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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 108, Jan. 20, 1894, 


#Uimuu of Jtntercommunication 



'When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. IDS, Jan. 20, 1894. 




8" S. IV. JOLT 1, '93.] 




NOTES: The 'History of Guildford,' 1 Our Public Re- 
cords, 3 Elizabeth and Mary, Queen of Scots, 4 Singer's 
Plagiarism Folk-lore of the Fellahin, 5 " Wederynges ' 
Capt. Cook's ' Journal 'Orlando the Paladin School 
Magazines, 6. 

QUERIES : Armorial Families Surgeon Adams Hyde 
Park Bars Lines Quoted Dumont Mecklenburgh Square 
Richard Savage Churchwardens' Accounts, 7 Estur- 
mey Burying a Witch "Flowing Philosophers" Thos. 
Sbadwell Troy Town Name of Publisher Father of 
James I. Madame Campan Marriage Custom, 8 
Longueville Baronetcy Signet Ring Parr Family 
Authors Wanted, 9. 

REPLIES : Library School of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 9 
' The Liberal,' 10 Town Clarinda Vanishing London 
Palfrey and Post, 11 Ariosto " Looking from under 
Brent Hill," 12 " Spurn-point" The Horse-chestnut- 
James Craggs's Family Papers Church Patronage Trust 
Registers of Baptisms by Laymen, 13 " Finable," 14 
Hollow Sword Blade Company The Woodpecker Aust 
Silver Swan Handie, 15 " Exceptio probat regulam" 
Quadruple Births Henchman, 16 Hill " Hoodlumism " 
Abernethy " Clicking-time "Heraldic Castles " Wed- 
ding Knife," 17 Innsbruck Hofkirche " The retired 
tallow chandler" 'The Scape Goat,' 18 " Slopseller" 
" Every mickle makes a muckle," 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Bishop's ' Prison Life of Marie An- 
toinette ' Heath's ' The English Peasant ' Sweet's 
4 Primer of Historical English Grammar ' ' General Index 
to the Chetham Society's Publications ' ' Calendars of 
State Papers,' Vols. IV. and V. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


The family of Russell was for many generations 
one of the most important in Guildford, and to 
various members of it we are indebted for almost 
all the early historical research that was embodied 
in the well-known Russell's ' History of Guildford.' 

Some confusion has, however, arisen with regard 
to the different members of this family who are 
connected with local literature, and it may be well 
to place briefly before the reader a sketch of the 
family history, which may aid in clearing up any 
-confusion of identity. Since 1509 have the Russell 
family been connected with the town ; but it will 
suffice for the present purpose if attention is first 
directed to John Russell, four times Mayor of 
Guildford, who was born on Jan. 21, 1711, and 
died June 1, 1804. He married Ann Parvisb, 
and had a family of seven children. 

He was a bookseller in Guildford, occupying 
premises at No. 32, High Street, now the residence 
of Messrs. W. Stent & Sons, his successors. He 
took much interest in his native town, and his im- 
print J. Russell, Bookseller "appears on the 
first edition (1777), 8vo., of 'The History and De- 
scription of Guildford, the County-Town of Surrey,' 
and upon 'The Adventures of the Guildford Jack- 
Daw '(1820?), 12mo. It is not very clear as to 

which member of the family actually wrote ' The 
History of Guildford/ but it was probably not the 
work of one hand alone. Very possibly John 
Russell himself superintended the work, but the 
actual literary work was in all probability done by 
his third son, Thomas (born 1748, died 1822), of 
Merton College, Oxford, B.C.L., 1790, instituted to 
the rectory of West Clandon, Surrey, in 1788, who 
appears to have been the most literary and archaeo- 
logical member of this remarkable family. John 
Russell at a later date took his second son Samuel 
( born 1 746, died 1824) into partnership. The ' His- 
tory of Guildford ' was, at that time, only a shilling 
pamphlet of twenty-four pages, and the second 
edition, enlarged, which contained forty-four pages, 
was issued in 1800, 8vo., and bears the imprint of 
" J. and S. Russell." Both of these editions are 
very scarce. 

The complete edition of the ' History of Guild- 
ford' appeared the next year, 1801, bearing the 
same imprint. It had by that time become a sub- 
stantial book of 328 pages, crowded with interest- 
ing matter most accurately and carefully extracted 
from the original books and MSS. belonging to the 
town. Unfortunately its general arrangement 
leaves much to be desired, and its want of an index 
is a very considerable drawback to its usefulness. 
As the standard work on the subject it is, however, 
still of the greatest importance, and it is the most 
valuable contribution ever yet made towards a full 
history of the town. Thomas Russell had an 
evident intention of illustrating it very fully, as 
many exquisite drawings are still extant which he 
designed for the purpose. Some copies, indeed, 
were issued with some views cut from his father's 
1 North- West Prospect ' and mounted on plain 
pages, and some with a folding view of the town, 
cleverly drawn by the father, John Russell. An 
octavo view of the town from the same gifted hand 
adorns other copies, and many possess the two 
portraits of Archbishop Abbott and Sir Nicholas 
Kempe which were prepared for the ' Life of Abbot,' 
to which reference is made further on. The folding 
plate of Trinity Hospital, from the same work, is to 
be found occasionally in the 'History'; but the 
only plate which actually belongs to the book and 
was prepared for it, and does not appear in other 
works, is the plate of Guildford traders' tokens 
issued in the seventeenth eentury. The pagination 
of the book is most peculiar. The general pagina- 
tion is i-xii and 1-328 ; but, in addition to this, 
pp. 95-102 inclusive appear five times, and are 
distinguished in this quadruple arrangement by 
the addition to the figures of one, two, three, and 
four stars. Pp. 143 and 144, 175-182 inclusive, and 
187-206 inclusive are also doubled, the extra pages 
being starred by one asterisk. There are several 
minor differences between the copies issued, but 
all are of the same edition, and the discrepancies 
due to the eccentricities of publisher and printer. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. JULY i, 

A few rough woodcuts adorn the book. Thomas 
Russell's own copy, which is still extant, is dili- 
gently corrected and annotated in view of a new 
edition, and many of the extra notes added by the 
author are of special value. He died, however, 
before the demand arose for a second edition of his 

The Rev. Thomas Russell certainly wrote ' The 
Guildford Jack-Daw,' and his brother John drew 
the illustrations in Indian ink very beautifully, 
and the same size as the present very rough wood- 
cuts. Thomas also kept a commonplace book, 
which is in the writer's possession, and recorded in 
it are very many important notes on the history of 
the town and county. By some printed forms 
which are fastened into it we can see that he was 
preparing for a history of the county on a large 
scale, which he was probably only prevented from 
carrying into execution by his death on July 18, 
1822. The other children of the Mayor were three 
daughters, Ann, Elizabeth, and Katharine, and 
another son William, who married Ann Baker, 
and from whom are descended the present repre- 
sentatives in Guildford of the family and those 
who still in other parts of the county bear the 
family name. This brother has left at least one 
water-colour drawing, that of Hedingham Castle, 
in the possession of the Misses Russell, but his 
share of the family genius showed itself in an ex- 
cellent taste and capability in sculpture. The 
father's imprint also appears upon the 'Life of Abbot' 
which was published in 1777, the same year as the 
first edition of the history, and this, although only 
a compilation, is yet a very skilful one, and may 
probably be traced to the hand of Thomas Russell, 
who would at that time be about twenty-nine years 
of age. The drawings in the book were also, as 
regards one of them (that of the hospital), his work, 
but as regards the other two, of the Archbishop and 
Sir Nicholas Kempe, the work of his more gifted 
brother John. The well-known view of the Gram- 
mar School was also the work of the Rev. Thomas 
Russell, and another very charming picture, en- 
titled ' A View of Guildford/ came from the same 

To the father himself we are indebted for * The 
North- West Prospect of Guildford ' with its sur- 
rounding smaller views of buildings, which was 
Eu Wished by "John Russel, jun.," as he then called 
imself, in 1759, and for the other view of ' Guild- 
ford from the North- West,' published in 1782. 
Whose work this first prospect actually was is 
hardly known, unless, as is commonly believed, 
the bookseller, John Russell, not only published 
but drew it, as he states in the margin. It could 
not have been the Royal Academician's work, as 
he at that time was but fourteen years old, although 
it has been attributed to him. 

In 1739 a book entitled * An Inquiry into the 
Jewish and Christian Revelation ' was printed for 

its author, Samuel Parvish, and sold by him in 
Guildford, and this writer is believed to have been 
the father of the Ann Parvish who married the 
Mayor and who was mother to the Royal Acade- 
mician. A second edition of the 'Inquiry' ap- 
peared in 1746, 8vo. One other work, published 
in 1772 by the worthy paterfamilias, must be men- 
tioned, and that is the * Poetical Blossoms ; or, a 
Collection of Poems, Odes, and Translations, by a 
Young Gentleman of the Royal Grammar School,, 
Guildford ' (i. e., Richard Valpy). The book was 
written when the author was but sixteen ; but helived 
to become a very eminent Greek scholar and author, 
and was great-grandfather to the Rev. Arthur 
Sutton Valpy, the present rector of Guildford. 
Richard Valpy matriculated from Pembroke Col- 
lege, Oxford, April 1, 1773, then aged eighteen, 
and graduated B.A. in 1776, proceeding M.A. in 
1784, and B. and D.D. in 1792. He was head 
master of Henry VII. 's School at Reading, Berkfv 
from 1781 until his death on March 28, 1836. 
John Russell also possessed a taste for carving, 
and a tobacco-stopper is still preserved by the Misses 
Russell, the ivory head of which represents a grey- 
hound seizing a hare, and is very cleverly carved. 

The eldest son was the most gifted member, and 
is far the best known for his excellent and beauti- 
ful artistic work ; but there are younger branches 
of the family who merit recognition. William, 
the youngest son, already mentioned, had thirteen 
children. George, the eldest, was specially artistic., 
and prepared some water-colour sketches of the Old 
Friary for the 1845 edition of the ' History,' to 
which we will refer shortly. Samuel married 
Marianne Sharp, of Gatwick Hall, and died in 
1875, leaving two daughters. George, in con- 
junction with his bachelor brothers William and 
John, carried on the bookselling and publishing 
business, and for many years printed 'Russell's 
Almanack,' and did most of the local printing^ 
To their press we are indebted for many local 
pamphlets of great interest, now very rare, especi- 
ally the history of the Chennell murder and story 
of Mary Toft, and for the race-cards and playbills 
and almanacks of the town. All three partners 
were eminently disqualified for success in trade, 
all being disappointed men, forced by the mistaken 
care of their father to turn their backs on the 
careers they longed for and follow uncongenial 
pursuits. George had desired to be an artist, Wil- 
liam a soldier, and was compelled to decline an offered 
commission in the Royal Artillery, while John wa& 
studying for holy orders, with a view to succeeding 
his uncle Thomas in the rectory of West Clandon* 
They all had strong artistic tastes, and have left 
piles of sketches to prove it. 

It is to them that we are indebted for the last 
edition of the 'History of Guildford,' which is 
really an entirely different book from the others, 
It ia entitled, ' Guildford : a Descriptive and His- 

6 S. IV. JULY 1, '93.] 


torical View of the County Town of Surrey,' and 
was published in 1845, bearing the imprint of 
" G., W., and J. Russell." Mr. 0. C. Pyne, after- 
wards drawing-master at the Grammar School, 
made most of the drawings, which were engraved 
by Thomson. Some were, however, as has been 
previously stated, made by the senior partner of 
the firm himself. The book is an octavo of 212 
pages, with an index, and full of interest, and 
although due to more than one hand, it was probably 
mostly the work of the various members of the firm 
themselves. Mr. Samuel Russell was the last of the 
family to pass away, and with us are still his two 
daughters, the Misses Russell, who it is to be hoped 
will be long spared to reside in the town in which 
they, as the last remaining residents of this im- 
portant family, are so highly respected and esteemed. 
The youngest son of William Russell, Edward James 
Richard (born 1795, died 1871) did not enter his 
brothers' business. His children are still living. Of 
the three sons, Ed ward James is vicar of Todmorden, 
near Manchester, William is minor canon and suc- 
entor of St. Paul's Cathedral, and George Monro, 
also in holy orders, is curate of Firle, near Lewes, 
Sussex. There are besides two sisters. 

Upon some future occasion the writer may refer 
more freely to the most gifted member of this 
talented family, John Russell (1745-1806), Royal 
Academician, whom Redgrave terms the " prince 
of crayon portrait painters." 


Guildford, Surrey. 

(Continued from 8 th S. Hi. 462.) 

I have spoken of the records of the Courts of 
Chancery and Exchequer ; now let me call atten- 
tion to those of the two other principal courts of 
law, the Common Pleas and the Queen's Bench. 
In the former the proceedings are in two divisions, 
those on the "Crown" side, and those on the 
" Plea " side. The " Crown " side comprises some 
most important classes, and includes the Assize, 
Coroners', and Gaol Delivery Rolls, the Baga de 
Secretis, the Controlment Rolls, and the Coram 
Rege Rolls. 

The Assize Rolls are, unfortunately, a very im- 
perfect set. They exist from the reign of John to 
that of Henry VI.; but after Edward III. 'a time 
they are very few in number ; however, for yielding 
topographical and genealogical information they 
are most important. Entered upon them are the 
pleas taken before the Justices of Assize, Pleas of 
the Crown, and pleas of Quo Warranto, as well as 
those De Ragemannis, i.e., the pleas before the 
justices assigned by the Statute of Rageman, 
passed in 4 Edward I., to hear and determine all 
complaints of inquiries committed throughout the 
realm during the five preceding years. The pleas 

of Quo Warranto are those taken under a writ of 
the king to inquire by what warrant such and 
such a person, or such and such a body corporate, 
enjoyed any particular estate or liberty. It is 
obvious, therefore, of what very great value these 
pleas are in legal antiquarian inquiries. These 
pleadings, says Mr. Scargill Bird, in his ' Hand- 
book,' were first instituted as a consequence of the 
Inquisitiones Hundredorum, taken early in the 
reign of Edward I., which inquisitions were de- 
livered to the Justices in Eyre for the purpose of 
holding pleas upon claims therein put forth. 
There is no complete calendar to the pleas of Quo 
Warranto, nor to other pleas entered on the Assize 
Rolls. There is, however, a folio volume, indexed, 
printed by the Record Commission, which contains 
a great number of Quo Warranto proceedings, and 
another, printed by the same Commission, culled the 
' Abbreviatio Placitorum.' Besides these, the series 
known as " Agard's Indices" contains abstracts, 
arranged under counties, of a good many entries on 
the Assize Rolls. A fair idea of the varied and im- 
portant nature of the matter to be found on the 
rolls under notice may be gained by reference to 
Mr. Page's volume, ' Three Early Assize Rolls for 
the County of Northumberland/ printed two or three 
years ago by the Surtees Society. The searcher 
should remember that since the tenth year of the 
reign of Edward III. claims of privileges have 
not been adjudicated by Justices Itinerant, but 
have been heard either in the King's Bench or 
Exchequer, and so are enrolled on the Coram Rege 
Rolls (of which presently) or the Memoranda Rolls. 
Of the Coroners' and Gaol Delivery Rolls, a list is in 
progress. It should be mentioned that the former 
of these classes contains the enrolments of coroners' 

The records of the class known as the Baga de 
Secretis contain a great deal of curious historical 
matter. They consist of the proceedings in trials for 
high treason and other state offences from the reign of 
Edward IV. to the close of that of George III. Three 
keys, one kept by the Lord Chief Justice, another 
by the Attorney General, and a third by the Master 
of the Crown Office, formerly guarded these secret 
archives, which were preserved in a closet, repre- 
senting the Baga. But closet and keys have now 
disappeared, and a good descriptive calendar 
(printed in the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Reports of 
the Deputy-Keeper of Records) makes the docu- 
ments available to the student. The importance of 
the class may be judged from the fact that it con- 
tains the records in the trials of Anne Boleyn, Sir 
Walter Ralegh, Guy Fawkes, the regicides, and 
the luckless adherents of the house of Stuart in 
the risings of 1715 and 1745. 

The Controlment Rolls exist from 1 Edward 
III. to the year 1843. Each roll may be divided 
into three parts : (1) the Bag Roll, on which we 
find minutes of various writs issued in each term ; 


[8 th S. IV. JULY 1, '93. 

(2) the Controlment Roll proper, on which are 
minutes of appearances and pleas; and (3) the 
Special Writ Roll, on which are enrolments of writs 
of Mandamus (which when no return was made to 
them do not appear on the Crown Roll of which 
presently), and other special writs. These Control- 
ment Rolls are without calendar : there is one roll 
for each year. 

The Coram Rege Rolls are a very important class. 
They are now subdivided as follows : Curia Regis 
Rolls, 5 Richard I. to 56 Henry III.; Coram Rege 
Rolls, 1 Edward I. to 13 William III.; and Crown 
Rolls, 1 Anne to 22 Victoria. Mr. Scargill Bird 
points out (p. 163 of the ' Handbook ') the reasons 
which have led to this subdivision. From the com- 
mencement of Edward I.'s reign the Coram Rege 
Rolls contain the entry of all proceedings in the 
Queen's Bench, proceedings on the Crown side 
appearing on what is distinguished as the Rex 

The Curia Regis Rolls, 6 Richard I. to 1 John, 
are printed in full (' Rotnli Curise Regis,' 2 vols. 
8vo.). Abstracts of rolls of the same Courts and 
some of the Coram Rege Rolls (Richard I. to Ed- 
ward II.) are printed in the ' Abbreviatio Placi- 
torum' already referred to, whilst " Agard's Indices" 
also contain reference to abstracts of a good many 
pleas on the Coram Rege Rolls. From the reign of 
Charles I. to the end of the series the entries on 
the Coram Rege and the Crown Rolls are referred 
to by what are known as the Great Doggett Books ; 
prior to that date by Doggett Rolls. 

On the Plea side of the Queen's Bench there is 
not much to attract general attention. The Essoin 
Rolls, Edward III. to Henry V., and 3 Henry VII. 
to 40 George III., which contain entries of " es- 
sions " or " excuses " for non-appearance to writs 
issued by the Court, are the most ancient. 

In the Common Pleas records, the De Banco* 
Rolls first claim our attention. Prior to the 
twenty-fifth year of Queen Elizabeth's reign they con- 
tain, in addition to Personal Pleas, the Pleas of Land, 
or Common Recoveries, as well as the enrolment of 
deeds and other miscellaneous writings. After 
26 Elizabeth the recoveries and deeds are found 
on what are termed the Recovery Rolls. The Per- 
sonal Pleas are extremely important to the genea- 
logist. Many generations of pedigree often appear 
in them, and it is a pity that no proper calendar to 
them exists. "General" Harrison laboured for 
many years amongst this class of records, and com- 
piled from them some exceedingly useful notes, 
which a few years ago Government acquired by 
purchase from his daughter ; these are now placed 
for reference in the Legal Search Room. In the 
series known as "Le Neve's Indices " will also be 
found some volumes referring to entries in the De 
Banco Rolls. 

After the De Banco Rolls, the next best 
known series of Common Pleas records is the 

Pedes Finium. I will not here describe the 
nature of the fines Mr. Scargill Bird does this 
very fully in the ' Handbook' (pp. 118-122). 
Suffice it to say that in the Pedes, or Feet of 
Fines, we have a most valuable record of the 
dealings with private property between in- 
dividuals from the reign of Richard I. to that of 
William IV. They are arranged chronologically 
under counties ; and their value to the topographer 
and to the genealogist is witnessed by the fact 
that numerous local record societies are engaged in 
calendaring them for their particular counties. 
From the reign of Henry VIII. there is a contem- 
porary calendar to the Feet of Fines, arranged 
under counties, which are placed in more or less 
alphabetical order ; but the searcher must remem- 
ber that this does not give either the names of all 
the persons who are parties to the fine or all the 
premises dealt with by it: these can only be 
obtained by inspecting the document itself. 

(To le continued.) 

(Continued from 8 th S. iii. 405.) 

Just as Thomas Randolph had formerly been 
employed as the English emissary and spy in Scot- 
land, so after was Henry Killigrew sent thither on 
the same unpleasant errand, and these instructions 
state very plainly what he was to say and what to 
leave unsaid. 

The first subject entrusted to his diplomacy has 
reference to the siege and capture of Hume Castle, 
one of the strongest fortresses of the Borders. This 
siege had taken place in 1570, the Earl of Sussex 
being sent with a powerful army to punish those 
Scotch noblemen and chieftains, the Lords of Buc- 
cleuch, Farnihurst, and others, who had sheltered 
Queen Mary's adherents in the northern rebellion, 
and also to further retaliate for the inroad made 
by the Scotch into the English Marches on the 
very night when Regent Murray was murdered at 
Linlithgow ; and the retaliation for these offences 
was both complete and severe. 

The religious question in Europe became further 
complicated by the death of Charles IX. of France, 
and the succession of Henry III. to the throne, 
the latter king being no admirer or partisan of 
Queen Elizabeth. The former league referred to 
is probably the treaty of Berwick. The ecclesi- 
astical affairs of Scotland were in a very disturbed 
state about this period, the Regent and the bishops 
striving each to gain the mastery and spoil the 

The question of charges and pensions was 
throughout Elizabeth's reign a matter of discus- 
sion and vexation between the two kingdoms ; 
the queen's enemies saying that she bribed the 
officials to execute her wishes, while she herself 



appears to have regarded the Scotch Government 
officers as her own servants of state, to be paid and 
ordered about as she thought fit. Like many things 
else, there were decidedly two sides of the question 
in every matter of Elizabethan policy : 

Instructions gyven to our trustie and welbeloved Ser- 
vaunte Henry Killigree Esquier presently sent into 
Scotland the 22 of Maie 1574 in the xvi"> year of our 

Immediately upon your arrivall into Scotland our 
pleasure is that you shall diligently searche owte what 
alteration hath happened since your last beinge there, 
As particularly whether the Regent continewe constant 
in his affection towards us howe his manner of procead- 
inge in his government ia liked, what partie the Scottish 
Queene hath ther, whether such of qualitie as you knowe 
to be devoted to the present gouernment contynewe 
constantly affected : and if they be aliened whoe they be, 
by what practise and meanes: whether ther hath not 
beene any lately sente owte of ffraunce to practise under 
hande any alternation in that state especially to haue the 
younge kinge delivered into their owne hands or whether 
they loke for any shortly to repaier hither from thence 
and to what ende : of which particularities and of any 
suche other like when you shalbe. throughly enformed 
wee would haue you to advertise us with all convenient 

And for that wee judge that the Regent looketh to 
receaue from us answeare touchinge certaine pointes of 
memoriall he delivered you at your last departure thence 
wherof some remaine as yet unansweared for his satis- 
faction in that behalfe you shall proceade in directinge 
your speache as followetb: 

ffirst touchinge the Ordinaunce taken in Hume Castell 
pertayninge unto the Kinge as he aleageth you shall saie 
unto him that wee doe meane to give order that so 
muche therof as shalbe proved to appertaine to the said 
King shalbe delivered, And as for the rest that apper- 
taineth to the L: Hume wee cannot without iniurynge 
our good Cosen the Erie of Sussex to whome by lawe 
marshal! it doth appertaine restore it: nor the lord 
Hume beinge the enemye demande it: And we would 
that it weare not forgotten howe willingly and daunger- 
ousely our said Cosen of Sussex did make that enterprise: 
So as it is not meete that he should be abbridged of 
that is due to him for that service: 

Secondarily whereas he desireth to enter into contract 
with us and our Crowne for the mayntenaunce of the 
common cawse of relligion, as a thinge most necessarie 
in this tyme, in respect of certaine secreat leagues mad 
for the impugninge and overthrowinge of the same : you 
shall signifie unto him that we seeinge how necesearie 
it is that not only that Crowne should joyne with us but 
also all other Princes professinge one relligion with us 
haue not beene unmindfull therof wherof you can giue 
good accompte for that you weare mad somewhat 
acquanted with the negociations of the Counte Palatines 
servant that was last heare: 

Thirdly whereas he thincketh it necessarie to have a 
league between oure twoe Kealmes for mutuall defence 
against forraine invasion you maye tell him that the 
former ginerall league proceadinge the other shall not 
>e greatly necessarie : for that none can pretend anie 
quarrell to invad the twoe Realmes, unlesse it be for 
pon: And if notwithstandinge this answeare he 
11 insiste to thincke a particuler league were neces- 
8a " : . y, u 8ha11 tel1 him as of your selfe that you did 
lot thincke it necessarie to presse us muche in that be- 
halfe for that you have alwaies scene us readie to yeald 
our assistance when any necessitie hath required the 
same as muche of good will as any league could binde 

us : as also for that you see that the generall league pro- 
ceadinge for defence of relligion there wilbe no neces- 
sitie of the particular: 

(fourthly whereas he hath desired some supporte from 
us for himselfe in respecte of the excessive chardges he 
pretendeth to susteine: and further thought it necessarie 
that we bestowed somewhat in yearly pensions one some 
of the nobilitie there: Our pleasure is you touche nether 
of theise toe pointes: But if you shalbe by hym verie 
muche prest in them then you maye saie you will write 
unto us in that behalfe to knowe our resolution. 

Last of all our pleasure is that in all other matters 
wherein nowe you receaue no Instructions by writinge 
you do accordingly to that we haue alreadie by mouthe 
declared unto you or as you shall herafter by our letters 
be directed. 

(To le continued.) 

SINGER'S PLAGIARISM. S. W. Singer, in the 
preface, p. xiv, to his ' Text of Shakespeare Vin- 
dicated,' &c., 1853, says : "The following canons 
have been deduced from the course he [i.e., J. P. 
Collier] has recently pursued and advocated," and 
proceeds to give thirteen " canons " of criticism. 
These "canons" are taken nearly literally from 
Thomas Edwards's ' Canons of Criticism, being a 
Supplement to Mr. Warburton's Edition of Shake- 
spear/ of which a seventh edition was published in 
1765. In no part of Singer's work can I find any 
acknowledgment that the " canons" which he 
deduces are not original ; and yet no one, so far 
as I am aware, seems to have discovered the 
plagiarism. The first of Singer's " canons " reads ; 
"A professed critic on Shakespeare has a right to 
declare," &c. Edwards's first " canon" reads the 
same, with the exception that the two words "on 
Shakespeare" are omitted. Edwards's second 
canon reads : " He has a right to alter any passage 
which he does not understand." Compare this 
with Singer's third " canon ": " He has a right to 
alter what he does not understand, even when 
parallel passages in the poet might be adduced to 
explain the meaning." A further comparison 
would show that Singer's thirteen " canons " are 
extracted nearly literally from the twenty-five 
" canons " of Edwards. J. E. SPINGARN. 

New York. 


" The gross superstition and the innumerable local saints 
remind us of mediaeval times. Many perhaps most 
of the people wear charms written on paper and sewn up 
in leather ; they are worn around the neck, on the purse 
or pouch, or on the top of the cap. Cattle are also some- 
times protected by them The most absurd tales are 

readily believed, and there is little or no discrimination 
or criticism applied to them. At one village there lies 
a large number of rough stones half hidden in the 
ground, scattered over an acre or so: probably old 
remnants of building material, brought a century or 
two ago from the hills. A great festival of a local saint 
is held at the village yearly, and an intelligent fellow 
gravely told me that the saint had been murdered there 
with all his followers, of whom a thousand were buried 



, IV. JULY 1, '93. 

under each of the atones. The total number, or th 
question of burying a thousand men in a few squar 
yards, did not seem to matter. I have also heard th 
old tale of the man who stole a sheep and ate it ; whe 
questioned he denied the theft, whereat the shee; 
bleated in his stomach. A station-master, who had beei 
educated in England, told me in English, in all sincerity 
a tale about a Copt he knew, who got great treasure 
from a hall full of gold in an ancient mound. The doo 
of the place only opened for five minutes once a week 
on Friday noon, just when all true believers are a 
mosque : then the Copt went and took all the gold h 
could carry, before the door abut. One day, tarrying 
the door began to shut and wounded his heel before hi 
could escape. While naming the local festivals above, i 
may be noted that they generally take place round a tal 
pole fixed in some open space by the village. Some pole 
are stout masts thirty or forty feet high ; around thi 
central point is the celebration of the molid or birthday 
of the village saint. Some molids are fairs for the 
whole district, lasting nine days or even more, am 
attended by performers, shows, jugglers, sweet-sellers 

and as much riff- raff as any English fair Somecuriou 

observances are connected with accidental deaths. Fire 
of straw are lighted one month after the death aroum 
the ground where the body has lain ; and where blooc 
has been shed, iron nails are driven into the ground, and 
a mixture of lentils, salt, &c., is poured out. These look 
like offerings to appease spirits, and the fires seem as if tc 
drive away evil influences. Funeral offerings are stil 
placed in the tombs for the sustenance of the dead, just 
as they were thousands of years ago." Flinders Petrie's 
' Ten Years' Digging in Egypt,' pp. 168-172. 


" WEDERYNGES." I do not remember ever to 
have seen this word before I encountered it in 
Thomas Becon's 'Reliques of Rome/ ed. 1563, 
fol. 236, ii. It occurs in "a shorter form or 
manner of bidding the beades." I shall send a 
slip containing this passage to Dr. Murray ; but as 
it must be many a day ere he arrives at W, it has 
occurred to me that the readers of ' N. & Q. ' may 
well have the benefit of it now : 

" Ye shal pray for al manner of frutes y be done uppon 
the grounde, or ehal be, y' almightye God of his greate 
pitye and meroye may sende such wederynges y l they 
maye come to the austenaunce of man." 


CAPT. COOK'S 'JOURNAL.' In your " Notes on 
Books " (8"> S. iii. 399) you remarked that one of 
Ihe three copies of Cook's famous log-book was for 
many years in the possession of the late Mr. F. W. 
Cosens. It may interest your readers to know 
that this journal originally came into the posses- 
sion of the Ranelagh family through the marriage 
of the daughter of Sir Philip Stephen (a great 
friend of the navigator's) to Lord Viscount Rane- 
lagh. Mr. Cosens purchased the book at an 
auction on March 10, 1868, for the sum of 14/. 15s. 

Sir Walter Scott's readers will remember the 
Boring scene in the third chapter of ' Old Mor- 
tality,' where Guse Gibbie loses control of his horse 
and pike, and covers himself with actual, and Lady 

Margaret with reflected, disgrace. Scott says that 
the unlucky cavalier's horse 

tt ran full tilt towards the solemn equipage of the duke, 
which the projecting lance threatened to perforate from 
window to window, at the risk of transfixing as many in 
its passage as the celebrated thrust of Orlando, which, 
according to the Italian epic poet, broached as many 
Moora as a Frenchman spits frogs." 

In my long but not " tedious travel " through 
Ariostp's poem I have just come upon the incident 
to which Scott alludes; but it was not Moors, 
but soldiers of the King of Frisa (Friesland) that 
Orlando broached with his lance. Scott no doubt 
quoted from memory, and the error is slight. It 
may be that further on in the poem, or in Boiardo's 
' Orlando Innamorato,' Orlando performs the same 
feat with Moors ; but I think the following is 
the incident to which Scott alludes, especially as 
Ariosto in the next stanza compares the paladin to 
a bowman shooting frogs. I have no translation 
of the * Orlando Furioao ' at hand, but I have ven- 
tured to translate the stanza possibly lamely 
enough for the benefit of those of your readers 
who do not read Italian : 

II cavalier d' Anglante ove piu spesse 
Vide le genti e 1' arme abbasso 1' asta : 
Ed uno in quella, e poscia un altro mease, 
E un altro, e un altro, che sembrdr di paota ; 
E fino a sei ve n' infilzo; e li resse 
Tutti una lancia; e perch' ella non basta 
A piu capir, Iasci6 il settimo fuore 
Ferito si che di quel colpo muore. 

' Orlando Furioso,' canto ix. 68. 

" The knight of Anglante couched his spear where he 
saw the people and the weapons densest; and on this he 
put one, and then another, and another, and another, 
ihat they seemed like paste [or dough]; and up to six he 
strung on it, and one lance bore them all; arid because 
it does not suffice to hold more he leaves [lit. left] the 
seventh out so wounded that he dies of that stroke. 

" He leaves the seventh out " is, I fear, but a 
ame rendering of " Iasci6 il settimo fuore," but I 
;hink it is literally correct. " Infilzare '' means 
also to transpierce, but I have taken it here to 
mean that Orlando strung them on his lance like 
rings or beads. Perhaps either rendering would 

Ropley, Alresford. 

SCHOOL MAGAZINES. (See 7 th S. iv. 5, 110 ; 
v. 476 ; vi. 93, 214 ; xii. 75.) The King's School 
Magazine was issued by the Cathedral Grammar 
School at Chester in 1885-6. The publication con- 
isted of five parts, dated respectively July and 
)ecember, 1885, and April, July, and December, 
886. The first number contains (inter alia} com- 
munications by Thomas Hughes, Q.C. (" Tom 
Irown"), a governor of the school, Randolph 
Jaldecott (an "Old Boy"), E. J. Baillie, F.L.S. 
author of ' John Ruskin : his Life and Work ) 
nd others. Succeeding numbers have papers by 
J. Weyman (the well-known novelist, once a 
master in the school). Looking through the list of 

8 th S. IV. JULY 1, '93.] 


"exchanges" the following school magazine 
catch the eye : the Aldenhamian, the Barroviai 
(King William's College, Isle of Man), the Black 
heathan, the Cantuarian, the Glenalmond Chronicle 
the Kingswood Magazine, the Ellesmerian, the 
Oswestrian, the Button Valence School Maga 
zine, the Ruthin School Magazine, the Pauline 
Ulula (Manchester Grammar School), Hudders 
field College Magazine, the Salopian, the 
Alleynian (Dulwich), the Elstonian, the Derbeian 
the Lancing College Magazine, and CranbrooTi 
School Magazine. Will not some of your reader 
who are alumni give as details of the above 
Every little may be of interest in the future. 


We must request correspondent* desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them* direct. 

ARMORIAL FAMILIES. I have lately been 
much interested in the prospectus of a work to 
be entitled 'Armorial Families/ in which the 
editor professor to publish " a compendium of all 
armorial bearings legitimately in use, and a com- 
plete index of all people who are genuinely entitled 
to them." The prospectus gives some charming 
specimens of heraldic engraving, taken apparently 
from recent grants of arms, and one of a shield of 
twenty-five quarterings, which I infer, from the 
arms in the first quarter, are those of a family 
named Taunton. 1 am very anxious to learn the 
names of the families to which these doubtlessly 
interesting quarterings belong ; and if any of your 
correspondents, better versed than I in the science 
of heraldry, who may have seen this prospectus, 
can help me to identify them, I shall be grateful. 
On inquiry at the College of Arms I was informed 
that they were not on record there, which appears 
somewhat odd, as the work is advertised to be 
carried out with the assistance and advice of one 
of the heralds. A. W. D. 

Can any one tell me of his parentage or family, 
date of death, &c., or add in any way to the 
following facts? He became a member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons March 17, 1809, and 

.8 name appears in the college lists up to 1832 
with R.N. after it, and from the latter year to 
2 his name only is entered. He joined the 
Royal Navy as assistant- surgeon March 27, 1809 ; 
was appointed to the Standard March 29, same 
year, and to the Victory April 27, 1810 ; pro- 
moted full surgeon February 18, 1812, into the 
Algenne cutter, in which he was present in action 
with the American private brig-of-war Saratoga 

February 8, 1813 ; left the Algerine November 
following. His name is included in the official 
' Navy List 'up to 1821, after which date there is 
no record of him at the Admiralty. He probably 
died about 1842 in private practice. 


HYDE PARK BARS. I have found an old key 
bearing upon one side the inscription "Hyde 
Park Bars," and upon the other "No servants 
without their master." I should be extremely 
grateful for any details concerning the key. What 
is its probable date ; where were Hyde Park 
barriers ; and when and why were they closed to 
the general public 1 M. G. 

Religion unregardful kept her cell : 
Where are the sacred thunders that should swell 
To shame this vile oppression and proclaim 
Eternal justice in the nation's ear ? 

Can any of your readers tell me where the poem 
can be found from which this extract is taken ? 
The lines were quoted by Mr. Chamberlain in a 
speech delivered in London about May, 1892. 
Mr. Chamberlain has been asked, and he only 
remembers that it was in the Spectator, he thinks 
between the years 1876 and 1880. The Spectator 
has been searched unsuccessfully. ENQUIRER. 

DUMONT. Can any reader give me informa- 
tion as to this artist, who painted miniatures, and 
the estimation his work is held in ? 

W. L. WEBB. 

aulay make mention of Mecklenburgh Square ? 
Mr. Sala, in an " Echo," once gave a paraphrase 
of the historian's remarks on the locality; but 
neither the square nor the Foundling Hospital 
appears in Lady Trevelyan's general index. 


RICHARD SAVAGE. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
nform me if there is in existence a complete 
)iography of Richard Savage, poet, the natural 
son of Anne, Countess of Macclesfield, who 
was born in the year 1697? I should also be 
'lad of any information relating to private docu- 
ments which would throw light upon the political 
ntrigues of this remarkable person, or the life of 
he countess, his mother. M. H. P. 


Could you, or any of your readers, throw any light 

n the following entries in some Churchwardens' 

Accounts of about 1550-1555 ? "Paid for a Rother 

and folding stock, iiijd. ; Paid for Rackhockes, 

d.\ Paid for Handlebonde, jd." In an undated 

nventory of church goods sold about 1553, 

here occur?, several times, the word "hedde- 

ece," "iij hedde-peces of blewe velvet with a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [" s. iv. JUIT i, -93. 

fanell of purple velvet " sold for ijs. What vest- 
ment is meant by this word "hedde-pece"? I 
should be grateful for any help in elucidating these 
points. F. N. A. GARRY. 

ESTURMEY FAMILY. Is the name of the elder 
daughter of Sir William Esturmey, who is said to 
have inherited the estate of Fighelden, Wilts, 
recorded ; and was there any issue of her marriage 
with John Holcombe, in the reign of Henry IV. ; 
and is a comprehensive pedigree of the Esturmey 
family known to exist ? WALTER HOLCOMBE. 

30, Orchard Street, W. 

BURYING A WITCH. About six years ago a 
reputed witch was buried near Portmahommock, 
Ross-shire, I am informed. A hole was dug in 
the ground, and the coffin placed in it head down- 
wards ; also the grave was watched for three nights. 
This information was derived from inhabitants of 
the place. Did an account of the case find its 
way into the newspapers ? PAUL BIERLEY. 

flowing philosophers to whom Tennyson refers in 
his poem, Oi peovrcs, published in * Poems, chiefly 
Lyrical,' 1830 ? R. T. B. 

HAMILTON, in his ' Table of the Poets Laureate of 
England ' (8 tti S. iii. 90), states that Shadwell was 
bom in Norfolk in 1640, died Dec. 6, 1692, and 
was buried in Chelsea Church. Mr. J. Ewing 
Ritchie, in his ' East Anglia,' 1883, p. 345, states 
that Shadwell was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
Which is correct ? Is it known in what part of 
Norfolk Shadwell was born ? JAMES HOOPER. 


TROY TOWN. There is in this neighbourhood 
a hamlet of this name, and I find a place similarly 
called near Puddletown, co. Dorset. Oan anybody 
tell me of other instances, and what Troy signifies ? 

Eden Bridge. 

your readers inform me as to the publisher of a 
book of English ballads which came out about 1860 
or 1861, and contained a ballad called * The Knight's 
Revenge '; or tell me whether the ballad is pub- 
lished separately, and where to be found ? 

E. 0. W. 

FATHER OP JAMES I. Who is generally sup- 
posed to have been the actual father of King 
James I. ? Was it Darnley or Rizzo ? This ought 
to be an interesting historial inquiry, more parti- 
cularly so to a real genealogist, whose object is to 
find out whose blood runs in his veins. I find 
there was a Rev. Dr. Douglas, one of the first who 
signed the Solemn League and Covenant, who 
was generally considered by his contemporaries to 

be grandson of the beautiful and unfortunate 
queen ; he certainly was grandson of George 
Douglas, who helped the escape from Lochleven 
Castle in his boat. The Dr. Douglas to whom I 
have alluded went to Germany as chaplain to some 
Scotch regiment in the Thirty Years' War, and was 
highly thought of by Gustavus Adolphus. The 
existence of this person may give some force to my 
inquiry on the paternity of King James. 

Christchurch, New Zealand. 

MADAME CAMPAN. Are there any portraits and 
engravings of this celebrated lady Jeanne Louise 
Henriette Campan, to give her full name in 
existence ; and, if so, where are they to be found ? 
She was born in 1752, and was the favourite of 
Marie Antoinette. After the fall of Robespierre 
she opened a boarding-school at St. Germain-en- 
Laye, and had amongst her pupils Hortense 
Beauharnais daughter of Josephine, and after- 
wards the mother of Napoleon III. and Caroline 
Bonaparte, the youngest of the sisters of Napoleon 
I., afterwards the wife of Joachim Murat, King of 
Naples. In 1806 Napoleon appointed her principal 
of the institution at St. Cyr for the education of 
the daughters of the officers of the Legion of 
Honour. She is said to have been a very severe 
ruler in her scholastic empire, and not to have 
spared the rod. On one occasion, meeting her 
old pupil, Caroline Bonaparte, then a queen, she 
paid, apparently, but little deference to royalty. 
On the queen expressing her surprise at this want 
of courtesy, Madame Campan observed " that she 
could not stand in awe of one to whom, when a 
girl, she had applied the birch." Madame Campan 
died in 1822, and is credited with the following 
works : ' Me'moires sur la Vie Prive"e de la Reine 
Marie Antoinette' (4 vols., fifth ed., Paris, 1824), 
* Journal Anecdotique' (Paris, 1824), and ' Corre- 
spondance Ine"dite" avec la Reine Hortense ' (2 vols., 
Paris, 1835). JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

a story was told me that may (or may not) point 
to an old marriage custom one, at any rate, of 
which I have never heard. A man in a neigh- 
bouring village, who had either been engaged to a 
woman for an unconscionable time, or had pre- 
viously jilted several other women (I am not clear 
which), was at length about to be married. Some 
wags determined to celebrate the event by placing 
a wedding garland on his chimney-top overnight. 
To reach the chimney they had to rear a ladder 
against the house, opposite to a "picking-hole " in 
the upper story. Unluckily for them, the intended 
victim got wind of their intention. He and a 
friend accordingly armed themselves with a pistol 
heavily charged with powder and an old gun- 
barrel, made into a popgun, and loaded with red 

8 th S. I V. JULY 1, '93.] 


paint. Thus prepared, they lay in wait in the 
loft ; and when the man with the garland hac 
climbed to the level of the picking-hole, they le 
fly at him with the paint, discharging the pistol a 
the same moment. Down dropped the man 
with a roar for mercy, and lay as dead at the 
ladder's foot, while his companions fled in terror 
of another volley. The tables were thus turned 
and as no real harm was done, the affair wen 
round the parish with roars of laughter to the 
tune of the biter bit. Am I right in supposing 
that our wags were keeping up an old custom * 
This happened some forty or fifty years since. 

C. C. B. 

ville, Bart., sold lands at North Seaton, Northum 
berland, at the close of the seventeenth century or 
opening of the eighteenth, and Sir T. Longueville 
Bart, (appointed a lieutenant in the Navy in 1709) 
was probably his son. Is anything known o 
either of them ; and what are the dates of the crea 
tion and extinction of the baronetcy, which is 
absent from Burke's * Extinct Baronetage ' ? 

W. B. T. 

silver or similar metal, with a large white cor 
nelian stone seal, on which is a well-executed 
engraving of a man's head, with the name " L. 
Wattier " beautifully cut on one side of the head, 
and what appears to be a dagger or an instrument 
of the sculptor's art on the other side of the profile. 
Can any of the readers of * N. & Q.' kindly give 
me information as to the personage represented ? 


PARR FAMILY. William Parr, Marquis of 
Northampton (also Earl of Essex and Baron Parr 
of Kendal), brother of Queen Katharine, was by 
Act of Parliament divorced from his first wife, 
Anne Bourchier, and by the same Act her children 
were illegitimated. Is it known what became of 
them ? At one time there were Parrs in Ireland. 
I desire information respecting them. There are 
officers of the name in the army at present who 
may trace from them. W. L. R. 


The Samian sage, and all who taught the right. 

R. R. D. 

Shepherds rise and shake off sleep, 
See the blushing morn doth peep 
Through the windows, while the sun 
To the mountain tops is run. ENQUIRER. 

Leave me not wild and drear and comfortless. 
As silent lightning leaves the starless sky. 

K. P. D. E. 

Be still, nor hurl these foul scorns in my teeth ; 
Unlearn to wield a sharp and cutting tongue. 

I am a dainty diner and morose ; 
Therefore morose because a dainty diner. 



(8 th S. iii. 348.) 

The library and the school were at the bottom 
of Castle Street, Leicester Square, the east side of 
which has lately disappeared under modern im- 
provement. There was a passage that ran at the 
back of the National Gallery into that part of Castle 
Street, and brought you out opposite to the portico 
of St. Martin's Church. There was also a passage 
under the eastern wing of Wilkins's National 
Gallery into Trafalgar Square. The old school- 
house and library faced the barracks. It was an 
excellent building by Wren, and is described by 
Lemoine, in 1790, as " a noble structure, extremely 
well contrived for the placing of the books and 
lights, and furnished with the best modern books in 
most faculties ; the best of its kind in England." 
About four thousand volumes. 

In 'Old and New London ' it is said to have been 
founded by Tenison, 1685, "for the use of his 
school." It was nothing of the kind. It was 
founded, as Evelyn tells us, for thirty or forty 
young men in orders in his parish, who were haunt- 
ing taverns, and they told the doctor they would 
employ their time better if they had books. This 
put him on the pious device, and he got Wren to 
help him in the edifice, endowed it with 1,000?. 
and a bequest of 5001. for charitable uses, in which 
he was joint trustee with Bishop Patrick. It had 
been for years in terrible neglect, both school and 
library, to the disgrace of St. Martin's parish, which 
bartered it and the workhouse away to Govern- 
ment by Act of Parliament, 1861, for a sum of 
86,0002. Some of it was said to be applied to 
middle-class education in the shape of the new 
schools in Leicester Square, which were built by 
Marrable, and are capitally designed and an orna- 
ment to the square. 

There were some valuable MSS. and books, 
which were disposed of by auction in 1864 by 
order of the Charity Commissioners. There was 
the original note-book of Francis Bacon, auto- 
graph and most curious ; a Wickliffe Bible ; 
a wonderful Prudentius, that fetched 273?. The 
Bacon note-book ought to have gone to the 
Museum. It always seemed a pity to me that 
Marrable did not rebuild the fagade of the library 
exactly on Wren's lines, and that the books 
should not all have been rebound and replaced 
on Wren's shelves in proper order and con- 
tinued free to the four parishes entitled to use 
hem. Then Marrable might have arranged the 
chool at the back in any way thought most con- 
venient. But all such things are nobody's business, 
and so drift anyhow. 
There are two or three little matters of interest 



[8 th S. IV, JULY 1, '93. 

not generally mentioned in connexion with this fine 
old building now lost. John Postlethwait was the 
first master under Teniaon's appointment, and he 
became head master afterwards of St, Paul's School. 
A descendant of his, an excellent engraver, died 
only a few years ago at the Charterhouse. When 
Dr. Johnson announced his life of Paul Sarpi, in 
Gent. Mag. t Nov., 1738, another Samuel Johnson 
was librarian here, and issued a counter proposal, 
which led to the entire abandonment of the pro- 
ject ou both hands. When Person was struck 
with apoplexy in the Strand, he was carried first to 
the St. Martin's watchhouse, and then, not being 
identified, to the workhouse in Hemming's Row, of 
the block of which buildings the library formed a 
part. Philip Henry, the father of Matthew 
Henry, got his first schooling at the Latin School 
at St. Martin's Church under Mr. Bonner. Isaac 
Dalby, the self-taught mathematician, came to 
London 1772, having failed as master of a school 
in the country, and by advertisement was accepted 
as usher to teach arithmetic at Tenison's Grammar 
School. He became known here to many cele- 
brated men by solving difficult questions and cal- 
culations in the magazines of the day, specially 
* The Ladies' Diary.' He got to know Dr. Mas- 
keline, the Astronomer Royal, Hutton, Bonnycastle, 
in this way, and was appointed to a professorship 
at the Royal Military Asylum at High Wycombe. 
Listen, the comedian, was usher here, and did 
uearly all the duty, whilst his superior, the curate 
of the parish, pocketed the emoluments. The 
disciplinary department of this unruly seminary 
was attended to by the curate, who boasted that 
his method was adapted to the meanest capacities. 
At any rate, it became a house of screaming vic- 
tims and beset with altercations from their mothers. 
On one occasion Listen, presuming on the dis- 
affection without and within, ventured to disobey 
his superior. Violentterms, retorted, were succeeded 
by blows of the fiercest order; they grappled, and 
the divine, who was "an ugly customer," would 
soon have swept away his opponent but for the 
intervention of the boys. Slates, inkstands, 
rulers, in endless shower rattled on his head and 
body, till the riot brought in the outside passengers 
who rescued the priest from his peri). The brawl 
led to a temporary closure of the school. Liston 
never returned, but became the pet of the stage. 
Old Sancho, the black bibliopole, had a kind of 
outhouse here, where he started his business 
abutting on the wall of the old mews. Thus do 
strange memories cluster round spots in London, 
and it is well they should not die quite un- 
chronicled. C. A. WARD. 

Chingford Hatch, E. 

This library is known as Archbishop Tenison's. 
The Archbishop founded it for the use of his school 
The origin is related by Evelyn in his 'Diary,' under 
date of February 15, 1683/4. It was originally 

established in Castle Street, St. Martin's Lane, 
where it stood till 1872, when the site was 
required for the extension of the National Gallery, 
and was then removed to Leicester Square. For 
further particulars see 'Old and New London,' 

71, Brecknock Road. 

This was, no doubt, Archbishop Tenison's 
School, now removed to Leicester Square, which, 
adjoining the library, now sold, of the same pre- 
late, was originally in Castle Street, W.C., in the 
rear of the National Gallery. 0. 

'THE LIBERAL' (5 th S. vii. 388; 6> S. viii. 
392 ; 7 th S. vi. 509 ; vii. 131 ; ix. 467 ; x. 231), 
By the kindness of Major Charles Brown I have 
received his father's (C. A. Brown's) copy of ' The 
Liberal,' with the names of the writers of most of 
the articles marked in his father's handwriting. 
The preface is by Leigh Hunt : the poem ' The 
Vision of Judgment ' by Lord Byron. The " Let- 
ter to the Editor " of the British Review is also by 
Lord Byron, The story ' The Florentine Lovers-' 
is by Leigh Hunt. ' Rhyme and Reason ' and * A 
German Apologue ' are by the same, as well as ' A 
Description of Pisa.' ' May-day Night,' the verse 
translation from Goethe's ' Faust,' is by Shelley ; 
' Ariosto'a Episode ; by Leigh Hunt, as well as 
'The Country Maiden' and the 'Epigram of 
Alfieri '; while the 'Epigrams on Castlereagh' are 
by Lord Byron. In the second number ' Heaven 
and Earth ' is by Lord Byron ; ' The Giuli Tre ' by 
Leigh Hunt ; the essay ' On the Spirit of Mon- 
archy* by W. Hazlitt ; the poem 'The Dogs' 
by Leigh Hunt, as well as the second ' Letter from 
Abroad.' 'A Tale of the Passions' is by Mrs. 
Shelley ; ' Longus ' is by W. Hogg ; the ' Essay 
on the Scotch Character ' by W. Hazlitt ; ' The 
Suliotes ' by Leigh Hunt. In the second volume 
the " Advertisement " is by Leigh Hunt ; ' The 
Blues ' is by Byron ; ' My First Acquaintance 
with Poets ' by Hazlitt ; the third ' Letter from 
Abroad ' by Leigh Hunt ; and the article ' Madame 
d'Houtetot ' by Mrs. Shelley. ' The Book of Be- 
ginnings ' by Leigh Hunt ; ' Apuleius ' by Hogg. 
In No. 4 the ' Morgante Maggiore ' is by Byron ; 
the ' Letter from Abroad ' by Leigh Hunt, as well 
as the poem ' The Choice.' The article ' Giovanni 
Villani ' is by Mrs. Shelley ; ' Pulpit Oratory ' by 
Hazlitt ; the modernized version of Chaucer's 
' Squire's Tale ' by Leigh Hunt ; the essay ' On 
Letter Writing ' by Charles Brown ; and that on 
' Arguing in a Circle ' is queried (the only one 
which is queried) as to whether it is or is not by 
W. Hazlitt. 'N. & Q.' has already stated that 
two other articles about which specific inquiry had 
been made, as to whether they were by Lamb,, 
were, in fact, by Charles Brown. 

76. Sloane Street, S.W, 

8th S. IV. JULY 1, '93.] 



TOWN (8 th S. iii. 264, 452). I am not at al 
sure that the Greek 8rjfjio<s is derived from Sew ; 
can find no such suggestion in Curtius or Fick 
Curtius merely says that he does not believe in th 
etymology of STJ/ZOS from the root dam, to tame. 

At any rate, we now know that Home Took 
(who can no longer be safely quoted) was entire!; 
wrong in deriving the A.-S. tun from tynan; fo* 
the sufficient reason that tynan is derived, with th 
usual mutation of u to long y, from tun. It is lik 
deriving the German Zaun from umzdunen ; the 
very fact that umzdunen has a mutated vowe 
proves, even to a beginner, that the derivation i 
the other way. All that is known of the A.-S 
inn is that it is cognate with the Celtic diln, so 
common in place-names in the Latinized form 

The comparison of Wycliffe's version with th 
Greek is entirely misleading, as it was not mad 
from Greek. Neither can it prove anything 
as to the Anglo-Saxon usage ; it may or may no! 
correspond. We must compare the A.-S. with the 
Latin. We then see at once that the A.-S. tun 
translates the Lat. uilla. Thus we have : " Uillam 
emi, ic bohte senne tun " (Lu.xiv. 18); "In uillam 
suam, to his tune" (Lu. xv. 15) ; "In uillas, on 
tunum " (Lu. viii. 34). It is extraordinary that 
Arnold should have compared either the Wycliffite 
version or the A.-S. version with Greek ; he must 
have known it was made from Latin. 


THE NAME CLARINDA (8 th S. ii. 8, 56, 135, 
354). An earlier example of this name than any 
yet adduced occurs in an ' Epigramme par Regnier 
t 1613] contre vn homme d^bauche"," printed in 
JSaint-Romuald's ' lardin des Muses ' (Paris, 1643, 
p. 85) :- 

Tes beaux iours, 1'argent & ta femme 

T'ont fait ensemble vn mauvais tour, 

Car tu pensois au premier iour 

Quo Clarinde dust rendre Tame : 

Et qu'estant ieune & avenant 

Tu tromperois incontinent 

Pour son argent vne autre Dame. 

Mais il en va bien autrement, 

Car ta ieunesse s'est passee, 

Ton argent e'en va doucement, 

Et ta vieille n'est trespassee. 

This epigram is included in Poitevin's edition of 
Regnier's works, but has escaped the notice of 
previous editors. F. ADAMS. 

VANISHING LONDON (8* h S. iii. 446).-Relics of 

London are so rapidly disappearing, that it 

might perhaps be worth while to register in the 

columns of < N. & Q.> those that are still in exist- 

ice, and to record their destruction, from time to 
time, for the benefit of future topographers. A 
beginning might be made with the old timber-and- 
plaster gabled houses, which five-and-thirty years 
ago were not uncommon, but which are gradually 

being swept away into the municipal dust-bin. 
Many of these houses must have dated from the 
time of Elizabeth, and some of them were probably 
much older. The picturesque old row of houses in 
Holborn, which faces Gray's Inn Road and Brooke 
Street, and masks the Georgian courts of Staple 
Inn, is in fair repair, and will probably for some 
years continue to present an unshaken front ta 
wind and weather; but only two years have 
elapsed since the gabled tenement in Drury 
Lane, which I believe was formerly the " Cock 
and Pye," a house of entertainment in the reign, 
of Henry VII., and which was associated by 
tradition with the residence of Nell Gwyn, 
was finally removed. The old house No. 45, 
Wych Street was advertised for sale on June 20, 
and before these lines are in print will be dis- 
posed of with a view to its early demolition. 
There are also a few houses remaining on the 
southern side of Holywell Street, but as that 
thoroughfare must inevitably be destroyed at no- 
long date to make room for much-needed improve- 
ments in that part of the Strand, their days may 
be looked upon as numbered. Proceeding further 
eastward, we find a few quaint old buildings in the 
neighbourhood of Smithfield, and especially in the 
narrow thoroughfare known still as Cloth Fair, in 
which the backs of some of the more ancient houses 
abut on the old graveyard of St. Bartholomew the 
Great. One house in this lane, at the corner of 
Red Lion Passage, has a finely-bordered coat of 
arms upon its front, of which the blazoning is 
apparently Argent, a chevron between three cross- 
crosslets gules. This shield may perhaps afford a 
clue to the age and original ownership of the 
louse in question. It may be safely prophesied 
that at the end of the century few, if any, of 
these old houses will be in existence, and it would, 
herefore, be interesting to make a note of them 
while there is still opportunity. 


PALFREY AND POST (8 th S. iii. 226, 357). The 
word pferd deserves a monograph, with which an 
ambitious student can win fame. The vowel is at 
east as interesting as the pf in the beginning of 
he word, and the meaning of the word is more 
nteresting than either. Grimm, who had both in- 
uition and a keen respect for sounds, never got 
lalf through with the word. In his ' Gesch. d. d. 
pr.,' 31, he gives good results, but is careful to 
)lace veredus at the head of the list. Nobody 
doubts that palfrey, together with Old German 
jarefrit and parvrit, are derived from paraveredus; 
jut pferd appears to be derived from veredus, both 
jatin words having a considerable family of children 
nd grandchildren, those in the German branch 
eveloping differently from those in Gaul, as might 
>e expected. When the Germans first heard the 
jatin veredus, the v was labial rather than dental 
see the article on B in Lewis and Short). The 



S. IV. JULY 1, '93. 

Germans treated the consonant, for which they had 
no equivalent, as a b, and in adopting, as well as 
adapting, the new word, which denoted neither a 
war horse nor a palfrey (Grimm, 'D. Gr., I.,' second 
edition, 126), transformed the initial b into p t just 
as the Latin boletus has become pilz. The p in 
the earlier German phase of the borrowed veredus 
naturally and necessarily dominates in all Low 
German dialects, while High German has finally 
settled on pf. The gifted author of the Bremen 
Worterbuch was quite clear on this head, and any 
Low German scholar would be puzzled to get peerd 
out of paraveredus. The Low German p in peerd 
and prad surely represents an earlier form than the 
High German pf. Moreover the word came into 
German at a time when the mutation of conso- 
nants was in full operation. The word was borrowed, 
to be sure ; bat it was soon naturalized. Kluge 
and Lexer are great names to swear by ; the world 
owes them more than it will pay ; but I am not 
sure that, in this one case, they have done justice 
to Low German. Veredus was not dropped, as 
they seem to assume ; for evidence on this head 
Ducange is sufficient. Kluge doubts the popular 
derivation of parish from the Greek Trapot/aa, as 
well he may ; I dare say he will reconsider his deriva- 
tion of Dutch paard horn paraveredus. It is impos- 
sible to believe, short of full evidence, that palfrey 
and peerd are twins. They are neither in stock nor 
in significance. Pferd used to be a horse for travel ; 
palfreys answered a more poetical purpose. The 
gipsies naturally took to prad; so did our "sports." 
The word is an early and highly interesting adap- 
tation of veredus. C. W. ERNST. 
Boflton, Mass. 

iii, 445). I have not seen the Paris edition of 
Ariosto to which MR. JONATHAN BOUCHIER refers ; 
but I am quite sure that the poet's heraldry is 
thoroughly incorrect and untrustworthy. One ex- 
ample alone accurs to me, as I write without a 
copy of the work at hand. The poet gives the 
quartered arms of France and England as those 
of this monarchy at a date long antecedent to that 
at which the assumption of the arms took place. 
The Scottish coats, I remember, were extremely 
inaccurate. I may possibly trouble you hereafter 
with a note on the subject. 


Certain curious accuracies in Ariosto's roll of 
English peers show that he must have had access 
to some authentic list. Thus, among the earls 
and dukes there is only one marquess and one 
baron. As to the marquess Marchese di Barclei 
he is correct, as there was a Marquess of Berke- 
ley in 1490, shortly before the poem was written. 
He is also right as to the barony Signoreggia 
Burgenia as Burgavenny or Abergavenny did not 
become an earldom till long after the poet's death. 

The names bear internal evidence of having 
been derived from some Latin source ; and hence, if 
we take the designations as they appear in con- 
temporary Latin documents, the identifications 
present little difficulty. Placing the Latin forms in 
parentheses, it is plain that Oancia is Kent (Cantia) ; 
Osonia is Oxford (Oxonia) ; Esenia is Exeter 
(Exonia) : Battonia is Bath (Bathonia) ; Antona is 
Southampton (Hantona) ; Sarisberia is Salisbury 
(Saresberia) ; Vigorina is Worcester (Wigornia) ; 
Varvecia is Warwick (Warvicus) ; Croisberia is 
Shrewsbury (Scorbesberia or Scorberia) ; the Conte 
d'Erbia is Earl of Derby (Derbia) ; the. Conte di 
Marcia is Earl of March (Marchia) ; and Burgenia, 
as already said, is Abergavenny. The rest present 
no difficulties. 

Ariosto must have had inferior authority for his 
Scotch peers, as some of the names are curiously 
disguised, and he changes the Earl of Mar into a 
Duke. On the other hand he is right in rank- 
ing Forbes as a barony Signoreggia Forbesse. 
Angoscia is Angus, Boccania is Buchan, Erelia is 
Errol, Ottonlei is A thole (Atholia), and Koscia is 
Eothsay (Rothesia). Trasford must be either 
Crawford or Stratherne, probably the former, since 
an Italian C might easily be mistaken for a T. 
The great puzzle of all, Alcabrun, who was highest 
in the land, but neither duke, earl, nor marquess, 
must, I think, be James Hamilton, afterwards 
Earl of Arran. 

MR. BOUCHIER wonders how Ariosto could have 
obtained his information. The fact that the only 
churchman mentioned is the "ricco prelato di 
Battonia" points to Polydore Virgil, an Italian 
who held the see of Bath, and who when Ariosto 
wrote had returned to Italy, though his ' Historia 
Anglica 1 was not published till after Ariosto's 

iii. 209, 433). Notwithstanding DR. BREWER'S 
explanation of the meaning of the word brent, I 
beg to differ from him as to the sense of the old 
saying. In Devonshire it is certainly said of a 
sullen, frowning person, that " he is looking from 
under Brent Hill." And why not ? Brent means 
" brim," " border," " steep." And a brent-goose or 
brant-goose is " a kind of fowl with a black neck 
with a white collar or line round it." It is quite 
conceivable that a word may have one meaning in 
the north and another in the south of Britain. 

S. J. A. F. 

Is there not probably in this expression an 
allusion to Brent Torr, in Devonshire ? In Miss 
M. A. Courtney's * West Cornwall Glossary' 
(E.D.S.) I find, "Bren, brend, v., to wrinkle the 
forehead. " " Don't brend your brows so." " Brow 
&renner,eye-winker(0/d Nursery Rhyme)" Burns's 
use of brent seems to me quite distinct. 


8* S . IV. JULY 1, '93.] 



" SPORN-POINT " (8 th S.iii. 428). Nares, in his 
' Glossary/ says that this is "an old boy's game,' 
and quotes a stanza from the ' Common Cries o 
London ' in which it is associated with nine-holes 
and cat. It is mentioned in an old play, ' Apollo 
Shroving,' "composed for the Schollars of the 
Free-schoole of Hadleigh in Suffolke, and acted by 
them on Shroue-tuesday, being the sixt of Febru- 
ary, 1626 " (see the reference in Halliwell). Ludio, 
" a truantly schooleboy," having quoted from Ovid 
a couplet which "describes our boyes play,' 
observes : " I doe not thinke but that if he were 
here, he would intreat Apollo to play at Quoits 
with me, or checke-stone, or spurnepoint." Several 
other boyish pastimes are mentioned in this play : 
" blow-point," " span-counter," " trusse," " mumble 
the pegge," "scourge top," &c. As regards 
Jeremy Taylor's reference to "spurn-point," our 
want of knowledge about the game is of little 
importance ; he is evidently jesting with the word. 
So Sir T. More ('Workes,' 576 b, ed. 1557) had 
figured the sinful child of God as*one who " hath 
played at spume poynte by the waye in goynge at 
scholewarde." F. ADAMS. 

105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. 

This is the name of an old boys' game. The 
same quotation from Jeremy Taylor's 'Sermons' 
has already appeared in ' N. & Q.' on two previous 
occasions. For queries and replies, see 2 nd S. iii. 
229 ; v. 334 ; 6 th S. ix. 247, 315. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

THE HORSE-CHESTNUT (8 th S. iii. 385). The 
horse-chestnut appears to be more largely used as 
an esculent than MR. LYNN is aware of. The 
' Popular Encyclopaedia ' says : " In Europe, the 
fruit is used for feeding various kinds of cattle, 

who are said to be fond of it In Turkey, it is 

ground and mixed with provender for horses." 
Bentley declares it "an excellent food for sheep," 
and says it has long been employed for that pur- 
pose in Switzerland. He also speaks of its having 
been recommended as a substitute for coffee. In 
France it is much used as a source of starch. It 
is, as MR. LYNN says, certainly not the cesculus of 
Virgil, for it was not introduced into Europe until 
the sixteenth century. The first Indian chestnut 

&sculus indica), says Tournefort, was brought 

Europe by M. Bachelier, in 1615. 
That Virgil's atculus was a species of oak is 
clear ; but Dryden had nevertheless the authority 
the dictionaries of his time for translating the 
word into beech. Lonsdale and Lee more cau- 
tiously render it mast-tree. Pliny distinctly says 
that it means an oak. Speaking of oaks in general, 

B says (Holland's translation, xvi. 31): "Certes, 
if wee give credite to Virgill, that sort of them 
which are called Esculi, goe down as deepe into 
the earth with their roots, as they arise and mount 

above ground with their heads." They are, he 
says further, in chap. v. of the same book, " not so 
rife in all countries " as the common oak, &c. ; but 
elsewhere he refers to a grove of them near Rome, 
which had the name of Esculetum from them. 
Pliny's reference is to 'Geor.,' ii. 291. 

0. 0. B. 

367, 396). I doubt if they were " bought in by 
some member of the Grenville Temple family and 
taken back to Stowe," as has been not unnaturally 
surmised by an always welcome correspondent of 
' N. & Q.' The late and the last Duke of Buck- 
ingham turned his family papers to profit by dis- 
posing of many of them ; he, at least, was not the 
man to buy them back. The late Dr. Jasper 
Joly, of Dublin, gave me to understand that 
the above MSS. remained in his possession. 
He described them as mainly the private corre- 
spondence of Lord Buckingham when Viceroy of 
Ireland ; that they revealed various politicial 
scandals and showed how some men who posed as 
patriots has been corrupted. Dr. Joly was at no 
time fond of showing his treasures. When I was 
engaged in writing * Secret Service under Pitt,' 
I asked Dr. Joly if the Rev. Arthur O'Leary's 
name appeared in the correspondence, and he un- 
hesitatingly answered " No." 

Garrick Club. 

CHURCH PATRONAGE TRUST (8 th S. iii. 428). 
There are several of these trusts, all of them 
strenuously "evangelical" in tone: the "Peache 
Trustees," consisting of Rev. A. Peache, Lord 
Harrowby, Rev. W. W. Gibbon, Rev. W. H. 
Barlow, and L. J. Dibdin, Esq.; the "Church 
Patronage Society"; and the " Hyndman's 
Trustees," which are secret societies, so far as my 
knowledge of their members goes. I believe that 
vacanies in all these bodies are filled up by co- 
option. The Simeon modus operandi was to buy 
livings sold cheap (such as those sold by order of 
the Municipal Corporations Acts), especially livings 
large towns, where subsequent subdivision 
secured the patronage of district incumbencies. 
Lord Westbury's Act, authorizing the sale of small 
hancellor's livings, prevented this game being 
;ried on, by allowing no one to hold more than 
'our such benefices. All this wholesale grabbing 
of churches, for the sake of permanently impacting 
certain theological notions upon parishes, is dif- 
n erent from the securing of particular churches, 
milt with the money of people of particular views, 
or the continued supply of such ministrations as 
he founders desired. 


MEN (8 ta S. iii. 448). As there is not, so far as I 
know, any definite rule with respect to lay baptism 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.iv.jcLYi, 

in the English Church, it is probable that there is a 
diversity of practice among the parochial clergy in 
their treatment of such cases when they occur. 
Some, it is likely, regard lay baptism as so far 
valid as to entitle the recipient to Christian burial, 
but so far irregular as not to have a right to be 
entered in the baptismal register. Others may 
look upon it as the proper course under the circum- 
stances, and therefore to be treated juat as if a 
cleric had administered the sacrament. It is im- 
possible to say whether it was customary or not 
to enter lay baptisms in the registers before the 
present century, because the old registers, i.e., 
those in use before 1813, had no provision for 
entering the name of the officiant in baptisms and 
burials. But in the eighty years since the pre- 
sent form of register came into use there have 
been four such cases entered in this parish, 
viz. : " 1859, April 7, Thomas," &c., signed "Joseph 
Sadler, surgeon," and a note appended " Baptised 
when apparently in the article of death." " 1880, 
March 22nd, Born the same day, Edward," &c., 
signed, " R. P. Goodwith, physician"; note, "In 
Articulo Mortis." "1885, February 14th, born 
same day, Charles/' &c.; note, "In extremis." 
" 1890, Dec. 17, born same day." These last two 
are signed by the medical gentleman last men- 
tioned. EDW. S. WILSON. 
Winterton Vicarage, Doncaater. 

I can only speak with certainty of my own 
practice. On three or four occasions infants have 
been baptized in periculo mortis by laymen of my 
flock. On one occasion the father was the baptizer, 
on the others the surgeon-accoucheur, who, being 
a Churchman, knows his duty in such cases. 
These cases are duly noted in the register of my 
church, as, of course, they ought to be. 


Such baptisms should, of course, be entered in 
the register. In 1882 I entered one in the register 
of this parish, in a case in which the sacrament 
had been duly administered by a surgeon (a 
Roman Catholic) attending a birth, who believed 
that the infant was at the point of death, and who 
certified me of what he had done. The infant 
died two days afterwards. W. D. MACRAY. 

Ducklington, Cxon. 

The duties of registration by the clergy are far 
from being clearly defined, and there is still found 
much variety in their methods. Two or three 
years ago a clergyman was summoned to baptize 
newly-born twins two miles from his house. On 
his arrival one of them was dead, and the mid- 
wife informed him that, according to his instruc- 
tions given in reference to a former similar case 
she had baptized the child. He baptized the other, 
and entered both in the register, the one as bap^ 
tized by the midwife and the other by himself. 

When the entry came under the notice of the 
archdeacon, at his visitation, he gave it as his 
opinion that the entry should not have been made, 
though he did not condemn the practice. The 
clergyman held that, inasmuch as the parents could, 
and did, claim the burial service to be read, the 
child was entered by a Christian name, and there- 
fore the giving of that Christian name, or in other 
words the making of a Christian, should also be 
recorded. A. T. M. 

