ne 
quid simultatis ? " ' De Oratore,' ii. xv. 62. 



On Jan. 1, 1890, a Tudor Exhibition was 
opened in London, containing many portraits and 
relics of this family, which for more than a cen- 
tury ruled England, and amongst them a por- 
trait or portraits painted in oils of this unfortunate 
queen will be found. Perhaps it may be remem- 
bered that some time ago in ' N. & Q.' attention 
was drawn by me to the fact that the colour of 
hair, complexion, and eyes in old oil paintings 
cannot now be received as evidence, as age tends 
very much to darken and dim the colouring. 

There is a portrait of Anne Boleyn by Holbein 
at Warwick Castle, which no doubt was painted 
about 1534, during her short reign of prosperity as 
Queen of England. One engraving of this picture 
represents her as dark in complexion, and another 
as singularly fair ; but both these examples of en- 
graving are of modern date. In both she is repre- 
sented as wearing a hood stiffened and a dress cut 
square in front. It would be really interestmg to 
know what her personal appearance was. bnafc- 
spere, in ' Henry VIII.,' Act IV. BO. L, much ex- 
tols her beauty, and gives a graphic description oi 



[7 th S. IX. JAN. 18, 'SO. 

her coronation at Westminster Abbey, which tool 
place on June 1, 1533 : 
2nd Gent. Thou hast the sweetest face I ever looke 

Sir, as I have a soul, she is an angel. 

He mentions her train being borne by the olc 
Duchess of Norfolk, her aunt. Yet within three 
short years from this time Anne Boleyn was 
branded as guilty of the crimes of adultery am 
incest, and beheaded on the Tower Green. 

Writers seem to differ very much in regard to 
her personal appearance. W. H. Ainswortb, for 
instance, in his ' Windsor Castle,' observes : 

" Anne Boleyn's features were exquisitely formed 
and though not regular, far more charming than if they 
had been so. Her nose slightly aquiline. Her neck long 
and slender. Her eyes large and blue " (bk. i. c. iii.). 

He, however, mentions that the Comte de Chateau- 
briand, a contemporary writer, though rather dis- 
paraging her personal attractions, speaks in rap- 
turous terms of her accomplishments, as dancing 
and music. The passage is rather too long for 
quotation in these pages. 

In a recent memoir of ' Anne Boleyn,' by 
Paul Friedmann, we are informed that in 1521, 
several years before her marriage to Henry VIII. , 
on her return from France "she had now be- 
come a young woman, not very handsome, but of 
elegant and graceful figure, with very fine black 
eyes and hair, and well-shaped hands " (chap. i.). 
The writer goes on to say, " She was naturally 
quick and witty, gifts her French education 
had fully developed." It will be seen from 
these writers that their description of Anne's 
appearance varies considerably, whilst Shakspere 
merely gives a general description of her beauty. 
In the above-mentioned book, 'Anne Boleyn,' 
chap, xviii., it is stated that she was beheaded by 
the executioner from Calais with a " heavy two- 
handled [qy. two-handed ?] blade," the unfortu- 
nate queen first having kneeled down on the scaf- 
fold in front of the chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula, 
in the Tower, on May 19, 1536, only five days after 
her sentence. The mode of execution may be 
doubted, as most likely the broad axe and block 
were used. He thus sums up her character: "Anne 
was not good : she was incredibly vain, ambitious, 
unscrupulous, coarse, fierce, and relentless " (chap, 
xviii.). Few students of the history of that period 
would endorse this opinion, or speak so depreciat- 
ingly of her. Yet undoubtedly she was ambitious, 
and her desire to become queen rendered her un- 
scrupulous as to the means employed. Most pro- 
bably Henry's disappointment at not having a male 
heir had much to do with hastening her downfall. 

At the fine mansion, Blickling Hall, in Norfolk, 
built by Chief Justice Hobart in the reign of 
James I., now the seat of the Marchioness of 
Lothian, may be seen, on the grand staircase, two 
wooden statues of Anne Boleyn and her daughter 

Queen Elizabeth. An older mansion than the 
present edifice was one of the numerous seats of 
the Boleyn family, and at Blickling Anne is said 
to have spent her earlier years. In the fine Per- 
pendicular church of Salle, not far from Blickling, 
are many small brasses of the Boleyns, and a large 
slab in the nave is said to cover the remains of the 
unfortunate queen ; but this is merely a legend, as 
she was buried in the little chapel in the Tower. 
Perhaps in her early days she had worshipped in 
Salle church, where her uncle, Simon Boleyn, 
officiated as priest. It is perfectly surprising to 
note the great number of the Boleyns and their 
relatives the Howards who fell either on the battle- 
field or the scaffold, the very last of Henry VIII.'s 
victims being Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the 
most accomplished man of his time, and first cousin 
of Queen Anne Boleyn. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

columns afford such an admirable medium for cor- 
rections to be made in the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography,' that the contributors to that work 
ought themselves to be glad to make use of them 
to rectify their own mistakes. I therefore crave 
permission to set right what I have said about the 
two marriages of Thomas, Lord Darcy, which I 
Bnd I have given in the reverse order, a thing the 
more inexcusable because the right order is given 
by Dugdale, in his Darcy pedigree. I was misled 
by a letter in the Cottonian MSS., signed "D. 
Darcy," which has hitherto been supposed to have 
Deen addressed to Lord Darcy by his wife, and 
which was certainly written during the Northern 
Rebellion of 1537, into the belief that Dousabella 
Tempest must have been his second wife, and Lady 
Edith Nevill his first. I have since, however, found 
ndisputable evidence (which will appear hereafter 
n the ' Calendar of Henry VIII.') that Dousabella 
was really the first, as Dugdale declares her to 
lave been. The letter signed " D. Darcy" in the 
Cottonian MSS. (Vespasian F., xiii. 127b.) 
appears, on closer examination, not to have been 
addressed to Lord Darcy, but to his son, Sir George 
Darcy, by his wife Dorothy, as will also appear in 
he 'Calendar.' As to the Lady Edith, though 
Dugdale inaccurately calls her Elizabeth, and says 
she was sister, instead of daughter, of Lord Sandys, 
" have no doubt he is right in saying that she 
died on Aug. 22, 1529, though I have only stated 
hat she was alive at least as late as 1522. Row- 
an d, in his 'Account of the Family of Nevill' 
Table II., at end), says she died at Stepney on 
hat day, and Dugdale says she was buried at the 
Triars Minors at Greenwich. 


ST. SATIVOLA. (See 7 th S. viii. 324.) By what 
s probably an error of the press, " St. Satmole " is 

7 th S. IX. JAN. 18, '90.] 



given as the patron saint of one of the Exeter 
parishes, instead of St. Safcvole, i. e. , St. Sativola, 
now modernized into St. SidwelL The virgin St. 
Sativole is an entirely local saint, and I do not know 
of any church bearing her name but this one out- 
side the old east gate of Exeter. It was built on the 
traditional site of her martyrdom, and according to 
William Worcester her body lay within its walls. 
Worcester writes, " Sancta Sativola virgo canoni- 
zata, jacet in Ecclesia Sanctse Sativolse civitatis 
Exonifo ultra portam orientalem." An ancient 
well near the church, by a misconception of the 
origin of the name, is or was called St. Sid's Well. 
The name sometimes appears as Sithewella, which 
has given rise to the tale that the sainted lady was 
decapitated by a scythe. She appears in the east 
window of Exeter Cathedral with a scythe in her 
hand and a well behind her, a pictorial rebus on 
the transformed name. She is also said to be re- 
presented on one of the columns of the cathedral 
carrying her severed head. She is commemorated 
on Dec. 18. The date of her martyrdom is placed 
somewhere after the middle of the seventh cen- 
tury. Mr. Freeman says (' Historic Towns,' 
p. 15):- 
"Her worship is any how older than the time of 

/Ethelstan But it is hard to make anything of the 

saint herself, of her father Benna, and her sisters Juth- 
wara and Eadwara. Their names at least must be cor- 
ruptions of something English." 


CLINK, A PLACE-NAME. Near Witton Gilbert, 
about four miles from the city of Durham, is a 
place of modern growth called The Clink. An 
aged pitman, overhearing a learned discussion as 
to the origin of the name, thus accounted for it : 
" Aa say, mistor, ye "re quite wrang. Ye see, when 
the engine was forst set a-gannin up there hor 
chain made such a clinking noise that we just 
christened hor ' The Clink,' and she 's nivvor been 
caaled owt else since." J. T. F. 

Bishop Hatfield'e Hall, Durham. 

FROM THE SUN. The great value and utility of 
' Chambers's Encyclopaedia,' now being reissued, 
renders it desirable to point out an unfortunate 
error in the last- published volume (the fourth), in 
the article on ' The Earth.' Speaking of its vary- 
ing distance from the sun, the writer says, " The 

minimum distance, attained in June, is and 

the maximum in December." As a matter of fact, 
in this period of the world's history it is nearest 
the sun about the end of the year, and farthest 
from him, or at maximum distance, at the begin- 
ning of July. But in consequence of a slow pro- 
gressive motion of the line of apsides, these times 
are gradually becoming later, a whole revolution 
of that line occupying nearly 365 d. 6 h. 14 no., 
whilst the duration of a tropical year (the year of 
ordinary use, from its regulating the seasons) is 

about twenty-five minutes less than this, which is 
called by astronomers the anomalistic year. 

It is worth notice that last year (1889) the earth 
never reached its least distance from the sun, as it 
was in that position on the afternoon of Decem- 
ber 31, 1888, and the next occurred on New 
Year's Day of the present year (January 1, 1890). 
The sun was last at maximum distance from u? 
on the evening of July 1, 1889. W. T. LYNN. 

Lord Howden, in ' Rogers and his Contemporaries, 
by P. W. Clayden (Lond., 1889, vol. ii. p. 241), 
it appears that a curious edition of Theophrastus, 
which Rogers had showed him, brought to his 
recollection a remark of Theophrastus upon the 
character of Aristides, as he thought, in which it 
was pointed out "that he was just and upright in 
all private matters, but not always in public affairs, 
where the interest of the State required injustice." 
Wishing to verify so "startling a position in 
ethics," he sought for a copy of Theophrastus in 
the circulating libraries within his reach, but was 
unable to meet with one at St. Leonards, or " even 
in Hastings." So he wrote to Rogers for the book, 
being uncertain whether he was not wrongly sap- 
posing that this " bit of international morality 
was in Theophrastus at all." 

He was not wrong in ascribing this to Theo- 
phrastus ; but it is preserved where a major-general 
and equerry would have been more likely to have 
seen it, in Plutarch's ' Life of Aristides,' where, in 
the Langhornea' translation, vol. ii. p. 475, Lond., 
1819, there is : 

" Upon the whole Theophrastus says, that in all his 
own private concerns, and in those of his fellow citizens, 
he was inflexibly just, but in affairs of state he did many 
things according to the exigency of the case to serve his 
country, which seemed to have need of the assistance of 
injustice. And he relates that, when it was debated in 
council, whether the treasure deposited at Delos should 
be brought to Athens, as the Samians had advised, though 
contrary to treaties, on its coming to his turn to speak, 
he said, ' It was not just, but it was expedient.' " 


life and numerous alliances of this lady scarcely 
seem to have received sufficient notice from 
genealogists. She was a daughter of Michael de 
Poynings and Margery, his wife, whose family is 
not known to me. Her first marriage was to 
Edmund Bacoun, who died in 1336-7, leaving as 
his heirs John Burghersh (son of Maud de Kerde- 
ston, daughter of Margaret Bacoun, daughter of 
the said Edmund, by his first wife Joan Brewes) 
and Margery, only child of Edmund and Margery 
Poynings, his second wife (Nicolas's ' Calendar of 
Heirs,' art. " Bacoun "). By Aug. 8, 1337, Margery 
Poynings had married her second husband, Nicholas 
de la Beche, Keeper of the Tower of London (Close 
Roll, 10 & 11 Edw. III.). 



[7> S. IX. JAN. 18, 'SO. 

Lysons tells us that Beaumys Castle, near Read- 
ing, built by Nicholas de la Beche in 1338, 
sustained " an outrageous assault in 1352, when 
John de Dalton, coming with an armed force, 
killed Michael de Poyningp, uncle to Lord Poyn- 
ings, Thomas le Clerk, and others ; frightened the 
chaplain to death, and carried off several prisoners, 
among whom was Margaret, Lady de la Beche." 
The following extracts from the Close Rolls will 
throw further light on this statement, and will also 
correct one or two inaccuracies in the above account. 

" Margery de la Beche, lawful wife of Gerard del 
Isle, was carried off last Good Friday, before dawn, 
by Sir John Dalton, William, son of Sir John 
Trussel, and Sir Edmund de Mauncestre, from 
Beaumes to Reading, where our son Lionel is, 
Custodian of the realm, to the disrespect of the 
said Custodian." April 21, 1347. 

On the same day, John Darcy, Keeper of the 
Tower, is commanded to receive Sir John Dalton 
and his companions, Robert his father, &c., on 
account of their abduction of Margery de la Beche, 
the murder of Michael de Ponynges le Vncle and 
Thomas le Clerc of Shipton, and other felonies, 
committed at Beaumes, near Reading (Close Roll, 
21 Edw. III., part i.). On June 28, 1348, men- 
tion is made of " Sir John Dalton, who married 
Margery de la Beche" (Ibid., 22 Edw. III., part i.). 
She must have died very shortly afterwards, for on 
the same Roll is an order for the sale of the woods 
pertaining to Margery, who was wife of Nicholas 
de la Beche, " ore la femme Johan," son of Robert 
de Dalton, by reason of the forfeiture of the said 
John for treasons and felonies, and on Nov. 30, 
1349, we come upon " Margery, widow of Nicholas 
de la Beche, deceased (defuncta) they had no male 
heir" (Close Roll, 23 Edw. III., part ii.). She 
was not improbably one of the numerous victims 
of the terrible " Black Death " of 1348-9. 

Gerard de Lisle, who appears to have been Mar- 
gery's third husband, is not easy to identify, and 
I should be glad of any information on this point, 
and also of an answer to the query, Did Margery 
leave female issue by Nicholas de la Beche ? I 
cannot discover that she had any child save Mar- 
gery Bacoun, who was returned as aged fifteen, 
and then wife of William de Molynes, in 1352, 
and twenty-one in 1361 ('Calendar of Heirs,' art. 
"Bacoun"). The Close Roll for the former year 
states that her proof of age had been taken before 
Oct. 13, 1352, and apparently not long before; 
that is to say, she was of the full age of fourteen 
years at this date. These dates look as if she 
were born about, if not after, the death of her 
father. She was dead on July 21, 1399, and left 
a family of at least four sons. HERMENTRUDE. 

following paragraph from the New Monthly Maga- 
ine for 1836, when coaching had reached its acme of 

speed and comfort, and also when it was soon to be 
abandoned on some of the principal roads in favour 
of the railways. Haydn says the Act for the trans- 
mission of mails by railways was passed in 1838 : 

"Maii Coaches in England. In England there are 55 
four-horse and 49 two-horse mails. In the four-horse 
mails the rate of travelling varies from 8 miles to 
10 miles 5 furlongs per hour. There is one exception, 
the Devonport and Falmouth mail, which goes only 
7 miles 2 furlongs per hour. The average is probably 
about 9 miles 2 furlong?. They all carry four inside 
passengers, and either three or four outside, except one 
which carries six outside, and two which carry eight. In 
the two-horse mails the rate varies from 6 miles to 
9 miles 2 furlongs, and will probably average about 
7 miles 6 furlongs. The passengers are almost invari- 
ably four inside and four outside. The average speed 
travelled by both classes is 8 miles 7 furlongs. The average 
mileage for four-horse mails is Ijd. per mile ; for two- 
horse mails, I$d. The rate of the London and Holyhead 
mail is 10 miles 1 furlong per hour ; of the London and 
Edinburgh, 9 miles 6 furlongs. The difference of 3 fur- 
longs per hour is equal to one-twenty-sixth part of the 

J. D. C. 

The one referred to below was perhaps destroyed 
in the Cromwellian siege of the city. The will of 
John Fraunces, of Formark, in the county of 
Derby, esquire, dated Dec. 27, 1602 : 

" First, I will that my mortall bodye be buried in the 
Church at Repingdon [Repton, seventeen miles from 
Lichfield and six from Derby] with such solempnitye as 
my executours in their discretions shall thinke fitt & 
convenient, as neare my late loving wief as may be. 

' Also I will that a convenient Tombe with two pic- 
tures of death in Image manner wrought & ingi aven be 
sett & raysed over the buriall place of me & my wief 
within two yeares next after my decease, after the 
example that is to be found in the He vpon the south 
side of the queere of y" minster at Litchfield, so that the 
charges & costes of y" said Tombe shall not exceed the 
somme of fyftye pounds." 

F. J. F. 

BURNS'S " OF A' THE AIRTS." Readers south of 
the Border who are now making, or have yet to 
make, their acquaintance with the poetry of Burns, 
may naturally be perplexed as to the choice of 
versions of the above song presented by two recent 
editors. In their interest, and in that of minute 
criticism, I would draw attention to the correct 
view. Prof. Palgrave, in his " Golden Treasury " 
collection, gives the song as consisting of four 
stanza?, while Mr. J. Logie Robertson, in his 
recent ' Selections from Burns,' for the Clarendon 
Press, prints only two. These respective readings 
are given without comment. Mr. Robertson's ver- 
sion, it should be noted, is the proper one ; it is 
quite certain that the sixteen additional lines 
which have periodically appeared in the numerous 
editions of Mr. Palgrave's dainty volume are 
spurious. The late Mr. Robert Chambers gives 
:heni in a foot-note in his unique edition of the 
poet's works, but mentions that they have usually 

7' h S. IX. JAN. 18, '90.] 


been ascribed to John Hamilton, a ruusicseller in 
Edinburgh. They did not appear in the original 
copy in Johnson's 'Museum.' Though the lines 
by Hamilton are not unworthy, as Mr. Chambers 
said, to appear on the same page with those of 
Burns, yet the external evidence against them 
should be sufficient, one would suppose, to debar 
them from a critical selection from the poet. 

W. B. 

may be well to note in your pages that there is in 
Musgrave's ' Nooks and Corners of Old France,' 
vol. ii. p. 33, an account of some stained glass in 
Angers Cathedral representing the martyrdom of 
St. Thomas of Canterbury. K. P. D. E. 


We drank the Syrian sun to sleep, 
Lord Tennyson, 'A Dream of Fair Women,' com- 
pare from an epigram of Callimachus : 
euvrja-drfv 6" ooxra/as a 

Smollett, in his translation of ' Gil Bias,' has : 

" I remember in particular two of my bottle com- 
panions, with whom I often drank down the night before 
we rose from table " (bk. v. c. i.). 

The Paddocks, Palgrave, Diss. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
rmmes and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

CODGER. Todd explains this as " contemptu- 
ously used for a miser, one who rakes together all 
he can," in accordance with his own conjectural 
derivation from Sp. eager, " to gather, get as he 
can." Later dictionaries all take this sense from 
him (Webster with wise expression of doubt), but 
none of them gave any evidence. I have not heard 
it so used, nor does any suspicion of such a sense 
appear in any of the thirty quotations sent in 
for the word by our readers. Has Todd's 
explanation any basis ? A schoolboy to whom I 
have spoken seems to have heard it so used ; but 
he may have confused it with cadger, which many 
take as the same. J. A. H. MURRAY. 


COB-NUTS. Are these a variety of the common 
hazsl-nut ; or is the name merely given to large, 
well-grown nuts ? J. A. H. MURRAY. 


COB AT GIBRALTAR. This was the name under 
which the Spanish piece-of-eight passed current in 
Ireland in the seventeenth century. I have been 
told that the name is still in common use at 

Gibraltar for the Spanish dollar. Can any one 
confirm this ; and, if possible, send us a quotation ? 


In the ' History of Hallamshire,' by the late 
Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., there is the following 
statement respecting Bradfield, which is an ancient 
parochial chapelry in the parish of Ecclesfield : 
" The number of communicants in Easter Sunday, 
1617, was 1,141, in which surely many children 
must have been included." As Bradfield is on the 
moors, and contains more than 38,000 acres, but 
only a thin and scattered population, the state- 
ment seems to be incredible. Nevertheless, I 
should like to know, as a matter of history, whether 
the number of communicants did not greatly 
diminish during the last century and first half of 
the present, else why are flagons amongst the com- 
munion plate of so many old parish churches, 
as well as cathedrals ? 

At Bradfield were two stupendous pewter flagons, 
which were formerly kept at the public-house, but 
have for many years been superseded by very 
beautiful modern plate. At Ecclesfield parish 
church we have, amongst the communion vessels 
of solid silver, two flagons, respectively dated 1713 
and 1759, each of which holds three quarts. Also, 
the Vicar of Ecclesfield receives thirty-two bottles 
of port wine for the Easter Communion, which the 
lord of the manor is bound by long custom to 
supply. The size of the vessels which I have 
mentioned certainly indicates that there was a 
time when the chalice held an insufficient supply 
of wine, and had to be replenished from the flagon. 

What I should like to know is whether the 
revival of spiritual religion in the Church, under 
the Evangelical system, did not tend to discourage 
a belief in the necessity of communion at the 
Lord's Table? Otherwise, how are these larger 
vessels to be accounted for in places where the 
chalice amply suffices? Was there ever a time 
when the Easter Communion was treated by mem- 
bers of our Church as the Jews treated their 
Passover ; and all who professed and called them- 
selves Christians became communicants on Easter 
Day ? Will Nonconformity explain the cause of 
change 1 Would the law enforcing sacramental 
test sufficiently account for the large vessels and 
great quantity of wine supplied for the Holy 
Communion 1 ? ALFRED GATTY, D.D. 

SIR WILLIAM MILNES. It is stated in Button's 
'History of Derby,' published in 1791, that Sir 
William Milnes was the judge who held the 
assizes at the market cross there in 1514. His 
name does not occur in any county history con- 
taining an account of the Milnes family to which 
I have access, and I should feel grateful to any 
one who would kindly suggest a source from 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. ix. JAH. is, -90. 

whence information relative to this judge and his 
family could be obtained. E. S. M. 

GALWAY TRIBES. Some of your correspondents 
may perhaps be able to supply the names of the 
families constituting the tribes of Galway. I 
believe the following are some of them : Blake, 
Bodkin, Browne, Burke, Daly, French, Joyce, 
Kirwan, Lynch, Martin. Perhaps the list is to 
be found in Hardiman, but I am unable to refer 
to it. Y. S. M. 

MON PLEAS. When was he admitted to the Middle 
Temple? When did he become a Q.C. and a 
Bencher ? I should be glad if any member of the 
Middle Temple would kindly ascertain these dates 
from the books of the inn. I may add that I do 
not want references to Foss, or to obituary notices 
in the Gent. Mag., Annual Register, or law maga- 
zines, &c. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' also tell 
me where Jervis was buried, and if there are any 
portraits of him in existence ? G. F. R. B. 

ANDREW SNAPE. Can any reader give me some 
information about Andrew Snape, farrier to King 
Charles II., and son of Dr. Snape, of Eton ? 


recently come into my possession, entitled ' Heads 
of all Fashions,' dated 1642, published anonymously, 
but enumerated in Bohn's ' Bibliography ' under 
the works of John Taylor the Water Poet. On 
the title-page is a woodcut representing seventeen 
heads, most of them rude caricatures, amongst 
which is a head of Shakespeare, copied from the 
Stratford bust of the poet. The text contains 
twenty-seven verses ; each verse describes a 
different head. No. 10 probably refers to Shake- 
speare. The lines run as follows : 

A Long-head cannot weare a little cap, 

The forehead is so distant from the nap. 

This head hath many whimsies in the Braine, 

Yet wonders much at Rome, at France, at Spain. 

These many plots have wrought against our Land, 

But this Long-head hopes they shall nere long stand. 

Is not this portrait of Shakespeare the first one 
which had appeared in a publication not devoted 
to his works ? MORRIS JONAS. 

ABRAHAM VENABLES. Can any reader give 
further information about a gentleman of this 
name, who lived in the seventeenth century? 
Abraham, who was a son of General Robert 
Venables, of Cheshire, sailed from England in a 
ship called the Friend's Adventure, and landed in 
Pennsylvania in 1682. He had a brother William, 
who married Miss Warrington, of Allerton, Staf- 
fordshire. The brother also emigrated, and settled 
in New Jersey. On his arrival in Pennsylvania 
Abraham is said to have gone southward, and to 

have founded the Virginian branch of the family. 
Is it known from what port the Friend's Adventure 
sailed; when and whom Abraham married; and 
what family he had ? Any of these particulars, or 
reference to any book which gives them, will be 
gratefully received. G. F. CROWTHER. 

25, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

KIDDLEWINK. Can any of your correspondents 
inform me what is the derivation of the word 
"kiddlewink," or "tiddledy winks" ? A friend tells 
me in the Midland Counties it denotes a house where 
beer is sold without a licence. Lately a game has 
been introduced here bearing the name of 
" Tiddledywinks." M. D. 

Lamaha House, Georgetown, Demerara. 
[" Tidlewink, a beer-shop. West." Halliwell.1 

tell me anything about the following book, which 
came into my hands lately ? It is not in Lowndes 
nor in Halkett and Laing's ' Dictionary ': 

"The | Art | of | Complaisance | or the | Means to 

oblige in | Conversation. | Qui nescit dissimulare, nescit 

| sivere. | The Second Edition. | London | Printed for 

John Starkey at the | Miter in Fleet-Street near | 

Temple Bar. 1697." 

The introductory letter " to his ingenious friend 
Mr. W. B." is signed "S. 0." The book contains 
an advertisement of another published at the same 
office, " The Rules of Civility, or certain ways of 
deportment observed amongst all persons of quality 
upon several Occasions." 


CHURCH ROOF. Can you tell me if there is any 
church in England with panelling roof showing the 
York and Lancaster roses side by side ? I should 
be grateful for any suggestions which would assist 
me in the restoration which I am about to com- 
mence. GORDON WICKHAM, Vicar. 

Bradford Abbas, Sherborne. 

JAMES BASSETT. I am about finishing a chart 
of the ancestors of Benjamin Harrison, President 
of the United States, among whom was William 
Bassett, born 1670 or 1671, whose seat (in New 
Kent, co. Virginia) was called Eltham. From the 
latter name I guess that he was a descendant of 
the James Bassett who (see Berry's ' Pedigrees of 
Kent ') married Mary, widow of Stephen Clarke, 
and daughter of William Roper, of Eltham, co. 
Kent, England (her mother being a daughter of 
Lord Chancellor Sir Thomas More). Is not that 
James Bassett identical with the James Bassett (a 
younger son of the Lord of Umberleigh) who, 
according to Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' left by his 
wife Mary two sons, Philip and Charles ? There is 
a misprinted date of James's death in the 'Landed 
Gentry,' viz. , 1859. Is not this Philip the person 
as to whom inquiry was made in vol. viiL of Fifth 

7* S. IX. JAW. 18, 'SO.] 



Series of 'N. & Q.' ? I suppose this Philip's 
name, with the date of his birth, 1557, and the 
true date of his father's death, and his mother's 
Christian name, are in a visitation ; it is said, 
" Inq. 3 Eliz." If any reader has carried down 
his descendants and those of his brother Charles, 
may I be allowed to have the benefit of his 
investigations ? My identifications are, of course, 
guesses ; it is just possible that they can be 
proved. I do not intend to put down in the chart 
anything that is uncertain. All I can say, unless 
some one can carry the line further back, is that 
William Bassett, of Eltham, New Kent, Va., born 
1670-71, was, as his tombstone says, son of Wil- 
liam Bassett, of Southampton, England, esquire, 
and Bridget, his wife. I am inclined to think 
that William, of Southampton, lived in Virginia 
at one time say about 1660 and that he was 
born about 1630, and was in some way connected 
with the Fellgate family, and that Bridget was a 
second wife. My desire to exhaust every available 
source of information is my apology for troubling 
you. My chart should be finished speedily, to have 
public interest. I therefore beg the favour of in- 
formation as soon as convenient. 


LOVELL FAMILY. Sir Galathiel Lovell, Knt., 
Baron of the Exchequer, born 1632 or 1633, died 

1713; married Mary, daughter of . Her 

maiden name required. Her arms, according to 
an old family document, were: Ar., on a fesse 
vert, between six crosses crosslet sable, 3 and 2, of 
first, three cinquefoils of the field. She died 1719. 

Samuel Lovell, Judge, entered at Gray's Inn 
1679 ; married Anna Maria Sergeant, who died 
1736. Her parentage and arms, if she bore any, 
required. He died in Jamaica 1706. 

Samuel Lovell, of Kensington, captain 3rd 
Regiment of Foot Guards, died 1751; married 

Mary, daughter of . Her maiden name and 

coat of arms wanted. , M. L. 

ROASTED ALIVE. In an old scrap-book I find 
the following : " January 8th. In 1643 one 
Thomas Chantrye de Clipstone entered an oven at 
Clipstone to be cured of the ague and died there." 
Can any one confirm this and give further parti- 
culars ? I\ HINDB. 


SOWCARK. Can any friend throw light upon 
the word " sowcark " in the extract below 1 It is 
clearly so spelled in the original, and occurs but 
twice as here given, not at all in vol. i. It is evi- 
dently some valuable perquisite formerly belonging 
to the warden : 

" ConsenBum est i. Quod Socii in posterum suis 

/ommuniis content! essent ; omnibus vero Appietantiis, 
Exequiie, Garni Aprugnae, Vino ad carnem aprugnam, 
et Ly Sheepe-money renuuciarent. ii. Quod D'nus Gustos 

hisce omnibus renunciaret, atque insuper Ly Sowcark, 
in quod nibil juris sibi in posterum competere pronun- 

In iii. warden is to have 30Z. for resigning the sow- 
cark, \l. 17s. 6d. for the appietancise, 40s. for the 
boar's meat, 20s. for the obits, 10s. for the sheep- 
money (' Merton Coll. Register,' vol. ii. p. 392, 
A.D. 1651). H. HURST. 


ORIGIN OF TERMINATIONS. Can you or any of 
your readers inform me as to the derivation of the 
termination of the following place-names ? Hel- 
vellyn, Dolwyddellen, Carned Llewelyn, and 
Clogwyn yr Helwyn. C. A. S. 

Oh, the days when we were young, 
When we laughed at Fortune's spite. 
Sad and fearful was the story. 


They alone content may gain, 
Who can good from ill divide, 
Or in ignorance abide 
All between is restless pain. 

C. C. B. 

(7 th S. viii. 387.) 

J, R. here raises a question which has been twice 
before raised in 'N. & Q.,' but never thoroughly 
sifted, in deference, I believe, to some maudlin 
sentimentality. Thousands of false stories of in- 
conceivable atrocities circulate freely on all sides. 
The most "enlightened" seem to delight in these. 
But when it is sought to establish the more merci- 
ful truth of the matter, then, forsooth, facts must 
be burked, under the plea that discussion is pain- 
ful ! 

The " twice " I refer to are (1) at 7 th S. iii. 208, 
by myself, and (2) in a previous correspondence 
before my acquaintance with ' N. & Q.' began, 
which I subsequently found running through some 
of the earlier series. I have carefully gone through 
the instances of *' burning " instanced in the First 
and Second Series, and find they are not cases of 
" burning " at all, but of strangulation and crema- 
tion of cremation, the pet process of our would- 
be modern civilizers. 

Going on to the next series, at 3 rd S. iv. 4 (July, 
1863), a correspondent, whose nom de plume is 
JEAN LE TROUVEUR, points out the blunder of 
Phillimore's 'History of the Reign of George III.,' 
i. 50, in saying that women were burnt alive, 
maintaining that they were always strangled first. 
The replies of two correspondents who followed 
are rather self-contradictory, and, instead of 
weakening, go to support this statement. 

At 4 th S. xi. 174 a correspondent signing E. 
SMIRKE says he had heard his father mention 



[7 th S. IX JAN. 18, '0, 

having seen a burning he did not know whether 
alive or not ! but as there seem to have been no 
screams, it may safely be inferred that this also 
was a case of cremation. 

At p. 222 H. W. D. gives instances in 1788 in 
which the culprits were strangled first, and one in 
1726, in which Catherine Hayes was "said " to be 
burnt alive; but "said" is not evidence. At 
p. 347 J. H. B. quotes Blackstone's ' Comment- 
aries,' iv. 29, to show that criminals were sub- 
jected to strangulation before disembowelling or 
burning, and yet goes on to repeat the common 
hearsay stories. He has also a story of an ancestor 
of his own having been " said to " have repeated a 
verse of the Bible while being disembowelled; but 
he gives neither his own name nor his "ancestor's," 
nor any data by which to check the story. On the 
other hand JEAN LE TROUVEUR, on the same page, 
repeats more forcibly than before his previous 

To sum up this correspondence, it results any- 
how in this, that most of what is commonly called 
" burning " is simple cremation. 

People who want to make out the superiority of 
present times over the past delight in repeating 
that such-and-such an author says that so-and-so 
was " burnt alive," followed by a silly smattering 
of righteous indignation at what never happened, 
while the dispassionate scholar finds the whole 
thing a " plant. " 

Huss is now said to have been suffocated ; 
Savonarola was hung and cremated ; Vannini 
was hung and cremated ; Labarre was beheaded 
and cremated; Giordano Bruno at the worst there 
is the merest doubt about. A writer in a Roman 
periodical, February, 1886, asserts that the burning 
rests on the testimony of one single writer, Gaspar 
Schopp, originally a Lutheran, then a Catholic 
convert, finally an opponent of all religion, dis- 
credited by all ; he says, " Desdorits, professor of 
philosophy in the Lyce"e of Versailles, has proved 
that his letter was a calumny and an invention "; 
probably, therefore, another case of cremation. 
Other reputed " burnt alives " it has been shown 
were burnt in effigy only. A vast number of 
similar accusations have been disproved in Joseph 
de Maistre's ' Lettres a un Gentilhomme Russe,' 
1871. R. H. BUSK. 

16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. 

The burning of women was the punishment as- 
signed for acts of petty treason, and applied to " a 
servant slaying his master, a wife slaying her hus- 
band, a man slaying his prelate, to whom he owes 
faith and obedience, and many others which a man 
cannot think or declare at this present time." Black- 
stone, in his 'Commentaries,' states that the punish- 
ment of petty treason was, in the case of males, draw- 
ing on a hurdle and hanging ; in that of females, 
drawing and burning, benefit of clergy being denied 
to both. Females convicted of high treason were also 

burned, for, says Blackstone, " as the decency due 
to the sex forbids the exposing and publicly mang- 
ling out their bodies (by disembowelling), their 
sentence, which is to the full as terrible to sensation 
as the other, is to be drawn to the gallows and then 
to be burned alive. " To be " drawn to the gallows " 
at one time meant to be tied to a horse's tail, and 
so dragged along the road to the place of execution;, 
but, says Blackstone (' Commentaries," book iv. 
chap, vi.), " usually by connivance, at length ripened 
by humanity unto law, a sledge or hurdle is allowed, 
to preserve the offender from the extreme torture 
of being dragged on the ground or pavement." 
The "humanity " suggested by Blackstone as dic- 
tating a complete strangulation before the applica- 
tion of fire to the faggots must have been of more 
recent birth than April 10, 1652, when Prudence 
Lee was burned in Smithfield for the murder of 
her husband: 

" Then the executioners, setting her in a pitch barrel, 
bound her to the stake, and placed the straw and faggots 
about her ; whereupon she, lifting up her eyes towards 
heaven, desired all that were present to pray for her, 
and the executioner putting fire to the straw, she cried 
out, ' Lord Jesus have mercy on ray soul '; and after the 
fire was kindled she was heard to strike out terribly some 
five or six several times." ' The Witch of Wapping,' 
London, 1652. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, voL Ivi. p. 524, 
gives the particulars of the execution of Phoebe 
Harris on June 21, 1786. It is stated that " soon 
after the signs of life had ceased, two cartloads of 
faggots were placed around her and set on fire "; 
but there was no proof that she was actually dead 
before the fire was applied. Christian Murphy, 
who was burnt for coining in 1789, was fixed to a 
stake and burned, being first strangled by the 
stool being taken from under her. In the next 
year the penalty for both high and petty treasons 
in females was made to be drawn to the place 
of execution and hanged, as in the case of persons 
convicted of wilful murder (30 Geo. III. cap. 48, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SILVERPOINT (7 th S. viii. 489). Drawings are- 
executed with " silverpoint" on paper prepared 
with a dressing of lime and rolled, so as to possess 
a perfectly smooth, hard, and somewhat glossy 
surface. This paper is, and was, tinted in various 
degrees and kinds, and is the same as that of 
which note-books are made to be used with the 
so-called " ever-pointed pencils." Ever-pointed 
pencils have tips of an alloy of tin, lead, and bis- 
muth ; they are practically the same as those used 
for silverpoint drawings. The latter take their name 
from the fact that originally the pencils used for 
the prepared paper were sticks of silver. Silver 
sticks are still used by artists for the purpose, 
although the alloy-tipped pencils are quite as use- 
ful and much cheaper. Any soft metal does for 

?" S. IX. JAN. 18, '90.] 



drawing on the prepared paper. I knew an artist 
who used a scarf-pin of gold in this manner. This 
was a mere piece of vanity, and, so small is the 
waste of the metal, a very cheap one. Silverpoint 
drawings never suffer from rubbing, and the 
artist's work does not fail in that way, which 
is very injurious to drawings executed in charcoal, 
chalk, and blacklead. Silverpoint is absolutely 
permanent, and its lines are extremely pure, clear, 
and fine. On the other band, it suits only hands 
skilful enough never to err; its lines cannot be re- 
moved (like those made with lead pencils). There- 
fore a draughtsman in this mode can alter nothing 
he has put on paper. It is generally adopted for 
studies of great delicacy and fineness, where dark 
and strong strokes are not required. Silverpoint 
has nothing to do with etching, or its variety dry- 
point. An etching proper is made by drawing 
with the point of a needle, or etching-point, through 
a bituminous film covering a plate of copper or 
other metal. When the drawing is complete acid 
is poured on the surface of the plate, and eats, or 
etches, away the metal which the needle has laid 
bare and exposed to its action ; the film protects the 
rest of the plate, which, when the work is complete 
and the film removed, is inked and printed from 
in a press. Dry-point etchings are those where no 
acid is used, and the plate is by the needle only in- 
cised to the depth required. Dry-point is mostly 
employed to finish works already etched with acid. 
Experts easily distinguish dry-points from etchings 
proper, whether the whole or only a part of a plate 
has been worked in either process, or both. The 
more accomplished draughtsmen among the old 
masters such as Perugino, Raphael, and Francia 
greatly affected the supremely refined silver- 
point. Distinguished in the like manner, Sir F. 
Leighton, Mr. E. Burne Jones, and Mr. Poynter 
excel in it. MR. BUCKLEY may see masterpieces 
of this kind in the gallery of the Fine -Art Society 
by these artists, and at Messrs. DowdeswelPs (both 
in Bond Street) by M. C. Sainton. F. G. S. 
[Many replies are acknowledged.] 

THRUS HOUSE (7 th S. viii. 447). There can be 
no doubt that the " thrus house " mentioned in 
the ' Life of St. Cuthbert ' signifies house of the 
goblin, known as a thurse, thrush, or hob-thrush, 
A.-S. \>yrs, Icel. Jmrs, bss, the giant of English 
fable. He was supposed to dwell in solitary and 
desert places, whence the name of " thurs house " 
applied to the cell of a hermit. 

" A thurs-houee or thurse-hole, a hollow vault in a 
rock or stony hill that serves for a dwelling-place to a 
poor family, of which there is one at Alveton, and 
another near Wettonmill, com. Staff. A thurse, an 
apparition, a goblin, Lane." Kennett in Halliwell. 

" Thyrce, wykkyd spyryte, ducius" ' Prompt. Parv.' 
In the ' Epinal Glossary ' of the seventh century 
the Lat. orcus is rendered by " J>yrs, heldiobal." 
The word is preserved in Dutch droes, Holstein 

drum, a giant, also as English " the deuce." See 
the article "Deuce" in my 'Contested Ety- 
mologies,' where I think I have established the 
fact that the E. Deuce and the German synonymous 
Daus, Taus, are true descendants from the same 
original form. H. WEDGWOOD. 

9t, Gower Street. 

FOLK (7 th S. viii. 442). MR. PICKFORD will find a 
full account of Coldham Hall, written by the well- 
known East-Anglian antiquary the late Samuel 
Tymms, in the third volume of the Proceedings of 
the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, p. 299: how 
the manor, originally in the family of Illeigh, came 
into the possession of Sir John de Rokewode, of 
Stoke Nayland, in 32 Edw. III. by purchase from 
Sir Kichard de Illeigh ; how "from this time to 
the present, a period of more than 500 years, the 
manor has continued by uninterrupted descent in 
the lineal representatives of the family"; and how 
" by the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter and sole 
heiress of Thomas Rookwood and Tamworth Mar- 
tin, with John Gage, Esq., of Hengrave,one of the 
pages of honour to Louis XIV. of France, the 
property of the Rokewoods was carried into that 
family." The genealogy of the Rookwood family, 
as well as an abstract from a MS. Book of Evi- 
dences may be seen in the Collectanea Topographica 
et Genealogica, vol. ii. p. 120, et seq. Ambrose 
Rokewode, who suffered for his complicity in the 
Gunpowder Plot, was a younger son of Robert 
Rokewode, who built Coldham Hall in 1574. As 
Ambrose was never in possession, the estate was 
not forfeited to the Crown on his attainder. The 
Lady Monson, whose portrait is at Coldham, was 
aunt to the above-mentioned Tamworth, daughter 
of Sir Roger Martin, of Long Melford, Bart, who 
was married to Thomas Rookwood, Esq., of Cold- 
ham Hall, the last male representative of the 
family; and at the time referred to by Butler, the 
poet, she was the wife of her third husband, Sir 
William Monson, 

"created by Charles I. Viscount Monson, of Castle- 
main, a nobleman BO unmindful of the favours conferred 
by his Sovereign, that he sat as one of the Commissioners 
and Judges at the King's trial; for this, it is said, Lady 
Monson inflicted the punishment alluded to, and which 
had the effect of keeping him from the court on the day 
judgment was passed." 

Lord Monson was executed at the Restoration, 
and his wife took for her fourth husband Sir Adam 
Felton, Bart. WILLIAM COOKE, F.S.A. 

A copious account of the family of Rookwood, 
of Stanningfield, co. Suffolk, with pedigrees and 
charters, will be found in Nichols's ' Collectanea 
Topographica et Genealogica,' 1835, voL ii. pp. 

The Rookwoods somehow or another managed 
to retain possession of Coldham Hall, for they 



[7"> 8. IX. JAN. 18, '90. 

transmitted it by an heiress to the Gages, Barts., 
of Hengrave Hall, co. Suffolk. These latter sold 
it, but retained the name of Eookwood before their 
own patronymic. The last Lady Gage, who died 
a year or two ago, was always styled Lady Roke- 
wode Gage. SHERBORNE. 

ANNA CHAMBERLAYNE (7 th S. viii. 327, 414). 
See also 6 to S. x. 196. 

Sacred to posterity 

In a vault, near this place, lies the body of 

Anne, the only daughter of 

Edward Chamberlayne LL D 

Born in London January 20 1667 


In a considerable time, declined the matrimonial state 
And scheming many things 
Superior to her sex and age 

On the 30 th June 1690 
And under the command of her brother 
With the arms and in the dress of a man 

She approv'd herself a true Virago, 
By fighting undaunted in a fire ship against the French 

Upwards of six hours 
She might have given us a race of heroes 

Had not premature fate interposed 

She returned safe from that naval engagement 

And was married some months after to 

John Spragge Esq 

With whom she lived half a year extremely happy 

But being delivered of a daughter she died 

A few days after 

October 30. 1692 

This monument, to his most dear and affectionate 
Wife, was erected by her most disconsolate husband. 

Said to be in St. Luke's, Chelsea. 


A. J. M. will find a record of the warlike 
achievements of this lady, who fought in man's 
clothes in an action against the French fleet, in 
the Gazetteer of October 30, 1788. Her epi- 
taph, which is in Latin, also records her services, 
and may be seen on her tomb in the parish church 
of Chelsea, a translation of which appeared in the 
Naval Chronicle of 1814, vol. xxxii, p. 111. Her 
case is an extraordinary one, as she was a person 
of good social position, and her brother, if I mis- 
take not, commanded the ship in which she served. 
I should be glad to know the name of the author 
of ' Female Warriors,' alluded to by A. J. M. 

K. HOLDEN, Capt. 

United Service Institution. 

EARL OF DELORAINE (7 th S. viii. 428). Refer- 
ence to Burke's ' Dormant and Extinct Peerage,' 
1883, s.-y. " Scott, Earl of Deloraine," would have 
shown E, P. H. that the subject of his inquiry 
was Henry, first Earl (so created by letters patent 
of Anne, 1706), second surviving son of James, 
Duke of Monmoutb, by Anne, Countess of Buc- 
cleuch in her own right. The first Earl of Delo- 
raine is stated by Sir Bernard Burke to have 
attained the rank of major-general, but no mention 
is made of the regiment which he commanded. 

According to Burke he died, not in " 172-," but 
on Dec. 25, 1730, and was buried at Leadwell, 
Oxfordshire, presumably the place atwhichhe died. 
Anderson's 'Scottish Nation,' s.v. "Deloraine, 
Earl of," adds some particulars which may help 
E. P. H., notably that in 1707 the earl commanded 
a regiment of foot. He took his seat in the last 
Scottish Parliament, supported the Union, and 
was constantly elected a representative peer. His 
manners were sufficiently distinguished to be noted 
by Dr. Young. The title became extinct on the 
fourth earl's death, in 1807. NOMAD. 

CROMWELL SWORDS (7 th S. viii. 507). A friend 
has a reputed Cromwell sword, about which I 
should be very much obliged for information. It 
has a very heavy and broad blade, curiously shaped 
to fit the inscription, in bold round hand, " For 
the Commonweath of Englande," surmounted by 
the arms of the Commonwealth. It is said to have 
been bought at Sotheby's. A reference to the sale 
would greatly oblige. J. C. J. 

COG (7 th S. viii. 508). The name " cog-boat "is 
well known on the Humber as applied to the boat 
belonging to a sailing vessel of any kind. This I 
find on inquiry, but have hitherto thought it was 
"cock-boat," called by Shakspeare a "cock" in 
the well-known passage in 'King Lear' describing 
the sight from Dover Cliff : 

And yon tall anchoring bark 
Diminished to her cock ; her cock, a buoy 
Almost too small for sight. 

J. T. F. 
Winterton, Doncaster. 

DEATHS or NEAR KINDRED (7 th S. vii. 345; viii. 

385, 491). With reference to the quotation from 

Crashaw under this head, 

To these, whom Death again did wed, 
The grave 's the second marriage-bed, 

may I be allowed to quote the concluding lines of 
a poem by the late George Lawrence ("Guy 
Livingston ") in our Rugby Magazine, circa 
1845 ? 

The marriage bond by worldlings spoken, 
Like a tie of silk, too oft is broken 

When the empty words have fled ; 
No force the iron link may break, 
No faithlessness the union shake, 

Of those whom Death hath wed, 
Though the requiem be their marriage hymn, 
And the funeral taper, burning dim, 
Lights to their bridal bed. 

I think everybody must agree that these are 
remarkable lines to have been written by a school- 
boy. George Lawrence later on ran a close second 
for the Newdigate. W. D. M. 

Junior Carlton Club. 

(7 th S. viii. 188, 292). The gloves which were 
hung up in churches in earlier ages were not in all 

7"> S, IX. JAN. 18, *90.1 



cases connected with funerals, although they were 
indirectly connected with death. In Scott's 
'Rokeby,' canto vi. 21, Bertram Kisingham says : 
Edmund, thy years were scarcely mine, 
When, challenging the Clans of Tyne 
To bring their best my brand to prove, 
O'er Hexham's altar hung my glove ; 
But Tynedale, nor in tower nor town, 
Held champion meet to take it down. 

Scott has an interesting note on this passage. 
Of course Eisingham's glove would be a steel glove, 
or gauntlet. 

Apropos to a recent discussion in 'N. & Q.,' 
here is another instance of the word clan as applied 
to non-Highland septs. 


THE GULF OF LYONS (7 tt S. viii. 6, 193, 355). 
It may, perhaps, be worthy of mention that the 
"Gulf of Lyon" appears in the map of Europe 
contained in Harris's ' Voyages and Travels,' 1705, 
but that in Speed's 'Map of Europe' (1626) that 
part of the Mediterranean has no special name. A 
foot-note in Edward Wright's ' Observations ' on 
France, Italy, &c., states that 

"Mr. Dacier, in his Annot. to Horace, Epist. 15, says, 
the ancient arms of Marseilles, as those of Velia, which 
cities were both built by the Phocians in the time of 
Servius Tullius (Justin says, Tarquin) were a lion ; for 
that a lion was the arms of the Phocians." Ed. 1764, 
vol. i. p. 15. 



viii. 465). May I draw A SCEPTIC'S attention to 
the following quotation from the Pall Mall Gazette 
of December 14, 1889 ? 

" General Trepoff, at whom Vera Sassulitch shot be- 
cause he had flogged a woman in prison, was a notable 
man. He ought to have been punished by the Tzar, 
whom he served with an excess of zeal which endangered 
the throne; and it was not until Alexander II. failed in 
his duty that Vera Sassulitch shot him. A Petersburg 
jury found that she had done right well, and I agree with 
the jurors. I have often wished to meet Vera, whose 
pistol-shot rang like a bugle-note across Europe, but 
hitherto I have failed in finding her." 

And also to Truth of November 21, 1889, in 
which there is a very severe article on " The Girl 
Flogger " of Clifton. HENRY GERALD HOPE. 
Freegrove Road, N. 

PORTRAIT OF BURNS (7 th S. viii. 247, 416, 421, 
481). The great historical painting, entitled 
'Burns in Edinburgh, 1787, reading his Poems 
before Jane, Duchess of Gordon, and other Cele- 
brities,' by Hardie, A.R.S.A., is now exhibiting 
in Manchester (January, 1890). The following 
particulars, from the Manchester City News of 
November 23, 1889, may be of interest: 

" Robert Burns in Edinburgh. 

"Messrs. Grundy & Smith have on view at their 
gallery in Exchange Street, Manchester, an oil painting 

by Mr. C. M. Hardie, an Associate of the Eoyal Scottish 
Academy, of Burns in Edinburgh, on his visit there in 
1787. As a portrait-picture it is one of great and excep- 
tional attraction. Few things are so difficult as canvases 
of the kind, and we remember only three or four that 
give pleasure and satisfaction. Mr. Bardie's may fairly 
claim a place amongst the number. Burns is repre- 
sented as in the act of reciting one of his poems in the 
presence of the Duchess of Gordon and the distinguished 
company whom she has invited to meet him, including 
amongst the number Lord Monboddo, Prof. Dugald 
Stuart, Dr. Blacklock, Alexander Nasmyth (the artist 
and painter of the best portrait of Burns), Dr. Adam 
Ferguson, Henry Mackenzie (author of 'The Man of 
Feeling '), the Rev. Dr. Blair, Henry Erskine, the judge, 
and Bufns's special friend, the Earl of Glencairn, to 
whom, when he died, in 1791, the poet addressed his 
well-known lines : 

The bridegroom may forget the bride 
Was made his wedded wife yestreen ; 
The monarch may forget the crown 
That on his head an hour has been ; 
The mother may forget the child 
That sweetly smiles upon her knee ; 
But I '11 remember thee, Glencairn, 
And a' that thou hast done for me. 
The grouping is excellent, and fulfils with great success 
the intention of such a picture that of showing the 
several individuals distinctly whilst at the same time 
the gathering, as depicted, is natural and picturesque. 
The exhibition at Messrs. Grundy & Smith's is rendered 
additionally attractive by the descriptive powers of the 
cicerone, Mr. G. C. Downie, a perfervid Scotsman, and 
evidently a devoted hero-worshipper of Burns, who reels 
off passages from his poems with amazing facility and 
enthusiasm, and whose account of the incidents con- 
nected with the picture furnish forth especially to 
Scotchmen and lovers of Burns a fifteen or twenty 
minutes of delightful intellectual recreation." 

30, Rusholme Grove, Manchester. 

(7 th S. viii. 204, 276, 335, 496). Does not the 
feeling against this arise from the idea that the 
sun does not shine upon the north side that 
being, accordingly, a cold, dark, dismal region ? 
In the Roman Mass the Gospel is read, or sung, 
towards the north, the meaning being, no doubt, 
that the light of the Gospel is " illuminare his qui 
in tenebris, et in umbra mortis sedent." The 
Song of Zacharias, in which these words occur, is 
recited or chanted at the grave in the case of the 
funeral of a Roman Catholic. 


St. Andrews, N.B. 

Objection to bury on the north side of the 
church is doubtless connected with the idea that 
the north is the side of darkness. I notice in so- 
called ritualistic churches that the procession never 
passes up or down the north aisle, and have read 
somewhere that the reason is as above. 


30, Lavender Sweep, S.W. 

The following extract from Major Condor's last 
work (' Palestine,' p. 91) is interesting in connexion 


[7* S. IX. JAN. 18, '90. 

with this subject. Recording his researches in 
Galilee, the author writes: 

" The synagogues are long buildings, divided into 
walks by rows of pillars, and having generally the 
entrance doors on the south ; perhaps because, as we 
learn from Rabbinical writers, the north side was con- 
sidered unlucky." 

A. J. P. 


AFTERWARDS LADY HERVET (7 th S. viii. 488). If 

S K alludes to the verses said to be the joint 
composition of the Earls of Chesterfield and Bath, 
all of which end with " Lepell," and several of 
them with "dear Molly LepelJ," he will find a 
portion of them in Crisp's ' Richmond and its 
Inhabitants ' (1866), pp. 417, 418. 

G. F. R. B. 

These stanzas are printed in the ' New Found- 
ling Hospital for Wit,' London, 1786, 12mo., 
vol. vi. pp. 224-228, with the heading, 'A Ballad 
by the Earls of Chesterfield and Bath.' (See 
Swift's ' Works,' vol. xviii. p. 324.) I have not 
found them in any other of the collections of fugi- 
tive poetry printed towards the close of the last 
century. They seem to be an imitation of 'Molly 
Mogg.' They are also printed, I think, in the 
'Memoirs of Lord Hervey,' edited by the late 
J. W. Croker some fifty odd years ago. 


S. viii. 449). Caesar does not exactly say that 
hares were not eaten by the Gauls and Celts. In 
the twelfth chapter of the fifth book of his ' De 
Bello Galileo,' on his first coming to the island of 
Great Britain, after comparing Britain to Gaul, 
" Hominum eat infinita multitude creberrimaque 
tedificia, fere Gallicis consimilia Materia cuj us- 
que generis, ut in Gallia, est," he adds, speaking 
of the Britons only, "Leporem et gallinam et 
anserem gustare fas non putant ; hsec tamen alunt 
animi voluptatisque causa." DNARGEL. 


Caesar, speaking of the Britons, says, "They 
think it unlawful to eat the hare and the hen and 
the goose ; they keep these [hcec] for recreation 
and pleasure." The passage is in 'Bell. Gall.,' 
bk. v. ch. xii. 0. W. TANCOCK. 

HILDEBRAND HORDEN (7 th S. viii. 507). He 
was the eldest son of the Rev. John Horden (died 
1690), of Trinity College, Cambridge, B.A. 1661, 
M. A. 1665, B.D. 1682, Rector of St. Michael Queen- 
hithe, London, and Vicar of Isleworth, Middlesex, 
by Anne, daughter of Thomas Morice, Esq., M.P. 
for Haslemere, co. Surrey. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

ITALIAN VENGEANCE (7 th S. viii. 509). I do 
not know anything about Mr. Willis Bund, who 
is quoted by MR. JAMES HOOPER as an authority 

upon Sir Thos. Browne's ' Religio Medici,' but he 
certainly did not originate the explanation of the 
sentence, " I cannot believe the story of the Italian," 
as given at the above reference. That appears in 
the fourth edition of 'Religio Medici' (12mo., 
1656, p. 283), among the annotations which, as 
stated on the title-page, were " never before pub- 
lished," and is as follows: 

" It is reported that a certain Italian having met with 
one that had highly provoked him, put a Ponyard to his 
breast, and unlesse he would blaspheme God, told him 
he would kill him, which the other doing to eave his life, 
the Italian presently kill'd him, to the intent he might 
be damned, having no time of repentance." 

This note, it will be observed, places a construc- 
tion upon the story differing from that which MR. 
HOOPER gives, upon the authority named. There 
is no mention here of a "stranger" on the con- 
trary, we are led to believe that the injury had 
been nursed by the " Italian," who, meeting by 
chance with his foe, wreaked upon him the ven- 
geance which had probably been devised before- 
hand in view of such a contingency. I have some 
dim recollection of having seen this narrative used 
as an illustration in a sermon by an Elizabethan 
divine, but the reference has escaped me, and I 
have failed to find it in Montaigne. 


The extract from Sir Thomas Browne's 'Religio 
Medici ' given by MR. HOOPER is not commented 
on by his editor Simon Wilkin. I find, however, 
a further reference to " the Italian " in cb. xix. 
sec. iii. of the seventh book of 'Pseudodoxia Epide- 
mica, viz.: 

"I am heartily sorry, and wish it were not true, what 
to the dishonour of Christianity is affirmed of the Ita- 
lian ; who, after he had inveigled his enemy to disclaim 
his faith for the redemption of his life, did presently 
poiniard him to prevent repentance, and assure his 
eternal death." 

Wilkin is equally silent here as in the former in- 
stance, but this second extract, so far as it goes, 
elucidates the former. Perhaps some of your 
more learned correspondents will furnish further 
particulars. FRANCIS W. JACKSON. 

Ebberston Vicarage, York. 

Inquiry is made for the story of the Italian's 
vengeance to which Sir T. Browne refers. The 
authority is given in Dr. Greenhill's excellent 
notes, p. 285, Lond., 1881, as Bodinus, 'De Re- 
publica,' vol. vi. p. 608, B. Paris, 1586. 


viii. 442 ; ix. 9). This subject is curious, but is 
by no means pleasant, except from a comic point 
of view; and I should not care to approach it but 
for the fact that no one has yet given first-hand 
evidence in ' N. & Q.' as to the presence of milk in 
the male mammae. I can give such evidence, and 
therefore I do give it. 

7iS. IX. JAN. 18, '90. J 



The case was this. The village where I spent 
most of my childhood is traversed by a high road, 
along which I was sometimes sent for a walk, with 
the nurse who had charge of me. One of the 
stone-breakers on the road was a tall, muscular, 
elderly man at least, he seemed elderly to me, a 
child of eight or ten years old. He affected to be 
fond of children ; and knowing very well who I 
was, having also possibly a masculine regard for 
my pretty nurse, he would often speak to me or to 
her in passing. One day, as we passed him, he 
said to me, " Look here, young master; I'll show 
ye summat 'at ye never seed afore." With that, 
he bared his chest, and pressed his right nipple 
between two of his fingers. Immediately a thin 
stream of mother's milk issued from the nipple, 
and ran down his naked bosom. The horror and 
disgust with which I saw that white and feminine 
fluid stream over the big man's hairy breast was so 
great that I fled from him at once, and never could 
bear to speak to him again. And the remembrance 
of his act is as vivid in me now as if the thing had 
happened yesterday. 

Let me take this opportunity of adding my 
testimony to that of others as to the excellence of 
Mr. Bourdillon's translation of 'Aucassin and 
Nicolette,' and the value of his full and compre- 
hensive notes. A. J. M. 
[Further discussion is not invited.] 

LEGHS OF ACTON BURNELL (7 th S. viii. 349). 
A full pedigree of Lee of Langley, &c., is to be 
found in the ' Visitation of Shropshire, 1623,' the 
second volume of the Harleian Society for this 

There is no notice of Traynel, or Tyrell, in the 
index of this book. B. FLORENCE SCARLETT. 

DR. KUPER (7 tb S. viii. 368, 415, 493). There 
seems to be some confusion about Dr. Kuper's 
sons. It was his son William, whom I knew 
very well during his long residence here, that 
married Mary Drifnll (not"Driffield"), of Thealby. 
He died in Germany, some time about 1870-3, 
and was buried in Nnnhead Cemetery. It is true 
that Henry George Kuper died at Baltimore. I 
understand that his house took fire, and that he was 
suffocated in it. The widow of Mr. William Kuper, 
not long after his death, married Mr. M. W. Clarke, 
of Hull, who died a few years ago. J. T. F. 

Dr. Kuper was second chaplain of the German 
Lutheran Royal Chapel, St. James's, from 1802, 
and on the death of the Rev. Christian H. Giesse, 
in 1819, the Prince Regent appointed him sole 
chaplain. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

464). I observe that the example given under 
the date 1582-3, occurs not in a parish register, 
but only as the name of a legatee in a will. It is, 
I would suggest, probably not a full baptismal 

name, but merely a colloquial form of Evan, as 
" Steve " is of Stephen. JOHN W. BONE. 

CATHEDRAL (7 th S. ix. 7). This word is used 
as a substantive at least once by Harrison in 
Holinshed (1577). Evidently this use of it was 
unupual at the time, for Harrison generally has the 
term " cathedral churches," and his first introduc- 
tion of the word cathedral by itself is on this wise: 

" These churches are called cathedral because the 
bishops dwell or lie near unto the same, as bound to keep 
continual residence within their jurisdictions for the 
better oversight and governance of the same, the word 
being derived a cathedra that is to say, a chair or seat 
where he resteth, and for the most part abideth." 

Immediately afterwards, however, he says: "But 
as the number of churches increased, so the repair 
of the faithful unto the cathedrals did diminish." 
For convenience sake I quote from Mr. Lothrop 
Withington's ' Elizabethan England,' pp. 64-5. 

C. C. B. 

177). In Le Neve's ' Knights,' Harleian Society 
volume for 1873, p. 348, is an account of the 
family of May. Thomas May had a younger son, 
William, who married Isabell Ballero, a Portu- 
guese lady, and their three sons were naturalized 
in England 34 Hen. VIII. I suppose William, 
styled " of Portugal," had been naturalized in 
that country previously. Y. S. M. 

SOHO (7 th S. viii. 487). I can partly answer my 
own query. It was the French Protestant Chapel. 
The service performed was that of the English 
Church translated into the French tongue. The 
registers at Somerset House date from 1690 to 
1763. An account of this chapel will be found in 
J. S. Burn's 'History of Foreign Protestant 
Refugees settled in England,' 1846, p. 145. 


34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

SPENSERIAN COMMENTARY (7 th S. viii. 186, 
478). Doubtless C. E. D. is aware of the pos- 
sible ambiguity in the lines quoted by him from 
book iv. of the 'Faerie Queene.' By connecting 
" the which " with the glancing spoken of in the 
previous line, and referring the second " it " to 
' ' back," we get a meaning which is unmistak- 
able and quite consistent with the grammar. This 
would exactly coincide with a suggestion made to 
me by a leading contributor to 'N. & Q.' as to 
clearing up the difficulty in the first book, this 
being to regard "glauncing" as the subject of 
" blest," understanding before it some such word 
as would be equivalent to our modern " its." How- 
ever, passing beyond the utterly inadequate and 
hesitating annotation of the Clarendon Press, Upton 
in a very few words throws a flood of light upon 
the obscurity. From him it would appear tbit we 



[7 S. IX. JAN. 18, '90. 

may after all take the grammar and construction 
as they stand expressed in the usual printing, and 
by the assistance of a little imagination and a 
little periphrasis arrive at the sense rather by what 
the poet meant to say than by what he says. From 
the simplicity and limitations of the acts described 
there is no room for error or dispute as to the ulti- 
mate meaning intended the divergence being 
restricted to the. grammar by which we reach 
the result. This latter would seem, then, to be an 
instance of complete logical inversion, and to be 
decided by the use of the word "bless" ( = brandish, 
originally), which appears to indicate that we must 
connect it with the sword. Grammatically the poet 
speaks of a combatant's sword " blessing " (here = 
saving or guarding) his opponent. Upton says we 
must understand him to mean that the latter's own 
shield saved him. This treatment of the difficulty 
is simplicity itself, and final, and interesting. It 
more than puzzles me to know why the Clarendon 
Press editor did not so deal with the matter. As 
a student I must say I heartily wish he had. It 
would further be especially interesting if any reader 
could instance a passage where this peculiar usage 
occurs without the ambiguity inherent in the two 
places under notice. C. J. FLETCHER. 

EGBERT BURTON (6 th S. vi. 443, 517; 7 th S. vii. 
53, 178 ; ix. 2). MR. SHILLETO taxes me with 
"inadvertence" in following MR. PEACOCK, and 
saying that the fifth and sixth editions of ' The 
Anatomy of Melancholy' are "perfect." I did 
not use the word ; but if I had erred in following 
one so learned and so accurate as MR. PEACOCK I 
should have erred in very good company. I agreed 
with him in thinking the fifth and sixth editions to 
be better than any others, but I ended my note by 
pointing out that the sixth was printed from a 
copy committed by the author, with his last correc- 
tions, to Henry Cripps, and might, consequently, 
be regarded as the best edition of all. 

The date 1651 is on the engraved title, and also 
on the last page of type, along with the booksellers' 
names. To adopt MR. SHILLETO'S suggestion, and 
distinguish the sixth edition as the edition of 
1651/2 would, therefore, be a complete mistake. 
On the engraved title it is called the " sixt " (sic), 
but a faint trace of h may be seen after t, probably 
the remains of the word " fifth." J. DIXON. 

SIR JOHN HAWKWOOD (7 th S. viii. 487; ix. 10). 
Vol. vi. of Nichol's ' Topographica Bibl. Britan- 
nica' gives some interesting particulars of Sir John 
Hawkwood, with a portrait and engraving of his 
seal : a hawk, with his war-cry, " God advance ! " 
I have not had the opportunity of seeing either 
the new life of this Captain of Free Lancea nor the 
pedigree in the ' Chesters of Chicheley,' and should 
be glad to know if the latter also mentions the 
marriage of Beatrice, daughter and heir of Sir 
John Hawkwood (qy. whether the captain or his 

son ?), to John Shelley, M.P. for Eye and Sand- 
wich, from which alliance the present two families 
of Shelley (barts.) quarter the arms of Hawkwood. 

THE COCKPIT, WHITEHALL (7 th S. ix. 7). 
Contemporary evidence of the existence of this 
building at a much later date than 1691, and of its 
use as the meeting-place or office of the Privy 
Council, can easily be found. At the Cockpit 
Harley was stabbed by Guiscard when attending a 
Council meeting there in March, 1711. (See 
1 Went worth Papers,' pp. 185-187.) In the report 
on Lord Dartmouth's family papers by the His- 
torical MSS. Commission, pp. 311-314, are printed 
some minutes of Privy Council, dated at the 
Cockpit, November 18-23, 1712, on the duel 
between the Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun ; 
and there is a letter in the same collection from 
J. Craggs, from the Cockpit, January 9th, 1720-1. 
Some letters of Horatio Walpole, noticed in the 
report on Lord Townshend's papers by the same 
Commission, were written at the Cockpit as late 
as 1748 and 1752 (pp. 367, 375). J. J. C. 

Timbs, in his ' Eomance of London,' says that 
" the Whitehall Cockpit, after the fire in 1697, 
was altered into the Privy Council Office," thus 
pointing to the fact that they were then one and 
the same building ; and he further says that " the 
Cockpit retained its original name long after the 
change in its uses," though when it ceased to be 
used for its original purpose he does not put upon 
record. Cunningham says, " The Treasury 
minutes, circa 1780, are headed ' Cockpit,' " and 
the 'Picture of London,' edition 1806 and 1810, 
refers to the Council Chamber as " commonly 
called the Cockpit," and Cunningham further 
points out that " we remember to have read at 
the foot of a printed proclamation at Whitehall, 
' Given at the Cockpit,' " &c. Hatton, in 1708, 
describes the Treasury Office, kept at the Cockpit, 
"where the Lord High Treasurer sits to receive 
petitions and give orders, warrants, &c." The 
Cockpit itself occupied nearly the site of the 
present Board of Trade Office, and it existed early 
in the present century. The speech of the sove- 
reign, delivered at the opening of Parliament, was 
read " at the Cockpit " on the day previous to being 
publicly read, and when this was done away with 
considerable discontent was aroused. Timbs says 
the phrase " Given at the Cockpit at Westminster " 
was in use within his recollection. 


20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Profs. Fleming and Tibbins, in their 'Eoyal 
Dictionary, English and French,' explain the word 
thus : " Cock-pit (the Privy Council room at 
Westminster ; so called because built on the 
cock-pit of Whitehall Palace)." DNARGEL. 


7" S. IX. JAN. 18, '90.] 



BLUNDERS OF AUTHORS (7 th S. vii. 288, 392). 
It is, perhaps, an ungrateful task, but it is cer- 
tainly an interminable one, to bring these errors to 
light. Here is a curious example, occurring in 
' The Chaplain of the Fleet,' a capital book, as I 
think, by Mr. W. Besant, who says of Dr. Shovel 
that, " when he sang, the words were such as might 
have been heard in any gentlewoman's parlour, and 
the music was Arne's, Bull's, Lilly's, or Carey's " 
(1888 edit., p. 76). Now, Arne we know, and 
Carey we know ; but who are Bull and Lilly 1 
Does the author mean to imply that any songs of 
Dr. John Bull, who died in 1628, were sung at 
convivial meetings (in the Fleet !) in the latter half 
of the eighteenth century ? The myth, according 
to which Dr. Bull composed the "loyal song," 
called ' God save the King,' was not then yet in- 
vented; nor were any of his veritable compositions 
either fashionable or suitable to such symposia. 
Then, again, pray who is Lilly? "Euphues" 
wrote no music. Was our author dreaming of 
Lully ? His airs were scarcely more likely than 
those of Dr. Bull to proceed from the lips of Dr. 
Shovel. I fear that Mr. Besant does not see 
these pages; otherwise, we might hope for an 
authoritative answer. JULIAN MARSHALL. 

EARLY CHURCH IN DOVER (7 th S. viii. 328, 389, 
492). If your correspondent 0. C. B. had read my 
note a little more carefully he would have seen 
that my scepticism related not to the " existence 
of a thorn at Glastonbury which flowers at Christ- 
mas" a fact which is, I believe, well known (nor 
is there anything very remarkable in it, as every 
botanist knows) but to the legend about St. 
Joseph and his walking-stick, which is a very 
different matter. But the story of the memorial 
stone with which MR. METFORD favours us (7 th S. 
viii. 506) is indeed marvellous. In common with 
most people who have read the account given in 
the New Testament, I have hitherto been under 
the impression that Joseph of Arimathea was still 
in Jerusalem for at least some short time after 
the Crucifixion, and unless the commonly received 
chronology is greatly at fault, I do not quite see 
how the good man can have been at Glastonbury 
in the year 31. Perhaps MR. METFORD will oblige 
us with his authority for this " locally traditional 
date of the landing of the saint." 


ROBERT, EARL OP LINDSET (7 th S. viii. 429). 
I have two engravings of the above, wearing a 
laced sash over his armour. They are evidently 
from the same painting, though facing opposite 
ways. The original, according to the signature of 
the one, which is engraved by Houbraken (Am- 
sterdam, 1742), was painted by C. Johnson, and 
was at that time in the possession of Charles 
Bertie, Esq. The other engraving, which is a fine 
one on steel, is unsigned. C. S. HARRIS. 

BUT AND BEN (7 th S. viii. 425, 515). Mr. 
NEVILL apparently has failed to notice that in 
Scotland at the present time a two-ended cottage 
is called a " but-and-ben." About that there can- 
not be any doubt whatever; the fact needs neither 
literary nor antiquarian confirmation, nor does it 
call for speculation or argument. The " but-the- 
hoose " is the end occupied by the family in 
common, where the cooking is done, the meals 
eaten, and the general work of the house trans- 
acted ; while the " ben-the-hoose" is the more 
sacred apartment, reserved for special purposes, 
such as the reception of the parish minister or 
other important visitor, and containing better 
furniture and pictures than the other room. The 
kitchen is likewise the sleeping-room for the 
majority of the family ; but where the numbers 
are considerable, additional accommodation is 
found " ben the hoose." Of course there are still in 
Scotland occasional cottages with one room and a 
pantry, but these in country places are becoming 
rare, and at any rate they are beside the present 
question. THOMAS BAYNB. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

MR. NETILL'S idea that " the terms ' but and 

ben ' would be applied to the improved cottage 

that had a sleeping room over," can hardly be cor- 
rect. The term belongs to Scotland, where 
labourers' cottages are, and ever have been, almost 
always without an upper story. From conversa- 
tions with our late philologer and poet, the Rev. 
W. Barnes, I think that " but and ben " = without 
and within = outer and inner room. This agrees 
with the relative position of the two rooms. 



I confess MR. THOMAS BAYNE'S note seemed to 
me to be in all respects to the point. " But and 
ben," so far as Scotland is concerned, I am con- 
vinced, never referred to a room downstairs and 
one upstairs. In 'The Tea-Table Miscellany,' 
fourteenth edition, 1767, 'Todlen butt and 
Todlen ben,' the song is marked as an old one, 
and the "Todlen butt and ben" could hardly 
refer to up and down stairs. Dean Ramsay 
gives, in his ' Reminiscences,' the toast " A cosy 
but and a canty ben." Assuredly no Scotchman, 
old or young, lettered or unlettered in his native 
lore, could for a moment understand this to 
mean a room upstairs and one downstairs. In 
Ogilvie's supplement " But " is given as the outer 
apartment of a house consisting of two apart- 
ments; "Ben," the inner, that is, the apartment 
which was kept as the better of the two. I am sure, 
old houses of the class with simply a " but and 
ben" i.e., a room on each side of the entrance are 
far from being extinct in Scotland. In 'Reliques,' 
" But o' house," is described as that part of the 
house into which you first enter ; " Ben o' house," 



[7 th S. IX. JAN. 18, '90. 

as the inner room, or more retired part. Cottagers 
often desired their landlords to build them a " but 
and ben," most certainly not meaning one or more 
rooms up a stair. ' Keliques ' also states that 
"But," or " butt," is from the Dutch Buyten, Lat. 
extra, prwter, pneterquam, which is compounded 
of the preposition by or be, and of uyt, the same 
as out in English. ALFRED CHAS. JONAS. 

CORONATION (7 th S. viii. 488). MR. COOPER 
writes to inquire why " the present Emperor of 
Germany " has not been crowned. Permit me 
to point out that, so far as the correct pages of 
' N. & Q.' are concerned, there is no such person. 
The grandfather of the present King of Prussia 
was crowned as " Deutsche Kaiser," and nothing 
lse. The error is a surprisingly common one 
Mr. Baring-Gould, for example, in two of his books 
on Germany takes no notice of the correct form, 
German Emperor. Prof. Bryce, in his ' Holy 
Roman Empire/ 1880, p. 441, when remarking 
that the idea of an emperor of a district, be it 
great or small, was wholly repugnant to mediaeval 
doctrine, which could imagine one etnperor only, 
lord of all Christians, just as it could recognize 
only one Pope, continues: "It is, perhaps, some 
lingering respect for this feeling that has caused 
the official style of the present sovereign to be 
* German Emperor,' that is, 'Emperor in Germany,' 
instead of ' Emperor of Germany.' " But one may 
think the reason lies a little deeper. The sovereigns 
of Germany in 1870 in recognizing a head did not 
necessarily mean that that head was to supersede 
them as titular ruler of Germany. Bavaria, for 
example, is almost wholly independent of the 
federation with Prussia. No doubt most of the 
states have found that in nineteen years the Ger- 
man Emperor has become very much more the 
" Emperor of Germany " than they ever intended. 
The Emperor Frederick, with his usual wisdom 
and tact, took a title which could give least 
offfence. No one could mistake the title Kaiser 
Frederick III. as meaning anything but Fre- 
derick III. of Prussia, German Emperor. The 
present king, by taking the name of his grand- 
father, who happened to be the first William of 
Prussia (although his own name is Frederick 
William, which was his father's), became both 
the second William, King of Prussia, and the 
second William, " Deutsche Kaiser," and I think 
I am not mistaken in believing that the style given 
by MR. COOPER is the more acceptable to a sove- 
reign ambitious of a new imperial line and to his 
courtiers. There is no doubt, however, that it is 
historically incorrect, and that it may be highly 
offensive to the sovereigns of Southern Germany. 
1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. 

It may not be out of place to mention that a 
the coronation of Henry III. at Gloucester, Octo 

ber 28, 1216, a plain circle was used at the cere- 
mony, the crown having been lost in the Wash, 
with the jewels and baggage of King John ! 

6, Freegrove Road, N. 

"BLACK-LETTER LAWYER" (7 tb S. viii. 468). 
This term is used in the legal profession to indi- 
ate a lawyer who derives his knowledge from the 
rear books and the old reports, such as Moore, 
iolle, Jenkins, &c. These volumes are printed 
"a black letter, as are also the abridgments of the 
aw by Fitzherbert, Brooke, and others. The lan- 
guage is usually the Norman-French. The legal 
Dryasdust, or black-letter lawyer, was supposed 
to look with contempt on modern treatises and 
reports. His well of knowledge was the common 
aw, pure and undefiled by modern legislation. A 
;ype of the black-letter lawyer was Serjeant Hill. 
The story goes that on the morning of the day 
appointed for his wedding, the serjeant went down 
;o his chambers as usual, and, becoming immersed 
n a case, forgot his appointment at the church. 
The bride waited so long that it was feared the 
canonical hour would elapse before his arrival. A 
messenger was dispatched to require his immediate 
attendance. He obeyed the summons, and, having 
become a husband, returned again to his business. 
About dinner-time his clerk, suspecting that he 
tiad forgotten the proceedings of the morning, ven- 
tured to recall them to his recollection; fortunately, 
the serjeant had, at that moment, discovered the 
case for which he had been hunting, and he re- 
burned home to spend the evening in a gayer circle 
(Woolrych's' Serjeants,' ii. 637). The black-letter 
lawyer I should define, therefore, as a man who 
chose his authorities from, and went by preference 
to, the old black-letter books. Few, if any, such 
lawyers are now in existence. 


Inner Temple Library. 

A black-letter lawyer is simply one who is 
learned in the old reports and statutes of the 
period when printing was in black letter ; but as 
these authorities are more useful in real property 
and equity than in any other branches of the law, 
the term is generally applied to learned convey- 
ancing barristers. This ancient learning is now 
becoming rapidly valueless, or rather of only 
antiquarian value. B. WHITEHEAD, B.A. 

9, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn. 

TITLE or BOOK WANTED (7 th S. ix. 7). The 
book inquired for at this reference is '.Moun- 
taineering in the Sierra Nevada,' by Clarence 
King. An excellent book it is ; and the story 
alluded to is not only amusing, but has a graver 
interest also, for it shows a family who are evi- 
dently of English blood, living for some generations 
under quite new influences, and almost unaffected 
thereby. Susan, the heroine, is a fine, large, lusty, 

7">S. IX. JAN. 18, '90.] 



innocent, ignorant lass, who helps her father to 
mind his two thousand swine ; who rides astride 
as well as a man could ; who has big feet, one of 
which she uses as a screen against the tent fire 
just as those fabled Africans slept under the shadow 
of their one huge foot. " That man as gits Susan," 
said her father to Mr. King, "gits half the hogs"; 
and the yoang American might have done worse 
than take the hint, especially as Susan herself was 
willing. A. J. M. 


"Experience is the best of schoolmasters," &c. A 
proverb in every tongue, since fools were. Ray says, ' Ex- 
perientia stultorum magistra. Wise men learn by others' 
harm?, fools by their own.' The Spaniards say, 'La 
esperiencia es madre de la ciencia.' " Perhaps this uni- 
versal saying carries the finest point in the French (as 
usual) : " L'experience tient une ecole dont les lecons 
coutent cher ; mais c'est la seule oii les imbeciles puissent 
s'instruire " (Erckmann, ' Les Deux Freres,' edition 
Hetzel, p. 67). This form of it appears to be a version 
from Franklin's ' Moral Miscellanies.' 


(7> S. ix. 9.) 
Nor gods, nor men, &c. 
The proper reading of this is 
Not heaven itself upon the past has power, 
But what has been, has been, and I have had my hour. 
Dryden's ' Imitation of Horace,' book i. Ode 29. 

J. J. C. 
[Other replies to the same effect are acknowledged.] 

The Benry Irving Shakespeare. Vol. VII. (Blackie & 


MELANCHOLY interest attends the appearance of this 
seventh volume of the ' Henry Irving Shakespeare,' inas- 
much as while it was appearing the brain and hand that 
had directed the main labour were lying cold in death. 
The loss of Frank Marshall is a calamity in regard to the 
book, as in other respects. Fortunately, however, he had 
been able to project in advance a portion of his energy, 
to inform others with his system, and the work will re- 
tain its distinctive features and its value. So conscien- 
tious, meanwhile, has Mr. Irving been in preparing the 
plays for the stage, that he has not exempted from the 
necessary abridgments and erasures ' Titus Andronicus,' 
small as is the chance of that sanguinary production 
finding its way on to the stage. In the compression of 
the text, the suggestions for omissions, and so forth, 
what is most special and most characteristic in the edi- 
tion what supplies, indeed, its raison d 'etre is found. 
This feature it will, of course, retain to the end, and this 
will serve to recommend it to a generation that knows 
the value of Mr. Irving's instinct in dealing with a play 
of Shakspeare. Among those, meanwhile, who have 
taken up Mr. Marshall's work are his old friends Mr. 
A. Wilson Verity and Mr. Arthur Symons. Mr. H. A. 
Evans has superintended the editorial work on ' Timon 
of Athens ' and ' Cymbeline,' while Dr. Richard Oarnett 
has supplied an admirable introduction to 'The Tempest.' 
The notes have their old value, and the special character- 
istics of the edition are retained. The worda only occur- 

ring in a play are printed in an appendix, a feature of 
singular value to the commentator, and the map of the 
action is retained. For the spirited illustrations to ' The 
Tempest ' Mr. Gordon Browne is responsible. Mr. May- 
nard Brown, Mr. Margetson, and Mr. Dodd supply the 
designs to the four other plays. 

Old Country Life. By S. Baring-Gould, M.A. (Methuen 

& To.) 

A PBAISER of past times so earnest, so convinced, and at 
the same time so genial as Mr. Baring-Gould has rarely 
appeared. He is one, indeed, to shut his eyes to modern 
disfigurements, and to pipe as " if the world would never 
grow plJ." Ourselves somewhat of Mr. Gould's way of 
thinking, we dare scarcely go all the way with him in 
his sacrifice of the present to the past. Perhaps because 
many lustres have passed since we dwelt in a hunting 
shire, we are not " cock-sure " as to the hunting parson, 
and we venture to doubt whether, with judicious kind- 
ness, servants may not even now be found as loyal and 
exemplary as were often seen in past days. Leaving, 
however, on cne side matters on which a divided opinion 
may be held, we turn to Mr. Gould's book and give it 
unmixed eulogy. It has a delightful breeziness, homeli- 
ness, and truth. It is radically, aggressively, and delight- 
fully Jingo. In his heart our author loves England 
better than anywhere else, and he can give reason for 
the faith that is within him. The houses at LauncestoD 
are not so picturesque as those at Lisieux, Ipswich may 
not compare with Angers, nor Bridgenorth with Avignon. 
Granted. There is, however, a sort of beauty all our 
own, and this is what Mr. Baring-Gould sees, and to 
which he opens our eyes. How pleasantly, too, is his 
antiquarian knowledge conveyed, and how agreeable a 
thing is it to travel and learn under his guidance! His 
illustrators have caught his spirit, and the book is a 
delight. The picture of ' The Hunt Passing ' is a thing 
of which never to tire. 

Collected Writings of De Quincey. By David Masson. 

Vol. III. (Edinburgh, A. & C. Black.) 
IN the third volume of the enlarged collection of De 
Quincey those autographic papers which contain the 
' London Reminiscences ' are for the first time brought 
into connexion with the immortal ' Confessions of an 
English Opium-Eater.' An interesting editorial note 
gives much valuable information as to the first appear- 
ance of the ' Opium-Eater,' and as to the reasons why in 
the present edition the much enlarged form is inserted. 
Portraits of De Quincey 'a father, mother, and uncle are 

Carrow A Ibey, otherwise Carrow Priory, in the County of 

Norfolk. By Walter Rye. (Norwich, Goose.) 
VERY little has hitherto been known of the history of 
this Benedictine nunnery. We are, therefore, grateful 
to Mr. Rye for collecting so many interesting details. 
Of course the work is by no means perfect. In the 
present state of things how is it possible that it can be ? 
Very much is. however, here gathered together, and the 
style of the book makes it pleasant reading. Who wa 
the founder of the house is not certainly known. It 
was in existence in the reign of King Stephen. 

The life of a Benedictine nun was one of seclusion, 
and therefore it is not to be expected that the nuns of 
Carrow should figure in history. What little we do 
know is mostly derived from legal documents or mere 
incidental notices. In 1514 Richard Nykke, Bishop of 
Norwich, held a visitation of this house, the details of 
which have been preserved, and are given at length by 
Mr. Rye. Nothing of a disgraceful nature was disco- 
vered. The house seems to have been orderly ; but some 
of the injunctions are amusing. The house did not 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7 s. ix. JAN. is, -to. 

possess a clock, and the prioress was ordered to get 
one and keep it in order. One wonders how the times 
for the religious services and for meals were known 
without one. A sun-dial no doubt these ladies would 
have, on the south side of their buildings, but it would 
be of no service at night or in cloudy weather. 

Mr. Rye has given full lists of the prioresses and other 
official persons so far as they can be recovered. We are 
thankful for this, for several reasons. Those interested 
in the history of name?, whether hereditary or bap- 
tismal, will find these catalogues most useful. 

We do not agree with the author that the surname 
Colman indicates that the first person who bore it was 
a charcoal burner. We believe it to be an Anglo-Saxon 
personal name become hereditary. St. Colman was 
the third Biahop of Lindisfarne. 

The engravings are all wood. Those of heraldic 
shields are especially interesting. Mr. Rye has more- 
over remembered, what so many forget, that an index is 
a needful part of almost every book which is intended 
for instruction. 

The Ancient Lavs of Wales. Viewed especially in regard 
to the light they throw upon the Origin of some 
English Institutions. By the late Hubert Lewis, 
B.A. Edited by J. E. Lloyd, M.A. (Stock.) 
THE manuscript of this posthumous work was almost 
ready for the press when 5lr. Lewis died in March 1884, 
so that the editor's duties have not been of a very oner- 
ous kind. The book is divided into two parts, the first 
dealing with the Welsh legal and social system, the 
second with the British element in English institutions ; 
the intention of the author being to trace in the local 
institutions of mediaeval and modern England vestiges of 
a state of society similar to that described in the Welsh 
laws. The edition of ' The Ancient Laws and Institutes 
of Wales,' published under the direction of the Commis- 
sioners of the Public Records in 1841, forms the basis 
of Mr. Lewis's work. Consequently not only the laws 
of Hy wel, but a number of other compilations throwing 
light upon Welsh local antiquities have been laid under 
contribution by the author. The book cannot be called 
light reading, and appeals to a limited though increasing 
class of readers. By legal students and those interested 
in the origin and progress of our ancient institutions it 
should be attentively read. 

Gerald the Welshman. By Henry Owen, B.C.L. (Whit- 
ing & Co.) 

