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Full text of "Implementation of the California water plan"

TC 
824 
C2 
A2 

no. 160: 
66 
C.2 1 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

PAVIS 




state of California 
THE RESOURCES AGENCY 



Apartment of Wa ter Resources 



BULLETIN No. 160-66 



IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



DAVIS 



APR 2 ^ iS66 
LIBRARY. 



MARCH 1966 



HUGO FISHER 

Adminisirator 

The Resources Agency 



EDMUND G. BROWN 

Governor 

State of California 



WILLIAM E. WARNE 

Director 
Department of Water Resources 



state of California 
THE RESOURCES AGENCY 

Department of Wa ter Resources 



BULLETIN No. 160-66 



IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



MARCH 1966 



HUGO FISHER EDMUND G. BROWN WILLIAM E. WARNE 

Adminisirafor Governor Director 

The Resources Agency State of California Department of Water Resources 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

DAVIS 



FOREWORD 

This bulletin Is the first of a series about progress 
on water resources planning, construction and related activities 
pertaining to implementation of The California Water Plan. It 
has been prepared as a function of the Coordinated Statewide 
Planning Program of the Department of Water Resources. 

Of the many agencies engaged in water resource 
activities in California, the Department of Water Resources 
alone possesses the authority, interest and responsibility for 
the conduct of statewide water resources planning activities. 
This report, authorized by the Legislature, is responsive to 
this unique charge. 

The first chapter presents a review of progress in 
implementing The California Water Plan from 1956 through 19^5 . 
The second chapter gives the Department of Water Resources' 
present estimates of (l) future water requirements and require- 
ments for other project services, such as flood control and 
recreation, throughout California; (2) capabilities of existing 
projects to meet such requirements; (3) the sizing and timing of 
future federal and state projects which now appear to be needed 
to meet the growth of demands for v;ater supplies until the year 
2020; and (4) a generalized discussion of projects needed to 
supply other services. 

In a number of areas, the estimates presented in this 
report need to be strengthened. Techniques for predicting the 
economic demands for project services and for staging projects 



ill 



to meet those demands need to be improved. Subsequent reports 
of this series will present refinements of the data used, where 
necessary, to provide more dependable analyses of the needs for 
future projects. As the times for construction of nev; facilities 
approach, the needs for services will become clearer, and It will 
be possible to assess the required accomplishments of each 
project with Increasing precision. 

An appendix to this bulletin will be published later. 
It will present additional Information on the subject matter 
covered In this report. 



Iv 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

FOREWORD ill 

ORGANIZATION, DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES xl 

ORGANIZATION, CALIFORNIA V/ATER COfMISSION xiii 

CHAPTER I. 1956-1965: A SIGNIFICANT DECADE 
IN IMPLEriENTATION OF THE 

CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 1 

California's Growth, 1956-I965 2 

Population, Personal Income and Manufacturing . . 2 

Agriculture ^ 

Increases in Statewide Water Demands 6 

Ten-Year Chronology of Water Project Development ... 8 

The State Water Project I8 

The Central Valley Project 20 

Other Major Projects 20 

Local Assistance Programs 21 

State Programs 22 

Federal Programs 23 

Ground Water Development 23 

Electric Power Development ■ 26 

Important Legislation and Court Decisions 28 

Legislation 28 

Court Decisions 30 

Planning Activities 33 

State Agencies 3^ 

Federal Agencies 35 

Interagency Planning Coordination 36 

V 



Page 

CHAPTER II. CALIFORNIA'S WATER REQUIREMENTS 

AND DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK 39 

Projected Growth, 1960-2020 40 

Population and Urban Land Use 40 

' Irrigated Agriculture 44 

Irrigable Lands 47 

Present and Projected Water Requirements 49 

Applied Water Requirements 50 

Net Water Requirements 54 

Requirements for Other Water Project Services 56 

Flood Control 57 

Recreation 6I 

Fish and Wildlife 64 

Water Quality Control 67 

Water Supplies and Water Development by 

Hydrologlc Study Areas 69 

North Coastal Area 72 

San Francisco Bay Area 7^ 

Central Coastal Area 76 

South Coastal Area 78 

Sacramento Basin 80 

Delta-Central Sierra Area 8I 

San Joaquin Basin 83 

Tulare Basin 85 

North Lahontan Area 87 

South Lahontan Area 89 

Colorado Desert Area 90 



VI 



Page 

Statewide Water Supplies and Development 92 

Required Water Supply Capability of State 

and Federal Facilities 9^ 

Capability of State and Federal Conveyance 

Facilities 95 

Capability of Central Valley Project and State 

Water Project Conservation Facilities 99 

Additional Conservation Facilities Required for 

V/ater Supply IO3 

Upper Eel River Development 109 

Trinity, Mad, and Van Duzen River Developments, 110 

Paskenta-Newvllle Project Ill 

Marysville Project 112 

Sites Reservoir 112 

Lower Eel River and Lower Klamath River 

Developments . 113 

Desalination 113 

Western States Regional Water Planning . . . II6 

Flood Control as a Project Purpose II8 

Authorized and Proposed Flood Control Projects . . II8 

Desirable Scope of Flood Control Investigations . 122 

Role of Electric Power 128 

Forecasts of Power Requirements and Development. . 128 

Market for and Value of Hydroelectric Power . . . I3I 

Sources and Cost of Power for Pumping 13^ 

CHAPTER III. SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS 137 



Vll 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

No. Page 

1 San Luis Canal-Dos Amigos Pumping Plant 19 

2 Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds , 25 

3 Irrigation of Cotton-San Joaquin Valley 45 

4 Vicinity of West Covina, 1940 48 

5 Vicinity of West Covina, I963 '48 

6 American River at Floodstage^ December 24, 1964 . . 58 

7 Folsom Lake State Recreation Area 62 

8 Trinity Fish Hatchery 65 

9 Artificial Spavvning Channel, Camanche Dam 65 

10 Demonstration Desalination Plant-San Diego .... 115 

FIGURES 

1 California's Economic Growth, 1955-1965 3 

2 Reservoir Development in California, 1956 to I965. • 10 

3 Installed Generating Capacity, State of California . 2? 

4 Hydrologic Study Areas of California 4l 

5 Projected Growth of Applied Water Requirements, 

State of California 55 

Figures 6 through 28 are bound as a series in Chapter II 

6 Population, Land Use, Applied Water Requirements, 

Net Water Requirements-Statewide Totals 

Population, Land Use, Applied Water Requirements, 
Projected Water Supplies and Net Water Requirements 

7 North Coastal Hydrologic Study Area 

9 San Francisco Bay Hydrologic Study Area 

11 Central Coastal Hydrologic Study Area 



Vlll 



FIGURES (Continued) 
No. Page 

13 South Coastal Hydrologlc Study Area 

15 Sacramento Basin Hydrologlc Study Area 

17 Delta-Central Sierra Hydrologlc Study Area 

19 San Joaquin Basin Hydrologlc Study Area 

21 Tulare Basin Hydrologlc Study Area 

23 North Lahontan Hydrologlc Study Area 

25 South Lahontan Hydrologlc Study Area 

27 Colorado Desert Hydrologlc Study Area 
Present and Proposed Major Water Development Systems 

8 North Coastal Hydrologlc Study Area 

10 San Francisco Bay Hydrologlc Study Area 

12 Central Coastal Hydrologlc Study Area 

14 South Coastal Hydrologlc Study Area 

16 Sacramento Basin Hydrologlc Study Area 

18 Delta-Central Sierra Hydrologlc Study Area 

20 San Joaquin Basin Hydrologlc Study Area 

22 Tulare Basin Hydrologlc Study Area 

24 North Lahontan Hydrologlc Study Area 

26 South Lahontan Hydrologlc Study Area 

28 Colorado Desert Hydrologlc Study Area 

29 Projected Intrastate Water Transfers for 1990 

Level of Development 93 

30 Sources of V/ater Supply to Meet California's 

Projected V/ater Requirements 96 

31 Projected V/ater Requirements-State Water Project 

and Central Valley Project, Referenced to 

H^rdrologic Study Areas 97 



Ix 



FIGURES (Continued) 

No. Page 

32 Projected Water Requirements on the State Water 

Project and Central Valley Project, Referenced 

to Project Service Areas 104 

33 Staging of Major Conservation Facilities to Meet 

Projected Water Requirements of the State Water 
Project and Central Valley Project IO5 

34 Projected Growth of Electric Power 129 

TABLES 

1 Summary of Expenditures for Water Development 

in California by Principal Federal and 

State Agencies, I956-I965 9 

2 Ten-Year Chronology of Major Reservoir Development 

in California, I956-I965 11 

3 Major Conveyance Systems Completed or Under 

Construction, 1956-I965 I6 

4 Summary of I96O and Projected Population, Land Use 

and Irrigable Land in Hydrologic Study Areas ... 43 

5 Estimated Urban Water Use 5I 

6 Summary of I96O and Projected Water Requirements in 

Hydrologic Study Areas 53 

7 Summary of I96O and Projected Sources of Water to 

Meet Net Water Requirements in Hydrologic 

Study Areas 71 

8 Authorized Federal Flood Control projects II9 

9 Proposed Multiple-Purpose Reservoirs with Flood 

Control Potential 123 

10 U. S. Army Corps of Engineers' Flood Control 

Investigations 124 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 
THE RESOURCES AGENCY 
DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 



EDMUND G. BROWN, Governor 

HUGO FISHER, Administrator of Resources 

WILLIAM E. WARNE, Director of Water Resources 

ALFRED R. GOLZE ' , Chief Engineer 

JOHN R. TEERINK, Assistant Chief Engineer 

JOHN M. HALEY, Chief, Statewide Planning Office 



This report was prepared by the Staff of the 
Planning Investigation Branch, Statewide Planning Office 

under the direction of 



Wayne MacRostie Principal Engineer 

by 

Robert A. Williams Supervising Engineer 

James L. Welsh Senior Engineer 

Assistance was provided by the District Offices of the 

Department of Water Resources 
under the direction of 



Gordon W. Dukleth Director, Northern District 

Carl A. Werner Director, Sacramento District 

Charles A. McCullough . . Director, San Francisco Bay District 

Carl L. Stetson Director, San Joaquin District 

James J. Doody Director, Soutliern District 



Special assistance was provided by the 
Office of the Chief Counsel, the Power Office, 
and the Staff and Services Management Organization 
under the direction of 



Porter A. Towner Chief Counsel 

J. K. Cummings Chief, Power Office 

Wesley E. Steiner Assistant Chief Engineer 



XI 



CALIFORNIA WATER COMMISSION 

RALPH M. BRODY, Chairman. Fresno 
WILLIAM H. JENNINGS, Vice Chairman, La Mesa 



JOHN W. BRYANT, Riverside JOHN P. BUNKER, Gustine 

IRA J. CHRISMAN, Visalia JOHN J. KING, Petaliima 

EDWIN KOSTER, Grass Valley NORRIS POULSON, La Jolla 

MARION R. WALKER, Ventura 






WILLIAM M. CARAH 
Executive Secretary 



ORVILLE ABBOTT 
Engineer 



xlli 



CHAPTER I. 1956-1965: A SIGNIFICANT 

DECADE IN IMPLEMENTATION OF 
THE CALIFORNIA WATER PLAN 



The California Water Plan was published by the Depart- 
ment of Water Resources in May 1957. The Plan provided a broad 
and flexible pattern into which future definite projects may 
be integrated in an orderly fashion. It recognized that allow- 
ances would have to be made for additional experience, advances 
in technology, and other changes in future conditions that 
could not be foreseen at the time of its publication. The 
basic concept of the Plan as a master plan to meet the ultimate 
requirements for water at some unspecified but distant time in 
the future, when the land and other resources of California 
have essentially reached a state of complete development, remains 
unchanged. 

During the decade commencing in 1956, when the studies 
v/hich led to The California Water Plan were completed, many 
significant events have occurred in water resources planning 
and development, and in allied fields, either toward implemen- 
tation of the Plan or related thereto. This chapter briefly 
describes California's growth from 1956 through I965; the 
accomplishments in water development during that period; sig- 
nificant legislation and court decisions that have had a direct 
bearing on the Plan; and current planning activities of state 
and federal agencies looking toward further Implementation of 
the Plan. 



-1- 



California's Growth, 1956- 1965 
During the last 10 years In California, all areas of 
activity. Including employment, personal income, construction, 
retail sales, corporate profits and cash farm receipts have 
advanced to higher levels. California's growth in several of 
these areas, from 195^ through 19^5^ and the resulting increase 
of statewide water requirements, are discussed in the following 
paragraphs. Figure 1 presents this inforroation graphically. 

Population, Personal Income and Manufacturing 

Since the Gold Rush, this State has experienced 
perhaps the greatest mass migration in the history of man. 
There is no sign of a halt in the trek westward that stops at 
the Pacific shore. The tempo of the migration of the past 
decade has, in fact, exceeded that of any other like period. 

Net migration into California has averaged about 
350,000 persons annually since the end of 1955. This 10-year 
Increase through migration of about 3.5 million persons has been 
augmented by another 2.25 million as a result of natural Increase 
within the State. The total growth during the past decade, of 
approximately 5-75 million people, represents an increase of 
almost 45 percent over the estimated 1955 population of I3 
million. California is now the most populous State in the 
United States with a 1965 total population of 18.75 million. 



-2- 



FIGURE I 



POPULATION 









965 
















955 








1 1 1 1 


1 1 


1 1 1 


1 



PERSONAL 
.INCOME 



1965 



1955 



VALUE ADDED BY 
MANUFACTURING 



1965 



1955 



GROSS 1965 
IRRIGATED 

ACREAGE 

1955 



TOTAL APPLIED 
WATER 



1965 



1955 







6 8 10 12 14 

MILLIONS OF PEOPLE 



16 18 20 






10 20 30 40 50 60 70 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



80 90 100 




6 8 10 12 14 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 






4 5 6 

MILLIONS OF ACRES 



10 15 20 25 30 35 

MILLIONS OF ACRE- FEET 



10 



v^^.;yMM^,,m:m-^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




s 




1 1 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 1 



40 45 50 



CALIFORNIA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH 1955-1965 



-3- 



The growth of population has directly affected the 
water requirements of urban areas. Through increasing the 
demands for farm product s^ it has also contributed to the growth 
of agricultural water requirements. 

The personal income of California residents was re- 
ported to be 30.2 billion dollars in 1955- Ten years later it 
has almost doubled. This has been an important factor in the 
growth of domestic water requirements and of outdoor recrea- 
tional activities. The latter has led to increased emphasis on 
water-oriented recreation at water development projects. 

Since the end of World War II, in 19^5, California's 
industrial growth has been continuous. Total value added by 
manufacturing in California increased from 9.6 billion dollars 
in 1955 to about I8 billion dollars in I965. Although many of 
the industries experiencing this growth have relatively low 
water requirements, overall industrial expansion produced a 
substantial increment in total industrial water demands in the 
State during this period. 

Agriculture 

Agriculture is one of the principal industries of the 
State. California farmers have marketed annually more than 
three billion dollars worth of agricultural products for the 
past seven years; the value of their production has surpassed 
that of farmers In any other state for the past 16 years. 
California has an excellent climate, with soils permitting the 
growth of a variety of crops, but man himself has been most 



-4- 



important In this production achievement. Much of California's 
finest agricultural land lies in semiarid zones and, during the 
major growing season, rainfall is insufficient for crop produc- 
tion. Irrigation has made the difference. Approximately 95 
percent of the tonnage being harvested in California receives 
some supplemental water. 

During the past 10 years, about one million acres of 
additional irrigated land has been brought into production, 
bringing the State's total to over 8.5 million acres. One of 
the more important aspects of this growth, especially as it 
affects planning for water development, has been the regional 
shifts in agricultural expansion. The enormous growth of the 
metropolitan areas in California (principally Los Angeles and 
San Francisco Bay) has forced thousands of acres out of agri- 
cultural production. To a great extent this loss has been the 
Central Valley's gain, especially in the San Joaquin and Tulare 
Basins. The latter area alone has accounted for about one-half 
the increase in irrigated acreage during the past 10 years. 

Besides the development and expansion of irrigated 
agriculture, the technological revolution that is taking place 
on the American farm has brought about astonishing gains in 
crop production. Although this agricultural revolution began 
only 30 years ago, when mechanical farming became widespread, 
the past decade has seen farm output rise more than in any 
decade since the turn of the century. The reason has not been 
so much the increased inputs of land and labor (the latter has 
actually been declining for the past several years) as it has 

-5- 



been the increase in the efficiency vilth which the resources 
have been applied. 

In 1900 one farm worker was producing enough for 
about seven people. Fifty years later the figure was around 
15. Since 1950 ^ it has almost doubled again. 

The fact that less land and water are now needed 
for the same quantity of output has directly influenced the 
need for 'water resources projects. 

Increases in Statewide Water Demands 

The increases in water demands during the past decade 
reflect the growth in population, industry and irrigated agri- 
culture. At the end of 1955, total statewide applied water 
for all purposes was approximately 28.9 million acre-feet. 
Since then, water demands have increased by about 470,000 
acre-feet annually to a total of 33.6 million acre-feet in 
1965. 

Municipal and industrial requirements have grown 
significantly during the decade, increasing from an estimated 
2.7 million to 3.9 million acre-feet. About two-thirds of the 
increase has been caused by growth in population and, to a 
lesser extent, by a rise in per capita consumption. Industrial 
development has accounted for the remaining one-third. 

Prom 1955 to 1965, applied agricultural water require- 
ments increased from 26.2 million acre-feet to 29.7 million 
acre-feet. Although this increase, measured in percentages, is 



-6- 



considerably less than that for municipal and Industrial 
demands, agriculture remains the largest user of water at 88 
percent of the total. 

One of the most significant aspects of the increasing 
demand for water is the change in character of use occurring in 
some parts of the State. In the South Coastal area, for example, 
agricultural water requirements are decreasing while urban needs 
are rapidly expanding. In 1955 agriculture accounted for approx- 
imately one-half of all water requirements in the area. This re- 
quirement was only 35 percent in 1965. Similarly, the municipal 
and Industrial use of water has increased substantially in the 
San Francisco Bay area. Municipal and industrial requirements 
are now one-half again as large as they were in 1955 and consti- 
tute more than 60 percent of the region's total water require- 
ments. 

Tulare Basin has had a substantial growth in irrigated 
agriculture. Annual applied water requirements for this purpose 
Increased approximately I.5 million acre-feet between 1955 and 
1965 J to over eight million acre-feet. Urban uses tripled from 
1955 to 1965 J but are still only four percent of the total use. 
In the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins, annual agricul- 
tural water requirements have Increased by more than two million 
acre-feet during the 10-year period. Municipal and Industrial 
usage is approximately 500,000 acre-feet. 



-7- 



Ten-Year Chronology of Water Project Development 

Many of the features proposed In The California Water 
Plan have been hullt during the past 10 years. Approximately 
2.1 billion dollars were spent during the decade for major water 
development. This included beginning construction of the State 
Water Project, major extensions to the federal Central Valley 
Project, other federal reclamation and flood control projects, 
and continuing development by local water agencies and public 
and private utilities. Federal agencies spent slightly over 
one billion dollars and the State spent about 600 million dollars. 
Table 1 summarizes the estimated total annual state and federal 
expenditures. In addition, local water agencies and public and 
private utilities spent about 500 million dollars. 

Major reservoirs completed during the last 10 years or 
now under construction are shown in Table 2. Figure 2 shows the 
locations of these projects. The capacities of these reservoirs 
total more than l6 million acre-feet. 

Table 3 shows the major water conveyance facilities 
completed during the 10-year period or now under construction. 
When all of those facilities are fully operable, the total water 
delivery capability will be Increased by approximately six 
million acre-feet per year. 

Locations of the reservoir and conveyance features 
shown in Tables 2 and 3 Q-ve depicted on the eleven even-numbered 
figures from Figure 8 through 28 in Chapter II. 



TABLE 1 

SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES FOR WATER DEVELOPMENT IN CALIFORNIA 
BY PRINCIPAL FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES 

1956-1965 

(for construction and planning only 
in thousands of dollars) 



Fiscal : 
year : 


California 
Department 

of Water 
Resources 


Bureau of 
Reclamation 
U. S. Depart- 
ment of the 

Interior 


U . S . Army 
' Corps of'-i/ 
: Engineers— 


Totals 


1955-56 


2,723 


27,352 


25,973 


56,048 


57 


4,929 


45,000 


32,960 


82,889 


58 


7,803 


47,000 


41,328 


96,131 


59 


16,332 


56,027 


47,036 


119,395 


60 


35,407 


52,196 


46,262 


133,865 


1960-61 


48,914 


74,037 


43,384 


166,335 


62 


36,772 


72,360 


40,178 


149,310 


63 


56,383 


64,144 


43,844 


164,371 


64 


146,317 


59,280 


32,979 


238,576 


65 


246, 9 542/ 


60,100^/ 


45,000^/ 


352,0542/ 


TOTALS 


602,534 


557,496 


398,944 


1,558,974 



1/ Expenditures for navigation and beach erosion not included. 
"?/ Estimated. 



•9- 



FIGURE 2 




MODOC 



LEGEND 

• CONSTRUCTION COMPLETED DURING DECADE 
O CONSTRUCTION INITIATED DURING DECADE 



NOTE. 

RESERVOIR IDENTIFICATION ON FACING TABLE. 



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RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT IN CALIFORNIA 
1956 TO 1965 

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■17- 



The State Water Project 

One of the most significant events in the decade was 
passage by the State Legislature of the California Water Resources 
Development Bond Act (Stats. 1959, Ch. Ij62) . This measure, 
commonly known as the Burns-Porter Act, was approved by the voters 
in November I96O. It provided the principal financial base for 
construction of the State Water Project. 