In reply to your correspondent's query as to the 
registration of lay baptisms, a case recently 
occurred in my parish. The child was discovered 
at birth to be so sickly that it could not live many 
hours. As there was no time to send for a law- 
ful minister, a certified nurse who was in attendance 
administered the rite of baptism with water, in the 
name of the Trinity. The child died, and received 
Christian burial. After consultation with a brother 
clergyman, I entered the baptism in our parish 
register. That women at one time administered 
baptism under special circumstances, see article 
entitled ' Lawfully and Sufficiently Baptized/ 
Ecclesiastical Gazette, N.S., No. 15, vol. ii. p. 51. 


"FIMBLE" (8 th S. iii. 427). Halliwell, in his 
* Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words,' 
says, among other meanings, that it denotes a 
wattled chimney that is enclosed with hurdles. 
Again, "A close environed or closed with hurdles: 
watled" ('Hollyband's Dictionarie,' 1593). Would 
it not, therefore, mean a hurdle in the extract from 
the account books at Althorp? 

Something more has to be learned with reference 
to the word fimble and its application to hemp- 
seed. Johnson, Annandale, and Knowles, in their 
dictionaries, state it bears no seed, while Ash, 
Halliwell, and Wright assert that it is the female 
hemp, or seed-bearing thistle. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

This word is the same as thimble, which 
Wright's ' Provincial Dictionary ' gives with this 
explanation : " The ring of a gate-hook on which 
the gate turns. Midi C." For f=th, cf. fill- 
horse = thill horse. C. H. Poole's 'Glossary of 
the Archaic and Provincial Words of the County 
of Stafford ' has : " Thimble, the bolt of a gate- 
hook on which the gate turns." 


Palgrave, Dies. 

The word, as quoted by JAYDEE, is a local 
term for a latch, and literally means to touch 
lightly with the fingers. It is derived from the 
Frisic fample, to clutch with the fingers ; Sw. 
famla, to feel for ; Dan. fiple, to handle ; fip, tip ; 
famle, to fumble ; Dut. fimelen, light action with 

8 h 8. IV. JULY 1, 



the fingers (Nail.). Forby states : " Fimble, to I In the hundred of Henbury is situated, on the 
touch lightly and frequently with the ends of the banks of the Severn, the village called Aust, and 

/ A _ _ A! J! ; 4.; .T. . 1. 7 , " T*. ~ .,!.-, I 4.U ^1^1 , ^ /*-U^ T 1 -^ ^ *... A ..-. , .-.r,4? *^C 4-U^. 

fingers. A gentle diminutive of fumble." It is also 
mentioned by Halliwell. W. B. GERISH. 

334). I beg to inform MR. PATTERSON that this 
corporation is described in its leases as "the 
Governor and Company for making Hollow Sword 
Blades in England," and were commonly called 
*' the Hollow Blades." The name arose from their 
manufacture of swords having hollow backs, in 
which quicksilver was placed, which, by its descent, 
gave an impetus to the blow. In 1702 the com- 
pany purchased from the Government 8,313 acres 
surrounding Portarlington, in Queen's County. 
Another of their purchases was made in the 
County Antrim. The above particulars are taken 
from the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, iii. 218. 

Hereford Street, Chriatchurch, New Zealand. 

THE WOODPECKER (8 th S. iii. 386). 
" ' The woodpecker tapping the hollow elm tree, 
observed Mra. Mould, adapting tbe words of the popular 
melody to tbe description of wood commonly used in the 
trade." 'Martin Chuzzlewit,' chap. xxv. and p. 303 of 
what I believe to be the first edition. 

The allusion, of course, is to the sound of the 
hammer used in nailing the black cloth covering 

the old passage (the Trajectus Augusti of the 
Romans). I mention this as perhaps indicating 
the probable derivation of the name of the family. 

There is a parish so called in Gloucestershire, 
and I should think it probable that the name of 
the Aust family at Colerne is thence derived. The 
surname occurs here also, and I believe came to 
from Bristol or the neighbourhood. I may 
note that the name Ferdinando, as well as the still 
more foreign Quevedo, occurs in our registers. 

W. F. R. 
Worle Vicarage. 

SILVER SWAN (8 th S. iii. 387, 417, 438). 
Boutell (' Heraldry/ p. 66) says the De Bohun 
badge was a black swan ; but in Aveling's edition 
of that work it is said to be blazoned ppr., that is 

The rector of St. Saviour's, South wark (Dr. 
Thompson), in his ' History and Antiquities ' of 
that church, believes the SS to be the initials of 
Silver Swan, the favourite badge of Henry of 
Bolingbroke. A. BEAUMONT. 

I have never met with any instance of such a 
badge or order as connected with Richard II., 
whose badges were the White Hart, the Broom- 

upon a coffin in the adjoining workshop of the pod, and perhaps the Sun. The White Swan was 
undertaker. This " RAT-tat-tat," again mentioned | the badge of the Bohuns of Hereford, and of the 

in * David Copperfield,' chap, ix., is never heard 
nowadays. The last funeral I attended where a 
black coffin was used was at Liverpool thirty years 
ago. E. S. N. 

AUST (8 tb S. iii. 409). I do not find Aust in 
any of my lists of continental surnames, and there 
is no reason for supposing it to be of foreign 
origin, since it can be readily explained as an 
English territorial or topographic name, derived 
from the village of Aust, in Gloucestershire, at the 
famous Aust passage over the Severn, which has 
been supposed to be the Trajectus Augusti of the 
Romans. Aust may also be a dialectic form of 

Aust is probably a name derived from the 
village of Aust, near Almondsbury, and originally 
in the pariah of Henbury, the registers of which 
parish contain an entry, 1753, referring to John 

Perhaps O. N. may care to know that in Hen- 
bury (Gloucestershire) parish church there was 
formerly a flat stone in the floor of the nave with 
the following inscription upon it : 

M Here lieth interred | the remains of John Aust | of 
Una Parish Yeoman | who died 17 Oct: 1767 | aged 73 
Years | Sarah hi* wife died the 16 | of Oct: 1746 aged 55 
Years I John their Son died 22 Novem: | 1746 aged 25 

house of Lancaster in descent from them. It 
figured also at the famous Oxford tournament of 
1348, where the livery was white buckram 
spangled with silver, and the visors were shaped 
as heads of elephants, lions, savages, and virgins 


HANDIE FAMILY (8 th S. iii. 349). There was 
another branch of this family not mentioned by 
MR. A. MONTGOMERY HANDY, viz., Alexander 
Kingston Handy, J.P., of Park House, co. Meatb, 
who had issue (1) Kingston Handy, who died of 
decline in France s.p.; (2) Orme W. Handy, J.P., 
of Park House ; and (3) Ralph Richardson Handy, 
of the 45th Regiment, d.s.p., unmarried. I was 
intimately acquainted with the two last-mentioned 
sons. There was also an only daughter. 

Kathleen Davenport, widow of Orme W. Handy, 
married secondly, Feb. 10, 1892, Ivan William 
Sidney Handy, L. Th. Du., only surviving son of 
the late John Handy, Esq., of Bracca Castle, co. 

The Vale of Avoca is in the county Wicklow, 
and some forty miles distant in a direct line from 
the nearest border of the King's County. 

Dundrum, co. Down. 

In 1350 John Handy was a patron of the living 
of West Quantoxhead, Somerset. In 1427 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. JULY i, '93. 

Richard Handy was instituted to the living of 
Hazelbury, Somerset. In Hotten's lists are men- 
tioned four members of this family, two with 
Christian names John, one Elizabeth, and one 
Samuel. In Gent. Mag., 1733, p. 46, will be 
found obituary of Major Handy at Chelsea. See 
also Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' index, vol. of 1849, 
in which appear several entries, and * Edinburgh 
Graduates ' for " William Handy, 1788." 

187, Piccadilly, W. 


409)._L. Volkmar, in his ' Prooemia et Regulse 
Juris Romanorum,' p. 123, Berlin, 1854, has : 
" 'Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis : 
si exceptio facit ne liceat, ibi necesse est licere, 
ubi non est exceptum,' Cicero." But I am not 
able to verify the reference to Cicero. The citation 
has often been noticed in ' N. & Q.' in one form 
or another. So in 4 th S. xi. 433 there is from 
JABEZ an extract from Ingleby's * Introduction to 
Metaphysics,' 1849, p. 116, with a further refer- 
ence to PROF. SKEAT, at N. & Q.,' 4 S. xi. 153, 
as " having said nearly all that need be said on 
this saying." Volkmar also notes among the 
" Paroemia Britannorum," after Warren, at p. 503, 
ii. *., " Exceptio probat regulam in casibus non 
exceptis," "Exceptio qua? firmat legem exponit 
legem." Warren, of course, as also Broome, has 
a notice of these in the commentary of either on 
the 'Rules of Law.' 

But scientific exactness now treats the question 
in another way. For 

"the student cannot too constantly bear in mind that 
every cause invariably produces its full effect, though 
other causes may prevent that effect from manifesting 
itself with all the intensity with which it would manifest 
itself, if it acted alone : that there are, strictly speaking, 
no exceptions to laws of nature, though these laws, in 
their manifold action and reaction, may modify or even 
neutralise each other. The aphorism ' Every rule has 
an exception ' is only true, even in grammar, either 
because the rule is inexactly stated or because it con- 
flicts with some other rule known or unknown " (' The 
Elements of Inductive Logic,' by T. Fowler, D.D., 
Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1872, p. 199). 


The Rev. H. Percy Smith's ' Glossary of Terms 
and Phrases ' gives : 

" Exceptio probat regulam de rebus non exceptis. 
A tpecial exception to a rule proves it (to hold) concern- 
ing things not (tpecially) excepted. A legal maxim of 
which tbe first three words are often misapplied as 
meaning ' the fact of there being an exception proves 
the existence of a rule,' or ' an exception is essential to 
every rule.' " 

The 'Stanford Dictionary ' has : 

" The statement of an exception presupposes a rule or 
general proposition from which a particular case or 
particular cases must be excepted. For instance, the 
statement that water and a few other substances expanc 
on freezing at once implies the general rule that sub- 

stances contract more and more the colder they become. 

1566 Yea, & as the lawyers say, Exceptio confirmat 
egulam : so I may say most truly in this case that those 

mall differences of a few names doe much more 

_trongly confirme the rest wherein there is no disagree- 
ment, to be S. Chrysostoms ' (E. Pointz, ' Testimonies 
for Real Presence,' p. 75/1)." 


This maxim means that the exception puts the 
rule to the test, makes us examine the truth of it 
We have abundant instances of "prove" and 
"proof" in this sense. The proof of a sum, a 
printer's proof, " the proof of the pudding is in the 
eating," "I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I 
go to prove them," "Prove me, O Lord, and 
examine my thoughts," are a few examples that 
occur to me. Workmen still speak very com- 
monly of proving something they have made before 
it is considered fit for use. W. D. SWEETING. 

Maxey, Market Deeping. 

QUADRUPLE BIRTHS (8 th S. iii. 308, 352). I 
quote the following from 'The Physical Life of 
Woman,' by George H. Napheys, A.M., M.D., 
London, 1872, pp. 132, 133: 

[ Instances of quadruplets are fewer than triplets, but 
four vigorous infants have been born at one birth. The 
Dirth of five living children is very exceptional, and is 
usually fatal to the offspring. A remarkable case of this 
iind is ; reported in a late medical journal. A woman 
aged thirty, the wife of a labourer, and the mother of 
six children, was taken in labour about the seventh 
month of her pregnancy. Five children, and all alive, 
were given birth to three boys and two girls. Four of 
the children survived an hour, and died within a few 
moments of each other. The fifth, a female, and the 
last born, lived six hours, and was so vigorous that, not- 
withstanding its diminutive size, hopes were enter- 
tained of its surviving. Another case is reported in a 
recent French medical journal. The woman was forty 
years old. She had twins once and single children five 
times. On her seventh pregnancy, when five months 
gone, she was as large as women usually are at the end 
of their full term. At the close of the month, she was 
delivered of five children. They were all born alive, 
and lived from four to seven minutes. All five children 
were males, well built, and as well developed as foetuses 
of five and one half months usually are at a single birth. 
Other cases of five at a birth might be quoted. They 
are known to medical science as very singular and 
noteworthy occurrences." 


Eden Bridge. 

HENCHMAN (7 th S. il 246, 298, 336, 469 ; iii. 31, 
150, 211, 310, 482 ; 8 th S. iii. 194, 389, 478). 
The quotation of the spelling Henxtmen in the 
earliest known use of the word, viz., in 1400, 
surely settles, at last, the etymology of the word. 
I have always contended that it represents the 
Dutch hengst compounded with man; the com- 
pounds hengst-loon and hengst-geld are given in 
'Kilian,' ed. 1777. The difficulty, for me, was to 
find the , as the more usual spelling is henxman. 
But here is the t in the oldest form ; and my pre- 
sent contention is that my opponents will now 

8" S. IV. JOLT 1, '93.] 



have to explain away this t, instead of asking m 
to produce it ; and till this is done, I do not see 
what more can be said. The easiest course, for 
those who can bring themselves to do it, will be to 
admit that appearances are now very much in my 
favour. WALTER W. SEE AT. 

iii. 467). If MR. HILL will refer to 5 th S. iii. 248, 
he will find the original of his query, even as to 
locality, to which three replies are furnished at 
p. 296 of the same volume. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

" HOODLUMISM " (8 th S. iii. 449). The hoodlums 
of America are the equivalents of the roughs of 
London or the voyous of France : 

" A word of no definite derivation, apparently origin 
ating in California in the slang of the ruffians of whom 
it has become the designation." ' Century Dictionary,' 

King's College School. 


ABERNETHY (8 th S. iii. 307). All Abernethy's 
works show him to have been a most appreciative 
disciple of Hunter ; his strongest handling of the 
Hunterian system of physiology is to be found in his 
1 Physiological Lectures addressed to the College 
of Surgeons,' more particularly in the one entitled 
' An Inquiry into the Probability and nationality 
of Mr. Hunter's Theory of Life.' 


^CLICKING-TIME" (8 th S. iii. 468). Should not 
this be " clicketting-time," clacking, chattering, or 
gossiping time? Dutch klicken, Old French 
etiquette. The following extracts will serve to 
show the sense in which it is used. The word is 
still occasionally used in this district. Tusser's 
' Five Hundred Points ': 

With her that will client make danger to cope. 

* David Copperfield '; 

' ' Dan'l, my good man,' said she ; ' you must eat and 
drink, and keep up your trengtb, for without it you '11 
do nowt. Try, that 'a a dear soul 1 And if I disturb you 
with my clicketten, tell me so, Dan'l, and I won't.' " 

Great Yarmouth. 

We are here offered three explanations of this 
phrase ; all of which I believe to be wrong. The 
SVhitby Glossary' (E. D. S.) explains that the 
the days are beginning to click " means 
it they are beginning to shorten. Hence the 
*ng, or " snatching away," really refers to de- 
privation or loss of light. It simply means " the 
time of failing light." WALTER W. SKEAT. 

HERALDIC CASTLES (B* S. iii. 347, 474).-The 

is of Winchester city have five single towers, 

sometimes called castle*. I am convinced they 

must represent the towers of Walkelin's Norman 
cathedral. All of these must have threatened to 
fall when the central one fell, just after Rufus was 
buried under it. This was rebuilt, not of its full 
height, but omitting the upper story of circular 
windows, and now serves as belfry, for which pur- 
pose neither it nor any central lantern was ever in- 
tended, here or elsewhere. The four belfries on the 
corners of the transept must have been carefully 
taken down, we have no record when. Their effects 
in making the substructure bulge are very visible. 

E. L. G. 

"WEDDING KNIFE" (8 th S. iii. 449). Knives 
were formerly worn by women. In Chaucer's 
Prologue to the ' Canterbury Tales,' tradesmen are 
described as wearing knives, in imitation of the 
knightly anelace : 

Hir knives were y-chaped not with brass, 

But all with silver wrought full clean and well, 

Hir girdle and hir pouches ev'ry del. 

In Ross Church, Herefordshire, is a monument 
of a lady of the Ruddle family, temp. Henry VIII., 
and she wears a purse and knife. Bellafront, in 
the ' Honest Whore,' 1604, threatens to stab her 
servant with hers. Brand says that 

" knives were formerly part of the accoutrements of a 
bride. This, perhaps, will not be difficult to account for 
if we consider that it anciently formed part of the drees 
for women to wear a knife or knives sheathed and sus- 
pended from their girdles ; a finer or more ornamental 
pair of which would very naturally be either purchased 
or presented on the occasion of a marriage." 

The following passage in the play of Edward III., 
in 1599, shows that two knives were thus used : 

Here by my side do bang my wedding knives ; 
Take thou the one, and with it kill thy queen, 
And with the other I 11 despatch my love. 

In the twelfth volume of the Archceologia Mr. 
Douce communicated a paper on the practice of 
wearing knives and purses at the girdle by 
European ladies in the sixteenth century, and a 
specimen is engraved of a case of wedding knives. 
The date upon both handles was 1610 ; one had 
an amber, the other a reddish - coloured glass 
handle, the sheath being of purple velvet, em- 
broidered with gold. At a meeting of the British 
Archaeological Association, in 1860, was exhibited 
a pair of wedding knives in their embossed sheath 
of cuirbouilli. The hilts of both were of silver 
with truciform and vase -shaped terminations, 
richly engraved with arabesques, together with 
Scriptural and allegorical subjects. Both hilts 
were graven with the name of the owner and the 
date 1629. The iron blades were about five inches 
ong ; one was stamped with a pair of shears and 
i dagger, and the other with an arched crown and 
a star of six points. The sheath was a double 
receptacle, measuring about nine inches and three- 
quarters in length, and was intended for suspen- 
ion at a girdle. 



. J ULY i, 

In 'Romeo and Juliet' the heroine of the play 
declares her intention of using her knife should 
the poison fail. Stevens has appended a note to 
the passages remarking that in this instance all 
things proper for Juliet's coming bridal had been 
left with her, and that such knives, of a more 
ornamental character than usual, formed part of 

In Dekker's * Match Me in London' (1631): 
See at my girdle hang my wedding knives, 
With these dispatch me. 

In the * Witch of Edmonton,' 1658, one of the 
characters says: "But see the bridegroom and 
bride come ; the new pair of Sheffield knives fitted 
both to one sheath." Knives also appear to have 
been given by lovers to their mistresses. Thomas 
Davison, in his * Poetical Rapsody,' 1601, says : 
Fortune doth give these paire of knives to you, 
To cut the thred of love if 't be not true. 

And in * Well met Gossip,' 1675, a woman says : 
For this you know, that all the wooing season, 
Suitors with gifts continual seek to gain 
Their mistress love, &c. 

The wife answers : 

That 's very true 

In conscience I had twenty pair of gloves, 
When I was maid, given to that effect ; 
Garters, knives, purses, girdles, store of rings, 
And many a thousand dainty pretty things. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The betrothal or wedding gift of a knife was by 
no means peculiar to Scotland; for there are numer- 
ous allusions to the custom in ancient English 
literature, and the knives are generally spoken of 
as of Sheffield make. Of Chaucer's ' Miller of 
Trumpington' it is said: "A Sheffield Thurtel 
bare he in his Hose," and all the portraits of 
Chaucer give him a knife hanging at his breast. 

See at my girdle hang my wedding knives. 
With these dispatch me, 

occurs in Dekker's ' Match Me in London ' (1631), 
and numerous other references make it certain that 
about that time knives used to be amongst the 
accoutrements of a bride and to form not the least 
useful tool of her chatelaine. 


IMNSBRUCK HOFKIRCHE (8 th S. ii. 81, 162, 211, 
221, 315, 349, 409, 491 ; iii. 471).- During a visit 
to the British Museum Library I took the oppor- 
tunity of examining a little volume from which I 
suspected the compiler of Baedeker's account of 
theeffigiessurrounding this tombmight havederived 
his information, correct and otherwise. It is entitled 
'Getreue Abbildung und Beschreibung der 28 
erzernen Statuen, welche das Grabmal Kaiser 
Maximilian I. umgeben/und in der Hofkirche zu 
Innsbruck aufgestellt sind.' It has no date, but 
was printed at Innsbruck in 1841, and contains 

engravings of the effigies and descriptions in Ger- 
man and French. I had thought it possible that 
its help might enable me to clear up the difficulties 
arising from the discrepancies which undoubtedly 
exist between the arms borne by some of the 
figures and the descriptions of the catalogues and 
even of the inscriptions on the pedestals them- 
selves. But the curious thing is that neither 
the artist nor the writer of the descriptive 
letterpress thought the escutcheons which the 
effigies support worthy of any attention at 
all. In no single instance are they described 
(which, perhaps, is not wonderful), nor are they 
even included in the engraving. The inscriptions 
on the bases are given, and I have copied them so 
far as my eyesight permitted. I think there is 
internal evidence that from this catalogue Bae- 
deker's description was drawn at first or second 
hand. My purpose, however, in writing is to say 
that the same confusion exists in this catalogue 
with regard to Nos. 18, 19, 20, which I have 
noted (in 8 th S.ii. 221); but the information given 
is corroborative of my suggestion that my No. 20 
is really the effigy of Mary of Burgundy, Maxi- 
milian's first wife. I think it quite clear that (&s 
suggested at 8 th S. ii. 409) some of the effigies or 
the labels have been shifted about and misplaced, 
as has certainly happened with at least one of the 
shields. JOHN WOODWARD, LL.D. 



448). Boswell gives Johnson's exact words thus : 

"An eminent tallow chandler in London, who had 
acquired a considerable fortune, gave up the trade in 
favour of his foreman, and went to live in a country- 
house near town. He soon grew weary, and paid fre- 
quent visits to his old shop, where he desired they might 
let him know their melting days, and he would come and 
assist them ; which he accordingly did. Here, sir, was 
a man to whom the most disgusting circumstances in the 
business to which he had been used was a relief from 
idleness." Croker's Boswell's ' Johnson,' p. 413, col. 1 
(ed. 1860), 1775, at. 66. 


Allusion is made to him in Boswell's 'John- 
son,' vol. v. p. 278 (Murray, 1839). 


iii. 468). A coloured reproduction (rather a bad 
one) of this picture appeared many years ago in 
either the Leisure Hour or the Sunday at Home, 
probably somewhere about the year 1868. 

J. M. G. 

A coloured engraving of this picture, by Vincent 
Brooks, appeared some years ago as a frontispiece 
to the Sunday at Home. I am unable to give the 
date, although I possess a copy of the engraving. 
The original was painted in 1854. 


Holznby House, Forest Gate. 

8 th S. IV. JULY 1, '93.] 



"SLOPSELLER" (8 th S. iii. 289, 410, 491). In 
the time of Edward III. there was a lane in Nor- 
wich known as Sloper's Lane, in which certain 
persons with the surname Le Slopere had property, 
as mentioned in Kirkpatrick's ' Streets and Lanes 
of Norwich.' The Rev. Wm. Hudson, who edited 
this interesting work in 1889, and has done so 
much for the archaeology of Norwich, suggests that 
these Slopers were probably dealers in "slops," 
garments worn by workmen, and points out that 
' Prompt. Parv.' has " Sloppe, garment." If this 
be so, the term is of a very respectable antiquity. 
The term " reach-me-downs " was used more than 
once in the recent evidence before the Labour 
Commission, and may, among other places, be 
found in the Pall Matt Gazette interview with Miss 
Hicks, tailoress, Sept. 15, 1892, p. 3. It also 
occurs in an anecdote related by Mr. Besant in 
his tale * The Demoniac,' 1892, p. 149. It would 
seem that " reach-me-downs" are always trousers. 



348). So much is written about this that I insert 
the original form of the proverb : 
Ei yap KCV KCU O7u/cpov iiri oTUKpw KaraOeio, 
KCU 0a/m TOVT' epSois, Tax KV /zeya KCU TO 

Hes., "Epya KCU 'H/xepat, 359-60. 


The Prison Life of Marie Antoinette and her Children, 

the Dauphin and the Duchesse D'Angouleme. By M. C. 

Bishop. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 

WE have seldom read a more attractive book on modern 
French history. Mr. Bishop writes from the Christian 
standpoint, and has, therefore, no sympathy whatever 
with that corrupt state of things which made the great 
catastrophe known as the Revolution possible. 

Until quite recent days it was impossible for any one, 
however earnest and free from prejudice, to form anything 
but distorted views of that terrible upheaval which 
destroyed the oldest monarchy in Christendom. 

The great French Revolution is marked off from all 
the other great destructive movements of the world by 
the fact that the wild opinions which led to such wide- 
spread destruction lia-1 not arisen among the oppressed 
classes. They had filtered down from above. It was the 
Court and the great nobles who prepared the way for 
their own destruction. 

During her life and for half a century after her death 
the Queen of France was regarded in this country as a 
selfish worldling, who cared nothing whatever for the 
welfare of the starving multitude, so that she might 
drees gaily, be surrounded by flatterers, and waste money 
at the gaming-table. Darker traits than these were 
hinted at, and even broadly stated in the foul literature 
of tbe past, but it has now been demonstrated that the 
worst that can be said of her is that in times of prosperity 
she was gay and thoughtless. Mr. Bishop by no means 
represents her as a saint, or even as a model queen, but 

he shows that, by one of those horrible state marriages 
which can never be too strongly denounced by all those 
who value domestic purity, she was placed in a position 
of extreme difficulty. 

In the earlier part of her married life it is not probabfe 
that she could have had much regard for her husband. 
Louis XVI. was dull, unimaginative, almost stupid ; she 
was bright and intelligent, with considerable force and 
originality of character. They presented a new thing at 
the French Court, a phenomenon not witnessed since the 
days of St. Louis, of a king and queen who felt themselves 
bound by the same divine law as that which they con- 
sidered binding on the serfs and peasants around them. 
Louis went on steadily improving. In the earlier years 
of his reign there was little to admire, and we cannot 
but feel that the head of the greatest line in Europe, the 
man who posed as the representative of Charlemagne 
and the eldest eon of the Church, was guilty of something 
like an offence against humanity by what seems almost 
a studied cultivation of dulneas. When trouble came 
upon the royal family the better side of his nature 
displayed itself, and the latter days of his life were 
little short of heroic. Mr. Bishop is evidently of 
opinion that this nobleness, so conspicuous when the 
depths of sorrow were reached, was in a great degree dui 
to his wife. In this we are in full agreement with him. 
Louis was of a nature which could not stand alone. When 
freed from sycophants and flatterers he naturally fell 
back on his wife, and she, purified by suffering, was the 
best adviser that he could have bad. If he had been 
doomed to suffer from an ignorant, or even common- 
place wife, his character at the end would have been 
much less attractive. 

One great merit of the volume before us is that we are 
spared hard words regarding those with whom the author 
cannot possibly have any sympathy. He sees that, what- 
ever may be true or false with regard to those great 
principles which underlie the thoughts of all civilized 
humanity, the men of the Revolution, even the most 
violent and bloodthirsty of them were carried away by a 
torrent that it was impossible for human nature, as 
ordinarily constituted, to resist. It does not become us, 
whose political life has been evolved under more stable 
conditions, to speak harshly of men driven to crime by 
the moral treason of kings and ecclesiastics, whose func- 
tion it should have been to lead their flocks in the ways 
of peace. 

Where all is so pleasing it is not easy to pick out 
passages here and there for special commendation. The 
chapter headed " A Prince's Training " is worthy of notice, 
but we would especially direct our readers' attention to 
the one entitled " Ecce Ancilla Domini." We have very 
rarely read anything in any language of more sustained- 
pathos or touching simplicity. 

The English Peasant: Studies, Historical, Local, and 

Biographic, By Richard Heath. (Fisher Unwin.) 
LITERATURE relating to our rural poor is rapidly on the 
increase. We wish we were able to affirm that the 
quality was in any way equal to the quantity. This, 
however, is not so. Every one who can get an article 
inserted in a newspaper or magazine seems to think that 
he is, without any preliminary investigation, in a position 
to "reel off" sentences about Hodge. As every one 
thinks he is a judge of a horse, so nearly all men of 
letters seem to believe that they have something worth 
listening to to tell us about the farm labourer and the 
rural cottager. That this is not so must be evident to 
every thoughtful person whose home is in tbe country. 
Our rustic workers form a class to themselves, with their 
own joys and sorrows, and their own views of the great 
moral problems which are troubling tbe minds of all 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. iv. JULY i, "93. 

who think. As a class we have found them upright and 
honest, with a vein of latent poetry in their hearts which 
seems to have been developed out of those immediately 
above them. We have heard the late Richard Jeffenes 
blamed again and again for giving too romantic a picture 
of the peasants he undertook to describe. Our own 
observation leads us to think that it was the critics not 
the writer, who fell into error. Mr. Richard Heath is 
not a Richard Jeflferies. Not only are their styles 
widely different, but they look on the peasant from a 
different standpoint. One thing they have in common. 
They understand the subject on which they write. Mr. 
Heath blends politics with his descriptions. Sometimes, 
to our thinking, he drags them in without occasion. 
This defect, if it be one, does not seriously injure his 
studies, every one of which is worth careful attention. 
The article called " The English Via Dolorosa is one of 
the most deeply pathetic papers we ever came across 
To anyone who can read between the lines, " Fen-land 
and Fen Men " is also excellent, and we strongly com- 
mend to all who really wish to serve their fellow creatures 
who live away from towns a careful study of " The Poor 
Man's Gospel." 

Mr. Heath has selected three men as types of English 

agricultural life, Cobbett, Clare, and Huntingdon, the 

Sinner Saved, as he was called, alike by his admirers and 

by those (a far larger class) who thought him a con- 

ecienceless hypocrite. We think the sketch of Cobbett 

too favourable. The man had intellect, sympathy, and 

other qualities of a noble sort; but he is not to be excused, 

when all allowances have been made, for the unseemly 

violence of language which he thought good to employ. 

He had during the latter part of his life great influence, 

and some of his books live still. Had he been more 

moderate his power would have been far greater. The 

paper on Clare, the peasant poet, is simply delightful. 

It is the best thing, so far as we know, that has yet been 

written concerning one of the most wonderful men that 

ever sprang from the ranks of our rural poor. We are 

very glad also to read Mr. Heath's vindication of William 

Huntington. His name occurs over and over again in 

modern literature, used as a type of a low, vulgar soul 

using religion as a mask. This view of Huntington's 

life we owe in a great degree, though not entirely, to 

Southey the poet. We should be sorry to be hard on 

Southey, who was a man worthy of admiration in almost 

every respect; but he was so constituted as to be utterly 

unable to see the good side of any form of religion that 

did not present itself with clean hands and face, trimly 

dressed hair, and a costume adapted for afternoon tea at 

the rectory. Huntington was a man who, had he lived 

m the days of Dominic or Francis, would have followed 

one or other of those great teachers like a dog, and 

gladly gone to martyrdom, or martyred others at the 

bidding of those in whom he trusted. The poor man 

living when and where he did, spun for himself a gro 

tesque form of belief which it is hardly possible for 

many of us to treat seriously ; but it ought to be obvious 

to those who have read his writings, and know hi 

pathetic history, that he was a seeker after truth. 

A Primer of Historical Englith Grammar. By H. Sweet 

Ph.D., LL.D. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
THIS is a condensation, doubly distilled, from Dr 
Sweet's two larger volumes on the same subject 
Retaining the essential outlines, but in a great par 
rewritten, the manual in its more elementary form wil 
prove admirably adapted for school use. As scrupulou 
accuracy in a book of this kind is indispensable, it wi 
not be hypercritical to remark that the " tykelnesse 
which "clymbyng hath," in one of Dr. Sweet's typica 
selections (p. 109), is not " giddiness," as he glosses i 

ic subjective feeling of the climber, but the objective 
act of ticklish instability or liability to totter and fall. 

'he General Index to ike Remains, Historical and 
Literary, published by the Chetham Society. Vols. 
XXXI.-CXIV. (Chetham Society.) 
HE Chetham Society was founded fifty years ago, and 

las contributed a mass of historical material relating to 

jancashire and Cheshire which has long been the envy 
f other counties. An index to the first thirty volumea 

was issued in 1863. This companion volume is of the 
ame high degree of excellence as its predecessor. We 
ave tested it in several places, and have never suffered 
isappointment. Why, we would ask, are the publica- 
ions of the Surtees Society without a general index ? 
ome few pages of a key of this kind were printed for the 

Camden books, but, for some reason unknown to us, the 
ork was stopped. 
WE have received vols. iv. and v. of The Calendars of 

State Papers (Domestic], 1643-1660 (Her Majesty's 
tationery Office), containing records relating to those 
nfortunate persons who, when the Parliament became 
riumphant, were compelled to compound for their 
states. In those records we find something relating to 

nearly every one who had landed property, large or small, 

who had in any way served the king. For genealogical 
lurposes these documents are of immense value. Not 
nly do they help to correct the blunders of the Heralds' 

Visitations, but they give pedigree facts regarding many 

persons who were not of a rank sufficiently high for the 
icralds to notice them. As there are in many cases 
ilaborate accounts of the estates of the sufferers, there is 

very much which will be found useful by the local his- 
;orian. We do not know whether it has ever occurred to 
ny one to go through ' The Royalist Composition 

Papers ' for the sake of collecting names of fields, woods, 
prings, and boundaries. Any one who should undertake 
ihis labour would be rewarded by a rich harvest. 

MB. ELLIOT STOCK announces a new volume, entitled 
Eminent Men of Kent,' by James Simson, author of 
Historic Thanet.' It will contain a series of sketches of 
celebrated Kentish men from the earliest time. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 
To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

INQUIRER (" D. O.M.on a Tombstone "). "Deo Op- 
timo Maximo." 

CORRIGENDUM. We are requested by the writer of a 
note on ' William Huntingdon ' (6 th S. ix. 82) to say that 
the name should be Huntington. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com* 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

IV. JULY 8, '93.] 





NOTES Letters of Ralegh, 21-Beaconsfield Bibliography, 
22-John Baron King, 24-Dolman-" Cavalry Curates," 
25-Edition-Epigraph-A Fraudulent Book-Keyam and 
Akbar Swift, 26-Tobacco Invite=Invitation-Caring- 
ton " Hedge-Priest," 27. 

QUERIES :-Stradivari-' Unpublished Letters of the Seven- 
tenth Century,' 27-Endymion Porter-Lady Charlotte 
Edwin Mar prelate Trials French Peerage " Lute of 
Wisdom" William Pont de I'Arche Lady Garrard Post 
Office in the Seventeenth Century Literary Forgery- 
Performance of Mass " Adhemar's Prophecy "The Savoy 
"Dilly-dally," 28 Francis Legge Author of Ballad 
Ariosto ' Scenes de laViedeBoheme '-Lady Mary Wroth 
Zerah Colburn Heraldry, 29. 

REPLIES : Foreigners' Descriptions of England, 29" Salz- 
bery" and " Sombreset," 31 "Ale-dagger" Hablot, 32 
"Zolaesque" Earldom of Strathern, 33 Parish Eke- 
names-Usses or Osses-Sir H. Langford, 34 Telepathic 
Obsession-Wedding Wreaths-The Royal Marriage, 35 
Twice Knighted Post Office Grammar Sir John Falstaff , 
36 Tenerife- Self-education Pedigree of Brian Boroimhe 
" Grass-widow " Ghost Miners Cr. Daniel Scott 
Robert M. Martin, 37 Massacre of Scio S6jan May Day 
St. Thomas of Waterings, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lang's Scott's ' Monastery' Er- 
merin's 'Annuaire de la Noblesse de Russie ' Roberts's 
' Greek the Language of Christ.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(Continued from 8 th S. iii. 482.) 

Sir Walter Rawleigh hia Letter to the Earle of Salis- 
burye, Lord Treasurer of England, Touchinge Guyana ; 
Anno 1607 [16111 

The offerr, w ch I made ffor Guyana, som'e ffower yeares 
since, I was of late perswaded by som'e honno ble ffrindes 
of myne, once more to p'sent unto yo r LOPP w ch I was 
the more willinge to p'sume, when I considered w th 
whatt difficultye such som'es are Raysed in England, as 
maye serve his Ma ties occasions, and Aunswere the greate 
Liberallitye, and goodnes of his harte. 

[Marginal note, An 1607]. Uppon : my first offer it 
was Required that a Shipp might bee ffirst sent thether, 
ffor the Tryall of the Riches of the place, uppon the 
Retourne of w ch (the Truth appearinge) yo r LOPP pro- 
mised to be a meane ffor my Lib'tye and my Lande, Butt 
yo r LOPP maye bee pleased to Remember uppon whatt 
difference that Resoluc'on was Broken of; And that iff 
the same Tryall bee agayne Required, that the Bargayne 
is nowe Twentye Thousand pounde worse ffor mee then 
the fforme', my Lande beinge nowe disposed. 

Nottwithstandinge w ch , 1 will never hinder soe greate 
a servyce ffor any respect of my eelfe, yf the charge of 
the Tryall by sendinge maye bee Borne; neyther would 
I desire soe muche, could I bee Assured, that [marginal 
note, Captayne Harecc^] the gentleman sent might 
lyve to arryve there, and not dye in his passage, eyther 
by sicknes,* or by the sworde, By w ch both the enter- 
prize would bee ever lost, And all in effect that Remaynes 
to Releive my wyfe, and children cast awaye. 

* " By sicklies " repeated in original. 

Now the inconvenyences of sendinge ffor a Tryall I 
iave alreadye sett downe, and though I cannot doubte 
Butt that yo r LOPP hath Read that Paper, yett to the 
ende yo r LOPP might the better Consider of them, I have 
leerein underwritten them once agayne : 

1. As ffirst, Because it is nowe Sixteen yeares since 
iveraishe, and my selfe sawe the place, The countrye 
beinge desolate, and overgrowne, I resolve that it 
wilbee enough ffor us both to ffinde the same peece of 
grounde agayne, in \v ch difficultye, and in a matter of soe 
jreate importance, Two guydes are better then one : 

2. Secondlye: yf Kemishe dye, or perishe by Ship- 
wracke in the waye thetherwarde, or beffore he ffinde 
the myne, the Charge of the voyage is not onely lost, 
But the enterprize it selfe, ffor I dare not trust myne 
owne Memorye, and myne owne marckes ffor the ffinde- 
inge it ; 

3. Thirdlye : yf this yeare bee spent in the Tryall, it 
wilbee two yeares, and more, ere his Ma"e cann Reape 
any proffitt ffrom thence, where as yf both bee and I bee 
imployed, All maye bee do'ne in nyne Monethes : 

4. ffowerthlye : yf the myne bee once opened, and dis- 
covered, those Spanyerdes w ch dwell uppon the same 
Ryver, and w ch since my beinge there, have Tormented 
an hundred of the naturall people to death to ffinde the 
place, will worcke it out to the laat pounde weight, ere 
any second companye cann bee sent ; ffor yf the myne 
laye deepe in the grounde, or in any Rocke, or harde 
Sparre ; it were not easelye taken upp: Butt by tyme, 
and by inhabiteinge the places ; Butt seeinge that the 
gold Care, is ffounde but att the Roote of the grasse, 
in a Broade and fflatt slate: The neyghboureinge 
Spanyerdes, will easelyo worcke it out in a shorte tyme, 
Soe ere Kemishe cann Returne, and a newe ffleete be 
prepared heere, and cann Arryve there, Tenn Monethea 
wilbee spent, And when it shall Arryve the next yeare, 
whatt cann wee otherwise looke ffor, Butt to bee Laughed 
att by our enemyes, ffor haveinge discovered ffor them, 
att our charge a Myne of gold w ch themselves haveinge 
inhabited uppon the same Ryver Twenty yeare, neyther 
by Tormentinge others, nor by their owne Travell, could 
ever ffinde : 

5. Lastlye : whereas this Treasure maye bee had uppon 
the ffirst openinge of the Myne, w th out Breache of Peace, 
Because the Spanyerd hath neyther Knoweledge nor pos- 
session of the Place, where it is, it canuott bee gotten 
by a second voyage, w^out publicque fforce; it maye 
nowe bee brought a waye by two shippes, The next 
yeare hardlye w th Twentye ; And better it were (soe ffarr, 
as my weake Judgm te cann discerne) that the Spanyerdes 
should give cause of quarrell to us, then wee to them : 

Now: that w ch maye bee objected is, the importaunce 
of my Lib'tye, Certainlye yf it bee thought better ffor his 
Ma tie to loose eoe greate Riches, then that I bee im- 
ployed in his servyce, I knowe noe Reason whie such a 
one as I ame, should bee sufferred to lyve : 

Yff it bee thought, that beinge att Lib'tye, I would 
Runne hence to som'e other Prince, or State, iff I did, 
yett I doe not heare of any wonders, that have been 
Wrought att this daye, by anye Runnegate of ours, And 
sure I am'e, that the one halfe of that w ch I enjoye in 
England by his Ma ties grace, would Buye my unnaturall 
knaves head, that is Beyonde the seas, wheresoever hee 
thincke him selfe most sure, And ffor ought I heare, those 
that have the best entertaynem 16 els where would most 
willinglye Retourne into their owne Countryes uppon 
exceedinge easie Condic'ons, ffor the rest, ffor me to pur- 
chase a yeares Lib'tye, or perchaunce lesse by Perjurye, 
and inffamye, ffor mee, to leave my wyfe and Children, 
to bee spurned att as the wyfe and Children of a ffaith- 
lesse and ungratefull Traytor, I trust that yo r LOPP will 
never Beleive it of mee. 



[8 th S. IV. JULY 8, '93. 

ffor other wortbie Men; whoe (howesoever yo r LOPP 
atande indifferent) may disswade hia Ma 116 in all they 
cann ffrom this enterprize, and passe w th the Bame 
sleight Contempt, *& som'e of Kinge Henrye the 
scaventhes Councello 1 * did, the offerr of Columbus; I 
shall greatlye ffeare, (yf the Case were myne) that when 
his Ma Ue should understand that the Spanyerdea have 
ffounde this place, whoe endaungered all the States of 
Europa, by the lyke, that bee might justlye laye it to my 
Charge, that this Treasure might have been his, ffor this 
hazard of a Reede, ffor the Adventureinge of an ould, 
and Sorrowe-worne Man, whom'e death would shortlye 
have delivered (invito domino), and whoe yf bee had 
don'e well, it had been ffor the Kinge, yf yll ; the shame, 
inffamye, and Losse had been bis owne, his Enemyes had 
had a greater Advauntage over him, then ever; And 
onely his owne ffrindes whoe were Content to Adventure 
themselves and their {fortunes w th him, bee had Betrayed: 

Thus much I saye, bis Ma tie maye saye in the ffuture, 
whether justlye or noe, yo r LOPP cann better Judge then 
I cann: ffor myne owne parte, god doth wy tines it w th 
mee, that I ffinde little Cause of hope, to out* lyve 
another wynter, happie thereffore should I thincke my 
selfe, yf I might Repaye that lyfe to the Kinge w ch bee 
hath lent me, with som'e good interest, And not leave it 
to death, whoe will shortlye seaze it, eyther att a Base 
pryce, or ffor noethinge, Butt to godes providence I must 
leave it: And rest: 

Yo r Lo humble servante 






(See 8 th 8. iii. 321, 361, 401, 443, 482.) 

The works showing the exact date of publication 
are placed in this list before those bearing the 
year-date only. 


Home letters written by the late Earl of Beaconsfield 
in 1830 and 1831. 'Absence is often a great element of 
charm.' Endymion. Second edition. London : John 
Murray, Albemarle Street. 1885. All rights reserved. 
8vo. pp. [9], 139. B.M. 2410 a. 

The introductory pages are distinguished by 
Arabic figures in brackets, instead of the usual 
Roman letters. Mr. Ralph Disraeli contributes a 
preface of two pages, and prints on the last page of 
the volume two stanzas written by his brother 
whilst sailing on the yEgean Sea. 

The ' Runnymede Letters.' With an introduction and 

notes by Francis Hitchman London : Richard Bentley 

& Son 1885 8vo. pp. xii, 292. B.M. 8139 bb. 29. 

The nineteen letters occupy pp. 1-242 and are 
followed by The Spirit of Whiggism,' as in the 
edition of 1836. 


Lord Beaconsfield's correspondence with hia sister, 
1832-1852. Fortt nihil difficile. With a Portrait. Lon- 
don : John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1886. 8vo. 
pp. xtv, 269. B.M. 2410 b. 

Mr. Ealph Disraeli's preface is on pp. vii, viii. 
For the French translation see 1889. 

Gleanings from Beaconsfield. Compiled by H. St. John 
Raikes. Marcus Ward & Co., Limited. London, Bel- 

fast, and New York.-1886. 16mo. pp. ii, 46. B.M, 
8139 a. 17. 

A series of extracts from Lord Beaconsfield's 
speeches arranged under headings. 

People's Edition. 3rf. Gleanings from Beaconsfield. 
Compiled by H. St. John Raikes. Marcus Ward & Co,, 
Limited. London, Belfast, & New York. 1886. 8vo. 

This is a tract of 32 pp., with the title on the 
first page of the cover. 

Wellington.' Sonnets of this Century,' edited by Wil- 
liam Sharp, 1886, pp. 268-9. B.M. 11604 aa. 

For the history of this sonnet see 1848. 


Lord Beaconsfield's letters. 1830-1852. 'Forti nihil 
difficile.' New edition of ' Home Letters ' and ' Corre- 
spondence with his Sister,' with additional letters and 
notes. With a portrait. Edited by his brother. Lon- 
don : John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1887. All rights- 
reserved. 8vo. pp. [14], 1-248. B.M. 10920 ccc. 20. 

The prefatory pages have figures within brackets. 


Tancred, or the new crusade. By the Earl of Beacons- 
field, E.G. New edition. London : Longmans, Green, 
and Co. 1888. 8vo. pp. iv, 487. 

See 1847. 

Vivian Grey. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, Author of 
" Coningsby," " Henrietta Temple," "Sybil," " Venetia," 
etc., etc. Ward, Lock, and Co., London : Warwick House, 
Salisbury Square ; New York : Bond Street. 1888. 8vo. 
pp. viii, 9-247. B.M. 12603 h. 2. 

Pp. i, ii, are advertisements preceding the half- 
title. See 1826. 

The wondrous tale of Alroy. By the Earl of Beacons- 
field, author of "Vivian Grey," "Coningsby," "Venetia," 
etc. Ward, Lock, and Co. London : Warwick House. 
Salisbury Square, E.G. New York : Bond Street. 1888. 
8vo. pp. vi, 104. B.M. 12603 h. 3. 

See 1833. 

Contarini Fleming : a psychological autobiography. 
By the Earl of Beaconsfield, author of <( Vivian Grey," 
" Coningsby," " Venetia," etc. Ward, Lock, and Co. 
London : Warwick House, Salisbury Square, E.C New 
York: Bond Street. 1888. 8vo. pp. iv, 130. B.M, 
12603 h. 4. 

See 1832. 

Henrietta Temple. A Love Story. By the Earl of 
Beaconsfield, author of "Vivian Grey," "Coningsby," 
"Venetia," etc. "Quoth Sancho, read it out by all 
means; for I mightily delight in hearing of Love Stories." 
Ward, Lock and Co. London : Warwick House, Salis- 
bury Square, E.C. New York : Bond Street. 1888. 8vo 
pp. vi, 169. B.M. 12603 h. 5. 

See 1837. 

Coningsby; or, the new generation. By the* Earl of 
Beaconsfield, author of " Vivian Grey," " Venetia," 
" Contarini Fleming," etc. Ward, Lock, and Co. London 
Warwick House, Salisbury Square, B.C.: New York 
Bond Street. 1888. 8vo. pp. vi, 7-191. B.M. 12603 h. 6. 

Pp. i, ii, are advertisements preceding the half- 
title. See 1844. 

Sybil, or the two nations. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, 
author of "Comngsby," "Henrietta Temple," "Vivian 

8 th S. IV. JOLY 8, '93.] 


Grey," etc. "The Commonalty murmured, and said, 
'There never were so many Gentlemen, and BO little 
Gentleness."' Bishop Latimer. Ward, Lock and Co. 
London : Warwick House, Salisbury Square, B.C. New 
York Bond Street.-1888. 8vo. pp. x, 11-195. B.M. 
12603 h. 7. 

Pp. i, ii, are advertisements preceding the half- 
title. See 1845. 

Venetia. By the Earl of Beaconafield, author of 
" Vivian Grey," " Coningsby," " Henrietta Temple," etc. 
[Three lines of poetry, as in 1837.] Ward, Lock, and Co. 
London : Warwick House, Salisbury Square, E.G. New 
York : Bond Street. 1888. 8vo. pp. iv, 193. B.M. 
12603 h. 8. 

See 1837. 

The young duke. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, author 
of " Coningsby," " Vivian Grey," " Sybil," etc. Ward, 
Lock and Co. London : Warwick House, Salisbury 
Square. New York : Bond Street. 1888. 8vo. pp. vi, 
7-146. B.M. 12603 h. 9. 

Pp. i, ii, are advertisements. See 1831. 

Price sixpence. The Primrose Edition ...... George 

Routledge and Sona. [Pictorial cover.] ...... London : 

George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill; 
Glasgow and New York. 1888.-8 vols. 8vo. B.M. 

The volumes are not numbered, but are advertised 
on the back of the half-titles in the following order : 
* Vivian Grey,' pp. iv, 5-245 ; ' Coningsby,' pp. vi, 
7-207; * Sybil/ pp. vi, 7-192; 'Contarini Fleming,' 

pp. iv, 7-194 (the pagination is wrong; p. 7 should 
have been p. 5) ; 'The Young Duke/ pp. vi, 7-154 ; 
'The Wondrous Tale of Alroy,' 'The Rise of 
Iskander,' pp. viii, 9-160 (' Alroy' ends on p. 124, 
and the half-title of 'Iskander' is p. 125); 
4 Venetia,' pp. iv, 5-185 ; ' Henrietta Temple,' 
pp. iv, 188. 


Coningsby; or the new generation. By the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G. (Reprinted from the 
Edition of 1844.) Edited, with a preface and elucidatory 
notes, by Francis Hitchman, author of ' The Public Life 
of the Earl of Beaconsfield,' <kc., &c. London : W. H. 
Allen & Co., 13, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, S.W. 1889. 
8vo. pp. xviii, 458. B.M. 12619 e. 2. 

The half-title is not counted in the pagination of 
the prefatory matter. There is also a frontispiece 
entitled ' A Cabinet Pudding.' Mr. Hitchman's 
identifications of the characters of the novel differ 
in some instances from those in the key printed 
under 1844. 

Lettres de Lord Beacpnefield a sa soeur, traduites avec 
introduction, notices historiques et notes, et precedes 
d'une 6tude sur Lord Beaconsfield et le parti Tory par 
Alexandre Dehaye, Licencie 6s lettres, licencid en droit, 
Membra de la Soci6te de legislation comparee. Paris : 
Librairie academique Didier, Perrin et Cie., librairea- 

liteurs. 35, Quai des Grands- Augustine. 35. 1889. Toua 
droita reserves. 8vo. pp. vi, 461. B.M. 010920 e. 1. 

Pp. 1-82 comprise " Lord Beaconsfield et le parti 
Tory," signed " Alexandre Dehaye." The " Intro- 
duction aux Lettre?,"pp. 83-112., is signed "Le 
Traducteur." The laat two letters, pp. 406-7, are 
dated " 8 juin 1852" and " 16 fe>rier 1852." The 

.alter should be " juin," like the former. Pp. 409-54 
are occupied by " Notes de 1'Etude et de 1'Intro- 
duction." See 1886. 

Be vena. YTrorovAopSovB. AwrpaeArj. Kara 
fj.T<i<f>pa.(rLV I. F. XlaTTTra. 'Ee8o$?7 e* TOVTVTTO- 
ypafaiov TTJ<S " KvTrpov." AdpvaKi TTJ 14 Matov 
1889. 8vo. pp. 584. B.M. 12603 1. 

A translation of 'Venetia.' See 1837. 


Lothair. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G. ' N3sse 
omnia haec salus est adolescentulis.' Terentius. New 
edition. London : Longmans, Green, and Co. And New 
York : 15 East 16th Street. 1890. 8vo. pp. xx, 485. 

See 1870. 

Venetia. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G. [Three 
ines of poetry, as in 1837.] New edition. London : 
Longmans, Green, and Co. 1890. 8vo. pp. viii, 482. 

See 1837. 

Alroy. Ixion in heaven. The infernal marriage. 
Popanilla. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G. New edition. 
London : Longmans, Green, and Co. 1890. 8vo. pp. viii, 

The "Preface to Alroy" occupies pp. v-vii; 
'Alroy/ pp. 1-252; "Notes to Alroy," pp. 253- 
266 ; ' Ixion in Heaven,' pp. 267-97 ; ' The In- 
fernal Marriage/ pp. 299-362; 'Popanilla/ pp. 363- 
463. For ' Alroy ' see 1833 ; for ' Ixion/ 1832 ; 
for ' The Infernal Marriage/ 1834; for ' Popanilla/ 

Sybil, or the two nations. By the Earl of Beaconafield, 
K.G. ' The Commonalty murmured, and said, " There 
never were eo many Gentlemen, and so little Gentleness."' 
Bishop Latimer. New edition. London : Longmans, 
Green, and Co. And New York : 15 East 16th Street. 
1890. 8vo. pp.iv, 489. 

See 1845. 

'H 3 A.VTap(Tia TOV 2KVTe/3/X7Tt. TloVTfjaa TOU 

AopSov J$r)Kovcr<f>iX. Kara /iTa</>/>curti> Ia>. I\ 
TrTra. Ei/ AevKcuo-ia : 1890. E/c TOV TVTTO- 
ypafaiov A. II. M.L\aTj\i8ov Trapa rt]v ayopav 
KVKKOV. 4to. pp. iv, 5-130. B.M. 12604 d. 11. 

A translation of ' The Rise of Iskander.' See 


Coningsby, or the new jreneration. By the Earl of 
Beaconsfield, K.G. New edition. London : Longman", 
Green, and Co. And New York : 15 East 16th Street. 
1891. 8?o. pp. viii, 477. 

The " Preface to the Fifth Edition " is paged as 
vii-ix, but should apparently be v-vii. See 1844. 

Coningsby; or, the new generation. By Benjamin 
Disraeli (Earl of Beaconsfield). Cassell & Company, 
Limited : London, Paris & Melbourne. 1891. 8vo. 
pp. iv, 5-382. B.M. 12611 i. 22. 

See 1844. 

Henrietta Temple: a love story. By the Earl of 
Beaconsfield, K.G. ' Quoth Sancho, read it out by all 
means; for I mightily delight in hearing of Love Stories/ 
New edition. London : Longmans, Green, and Co. And 
New York : 15 East 16th Street 1891. 8vo. pp. viii, 



iv. JULY s, '93. 

The Advertisement, p. vii, says : " This Work 
was first published in the year 1837." See that 
year and also 1853. 

Contarini Fleming : a psychological romance. The 
rise of Iskander. By the Earl of Beaconefield, E.G. 
New edition. London : Longmans, Green, and Go. 
1891. 8vo. pp. viii, 461. 

The " Preface to Contarini Fleming " is 

vii ; ' Contarini Fleming,' pp. 1-373 ; * Iskander,' 
pp. 375-461. For ' Contarini Fleming ' see 1832 ; 
for 'Iskander/ 1833. 

Endymion. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, E.G. * Quic- 
quid agunt homines.' New edition. London : Long- 
mans, Green, and Co. And New York : 15 East 16th 
Street. 1891. 8vo. pp. iy, 474. 

See 1880. 

The treasure house of tales by great authors. Lord 
Beaconsfield. [Series title-page.] Tales and sketches by 
the Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, 
K.G. With a prefatory memoir by J. Logic Robertson, 
M.A. London : William Pateraon & Co. 1891. 8vo. 
pp. xxiv, 389, and portrait. B.M. 012611 k. 

The Preface is pp. vii-xxiii. The book contains 
' A True Story/ pp. 1-3 ; * The Carrier Pigeon,' 
pp. 4-17; 'The Consul's Daughter/ pp. 18-48; 
'Popanilla/ pp. 49-157; *' Walstein ; or a Cure 
for Melancholy/ pp. 158-74; ' Ixion in Heaven/ 
pp. 175-206; 'The Speaking Harlequin. The Two 
Losses ; in One Act/ pp. 207-15 ; ' The Infernal 
Marriage/ pp. 216-84; *'The Midland Ocean/ 
pp. 285-88 ; ' Ibrahim Pacha/ pp. 289-309 ; ' The 
Court of Egypt/ pp. 310-12; 'The Valley of 
Thebes/ pp. 313-19 ; 'Egyptian Thebes/ pp. 320- 
332; 'Shoubra/ pp. 333-37; 'Eden and Lebanon/ 
pp. 338-39; 'A Syrian Sketch/ pp. 340-42 ; 'The 
Bosphorus/ pp. 343-45 ; *' An Interview with a 
Great Turk/ pp. 346-50 ; ' Munich/ pp. 351-56 ; 
'On the Life and Writings of Mr. Disraeli/ 
pp. 357-89. The date of publication of the first 
three stories is given in the Preface, but not of the 
remainder. All have been described, however, 
under the year of publication, in the preceding 
portions of this bibliography, with the exception of 
the three articles marked above by an asterisk. It 
is possible that these may have appeared in 
' Heath's Book of Beauty ' from 1843 to 1846, as 
the British Museum does not possess these volumes. 


Vivian Grey. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G. [Two 
lines of poetry, as in 1826.] New edition. London : 
Longmans, Green, and Co. And New York : 15 East 16th 
Street. 1892. 8vo. pp. vi, 487. 

See 1826. 

The young duke : ' a moral tale, though gay.' Count 
Alarcos : a tragedy. By the Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G. 
New edition. London : Longmans, Green, and Co. And 
New York : 15 East 16th Street. 1892. 8vo. pp. vi, 451. 

The " Advertisement to ' The Young Duke ' " is 
p. v; 'The Young Duke/ pp. 1-325; 'Count 
Alarcos/ pp. 327-451. For ' The Young Duke ' 
see 1831 ; for 'Count Alarcos/ 1839. 

I have the following, consisting of thirty pages. 
This, though without the year of publication, must 
refer to an early time of authorship. The title is : 

Earl Beaconafield's first novel. The consul's daughter. 
Hitherto unpublished. 44 Essex Street, Strand. 


[The Consul's Daughter ' appeared in ' Heath's Book 
of Beauty, 1836,' pp. 74-113.] 

At 8 th S. iii. 443 a short key to ' Lothair ' is 
quoted as given in ' N. & Q./ 7 th S. i. 38, and 
Cardinals Wiseman and Manning are supposed 
to be the originals of Cardinal Grandison in the 
novel. Manning, yes ; Wiseman, no. Cardinal 
Grandison ''seceded from the Anglican Communion 
and entered the Church of Borne." Manning did 
this ; but not Wiseman, who was not a convert. 
Again, the personal appearance of Grandison, "the 
attenuation of his form," "countenance of an 
extreme pallor," "his cheeks were hollow," 
applies exactly to Manning, but certainly not to 
Wiseman, who was stout and portly in frame. 
Again, Grandison said, " I never eat and never 
drink," and at dinner he "sat with an empty 
plate/' spoke of his " banquet of dry toast," and in 
one place, I think, is said to dine on biscuits and 
water. All this points to Cardinal Manning as the 
original of Cardinal Grandison. 


St. Andrews, N.B. 

In Messrs. Elwin and Courthope's edition of 
Pope (' Works/ vol. iv. pp. 364-5) is given a note 
in explanation of lines 545-8 of the fourth book of 

Great C**,H**,P**,K*, 

Why all your Toils? your Sons have learn'd to sing. 
How quick Ambition hastes to ridicule ! 
The Sire is made a Peer, the Son a Fool. 

It is quoted from Croker, who uses Wilkes's 
MS. notes, that the initials mean Cowper, Har- 
court, Parker, and King, all of whom had held the 
office of Lord Chancellor, and it is added : " Of 

the second Lord King I cannot discover that 

anything is known. " Something, however, can be 

John King was the eldest son of Peter, first 
Lord King, and Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. 
According to Arthur Collins ("' Peerage of England/ 
fifth edition, vol. vii. pp. 273-4) he 

"was appointed Out-Ranger of his Majesty's forest of 
Windsor, on July 1, 1726 ; and was a member for 
Launceston (alias Dunivid) in Cornwall, in the first 
Parliament called by George II., and elected for the city 
of Exeter, and also for Launceston, in the Parliament 
summoned to meet on June 13, 1734 ; but succeeded to 
the peerage before it met for the dispatch of business. 
His Lordship in May, 1726, married Elizabeth, daughter 
to Robert Fry, of Yarty, in the county of Devon, Esq.; 
which Lady departed this life in the 23 d year of her age, 
on January 28, 1733/4, leaving no issue, and was buried 

8" S. IV. JOIT 8, '93.] 



at Ockham. And his Lordship, afterwards, being in an 
ill state of health, was advised, for change of air, to go to 
Portugal ; but in his voyage to Lisbon, departed this life, 
on board his Majesty's ship the Ruby, on February 10, 
1739/40, and was buried at Ockham." 

As to John King's political career, it may be 
added that he was returned for Launceston at the 
general election of August, 1727, but he took no 
part in the three crucial divisions of that Parlia- 
ment on the Civil List in 1729, on Walpole's 
Excise scheme in 1733, and on the proposed repeal 
of the Septennial Act in 1734. At the general 
election of May of the last-named year he was 
again put in nomination for Launceston, and was 
also brought forward at Exeter, the birthplace of 
his father, and he was elected for each place at 
the head of the poll at Exeter and second at 
Launceston. Sir William Irby, then Chamber- 
lain to the Princess of Wales, one of the defeated 
candidates in the latter constituency, petitioned 
the House of Commons against King's return, 
declaring that 

" many Persons were admitted to poll for the said Mr. 
King, who had no right so to do ; and the Votes of 
several Persons, who bad a Right to Poll, and offered to 
Vote for the Petitioner were refused ; by which undue 
Means, and by the Partiality and unwarrantable Prac- 
tices of Caleb Jenkins, who acted as Mayor of the said 
Borough, and by other illegal and unwarrantable Prac- 
tices, the said Mr. King is returned." February 1, 1735; 
* Commons Journals,' vol. xxii. p. 343. 

As King had by this time succeeded to the 
peerage, his father having died on July 22, 1734, 
he naturally employed no counsel to defend his 
seat. The allegations of Irby (afterwards Lord 
Boston) were held, after investigation by a com- 
mittee, to be proved, and that courtier was declared 
duly returned (March 24, ibid, p. 428). 

I have been able to trace none of King's poetry, 
for Croker, as quoted by Messrs. Elwin and Court- 
hope, obviously misconceived the lines given 
above, he having observed 

"It is not quite clear whether by 'Your sons have 
learnt to sing,' Pope meant that, by a singular coinci- 
dence, the sons of these great lawyers were all 

Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the Chancellors ' 
(vol. iv. p. 623), was nearer the mark when he said 
of the first Lord King's four sons, 

'three of whom successively inherited his honourable 
title and ample estate. Though all well-behaved, none 

lem appear to have in any way gained much renown. 

eldest, for dabbling in poetry, is grouped in the ' Dun- 
d with other dull eons of distinguished sires." 

The meaning of the phrase " learn'd to sing" is 

patent that it is wonderful that even Croker 

>uld misunderstand it ; and a contemporary 

parallel can be furnished from a verse of 1736, 

quoted by Mr. John Underbill in his introduc- 

ion to a recent edition of the works of John 


Queensberry, could happy Gay 

This offering to thee bring : 
'Tis his, my lord (he'd smiling say), 

Who taught your Gay to sing. 


ETYMOLOGY OP "DOLMAN." In the Hakluyt 
Society's volume for 1886, 'Early Voyages and 
Travels in Russia/ a very startling etymology of 
the word dolman is given, which, like Sir Boyle 
Roche's rat, should be nipped in the bud. The 
etymology is volunteered in the shape of a supple- 
mentary note to explain a statement made by old 
Anthony Jenkinson to the effect that a certain 
" Great Basha " wore t( a robe of Dolly man t crim- 
son." " Dollymant," we are told, is 
" from the Hungarian DAhlman, from ddfil, red, and 
man, a thing. The dahlman was a short red cloak worn 
by the Hungarian guards. Dolman is still the term 
applied to the pelisse worn in our Hussar regiments." 
P. civ. 

It is the greatest pity that the commentator does 
not name his authority for this string of strange 
statements. He will be astonished, perhaps, to 
learn (1) that there is no circumflex accent in Hun- 
garian ; (2) that there is only one word in Hun- 
garian (ihlet) in which the letter h is followed by 
an I ; and (3) that ddhl does not and never did 
mean red, or anything else, in Hungarian. Further- 
more, if he will refer to the 'Lexicon Linguae 
Hungaricae ./Evi Antiqnioris,' recently published 
by the Hungarian Academy, he will find, nnder 
the word " Dolmdny," quotations proving that dol- 
mans were worn by civilians as well as by soldiers, 
and not merely by the guards in Hungary ; and 
that in the case of civilians the colour of the gar- 
ment was left entirely to the taste of the wearer, 
and was not necessarily red. 

With regard to the etymology of the word, 
Littre gives three varieties of spelling it in French, 
viz., doliman, dolomon (in the seventeenth century), 
and dolman. He states that the garment was 
introduced into France with the hussars under 
Louis XIV., and that the etymology is from 
Turkish " Thouldmet, vetement que les Turcs por- 
tent sous la pe'lisse." The form doliman is not 
given in the Hungarian ' Lexicon,' and is probably 
wholly unknown in Hungary, like the ddhlman in 
the Hakluyt Society's volume. L. L. K. 

The following remarkable announcement occurred 
in the Daily Telegraph^ June 10, at p. 7: 

" The latest development of the mounted brigade is an 
ecclesiastical corps called ' Cavalry Curates,' in connexion 
with the Church of England In out of the way dis- 
tricts, where the population is scant and sparse, small 
chapels of iron or other material will be constructed, in 
which the services will be conducted by 'Cavalry 
Curates,' supplied with lithe and strong ponies for the 
purpose, who will not only preach in half a dozen places 
on Sunday, but will arrange to hold galloping ministra- 
tions during the week." 



[8"> S. IV. JULY 8, '93. 

The suggestion that litheness and strength are 
requisite for enabling ponies to preach in half a 
dozen places at once, deserves attention. What is 
meant by " galloping ministrations " I do not quite 
understand ; it seems to refer to some form of 
spiritual polo. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

"EDITION." Some time ago, if I am not mis- 
taken, there was a paragraph in ' N. & Q.' draw- 
ing attention to a common misuse of the word 
edition when copy is meant. A startling blunder 
of this kind occurs in the Catholic News of May 6. 
The person alluded to is Mr. T. W. Allies : 

" In acknowledgment of his services our present Holy 
Father, Leo XIII., bestowed on him not long since a gold 
medal, an entire edition of his works having been for- 
warded to Rome previous to the Episcopal Jubilee." 

Here it is evident that set is what the writer 

EPIGRAPH. The following rhymes were scribbled 
on a Lambeth MS. 633 by one Robert Dawson. 
Perhaps a collection of such epigraphs would be 
interesting : 

Tyme past can neuer be called agayn ) R T\ 
My tyme here spent encreaseth my payn j F 
Farewell, adue I must needes goo hens 
My labour is lost, I gett no pens. 
Gratia nulla pent, nisi gratia blakmonachorum, 
Eat et semper erit, litille thanke in fine laborum. 
Adue, farewell, I woll depart | per ut 

Valete, good fellowes, ye greve my hart j supra. 


A FRAUDULENT BOOK. The following recent 
cutting from a local daily deserves a niche in the 
literary temple of ' N. & Q.': 

" In the New York Nation, Mr. Justin Winsor exposes 
a remarkable literary fraud. The Latin version, he 
says, of the four voyages of Vespucius issued at the St.- 
Die Press and made by Bassin is in small quarto, and 
purports to be translated from the French. It was used 
by GrynaeuB in the several editions of his 'Novus Orbis,' 
and fourteen leaves from his book in the Paris (1532) 
edition (pp. 135-160) have been made the basis of what 
is put forward as a unique copy of a wholly unknown 
edition of the same Latin version issued on the same day 
in May 1507, and in folio form, but with the difference 
that it professes to be translated from the Spanish. The 
pagination of these fourteen leaves has been altered by 
scratching out the original and stamping in new figures, 
with a star before and after the new figure to conceal 
the traces of the old ones ; but the process is discernible 
by holding the pages to the light. For a title-page a 
leaf containing an address to the reader has been taken 
from some other book (which called Veepucius Alberi- 
ctu), and reversed in binding, so as to give a blank recto, 
on which a title has been made with the pen. The final 
leaf, like the title, is of different paper from the body 
of the book, and is wholly pen- work. The fabricator has 
left discernible the lead-pencil rulings which guided him 
in his work, and the cut which is the emblem of the 
Sk-Die Press does not correspond in measurement and 
otherwise to a genuine impression. This fraudulent 
book, which is said to have been found in Italy, has been 
facsimiled in a hundred copies, which are offered at a 

hundred lire. The professed original has been offered to 
American collectors at 5.000 marks. Henry Stevens, in 
the Athettceum, July 4, 1885, exposed the forgery of a 
professed unique edition of Cadamosto's voyages made in 
the same way by taking pp. 1-78 of the Paris (1532) 
edition of Grynaeus, with a forged title and colophon 
leaf, which was probably the work of the fabricator of the 
present Vespucius." 

J. B. S. 

EMPEROR AKBAR. The following parallel, which 
I noticed lately, will, I think, interest lovers cf 
Tennyson who may be unacquainted with it. 
The"ophile Gautier, in the chapter entitled " Poe"sie 
Persane " in ' L' Orient,' ed. 1877, vol. ii., in 
speaking of the Persian poet Keyam (or Khay- 
ydm ?), who lived, I believe, in the eleventh cen- 
tury, says : 

" Dans cet autre quatrain, ce que les philosophes appel- 
lent ' la tolerance ' est exprime avec une largeur de vue 
sans pareille. Nathan le Sage de Lessing n'aurait pas 
mieux parle: 'Le temple des idoles et la Kaaba sont 
des lieux d'adoration ; le carillon des cloches n'est autre 
chose qu'un hymnechante a la louangedu Tout- Puissant. 
Le mehrab, PSglise, le chapelet, la croix, sont en verite 
autant de fayons diffSrentes de rendre hommage a la 
DiviniteV " 

In * An Inscription by Abul Fazl for a Temple 
in Kashmir,' quoted by Tennyson as an intro- 
duction to his poem, ' Akbar's Dream,' are the 
following words: "If it be a mosque people 
murmur the holy prayer, and if it be a Christian 
church people ring the bell from love to Thee." 

In the poem Tennyson puts the following lines 
in Akbar's mouth : 

I hate the rancour of their castes and creeds, 

I let men worship as they will, I reap 

No revenue from the field of unbelief. 

I cull from every faith and race the best 

And bravest soul for counsellor and friend. 

I loathe the very name of infidel. 

I stagger at the Koran and the sword. 

I shudder at the Christian and the stake. 