MB. OWEN has expanded into a volume a lecture on 
Giraldus Cambrensis which he gave last year before the 
Society of Cymmrodorion on Nos-wyl Dewi Sant. A brief 
but satisfactory memoir of this most combative of eccle- 
siastics is followed by an analysis of his numerous works. 
In this Mr. Owen treats of some of the curious questions 
debated by Giraldus, more suited, it might be thought, 
to a preliminary discussion on the ' Decameron ' than to 
the writings of a professor of theology. 

Don's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage of Great 
Britain and Ireland for 1890 (Whittaker & Co.) reaches 
its jubilee. In the mere fact of its prolonged existence 
full testimony to its merits is supplied. Handy in shape, 
fitted to most shelves, and full and accurate in informa- 
tion, it is in its line a model, and to ninety-nine hun- 
dredths of England it is, with its list of every personage 
belonging to the titled classes, quite ideal. A new feature 
of exceptional interest is added by the insertion in part i. 
of such of the prominent extinct and dormant titles as are 
represented by individuals now living, and mentioned ehe- 
where in the work. Other improvements have been 
effected in what has long ranked as a standard and an 
indispensable book. 

MR. NIMMO, a portion of whose special mission it is to 
ntroduce to the English public the artistic triumphs of 
France, publishes the prospectus of a new work entitled 
Costumes of the Modern Stage.' Two numbers of this 

are to appear per month, each number including four 
lesigns of the costumes worn in a Parisian play, carefully 

depicted by MM. Steinlen, Mesples, &c., and coloured 
>y hand. The literary portion of the work is directed 
>y M. Mobisson, the Secretary of the Direction of the 
)pera, Paris. In this description rather than criticism 
s attempted. The designs to the first two numbers 
ihow, meanwhile, Mile. Marie Magnier and other mem- 
>ers of the Vaudeville company in ' Les Respectables ' 

of M. Ambroise Janvier, and Mile. Jeanne Granier and 

others in the new revue at the Varietes. The plates are 

admirably coloured. 

THE Rev. John Woodward, F.S. A.Scot., promises 
brthwith, by subscription, ' Ecclesiastical Heraldry, 
Ancient and Modern.' It will be in two parts, the first 
dealing with the general use of armorial insignia by 
and ecclesiastics of the Western Church, the second con- 
sisting of an enlargement of the ' Notice of the Arms of 
the Episcopates of Great Britain and Ireland, with He- 
raldic Notes,' previously published. Applications for 
this work, as to the value of which readers of 
N. & Q.' need not be informed, are to be made to the 
Rev. J. Woodward, Montrose, N.B. 

A VOIUME containing a reprint of the Market Har- 
Borough parish records, from the end of the twelfth 
century to the year 1530, is being edited by the Rev. 
J. E. Stocks, M.A., and will be issued shortly, under 
the sanction of the trustees, by Mr. Elliot Stock. 

MR. E. WALFORD'S new ' Windsor Peerage ' will be 
published next week by Messrs. Chatto & Windus, having 
been delayed for a fortnight in order to include all cor- 
rections down to the last day of 1889. 

THE Rev. Wm. Graham F. Pigott is printing the 
parish registers of Abington Pigotts, co. Cambridge. 
The work will be issued by Mr. Agas H. Goose, of 
Norwich, in small quarto. 

to Carredpantrent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

J. H. KING (" Metheglin "). A beverage made of 
honey and water fermented by the addition of yeast. 
Commonly spoken of as mead. 

JAMES HOOPER (" Broad Arrow "). See 6 th S. ix. 206, 
294, 418 ; x. 139, 238, 334 ; xi. 509. 

CORRIGENDUM. P. 29, col. 2, 1. 19, for "Gyles irwin," 
read Eyles Irwin. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Curaitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7 h S. IX. JAN. 25, '90.] 




QUERIES : West's ' Death of Wolfe ' Duke of Marlborough 
Grift Wooden Shoes, 67 Homan Garden Benches 
" Common or garden influenza" Exeter Guildhall Sir Geo. 
Rose Bruce Parliamentary Flections Folchetto Cam- 
bridge Societies Negro Worship Major Robt. Rogers 
" A duck and a drake," &c., 68 Sicilia the Fool Coustille 
Authors Wanted, 69. 

REPLIES : Receipt for Salad, 69 Phenomenal Footprints- 
General Claude Martin. 70 Grandfather of William the 
Conqueror Crabbe's 'Tales,' 71 Crown of Ireland- New 
Year's Day Holman Wills in Rhyme Site of the Glaston- 
bury Thorn, 72 Macaulay's Style, 73 To Ride Bodkin- 
Fallows Cockney -Convicts shipped to the Colonies, 74 
Black Cap worn by a Judge" If I had a donkey," &c. 
Living of Bratton St. Maur Derbyshire History Irvine of 
Bonshaw, 75 Jas. Smyth Verminous Battle of Bosworth 
Cunningham Keble's Monument "Humanity" Martin, 
76 Pigeon's Blood Brat Cockatiels, 77 Confirmation 
Cockledemoy Scene of Caesar's Death Jean Paul Marat- 
Lords Spiritual, 78 Authors Wanted, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Bellesheim's ' History of the Catholic 
Church of Scotland ' Betham-Edwards's ' Travels in France 
by Arthur Young ' Boyce's 'Memorial of the Cambridge 
Camden Society ' ' Le Livre Moderne ' ' Carmarthenshire 

Notices to Correspondents. 


There is much doubt concerning .^sop and those 
who have reproduced the fables attributed to him. 
The date of Babrius is conjectural. The authen- 
ticity of Phsedrus has been questioned. The col- 
lection made by Maximus Planudes is untrust- 
worthy. His life of jEsop is declared to be false. 
But it is too much to say that no production of 
..Esop is now extant. It is far more reasonable to 
say that what appears now under his name is a 
compilation of fables by himself conjointly with 
other authors, before and after his age. I believe 
that we have still amongst us the original fables of 
JEsop, mixed with many that are spurious. Fables, 
depending on tradition, are, next to proverbs, 
the compositions most easily transmitted from 
generation to generation. And it would be indeed 
strange if the productions of the most eminent 
fabulist had sunk into oblivion. It is too much 
the fashion to try to deprive the great authors who 
lived long ago of their glory. The fables narrated 
by Horace and most of those in Phasdrus may 
surely be thought to be Msop'a ; and there is one 
especially pronounced by Aulus Gellius to be his, 
whilst Aristotle has vouched for one or two. Many 
others may be doubtful, and a few may be con- 
sidered to be of mediaeval origin. Though a few 
of the compositions of Lokman may be found 

amongst those given to JEsop, the Oriental fables 
are for the most part quite distinct. The fable of 
' The Horse and the Stag ' is said to be an invention 
of the poet Stesichorus, who was a contemporary 
of JEsop. This fable is related both by Horace 
and by Phsedrus. ' The Belly and the Members ' 
is so well known in history that perhaps the 
poets preferred not to relate it again. ' The Proud 
Frog ' is told by Horace and by Pbsedrus. ' The 
Country Mouse and the City Mouse,' ' The Fox 
and the Sick Lion,' ' The Mouse and the Weasel,' 
have been told by Horace, who also tells ' The 
Mouse and the Weasel ' very naturally, if we allow 
the reading nitedula instead of vulpecula. It is the 
mouse that creeps into the hole, and fills itself 
so with corn that it cannot get out. Bat Pope, 
whilst imitating Horace, alters the position of the 
animals. He makes the weasel creep into the 
hole and stuff itself with corn, and he makes the 
mouse the critic of its proceedings. La Fontaine 
does the same. It is possible that Pope was re- 
membering the French poet instead of examining 
the Latin poet. He has certainly mistranslated 
Horace. Allusion is made by Horace to other 
fables besides those which he narrates at length. 
In the line " Parturiunt monies nascetur ridiculus 
mus " there is, of course, reference to ' The Moun- 
tains in Labour,' which is in Phsedrus. The phrase 
" nabis sine cortice " may or may not refer to the 
fable really by Lokman, but included amongst 
those of .^Esop where the schoolmaster flings the 
corks to the boy who has foolishly ventured out of 
his depth. In the charming ode beginning " Rectius 
vives, Licini, neque altum," there appear to be 
reminiscences of the fable concerning ' The Oak and 
the Reed ' and of that concerning Msop at play, 
which is narrated by Phsedrus ; and there may be 
other resemblances between Horace and ^Esop 
which I do not at present recall. It would be 
superfluous to enumerate the fables in Phaedrus. 
Most of the best and most renowned fables of 
sop are to be found there. But a few equally 
celebrated are not there. ' The Young Man and 
lis Cat ' has the authority of Babrius, and 
apparently of no one else. There is a fable by 
Bidpaii concerning a mouse which, like the cat, 
was changed into a girl, and then reconverted, bat 
n other respects his fable is quite different. The 
'able of ' The Young Man and the Lion ' does not 
seem to bear great marks of antiquity, and yet it 
s derived from classical sources. The dream which 
comes true is quite in harmony with pagan super- 
itition. Horace bears witness to the belief in the 
ruth of morning dreams : 

Yetuit me tali voce Quirinu?, 
Post mediam noctem visus, quum eorunia vera. 

But the young man is shut op in a castle, and 
cratches himself with a nail in a picture ; and 
hese incidents look rather modern. La Fontaine 
las versified the fable, and the note to it refers to 

NOTES AND QUERIES. CT s. ix. JAH. 25/90. 

Herodotas and yElian for the original. But there 
is nothing about the picture or the castle in Hero- 
dotus. There is only the dream, or rather prog- 
nostication, which comes true. The story in Hero- 
dotus is of Croesus and his son ; and zEsop lived 
at the court of Croesus. The fable of ' The Lion, 
the Bear, and the Fox ' is evidently the same as 
that to which Chaucer alludes in the ' Knight's 
Tale.' But different animals, two hounds and a 
kite, are mentioned by Chaucer. In the ' Reve's 
Tale ' Chaucer seems to allude to another fable of 
./Esop. This has been told more than once, and 
with different names, in the Middle Ages ; and La 
Fontaine has given two versions of it. Chaucer, 
in alluding to the fable, has the lines : 

The gretest clerkes ben not the wisest men, 
As whilom to the wolf thus spake the mare. 

In the 'Roman de Renard,' Eenard, the fox, 
says to Isengrin, the wolf, after Isengrin has been 
kicked by the mare, who held out her hoof to him 
in order that he might read what was written on 
it : "I understand now that the best clerks are not 
always the wisest people." The wolf, it may be 
noticed, had previously been boasting that he had 
been educated at several universities. Chaucer 
seems to have transferred the remark of the fox to 
the mare. But there must be many versions of the 
story. Tyrwhitt, in a note to Chaucer, gives the 
tale from another mediaeval work. There is but 
a slight difference in the details. The story that 
Tyrwhitt quotes is related of a mule. The mule 
pretends that his name is written upon the bottom 
of one of his hind feet. The wolf attempting to 
read it, the mule kicks him on the forehead and 
kills him. La Fontaine has a fable to the same 
effect concerning the fox, the wolf, and the horse. 
The other form of the fable may also be given. In 
Croxall's ' xEsop ' the lion sets up as a physician in 
order to get beasts more readily into his power. 
The horse pretends that he has got a thorn in his 
hind foot. Whilst the lion appears to be examining 
the foot, the horse kicks and stuns him. La 
Fontaine's rendering of this form of the fable 
concerns a horse and a wolf ; and a note to this 
and to the other version says that the original of 
the fable is one in ^Esop concerning an ass and a 
wolf. It seems well known that some lines by 
Lord Byron in his ' English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers ' are an imitation of others by Waller. 
But perhaps it is not so well known that Waller's 
lines are a reproduction of /Esop's fable of ' The 
Eagle and the Archer.' These are the lines : 
That eagle's fate and mine are one, 

Which, on the shaft that made him die, 
Espied a feather of his own, 

Wherewith he wont to soar so high. 
And this is La Fontaine's rendering of the fable : 
Mortellement atteint d'une Heche empennee, 
Un oiseau deplorait sa triste destinee 
Et disait, en souffrarit un surcroit de douleur, 
Faut-il ccntribuer a son propre malheur 1 

Cruels humains ! vous tirez de nos ailes 
De quoi faire voler ces machines mortellea ! 

Marie, a French mediaeval poetess, made a col- 
lection of ^Esopian and other fables. ' The Cock 
and the Fox,' which Chaucer has manufactured 
into a Canterbury Tale, is one of these. It has- 
been remarked that no such fable can be found 
either in the Greek ^Esop or in any of the Latin 
compilations circulated in the dark ages under the 
name of ^ Esop. But there is a fable similar to it 
in L'Estrange's 'JEsop,' called ' A Fox and a Divin- 
ing Cock '; and there are other fables called ' The 
Cock and the Fox,' but they are quite different 
from that of Marie and Chaucer. Marie said that 
she translated all her fables from the Anglo-Saxon 
version of ^Esop by King Alfred. But that version 
is no longer extant. One of Marie's fables is that 
which formed the subject of Prior's poem 'The 
Ladle,' and is better known by the name of ' The 
Three Wishes.' We may be sure that this fable, 
at least, is not ^Esop's. A fable by La Fontaine 
very like it, though not quite the same, is said to- 
be derived from an Eastern source. In the story 
of Don Rafael in ' Gil Bias ' Don Rafael narrates 
how, when he became a renegade and embraced 
Mohammedanism, he buried a dead dog in the 
Mohammedan manner. This action was reported by 
his companions to the Cadi, who summoned Doa 
Rafael before him to account for his impious action. 
Don Rafael assured the Cadi that the dog had died 
a good Mussulman, and had bequeathed a legacy to 
the Cadi ; and the gift was immediately handed over 
to the legatee. This pleasantry saved the renegade 
from evil consequences. Without doubt, Le Sage 
deliberately appropriated this story. For the same 
tale, slightly varied, has been told by Poggio ; and 
it is to be found amongst Roger L'Estrange's c.ol- 
lection of the fables of ^Esop and other authors. 
Hence we can see what strange additions have been 
made to the old fables. E. YARDLET. 

(Continued from p. 23.) 

Want of space in my former communication on 
this subject precluded me from giving more than 
the merest outline of the principal features of 
antiquarian interest still remaining in the forty 
comparatively "unrestored" churches of Berkshire,, 
the preservation of which in their original state is 
so desirable. Many, however, deserve to have 
special attention drawn to their merits, though 
Mr. John Henry Parker, in his valuable notes oa 
the ecclesiastical architecture of the county in 
1849, has already particularized most of them. 

Of Bucklebury, a good general view is given in 
a scarce series of aquatints, by Tomkins and others, 
of the churches formerly connected with Reading 
Abbey. Views are also given of Compton, Sul- 

. IX. JAN. 25, '90.] 



hampstead-Abbots, and Tidmarsh. The fine 
church of Cumnor possesses a twofold interest, 
romantic as well as artistic. In the main it affords 
a good example of the Transition Norman style, and 
its south chapel was long used as a mortuary by the 
abbots of Abingdon, two of whose tombs remain; 
but perhaps the chief object of attraction at Cum- 
nor is the ponderous tomb of Anthony Forster, 
the supposed accomplice of Varney in the murder 
of Amy Kobsart, although considerable doubt is 
now thrown on the historical accuracy of the 
tragedy of ' Kenilworth.' 

The monument bears no date, but the death of 
Forster in 1572 is recorded in the parish register, 
and fixes approximately the period of its erection, 
though the flattering nature of the lengthy inscrip- 
tion gives some ground for supposing that it may 
have been composed in the lifetime of the man it 
commemorates, a practice not unusual in Eliza- 
bethan (and later) times. 

A view of Cumnor Church will be found in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for December, 1821. 

Several of the details of Fyfield have been en- 
graved in the ' Glossary of Architecture,' amongst 
them the parclose screen dividing the chapel con- 
taining the altar-tomb of Sir John Golafre from 
the body of the church. 

The small village churches at the two Hinkseys 
{a favourite summer's stroll from Oxford) remain 
nearly untouched. North Hinksey especially has 
been a favourite sketching-ground of Euskin and 
other lovers of the picturesque, and from the hill 
between the two hamlets Turner painted his cele- 
brated picture of the university. Shellingford is 
perhaps the handsomest church in the neighbour- 
hood of Faringdon; it contains some interesting 
monuments, and though not altogether untouched, 
retains most of its original Early English work. 

Sparsholt is a noteworthy example of a fine 
Decorated church, happily quite unmodernized, its 
somewhat remote position in the Vale of White 
Horse possibly having contributed to the immunity 
from restoration which it has enjoyed. Its lofty 
nave and open timber roof delight the eye on 
entering as much as the mellow hues of the 
weather-beaten exterior harmonize with the rural 
calm of the surrounding landscape. It is much 
to be hoped that nothing further than necessary 
repairs to the fabric will be undertaken, and that 
this pleasing relic of the past will continue to 
grace a singularly picturesque village for many a 
long day. Journeying further along the vale, 
Uffington is reached, and here again a magnificent 
Early English church has come down to us in all 
its pristine dignity. Its octagonal central tower is 
a familiar object to travellers on the Great Western 
Railway, on the left hand going towards Shriven- 
ham. In the same neighbourhood the fine cross 
church at Wantage deserves notice. It has been 
well described by Eickman, since whose notes 

were penned little has been done in the way of 
alteration, with the exception of an altogether 
admirable addition of a bay at the west end of the 
nave, under the careful supervision of the present 

This is one of the few Berkshire churches which 
retain at the present day any portion of their for- 
mer wealth of heraldic glass ; in Ashmole's time 
nearly every parish in the county, and especially 
those in the vale, possessed some such memorials 
of former benefactors. At Wantage there still 
remain in the windows the arms of France and 
England, and Bourchier impaling Fitz-Warine. 
Curiously enough, the shields, either designedly 
or by the ignorance of the artist, are so placed 
that the right view of them is from the outside of 
the church, and Ashmole, in copying them from 
the interior, has made the blazon unintelligible. 

Whilst on this subject it should be mentioned 
that at the sweeping restoration of St. Nicholas's 
Church in Abingdon, so recently as 1881, a 
quantity of ancient heraldic glass in the east and 
other windows, including a shield of the arms of 
Eichard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was wholly 
removed and sold by the churchwardens. Many 
similar instances of misplaced zeal could be adduced 
as having occurred in different parts of the county 
during the last few years. 

In Abingdon, also, a great deal of money has 
been wasted in tasteless restoration at St. Helen's 
Church, and a curious crypt or undercroft on the 
west side of the market-place was entirely de- 
stroyed in 1885. 

Would that the weighty words of the present 
Bishop of Salisbury, in his first charge to the 
clergy of the diocese, might be carried into every 
corner of England ! 

" I would venture to urge great care and reverence in 
preserving those treasures of ancient art, and those his- 
torical monuments, whether in wood, atone, metal, glass, 
or parchment, which have come down to us from our 

forefathers Both clergy and churchwardens must 

remember that they are in reality stewards, not absolute 
owners, and that they are stewards of the records of a 
Christian history as noble as that of any nation on the 
face of the earth." 

He concluded by announcing his intention of 
forming, as a contribution to this conservatism, a 
complete inventory of the church plate of the diocese 
of Salisbury, an example which I am humbly 
striving to imitate in this single county of Berks. 
The Eoyal County has proved so far a rich field 
for antiquarian labour, and many valuable speci- 
mens of the silversmith's art in early times are 
being brought to light, the Eoyal Chapel of St. 
George in Windsor Castle alone possessing up- 
wards of two thousand ounces of silver-gilt sacra- 
mental plate, ranging from the reign of Queen 
Mary to the end of the seventeenth century, most 
of it of great beauty and interest. Still, with the 
increased appreciation which the present age ia 



[7 th S. IX. JAN. 25, '10. 

beginning to feel for these memorials of the piety 
of our ancestors, many acts of vandalism are stil 
being daily committed, as, for instance, when twi 
early chalices were offered for sale during the pas 
year by a silversmith at Oxford, one of them 
Elizabethan, and purchased a short time before in 
the neighbourhood of Beading. 

But for the moment we are concerned rather 
with the fabrics than with their fittings and fur 
niture; so, leaving to other and more competent 
hands the rather invidious task of pointing ou 
the errors of judgment which have been committee 
in the past by injudicious enthusiasts in the matter 
of church restoration, errors of which, I amgrievec 
to say, this county supplies many glaring examples, 
I will conclude with the confident hope that in- 
cumbents throughout the country will lay to hear! 
the excellent advice tendered by the Bishop oi 
Salisbury, and use their best efforts to preserve all 
that is worthy of retention in their parish churches, 
at the same time imploring them to be jealously 
conservative of the tranquillizing touch of time, 
which has done so much to give to these ancient 
buildings their artistic tone, and which, once 
tampered with, can never be replaced. 

Tower Hill, Ascot, Berks. 

HOPSCOTCH. Prof. Skeat asserts that the pre- 
sent name of this game is an unmeaning perversion 
of Scotch-hoppers, by which it is designated in 
'Poor Robin's Almanack' of 1677. But he is 
puzzled as to why the hoppers should be Scotch, 
and conjectures that it may have been a Northern 
game. I think that a satisfactory explanation of 
the name may be found in the nature of the game 
itself. A rectangular figure, nine or ten feet long, 
with a rounded end, is scored on the ground with 
a pointed stick or the like, and divided into eight 
compartments on a certain plan. The game is 
played with a small piece of broken tile, which the 
player has to kick before him as he hops in regular 
order from one compartment to another through- 
out the figure, taking care that the tile shall be 
driven clear over the scotch, or scored line, by 
which successive compartments are separated from 
each other, and over which the player himself has 
to hop immediately afterwards. Thus hop-scotch 
would be self-descriptive of the game. My own 
impression is (although I have to look back for 
three-quarters of a century to the time when I 
took part in the game) that we understood the 
word scotch in the sense of a score, or line drawn 
with something sharp in the ground, and I certainly 
all my life have fully understood the name in the 
sense above explained. Skeat renders scotch to 
cut with narrow incisions. That the game is men- 
tioned in 1677 under the name of scotch-hoppers 
is no argument that it was not known at that time, 
perhaps in other quarters, as hop-scotch. But the' 

form scotch-hoppers itself would lend itself equally 
well to my supposition. The term scotch-hoppers 
(analogous to clodhopper or bogtrotter) would 
originally have applied to the players, as hoppers 
over the scotches; while hop-scotch would directly 
designate the game itself. 

Another expression in which the word scotch 
seems to be generally misunderstood in the same 
way may be cited in scotch collops, consisting of 
meat scotched, or minced, in a raw state, for sub- 
sequent dressing ; not Scotch lumps or slices 
(collops). H. WEDGWOOD. 

94, Gower Street. 

America there never was printed a work, without 
any claim to inspiration, whose influence in its day, 
was so extended as that of the ' New England 
Primer,' which for a century and a half was in 
these parts the first book in religion and morals, 
as well as in learning and in literature. The 
earliest notice we find of this famous ' Primer ' is 
gleaned from an advertisement in an almanack for 
the year 169 1, announcing the publication of a second 
edition. The date of the first may, therefore, be 
assigned to the previous year. Compiled by 
ministers of the Gospel for the children of Puritan 
parents, it was familiarly known to them as the 
" Little Bible of New England." Being so small, 
and from constant use so destructible, the originals 
for a period of half a century have totally dis- 
appeared, as the earliest yet discovered was printed 
in 1737, and of this date only one copy is now 
known. In the days of Whitefield, fathers of 
families laid the * Primer ' on the same shelf with 
the Bible and the almanack, and pious mothers 
assembled quarterly to refresh their memories from 
its pages. Containing certain favourite forms of 
prayer, it was daily used by President John 
Adams throughout his long career. 

The copy of the 'Primer' that suggests my 
;heme is a reprint of the Boston edition of 1777. 
Here we find the alphabet rudely illustrated and 
written in scriptural couplets (" In Adam's fall, we 
sinned all"; "Peter deny'd his Lord and cry'd." 
&c.). Then comes " Spiritual Milk for American 
Babes," in copious draughts. Next is a picture of 
he martyrdom of John Eogers in 1554. Further 
on is the Shorter Westminster Catechism of 1644, 
and towards the end a " Dialogue between Christ, 
a Youth, and the Devil." Mighty indeed must 
lave been the sombre influence of lessons such as 

Contemporaries assure us that from its incep- 
ion copies of the f Primer ' were multiplied by 
>rinting presses in every village and town in New 
England. Impressions by thousands were struck 
iff in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, 
ts popularity even spread to Old England, as it 
was reprinted in London in 1771, and also in 

7"> S. IX. JAN. 25, '90.1 



Glasgow in 1784. Early in this century it came 
into requisition in a revised form, and 100,000 
copies were distributed by a single society in Mas- 

Mention has already been made of the extreme 
rarity and value of early dated copies, nor is their 
value over-estimated. Being an " open secret " it 
may here (without intrusion) be told, that at the 
Brinley sale in New York, a few years since, six 
of these little primers, commencing with the year 
1737, were purchased for Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt 
for the munificent sum of 630 dollars. It is 
pleasant to be enabled to add that these precious 
and unique colonial primers were superbly bound 
in levant morocco and enclosed in a velvet casket. 

Apart from its historic associations, the predic- 
tion may now be hazarded that the ' New England 
Primer ' will be for ever embalmed among the 
curiosities of Anglo-American literature. 


Portland, Maine. 

BROGUE. In Dr. Murray's great dictionary I 
find that the third meaning assigned to this word 
is, " waterproof covering for feet or legs ; water- 
proof leggings with feet"; and the earliest and 
only example appears to be an advertisement, dated 
1880, "India rubber goods, &c., Fishing brogue 
boots, leather soles." 

Allow me to point oat that the above meaning 
is not, I believe, accurate ; indeed, I think I may 
say it is incorrect. Fishing brogues are well 
known to the salmon-fisher who wades, and are an 
essential part of his kit. They are simply strongly 
made boots or shoes of a special kind, constructed 
so as to stand rough work, and worn over the feet 
of the waterproof trousers or stockings. They are 
made of various materials, and are not necessarily 
waterproof, seeing that the water comes in over 
the tops the moment the salmon-fisher begins to 
wade. I myself made acquaintance with them in 
1873, and I feel sure they will be found in Messrs. 
Cording's lists long before that date. 


On the south side of the churchyard of the pic- 
turesque parish of Niton, on the seaboard and 
down of the Isle of Wight, is an altar-tomb, under 
which rest the remains of the Rev. John Barwis, 
M.A., who was for forty-two years rector of Niton, 
and died in 1828. It is overshadowed by a yew 
tree, which he is said to have planted. He was 
formerly a fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, in 
whose patronage the benefice is still vested, and he 
is described upon the tombstone, as well as on a 
tablet in the church, as of " Langrigg Hall, Cum- 
berland." Undoubtedly he belonged to that 
ancient family, which is said to have purchased 
Langrigg Hall, a hamlet in the parish of Broom- 
field, near Wigton, in the reign of Kichard II. 

The question arises, Was he the head or one of the 
younger branches of the house ? The same tomb- 
stone also records the death of Jane, relict of the 
above-named Eev. John Barwis, who survived 
her husband many years, and died at the great age 
of ninety-six years. Niton has had only three 
rectors in the long space of ninety-eight years : 
Jolin Barwis, M.A., 1786-1828 ; Kichard Dixon, 
M.A., 1828-1858 ; George Hayton, M.A., 1858- 

In Burke's 'History of the Landed Gentry,' 
1871, is a short incomplete pedigree of Barwis, of 
Langrigg Hall, from which the Rev. John Barwis 
does not seem to have been the owner of the 
estate. John Barwis, Esq., of Langrigg, is there 
said to have married Elizabeth Brisco, and to hare 
had issue Thomas, John, William, and Elizabeth. 
The third son, William Barwis, M.D., of Devizes, 
born June 25, 1746, seems to have possessed the 
estate. The arms are given as "Argent, a chevron, 
between three bears' heads, coupled sable, muzzled 
or. Crest, a bear, muzzled. Motto, ' Bear and 
Forbear.' " 

On a reference to Lewis's ' Topographical Dic- 
tionary,' s.v. " Westward," a parish near Wigton, 
and at no great distance from Langrigg Hall, it is 
there stated that Ilekirk Hall, in Stoneraise, an- 
ciently called Hildkirk, from a hermitage dedicated 
to St. Hilda, is now a farmhouse. This is said, on 
the same authority, to have been the residence for 
some time of Richard Barwise, a man of extraor- 
dinary stature and prodigious strength. Stone- 
raise is a hamlet or township in Westward. Is 
anything known concerning this Cumbrian cele- 
brity; and when did he flourish ? In the admission 
register of St. John's College, Cambridge, the 
place-name Ilekirk occurs as " Hailkelcke." 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

STATUTORY BULL. In the Weights and Mea- 
sures Act, which came into force on the first day 
of this year, is a bull which deserves notice. 
Section 32 provides that no baker shall be " liable 
to any forfeiture or penalty for refusing to weigh, 
in the presence of the purchaser, any bread con- 
veyed or carried out in any cart or other carriage, 
unless he is requested so to do by or on behalf of 
the purchaser." It seems impossible to me that 
the baker should be able to refuse to weigh the 
bread unless he is first asked to do so. S. I. B. 

tunately, literary parellelism is not synonymous 
with literary plagiarism. Were the two terms 
convertible, it is to be feared many knights of the 
pen would have to withdraw from the literary 
arena with dishonour. And novelists seem as 
liable as poets to contract this parallelistic disease. 
A case in point has just come under my observa- 
tion. Quite recently I read a short story by Zola 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7" s. ix. JAN. 25, m 

entitled ' La Morte d'Olivier Be"caille,' and shortly 
afterwards (by an odd coincidence) Marie Corelli's 
* Vendetta ' was lent to me. Both novels are 
written antobiographically, and open almost in the 
same words. The heroes of both were buried alive, 
and escaped in much the same improbable manner, 
and came back to life only to find their wives 
unfaithful to their memory. There the analogy 
ends, for while Olivier Be"caille leaves his wife to 
enjoy her newly found bliss, Fabio Romani forms 
and executes an elaborate plan of revenge. The 
similarity (so far as it goes) of plot is worthy of 
record in ' N. & Q.' J. B. S. 


HOLLAND. Of this actor, whose Christian name 
was Charles, and who was a member of Garrick's 
company at Drury Lane, there is not, so far as I 
know, any special biography, and the particulars 
of his life must be gleaned from the various thea- 
trical records of the period. He died of small-pox 
at the early age of thirty-six, on Dec. 7, 1769 
(Davies's ' Life of Garrick,' second edition, vol. ii. 
p. 94). 

"Holland was brought out under the immediate patron- 
age and tuition of Garrick; from whom, if he did not 
catch the divine fire, he imitated his art so well in many 
instances as to render himself very respectable in the 
line of his profession." ' Memoirs of S. Foote,' by Will. 
Cooke, 1805, vol. ii. p. 76. 

This writer further states that Holland died of 
small-pox about 1768, and that Foote, to whom he 
left a legacy, attended the funeral, which took place 
at Chiswick, where a monument was put up to his 
memory. Holland's father was a baker at Chis- 
wick, which gave occasion to Foote to say he had 
seen the actor " shoved into the family oven," not- 
withstanding which, he is represented as having 
been a sincere mourner. Churchill wrote: 

Next Holland came with truly tragic stalk, 
He creeps, he flies a hero should not walk. 
As if with Heaven he warr'd his eager eyes 
Planted their batteries against the skies. 
Attitude, action, air, pause, start, sigh, groan, 
He borrowed, and made uae of as his own. 
The actor who would hold a solid fame, 
Must imitation's servile arts disclaim : 
Act from himself, on his own bottom stand ; 
I hate e'en Garrick thus at second-hand. 

' Rosciad.' 

Holland was at one time engaged to be married to 
Miss Pope, the actress, but the engagement was 
broken off, and the cause is graphically narrated 
by Dr. Doran in ' Their Majesties' Servants ' 
(vol. ii. p. 473). 

Shortly, it was as follows. Miss Pope, in the 
Richmond coach, on her way to visit Mrs. Clive at 
Twickenham, was passed on the road by a post- 
chaise, in which were Holland and a lady. Arrived 
at Richmond, she saw the pair in a boat, and dis- 
covered that the lady was that " seductive piece of 
mischief," Mrs. Badderley. Holland would not ex- 

plain or apologize, and from that time they never 
exchanged a word, except on the stage. Miss 
Pope, it is added, in her old age told the circum- 
stance to Horace Smith. CHARLES WTLIE. 
3, Earl's Terrace, Kensington, W. 

' THE CREMATION OF SHELLEY.' The art critic 
of the Daily News, in a notice of the Paris Salon 
(April 30, 1889), says : 

" ' The Cremation of Shelley,' by M. Fournier, is 
intensely dramatic. The corpse lies on the beach on a 
pile of wood and faggots. Byron, Keats, and other 
friends are standing near, while an Italian contadina 
kneels. The pyre is beginning to burn, and the smoke 
slightly veils the effect of the fire on the face of the 
dead poet." 

Either the painter or the critic must be seriously 
at fault probably the latter. Keats could not 
have witnessed the cremation of Shelley, seeing 
that he was already dead. Any one with a know- 
ledge of Shelley must surely have known that one 
of his finest poems, ' Adonais,' is a magnificent 
elegy on the death of his friend and brother poet. 
In the prefatory memoir to the Chandos edition of 
Shelley it is stated that the body of the poet was 
" burned with much solemnity in the presence of 
Mr. Trelawny, Capt. Shenley, Lord Byron, and 
Leigh Hunt. Shelley's remains were taken to 
Rome, and deposited near those of his little son 
and of Keats in the Protestant cemetery." 


Northampton . 

S. x. 165, 312, 396 ; xi. 233, there was a dis- 
cussion, in which, in company with better men 
than myself, I took part, as to how far Shakespeare 
was acquainted with Dante, founded on the resem- 
blance of certain passages in the works of the 
two poets. In reading ' The Winter's Tale ' lately 
I was struck with the following parallel, which, 
although it might be too slight to mention by 
itself, is perhaps worth adding to the instances men- 
tioned in the foregoing discussion. In Act V. sc. ii. 
the Third Gentleman speaks of " that rare Italian 
master Julio Romano ; who, had he himself eter- 
nity, and could put breath into his work, would 
beguile Nature of her custom, so perfectly he is her 
ape." In the ' Inferno ' (canto xxix. vv. 136-9) 
Capocchio whose punishment in Malebolge cer- 
tainly exceeded his offence says : 

Si vedrai ch' io son 1' ombra di Capocchio, 
Che falsai Ii metalli con alchimia, 
E ten dee ricordar, se ben t' adocchio, 

Com' io fui di natura buona scimia. 

Thus literally translated by Dr. J. A. Carlyle : 

"So shalt thou see I am the shadow of Capocchio 
who falsified the metals by alchemy. And thou must 
recollect, if I rightly eye thee [Dante had known him 
personally], how good an ape I was of Nature." 

Had the turn of the phrase been " how I aped 
Nature," there would have been nothing remark- 

. IX. JAN. 25, '90.] 



able in it, as this is common enough ; but both 
Dante and Shakespeare use " ape " substantively 
and in the same connexion, namely, " an ape of 
Nature," although in a different sense, as Romano 
was an artist, but Capocchio, as Dante's commen- 
tator, Andreoli, points out, was " buono a contraffar 
la natura, ch' e giuoco da scimia ; non ad imitarla, 
ch' e ufficio d' artista." 

I give this parallel for what it is worth, without 
building any hypothesis upon it. 


Ropley, Alresford. 

[How I of nature was good ape 

Dayman's translation. | 

DUMB- CAKE : ST. MARK'S EVE. I do not know 
if the following recipe for dumb-cake has appeared 
in ' N. & Q.' I obtained it from a lady who 
helped to make such a cake nearly sixty years ago. 
It is much more elaborate than that spoken of in 
'Bracebridge Hall,' and may be of interest to 
your readers. 

It should be made by four persons, and each 
must supply these things : of sand, flour, bran, 
salt, and brickdust, each a thimbleful ; the parings 
of their own nails, and some hair from the back 
of the head, cut up fine, and strewn in. This 
must be mixed to a stiff paste on a sheet of writing- 
paper, which must be gilt-edged (this seems quite 
an important feature in the charm). When made, 
the cake must be transferred to a clean sheet of 
paper, and marked with a cross (like the old 
pennies) by the four persons, each of whom must 
take no more than her own share. Then each 
must mark her own initials in one of the four 
quarters, and also the initials of the man she hopes 
will be her husband. Not a word must be spoken 
or a sound made during the whole process, which, 
I ought to have said, should begin at eleven o'clock 
precisely. Each person takes a corner of the paper, 
and carefully carries the cake to the front of the 
fire, where they must have a pan or an iron rest 
to receive it. They must sit at some distance from 
the fire, and at intervals of five minutes must take 
it in turn to go and turn their own initials to the 
fire, until each corner is done. But for the last 
quarter of an hour before midnight no one must 
move ; each must sit in absolute silence. A laugh 
or a word would be fata]. Then as the clock strikes 
twelve, if she is to marry the man whose initials 
are on the cake, he will suddenly appear and 
speak to her. S. ILLINGWORTH BUTLER. 

The following, abridged from a letter which has 
recently appeared in the Newcastle Daily Journal, 
signed " J. J. Stuart Edward?," and dated from 
Bishop Auckland, Nov. 20, 1889, is too good to 
be lost. 

Amongst the services in kind which the bond 
tenants (in the vill of Middridge) rendered to the 

lord (formerly the Bishop of Durham), was a cer- 
tain number of bushels of "oates of scate" or 
" scate blade." In process of time this was com- 
muted for a money payment, and soon the entry 
became " scate blade, 2s.," and so for a number of 
years. It then changed to "cat blade," subse- 
quently to " cat blades," and, about two hundred 
years after the first entry, to " Catherine Blades, 
2;.," and it so continues in the books of the suc- 
cessors of the Bishops of Durham to the present 
day. "Scate blade" is, I suppose, " tax corn." 

J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

the well-known picture of the ' Death of General 
Wolfe,' painted by West and engraved by Woollett, 
the generals supporting and tending their chief are 
said to have been drawn from life. I have a family 
reason for wishing to identify one of them, and 
shall be grateful to any of your readers who can 
help me to do so. Eeply direct. 

The Meads. Eastbourne. 

DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. Any of your learned 
readers who may possess MS. or original informa- 
tion not hitherto published regarding the Duke of 
Marlborough previous to the accession of Queen 
Anne will greatly oblige me by kindly communicat- 
ing them. Anecdotes, &c., connected with his early 
life would be very valuable. 


35, Hayter Road, Brixton Hill, S.W. 

GRIFT. When Essex children go to school, they 
take with them their slates and their grifts. 
Wright, in his ' Dictionary of Obsolete and Pro- 
vincial English,' merely says, " Grift, s., slate 
pencil. Var. d." I do not ask in what parts of 
England grift is common, but I wish to know its 
origin as an English word ; how it came into use 
among us. In Cramer's ' Dutch-German Diction- 
ary,' 1844, 1 find, "Grift-Schiefergriffel." Certainly 
there is no native slate in Holland ; and so perhaps 
slate pencils were imported from England, and the 
name grift along with them if, indeed, it be an 
original English word. J. DIXON. 

WOODEN SHOES. I have read in some history 
that wooden shoes were accepted by our fore- 
fathers in the time of the Stuarts as the emblems 
of French influence in the domestic and foreign 
policy of this country, and that a wooden shoe 
was placed and found in the Speaker's chair, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. CT s. ix. JAN 25, -w. 

which caused great commotion in the House 
of Commons on one occasion. I have searched 
carefully for the record of the fact in all the 
histories which I have read, and have utterly 
failed to find it. Can you kindly help me by 
pointing out where I can find the fact recorded 1 


HOMAN. Why was William Jackson Homan 
created a baronet in 1801 ? He married, 1791, 
Lady Charlotte Stuart, daughter of the Marquess 
of Bute. He had three brothers. The eldest, 
George, married Anne Young, of Culdoff ; the 
other two, Walter Thomas and Richard, were 
younger than Sir William. Who did they marry ? 


GARDEN BENCHES. Can any one tell me of 
any books containing pictures of seventeenth or 
eighteenth century garden benches or summer 


phrase (ungarnished by italics or commas), which 
appeared in a newspaper recently, may well puzzle 
readers especially foreigners who are not versed 
in the novelties of colloquial English. It is not 
likely that " common or garden " will long retain 
its facetious connotation, but such freaks of phraseo- 
logy are worth recording. Their being made " a 
note of " may save future generations much fruit- 
less speculation. May I add to this note a query ? 
When and how did the " common or garden rat " 
become a joke ? HENRY ATTWELL. 


EXETER GUILDHALL. In Westcote's 'View of 
Devonshire,' edited by Messrs. Oliver and Pitman 
Jones, a list is given of the arms depicted upon the 
panelling of the Exeter Guildhall, with descriptions. 
It is stated that this list is corrected from that 
contained in " Hollingahed's Collections, Lib. 5, 
112." Can any of the readers of ' N. & Q.' kindly 
famish me with the list as written by Hollingshed, 
or give me a more definite reference ? 


SIR GEORGE ROSE, F.R.S. Will some corre- 
spondent of ' N. & Q.' kindly give me the names 
of grandfather and great-grandfather (on Rose side) 
of above English judge ? His father was James 
Eose, of London, and his mother was Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Fern and Margaret Mackenzie 
(of Grinnard family). Sir George Rose was born 
1782, and was educated at Westminster, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge. Where can I find an 
account of his career 1 M. JARDINE ROSE. 

BRUCE FAMILY. Can any of your readers give 
me any particulars regarding the parentage and 
descendants of Peter Henry Bruce, who died in 
Jamaica between 1730 and 1750 ? P. H. Bruce's 

widow was matron of the hospital in Jamaica. 
His father is supposed to have occupied a high 
position in the island. This information is required 
to complete a pedigree. E. D. BURNEY. 

8, Blandford Place, N.W. 

find particulars of the polls recorded at the famous 
general election held just before the death of King 
William III. so graphically treated by Macaulay ? 

F. L. 

FOLCHETTO. Who is this novelist ? Is he still 
living ? I have just read his ' La, La, e La ! " pub- 
lished at Milan in 1881. Has he written others ; 
and, if so, can any reader furnish me with a list of 
them? J. B. S. 


viii. 71, in reply to a query as to the inn at Up- 
ware with the curious sign " Five miles from any- 
where and no hurry," a correspondent speaks of 
the existence at the time of the landlord naming 
the house of two societies of Cambridge men, one 
called the Society of Idiots, the other bearing the 
equally suggestive title of the Honourable Com- 
pany of Beersoakers. Is information now forth- 
coming of the formation of these or other societies 
(such as the Martlets, at my own college, Pem- 
broke) and of their members many, doubtless, 
subsequently famous and proceedings ? 



NEGRO WORSHIP. In Mr. T. F. Thiselton- 
Dyer's ' Folk-lore of Plants,' published last year, 
the following occurs at pp. 3, 4 : 

" The negroes of the Congo adored a sacred tree called 
' mirrone,' one being generally planted near the house, 
as if it were the tutelar god of the dwelling. It is cus- 
tomary also to place calabashes of palm wine at the feet 
of these trees, in case they should be thirsty." 

Mr. Thiselton-Dyer has given us abundant refer- 
ences to authorities in most cases, but none for 
the above. I am examining into certain customs, 
&c., on the Congo, and shall feel greatly obliged 
to any one who will give me a reference to where 
that tree custom or anything further about it is to 
be found, or who will tell me what description of 
tree was honoured in the way alluded to. 


MAJOR ROBERT ROGERS, who, as leader of 
Rangers, served on the British side in the war for 
the conquest of Canada, and who afterwards took 
part in the War of Independence, came as an old 
man to England. He is known to have been 
imprisoned for debt. Wanted to know the date of 
his death and the place of his burial. 


CAKE." Who has not picked up a flat, thin stone 

7** S. IX. JAN. 25, '80.] 


on the sea-shore, and thrown it in such a way as to 
make it skim along the surface of the water ? The 
writer has often, but he was not aware that in 
doing so he was playing at a game called as above. 
Can any reader give me some particulars of this 
carious game ? ALFRED CHAS. JONAS. 


[Concerning the antiquity of this amusement, see 3 rd S. 
xi. 139 ; 5"> S. v. 85.] 

SICILIA THE FOOL. (See 7 th S. ix. 2.) MR. 
LEWIS L. KROPF, writing on Capt. John Smith of 
Virginia, mentions, among the Italians who were 
at Sigismund Bdthori's court in Transylvania about 
the year 1591, "the Court fool, Sicilia (who was 
well paid)." Sicilia must, one would think, have 
been a woman ; and I do not recollect any men- 
tion of her in Dr. Doran's chapter on " Female 
Fools " or elsewhere. Can MR. KROPF say whether 
any further information about her is extant ? 

A. J. M. 

COUSTILLE. Can any one tell me what sword 
was carried by the five hundred Marseillais who 
arrived June 20, 1792, in Paris ? (Thiers, 'Ke>ol. 
Franc., ii. 209.) I have an idea they were naval 
swords, stolen from the arsenal coustilles, cul- 
tellce, cutlasses. A picture might establish the 
point if books fail. The coustille was a short 
double-edged weapon, something like the old 
French sword-bayonet. C. A. WARD. 


'Tis religion that can give 

Sweetest pleasures while you lire; 
'Tis religion must supply 
Solid comfort when you di, &c. 

G. H. J. 


(7 th S. viii. 427.) 

I find this recipe in a scrap-book (full of interest- 
ing " bits ") of my late father's, the Vicar of Ardeley. 
The story I append relative to my father's ac- 
quaintance with the Rev. Sydney Smith will per- 
haps introduce the recipe as veritable. This copy 
of the recipe was written by my late mother, with 
the date "May, 1830," and signed for "Sydney 
Smith." They differ vastly from those lines pub- 
lished in Lady Holland's memoirs of her father, 
and I observe also in one instance from MR. TEW'S 
version, so that I must give the whole : 
Recipe for Salad. 

Two large potatoes passed thro' kitchen seive 

Smoothness and softness to the salad give; 

Of mordent mustard add a single spoon ; 

Distrust the condiment that bites too soon ; 

But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault, 

To add a double quantity of salt. 

Four times the spoon with oil of lucca crown, 
And twice with vinegar, procured from town. 
True flavour needs it, and your poet begs 
The pounded yellow of two well-boiled eggs. 
Let onion's atoms lurk within tlie bowl, 
And (scarce suspected) animate the whole. 
Then lastly in the flavoured compound toss 
A magic spoonful of Anchovy sauce. 
O ! great and glorious ! O ! herbaceous treat ! 
'T would tempt the dying Anchorite to eat ! 
Back to the world he'd turn his weary soul, 
And plunge his fingers in the salad-bowl ! 

May, 1830. 

Sydney Smith at Combe Florey was a neighbour 
of my mother's father at Cothelestone, and the 
epitaph Sydney Smith wrote for him, not appear- 
ing in any memoir, may not be out of place : 
Epitaph Written in Anticipation of the Fate of a. 
Somersetshire Country Gentleman in 1845.* 
Here Esdaile lies; he lost his life 
From struggles in a civic strife, 
And left his widow all forlorn 
Whilst reasoning on the price of com. 
'Tis thus that human projects fail, 
For life is but a "sliding scale." 

Now for the link with my father, given in his 
own words : 

"The vicarage of Ardeley became vacant in 1843 
through the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Hinds, after- 
wards Bishop of Norwich. It is in the patronage of the 
Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's Cathedral. At that time 
the appointment of vicar rested with the dean and the 
resident canon. The dean was the Bishop of Llandaff 
(Dr. Coplestone), and the canon was the Rev. Sydney 
Smith. The dean had his friend, the Rev. Mr. Vaux, 
and the canon his, the Rev. W. W. Malet, so there was a 
little dispute as to who should be chosen, whereupon 
they referred the question to Mr. Christopher Hodgson, 
the chapter clerk, who advised its solution by casting 
lots, and accordingly he was requested to write the two 
names on slips of paper, and put them in his hat ; then 
Sydney Smith proposed that his lordship should take his 
proper precedence, drawing out first, and his draw should 
decide the appointment, to which the dean agreed, and 
drew Malet." 

In this unique manner was the presentation made, 
and I have the letter written to my father by 
Sydney Smith advising him of the result, thus : 

DEAR SIR, You have got the living. 

Yours ever, 

February 20, 1843. 

I should be glad to know if a letter from 
" Tommy " Moore to Sydney Smith in verse, be- 

REV. SIR, Having duly received by the post, &c., 
dated "Slopperton, August 11, 1843," of which I 
have a contemporary copy, has ever been published. 

This is traced to Sydney Smith very particularly 
by a writer in the Quarterly, in an article on 
1 Gardening,' vol. xciii. p. 16, 1853 : 

* The year the author died. My grandfather lived 
till 1882. 



[7 h S. IX, JAN. 25, '0. 

" At this juncture our readers will thank us for pro- 
ducing (by permission courteously granted) a ' Receipt 
for a Winter Salad,' written many years ago at Castle 
Howard by the late Mr. Sydney Smith. He o rarely 
(after schooldays) used his admirable talent for versifica- 
tion, that this specimen of it would be valued, even 
although the prescription were not what it certainly 
is in itself an excellent one." 

The last four lines are those which MR. TEW 
first notices, " Then though green turtle/' with the 
rest. ED. MARSHALL. 

(7 th S. viii. 508 ; ix. 18). Your anonymous corre- 
spondent at the last reference falls into the com- 
mon error of "playing dominoes" instead of giving 
a reply. The query I reported from my Devon- 
shire friends was, " what ' N. & Q.' had said on 
the subject at the time." D., instead of supplying 
a reply, sends a rechauffe of an exploded theory. 

Some one, I am told, repeated my query in the 
Western Morning News (published at Plymouth, 
but circulating over the whole of S. Devon) of the 
31st ult. A large number of answers were elicited 
by this, some of which have been forwarded to 
me, as well as a number of private communica- 
tions. From all these it appears that the exact 
date was February, 1855. Mr. St. David Kemeys- 
Tynte, Balnageith, Torquay, partly from child- 
hood's memory and partly from a book called 
' Country Essays,' supplies an account very similar 
to my first report. Mr. E. Spencer, dating from 
Tavistock, disposes thus of the badger theory : 

" For years I had a tracing of the footprints taken by 
my mother in her garden, Montpellier House, Exmouth. 
It represented half a dozen hoof-like marks, such as 
would be made by a small donkey, only they were those 
of a biped; moreover, after reaching the gate of the 
garden, which was of close wood, they continued in the 
road outside. Prof. Owen, on being consulted, assuming 
that they must have been made by a quadruped, replied 
that it must have been a badger, which places its hind 
foot exactly where the fore-foot had stood, and so left a 
trace like a biped. But, unluckily, he had not been told 
that the same tracks were found on the flat tops of some 
buildings, and on that of a church tower [another corre- 
spondent adds "hayricks"]." 

Mr. Spencer goes on to suggest ingeniously that 
the tracks might have been caused by herons 
driven from their usual haunts by strong frosts, 
" a slight thaw having obliterated the thin wedges 
of snow in each footstep, and given it the rounded, 
hoof-like form." He adds that he was led to this 
guess by seeing on a subsequent occasion some 
marks like a heron's track on a snowdrift over the 
Branson Tor Brook. But I think it difficult to 
imagine that the " slight thaw " if there was one 
at all, and there is no contemporary evidence o 
the fact, but rather the contrary, as many speak o: 
the snow remaining firm all the next day coulc 
have so uniformly, over such a large tract of coun- 
try as thirty or forty mile?, transformed the appear 
ance of a claw into that of a hoof. 

Mr. Charles Taylor, dating from Tavistock, is 
one who points this out. He also has taken the 
trouble to collect from the Illustrated News of the 
moment various accounts, which exactly agree with 
;hat I sent you, supplying the further detail that 
:he hoof impression measured 4 in. by 2 Jin., the 
distance between each tread being rather over 8 in., 
exactly the same in each parish, and that one wall 
the track passed over was 14ft. in height. He 
j;oes on to quote that, besides the badger theory, 
bhe otter, bustard, and crane were all guessed at. 
It was also adduced that two kangaroos had 
escaped about that time from the Sidmouth 
menagerie. Mr. C. B. Mount, Norham Road, 
Oxford, also supplies the reference to the Illus- 
trated London News. But all fail in some point 
or other. 

Another correspondent writes : 

" I addressed communications to the British Museum, 
the Zoological Society, the keepers in the Regent's Park, 
and the universal reply was that they were utterly unable 
to form any conjecture on the subject." 

My friend the Kev. J. J. Rowe, Marychurch,, 
writes : "The episode of the hounds, &c., I well 
and distinctly remember." 

Christophine Goddard, Willow Bank, Paignton, 
writes : 

" No allusion has as yet been made to the mysterious 
footprints having extended to Dorsetshire. We were at 
Weymouth at the time, at Gordon Place, on the Green- 
hill. I remember a creepy feeling on seeing the hoof-prints 
in the snow, which passed from Greenhill over the high 

wall of our garden I have a very distinct recollection; 

it was like the cloven hoof of a calf, one immediately in 
front of the other. I remember also the theory of their 

being caused by a badger But be it bird or beast 

why should these marks have simultaneously appeared 
over so wide an area, and never been observed before or 

G. E. Garyey, 23, Walker Terrace, Plymouth, 
writes to similar effect, but apparently it was in 
Lincolnshire that he observed them. 

R. H. BUSK. 

16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. 

General Martin (or, as the Asiatic Annual Register 
gives the name, " Martine "), the son of a silk 
manufacturer at Lyons, was one of those French- 
men who, driven to despair by the misery and 
famine that desolated Pondicherry in 1760, threw 
themselves among the English. He was constantly 
employed in desperate affairs, but was never 
wounded. General Martin amassed a large for- 
tune ; he was clever at watch-making and gun- 
smith's work. The carbine, curiously wrought and 
inlaid with silver, and the brace of pistols of 
similar workmanship, presented by Lord Corn- 
wallis to Tippoo Sultan's two sons, Abdool Kalick 
and Mooza-ud-Deen, when receiving them as 
hostages for the due performance of the treaty 
made before Seringapatana in 1792, were General 

IX. JAN. 25, '90.] 



Martin's handiwork. As an architect, he buili 
himself at Lucknow a strong, elegant house, thai 
had neither beams nor cupola, and was so contrivec 
that a single man might defend it against multi- 
tudes. General Martin died at Lucknow in 
December, 1800, where he had resided many 
years in the service of the Nawab of Oude ; he 
left a fortune of thirty-three lacs of rupees, repre- 
senting at that time 396,OOOZ. sterling, which, 
except a few legacies, be bequeathed to charitable 
institutions, founding the Martiniere Colleges at 
Calcutta and Lucknow, in India, and another col- 
lege at Lyons, in France. According to General 
Martin's will, the present school at Lucknow was 
to serve both as his tomb and as a college "for 
educating children and men in the English language 
and religion." On a marble tablet over his tomb 
is engraved the following inscription, written by 
himself before his death : 

Here lies Claude Martin ; 

He was born at Lyons, A.D. 1732, 

He came to India a private soldier, 

And died a Major-General. 

W. C. L. FLOYD. 

Claude Martin was born at Lyons (Department 
of the Rhone, France) in 1732. He was the son 
of a cooper. In 1751 he embarked for the Indies, 
enlisted in the English army of the Indian Com- 
pany, and became a Major-General. The Nawab 
of Oude, with whom he managed to ingratiate 
himself, appointed him superintendent of his 
arsenal, and he made a great fortune. He died in 
1800, worth about twelve million francs, bequeath- 
ing 700,000 francs to the towns of Lucknow, 
Calcutta, and Lyons severally, to endow humane 
and educational establishments. A free com- 
mercial school has been built at Lyons, and called 
after him La Martiniere. The major has a 
splendid monument at Lucknow, built by the 
Nawab of Oude. DNARGEL. 


(7 to S. yiii. 208, 312). With regard to DNARGEL'S 
suggestion as to the derivation of the name of the 
Conqueror's mother, it may be worth noting what 
Craik and Macfarlane, in their ' History of Eng- 
land' (8 vols., London, 1846-49), say on the 
matter. At page 191 of vol. i. we find, "The 
name of the maid was Arlete, Harlotta, or Herleva, 
for she is indiscriminately called by these different 
appellations, which all seem to come from the old 
Norman or Danish compound Herleve, f The 
much loved.'" I may add that in the same 
' History ' Harlotta's father is stated to have been 
" a currier or tanner " of Falaiae, and to confirm 
this theory a story is related that one day, when 
William was beleaguering the town of AlenQon, 
the besieged took it into their heads to cry out 
from the top of their walls, " The hide ! the hide ! 

have at the hide ! " and to shake and beat pieces 
of tanned leather, "in allusion to the humble call- 
ing of William's maternal grandfather." As soon 
as William heard this, he caused the feet and 
hands of all the Alengon prisoners in his power to 
be cut off, and then thrown by his slingers within 
the walls of the town. ONESIPHORUS. 

CRABBE'S 'TALES' (7 th S. vi. 506; vii. 114, 
214, 373, 511 ; viiL 116, 298). Just a few lines 
in reply to ALPHA'S courteous and, on the whole, 
fair answer (7 to S. viii. 298) to my two notes (7 tt S. 
vii. 214 ; viii. 116), and then I will retire from the 
controversy, which otherwise will become endless. 
I think the dreadful thrashing which Farmer Jones 
gave his son was more deliberate than ALPHA says. 
See what Jones says about the " two fair twigs " 
" reserved " from the book holocaust for that very 
purpose ; to say nothing of the father's promise 
that another thrashing is in store for Stephen, 
should he show symptoms of needing it : 
That in thy view the instruments may stand, 
And be in future ready to my hand. 
Then let ALPHA look at the abusive names the 
farmer called the boy " vain, worthless, stupid 
wretch," "driveller," "dog." These are "goot 
worts " for a father to use to his son ! 

ALPHA'S argument that, because Solomon erred 
in the matter of marriage, he need not have been 
wrong upon other points, is, in the main, sound. 
Of course it would be ridiculous to doubt Solo- 
mon's general wisdom, not to speak of his glorious 
Song,' which seems to glow with beauty and 
richness. But the fact of his making such an 
awful mistake in his matrimonial relations is a 
great blow to his infallibility. Not that I believe 
that Solomon had really seven hundred wives 
this is obviously an enormous exaggeration ; but 
no doubt he had a good many, and even if he had 
one hundred, he was an " uxorious king," as Mil- 
ton calls him, whose infallibility it is hard to 
swallow. One of the most amusing little scenes I 
ever saw on the stage was many years ago in a 
Haymarket farce, where a pompous, peppery old 
colonel tells a stranger bourgeoise, whom he mis- 
takes for his nephew's newly-married wife, that he 
bas had three wives and is looking out for a fourth. 
She walks up to him, and says, with an arch smile, 
and with slowness and emphasis, " What a brave 
man you must be ! " But suppose the colonel had 
told her that he had, say, ten wives all living 
even had it been lawful I think she would have 
pronounced him to be a " niminy ninny " rather 
;han a brave man. 

It is pleasant to contrast Crabbe's views anent 
the efficacy of flogging with those of one of the 
manliest writers that ever lived sound-headed 
and sound-hearted Charles Kingsley. Alton Locke, 
when a young boy, got a terrible whipping, I 
think from his mother, for expressing certain 


[7* S. IX. JAN. 25, '90. 

anti-Calvinistic sentiments with considerably more 
freedom and emphasis than caution, which whip- 
ping, he says, altered his heart about as much as 
the fear of hell did. 

I have only to add that I am obliged to ALPHA 
for his courtesy in reading ' The Learned Boy ' at 

CROWN OP IRELAND (7 th S. viii. 467). Re- 
ferences are given inRapin's 'History of England' 
to the ' Journals of Parliament ' and to Herbert, 
Hall, and Stow, for the statement that on January 
23, 1542, the English Parliament "confirmed an 
Act passed in Ireland, whereby that island was 
erected into a kingdom. From thenceforward the 
kings of England inserted among their titles that 
of King of Ireland, whereas before they were 
styled only Lords" (ed. 1732, vol. i. ; p. 831). 

Aa regards the submission of the Irish kings to 
Henry II. in 1172, see, among others, Rapin, 
vol. i., pp. 233-6 ; Rennet's ' History ' (1719), 
vol. i., p. 142 ; and Peter Heylyn, who says that 
although previous to 1542 "the kings of England 
used no other title than Lords of Ireland ; yet 
were they kings thereof in effect and power, Lords 
Paramount, as we used to say " (' Cosmographie,' 
1657, p. 346). J. F. MANSERGH. 


An Irish Act of Parliament, 33 Henry VIII., 
c. i., passed at a Parliament held in Dublin, 1540, 
conferred on the king and his heirs the title of 
King, instead of Lord, of Ireland. It is quite 
correct to speak of the Crown of Ireland as being 
" merged " in that of England. The expression 
is proper enough when used of Scotland; but who 
was ever monarch of Ireland before Henry VIII. ? 

NEW YEAK'S DAY (7 th S. ix. 7). In the 
absence of any reference to Stow, the apparent 
reconciliation is that he makes use of no such ex- 
pression. For in his 'Annals,' 1601, p. 135, the 
notice of William is that he was 
"both by the Normans and English men chosen and 
proclaymed King on Christmasse day, which that yeere 
fel on the Monday, and forthwith the same day 

The work on 'The Chronology of History,' by 
Sir H. Nicolas, examines the beginning of the 
year at various times, as well as the beginning of 
the reign of William. 

Stow has this statement a little after : 
"The historiographers of that time accompted the 
yeere to begin at Christmas, after which accompt then 
beganne the yeere 1067, but after the accompt of Eng- 
land nowe observed the yeere beginneth not till the 
tweutie fiue of March following." P. 138. 


J. G. HOLMAN (7 th S. viii. 486; ix. 10). 
Joseph George flolman entered Queen's College 

as commoner February 7th, 1783, and matriculated 
the same day (according to Foster, 'Alumni 
Oxonienses '); son of John Major Holman, of St. 
Giles's, Middlesex (i.e., 3. G. Holman was born in 
that parish), gent., aged eighteen. He did not 
take a degree, much less was he a fellow of the 
college. JOHN R. MAGRATH. 

WILLS IN RHYME (7 th S. viii. 346, 472). It is 
stated in the ' Spirit of the Public Journals ' for 
1824, p. 275, that 

"the following singular last will and testament of a 
student at the University of Dublin, was addressed ex- 
tempore to his friend : 

Cum ita semper me amares, 

How to regard you all my care is ; 

Consilium tibi do imprimis, 

For I believe but short my tine is ; 

Amice admodum amande, 

Pray thee leave off thy drinking brandy ; 

Vides qua sorte iaceo hie, 

'Tis all for that,'O sick ! sick ! 

Mors mea vexat matrem piam, 

No dog was ere so sick as I am ; 

Secundo, mi amice bone, 

My breeches take, but there 's no money ; 

Et vestes etiam tibi dentur, 

If such foul rags to wear you '11 venture ; 

Pediculas si portes pellas, 

But they are sometimes Prince's fellows ; 

Accipe Hbros, etiam musam, 

If I had lived I ne'er had used them ; 

Hpero quod his contentus eris, 

For I 've a friend almost as dear is ; 

Vale, ne plus tibi detur, 

But send her up, Jack, if you meet her. 

" Herald" 


Wills in obsolete language and rhyme occupy 
pp. 86 ff. of ' Curiosities of the Search Room,' by 
the author of ' Flemish Interiors.' 

R. H. BUSK. 

16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. 

506). The very interesting note upon the site of 
the- Glastonbury thorn enables me to give another 
note or two, which may prove of equal interest, 
and record in ' N. & Q.' a fact or two not generally 

In my library of MSS. I have a very thick 
volume with this title, in the handwriting of the 
well-known topographical writer : 

' A Short Historical Account of the Ancient Town of 
Glastonbury and the once famous Abbey of Glaston, 
which in days long since passed away was the admira- 
tion of Europe, surpassing in its magnificence and 
grandeur all other Monastic Institutions of its Time : 
With some Notices of its Environs and places of interest 
to the Antiquary. By William Robinson, LL.D., F.S.A., 
&c. London. 1846." 

This most interesting volume contains not only a 
full account of the history of the abbey, but also of 
the town ; it is illustrated with engravings (some 

7" S. IX, JAN. 25, '90.] 



rare and carious), drawings, original letters, and 
other valuable materials ready for the printer, and 
I hope hereafter to publish it, with some later notes 
since to hand, should the lovers of topography see 
fit to subscribe for copies. 

Now this ' Short Historical Account ' was not 
the first literary work of Dr. Robinson relating to 
Glastonbury. In 1845 he issued an octavo tract 
of viii and 73 pages descriptive of the abbey, and 
in the year previous (1844) at Tottenham he 
printed another octavo of 26 pages on ' The Life 
of St. Dunstan,' with a very curious frontispiece of 
' The Temptation of St. Dunstan,' by H. H. Watts, 
representing "the evil one" in the form of a 
beautiful female, whom the saint has just taken by 
the nose with his pincers. In my MS. volume is 
a curious drawing of the saint taking the devil's 
nose with his red-hot tongs, the original of which 
was painted in the corner of a MS. map of Stepney 
parish dated 1703. In this drawing the evil one is 
represented as a flying monster most hideous to 
behold. It is simply impossible to describe the 
numerous forms in which the devil appeared to 
the holy man at Glastonbury if all the descriptions, 
drawings, and engravings of the pair now in my 
possession are correct. 

Notices of the holy thorn of Glastonbury will be 
found in the historical account of the abbey and 
town before mentioned, pp. 65-67; the Builder 
for 1844, p. 521; Eyston's 'History of the Abbey 
and Town,' 1716, and reprinted 1843, pp. 56-58 ; 
and the stone alluded to in 'N. & Q.' will be 
found described in a twenty-two paged pamphlet, 
printed by W. H. Coates, of Yeovil, entitled ' The 
Legends of the Holy Thorn of Glastonbury.' My 
copy is inscribed, " With the Author's Kind Com- 
pliments, A. L.," but there is no date of publica- 
tion. On p. 17 we read : 

"In the next reign, that of Charles the First, the Holy 
Thorn had to bid farewell to all homage and adulation, 
and ignominiously suffered martyrdom at the hands of a 
rough soldier. During the Rebellion popular feeling ran 
high against the slightest tinge of Romanism, and this 
military zealot regarding this Holy Thorn as a Popish 
relic cut it down and effectually destroyed it. Its stump 
was to be seen as late as 1750. A monumental stone was 
laid over the spot where it once flourished and received 
so much court and attention. The stone is 4 feet 8 inches 
long and 2 feet 8 inches wide. It bears this inscrip- 
tion : 

I. A. 
Anno D 


On p. 6 of the tract it is stated : 

" It is beyond all question that a thorn has grown on 
the south ridge of Wearyall Hill (now called Werrall 
Park) since the earliest ages of Christianity, and that 
this thorn budded and blowed yearly upon Christmas 

I have already alluded to the famous legend of 
St. Dunstan and the devil, and have given some 
curious particulars in my ' Some Account of the 

Blacksmiths' Company,' which forms the appendix 
to my ' Brief History of the Ironmongers' Com- 
pany,' 1889, pp. 63, 64, where I have introduced 
George Cruikshank's very curious illustrations of 
the legend. The book was privately printed, but 
copies will be found in the British Museum and 
Guildhall Library. T. C. NOBLE. 

Greenwood Road. 

P.S. It may not be out of place here to men- 
tion a fact also not generally known, that Dr. 
Robinson contemplated a topographical work on 
a South London parish. I possess a large quarto 
volume with a title, ' The History and Anti- 
quities of Camberwell in the County of Surrey. 
By William Robinson, LL.D., F.S.A. 1848." 
It is in the author's own writing, is over five 
hundred pages in length, closely written, and is 
embellished with engravings, drawings, plans, &c. 
Dr. Robinson would have published it, no doubt, 
had not his death occurred in June that year. 
As is well known, he was the author of the 
' History of Tottenham, Edmonton, Hackney, 
and other Parishes North of London.' 

MACAULAT'S STYLE (7 th S. ix. 8). I quote 
the following from T. H. Ward's ' English Poets,' 
vol. iv. p. 540, London, 1880, for the information 
of your correspondent MR. A. FELS : 

" Great as is still the popularity of the ' Lays,' with 
the mass of those who read poetry, the higher critical 
authorities have pronounced against them, and are even 
teaching us to wonder whether they can be called poetry 
at all. They find in the ' Lays ' the same faults which 
mar the author's prose Commonplaceness of ideas, 
cheapness of sentiment and imagery, made to prevail by 
dint of the writers irresistible command of a new rhe- 
torical force, in a word eloquent Philistinism." 

To this I may add Lord Wolseley's opinion of 
Macaulay as an essayist and historian. When 
requested to name the " best hundred books," in 
his reply he included the ' History of England ' 
and the ' Essays' under the head of " Fiction." 

"Macaulay [says Alexander Smith] recognized men 
mainly as Whigs and Tories. His idea of the universe 
was a parliamentary one. His insight into man was not 
deep. He painted in positive colours. He is never so 
antithetical as when describing character. His criticism 
is good enough as far as it goes, but it does not go far. 
His unfinished ' History ' is only a series of historical 
pictures pieced together into one imposing panorama, 
but throughout there is wonderful splendour and wealth 
of colour." 


Freegrove Road, N. 

Regarding the new estimate of Macaulay's 
prose, Mr. J. Cotter Morrison, in his monograph on 
Macaulay in " English Men of Letters," chap. i. 
p. 13, writes thus : 

" This essay shows that his style was quite natural, 
and unaffected. Whatever may be thought of Mac- 
aulay's style by the present race of critics, no one will 
deny that it was original, and has left a mark on our 



[7' h S. IX. JAN. 25, '0. 

Mr. Morrison's book appeared in 1882. The first 
volume of the series to which it belongs is Mr. 
Leslie Stephen's ' Johnson/ published in 1878. 
On the third page of his closing chapter, p. 168, 
Mr. Stephen contrasts Johnson's style with what 
he happily" designates the "snip-snap of Macaulay." 
This is one of the most authoritative and significant 
among recent evidences of the changed attitude 
towards that easy and self-assured prose which 
fascinated Lord Jeffrey. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

It has been something of a fashion of late years 
in England to speak in disparagement of Mac- 
aulay's style; but it may be questioned whether 
much of this criticism is wise. The matter is very 
fully and, of course, authoritatively gone into by 
Mr. John Morley in an essay on Macaulay in his 
' Critical Miscellanies.' W. B. 

There can, I should imagine, be no question 
but that the " Macaulay-flowers of literature" 
(oh, fie, Dr. Holmes !) soon become wearisome. 
They look better in "trim gardens" than in the 
open field. For my own part, though I delight 
in the 'Essays,' I never could read and never 
shall read the ' History.' C. 0. B. 

The late Prof. Conington, during the early years 
of his residence say from 1844 to 1850 led an 
attack on Macaulay's style at one of the debates 
at the Union Society, Oxford. Some resident may 
perhaps verify this reminiscence by referring to the 
proceedings of those years. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

To RIDE BODKIN (7 th S. viii. 27, 76, 116). As 
an illustration of this expression, allow me to quote 
a passage from the 'Antiquary,' the probable date 
of which is 1795. It is said that in the postchaise 
hired from Fairport to visit the ruins of St. Ruth, 
" between the two massive figures of Monkbarns 
and the clergyman [i.e., Mr. Blattergowl] was 
stuck, by way of bodkin, the slim form of Mary 
M'Intyre " (c. xvil). A postchaise would, as it 
appears from the 'Pickwick Papers,' only hold 
two people comfortably, as Mr. Pickwick observes 
to Bob Sawyer, " The chaise will only hold two, 
and I am pledged to Mr. Allen." I can remember 
the old-fashioned chariot which held three people 
facing the horses. The person sandwiched in 
the middle was styled the bodkin, and had to sit 
forward, whilst the others leaned back. Two ser- 
vants sat on the box, and the rumble behind held 
two more. JOHN PTCKFOKD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

FALLOWS (7 th S. viii. 488). In the village-name 
" Thprpe-in-the-Fallows " we have apparently a 
descriptive title equivalent to 'Village in the 
Meadows.' Fallow lands are such as have been 
untilled for at least a year, or such as are tilled 
and resting unplanted, and "the fallows" and "the 

meadows " are both common names for low-lying 
pastures altogether unacquainted with the plough- 
share. Cp. Cowper's ' Task,' iv. 316 : 
I saw far off the weedy fallows smile 
With verdure not unprofitable, grazed 
By flocks. 

Helensburgb, N.B. 

COCKNEY (7 th S. ix. 7). This word is translated 
by badaud in the English-French Dictionaries of 
Gasc, Spiers, and Clifton et Grimaux. Profs. 
Fleming and Tibbins, in their ' Royal Dictionary, 
English and French,' translate it thus : " Un 
badaud de Londres, comme on dit un badaud de 
Paris." DNARGEL. 


This word has almost entirely lost its original 
meaning, and has come to be applied in a rather 
contemptuous way to natives or customs of London. 
Not long ago, this application was limited to those 
who had been born within sound of Bow bells. 
Now, I think, it is more generally conferred upon 
the inhabitants of London, and especially on those 
who are distinguished, in the opinion of the speaker 
or writer, by some absurd peculiarity or provincialism, 
of manner or pronunciation. They are the modern 
Solceci, and their solecisms have furnished much food 
for laughter. This kind of local reproach is not 
common, but it is not unprecedented. A bergo- 
mask was originally a native of Bergamo, before the 
name came to describe a clown or merry-andrew. 
French sailors dub a comrade who is, perhaps, 
eccentric and amusing, though useless for work, 
Parisien; but not because he is a native of Paris. 
He may have been born anywhere else. So that 
is not quite a parallel case. 

But the older sense of cockney is that which is 
given by Cotgrave, as niais, mignot, &c. Niai.t 
(or mes) he translates as " a neastling; a young 
bird taken out of a neast ; hence, a youngling, 
novice, cunnie, ninne, fop, noddie, cockney," &c. 
Properly and originally, the niais was any young 
bird of prey, taken from the nest, as a faucon 
niais; and I cannot help believing that the term. 
coq niais (or niez) may very probably have beeu 
applied to many a London apprentice in early times. 
Unfortunately I cannot prove it. Littre quotes 
" Coquins, niais, sots," from Coquillart, xv e . S. 

The etymology of the word is confessedly un- 
known. I hesitate, therefore, the less to contribute 
my guess for what it may be thought worth. 


i. 104 ; ii. 162, 476 ; iii. 58, 114, 193 ; iv. 72, 
134, 395; v. 50, 195; vi. 227; viii. 154, 217, 
510). At the last reference there will be found 
a so-called ballad, evidently written in the eigh- 
teenth century, describing the sufferings of an 
English maiden who was sold as a slave into Vir- 

7 th S. IX. JAN. 25, '90.] 



ginia. Her forced labour includes the following 
occupations : she has to use the axe and the hoe, 
i. e., she cuts down trees or chops wood, and she 
tills the ground with a hoe. She also plays her 
part both at plow and cart, i.e., she leads or 
drives the plough, and she leads or drives carts, 
or loads or unloads them. Again, she carries 
burdens of wood on her back from the forest ; and 
she makes mortar, acting, therefore, as a bricklayer's 
labourer. All these details and there are many 
others in the ballad are so precise and specific 
that they look as if they had some foundation in 
fact. What evidence is there that the maidens who 
were "pressed" (as J. C. Hotten's list has it) into 
the American colonies were employed in such 
work as the above ? And what evidence is there 
as to the relations of service and treatment between 
the English men and women thus enslaved and 
the negro slaves who at the same date were so em- 
ployed in the same colonies ? A. J. M. 

BLACK CAP WORN BY A JUDGE (7 th S. viii. 449; 
ix. 15). Before there were daily newspapers, 
country folk had peculiar notions about the black 
cap worn by judges when passing sentence upon 
criminals found guilty of capital offences at assizes. 
The belief was that a death sentence could not be 
uttered or, if uttered, would not be valid unless 
the judge first put on the black cap. The black 
cap was a sign of death, and when a jury on these 
occasions came into court with their verdict, and 
the foreman, in reply to the questions put by the 
officer of the Court, said, " Guilty, my Lord," the 
putting on of the black cap was looked upon with 
awe, giving some of the spectators " shivers down 
the back," about which they talked for many a 



S. viii. 468; ix. 11). The great popularity of this 
song among the lower classes, with whom it was 
a favourite for many years, was due to the air, 
almost literally copied from that of a song with 
which Madame Vestris delighted her admirers in 
one of her vaudeville pieces. The first line of the 
original was, I believe, 

If I had a beau, for a soldier who 'd go. 
From the awkwardness of the phraseology, I sus- 
pect it was a bad translation from a French libretto; 
but the music was so catching that it was the rage 
of the day. There were other parodies, probably 
not fewer than a dozen. The date was much earlier 
than MR. FOWKE supposes, as the allusions to the 
" new police " (established in 1829) and to " Mar- 
tin's Act" (strengthened in 1827) sufficiently 
prove. J. LATIMER. 


Is not there a version of this in Punch say 
thirty years ago ? Long before the music-hall song 

given at the last reference was written, our grand- 
mothers taught the little ones in the nursery to 
say, in the interest of kindness to animals, 
If I had a donkey that wouldn't go, 
Do you think I 'd beat it ? Oh, no, no, no ! 
I 'd give him some corn, and cry, Gee ! wo! 
Come up, Neddy ! 


I have been much amused by the reperusal of 
this old favourite. To one passage of the text, 
however, I wish to take exception : 

But times are come to a pretty pass, 
When you mustn't beat a stubborn ass. 

For " times " I should write things. But I think 
I can appeal to universal consent that the reading 
of the second line should be : 

If a man mayn't wallop his own jackass. 

Thence, as I have always supposed, was formu- 
lated the dictum, well known through the United 
States in time gone by, that it was every man's 
right to wallop his own nigger. The correct read- 
ing, therefore, has some little interest of its own. 


[Ms. C. H. FIRTH obliges with a broadside version of 
this, which is at the disposal of our correspondent.] 

LIVING OF BRATTON ST. MAUR (7 th S. viii. 508). 
In the Rev. F. W. Weaver's privately printed 
' Somerset Incumbents,' 1889 (a copy of Add. MSS. 
30,279, 30,280), the name of James Royse, arm., 
appears as the patron in September, 1662 ; the 
reference to the Bishop's Register being Peirs, 102. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

The patron of this living in September, 1662, 
was Jacobus Royse, arm. How the living became 
vacant is not stated, but the reference to the Bishop's 
Register is Peirs, 102. Mr. Weaver's book has not 
long been printed. There is a copy in the British 
Museum, but probably it is not yet catalogued. 
The original MS. of the book is also in Add. MSS. 
30,279-80. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

Baling Dean. 

DERBYSHIRE HISTORY (7 th S. viii. 468; ix. 36). 
' Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire,' by J. 
Charles Cox, 4 vols., 1875-79, 8vo., has an account 
of Eckington (vol. i. pp. 219-231) and of Killa- 
marsh (pp. 259-269), which place is written at 
time of Domesday Survey, Chine wold Maresc. 
References to his authorities are minutely given 
by the author. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

IRVINE OR IRWIN OF BONSHAW (7 th S. vii. 307, 
434). The state physician and historiographer to 
Charles II., Christopher Irving, a scion of the 
house of Bonshaw (author of ' Historiae Scoticae 
Nomen datura Latino Vernacula,' printed at Edin- 
burgh in 1682), was the second son of Christopher 



17*8. IX. JAN. 25, 'SO. 

Irving, by his wife Blanche Isabel, daughter of 
Edward Irving, of Stapleton, and great-grandson 
of Edward Irving, of Bonshaw and Stapleton. 

Sir Gerard Irvine, of Castle Irvine, co. Fer- 
managh, from whom the Irish branch is descended, 
was elder brother to the first-named Christopher 
in this notice. There were so many Christopher 
livings that in order to make my statements clear 
I must place them as they came. 

Two Christophers, father and son, fell at Flodden 
Field in 1513. The son of the latter, also a Chris- 
topher, was killed at Sol way Moss in 1542. He 
left a son Edward, whose son Christopher married 
in 1566 Margaret, daughter of John Johnstone of 
that ilk (ancestor of the Marquesses of Annandale), 
and left two sons, William, who died s.p., and 
Edward, whose descendants continued the line of 

I am surprised to find that MR. GEO. NEILSON 
disbelieves that the Irvines of Drum came origi- 
nally from Dumfriesshire, as I had never heard this 
doubted before. Historians in general state that 
Willielmo de Irewyn of Drom (1323) belonged to 
the Annandale family of that name. I am unable 
to say whether Bonshaw was the property of an 
Irving at that time or not, for later on (1460, or 
thereabout) I find Archibald Boyd, son of Lord 
Boyd, styled first of the Boy da of Bonshaw. 

I think it probable that Willielmo de Irewyn of 
Drom was the son of Irving of Cove (formerly 
called Dunskellie), whose charter is said to have 
been granted by Malcolm Canmore. Should this 
statement be correct, as I believe it is, there were 
Irvings in Dumfriesshire long before those who 
settled in Aberdeenshire. 

Before concluding I must give MR. ANTROBUS 
the only scrap of information I can find in my col- 
lection of notes and pedigrees with reference to 
Eyles Irwin : 

"Died Aug. 12, 1817, at Clifton, in the seventieth 
year of his age, Eyles Irwin, Esq., formerly of the East 
India Company's Civil Service at Madras." 

E. S. H. 

Castle Semple. 

JAMES SMYTH (7 th S. viii. 327, 393). If your 
correspondent can refer to the British Museum he 
will find a long account of the Smyth family in Add. 
MS. 23,686. Mary Smyth, the wife of John Pres- 
ton, Esq., of Bellinton, co. Meath, was daughter of 
the Eight Hon. Sir Skeffington Smyth, Bart., and 
was married at St. Anne's Church, Dublin (marr. 
licence, April 28, 1758). She died in Dawson 
Street, Dublin, at a very advanced age, in October, 
1830. She was mother of Lord Tara and other 
children. Y. S. M. 

VERMINOUS (7 tb S. ix. 6). On referring to John- 
son, which I omitted to do before writing my note 
on this word, I find that he gives it, with the two- 
fold definition " tending to vermine ; disposed to 

breed vermine." The authority he mentions is 
Harvey, whom, in accordance with his practice, 
he merely names, without a precise reference. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

Ogilvie's 'Imperial Dictionary' gives the follow- 
ing quotation : " The verminous disposition of the 
body. Harvey." K. D. W. 

BATTLE OF BOSWORTH (7 th S. viii. 449). For 
accounts of the battle of Bosworth Eapin gives 
references to Hall, Stow, and Hollingshead. Sir 
William Brandon was the Earl of Richmond's 
standard-bearer, but he was slain by Eichard. 
" Sir John Cheney, having taken Brandon's place, 
to oppose the King's furious efforts, was over- 
thrown to the ground." J. F. MANSEKGH. 


CUNNINGHAM FAMILY (6 th S. viii. 517 ; ix. 417, 
496). Sir Walter Scott, in 'Wandering Willie's 
Tale' (' Eedgauntlet,' Centenary Edition, p. 113), 
makes him say of Sir Eobert Eedgauntlet, that 
" he was out with the Hielandmen in Montrose's 
time ; and again he was in the hills wi' Glencairn 
in the saxteen hundred and fifty-twa." Is this 
history, or is it fiction ? If the former, it would 
affect my suggestion (6 th S. ix. 417) that Alexander 
Cunningham joined in the invasion of England in 
1640, and would make the probable date of his 
flight into Devonshire twelve years later. Where 
can I find any mention of the rising of " saxteen 
hundred and fifty-twa " ? 


Hilfield, Yateley, Hants. 

(7 tb S. viii. 464, 518). The objection taken by 
W. C. B. does not go to the real point of my 
criticism, but only to the appositeness of my illus- 
tration. In deference to him I will change it, and 
suppose Mr. Keble to have died a bishop, and the 
inscription to have run : 

He rests in peace at 

Worcester of which he 

was Bishop, &c. 

Would that be any more tolerable 1 I think 
not ; but W. C. B.'s objection could no longer 
apply. E. HUDSON. 


" HUMANITY " MARTIN (7 th S. viii. 427, 478 ; 
ix. 14, 32). With regard to the remark at the last 
reference, relative to the only son of " Humanity" 
Martin, I may draw attention to the interesting 
fact that " Mr. Thomas Martin, the eldest son of 
Eichard Martin, Esq., many years Member for 
Galway," joined the famous 88th, or Connaught 
Eangers, as a volunteer (vide ' Historical Eecord ' 
of the regiment, London, 1838) soon after the 
opening of the trenches, and accompanied the 

7 th S. IX. JAN. 25, 'SO.] 



grenadiers at the storming of Badajoz (and was 
wounded in the shoulder) on the terrible night of 
April 6, 1812. If Mr. Thomas Martin was the 
only son of the member for Galway, and if he was 
born in 1792, as suggested by your correspondent, 
he was, therefore, not of age when he gallantly took 
part, as a volunteer, in the final assault on Badajoz 
one of the most awful and memorable recorded in 
history when the British casual ties alone amounted 
to 59 officers and 744 men killed, and 258 officers 
and 2,600 men wounded. 

6, Freegrove Road, N. 

MR. PRENDERGAST might have mentioned that 
two of the books from which he quotes, i. e., ( Life 
of Chas. Lever' and 'Life of Father Thomas Burke' 
were written by Prof. W. J. FitzPatrick, F.S.A., 
a frequent contributor to ' N. & Q.' CLIO. 

PIGEON'S BLOOD (7 th S. viii. 468 ; ix. 13). 
There is another version of the story of a drop of 
blood falling on the bust of Charles I. It was 
given in a letter to the Globe newspaper (Jan. 11, 
1886 or 1887) and signed by "The Author of 
'Flemish Interiors'": 

" The King was sitting in an arbour in the gardens of 
Chelsea Palace, attending by bis Courtiers, when its 
[the bust by Bernini] arrival was announced, and he 
ordered the case containing it to be brought and opened 
before him. Hardly, however, had the lid been removed 
and the bust laid bare than a hawk, holding in its beak 
a lark, flew past, and in the act some of the blood of the 
victim, falling on the marble, left a crimson streak 
round the throat of the royal effigy. The sight was 
sudden and ghastly, and those present looked at each 
other with dismay ; moreover, the stain could not be 
altogether removed. Nothing was said, and the King 
ordered this work of art, with which he was pleased, to 
be placed in a niche above the entrance to the royal 
library. There it remained until some years later, 
when the Palace was burnt down and the ominous piece 
of sculpture perished in the flames. An account of this 

curious incident will be found in one of the notes of 

a curious, and rather scarce, historical work called 
' Macarias Excidium.' " 

Observe the bird mentioned is a lark. "The 
sight was sudden," &c., has a suspicious after- 
thought sort of look about it. 


34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

Is there any earlier authentic notice of the story 
of the bust of Charles I. than that of Aubrey ? 

" The bust of King Charles I. carved by Bernini, as it 
was brought in a boat upon the Thames a strange bird 
(the like whereof the bargemen had never seen) dropped 
a drop of blood or blood-like upon it ; which left a stain 
not to be wiped off." 'Miscellanies,' "Omens," p. 38, 

The 'Miscellanies' first came out in 1696. 


THE WORD "BRAT" (7 th S. viii. 464). The 
Carlisle Patriot has no reason to make a fuss about 
this word, nor to introduce Prof. Max Miiller to 

the local police-court for the purpose of admiring 
it as rare or exceptional. Brat, meaning an apron, 
especially a coarse strong apron for scouring in, is 
a quite common and well-known word in Lanca- 
shire as well as in Cumberland. I used it myself 
in ' N. & Q.' the other day without the faintest 
hope that any professor would be "tilled with 
pleasure " thereby. Nor is it a word of contempt, 
at least when applied to aprons ; and wherever 
brat means an apron it will probably be found that 
children are bairns or childer. 