Construction under special legislative appropriations 
began in 1957. Antelope and Frenchman Reservoirs and the South 
Bay Aqueduct are in operation, and work is completed or in progress 
in every other major subdivision of the project. 

The total capital cost of the project features now 
authorized for construction is estimated at about 2.5 billion 
dollars. The project will provide municipal, industrial, and 
irrigation water supplies; provide flood control; improve recrea- 
tion and fish and wildlife; and provide v/ater quality control 
and drainage. It will also produce for sale substantial amounts 
of hydroelectric power but, considering pumping requirements, 
will consume more power than it generates. Its primary purpose 
is to make available 4.23 million acre-feet of water each year, 
approximately three-quarters of which will be for muncipal and 
industrial pur^Doses and one-quarter for agriculture. The metro- 
politan areas to be served by the project contain 66 percent of 
the population of California. The major agricultural service 
area includes about 850,000 acres in the San Joaquin and Tulare 
Basins. 



-18- 







DOS AMIGOS PUMPING PLANT - SAN LUIS CANAL 



This portion of the California Anueduct , desip;nated the San Luis 
Canal, is a joint-use facility of the State Water Project and 
federal Central Valley Project. At this location, the anueduct 
has a capacity of 1?,100 cubic feet per second. 



-19- 



The Central Valley Project 

Two major extensions of the federal Central Valley 
Project have received congressional authorization since 1956. 
These are the San Luis Unit (authorized in I960) and the Aubum- 
Folsom South Unit (authorized in September I965). Major con- 
struction of the Trinity River Division (authorized in August 
1955) was completed in 1964. Construction of the Sacramento 
Canals Unit (authorized in 1951) is under way. 

During the decade, water deliveries from the Central 
Valley Project increased by almost 30 percent to over 2.8 
million acre-feet in 1964, the latest year for which complete 
statistics are available. Power generation nearly doubled and 
approximately 4.5 billion kilowatt hours of energy was produced 
in 1964. The addition of the San Luis, Sacramento Canals, and 
Auburn-Folsom South Units will Increase the potential service 
area of the project to approximately 2.5 million acres. 

Other Major Projects 

The Corps of Engineers completed Coyote Dam and Lake 
Mendocino on the Russian River in 195S Success Reservoir on 
the Tule River in I96I, Terminus Reservoir on the Kaweah River 
In 1962, Black Butte Reservoir on Stony Creek in 1963^. and 
New Hogan Reservoir on the Calaveras River in 1964. The Corps 
also continued work on levee systems, channel work for flood 
control and navigation and beach erosion projects. 



-20- 



The Bureau of Reclamation completed the Solano Project 
in Napa, Solano and Yolo Counties, consisting of Lake Berryessa 
and the Putah-South Canal. It completed Twltchell Reservoir on 
the Cuyama River near Santa Maria, Cachuma Reservoir on the 
Santa Ynez River and conveyance facilities to the Santa Barbara 
area, and Casitas Reservoir for offstream storage of Ventura 
River water. 

V/ater resource development by local water agencies 
and public and private utilities during the 10-year period was 
extensive. Examples of such developments are the Sacramento 
Municipal Utility District's Upper American River Development; 
expansion of the Nevada Irrigation District's system on the 
Yuba and Bear Rivers; completion or expansion of the Pacific 
Gas and Electric Company's North Pork Kings River, Pit River, 
Feather River and Stanislaus River systems; the Oakdale and 
South San Joaquin Irrigation Districts' Tri-Dam Project on the 
Stanislaus River; additions to the East Bay Municipal Utility 
District's Mokelumne River Project; and the final stage enlarge- 
ment of The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California's 
Colorado River Aqueduct. The features of many other similar 
projects are listed in Tables 2 and 3. 

Local Assistance Programs 
During the 1956-I965 decade the State and Federal 
Governments provided over 200 million dollars of direct financial 
assistance to local agencies for various types of water projects. 
This v;as accomplished through programs existing in 1956 and through 
nev; programs started during the decade. 

-21- 



state Programs 

California provides direct financial assistance to ^ 
local ar-encles under the Administration of Flood Control Funds 
program and the Davls-Grunsky program. 

The Administration of Flood Control Funds program has been 
very active during the last decade. From 1956 through I965 
approximately 100 million dollars for about 40 different projects 
was disbursed. Projects eligible for state financial assistance 
In acquiring lands, easements, and rlght-of-v/ays under this program 
Include (l) major flood control projects constructed under specific 
federal authorization; (2) small flood control projects constructed 
under the basic authority of PL 8O-858, as amended; and (3) water- 
shed protection projects constructed under the provisions of 
PL 83-566. 

The Davls-Grunsky program provides direct financial 
assistance to local agencies v/hlch construct water development 
projects. The Burns-Porter Act provided that I30 million dollars 
of the bonds authorized by the Act should be used to finance the 
Davis-GrunslQr program. 

Since 1957, the Department of Water Resources has 
received 102 requests for preliminary determination of eligibility." 
There have been 39 formal applications resulting from the requests. 
Thirty, Involving funds in excess of 25 million dollars, have been 
approved. Five formal applications for large grants are being 
reviewed. 

Federal Programs 

Several federal programs x\fhlch provide for direct 
financial assistance to local agencies in connection with water 

-22- 



projects were enacted at the start of the last decade. Tv;o 
relate to irrigation projects and are administered by the Bureau 
of Reclamation. A third program concerns watershed protection 
projects and is administered by the Soil Conservation Service. 

Public Law 84-130 provides for financial assistance by 
the Federal Government to irrigation districts and other public 
agenc3.es for construction of distribution systems on federal 
reclamation projects. Since 1957 approximately 35 million 
dollars has been loaned under this program. 

Public Law 84-984 provides financial assistance to local 
agencies for the construction of small water projects for irriga- 
tion and municipal-industrial purposes. Since I96O, approximately 
29 million dollars has been loaned under this program. 

Under the basic authority of Public Lav; 83-5^6, the 
Soil Conservation Service provides direct financial assistance 
to local agencies for the construction of small watershed projects. 
Authorized purposes of the projects may include watershed pro- 
tection, flood prevention, water conservation, distribution, 
drainage, wildlife enhancement, and recreation. Approximately 
18 million dollars of financial assistance has been provided 
under this program during the decade. 

Ground Water Development 
Although less dramatic than surface water development, 
ground water development has furnished much of the water used 
in California . 



■23- 



There has been significant growth of ground water 
use in the past decade. Annual Increases in ground water 
pumpage have averaged 300,000 to 400,000 acre-feet. In 1955, 
ground water supplied an estimated 12 million acre-feet of the 
28.9 million acre-feet used, and, in I965, it furnished about 
16 million of the 33.6 million acre-feet used. Over 10 million 
acre-feet of the I965 pumpage came from San Joaquin Valley 
ground water basins. There were two million acre-feet pumped 
in the Sacramento Valley and nearly 2.5 million acre-feet pumped 
in Southern California in 1965. 

Accelerated ground water use has intensified many 
problems, but progress has been made in finding solutions. 
Water importation to some basins has been increased because of 
ground water overdraft. Hydraulic barriers to stop sea v;ater 
intrusion into coastal ground water basins are being installed 
in Los Angeles, Orange and Ventura Counties. The barriers are 
lines of recharge wells near the ocean. Proposed statewide 
standards and local standards for several areas have been 
formulated to prevent construction of defective wells or in- 
adequate sealing of abandoned wells, which could let poor 
quality surface or ground water degrade ground water supplies. 
These standards have not yet been adopted by the responsible 
agencies. 

Conjunctive operation, or the coordinated operation of 
surface reservoirs with underground storage basins, has been 
advanced by application of new electronic computer techniques. 



■24- 




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-25- 



This type of operation can minimize ground water problems and 
enhance the composite yield of available water supplies. 

Electric Power Development 

During the last decade, the use of power has grown at 
a phenomenal rate. There have been a number of important tech- 
nological changes in power development. 

From 1956 to 1965, California's total installed 
electric generating capacity more than doubled, rising to 21.3 mil- 
lion kilowatts. This rate of expansion was substantially greater 
than the population growth rate and indicates growing industri- 
alization and increasing uses for electricity. 

Figure 3 shows the 10-year increases in installed 
steam-electric and hydroelectric generating capacity for 
Northern and Southern California and for the State. New hydro- 
electric plants accounted for about 20 percent of the State's 
increase in capacity. About 90 percent of these plants serve 
Northern California. More than 95 percent of the new capacity 
for Southern California is in steam-electric plants. This shov;s 
that most of the conventional hydroelectric opportunities avail- 
able to Southern California were developed before I956. 

The technological advances in the generation and 
transmission of electricity during the decade significantly 
lowered power costs. The impact upon future planning of water 
resource development is discussed in Chapter II. 



-26- 



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-27- 



Important Legislation and Court Decisions 
From 1956 through I965 more Important legislative acts 
and court decisions affecting water development In California 
were completed than In any previous decade. 

Legislation 

Important legislation has been enacted on both the 
state and federal levels to round out authorities of water 
project planning and construction agencies and to set policy 
In fields related to water development. 

There has been much California legislation In the last 
10 years that pertains to implementation of The California Water 
Plan. The Plan was adopted as a general guide for the orderly 
and coordinated development and utilization of the water resources 
of the State ( Stats. 1959, Ch. 2053). The Burns-Porter Act 
(stats. 1959, Ch. 1762) authorized and made appropriations for 
the State Water Project. The Davis-Grunsky Act (Stats. 1959^ 
Ch. 1752) presents policies and procedures for state fincincial 
assistance to projects of local agencies. Under the Davis- 
Dolwlg Act (Stats. I96I, Ch. 867), the Legislature declared that 
recreation and enhancement of fish and wildlife are among the 
purposes of state water projects and are to be supported by 
appropriations from the General Fund. The Porter-Dolwig Act 
(stats. 1961, Ch. 1620) declared that the people of the State 
have a primary Interest in the correction and prevention of 
damage to ground water basins and appropriated funds for study of 
projects to protect such basins. Pursuant to the Cobey-Alquist 



-28- 



Flood Plain Management Act (Stats. 1965:. Ch. 506), the Legis- 
lature encouraged local agencies to regulate land use in flood- 
plains. The Cobey-Porter Saline Water Conversion Act (Stats. 
1965, Ch. 993) augmented the Department's basic authority to 
engage in saline water conversion activities, and granted addi- 
tional authority to finance, construct, and operate saline water 
conversion facilities, either Independently or in cooperation 
with public and private agencies, upon specific legislative 
authorization. 

In addition, statutes to expand state participation in 
federal flood control projects were enacted, further steps were 
taken to preserve the qualities of both surface and ground waters, 
provision for state participation in regional water planning 
activities was made, and state jurisdiction over dams and reser- 
voirs was expanded. 

Federal legislation has generally emphasized research 
and planning and has broadened areas of federal cooperation v;ith 
state and local agencies. Through the Water Supply Act of 1958 
(85-500, 72 Stat. 297), federal agencies were authorized to par- 
ticipate and cooperate in developing local water supplies. Under 
the v;ater Resources Research Act of 1964 (88-379, 78 Stat. 329), 
provision was made for research centers or institutes. The Water 
Resources Planning Act of 1965 (89-80, 79 Stat. 250 ) established 
a Water Resources Council to oversee plans, policies and programs 
of national and regional character and provided the mechanism for 
setting up river basin commissions to plan developments in their 
respective areas. The Water Pollution Control Act of 1956 



-29- 



(84-660, 70 Stat. 498) declared that the states have primary 
responsibility in preventing and controlling water pollution and 
provided federal financial assistance or services in related 
technical research. The Water Quality Act of I965 (89-234, 79 Stat. 
903) provided for the establishment and administration of water 
quality standards for interstate waters and increased federal 
grants for sewage treatment plants and studies of waste water 
disposal. The Federal Water Project Recreation Act of I965 (89-72, 
79 Stat. 213) provides for recreation and fish and wildlife en- 
hancement at federal water resources projects, together with 
rules and cost-sharing criteria related to those purposes. 

Expanded federal programs have also been authorized in 
desalination, assistance to local projects, and electric power 
transmission. 

An important policy statement of the United States was 
approved by the President in I962 and published as Senate Document 
No. 97, 87th Congress. This document sets forth policies, stan- 
dards and procedures to govern federal agencies in the formulation, 
evaluation and review of plans for use and development of water and 
related land resources. It expands guidelines in such matters as 
interest rates, period of analysis, benefits to be considered, 
accounting for conditions of underemployment, price levels and 
treatment of taxes. 
Court Decisions 

The decree of the U. S. Supreme Court in Arizona v. 
California , issued on March 9, 1964, was one of the most impor- 
tant events in the California water picture to occur since The 
California Water Plan was published. 



-30- 



The decree resulted from a suit brought by Arizona 
in 1952 to settle differences of interpretation of the Colorado 
River Compact of 1922, the Boulder Canyon Project Act of 1928, 
and related documents, as these would affect water supplies for 
the Central Arizona Project. 

The Court ruled that apportionment among the Lower 
Basin States of Arizona, California and Nevada would apply to 
water from the main stream of the Colorado River only. The sole 
use of the Gila River was assigned to Arizona and New Mexico. 
The Court awarded 4.4 million acre-feet per year to California, 
2.8 million acre-feet to Arizona, and 0,3 million acre-feet to 
Nevada. These awards were contingent upon 7.5 million acre-feet 
being available to the Lower Basin. In the event of an annual 
supply of less than 7.5 million acre-feet the decree left the 
allocation to the Secretary of the Interior or to future Con- 
gressional action. 

The California Water Plan v;as developed on the premise 
that contracts for a total of 5.362 million acre-feet per year 
from the Colorado River would be honored. The decree has reduced 
this amount by almost one million acre-feet. About two-thirds 
of the loss will be replaced with additional importations from 
Northern California and the Owens Valley. The California Water 
Plan must be modified to supply the remaining one-third, and to 
allow for Lower Basin supplies dropping below 7.5 million acre- 
feet per year. 



-31- 



studies indicate that the supply available to the Lower 
Basin will be less than six million acre-feet if the average flow 
for a period like 1930 to 1965 should be repeated. This recogni- 
tion that there is not enough water available from the Colorado 
River to supply the long-range needs of the Colorado River Basin 
states has led to consideration of ways to augment the supply from 
that stream. 

Several other court decisions will influence water 
planning. The decision of the California Supreme Court in Warne 
V. Harkness (1963), 60 Cal. 2d 579; 35 Cal. Reptr. 6OI; 387 P. 2d 
377 J held that authority v;as provided under the water code provi- 
sions governing the Central Valley Project to issue revenue bonds 
for financing the costs of pov/er facilities in the Oroville Divi- 
sion of The State Water Project. In California V/ater Resources 
Development Finance Committee v. Betts (1963), 60 Cal. 2d, 595, 387 
P 2d 387, a companion case to Warne v. Harkness , supra , the State 
Supreme Court's decision allows revenues from water and power 
marketing contracts under the presently authorized State Water 
Project to be used to support bond issues in addition to Burns- 
Porter bonds if required to construct additional features of that 
project or of the State Water Resources Development System to 
meet growing water requirements in California. 

In Dugan v. Rank (I963), 372 U. S. 609, 83 Sup. Ct. 999, 
16 L ed 2d I5, the Supreme Court of the United States decided that 
the Federal Government might seize the water rights of landowners, 
providing it makes just compensation based on the value of the 
land before and after seizure. In the United States v. Fallbrook 
Public Utility District, et al (1965) 3^7 Fed. 2d 48, the Circuit 

-32- 



Court of Appeals upheld the right of the City of Pallbrook to 

construct a dam on the Santa Margarita River and indicated that 

if the Federal Government appropriates water under state law it 

must comply with that law. 

The U. S. Supreme Court considered on appeal the case 

of Ivanhoe Irrigation District and the State of California v. 

Mccracken, et al (1958), 357 U. S. 275, 78 S. Ct. 1174, 2 L ed 

2 d 1313. It held that the l60-acre limitation on federal 

reclamation projects does apply in California. 

Planning Activities 
Since 1956, many planning studies have been conducted. 

Some of the features of The California Water Plan which should be 

implemented to meet the growth of demand for water project services 

have been defined by these studies. They have considered a number 

of physical, economic, budgetary, legal and social factors not 

fully evaluated in the Plan. These studies which are being made 

by state and federal agencies are discussed below. 

State Agencies 

The Department of Water Resources conducts broad 
planning activities directed toward statewide water development. 
Locally, demands for water supplies are projected, capabilities 
of local surface and ground water resources to meet the needs 
are estimated, and surplus water supplies or importation require- 
ments are determined. Consideration is given to local needs for 
flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife enhancement, and 
other project services. Local demands for imported water and 
other services are integrated at the statewide level to determine 
large-scale facilities required to conserve and transport the 
water from basin to basin and to supply associated project 

-33- 



services. Finally, Investigations of specific conservation 
and transportation projects are undertaken to evaluate their 
accomplishments J costs, and feasibilities , and to select and 
define projects. 

These are the only studies being made in California 
which consider all functions of water projects in all areas of 
the State to develop optimum plans. 

Several other state agencies are concerned with water 
and land resources and with planning for future development. The 
Department of Fish and Game, under contract with the Department of 
Water Resources, evaluates the Impact of state water projects 
on the fish and wildlife of affected areas and recommends water 
requirements associated with the preservation and enhancement of 
those resources. The Department of Fish and Game, in cooperation 
with the State Office of Planning in the Department of Finance, 
is also developing the "California Fish and Wildlife Plan" for 
the protection and enhancement of wildlife resources. 

The Department of Parks and Recreation, through 
contracts with the Department of Water Resources, supplies 
advice and services in preparing recreation plans for features 
of the State Water Project and estimates future water project 
recreation needs. The Department of Parks and Recreation is 
also conducting a study, in cooperation with the State Office 
of Planning, to evaluate the need for all types of outdoor 
recreation and to determine how to meet such needs. 



-34- 



The Department of Conservation has responsibilities 
for development and utilization of the State's primary natural 
assets in forest, mineral and soil resources , and conducts in- 
vestigations in all these areas. 

The State Office of Planning is responsible for the 
preparation and periodic review and revision of a comprehensive 
long-range general plan for the physical growth and development 
of the State to be known as the "State Development Plan". It 
conducts this study with its own staff and v/lth assistance from 
consultants and other departments of the State. The Department 
of Water Resources , in its statewide planning activities _, contri- 
butes to the State Development Plan. 

Federal Agencies 

The Bureau of Reclamation conducts water resources 
planning, design and construction activities in California. 
Its planning activities are directed toward multiple-purpose 
water resource development. They begin with reconnaissance 
investigations of possible projects to meet estimated demands 
within selected service areas and culminate in definite project 
reports which define the feasibility and recommend congressional 
authorization and appropriation of funds. 

The Bureau's major current planning activities in the 
State are focused mainly on additional local and transbasln 
diversion projects to extend the Central Valley Project. Pro- 
posed extensions v/ould include service to additional areas on 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valley floors; to foothill areas 
adjoining those valleys; and to portions of Santa Clara, Santa 

-35- 



Cruz and Monterey Counties. The Bureau Is also making recon- 
naissance and feasibility studies of projects in the North 
Coastal and San Francisco Bay areas. In Southern California it 
is Investigating projects in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, 
and in the desert areas in the southeastern part of the State. 

Planning programs of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 
are also oriented toward general multiple-purpose development of 
water resources. The three principal functions for which the 
Corps undertakes projects, however, are flood control, navigation 
and beach erosion control. Only flood control will be considered 
in this report. The Corps is working on planning investigations 
related to single-purpose flood control or multiple-purpose 
projects authorized by the Congress. The Corps also has a 
number of authorized investigations of such projects. Chapter 
II identifies the projects being studied. 

The Soil Conservation Service is considering financial 
assistance to 35 projects under Public Law 566. This agency is 
also considering watershed management in the Eel River Basin and 
other drainage basins of the North Coastal area. 

Interagency Planning Coordination 

The widespread water resources planning, design and 
construction activities of the state and federal agencies in 
California indicate that coordination is necessary to avoid 
duplication and competition. To assist in such coordination, 
the California State-Federal Interagency Group was established 
in 1958. It is composed of the California Director of Water 



-36- 



Resources, as chairman; the Director of Region 2, Bureau of 
Reclamation; the Division Engineer, South Pacific Division, 
U. S. AiTTiy Corps of Engineers; and the State Conservationist, 
Soil Conservation Service. 

A task force, composed of the planning chiefs of the 
respective agencies, is working toward reconciliation of 
differences among planning criteria and proposed plans of 
development. The task force has completed a comparison of 
economic criteria for project formulation and has developed 
the basis for coordination of reconnaissance level planning 
activities in the North Coastal area. It is currently working 
toward coordination of four-year feasibility level Eel River 
Basin planning investigations which may lead to fonnulatlon of 
one or more joint federal-state projects. 

To avoid duplication of basic data, a data pool has 
been or will be established in each of the following areas: 
hydrology, geology, designs and cost estimates of alternative 
physical features, project formulation, in-basin water require- 
ments, recreation potential, fisheries preservation and enhance- 
ment measures including flow requirements, and benefit evaluations, 
Each agency will use this information to make planning evaluations 
within its prescribed legal policy framework. 



-37- 



CHAPTER II. CALIFORNIA'S V/ATER REQUIREMENTS 
AND DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK 



This chapter presents the current projections by the 
Department of Water Resources of the State's economic growth to 
the year 2020 and the corresponding requirements for water 
supplies and other project services. It presents the available 
information on local and statewide water supplies and on yield 
capabilities of existing and authorized water development 
features. Additional projects required to meet water supply 
needs to the year 2000 are identified, and possible alternative 
means of supplying the needs thereafter are discussed. Present 
knowledge about projects needed to supply flood control and other 
project purposes is presented generally. Finally, the changing 
role of electric power in water development is described, and 
an Indication of its impact upon projected power costs and power 
values is given. 