LI. 62-69. 
In the notes Tennyson says, 

"His [Akbar's] tolerance of religions and his abhor- 
rence of religious persecution put our Tudors to shame. 
He invented a new eclectic religion by which he hoped 
to unite all creeds, castes, and peoples : and his legis- 
lation was remarkable for vigour, justice, and humanity." 
Akbar, according to Tennyson, and also to Hole's 
' Brief Biographical Dictionary,' was born in 1542, 
and died in 1605. JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

SWIFT. The following letter appeared in the 
Daily News, Dec. 14, 1892: 

" A curious autograph letter of Dean Swift has been 
discovered among the old papers at Capt. Loder- 
Symonds's eeat, Hinton-Waldriet Manor, Berkshire. It 
bears date 1719, and appears to be addressed to some 
member of the Earl of Oxford's family. ' I have (says 
the Dean) the honour to be captain of a band of nine- 
teen musicians (including boye), which are I hear about 
five less than my friend the Duke of Chandos, and I 
understand music like a Muscovite ; but my choir is so 

8 th 8. IT. Jrat 8, '93.] 



degenerate under the reigns of former Deans of famous 
memory, that the race of people called Gentlemen Lovers 
of Music tell rne I must be very careful in supplying two 
vacancies, which I have been two years endeavouring to 
do. For you are to understand that in disposing these 
musical employments, I determine to act directly con- 
trary to Ministers of State, by giving them to those who 
best deserve. If you had recommended a person to me 
for a church living in my gift, I would be less curious ; 
because an indifferent parson may do well enough, if he 
be honest ; but singers, like their brothers the poets, 
must be very good, or they are good for nothing.' The 
Duke of Chandos was, of course, Pope's ' Timon,' the 
patron of Haudel." 


TOBACCO. In early writers, tobacco is continu- 
ally referred to as a holy weed, and Nash calls it a 
*' divine drugge." Dekker, in the ' Gull's Horn- 
book,' 1609, calls it u this divine weede." These 
epithets were probably given on account of its 
supposed curative powers. Thus, in Lyly's * Wo- 
man in the Moone,' 1597, III. i., when Stesias 
is wounded, Pandora asks her servant to gather 
the following medicinal preparations : 
Go, go, Gunophilus, without delay, 
Gather me balrae and cooling violets, 
And of our holly hearbe nicotian, 
And bring wtthall pure hunny from the hyve, 
That I may heere compound a wholsome salve, 
To heale the wound of this unhappy hand. 

New York. 

INVITE = INVITATION. The Daily News of Fri- 
day, May 1 9, p. 5, col. 4, par. 5, has, " Lord Car- 
rington, the Lord Chamberlain, and Sir William 
Jenner, were staying at Windsor last evening by 
invite of the Queen." The italics are mine. I 
am well acquainted with the word in my weekly 
American paper, and I hear it used occasionally in 
conversation, but I hope it will not become general. 


CARINGTON. It is well known that a family 
named Smith or Smythe, deduces its descent 
from Sir Michael Carington, temp. Hie. I., but is 
assumed to be quite distinct from the line of the 
present Lord Carrington, a very popular nobleman 
with the same family name. No connexion is 
claimed, but there is a very close link ; thus, we 
meet with Sir Thomas Smith, of Broxtow, circa 
70, and a Thomas Smith of Broxtow, living 
18, yet they are supposed to represent different 
families. Broxtow names a hundred in Notting- 
hamshire, and the old hall is now a farmhouse in 
Mborough parish. Surely it will be possible to 
obtain further light upon this very remarkable 
coincidence. A. HALL. 

"HEDGE-PRIEST." We have heard more than 
once that this contemptuous term arose in Ireland 
in the days of persecution, when the Catholic clergy 
were proscribed and found it necessary to instruct 
their flocks under hedges or in other similar places, 

where they were free from prying eyes and in some 
degree sheltered from the inclemency of the weather. 
The term is, however, far older. It occurs in a 
document dated 1558, given in Foxe's ' Acts and 
Monuments,' Seeley's edition, 1868, vol. viii. 
pp. 542, 544. N. M. & A. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

STRADIVARI. For the life of Antonio Stradivari, 
the great violin maker, upon which we are en- 
gaged, we shall be glad to know of any reference 
to him or his instruments existing in books or 
papers of the last century. He was born in 1644, 
and died in 1737. Our reference is somewhat 
broad, but there is a great dearth of information 
concerning him in contemporary literature. We 
shall also be glad to know whether any light can 
be thrown upon the matter of the instruments 
made by Stradivari for James II. of England. 
The instruments have disappeared, and nothing 
was ever heard about them by Sir William Cusins, 
the late Master of Her Majesty's Music. The 
history of this transaction is contained in a MS. 
notice of Stradivari by Don Desiderio Arisi (who 
was a conventual priest of the order of Gerolimini, 
and resided in the convent attached to the famous 
church of St. Sigismonde outside Cremona). It is 
as follows : 

" In the year 1682, on the 8th of September, the 
banker Michele Monzi, of Venice, sent him an order for 
the whole set of violins, altos, and violoncellos, which that 
gentleman sent as a present to King James of England." 

These instruments were probably sent to England 
in 1685 or later. 

"On the 22nd of August, 1686, Marquis Michele 
Rodeschini ordered a viol da gamba to be sent to King 
James II. of England." 

At present only two letters by Stradivari are 
known to us, and one of these we fortunately 
possess. We think that among the many col- 
lections of autographs in this country there pro- 
bably may be others. We shall be glad to learn 
that such is the case. W. E. HILL & SONS. 

38, New Bond Street, W. 

CENTURY.' I have original letters from Richard 
Baxter, Matthew Prior, &c., Bath, 1817, and 
'Literary Curiosities,' series the first, 'Unpub- 
lished Letters of the Seventeenth Century illus- 
trative of the Herbert Family,' Bath, 1818. 
Was there a second series? At the end of the 
first volume there is an announcement of ' Lite- 
rary Trifles,' by the same editor, 2 vols. Was 
the work published ? CPL. 


[8' h S. IV. JULY 8, '93. 

ENDYMION PORTER. A correspondent of 
*N. & Q.,' in, I think, 6 th S. x., mentions that the 
late Lord Strangford, a lineal descendant of En- 
dymion Porter, was engaged in collecting docu- 
ments for his biography. Can any correspondent 
say where these MSS. are now to be found ? They 
were not mentioned in the wills of Lord Strang- 
ford or of Lady Strangford, his executrix. 


LADY CHARLOTTE EDWIN was a Lady of the 
Bedchamber to the Princess Dowager of Wales in 
1770. Who was she; and when did she die ? 

G. F. R. B. 

THE MARPRELATE TRIALS. Is it possible to 
find the date of the trial of Sir Richard Knightley 
for his complicity in the printing of the Martin 
Marprelate tracts? Hargrave, in his * State 
Trials,' gives it as 31 Eliz., Feb. 31, A.D. 1588, 
and is followed by Cobbett, who simply copied 
him. The date "Feb. 31" at once indicates a 
mistake. This is corrected in the preamble, " On 
Friday, the 13 of Feb,," &c. But there is clearly a 
mistake even then, that is, taking Feb. 13, 1588. 
The press was seized in Manchester, August, 1589. 
An argument takes place between Popham and 
Hales whether the printing at his bouse was 
before or after the second proclamation of 31 Eliza- 
beth. The date of this proclamation is Feb. 13, 
1588, the very date given to the trial. Again, 
except in this one instance, the trials in Cobbett 
are given chronologically. The one immediately 
preceding is April 18, 1589, the one immediately 
following July 24, 1590. JOHN TAYLOR. 


FRENCH PEERAGE. Can any one tell me 
whether such a book exists as a French extinct 
and dormant peerage, similar to the one we have 
published by the late Sir Bernard Burke ? I dare 
say some of your readers will tell me where such a 
book can be procured, with price, &c. 


Christchurch, New Zealand. 

"LUTE OF WISDOM." This old designation 
I met with in a book of receipts of 1655. It does 
not mean any musical instrument wherewith to 
ravish the spheres, but a lute wherewith to cement 
an alchemical retort. Can any say how this 
sapient lute was made ? 0. A. WARD. 

Chingford Hatch. 

man knight. Was he so named, and were others 
so named, from having built a bridge with an arch 
which was a surprising engineering feat of the 
period? ARCUS. 

LADY GARRARD. Who was the Lady Garrard 
or Gerard from whose portrait Hollar made an 
etching in 1652 ? Parthay (1722) calls her Gar- 

rard, and so does the British Museum. In the 
Towneley Collection she appeared as Lady Gerard. 
One would think, from the attitude, hands, &c., that 
the original picture might be a Van Dyck. Is the 
picture extant, and has it ever been identified ? I 
should be grateful for any information with regard 
to her. W. H. 

TURY. In a work published last year, ' Social Life 
in England from the Restoration to the Revolution/ 
it is stated that in 1676 the profits of the postal 
service were granted to the Duke of York. " At 
that time the revenue was farmed at forty-three 

million pounds per annum It was found in 

1685 that the net revenues had increased to the 
extent of sixty-five million pounds per annum." 
Surely there is some great mistake here. Is 
millions a misprint for thousands ? 


LITERARY FORGERY. Such of your readers as 
are collectors of Jefferies's works would do well 
to note that there exists a forgery of ' Suez-cide,' 
sufficiently well done to have deceived, according 
to the Clique, the majority of the principal second- 
hand bookmen. An early note of the points of dif- 
ference between the reprint and the original would 
be of service. FRAM. 

According to the records of a parish in which I 
am interested, the first incumbent, appointed in 
1280 by the prior of the monastery, distant 
twelve miles (who was patron), was only a " sub- 
deacon." How, in this case, were mass and the 
rites of the Church performed? W. L. S. 

"ADHEMAR'S PROPHECY." According to a 
gloomy prophecy of Adhemar, the catastrophe is 
predicted, within the space of four or five thousand 
years, when the waters of the southern hemisphere, 
with the increasing congelation of the north-polar 
regions, will be attracted towards the north, and 
will overflow the whole of Asia and Europe. Where 
may one find a brief account of the life and writings 
of this prophet ; and in which particular work did 
he utter this prophecy ? X. 

THE SAVOY. Has any one compiled a list of 
books published or printed in this place ? If so, 
where is it to be seen in print or MS.? 

N. M. & A. 

" DILLY-DALLY." Lord Randolph Churchill, in 
a speech at Bradford, makes use of this compound 
word in a sense with which I am not familiar : 

" I once knew a very great lady in London, and she had 
a great dislike to statements which to her seem to depart 
from the actual truth ; but she was much too educated 
and much too cultivated to use that short sharp word 
which may be sometimes used in the English language 
to describe those particular statements. (Laughter.) 

8 S. IV. JULY 8, '93.] 



She was so particular that she would not even use t 
describe an inaccurate statement the word fib (laughter 
but she in variably used a wonderful word when she hear 
an inaccurate statement, and the word was ' Dilly-dally 
a ' Dilly-dally.' (Laughter.) I think that it is a ver 
Parliamentary word; it is a word I can use on ai 
occasion like this to express statements which are no 
altogether accurate ; it is a word which suits me very 
well, very perfectly to describe the statements of th 
learned professor who is learned in everything excep 
when he speaks about politics (laughter) and who has 
made a speech in which he has told a great many ' dilly 
dallies.' "Daily Telegraph, May 27. 

The lexicon meanings attached to this word are 
" to loiter, to trifle, to delay." This " much toe 
educated " lady must have had some authority fo 
the prevaricative sense in which she uses thii 
"wonderful word." Is any contributor of *N. & Q. 
aware of it ? W. A. HENDERSON. 


FRANCIS LEGGE, 1775. Can any of you 
readers kindly give me particulars of the above 
I believe he was Governor of Halifax, Nova Scotia 
in 1775. PHILIP PENTIN. 

Midland Institute, Birmingham. 

Chronicle in 1825 there was published a ballac 
entitled ' Kathleen,' the first two lines of which 
are : 

distant but dear is that sweet island wherein 
My hopes, with my Kathleen and kindred, abide. 

The last line of each of the three stanzas of the 
ballad contains the words 

Kathleen ma vourneen, cushlih ma chree. 
Can any one say who wrote the song ? 


ARIOSTO : NAMES OF FISHES. Can any of your 
readers who are students of Italian tell me what 
are the English equivalents of the following "crea- 
tures in the sea's entra"!!," which Astolfo tells 
Ruggiero he saw Alcina " calling from the vasty 
deep" by magic charms and words alone? My 
three Italian dictionaries do not help me, although 
both Millhouse's and Meadows's are very good : 
Salpe : Coracini : Pistrici : Fisiteri. 

' Orlando Furioso,' canto vi. 36. 

The next stanza (37), describing how Astolfo 
and his companions fell into the error of mistaking 
a mighty whale for a small island, "perch* era 
ferma e che mai non si scosae," reminds us of Mil- 
ton. See ' Paradise Lost,' book i. 200-208. 


celebrated work of Henri Murger ever been trans- 
lated into English ? If so, by whom ; and where 
could I obtain a copy of the same ? 


THE LADY MART WROTH. In the Seventh 
Report of the Historical MSS. Commission, p.435a, 

Sir John Leeke, writing to Sir Edmund Verney 
(under date December 4, 1640), says : 

"P.S. I received lately a most courteous and kind 
letter from my old mistress, the Lady Mary Wroth ...... 

She wrote me word that by my Lord of Pembroke's great 
mediation, the King hath given her son a brave living in 

Can any reader tell me when the Lady Mary 
married again, and who her second husband was 1 
Her first husband, Sir Robert Wroth, died before 
June 3, 1614, and their only child, an infant, in 
1616. W. C. W. 

[See 8<b s. Hi. 407.] 

ZERAH COLBURN. Is there any memoir in 
existence of this celebrated calculator, who was 
worthy to be classed with Jedidiah Buxton ? He 
is said to have been born in America in 1804, and 
to have been for a short time at Westminster 
School. He died in 1840. Three or four lines 
are given to him in the * Imperial Dictionary of 
Universal Biography/ but mention is not made of 
his education at Westminster. 


HERALDRY. Can any of your readers inform 
me when the change in the arms of Hastings from 
Or, a manche gu., to Arg., a manche sa., as now 
borne, was made, and why ? What were the arms 
borne by Lord Hastings de Hungerford, died 1507? 
Also, what were the arms of John de la Pole, last 
Duke of Suffolk of that name, who died circa 
1491; and the exact date when the head of the 
Manners family (from whom the Dukes of Rut- 
land are descended) obtained the title of Lord Ros? 

R. S. 


(8 th S. iii. 347.) 

The following works may be of use to MR. 
BURION. They are some of the most remarkable 
ever published, if only for their quaintness, gross 
miss t ute ments, and inaccuracies. 

A Dane's Excursions in Britain. By J. A. Anderson. 

A Journal of Travels in England. Holland, and Scot* 
and. By B. Silliman. New York, 1810. 

This is the gentleman who could not understand 

low the English could witness such a play as 

Inkle and Yarico,' in which the heroine is a black 

ady, although he did not object to 'Othello,' 

here the hero is a black gentleman. 

' L'Anpleterre au Commencement du Dix-Neuvieme 

Siecle. Par M. De Levis. Due et Pair de France, 1815. 

This book is a mine of information about us and 
ur customs ; and so also are the 

Journal of a Tour and Residence in Great Britain 
uring the Years 1810 and 1811. By M. Simond. 1815. 

England and the English People. By Jean-Baptiste 
Jay. 1816. 



[8> s. IV. JULY 8, '93. 

Quinze JourB a Londres a la Pin de 1815. Par ***. 

Londres, la Cour et les Provinces d'Angleterre, 
d'Ecosse, et d'Irelande; ou, Esprit, Moeurs, Coutumea, 
Habitudes Privees des llabitans de la Grande Bretagae. 

When MR. BURION has mastered all these he 
will, I can guarantee, know more about his own 
country than he ever did before. In brief, he will 
learn, among other things, that we owe to Henry 
V. the law that no Englishman is to drink his 
wine without mixing it with water ; that Buona- 
parte was the agent of England, and lost Waterloo 
by an arrangement with the British Cabinet ; that 
physicians might only dress in black ; that the 
Lord Mayor and his guests eat whole turtles, 
served in their shells ; that on Christmas Day 
every person has at his table a potage detestable 
made of dry raisins and boiled prunes (this is 
almost up to M. Max O'Rell's best form !) ; and 
that the name of lunch is derived from the fact 
that those who lounge in Bond Street take a repast 
at the eating shops called le lounge. Also in these 
erudite works is the information given that the 
patriotic Wigths or Wighs (meaning the Whigs) 
all come from " L'ile de Wiggh," and that their 
own particular paper is La Perruque Independante, 
which they call the " Independant Whigth." Then 
we are treated to the valuable information that a 
republican will only get drunk on wines of home 
i i mufacture ; that the ministers only drink port, 
v hile the Opposition must drink claret and bur- 
gundy; that hare and gooseberry sauce is a 
patriotic dish, and that an Opposition dinner con- 
sists of boiled beef and carrots boiled in water, and 
cabb ages ; and that Presbyterians always eat calf's 
head on January 30 (the day on which Charles I. 
was beheaded). A blackleg is so called because 
the law forces him to wear black boots, which he 
is never allowed to take off. Mothers take their 
children to witness executions, and thrash them 
when they get them home, so as to instil useful 
and salutary lessons into their youthful minds. If 
an Englishman loses a leg he has the other one 
cut off, as he must have a pair of legs, either 
wooden or natural. Mothers and fathers make 
their children practise le, boxe regularly before 
them, and le loxe is always commenced by the 
opponents butting each other like rams. 

Another work illustrating our manners and 
customs is " L'Angleterre, vne a Londres et dans 
ses Provinces. Par M. le Mare"chal-de-camp, 
Pillet, Chevalier de St. Louis, et Officier de la 
Legion d'Honneur, a Paris, 1815," and must not 
be overlooked by those who would observe the 
light in which we appear to others. Pillet was a 
prisoner of war in close custody in the Medway 
which, perhaps, stands for "les Provinces" 
though, as he broke his parole, he may have had an 
opportunity for seeing other provincial neighbour- 
hoods. Since, however, he was the greatest liar o 

all the Frenchmen who have ever written on this 
country, it may be well to give a few examples of 
ihose lies which, in his hands, are almost a form of 
art : 
" The virtue of Englishwomen is that of slaves : it 

aets just as long as the watchfulness of the beast to 
whom they have been married." 
" All the young women of England live in a state of 

ncontinence, and neither Peasant, Squire nor Lord has 
ever the least scruple in the choice of a wife from what 
may have occurred previously to marriage." 

In reading this one wonders that there was no 
Englishman alive to stop the foul mouth that 
uttered such slanders ; it appears, however, that 
ihere was none. Here is another extract : 

1 About tea-time in an English salon the ladies are 
drunk, though they are seldom seen to drink more than 
one glass of wine at dinner. The opportunity is when 
they retire from the gentlemen. A mysterious temple is 
destined to the same bacchanalian uses as the dining room, 
the only difference is the liquor drunk the gentlemen 
drink Port, Madeira, Champngne, Claret the ladies drink 
only the best French brandy." 

" About forty years of age every English woman of 
rank or fashion gets drunk eve ry night of her life, under 
pretence of keeping the wind off her stomach." 

Enough, however, of this bestiality ! I pass to 
more absurd errors: " Willebersorce (!) was really 
the friend of the blacks" the writer is now 
maundering over the Emancipation ! but White- 
bread (also given as Withebread and Withbread, 
though Whitbread was the name) was not sincere 
in his efforts for peace." 

"One hundred and fifty thousand Frenchmen have 
perished in tortures on board their [the English] prison- 
ships during the two last wars." 

As an absolute fact forty- eight thousand prisoners 
were the most in England at any time. "Our 
hunger knew no bounds. We were starved or 
poisoned." Then follows an account of Lord 
Cordower's (!) horse being tied to a rail in sight of 
these unhappy Frenchmen and of their flying at it 
and eating it, to prevent starvation, and a butcher's 
dog as well. 

"Few men in England," writes this monster of 
mendacity, "of the age of fifty years have not 
been married three times"; and he gives as the 
reason for this that every Englishman who has 
been married a second time has murdered the first 
wife ; and so on, ad nauseam. 

If MR. BURION cannot find the books I hav& 
mentioned though they may be procured by 
diligent search I will refer him to the original 
reviews on them, I believe by Robert Southey, 
in the Quarterly Review of July, 1815, and of 
July, 1816. Therein he will find all the egregious- 
falsehoods I have quoted and more, with the 
reviewer's opinions anent them ; and also he will 
notice Pillet decorated with a new title which 
he had not himself affixed to his work, viz., 
' Grand Liar and Knight of the Hulks. ' Mean- 
while, if I may add to the list of writers on England 

6" S. IV. JOLT 8, '93.] 



which MR. BURION desires, I would suggest tha 
he procures ' England Without and Within,' b 
Richard Grant White, a cultured and truthfu 
American, and the * Life, Letters, and Journals o 
George Ticknor,' wherein he will read much trust 
worthy matter about us, our society, and our habits 
as well as also gaining considerable information 
concerning the greatest Englishmen of Ticknor' 

Barnes Common. 

In reply to the inquiry of MR. BURION, * 
enclose a list of some of those books on the sub 
ject which I possess. If I come across others, '. 
shall be glad to communicate their titles. Sor 
bi^re's book, which I have somewhere in thb 
original as well as in the translation, is distinctly 
interesting and informing. I have found a com- 
parison of the various opinions of foreigners on our 
manners very diverting. 

Itinerarium Galliae et Angliae. Reisebuchlein durch 
Petrutn Eisenbergium Danum. Leipzigk, 1614. 12mo. 

Itinerarium Germanice Galliae, Angliae, Italiae. Scrip 
turn a Paulo Hentznero. 1617. 4to. 

Les Voyages de Mr. da Mouconye. 1695. 

Memoires et Observations faites par un Voyageur en 
Angleterre. (Misson de Valbourg.) 1698. 8vo. 

A Journey to London in the Year 1698. Written 
originally in French by Mons. Sorbiere, and newly 
translated into English. London, 1699. 8vo. 

A Journey to London in the Year 1698. Written 
originally in French by M. Sorbiere, and newly trans- 
lated into English. London, 1704. 8vo. 

A Voyage to England. Containing many Things 
relating to the State of Learning, Religion, &c. By 
Mons. Sorbiere. Done info English from the French 
original. London, 1709. 8vo. 

M. MisBon's Memoirs and Observations in his Travels 
over England. Written originally in French, and trans- 
lated by Mr. Ozell. London, 1719. 8vo. 

Lettres eur les Anglois, les Francoia, et les Voyage?. 

Lettre sur 1'Emeute arrived a Londres le 2 juin, 1780, 
et sur les Anglais. 1780. 

Tableau de Londres et de ses Environs. Avec un 
Precis de la Constitution de 1'Angleterre. Par M. La 
Combe. London and Brussels, 1784. 8vo. 

Voyage PhiloBOphique et Pittoresque en Angleterre et 
en France. Fait en 1790. Par George Forster. Traduit 
de 1 Allemand par Charles Pougens. 8vo. 

Souvenirs de mes Vovages en Angleterre. Premiere 
et Seconde Parties. A Zuric, 1795. 8vo. 

Le Peuple Anglais, bouffi d'Orgueil. de Biere, et de 
The, juge au Tribunal de la Raison. Paris, 1803. 8vo. 

L Angleterrp, vue a Londres et dans ses Provinces 

ndant un Sejour de dix Anneesdont six comme Prison- 

ar de Guerre. Par M. le Marechal-de-Camp Fillet. 
* &ri, lolo. 8vo. 

Quinze Jours a Londres a la fin de 1815. Par M. ** *. 

1 81 5. 8vo. 
8y o' X 8emttineB en Hotel Garni a Londres. Paris, 1817. 

iQi V i ya ? e en An * letp rre pendant les Anneea 1810 et 
11. Avec des Observations sur l'tat Poht-que et 

Moral. ParSimond. 1817. 8vo. 

Une Annee il Londres. Par 1'Auteur de Quinze Jours 

et de Six :Mois a Londre>. Paris. 1819. 8ro. 
L Angleterre, 1'Irlande, et 1'Scosie. Souvenirs d'un 

Voyageur Solitaire, ou Meditations sur le Caractere 
National des Anglais. Paris, 1843. 8vo. 


Has MR. BURION entered on his list 'The 
Travels of Cosmo III., Grand Duke of Tuscany, in 
the Reign of Charles II.,' published by Mawman, 
London, 1821 ? HERMENTRUDE. 

Consult ' Early Travellers in Scotland ' and 
'Scotland before 1700,' both edited by Mr. P. 
Hume Brown, and published by Mr. David 
Douglas, Edinburgh. W. E. WILSON. 

[Very many lists of these have been sent us. A simple 
enumeration of modern books on England would occupy 
much space.] 

101, 197, 272, 370). I think I took the name of 
Margaret de la Pole from Spener, who in his great 
heraldic work (' Historia Insignium Illustrium ') 
explains the sixth panel of the shield of Nogaret, 
Due d'Epernon, by saying, "Gaston [de Foix], 
Visc'te de Benanges,heredem Candalae Margaretam 
duxit, quse ex Pooliis et Suffolciis descendit." 
Some, he goes on, say she was the daughter of 
Michael II., others say her father was Duke 
Richard, and her mother, he adds, according to 
some authorities was Catherine Stafford, according 
to others Isabel de Montbray, "D. Norfolcise." He 
makes rather a hash of the bearings, giving doable- 
tinctures and a choice of lions' heads or leopards' 
for " Poole as he calls it. They are evidently De 
La Pole and Wingfield quarterly, but he quotes, 
his authority for one version, "Gelict," and adds, 

' Illud [i. e , 1 and 4] interpretatur Poll in Anglia, 
hoc [i. e., 2 and 3] Suffolck Candale." 

It is quite clear the lady who married John de 
?oix, who was created Earl of Eendal, could not 
have been the daughter of Duke Richard, for the 
only Richard who had a claim to the title, had 
only his elder brother not been attainted, died at 
.he battle of Pavia seventy and more years after 
he lady's marriage. But Spener says some say 
he was a daughter of Michael II.; he gives, 
ndeed, a choice of mothers, one of whom, Kathe- 
ine Stafford, was wife of Michael II., and Elizv 
3eth Mowbray was wifeof Michael III. Michael III. 
nly held the earldom for a very few months. He 
ras killed at Agincourt, Oct. 25, 1415. His 
ather, Michael IT., had been killed at the storming 
f Harfleur just before (1414?). The third Michael 
nust have been quite young, as we may surmise 
rom his eldest daughter Eatherine being only 
our at her father's death. His brother Earl Wil- 
ara (he did not become Duke until 1448) was 
nly nineteen when he succeeded to the title. 

I fear I took Spener's authority too readily for 
le Countess of Kendal's name, and chose, per- 
aps unadvisedly, the second Michael as her 
ather, still resting on Spener. 

Serjeant Roll, in his argument on the case of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. iv. JULY s, '93. 

Grey of Ruthyn, gives the third Michael three 
daughters : Elizabeth, wife of John de Foix, E. 
Kendal, died s.p. (in which he seems clearly wrong); 
Isabel, wife of Lord Morley ; and Catherine, nun 
at Brisyerd. Probably all this is wrong. The 
statement is in Collins's 'Precedents.' Serjeant Roll 
seems to have confused two of the daughters of 
Michael III. with their aunts, Eatherine, Abbess 
of Barking, and Isabel, whom I believe to have 
married Thomas, Lord Morley. 

Eatherine, the nun, daughter of Michael III., 
might have been released from her vows to marry 
John de Foix. The age might suit, as she would 
only be twenty-nine in 1440. This, too, would 
fit the complaint in the Rolls of Parliament, 
which distinctly calls the lady niece of Duke 
William. Anyhow, in face of the Rolls of Parlia- 
ment, we cannot suppose the lady was a sister of 
Duke William, which she would have been if 
Spener was right in his one alternative of making 
her a daughter of the second Earl Michael. 

Could she have been the daughter of Sir John, 
who died 1429, or of Sir Alexander, who died in 
the same year, or of Miles ? Thomas was a priest, 
and these are all the brothers of Duke William 
I know of. 

Duke William had an uncle Richard, born in 
1369. He died, I believe, in 1403 ; but I know 
nothing of him. 

I do not think, from the Epernon arms, that the 
countess could have been a niece of Duke William 
by a sister. 

The arms of France in Anne's shield do not, 
I believe, convey any intimation of her being 
related to the French royal family. She was 
related through her great-grandmother (if I am 
right in my conjecture), a D'Albret, to the Bour- 
bons. But the Bourbons, though they bore the 
lilies of France, bore them differenced by a bend- 
let. The Constable D'Albret bore France and 
D'Albret quarterly, not in right of his Bourbon 
mother, who was no heiress, but by special grant 
of Charles VI. for his great services to France. I 
know some authorities say it was the Bourbon 
alliance which brought France into the D'Albret 

My authority for there being no Dean of Salis- 
bury on Sept. 29, 1502, is Bishop Stubbs's edition 
of Le Neve's 'Fasti,' where the dates of Dean 
Cheyne's death and of Dean Rowthall's election 
are given as I asserted. THOS. WILLIAMS. 

Aston Clinton. 

"ALE-DAGGER" (8* S. iii. 387, 436, 494). 
All the scoffing in the world at the ' N. E. D.> will 
not prove that Nash's " swapping ale-dagger " was 
"doubtless such an instrument as" the " puissant 
sword " of Hudibras, or that the " filchman " was a 
dagger. Fortunately, one of Nash's contemporaries, 
William Harrison, has given us an account of the 

weapons worn in civil life by Englishmen of the 
period. " Seldome," he says, 

shall you see anie of my countriemen aboue eighteene 
r twentie yeeres old to go without a dagger at the least 

at his backe or by his side Our nobilitie weare com- 

nionlie swoords or rapiers with their daggers, as doth 
euerie common seruing man also that folio we th his lord 
and master. Some desperate cutters we haue in like sort, 
which carrie two daggers or two rapiers in a sheath alwaies 
about them, wherewith in euerie dronken fraie they are 
mowen to worke much mischiefe ; their swords & daggers 
also are of a great length, and longer than the like vsed 
n any other countrie, whereby ech one pretendeth to 
mue the more aduantage of his enimie." 'Description 
of England ' in Holinshed, ed. 1587, i. 199. 

Since, then, there were daggers of a particular 
kind noted for their use in drunken frays, how 
is it "mere slang or raillery" to call them ale- 
daggers, as does the author of ' Pappe with an 
Hatchet/ when he says, " He that drinkes with 
cutters must not be without his ale dagger " ? 

Your correspondent MR. JOHN TAYLOR, was 
quite right in his surmise as to "filchman." 
Harrison continues : 

" I might here speake of the excessiue staues which 
diuerse that trauell by the waie doe carrie vpon their 

shoulders but they are commonlie suspected of 

honest men to be theeues and robbers, or at the least- 
wise scarse true men which beare them." 

And it is another of Nash's contemporaries, John 
Awdeley, who informs us, in his ' Fraternitye of 
Vacabondes' (E.E.T.S. reprint, p. 4), what a 
filchman is: " An Vpright man [i.e., the chief of 
a beggar crew] is one that goeth wyth the trunchion 
of a staffe, which staffe'they cal a Filtchman." The 
contents of Awdeley's little book were no doubt 
familiar to Nash. F. ADAMS. 

HABLOT (8 th S. iii. 348). A. S. B. has, no 
doubt, got this name from Hablot Knight Browne, 
alias " Phiz." Some years ago I puzzled over this 
Hablot, but without result. This time I hope to 
have been a little more successful. I have a Paris 
directory for 1881, but the name is not there. 
There is, however, Habilot once, but I do not 
believe this to be the same name. If it is, then 
the i stands for e. See Larchey (* Diet, des Noms,' 
s.w. " Jacquet" and " Robillard"). My notion 
is that Hablot is a double diminutive of Habert, 
which occurs quite a dozen times in the above 
directory. In these names in bert = our bright, 
both in French and English, when diminutives are 
formed from them, ert is apt to be looked upon as 
the ending, and not, as would be correct, bert. 
Thus Robert becomes, in English, Rob, as in Rob 
Roy, Robin, &c., and in French, Robbe ; and 
from this last, with one 6, we have the dimi- 
nutives Robel, Robelin, Robelot (Larchey). Robel 
is not, indeed, in Larchey ; but from Jacque he 
gives Jacquel and Jacquelot. Similarly Hubert, 
by cutting off the ert, has produced the single dim. 
Hubin and the double dims. Hublin and Hublot= 

8* S. I V.JULY 8, '93.] 



Hubelin and Hubelot ; and Habert, treated in the 
same way, would give Hab(e)lot. 

The only question now remaining to be solved, 
therefore, is what Habert itself is derived from. 
Pott (second edit., 1859, p. 221) says it = O.H.G. 
haduperaht, which seems to mean bright or illus- 
trious in war. Larchey, on the other hand, refers 
it to " hab, possession ; bert, renomme" " a very 
poor attempt, I think. I myself am inclined to 
believe that it comes from Herbert, which = hari- 
or heri- peraht="mit oder im Heere glanzend" 
(Pott, p. 221), or bright, renowned amid the host 
(or, perhaps, in war ; see Schade, s.v. " Harjis"). 
In Forstemann the forms with hari are at least as 
common as those with heri, whilst Body (in his 
' Noms de Famille du Pays de Liege ') gives Har- 
bert (p. 134) as well as Herbert, and so does 
Ferguson (* Surnames as a Science/ p. 55). Then 
the first r fell, and produced Habert. Comp. Fr. 
htberge (Littre"), which was formerly herberge and 
harberge (Godefroy), and of whicji the her is the 
same her as that of Herbert. Compare also the 
name Hebert, which Larchey declares to be= 
Herbert, and of which Pott says (p. 221) that it 
perhaps = Herbert " mit Unterdriickung des einen 
r." Our names Hebbert and Hibbert ('Kelly's 
London Directory') would seem also to = Herbert 
with assimilation of the first r to the b. 

I will now leave A. S. B. to make his choice. 
Pott's interpretation and mine differ but very 
little, if at all, in meaning. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

I believe this name should be written Hablot. 
Mr. D. C. Thomson, in his * Life and Labours of 
Hablot Knight Browne 'better known as " Phiz " 
tells us that this famous artist had the name 
Hablot bestowed upon him " in honoured remem- 
brance of one of Napoleon's officers of the Imperial 
Guard, who fell at Waterloo, and who was engaged 
to be married to an elder sister of the artist." 


"ZOLAESQUE" (8 th S. ii. 468; Hi. 54, 115, 213, 
411). My note at the penultimate reference was 
penned less with a view to prosely tism than as a pro- 
test against DR. BREWER'S method of objecting to 
the insertion of the above word in the 'N. E. D.,' 
though, of course, it was written to advocate its 
being so inserted. The Doctor very naturally 
ttempts to rebut my strictures, which attempt 
calls for the following numerated animadversions : 

1. Zola certainly failed twice to get his works 
couronnet (though if ever a book deserved the 
honoor it is 4 Le Reve'); but if DR. BREWER lives 
a few years longer (which I ardently hope he may), 
I believe he will see them (or one of them) so dis- 

2. That " two or three other French writers run 
Zola close in Holywell literature" is, to put it 
mildly, somewhat beside the question at issue be- 

tween us, or, in * Mikado ' parlance, it has "nothing 
to do with the case." 

3. To adduce the testimony of the officers of the 
Cent Garde is simply to pit one set of witnesses 
against another. My informants were French 
students (whose confrere I was), who passed through 
their armies, both at home and in Alsace, who 
knew many of the officers and men, and who were 
ocular witnesses of the demoralization of both the 
causa efficient of their defeat. 

4. It may be "literary high treason" to class 
Sterne with Zola; but I willingly submit to the 
charge, confident that many literary judges will 
acquit me honourably. 'Tristram Shandy' will 
hob-nob congenially with ' Nana.' Cf. N. & Q., 
8 th S. ii. 304. 


having made 

polemical works; but does not his illustration 
argue exactly in favour of my thesis ? His "friend " 
knew enough of that heretical bishop's leanings to 
cause him to fight shy of a perusal of his books. 
Does not DR. BREWER know more than enough of 
Zola's " literary filth " to warn him not to soil his 
hands by further contact with it 1 Bigotry is less 
culpable* in a man who knows too little than in one 
who knows too much. 

6. " All that Zola has written is for the passing 
moment." I venture to prophecy that the verdict 
of posterity will disprove that sentence, and that 
Zola's pictures of French life under the Second 
Empire will have an existence coeval with the lan- 
guage in which they were written, and beyond it, 
as much as Ovid's and Boccaccio's have of theirs. 

May I add that in my last communication under 
this heading I wrote, by a slip of the pen, " sui 
juris " for sui generis ? J. B. S. 


P.S. A few days after the above note had been 
despatched to our worthy Editor I fell across an 
extremely interesting * Interview with Zola,' by 
Mr. V. R. Mooney, in the June number of the 
Idler, which I heartily commend to DR. BREWER'S 
attention. Replies 1 and 3 are admirably con- 
firmed by it in the grand maitre's own words. 

EARLDOM OP STRATHERN (8 th S. iii. 389). 
Margery, or Marjory (aged twenty- four in 
34 Hen. III., 1249, and dead in 39 Hen. Ill, 
1254), the second of the three daughters and co- 
heiresses of Robert de Muschamp, Baron of 
Wooler, married Malise, Earl of Strathern, in 
Scotland, and had issue two daughters and co- 
heiresses. Murielda, the elder (aged ten in 
39 Hen. III., 1254, and died s.p., Countess of 
Mar, 20 Ed. I., 1291-2) ; Marjory or Mary, the 
younger (aged six in 1254 and "upwards of 
forty " in 1306), was wife of Nicholas de Graham 
(dead in 1306), and mother of John de Graham, 


S. IV. JULY 8, '93. 

(aged 28 in 1306). Could the latter have been 
the John de Graham slain at battle of Neville's 
Cross, 1346? If Malise had also a daughter 
called Matilda, she must been by a second wife 
(vide Inq., 34 Hen. III., No. 40 ; Inq. p.m., Isa- 
bella de Forde, 39 Hen. III., No. 40 ; and two 
Inq. p.m., Nicholas de Graham, 34 Ed. I., No. 28, 
amongst Records of Court of Chancery. 

Robert de Toni is said by Burke, in ' Extinct 
Peerage,' to have been a son of Ralph de Toni, 
and a descendant of the Ralph de Toni who married 
Judith, daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon 
and of Northumberland. He distinguished him- 
self in the wars of Scotland and Gascony, temp. 
Ed. I., and was summoned to Parliament as Baron 
Toni, 1299-1311, when he d.s.p. His arms were 
Argent, a manche gules. His sister and heir Alice, 
married, firstly, Thomas de Leyburn (d.v.p. without 
male issue), son of William de Leyburn (summoned 
to Parliament as Baron Leyburn 1299, and died 
1309), by whom she was mother of Julian, wife of 
John, third Baron Hastings (died 1325); secondly, 
Guy Beauchamp, famous Earl of Warwick (died 
1315), by whom she was mother of two sons and 
five daughters; thirdly, William de Mortimer 
(who assumed name of De la Zouche on inheriting 
lordship of Ashby, co. Leicester, 1314, and was sum- 
moned to Parliament as Baron Zouche 1323-1337), 
and by him, who outlived her, she was mother of 
Alan de la Zouche. W. B. THOMAS. 


PARISH EKE-NAMES (8 th S. iii. 46, 132, 251). 
The lines quoted from memory by MR. BEAZELEY 
at the last reference are rendered as follows in 
Giusti's * Raccolta di Proverbi toscani ' (ed. 1853, 
p. 216): 

Veneziani, gran Signori, 

Padovani, gran dottori : 

Vicentini, magna gatti, 

Veronese tutti matti. 

They are followed by eight other lines. Magnare 
is an old form of mangiare ; hence magna, instead 
of mangia, in the third line. 

"Drunken Deddington," mentioned in my note, 
seems to be a play upon the phrase " dead drunk." 


USSES OR OSSES (8 th S. iii. 468). Buss, as I 
phonetically spell the word in my French-English 
part, s.v. " Roussette," has long been, I understand, 
a common name for the spotted dog-fish among 
fishermen. I heard it first in Brighton some years 
ago. No English dictionary gives this word, not 
even Webster's, the most complete. Might it not 
be connected etymologically with the huso (bur- 
geon) or the huch (salmon) ? F. E. A. GASC. 

So Palsgrave 
Cf. Cotgrave 

The correct word is hussfg. 
" Husse, a fysshe rousette." 

._ rf v v/wfc'Lctvu 

"Roussette a little Dog-fish, whose ruddy 

Bkinne is powdered all over with blacke spots." 

The fish denoted by roussette, says Alberti (' Diet. 
Fr.-Ital.,' ed. 1788), is called in Rome pesce gatto, 
cat-fish. In the 'Promptorium Parvulorum' we 
find " huske, fyshe," rendered by squarus, a word 
explained in an old Latin-French glossary (see 
Du Cange, s.v. " Squarosus ") : " Un poisson qui 
a la pel aspre de quoy Ten polit le bois." Hush, 
in the northern " hush-paddle," the lump-fish, 
may be the same word as hutke or husse (so tush 
for tusk), and a connexion of husse with the Dutch 
hesse, a cat, is possible. This last conjecture implies 
that the two species referred to by your corre- 
spondent were originally distinguished as cats and 
dogp, and may be supported by a reference to the 
Roman puce gatto. F. ADAMS. 

According to the ' Dictionary of the Kentish 
Dialect,' edited by the Rev. W. D. Parish and the 
Rev. W. F. Shaw, " HUBS " is the word used for the 
spotted dogfish (Scyllium canicula). The smaller 
size also called " Robin -Huss." Folkestone dis- 
trict has several other peculiar names in connexion 
with the fishing industry, as recorded in above 



In reply to my query, an obliging correspondent 
at Wingeham, near Dover, sends me the following 
information : 

'According to the ' Dictionary of the Kentish Dialect/ 
edited by the Rev. W. D. Parish and the Rev. W. F. 
Shaw (Farncombe & Co., Lewes), ' Huss ' is the Folke- 
stone name for the spotted dogfish (Scyllium canicula). 
Small ones are called ' Robin Husa.' " 

My correspondent sends me also many other 
local names, extracted from the same authority, 
and used for Folkestone products. To give these 
would occupy too much of your valuable space, 
but I may mention that the flesh of these dogfish 
is there commonly called " Folkestone beef." 


Arts Club, Hanover Square. 


SIR HENRY LANGFORD, BART. (8 th S. iii. 308). 
Roger Langford, of West Downe, in Broadwod- 
wiger, co. Devon, had issue : (1) Robert ; (2) Mary, 
who was, at the time of the Visitation of Devon, 
wife of Sir Hugh Clotworthy, of Knockfergus, co. 
Antrim (knighted March 16, 1617). By him she 
left a daughter Lettice, who married Edward 
Rowley, of Castle Roe, M.P. Londonderry 1631 
and 1635, and had a son Sir John Rowley, born 
1635, knighted in Ireland March 13, 1660, who 
married Mary, eldest daughter and coheiress of Sir 
Hercules Langford. 

The said Robert Langford, Esq., married Eliza- 
beth Fortescue, daughter of John Fortescue, of 
Filleigh, co. Devon, who was baptized 1586 at 
Wear Gifford, and died a widow August 3, 1648, 
at Roborrow. A copy of her M.I., with the arms 

I of Langford, Paly of six, or and gu., on a chf. az., 
a lion passant arg., impaling Fortescue, will be 

8> 8. IV. JULY 8, '93.] 



found in the Western Antiquury, vol. iv. p. 163. 
In her will, dated 1647, proved (P.C.C. 154, Fair- 
fax), she refers to her son, daughter-in-law Lady 
Lettice Langford, sister Lady Clotworthy, brothers 
Hugh Fortescue and Richard, brother and sister 
Wollocombe, sister Ann Fortescue, and uncle 

Sir Faithful Fortescue, son of John Fortescue 

Temptation,' where lobster cracking and the other 
curious operations are described by a lunatic who 
believes that he suffers from them at the hands of a 
gang of u telepathists " ? ATTICUS. 

WEDDING WREATHS (8 th S. iii. 229, 332, 418). 
The most obvious explanation of the use of 
orange blossoms in bridal wreaths is found in the 

, , 

Esq., of Buckland, Filleigh, co. Devon, commanded extraordinary fertility of the plant, which bears atthe 

same time flower, fruit, and foliage. The custom 

foot in J re I and under ms uncle, tne Dttul0 L * 1V > nij * WM^W. j.i 

Sir Arthur Chichester, by whom he is 8aid to have been derived from the Saracens, 

and appointed November 14, 1606, but I know not on what authority. 

a regiment of foot in Ireland under his uncle, the 

Lord Deputy, 

was knighted 

jointly with Roger Langford, Esq., Governor of 

Carrickfergus (Burke's 'Landed Gentry'). 

Sir Hercules Langford, of Somerhill, co. Meath, 
Knt. (one of this name knighted in Ireland 
August 19, 1621), left issue: (1) Sir Henry Lang- 
ford, Bart. ; (2) Mary, first daughter and coheiresp, 
married, 1671, the above-named Sir John Rowley, 
Knt., and left issue an only son, Hercules Rowley, 
M.P. Londonderry, who died 1742 (ancestor of 
Lord Langford, of Summerhill)-, and an only 
daughter Lettice, second wife of the first Viscount 
Loftus of Ely ; (3) Susannah, will dated March 22, 
1725, then of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, spinster, 
proved P.C.C. November 8, 1726 (237, Plymouth). 
Henry Lanpford, of Combsatchfield, co. Devon, 
Esq. (styled Bart, in the calendar), by his will, 

More fanciful explanations connect the orange 
with the stories of Acontius and Cydippe, Atalanta 
and Hippomenes, &c. Thus Rapin who, by the 
way, refers also to the fact that 
They still new Robes of Fruit and Blossoms wear, 
And fading Charms with fresh Supplies repair 

says of these " Atlantick Apples " 
No Nymph but would with these be gladly drest, 
And fill with new pluckt Fruit her snowy breast ; 
The golden Balls for which Atlanta chose, 
Her proniia'd Race, and better Fame to lose. 

Rapin, ' De Hortorum Cultura,' Gardiner's trans 
lation, second edition, pp. 93-4. 

C. C. B. 

It is impossible to reply to MR. MARSHALL'S 
"protest" without treading upon very properly 

pro'ved in 1725 (P.C.C. 41, Romney), bequeathed I forbidden ground so far as N. & Q ' is con- 
his estate to his godson, Thomas Brown, of Gray's cerned. But I quoted from the Catholic Dic- 
tionary,' and simply used the words which the 
authors of the same would have employed to make 
sense. The Pope's spiritual children call them- 
selves "Catholics," and are called so by the 

Inn, and named his cousin, Capt. Hercules Bur 
leigh (? Rowleigh). 

Susanna Langford, of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 

spinster, in her will, dated March 22, 1725, proved I 8elves " Uatnoiics,'' ana are caiiea so oy tne 
November 8, 1726 (P.C.C. 237, Plymouth), names enormous majority of the Christian world. Securus 
her nephew Hercules Rowley, Esq., his wife Frances, l^icat orbis terrarum And wherever the Eng- 
and their daughter, Mrs. Dorothy Beresford ; he^ llsh language is spoken (except i 
niece, Lady Letitia Loftus, Viscountess of Ely; aunt, I P orfclon . 
Mrs. Susannah Bateman, and her daughter, Mrs. 
Susannah Loftus ; cousins, Mary Usher, Mary Paris, 
Christian Beer ; and Mrs. Elizabeth Mervin. By 
the death of her brother, Sir Henry Langford, Bart., 
certain lands descended to her and her nephew 
Hercules Rowley as coheirs. 

Theophilus Langford, of Kinsale, Ireland, Esq., 
by his will, proved August 31, 1713 (P.C.C. 190, 
Leeds), bequeathed the reversion of his estate to 
Hercules Rowley, Esq., his kinsman. 


TELEPATHIC OBSESSION (8 th S. iii. 384, 494). 

NB QUID NIMIS will look again at the "singular 
book "he mentions, I think he will find that he 
has mistaken the doctor for the patient. Mr. 
John TT ' 


Haalam was a well-known writer on 
sanity, but, fortunately, not himself a lunatic. 


May I point out to those readers who are not. ^ 

to refer to John Haalam's curious book that J other direct heirs to the throne is an interesting 
Charles Reade has made use of it in 'A Terrible subject For if MRS. BOGER considers the Duke 

Church of England) 

priest " is always understood to mean one of the 
Pope's clergymen. GEORGE ANGUS. 

8U Andrews, N.B. 

The origin of the use of orange blossoms at wed- 
dings, and when first introduced, has already 
formed the subject of three communications to 
' N. & Q.' (see 1* S. viii. 341 ; ix. 386, 527; 3 rd S. 
x. 290, 381 ; 7 th S. vii. 369, 474), to which your 
contributors, including your humble servant, have, 
I believe, furnished all the information which can 
probably be obtained. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

THE ROYAL MARRIAGE (8 th S. iii. 466). 
Putting aside the fact that the direct heir to the 
throne is not going to marry an Englishwoman, 
but a German princess (since no amount of sojourn 
in any country is deemed by law to confer 
nationality without naturalization), the marriage of 



[8 th S. IV. JULY 8, '93. 

of York to be a direct heir though I venture 
humbly to submit that none but a first-born son 
can be a direct heir then she must admit many 

instances may be met with at that time. The 
records at the Heralds' College prove conclusively 
that there were not two Sir William Burys, as has 

oTher" princeTof ~Englan~d~ to" the list" of those who I often been supposed. In spite of thejnural monu- 
have married ladies who were really English- ' --* -** < 


Thus John who was in exactly the same rela- 
tion to Henry II. after the deaths of his brothers, 
William, Henry, and Geoffrey, as the Duke of 
York would be now if the monarch were his father 
instead of his grandmother married Isabel.daughter 
of the Earl of Gloucester, for his first wife. Then 
Henry IV. who was quite as much heir to the 
throne, although banished, as the Duke of York 
was during Prince Albert Victor's life married 
Mary, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun. Next 

ment in Grantham Church, William Bury, the son 
and heir, was never a knight ; but there exists so 
much confusion between the two, that I hope to 
send another note on the subject before long. 


POST OFFICE GRAMMAR (8 th S. iii. 248, 378). 
See, further, as to this/K & Q.,'6 th S. xii. 238, 
under the heading 'Dame Europa's School.' 

SIR JOHN FALSTAFF (8 th S. iii. 425). Shak- 
think, be exonerated from having 

comes James II., who during Charles II. 's life done more than enlarge somewhat upon some un- 
stood in exactly the same position as the Duke of deniable weaknesses in Sir John Fastolfe, which 
York (his namesake) did during his brother's life, p ro bably in his time were still remembered with 
or indeed rather better. For Charles II. was never ' 
likely to have legitimate children, while, had Albert 

some bitterness by the Southwark people. 
It is true that he was one of Henry V.'s knights, 

Victor married, there was always the possibility of Uhat he fought at Agincourt and elsewhere in 
his having a child who would effectually deprive | France, and was at 

the Duke of York of his chance. James was, 
therefore, as direct from Charles I. as the Duke of 
York is from the Queen, and his wife was Anne 

I think, consequently, that MRS. BOQER'S con- 
tention is not accurate ; and I also feel positive 
that the Duke of York is no more the direct heir, 
as regards the laws of primogeniture, than that 
he is about to marry an Englishwoman. For cer- 
tainly no lady whose two grandfathers and grand- 
mothers, as well as many generations before them 

one time Governor of Nor- 
mandy. He had property in Horsleydown and 
in the Borough itself; his family seat, however, 
was at Caistor, in Norfolk, where he died, aged 
eighty-one, in 1460 ; consequently in the time of 
^enry IV. he was comparatively a young man. 
During the insurrection of Jack Cade, in 1450, he 
furnished his place in Southwark with habiliments 
of war and old soldiers from Normandy to defend 
himself against the rebels ; but having sent an 
emissary to Blackheath, the man was taken prisoner, 
and narrowly escaped execution as a spy. They 

on either side, were German can be an English- brought him, however, with them to Southwark, 
woman, though she may have English habits, cus- | m & sen t him to Sir John with advice to put away 

warlike preparations ; this he did, and 

toms, and modes of thought. 

Barnes Common, S.W. 

TWICE KNIGHTED (8 th S. iii. 484). If MR. 
PINK will consult Metcalf's 'Book of Knights' 
(p. 215), he will find a precedent. On July 21, 
1658, William Berry was knighted at Dublin 
Castle by Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ire- 
land, and on January 26, 1660 (O.S.), William 
Bury received a similar honour at the hands of Sir 
Maurice Eustace, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 
Roger, Earl of Orrery,* and Charles, Earl of 
Monntratb, Lords Justices. Despite the variation 
in spelling, this is one and the same person, viz. , 
Sir William Bury, of Cistercia Place, in Grantham, 
and Linford Grange, in Blankney, both in the 
county of Lincoln, M.P. for Grantham tempo 
Cromwell, and by the latter constituted a Com 
mlssioner for Ireland. The double ceremony is 
accounted for by the voidance of all parliamentary 
honours after the Restoration; and perhaps similar 

all his warlike preparations ; this 

took refuge with all his household in the Tower. 

He was, however, in danger from both parties, 
for Jack Cade would have burned his house, and he 
was likely to be impeached for high treason for 
retiring to the Tower. So far I am indebted to the 
late Mr. G. R. Corner's account of Horsleydown, 
to which we may add that Fastolfe probably mor- 
tally offended the Southwark people by leaving 
them defenceless. Mr. Corner adds that Sir 
John was possessed of several messuages in 
Horsleydown, of which four were " Beere houses " 
and in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen (now St. 
Saviour's) was one messuage called " the Bores- 
head." May not this have suggested to Shakspeare 
the meetings at the " Boar's Head " in Eastcheap 1 

It appears to me, then, that Shakspeare in his 
travesty of the character of Sir John Falstaff had 
far more ground to go upon than in that of Prince 
Henry, afterwards Henry V., whose real character 
was singularly pure and stainless ; the only esca- 

, ... i - T i_._j _ _ T t_-i: -U 

pade that he ever indulged in was, I believe, rob- 

* So advanced! Septembers, 1660, which is my warrant bin g the royal mails when his father detained his 
for O.S. I income as Prince of Wales. 

8* S. IV. JOIT 8, '93.] 


In Shakspeare's time (when he was living, 
writing, and acting in the Borough) one John Pop- 
ham, afterwards Sir John Popham and Lord Chief 
Justice of England, was playing the same pranks, 
indulging in the same vices, and ultimately reform- 
ing in the same manner by ridding himself of his 
boon companions, as Shakspeare credits Prince 
Henry with. 

Since writing the above I have studied Shak- 
speare's 'Henry IV.' and 'Henry VI.' more care- 
fully, and find that he calls the "fat knight" Fal- 
staff, and in { Henry VI.' makes Sir John Fastolfe 
play the coward at Orleans when Talbot was taken 
prisoner. I believe that Shakspeare's character of 
Sir John Falstaff is imaginary, or at least that we 
do not know now who was the original from which 
he drew ; but that the evil repute Fastolfe bore in 
Sputhwark for cowardice made Shakspeare gibbet 
him in different characters in two different plays. 

St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

TENERIFFE OR TENERIPE (8 th *S. iii. 469). It 
is possible that MR. LANGLET may look to one of 
your readers who has more than once dated from 
Tenerife to reply to his query. Tenerife is the 
form in use among the inhabitants. But, MR. 
LANGLEY may rejoin, Firenze is the form in use 
among the inhabitants of Florence and 'S. Graven- 
hague that in use among those of the Hague, and 
it would be absurd to humour those benighted 
foreigners to that extent. True, and if we did 
open our ports to their outlandish names, the free 
trade would not be reciprocated by their reception 
of ours. At the same time I cannot see what 
advantage is gained by merely throwing in an 
extra superfluous letter. I have never understood 
why, while manfully struggling with the subtle 
difficulties of Boulogne without an avowed attempt 
to Anglicize the name of a place in sight of our 
shores and once almost a British colony, we should 
choose to garnish with an extra letter, and Anglicize 
in the process, such places as Lyon and Marseille. 
I venture to suggest that we might leave them, 
and the comparatively unfamiliar Tenerife, in the 
form which satisfies their natives. While giving 
Tenerife a letter too much, we often give it a 
syllable too little. It has four syllables, Te-ne- 
ri-fe. But I must add that local laziness of pro- 
nunciation often leaves the final vowel hardly 
audible. The final consonant of Dios sometimes 
fares as badly. KILLIGREW. 

By the alphabetical list of names of places (" In- 
dex Geographicus ") in Keith Johnston's 'Royal 
Atlas,' both ways of spelling is given ; while in the 
1 Foreign Office List,' and in letters I have received 
from the British Consul at the Canary Islands, the 
former mode is adopted. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SELF-EDUCATION (8 th S. iii. 387). See New- 
man's ' Idea of a University,' p. 150, ninth edition, 
where it is said, in a foot-note : 

" Crabbe's ' Tales of the Hall.' This Poem, let me 
say, I read on its first publication, above thirty years 
ago, with extreme delight, and have never lost my 
love of it ; and on taking it up lately, found I was even 
more touched by it than heretofore. A work which can 
please in youth and age, seems to fulfil (in logical lan- 
guage) the accidental definition of a classic. A further 
course of twenty years has past, and I bear the same 
witness in favour of this Poem." 

The tale is iv., ( Adventures of Richard. 1 



See Cronnelly's ' Irish Family History,' O' Hart's 
' Irish Pedigrees,' O'Mahony's ' Hist, of Ireland/ 
&c. 0. 

"GRASS-WIDOW" (8 th S. iii. 426). Froissart's 
phrase is a neat translation of this term in the 
sense it carries to " ears polite," but in some of 
our English dialects "grass-widow" has a very 
different meaning that, namely, of an unmarried 
mother. I heard it so interpreted here in the Isle 
of Axholme only a few weeks since. C. C. B. 

GHOST MINERS (8* h S. iii. 205, 258, 317). The 
following passage may be added from Fuller's c A 
Pisgah Sight of Palestine' to the quotations 
already given. Fuller, speaking about gold and 
silver, remarks : 

" God would have His people look to the hills, from 
whence their help cometh ; to lay up their treasure in 
heaven, where rust and moth do not corrupt; sursuni 
corda, sursum oculos, and not that their eyes by a retro- 
grade motion should be peeping and poring on the earth, 
where the treasures concealed are by poets consigned to 
Pluto, king of hell : and modern authors avouch, that 
malignant spirits haunt the places where these metals 
are found. As if the devil did there sit abroad to hatch 
them, cunningly pretending an unwillingness to part 
with them ; whereas he gains more by one mine minted 
out into money than by a thousand concealed in the 


DR. DANIEL SCOTT (7 th S. ix. 406, 488 ; x. 57). 
The burial of Daniel Scott, Doctor of Laws, is 
recorded in the parish register of Cheshunt, Herts, 
under date April 3, 1759. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

477, 499). When I knew Montgomery Martin he 
was regarded as a man of standing. He had been 
private secretary to the Marquis of Wellesley. He 
rendered great services to our colonial interests, 
and was regarded as their champion, as afterwards 
was P. L. Simmonds. Many of us appreciated and 
supported bis advocacy in " Hudson's Bay Terri- 
tories and Vancouver's Island " of our claims on 
Queen Elizabeth's kingdom of New Albion on the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 th s.i V.JULYS, '93. 

Western Pacific shores, which had been maintained 
by Dr. Johnson and by William Pitt, and which 
were so helplessly surrendered by the ministers of 
Martin's day. HYDE CLARKE. 

32, St. George's Square, S.W. 

MASSACRE OF Scio (8< h S. iii. 387, 430, 492). 
The attempt of DB. HYDE CLARKE to put the 
conduct of the Turks during the massacre of Chios 
in the most favourable light does not seem alto- 
gether borne out even by Finlay, whom he cites, 
not to mention other authorities. What are we to 
eay of such passages as the following : " A body 

of fanatic Mussulman volunteers paraded the 

streets, murdering any Christian who fell into their 
hands " (' History of the Greek Revolution,' vol. i. 
p. 311, ed. 1861). Also, when speaking of the 
monastery of Nea-Mone : " The doors were forced 
open, and the Turks, after slaughtering even the 
women on their knees at prayer, set fire to the 
screen of paintings in the church" (ibid., p. 314). 
I, of course, do not quote stories which I have 
heard from the descendants of sufferers. Nor can 
I quite accept Dft. CLARKE'S couleur de rose 
description of the fate of the unhappy women who, 
in many instances, were sold as slaves or forcibly 
taken as " wives " by ruffians whose hands were 
stained with the blood of their relatives. This is 
<l reaching the highest rank " with a vengeance ! 

W. R. M. 

"SEJAN " (8 th S. iii. 449). MR. WALLER will 
find a circumstantial account of this " unlucky 
horse " in Aulus Gellius, ' Noctes Atticse/ lib. iii. 
c. ix.: 

" Eura equum fuiese dicunt magnitudine invisitata 
cervice ardua, colore phoeniceo, flava et comanti juba 
omnibusque aliia equorura laudibus quoque longe prae 
atitisse : sed, eundem equum tali fuisse fato sive fortuna 
ferunt, ut, quisquia haberet eum possideretque, ut is cum 
omni domo, farailia, fortunisque omnibus suis ad interne 
cionein deperiret." 

He then gives a list of his owners who " came 
to grief, and further : " Hinc proverbium de 
hominibus calamatosis ortum, dicique solitum 
ille homo habet equum Sejanum." 



Some account of this steed will be found in graphic 
language in ' Dion and the Sibyls/ a novel, by the 
late Chief Justice of the Bahamas, Miles Geral 
Keon. This account is derived from a classica 
source. P. 

MAY-DAY (8 th S. iii. 427, 476). One has n 
wish to make a contradictory statement on a sub- 
ject ; but it is seen from Withering's authority that 
the Caltha palustris is the common marsh-marigold. 
(See the abridgment by Macgillivray, p. 240, 1848, 
with the reference there to * Engl. Bot/ vol. viii. 
pi, 506 ; ' Engl. Flora,' vol. iii. p. 59.) 


ST. THOMAS OF WATERINGS (8 th S. iii. 249, 
95, 369). I respectfully submit that the learned 
writer in Manning and Bray's ( History of Surrey/ 
ol. iii. p. 402, is in error in the date he ascribes 
o the last execution on the above-named site. It 
s advisable to quote the exact words : " The last 
ersons who were executed at this place were a 
ather and son for murder about seventy years 
ago [1812]." This, of course, would give the date 
dopted by your able correspondents PRECENTOR 
VENABLES and MR. F. ADAMS, viz., 1742 ; bat I 
believe that the expiation alluded to was made 
nearly a score of years earlier. The last execution 
can trace as taking place on this spot was on 
riday, July 5, 1723, when a father and son, 
Chomas Athoe, the elder, and Thomas Athoe, the 
ounger, were hanged here for a peculiarly barba- 
rous murder committed in Wales on Friday, Nov. 23, 
722 (see Baldwin and Knapp's ' New Newgate 
Jalendar,' six-volume edition [1826 ?], vol. i. 
pp. 234-237). It is scarcely possible to impute a 
nistake as to the date in this instance, inasmuch 
as the case is chronologically reported between the 
accounts of an execution at Tyburn on Monday, 
June 17, 1723, and the hanging of a pirate at 
Execution Dock on Friday, July 26, 1723. It is 
just conceivable that another pair, a father and son, 
were executed at St. Thomas of Waterings for 
murder nineteen years later ; but is it probable ? 

It is very curious that these two malefactors 
were executed for a murder committed a hundred 
and fifty miles west of the scene of their punish- 
ment under the supreme authority of the Court of 
King's Bench in criminal prosecutions, just as 
Garside and Mosley, in the case quoted by your 
correspondent MR. VENABLES from Mr. Wheat- 
ley, on the erroneous statement of Lord Campbell, 
were a hundred and eleven years later, also for a 
murder committed in (or on the borders of) Wales ; 
but "plain John," in his autobiography (vol. ii. 
pp. 58-9), has misled the last-named most accom- 
plished antiquary in stating that the convicts were 
hanged at St. Thomas Waterings. They (Garside 
and Mosley) were executed on the roof of the gate 
tower of the now demolished Horsemonger Lane 
Gaol on Tuesdav, Nov. 25, 1834 (see the Times 
of Wednesday, Nov. 26, and the Weeldey Dispatch 
of Sunday, Nov. 30, 1834, p. 405), a mile and one 
furlong west of St. Thomas of Waterings. I do 
not know how my lord came to make this mistake. 
Did he suppose that Horsemonger Lane Gaol was 
built on the site of the ancient place of execution ; 
or did he confusedly associate the tragedy in which 
he took a professional part with the one enacted in 
the Old Kent Koad a century and a decade pre- 
viously ? NEMO. 

Perhaps the following is the earliest record of an 
execution at this spot. It is from the " Continua- 
tion " published in the 1533 edition of Fabyan's 

8" 8. IV. JUH 8, *93.] 



* Chronicle,' but may have been penned by Fabyan 
himself immediately after the execution : 

" A.D. 1499. Vppon Shroue Tuysdaye was put in exe- 
cucion, at Saynt Thomas Watrynge, a strepelyng of .xx. 
yeres of age, which had auaunced bym selfe to be the 
Bonn' or heyre to the erle of Warwykes landes, & was the 
eonne of a cordyner of London." 
The " strepelyng" was Ralph Wilford. 

Can any of your legal readers explain why the 
Chester convicts, James Garside and Joseph 
Mosley, whose case is adverted to at the second 
reference, were on Nov. 20, 1834, ordered by the 
C. K. B., as Lord Campbell says, "to be executed 
at St. Thomas a Waterings in the borough of 
Southwark, aided by the sheriff of Surrey, a form 
of proceeding which had not been resorted to for 
many ages," when such an order meant execution 
at Horsemonger Lane Goal, where, in fact, the con- 
victs were hanged on Nov. 25 ? There is not a 
word about St. Thomas a Waterings either in the 
reports of the Times and the Morning Advertiser 
(Nov. 21), or in Adolphus and Ellis's K.B. 
Reports. The order, according to the latter 
authority, was for their committal to the custody 
of the Marshal of the Marshalsea to do execution 
upon them, assisted by the sheriff of Surrey. 


MR. ADAMS has omitted the very interesting 
fact that a thoroughfare just behind Avondale 
Square is named Rolls Road. "The Grange" 
was an old farm appertinent to Bermondsey Abbey, 
founded 1082 by Aylwin Child, citizen of London, 
who died in 1094, and is cited as a presumed 
ancestor of Henry Fitz-Aylwin, our first mayor 
who died in 1212, so three or four generations 
removed. Adjacent is Maze Pond. Mr. Wheat- 
ley calls it a manor, temp. Hen. VI. , appertaining 
to the Bourchier family ; but it probably originated 
with the abbots of Battle, Sussex, who had a 
town residence in this ancient thoroughfare. 
Bermondsey was a marsh ; the brook called river 
Earl perhaps dates from the Warrens, Earls o1 
Surrey, who held a manor court at Southwark, this 
stream being the Borough boundary or end of the 
Earl's jurisdiction. There was also the Neckinger, 
once a tidal creek. The "Thomas a Becket" public- 
house is numbered 322 in Old Kent Road ; this 
may serve to identify the site when licensed houses 
are disestablished. As to distance, the old roac 
ran along " Kent Street," now Tabard Road (a 
senseless change), before Great Dover Street was 
opened. This would shorten the admeasurement. 


The Monastery. By Sir Walter Scott. Edited by An 

drew Lang. 2 vols. (Nimmo.) 

'THE MONASTERY' has now been added by Mr. Nimmt 
to his Buperb edition of the " Waverley Novels." Th 

lustrations, which are by Mr. Gordon Browne, are 
mong the most dramatic that have hitherto been sup- 
died. Especially excellent is that of the duel between 
lulbert and Sir Piercie Shafton. The White Lady of 
Avenel is represented in a costume so scanty that contact 
with the Sacristan may well have afflicted that worthy 
man. The figure is, however, both striking and beautiful. 
Mr. Lang's admirable introduction explains the causes 
;hat made this the least popular of the " Waverley Novels " 
ip to this point, and is, as usual, full of interest and value. 
Especially edifying to read are the early critiques which 
Jr. Lang is at pains to collect. The edition remains tho 
noat desirable yet issued. We look with pleasurable 
nticipation to The Abbot ' as the next of the series. 

Annvaire de la Noblesse de Ruttie. Second Year. 1892.. 

Edited by R. I. Ermerin. (St. Petersburg.) 
THIS is in many respects a remarkable and an interesting 
>ook, and the evidently conscientious and extensive 
abour bestowed by the learned Doctor of Laws who has- 
undertaken the editing deserves to be held in esteem. 

The volume for 1892, now before us, contains many 
historic names, and the names of not a few who have 
made history in recent times. Thus we have here at 
once the names of Lobanoff, the negotiator of the 
Peace of Tilsit, and of Schouvaloff (or Chouvaloy), of 
modern Russo-English Central Asian fame. While 
speaking of the princely family of Lobanoff (or Lobanov), 
we may note, for the assistance of the learned editor 
in his next issue, that on p. 144 of the present issue,, 
for " Rembold " should be read Rumbold, both in the 
text and index. On p. 306 we find a strange echo of 
our own land apparently, in a conjunction of names 
which must be somewhat distorted, viz., in the text r 
" Woldemar Loawis of Menar," and in the index, 
"Loevrs de Menar." These forms, differing in them- 
selves, cannot both be right. What is the British name- 
represented is not at first sight clear. Lewis might be 
thought of but for the " Menar," which seems to recall 
the Scottish Manor, while " Loewis " might stand equally 
well for the Scottish Lowia ; and as these two names are 
associated in Scottish family history, we feel little doubt 
that the true form is Lowis of Manor. 

The name of Cantacuzene, with its rich Byzantine 
memories, and a blazon embracing Comnenus, Angelus, 
and Palaeologus, is to be found in this volume, as are 
also the names of houses of ancient French and German 
nobility, either spurred eastwards with the Teutonic 
Knights, or driven out by the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nante?. It seems strange to come across the arms of 
descendants of Genghis (or Tchingis) Khan, and to 
learn that the tamga of Genghis Khan is their special 
heraldic mark. " Az., the tamga of Genghis Khan or," 
reads like a strange mixture of the pages of Gibbon 
with the language of Western heraldry. 

In other ways we get an insight into some peculiari- 
ties of Russian heraldry in Dr. Ermerin's interesting 
volume, such as the charge sometimes called " W " in 
Russia (p. 172), but which appears to be really a sort 
of fess called " vivree," and to signify water or a river. 
We also note, p. 334, in the blazon of Miloradovitcb, 
a three - headed imperial eagle, truly a rara avit t 
Another interesting feature is the attention paid 
by Dr. Emerin to denoting, where he finds them, 
the families descended from Rurik. One of these, 
given on pp. 173, sqq., t.v. Kozelski-Puzyno, seems 
to us rightly ranked by Dr. Ermerin among Russian 
princes, although that rank has not as yet been con- 
firmed to them by the Directing Senate of the Empire. 
They have borne the princely title for centuries, and 
always, so the learned editor of the Annuaire informs 
us, make use of it in public documents. We sincerely 



[8 th 8. IV. JULY 8, '93. 

trust that the labours of Dr. Ermerin will be rewarded 
by his being encouraged by the support given them to 
continue for many a year to come his valuable Annuaire 
of the nobility of Russia. 