Prof. Skeat (I am quoting him from memory) 
says in his ' Dictionary ' that brat means a rag, 
and "hence "is a term of contempt for children. 
I do not quite follow that "hence." 

A. J. M. 

This word is well known in this district, but 
principally as a word of disparagement to children 
or young folks, as, " You dirty brat !'' "You little 
brat ! " &c. Brockett, in his ' Glossary,' gives the 
application of the word as follows : 

(1) " Brat, a rag, a child's bib, a coarse apron. Sax. 
bratt, panniculus. It is also often used to express cloth- 
ing in general ; as in the well-known phrase ' a bit and a 
brat.' Brat in Irish signifies a cloak, mantle, or cover- 
ing. Chaucer uses the word to signify a mean or coarse 

for ne had they but a shete 
Which that they might wrappen hem in a-night, 
And a bratt to walken in by day-lieht. 

' The Chanone's Yemmane's Tale.' 

(2) " Brat, the film on the surface of some liquids ; as, 
for instance, that which appears on boiled milk when 
cooled, or beer when sour. It is also applied to the crust 
formed after rain on the surface of the land. 

(3) " Brat, a turbot in the Newcastle fish market, the 
hallibut is called a turbot." 

It is rather curious that in these definitions Brockett 
does not give the word as commonly used. 

N ewcastle-upon-Tyne. 

[Many correspondents are thanked for replies.] 

COCKATIELS (7 th S. ix. 7). Cockatiels belong 
to the parrot family (Psittaci), and are natives of 
Australia. They may be classed with the grass 
parrakeets, and are nearly allied to the ground 
parrots. They are small, grey, crested birds, the 
face and crest lemon yellow, with a small patch of 
bright brick red on each cheek. The full length 
of individual birds varies from eleven to about 
thirteen inches, five to five and a half inches of this 
being absorbed by the tail. The generally recognized 
scientific name is Callopsitta nova-hollandice, but 
there are many synonyms. With bird-fanciers 
the cockatiels are great favourites. They can be 
taught to talk, and are the kindliest natured and 
most gentle of all the parrot family, and breed 
more readily in captivity than, perhaps, any other 
birds. They are sometimes called crested ground 
parrakeets, or parrakeet cockatoos, but cockatiel 
has become the favourite name. Jamracb, the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. ix. JAH. 25, -so. 

well-known dealer in birds and beasts at Ratcliffe 
Highway, is credited with having invented the 
name to signify his classification of the bird as a 
"little cockatoo." M. HERON. 

CONFIRMATION (7 th S. viii. 348, 470 ; ix. 37). 
The following memoranda from my note-books 
may have some interest for some of your readers : 

1. Bishop Sparrow's widow was anxious in 1693 
not to defer " any longer " the confirmation of a 
granddaughter aged fourteen (Bodl. MS., Racol., 
c. 739, f. 13). 

2. But White Kennett, in his Primary Charge 
at Peterborough in 1720, refused to confirm any 
under fourteen. 

3. Sheldon, while Bishop of London, never con- 
firmed in Essex at all. And when he held any 
confirmations there was great irregularity, no ex- 
amination, &c. (Hickeringill's 'Black Non-Con- 
formist,' 1681, p. 55). It may be mentioned that 
in this abusive and coarse tract of this " irrecon- 
cileable " the writer maintains the legality of the 
cope and illegality of the surplice at Holy Com- 

4. Archbishop Gilbert of York (1757-1761) in- 
troduced the practice of offering the confirmation 
prayer of benediction once for the whole number 
kneeling at the holy table as an improvement 
(Bishop Newton's 'Autobiography,' ed. 1816, 
p. 105). 

5. In 1806 Majendie, Bishop of Chester, con- 
firmed 2,580 persons at once at Sheffield, of course 
after Archbishop Gilbert's improved fashion 
(Gentleman's Magazine for 1806, part ii. p. 808). 


COCKLEDEMOT (7 th S. ix. 28). Cockledemoy is 
in Scott's own drama ' The Doom of Devorgoil,' 
not in 'Goetz von Berlichingen.' The famous 
' Bonnets of Bonnie Dundee ' ballad is in ' The 
Doom of Devorgoil,' Act II. sc. ii. 


THE SCENE OF CESAR'S DEATH (7 th S. ix. 28). 
It is well known that C;esar was assassinated in 
the building called Pompey's Curia, adjoining his 
theatre, which was situated on the confines of the 
Campus Martins. It is somewhat singular that 
Shakespeare should have thought it was in the 
Capitol, as most of his Roman history is derived 
from Plutarch, who, in his account of Brutus, de- 
scribes the conspirators as proceeding immediately 
after the murder to the Capitol. W. T. LYNN. 


JEAN PAUL MARAT (7 th S. ix. 29). Born at 
Neufchatel in 1744, in early life he was a prac- 
titioner of medicine in Paris. At thirty we fine 
him in this country, in 1774. A pamphleteer in 
Church Street, Soho ; a teacher of French in Edin 
burgh, 1775 ; of tambouring in Glasgow ; an ushe 
at a school at Warrington under the profound Dr 

riestley ; and apparently a hair-dresser in Dub- 
in ; a felon at Oxford ; and a format for five years 
in the Thames ; and finally one of the most power- 
ul men in France during the Revolution. Such 
s the record of a life seldom, if ever, equalled. 
5ut Charlotte Corday appeared on the scene, and 
Tuly 13, 1793, saw the last of the most sanguinary 

monster of modern times. Vide Cooper's ' Dic- 
ionary'; 'N. & Q.,' 1860; and 'The Book of 

Days,' 1878, vol. ii. p. 55. 

Freegrove Eoad, N. 

A full account of Marat's connexion with New- 
castle, where he " practised both human and vete- 
rinary medicine about the years 1770-73," written 
>y the late James Clephan, will be found in 
the Monthly Chronicle of North-Country Lore, 
vol. i. p. 49, 1887. W. E. ADAMS. 

Holly Avenue, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

LORDS SPIRITUAL (7 th S. viii. 467). The " lord 
jishop" question is one which, in some form or 
other, is constantly recurring with irritating fre- 
quency, considering its relative lack of importance. 
Of course, people who contend that the expression 
' lord " as applied to a bishop indicates properly 
that such a bishop is a peer are mistaken. An in- 
vestigation into its origin will soon show this. For 
centnries the ecclesiastical designation of all bishops, 
without distinction, in Western Christendom has 
been : " Reverendissimus in Christo pater ac 

dominus, Dominus Episcopus ." Here, 

if " dominus " is translated into " lord," as it has 
always been in this connexion, we have the desig- 
nation in English thus: "The Right (most) reverend 

father in Christ and lord, the lord the bishop 

of ." The latter part of the sentence has been 

abbreviated into the familiar "lord bishop of ," 

and people are now, forsooth, arguing that " lord " 
is an adjective, and should not be given to a bishop 
unless he has a seat in the House of Lords. How 
early the word " dominus " is found as applied to 
a bishop it would not be easy to say; and it 
would not be much easier to say when the English 
" lord " was first used in the same connexion. I 
would venture to point out that the designation of 
a bishop is not strictly speaking a " title " at all, 
but the formal description of the holder of an 
office. Whether it is desirable in the present demo- 
cratic age for bishops to cling very closely to their 
lordly ecclesiastical character is perhaps doubtful. 
Equally time-honoured is the use of the word 
"palace "to describe an English bishop's official 
residence. Yet there seems to be a feeling among 
the present bishops that it would be well to abandon 
it, and in one case (Lichfield) this has been done. 
One never heard of any colonial bishop calling his 
house a " palace," and the only instance among the 
new bishoprics in England is Liverpool, where a 
very "low church" bishop has dubbed the house in 

7tfc S. IX. JAN. 25, '90.] 



a street row in which he lives " The Palace." It 
might be wiser and more in accordance with the 
drift of modern ideas were none of the bishops 
" lords " and none of their houses " palaces." That 
strictly speaking, however (so far as ecclesiastical 
precedent for centuries is a guide), every bishop is 
a "lord" without distinction there can be no 
reasonable doubt. That it is also an ecclesiastical 
designation in its origin, and not a civil " title," 
there can also be no reasonable doubt. A bishop 
is ecclesiastically " a father, and a lord in Christ." 

Coatham, Yorkshire. 


The quotation required by MR. PAUL KARKEEK is 
from Longfellow's exquisite romance ' Hyperion,' and 
occurs, with slight alteration, in the seventh chapter of 
the first book. M. C. Fox. 

History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, from the In- 
troduction of Christianity to the Present Day. By 
Alphons Bellesheim. Translated by 0. H. Blair. 
Vol. III. (Blackwood & Sons.) 

SOUE time ago we noticed the first two volumes of this 
work, and have anxiously awaited the publication of the 
one before us, which extends from 1560 to the death ol 
James I. Very few historical books that we have seen 
have been written with such conspicuous fairness. Dr. 
Bellesheim is one of the canons of Aix-la-Chapelle, and 
is renowned far beyond the limits of the German father- 
land for his learning, fairness, and accuracy. We have 
had far more than enough of books called histories 
which are but histories in name things written with 
the object not of telling what really took place in pasi 
times, but of enforcing this or that religious or politica 
dogma. Catholics and Protestants have both alike been 
gross offenders in this matter; but better days have come 
upon us. The Roman Church has in recent days pro- 
duced a body of scholars of whom Dr. Bellesheim and 
Fathers Bridgett and Gasquet are conspicuous examples 
who are well aware that history is far worse than useless 
if not seen in accurate perspective illuminated by the 
white light of truth. The first two volumes of thi 
' History of the Catholic Church of Scotland,' excellen 
as they were, suffered somewhat from condensation 
Such is not the case with the one before us. Whateve: 
view we may take of the great religious revolution of th 
sixteenth century, every one must allow that it was on 
of the most important events in the annals of the wotlc 
As the years glide on and we get further remove 
from the passions of that disturbed time, w e see mor 
and more clearly how very much we are now affected b 
the actions of ancestors who have been for three hun 
dred years in their graves. 

In no part of Europe was the change in the religiov 
habits of the people BO thorough as it was in Scotlan( 
In England, Germany, and even in Calvinistic Switzer 
land, many mediaeval beliefs and customs were retaine 
which were ruthlessly swept away in Scotland. Th 
great wealth of the Church and the extreme profligac 
of a large number of the higher ecclesiastics in a grea 
measure explains this. 

Dr. Bellesheim does not in the least strive to hide th 
true state of the case, neither does he depict the Be 

irmers in the dark colours which many might antici- 
ate. Even the political Protestants, who evidently 
ssnmed the garb of the new religion not because it 
ipealed to their he.-.rts and consciences, but for the 
ke of power and possessing themselves of the church 
ands, are not denounced ; we are told what they did, 
nd are left to draw our own conclusions. 
The great difficulty in writing a history of the Church 
f Scotland during that disturbed period is that it is so 
etached and fragmentary. By this we do not mean 
jut ample documentary evidence has not come down to 
ur time, but that there is no central figure or institu- 
.on around which to group the facts, so that they may 
ling to the memory. The new Church was only gradu- 
lly formed, and the old one only went to pieces very 
lowly. There is the more credit due, therefore, to one 
who has been able to see his way through the jungle of 
acts and give us a connected history, the details of 
which we can remember. This Dr. Bellesheim has done 
n a most satisfactory manner. Had he been a Scotch- 
man or Englishman we might, perhaps, have been 
nclined to find fault with bis reticence on certain points; 
jut to a foreigner explanation of these things must seem 
needless. He is probably unaware of the cloud of igno- 
ance which hangs over the British mind as to the teach- 
ng and practices of the mediaeval Church. Had he 
realized this, we think he would, ere he turned his atten- 
ion to the great struggle of the Reformation, have given 
us readers a picture of what the outward form of reli- 
gion was like before the crash came. No one in Europe 
s more capable of doing it than he ; and we cannot but 
regret that considerations of space, or some other motive, 
ias caused him to omit what would have been so inter- 
esting and instructive. His book is, however, a tho- 
roughly good one, showing high scholarship and patient 
ndustry on every page. It is not, therefore, fair to cen- 
sure the author for not having made it other than it is. 
Our notice is already far too long. We cannot close 
r, however, without saying that the translation is ex- 
cellent, and that the notes added by Mr. Blair are most 

Travels in France ly Arthur Young in 1787, 1788, 1789. 

With Introduction, &c., by M. Betham-Edwards. 

(Bell & Sons.) 

addition to that lengthening series known as " Bonn's 
Standard Library," which may claim to include more 
masterpieces than any other collection of books ever 
published. Young was a productive writer, and there 
are few of his works that may not be studied with 
advantage. His ' Travels in France ' is a masterpiece. 
Vaguely recognized in England as an authority by people 
who have not seen it, it has obtained in France com- 
plete and well-merited recognition. In no single book, 
perhaps, can be so pleasantly obtained a full insight into 
the causes which brought about the upheaval of the 
French Revolution. An ardent admirer of Rousseau, 
Young is horrified at the folly and tyranny of the aris- 
tocrats, and writes words of supreme wisdom on the 
subject. It is, however, desirable that those who study 
these aspects of his views should see also what he says 
on the other side of the question, which is of at least 
equal importance. While struck with the sagacity of 
his views, we stand perplexed at the obtuseness of the 
man who has nothing but fault to find with Marseilles, 
and dismisses Carcassone as though it were Wolver- 
hampton. Young's spelling of French words and his 
use of accents are his own, and are faithfully preserved. 
We are sometimes at a loss, accordingly, to know if a 
mistake is his or his editor's. We can scarcely credit 
Young, however, with -writing, as it stands, " Na Metro- 



[7'" S. IX. JAN. 25, '90. 

manie, of Pyron," or " Gretty's Caravane de Carre." 
As a specimen of tlie manner in which Young coul<l 
shut his eyes take the following. Of Pau he says, " I 
question whether anything would ever carry a stranger 
to it but its possessing the cradle of a favourite cha- 
racter." Yet Pau is a place of enchantment, and the 
panoramic view of the Pyrenees it affords is one of the 
world's marvels. 

A Memorial of the Cambridge Camden Society. By 
E. J. Boyce, M.A. (Cambridge, Deighton, Bell, & 
Co. ; London, Bell & Sons.) 

THE Cambridge Camden Society, whose story is here 
graphically told by one of the founder* of that goodly 
and well known company which developed from the 
Ecclesiological Society, has a story worth the telling. 
The sentence from Newman's sermons printed on the 
cover and title-page is in itself a memorial of the society. 
" One or two men of small outward pretensions, but 
with their hearts in their work these do great things." 
And in their special line, that of reviving a love for and 
a knowledge of the principles of Gothic ecclesiastical 
art, the " one or two men " who met together at Cam- 
bridge to exchange their thoughts on this subject during 
the academic year 1837-8. really did "great things." 
Neale (of East Grinstead), Webb (of St. Andrew's, Wells 
Street), Venables, Harvey Goodwin, Paley, Eddie these 
and others among the earliest members would alone be 
a roll of names sufficient to make a society famous. Not 
a few of this interesting group have joined the majority, 
but some yet remain to UB, and that, too, as honoured 
contributors to the columns of ' N. & Q.' It is hardly 
possible to turn over a page of the lists of early officers 
and members which Mr. Boyce's zeal and knowledge 
have enabled him to put before us, without coming upon 
names which must always be held in high esteem in 
letters, arts, law, and literature. We should have lost 
much if Mr. Boyce had not published his ' Memorial.' 

Le Livre Moderne. No. 1. (Paris, Quantin.) 
WITH its motto, " Hodiernus non Hesternus," Le Livre 
Moderne, of which the first number appears from the 
house of Quantin, is likely to eclipse its predecessor in 
vogue. Its shape is more convenient, its type more 
legible, and its letterpress more literary and less journal- 
istic. In place of a criticism upon a new work we have 
now ashort causerie. The whole is effervescent, bright, and 
new. Of the Livre Moderne, as of the Livre, M. Octave 
Uzanne is editor, and a portrait of his very Roman- 
looking head is the first of the illustrations hors texte 
which the number boasts. After a pleasing and original 
'Acte de Naissance en guise de Presentation,' and an 
explanatory address, ' Nos Variations Futures,' both 
signed with the initials O. U., come some short and 
brilliantly illustrated 'Notes et Souvenirs' of Champ- 
fleury. Quite inimitable are the caricatures. ' Les 
Lectrices a travers les Ages ' is an exquisite design of 
fantasy of which any eighteenth century designer might 
be proud. It has an accompanying rondeau, an unpub- 
lished autograph of Jean Richepin. A fifth article is 
4 Au Pays des Autographes,' and supplies some curious 
dedications of books an interesting subject and some 
early letters of Monselet. ' Bibliographic-express ' is 
the title of the portion of the work devoted to reviewing. 
This is followed by ' Curiosa,' pages of ' Notules,' ' Singu- 
larite"s Trouvailles,' ' Observations Bibliographiques ' 
not wholly unlike ' N. & Q.' An account of the first 
dinner of the Societe des Bibliophiles Contemporains is 
given, and other miscellaneous contents follow. In 
saying that the new publication is an advance on the old 
we give it high praise. It is the freshest, the most ele- 
gant, and the most delightful work in the shape of a 
serial that ever appealed to the bibliophile. Quite ex- 

quisite is the execution of some of the vignettes, initial 
letters, &c., and the work, which is limited in number, 
will eome day an unusual fate for serials be looked 
after as a gem. 

Carmarthenshire Notes. Vol. I. Part II. Edited by 
Arthur Mee, F.R.A.S. (Llanelly, South Wales Prets 

IT is difficult to speak of a part ii. without having seen 
part i. But so far as we can judge from the part before 
us, Mr. Mee eeems likely to do a good work by gathering 
together flotsam and jetsam, which might otherwise 
perish, but the preservation of which in these handy 
little parts is matter for congratulation to all who are 
interested in the history and antiquities of Wales. The 
contributors include Mr. W. D. Pink, who, as well as 
Mr. Eilwin Poole, investigates the history of Carmar- 
thenshire Members of Parliament ; Mr. W. H. Ludford, 
Mr. Stedman Thomas, "Giraldus," and others, besides 
the editor himself. 'The Rebecca Riots,' 'The Diary 
of Laud as Bishop of St. David's,' ' Genealogical Notes 
on Admiral Foley,' 'Jones of Abermarlais,' &c., are 
among the varied contents of part ii. of Carmarthenshire 

WE have received the first volume, July to December, 
1889, of the Newlery House Magazine (Griffith, Farran 
& Co.). During the short time in which it has appeared 
this excellent publication has, we are in a position to 
state, taken a strong hold on the public. No work of its 
class makes more direct appeal to the youngest 'school 
of the English clergy and its supporters. Its interest, 
moreover, is not confined to these. 

flcutrrs to CorrerfpanBent*. 

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ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

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or reply be written on a senarate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

J. B. S. (" George Buchanan "). Died in Edinburgh 
1582. The first edition of his ' Rerum Scoticarum His- 
toria ' was published, "with many an error in every 
page," Edinburgh, 1582, folio. Editions were issued 
Edinburgh, 1583 ; Geneva, 1583 ; Frankfort, 1594, 1638 ; 
Amsterdam. 1642, 1643, 1655, and (Elzevir) 1668; 
Utrecht, 1697; Edinburgh, 1727; Aberdeen, 1762, &c. 

G. The real quotation is : 
Heaven has no rage like love to hatred turned, 
Nor hell a fury like a woman scorned. 

Congreve's ' Mourning Bride,' end of Act III. 

J. HAWES. 'Lounger's Common- Place Book' is by 
Jeremiah Whitaker Newman. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 43, col. 2, 1. 19, for " Tragbigziuld " 
read Tragbigzanda ; p. 56, col. 1, 1. 27, for "6 th S." read 
7 lh S. In Index to vol. viii., for " King (C. S.) " read 
King (Sir C. S.). 


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We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7" 8. IX. FEB. 1, '0.] 




CONTENT S. N 214. 

NOTES : Sixth Centenary of Dante's Beatrice, 81 Was 
Browning a Jew ? 82 Topographical Notes, 85 Battle- 
Field Find Lord Howe, 88 Point-blank " Peace with 
honour," 87. 

QUERIES : Dictionary Queries Sir Francis Popham, 87 
Rev. Wm. Jackson John Fitzroy Canons of St. John the 
Baptist " In the jug" Arms on a Gun ' Madagascar' 
Watson Dijon Pocahontas The Hythe Spinckes, 88 
Shack Kabobs Englefield Fables of Gay Norwich Es- 
tates Walpole and Barleigh, 89 -Genealogical Defoe, 90. 

REPLIES : Cock-penny. 90 Castell of East Hartley Human 
Leather, 91 Club Fife ' Ivanhoe,' 92 Housemaid Deco- 
rated Samuel Colvill Cool ' Diversions of Purley ' 
" Prsefervidum Ingeninm Scotorum "Mrs. Honey, 93 Old 
Jest Grocer, 94 Racine and the Knights Templars In- 
vention of the Thimble Clinton But and Ben" Heiress 
of Pinner," 95 Town's Husband Heraldic -Signs Sculp- 
tured in Stone Shelley's ' Prometheus 'Earl of Deloraine, 
96 Kiddlewink Robert Burton Queen Anne Boleyn 
Codger, 97 Heraldic Origin of " Grand Old Man "Bob- 
stick Sainte Nega, 98" Blue-Eyed Maid " Sign Authors 
Wanted, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Brydall's 'Art in Scotland 'Keith's 
' History of Scotland ' Nevill's ' Old Cottage and Domestic 
Architecture' Moir's 'Sir William Wallace.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

In this century of centenaries perhaps no sub- 
ject for one has yet been devised so interesting to 
the antiquary, the poet, the litterateur, the 
dilettante, or the tourist as the one under the 
above title, which is to be held in Florence in 
May and June of the present year. When in 
May, 1865, Florence kept the sixth centenary of 
Dante, it was his birth that marked it, for his 
birth opened a cycle of labours which were to 
regenerate letters for the whole known world. 
When in May, 1890, Florence keeps the sixth 
centenary of Beatrice, it will be her death which 
marks it, for to her emphatically death was gain ; 
her lustre never tarnished by domestic conflict nor 
by the indifference which comes of the vulgar trials 
of daily life, nor yet by the ravages of disease or 
age, she soars ever before her adorer unto the 
most perfect day, always leading him on to greater 
nobility of sentiment and highest flights of philo- 
sophy; always the donna ispiratrice. And it may 
safely be predicated that had she either become 
Dante's wife, of good matronly example, or in 
Gallic guise dated a romantic dalliance with him 
from the day of her union with Simone de' Bardi 
in neither case would she have attained the 
pinnacle where she now will ever dwell, incensed 
by the loving veneration of all for whom woman is 
a vision of blis?, and not a toy. Nothing, either, 

could be more opportune at a time when the true 
character and position of woman is becoming so 
sadly obscured and travestied. Count Angelo de 
Gubernatis, to whom is due the elaboration of the 
idea of this grand celebration of Beatrice, designs 
to make it, concomitantly, the celebration of the 
vero risorgimento della donna; and, accordingly, 
every act and mode in which Christian woman has 
influenced society will be the subject of prize 
essays, and will be set forth in an illustrative 
exhibition, for which committees in every town in 
Italy are now busily catering. 

It may be expected that out of the still unrum- 
maged recesses of Italian households of every 
degree treasures will be brought forth the assem- 
blage of which will be well worth the pilgrimage 
to Florence at a season when, under even ordinary 
circumstances, she is at her loveliest. I have 
willingly acceded to Count de Gubernatis's request 
to me to do my little best towards making his idea 
known. If any of your readers should know of 
anything England possesses which might be loaned 
on such a unique occasion, or has any suggestion 
to make for the greater perfecting of such a festi- 
val, I shall be very happy to be the means of com- 
municating any such information to the committee 
in Florence. 

Musical entertainments, recitations, quasi-dra- 
matic performances, tableaux vivants (in which 
Italians outvie all other people), and folk-songs 
will enhance the many attractions of the festival. 
But, of course, the theme which must underlie 
the whole celebration is the apotheosis of woman, 
as idealized in Beatrice ; the real ideal (if one may 
so juxtapose language) of feminine perfection. 
Woman worshipped for her beauty, modesty, and 
sagacity ; not woman stepping out of her sphere 
and nnsexing herself; not a mere puppet and 
figurante, and yet not a she-man. In a word, hi 
donna ispiratrice, not la donna emancipata. 

The matter was brought specially home to my 
mind by a coincidence. Just at the time of 
receiving Count de Gubernatis's letters about the 
Beatrice centenary, I happened to have remarked 
the outcome of modern thought about woman in 
one of the latest French novels. An onslaught is 
there made on the modesty cf English girls, who 
pass through the streets of Paris utterly indifferent 
to the leers which their French sisters are said so 
pleasurably to reciprocate. " Ce ne sont pas des 
femmes, ce sont des esoliers echappcn !" is the 
would-be withering wind up. And I bad just 
been reminded thereby of the type set for woman 
by the greatest of novelists in the most perfect of 
love-tales that ever was written ; the most perfectly 
real, for every one who reads it seems to read what 
his or her own heart had written ; most perfectly 
ideal, for no words could picture so poetically the 
simplicity, the nobility, the rapture of love 'La 
Vita Nuova': 



[7* S. IX. FEB. 1, '0. 

"When my gentle fair went her way through the 
streets people would run to see her pass. And such 
purity surrounded her that it communicated itself to the 
heart of every one she approached, so that he trembled 
as he raised his eyes to her, scarcely daring to return her 
salutation. But she, crowned and girt about with her 
gracious meekness, passed on her way, taking no glory 
to herself from anything that was said of her. For 
many would exclaim, as she went by, ' This is no mere 
woman ; rather is she one of the all-fair angels of 
heaven.' Yet I declare she was evidently so full of 
tenderness and of all that we desire in woman, that all 
who looked on her perceived their hearts to be pervaded 
with chaste and serene delight so entrancing that no 
words could suffice to tell of it, nor could any see her 
and not sigh after her. Yet I desired to bring this 
knowledge of her to the minds of those who could not 
themselves see her : then I sang this sonnet. 
So tender and so pure my fair is seen 
That when her head in courtesy is bent 
The flame of every forward word is spent, 
Extinguished every rapturous glance too keen, 
She threads her way through incense-clouds of praise, 
Meekness so gracious in her aspect blent, 
She seems a thing of grace from Heaven lent, 
A miracle for theme of mortal's lays. 
Such pleasures in her, longing eyes discover 
That soft delight the heart is taught to prove, 
Delight known but to those who of it taste, 
While from her lips there seems to emanate 
A spirit benign out-breathing only love, 
Who whispers to the anxious soul, ' Sigh ever ! ' " 
For English people, therefore, this fete has 
obviously special sympathies ; and I feel honoured 
in being asked to bring it to their notice. 

E, H. BUSK. 
16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. 

The New York Herald of December 18, 1889, 
prints the following despatch : 

" London, Dec. 17, 1889. One of that large class of 
persons in England who have nothing to do but to write 

to the newspapers asks the question, ' Was Browning a 
Jew 1 ' The Pall Matt Gazette shoulders the burden, and 
says the question was submitted by one of the best-known 
literary men, and who was on terms of close acquaint- 
anceship with Browning for forty years. The Pall Mall 
Gazette adds : ' For a score of years and more it has 
been stated with no little persistence, and circumstantial 
evidence, such as it is, has been brought to bear out the 

" ' Pro. In the first place, the fact that his uncle 
occupied a position of considerable importance at Roth- 
schild's is looked upon as prima facie evidence, as in 
those days the elder Rothschild preferred to give posi- 
tions of exceptional trust to men of his own faith. 
Again, the Christian, or rather first, name of Browning's 
uncle was Reuben, arid his mother's name was Sariana, 
both of them cognomens of undoubted Jewish origin, 
while the name of Bruning is said to be not uncommon 
among Jews. Again, one of the favourite topics of the 
poet was the Israelitish character, as will be readily re- 
called by all students of his work. 

" ' Con. On the other hand, Dr. Furnivall has declared 
Robert Browning's family to be of Dorsetshire origin." " 

Personally I know nothing of the late Mr. 
Browning's descent, but I question the ground 

for judging he was a Jew from his surname ; and 
this brings the query, What was the origin of the 
surname Browning ? That the doctors of philology 
are as prone to differ from each other as are the 
doctors of medicine is apparent from the number 
of definitions and derivations they give of the sur- 
name Browning. As instances of this I give the 
following evidence. Ferguson, in his ' Surnames 
as a Science,' says it is a compound of the surname 
Brown and ing ; that ing is an Anglo-Saxon and 
ancient German (patronymic; hence Browning 
means the son of Brown. Or it is of local Anglo- 
Saxon form, as Brown-ingr, meaning brown meadow, 
ing being translated meadow. Again, Ferguson,, 
in ' Teutonic Name System,' says Browning is the 
Anglicized form of Bruning, Old German of the 
eighth century, which seems likely. But Lower. 
in his ' Patronymica Britannica,' recognizing this 
latter alleged origin, says it was usually written 
Bruning, and that it is an Anglo-Saxon baptismal 
name, referring originally to the colour of the 
complexion of the bearer. A still more fanciful 
derivation or definition of this surname is given ia 
Davies's 'English Glossary.' It says that Brown- 
ing is perhaps a form of brownie, a witch! Lap- 
land was famous for them, and they were supposed 
to be able to sell winds to sailors : 

" For instance, in Pliny, book xix. proem, it is written :. 
Man is so wicked and ungracious : his wit so inventive, 
that he will be sowing, tending, and plucking that with 
his own hand that calls for nothing else at sea but winds, 
and never rests till Browning be come." 

Other philologists seem to agree with Ferguson, 
and derive the surname from its apparent corn- 
ponent parts, Brown and ing. They derive Brown 
from the Anglo-Saxon brun, to burn ; from the 
German brennen, French brun, dark, dun, &c. > 
and define ing as an Anglo-Saxon noun, equivalent 
to the Icelandic eing and the Welsh inge, meaning 
a common pasture or meadow. This theory of 
derivation may find support in the system of allot- 
ting of lands among the Anglo-Saxons. Dr. Guest, 
in his ' Origines Celticse,' goes a step further into 
the derivation of the surname, and deducts Brun, 
or Brown, from Bru, Irish for border, or brink, 
and n, or en, a " corruption " of an, the Anglo- 
Saxon genitival ending. However, in this con- 
nexion it is well to note that when Dr. Guest 
defines the termination ing, further on in his book, 
he says ing is a late " corruption " for an, which 
entered frequently into the Anglo-Saxon names of 
towns, as Witt-an-tun, now Whittington ; Earm- 
an-tun, now Ermington ; Hunt-an-dun, now Hunt- 
ingdon, &c. In some few cases the an is now repre- 
sented by en, or simply n, as Chelt-en-ham 
Ork-n-ey, &c. ; but in the majority of cases an has 
been " corrupted " into ing. 

As all evidence points to Browning being origin- 
ally an Anglo-Saxon word and surname, it is a 

propos to incidentally glance at the early history of 

7* S. IX FEB. 1 ,'90.] 



the 'race, one of whose tribes or clans was the 
Brownings, as given by authorities on the subject. 
The fatherland of the modern English race was 
Angelm, now Schleswig, a district of the peninsula 
that parts the North from the Baltic Sea the 
home of the Angli when Home was in its glory of 
power. Joining the Angli on the south were the 
Saxons, and on the north the Jutes, all belonging 
to the Low German branch of the Teutonic family, 
all united by bonds of kinship, speech, and social 
and political institutions. When Rome withdrew 
her cohorts from Britain the island was at the 
mercy of the " natives," the Picts and Scots, till it 
was invaded from Jutland, and subsequently by 
the Saxons, who in turn were followed by the 
Angli (Eogle), and who were in turn to absorb the 
other German tribes, and found the great English 
race, about A.D. 577. These transplanted their 
home customs and laws into Britain's soil, and 
established kingdoms, which existed till their new 
country was wrested from them by the Norman 
invaders. In the early period of Anglo-Saxon 
settlement in Britain the land was held in common 
by them, and after the fashion of their fatherland, 
the simplest of their common divisions being 
technically called a mark a plot of land on which 
a number of freemen had settled for the purpose 
of farming and for mutual profit and protection. 
These marks of England comprised households of 
various degrees of wealth and authority, in direct 
descent from common ancestors, and all known to 
themselves and their neighbours by one general 
surname, derived from their appearance, from the 
location of their mark, or from their general occu- 
pation. Probably the most plausible hypothesis 
of the original significance of these surnames and 
the cause of these ancient aggregations is that of a 
single family, itself claiming descent through some 
hero from "ye gods," and gathering scattered 
families around it, thus retaining the administra- 
tion of the family rites, and giving its own name 
to all the rest of the community or mark, which 
was generally an irregular compound, in the com- 
position of which the former portion is a patro- 
nymic in ing, declined in the genitive plural. The 
second portion is a mere definition of the locality, 
i. e., tun or dun, ton or don, as Brun-an-ga-tun, 
the village, or mark, or settlement of the Brun- 
an-gas, or Brownings. 

In a few cases the patronymic stands alone in 
the nominative plural, as Bruningas, described as 
one of the ancient Anglo-Saxon marks in ' Codex 
Diplomaticus ' by Kemble, and also mentioned in 
his ' Saxons in England.' 

The union of several marks is sometimes called 
fcy the Anglo-Saxons go, (gau in German), which has 
been superseded by scir, or shire. The ga was a 
petty kingdom, or principality, or a shire division, 
as Brun-an-scir. Others say the gas were political 
bodies, and became in time lost in revolutions ; 

but the marks, having personality, passed from 
one system of aggregations to another without 
losing their particular character or name. 

The Bruningas were a tribe or sept among the 
earliest Anglo - Saxon settlers in Britain, and 
although the name Bruningas is understood also 
by many philologists as above, and by Kemble, 
according to his ' List of Towns and Settlements 
in England, who says Bruningas (Anglo-Saxon), 
Bruninga (Old German), in Austria means (that 
is, Bron, according to 'Liber Vits6,' and Bruyn) a 
settlement, according to Frisian. Ferguson also 
refers to Bruningus (or Bruningas, as in 'Liber 
Vitse ') as being understood to mean a settlement 
of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain ; yet Seebohm 
takes a different view of the origin of the name 
Bruningas. He claims the name represents the 
social and political station of the people bearing 
it. Theirs, he says, was an embryo manor the 
system which grew in England from the ancient 
Roman and Germanic land systems of Europe. 
The personal name Brun, with the patronymic 
suffix ing, or ingas, is strong evidence for the 
manorial character of the estate of the people which 
occupied it. 

Seebohm's ' English Village Community ' says it 
is wrong to suppose the local names ending in ing, 
or its plural form ingas, represent the original clan 
settlements of the first German conquerors of Bri- 
tain, the successors of the Romans, and that we 
must not rely on these suffixes to base a theory of 
German mark-systems, nor are they evidence of 
settlements on the basis of free village community 
as opposed to those of a manorial type. Local 
names with the suffix ing are found on the con- 
tinent of Europe as well as in England. Seebohm, 
in the tracing of the connexion of the tribal system 
of the Germania with local names, says the fixing 
of a particular personal name to a locality implies 
settlement. It implies not only a departure from 
the old nomadic habits on the part of the whole 
tribe, but also the absence within the territory of 
the tribe of only temporary habitations, or the 
shifting of families from one homestead to another. 
That where these became fixed abodes, or per- 
manent settlements, after the shifting tribal stage, 
or the semi-nomadic, personal names attached 
themselves to places and suffixes were used in- 
volving the idea of fixed abodes. Seebohm fully 
describes the nature of these tribal households, 
which a local name with a patronymic suffix repre- 
sents. The local names with the patronymic suffix 
are numerous, the suffix varying from the English 
ing, with its plural ingas; the German ing or ung, 
with its plural ingas, ingen, ungen, and ungun ; 
and the French ign, or igny, to the Swiss equiva- 
lent ikon, the Bohemian id, and the Slavonics 
its, or witx. 

It seems to be clear that the termination ing 
in its older plural form ingas, in Anglo-Saxon 



[7< h S. IX. FEB. 1, 'SO. 

not by any means always, but still in a large num- 
ber of cases had a patronymic significance. In 
this connexion Seebohm says also, as above re- 
ferred to, ing also meant a low meadow by a river 
bank, as Clifton Ings, near York. Also it was 
sometimes used like ers, as Ocbringen, dwellers on 
the river Ohra. In Denmark the individual strip 
in a meadow was an ing, and so the whole meadow 
would be " the ings." There are many evidences 
of this in the 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.' An 
example of the individual family for generations 
"herding" together in the same homestead is 
in Bohemia and Slavic districts ; and there the 
number of local names ending in id or owici 
(equivalent to ing or ingas) goes to confirm 
the connexion of the patronymic suffix with 
the holding of the coheirs of the original land- 
nolder. The family names gave the application of 
their abode with the addition of ham or tun, of 
which there are numerous instances in England. 
The greatest number of names ending in ing only 
occur in " the old Saxon shore," where to some ex- 
tent the " right of the youngest " prevails. The 
same is also true of Europe, where the old German 
system is in vogue. The ings were to be found all 
over the countries occupied by the German tribes, 
even at the height of the Roman empire, and into 
Ehaetia (Austria), whither the ings came from the 
German mountains and forests beyond the Eoman 
lines for conquest. 

From this it is to be understood that the Teu- 
tonic Brun tribe, through Roman influence and 
within Eoman provinces, abandoned their roaming 
life and formed settlements which took their name; 
and they themselves, from their new system, be- 
came ingas; and it was not till comparatively 
modern times the ham or tun was added to the 
names of their settlements through Eoman example, 
and when the settlements took the shape of manors, 
with a servile population upon them. 

Another authority to derive the surname Brown- 
ing from its apparent compounds Brown and ing 
is Bosworth's 'Anglo-Saxon Dictionary,' which de- 
fines the name as Anglo-Saxon, and says that 
Brown is brun, an Anglo-Saxon adjective meaning 
brown, dusky, dark, and that ing means "originat- 
ing from, son of, descendant of," of which ingas is 
the plural form, and means "people of, race of, house 
of." From this we understand that the Bruningas, 
or Brownings, of old were a dusky, dark- skinned 
race of Teutons. In support of a portion of this 
definition is the idea of Bowditch in 'Suffolk 
Surnames,' and Anderson in ' Genealogy and 
Surname?,' who say "the English surname Brown, 
Broun, and Browne, the German Braun, the French 
Brune, mean simply dark or brown haired or com- 
plexioned." On the same idea Bardsley, in ' Our 
English Surnames,' says : " Le Brun, or Brune, 
was a nickname, added to designate some persons 
by sobriquet from complexion or colour of the 

hair." In Domesday Book the surnames Brown 
and Browning as written do not appear. They are 
always given Brun and Bruning. That they were 
at an early date, before the Domes day Survey, d istinct 
surnames can be seen from the fact that Leotric, Earl 
of Mercia, was lord of the castle of Brune and the 
adjoining marks or marches, inhabited by, pro- 
bably, the Brun-ing-as. The community, sept, or 
tribe of Bruningas was well scattered before the 
advent of the Normans in Britain ; but according 
to Sir Henry Ellis, in his ' Introduction to 
Domesday Book,' there was many a Bruning 
holding land in England during the reign of the 
Saxon King Edward the Confessor, and anterior 
to the date of the Great Survey, circa A.D. 1086. 
Among those entered as landholders at that period 
were : Bruning, in Kent, 6 hides ; in Hants, 
52 hides, twice ; in Wilts, 71 hides, twice ; in 
Somerset, 93 hides, twice ; in Hereford, 180 hides, 
twice ; and in Warwick, 241 hides twice, and 
244 hides twice. This last Bruning held these 
lands when the Domesday was formed. In the 
' List of Tenants in Capite,' time of the Nor- 
man Conquest, these and other Brunings are 
mentioned. Among the under tenants of land at 
the time of the Great Survey there are also 
Brunings mentioned. 

It was not till long after the Norman Conquest 
that the surname was printed Browning, nor was 
it till then that it appeared with a baptismal 
name. An early instance of the use of the 
" Christian name " is found in ' Rotuli Curise 
Regis,' temp. Eichard I. Here "Hug 5 : Bruni'g" 
is found offering essoines at Hereford Oct. 6, 1198. 
He was probably the same with" Hug': Brunning, 
Juror of Ardleigh," mentioned with "Ric: Brun'ing, 
tenant at Chingeford," in the Domesday Book of 
St. Paul's, 1222. From this time forward the 
surname is spelled in official documents Bruning, 
Brun'ig, and Brunning ; and about the earliest ex- 
ample of nearer the modern spelling of Browning is 
in pt. i. of ' Liber Customarum,' where "Thomam 
Brownynge " is mentioned in an ordinance dated 
1297 " in relation to a new Fair to be held in Soper's 
Lane, London." There are numerous instances of 
the corruption of Browning as applied to names 
of places : to wit, Barninghamtown (Norfolk) 
was originally variously styled Bruningham and 
Briningham, Burningham and Banuingham, just 
as Brington (Northampton) was originally put 
down Brunington, and also Bringwyn or Bruning- 
wyn (Monmouth). And in this connexion we 
note "Aswaldus de Brunni'ge'h," or Aswald de 
Brunningham, is mentioned in ' Magnus Rotalus 
Pipal' as of Lincolnshire, temp. Ric. I. As a relic 
of the ancient Saxon tribe of Bruningas we note 
Bruninge Acre (Buckingham), mentioned in ' List 
of Fines,' temp. John, which may have been an 
unbounded settlement of the Bruningas, just as 
was Bruningatun or Bruningastown. It must have 

7> S. IX. FEB. 1, '90.] 



been after the twelfth century that the surname 
took the form Browning, as the sheriff of London, 
1259, was "Adam Brunning," written also " Bron- 
inge," and " William Brunynge, Maister of y e ship 
Nicholas of Hythe, in the Royal Navy," with 
Edward I. in the war against Scotland. 

Philadelphia, Perm., U.S. 

(Continued from p. 5.) 

St. Bees. Edward VI., on June 16, anno 7, 
granted to Sir Thomas Challoner the manor, 
rectory, and cell of St. Beghes, in Copeland, county 
Cumberland, late belonging to the Monastery of 
our blessed Lady without the wall of York, to hold 
of the King, of his manor of Shereyehutton ; rent 
143Z. 16s. 2jd. The grange called Saltere Grange ; 
messuages called Wynder, Rowray, and Kelton, 
nygh the said Salter graunge. The great wood 
called Stanylath ; within the demeanes of St. 
Beighes. Closes called Denehowe, Grenehowe, 
Eoskowe Parke, and Woodende. (Close Roll, 
2-3 Phil, et Mar., part iv.) 

Salisbury. The Chapel of St. Cross, in the 
Castle of Old Sarum. (Close Eoll, 33 Edw. III). 
The Newe Inne in Winchester Street. (Ibid., 
36 Hen. VI.) Castle Street, Endlees Street. 
(Patent Roll, 3 Edw. VI., part iii.) 

Sevenoaks. The Hyll fylds, abutting on the 
King and Queen's highway there called Kynges- 
lane, and Pocockeslane, east and north ; and the 
lands of Pettes, west. (Close Roll, 2-3 Phil. e t 
Mar., part viii.) 

Shrewsbury. Grnmpestolstrete. (Close Roll, 
45 Hen. III.) Free Chapel of St. Mary. (Ibid., 
11 Edw. II.) The King's free Chapel of St. 
Michael, in the Castle. (Ibid., 4 Hen. V.) Order, 
Dec. 18, 1403, to take down from London Bridge, 
the head of Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester, and 
to bury it with his body. The Abbot of Shrewsbury 
is charged to permit the exhumation and reburial, 
in his Church of St. Peter. (Ibid., 5 Hen. IV., 
part i.) 

Spaldyng. Messuage abutting on the common 
sewer called le Westlod, south ; the common way 
called le Predike, north ; Pynchebek Lane, east. 
(Close Roll, 1 Edw. IV.) Land bounded by 
Doweresland on the south ; the land of the Prior 
of Spaldyng on the north, and Spaldingdrove on 
the west. (Ibid., 17 Edw. IV.) 

Stamford. Messuage in the parish of St. Mary 
ad Pontem, between the lane called Cornwaufty, 
on the east, and the King's highway on the south. 
Colgate, in the parish of St. Michael the Great, 
between the tenement of the Prior of ffyrmeshede 
on the west, and the King's highway on the north. 
(Close Roll, 33 Hen. VI.) 

Stanton Drew. Toft called Beldames ; mes- 

suage called the Tyledhous in le Pleystrete ; wood 
called Bowewode (Close Roll, 32 Hen. VI.) 

Standlalce, co. Oxon. March 28, Cutbert Temple, 
clothier, of Standlake, has sold the reversion of 
the manor to Robt. Radborne, miller, for the life 
of the Lady Anne a Clevez grace. Indenture 
dated March 30, 1555. Robt. Radborne of Stand- 
lake, yeoman, sells to Richard Harris of Standlake, 
yeoman, for 136Z., half of an Armytage in Stand- 
lake, rent 3s. 4d. per annum ; house and close called 
Wekyns, value 20s. per annum ; close called the 
Yewsterhey, value 8s. per annum. Roger Shake- 
spar rents house in the Backynd, rent 2s. 3d. per 
annum. Stanlake Manor was sold by George, late 
Earl of Hunts, to Richard Androwes, late of Yerne- 
ton, who sold it to Tkomas Cromwell, late Earl of 
Essex, attainted. Henry VIII. then granted it to 
Anne of Cleves for life, and she let it, July 8, 2 
Edw. VI., for forty years, to Cuthbert Temple, at 
annual rent of 151. 2s. 3d. Edward VI., on May 16, 
anno 6, granted reversion of manor to Henry Duke 
of Suffolk and Thomas Duport, who sold it on the 
25th to said C. Temple for 3082. The manor-house 
sometime did stand in the four closes called (1) 
the ferme close, which now is downe, which close 
lieth toward the north-east end of the church, and 
adjoineth to the water there called Wynriche toward 
the south-west feilde ; (2) the Hayes, northward, 
adjoins to close belonging to mill, called Collens 
Mille, west, and abutteth upon the meadow called 
Upmeades, towards the north end of the close ; 
(3) the third close has the first close on the east, 
the Great Haye on the north, the close belonging 
to Mawdlyn College, Oxford, on the south, and 
Oxlease on the east ; (4) the fourth abuts north- 
west on the lane leading from the church stile to 
the ferme meadows, on the meadow called Parox, 
south-west, and the close belonging to Mawdlyn 
College on the east, These, with Sherold, Cokkys 
Thorpe, Boyes Woode, the pasture called the Breche, 
Otelandes, South parockes, Boseham, Midlehams, 
Vlthams, Underdowne, Slowmeade, Southmeade, 
and the advowson of the church, are all hereby 
sold by the said C. Temple to Francis Fetiplace 
of Stanlake, gen., for 8002., to be paid at the font 
stone in the parish church of Stanlake, between 
the hours of 8 and 11 A.M., on the day of St. Peter 
ad Vincula, at the rate of 1002. per annum. (Close 
Roll, 1-2 Phil et Mar., part viii.) 

Stortford. Sowthstrete, Nappyngfelde, Benock 
within Wyndlefelde, Neefelde, Ryestrete, Chysley 
Meade. (Close Roll, 1-2 Phil, et Mar., part ii.). 

Stroud. Newerk, bounded by St. Mary's House 
on the east, Redelane on the west, and the King's 
highway from Rochester to London on the south. 
(Close Roll, 28 Hen. VI.) 

Tamworih. Vico voc' Lychefeldstrete, et lady- 
briggestret, ad finem pontis, ex parte co. Staff.; 
Eygatestrete, ex parte co. Warr. (Close Roll, 
23 Hen. VI.) The crossewey called Waynlete, 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 1, 'SO. 

road called Eldergate, le Churchestrete, Catteslane, 
College of the monks of St. Edith. (Ibid., 36 
Hen. VI.) 

Tunbridge. Dame Elizabeth, widow of Sir 
Eauff ffane, of Hadlowe, co. Kent, sells for 1801. to 
Henry Stubbersfelde of Tunbridge, all the rectory 
and parsonage in Tunbridge Warde, commonly 
called the town warde and Southborowe Warde. 
(Close Roll, 2-3 Phil, et Mar., part viii.) 

Uxbridge. The messuage called the Lyon ; le 
Market Place ; the Swan ; the King's highway 
leading from Woxbridge to Windsor, called le 
Lynche, on the south, and the road from Oxford 
to London on the north. (Close Koll, 1 Marise, 
part v.) 

Warwick. Chan try of St. Magdalen; hermitage 
of Quyesclyf, alias Gybclif, alias Gvesclyff, iuxta 
Warr\ (Patent Roll, 7 Hen. VII.) Le White- 
freers close. (Ibid., 3 Edw. VI., part vit.) 

TFa</ord. Regia Strata; Watford Mill. (Close 
Roll, 3 Edw. IV.) John Reyner, of the Grove, 
Watford, gen. (Ibid., 8 Edw. IV.) Messuage at 
Levesden, 3 acres of land called Bakers acre, Essex 
londes, messuage called Trewloues, and garden at 
Watford, sold for 49Z. (Close Roll, 2-3 Phil, et 
Mar. , part viii.) 

Winchester. Tenement called le Wollefeld. 
(Close Roll, 33 Edw. III.) Wonegarestrete, lead- 
ing to Thamestrete. (Ibid., 29 Hen. VI.) 

York. Order to supply timber, lead, nails, 
wages of carpenters, &c., for repair of the houses 
opposite the Friars Minors, beyond the water of 
Ouse, where Hugh Le Despenser, junior, used to 
dwell, and which sometime belonged to the Abbot 
of Selby. (Liberate Roll, 16 Edw. II.) The street 
called Skyldergate. (Patent Roll, 22 Ric. II., 
part iii.) Bonthombarre Gate. (Close Roll, 6 
Hen. IV.) Stayngate, Mikelgate, Northstrete, 
St. Peter in les Willughes in Walmegate, Walme- 
gatebarre, St. Elena atte Walles, Blaykstrete, corner 
of Aldwerk towards the road of Gothomgate. (Ibid., 

7 Hen. VI.) St. Margaret in Walmegate. (Ibid., 

8 Hen. VI.) Ouerousgate, at the end of Ouse 
Bridge ; waste at the corner of Nessegate, on the 
west (Ibid , 4 Edw. IV.) Messuage in Conyng- 
strete, bounded by tenement of Sir William 
Gascoigne on the west, of Walter Askam on east, 
the road, north, and Owse water, south. (Close 
Roll, 23 Hen. VI.) North Street, Castelgate, 
Owsegate, Skeldergate, Cony Street, Walmegate, 
Thursday Market, Coppergate, Collyergate, Jebber- 
gate, Baggergate, Fishergate, St. Sauyorgate, 
Hungerford Street, Felter Lane, Hauerlane, Lay- 
throppe Street, Vgleforth Street, Trinity Lane, 
Stayngate in the Waterlane, St. Andrew's gate (near 
Cruxchurchside), Gyrdelgate, the flesh shambles, 
Patrickepole Street, Nowtegale Street. Cruxkirke 
in the Fossegate ; St. Helen, Stayngate ; St. Peter 
the Littell, Baggergate ; All Saints, Monkegate ; 
Trinity Church, Gotheromgate ; Oldebisshopshill ; 

St. Michael in le Belfrey ; Trinity Church, Cony- 
garthe ; St. Saviour, St. Maurice, St. Sampson. 
Mikkilgate Barre. (Patent Roll, 3 Edw. VI., 
part xi.) HERMENTRUDE. 

A BATTLE-FIELD FIND. In the autumn of 
1780, a detachment of American soldiers, march- 
ing up the valley of the Mohawk to the relief of 
General Schuyler, fell into an ambuscade of Cana- 
dians, Tories, and Indians, at Stone Arabia, a 
hamlet in what is now Montgomery County, State 
of New York, where, on October 19, the American 
commander, Capt. John Brown, was killed, with 
forty-five of his men. Since then relics of the 
battle have been found occasionally ; and a few 
days before Christmas, 1889, a small metallic box 
was picked up on the field, containing a gold 
locket, a bundle of letters, and a faded piece of 
blue ribbon. The locket bears on one side the 
monogram " A. H. D.," and on the other side is 
the representation of a hunting scene. The letters 
were written in 1778-9 by a lady in London, and 
in the tender style common to betrothed persons. 
The superscription indicates the name of the reci- 
pient to have been a Capt. Lowe, of the British 
army. The last letter must have been received 
by him very shortly before the battle, and, if he 
was not killed in the fight, he lost the box. The 
finder of the box will gladly surrender it to relatives 
of Capt. Lowe. JOHN E. NORCROSS. 

Brooklyn, U.S. 

LORD HOWE. A short time ago I pointed out 
a curious coincidence my servant having asked 
me for some khopra from my store-room at the 
very time that I was writing a note upon that 
article for ' N. & Q.' I imagine that coincidences 
must be rather common things, for a few evenings 
ago, as I was reading my last English papers, I 
came upon a paragraph that interested me; and, on 
finishing my paper, and taking up an old volume 
of ' N. & Q.' to solace me before turning in, I 
lighted upon a note with which my paragraph had 
a close connexion so close, indeed, that at first 
I thought I must have read it in the preceding 
number. The following is the note in ' N. & Q.' 
(2 nd S. viii. 86), which may allowably, I think, be 
reproduced, as a new generation of correspondents 
has sprung up since 1859, though I am glad to 
see that several of the old contributors are still 
to the fore : 

" The remains of George Augustus, third Viscount 
Howe (who was killed at Ticonderoga in 1758) were 
brought to Albany, N.Y., and interred under the epis- 
copal church there. The old church having been pulled 
down, a new building is now in progress of erection. It 
is in the principal part of the city, which is the capital 
of the state. This seems to be, therefore, a fitting 
opportunity for the erection of a mural tablet to the 
memory of that brave officer and nobleman." 

Whether this suggestion was carried out or not 

7* 8. IX. FEB. 1, '0.] 


I cannot say ; but if the following paragraph is 
correct, it would appear that the remains of Lord 
Howe were, after all, left in their original place of 
sepulture : 

" The grave of Lord Howe, who fell at the head of 
the English forces in the battle of Ticonderoga in 1758, 
has been discovered in a very curious manner. Some 
labourers were digging a sewer in one of the principal 
streets of Ticonderoga, when they came upon a tomb- 
stone, at the bottom of which they found a coffin con- 
taining human bones. The vault was intact, but the 
bones were disjointed and considerably decayed. The 
tombstone, on being washed, revealed an inscription 
giving the date of Lord Howe's death." 

I have extracted this paragraph from the Over- 
land Mail of Oct. 18, 1889, but it has doubtless 
gone the round of the English press. The fine 
poem of Mr. Robert Louis Stevenson has given 
the name of Ticonderoga fresh interest in English 
ears, and perhaps one of the American correspond- 
ents of 'N. & Q.' may be able to throw some light 
upon the subject, which may serve to reconcile 
these apparently conflicting statements. 


Jaipur, Bajputana. 

POINT-BLANK. This expression has not been 
sufficiently investigated. The meaning of blank 
has, indeed, been stated to be a white spot in the 
centre of a target (Skeat, s.v. "Point"; and cf. 
'N. E. D.,' s.v. "Blank," 2, and Littr^, s.v. 
" Blanc," 8), but the meaning of point has 
scarcely been gone into. It has not been recog- 
nized, in fact, that point-blank is an abbreviation 
of de pointe en blanc (Littre", s.v. " But "), in which 
the de and the en have been left out in English. 
Comp., for the omission of the de, cap-a-pie=de 
cap a pied ('N. & Q.,' 7 th S. v. 186). De pointe 
en blanc has long been superseded in French by 
de but en blanc. See Littre", s.v. "But," who 
explains de pointe " de la pointe de 1'arme,* c'est 
a dire, de 1'endroit oil Ton pointe la piece," i.e., 
from the firing point ; and de but, " du but ou Ton 
est place" (Furetiere e"crit de butte en 6Zanc)."t But 
if point = the point, or perhaps the front sight, of 
the piece, and blank = the target, or its centre, it 
is easy to see how " from point to blank," or point- 
blank came (see note t) to be used in the present 
signification. For in the days of old neither 
cannons nor rifles were provided, as now, with a 
sliding sight, accommodating itself to all ranges, 
and therefore when the eye ran directly from 

* Punto, in Spanish, is still used of the front sight of 
a gun ; and a man armed cap-a-pie is said to be armada 
de punta en bianco, which exactly corresponds to de 
pointe en llanc. 

t I bave not given the remainder of Littre's explana- 
tion, because he shows by examples that the original 
meaning of llanc in these two locutions was not target 
or its centre, but blank, or empty space, so that de pointe 
(debut) en blanc was used of firing into empty space, 
which was done for the purpose of seeing how far a piece 
would carry. 

" point to blank," the target was at point-blank 
range, and it is probable that for practice no other 
range was then used. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

"PEACE WITH HONOUR." I should like to claim 
this phrase for our dear old Pepys (see ' Diary,' 
May 25, 1663): 

" Ash well came to me with an errand from her mistress 
to desire money to buy a country suit for her against 
she goes as we talked last night, and so I did give her 
4L, and believe it will cost me the best part of 4 more 
to fit her out, but with peace and honour I am willing to 
spare her anything, so as to be able to keep all ends 
together, and my power over her undisturbed." 

But very likely this may have been noticed already. 

Richmond, Surrey. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

DICTIONARY QUERIES. Entangle, I should be 
glad to be furnished with any examples of this 
word earlier than 1530. 

Entheal. The dictionaries give this adjective as 
a synonym of enthean, but I have no example of 
its actual use. An instance may possibly exist 
(disguised by a misprint) in the following passage 
in ' The Tragedy of Nero ' (1624), I. ii.: 

Ye Enthrall Powers which the wide Fortunes doom 

Of Empyre-crown'd, seauene-Mountains seated Kome - r 

but though the reading enthrall yields no good 
sense, the emendation cannot be regarded as cer- 

Epacris. This name of a botanical genus, or, at 
all events, its derivative or adapted form epacrid, 
seems sufficiently frequent in English use to re- 
quire insertion in the ' English Dictionary.' The 
formation of the word is, of course, from eiri and 
aKpa, or aKpov, but opinions differ as to the reason 
for which the name was applied. Loudon says that 
the genus was so named by Forster because in 
New Zealand these plants grow on the tops of hills. 
Does this statement rest on Forster's own autho- 

6, Worcester Gardens, Clapham Common, S.W. 

SIR FRANCIS POPHAM, KNT., eldest son of Sir 
John Popham, Chief Justice of the K.B., was one 
of the knights made before Cadiz by the Earl of 
Essex in 1596. He was first returned to Parlia- 
ment in 1597/8 as M.P. for Somerset, and repre- 
sented divers constituencies in the succeeding Par- 
liaments of James and Charles I. until 1640, when 
he was elected to the Long Parliament for the 
borough of Minehead, which seat he held until his 
decease. A curious difficulty exists as to the date 


[7 th 8. IX. FEB. 1, '90. 

of his death and the place of his burial. "Sir 
Francis Popham " was buried at Stoke Newington 
on August 15, 1644, and "Sir Francis Popham, 
Knt.," was also buried in the Mayor's Chapel, 
Bristol, on March 16, 1646/7. As there were not 
two Sir Francis Pophams at the time, both these 
entries would seem to refer to the M.P. I believe 
that the late Col. Chester was quite unable to solve 
this difficulty of the duplicate burial. The M.P. 
was certainly dead before October 30, 1645, upon 
which day a new writ was ordered by the House 
for Minehead"in the place of Sir Francis Popham, 
deceased." At the same time administration of his 
estate was not granted to the widow, Ann Popham, 
and to the son, Alexander Popham, before April 24, 
1647. Is it probable that the burial in Bristol is 
a re-interment ? Sir Francis Popham lived, I be- 
lieve chiefly at Handstreet, Marksbury, near Bath. 

W. D. PINK. 
Leigh, Lancashire. 

KEY. WM. JACKSON. Is anything known of 
the date and place of birth of this emissary from 
France to Ireland, convicted of treason at Dublin 
in 1795 ? J. G. A. 

JOHN FITZROT. Can any one say who was 
" John Fitzroy, Esq., who died at Northend, near 
Hampstead, May 13, 1735 " (Gentleman's Maga- 
zine) 1 I cannot identify him with any member of 
the Grafton family, or of the then existing Cleve- 
land family. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

failed to identify this order, either in England or 
elsewhere: " II existait, au XII 6 Siecle, en Angle- 
terre, un ordre de chanoines connus sous le nom 
de chanoines de Saint Jean-Baptiste " (Razy, ' S. 
Jean-Baptiste, sa Vie, son Culte,' &c., 8vo., Paris, 
1880). Can any reader help me ? 


"!N THE JUG." When a soldier gets into 
trouble and is confined in the guard-room, his 
comrades will sometimes say that he is "in 
chokey," or else that he is " in the jug." COL. 
PRIDEAUX (7 th S. viii. 342) has explained the 
former expression; can any one explain the latter ? 


[" In a box of the stone-jug I was born " that is, in 
prison is the original expression in "Nix, my dolly 
pals, fake away," the well-known song in Ainsworth's 
' Jack Sheppard.' "Stone-jug" seems a natural simile 
for a prison. It does not appear, however, in Smart and 
Crofton's ' Dialect of the English Gipsies.'] 

ARMS ON AN OLD GUN. I have an old flint- 
lock sporting gun, very handsomely mounted in 
silver on several parts, one mounting being a 
beautifully engraved and scrolled coat of arms as 
follows: On a chief, three hunting horns; in base 
vert, three greyhounds courant. The crest is a 

greyhound's head coupe". Motto, "Dum spiro 
spero." Is this a genuine coat mail, or is it merely 
the gunmaker's invention 1 W. L. 

NAL' (1729). In the anonymous preface by the 
transcriber of the above work, it is stated : 

"A Gentleman of undoubted Integrity, and good 
Sense, having given me Hopes of some curious Remarks 
he has made in the most unknown Parts of Africa, up 
in several Parts of the Country, at a Distance from the 
Sea: Where the People have not been corrupted by 
Europeans, he has found them to be Innocent, Humane, 
and Moral ; as he also confirm'd the Account our Author 
has given of These." 

I should much like to learn what traveller is here 
referred to, and whether there is extant such a work 
as the erudite transcriber of Drury's " pleasant 
and surprizing adventures" projected the publica- 

Anglesey, Gosport. 

[A contribution concerning Robert Drury, discussing 
the credibility of his stories, will soon appear in N. & Q.'] 

are extant wo letters from K. Croke to his friend 
Gold (see 'Cal. of Letters,' &c., Hen. VIII., an. 
1525) in which he refers to one " Watson." Can 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me to what Watson 
the writer alludes ? C. W. 

DIJON. We have been asked by a friend, who 
reads English only, to ascertain what English works 
contain the best description of Dijon and its neigh- 
bourhood. Surely some one must have given us in 
our mother-tongue an account of the old capital of 
Burgundy! N. M. AND A. 

POCAHONTAS. Which of the two following 
accounts is the more correct ? 

"The far-famed Pocahontas, daughter of the Virginian 
king ; who, after having been received at Court by the 
old pedant James the First with the honours of a sister 
sovereign, and having become the reputed ancestress of 
more than one ancient Virginian family, ended her days 
in wretchedness in some Wapping garret." Kingsley's 
' Westward Ho,' chap, xxvii. 

"We find her closing her pure and beautiful life at 

Gravesend when about to embark for Virginia in a vessel 
of the Virginia Company specially furnished for her 
accommodation." 'Pocabontas and her Descendants,' 
by Wyndham Robertson and R. H. Brock, Richmond, 
Va., 1887. 


Soham, Cambridgeshire. 

meaning of this word ? It seems to be connected 
in its position with water, e.g., at Canterbury and 
Colchester ; and the church at each place is dedi- 

H. A. W. 

cated to St. Laurence. 

SPINCKES FAMILY. Can any correspondent 
furnish me with particulars of the descendents of 
the Kev. Edward Spinckes, Kector of Castor, co. 

7 th S. IX. FEB. 1, '90.] 



Northampton, who married Martha Elmes, of 
Warmington, about 1630 ? Jos. PHILLIPS. 

SHACK : SHACK AGE. What were the rights of 
shackage, extinguished by the Inclosure Act 
(39 George III.) 1 Half-year or shack lands were 
to be enclosed under the Act; and I gather from a 
parochial document that the half-year (?) which 
concerned them was from All Saints' Day to Can- 
dlemas, and also that the former period was some- 
times called Shack. Shack is said to survive as a 
Norfolk term for acorn gathering, but the name 
and memory of shackage seems to have perished. 

A. T. M. 

[" The right of persona occupying lands lying together 
in the same common field to turn their cattle out after 
harvest to feed promiscuously in that field" (CasselTs 
'Encyclopaedic Dictionary').] 

KABOBS. In a very pleasant poem by Tom 
Taylor, entitled ' Ten, Crown Office Row,' is the 
following couplet : 
You remember those queer dinners from the Rainbow 

and from Dick's ? 
That great day of kabobs with fair hands to cut the 


What is the meaning of "kabobs" ? What lan- 
guage is it ? Jenkins's ' Vest-Pocket Lexicon,' 
1871, defines "Cab6b" as "leg of mutton stuffed 
with herring." This does not account for the 
"sticks." Where was 'Ten, Crown Office Row,' 
first published? It is in Walter Thornbury's 
Two Centuries of Song,' 1867. 


[Ka,ldb=caJb6b, a small piece of meat roasted on a 

ENGLEFIELD, BERKS. In accounts of this manor 
which have from time to time appeared in the local 
press I find : 

" There is little doubt that the Saxon Englefields, or 
Henfields, as the name was formerly spelt, gave their name 
to the place : but it is impossible now to trace the tradition 
that they were seated there as early as A.D. 803. More 
than one pedigree gives Haseulf de Englefyld as lord of 
the manor about the time of Canute, and also in the 
reign of Hardicanute. This Haseulf died in the Con- 
fessor's time, and was succeeded by his son Guy, who 
was lord of Englefield at the Conquest. He appears to 
have made terms with the Conqueror," &c. 

I want to know if there is any sort of warranty 
for the above statements ; and, if so, where I can 
find the proofs. No Gay appears as of Englefield 
in the Norman survey, neither is there any refer- 
ence to either of the other names. A. A. H. 

FABLES OF JOHN GAY. Having recently pre- 
pared a bibliography of Gay's ' Fables ' for a new 
edition, published by Messrs. Fredk. Warne & Co. 
in their popular " Chandos Classics," I am anxious 
to receive further information, to enable me to 
add to the numerous editions there noted. As I 

have for years been a systematic collector of Gay, 
I have in my possession many editions not noted 
in the British Museum Catalogue ; but as other 
editions are being frequently brought to my notice 
by booksellers and collectors, I venture to make a 
general appeal, in the interests of bibliography, 
to the readers of ' N. & Q.,' and will thank those 
of your readers who are sufficiently interested to 
aid me in this matter by bringing to my notice 
any editions which are not contained in my list. 
Several collectors have already favoured me, 
amongst whom I may name Dr. T. N. Brushfield, 
Mr. Alfred Wallis, the Rev. W. C. Boulter, Mr. 
Austin Dobson, Mr. J. R. Chanter, and others. 
I may add that I purpose publishing shortly a full 
bibliography of all Gay's works, including the 
'Fables,' 'Beggar's Opera,' 'Trivia,' and all the 
less-known plays and poems of this celebrated 
Devonshire writer. W. H. K. WRIGHT. 

8, Bedford Street, Plymouth. 

THE NORWICH ESTATES. There is a tradition 
that the Brampton Ash estate, in Northampton- 
shire, was lost " by one throw of the dice " by the 
then Norwich possessor, and was won by Sarah, 
Duchess of Marlborough. Can this be authenti- 
cated ; and, if so, which Norwich proprietor was 
the unlucky gambler 1 CH. WISE. 

Weekley, Kettering. 

in his new 'Life of Walpole' ("Twelve English 
Statesmen " series) says (p. 109) : 

" It is said of him [i.e., Walpole] as it is of Lord Al- 
thorpe, that when the letters arrived he first opened that 
from his gamekeeper. It needs not to be added of such a 
man that he was a great sleeper. ' I put off my cares,' 
he said, ' when I put off my clothes.' " 

A precisely similar story is told of the great Lord 
Burleigh, the Lord High Treasurer in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. It is related of him that when 
he put off his gown of office at night he used to 
say, "Lie there, Lord Treasurer"; and some com- 
mentators who have sought to give a political 
significance to Shakespeare's comedy, ' The Tem- 
pest,' have conjectured that the dramatist had this 
anecdote in his mind when (Act I. sc. ii) he makes 
Prospero say to Miranda : 

Lend thy hand, 

And pluck my magic garment from me. So 

[Drop* down his mantle. 

Lie there my art. 

Is it not probable that the story in respect to 
Walpole is merely a redressing of the Burleigh 
anecdote ? Tales of this kind, if in any way 
characteristic of eminent men, are apt to be related 
concerning them as genuine facts, whether they 
are so or not. Possibly, in years to come, it will 
be related, with every assumption of serious veracity, 
that Mr. Gladstone, in his hours of leisure, was 
wont to take off the frock-coat of prosaic nine- 
teenth century civilization, and, donning the flow- 



[7'h S. IX. FEB. 1, '90. 

ing robe of the Greek sage, read Homer in Homeric 


GENEALOGICAL. Can any student of Norfolk 
county histories favour me with the names and 
marriages of the four sons and two daughters of 
Sir Francis Guybon, of Thursford, who died 1704 ? 
Also with the names and marriages of the children 
of his successor, William Guybon, who sold the 
lordship of Thursford, as stated in Blomefield ? 

Y. T. 

DANIEL DEFOE. (1) Who attributed 'Me- 
moirs of Captain George Carleton, an English 
Officer, including Anecdotes of the War in Spain 
under the Earl of Peterborough,' to Dean Swift ? 
It is now always acknowledged to be by Defoe. 
Lord Mahon, in his ' War of Succession,' says, 
" Defoe's part in this work is very doubtful." Can 
any one give me the exact reference to this quota- 
tion ? I should be glad to know the ground on 
which his doubts were founded. 

(2) Some attribute to Defoe the following work : 
' The Free State of Noland ; or, the Frame and 
Constitution of that Happy, Noble, Powerful, and 
Glorious State ; in which all Sorts and Degrees of 
People find their Condition Better'd,' 1701. Who 
else has been suggested as the author, and by 
whom? On what surmises is its authorship ac- 
credited to Defoe ? 



(7 th S. ix. 7.) 

There is a good deal of varied and somewhat 
vague information as to "cockpence"to be gathered 
from Nicholas Carlisle's ' Endowed Grammar 
Schools,' 2 vols., 1818. For instance, in vol. i. 
p. 198, he says, " until the last thirty years the 
Master never received any Quarter-Pence ex- 
cepting a gratuitous offer, entirely at the option of 
the Parents called a ' Cock-Penny' at Shrove- 
tide," at Whitcham and Millom, in Cumberland. 

At Wye, Ashford, Kent, under Archbishop 
John Kempe's statutes (which are not quoted, but 
were earlier than the Reformation), scholars were 
to be taught gratis, except the usual offerings of 
"Cocks" and "Pence" at the Feast of St. Nicholas 
(vol. i. p. 633). 

At Cartmel, Lancashire, when Carlisle wrote, 
1818, "It is customary for persons of property, 
who have children at the School, to make a com- 
pliment to the Master 1 1 Shrovetide of a sum, 
called 'Cock pence.' This cannot be demanded 
of right" (vol. i. p. 647). So at Clitheroe : "An 
annual present at Shrovetide is expected from the 
Scholars to their Teacher, which is called a ' cock 

penny'; and it varies according to the circum- 
stances of the scholars" (vol. i. p. 652). So at 
Hawkshead, in Lancashire : " If they [children] 
come out of the Parish, it is expected that they 
pay about Two guineas Entrance, and a like sum 
every year at Shrovetide, called their ' Cock- 
penny '" (vol. i. p. 662). Under the head of 
Manchester School, Carlisle gives a copy of an in- 
denture of feoffment by Hugh Bexwyke and 
Johnne Bexwyke, on April 1, 1524, containing 
ordinances, one of which is : " Item that every 

schoolmaster shall teach freely without any 

money or other rewards taken therefore, as Cock- 
penny, Victor-penny, Potation penny, or any other 
whatsoever it be " (vol. i. p. 677), which carries 
the word far back. 

I do not think there is much doubt of the con- 
nexion between the cock- penny and cock-fighting. 
It was probably a contribution towards the ex- 
pense of the cock-fight at Shrovetide, and then 
became a mere perquisite. Some school statutes 
allowed or encouraged cock-fighting, as, for in- 
stance, the statutes of Hartlebury, Worcestershire, 
" the seventh year of our Sovereign Lady Queen 
Elizabeth": "The said Schoolmaster shall and 
may have use and take the profits of all such 
cock-fights and potations, as are commonly used 
in Schools, and such other gifts as shall be freely 

given them over and besides their wagee, until 

their salary and stipend shall be augmented " (vol. 
ii. p. 759). And at Wreay, Cumberland, "a Mr. 
Graham gave to the school a Silver Bell, 'on 
which is engraven " Wrey Chappie 1655," to be 
fought for annually on Shrove Tuesday by Cocks/ 
Two boys were captains, they went in procession 
to the Village Green, each produced Three Cocks, 
and the Bell was appended to the Hat of the 
Victor," which, I suppose, explains the "victor 
penny" of Manchester statutes. This custom 
ceased, Carlisle says, " about thirty years since," 
i. ., 1780-1790. But other schools, following the 
excellent statutes of St. Paul's of Colet, 1518, for- 
bad cock-fighting : " I will they use no Cock- 
fightinge, nor rydinge about of victorye, nor dis- 
puting at St. Bartilimewe." This was copied by 
many, e.g., Merchant Taylors', 1561: "Nor lett 
them use noe cock-fighting, tennys-play, nor riding 
about of victoring, nor disputing abroade." Our 
statutes here at Norwich of 1566, which show 
some trace of Colet's influence, make no allusion 
to such play or such payment. Good Dean Colet's 
statutes took a long time reaching some of the 
distant northern smaller schools. 

I am afraid these notes are rough and discon- 
nected, but I hope they will supply some of the 
information which DR. MURRAY wants. 



There is an earlier reference to " cock-penny " 
than is given in ' N. & Q.' in the foundation 

7 th S. IX. FEB. 1, '90. ] 



statutes of the Manchester Grammar School, 
which are dated April 15, 1525, where it states 
that the schoolmaster or usher shall teach the 
children freely, "withoute any money or other 
reward taking therefor, as cokke peny, victor peny, 
potac'on peny, or any other except his seid sti- 

Wharton, in his 'History of Manchester Gram- 
mar School,' 1828, p. 25, explains these as fol- 
lows : 

"Cock penny. Paid by the scholars to the master for 
his permission to tight or throw at cocks at Shrovetide. 

" Victor penny. Paid by the scholar who had won 
the greatest number of battles, or whose cock, after 
being thrown at, had escaped unhurt, for leave to ride as 
victor (see Strutt's 'Sports,' plate 35). 

"Potation penny. Paid by the scholars or their 
friends to the master to enable him to give an entertain- 
ment at some season of the year (usually in Lent) to the 
scholars on quitting school. This is in some counties 
still continued, and is called 'the drinking.' " 

Pensarn, Abergele. 

P.S. Further on in the same statutes it is 
ordered that "the scollers of the same scole shall 
use no cokke feghts ne other unlawful gammes 
and rydynge aboute for victours." Fitzstephen, 
in his description of London temp. Henry II., 
is said to describe the custom of school- 
boys amusing themselves with gamecocks at 
Shrovetide, and it is said that the custom was re- 
tained in many schools in Scotland within the last 
century, and perhaps might be still in use there in 

The following passage from Mr. J. M. Barrie's 
delightful 'Auld Licht Idylls' is apparently in 
DR. MURRAY'S way, though it does not explain 
the term "cockpenny": 

"Once a year the dominie added to his income by 
holding cockfights in the old school. This was at Yule, 
and the same practice held in the parish school of 
Thrums. It must have been a strange sight. Every 
male scholar was expected to bring a cock to the school, 
and to pay a shilling to the dominie for the privilege of 
seeing it killed there. The dominie was the master of 
the sports, assisted by the neighbouring farmers, some 
of whom might be elders of the church. Three rounds 
were fought. By the end of the first round all the 
cocks had fought, and the victors were then pitted 
against each other. The cocks that survived the second 
round were eligible for the third, and the dominie, be- 
sides his shilling, got every cock killed. Sometimes, if 
all stories be true, the spectators were fighting with each 
other before the third round concluded." ' Auld Licht 
Idylls',' third edition, p. 133. 

C. 0. B. 

8). Edmund Castell, D.D., son of Robert Castell, 
Esq., of East Coatley, co. Cambs., born at Hatley 
in 1606, was Rector of Higham Gobion, co. Bedf., 
to which living he was instituted January 29, 
1662. He was author of the ' Lexicon Hepta- 

glotton,' and also joint editor with Dr. Walton of 
the Polyglott Bible. He was Canon of Christ 
Church, Canterbury, professor of Arabic at Cam- 
bridge, and Fellow of the Koyal Society. He- 
married Lady Elizabeth, widow of Sir Peter 
Bettesworth, Knt., and afterwards of John Harris, 
Esq. He died at the age of sixty-eight, and was 
buried at Higham Gobion January 5, 1685/6. 
His widow died at the age of sixty-four, and was 
buried April 16, 1696, near her last husband. 
Burke, ' General Armory,' thus describes the 
arms : Az., on a bend arg. three towers triple- 
towered sa. purpled or. The paper your corre- 
spondent refers to is entitled ' An Account of the 
Life and Labours of Dr. S. E. Castell, formerly 
Rector of Higham Gobion,' read by John Mend- 
ham, M.A., Rector of Clophill, and published in 
vol. v. of "The Associated Societies' Reports," 
pp. 135-148. F. A. BLAYDES. 


According to Lysons, the manor of East Hatley 
came into the possession of the Castells in the 
reign of Henry VII., and the manor house was 
pulled down by Sir George Downing " about the 
year 1685" ('Magna Britannia,' vol. ii. part i. 
p. 209). Edmund Castell (1606-85), the Semitic 
scholar, is stated to have been born at Tadlow, by 
East Hatley (' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
ix. 271), so probably was one of this family. 

G. F. R. B. 

HUMAN LEATHER (7 th S. vii. 326, 433 ; viii. 77, 
131, 252, 353, 437; ix. 14). Though it is not very 
seemly for an author to quote his own works, per- 
haps you will allow me to give two comparatively 
recent instances of a revolting practice from ' The 
Annals of Bristol in the Nineteenth Century': 

"In April, 1821, a man named John Horwood was 
hanged at the usual place [in Bristol] for the murder of 

a girl The following tradesman's account is the first 

manuscript contained in a book in the infirmary library : 
< Bristol, June, 1828. Richard Smith, Esq., Dr. to H. H. 
Essex. To binding, in the skin of John Horwood, a 
variety of papers, &c., relating to him, the same being 
lettered on each side of the book, " Cutis vera Johannis 
Horwood," II. 10s.' Perhaps all that can be said in ex- 
cuse for such an act is that it had been surpassed in a 
neighbouring county a few years previously. According 
to the Bristol Journal of May 11, 1816, after a man 
named Marsh had been hanged in Somerset for murder, 
his body was flayed, and his skin sent to Taunton to be 

"Richard Smith, Esq.," was one of the surgeons 
to the infirmary, and a leading local practitioner. 



An instance of a person having been flayed 
alive, and one of historic interest, seems to have 
escaped the notice of your correspondents. Hume 
tells us in his ' History of England ' that Bertrand 
de Gourdon, who had pierced the shoulder of 
Richard I. with an arrow at the siege of the castle 



S. IX. FEB. 1, '90. 

of Chalos, was flayed alive and then banged, in 
1199, by Marcadee, the leader of his Brabangons 
(chap. x.). Perhaps, however, in the present 
sceptical age this may be regarded as mythical. 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridg*. 

CLUB (7 th S. viii. 387, 456, 516). I am sorry 
not to be able to give DR. MURRAY the reference 
he requires. I do not appear to have noted it ; 
but the following may be of service to him. 
Oct. 24, 1660 : 

"So to Mr. Lilly's with Mr. Spong, where well re- 
ceived, there being a clubb tonight among his friends." 

Feb. 15, 1664-5, when Pepys was admitted a 
member at Gresham College : 

"After this being done, they to the Crown Tavern, 
behind the 'Change, and there my Lord and most of 
the company to a club supper." 

June 20, 1665: 

" To the Dolphin Taverne, where all we officers of the 
Navy met, with the Commissioners of the Ordnance by 
agreement, and dined : where good musique at my direc- 
tion. Our club come to 34s. a man, nine of us." 

June 4, 1666 : 

"To the Crown, behind the 'Change, and there 
supped at the club with my Lord Brouncker, Sir G. 
Ent, and others of Gresham College." 

March 13, 1667/8 : 

"At noon, all of us to Chatelin, the French house in 
Covent Garden, to dinner; Brouncker, J. Minnes, W. Pen, 
T. Harvey, and myself : and there had a dinner cost us 
8s. 6d. a-piece, a base dinner, which did not please us at 

W. H. R. 

FIFE (7 th S. viii. 468). It is stated in Cam- 
den's ' Britannia,' ed. 1695, that 

" The Sheriffdom of Fife was anciently called Ross : 
the remains of 'which name are still preserved in Cul- 
ross, i. e., the back or hinder part of Ross, and Kinrose, 
i. e., the head of Roes. The name of Fife it had from 
Fifus, a noble man, to whom it was given by King Keneth 
the second, for his great service against the Picts." 
Col. 949. ' 

By the ' Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland ' we are in- 
formed that 

" Fifeshire was anciently of much greater extent than 
it now is. Under the names of Fife and Fothrik, or 
Fothrif, the whole tract lying between the rivers and 
friths of Forth and Tay appears to have been compre- 
hended From the great extent and value of this dis- 
trict, and from its forming so important a portion of 
the Pictish dominions, it unquestionably received, at an 
early period, its popular appellation of ' the Kingdom of 
Fife.' "Vol. i. p. 651. 



It is Sir Robert Sibbald's editor (' History of 
Fife and Kinross,' ed. of 1803, p. 12, note 1), who 
suggests fifa, Scandinavian for Lanugo palustris = 
cotton-grass, as a derivation for Fife. Walter 
Wood, in ' East Neuk of Fife ' (V. ed. of 1887, 

pp. 1, 2), suggests that it was a name given by the 
Anglo-Saxons, who believed that it was peopled 
by a race of monsters called Fifelkin. 
The grim stranger was Grendel hight 
Mighty pacer of the March, who held the moors, 
Fen and fastness land of the Fifelkin. 

' Tale of Beowulf.' 

Monkish legends derive the name from one Fifus 
Duffus, an eminent nobleman. The ' Pictish Chro- 
nicle ' of the tenth century divided Alban into 
Cait, Ce, Cirig, Fib, Fidach, Fotla, Fortreim ; of 
which names Fib is supposed to answer to Fife. 

The word veach = painted, has been shaped into 
Fife, and so veach = ric (ric = regnum) gives us at 
once " land of the Picts," who no doubt at one 
time peopled Fife, It has unfortunately been 
shaped into many other forms. But while the 
true derivation is uncertain "et adhuc sub judice 
lis est " one thing is certain, that " bleak and 
misty" are thoroughly inapplicable epithets for 
the " kingdom of Fife." When its hills are covered 
with snow in winter, possibly some Southerners 
might think it bleak, but even then, as a rule, the 
skies are clear, the sun bright, and it smiles under 
its wintry mantle. A less "misty" climate I never 
experienced ; the air is dry and rare, and land fogs 
are nearly unknown. It is true that at the fall of 
the year there are sometimes "easterly bars," 
another name for sea fogs, but they are soon over, 
and " nature smiles again," as it smiles nowhere 
in the world, to my mind, as in Fife. Leaving 
Fife for the south, you gradually get into more and 
more misty country; returning, you emerge by a 
gradual process from darkness into light. I write 
as a u residenter " for nearly three years, having an 
intimate acquaintance with " the kingdom " of 
some fifteen years' standing, and an experience of 
climates acquired in many parts of Europe, Aus- 
tralia, and New Zealand. 


'IVANHOE' (7 th S. viii. 429, 476). In several 
accounts of Ashby-de-la-Zouch and its castle which 
were published during the eighteenth century I do 
not find any reference to a tournament, and Cam- 
den also is silent on the subject. A view of the 
castle is given in the ' New Display of the Beauties 
of England,' 1776, vol. ii. p. 68. 

In a short description of Ashby-de-la-Zouch con- 
tained in Paterson's 'Roads' (1822) it is said that 
"the principal object worthy attention in the town is 
the ruined castle. This was erected towards the end of 
the fifteenth century by Sir William Hastings, whose 
descendants lived here in great splendour for several 
generations, and entertained two queens under very dis- 
similar circumstances. The first, Mary, Queen of Scots, 
passed some time here in the custody of the Earl of 
Huntingdon, and the second, Anne, wife of James I., 
with her son, here partook of the gaudy festivities in 
which she so much delighted. This castle was after- 
wards honoured with a visit from her royal husband, in 
the cause of whose successor it was garrisoned and ably 
defended, but at last evacuated and dismantled by 

7* S. IX. FEB. 1, T 90.] 



capitulation. The existing remains of this structure 
which formerly contained many magnificent apartments, 
display some richly decorated doorways, chimney- 
pieces, windows, &c., and form a grand and highly inter- 
esting mass of ruins." P. 197. 


A HOUSEMAID DECORATED (7 th S, viii. 466). 
I think it will be found that several Englishwomen 
have been "decorated for service in our wars,' 
i. ., have received medals for action as soldiers or 
sailors. Hannah Snell, for instance, and Mary 
Ann Talbot. I believe, but am not sure, that 
Mrs. Seacole had the Crimean medal; and though 
she had black blood in her, she was, I suppose, 
technically an Englishwoman. The housemaid men- 
tioned above did not deserve her medal unless she 
did her dusting within range of the enemy's fire. 

A. J. M. 

SAMUEL COLVILL (7 th S. viL 128, 217). I 
greatly doubt that Samuel was a son of Lord Col- 
vill of Culross. I have an extensive pedigree of 
the family, and there is no mention of such a per- 
son in it. Sir James was created Lord Colvill in 
1602. He had an only son Robert, who died in 
his father's lifetime, leaving an only son James, 
who succeeded his grandfather as second lord. He 
was married, but died without issue in Dublin in 
1640, whereupon the title became dormant, and 
remained so until 1723, when the heir general 
claimed and obtained it. Y. S. M. 

COOL (7 th S. ix. 9). This word is sometimes 
used in speaking of a sum of money. It usually 
implies that the sum is large : 

"Suppose you don't get sixpence costs and lose your 
cool hundred by it, still it's a great advantage. " Miss 
Edgworth's ' Love and Law,' i. 2. 

" ' She had wrote out a little coddleshell in her own 
hand a day or two afore the accident, leaving a cool four 

thousand to Mr. Matthew Pocket.' I never discovered 

from whom Joe derived the conventional temperature of 
the four thousand pounds, but it appeared to make the 
Bum of money more to him, and he had a manifest relish 
in insisting on its being cool." Dickens, 'Great Expecta- 
tions,' chap. Ivii. 