With the exception of the projections of the part to 
be played by electric power, the analyses described were made 
with respect to the 11 hydrologic study areas of the State shown 
in Figure 4. These areas were selected because each of them has 
relatively homogeneous characteristics of streamflow, existing 
and potential local water development, and import requirements 
or export potential. 



-39- 



Projected Growth, 1960-2020 

The growth California has experienced during the past 
60 years is expected to continue over the next 60. While this 
further expansion holds great promise for sustaining a strong 
and vigorous economy, it also represents the State's greatest 
challenge. Problems associated with housing, education, jobs, 
transportation, water supply, air and water pollution, and other 
matters will require foresight and ingenuity in finding and 
implementing solutions. 

The projected growth of the State to the year 2020 
was based on historical trends. Including the experience of the 
last 10 years described in Chapter I, and on the resources and 
growth potential of each hydrologic study area. These projec- 
tions were used to estimate increases in requirements for water 
supply and other water project services. 

Population and Urban Land Use 

The population of California has approximately doubled 
in every 20-year period since i860, except between I88O and I9OO. 
Accompanying this spectacular growth has been a drastic shift in 
population distribution between rural and urban areas. In I86O 
only 20 percent of the population lived in urban areas, but by 
i960, the proportion living in such areas had risen to about 
86 percent. These changes have strongly Influenced the pattern 
of water utilization in California. 



.40- 



FIGURE 4 



NORTH COASTAL 
SAN FRANCISCO BAY 
CENTRAL COASTAL 
SOUTH COASTAL 
SACRAMENTO BASIN 
DELTA -CENTRAL SIERRA 
SAN JOAQUIN BASIN 
TULARE BASIN 
NORTH LAHONTAN 
SOUTH LAHONTAN 
COLORADO DESERT 




U ^ 



HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREAS 
OF CALIFORNIA 



-41- 



The long-range population projections made by the 
Department cover periods of 60 years or more. They have been 
derived^ primarily, from data provided by the U. S. Bureau of 
the Census. Estimates and 20-year projections of the California 
Department of Finance, together with analyses of birth, death 
and migration rates, have also been utilized. Consideration has 
been given to such economic factors as industrial development 
and employment. 

The population of the State and of the 11 hydrologlc 
study areas for 196O and the projections for 1990 and 2020 are 
shovm in Table 4. These estimates for the State are also shown 
on Figure 6 and for the hydrologlc study areas on the odd- 
numbered figures from Figure 7 through 27. 

In 2020, California's population is expected to be 
54 million. This represents an Increase of 38 million over the 
i960 figure. Slightly more than 50 percent of this increase 
will occur in the South Coastal and San Francisco Bay areas, 
with the remainder in the other, presently less populated, areas 
of the State. In 2020, the proportion of the State's population 
residing in these two metropolitan areas is expected to be only 
63 percent compared to 77 percent in I96O. 

Projections of total population and density of popula- 
tion were the principal factors used to estimate land area re- 
quired for future urban development. Department estimates shown 
in Table 4 indicate that by 2020 nearly six million acres will 
be needed. It is estimated that, between 196O and 2020, there 
will be an average annual Increase of 65,000 acres. This 



-42- 



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-43- 



represents an acreage requirement each year comparalDle to the 
present area of Sacramento. Most of this requirement vxill occur 
in and near the present population centers , including the Los 
Angeles-Orange Counties metropolitan area, San Diego , Riverside, 
San Bernardino, Santa Barbara, San Francisco Bay area, Sacra- 
mento, Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield. 

Irrigated Agriculture 

Agriculture in California is undergoing important 
changes. These changes are basically caused by economic factors 
over which the farmer has little or no control. Some of these 
considerations are: an expanding population that has created a 
greater demand for farm products; rising personal incomes that 
have had an influence on the eating habits of people causing 
them to reduce their intake of starches and to favor a variety 
of higher value foods such as vegetables, meats, nuts, and 
fruits; and a price-cost squeeze over the past decade caused 
by increasing fixed production costs and descending prices 
received for farm products. 

Other factors contributing to the agricultural changes 
include technological advances such as more efficient, labor- 
saving farm machinery and the development of more effective 
fertilizers and weed and pest control chemicals. These have 
made it possible for the farmer to multiply his productivity 
several times in recent years. These trends have brought about 
larger more efficient farms that need less labor per unit of 
output . 



-44- 




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-45- 



Based on these considerations, estimates have been 
made of California's share of the projected nationwide market 
for agricultural products for both domestic and export use. 
These estimates have been based on historical plantings of crops 
in the State, suitability of soils and climate, competitive 
position with respect to distance to market, and other factors. 
Crop projections have included increased percentages of cotton, 
alfalfa, fruit, nuts, vegetables, and vineyards, and decreased 
percentages of pasture, hay, grain and rice. 

From the projected quantities of crops to be grown, 
the irrigated land requirements have been estimated on the basis 
of historical and projected crop yield statistics. In making 
such projections, predictions of the University of California 
Agricultural Extension Service, estimates of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and other sources of crop production infor- 
mation have been utilized. 

On the bases of climate and of land availability and 
suitability, the statewide projections were then allocated 
among the various hydrologic study areas. 

With the exception of estimates for the present service 
areas of the State Water Project, these projections do not re- 
flect full consideration of all of the economic constraints in- 
volved. It has been assumed that future market prices will give 
farmers the ability and willingness to pay the full costs of water 
and other products and services required for crop production. 
Future refinements In these estimates to include full considera- 
tion of economic factors may result in modification of these 

projections. 

-45- 



The results of the projections of irrigated land 
requirements are shovm in Table 4. The information is also 
presented on Figure g for the State and on the odd-numhered 
figures from Figure 7 through 27 for the 11 hydrologic study 
areas. 

Irrigated agriculture in California is expected to 
occupy 10.8 million acres by the year 2020 , an increase of 
2.7 million acres over the I96O total. Urbanization of agri- 
cultural lands in the principal metropolitan areas of the San 
Francisco Bay and South Coastal areas is expected to continue 
to cause the agricultural acreages to be reduced. The increase 
in irrigated acreages outside those areas reflects not only the 
statewide growth in requirements for irrigated agricultural land 
but also the acreage required to compensate for such land dis- 
placed by urban development. 

Irrigable Lands 

Field surveys to determine the extent of irrigable 
land have been made by the Department of Water Resources. The 
fundamental physical characteristics evaluated include soil 
texture, topography, depth of soil, degree of soil profile de- 
velopment and concentration of salinity. On the basis of these 
properties, soils have been grouped according to suitability for 
the production of different crops. 

The Department's estimates of irrigable land are 
summarized in Table 4 and on Figure 6 and the odd-numbered 
figures from Figure 7 through 27. 



-47- 




MARCH igt+O 



Looking east alonp; U. S. Highway nq in the vicinity of 
West Covina, Los Angeles County. U. S. Highway 1'^ inter- 
section in right foreground. (Spence Air Photos) 



JULY 1963 




J,.^. 



Exclusive of lands occupied by urban development, it 
is estimated that the irrigable lands in California in 196O 
totaled about 22.6 million acres. Part of the projected urban 
growth to the year 2020 is expected to occupy irrigable lands. 
Thus, irrigable lands are expected to be reduced to I9.I million 
acres by 2020. Deducting the projected irrigated acreage for 
that time leaves an estimated eight million acres of irrigable 
land that will be available for further development. This 
estimate does not allow for other uses of land such as areas 
required for freeways, rural park and recreation sites, water 
development and other purposes. Nevertheless, it is anticipated 
that there will be undeveloped irrigable lands in the State for 
many years beyond 2020, 

Present and Projected Water Requirements 
Estimates of both applied water requirements and net 
water requirements are presented in this section. Applied water 
requirements represent the totals of quantities needed annually 
at all farm headgates and urban distribution system intakes 
within each hydrologic study area. Net water requirements 
allow for probable reuses of water within each area. Such 
reuses may take the form of rediverslons from drains or natural 
stream courses, repumping of ground water which has percolated 
from previous applications, or reclamation and reuse of sewage 
and waste water. If there were no opportunity for reuse in an 
area, net v;ater requirements would equal applied water require- 
ments. 



-k9- 



Applied Water Requirements 

Quantities of applied water in the various hydrologic 
study areas of the State have been estimated on the basis of the 
population and Irrigated agricultural acreage Information 
described in the preceding section. The use of water for urban 
development has been estimated from per capita uses of water in 
various parts of the State. These values vary from 95 to 33O 
gallons per day per capita, as shown in Table 5. Projections 
of the future values, given in Table 5, have been based on 
historical trends and on anticipated further technological 
advances, industrialization and changes in habits of the popula- 
tion. 

Future studies are planned to refine municipal and 
Industrial water use estimates by accounting separately for 
domestic and industrial use. Domestic use would be estimated 
on the basis of per capita values, while Industrial use would 
be derived from projected Industrial development and unit use 
values appropriate for the respective industries or groups of 
industries. 

Agricultural applied water requirements have been 
estimated from projected acreages of various crops and unit (acre- 
feet per acre) applied water values. The unit values have been 
derived on the basis of statistics on the consumptive use of 
applied water obtained from field measurements by the Department 
of Water Resources and others. Allowances have been made for 
the excess applications needed for farm operation. Probable 



■ 50- 



TABLE 5 
ESTIMATED URBAN VJATER USE 
(gallons per capita per day) 



Hydrologic i i 
Study Area : 196O : 2020 



North Coastal 
San Francisco Bay 
Central Coastal 
South Coastal 
Sacramento Basin 
Delta-Central Sierra 
San Joaquin Basin 
Tulare Basin 
North Lahontan 
South Lahontan 
Colorado Desert 



17 Reflects projected introduction of pulp 
and paper industries into the North 
Coastal area. 

_2/ Prediction of decrease in unit value 
based on assumed conditions of high 
water prices and limited water supplies. 



95 


36ol/ 


150 


170 


170 


180 


170 


220 


240 


270 


250 


270 


330 


350 


320 


390 


170 


190 


230 


250 


310 


250^/ 



■51- 



changes in applied water requirements for the various crops 
V7ith improved agricultural practices have been given weight in 
the estimates. 

The resulting estimates of applied water requirements 
for urban and irrigated agricultural developments are summarized 
for the State in Table 6 and Figure 6 and are shown for each 
hydrologic study area on the odd-numbered figures from Figure 7 
through 27. 

Several important points are indicated by these esti- 
mates. As developments approach 2020 conditions , it is antici- 
pated that there will be a substantial increase in the proportion 
of water required for urban purposes in comparison with that 
required for agriculture. Figure 5 demonstrates this graphically. 
Agriculture will still require the most water in 2020. 

One of the most significant aspects of the growth in 
applied water requirements is shown by the statistics for the 
individual hydrologic areas. These Indicate the relative magni- 
tudes of water requirements for urban and agricultural purposes 
expected in the various areas of the State. In the Central 
Valley and particularly In the Tulare Basin^ substantial in- 
creases in applied agricultural water will occur. This will be 
in response to the grov/lng demands for irrigated agricultural 
land described previously. Although applied urban water require- 
ments in the Central Valley will become important (approaching 
4.3 million acre-feet by 2020) _, they will remain far belovi the 
agricultural requirements of 28 million acre-feet. 



-52- 



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-53- 



The situation is somewhat reversed in those areas with 
the greatest projected population. In the South Coastal and 
San Francisco Bay areas, urban water requirements will increase 
by about 5.5 million acre-feet by 2020 , but agricultural re- 
quirements will decline and will almost disappear in some of 
the counties of those areas. Urban water requirements in the 
Central Coastal and South Lahontan areas are expected to increase 
substantially by that year. 

Net Water Requirements 

Net v;ater requirements are the quantities of water 
which must actually be made available in the various hydrologic 
study areas either through development of local resources or 
through importation of water from sources outside the area. 
Net water requirements are the quantities of applied water 
which remain after consumptive uses and irrecoverable losses. 
Consumptive uses Include disposal by plants through evaporation 
and transpiration and evaporation from the ground, pavements or 
water surfaces. Outflow to the ocean and percolation of water 
to a ground water basin, where depth to water or quality con- 
siderations make reuse impracticable, are examples of irrecover- 
able losses. 

Net v;ater requirements have been estimated for each 
hydrologic study area by applying percentages to the estimated 
applied water requirements. The percentage values have been 
based on historical records and on estimates of changing condi- 
tions. The estimated percentages vary from 98 percent for the 



-54- 




FIGURE 5 



I960 

Urban water requirement 3,260,000 AF 

Agricultural water requirement 28,480,000 AF 

Total water requirement 31,740,000 AF 




1990 

Urban woter requirement 8,480,000 AF 

Agricultural water requirement 32,320,000 AF 

Total water requirement 40,800,000 AF 




2020 

Urbon water requirement 14,000,000 AF 

Agricultural water requirement 35,700,000 AF 

Totol water requirement 49,700,000 AF 



PROJECTED GROWTH OF APPLIED WATER REQUIREMENTS 

STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

-55- 



Colorado Desert area^ where reuse of the large quantities of 
water applied for irrigation in the Imperial and Coachella 
Valleys is impracticable because of water quality considerations, 
to 4l percent for the South Lahontan area, where water of good 
quality permits a high degree of reuse. 

The net water requirements for the State as a whole 
and for each of the hydrologic study areas are summarized in 
Table 6. The lower portion of Figure 6 indicates the estimated 
growth (from I96O to 2020) of net water requirements in each 
hydrologic study area and of the total statewide net water re- 
quirements. The growth of net water requirements in each hydro- 
logic study area is also depicted by the heavy line sloping 
upward to the right on each of the lower diagrams on the odd- 
numbered figures from Figure 7 through 27. In the discussions 
of the water supplies for each hydrologic study area (presented 
subsequently in this chapter) , the projected methods by which 
these net water requirements will be met from local and imported 
supplies are presented. 



i 



Requirements for Other Water Project Services 
Traditionally, water resources development has provided 
for irrigation, municipal and industrial supplies, flood control 
and hydroelectric power generation. So often in the past, however, 
a project was undertaken to serve one or the other of these 
functions on a "one stream - one use" concept. Recently the 
continued pressures and competition for land and water use has 
become so acute as to render this concept inadequate. The need 



-56- 



to protect the fish and wildlife resources, expand recreational 
facilities, provide additional flood protection, provide water 
quality control, and accomplish other possible project purposes 
has indicated to the responsible policy-making bodies and water 
agencies the need for a broader approach to water resource de- 
velopment -- both in terms of geographic scope and purposes. 

This section presents general discussions of the needs 
for project services besides water supply and hydroelectric power 
development. The role of electric power is discussed subsequently 
in this chapter. 

Flood Control 

Many agencies have built extensive works in California 
to provide flood protection. Most active in this field have been 
the reclamation and flood control districts and the U. S. Army 
Corps of Engineers. Although much has been accomplished, the 
Christmas flood of 1964 in Northern California and other recent 
floods elsewhere in the State have demonstrated that much remains 
to be done. 

Because of the expected growth of California's popula- 
tion and the increasingly intense use of its land resources, 
solutions to the flood control problems will become more urgent 
and critical. The State Legislature has declared repeatedly 
that the people of the State have a vital interest in preventing 
flood damage. 



■57- 





AMERICAN RIVER AT FLOODSTAGE, DECEMBER 2^, 196^+ 



During the flood of December IQfi'l , peak Inflow to Folsom Reser- 
voir was ?80,000 cubic feet per second. Discharge from the 
dam was held to 115,000 cubic feet per second, the maximum 
capacity of the American River levee system. Disastrous 
flooding in Sacramento and vicinity was thus prevented. 



-58- 



The Department of Water Resources has recently reviewed 
available Information on flood control requirements. Additional 
study Is needed to gain knowledge, at least on a reconnaissance 
level, of present and future urban and agricultural developments 
that will be subject to flood damage along with important 
physical, economic and social factors related to prevention of 
such damage throughout the State. Studies by the U. S. Army, 
Corps of Engineers, which are In progress or authorized, are 
discussed subsequently In this chapter. 

The degree to which Improvements are exposed to floods 
varies considerably from area to area of the State. Much of the 
North Coastal area Is subject to staggering periodic flood 
damage, as evidenced by the Christmas 1964 flood. In the San 
Francisco Bay area, a number of flood control facilities have 
been built, but there are still problems to be solved. Examples 
of the kinds of development needing further protection are urban 
and agricultural improvements along the Russian and Napa Rivers 
and urban areas adjacent to restricted natural channels, par- 
ticularly in the zones of tidal Influence near the San Francisco 
Bay. In parts of the Central Coastal area, provision for channel 
improvements, bank revetment, flood control reservoirs or levees, 
or floodplaln management will be needed as urbanization proceeds. 

Considerable progress has been made by federal and 
local agencies in developing and Implementing comprehensive flood 
control programs in the South Coastal area. Nevertheless, in 
certain areas the rate of construction of flood control works 



■59- 



is not sufficient to keep up with the growing need. Ploodplain 
management in portions of the area would assist in alleviating 
flood damage. 

In the Central Valley Basin, reservoirs in the mountains 
and foothills and levees and bypass channels on the valley floor 
provide a significant level of flood protection. The major 
streams that will still require reservoir flood control storage, 
or other protective works, include the Upper Sacramento, Bear, 
Yuba, American, Cosumnes, Stanislaus, Tuolumne and Merced 
Rivers and Cache Creek. Bank erosion, which in places threatens 
the integrity of Sacramento River Flood Control Project levees, 
calls for continual maintenance and additional bank revetment. 
Bypass channels and levees in Butte Basin would eliminate the 
present periodic flood damage of agricultural lands. A number 
of small streams on the valley floor that pass through urban 
areas occasionally overflow their banks. There will be a growing 
need for projects to prevent such damage as the urban areas 
expand. Problems in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta area during 
major flood periods are caused by poor levee foundation conditions, 
subsiding land surfaces, high tides and winds during flood 
periods and the difficulty of fighting floods. 

Flood damage in the North Lahontan area occurs chiefly 
in the vicinity of Lake Tahoe and along the Truckee, Carson and 
Walker Rivers. Flood control facilities provide a measure of 
protection to developments along the Truckee River in California 
but additional facilities are needed to protect the Reno-Sparks 
area in Nevada. In the South Lahontan area, floods occasionally 



■60- 



affect developments along the Moj'ave River. Infrequent flood 
damage in the few highly developed portions of the Colorado 
Desert area results chiefly from intense summer thunderstorms. 

Recreation 

The publication entitled, "Economic Report of the 
Governor", dated March 2, 1964, classifies recreation as a 
major sector of the State's economy. It indicates in part that 
"with each succeeding year recreation becomes a more important 
part of California life, its wealth and its economy." No one 
knows exactly what the magnitude of the recreation industry is 
in terms of dollars. If tourist expenditures and estimates of 
average outlays by recreationists are indicative, it is cer- 
tainly a multibillion dollar business. 

As would be expected, the growth of this industry has 
accompanied the rise of population. But other factors, such as 
increasing incomes, mobility and leisure time of the people 
have been significant additional contributors to the trend. 
Recreational activity in recent years has, in fact, grown three 
times as fast as population. 

The increasing demand for recreation is of special 
importance to the development of California's water resources. 
In this State, outdoor recreation is characteristically water 
oriented. The California Public Outdoor Recreation Plan of I96O 
indicated that about 60 percent of all recreation is so oriented. 
The plan further stated that public access to thousands of acres 
of potential recreation lands and waters was sorely needed. ':''ais 



-61- 




FOLSOM LAKE STATE RECREATION AREA 



Recreation use at Folsom Lake State Recreation area during 
IQ65, almost i], 000,000 visitor-days, was greater than any 
other state or federal nark in California. 



-62- 



need v/111 be magnified many times in the future. The magnitude 

of the demand for all kinds of outdoor recreation is shown by 

the following Department of V/ater Resources' estimates of annual 

statewide recreation use: 

Statewide Outdoor 
Year Recreation Use 

(Visitor-Days) 

i960 218,100,000 

1990 2,586,000,000 

2020 4,954,000,000 

The portions of these uses that will be water oriented will 
cause keenly felt if not overwhelming pressures on water 
resource developments in all areas of the State. Even now, 
the demand for water recreation is so great in Southern California 
that expensive water, imported from outside the area, is used to 
maintain water levels adequate for recreational use at Lake 
Elsinore, Hansen Reservoir and Puddingstone Reservoir. As 
additional reservoirs are added in Southern California and in 
most other areas of the State, recreation use will be limited 
more by the physical characteristics and capacities of the reser- 
voirs themselves and by the facilities provided than by lack of 
demand. 

Thus far, estimates of applied and net water require- 
ments in recreational developments has been limited to a few 
specific Investigations where this type of use was an important 
factor. Consequently, little is known about this aspect of 
water use on a statewide or even on a regional basis. It has 
been estimated, however, that recreatlonlsts need about 40 



-63- 



gallons of water per user day (applied water) for domestic 
use. This may be significant in certain recreational 
areas of the State. It has been estimated that the summer pop- 
ulation around Lake Tahoe increases by some 70,000 due to the 
inflirx of recreationists and that additional water use amounts 
to about 2.8 million gallons daily. Because of the tremendous 
growth expected in recreational activity, this facet of water 
use will assume increasing importance in the future. . 

Fish and Wildlife 

Hunting and fishing are among the more important 
recreational activities in California. Commercial fishing for 
anadromous species is a valuable component of the State's 
economy. For these reasons, and to leave for future generations 
as much of the natural heritage of the State as possible, it is 
important that fish and wildlife resources be preserved and 
enhanced. 