Greek the Language of Christ. By A. Roberts, D.D. 


PROF. ROBERTS, dealing with a subject which he Inns 
made peculiarly his own, gives "a short proof" in this 
little volume of the thesis fully elaborated in his larger 
work, and on this one line of proof he is content to rest 
his whole case. The argument, briefly stated, is this. 
The Scriptures universally appealed to and understood 
by the people in the time of Christ were not the Hebrew 
original, nor an Aramaic version, but the Greek Septua- 
gint ; therefore the language habitually spoken by Christ 
must have been Greek. The cogency of this conclusion 
does not seem to us to follow so inevitably from his 
premises as it does to Dr. Roberts. There was a 
transition period, when the Latin Vulgate was generally 
quoted and understood by the people, though it was 
hardly the vernacular of either preacher or hearer. 

THK Ex-Libris Journal gives this month a handsome 
folio book-plate from the collection of Mr. G. J. Ellis. 
The general contents are of highest interest. 

A SUFFICIENTLY disappointing article is that in the 
Fortnightly headed 'Beautiful London.' Mr. Grant 
Allen, the author, is one of the most brilliant and ver- 
satile of writers. For once, however, he has gone out of 
his depth, and, in furnishing what purports to be a 
palinode, indulges in clumsy irony. With his former 
critics he deals in somewhat lumbering fashion, and his 
whole contribution is unpleasing. That Mr. Grant Allen, 
after forty years' acquaintance with London, cannot see 
its beauties is a matter that concerns himself alone. 
That he should boast of his incapacity is a matter of 
taste in regard to which we are at issue with him. 
Under the title * The Mausoleum of Ibsen,' Mr. Archer 
contributes a clever but somewhat controversial article 
dealing with the abuse that has been lavished on the 
Norwegian dramatist by the London press. Quite 
amusing is it to read the censures that have been passed 
upon the author of ' Hedda Gabler,' and the Cassandra- 
like predictions to which his appearance has given rise. 
Another theatrical article is supplied in ' The Dynasty 
of the Brohans,' by M. Ange Galdemar. Prof. Thorpe 
Bends a valuable contribution on ' The Recent Solar 
Eclipse.' To the Nineteenth Century Mr. Esme Stuart 
sends ' Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Poe : a Literary 
Affinity.' The parallel, which is, for the rest, sufficiently 
obvious, is well maintained. Baudelaire obtains some 
high praise, and, as was inevitable, his own famous 
comparison of the poet to the albatross is employed. 
Mr. Edward Dicey, C.B., writes on The "Arts and 
Crafts " Exhibition at Westminster.' An article by Dr. 
Jessopp on the Welsh Cburch bears the curious title 
'Robbing God.' Mrs. King has an amusing paper on 
' Mediaeval Medicine,' and Mr. J. Taylor Eay writes on 

a subject of much interest to most of our readers, 'Row 
to Catalogue Books.' ' Life and Labour,' by M. mile 
Zola, consists of the address to the Paris Students' Asso- 
ciation, which M. Zola has sent to the New Review. 
' The Poisoning of the Future,' by Dr. Squire Sprigge, 
opens out some gloomy prospects for our descendants. 
' Criminals and their Detection ' supplies some startling 
particulars as to the results of what is known as the 
anthropometric system. Lady Jephson describes ' Cana- 
dian Society, Past and Present.' In the Century are 
two essays upon English writers one on Thomas Hardy, 
the other on Jonathan Swift. Both are well written, 
and the latter is abundantly illustrated. Mr. Bailey 

Aldrich gives some excellent * Old Portsmouth Profiles,' 
Mr. Wood gives some pictures of ' Famous Indians,' Mr. 
Gosse writes on ' Mrs. Siddons,' and the fourth part of 
the ' Autobiography of Salvini ' appears. A very graphic 
and animated account is given in Scribner's of The Life 
of the Merchant Sailor.' The author is Mr. Clark 
Russell. ' Aspects of Nature in the West Indies ' is also 
excellent as regards letterpress and illustrations. 'The 
Fetish-Mountain in Krobo,' in Macmillan's, will interest 
deeply a large section of our readers. Mr. Warde Fowler 
writes on * Gilbert White of Selborne '; and Mrs. Ritchie, 
in her ' Chapters from Some Unwritten Memoirs,' deals 
with Mrs. Kemble. Much of the matter for The 
National Anthem,' in the Gentleman's, is avowedly taken 
from ' N. & Q.' A description is afforded of * The Roman 
Carnival '; and Mr. Playfair describes ' Prospecting in 
British Guiana.' In Temple Bar are papers on ' Emily 
Bronte ' and ' La Fontaine,' and an excellent account of 
' In the Valley of the Vezere.' In the English Illustrated 
1 The Historic Homes of England ' begins with an account 
of Bagshot Park. 'The North Pole up to Date,' and 
part ii. of ' The Romance of Modern London ' will repay 
attention. To Longman's Mr. F. Whishaw sends ' My 
First Bear Hunt,' and Mr. Froude a lecture on ' English 
Seamen in the Sixteenth Century.' The Cornhill has 
some valuable ' Nile Notes.' Belgravia, the Idler, and 
All the Year Round have pleasantly diversified contents. 

THE Old and New London of Messrs. Cassell is now 
completed, and will be followed by a reissue of the com- 
panion work, ' Greater London.' Part XXX. of The 
Storehouse of Information concludes the second volume, 
and ends at " Indian Yellow." 

MR. HENRY SOTHERAN has retired from the firm of 
Henry Sotheran & Co., with which Le has been so long 
and honourably connected. The bookselling business, 
one of the oldest established and best known, will be 
carried on, as heretofore, at 140, Strand, and 37, Picca- 
dilly, by his son, Mr. Henry Cecil Sotheran, in partner- 
ship with Mr. C. Buckland and Mr, A. B. Railton. 


We mutt call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
Shte, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

W. T. L. (" Though the mills of God grind slowly, 
yet they grind exceeding small"). Friedrich von 
Logau, ' Retribution ' (' Sinngedichte '). 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office. 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8*8. IV. JULY 15, '93.] 





NOTES :-The Royal House of Oldenburg, 41-Ancestry of 
the Duchess of York. 42-Our Public Records, 43-Holy 
Trinity Church. Miuories, 44-Titled Ladies Thrice Married 
_ Smaller "-Anglo-Cymric Score -Thomas Hood- 
Chess. 45 Bourbon Marriages Epitaph Dinner Cards 

The Bottle Imp 1 -Modern Topography-Vandalism at St. 
Paul's, 46 Rev. Weeden Butler Folk-lore of Criminals, 47. 

QUERIES :-" Dactyl " - " Dadd ": " Dadda " - " Ta-ta "- 
Archiepiscopal Etiquette, 47-Rev. T. Garratt-Funeral of 
Earl of Huntlv The Pope's Curse on Chaloner " Houy- 
hnhnm "-Coats of Arms-E. Corbett-Dr. Wing-Skopts 
-New West Jersey Society Serjeant More - Startling 
Ajsertions, 43 Irish Cathedrals" Soul-caking "Refer- 
ence Scientific Library Letter of Lord Beaconsfield " A 
Snick-a-snee "Bishop White Kennett Charles Mercy, 49. 

BBPLIES : Austrian Flag at Acre Gutta-percha, 50" Let 
us walk down Fleet Street "-Altar. 51 Rhyme on Cal- 
vinismResidence of Mrs. Siddons " The Triple Plea, 52 
Maize Robert Auguillon ' Garden of the Soul 
Second Sight, 53 Rev. H. Adams Wm. Pont de I'Arche 
"Shedbarschemoth" Abbey Churches, 54 "Honest 
Will Crouch "Witchcraft in the Nineteenth Century, 55 
Greene Family Italian Idiom, 56 Metre of * In Memo- 
Ham ' Waverley Novels. 57 Kennedy Baronetcy 
Longueville Baronetcy Sugar-plums The Passing Bell, 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Wright's ' Cambridge Shakespeare,' 
Vol. IX. Thiselton-Dyer's 'Ghost World ' Norman's 

London Signs 'Hawker's ' Prose Works.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(Concluded from 8< h S. Hi. 484.) 

King Gustavus IV. of Sweden left an only sur- 
viving son, who as3umed the title of Prince of 
Wasa, and upon his death, Aug. 5, 1877, the Duke 
of Ostrogoth, third and youngest son of King 
Adolphua Frederick, having died unmarried in 
1803, the male issue of that monarch became 

Prince Frederick Augustus, the next brother of 
King Adolphus Frederick, became Bishop of Lu- 
beck in 1750. In 1774 he assumed the title of 
Duke of Oldenburg. He died July 6, 1785, and 
was succeeded by his only son, William, who .died 
unmarried July 2, 1823. 

Duke Christian Augustus (who died in 1726), it 
will be remembered, however, had six sons. The 
fourth and fifth of them (William Augustas and 
Frederick Conrad) both died young. The sixth 
son, George Louis, became a field-marshal in the 
Russian service. He married Sophia Charlotte, 
only daughter of Frederick William, Duke of 
Schleswig Holstein Beck, a grandson of Augustus 
Philip, the Patriarch of the Gliicksburg line. By 
her he had three sons, (1) Frederick George, who 
died an infant, (2) William Augustus, who died 
unmarried at twenty-one years of age, and (3) 
Peter, who became Duke of Oldenburg upon the 
death of his cousin William in 1823. 

This prince married Frederica, second daughter 
of Frederick Eugene, Duke of Wiirtemberg (by 
his wife, the Princess Frederica of Brandenburg 
Schwedt, who was great-granddaughter of King 
George I. of England). She was sister of Fre- 
derick I., King of Wiirtemberg, who married our 
Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of King 
George III. 

The issue of this marriage was two sons, viz., (1) 
Augustus and (2) George. The elder succeeded 
his father, May 21, 1829, and assumed the title 
of Grand Duke of Oldenburg. By his first mar- 
riage with Adelaide, second daughter of Victor II., 
Prince of Anbalt Bernbourg Schaumbourg, he had 
two daughters, the eldest of whom married 
Prince Otho of Bavaria, and became Queen of 
Greece. He married, secondly, Ida, the younger 
sister of his first wife, and by her had one son, 
Peter, who succeeded him upon his death, Feb. 27, 
1853, and is the present reigning Grand Duke of 

The late Grand Duke married, thirdly, the 
Princess Cecilia, third and youngest daughter of 
his cousin, Gustavus IV., King of Sweden, by 
whom he had three sons. Of these two died in 
infancy, and the younger, Duke Elimar (born 
Jan. 28, 1844), married in 1876 the daughter of 
Baron de Friesenhof, by whom he has had two 
children, a son and daughter. He is a colonel in 
the Prussian army. 

The present Grand Duke (born July 8, 1827) 
married, Feb. 10, 1852, the Princess Elizabeth of 
Saxe Altenburg, fourth daughter of the late Duke 
Joseph, and sister of the Queen of Hanover and of 
the Grand Duchess Constantino of Russia. 

Their Royal Highnesses have two sons, viz., (1) 
Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke, born Nov. 16, 
1852, married, Feb. 18, 1878, the Princess Eliza- 
beth of Prussia, second daughter of the late Prince 
Frederick Charles, and sister of H.R.H. the Duchess 
of Connaught. They have an only surviving 
daughter, Sophia, born Feb. 2, 1879. (2) Duke 
George, born June 27, 1855. 

The second and youngest son of Duke Peter 
(who died May 21, 1829), George, became a 
general in the Russian army. He married his 
cousin, the Grand Duchess Catherine, fourth 
daughter of the Emperor Paul, and by her had 
two sons, Alexander and Peter, the elder of whom 
died unmarried in 1829. The younger, like his 
father, took service in the Russian army. He died 
May 14, 1881, having married the Princess Theresa 
of Nassau, second daughter cf William, late Duke 
of Nassau, and sister of the present Grand Duke of 
Luxembourg. By this princess (who died Dec. 8, 
1871) Duke Peter left three sons one of whom, 
Duke Nicholas, is since dead, and the two younger 
Dukes, Alexander and Constantino, are both married 
and have issue and two daughters, one of whom 
is the widow of the late Grand Duke Nicholas of 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. JULY w, 

Russia ; the younger, who married Duke George of 
Leuchtenberg, died April 19, 1883. 
Hence it appears 

First, that the preaent direct descendant and 
representative in the male line of Theodoric For- 
tunatus, Count of Oldenburg, the founder of this 
loyal house, is Ernest Gonther, Duke of Schles- 
wig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenberg, who is 
also the heir male of all the Kings of Denmark 
from Christian I. to Frederick VII. inclusive. 

Secondly, that Frederick Ferdinand, Duke of 
Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Gliicksburg, is the 
head of the second branch of the House of Olden- 
burg, and representative in the male line of Au- 
gustus Philip, fourth son of Duke Alexander, the 
nephew of King Frederick II., and Patriarch of the 
Schleswig Holstein line. 

Thirdly, that the present Kings of Denmark and 
Greece are members of this, the second, or Gliicks- 
burg, line of the house of Oldenburg. 

Fourthly, that His Imperial Majesty the Czar is 
descended from Adolphus, Duke of Holstein Got- 
torp (younger son of Frederick I., King of Den- 
mark), and is the heir male and representative of 
the said duke, and is the head of the third, or 
Russian, branch of the house of Oldenburg. 

Fifthly, that four of the late Kings of Sweden, 
viz., Adolphus Frederick, Gustavus III., Gus- 
tavns IV., and Charles XI II., descended from 
Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein Gottorp, great- 
grandson of Adolphus, Duke of Holstein Gottorp 

And, lastly, that upon the death of Gustavus, 
Prince of Wasa, in 1877, the representation in the 
male line of Christian Augustus, second and 
youngest son of the said Christian Albert, vested 
in his kinsman Peter, the present Grand Duke 
of Oldenburg, who is, therefore, the head of the 
fourth, or ducal, branch of that ancient and royal 

It is a curious fact that these royal personages, 
princes of the house of Oldenburg, viz., the Em- 
peror of Russia, the Kings of Denmark and Greece, 
the Grand Duke of Oldenburg, and the Dukes 
Ernest Gonther and Frederick Ferdinand of 
Schleswig Holstein, are all descended fram George 
I., King of England, and are, therefore, all related 
in some degree to our present royal family. 

According to Chiusole, Theodoric Fortunatus 
descended in a direct line from Witekind the Great, 
Duke of Saxony, and he makes Witekind the 
common ancestor of the houses of Saxony, 
Oldenburg, Monferrato, Savoy, Bourbon, and 
Brunswick ! 

In conclusion, let it be noted that both the 
Dukes of Schleswig Holstein are grand-nephews of 
Queen Victoria, the one (Duke Ernest Gonther) 
by birth, and the other (Duke Frederick Ferdi- 
nand) by marriage. 

H. MURRAY LANE, Chester Herald. 

The Times of June 22 last, after mentioning that 
the mother of the Duke of Teck was Claudine, nee 
Countess (t. e,, daughter of a count) Rhe'dey, in 
Hungary, treats its readers to the] following bit of 


" The Transylvanian family of Rhedey, from which 
the Duke of Teck is descended on the mother's side, is 
ancient and illustrious, having been founded by Abas, or 
Aba Samu, at the beginning of the eleventh century. 
This personage, who was of princely descent, married 
the sister of the famous Stephen I., ' the Saint,' the first 
King of Hungary, and on the death of that monarch 
was one of the two claimants for the throne. The 
obscure annals of the centuries that followed show the 
Counts of Rhedey as a powerful dynasty, exercising 
princely sway over a portion of Transylvania ; and in the 
terrible religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries we find them taking up with much energy the 
cause of the Reformation. The struggle between the 
Protestants and the Catholics ended, as far as the king- 
dom of Hungary was concerned, in the practical sub- 
jection of the former to the Emperor Leopold ; and from 
that time the Counts of Rhedey, deprived of their 
position as rulers, are only heard of as great nobles living 
a quiet life on their estates. The Duke of Teck's grand- 
father, the last but one of the male line, died many years 
ago, and his estates went to a cousin, on whose death, in 
1869, the Counts of Rhedey came to an end." 

I have, at the present moment, no means of 
checking the statement that the Rhedeys claim 
descent from Aba Samu, the third King of Hun- 
gary (1041-1044), as the book which I should 
have consulted on the point at the British Museum, 
has, after a peaceful slumber of probably a quarter 
of a century on the shelves in its unbound state, 
found its way to the " binders," and will, no doubt* 
remain there for some time. But so much I may 
safely assert already that though the aforemen- 
tioned annals may be obscure, they are very clear 
on the point that the Counts of Rhedey never were 
a powerful dynasty, in fact that a dynasty of 
Rhedeys is wholly unknown, and was not heard 
of till the Times discovered them.* If the historio- 
grapher attached to the Printing House Square 
establishment will pick up any trustworthy history 
of Transylvania, and glance down the list of its 
rulers, he will find that the Rhedeys are con- 
spicuous by their almost total absence from that 
list. I say "almost" because the name occurs 
just once, when old Francis Rhe'dey acted, to use 
a modern expression, as a "man of straw," be- 
tween the beginning of November, 1657 (when 
George Rakoczy II., whom English readers know 
as the patron of Dr. Basire, of Durham, dis- 
heartened by his reverses in Poland and threatened 
by the Turks, formally abdicated), and the end of 
January, 1658, when he changed his mind and 

* All that the Rhedeys can, and probably do only, claim- 
is that, as they hail and take their name from the village 
of Rhede, originally occupied by the tribe of Aba, they 
and King Stephen's brother-in-law had probably a com- 
mon ancestor. 

8. IT. JULY 15, 'J 



resumed his away over the principality. The old 
gentleman who filled the temporary vacancy was 
elected prince, but was not even sworn in, nor 
was he ever invested with the princely insignia, 
And I believe did not even receive them from his 
supreme ruler at Stambul. So soon as Kakuczy 
showed a desire to resume the government, old 
Rhe'dey voluntarily made way for him, and the 
name of his " dynasty " thenceforth disappears for 
ever from the annals of the country. Another 
Rhe'dey was thought of as a possible candidate 
at the time when " the devil put Sophia Bathory's 
good looks into Prince Apaffy's head/' and would 
have been put up as such by a faction if there had 
been a vacancy on the throne. The Rhe'deys are, 
no doubt, an illustrious family, but if such exag- 
gerated statements as those quoted at the beginning 
of this note are circulated about them, their very 
name will soon become the object of ridicule and 
cause of mirth. The tl history " has been "written 
up" evidently for some American paper, like the 
Ohio Prevaricator, where this kind of journalism is 
very much appreciated. The article states that the 
family became extinct in 1869 ; but I am almost 
sure that I met repeatedly a Count Rhe'dey at a 
friend's house in Budapest, about the time of the 
Vienna Exhibition, in 1873. L. L. K. 


(Concluded from p. 4.) 

I have now spoken of the records of the four 
principal courts of law Chancery, Exchequer, 
Queen's Bench, and Common Pleas. Besides these 
the Public Record Office includes within its walls 
the documents of the High Court of Admiralty 
and of numerous special or abolished jurisdictions. 
The Court of Admiralty is said to have been 
established in the reign of Edward III., though 
there is evidence that the Lord High Admiral 
exercised jurisdiction in all maritime affairs from 
a much earlier period; that jurisdiction is now 
exercised by the Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
The Cinque Ports are, and were, exempt from such 
jurisdiction, which in them is exercised by the 
Lord Warden. The old Court of Admiralty was 
divided into three divisions : 1. The Instance 
Court, in which were tried actions relating to sea- 
men's wages, damage to ships, salvage, &c. There 
are Act Books of this court, 1524 to 1744 ; Assigna- 
tion Books, 1673 to 1767; Libels, Decrees, &c., 
1533 to 1772 ; and Warrant Books, 1540 to 1772. 
. The Prize Court, in which are Act and Assigna- 
tion Books, 1643 to 1770 ; Examinations, 1684 to 
1783; Letters of Marque, 1624 to 1762 and during 
the American War ; and Sentence Books for much 
the same periods. 3. The Appeal Court, in which 
the records are Assignation Books, 1689 to the end 
of the American War, and Prize Papers, 1704 to 
1810. The Muniment Books are deposited in the 

Admiralty Registry at Somerset House. They 
contain the appointments of Vice- Admiral?. The 
records of the Court of Chivalry, Court Military, 
or Earl Marshal's Court, mostly belong to the 
reign of Richard II., and include the proceedings 
in the famous controversy between Scrope and 
Grosvenor. There are also a few proceedings in 
this court, during the reigns of James I. and 
Charles I., amongst the series of State Papers 
Domestic. Of documents connected with the 
Ecclesiastical Courts the Public Record Office can 
boast of few. There are some certificates of 
legitimacy and other proceedings in the Arches and 
Consistory Courts Henry HI. to Elizabeth which 
are referred to by the "slips" to the Miscellanea 
of the Exchequer Treasury of Receipt. The books 
and records of the Court of Arche?, from 1574 to the 
present time, are in the custody of the registrar of 
that court. There are Delegates' Processes from 
1629 to 1823 ; and Minute Books of the Court 
of High Commission that despotic body that 
usurped and abused powers never intended to 
be vested in it 1634 to 1636 and 1639 to 
1640; these are calendared with the State Papers 

The Marshalsea Court was originally instituted 
for administering justice between the king's 
domestic servants; eventually it took cognizance 
of all trespasses committed within a range of twelve 
miles of a royal residence. Out of this grew the 
Palace Court, with jurisdiction in all personal 
actions arising within twelve miles of Whitehall, 
but not including the City. The two courts were, 
for a time, held in King Street, Southwark ; from 
which place they were removed to Scotland Yard, 
and there they expired in 1849, their records being 
next year placed amongst the Public Records. 
There are two boxes of Pleas, uncalendared, in the 
Marshal's Court, Edward I. to Henry VI. ; 
Accounts of Fines levied therein, Edward I. to 
Elizabeth (there is a MS. calendar to these) ; and 
various proceedings in the Palace Court, Charles I. 
to 1849, of which there is an inventory in the 
Deputy Keeper's Twelfth Report (pp. 15, 16). 

The Court of the Honour of Peveril had an 
interesting history and asomewhat wide jurisdiction. 
Granted with the honour early in Edward III.'s 
reign to the Eland family, it passed in the six- 
teenth century to the Willoughby a. In 1607 the 
right of holding the court was granted by James I. 
to Sir George and Sir Edward Goring, whereupon 
Sir Percival Willoughby disputed the grant as an 
infringement of his rights. The Court of Ex- 
chequer, however, confirmed the Gorings' title. la 
1672 the court was given by Charles II. to the 
Marquis of Worcester and his two sons for their 
lives, and its jurisdiction was extended. On the 
death of the third " life," it was again obtained by 
the Willoughby family, in whom it continued till its 
abolition in 1849. Its records do not now exist 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8< s. iv. JULY 15, 

prior to 1682. There is a detailed inventory o 
those after that date in the Deputy Keeper's Six 
teenth Report (Appendix, pp. 43, 44). 

The Court of Requests, or of Conscience, was 
established in 1492, as a court of equity for poor 
men's causes, as a court in which the poor might make 
known to the king their wrongs by way of suppli 
cation, and without payment of legal fees. In this 
respect it resembled the Court of Star Chamber 
now associated in our minds only with oppression 
and extortion, but which was intended to provid 
and in its earlier days did provide protection 
to the humbler classes of society against their more 
powerful neighbours. Both these courts came into 
being about the same time, and were practically 
abolished by statute 16 Charles T. That abolition 
perhaps in both cases, certainly in one case 
was called for by the existence of the most flagrant 
abuse in administration. 

The records of the Court f Requests are very 
numerous Pleadings, Depositions, Orders, &c. 
There is a MS. calendar to a few bundles of 
pleadings for the reign of Elizabeth which shows 
how extremely important to the topographer and 
the genealogist are the matters there dealt with, 
and which, therefore, whets our appetite for the 
calendar which is "in progress." Proceedings 
other than pleadings are entirely without calendar. 
With regard to the Star Chamber records, which in 
their nature resemble the foregoing, a similar state 
of things exists. The matter they contain is equally 
important. There is an index partly in MS. and 
partly printed in the Forty-ninth Report of the 
Deputy Keeper to some of the bundles of the 
pleadings and depositions for the reigns of Henry 
VIII. and Elizabeth ; but the greater portion of 
the Star Chamber records lie stowed away without 
either calendar or index. The orders and decrees 
of the court are not known to exist. They were last 
heard of in a house in St. Bartholomew's Close, 
London ; but so far back as 1719 they could not 
be traced. 

The records of one more of these special or 
abolished jurisdictions require notice. I allude to 
those of the Court of Wards and Liveries. This 
court was instituted in 32 Henry VIII. to regulate 
inquiries taken on the deaths of the king's tenants 
inquiries by which the name and age of the next 
heir were discovered, in order that the Crown's 
claim to escheat, marriage, wardship, &c., might 
be duly made and to see that fines, compositions, 
and the like were duly enforced. Here we have, 
besides other classes, Pleadings and Depositions, 
Henry VIII. to Charles I; Affidavit Books, 
14 James I. to 21 Charles I. ; Decree Books, 15 
Elizabeth to 21 Charles I.; and Order Books, 
1 Edward VI. to 24 Charles I. The greater part 
of these records are unindexed, but there is a 
calendar to a portion of the pleadings (Miscell. 
Books, 281 to 284). The Inquisitions, some of the 

most important documents of the class, will be 
spoken of at some future time. 


heading ' Relics in a London Church ' (8 tn S. iii. 
466), H. T. quotes a paragraph from the City Press 
(date not given) anent the above church. This 
paragraph has appeared in a large number of news- 
papers, and as it is so full of errors, the vicar, the 
Rev. Dr. Kinne, has felt compelled to issue a letter 
to the press by way of correction. I have the per- 
mission of Dr. Kinns to send the following copy 
of his letter to ' N. & Q.,' taken from the City Press 
of June 3 : 

" Public attention having been called to the amalga- 
mation scheme about to take place in order to unite my 
church of Holy Trinity, Minories, with St. Botolph, 
Aldgate, a number of articles bearing the above title 
have appeared in tbe daily and other journals upon the 
subject, but which I have noticed contain several his* 
torical errors. These errors have arisen in great measure 
from the circumstance of there having been a priory 
bearing also tbe name of Holy Trinity almost within a 
stone's throw of my church, but which priory was given 
in 1531 by Henry VIII. to Sir Thomas Audley, after- 
wards Lord Chancellor, who pulled it down and built 
himself a mansion upon its site, where he lived till his 
death. The Duke of Norfolk, marrying Lord Audley's 
only daughter, inherited the estate, and as he was be- 
headed in 1572 for his communication with Mary, Queen 
of Scots, he has by some been mixed up with the Duke 
of Suffolk, of whom I shall presently speak. 

" Holy Trinity, Minories, is an historical church of a 
deeply interesting character, and dates back to 1293, 
when Queen Blanche, the widow of Henry Le Grog, 
King of Navarre, who afterwards married Edmund, 
Earl of Lancaster, brother of King Edward I., erected 1 
an abbey upon the adjacent ground. This Queen 
Blanche can be shown to have been an ancestress of our 
gracious Queen. The nuns of the abbey were of the* 
order of St. Clare, but in token of humility they assumed 
the appellation of Sororea Minores, from which circum- 
stance the abbey was called ' The Minories,' a name 
afterwards given to the street in which it stood. 

" The abbey was richly endowed by various sovereigns 
down to the time of Henry VIII., who confiscated the 
whole of the property in 1538. and gave the abbey for an 
episcopal residence to Dr. Clerk, the then Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, who was the bearer to the Pope of 
Rome of a copy of King Henry's book against Luther, 
which led to that sovereign receiving the title of ' De- 
fender of the Faith,' still used, though with a very 
different meaning. The bishop was buried in the abbey, 
)ut his remains were afterwards, for some cause, removed 
;o the vaults of St. Botolph, Aldgate. 

" Two other bishops resided in the abbey, and in the 

reign of Edward VI. it was given by Royal Letters 

Patent to Henry Grey, father of Lady Jane Grey, who 

was created Duke of Suffolk in 1551, and beheaded in 

554. It is supposed that his wife bribed the executioner 

;o bring his head to the church for burial, for the head 

now in our possession was found in 1852 in one of the 

vaults, by Lord Dartmouth, in a box filled with oaken 

awdust, which, acting as an antiseptic, has remarkably 

reserved the skin of the face, the features of which 

re thought strongly to resemble portraits of the duke. 

The abbey was afterwards given to Colonel Legge as a 

esidence. He was Groom of the Bedchamber to 

8*8. IV. JULY 15, '93.] 



Charles I., and father of the first Earl of Dai-mouth. 
The Colonel married the eldest daughter of Sir William 
Washington, of Packington, the great-granduncle of the 
renowned George Washington, and founder of the 
American Republic. The stars and stripes of the 
Washington family will be seen on the monuments in 
the church quartered with those of the Legges. The 
abbey, then called a 'mansion house,' was given by 
Charles II., after the death of Colonel Legge, to Sir 
Thomas Cbicheley, Master of the Ordnance, who, in 
1683, sold it for 4,5001. to Sir William Pritchard, the 
Lord Mayor of the time, who resided in it during his 
mayoralty. This circumstance was most probably the 
origin of the name of the Lord Mayor's present official 
residence, the building of which waa commenced in 
1738. The present church of Ho'y Trinity is not the 
one that existed during the time of the abbey, for that 
had become BO dilapidated in 1706 as to render it 
dangerous to enter. It was therefore taken down and 
rebuilt, with the exception of the north wall, upon which 
the chief monuments are placed. Lady Pritchard, 
widow of the Lord Mayor just mentioned, gave 100J. 
towards the re-erection. The reredoe is a very fine 
piece of oak earring, as also are the rails of the pulpit 
and other portions of the church. The communion 
plate consists of no less than thirteen nieces, the flagons, 
the gift of Colonel Legge, before mentioned, being very 
handsome and massive one of the cups bears the date 
of 1699. 

"In reference to the amalgamation, I was at first 
greatly opposed to the scheme, and wrote a little history 
of the church, in order to raise funds for its restoration, 
when the Charity Commissioners came down upon us and 
confiscated that portion of the church property which was 
devoted by the churchwardens to the maintenance of 
public worship, leaving them only 131. a year to pay the 
salaries of organist, pew-opener, and bellringer, as well 
as the cost of fire insurance, repairs, gas, coal, water, &c. 
Also they seized funds for giving every Christmas all the 
poor widows living in the pariah 5s., accompanied with 
coal and bread tickets. This unrighteous impoverish- 
ment of the church led me to consent to the amalgama- 
tion scheme now about to take place ; but I shall leave 
my parish and people with much regret." 


Holmby House, Forest Gate. 

[See 8 th 8. iii. 499.] 

Mr. Thomas Hardy's series of tales entitled ' A 
Group of Noble Dames ' will be specially interested 
in the following extract from the Times of June 10, 
1826, which somewhat resembles the leading motive 
of one of them : 

" Taking Time by the Forelock. Catherine Tudor at 
the funeral of her first husband (John Salusbury) was 
led to church by Sir Richard Clough, and from church 
by Morris Wynn, of Gwedir, who whispered to her his 
wish of being her second. She refused him civilly, and 
informed him that she had accepted the proposals of Sir 

Richard Clough, in her way to church, but assured him 
that if she buried Sir Richard he might depend on being 
her third; which really was the case. The Mirror:' 

It is not the lot of many titled ladies to have 
three husbands, but one of the most brilliant 
women of her generation, Frances, Countess Walde- 
grave, had four, and the fourth still lives. Frances 
Elizabeth Anne, daughter of John Braham, the 
great singer, was married in succession to John 

James Henry Waldegrave, of Navestock, Essex ; 
George Edmund, seventh Earl of Waldegrave ; 
George Granville Harcourt, M.P.; and Chichester 
Samuel, Baren Carlingford. 


"SMATTER"= SPATTER. In the daily reports 
of the interesting Lizzie Borden murder trial, 
recently held in Massachusetts, I notice the peculiar 
use of the words smatter, smattering, and si/nattered 
in reference to splashes of blood. The verb to 
smatter is distinctly and repeatedly used by the 
prosecuting attorney and by one medical witness 
as synonymous with the verbs to spatter and to 
splatter. It is not a stenographies! or typographical 
error, for both of the latter are also used. 

E. P. K. 

Brooklyn, N.Y. 

ANGIO-CYMRIC SCORE. Mr. W. A Willoughby 
has furnished me with two hitherto unpublished 
specimens of this score. The first is from West 
Durham, and is as follows: Yan, tan, tethera, 
methera, pipse, saizar, laizar, cathera, duke, jethra. 
The second, from the district of Yarmouth, he gives 
as : Ina, mina, tethera, methera, pin, sithra, lithra, 
cothra, hothra, die, inadic, &c., to metheradic, bof, 
inabof, &c., to methrabof, jikt. Both series may be 
compared with the useful list of scores given by Mr. 
W. Herbert Smith in his * Walks in Weardale ' 
(Durham, 1885), pp. 87-93. E. SIBREB. 

[See 6t S. xi. 206, 336, 472.] 

THOMAS HOOD (1799-1845), POET. The an- 
nexed entry appears in the London Magazine, 
June, 1825, New Series, vol. ii. p. 317 : 

' May 5. At St. Botolph's, Al dersgate, Thomas Hood, 
Esq., of Islington, to Jane, eldest daughter of Rey- 
nolds, Esq , of Christ's Hospital." 

This note will serve to correct the date (May 5, 
1824) for Hood's marriage appearing in ' Diet. Nat. 
Biog.,' voL xxvii. p. 271. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

CHESS. It is commonly thought that the strong 
feeling which the seventeenth century Puritans 
manifested against games of chance and skill was a 
new departure, which cannot be traced back to 
those who were in opposition to the Roman Pontiffs 
in earlier times. We have recently come upon a 
letter written by John Huss in 1416, in which he 
laments having played at chess. We extract the 
passage as given in Foxe's 'Acts and Monu- 

" You know how, before my priesthood (which grieveth 
me now), I have delighted to play oftentimes at chess, 
and have neglected my time, and have unhappily pro- 
voked both myself and others to anger many times by 
that play. Wherefore, besides other my innumerable 
faults, for this also I desire you to invocate the mercy 
of the Lord, that he will pardon me." Edit. 1855, 
vol. iii. p. 510. 

N. M. & A. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [s s. iv. Jo 15, -93. 

BOURBON MARRIAGES. In the course of the 
last and present centuries there have been one 
hundred and nineteen marriages in the family of 
Bourbon. This includes the original stock (ex- 
tinct with the Count of Chambord), the branches 
of Orleans, Spain, Naples, and Parma, those of 
Oonde" and Conti, and also the illegitimate descend- 
ants of Henry IV. and Louis XIV., the last four 
also now extinct. Of these one hundred and nine- 
teen marriages, thirty-seven have been consan- 
guineous, eighty-two not so. As it is, the pro- 
portion is very nearly one-third ; but it must be 
raised higher, for I have been unable to reckon 
accurately those marriages which were consan- 
guineous through female descent. I estimate them 
at six or eight ; but say six, and the numbers are 
forty-three to seventy-six, and the proportion is 
above a third. What a light this large proportion 
throws on the decline of the family ! 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

EPITAPH. In the churchyard of Roxburgh, 
there is a stone bearing the following short but ex- 
pressive inscription : 

Here lies Robert Cairns 
With two wives and fourteen bairns. 

The same burial ground contains a stone of some 
interest to those who have followed the adventures 
of the immortal Oldbuck. One side bears this 
inscription : " The body of the Gentleman Beggar 
Andrew Gemmels, alias Edie Ochiltree, was in- 
terred here, who died at Roxburgh Newtown in 
1793, aged 106 years." On the other side is 
carved a figure of an old man holding in his out- 
stretched left hand a meal bag, in his right a stick. 
At his feet is the figure of a dog, and at the top are 
the words, " Behold ! the end o't." 

W. K W. 

DINNER CARDS. The following extract from 
the London Chronicle for March 28-30, 1758, 
p. 298, will interest the readers of N. & Q.': 

" The entertainment given by tbe Lord Mayor at the 
Mansion House on Monday last was the most magnificent 

that ever was known The dinner was conducted with 

greater decorum than ever was known, which was owing 
to a new method of inviting the company by cards ex* 
pressing the name of the person that each was to intro- 
duce, and there were no more invited than the Egyptian 
Hall could conveniently hold." 



'THE BOTTLE IMP.' Mr. R. L. Stevenson 
acknowledges his indebtedness to a play of 0. 
Smith's for the idea of his story so called, but does 
not refer to the source from which Smith doubt- 
less got it, a romance of La Motte Fouque's, a 
translation of which is given in Roscoe's " German 
Novelists" under the title of 'The Mandrake.' 
The romance is founded upon an old tradition 

embodying a very wide-spread superstition, for an 
account of which see Folkard's 'Plant Lore' 
(pp. 427-8). Mr. Stevenson expresses a hope that 
he has made " a new thing " of the story. Cer- 
tainly he has, as any one may see by referring to 
the German romance. He has sacrificed some- 
thing of its horrible fascination, but on the other 
hand he has made it beautiful. 

Speaking of the mandrake, it is not many 
years since I was asked, as one known to be 
interested in such matters, to assist at the digging 
up of a plant of this kind which had been found 
growing in a neighbour's field. Of course the 
supposed "mandrake" was a white bryony, after 
all. 0. C. B. 

Bale, I think, who, in writing of the destruction of 
the monasteries, gives us an account of the lament- 
able fate of their books how whole tons were 
sold to tradesmen to wrap their wares in. But 
one does not expect, in this latter part of the nine- 
teenth century, to find, in a country town not 
twenty miles from London, large quantities of a 
most valuable standard work of topographical 
reference, published about ten years ago, to sub- 
scribers only, at a guinea (and even now only pro- 
curable for a little less second hand), being used to 
wrap fish or fruit in ; and to learn on inquiry that 
the purchaser of the sheets had over a hundred- 
weight of the work in question at one time in his 

One does not, perhaps, so much object to the 
destruction of the unsold copies of the work from 
an . s. d. point of view, as one's own copy be- 
comes thereby the more valuable ; but one does ask 
that a high-class and reputable firm of publishers, 
to whom the difference of selling to a paper-mill to 
be pulped, and selling to a shopkeeper to wrap his 
goods in, cannot mean more than the difference of 
a few shillings, be looked to to have the good taste 
to adopt the former expedient. One might 
question whether they are acting quite fairly to 
their clients, the society under whose auspices the 
work was published. True, it may occur that the 
society might have ordered the sale ; but one 
scarcely conceives this possible. It would wreck 
almost any society were such a fact known. 

As a memento of what nineteenth century pub- 
lishers are capable, I am treasuring a sheet of 
the work in question, a primd facie evidence of 
the truth of my narrative. W. B. GERISH. 

VANDALISM AT ST. PAUL'S. It is outside my 
cognizance if any reference to this has appeared in 
1 N. & Q.,' and this is the reason why I copy ver- 
batim from Science Sif tings, June 17, the ensuing 
note : 

"We have been watching with interest tbe recent 
operations in the clock tower of St. Paul's Cathedral. It 
is a bad piece of vandalism that baa led to the removal of 

8*8.iv.juiYi5,'9s.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


this clock and the substitution of a modern tower-clod 
for it. According to the City Press, the old clock was pu 
up by Langley Bradley in 1708, is in splendid condition 
and might, to all appearance, go on for another two cen 
turies without failing to bear accurate record of th 
passing time. It is a grand old clock, remarkable for th 
magnitude of its wheels and the fineness of its works 
It cost 3002. to build. Its two dial-plates are 51 feet in 
circumference, and the hour numerals 2 feet 2 inche 
in height. The minute hands are 9 feet 8 inches long 
and weigh 75 Ib. each, and the hour hands are 5 fee 
9 inches long, and weigh 44 Ib. each . The pendulum ii 
16 feet long. It is an eight-day clook, striking the houi 
on the great bell, which is suspended about 40 feet from 
the floor. The head of the hammer weighs 145 Ib. am 
the clapper 180 Ib. Think of a machine like this run- 
ning night and day for two hundred years, and still in 
fine working order ! One would suppose the customary 
reverence for ancient things in England might save the 
degradation that awaits this masterpiece of the horo logic 
art, around which cluster so many historical, poetical 
and literary associations." 

Wolsingham, co. Durham. 

REV. WEEDEN BUTLER, Jutf. (1773-1831), 
AUTHOR. It may be noted, as an addition to the 
account of him appearing in ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' 
vol. viii. p. 89, that his marriage is thus recorded 
in the Gentleman's Magazine, August, 1805, 
vol. Ixxv. pirt ii. p. 773 : 

"Aug. 26. At the parish-church of Chislehurst, co. 
Kent (by the Kev. Weeden Butler, sen. chaplain to his 
Royal Highness the Duke of Kent), the Rev. Weeden 
Butler, jun. M. A. of Chelsea, co. Middlesex, bachelor, to 
Miss Annabella Dundass Oswald, niece of William Kyn- 
nier, eeq. of Place-green, near Sidcup, in the parish of 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 


FOLK-LORE OF CRIMINALS. I send a cutting 
from the City Press of May 31, which deserves to 
be embalmed in N. & Q.': 
" The criminal is a strong believer in the supernatural 
the efficacy of certain ghastly charms and in- 
cantations. The carrying of 'a dead man's hand,' for 
instance, taken from one who has died a violent death, 
is supposed to overpower with sleep those who come 
under its influence. Many stories are told of the use of 
the dead hand by thieves. In a case of attempted rob- 
bery on an estate in the county of Meath, it is said the 
iurglars ' entered the house armed with a dead man'g 
hand, with a lighted candle in it, believing that a candle 
placed will not be seen by any but those by whom it 
IB used ; and also that if a candle in a dead man's band 
ntroduced into a house, it will prevent those who 
nay be asleep from awakening. The inmates, however, 
re alarmed, the robbers fled, leaving the dead band 
them.' Then there is the corpse candle, a wierd 
implement of the robber's trade, which seems to have 
een more general in Germany than in any other country, 
id various odd talismans and charms, such as coal, 
ilk, lucky stones, rings, and rusty horseshoe nails. 
Kelymg on such articles for his safety in the moment 
jril, the criminal parts with them most reluctantly, 
often stipulates with the turnkey for their return to 
Q on his liberation from prison." 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

11 DACTYL." Worcester's * Dictionary' (1846) 
has the verb " Dactyl, to run nimbly, to bound," 
attributed to Ben Jons on ; this is transferred 
(without acknowledgment to Worcester) into sub- 
sequent dictionaries (Cassell's, Annandale's, Cen- 
tury). I shall be obliged to any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
who can tell me where Ben Jonson uses this verb. 


" DADD ": " DADDA." With the accent on the 
first syllable this is a common nursery word for 
father, used by young children (akin to dad and 
daddy); but when in Ireland some years ago I 
heard, in Belfast or its neighbourhood, dado! with 
the stress on the second a, rhyming with papa, used 
by grown-up young ladies of the middle class to 
their father, just as papa is (or used to be) em- 
ployed elsewhere. I have also in London heard a 
young lady of eighteen or so (I think born in the 
north country) say, " I will tell my da that yon 
called," where I should have expected pa. Will 
readers of * N. & Q.' say what they know of the 
local diffusion of these forms dada' and da ? Dad, 
da'dda, da'ddy, not wanted. 


" TA-TA." I should also be glad of any facts as 
;o the age of this childish formula of saying good- 
>ye. I find that no example of it has been sent in 
>y the readers for the Philological Society's ' Die- 
ion ary ' of earlier date than ' Pickwick,' where 
we have " Tar, tar, Sammy ! " The expression 
must be much earlier ; but it is, of course, one of 
kind for which written evidence is rather diffi- 
cult to find. And in earlier times the form seems 
to have been da, da, as I find it in Otway's ' Sol- 
tier's Fortune' of 1681, and in the Hampton Court 
Miscellany of 1733. Facts as to the mutual relation 
f da, da and ta, ta are much desiderated. The 
nursery "go a ta-ta" is, I suppose, the same word; 
ut ta thank you, appears to be distinct; it occurs 
n a letter of Mary Granville (Mrs. Delany) of 
772. I suppose nobody has yet studied the his- 
tory of nursery language, which may be recom- 
mended to those in search of a field for " original 
work." J. A. H. MURRAY. 

Times, July 6, that the Right Hon. the Lord 
Mayor of London, in proposing the health of the 
Archbishops and Bishops at the banquet at the 
Mansion House, is reported to have said that His 
Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury had accepted 



IV. JULY 15, 

the invitation before the death of his brother, and, 
in accordance with archiepiscopal etiquette, that 
involved the absence of the Archbishop of York. 
It would be interesting to have this point of 
etiquette explained. W. D. PARISH. 

REV. THOMAS GARRATT, M.A. I should be 
obliged if any of your readers could give me infor- 
mation about the life and writings of the Rev. 
Thomas Garratt, M.A., who was a native, I believe, 
of the village of Baddesley-Eusor, and in the latter 
part of his life Vicar of Dudley. I have seen frag- 
ments of his poetical writings, but understand that 
be published several works in prose and verse. 



Stuart, of the Spalding Club, was in possession of 
a strip of parchment (1 ft. broad by 12 ft. long), 
upon which was represented in colours the funeral 
procession of one of the Earls of Huntly. Could 
any reader inform me where this painting now is ? 
Address direct. D. MDKRAY ROSE. 

5, Harpur Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

ton's * History of Whitby,' pp. 306, 307, is given 
at full length the text of a terrible curse said to 
have been thundered by " the Pope" against Thomas 
Chaloner, of Guisborough, and his associates, 
who had stolen the secret of the manufacture of 
alum from the papal works. The original is ascribed 
to " the Ledger Book of the church of Rochester 
now [1779] in the custody of the Dean and Chapter 
there." Is it still in existence ? ST. S WITHIN. 


HYNM." I am exceedingly puzzled to find all three 
forms of spelling in English literature. The first 
I take to be the form prescribed by Swift himself, 
and this I have given to my little publication; 
the second occurs in a letter of Gay to Swift 
about the time * Gulliver's Travels' were pub- 
lished ; while the third I have just met with 
in the Spirit of the Public Journals for 1808, 
where it appears as signature to an epigrammatic 
ode, entitled * The Horse and his Rider.' I should 
be exceedingly obliged if any reader of 'N. & Q.' 
would kindly afford me information about these 
three modes of spelling what I think all will con- 
fess to be a very extraordinary word. The correct 
pronunciation of the word " Houyhnhnm " I have 
always understood to be Uhinirn ; but I am also 
desirous of information upon that head. 


COATS OF ARMS. Could any of your readers 
give me the names of the following coats ? 

1. A chevron engrailed between three roundles; 
on a chief a lion passant between two crosses 
croslet fitchce. 

2. Gu,, on a fess wavy, between in chief two 

garb*, and in base as many anchors in saltire or, 
a lion passant sa. between two roses of the first, 
impaling barry of ten, arg. and az., six shields sa. 
(three, two, and one), each charged with a lion 
rampant arg., a border wavy or. 


ED. CORBETT, Fellow of Merton College, in 
Oxford, author of a sermon entitled * God's Pro- 
vidence,' " preached before the House of Commons 
at their late Solemn Fast, Dec. 28, 1642." He is 
said to have been of Winchester. What was his 
connexion with Hampshire ? VICAR. 

DR. WING. This person lived at Beaufort 
House, North End, where, I believe, he had insane 
patients. Any facts regarding Dr. Wing, or 
reference to such, would greatly oblige if sent 
direct. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

SKOPTS. Who are the Skopts ? * With the 
Immortals,' vol. ii. p. 58, we read, " Look at the 
Mormons, the Skopts, the Shakers, the Howling 
Dervishes, the Theosophists, and the Fakirs." 

[Probably a Russian sect called Skoptzi, who mutilate 
themselves in a terrible way. ] 

inform me in what public office the records of this 
society are to be found ? It was founded in 1691, 
and was wound up by an order of the then Master 
of the Rolls in or about 1758. The estates of the 
society were probably sold and the proprietors 
paid out. I desire particularly to know the date 
of the last payments of capital made to the owners 
of the shares in the society. W. H. 

the Catalogue of the Lansdowne MSS. there is, 

L70, No. 174, "25. A Discourse by Antony 
re [?], Esq., concerning the premunire brought 
against Serjeant More and others for the pro- 
secution of a cause in Chancery after judgment 
given thereon at Common Law, Fo. 208." Was this 
the great Sir Thomas More, afterwards Chancellor 
temp. Henry VIII.? Who are the "others"? 
What was the date of this prosecution ; and the 
result? C. E. P. 

Baltimore, U.S. 

STARTLING ASSERTIONS. Is it scientifically 
credible that a candle (presumably of wax), as used 
in a country manor house in the latter decade of 
the sixteenth century, would moulder away in the 
course of fifty years, the room in which was the 
sconce holding it having been shut up during that 
period ? Also, did the tinder of that period of our 
history ever flame with a sudden light, on coming in 
contact with a spark from the flint and steel ? Yet 
such is the description which " Edna Lyall " gives 

. IV. JULY 15, '93.] 



in one of the chapters of her new novel ' To Righ 
the Wrong,' now being published in Good Words 
The following is the passage (Good Words, Febru 
ary, p. 87). One of the characters, Joscelyn, has 
been by his father's orders locked up in th 
haunted room, whose windows have been bar 
ricaded for the previous fifty years, and the narra 
tive runs : 

" An overmastering desire for light possessed him 
He thought of the sconce beside the bed, but the re 
mains of the candle had long ago mouldered away 

Then he remembered that a tinder box had stood clos 

by it [he] seized the box, and drawingforth the flin 

and steel struck them with desperate energy. The tinde 

dared up At the sudden light they [the bats] disperse* 

with shrill screams, &c." 

W. S. B. H. 

IRISH CATHEDRALS. With all her peerless 
natural beauties, fine cities, and magnificent in 
atitutions, the sister isle cannot come within mea 
surable distance of Great Britain in the matter 
of cathedrals, either in ruins or in actual use 
Monastic ruins, the splendour of which attest their 
former grandeur, abound from Mizen Head to 
Malin Head, but of cathedral?, never a one that is 
fit to parallel with those of Lincoln, York, Exeter, 
or Canterbury, not to mention scores of others. 
Monasterboice and Mellifont, with many others, 
rival the architectural magnificence of the proudest 
of Britain's crumbling monasteries, but Erin's 
cathedrals (ancient or modern, Catholic or Pro- 
testant) will hardly compare favourably with her 
ordinary parish churches. Cork and Dublin, I am 
aware, possess noble episcopal fanes, but they can- 
not for a moment hold their own beside Lincoln 
or York Minsters. As for Lisburn (so called) 
Cathedral, notwithstanding its handsome octa- 
gonal spire and its pretty carved oak episcopal 
throne, it has fewer pretensions (beyond the will of 
Charles I.) to cathedral dignity than that in Cotton- 
opolis, which is little more than an enlarged parish 
church. Comparisons, I am mindful, are odious, 
but I am respectfully bringing the subject to the 
surface with a view to discuss its raison d'etre. 

I have long been puzzled how to account for the 
yawning gulf that exists between Irish and British 
cathedrals. Bishops were as likely as abbots to 
look after the beauty of their fabrics, and Norman 
architectural genius was as plentiful in Ireland as 
inEngland. Why, then, the marked contrast between 
the cathedrals of the two countries 1 Internecine 
wais, frequent invasions, and national poverty had 
doubtless much to do with it ; but in spite of all 
such difficulties abbots succeeded where bishops 
failed. The reason lies hidden somewhere, and may 
be hard and far to seek ; where is it 1 

J. B. S. 


" SOUL-CAKING." A few years ago, when living 
in Cheshire, the youths used to dress up (some in 

women's clothes) and go to the houses on All Saints' 
Day, and sing for money. It was called " soul- 
caking." Was this custom the survival of a reli- 
gious play ; or the asking of alms for masses for 
the dead, to be said on All Souls' Day ? Very 
little notice was taken of Nov. 5 in that part. 



your readers tell me of any institution in London 
or the provinces where the latest English and 
foreign scientific magazines and reviews may be 
seen as issued, and where they are also filed 1 I 
desire to refer especially to magazines and reviews 
dealing with electricity, chemistry, and mechanical 
engineering. Q. V. 

[The Eoyal Institution, Albemarle Street, receives 
most of the scientific reviews, English and Foreign. ] 

autograph letter of the Earl of Beaconsfield, which 
runs as follows : 

June 3rd, Carlton, 4 o'Clock. 

Mr DEAR SIR, I have left a packet for you at 
Grosvenor Gate with Mrs. Disraeli. In future always 
send a line with the messenger as a check, or we may be 
played a trick some day. Alter in the leader " sarcasms 
meagre and barren as the Steppes " to " sarcasms drear 
and barren," &c. I have left you a thickiah packet two 
articles. Yours, D. 

I have reason to believe that the letter was 
written in the year 1853, and it is evident from its 
contents that Mr. Disraeli was at the time a writer 
of leading articles in the press. Can any of your 
readers inform me to whom the letter can have 
been addressed, and what newspaper is referred to) 

9. Mareafield Gardens, Hampstead, N.W. 

"A SNICK- A-SNEE." It is recorded in the 

Annual Register' (p. 127) that : 

" About August 18th, 1760, near High Wycomb, Bucks, 

a coachman stopped the carriage, violently pulled the 

ady out of her place, and with a snick-a-snee stabbed 

ler several times in her body She expired three days 


What sort of an instrument was this 1 

W. P. 

[More properly " snikker-snee," a large clasp knife. 
t is mentioned in Thackeray's ballad of ' Little Billee.'J 

BISHOP WHITE KENNETT. In the Folkestone 
'arish Church Register I find the following entry 
n the list of burials: "1743. July 9. Dorcas 
Bennett, widow." Would this not be the third 
wife, and widow, of the Bishop of Peterborough ? 

CHARLES MERCY. Can any of your readers 
ive me information concerning Charles Mercy 

physician at the Court of Louis XIV., who is 
opposed to have married a natural daughter of 
he king B. V. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. JULY 15, '93. 

(8">S. iii. 427,497.) 

Leopold, the Duke of Austria, who was present 
at Acre, and who died in 1194, was of the old 
Babenberg line, which became extinct, so far as 
males are concerned, in his grandson, Frederick 
the Warlike, who died in 1246. The arms now 
borne for that line, under the name of " Austria- 
ancient,' 1 in the ' Ecu Complet ' of the Imperial 
House of Austria, are : Azure, five larks (otherwise 
eaglets) displayed or ; while the modern coat of 
Austria is : Gules, a fess argent Without going 
back to classical times for the asserted origin of 
the coat used for Austria-ancient, there is no doubt 
that it has for centuries bad a very high place as- 
signed to it by Austrian princes; e.g., it occupies the 
first place among the quarterings of the Archduke 
Maximilian, husband of Mary of Burgundy, upon 
all his seals until his election as king of the 
Romans. It appears on a separate escutcheon, 
surmounted by the archdncal coronet, upon the 
seals of his son Philip ; and it occupies a con- 
spicuous place on the early seals of the Emperor 
Charles V. It is, I think, therefore, not impossible 
that it may have been the banner that waved at 
Acre as to which inquiry is made. I am, how- 
ever, bound to confess that this is very doubtful ; 
und I will only go so far as to say that in any case 
we may be pretty certain that the arms of Austria- 
modern, Gules, a fess argent, did not appear on 
the banner which Richard Cceur de Lion treated 
so ignominiously. 

Unfortunately, there is no seal of that early date 
on which the coat now known on the Continent 
(and I hope also to some of the readers of my book 
in this country) as " Austria-ancient " appears. 

There was, however, another bearing which the 
Markgraves and Dukes of Austria undoubtedly 
bore from a very early period, namely, the eagle 
displayed. Indeed, as I have already stated in the 
book referred to, 

"the earliest appearance of the eagle as a heraldic 
charge which has come under my notice is afforded by 
the great seal of the Markgrave Leopold of Austria in 
1136 ; on it the mounted figure of the Markgrave bears 
a shield charged with the eagle displayed." 

This Leopold was the uncle of the Leopold, Duke 
of Austria, present at Acre. I have not Her- 
gott's 'Monumenta Austriaca' at hand for 
reference, and do not know if it gives a copy 
of his seal ; but as Duke Leopold, son of 
Richard's opponent, also used the same, we are 
warranted in supposing that its bearing was con- 
tinuous. This Duke Leopold, in a charter granted 
to the abbey of Mb'lk between the years 1199 and 
1203, is represented mounted, bearing shield and 
banner. The bearings on the banner borne by 
the duke (if any were depicted) are no longer to 

be deciphered, but on his shield there stands out 
very clearly not the "Stier" of Styria, but the 
eagle displayed. The legend is " Livpoldvs. dei. 
gracia. dvx. avst[r]ie. ac. stirie." It therefore is 
possible, nay, exceedingly probable, that it was this 
eagle-charged banner that Richard threw down. 
(Those who are not acquainted with what I have 
elsewhere written on the subject may need to be 
told that the single-headed eagle of the German 
kingdom was used also by the princes who held 
the Marches of the Empire.) After 1204 up to 
1212 Leopold used another seal (which I suppose 
to be the one referred to by L. L. K.) ; on it the 
banner is uncharged, or not to be deciphered, and 
the shield bears the "stier" of Styria. This 
" stier" is not, and never has been (as L. L. K. 
calls it), a lion. It is now blazoned as " a pan- 
ther, or griffin without wings," rampant argent, 
and inflamed at the mouth and ears proper. It 
was originally nothing more than a steer, or ox, 
assumed as the armes parlantes of the district 
occupied by the Taurisci, in German stierer or 
steirer. The ignorance of painters and official 
heralds seems to be answerable for its conversion 
into a panther inflamed ; they mistook the long 
horns of the steer for flames issuing from its ears. 
We are able to trace the process. In Siebmacher's 
'Wappenbuch' (iv. 2) the "flames" are not 
marked roth, and might well be meant only for 
hair. In the fourteenth century, 'Wappenrolle 
von Zurich' (taf. i., No. 20), the beast in the 
arms is distinctly horned, and the crest is a demi- 
steer horned, and not "inflamed," though both 
tongue and claws are painted gules. Duke Leo- 
pold's seal in 1217 bears his mounted effigy ; the 
eagle displayed is upon the shield, the "stier" 
upon the banner of the lance. Another seal in 
1227 has the eagle on both banner and shield. 
I know of a seal of Frederick in 1231 where his 
shield bears " Austria-modern," and this is, I think, 
the first instance of its use. 


GUTTA-PERCHA (8 tb S. iii. 468). This substance 
is eminently adapted under pressure and a raised 
temperature to receive and retain the finest work 
of the seal or mould. But as to its retentive 
power being equal to that of wax, I should like 
first to be informed whether beeswax or sealing- 
wax is meant ; and what is the oldest date of wax 
seals retaining their impression sharply and dis- 

Gutta-percha is regarded by Nature as one of 
those dead samples of organic matter that must 
be got rid of, so that its ultimate atoms may be 
used over again in the building up of living or- 
ganisms. In the execution of this scheme, Nature 
employs a great variety of agents, some of which 
will readily occur to the reader. In the case of 

8">S. IV. JULY 15, 'i3.] 



dead vegetable matter, exposure to air, light, and 
moisture is often sufficient for its disintegration. 
We endeavour to defeat her object by covering 
our woodwork with paint or varnish, or by 
excluding it from air, light, and moisture. Piles 
driven into the bed of a lake, or into peat moss, 
where the oxygen of the air cannot reach them, or 
rather where the germs of microscopic plants and 
animals diffused through the air cannot get at 
them, may last for thousands of years. Perfect 
drynesss is another safeguard. Thus wood has 
been preserved in Egyptian tombs during three 
thousand years. A low temperature also opposes 
change. Thus the body of a mammoth encased in 
Siberian ice extends far back into geological time. 

Gutta-percha is a pure hydro-carbon, isomeric 
with oil of turpentine but it becomes greatly 
modified in its composition by contact with the 
air. Even while being drawn out from the living 
tree it is seized on by the oxygen of the air, and 
thus the first step towards its destruction has been 
already taken. 

When gutta-percha is exposed to the air in thin 
sheets or threads, at temperatures from 70 to 80 
R, a peculiar change takes place, more or less 
rapidly, whereby it loses flexibility, tenacity, and 
extensibility in fact all industrial value. Such 
deterioration is most likely to take place in a 
tropical climate, a striking example of which 
occurred during the construction of the East Indian 
telegraph, when very large quantities of gutta- 
percha became reduced to a brown brittle mass, 
and so becoming useless, occasioned great pecu- 
niary loss. It was found on examination that the 
change was due to oxidation. 

Gutta-percha in sheets immersed in linseed oil, 
Stockholm tar, and coal tar, during nine months, 
remained unchanged so far as regarded the im- 
mersed portion, which was thus shielded from the 
action of light and of the air ; but the parts that 
projected out of the liquids become rotten, brittle, 
and useless. 

With respect to the duration of the gutta-percha 
impressions, about which A. inquires, my opinion is 
that if kept from the light in a dry atmosphere 
they will remain unchanged for a very considerable 
time, probably as long as the impressions in wax. 
Gutta-percha has been used in ornamental mould- 
ings, but I have not seen any report as to their 
durability. 0. TOMLINSON, F.R.S. 

iil 488). The only allusions to Fleet Street found 
in Boswell are the following : 

< wi? t&lked of the cheerfulne 8 f F1 eet Street. Johnson : 

Why, Sir, Fleet Street has a very animated appearance ; 

but I think the full tide of human existence is at Charing 


" As we walked to St. Clement's Church, I again 
remarked that Fleet Street was the most cheerful scene 

in the world. ' Fleet Street,' said I, ' ia in my mind more 
delightful than TempeV Johnson : ' Ay, Sir, but let i4 
be compared with Mull ! ' " 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

ALTAR (8 th S. iii. 168, 254, 397). As MR. 
G. L. FENTON has been permitted to make a state- 
ment as to the altar being "a place of sacrifice," 
I trust, in common fairness, that I may be allowed 
to cite a legal decision the other way. In the 
case of Sheppard v. Bennett the legality of the 
term " sacrifice " came before Sir Robert Philli- 
more, as official Principal of the Arches Court of 
Canterbury. He examines at p. 100 of the 
'Judgment,' edited by the present Sir Walter 
G. F. Phillimore, Lond., 1871, the judgment of the 
Privy Council in the case of Liddell v. Westerton, 
which was supposed to have established that the use 
of the term was unlawful, and he concludes that it 
has no such effect for various reasons, among them 
for this, that "the lawfulness of the term had 
never been raised in the argument, and a decision 
upon it was not necessary for the cause." The 
point was not argued. And accordingly the 
1 Judgment ' concludes as follows : " With respect 
to the other charges namely, those relating to 
Sacrifice and Worship I pronounce that Mr. Ben- 
nett has not exceeded the liberty which the law 
allows upon these subjects." As this is an ecclesi- 
astical cause it follows that there is avast amount of 
reference to authorities. I observe that no contri- 
butor refers to the frequent use of " altar" in the 
first Prayer Book of Edward VI. 


Another use of the word, now little known, but 
once common, was in the phrase " family altar," a 
curious one, as meaning no material object whatever, 
but simply the habit or custom of household prayer^ 
A master of a house beginning this was said to 
"set up the family altar"; a guest asked to take 
part was asked to "join our family altar." 
remember a line of an old hymn by Marianne 
Hearn (who as a Baptist would abjure the word in 
its proper sense), 

Where prayer from the family altar ascends. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

It may be interesting to note, as a supplement ta 
the contributions of your several correspondents on 
this head, that the following words occur in the 
Coronation Office of King James and Queen Anne, 
July 25, 1603, Laud being at that time a young 
M.A., expecting to be a Pro-proctor the next year: 

" The King and Queene descend from theire thrones, 
and going to the Altar theare offer," &c. 
And again : 

"The King and Queene come to the steps of the 
Altar, there to receaue the holy Sacrament. The Arch- 
bishop ministreth y body, the Abott the Cupp." 
Note that the dean is spoken of by his old title. I 


NOTES AND QUERIES. cs*s.i V.JULY 15/93. 

have not the Offices for the previous coronations ; 
bat inasmuch as the old Latin service was used in 
every case, it is certain that the holy table was 
called also, by authority, the altar in Queen 
Elizabeth's time as well as in King Edward's. 

St. Dunstan'a, Regent's Park. 

RHYME ON CALVINISM (8 th S. iii. 428, 475). 
As the following not very reverential lines bear a 
close resemblance to those quoted by MR. FLEMING, 
I venture to submit them. They appeared in a 
defunct London paper, Oct. 21, 1882 : 
If I do aot accept the Bible as true, 
I '11 be damned, and yet I '11 be damned if I do ! 

I have failed to trace the verses sought. 

S. J. A. F. 

The verse quoted by MR. FLEMING is to be 
found in 'The Billy Bray Series of Theological 
Rubbish/ published by the Christian Tract Society. 
Also, see the Rev. William M. Bailey's (an eccen- 
tric Evangelical Arminian preacher, sometime 
stationed at the Isle of Wight) doctrinal system 
entitled 'Chain of Reasons and Reflections/ in 
which the Calvinistic dogmas are discussed. 


Wolsingham, co. Durham. 

(8 tb S. iii. 267, 396, 469). In 1876 I was asked 
on behalf of ' Old and New London ' for any scraps 
of information I possessed with regard to Padding- 
ton and its neighbourhood. They were but few, 
but included some particulars of Mrs. Siddons and 
her home on Westbourne Green. I mention it 
lest I should be thought to plagiarize. 

The house or cottage, which Incledon the singer 
calls "a charming place in the Edgware Road," 
was situated on Westbourne Green, an open space 
in Harrow Road nearly opposite the Lock Hospital, 
commanding from the rear an almost unbroken 
view of Hampatead and the Highgate hills. Hogg, 
the amateur florist, who quotes the classics and is 
careful to tell us that he was not brought up to the 
business, was then living on Paddington Green, 
and from him I learn that Mrs. Siddons'a house 
stood within a belt of trees and shrubs, which 
included a flower garden of which she was very 
fond a taste shared by her brother John. Like 
Lord Bacon, she approved of planting pinks, carna- 
tions, double violets, &c., in masses, not only to 
concentrate their beauty, but, as Hogg writes, 
"because you have their perfume so concentrated 
that it is not lost in air, but powerfully inhaled 
when yon approach them." One of Mrs. Siddons's 

" flowers was the pansy or common viola amoena, which 
she set with unsparing profusion all round her garden. 
Her great and constant call for this flower every spring, 
to keep the purple bordering complete, induced the 
gardeners in the neighbourhood to give the name of Miss 

Heartsease to her managing handmaid, who used to chaffer 
for it in the true spirit of hard and thrifty dealing." 

In another respect the tragic actress's garden 
was remarkable ; the trees and shrubs by which it 
was surrounded were all of the most sombre and 
funereal appearance, consisting of cypress, box 
trees, arbor vitse, holly, red cedar, phillyrea, and a 
shrub which Hogg calls " widow-wail " (Cneorum 
tricoccum), branches of which, he adds, Pliny tells 
us were carried by the Roman matrons in their 
funeral processions. 

Purpureoa spargam flores. Virgil. 
The only part of the year in which it could be viewed 
with any degree of pleasure was in winter, when the 
sight of their green vesture was agreeable. Hogg 
was writing in 1820, and mentions the Westbourne 
Green house as Mrs. Siddons'a recent residence. 
The engraving of it in 'Old and New London' 
was published in 1800, and in 1817-18 we find 
her (seethe * Court Guide* of these years) established 
in Upper Baker Street, so that she must have 
resided in the Harrow Road for a considerable 
period. When I first knew Paddington an old 
gentleman existed who, living on or near Padding- 
ton Green, had frequently been disturbed in his 
first sleep by the sound of Mrs. Siddons's carriage 
rumbling over the canal bridge on her way home 
from the theatre to the Harrow Road. I do not 
think that Mrs. Siddons ever lived at Desborough 
Lodge ; there was no time for such residence 
between the removal from Newman Street and 
her permanent settlement in Upper Baker Street 
I think it as great a mistake as the " palatial resi- 
dences " on the site of Westbourne Green. 


" Ah, Sally 's a fine creature ! She has a 
charming place on the Edgeware Road." So, 
by way of preface to an enormous compliment 
which he said the owner of Westbourne Farm had 
once paid his rendering of * The Storm,' Mr. 
Incledon to Crabb Robinson. This looks as though 
Westbourne Farm must have been a good deal 
nearer the present Paddington Station than was 
Desborough Lodge, and as though the possibility, 
which COL.PRIDEAUX admits, of the cottage having 
been swept away by the Great Western, were 
rather a probability. W. F. WALLER. 

"THE TRIPLE PLEA" (8 th S. ii. 527 ; iii. 110). 
The request for information as to this very 
curious sign has not hitherto elicited any response, 
I believe. 

Mr. Daveney, in the old series of the East 
Anglian (iii. 17), suggests two explanations, the 
latter of which, in my opinion, is correct. He 
himself thinks that the three persons depicted 
standing are the Trinity, the prostrate figure being 
the Virgin ; but this would, to my mind, hardly 
coincide with the signboard's designation, and his 
other suggestion is, as I have said, to my mind, 

8< S. IV. JOIY 15, '93.] 



much more probable. It is that the sign may be 
only a lesser form of the well-known " Five " or 
" Four Alls " (see Larwood and Hotten's ' History 
of Signboards,' 1866, pp. 451-2), and that the 
figures represented are the parson, doctor, and 
lawyer, who respectively pray for all, core all, and 
plead for all. The prostrate figure would have need 
of all these at the close of life. 

Since writing the foregoing I have received my 
* N. & Q.' volume from the binder, and find that 
MR. POLE rather anticipates my reply. I need, 
therefore, only add that the devil is one of the 
"Four Alls," as he takes all. In the way he is 
depicted on the sign it is clearly indicated that he 
knows his turn has come, and he can cynically 
defy the rest. W. B. GERISH. 

Great Yarmouth. 

MAIZE (8 th S. iii. 348). The Hebrew mazon, 
food, may compare with the Haytian mahiz, cf. 
Greek /xafa, barley-meal, from ^a<ro-o>, so like our 
porridge ; this again compares "with the Jewish 
motsa, or Passover cake, called " unleavened 
bread." Words travelled in prehistoric times much 
as they still do. A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row, E.C. 

On this subject your correspondent C. C. B. 
would do well to consult 'The Wanderings of 
Plants and Animals from their first Home/ by 
Victor Hehn, edited by James Steven Stallybrass, 
1885, pp. 384, 395, 497. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

ROBERT AUGUILLON (8 th S. iii. 327, 372). 
Banka's ' Extinct Peerage ' says : 

" In Gibson's Camden'a ' Britannia ' it is stated that 
Sir Robert Aguillon had a castle at the manor of Adding- 
too, in Surrey, which was holden in fee, by the serjeantcy, 
to find in the king's kitchen, on the coronation day, a 
person to make a dainty dish called ' Mapigernoun, or 
Dillegrout,' and serve the same up to the king's table. 
This service has been regularly claimed by the lords of 
the said manor, and allowed at the respective coronations 
of the Kings of England." 