" I bless God (said he) that Mrs. Tabitha Bramble did 
not take the field to-day. I would pit her for a cool 
hundred." Smollett, 'Hum. Clinker,' i. 58; 'Supple- 
mental English Glossary,' T. L. 0. Davies. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Is it a relic of the old phrase "a cooling card," 
that is, a card so decisive as to cool the courage of 
an adversary ? If so, it would lead one to suppose 
that " a hundred " was a large sum to win or lose 
when the phrase was first used ; or it may stand 
for a mere hundred, a sum so ordinary as a stake 
as not to excite any feeling in the players whether 
won or lost just a hundred, neither more nor less. 

' DIVERSIONS OP PURLET ' (7 th S. ix. 7). In the 
first volume of the ' Diversions ' the interlocutors 
are B. and H., that is, Burdett and Home ; in 
the second volume F. and H, that is, Sir Francis 
and Home. I do not find a T. ; but if there be 
one, it must stand for William Tooke, the owner 
of Parley. J. CARRICK MOORE. 

vii. 11, 102 ; 7 th S. ix. 12). Unfortunately I do 
not possess the Third Series of ' N. & Q. ,' and so 
do not know to what Mr. P. J. ANDERSON at the 
last reference is responding. But why does he 
call this phrase* "an amusing instance of the 
vitality of a misquotation " ? Is it not generally 
known that the phrase is George Buchanan's? 
Urquhart misled Dr. Robinson, and he in turn 
was pardonably taken as an authority by MR. 
BATES ; but the author of the ' General Demands 
concerning the Covenant' need not be charged 
with error. He quotes from Rivet, as applying to 
some Scots and English writers of the Reformation 
period a phrase which Buchanan had employed to 
describe the Scots reformers generally; but he 
quotes it in the " received form " from Buchanan, 
and not as Rivet misquotes it. In ' Rerum Scot. 
Hist.,' lib. xvi. 39, the Scots are spoken of as "ad 
iraui natura paullo propensiores," and in the same 
book, 51, referring to the year 1560, we find : 
" Magnopere enim Proceres Anglorum metuebant, ne 
Scotorum prasfervida ingenia in errorem inemendabilem 
universam rein praecipitarent." 

Saline Manse, Fife. 

In view of the above references, it may be in- 
teresting to note whence the phrase does come : 

" Magnopere enim proceres Anglorum metuebant, ne 
Scotorum prasfervida ingenia in errorem inemendabilem 
universam rem praecipitarent." G. Buchanan, 'Rerum 
Scoticarum Historia,' lib. xvi. (p. 589, ed. Elz., Ultraj., 



MRS. HONEY (7 th S. ix. 9). An inqury is 
made as to the correct name of the above charming 
actress. Two letters in her handwriting are now 
before me, both of which are simply signed " Laura 
Honey." It may not, perhaps, be generally known 
that she was buried in the churchyard of the old 
parish church of Hampstead. The grave is situated 
:lose against the south wall enclosing the ground, 
and not far from that of Constable, the painter, 
[t is covered with a large flat stone, upon which is 
cut the following inscription : 

" Sacred to the memory of Laura Honey, whose mortal 
remains repoee in the vault beneath. She died in the 
year of our Lord 1843, in the twenty-seventh year of 
aer age. 'Shall I remain forgotten in the dust, while 
r ate relenting lets the flow'r revive ] ' " 

It might almost seem that there were some fore- 
bodings as to such neglect, for when I happened to 


[7">S. IX. FEB. 1, '90. 

observe the gravestone, not so very many years 
afterward, it had a very uncared-for look, and 
vegetation had so accumulated on the surface that 
the inscription was becoming indistinct. Later on 
this state of things became worse, and the incrip- 
tion illegible. I then ventured to bring the fact 
under the notice of one of the churchwardens, 
when the stone was promptly cleaned, and the 
lettering again made visible, I presume under their 
directions. It is now some time since I visited the 
spot, and possibly by this time it may be necessary, 
if the record is to be preserved, to repeat the re- 
storative process. J. DRAYTON WYATT. 
Gloucester House, 312, Liverpool Road, N. 

The Town of July 8, 1837, says that the name of 
Bell was adopted by her mother, after the discovery 
of her polygamish marriage with a German musician 
belonging to the Portsmouth Theatre. She 
appeared at Sadler's Wells Theatre under the 
name of Laura Bell, but was subsequently married 
to a lawyer's clerk named Honey, who was acci- 
dentally drowned off Lambeth, whilst on a party 

71, Brecknock Road. 

AN OLD JEST (7" 1 S. viii. 485; ix. 6). The 
verses on Bycorne and Chichevache, quoted by 
MRS. LYNN LINTON at the latter reference, are 
pretty well known. There is a broadside woodcut 
of the two beasts in the Library of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and Chaucer, in his " Envoye " to the 
'Clerke's Tale,' seeming impatient of Grisild's 
patience, breaks forth : 

noble wy ves, ful of heigh prudence, 
Let noon humilite your tonges nayle ; 
Ne lat no clerk have cause or diligence 
To write of yow a story of such mervayle, 
As of Grigildes pacient and kynde, 
Lest Chichivache yow swolwe in hir entraile. 
I believe Mr. Pater, in his 'Studies of the 
Renaissance,' alludes to the beasts, and Lydgate 
wrote a poem on them. JAMES HOOPER. 

50, Mornington Road s N.W. 

GROCER: BACKSIDE (7 th S. yiii. 488). Under 
this heading there are many queries to be taken 
separately. (1) As to the word. What etymo- 
logists state as to its being borrowed from the 
French grossier, a wholesale dealer, is borne out 
by the history of the trade. Baron Heath, in his 
'History of the Grocers' Company,' after quoting 
what Eavenhill, formerly clerk in the year 1689, 
stated in his account, 

"The word Grocer was a term distinguishing mer- 
chants of this Society, in opposition to retailers, for that 
they usually sold in gross quantities, by great weights. 
And in some of our old books the word signifies mer- 
chants that dealt for the whole of anything," 
adds that 

" They were originally known as Pepperers, yet were 
recognized as general traders who bought and sold, or, 
according to the legal acceptation of the word, engrossed 

all kinds of merchandise " (pp. 38, 39, third edition, 
London, 1869). 

(2) As they were also called spicers in olden times, 
and are known as " epiciers " in France, it is clear 
that they dealt in the rarer foreign articles. (3) 
Have tea and coffee ceased to be distinct objects of 
trade, as queried 1 We have the word " tea-man," 
and such firms as Twining's and others confine 
themselves, I suppose, mainly, if not quite exclu- 
sively, to that article, and others to coffee. (4) ID 
the town of Banbury, near which I reside, there 
are grocers who carry on a retail business there, 
and send out their vans or waggons to supply the 
smaller village shops ; a continuance of an old 
practice. (5) About the year 1830 I remember a 
shop in the city of Exeter which was one half for 
groceries, the other for drapery and textile fabrics. 
This, too, was a survival, no doubt, of an old 
system. (6) As to iron and hardware, I have no 
certain knowledge either way ; but as the term 
"ironmonger" appears in Minsheu's 'Dictionary,' 
1627, the inference seems to be that hardwares 
were a distinct branch of trade. The municipal 
records of our chief cities would probably carry the 
term back much further if examined. Pepys, Boyle,, 
and Beaumont and Fletcher also use the word in 
the seventeenth century. It was, thereforejKn 
common use then. 

The second part of the query relates to a totally 
different word, a " backside." The best passage in 
illustration of its meaning is probably that in 
George Herbert's ' Priest to the Temple,' chap, x., 
" The Parson in his House," wherein the author 
says : 

" His fare is plain and common, but wholaome, what 
bee hath, is little, but very good ; it consisteth most of 
mutton, beefe, and veal, if he addes any thing for a great 
day, or a stranger, his garden or orchard supplyes it, or 
his barne. and back-side " (p. 44, first edition. London, 

In the third edition, 1675, the spelling is some- 
what modernized, and the last word is printed 
without the hyphen as one word, " backside." Bat 
in Pickering's edition of 1836 and in subsequent 
issues the word has been excluded, and replaced 
by "yard." This is hardly so extensive in mean- 
ing as the word for which it was substituted, which 
is found in the Authorized Version, Exodus iii. 1. 

It is evident from the sketch of the career of 
George Stoddard given in Mr. Hubert Hall's 
' Society in the Elizabethan Age ' that the grocers 
of his day dealt in almost everything out of which 
money could be made. The transactions recorded 
in the extracts from Stoddard's ledger refer to- 
such miscellaneous articles as the following : " a 
payer of gloves," " 3 sabylls," " a sword gerdy], 2 
martern skynes," "a longe gune callyd a foullinge 
pease," " 2 Ib. whyt sheuger candy," " a ringe 
callyd a Ryboys," "a Rayper," "a Dager," "6 

S. IX. FEB. 1, '90.] 



handkerchee?," &c. His principal business, how- 
ever, was lending money on usury. 

Grocers in the seventeenth century, and indeed 
later, dealt largely in drugs. From 1606 to 1617 
grocers and apothecaries were incorporated in one 
company; and although they were separated in 
the latter year, the Apothecaries continued to 
buy their drugs from the grocers, as well as from 
those who more particularly styled ">emselves 
druggists. The late Mr. Jacob Bell, in an ' His- 
torical Sketch of Pharmacy in England /published 
in 1842, quotes from a pamphlet of 1731 an 
amusing but unsavoury anecdote of a firm of 
grocers in Old Fish Street who attempted to palm 
off upon several physicians "white dog's " excre- 
ment as Album Grcecum. Even at that time both 
merchants and druggists were connected with the 
Grocer's Company. C. C. B. 

At Winterton in Lincolnshire, at Snaith in 
Yorkshire (I think), and probably at other places 
where a less important street runs parallel with 
the main street, the former is (or was) called the 
backside ; it was sometimes further distinguished 
by prefixing the name of its principal inhabitant. 
See Peacock's ' Glossary,' s.v. 

By the way, is it not desirable that each distinct 
subject in a communication to ' N. & Q." be under 
a separate heading, to make sure of its being in- 
dexed 1 J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

As to a matter lately mentioned by you, I 
once asked a porter at a London northern terminus 
to direct me to the suburban branch ; and he told 
me I should find it at the " backside " of the sta- 
tion. I did find it so situated literally at " the 
side of the back " of the larger station. 


30, Lavender Sweep, S.W. 

viii. 449, 512). Racine had never anything to do 
with the Knights Templars. The passage here re- 
ferred to is to be found in 'Les Tern pliers,' a French 
tragedy, by Frangois Just Marie Raynouard, per- 
formed with the greatest success at the Theatre 
Frangais, in Paris, 1805. The following half line, 
at the end of the recital of their death 

lea chants avaient cesae, 

is nearly the only passage of this drama now 
remembered. DNARGEL. 


349, 393, 513). The rough and ready pronuncia- 
tion in Derbyshire is thimell. Years ago there was 
one variety which little boys and girls knew as 
" dame's thimell." It was in constant use in the 
making of " thimell-pie," or " thimmy-pie," the 
dame of the little schools then common in all 
villages using her thimble a great iron one upon 

the children's heads when punishment was neces- 
sary. This was called " thimell - pie making," 
and the operation was much dreaded. 


THE NAME OF CLINTON (7 th S. viii. 486). 
" Dover, from Douvres or Dovera, Normandy, a baronial 
family of considerable eminence, which derived its name 
from a Scandinavian Dover at the conquest of Normandy, 

912 It is the elder branch of the house of De Clinton." 

See ' The Norman People,' p. 230, published by H. S. 
King & Co., London, 1874. 

At p. 261: "Glenton, for Glinton or Clinton." 

6, Freegrove Road, N. 

BUT AND BEN (7 th S. viii. 425, 515 ; ix. 57). 
This expression is in very common use in Scotland, 
where there are a number of tenants living in one 
house, all of whom enter by one front door, or 
entry, the houses or homes of the different tenants 
being either on the one side or the other of the 
common stairs or passages. If a house is of only 
one story, and is occupied by two tenants, one on 
the one side, and the other on the other side of the 
common entrance, the two tenants are said to live 
" but and ben " to each other, or with each other. 
Suppose two tenants so living say Smith and 
Brown. If you were in Smith's house, you would 
speak of going " ben " to Brown's ; if you were in 
Brown's house, you would speak of going " ben " 
to Smith's, " ben " here meaning to go away out of 
the one house into the other. It would not matter 
whether the tenants lived up one stair or more 
that is, on the first flat or higher the tenants so 
situated being still " but and ben " to each other, 
or with each other. When a tenant is occupier of 
a flat through which a common passage runs, such 
tenant is said to have both " the but and the ben." 
It is, however, hardly correct to say that one of 
the two places is " the but " and the other is " the 
ben." The phrase " Gang ben the hoose " is quite 
common here in the Border counties of Scotland, 
but in Fifeshire, and further north, you will also 
hear " Gang but the hoose." 

I may mention, in connexion with this subject, 
that the word " ben " is often used in Scotland to 
mean amount of knowledge. Thus, when any one 
person exhibits a more than common amount of 
intelligence or cuteness, it is often remarked, 
"You are gey far ben " = You know a good deal 
about the matter. " Ben " in this case is easily 
seen to mean that the person has penetrated well 
into the matter, and thus has a signification equal- 
ling the having penetrated into the inner room, or 
into the other room, or " ben " end of the house. 

Hawick, N.B. 

" HEIRESS OF PINNER " (7 th S. viii. 467). In 
Horace Walpole's letter to the Countess of Ossory 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 1, 'SO. 

from Strawberry Hill, Nov. 3, 1782, No. 2200, 
pp. 295-8 of vol. viii. of Cunningham's edition, 
1858, mention is made of Miss Hamilton, whose 
cause against Parson Beresford was pleaded by 
M. Limon. Miss Hamilton's father was in the 
line of succession to the crown of Scotland (?), and 
she lived at Pinner, " a village vulgar enough for 
so high-born a heroine." Is this the reference 
your correspondent desires ? 


TOWN'S HUSBAND (7 th S. viii. 447, 496). It 
may help to understand what a town's husband 
is by referring to a ship's husband, a common 
term used in all seaports for the person who sup- 
plies ships' stores. E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP. 

HERALDIC (7 th S. ix. 28). Amongst other fami- 
lies in the county of Sussex bearing a horse's head 
as a crest was that of Shoyswell (pronounced 
Shoeswell), of Shoyswell, who had as a crest, A 
horse's head erased ar. gorged with a collar sable, 
charged with three horseshoes ar. This family 
gave its name to one of the hundreds of the county, 
and the manor house of Shoyswell (situate in the 
parish of Etchingham) is still in existence, though 
I believe the family is extinct. 

If F. G. or any of your correspondents could 
give me any information concerning this family, 
other than that to be found in Berry's ' Sussex 
Genealogies' or the Add. MSS., I should be 
greatly obliged. H. E. G. 

SIGNS SCULPTURED IN STONE (7 th S. viii. 306, 
391, 475 ; ix. 16). I think the high reputation 
enjoyed by the " Cat and Fiddle " in the Peak of 
Derbyshire must be referred to its " public " cha- 
racter, not to its status as an inhabited house. In 
Bemrose's 'Guide to Derbyshire' (8vo., 1878, 
illustrated) I described this celebrated hostelry as 

" the highest public-house in Derbyshire, very popular 
among coachmen of former days, and said by jocose men 
of the road to be the house of most elevated entertain- 
ment in the kingdom." 

In the old coaching days they lingered long 
with us in Derbyshire everybody " on the road " 
knew the "Cat and Fiddle" as being chiefly a 
house of call for lead-miners, and occasionally 
honoured by a visit from "the duke's" game- 
keepers ; but, although my first acquaintance with 
the old stone sign dates back to the forties, the 
story told by MR. LOVEDAY, with sagacious 
reservation, about " an eccentric Duke of Devon- 
shire his cat and his fid die " is entirely new to me, 

and I cannot avoid the suspicion that it has been 
invented of late years by some ingenious Buxton 
guide for the benefit of " trippers." The old nursery 
rhyme is good enough, without any ducal deriva- 
tions. The cow selected the highest point as a 
"take off" when she performed her well-known 

acrobatic feat, and the cat and fiddle remained 
behind in perpetual witness of the exploit. There 
is another " cat " in Derbyshire, which was much 
loved of honest anglers in days when trouts were 
to be had in the pellucid Ecclesbourne, that is, 
before the navvies at work upon the railway be- 
tween Duffield and Wirksworth had poisoned its 
waters with quicklime the " Puss in Boots," at 
Windley. The sign is a painted one, representing 
the nursery hero in all the glory of his top-boots ; 
but I never heard that an eccentric Lord Scars- 
dale was in the habit of taking his cat and his 
boots to this pleasant retreat, which is a mill as 
well as a hostelry, where excellent plum-cakes and 
ale of potent quality were procurable once upon a 

Upon the roadside in the vicinity of, and oppo- 
site to, the Rowtor Eocks, near Birchover-in-tne- 
Peak, is (or was) the mere shell of a house, built 
of stone, and evidently once inhabited. All the 
woodwork had long disappeared when last I saw 
it, some fifteen years since, but over the grinning 
entrance to nowhere which was the front door 
is a sculptured stone bearing certain emblems and 
this inscription : 

Many a day in ' La 
bour and Sorrow I 
Have spent Bu' Now 
I Find No Riches L 1 
ke Content. S. B. 

This stone occupies the position of an inn sign, 
and over it is a niche for the reception, apparently, 
of an image ; but whether this deserted home was 
ever an inn, who built it, and why it became deso- 
late, I never could learn. Of course it is haunted. 
Half a dozen of my Peakril friends could give me 
that information. ALFRED WALLIS. 

SHELLEY'S 'PROMETHEUS' (7 th S. viii. 469). 
The lines quoted, which are uttered by Demo- 
gorgon, seem to me to refer to the dethrone- 
ment of Jupiter by Demogorgon, which occurs 
somewhat earlier in the play. "Heaven's 
despotism " is Jupiter, or the power of Jupiter ; 
and "the Earth-born's spell" is the magical 
power by which Demogorgon overcame Jupiter. 
The lines may be very bad; but I think that a 
meaning can be got out of them. 


P.S. Demogorgon was the Earth-maker, rather 
than the Earth-born. But perhaps Shelley did not 
much consider what he was. 

EARL OF DELORAINE (7 th S. viii. 428 ; ix. 52). 
My reply which was so far better than the ex- 
tract from Sir Bernard Burke that it was taken 
from the parish register in part, only it lost the 
favour of insertion might have anticipated an 
error in his ' Peerage.' The first Earl of Deloraine 
lived at Lidwell, in a house not now existing, but 

7">S. IX. FKB. 1, '90.] 



was buried in the churchyard of Sandford St. 
Martin, of which Lidwell is a hamlet. 


KIDDLEWINK (7 th S. ix. 48). The source of the 
application of this term to a beer-shop may be 
seen in ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. ix. 19, after Beeton's 
Annual, 1863, p. 39, note. In vol. x. p. 5 there 
is a copy of verses (November, 1831) in illustration 
of the story : 

It concerns those new shops for the vending of drink, 
Which are, by moat people, called kidley wink. 

Vv. 3, 4. 


Kiddle-a-winks were houses (chiefly, I believe, 
in the West Country) where smuggled spirits were 
sold, and where the presence of a kettle and a 
knowing wink from the proprietor indicated that 
" right Nantz" or other contraband spirits might 
be obtained. Some years ago one of Beeton's 
annuals was entitled ' Kiddleawink ; or, Nine 
Balls One and All. 1 JAMES HOOPER. 

50, Mornington Road, N.W. 

ROBERT BURTON (7 th S. vi. 443, 517; vii. 53, 
178 ; ix. 2, 56). Are not MR. PEACOCK and MR. 
DIXON on the one hand, and MR. SHILLETO on 
the other, each correct ? I think there is little 
doubt that there were two issues of the title-page 
of the sixth edition. MR. PEACOCK (7 th S. vi. 
443) speaks of one copy having the date 1651 on 
the title, and of two copies (one in the library of 
the University of Leiden, and one in his own pos- 
session) having the date 1652 on the title-page. 
Again, in booksellers' catalogues this edition is as 
often dated 1651 as 1652. All copies appear to 
have the imprint at the end dated 1651. With 
reference to the seventh edition, I have seen two 
copies where the pasted slip did not exist, and it 
did not appear to have ever been there ; but in 
most copies of this edition the slip will be found. 
A corroboration of this seems to be found in the 
fact of MR. PEACOCK and others describing it as 
published by H. Cripps, whilst others give Gar- 
way as the publisher. 

The Brewery, Reading. 

QUEEN ANNE BOLETN (7 th S. ix. 43). With 
reference to the general appearance of this queen, 
the following opinion, from the late John Richard 
Green's ' History of England,' vol. ii. p. 133, Lon- 
don, 1878,-may be mentioned : 

" Her beauty was small, but her bright eyes, her flow- 
ing hair, her gaiety, and her wit, soon won favour with 
the King." 

And also, as the REV. MR. PICKFORD entertains 
some doubt relative to the " mode of execution " of 
the queen, perhaps he will permit me to draw his 
attention to the letter, preserved in the library of 
the Monastery of Alcobaca, in Portugal, of a 

Portuguese gentleman, who was apparently an 
eye-witness, in which he gives an account of the 
execution of the queen to a friend at Lisbon. The 
whole letter is too long for quotation in ' N. & Q.,' 
but the following extract may be interesting to 
your correspondent, viz. : 

" From London, the 10th day of June, 1536. 
' On the next Friday, which was the 19th of the same 
month, the Queen was beheaded according to the manner 
and custom of Paris, that is to say, with a sword, -which 
thing had not before been seen in this land of England." 
Vide 'The Chapel in the Tower,' by Doyne C. Bell, 
F.S.A., p. 105, John Murray, London, 1877. 

The italics are mine. HENRY GERALD HOPE. 
6, Freegrove Road, N. 

CODGER (7 th S. ix. 47). I fear DR. MURRAY'S 
schoolboy must take his place with older etymo- 
logists, who seem to rival one another in vain 
guesses as to the derivation of codger. No doubt 
the verb coger in Spanish means to collect; but 
to derive the English noun codger from it is ridi- 
culous. Almost as absurd is Webster's suggestion 
that it comes from cottager ! Cadger and codger 
differ wholly in meaning. Cadge, cadging, cadger, 
are always used contemptuously. A fellow who 
goes about cadging will beg, or pilfer, or do any- 
thing mean and shabby; but there is something 
kindly about the use of codger. A man, merely on 
account of his oddity, may be called "a queer old 
codger," without any slight on his character. A 
self-styled Society of Cogers used to meet at a 
tavern in Bride Lane, Fleet Street, to talk and 
argue over their drink and tobacco. Perhaps they 
do so still. An instance of the kindly use of 
codger occurs in Dibdin's song, ' Nothing like 
Grog.' When Jack is adjured by his father not 
to drink, 

Says I father, your health. 

So I pass'd round the stuff, and he swigg'd it, 

And it set the old codger agog. 

J. DlXON. 

In my school days, between sixty and seventy 
years ago, the word codger was one of endearment, 
and decidedly complimentary. " A regular nice 
old codger" was about the highest compliment a 
boy could bestow on one his superior in age. I 
never at any time heard it used as a synonym of 
cadger, which meant a mean, low-bred, contempt- 
ible fellow, or cad. E. COBHAM BREWER. 

In Derbyshire the expression codger, or rummy 
codger, was constantly used by the folks, thirty or 
forty years ago, when alluding to persons of pecu- 
liar and eccentric ways, as well as of others of doubt- 
ful character, or of whom mistrust was felt ; and 
there was about that time a song in use, of which 
two lines were : 

Although a rummy codger, 
Now list to what I say. 

A bungler of work was termed a codger; and it 



[7"> S. IX. FIB. 1, '90. 

was the fate of every little lass who did sewing at 
school to codge her work, that is, make an un- 
sightly mess of the stitching. A piece of bad 
sewing was called a codge-bodge. 


HERALDIC (7 th S. viii. 489 ; ix. 33). Will MR. 
BAGNALL kindly give his authority for describing 
Papworth's ' Ordinary ' and Fairbairn's ' Crests ' 
as the acknowledged authorities on the subjects of 
arms and crests respectively. I have hitherto 
been under the impression that the only " acknow- 
ledged authorities" on the said subjects are the 
Heralds' College for England, the Lyon Office for 
Scotland, and Ulster's Office for Ireland. There 
can be no question that a very large number of 
the arms and crests in Papworth and Fairbairn 
will be found, upon application to the " acknow- 
ledged authorities," to be bogus. MONS. 

ix. 5). Whatever the first use of this appellation, 
it was not Dr. Hook's, some thirty years ago. In 
a letter of June 12, 1850, Miss Bronte mentions, 
as one of the " three chief incidents " of a visit at 
that time to London, " a sight of the Duke of 
Wellington at the Chapel Koyal (he is a real grand 
old man)." This was forty years ago, and her 
using the word " real " looks as if she referred to 
the term having been already used with reference 
to some other notability. T. J. E. 

BOBSTICK (7 th S. iv. 508; viii. 356, 412, 433). 
The discussion on the meaning of this word affords 
a good instance of the necessity of treating slang 
terms, as well as all others, by the historical 
method if we are to arrive at any safe conclusions. 
Bobstick is said by Messrs. Barrere and Leland, 
as well as by Ogilvie, to be a slang term for a 
shilling. Every one knows that a bob is a shilling 
but is there any authority in print for the state- 
ment that bobstick means that coin 1 If so, it 
ought to be quoted. For my own part, I can say 
that I have never met with the word bobstick as 
employed for a shilling, and I have strong doubts 
as to whether it ever had that signification. 

When did 606, in the sense of a shilling, come 
into use ] In the earliest dictionary of slangr, as 
apart from mere vocabularies, namely, ' A New 
Dictionary of the Terms, Ancient and Modern, of 
the Canting Crew,' by B. E. Gent, it does not occur. 
This dictionary is undated ; but as the " late King 
James " is spoken of under " Jacobites," it cannot 
have been printed earlier than 1701, and I am dis- 
posed to assign it to the year 1710, or thereabouts. 
I have no copy by me of the earlier editions of 
Grose's ' Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue,' 
but in the standard edition of 1823 the word will 
be found with its modern meaning of a shilling. 
The term, therefore, presumably came into use 

Between the years 1710 and 1823, and this latter 
date disposes of MR. SIKES'S guess that it may 
lave originated from the police rate, started at one 
shilling by Sir Robert Peel's Act, as that enact- 
ment did not come into force until several years 
later (1829). 

The idea conveyed by the roots bob, baub, or 
bob is that of something small and insignificant. 
According to the ' New Dictionary ' a bob was a 
very short periwig, and a bobtail was a short arrow- 
head. A " bobtailed nag " is a horse whose tail 
has been docked of its natural proportions. The 
Old French baubelet, a child's toy (see Littre", s.v. 
" Babiole "), is from this root, and thence we obtain 
the English bauble, and probably the Scottish 
baivbie, a halfpenny or other small coin. My own 
impression is that the small English coin known 
as a bob is closely allied to baivbie. 


Might I say, in reply to 0. R. T., that my ex- 
perience does not allow of " light bob, or bobs " 
being military slang for an infantry soldier or 
soldiers, but for a light infantry soldier, or soldiers, 
or corps. Hence I have always held that the 
"light bobs" were so called because as light in- 
fantry and as skirmishers they were always bob- 
bing about the field ; and we have a similar 
phrase in the nautical " bear a bob "be brisk, as 
given in that almost United Service ' Word Book ' 
by Admiral Smyth. In like manner, too, a bob- 
tailed horse is so called because, being docked, its 
tail moves brisker and more bobbishly than does 
the unshortened tail. It is, of course, possible 
that in the mind of the facetious originator of the 
phrase there may have been the sub-thought that 
the " light bob " was a light and active shillinger, 
but it is unlikely, because, though we have " the 
heavies "=the heavy cavalry, as contrasted with 
the light cavalry, we have not the "heavy bob " as 
=the heavy or regular foot soldier. 


I always thought that fi Robert " was the face- 
tiously elegant term for 6o6=shilling, and that 
" bobbies" were so called from Sir Robert Peel, who 
organized the police force. But can the use of the 
word 6o6=shilling be traced to a date antecedent 
to the police force ? If not, perhaps, in effect, the 
word bob owes its origin to Sir R. Peel. At Eton 
there are "wet bobs" and "dry bobs." Why 
" bobs " ? If I am not mistaken, one shilling was 
collected from every boy towards the aquatic or 
cricket expenses. I think I recollect such levy, 
and because I could not definitely declare which 1 
was at first, I had to contribute to both. 


SAINTE NEGA (7 th S. viii. 489 ; ix. 34). This 
is a playful parody, not an invented saint. There 
are many others similar in character. "Une 
Sainte Nitouche " is a very common appellation for 

7"- S. IX. FEE, 1, '90.] 



a girl who hypocritically pretends to be extra de- 
mure. "Sainte Touche" is pay-day, the day on 
which the workman "touches," or receives, his 
pay. The Monday spent in idleness and drunken- 
ness is " La Saint Lundi." All a poor man's little 
belongings are his "Saint Frusquin," and so forth. 

R. H. BUSK. 

THE "BLUE-EYED MAID" SIGN (7 th S. ix. 28). 
An inn called the " Blue Mayde," on the east 
side of the Borough High Street, appears in a 
Record Office of 1542. A few years later, in the 
royal charter 4 Edward VI., granting parcels of 
land in Southwark to the City, the " Blue Mead " 
(or maid) is mentioned along with the " Tabard," 
the "White Hart," and other ancient hostelries. 
Daring the early part of the eighteenth century 
Blue Maid Alley was in the heart of Southwark 
Fair. In 1728 Fielding and Reynolds pitched 
their great theatrical booth at the lower end. 
Again, in 1740, we are told that tickets could be 
had at the " Blue Maid " for the performances of 
the theatre on the bowling green. Blue Maid 
Alley is marked in Rocque a short distance north 
of the still existing " Half Moon Inn." Before the 
year 1800 it becomes Chapel Court. The modern 
public-house called the " Blue- Eyed Maid " is close 
at hand, and is probably a reminiscence of the 
sign which existed here for more than 250 years. 


Oh, the days when I was young. 
A socg in 'The Duenna,' by R. B. Sheridan. 



Art in Scotland, its Origin and Progress. By R. 

Brydall. (Blackwood & Sons.) 

MR. BRYDALL, who is the master of an "art school " at 
Glasgow, delivered a few years ago, as he tells us, a 
series of lectures on the history of Scottish art, soon 
after doing which it occurred to him that the subject 
the importance and independent existence of which he, 
very naturally, somewhat overrates had never been 
treated in a " complete and systematic manner." This 
moved him to compile the comely volume called ' Art in 
Scotland, its Origin and Progress,' which is now before 
us. Complete it is not, and within the limits of five 
hundred pages could not be. On the other hand, the 
work fulfils the author's intention, as stated in the pre- 
face, to make it comprehensive and succinct. The cold 
judgment of the critic declines to accept at its intended 
value the patriotic phrase of Mr. Brydall that either in 
past or present times has art in Scotland attained a 
"high pre-eminence." It would have been better if he 
had contented himself with more modest demands on 
the larger world's gratitude for the bequests in painting 
and engraving of Sir R. Strange, Raeburn, Wilkie, 
Dyce, John Phillip, and one or two more capital 
deceased artists, whose merits, however, even when 
taken in the lump, cannot be called " pre-eminent." 
About the art of several of these men there is nothing 

peculiarly Scottish. As Strange founded himself on the 
great French and Italian engravers who preceded him 
so Wilkie owed most to the Dutchmen he adored. Dyce^ 
one of the ablest and most learned of modern painters* 
a man of noble poetic feeling withal was a nondescript 
and perfectly " unclaasable " eclectic. Raeburn was a 
powerful reflection of Reynolds and his own forerunners 
in Scotland ; and Phillip at first owed much to Wilkie, 
and afterwards to the Spaniards he loved so warmly. If 
we are to look for a Scottish School among the fine artists 
the country has produced, the names of Mr. T. Faed, Sir 
G. Harvey, S. Bough, D. Scott, A. Naemyth (whose 
obligations to Hobbema and Crome are patent) occur to 
the student who declines to class the art of a man accord- 
ing to his birthplace. It was, perhaps, inevitable that a 
writer who, as Mr. Brydall says of himself, has some- 
thing to do besides writing, should, while compiling freely 
from older sources of information, fail to verify all his 
authorities' opinions, and sometimes borrow criticisms 
on works of art which, had he seen what he wrote about, 
he would have been the first to discard. For instance, 
it is incredible that, had the master of an " art school "' 
seen the heavy and comparatively clumsy wood-carvings 
in the chapel of King's College, Aberdeen (which are 
not better than a tolerably deft ship -carver could 
produce, and far below good English or French work 
of the period), he would have ventured to describe 
them as "magnificent, gorgeous, delicate," "infinitely 
diversified," and "not to be rivalled by any English 
specimens." This is the exaggerated nonsense of Bil- 
lingg, who ought to have known better. On the 
whole Mr. Brydall has executed his patriotic task 
exceedingly well, and compiled a book of very con- 
siderable interest, which the reader who wisely doubts 
the legends it repeats (even while not vouching for them> 
about the artistic achievements of the " early Scottish 
Schools of painting, sculpture, and architecture," may 
profitably and with pleasure accept at first and after- 
wards keep at hand. Among corrections for a second 
edition we point out that Wren was not buried in West- 
minster Abbey (p. 89) ; that the birth-date of Miereveld 
(not Mireveldt) should be 1567 (p. 60) is doubtful ; that 
some new material for the biography of Raeburn has 
lately appeared in 'N. & Q.'; and that Turner's "last 
exhibited picture at the Royal Academy [was] the 
'Ruins of Nero's Tomb and the Mountains of Carrara,' " 
the date of which is given aa 1828. This passage is more 
than obscure. Mr. Brydall is wrong in saying (p. 352) 
that all the three daughters of Lord Cathcart Jane, 
Duchess of Atholl; Mary, wife of Thomas Graham, 
afterwards Lord Lyndoch; and Louisa, Countess of 
Mansfield " died in comparative youth." The last sur- 
vived, being eighty-five years of age, till 1843. 

A History of Scotland, Civil and Ecclesiastical, from the 
Earliest Times to the Death of David 1., 1153. By 
Duncan Keith. (Edinburgh, Pater son.) 
THIS is an interesting book, though not professing to be 
more than a compendium. But a compendium in two 
crown octavo volumes, of upwards of three hundred 
pages each, enables the writer to say a good deal, and to 
invest the dry bones of history with some life. Mr. 
Keith makes many happy citations in his pages, from 
Norse sagas and from the ' Annals of the Four Masters,' 
as well as from ecclesiastical annalists and biographers 
like Adamnan and Bede. The result is that his narrative 
is often picturesque, and always worth our attention, as 
being based on a fairly wide induction from authoritative 
sources. Mr. Keith is not a believer in Celtic law or in 
Celtic civilization, and, though writing in the light of 
the researches of Sir Henry Maine and M. D'Arbois de 
Jubainville, he does not seem able to grasp the estimate 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 1, '90. 

which such men, who have given years to the study of 
comparative jurisprudence, concur in setting upon Celtic 
law. This inability is to be regretted, as so much is 
poured forth on the Teutonic side that there is no small 
need of a rectification of the balance where it is justly 
susceptible of rectification. Mr. Keith is unduly 
doubtful as to the Ogham, but does not express doubts 
as to the Runes. The Scandinavian element, indeed, 
attracts far more of Mr. Keith's sympathy than the 
Celtic, and it is doubtless full of fire and poetry. But 
it is not till after they have come into contact with, and 
received at least the outward impress of, Roman civiliza- 
tion the civilization which lived on in France through 
the traditions of the Carolingian wearers of the imperial 
diadem that the Scandinavians, under the name of 
Normans, become an element in the evolution of law 
and order, both in England and Scotland. The eccle- 
siastical portion of early Scottish history has been treated 
by Mr. Keith in a separate volume. Whether this is 
wise, with a view to the general reader, we are not sure. 
It enables the writer to devote himself more exclusively 
than he otherwise could to the Church history, as to 
which he appears to occupy something like the position 
described by Violet Fane as " a kind of early Christian 
without the Christianity." Yet he sets before us, from 
the pages of the annalists and biographers of old, quaint 
and touching pictures of the devoted labours of a Kenti- 
gern, a Columba, a Cuthbert, a Bridget, and a Margaret, 
giving alike to bishop, to abbot, to abbess, and to queen, 
the honour due to each for that unwearying and unsel- 
fish zeal which has made each a name to conjure by. 
The period with which Mr. Keith deals is unquestionably 
both interesting and important ; and it is as unquestion- 
ably little known to the ordinary student of history. 
We cannot agree with the author in many of his views, 
but we are grateful to him for having placed before us, 
in a compact and very readable form, the results of 
much of the best modern research and criticism into the 
early history of Scotland. 

Old Cottage and Domestic Architecture in South- West 
Surrey. By Ralph Nevill, F.S.A. (Guildford, Billing 
& Sons.) 

WHO that has walked or driven through the by-ways of 
so typical an English county as Surrey has not lingered 
lovingly over the many picturesque old cottages which 
he has lighted on here and there, nestling so comfortably 
among the immemorial trees homesteads mellowed with 
age and coated with lichens, each differing from the 
others in its quaint outlines of roof and gable, its 
traceried barge-boards, carved corbels, and " crow- 
stepped" chimneys* It was a happy thought of Mr. 
Nevill's to devote a volume to these charming old 
edifices before they are improved off the face of the 
earth. He gives us here with liberal hand full and 
accurate drawings of their most striking architectural 
details, and a multitude of sketches of the cottages them- 
selves. These latter, indeed, are characterized by a flat- 
ness and stiffness which betray the hand of the architect 
rather than of the artist, and are consequently wanting 
in tone and feeling ; yet in many instances the effect in- 
tended is very faithfully and pleasingly produced. Mr. 
Nevill also gives us reproductions of some ancient maps 
of the district he deals with, and has added some inter- 
esting notes on its early history. The typography and 
get-up of this pretty volume do very great credit to the 
provincial press, at Guildford, from which it has issued. 

Sir William Wallace : a Critical Study of his Bio- 
grapher, Blind Harry. By James Moir, M.A. (Aber- 
deen, Edmond & Spark.) 

THIS interesting little monograph has clearly been a 
labour of love to its author, and he has succeeded, we 

think, in clothing the dry bones of Wallace's much mis- 
understood career with a new life, by means of diligent 
study at once of Harry and of the Scottish records. By 
the records he is able to show that some events usually 
attributed to Wallace's life cannot belong to it, and that 
others, if they fit in at all, must have belonged to a 
period quite different from that ordinarily assigned. 
That Wallace was, as Mr. Moir believes, " a man of con- 
summate genius," really flows naturally from the posi- 
tion which he unquestionably for some time so success- 
fully maintained, on behalf of his country, against the 
superior forces of England. No genius can possibly be 
proof against treachery, and it was that, not superior 
intelligence, or even superior power, which caused his 
fall. That the English contemporary records should 
treat Wallace as latro pullicus simply results from their 
re-echoing the language of the day of those whose interest 
it was so to represent him. The English records, in 
fact, as Mr. Moir justly remarks, treated Wallace " about 
as fairly as a Home Ruler treats Mr. Balfour." But no 
serious historian would, it is presumed, accept the Home 
Ruler as an authority on Mr. Balfour. and the same rule 
ought to apply in the case of the English records in 
relation to the judgment to be passed on Sir William 

THE Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical 
Association has issued the fifth volume of its " Record 
Series. It consists of a calendar of the Feet of Fines from 
1571 to 1582. It is not possible to exaggerate the service 
that this volume will be to students of genealogy and 
local history. We trust that the Society will receive the 
support of every gentleman in Yorkshire, and of those 
others scattered over the world who inherit the blood of 

THE catalogue of Mr. Frederick H. Hutt, issued from 
Clement's Inn Passage, W.C., contains many items of 
highest interest to collectors of the works of Browning, 
Dickens, Cruikshank, &c., and also a few early works in 
English and French literature. 

MR. ERSKINE SOOTT, of 14, Marlborough Road, Lee, 
Kent, has completed the Erskine-Halcro genealogy on 
which he has been many years occupied, and proposes to 
publish it in pamphlet form for a small subscription. 


We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

CORRIGENDA. P. 66, col. i., last line, for " Badderley " 
read Baddeley. Vol. vii., Index, for "Spence (John)" 
read Spence (Rev. Joseph) ; and p. 542, col. ii., 1. 20 from 
bottom, dele 355. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7* S. IX. FEB. 8, '90.J 




CONTENT 8. N 215. 
NOTES -The Magical Conflict, 101 Capt. John Smith, 102 
Bibliography of the ' North Briton,' 104 Thomas, Earl of 
Rutland Apparent Size of the Sun Log-rolling Assas- 
sination of Sir J. Tindall, lOo Oats, 107. 

QUERIES : Detached Bell Towers A Bust of Lord Nelson- 
Rectors of St. Magnus George Jeffreys, First Baron Jeffreys 
The Great Seal of Catherine Parr Ampoule Field- 
Names, 107 Hot Codlings Hewitt Family Well in Postan 
How Charter of Avalon Superstition about the Jay 
Portrait A French Riddle Admiral de Bombell, 108 
Anne Holcombe- St. John and the Eagle Garrick's Lines 
To Mr. Gray,' 109. 

REPLIES -.The Verb " To be," 109 Sacheverell, 110 Stag 
Match Hemming's Light, 111 "The Devonshire Lane' 
Brennns Lions in Europe, 112 Stories Wanted Flagons 
at Holy Communion Clive Family Grift -Brat St. Mil- 
dred's Church, 113 "Is thy servant a dog ? " Napoleon's 
Nickname Cob Mountains of the Moon, 114 "Chfire 
Reine ": Charing Heraldic Gaskell Pre-natal Sin' The 
Art of Complaisance 'Church Steeples A. Snape, 115 
Coustille Paris in 1801 Fallows, 116 -Wooden Shoes- 
Presents of Knives Women executed for Witchcraft- 
Clink Date of Small-pox, 117 Chare Dr. Kuper Mittens 
Fishmarket, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Farmer's 'Slang and its Analogues, 
Past and Present.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


A death-or-life straggle between two persons 
possessed of nearly equal magical power, in which 
the combatants change themselves into various 
forms we have a familiar example in the Arabian 
tale of the Second Kalandar seems to be common 
to most peoples, savage as well as civilized. Under 
the title of 'Magical Transformations,' in my 
' Popular Tales and Fictions/ vol. i. p. 413 ff., I 
have dealt with this subject at considerable length, 
citing examples and analogues from many coun- 
tries ; and recently I met with one that was new 
to me in 'Contes du Pe'Iech,' by Carmen Sylva 
(the nom de plume of the Queen of Eoumaniu), an 
authorized French translation, which was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1884. In the latter part of the 
tale of ( The Grotto of Jalomitza ' there is a magical 
encounter between a powerful enchanter named 
Bucur and a young damsel. The enchanter appears 
first as a shepherd, playing on a flute of wondrous 
virtue. He induces Coman, the lover of the dam- 
sel Jalomitza to try the flute, and the youth con- 
tinues playing the strangest music till morning 
dawns, when Jalomitza, becoming afraid, raises 
her hand to her brow, and says, " Where am I ? 
Surely I am very far from home, and this country 
is unknown to me." Coman replies only by a 
joyous tune on the flute. 

Then a stallion came bounding over the meadow, 
leaped about the young girl, and rubbed his head 
against her. 

" Ah," she cried, " if I were but a bird, that I 
might escape ! I recognize the monster ! " At 
once away she flew, as a turtle-dove, far, very far, 
away, away, in the hazy morn. But the stallion 
became a falcon, and swooped down upon her from 
an airy height, and bore her off in his claws 
towards the mountains. 

" Oh," thought the beautiful girl, " would I were 
but a flower in the meadow ! " In an instant she 
became a myosotis (forget-me-not) by the brink of 
the stream. The falcon, however, became a butter- 
fly, and rested on the flower, flew around it, and 
cradled himself in it. 

" Were I but a trout in the stream ! " thought 
Jalomitza. And a trout she became ; but the 
butterfly, changed into a net, caught the trout, 
and drew it into the air. 

" I wish I were a lizard," thought the poor girl, 
now half dead. And at once she glided like the 
wind through the herbs and grass, and thought 
herself concealed under each leaf or stone. But a 
serpent fixed his fascinating eyes upon her, and 
she could not move. Long she thus remained ; 
the sides of the little lizard throbbed as if they 
would burst. 

" Oh, that I might become a nun ! In the con- 
vent I should be concealed," she thought. At 
once a convent and a church were placed round 
her ; the candles burned as hundreds of nuns sang 
the solemn chants. In the attire of a nun, Jalo- 
mitza was kneeling before the image of a saint; 
her heart still beat with fear, but already she had 
hope of shelter in the sanctuary. In gratitude 
she raised her eyes to the image, but the eyes of 
Bucur met hers, and again she was fascinated, and 
could not move away; no, not even when the 
church was empty. Night came ; the eyes of 
Bucur grew luminous, and Jalomitza poured tears 
upon the icy pavement, which froze her knees. 

" Ah," cried she, " even in the holy place you 
leave me not alone ; you give me no rest ! Oh, 
that I were a cloud !" And the vast nave above 
tier became the vault of heaven, and she a little 
cloud at a prodigious height. Her persecutor took 
:he form of the wind, and chased her from north 
:o south, and from east to west, round and round 
the earth. 

" Better be a grain of sand," thought Jalomitza. 
Then she fell to earth as golden sand in the River 
of the Princess. Bucur became a peasant, and with 
naked feet searched the river for gold, and ex- 
iracted the little grains. 

These grains glisten in his hands, slip through 
iis fingers, and become a young roe, which darts 
nto the covert. But Bucur, as an eagle, seizes 
ler in his talons, and bears her off in the air. 

Jalomitza then becomes dew, and falls upon a 
gentian flower. And Bucur, as a sunbeam, is 
about to drink her up with heat, when 

As a chamois she bounds off, and, without 



[7* S. IX. FEB. 8, '90. 

intending it, falls into the enchanter's cave. He 
follows smiling. " At last I have thee !" he ex- 
claims. She rushes to the inner part of the cave, 
where she sees that all the stones about her are 
marvellously beautiful young girls, from whose 
eyes flow constant streams of tears. "Oh, flee, 
flee, far hence, unhappy young girl !" cried a 
hundred voices. " One kiss from him, and thou 
wilt become stone like us ! " An arrow sped across 
the cave, and struck the fugitive chamois. In the 
agony of death she cried : 

" Would I were a stream ! I should then escape 
him." At once, as a headlong torrent, she rushed 
from the cave. The enchanter, with an oath, 
became rocks, which ever seek to arrest the escap- 
ing water. Coman came up at the moment, and 
knew the voice of his beloved, who was calling on 
his name. Gathering his strength, he hurled the 
flute against the rock under which he could recog- 
nize Bucur. The enchantment was at an end. 

Neither Bucur nor Jalomitza could any more 
change the forms now assumed. So Jalomitza 
continues to run her course over the benumbed 
arms of Bucur. And Coman became a hermit, and 
passed his days in a small cell built in front of 
the grotto, contemplating his well-beloved. 

The foregoing can hardly be called a conflict, 
since it is the sole object of the maiden to escape 
from the power of the enchanter by successive 
transformations ; nor does it appear that she herself 
possessed magical power, which, however, seems 
to have been in the wondrous flute, so long as it 
was played upon. The story, like the others in 
the collection, purports to explain the origin of 
certain prominent natural features in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Pelecb. In the preface we read 
that Bucegi and Pelech are " twin mountain tor- 
rents, noisy, boastful, carrying off leaves, flowers, 
and even trees ; for ever gossiping, and talkative 
as old wives; never failing in summer, but ably 
and resolutely making way over rocky courses to 
the distant valleys and straths. Many tales have 
they, some of which we will relate. The water 
nymphs sail down on dried leaves, showing the 
tips of their rosy feet, admiring their pretty little 
figures in the pools, and smoothing the ruffled 
white hair of the noisy stream in the ruder 
reaches." Truly Carmen Sylva has a keen appre- 
ciation of the grandeur of nature in her rougher as 
well as her gentler scenes ! 


233, Cambridge Street, Glasgow. 


(Continued from p. 43.) 

Arrived in Transylvania, however, Meldritch 
thought fit to change his plan of campaign. * 

* Chap. vii. 

We are told by our "historian" that the earl, 
hearing of the death of Michael (the Vayvode of 
Wallachia) and the brave Duke Mercury, and 
knowing the policy of Busca and " the Prince his 
Royaltie " (i. e., B^thori), who now owned the best 
part of Transylvania, persuaded his troops, in 
so honest a cause, to assist the prince against the 
Turk, rather than Busca against the prince. The 
troops were easily persuaded to follow unques- 
tioningly their leader, who, having received per- 
mission from the prince to plunder the Turks, 
made incursions into " the Land of Zarkam," and 
laid siege to the fortress of " Regall." This is said 
to have been a strong city, " an impregnable den 
of theeves," in the plain of the same name, en- 
vironed by high mountains. The " clear, graphic, 
and condensed style" of the narrator does not 
allow of determining exactly whether the place 
was actually within or only in the neighbourhood 
of the above-mentioned " Land of Zarkam, among 
those rocky mountains, where were some Turkes, 
some Tartars [some lewes*], but most Banditos, 
Renegadoes, and such like." This territory, we 
are told, formerly belonged to the earl's father, 
but was conquered by the Turks, and then still in 
their possession. It was reported that, " notwith- 
standing those warres," these lands were "rich 
and unspoyled," which greatly redounds to the 
credit of the afore-enumerated queer gentry, who- 
seem to have possessed a more highly developed 
sense of honour than the Christians led by the 
Earl of Meldritch and our Capt. Smith, whose 
self-imposed task was "to regaine or ransacke" 
the country. To give the reader an idea of the 
strength of Regall, it will suffice to mention that it 
was never before taken, and that the most con- 
venient passage to it was " a narrow valley betwixt 
two high mountains," and that Meldritch had to 
employ 6,000 (!) pioneers for six days to make a 
passage for his ordnance through this defile, after 
having captured it by stratagem. The handful of 
men (only 8,000) brought by the earl to lay siege 
to Regall were received by the Turkish garrison 
with derision ; but he was soon reinforced by 
"Zachel Moyses" (Szekely Mdzes), the prince's 
lieutenant, who brought 9,000 foot and 26 pieces 
of ordnance to his aid. The beleaguering troops 
spent nearly a whole month in entrenching them- 
selves and raising batteries, some 50 ft. to 60 ft. 
high. These proceedings were naturally slow, and 
we are told that the Turks grew weary, and began 
to poke fun at the Christians for the sluggish pro- 
gress of the siege. They informed the besiegers 
that for want of exercise the garrison were growing 
fat, and that if matters were not pushed on with 
greater energy they would have time to pawn their 
We are further told that, in order to while 

* According to Pure has. 

. IX. FEB. 8, '90.] 



time, the Turks sent oat a challenge, with the 
message " that to delight the ladies, who did long 
to see some court-like pastime, the Lord Turba- 
shaw did defie any Captaine, that had the com- 
mand of a Company, who durst combate with him 
for his head." The challenge was accepted, and 
the lot which had to decide who was to fight the 
Turk fell upon Capt. Smith. On the day appointed 
hostilities were suspended, the ramparts were "be- 
set with faire* Dames and men in Armes." The 
Englishman met his foe, and the Lord Turbashaw's 
head rolled into the dust. " Grualgo," his vowed 
friend, thereupon challenged Smith, and fared as 
the first Turk ; whereupon our hero, still with the 
laudable object of entertaining the ladies, sent a 
challenge to the Turks, which was accepted by 
"Bonny Mulgro," who furnished the third head 
required for the escutcheon of the Smith family. 
Details of the three single combats are given in 
the text, and also on the engraved plate published 
with the 'True Travels,' which, amongst other 
things, gives also illustrations of the sieges of the 
towns of "Olumpagh" and "Regall in Transil- 
vania." Like in fairy tales, three tasks are given 
to our hero, each successive task being more diffi- 
cult to execute than the preceding one, and in 
the third the hero is nearly vanquished. The 
heads were carried in great triumph to Szekely, 
who, on the conclusion of the siege and his return 
to the prince's camp, presented our hero to his 
master, who, hearing of the valiant deeds per- 
formed by Capt. Smithf at Olumpagh, Alba 
Regalis, and Regall, granted him a yearly pension 
of 300 ducats, and the right of wearing three 
Turks' heads in his coat of arms, besides present- 
ing him with his " picture." 

The story of the siege is concluded in chap. viii. 
The twenty-six pieces of ordnance having battered 
the walls for fifteen days, a breach was effected, the 
fortress taken by assault, and the garrison put to 
the sword. Szekely, after taking and sacking three 
more places, returned to the prince's camp with 
much booty and many prisoners. 

In order to be able to test the accuracy of this 
story we must briefly relate the history of Tran- 
sylvania at that period. Michael, the Vayvode, 
was surrounded and slain in his tent by some of 
Basta's Walloons, under Capt. Jacob de Beauri, 

* Presumably this applies to their dresses, and not 
their faces, because Turkish ladies in those days con- 
formed more literally to the rules of the Koran, and 
wore yashmaks of leas transparent material than their 
sisters in our days. Thus, we are told in the very same 
volume of Purchas's ' Pilgrimes ' that Turkish women in 
his days had " their heads and faces so mabbled in fine 
linnen, that no more is to be scene of them then their 
eyes " (p. 1298). 

f Smith, we are told, was promoted to the rank of 
major before Regall by Meldiitch, but, "with his usual 
modesty," he does not seem to have ever assumed the 

on August 19, 1601. Prince Bdthori, having been 
defeated by Basta at Goroszlo, in the Szilagysa'g, 
on August 3, 1601, escaped, and sought refuge 
with his friend Jeremiah, the Vayvode of Moldavia, 
but, at the urgent call of his magnates, soon re- 
turned again to his own country, and recrossed the 
frontier near Nagy-Szeben in the month of October 
of the same year, accompanied by an army chiefly 
composed of Moldavians, Wallachians, Poles, and 
Cossacks. His lieutenant, Sze"kely M6zes, fol- 
lowed shortly after with more troops, and farther 
reinforcements arrived from the Turks, one corps 
having advanced from Wallachia, and another 
having been sent to the prince's aid by the Pasha 
of Temesvar. The prince had a short time before 
the misfortune to get into the black book at 
Stambul; but, at the earnest solicitations of a 
special envoy, the Sultan once more granted him 
full pardon, and orders were issued to all com- 
manders of Turkish troops to help Sigismund 
against the "Vienna King," i.e., the Emperor 
Rudolf. As early as October 2, 1601, a kapouchi 
pasha had arrived with his imperial master's 
athnamc and the ducal insignia, and the prince 
was once more installed ruler of Transylvania. 

It will not be necessary to enumerate all the 
sieges and battles which followed. The Tran- 
sylvanians themselves were divided, and the war 
raged fiercely for a while between Basta, the 
emperor's lieutenant, helped by the u German " 
party, on the one side, and Sigismund and the 
"National" party, aided by the Turks, on the 
other, until hostilities ceased, nominally at least, 
at the conclusion of an armistice between the bel- 
ligerents at the camp of Besztercze on February 13, 
1602, i. e., six days before the date of the death of 
the Duke of Mercceur at Niirnberg. The truce 
was further prolonged at its expiration, about St. 
George's Day. In the mean time the " most gracious" 
prince "carried on a game," an Hungarian his- 
torian remarks, " which cannot be described 
otherwise than as most contemptible. Openly he 
sided with his country, kept up correspondence 
with the Turks, accepted money from them, meddled 
into Wallachian affairs, aiding the cause of Simon 
at the Porte against Radul [the friend and ally of 
Austria], while secretly he negotiated with Basta, 
and helped the cause of the Imperialists."* He 
w&s such an accomplished dissembler, and managed 
to conduct so cleverly his secret negotiations, that 
even his councillors were kept wholly ignorant of 
the new turn of events. His party's suspicions 
were only aroused when one of his lieutenants, 
Csiky, formerly an Imperialist and follower of 
Basta, withdrew his troops fiom the camp at 
Sz&z-Sebes, where the army of the prince lay con- 
centrated. Faithful, honest Szekely Mozes and 
Toldy, another leader, thereupon hurried to DeVa 

* Szilagyi's ' History of Transylvania' (in Hungarian), 
vol. ii. p. 28. 



[7"> S. IX. FEB. 8, '90. 

to Sigismund, and demanded an explanation 
openly accusing him of treachery. The princi 
denied everything, and empowered them to resis 
Basta if they suspected him of any hostile inten 
tion. Szekely acted as he was told, and, though 
the old soldier had but little time left for preparing 
his mere handful of followers for the battle, he 
gallantly barred the way of the imperial troops as 
they approached the bridge over the river Maros 
at Tovis, near Alba Julia, but was defeated by 
Basta's overwhelming force on July 2, 1602, and 
obliged to seek shelter with his friend and pro- 
tector the Pasha of Temesvdr. In the mean time 
the envoys whom Sigismund had sent to the em- 
peror returned from Prague. Their avowed mis- 
sion had been to offer Rudolf a few fortified towns 
on the Hungarian frontier, and thereby induce 
him to conclude peace in order to put an end to 
all the miseries, the wholesale bloodshed, pillage, 
and destruction in Transylvania, and also to 
settle the claims of the prince's wife, Maria Chris- 
tierna. But his confidential man, Father Marietti, 
had secret instructions to present to the emperor 
his master's complete submission, and on certain 
conditions to hand over the principality to the 
house of Austria. Rudolf, of course, accepted the 
proposal, and granted to Sigismund the ownership 
of the Libochowitz estates in Bohemia,* besides a 
substantial pension. 

The prince, with an escort furnished by Basta, 
left his country amidst the execrations of his un- 
fortunate people on July 26, 1602. He did not 
return again to Transylvania, but died abroad, 
and was buried at Prague. LEWIS L. KROPF. 

P.S. I am very much obliged to the REV. E. 
MABSHALL for kindly supplying the reference to 
the source of the motto, and to MR. ELLIS for the 
extract from Ashton's book. The Pocahontas 
story has been fully dealt with, both by English 
and American writers, and does not come within 
the scope of our present inquiry. C. C. B. will 
find a reply to his communication in the next 

(To le continued.) 

The acquisition of the third and suppressed 
volume of Wilkes's reprint of the North Briton^ 
has enabled me to complete the subjoined memo- 
randa, which I hope will prove acceptable, as an 
attempt to compile a bibliography of that publica- 
tion. They will, at all events, serve to correct the 

* Capt. Smith says that these lands were in Silesia. 
He has evidently read something about a previous grant 
(t. e., that of Oppeln and Ratibor, which are in Silesia) 
by the emperor to Bathory. I shall have occasion to 
again refer to this subject when I come to discuss the 
famous " Patent." 

t 'N.fcQ.,' 7*8. tili. 101. 

imperfect and misleading notices by Lowndes and 
Allibone, which, sometimes copied and sometimes 
conjecturally corrected by booksellers, have led to 
almost inextricable confusion. I should be particu- 
larly glad to know of any other edition. Those 
given below with the exception of the two Dublin 
editions and the London edition of 1772 are in 
my own possession. 

A. The Original Issue. 

Tke North Briton. Nos. I. to XLVI. Polio. 1762-63. 
This is the original issue of the North Briton, the 
first number of which appeared on Saturday, June 5, 
1762, and which was continued weekly until April 2, 
1763 the date of No. 44. No. 45 was published 
April 23, and No. 46 Nov. 12, 1763. The first 
forty-five numbers were " printed for G. Kearsley, 
in Ludgate St." My copy of No. 46 was " printed 
for J. Williams, near the Mitre Tavern, Fleet 
Street "; the copy in the King's Library, British 
Museum, has a different imprint, and is apparently 
an authorized reprint: " Printed (now) by especial 
appointment for E. Sumpter, bookseller, in Fleet 
Street, where letters to the North Briton (post 
paid) will be received." No. 45 contains an adver- 
tisement : 

" Proposals for Printing by Subscription, in two 
volumes octavo, the North Briton, with corrections, 
additions, explanatory notes, and a copious Index of 
names and characters. Price half a Guinea, to be paid 
at the time of subscribing. The volumes will be delivered 
on the first day of July, 1763. Subscriptions are taken 
by G. Kearsley in Ludgate Street, and by the booksellers 
of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. N.B. The names 
of Subscribers will not be printed." 

B. First Collected Edition (Nos. I. to XLV.). 
The North Briton. London : printed for J. Williams 
near the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street. 1763. Two volumes. 
Small 8vo.* 

This, which is the first collected edition as adver- 
tised, was printed by Wilkes in his own house. 
For thus reprinting No. 45 Wilkes was fined and 
imprisoned ; Williams, the publisher, was fined, 
imprisoned, and pilloried. In the notes to these 
volumes, which must have been published July, 
1763, there are several references to vol. iii., which 
was not printed until the end of the year and was 
never published. 

C. The Suppressed Volume. 
The North Briton. " Sunt quibus in Satira videar 
nimis acer et ultra Legem tendere opus" (Hor.). Vol. III. 
London, Printed for J. Williams, Fleet Street, near the 
Mitre Tavern. 1763. Small 8vo. 

The contents of this volume were given in ' N. & 
Q.,' Aug. 10, 1889. It is only necessary to repeat 
lere that, according to Almon and other autho- 
rities, it was never published. Almon says that all 
>ut a few copies distributed to friends were burned. 
There is a copy in the Guildhall Library. 

* The motto on the title-page of vol. i. is, " Quis novus 
lie nostris successit sedibus hospes ? " (Virgil) ; on that 
f vol. ii., " Nostris illuserit advena regnis ? " (Virgil). 

. IX. FEB. 8, '90.] 



D.The "Standard " Edition. 

The North Briton, from No. I. to XLVI. inclusive, 
with several useful and explanatory notes not printed in 
any former edition, to which is added a copious index to 
every name and article. Corrected and revised by a 
Friend to Civil and Religious Liberty. Price Five Shil- 
lings unbound and Six Shillings bound. Demy Svo. One 

This edition is a reprint of the two volumes men- 
tioned above (B), with the addition from the third 
volume (C) of the North Briton, No. 46," The North 
Briton Extraordinary, which was printed but 
never published," and a " Fragment which it was 
said was found in the pocket of one of the printers," 
&c., the references to vol. iiL being replaced by 
the several passages referred to. There are some 
significant peculiarities in the printing. Signature 
T contains only fourteen pages (289 to 302) ; signa- 
ture U has eighteen pages (303 to 324) ; and 
No. 45, which is printed in smaller type and fills 
exactly four pages, is inserted without pagination 
between pp. 302 and 303. There are, however, two 
or three minor alterations in the notes as com- 
pared with Wilkes's reprint. I conjecture that 
this volume was edited and issued by Almon with 
the sanction of Wilkes. At all events it appears 
to have become the standard edition, and it may 
be presumed that it was printed in 1764, as the 
Dublin edition next mentioned follows a correction 
in the note to No. 3. It could not very well have 
been issued in 1763, seeing that vol. iii., from which 
part of its contents was taken, was not printed 
until some time in December of that year. 
E. London and Dublin Reprints of the B 

The North Briton. Dublin, Printed in the Year 1764. 
2 vols. 12mo. 

This is a reprint of Wilkes's two volumes, with the 
omission of No. 45 (which, however, may be in- 
serted in other copies without pagination, as in the 
preceding edition). The only other deviations I 
have noticed are the omission of a small note to 
No. 13 and of the word "invidious" from the note 
to No. 3, as in the Svo. edition D. 

The North Briton. Revised and corrected by the 
Author. Illustrated by Explanatory Notes and a copious 
index of names and characters. In two volumes. Dub- 
lin, Printed for James Williams in Skinners Row. 1766. 
2 vols. 12mo. 

The North Briton, &c. (as above). London, Printed 
in the Year 17c6. 2 vols. 12mo. 

These two editions are in all respects alike, and 
have apparently been printed in the same office 
with the same type, though the type has been re- 
set. They are exact reprints of Wilkes's two 
volumes. Whether the title-pages indicate the 
true " place of origin " I do not venture to say. 

F. Bingley's North Briton Continued. 
The North Briton. Continued by several Hands. 
Whether age my peaceful hours attend 
Or Death his sable pinions round me bend : 

Or rich or poor : at Rome : to exile driven : 
Whatever lot by powerful fate is given, 
Yet write I will. Francis's ' Horace.' 

Vol. I. Part 2. London, Printed for W. Bingley at the 
Britannia, opposite Durham Yard, in the Strand. 1769. 
(Nos. 47 to 100.) Nos. 101 to 218. (1769-1771.) 

The first number of the North Briton Continued 
was issued as No. 47, May 10, 1768. For No. 50, 
which contained a letter to Lord Mansfield, 
Bingley, the editor, was prosecuted, and on re- 
fusing to " answer interrogatories on attachment " 
was committed to the King's Bench Prison, and 
suffered imprisonment for nearly two years. After 
No. 218 the North Briton Continued was merged 
into Bingley's Journal ; or, Universal Gazette. An 
interesting biographical sketch of Bingley will be 
found in Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes,' vol. iiL 
G. Bingley's Folio Reprint of the North Briton ; 
and Appendix. 

The North Briton from No. I. to XLVI. inclusive, 
with several useful and explanatory Notes, not 
printed in any former edition, to which is added a 
copious index to every name and article. Corrected and 
revised by a Friend to Civil and Religious Liberty. 
London, Printed for W. Bingley at No. 31, Newgate 
Street. 1769. Folio, 164 pp. and index 4 pp. 

An Appendix to the first forty-six numbers of the North 
Briton, containing a full and distinct account of the per- 
secution carried on against John Wilkes, Eaq., with a 
faithful collection of that gentleman's tracts and papers 
from the year 1762 to the year 1769. London, Printed 
for W. Bingley at No. 31, Newgate Street. 1769. Folio, 
pp. cxii. 

This is a reprint of the Svo. edition (D), with No. 
45 printed in smaller type so as to occupy exactly 
two pages, and inserted without pagination between 
pp. 156 and 157. My copy is bound up with the 
North Briton Continued, vol. L part ii. In his 
preface the editor says : 

" I considered in the next place that the small edition 
was commonly sold at so exorbitant a price that what 
was intrinsically worth no more than six shillings could 
not be purchased for less than a guinea and a half and 
even sometimes two guineas; so scandalously in this 
instance have some people dared to impose on the 
public," &c. 

Evidently referring to the Svo. edition (-D), which 
was published at six shillings. 

H. Bingley's (?) 12mo. Edition. 

The North Briton Complete. XLVI. Numbers. By 
John Wilkes, Esq., C. Churchill, Esq., and others. Illus- 
trated with useful and explanatory Notes and a Collec- 
tion of all the proceedings in the House of Commons and 
Courts of Westminster against Mr. Wilkes, with all the 
tracts and papers relating to the North Briton, Essay on 
Woman, Election for Middlesex, &c., the whole forming 
a more complete collection than has hitherto been pub- 
lished in former volumes. London, printed in the year 
1772. 12mo. 4 vols. 

A reprint of the Svo. edition (D), with a preface 
and with the appendix mentioned above, to 
which, however, additions have been made; por- 
traits of Wilkes Churchill, Lord Camden, and 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 8, '90. 

Serjeant Glyn are also given. In 1772 it was still 
unsafe to republish No. 45, and the volumes, there- 
fore, do not bear the name of either printer or pub- 
lisher ; but I think it most probable, for several 
reasons, that it was Bingley's venture. He had 
been released from the King's Bench some time 
before (the preface is dated January, 1772, and he 
was released in June, 1770,). 

I. The Extraordinary North Briton. 

The Extraordinary North Briton. (No. I., May 16, 
1768, to No. XCI., January 27, 1770.) Folio. 
The editor of this weekly publication (which must 
not be confounded with the North Britons Extra- 
ordinary issued both by Wilkes and Bingley) was 
William Moore, of whom I know nothing. I do 
not even know whether I have a complete set. If 
I have, then the publication came to an end with 
No, 91, which is probable, as these numbers are 
in contemporary binding, with caps of liberty 
stamped in gold on the backs of the volumes. 
No. 90 contains some complaints about a certain 
Thomas Brayne, who was, says Mr. Moore, " My 
shopman all last winter, and who is now publishing 
a spurious paper under the same title." 

I have not attempted to include odd pamphlets 
for which the title of the North Briton was either 
adopted or adapted. J. T. Y. 

interesting article on Haddon Hall in the current 
Quarterly Review there is a short account of this 
nobleman's career. He is there said to have accom- 
panied the Duke of Norfolk in his invasion of the 
Scottish Border with 20,000 men, when they de- 
stroyed twenty towns, &c. On the contrary, Rutland 
took no part in this expedition. He was appointed 
Lord Warden of the Marches on Aug. 8, 1542, 
and remained in office at Alnwick Castle till the 
end of September following, when the Duke of 
Suffolk succeeded him, and he shortly after left the 
Border. Norfolk and his army entered Scotland 
in the last week of October, 1542, burning and 
plundering along the Tweed for five or six days. 
On his return, Henry reappointed Rutland Lord 
Warden, on November 2, but recalled his com- 
mission on the 8th, as he was in danger of his life, 
most probably labouring under the disease of which 
he died in 1543. These facts are from original 
State Papers, on the eve of publication, and fully 
exonerate Lord Rutland from any share in the 
campaign of Norfolk, which I venture to call a 
barbarous one, though it has met with the approval 
of an historian of Henry VIII. 


days ago the following fact to a philosophic friend, 
he considered it worthy of record. Looking from 
my drawing-room window, on the ground-floor, 
shortly before sunset, I observed, immediately 

above the western wall of my garden, a vast crimson 
disc, its size, I should say, about thirty times the 
size of the sun. I felt sure, of course, that the 
object could be nothing but the sun ; but its vast 
size filled me with astonishment. From the upper 
windows of my house I could see the lower limb. 
A few minutes' thought accounted for the pheno- 
menon. I had during the summer months fixed 
at the western end of the garden a full-sized 
target for archery ; and I have no doubt that this 
very extraordinary appearance of the setting sun, 
immediately over the target, had induced an un- 
conscious comparison between the two discs. 

WILLIAM FRASER, of Ledeclune Bt. 

LOO-ROLLING. Some time ago a discussion raged 
in the press as to the propriety of one literary 
man noticing favourably the books of another if 
he were also his friend. It was contended that the 
second author would naturally return the com- 
pliment when he had the opportunity, and it was 
assumed that in each case the advice tendered to 
the public would be vitiated by the fact of the 
authors' friendship to each other. After all, how- 
ever, it seems that, though the term applied to 
mutual literary admiration is new, the accusation 
itself was met and faced two centuries ago, and 
by no less a person than Dryden. I have before 
me a copy of the first edition of ' The Rival 
Queens ; or, the Death of Alexander the Great,' 
by Nat. Lee, 1677, and immediately after the list 
of dramatis personce come the following lines, 
addressed by Dryden " To Mr. Lee on his ' Alex- 
ander '":- 

The Blast of common Censure cou'd I fear, 
Before your Play my Name shou'd not appear ; 
For 'twill be thought, and with some colour too, 
I pay the Bribe I first receiv'd from You: 
That mutual Vouchers for our Fame we stand, 
To play the Game into each others Hand ; 
And as cheap Pen'orths to our selves afford 
As Bessus, and the Brothers of the Sword. 
Such Libels private Men may well endure, 
When States, and Kings themselves are not secure : 
For ill Men, conscious of their inward guilt, 
Think the best Actions on By-ends are built. 
And yet my silence had not scap'd their spight, 
Then envy had not suffer'd me to write : 
For, since I cou'd not Ignorance pretend, 
Such worth I must or envy or commend, &c. 

Dryden presents the alternatives very clearly. 
If the literary friend does not praise his comrade's 
work, he must, of course, be dumb with envy ; if 
he does praise it, then he is a " log-roller." The 
moral seems to be that a literary man should read 
no books but his own. 


1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. 

following note of an ancient instance of a current 
atrocity may be interesting to readers of *N. &. Q.' 
It is taken from 'The Letters of George, Lord 

7- S. IX. FEB. 8, '90.] 



Carew, to Sir Thomas Roe,' edited for the Camden 
Society by Mr. G. Maclean, 1840, p. 56, under the 
date November, 1616: 

" The 12. Sir John Tindall, a man of seventy-two years 
of age, and one of the Masters of the Chancerie, as he 
came frome Westminster Hall, was slayne at his chamber 
dore in Lincoln's Inn by one named Bertrame, an aged 
man of seventy-five yeres, for making of some vniust 
report (as he alleadgethe) in a cause of his which de- 
pended in the Chancerye : the fact very strange, and 
especiallie to be committed by a man of his yeres. Alt 
his apprehension (which was instanlye in the place) he 
sayed he was nott sorrye for his wicked deed. Tindal had 
killed him with two report?, and in killing of him he deed 
no more harme then in killinge a theefe or robber vppon 
the higheway. He is in the Kings Bench ; what he will 
say att his arraygnement that day will produce." 

" The 17. Bertrame hanged himselfe in prison, where 
he hathe prevented the hangman." 

F. G. S. 

OATS. Johnson's well-known definition, "a 
grain which in England is generally given to 
horses, but in Scotland supports the people," 
appears to be simply a paraphrase of the meaning 
attached to the word in a dictionary of much 
earlier date, for in ' Gazophylacinm Anglicanum,' 
published in 1689, it appears as "forage for horses 
in all places ; and in some, provision for men." 

Salterton, Devon. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

DETACHED BELL TOWERS. May I ask your cor- 
respondents to favour me with examples of detached 
bell towers to parochial churches, in addition to 
the following : Beccles, Suffolk ; East Dereham, 
Norfolk ; Elstow, Beds ; Fleet, Lincolnshire ; 
Gwenap, Cornwall ; Launceston, Cornwall ; Led- 
bury, Herefordshire ; Ormskirk, Lancashire ; West 
Walton, Norfolk 1 That of Chichester Cathedral 
is, of course, familiarly known. 


A BUST OF LORD NELSON. I possess a small 
plaster bust of Lord Nelson, coloured to represent 
bronze. It merely consists of the head and neck. 
The whole height of the bust is about twelve inches; 
the head measures about five inches. The hair is 
long and wavy, and tied behind in a pigtail. It 
belonged to the Rev. Dr. Scott, who was chaplain 
on board the Victory, and Nelson's private and 
foreign secretary; and Dr. Scott always said that 
the likeness was excellent, as was also the wax 
figure in the little chamber over the Islip Chapel 
in Westminster Abbey. I think it was modelled 
at Naples. At the back of the bust there is graven 
in the plaster, "L. Gahagan fecit Janry 1" 1801. 

From Life." I wish to know whether this is a 
well-known likeness of the great naval hero, or is 

RECTORS OF ST. MAGNUS. Is there any list 
extant of the rectors of the church of St. Magnus, 
near London Bridge, about the end of the four- 
teenth century 1 VICAB. 

WEM. Would any of your readers kindly help 
me to trace the following portraits of the Lord 
Chancellor Jeffreys 1 (1) The portrait which was 
painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller in 1687, and was 
hung for a short time in the Inner Temple Hall. 
In 1697 it was given by the society to the second 
Lord Jeffreys, who removed it to Acton. Subse- 
quently it was at Erthig, in the possession of Mr. 
Yorke, who possessed another portrait of the Lord 
Chancellor by J. Allen. I should also be glad to 
know where this portrait by Allen is to be found 
now. (2) The portrait which was removed from 
the Guildhall on the Lord Chancellor's disgrace, 
and was at one time in the possession of Mr. Har- 
nage, of Belsardine, near Creasing, Salop. (3) 
The two portraits of Jeffreys which were in the 
possession of Lady Juliana Penn at Stoke Poges, 
Bucks. (4) and (5) The portraits which were re- 
spectively in the possession of the eighth Earl of 
Winchilsea and Dr. Jeffreys, Canon of St. Paul's. 
The portrait now in the National Portrait Gallery 
may be one of the above, possibly the one removed 
from the Guildhall. G. F. R. B. 

An impression of a small portion of the above is 
to be seen at the Tudor Exhibition ; but do any of 
your readers know whether there is any impression 
of the entire seal extant anywhere 1 If so, where 1 
An engraving of it appears in Archceologia for 1779. 


AMPOULE. I find a very old French writer say- 
ing, "Son front oint du lait et du miel de la sainte 
ampoule roulera sur le sol.' Now the sacred 
ampoule kept at Reims for consecrating the kings 
of France contained oil. Wine and oil, milk and 
honey, represent the fatness of the land. Is it an 
allowable figure, therefore, to say that the king was 
anointed with milk and honey 1 Was the Reims 
oil a costly unguent 1 Is the oil at Westminster 
prepared similarly 1 Also, is it kept from corona- 
tion to coronation, or prepared for each occasion 1 
My question looks like one of empty and useless 
curiosity. It is not quite so. I have a reason, if 
not a very important one, for wishing to settle these 
points. C. A. WARD. 


Shapley, Wedlands, Mitchemar, Lilleys, Fris- 
combe, Inhams, Poalsleye, aKas Boalsleye, Basle- 



. IX. FEB. 8, '90. 

ledean, Tackshaye, Durnwood, Sharwicke Hay, 
Spannel Pond. Explanations of above much de- 
sired. VICAR. 

HOT CODLINGS. Codlings is given by Halliwell 
with the sense " green peas." This appears to refer 
to two passages in Ford (or Ford and Dekker), viz., 
in ' Witch of Edmonton' (date 1623), ii. 1: "In 
the pease-field ? has she a mind to codlings already 1 " 
and in ' Sun's Darling' (date 1656), iii. 3 : " I ha' 
seen Summer go up and down with hot codlings, 
and that little baggage, her daughter Plenty, cry- 
ing six bunches of raddish for a penny"; in both 
of which passages Gifford explains codlings as 
" young pease." He fortifies this explanation by a 
quotation from Brom, ' Mad Couple,' where, however, 
I have no doubt the word means " codling apples," 
and he says it is so used in Burton's ' Anatomy,' but 
omits a reference. Dyce is quoted, as speaking of 
" the familiar street-cry of ' Hot codlings.' " I 
want to know where Dyce says this, and where I can 
obtain any information about this sense of codling, 
and the street-cry of " Hot codlings." The sense 
in question I do not find in any English dictionary 
of any date, nor in any vocabulary except Halli- 
well' s. It was unknown to Nares. 



HEWITT FAMILY. Among the earliest settlers 
in Florida, after that province was ceded to Great 
Britain in 1763, was John Hewitt. To what 
branch of the Hewitt family did he belong ; and 
whom did he marry ? He died before Florida was 
ceded to Spain, leaving by his wife Ann, who re- 
married Haley, three children. The eldest, Ann, 
married James Howe ; and in 1786 the other two, 
Thomas and Sarah, were minors, living with their 
married sister at Nassau, New Providence. Did 
these last two leave any issue ? E. G. H. 

anything known in the present day of a celebrated 
well in Postan Eow, Tower Hill, to which the City 
people used to send from considerable distances : 
My informant, an old gentleman over eighty years ol 
age, and who has been dead these twenty years, 
remembered seeing boys with big jugs daily draw- 
ing it for different houses, and the Trinity Board 
were also supplied with its beautiful water. I hac 
forgotten (though I had made a note of it) al 
about this famous well till I was reminded of it by 
Nashe, in his ' Lenten Stuffe,' which was sold at 
the west end of St. Paul's, 1599, who says of the 
water of Yarmouth, that " it is as apt to accom- 
modate as St. Winefred's well, or Tower Hill water 
at London, so much praised and sought after." 


Preston on the Wild Moors, Salop. 

CHARTER OF AVALON. The charter of Avalon 
(Newfoundland) granted that province to be helc 

n capite by knight's service, the tenant to pay a 
white horse to the king whenever the latter should 
visit it. This charter was issued April 7, 1623. 
! should be glad to be informed if there was any 
ater grant of lands by an English king under the 
;enure of knight's service. James I. disliked this 
;enure; but there may have been special reasons 
moving him in the case of Avalon. 



was shooting in the south of Ireland. One of the 
party shot a jay. Our host begged him not to take 
It inside the house, as it was supposed to bring ill- 
luck. I am curious to know whether this super- 
stition is prevalent elsewhere. GUALTERULUS. 

PORTRAIT. I have in my possession the portrait 
of a man, half length, wearing a black gown with 
sable facings, and white frilled ruff and cuffs. He 
bolds an open book in his hands, on the corner of 
one of the pages of which can be read, in black- 
letter type, the words, " Medium tenuere beati." 
The picture is in oils, with a dark green back- 
ground, as is generally the case with Holbein's 
portraits. In fact, there is no doubt that such is 
the date of the picture; but what I should much 
like to know is whether any of your readers can 
give me any information as to the motto, whether it 
belonged to any particular person, or was the sign 
of any party or society, so that by this means, per- 
haps, I might find out of whom the picture is the 
portrait, or what was the name of the painter. 


A FRENCH RIDDLE. On p. 223 of ' Lord 
Chesterfield's Letters to his Godson,' edited by the 
Earl of Carnarvon (Oxford, 1890, 4to.), the follow- 
ing riddle occurs. Will some reader of ' N. & Q.' 
suggest the answer ] 

Quoique je forme un corps, je ne suis qu'une id4e ; 

Plus ma beaute vieillit, plus elle eat decidee ; 

11 faut, pour me trouver, ignorer d'ou je vieng; 

Je tiens tout de lui, qui rduit tout a rien. 

C. E. D. 


ADMIRAL DE BOMBELL. Weigelt, in his ' Die 
Nordfriesischen Inseln,' p. 220, tells a story of a 
young North Frisian, of the village or farm of 
Bombiill, named Nis Ipsen, who slew a Swedish 
officer who tried to seduce his betrothed, and fled 
in consequence for his life to Amsterdam. Step 
by step he rose in the Dutch service till he became 
admiral, and took the name Nis de Bombell. Then 
he sent a curious little letter to his old sweetheart, 
" aan myn Greethje," bidding her " come to the 
Hague and be my wife. I am now an admiral of 
Holland, Nis de Bombell, formerly Nis Ipsen, thy 
faithful betrothed." As Weigelt cites Hansen as 
his authority, I have verified his reference, though, 

S. IX. FEB. 8, '90.] 



as Weigelt gives no page reference, and Hansen's 
' Chronik des Friesischen Uthlande ' has no index, 
the matter was not easy. Weigelt is substantially 
correct, though he has many misprints in the 
gallant admiral's Frisian letter; but Hansen, 
pp. 172-3, givea several particulars about Nis 
Ipsen's career. He tells, among other things, how 
he distinguished himself in sea warfare, and " slew 
with his own hand the notorious pirate Morgan." 
Hansen gives 1713 as the date of Nis Ipsen's flight 
from his place as farm servant. Where can I get 
an account of Admiral de Bomb ell's achievements; 
and who was Morgan ? The buccaneer Sir Henry 
Morgan was, of course, dead in 1688. 

1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. 

ANNE HOLCOMBE. In a published volume of 
marriage registers I find the following: 

" 1670. Nov. 22. Walter Coventry, of St. Peter le Poer, 
London, Merchant, Bach., 35, and Anne Holcombe, Sp., 
23, daughter of Humphrey Holcombe, of St. Andrews, 
Holborn, Merchant, who consents, at St. Andrews, 
Holborn, St. Dunstans in the West, London, or St. 
Clement Danes, Mddsx." 

Can you or any of your readers say whether this 
refers to the same lady who, in Collins's ' Peerage,' 
is referred to as Anne, daughter of Simon Hol- 
combe, Esq., of Devon, mother of William, fifth 
Earl Coventry ? The information is desired for 
the purpose of helping the writer in the compila- 
tion of a pedigree. WALTER HOLCOMBE. 

ST. JOHN AND THE EAGLE. The eagle of our 
Lord, I'aquila di Cristo, is* one of Dante's names 
of St. John (' Par.,' xxvi. 53). The name was, no 
doubt, derived from one of the faces of the living 
creature seen by Ezekiel by the river of Chebar 
(Ez. x. 14). Dante uses the name as if it were 
already well understood. How much earlier than 
Dante had St. John been thus designated 1 


Madison, Wis., U.S. 

ODES.' In the Library for October, 1889, is one 
of Mr. Austin Dobson'a admirable papers on 
eighteenth century bibliography an account of 
Horace Walpole's printing press at Strawberry 
Hill. In a note he says : 

y " One of the rarer leaflets issued from the Press was a 
complimentary poem of twenty-four lines, addressed to 
Gray on his Odes, by David Garrick, of which six copies 
only were struck off." 

It is stated in Bonn's Lowndes, appendix, p. 241, 
on the authority of Martin, " Six copies only are 
said to have been printed"; but it is added that 
Mr. Upcott wrote, " Not BO, having three copies 
in my own possession." Can any correspondent 
of 'N. & Q.' throw light upon this point? I have 
a copy of the ' Odes ' in its original wrapper of 
purple mottled paper, and with it is a copy of 

Garrick's lines. A former owner has written 
upon it, in pencil, l ' By David Garrick, only six 
printed"; and another hand refers to "'Biblio- 
mania,' p. 716." Unfortunately, my copy of ' Bib- 
liomania ' is in England, and I cannot, therefore, 
verify this citation. The leaflet is certainly very 
rare, but I cannot help thinking that more than 
six copies must have been struck off. 

Jaipur, Rajputana. 



(7 tt S. viii. 480.) 

The question propounded by UNION CLUB must 
be amended before it can be answered. He asks, 
" Must the case before and after the verb to be 
necessarily be the nominative 1 " and proceeds to 
give an example in which the case before the verb 
is most certainly not a nominative : "I proved the 
man [accus.] to be him." Surely there can be no 
doubt as to the rule. The substantive verb takes 
the same case after it as before it, both nominative 
or both accusative. "I proved the man to be 
him " (" Probavi hominem ilium esse "). This I 
hold to be unquestionably right. For its apparent 
" clumsiness " I should account thus : In our own 
irregular and careless fashion we have chosen to 
go half-way, and only so far, in following the 
French, who refuse to employ je and il emphatic- 
ally as predicates. "CPest moi," "C'e"tait lui," 
&c., are made by usage to be absolutely and ex- 
clusively correct. We also say at least a great 
number of us say "It is me," "It was him," 
though we have not gone so far as to make it our 
rule ; and educated persons remember " It is I " in 
the Bible. But thence, avoiding Charybdis, some 
are led to run upon Scylla. They think that it 
must always be right to put I and he after the 
substantive verb ; and, in the example given, him is 
unreasonably felt to be clumsy, and by some even 
thought to be wrong. The Editor seems to agree 
with me. He says, " ' I proved him to be the man' 
is defensible." Let him go a step further, and 
ask whether it would be defensible to say, " I 
proved he to be the man." If not, how can it 
possibly be right to say, " I proved the man to be 
he " ? Let us speak correctly, and clumsiness be 
! C. B. MOUNT. 