Salmon and steelhead in the North Coastal and Sacramento 
Basin areas are the objects of both sport and commercial fishing. 
In the North Coastal area particularly, these resources are most 
important economically and must be preserved to the maximum 
practicable extent as water development proceeds. 

There are also opportunities for enhancement of anad- 
romous fish resources. One example is the planned use for 
spawning of part of the Bureau of Reclamation's Tehama-Colusa 
Canal on the west side of the Sacramento Valley, and the release 
of water from that canal dovm tributaries of the Sacramento 



-64- 




TRINITY FISH HATCHERY 

Hatcheries have been used to preserve anadromous fisheries 
at a number of water projects in California. 

This facility is the first installation in California of this 
particular method of anadromous fisheries preservation. 
(Photo by Lodi News-Sentinel) 

ARTIFICIAL SPAWNING CHANNEL-CAMANCHE DAM 




River to increase the available spawning areas. Salmon and 
steelhead, as v;ell as shad^ sturgeon and the extremely important 
striped bass, which are in or migrating through the Sacramento- 
San Joaquin Delta, can be protected and possibly enhanced by 
construction of the Peripheral Canal. There may be an oppor- 
tunity to rehabilitate and enhance the king salmon run of the 
San Joaquin River system. Through streamflow augmentation, re- 
juvenation of stream gravels, removal of vegetation, construction 
of hatcheries, abatement of damaging water pollution and other 
measures, it is estimated on a very preliminary basis that 
salmon runs in the San Joaquin River system, averaging 500,000 
fish annually, could be developed by 2020. Additional studies 
would be required to determine the economic feasibility of such 
a program. 

Reservoirs proposed on mountain trout streams must be 
capable of releasing sufficient water to sustain existing trout 
populations below the dams, and possibly to enhance these popula- 
tions if necessary to compensate for fisheries lost upstream. 

California's significant waterfowl populations are 
found from the northern gateway at Lower Klamath Lake and Tule 
Lake through the marshes and sloughs of the Central Valley and 
the Delta to the Salton Sea and the Colorado River marshes in the 

southern extremity of the State. These populations should be , 

I 

protected and, if possible, enhanced by preservation of marshes, 
provision of rest areas along fly ways and other means. 



-66- 



Water Quality Control 

In California's major water supply areas - the North 
Coastal area and the Sacramento Basin - water is of excellent 
mineral quality and suitable for all "beneficial uses. In other 
areas of the State, most of which are water-deficient to some 
extent, the qualities of natural surface waters vary greatly. 
Certain waters, such as those originating in the Sierra Nevada 
and in the higher mountains of the coast ranges, are of excellent 
quality. Waters in the more southerly areas, particularly in 
the lower portions of closed drainage basins, are of poorer 
quality. 

In some areas serious water quality degradation has 
occurred. Sea water intrusion, for example, has adversely 
affected portions of ground water basins adjacent to the coast 
or inland bays in the San Francisco Bay, the Central Coastal, 
and the South Coastal areas. Adverse salt balance conditions 
have impaired the quality of ground water in parts of the Tulare 
Basin and elsewhere. There is an Increasing need to prevent 
undesirable effects of pollution caused by the discharge of man- 
made wastes into fresh water bodies, such as Lake Tahoe and 
channels of the Sacramento -San Joaquin Delta; into saline water 
bodies, such as San Francisco Bay; and even into the ocean 
adjacent to public beaches. The State and Regional Water Quality 
Control Boards play an Important part in preventing pollution 
and in furthering water quality control. 



-67- 



Existing water development projects have j)rovlded 
control of the quality of water supplies to Insure their suit- 
ability for Intended urban and agricultural uses, and future 
projects can do the same. In many areas, regulated local 
supplies or Imported water may be blended with poorer quality 
local water, either In surface reservoirs and conduits or In 
ground water basins. For example, the Sacramento River not 
only carries local and export water supplies but also consti- 
tutes the means of conveying enormous quantities of municipal. 
Industrial and agricultural wastes out of the Sacramento Valley. 
In the future, management of the quality of this vital resource, 
through dilution at times of low streamflow and possibly convey- 
ance of the more objectionable wastes through separate drains, 
will be required. 

In the Sacramento -San Joaquin Delta, potential Intrusion 
of salt water from the San Francisco Bay system, as well as degra- 
dation of water quality from agricultural and mvmlclpal and In- 
dustrial waste discharges, may be controlled by dilution and 
maintenance of salinity control outflows to Sulsun Bay. This 
has been accomplished since 1944 by the Central Valley Project. 
The proposed Peripheral Canal will improve the present situation 
by prroviding a physical separation between Sacramento River 
waters ;^- to be pumped for export and waters in the Delta channels. 
It will also constitute a positive means of distributing dilution 
water in the Delta channels. 



-68- 



V/ater quality control has already become essential 
In the San Joaquin and Tulare Basins. The San Joaquin Master 
Drain, to separate wastes from local waters of good quality, 
has been authorized and is in the process of advance planning. 
Dilution of water in the drain or in stream channels may be 
found necessary as a part of the overall water quality management 
program. The drain will provide the means for controlling salt 
balance in the San Joaquin and Tulare Basins to prevent the 
buildup of minerals in the ground water and soils. 

In the large ground water basins of the South Coastal 
area, water quality improvement can be achieved by several means. 
Good quality water from Northern California can be delivered at 
higher elevations in each basin. This will dilute local supplies 
and permit a greater degree of reuse of water at successively 
lower elevations. In coastal ground water basins, imported and 
reclaimed water is being injected near the ocean to check sea 
water intrusion. The present recharge systems in the South 
Coastal area are being expanded and extended to other basins. 

Water Supplies and Water Development 
by Hydrologic Study Areas 

Studies leading to The California Water Plan demon- 
strated that the State has within its boundaries sufficient 
water resources to meet ultimate water requirements amounting to 
an estimated 51.1 million acre-feet per year. This conclusion 
is still believed to be valid, notwithstanding subsequent reduc- 
tions of California's rights to the Colorado River as a result 



-69- 



of Arizona v. California . Certainly there is sufficient water 
available physically within the State to meet the currently 
projected 2020 level of net water requirements, amounting to 
38.0 million acre-feet. 

This section presents for each hydrologic study area 
of the State (Figure h) , estimates of water supplies available 
from local water developments. It gives brief descriptions of 
conservation features proposed by local agencies and of those 
proposed under the State Water Resources Development System, 
which are primarily for local use. For areas having surplus 
supplies, estimates of quantities being exported and required 
to be exported in the future are also presented. This section 
also gives estimates of the capabilities of present facilities 
for importing water to certain of the areas and derives the 
additional Importations that will be required to overcome local 
ground water overdrafts and to meet the growing net water re- 
quirements described previously. Where specific Import projects 
have been proposed, the effects of these on meeting future water 
requirements are Indicated. The locations of the major water 
conservation and conveyance facilities that appear to be among 
the more favorable of those proposed, are shown on the even- 
numbered figures from Figure 8 through 28. Many features described 
In The California V/ater Plan, or proposed after the preparation of 
that Plan, are not included on these figures. A summary of the 
estimated water supplies for the various hydrologic study areas, 
described in this section, is presented in Table 7. 



-70. 



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tu O (U 




<M P.P C 




td E (u 




«-H C rH 




td 




ta Vi la C 




0) O 0) O 


ooo 


■O TJ T3 -H 


\D cr>CM 


3 3 3 *J 


a\o\o 


rH rH rH -H 


rH rH CM 


0-0 




C C CO 




MMH <: 




^^J^l 



-71- 



Expansion of waste water reclamation Is mentioned as 
a possible source of future water supply In the South Coastal 
area. Although this source Is not considered In this report 
for other areas. It Is possible that a portion of their net 
water requirements could also be supplied In this manner. 

Present estimates of local water supplies In certain 
of the hydrologlc areas have been based on limited Information. 
The needs for further studies in these areas have been identified, 
where possible. 

North Coastal Area 



The North Coastal area has the most abundant water 
supplies of any of the State's hydrologlc study areas. The 
long-term mean annual runoff of all streams in the area totals 
29.7 million acre-feet. This is more than 40 percent of the 
total for the State. 

Despite its copious water supplies, the North Coastal 
area will have to depend on water development facilities for its 
in-area water requirements because of the maldistribution of 
runoff within the season. Some of the great rivers which account 
for much of the area's winter runoff are little more than small 
creeks during the summer and fall. Ground v/ater resources are 
limited to widely scattered alluvlated valleys and coastal 
plains. 



-72- 



FIGURES 



1020 
1990 

1960 






























10 
1 


20 30 
1 1 


40 50 
1 1 


60 

1 









1 




1 










1 












1 URBAN 




IRRIGATED | 




REMAINING IRRIGABLE | 


2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 
1 II 



1,000,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



1.000,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



40 



Totol net woter requirements 



AGRICULTURAL 



MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRI 



^ 



10 20 30 40 50 

_l \ \ \ L 



1,000.000 ACRE -FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 




^. .^ r .1 Son Froncisco Boy 
Nort el I Coostol '^ '^" I I 



I960 



1970 



1990 
YEAR 



2000 



2020 



NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
STATEWIDE TOTALS 





FIGURE 7 












2020 














1990 














I960 










2 4 

1 1 


6 

1 


8 

1 



100.000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 









1 


n 






~] URBAN 


IRRIGATED 


REMAINING IRRIGABLE 


1 2 3 4 5 6 
1 1 1 1 1 1 



100.000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



AGRICULTURAL 



^ 



MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL 



8 10 



100.000 ACRE-FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



LlI 

q: 
o 
< 



I960 



/ 

/ Possible odditionol 
/ exports from the 
/ Lower Eel ond/or 

/ Klomatti Rivers. 




^ 



Conjunctive local use/expoi 
I Local ground lond surface wGtef| development ■ projects i I 

1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 

YEAR 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
NORTH COASTAL HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



FIGURE 8 







.% 



Cufin LAKl 
■R£S ■ ~- 






Y 



? 



NOTE The numerous plans under study for 

pment of the lower Trinity and Klomoth^ 
are indicated by the damsites shown on 
these streams. Potential yield of the plans ' 

ranges from 3,000.000 to 6,000,000 af/yr 



TRINITY RIVER DIVISION CVP 
960,000 AF/YR 




KEY TO STUDY AREAS 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 




EXISTING OR 
UNDER 

CONSTRUCTION 


4UTM0BI2ED 


PROPOSED 


RESERVOIRS 

AQUEDUCTS 


■•^ 


77)^7^ 


■•^ 








POwesPLflNTS 


■ 





■ 


PUMPING PLANTS 


• 





• 


IMPORTS/EXPORTS 
(1990 CONDITIONS! 


^ 


K//4;> 


^ 


HHHj UR8AN 


I960 LA 

r^^^^Di iRR 


ND USE 




GATED 1 


1 IRHIMBLE 


1 



VI II I f^ 700,000 AF/YR 



UPPER EEL RIVER DEVELOPMENT 
ALTERNATIVE EXPORT ROUTES 



500,000 AF/YR 



NORTH COASTAL 
HYDRGLOGIC STUDY AREA 



POTTER VALLEY 
DIVERSION 



PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
167.000 AF/YR ^^jQp yVATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 



SCALE OF MILES 



FIGURE 9 



2020 



1990 



I960 































2 

1 


4 6 
1 1 


8 10 
1 1 


12 

1 



1,000,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 





URBAN 1 


J IRRIGATED 


1 REMAINING IRRIGABLE 




1 


1 


1 








1 


2 4 6 8 10 12 
1 1 1 1 1 1 



100,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



f 



AGRICULTURAL 



MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL 



!) 



4 8 12 16 20 24 
J I I \ \ L 



100,000 ACRE-FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



2.400 



2,000 



West Sacramento Valley Canal- 



In-oreo net water requirements 




2020 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
SAN FRANCISCO BAY HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 




POTTER VALLEY 

DIVERSION 
167,000 AF/YR 



SAN FRANCISCO BAY 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



FIGURE 10 



PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 




SCaLE OF MILES 

e 

'— 



LEGEND 



Knights \ 
Valley fies >. 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 



RESEBVOIBS 
AQUEDUCTS 
POWERPLANTS 
PUMPING PLANTS 



IMPORTS/EXPORTS 
(1990 CONDITIONS) 



EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 



AUTHORIZED PROPOSED 



ZZ27^ 



I960 LAND USE 
URBAN [ I IRRIGATED 



~\ IRRIGABLE 



PUTAH SOUTH CANAL 
55,000 AF/YR 
ssey I 



WEST SACRAMENTO CANAL 
25,000 AF/YR 






NORTH BAY AQUEDUCT 
,000 AF/YR 



Foirfield 



MOKELUMNE AQUEDUCT 
300,000 AF/YR 

CONTRA COSTA CANAL 
175,000 AF/YR 

SOUTH BAY AQUEDUCT 
161,000 AF/YR 




HETCH HETCHY 

AQUEDUCT 
290,000 AF/YF 



KEY TO STUDY AREAS 



NOTE: 

Red crott-hatch indicotat tatimoted 
«l«nt of urbon comptax. 



SAN FELIPE DIVISION 
55.000 AF/YR 



FIGURE II 



2020 



1990 



I960 




100,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



URBAN 



IRRIGATED 



REMAINING IRRIGABLE 



8 
_L 



100,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



-^ 



AGRICULTURAL 



MUNICIPAL a industrial' 



2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 
I I I I I I I I I I 



100,000 acre-feet 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



1,600 



1,200 — 



I 

iij 
a. 

o 800 
< 



< 
CO 

Z) 

o 

X 
H 

400 h- 



I960 



— 


• 




^^^Required additional supply 


— 






^^^ Colifornia Aqueduct 




In-orea net woter 


requirements -.^^ 


^^""^ " San Felipe Division 




^^^ 


. 


""kT 




^^ 


' Imported supplies — 




-\ 


Ground water overdraft 






— 






^_Safe yield of in-oreo ground ond 

surface water supplies — 


— 






— 




1 


1 1 


1 1 1 



1970 



1980 



1990 
YEAR 



2000 



2010 



2020 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
CENTRAL COASTAL HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



FIGURE 12 



CENTRAL COASTAL 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



NORTH SANTA CLARA SERVICE AREA 

SAN FELIPE DIVISION 

55,000 AF/YR 



PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 

SCALE OF MILES 



SAN FELIPE DIVISION CVP 
130,000 AF/YR 



LEGEND 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 




EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 


AUTHORIZED 


PROPOSED 


RESERVOIRS 

aOUEDUCTS 

POWERPLANTS 

PUMPING PLANTS 

IMPORTS /EXPORTS 
(1990 CONDITIONS! 


*^ 






■ 
• 


■ 
• 


y//A> 


1 ■ ^ " j URBAN 


I960 LAND USE 




1 1 IRRIGATED | 


1 IRRIGABLE 


1 




^ I COASTAL AQUEDUCT 

^YUH^ 83,000 AF/YR 



-l—fK^ 


sr ^'• 


1. 


< en ;. 


KEY TO STUDY 


AREAS 



SANTA BARBARA 



'^iY'^T^^fh^^ 



FIGURE 13 



2020 



1990 



I960 




1.000.000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



]remaining irrigable 



URBAN 



irrigated 



4 



8 

I 



12 



16 

_1_ 



20 

I 



100,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



^ 



AGRICULTURAL 



MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL 



^ 



I 2 3 4 5 6 



1.000.000 ACRE-FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



lij 

li. 
I 

llJ 
cr 
o 
< 

z 
o 

_l 
_1 

i 



In-oreo net woter requirements 




•Ground water overdroft 



Safe yield af in-areo ground ond surface water supplies 



1 



1 



1 



I960 



1970 



1980 



1990 
YEAR 



2000 



2010 



2020 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
SOUTH COASTAL HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



O _R_E__C o N 



FIGURE 14 



fNLl 



SB 



CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT 

WEST BRANCH 

.502,000 A F/YR 



ISFT DC. 



\ 



'LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 
470,000 AF/ YR 



tK-—^^"^ 


\ \.' 




VcV TB 


)- 




o\_\^ 


N.. r 


-^ V. 


<^ 


^c < 


. rn }: 




V 




KEY TO STUDY AREAS 



CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT 
EAST BRANCH 
677,000 AF/YR 



COLORADO RIVER 

AQUEDUCT 

540,000 AF/YR 






LEGEND 




WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 




EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 


AUTHORIZED 


PROPOSED 


RESERVOIRS 

AQUEDUCTS 

POWERPLANTS 

PUMPING PLANTS 

IMPORTS/EXPORTS 
(1990 CONDITIONS) 


las^^m^ 







■ 
• 




YJ/J"' 


I960 LAND USE 


1 1 URBAN 


1 1 IRRIGATED | 


1 IRRIGABLE 


1 




SOUTH COASTAL 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 

PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 

SCALE OF MILES 
6 8 16 



FIGURE 15 



2020 



1990 



I960 



12 3 4 5 



1,000,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 









1 








1 






1 














~| URBAN 






IRRIGATED] 




REMAINING IRRIGABLE | 


1 2 3 
1 1 1 1 1 1 



1,000,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 













^AGRICULTURAL 






V 


^ 




MUNICIPAL a 
INDUSTRIAL 


y 








2 4 6 
1 1 1 




8 
1 


10 

1 



1,000,000 ACRE-FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



UJ 



t 

UJ 

cc 
o 

< 



7 — 



6 — 



5 — 



4 — 



-, 3 — 



2 — 





staging of projects wtiicti involve 






imports to and exports from f tils orea 






under ttie Delto Pooling Concept are 
indicated on Figures52and 33 




— 


In-area net woter requirements ^^ 


- 


— 


^^^-^0^^^^^^ 


— 


— 






— 


— 


1 


•— In -area surface water supplies 


— 


"■" 








J 




— 




"~- Ground water supplies 


— 




1 1 


1 1 1 


1 



I960 



1970 



1980 



1990 
YEAR 



2000 



2010 



2020 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
SACRAMENTO BASIN HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



LEGEND 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 




EXISTING OR 
UNDER 

CONSTRUCTION 


AUTHORIZED 


PROPOSED 


RESERVOIRS 


■•^^ 


e2c^ 


■•^^ 


nOuEOUCTS 












PjWERPLflNTS 


■ 





■ 


■^LIMPING PLANTS 


• 





• 


EXPORTS 
■.(MTIONSI 


^ 


K///0 


^ 


I960 LAND USE 


i:^^ .»B.-, 


( 1 iRBlGOTtO 1 1 IBSICABLE 



SACRAMENTO BASIN 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



Jeoi 



FIGURE 16 



PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS J^ 



SCALE OF MILES 



\ s r 7 s K 1 1' Y u 



TRINITY RIVER 
DIVERSION CVP 
961,000 AF/YR 




700,000 AF/YR l^////J > ^^ 



UPPER EEL RIVER DEVELOPMENT 
ALTERNATIVE IMPORT ROUTES 

500,000 AF/YR 



LITTLE TRUCKEE 

RIVER DIVERSION 

7,000 AF/YR 



ECHO LAKE ! 
DIVERSION 
,000 AF/YR 



CAMINO CONDUIT CVP 
FOLSOM-MALBY 12,000 AF/YR 

CONDUIT CVP 
10,000 AF/YR 



PUTAH SOUTH CANAL 
125,000 AF/YR 



KEY TO STUDY AREAS 



« 



WEST SACRAMENTO 

CANAL CVP 

85,000 AF/YR 



FOLSOM SOUTH CANAL 
CVP 425,000 AF/YR 



FIGURE 17 



2020 



1990 



I960 




100,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



1 URBAN 



IRRIGATED 



REMAINING IRRIGABLE 



4 

_L 



6 
_L 



8 

J_ 



10 



100,000 ACRES 



LAND USE 







AGRICULTURAL 


> 


\ 


MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL*^ 

i 






1 












1 2 3 
1 1 1 




4 

1 



1,000,000 ACRE -FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



UJ 

iij 
u. 
I 

UJ 

o 

< 

z 
o 



I960 



Staging of projects which involve 
imports to and exports from this area 
under the Delta Pooling Concept ore 
indicoted on Figures 32and 33. 



In-areo net water reguirements 
(exclusive of salinity-control 
requirements) 




PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
DELTA-CENTRAL SIERRA HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



LEGEND 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 



RESERVOIRS 

flOUEOUCTS 
POWERPLANTS 
PUMPING PLANTS 



EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 






4UTH0BIZED 







PROPOSED 



I960 LAND USE 
HMM IRRIGATED 



c 



^ IRHIGOBLE 



FIGURE 18 



CAMINO CONDUIT CVP 
12,000 AF/YR 




FOLSOM-MALBY CONDUIT CVP 
10,000 AF/YR 



ssss^ 




Sopiago Rei, ■• j ^^^ - 



Jackson 



FOLSOM SOUTH CANAL CVP X(K^ <j^\k T"''?^ ^ % A 

425.000 AF/YR ^^^ ' \ Vj^' - Son 



Andreas 



WEST SACRAMENTO CANAL CVP>A 
85,000 AF/YR rVT 

PUTAH 
SOUTH CANAL' 
125,000 AF/YR 




^%^ '? 4?^'* ^^ 



^°^%-^. 