If MRS. SCARLETT will give me her address I 
will send her some notes of grants to Robert, as it 
appears to me he only left one daughter, Isabel, 
wife of Hugh Bardolf. He may have had brothers 
or uncles and cousins. The stock seems to have 
come from near Alengon, at least William Aguillon, 
Sieur de Trie, who went with Louis VII. to the 
Crusade 1147, and died within the year, was of 
that neighbourhood. Baron Manasser Aguillon 
iied before 1194. Baron William, probably his 
BOD, married Joan, daughter and heiress of Peter 
Henry Fitz Ailwen, and was father of Robert. 
Robert was not, apparently, summoned to Parlia- 
ment. He married twice : (1) Joan, daughter of 
William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, mother of 
Isabel ; (2) Margaret, Countess of Devon. There 

seems to have been another Robert Aguillon at the 
same time, who married Agatha de Beaufou, and 
left four daughters coheiresses. He was son of a 
William, I think. Could Robert have married three 
times ? More probably the Roberts were cousins. 
It was Baron William who held Addington by the 
serjeantry of making hasty puddings in the king's 
kitchen on the king's coronation. Richard Aguillon 
and Manasser held in Ireland in 1 199. Gules, a 
fleur-de-lis arg. is given as the coat. 

Aston Clinton. 

' GARDEN OF THE SOUL ' (8 th S. iii. 489). This 
is still the "most common book of devotion" 
among English Catholics ; its title is the literal 
translation of ' Paradisus Animae,' the well-known 
work of Horstius, of which Dr. Pusey published a 
version under the name of ' The Paradise of the 
Christian Soul.' I need hardly remind readers of 
Xenophon that 7rapa<$t<ros (Latin paradisus) is the 
usual Greek term for a garden. 



A 'Paradise of the Soul 1 is printed in the 
' Primer,' published by Mr. Masters in 1868, and 
edited, I believe, by the late Rev. G. Moultrie. It 
occupies some fifty small octavo pages, and belongs 
to the transition reformation order of theology. 


SECOND SIGHT (8 th S. iii. 307, 412, 496). 
Will MR. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP allow me to cor- 
rect some of his statements ? Persons who are 
short-sighted (myopic) in early life continue to be 
so in old age. Their defect is caused by the antero- 
posterior diameter of the eyeballs being too long. 
This causes the rays of light to come to a focus 
in front of the retina, instead of upon it The 
remedy for this is the wearing of concave glasses, 
not "magnifying" ones. The front of the eye, 
the cornea, does not become flatter in old age. 
The reason why persons with normal eyes require 
convex glasses as they advance in years is because 
at that period the eyes, although perhaps, as good 
as ever for distance, lose their automatic power of 
adjustment for near objects. It is not only elderly 
persons with long sight who require convex glasses 
for reading, &c., but yonng ones also, if their eye- 
balls are too short from before to behind. Such 
persons are said to be hypermetropic, and may 
require convex glasses at an early age, both for 
near objects and for distance. OPHTHALMIKOS. 

This term is used hero to denote that a person 
who had been obliged through failing sight to use 
glasses, had afterwards been enabled to dispense 
with them. It is not applied to short-sighted 
persons, whose eyes had flattened and thus enabled 
them to see without aid. Among some cariosities 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. JULY 15, 

lately shown at an exhibition of cutlery were 
" knives containing one or two blades, so small 
that twelve of them just weigh down a silver four- 
penny piece. These are made by an old cutler, 
seventy years of age, who has attained his second 
sight." During the last twelve months, two per- 
sons, aged respectively seventy-four and eighty 
years, died in this neighbourhood, who had re- 
gained their sight. G. H. THOMPSON. 

REV. HENRY ADAMS (8 th S. iii. 387, 417, 478, 
499). MR. P. LANDON is mixing up two distinct 
titles : (1) The Viscounty of Montagu of Cowdray, 
which became extinct in 1793, and (2) the Barony 
of Montagu, of Beaulieu, which belonged to a 
brother of the fourth Duke of Buccleucb, and 
became extinct in 1845, though it has been since 
revived in another member of the same family. 


The nobleman to whom Mr. Adams was chaplain 
was not Viscount Montagu, but Baron Montagu 
of Boughton (second son of Henry, Duke of Buc- 
clencb), who succeeded to that title in 1790 and 
died in 1845, and who was Lord of the Manor of 
Beaulieu. I will take this opportunity to explain 
that in the printing of my query the words " also 
dates of degrees " were misplaced, causing it to 
appear that I desired this information, whereas I 
already possessed it. BEAULIEU. 

WILLIAM PONT DB L'ARCHE (8 th S. iv. 28). 
Pont de PArche is the name of a place in Nor- 
mandy, from which place, of course, it is to be 
supposed that the Norman knight came. It cer- 
tainly was a singularly appropriate name for him, 
as after, with the assistance of his friend Sir 
William Dauncy and Bishop Gifford of Winchester, 
having rebuilt and refounded St. Mary Overie's 
Priory, he assisted in rebuilding London Bridge. 
He was treasurer to Henry I., which perhaps 
accounts in some degree for his having such large 
Bums of money at command. 


No Norman knight could have borne this im- 
possible name, seemingly invented in the nine- 
teenth century by some ingenious person to 
designate the lord of the place now called Pont 
de 1'Arche, a town which stands at the foot of the 
stone bridge by which the road from Evreux to 
Rouen crosses the Seine. The old bridge, now 
pulled down, had a fine central arch. FEN TON. 

S. iii. 429). Your correspondent seems to have 
overlooked the translation given by Scott himself 
of these two words as " Emblem of the Intelligences 
of the Moon." They are to be found in the magical 
works of Cornelius Agrippa, whence Scott, no 

doubt, derived them. The second word is not 
pure Hebrew, but a Hebrew form of the Arabic 
root, which is written in Eoman letters shart, 
meaning not so much the moon, as one of the 
mansions of the moon. The other word is made 
up of the three Hebrew words, shed, demon ; bar, 
of ; shemoth, names. J. PLATT, Jun. 

Shedbarshemoth is a compound word, and is 
simply the Hebrew fMDB> "D it?, " Demon, son of 
Names." It can be used in a double sense. It 
may mean a devil produced by names, or signify a 
devil making use of names. The main point is 
the schemoth, names. Professors of that intricate, 
ambiguous, and occult science, the Cabbala, pretend 
that they can call into existence denizens of the 
infernal regions, and command them at will. This 
they accomplish by the employment of schemoth, 
names of the Deity and angels, written in a magic 
ring, with all sorts of distortions and modifications 
of the originals, accompanying them with hiero- 
glyphics known only to the initiated. In the 
second sense the word will signify a demon already 
in existence, who employs schemoth (names) for the 
purpose of carrying out his nefarious designs. The 
word schemoth, in the sense given, is in common use 
among the Jews, more especially among the fanatic 
Russian and Polish Jews. I have heard it fre- 
quently expressed here in London. The other word, 
shed, is almost unknown. It is pure Hebrew, and 
is found in its plural form Deut. xxxii. 17. 

I do not know at present the meaning of Schar- 
lachan, but I will look it up. M. D. DAVIS. 

The words used by Dousterswivel in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel * The Antiquary ' are probably taken 
from the work entitled ' Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy,' by Henry Cornelius Agrippa (first 
English edition), p. 243. The same information 
is given by Francis Barrett, in his ' Magnus ; or, 
Celestial Intelligencer' (London, 1801), part second, 
" Talismanic Magic," pp. 146-7, where it is said, 
" Here follow the divine names corresponding with 
the numbers of the planets, with the names of the 
intelligences and daemons or spirits subject to 
those names," &c. ; also " names answering to the 
numbers of the moon." The fourth entry under 
this head is, "3321 Schedbarschemoth Schar- 
tathan, the Spirit of the Spirits of the Moon." 


ABBEY CHURCHES (8 th S. iii. 188, 257, 349, 
378, 451). The list of monastic churches in 
which the parochial portion was at the eastern end 
and the conventual at the western, quoted by MR. 
COLLIER from Mr. Willement's ' History of 
Davington,' needs correction. Most certainly 
Wymondham is not a case in point. The de- 
stroyed eastern portion was the conventual church, 
with its own mid-tower still standing. The 
western portion was, as it is now, the parish 
church, with a second tower at the west end to 

8 S. IV, JULY 15, '93.] 



contain the parochial peal. Friars' churches, such 
as those at Norwich and Reading, were erected 
chiefly as preaching houses, with wide naves for th 
reception of the laity and a small lantern-tower 
between the nave and the chancel, which latter 
was used for the services of the friars. I think 
no part of a friars' church was ever parochial before 
the Reformation, though partly built for lay con 
gregations. Of the Black Friars at Norwich 
Blomefield says distinctly (ii. 730), "The choir 
was the ancient church of the Friers " (sic). There 
is no trace of the church of the Grey Friars at 
Reading having been parochial before the Dis- 
solution. At that time, A.D. 1543, it was granted 
to the Corporation of the town for a town hall ; 
but on their obtaining St. John's Hospital for 
that purpose, in 1560, it was converted into a 
workhouse, and in 1613 into a house of correc- 
tion, which it continued to be when Lysons wrote 
his account of Berkshire (p. 337). In 1863 it 
resumed its sacred character, and for the first 
time became a parish church. At Lynn Regis (I 
suppose St. Margaret's is the cburch meant) the 
nave was certainly parochial, and the chancel was 
used by the brethren of the priory attached to 
it, a cell of Norwich, for their services. The 
Italian examples are not to be accepted with- 
out examination. " The church at Perugia/' 
where there are so many churches, is rather vague. 
My recollections of Santa Chiara, at Naples, do 
not confirm Mr. Willement's statement. No 
argument can be properly founded on St. Lorenzo 
at Rome (I suppose the Basilica " fuori le Mura " is 
intended), as the church has been in a manner 
turned round, the present nave occupying the 
place of the original apse. It must also be borne 
in mind that the strict rule of orientation never 
prevailed in Italy, especially in Rome, where 
churches look to every point of the compass, so 
that it would lead to confusion to speak of eastern 
and western portions as if they meant the same 
things as with us. 

On examining Mr. Willement's history, with 
the view of ascertaining the ground on which he 
based his identification of the parochial church 
with the eastern portion of Davington Priory, I 
find nothing but bare assertion of the presumed 
fact, without a tittle of evidence in support of it. 
The history of these double churches had not been 
investigated when Mr. Willement wrote, as it has 
m subsequently, and it is not surprising that he 
should have come to an erroneous conclusion. 
The nunnery of Marrig, in the North Riding of 
kshire, referred to by Mr. Willement, appears 
afford a unique example of the parochial part of 
a church beiug to the east of the conventual. On 
the foundation of the nunnery by Roger de Asc, 
c. 1165, the advowson of the parish church was 
given to the new community, and a portion of it 
waa appropriated to them aa a place of worship. 

According to an old plan reproduced in 'Col- 
lectanea Topographica et Genealogica,' vol. v. 
p. 100, the " Nuns' Quire " occupied the western 
half of the nave, the eastern half, with the 
chancel, being left for the use of the parishioners. 
The " Old Dorter" is marked down as lying to the 
south of the " Body of the Parish Church," and 
the "Cloisters" lay along the "Nuns' Quire." 
It is a most curious plan, and deserves examina- 

The parish church of West Ham, Essex, is 
another example of a church which was partly 
parochial and partly conventual in pre-Reforma- 
tion time?, the western end forming part of the 
celebrated West Ham Abbey. On the site of other 
portions of the abbey, fragments of which are built 
into, while part of the ruins form its foundations, 
now stands the Abbey Mills Distillery. To the 
south-west of the church runs a narrow street, still 
known as Abbey Lane, while close by the educa- 
tional work of the old Abbey community is still 
perpetuated by the West Ham School Board in a 
palatial pile erected by them a few years ago as the 
Abbey School?. G. YARROW BALDOCK. 

Capt. 3rd V.B. Essex Regiment. 

" HONEST WILL CROUCH " (8 th S. iii. 448). 
H. W. will find in so common a work as Cham- 
bers's 'Book of Days,' ii. 351, a very sufficient 
account of Mrs. Carleton (born Moders), of Canter- 
bury, which I need not quote here. In his 
'Diary,' April 15, 1664, Pepys says he saw her 
act, or rather react, some of her own adven- 
tures. Her ' Life ' was published in 1673, and in 
Caulfield. F. G. S. 

[8 th S. iii. 446). The accompanying press cutting 
is from the columns of the North- Eastern Daily 
Gazette, June 13 : 

'A singular story of superstition in the Highlands 
cropped up at the Oban Sheriff Court the other day in a 
case tried wherein damages were asked for alleged defama- 
tion of character, in respect that pursuer had been said 
;o possess an ' evil eye,' by which be was bewitched. 
The pursuer in the case was Archibald Campbell, dairy- 
man, Oban, and the defendant Archibald Black, dairy- 
man, also of Oban. On the case being called, defender's 
agent, while admitting that the words ' evil eye ' had 
jeen applied to pursuer, contended that they were not 
ibellous, inasmuch as they were spoken jocularly, and 
with no serious intent to injure him in his reputation. 
Mr. McGregor, for pursuer, contended that the words 
used were meant to injure pursuer in his business. To 
lis (Mr. McGregor's) knowledge, defender did believe 
n witchcraft, and had persisted in bis statement that 
;he pursuer had an 'evil eye.' Black's evidence was 
lighly amusing, and evoked much merriment in court. 
t appeared that Black was driving his cows down the 
Craigard Road about the beginning of February last, 
when one of the animals fell. Asked what caused its 
all, he (the witness) said he did not know, but that 
Campbell was near it. Defender also said that not only 
had his cows fallen, but he himself had moat unaccount- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. I** s. iv. JULY 15, '93. 

ably fallen whilst passing Campbell. He would not 
admit he believed that Campbell had an ' evil eye,' but 
laid it was well known ' double-eight ' was in pursuer's 
family. On another occasion he had a cow at the 
auction market, which got between two other cows, and 
would not come out. To the party who accompanied 
him he paused the remark that pursuer must have passed 
that way ; and that this party, on being examined, ad- 
mitted that Black's words conveyed the impression that 
defender believed that the cow had been bewitched by 
Campbell. Another witness declined to admit his belief 
in witchcraft, but would not go the length of saying he 
disbelieved in it. The sheriff held that the statements 
complained of were not libellous. Should the defender, 
however, persist in his statements as to the pursuer being 
possessed of an ' evil eye,' recourse might be had to a 
second action. He dismissed the case, and awarded 
expenses to neither party." 

Again, under date of June 17, in the same 
newspaper, there is published the following, with 
the heading " An English ' Evil Eye ' Case ": 

"A woman named Ellen Robson was fined twenty 
shillings and costs, at Sunderland Police Court yesterday, 
for assaulting the Rev. William B. Tremenhere, vicar of 
Pallion, Sunderland. on Monday last. The woman be- 
lieved the complainant to be possessed with the evil eye, 
and held supernatural power over her, which consider- 
ably deranged her natural health, and she had written 
innumerable letters to the Bishop of Durham on the 


FAMILY OF GREENE (8 th S. iii. 267, 413). I 
regret that want of time has hitherto prevented 
my answering the inquiry of KANTIANUS, relative 
to the family of Greene. Greene, "creature of 
Richard II.," was Sir Henry Greene, Knt., of 
Drayton, in Northamptonshire. He was the 
second son of Sir Henry Greene, of Bonghton and 
Greens Norton, and Katherine, daughter of Sir 
John Drayton, Knt., of Drayton, Northampton- 
shire. Sir H. Greene, of Boughton and Greens 
Norton, was Lord Chief Justice of England, 1361- 
1365, and was Speaker of the House of Lords in the 
Parliaments of 1362 and 1363; he obtained Greens 
Norton by purchase and died in 1370, and was 
buried at Boughton. His eldest son was Sir 
Thomas Greene, Knt., of Boughton and Greens 
Norton, born in 1344, died 1391, and buried at 
Greens Norton. He married a daughter of Sir 
John Mablethorp, Knt., of Lincoln, and from him 
descended in succession five Greenes, of Boughton 
and Greens Norton, each bearing the name Thomas. 
The last Sir Thomas Greene died Nov. 9, 1506, 
leaving two daughters, cohieresses, Anne, who 
married Lord Vaux, of Harrowden, and Matilda, 
who married Sir Thomas Parr, of Kendal, and was 
the mother of Katherine Parr, wife of Henry VIII. 

To return to Sir Henry Greene, of Drayton. He 
obtained Drayton from his cousin, Sir John de 
Drayton, upon condition that he should bear his 
name and arms, and he married Matilda, daughter 
and heiress of Sir Thomas Mauduit, Knt., of War 
minster, Warwickshire. He became an ardenl 
supporter of Richard II. from whom he received 

ands confiscated from Thomas, Earl of Warwick, 
Richard, Earl of Arundel, and Thomas, Lord Cob- 
lam. In the rebellion against the king, Sir 
lenry Greene held the Castle of Bristol for the 
ting, but he was handed over by the garrison to 
-he Duke of Lancaster, who the next day (July 30, 
1399) caused him to be beheaded with the Earl of 
Wiltshire and Sir John Bushey. He was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son, Sir Ralph Greene, Knt., 
of Drayton. He was restored by Henry IV. to 
be lordship of Drayton, and died without issue 
n 1418, and was succeeded by his younger brother, 
John Greene, born in 1404, died 1432. He 
married Mary, daughter of Walter Greene, of 
Bridgenorth, and had, with other issue, Sir Henry 
Greene, Knt., of Drayton, who died February, 
[467. This Sir H. Greene had no issue by his 
irst wife, Constance Paulet, and by his second had 
an only child, Constance Greene, who married 
John Stafford, Earl of Wiltshire, K.G., son of 
Humphry, Duke of Buckingham. He died May 8, 
1473. I shall be very glad to give KANTIANUS 
any further information in my power. My an- 
cestor, Godfrey Greene, was one of the "1649" 
officers. He came to Ireland from England about 
1620, and was a captain in the army of Charles I. 
in that country, and for his services received a grant 
of Moorestown Castle, county Tipperary, under the 
Act of Settlement, 30 Charles II., July 25, 1678. 
I am the present representative of the family, and 
the tradition is that we are descended from a 
younger branch of the Greenes of Greens Norton. 
It is supposed that Capt. Godfrey Greene's father 
married a Miss Godfrey. Perhaps your corre- 
spondent KANTIANUS may be able to aid me in 
my endeavours to prove the descent. 

JOHN J. GREENE, Surgeon- Major. 
The Barracks, Birr, King's County, Ireland. 

There is an interesting illuminated pedigree of 
the Norton and Grene families of Kent made out, 
and authenticated by the signature of William 
Camden, Clarencieux in 1617, of which document 
I have a copy. George Grene, of Bobbing, Kent, 
came to Ireland in 1609. On the death of his 
eldest brother, Sir Thomas Grene, he got possession 
of the above-mentioned pedigree, which is now in 
the possession of the present representative of the 
family, the Grenes of the co. Tipperary. I can 
give KANTIANUS details. J. GRENE-BARRY. 


ITALIAN IDIOM (8 tt S. ii. 445, 498 ; iii. 37, 171, 
289, 414). I quite agree with what MR. YOUNG 
has said (iii. 289) and I have noticed similar 
changes of construction in Old Italian, as, e. g., in 
Benvenuto Cellini's * Autobiography.' But, as MR. 
YOUNG does not appear to me to have pointed out 
the more obvious mistakes into which MR. INGLE- 
BY'S friend in Italy has fallen, perhaps I may be 
allowed to do this. 

8" a iv JOLT is, -3.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


MR. INGLEBY now tells us that his friend has 
acted as equerry in Italy for the last ten years. 
This would be most important if his friend were 
Italian. But that he is not, and that he has no 
accurate knowledge of Italian, there seems to be 
abundant evidence. At any rate, a Tuscan lady, 
who has taught her own language for twenty years, 
assures me that no Italian would write or say 
either " Buon giorno, vostra Maesta ! " or " Spero 
che vuole "; and my own knowledge of the lan- 
guage tells me that she is right. In the first in- 
stance, it should be "Maesta!" alone, inasmuch 
as " vostra Maesta " cannot be used in Italian as a 
vocative. And, indeed, in English we say "Will 

your Majesty ?" (in which way, of course, 

"Vostra Maesta" is constantly used in Italian 
also) ; but we cannot say " Your Majesty ! will 
you ? " although it is common to begin a speech 
with " Your Royal Highness, my lords, and gentle- 
men ! " In the second instance, an Italian would 
use the subj. voglia, and not the ind. vuole. 

Another mistake is made also ^in supposing that, 
in " Spero che vuole," the subject to vuole is lei 
understood, for the real subject is the vostra 
Maesta which precedes. And surely this vostra 
Maesta is an example of that very " dar del voi" 
which MR. INGLEBY so much protests against, and 
not of the "dar del lei," which would give us 
"Sua Maesta." 

The Italian lady above referred to would see 
nothing wrong, therefore, in saying " Maesta ! 
volete ? " Indeed, in her youth (and she is but 
little over forty now) she was taught that it was 
right to dar del voi ( = Fr. vousoyer) to royalty, 
and, though ignorant of Court habits, she is not 
aware that the custom has changed. Uneducated 
or careless Italians might, no doubt, use lei to a 
king, or in the course of the same address use voi 
at one time and lei at another, in accordance with 
MR. YOUNG'S note, but this would not in the least 
prevent voi from being the only really correct form 
of address. Italian children often use lei to God, 
and are corrected by their parents for it, for to God 
lei never should be used, but only voi or, with more 
affection, tu. There is a reverence in voi which is 
altogether wanting in lei. 

I must not be understood, however, to say that 
lei cannot ever be used correctly to a king. In his 
own family it would probably often be used to 
him, as being less formal and more familiar than 
voi. His personal friends, too, might well some- 
times make use of it, and some there are, no doubt, 
who would go as far as tu. 

In conclusion, I may add that I have been in- 
formed through another Italian governess that the 
use of voi is now gaining ground among the mem- 
bers of the higher aristocracy in Italy. This does 
not look as if its use at Court (which dates from so 
far back) is in the least dying out. 


METRE OP '!N MBMORIAM' (8 th S. iii. 288, 
337, 430). It may interest some of your readers 
to know that a stanza corresponding to that of ' In 
Memoriam ' was used by old French poets. Marot, 
for instance, besides a four- line epitaph, has a 
chanson, dated 1524, of three stanzas with the 
same rhymes in each. Here is the first stanza : 
Je Buis ayme de la plus belle 

Qui soit vivant' dessoubz lea cieulx ; 
Encontre tous faulx envieux 
Je la Boustiendray eetre telle. 

Among the ' Vaux-de-Vire ' ascribed to Olivier 
Basselin, but really composed by Jean Le Houx, 
who died in 1616 after their publication, there are 
three examples of this metre. The following (ed. 
Lacroii, p. 26) is headed ' La Faute d'Adam ' : 
Adam (c'est chose tres notoire) 
Ne nous eust mis en tel danger, 
Si, au lieu da fatal manger, 
II se fust plus tot mis a boire. 
C'est la cause pour quoy j'evite 
D'estre sur le manger gourmand : 
11 eat vray que je suis friand 
De vin, quand c'est vin qui merite. 
Et pourtant, lorsque je m'approche 
Du lieu oft repaistre je veux, 
Je vaia regardant, curieux, 
Plus tost au buffet qu'a la brocbe. 

L'oeil regarde ou le coeur aspire. 

J'ay cecy par trop oeillade. 

Verre plein, a'il n'est tost vuide, 
Ce n'est pas un Terre de Vire. 


WAVERLET NOVELS (8 th S. iii. 467). The 
allusion to 'Tietania' in 'St. Koman's Well' can be 
easily explained. No doubt Scott would possess, 
or be acquainted with, a somewhat facetious pam- 
phlet on ' Neckcloths/ published six years before 
the novel appeared, for the writer quotes Scott 
himself, from 'The Antiquary,' on his subject. This 
Scott evidently reciprocated by mentioning a part 
of the title of the pamphlet. As everything, great 
or small, connected with the Wizard of the 
North is of perennial interest, perhaps I may be 
permitted to briefly describe this, I think, very 
scarce publication. The title is as follows : 

Necbclothitania ; 1 or I Tietania : | being an | Essay 
on Starchers. | By one of the cloth. 

Titania pubea. Virgil. 
His goodly countenance I 've seen, 
Set off with kerchief atarch'd and collar clean. 


London : | Printed by J. J. Stockdale, 41, Pall Mall. | 
1818. 12mo. 

There is a frontispiece, showing twelve species of 
ties and two knots, the gordian and barrel, and 
way of folding. The letterpress consists of pp. 38, 
including title, dedication to the students of the 
East Indian College, and preface. W. NIXON. 


The well-known collector and writer on ancient 
armour was Meyrick, not "Meybrick." In the 



'London Directory' for 1806, and again in 1812, 
I find " Gwennap, T., Commission Repository for 
pictures, antiquities, bronzes, shells, &c., 44, New 
Bond Street." Late in the twenties there was a 
Gothic Hall in Piccadilly, nearly opposite St. 
James's Church, containing a large collection of 
old arms and armour. Did this also belong to 
Gwennap ? JAYDEE. 

In ' Les Quatre Facardina ' of Anthony Hamil- 
ton may be found Prince Facardin, of Trebizond, 
and his secretary : 

" Mon secretaire avait naturellement du bon sens ; et, 
comme il s'etait beaucoup forme 1'esprit depuis qu'il 
tait a mon service, il tachait de me consoler." 

It is very likely that a play or opera has been 
made on Hamilton's celebrated story, though it is 
unsuitable in more ways than one for dramatic 
treatment. E. YARDLET. 

KENNEDY BARONETCY (8 th S. Hi. 347, 454). 
Was this an Irish baronetcy, and what was the date 
of creation ? It is not mentioned in Burke's ' Ex- 
tinct Baronetage ' or in Solly's * Titles of Honour. ' 
I find in the ' Diet. National Biography,' xxx. 97, 
that Edward Jones, born 1641, Bishop of Cloyne 
1683, Bishop of St. Aeaph 1692, suspended 1701, 
died 1702, married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
Sir Richard Kennedy, Bart., of Wicklow. 



W. B. T. will find an account of this baronetcy if 
he looks again at Burke's ' Extinct and Dormant 
Baronetcies of England' (1844), pp. 630-2. It 
was created in 1638 and became extinct in 1759. 
A pedigree of this family is given in Lipscomb's 
' Hist, and Antiqs. of the County of Buckingham ' 
(1847), vol. iv. p. 415. G. F. R. B. 

W. B. T. is mistaken in supposing this to be 
absent from Burke's ' Extinct Baronetage.' It is 
to be found in the second edition of the work 
<1844), at pp. 630-2, where it is stated that the 
baronetcy became extinct in 1759, on the death of 
Sir Thomas Longueville, cousin (not, as W. B. T. 
supposes, son) of Sir Edward. In Kimber and 
Johnson's 'Baronetage* (published in 1771), how- 
ever, Sir Thomas Longueville is spoken of as " the 
present baronet." This latter work gives the year 
1638 as that of the creation of the baronetcy a 
date not recorded in Burke. F. D. 

SUGAR-PLUMS (8 th S. iii. 407, 489). Will HER- 
MENTRUDE kindly tell me, as I am sure she can, 
where our mediaeval forefathers got the sugar with 
which they made their rose and violet sugar, candy, 
and " other lumps of delight " ? One is so accus- 
tomed to associate sugar with the cane and, in 
later times, with beetroot, that it is nearly as 
difficult to imagine a Crusader or a troubadour 
eating sugar as to imagine him drinking a " dish 

of tea " or smoking a Manilla cheroot ; yet sugar, 
according to HKRMENTRUDE'S note, seems to have 
been well known in the thirteenth century. Will 
HERMENTRUDE also say what "penydes" (1362) 
were ? With regard to the " comfits " mentioned 
BURTON, Steele, in the Taller, No. 245, Nov. 2, 
1710, speaks of " one silver gilt [box] of a larger 
size for casbu and carraway comfits, to be taken at 
long sermons." Earlier in the same paper Steele 
speaks of " sweet-meat spoons made with forks at 
the end." These last would appear to have been 
intended for the "wet Buckets" mentioned by 

Ropley, Alresford. 

THE PASSING BELL (8 th S. iii. 408). The 
ringing of the passing bell, also called the soul's 
bell, is one of the practices of the past for which 
it is difficult to account. The custom is of con- 
siderable antiquity, for the Venerable Bede 
(672-735), in his 'Ecclesiastical History/ tells 
us that on the death of St. Hilda, one of the 
sisters of a distant monastery thought she heard, 
while sleeping, the sound of that bell which called 
them to prayers when any of them had departed 
this life. Grose says : 

"The passing bell was anciently rung for two pur- 
poses ; one to bespeak the prayers of all good Christians 
for a soul juat departing ; the other to drive away the 
evil spirits who stand at the bed's foot, and about the 
house, ready to seize their prey, or at least to molest 
and terrify the soul in its passage." 

Durandus (1237-96), in his Rationale Divi- 
norum Officiorum,' informs us, 
" when any one is dyin?, bells must be tolled that the 
people may put up their prayers ; twice for a woman, 
and thrice for a man ; if for a clergyman as many times 
as he has orders, and at the conclusion, a peal of all the 
bells, to distinguish the quality of the person for whom 
the people are to put up their prayers. A bell too must 
be rung when the corpse is conducted to church, and 
during the bringing it out of the church to the grave." 

Harland, in his * Lancashire Folk-lore,' alludes 
to a custom in some Lancashire parishes, on ring- 
ing the passing bell, to conclude its tolling with 
nine knells or strokes of the clapper for a man, 
six for a woman, and three for a child, the vestiges 
of an ancient Roman Catholic injunction. Two 
couplets on the passing bell are given in Ray'a 
1 Collection of Old English Proverbs ': 

When the bell begins to toll 

Lord have mercy on the soul ! 

When thou dost hear a toll or knell 

Then think upon thy passing bell. 

The custom is also alluded to by Thomas Hey- 
wood in his tragedy entitled 'The Rape of 
Lucrece ' (1630), where Valerius says : 

" Nay, if he be dying, as I could wish he were, I '11 
ring out his funeral peal ; and this it is : 

Come, list and hark, the bell doth toll, 
For some but now departing soul, 

8* 8. IV. JULY 15, '93.] 



And was not that some ominous fowl, 
The bat, the night crow, or screech-owl 
To these I heard the wild wolf howl 
In this black night that seems to scowl, 
All these my black book shall enroll. 
For hark ! still, still the bell doth toll 
For some but now departing soul." 

Shakspeare, in 4 Henry IV.,' shows the custom 

in his time, 

And his tongue 

Sounds ever after as a sullen bell 
Remember knolling a departing friend. 

And an order in the seventh year of Elizabeth 
(1565) points to what must have been the pre- 
vailing custom at that date : 

" Item, that when anye Christian bodie is in passing that 
the bell be tolled, and that the curate be speciallie called 
for to comforte the sicke person ; and after the time of 
his passinge to ring no more but one shorte peale, and 
one before the buriall. and another short peale after the 

Many other old authorities could be quoted in 
proof of the prevailing custom of ringing the 
passing bell during the last moments of a person's 
departure from one state to another, which has 
now entirely died out. May not the ringing of a 
bell a short time after death have been substituted? 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I venture to call your correspondent's attention 
to a poem by the late Rev. Dr. Monsell on the 
' Passing Bell,' and I give the writer's remarks 
in the preface to the volume on his own poem. 
If not too long for insertion in ' N. & Q.' it may 
possibly be of interest : 

"The 'Passing Bell' is founded on the original 
beautiful, but, alas, by-gone usage of tolling the church 
bell at the time of a soul's departure, to ask for the passing 
spirit the benefit of Christian prayers. The object of 
this poem is to set forth, not only the spiritual consola- 
tions, which may gather round the parting soul when 

Prayers ascend 

To Hear n in troops at a good man's Passing Bell, 
but also the reflex good which its monitions may bring 
to those who, in the midst of the bustle and excitements 
of life, are thus reminded that death is near. 

Each part of the poem refers to some special temp- 
tation, in the midst of which the warning voice is heard, 
and from the snares of which the yielding soul is to be 
gently drawn away ; the man of business from his un- 
scrupulous pursuit of gain ; the domestic man from the 
snare of a too easy and self-pleasing life ; the young and 
giddy, but comparatively pure, from the frivolities and 
vanities of the world ; the sinful from his stealthy and 
ensnaring schemes of wrong and ruin ; the pastor from 
those habits of refined and literary luxury, which some- 
times keep his hands smooth and his feet back from the 
rougher ways of life in which tinners are to be sought 
and saved. Even though we have lost in these latter 
days the tender usage of making this bell a blessing to 
the dying, its voice still heard in every parish in Eng- 
land the announcement of a journey done, may have 
on the hearts of the living that wholesome warning 
influence which this poem fondly gives it." Vide Preface 
to 'The Passing Bell, and other Poems,' by the (late) Rev 
John 8. B. Moneell, LL.D., vicar of Egham, Surrey. 

I must quote the beautiful refrain : 

Listen ! it is the Passing Bell. 
Lift up thy heart to God and pray. 

A soul is passing who can tell 
How prayer may help it on its way ! 


About thirty years ago I heard it rung in Hun- 
gary. L. L. K. 


The Works of William Shakespeare. Edited by William 

Aldis Wright. Vol. IX. (Macmillan & Co.) 
MR. WRIGHT'S long and indispensable task of re-editing 
the best of existing texts of Shakspeare has been suc- 
cessfully accomplished, and the complete work is now 
within the reach of scholars. Vol. IX., which occupies 
close on eight hundred pages, includes ' Pericles,' the 
poems, additions and corrections, and reprints of the 
quartos of 'The Merry Wives of Windsor,' 'The Chro- 
nicle History of Henry the Fift,' < The First Part of the 
Contention,' with notes, The True Tragedie,' also with 
notes, ' Romeo and Juliet,' and ' Hamlet.' Upon th 
happy accomplishment of a worthy task we congratulate 
students as well as the accomplished and indefatigable 
scholar to whom it is due. Very far from a mere repro- 
duction of the earlier edition or editions is this, which 
represents a continuous and arduous labour of over six 
years. Much new comment has had to be dealt with, 
two editions previously unknown of ' Venus and Adonis ' 
and one of ' Lucrece ' have been discovered, and the 
readings in them have been incorporated. Close inspec- 
tion will thus show that many thousands of additions 
and corrections have been made, and that the pages are 
few on which traces of Mr. Wright's diligence and 
perspicacity cannot be found. Some alteration in the 
disposition of the contents is also evident. The volumes 
are in exterior respects worthy of the contents, and the 
possessor of the work may boast himself as having the 
handsomest library edition of the most trustworthy 
Shakspeare that has seen the light. 

The Ghost World. By T. F. Thiselton-Dyer. (Ward & 

Downey. ) 

A CENTURY, or even fifty years ago, any one who avowed 
his belief in the possibility of the spirits of the dead 
communicating with the living was regarded as a sim- 
pleton. The fact that John Wesley was known to believe 
that certain ghost stories had elements of truth in them 
exposed him during life, and after death, to the gibes of 
witlings. This state of mind was a natural reaction 
against the crass superstition of former times, when, as 
it has been truly remarked, everybody believed every- 
thing that was told him by any speaker having a grave 
face. A counter reaction has set in, and we find now, as 
it was in the seventeenth century, many educated persons 
who are willing to accept stories as to the supernatural 
which to their friends do not seem to rest on sufficiently 
strong testimony. 

It is not our place to discuss the possibility of the 
appearance of beings from the spirit world. Whatever 
may be true or false relating to this and kindred matters, 
we can never arrive at even a provisional theory which 
shall be workable until the vast mass of floating legend- 
has been scientifically examined. Mr. Dyer has not 
done this. He is not a scientific commentator, but he 
fills an important place notwithstanding. The literature 
of what may be called ghost-lore is familiar to him, and 
he has arranged in order very many of those tales which 



[8* h S. IV. JULT 15, '93. 

are to be found scattered in old books and in modern 
works on anthropology and folk-lore. So far as we 
know, there is no book in our own or in any other 
language which exactly corresponds with Mr. Dyer's 
work. He begins with the old notions regarding the 
position of the human soul at the moment of death, and 
follows it on step by step, telling us why ghosts wander, 
of the spirits of the murdered dead, of phantom birds 
and beasts, and of the many other ways in which the 
dead have been believed to have been in intimate com- 
munion with the lower animals. The chapter on what 
is known ao " second sight " is well done, but is far too 
short. " Second sight " has a great literature of its own, 
and some of the tales concerning this alleged faculty 
have much to be said in their favour. We wish that 
here Mr. Dyer had been more copious in his illustrations. 
The chapters on phantom music and phantom sounds 
are noteworthy. Much of the evidence for these seems 
to be unimpeachable ; but we have good reason for 
believing that the noises may, in most cases, be explained 
by natural causes. The book has an excellent index. 

London Signs and Inscriptions. By Philip Norman, 

F.S.A. (Stock.) 

So far as we can remember, Mr. Norman's ' London Signs 
and Inscriptions,' which is the last issue of Mr. Elliot 
Stock's " Camden Library," is the first book published in 
this country which deals in a comprehensive manner 
with signs. There are several volumes which treat on 
inn signs only, and it has come to be believed, even by 
those who should know better, that the sign was a dis- 
tinctive mark of a house of entertainment. That this 
is a mistake, not only as regards England, but almost 
every country in Europe, a very little research will show. 

The passion for rebuilding, which has swept away so 
much that is of interest in our old towns, has raged in 
many parts of the Continent with a fury we cannot 
equal ; but there is hardly an old town in France, the Low 
Countries, or Germany where curious house signs are not 
to be found. As, however, the greater part of them 
possess little artistic merit, they are, for the most part, 
left unnoticed. An exception must be made with regard 
to the Dutch. Van Lennep and Ter Gouw's elaborate 
work on the house signs of Holland leaves hardly any- 
thing to be desired. Mr. Norman, we are glad to see, 
is acquainted with this book. We could fancy that it 
may have stimulated him to make his own collections. 

Mr. Norman is an artist as well as a man of letters. 
Most of the engravings which decorate his pages have 
been made from his own drawings. 

The Great Fire of London, which swept away nearly 
the whole of the mediaeval architecture of our capital, 
must have destroyed many of these curious house-marks. 
We, however, believe that they were never so prominent 
a feature in this country as they have been in many 
foreign lands. So far as our observation goes they are 
uncommon in old towns, such as York, Exeter, Chester, 
and Bristol, which have never been devastated by con- 
flagrations to be compared with the Great Fire of 

Mr. Norman's book is of interest for other reasons 
beyond that for which it is specially written. The 
admirers of Old London will find many fragments of 
knowledge that will be new to them. How many persons 
know that the squalid region of Clare Market was once a 
fashionable quarter and took ita name from the family of 
Holies, Earls of Clare, one of whom, through no merit of 
his own that we have been able to discover, won for him- 
self a prominent place in English history by being one 
of the five members whom Charles I. vainly endeavoured 
to arrest? 

fr*Mr. Norman's work has a good index, and is in 
every respect a pleasant book to use. We wish he, or 

some one else, would compile a similar work relating to 
our provincial towns and rural districts. 

The Prose Works of Rev. R. S. Hawker, Vicar of Mor- 

wenstow. (Blackwood & Sons.) 

WE are very glad to possess Hawker's prose works in a 
collected form. He wrote little; but what we have 
from his pen is all of it of excellent quality. Hawker 
was one of those men common enough in the days that 
are gone, but very rare now who seem to have bad no 
desire for the preservation of their written thoughts 
when the immediate occasion had been served. This is 
the more strange as it is clear that he never wrote on 
any subject which did not interest him. To write merely 
for pay would, we apprehend, have seemed to Hawker a 
desecration of a high faculty with which he had been 

Robert Stephen Hawker came of an intellectual family. 
Two of his near relatives had written books, and several 
others, who never committed their thoughts to the 
printing press, had evinced more than ordinary capacity. 
There is a strong similarity between De Quincey and 
Hawker. Differing, as we have no doubt they did, in 
their ideals, they had one thing in common. To both 
of them literature was an art, which, if practised at all, 
should be pursued with the same singleness of purpose 
which is attributed to the painter or the sculptor. De 
Quincey 'a writings are now valued not for the facts they 
hold in solution, but for the manner in which those facts 
are presented. So it is with Hawker. There is very 
little in this volume which it is important for us to know, 
but it will be a treasure, nevertheless, to some of us, 
from the way the various stories are told. It is not eaay 
to make a selection when almost everything depends 
upon manner. The first paper in the volume, entitled 
" Morwenstow," has given us the most pleasure; but 
" The Remembrances of a Cornish Vicar " and " Hum- 
phrey Vivian " are very good. The last is perhaps the 
most picturesque thing Hawker ever wrote. 

MR. ELLIOT STOCK announces a ' History of Chipping 
Lambourne Church,' by John Footman, founded on local 
and contemporary documents, with numerous illustra- 
tions of the architecture of the building. Incidentally 
it gives an account of a remarkable adventure by a 
gentleman "who descended from the top of the tower 
to the ground in a Pynace " in 1607. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the' 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

J. L. R. ('The Cork Leg '). Inquire of any seller of 
old music. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of * Notes and Queries '"Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8 th S. IV. JULY 22, '#. 



, SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1893. 


NOTES : Register of Musbury, co. Devon, 61' Modern 
English Biography.' 62 Letters of Sir Walter Balegh, 63 
Seraph, 64 Abraham Darby. 65 " Baggagely "Scott 
and Ariosto A Curious Tomb Pansies Font of Armagh 
Cathedral' Concordance to Shakspeare,' 66 Epigram by 
Prior" Clear the lobby," 67. 

QUERIES : Eagles in Coronation Robes Christina of 
Naples Cope Sir Joseph Banks Richard Oliver, 67 
Sir F. Page-Smallbridge, Suffolk " Skouse " " Trio- 
logue "Robertson Hugh O'Connor-KerryCol. Torrens 
Gordons of Glenbucket Saracen Conquest of Sicily- 
Cost of British Titles Redruth " To-night Maria Martin 
and the Red Barn," 68" Spring-heeled Jack "Montaigne 
Peters and Prynne John Fenwicke ' Washington ' 
"Amorous," 69. 

REPLIES : Rebellion of '98 Inventor of Lucifer Matches, 
70 "To rush," 71 Francis Legge Cisterns for a Dinner 
Table Father of James I." Eavesdropper" 1 Chronicles 
of Eri' Manila, 72 Samplers, 73 Poets Laureate- 
Human Leather Beginning of the Christian Era, 74 
4 ' Grass - widow " Schola Verluciana Kingsley's Last 
Lines Black for Evening Wear Heraldry, 75 "Let us 
walk down Fleet Street" The Pope's Curse ' Greek the 
Language of Christ '" Wederynges," 76 Charles Mercy 
Hyde Park Bars Shakspearian Relics 'The Scape 
Goat 'Folk-lore Madame Campan " Thirty days hath 
September " Zerah Colburn, 77 Mecklenburgh Square- 
Rev. W. Knowler " Wedding Knife " School Maga- 
zinesResidence of Mrs. Siddons, 78. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
Sainfcsbury's ' Montaigne,' Vol. III. Maxwell's 'Schil- 
ler's William Tell 'Barrett's ' Trinity House of Deptford 
Strond' Lodge's ' Scrivelsby 'Morris's 'Napoleon.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


It is extremely gratifying to record the recent 
restoration to lawful custody of a register of 
exceptional value and interest which had been 
long missing from the parish chest. The earliest 
existing register of the parish of Musbury, a 
coverless volume of nineteen leaves of parchment 
(measuring nearly 14 in. by 5 in.) roughly stitched 
together, containing entries of baptisms, marriages, 
and burials from May, 1622, to September, 1653, 
was received by the Eev. Horace W. Thrupp, 
M.A., rector of Musbury, on October 8 last. Mr. 
Thrupp, who c;m only conjecture the manner of 
its discovery, prefers, for reasons of his own, not to 
publish the name of the person who, unknowingly, 
has hitherto held possession of the volume, which 
is supposed to have been discovered among papers 
removed from Ashe House, in the said parish of 
Musbury, either shortly before or immediately 
following the death of Sir William Drake, sixth 
and last baronet, which occurred on October 21, 
1733. The register, which has greatly suffered 
from damp, appears to have been lost during the 
incumbency of the Rev. William Salter, of Exeter 
College, Oxford, instituted to the rectory of Mus- 
bury December 24, 1726, whose death and burial 
are thus recorded in Register No. 2, dating from 

September 6, 1653, to 1812, for baptisms; Novem- 
ber 14, 1653, to 1754, for marriages ; and from 
November 13, 1653, to 1812, for burials : 

" A Register of the Burials A: Domi 1770. The Rev* 
M r William Salter Rector of this Pariah was buried the 
2lBt Day of March. He was born Nov r 5 th 1696 and died 
the 17 th of March 1770." 

It has been carefully repaired and bound in 
vellum by the kindly attention of George Andrew 
Spottiswoode, Esq , J.P., of London and Chattan 
Hall, Axminster. The outside cover bears this 
inscription in golden characters : " Musbury 
Register. N I. 1622-1653." 

The rector is inclined to regard the restored 
register as the first in use at Musbury. The vellum 
leaves, evidently added to from time to time as 
required for use, are rudely stitched together in a 
way which shows that they were not provided at 
one time. Mr. Salter, too, invariably refers to it 
as Register No. 1, thus clearly showing that he 
was unacquainted with the existence of a volume 
of earlier date. The annexed memoranda in his 
hand relate respectively to the restored volume 
and Register No. 2 : 

" Note. There is an old r register belonging to this 
Parish bearing Date from the 28 th Day of April 1622 & 
continued down to this Time, which by Reason of its 
Size could not be conveniently bound up w th this Volume: 
W m Salter R r ." 

" See this Register continued from tlds Time in a 
Book provided by the Parish" by John Osborne appointed 
parish Register according to the Act pass'd by the 
Usurper Cromwell AD. 1653. and tince much enlarged at 
their charge & put in proper Order By me William Sal- 
ter Rect" 

Two entries of baptisms in 1664 and 1667, also 
appearing in Register No. 2, find a place on fol. 8 
of the recovered volume, and immediately follow 
the registrations ending September 28, 1653. A 
detached entry at the foot of the same page thus 
records the death and burial of a parishioner's son 
at Oxford : 

" Will'm the scne of Tho Warren Died the thirte'nth 
Day of May one Thousand eixe Hundred seuuenty third 
in Exon Collidge and was buried tbire in S'nt Michella 
Church. [The remainder of the entry is illegible.] 

The entries on p. 9, recording one baptism in 
1666 and five burials in 1668-9, are, with two 
exceptions, found in their proper places in 
Register No. 2. On the back of page numbered 17 
a few miscellaneous entries, having the appearance 
of notes, furnish transcripts of the inscriptions 
formerly existing on tombstones in the floor of the 
church. These memoranda serve a useful end in 
that they preserve the records of inscriptions which 
time and gradual detrition by the nailed shoes of 
rustic worshippers have well-nigh obliterated. The 
last leaf, numbered 18, contains on one aide an 
entry of the names of two churchwardens. 

The annexed entries, appearing in this very 
valuable and interesting recurd, relate to the bap- 
tisms of Elizabeth Drako, afterwards the wife of 



iv. JULY 22, '95. 

Sir Winston Churchill, Knt., her famous son the 
first Duke of Marlborough, and his eldest sister 
Arabella Churchill (died 1730), one of the mis- 
tresses of King James II. when Duke of York, 
and afterwards the wife of Col. Charles Godfrey, 
Master of the Jewel Office : 

" Elizabeth the daughter of Su r John Drake Knight 
was baptized the [!] th day of februarij 1622." 

" Arabella the daughter of Mr. Winstone Churche [rest 
torn away] bap the 16 day of March 1648." 

" John the sonne of M r Winston Churshull bap the 26 
ay of May 1650." 

It is a noteworthy and somewhat remarkable 
circumstance that entries of the baptisms of John 
Churchill and his sister are also found in the 
register of the neighbouring parish of Axminster 
under the years to which they respectively relate, 
but furnishing dates at variance with those re- 
corded in the restored volume. The entries in the 
Axminster register are in these terms : 

"Arabella Churchwell daughter of M r Weston Church- 
well and Elizebeth his \yyfe was Baptized In Aish Haule 
the 28 th day of ffebruary Anno Dom 1648." 

" 1650. John the sonne of M r Winstone Chu hill was 
Baptized att Ash the 26 [?] Daye of Jun in the year of 
our lord god." 

It would appear that twenty-one registrations 
(including nine burials) relative to the Drake 
family are contained in the recovered volume, 
Register No. 2 furnishing forty-five entries, exclu- 
sive of three marriages in the same family. The 
last entry in Register No. 1 records that "Mr. 
Math drake parson of musburye [was] buried ye 
8 day Sep 1653." The second and last reference to 
the Churchill family thus appears in Register No. 1 : 

" Dorrite the daughter of M* Winstone Churshell bap 
the 29 day of december 1652." 

These entries following are found in Register 
No. 2 : 

"1653 [] 1654]. Georg the sun of Mr Winetone Church- 
well Borne the 29 th of feberary and bap the 17 lh of 

" 1655. Mary the daughter of Winston Churchill was 
borne the 10 : of July and Baptized the 27 ta of the same 
month : " 

"Charles the sone of M r Winstone Churchwel was 
orne the 2 day of febuary 1656 and bap the 9 day of 
the same febuary 1656." 

The burial of the above-named Mary Churchill 
is thus recorded in the same register : 

" Mary the daughter of M r Winstone Chur'hel buried 
ye 14 day of May 1656." 

The entry in this restored register, recording 
Marlborough's baptism on May 26, 1650, while 
negativing the assertion of Anthony Wood and 
others that he was born on Midsummer Day, 1650, 
serves to confirm his own statement that June 6, 
1707, was his fifty-seventh and May 26, 1710, 
his sixtieth birthday (Coxe, ii. 240 ; iii. 192). The 
difference between old and new styles would 
reconcile the last two dates. Lord Churchill, 
quoting "family papers," gives the birthday as 

May 24 (' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. viii. 492). Collins 
says " seventeen minutes after noon, on May 24," 
and a horoscope (Egerton MS. 2378) gives the 
date as May 25, at 12.58 P.M. Another hour, it is 
said, must be a mistake, as it would have proved 
his stars to have been unfavourable at Blenheim. 

This note may be fitly concluded with an ex- 
pression of opinion emanating from the rector of 
Musbury, who has kindly favoured the writer 
with accurate and carefully prepared tracings 
of the Churchill registrations now for the first time 
printed. Mr. Thrupp is fully persuaded of the 
value attaching to an accurate tracing of a registra- 
tion, and conceives it were highly desirable that 
the custodian of a parish register should, on appli- 
cation, furnish a literary inquirer with a facsimile 
tracing of the required entry in lieu of the cus- 
tomary transcript. In this way the recipient 
learns much from the style of the handwriting 
and orthography, and is perhaps in a position to 
decipher that which hopelessly baffles the skill of 
the non-antiquarian custodian of an old register. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

(Continued from 8 lh S. i. 487.) 

I AM surprised to find it is so long since I 
wrote my former note on this subject. A promise 
to continue a note made now, is not, I find, worth 
a tithe of what it was twenty-five years ago, when 
I first became a contributor to ' N. & Q.' In fact, 
I find it discreet now not to make promises of 
this kind. 

It is a most extraordinary thing how men who 
are celebrated go away quietly to die in such abso- 
lute seclusion that no trace whatever of them is to 
be found. Take, for example, the well-known 
William Henry Barber. It is, by the way, some- 
what disingenuous of Mr. Boase to put this name 
in his dictionary without a word of excuse or 
explanation ; all he says is that Barber ceased to 
practice as a solicitor in 1862, not a word attracting 
attention to the fact that he had searched and was 
unable to find any entry of his death at Somerset 
House, or, in fact, anywhere. It is possible, 
though improbable, he is alive now ; he was only 
born in 1807. The probability appears to be that 
he died about 1862 ; and it is presumed he must 
have died abroad, most likely in great poverty. 
There are other names in Mr. Boase's book with- 
out dates of death ; for example, Sir W. A. Con- 
greve, Mrs. Gibbs, the actress, and James Hol- 
land, the artist. Many names have been omitted, 
owing to there being no record of death. In the 
second volume, now printed to letter M, all such 
will be inserted if there is a reasonable probability 
that they are dead. 

Campion (George B. ? name) is said to be 
author of * The adventures of a chamois hunter,' 

8*8. IV. Jtai22,'9aj 



but without any date. None is given either in 
Redgrave's ' Dictionary of painters.' Can this 
work be identified ? 

F. S. Gary. The art school held by him in 
Bloomabury was well known for the number of 
good artists educated there. Its fame was made 
by the founder of it Sasse. It declined in Gary's 
time, so many public schools having started, and 
was shut up on his death. 

A feature in Mr. Boase's notices is that he fre- 
quently gives information never before given in 
similar works, as, for instance, the death of a 
widow or son ; also if anything is called after the 
subject of the notice ; so I have to suggest that in 
addition, under the name of Thomas Garlyle, it 
may be noted that a pier at Ghelsea has been 
named after him. I have some recollection of a 
story of an autograph collector who hit on the 
expedient of writing to know whether he might 
call a ship the " Thomas Garlyle," and he thus 
obtained an autograph he had long wanted. Was 
any ship ever so named ? 

Gaptain Gharles Ghapman died at Birmingham, 
December 22 (see the Echo of December 30), 1885, 
after Mr. Boase had printed that letter; but I 
should like to note the fact. He wrote a most 
useful and interesting work by-the-by not in the 
British Museum entitled * All about ship?/ being 
partly autobiography. 

Can any one say whether the one copy (of the 
10,000 printed) of Mrs. Mary Ann Clarke's book, 
which Mr. Boase says was deposited at a bank, is 
still there ; or has it also been destroyed ? 

What a curious circumstance that Mr. Cole 
should adopt the name of Galcraft as his stage 
name in 1824, and five years after Calcraft had 
become the common hangman. 

The drawings referred to by E. W. Cooke,R.A., 
of London Bridge, are at the Guildhall Art 
Gallery, where I am sorry to say they have not 
been taken so much care of lately as such valuable 
works should be. Some time ago they were placed 
against a damp wall, and both drawings and 
mounts are crumpled from the effects of this. 

T. P. Gooke has been my stumbling-block, and 
much delayed this note. Mr. Boase omits all 
mention of what eventually became of his bequest 
for "a nautical drama," and one of our best 
informed writers in the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' also seems to have missed seeing the 
reports in the newspapers some years ago, as he 
says that since 1866 " no more has been heard of 
the bequest." I wished to give the facts autho- 
ritatively, but I must give that up and be satisfied 
for the present with saying that all the facts as to 
the prize T. P. Cooke left for a nautical drama are 
fully recorded in the Chancery proceedings, now 
kept, I believe, at the Record Office. The bequest 
being a failure, was administered cy pres. Mr. 
Boase refers to several portraits, but he does not 

mention a large number in the Print Room of 
the British Museum of this celebrated actor in 
character, in all his parts; they form part of a most 
valuable series of contemporary Juvenile Theatre 
prints, published by W. West, unfortunately very 
incomplete, and probably never likely to be other- 
wise, as these prints were made to be destroyed, and 
were most effectually. They are seldom met with 
now, and if at all there are so many ardent col- 
lectors that they are enapped up at once. 

Under Catherine Ann Crowe, the authoress of 
( Susan Hopley,' we have facts and dates about 
her that are not to be found in any other publica- 
tion. Her full name and the dates of her birth 
and death, which defied Dr. Garnett's researches 
for the 'Diet. Nat. Biog., 1 are given from 
information obtained from her only son. 

Gushmam should be Gushman. 

Under Charles Dickens it might be mentioned 
that there is a tablet to his memory in Rochester 

Under Rev. A. Dyce his splendid bequest to 
South Kensington Museum is not mentioned. 

A very fine ship of the Orient line was named 
after John Elder. She was wrecked in 1892. 

Under Robert Harrild we are told that he pre- 
served the printing press on which Franklin 
worked in London, and that it is BOW in the Patent 
Office, Washington. There is also one at the 
Patents Museum, South Kensington. 

I conclude these remarks with Anne Humby, 
the actress, as it gives me an opportunity of again 
pointing out the enormous labour that has been 
devoted to these biographies. Only incidentally 
are we able to get an idea of this from entries such 
as the one under the above name, that she resided 
at Barnes 1854-60 or 1861, and must be dead (she 
was born 1800), but her name cannot be found in 
the Register of Deaths at Somerset House between 
1866 and 1887. RALPH THOMAS. 

Clifford's Inn. 


(Continued from p. 22.) 

It is impossible to accept the following letter as 
Sir Walter's. If its contents could be reconciled 
with his persistent denial of the various offences 
which are here confessed, the mention of his children 
would be sufficient proof to the contrary, for his 
younger eon Oarew was not yet born. It may be 
the work of a " forged accuser bought or sold,"* 
but this does not seem likely. Unless disproved 
at once, it would have saved Attorney-General 
Coke and Chief Justice Popham a world of 
trouble at Ralegh's trial on Nov. 17, 1603, only 
three and a half months after the alleged date of 
the letter. Whether it can be traced to any other 

Ralegh's ' Pilgrimage '; Cayley's ' Life/ ii. 159. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. O s. iv. JULY 22, -93. 

of the conspirators with fair probability, I ^arj 
feel competent to decide. The only one who doe 
not seem excluded 1 y one or other point of the 
internal evidence is George Brooke. The mention 
of the rack, howtver, is puzzling, for I have founc 
no evidence that it was employed in the case o 
any of these political prisoners. According tc 
Mr. Jardine,* " between the accession of Jame 
and the year 1620, three cases only of torture 
appear," in addition to that of Fawkes. Who is 
Sir Oalisthenes Brooke, and who Monsieur de 
Laye? Is this last name possibly a misreading 
for D la Fayl, a friend of Arenbergh's, intro- 
duced by him to Cobham (Edwards, i. 358) : 

A L're supposed to bee written by S r Walter Rawleigh 
dated the first of August: 1603. 

High and mightie Prince, Obedyence is better then 
Sacriffyce, and Charetye Beleiveth tbinges, r.ot Judginge 
a misse; (vertit Amarum in Amorem,) I aubmitte to 
> or gratious mercye, wishinge that 1 never had Ivyed to 
Breath uppon the grounde, ffor that I beinge inffectec 
tv" the gall of Bittemesse. Magua his dissease, extreme,! 
was a Thirstye Lande, tyll I had disgorged my etomache 
of that Blacke swolne venyme, that in the ende Bringeth 
mee, to this open, and dampned Cryme, The Proverbe is 
juatlye veriffyed of mee fforffex Cadit cum eeceat [atc]J 
ffullonem Butt Religion willeth Christiana to fforgive 
it ; Att my last beinge uppon the Racke, (my gratious 
Prince) I beinge urged to Confesae the Truth of this 
Bloodye ffacte, I had not my Sperittes in that fframe, 
nor my Conscyence moved w th the true Sorrowe of this my 
Crime, as no we it is, w ch I Beseech ffirst god to fforgive 
it, And, that y r Mae would lett mee have the just Re- 
warde ffor this my haynoua Cryme, Butt not to linger in 
this lyfe any longer: 

I doe Confesse that I was allwayes an hinderance to 
the Publication of the Right that belonged to yo r Birth, 
Butt sought by sinister and Machivillian pollecye, both 
w to Purse, and Countenaunce to Roote out, and dis- 
member all that were Agents and wellwillera to yo r 
Royall Ma ti e And the maine Piller of Essex overthrowe, 
And where it was layde to my charge that I Receyved 
L'rea ffrom the Duke of Austria, ffor the puttinge of 
yo r grace awaye, true it was, And after that, my Lord 
Cobham Receyved the lyke, and procured mee in the 
Acc'on, And for any that was acquainted \v th it, more 
then I have Revealed, I knowe none, Butt S r Calisthenes 
Brooke, whom through my madnes I had fforg.itten, As 
for my Lord Cicell, I durst never give him any Light of 
my intention, I crave and humblye Beseech yo r grace, 
to lett mee bee putt to death, ffor that I am'e so hated 
of the Com'unaltye, All that I crave of yo r Grace ; is to be 
good to my wyfe and Children, And that I maye no 
more goe to the Racke, ffor I have, and will willinglye 
disclose, whatsoever I cann, that maye bee hurteffull to 
yo r grace, or to this Lande: 

My late L'res sent to yo r Ma conscerninge Mour,s r 
de Laye, was of my Lord Graye, his eendinge, and 
Convayed by Wattson, to the BPP of London his Chap- 
leyne; I loath my Lyfe, yett desier of god, that yo r 
grace maye fflouriahe uppon earth lyke the Olyve Tree; 

* ' Life and Correspondence of Francis Eicon ' (J. P. 
Foard), 1861, p. 562. 

f Query? The word appears to be "extren." 
j Should be secat or secet. I have not been able to 
trace this proverb. It ia literally, "The scissors fall 
[into disgrace?] when they cut the fuller"; akin to our 
' It is dangerous playing v ith edged tools." . 

and may rest in that happie eternitye ffor ever; ffrom 
the Tower this ffirst of August: 1603. 


(To le continued.) 

SERAPH. In the "Errata and Addenda" to the 
second edition of his 'Etymological Dictionary' 
Prof. Skeat departs from his previous acceptance of 
the signification of this word proposed by Geseniup, 
and adopts the view expressed by Prof. Cheyne in 
his work on ' The Prophecies of Isaiah,' that it is 
connected with the serpentine form of lightning, 
and this chiefly because the same word is taken to 
mean fiery serpent in Numbers xxi. 8. It ia 
possible, however, that the identity is accidental, 
for all languages have words which are identical in 
form but very different in origin and signification. 
But what I wish to call attention to is that it does 
not appear at all certain that the Hebrew word as 
used in Numbers includes the meaning of ser- 
pent. In .Numbers xxi. 6 the ordinary word for 
serpent (&%}) is joined with it ; in verse 8, that 
word may be understood or have been omitted in 
transcription. In verse 9 we are told that Moses 
obeyed the command by making a serpent the 
ordinary word Nachash (^H}) of brass, a word 
resembling the other in Hebrew and by which the 
brazen serpent was called in the time of Hezekiah, 
who destroyed it. Also in the book of Deuteronomy 
"viii. 15) the word seraph occurs, and is applied to 
the serpents in the wilderness, but apparently as 
an epithet, the word for serpent being joined with 
t, so that its own meaning seems to be confined 
to that of " burning " or " burning ones." 

In Isaiah vi. it is difficult not to feel that angelic 
>eings are intended by the seraphim, or to connect 
them with the serpentine form of lightning, though 
>robably dazzling brightness, and the appearance 
>f lightning in that sense is intended. The word 
eraph is found in two other places in Isaiah, and 
here, as in the passages in Numbers and 
Deuteronomy referred to above, it may be con- 
lected with serpents. But in these it does not 
tand alone. In Isaiah xiv. 29 (Prof. Cheyne by 
a slip or misprint gives the reference to xvi. 29) 
he original of the last clause means his fruit shall 
>e a fiery one (seraph), a flving one, and serpent is 
upplied from what goes before. Similarly in 
saiah xxx. 6 the words, as they stand, correspond 
o " the viper and the fiery [seraph] flying one," 
o that here, again, if serpent be intended, it is 
ather supplied than expressed. Gesenius remarks 
bat though heat one time favoured the conjecture 
f the identity of the word for burning (serpent) 
nd serapb, he afterwards came to the conclusion 
bat it must be rejected. Prof. Cheyne closes his 
emarks by saying that he " cannot agree with 
/ount Baudissin that the coincidence of the 
eavenly seraphim with 'the serpents' is acci- 

8" S. IV. JOLT 22, '93.] 



dental." Perhaps we may be permitted t hold a 
different opinion. W. T. LYNN. 


lowing MS. account of my ancestor Abraham 
Darby and of the early history of his family is, I 
think, deserving of a place in *N. & Q. ; It has 
never before been printed, and will add a little to 
the account appearing in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography.' It is styled "Some Accounts 
of the Family of the Darbys, being what Hannah 
Rose has heard her parents John and Grace 
Thomas say concerning them." 

" John Darby was a farmer and lived at a house called 
the Wren's Nest, near Dudley, in Worcestershire ; had, 
by bis first wife, one son and one daughter named Abra- 
ham and Esther. By his second no child. He put his 
son apprentice to Jonathan Freeth malt mill maker at 
Birmingham, and while he was there the said A. D., and 
one or two of his master's sons, had a^gift in the Ministry 
{i.e., became ministers in the Society of Friends]. I think 
I have heard that there were four in the same shop, that 
worked together, all public ; and used to sit together one 
evening in the week. After he waa out of his time he 
married Mary Serjeant. [She was eldest daughter of 
Thomas and Ellen Serjeant, sometime of Fulford Heath, 
in Splihull, where she was born 28 xii., 1677; the 
marriage took place at the Friends' Meeting House at 
Birmingham, 18 rii., 1699.] Her parents were white- 
ners of wick yarn, and by some accident she fell into 
the Furnace, when it was boiling ; and, when taken out 
they thought her dead, or near it. They laid her on the 
hearth before the fire, and she began to come to herself, 
and after some time told how it was with her at the 
time that she was in appearance dead. She thought 
there came two angelaall in white, and took her to a very 
fine place, finer than she had ever seen in thia World, and 
she desired to stay there, it was such a glorious place. 
But they told her she must return to the world again, 
and if she lived a eober religious life till the end of her 
time she might come there again. She had two uncles, 
Moses and Joshua Serjeant, both public Friends. Before 
this accident she was a very strong, hearty young woman, 
but after, when she was married, was troubled with an 
asthmatic complaint, and if her husband was from home, 
would eit up all night, and sleep by the fire. A. D., after 
his marriage, went to settle at Bristol, at the malt mill 
business. They had eight daughters, Mary, Ann, Hannah, 
Sarah, two Esthers, Septima, cannot tell the name of the 
other. Mary, when about nineteen years of age, married 
Richard Ford ; Ann married John Hawkins ; Hannah 
jived to woman's estate and died of small-pox. Sarah 
lived till she was about fourteen or fifteen years, and 
Jen died. The rest died young. While A. D. was at 
istol he went over to Holland and hired some Dutch- 
en and set up the brass works at Baptist Mills. His 
^tners were Edward Lloyd, Benjamin Cool, Arthur 
homas, and John Andrew. A. D., who was the acting 
man began in 1706. After some time, he had a mind to 
set the Dutchmen to try and cast iron pots in sand, 
tried several times, but could not do it, so he was at 
: loss paying wages, &c., for nothing. At length John 
aas, my father, then a young man who came on trial, 
to learn the trade of malt mill making, seeing the 
tc , hm . en try and could not bring it to perfection 
jsked his master to let him try. So with his leave, he 
aid it ; aad afterwards his master and he were bound in 
articles, m the year 1707, that John Thomas should be 

bound to work at that business, and keep it a secret, and 
not teach anybody else for three years. They were so 
private as to stop the keyhole. After a few years, A. 
Darby wanting to enlarge the brassworks, and his 
partners not being willing, he drew his share aut of it, 
and hearing of an ironwork at Coalbrookdale, in Shrop- 
shire, he went and settled there about the year 1709 or 
1710; but there not being a house suitable for his family, 
be took part of a large house called Madeley Court for- 
merly belonging to Esquire Brook, who waa lord of the 
manor and owner of all Madeley parish except two little 

farms A. D. had four sons born there, Abraham, 

Edmund, John, and another, name forgot, [it wag Ser- 
jeant.] The two last died young. The house above 
named being more than a mile from Coalbrookdale, and 
there being but three houses in that place [it is a town 
now], and one of them belonging to Lawrence Wellington 

.he began to build himself a house in the year 1715 

[this was Dale House, still standing] ; but he did not 
live to see it quite finished ; he likewise builded another 
blast furnace below the old one, and an air-furnace, with 
two dwelling-houses over, and sent for his father and 
mother [stepmother] John and Joan Darby to live in one 
of them. She was blind, yet could do many things about 
the house and spin very good cloth. She died there, but 
John, after the death of his wife, went to live with his 
daughter Esther, who was married to Anthony Parker, 

a sober, honest man, a farmer Before they came to 

that farm they lived at Dawley, and there wag a dis- 
pute about a road, which a neighbour of theirs claimed 
a right to. He wag a farmer, and A. D. had a gang of 
horses to carry iron-stone that went that way ; and one 
day the man fell into a passion and said he wished he 
might ' never speak more if the Quaker's horses should 
go through his ground,' and he never did speak more, 

although he lived several years after When A. D. 

first came to the Dale he had big brother-in-law Thomas 
Baylis, who married Mary Darby's sister, Hannah, to be 
a clerk under him ; he proved a very bad man, borrowed 
money in A. D.'s name and my father was cheated as 
well as some others by him. Richard Ford, being a clerk 
and marrying A. D.'s daughter, and buying a share in 
the works, got Anthony Parker to turn him out. He 
after went to America, set up ironworks there, and called 
them Coalbrookdale, but did not behave himself there. 
When A. D. first came to the Dale he and my father used 
to go once a month to Newport and meet William Os- 
b >rne from Wolverhampton, and held meetings near an 
inn I think it was the Swan and many of the in- 
habitants would come and behave sober and attentive. 
The last meeting that he was at, was in the new house 
at Coalbrookdale ; it was not quite finished, and so not 
inhabited; it waa held in the room called the best parlour, 
and he was greatly favoured in prayer. My father and 
mother said they 'never heard him so fine before,' but 
tie was too ill to sit the meeting out, and did not live 
long after. He died at Madeley Court, and waa brought 
to the new house to be buried from there at Broseley." 

Abraham Darby, the inventor there have been 
nine Abraham Durbys in all was, as above stated, 
ihe only son of John Darby by his first wife Ann 
Baylis, whom he married 16 ii., 1676. John 
Darby was second son of another John Darby, of 
the parish of Sedgley, co. Stafford where he was 
born in 1649 by Margaret his wife. John Darby 
the elder, together with his three sons, Edward, 
John, and Thomas, were all members of the 
Society of Friends in 1670. 

Eden Bridge. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* & iv. JULY 22. '93. 

u BAGGAQELY/' Only two quotations are given 
in the * New English Dictionary ' for this uncom- 
mon word, they are dated 1573 and 1583. Adam 
Littleton, however, nearly a hundred years later, 
uses the word in his ' Latin e Dictionary,' 1678. 
He has : " Flirt or jilly flirt, a baggagely woman. 
Scortillum." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

lines, "Sound, sound the clarion, fill the fife," &c. f 
have been on the carpet of ' N. & Q.' more than 
once during the last few years. The following 
passage, which I have lately met with in Ariosto, 
may interest those of your readers who may be un- 
acquainted with it. Ariosto was a favourite poet 
of Sir Walter's, and it is possible that Scott may 
have had the Italian poet's lines more or less con- 
sciously in his mind when writing his own noble 
quatrain. The reference is to Melissa, Atlantes, 
and Huggiero. (It may be called a reversed 
parallelism) : 

Ella non gli era facile, e talmente 
Fattane cicca di sever chio amore 
Che, come facea Atlanta, solamente 
A dargli vita avesse posto il core. 
Quel piuttosto volea eke lungamenta 
Vivesse eenza fama e senza onore 
Che con tutta la lode eke sia al mondo 
Mancasse un anno al suo viver giocondo. 

' Orlando Furioso,' canto vii. 43. 