The verb to be is highly irregular, whether you 
regard the conjugation or the construction, and 
the infinitive mood being, of cou^e, the most in- 
definite, must necessarily have the greatest latitude 
of all. I purposely abstain from looking into any 
grammar. Eules on any nice question only en- 
tangle the mind. They are deduced from numerous 
examples, and of necessity without any regard to 
the particular instance to be solved. The rule that 



[7"> S. IX. FEB. 8, '90. 

to be takes the same case after it as before it is really 
based on the fact a fact seldom produced that 
it is unlike all other verbs, it predicates or asserts 
nothing but existence. Hence it alone is the 
logical copula. It asserts that what follows it is 
the same as what precedes. It adds nothing and 
detracts nothing, therefore it cannot change cases. 
In the sentence inquired about, "I proved the 
man to be him," the thing to be sought out is 
simply in what case does " the man " stand. If 
we can find that, the pronoun must be in the same 
case. Now, you can prove a thing, a case, a gun, 
but you cannot, in the same way and sense, prove 
a man; so in the sentence given us the word is not 
in the accusative, or objective, as modern semi- 
science prefers to call it, as if the sign mattered a 
doit. It is only an idiomatic short cut for this, 
" I proved my case to elaboration, which settles 
that the man is he" or that "he is the man," or, 
again, " the man to be he." It is the indefinite- 
ness of the infinitive that encourages the adoption 
of this idiomatic brevity. I take it that this shows 
him to be an employment of the wrong case. 

" I proved him to be the man " would absolutely 
be wrong if ellipsis were to be refused, for you 
cannot prove a man as you can a thing. What it 
is understood as standing for is, " I proved of him 
that he should be considered to be the man." 

0. A. WARD. 


There was a settlement of the rule for the Latin 
grammar long since. So it can be seen in the first 
section of the 'Constructio Verborum' in Lily. 
The rule for English appears as follows in Lowth's 
'English Grammar,' London, 1772, p. 133 : 

" The verb to le has always a nominative case after it; 
as, ' it was I, and not he, that did it ' : unless it be in the 
Infinitive Mode; 'though you took it to be him." " 

This follows upon the character of the verb sub- 
stantive, which is the copula between the subject 
and predicate, without affecting the construction. 
It is simply is or is not. ED. MARSHALL. 

I think that the rule that " the case before and 
after the verb to be must necessarily be the 
nominative " is absolute. In the case of the ex- 
ample given, " I proved the man to be him " 
which in the amended form, " I proved him to be 
the man," is by you declared to be " defensible " 
it may be observed, firstly, that the phrase so given 
is unquestionably defensible by the supreme law 
of the " norma loquendi. " But if the grammatical 
construction of it be examined, it is, I think, to be 
observed, in the first place, that the speaker of such 
words has no intention of saying that " he proved 
a man," which would mean something altogether 
different. What the speaker means is that he had 
proved the fact that the man, &c. And the words 
are found to be elliptical, and the question to be 
satisfactorily solved (as most such grammatical 

puzzles are) by filling up the ellipse, as " I proved 
the fact that that man was the man who," &c. 

Budleigh Salterton. 

The expression, " I proved the man to be him," 
though somewhat clumsy, is grammatically correct. 
The words "the man to be him" form a complex 
object after " proved," in which " man " is in the 
objective case, and therefore, by the well-known 
rule that the verb to be takes the same case after 
it as that which goes before it, " him " is in the 
same case as " man," just as in "called him worthy 
to be loved," both "worthy" and "loved" agree 
in case with " him." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

VALENCE SACHEVERELL (7 th S. viii. 407). In 
the Sacheverell pedigree contained in the 1619 
Visitation of Warwickshire, printed by the Har- 
leian Society (vol. xii.), will be found these entries 
relative to Valence and his parentage : 

" Henricus Sacheuerell de Morley nuper Vicecomes 
Darbise de Newhall in Com. War. ob. 14 August 1620." 

He was aged seventy- three, and lies buried at 
Ratby, co. Leicester. 

''Valence Sacheuerell 3 fil aetat 15 annoru' per M'ris- 
Kayes [concubin] Nothus." 

Valence Sacheverell, of Newhall, co. Warwick, 
and Morley, co. Derby, married Anne, daughter of 
Sir George Devereux, Knt., of Mildenhall, co. 
Warwick, and by her had issue George and Anne. 
He is thus mentioned in the ' Calendar of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Committee for Advance of Money * 
Domestic Series, part ii. pp. 657-8 : 

" Valence Sacheverell or Secheverell of Newhall or 
Sutton Goldfield, Co. Warwick. 

"10 Dec. 1645. Assessed at 506Z. and summoned to 

" 5 May & 17 Sept. 1647. To be sequestered for non- 
payment of the 500^. 

"28 Jan. 1648. Order that as he has paid 1521., his- 
assessment be discharged on payment of 50i. more." 

In ' A Catalogue of the Lords, Knights, and Gen- 
tlemen that have compounded for their Estates/ 
1655, is this entry:" Sacheverell, Valence, New- 
hall, Worcester, 05021. OOs. Od." He was admitted 
to Gray's Inn Feb. 11, 1621/2, being described as 
the second son of Henry Sacheverell, of Morley, co. 
Derby, Esq., deceased (Foster's ' Gray's Inn Ad- 
missions '). DANIEL HIPWELL. 
34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Henry Sacheverell, of Morley, Derbyshire, who 
died 1620, set. seventy-three, besides three sons 
and as many daughters by his wife, Joan Brad- 
bourne, had three illegitimate sons by one Eliza- 
beth Keys, viz., Manfrede, Ferdinando, and 
Valence, who was of New Hall, Warwickshire. 
He married Anne, daughter of Sir George Deve- 
reux, Knt., and had a son, George, born 1663, 
who resided first at Nottingham, afterwards at 
New Hall, and at Callow, Derbyshire. He was 

7 th S. IX. FEB. 8, '90.] 



High Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1709. He married 
first Lucy, daughter of his uncle Ferdinando, and 
secondly Mary Wilson, who survived him, and 
married secondly the Rev. Henry Sacheverell, 
D.D., and thirdly Charles Chambers, and died 
September 6, 1739, aged seventy- five. 

George Sacheverell died May 13, 1715, set. 
eighty-three. He does not seem to have left issue 
by either wife. (See Nichols's 'Leicestershire,' 
iii. 508). Y. S. M. 

BERLAND (7 th S. vii. 508; viii. 36, 495). With 
reference to the assertion that the Duke of Cum- 
berland induced women, after the battle of Cullo- 
den, to ride races naked, and mounted on the 
barebacked ponies of the country jf such races 
took place the riders, I imagine (and I have had 
some experience on horseback, with and without 
saddle), did not long retain their seats after the 
start it may be mentioned that I cannot find any 
reference to the subject in my copy of John Hill 
Burton's ' History [the history it may be said] of 
Scotland'; and as regards Dr. Taylor's statement 
(see his 'History,' vol. ii. p. 951) that the duke's 
troops "committed atrocities unparalleled in the 
history of Scotland," the following unbiassed re- 
marks may be quoted: 

" It is not necessary to believe all the Jacobite stories 
tending to show a wanton and fiendish indulgence by the 
duke and his most distinguished followers in cruelty and 
any kind of bloody work for its own sake. What he did 
was, we may be assured from his character, not done in 
a spirit of wantonness, but after a sense of duty. But 
that duty led him to severity. He was a soldier accord- 
ing to the German notions of a soldier, and a rebel pro- 
vince was a community to be subjected to martial law. 
The duke, brought up in the German military school, 
seems to have been unable to distinguish between a re- 
bellion suppressed in constitutional Britain and a revolted 
German province, where every accorded grace to the 
unfortunate people proceeds from the will of the con- 
queror. Thus there was a propensity to subject all the 
northern districts to something closely resembling mili- 
tary law or licence." Vide Burton's ' Scotland,' vol. ii. 
p. 523, 1853. 


6, Freegrove Road, N. 

HEMMING'S LIGHT (7 th S. viii. 487). A full 
reply to this query would interest me quite as 
much as it could possibly inform MRS. WHITE ; but 
although I have for years been endeavouring to 
accumulate facts in regard to the early lighting of 
London streets, I have been only partially suc- 
cessful; and I shall look with eagerness for replies 
from those who may have collected fuller data. The 
first date on which I can place any reliance is con- 
tained in an original indenture, now before me, 
made September 28, 1687, between Edmund 
Heming, of London, Gent., of the one part, and 
Richard Ffountaine, of London, haberdasher of 
London, of the other part, to which the florid 

signature of Edm. Heming is attached as prin- 
cipal, and that of Ralph Greatorex (qy. Pepys's 
friend ?) as witness. By this deed Heming agrees 
for himself, his heirs, executors, and assigns, 

" to sufficiently light the Streete called St. Laurence 
Lane, before the House of the said Ffountaine, known 
by the Sign of the ' Golden Lyon,' with an Invention of 
the said Heming, for which certain patents were granted 
by his late Majesty King Charles the Second for the 
great and durable increase of Light by extraordinary 
Glasses and Lamps for the full term of Five Years, 
nightly and every night from the hour of Six until 
twelve, beginning the third night after every Full Moon 
and ending the Sixth night after every New Moon, for 
the space of Six Months in every year onely, (viz.) from 
Michaelmas to our Lady- Day, viz., for 120 nights in 
every such Six Months as aforesaid. In consideration 
whereof the said Ffountaine covenants to pay yearly five 
shillings of Lawful English Money at two entire quarterly 
payments in the Year." 

This was evidently the usual form of contract, and 
I am not sure that any competing undertaking was 
in this year in existence. At the same time it is 
difficult to ascertain whether the "Lucidaries" 
were not established before Heming commenced 
operations or took out his patent in 1682. These 
lights were apparently merely candles in rect- 
angular lanterns, whereas Heming's lamps were, I 
believe, globular in form, although it is probable 
that at first they, too, only contained candles. 
Heming called his the " Lights Royal," probably 
as being in pursuance of a patented invention. 
Frequent mention is made in the journals of the 
time of dissensions between the promoters of the 
"Lucidaries" and certain tin- men, who, baring 
been originally employed in the manufacture of 
the " Lucidaries," left their employers and set up 
for themselves, the settlement of which ia duly 

In 1692 Edmund Heming, a man evidently in 
advance of his time, and who had already taken a 
partner to assist in working the invention, re- 
solved to sell his lighting business to a syndicate. 
The original deed of sale, dated " the Fine and 
Twentyeth day of Aprill, 1692," which is in 
my possession, is between Edmund Heming 
and Ffrancis Jackson, of London, gentlemen, 
of the one part, and the Hon. Craven Howard 
(chairman with a handle to his name, then 
as now), Thomas Wearg, Robert Goldes- 
brough, Edward Goldesbrough, and John Dod- 
son, all gentlemen, of the other part, and as the 
provisions of the deed were clear and precise, 
I presume that Heming from that day forward 
washed his hands of the " Lights Royal " for good 
and all. How the new company flourished, and 
whether they established affiliated companies all 
over England and the Continent, is not, so far as 
I know, recorded ; but, at any rate, other schemes 
were brought out from time to time, among them 
that of Avery in 1735, who wanted every house- 
holder above 101 per annum to pay him 8s. 6d. 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 8, 'SO. 

per annum, and all others who did not take alms 
of the parish 3s. per annum, he paying the Com- 
mon Council for the exclusive privilege 5001. a 
year. The whole subject of this early lighting of 
the streets of London seems to me to deserve more 
study and attention than it has as yet received. 
There is a short notice in 'Weale's Quarterly 
Papers on Engineering/ v. 228. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

(7 th S. yiii. 208, 277, 332). Amongst the works of 
this writer, to whom Scott addressed the intro- 
ductory epistle to the second canto of ' Marmion,' 
may be enumerated the following ballads : ' The 
Feast of Spurs,' verses 'On a Visit paid to the 
Ruins of Melrose Abbey by the Countess of Dal- 
keith and her Son, Lord Scott,' 'Archie Arm- 
strong's Aith ' (oath), all in the ' Minstrelsy of the 
Scottish Border,' ed. 1868, vol. iv. It is, no doubt, 
to these that Scott alludes in his poetical epistle 
above mentioned : 

Marriott, thy harp, on Isis strung, 
To many a Border theme has rung. 


BRENNUS (7 th S. viii. 305 ; ix. 11). I leave it 
to any one who likes the trouble to put the Brennus 
matter before us on the proper footing. I have said 
all I wanted to say ; and if that be quite worthless 
which is very possible I shall still think it some- 
what curious that such remote falsities should so 
readily and closely interlink one with another. I 
cannot compliment MR. BIRKBECK TERRY on the 
manner in which he introduces his information to 
us it so closely approaches to a sneer. Still, even 
that may be right if venting it leaves him more 
inwardly serene than before, since outwardly it 
really hurts nobody but himself. I am quite com- 
fortable under such discomfiture, and ready to sup- 
pose, if it affords pleasure to anybody, that I am 
done to death by the weight of professorial autho- 
rity. If this be death, I may at the fit moment, 
like Addison, send for some profligate young 
nobleman, to let him see how easy 'tis to die. 

I observe that Prof. Rhys is of opinion that 
brenhin, brenin, and brennus have nothing to do 
with each other ; but, till he shows this to be so, 
old-fashioned people will not take it upon trust. 
New people, who are overawed by a professorship, 
do, and will The longer citation I have read twice 
over, and I do not now know what Prof. Khys 
intends to establish by it. I can enjoy Donaldson's 
'Cratylus,' and can understand enough even of 
Kant to see that he can think profoundly, so I will 
read him twice or thrice, as I think he is worth 
that trouble. But I shall not read a mere his- 
torical etymologist thrice to get at his meaning 
when obscured by an inefficient style. No doubt 
the professor is erudite, but if "le style c'est 

1'homme," as the French say, though Buffon did 
not, then is he no man, or rather no pen-man. 
There are two kinds of etymologists. The his- 
torical man, who truffles up all the dry and dusty 
facts about a word, and indites, so to say, verbal 
biographies, which, like ordinary biographies, leave 
the life out entirely. Then there is the keen 
vitalizer of words the Adam who can christen the 
beasts brought up before him, and create a name 
whenever a name is needed. Such a man says 
more vital things about a word in five minutes 
than the other would in as many years, because 
he has the life of speech still budding in him, as 
the first man Adam had. The present age is 
materialistic and wholly of the side of the his- 
torical man : it cannot believe even in the exist- 
ence of the other. I do not disparage the historical 
method no honest labour is ever lost or totally 
useless and here both methods are good and both 
are wanted. But let us make no mistake; the crea- 
tive method, once possessed, is far the rarer and 
more useful of the two. The historian catches a 
word at its first birth in a book. The creative 
man sees how it lay in the first germ of thought 
and in the necessities of utterance. Sciolists 
cannot conceive this, so they style it guessing, 
and necessarily prefer the certainties, as they call 
them, arrived at by the dryasdust process. As they 
cannot reach the higher platform, by all means let 
them judge from the lower. But they had better 
take care how they cross the path of the creative 
man. They will certainly sometimes be made to 
regret they ever traversed it. C. A. WARD. 

LIONS WILD IN EUROPE (7 th S. ix. 29). Topsell, 
discoursing " Of the Lyon " in his ' Historic of 
Foure- footed Beastes' (1608), remarks that 
"in Aristotle's time ther were more famous and valiant 
lions in that part of Europe, lying betwixt the Biuera 
Achelous and Nessus, then in all Affrica and Asia. For 
when Xerxes led his Army through Paeonia ouer the 
Bluer Chidorus, thelyons came and deuoured his Camels 
in the night time; but beyonde Nessus towardes the 
East, or Achillous towards the West, there was neuer 
man saw a lion in Europe : but in the region betwixt 
them which was once called the countrey of the Ab- 
derites, there were such store, that they wandered into 
Olimpus, Macedonia, and Theesalia." P. 459. 

The " famous and valiant lions " have long since 
gone the way of all flesh, and Buffon tells us that 
no lions 

" exist in the southern parts of Europe ; in the age of 
Homer there were no lions in the Peloponnesus, although 
they were then, and even in the days of Aristotle, in 
Thrace, in Macedonia, and in Thessaly." ' Natural His- 
tory,' 1817, vol. i. p. 452. 



Lions have been found in Europe in a wild state 
within historic times, as is shown by an article of 
SIR G. C. LEWIS in an early number of ' N. & Q.' 

7'h S. IX. FEB. 8, '0.] 



The best-known instance of lions wild in Europe 
is that mentioned by Herodotus, when the camels 
of Xerxes were attacked in Thrace by lions. 
Malone and another commentator condemn Shak- 
speare because in ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' he 
has introduced a lion into Greece : 
Now the hungry lion roars. 

But Shakspeare was right, and his commentators 
were wrong. E. YARDLET. 

STORIES WANTED (7 th S. viii. 509). A story 
with a similar motif and title is told in a dramatic 
poem, ' Brown's Peccadillo," in Blackwood, April, 
1876 ('Tales from Blackwood,' N.S., xii.). 


Hastings Corporation Reference Library. 

(7 th S. ix. 47). May I venture respectfully to 
suggest to DR. GATTT that the reason for the 
existence and use of the flagon is very different 
from the merely practical one which he mentions, 
and is for the sake of the Lesser Oblation of the 
Elements, of them unconsecrated, that is to say, 
as distinct from the Greater Oblation of them 
when consecrated ? ' N & Q.' is not a place fully 
to enter into the subject, but this Lesser Oblation 
has been very much lost sight of in the English 
Church ever since the elements ceased to be 
offered in kind at the offertory, and modern prac- 
tice tends still more to obscure it ; the practice, 
I mean, of placing on the altar no bread or wine 
at all beyond what is to be consecrated, instead of 
offering the wine in a flagon or cruet, and the 
bread in a box or canister, and removing what is 
necessary into the paten and chalice before con- 
secrating. I feel myself impertinent in writing 
thus to a man of such standing as DR. GATTT, but 
I think he will find my justification in Scuda- 
more's ' Notitia Eucharist ica.' 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

Is it not the case that in the seventeenth century 
communicants received the sacramental elements 
in much larger quantities than is now the custom ? 
This would account for the large size of the vessels. 
The explanation was given many years ago, in his 
book on 'Church Furniture,' by that learned 
ecclesiologist the Rev. E. L. Cutts. 


See Evelyn's ' Diary,' Oct. 7, 1688 : 

"Dr. Tenison preach'd at St. Martine's, on 2 Tim. 
iii. 16, shewing the Scriptures to be our only rule of faith, 
and its perfection above all traditions. After which 
neere 1,000 devout persons partook of the Communion." 


Wellington College. 

OLIVE FAMILT (7 th S. viii. 148, 352). In a 
pedigree of the Olive family in my possession the 

husband of Catherine Rafter is stated to be George 
Olive, second son of Robert Clive and brother of 
Richard, the father of the great Lord Clive. He was 
married to her in 1732, when Lord Clive was of 
the mature age of six years and his only brother 
William not born. It is, therefore, clear that 
George Clive was neither son nor brother of the 
renowned hero of Plassy, Robert, first Lord 

George was uncle of Lord Olive and nephew of 
George Clive, Cursitor Baron of the Exchequer, 
who died unmarried, and was buried in the Temple 
Church, London. 

Catherine Rafter was daughter of William 
Rafter, who had been an attorney in the town 
of New Ross, co. Wexford. On March 16, 1687, 
he was admitted to the freedom of the corpora- 
tion of that town under the " New Charter " from 
James II.; and on Oct. 3, 1684, a certain Luke 
Rafter (perhaps William's father) became a free- 
man; but both of them, with many other Jacobites, 
fled after the battle of the Boyne, and the " New 
Charter " was forthwith cancelled. 

William Rafter rose to the rank of captain under 
Louis XIV., but having been subsequently par- 
doned, he settled in London, and married the 
daughter of Mr. Daniel, of Fish Street Hill, by 
whom he was father of Catherine, James, and 
many others, as I learnt from Chatwood's ' History 
of the Stage,' and Kitty Clive died 1785, aged 
seventy-four. Y. S. M. 

GRIFT (7 th S. ix. 67). I have frequently had 
occasion to notice that many of our provincial 
words (contrary to the received opinion) are of 
French origin. Grift is formed by adding t to O.F. 
grefe, a style to write with, which is a variant of 
O.F. grqfe, whence E. graft, also formed with 
added t. Hence were borrowed also Du., Dan., 
Swed., G. griffel; and all are from Low Lat. gra- 
phium, from Gr. graphein, to write. Thus a grift 
means a pencil, and was originally independent of 
slate. See Franck, 'Etym. Du. Diet.,' s.v. " Grif- 
fel." It is amusing to see that Kluge, who inclines 
to Teutonism overmuch, can see no origin for 
Griffel but the G. greifen. 


THE WORD " BRAT " (7 th S. viii 464 ; ix. 77). 
See the ' New English Dictionary,' a book which 
is cruelly neglected. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

443, 496 ; ir. 31). Although my statement that 
the congregation at the service I attended after 
the year 1867 consisted only of my family and the 
church officials was strictly accurate, it may be 
capable of some explanation as to the average 
attendances at the City churches, inasmuch as it 
was a morning service. The evening services I 
invariably found much better attended, and the 



. IX. FEB. 8, '90. 

cause might be attributed to the fact that the re- 
sidents in these City parishes consist mostly of 
publicans, keepers of restaurants, and caretakers 
of offices, a class who are given to taking a rest on 
a Sunday morning, but are church-goers in the 
evening. JOSEPH BEARD. 


Afcer the compliments paid to my usual habit of 
accuracy by your two correspondents, and a vin- 
dication of my reputation in that respect by others, 
it would be eminently unbecoming on my part 
remembering what I have so often insisted upon 
as the first duty of ' N. & Q.,' to be absolutely and 
seriously exact to flippantly retort with Sir 
Walter Scott's humorous remonstrance when 
charged with anachronistic error, " Adzooks ! 
must one swear to the truth of a song 1 " I have 
been courteously requested to explain why (1) I 
conceived the impression that St. Mildred's Church 
in the Poultry was standing in 1863 ? (2) What 
induced me to assert that St. Mildred's Church, 
Bread Street, had been demolished 1 To these 
queries I reply (1) I was in the crowd that 
welcomed H.R.ET. the Princess of Wales to London 
in 1863, with my back to the wall of St. Mildred's 
Church in the Poultry, facing the Mansion House ; 
the church being then not only in situ, but in use 
for divine service. This reply has, however, be- 
come immaterial, as others of your correspondents 
have vindicated my reputation for accuracy by 
showing that the church in question was not de- 
molished until subsequent to the spring of 1872. 
(2) Guilty. Confession and avoidance. Con- 
fession : I, writing currente calamo, and too much 
relying on an overtaxed memory, confused St. 
Mildred's, Bread Street, still, as your corre- 
spondent points out, standing, with Allhallows in 
the same thoroughfare, some years since removed. 
I had been writing about Dryden's epitaph upon 
Milton my query thereanent appeared in your 
columns, but that is not germane to the present 
discussion inscribed on a mural tablet removed 
from the outer wall of Allhallows, then recently 
demolished, to the outer wall of St. Mary-le-Bow, 
Cheapside, where it may still be inspected. Milton 
was, it may be remembered, baptized at Allhallows 
(it is strange, by the way, that this fact, and the 
poetical tribute by Dryden commemorating it, 
should not be so much as even referred to in the 
biography of the author of 'Paradise Lost' by 
Prof. David Masson, LL.D., in the 'Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' vol. xvi. pp. 324 et seq\ I erred in 
writing St. Mildred's for Allhallows : 

The very head and front of my offending 
Hath this extent, no more. 

Avoidance : but I submit that the queries of my 
critics are not ad rem to the original topic. What 
I started for discussion was this. The charming 
heroine Alison, in Miss Aldridge's fascinating 
novel, walks from Tower Hill to St. Paul's Cathe- 

dral, returns along Cheapside and the Poultry, 
passing the site of St. Mildred's, for internal 
evidence fixes the date of the story as I have 
pointed out at not earlier than 1882, when the 
Poultry St. Mildred's had been removed not less 
than nine years, as proved by your able corre- 
spondents. The young lady, passing from before 
the Mansion House by the front of St. Mary's 
Woolnoth lately very much en evidence in relation 
to its now notorious mummy recalling "the body" 
in Mr. Walter Besant's latest novel The Bell of 
St. Paul's' strollsalongLombardStreet, is attracted 
by the open doors of St. Edmund the King and 
Martyr, indicating that divine service is going on 
within, reverently enters that fane, finds the ritual 
too "pronounced" for her simple North British 
tastes, emerges, and, still directing her course east- 
ward toward Trinity Square, Tower Hill, finds a 
place of worship conducted more in accordance 
with her views in "Mildred Mild." Where? 
Between the middle of Lombard Street and the 
Tower of London must be conceded. St. 
Mildred's in the Poultry, the site of which the 
young lady had just passed, had been removed. 
The context serves to demonstrate that she had not 
wandered back to Bread Street, where a St. 
Mildred's Church, which I had erroneously con- 
cluded had been at that time demolished, was still, 
and is now, in situ. Where was Alison's " Mild- 
red Mild " Church ? The query has never been 
answered. NEMO. 


"IS THY SERVANT A DOG?" (7 th S. viii. 300, 

337, 395, 458, 494). Now that this subject is being 
discussed, it may be pertinent to inquire whether 
it is certain, or even probable, that Sydney Smith 
really did use the witty quotation so often attri- 
buted to him. In glancing through Mr. Firth's 
' Reminiscences ' I noticed that, a propos of Land- 
seer, the genial writer threw cold water on the old 
familiar story. Perhaps some reader can give the 
passage I refer to I cannot. 


NAPOLEON'S NICKNAME (7 th S. viii. 464). It 
may be mentioned that the appellation " Le Petit 
Caporal " was conferred upon General Bonaparte 
after the battle of Lodi, in 1796, when he was only 
in his twenty-seventh year. 


Freegrove Road, N. 

COB AT GIBRALTAR (7 th S. ix. 47). Webster 
says, "Co& 10. A Spanish coin formerly cur- 
rent in Ireland." I spent a few days at Gibraltar 
about 1866, and I do not remember having heard 
the word. DNARGEL. 


MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON (7 th S. viii. 500). 
My former query was sent in consequence of the 

7" S. IX. FEB. 8, '90.] 



perusal of the Stanley correspondence. The point 
raised is this : Did Ptolemy define his Lunce 
Monies from the sites now explored by Mr. Stan- 
ley ; or did that geographer really intend the lesser 
heights of Abyssinia ? A. HALL. 

REINE": CHARING (7 th S. viii. 507). 
On Aug. 23, 1382, the custody of the falcons at 
Charryng, near Westminster, was granted for life 
to Simon Burley, who was to receive 12d. per day 
from the Wardrobe (Close Roll, 6 Ric. II., part i.). 

J. P. H. 

HERALDIC (7 th S. ix. 28, 96). Lancelot Baugh 
Allen (1774-1845), the second son of John Bart- 
lett Allen, of Cresselly, Pembrokeshire, was Master 
of Dulwich College in the early years of the pre- 
sent century. G. F. R. B. 

GASKELL : GASCOIGNE (7 th S. viii. 509). There 
is no connexion whatsoever between these two sur- 
names. The supposition is absurd. The Gas- 
coignes are from Gascony, 

And reedwyn of Gascoigne. 

' Piers Plowman,' 455. 

The Gaskells are from some small spot of that 
name in Yorkshire, near the borders of Westmor- 
land. Probably it will be found to be in the 
neighbourhood of Sedburgh. The suffix is the 
North English gill, a narrow ravine. In the 
'Yorkshire Poll Tax' (1379) we find (pp. 236, 
256, 269) Alicia de Gasegill, Robertus Gaysegill, 
Katerina de Gasegyl. The surname, passing over 
the borders into Furness and North Lancashire, 
assumed the guise of Gaitskell. With the 
sharpened form Gaskell for Gasgill cf. (in the 
same district) Summersgill and Summerscale. 


P.S. Since writing on this subject, I find that 
Gaisgill is a small hamlet near Tebay, co. West- 
morland. Therefore my statement that the home 
of Gaskell would be found in the neighbourhood 
of Sedbergh has turned out to be accurate. Twelve 
miles will cover the distance. 

PRE-NATAL SIN (7 th S. viii. 409). The follow- 
ing work would interest your correspondent : " A 
Lapse of Human Souls in a State of Pre- existence, 
the only Original Sin. By Capel Borrow (Rector 
of Rossington, Notts). London, 1766." 

W. R. TATE. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

'THE ART OF COMPLAISANCE' (7 th S. ix. 48). 
In the motto of this book there is a mistake 
which makes it unintelligible. For " sivere " sub- 
stitute vivere, the motto of Frederick Barbarossa, 
Louis XT., Philip II. ED. MARSHALL. 

CHURCH STEEPLES (7 th S. v. 226, 393, 514; vi. 
77, 158; vii. 155). Regarding the origin of the 

weathercock, Brady's ' Clavis Calendaria ' (vol. L 
pp. 200-8) has the following, unnoted by 'N. & Q.,' 
though of curious interest. Referring to the cus- 
toms and sports peculiar to Shrove Tuesday, which 
included cock-fighting and cock-throwing, the 
writer goes on : 

"This savage and disgraceful sport [cock-throwing] 
is thought to be of more modern introduction, in this 
Island, than that of Cock-fighting, from the circum- 
stance of Fitz Stephen having alluded to the one and 

not to the other ' In our wars with France in former 

ages our ingenious forefathers invented this emblematical 
way of expressing their derision of and resentment to- 
wards that nation. Poor Monsieur [the cock] at the 
stake was pelted by men and boys in a very rough and 

hostile manner A Cock has the misfortune to be 

called in Latin by the same word which signifies a 
Frenchman : so that nothing could so well represent 
or be represented by the one as the other.' 

"The cock is always called the Gallic Bird, and 

considered as one of the emblems of France, as the Lion 
is that of England ; and it was under such impression, 
and to hold out our rivals as objects of contempt, that 
the Vanes by which the changes of the wind are shown, 
have been fashioned into the shape of a cock ; thus typi- 
fying the levity and inconstancy with which we have 
charged that nation, every individual of whom, like the 
Weather Cock, we believe to be 

Veering a thousand times a day ; 

and it is from this cause that the ' Weather-Cock ' has 
superseded the true and original word Vane, so far as to 
render the latter almost obsolete." 

The above, be it remembered, was written by 
John Brady in a very Jingo age, three years prior 
to the battle of Waterloo. R. E. N. 

ANDREW SNAPE (7 th S. ix. 48). A licence was 
granted by the Vicar-General of Canterbury, May 
29, 1673, to Andrew Snape, " of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, gent., widower, about 60, to marry Mrs. 
Margaret Garrett, of Thanet St., London, widow, 
aged about 35, at Greenwich, co. Kent, or Moul- 
sey or Ditton, co. Surrey " (Col. Chester's ' London 
Marriage Licences, ed. Foster, 1887). Andrew 
Snape, Sen., Serjeant-Farrier to King Charles II., 
was the author of * The Anatomy of an Horse,' 
1683, folio. A portrait of him, cet. thirty-eight, 
1682, appears in the book, in the epistle dedi- 
catory of which he speaks of " being a Son of that 
Family that hath had the honour to serve the 
Crown of this Kingdom in the Quality of Farriers 
for these two Hundred Years." His son Andrew, 
a learned divine, born at Hampton Court, was ad- 
mitted to Eton College 1683, and to King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1689 ; became B.A. 1693, 
M.A. 1697, D.D. 1705. He was lecturer of St. 
Martin, Ludgate, Rector of St. Mary at Hill, both 
in the City of London ; and held the livings of 
West Ilsley, co. Berks, and Knebworth, co. Herts. 
Dr. Snape, who was appointed a Canon of Wind- 
sor in 1713, head master of Eton, and provost 



[7"> S. IX. FEB. 8, '90. 

Feb. 21, 1719, married the rich widow of Sir 
Joshua Sharpe, Knt., and alderman of London, 
and died at his lodgings in Windsor Castle 
Dec. 30, 1742, being buried at the east end of 
the south aisle of the choir of the chapel, near his 
wife, who died in 1731. See further Harwood's 
'Alumni Etonenses,' 1797, p. 48. 

34, Myddletoii Square, Clerkenwell. 

The appended particulars concerning Andrew 
Snape appear in Granger's ' Biog. Hist.' (ed. 1779). 
It will be noticed that Granger says the subject of 
the query was the father of Dr. Snape : 

"Andrew Snape was Serjeant-farrier to Charles II. 
and author of ' The Anatomy of a Horse,' &c., which has 
been several times printed in folio, with a considerable 
number of copper-plates. His portrait is prefixed to this 
book. He was father to Dr. Andrew Snape, principal 

master of Eton school I find, from a manuscript note 

under this head in the Pepysian Collection, that one of 
the family of Snape has been serjeant-farrier to the King 
for three hundred years past. Before ' The Complete 
and Expert Farrier,' by Thomas de Grey, Esq., 1670, is 
an anonymous equestrian figure, which was probably in- 
tended for his [? Snape's] portrait " (vol. iv. p. 100). 


COUSTILLE (7 th S. ix. 69). In the supplement 
to his ' Dictionary/ Littre says : 

" Coustil, s.m. coustil a croix, epee analogue & 1'epee 
de passot [the epee de passoi is a long, straight sword, for 
thrusting, a tuck, something between a sword proper and 
a dagger]. Etymol., Le meme quo coutille, 2. 

" Coutille, 2 : dans le moyeu age sorte d'arme tran- 
chante [from the Latin cultellus, a small knife, in the 
plural cultelli, and not culiellce'}." 

It may be acceptable here to give the words of 
Carlyle, who says, on the same fact: 

" Five Hundred and Seventeen able men, with Cap- 
tains of fifties and tens ; well armed all, musket on 
shoulder, sabre on thigh : nay they drive three pieces of 
cannon ; for who knows what obstacles may occur ? " 
' The French Revolution, 1 vol. ii. book vi. chap. ii. 



I am at a loss to know where MR. 0. A. WARD 
found the word cultella- ; certainly not in Ains- 
worth's, or Andrews's, or Facciolati's, or any Latin 
dictionary of weight and authority. If he had 
looked there he would have found cultellus, the 
plural of which would be cultelli, not cultellce. The 
word is used by Horace in his ' Epistles.' 


7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

PARIS IN 1801 : MR. J. G. LEMAITRE (7 th S. ix. 
26). It seems not unlikely that this gentleman is 
identical with Mr. J. G. Lemaistre, regarding whom 
I have some details before me. Among certain 
unpublished letters in my possession, written by 
the Lord Chancellor Erskine to his brother David, 
eleventh Earl of Buchan, is one dated "Buchan 

Hill [his cottage in Sussex], November 13th, 
1813." It contains the following paragraph : 

" There is a gentleman now in Edinburgh, who, I be- 
lieve, spends the Winter there, who is very affectionately 
attached to our family. He is the son of my old friend 
Lemaistre, who was a Judge in India ; his mother after- 
wards married the late Baron Nolchen. He is a man of 
letters, and a most agreeable, good-natured, sensible 
man, and his wife a very pleasant woman. He is most 
anxious to be introduced to you, and I promised to write 
to you. A kind word and notice from you in Edinburgh, 
and from Lady Buchan to Mrs. Lemaistre, will be of 
immense use in bringing them into the best society there ; 
and I am sure he will be most grateful for any atten- 

On the back of this letter, in Lord Buchan's hand, 
there is this jotting: "Memo. To write to Sir 
Brooke Boothby, Sir John Sinclair, &c., to intro- 
duce Mr. Lemaistre." 

Among the persons of note to whom Lord Buchan 
introduced the strangers were Mr. Archibald 
Fletcher and his wife (subject of a popular " auto- 
biography "). He has some years previously taken 
a considerable share in the movement for burgh 
reform, which caused nearly as much excitement 
in Scotland as parliamentary reform afterwards 
did. Mr. Fletcher was a staunch supporter of 
Lord Erskine's brother, the Hon. Henry Erskine, 
at the time when he was deprived of the office of 
Dean of the Faculty of Advocates, at a juncture 
when political terrors had, for the moment, got the 
upper hand of reason. 

In the collection of MSS. I have mentioned I 
find a copy of verses, of no great merit, by Mr. 
Lemaistre, addressed to Mrs. Fletcher, sent with 
a letter to Lord Buchan. These verses contain an 
allusion to the very memorable incident in Harry 
Erskine's career, and the part played by Mr. 
Fletcher : 

The Patriot whom no threat could bend, 
No bribe seduce to leave his friend 
(That friend his Country's proudest boast), 
By Slaves assailed at Freedom's post. 

This collection of letters was at one time the 
property of Mr. Dawson Turner, the famous auto- 
graph fancier, who, in cataloguing that of Mr. Le- 
maistre, describes him as author of ' Travels after 
the Peace of Amiens,' a work not named by your 
correspondent. I shall be well pleased if these 
notes should be of service to COL. PRIDEAUX. 


Lennox Street, Edinburgh. 

FALLOWS (7 th S. viii. 488 ; ix. 74). I venture 
to say that MR. BAYNE mistakes the meaning of 
Cowper's " weedy fallows. " I am well acquainted 
with the agricultural terms of the Midlands, and 
I have never heard the name fallows applied to 
any but ploughed land. Such land was, however, 
in the prescientific days often grazed. After a 
wet season it was not easy, when there were no 
steam ploughs, to " clean " the heavy clay lands of 

7 th S. IX. FEB. 8, ; 90.] 



my native county, and sheep would, therefore, be 
turned out on them to eat off the "weedy" growth, 
hence "not unproBtable," before reploughing. 
That Cowper is referring to this custom is evident. 
He has just before spoken of the " meadows, green 
though faded," and of the "lands where lately 
waved the golden harvest," and he completes his 
survey of the fields by this description of the 
"weedy fallows." C. C. B. 

WOODEN SHOES (7 th S. ix. 67). MR. HUGHES 
will find the incident of the wooden shoes in the 
Speaker's chair related in Aubrey's ' Lives." 
write from memory, but believe it occurs in the 
sketch of Henry Martin. J. J. S. 

PRESENTS OF KNIVES (7 th S. viii. 469). The 
belief that the present of a knife is unlucky is 
alluded to by Gay : 

But woe is me ! such presents luckless prove, 
For knives, they tell me, always sever love. 

'The Shepherd's Week,' "Tuesday," 11. 101-2. 

To this passage may also be added the following, 
from 'Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools,' 
"a Cotnicall Morall," 1619, usually attributed to 
George Chapman : 

Insatiate Here is a token for thee, my chicken. 

Levitia. What! knives] O, I will not take them in 
any wise : they will cut love. 

Ins. No, no : if they cut anything, they will cut away 

Lee. Pardon me, good sir, you shall not give them me. 
If needs you will that I wear them, do you lose, and I 
will find them. 

Insatiate drops them, and then Levitia says, " This 
is as it should be. Now T have deceived destiny" 
(Act VII. sc. iil). F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

viii. 486 ; ix. 35). It is a fact that two women were 
executed in Northampton in 1705 for witchcraft. 
They were mother and daughter, and belonged to 
Cotterstock, near Oundle, in Northamptonshire. 
In the county reprints of Mr. John Taylor (North- 
ampton) are reproductions of two rare tracts in 
the Bodleian referring to these two women. The 
first, as follows, is a letter from a Northampton 
resident under date of March 18, 1705 : 

The Northamptonshire Witches. Being a true and 
faithful account of the Births, Educations. Lives, and 
Conversations, of Elinor Shaw, and Mary Phillips (the 
two notorious Witches), that were executed at Northamp- 
ton on Saturday, March the 17th, 1705, for bewitching 
a Woman and-two Children to Death, &c. Containing 
the manner and occasion of their turning Witches, the 
league they made with the Devil, and the strange dis- 
course they had with him ; As also the particulars of 
their amazing pranks and remarkable actions both before 
and after their apprehension, and how they Bewitched 
several Persons to Death, besides abundance of all sorts 
of Cattle, even to the ruin of many Families, with their 
full Confession to the Minister, and last Dying Speeches 
at the Place of Execution, the like never before heard 
of. Communicated in a Letter by Post, from Ralph 

Davi*, of Northampton, to Mr. William Simons, Mer- 
chant in London. Licensed according to Order. Lon- 
don, Printed for F. Thorn, near Fleet-street, 1705. 

The second tract is another letter, giving addi- 
tional particulars of the two women. The state- 
ment that five others were executed seven years 
afterwards is a repetition of an error in Gough's 
'British Topography.' Four women and one man 
were executed for witchcraft at Northampton on 
July 22, 1612. The only copy of this last tract is 
also in the Bodleian Library, and this is likewise 
included in Mr. Taylor's reprints. K. 

CLINK, A PLACE-NAME (7 th S. ix. 45). A place 
distant from Belper, Derbyshire, is called Nibble 
an' Clink, and derived the name about thirty years 
ago under conditions similar to those mentioned by 
J. T. F. In this case a pit shaft was sunk, and a 
pumping engine put down to clear away water. 
The working of the engine could be heard a great 
distance, the articulation of each stroke being 
" nibble-a-a-n-clink." This name was adopted at 
once for the little pit, and probably continues. 


See also 7 th S. viii. 228, 316. DR. MURRAY 
please note. A. H. 

viii. 267, 334). A correspondent of 'N. & Q.' 
expressed a wish to know how our ancestors 
regarded small- pox. I need not refer him to 
various allusions by Defoe, Walpole, the diarists, 
and others, which affirm that, while the writers 
dreaded its ravages and lamented the death of 
friends, they regarded the scourge with something 
like that fierce resentment with which the victims 
of County Councils and other predatory boards re- 
sent the exactions of rate and tax collectors. There 
is something indicative of an analagous contempt 
combining with this wrath in the following intensely 
pathetic record, borrowed from 'The Confessyon 
of Master Rychard Allington, esquere, the xij of 
Novembre, 1561, abowte viij of y e Clocke at nyght, 
before Master Doctour Caldewalle, Master Doctor 
Good, Master Garthe, Master Jones, and Ser John 
of y e Rolles, &c.': 

"Maisters, seinge that I must nedes die, which I 
assure you I nevar thought wolde have cum to passe by 
this dessease, consyderinge it is but y e smalle pockes, I 
woulde therfore moste hertely desyre yow in y e rever- 
ence of God and for Christes passions sake to suffer me 
to speake untyll I be dede, that I may dyscbarge my 
consiens, accuse myn adversary the devyll, and yelde my 
selffe holie to Almightie God, my Savior and Redemer. 

"And good masters, for Christs passions sake give 
good eare unto me, and praye continewa'ly for me upon 
your knes, for I will tell yow of strange thyngs." 
These " thyngs " consisted of visions Mr. Ailing- 
ton alleged he had been favoured with, including 
the Crucifixion, " very lyvely, and that verie often 
so lovyngly and tenderly as ever any erthely man 



[7"> S. IX. FEB. 8, '90. 

culde desyre." " Good masters," he added, " for 
Christys passyons sake, geve good eare unto me 
and pray, styll pray, pray, pray." " Nowe, good 
masters, pray styll for me, and I will shew yow 
verie straunge thyngs." Mr. Allington confessed 
much heinous usury, especially where " one Mr. 
Wilkokes," "my L. Scrope," "Mr. Fynes," and 
various " Spanyardes, Frenchmen, Italyans, and 
such lyke," were concerned and victimized. In- 
structed by the vision, the repentant sufferer 
eagerly desired to make restitution, and imposed 
execution of this duty upon the Master of the 

" An so my vision left me. Sith which tyme I assure 
yow I have had BO mucbe quyetnes as any man can 
wishe, and bare sene soch comfortable syghtes as nether 
hart can thyncke nor tonge expresse, and this I had to 
shew yow. Now good Sur John, say y e vij psallmes, and 
Domine Jesu Christy [here an eye-witness strikes in], 
with f/loriosa passyo he sayd hymsellfe, and then he 
thought he shuld have died, but then brothe beinge 
geveii unto hym he revyved agayne and fell to prayer 
and gave hym sellfe wholly to quyetnes," &c. Vide 
"Stowe's Memoranda," published by the Camden Society 
in 'Three Fifteenth Century Chronicles,' 1858, p. 117. 


CHARE (7 th S. viii. 307, 417, 455). This word 
chare is a peculiar one. The term " chare rofe " 
occurs in the will of Henry VI., now in the muni- 
ment room of King's College, Cambridge, with 
reference to the walls " of the same chnrche to be 
in height 90 fete embattled vouled and chare rofed 
sufficiently boteraced," &c. It is generally sup- 
posed to mean that the whole vaulted roof was to 
be made of hewn stone, and not partly filled up 
with rubble and plastered. WTATT PAPWORTH. 

DR. KUPER (7 th S. viii. 368, 415, 493 ; ix. 55). 
My note at the last reference was, or ought to 
have been, dated from Winterton, Lincolnshire, to 
which place the word " here " refers. J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfleld's Hall, Durham. 

TIONS (7 th S. viii. 188, 292 ; ix. 52). There is an 
interesting account of the conduct of Bernard Gil- 
pin, the good parson of Houghton, in Durham, of 
Elizabethan fame, when he saw a glove hung up in 
church as a challenge to an enemy : 

"In his sermon he took occasion to reproove these in- 
human challenges, and rebuked them sharpely for that 
custome which they had of making challenges by the 
hanging up of a glove. ' I heare,' quoth he, ' that there 
is one amongst you, who even in this sacred place hath 
hanged up a glove to this purpose, and threatneth to 
enter into combat with whosoever shall take it doune 
Behold, I have taken it doune my selfe." Wordsworth's 
'Ecclesiastical Biography,' iii. 400, third edition. 


FISHMARKET (7" S. viii. 448, 494). Nearly 
every one who has written anything concerning 
the history of Westminster appears to have utterly 
ignored the Westminster Fishmarket, which seems 

,o have had a somewhat useful existence between 
the years 1749 and 1755 ; as in its day it claimed 
o be and, indeed, really was a formidable 
rival to Billingsgate. An Act of Parliament 
was passed 22 Geo. II., cap. 49, in which it 
s stated "that a free and open market for fish 
in the City of Westminster would greatly tend 
10 increase the number of fishermen, and improve 
and encourage the fishery of the kingdom." This 
being admitted as an incontrovertible fact, it was 
;hen enacted, that " from and after June 24, 1749, 
:here should be a free and open market held in the 
City of Westminster for all sorts of fish." This 
Act also empowers the Commissioners of West- 
minster Bridge to " grant a piece of land at the foot 
of the bridge near Cannon Row, for the use of such 
intended market "; and after some unexplained 
delay the said Commissioners conveyed the land 
near Cannon Row to the twenty-six noblemen and 
gentlemen who had been appointed the market 
trustees, who at once proceeded to borrow 4002. 
from a Mr. James Stedman on the mortgage of 
the dues and tolls, to " pay the charges attending 
the passing of the Act, and to erect shops and 
stalls to encourage fishermen and others to resort 
there." By October, 1750, they appear to have 
been tolerably well started on their business, as 
some of the parish records assert that their 
" account of all moneys received upon the sub- 
scription for encouraging industrious poor fisher- 
men and better supplying Westminster Fishmarket 
with fish," give their receipts as 900/. Other items 
in the accounts are of considerable interest, but 
space forbids any quotations from them. The City 
Corporation looked upon this venture with much 
disfavour, and difficulties fell to the lot of the 
trustees, who, however, applied for a second Act 
of Parliament, which was passed in 29 Geo. II., 
cap. 39, where we find it set forth that although 
they had opened the market and fitted it in a 
becoming manner suited to the exigencies of the 
case and had given every encouragement to fisher- 
men to bring their wares hither, difficulties had 
been experienced in working the first Act obtained; 
in short, that its provisions had, in the main, been 
frustrated. Many clauses in the second Act were 
specially framed to prevent a continuance of these 
abuses. However, complete failure overtook the 
scheme from " combinations of persons interested 
in the trade, or from some other secret and incurable 
causes." When the market was abandoned the 
trustees were in debt, as might be expected, to meet 
which they let the site on a building lease to one 
Richard Hughes for seventy years from Lady Day, 
1755, at 657. per annum. In 1774 the trustees 
were entirely free of their debts, and twelve years 
later on had 3,200Z. in the Three per Cents, be- 
sides the yearly rents under the lease ; so that now 
they are " under great difficulty to discover what 
method they ought in propriety to pursue in the 

7"> S. IX. FEB. 8, '90.] 



attainment of that object for which the funds were 
originally created," and next year their " annual 
income" is set down as 30 ll In 1759 one of the 
trustees published a long letter, entitled 

" The London Fishery laid Open ; or, the Arts of the 
Fishermen and Fishmongers set in a True Light ; with 
further considerations arising from the good effect the 
public has received by the Act of Parliament passed to 
prevent the forestalling and monopolising of fish, and 
showing also how this evil may effectually be cured." 
Here we find an account of the market itself : 

" The place appointed is on the east side of the foot of 
the new bridge, very commodious by its situation for serv- 
ing all the fishmongers and hawkers of the City and 
Liberties of Westminster and all the Westward parts of 
the town. There is a large flight of stone stairs from the 
waterside, leading to a broad spacious wharf above, for 
landing and eelling the fish. The houses before men- 
tioned, which were to be built under the trustees' lease, 
have been built and fitted up for the fishmongers to sell 
fish in by retail there, and are contiguous to the market 
place, so that as to the conveniences for holding the 
market, there seems none wanting." 


20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Will MR. E. M. BORRAJO add to the favour of 
his most interesting reply the authority whence he 
draws his answer ? as so doing will to me double 
its value. C. A. WARD. 


Slang and its Analogues, Past and Present. Compiled 
and Edited by John S. Farmer. Vol. I. A to Byz. 
(Privately Printed.) 

FOR the first time in a dictionary the subject of English 
slang is seriously treated. Much has been written on 
the subject within the last three centuries, and important 
contributions to our knowledge have been made. Recent 
works have, however, been catchpennies, and Mr. Farmer 
is the first to treat the subject of slang in a manner com- 
mensurate with its importance. His aim is to supply 
a " Dictionary, Historical and Comparative, of the 
heterodox speech of all classes of society for more than 
three hundred years, with synonyms in English, French, 
German, Italian, &c." Abundant materials are at his 
disposal. First and foremost the editor acknowledges 
his indebtedness to " that invaluable store-house Notes 
and Queries, on which from its first issue he has freely 
drawn." The ' New English Dictionary ' of Dr. Murray 
has necessarily been laid under contribution, and other 
works, English and foreign, have been frequently con- 
sulted. With all allowances for external and adventitious 
aid, the task accomplished has been formidable. To 
supply the illustrations alone a large amount of research 
has been necessary. Especial attention has been paid to 
modern writings, and the pages of Punch are responsible 
for many allusions to contemporary forms of speech. 

A thing more volatile, capricious, and hard to fix than 
slang cannot easily be conceived. The mispronunciation 
of a difficult word by ignorance is sometimes enough to 
establish a slang expression. It is, morec ver, next to 
impossible to fix the limits between what is and what is 
not slang. Words such as obear and abide, i n " I cannot 
abear or abide him," have now degenerated iato 
vulgarity. They have none the less a pedigree as 
respectable as that of any word in the language; 

nstances of use in one case dating back to 1205, and in 
the other to 885. Slang at its outset, Abigail, like many 
another word, has won its way into consideration, and 
may now be regarded as accepted. Vulgar words, 
meanwhile, such as bellyache and the like, must have 
Deen current from the beginning of language, and are 
only slang in the sense of being outspokenly impolite. 
Such words must necessarily appear in the slang as well 
as in the general dictionary. A mere interjectional 
utterance such as A ! pronounced as in bale, or E, pro- 
nounced as in me, but in each case elongated in delivery, 
becomes slang, and is enough to avouch a North-country- 
man. Very full is Mr. Farmer's list, the first volume, 
extending to over four hundred double-columned pages, 
covering only the letters A and B. A large percentage 
of the words given are necessarily American, our Trans- 
atlantic cousins having displayed much ingenuity in the 
manufacture of slang. Not a few of them are coarse in 
the acceptance of to-day, though none of the English 
words can be resented as infamous. In the case of the 
synonyms from foreign sources, many words unfamiliar 
to ourselves are given. For these, however, doubtless 
the editor has full justification. Even more rapidly 
than in London does the argot change in Paris, and 
before a phrase is known in London to have been heard 
in Paris it is changed. By-the-by, can Mr. Farmer 
plead any justification for using argot in the plural? 
His book commends itself warmly to our readers, and its 
progress cannot be otherwise than interesting. It is 
artistically got up, and its type and paper are all that 
can be desired. As it is issued in a limited edition it can 
scarcely fail of becoming a prized possession. 

'THE CITY OF THE CREED,' in the Fortnightly, de- 
scribes, in the now familiar style of Mr. J. Theodore 
Bent, the life during an Easter week spent in Nicsea. 
Incidentally some light on folk-lore is thrown in what 
is an interesting communication. Lady Dilke follows 
with a paper on ' Art Teaching and Technical Schools.' 
The most interesting portion of this is, perhaps, the 
account of the revolt in Vienna when from the Exhi- 
bition of 1862 Austria received the same lesson that was 
inflicted upon ourselves in 1851. Within the reach of a 
capable and an aspiring Austrian workman there is now 
placed a course of tuition which is complete and elastic. 
Against this the writer pits the system in England, 
which turns out teachers and pupils alike "branded 
with the department stamp." 'English and Americans ' 
places clearly before the view the causes which lead to 
England being a Paradise to cultured Americans. It is 
well written, and much of its arraignment is indisput- 
able. It is, indeed, as correct as any generalizations are 
likely to be. If not wholly convincing, what censure 
and of such in the main it consists ever is .' ' Russian 
Characteristics' are dealt with in what seems to be a 
concluding article by Mr. E. B. Lanin. The general 
tolerance of dishonesty with the Russian, and the ex- 
tent to which theft is practised and goes unpunished, 
may well make the reader open his eyes. An indict- 
ment so severe as has in five consecutive articles been 
brought against the Russian has seldom been heard. 
In the Nineteenth Century, Mr. Henry Blackburn deals 
from the practical standpoint with ' The Illustration of 
Books and Newspapers.' ' A Chinese View of Railways 
in China,' by Fung Yee, is worth the study of others 
besides politicians. Mr. W. Fraser Rae, dealing with 
' Plays and Players on the Riviera,' treats with some 
scorn the species of condemnation levelled against the 
gambling tables by the English precisian. He observes, 
in a spirit with which we concur, " Pigeon-shooting i 
practised on a large scale at Monte Carlo, and while I 
regard gaming as foolish, if not worse, I consider pigeon- 
shooting as combining the maximum of cruelty with the 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 8, '0. 

minimum of pleasure." Mr. Hudson's paper on ' The 
Naturalist on the Pampas' is agreeable reading. Dr. 
Jessopp sends an eminently characteristic contribution 
on 'The Land and its Owners in Past Times,' and Mr. 
Charles Edwardes writes on ' Crete and the Sphakiots.' 
' Dante and the New Keformation,' a thoughtful paper, 
and ' The Working of the People's Palace,' by Sir E. H. 
Currie, conclude the number. Not wholly gloomy is 
the view taken by Mr. Hamilton Aide, in the Ntw 
Review, on 'The Deterioration in English Society.' 
While disposed to agree with the writer, we hold that 
" change " is a better word than " deterioration." Mr. 
Saintsbury's ' Thoughts on Republics ' are worth study- 
ing. Sir Richard Temple writes with authority on ' Our 
Naval Coaling Stations in the Eastern Seas.' 'An 
Artist's Letters from Japan ' opens pleasantly the 
February number of the Century, and is well illustrated 
by the author. Mr. Jefferson's autobiography still con- 
stitutes an attraction. ' The Pursuit and Capture of 
Jefferson Davis ' is perhaps the most important contri- 
bution, and ' A Corner of Old Paris ' the most readable. 
In Macmillan's, Mr. Aubrey de Vere dedicates two 
sonnets ' To Robert Browning.' Mr. Augustine Birrell 
reviews the recently issued ' Letters of Lord Chester- 
field.' An article on ' Oxford, Democratic and Popular,' 
succeeds. In ' Candour in English Fiction,' an 
Editor a vague appellation, if such ever was seeks to 
defend his class. ' " Mothers "according to English 
Novelists ' points out a half-truth, viz., that youth in 
fiction, so far as regards the female sex, has matters its 
own way. This appears in Temple Bar. ' Horace Wai- 
pole's Letters,' in the same magazine, has the pleasant 
mixture of sense and gossip always to be expected in 
Temple Bar. In Murray's^ Mr. Smiles continues his 
dissertations on ' Authors and Publishers.' Count 
Gleichen gives some unhappy experiences under the 
title ' Twelve Hours of New York.' and Mr. Victor A. L. 
Morier has an excellent description of ' Up the Obi to 
Tobolsk.' In the Gentleman's, Mr. Percy Fitzgerald 
gives what is likely to be a popular account of ' Mr. 
Ruskin, Artist and Publisher,' Mr. Massingham sup- 
plies 'Some Johnson Characteristics,' and Mr. Thorpe 
tells gleefully ' How I found the Bunyan Warrant.' 
Among its many fictions, Belgravia has a criticism upon 
' Sue and Zola ' and ' Memories of the Paris Exhibition.' 
The new number of the English Illustrated shows a 
marked advance, both in letterpress and engravings. 
Mr. Lang is eloquent beyond his wont, even, in Long- 
man's, in the praise he accords Lord Tennyson and 
Browning. An article on ' Grangerizing,' in the Corn- 
hill, may be recommended to very many contributors to 
'N. & Q.' who are serious on the subject. Woman's 
World also shows marked improvement, and All the 
Tear Round maintains its position. 

THE productions of Messrs. Cassell & Co. lead off with 
the first part of the last volume of the Encyclopaedic 
Dictionary (Tas Thick - head). " Telpher - line," 
"Temple," "Tent," "Termagant," "Thallium," and 
" Theology" may be consulted as proofs how superior in 
comprehensiveness to all dictionaries approaching com- 
pleteness is this excellent dictionary. Naumann's His- 
tory of Music, Part XXIII., has a facsimile autograph 
of Spontini. The letterpress is wholly occupied with 
the ' Spread of the Musical Zopt over Central Europe.' 
Part XLIX. of, with an extra sheet, com- 
pletes ' Macbeth ' and gives an act of ' Hamlet.' Full- 
page illustrations include Macbeth's first visit to the 
witches, the sleep-walking scene, Hamlet at court, and 
the interview between Hamlet and the ghost. Old and 
New London, Part XXIX., begins at Covent Garden, of 
which several views are given, depicts the dining-room 
of the Garrick Club, lingers in Russell Street and Long 

Acre, deals with the coffee-houses of the last century, 
and ends with a view of Westminster from the gardens 
of Somerset Houe. Picturesque Australasia has a 
striking view of ' Night on the Murray,' many pictures 
of Wellington and its surrounding* and the Brumby. 
No. V. of The Holy Land and the Bible depicts the 
threshing-floor, treading out the corn, woman grinding 
at the mill. &c., and has some striking illustrations of 
Gaza. Celebrities of the Century, Part XIII., ends at 
Playfair, and has full lives of the Napoleons, O'Connell, 
Cardinal Newman, Lord Palmerston, and others. 

IN Mr. Nimmo's Costumes of the Modern Stage, Part 
III. depicts dresses worn in the three-act version of 
' Shylock ' produced at the Odeoa in December last. All 
unlike anything that has been seen on the English stage 
are the dresses of Shylock, Portia, Nerissa, and Bassanio 
that are supplied. The last-named costume is very 
striking. Part IV. deals with M. Barbier's 'Jeanne 
d'Arc' (Porte-Saint-Martin, January 3, 1890). Four 
striking presentations of Madame Sarah Bernhardt as 
the heroine are given. There is a remarkable dress of 
Iseult, and Charles VII. and Loys, the page, are also 
shown. These designs, the historical accuracy of which 
may be trusted, will be of great service to English art. 

THE third volume of Book Prices Current, containing 
a record of the sales for 1889, is announced for im- 
mediate publication by Mr. Elliot Stock. 

ftatitti to CorretfpcmiJenttf. 

We mutt call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 


He knows you not, ye glorious powers. 
Der kennt euch nicht ihr himmliechen Machte. 
The harper's song in 'Wilhelm Meister,' by Goethe, 
translated by Carlyle, and, with slight alterations, by 
Longfellow as the motto to the first book of his ' Hy- 

RICHARD EDGCUMBE (" Tea Clippers "). The book in 
question is ' Spunyarn and Spindrift,' by Robert Brown, 
Houlston & Sons, 1861. See 7 h S. vii. 295. 

DWARGEL (" Daniel vi. 24 "). " Or ever " is correct. 
It is an old expression, signifying before. 

G. {'Anne Hathaway '). See 7 th S. i. 269. 433: vi. 
409, 471. 

T. 0. W. ("Arms on a Gun "). Shall appear. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 91, col. 1, 1. 4 from bottom, for 
"Coatley " read Hatley ; and col. 2, 1. 13, for "purpled" 
read purfled.P. 97, col. 1, 1. 2, for "Lidwell" read 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took'g Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7* S. IX. FEB. 15, '90.] 




CONTENT S. N 216. 
NOTES : Robert Drury, 121 St. John's, Clerkenwell Wa 
ren Hastings Serving Queen Elizabeth's Dinner, 124 
Books in Wills Solly's Bibliographical Papers Muscadin 
125 Boycotting Obituary for 1889 Dr. Johnson's Idea o 
the "exquisitely beautiful "" No love lost " Feminin 
Latinity, 126. 

QUERIES : Coat-tails Scholes Episcopal Signatures Si 
J. Crawford Calais Convents Source of Poetry Wanted^ 
Lady M. Wortley Montagu' Byron's Voyage to Corsica ' 
Priors of Pontefract Monastery Antoni Waterlo Eliza 
bethan Ordinaries, 127 Tyrrel Evidence in Court Brick 
bat' The Legend of Glenorchy 'Heraldry in Shakspeare 
"Albion perflde "Arms Great Berners Street Hoax But- 
lers of Lancashire Vincenzo Monti, 128 Draught Chatea 
Landon Motto on Book-plate Hardman and Leigh, 129. 

REPLIES : Rules, 129 Sixth Centenary of Dante's Beatrice 
131 "ChSre Reine": Charing Lovell Family Whitebai 
"Common or garden " Radcliffe, 132 Judas Iscariot 
Hares Horatia Nelson, 133 Oxgangs ^Esop Sir Georg 
Rose, 134 Confirmation Petrarch's Inkstand Major R 
Rogers. 135 Pantiles Codger, 136 Roasted Alive 
Funeral Shutters A French Riddle General Martin- 
Heraldic Cob-nuts, 137 Holland Cock-pits Arms on an 
Old Gun, 138 Church Steeples Walpole and Burleigh 
Authors Wanted, 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Kitchin's ' Winchester ' Bartholo 
mew's ' Atlas of Commercial Geography ' Clelia's ' God in 
Shakspeare 'Roger's ' Celticism a Myth.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


MR. LEWIS L. KROPF'S expose of the pseudo- 
historical character of Capt. Smith's ' True Travels 
and Adventures ' leads me to bring to your notice 
my doubts as to the veracity of Robert Drury, 
whose adventures have for many long years beec 
implicitly relied upon as being written in all good 
faith and honesty. 

A letter of mine, of which I enclose a copy, was 
published in Madagascar four years ago, but my 
opinions have been laughed to scorn by all who 
have been brought up to regard Drury as a model 
character of innocence and mildness, hitherto (I 
am glad to think) unparalleled in the annals of 
British seamen. 

In the work about to be published by Mr. 
Fisher Unwin I hope to more fully expose the 
fraud practised by the anonymous editor of Drury's 
* Journal,' and meanwhile hope that my letter may 
extract some critical remarks from the readers of 
'N. &Q.' 

" ' Madagascar ; or, Robert Drury's Journal, during 
Fifteen Years' Captivity on that Island,' was first pub- 
lished on May 24, 1729, and is, says Mr. William Lee, 
' in many respects, one of the most interesting accounts 
that appeared, between the date of " Robinson Crusoe," 
and the death of Defoe.' Madagascar was a centre 
around which much of our author's genius in fictitious 
writing turns; and although surrounded by savage 
human beings, the isolation of the English boy Drury is 
perfect. Many parts of the book, on religion, and the 

origin of government, are avowedly the work of an editor- 
and there are occasional turns of humour resembling' 
Defoe, but the language rarely does so. It is certain 
that there was a Robert Drury that he had been a 
captive as stated that he wrote a large account of his 
adventures that he was seen, questioned, and could 
give any information required alter the publication of 
this book. In the latter part of his life Defoe had many 
imitators ; I think one of them very ably edited Drury'g 
manuscript. Possibly Defoe may have read it and 
inserted some sentences, but as I am in doubt even of 

that, I cannot place the book in the list of his works." 

' Daniel Defoe ; his Life and hitherto unknown Written * 
by William Lee, vol. i. p. 448. 

It is regarding the authenticity of this narrative, 
rather than the authorship or editing of the work, that 
I would here make a few remarks, in the hope of eliciting 
from more qualified persons further light upon the sub- 

Having lately been occupied in drawing up a biblio- 
graphy of works relating to Madagascar, I was naturally 
attracted by the prominent position which 'Drury'a 
Journal ' has hitherto occupied as a standard authority 
on that island. Ellis, Barbie du Bocage, Mace Descartes 
Sibree, M. M. Noel, and Capt. Guillain, Richardson' 
D'Escamps, Mullens, and others, have all taken for 
gospel truth the statements as to the manners and 
customs of the tribes inhabiting the south and west 
coasts of Madagascar which are to be found in the curious 
relation of Robert Drury. 

I have not seen a copy of the first edition, but a copy 
of the second is now before me, belonging to the London 
Library. The title of this is : " Madagascar ; or, Robert 
Drury's Journal, during Fifteen Years' Captivity on that 
Island. Containing : I. His Voyage to the East Indies, 
and short Stay there. II. An Account of the Ship- 
wreck of the Degrave on the Island of Madagascar; 
the Murder of Captain Younge and his Ship's Company, 
except Admiral Bembo's son, and some few Others, who 
escaped the Hands of the barbarous Natives. III. His 
aeing taken into Captivity, hard Usage, Marriage, and 
Variety of Fortune. IV. His Travels through the Island, 
and Description of it; as to its Situation, Products, 
Manufactures, Commodities, &c. V. The Nature of the 
People, their Customs, Wars, Religion, and Policy: as 
ilso, the Conferences between the Author and some of 
heir Chiefs, concerning the Christians and their Religion. 
'fl. His Redemption from thence by Captain Mackett, 
Commander of the Prince of Wales, in the East India 
Company's Service. His Arrival to England, and Second 
Voyage thither. VII. A Vocabulary of the Madagascar 
anguage. The Whole is a Faithful N arrative of Matters 
if Fact, interspersed with a Variety of surprising In- 
idents, and illustrated with a Sheet Map of Madagascar, 
and Cuts. Written by Himself: digested into Order, and 
now published at the Request of his Friends. The 
Second Edition. London : Printed, and Sold by J. 
Jrotherton, in Cornhill ; T. Worrall at the Judge's Head 
n Fleet Street ; and J. Jackson near St. James' Gate, 
n ll Mall. MDCCXXXI. Price bound Six Shillings." 
Now nine years previously, in 1720, Defoe had written 
The Life, Adventures and Pyracies of the famous 
Captain Singleton,' and in 1719 had appeared, by the 
ame author, ' The King of the Pirates ; being an account 
f the famous Enterprizes of Captain Avery, the Mock 
ng of Madagascar. With his Rambles and Piracies ; 
/herein all the Sham accounts formerly published of 
im are detected. In two Letters from himself; one 
uring his Stay at Madagascar, and one since his Escape 
rom thence.' 

All these works, like ' Robinson Crusoe,' were written 
s autobiographies, and amongst the publishers for whom 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 15, '90. 

they were printed, there always appears the name of 
"J. Brotherton in Cornhill." It may be remarked 
that the scene of a portion of Capt. Singleton's ad- 
ventures is laid also in Madagascar. According to Mr. 
Lee, " Defoe must have felt that, in writing a preface, 
his task was needless, as a recommendation. His brief 
and simple address is, therefore, intended to aid the 
little artifice that he had merely edited Crusoe's own 
narrative " (p. 292). 

To add to such an artifice (supposing ' Robert Drury's 
Journal ' to be fictitious), the editor, whoever he may be, 
inserts a " certificate " before his preface, as follows : 
" This is to certify, that Robert Drury, Fifteen Years a 
Slave in Madagascar, now living in London, was 
redeem'd from thence and brought into England, his 
Native Country, by Myself. I esteem him an honest, 
industrious Man, of good Reputation, and do firmly 
believe that the Account he gives of his Strange and 
Surprising Adventures is Genuine and Authentick. 
May 7, 1728. Wm. Mackett." 

Let us compare the two prefaces, viz., that of Crusoe 
with that of Drury : 


" If ever the Story of any " At the first Appearance 
private Man's Adventures of this Treatise, I make no 
in the World were worth Doubt of its being taken 

making Publick, and were 
acceptable when Publish'd, 
the Editor of this Account 
thinks this will be so. The 
Wonders of this Man's Life 
exceed all that (he thinks) 
is to be found extant ; the 
Life of one Man being 
scarce capable of a greater 
Variety. The Story is told 
with so much Modesty, with 
Seriousness, and with a 
religious Application of 
Events to the Uses to which 
wise Men always apply them 

for such another Romance 
as 'Robinson Cruso ';* but 
whoever expects to find 
here the fine Inventions of 
a prolifick Brain will be 
deceiv'd : for so far as every 
Body concern'd in the Pub- 
lication knows, it is nothing 
else but a plain, honest 
Narrative of Matter of 

" The Original was wrote 
by Robert Drury, which 
consisting of eight Quires in 
Folio, each of near an hun- 

(viz.) to the Instruction of dred Pages, it was necessary 

others by this Example, to contract it, and put it in 

and to justify and honour a more agreeable Method : 

the Wisdom of Providence But he constantly attended 

in all the variety of our 
Circumstances, let them 
happen how they will. The 
Editor believes the thing to 
be a just History of Fact ; 
neither is there any appear- 
ance of Fiction in it ; and 
however thinks, because all 
such things are dispatch'd 
that the Improvement of it, 
as well to the Diversion as 
to the Instruction of the 
Reader, will be the same, 
and as such, he thinks, 
without further Compli- 
ment to the World, he does 
them a great Service in the 

' CRUSOE,' vol. ii. 
" The Success the former 
Part of this Work has met 
with in the World, has yet 

the Transcriber, and also 
the Printer, so that the 
utmost Care has been taken 
to be well inform'd of every 
dubious, strange, and intri- 
cate Circumstance. And 
aa to the large Proportion 
of Credit which we give 
him, it will be found not to 
arise from an implicit Faith 
for every Thing he mighl 
think proper to relate ; but 
from the strong Proof the 
Matters related receive by 
concurring Testimony, anc 
the nature of the Thing." 


" The Account here given 

of the Religion of these Peo 

pie, may be thought by some 

* Cruso. Among the ministers educated at Newing 
ton Green, where Defoe was educated, Mr. Lee mention 
a Mr. Timothy Cruso. 

>een no other than is ac- to be invented by the Tran- 
:nowledged to be due to scriber to serve an End, or 
he Surprizing Variety of Inclination of his own ; but 
he Subject, and to the so far is this from being the 
agreeable Manner of the case, that the most to be 
'erformance. All the En- suspected Part of the Ac- 
leavours of curious People count of this Religion is 
o reproach it with being a Fact, as related by Drury; 

lomance, to search it for and were more strongly 

3rrors in Geography, In- confirm'd with Additions 
consistency in the Relation, of the same Nature on 
and Contradictions in the strictly examining and 
?act, have proved abortive, interrogating the Author ; 
md as impotent as ma- whose Character and Cir- 
icious. The just Applica- cumstances are also to be 
ion of every Incident, the consider'd, as that he was 
religious and useful Infer- but fourteen Years of Age 
ences drawn from every when he embark'd on this 
Part, are so many Testi- unfortunate Voyage, his 
monies to the good Design being educated at a Gram- 
of making it publick ; and mar School and in the Re- 
must legitimate all the Part ligion of the Establish d 
;hat may be call'd Inven- Church ; that ever since he 
;ion or Parable in the Story, came home he has firmly 
The Second Part, if the adher'd to the same, even 
Editor's opinion may pass, to Bigotry ; so that it wou'd 
s (contrary to the Usage of be a Weakness to imagine 
Second Parts), every Way he was able or willing to 
as entertaining as the First, invent any such Thing, 
contains as strange and sur- which might favour Free- 
prizing Incidents, and as thinking, or Natural Re- 
jreat a Variety of them; nor ligion, in Opposition to 
is the Application less seri- Reveal'd ; since they were 
ous, or suitable ; and doubt- Matters he scarce ever 
less will, to the sober, as well troubl'd himself to enquire 
as ingenious Reader, be after. And in all those 
every way as profitable and Places where Religion is 
diverting ; and this makes touch'd on, or the Original 
the abridging this Work as of Government, the Trail* 
scandalous, as it is knavish scriber is only answerable 
and ridiculous, seeing while for putting some Reflec- 
to shorten the Book, that ticna in the Author's 
they may seem to reduce Mouth, which as it is the 
the Value, they strip it of only Artifice here us'd, he 
all those Reflections, as makes no Scruple to own, 
well religious as moral, and confess that he cou'd 
which are not only the not pass such remarkable 
greatest Beauties of the and agreeable Topicks 
Work, but are calculated without making proper 
for the infinite Advantage Applications, and taking 
of the Reader. By this useful Instructions from 
they leave the Work naked them ; yet the Love of 
of its brightest Ornaments ; these Subjects has not 
and if they would, at the induc'd the Transcriber to 
same Time pretend, that alter any Facts, or add any 
the Author has supply'd the Fiction of his own; Mr. 
Story out of his Invention, Drury must answer for 
they take from it the Im- every Occurrence, the 
provement, which alone re- Character of every Person, 
commends that Invention his Conversation or Busi- 
to wise and good Men." ness with them," 

In both prefaces we find the religious " Reflections " 
and " Applications " recommended for the " Instruction " 
of the reader; and the "Thing" in both instances is 
insisted upon as a just history or honest narrative of 
" Matter of Fact." When an author insists so strenu- 
ously on the credibility of his relation, his readers are 
apt to suspect his veracity. 

M. Emile Blanchard, in the Revue dts Deux Mondes 
(1872), speaking of ' Robert Drury's Journal,' writes : 

" Robert Drury, rachete apres quinze ans de servitude, 
retourna en Angleterre. Le recit de ses aventures, qui a 

7"S. IX. FEB. 15, '90.] 



etc public, produisit une vive sensation chez nos voisins 
d'outre Mauche. La veracite du narrateur a etc affirmee ; 
pourtant, & quelques dgards, le doute est legitime. Drury 
pretend qu'il etait e8clave. Un Europeen reduit en 
esclavage ! c'est impossible, dUent ceux qui connaissent 
les Malgaches; on tue 1'Europeen peut-etre, on ne le 

place jamais dans une condition infime Le pretendu 

esclave nous entretient en particulier de son genre de 
vie pres du maitre." 

According to a manuscript pencil note inserted after 
the preface of the copy of ' Drury's Journal ' now before 
me, " Drury was a ' Porter at the India House ' (' Hughes' 
Letters,' second edition, London, 1773, vol. iii. p. 88); 
this pretended ' Journal ' of his is clearly for most part 
a fiction, probably by Defoe." 

Mr. Knowles has pointed out, in Notes and Queries, 
the source -whence Swift drew his nautical information in 
his description of the storm in the voyage to Brobding- 
nag ; in like manner I think that 31. Blanchard has 
indicated the source of the descriptions of the Malagasy 
as depicted by the author of ' Robert Drury's Journal.' 
He says : 

" Les precedes de la guerre chez les Malgaches, dont 
Flacourt nous a instruits, sont decrits dans tous les 
details par Robert Drury." 

" Dans la contree ou demeura Drury, les coutumes, le 
genre de vie, les superstitions, ressemblent a ce que 1'on 
a vu dans le pays autrefois habite par les Franc, ais. La 
confiance dans les olis est pareille, les omliasses entre- 
tiennent les memes idees ; le jeune captif anglais a 
rencontre un de ces homines qui venait de la province 

" We know," says Mr. Lee, speaking of Defoe, " by the 
catalogue of his own library, that it was well stored with 
' Voyages and Travels.' His actual experience of the 
sea was small : and it must have been from books and 
men that he gathered the professionalises so skilfully 
converted by his genius into a series of imaginary voy- 
ages." Now the author of ' Drury's Journal ' un- 
doubtedly had access to a standard French work, and I am 
curious to know whether such a book existed in Defoe's 
library, of which I have not seen the catalogue. It is 
' Hlstoire de la Grande Isle de Madagascar, composee 
par le Sieur de Flacourt,' dated 1661. 

How do I know, at first glance, that Drury had access 
to this work 1 For the simple reason that he has adopted 
Flacourt's map, merely translating a few of the refer- 
ences, as, for instance, In Flacourt's map, constructed 
in 1657 this map was republished by Dapper, and sub- 
sequently by Ogilby, the cosmographer of Charles II. 
a tract of country marked " Pays riche en bestial " 
appears in Drury's map of 1729 as " A country inrich'd 
with cattle," and so, further south, "Pays tres fertile 
Abandonne et mine par les guerres" appears as "A 
fruitfull Country abandon'd & ruin'd by the Wars." 
The spot where the Degrave was cast away, and the 
track of the Author's ' Travells ' are each carefully 
marked through those portions of the map unknown to 
the French authors. 

In 1664 Charpentier published his 'Histoire de 
I'Ktablissement de la Compagnie Francoise ': and in 
1668 M. Souchu de Rennefort published ' Relation du 
Premier Voyage de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales 
en 1'Isle de Madagascar ou Dauphine,' so there was 
abundance of material available. 

The Rev. J. Richardson, of the London Missionary 
Society, places implicit faith in Drury's Vocabulary. He 
writes, in the firm conviction that Drury's narrative is 
unimpeachable, that after he had been in Betsileo for a 
year, he " began to think that the language there spoken 
originally, while perhaps springing from a common 
stock, was totally different from that spoken by the 

Hova." He says: "I changed my opinion, however, 
before I left ; and the perusal of Robert Drury's book, 
but more especially the Vocabulary, has quite convinced 
me that the language has really been one all over the 

" I do not know that I have read anything about 
Madagascar that has given me such pleasure, and has set 
me off thinking so much, as has this Vocabulary of Drury. 

In going through this Vocabulary, I have come to 

the conclusion that Drury himself did not write it, in 
fact could not, but that it was written from dictation. 
Drury was only fourteen years of age when he left Eng- 
land. From his eleventh year he had desired to go to 
sea, and thus being restless, it is likely he would not be 
well educated. Then he was fourteen years in captivity, 
and associated only with sailors for another fourteen years 
or so before his Adventures were written. Thus we 
might call him an uneducated man. The Vocabulary, 
however, is written with care, and we can see evidence of 
method and rule in all the words. Let us remember too, 
that he was a cockney, hence that ever recurring r" 

To my mind, the " evidence of method and rule " in 
preparing all these words given in the Vocabulary is clear, 
but it is also conclusive that the words were transformed 
deliberately from a French vocabulary to adapt them to 
the pronunication which a supposed "cockney" tongue 
might be supposed to give. This is merely a suggestion. 
The preface distinctly says the work was written by the 
author, and merely abridged and transcribed by the 
editor, who remains anonymous. 

No ethnologist or philologist would dream of quoting 
' Robinson Crusoe ' as an original authority, so L must 
protest against ' Robert Drury's Journal ' being accepted 
as an unimpeachable record of language and manners in 
West Madagascar 180 years ago. As to the veracity of 
the soi-disant Drury, take the following passages : 

" The only Good which I " It vex'd me to be stopt 
got at Bengali was, that I by a River, not above an 
here learnt to swim, and I hundred Yards over. At 
attain'd to be so great a length I remembered when 
Proficient in swimming I was at Bengali, where are 
that it was a common the largest Alligators in the 
Practice for half a dozen World, and who have been 
of us to tye a Rupee apiece so bold, as to take a man out 
in an Handkerchief about of a shallow Boat ; that if 
our Middles, and swim four we came off from the Shore 
or five Miles up or down in the Night, we made a 
the river ; and when we small fire at the head, and 
came on Shear, the Gentees another at the Stern of the 
or Moors would lend us Boat, which the Alligator 
Cloaths to put on while we would not come near" 
staid ; thus we us'd to sit (p. 301). 
andregale ourselves fora few 
Hours with Arrack Punch 
and a Dinner, and then 
swim back again " (p. 8). 

Yet this was where he was accustomed, as a common 
practice, to swim five miles down or up and five miles 
back, total ten miles, to dinner ! Drury may be a good 
authority on swimming and crocodiles, but his editor 
must have sought and found more credible accounts of 
Madagascar on the shelves of his well-stocked library. 

Since writing the foregoing paragraphs I have noticed 
another mannerism, which seems to give additional reason 
for arriving at the conclusion that either the editor of 
' Captain Singleton ' and the editor of Robert Drury were 
one and the same person, or that the editor of the latter 
aped the style of the former considerably : 


"But the case in short "And sent such Word to 
was this : Captain (I for- the Captain (whose Name I 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7. s. ix. FEB. 15, m 

bear his name at present, must not declare, being 
for a particular reason), sworn to the contrary) 
Captain of the East India desiring me to go on Shoar ' 
merchant-ship bound after- (p. 17). 
wards for China " (p. 154). 

In the description of the 'After-voyage of Robert 
Drury, in 1719,' it is noticeable that he is made to say 
that Tulea, a good harbour, is well described in the 
' Waggoner.' This, I take it, means some current book 
of sailing directions, and from it the technical descrip- 
tion of various parts of the coast has evidently been 

Robert Drury also states, or, rather, his editor states 
for him : " I have read the ' Atlas Geographicus,' and 
suppose it to be a collection of all that has been -wrote of 
this island. And notwithstanding I find some Things 
there mention'd of which I give no Account, I see no 
Reason to depart from any Thing herein contain'd, nor 
to add any Thing to it ; I relate only what I saw, and 
knew myself." 

I have before me a map purporting to be ' Ancienne 
Carte Topographique de I'lsle do Madagascar. Reduite 
d'aprea le Dessin Original, de M. Robert, fait en 1727.' 
This is in a copy of Rochon's ' Voyage a Madagascar,' 
which was not published until 1791, but it indicates the 
existence of a map in 1727, in which we find the names 
of various Dians mentioned by Drury, and to which his 
editor, it appears to me, can have had access. Is it not 
remarkable that the names of these Dians should be 
marked in Robert's map of 1727, and not in the maps 
taken from Flacourt, illustrating Robert Drury's narra- 
tive in 1729 and 1731 ? 

Anglesey, Gosport. 

ST. JOHN'S, CLERKENWELL. This church, the 
Priory Church of the Knights of St. John of Jeru- 
salem, is now being reseated and generally reno- 
vated in the interior. On removing the old flooring 
and dado several interesting finds were made, among 
them being the bases of the columns of the old priory 
church, which was dedicated by Heraclius, Patri- 
arch of Jerusalem, in the year 1185. Some of the 
bases are circular in plan and of large diameter, 
apparently of the Norman period, and others are 
deeply moulded and recessed, as in the Transition. 
In the south wall a pointed doorway has been un- 
covered, together with some interesting portions 
of ashlar masonry bearing the diagonal tool marks 
in beautiful preservation. The new flooring, dado, 
&c., will be so arranged that these bits of the 
ancient church will remain exposed to view. 

High up in the middle east window is a piece of 
old stained glass, being a coat of arms bearing, 
Gules, a chevron or between three combs; on a 
chief argent, a cross gules. The chief represents 
the priory, and Cromwell, in his ' History of 
Clerkenwell,' p. 142, attributes the arms to Tun- 
stall, while at p. 150 be says they are also those of 
Ponsonby, but ends with : " To whom these arms 
may apply is as uncertain as ever." Pinks, at 
p. 228, has a short reference to the arms, and says 
they are those of Prior Botyler, but from his list 
of grand priors it would appear that this is a mis- 
print for Botyll. 

On a scaffolding being erected in the church 
recently I was enabled to get close to this glass, 
and found that upon a narrow band of glass sur- 
rounding the coat is inscribed, in beautifully 
drawn late Gothic characters, "Robertus Botyll 
Pryor : Elect AD 1439 Kesign 1469." The sur- 
rounding glass is of much later date, so that this 
panel, which measures 15-J- in. by 1(V| in., may 
have been part of the older tilling of the same win- 
dow, or removed here from another part of the 
priory. The east windows are late Perpendicular 
Gothic, and are probably the work of Prior Docwra. 
The fine early crypt is well worth a visit, there 
being several bays in perfect condition, with traces 
of colour decoration on some of the arches, and a 
curious dog-tooth ornament in plaster on the sides 
of the ribs of the groining. H. W. FINCHAM. 
172, St. John Street, E.G. 

lection of miscellaneous books and autograph let- 
ters sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson on Jan. 17 
was an interesting historical document, written on 
a single sheet of quarto paper, being the original 
warrant for the trial of the impeachment of Warren 
Hastings. It ran as follows : 

" George R. Our Will and Pleasure is that you cause 
a Court to be erected in Westminster Hall for the trial 
of Warren Hastings, Esq., to be made and furnished 
according as bath been accustomed upon the like occa- 
sions, And for so doing this shall be your Warrant. Given 
at our Court at St. James's the twenty-fourth day of De- 
cember, 17&7, in the twenty-eighth year of our Reign. By 
liis Majesty's Command SYDNEY. 

"To our trusty and well-beloved Sir Peter Burrell, 
Knight, Deputy Great Chamberlain of England." 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

[n Hentzner's "Travels in England during the 
Reign of Queen Elizabeth' is the following curious 
account : 

" While the Queen was at prayers in the antechapel a 
jentleman entered the room having a' rod, and along with 
dm another who had a tablecloth, which, after they had 
>oth knelt three times with the utmost veneration, he 
spread upon the table, and after kneeling again they both 
retired. Then came two others, one with the rod again, 
ihe other with a salt-cellar, a plate, and bread: when 
ihey had knelt as the others had done and placed what 
was brought upon the table, they also retired with the 
aine ceremonies performed by the first. At last came 
an unmarried lady, who we were told was a countess, 
mil along with her a married one bearing a tasting 
cnife ; the former was dressed in white silk, who, when 
ihe had prostrated herself three times in the most grace- 
ul manner, approached the table and rubbed the plates 
with bread and salt with as much awe as if the Queen 
tad been present. When they had waited there a 
ittle while the yeomen of the guard entered bare- 
leaded, clothed in scarlet, with a golden rose upon their 
tacks, bringing in at each turn a course of twenty-four 
iishes served in plate, most of it gilt ; these dishes were 
received by a gentleman in the same order they were 
" >rought and placed upon the table, while the lady taster 

7* S, IX. FEB. 15, '90.] 



gave to each of the guard a mouthful to eat of the particular 
dish he had brought, for fear of any poison. During the 
time that this guard (which consists of the tallest and 
stoutest men that can be found in all England, being 
carefully selected for the purpose) were bringing dinner 
twelve trumpets and two kettle-drums made the hall ring 
for half an hour together. At the end of all this cere- 
monial a number of unmarried ladies appeared, who with 
particular solemnity lifted the meat off the table and 
conveyed it into the Queen's inner and more private 
chamber, where after she had chosen for herself, the 
rest went to the ladies of the Court The Queen dined 
and supped alone, with very few attendants ; and it was 
very seldom that anybody, foreigner or native, was ad- 
mitted at that time, and then only at the intercession of 
somebody in power." 


ing of two copies of ' Piers Ploughman ' in the 
inventory, A.D. 1558, of Mr. Kichard Brere- 
ton, " of the Ley in the countie of Chester, 
esquier " (' Lane, and Chesh. Wills,' Chetham 
Soc., 1857, pp. 173-4), makes me want to sug- 
gest to some ' N. & Q.' man with a turn for 
compiling that he should collect from all printed 
wills and inventories, and other lists in the Calen- 
dars of State Papers up to, say, 1600 the names 
of all MSS. and books mentioned in them, with 
the date, owner, and reference to each. Mr. Chal- 
lenor Smith and other Wills Office officials would 
doubtless help in such an undertaking. It would 
be very interesting to know how many Chaucers, 
Piers Ploughmans, Wyclifs, &c., were left, at what 
dates, and by whom. Some archaeological society 
or journal would surely print such a list. 