-Co 




/ 



PUTAH SOUTH CANAL 
55,000 AF/YR 
WEST SACRAMENTO CANAL CVP^ 
25.000 AF/YR 



MOKELUMNE AQUEDUCX 
300,000 AF/YR 



EAST SIDE CANAL CVP 
1,250.000 AF/YR 



CONTRA COSTA CANAL 
175.000 AF/YR 




SOUTH BAY AQUEDUCT 
161,000 AF/YR 



SAN JOAQUIN DRAIN 
370.000 AF/YR 

DELTA-MENDOTA CANAL CVP 

2,840,000 AF/YR 
(Including San Luis Unit CVP) 

CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT 
4,024,000 AF/YR 
(Including San Felipe Division CVP) 

HETCH HETCHY AQUEDUCT 
290,000 AF/YR 



DELTA -CENTRAL SIERRA 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 

PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 

SCALE OF MILES 



KEY TO STUDY AREAS 





FIGURE 19 












2020 














1990 














I960 








2 

1 


4 6 

1 1 


8 10 12 14 

1 1 1 1 


16 

1 



100,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



URBAN 


IRRIGATED 


REMAINING IRRIGABLE 


—J 






1 






2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



100,000 ACRES 

LAND USE 



AGRICULTURAL 



J\ 



MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL 



I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

J \ \ \ I I I I 



1,000,000 ACRE-FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 




I960 



In-oreo ground and surfoce water supplies 



1970 



1980 



1990 
YEAR 



2000 



2010 



2020 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 



SAN JOAQUIN BASIN HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



FIGURE 20 



..■••CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT 

4,024,000 AF/YR 
(Including San Felipe Division CVP) 



• DELTA MENDOTA CANAL CVP 

2,840,000 AF/YR 
(Including San Luis Unit CVP) 





LEGEND 




WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 




EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 


Authorised 


PROPOSED 


RESEfivOfRS 

aqueducts 
powerplants 


■•^ 


£2^^- 


•^ 


■ 





■ 


PUMPING PLANTS 


• 





• 


IMPORTS /EXPORTS 

(1990 CONOlTiONSl 


■^ 


K///t> 




[^^^^^ URBAN 


I960 LAND USE 




1 , 1 ,RR 


GATED 1 


.;j IPRICABLE 




1 




a\iDn K^ 








SAN JOAQUIN BASIN 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 

PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 

SCALE OF MILES 





FIGURE 21 












2020 














1990 














I960 










1 
1 


2 3 
1 1 


4 

1 



1,000,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



1 



URBAN 



IRRIGATED 



REMAINING IRRIGABLE 



2 

J_ 



3 

_L 



1,000,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



AGRICULTURAL 



MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL 



f 



2 4 6 
J I L 



8 10 12 
J I L 



1,000,000 ACRE-FEET 

APPLIED WATER 

REQUIREMENTS 






LlI 

O 

< 




2010 



I960 1970 1980 1990 2000 

YEAR 

PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
TULARE BASIN HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



2020 



FIGURE 22 



EAST SIDE FRIANT-KERN CANAL 

CANAL 1,115,000 AF/YR^^»rr«r//^ 

SAN JOAQUIN 1,500,000 AF/YR f ''^ 

DRAIN MillerlonLake^^fJ , ^.^ ^ / 

(Including San % 330,000 AF/YR % Vf^i^^'/^^-f*?^ 

Luis Unit CVP) 



CALIFORNIA 

AQUEDUCT 

5,149,000 AF/YR 




O _"__£ G N 



COASTAL BRANCH 
83,000 AF/YR 






KEY TO STUDY AREAS 



LEGEND 



CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT 
2,466,000 AF/YR 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 



RESERVOIRS 
AQUEDUCTS 
POWERPLANTS 
PUMPING PLANTS 



IMPORTS /EXPORTS 
(1990 CONDITIONS) 



EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 



m 



AUTHORIZED 



G 



I960 LAND USE 
I I URBAN I . I IRRIGATED 



~| IRRIGABLE 



TULARE BASIN 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 

PRESENT AND PROPOSED 

MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 

SCALE OF MILES 



FIGURE 23 



2020 



1990 



I960 




1,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



URBAN 

IRRIGATED 



REMAINING IRRIGABLE 



3 

_L 



100,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



5 

J_ 



AGRICULTURAL 



MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL^ 



I 



2 

I 



100,000 ACRE-FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



^uu 








^^^^ 








In-areo net water requirements v 


^^ 


^^^^^^^^ 




300 


— 




^<^ 


-^^^^^ 




— 


H 
UJ 
UJ 




Exports: J 
Little Truckee Diversion ^__^^^ 
Ectio Lake Diversion >. ^^"'"^^^^^^^ 


^ 


^ Innport , 


Tule Loke Reservoir 




U- 




_— -— r^^^^^^^^*^ 








UJ 

u 200 
< 




^^^^^ 






— 


THOUSAND 
8 


— 


In-orea ground and surface water supplies-. 
1 1 1 


1 


I 1 


— 



I960 



1970 



1980 



1990 
YEAR 



2000 



2010 



2020 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
NORTH LAHONTAN HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



LEGEND 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 




EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 


AUTHORIZED 


PROPOSED 


HESERVOIRS 


■•^ 


Eaz=^ 


■*^ 


flOUEOUCTS 








POWERPi afj-"; 


■ 





■ 


PUMPING PLANTS 


• 





• 


IMPORTS /EXPORTS 
(1990 CONDITIONS) 


^ 


y//A> 


■^ 




I960 LA 

^^^^n iRR 


ND USE 




j^Hil URBAN 


GATED 1 


1 IRRIOABLE 







O R E G O W 




KEY TO STUDY AREAS 




FIGURE 24 



S I E ^R R A CO 
LITTLE TRUCKEE RIVER .^ v, i- 

DIVERSION 
7,000 AF/YR 



ECHO LAKE 

DIVERSION 

2,000 AF/YR 




NORTH LAHONTAN 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 

PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 










kBridijeoorf s 



FIGURE 25 



2020 



1990 



I960 




100.000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



URBAN 

IRRIGATED 


24 

1 


REMAINING IRRIGABLE 


—I 








4 8 12 16 20 





100,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



^ 



AGRICULTURAL 



MUNICIPALS INDUSTRIAL 



t> 



\ 



12 3 4 5 6 7 8 



100.000 ACRE-FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



800 



700 



600 



uj 500 
ii. 
I 

UJ 

oc 

^ 400 



o 

2 
< 

in 

ID 
O 

X 



300 



200 — 



100 — 



Exported from area , Los Angeles Aqueduct 



In-areo net woter requirement 




Import -Californio Aqueduct 



Loco! ground woter safe yield 

J \ L 



I960 



1970 



1980 



1990 
YEAR 



2000 



2010 



2020 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
SOUTH LAHONTAN HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 




EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 


AUTMOniZEO 


PROPOSED 


RESERVOIRS 


■•p- 


E2iy— 


■a^ 


AQUEDUCTS 












POWEBPLflNTS 


■ 


:? 


■ 


PUMPING PLANTS 


• 




• 


IMPORTS/EXPORTS 

(1990 CONDITIONSl 


■^ 


KZ4> 




I960 LAND USE 


1 1 URBAN 


1 \ (RR.MTEO 1 


1 IRRIGABLE 


1 




FIGURE 26 



'/ 



\ i '' E2ZZZZr> 
es V'- 



^/f SP/i, 
KES 



WEST BRANCH 

CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT 

1,502,000 AF/YR 



EAST BRANCH 
CALIFORNIA AQUEDUCT ri 
677,000 AF/YR V 



SOUTH LAHONTAN 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 

PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 

SCALE OF MILES 

8 a 16 

I I 



FIGURE 27 



2020 



1990 



I960 

































2 4 
1 1 


6 8 10 
1 1 1 


12 
1 



100,000 PERSONS 
POPULATION 



IL 



URBAN 



IRRIGATED 



REMAINING IRRIGABLE 



1 



12 3 4 5 6 7 8 
J I I I I I I L 



100,000 ACRES 
LAND USE 



AGRICULTURAL 



MUNICIPAL a INDUSTRIAL 



^ 



12 3 4 
J I I I [ I L 



1,000,000 ACRE- FEET 

APPLIED WATER 
REQUIREMENTS 



LlI 



o 
< 



7 — 



6 — 



5 — 



In-oreo net woter requirement 



7 



X/ 



Possible odditionol agnculturol 
woter demond If low cost supplies 
become ovoiloble 



Ground woter overdroft 



2 — 



Colorodo River - 




I960 



:y- 



Import - Calitornio Aqueduct" 

Required additional supply 



Safe yield of in-areo woter supplies 



1970 



1980 



1990 
YEAR 



2000 



2010 



2020 



PROJECTED WATER SUPPLIES AND NET WATER REQUIREMENTS 
COLORADO DESERT HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 



FIGURE 28 



LEGEND 



WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 



SESERVOIRS 
aOUEDUCTS 
POWERPLANTS 
PUMPING PLANTS 



IMPORTS/EXPORTS 
(1990 CONDITIONS) 



EXISTING OR 

UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION 



AUTHORIZED 









I960 LAND USE 
■■■ IRRIGATED 



I I 



COLORADO DESERT 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREA 

PRESENT AND PROPOSED 
MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 

SCALE OF MILES 

8 16 



\ 



#1^ 



NOTE: 

Water imported to tfie Colorado Desert Hydrologic Study Area 
by the Californio Aqueduct will be transported through the 
woter contractors' distribution systems. 







:alifornia 

AQUEDUCT r 
9,000 AF/YR » 

ezzzzz^ 



■-Ttl 



-^/. 



^ 




SAN 


B 


E 


R 


N 


A R D 


N 





1 




V 


E 


R 


S 


1 D E 


C 






Palm Springs 



^ 



COLORADO RIVER 

AQUEDUCT 

540,000 AF/YR 




MPERIAL CO 







juna Res 



KEY TO STUDY AREAS 



There are a number of opportunities for local surface 
water developments. An example is the proposed Butler Valley 
Dam and Reservoir on the lower Mad River about 20 miles east of 
Eureka. Its location is shown on Figure 8. At an estimated 
cost of 25 million dollars, this reservoir could be constructed 
i-^ith a capacity of 400_,000 acre-feet. It would provide an 
annual water yield of about 220,000 acre-feet, flood protection 
along the lower Mad River and substantial recreation benefits. 
Its water yield could satisfy the growth of water requirements 
in Humboldt County and could replace water supplies of the 
upper Mad River which in turn could be diverted through the 
proposed lower Trinity River system into the Sacramento Valley. 

The major conservation facilities being planned in 
the North Coastal area primarily for export purposes will also 
make water available for in-area use. These are discussed 
below and in the next section. 

The California Water Plan demonstrated the general 
feasibility of conserving and transporting to water-deficient 
areas of the State a significant portion of the surplus runoff 
in the North Coastal area. Studies in the Department's North 
Coastal Area Investigation, which were reported in Bulletin 
No. 136, refined this concept and outlined it in more detail. 
The new estimates indicate that approximately 10 million acre- 
feet of firm water supply could be developed in the area by the 
staged construction of a series of major projects. This would 
be in addition to the yields of existing developments for local 
and export water supplies and in addition to estimated streamflow 

maintenance requirements for fisheries preservation. 

-73- 



Current projections , described in the next section, 
indicate that major increments of water supply from the North 
Coastal area will be needed for the Central Valley Project and 
State Water Project beginning in the late 1980's. Figure 7 shows 
the projected staging of developments in the Upper Eel, Trinity, 
Mad, and Van Duzen River Basins to meet an estimated combined 
water demand on the two projects of between 2.5 and 3.0 million 
acre-feet by the year 2000. This indicated staging is predicated 
upon the need for new water supplies only. Construction scheduling 
of these multiple-purpose projects may also be determined by the 
need for other project services such as flood control and water 
quality control. Figure 7 further indicates the possibility that 
supplies from the Lower Eel and Klamath Rivers may also be needed 
after the year 2000. These potential projects are described in 
the next section. 

San Francisco Bay Area 

The San Francisco Bay Hydrologic Study Area, considered 
as a whole, has sufficient water supplies developed or projected 
for development to meet its requirements until about 2020 (Figure 
9). This area has a complex system of water supply, however, and 
deficiencies will occur in some local are'as after 1990. 

For the purposes of estimating water supplies and 
projecting water development, this study area has been divided 
into two subareas. The first is the area surrounding San 
Francisco Bay proper and extending to the east and south of the 
bay. Local surface and ground water supplies in this subarea 
have been almost fully developed and there is heavy dependence 
on imported water. The southern part of the area, particularly 
Santa Clara Valley, has had a condition of significant ground 

-74- 



water overdraft for a number of years ^ which has caused sea 
water intrusion near the Bay. Water now imported through the 
South Bay Aqueduct of the State Water Project and importations 
"by the proposed San Felipe Division of the Central Valley Project 
should eliminate this condition. 

The second subarea lies north of San Francisco Bay 
and includes the Russian River Basin, Although present and 
projected imports to this area provide the primary water supplies 
for certain localities, the subarea as a whole has substantial 
quantities of developable local supplies. Most of the projected 
increase in supplies obtained from local developments (Figure 9) 
will serve this subarea. The largest local sources are the 
Russian River and its tributaries. Analyses of proposed projects 
indicate that over 500,000 acre-feet per year of firm water 
supply can be developed in the Russian River Basin to assist in 
meeting the growth of net water requirements. 

The authorized and proposed projects in the San 
Francisco Bay area are shown on Figure 10. Warm Springs Reser- 
voir, authorized for construction by the Corps of Engineers, 
will provide flood control on the Russian River and will con- 
tribute 90,000 acre-feet of new water supply for use in 
Sonoma and Marin Counties. 

The largest of the proposed projects would be Knights 
Valley Reservoir which would be formed by dams on Maacama and 
Franz Creeks. These creeks are tributaries of the Russian 
River. The reservoir would regulate natural runoff of the two 



-75- 



streams and would store water pumped from the Russian River 
during periods of excess flov/. At a capacity of 1.5 million 
acre-feet, the reservoir would provide an annual water supply 
of approximately 350^000 acre-feet for Napa Valley and Sonoma 
and Marin Counties, v/ould furnish flood control, and would 
accommodate exceptionally high recreational usage. The cost 
would be about 200 million dollars. 

The remaining two proposals are Big Sulphur Reservoir 
on Big Sulphur Creek (a tributary of the Russian River) and 
Walker Reservoir on Walker Creek. Big Sulphur Reservoir would 
be chiefly for flood control, and Walker Reservoir would provide 
local water service in Marin County. 

Central Coastal Area 

In the Central Coastal Hydrologlc Study Area, local 
water supplies will not meet the area's long-range water re- 
quirements. To sustain the projected growth of the area, water 
must be Imported from the Central Valley or obtained from other 
sources. By the year 2020, over one-third of the water require- 
ments are expected to be met from outside sources, as shown on 
Figure 11. 

The Central Coastal area now depends entirely on local 
water supplies. In portions of San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara 
Counties and in the Hollister-Gllroy area, the local supplies 
are nearing full development. These localities will shortly be 
turning to imported water from the State Water Project and from 



-76- 



the Bureau of Reclamation's proposed San Felipe Division, shown 
on Figure 12. In other areas more water can be developed from 
locally available supplies. 

A large portion of the local water supply in the 
Central Coastal area is derived from ground water, and several 
of the ground water basins are being overdrawn. The aggregate 
overdraft in the entire area is probably about 70,000 acre-feet 
per year, but additional study is required to confirm its magni- 
tude. Much of the overdraft is expected to be eliminated by 
imported water from the California Aqueduct and from the proposed 
San Felipe Division. Conjunctive operation of ground water 
basins with existing and future surface water reservoirs would 
also help to overcome the overdrafts. 

Possible local projects have been identified which 
could provide an additional yield of about l80,000 acre-feet 
per year. A large portion of this potential supply would come 
from development of the relatively minor streams along the coast 
of San Luis Obispo County. When developed, probably after 1990, 
these supplies would be conveyed by conduit to the San Luis 
Obispo metropolitan area for municipal and industrial use. 

By the year 2020, the annual yield from local develop- 
ment is expected to increase to about 900,000 acre-feet, repre- 
senting essentially full development of local ground and surface 
water supplies. Present plans are for annual Imports from the 
State Water Project and the San Felipe Division totaling 189,000 
acre-feet by 2020. With a net water requirement of I.58 million 
acre-feet in 2020 it is estimated that the area will require an 



-77- 



additional annual imported supply of approximately 490,000 acre- 
feet. This amount is assumed in this report to be met by imports 
from the Central Valley, through future additions to the State 
Water Resources Development System. 

South Coastal Area 

The South Coastal Hydrologic Study Area presently 
depends on three sources of water, as shown on Figure 13 . These 
are local surface and ground water supplies, which are almost 
fully developed and in fact are overdrawn in some areas; the Los 
Angeles Aqueduct, which is presently being enlarged to deliver 
approximately 472,000 acre-feet per year; and the Colorado 
River Aqueduct, which is now delivering water at almost its 
full capacity, after conveyance losses, of about l.l8 million 
acre-feet per year. Importations to portions of the South 
Coastal area are expected to exceed water requirements until 
about 1970. This excess will enable additional interim water 
replenishment. Beginning in the mid-1970' s, net deliveries 
through the Colorado River Aqueduct are expected to be gradually 
reduced to about 540,000 acre-feet per year, as a result of the 
U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Arizona v. California , which 
v;as discussed in Chapter I. 

The major local surface water supply development which 
has been proposed in the South Coastal area is the Sespe Creek 
development in Ventura County. This has been studied by both 
the United V/ater Conservation District and the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion. The Bureau's proposal would consist of Topatopa and Cold 



.78- 



J 



Springs Reservoirs, with capacities totaling 410,000 acre-feet, 
and a conveyance conduit. The project would have a total annual 
yield of about 27,500 acre-feet. The cost of the development 
would be about 68 million dollars. 

Figure 14 shows the locations of the principal existing 
and proposed local surface storage features and the routes of 
import works. 

Before the impact of the Colorado River loss is felt, 
deliveries from the State Water Project to The Metropolitan Water 
District of Southern California and other cities and water 
agencies in the South Coastal area will begin. Annual deliveries 
are scheduled to commence in 1971 at 251,000 acre-feet and to 
increase to a maximum of 2,l80,000 acre-feet per year by 1990. 
This import, together with the supplies described above, should 
meet the area's water needs until shortly after 1990, when 
additional supplies will be needed. 

It is expected that by 2020, this requirement for 
additional water will have increased to about 1.5 million acre- 
feet per year. This will probably be met from several sources. 
Significant technological advances are being made in saline 
water conversion. This process and additional waste water 
reclamation will probably meet a portion of the requirement. 
It is assumed conservatively for this report that, by 2020, a 
total of 300,000 acre-feet per year could be produced at favor- 
able costs in parts of the South Coastal area by these two 
methods. It is assumed that the remaining requirement of 



-79- 



approximately 1.2 million acre-feet per year will be met by 
additional imports from Northern California through the State 
Water Resources Development System. 

Sacramento Basin 

With a long-term mean annual runoff totaling slightly 
more than 20 million acre-feet, the Sacramento Basin Hydrologic 
Study Area is second only to the North Coastal area in terms of 
water supply. V/ater development for a v;ide range of purposes 
has been proceeding for many years. At present in the basin, 
there is a total of about l6 million acre-feet of surface reser- 
voir storage either existing or under construction. In addition, 
there are many miles of canals for conveyance of surface water 
supplies. The locations of the major water development facilities 
are shown on Figure l6. 

Ground water is used extensively for agricultural and 
domestic purposes throughout the Sacramento Basin, particularly 
on the valley floor portion. The projected increase in ground 
water usage, indicated on Figure 15, is predicated upon continua- 
tion of the present pattern of ground water development in the 
basin, which is largely independent of surface storage facilities. 

The Department has made preliminary estimates that con- 
junctive operation of ground water basins of the Sacramento 
Valley with surface storage facilities could develop an addi- 
tional annual yield of about 1.2 million acre-feet for both 
local and export use. Additional study of this possibility is 
required to evaluate Its feasibility. The costs of such yield 



-80- 



should be compared with costs of water from surface developments 
in the basin and of water Imported from the North Coastal area. 

It has been assumed for this report that use of In-area 
surface v;ater supplies will Increase by about 1.2 million acre- 
feet from the present to 2020 (Figure 15). This growth would be 
accommodated by storage and transportation facilities existing 
and under construction and by proposed additional facilities. 

Examples of proposed new facilities are shown on 
Figure l6. The West Sacramento Valley Canal Unit of the Central 
Valley Project, including Sites Reservoir as an off stream pumped- 
storage feature, v;ould provide a firm water supply of about 
355jOOO acre-feet per year at a cost of about l66 million dollars, 
The proposed New Bullards Bar Reservoir, on the Yuba River, would 
have a capacity of 930^000 acre-feet and would provide flood 
control, power, recreation and about 370^000 acre-feet of new 
water supply yield at a total cost of about l88 million dollars. 
Other facilities proposed in the Sacramento Basin include the 
Allen Camp Unit of the Central Valley Project on the Pit River; 
Millville, Hulen and Dippingvat Reservoirs on upper tributaries 
of the Sacramento River, and Wilson Valley Reservoir on Cache 
Creek or Indian Valley Reservoir on the North Fork of Cache 
Creek. 

Delta-Central Sierra Area 

The Delta-Central Sierra Hydrologic Study Area is the 
hub of the major state and federal water development facilities 
in California, The locations of important features are shown 
on Figure l8. 

-81- 



The aggregate quantities of water which either origi- 
nate within, or flow into the Delta-Central Sierra area far 
exceed the present and projected water requirements of the area 
itself. The geographic distribution of these water supplies, 
however, is such that ground water overdraft conditions have 
developed along the eastern edge of the valley floor portion 
of the area and northwest of the Delta. 

Construction of the authorized Folsom South Canal by 
the Bureau of Reclamation will enable substantial reduction of 
the ground water overdrafts, and will provide for most of the 
anticipated increase in water requirements indicated on Figure 
17. The West Sacramento Canal is expected to meet the remaining 
requirements in the northwestern portion of the area. 