A CURIOUS TOMB. In the flower garden at 
Longner Hall, Shropshire, the seat of the Burton 
family, there stands a large altar-shaped tomb of 
brown sandstone, of the same form and material as 
may be seen in old parish burying-grounds in this 
country and Scotland. The inscription reads as 
follows : 

Here lyeth the body of Edward Burton, E q., 
who died Anno Domini 1558. 

Was't for denying Christ, or some notorious fact, 

That this man's body Christian burial lackt? 

O, no, not so; his faithful, true profession 

Was the true cause, which then was held trangression. 

When Popery here did reign, the see of Rome 

Would not admit to any such a tomb 

Within her idol temple walls, but he 

Truly professing Christianity, 

Was like Christ Jesus in a garden laid, 

Where he shall rest in peace, till it be said, 

Come, faithful servant, come, receive with me 

A just reward for thine integrity. 

Having copied the inscription, I inquired about 
the circumstances of the interment and the author 
of the epitaph, and learned these particulars. Mr. 
Edward Burton, the squire of Longner, had adopted 
the Reformed religion, and was consequently op- 
posed to Queen Mary and her religious advisers. 
He was in delicate health, and one day when 
seated in his house at Longner he heard the church 
bells in Shrewsbury break out a-ringing. Mr. 
Burton thought this was in consequence of Mary's 
death, and in his anxiety to learn the truth he sent 

off his son, a lad of fourteen, to ride into Shrews- 
bury to inquire, and to ride back with the news ; 
and, that the squire might not be kept so long in 
suspense, he told his son to ride to a point on the 
opposite bank of the Severn, a view of which was 
commanded by the windows of the house, and to 
wave his hat if this news was true. After some 
time the boy appeared at the appointed place and 
waved his hat. The excitement was too much for 
Mr. Burton, who then fell down and died. Mr. Bur- 
ton's body was refused burial at the family burying- 
place, which was then in the hands of persons 
opposed to him in religion, so the funeral party 
returned, and buried the squire in his own garden. 
Nearly a hundred years later this monument was 
built, and the elegy upon it was composed by Sir 
Andrew Corbet, a neighbour and intimate friend 
of the family. W. H. PATTERSON. 


PANSIES. Miss Yonge, who knows so many 
things, and who has probably only by a slip of the 
pen rendered Stiefmutter by mother-in-law, says 
of pansies : 

" The Germans regard them as the Siiefmuiter, show- 
ing the mother-in-law predominant in purple velvet, her 
own two daughters gay in purple and yellow, the two 
poor little Cinderellaa, more soberly and scantily attired, 
squeezed in between." ' An Old Woman's Outlook,' 
p. 205. 

How does this answer to the conditions of a 
pansy ? If the two large upper petals represent 
the injusta noverca's own daughters, it is strange 
that there should be so strong a likeness between 
her and the step-children and that they should 
cling to her more closely than her own offspring 
appear to do. Perhaps culture has done some- 
thing to efface the peculiarity on which Miss 
Yonge remarks. ST. SWITHIN. 

architect Cottingham had a remarkable museum, 
which was dispersed in 1850. Among other appro- 
priations, this collector of articles of vertu carried 
away the original font of St. Patrick's, Armagh. It 
had been buried in troublous times, and was dis- 
covered in 1810, and abstracted by Cottingham 
thirty years afterwards. A copy of it was pre- 
sented by Archbishop Beresford to his cathedral ; 
but the acquisition of the original would be a boon 
for Ireland and her primatial see. 



SJIAKSPEARK.' All students of Shakespere have 
found the 'Concordance' compiled by Mrs. Cowden 
Clarke of great help to them. It relates to the 
plays only. I have heard that the work has been 
completed in America by a concordance to the 
sonnets and other poems. This latter work I can- 
not criticize, for I have never seen it. Mrs. Cow- 

S. IV. JULY 22, '93.] 


den Clarke's book was excellent for its day, for 
then the Globe edition had not appeared, with the 
lines numbered. Useful as it was and is, the 
student is still put to the great labour of hunting 
through the whole of a long scene to discover the 
passage which he wants. Would it not be possible 
to find some industrious person who would remake 
the work of Mrs. Cowden Clarke, embodying with 
it the American concordance, so that we might 
have a complete index to our greatest poet with a 
reference to the line in which every thought 
occurs ? The labour would, from what publishers 
have told me, in all probability pay its expenses. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

coronation robes, kept at Westminster Abbey, are 
of cloth of gold, showing an eagle woven in. The 
robes are traditional. How old is the eagle ; and 
whence did he come ? D. 


and women of letters. 

the Hanoverian State Papers at the British 
Museum, a collection left by M. Robethon, private 
secretary to William III. and afterwards to the 
Elector of Havover, is a sheet with the following 
verses (Stowe MSS. 222 f. 124). The paper is 
endorsed in Robethon's hand, " Esops-tale, 1701, 
par le S r Prior," but the verses are not in Prior's 
handwriting. I do not find the epigram among 
Prior's published works, and should be interested 
to learn whether any of your correspondents have 
seen it before : 

In Esop's tales an honest wrecth [sic] we find, 
Whose years & comforts equally declin'd, 
He in two wives had two domestick ills, 
For different age they had and different wills, 
One pluckt his black hairs out and one his grey 
The man for quietness did both obey, 
Till all the parish saw his head quite bare, 
And thought he wanted sense as well as hair. 
The parties Henpeckt William are thy wives, 
The hairs they pluckt are thy prerogatives. 
Tories thy person hate, & Wiggs thy power, 
And much thou yeildest and they hugg for more, 
Till this poor Man and thou alike art shown, 
He without hairs and thou without a Crown. 


51, Princes Gate, S.W. 


"CLEAR THE LOBBY." When a division has 
been finally decided upon in the House of Com- 
mons and the doors have been locked, the Serjeant- 
at-Arms, through a little wicket, directs the chief 
doorkeeper to " clear the lobby," and all strangers 
have immediately to withdraw while the division 
is in progress. An early instance of clearing the 
lobby, though not for this specified purpose, is thus 
recorded in the 'Commons' Journals' (vii. 644): 

"Resolved, &c. That all Strangers be commanded 
forthwith to depart out of the Lobby, or outward Room, 
before the Parliament-Door ; and that none but such as 
are Members of the House be suffered to come in ; and 
the Door of the said outward Room be kept shut." 

The date was Friday, April 22, 1659 ; the 
occasion was a memorable one, for it was the last 
sitting of Richard Cromwell's Parliament. 


article on the mother of Isabella II. , in which it is 
stated, " She was a most affectionate mother to a 
child who preceded her marriage with the King ol 
Spain and to her offspring by Mufioz, a serjeant of 
the Guard when she fell in love with him." Also, 
" she connived with Louis Philippe, for the sake of 
the ante-nuptial son and the Muii >z family, at the 
marriage of her daughter Isabella II. with the 
infant Don Francisco." Is there any truth in this 
statement that the famous Queen Regent had a 
natural child before her marriage? If so, what 
became of him or her ? The writer of this article 
alludes to it as if it had held a somewhat pro- 
minent position. The Munoz offspring are, of 
course, well known and have been alluded to in 
these pages. Christina married Munoz after the 
death of the king. 

Hardwick House, Bury St. Edmunds. 

COPE FAMILY. Can any reader state where 
John Cope (died 1649), of Chiseldon, Wilts, yeo- 
man, and Oliver Cope (died 1657), citizen and 
carpenter, of London, were born and baptized? 
Believed to be sons of John Cope, of Marden, Wilts, 
who was stated to be the son of Edward Cope, 
who was son of Sir Anthony Cope, of Bedhampton, 
knt. My Cope MSS. want confirmation in above. 

181, Coldharbour Lane, S.E. 

I shall be grateful if some collector will kindly 
inform me direct whether in the voluminous cor- 
respondence left by Sir John Banks there is men- 
tion of the horn-book. The smallest scrap of 
information might throw light where light is 
needed. ANDREW W. TQER. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

RICHARD OLIVER, Alderman of Billingsgate and 
M.P. for the City of London, was committed to 
the Tower by order of the House of Commons on 
March 26, 1771. He resigned his gown in No- 
vember, 1778, and retired from Parliament at the 
dissolution in September, 1780. He is said to 
have had property in the West Indies. I shall be 


NOTES AND QUERIES. C8-s.iv.j0Li 22, -as. 

glad to learn the date of his death and any further 
particulars about him not contained in the ' Parlia- 
mentary History ' or in Walpole's c Memoirs of the 
Reign of George III.' When did he die ? 

G. F. R. B. 

THE KINO'S BENCH. 1. When and where was he 
born? 2. Where was he educated? 3. When 
did his first wife die ; and what was her maiden 
name ? 4. Foss says that Page was the author of 
some political pamphlets, but there are none under 
his name in the ' Brit. Mus. Cat.' Can any reader 
of ' N. & Q. ' supply me with a list of them ? To 
save trouble and space I may add that I am familiar 
with Wing's ' Annals of Steeple Aston and Middle 
Aston.' and the references to Page in former num- 
bers of <N. & Q.' G. F. R. B. 

SMALLBRIDGE, SUFFOLK. A small estate of 
this name belonged to Mr. Edward Bur man Adams 
(born 1794, 06. 1833), having came to him from 
the Burman family. Where is it situated 1 The 
directories do not help me in my search. I am 
aware of the Smallbridge in Lancashire. 


"SKOUSE." This word occurs in connexion with 
some lands abutting on the town wall of Col- 
chester. It is described as " near the Lantern or 
Skouse in the Town Wall," and the writing is 
very clear and distinct. The date of the manu- 
script is 1671. What is the meaning of skouse ? 



"TRIOLOGUE." Is this a new and legitimate 
word? I do not find it in Webster. My first acquaint- 
ance with it dates from a few weeks back, when I 
came across it in the weekly journal called the Sketch 
(June 28, p. 475). Some time ago I also came 
upon interlogue, but regret that I have mislaid the 
reference. S. J. A. F. 

ROBERTSON FAMILY. In the catalogue of the 
celebrated Auchinleck Library, disposed of by 
Messrs. Sotheby June 23 to 26, was an entry : 

" Robertson (J.), Poems, calf, 1773. Jas. Robertson 
was a comedian in the York Company, a favourite of his 
audiences in old comick characters. I saw him play at 
York, and called on him, and had him sit with me a 
while at a Coffee House. See MS. note in extenso by 
Jaa. Boswell, on fly-leaf." 

Was this James Robertson related to a Mr. G. 
Robertson, printer at Peterborough at the latter 
end of last century ? Are any representatives of 
the family now living? Any further notes re- 
specting the family will be greatly esteemed. 



HUGH O'CONNOR-KERRY. It is stated in the 
pedigrees of the Geraldines that John Fitz-Thomas 

Geraldine (slain at Callan in 1260) married 
(secondly) Honora, daughter of Hugh O'Connor 
of Kerry. Where can I find the pedigree of this 
Hugh, connecting him with the main stem of the 
ancient Princes of Kerry, from which, no doubt, he 
sprung? Of course in the Irish accounts he 
would be called Aedb, not Hugh. X. Y. Z. 

COL. TORRENS. Who was Col. Torrens, living 
at Mulgrave House, Fulham, 1811 ? Any bio- 
graphical details will oblige. 


49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

SHIRE, I should like to know what became of this 
family after the fall of their fortunes in the '45. 
The last laird saved his head by escaping to France. 
What family had he ; and where did they reappear 
when the troubles of the period blew over ? 

J. G. R. 

your readers inform me where I can find the most 
detailed account of the various attacks and final 
subjugation of Sicily by the Saracens ; more par- 
ticularly the history of the internal dissension* 
amongst the Saracens, which led to the downfall 
of their power? Also details respecting Ibn 
Thimna, of Syracuse, and his political history, 
especially as regards his invitation to the Normans. 


COST OF BRITISH TITLES. I should be grate- 
ful if any of your readers would kindly inform me 
of the direct and the indirect charges made to indi- 
viduals who receive such distinctions as the various 
grades of knighthood, orders of the Bath, Garter, 
&c., baronetcy, peerages up to dukedoms, &c. ; 
also by what legal power and Acts of Parliament, 
if any, such fees are sanctioned, and to whom 
they are made payable. 


30, Sussex Square, Brighton. 

[The greater portion, if not the whole, of the cere- 
monial fees rest only upon custom, and there are cases 
where they have been successfully refused.] 

REDRUTH. The market charter of this town 
(15 Charles II.) ends, " Eo q'd expressa menc'o, 
&c. In cujus rei, &c., Teste Rege." What are 
the phrases represented by the two "&c."? It 
grants (inter alia) two "ferias sive mmdinas." 
What is the difference between feria and nundince ? 

T. C. P. 

BARN." I write to know why, when a house is 
nearly finished, and, as is customary, a flag is 
hoisted, there should be placed in the win- 
dow of the said house a notice to this effect: 

The Sonnites and Shutes. 

8 th S. IV JULY 22, '$ 



" To-night Maria Martin and the Red Barn. " 
have several times seen it in the county where the 
murder took place ; but a little while ago I saw i 
similar notice in the window of a half-fmishec 
house here, in Faversham, Kent. I have never 
been able to get an explanation of this, so make 
bold to write to you. C. E. DJNNE. 

P.S. About three weeks ago a son of Corder's 
died in a lunatic asylum. I am told that the 
cottage is in existence where the mother had the 
dream, but that the Bed Barn has been recently 
pulled down. 

" SPRING-HEELED JACK." Can any one give an 
accurate description of this creature (or was it a 
practical joker?) and its methods ? Did it have, 
as is supposed, springs in its heels ; and is it seen 
outside this or the adjoining county ? It is said 
to have visited this district several years ago, and 
was described as a hideous, tall, white (sometimes 
black) thing, which took great leaps or strides 
along the roads and over hedge,terrifying people, 
but not otherwise molesting them. It was a 
different creature from "Jack o' Lantern," com- 
mon in our marshy " broad " districts. 

Blythburgh House, South Town, Great Yarmouth. 

[See ' Notices to Correspondents,' 8 th S. Hi. 429.] 

MONTAIGNE. What is the source of the beauti- 
ful lines on the sun in Montaigne's ' Apologie de 
Raimond Sebond ' ? 

La lumiere commune, 

L'wil du monde ; et si Dieu au chef porte des yeulx, 
Les rayons du soleil sont ses yeulx radieux, 
Qui donnent vie a touts, nous maintiennent et gardent, 
Et les faicts des humains en ce monde regardent : 
Ce beau, ce grand soleil qui nous faict les saisons, 
Selon qu'il entre ou sort de ses douzea maisons; 
Qui remplit 1'univers de ses vertues cogneues; 
Qui d'un traict de ses yeulx nous dissipe les nues : 
L'eaprit, Tame du monde ardent et flamboyant, 
En la course d'un jour tout le ciel tournojant : 
Plein d'immense grandeur, rond, vagab >nd, et ferme ; 
Lequel tient dessoubs luy tout le monde pour terme : 
En repos, sans repos ; oyeif et sans sejour ; 
Filaaisne de nature et le pere du jour. 


Daily Tdegraph of Monday, March 20, alludes to 
a story I have often heard. As it was told to me, 
Hugh Peters proposed " to destroy all the national 
scords and begin afresh." The Daily Telegraph 
leader writer is more explicit. He says that this 
strange fanatic desired "to make one huge heap of 
the national records and burn them in Smithfield." 
We are further told that William Prynne, the 
earless utter barrister, opposed this mad notion, 
and that it "was vetoed by the Lord Protector 
Cromwell." What is the truth of this? I 

1 am evolved from the wor 

not utterly ignorant of the contemporary literature iDg3 can be suggested ? 
of the disturbed time between 1640 and 1660. bat M^; aft w 

I do not call to mind anything which confirms 
these tales. Hugh Peters was a man of wild 
opinion?, carried away by every breath of the wind 
of that stormy time. It is not impossible that the poor 
man may have said something wild ; but where is 
the proof that he did say this ? It must be remem- 
bered that when the Restoration came about, and 
the man had expiated his follies by a death too 
horrible to contemplate calmly, his name became 
the butt of Court wits and Court slanderers, and 
that many sayings are credited to him in the foul 
literature of the days of Charles II. of which we 
may be sure he was quite innocent. ASTARTE. 

JOHN FENWICKE. In the book of affidavits for 
licences of marriage in the Court of Registry of the 
Bishop of London is the following entry: 

" April 29, 1732, fp. 232. Appeared personally John 
Fenwicke of the parish of Camberwell in the county of 
Surrey Bachelor aged 39, and alleged that he intendeth 
to marry with Elizabeth Howard of the same parish 
spinster aged 30 year?." 

In the registers of the parish of St. Mar- 
tin's in the Fields : " April 30, 1732. 
John Fenwicke and Elizabeth Howard both 
of Camberwell were married." Can any of 
your readers inform me who were the father 
and mother of this John Fenwicke? He 
appears to have been in the Navy, and was in 
command of the Etna fire-ship at the attack on 
arthagena, March 9, 1741, and was buried at 
Dulwicb, February 1, 1744. 0. H. J. G. 

' WASHINGTON.' In Nile's Register for Novem- 
ber 29, 1817, 1 find the following note : 

" A letter from a young American, dated at Valencia, 
n Spain, says tbV, attracted by the word ' Washington ' 
n the playbills, he attended the theatre and witnessed 
a comedy truly American. The plot is taken from the 
circumstance of the General's threatening retaliation on 
iis British prisoners, which deterred the British com- 
mander from inflicting death on a number of American 
fficerB, prisoners of war. The play was well written and 
xcellently performed. During the performance an 
llumination scene took place, and in the most con- 
picuous part of the stage appeared, in large transparent 
letters, ' Vive Washington.' " 

Can any of your readers give me the full title 
of this play and the incident in Washington's 
career it purports to describe ? 

Washington, D.C. 

"AMOROUS." What is the meaning of the 
word amorous in the couplet ? 

But I, that am not shaped for sportive tricks, 
Nor ma le to court an amorous looking-glass. 

'Richard III./ I. i. 

Schmidt sayp, " a looking-glass which reflects a 
face fond of itself." But how can this meaning be 
evolved from the words ; and what other mean- 

between 1640 and 1660, but Madison, Wis. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. JULT 22, w. 


(8 tt S. iii. 422.) 

MR. WOODALL has had the usual experience of 
Englishmen seeking information in Ireland, for 
which, as a county Wexford man, I am very sorry. 
May I correct some of the errors in his note I 

1. Scullabogue House cannot be anything like 
two hundred years old. It is difficult to fix the 
age of that class of Irish country house. But 
putting aside those originally castles or monas- 
teries, there are only one or two houses left in the 
county of that age. 

2. The building on Vinegar BUI that MB. 
WOODALL calls the " old historic windmill," and 
describes and has had photographed, is not a 
windmill at all. It is a small, circular, roofless 
tower, built some forty years ago on the site of, and 
with stones from, the old windmill, which I well 
remember. MR. WOODALL will now understand 
why he failed to find the doorway mentioned by 
Taylor, and why Enniscorthians are not put out 
by the state of repair of this " historic relic." 

3. The old roads over which the rebels moved 
on Gorey and Arklow still exist, but they would 
be carefully avoided by drivers. 

4. In MR. WOOD ALL'S "word as to the his- 
torians of the rebellion " he makes no reference to 
Gordon, the most truthful and accurate of them 
all (see the testimony of Mr. Lecky, vol. viii. 
pp. 80, 81); but I do not like to deal with the 
historical part of MR. WOODALL'S note, beyond 
saying that I hope he does not think Cruikshank's 
celebrated drawings for Maxwell's ' History ' have 
any historical value. T. L. W. 

Lincoln's Inn. 

Your correspondent has indeed contributed an 
interesting account of his visit at the present day 
to the scenes of this memorable rebellion, and 
given high praise no more than they deserve to 
Cruikshank's graphic etchings in W. H. Maxwell's 
' History of the Irish Rebellion of 1798.' It may 
be said that some of Cruikshank's best work is 
enshrined in the volume ; notably may be instanced 
the * Surprise of the Barrack at Prosperous,' the 
'Camp on Vinegar Hill' (perhaps the chef-d'ceuvre), 
the 'Massacre at Scullabogue,' the 'Capture of 
Colclough and Harvey,' which are beautifully clear 
and distinct, while the expression of the features 
is remarkably good and well defined. There are 
also in the book some excellent engraved portraits 
of celebrities by other artists. The copy in my 
library is an original edition, which I took in 
numbers when a boy, and was, I remember, issued 
in 1845, in green wrappers, having depicted on 
them a beautiful design representing Britannia and 
Hibernia weeping. The text by no means corre- 
sponds to or equals the illustrations, as nearly 

the whole of the best matter is printed in the 
notes, which are chiefly taken from Musgrave's 
'Memoirs' and other authorities. Appended is 
an 'Account of Emmet's Insurrection in 1803/ 
and on the title-page is inscribed the following 
quotation from Shakespeare : 

Take heed 

How you awake the sleeping eword of war ; 

We charge you in the name of God take heed ! 

For never two such kingdoms did contend, 

Without much fall of blood. 

Sir Jonah Barrington, whom your correspondent 
styles " cynical," is largely quoted and referred to 
as an authority. A far stronger epithet might, 
perhaps, be more justly applied. Once being in 
company with a very clever, able Irishman, and 
discussing the Eebellion of 1798, I asked how 
much of Barrington's accounts and stories might 
be credited. The answer, from one most competent 
to form an opinion was, " Probably one-third may 
be true." 

At the trial of O'Connell in 1843-4, the Attor- 
ney-General, the Right Hon. Thomas Berry Cuaack 
Smith, "recited with great effect" the song called 
' The Memory of the Dead/ which had appeared 
in the Nation newspaper, beginning: 
Who fears to speak of Ninety-Eight 1 

Who blushes at the name ] 
When cowards mock the patriot's fate, 
Who hangs his head for shame 1 

At that date there were many alive in Ireland who 
could remember '98. There is a good account of 
this cause celebre in ' Modern State Trials,' by 
W. C. Townsend, Q.C., vol. ii. pp. 392-550. 

Newbourue Rectory, Woodbridge. 

iii. 466). To name one man as the inventor of the 
lucifer match could only result from such ignor- 
ance of the subject as was displayed by the Bap- 
tist Reporter for June, 1859. The lucifer match 
has attained its present high state of perfection by 
a long series of inventions of various degrees of 
merit, the most important of which resulted from 
the progress of chemical science. 

Starting from the ingenious tinder-box and fyr- 
stan of our Saxon ancestors, the first attempt, so- 
far as I know, to improve on the old sulphur 
match was made in 1805 by Chancel, a French 
chemist, who tipped cedar splints with a paste of 
chlorate of potash and sugar. On dipping one 
of these matches into a little bottle containing 
asbestos wetted with sulphuric acid, and withdraw- 
ing it, it burst into flame. This contrivance was 
introduced into England some time after the 
battle of Waterloo, and was sold at a high price, 
under the name of Prometheans. I remember 
being struck with amazement when I saw a match, 
thus ignited. 

Some time after thi?, a man named Heurtner 

8 tb S. IV. JULY 22, '93.] 



opened a shop on the south side of the Strand, 
opposite the church of St. Clement Dane. It 
was named the Lighthouse, and he added this 
inscription to the mural literature of London : 
" To save your knuckles, time and trouble, 

Use Heurtner'a Euperion." 

An ornamental open moiree metallique box, 
containing fifty matches and the sulphuric acid 
asbestos bottle, was sold for a shilling. It had a 
large sale, and wa&.known in the kitchen as the 
Hugh Perry. Heurtner also brought out vesuvians, 
consisting of a cartridge containing chlorate of 
potash and sugar and a glass bead full of sul- 
phuric acid. On pressing the end with a pair of 
nippers, the bead was crushed and the paste burst 
into flame. This contrivance was afterwards more 
fully and usefully employed for firing the gun- 
powder in the railway fog-signals. 

We now come to Walker. He was a druggist at 
Stockton-on-Tees, and in 1827 produced what he 
called congreves, never making use of the word 
lucifer, which was not yet applied to matches. 
His splints were first dipped in sulphur and then 
tipped with the chlorate of potash paste, in which 
gum was substituted for sugar, and there was 
added a small quantity of sulphide of antimony. 
The match was ignited by being drawn through a 
fold of sand-paper, with pressure; but it often 
happened that the tipped part was torn off without 
igniting, or, if ignited, it sometimes scattered balls 
of fire about, burning the carpet, and even igniting 
a lady's dress. These matches were held to be so 
dangerous that they were prohibited by law in 
France and Germany. 

The first grand improvement in the manufacture 
took place in 1833, by the introduction of phos- 
phorus into the paste, and this seems to have sug- 
gested the word lucifer, which the match has ever 
since retained. When phosphorus was first intro- 
duced to the match-maker its price was four 
guineas per pound ; but the demand for it soon 
became BO great that it had to be manufactured by 
the ton, and the price quickly fell to half-a-crown 
per pound. 

Many inventors now entered the field both at 
home and abroad, and matches were sent in ship- 
loads to all parts of the world. When the price 
fell to a penny, and even a halfpenny a box, a 
motto from Milton's 'Paradise Lost' was sug- 
gested : 

Lucifer ! how greatly art thou fallen ! 

Among other improvements, the smell of burn- 
ing sulphur was got rid of, stearine being sub- 
;ituted. But the match still had serious draw- 
backs. The use of phosphorus had made the 
matches so sensitive that the whole box often 
ignited spontaneously, children were killed by 
sucking the matches, and at Boulogne two soldiers 
and a woman were poisoned by drinking coffee, 
when it was found that the woman's child, in play- 

ing about, had taken a box of lucifers and put it 
into the coffee-pot as it stood upon the hob. But 
it was in the match factory that the greatest amount 
of suffering arose. Some of the operatives, inhaling 
the fumes of phosphorus from day to day, became 
subject to a disease then new to the London hos- 
pitals, and popularly known as " the jaw disease," 
but due to necrosis of the bone of the lower jaw r 
to which the workman became especially liable if 
he had a decayed tooth or was in weak health. 

For the sake of brevity I have passed over a 
large number of minor improvements in the history 
of the match, in order to find space for its last and 
greatest improvement. The non-scientific reader 
may not object to be informed that one and the 
same matter may sometimes assume different forme 
and properties without changing its chemical com- 
position. Thus carbon may exist under three forms, 
as in the diamond, charcoal, and plumbago. These 
are termed the allotropic conditions of carbon. 
Now it so happened that in 1847 an Austrian 
chemist named Schrotter made the important dis- 
covery that phosphorus may exist under two forms, 
the crystalline and the amorphous. The latter 
appeared like a piece of red brick, it gave off no 
fumes, and appeared to be altogether inert. Where- 
upon the question naturally arose whether this red 
phosphorus could not be substituted for the ordi- 
nary kind in the lucifer match. Manufacturers,, 
and even governments, offered large rewards for a 
safe and easy application of the red variety, so as 
to get rid of the jaw disease and the other objections 
already referred to. But it was found that when 
the red phosphorus was mixed with chlorate of pot- 
ash under slight pressure, it exploded with violence, 
and was restored back to the ordinary crystalline 
condition. Many fatal accidents arose from these 
attempts. At length, in 1855, the apparently 
ridiculously simple suggestion was made by Herr 
Bottger, a Swedish gentleman, to keep the red 
phosphorus and the chlorate of potash paste 
separate until the moment when a match was to ba 
lighted. For this purpose the red phosphorus was 
put on the box, and the match, being rubbed 
against it, ignited with ease. Thus originated the 
so-called " safety match," which was patented and 
the patent sold to Bryant & May in this- 
country. The inscription, "Warranted to ignite 
only on the box " is not strictly true, as I showed 
experimentally long since, but the match is suffi- 
ciently safe for all ordinary purposes. 

Higbgate, N. 

"To RUSH" (8 th S. iii. 368, 495). In quoting 
from 'Romeo and Juliet' (HI. Hi), "the kind 
prince hath rush'd aside the law," G. J. says it is 
possible that " hath rush'd" is an error for "hath 
thrust." I think it is more probable that, as 
Capell suggests, " rush'd " should be push'd. MR. 


[8th s. IV. JULY 22, '< 

PRIOR'S quotation from 'The Complete Croquet 
Player ' does not afford an instance of rush being 
used as a " transitive verb," which is what I asked 
for. JAYDEE. 

I cannot agree with your correspondent G. J., 
that " rush'd " is used transitively in the passage 
which he quotes from 'Romeo and Juliet.' 
Schmidt's ' Shakespeare Lexicon ' and the ' New 
English Dictionary ' regard aside as a preposition 
governing " the law." Schmidt, s. " aside," compares 
' Measure for Measure,' I. iv. 63: " Have run by 
the hideous law "= have openly evaded the law. 
Halliwell-Phillipps's 'Dictionary' has an early 
example of the transitive use of rush: 
And of alle his ryche castelles rusche doune the wallez. 
' Morte Arthure,' MS. Lincoln, f. 67. 


FRANCIS LEGGE, 1775 (8 th S. iv. 29). Many 
interesting letters and papers relating to Governor 
Legge will be found in the report on the manu- 
scripts of the Earl of Dartmouth issued by the 
Historical Manuscripts Commission in 1887 
(Eleventh Report, Appendix, part v.). 

J. J. C. 

187, 249, 454; viii. 318). In a letter from Gray 
to John Chute, of which the correct date is 
May 24, 1742, soon after the battle of Chotusitz, 
is given a burlesque account of an imaginary 
battle by way of reprisals : 

"But we know of a second battle and how the 

Hanoverians, with Prince Hiesy-Caetle at their head, 
fell upon the French Mounseers, and took him [Macke- 
bois] away, with all his treasure, among which is Pitt's 
diamond, and the Great Cistern." 

I am familiar with all the information contained 
at the references in ' N. & Q.' above given, but 
I should be glad to be told anything about this 
"Great Cistern." D. C. T. 

FATHER OF JAMES I. (8 th S. iv. 8). Proof, in 
the strictest sense of that much misused word, 
can very rarely, if ever, be given as to paternity. 
Genealogists, like almost all other seekers after 
truth, have to be content with that high degree of 
probability which is, for all the purposes of human 
life, equivalent to proof in its absolute sense. 

Mary of Scotland has been for more than three 
centuries the subject of calumny; and there are 
yet persons alive who give credit to the wretched 
forgeries which were circulated for the sake oi 
blasting her character when she was living. 

I have read by far the greater part of the very 
voluminous literature concerning her, and have 
come to the conclusion that she was, from first to 
last, a good woman, earnestly desirous of dis- 
charging her duty as a queen, a wife, a mother, 
and a Catholic Christian, and that, in the end, she 
died a martyr for her faith. Such being my 

unhesitating belief, I can have no doubt as to 
who was the father of her son. 

It would, in my opinion, be a misfortune if the 

olumns of ' N & Q.' were opened for a discussion 

of the subject on which MR. DOMINICK BROWNE 

seeks information. Little, if anything, that is new 

can be said on the question ; and in all probability 

number of side issues would be raised regarding 
Elizabeth, Murray, Bothwell, Knox, Buchanan, 
and other worthies and unworthies of the troubled 
Marian period, as to whose deds and characters 
there are at present very wide differences of 

Dunstan House, Kfrton-in-Lindsey. 

See ' N. & Q ,' 2 nd S. vi. passim. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

" EAVESDROPPER" (8 th S. iii. 485). This word 
is of common occurrence in the records of manor 
courts. I have an impression that I have met with 
it earlier than 1487, which is the earliest example 
in the ' N. E. D.' At a court of the manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, held on April 11, in the eighth 
year of Henry VII., John Jonson, husbandman, 
Henry Lucy, Ralf Ormesbie, John Hegge, William 
Helyfeld, and Richard Webster got into trouble 
for being "communes, nyght stalkers, & evvys 
droppers tempore incongruo in nocte." 


'CHRONICLES OF ERI' (8 th S. iii. 489). It is 
asked if the ' Chronicles of Eri,' by Roger O'Con- 
nor, a so-called " History of the Gael Sciot Iber, 
or the Irish People," is genuine. The late Prof. 
Barry, of the Queen's College, Cork, whose father 
was the confidential agent of Roger O'Connor, 
gave me the secret history of that extraordinary 
man, including some account of the manufacture 
and forgery of various papers on which the ' Chro- 
nicles ' were constructed. I embodied the detail 
in a little book called ' Ireland before the Union.' 

MANILA (8 th S. ii. 406 ; iii. 15, 251, 359). 
CANON TAYLOR confirms MR. HALL (8 th S. iii. 15) 
as to this word being genuine Spanish, and a cor- 
ruption of the Latin Manicula, quasi manacle; 
but he objects, with justice, that Legaspi was hardly 
likely to christen the town founded by him 
"bracelet" or "handcuff," The fact is, however, 
that both CANON TAYLOR and MR. HALL are mis- 
taken on the main point. The word Manila is 
not to be found in the dictionary of the Spinish 
Academy, nor does it exist in the Spanish lan- 
guage. Manilla is a Spanish word, a diminutive 
formed in the ordinary way from the Spanish 
mano, a hand, and signifying both "bracelet" 
and " handcuff." The former is, the latter is not, 
the name of the capital of the Philippines. The 
confusion has probably arisen from English writers 

6"S. IV. JULY 22, '93.] 



spelling the word, as they mostly do, with a double 
Z.$.No Spaniard could do this, as the single and 
the double I are, in Spanish, separate letters, the 
one being the twelfth and the other the thirteenth 
in the Spanish alphabet; and the sound of the 
double I is not a mere reduplication of that of th< 
single l f but a different sound altogether, corre 
spending exactly to the effect of the Italian gli 
before a vowel. 

As to Manila being simply the Spanish 
version of the native name MR. TAYLOR is con- 
firmed by the late Mr. John Crawfurd, who, in his 
admirable ( Dictionary of the Indian Islands, &c.,' 
says positively " the name of Manilla " (he is one 
of those who spell it wrong), 
" is that of the native town or village on the site of 
which the Spaniards built the City, and which Legaspi, 
contrary to the usage of the Spaniards in such cases, 
adopted. It is said, with some probability, to be composed 
of two Tagala words abbreviated by syncope. These are 
matron, to be or to exist, and nila, the name of a shrub 
growing among the mangroves aud which abounds on 
the shore of the bay." 

That the Spaniards at the period of the conquest 
adopted the native name is in the highest degree 
probable ; but the etymology of that name in- 
dicated by Mr. Crawfurd is very questionable, to 
say the least ; and it is more than likely that the 
origin of the word Manila, like that of many 
other names of places, is lost in the night of pre- 
historic time. GEORGE BRACKENBURT. 

19, Tite Street, Chelsea. 

SAMPLERS (8 th S. iii. 327, 473). I thank MR. 
BLOUNDELLE- BURTON and other correspondents 
for their notes on my queries. The earliest sampler 
I have a very beautiful production, by the way, 
elaborately worked in coloured silks is dated 
1648. The South Kensington Museum contains 
some fine examples, the earliest 1654. In regard 
to samplers by two hand?, I have one dated 1690, 
the work of Mary Thicket, aged thirteen years, 
and Ann Thicket, whose age is not given. Another 
is curious because apparently worked by an infant 
in arms. After the name comes "aged 1 years," 
but an examination shows that another figure has 
been removed. It would appear that the little 
needlewoman, although in her teens, did not know 
her own age, but told her teacher what she thought 
it was. The mistake was probably not discovered 
until the sampler reached home, when the second 
figure was picked out by order of a precise and 
truth- loving mother, after which the little girl 
straightway, and quite consistently, forgot all 
about it. ANDREW W. TUER. 

The Leadenhall Presa, B.C. 

To the examples already recorded in 'N. & Q.' 
may be added a canvas sampler, thirty-five inches 
by seven, containing thirteen bands of chaste 
patterns (the colours of the silk used being 
remarkably fresh), followed by three lines of alpha- 

bet, the initials of four people, and date 1664. 
Below all are bands of a sort of lace- work. In 
execution it is far in advance of later specimens 
which I also have, one of which is dated 1667 and 
another 1760. The latter has six lines of alphabet 
followed by a representation of the Garden of 
Eden, showing the tree, Adam, Eve, the serpent, 
and sundry birds and beasts, worked by Isabella 
Cobham. These and others are at MR. TUER'S 
service should be contemplate a loan exhibition of 
these interesting trifles. I. C. GOULD. 


Here is one : 

" A piece of embroidered literature, framed and glazed, 
containing some moral distich or maxim, worked in 
angular capital letters, with two trees, or parrots, below, 
in their proper colours ; the whole concluding with an 
A, B, C, and numerals, and the name of the fair in- 
dustrious, expressing it to be ' her work, Jan. 14, 1762.' '' 

It belonged to Leigh Hunt's " Old Lady." 


There is in the Dorset Museum here a sampler 
dated 1676, worked by Mary Cuttance. In the 
same case there is a much later one (dated 1785) 
which is curious, inasmuch as it consists of a map 
of England. H. J. MOULE. 


Canon Harvey, Vicar's Court, Lincoln, has in his 
possession a sampler of very fine work, signed 
' ' Margret Leader, 1654." K. 

I have two samplers which will interest your 
correspondent MR. ANDREW W. TUER, one dated 
by the worker as stitched by "Miss Margaret 
Essington her work, in the 10 year of her age, 
1723," and the other by my mother, inscribed within 
a border, " Charlotte Palmer her work 1801," when 
she was about six years of age. The latter measures 
,welve inches by eighteen, and commences with 
1 Train up a child in the way he should go, and 
when he is old he will not depart from it." It is 
worked with a scalloped border all round, has 
flying cupids, peacocks, trees, dogs, butterflies, and 
crowns interspersed on its surface, and is worked 
throughout in seven coloured silks or threads. The 
'ormer sampler, worked 170 years ago, is without a 
>lemish, and being in such good order, I had it 
mounted on silk, and placed in a carved screen 
under glass with its younger companion, thus 
orming a reversible fire-screen on a tripod frame. 
"t begins with the alphabet in capital and small 
etters, and all the figures, each letter differently 
coloured in stitching ; it then gives the whole of 
'salm L, "Blessed is the man," and followed by 
Romans i. 16, 17, and then the stitcher's name is 
added, as given above, with the date 1723. Mar- 
garet Essington was the eldest daughter of John 
Sssington, of Wandsworth, High Sheriff of Surrey 
n 1724 (vide Wandsworth Registers), who died 
April 12, 1729, leaving eight daughters and two 


[8 th 3. IV. JULY 22, 9J 

, John and Thomas, the latter, no doubt, being 
the father of Admiral Sir William Essington, who 
fought under Nelson, and who was my father's 
first cousin. W. ESSINGTON HUGHES. 

Alexandra Road, N.W. 

THE POETS LAUREATE (8 th S. ii. 385, 535 ; iii. 
89, 131, 298, 357, 495). In the Danish and Nor- 
wegian Church in Wellclose Square, demolished in 
1869, was a monumental tablet dedicated to the 
memory of Jane, second wife of Caius Gabriel 
Gibber, and mother of Colley Gibber. A tran- 
script of the Latin inscription appearing on the 
said monument is preserved (p. 455) in Ernst 
Fridrich Wolffs ' Samlinger til Historien af Den 
Danske og Norske Evangelisk-Lutherske Kirke 
i London den Opkomst Fremgang og Tilstand,' 
8vo., Copenhagen, 1802, a work now very scarce. 
It would appear that she was the daughter 
of William Colley, of Glaston, co. Rutland, 
by Jane, daughter of John Wirly, of Dod- 
ford, co. Northampton, arm. and granddaughter 
of Sir Anthony Colley, Knt. She had issue by 
Caius Gabriel Gibber (to whom she had been 
married twenty-seven years) three children, Colley, 
Veronica, and Ludovic. She died Dec. 9, 1697, 
at. fifty-one, and was buried in the crypt of the 
Danish Church. Her husband and son Golley 
were both interred in the vaults of this church, 
but neither appears to have been commemorated 
by a monumental inscription within the sacred 
edifice. It would appear that one Poul Weideman 
burned all the records of the church, including, no 
doubt, the registers of baptisms, marriage?, and 
burials. The only existing register, a folio volume 
in vellum, extends from June 13, 1802, to Oct. 20, 
1816, the entries of burials in the vault under the 
communion table being continued to 1833. (J. S. 
Burn's ' History of the Foreign Refugees,' 1846, 
pp. 242, 243.) DANIEL HIPWELL. 

HUMAN LEATHER (7 th S. vii. 326, 433; viii. 
77, 131, 252, 353, 437; ix. 14, 91). When 
turning up a back volume of * N. & Q.' lately, I 
stumbled on MR. SALTER'S note with the above 
somewhat gruesome heading. That Sir William 
Fergusson should have had it in his power to give 
the museum of King's College a donation of a 
fragment of Burke, the murderer's, skin, is easily 
explained by the fact of his having been anatomical 
assistant to Dr. Enox during part of the period 
the Thug-like murders were being carried on. 
Though not called, his name appears in the list of 
witnesses for the Crown, thus : "William Fer- 
gnsson, now or lately surgeon, and now or lately 
residing in Charles Street, in or near Edinburgh." 
Thomas Wharton Jones is also on the list of the 
witnesses cited. The skeleton of Burke is to be 
seen in the osteological division of the anatomical 
museum of the Edinburgh University. 


465). I see MR. J. YOUNG'S point, and perhaps 
his way of taking the matter is more in accordance 
with ordinary usage. He, in fact, wishes to con- 
sider the years AD. a-s ordinal numbers, and A.D. I 
as the first year of our Lord, whereas I was regard- 
ing them as cardinal numbers, and taking A.D. 1 as 
the first year after the birth of Christ. Accus- 
tomed to mathematical (which are in fact logical) 
points of view, I thought that the year of the 
Nativity (as MR. YOUNG remarks, the year of the 
Annunication, considered to be that of the Incar- 
nation, as Dionysius Exiguus and other early 
writers take it, was the same) should strictly be 
the year 0, though historians, recognizing no such 
ye&r, call it B.C. 1. It is surprising (as I re- 
marked before) how much confusion has resulted 
from such non-recognition ; persons unused to 
such inquiries, if asked how many years from 
such a day, for instance, in B.C. 10 to the 
same day in A.D. 10 would say 20, whereas it 
should be 19. On the other hand, chronplogists 
in making astronomical calculations respecting B.C. 
dates have always to begin by subtracting 1 from 
the year they are dealing with, and calling B.C. 10, 
for instance, A.D. 9. 

Whilst on the subject, I will state once more 
how the events on which Christian chronology is 
founded really stood. St. Luke tells us (iii. 23) 
that when our Lord began to teach (R. V. ) He was 
about thirty years of age, so that we may take this 
as His age at His baptism. He also tells us (iii. 1) 
that John began to preach (probably a few months 
before) in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius 
Caesar. Now it was taking this as commencing 
with the death of Augustus that led to the original 
error about the date of the Nativity. Augustus 
died in the year we call A.D. 14 ; but Tiberius had 
been associated with him as emperor over the 
army and provinces about two years previously. 
St. Luke, then, reckons A.D. 14 as the third year of 
the associated reign of Tiberius, which probably 
began in A.D. 12, considered his first year. The 
fifteenth year, then, of that emperor began in A.D. 
26, in which year I consider our Lord began His 
ministry in the autumn. It lasted altogether 
about three and a half yearp, the Crucifixion taking 
place on April 7, A.D. 30. May I venture to refer 
MR. YOUNG to a small and concise work of my 
own on ' New Testament Chronology,' or the some- 
what larger one of which it forms a part, ' Bible 
Chronology ' ? 

With regard to the last part of Mr. YOUNG'S 
communication, there are evidently several errors 
in the section of ' L'Art de Verifier les Dates ' to 
which he refers. There is no reason to doubt 
that the year A.D. 1 corresponds to 754 of the 
building of Rome, so that B.C. 6 would be year of 
Rome 748, not 747. But of much more con- 
sequence than this is the mistake, made formerly 

8* S. IV. Jew 22, '93.] 



in many books, of carrying back our Lord's 
Nativity four or five years (that section makes it 
six) before the vulgar era, and yet leaving the old 
Eusebian date 33 for that of the Crucifixion, which 
is quite inconsistent with Luke iii. 23, as our 
Lord's ministry certainly did not last more than 
about three and a half years. 

In conclusion, allow me to point out a small in- 
advertence of MR. YOUNG (p. 456, 1. 22 from 
" quotient," when he means 
W. T. LYNN. 

bottom), in writing 

"GRASS-WIDOW" (8 th S. iii. 426; iv. 37). 
I know not what the French equivalent for this 
expression is, but the Germans have strohwittwe = 
straw- widow. Grose gives the expression in his 
' Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue ' and explains it 
as equivalent to "a discarded mistress," a sense 

mystical refrain. He said that a circus owner or 
manager had a wife (or daughter) who was an 
excellent performer, but whose physical strength 
was hardly equal to the strain of a lengthened effort 
in the ring. The owner or manager, however, was 
determined to win and satisfy customers, and his 
over-taxed relative had to struggle on, as courage- 
ously as might be, at the crack of his whip and 
under the dominance of his manly scowl As he 
asserted his authority and felt its success, this 
tyrannical director, according to the legend, 
chanted in a resolute undertone this rhythmical 
fourteener : 

Barum, barum, barum, barum, barum, barim, baree ! 
The magazine article in which this occurred was 
probably published soon after Kingsley's death. 


BLACK FOR EVENING WEAR (8 th S. iii. 489). 

which differs from either of those given by your L or( j Lytton's novel of ' Pelham ' was written with 

i^ArroarirMi rl anf a "C^ (^ "RrT>TT'T>T]iniT ^PnT>o'v * * j *t /Y> _I._A? _*T i - 



The French equivalent is " Veuve de Malabar." 

SCHOLA VERLUCIANA (8 th S. iii. 148, 272, 331, 
397). The literary use of a false identification, 
as justified at the last reference, is no good 
omen for the integrity of society ; so it is well to 
vindicate the truth, even at Camden's expense. 
The Roman road has been traced mile by mile 
from Bathford to Marlborough, passing thus 
through Heddington ; Warminster is altogether in 
applicable for Verlucio, stated to lie about midway 
between Aquae Solis and Cunetio. All the Roman 
roads known in England run in a straight direction, 
not in a zigzag, as would be a road from Bath 
through Warminster to Marlborough ; for War- 
minster lies in the direct road from Bath to Salis- 
bury. The Antpnine Itineraries state the distances 
to be fifteen miles from Bath to Verlucio, twenty 
more to Cunetio, i. c., a total of thirty-five Roman 
miles, or about thirty-one English miles ; Pater- 
son's ' Road Book,' 1792, gives the total distance 
as thirty-one miles ; this seems final. Now the 
precise locality assigned for Verlucio covers a 
scattered area, say from Spye Park to Hedding- 
ton, near Morgan's Hill ; all this district abounds 

the idea of counteracting the affectation of By ronism 
which was at that time in vogue, and in this it to 
some degree succeeded, though only by substituting 
another affectation, that of Pelhamism, in its place. 
It is even said to have affected the fashion of dress, 
for in it Lady Frances Pelham says, in a letter to 
her son, "Apropos of the complexion, I did not like 
that blue coat you wore when last I saw you, you 
look best in black ; which is a great compliment, 
for people must be very distinguished in appearance 
to do so." Till then coats worn for evening dress 
were of different colours, according to the fancy of 
the wearer, and the adoption of the now invariable 
black is said to have dated from the publication of 
'Pelham.' T. W. TEMPANY. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

It is frequently extremely difficult to assign 
either the cause or date for any change of fashion ; 
but I think the true reason for black being adopted 
for gentlemen's evening dress has already been 
explained in 'N. & Q.,' 6 S. ix. 146. I may 
add that the novel of ' Pelham ; or, the Adventures 
of a Gentleman, 1 by the first Lord Lyttpn, was 
published anonymously in 1827, from which year 
the change of colour commenced. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

In a life of Bulwer Lytton (I think by his son) 
I remember seeing that the adoption of black for 

with relics of Roman occupation ; just outside of 
Spye Park is Silverfield, named from the abun- 
dance of Roman silver money found there ; at , 4 ic^c^^ci O CC .U K lu u u UVF .v, u r - 

Heddington are more coins and urn?, indicating a evening dress was brought about by a remark in 

cemetery. The centre of this district is Chiltoe, ' Pelham ' to the effect that he, or some other leader 

including Sandy Lane, and Highfield is called the in dress, wore black, and that only people of distin- 

true site. A. HALL. guished appearance were able to do so. 

13, Paternoster Row, B.C. E. F. D. C. 

KINGSLRY'S LAST LINES : " BARUM, BARUM, HERALDRY (8 th S. iii. 247, 455, 492). Maule- 

BAREB" (7 th S. xi. 387, 479; 8 th S. iii. 372, 496). verer must be the family inquired after a week or 

-Some years ago a writer, either in the Nine- two ago in 'N.&Q/ Lower, in his 'Dictionary of 

teenth Century or the Contemporary Review (pro- Family Names,' says that " Maule"vrier is an 

bably the former), offered an explanation of this j ancient viscounty in the arrondissement of Yvetot 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. iv. JULY 22/93. 

in Normandy." Burke, in his ' General Armory,' 
says that the arms of Mauleverer are " three grey- 
hounds courant." E. YARDLET. 

iii. 488; iv. 51"). LADY CONSTANCE RUSSELL 
is not strictly accurate with regard to Fleet Street 
in Bos well. It is mentioned at least half a dozen 
times. On one occasion, when Boswell and John- 
son were walking in Greenwich Park, the latter 
said, "Is not this very fine?" "I answered, 
' Yes, Sir ; but not equal to Fleet-street. 1 John- 
son : ' You are right, Sir.' " I expect the passage 
is really a misquotation from " Let us take a walk 
from Charing Cross to Whitechapel, through, I 
suppose, the greatest series of shops in the world " 
(April 13, 1773). W. H. 0. 

48). The reference for this (the Ledger Book, 
&c.) is almost word for word the same with that 
given by Sterne in * Tristram Shandy ' (ii. 135, 136, 
ed. 1782) for what is commonly known as the 
Curse of St. Ernulfus ; and I suspect it will be 
found that the forms are identical. Why should 
not ST. SWITHIN (as Sterne did before him) write 
to the Chapter Clerk for information, and let us 
know the result ? There can be no doubt he will 
be courteously answered. 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

40). In the above notice there occurs the follow- 
ing remarkable statement : " There was a transition 
period, when the Latin Vulgate was generally 
quoted and understood by the people, though it 
was hardly the vernacular of either preacher or 
hearer." The writer has properly avoided the 
errors of those who imagine that either the unin- 
telligible Hebrew original or an imaginary Aramaic 
version of it constituted "the people's Bible" 
among the Jews in the time of Christ. But may 
I ask what authority he has for saying that the 
Latin Vulgate then circulated among them ? The 
general opinion is that no Latin version of the 
Scriptures was formed till many generations after- 
wards. The date of the so-called Veins Itala 
cannot be definitely fixed ; but I fear it can by no 
possibility be placed in or before the time of Christ. 
There was, in fact, then no need of a Latin version 
So widespread was the knowledge of Greek thai 
the Septuagint sufficed for the whole civilized 
world. St. Paul, accordingly, made use of Greek 
even in writing to the Romans, and St. Irecseus, 
a century and a half afterwards, addressed the 
churches of Gaul in the same language. Many 
similar facts might be adduced. And nnless some 
new proof can be brought forward, we naturally 
conclude that, as in other parts of the great Roman 
empire, so in Judaea, the Greek, and not a Latin 

version of the Old Testament formed the popular 
Bible that, as being such, it was constantly 
quoted by Christ, and that Greek, therefore, was 
the language which He habitually used. 


" WEDERTNGES " (8 th S. iv. 6). With many 
apologies to ASTARTE for marring her delight at 
unearthing an old word, I hasten to inform her 
that she may see in Richardson's ' Dictionary ' an 
earlier example from Fabyan's ' Chronicle' (1516). 
But the word is far older than that. It occurs in 
the plural in stanza xxvi. of the ' Anturs of 
Arther,' one of ' Three Early English Metrical 
Romances ' published by the Camden Society : 

The wynd and the welkyn, the wethur in that tide, 

The cloude vnclosut, the flune wex clere 

Tho wees* of the wederinges forwondret thay were. 

This takes us back to about 1420. I have one 
example in the singular a century earlier, say 1320 
Poem on the Times of Edward II./ Percy Soc., 
No. Ixxxii. p. 34) : 

God almyjty of heven 

Hath bound nowt his bond, 

And send wederyng on erthe, 

Cold and unkynde. 

I have another, in the plural, about two centuries 
earlier still, of the first half of the twelfth century 
('Old English Homilies,' first series, p. 13): 

" Qif 30 mine bibode healded. J?enne sende ic eou rihte 

Thus far I go. Perhaps Prof. Skeat will be able to 
" go one better." F. ADAMS. 

Wright's ' Provincial Dictionary,' sub " Weder- 
inge," has, "Fine weather; temperature. 'That 
God sende suche wederynge that they may growe.' 
1 Festival,' fol. cxciv. v." 


In reading various communications in your 
columns I have often fancied that the frequent 
occurrence of the d in old writings, where we now 
use thy is not generally understood. I believe it 
simply arises from the substitution in writing of 
the modern d for the Anglo-Saxon letter $, of 
similar form but different sound. Wherever the 
hard sound of th occurs, as mother, father, old 
spelling constantly gives us moder, fader, and so 
on. The two forms burthen and burden are 
examples of the persistence of the old form, even 
down to the present time. 

In a paper read before the Devonshire Associa- 
tion in July, 1886, ' The Significance of Some 
Early Forms of the Name Eddy-stone ' was pointed 
out, as showing the preservation in that name of 
the links between ifca, an eddy or whirlpool, and 
the modern eddy licks which appear to have 

* Those people (O.E. wiga, warrior, man), 
f " If ye observe my behests, then send I you pro- 
pitious seasons " (Dr. Morris's interpretation). 

8*8. iv. JULY 22, '93.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


been lost in the history of the simple word itself. 
The forms there cited, Ide-stone, Idy-stone, Id'- 
eston, Idiston, to Ede-stone, Edistone, and Edy- 
stone, evidently depend on the original fc being 
changed into the d of modern usage. On the 
same ground it is clear that wederynges, quoted by 
ASTARTE, is the phonetic equivalent of iveatherings. 

W. S. B. H. 

CHARLES MERCY (8 th S. iv. 49). B. V. pro- 
bably alludes to Frangois Christophe Florimondde 
Mercy. He was born at Pompey, near Nancy, in 
1775 r and was a member of the Lorraine family of 
that name which gave two distinguished generals 
to Austria. The Revolution made him take to 
the medical profession. He was also a great Greek 
scholar, and was the author of numerous scientific 
works, including the only French translation of the 
entire works of Hippocrates. For the latter under- 
taking he was granted a sum of money by the 
Faculty of Medicine in Paris. 

Swallowfield, Beading. 

HYDE PARK BARS (8 th S. iv. 7). The park 
was formerly enclosed, and at the Commonwealth 
(1649-60) became private property. In the in- 
denture of sale in 1652 it was described as " that 
impaled ground called Hide Park." Evelyn, in 
his 'Diary,' under date April 11, 1653, complains 
of the change : 

"I went to take the aire in Hide Park, where every 
coach was made to pay a shilling, and horse sixpence, 
by the sordid fellow (Anthony Deane, Esq., of St. Mar- 
tin's-in-the- Fields), who had purchased it of the state, 
as they are called." 

By a letter from J. B., addressed to Mr. Scuda- 
more, dated London, May 2, 1654, given in 
' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. iv. 187, the toll appears to have 
been increased. Writing of Hyde Park, he says : 

"Yesterday each coach (and I believe there were 
1,500) payd 2s. 6d. and each horse 1*. but y e benefit 
accrewes to a brace of cittizens who have taken y e 
herbage of y parke of Mr. Deane, to w ch they adde this 
excise of beauty." 

Jacob Larwood, in his ' History of the London 
Parks,' p. 32, also remarks : 

"Hjde Park was the place to be seen in spick and- 
pan new finery on that day (May 1, 1654), notwith- 
standing there was entrance money levied at the gate." 

The above extracts point to the probability of 
the key in the possession of your correspondent 
having formerly belonged to an entrance gate, at 
about the dates given. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SHAKSPEARIAN RELICS (8 th S. iii. 346, 452). 
Allow me to refer your readers who are interested 
in this subject to vol. i. of ' Visits to Remarkable 
Places,' by William Howitt, published originally 
in 1839, where in an article ' A Visit to Stratford- 

on-Avon and the Haunts of Shakspere,' covering 
about thirty page*, they will find much that is 
worth perusal. Under the disguise of Mary 
Hornby, Mary Hornby is meant, and her wielding 
the " besom of destruction" at the birthplace in 
the shape of a whitewash brush is recorded. My late 
friend J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps and no one was 
more competent to form an opinion set no value 
at all, he has frequently told me, on Shakspearian 
relics, though he prized most highly early copies 
of the plays. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

iii. 468 ; iv. 18). B. V. will find a full-page illus- 
tration (copy) of this picture in colours opposite 
p. 141 of the Sunday at Home volume for 1866. 

W. S. B. H. 

iii 466). On the day when I went up to Cam- 
bridge as an undergraduate, in the year 1823, a 
gownsman was drowned in the Cam, and I well 
remember that, as the body was not readily found, 
a boat was rowed up and down the river with a 
man beating a drum in it. The theory, I was told, 
was that the vibration produced on the water 
would cause the body to rise. 


MADAME CAMPAN (8 th S. iv. 8). A well exe- 
cuted portrait of this lady is given in Louis Blanc's 
' Hiatoire de la Revolution Franchise,' vol. i. 
p. 235, Paris, medium 4to., no date. 


Highgate, N. 

There is an engraved portrait of this lady " pub- 
lished by Henry Colburn & Co., Dec., 1822," 

hich appears as frontispiece to vol. i. of 'Memoirs 
of the Private Life of Marie Antoniette by Madame 
Cam pan,' London, Colburn & Co., 1823. I believe 
the work has been recently reprinted, but cannot 
say whether the portrait was included in the 
reprint. F. D. 

245, 475). In G. H. Northall's 'English Folk- 
Rhymes ' (p. 530), an earlier version of the rhyme 
than that quoted by MR. F. ADAMS is given. It 
is stated to be from " a MS. of the sixteenth cen- 
tury (? 1555) and may be a year or two earlier 'V- 
Thirty dales hath September, 
Aprill, June, and November, 
Februarie twenty and eight alone, 
And all the rest have thirtie and one. 


ZKRAH COLBDRN (8 th S. iv. 29). In Kirby's 
Wonderful Museum,' vol. iv. pp. 111-19, there is 
an interesting account of this person, with a por- 
trait at the age of eight years. From this account 
he was born at Cabut, in Vermont, U.S., Sept. 1, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. iv. JULY 22, '93. 

1804. He was brought to England May 12, 1812, 
where, at the Exhibition Rooms, Spring Gardens, 
London, he showed his wonderful powers of cal- 
culation. An attempt was made to procure suffi- 
cient funds to enable him to have a suitable 
education ; but this seems in some measure to 
have failed, and it was eventually undertaken by 
Mr. Bonnycastle, an eminent mathematician. 


I remember Zerah (or, as he then wrote his 
name, Zarah) Colburo, who was in the same form 
with me at Westminster School. He was a red- 
haired boy, and rather dull ; but he had the good 
sense to pretend that he had entirely lost his 
arithmetic powers, otherwise he would have had 
no peace. He did not stay long at the school. 

Mention is made of this calculator, as also of 
Jedidiah Buxton, George Parker Bidder, and their 
little ways, in Chambers's 'Book of Days/ ii. 19. 


MECKLENBURQH SQUARE (8 th S. iv. 7). Ex- 
tract from a letter, dated London, Aug. 14, 1832, 
from Macaulay to his sisters Hannah and Mar- 

"This tattle is worth nothing, except to show how 
much the people whose names will fill the history of our 
times resemble, in all essential matters, the quiet folks 
who live in Mecklenburgh Square and Brunswick 

Vide Trevelyan's ' Life and Letters of Lord Mac- 
aulay ' (second edition), vol. i. p. 274. 


KEY. WM. KNOWLER, LL.D. (1699-1774), 
DIVINE (8 S. ii. 186). Mary Dalton was a 
daughter of the Rev. D'Arcy Dalton, of York, and 
niece to Sir Charles Dalton. MR. HIPWELL men- 
tions that this was Dr. Knowler's first marriage. 
Was he married a second time ? The Gentleman's 
Magazine gives as follows : " Nov. 11, 1790. At 
Chipping Warden, Mrs. Knowler, relict of the 
Rev. Dr. Knowler, of Bodington, co. Northamp- 
ton.^ Was this a second wife ? (See also ' N. & Q.,' 
ii.) KNOWLER. 

"WEDDING KNIFE" (8* h S. iii. 449; iv. 17). 
Any statement made by your valued correspondent 
MR. E. H. COLEMAN commands respectful atten- 
tion. May I venture, however, to ask why he 
speaks of the "knightly" anelace? This epithet 
would seem to imply that the use of the anelace 
was confined to the knightly order ; and we know 
that the name is sometimes applied to what is 
more generally known as the misericorde ; but it is 
certain that the anelace was frequently, if nol 
commonly, worn by burghers or civilians. 

H. T. G. 

In the Shakspearian Museum at Stratford-on 
Avon is preserved a case containing wedding 

oiives, as illustrative of the passage in ' Romeo 
and Juliet'; yet it is difficult to see why such a 
present should have been given upon such an 
occasion, as it is supposed to be unlucky to give any 
one a knife. The Rev. Samuel Bishop, M. A., head 
master of Merchant Taylors' School (1783-1795), 
wrote the following lines on the subject on pre- 
senting a knife to his wife : 

A knife, they say, dear girl, cuts love. 
Mere modish love it may; 

For any tool of any kind 
Can separate what was never joined. 

The meaning of this seems rather puzzling. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

SCHOOL MAGAZINES (7 th S. iv. 5, 110; v. 476; 
vi. 93, 214; xii. 75; 8 th S. iv. 6). A list of fifty- 
one school magazines will be found in Mitchell's 
Newspaper Press Directory,' 1893, p. 45. 


"The Addiscombe Magazine, composed by the 
Gentlemen Cadets of the H.E.I. 0. Military Col- 
lege, Addiscombe," was commenced February, 
1846, and was printed and published by John 
Gray, Oroydon. The lithographed frontispiece, 
vol. i., has a view of the governor's mansion, with 
groups of cadets on the lawn, surmounted by a 
military trophy, drawn by R. H. Sankey, a gentle- 
man cadet, who gained the first prize for military 
drawing at college, and is now Lieut.-General Sir 
Richard Hieram Sankey, K.C.B., retired R.E. 

4, Argyll Road, Kensington. 

(8" S. iii. 267, 396, 469 ; iv. 52). My authority 
for identifying Westbourne Farm with Desborough 
Lodge was Robins, who had resided for fifteen 
years in Paddington when he wrote his book* on 
the parish, and was evidently familiar with its 
traditions. This period of fifteen years included 
the time that Charles Mathews and Madame 
Yestris were occupants of Desborough Lodge. 
Westbourne Farm, if identical with Desborough 
Lodge, was, as pointed out by MR. W. F. WALLER, 
at some little distance from the Edgware Road, but 
all the authorities are agreed that it was at West- 
bourne Green, near the site of the present Lock 
Hospital, and the position in which I have located 
it is entirely confirmed by the recollection of MR. 
WTATT PAPWORTH, who states that it lay a little 
off the Harrow Road on the east side (i.e., the 
right-hand side to one proceeding to Harrow) on 
the south of the canal. This exactly describes the 
site of Desborough Street at the present day. The 
inscription beneath the woodcut in ' Old and New 
London' is incorrect, as Mrs. Siddons was cer- 

* 'Paddington, Past and Present,' n.d. (1853), Pre- 
face, p. v. 

8" S. IV. JOLT 22, '93.] 



tainly not living at Paddington in 1800. At that 
date she resided at No. 49, Great Marlborough 
Street, and she did not remove to Paddington till 
April, 1805. In the Grace Collection, in the 
British Museum, is a view of "Mrs. Siddons's 
Cottage at Westbourne Green," which, according 
to the catalogue, was lithographed in 1820 from a 
drawing by Harriot Goldsmith. It differs materi- 
ally from the print in * Old and New London/ for 
which no authority is given by Mr. Walford. 
With reference to MR. PAPWORTH'S statement 
that the date of Gutch's map should be 1838, not 
1828, I may observe that Gutch drew several plans 
of Paddington. One is dated 1823, another 1838. 
They will be found in the Grace Collection (Port- 
folio xiv, Nos. 5, 6, 7). W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Dictionary of National Biography. 9 Edited by Sidney 

Lee. Vol. XXXV. MacCarwell Maltby. (Smith, 

Elder & Co.) 

THE latest volume of the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy ' ia, in one respect, unique in the series. Begin- 
ning with the Macs, it is almost wholly occupied with 
Scotsmen. Two hundred and eighty-eight pages are 
occupied with names beginning with Mac, and though a 
few of these are Irishmen, the vast majority is Scotch. 
A few Madans, Maddens, and Maddoxes then come, 
and with Magees and Maguires we are again among 
Irishmen, who once more yield to Maitlanda and Mal- 
colms. Not one tenth of the volume is assigned to Eng- 
lishmen. In no way, of course, does this fact detract 
from the value or the interest. Sufficiently romantic 
are not a few of the lives, notably those of Rob Roy 
(Macgregor), Macdonald of Olencoe, and Flora Mac- 
donald. With Prof. Laughton still looking after the 
seamen, of whom there are very many, Dr. Norman 
Moore answering for the doctors, and Mr. Thomas Bayne 
for the poets, the same high standpoint of excellence is 
maintained. The most picturesque lives among the 
Scotsmen are written by Mr. T. P. Henderson. A result 
of this state of affairs ia that many eminent contributors 
put in very infrequent appearances. The editor himself 
has but three or four articles, as conspicuous for brevity 
as for value. His most important contribution is the 
life of Edmund Malone, whom Mr. Lee regards as rather 
a literary antiquary than a literary critic. His services 
to our knowledge of Shakspeare are acknowledged, but 
his defective ear deprived of value his textual emenda- 
tions, and his " intellect lacked the alertness character- 
istic of Steevens or Gifford." Another admirable paper 
is that on Thomas Malory, of the ' Morte Arthur,' 
in which, of course, Ascham's fierce and ill-natured 
arraignment of the immorality of the book is quoted 
To the account of Sir Henry James Sumner Maine we 
find, as was to be expected, the initials of Mr. Leslie 
Stephen, who bears witness we may assume to be per 
sonal to the sweetness of Maine's temper and the tender 
ness of his nature. Dr. Garnett supplies a particularly 
excellent account of Sir Frederick Madden. Maclise's 
fine career ia depicted by Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse. Mr 
Russell Barker ia very slightly represented in the presen 
volume, to which, however, Mr. J. M. Rigg sends many 
important contributions. Mr. Francis Espinasse supplies 
the life of Henry Mackenzie, the author of ' The Man of 

feeling,' the life of the bishop of the same name being 
>y Precentor Venables. Mr. Baily Saunders writes 
udiciously on James Macpherson, the " alleged trans- 
ator of the Ossianic poems." Mr. Lionel Cust, Mr. 
Thompson Cooper, Dr. S. R. Gardiner, Dr. Gilbert, Mr. 
J. P. Anderson, Mr. J. M. Gray, the Rev. William Hunt, 
and Dr. Augustus Jessopp are fairly represented. 

The Essays of Moniaigne. Done into English by John 
Florio, Anno 1603. With an Introduction by George 
Saintsbury. The Third Book. (Nutt.) 
THE third volume of the reprint of Florio's Montaigne, 
completing the book, has now appeared. The beauty of 
:he get-up of these volumes commends them to the 
Bibliophile, while to the student of Shakspeare the 
possession of a Florio is almost as indispensable as that 
of Painter's ' Palace of Pleasure,' which we owe to the 
same spirited and artistic publisher. If this series of 
reprints of the great translations of Tudor times, which 
formed our noble English language, meet with the favour 
it deserves we shall have a translation of North's 
Plutarch,' the one other volume for which the Shak- 
epearian scholar is longing. Underdowne's ' ^Ethiopian 
History of Heliodorus ' and Adlington's ' Golden Asse of 
Apuleius ' are already promised. These works, the series 
of which is edited by Mr. W. E. Henley, are to be pub- 
lished as they exist, with no attempt to correct errors or 
improve texts. We wish this spirited attempt all success. 
Our own indebtedness to the man who has given us the 
books named, the 'Morte d'Arthur,' and the like, is not 
easily expressed. In this case, moreover, gratitude takes 
the pleasurable, if customary, form of a lively sense of 
favours to come. 

Schiller's William Tell. Translated, with an Introdue- 
tion and Notes, by Major-General Patrick Maxwell, 
(Walter Scott.) 
GENERAL MAXWELL'S translation of Schiller's famous* 
dramatization of the history of Switzerland is a worthy 
companion to his ' Maid of Orleans,' to which we hav 
already drawn attention. It is executed in the same 
vigorous and fluent verse, has a no less interesting and 
important introduction and no less useful notes. To the 
scholar and the general reader these volumes alike com- 
mend themselves. 

The Trinity House of Deptford Strond. 
Illustrated by C. R. B. Barrett. 

Written and 
(Lawrence & 


MR. BARRETT'S work is one of considerable research 
among papers which have hitherto been little, if at all, 
used by those who could turn them to good account. 
The Trinity House has for more than two centuries 
been a body of such great importance that we cannot 
but wonder that it has been left to Mr. Barrett to 
popularize its history. Such, however, baa been the 
case, although there have been two or three books 
printed aforetime dealing in a dull and heavy manner 
with the subject. As Mr. Barrett truly says, " The early 
history of the Trinity House is an integral portion of the 
history of the English navy." In the present state of 
hopeless ignorance in which so many of us are content 
to remain about everything concerning the history of the 
fleets which from the days of the Armada have guarded 
our shores, we cannot speak too highly of the author for 
having produced a sketch which is in so many ways 

The Trinity House, like the British monarchy itself, 
has arisen from very small beginnings. Early in the 
reign of Henry VIII. a guild was incorporated, having 
its head- quarters in Deptford Church, under the title of 
the Guild of the Holy Trinity and St. Clement, whose 
object was the reformation of the navy. By what good 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8os.iv.joLT22.-98. 

fortune it came to pass that this useful foundation was 
not fewept away during the storms consequent on the 
Reformation we do not clearly understand. As Mr. 
Barrett points out, when the ministers of the boy-king 
Edward VI. destroyed the guilds" that mighty fabric 
of charitable institutions which had endured forages," 
as he describes them the Guild of the Holy Trinity at 
Deptford was one of the few that escaped destruction. 
It was, indeed, permitted, as it would seem, to retain in 
some degree its old religious character under new con- 
ditions, for the office of guild-chaplain was not swept 
away until 1604. 

We are in the habit of connecting the Trinity House 
almost solely with lighthouses and works of charity, but 
in earlier days its functions were far wider. The 
brethren of the Trinity House were during the Stuart 
times an advising board or committee, consulted by the 
Crown not only as to the building of vessels for the navy, 
but on almost every possible question relating to sea- 
faring concerns. Establishing lighthouses and lightships 
was no doubt their chief duty, and nobly did they do 
battle for upwards of two hundred years against selfish- 
nees, prejudice, and ignorance. It is not an exaggeration 
to say that by far the greater part of the more important 
lights which surround our coasts are due to the long 
continued action of this useful body. Another important 
matter with which they had to deal was the suppression 
of piracy. Very few of our historians have pointed out 
the extent of the evil inflicted by these sea-thieves. 
Many of them came from the Moslem ports of the Medi- 
terranean, of which Salee was the chief; but the Dun- 
kirk pirates were quite as cruel, and on land, at least, 
inflicted as much damage as their Mohammedan brethren 
in iniquity. 