Mr. R. Brereton's inventory contains, besides 
theological bocks : 

The story of Huon of Burdeax, xviij d . 
The storye of the Syege of Troye, beynge old, x d . 
A boke to distill waters, xvj d . 
Two litle boke,? of huntinge and hakinge, vj d . 
Ortus vocabulorum, xij d . 
A boke of feitw of armes, xvj d . 
Two bokes of logicke, iij 1 iiij". 
An old state boke, iij' 1 , 
Two old bokw of syvell lawes, xij d . 
An old boke of phisicke, ij d . 
A boke of jeste*, j d . 
A Btorye of greate Alexander, viij d . 
An old litle cronicle, iiij". 
The regyment of helthe, viij d . 
Pyers Ploghman, vjd. 
Virgill, iiij d . 

A boke of thorder of fryers, ij d . 
Polidore Virgill, vj d . 
Pyers Ploghman, viij d . 
An olde bok of prickesonge, j d . 
&c. &c. 

Stowe's ' Short Chronicle ' is left by a later will. 

I have just found a list of these papers, which I 
drew np for my own use shortly after Mr. Solly's 
lamented death. It does not profess in any way to 
be complete, and I have not included any of Mr. 

Solly's valuable contributions to 'N. & Q.' Such 
as it is, it may be useful to bibliographers, and if 
it led to a complete reprint of Mr. Solly's essays in 
a collected form my utmost wishes would be ful- 
filled : 

The History of Queen Zarah. Bibliographer, i. 21. 
The Whole Duty of Man. lb., ii. 73. 
Benjamin Franklin, Printer. lb., iii. 2. 
The Eikon Basilike, 1648. lb., iii. 57. 
Swift's Notes on Mackey's Characteristics. Ib., iii. 9 
Editions. Ib,, iv. 1. 
Anonymous Poems, lb., iv. 92. 
Phanuel Bacon, D.D. lb., iv. 134. 
Gray's Elegy, v. 57. 

Swift's Cadenus and Vanessa. Antiquarian Magazine, 
vii. 4. 

Swift's Conduct of the Allies. Ib., vii. 103. 
Curll's Miscellanies, 1727. Ib., vii. 263. 
Francis Hoffman. 1711. lb., ix. 6. 
Pope's Dunciad, 1723. Athenaeum, Oct. 24, 1885. 

The papers which Mr. Solly contributed to * N. & 
Q.' are necessarily shorter, but not much less im- 
portant. Accuracy was Mr. Solly's great forte, and 
in nearly every paper light is thrown upon some 
obscure point in eighteenth-century history or 
literature. I may mention as examples the papers 
short as they are, upon ' Junius's Letters,' 6" 1 S. v 
341; 'Sir Peter Temple,' ib., vi. 101; and 'John 
Gumley,' ib., vii. 62. W. F. PRIDBAUX. 

Jaipur, Kajputana. 

MUSCADIN. Lord Byron having written in 
'Don Juan' (viii. cxxiv. 7, 8) 

Cockneys of London ! Muscadins of Paris ! 
Just ponder what a pious pastime war is, 

will this use of a foreign word be considered a suf- 
ficient authority for regarding it henceforth as 
naturalized, and therefore entitled to a place in 
the ' New Dictionary ' 1 As M. Littre has enrolled 
the word, in the sense used in the quotation, among 
regular French terms, it would seem that it might 
also claim insertion in the English dictionaries of 
the future. In its figurative sense, M. Littre says, 
it came into vogue during the first French revolu- 
tion : 

" Denomination qui est nee durant la Revolution, et 
que Mme. da Genlis condamne dans ses Memoires, t. v. 
p. 92. S'est dit, en particulier, des elegants a 1'epoque 
de la republique, qui se joignirent au parti tliemudorien 
et plus tard au parti royaliste." 
He derives it from muscade, and that from muse, 
and defines it : 

" Petit-maitre, homme qui affecte une grande recherche 
dans son costume; ainsi dit du parfum des muscadine." 
It is thus equivalent to our words "dandy," "ex- 
quisite," "swell," and such like. In'N. & Q.,' 7 to S. 
viii. 487, a passage is quoted from Wolfe Tone, i. 413, 
in which he uses "Muscadin," adding as its equiva- 
lent the English word "dandy." He therefore 
regarded " Muscadin " as a French term, as might 
be expected from the date of his letter, 1796. Is 
there any instance of its use as an English term 
earlier than Lord Byron's ? W. E. BOOKLET. 



[7"> 8. IX. FEB. 15, '90. 

BOYCOTTING. The following quotation from 
' The Example of France, a Warning to Britain,' 
by A. Young, 1793, p. 147, note, is perhaps worthy 
of a corner in ' N. & Q.': 

"There is one object in associations which has not 
been thought of, but which would, perhaps, be as useful 
and effective as any other, and that it, for associators to 
resolve against dealing with any sort of Jacobin trades- 
men : if the atrocity of attempts to alter a constitution, 
which so effectually protects property, as that of Eng- 
land does, on comparison with any other that Europe 
sees, be well considered, the supineness of mankind, in 
giving encouragement to those whose utmost efforts are 
aimed at its destruction, will surely appear the most 
marvellous stupidity." 

This extract clearly shows that the modern 
system of boycotting is not a new idea. 


The gentlemen whose names are marked with 
asterisks in the following list represented a branch 
of some family included in Shirley's ' Noble and 
Gentle Men of England.' 

Jan. 13. Edward Hicks, Wilbraham Temple, Camb., Esq. 
Jan. 20. *Marqui8 of Donegal. 
Jan. 22. Sir G. G. O'Donnel, Bart. 
Jan. 25. Sir H. W. Dashwood, Bart. 
Feb. 1. Sir Frederick Hughes, Bart. 
Feb. 4. Joseph Yorke, Forthampton, Worcestershire. 
Feb. 5. *Earl of Effingham. 
Feb. 13. Rev. Sir Frederick Boyd, Bart. 
Feb. 23. Lord Dungany. 

Feb. 25. *C. H. Mainwaring, Whitmore, Salop, Esq. 
March 11. Earl of Radnor. 

March 14. Rev. W. F. R. S. Penoyre, The Moor, Heref. 
March 20. Sir Thomas Gladstone, Bart. 
March 22. R. D. Shafto, Whitworth, Durham, Esq. 
March 27. *Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 
March 29. *Earl of Carlisle. 
April 3. Marquis of Ely. 
April 4. Sir J. Clarke- Jervoise, Bart. 
April 6. Rev. Sir F. A. Gore-Ouseley, Bart. 
April 10. Sir Morison Barlow, Bart. 
April 11. *T. C. Fairfax-Cholmeley, Brandsby and Gil- 
ling, Yorkshire, Esq. 
April 19. Sir Alan Bellingham, Bart. 
April 23. Sir J. W. (Dickinson) Walrond, Bart. 
May 8. Sir G. R. Waldie Griffith, Bart. 
May 17. Earl of Malmesbury. 
May 22. Rev. Sir T. C. Hughe?, Bart. 
May 25. Earl of Caithness. 
June 5. Sir W. W. Arbuthnot, Bart. 
June 13. Sir Edward Denny, Bart. 
June 14. Sir James Falshaw, Bart. 
July 14. Rev. M. T. Farrer, Ingleborough, Yorkshire. 
July 18. Lord Aahburton. 

July 18. *Rev. N. Bond, Creech Grange, Dorset. 
July 20. Sir R. Spencer Robinson, Bart. 
July 23. *Rev. Edward Fursdon, Fursdon, Devon. 
July 24. Richard Hereford, Sufton, Heref. 
Aug. 1. Sir William Ewart, Bart. 
Aug. 4. Sir H. Meredyth, Bart. 
Aug. 14. *Sir H. C. Oxenden, Bart. 
Aug. 25. Earl of Granard. 
Aug. 25. Col. Tomline, Orwell, Suffolk. 
Aug. 26. Sir A. A. J. Stewart, Bart. 
Aug. 28. Lord Addington. 
Sept. 3. T. J. Phillips-Jodrell, Yeardsley, Cheshire, Esq 

Sept. 20. Brodie of Brodie. 

Sept. 21. R. B. Richards-Mynors, Treago, Heref., and 
Evancoed, Wales, Esq. 

Sept. 21. *W. F. Vernon, of Harefield, Middlesex, Esq. 

Sept. 29. G. R. Clarke, Swanswick, Somerset, Esq. (heir- 
general of Hyde of Hyde, Cheshire). 

Oct. 7. The O'Donoghue. 

Oct. 15. Sir D. Gooch, Bart. 

Oct. 16. *Sir C. J. Woleeley, Bart. 

Oct. 16. Lord Digby. 

Oct. 20. Viscount Torrington. 

Oct. 21. Earl of Orkney. 

Oct. 22. Earl of Leven and Melville. 

Oct. 25. *Rev. J. D. (Pigott) Corbet, Sundorne, Salop. 

Oct. 26. Lord Teynham. 

Nov. 5. Rev. T. France-Hayhurst, Bostock and Daven- 
ham, Cheshire. 

Nov. 6. *Viscount Falmouth. 

Nov. 9. Earl of Mountcashell. 

Nov. 13. Sir S. M. Peto, Bart. 

Nov. 22. Lord Blacbford. 

Nov. 24. Lord de Blaquiere. 

Nov. 25. Lord Carbery. 

Dec. 4. John Borlase, Pendeen and Castle Horneck, 
Cornwall, Esq. 

Dec. 5. Sir P. F. Shelley, Bart. 

Dec. 6. W. Philips, Montacute, Somerset, Esq. 

Dec. 8. *W. C. Clifton-Dicconson, Wrightington, Lan- 
cashire, Esq. 

Dec. 19. Sir William Dunbar, Bart. 

Dec. 20. *Sir F. F. Turvile, Husband's Bosworth, Lei- 

Dec. 21. G. J. Serjeantson, Hanlith and Camphill, York- 
shire, Esq. 

Dec. 21. Alfred Constable-Maxwell, Terregles, Esq. 

Dec. 23. *Sir Paul W. Molesworth, Bart. 

Dec. 25. Viscount Frankfort de Montmorency. 


Westbank, Macclesfield. 

BEAUTIFUL." The following lines, from the Rev. 
Thomas Yalden's ' Hymn to Darkness,' are said by 
Dr. Johnson to be " exquisitely beautiful." As 
the doctor was a severe critic, and not given to 
unnecessary laudation, it is curious to see the kind 
of work that elicited such high commendation : 

Thou dost thy smiles impartially bestow, 
And know'st no difference here below : 
All things appear the same to thee ; 

Though light distinction makes, thou givest equality. 


"No LOVE LOST." In ordinary conversation 
one habitually hears the saying "There's no love 
lost between them " used to imply a life of domestic 
bickering or enmity. In the version of the ballad 
of ' The Children in the Wood ; or, the Norfolk 
Gentleman's Will,' &c., given by Eitson, ed. 1813, 
occur these lines : 

No love between these two was lost, 

Each was to other kind. 
In love they liv'd, in love they died. 

K. H. BUSK. 

FEMININE LATINITY. Persons who make use 
of scraps of languages which they do not know, 
sometimes make strange mistakes. We have just 

7* S. IX. PBB. 15, : 90.J 



met with the following, which entertained as, as 
we think it will our readers : " His friend and the 
field-marshal were nearly terras incognitas to each 
other " (Anna Maria Porter, ' Village of Marien- 
dorph,' 1821, vol. ii. p. 121). N. M. & A. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

COAT-TAILS. I want a quotation or reference 
for the Irishman's invitation to some one to " tread 
on his coat-tails," or for any transferred application 
of the phrase or notion, such as one has often read 
in newspaper leaders, or extra - parliamentary 
speeches, in which "trailing one's coat-tails" is 
put for provoking or challenging to fight. It would 
be interesting to know where the phrase first 
appeared. I should be glad of references and 
quotations direct ; but the subject is worth illus- 
tration in ' N. & Q.' J. A.. H. MURRAY. 


SCHOLBS. In the counties of York and Lanca- 
shire the surname of Scholes is fairly common. 
Can any reader give its derivation or meaning ? 
Lower and Bardsley are silent. 

Eden Bridge, Kent. 

EPISCOPAL SIGNATURES. I am anxious to ob- 
tain a complete list of the signatures proper to 
each bishopric in the Church of England. The 
Church calendars and other authorities I have 
consulted shed no light on the subject. 

J. M. D. 

Tokyo, Japan. 

j3iR JAMES CRAWFORD. Biographical diction- 
aries ignore Sir James Crawford, British minister 
at Hamburg from 1798 to 1803, and afterwards at 
Copenhagen. He played a most important role, 
and made the daring coup of arresting Napper 
Tandy on neutral ground, and transmitting him a 
prisoner to Ireland. The editor of ' The Corn- 
wallis Papers' says (iii. 242) that he died on 
July 9, 1839 ; but I think he confounds him with 
another Crawford, for the Gentleman's Magazine 
of the day, in an obituary notice, makes no refer- 
ence to his diplomatic career. Where can a good 
memoir of Sir James Crawford be found ? 

W. J. F. 

CONVENTS AT CALAIS, 1730-1800. What con- 
vents (where young English ladies were educated) 
existed during this period ? To what orders did 
they belong 1 Where are their records now to be 
seen ^ What books or MSS. furnish information 
on this subject ? As it is of importance for me to 
discover the particular convent (or convents) at 

Calais where three English ladies were educated, 
as also the length of their stay there, during this 
time, I should feel very thankful for any help in 
the matter. C. MASON. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

find a piece of humorous poetry of which the first 
verses run somewhat thus ? 

In Number One lived Captain Drew, 
George Benson lived at Number Two, 

The street I need not mention. 
The latter dinned the King's Bench Bar, 
The former, being lamed in war, 
Sung small upon a pension. 

Tom Blewitt knew them both, than he 
None better skilled in culinary knowledge. 
From turtle soup to Stilton cheese, 
Apt student, taking his degrees 
In Mrs. Bundle's college. 

The piece is about a " haunch of venison," but my 
father, who is anxious to get hold of it again, can- 
not exactly remember the title, and never knew the 
author. He believes, however, it was in a collec- 
tion of poetry of the same kind published early in 
the century. NELLIE MACLAGAN. 

NARY. Can any of your readers give me the exact 
date in 1690 of the birth of this illustrious lady ? 


Temple Chambers. 

IN 1821.' A pamphlet of seventy-nine pages was 
published by " J. Limbird, 143, Strand," in 1824, 
with this title : " Narrative of Lord Byron's Voyage 
to Corsica and Sardinia during the Summer and 
Autumn of the year 1821. Compiled from Minutes 
made during the Voyage by the Passengers, and 
Extracts from the Journal of His Lordship's Yacht 
The Mazeppa, kept by Capt. Benson, R.N., Com- 
mander." Is anything known of the origin and 
history of this pamphlet ? The " narrative " is so 
sensational and improbable that it looks like a 
wholesale fabrication, and, according to Moore's 
' Life,' Byron spent the " summer and autumn of 
1821 " at Eavenna. ESTE. 

of your subscribers give me a list of these, with 
dates, or any particulars concerning Kichard Haegb, 
one of the priors of that house ? HISTORICUS. 

give information about one Antoni Waterlo ? He 
was a wood engraver ; but I kno-y nothing further 
about him, excepting that I have only met with 
landscapes by him, and never with anything done 
on copper. F. P. 

&c. Can any reader oblige me with references to 



[7* S. IX. FEB. 15, '90. 

information bearing on the forerunners of our 
modern restaurants ordinaries, cooksbops, eating- 
houses, &c. ? I have consulted Lydgate, Dekker, 
'Old and New London,' and Charles Knight's 
' London,' and I know of the passages in Ben Jon- 
son's plays, Pepys, Defoe, Smollett, and Scott. 


TYRREL. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' give 
information regarding a former vicar of Malmes- 
bury, in Wilts, of this name 1 He lived, I believe, 
at about the beginning of the present century. 

J. H. K. 

EVIDENCE IN COURT. I read this : " No 
journalist is obliged to answer any question as to 
the authorship of articles." On what is this dictum 
founded, which seems to clash so seriously with 
the wording of the oath as to " the truth, the whole 
truth"? A. H. 

BRICKBAT. What is the difference between a 
brick and a brickbat ? The following entry occurs 
in the Churchwardens' accounts of St. Giles's, Read- 
ing, under the date of 1519-1520 : " Paid for 
brykes, breke batts, lyme ed sand for a reredosse ed 
a ovyn, for workmanshipp of the same vij"' 
(p. 10). ANON. 

this poem, and in what book may it be found? 
From the following stanza Landseer derived the 
motif for his painting 'The Monarch of the Glen ': 
When first the daystar's clear, cool light, 
Chasing night's shadows gray, 
With silver touched each rocky height 
That girded wild Glen-strae, 
Uprose the monarch of the glen, 
Majestic, from his lair, 
Surveyed the scene with piercing ken, 
Aud snuffed the fragrant air. 

S. P. M. 
Newton, Mass., U.S. 

numerous works that have appeared (and are 
appearing) on Shakspeare, I fail to find anything 
referring specially to his heraldry. The long list of 
books at our Birmingham Memorial Library con- 
tains nothing of the sort. Can some of your readers 
point out such a work ? If the thing has not been 
done, it affords an opportunity of adding an inter- 
esting volume to the already imposing catalogue of 
Shakspeariana. J. BAGNALL. 

Water Orton. 

"ALBION PERFIDE." I shall be glad of infor- 
mation as to the origin of the appellation " Albion 

In Mr. G. W. Joy's painting of ' Wellington's 
First Encounter with the French,' Arthur Wesley 
is depicted as he appeared after he had presented 
his letter of introduction to the kindly-looking 
veteran and celebrated engineer-general the Mar- 

quis de Pignerol, the director of the Military School 
at Angers, founded, it may be remarked, by St. 
Louis. In the background of the picture one of 
Wesley's future schoolfellows who, apparently, 
are not friendly disposed to the new pupil points 
to the freshly written words " Albion perfide " on 
the wooden dado of the wall of the schoolroom, on 
another part of which is scrawled " M. Jean Bull." 
On the authority of General Sir A. Mackenzie it 
has been stated that the school at Angers was much 
frequented by young Englishmen, because the Mar- 
quis de Pignerol looked after their studies and his 
brother had a fine riding school ; but perhaps for 
the better reason that at the time there was no 
military school or institution of the kind in Eng- 
land ! The supposed antipathy of the French boys 
to the young English stranger is, therefore, I think, 
over accentuated; and, moreover, as the appellation 
in question has been attributed to Napoleon the 
Great, its appearance in Mr. Joy's picture is ana- 
chronistic. HENRY GERALD HOPE. 
6, Freegrove Road, N. 

ARMS. What were the arms borne by Ehys-ab 
Madoc-ab David, Prince of Glamorgan, A. D. 1150 1 
What relation was he to the King of Glamorgan, 
1091 ? K. J. J. 

very much obliged if you could tell me in 'N. & Q.' 
the date and month of the great Berners Street 
hoax in 1809. CHARLES KORN. 

pedigree in my possession (it is a copy, I am in- 
clined to think, from some work on Lancashire 
genealogies) that Robertas Pincerna had a son, 
Willielmus Pincerna, alias le Boteler (ob. 18 
Hen. Ill), who had a son, Almeric le Boteler, who, 
by Beatrix, daughter and heiress of Matthew 
Villers, lord of Warrington, bad a younger son 
" D'ns. Ricardus le Boteler, qui habuit totam terrain de 
Hout Rawcliffe, et unam bovatam terrae in Stagnole ex 
dono consang: sui Theobald Walter! Pincerna), Hibernise, 
A 9. Ed. I." 

Is this Theobald Walter (or FitzWalter) identical 
with the fourth Butler of Ireland, who died 1285 
(vide Burke's ' Peerage,' sub. " Ormond ") ? and 
what was the degree of relationship that existed 
between him and the aforesaid Richard, from whom 
descended the Butlers of Rawcliffe and Kirkland, 
co. Lancaster? GUALTERULUS. 

VINCENZO MONTI. Will any student of Italian 
tell me who are meant by the phantom band of 
hypocrites whom the poet sees in vision surround- 
ing the scaffold of Louis XVI. in his fine poem 
' Bassvilliana,' canto iii. 292-315, and by the 
" Ipocrito d' Ipri," of whom they are said to be 
"gli schivi settator tristi"? AJso, what is the 
meaning of the allusion to " Borgofontana " 
(v. 314) ? In vv. 295-300, which are closely imi- 

7* S. IX. FEB. 15, '90.] 



tated from Dante, ' Inferno,' xxiii. 58-67, there is 
a metaphor which almost exceeds poetic licence. 
Even a metaphor, I imagine, should keep within 
the bounds of possibility, however much it may 
go beyond probability. The poet saya that these 
shades were moving so slowly, 

Che le lumacce al paragon son veltri, 
i.e., "that compared with them snails are grey- 
hounds." This is all but equivalent to saying 
that they were not moving at all. I frankly admit, 
however, that Monti is much more likely to be 
right than I am. " Vex not thou the poet's mind 
with thy shallow wit," says Tennyson. 

The whole passage of twenty-four lines is very 
obscure to me, and I ask for enlightenment. 
There is no note on it in the edition I am reading 

Ropley, Alresford. 

DRAUGHT. How is it that the word draft, or 
draught, does not appear in any but quite recent 
dictionaries as signifying a current of air ? Surely 
the word must have acquired this meaning long 
before the present century. Exiled in a remote 
country town, I am unable to discover whether the 
' New English Dictionary ' has tackled this word. 

E. L. P. 

[Dr. Murray's ' Dictionary ' has not yet arrived at the 

CHATEAU LANDON. Can any of your readers 
give me any information about Chateau Landon, 
near Fontainebleau, Department Seine et Marne ? 
1. When was it last inhabited, and by whom ? 2. 
What was the history of the place and its former 
owners ? 3. Are there any local histories or other 
sources of information from which these details 
can be learnt ? 4. Is there any publication issued 
in France similar to ' N. & Q.,' in which questions 
relating to family history are discussed 1 

[4. Melusine, L' Intermediate.'] 

MOTTO OK BOOK-PLATE. I should be glad to 
receive the translation of the following motto, 
found on a book-plate of the last century belong- 
ing to Hendrick Rutgers, of New York, U.S., of 
supposed Dutch descent. I cannot say whether 
the first six letters form one or two words. There 
seems to be a slight space between "tan" and 
"tes." The lettering is very distinct. What is 
the language ? " Tan tes da dir." 


14, Rue Clement Marot, Parig. 

FAMILIES. In Burke's 'Landed Gentry,' ed. of 
1852, sub nom. "Crompton of Hacking," it is 
stated that "a tribute was paid by the pen of 
Roscoe to the memory of the relict of the elder of 
these brothers [i.e., James Hardman, Esq., of 

Allerton Hall], Jane, daughter of George Leigh, 
Esq., of Oughtrington." What was this "tribute"? 
Where, when, and how was it published ? 



(7* S. ix. 9.) 

There are on record three sets of rules under 
the name of St. Augustine. It would be rather 
tedious, and possibly not interesting, to follow these. 
They contained respectively nine, five, and forty- 
four chapters. The first two are very different from 
the third ; and while it is assumed the latter may 
have been written by St. Augustine, there are 
serious doubts on this head also. Yet these rules 
were doubtless those upon which were founded the 
religious orders. To the third set of rules, there- 
fore, I will only refer, of course in so far as these 
strike me as being quite different from other 

The differences turn more upon matters con- 
nected with some particular duty or, of course, a 
rule clearly set forth. The monks of the order 
were obliged to wash their own clothes, except by 
special permission of their superior; they were not 
allowed to go to the baths singly, but in twos or 
threes, as permitted by the superior. A special 
rule provided that these monks were to shun law 

The rule of St. Francis consisted of twelve 
articles. These friars were not allowed to ride on 
horseback without special permission ; they were 
strictly forbidden to receive money, directly or in- 
directly; and when their labour was insufficient to 
keep them they were to go and beg. Chap. xi. 
provides that no monk of this order must be god- 
father of any child, nor is he permitted to enter 
the monasteries of nuns. They were not allowed 
to go to foreign countries for the purposes of con 
verting without leave of their provincial ministers. 
It is worth noticing that St. Francis instituted 
three different orders the first of minors in 1206; 
the second of nuns in 1212 ; the third in 1221, 
which was common to both sexes, permitting every 
one to live at home in his own hermitage. 

The rule of St. Benet consisted of seventy- 
three chapters ; it is, however, by some attributed 
to Gregory III. There are four sorts of monks 
named as living under the same rule, but St. Benet 
declares that his rule belongs to none but the first 
sort of monks, called Coenobites. Chap. xrxv. 
orders that the monks serve weekly by turns in 
the kitchen and at table, and " that they ought 
during the week to wash the feet of the others, 
and on Saturday to clean all the plates and the 
linen which served to wipe the feet of their 
brethren." Two different dishes to each monk 
were allowed at dinner, with fruits and one pound 



[7"> S. IX. FEB. 15, '90. 

of bread. The quantity of wine was fixed by a 
measure called hemina. The wine was forfeited by 
any monk who arrived late at dinner. Hours of 
working with their hands were three in the morn- 
ing and the same in the afternoon. " A monk of 
this order was in all places to hang down his head 
and his eyes towards the ground." A lamp was to 
be kept burning all night in the sleeping places of 
the monks, who were to sleep with their girdles 
on ; the youngest men's beds were to be arranged 
near one another. They were ordered to eat in 
silence, and were to make signs for everything 
wanted rather than speak. It is worthy of note 
that chap. lix. prescribes the form for presenting 
children to the monastery. 

The order of St. Basil in some copies has thirty- 
five chapters, in others ninety-five and one hun- 
dred. In the main there is little difference in these 
rules from those common to societies of the kind. 
The fourteenth chapter stipulates that no man 
entered as a monk is to return to his parents' 
house, unless by permission of the superiors. 

The Carthusian order followed the rules of St. 
Benet, with certain additions. The rule consisted 
of nineteen articles. They were never to buy any 
fish, were only to eat bread made of bran, and to 
drink water mingled with wine. On Sundays 
nothing but cheese and eggs, Thursdays the same, 
Tuesdays and Saturdays pulse, and only bread and 
water the rest of the week. 
_ The rule of St. Francis of Paula was an imita- 
tion of Francis of Assisy, although the former 
composed two others. Dying without the cord 
with two knots (part of their dress), there is no 
mercy no heaven for them. 


Unfortunately, having been laid up for nearly 
three weeks, I am unable to get at some books I 
wished to consult upon this subject. I have, how- 
ever, one at hand, ' Scenes and Characters of the 
Middle Ages,' by Eev. E. L. Cutts, B.A., where 
it is said that the rule of St. Benedict added to 
the three existing vows of 

" obedience, poverty, and chastity, that of manual 
labour (for seven hours a day), not only for self-support, 
but aUo as a duty to God and man. Another important 
feature of this rule was that the vows were perpetual, 
and his rule lays down a daily routine of monastic life in 
much greater detail than the preceding rules appear to 
Lave done." 

It appears, however, that the Saxon monasteries 
had no regulation as to uniformity of rule. Some 
kept one and some another. The rule enforcing 
manual labour was soon relaxed, as it occupied time 
which could have been better employed, especially 
as it ultimately became a mere perfunctory observ- 
ance. In the branch of the Benedictine order 
founded at Clairvaux by St. Bernard strict silence 
appears to have been added to the rule already in 

force. The Clugniac branch abrogated the manual 
labour rule, and devoted themselves more to the 
cultivation of the mind. The Carthusian was the 
most severe of all the Benedictine orders, as 

"to the strictest observance of the rule they added 
almost perpetual silence; flesh was forbidden even to 
the sick ; their food was confined to one meal of pulse, 
bread, and water daily." 

The Cistercian order professed to observe the rule 
of St. Benedict 

" with rigid exactness, only that some of the hours 
which were devoted by the Benedictines to reading and 
study, the Cistercians devoted to manual labour; they 
affected a severe simplicity." 

All these orders made the rule of St. Benedict the 
groundwork upon which they raised their super- 
structures. The Canons Secular of St. Augustine 
" could, according to their rule, wear their beards, 
although from the thirteenth century we find them 
usually shaven." The Canons Regular of St. Augus- 
tine were the least ascetic of the monastic orders, 
as they are recorded to have been well shod, well 
clothed, and well fed, " their rule allowing them 
to go out when they like, mix with the world, and 
to talk at table." The Premonstratensian branch 
of the Augustinian order was very strict, as they 
added a severe personal discipline; the abbots "used 
no episcopal insignia, and the nuns were not to 
sing in church or choir, and to pray in silence." 
The Gilbertines had double houses, the monks and 
nuns living in one enclosure, but with a rigid sepa- 
ration between them, "the monks following the 
Augustinian rule, the nuns the Cistercian." The 
nuns of Fontevraud, the female order of our 
Saviour, or Brigittines, and the Bonhommes all 
followed the Augustinian rule with minor alterations 
only. There were some offshoots of this great and 
noble order which obeyed the rule with such 
modifications as were sanctioned by St. Nicholas 
of Arroasia and St. Victor. The Templars to 
the fundamental vows of obedience, poverty, and 
chastity, added that of fraternity. The Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem, or Knights Hospitallers, 
had a special rule, which was to afford hospitality 
to the pilgrims to the Holy Land, although this is 
hardly a religious rule, as most of the others are. 
The Trinitarians followed in religion the Augustinian, 
rule, while their special object was the redemption 
of captives. Their income was to be divided : one- 
third for their own maintenance, one-third to the 
poor, and one-third to the redemption of captives. 
The Dominican and Franciscan Friars both adopted 
the Augustinian rules, and further required not 
only that their followers should have no property 
personally, but that they should have none collec- 
tively, they were to work for their livelihood or to 
live on alms. The Carmelite Friars followed the 
rule of Sfc. Basil, which enjoined poverty, chastity, 
obedience, and self-mortification, but in a more 
severe form. The Austin Friars followed the rule 

7* S, IX, FEB. 15, '90.] 



of St. Augustine with some stricter clauses added. 
These are the chief heads of this subject rather 
crude I admit but it was impossible to give more 
than a mere outline without going too much into 
detail for which there is scarcely space at one's 
disposal. W. E. HARLAND-OXLET. 

20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

I only know the four orders of mendicant friars 
Jacobins, Franciscans, Augustins, and Car- 
melites, namely so called because they are 
bound to strict poverty and ought to live exclu- 
sively on charity. I fear me this is very meagre 
information, but I think all the particulars 
wanted about the difference between the 
various rules of the monkish orders are to be 
found in the work entitled, " Helyot. Histoire 
des Ordres Religieux et Militaires et des Con- 
gregations Religieuses, de 1'un et de 1'autre sexe. 
Termine'e par Bullot. Paris, 1714 et suiv. 8 vol. 
in-4 fig." DNARQEL. 

S. ix. 81). Miss BUSK, in her interesting article, 
says, with reference to the celebration of the sixth 
centenary of Beatrice, to be held at Florence in 
May next, that " of course the theme which must 
underlie the whole celebration is the apotheosis of 
woman, as idealized in Beatrice ; the real ideal (if 
one may so juxtapose language) of feminine per- 
fection ; woman worshipped for her beauty, 
modesty, and sagacity ; not woman stepping out 
of her sphere and unsexing herself," and so on. 

I know that it is usual to suppose that Dante 
in the ' Vita Nuova ' and in the ' Divina Corn- 
media ' intended to idealize woman in the person 
of Beatrice. They who regard the ' Vita ' as the 
history of the poet's passion for Beatrice Portinari 
have to explain how it is that he never courted 
her, that he saw her married to another man, 
while he himself was wedded to Gemma di 
Manetto, the mother of his six children. 

In my first course of Barlow Lectures on the 
' Divine Comedy,' at University College, I devoted 
much time to an analysis of the relation between 
Dante and Beatrice ; and I adopted the theory 
(which I do not claim to have originated) that in 
Beatrice, or the Blessing One, or One that Blesses, 
the poet intended to personify Divine Wisdom, as 
described in the Old Testament, in numerous 
striking passages in Job, Proverbs, the Book of 
Wisdom, &a If we read the ' Vita ' by the light 
of these passages, the above conclusion, I venture 
to think, becomes irresistible. I cannot intrude 
so much upon your space as to treat this subject 
with the fulness that it deserves, but a few ex- 
amples may be given. 

The man that findeth Wisdom is declared to be 
b- a PP v because " she is more precious than rubies, 
and none of the things thou canst desire are to be 
compared unto her. Length of days is in her 

right hand, and in her left hand are riches and 
honour. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and 
all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to 
them that lay hold upon her, and happy is every 
one that retaineth her " (Prov. viii.) 

When the poet wrote the sonnet quoted by Miss 
BUSK he had in mind the difficulty of laying hold 
of Wisdom and retaining her. Her perfections 
are such that we can only sigh after her. In 
another sonnet he savs : 

On him who 'B worthy, meekly she bestowed 
Her salutation with a look benign, 
So that his heart with goodness overflowed : 

She surely comes from Heaven a thing divine, 
And for our good on earth has her abode ; 
So blest is he who near her may remain. 

The various qualities which Holy Scripture 
applies to Wisdom, Dante attributes to Beatrice. 
Wisdom is a loving spirit, glorious, easily seen of 
them that love her, and found of such as seek her ; 
that to think of her is perfection of wisdom ; that 
she goeth about seeking such as are worthy of her, 
showing herself favourably unto them in the ways, 
and meeteth them in every thought ; that the 
beginning of her is the desire of discipline, and 
the care of discipline is love, and love is the keep- 
ing of her laws. Compare this language with that 
of the ' Vita,' and it will be found to be identical. 
Dante first announces Beatrice as the glorious 
lady of his mind ; that she appeared to him as 
such ; that the first time he ever heard her voice 
was in the street (the ways) ; that she made her- 
self known to him, and the thought of her con- 
strained him frequently to go and seek her. Her 
influence on those who saw her was such that she 
did not seem to be the daughter of man, but of 

In the ' Commedia ' the parallel is even more 
marked. In the Bible, Wisdom " is the breath of 
the power of God." In the second canto of the 
' Inferno,' Beatrice is addressed as the true praise 
of God (" Beatrice ! loda di Dio vera ! ") ; and 
Virgil says that through her alone the human race 
excelleth. In the 'Purgatorio' she is addressed 
as the light and glory of the human race. Her 
mouth is described in the ' Paradiso ' as " the 
fount whence springs all truth." 

Wisdom is "the brightness of the everlasting 
light." Beatrice is described as " the splendour 
of everlasting light. " Wisdom is " more beautiful 
than the sun, and all the order of the stars." The 
eye of Beatrice shone " brighter than the star." 
Her eyes are "the living seals of every beauty." 
Wisdom " maketh all things new." Beatrice was 
the cause of the new life in Dante, for it was, 
indeed, a new life to our poet when he first recog- 
nized Divine Wisdom. 

There is an expression at the beginning of the 
' Vita ' which has puzzled those who regard Bea- 
trice as the poet's earthly love. Dante says, " By 
many she was called Beatrice, who knew her by 



. ix. FEB. 15, -90. 

no other name." Surely common sense must 
suggest that they who knew Portinari'a daughter 
must have known her as Beatrice Portinari ; but 
they who knew of Divine Wisdom, knew her as 
the Blessing One, and knew her by no other name. 

Dante is consistent throughout. From the first 
page of the ' Vita ' to the last of the ' Commedia,' 
Beatrice is never regarded as an earthly love. 
She is never the apotheosis of woman, but always 
Divine Wisdom, " Loda di Dio vera." 

Dante wrote the ' Vita ' in his twenty-fifth year, 
and in the concluding passage he foreshadows the 
great work which has immortalized his name. He 
says : 

" A wonderful vision appeared to me, in which I saw 
things which made me determine to write no more of 
this beautiful Lady, until I could treat of her in a man- 
ner more suited to her dignity. In order to arrive at 
which, I study with all my might, as she very well 
knows. So that if it be the will of Him in whom all 
things have their being, that my life should continue 
for a few years longer, I hope to speak of her as no 
woman was ever spoken of before. And may it please 
Him who is the God of Mercy, that my soul may ascend 
to behold the glory of its Lady, the blessed Beatrice, 
who in a beatified state seeth Him face to face, qui est per 
omnia stxcula benedictus" 


Highgate, N. 

"CHERE REINE": CHARING (7 th S. viii. 507; 
ix. 115). This guessing derivation of Charing 
from chere reine could only have been invented by 
some one entirely ignorant of Early English pro- 
nunciation, for it assumes that the a in Charing 
was pronounced like the French e in chere ; whereas 
it was pronounced like the French a in gare. It 
is delicious to see such specimens of innocence ; 
they are too funny to be pernicious. 


LOVELL FAMILY (7 th S. ix. 49). An account of 
Sir Salathiel Lovel will be found in Foss, * Judges 
of England,' 1864, vol. vii. p. 395. His monu- 
mental inscription appears in Le Neve's ' Monu- 
menta Anglicana,' 1717, vol. iv. p. 261, and 
reads : 

Hie juxta 

fitae sunt reliquiae 

Salathaelis Lovell Mil TJniua 

Barpnum Curiae de Scaccario 

Sereuissimae D'nae Regin Annas 

apud Westmonasterium 

mortalitatem exuit 

3* die Maii, 
__. ( Domini 1713 
Anno { JStatis 81. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

494). The view that the small fish known as 
whitebait forms a distinct species of the genus 
Clupea used to be very generally held. Yarrell 
named it Clupea alba, a name since very commonly 

applied. On the other hand, many ichthyologists 
held and hold that whitebait is only the young or 
fry of other fish, though there was considerable 
difference of opinion as to which fish these were. 
Some believed whitebait to be the fry of the shad, 
others of the bleak ; but the most common view 
was that they were young herrings. Dr. Francis 
Day, in an article in Land and Water (April 12, 
1879), showed that whitebait consists of the young 
of herrings and sprats. Prof. Cossar Ewart and 
Mr. Duncan Matthews confirmed this view in the 
Fourth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for 
Scotland, showing by investigation that whitebait 
(so called) consists almost entirely, and at all 
seasons, of young sprats and young herrings. The 
relative proportion of sprats is greater in winter 
and less in summer. I am indebted for this exact 
reference to Mr. Wemyss Fulton, S.F.B. 

28, Heriot Row, Edinburgh. 

" COMMON OR GARDEN " (7 th S. ix. 68). May 
I be permitted to give another instance of the use 
of this phrase, which occurs in one of the London 
papers of this week 1 It will serve to show PROF. 
ATTWELL how general is its use : 

"The comparison that is made between us (and) 

me, the ornary, common, and not even garden reporter." 


EADCLIFFE (7 th S. viii. 287; ix. 32). A branch 
of this family had an earlier connexion with the 
City of London than the last century. Anthony 
Radcliffe, Merchant- Taylor, Alderman and Sheriff 
(1585), was the son of John Radcliffe (? of Sussex, 
see below), by Joan, daughter of Richard Barnard. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Bright, 
by whom issue, (1) Edward, who married Frances, 
daughter of William Gerrard, of Harrow-on-Hill ; 
(2) Anthony ; (3) Elizabeth, married to James 
Harvey; (4) Dorothy, married to William Gerrard, 
of Gray's Inn ; (5) Anne. 

Sir John Radcliffe, Knt., the son of Robert 
Radcliffe, of co. Sussex, was buried at St. Olave, 
Hart Street, 1568, and Dame Anne, his wife, 1585. 
For arms see Hatton's ' New View.' 

Hugh Radcliffe, Esq., citizen and capper 
(" Galeropolse, Londoninensis"), sometime hatter 
("Pileonis") to H.M. Charles, of sacred memory, 
and to the whole of the royal family, is described 
as of Islington parish. He died November 28, 
1678, and was interred at St. Mary's, Islington. 

Robert and Henry Radcliffe, Earls of Sussex, 
were both buried at St. Laurence Pountney 

Edward Radcliffe, lord of the manor of Isfield, 
Sussex, which he obtained in right of his wife, 
married Penelope, daughter of Arthur Shirley, of 
Isfield (buried there September 3, 1667). Penelope 
was baptized May 1, 1662. 

A probable descent for the Anthony Radcliffe 

7"_S. IX, FEB. 15, '90.] 



of Cleughbrae, for whom W. J. P. also inquires, 
would be from the Earls of Newburgh. 

James Bartholemew Radcliffe, Earl of Newburgh, 
married Barbara, daughter and heiress of Anthony 
Kemp, of Slindon, Sussex. She died 1753, aged 
eighty- one. Their son, Anthony James Radcliffe 
(successor to the title), married Ann, daughter ol 
Joseph Webbe, of Welford, Northumberland. He 
was born 1757, and died s.p. in 1814. 

These are all the notes at hand ; but there 
should be little difficulty in tracing this family. 
It was long settled at Radcliffe, by the Tower, 
Essex, from which circumstance the locality was 
named. JOHN J. STOCKEN. 

JUDAS ISCARIOT (7 th S. viii. 469). Archbishop 
Whately and Neander suggest that Judas had a 
subtle plan for forcing on the triumph of the Mes- 
sianic kingdom, in the belief that he would receive 
some high place for this service, and Mr. Story 
may have some similar view. The only tradition 
about him seems to be in the history of the wilder 
heresies of the second century, when the sect of 
the Cainites honoured him as the only apostle that 
was in possession of the true Gnosis, made him the 
object of their worship, and had a gospel bearing 
his name (Dr. Plumptre, in Smith's ' Diet, of the 
Bible'). This tradition rests on statements of 
Irenaeus (followed by Epiphanius and Theodoret) 
and Tertullian. This last author writes : 

"Hi [Cainaei], qui hoc adserunt, etiam Judam pro- 
ditorem defendunt, admirabilem ilium et magnum esse 
memorantes propter utilitates, quas humano generi con- 
tulisse jactatur. Animadvertens enim, inquiunt, Judas, 
quod Christus vellet veritatem subvertere, tradidit ilium, 
ne subvert! veritas posset. [That is the veritas held by 
the Cainites.] Et alii sic contra disputant et dicunt: 
quia potestates hujus mundi nolebant pati Christum, ne 
humano generi per mortem ipsius salus pararetur, saluti 
consulens generis humani tradidit Christum, ut salus, 
quae impediebatur per virtutes, quae obsistebant, ni pate- 
retur Christus, impediri omnino non posset : et ideo per 
passionem Christi non posset salus humani generis re- 
tardari." ' Liber de Praescriptione Haereticorum,' 
chap, xlvii. ; or as printed by Dr. Routh in his ' Opus- 
cu!a,' in his 'Libellus adversus omnes Haereticos,' 
chap. iii. p. 161, ed. 1832. 

Irenseus, as quoted by Theodoret, says of the 
KaiVot : 

TOV TrpoSoTrjv 8e 'lovSav iiovov I 

.i r>v yv<3(riv 

<j>acri, KOI 8ia TOVTO TO T^S irpoSocrias evepyncrai 
fivfTTripiov. IIpo<epovo-4 Se avrov /cat IvayyeAiov 
OTrep eKeivol (rvvTedeiKaa-i." Ed. Wigan Harvey, 
Camb., 1857, i. 242. 

The learned editors, Dr. Routh and Mr. Harvey, 
do not adduce any other traditions, and it may be 
inferred, therefore, that there are none in the 
writings of the early Christian Fathers. 


The Dean of Wells writes in Smith's 'Dictionary 
of the Bible,' i. 1163, that the sect of Cainites 

honoured Judas Iscariot as the only apostle who 
had the true Gnosis, made him the object of their 
worship, and had a gospel bearing his name. The 
references are to Neander, ' Church Hist.,' English 
translation, ii. 153 ; Irenseus, 'Adv. Hser.,' i. 35 ; 
Tertullian, 'De Praescr.,' chap, xlvii. 

W. C. B. 

The subject is one of such solemnity that it is 
hardly suitable for discussion. Something of the 
kind referred to by C. C. B. may be found in 
Origen, ' Against Celsus,' chap. xi. 



449 j ix. 54). It is worth noting that Caesar's state- 
ment to this effect was stolen, with more of his par- 
ticulars about Britain, by that arch-impostor Sir 
John Mandeville,and applied to an unnamed island 
in the extreme east. He no doubt got the passage 
not directly from Caesar, but from Vincent de 
Beauvais, 'Speculum Historiale,' ed. 1624, book L 
cap. 91. See the new Roxburghe Club edition of 
Mandeville, p. 142, and note, p. 218. 

G. F. W. 

HORATIA NELSON (7 th S. viii. 508; ix. 17). The 
article in the Athencewn of December 28, and the 
query of your correspondent relative to the death 
of Horatia Nelson, remind me that I have had in 
my possession for some years two letters respecting 
this lady; and as I believe they have never been 
published, I send you copies of them, under the 
impression that yon may consider them worthy of 
insertion in 'N. & Q.' at the present moment, 
although they have no reference to her death. 

In the ' Nelson Dispatches,' edited by Sir N. H. 
Nicolas, vol. viL p. 395, we read that Lady Hamil- 
ton died at Calais on January 6, 1814. 

The first of these letters is that from Miss 
Horatia Nelson to Lord Nelson's great friend, the 
Right Hon. George Rose, from which it would 
appear that her first engagement was with a Mr. 
Blake (although she could have been only in her 
seventeenth year), and we may assume that the 
application for his preferment was not successful, 
as it is stated that for two years after Lady Hamil- 
ton's death she resided in the family of Mr. 
Mitcham, and afterwards in that of Mr. Bolton, 
until in February, 1822, she married the Rev. P. 
Ward, Vicar of Tenterden. 

Burnham, Norfolk, Oct. 24th, 1817. 

DEAR SIB, I am well aware that you must have many 

alls on your kindness from persons who, perhaps, have 

stronger claims upon you than myself, but the great 

interest you have always been kind enough to profess for 

my welfare encourages me to address you. I am appro- 

lensive that I must give up the idea of obtaining any- 

;hing from Government; and you would be rendering 

me a most essential service if you could by any means 

jrocure a piece of preferment for Mr. Blake. 

I should think it very presumptuous on my part to 



[7* 8. IX. FEB. 15, 'SO. 

make such an application as this to you were it not for 
the connection which subsists between us. I look up 
to you as one of my Guardians, and it is this con- 
sideration which alone encourages me to ask so great a 
favor at your hands. It is not for me to point out the 
channel thro' which the favor I have ventured to 
solicit might most probably be obtained. You best know 
how to exercise your influence, and if you would have 
the goodness to exert it on this occasion, in the manner 
I have suggested, I should feel most truly grateful to 
you. I am, Sir, your much obliged ^^ 

and humble servant, 


Upon the receipt of the above letter Mr. Rose 
wrote the following to the Prime Minister, enclos- 
ing it : 

Mudiford, Oct. 29, 1817. 

MT DEAR LORD, I am most deeply concerned at the 
situation of the writer of the enclosure, recommended to 
my best attention by the Hero in parting from him when 
he last sailed from Spithead (at which time I had never 
seen her), and strongly recommended to his Country in 
his very last moments. Sbe will not have wherewithal 
to buy Cloathes on the death of Mr. Matcham. She is, 
it seems, engaged to be married to the Gentleman she 
mentions, but his friends refuse their consent unless some 
moderate preferment can be procured for him ; he is now 
a Curate. Do you think the Chancellor could be moved 
for him, supposing a Pension of 2001. a year to be quite 
impossible < 

I hope to hear that your health is perfectly restored. 
I have not profited by a month's residence here as I had 
expected. I return to CuffneH's on Saturday. ^-^, 
I am, my Dear Lord, ft v 

Most truly yours. 



OXGANGS (7 th S. yiii. 407, 457). This was not 
a measure of land in the sense of our term acre, 
but of the extent which might be cultivated by 
the labour of one ox in a year. Hence the vary- 
ing estimates of its acreable extent, for on light, 
easily worked soils a team would get over several 
times as many acres as on heavy land, while the 
situation and varying methods of husbandry in 
different districts would still further affect the 
amount of work done, making it, on the whole, as 
much as from thirty-five to forty acres in one dis- 
trict, and as little as from eight to ten in another. 

The oxgang was thus analogous to the jugum, 
or jugerum (literally yoke), of the Romans, which, 
although it eventually came to stand for a precise 
extent of land, at first meant " quod juncti boves 
uno die exarare possint " (Varro). We may also 
compare the obscurer, but evidently allied, refer- 
ence in Virgil's description of the extent of the site 
on which Dido founded Carthage : 

Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo. 

The oxgang was, indeed, a definite proportion of 
the carucate; but the carucate (from caruca, a 
plough) varied itself in extent for the same reason 
as the oxgang, consisting simply of eight oxgangs. 
" In the North of England," says Nasse (' Agri- 
cultural Community of the Middle Ages '), " the 

partition of the land according to bovatte (bos, an 
ox) or oxlands prevailed, 8 oxen being reckoned to 
each carucate or ploughland." And, referring to 
the ploughing being done often by eight (some- 
times more) oxen, he observes : 

" That this custom was very ancient follows from the 
previously mentioned old divisions of the ploughlands 
(carucata) into 8 bovatae (oxgangs)." 

In fine, the oxgang was the allotment of a single 
small proprietor, each one providing an ox, and 
the eight oxen of the ploughland making up the 

" The carucate mentioned in the Saxon holdings just 
quoted," says Mr. Poulson, in his 'Hist, and Antiq. of 
Holderness,' " is usually esteemed to contain 100 acres, 
that is, the common hundred, which was 120 acres, or 
what in Yorkshire was called a ploughland as much 
arable ground as could be managed with one plough and 
the beasts belonging to it in a year." 

And he adds : 

" In levying an aid in the year 1345, 20th Ed. III., in 
order to create the King's eldest son a knight ...... the 

fee of Boss, in Holderness, consisted of 46 carucates and 
a half, and in each carucate there were 8 oxgangs of 

The 120 acres just mentioned for a carucate is 
merely an average, just as fifteen or twenty would 
be the average extent of the oxgang. That the 
carucates or ploughlands were simply eight oxgangs 
is clear also from such entries in Domesday as : 

" The soke of Mere Estrincton, 5 carucates; Ballebi, 
half a carucate ; Cledinton, one carucate ; Aschilebi, 4 
carucates ; Barnebi, 5 carucates ; Babetorp, 3 carucates 
and 2 oxgangs; Bardalbi, 1 carucate "; 

in the summary given of which, " To be taxed in 
all, 19 carucates and 6 oxgangs," we find the half 
carucate and the two oxgangs added together as 
six oxgangs. THOMAS J. EWING. 


(7 th S. ix. 61). Pope's version of the 
fable of ' The Mouse and the Weasel ' should be 
classed among ' Blunders of Authors ' for a double 
reason. Not only does he reverse the original 
story, but his natural history is altogether wrong, 
since weasels do not eat corn. 

Apropos to the story of 'The Wolf and the 
Mule,' it is worth remembering that Sisyphus out- 
witted Autolycus by marking his cattle under the 
hoof. C. C. B. 

SIR GEORGE ROSE, F.R.S. (7 th S. ix. 68). 
Mr. G. W. Bell printed for private circulation a 
short account of Sir George Rose, entitled, ' In Re- 
membrance of the Hon. Sir George Rose,' &c. For 
shorter accounts see 'Alumni Westmon.' (1852), 
p. 457, and Annual Register, 1873, pt. ii. p. 163. 
Mr. Bell states that Rose was " the son of a 
lighterman at Limehouse." From the certificate 
of baptism preserved amongst the Westminster 
School papers it appears that he was the son of 
James and Elizabeth Rose, and that he was bap- 

7* S. IX. FEB. 15, '90.] 



tized on June 5, 1782, at St. Bartholomew's Ex- 
change. G. F. R. B. 

See short obituary notice in Annual Register, 
1873, the year of his death (December 3). 



CONFIRMATION (7 th S. viii. 348, 470 ; ix. 37, 
78). Your original correspondent may be glad to 
have the following extract from the dedication 
to a sermon preached on confirmation at St. 
Nicholas's Church, Newcastle-on-Tyne, by the 
then vicar, Dr. N. Ellison, June 23, 1700. Ad- 
dressing his Diocesan, the Bishop of Durham, he 
says : 

" Such is your Lordship's pastoral care that you make 
not Confirmation an appendage to your triennial Visita- 
tions, but your yearly business in some part or other of 
your Diocese, and this year particularly your Lordship 
was pleased to go to many small villages as well as larger 
towns and spend several days in performing this office." 

E. H. A. 

PETRARCH'S INKSTAND (7 th S. viii. 467). I 
have lately seen one of the models of the above, 
now the property of a lady at Oxford. It is of 
bronze, surmounted by a winged Cupid. The 
bowl is very massive, ornamented with scroll 
work, and at equal distances round the rim are 
three cherubs' heads presumably, as the faces are 
boys' and the hair short and curly. There is no 
connexion between the heads and the three feet on 
which the bowl rests ; the feet are large in propor- 
tion, and apparently lions', having claw?. There is 
a glass reservoir inside for the ink, and on a printed 
slip of paper are the following lines by Miss Edge- 
worth : 

Lines on Petrarch 't InJksland, brought from Italy by 

Lady J. 

By beauty won from soft Italie's land 
Here Cupid, Petrarch's Cupid, takes his stand, 
Arch suppliant, welcome to thy fav'rite Isle, 
Close thy spread wings and rest thee here awhile. 
Still the true heart with kindred strains inspire, 
Breathe all a Poet's softness, all his fire : 
But if the perjured Knight approach this font, 
Forbid the words to come as they were wont, 
Forbid the ink to flow, the pen to write, 
And send the false one baffled from thy sight. 


The history of the copies being made is, so far as I 
can ascertain, as follows. About the year 1818 
Miss Edgeworth went from Italy to stay with Mr. 
Moilliet (grandfather of the lady owning the copy 
I have seen) at the Chateau de Pregny, on the Lake 
of Geneva, bringing with her a drawing or picture 
of the original, though where she saw the latter I 
am unable to say. Through Mr. Moilliet's assist- 
ance Sir Edward Thomason, of Birmingham, was 
engaged to make a model from the drawing, and 
three copies only, it is believed, were cast. Of 
these I am told that Miss Edgeworth had one, 

Mrs. Moilliet another, and Mrs, Baumgartner the 
third. Miss Edgeworth was " delighted " with the 
fidelity with which the model was made, as it was 
" exactly like the original." C. S. HARRIS. 

The numerous shops which deal in bronze sou- 
venirs for tourists of the various towns in their 
line of route in Italy have reproductions of two 
inkstands, one called Tasso's and the other 
Petrarch's. The originals were certainly each in 
its own place, i. e., Petrarch's at Arqua, Tasso's 
at S. Onofrio, Rome, recently. As they are 
useful and " sizeable " articles, they are more 
often bought, perhaps, than any other. One is a 
copy or adaptation (this, I think, is Tasso's) of a 
Pompeian design ; the other is ascribed (qy. of 
right 1) to B. Cellini. As in the case of relics which 
various localities claim to possess, there is no doubt 
that Miss Edgeworth's " Petrarch's inkstand " was 
one of these copies, which, from undue veneration, 
in process of time grew to be reckoned an original. 

I have one which I brought from Rome so many 
years ago that I have forgotten which of these two 
ascriptions the shopman gave it ; but as it differs 
somewhat from the description of Petrarch's given 
by your correspondent, it probably follows the 
lines of Tasso's. The round font-like vase, itself 
adorned by the conventional honeysuckle in bass- 
relief, rests on three finely-modelled goats' heads 
and legs ; between the ears (which are a little too 
large) of each hang festoons of vine-leaves. The 
covercle is tall and tapering, its lower (convex) 
member has masks and festoons in bass-relief, and 
is surmounted by a winged putto sitting astride on 
a goat, whose left ear he is gracefully caressing. 
The whole is fixed into a well-proportioned saucer 
ornamented with bass-reliefs of putti, agreeing in 
size with the one on the goat ; but the disparity 
between the large goats' heads below and the little 
goat above always strikes one as faulty. Neverthe- 
less, the tout ensemble is very pleasing to the eye, 
and a great merit in a highly ornamented article 
it is what the Germans aptly call zweckmassig. 

R. H. BUSK. 

P.S. Since the above was written, I have asked 
a friend in Rome to visit Tasso's cell at St. Ono- 
frio, and have just received his report that there 
is no bronze inkstand there now nothing but a 
little square wooden one. I have asked him to 
inquire at the bronze shops the ascription of the 
two above-named models ; if these former things of 
Rome still remain on sale; and if there is any use- 
ful information in his reply will communicate it. 

MAJOR ROBERT ROGERS (7 th S. ix. 68). The 
son of James Rogers, an Irishman and early set- 
tler at Londonderry (Dunbarton), New Hampshire, 
he was born there in 1727. In 1755 he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Wentworth captain of a com- 
pany of rangers, and afterwards commanded the 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 15, '90. 

corps with the rank of major. He gained great 
celebrity as the commander of" Rogers's Hangers " 
in the war with the French in North America, 
1755-60, which preceded the American revolution, 
and during the latter struggle fought against his 
countrymen as the chief of" The Queen's Hangers." 
In 1766 Major Rogers was appointed Governor of 
Michilimackinac Fort, where, in 1768, he was 
arrested and conveyed in irons to Quebec, charged 
with an intention to plunder the fort he com- 
manded, to surprise several fortresses and kill the 
commandants, and desert to the French (Gent. 
Mag., 1768, vol. xxxviii. pp. 348, 396), but he 
managed to be acquitted of this charge. With the 
Home Office Papers, Domestic, Geo. III., v. 10, 
No. 18, is a letter of seven pages, dated Spring 
Gardens at Charing Cross, Nov. 17, 1771, from 
Eogers to the Earl of Hillsborough, Principal 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, in which he 
humbly requests H.M.'s warrant for a provision 
from year to year of 15s. a day without deduction 
as major in H.M.'s service, as a reward for past and 
retainer for future services. In 1778 he was pro- 
scribed by the legislature of New Hampshire, who 
also granted a divorce to his wife (a Miss Brown, 
of Portsmouth, afterwards married to Capt. John 
Roach). A letter in the Gazetteer of Aug. 2, 1784, 
signed J. M., Westminster, mentions the once 
celebrated Col. Rogers, the American partisan, 
"who is suffered to languish in Newgate for a 
number of small debts, which he is at present 
totally unable to discharge." 

He was the author of ' A Concise Account of 
North America,' London, 1765 ; ' Journals of 
Major Robert Rogers, containing an Account of 
the several Excursions he made under the Generals 
who commanded upon the Continent of North 
America during the late War,' London, 1765 ; 
' Diary of the Siege of Detroit in the War with 
Pontiac'; and published anonymously ' Ponteach ; 
or, the Savages of America : a Tragedy,' 1766, 
8vo. Notices of his career will be found in 
Sabine's 'American Loyalists'; Parkman's 'His- 
tory of the Conspiracy of Pontiac'; Duyckinck's 
'Cyclopaedia of American Literature'; Everett's 
'Orations and Speeches'; and in 'Memoir and 
Official Correspondence of General John Stark,' 
by Caleb Stark, Concord, 1860 (pp. 386-486), but 
mention is not made of the date of his death and 
place of burial. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

PANTILES (7 th S. ix. 29). The question asked is 
whether persons walked on, or under, the pantiles, 
and in saying that local guide-books afford no in- 
formation your correspondent no doubt refers to 
modern publications. That the walk was paved 
the following extract clearly shows : 

" These parades are usually called the upper and the 
lower walk. The first, which was formerly paved with a 
square brick, called a pantile, raised about four steps 

above the other, and particularly appropriated to the 
company, had become so decayed as to render a new 
pavement necessary; accordingly in the spring of the 
year 1793 a subscription was set on foot amongst the 
inhabitants, and by a truly spirited exertion a sufficiency 
for the purpose was raised, and the work finished (being 
done with Purbeck stone) by the commencement of that 
season the whole cost of which amounted to 7101. 15*. 4d. 
The second remains unpaved, and is chiefly used by 
country people and servants." ' The Tunbridge Wella 
Guide,' 1801, p. 104. 

We are further informed that a " portico is extended 
the whole length of the parade, supported by Tus- 
can pillars, for the company to walk under occa- 
sionally," presumably in bad weather. That this 
covered promenade may have been known as 
" under the pantiles " is not unlikely; but it would 
have been satisfactory if the inquirer had given in- 
stances of the use of the phrase, which he says 
abounds in English literature. 


In the short account of Tunbridge Wells con- 
tained in Walpole's ' British Traveller ' (1784) it is 
stated that the shops "are ranged on one side of a 
walk called the Pantiles, from its pavement, whose 
opposite side is shaded with lime-trees" (p. 25). 
The ' Guide to the Watering Places,' &c. (1806), 
also informs us that 

" The parades, usually called the Upper and Lower 
Walk, run parallel to each other, and are much fre- 
quented. The former was once paved with pantiles, 
raised about four steps above the other ; but in 1793 it 
was paved by subscription with Purbeck-stone, at the 
expense of more than 700 J." (p. 419). 

It follows from the above quotations that the name 
of the walk was derived from its pavement. 


Horsfield's ' Sussex ' (i. 423) states that Queen 
Anne gave 100J. to the walks, " which were paved 
with square bricks or tiles, and were thence called 
pantiles." But when the walks were paved with 
Purbeck stone (in 1793), the name was " changed 
for that of Parade." This is on the authority of 
Clifford's ' Tunbridge Wells Guide.' The question 
is one of dates. Was the name pantiles used before 
the walks were tiled ] If so, the name must have 
signified originally the colonnade before the shops. 
Perhaps the two meanings were confused after- 


CODGER (7* S. ix. 47, 97). This word is fre- 
quently used in Tobias Smollett's translation of 
' Gil Bias,' first published by Lesage, in parts, 
between 1715 and 1745. In this immortal work 
" codger " appears to have the same meaning as 
" old fogey " of the present day. For example, at 
the beginning of chap. vii. bk. iii., Gil Bias enters 
the service of Don Gonzales Pacheco, whom he de- 
scribes as " one of those old codgers who have been 
a little whimsical or so in their youth, and have 

7"> S. IX. FEB. 15, '90.] 



made poor amends for their freedoms by the dis- 
cretion of their riper years." I have not got the 
book in the original at hand, but a reference to it 
would show, from the French word used by Lesage, 
what meaning Smollett, who made the translation 
about 1750, intended to put upon the English one 
at that time. At the present day the word forms 
part of the speech of the lower orders only. 


Some of my schooldays were passed in the 
suburbs of Rochester, a town in which metro- 
politan and Kentish slang or dialectic words and 
phrases were to be heard in great profusion. Hence, 
while I would by no means deny DR. BREWER'S 
assertion that "it was [occasionally] a term of en- 
dearment," I would say that within my knowledge 
it was only secondarily and playfully used as such, 
but that primarily it was not a complimentary term. 
At the same time there was nothing purely malicious 
in its use ; as also that there was a feeling of 
tenderness, or rather pitifulness, about it. Thus it 
was applied, as MR. EATCLIFFE says, to persons of 
peculiar habits and, as I think, to persons who 
showed a disposition to be alone, or to have, what 
is thought natural in those who keep to themselves, 
a touch of miserliness. Its relation to " cadger " is 
as that of " balme " to " blame " or that of " Mon- 
mouth " to " Macedon." BR. NICHOLSON. 

BOASTED ALIVE (7 th S. ix. 49). Clipstone is 
part of the parish of Edwinstowe (Newark, Notts), 
and I copy the following extract from the parish 
register of births, christenings, marriages, and 
deaths. The book is very dilapidated, and much 
is well-nigh illegible ; but Dr. George Marshall 
has made a copy, now in the hands of the printer 
and publisher, Mr. White, of Worksop, Notts. 
The old register is lying before me, and I send a 
perfect extract under the head of " 1643 

"Thomas Chantrye buried y e 8th of January do 
Clipston | who dyed in an Oven at Clipston | went in to 
be cured of an ague | who went in to be cured of an 



may not be aware that the "slender slips of black 
wood" only came into use on the introduction of 
revolving shutters to shops, and many new shops 
are now built without any shutters, the windows 
of plate glass "being a sufficient protection against 
robbery. AMBROSE HEAL. 

Amedee Villa, Crouch End, N. 

A FRENCH RIDDLE (7 th S. ix. 108). This 
enigma is Madame du Deffand's, and the answer 
is " La noblesse." C. C. B. 

GENERAL CLAUDE MARTIN (7 th S.ix. 8, 70). He 
was given but a poor education, and in 1757 he 

enlisted in the army about to embark for India 
under Comte Lally. After his desertion to the 
English in 1760 he was given the rank of lieu- 
tenant, and allowed to form a battalion of other 
French refugees. He was then sent to Bengal, 
and while on an official visit to Lucknow he caught 
the fancy of Sidi-Eddaula, the Nawab of Oude, 
who appointed him inspector of artillery. Through 
his position of favourite he amassed a large fortune, 
and at the outbreak of war with Tippoo Sultan, in 
consideration of the gift of several hundred horses 
to the East India Company, he was made a colonel, 
and in 1796 major-general. His palace at Luck- 
now was called Constantia House, and he died 
there on September 13, 1800. His lengthy will 
was translated into French, and printed by the 
Municipality of Lyons in 1803. Thomas's ' Dic- 
tionary of Biography ' (Philadelphia, 1874) refers 
the reader to G. Martin, ' Eloge Historique de C. 
Martin,' 1830. DE V. PAYEN-PAYNE. 

HERALDIC (7 th S. viii. 489 ; ix. 33, 98). Pap- 
worth's 'Ordinary of Arms' is referred to by 
Boutell as a work which is not known as it ought 
to be, and the value and utility of which it would 
be difficult to estimate too highly. The Rev. J. 
Charles Cox speaks of it as indispensable in the 
identification of arms, and far more accurate than 
Burke; and Phillimore quotes the book as a most 
useful and elaborate work. 

I have not, it is true, the same testimony to 
offer for Fairbairn's 'Crests'; but nevertheless, 
until MONS gives the names of higher and better 
authorities, my position remains unshaken that 
these two productions are the best evidence for 
arms and crests respectively. 

It is useless referring to the College of Arms. 
We want something more come-at-able than that 
institution ; and even the College itself is not 
above suspicion, and some of the earliest grants of 
arms are not recorded there at all. 

I am pleased to see that a new edition of Pap- 
worth is coming out; and until something worthier 
is produced my faith in its merits will not be 
weakened. J. BAGNALL. 

Water Orton. 

COB-NUTS (7 tt S. ix. 47). Derbyshire lads have, 
or at any rate had, in the nutting season of each 
year a capital amusement, which they called the 
game of cob-nut. This was played with dry and 
hardened nuts fastened usually to the end of a 
cobbler's "waxed end " = the waxed string with 
which soles used to be sewn to the upper-leathers. 
The common hedge-row hazel-nuts were called 
" cob-nuts," and those gathered from hazel trees in 
the woods were called " hazzel-nuts." The hedge- 
row hazel-nuts were as a rule slightly larger, 
rounder, and harder, because, growing in the hedges, 
they got more sun. The nuts most prized for the 
game of " cob-nut " were those from the hedges, 



[7"> 8. IX. FEB. 15, '90. 

the round, short, flat-nosed being preferred, and 
these latter were called " bull-nosed cobberers," or 
" bull-nosed cob-nuts," or, shorter still, " bulleys." 
In order to be suitable for the game, they were 
gathered just before ripening, stripped, deposited 
in the cow-droppings in the meadows for about a 
week, then dried in the pocket, in the sun, or on 
a shelf in the house, and then carefully bored with 
a nut-borer specially made for the purpose by the 
village blacksmith, then strung upon a string in 
readiness for the game of cob-nut. The game was 
mostly played by two, three, or four lads, each 
armed with a single nut on the waxed-end. These 
were laid on a pile of caps, the lads in turn striking 
at the rest of the nuts, till one was broken, on 
which the owner of the winning nut seized one of 
the fragments, with which he rubbed his nut, 
which became " a cobberer o' one "if it was the 
first nut broken, and so on, adding other nuts 
broken to the record of its prowess till it became 
perhaps "a cobberer o' twenty" or more, when a 
fresh or superior nut would demolish the favourite, 
take its honours, and becomes " a cobberer o' 

There were many formulas and observances in 
the game of "cob-nut," and these were most 
rigidly observed by the Derbyshire lads. If a 
couple of waxed-ends became twizzled, the boy 
who first could shout 

Twizzler, twizzler ! 
My fost blow, 

took the first stroke when the waxed-ends were 
untwisted. When a nut was cracked by a blow so 
that a piece came out and the owner of the oppos- 
ing nut called out 

Jick, jack, gell, 

Ar shonner pley thy shell, 

he took the damaged nut, rubbed it on his own, 
taking not only its " cobberer," but the whole of 
the honours which the vanquished nut had pre- 
viously won. On the contrary, if the owner of the 
damaged nut could first call out 

Jick, jack, gell, 

An yo shall pley my shell, 

both were bound to go on till the one or the other 
was completely smashed. THOS. KATCLIFFE. 

The cob is a larger, finer, and more expensive 
nut than the filbert, and is looked upon as a quite 
distinct variety. Sowerby, after describing the 
common hazel (Corylus avellana), goes on to 
say : 

"The Filbert, the Cob- and Barcelona- nuts, with 
several other varieties met with at our tables, are sup- 
posed to have been derived from this species by cultiva- 

See Sowerby's ' Botany,' second ed., vol. vii. p. 47. 

W. M. E. F. 

" Corylus avellana, the common Hazel, is the origin 
of the most anciently used and extensively consumed of 

ill our edible nuts. There are several varieties of the 
Hazel, as the White, Red, and Jerusalem Filberts, the 
Sreat and Clustered Cobs; the Red Smyrna, the Black 
Spanish, and the Barcelona nuts, &c." Bentley's ' Manual 
of Botany.' 

156, Clapham Road. 

Webster says, " (Jobnut, 
seems to imply the meaning 
well-grown nut. 


Cobnut, a large nut," which 
of any kind of large, 

HOLLAND (7 th S. ix. 66). It may be as well to 
add to MR. WYLIE'S note the fact that the monu- 
ment referred to consists of a fine white marble 
tablet surmounted by a bust of the actor, and that 
Garrick bore the expense of its erection, and wrote 
the epitaph contained upon it. This monument 
appears to have originally occupied a position on 
the north wall of the chancel of Chiswick Church, 
but has now, with others, been relegated to the 
tower beneath the belfry. On a recent visit to 
Chiswick Church I found it considerably " skied " 
on the north tower wall, whence, with great diffi- 
culty, I succeeded in copying the following inscrip- 
tion : 

If Talents 

to make entertainment instructive 

to support the credit of the Stage 

by just and manly Action 

If to adorn Society 

by Virtues 
which would honour any Rank and Profession 

deserve remembrance 
Let Him with whom these Talents were long exerted 

To whom these Virtues were well known 

And by whom the loss of them will be long lamented 

bear Testimony to the Worth and Abilities 

of his departed Friend 

Charles Holland 
who was born March 12 1733 

dy'd December 7 1769 
and was buried near this place. 


I presume the last line hardly contains as much 
truth now as it did when the monument was erected 
at the other end of the church. 


Holmby House, Forest Gate. 

COCKPITS (7 th S. ix. 7,56). It may interest DR. 
MURRAY to know that Vandyke painted the White- 
hall Cockpit as it existed during the reign of King 
Charles I. The picture, of which I possess an en- 
graving, represents two cocks fighting. A large 
assemblage of courtiers are watching the match. 
Can any one afford me information as to the Royal 
Cockpit, which existed in 1833 in Little Grosvenor 
Street, Millbank? Is it, like the Tufton Street 
pit, still in existence ; and where was, or is, it 
situated? SA. T. 

ARMS ON AN OLD GUN (7 th S. ix. 88). I think 
I have seen the combination of arms, crest, and 
motto mentioned at above reference in possession 

7" s. IX. FEB. 15, '90.] 



of a Hunter family ; but the nearest approach to 
it that I can find in Burke's ' General Armory,' 
1884, is Hunter (Glencarse, co. Perth, 1792), Vert, 
three greyhounds in pale in full speed ar., collared 
gu., within a border or ; on a chief wavy of the 
second a fleur-de-lis az. between two hunting horns 
of the field, garnished of the fourth, and stringed 
of the third. Crest, a greyhound's head and neck 
ar., collared gu. Motto, "Dum spiro spero." 

Another Hunter family had Vert, three grey- 
hounds courant ar. two and one; on a chief of the 
last as many bugle-horns sa., stringed gu. Crest, 
a greyhound's head erased ar. 

Various families, Hunters and others, have 
similar arms and crest, and about fifty families 
have the motto. KILLIGREW. 

The arms mentioned as being engraved on an 
old gun are the arms of the Hunter family. 

T. 0. W. 

CHURCH STEEPLES (7 th S. v. 226, 393, 514 ; vi. 
77, 158; vii. 155; ix 115). The rambling chatter 
about the origin of the weather-cock in Brady's 
' Clavis Calendaria ' is curiously at variance with 
the appearance of a picture of a weather-cock in the 
Bayeux tapestry. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

WALPOLE AND BURLEIGH (7 th S. ix. 89). Is 
it not old Aubrey who tells the story of Bishop 
Corbet, of Norwich, and his chaplain, Dr. Lush- 
ington, how, when they were settling to their wine 
after supper, the bishop would take off his gown 
with, " There lies the doctor," and his cassock with, 
"There lies the bishop"; and "then it was," as 
Aubrey ends, "Here 's to thee, Corbet ; and Here 's 
to thee, Lushington " ? 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

The lines commencing 

'Tie religion that can give 
Sweetest pleasure while we live 
were written by Mary Masters, A.D. 1755. 


" You " in second and third lines should be we. The 
hymn can be seen in the old ' Psalms and Hymns,' pub- 
lished by the R. T. S. There is a second verse : 
After death, its joys will be 
Lasting as eternity ; 
Be the living God my friend, 
Then my bliss shall have no end. 


Historic Towns. Winchester. By G. W. Kitchin. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

EVERT issue of this charming series seems to become 
more interesting than its predecessor. Brimful as it is 
of engrossing incident and anecdote from beginning to 

end, and decked out with the quaintest scraps of monkish 
Latinity or archivists' quiet satire, we may guarantee 
that no one who has once taken Dean Kitchin's book into 
his hands will lay it aside before he has thoroughly im- 
bibed the information and historical criticism contained 
in its two hundred pages. The only fault to be found 
with the work is the somewhat scanty editing, which baa 
resulted in the occasional confusion of dates and facts in 
the reader's mind. A date or two in the margin would 
easily obviate this. We are glad to see that Dr. Kitchin 
has entirely dispensed with references, marginal or other- 
wise, as regards his authorities. The book does not, and 
cannnot, claim to be a history; it is a sketch a series of 
picturesque tableaux and in such a work foot-notes and 
notes of all descriptions are an intolerable nuisance. 
Besides, it so happens that we are in the hands of one of 
the most scrupulous and accurate of living English 
archaeologists. Any one to whom Dean Kitchin is any- 
thing more than a name will be surety for the absolute 
trustworthiness of his writings. 

To begin quoting from our author would be hopeless. 
The interest is sustained from beginning to end. Legend 
and fact, interspersed with pieces of criticism which 
would not be unworthy of our greatest historians, are 
blended in the most delightful way. Needless to say, to 
every Wykehamist and inhabitant of Winchester the 
book is indispensable, while to those who are not so well 
acquainted with the city we- can recommend as a real 
treat to dip into the pages of Dean Kitchin's work, and, 
if they can spare the time, to visit in its company the 
old town which was once the royal capital, and lives on 
still in " the stirring memory of a thousand years." 

Alias of Commercial Geography. By John George Bar- 
tholomew, F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., &c. With Introductory 
Notes by Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc., F.R.S.E. (Cam- 
bridge and London, Pitt Press.) 

THIS atlas, a marvel of excellence and cheapness, is in- 
tended to accompany Dr. Mill's useful treatise on ' Ele- 
mentary Commercial Geography,' which forms one of 
the "Pitt Press Series" of books. In it physical geo- 
graphy is viewed as the permanent basis of commercial 
geography, and consequently prominence is given to- 
those physical conditions of the earth which directly 
affect commerce and the distribution of commodities. 
Both for educational and business purposes the maps 
will be found of great utility. They are engraved oi 
twenty-seven plates, and illustrate every point of interest 
in the physical and commercial geography of the world 
heights and depths, climatic conditions, animal, vege- 
table, and mineral products, comparative density of 
population, distribution of human races, routes by land 
and sea, oceanic currents, and tidal lines. The scale is 
necessarily small, and not such as to admit of exhaustive 
treatment ; but the scheme is unique, and the amount 
of information compressed into the space is truly 
marvellous. We may add that the trouble which has- 
been taken to secure its accuracy has evidently been very 

God in Shakspeare. By Clelia. (Fisher Unwin.) 
WITH the mystico-sceptical style of criticism rife of late 
years, and prolific of mares' nests, we have little sym- 
pathy. " Clelia " is of the school of Mr. Donnelly, only 
that her psychological rhapsodies far out-Herod that 
gentleman's innocent theories. The title of the book 
led us to expect a reverent essay to unfold the thoughts 
and mind of God as revealed in the works of the in- 
spired poet a task already attempted by Archbishop 
Trench and Bishop Wordsworth. But soon our eyes 
were opened. "Clelia" despises such low and prosaic 
methods of criticism. God is in Shakspeare the man, 



L? h S.IX. FEB. 15/90. 

bodily and literally. Shakepeare is an incarnation of 
the Deity, the God-man, the Messiah. That there may 
be no mistake, and that the reader may know what to 
expect, it is the fairest way to let the author enunciate 
her theory in her own foolish words: "The Messiah, 
upon his second coming, was as different from what was 
expected as he was upon his first coming. At his first 
coming he was unaccountably a humble workman. Upon 
his second coming he was unaccountably a profane play- 
actor. It will be observed also that Christ and Shake- 
speare are both absolutely the Messiah. Christ had a 
first coming, and was to have a second. Shakespeare had 
had his first coming, and has his second. In other 
trords, Shakespeare bad come in Christ, and Christ was to 
come in Shakespeare " (p. 376). " Shakespeare is the 
very Messiah, for whose coming he [the Christian] 
nightly prays " (p. 403). Of a surety our gentle Will, 
with his perfect sanity and unshaken faith, in which he 
died, professing in his last testament his assured belief 
and trust in '' the only merits of Jesus Christ my 
Saviour," would have turned away with impatient dis- 
gust from such niaiserie as this. 

Apart from the matter, "Clelia's" style is not at- 
tractive. The first line in the book is the slovenly sen- 
tence, " I had always read Shakspeare without ceasing." 
For some unexplained reason the spelling " Shakspeare" 
pervades the first half of the book, and " Shakespeare " the 
latter half. It is difficult to believe that the author is 
not laughing in her sleeve at the reader when she finds 
confirmation of her reading of the characters in ' The 
Tempest ' (I. i.) in the curious fact that " Antonio and 
ambition both begin with ' A,' Sebastian and sloth both 
with ' S,' and Gonzalo and goodwill both with ' G ' 1 " 
Again, what bombast is this: "This colon (:) is a 
brilliant coro of light, darting its rays in all directions, 
rolling back doubt and darkness. It unfolds the mind of 
Shakspeare, and its evolution from beginning to end " ! 

Celticism a Myth. By J. C. Roger. Second Edition. 


Is this essay Mr. Roger takes up the parable which he 
has from time to time propounded in these columns, and 
avows himself a rank agnostic as to prehistoric Celticism. 
As a reactionary sceptic from the modern school of Scot- 
tish antiquaries represented by Innes, Skene, Stuart, 
Westwood, and Wilson he finds satisfaction in what 
most people consider the exploded disquisitions of Pin- 
kerton and Jamieson. His thesis is briefly that the early 
civilization and art of Scotland is due not to a Celtic 
people, but to the Scandinavian north men. " The Celts 
had no art " seems a rather dogmatic assertion, to which 
Irish scholars as well as Scottish will not fail to take 
exception ; yet it lies at the base of all Mr. Roger's 

THE Edinburgh Review for January opens with a dis- 
cussion of the career of a minister who was so long a 
household word among us as Lord John Russell, ready at 
a moment's notice, so it was said, to take command of 
the Channel fleet. Lord John here comes before us first 
as a boy diarist, recording that he " did no business" on 
the day when Mr. Fox's ministry came in; then as a 
young traveller in Spain, just before Corunna ; then as 
member for the pocket borough of Tavistock commenc- 
ing a parliamentary life of many years, destined to be 
partly passed in both houses of our Legislature, and to be 
connected alike with great successes and with hardly less 
great failures. Lord John made many mistakes, but 
'always with honesty in his intentions. ' Democracy in 
Switzerland ' gives us recent views on a country the 
political interest of which is, perhaps, not sufficiently 
recognized in England, but which is specially worth 
study at the present day from its successful solution of 

several very difficult Constitutional problems. In ' Russia 
in Central Asia ' we have a somewhat optimist criticism 
of the valuable but rather pessimistic account given by 
Mr. Curzon of the state of things in the Khanates since 
the construction of the Transcaspian Railway. 

THE Quarterly Review for January in its opening 
article takes us back to the Italy of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, the Italy of Sir John Hawkwood, 
English knight banneret and Italian Condottiere, who 
when some passing friars greeted him with a " God give 
you peace ! " astonished them by the counter-wish " God 
deprive you of your alms ! " For the "Acuto " lived on 
war, not peace, though he seems not to have been one 
who heaped up riches as the result of his warrings. ' Had- 
don Hall ' forms a theme of interest to the historian, 
more especially since the results of the stable-loft ex- 
plorations of Mr. Maxwell Lyte. In 'Alexander I. and 
the Poles ' we have the picture of a benevolent autocrat 
contending with difficulties which not even despotism 
tempered by benevolence could well hope to overcome. 
In ' Early Christian Biography ' the value of Archdeacon 
Farrar's most recent labours is recognized, while the re- 
viewer does justice to the work of Kingsley and New- 
man in the same field, though he, perhaps accidentally, 
omits all reference to Wiseman. 

THE Bookbinder (Clowes & Sons'), No. XXXI., has an 
illustrated article on ' The New York Grolier Club,' and 
several interesting reproductions in colours of bindings, 
old and new. 

fur den Deutschen Add), embracing a directory of he- 
raldic and genealogical workers in Germany, Austria- 
Hungary, and other lands, including the United King- 
dom, is being edited by Herr Alfred v. Eberstein, of 
Berlin (Solmsstrasse, 44 I.), and is in course of publica- 
tion by Mitscher & Rbstell, Jagerstrasse, 61 a., Berlin. 
The work promises to be complete, and should be 
of considerable utility. Part I. alone, restricted to the 
German and Austrian Empires, has aa yet appeared. 
The work is to be completed in five parts. 

to CarrnfpanOent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP ("Right of Way and Fune- 
rals "). See 1" and 4 th S. passim, and especially 5"> S. x. 

THOS. RATCLIFFE ("Reeking"). In all the cases you 
mention the meaning " smoking " seems to us adequate. 

N. The gentleman was, we believe, master in a 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7*8. IX. FEB. 22, '90.] 




C O N T E NT 8. N e 217. 

NOTES : Norris of Bemerton, HI Books on Gaming, 142 
Mr. Gladstone's Oxford Address Blem well the Painter, 144 
Restoration of a Parish Register Arms of the See of Bath 
and Wells Bengalese Superstitions The Duke and Miss J., 
145 Suffix -erst Misuse of Words Henry Hyde, Viscount 
Cornbury, 146. 

QUERIES : The Ship Lyon Jongon's Wife Pawson Family 
Australia Cash Family Books written in Prison 
"Woodman, spare that tree" 'The Young Countess' 
Owner of Initials Wanted Reference Wanted Escotland 
and Boteler Families, 147 Author of Sons: Wanted Mac- 
kenzie Family Pedigrees Archibald MofBin Col. Hugh 
Rogers Wray of Ards " Heigh 's an owd tyke" The 
King's Harbingers Nunn Window in Little Malvern 
Church, 143" To worm ""The calling of the sea "Free- 
masonry and the Devil Primitive Methodists Richard 
Crakanthorpe K.B., 149. 

REPLIES : Dandy, 149 -St. John and the Eagle, 150 Crom- 
well's Swords - Cockle-demois " If I had a donkey," &c. 
Bust of Nelson Cremation of Shelley, 151 Wind of a Can- 
non Ball Reconnoitre Sir Peter Parravicini, 152 Margery, 
Lady de la Beche Grandfather of the Conqueror Silver 
Bodkin Hythe- Hot Codlings, 153 St. Mildred's Church 
Galway Tribes Prototypes of Characters in Lever C. Good- 
wyn's Works, 154 Cool George Jeffreys Receipt for Salad 
But and Ben, 155 S. Colvill Church Roof Cock-penny, 
156 Queen Anne Boleyn Mrs. Honey Folchetto Old 
London Inns Garden Benches Black Cap Thackerayana, 
157 Lords Spiritual Old Jokes in a New Dress Club 
Cato Street Conspiracy, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Century Dictionary,' Vol. I. 
Bickley's 'Bibliographical Notes ' Ashbee's 'Bibliography 
of Tunisia ' Griffi ths's ' Evenings with Shakespere ' ' Mary, 
Queen of Scots ' Wauters's Stanley's Emin Pasha Expedi- 
tion 'Mackenzie's ' Adven ures of Tyll Owlglass,' &c. 



" Concerning tbe Essays and Discourses, I have only 
to say, that I designed in them such brevity and clear- 
ness as are consistent with each other and to abound in 
sense rather than words : I wish all men would observe 
this in their writings more than they do. I am sure the 
multitude of books, and the shortness of life require it ; 
and sense will lie in a little compass if men would be per- 
suaded to vent no notions but what they are masters of, and 
were Angels to write I fancy we should have but few 
folios."" To the Reader," Miscellanies,' 1678. 

Some nine or ten months ago, through the cour- 
teous permission of the Editor, I called attention 
to the general neglect of De Quincey as a writer, 
and advised the preparation of a cheap and com- 
plete edition of his works. Since that appeal the 
desideratum has been supplied. A well-known firm 
of publishers have already issued the earlier volumes 
of what promises to be a worthy monument of that 
rare genius which, like a subtle ether, exhales from 
the varied lucubrations of that great man. An ana- 
logous purpose impels me to seek a similar permis- 
sion on the present occasion. I desire to point 
out an intellectual disease very prevalent at this 
time, and to indicate a means which if rightly used 
will act both as a remedy and an antidote. 

1. Symptoms. Any one who has paid the 
slightest attention to the peculiarities of contem- 
porary literature must have observed that one of 
its distinctive features is an almost total disregard 

of all logical accuracy and arrangement. Confident 
dogmatists abound. Negligence of style is deemed 
a beauty. Assertion is considered transcendental 
truth. Just elaboration of notion is eschewed as 
pedantic. The term "logician "is almost synonymous 
with charlatan, and even among the better class of 
writers dialectical acumen is esteemed a lower 
faculty of the intellect. That glorious flower which 
blossomed so fairly in the intuitive works of a 
Carlyle and of an Emerson has evidently run to a 
most disastrous seed. 