The Peripheral Canal, an authorized feature of the 
State Water Project, will convey state and federal water around 
the Delta as a link in the system to convey water southward. It 
is proposed as a joint facility of the federal Central Valley 
Project and the State Water Project. It will also provide for 
local water supply, water quality control, fish and wildlife 
preservation and enhancement, recreation and other purposes 
within the Delta. 

Besides these works, the Bureau of Reclamation has 
proposed a future development on the Cosumnes River for local 
water supply in that watershed and to provide flood control, 
recreation, and fish and wildlife enhancement. The major unit 
of this development would be Nashville Reservoir with a capacity 
of 900,000 acre-feet. This reservoir, together with three 



-82- 



auxiliary storage \inits and associated distribution and recrea- 
tion facilities comprising the Initial phase, would cost about 
158 million dollars and would provide a firm yield of 150,000 
acre-feet annually for portions of the foothills in Amador and 
Sacramento Counties. A future phase, consisting of two more 
reservoirs, would cost an additional 25 million dollars and 
would yield about 25,000 acre-feet annually. 

The proposed East Side Canal, shown on Figure I8, 
would constitute an extension of the Folsom South Canal, but 
would not provide water service within the Delta-Central Sierra 
area. It would include a pumped diversion from the Sacramento 
River near Hood, 

San Joaquin Basin 

Water resources originating within the San Joaquin 
Basin Hydrologic Study Area have been largely sufficient to 
meet in-area requirements and to support a substantial export 
to the San Francisco Bay area (Figure 19). The major existing 
import, through the Delta-Mendota Canal, is intended chiefly 
to exchange water for that V7hich is exported southward into the 
Tulare Basin through the Friant-Kern Canal. The Delta-Mendota 
Canal also provides service to lands along the west side of the 
valley. 

Surface water, which serves about two-thirds of the 
area, has been extensively developed and plans now in progress 
would augment these works. Ground water serves the remaining 
needs of the area, and is in abundant supply considering the 



-83- 



basin as a whole. There are local areas, however, where ground 
water levels have "been declining and where overdraft conditions 
are suspected. 

By about the year 2020, annual use of in-area water 
supplies is expected to reach about 2.9 million acre-feet, an 
Increase of about 800,000 acre-feet over 196O use. This increase 
will be permitted by facilities under construction, such as New 
Exchequer Reservoir on the Merced River, and by those authorized, 
such as New Melones Reservoir on the Stanislaus River and New 
Don Pedro Reservoir on the Tuolumne River. New Melones Reservoir 
is authorized for construction by the Corps of Engineers and for 
operation by the Bureau of Reclamation as part of the Central 
Valley Project. It will have a capacity of 2.H- million acre-feet 
and will provide water conservation, flood control, hydroelectric 
power, fish and wildlife enhancement, and recreation. The total 
cost will be about 122 million dollars. New Don Pedro Reservoir 
will be built by the City of San Francisco and the Turlock and 
Modesto Irrigation Districts to provide flood control and to 
firm urban water supply exports by the city and local Irrigation 
supplies of the districts. It will probably have a capacity of 
about two million acre-feet, but this has not been determined 
finally. The locations of these authorized reservoirs are shown 
on Figure 20. 

Additional water requirements in the foothill areas 
may also lead to construction of new local facilities. For 
example, in the Tuolumne River Basin the Bureau of Reclamation 
is proposing the Sonora-Keystone Unit of the Central Valley 



-84- 



Project. It would provide approximately 46,000 acre-feet of 
water per year for agricultural , municipal, and industrial use. 
Tuolumne County Water District No. 2 proposes a smaller project 
in the same area to provide a water supply of 5,000 acre-feet 
and to furnish recreation and fisheries enhancement. 

Present and proposed imports, including the proposed 
first stage of the East Side Division, Central Valley Project, 
when operated in concert with local supplies, should meet the 
area's water requirements until about the year 2000. Import 
requirements, in excess of the capabilities of present and pro- 
posed projects, are projected to increase to about 300,000 
acre-feet by 2020. 

Tulare Basin 

The highly developed agricultural economy of the 
Tulare Basin is dependent upon runoff from the Sierra Nevada, 
Imports from the Central Valley Project, and ground water over- 
draft to supply its vital water needs. 

The basin has long had a deficient water supply. The 
present and projected water supply picture is presented on 
Figure 21. The mean annual natural runoff available for all 
purposes on the valley floor, including replenishment of ground 
waters, is only about 3.1 million acre-feet. The Central Valley 
Project imports about 950,000 acre-feet, which leaves a present 
average annual ground water overdraft of about two million acre- 
feet. It is apparent that any increase in the water-using 
economy of this area must be supported by additional imported 
water supplies. 

-85- 



Until waters from the California Aqueduct of the 
State Water Project and the San Luis Unit of the Central Valley 
Project become available in 1968, the Basin must increase its 
overdraft to meet its needs. By that year, the overdraft is 
expected to be about 2.8 million acre-feet annually. 

For this report, it has been assumed that some of 
the wells in the Basin will be abandoned as all or most of 
their economic lives terminate and that future imported water 
supplies will be gradually increased to eliminate the overdraft 
by about 1995. Yields of the proposed first and second stages 
of the East Side Division, Central Valley Project, are shown on 
Figure 21. The locations of the proposed features of that 
division are indicated on Figure 22. 

There is little opportunity to develop additional 
yield from surface waters in the Tulare Basin. There may be, 
however, the possibility of optimizing the yields of existing 
supplies by systematic management of the ground water basins. 
This possibility should be studied to determine its feasibility. 

The state and federal projects currently being con- 
structed or planned are expected to meet the future water needs 
of the Tulare Basin until about 2010. The area will then 
require an additional supply which will increase to about 
300,000 acre-feet by 2020. The alternative would be to allow 
ground water overdraft to occur again. 



-86- 



North Lahontan Area 

Water supplies for the North Lahontan Hydrologic 
Study Area originate chiefly in the Warner Mountains and on 
the eastern slopes of the Cascade Range and the Sierra Nevada. 
The estimated magnitudes of in-area supplies and imports are 
depicted on Figure 23. General features of the area, including 
the locations of water supply developments, are shown on 
Figure 24. 

That portion of the study area north of the Truckee 
River drainage area receives a regulated import of about 11,000 
acre-feet per year from the Pit River. With the exception of 
this and the releases from minor storage on the Susan River, 
the surface supplies for irrigation are used during the spring 
and early summer months essentially in their natural regimen. 
Present ground water extractions total about 65,000 acre-feet 
per year, and extensive increased use of this resource is not 
now considered feasible. 

The possibilities for local surface water developments 
within the northern portion of the area are limited. The 
California Water Plan included Devils Corral Reservoir on Susan 
River and Long Valley Dam on Long Valley Creek. It also 
suggested the Pete's Valley-Eagle Lake development, comprising 
a confining dike across Eagle Lake and a dam and reservoir on 
Willow Creek. This development would make about 59,000 acre- 
feet of water available in the Honey Lake area. About 30,000 
acre-feet of this would be considered new yield. The feasi- 
bilities of these possible developments have not been determined, 



-87- 



It is believed that the projected Increase In net 
water requirements In the northern portion of the area can be 
met by Increasing irrigation efficiencies and by a combination 
of the surface developments mentioned above and minor increased 
use of ground water. Additional study would be required to 
confirm this conclusion. 

The southern portion of the study area consists of 
the California portions of three Interstate streams: the Truckee, 
Carson and Walker Rivers. All of these rivers have been devel- 
oped for use within both California and Nevada. Two small 
exports, one from the Little Truckee into the Feather River 
drainage and the other from Lake Tahoe drainage into the American 
River watershed, total about 9,000 acre-feet per year. 

Because the potential use of these rivers for irriga- 
tion, domestic water supply, recreation and other purposes 
exceeds the available flows, water rights have long been con- 
troversial. Court decrees, under the administration of federal 
watermasters, control the uses of each stream. Since 1956, 
the States of California and Nevada have been engaged in the 
negotiation of a compact concerning present and future uses 
of the interstate waters of Lake Tahoe and the three rivers. 
During the Fall of 19^5, the California-Nevada Interstate 
Compact Commission provisionally approved a proposed compact 
between the States, subject to ratification by them and to 
consent of the Congress. 



-88- 



The major purposes of the proposed compact are: to 
provide for the equitable apportionment of water between the 
two States; to promote Interstate comity and to further Inter- 
governmental cooperation; to protect and enhance existing 
economies; to remove causes of present and future controversies; 
and to permit the orderly. Integrated, and comprehensive 
development, use, conservation, and control of the waters of 
the three rivers and Lake Tahoe. This document, when approved, 
will confirm present uses In California and provide for alloca- 
tion of unused water between the states. 

The Bureau of Reclamation Is proposing several 
projects In the southern portion of the area. These 
Include Stampede Reservoir on the Little Truckee River and 
Pickle Meadows Reservoir on the West Walker River. These 
facilities would be operated according to the proposed compact, 
and would provide service both In California and Nevada. 

South Lahontan Area 

In the South Lahontan Hydrologlc Study Area, water 
ajid Its cost, rather than land, are the factors that limit 
future development for both agricultural and municipal purposes. 

The principal stream In the area Is the Owens River, 
which has been developed for export to the City of Los Angeles. 
In recent years, the export of about 320,000 acre-feet per year 
has been near the capacity of the aqueduct. A parallel 
aqueduct will be completed by I968 and will Increase the 
export to a total of about 470,000 acre-feet annually. This 



-89- 



yield will be obtained by operation of the Owens Valley ground 
water basin in conjunction with surface supplies of the Ov;ens 
River and streams of Mono Basin. Both aqueducts are expected 
to be operated at full capacity by 1969. These facts are 
depicted graphically on Figure 25. Figure 26 shows the loca- 
tions of the facilities. 

Water supplies for local use in the area are obtained 
chiefly by diversion of streams flov/ing from the Sierra Nevada 
and by the pumping of ground water. A small import of about 
2,000 acre-feet into the Mono Lake drainage basin and Little- 
rock Reservoir near Palmdale, with a yield of about 2,000 acre- 
feet per year, are the principal surface water supply developments 
other than facilities of the City of Los Angeles. In the southern 
part of the area, the ground water is presently being overdrawn 
by about l60,000 acre-feet each year. 

In 1972, the area will begin importing water from the 
State Water Project, and deliveries are expected to build up to 
about 215,000 acre-feet per year by 1991. These imports v;ill 
offset the present ground water overdraft and allow for a 
modest expansion of the v^ater-using economy of the area. 

Colorado Desert Area 

Although the Colorado Desert Hydrologlc Study Area 
is the driest region in the State, its irrigated agricultural 
development is second only to that of the Central Valley area. 
This has been accomplished almost entirely by diversion and use 
of lov;-cost Colorado River water through facilities shovm on 
Figure 28. 

-90- 



Annual net diversions from the Colorado River are 
projected to decrease from the present level of about 4.0 
million acre-feet to 3.85 million acre-feet, because of the 
U.S. Supreme Court decision in Arizona v. California . It 
is estimated that the full reduction will be reached in about 
1990 (Figure 27). To achieve the modest increase in level of 
agricultural activity projected for the basin, it will be 
necessary to make all feasible savings of water by additional 
canal lining, phreatophyte eradication, and other improvements. 

Because of the costs involved, supplies to be imported 
to the area from the State Water Project, totaling approximately 
80,000 acre-feet annually by 1990, will be used primarily to 
support the projected population growth within the service areas 
of the Coachella Valley County Water District and the Desert and 
San Gorgonio Pass Water Agencies. These service areas are north 
of the Salton Sea. It is estimated that urban expansion will 
continue after 1990 and that this will require additional 
imports, increasing to about 175,000 acre-feet by 2020. 

There is a very close relationship between the 
potential demands for agricultural water in the Colorado Desert 
area and the availability of low-cost imported water supplies. 
It has been estimated that about 1.8 million acre-feet of 
additional water supplies could be used to develop some 250,000 
acres of desert lands within the service area of the Imperial 
Irrigation District alone. There are other large expanses of 
undeveloped valley and mesa lands within and adjacent to the 



-91- 



Palo Verde Irrigation District and the Coachella Valley- 
County Water District, on which additional agricultural water 
supplies, totaling perhaps 900,000 acre-feet annually, could 
be used if low-cost water were available. 

The sum of these contingent additional requirements, 
amounting to about 2.7 million acre-feet per year by 2020, is 
shown by the dashed line on Figure 27. 

Statewide Water Supplies and Development 
The foregoing discussions have described the water 
supplies and existing and proposed or potential water develop- 
ments in each of the 11 hydrologlc study areas of the State. 
The purpose of this section is first to summarize those aspects 
of water supply and development for the various areas that 
pertain to required Interarea transfers of water. This leads 
to development of a statewide analysis of the capabilities of 
existing and authorized large-scale water conservation and 
transportation facilities and to projections of the sizes and 
timing of required future facilities. 

Emphasis in this section is placed on development of 
an integrated system of multiple-purpose water conservation and 
conveyance projects, conceived as extensions of the federal 
Central Valley Project and the State Water Project. As in the 
past, a number of federal and state agencies will undoubtedly 
participate in these projects and other facilities will be built 
by local agencies. Figure 29 illustrates the projected 1990 
interbasln transfers of water supplies among the 11 hydrologlc 
study areas of the State. 

-92- 



FIGURE 29 



- NORTH COASTAL 

- SAN FfTANQSCO BAY 

- CENTRAL COASTAL 



- SACBAMENTO BASIN 

- DELTA -CENTRAL SIERRA 

- SAN JOAQUIN BASIN 

- TULARE BASIN 

- NOnTM LAHONTAN 

- SOUTH LAHONTAN 

- COLORADO DESERT 



KEY MAP TO 
HYDROLOGIC STUDY AREAS 



NOTE: 

Transfers shown correspond to nominal 
quantities through water conveyance 
works during years of average runoff. 
The following items related to water 
transfer are not shown: unregulated spills 
from the Delta i controlled releases 
through the Delta for salinity repulsion, 
navigation, and fisheries-, regulated and 
unregulated streomflow passing from the 
San Joaquin Basin to the Delta 




HETCH-HETCHY AQUEOUC 
290,000 



PROJECTED INTRASTATE WATER TRANSFERS FOR 
1990 LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT 



-93- 



Required Water Supply Capability of State and Federal Facilities 

The Burns-Porter Act recognizes the need for Implementa- 
tion of a coordinated statewide approach to v;ater development as 
envisioned and recommended in The California Water Plan. Implicit 
in the Act is the premise that, as water development in California 
becomes more complex and costly, larger organizations and greatly 
Increased financial capability will be required. This v/111 make 
necessary an increasingly active role by the state and federal 
water agencies. 

The principal projects comprising the State Water 
Resources Development System, as defined in the Act, are the 
State Water Facilities and the federal Central Valley Project. 
The term "State Water Project", used in this report, encompasses 
the State Water Facilities and additional features of the System 
to be constructed by the State. The projected increasing role 
of these projects in meeting California's long-range water re- 
quirements is discussed in the following paragraphs. 

In i960 the Central Valley Project provided about 23 
percent of California's total net water requirements. By 1990 
the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project combined 
will be serving about 15.^ million acre-feet annually or about 
50 percent of the State's total projected net v/ater requirements 
of 31 million acre-feet per year. By 2020, these two projects 
will be providing 20.4 million acre-feet or 54 percent of the 
projected total net water requirements of 37.8 million acre- 
feet. 



-94- 



The projected Increasing role of these projects in 
meeting the future water requirements of California after 1970 
is shown on Figure 30. This figure also indicates the other 
sources from which the future total net water requirements of 
the State are expected to be met and the projected phasing out 
of ground water overdraft by about 1990. Figure 31 shows the 
portion of the projected water requirement in each hydrologlc 
study area, which estimates Indicate will be met by the State 
Water Project and the Central Valley Project beginning in 1970. 
The statewide summation of this information is also included. 

The North Lahontan area is the only one of the 11 
hydrologlc study areas for which water service is not forecast 
under these two major projects of the State Water Resources 
Development System. Its requirements will probably be met by 
development of local water supplies, as previously described. 

Capability of State and Federal Conveyance Facilities 

Figure 32 shows the various projected water require- 
ments that can be met by authorized facilities of the Central 
Valley Project and the State Water Project. These requirements 
are distinguished by (l) the identified water conveyance features 
or (2) service areas covered either by water supply contracts or 
by the May l6, I96O Agreement between the Department and the 
Bureau of Reclamation. This figure also indicates the probable 
additional service from these projects which will require future 
transportation facilities. 



-95- 



FIGURE 30 




















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-96- 



FIGURE 31 





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Present annual deliveries of dependable water supplies 
through existing facilities of the Central Valley Project total 
about five million acre-feet. Deliveries by state and federal 
systems will Increase to about seven million acre-feet per year 
by 1968 when the federal San Luis Division and the California 
Aqueduct commence service in the Tulare Basin. The total annual 
dependable water supplies to be distributed by the authorized 
systems will total approximately I3 million acre-feet by the 
year 1990, and will increase to l4 million by 2020 (Figure 32). 

Completion of presently authorized conveyance systems 
of the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project will 
still leave a requirement of over 6.5 million acre-feet per year 
in 2020 to be supplied by expansion of these projects or by some 
other means. A portion of this additional requirement could be 
met by proposed transportation facilities of the Central Valley 
Project as shown on Figure 32. On the basis of the Department's 
current estimates (discussed in connection with water supplies 
of the various hydrologlc study areas) , the San Felipe Division 
will be required for the Central Coastal area by the early 1970's 
West Sacramento Canal Unit will be needed by the mid-1970 's for the 
Sacramento Basin, Delta-Central Sierra and San Francisco Bay 
areas; and the East Side Division should be available for the 
San Joaquin and Tulare Basins not later than the early 1980's. 
The estimated capital costs of these conveyance facilities are 
90, 155 and 800 million dollars, respectively. 



-98- 



Additional water supplies (to be delivered via 
conveyance facilities not yet Identified) will also be needed 
In the San Joaquin Valley, Central Coastal, and Southern 
California areas beginning In the 1990's. Current studies 
Indicate that by 2020, the Central Coastal and South Coastal 
areas will require some 490,000 and 1.2 million acre-feet per 
year, respectively. The additional requirement within the San 
Joaquin Valley might be met most favorably through enlargement 
of the proposed second phase of the East Side Division of the 
Central Valley Project. There may also be the need for addi- 
tional transportation facilities on the west side of the valley. 

In general, water service v/lthln the North Coastal 
area from federal or state projects can be provided most econom- 
ically as an adjunct to future developments which will also serve 
to export water from that region. It has been assumed for this 
report that all North Coastal conservation features, which will 
be needed to Increase the firm v/ater supplies of the State Water 
Project and the Central Valley Project, will also make water 
supplies available locally, as required to supplement the yields 
of local facilities. The estimated amounts of such supplemental 
service, beginning In the late 1980' s, are Indicated on Figure 32. 

Capability of Central Valley Project and State Water Project 
CoJ^seJ^v^tion Facilities 

To determine the timing and sizes of required additional 
conservation facilities under the State Water Resources Develop- 
ment System, it was necessary to estimate the water yield capa- 
bility of existing and authorized features of the system. This 



-99- 



was accomplished by performing coordinated operation studies 
of the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project. 

In these studies, the Delta was recognized as the 
central collection point for all surplus water in the Central 
Valley. The studies also anticipated that depletions of 
natural surplus flows reaching the Delta, as a result of 
further water resource development in the tributary area, will 
reduce the yield of export projects and require additional con- 
servation developments. This principle is manifest in the Area 
of Origin Statutes contained in Sections IO505 and ll460 through 
11463 of the Water Code. 

The operation studies were conducted using monthly 
water supplies during the critical period, I928 through 193^* 
and monthly water demands for projected levels of development 
until 2020. They were based on full operational coordination 
of the basic Central Valley Project and the State Water Project 
facilities listed below, 

1. Central Valley Project 

a. Trinity River Division 

Clair Engle Lake 
Trinity Powerplant 
Lewiston Reservoir 
Lewis ton Powerplant 
Clear Creek Tunnel 
Whiskeytown Reservoir 
Judge Francis Carr Powerplant 
Spring Creek Powerplant 

b. Shasta Division 

Shasta Reservoir 
Shasta Powerplant 
Keswick Reservoir 
Keswick Powerplant 



-100- 



c. American River Division 

Polsom Reservoir 
Folsom Powerplant 
Nimbus Reservoir 
Nimbus Powerplant 

d. Delta Division 

Tracy Pumping Plant 
Delta-Mendota Canal 

2. State Water Project 

a. Oroville Division 

Orovllle Reservoir 
Oroville Powerplant 

Thermalito Diversion Dam 
Thermallto Powerplant 
Thermalito Canal 
Thermallto Forehay 
Thermalito Afterbay 

b. North Bay Aqueduct 

c. South Bay Aqueduct 

d. North San Joaquin Division 

Delta Pumping Plant 

Portion of California Aqueduct 

3. Joint-Use Facilities 

a. Peripheral Canal 

b. San Luis Division 

San Luis Reservoir 

San Luis Pumplng-Generatlng Plant 

San Luis Porebay 

San Luis Forebay Pumping Plant 

San Luis Canal to Mile l8 

Dos Amigos Pumping Plant 

Other local-agency and federal storage and transporta- 
tion features within the Central Valley Basin were also considered 
In the operation studies. These units were operated separately 
for their respective project purposes, and the net effects on 



-101- 



streamflow were reflected in the coordinated operation studies. 
The authorized Auburn and New Melones Reservoirs were Included 
as units of the Central Valley Project-State Water Project 
system in this manner. 

The operation studies considered the project functions 
of irrigation. Industrial, and municipal water supply; power 
production; navigation on the Sacramento River; minimum reservoir 
releases for fish; flood control; recreation; and salinity 
control in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. 