Mr. Barrett on two occasions mentions William Rains- 
borough (he spelt his name Rainborowe), one of the 
brethren of the Trinity House, who in 1638 " was the 
first to sign the consent of seafaring men to the deduc- 
tion from their pay in order to found a relief fund." 

This person was remarkable in several ways. Lord 
Clarendon considered him to be "an eminent commander 
at sea." He probably received this complimentary 
notice from having commanded an English fleet against 
Salee in 1637. His action there seems to have been a 
brilliant one, for Charles propose'! to knight him, and 
on his declining the honour presented him with a gold 
chain and medal valued at 300/. There is a pamphlet 
published the same year by a certain John Dunton, to 
which is annexed a list of the Christian captives whom 
he delivered and the places where they had dwelt. 

Scrivelsly, the Home of the Champions. With some 
Account of the Marmion and Dymoke Families. By 
the Rev. Samuel Lodge. (Stock.) 
WE had hoped that this work would have filled up 
blank in the antiquarian literature of Lincolnshire, but 
we are bound to say that it has not done so. Mr. Lodge 
has written a pleasant gossiping book about Scrivelsby, 
where he has found much to tell regarding the office oi 
champion; but he bas not given his readers anything 
approaching to a detailed account of the races oi 
Marmion and Dymoke. We are quite willing to concede 
that the genealogist, like the poet, is born, not made 
and cannot think of blaming Mr. Lodge for not possess- 
ing a faculty which, as is admitted on all hands, is a 
very rare gift; but we are none the less sorry that a book 
relating to Scrivelsby should have appeared which does 
not contain those minute details which the antiquary 
longs for. When we think of the many excellent family 
histories which have appeared of late years in England 
Scotland, and the United States we are sorry races 
which have been intimately connected with our history 

own through the Middle Agea until tha reign of 
George IV., should be left without an historian. 
The Dymokes, like some other families of mark in 

lantagenet and Tudor times, have continued to exist to 

he present day, but have taken little part in making 
contemporary history. We may regret this, but it is 
natural that the new men, with the advantages of 
recently organized wealth, should in public matters 

ake the place of the country squires of old lineage. 

Mr. Lodge has printed the Dymoke entries in tha 
Scrivelsby parish registers, which extend from 1562 to 

.807. Among these we find in 1566 a Thomas Winde- 
banke marrying a Frances Dymoke. Were these 
persons ancestors of Sir Francis Windebanke who be- 
came Secretary of State to Charles I. in 1632, and was 
Bather of that Francis Windebanke who was shot at 

Oxford in 1645 for surrendering Blechingdon House 1 ? 

It does not seem improbable, though proof is at present 

Heroes of the Nations. Napoleon, Warrior and Ruler, 
and the Military Supremacy of Revolutionary France. 
By William Connor Morris. (Putnam's Sons.) 
>VE must confess to thinking that this book is rather 
leavy reading. Napoleon is one of the most interesting 
igures in modern times, but Mr. Morris has failed to 
nake his account of his hero as interesting as we might 
aave expected it to be. In the preface the author calls 
;he attention of the general reader to Alison's ' History,' 
which, " if deficient in artistic skill and arrangement, ia 
a most useful repertory of accumulated facts." When 
the general reader acquires a taste for Alison he will 
doubtless be in a position to appreciate Mr. Morris. 
The monograph is beautifully printed on excellent paper, 
and profusely illustrated with maps and portraits. 

MESSRS. BLADES, EAST & BLADES will publish ' Modern 
History of the City of London : a Pictorial and Descrip- 
tive Record of Municipal and Social Progress during the 
last Hundred and Fifty Years,' by Charles Welch, F.S. A., 
Librarian to the Corporation of the City of London, with 
illustrations by Philip Norman, F.S.A. 


We mutt call special attention to the following neticet: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
State, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
L^ne, E.G. 

HUNT ("Gipsy-lore"). This is not new. See the 
Indexes to ' N. & Q.' 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

"> S. IV. JULT 29, '93. - 





NOTES " Dandy," 81 Shakspeariana, 83 Midsummer 
Bonfires, 84-Hannibal's Vinegar-Ambassadors to Russia 
" Blood," 85-" Mrs. Grundy "-The Watch's Bills-The 
" Golden Dog" of Quebec The Siege of Derry, 86 Mis- 
quotation Superstitions concerning Eggs, 87. 

QUERIES : Golf Grenville : Adams Field Names Rosi- 
crucian Phrase John Hutton, 87 Stourton Royal House 
of France Engraving Count Alfred de Vaudreuil Old 
Book Macaulay's School Contemporaries King of North- 
umbria National Anthems Murtough O'Brien Hyde 
Park Corner Walter Cromwell" The General Wolfe, ' 88 
Armorial Bearings Thatched Churches "Jenal": 
"Jannock" Thistle 'The English FestiualF Lines in 
the Easton Mauduit Register " Rumbelow " Scotch 
Earthenware Morganatic Marriage Sapek James Webb 
Authors Wanted, 89. 

BEPLIES : Engines with Paddles, 90 Rev. T. Garratt. 91 
Armeria Foudroyant " Fimble" " Dolman," 92 The 
Woodpecker "Ere while ""The House," 93 Devizes 
Esturmey Tennyson's ' Crossing the Bar,' 94 Herring 
Pie Charles Steward, 95 Troy Town, g^Oldest Trees- 
Burial by Torchlight Aldgate, 97 Montaigne " Dadd": 
" Dadda "General W. Philips" Hospifale Conversorum 
et Puerorum "Marriage Custom The Royal Marriage 1 
98 Lady of the Bedchamber, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Fitzgerald's 'London Suburbs' 
Sommer's ' Kalender of Shepherdes ' Craik's ' Selections 
from Swift ' Nicholson's ' Ben Jonson ' Schooling's 
i writing and Expression.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


" DANDY." 

(See 6<h S. viii. 515 ; ix. 35, 135, 213, 319 ; 7 th S. viii. 
487; ix. 149.) 

What is a dandy? Much has at various times 
been said on the subject in ' N. & Q.' If I am 
able to throw any further light upon it, I fear I 
shall yet leave it surrounded with much obscurity, 
with much to baffle and perplex. The considera- 
tion of the word will involve that of two others, 
jack-a-dandy and dandiprat, with which I will 
deal in order. 

(a.) Dandy. The familiar use of this word is 
certainly due to that well-known clique of ex 
quisites who astonished and amused London in the 
days of the Regency. MR. SOLLY (6 th S. ix. 35) 
dates their appearance at 1816 ; but I have found 
somewhat earlier mention of them. Lord Byron, 
writing to Moore, July 26, 1813, says, "The 
season has just closed with a Dandy ball," which, 
by-the-by, Mr. Jeaffreson calls " the famous dandy 
ball, at which Byron was one of the dandies." 
Their special characteristics are thus noted by 
Moore (' Fudge Family,' 1818): 
A thing, you know, whisker'd, great-coated, and laced, 
Like an hour-glasa, exceedingly email in the waist. 

But dandies were known before this, and in a 
quarter where we should scarcely have expected to 
find them, viz., the border counties of England 

and Scotland. It appears that the young sparks 
of the country side, who frequented "kirk and 
Fair " during the later years, at least, of last cen- 
tury, and astonished sober people by their gorgeous 
dress and manner, were called dandies. 

1. Jamieson (' Scottish Dictionary ') quotes the 
following from the poems of R. Galloway, 1788. 
Greatly it puzzled me when I first came upon it : 

And laugh at ilka Dandy at that Fair day. 

2. Here is a snatch of song, the history of which 
is curious. Mr. Frank Kidson, of Leeds (to whom 
I am indebted for much help in this inquiry), wrote 
it down from the lips of an old lady who had learnt 
it from her grandmother, Mrs. Tibbie Shiel. This 
latter person kept a public-house at St. Mary's 
Loch, Yarrow, in the early years of our century, 
and was known to Scott, Hogg, and Prof. Wil- 
son : 

I 've heard my granny crack 

0' sixty twa years back, 
Where there were sic a stock of Dandies, : 

Oh, they gaed to Kirk and Pair 

Wi' their ribbons round their hair, 
And their stumpie drugget coats, quite the Dandy, 0. 

It is impossible to assign an exact date to this 
song. But Mr. Kidson tells me that Tibbie Shiel 
must have been born about 1770 ; and as an old 
woman singing to her grandchildren would pretty 
surely go back to the songs of her youth, we may 
very fairly suppose it to be contemporary with 
Galloway's poem, c. 1780-90. 

3. In the ' Cumbrian Ballads ' (published 1823) 
there is a song called ' Carel Fair/ dated 1819, 
from which I take the following : 

I ruise afvrore three tudder mwornin 
And went owre to see Carel Fair : 

I 'd heard monie teales o' thur Dandies, 
Ods wings ! how they mek the fwok stare ! 

Then follows a prose description of their appear- 
ance, reminding us of Moore's above given, and 
perhaps echoing the descriptions of London dandy- 
ism. Still, the dandies of Carel (Carlisle) Fair 
seem certainly to carry on the tradition of Border 
dandyism, of which the eighteenth century has 
told us. 

4. But here is another notable thing. About 
the same date, c. 1780, a whole series of songs was 
in vogue, all having for refrain "the Dandy 0"; 
they were sung to the tune which Moore took for 
' Eveline's Bower/ and which was best known in 
my early days as ' The One- Horse Shay/ and in 
most, though not in all of these, "the dandy" 
means "the correct thing," "the ticket," "the 
cheese." In the comic opera ' Two to One/ by 
Geo. Colman the younger (1784), there is a song, 
of which this is the first verse : 

There is a Chambermaid who lives in the South, 
So tight, so light, eo neat, BO gay, so handy 0, 

Her breath is like the rose, and the pretty little mouth 
Of pretty little Tippet is the Dandy 0. 

It would be too long to quote others ; but a later 



xample may be seen, given by R. R. in 6 th S. ix. 
136, and I may note that this phrase, "the 
dandy " = " the cheese," " the pick of the basket," 
&c., though lost from our use, appears to be still 
current in the States.* 

Further than this I cannot trace the word, and 
here, therefore, is the place to correct a blunder 
which MR. WALFORD (6 th S. viii. 515) has passed 
on from a writer in the Mirror, 1838. He is 
speaking of the coin called " dandiprat," "which, 
observes Bp. Fleetwood, was the origin of the term 
dandy, applied to worthless and contemptible 
persons." If Fleetwood had said this, it would 
carry the word back to the very beginning of the 
eighteenth century ; but he said nothing of the 
kind. He was speaking simply and solely of dandi- 
prat. " There were also little pieces coined by 
Henry VII., called dandypratts, which I suppose 
were little or contemptible things, because that 
word has since been used to signifie small and 
worthless people " (' Chron. Preciosum,' chap. iii. 
published c. 1709). Thus there remains no such 
early evidence for the use of the word ; and cer- 
tainly no evidence that it ever was applied in mere 

So far as we can see, the dandy, though often 
laughed at, has always leceived a certain amount 
of popular or vulgar admiration. Very many of 
the laughers would be glad enough to imitate his 
humours if they thought they could carry them 
equally well, and the use of "the dandy" for 
" the correct thing " adds to the evidence which 
dissociates from the word a notion of what is 
merely base. 

(6.) I come now to jack-a- dandy, which goes 
further back in time. My first example is from 
Vanbrngh's comedy 'The Confederacy' (1705), 
V. i, Flippanta says to her lover Brass, "Hold 
your prating, Jack a dandy, and leave me to my 
business." From 'Sir Charles Grandison,' IV. 
1. 29: "Notwithstanding all the Jack-a-dandies 
that have been fluttering about you [Harriet 
Byron] you are what you were when I left you." 
And MR. BIRKBECK TERRY gives two more (6 th S. 
ix. 319), which are, however, merely variants : 
Smart she is and handy 0, 
Sweet as sugar candy 0. 

And I'm her Jack-a-dandy 0. 
From these it appears that " Jack-a-dandy," like 
"Jemmy Jessamy," &c., was the title of a smart 
young fellow, fit, or at least thinking himself fit, to 
be a ladies' darling. I do not think that Flippanta, 
though she speaks petulantly, has any different 
intention, and so I do not set much value on the 
testimony of Dyche's ' Dictionary ' (1744), where 
it is defined, " a little impertinent insignificant 
fellow." At least the examples we possess are 

* MR. SOLLY (ft* S. ix. 35) mentions having lately 
heard it in England. 

against this, and the traditional meaning appears 
to be preserved in the more modern " dandy-jack." 
" My, he do go dandy-jacking along the cliff,'* 
says some one in a novel by Mr. Manville Fenn. 

(c.) Dandiprat. This is a very puzzling word. 
As we have seen in the quotation from Fleetwood,. 
it bore two senses : (1) It was the name of a coin 
said to have been issued by Henry VII., of value- 
about three halfpence (so R. Recorde, 1542) ; and 
(2) it was used in the sense of dwarf, urchin, 
whipper-snapper. Of these, so far as present evi- 
dence shows, the coin-name is certainly the earlier. 
It is spoken of by W. Tyndal (' Practise of Pre- 
lates '), and by Palsgrave (* L'Eclaircissement de 
la L. Fr.'), both at date 1530. The earliest example 
of the dwarf-sense that I have been able to obtain 
is in John Heywood's poem ' The Spider and the 

Yet as the giantes pawes pat downe dandipratts, 
So shall we put downe these dandiprat brag brattes. 

Unless, therefore, we shall choose to jump over 
the evidence, and assume the later sense to be the 
earlier, we must perforce discard such excursions 
in etymology as that of the ' Imperial Dictionary,* 
which derives the word "from dandy, a fop, and 
prat, probably for prate, or for brat" Doubly pre- 
posterous, seeing that, on the evidence, the dwarf- 
sense is posterous to the coin-name ; and beyond 
all reasonable doubt, dandy is a long way posterous 
to dandiprat. 

But now for the supposed connexion between 
these three, dandy, jack- a- dandy, and dandiprat. 
I see no great difficulty in assuming a connexion 
between the first two ; but I very greatly doubt 
their affinity with dandiprat. Bishop Fleetwood's 
testimony that this last word meant something 
mean and contemptible, is very much borne oat 
by the examples of it which we possess, going on 
to the end of the seventeenth century. At best it 
has been applied jokingly to a little urchin ; but 
even this leaves us a long way off from the " ex- 
quisite " dandy, and we have nothing with which 
to bridge over the interval. 

The same objection applies, and as it seems to 
me with yet greater force, to the connexion pro- 
posed by DR. COEHAM BREWER and Miss BUSK 
(6"> S. ix. 35), and partly also by PROF. SKEAT, with 
the Fr. dandin, dandiner. Cotgrave (1611) ex- 
plains dandin as " ninny, noddy, meacock "; dan- 
diner, " to goe gaping ill fauoredly, to gape and 
looke like an asse "; and Littre much to the same 
effect explains the verb," balancer son corps d'une 
maniere gauche et noncbalante." Your dandin ie f 
and always was, a lout ; and a lout is the antipodes 
of a dandy. Not in outward semblance only. The 
first Lord Lytton has somewhere said : 

" Since the days when Alcibiades lounged into the 
Agora with doves in his bosom, the fop has always been 
credited with some power of becoming a hero "; 

but the lout never. Our old friend George Dandia 

8" S. IV. JctY 29, '93.] 



was forced to go on his knees and ask pardon of 
the woman whom he knew to have betrayed and 
befooled him ; a little of the complexion of a dandy 
might have saved him from falling so low. If, 
therefore, we are to accept the theory that dandin 
has boxed the compass and become dandy, we 
ought at least to be furnished with some proof of 
the transition ; but we have none whatever. 

Thus, then, it remains. The origin of dandiprat 
13 unknown and apparently unknowable, and the 
origin of dandy and jack-a dandy is about equally 
lost in the clouds. C. B. MOUNT. 

P.S. It is just worth while to ask whether 
anything might be made out of the name Andrew. 
Dandie is its familiar form in Scotland ; and the 
humours of the dandy are nearer to the grimaces 
of the Merry Andrew than to the awkwardness of 
the dandin. 


May Humber of the Suizadok, the official publica- 
tion of the Hungarian Historical Society, publishes 
* letter written in 1547 by a young Hungarian, 
then studying at Vienna, Joseph Macarius by 
name, to a relative and benefactor of his living at 
Sarvdr in Hungary, which, as pointed out by a 
correspondent in the June number of the same 
publication, contains the earliest known version of 
the plot of Shakespeare's ' Measure for Measure.' 

I subjoin an English version of the extract in 
question, which is given in Hungarian translation, 
the original being probably in Latin: 

" The following new, but [ate] memorable little story 
ia now in circulation here among us. Two citizens of a 
town not far from Milano, who happened to have a dispute 
with angry words, allowed themselves to be carried away 
o far by their rage and imprudence, that one transfixed 
and killed the other with his dagger. The guilty man 
was caught red-handed, arrested, and thrown into the 
public prison ; but his young wife, who was of fascinating 
beauty and very fond of her husband, attempted every 
means to secure his release and pardon. She went 
before the chief justice who goes there by the name 
of ' the Spanish Count 'uttering loud cries of sorrow, 
and, prostrating herself before him, craved for mercy, 
bcgRing of him to spare the life of her husband by com- 
muting the capital sentence into a heavy fine, offering 
him an enormous sum of money which she hoped they 
would be able to realize by the sale of all their earthly 
possessions. He [the Count] was a bachelor, and being 
fascinated by her beauty, informed her that the only 
price he would accept from her for the redemption of 
her husband's life was the possession of herself. She 
sitated fur a wh.le, and not being able to make up her 
there and then whether to sacrifice her own 
ighted troth or the life of her husband, she begged the 
favour that a short time be allowed her for reflection, 
which was granted. Whereupon 8he withdrew and ran 
in great haste secretly to her relatives and her brothers- 

a-law,towhom she discovered the low lust ofthepro- 
njgate judge, begging them to advise her as to what she 

hould do under such embarrassing circumstances. They 
advised her to save her husband's life at any cost, con- 

soling her that, as she was not going to be a willing acces- 
sory to the commission of the acf, her soul would remain 
free of sin. Having thus eased her conscience by first 
consulting her relatives, and being driven as I may say 
by a blind love for her husband, she reluctantly ac- 
cepted the judge's offer. The deep sorrow depicted in 
her face and her eyes full of tears, however, were 
eloquent witnesses of her unwillingness, and the wicked 
adulterer's pleasure v/as greatly spoilt thereby. Next 
day, imagine her dismay when she learnt the news that 
her husband had been beheaded after a 1, in spite of the 
heavy ransom she had paid for his life. Embittered by 
this wanton act, she once more sought the judge's pre- 
sence, and in deepfelt words reproached him for his 
breach of faith by taking her poor husband's life after 
after Laving robbed her of her honour and covered her 
very name with shame. But finding that he turned a 
deaf ear to her words and only greeted them with mock- 
ing laughter, the travelled to Milano, to see Don Fer- 
dinando Gonzaga, the brother of the Duke of Mantua, 
and his Imperial Majesty's vicegerent for that province, 
to whom she related the injustice done to her and the 
shameful way she had been deceived, imploring the 
vengeance of all the gods [sic]. Don Ferdinando advised 
the woman to keep silence; and two months thereafter, 
without even hinting to the guilty judge that he knew 
anything of the case, invited him and several citizens to 
a feast, and asked the woman also to hold herself in 
readiness so as to be able to appear as soon as she was 
going to be called, without letting the judge know of her 
presence. As soon as their hunger was stilled and their 
thirst quenched, Don Ferdinando beckoned to the judge, 
and informing him that he had something of a private 
nature to communicate to him, bade him to enter another 
apartment, where he taxed the terrified man with the 
offence and censured him severely for his low and brutal 
behaviour towards the poor woman. ' And since you 
have acted towards her so shamefully and despicably,' 
added Don Ferdinando, ' I order you to pay her forth- 
with 3,000 ducats as a dowry.' Then, conducting him 
back to the ball where the guests were assembled, he 
called upon him to marry at once the woman whom he had 
wronged, and by making her his lawful wife to reinstate 
her in the honourable position she previously held in 
society as a respectable woman. A clergyman was then 
summoned, who married the couple upon the spot, rings 
being exchanged as usual. Don Ferdinando then thus 
addressed the couple, ' Here, woman, tbis is to be your 
dowry, as I wished it, and your previous good name and 
honour has been restored. And you,' continued he, 
addressing the Spanish Count, that is the chief justice, 
' shall have your bead chopped off to-morrow as a requital 
for this woman's first husband's death.' And the sentence 
was actually carried out. The punishment was just, and 
was approved of by his Imperial Majesty [Charles V.]. 
There are several versions of the tale in circulation, and 
if I knew that Your Honour have not heard a better one 
than the one above narrated and have not received more 
reliable news, I would describe it again." 

The original of this letter is in the Hungarian 
Public Record Office (the Orsz^gos Leve'lta'r) at 
Budapest, among the papers of the Na"dasdv 
family. It is dated from Vienna, Oct. 1, 1547. 
So far as one can judge by the short abstract given 
as a note by Douce, in vol. iii. of Halliwell's 
edition of Shakespeare's ' Works ' (p. 228), exactly 
the same version of this story is given in Goulart't* 
1 Histoires Admirables et Memorables adveniies 
de Nostre Temps' (Paris, 1618, torn. L foL 221). 
The town where the event is said to hare occurred 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [&<- a. iv. JOLT 29, -93. 

is given in this version as Como, in Italy, which 
agrees well with the version of Macarius that it 
was not far from Milano. The date 1547 is ex- 
actly the same as given in the letter. The Spanish 
Count is in Goulart's ' Histoire ' a Spanish captain ; 
bat the wronged woman makes complaint to the 
Dnke of Ferrara. 

On referring to Cusani's * Storia di Milano ' 
(Milano, 1861), we find (vol. i. p. 281) that its 
ruler after the death, in 1546, of the Marchese de 
Vasto, a man hated by the people for his extortions, 
was Don Ferrante (i. ., Ferdinand) Gonzaga, 
which agrees with our letter. According to 
Cusani, he was " vice-re di Sicilia, uomo istrutto, 
attivo negli affari e di gentili maniere, per cui si 
cattivo amore i rispetto." He completed the walls 
of the town, enlarged the Piazza di Duomo, and in 
other ways embellished and improved the town. 
And on being told of what great antiquity the 
Columns of San Lorenzo were, and that they were 
in imminent danger of final collapse for want of 
attention, he had them carefully repaired and 
strengthened. Thanks to his solicitude, therefore, 
they still stand, and may be seen at Milano at the 
present day. History further records that he con- 
tinued in the government of Milano until sum- 
moned to the war in the Low Countries by Philip II. 
At the siege of St. Quentin his horse stumbled, 
throwing him violently to the ground, and from the 
injuries received he died, amidst universal regret, 
at Brussels on Nov. 15, 1557. This character 
agrees very well with that of the avenger of the 
woman's wrongs in our story. The letter-writer 
states that Don Ferdinando was the brother of the 
Duke of Mantua. This requires some qualifica- 
tion. He was not the brother of Francis Gonzaga, 
who was Duke of Mantua and Margrave of Mont- 
ferrat in 1547 (he succeeded in 1540 and died in 
1550), but of Frederick Gonzaga, the first Duke of 
Mantua. Don Ferrante himself was born on 
Jan. 28, 1507, and at his death bore the titles of 
Duke of Arriano, Prince of Molfetta and Count of 
Guastalla. (Cf. Huebner's ' Genealogische Tabel- 
len,' part i. tables 306 to 308.) Though Halliwell 
is right in saying that in ' Measure for Measure ' 
Shakespeare has infinitely purified a barbarous 
tale, I cannot help agreeing also with Hunter that 
his plot is still " improbable and disgusting," and 
with Coleridge that " the pardon and marriage of 

Angelo baffles the strong indignant claim of 

justice for cruelty with lust and damnable base- 
ness." The version of the tale as related by 
Macarius is far more probable, and the persons 
less " unindividualized " than in the play. The 
Spaniard is not quite such a degraded brute as 
either Shakespeare's Angelo or Cinthio's Juriste, 
and the woman is a truer representative of her sex 
than Isabella. Everything seems to point to the 
probability that the events as related by the Hun- 
garian student and the French story-teller really 

took place at Como or some other town near 
Milano in or about 1547, and that the special law 
enacted by Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, 
for the improvement of the morals of the town of 
Gyula ("Julio"), is merely the product of George 
Whetstone's fertile imagination. In Geraldo Cin- 
thio's version, the scene is laid at Innsbruck 
(Ispruchi) and the avenger is the Emperor Maxi- 
milian himself (Massimiano) ; Shakespeare trans- 
fers the action to Vienna, of which city, as it has 
already been pointed out by Knight, there never 
has been a ruler of the name of the Duke Vin- 
centio, and among all his dramatis personce there 
is not a single name that is even intended to be 

According to the correspondent already referred 
to, in the June number of the Szdzadok, the same 
subject has been utilized by Claude Rouillet, in 
his tragedy, 'Philamire,' published in 1563, two 
years before Cinthio's ' Hecatommithi,' in which 
also the wife sacrifices herself for her husband, and 
not the sister for her brother. I have not been 
able to see this piece. L. L. K. 

"RuNAWAYES EYES" (8 th S. i. 432, 518; ii. 35, 
75, 135 ; iii. 285). I cannot for a moment accept 
the ridiculous guess that we here have a misprint 
for unawayrs. It is founded on the cool statement 
that " the old mode of spelling unawares was un- 
awayrs" Was it, indeed? Then will any one 
kindly submit some quotations to prove it ] It was 
certainly not the normal spelling, and I can see no- 
reason for the insertion of the diphthong ay in- 
stead of the usual and correct a. This is how 
Shakespearian "emendations" are produced. 
They are frequently founded on unsupported as- 
sumptions. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

* PERICLES.' In the notes to 'Pericles' in the 
concluding volume of the 'Cambridge Shakespeare 
the editor enumerates the several quarto editions 
of that play, and remarks that the imperfect edition 
dated 1611 in the British Museum is unique. So 
far back as 1891 I called attention in N. & Q.' to 
the fact that a perfect copy of that edition had 
come into my possession. I collated the new- 
found leaves with the old editions, but the differ- 
ences were not important enough to publish. 


MIDSUMMER BONFIRES. Dr. Murray, in the 
' New English Dictionary,' bestows his usual ex- 
haustive treatment on the word "bonfire," and 
shows the term in its original form as bone fire, 
" a great fire in which bones were burnt in the 
open air." In the examples cited are references to 
the custom of lighting these huge fires at mid- 
summer. The usage is set forth in an Ordinary of 
the Fellowship of Cooks of Newcastle- upon-Tyne, ' 
dated 1575, which prescribes that they 

8 8. IV. JULY 29, '93.] 



" shall yearely of their owne cost and charge main- 
teigne and keep the bonefires according to the aun- 
cient custome of the f&id towne on the Sand-hill there 
that is to say one bonefire on the even of the feast of the 
Nativitie of St. John Baptist, commonly called Midsomer 
even and the other on the even of the feast of St. Peter 
the Apostle if it shall please the maior and aldermen of 
the said towne for the time being to have the same bone- 

(Quoted in Brand, 'Hist, of Newc.,' vol. ii. 
p. 722). The municipal accounts of Newcastle at 
subsequent dates contain such entries as the fol- 
lowing : 

" Julii 1579 : Paid to the Cookes for mackinge on the 
bone-fires on the Sandhill on Midsummer even and Sancte 
Peter's even, 8s. Geven to the Waites for playinge on 
31idsummer even, 12cZ." 

It is not surprising that the incongruity of a bon- 
fire at midsummer led to the disuse of the ob- 
servance in Newcastle. But in remoter parts of 
Northumberland the custom has survived to this 
day, wood being now substituted for bones as 
fuel. The Newcastle Daily Journal of July 7 
reports the burning of the bonfire at the village of 
Whalton, distant twelve and a half miles north- 
west from Newcastle, in the following words : 

" Old world customs are long-lived in quiet country 
places, and one of the oldest had its annual observance 
on Tuesday night [July 4] at Whalton. Bonfire night,' 
it is called ...... There is evidence that a bonfire has always 

been lighted at sundown in the village of Whalton on the 
4th of July, Old Midsummer Day. The oldest in- 
habitant never knew it to be forgotten or neglected, 
though the changes taking place in the population have an 
appreciable effect in the manner in which the old custom 
ii i observed. But still the faggots are dragged down the 
village by the youths with much noise and shouting, 
and dancing to the music of the fiddle is always part of 
the ceremony." 

To complete the resemblance to a heathenish 
festival, it may be added that as late as twenty 
years ago the ancient custom had been retained 
f keeping up the music and dancing until the 
flames decreased, when young couples who wished 
for luck in married life leaped together across the 
embers and over the dying flames. 


HANNIBAL'S VINEGAR. In ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. 
ii. and iii., there was a long and nearly exhaustive 
discussion on the subject of Hannibal's march 
across the Alps. The following passage from 
The'ophile Gautier's 'Italia,' chap, ii., seems to 
me pretty well to settle the veracious story of 
the vinegar which has been so closely associated 
with the name of Hannibal. " Solvuntur risu 

, u Simplon, que nous allona suivre, est une 
' du genie humain. Napoleon, se souvenant de 
peine que devait avoir cue Annibal a faire fondre 
is les Alpes avec du vinaigre, comme le racontent 
leusement les historiens, a voulu e"pargner ce travail 
t conquerants qui d&ireraient entrer en Italie, et a 
fait executor en trois ans ce chemin miraculeux. II 
fallait que le vinaigre antique fut d'une force terrible, 

car cent soixante mille quintaux de poudre et dix mille 
hommes suffirent tout au plus a faire a 1'apre flanc de 
la montagne cet imperceptible raie qu'on appelle une 

Amongst the various explanations of the vinegar 
story I do not remember to have seen the following 
suggested. Is it not possible that, when Livy was 
writing this passage in his history, Clio, being 
engaged elsewhere, deputed her sister Thalia to 
fill her place for the nonce by Livy's desk 5 and the 
Muse of Comedy, being unable to resist the 
temptation, "rounded" this story into the ear of 
the historian for the fun of seeing him (and nine- 
teen centuries) believe it ? 


AMBASSADORS TO RUSSIA. In the notes about 
Sir John Bowes the following English envoyh 
being sent to Russia are omitted. I extract their 
names from the same old MS. Privy Council 
Orders I quoted in ' N. & Q.,' 8 th S. iii. 242. In 
May, 1575, Sir Daniel Silvester was sent by Queen 
Elizabeth to the emperor on various subjects, prin- 
cipally about a league she had entered into with 
the emperor, which had been arranged three years 
before secretly through Antonie Jenkinson, whom 
the Queen had sent to Russia. 


Sulhamstead, Beading. 

"BLOOD." In 1887 the 'New English Die- 
tionary ' declared of blood, " a 'buck/ a f fast ' or 
foppish man," &c., that it was " Obs. in Great 
Britain except as a reminiscence of last century "; 
but in 1893 it is current among Cambridge uni- 
versity men, and it seems probable that it may 
have a renewed spell of popularity throughout the 
land. In an article headed ' The Immorality of 
Success,' the Granta of June 3 remarks, con- 
cerning pending examinations : 

" The Blood who, up to now, has only regarded Algebra 
as a fantaotic name for a pretty girl, dashes off in pursuit 
of quadratic equations with an enthusiasm which shows 
that he has not ridden to hounds for nothing." 

And again, in the " May " week number (Jane 9) 
we have as an item in a burlesque programme of 
river and riverside events, " Equestrian display by 
Bloods on the Far Bank." The Parrot, a May 
Week paper, which was to have been a daily but 
did not survive its second appearance, had articles 
on ' The Blood ' and The Pseudo-Blood. ' Of the 
former it is said 

' No self-respecting Blood would ever crow upon his 
neighbour's dunghill, much less would he enter the Uni- 
versity without the stipend of unlimited credit He 

may be seen to advantage in the Pitt Smoking-Room. 
He may never be seen to a disadvantage. The severity 
of his Brow is only emulated by that of his Shirt Front, 
while the coolness of his wine vies vainly with that of his 
behaviour. He is sometimes a Fool, and sometimes he is 
not. He is occasionally frisky, but never undignified. 
His temper may be ruffled, but his hair never. He is 
generally a gentleman He likes to be taken notice of. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.iv. JULY 29, i. 

To ignore him is to annoy him. To despise him ia im- 
possible. Only a Pseudo-Blood can be despised, and he 
will be despised in the next number." 

It is there asserted of him, 

" He never gets up till twelve or one, and never retires 

before three He generally gambles and always bets at 

Newmarket. He is a Fool He is possessed of 300J. a 

year and lives at the rate of 80(M His cap is battered, 

and his gown torn. His rooms are a reflection of his 
foolish mind." 

An illustration in the May Week number of the 
K. P. consists of an ill-drawn creature intended 
for a dandy, and an " artless one," who thus 
addresses him, " Oh ! Mr. Fitznoodle, do tell me 
what sort of a thing a blood is." 


[A well-known personage^n Leeds was always, 1840-60, 
spoken of as Blood A . ] 

"MRS. GRUNDY." " MM. Grundy" I have 
understood to be the incarnation of the propriety 
of a neighbourhood, as in Morton's ' Speed the 
Plough,' but the excellent lady when she goes 
abroad must take on a new character. Bernstein, 
in his ' Ferdinand Lassalle as a Social Reformer/ 
1893, says : 

" In the fifties, and even later, ' Gartenlaube Liberal- 
ism ' honoured Hutten and Sickingen as the advanced 
guard of the and advanced movement, and 
ignored their efforts on behalf of their claps. And 
Lassalle does exactly the game in his drama. Ulrich von 
Hutten and Franz von Sickingen fight against the 
Roman Antichrist solely for the sake of intellectual free- 
dom/' &C.-P. 39. 

In a note the translator tells us "Gartenlaube 
is the German equivalent of our Mrs. Grundy." Is 
it? It is difficult to imagine the old lady 
approving of sacrifices " for the sake of intellectual 
freedom." Should not " Gartenlaube Liberalism " 
be translated bourgeois or middle-class liberalism? 
Mrs. Grundy as a Socialist seems to outrage all 
literary proprieties ! 


12, Sardinia Terrace, Glasgow. 

THE WATCH'S BILLS. During the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James I. the watch always carried 
" bills," which Shakespearian commentators have 
sufficiently described, and which seem to have 
been broad-bladed instruments at the end of staves. 
Allusions to the fact that the watch carried bills are 
found in many old plays and pamphlets. Thus, 
in the 'Alimony Lady,' 1659, Act III. sc. v., 
occurs this stage direction: " Enter Constable and 
Watch, in rug gowns, bills, and dark lanthorns." 
In Dekker's ' per se 0,' 1612, there is a picture 
of a watchman, with his bill and lanthorn over his 
shoulder. These bills were generally kept in poor 
condition, and were full of rust. Allusions to 
these rusty bills, or "brown bills" as they are 
called, are numerous in old writers. Thus in 
Lyly's(?) 'Pappe with an Hatchet' we find, " Wee 

challenge him at all weapon?, from the taylors 
bodkin to the watchmans browne bill." This same 
expression occurs in Lyly's comedy ( Sapho and 
Phao,' II. iii.; and this similarity of phrases helps 
to prove Lyly's authorship of ' Pappe with an 
Hatchet.' Shakespeare has numerous references 
to the watchmen's rusty bills, as in 'Lear, 1 IV. vi. ; 
'Richard II.,' III. ii. &c. In the Epistle Dedi- 
catory of 'Nash's Lenten Stuff,' 1599, we find 
" Let the can of strong ale be your constable, with 
the toast for his brown bill, and sugar and nut- 
megs his watchmen." In Act IV. scene ii. of Lyly'a 
' Endimion,' 1591, a page says of the watch, "Their 
wits are all as rustic as their bils"; and in the 
song that follows the watch call themselves " bil- 
men " and " browne bils. 7 ' In Middleton's ' Blurt, 
Master Constable,' 1602, we have : 

Which is the constable's house 1 

At the sign of the Brown-Bill. 

It'is well known that Shakespeare'* Dogberry 
and watch are imitations of the constable and 
watch in Lyly's ' Endimion ' (ubi supra). Dog- 
berry, I may add, became very popular, and his 
character was often imitated, as in ' The Heir,' 1633, 
Act IV., by Thomas May, and in ' Lady Alimony,' 
1659, III. v. J. E. SPINGARN. 

New York. 

Quebec, a couple of years ago, I went to see the 
famous " golden dog " on the post-office, with the 

Je suis un chien qui ronge 1'os, 

En le rongeant je prende mon repos, &c. 

In the guide-book to Quebec the phrase " a puzzle 
to so many " occurs in allusion to it ; also occurs 
the fact that an ancient corner-stone was found 
while demolishing the old structure (on the site of 
which the present building is erected), on which 
was cut a St. Andrew's cross between the letters 
P. H., dated 1735 ; also a piece of lead, bearing 
" Nicholas Jacques dit Philiber m'a pose le 26 
Aout 1734." Various legends follow in the guide- 
book. In the * Memoirs ' of Henri Masers de 
Latude, a translation of which I have just read, 
occurs the following: 

"On entering Bicetre I had assumed the name of 
'Jedor' [evidently 'je dor'], in allusion to a dog, 
the figure of wbich I had seen on the gates of a citadel, 
with a bone between his paws, and the following under- 
neath : i gnaw my bone, expecting the day when I may 
bite him who has bitten me.' " 

Latude was imprisoned in 1748. The famous 
golden dog is evidently neither original nor 
peculiar to Quebec. 0. Rowe, Major K.A. 

following interesting cutting is from the Liverpool 
Courier of July 14 : 

" It may be assumed that there are few persons now 
living who have, like Dr. W. H. Moore, of Formby, 

8*S. 1V.JUIY29, '93.] 



talked with a person who had spoken to another perso 
who was present at the famous siege of the ' M aide 
City,' whose 'prentice boys made themselves famous i 
history by showing what should be done when an enem 
approached the gates. The siege of Derry took place i 
1689, BO that two centuries and four years have elapse: 
and yet it is communicated to present day people alon 
a chain of only three links. The doctor's grandfathe 
(Mr. Joseph Moore, of Bond's Glen, near Derry) 
born in 1767, and lived to the good old age of four scor 
and five. When he died, in 1852, the doctor was sixteei 
years of age. The old man and the youth had oftei 
talked of the brave days of old, and the former took prid 
in referring to his great-grandmother (Elizabeth Lyon 
of Mtlenan, near Derry), who was present at the siege o 
the city. She lived to the age of ninety-five years, beinj 
born in 1684, and dying in 1779, when the doctor's grand 
father (then a boy of twelve years) attended her funeral 
This Elizabeth Lyon, at the age of five years, was one o 
those who were driven under the walls of Derry by orde 
of the French commander of King James's troops during 
the siege of the city. And Dr. Moore heard of her from 
one who had spoken to her ninety years after the siege.' 

W. D. PINK. 

MISQUOTATION. It is curious lo find the well 
known passage from ' Hamlet,' V. ii. 10, 11 
There 's a divinity that shapes our ends, 
Kougli-hew them how we will, 

thus misquoted : 

" The poet's words are true : ' There is a Providence 
that shapes our ends, rough-hew them as we may.' " 

This misquotation is in chap, xxxvii. of ' A Fair 
Jewess,' by B. L. Farjeon, which is appearing 
weekly in the supplement to the Leeds Mercury. 
In Punch, May 27, p. 252, col. 2, Toby remarks : 

"You remember the case of another chest and its 
weird associations ? 

Fifteen men on a dead man's chest 

Ho ! Ho ! Ho 1 and a bottle of rum ! " 
The quotation is from R. L. Stevenson's famous 
' Treasure Island,' and should be 

Fifteen men on the dead man's chest 
Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum ! 



1. If you eat blue birds' eggs you will be rest- 
lees as long as you live, no place will have the 
power to hold you long. 

2. Any one who eats a mocking bird's eggs will 
never keep a secret. 

J. Any one who robs a killdee's nest and eats its 
egs will certainly break an arm. 

He who eats a dove's egg will be foHowed by 

5. The egg of any bird with yellow plumage will 
cause a fever. 

6. He who eats an owl's egg will always be 

The above were obtained for me from some 
itives who are now, for a time, resident in London. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

GOLF. Goff seems to be establishing itself as 
the pronunciation of golf, although until, a few- 
years ago, the game became popular south of the 
Tweed, the English retained the sound of the I. 
Bailey gives the spelling goff (and not golf) in hit 
'Dictionary'; but Johnson omits the word alto- 
gether. Modern dictionaries, so far as I hare 
ascertained, give golf not only as the form, but as 
the pronunciation of the word. May I convert 
this communication into a query by asking whether 
golf was introduced into North America by the 
early Dutch settlers, and how the word is pro- 
nounced in the United States ? 



GRENVILLE ; ADAMS. On October 18, 1792 
(Gent. Mag.}, George Adams, Esq., of Swan wick 
Place, Hants, " and late of his Majesty's ship 
Blonde," was married at Southampton " to Miss 
Elizabeth Grenville, daughter of Mr. Serjeant 
Grenville, and nearly related to Lord Grenville's 
family." Further information desired concerning 
both families. BEAULIEU. 

FIELD NAMES. Butcher's Close, field name in 
Preston Candover, Hants, next to Galley Hill, 
otherwise Gallows Hill. In a parish not far off 
Avington, in Hants, a field of the same name is 
said by tradition to have been used for the 
laughter of beasts and cattle for the supply of 
he army of the king or Parliament at the time of 
Cheriton fight. Are there any other like traditions 
associated with the name elsewhere ? Morrey, 
name of a local meadow. What is the meaning of 
he word ; is it common ? Explanation wanted of 
jiffl.mds, Lilleys, Inhams, Lobdell, Dellmandown, 
Vlitcheman, Sbapley, Chavis, Dunnecliffc, Canon 
Wood other local names ? VICAR. 

ROSICRUCIAN PHRASE. Can any of your 
earned readers translate or give me the Hebrew 
pelling of the following Rosicrucian phrase, which 
s written in roman letters as three words? 
Taphza Benezelthar Thaseraphimarah." 


JOHN BUTTON, Clk., a personal friend and adviser 
f the founder, was the first master of the Charter- 
Duse Hospital, to which post he was nominated 
y the founder, Thomas Sutton, Esq., of Camp's 
Castle, co. Cambridge, by a deed dated October 30, 
611. Button was then Vicar of Littlebury, 
ssex. He resigned his mastership in 1614, and 
instituted November 9 in that year to rectory 

NOTES AND QUERIES. ts* s. i V.JULY 29, j 

of Dunsby, Lines., a living in the presentation of the 
school governors, and was buried in the chancel of 
Dunsby Church, October, 1626. His widow 
Mary, als. Carewe, administered to his will 
January 12, 1628/9. Can any of your readers 
kindly help me as to who Mary Hutton's second 
husband was, and to what branch of the Carewe 
family I can tack him on ? JUSTIN SIMPSON. 

STOURTON FAMILY. Wanted, any biographical 
information touching John, first Lord Stourton 
(died 1463), and his son William, second Lord 
Stourton (died 1478). What is known of Stourton 
House, Fulham, where they resided ; and how long 
did it remain in the family (Cal. Inq. p.m., 2 and 
17 Ed. IV.)? CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

ROYAL HOUSE OF FRANCE. If any reader of 
your invaluable paper would kindly supply it, I 
should be very much obliged for proof of the con- 
nexion between the ancient royal house of France 
and the house of Boulogne, and the genealogical 
proof of the descent of the latter from the Gernons 
(i. e., Cavendish, &c.), and for anything of marked 
interest concerning the genealogy and heraldry in- 
volved anywhere along the line. 


ENGRAVING. In Percy Fitzgerald's * History of 
Pickwick ' (1891) is recorded that Mr. R W. Buss 
painted a picture of "'Sir Walter Raleigh Smoking 
his First Pipe,' where the consternation of the 
servant on entering is humorously conveyed." 
Was an engraving of this picture published ? 


Salterton, Devon. 

stewards of the Westminster School anniversary 
dinner on May 7, 1825. I should be glad to 
receive any information about him. He was 
apparently admitted to the school as Alfred Vau- 
dreuil on January 23, 1812, and left Bartholomew- 
tide, 1815. G. F. R. B. 

OLD BOOK. I have an old book in black-letter 
English, and should feel much obliged for some 
information respecting it. I may say I have 
searched many records of early printers, but have 
never come across any mention of either printer or 
book. The title-page is as follows : " A Dialogue 
of Comforte agaynst Tribulacion made by an Hun 
garien in Latine, and translated oute of Latine 
into Frenche, and oute of Frenche into Englishe." 
On the last page is as follows : " Imprinted at 
London in Flete Strete within Temple Barre at 
the Signe of the Hand and Starre, by Richarde 
Tottell, ye xviii day of Nove'bre, 1553." 


In a letter to his father, written from Mr. Pres- 

ton's establishment at Shelford, and dated Feb. 22, 
1813, Macaulay says : 

'With respect to my health, I am very well, and 
tolerably cheerful, as Blundell, the best and most clever 
of all the scholars, is very kind, and talks to me and takes 
my part. He is quite a friend of Mr. Preaton's. The 
other boya, especially Lyon, a Scotch boy, and Wilbsr- 
force, are very good-natured, and we might have gone on 

very well had not one , a Bristol fellow, come here. 

He is unanimously allowed to be a queer fellow, and is 
generally characterised as a foolish boy, and by most of 
us as an ill-natured one." 

The compiler of Lord Macaulay's 'Life and 
Letters ' has of his charity left blank the offender's 
name. But perhaps after an interval of eighty 
years it would not be unkind to reveal it. Can 
any reader of 'N. & Q.' supply the omission? 
After all, it is no lasting disgrace to have failed to 
get on at school with Macaulay, who at times must 
have been a little trying. GUALTERULUS. 

KING OF NORTHUMBRIA. Can any of the 
readers of * N. & Q.' tell me if there ever was a 
King of Northumbria of the name of " Bured " or 
" Burhead " I am not sure as to the orthography ; 
and if there were, which modern family is de- 
scended from him ? Any information referring 
thereto will be acceptable. T. H. 

NATIONAL ANTHEMS. Will some one be good 
enough to tell me where I can find information 
about the National Anthems words and music 
of different countries other than our own ? 



His daughter " Lafeacott " is said to have married 
Roger de Montgomery. I suppose this prince was 
King of Munster, but not of Ireland, for he lived, 
I think, in the days of Roderick O'Connor, who 
was arch-king. Who was this Murtough's or 
Murrough's father ; and what are his correct place 
and time in the O'Brien genealogy ? X. Y. Z. 

HYDE PARK CORNER. In * Yanity Fair,' 
chap, xxii., the following allusion occurs: 

" And the carriage drove on, taking the road down 
Piccadilly, where Apsley House and St. George's Hos- 
pital wore red jackets still." 

What is the meaning of wearing "red jackets" 
in this sentence ? E. S. E. C. 

[Apsley House was originally of red brick, as doubtless 
was St. George's Hospital.] 

WALTER CROMWELL. Any clue to relationship 
of Walter Cromwell, of Baling, 1668, to Walter 
Williams, alias Cromwell, 1540, will oblige. 

C. H. 

"THE GENERAL WOLFE." I shall be glad to 
know if there are any inns with this sign other 
than at Westerham, St. Austell, and in London. 

Eden Bridge. 

8" 1 S. IV. Juir 29, '93.] 



ROUND TABLE. I should be much obliged if anj 
one would inform me where I can find a descrip 
tion of the arms attributed to King Arthur an 
his knights. R. UPTON. J 

THATCHED CHURCHES. The church of Pake 
field, a parish near Lowestoft, Suffolk, has a 
thatched roof. Can any of the contributors o 
' N. & Q.' kindly say if there is any other church 
in England having thatch for its roof ? 



" JENAL ": " JANNOCK." These words are dia 
lect both in North and South Staffordshire. Th< 
former, a substantive, is applied to a narrow alley 
The latter, an adjective, used in the sense o 
genuine or above-board, is said to be in prinl 
epelt as above. Can any of your contributors say 
whether these are common to other dialects, and 
what their etymology is ? JOHN YOUNG. 

Blore Rectory, Ashbourne. 

[" Jannock " ia familiar in the West Riding.] 

THISTLE. A thistle with three flowers springing 
from one stem is a highly honoured Scottish 
symbol. It is said that an enemy once, having 
trod upon it, screamed, and thus roused a Scottish 
sentinel and saved the army. Is this the tradition ? 
To what nation or tribe did the enemy belong? 
I have heard the Danes mentioned. Is the tra- 
dition connected with any special event in Scottish 
history ? SCOT. 

one of Archbishop Cranmer's chaplains, and a once 
well-known controversial writer, quotes a Catholic 
book which he calls ' The English Festiuall.' What 
book is this ? Has it been reprinted in modern 
times ] ANON. 

There is much elegance in the following lines on 
St. Luke in the register of Easton Mauduit, 
Northants. They are in the handwriting of Mr. 
Remington, vicar c. 1710. Can any one state their 
author or origin 1 

Lucas Evangelii et medicinae munera pandens 

Artibus hinc, illinc religione, valet 

Utilis ille labor, per quern vixere tot aegri, 

Utilior per quern tot didicere mori. 


ward Ho ! ' (p. 7 of the 3s. 6d. ed.) occurs the word 
"rumbelow" in the burden of a sailor's song. 
\\ hat does it mean 1 None of the dictionaries 
and glossaries I have been able to consult gives me 
any help. In chap. xxi. (p. 379) a place is men- 
tioned as "St. Yago de Leon," and again on 
pp. 382 and 392 as " St. Yago." On pp. 387 and 

388 the place is called " St. Jago." Where is the 
place ; and which spelling is correct ? A. G. 

Chaffers's work on 'Pottery and Porcelain,' I 
observe that though English, Welsh, and Irish 
potteries are mentioned, no reference is made to 
the manufacture of pottery in Scotland. Were, 
then, the Scots at all times indebted to England 
and the Continent for their supply of domestic 
earthenware; or has their manufacture been lost 
sight of ? JAMES DALLAS. 

popularly said to be absolutely incapable of com- 
prehending a joke. English people appear to 
labour under an entire inability to understand the 
German marriage law. A newspaper cutting 
which has recently fallen into my hands informs 
me that Francis of Hohenstein son of Alexander 
of Wiirtemberg and Claudine, Countess of Hohen- 
stein, nee De Rbe"dey now Duke of Teck, was 
legitimatized in 1863, so far as the country of 
Wiirtemberg was concerned, but that he has no 
legitimate position outside that kingdom. What 
English word should be used in place of " legiti- 
matize " to convey to the befogged British brain the 
idea that a child may be the offspring of a perfectly 
lawful union, though debarred, for reasons of state, 
from taking the rank of his father's family unless 
specially permitted to do so ? RHEINGOLD. 

SAPEK. There appears to have been a joker of 
this name, and of the Theodore Hook pattern. He 
practised in Paris, and died there mad. Will any 
one tell me where further information respecting 
him is to be got ? W. F. WALLER. 

JAMES WEBB. Can any reader give me infor- 
mation as to this painter particularly whether he 
exhibited, and when and where ? 

W. C. WEBB. 

For Destiny does not like 

To yield to man his helm, 
And shoots bis thoughts by hidden nerves 

Throughout the solid realm. 
The patient Daemon sits 

With roses and a shroud ; 
He has his way, and deala his gifts, 

But ours is not allowed. M. C. 

Sun begotten, ocean born, 

Sparkling in the summer morn, 

Underneath me as I pass 

O'er the hill tops on the grass. ENQUIRER. 

looked far back into other days; and lo ! in bright 

saw, as in a dream, the forms of ages passed away. 


Take her by her lily-white hand, 
Lead her over the water. 

[See ' Children'a Singing Games,' 8'h 8. i. 210.J 



s. iv. JULY 29, * 


(8 th S. iii. 388, 438.) 

The scientific world professes to set great value 
upon facts ; bat all the facts connected with the 
invention of the steam-engine are in a chaos as 
admirable as the origin of the tale of ' Sind- 
bad,' the birthplace of Homer, or the com- 
pilation of the Homeric poems. " Facts are stub- 
born things." Yes, but their principal stubbornness 
is most seen when any attempt is made to get 
them verified. "What is truth?" said jesting 
Pilate, and would not stay for an answer. He 
might in our enlightened day have asked, " What 
is a fact ? " and have stayed long enough without 
getting an answer. Darwin's ' Botanic Garden ' 
was published 1789, but was written twenty years 
before it appeared in type. Darwin predicts 

Soon shall thy arm, unconquered Steam, afar 
Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car. 
But this was, like many other prophecies, more of 
a review than of an anticipation. Scott Russell 
discovered that it was too gigantic an affair to be 
achieved by any single man, so he concludes 
that steam navigation is the joint invention of 
three Patrick Miller, James Taylor, and William 
Symington. Not one of the three is known to 
have had anything to do with it by one well- 
informed man out of ten thousand. They were all 
known to Russell as important contributors to 
the result, but as originators in the true discovery 
of the track not one of them had any claim at all 
to the inception. Dr. Forbes considers that in 
strictness we cannot style James Watt " the in- 
ventor of the steam engine." He admits that we 
lose ourselves altogether in tracing back a moving 
power obtained out of steam. He doubts whether, 
even in the time of the Marquis of Worcester, it 
was not still in the mythical stage. Now the 
Marquis of Worcester's steam fire-engine for 
raising water is known to have been successfully 
at work at Vauxhall from 1663 to 1670, if not 
later, and was considered superior to the water- 
works at Somerset House. In his 'Century of 
Inventions,' the articles 68 and 100 give quite 
enough, when coupled with what he did at Vaux- 
hall, to show that the Marquis was a steam 
engineer, and it should be remembered that this 
was thirty yeaw before the Jesuits had published 
the IIi/cv/AaTiKa of Heron of Alexandria. Unless, 
therefore, a still earlier case can be established, the 
lord of grand old Worcester House, on the Thames 
bank in the Strand, as shown in Newcourt's map, 
1658, by Faithorne, has good claim to being the 
inventor of steam power. John Vauder Heyden's 
engine is of about the same date, 1667, only the 
Dutchman was but thirty then, and the Marquis a 

much older man, so that priority would be his, 
unless very clear proofs to the contrary should be 
forthcoming. The Marquis was confined in the 
Tower of London, and he was preparing some 
food when the tightly-fitted cover of the vessel was 
driven up the chimney suddenly; this it was that 
led to his "water commanding engine." If this is 
not history it is curious that any one should have 
been at the trouble to invent it for no reason, 
as Worcester was considered in his own day 
as a fantast and mere dreamer, so that his inge- 
nuities were not regarded as of any great account. 
Supposing this to be true, he stands as a real 
inventor set on work by chance, which, with all 
the brag of induction, is always man's best help 
in discovery. 

Dircks says very properly that there are three- 
stages in this invention the fire engine, the 
atmospheric engine, and Watt's engine, the true 
steam engine. To show how piecemeal it all is, 
the screw-propeller, like the paddle-wheel and the 
tram, are practically quite separate inventions, and 
must be so recognized. 

Blasco de Garay has been called the inventor of 
steam navigation, and he experimented publicly at 
Barcelona, June 17, 1543, on a 200-ton ship. A 
correspondent in * N. & Q.' (6 th S. x. 320) calls it 
apocryphal, and says that he only invented paddle- 
wheels, like those of a steamboat, turned by men. 
The plan of his machine was carried off by the 
French from the Spanish archives and lost, we are 
told ; but that is not so, as his claim was found at 
Simancas, and published in 1826 by Thomas 
Gonzalez, Director of the Archives. The report was 
in the main favourable, and he was rewarded by 
Charles V. with promotion and 200,000 maravedis.. 
It consisted, as an invention, of a vessel of boiling 
water and a wheel on each side of the ship. It 
has been suggested to have been an adaptation of 
Heron's engine, and to resolve itself into merely 
paddles; but this is most inequitable. The first 
edition of Heron's book is dated 1575,* or thirty- 
two years after the experiment. We do not know 
that Blasco was a scholar, and even if so, he was 
not likely to have had access to unpublished 
Greek MSS. Clearly enough be employed steam 
and paddles, but his vessel attained no speed 
exceeding three miles an hour. Want of power 
is where all early attempts break down. 

Denis Papin's attempts were very remarkable, 
and he read a paper on 'Steam as a Motive 
Power' to the Royal Society, 1687. Figuier gives 
a picture (1707) of a perfect steamboat by him 
that the boatmen of the Weser broke to pieces for 
him ; but he gives no references, so it may or may 

* The first edition was 1575. The Jesuit edition, 
which drew fresh attention to the subject of steam, was 
published in 1693. Worcester might have known Heron 
through earlier editions ; but that would establish him as- 
making original research. 



not be as he says. Seven years later his own 
digester blew off bis brain-pan. He was a genius, 
but unfortunate and unappreciated. 

Figuier, with a great many others, extolling 
modern science, denies the ancients all knowledge 
of the elastic force of the vapour of water. This is 
an absurd misconception, for Aristotle and Seneca 
explain earthquakes by the subterranean vaporiza- 
tion of water. Heron, alluded to above, applied 
steam 120 B.C. to convey a rotatory motion to a 
hollow sphere, a drawing of which is given by 
Partington in his * Century of Inventions ' of the 
Marquis of Worcester. Archimedes invented a 
steam gun, which the great Da Vinci reproduced. 
The Romans had boats with paddle-wheels. It is 
thought that the Egyptians had. There is really 
no reason why they and the Phoenicians should 
not have had steamers ; there are things that make 
it look as if they had. The compass was in use 
for land travelling in China and Scythia long 
before Pythagoras. Numa is shrewdly thought to 
have been an electrician ; and in fact what is new 
is only the old with a new face upon it, and 
discovery is the re-entry of knowledge that was 
forgotten. Knowledge in the present is but 
ignorance of what was known in the far past. 

C. A. WARD. 

Chingford Hatch, E. 

iv. 48). In answer to PUCK, I have pleasure in 
giving the following particulars of the above 
reverend author, who was my great-uncle on my 
paternal grandmother's side. As no literary 
gazetteer has yet recorded any mention of Mr. 
Garratt and his works, many readers of ' N. & Q.' 
will doubtless find some of the facts of interest. 

Thomas Garratt was born at Baddesley-Ensor, 
in Warwickshire, February 22, 1796, and was 
the son of a small farmer and butcher. He 
received his early education at the village school 
there, and his keen perception of the branches of 
knowledge then taught in such institutions early 
made him a favourite with the then vicar, the Rev. 
John Adamthwaite,D.D., who took special interest 
in him and finally prepared him for Edinburgh 
University, whither young Garratt went to study 
for the degree of M.A. He left that seat of learn- 
ing, however, without graduating, and on his 
return, some two or three years later, his first work 
was published, 'Original Poems,' 1818. 

Dr. Adamthwaite had during Garratt'd sojourn 
in Edinburgh removed to Winton, in Westmore- 
land, and here on the poet's return he stayed 
under the reverend doctor's tuition until his 
ordination to the curacy of Altcar, near Liverpool, 
which occurred in St. James's Church, West- 
minster, January 28, 1821. He was ordained 
priest at a general ordination at Chester, October 7, 
1821, and a few months later, on the avoidance 

by death of the rector of Altcar, he was licensed to 
the living, being nominated by the patron, the 
Right Hon. William Philip, the then Earl of Sef- 

Whilst rector of Altcar Mr. Garratt issued two- 
more volumes of poetry, ' The Bachelor's Whim ; 
or, the Hermit of Lathom,' and 'The Pastor: a 
Poem, in Two Parts.' It was about this time 
that his poetical and oratorical abilities became 
somewhat famous, and people flocked from far and 
wide to hear him discourse. The Earl of Sefton 
shortly afterwards presided at a meeting of the 
local clergy, when it was resolved to petition the 
University of King's College, Aberdeen, to con- 
fer on Mr. Garratt the honorary degree of M.A. 
Their efforts were crowned with success, and on 
April 11, 1825, the degree was conferred, the certi- 
ficate in the university form being signed by the 
Rev. George Vanbrugh, LL.B., rector of Aughton, 
and the Rev. A. Browne, M.A., Fellow of 
Queen's College, Oxford. Shortly after receiving 
this honour he was induced to accept the curacy 
of Prestbury, to which he was licensed on Octo- 
ber 14, 1825. At this date he was still holding 
the living of Altcar, which he resigned in 1826, 
his resignation taking effect from January 30 in 
that year. His vicar was the Rev. J. Rowlls Brown,. 
M.A., of Butley Hall, Macclesfield, one of the 
magistrates for the county, and Mr. Garratt was 
engaged by Mr. Brown to take entire charge of 
the parish, as the latter rarely officiated. 

He held the curacy of Prestbury until June, 
1828, when he was instituted curate in charge of 
Wilmslow. At Prestbury two further works 
emanated from his pen. In June, 1826, appeared 
1 An Address to the Inhabitants of Prestbury and 
Neighbourhood on the Observance of the Sabbath,^ 
and another poetical work, ' Elegy on the Death of 
Lucy Dooley.' The rector of Wilmslow during 
Mr. Garratt's curacy was the Rev. J. M. Turner, 
who in January, 1829, was appointed Bishop of 

Mr. Turner was in the habit of receiving at 
Wilmslow Rectory a few gentlemen's sons to pre- 
pare for the university, and amongst the pupils 
who resided there at the time, and who were for 
several months under Mr. Garratl's sole tuition- 
Mr. Turner being away on the Continent were our 
present Prime Minister, the Right Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone, M.P., Sir C. A. Wood, and the Hon. 
Horatio Powy?, afterwards Lord Bishop of Sodor 
and Man. It was about this period that the 
Catholic Emancipation Bill was introduced in 
Parliament, and Mr. Garratt became involved 
in a heated controversy with the rector of the 
adjoining parish of Alderley. Pamphlet after 
pamphlet was issued, and Mr. Garratt was sup- 
ported by brochures from the pens of the Rev. 
John Hoskins, B.A., the Rev. A. Auriol Barker, 
B.A., and numerous other clergymen and con- 



[8"> S. IV. JULY 29, '93. 

troversialists. The result was that Mr. Stanley, 
the rector of Alderley, a life-long friend of the 
rector of Wilmslow's, wrote to Mr. Turner, who, 
taking Mr. Stanley's part, wrote to Mr. Garratt 
protesting against the issuing of further works on 
the vexed question, and practically pointing out 
that the living of Wilmslow would not now fall to 
Mr. Garratt's lot. The parishioners of Wilmslow 
deeply deplored this decision, and as a protest 
against their rector's action, they presented 
their curate with an address signed by five 
hundred of the villagers, and bearing date April 16, 
1829. Mr. Garratt's Wilmslow curacy terminated 
on Sunday, May 31, 1829, and on this date he 
preached his farewell sermon to a congregation of 
more than two thousand persons (vide Maccleffield 
Courier, June 6, 1829). This sermon was after- 
wards printed at the expense of the Wilmslow 

After leaving Wilmslow, Mr. Garratt was 
appointed curate-in-charge of Southport, at which 
town only one church (Christ) then existed. Here, 
in June, 1830, he published through Baldwin & 
Cradock, London, a volume of 182 pages, entitled 
' Six Discourses, delivered during Lent, 1830, at 
Southport.' In September of the same year he 
left Southport to undertake a like position at 
Audley, in Staffordshire (not Dudley, as PUCK has 
it), and a few weeks later his vicar presented him 
with the living of Talk-o'-th'-Hill, near Audley. 
Towards the end of 1832 the vicar of Audley died, 
and in January, 1833, Mr. Garratt was instituted 
to the vicariate, thus holding a dual living. Whilst 
vicar of Audley and incumbent of Talk-o'-th'-Hill 
he issued two further publications, ' The Contrast 
of Scripture and Tradition ' and * A Letter to the 
Rev. E. Stanley, M.A.' Mr. Garratt died from 
an attack of diabetic gout on December 9, 1841, 
and his remains lie in Audley Churchyard. He 
was twice married, firstly, to Miss Ann Cooper, a 
niece and ward of the Rev. Dr. Adamthwaite, 
and secondly, to Miss Frances Dorothea White, 
daughter of John White, Esq., J.P., D.C.L., of 
Park Hall, Derby, master of the celebrated 
Cheshire fox-hounds. He had by his first wife one 
son, who died in infancy ; his second wife pre- 
deceased him six months. 


Winder House, Bradford. 

ARMERIA (8 th S. iii. 487). Flos armeria was 
the Latin name given by the early botanists to 
the sweetwilliam pink as well as to the sea gilli- 
flower, both of which are included under the 
generic name of Statica, from statizo, to stop, in 
reference to the medicinal qualities of the Armeria, 
Limonium, Spathulata, and Reticulata. In the 
Linnean system they all belong to the Pentandria 
class and the Pentagynia order. As regards the 
derivation of Armeria or Armerie, Clusius (Charles 

de L'Ecluse) tells us that the French word 
Armoiries (not Armerie}, which means armorial 
bearings, ensigns, or painted coats of arms, turned 
into Latin makes the Flos armeria. On the other 
hand, Sir Joseph Paxton none too firm on his 
derivations says that Armeria is the Latin name 
for sweetwilliam, though Dianthus is generally 
regarded as such, as well as the Latin name of the 
whole pink family. 

Barnes Common. 

This name was originally given to the sweet- 
william. Gerarde says these flowers are called 
" in French Armories [sic] : hereupon Euellius 
nameth them Armerij /lores" Dodonaeus (Lyte's 
translation) calls all sweetwilliams Armeria and 
Armeriorum ; his Armeriusflos primus being our 
wild sweetwilliam. He says of these : "They be 

now called in Latine Flores armerij of the 

Frenchmen des Armoires." Gerarde reckons 
thrift a species of " Gillofloure," but though he 
thus classes it with the sweetwilliams, neither he 
nor Dodonaeus applies to it the name Armeria. 
Perhaps these particulars may be of service to MR. 
LYNN. C. C. B. 

FOUDROTANT (8 th S. iii. 487). I can partially 
answer FOUDROYANT'S query as to the birth and 
parentage of his namesake. Nelson's flagship is 
not the old Foudroyant taken, with others, 
February 28, 1758, by the fleet under Admiral 
Osborne, off Cape de Gatt of 84 guns and 800 
men, but one designed by Sir John Henslow, the 
then Chief Surveyor of the Navy, laid down, built, 
and launched at Plymouth in 1798. 


" FIMBLE " (8 th S. iii. 427 ; iv. 14). MR. BIRK- 
BECK TERRY'S is evidently the right explanation. 
Halliwell, too, gives thimble as a Staffordshire 
word ; but it is not local, to judge from its constant 
occurrence in the article on gate-hanging in Rees'a 
' Cyclopaedia.' To MR. TERRY'S example of the 
mutation of th into / 1 add Furesday (Sc.) = Thurs- 
day, fursti (archaic) and fusty ( Wilts) = thirsty, 
fump (Devon) = tbump,/a<c/i = thatch, mffi;i (Essex) 
= something, nuffin (vulgar) = nothing. Examples 
of this mutation are more familiar to the ear than 
to the eye. Some persons cannot sound th, were 
it to save their life. I know one whose tongue 
converts "three suits of clothes" into "free suits 
of cloves," and I heard another once indignantly 
exclaim, " Do you fink we're fieves?" 


ETYMOLOGY OF "DOLMAN" (8 th S. iv. 25). 
In his excellent ' Dictionary of Daco-Roumanian 
Etymology,' p. 574, M. de Cihac refers the Hun- 
garian dolmdny to the Turkish dholdma, which 
denoted the undergarment worn by the janissaries 
when in full dress, whence the Servian word 



dolama for an undershirt, a garment apparently 
identical with our old friend the ecclesiastical 
dalmata or dalmatic, originally the undershirt of 
the Dalmatian peasant, from which the Neo- 
Hellenic form dolomas suggests that the dholdma 
was obtained. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

THE WOODPECKER (8 th S. iii. 386 ; iv. 15). 
Under this heading . S. N. says that coffins 
covered with cloth are things of the past, and that 
the last funeral he " attended where a black coffin 
was uaed was at Liverpool thirty years ago." No 
doubt the latter remark is perfectly correct so far 
as E. S. N.'s individual experience goes; but I 
have seen hundreds, probably thousands, of cloth 
covered coffins in both England and the United 
States during that period. I saw one so recently 
as the other day. Amongst a certain class they 
are pretty nearly as common as ever. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

It is not quite correct to say that the " rat-tat- 
tat " is never heard nowadays. Coffins are very 
generally covered with black cloth in this district. 
In the case of persons with means, polished wood 
is used, though sometimes they leave directions 
forbidding this, on the ground of useless display. 


"EREWHILE" (8 th S. iii. 407). No such use of 
the word as that to which MR. BAYNE calls atten- 
tion is known to the * N. E. D.' Since the year 
1300 erewhile has been employed only in the one 
sense of " a while before," as attested by the 
examples, the most recent being from Mr. Morris's 
* Earthly Paradise,' so that we cannot assume the 
" strange and new " use to have been fetched from 
that poet. Mr. Watson doubtless supposed ere- 
while to be analogous in construction to " erelong," 
" ere now," &c. This is erroneous : we may resolve 
" erelong " into " before long," but the like treat- 
ment of erewhile produces "before while" or 
" before a while " as equivalent to " after a while " 
for this is Mr. Watson's meaning which is 

A careful study of the etymology of erewhile, of 
which there is an older variant while ere* shows 
that no other meaning is possible than that which 
it has had for five centuries. F. ADAMS. 

^ is one of the words already dealt with in 
the * N. E. D.,' which gives many illustrations, in 
all of which the word is used with reference to the 
past : 

" 1696, Tindale, New Test, John ix. 27, I tolde you 

yerwhile and ye did not heare. 1810, Scott, Lady of L., 

iii., Remember then thy hap erewhile. 1870, iMorria, 

* See Stratmann, t.v. " Hwile." Biahop Cooper has 
wbyle ere " aa one rendering of modi. 

Earthly Par., I. ii. 461, The faces weeping lay That 
erewhile laughed the loudest." 

Mrs. Cowden Clarke gives four other references to 
Shakspeare besides the one quoted by MR. BAYNE, 
in all of which the word is used with a past sense. 


Possibly Mr. Watson may be excused for using 
this word in an unusual sense by those who recol- 
lect that in Latin the word olim is often used for 
" formerly," and almost as often for " hereafter." 


"THE HOUSE " = LIVING ROOM (8 th S. iii. 449). 
The equivalent of this in the rural parts 
of Staffordshire is "house-place," described in 
Poole's 'Glossary of Archaic and Provincial 
Words of the County of Stafford' as "a room 
with a quarried floor, used as a kitchen and sitting- 
room." The term is still in existence, and I quite 
recently met with it in the catalogue of a sale at a 
house in the neighbourhood of Uttoxeter. 


Water Orton. 

In the south-western counties the living-room of 
a cottage is nearly always called "the house," 
while the second room is the "back-house." If 
E. W C. will refer to the * West Somerset Word 
Book ' (Eng. Dial. Soc.), p. 354, he will find the 
subject more fully treated. 