2. Cure. A liberal diffusion of short, crisp, pel- 
lucid specimens of logical analysis issued by the 
purveyors of our cheap classical literature, and the 
circulation of larger works of the same description 
among professed scholars. This would spread a 
tonicizing analeptic influence throughout our Eng- 
lish world of readers, and help to brace up the de- 
bility of their intellectual systems. These reflec- 
tions lead me to recommend the almost forgotten 
works of John Norris, the philosopher of Bemerton. 

Few, I believe, are aware that the 'Essays, 
Letters, and Discourses ' of this great man contain 
a depth of thought, a closeness of reasoning, and a 
lucidity of expression rarely equalled, and still 
more seldom surpassed, in the whole range of our 
literature. That a writer who, like Norris, can 
maintain the interest of the most abstruse investi- 
gation up to the very last, who can resolve elements 
to their first source with a brevity, a distinctness, 
and a veracity absolutely unerring, and who can 
illuminate the most subtle disquisition with ex- 
quisite analogies and embody it in a diction the 
most beautiful, the most nervous, and the most 
concise ever applied to philosophical analysis, 
should have fallen into neglect is no favourable 
sign of the perspicacity of modem readers. 

I feel a confidence, however, that were a 
judicious selection of his shorter pieces presented 
to the world they would again experience that 
transcendent popularity they formerly enjoyed. It 
seems impossible that an apologist more subtle 
than Butler, a dialectician more invincible than 
Augustine, a philanthropist more benevolent than 
Charming, a thinker more daring than Maurice, a 
stylist more luscious than Goldsmith, a mystic 
more fervent than Amiel, should fail to strike re- 
sponsive chords in the hearts of men possessing 
varied and often antagonistic sympathies. 

I shall cite two passages, the first because it con- 
firms in a striking manner the sentiments of Mr. 
Gladstone contained in a recent number of the North 
American Review, and the second because it con- 
veys a very clear conception of the author's genius. 
In bis treatise entitled ' Christian Law Asserted 
and Vindicated ; or, a General Apology for the Chris- 
tian Religion, both as to the Obligativeness and the 
Reasonableness of the Institution,' he says, 37: 

" There is one instance more wherein the Christian 
law seems not to consult the interest of human life, and 



[7" 1 S. IX. FEB. 22, '80. 

that is in the matter of divorce ; which our Saviour 
allows in no case but that of adultery. Now this also 
seems to be one of the hard sayings. For the natural 
propension to procreation is not to be satisfied out of 
marriage, and marriage by this appendage seems to be 
euch a burden that the disciples might well say, ' If the 
case of the man be so with his wife, it is not good to marry,' 
Matt. xix. 10. But yet upon consideration this also will 
appear to be a reasonable confinement. For first all the 
supposable inconveniences of this restraint may be in a 
great measure prevented by prudent and wise choice. 
But suppose they cannot, yet secondly, as 'twould be 
most advisible for some men to marry though with this re- 
straint, so is marriage with this restraint better for society 
than without it. For were there liberty of divorce upon 
other grounds every petty dislike would never want a 
pretence for a dissolution : and then the same incon- 
venience would ensue as if there were no such thing as 
the matrimonial institution, such as diminution of affec- 
tion to children, neglect of their education, and the like, 
besides the perpetual quarrels and animosities between 
the parties themselves so divided and their respective 
relatives, all which would bring more inconveniences 
upon society than those which are pretended to be 
avoided by distending and enlarging the licence of 

In ' A Letter concerning Love and Music,' he 
thus philosophizes : 

" And now to your second enquiry, whether music be 
a sensual or intellectual pleasure. Before this can be de- 
termin'd the idea of a sensual and intellectual pleasure 
must be stated. 

" For the better conceiving of which it is here to be 
considered that since matter is not capable of thought it 
must be the soul only that is the proper subject both of 
pleasure and pain. And accordingly it will be necessary 
to say that the true difference between intellectual and 
sensual pleasure does not consist in this, that intellectual 
pleasure is that which is perceived by the soul and sen- 
sual that which is perceived by the body ; for the body 
perceives not at all. Nor yet (as I once represented it in 
this very account) in this, that sensual pleasure is when 
the body is primarily affected the soul secondarily, or by 
participation; and that intellectual pleasure is when the 
soul is primarily affected and the body secondarily or by 
participation (the soul being the only true percipient of 
both); but rather in this, that sensual pleasure is that 
which the soul perceives by the mediation of the body, 
upon occasion of some motion or impression made upon 
it, whereas intellectual pleasure is that which the soul 
perceives immediately by itself and from her own 
thoughts without any such occasion from the body. 

" Now according to this measure it seems most reason- 
able to define the pleasure of music to be properly intel- 
lectual. For tho' sound singly and absolutely consider'd 
(which is the material part of music) be a sensation 
that is, a sentiment in the soul resulting from some 
movement of the body, and so the pleasure that arises 
from the hearing it be, accordingly, a sensual pleasure 
as truly, tho' not so grossly, as smelling and tasting is ; 
yet the harmony and proportion of sounds (which is that 
wherein music formally consists) is an abstract and in- 
telligible thing, and the pleasure of it arises not from 
any bodily movement (as the other does), but from the 
soul itself contemplating the beauty and agreement of it. 
To which beauty and agreement, that it is in sounds is 
purely accidental, since the soul would be pleased with 
the same proportion wherever it finds it. Nor is it 
proper to say that we hear music ; that which we hear is 
only the sound which is a sensation in ourselves ; but the 
music part we properly think and contemplate as an in- 

telligible beauty in like manner as we do the beauty of 
truth. And consequently the pleasure of it must be as 
much intellectual as that of the other is. To all which 
it may be added in the last place that music consisting 
formally in proportion, and proportion pleasing only aa 
understood ; the pleasure of it must be intellectual, as 
resulting from thought and understanding, as all other 
intellectual pleasures do." 

0. 0. DOVE. 


(Continued from, p. 25.) 

Simultaneously with, or immediately after, the 
twelfth edition, last described, another appeared, 
which I shall call the " Scotch edition," with sub- 
title as follows : 

A | Short Treatise | on the | Game of Whist; I Con- 
taining, | The New Laws of the Game | of Whist, I as 
played at White's and Saunders's Chocolate- | Houses. 

The full title follows next : 

Mr. Hoyle's | Games | of | Whist, | Quadrille f 
Piquet, | Chess, | and | Back-Gammon, | Complete. I In 
which are [ric] contained, | The Method of Playing and 
Betting | at those Games, upon Equal or | Advantageous 
Terms. | Including | the Laws of the Several Games I To 
which is [sic] now first added, | Two New Cases at 
Whist, | never before printed. I Also, | The New Laws of 
the Game at Whist, | As played at White's and Saunders'a 
Chocolate Houses. | London : | Printed for Thomas Os- 
borne, in Gray's Inn ; Stan- | ley Crowder, at the Look- 
ing-Glass; and | Richard Baldwin, at the Eose I in 
Pater - noster - Row. | [Price Three Shillings, neatly 

N.d., 12mo. Sub-title, 1 f.; title and A, 6 ff.; B 
to S in sixes; that is, 6 ff. prelim., and pp. 204. 
At the end, " Printed by Mundell & Son, Royal 
Bank Close, Edinburgh." On the verso of ti'tle 
appears the old " Advertisement," with the name* 
of "Edinond Hoyle, and Thomas Osborne" printed 
at foot. This, then, was not a piracy, but an edi- 
tion printed, by arrangement with the proprietors v 
for Scotch circulation. It is later than the twelfth 
English edition, because it includes the "Two New 
Cases," pp. 203 and 204, and has no errata, the 
errors of the press being corrected in the text; and 
it is earlier than the thirteenth, to be described 
presently, because it wants the "Case iv., a Case of 
Curiosity, first publish'd 1763," which is con- 
tained in that edition. This circumstance fixes 
the date of the " Scotch edition " approximated 

The " New Laws at Whist, as played at White'* 
and Saunders's Chocolate-House, 1760," ap- 
peared, then, for the first time in the twelfth edi- 
tion (English) and next in the " Scotch edition," 
just described. They are twenty-four in number, 
and, with the old laws, they are repeated in all 
the editions down to that of Charles Jones (1775), 
in which " Stapleton's Chocolate- House " is sub- 
stituted for that of Saunders, and " The Old Laws, 

continued for the Use of those who don't 

chuse to play by the New," are finally discon- 

7> S. IX. FEB. 22, '90.] 



tinned. There is not much new in the " New 
Laws " that was not in Hoyle's older laws. 

Meanwhile had appeared 

An | Essay | Towards making the | Game of Chess | 
Easily learned, | By those who know the Moves only, j 
-without the Assistance of a Master. | By Mr. Hoyle. j 
London: | Printed for T. Osborne, in Gray's- Inn; S. 
Crowder | and Co. at the Looking-Glass, and R. Baldwin, 
at the | Rose, in Pater-noster-Row. 1761. | [Price Two 
Shillings and Six-Pence. ] 

Signed immediately below, autograph, by Edmond 
Hoyle and Tho. Osborne. 8vo. Title ; dedication 
to the Earl of Northumberland, 2 pp. ; preface, 4 
pp. ; Hoyle's chess lectures, pp. 1-54. Signatures 
A to H in fours, the last leaf of sig. H (probably 
blank) wanting ; press-mark "Godw. Pamph. 1862 
(11)" (Bod.). The dedication is interesting, for 
the author there says : 

"My Lord, Your Lordship being a great Admirer of 
the Game of Chess, this Treatise on that Game, which I 
made Use of in most of my Lectures, (I do not take the 
whole Merit of it to myself , having been assisted by some 
of the best Players in the Kingdom) is most humbly in- 
ecribed to your Lordship, in Acknowledgment of the 
tnany Favours conferred upon, your Lordship's Most 
Obedient Humble Servant, Edmond Hoyle." 

There is some light here thrown on our author's 
method of working. The frank modesty with 
which he acknowledges his obligation to those 
whom he had consulted, as haying more experience 
than himself in a game which was beyond his 
original beat or purview, contrasts pleasantly with 
the impudence of the pirates, who had often appro- 
priated his work for their own use, without thanks 
or apology of any kind. 

At this point I must briefly mention a book 
which appeared with the following title : "Calcula- 
tions, | Cautions, [ and | Observations ; | Eelating 
to | the various Games | played with | Cards: | 
Addressed to the Ladies. [ By Edmond Hoyle, 
Jun.," 12mo., London, 1761, pp. 47, including sub- 
title and title. (B.M. and G.C.) In this there is 
nothing of our author's writing. It is a pamphlet 
in which the writer, who professes to be Hoyle's 
nephew, seeks to dissuade his readers from in- 
dulging in play. Of course, it is possible that 
Hoyle left a nephew, as I remarked (7 th S. vii. 
482) in giving particulars of his will. It is, how- 
ever, not likely that this nephew, if he existed, 
would have taken up his pen to write a sermon 
against the pastime through which his uncle had 
made a great reputation and must have added 
considerably to his fortune. Much more probably 
" E. Hoyle, Jun." is a pseudonym, adopted with 
the idea that it would draw attention, as it doubt- 
less did, to this pamphlet, which would have other- 
wise passed unnoticed. 

In this same year came out another fraudulent 
edition at Dublin. The title of the 'Short Treatise 
on the Game of Whist ' in this bears the words, 
" Fourteenth Edition with Great Additions to the 

Laws," &c. , " Dublin : | Printed for George and 
Alexander Ewing, | MDCCLXII." The general title 
is dated MDCCLXI. 2 titles ; table of contents, 
1 f. ; and pp. 56+12 (Artificial Memory). Quadrille 
follows, " Printed for George and Alex. Ewing | at 
the Angel and Bible in Dame-street, | Booksellers. 
MDCCLIV."; pp. 24, including title. Next comes 
backgammon, with the same imprint, but dated 
MDCCLIII. ; pp. 48, including title. This is fol- 
lowed by piquet, with some rules, &c., for playing 
well at chess, " The Fourth Edition," same pub- 
lishers, MDCCLII.; no separate title for the chess ; 
pp. 44, including title. The last portion is " An 

Essay | Towards making the j Doctrine | of | 
Chances | Easy to those," &c., same publishers, 
M,DCC,LXI.; pp. 58, including title. 

The London Chronicle fixes the date of the 
(genuine) next edition of "Mr. Hoyle's Games, 
Complete," containing and repeating, as it does, 
the following advertisement on December 13, 15, 
20,22,24,29, 1763: 

" This day was published, Beautifully printed on a fine 
Paper, in a small genteel Pocket Volume, Price only 3s. 
neatly bound, the 13th Edition, to which are added some 
Cases in Whist, never printed before, and the new Laws 
of the Game, as played at White's and Saunders's Choco- 
late Houses. Mr. Hoyle's Games Complete, contain- 
ing," &c. 

To this was added, on December 20 and 25, 1764, 
the following : 

" N.B. Be pleased to observe what you buy are signed 
by Edmund Hoyle and Thomas Osborne, all others being 
a bad Edition, and for which a Reward is given to any 
one who will inform of the Sale of them." 

This probably refers to the Irish edition, just 
noted, and seems to show that, in the then exist- 
ing state of the law, the Dublin pirates could not 
be proceeded against, but that the sale of their 
piratical publication could be prevented on this 
side of St. George's Channel. 

The advertisement was repeated in the same 
paper, January 3, 1765, with those also of the 
" Essay towards making the Game of Chess easily 
learned by those," &c., and the "Essay on the 
Doctrine of Chances," 2. 6d. each. 

The title of this edition, which is thus seen to 
have come out in December, 1763, and to have 
been advertised as late as January, 1765, if not 
later, is much the same as that of the preceding 
issue, down to the words "The Thirteenth Edition," 
after which it continues as before, including the 
words, " To which is now added, | Two new Cases 
at Whist, never before printed "; though these had 
appeared in the twelfth edition; careless editing 
again. The imprint is " London : | Printed for 
Thomas Osborne, in Gray's Inn ; | Henry Wood- 
fall, | And Richard Baldwin, both in Pater-noster- 
Row. | [Price Three Shillings, neatly bound.]" 
The autograph signatures of Edmond Hoyle and 
Tho. Osborne follow, at foot; n.d. Title and con- 
tents, xii, followed by sub-title to whist, and pp. 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 22, '9C. 

91, the verso of last page blank. On p. 70 occurs 
"a Case of Curiosity, first published 1763," con- 
firming the date fixed by the advertisement quoted 
above. Next comes quadrille, fifth edition ; piquet 
and chess, fifth edition ; and backgammon, sixth 
edition ; together, pp. 93-216, quadrille occupy- 
ing pp. 93-120, piquet, &c., 121-172, and back- 
gammon the rest. (H.H.G., imperfect ; H.J.; 

Here again I may incidentally mention "A 
brief and necessary | Supplement | to all former | 

treatises j on | Quadrille. | By no Adept, j 

London | 1764." This consists mainly of a criticism 
of Hoyle's quadrille, favourable on the whole, but 
particularizing the points on which the writer 
differs from our author. In the dedication " To the 
Ladies," he tells them that "After reading this 
little book, you will understand what Mr. Hoyle 
says as well as any man in England," &c. 

(To le continued.') 

Gladstone in his address to the undergraduates of 
Oxford lays down several propositions respecting 
Homer which are rather startling. He says that 
" Homer evidently recoiled in disgust from the 
character of this corrupting goddess Aphroditfe." 
I am not aware of a single passage or epithet which 
can give colour to this statement. Here, who is a 
model of decorum, did not think so ; for when she 
wishes to heighten her natural charms, she goes to 
Aphrodite, and asks, " Give me that loveliness and 
attractiveness [^lAorijra KCU t/tepov] with which 
you subdue immortal gods and mortal men." 
Aphrodite accordingly lends her girdle, which is 
beautifully described as containing "all that is 
soothing, all that is attractive, sweet converse, 
such as will steal away the hearts of the very 
wisest." There is not an immodest word or idea ; 
and yet here would have been the opportunity for 
Homer to express his disgust. In fact, Mr. Glad- 
stone has made up his mind that Aphrodite is 
identical with Ishtar of the Assyrians ; and there 
ia plenty of proof, sacred and profane, that the 
rites of Ishtar or Ashtaroth were impure. But as 
well might we say that Aphrodite is the Freya of 
the Scandinavians, and that Ares is borrowed from 
Woden. In fact, from the earliest times, men 
made war and made love ; and each country in- 
dependently invented its gods of love and of 
war. Mr. Gladstone's mistake, as I venture to 
call it, is the same as that of Tacitus, when he says 
of the Germans, " Deorum maxime Mercurium 
colunt." The Germans knew nothing of Mercury. 
Mr. Gladstone says he believes Homer intended 
to describe the figures on Achilles's shield as alive. 
But Homer says most distinctly the contrary ; that 
the figures were most artistically made of gold, 

bronze, and tin, and that they looked alive (wcrre 

o)Ol (3pOTOl). 

Mr. Gladstone thinks that the Greeks in Homer's 
time got such astronomy as they had from Assyria. 
Every probability is the other way. The Assyrians 
were an inland people, the Greeks were maritime, 
and steered by the stars, and the names of all the 
stars in Homer are not Assyrian, but pure Greek, 
the Hyades, Pleiades, Arktos, Hamaxa. 

Mr. Gladstone says the duration of the Flood in 
Assyrian records was seven days, as in the de- 
scription of the cosmogony in Genesis. If Mr. 
Gladstone means the days of Creation, they were 
six, not seven ; and if he means the Flood as de- 
scribed in Genesis, that lasted forty days, and the 
waters prevailed upon the earth one hundred and 
fifty days. 

Mr. Gladstone says, " the real ruler of the nether 
word was Persephone." Surely some evidence 
should be given of a revolution overthrowing a 
dynasty governing a third part of the universe. 
Does Mr. Gladstone mean no more than Pericles 
did, when he said, " My little boy governs the 
Athenians." But a distinction should be made 
between a pleasantry and a reality. 

There are several other passages in Mr. Glad- 
stone's address which he would have done well to 
elucidate ; but I must consider the space and the 
patience of our Editor. J. CARRICK MOORE. 

' Life ' of his brother Dr. John North ( 8 in the 
forthcoming edition to be published by Mr. Bell, 
and vol. iii. p. 280 of ' The Lives of the Norths/ 
8vo., 1826) the author tells us that 

" After the happy Restoration, and while our doctor 
was yet at school, the master [of Bury School, Dr. 
Stephens] took occasion to publish his cavaliership by 
all the ways he could contrive; and one was putting all 
;he boarders, who were of the chief families in the 
country, into red cloaks, because the cavaliers about the 
court usually wore such; and scarlet was commonly 
called the king's colour. Of these he had near thirty to 
parade before him through that observing town to 
church ; which made no vulgar appearance. It fell out 
that, about that time, one Mr. Blemwell, a picture drawer, 
resided at Bury. He was an early friend and acquaint- 
ance of Sir Peter Lely, who also spent some time at 
gentlemen's houses thereabouts. Mr. Blemwell was 
allowed of Lely to have had a very good judgment in the 
art of picture, but his performances were not equal to 
his skill. He was a civil and well-bred gentleman, very 
well accepted and employed in the town and neighbour- 
hood ; and, among others, he drew our doctor in his red 
cloak just as he wore it." 

The picture mentioned in this passage is still 
preserved at Eougham Hall, having, presumably, 
come into Roger North's possession by the gift of 
one of his brothers, and was reproduced by the 
Autotype Company for my edition of Eoger 
North's ' Autobiography,' printed by me in 1887. 
But it is pretty clear that this picture was one of 
a series which Blemwell painted, and it is impro- 

7"> S. IX. FEB. 22, '90.] 



bable that all the others of the set should have 
perished in two centuries. I shall be glad to find 
out where any others of these pictures are still to 
be seen. There ought to be no difficulty in iden- 
tifying them. Pictures of schoolboys habited in 
scarlet cloaks of the time of the Eestoration cannot 
be very common, and the style and mannerism of 
the painter would be readily detected by experts, 
whose eyes are trained and their judgment to be 

As to Mr. Blemwell, I know nothing more about 
him than what I have learnt from Roger North's 
mention of him. His name does not appear in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' and I have 
no access at present to the great dictionaries of 
painters and engravers, which may be supposed to 
give some little information regarding him. Pos- 
sibly Davy's MSS. may furnish some scraps of 
information ; but a man must have a good deal of 
time at his disposal to work through that large 

FLINT. It is gratifying to record the recent re- 
storation to its proper custody of a folio volume of 
about forty pages, bound in rough calf, and written on 
parchment, containing the Register of Baptisms in 
the Parish of Cwm, otherwise Combe, from July 16, 
1791, to Dec. 21, 1812, the Register of Burials 
from Aug. 31, 1791, to Dec. 9, 1812, and "A true 
Note and Terrier of all and singular the Glebe 
Lands and Tythes belonging to the Parsonage and 
Rectory of Cwm otherwise Combe in the County 
of Flint and Diocese of St. Asaph," dated July 10, 
1791, and signed by Peter Whitley, Vicar of Cwm, 
the churchwardens and principal inhabitants. The 
register was received by the Rev. Thomas Major 
Rees, Vicar of Cwm, on January 8. 


34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Perhaps no more striking illustration of the 
blunders arising from copying one book from 
another can be given than the arms of the above 
diocese. The ancient and correct arms of the 
bishopric of Bath and Wells is beyond doubt the 
following : Az., a saltire surmounting a pastoral 
staff in pale or, between on the dexter two keys, 
wards upwards and addorsed, the bows interlaced, 
the dexter of the second the sinister arg. , on the 
sinister a sword erect arg., hilt and pommel gold. 
The deanery the same arms minus the pastoral 
staff. These arms are to be seen in Wells in fif- 
teenth century stained glass in the chapter library 
and the south aisle of the choir of the cathedral ; 
and carved in stone on the chantry chapel of Bishop 
Bubwitb, who died in 1424 ; the chantry chapel of 
St. Edmund ; the roof of the south cloister ; and 
frequently on the chapel and houses of the vicar's 
close, where the see as above impales the arms of 

Bishop Beckington, the three latter buildings 
being erected by the executors of Bishop Becking- 
ton between 1464 and 1472. Also on the tomb of 
Dean Gunthorpe, 1478; of Thomas Cornish, Bishop 
of Tenos and Bishop Suffragan to Bishop Fox 
when Bishop of Bath and Wells, died 1514 ; on a 
lectern given by Bishop Creyghton in 1660, and 
on his monument, 1672; and on that of Bishop 
Hooper, 1727. 

The historical interest of these arms are seen 
when we call to mind the fact that the Priory of 
Bath, whose church was dedicated to SS. Peter 
and Paul, bore the emblems of those apostles, the 
keys and sword in saltire on a blue shield. The 
church of Wells, being dedicated to St. Andrew, 
bore his cross. How beautifully and simply the 
union of the two sees is represented in the above 
arms ! What a history they bear ! While how 
meaningless the coat now used without any autho- 
rity, leaving out Bath altogether ! As regards the 
arms of the deanery, they would certainly be more 
correct without the keys and sword. On the beauti- 
ful tomb of Dean Husee (1305) are five shields on 
which arms were painted, the stain of which alone 
remains; they show saltire, without any trace of 
the keys and sword. It appears alone and impal- 
ing fretty, taken from his mother's family, she 
being Margery, daughter and coheir of Theobald, 
Lord Vernon. EURE. 


" A curious light is thrown on the rural life of Bengal 
by the contents of a paper reprinted lately in the annual 
report of the Bombay Anthropological Society. Prom 
this paper we are told the following, among other things. 
Shouting the name of the king of birds (Qaruda) drives 
away snakes. Shouting Bam Ram drives away ghosts. 
Cholera that attacks on Monday ends fatally, but not 
cholera that attacks on Thursday. The flowering of 
bamboo augurs famine. In fanning, if the fan strikes 
the body, it should be thrice knocked against the ground. 
When giving alms, the giver and receiver should not be 
standing on different sides of the threshold. It is bad to 
pick one's teeth with one's nails. If a snake is killed it 
should be burnt, for it is a Brahman. At night the words 
' snake ' and ' tiger ' should not be used ; call them 
creepers and insects. Do not wake up a sleeping phy- 
sician. A morning dream always comes to pass. De- 
votion without head-gear is wrong. Iron is a charm 
against ghosts. A black cat with a white face is very 



THE DUKE AND Miss J. (See 7 th S. ix. 30.) 
I cannot agree with Miss BUSK as to the book 
called ' The Letters of the Duke of Wellington to 
Miss J.' Its title, indeed, is, perhaps, a catchpenny 
title, for the book is rather Misu J.'s letters to the 
duke, with his replies, which replies are by no 
means always " curt acknowledgments." It is 
evident that, whether by her personal beauty or 
by her sincere, though mistaken, desire to " save 
his soul," Miss J. had no small influence over the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. ix. FEB. 22, -90. 

duke, and inspired him for a time, at least, with 
real respect and regard. There is nothing absurd 
or painful in this ; and although Miss J. herself is 
absurd enough, it does not follow that the record 
of her doings is so. On the contrary, the record, 
assuming its genuineness, is both interesting and 
valuable, and that for two reasons. First, as to 
the duke himself, it is a striking fulfilment of 
Lord Tennyson's prophecy that 

Whatever record leap to light, 
He never shall be shamed. 

The duke's letters and conduct exhibit all the 
traits that we are accustomed to associate with 
him his high and somewhat stern character, his 
lofty courtesy toward women, his promptness and 
willingness to oblige, his serene old - fashioned 
eighteenth-century piety. It may (or may not) be 
true that he was at first impressed more deeply 
than became a man of sixty-five with the charms 
of the young lady who so strangely threw herself 
in his way ; but, if so, he recovered his balance in 
good time. And, secondly, Miss J.'s letters are 
interesting and valuable, as showing the effects of 
a certain kind of Protestantism upon a vain, ill- 
regulated, and emotional spirit i.e. upon just 
such a spirit as is always open to those effects. 
Miss J. had begun life by acting successfully the 
part of Dinah Morris in 'Adam Bede'; but she 
had not Dinah's sweet temper and gracious humi- 
lity ; and the triumph was too much for her. In 
her self-chosen correspondence with the duke she 
always did the proper thing ; she spread her letter, 
or his letter, before the Lord, after the manner of 
Hezekiah, asking counsel of Him ; and she rose 
from her knees convinced that she had that counsel, 
and that what she was about to do was right. 
But "God is not mocked"; and Miss J. forgot 
that she had wholly neglected the previous ques- 
tion, what right she had to attack the duke on 
spiritual subjects, or to suppose herself a better 
Christian than he. No so-called religious utter- 
ances known to me are more curious than these of 
hers ; and perhaps the most curious of all is the 
letter with which she sends to the duke a hymn, 
which is not given nor identified. This hymn, 
says she, is " only suitable to the regenerated 
-aoul "; and then she adds, using a feminine ana- 
eoJouthon, " which blessed state, however " 
namely, the state of regeneration " Miss J. has 
to reason to suppose that his Grace the Duke of 
"Wellington has yet experienced." The force of 
religious impertinence could hardly go further 
than this. How Macaulay would have delighted 
in it, had he been writing another article on the 
Olapham sect ! An unknown young woman of 
twenty or so calmly assuming that the grave and 
honoured and stainless leader of nations was not 
yet a child of that God who had been with him as 
manifestly as He was with Joshua ! She said this, 
no doubt, because she knew that out of the mouth 

of babes and sucklings every word shall be estab- 
lished, forgetting that it makes a deal of difference 
who the babe or suckling is. 

But the whole book is an unconscious, and 
therefore a trustworthy exhibition of the contrast 
between the religion of (let us say) the Salvation 
Army and the religion of a man like the great 
Duke of Wellington. No better picture of either 
need be desired by a reader who understands 
character. And therefore I know not why such a 
book should be thought absurd or painful, unless 
by that impossible person, that optandum magis 
quam sperandum, a man or woman holding Miss 
J.'s views, and yet possessing a sense of humour. 

Sir William Eraser has lately published his 
' Words on Wellington.' It would be interesting 
to know what he thinks of this still newer volume. 

A. J. M. 

note that the form -erst is sometimes found as a 
superlative suffix. It is formed by adding -st (for 
-est) to the comparative suffix -er. Thus deep 
would have deep-er for its comparative, whence the 
superlative deep-er-st might be formed. Examples 
occur in Wyclif's ' Works,' ed. Arnold, vol. iii. I 
note hei-er-ste, highest, p. 363 ; lewid-er-st, most 
ignorant (lit. lewdest), p. 355 ; blessid-er-ste, most 
blessed, p. 344 ; and, on the same page, both depp- 
er-ste, adj., and depp-er-st, adv. Perhaps some one 
can give us a few more examples. 


MISUSE OF WORDS. In 'Romeo and Juliet' 
Mr. William Black's, not Shakespeare's we are 
introduced at the beginning of chap. iii. to Mr. 
Meyer, of whom we are told that he was l< a gentle- 
man with rather a nasal nose." The knowledge of 
this fact hardly enables us to distinguish him from 
other people. Had he possessed an aural or a manual 
nose we could never have mistaken him for any 
other man. 

If the Standard may be trusted, one of our 
judges lately told a prisoner that he (the prisoner) 
merited most condign punishment. 


Augustine Birrell, in his article in the December, 
1889, number of the Nineteenth Century on Court- 
hope's ' Life of Pope,' has fallen into an error in 
stating that the Earl of Darnley is descended from 
the Lord Cornbury of Pope's lines : 

Despise low thoughts, low gains, 
Disdain whatever Cornbury disdains, 
Be virtuous, and be happy for your pains. 

Pope here refers to Henry, Viscount Cornbury, 
eldest son of Henry Hyde, Earl of Rochester, who 
succeeded his cousin, Edward Hyde, third Earl of 
Clarendon (Lord Darnley's ancestor), as the fourth 
Earl of Clarendon, in 1723. 

Henry, Viscount Cornbury, was born in 1710, 


7 th S. IX. FEB. 22, '90.J 



and was M.P. for the University of Oxford from 
1732 till 1750, when he was summoned to the 
House of Lords in his father's barony as Lord 
Hyde of Hindon. He married in 1737 Lady 
Frances Lee, daughter of George, second Earl of 
Lichfield, but died childless, from a fall from his 
horse, April 26, 1753, six months before his father's 
death, when the earldoms of Clarendon and 
Rochester became extinct. By his will, dated 
1751, he left the writings and papers of his great- 
grandfather, the first Earl of Clarendon, to the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford. E. C. C. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

THE SHIP LYON, OR LION. Can any informa- 
tion be supplied in regard to the ship Lyon, or 
Lion, which arrived in New England in 1631? 
One of the passengers was the Rev. J. Eliot, other- 
wise Apostle Eliot, whose name is intimately 
associated with the early history of New England. 
Amongst other passengers were the wife and son 
of Governor Winthorp, and it is also stated William 
Denison, commonly called Denison of Roxbury, 
with his wife and three sons. It is sought to elicit 
from what part of England this William Denison 
came, with a view to connecting him and his 
family with the English branch of the Denisons. 


JONSON'S WIFE. Could any of your readers 
give me the Christian name and maiden surname 
of the wife of Ben Jonson, the dramatist ? I can- 
not find it in any biographical dictionary. 


to ascertain if any connexion is known to have 
existed (temp, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) 
between the Pawsons, or Paysons, of Nazing, co. 
Essex, and those of Northumberland. Also in- 
formation is desired as to the descent of Law- 
rence Pawson, baptized at Nazing, Essex, Decem- 
ber 27, 1579 ; then married Joan Webb, March 5, 
1605; and died July 4, 1633. Inscription on 
tombstone in the old burial-ground, Boston, New 
England, America : "Lawrence Payson, perhaps 
son of John Payson, who married Dorothy Wall 
at Nazing, Essex [England], Jan. 25, 1564." Did 
John or Lawrence Pawson originally come from 
Northumberland ? Both Payson and Pawson occur 
in the Nazing registers. Would they be of the 
same family, notwithstanding the difference in the 
spelling ? ANGLO-AMERICAN. 

AUSTRALIA. Will some correspondent of N. & 
Q.' kindly state titles and publishers of the best- 

written and most recent works on the towns of 
Australia, and name especially any literature per- 
taining to the present state of musical culture in 
that colony ? Are the articles which appeared in 
the Daily Telegraph, entitled ' The Land of the 
Golden Fleece,' by G. A. Sala, obtainable ? 

W. E. H. 

CASH FAMILY. Could you give me particulars 
of the family and armorial bearings of John Cash, 
of Bellville, Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1814; or of 
Edouard Cash, or Casshe, of Lisburn, which I see 
mentioned in 'N. & Q.,' 7 th S. viii. 387? 


supply the names of authors other than those 
mentioned in the interesting volume of Mr. J. A. 
Langford, entitled 'Prison Books and their Authors,' 
8vo., London, 1861 who have written books in 
prison ? English and foreign desired. 


ago there appeared in one of the comic papers 
answers to the well-known sentimental ballads 
' The Woodman,' * The Woodpecker Tapping,' and 
the like. The woodman's answer began, 
No marm, that there tree belong to Muster Brown, 
And won't he leather me if I don't 'are it down. 
Can a correspondent give a reference to the series ? 


'THE YOUNG COUNTESS.' Does any one remem- 
ber a tale entitled c The Young Countess,' with 
which I used to amuse myself in my boyish days, 
some fifty-five years ago 1 I have never seen the 
book from those days to these, and should be glad 
if some one could tell me who was the author of it. 
I used at that time to read it with avidity, but 
do not know what my opinion of it would be now. 

E. R. 

your readers learned in the names of the collectors 
of engravings kindly tell me whose initials H. P. B. 
were ? I am not quite sure of the H; it might be 
a K. G. W. 

REFERENCE WANTED to a ballad entitled ' The 
Pilgrim of Law,' a parody on the well-known 
'Pilgrim of Love,' supposed to be by "Jacob 
Omnium," which appeared in Punch, about 1848- 
1850, satirizing the practice of the then existent 
but menaced Palace Court, beginning : 
A lawyer who sued in the Palace Court sought me, 

As I, to avoid him, had walked weary rounds, 
I knew very well what a sum it would cost me 
When he proffer'd a writ for a debt of three pounds. 


reader of 'N. & Q.' give the Vicar of Preston 
Candover, Baaingstoke, information concerning the 



[7 th 6. IX. FEB. 22, '90. 

Escotland and Boteler families, from which Can- 
clover Scotland and Butler Candever took their 
names ? Madden's notes upon Southwick Priory 
and published books upon the county have been 
searched with little definite result. P. C. B. 

AUTHOR OF SONG WANTED. Can any of your 
readers inform me who was the author of a song 
commencing as follows ? 

There was a hill and a very fine hill, 

And the green grass grew all round, my boys, 

And the green grass grew all round. 

It goes on to narrate that on the hill there was 
a tree, and on the tree a branch, and on the branch 
a twig, and on the twig a nest, and in the nest four 
eggs, and on the eggs a bird, and on the bird a 
flea, each fresh stanza ending with a refrain in 
which the preceding objects are brought in. I want 
to know the author, and whether copyright or not. 
E. N. C. BROAD. 

MACKENZIE FAMILY. Wanted to know par- 
ticulars of a family of Mackenzies, whose crest is 
a demi lion ramp. gu. ; motto, "Avito vint honore." 


PEDIGREES. Can any one tell me where to find 
pedigrees of the following families : Towers (Eng- 
lish), Towers of Inverleith (Scotch) ; also Lindsay 
of Evelick, Perthshire? The last is an extinct 
baronetcy, and only given very partially in Lynd- 
say's 'Lives.' WALTER F. LTON. 

46, Harcourt Terrace, S. W. 

ARCHIBALD MOFFLIN. Can any correspondent 
of ' N. & Q.' give me any information concerning 
a certain Archibald Mofflin ? He was a silk mer- 
chant in London, and is said to have been an 
alderman of the City of London, and possibly a 
knight, and also to have owned a street in Shadwell 
or Limehouse. He married a Sarah Davies, of the 
parish of Selattyn, between Chirk and Oswestry, 
and I believe the ceremony took place in London. 
He was buried in St. Paul's Churchyard, where the 
stone, I believe, at present exists. I should be 
glad of any particulars concerning him, and espe- 
cially of the date and place of his marriage, sent 
direct to me. J. CUTHBERT WELCH, F. C.S. 

The Brewery, Reading. 

COL. HUGH ROGERS, was M.P. for Calne in 
the Long Parliament. What was his parentage ? 
When did he die ? He appears to have been one 
of the secluded members of December, 1648, but 
was " re-admitted a member to sit by Resolution 
of the House on Nov. 20, 1650." I find no after 
reference to him, so assume that he was dead before 
the Restoration. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

WRAT OF ARDS. Being interested in the 
romantic history of this family, so graphically 

described in Burke's ' Vicissitudes of Families,' I 
should be glad to obtain some information regard- 
ing the daughters of Humphrey Wray of Ards and 
his wife, Anne Brooke, of Colebrooke. Their son 
was the famous " Old Willie Wray of Ards." What 
were the names of his sisters ; and whom did they 
marry ? J. W. S.-H. 

Castle Semple. 

" HEIGH 's AN OWD TYKE." Lately an old 
Yorkshireman, well past seventy, was speaking of 
another, whom he knew as a boy, who had made 
his way well up the ladders of fame and fortune, 
leaving the other at the post both started from. 
Said the old man, " Ah ! Heigh puts in' in mind 
o' a' owd woman, wer used ter sing a song, a bit o' 
which run 

Heigh 's an owd tyke, 
Es cart wer a bosses yed, 
An heigh fun it in a dyke." 

By this he meant to show that his companion of 
old, starting with nothing, by his abilities had gone 
ahead. Is the song known to any ' N. & Q.' con- 
tributor ] Possibly it is connected with " Wads- 
ley Jack." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

THE KING'S HARBINGERS. In the Journals of 
the House of Commons, under the date May 18, 
1725, is a detailed account of payments made out 
of the Exchequer on account of the Privy Purse, 
pensions, bounties, &c., from March, 1721, to 
March, 1725. Three of the items are as follows : 

To Richard Wright, Esquire, Knight Harbinger, 
Fee 20 Marks per aim., Allowance 10s. per diem, 
7WI. Us. 2,d. 

To Wm. Cowper, Esquire, ditto, 147*. 10*. 

To Malachi Thurston, Esquire, Knight Harbinger, late 
Queen's, Fee ditto, 2U. 3s. id. 

Can any one state the duties of this office, and 
when it was suppressed ? J. LATIMER. 


NUNN. I am anxious to obtain genealogical 
particulars respecting Suffolk families of this 
name and their London branches, and I should be 
very glad if any one willing to communicate with 
me on the subject would write to me direct. Such 
information as I possess I shall be pleased to com- 
municate in return. H. NUNN, B. A. 

Lawton Rectory, Stoke-on-Trent. 

second-hand copy of Whiston's 'Hints on Glass 
Painting,' in my possession, the frontispiece repre- 
sents a portion of the east window at Little Mal- 
vern Church, Worcestershire, and contains a figure 
kneeling, described in the text as that of Richard, 
Duke of York, and brother of Edward V., but a 
foot-note in pencil, signed "C. B.," says "Edward 
V. as Prince of Wales." Some of your readers 
may be acquainted with this window, and able to 
decide the question. The glass formerly held the 

7 th S. IX. FEE, 22, '90.] 



portraits of Edward IV., his queen, and their two 
sons, but the only perfect one remaining is that of 
the prince in question. J. BAGNALL. 

^ Water Orton. 

" To WORM." Has the following quaint defini- 
tion by Johnson in his 'Dictionary' (fourth edition, 
Dublin, 1775) ever been noticed ? 

" To worm, (verb active), to deprive a dog of some- 
thing, nobody knows what, under his tongue, which is 
said to prevent him, nobody knows why, from running 

C. S. H. 

" THE CALLING OF THB SEA." What is the exact 
meaning of this ? When does the sea " call " in 
the sense that the phrase infers ? It is mentioned 
by Tennyson in ' Enoch Arden,' a few lines from 
the end ; and I think Mr. Walter White, in his 
| Londoner's Walk to the Land's End,' alludes to 
it as having a technical, or at least a special, 

of ' N. & Q.' supply me with an explanation of the 
verse in Burns's ' Address to the Deil ' which runs 
thus ? 

When Masons' mystic word and grip 
In storm an' tempests raise you up, 
Some cock or cat your rage maun stop, 

Or strange to tell ! 
The youngest Brother ye wad whip 

Offstraughttoh 11. 

J. H. KING. 

PRIMITIVE METHODISTS. Some time early in 
this century a secession took place from the Wes- 
leyan body, which took the name of Primitive 
Methodists. There is a hymn or poem relating to 
this wherein the following lines occur (I quote 
from memory): 

The little cloud increases still 
Which first arose upon Mow Hill. 
Where shall I find an account of this ; and where is 
Mow Hill ? ANON. 

correct in my surmise that this writer published a 
treatise on ' Logic ' ? He was an able divine and 
fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, and is known 
best by his work 'Ecclesise Anglicamu Defensio.' 
A few years ago our late respected Archdeacon 
K. H. Groome, in a charge delivered at Wood- 
bridge, quoted this book as a great authority, 
styling the author " a Westmoreland worthy.' 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

K.B. I should like to inquire if it be thought 
correct to attach these initials to the name of a 
knight created by the ceremony of bathing in 
mediaeval times, that is to say before the con- 
stitution, or reconstitution (the early creation is, I 
believe, questioned), of the Order of the Bath by 

George I. and George IV. ? I would ask also if it 
be held that knights were sometimes twice dubbed ? 
It would so appear in the instance of Sir Richard 
Wentworth, who became a knight (? of the Bath) 
in 1509 on the coronation of Henry VIII., and 
was again dubbed a knight-banneret in 1512. See 
Metcalfe's ' Book of Knights.' From this case it 
seems that a knight-banneret (the order now obso- 
lete) ranked higher than a Knight of the Bath if, 
indeed, the latter term is correctly applied to 
knights earlier than temp. George I. 

W. L. K. 


(7 th S. viii. 487.) 

Refer to 'K & Q.,' 6 th S. viii. 515; ix. 35, 135, 
213, 319 ; 7 th S. v. 189, 333. At the earlier refer- 
ences, besides allusions to the Fourth Series which 
I have not had time to go through, some instances 
will be found of the word at a much earlier date 
than 1796, but not in the same sense. I think 
there is every evidence that this word derives from 
dandiner, but, like beau, nom de plume, and others, 
was made up in England from the French. The 
French use it as adopted back from England. Bra- 
chet and Egger have, "Dandy, mot anglais introduit 
pendant la restauration et qui a le sens de petit- 
maitre." Louis Gre"goire has : 

" Dandy, Dandyame. Ce mot Anglais a designS au 
commencement du XIX e siecle un groupe de jeunes gens 
appartenant a la haute societe anglaise, qui a'attribuaient 
le droit de regler la mode dans lea manierea, le vetement, 
le langage. C'est a tort qu'on a donne le nom de dandys 
en France a nos jeunes fashionables, car le veritable 
dandysme avec son flegme pousse ju?qu'a la grace polie, 
mais dedaigneuse, est essentiellement britannique. Le 
dandysme a eu pour chef Sir G. Brummel, qui acquit 
une sorte de celebrite en consacrant toute sa vie a la 
mise en scene de cette science futile. M. Barbey d'Aure- 
villy a public une sorte de physiologic du dandyisme sous 
ce titre, ' Du Dandysme et de George Brummel,' Paris, 

But all the same it does not appear to have been a 
word in use in our language issuing straight from 
dandiprat, as has been suggested, because, not to 
speak of other reasons, in that in the main singu- 
larly accurate study of English manners, ' Memoires 
et Observations faites par un Voyageur en Angle- 
terre,' and published in 1698, " fop " and " bean " 
are spoken of as the words in use for the article in 
question. Though published anonymously, the 
author of this little work was Fr. Max. Misson, a 
French Protestant refugee. At the date of this pub- 
lication he had been living thirteen years in Eng- 
land, part of the time as tutor in the Earl of 
Arran's family (with whom he travelled all over 
Europe), so that he had excellent means of being 
acquainted with the words in use in good society. 
His book is arranged in dictionary form, and 



[7 th S. IX. FEB. 22, '90. 

under ''Beau" he has no mention of "dandy"; 
he gives " fop " as the alternative word. 

Further, he treats the word beau also as entirely 
an English word, and describes the nature of the 
animal as if the word was quite unknown at that 
date to his compatriots, and mentions as their 
nearest equivalents coquet, hableur, and the cha- 
racter of Mascarille in the ' Pre"cieuses Ridicules,' 
when he assumes the style of a marquis. 

At the same time there is undeniably something 
to be said in favour of the dandiprat connexion, 
and very probably, like some other made-up cant 
words, it came into favour through the very fact of 
its recommending itself under two quite different 
aspects, and so winning the suffrages of two classes 
of intelligences. 

Brachet says, " L'origine [of dandiner] est in- 
connue '"; other lexicographers trace it back to the 
English " to dandle." As every unstable person is 
liable to be ridiculed, Dandin has become a pil- 
lorizing name adopted (probably from folk-speech) 
by many French authors as Rabelais, Racine, La 
Fontaine, Moliere for types of various forms of 
folly they have undertaken to scathe. 

Barbey d'Aurevilly considers that the word 
dandy did not come into vogue until the article 
appeared in full bloom in the person of Brummel, 
which would not be many years before 1800. 
While he was still at Eton 

" le soin de sa raise et la langueur froide de ses manieres 
lui firent donner par ses condisciples un nom fort en vogue 
alors ; car le nom de ' Dandy ' n'etait pas encore & la 
mode, et les despotes de 1'elegance s'appelaient bucks." 

And in another page : "Les Beaux ne sont pas des 
Dandys; ils les precedent." 

Though the word dandy has been occasionally 
applied carelessly by Frenchmen to Frenchmen, all 
French writers on the subject have, I think, pro- 
tested that a real dandy is an article of exclusively 
British manufacture (see d'Aurevilly, passim), 
though produced in consequence of the influence 
of French manners (d'Aurevilly, p. 24 ff.). 

Another writer says : 

" Le Dandysme est exclusivement anglais, et c'est 
tres improprement que Ton designe sous ce nom en 

France les membres de notre jettnesse doree la France 

est aussi incapable d'engendrer le dandy que 1'Angle- 
terre Test d'offrir I'e'quivalent de nos elegants, de nos 

This author goes on to juxtapose as two anta- 
gonistic types the personalities of Brummel and 
d'Orsay, a distinction which has quite escaped a 
writer now handling the subject in Blackwood and 
the Saturday Review : 

" II existe une difference radicale entre ces deux 
especes. Notre c61ebre D'Orsay complete 1'opposition, 

I'antithese de Brummel D'Orsay, nature essentielle- 

ment francaise et .sympatbique, n'etait pas le dandy 

froid, parfait, impassible D'Orsay etait le roi de la 

bienveillance aimable il a etc le heros d'anecdotes 

charmantes On connalt auasi I'histoire de son duel 

avec un officier anglais qui avait inaulte la Vierge. 

D'Orsay pretendit que la Vierge etait femme et que 
jamais on n'insulterait une femme devant lui. Tout cela 
sent le Frangais d'une lieue." 

The following remarks on various categories which 
are apt to be confounded are also worth quoting: 
" Helas ! les heritiers de d'Orsay, les liens d'il y a 
trente ans, ne valent pas nieme Brummel. Du lion an 
gandin il y a un abirne ; mais quel autre abime entre le- 
gandin et le petit crev'el Au moins le Dandysme avec 
sa roideur hautaine avait il une certaine grandeur. 
Aujourd'bui la France qui a eu d'Orsay, ce splendide 
heros de la mode, qui ellipse tous les Brummel du monde 
la France ne vaut pas mSme en ce genre 1'Angleterre 
d'il y a cinquante ans." 

R. H. BUSK. 

ST. JOHN AND THE EAGLE (7 th S. ix. 109). 
In the celebrated Lindisfarne MS. of the four- 
Gospels, written about A.D. 700, the heading of 
the fourth Gospel is " Johannis Aquila ; incipit 
Euangelium secundum Johannem." See White's 
note to the ' Ormulum,' 1. 5796, where he observes, 
that Irenseus seems to have been the first to apply 
the four symbols to the four evangelists, but he 
assigned to St. John the lion. The eagle was 
assigned to St. John by St. Augustine, Beda, and 
St. Jerome. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

It is not quite clear to me whether the title of 
St. John the Evangelist concerning which PROF. 
BUTLER seeks knowledge is " the Eagle of Christ," 
or " the Eagle " simply. Reading his query gram- 
matically, of course it is the former only, and then 
I am sorry that I cannot answer him : but since he 
refers to the text of Ezekiel, whence Dante's foil 
phrase cannot be gathered, perhaps it is the latter 
also. In that case it is to be said that the forms of 
the Four Mystic Wights (let us try if we can, fol- 
lowing Bishop Mede, to bring this fine word back 
into use) of Ezek. i. 10; x. 14, and also of ReveL 
iv. 7, have from patristic times been associated as 
symbols with the Four Evangelists. St. Irenaeus, 
in the latter half of the second century, was the- 
first so to do ; and he was followed by St. Augus- 
tine and St. Jerome in the fourth : these three 
authorities are the best known, and will most 
likely be enough to give. Their attribution of the 
separate symbols differed ; but St. Jerome's has 
been finally and universally adopted throughout 
Christendom: this was doubtless owing not only 
to his commentary on Ezek. i. 10, but also to his 
letter to Paulinus prefixed to his Vulgate trans- 
lation of the Bible, in which he interprets the 
Evangelists as the Wights in that verse of the pro- 
phet. The attribution is therefore this : St. Mat- 
thew, the Man ; St. Mark, the Lion ; St. Luke, the 
Ox ; St. John, the Eagle. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

St. Augustine has : 

" Unde mini videntur qui ex Apocalypsi ilia quatuor 
animalia, ad intelligendos quatuor Evangelistas interpre- 

7* S. IX. FEB. 22, '90.] 



tati sunt, probabilius aliquid attendisse, ill! qui leonem 
in Mattbaeo, hominem in Marco, vitulum in Luca, aqui- 
lam in Joanne intellexerunt, quam illi qui hominem 
Matthseo, aquilam Marco, bovem Lucse, leonem Joanni 
tribuerunt." 'De Consens. Evangg.,' i. 6. 

This marks the transition from the earlier symbol- 
ism, as in St. Irenaeus, iii. 8, which attributed the 
lion in the vision to St. John. Similarly with St. 
Augustine, St. Athanasius has : TO Se reraprov 
aerw, Tovrtcm, TO /car' Iwavvrji' evay- 
(' Synops. Script.,' 'Opp.,' torn. ii. p. 155, 
Paris, 1627). ED. MARSHALL. 

From the earliest times about the fifth century 
four living creatures have always been held as 
symbolical of the four Evangelists ; and your cor- 
respondent PROF. JAMES D. BUTLER will find on 
reference to Dr. William Smith's 'Dictionary of 
Christian Antiquities,' vol. i. p. 889, London, 
1875, that the Eagle was the most ancient method 
of representing the beloved disciple St. John. The 
following is quoted from the work referred to, 

" In the church of St. Vitalis at Ravenna a mosaic of 
A.D. 547 shows the Evangelist seated, holding the codex 
of his Gospel open in his hands ; before him in a small 
table with a pen and ink-bottle, and the symbolical 
eagle appears above him." 


6, Freegrove Road, N. 

OLIVER CROMWELL'S SWORDS (7 th S. viii. 507; 
ix. 52) : I remember seeing Cromwell's sword in 
a case No. 1, Room No. 1, Upper Room, Cbetham 
College, in the museum of Old Manchester and 
Salford, at the Royal Jubilee Exhibition, Old Traf- 
ford, Manchester. The following description of 
this interesting relic from the Exhibition Catalogue 
may be of interest : 

"Sword, presented by Oliver Cromwell to Major 
General Charles Worsley, dated 1651. Owner Mrs. 
Tindall Carrill-Worsley. The sword bears on its blade 
the following inscription : 

Vincere aut mori 

Si deus pro nobis 

Quis contra nos 

Achilles graecus. 

Fide [illegible] 

Regere seipsum 

Summa est sapientia 

Anibal cartagus. 

30, Rusholme Grove, Manchester. 

COCKLE-DEMOIS (7 th S. ix. 28, 78). An amusing 
rogue, but coarse above measure, figures under the 
name Cockledemoy in Marston's comedy of ' The 
Dutch Courtezan' (1605, 4to.), whence Scott may 
have derived it. Langbaine (' Account of the Eng- 
lish Dramatick Poets,' 1691), whose information is 
repeated by the author of the ' Companion to the 
Playhouse' (1764), and again quoted in Mr. Halli- 
well's edition of Marston, says that the incident of 

Cocledemoy's cheating Mrs. Mulligrub, a vintner's 
wife, of a goblet and salmon is borrowed from an 
old French book called ' Les Contes du Monde,' or 
else from the last novel of the ' Palace of Pleasure/ 
Probably Marston took the name from the same 
source as the incident, but whether this will fur- 
nish any clue to its etymology is another matter. Mr. 
Bnllen may possibly have investigated the point 
in his recent edition of Marston, which I have not 
seen. R. H. CASE. 

Grosvenor Road, Birkenhead. 

" IF I HAD A DONKEY," &c (7 th S. viii. 468 ; 
ix. 11, 75). It may interest MR. THOMAS RAT- 
CLIFFE to know, with reference to his query, that 
midway in the forties Punch had a parody which 
began as follows : 

Had I an ass averse to speed 
Deem'st thou I 'd strike him ? No, indeed ! 
I'd give him hay, and cry, " Proceed ! " 
And " Go on, Edward." 

F. B. S. 

BUST OF LORD NELSON (7 th S. ix. 107). Pro- 
bably by L. (I think Lucius) Gahagan, who died 
in Bath at an advanced age about 1832. He pub- 
lished busts of many of the famous public men of 
his time. His sitting statuette of Mr. Wilberforce 
was considered to be a very fine work. He had 
a small shop for the sale of his casts in a narrow- 
paved alley, the name of which I forget, leading 
from the York House to the Assembly Rooms. 

Many people have supposed that the body of the 
immortal poet was burnt by the hands of Byron> 
Leigh Hunt, Capt. Shenley, and E. J. Trelawny 
on its being washed up on the shore near Via 
Reggio in 1822. The real fact is that they were 
merely present as spectators at the cremation, 
which took place, as the quarantine law of the 
country required, by direction of a prods verbal. 
My late friend the Rev. William Falconer, M.A., 
Rector of Bushey, Herts, formerly fellow and 
tutor of Exeter College, Oxford, who had resided 
much abroad, once showed me a copy of this docu- 
ment, which he wished me to publish in the pages 
of ' N. & Q.' after the death of E. J. Trelawny, the 
sole surviving witness of the cremation (a word 
certainly not in use at that date) ; but as every 
scrap of information has been collected and pub- 
lished concerning Shelley and Byron, no doubt the 
proces verbal mentioned has long been public 

In Howitt's ' Homes and Haunts of the British 
Poets ' is a small vignette, prefixed to the memoir 
of Percy Bysshe Shelley, representing the body on 
the funeral pyre, to which an attendant is applying 
a torch, whilst his friends are looking on, one of 
them shading his face with his hand. The subject 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. ix. FEB. 22, 

would be an "intensely dramatic" one for a 
painter, as the different emotions might be so well 
portrayed. Classical readers may be reminded of 
the picture of 'The Iphigenia of Timanthes,' in 
which the painter skilfully delineated the different 
emotions on the faces of Calchas, Ulysses, and 
Menelaus, but represented Agamemnon with his 
face veiled in his robe. This last attempt was 
considered by the ancients a masterpiece of art, 
and ^Bscbylus has described the sacrifice of Iphi- 
genia in, perhaps, one of the finest passages in the 
'Agamemnon.' The idea is versified in the 
Newdigate prize poem of 1819 : 

In mercy stay thy harrowing touch, nor trace 
Weak nature's strife in Agamemnon's face. 
Yon close-drawn robe's convulsive folds declare 
Away! a father's heart is bursting there. 

In the New Monthly Magazine of 1833 is a 
paper, ' The History of Shelley's Expulsion from 
Oxford.' This took place in 1811, when Dr. 
Griffith was master of University College, and was 
written by Mr. Hogg. He was in all probability 
one of the family of Hogg of Norton Hall, near 
Stockton-on-Tees. University College had at that 
time a strong connexion with Northumberland and 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

THE WIND OF A CANNON-BALL (7 th S. vii. 426 ; 
viii. 57, 395 ; ix. 35). I have just read the fol- 
lowing in Kees's ' Siege of Lucknow ': 

" Mr. Ommaney, the Judicial Commissioner, was the 
next high official whom death reached. He was quietly 
sitting in his chair, when a cannon-ball (passing over 
the ^ body of Sergeant-Major Watson, of Capt. Adolphe 
Orr's Corps of Police, who was lying down on his bed) 
hit him on the head, and scattered a portion of his 
brains. He died almost immediately after, and the 
sergeant-major expired also, though the ball had not 
touched him. Whether Mr. Watson's death was caused 
by suffocation, or the force with which the air was sud- 
denly disturbed, or fear, I know not ; but the facts of 
his death, and of the round shot only passing but very 
closely over him, not the least doubt need be enter- 

E. L. S. 

EECONNOITRE (7 th S. viii. 368, 454). The 
Gallicism referred to by your correspondent is 
illustrated by the following passage : 

" He would hardly have reconnoitred Wildgoose, how- 
ever, va. his short hair and his present uncouth appear- 
ance." Graves, ' Spiritual Quixote,' book iv. chap, i., 

I quote from the Rev. T. L. 0. Davies's ' Supple- 
mentary English Glossary.' 


In the 1768 edition of Fenning's ' Royal English 
Dictionary,' and also in Bailey (1782), there occurs 
" To reconnoitre = to examine in order to make a 
report." This verb does not appear in the 1761 
edition of Fenning, and Johnson's ' Dictionary 
(ed. 1785) is without it. J. F. MANSERGH. 

SIR PETER PARRAVICINI (7 th S. ix. 30). The 
remark under this heading that " the name Heath- 
cote" (whose Penny Post is quoted) "does not 
appear to be known," is not quite correct. An 
earlier periodical of his, the Original London 
Post, or Heathcote's Intelligence, is well known ; 
for, as Dr. Dibdin says in a note, * Library Com- 
panion,' 616, "It is true that ' Robinson Crusoe ' first 
greeted the public eye in its sorrily printed pages, 
from No. 125 to No. 289 inclusively : the latter 
dated 7 October, 1719." Read in the last clause 
former instead of " latter." The dates are Oct. 7, 

1719, to Oct. 19, 1720. Dr. Dibdin further re- 
marks that the only copy with which he was 
acquainted was in the library of the Right Hon. 
Thomas Grenville. This is now in the British 
Museum. Another copy, however, was in the 
Library of the late Dr. Bliss, from the catalogue of 
which, sold by Messrs. Sotheby in 1858, the fol- 
lowing extract is taken : 

" 1492. De Foe, D. Robinson Crusoe. The Edition 
published in the Nos. of the Original London Post, or 
Heathcot's Intelligence, from Oct. 7th, 1719, to Oct. 19th, 

1720, inclusive. Folio. 1719-20. Extremely rare. Pre- 
fixed is a MS. note, extracted from T. Warton's Memo- 
randum Book, relative to the authorship of ' Robinson 
Crusoe,' in which the first volume, on the authority of 
Lord Sunderland, is attributed to Lord Oxford." 

Mr. Boone purchased the lot for 112. Is it known 
where this copy is now located ? Is there any basis 
for the opinion expressed by Lord Sunderland 1 
There is no mention of Heathcote's periodicals in 
the Catalogue of the Hope Collection at Oxford, nor 
of his name in the more extensive list printed in 
Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes, 1 vol. iv. No. 2. He 
records : 

The Penny Post. No. 1, July 19, 1715. 

The Penny Post, or Tradesman's Select Pacquel. No. 1, 
March 13, 1716-17. 

The London Post. No. 1, March 24-31, 1716. 

The London Post, or Tradesman's Intelligencer. No. 48, 
July 17-19, 1717. 

The name may have been changed and the paper 
issued three times a week in 1719, which would 
bring No. 125 to October 7. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

In the church of St. Dunstan-in-the-East, in the 
City of London, against the south wall, is a white 
marble monument bearing this inscription : 
Near this Place 
Lyeth interred 

the Body of 

S r Peter Parravicin 

E' who Departed this life 

The 25"- of January 1696 

Aged 59 years. 

Also in the same Vault his 

Daughter Mary Parravicin 

who departed this Life 

May 3 d 1725 Aged 

56 Years. 

Arms, Gules, a swan argent. This will serve to 
correct the dates found in Le Neve's account of 

7'".S. IX. FEB. 22, '90.] 



Sir Peter (' Pedigrees of the Knights '). Inscrip- 
tions to other members of the family exist on the 
floor of St. Dunstan's Church, which is now under- 
going internal alteration. In 'A Collection of the 
Names of the Merchants living in and about the 
City of London,' 1677, is this entry : " Peter 
Paravicin, Fanchurch str." 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

MARGERY, LADY DE LA BECHE (7 th S. ix. 45). 
Beaumys is about three miles from Swallowfield, 
and was formerly part of this property. I have, 
therefore, always been much interested in Mar- 
garet, Lady de la Beche, and have collected all 
the information I can find concerning her and her 
various husbands. Gerard de 1'Isle was son of 
Warine de 1'Isle, of Kingston Lisle (governor of 
Windsor Castle and warden of the forest), by his 
wife Alice, sister and heir of Henry, Baron le Teys. 
In 1347 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron 
de 1'Isle. In 1355 he married Elizabeth, widow 
of Edmond de St. John, and he died 1361, leaving 
a son Warine, who succeeded him as second Baron 
de FIsle, and who must have been the son of a 
previous wife, as he was in the wars in 1360. 

Lysons, quoting from " Pat. 26 Ed. III.," &c., 
says that Lady Margaret was at the time of the 
assault of the Castle of Beaumys the wife of Sir 
Thomas Arderne ! How can this be reconciled 
with the extract from the Close Roll that she was 
when carried off " the lawful wife of Gerard del 
Isle " ? 

I have found no mention of any child of Lady 
Margaret by Sir Nicholas de la Beche, and it seems 
improbable that she left any, as at her death Beau- 
mys went to the two youngest nieces of Sir Nicholas, 
Isabel de la Beche, who married William Fitz- 
Ellis, and Alice de la Beche, married to Eobert 
D'Anvers, and Bradfield, which was also De la 
Beche property, went to Joan de la Beche, the 
eldest of Sir Nicholas's nieces, who married first 
Sir Andrew Sackville, and secondly Sir Thomas 
Langford. Both Sir Nicholas de la Beche and his 
wife Margaret were buried at Aldworth, where 
their effigies are still much admired. Their name 
survives in Beech Hill, the property of Mr. Hunter, 
close to the site of Beaumys. 


Swallowfield, Reading. 

(7 th S. viii. 27)8, 312 ; ix. 71). ONESIPHORUS re- 
lates a story in respect of the mother of the Con- 
queror. Another, which is of so much interest as 
to obtain from J. A. Froude a notice that it is "one 
of the most singular scenes in English history, a 
thing veritably true" ('Short Studies,' Second 
Series, p. 65, 1871), occurred in the time of 
Henry II. The king was with his nobles at 
Woodstock Manor, when his own bishop, St. Hugh, 

Bishop of Lincoln, came to make a petition for 
justice against one of the king's foresters. He met 
with an improper, because an uncourteous recep- 
tion. The king, to suppress his fury, kept on sew- 
ing a piece of rag which was on a wound of one of 
the fingers of his left hand. But he presently gave 
way to one of his wrathful paroxysms. Upon this 
the bishop's observation was, " How like you are 
to your relatives at Falaise ! " explaining it to be 
a reference to the mother of the Conqueror as born 
of low origin in a town famous for its business in 
skins. He further pacified the king, obtaining at 
the same time what he came for ('Vita Magna 
S. Hugonis,' p. 65, "Rolls Series," 1864). The 
bishopric of Lincoln at that time took in the 
county of Oxon, which became a separate see in 
1542. ED. MARSHALL. 

(7 th S. viii. 141). I have a silver bodkin in my 
possession similar to that mentioned in the above 
note. It has at the top an ear-pick, beneath 
which is a hole rather heart-shaped, and lower 
down a slit half an inch long. The end is a 
blunted point. The sides are angular and hexa- 
gonal. On the widest side are punctured the 
letters M. L. ; on the opposite side S. and what 
appears to be a hall mark, G. W. The length of the 
bodkin is 5f inches. I think my bodkin as fine 
as the Yaxley one, only just a little shorter. It 
is decidedly finer than those in the British Museum, 
and as good as that of Mr. Joseph Stephens, Hono- 
rary Curator of Reading Museum. 

(Mrs.) A. E. ELY. 

Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire. 

HYTHE AS A PLACE-NAME (7 th S. ix. 88). 
Hythe is the Anglo-Saxon %$, a harbour or land- 
ing-place, e.g., Rotherhithe, Greenhithe, &c. Some- 
times it becomes corrupted into head, as in Maiden- 

Bosworth's 'Anglo-Saxon Dictionary' gives HtfS, 
coast, port, or haven, which description anwers to 
such places as I know bearing the name of Hythe. 
In connexion with this query, I may say that the 
parish church of Hythe, Colchester, is dedicated to 
St. Leonard, not to St. Lawrence. It is a church 
of interest, though restored, as indeed it had 
occasion to be, owing to the condition it was left 
in after the memorable siege of Colchester. 



HOT CODLINGS (7 th S. ix. 108). The word cod- 
lings or codlins generally means apples. In a work 
called * The Apple,' by James Groom (London, G. 
Routledge & Sons, 1883), I find, on p. 82, in the 
list of cooking apples, seven kinds of codlins men- 
tioned, including the well-known Keswick codlin. 
Hot codlins, during this century, at all events, 
meant hot roasted apples. Within the last twenty 



[7" 8, IX. FEB. 22, '90. 

years some of the street fruit-sellers still possessed 
charcoal burners, covered with perforated iron plates, 
on which apples were cooked and sold under the name 
of hot codlins. Since chestnuts, however, have 
become so cheap, the cooking of codlins seems to 
have gone out of fashion. Joe Grimaldi had a 
famous song called ' Hot Codlins,' the first verse of 
which was : 

There was a little woman, as I 've been told, 
Who was not very young, nor not very old; 
Now this little old woman her living she got 
By selling codlins, hot, hot, hot. 

After the retirement of Grimaldi, his pupil and 
successor, Tom Mathews, sang the song, and con- 
tinued to do so until 1850 ; and no one ever 
doubted that the hot codlins referred to were 
roasted apples. GEORGE C. BOASE. 

36, James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W. 

There is a so-called comic song poor stuff ! 
beginning : 

A little old woman her living got 
By selling codlins, hot ! hot ! hot ! 

It is printed in Fairburn's ' Universal Songster,' 
1825, i. 287. JATDEE. 

443, 496; ix. 31, 113). My attention has been 
called to a little work on this church, and on that of 
St. Mary Colechurch (destroyed in the Great Fire), 
which was published by Mr. T. Milbourn in 1872. 
We are there informed that the last day on which 
divine service was performed in St. Mildred's 
before it was closed, preparatory to its demolition, 
was Sunday, Nov. 26, 1871. W. T. LYNN. 


NEMO has not succeeded in attaining complete 
accuracy. The "fascinating novel" of which he 
speaks is by Miss Alldridge, not " Aid ridge." 


GALWAY TRIBES (7 th S. ix. 48). From a very 
early period Gal way was a famous trading port with 
Spain, and its merchants supplied nearly all Ire- 
land with wine. Antiquaries consider the ancient 
name of the town Clanfirgall, the land or habitation 
of the gail or merchants, indicative of its early trade. 
In an old MS. quoted by Hardiman its credit 
and fame are attributed to certain new "colonies 
or septs " made famous to the world by their 
trading faithfully. The new colonies consisted of 
several families who became settlers, " not together 
but at different times," and whose descendants are 
known to this day under the appellation of " the 
tribes of Galway," an expression first invented by 
Cromwell's forces as a term of reproach against its 
natives for their singular friendship and attachment 
to each other during the time of their troubles and 
persecutions, but which they afterwards adopted as 
an honourable mark of distinction between them- 
selves and their cruel oppressors. 

Those families were thirteen in number, viz., 
Athy, Blake, Bodkin, Browne, D'Arcy, Ffont, 
Ffrench, Joyes, Kirwan, Lynch, Martin, Morris, 
and Skerrett, obviously of Anglo-Norman descent, 
and although in time they became " more Irish 
than the Irish," they were for a long period at con- 
tinual war with the old families of the district. 
Several curious rules and bye-laws of the old cor- 
poration, prohibiting all intercourse with the 
natives, are yet preserved, and the following in- 
scription was formerly to be seen over the west 
gate : 

From the ferocious O'Flahertys 

Good Lord deliver us. 

Vide Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall's ' Ireland,' p. 452, 
vol. iii., first edition, 1843. 

6, Freegrove Road, N. 

Much information'on this subject will be found 
in Lewis's ' Topographical Dictionary of Ireland/ 
article "Galway." EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

THACKERAY, in giving a translation of the Latin 
lines in Hardiman's ' History ' at the commence- 
ment of chap, xvi., "The Irish Sketch Book" 

Seven hills has Rome, seven mouths has Indus\stream, 
Around the Pole seven burning planets gleam ; 
Twice equal these is Galway, Connaught's Rome : 
Twice seven illustrious tribes here find their home, &c., 

remarks in a foot-note, " By the help of an Alex- 
andrine, the names of these famous families may 
also be accommodated to verse ": 
A they, Blake, Bodkin, Browne, Deane, Doreey, Frinche, 
Joyce, Morech, Skereth, Fonte, Kirowan, Martin, Lynche. 


S. viii. 489). MR. SYDNEY SCROPE asks me to 
give some information as to the prototypes of 
Lever's characters. To do so would nearly fill a 
whole number of ' N. & Q.' The popular edition of 
Lever's ' Life,' published by Ward & Lock, supplies 
almost all that can be desired on this head. 


486). Johnson's ' Typographia ' (1824) supplies 
the following information respecting the first- 
named of Goodwyn's works: 

" Here begynneth a lytell presses or matter called the 
chaunce of the dolorous louer newely compyled or made 
by Crystopher Goodwyn. The yere of our lorde god 
a m.ccccc.xx. Imprynted at London in flete strete at the 
sygne of the Sonne by Wynkyn de Worde. Quarto." 

Title over a woodcut of a knight reclining on the 
grass in a garden, and leaning on his right hand, 
with his horse tied to a tree near him. In the 
background is seen the garden gate open, with a 
knight on horseback entering. On the reverse of 
the title-page is " The prologue of the auctour," in 
three stanzas, after which follows the work itself 

7 th S. IX. FEB. 22, '90.] 



on the recto of the second leaf. The verse in 
which it is written, although pleasing in many 
places, is nevertheless very much inflited; it end 
on the reverse of signature B ij, and afterwards 
follows one leaf, consisting " Of tte aduenture thai 
happened unto hyni [i.e., the dolorous lover] shewec 
by vysyon in his slepe." On the reverse of this is 
the foregoing colophon. The whole book contains 
seven leaves (vol. i. p. 396). 


COOL (7 th S. ix. 9, 93). Such phrasings, in my 
experience, have only been used of whole hundreds 
or thousands, hundreds without units or tens, thou- 
sands without units, tens, or hundreds. Hence 1 
believe that the conceit was that such were naked, 
and therefore cool, hundreds or thousands, they, 
like one without raiment, being unclothed with the 
numbers 1, 2, 3, &c. Such cannot be synonyms 
for " a mere hundred," &e., for the phrasing is used 
of sums that are far beyond such an epithet as 
" mere." While, too, I see no reason for thinking 
that such phrases had anything to do with "a cool- 
ing card," except that the one conceit may have 
led the way to the other, it seems to me not un- 
likely that there was a secondary or sub-reference 
to the payer's courage being cooled to the amount 
of his or her loss. Once the word cool was thus 
established, it would be applied indiscriminately, 
as it is now, to the case of either payer or receiver. 
Dickens's Joe " had a manifest relish in insisting 
on its being cool," for it was not 3,9902., or even 
3 ; 999, but it was a cool four thousand, sir, bring- 
ing in, in Consols, sir, 120Z. BR. NICHOLSON. 

Is not a "cool" hundred, or " cool " thousand, a 
sum which is a little above that figure ? I have 
always supposed it to mean an amount stated in 
round numbers, and meaning much the same as a 
"good" hundred, &c. If so, may not the exact 
import of the term be that the hundred, or what 
not, has had time to cool after it was totalled up, 
or that the money was not " hot " through its ex- 
ertions to reach the sum stated ? 



GEORGE JEFFREYS (7 tb S. ix. 107). About 
thirty years ago there was a fine half-length por- 
trait of George Jeffreys, the first lord, exposed for 
sale in a shop in Hull. I do not remember the 
name of the ^person who had it on sale. It was 
not Mr. Leng, who was then a picture-dealer, as 
well as a bookseller, in Saville Street. 


It may perhaps be acceptable to G. F. R. B. to 
know that in the National Portrait Exhibition of 
1866, No. 1009 was a portrait of Jeffreys, painted 
by Kneller, and lent by the Earl of Tankerville. 
It was a full-length, measuring 84 in. by 58 in., and 

represented Jeffreys as Lord Chancellor, in his 
robes and holding the Great Seal. R. F. S. 

G. F. R. B. may be interested to know that a 
picture purporting to be a portrait of Lord Chan- 
cellor Jeffreys, by Sir Peter Lely, belongs to the 
Dorset County Museum. It was bought at a sale 
in Devon a few years ago, without any guarantee 
of genuineness, however. The head is capitally 
painted. H. J. MOULE. 

RECEIPT FOR SALAD (7 th S. viii. 427 ; ix. 69). 
The Rev. Sydney Smith having exchanged 
Foston for the more beautifully situated living of 
Coombe Forey, Moore paid his long-promised 
visit there in the summer of 1843. He, of course, 
charmed every one, and, as Lady Holland said, 
" sang like any nightingale of the Flowery Valley." 
Moore having returned to Sloperton, a few odd 
things of his were found at Coombe Forey. 
Sydney Smith having had them forwarded to his 
friend, in return he received a reply in rhyme, 
contrasting Moore's recollections of the kindness 
he received during his visit with the value of the 
things he left behind him. COL MALET will find 
the complete lines in Lady Holland's ' Memoir of 
the Rev. Sydney Smith,' and also in Lord John 
Russell's ' Memoirs,' &c., of Thomas Moore, both 
published by Longmans, Green & Co., London. 
6, Preegrove Road, N. 

The literary merits of the version of Sydney 
Smith's recipe for salad given at the above refer- 
ence should not be allowed to mislead readers of 
' N. & Q.' as to the wretched acidity of the " fla- 
voured compound '' caused by making the pro- 
portion of oil to vinegar only two to one. I have 
not the version given by Hayward before me, but 
I think that in that it was three to one ; and that 
is certainly not an over proportion. An English 
cook of 1830, and, indeed, of 1890, would probably 
make the proportion one to one. But Sydney 
Smith was not an English cook, and he had a 
taste. KILLIGREW. 

BOT AND BEN (7' 11 S. viii. 425, 515 ; ix. 57, 
95). lam glad to have called out so much precise 
information. I may point out to your correspond- 
ents that my remarks were put in the form of 
queries only, as it seemed to me that more light 
was needed on the subject. The question is, of 
course, not what cottages are now, but what they 
were some centuries ago, when the name was first 
in use. It is evident that in the North a second 
room was added on the ground floor instead of a 
aedroom over. This probably arose from the 
'act that stone was the material used, instead of 
timber. But the stone cottages of the Stroud dis- 
rict of Gloucestershire, some of which are pro- 
)ably of the early part of the seventeenth century, 
lave two storys above the one room on the 



[7"> S. IX. FEB. 22, '90. 

ground floor. From what correspondents tell me 
it seems rather as if the words " but and ben" were 
commonly used in the simple sense of " out and 
in "; but this meaning may be secondary. 

Rolls Chambers, Chancery Lane. 

SAMUEL COLVILL (7 th S. vii. 128,217; ix. 93). 
John Colville, Samuel's father, succeeded in 
1640 to the honours of Lord Colville of Culross, 
but, for some reason satisfactory to himself, did 
not assume the title (Irving's ' Scottish Poetry,' 
p. 481 ; Douglas's 'Peerage of Scotland,' i. 355). 
His eldest son was Alexander Colville, D.D., a 
distinguished Oriental scholar and divine, who 
was principal of St. Mary's College, St. An- 
drews, when he died in 1666 (' Life of Samuel 
Rutherford,' p. 243 ; Irving's ' Scottish Poetry,' 
p. 483). Dr. Colville, like his father, never took 
the title to which he was heir. The mother, how- 
ever, of Alexander and Samuel Colville, to whom 
Alexander Hume dedicated his ' Hymnes,' and 
who wrote 'Ane Godly Dreame,' is commonly 
called Lady Culross. The second edition of her 
poem, printed before 1606, is described on the 
title-page as "by Eliz. Melvil, Lady Culros 
yonger." That Samuel was the son of John and 
Elizabeth Colville admits of no doubt. His name 
is in a " bond of provision " executed by his father 
in 1643 (' Douglas's ' Peerage of Scotland, i. 355). 
John Cockburn, a contemporary rhymer, thus 
refers to him and his mother, closing his reference 
with an allusion to the industry of girdle-making 
for which Calross was long famous : 

Samuel was sent to France, 
To learn to sing and dance, 

And play upon a fiddle ; 
Now he 's a man of great esteem : 
His mother got him in a dream, 

At Culross on a girdle. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

CHURCH ROOF (7 th S. ix. 48). Morant, in his 
' History of Essex,' speaking of Dedham Church, 
says that the roof of the arch (of the tower) under- 
neath is finely adorned with the arms of the two 
families of York and Lancaster and red and white 
roses; from whence it may be concluded that this 
steeple was rebuilt after the union of those houses 
(vol. i. p. 248). H. A. W. 

COCK-PENNY (7 th S. ix. 7, 90). The following 
extracts from two editions of Baines's 'Lancashire' 
may be of service towards showing when the prac- 
tice of paying " cock-pence " died out. 

In regard to the grammar school at Cartmel it is 
said in the first edition, published 1824-5, that 

"it is customary for persons of property who have 
children at the school to make a compliment to the 
master, at Shrovetide, of a sum called cock-pence" 
Vol. i. p. 594. 

The edition of 1868-70, edited by John Harland, 
F.S.A., explains " the name of Cock-pence " by 
stating that " the master, as a sort of return for 
the compliment made him, provided a cock for the 
sport of his scholars " ! However, we are informed 
" this mode of payment has quite died out, and 
quarterly payments are now substituted " (vol. ii. 
p. 682). The "cock-penny" which was paid at 
Hawkshead in 1824 was probably discontinued in 
1832, when the "original constitution" of the 
grammar school there was altered. See Baines, 
ed. 1868, vol. ii. p. 672. 

At Clitheroe in 1824 "an annual present, at 
Shrovetide, is expected from the scholars to their 
teachers, called a cockpenny" (vol. i. p. 611). 

At one school, at any rate, Baines, in his first 
edition, gives us a definite date for the discontinu- 
ance of the payment of " cock-pence." At 

"the grammar school of Lancaster till the month of 

July, in the year 1824, the sons of the freemen of Lan- 
caster were educated without charge, except that a 

gratuity was expected to be given at Shrovetide; but 

at that time the constitution of this grammar school 
underwent an important change, and the corporation, as 
trustees of the school, in council assembled, ordered 
That the annual gratuity, called cock-pennies, to the 
master and usher should be discontinued ; and that in 
lieu thereof all boys " should pay so much quarterly. 
Vol. ii. pp. 20, 21. 


I suspect there will be many replies to this 
query, and that it will be found that the cock- 
penny contribution at Shrovetide has lingered on 
in some places to quite recent times. I do not 
know whether Sedbergh Grammar School will 
have the distinction of being the last to part com- 
pany with this ancient usage, but I do know that 
when I was a boy there (from 1857 to 1862), I, like 
the rest of the scholars, paid cock-penny regularly 
every Shrove Tuesday one pound to the head, 
and ten shillings to the second master. If any 
questions were asked of the masters about the 
matter, parents were informed that the payment 
was optional ; but there was a strong impression 
among the boys that to present these compli- 
mentary coins was the right thing to do, and 
defaulters were, in consequence, quite exceptional. 
I believe the payment went on after I left the 
school ; and, indeed, I have no reason to think 
that it became altogether extinct until 1879, when 
the new scheme of the Charity Commissioners put 
an end implicitly, if not expressly to this and 
many other things. 

If DR. MURRAY will refer to a paper on ' Cock- 
fighting,' in vol. ix. p. 366 of the Transactions of 
the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological 
Society, he will find some usages described which 
may suggest the credibility of some ragged vicar 
or forlorn schoolmaster looking for cock-pence 
even in the bottom of a pew. W. THOMPSON. 


7* 8. IX. FEB. 22, '90.] 



QUEEN ANNE BOLEYN (7 th S. ix. 43, 97). As 
confirming the statement that Queen Anne Boleyn 
was beheaded in the French fashion of that time, 
with a sword, and not with the broad axe and 
block, as was then the custom in England, it 
may be mentioned that there is in the older edi- 
tions of Hume and Smollett's ' History of Eng- 
land ' an engraving depicting this scene. The 
executioner is standing over the unfortunate queen 
with a heavy sword poised in his two hands, about 
to give the fatal blow. In this scene the lady is 
shown to be wearing a costume similar to that 
shown in the portrait by Holbein, with a dress 
(apparently velvet) cut square in the front, but, 
of course, without a hood upon this occasion. Her 
personal appearance seems to be that of a woman 
with small features, and nose rather straight than 
aquiline. J. W. ALLISON. 

Stratford, E. 

MRS. HONEY (7 th S. ix. 9, 93). The stone over 
Mrs. Honey's grave in Hampstead Churchyard is 
very green, but the inscription is legible, though a 
little cleaning would not be amiss. The paths 
and many of the monuments in that " garden of 
sleep " have a very neglected look. The memorial 

once handsome of its kind to " brother of 

Sir John Douglas, Bart., of in the county of 

Dumfries died 1770" is much broken. Even 

the stone to Mr. John Adams, the parish beadle, 
has been allowed to topple. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

FOLCHETTO (7 th S. ix. 68). This is the pseu- 
donym of the Italian writer Giacomo Caponi. In 
addition to his novel of ' La La e La,' he has 
written 'La Vita a Parigi' (1886), Milan, 1887, 
composed of a series of notes of the occurrences of 
the day during 1886. He has also translated, 
with notes and additions, Arthur Pougin's ' Verdi, 
Histoire Anecdotique.' DB V. PATEN-PAYNE. 

SUBURBS (7"> S. viii. 287, 458, 497). It has often 
occurred to me that a work on the ' History of Old 
Inns and Taverns,' interspersed with anecdotes of 
their frequenters and illustrated by sketches of the 
most remarkable, would prove interesting now that 
so many have been pulled down or rebuilt. There 
is in the British Museum a large collection for a 
history of signs of taverns, which I believe 
contains much material for the history of inns. 

J. E. D. 

GARDEN BENCHES (7 th S. ix. 68). Rowlandson, 
in his illustrations to ' The Vicar of Wakefield,' 
gives two picturesque views of that delightful last- 
century summer-house, or, as the vicar calls it, 
u seat, overshadowed by a hedge of hawthorn and 
honeysuckle" (chap, v.), where Thornhill first 
makes his appearance, and where, later on 

(chap, xxiv.) " my poor Olivia " sang, " in a man- 
ner so exquisitely pathetic as moved me," " When 
lovely woman stoops to folly." Curiously enough, 
though it is the same place, " on the honeysuckle 
bank," Rowlandson has a different design for the 
summer-house in the two plates. Should Miss 
WOLSELEY be unable to refer to this particular 
edition of Goldsmith's story, I shall be happy to 
copy the pictures for her. 

The ugliest drawing of a summer-house, or 
" seat," that I have come across appeared in the 
Novelists Magazine, published 1781. It is in 
the illustration of Widow Wadman inviting Toby 
to take the mote out of her eye, Of course 
Stothard knew what he was about. The hard, 
straight lines of the wooden erection make the 
graceful curves of the figures more beautiful by 
contrast. Still, the sentry-box is not " a thing of 
beauty and a joy for ever." 

As a specimen of a garden seat on a grand 
scale, the Alcove, designed by Wren for Queen 
Anne, which stands in Kensington Gardens, near 
the fountains, might be mentioned (vide the sketch 
in Loftie's 'Kensington,' p. 120). 


34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

BLACK CAP WORN BY A JUDGE (7 th S. viii. 449 ; 
ix. 15, 75). There has been no reference to the 
circumstance that the proctors in Oxford (pre- 
sumably also in Cambridge) cannot exercise their 
authority (at least in common opinion) without 
being in full dress, of which the cap, which they 
constantly touch "The giant was civil, though 
bent upon evil " forms part. 


THACKERAYANA (7 th S. viii. 265, 375, 438, 493). 
I am reminded of my visit to Deville about 
1835. I went to him with a friend for what he called 
a " Phrenological Development." We went to an 
upstairs room in the Strand, and were not aware 
that he had any other occupation than that of pro- 
fessor of phrenology. He seated me in a chair, and 
began to examine my head, talking at intervals. 
He wrote with pencil on a sheet of foolscap his 
development, which I have lately stumbled on, 
and it is now before me. He wrote : 

' For intellectual occupation the organization is very 
good, and with a little more power to combine and 
methodize the ideas it would be a powerful development 
for general knowledge. There ia one of two things which 
with a little more power to combine, &c., he should excel 
in, namely, a mechanical profession or music." 
I asked what I must do to get more power to com- 
bine and methodize. He said, "Take some 
lessons in thorough bass." I replied, " I have no 
ear for music. I really don't know 'God save 
the King ' when I hear it." He then said, " Take 
the lessons in higher mathematics." I had then 
been engaged for years in commercial pursuits, and 
it was too late to make a change. At the close of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. ix. p. 22, -DO. 

a long life I think I was more fit for a mechanical 
profession. I fancy he did not know the precise 
meaning of some English words; and if I rightly 
remember, he had a foreign accent. I paid him his 
fee of half a guinea. ELLCEE. 


LORDS SPIRITUAL (7 th S. viii. 467; ix. 78). 
Regarding the use of the word dominus as applied 
to a bishop, the Rev. J. C. Bellett, in his edition 
of Pelliccia's ' Polity of the Christian Church,' 
says, " In the first canon of the fourth Council of 
Aries, A.D. 524, bishops are called 'Sacerdotes 
Domini,' ' Lord Priests.' " " Sidonius Apollina- 
xius," he adds, " always gives the French bishops 
the title of 'Dominus Papa.'" And he refers to 
Bingham, who gives the same view of the inherent 
dignity of the episcopal office. Mr. Bellett further 
says, " A bishop is now entitled to be addressed as 
'My Lord,' by virtue of the old title of 'Dominus.'" 
Sir Robert Phillimore (' Eccl. Law,' vol. i.) sums 
up the whole question thus : 

" It is, indeed, a vulgar error that the title of lord is 
only given to bishops with seats in Parliament. The 
Bishop of Sodor and Man always had the title. It is 
probably only a translation of ' Dominus,' and just as ap- 
plicable to the bishop of a church not established as of 
one established by temporal law." 


50, Agate Road, The Grove, Hammersmith, W. 