The monthly operation studies were performed on a 
digital computer. The procedure involved first the estimation 
of flows at key points along the Sacramento River, on its 
tributaries, and in the Delta at the particular level of devel- 
opment in the valley chosen for a given study. This initial 
calculation assumed that all inflows to the Central Valley 
Project and State Water Project reservoirs during the month 
would be held in storage. Releases were then made from the res- 
ervoirs to meet assumed power requirements and minimum flows for 
fish life. Further releases were made, if necessary, to meet the 
mandatory flow requirements at the key downstream points. The 
machine program selected the reservoirs from which releases were 
made for power and other purposes so as to minimize demands on 
storage. 

The results of the operation studies Included estimates 
of dependable commercial power production at load center and the 
firm water yield available for future demands after the projected 
upstream diversions and present contractual obligations of the 



•102- 



state and Federal Governments were satisfied. The estimated 
firm water yield of the system is shown hy the lowest blue line 
sloping downward to the right on Figure 33. The downward slope 
of this line reflects the loss of yield due to increasing use 
of v/ater in the area tributary to the Delta. 

This analysis assumed an idealized, fully coordinated 
operation of the Central Valley Project and the State Water 
Project. In this manner the benefits of public development 
were optimized. The two projects operated separately would 
provide less power generation and slightly less water yield. 

Additional Conservation Facilities Required for Water Supply 

Future water conservation projects considered in this 
section are those required to sustain and increase the water 
yield capability of the Central Valley Project-State Water 
Project system. These projects and the more or less independent 
projects, mentioned previously in connection with individual 
hydrologlc study area water supplies, will provide local water 
supplies and other services in the areas where they are con- 
structed. 

Figure 33 illustrates the required timing and additional 
water yield capability of future conservation projects within the 
Central Valley Project-State Water Project system. As previously 
stated, the lowest blue line on the figure shows the combined 
dependable water supply capability of existing and authorized 
features of the system. The red line depicts the combined net 



-103- 



FIGURE 32 




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-104- 



FIGURE 33 




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-105- 



water requirements which are to be met by these projects. It 
Is the same as the uppermost lines shown on Figures 31 and 32. 

The point of Interesectlon of the Increasing require- 
ment graph (red line) and the decreasing supply graph (blue 
line) Indicates the timing of need for the first additional 
water conservation facility. This occurs late In the 1980's. 

This derived timing Is based on projections of net 
water requirements and on estimates of water yields of existing 
and authorized conservation projects. It Is entirely conceivable 
that deviations of actual future values of one or both of these 
variables from the projections could either advance or delay by 
several years the date on which the additional facility will be 
needed. Thus Figure 33 is indicative of the need for the 
facility in the late 1980's or early 1990 's in the event of a 
drought similar to that of the 1928-34 period. 

This indicated timing is predicated upon the need 
for developing additional water supplies only. It does not 
reflect the possible earlier scheduling of developments in the 
interest of flood control, recreation, water quality control, 
hydroelectric power generation, or other project services, if 
this should be found feasible. Considerations regarding early 
construction of multiple-purpose projects for flood control 
are discussed briefly in the next section. 

The stair-stepped series of four bands outlined in 
blue Indicates the staging of conservation developments of the 



-106- 



Central Valley Project-State Water Project system, which Is 
believed at present (1966) to be the most favorable sequence 
until about the year 2000. These projects will be located on 
the upper Eel River, the lower Trinity River and the Mad and 
Van Duzen Rivers, as shown on Figure 8. Feasibility studies for 
all of these proposed developments are in progress by the Depart- 
ment of Water Resources or the Bureau of Reclamation. The projects 
are described subsequently in this section. 

The dates shown on Figure 33 for the additional conser- 
vation facilities indicate when the projects must first become 
fully operational and capable of producing portions of the in- 
dicated dependable water yields (widths of the blue bands) when 
added to the Central Valley Project-State Water Project system. 
A certain lag time is required for completion of feasibility 
studies, design, construction, and, in the case of the larger 
reservoirs, a period for filling the conservation storage pools 
to operational levels. Although studies are not completed for 
this detailed scheduling, past experience has indicated that a 
period of 10 to I5 years, and sometimes longer, is required 
from initiation of final design until a major conservation 
project is fully operational. The need for the present feasi- 
bility level planning studies for these facilities is apparent. 

There are other projects which might also prove v;orthy 
of consideration to meet the growth of net water requirements 
from the late 1980's to 2000. Nashville Reservoir shown 
on Figure I8, has been mentioned In connection with the 



-107- 



water supplies of the Delta-Central Sierra area. In addition 
to providing local water supply and flood control, this project 
could also contribute water for export under the Central Valley 
Project-State Water Project system. Paskenta-Newville, Marysville 
and Sites Reservoirs, shown on Figure l6, could increase the 
Central Valley Project-State Water Project potential for export 
from the Sacramento Basin as well as provide local water supply 
and/or flood control. There are also large potential conserva- 
tion storage units within the Central Valley Basin that would 
provide long-term carryover storage. Examples are: the Glenn 
Reservoir Complex, in Glenn and Tehama Counties (Figure l6); 
Los Meganos Dam and Reservoir, on Kellogg Creek in Contra Costa 
County; Los Banos Dam and Reservoir, south of San Luis Reservoir 
in Merced County; and the Greater Berryessa Project on Putah 
Creek in Napa and Yolo Counties. Further reconnaissance studies 
will be necessary to determine the probable costs of these reser- 
voirs. 

It is possible also that a portion of the future re- 
quirements under the Central Valley Project-State Water Project 
system may be met at favorable costs by the intensive develop- 
ment of the vast Sacramento Valley ground water basin. This 
development might involve conjunctive operation of the basin 
with present and anticipated surface storage facilities. Addi- 
tional studies will be necessary. 



-108- 



After about the year 2000, further alternative sources 
of supply may become available to meet emerging water require- 
ments. These possibilities include desalination of sea water, 
a western states regional water plan obtaining surplus waters 
from the Pacific Northwest, and additional development within 
Northwestern California in the lower Eel and Klamath River Basins. 
These longer- range developments are shown on Figure 33 by the 
lighter stair-stepped blue lines beginning about the year 2000. 
No attempt has been made in this bulletin to determine the 
chronology of these possibilities. 

The possible alternative developments to meet water 
requirements from the late 1980's to 2000 and the unscheduled 
more remote possibilities are described briefly in the ensuing 
paragraphs . 

Upper Eel River Development . The Upper Eel River 
Development is authorized as an additional conservation facility 
of the State Water Project. It will include Spencer and Dos Rios 
Reservoirs, or alternatives, on the Middle Pork of the Eel 
River. Also included will be facilities to convey the water 
to the Sacramento Basin either by gravity to Thomes or Stony 
Creeks or through a pumped diversion to the upper main Eel River 
and thence by gravity via Clear Lake and Lake Berryessa to the 
Sacramento -San Joaquin Delta (Figures 8 and l6). It is 
estimated that the costs of these alternative developments 
will be between 200 and 300 million dollars. 



-109- 



Spencer and Dos Rlos Reservoirs , with a combined 
gross capacity of approximately 1.4 million acre-feet, v;ill 
provide a dependable water supply for the Round Valley area 
of Mendocino County, fisheries preservation flov;s, and an 
additional water supply of about 600,000 acre-feet annually at 
the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Consideration is also being 
given to inclusion of the functions of flood control and 
fisheries enhancement. The addition of the Rancheria Compart- 
ment of the Glenn Reservoir Complex in the Stony Creek route 
or of English Ridge Reservoir in the Clear Lake route could 
Increase the firm water yield of this development by about 
300,000 acre-feet annually. 

Trinity, Mad, and Van Duzen River Developments . Con- 
struction of proposed projects in these river basins could add 
about 1.5 million acre-feet of dependable water supply per year 
to the Central Valley Project-State Water Project system. Their 
locations are shown on Figure 8. Although a construction 
sequence of three stages Is presently envisioned, work on 
these developments would probably be started at close intervals, 
if not simultaneously, because all of the facilities would be 
required within three or four years (Figure 33). 

The first stage would consist of Helena Dam on the 
Trinity River about 40 miles downstream from the existing Lewlston 
Dam of the Central Valley Project. A 590-foot Helena Dam would 
create a 2,9 million acre-foot reservoir and back water to the 
toe of the existing Lewlston Dam. Its annual export yield of 



-110- 



about 500,000 acre-feet would be conveyed through a second Clear 
Creek tunnel or a Cottonwood Creek tunnel to the Sacramento Basin. 
The total cost of Helena Dam and Reservoir including relocations 
is estimated to be 165 million dollars. The 13-mile tunnel to 
Clear Creek, designed to convey the 1.5 million-acre-foot yield 
of the developments on the three rivers, would cost an estimated 
60 million dollars. 

The second stage of development would include Eltapom 
Reservoir (South Pork of the Trinity River) and Burnt Ranch Reser- 
voir (main Trinity River) . Also included would be a pumping 
plant and 10-mile tunnel leading to Helena Reservoir. This de- 
velopment would provide an incremental new water yield of 400,000 
acre-feet annually at a cost of about I70 million dollars. 

Additional water supplies, derived from the Mad and 
Van Duzen Rivers under a third stage of development, would be 
diverted via a system of reservoirs and interconnecting tunnels 
through the earlier staged facilities to the Sacramento River 
Basin. A new export yield of approximately 600,000 acre-feet 
annually would be provided by this development. The capital 
cost is estimated at about 182 million dollars. 

Paskenta-Newville Project . This project could act as 
a regulating reservoir for importations from the Eel and Trinity 
Rivers or could be built as a separate project. The reservoir 
would be formed by Paskenta Dam on Thomes Creek and Newville 
Dam on the North Fork of Stony Creek. The project would con- 
stitute the northern two "compartments" of the Glenn Reservoir 
Complex (Figure 16). The reservoir would have a capacity of 



-111- 



approximately 1.6 million acre-feet and would cost about 92 
million dollars. It could provide about 200,000 acre-feet per 
year of nev/ water. About 20 percent of the new supply would 
be required in local service areas and the remainder would be 
available for use elsewhere. The project would also provide 
flood control, fisheries enhancement and recreational 
opportiinlties. 

Marysville Project . Marysville Dam and Reservoir on 
the Yuba River (Figure l6) would supplement the New Bullards 
Bar Project, currently under consideration by the Yuba County 
Water Agency, by providing the balance of flood control storage 
necessary to regulate the Yuba River. A one million acre-foot 
reservoir, including primary flood storage space of 200,000 
acre-feet, would yield about 100,000 acre-feet per year at the 
Sacramento -San Joaquin Delta, and would provide new opportunities 
for recreation. The cost of the dam, reservoir, recreational 
facilities, and fish hatchery is estimated at about 100 million 
dollars. 

Sites Reservoir . This facility would be an off -stream 
storage feature of the West Sacramento Canal Unit (Figure l6). 
With a gross capacity of about 1.2 million acre-feet, it would 
regulate surplus winter flows of the Sacramento River conveyed 
via the Tehama-Colusa Canal. There would be approximately 
150,000 acre-feet per year of dependable water supply developed 
for use within the Sacramento Basin area and for export to the 
Delta-Central Sierra and San Francisco Bay areas. The cost 
would be about 42 million dollars. 



-112- 



Lower Eel River and Lower Klamath River Developments . 
The developments on the lower Eel River would Include Sequoia 
Reservoir, with a capacity of 6.7 million acre-feet, and Bell 
Springs Reservoir, containing 1.35 million acre-feet. These 
features together would provide an export yield of approximately 
one million acre-feet annually. The total capital cost of the 
reservoirs and pumping facilities for delivering the water 
supply into Dos Rlos Reservoir would be about 460 million 
dollars. This includes I30 million dollars for the relocation 
of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad. 

The lower Klamath River development would include the 
15-milllon acre-foot Humboldt Reservoir on the lower Klamath 
River, Ironside Reservoir on the Trinity River, three pumping 
plants to lift the water up the Trinity River into Helena Reser- 
voir, and a second tunnel between Helena Reservoir and the 
Sacramento Valley. It could develop an annual yield of approxi- 
mately six million acre-feet, at a cost of about 1.6 billion 
dollars. Mitigation of damages to the Klamath River fisheries 
would be a serious problem in this plan. There are alternative 
plans with a lesser impact on the fisheries, which would yield 
smaller quantities of water. 

Desalination . Extensive research and development in 
the desalination of brackish and sea water has been sponsored 
recently by the Office of Saline Water, United States Department 
of the Interior, and by colleges and universities. Demonstration 
plants to study several processes have been built and others are 
planned. The State of California participated with the Office 



-113- 



of Saline Water in the financing and marketing of v/ater from 
the Point Loma Demonstration Plant at San Diego and will do the 
same for a new plant soon to be built in that area. 

Progress in desalination during the last decade, as 
a result of this work, has been significant. About four basic 
methods are now being studied to separate salts from water. 
These are the evaporation or distillation, membrane, crystalliza- 
tion, and chemical processes. Because of the difference in re- 
quirements of plant capacity, relative costs of different forms 
of energy, salinity of the available water and local conditions, 
no one process is likely to be the choice for all areas. The 
methods currently showing the most promise for large-scale 
operation are the multi-stage flash distillation process for 
desalting sea water, and the membrane processes of electro- 
dialysis or reverse osmosis for brackish water desalting. 

In the mid-1950 's the cost of desalting sea water in 
existing small-capacity plants was estimated at four to five 
dollars per 1,000 gallons, or more than $1,000 per acre-foot. 
At that time, projections of costs indicated that sea water 
might eventually be desalted for about $l40 per acre-foot. This 
figure was for a plant of 50 million gallons per day capacity. 

Recent estimates have indicated that with large-capacity 
dual-purpose plants (electricity generation-desalination) it would 
be possible to produce fresh water from sea water at a seacoast 
plant site for about $70 to $100 per acre-foot, depending on the 
powerplant size. It appears that these estimates have been 



-114- 




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-115- 



based on the favorable assumption that desalination would be 
charged only the incremental costs in excess of costs for a 
single-purpose powerplant. The costs would probably be greater 
if desalination v/ere allocated its full share of costs on a 
proportionate-use or similar basis. Development plans for full- 
sized modules and components of desalination plants, now being 
proposed, will permit more firm estimates of desalination costs 
within the next few years. 

The costs of conveying water inland from desalination 
plants must be added for comparison with costs of other supplies, 
such as those imported from Northern California. Present estimates 
Indicate that water delivered from the State Water Project will 
cost about $49 per acre-foot to The Metropolitan Water District of 
Southern California, for delivery from Castaic and Perris Reser- 
voirs at elevations of about 1,500 feet, and about $64 per acre- 
foot to Santa Barbara County, for delivery near Santa Maria at 
an elevation of about 400 feet. 

Western States Regional V/ater Planning . Events of the 
past two years indicate increasing activity in western states 
regional water planning. The State of California must maintain 
a leading role in such planning. Current projections indicate 
that California has sufficient water resources to develop and 
meet its water requirements until well after the turn of the 
century. But, regional importations could conceivably prove less 
costly than some of the sources, such as the lov;er Eel and lower 
Klamath Rivers. 



-116- 



Besides these reasons, it has become Increasingly 
apparent that the welfare of California cannot be divorced from 
the economies of the other western states. California must 
continue to work with the other states in developing a regional 
water plan for the benefit of all. The need for comprehensive 
and systematic regional water planning studies is shown by the 
many suggestions since publication of the Pacific Southwest 
Water Plan report by the Secretary of the Interior in 19^3 . 
Considerable additional study is necessary. 

An important step in this direction in 19^5 was the 
drafting of compromise federal legislation authorizing a Colorado 
River Basin Project. This legislation was negotiated by repre- 
sentatives of the seven states of the Colorado River Basin. Upon 
passage, it would authorize the Department of the Interior to 
investigate all potential sources of supply for the Pacific South- 
west, including importation of surplus flows from the Pacific 
Northwest and v;ould require the submission of possible plans and 
recommendations by 1971. It would permit the formation of a 
Pacific Northwest-Southwest Regional Commission, composed of 
state and federal representatives, to assist the Department of 
the Interior in the studies. 

California has also been working with the other western 
states to create the Western States Water Council. This council 
was approved by the eleven governors at the Western States 
Governors' Conference in June 19^5, and is being implemented. 
Its purpose is to achieve cooperation among the western states 
and the Federal Government in planning of integrated water 



-117- 



resource development. Its functions are: (l) to prepare 
criteria for use in the formulation of plans for regional 
development of water resources to protect and further state 
and local interests; and (2) to undertake continuing revlev/ of 
all large-scale Interstate and Interbasin plans and projects 
for development, control , or utilization of water resources in 
the western states. 

Although much work remains to be done in regional 
water planning, the progress made during the last two years 
toward a solution to v;estern v;ater problems is encouraging. 
Further progress during the next fev; years is expected to be 
equally encouraging. 

Flood Control as a Project Purpose 
Flood control requirements have been discussed earlier 
in this chapter. This section identifies projects v/hich v/ould 
include flood control as a purpose and indicates the flood 
control studies which are authorized or in progress. The section 
ends with a discussion of the desirable scope of future flood 
control investigations. 

Authorized and Proposed Flood Control Projects 

The Corps of Engineers has a number of authorized flood 
control projects in California. These are listed by hydrologlc 
study area in Table 8. 

Earlier sections of this report have presented 
descriptions of multiple-purpose water conservation facilities, 
proposed either as local projects within hydrologlc study areas 



-118- 



TABLE 8 
AUTHORIZED FEDERAL FLOOD CONTROL PROJECTS 
(Construction and planning status, I966) 



i : Capital Costl/ 

Principal Features : (thousands of dollars) 



Project 



North Coastal Area 

Eel River Delta 
Area 



Levees and channel 
work 



14,300 



San Francisco Bay Area 



Alameda Creek 



Corte Madera 
Creek 

Napa River 



Russian River 



Sonoma Creek 



Warm Springs 
Reservoir 

Walnut Creek 



Levees and channel 
improvements 

Channel improve- 
ments 

Channel work and 
possible storage 

Bank stabilization 
and channel work 

Levee and channel 
work 

Multiple -purpose 
project 

Levees and channel 
improvements 



17,900 
6,100 
15,600 
1^1,200 
9,800 
^19,000 
21,800 



South Coastal Area 

Los Angeles 
Drainage Area 

Lytle and Warm 
Creeks 

San Diego River 



Santa Paula 
Creek 



Existing project 
extensions 

Existing project 
extensions 

Existing project 
extensions 

Channel lining and 
Improvement 



318,000 

9,800 

17,400 

2,300 



-119- 



TABLE 8 (Continued) 
AUTHORIZED FEDERAL FLOOD CONTROL PROJECTS 
(Construction and planning status, 1966) 



■ : Capital Costl^' 

:Principal Features : (thousands of dollars) 



Project 



Sacramento Basin 

Bullards Bar 
Reservoir 

Oroville 
Reservoir 

Sacramento River 

Scotts Creek 
Reservoir 



Multiple-purpose ISP.'JOO 
reservoir 

Multiple-purpose 66,400 

reservoir 

Bank protection 67,000 

Reservoir and channel 10,100 
improvements 



Delta-Central Sierra Area 



Morman Slough 



Channel and levee 
improvements 



2,100 



San Joaquin Basin 
Buchanan Reservoir 

Hidden Reservoir 



Lower San Joaquin 
River 

New Don Pedro 



New Exchequer 
Reservoir 

New Melones 
Reservoir 



Multiple -purpose 
reservoir 

Multiple -purpose 
reservoir 

Levees and channel 
improvements 

Multiple -purpose 
reservoir 

Multiple -purpose 
reservoir 

Multiple -purpose 
reservoir 



15,300 

16,700 

12,500 

5,900 

9,900 

122,000 



-120- 



TABLE 8 (Continued) 
AUTHORIZED FEDERAL FLOOD CONTROL PROJECTS 
(Construction and planning status, 1966) 



Capital Costi.' 



t/ 



P roject ;Princlpal Features : (thousands of dollars) 

Tulare Basin 

Kings River and Channel improve- 1,200 

Tributaries ments 

North Lahontan Area 

Martis Creek Multiple-purpose 3,100 

reservoir 

South Lahontan Area 

Mojave River Single-purpose 13,300 

reservoir 

Colorado Desert Area 

Tahqultz Creek Levees and channel 3,900 

work 

TOTAL QqR,000 



1/ Federal cost 



-121- 



or as components of the Central Valley Project-State Water 
Project system. Those projects, which would Include the purpose 
of flood control, are listed in Table 9. This table omits the 
authorized flood control projects sho^-m in Table 8, 

The Corps of Engineers is authorized to conduct flood 
control investigations of several of the projects listed in 
Table 9 and of many more projects in California. These can be 
separated into four categories: (l) completed investigations for 
which formal reviews leading to authorization are under v;ay; 
(2) active investigations begun in I965 or continuing which have 
a tentative completion date assigned; (3) inactive investigations, 
on v;hich work has been deferred; and (4) indefinite investiga- 
tions, which are authorized but for which no funds are available. 
A list of these investigations is given in Table 10. 

Desirable Scope of Flood Control Investigations 

It is apparent that the broadest practicable approach 
to flood control must be taken. Flood control studies should 
be comprehensive and should give balanced consideration to all 
feasible means of flood control and prevention of flood damage 
including storage facilities, levee and stream Improvements, bypass 
channels, warning systems, and floodplain and watershed management. 

Section 1258O of the Water Code declares that the State 
should engage in studies of water development, including flood 
control projects, by all agencies in order that expenditures of 
public funds will bring the maximum benefits to the people of 
the State. 



-122- 



TABLE 9 

PROPOSED MULTIPLE- PURPOSE RESERVOIRS 
WITH FLOOD CONTROL POTENTIAL 



Project 



River 



North Coastal Area 

Butler Valley Reservoir 

Sequoia Reservoir 

Upper Eel River Development 

San Francisco Bay Area 
Big Sulphur Reservoir 
Knights Valley Reservoir 

South Coastal Area 
Topatopa Reservoir 

Sacrajnento Basin 

Allen Gamp Reservoir 
Millville Reservoir 
Wilson Valley Reservoir* 
Indian Valley Reservoir* 
Marysville Reservoir 
Paskenta-Newville Reservoir 

Delta-Central Sierra Area 
Nashville Reservoir 

North Lahontan Area 
Stampede Reservoir 
Pickle Meadow Reservoir 



Mad River 
Eel River 
Eel River 

Sulphur Creek 

Maacama Creek 

Sespe Creek 

Pit River 

Cow Creek 

Cache Creek 

North Fork Cache Creek 

Yuba River 

Thomes Creek 

Cosumnes River 

Little Truckee River 
West Walker River 



*Alternatlve Projects. 



-123- 



TABLE 10 

U. S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS' 
FLOOD CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS 



Title 



: Estimated 
: Completion 
;Loca- : Date of 
tion* ; Investigation 



Category (1) - Completed 

Atherton Creek 

Knights Valley, Russian River Basin 

San Franc isqui to Creek 

Pajaro River 

Pajaro Valley, Pajaro River Basin 

Tia Juana River 

Jack & Simmerly Slough 

Category (2) - Active 

Eel River 

Klamath River 

Mad River 

Smith River 

Alhambra Creek 

Fairfield Vicinity Streams 

Guadalupe River & Adjacent Streams 

Pescadero Creek 

Richardson Bay Streams 

Russian River 

San Gregorio Creek & Tributaries 

Walnut Creek Basin 

Wildcat & San Pablo Creeks 

Soquel Creek 

Cucamonga Creek 

Deer, Day, Etiwanda, & San Sevaine Creek 

San Dieguito River 

San Luis Rey River 

Santa Ana River Basin & Orange County 

Santa Barbara County Streams 

South of Santa Ynez Mountains 
Santa Barbara County Streams 

(Atascadero Creek) 
Santa Clara River 
Sweetwater River 

University Wash & Spring Brook Drainage 
Upper Warm Creek 
Bear River Basin 

Chester, North Fork Feather River 
Coon Creek Stream Group 



SF 




SF 




SF 




cc 




cc 




sc 




SB 




NC 


1969 


NC 


1970 


NC 


1968 


NC 


1969 


SF 


1965 


SF 


1967 


SF 


1967 


SF 


1966 


SF 


1965 


SF 


1967 


SF 


1968 


SF 


1970 


SF 


1966 


CC 


1965 


sc 


1966 


sc 


1967 


sc 


1969 


sc 


1966 


sc 


1969 


sc 


1969 


sc 


1966 


sc 


1969 


sc 


1965 


sc 


1967 


sc 


1967 


SB 


1970 


SB 


1966 


SB 


1969 



-124- 



TABLE 10 (contd. ) 



Title 



: Estimated 
: Completion 
Loca- : Date of 
tion* ; Investigation 



Category (2) - Active (contd.) 

Morrison Creek Basin 
Northern California Streams 
Sacramento River & Tributaries 
Upper Putah Creek 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Recreation 
Kern River Basin, Isabella Reservoir 
Poso Creek Stream Group 

Category (3) - Inactive 

Cache Creek Basin 
Cache Creek Settling Basin 
Red Bank & Fancher Creeks 
Cosumnes River 

Category (4) - Indefinite 

Novate Creek & Tributaries 
Burlingame, Streams in Vicinity of 
Petaluma River 

Redwood Creek, San Mateo County 
South San Francisco, Streajns in 

Vicinity of 
Arroyo Grande Creek 
Carmel River & Tributaries 
Salinas River 

San Lorenzo River & Tributaries 
Lagxina Canyon 

Santa Ynez River & Tributaries 
Switzer Creek 

Battle Creek, Sacramento River 
Big Valley, Lassen County 
Shanghai & Starr Bends, Feather River 
Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta (Model) 
Los Banos Creek 
Caliente Creek Stream Group 
Antelope Valley 



SB 
SB 
SB 
SB 
DC 
DC 
TB 
TB 


1968 
1969 
1969 
1970 
1966 
1966 
1966 
1965 


SB 




SB 




SB 




DC 




NC 




SF 




SF 




SF 




SF 




cc 




cc 




cc 




cc 




SC 




SC 




SC 




SB 




SB 




SB 




DC 




SJ 




TB 




SL 





-125- 



TABLE 10 (contd. ) 



Title 



: Estimated 
: Completion 
Loca- : Date of 
tion* : Investigation 



Category (4) - Indefinite (contd.) 

Imperial & San Diego Counties, 

Streams Flowing into Salton Sea 
Whitewater River 



CD 
CD 



* Symbols for hydrologic study areas shown on Figure 4, 

NC - North Coastal 

SF - San Francisco Bay 

CC - Central Coastal 

SC - South Coastal 

SB - Sacramento Basin 

DC - Delta-Central Sierra 

SJ - San Joaquin Basin 

TB - Tulare Basin 

SL - South Lahontan 

CD - Colorado Desert 



■126- 



Projections of requirements should be made to determine 
the earliest feasible time for construction of flood control 
projects to achieve these maximum benefits. The need for these 
studies vras further recognized in several resolutions adopted by 
the 1965 Legislature, including SCR 14 (Petersen), SJR 11 (Collier) 
and AJR 10 (Belottl). These resolutions requested the Department 
and the Federal Government to accelerate planning and construction 
of flood control developments in the North Coastal area and else- 
where. 

Justification of flood control projects should be based 
on both historical and predicted economic factors. Provision should 
be made for the early construction of multiple-purpose projects in- 
volving flood control when the flood control benefits exceed the 
costs, providing the earlier construction is deemed feasible in 
view of the considerations discussed below. 

When estimates of flood control needs indicate that a 
multiple-purpose project possibly should be built for flood con- 
trol before it is needed for other purposes, the added costs of 
the project, including interest, must be compared with the addi- 
tional flood control benefits that would occur with early con- 
struction to determine overall project feasibility. 

The financing and repayment of early construction costs 
of multiple-purpose projects must also be considered and the 
availability of capital must be determined. Normally, repayment 
of reimbursable costs by beneficiaries would begin at or near 
the completion date of the project. If a multiple-purpose project 
were completed sooner than necessary for some project purposes, 
it might be desirable for repayment for those purposes to be 
deferred. This vrauld be contingent upon the ability of the con- 
struction agency to meet its financial obligations. The Water 

-127- 



Supply Act of 1958 J mentioned in Chapter 1, provides the means 
of deferring for 10 years the repayment of costs of federal 
projects allocated to future municipal and industrial water 
supply. 

It is probable that analyses will indicate that pro- 
tection of some areas is not economically justified, hov/ever. 
In many instances the solution may be provided by floodplain 
management . 

Role of Electric Power 

Future v/ater development in California will be tied 
closely to the development of electric power, as it has been in 
the past. The market for hydroelectric power will be a factor 
in determining the economic and financial feasibility of, and 
costs of water from, many vjater conservation facilities. Costs 
of power for pumping will continue to play an important role in 
determining costs of transporting v;ater over long distances. 

Forecasts of Pov/er Requirements and Development 

California's projected electric power and energy re- 
quirements to the year 2020 are shown on Figure 3^. These 
estimates were derived from population forecasts, anticipated 
increases in per capita use of electricity, and projections of 
annual load factors. The State's maximum power demand in 1965 
was estimated at about 17.2 million kilowatts. Projected state- 
wide pov;er demands for the years 1990 and 2020 are 80 million 
kilowatts and 245 million kilowatts, respectively. 



-128- 







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FIGURE 34 



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-129- 



The forecasted increases in the per capita use 
reflect the expanding applications of electricity, such as 
electric house heating, and the declining cost of power from 
fossil fuel and nuclear fired thermal plants. This decrease 
is expected to continue to improve the competitive position 
of electricity in relation to other forms of energy such as 
oil and gas. 

The per capita use is expected to remain higher in 
Northern than in Southern California. More industrial plants 
of the types which require large amounts of power will probably 
locate in Northern California. A higher proportion of multiple 
residential dwellings, having a lower per capita use, are 
anticipated in Southern California. 

The industrial power load is predicted to increase 
at a faster rate in California than in most other parts of the 
United States. This is expected to occur as the State develops 
Industrial maturity commensurate with its expanding market and 
labor potentials. It is forecast that residential and commer- 
cial power loads will increase more rapidly than other load 
classes, including industrial. Because of the projected low 
cost of fuel for coal-fired plants and the even lower cost of 
nuclear fuel, it is anticipated that relatively low cost off- 
peak energy will become available. As a result, off peak loads, 
such as electric car battery recharging, may increase 
markedly. 



-130- 



Market for and Value of Hydroelectric Pov/er 

With the rapidly expanding power requirements In 

California, (Figure 34) a potential market should exist for 

the relatively limited additional hydroelectric power potential 

in the State. The marketability will depend, however, upon two 

main interrelated factors. 

The first is the extent to which hydroelectric power 

can he absorbed in the peak portion of the total power load. 

The degree of peaking supplied from a particular source is 

expressed in terms of the capacity factor (which is related 

directly to the percentage of time the plant operates). For a 

given hydroelectric development possibility, as the capacity 

factor decreases, the installed plant capacity must be increased, 

Current projections of power load and power supply 

show that the power market will probably be able to absorb 

hydroelectric production at the following minimum dry-period 

capacity factors: 

1965-1974 1975-1984 After 1984 

Dry Period 

Capacity Factor {%) 30 25 20 

For comparison, estimates of hydroelectric power value for The 

California Water Plan were based on a dry-period capacity 

factor of 40 percent, which was assumed to remain constant. 

The forecasted utilization of hydroelectric generation 

in the Intermediate dry-period capacity factor range (20 to 30 

percent), results from the estimate that California's needs 

for peaking at capacity factors lov/er than 20 percent will be 



-131- 



supplied by other sources. These will probably Include 
surplus peaking capacity from the Pacific Northwest, additions 
to existing plants, and special design thermal-electric peak- 
ing units. It Is anticipated that conventional hydro plants 
will not be able to compete, from the standpoint of cost, 
with these other peaking facilities at the very low capacity 
factors. 

The second factor governing the marketability of 
hydroelectric power is the competitive cost of other potential 
pov;er sources which might supply the same portion of the power 
load. This factor is closely related to the first, because it 
is partly on the basis of cost that the estimates of capacity 
factor for hydro have been made. 

The principal measure of value of hydroelectric 
power is the cost of producing equivalent power through the 
alternative thennal-electrlc unit which would be installed 
In the absence of the hydroelectric plant. Other factors 
considered include the greater reliability and operational 
flexibility of the hydroelectric machinery. 

The estimated values of hydroelectric power for 
future developments are as follows: 



-132- 



Date of Initial Operation 
1965-197^" 1975-19^^" After 19^^ 

Capacity Component at 

Load Center 17.90 18.35 19.20 

(dollars per 

kilowatt-year) 

Capacity Component at 

Plant Sites 16.65 17.10 17.95 

(dollars per 

kilowatt-year) 

Energy Component at 
Load Center and 

Plant Sites 3.0 2.1 0.7 

(mills per 

kilowatt -hour) 

These estimated values were based on fossil fuel units only for 
the initial period; fossil fuel and nuclear units, in the pro- 
portion of two fossil fuel units to one nuclear unit, for the 
1975-1984 period; and nuclear units only after 1984. The 
capacity components of value at the hydroelectric plant sites 
were estimated hy deducting transmission costs and losses from 
the values at load center, assuming a transmission distance of 
about 125 miles. Energy losses in transmission, which would 
be small at assumed high transmission voltages of 345 and 5OO 
thousand volts, were neglected for these estimates. 

The above estimates of values at plant sites compare 
to the constant values of about $22 per kilowatt-year and 2.8 
mills per kilowatt-hour used for The California Water Plan. 
The decline in the estimated value of the capacity component 
of hydroelectric power between the time of The California Water 
Plan studies and the present is due to reductions in the 



-133- 



capital costs of fossil fuel generating units. The decrease 
in the value of the energy component, after the initial period, 
is the result of the projected use of low-cost nuclear fuel. 
The decrease in the components of value of hydro- 
electric power, discussed above, would be offset by the 
increase of total unit value, or revenue, due to the loiver 
capacity factor for such power. The total unit value of power 
at hydroelectric plant sites, given in The California V/ater 
Plan, was 7.8 mills per kilowatt-hour. Based on the current 
estimates of the capacity and energy components of value and 
the lower capacity factors, the total unit values at plant 
sites would be 8.1, 8.4 and 8.9 mills per kilowatt-hour for 
the respective periods named above. Proposed individual hydro- 
electric power installations will have to be appraised in the 
light of cost factors and power load conditions prevailing 
and forecasted when advance planning and design are undertaken. 

Sources and Cost of Power for Pumping 

Recent technological advances have resulted in 
several sources of low-cost power for water project pumping. 
These include developments in nuclear power generation, 
decreases in the costs of mining and transporting coal, and 
reductions in the cost of electric power transmission. The 
Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Interties v/ill provide a 
source of relatively low-cost power for pumping in California 
in the near future. This source consists of surpluses antici- 
pated in Pacific Northv;est and Canadian Entitlement power, 
which ultimately will be withdrawn for use closer to the points 

of generation. 

-134- 



The costs of pumping power are expected to exhibit 
a continuing decline as nuclear power approaches fulfillment 
of its promising potential. This reduction in cost is ex- 
pected to increase the feasibility of higher pumping lifts 
and aqueduct routes, with the result that associated tunnels 
will be shortened. The low costs predicted for offpeak power 
will tend to Increase the feasibility of offpeak pumping, 
which will require, in some instances, greater pumping capacity 
and larger aqueducts. Low cost offpeak power for pumping 
would also be conducive to pumped storage development of hydro- 
electric peaking pov;er. 



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CHAPTER III. SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS 

Since publication of The California Water Plan by the 
Department of Water Resources in May 1957, many events have 
occurred that pertain to implementation of the Plan. Population, 
rranufacturing and agricultural producation have advanced to 
higher levels, thus causing substantial increases in requirements 
for applied water. Federal, state and local agencies have spent 
over two billion dollars on v;ater project construction. The use 
of pov/er has grown at a phenomenal rate, and there have been 
important technological changes affecting the cost of power pro- 
duction and the cost of power for water project pumping. Funda- 
mental policies in the field of water development have been 
affected by many legislative acts and court decisions. Substan- 
tial progress has been made in planning features of The California 
Water Plan and in coordination of the activities of federal, state 
and local agencies engaged in planning, design and construction 
of water resource development. 

On the basis of events of the last decade and other 
available information, analyses have been made of the probable 
course of development of the State's water resources until the 
year 2020. The conclusions resulting from these studies are as 
follows : 



-137- 



1. Projections of growth of the State indicate 
that between I96O and 2020 the population 
will increase by nearly four times to more 
than 5^ million persons, urban land use will 
roughly triple to nearly six million acres, 
irrigated lands will increase by more tha.n 
25 percent to almost 11 million acres, and 
undeveloped irrigable lands will be reduced 
by nearly 50 percent to a little more than 
eight million acres. 

2. From 196O to 2020, annual applied water require- 
ments for agricultural purposes are expected to 
increase about 25 percent to almost 36 million 
acre-feet, applied water requirements for urban 
purposes will more than quadruple to over 

l4 million acre-feet, and total applied water 
requirements will rise nearly 60 percent to 
about 50 million acre-feet. Applied urban 
water requirements are expected to increase 
from 10 percent of the total in I96O to 23 
percent in 2020. 

3. Between I96O and 2020, net v;ater reauirements , 
which allow for probable reuses of water In 
each hydrologic study area, are expected to 
increase more than 60 percent to 38 million 
acre-feet . 



-138- 



4. With the projected growth of California's 
population and its industrial and agricul- 
tural activity, the need for water project 
services in the fields of flood control, 
recreation, fish and wildlife enhancement, 
and water quality control will increase 
substantially. 

5. Between I96O and 2020, water developed and 
used locally in each of the 11 hydrologic 
study areas will increase to a total of 
about 17 million acre-feet statewide (a 

13 percent increase). Imported water (water 
moved from one hydrologic area to another) 
must be increased three times above present 
levels to 21 million acre-feet. Only in 
the North Coastal, North Lahontan and 
Sacramento Basin hydrologic areas will 
imported water needs not increase. 

6. The Central Valley Project and the State Water 
Project will play an expanding role in pro- 
viding for California's water needs. Between 
i960 and 2020, the portion of the State's net 
water requirements to be met by these projects 
is expected to increase from approximately 23 
to '^h percent. The North Lahontan area is 
the only area for which service from the State 
Water Project-Central Valley Project system is 
not forecast. 

-139- 



7. Completion of the presently authorized convey- 
ance features of the Central Valley Project- 
State V/ater Project system will leave a 
remaining net water requirement of over 6.5 
million acre-feet by the year 2020 to be 
supplied either by expansion of these projects 
or by other water resources developments. 
Additional conveyance facilities of the Central 
Valley Project should be authorized and 
completed approximately as follows: the San 
Felipe Division by the early 1970's, the 

West Sacramento Canal Unit by the mid-1970' s, 
and the East Side Division by not later than the 
early 1980's. The capital costs of these 
features will be over one billion dollars. 
Between 1990 and 2000, additional conveyance 
facilities not yet identified will be required 
to serve the San Joaquin Basin, Central Coastal, 
South Coastal and Colorado Desert areas. 

8, The conservation facilities of the State Water 
Project-Central Valley Project system, which 
are under construction or authorized, should 
develop sufficient water supplies to meet the 
projected net water requirements to be served 
by these projects until the late 1980's. Water 
supply needs of the State Water Project and 
Central Valley Project between the late I98O ' s 

-140- 



and 2000 can be met from water conser- 
vation projects in the upper Eel, Trinity, 
Mad and Vxn Duzen River Basins. The projected 
cost of these conservation developments is 
between 800 and 900 million dollars. There 
are alternative means of meeting the needs 
for new water supplies after about the year 
2000. These include reservoirs on the 
lower Eel and Klamath Rivers, desalination 
and a regional water plan. Additional sur- 
face reservoirs and ground water development 
in the Sacramento and Delta-Central Sierra 
areas may also contribute toward satisfying 
the system yield between the late I98O ' s and 
2020. The schedule for construction of multiple- 
purpose reservoirs may be determined by the 
need for flood control and water Quality 
control, rather than for water conservation 
purposes alone. 
9. Construction of the proposed federal portion 
of the water conveyance and conservation 
facilities of the Central Valley Project- 
State Water Project system, together with the 
completion of facilities already authorized 
for state or federal construction, and other 
necessary federal water conservation, con- 
veyance and flood control projects, will 



-141- 



require a.verage annual federal appropriations 
between I966 and 1990 consi.derably higher than 
the average for the last 10 years. Construction 
scheduling would undoubtedly cause the max- 
imum annual expenditure to exceed this necessary 
I966-I99O average. Because of the competition 
for obtaining federal appropriations, it is in 
California's best interest to ensure that each 
project proposed for construction in the Central 
Valley Project-State Water Project system and 
those features not a part of this system conform 
to an orderly and timely staging to meet statewide 
needs for v/ater, flood control and other project 
functions . 

10. Flood control should be included as a project 
purpose in many of the multiple-purpose reservoirs 
to be constructed. Single-purpose flood control 
projects will also be reouired. The U. S. Army 
Corps of Engineers has a number of authorized 
flood control projects in the planning or con- 
struction phase, and it is authorized to conduct 
investigations of additional flood control 
possibilities . 

11. Flood control investigations by federal, state 
and local agencies should give balanced con- 
sideration to all feasible methods of flood 
control and prevention of flood damage. These 



■l42- 



methods should Include storage facilities, 
levee and stream improvements, bypass channels, 
warning systems and floodplain and watershed 
management. Projections of flood control needs 
may indicate that it might he deslrahle to con- 
struct a multiple-purpose project for flood 
control before it is required for its other 
purposes. Such early scheduling is possible, 
if it is sound from the standpoint of economics. 
The solutions to many flood control problems 
that cannot be solved economically by project 
construction, may have to depend on floodplain 
management . 
12. Power requirements in California are projected 
to increase by over 10 times to a maximum power 
demand of nearly 25O million kilowatts by the 
year 2020. The cost of generation of thermal- 
electric pov/er, which determines the value of 
hydroelectric power, is predicted to be sub- 
stantially less than estimated for The California 
V/ater Plan. Hov/ever, the projected lov;er capacity 
factors at which hydroelectric power is predicted 
to be used will increase the total value of hydro- 
electric pov;er to slightly over that estimated 
for the Plan. Lov;ered costs of power for pumping, 
as a result of technological advances, are 
expected to affect the selection of pumping lifts 
and aqueduct routes, and could increase the use 
of power for off peak pumping. 

-143- 



'J 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



RENEWED BOOKS ARE SUBJECT TO IMMEDIATE 
RECALL 



o'fT' 5 1974 



JUN 5 1976 



: i REC'D 



APR 1 3 2000 

AUG t 2000 
PSL 



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JUNlgREC'D 



JAN 18 2006 

DEC 1 1 2005 
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i 
LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS 

Book SIip-40m-8,'67(H4313s4)458 




N5 482536 

nslifomia. Dept. 
of Water Resources. 
Bulletin. 

PHYSICAL 
UBRARY 



||l|i|ifl?|'fi>?i';i.'^?Vf9f!N'A,e*y's. 



3 1175 019 



Iniilnliiiliijiil 

5 1847 



C2 

A? 

no.l60:66| 

C.2 



ii82g36 



California, Dept, 

of Water Resourcec 

Bulletin.