OLD JOKES IN A NEW DRESS (7 th S. viii. 66, 
136, 291, 409, 433 ; ix. 30). The following in- 
stance of ignorance of contemporary history de- 
serves to be introduced to a wider public than the 
readers of ' Reports and Papers of Architectural 
Societies,' vol. xix. part ii. p. 362. In some notes 
on South Ferriby, Lincolnshire, by Sir C. H. J. 
Anderson, Bart., occurs this remarkable passage : 

" The Old Warp is now called Reed's Island, and, I 
believe, is leased by Government to the Humber Con- 
servancy Company. I remember when I rowed there 
with the late Sir John Nelthorpe, three months after 
William I V.'s death, the man in charge bad not heard 
of the king's demise, and was much puzzled when we 
told him that we were all now under petticoat govern- 

MR. R. W. HACKWOOD'S striking contribution 
is perhaps owed to Sir William Eraser's ' Words 
on Wellington,' pp. 79, 80. Almost a hundred 
pages after those on which the anecdote appears 
its propagator impeaches the truth of it ; but he 
plainly thinks it too good to be lost, and so lets it 
remain to delight and mislead the desultory 
reader : 

" In an earlier part of this work," he says, " I told the 
etory of President Grant dining at Apsley House. I 
regret I asked the second duke what really took place. 
However, as the reader has had the full enjoyment of 
the story, I must now, in the interests of truth, state 
what the duke told me happened. He said that during 
dinner General Grant kept trying to get him to say what 
was the greatest number of men that his father had com- 
manded in the field. The duke added, ' I saw what he 

was at; if I had said forty or fifty thousand men he 
would have replied, " Well I have commanded a hundred 
thousand," so I was determined not to answer his ques- 
tions as to this, and I succeeded.' " P. 171. 


" There is no new thing under the sun." Sub- 
stitute Worcester for Tewkesbury and two old 
ladies for A. J. M.'s friend, and the anecdote he 
tells is identical, almost word for word, with one 
that I was familiar with more than forty years ago. 
The name of one of the fighters was Spring, and I 
think the other was called Rice. J. C. 

MR. HACKWOOD'S story is a good one, and to 
me a new one. But it is absurd to tack the name 
of General Grant thereto. The general was a 
West Point man, and must have known a good 
deal about the Duke of Wellington. But, apart 
from that, the general's ' Autobiography ' shows 
him to have been almost as good a writer as a 
soldier, and the last man to make so silly a re- 
mark. Americans sometimes pretend to more 
knowledge than they possess, never to less. 


CLUB (7 01 S. viii. 387, 456, 516 ; ix. 92). The 
following, from the ' Autobiography of Thomas 
Elwood, the Quaker,' under date 1662, at the time 
when he was reader to Milton in London, may 
further illustrate the use of this word. Being, with 
many co-religionists, cast this year into Old Bride- 
well for attending a religious meeting, he says that 
amongst them 

"were several young men who cast themselves into a 
club, and, laying down every one an equal proportion 
of money, put it into the hand of our friend Anne 
Travers, desiring her to lay it out for them in provisions 

and they kindly invited me to come into their club 

with them." See The Hist, of T. Elwood's Life,' second 
edition, p. 170. 

By the by, when is the earliest known instance oi 
the use of the verb to club, or to club together, 
from which the noun will probably have been 
derived ? Is not clump a variant of the word club ? 


CATO STREET CONSPIRACY (7 m S. viii. 447). 
' An Authentic History of the Cato-Street Con- 
spiracy,' with portraits of the conspirators, edited 
by G. T. Wilkinson, Esq., was published by 
Thomas Kelly, of Paternoster Row. In this 
work there is no mention of any house at Hoi- 
beach. Before they took the stable in Cato 
Street, the conspirators among other places in 
London "had frequent meetings at a public- 
house, called the White Hart, in Brooks' Market 
(p. 118), and at the " Radical Committee Room, at 
the White Lion, Wych-street " (p. 56). " Thistle- 
wood was a native of Horncastle, in Lincolnshire,' 
and after the failure of the Cato Street plot he 
was arrested in an " obscure house, No. 8, 
White-street, Little Moorfields," London. 


7* 8. IX. FEB. 22, '90.] 




The Century Dictionary : an Encyclopaedic Lexicon of 
ike English Language. Prepared under the superin- 
tendence of Wm. D wight Whitney, Ph.D. LL.D. Six 
volumes. Vol. I. (New York, Century Company; 
London, Fisher Unwin.) 

THE first volume of the ' Century Dictionary ' (A Cono) 
is before us. On the opening part of this we have 
already dwelt, and it is difficult to find much to add to 
what was then said. The entire work will be comprised 
in six goodly volumes. So far, the dictionary has gone 
over the same ground as the Philological Society's 
dictionary, of which, naturally, the editors have availed 
themselves. While, however, in the later sheets of the 
present volume they are without such aid, no sign of 
shortcoming is perceptible, and the entire work will 
probably be given to the world before Dr. Murray has a 
second volume ready for delivery. As has previously 
been said, the new work has more in common with the 
' Encyclopaedic Dictionary ' of Messrs. Cassell than with 
the great Oxford dictionary. Its illustrations, which 
are excellent, add remarkably to the vivacity and 
intelligibility of the information conveyed. These are 
very numerous, many of them appearing at times on the 
same page. Technical subjects receive, thus, a fulness 
of explanation and illustration which brings them within 
general ken, and the work in many practical respects 
may be regarded as an encyclopaedia. 

It is impossible to resist being struck by the manner 
in which, since the establishment of the science of com- 
parative philology, the civilized world has devoted itself 
to the task of lexicon making. Among the efforts that 
have been made, this, so far as English literature is con- 
cerned, may rank as the most successful. In delivering 
this opinion we are influenced principally by the fact 
that it is likely to be available within a reasonable time, 
while other and more ambitious works of the class may 
use up a succession of editors and at least hold out but 
faint promise- of utility to men who begin to regard 
themselves as veterans. Without being very numerous, 
the quotations are ample, and represent a large amount 
of conscientious research. So far as it has gone the 
dictionary is eminently creditable to American scholar- 
ship and industry. In the case of a book involving so 
much energy and cost, it is ungracious to look for 
omission and shortcoming, and it is futile to protest 
in an American dictionary against placing an American 
spelling foremost. English readers are not likely to 
accept color in place of colour. Both spellings are, of 
course, given in the dictionary, with the remark that 
colour is still prevalent in England. It might give 
Americans pause, however, to find that in the quotations 
they supply from the English writers by whom the lan- 
guage was formed, they can find no instance of their 
new-fangled spelling. A more just, as well as a more 
pleasing plan is to welcome this first instalment of the 
noble contribution to our knowledge of our language 
with which American scholarship enriches us. 

The Gentleman's Magazine Library. Bibliographical 

Notes. Edited by A. C. Bickley. (Stock.) 
IT is well-nigh as impossible to review the volume before 
us as it would be to give a person who had not read it an 
idea of the nature and character of Southey's ' Common- 
Place Book,' which, fragmentary as it is, has furnished 
an exhaustless fund of amusement and instruction to two 
generations of literary inquirers. 

The volume is a miscellany about books and their 
contents. The editors have kept themselves well in 
hand. Out of the vast mass of bibliographical matter 

to be found in the long series of volumes which makes a 
set of the Gentleman's Magazine they have selected 
with great judgment only such as in their opinion has 
permanent value. Much that was highly instructive at 
the time has been superseded by later writers. No two 
persons would come to the same conclusion as to what 
to accept and what to reject. We miss in the pages be- 
fore us one or two things for which we would have found 
room, and there is here and there an article which we 
think might well have been dispensed with ; but on the 
whole the work has been very well executed. 

If ever we have a British bibliography on a scale 
sufficiently large to satisfy the desires of inquirers here 
and in America, this volume will be exceedingly useful, 
concentrating, as it does, much that, without days of 
labour, it is impossible to find in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine itself. 

Many of our readers, we imagine, will not know wh& 
we mean when we speak of William Combe. His most 
popular works were the three series of ' Dr. Syntax ' 
books once read by every one, but now prized only by 
collectors. He never wrote anything of permanent 
value, but the number of books he produced or in which 
he bad a hand is enormous. A catalogue of them, compiled 
by himself, is given here. Southey the poet and Taylor 
the Platonist are said in bulk to have produced more 
literature than any other Englishmen. Combe has cer- 
tainly a right to be bracketed with these hard workers. 

The most important and the longest article in the 
volume is that on almanacs. Whenever the time comes 
for a history of these useful pamphlets to be written, 
these pages will be found most useful. It is a matter of 
surprise that the subject has not been taken in hand ere 
this. There is a splendid collection of old almanacs in 
the British Museum. The Bodleian is also very rich ia 
them. It may further be worth while to remark that 
the Alhenceum for 1828 contains some useful information 
on this neglected subject. We believe that it is only in 
comparatively recent days that almanacs have been used 
by the working classes. Before the Reformation the 
constantly recurring Church festivals would be a suffi- 
cient guide. After that the parson or the parish clerk 
became the timekeeper for his more ignorant neighbours. 
Watchmakers now seem to have taken their place. Miss 
Jackson, in her excellent book on 'Shropshire Folk-Lore,' 
tells a story as to how a woman went to a clockmaker at 
Oswestry to ask him when the moon would be at the 
full, as " she did not like to trust altogether to the 
almanac." She wanted to kill her pig, and, as every 
folk-lorist knows, if this be done in a waning moon the 
bacon will go bad. 

A Bibliography of Tunisia from the Earliest Times to 
the End of 1888. In two parts. By H. 8. Ashbee,. 
F.S.A. QDulau & Co.) 

A FEW months only have elapsed since we noticed a 
brilliant record of ' Travels in Tunisia,' by Mr. Ashbee 
and a companion. Of that clever, entertaining, and im- 
portant work a bibliography of Tunisia formed a portion. 
This, with additions, which not only fill up lacunas, but 
carry the scheme up to the close of 1888, is now re- 
printed in a separate work, so as to rank among the 
series of bibliographies of the Barbary States which, 
under the direction of Sir E. Lambert Play fair, now 
rapidly approaches completion. Bibliography, in this 
country at least, is, as Mr. Ashbee says, its own reward, 
and he has hesitated to undertake the cost of recasting 
the entire of the matter he has obtained. A complete 
index, however, serves to knit the two parts together, 
and greatly facilitates reference. No work is much 
more thankless than the compilation of bibliographies. 
Mr. Ashbee accordingly puts in strong claim to recogni- 



[7"- S. IX. FEB. 22, '90. 

tion on the part of those interested in African travel. 
For the benefit of the traveller or general reader he gives 
a separate list of twenty works which are likely to answer 
his purpose. 

Evenings with Shalespere. By L. M. Griffiths. (Bristol, 

Arrowsmith ; London, Simpkin, Marshall & Co.) 
WITH a view to facilitate the study of Shakspeare in 
societies, Mr. Griffiths, the honorary secretary of the 
Clifton Shakespere Society, has issued what claims to be 
a handbook. An enthusiast in the cause that he ad- 
vocates, he holds that wherever a dozen men and women 
with literary desires can be got together there should be 
a Shakspeare Society. By the study of the life amidst 
which Shakspeare dwelt a full appreciation of his method 
and works is best aided. Some of his suggestions for 
discussion seem of dubious advantage. He thus suggests 
that the introduction of supernatural influences renders 
'A Midsummer Night's Dream' unfit for stage repre- 
sentation, a view which no admirer of ' Hamlet ' or 
'Macbeth can dream of accepting. His scheme of 
reading is, however, likely to be followed with advantage. 
So much erudition is there, meanwhile, in his volume, 
and so conveniently is much of it arranged, that the 
practical worker in Shakspearian fields will find the 
trouble of reference diminished. The whole is, indeed, 
a piece of thoroughly conscientious workmanship, and 
likely to be highly serviceable. 

Mary, Queen of Scots : a Narrative and a Defence. By 

an Elder of the Church of Scotland. (Stock.) 
SOMEWHAT tardily this apology for Mary Stuart has 
reached us. It furnishes a summary of portions of her 
career, and presents forcibly the view that regards her 
as a martyr. It will carry conviction to those who are 
on the author's side in the question, and will be dis- 
regarded by those who are sceptical as to Mary's tran- 
scendent innocence and purity. Regarded as a brief, it 
is very capable, and it is illustrated by original designs 
of Mr. J. S. Murray, of Aberdeen, etched by M. Vau- 
canu, of Paris. That Buchanan should be regarded as 
the most venal of libellers is, of course, to be expected. 
Some astonishment, however, is experienced in hearing 
from a church elder an arraignment of Knox. Whatever 
amount of conviction this book may carry, it at least 
presents an animated picture of cruel and desperate 

Stanley's Emin Pasha Expedition. By A. J. Wauters. 


THIS summary of what has been done in the Soudan by 
recent explorers, written by M. A. J. Wauters, the chief 
editor of the Mouvement Qeographique, Brussels, will 
serve well a temporary purpose. Further information 
is, of course, to be expected after the return of Mr. 
Stanley. The present volume, however, supplies an 
historical account of the conquest of the Soudan, the 
fate of Gordon, the adventures of Stanley, and other 
matters ot highest interest concerning the Dark Con- 
tinent. It is illustrated with portraits of Stanley, Emin, 
Gordon, Capt. Casati, Dr. Junker, Tippoo Tib, &c. ; 
pictures of members of the various African races, views 
of scenery, and a large and useful map. Much informa- 
tion is supplied, and the whole constitutes a pleasant 
and stimulating record of heroic adventure. 

The Marvellous A dventures and Rare Conceits of Master 
Tyll Owlglass. Set forth in English by Kenneth B. H. 
Mackenzie, F.S.A. (Triibner & Co.) 
IN publishing a cheap, elegant, attractive, and 
scholarly edition of ' Tyll Eulenspiegel ' Messrs. Triibner 
are rendering a service. There are few civilized coun- 
tries in which this essentially Teutonic character is not 

familiar, and more than one English rendering has seen 
the light. Mr. Mackenzie has supplied a pleasant and 
valuable edition, enriched with notes, bibliographical and 
other, the value of which cannot easily be over-estimated. 
The witticisms of the German farceur cannot be fully 
rendered into modern English. Mr. Mackenzie has, ac- 
cordingly, omitted for indecency and profanity a certain 
number of the narratives, and has considerably altered 
many others. That the significance of stories is not im- 
paired by this proceeding cannot be said. Some super- 
vision, however, must necessarily be exercised over a 
writer whose occasional obscenities would rival those of 
Rabelais. Mr. Mackenzie's task is, in fact, well dis- 
charged, and the volume is likely to have a large circu- 

An English Anthology from Chaucer to the Present Time. 

By John Bradshaw, M. A., LL.D. (Madras, Kalyanaram 


THIS collection, made with taste and judgment for the 
use of students in the universities of Madras, Calcutta, 
and the Punjab, differs from other recognized selections 
in giving poems of considerable length, and even some 
dramatic extracts. It has already reached a third 
edition, and may be commended for scholastic use as 
well as for general reference. 

No. II. of Le Livre Moderne keeps up the character we 
assigned it, and has remarkable interest. Short, bright 
papers on ' L' Illustration des Livres' ; on ' M. Conquet' ; 
' Cueillettes Litteraries,' and other contents, are bright, 
readable, and delightful. We own to having read the 
number from cover to cover. A delightful illustration 
hors texle is supplied. 

is the title of a series of articles by Mr. W. Roberts, of 
which the first will appear in the March number of the 

flalitt* to 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

J. W. R. (" How hast thou fallen from heaven, 
Lucifer, son of the morning?"). " Quomodo cecidisti 
de ccalo lucifer, qui mane oriebaris 1 " (Isaiah, chap, xiv.) 

KING OF AKMS OR KING AT ARMS. (See 7 th S. viii. 
492.) L.a:Lirs has favoured us with an emblazonment of 
the arms of Sir David Lindsay, which we are unfortu- 
nately unable to reproduce. The scribe therein distinctly 
uses the words " of arms." 

GEO. G. T. TREHERNE ('A Legend of Reading Abbey,' 
' The Camp of Refuge '). Both by Charles Macfarlane. 

if ones. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7'* S. IX. MAR. 1, '90.] 




CONTENT 8. N 218. 

NOTES : Capt. John Smith, 161 Cumulative Nursery 
Stories Shakspeariana, 163 'Vert Tudor and Stuart Lines 
of History, 165 James Chilton Tennyson's 'Northern 
Farmer 'Grave of Anne Boleyn, 166 The Stocks, 167. 

QUERIES : Hill - names Passeflambere Family Privy 
Councillors Selections of Hymns Fables in French 
Athenaeum Club Rowley of Lawton Sterridge Lachard, 
167 Robert Clayton Strongbowians C. Haigh Odd 
Volume King's Arms in Churches Local Rhymes Lord 
Brougham's Epitaph " Nuts and May" ' Baby-Land' 
Oystermouth, 168 Tennyson's ' Princess 'Jesus Psalter 
Occult Society Authors Wanted, 169. 

REPLIES: -Detached Bell Towers, 169-Codger, 170-Brick- 
bat Australia Macaulay's Style Nicholas Nemo, 171 
Oats Castell of East Hatley Baptist May Goose, 172 
Apparent Size of the Sun Defoe's Dutchman Phenomenal 
Footprints Commercial Terms Daniel Defoe, 173 Verb 
" To be " Col. Whitelocke -Parliamentary Elections, 174 
Garden Benches Balk Superstition concerning the Jay 
Uves Antoni Waterlo, 175 Byron's ' Voyage to Corsica ' 
Crown of Ireland Dictionary Queries 'Ivanhoe' Motto 
on Book-plate Child's Cot on a Funeral Monument, 176 
Carlovingian Legends Boycotting Petrarch's Inkstand- 
Chateau Landon Robert Drury Origin of Terminations, 
177 Sicilia the Fool Poet versus Poet Spenserian Com- 
mentaryLamp Chimneys Negro Worship, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Neilson's ' Trial by Combat' Gar- 
diner's 'Constitutional Documents of the Revolution' 
Nightingale's ' Church Plate of Dorset ' The Antiquary,' 
Vol. XX. Balch's ' Beady Reference' ' De Quincey's 
"Works," Vol. IV. Falcon Shakspeare Govett's 'King's 
Book of Sports.' 


(Continued from p. 104.) 

On examining into our author's narrative now, 
the first difficulty which presents itself is with re- 
gard to the exact situation of Eegall. Prof. Arber, 
in his article on Capt. Smith in the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' identifies it with Alba Eegalis. But as 
this is situate in Trans-Danubian Hungary, was at 
the period in question garrisoned by the Emperor's 
troops, has never belonged to Transylvania, and is 
(as we have seen) mentioned by Smith as a place 
entirely distinct from Regall,* the professor's guess 
cannot be considered a happy one. The topo- 
graphical description minus the fortified place fits 
the country about Petrozseny or Karansebes, and 
the narrow valley might be identified with either 
the Vulcan Pass or the Iron Gate Pass, or, in fact, 
with any one of the many defiles in the Carpathians; 
but we cannot guess the whereabouts of the city. 
In the prince's grant of arms to Capt. Smith it is 
stated that the encounter with Bonny Mulgro and 
his unlucky comrades took place "ad Urbem Re- 
galem," i. e.^" the Royal Town " (!), and not the 
town of Regall, the Latin for which would be " ad 
Urbem Regall." This we perceive is another 
mystery. According to Smith's description, the 
town was within easy distance of " Esenberg " and 
not far from the prince's palace. A place named 

* " at Olumpagh, Stowle-Weaenburg [i.e., Alba- 

Regalis], and Regall." Cf. p. 841 of Prof. Arber's edition 
of Smith's ' Works.' 

Ysemberg is marked on Router's old map of Tran- 
sylvania (dated 1532), which, according to Fabri- 
tius, is Toroczko", in the present county of Torda- 

Mr. Warner says : 

" The region is sufficiently [1] identified. On the river 
Maruck, or Morusus [MarosJ, was the town of Alba 
Juli,or Weisenberg [Weissenburg], the residence of the 
vaivode or Prince of Transylvania. South of this capital 
was the town Millenberg []Muhlenbach, or in Hungarian 
Sza?z-Sebes, where the Prince's camp lay], and south- 
west of this was a very strong fortress [not named], com- 
manding a narrow pass leading into Transylvania out of 
Hungary, probably where the River Maruch [Maros] 
broke through the mountains. ''f 

As Mr. Warner is so sure of the locality, it is a 
pity he does not name it. He evidently refers to 
the fortress of Deva; but, as we saw, there was nob 
the slightest necessity for laying siege to this place, 
as it was not in the hands of the Turks, bat 
belonged to the Prince of Transylvania, who at the 
period in question was actually staying there, and 
Sz^kely Mozes had no difficulty whatever in gain- 
ing admission for himself and Toldy when seeking 
an interview with his master. 

Palfrey supposed that by the "Land of Zarkam" 
the Sze'kelyland was probably to be understood; 
but it is difficult to conceive what induced him to 
put forward such a strange theory, as it is wholly 
inconsistent with everything known about the geo- 
graphy and history of the land of the Szekelys. 

The whereabouts of the towns of Veraetio and 
Kupronka, which Sz^kely is reported to have 
sacked after the fall of Regall, it is feared will 
remain a puzzle to the end of the chapter. 
Solymos, the third place which he is said to have 
pillaged, is the name of one of Szukely's own 
castles. It was handed over by him to the Pasha 
of Temesvar in exchange for Kladova, while stay- 
ing with him after his defeat at Tovis by Basta. 
We can hardly believe that he would have played 
ducks and drakes with his own property, nor can 
we imagine what could have induced him to make 
prisoners among his own people and what he in- 
tended to do with the 2,000 captives, mostly women 
and children, whom he is said to have collected in 
those three places. According to Smith's narra- 
tive, the siege of Regall must have taken place in 
1602, between the dates of the death of the Duke 
de Mercceur (Feb. 19) and the defeat of Sze"kely by 
Basta (July 2).J During the whole of this period 

* See a facsimile of the map in Fabritius, " Erdelynek 

terkepe 1532-bb'l," published by the Hungarian 

Academy, 1878. 

f ' Life of Capt. John Smith.' by C. D. Warner (New 
York, 1881), p. 20. 

J Szekely is said to have been present and directed 
the siege. He was in prison (on mere suspicion) from 
Nov. 29, 1601, to about the beginning of April, 1602. 
This compresses the siege and the expedition to Zarkam 
into two and a half months during spring and summer, 
and not four winter months, as stated by Palfrey. 



[7 h S. IX. MAR. 1, '90. 

Prince Sigismund was the avowed, and Sze"kely the 
true ally and friend of the Turks. Of Sze"kely the 
Grand Yezier Hassan is reported to have spoken 
in the highest terms of praise, whom he wonld 
have ransomed for as much gold as two thousand 
horses were able to carry had he been taken 
prisoner by Basta.* The prince depended too much 
upon the Turks for money,t and could not risk 
their displeasure by besieging an important place 
such as Regall is represented to have been, and 
did not dare to turn the Sultan's open enemy, 
though he was very much pressed to do so by the 
Imperialists. And though we might suspect the 
prince of double dealing, no such charge can be 
brought against his honest, upright lieutenant, 
Sze"kely. In face of this overwhelming evidence, 
we must therefore relegate the city of Regall to 
the land of myth, and stamp Smith's narrative as 
an utterly baseless fiction. The fact so often ad- 
duced in evidence to prove the narrator's veracity, 
and, according to your correspondent 0. C. B. , so 
strongly insisted upon by Prof. Arber, that as early 
as 1614 the captain named three islands off Cape 
Anne " the Three Turks' Heads," does not prove 
anything beyond the fact that this piece of fiction 
had reached its state of incubation at the date 
named, unless we are ready to admit the possi- 
bility that time might change falsehood into truth. 
At the conclusion of chap. viii. Bttthory's grant 
of arms to Capt. Smith is given in its original text 
and English translation; but it will be more con- 
venient to deal with this hereafter. The continua- 
tion of the narrative, viz., the portion referring to 
the then unhappy state of Transylvania, and de- 
scribing the doings of Basta and Sigismund at the 
beginning of chap. ix.J is fairly accurate, and 
agrees, as we see, with authenticated history. 

In the continuation of chap. ix. Smith relates his 
doings in Wallachia. We are told that after the 
death of Michael, the vaivode, "the Turk sent one 
leremie " to be ruler of that country, but that he 
was unjust in his dealings, that his people therefore 
revolted against him, and he was obliged to flee to 
Moldavia in consequence. Busca, on behalf of the 
emperor, thereupon proclaimed "Lord Rodoll" 
[Badul] in his stead, who, however, was not 
allowed to occupy his throne unchallenged, as 
Jeremy marched against him with an army ol 
40,000 Turks, Tartars, and Moldavians. So Rodoll 
applied to his " ancient friend" Busca, who, wish- 
ing to find employment for " the remainders " ol 
the old regiments of Sigismund " (of whose great- 
nesse and true affection hee was very suspitious)," 
seized upon this opportunity to conquer Wallachia 

* Szamoskb'zi, loc. cit., p. 173. 

f According to Wolfg. de Bethlen's ' Hist. Transyl., 
tub anno 1602, vol. v. p. 84, the prince was soliciting 
money from the Grand Vezier at this very period. 

J The events enumerated in the title of chap, viii 
are related in this chapter, 

For the emperor, and therefore sent them with 
Rodoll to recover the Principality. A list of the 
" valiant captains " who served in this campaign i 
given, and we find the Earl of Meldritch amongst 
them, " with divers others of great ranke and 
quality, [wholly unknown to history, though they 
were] the greatest friends and alliances the Prince- 
had." The expeditionary force, 30,000 strong,, 
marched " along the river Altus to the streights of 
Rebrinke," where they entered Wallachia, encamp- 
ing at " Raza." Thereupon Jeremy, who was lying 
at Argish, and received reinforcements from " the 
Crym Tartar," drew his army " into his old camp 
in the plains of Peteske" and entrenched himself. 
In the title of the following chapter (chap, x.) we 
are promised a description of the battle of "Roten- 
ton," but receive details of another "bloudy mas- 
sacre." Rodoll, in order to draw the enemy out of 
his fortified camp, feigned cowardice at the arrival 
of the Tartars, retreated to Rebrinke, received the 
attack of the pursuing enemy in the "streights" of 
that name, and scored an easy victory, inflicting 
heavy losses on the enemy. We are told that the 
number of slain on both sides was 25,000, and that 
the ground was so strewn with " carkasses " that 
" there was scarce ground to stand upon." The- 
Turks had to bemoan the loss of " the admired 
Aladdin," one of their best generals ; and Jeremy 
had to flee to Moldavia. This, however, did nob 
end the campaign, as news arrived that some 
straggling Tartars were foraging " those parts 
towards Moldavia," and Meldritch received orders 
to march against them with 13,000 men. This force,. 
however, turned out to be wholly inadequate, as re- 
ports soon reached the earl that the great " Crym 
Tartar" himself, with two of his sons and 30,000- 
men, was ready to receive him, and that Jeremy 
lay in ambush with fourteen or fifteen thousand 
men about " Langanaw." This induced Meldritch 
to retreat towards "Rottenton, a strong garrison 
for Rodoll." On his way thither he was surrounded 
by "hellish numbers"; but our Capt. Smith came 
to the rescue with a " pretty " stratagem of wild- 
fire, which pyrotechnical display made the chargers 
of the attacking forces " turn tails," and Jeremy 
was overthrown without any loss " to speak of " to- 
Meldritch. The earl, we are told, was then within 
about three leagues of Rottenton, and the Tartars, 
with a force of 40,000 men (10,000 more than 
originally reported), in hot pursuit of him. 

Then follows a high- flown introduction to the 
description of the battle of Rottenton, in which 
occurs a sentence which is somewhat obscure. It is 
not quite clear whether Busca or the Crym Tartar 
stayed until noon to watch the horrible slaughter 
which ensued, or whether we are to understand 
that the Old Testament miracle was repeated and 
the sun stood still in mid-heaven. 

(To be continued.) 

7 th S. IX. MAR. 1, '90.] 




In ' N. & Q.,' 7 th S. viii. 321, I gave two ver- 
sions of our ' Old Woman and the Crooked Six- 
pence ' one from France, the other from South 
Africa as further additions to the many cited in 
my ' Popular Tales and Fictions, ' vol. i. pp. 289- 
313. I now find that I had somehow overlooked 
another and rather curious version in M. Rene 
Uasset's ' Contes Populaires Berbers ' (Paris, 1887), 
-No. 45, which is to the following effect : 

An old woman went one day to the fountain, leaving 
at home a pot of milk. On her return she found a fly in 
the milk, and she pulled off the fly's tail. 

The fly said: " Give me back my tail, that I may bring 
home a bride to my relations." 

The old woman replied: " Bring me goat's milk." 

The goat said: " Give me vegetables." 

The fly went to the fig- tree. It said: " Give me 
manure. " 

The fly went to the ox and said: " Ox, give me manure 
for the fig-tree ; it will give me leaves, which I shall 
give to the goat ; the goat will provide me with milk, 
which I shall give to my grandmother, who will give 
me back my tail, so that I can bring home a bride to my 

So the ox gave him manure; he took it to the fig- 
tree, which gave him leaves : he took them to the goat, 
and received milk; and in exchange for the milk the 
old woman gave back the tail, and the fly went to lead a 
bride home to his relations. 

This is, strange as it may seem, the only Muslim 
cumulative story known to me I assume all the 
tales (or most of them) in M. Kene Basset's inter- 
esting collection to be of Muhammedan extraction. 
It is probable, however, that though such " stories " 
do not occur in any Muslim collections, they are 
orally current among children throughout Islam. 

Near akin to nursery stories and rhymes of this 
sort is the droll children's tale (in verse) of ' The 
Great Carrot,' given by Prof. Ch. Marelle in his 
brochure 'Affenschwanz,' &c., from which I cited 
the ' Biquette dans le Jardin ' in my preceding 
.paper. M. Marelle states that he had it from 
his uncle, M. Bagin du Jonquoy : 

The old man went into the garden 
To pull up the big carrot ; 
He tugs, tugs the carrot; 
The carrot won't come. 

*' Help ! help ! " Runs the old woman, 
Who pulls the old man by the breeches, 
Who tugs, tugs the carrot ; 
The carrot won't come. 

" Help ! help ! " Runs the son, 

Who pulls the old woman by the petticoats, 

Who pulls the old man, and so forth. 

" Help ! help ! " Runs the daughter, 
Who pulla the son, &c. 

" Help ! help ! " Runs Bastien, 
Who pulls the daughter, &c. 

" Help ! help ! " Runs Bastienne, 
Who pulls Bastien, &c. 

" Help ! help 1 " Runs the Abb6, 
Who pulls Bastienne, &c. 

" Help ! help ! " Runs the Abbess, 
Who pulls the Abbe", &c. 

" Help ! help ! " Runs the pig, 

Whose snout grubs the carrot 

And crack ! the old man falls on the old wife, 

Who falls back on (he son, 

Who falls back on the daughter, 

Who falls back on Bastien, 

Who falls back on Bastienne, 

Who falls back on the Abbe, 

Who falls back on the Abbess, 

Who falls back on the ground. 

But the old man waves the carrot ; 
He gets up and lifts the old wife, 
Who lifts the son, 
Who lifts the daughter, &c.* 

And all cry, " what a carrot 1 " 
" To have it I 'd give my petticoat "; 
" I my breeches "; " I my skull-cap ": 
" what a carrot 1 " 

This is, to me, a unique form of cumulative story, 
though it has a sort of analogue in the wide-spread 
tale of ' The Magic Basin,' to which a person to be 
made ridiculous holds, nil I will I, and all sorts of 
people who come to his and each other's assistance 
are in like manner attached one to the other till 
they form a long and most ludicrous train. 

233, Cambridge Street, Glasgow. 

A somewhat analogous instance, which I have 
not seen elsewhere alluded to, occurs in ' Le Moyen 
de Parvenir,' ed. 100070034, torn. i. p. 176 : 

"La Soldee voulant prendre ce petit bois BUT ce 
badaut, monta sur une selle a trois pieds. Qu'au diantre 
soit celui qui fit la maison ou fut marie le pere de 
1'Eveque lequel sacra le Pretre qui maria la mere de 
celui qui forgea la coignee dont fut coupe le bois ou fut 
amanche le pic dont on releva la terre pour planter 
1'arbre duquel fut faite la premiere Selle a trois pieds." 

Jaipur, Rajputana. 


Lafeu. How understand we that ? 
This speech must have got displaced ; it has no 
pertinence as following that of Bertram : 

Madam, I desire your holy wishes. 
It can only refer to Helena's enigmatical enuncia- 

I do affect a sorrow, but I have it too, 
and must be inserted as immediately following it. 

This guides us to a further correction, and to a 
fair explanation of the origin of the muddle. The 
headings of the next two speeches must be inter- 
changed ; the Countess's given to Lafeu, and vice 

* When the good Abbess is raised up, as she fell on 
nobody, she rubs the part of her body that came in 
violent contact with the ground. 



versa. The general reflection will then be given to 
the sympathetic lady, and the slightly cynical com- 
ment to the shrewd and experienced old nobleman. 
Head, therefore : 

Helena. I do affect a Borrow indeed, but I have it too. 

Lafeu. How understand we that? 

Counters. Moderate lamentation is the right of the 

Excessive grief the enemy of the living. 

Lafeu. If the living be enemy to the grief, 
The excess makes it soon mortal. 

Bert. Madam, I desire your holy wishes. 

The "derangement" of the current text was 
apparently the result of a primary mistake of 
giving this speech of the Countess to Lafeu, which 
made it necessary to find another place for Lafeu's 
single line, which was immediately antecedent. 

I. i. 179: 

Parolles Your virginity, your old virginity, is like 

one of our French withered pears ; it looks ill, it eats 
drily; marry, 'tis a withered pear; it was formerly 
better; marry, yet 'tis a withered pear; will you any- 
thing with it 1 

Helena. fNot my virginity yet 

There shall your master have a thousand loves, &c. 

Now shall he 

I know not what he shall. God send him well ! 

The difficulty here, which is marked by the Globe 
obelus and indication of an incomplete line, admits 
of easy remedy. It has arisen from the shifting of 
the last phrase given to Parolles from the line be- 
low it. Coherent sense is recovered at once when 
this is replaced : 

It was formerly better ; marry, yet 'tis a withered 

Helena. Not my virginity yet ; will you anything with 

There shall your master have a thousand loves, &c. 

The text, thus restored, is in perfect harmony 

with Helena's curiously characteristic tone in this 

Another offensive obelus may be abolished (I. 

ii. 36) by a simple change of punctuation. Read : 

In his youth 

He had the wit which I can well observe 
To-day in our young lords ; but they may jest 
Till their own scorn return to them unnoted. 
Ere they can hide their levity in honour, 
So like a courtier. Contempt nor bitterness 
Were in his pride or sharpness. 

This in place of 

Ere they can hide their levity in honour : 

fSo like a courtier, contempt nor bitterness, &c. 

In the month of a king, as in that of Ophelia, 
the word " courtier " implies " perfect courtier " 
the model gentleman, as conceived by Raphael's 
friend Castiglione : 

" Avendo adunque il Cortegiano nel motteggiare, e dir 
piacevolezze, rispetto al tempo, alle persone, al grado suo, 
potra esser chiamato faceto; guardando ancor di non 
eeser tanto acerbo, e mordace, die si faccia conoscer per 
maligno." 'II Cortegiano,' p. 123, ed. 1733. 

I find that this, as I hold, sound correction was 

adopted by Capell, but to no purpose as regards 
succeeding editors. 

In the same speech another line is marked as 
manifestly corrupt : 

Who were below him 
He used as creatures of another place, 
And bowed his eminent top to their low ranks, 
Making them proud of his humility, 
fin their poor praise he humbled. 

The correction which satisfies me, and which 
I am content to leave to recommend itself by its 
own merits, runs : 

Making them proud of his humility 

In the proud place he humbled. 

The phrase is parallel to what we find under con- 
verse conditions, II. iii. 132 : 

From lowest place when virtuous things proceed, 
The place is dignified by the doer's deed. 

The last lines in the king's speech guide us to 
the correction of a line which has strangely escaped 
an obelus. This occurs in II. i. 55 : 

" Use a more spacious ceremony to the noble lords ; 
you have restrained yourself within the list of too cold 
an adieu : be more expressive to them : for they wear 
themselves in the cap of the time, there do muster true 
gait, eat, speak, and move under the influence of the 
most received star." 

Read " They demonstrate true gait," &c., accept- 
ing as sufficient authorization the comparison of 
Such a man 

Might be a copy to these younger times ; 

Which followed well would demonstrate them now 

But goers backward. 

The Cambridge collators record "there demon- 
strate," ' Anon. Conject.' 

The text of this play is scaturient with errors 
patent and errors undenounced. To submit 
opinions on many of these would be to enter upon 
"contentious business" indeed. One change that 
ought to be made, but, if possible, without dis- 
cussion, is IV. iii. 287: "Save to his bedclothes 
about him ; but they know his conditions and lay 
him in straw." Eead, by transposition, " But 
they about him know his conditions," &c. 


'MACBETH': THE WITCHES (7 th S. vii. 303). 
There are no " Dram. Pers." lists in the Shake- 
speare, or folio, ' Macbeths,' though there are in the 
so-called quarto Davenant 'Macbeths' of 1673, 
1674, &c. In, however, the folio play, IV. i., we 
have, " Thunder. Enter the three Witches,' 1 and 
before 1. 39, "Enter Hecat and the other three 
Witches," the the of the first indicating, as in other 
of these stage directions, the three who foretell 
Macbeth's future. As to " the other three," it is 
not impossible that we now have the first appear- 
ance of those who attend on Queen Hecate, though 
it is much more probable that they were her mute 
attendants in III. v., when she appears in state in 
her chariot. The quarto of 1673, essentially a re- 
print of the folio, erroneously omits the the of the 

7* S. IX. MAR. 1, '90.] 



first, but otherwise gives both directions. The edi- 
tions of 1674, so different in their text, omit the 
first direction altogether, because in their version 
these same three witches commence the scene, and 
were probably "on" when the curtain rose. They, 
however, give the second in the same words. 

Hence it is clear, as I said in a paper printed in 
the New Shakspere Society's Transactions, 1880-2, 
that there were six witches, exclusive of Hecate, 
and I suggested that the three attendant on Hecate 
were neophytes not yet allowed to go high-lone. 
But that the three witches of our Northern beliefs 
and climes, past mistresses in their art, could ever 
have been intended by Shakespeare to represent the 
three classical Fates, and the three attendant on He- 
cate the Furies, are things as incongruous as though he 
had brought in Odin, Jupiter, and Sceva enjoying 
a family meal beside the Castalian spring. Nor 
is it merely incongruous in the the last degree, nor 
merely a supposition unsupported by facts or by 
the slightest probability, but one contradicted by 
facts. Fancy Hecate addressing the Fates thus 
(III. v.) :- 


Saucy and overbold ! How did you dare 

To trade and traffic with Macbeth 

In riddles and affairs of death ; 

And I, the Mistress of your charms, 

The close contriver of all harms, 

Was never call'd to bear my part, 

Or show the glory of our art ? &c. 

A first-form boy would laugh at such blundering 
in classic mythology, and Shakespeare, if he knew 
no better, would soon have been taught better by 
the ridicule heaped upon him, and would have 
altered it. BR. NICHOLSON. 

' MACBETH,' IV. i. 

Untie the winds, and let them fight 
Against the churches. 

In R. Perrot's ' Sermon on Tithes,' 1627, p. 25, it 
is said, " We have a common saying of the wind, 
that if there be any stirring, it is most evident 
about the church." W. C. B. 


To show his teeth as white as whale's bone. 
Whale's bone is explained to be the tooth of the 
walrus. A similar comparison was reported to me 
a few days ago from Worcester, where a man, 
speaking of some animal refuse that was to be 
converted into oleo-margarine, said it would be- 
come ia the process " as white as a hand's tutb." 
W. C. B. 

'VERT. Aa I have lately met with several of 
my friends who were unacquainted with the word 
'vert, I think a few notes and queries on its mean- 
ing and history may be useful. 

1. What is the earliest instance of its use in 
print ? The earliest that I have met with is in the 

Union Review for May, 1864, in the article entitled 
' Experiences of a 'Vert '; but probably some of 
your readers will be able to supply earlier in- 

2. What is its exact meaning ? It is generally 
used to signify a person who leaves the Anglican 
Church for the Eoman. Is it used in any other 
similar sense 1 

3. What is its origin and history 1 The author 
of the ' Experiences of a 'Vert,' in 1864, speaks of 
the word as new. He says, " The other day I was 
addressed as a 'Vert"; and again, "This term 
'Vert, I have every reason to believe, has been 
only just coined." In this belief he is certainly 
mistaken, for I myself distinctly remember the 
late Dean Stanley, when Fellow of University Col- 
lege, Oxford, using the word about the year 1845 
or 1846. Speaking of the numerous seceders from 
the Anglican to the Eoman Church, he said, in 
the amusing, joking way which his friends will so 
well remember, " I don't know what to call them - y 
I can't call them converts, and I won't call them 
perverts ; I think I shall call them 'verts, which 
will be a good neutral term." Probably he little 
thought that this joke of his would take such deep 
root in the English language. Can any of your 
readers trace the word to a different or an earlier 
source I 

I may add that I have lately found the word 
used as a verb, to 'vert, i.e., to become a Roman 
Catholic (the Guardian, Aug. 22, 1888, p. 1232, 
col. 2, from the Irish Catholic). W. A. G. 


HISTORY. In an article on ' The Future of Eng- 
lish Monarchy,' in the February number of the 
Contemporary Review (p. 193), we read : 

"The hereditary title on the Queen's [., Queen 
Elizabeth's] death without children was in the house of 
Suffolk, the descendants of Henry VIII.'s eldest daugh- 
ter, and on grounds of policy they were set aside for the 
Stuart family." 

Passing over "Henry VIII." as doubtless a 
mere misprint for Henry VII., it seems desirable 
to point out that Margaret (who was married first 
to James IV. of Scotland, secondly to the Earl of 
Angus, and thirdly to Henry Stuart, afterwards 
created Lord Methven) was his (Henry VIL's} 
eldest daughter, and that Mary (who was married 
first to Louis XII., King of France, and after- 
wards to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk) waa 
the younger daughter. It has been said that 
Henry VIII. in his will left the crown, in case of 
failure of issue of his own children, to the posterity 
of his younger sister, passing over those of the 
elder. But it is very doubtful whether this will 
was ever executed ; and on the death of Queen 
Elizabeth, his last surviving child, no claim was 
put forward on behalf of the descendant of his 
sister Mary. She had two daughters by her second 



[7 th S. IX. MAR. 1, '0. 

husband, the Duke of Suffolk, the eldest of whom 
married Henry Grey (who became Duke of Suffolk, 
and was executed in 1554), and had three daugh- 
ters. The eldest of these was the unfortunate 
Lady Jane Grey, and the youngest (who was de- 
formed) also died without issue ; but the second, 
Catherine, married Edward Seymour, Earl of 
Hertford, son of the Protector Edward, Duke of 
Somerset, executed in the reign of his nephew 
Edward VI. This Earl of Hertford had a son by 
Catherine Grey, named Edward, who was created 
Viscount Beauchamp and Earl of Hertford by 
Queen Elizabeth, and would, had Henry VIII.'s 
supposed will been acted on, have succeeded her 
instead of the King of Scotland, James VI. But 
any such claim was so completely ignored that no 
jealousy was towards him or his line until his 
grandson and heir, William Seymour, formed the 
project of marrying Arabella Stuart, daughter of 
the Earl of Lenox, who was the grandson, through 
his mother, of Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry 
VII., and of her second husband, the Earl of 
Angus. The secret marriage of William Seymour 
and Arabella Stuart, in 1610, excited, as is well 
known, the wrath of James I., and led to the 
imprisonment of both ; and though they succeeded 
in escaping, poor Arabella was recaptured, and 
died in the Tower in 1615. Seymour, however, 
made good his escape, succeeded his father as 
Earl of Hertford in 1621, and was created Marquis 
of Hertford by Charles I. in 1640. In conse- 
quence of his loyalty during the Civil War, the 
title of Duke of Somerset was resuscitated in his 
favour on the Restoration ; but he did not long 
survive it. W. T. LYNN. 


JAMES CHILTON. In March, 1888, Mr. W. S. 
Appleton, giving a temporary address in London, 
wrote to me about the Pilgrim Father, James 
Chilton. At that time I was unable to give any 
information about him ; but since I have com- 
menced my transcript of the registers of St. Paul's, 
Canterbury, I have met with the name, and as 
' N. & Q.' is read in the United States, I may per- 
haps be allowed to answer Mr. Appleton so far as 
I can through its pages. From St. Paul's register 
I extract the following entries : 

Aug. 16, 1584. Joell Chilton was baptized. 

Jan. 15, 1586/7. Isabell, d. of James Chilton, bapt. 

June 8, 1589. Jane, d. of James Chilton, bapt. 

April 29, 1599. Ingle, d. of James Chilton, bapt. 

From the register of St. Martin's (the adjoining) 
parish, I give these entries : 

Nov. 2, 1593. Joell, s of James Chilton, buried. 

Nov. 23, 1593. Mary, d. of James Chilton, buried. 

July 24, 1594. Elizabeth, d. of James Chiltou, baptized. 

Aug. 22, 1596. James, s. of James Chilton, bapt. 

James Chilton's wife was named Susanna, and 
their daughter Mary " was perhaps the only young 
girl on the Mayflower, and tradition has always 

fondly but foolishly said that she was the first to 
leap on Plymouth Rock." From the burial entry 
of Nov. 23, 1593, it will be seen that one daughter 
Mary was buried then ; but James Chilton may 
have had another daughter also named Mary. I 
fear the question will never be cleared up, for the 
St. Martin's registers only reach back to the Re- 
storation, and the transcripts (from which I have 
taken the above extracts) are, unfortunately, very 

I ought to add that as yet I have found no entry 
relating to the marriage of James Chilton, and in 
the preparation of my projected ' Canterbury Mar- 
riage Licences ' I have got beyond his date. 



contains the allusion to the farmer's affection for 
his " aale " at all costs. This is so very much like 
a story in a well-known book, or rather which 
once was so, that I institute a comparison : 

" One of the strongest instances I have seen of such a 
deliberate practice of the ' Bum vivimus, vivamus,' was 
mentioned by the clever and humorous surgeon, Mr. 
Wa Id. He was called to a respectable lusty farmer, 
who had indulged in his strong home-brewed ale till a 
serious illness came upon him. After some attendance 
his medical friend told him that it was clear that unless 
he left off his favourite beverage he could not live six 
months. ' Is that your serious professional opinion ?' 'I 
am certain of it.' The farmer thought a few minutes ; 
tears came in his eyes ; he sighed heavily, and, at last, 
said, ' I am sorry for it very sorry ; it 's very sad, but I 
cannot give up my ale.' " Sharon Turner's ' Religious 
History of the World,' vol. iii., 1839, p. 462, n. 12. 


last part of MR. PICKFORD'S interesting note (supra, 
p. 44), it may be worth while to call attention to 
the following statement, which appeared in the 
Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, May 18, 1889, in a 
letter signed Mary S. Hancock, Monkwearmouth. 
The writer relates Sir John Burgoyne's request 
that he might be buried in the chapel of the Tower, 
of which he was Constable, the place selected being 
in front of the high altar. The Queen's permission 
was granted, and 

" in a short time Sir John was gathered to his fathers, 
and the proposed grave began to be prepared ; but, in 
turning over the pavement in front of the high altar, an 
obstacle of the deepest interest presented itself. There 
had been an ancient tradition that ten persons who had 
been beheaded by Henry VIII. had been interred in this 
spot after their execution ; but, being a mere tradition, 
no one seems to have taken the trouble to verify it. 
Now, however, comes the denouement. The tomb being 
prepared for Sir John Burgoyne disclosed in one long 
row the headless bodies of ten persons, amongst whom, 
with her head slightly apart from her body, lay the 
corpse of the beautiful and unfortunate lady Anne 
Boleyn, with her beauty unimpaired, and her lace and 
hair as perfect as the day on which she laid them down 
up t!>9 block. It is needless to say that, by command 

7 S. IX. MAR. 1, '90.] 



of her Majesty, the bodies were left to rest in their 
original place of sepulture, though, for the sake of the 
nineteenth century readers of history, there cannot bui 
be a feeling of regret that such interesting relics shoulc 
have been consigned afresh to the tomb without some 
photographic record being made of the event." 

This ghastly revelation is of so recent a date 
that there must be many persons living to whom 
the circumstances are thoroughly known, and it 
would be interesting to be informed whether the 
above account is rigorously correct in all particulars, 



THE STOCKS. (See 7 th S. viiL 432). I well re- 
member the stocks standing on the green at Clifton 
Hampden, in Oxfordshire, more by token that 
their last occupant (for the offence of being drunk 
and disorderly) was the parish constable. 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Celtic scholar or authority on place-names help me 
to the meaning of Wyrral, the Celtic name of the 
ridge-shaped hill at Glastonbury, which, when the 
name was given, rose close to a bay or arm of the 
Bristol Channel ? A little further up the Channel 
a hill of very similar configuration, though greater 
size, rises, like Wyrral, from its shores, viz., Worle 
Hill, at Weston-super-Mare, a name again supposed 
to be Celtic, as the interesting camp and hut circles 
on its summit, with the landing-steps down to the 
water, are pronounced to be by archaeologists. 
The suggestion has occurred to me whether, in 
fact, the two hills did not originally receive the 
same name, time alone having made the difference 
between them. I am no Celtic scholar, but I 
believe in modern Welsh Wyrral would be pro- 
nounced much like Wurral, and Worle is invari- 
ably pronounced Wurle. Wyrral must have long 
been pronounced in modern times Wirral as now 
(or it could not have been corrupted into " Weary- 
all"), but I imagine this is an Anglicism. Can 
any one give me the probable meaning, or probable 
analogies, of either name, if they are, indeed, 
distinct in the Celtic tongue ? Are there any hill 
or other place-names resembling them elsewhere ? 


PASSEFLAMBERE FAMILY. Is there any pedi- 
gree extant of this family, of which Ralph, Bishop of 
Durham, was a well-known member 1 What was 
the bishop's real surname ? He is said to have 
been Dean of Christ Church, Twynam, Hants. 
Walter de Passeflambere held land in North Hants 

in the twelfth century. Query, any relationship- 
to the Bishop of Durham ? VICAB. 

Preston Candover, Basingstoke. 

PRIVY COUNCILLORS. Where shall I find, or 
from what sources may be compiled, a list of Privy 
Councillors prior to 1660 ? W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

there been published of late years a selection of 
the best English hymns written within these three 
centuries, or three centuries and a half ? I do not 
mean collections for the use of particular churches 
or sects, but a selection of the best hymns without 
regard to sectarian bias ; such a selection as we 
have had of centuries or other assemblages of 
sonnets. BE. NICHOLSON. 

FABLES IN FRENCH. Wanted a reference to a 
book of fables in French. Each fable is followed 
by a "Sens Moral" and a "Reflection." Frag- 
ments, without the page headings, are in posses- 
sion of the inquirer, on the backs of etchings ex- 
ecuted in a masterly manner, with very marked 
outlines ; but no artist's mark or monogram is 
given. Query, whose fables and whose plates ? 
The costume would fix the date somewhere about 
1660. F. W. 

ATHEN^EOM CLUB. In Clayden's 'Early Life 
of Samuel Rogers,' p. 263, I find entry in his 
diary on Dec. 7, 1792 : "Dined at the Athenaeum 
Club. Introduced by Sharp." Was there an 
Athenaeum Club previous to the foundation of the 
present Athenaeum Club in 1824 ? An answer 
will oblige. C. H. 

Robert Rowley, M.D., of London, was born 
April 15, 1795 (see Burke's ' Peerage,' under 
" Langford "). I am anxious to obtain particulars 
respecting the parentage, &c., of the physician here 
mentioned for the completion of a skeleton pedi- 
gree of the Rowleys of Lawton, and I shall be ex- 
tremely glad if any one willing to communicate 
with me on this subject will write to me direct. 

H. NUNN, B.A. 

Lawton Rectory, Stoke-on-Trent. 

me the origin of the surname Sterridge or Stirridge, 
which I find in Somerset in the seventeenth cen- 
;ury, and which later on in the century becomes 
Sturge, chiefly residing in Gloucestershire ? A 
member of the Gloucestershire family, writing 
about a hundred years ago, remarks that their 
name was always (even at that time) pronounced 
Stirridge by its Somerset branches. W. 

LACHARD FAMILY. Can any one give informa- 
ion as to the family of Lachard ? Miss Lachard, 
\ Welsh heiress, supposed to be of Spanish extrac- 



[7 th 3. IX. MAR. 1, '90. 

ti on, married Stephen Ludlow, a Clerk in Chancery 
in Ireland, nephew of the celebrated Parliamentary 
general Edmund Ludlow, and grandson of Sir 
Henry Ludlow, M.P. for Wilts, who married 
Lettice, daughter of Lord Delawarr. They were 
the grandparents of Earl Ludlow, created 1760, 
and of others. KELSO. 

ROBERT CLAYTON. In the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' 
article " Clayton, Robert, Bishop of Clogher," it is 
stated that he was the eldest son of Dr. Robert 
Clayton, Dean of Kildare, and minister of St. 
Michael's, Dublin ; also that the bishop came into 
the estate of Fnlwood, Lancashire, in 1728, on the 
death of his father. On reference to the 'Fasti 
Ecclesise Hibernicse.'&c., I find that on December 11, 
1708, John Clayton was installed as Dean of Kil- 
dare, and retained that office until his death in 
September, 1725. He was buried in St. Michael's, 
Dublin. I wish to know whether John was not 
the true name of the bishop's father ; also whether 
the succession to the estate was in 1725 ; or, if 
not, did the Fulwood property ever come into the 
father's hands. The parentage and age of Clayton 
(sen.) would be acceptable. W. S. W. 

STRONGBOWIANS. Where can I find a list of the 
companions of Strongbow, or any of the Anglo- 
Normans or English who went to Ireland about 
that time, or down to say a hundred years later ? 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

C. HAIGH. I have an old print of an invitation 
card, by Cunego, for the "Cambridge Commence- 
ment Grand Musical Festival, 1807." It is signed 
C. Haigh, and also bears his seal. Can any of 
your readers give me any information concerning 
C. Haigh ? EL SILRAC. 

ODD VOLUME WANTED. Can any of your 
readers supply an odd volume, vol. i. of 'The 
Meditation of M. A. Antoninus,' Glasgow, Foulis, 
1749? T. WILSON. 

KING'S ARMS IN CHURCHES. Can you tell me 
where I can find answers to the following ques- 
tions ? When, and by whose orders, and for what 
purpose, were drawings or paintings of the king's 
arms put up in our churches? The first entry 
respecting the same in the books containing 
the churchwardens' and overseers' accounts in the 
parish in which I live is in 1660: "P d Tho. Heape 
for drawing the Kinges Armes 21"; but these 
accounts only commence in 1645. J. H. K. 

LOCAL RHYMES. Many of our towns and vil- 
lages have rhymes relating to them. Some note- 
worthy characteristic by which the place had 
become known has been perpetuated in rustic 
verse. These rhymes are far more numerous than 
many people think. I have long had an idea of 

collecting nese verses and publishing nem n a 
little book; but ere I do so it is necessary for me 
to know whether the labour has already been 
undertaken by some one else. Many of these 
rhymes have been preserved in ' N. & Q.,' others 
are to be found in county and town histories and 
guide-books ; but, so far as I can learn, no book 
has appeared in which the author has endeavoured 
after a complete collection. ANON. 

lines which, I believe, are inscribed on Lord 
Brougham's tomb ? 

Inveni portum. Spea et fortuna valete 
Sat me lusistis. Ludite nunc alios. 

J. C. J. 

" NUTS AND MAY." Can any one explain the 
meaning of the words in the game played by chil- 
dren known as " Nuts and May " ? 

Here we come gathering nuts and may, 

Nuts and may, nuts and may ! 
Here we come gathering nuts and may, 
On a cold and frosty morning. 

Or, in place of last line, 

On Christmas Day in the morning. 
Now "nuts" and "may" are never to be 
gathered at the same time, neither are they to be 
found at a " cold and frosty " time. Are the words 
a corruption of other words; or are they simply 
meant for an absurdity ? G. C. H. 

'BABY-LAND': POEM. In 'N. & Q.,' 7 th S. 
vii. 368, s.v. 'Poems Wanted,'! inquired, amongst 
others, for one beginning : 

When I lived in Baby- Land 
All the bells were ringing. 

I have since obtained this. It appeared in the 
Monthly Packet for September, 1873. It is signed 
C. M. Gemmer, " Gerda Fay." If this is, as I 
suppose, a lady, has she written other pieces ? 
From the pseudonym in inverted commas I con- 
clude she is well known. Can any one give me 
any information about her writings? Who is there 
of us that does not echo from his very heart the 
last verse of ' Baby- Land ' ? 

that I were back once more 
To hear the fairies singing; 

To sit upon my nursery floor 
And set the bells a-ringingl 


OYSTERMOUTH. Anno 1141, Morris, of London, 
gave to the church of St. Peter of Gloucester the 
church of "Ostrenuwe, in Goer" (vide 'Cartulary, 
Abbey of Gloucester,' Hart, 1863). In list of ad- 
vowsons belonging to Gloucester end of thirteenth 
century is "Ecclesiade Oystremuthe." In 1379 
Bishop Adam Houghton, of St. David's, appro- 
priated the tithes and church dues of "Oyster- 
mouth" to Bishop Gower's Hospital of the 
" Blessed David " in Swansea. Can any one give 

. IX. MAR. 1, 'SO.] 



any information as to this transfer from Gloucester 
to St. David's ? The earliest dates of " Episcopal 
Acts " in the Diocesan Registry, Carmarthen, are 
in 1397, and I have failed to elicit anything at 
Gloucester. Eudge mentions that the Benedictine 
priory of Ewenny, in the same county, was given 
by " Maurice de London " as a cell to Gloucester 
in the same year (1141). H. A. 

TENNYSON'S ' PRINCESS,' i. 33, 34. 

She to me 

Was proxy- wedded with a bootless calf 
At eight years old. 

What does "bootless calf" mean here? 

J. A. J. 

[Does not this refer to the custom on a wedding by 
proxy of the representative of the bridegroom inserting 
his unbooted leg in the bed : J 

JESUS PSALTER. The Roman Catholic bishops 
of this country have recently issued a ' Manual of 
Prayers for Congregational Use,' which contains 
(p. 123) certain devotions called the "Jesus 
Psalter." A note informs the reader that 
" This Psalter was composed probably by Richard Whyt- 
ford, first a secular priest, than a Brigittine of Syon 
House, Middlesex, in the fifteenth century. An original 
MS. is in the possession of Lord Abergavenny. Bishop 
'Jhalloner's edition, which is here given, is a compressed 
formulary, and the language is generally modernized." 

Has the original text ever been published ? 

K. P. D. E. 

OCCULT SOCIETY. Can any one tell me the 
address of the Occult Society in London, and who 
is the head of it ? There was a mention of it in 
one of the papers the other day, but it gave no 
address. C. W. 


Lose this day loitering, 'twill be the same story 
To-morrow, and the next more dilatory. 
The indecision brings its own delays, 
And days are lost lamenting o'er lost days. 
Are you in earnest ? Seize this very minute ! 
What you can do, or think you can, begin it ! 
Boldness has genius, power, magic, in it ! 
Only engage, and then the mind grows heated : 
Begin it, and the work will be completed. 
Quoted in Longfellow, ' Kavanagh,' chap. xix. 

Life that shall send 
A challenge to its end, 
And when it comes, gay, Welcome, friend 1 
Quoted in Longfellow, ' Hyperion,' book iv. chap. vii. 

Knowledge by suffering entereth, 
And life is perfected in death. 


[The last query is asked 6"> S. iii. 290, and remains 

There gods meet gods, and jostle in the dark. 

A. B. 

Unworthy he of Poet's sacred name 
Who writes for wretched lucre, not for fame. 


(7 th S. ix. 107.) 

CANON VENABLES will be interested to hear 
that there are good examples of churches with 
their towers detached at Berkeley, co. Gloucester, 
and at Kirk Oswald, co. Cumberland. In the first 
case it is supposed that the Lords Berkeley bad it 
built in this manner in order that it should be 
further away from the castle than the body of the 
church, its summit being liable in times of war- 
fare to become a point of vantage for the enemy. 
It may be worth mentioning that at Brookland, in 
Romney Marsh, the spire, though hardly detached, 
rests on the ground. The superstitions are : (1) 
that the devil removed it in the night ; (2) that it 
was built upon the ground and intended to be 
erected on a tower afterwards, but was found too 

Eden Bridge, Kent. 

To the list contributed at the above reference 
may be added Bramfield and East Bergholt, both 
in Suffolk. The former is one of the round towers 
peculiar to East Anglia ; and at East Bergholt the 
five bells are hung in a low open shed, or, as it is 
expressed in White's 'Directory of Suffolk," "a 
sort of cage," in the churchyard, the tower of the 
church being only carried to the height of fourteen 
feet. The shed in which the bells are suspended is 
no higher, yet they are said to be heard at Har- 
wich, a distance of ten miles across the water. 

W. K. TATB. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. ' 

I am not certain to come strictly within the in- 
quiry of CANON VENABLES, but the fine old church 
of Astbury, one mile and a half from the borough 
town of Congleton, in Cheshire, of which it is the 
mother church, would have its tower and spire dis- 
tinct from the main building were it not for a cur- 
tain wall connecting it with the western angle of 
the north aisle. JOSEPH BEARD. 


CANON VENABLES does not mention in his list 
of these the Roman light-tower in Dover Castle, 
which was undoubtedly repaired and used as a 
bell-tower to the adjoining church in later days. 
I fancy the church is not now parochial, but it was 
so formerly. .W. D. GAINSFORD. 

I have a note that there are seven churches in 
Herefordshire with detached belfries, but I am un- 
able to give a list of them. However, in addition 
to Ledbury, mentioned by CANON VENABLES, may 
be noted Bosbury and Pembridge. The tower of 
Bosbury is sixty yards distant on the south side 
from the church. That of Pembridge is situated 
close to the church on the north side, and is " of 
singular construction, its wooden frame-work being 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. ix. MAE. i, 

particularly curious" (Lewis, 'Top. Diet.,' *..). 
Being within measurable distance of the borders of 
Wales, it was possibly used for the purposes of 
defence. Both the church and tower stand on an 
elevation. Mr. Walter Rye, in his ' Hist, of Nor- 
folk,' p. 238 (" Pop. County Hist. Series ") men- 
tions Terrington Clements as being notable for "its 
great slightly detached tower." Berkeley (Glou- 
cestershire) should also be mentioned as having a 
detached tower. ALPHA. 

Though in no sense towers, interesting examples 
of detached bell-cots are to be seen in the church- 
yards of Wix and Wrabness, in Essex. In each 
case the belfry contains one bell, and is a structure 
in the churchyard apart from the church. The 
church at Wix has recently undergone restoration, 
and possibly the interesting timber belfry referred 
to may have been improved away; but it is to be 
hoped that such is not the case. I. 0. GOULD. 

Lough ton. 

There are in Herefordshire six churches which 
possess detached towers, viz., Ledbury (surmounted 
by a lofty spire), Bosbury, Holmer, Richards Castle, 
Yarpole, and Pembridge. The last two are curious 
wooden structures, standing some distance from 
the church twenty-five yards in the case of 
Pembridge. The tower at Garway was also built 
away from the church, but is now connected by a 
gangway. I have seen and verified all these 
examples. ALFRED WATKINS. 

Other examples are Marston-Morteyn, co. Beds, 
and Tidd St. Giles, co. Cambs. Is this form of 
tower intentional or accidental ? 


There is one at Bosbury Church, in Hereford- 
shire. G. B. 
Upton, Slough, Bucks. 

New College, Oxford, has a detached bell- tower, 
ao placed as to form a bastion in the city wall. 


[Lapworth, Warwickshire (E. HUDSON) ; Berkeley, 
Gloucestershire (H. A. EVANS and C. W. PENNY) ; St. 
George's, Tufnell Park (E. H. COLEMAN) ; Evesham, 
with its two neighbour churches and detached bell- 
towers (E. H. MARSHALL, M.A., and J. F. MANSERGH) ; 
" A tower of oak framework containing two bells in 
the churchyard at Brookland, in Eomney Marsh " 
(E. H. MARSHALL, M.A.). Other replies are too late 
for the press.] 

CODGER (7 th S. ix. 47, 97, 136). MR. ALBERT 
HARTSHORNE has fallen into an unaccountable 
error in his reference under the above heading. 
Instead of chap. vii. book iii., as MR. HARTSHORNE 
states, the story of Gil Bias and Don Gonzales de 
Pacheco is related in the same chapter of book iv. 
Again, Smollett does not make use of the words 
attributed to him by MR. HARTSHORNE I quote 

from a fine illustrated edition in three volumes, 
London, 1819 but renders the passage thup, "He 
was one of those old boys who had been great 
rakes in their youth," which is the exact and 
natural equivalent of Le Sage's, " C'4tait un de ces 
vieux garQons qui ont e'te' fort libertins dans leur 
jeunesse." The Padre Isla, in his Spanish version 
of the immortal history, translates" Era deaquellos 
solterones,"the latter word meaning "old bachelors." 
The edition of " Tobias Smollett's translation of 
'Gil Bias,' first published by Le Sage," as MR. 
HARTSHORNE somewhat curiously writes, cannot 
be that from which he quotes ; and the latter 
evidently belongs, in more ways than one, to the 
" speech of the lower orders only." 


If the subject is not worn threadbare, I would 
venture to give the definition of the word as used 
by Charles Dickens in his ' Tale of Two Cities,' 
where he certainly does not mean it to be under- 
stood as a term of reproach. When Mr. Lorry is 
making known to Charles Darnay his determina- 
tion to venture into Paris on the business of Tell- 
son's Bank, he says : 

" ' Tellson's whose bread I have eaten these sixty 
years because I am a little stiff about the joints ? Why 
I am a boy, Sir, to half a dozen old codgers here.' " 


" Codger " in Cheshire is not an uncompli- 
mentary term. Farmer Dobbin, in ' A Day wi r 
the Cheshire Fox Dugs ' (by Mr. R. E. Egertpn- 
Warburton) has nothing but praise and admiratioa 
for all the squires he meets, unless it be for the 

Squoir ov Arley Haw, 
His pocket full o' rigmarole, a rhoiming on em aw. 

He writes : 

A varment looking gemman on a woiry tit I seed, 

An another close besoid him, sitting noble on his steed ; 

They ca' them both owd codgers, but as fresh as paint 

they look, 
John Glegg, Esquoir, o' Withington, an bowd Sir Richard 



A pleasing example of the use of this word 
should not be unnoticed. Writing in 1859, Mr. 
Keble records "a week in Bisley, including the 
Elijah, at Gloster Music ; where the two old 
Codger Kebles were seen sitting side by side" 
(' Life,' by Coleridge, p. 456). 


Hastings Corporation Reference Library. 

With regard to this word, may I draw attention 
to the following quotation from 'Old and New 
London,' vol. i. p. 124, which has escaped the 
notice of your correspondents ? Referring to the 
origin of the title of " Cogers' Discussion Hall," 
Shoe Lane, E.G., it is remarked that " the word 
1 Coger ' does not imply Codger, a drinker of Cogs> 

. IX. MAR. 1, '90. J 



but comes from cogito, to cogitate." The italics 

Freegrove Road, N. 

The words of Le Sage, whose translation is given 
here, are the following : 

" C'etait un de ces vieux garqons qui ont etc fort 
libertins dans leur jeunesse, et qui ne sont guere plus 
sages dans un age plus avanceY' ' Gil Bias,' book iv. 
(and not iii.), chap. vii. 

The italics are mine, and seem to decide the case 
in favour of MR. J. DIXON. DNARGEL. 

BRICKBAT (7 th S. ix. 128). This word will be 
found explained in a rather useful publication, 
now coming out in numbers, entitled 'A New 
English Dictionary,' and edited by Dr. Murray. 
It contains the solution of many questions which 
appear in ' N. & Q.' JULIAN MARSHALL. 

These two words are fully explained in the ' N. 
E. D.' A brickbat strictly is a portion of a brick 
with one end entire, and less than half the length 
of a brick ; but in popular language, and most 
particularly when a brickbat is used as a missile, 
the term seems to be employed for almost any 
fragment of one. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

[Innumerable replies to the same effect are acknow- 

AUSTRALIA (7 th S. ir. 147). The best book on 
the towns of Australia is that of Dr. Dale, pub- 
lished by Hodder & Stonghton, 1889. D. 

MAC AUL AY'S STYLE (7 tt S. ix. 8, 73). George 
Eliot said that it was " a personal grief, a heart- 
wound," to her to hear any one speak slightingly of 
Sir Walter Scott. Whilst endorsing this remark to 
its fullest extent, I may add that it is also a grief to 
me to hear Macaulay depreciated. I well remember 
my delight when at the age of eighteen or nineteen 
I got hold of the essay on Milton. This was not 
absolutely my first introduction to Macaulay's 
prose (much of his verse T knew at school), as I 
had already read a little of his ' History of Eng- 
land,' and even at the age of seventeen my im- 
pressions of this were very different from those of 
C. C. B., who says that he " never could read and 
never shall read" it. C. C. B., however, admits 
that he delights in the ' Essays,' which I am glad 
to hear. It seems to me to savour of ingratitude 
to depreciate and carp at Macaulay, when it is 
certain that hundreds of people have had, and 
hundreds I trust will continue to have, their love 
of literature not merely strengthened, but in 
many cases first awakened, by the irresistible 
enthusiasm of his noble ' Essays.' If people 
do not like Macaulay's style, a style as clear as a 
mountain river, and do not feel the power of the 
epic roll of his prose, they must be uncertain, coy, 
and, above all, hard to please. Mr. J. Cotter 
Morison, in his monograph in the " English Men of 

Letters " series, says that Macaulay " has related 
or may we not say sung 1 many great events in 
English history with epic width and grandeur." 
Of the ' Essays' Mr. Morison says, " Time enough 
has elapsed since their publication to submerge 
them in oblivion had they not contained a vital 
spark of genius which criticism is powerless to 
extinguish." Both these remarks are very just. 

With regard to the ' Lays of Ancient Eome ' 
" thae gran' Eoman ballants," as good old 
Sandy Mackaye calls them I contend thafr 
they are true poetry of their kind, although the 
kind is not the highest. If I may mention my- 
self and after all I do not know why I should 
not do so, as I suppose Macaulay wrote for me as 
well as for others my appreciation of the most 
ethereal passages of Dante or Shelley does not in 
the least prevent my appreciating the ' Lays.' It 
would be difficult for me to estimate the number 
of times I have repeated to myself during solitary 
walks, &c., the four concluding stanzas of ' Hora- 
tius.' Perhaps some of Macaulay's critics would 
tell me to " perish in a surfeit of bad taste. " At all 
events, I do not well see how any one, except a 
poet which I am not could possibly appreciate 
' II Penseroso,' or ' Adonais,' or ' The Eve of Saint 
Agnes/ or ' Kubla Khan ' more than I do ; and 
yet, when "in a concatenation accordingly," I can 
equally of course I mean on a lower level enjoy 
" the fighting around Valerius dead," or the march 
of Lars Porsena, or the " great triumph " in ' The 
Prophecy of Capys.' Then who but a true poet 
could have written ' The Battle of Naseby," and 
the almost equally fine fragment ' The Armada' ? 
To return for a moment to the 'History.' A few 
months ago I had a letter from a literary friend. 
well read both in English and foreign literature, 
and whose taste is very fastidious, more fastidious 
than my own. He said, " I finished Macaulay's 
' England ' some weeks ago. As a narrative of 
facts I know none equal to it in mere interest, ex- 
cept, perhaps, Prescott's ' Conquest of Mexico.' " 

The deep debt of gratitude I owe to Macaulay 
has urged me to make the foregoing remarks, 
which I trust those of your readers who do not 
love the great historian and critic will take in good 

I will conclude with an act of Johnsonian pen- 
ance (I allude to the Uttoxeter market-place 
incident). Many years ago, actuated by I know 
not what evil spirit of contrariness, I spoke dis- 
respectfully of Macaulay in an article in ' N. & Q.*" 
I was pulled up sharply by another correspondent. 
I frankly own that my censor was altogether in 
the right, and that I was altogether in the wrong. 

Ropley, Alresford. 

NICOLAS NEMO (7 th S. viii. 349). I give this 
suggestion for what it is worth. Is it not probable 



[7* S. IX. MAK. 1, '90. 

that the entry "buried, 1675, Nicolaum Neminem," 
means that nobody was buried that year at Abing- 
ton Pigotts ? In corroboration of this I quote from 
K. Burton's ' Anatomy of Melancholy,' "Democritus 
to the Reader," sub finem : 

"Whom shall I then except? Ulricas Huttenus 
Nemo ; nam Nemo omnibus horia sapit ; Nemo nascitur 
sine vitiis ; crimine Nemo caret ; Nemo sorte sua vivit 
contentus: Nemo in amore sapit; Nemo bonus; Nemo 
sapiens; Nemo est ex omni parte beatus, &c., and there- 
fore Nicholas Nemo, or Monsieur Nobody, shall go free : 
Quid valeat nemo, nemo referre potest." 


OATS (7 th S. ix. 107). Burton has similarly: 
" John Maior in his first booke of his ' History of 
Scotland ' contends much for the wholsomness of oaten 
bread. It was objected to him, then living at Paris, in 
France, that his countreymen fed on oates and base 
graine, as a disgrace : but hee doth ingeniously confesse, 
that Scotland, Wales, and a third part of England, did 
most part use that kinde of bread, and that it was as 
wholesome as any graine, and yeelded as good nourish- 
ment. And yet Wecker out of Galen calls it horse meat, 
and fitter for juments then for men to feed on." Pt. i., 
sect. 2, memb. 2, subs. 1. 


The appropriation of oats to Scotchmen and 
horses is made by Burton in the ' Anatomy of 
Melancholy.' I have not the book at hand, but 
the reference is to ed. 1806, i. 100. 

W. 0. B. 

8, 91). Calibut Downing, son of another Calibut 
Downing, of Shenington, co. Glouc., and grand- 
son of Arthur Downing, of Lexham, co. Norfolk, 
by Susan, daughter and coheiress of Thomas Cali- 
but, of Castle Acre, in that county, was of Oriel 
College, Oxford, in 1623, and later on took holy 
orders. Having been Rector of Ickford, Bucks, 
and West Ilsley, Berks, he became, by an exchange, 
Rector of Hackney, Middlesex, in succession to 
Gilbert Sheldon, the future Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, being presented, May 18, 1636, by Arch- 
bishop Laud. He died suddenly in 1644, having 
married Margaret, daughter and coheiress of 
Robert Brett, D.D., Rector of Quainton, Bucks. 
Dr. Brett possessed a property known as Capon 
Hurst, in the parish of Monken Hadley, on the fringe 
of Enfield Chace, and abutting upon the bridle-road 
leading from Monken Hadley to Cockfosters. By 
his will, dated March 24, and proved July 5, 1636 
(P.O. of Cant.) he devises to Alice, his widow, for 
life, his "Capitall Messuage comonly called Capons 
House alias Capons Hurst," and he mentions bis 
"son Downing." The said Calibut Downing 
acquired considerable notoriety during the Civil 
War. Having, at the commencement, written in 
defence of prelacy, he changed sides, joined the 
Puritans, and served as a chaplain in the Parlia- 
mentary army. His eldest son George, who, under 
the Protectorate, had been sent as ambassador to 

Holland, married Frances, daughter of Sir William 
Howard, of Naworth, sister of the first Earl of 
Carlisle and great-granddaughter of Belted WilL 
He became a Royalist at the Restoration, was 
created a baronet July 1, 1663, and died in 1684. 
In the * Extinct Baronetage ' he is described as of 
East Hatley at the date of the creation. Sir George 
Downing, of East Hatley, his son, the second 
baronet, married Catherine, eldest daughter of 
James, third Earl of Salisbury (she died in 1688, 
Clutterbuck's ' History of Hertfordshire,' ii. 341) 
and by her had an only son, Sir George Downing, 
of East Hatley, Knight of the Bath, third baronet, 
who married Margaret, daughter of Sir William 
Forester, Knt. She remarried, at Putney, Nov. 11, 
1768, Sir George Bowyer, Bart. (Lysons). Sir 
George Downing, who was M.P. for Dnnwich,died 
suddenly at his seat Gamlingay Park, in Cam- 
bridgeshire, June 10, 1749 (Gent. Mag.), having 
by will, dated 1717, devised the bulk of his for- 
tune to his cousin and heir, Sir Jacob Garrard 
Downing, with a proviso that, in the event, of a 
failure of his line, a reversion of 5,0001. a year 
should be applied to the building and endow- 
ment of a college at Cambridge, to be named 
Downing College (Gent. Mag.). Sir Jacob died 
without issue in February, 1764, but it was not 
until several years subsequently, and after con- 
siderable litigation, that the present Downing 
College was founded. 

Clutterbuck's ' Hist, of Hertfordshire ' (iii. 375) 
contains the description of a tablet on the north 
wall of Barkway Church to the memory of 
Susannah, wife of Robert Castell, Esq., of East 
Hatley, co. Camb., eldest daughter of Sir Peter 
Saltonstall, Knt., and Christian, his wife, who 
died June 21, 1633. This would point to the 
acquisition of East Hatley by the Downing 
family during the Commonwealth period. The 
arms of Castell on the monument are Az., on a 
bend arg. three castles embattled sa. with a label 
of three points ; impaling, Or, a bend between 
two eagles displayed sa., for Saltonstall. Burke, 
in the ' General Armory,' gives for the arms of 
Castell of East Hatley, Az., on a bend arg. 
three towers triple-towered sa., purfled or ; crest, 
a tower as in the arms. FREDK. CHAS. CASS. 

Monken Hadley Rectory. 

BAPTIST MAY (7 th S. vii. 9, 92). MR. J. 
SAUMAREZ will find an answer respecting this 
gentleman (i. e., as to his parentage) in 5 th S. v, 93. 

J. G. M. 

GOOSE (7 ft S. vi. 287, 354, 431 ; vii. 93). 
Although it is, perhaps, not exactly a propos, I 
venture to mention the fact of a flock of wild geese 
being partially domesticated in the demesne of 
Castle Coole, the residence of Earl Belmore, in the 
co. Fermanagh. Some years ago I saw a consider- 
able number of these birds on the lake, not far 

7* S. IX. MAR. 1, '90.] 



from the house. His lordship told me they never 
leave the demesne, but hatch their young on an 
island in the lake, and feed on the lawns, some- 
times even flying over the wire fence which sepa- 
rates]the pleasure grounds from the lawn. They 
havejlived there beyond the memory of man, and 
it is not known that they ever go to either ol 
the other two lakes in the demesne, although there 
is a faint tradition that a pair did visit one lake, 
but returned to their old haunts. Lord Belmore 
supplies them with oats in severe weather. 

Y. S. M. 

APPARENT SIZE OF THE SUN (7 th S. ix. 106). 
SIR W. FRASER'S note about the apparent size of 
the sun has reminded me of something concerning 
which I have long meant to write to 'N. & Q.' 
What size do objects in the heavens seem to be to 
those who are utterly unacquainted with celestial 
measurements? Some few years ago, I do not 
remember how many, I was walking about three 
miles from my own house, when I met a very 
intelligent farm labourer. We naturally began to 
talk about the sun, then to be seen splendid in the 
heavens. My companion asked me how big it was, 
and on my telling him I did not know, he said, 
" Well, Squire, you see it must be a strange vast 
size, for, far as we are off from it, it seems over a 
yard long. " A few days after a lady told me that 
to her it seemed miles and miles long. I do not 
think the uninstructed eye has any power of 
measurement of things up above. To me a rook, 
or, indeed, any other bird, seems of its proper size, 
however high it may be in the air. On the other 
hand, I always suffer from a momentary feeling of 
surprise at the seeming minuteness of persons 
whom I may chance to see aloft on church steeples 
or other very lofty buildings. ANON. 

I think what SIR W. FRASER observed was one 
of the remarkable parhelia of the sun visible re- 
cently at sunset in many parts of the United 
Kingdom. A. H. B. 

DEFOE'S DUTCHMAN (7 th S. viii. 448). Since 
writing my query at the above reference I have 
come across the following somewhat similar in- 
cident in the seventh chapter of Kingsley's ' Two 
Years Ago,' where it is attributed to a Greek 
painter : 

" Portrait painters now depend for their effect on the 
mere accidents of entourage ; on dress, on landscape, 
even on broad hints of a man's occupation, putting a plan 
on the'8 table, and a roll in the statesman's 
hands, like the old Greek who wrote ' This is an ox ' 
under his picture." 

Can any one name the painter who is referred 
to ? ALPHA. 

S. viii. 508 ; ix. 18, 70). My attention has been 
called to the discussion on the above subject. I 

do not know whether the matter has been threshed 
out to the satisfaction of your correspondents, so 
cannot say whether the following remarks will be 
of interest. At the time of the occurrence, Feb. 7, 
1855, 1 was living in South Devon, and was seven 
years old. The impression made upon me was 
deep and lasting. The excitement and, among 
some classes, the consternation was intense. 
Devonshire was, and is, a superstitious county, and 
the ignorant unhesitatingly believed the footsteps 
to be those of his Satanic majesty. Many educated 
people, no really satisfactory explanation ever 
being forthcoming, retained the idea that there 
was something uncanny about the affair. My most 
vivid recollection of the matter is in connexion with 
the home of friends living at Exmonth. Here the 
footprints came up the front garden to within a 
few feet of the house, stopped abruptly, and began 
again in the garden at the back within a few feet 
of the building, just as if the animal, bird, or, 
adopting the popular idea, demon had made a 
gigantic leap. The only record I have of the 
affair consists of cuttings from the Illustrated London 
News, which give the accounts no doubt alluded 
to in your valuable paper. The issues of Feb. 24, 
March, 3, 10, and 17, 1855, contain many most 
descriptive and interesting letters, but the ex- 
planations and suggestions do not appear to me 
either satisfactory or conclusive. 

35, Medora Koad, Brixton Hill. 
[Innumerable replies on this subject are acknowledged.] 


(7 th S. ix. 29). 

Romal. An East Indian silk fabric, of which 
English cotton handkerchiefs were made in imita- 

Neptune. A large brass pan used in the Bight 
of Biafra for obtaining salt. 

Byram-pants. Byram is the name of a carnival 
or festival among the Turks. Byram-lick was a 
present made at that time, as Christmas boxes are 
with us. Might not Byram-pants be the loose 
drawers or pantalets similar to those worn by the 
women and children at the carnival ? 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Bairam, name of a cotton stuff. Enmal, a 
handkerchief. Caft, perhaps equivalent to Caftan. 


[FRANCIS J. PARKER (Boston, Mass.) and J. F. MAN- 
SKROII confirm some of these explanations.] 

DANIEL DEFOE (7 th S. ix. 90). With regard to 
MR. J. C. WELCH'S reference to the doubt said to 
liave been entertained by Lord Mahon as to the 
real authorship of " The Memoirs of an English 
Officer, by Captain George Carleton," 1728, permit 
me to draw your correspondent's attention to the 



[7 th S. IX. MAR. 1, '90. 

following quotations from the late John Forster's 
very interesting 'Biographical Essays.' Referring 
to the fact that the historian of the reign of Queen 
Anne omitted to take any notice of Defoe, Forster 
stated : 

" It is with De Foe dead, as with De Foe living. He 
stands apart from the circle of the reigning wits of his 
time, and his name is not called over with theirs. What 
in this respect was formerly the fashion, is the fashion 
still ; and, whether sought for in the histories of Doctor 
Smollett or of Lord Mahon, his niche is vacant." 

The italics are mine. Vide third edition, 1860, 
pp. 57, 148, John Murray, London. 


6, Freegrove Road, N. 

THE VERB "To BE" (7 th S. viii. 480 ; ix. 109). 
How the late Mr. R. Grant White would have 
chuckled over the replies to this query, and the 
curious reasons given for several of them ! Let 
us hope that some echo of the discussion may reach 
him in Elysium. 

Without going the whole length of his assertion 
that there is no such thing as English grammar, 
may we not agree with him that logic is the best 
test of our speech ? The sentence, " I proved the 
man to be him " = " I proved that the man was he." 
The two are identical in meaning ; and since, in the 
latter, the pronoun must evidently be in the nomi- 
native case, therefore but see MR. TROLLOPE'S 
admirable note at the last reference. I refer to the 
subject again merely for the sake of asking whether 
the latter form should not always be used except 
in those rare cases in which by the present infinitive 
we give greater force to our meaning. Such a case 
occurs in John xx. 15 " She, supposing him to be 
the gardener." That this is more forcible than 
" that he was the gardener," is evident. Cf. Mark 
vi. 49 "They supposed it had been a spirit," 
where directness is needlessly sacrificed. I write 
this out of regard for the memory of him who did 
so much towards delivering me from the bugbear 
of my youth by teaching me that the only good 
rule is to speak with a single eye to one's meaning. 
Let us speak clearly, and grammar be hanged ! 

C. C. B. 

COL. WHITELOCKE (7 th S. vi. 487; vii. 171, 
253). Several paragraphs have appeared con- 
cerning General and Lieut. -Col. Whitelocke, 
and being interested in part of the question?, 
I send you some information which I have been 
able to gather. These officers appear to be 
confounded as one, whereas they were two 
brothers, in fact. Lieut.-Col. Whitelocke resigned 
his commission, or sold out, rather than read out 
to his regiment the sentence passed by the court- 
martial on his brother, the general, cashiering him. 
It would appear also that Lieut.-Col. Whitelocke 
was present at, and chiefly instrumental in the 
capture of, Colombo, for which he received prize- 
money as a captain, whereas he was actually a 

field officer. The despatches containing his pro- 
motion were unaccountably delayed eighteen 
months in their transmission from India to Eng- 
land, causing this injustice to him and two other 
officers. He brought at least two actions for the 
recovery of the share (9,OOOZ.) to which he was 
justly entitled, and gained them, but had to pay 
the cost of both sides, there being in those days 
no recovery from the Crown. I am assured by a 
living descendant that Lord Liverpool acknow- 
ledged to the son of Lieut.-Col. Whitelocke the 
justice of his claim, but stated that there were no 
funds to meet it. Official documents and papers 
in the British Museum still exist substantially ad- 
mitting this claim. E. D. HARRIS. 

I know of no general record of the elections to 
William IIL's last Parliament beyond what may 
be compiled from contemporary newspapers. Two 
or three have been preserved, more or less accu- 
rately, in Smith's ' Parliaments of England.' The 
following list of polls, which may be of interest, 
has not, I think been published collectively else- 
where. They are all that I have been able to get 
together in the course of more than a quarter of a 
century's researches in connexion with electoral 
records : 

London. Q. Heathcote 2769, *Sir W. Ashurst 2759, 
Sir T. Abney 2647, *Sir E. Clayton 2602, Whigs; Sir C. 
Buncombe 1490, *Sir J. Fleet 1428, Sir John Houblon 
995, Sir R. Levett 945, Sir J. Parsons 137, Tories. 

Westminster. Sir H. D. Colt 3013, *Right Hon. J. 
Vernon 2997, Whigs; *T. Crosse 1649, Sir J. Leveson 
Gower 1623, Tories. 

Cambridge University. *Right Hon. H. Boyle 181, 
Isaac Newton 161, Whigs; *A. Hammond 64, Tory. 

Gloucestershire. M. Colchester 2529, *Sir R. Cocks, 
Bart., 2418, Whigs ; *J. Howe 1475, Tory