Though unable to state whether the word 
" house," as applied to the living-room, is now in 
use in Lancashire, I have it on the authority of 
my father that it was used in that county fifty 
years ago. In many small houses in the county 
from which I write (Antrim) the living-room is 
frequently called the " room." 


Glenmore, Lisburn, Ireland. 

Any one who has not very lately, in the course 
of business, been concerned with the arrangement 
of a farmhouse will have learnt that the '* living- 
rooms " means the usual common sitting-room, not 
the "kitchen" nor the "parlour," in former parlance. 
The levelling up has now transformed the u living- 
room " into the "parlour," and the " parlour " into 
the "drawing-room." It was quite a familiar 
term. ED. MARSHALL. 

Thirty or forty years ago this expression was 
very common in Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, 
and the adjacent counties, though it was to a 
certain extent going out of use amongst the better 
class of farmers. It is still heard, but is not, I 
think, so common as it was then. We had a 
riddle which will illustrate its meaning : " A 
houseful and parlourful, and can't catch a dishful. 
What is it 1" Answer : " Smoke. " This did not 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. j a>. 

mean that the whole house, including the parlour, 
was full, but that the ordinary living-room and 
parlour were full. Sometimes " house- place" is 
used in the same sense. C. C. B. 

In Cleveland, North Yorkshire, some forty 
years ago, the living-room was always called the 
"house." EBORACUM. 

DEVIZES (8 th S. iii. 449). This name has been 
copiously discussed by Dr. Guest and Prof. Free- 
man. The Latin name Divuse, of which Devizes 
is the barbarous English form, does not occur 
before the time of Henry I., when Bishop Koger 
of Salisbury built the castle round which the town 
subsequently gathered. The term Divisse is used 
in documents of the period to denote a boundary 
or frontier of some kind, usually the boundary of 
an estate or of a jurisdiction. If the name is not 
older than the twelfth century, and we have no 
evidence that it ip, the boundary in question can 
hardly have been linguistic, or even ethnic. 


The origin ef this name appears to be doubtful. 
The place is not mentioned in Domesday, though 
antiquaries are of opinion that the chancel of St. 
Mary's Church dates back to about the time of 
the Conquest. The earlier forms of the name are 
Devieae, Divisse, Divisio, and De Vies. It is still 
called by the people The Vies. I am not aware 
that there ever existed a greater "division of 
languages" at Devizes than in any other town. 
The generally accepted opinion as to the origin of 
the name is that it was due to a dispute between 
Henry I. and Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, the 
wealthy prelate having been forced to divide with 
the king the celebrated fortress or castle which he 
had erected here, and of which a portion of the 
walls of one of the dungeons still remains. 


" Divisse," division of what ? ANON, says of 
language?, from his authorities. Flavell Edmunds 
varies this by the supposition of the lands between 
the king and the bishop. But Canon Taylor inserts 
the more rational interpretation of the term by 
Dr. Guest, in the Archaeological Journal, vol. xvi. 
p. 116, of "the Anglicisation of the Low Latin 
Divisce, which denoted the point where the road 
from London to Bath passed into the Celtic dis- 
trict " ('Names and Places,' p. 267, 1865). 


ESTURMET FAMILY (8 th S. iv. 8). The name of 
the lady in question was Agne?, as appears from the 
mandate for delivery of dower to Joan, widow of 
William Sturmy (Dec. 6, 1427), wherein his heirs 
are stated to be Agnes, wife of John Holcombe, 
and Maud, wife of Richard Seymour. (Close Roll 
6 Hen. VI.) Her father's Inq. Post Mort. is 
5 Hen. VI., 22 ; his wife Joan was the widow of 
John Beamond when she married him, and his 

heirs are there returned as John, son of Maud 
Seymour, aged twenty-six, and Agnes, wife of 
John Holcorab, aged forty (Nicolas's * Calendar of 
Heirs,' letter S., Addit. MS. 19,708). I have no 
other Holcombe notes, but the rest of my Esturmy 
notes may interest MR. HOLCOMBE. Dower was 
granted to Laurentia, widow of Henry Sturmy, 
January 10, 1296 (Close Roll, 24 Edw. I.). In 
an indenture dated the Monday before St. Mark, 
16 Edw. III. (April 22, 1342), Richard, son of 
Henry Sturmy, names his mother Maud and his 
brothers Geoffrey and Henry (Ibid., 16 Edw. III., 
part i.). John Sturmy, of Holdernesse, and 
Albreda his wife, widow of John Constable, of 
Halsham, are mentioned March 9, 1351 (Ibid., 25 
Edw. III.). In 1352 a mandate was issued for de- 
livery of dower to Albreda, widow of John le Cone- 
stable and wife of John Sturmy (Close Roll, 26 Edw. 
III.). On Jan. 2, 1285, it is stated that Hubert Husee 
is dead, and his daughters and heirs are, Margaret, 
the eldest, wife of Henry Esturmi ; Maud, wife of 
John de Dune ; and Isabel, an unmarried minor 
(Ibid,, 13 Edw. I.). Two years later Isabel is 
mentioned as wife of John de Torenny (Ibid., 15 
Edw. I.). John de Sturmy was in the service of 
John Maltravers, senior (Ibid., 5 Edw. III., 
part 1). There was also a John Sturmy of Thun- 
derle, who in 1337 sold 20Z. worth of timber to 
the king (Ibid., 11 Edw. 1 II. , part 1\ Sir John 
Sturmy was usher of ,the king's hall, 1335-37, 
,and received as his perquisite the canopies of cloth 
of gold which were hung over the king's head 
(Wardrobe Accounts, 61/8 and 61/17, Q.R.). 


The Christian name of William Estrumy's 
daughter and heir who married John Holcombe 
was Agnes. In 1429 she presented to the living 
of Stapleford Maltravers (Hoare's ' History of 
Northern Wiltshire,' "Branch and Dole Hun- 
dred," p. 21). A pedigree of the earlier descents 
of this family will be found in the same work 
(" Mere Hundred," p. 117J. Details of the later 
descents appear somewhat obscure, but it seems 
probable that there was no issue of the Holcombe- 
Esturmy marriage. RALPH SEROCOLD. 

446 ; iii. 137, 178, 315, 357, 416). In all the con- 
structions put upon the poet's meaning when he 
refers to seeing his Pilot face to face " when I have 
crost the bar," I am surprised that I have never 
come across any approaching the following, 
which has always seemed so clear to me, bearing 
in mind the Laureate's advanced age and the im- 
probability of his seeing very many more years on 
the side of time. The poem appears to me to 
indicate a man sailing down a river (life), the bar 
(death) of which must be crossed before he enters 
an unknown region beyond where the " face to 
face " presence of a Pilot shall lead him. It seems 

8i h 8. IV. JULY 29, '93.] 



to me so plain that until the bar is crossed (i. e. 
till death intervenes), it is impossible for th 
traveller to see his Pilot, though, in a spiritua 
sense, the dying Christian is supposed to be guide 
over the bar by the consciousness of the presence 
of his Saviour. Cf. I Corinthians xiii. 12, " Now 
we see through a glass, darkly ; but then face t( 
face"; which imagery most probably was in the 
poet's mind when he wrote the song. 


M. Gaston Boissier writes on pp. 129 and 130 
of the second volume of his most interesting ' La 
Fin du Paganisme, 1 1892: 

" La plua ancienne de toutea, qui ge trouve a, la fin du 
Pedagogue de Clement d' Alexandria, debute comme 
une ode antique. Le poete, s'adresaant au Chriat, pro 
tecteur de la jeunease et de 1'innocence, 1'appelle coup 
aur coup ' le frein des poulaina indocile?, 1'aile des oiaeaux 
qui ne aavent paa leur route, le pilote dea ieunea enfanta 
le pasteur dea troupeaux royaux.' " 

The passage here translated runs thus in the origina 
(Ed. Migne, 1857): 


Hrepov 6pvi6<DV aTrA.avwv, 


Some read 1/770) i/ (of ships) instead of 


HERRING PIE (8 th S. iii. 486). Pies made of 
fish were not confined to East Anglia, nor were 
they presented only to the sovereign. The 
Speaker seems to have been particularly favoured, 
especially when local matters needed Parlia- 
mentary action. On Jan. 10, 1610, the Chamber 
of Exeter agreed to present " the Speaker of 
the Parliament, in token of their good will, with 
a hogshead of Malaga wine, or a hogshead of 
claret, whichever the burgesses thought best, 
together with one baked salmon pie, and Mr. 
Receiver to be allowed the charge thereof " (Roberts, 
* Social History of Southern Counties,' p. 17). No 
discretion being allowed as to the salmon pie, this 
would seem to have been either actually, or by 
repute, something special, and may, like the lam- 
prey pie of Gloucester, or the herring pie of 
Norwich, have been a royal gift, and thus it would 
be intended as a particular honour, and as a token 
of gratitude to the Speaker, particularly, for favours 
to come. In 1585 the people of Lyme Regis were 
anxious about their Cobb Act, and so a sturgeon (the 
royal dish) was despatched to the Speaker for his 
provision in Lent, with other presents to the officers 
of the House (op. cit., p. 16). 

Apparently the pies were composed of the fish 
which was considered the speciality of the town 
making the present. FRED. T. EL WORTHY. 

This subject is not new to * N. & Q.' (see 1" S. 
vi. 430) ; but the giving the pies is not a fee farm 
rent or a custom, but an honourable feudal suit 

and service to be rendered by a tenant to his lord 
(in this case the king), by which the former 
acknowledged he became his (the king's) man, and 
the condition or tenure on or by which he held the 
manor. See also ' The History and Antiquities of 
Norfolk ' (no author), printed at " Norwich by 
J. Grouse for M. Booth, 1781," in which a fuller 
account is given than in Blomefield, and from 
which account it appears it is a very old tenure, 
going back to the time of the Conqueror. Under 
the parish of " Carleton," it is there stated the 
manor belonged in 1011 to one Ketel,* a Dane, 
subsequently to Edward the Confessor, who gave 
it to Harold, and that then it was seized by 
William the Conqueror, who " gave lands valued at 
three shillings a year to be added to the manor 
on condition that the lord should render suit and 
service by giving twenty- four herring pies," &c. 
In ' N. & Q.,' before referred to, COWGILL writes : 
" I find that the cost to the sheriffs of these pies 
in 1784 was 2., independently of carriage." In a 
* History of Norfolk,' published by Stacy, Norwich, 
1829 (no author's name), it is said this " service is 
now performed by the Sheriffs of Norwich," the 
Corporation being " patrons of the living." If so, 
this brings it down to 1829, although I fail to see 
the logic that because they were ' ( patrons of the 
living " they were lords of the manor, by whom 
the suit and service had to be rendered. But in 
1837 and 1838 they were not lords of the manor, 
for, though young at the time, I had a boyish 
knowledge of the then lord, and the tradition in 
my mind (youth's memories are strong) is that he 
held it by the suit and service of delivering annu- 
ally to the king, or to Her Majesty, twenty- four 
herring pies ; that the herrings were given him by 
the borough of Yarmouth, made into pies by him, 
and by him presented to the Crown ; but how 
Yarmouth came in, or how the pies were presented, 
[ had and have no knowledge or recollection. 
Some years ago I was at Yarmouth, and at a 
riend'a house I spoke of these pies, and I was 
'old that I was right, that the herrings were given 
by the borough. Are they tenants of any part of 
he copyhold, and do they give these as rent ? 


8 th S. iii. 154, 195, 255, 358, 396. It behoves 
me to state that the inscriptions at Bradford-on- 
Avon, as transcribed by Sir Thomas Phillipps and 
irinted at the last reference, are more or less in- 
ccurate both as regards matter and orthography, 
'he vicar of the parish has kindly favoured me 
rith a communication furnishing true transcripts 
f the two inscriptions, which serve to commemo- 

* Query, Turkel or Turketel, who in 1011 took powes- 
on of all Norfolk, and held it till Sweyne'a death in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. iv. JULT 20, -9s. 

rate one and the same person, Charles Steward 
arm. (qy. knt.), of Cumberwell, who died July 11, 
1698, and was buried at Bradford-on-Avon, as 
appears by the annexed extract from the parish 
register : " 1698 July Charles Steuard Eq 18." 
The following inscription, appearing on a large flat 
stone on the south side of the Sacrarium, commemo- 
rates the brother of the said Charles Steward's wife : 

" Here lyeth y e Body of | Dennia Compton Jun r Son 
of | Walter Compton E^ vi of Hartpury | who Departed 
this lyfe y e 16 of May 1714 | He was Dame Mary Stuard 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 


TROT TOWN (8 th S. iv. 8). The following list is 
compiled from ' The Post-Office Gazetteer of the 
United Kingdom,' by J. A. Sharp and R. F. Pitt, 
2 vols. 8vo., 1875. This book was projected by 
Messrs. Longmans & Co., and a few copies were 
printed, but there were good reasons why the work 
was never published. 

Troy, Stalybridge, Lancashire. 

Troy, Derry, Londonderry. 

Troy Hall, Blackburn, Lancashire. 

Troy Hall, Monmouth (seat of the Duke of Beaufort, 
where river Trothey joins the Wye. Built by Inigo Jones, 
under a hill, and so called from the Trothey). 

Troy Michel!, Monmoutb. 

Troy Town, Dorchester. 

Troy Town, Rochester. 

Troytown, Edenbridge. 

A district of Peckham, London, S.E., is also 
known as Troy Town. There are numerous towns 
and villages in the United States named Troy. 
See Johnston's ' General Dictionary of Geography,' 
1877, &c. WM. H. PEET. 

The hamlet of Troy Town, near Puddleton, in 
Dorsetshire, takes its name from a maze or laby- 
rinth cut in the turf, such mazes being known by 
the name of "Troytown" in different parts of 
England. There was a " Troy Town " cut in Hill- 
bury, between Farnham and Guildford; one by 
that name is recorded near Westerham, in Kent, 
which is, perhaps, the example referred to by your 
correspondent. The maze at Pimpern, in Dorset- 
shire, now ploughed up, also bore the designation 
of " Troy Town " (Gough's ' Camden,' vol. L p. "73). 
According to a writer in ' N. & Q^<2 id S. v. 211), 
labyrinths cut in the tur|.Jby Welsh shepherds in 
former days bore the name of Caer-droia or Caer- 
troi ; while similar/figures incised by herdsmen " on 
the grassy plains' of Burgh and Rockliff marshes, 
near the Solway," are still called the " walls of 
Troy." According to the late Mr. Joseph Robert- 
son, the "walls of Troy are (or were) still popular 
among children in Scotland, who traced the maze 
on the sea-sand or drew it on their school slates." 
In Wright and Halliwell it is stated that Norfolk 
villagers call a garden laid out spirally a "city of 
Troy "; and we are told (Archceol. Journal, vol. xv. 

p. 233) that " the curious upper garden formed at 
Kensington Palace by London and Wise for 
William III. was known as 'the siege of Troy,'" 
a remarkably late survival of the designation. The 
once currently accepted notion that these mazes 
were so called in allusion to the equestrian evolu- 
tions of the young lulus and his Trojan com- 
panions described by Virgil ('^oeid,' v. 583 tq.), 
from which their other popular name of " Julian 
Bowers" was also thought to be derived, has 
little to support it. We may also safely smile at 
the popular Norfolk tale, mentioned by Wright, 
that they bore this name because "the city of 
Troy had but one gate, and that it was necessary 
to go through every street to get to the market 
place. " The origin is to be sought in the etymo- 
logy of the word. I have no Welsh dictionary at 
hand, and I cannot say whether, as the Rev. A. S. 
Palmer states, 'Folk Etymology/ p. 406, "Caer- 
troi" is a British term meaning "turning town," from 
the Welsh troi, to turn. But we may probably con- 
nect the word with the A.-S. frrawan, past tense 
\>reow, to twist, turn, or whirl, and need seek no more 
recondite or imaginative derivation (cf. Skeat's 
' Etymol. Diet.,' s.u throw). For the whole sub- 
ject of mediaeval mazes, the essay of Bishop 
Trollope in the Archaeological Journal (vol. xv. 
pp. 216-235) should be consulted. It deals exhaust- 
ively with the matter, and is very copiously illus- 

This term appears to be equivalent to " Julian's 
Bower," and is treated of in 'N. & Q.,' 1 st S. xi. 
132, 193, as an earthwork, usually circular, with a 
maze or labyrinth within it, possibly derived from 
"Julian's burg "=" Julius Caesar's fort" or en- 
trenchment. Sed quaere ? 

Since writing the above, I have found the subject 
of these Troy Towns, or turf mazes and labyrinths, 
very copiously and learnedly treated, with numer- 
ous illustrations, by the Rev. Edward Trollope, 
F.S.A., in vol. xv. of the Archceological Journal, 
pp. 216-235. See especially pp. 222, 223, where 
the learned author deals with the probable origin 
of the names of "Troy Towns" and "Julian's 
Bowers" as applied to the mediaeval mazes and 
labyrinths. The article is too long to extract. 


This is a favourite name for towns in the Unit 
States. It will be found in Alabama, Indiai 
Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. Troy House, 
Monmouth, is noticed in ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. v. 121, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

According to "Murray" there is a "Troy 
Town" which is a "modern addition" to Chat- 
ham. Further, there is at Chilham, in Kent, a 
barrow in which it would appear erroneously it 
is supposed that lulius Laberius was interred. 

8 S. IV. JULY 29, '93.] 


This barrow is locally called " Julaber's Barrow," 
which, one learns, is identical with "Julian's 
Bower." Moreover, "Julian's Bowers" are some 
times called " Troy Town," and " games were held 
in them connected with the midsummer festival." 
There are traces of such a "bower" or "Troy 
Town " in the neighbourhood of Walmer. 


OLDEST TREES IN THE WORLD (8 th S. iii. 207, 
311, 336). The following extract, taken from a 
newspaper, may be interesting in connexion with 
oldest trees: 

"Governor Endicott, the famous ancestor of Mrs. 
Joseph Chamberlain, planted an English pear tree on hia 
farm in Massachusetts in 1630. It turned out one of 
the thriftiest of the English settler's plantings. Of the 
orchard to which it belonged two centuries ago it is the 
only remaining tree, and last year it yielded over a 
bushel of fruit. It is the oldest pear tree in America. 
The fact comes out in connexion with the late Mr. 
William Endicott's will, recently proved in London, and 
just filed for reference at Salem, where Hawthorne wrote 
his ' Scarlet Letter.' " 



On p. xlviii of 'The Inscriptions of Cos,' by W. R. 
Paton and E. L. Hicks, Oxford, 1891, one reads : 

" The feature best known to travellers is the enormous 
plane-tree which all but wholly fills the square called 
after Hippocrates ; it is not far from the harbour, and 
is the favourite resort of the inhabitants. The tree has 
been often described, as by Clarke (amongst others), 
early in the century (' Travels,' part ii., sect, i., p. 198), 
and recently by Benndorf and Niemann, ' Reisen in 
Lykienund Karien,' p. 12 (Vienna, 1884), who engrave a 
photograph of a part of it. Clarke's account (1812) will 
bear quoting." 

After the quotation the writer goes on : 
"I do not know how old the tree maybe; but there 
was a well-known plane-tree in ancient Cos, perhaps on 
this very spot, under the shadow of which there stood 
a statute of Philetas. So we learn from the poem of 
Hermeeianax, quoted by Athenaeus." 


BURIAL BY TORCHLIGHT (8> S. iii. 226, 338, 
455). The following extract from the Birmingham 
Daily Post of May 20 may prove of interest in 
this connexion : 

" A weird sight was seen in Southam Churchyard on 
Thursday night at midnight. A smallpox patient was 
being buried by the Rev. E. P. Neep, rector of the 
parish, and the tones of the priest reading the burial 

rvice, his white robeg, and the flickering light of the 

rns, and the ghostly surroundings made the scene 

very striking. The sanitary inspector (Mr. Warren) and 

his assistant (Mr. Pearson) from the hospital and a 

;r were the bearers, and two nephews of the deceased 

followed the cart. A neighbouring priest, it ie said, 

refused to perform the burial service." 


I do not think that this was uncommon, par- 
ticularly in the eighteenth century. In fact, it 
was the usual mode of sepulture of royalty and 

the royal family. As is well known, Horace Wai- 
pole has left on record a graphic description of the 
funeral of George II. in Henry Vll.'s Chapel in 
Westminster Abbey in 1760, which he attended 
as a " rag of quality," as he calls himself: 

" The charm was the entrance to tha Abbey, where 
we were received by the Dean and Chapter in rich robes, 
the choir and almoners bearing torches ; the whole Abbey 
so illuminated that one saw it to greater advantage than 
by day : the tombs, long aisles and fretted roof all ap- 
pearing distinctly, and with the happiest ' chiaro 
oscuro.' " 

Nor was it the privilege of royalty and nobility 
only, for Tickell has alluded to it in his beautiful 
4 Elegy on the Death of Addison,' buried by torch- 
light, in 1719, in one of the aisles of Henry VII.'s 
Chapel in Westminster Abbey. 


Xewbourue Rectory, Woodbridge. 

ALDGATE OR ALDERSGATE (8 th S. iii. 488). 
Aldrichgate is an early form of Aldersgate, not of 
Aldgate. Mr. Wheatley, in his s London, Past and 
Present,' states that it is written " Aldrichegate " 
in the City Record of 1243 and the London Chro- 
nicle of Edward IWs time, and quotes a grant of 
1375 to Ralph Strode, Common Serjeant, of "all 
the dwelling house situate over the gate of 
Aldrichesgate." Another form of the name appear- 
ing in 1289 was Aldredesgate. The earliest form 
of Aldgate was Alegate, or Algate. There was, 
and is, a church dedicated to St. Botulf outside 
each of the City gates Aldgate, Aldersgate, and 
Bishopsgate and there was what Stow calls "a 
proper church " under the same dedication^ at the 
water gate of Billingsgate, in his time " defaced 
and gone by bad and greedy men of spoil." It 
deserves notice that churches dedicated to St. 
Botulf are frequently placed at the gates of a city 
or town, e.g., Cambridge, Colchester, Lincoln, and 
many other places. Had this early English saint 
any special connexion with wayfarers ? I can find 
no indication of it. EDMUND VENABLES. 

There is a mean-looking brick church at the 
corner of Little Britain, Aldersgate Street, on the 
notice-board of which is painted the name "Saint 
Botolph without Aldersgate." This building was 
erected in 1790, on the site and in place of a very 
old church of the same name (see Stow's ' Survey/ 
ed. Thorns, 1842, p. 115) which had been spared 
by the Great Fire. 

Aldrichgate is a variant of Aldersgate, due to a 
supposed connexion of the gate with Aldric, a 
Saxon (see Camden's ' Britannia ') ; but Stow's 
notice of Aldersgate begins with the words (as 
above, p. 14): " ^Eldresgate, or Aldersgate, so 
called not of Aldrich or of Elders, that is to say, 
ancient men, builders thereof." So in the ' Chro- 
nicle of London,' edited by Sir Harris Nicolas 
(p. 99), we find the original representative of the 
only other church now existing in Aldersgate Ward 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. iv. j 29, < 

referred to as "seynt Annes chirche withinne 
Aldricbgate." F. ADAMS. 

MONTAIGNE (8 th S. iv. 69). The verses quoted in 
the author's longest essay are by Pierre de Konsard 
(1524-1585). In his youth he became page to the 
Duke of Orleans, son of Francis I., and afterwards 
to James Stuart, King of Scotland, on his visit to 
Paris to claim his bride, Marie de Lorraine, and 
he accompanied the royal pair to Scotland, where 
he remained three years. After considerable 
political service, he became deaf, and retired, and 
took up literature as a study. He wrote much 
poetry, and was laureated in the floral games of 
Toulouse. His works were collected, and pub- 
lished in two volumes, folio, Paris, 1623. 


Cotton, in his translation, gives Ronsard (1524- 
1585) as the author of the verses quoted. How 
highly he was rated as a poet by Montaigne, see 
* Essays,' vol. ii. c. 17, " De la Presumption ": 

" Quant aux Francois, je pense qu'ils Tont montee au 
plus hault degre ou elle sera jamais ; et aux parties en 
quoy Ronsard et du Bellay excellent, je ne lea trouve 
.gueres esloingnez de la perfection ancienne." 


" DADD": DADDA " (8 th S. iv. 47). In many 
parts of the north of Ireland both da and dadd are 
in common use, and although on the latter the 
accent is generally placed on the last syllable, it is 
sometimes given on the first. In his ' Glossary of 
Words in Use in the Counties of Antrim and 
Down' (published for the E. D. S. by Triibner& 
Co.), ME. W. H. PATERSON gives both words, and 
cites as an example, "Hi, da! come home to the 
wain." W. W. DAVIES. 

Glenmore, Ltsburn, co. Antrim. 

Dadd is to me a very familiar form. I have 
frequently heard it used by the peasantry, and, I 
believe, even by the small farmer class in the east 
of Ireland, counties Carlo w, Wexford, and Kil- 
kenny. But no one of the gentry class would 
think of using it. A friend from South Lancashire 
tells me that da is common in that part of the 
country, and I am informed that it is also in use 
in South Wales. E. H. HICKEY. 

Among the lower middle classes in London I 
have quite frequently heard youngster?, chiefly 
girls, use both these forms when speaking of or to 
their fathers, and I should think the use is widely 
diffused. The 'History of Nursery Language' 
suggested by Dr. Murray will probably come some 
day, but the laborious investigation of the parler 
tnfantin hardly offers great attractions. 


427). -Tbu officer was appointed Captain in the 

Artillery May, 1756 ; Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, 
1760; Colonel, May 25, 1772; and Major-General 
in 1776 in Burgoyne's expedition. He served 
with credit in Germany, was taken prisoner with 
Burgoyne in October, 1777, exchanged in Novem- 
ber, 1779, and was actively engaged in America 
until his death. In the spring of 1781 he was sent 
from New York with 2,000 men to join Arnold, 
then at the Chesapeake. He died at Petersburg, 
Virginia, carried off by a fever, on May 13, 1781. 
General John Small was born at Strathardle, 
Athole, N.B. ; in 1726, Ensign in 42nd High- 
landers, Aug. 29, 1747; and Lieutenant in 1756. 
As Major in a corps of Highlanders he raised in 
Nova Scotia, he distinguished himself at the 
action of Bunker's Hill : Lieutenant-Colonel, 1780 ; 
Colonel, 1790; and Major-General, Oct. 3, 1794. 
In 1793 he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of 
Guernsey, where he died on March 17, 1796. 


(8 th S. iii. 209, 316, 374, 493). Conversi has been 
a puzzle to several writers on local history, who, 
being ignorant of the organization of the Church 
in mediaeval times, have jumped to the conclusion 
that conversi means converts. I have met with at 
least half a dozen examples of this not very par- 
donable error, but have not thought it worth while 
to make notes of them. Writers of this kind 
probably never heard of Carolus du Fresne, Domi- 
nus du Cange, and it is not a great breach of 
charity to assume that there have been some of 
them who, if they had done so, could not have 
interpreted his writings when laid before them. 

It may not be amiss to note that Thomas Becon, 
Archbishop Cranmer's chaplain, used, perhaps 
invented, an English plural for this word. He 
says : 

" Pope Vrbau the fyrst proclaymed also al them 
excommunicate yat trouble the Curates of any Churches, 
or Clerkes, or Monks, or the Conuerses, [or] Nouices, 
that appertayne vnto them, In the yere, &c., 222." 
Reliques of Rome,' ed. 1563, fol. 220*. 


MARRIAGE COSTOM (8 th S. iv. 8). The custom 
recorded by C. C. B., or a very similar one, exists 
in Germany. What is called a korb ( = basket) is 
fixed on the roof or chimney-stack of the house 
where a man who has been jilted, or refused after 
long and arduous courtship, is living. Hence the 
phrase "to give a basket" means to refuse to 

THE KOTAL MARRIAGE (8 th S. iii. 466 ; iv. 35). 
It is somewhat mortifying, after our recent 
rejoicings, to be told that the Duke of York is not 
the direct heir to the throne. Will MR. BLOUN- 
DELLE-BrjRTON kindly inform us who is? Another 
matter which calls for some elucidation is how the 
circumstances of John, Henry IV., or James IL, 

8" S. IV. JULY 29, '93. J 



at the time of their respective marriages, can form 
any sort of a parallel to those of the Duke of York, 
since Henry IV. was never heir to the throne at 
all, John was not heir until after the death of his 
nephew Arthur, which occurred some years after 
his first marriage, and James II. was at the time 
of his marriage merely heir presumptive. 

E. S. A. 

LADY OF THE BEDCHAMBER (8 th S. iii. 247, 355, 
392). It would seem that Thomas Chaucer was 
designedly kept apart from his supposed father, 
their respective careers being wholly dissociated. 
Thomas was educated under Court influence, we 
may say as an aristocrat ; he passed his early life 
in France with John of Gaunt, his uncle and 
patron, at Bayonne and elsewhere. There was 
then no public press to record " Society gossip," 
no registration of births. His first public appoint- 
ment, given by King Henry IV., his reputed 
cousin, was that of Constable of Wallingford 
Castle, an appanage of royalty. It was late in the 
year 1399, just before Geoffrey's decease. He 
made no mark in public life till he became Speaker 
in 1407. He was then a large landed proprietor, 
and nothing whatever had occurred to connect 
him publicly with the deceased poet. 

Lydgate certainly could have raised the question 
if so disposed, but he was attached to Thomas 
Chaucer, and in the circle of his noble wife's con- 
nexions, so would necessarily fall in with the 
family sentiments. The Mortimers must have 
known all about it, seeing that they appointed 
Geoffrey forester of Petherton in 1390/1, and 
confirmed Thomas in the same office in 1416, he 
having certainly taken over the duties in Geoffrey's 
name. See 7 lh S. xii. 338. A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row. 

The facts that, so far as I have seen, lead to the 
assumption that Thomas Chaucer was a son o 
Geoffrey and Philippa Roet, are 

1. That the Roet coat appears on Alice Chaucer's 
tomb at Ewelme Gu. , three Catharine wheels or 
I saw the tomb so many years ago that I cannot 
recall if it was quartered. 

2. That Cardinal Beaufort, in a letter to Henry 
V., calls Thomas Chaucer his cousin. I can give 
no reference, but so it stands in my notes. 

3. That Geoffrey Chaucer was, in 1390/1, ap 
pointed sub-forester of Petherton, Somerset, by 
iavour of the representatives of Prince Lionel. In 
1416 Thomas Chaucer was sub-forester of Pether 

Philippa Chaucer is, I think, called " one of the 
damsels of the chambre of Philipp', late Queen,' 
in the Issue Roll, Nov. 15, 51 Edw. III., where 
41 10 m.," her pension, which is said to have been 
assigned by the king, is paid through Geoffrey 
Chaucer. T. W. 

Aston Clinton. 

London City Suburbs as they are To-day. By Percy 

Fitzgerald. (Leadenhall PresB.) 

A MONO the innumerable works that have been written 
oncerning London none is eo attractive to the book- 
over as this superb volume. To absolute completeness 
t does not pretend. A score similar volumes would 
carcely suffice to depict all the spots of beauty and 
nterest included in the suburbs of London, the most 
ncbanting that any European capital can boast. We 
lave, however, from the pen of Mr. Fitzgerald and the 
pencil of Mr. W. Luker, jun., a series of brilliant pictures, 
many of them of spots wholly out of the ken of all except 
hose who delight in rambles down green lanes and 
across country moors. Of these is Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, 

hose tall, Lamb-like figure may oft be seen on our 
northern heights or between sweet Surrey hedgerows. 
Bis animated descriptions are admirably supplemented 
>y the delightful designs of Mr. W. Luker, jun., which pre- 
serve with remarkable fidelity the appearance of to-day. 
How important this is will be recognized by those who 
mow how rapidly the most pleasing features are disappear- 
ing. Stand on the crest of Hampstead Heath and look to 
the north, you see a rich, undulating, umbrageous country, 
covering a great range from Harrow to Chingford. In 
the midst of the prospect you contemplate what are fast 
becoming towns. Finchley alone has a huge population, 
which constantly augments, and will in time destroy the 
rurality of the district. Rows of houses, all but unbroken, 
extend to within a mile of Hendon, Barnet, and Enfield. 
Cheshunt, even, is connected with London by a succession 
all but constant of houses. Very few years will serve to 
fill up the gaps, and Barnet will be as much a portion of 
London as Edmonton. Of the rustic spots that survive, 
of quaint, picturesque old village houses, soon to be cleared 
away, delightful memorials are preserved. It is mar- 
vellous how pastoral seem some of the scenes depicted. 
There is, of course, the lovely view from Harrow Church- 
yard, almost as h'ne as that from the churchyard at Ross ; 
there is a delightful old bridge over the Hogsmill river 
at Maiden, which might be a thousand miles from Lon- 
don ; there are the exquisite meadows of Friern Barnet, 
and the wild herbage of Streathmn Common. Portions 
of Regent's Park might be in Arcady, which is quite 
right, for the glades and woods seen by moonlight from 
the Regent's Park Road might, to those who can shut 
their eyes to the houses on the other side, be the haunt 
of Titania. These and innumerable more opots are pre- 
sented with equal fidelity and grace. The book is, 
indeed, one of the handsomest and moat sumptuous of 
the season, and to the antiquary and the lover of nature 
is a treasure. One or two spots of extra beauty we miss. 
There is thus no view of Southgate; the delightful wood 
at Winchmore Hill, the lovely lane between Highwood 
and Totteridge, especially when the water lilies are out, 
are, with ourselves, places of constant pilgrimage, of 
which we should like to have pictorial representations. 
There are over three hundred illustrations, however, and 
it would be churlish to complain. 

The Kalender of Shepherdes. Edited by H. Oskar 

Sommer, Ph.D. 3 vols. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 
DR. SOMMER is doing yeoman's service in reprinting, 
under the most careful supervision and with an absolute 
wealth of explanatory comment, some of the scarcest, 
quaintest, and most curious books in our language. 
Among thece may certainly be counted ' The Ka'enderof 
Shepherdes,' of which two editions are reprinted. The 
first, that of Paris, 1503, is reproduced with all its m&r- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s< s. iv. JULY 29, ! 

vellous plates in photographic facsimile from a unique 
edition, the second is a faithful reprint of Pynson's edition 
of 1506. Translations of the ' Compost et Kaledrier 
des Bergers' are as rare and priceless as the original, 
which may be regarded as the universal magazine of the 
fifteenth century. It supplies information on all sorts 
of subjects the movable feasts, the signs of the zodiac, 
a system of ethics, politics, divinity, &c., rules for let- 
ting blood, medicine generally, and a ecore of things 
beside. Most remarkable of all features in it are the 
roughly executed woodcuts, which may vie in curiosity 
and interest with any designs of the epoch. The book is 
written in mingled prose and verse. Dr. Sommer has 
collected a mass of most curious information concerning 
the book and its editions, and his work, apart from its 
other claims, which are numerous, is an all-important 
contribution to bibliographical knowledge. It is indis- 
pensable to the ardent philologist, and will be greedily 
acquired by the bibliophile. But three hundred copies 
in all have been published. These must soon get 
absorbed in our great libraries, and the reprint, which is 
marvellously executed, will then become only less scarce 
than the early edition, some of which have sold for very 
high sums. The editorial labours include a copious 
glossary. It is difficult to deal further with a work that 
demands to be consulted from time to time, and may 
thus contribute much matter of interest to ' N. & Q.' It 
is to be doubted whether many readers could give the 
reprint a steady and consecutive perusal. Scholarship 
will, however, count one more service rendered it by the 
accomplished and indefatigable editor. 

Swift : Selections from his Works. Edited, with Life, 
Introduction, and Notes, by Henry Craik. Vol. II. 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

THE second and concluding volume of the selections 
from Swift contains 'Gulliver's Travels,' the 'Tracts on 
Religion,' the ' Irish Tracts/ ' Hints toward an Essay 
on Conversation,' and some later poems. It is difficult 
to cram into an equal space more wit and irony than 
these two volumes contain. For popular purposes, more- 
over, they give as much of Swift as the modern reader 
has time to consume. Men of letters will always want 
the entire works, bulky as these are. 

Ben Jonson. Edited by Brinsley Nicholson, M.D. (Fisher 


WITH an introduction by Mr. C. H. Herford, the first of 
three volumes of Jonson 'a plays has been added to the 
famous '' Mermaid " series. The name of our lost friend 
Dr. Brinsley Nicholson answers for the value of the text, 
and the introduction is all that can be desired. The 
volume contains ' Every Man in his Humour,' ' Every 
Maa Out of his Humour,' and ' The Poetaster.' 

Handwriting and Expression. Translated and Edited 

by John Holt Schooling from the Third French 

Edition of ' L'Ecriture et le Caractere,' par J. Cr6- 

pieux-Jamin. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 

WHEN we read a translation of any foreign work two 

questions at once occurs to us. First, has the book been 

well rendered ? And, secondly, was the original worth 

clothing in a foreign garb? Jn this instance the work 

of translation has been excellently performed, but we 

much question whether M. Cr6pieux-Jamin's labours 

were worthy of an English dress. 

Every action in life is in some sort an index of cha- 
racter. Of this there can be no doubt. Whatever be 
the truth which underlies the various materialistic and 
spiritual interpretations of human life, this much is 
certain, that every bodily action is to some degree an 
index of the mind; but when we have said thus much, 

we are very far from affirming, or even admitting, the 
probability of handwriting being an index to character 
to the degree which certain theorists have supposed. 
All the facts that have been accumulated of late years 
seem to point in a contrary direction. This is, indeed, 
what we should have antecedently looked for. The 
handwriting of each one of us has been made what it 
now is by numberless incidents, some remembered, the 
greater part, it may be, forgotten. In early youth our 
writing is, so far as we can accomplish it, an imitation of 
that of those who instruct us, or of the engraved " head- 
lines " they bid us copy. After we have escaped from 
the hands of the writing master or mistress, it is affected 
by the work we have to do. A lawyer's clerk, or a 
youth in a counting-house, comes under far different 
influences from one who has had a university training. 
It is a common remark that Oxford and Cambridge 
spoil the hand. We know some illustrious examples to 
the contrary, but there is much truth in the statement. 
So far as legibility is concerned, the handwriting of a 
man of business is commonly better than that of a 
scholar. The question, however, with which M. Cre- 
pieux-Jamin and his translator are concerned is whether 
the handwriting of those we encounter on our journey 
through life furnishes an index to character which can 
in any way be deemed trustworthy. We do not think it 
does. Take that of three illustrious novelists Sir Walter 
Scott, Lord Lytton, and Charles Dickens. No one of 
these distinguished persons seems to us to have given by 
his handwriting any intimation of the wealth of imagi- 
nation which his mind contained. If we go back to 
an earlier period it is the same. The letters of Oliver 
Cromwell are no index to his character. The hand is 
not well formed. It will not bear a moment's com- 
parison, either in regard to picturesqueness or force, 
with that of many a Civil War captain whose name is 
now forgotten. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
Slate, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

D. C. T. (" Cisterns "). Your article took the shape 
of a reply, and was accordingly inserted as such. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 67, col. 2, 1. 12 from bottom, for 
"Sir John" read Sir Joseph; p. 72, col. 1, 1. 33, for 
"Mackebois" read Maillebois. In Index to 8^ S. iii., 
p. 522, for " Roberts (A. F.) " read Rollins (A. F.) 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8* s. IV. AUG. 5, '93.] 





NOTES Lincoln's Inn Fields, 101" Hieroglyphic " Bibles, 
103-Shakspeare's Biography, 104-Beranger r s Song. "La 
Deesse' 105 -Thatched Cottage in London -" What 
price y'"-Hypatia-Tithe, 106-Tandem D.O.M., 107. 

QUERIES :-" Dalmahoy "-Bewick Blocks -Marshal Junot 
^ _ Douillette Pocket-book "- Engravings of Buckler's 
Hard-Capt; Cormand-High Sheriff's Gilt Kod-Lyston 
Parish Church-Trances-rfame Sought, 107-Archdeacon 
Berens-The " Bell Inn," Gloucester-Peter de la Roche- 
N Pocock Copper Token Suicides Daubigny s St. 
PeteYand the Triple Crown-Eva, Wife of Strongbow- 
Ferreri Family, 108-Fair Rosamund-Picture, 109. 

REPLIES Thomas Shad well, 109 Shakspeare Monument, 
110 Italian Idiom-Richard Savage Saracen Conquest of 
Sicilv 111 Gutta-percha Funeral Roll of the Earl of 
Huntly " Houyhnhnm," 112-Abbey Churches Charles 
Mercv _The Post Office in the Seventeenth Century- 
Armorial Families, 113-Performance of Mass by a Sub- 
Deacon-The Passing Bell-Wiliiam Pont de lArche- 
Titled Ladies Thrice Married Chess Old English Spin- 
ning. 114 Reference Scientific Library " Stoat 'The 
Pope's Golden Rose" Flowing Philosophers "Mistake 
in ' Dombey 'Tobacco, 115 Macaroni Latin, 116 Misuse 
of Scientific Terms " Soul-caking " Skopts, 117 Lady 
Charlotte Edwin Archiepiscopal Etiquette Altar 
Sugar-plums, 118 Authors Wanted, 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Dwyer's Walker's Siege of London- 
derry 'Arnold's ' Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Like many other spots in London, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields is so flooded with memories that it 
baffles any attempt at history, if history pretends at 
all to completeness. The very first thing reported 
of it is the now usually discredited statement 
that Inigo Jones designedly laid it out to corre- 
spond with the base of the Great Pyramid. Horace 
Walpole sneers at this by bracketing it with what 
he considers kindred absurdities, such as the form 
of Kenilworth keep, which is a horse fetter, and 
the gridiron of the Escurial. The last instance is 
possibly somewhat absurd, and yet Wren adopted 
it in his fine church of St. Lawrence Jewry ; but I 
have never been able to see the absurdity of adopt- 
ing the measure of the Great Pyramid. Surely 
any reason for fixing a dimension is quite as good 
as to have no reason at all. 

The base of the Pyramid yields a square of 
764 ft. ; Malcolm says it contains 10 acres. The 
square is said by Timbs, Cassell's * London,' and 
others repeating the same parrot's tale, to be 821 ft. 
by 625 ft., which shows some 30,000 ft. short of 
the Pyramid. But if the measurement be taken to 
include the courtyards in front of the houses, as it 
ought to be, and I fancy has not been, that would 
bring it much nearer to the Pyramid in fact, to 
within 10,000ft. of it. Now there is a further 
consideration : Inigo Jones only lived to superin- 

tend the erection of the west side, called Arch Kow, 
leaving the south side by Portugal Street, called 
Portugal Row, untouched, as also the north side, 
called Newman's Row or Holborn Row. There 
was no Whetstone Park then, and it is exceedingly 
probable that the 10,000 ft. wanting would have 
been preserved in these two remaining sides of the 
square. The indefatigable Peter Cunningham, in 
his ' Life of Inigo Jones ' (p. 22), remarks that the 
proportions of the square, " those, it is said, of the 
base of the Great Pyramid," are seen to advantage 
in the view, painted in oils by the architect himself, 
now treasured at Wilton, the abode of the Pem- 
broke family J. T. Smith says painted with mar- 
vellous skill by Jones's own hand and a companion 
picture of Covent Garden with a tree in the midst. 
This gives the elevation of Lindsey House, which is 
still the finest facade of any mansion in London. 
Even Cunningham mistakes here, for he says it 
has a stone fa9ade in the picture. That can hardly 
be, for assuredly the stone house now standing is 
not Inigo's, but a poor imitation of Inigo's work 
by an inferior modern hand. It is a copy 
of the picturesque house that stands next door, 
and within the courtyard, distinguished by two 
beautiful pillars of small red brick surmounted by 
vases of strikingly original and handsome design 
a house long inhabited by men of distinction. The 
proud Duke of Somerset resided there for some time, 
as did the Earls of Lindsey, who afterwards became 
Dukes of Ancaster. They migrated, however, to 
another once beautiful spot at Chelsea in Charles 
II.'s time, and called it also Lindsey House, which, 
though broken up now into five, still stands. One 
of the houses was occupied by John Martin, the 
painter. Timbs repeats the error, as I deem it, of 
Cunningham, and calls the stone-fronted house 
Inigo's ; to me that is impossible. 

Lincoln's Inn Fields is said by Cunningham to 
have been the second place in London in which 
the houses were numbered, 1764, and he gives 
New Burlington Street as being the first. This is 
not strictly correct. Prescot Street was the first 
street numbered. But if I mistake not it will be 
found that numbering began in the Inns of Court. 
We are told that numbering was not begun in 
Paris till 1768. But this is not accurate. 

The reason why Lincoln's Inn Fields are not 
called Lincoln's Inn Square apparently is that 
Inigo Jones built the first two squares in London 
on the plan of the places in France and elsewhere. 
In the case of Covent Garden be called it Piazza ; 
and it is a great pity that we have not retained it 
as he left it, for Inigo and Wren are the only 
Englishmen who (since the mediaeval cathedral 
builders) have shown any knowledge of the laws of 
symmetrical proportion in building. In fact, we 
have lost this science since the " dark ages." The 
old masons had the secret, and Wren was the last 
of them. They had a rule that adjusted the size of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8" s. iv. A. 5, 

every ornament employed, of every tower, spire, 
dome, steeple, in regard to place, extension, or 
height. They knew what it must be mathematic- 
ally, and never dreamt of determining it by fantastic 
idiosyncrasy or whim aesthetical, as a Barry, Bur- 
gess, Pugin would now. Their buildings, there- 
fore, grew symmetrically as an organic whole, just 
as an animal would, so that from a fragment of 
beauty an architect, their equal, could work out a 
consistent whole from any given portion. Inigo 
called his experiment at Covent Garden by a 
foreign name. But the other had for ages gone by 
the name of Fickett's Fields, and at a late date 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, so this name was retained ; but 
when builders came to St. James's they gave it the 
simpler name "square." Leicester Square, however, 
drifted down right into this century as Leicester 
Fields just as we now build over a space and 
dub the horticultural paralysis as Chesterfield 
Gardens. In Newton's map that illustrates his 
* London in the Olden Time ' we have depicted in 
Fickett's Fields, in what would now form about 
the centre of Lincoln's Inn Fields, a large pond, 
with rivulet running from it in a south-westerly 
direction to " via Aldewych," or Drury Lane. It 
must have supplied water to the fine old house of 
the Drurys, where Dr. Donne lived, afterwards 
celebrated as Craven House. 

The barristers and students of Lincoln's Inn have 
always shown an inclination to interfere with build- 
ing over the adjacent fields, just as Gray's Inn 
interfered with the building in Theobald's Road as 
blocking out their prospect of Hampstead, &c. But 
after awhile, when the buildings were up, the lawyers 
flocked there, in residence first, and since that in 
chambers. Thus everywhere the wrong of to-day, 
once established, becomes the convenience of to- 
morrow. In 1641 they petitioned Parliament, and 
it was ordered " that there shall be a stay made 
of any further building in Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
especially by Mr. Newton, till this House shall 
take farther order therein." By 1659 it was 
pretty well all carried, for we learn that James 
Cooper, Robert Henley, and Francis Finch, with 
other owners of certain parcels of ground in the 
fields, shall be exempted from forfeiture in regard 
to buildings on " three sides of the same fields," 
provided, amongst other things, they should con- 
vey "the residue of the said fields" to 
the Society of Lincoln's Inn for laying into 
walks for common use and benefit, and that 
" passengers there for the future [be] better 
secured." Whether after this conveyance any 
ground was absorbed into the gardens of the inn 
or not there is nothing here to show. 

The respectability of the place does not seem to 
have gained much, nor the passengers for the 
future to have been any better secured. Gay, in 
his ' Trivia,' devotes several lines to warning them 
not to venture across the space that is railed in 

est the crutch that in daylight moved compassion 
jhould " wound the bleeding head." The " lonely 
wall skirting the Inn is no safer there''; the link 
aoy will '*' quench the flaming brand " and share 
the booty with the " mumpers " and " rufflers " of 
;he fields. The word mumper occurs in Ned 
Ward's * London Spy ' (part v.), where he describes 
" a parcel of wretches " as " hopping about by the 
assistance of their crutches, like so many Lincoln's 
[nn Fields mumpers, drawing into a body to 
attack the coach of some charitable lord." Here 
the word attack only means beset with begging 
whine. Grose, in his 'Olio,' talks of the " mumping 
fraternity "; a mumper is a beggar in gipsy speech, 
according to Leland and others. In Smart and 
Crofton's 'Dialect of the English Gipsies' the 
gipsy equivalent for mumper is chodrokono moosh 
(moosh man, cho6rokono= poor). From this the 
inference would be that mumper was, if Romany 
at all, only adopted into it by gipsies dwelling in 
England. But to mump is a very old word in the 
North, and means to beat. It is also the result of 
beating, a lump or swelling, as in the disease called 
"mumps." It also means to grimace, and is 
connected with mumble, which means strictly to 
chew like a rabbit, moving the jaws nimbly, and 
muttering. The whole of these meanings indicate 
very happily the violent beggar-tribe of the Stuart 
period, who were to be whipped as vagabonds. 
They simpered and muttered and cajoled by day, 
and beat and robbed their victim at night when 
caught in the fields defenceless. Buffer, again, 
is a highly expressive term. It is close of kin 
to ruffian, such as was Scarecrow, mentioned by 
Sir Roger in Spectator (No. 6) as " the beggar in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, who disables himself in his 
right leg, and asks alms all day to get himself a 
warm supper and a trull at night." A ruffier is 
especially bully to a low woman. In Italian, ru/a 
is a scramble ; ruffiano, a pimp and bully. Like our 
word rough and Danish /,, its root- meaning is 
precisely the same, and denotes rough and hairy, 
as is intimated in Trench's treatment of the word 
ruffian, after Diez. It is too long to go into 
minutely now. The horse-market in Smithfield, 
where trials in sword and buckler practice were 
held, was called " Ruffians' Hall." " He is only 
fit for Ruffians' Hall " is a proverb given both by 
Bohn and Hazlitt. In old Fickett's Fields, like 
Smithfield, jousts were held between the Templars 
and the rival knights of St. John of Jerusalem. 
Lincoln's Inn Fields might well have been called 
"Rufflers' Hall," such was the congregation here 
of beggars. Ruffian in cant is the devil ; rouffier 
in French argot is soldat, because the worthless 
set commonly assumed the garb and character of 
wounded soldiers and sailors to excite compassion. 
This precisely corresponds with the lines in Gay's 
'Trivia, 'and with what Timbs says, though he 
does not say where he gets it from : 

8"' S. IV. Ano. 5, '93.] 



" Lincoln's Inn Fields Rufflers were wretches who 
-assumed the character of maimed soldiers and begged 
from the claims of Naseby, Edgehill, Newbury, and 
Marston Moor; their prey was people of fashion, whose 
coaches they attacked, and if refused relief, they turned 
mumper*, muttering audibly, ' Tis a sad thing that an old 
crippled Cavalier should be suffered to beg for a main- 
tenance, and a young Cavalier, that never heard the 
whistle of a bullet, should ride in his coach.' " 

Thus the fields became the haunt of all 
loiterers, bowlers, beggars, showmen, boys ; or, 
to borrow the ecenic and red-lattice words of 
Thornbury, "dommerers," "whipjaoks," "Abram 
meD,""fratere,"" anglers," and "clapper-dudgeons " 
all congregated at the spot. Here Lily, the 
astrologer, when a servant at Mr. Wright'*, at the 
corner house over against Strand Bridge, spent his 
idle hours in bowling with "Wat the cobbler, 
Dick the blacksmith, and such like companions." 

But the champion feat of roguery, unless some 
give the palm to the usurpation of the seals by the 
Commonwealthsmen, was when Thomas Sadler, 
arly in 1676/7, broke with confederates into the 
house of Heneage Finch, the Lord High Chancellor, 
in Great Queen Street adjacent, and stole the mace 
and purse. They carried them through the fields 
at night in mock procession to their lodging in 
Knightrider Street. The mace-bearer walked before 
Sadler, the purse-bearer behind. It was a proud 
night for Sadler, but he expiated it at Tyburn a 
few days later on, viz., March 16, 1676/7. Sic 
transit gloria, mundi. The only like glory was 
when, in 1784, on March 24, at night, thieves 
broke into 45, Great Ormond Street and robbed 
Chancellor Thurlow of the Great Seal ; they on 
that occasion rejected the pouch as valueless, and 
left the mace as too unwieldy. The thieves were 
caught, but the seal had already " got into circula- 
tion through the melting pot," as Cunningham 
rather wittily puts it. But if pressed by men who 
insist on scientific accuracy he could scarcely defend 
this play of words. He could not show that they 
issued it in base coinage, and so he would stand 
unjustified in saying that it " got into circulation." 
Strict accuracy would suggest that it might have 
got into plate, and so might have become fixed at 
the very Mansion House itself ; now what is fixed 
is not in circulation. Q.E.D. The theft, however, 
delayed the issue of some patents and public docu- 
ments of importance until a new seal could be made. 
This time I think the thieves were not executed 
Tyburn. Thomas Sadler was born before his 
time, and as a consequence died before it, like 
many others of the undistinguished great. Here 
is a further case for scientific accuracy to think out 
thoroughly, and make plain to the meanest intellect 
of us all. Can a man who lives before his time 
and dies before it be strictly said to have ever 
lived at all? C. A. WARD. 

(.To be continued.) 


In the Athenceum for April 22 last a letter of 
mine appeared on the English versions and editions 
of so-called " Hieroglyphic " Bibles, which brought 
me many letters on the subject, although only two 
or three furnished me with any new information. 
So long ago as August 2, 1856, a correspondent 
had an tf anxious inquiry " inserted in ' N. & Q., 1 
and it strangely remained unanswered for nearly a 
quarter of a century, when, in ' N. & Q., 6 th S. 
iii. 228, the ball was sefc rolling with a vengeance 
and kept up till " angry passions began to rise," 
and our good friend the Editor " put the closure 
on the discussion. There are several misstatements 
in the correspondence, such as the assertion 
('N. & Q.,' 6 th S. iii. 294) that "the cuts were 
engraved by Thos. Bewick for T. Hodgson, who 
printed the work in 1783." There is certainly 
every reason to believe that Thos. Bewick did 
some of the cuts in Hodgson's 'Curious Hiero- 
glyphick Bible,' but not all of them, and on this 
point Bewick's biographers and Bewick experts 
are agreed. But if we may credit a note of John 
Bewick s, written on proof of cover of the book, 
preserved in the Department of Prints and Draw- 
ings in the British Museum, the first edition was 
published in 1776. A copy of the second, dated 
1784, is in the British Museum. I have my doubts 
as to John Bewick's accuracy in setting down 1776 
as the date of the first edition, since Thos. Bewick 
came to London on October 1, 1776 (when, it is 
true, he immediately got work to do from Hodgson, 
a Newcastle man, like himself), and returned to 
Newcastle on June 22, 1777. However, the 
correspondent of ' N. & Q.' who gave 1783 as the 
date of the first edition can hardly, I think, be 
correct. But the question will be fully discussed 
in my forthcoming bibliographical account of 
hieroglyphic Bibles, foreign as well as English. 

The British Museum possesses of the work with 
which Bewick's name is associated, which went 
through twenty editions between (say) 1776 and 
1812, examples of second edition (1784), third 
edition (1785), fourth edition (1786), sixth edition 
(1788), and ninth edition (1791). In 1794 the 
thirteenth edition was published (by assignment of 
Hodgson's trustees) by R. Bassam, and I have a 
copy of this edition at present before me. A corre- 
spondent has kindly given me particulars of the 
eleventh edition, but I am still without information 
regarding the following : first edition (any year 
before 1784), fifth edition (? 1787), seventh edition 
(?1789), eighth edition (1790), tenth edition 
(? 179 1-2), twelfth edition (1793), fourteenth, fif- 
teenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, nine- 
teenth, and twentieth (1812).* 

* An exact copy of this first English version was pub- 
lished by B. Dugdale, Dublin, MDCCLXXXIX., purport- 
ing to be the "Fourth Edition" (Hodgson's fourth 



[8 th S. IV. Aro. 5, '93. 

Of chap-book versions" I wish to know an 
peculiarities in the following : A. K. New an i 
Co., London; Walker, Otley, Yorks; J. Catnach 
London; and if any correspondent possessin 
examples especially of the editions of the Bewic' 
version noted above would kindly communicat 
direct with me, I should be infinitely obliged ; am 
he might possibly thereby help to complete 
missing chapter of bibliography. <-w-n, 

129, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 

I have to thank PROF. TOMLINSON for the com 
plimentary terms in which he refers to my Shake 
speare notes (8 th S. iii. 169). I would have been 
further gratified had my remarks the desired effec 
of altering his views on the major facts of Shake 
speare's biography. I am afraid PROF. TOMLIN 
SON in the compiling of his statements did no 
adopt a scientific method. I have noticed he relies 
mainly on tradition, and a notional apprehension 
reared on no basis whatever. Biographic data in 
connexion with Shakespeare may be divided into 
three classes the contemporary and alone authen- 
tic, the psychological (consequently conjectural), 
and the apocryphal (usually unreliable). J. 0. 
Halliwell - Phillipps, in his patiently compiled 
' Outlines/ cautiously works in most of the canards 
and hearsay tales ; other biographers, loving sensa- 
tion rather than truth, boldly accept them, and 
spare no form of logic or persuasion to make others 
believe them also. In an ideal biography traditions 
may be recorded, but not insisted on ; all gossipy 
stories carried orally through two generations must 
yield to contemporary evidence with its natural and 
psychological inferences. Interested as I am, on 
grounds which I will explain later, PROF. TOM- 
LINSON will pardon me contesting each statement 
which is not in harmony with contemporary evi- 

Shakespeare's early education. This point will 
eerve to illustrate the improbability of apocryphal 
tales. Tradition informs us that he was early taken 
from school, that he associated with poachers and 
the vagabond element of his native town, that he 
fled as a felon, and started his London life as a 
holder of horses, mingling with grooms, courtezans, 
stage- supers, and all the motley throng that would 
frequent the stage-doors. With such an environ- 
ment and nature's own curriculum he has created 
the noblest characters, the loveliest women 
imagination has conceived, he has displayed a 
reading so remarkable, an observation so omniscient, 

I should like to know somewhat about the first, secern 
and third editions, which I presume Dugdale also pub- 
lished in Dublin. Hitherto my "anxious inquiries" 
in likely quarters in Ireland havejgained me no informa- 
tion whatever. 

that cause-explaining students draw back in a state 
of abashed bewilderment ; besides, only eleven 
years after his reputed criminal ostracism we find 
him established in Stratford purchasing properties 
and rated as a gentleman. PROF. TOMLINSON, with 
marvellous precision, informs us that Shakespeare 
could read and write between the ages of fourteen 
and fifteen ; he must indeed have been an arrant 
micher and dunce if these were the limits of his 
education. Roger Ascham certainly expected more 
from a youth of his age. I referred to Howe's 'Life' 
and Ben Jonson's phrase ; they are now used 
against me. What are their value ? Kowe was 
not born till fifty-seven, and his book was not 
compiled till ninety-three years after Shakespeare's 
death. His revelations are not substantiated by 
any written or otherwise authenticated evidence. 
This is the way to write fiction, surely not bio- 
graphy. While any one that studies the personal 
character of " rare Ben " will at once appreciate 
the value of his testimony. He gloried in his 
profound erudition, he boasted "he knew more 
in Greek and Latin than all the Poets in England," 
his bombastic pedantry caused him to belittle men 
of undisputed learning (see Chapman's epigram) ; 
be viewed Shakespeare as one subsidized by nature ; 
lie conceded him genius, inspiration, art, every- 
thing you will but learning, and that was proudly 
and autocratically his own. Aubrey, in his ' Lives 
of Eminent Men,' notes : 

" Though as Ben Johnson sayes of him, that he had 
>ut little Latine and lesse Greek, he understood Latine 
>retty well, for he had been in his younger yeares a 
choolmaster in the countrey." 

Shakespeare's marriage. In my previous note 
'. advanced the facts which established my faith in 
lis connubial felicity. PROF. TOMLINSON ignores 
hese. In addition, I would urge it is remarkable 
hat for two centuries and a half after the event 
lot a whisper of this unhappy union was registered. 
some time in the first decades of the present Gen- 
ii ry the idea was broached, and the falsehood has 
ince run on unspigoted. What was the cause of 
he Hegira ? In a year when his father had no 
;oods to distrain Shakespeare left his native town, 
'he purpose of his enforced alienation is registered 
n the estate records. Year by year he accumu- 
ated and saved, that his family might be enriched, 
hat they and he might reside in the proudest 
mansion of his native town ; he sought in the 
)ourt of Heraldry for a coat of arms, that his 
ather might vie with the local gentry. Is this the 
onduct of a misogamist and wife deserter ? Dis- 
arity in age does not necessarily occasion con- 
ugal estrangement. Dr. Johnson and Lord 
3eaconsfield married ladies that were their seniors, 
nd were happy ; Milton and W. Savage Landor 
und youthful partners, and their lives were 
marred by ' Kreutzer Sonata ' disturbances. You 
annot extract " sunbeams from cucumbers," nor 

IV. Auo. 5, '93.] 



can you pose as evidence a ballad written some 

centuries after the event. The sonnets may not, 

for an obvious reason, be used autobiographically ; 

but there are passages which could scarcely be 

addressed to other than his wedded wife : 

But do thy worst to steal thyself away, 

For term of life thou art assured mine. 

In Sonnets Ixxi. and Ixxii. , written in deep des- 
pondency, he charges her to change her name in 
oase of his death. In sonnets xxxvi., li., xcvii., 
and xcviii., he speaks of enforced absence. In 
Sonnet xxxix. he gives the cause : 
That by this separation I may give 
That due to thee which thou deserv'st alone. 
The " Will" sonnets are also evidently addressed 
to his wife. Many of his sonnets, in my opinion, 
were dedicated to his loved partner, during his 
early years of struggle and nostalgia in the great 

Shakespeare careless about publication. If PROF. 
TOMLINSON had read my note he would have per- 
ceived that the purpose of it was not a needless 
adumbration of Shakespeare's genius, but an 
attempt to prove that the " newly correcting and 
augmenting" "was done solely with a view to 
publication." Shakespeare belonged to the great 
theatrical companies of his day, and his first busi- 
ness would be to seek publicity and profit through 
the stage ; but the many editions through which 
'Venus and Adonis' and some of his dramatic 
works passed, besides the zealous amending and 
developing which he bestowed on his second 
editions, argue that he was not ignorant of another 
source of revenue, and that he was not satisfied 
with mere contemporary fame. PROF. TOMLINSON 
gives a list " of the dramas that were printed for 
the first time " in the 1623 folio. 'Othello 'was 
printed in 1622 ; the second and third parts of 
'Henry VI.' in 1600 and 1619; 'As You Like 
It ' was entered at Stationers' Hall in 1600 ; the 
first and second parts of ' Henry VI.' in 1602 ; 
'The Taming of the Shrew' in 1606; and 
'Antony and Cleopatra' in 1608; and though 
there are no known editions of these works, it is 
quite possible they were printed. Deducting these, 
it will be found that the residuum, with few excep- 
tions, belong to his later period ; is it not probable 
that Shakespeare designedly withheld these works 
that he might publish them in a collected form ? 
That he did not edit his own works, like Ben Jon- 
son, is due to his premature death ; the duplex 
sferences by his joint editors, " since it had been 
rdamed otherwise, and he departed from that 
right,' decidedly hint that he cherished such an 

Shakespeare's profession. I readily allow that in 

i first years of Thespian endeavour Shakespeare, 

role of "Johannes Factotum," may have made 

himself useful in small parts, but 1 emphatically 

assert that his profession was not that of an actor, 

he was a dramatist and was recognized as such. PROF. 
TOMLINSON, relying on Sonnets xxxvii. and Ixxxix. 
(not Ixxx. ), asserts that Shakespeare was lame. He 
may or may not be right. Till some "Daniel come to 
judgment " and interpret these poems of Chaldean 
subtlety and mystery, we must "burst in ignor- 
ance," conjecture, or romance it a la Gerald 

>y. The poet's statement that he was made 
lame by "Fortune's dearest spite " may refer to 
his father's bankruptcy, in which he was involved. 
But is it not assuming too much in stating that 
the poet's dislike to acting was due to this decrepi- 
tude. The one character which Rowe discovered 
Shakespeare played was the Ghost in 'Hamlet.' 
The spectacle of the dreadful majesty of Denmark 
limping across the stage like a spavined horse is at 
once ludicrous and damaging to your correspon- 
dent's hypothesis. 

There are mighty reasons why the nation 
should make itself the watchful guardian of Shake- 
speare's honour. A few chiliads will pass, and 
Britain must, in accordance with inexorable law, 
take her place with the quiescent nations ; yet her 
position will be foremost among the races whose 
achievements in thought and action have made 
their influences imperishable. 

Shakespeare in that day will reign supreme. It 
is paramount that no blotch mars the incandescent 
splendour of his " volume's light." For his superb 
genius there can be no fear ; but associated with 
genius is character, and here a deciduous force is 
at work, his character is shadowed by a false 
penumbra. No criticism of Shakespeare has pro- 
voked more vehement protest than that of Voltaire, 
yet each comment was founded on, or was the 
inevitable outcome of, the current biography. The 
general paucity of graphical documents, the 
vicious practice of setting in sharp antithesis 
genius and vice has contributed to this state of 
things. In connexion with Shakespeare let it be 
remembered that silence itself is a mute witness of 
his nobility, for vice never fails to sound trumpet- 
toned its association with men of genius ; that " he 
was indeed honest, and of an open and free nature, 
had an excellent fancy, brave notions, and gentle 
expressions "; that he loved his country and home, 
and won unequivocal respect and admiration from 
his contemporaries. The stigma will then be wiped 
away, and his character will go down the ages as 
the most enduring and glorious monument of the 
Anglo-Saxon race. W. A. HENDERSON. 


turning over some old papers, I lighted on a MS. 
book containing some of my youthful translations. 
Among these was Be"ranger's song on the 'Goddess 
of Liberty,' which was inspired by his meeting the 
woman who in her youth had personated that 
character in one of the revolutionary fetes. Wish- 



tS th S. IV. Atra. 5, '! 

ing to know something about this woman, I turne 
to my copy of the ' Histoire de la Re"volutio 
Franchise,' by Louis Blanc, 2 vols., quarto, Paris, n 
date. These volumes contain a considerable num 
ber of well-executed portraits of the principal men 
and some of the women who figured in the grea 
national movement, but I was not able to find the 
portrait of that woman, nor any account of her. 

A Frenchman would be greatly surprised to be 
told that a book issued from the Paris press conic 
be badly edited. I have already (8 th S. Hi. 81) re 
ferred to a case in point in the "Grands Ecrivains' 
edition of the * Life of Moliere.' I have now to 
complain of M. Blanc's volumes. They contain 
pp. clxxii, 716, 775, or 1,663 quarto pages, printed 
in double columns, and containing 600 engravings 
375 of which are portraits. The engravings are 
not numbered, nor is any list given of them, so 
that there is no guide as to the presence or absence 
of a portrait, except by searching through that 
part of the book which by a rough guess may be 
expected to contain it. There is no index, and 
the table of contents at the end of each volume 
contains only brief heads of chapters, without any 
attempt at analysis of contents. 

Some of your readers will doubtless be able to 
supply the information I have been in search of, 
and this will add to the interest of the pathetic 
strains of the most popular of the songsters of 
France. The following translation was made in 
1831; but I have again compared it with the 
original, and made some corrections: 


[Written on a person whom the Author had seen per- 
sonifying Liberty in one of the Petes of the Revolution.] 
Can this be you, once beautiful appearing, 

When all the people did your car surround, 
With the immortal name your progress cheering 

Of ber whose standard you then waved around ? 
With your own glory, and with beauty teeming, 

Mid our salutes and many a joyous cry 
Proudly you moved, oh yes ! a goddess seeming, 
Goddess of Liberty ! 

O'er Gothic ruing you your course were bending, 
And our protectors crowded round your car, 

Flowers were raining, modest maidens sending 
Their songs to mingle with the hymn of war, 

While I, of destiny the orphan child, 
Drank of the bitter cup she tendered me, 

I cried, " Oh be to me a mother mild, 
Goddess of Liberty ! " 

Vanished that age of fearful names and hate, 
Which in my youth I could not understand, 

But horror seized me for the stranger's fate, 
E'en while I lisped those sweet words ' Native land ": 

All for defence were arming, all in motion, 
All then were proud, most proud was poverty : 

Ah, now restore my infantine emotion-, 
Goddess of Liberty ! 

Vulcan lies buried neath the ruins he made 
In twenty years : the nation slept once more ; 

The stranger with his balance twice has said, 
" Ye Gauls, we come to weigh your golden store." 

When we intoxicated, heaven entreating, 

Erected Beauty on an altar high, 
You, image of a happy dream so fleeting, 
Goddess of Liberty ! 

Too rapid time, alas ! as I see now, 

Has dimmed those eyes which once Love's lustre shed; 
Again I see you when that wrinkled brow 

Seems at my voice to blush for beauty fled. 
But courage still ! Car, altar, flowers, and youth, 

Hope, virtue, grandeur, beauty, pride you see 
Have vanished all, and you no more in truth 
Goddess of Liberty ! 


Highgate, N. 

of the discussion in 'N. & Q.' as to the site of 
Mrs. Siddons's cottage at Westbourne Green, it 
may be interesting to note that just off St. Mary's 
Road, Paddington Green, there still stands an old 
thatched cottage, apparently just the same as when 
it was engulfed by London forty or fifty years ago. 
There is also close by an old-fashioned red- brick 
farmhouse. C. A. 0. 

"WHAT PRICE?" This familiar locution is a 
good deal older than it seems. I have run it 
back to Act V. sc. iii. of Middleton's ' Changeling,' 
acted at Court, Jan. 4, 1623, where De Flores is 
asked, " What price goes murder ] " 


HTPATIA. At p. 498 of the last volume of 
N. & Q.' (8 th S. iii.) PROF. TOMLINSON alludes 
o this lady (the supposed inventor of the hydro- 
meter, though it would seem to have been known 
ong before her time) as of Constantinople. This 
must be a lapsus plumcc, as it need scarcely be said 
;hat the ill-fated flypatia (probably best known to 
Uoglish readers by Kingsley's novel) was of Alex- 
ndria, nor does it appear that she was ever at 
Constantinople in her life. 

In the very interesting communication to which I 
efer PROF. TOMLINSON speaks of Archimedes and 
he specific gravity of Hiero's crown. May I ask 
who first used the philosopher's famous exclamation 
a pyjKa as an English word, and why the aspirate 
was not placed before it, for it certainly should be 
not eureka, but heureka? Was this "ignorance, 
pure ignorance " ? W. T. LYNN. 



" Loaves of home-made bread are sometimes brought, 
eminiecences of the time when some of the good old 
ouse-mothers used to present their clergyman with a 
oaf out of their ' leasing corn ' as their tithe. Another 
ithe, acting the other way, was that when a tenth child 
was born in a family, without any previous deaths, a 
pray of myrtle was fastened in its christening cap there 
rere such things then and the parson was bound to send 
t to school. Such a tithe child I have seen baptized." 

So says Miss Yonge in ' An Old Woman's Out- 
ook,' p. 200. In these days of free schooling the 

8" S. IV. Aco. 5, '93.] 



parson's responsibility is greatly lightened. The 
recoil of the tithe system in a poor parish in the 
olden time was a serious matter, though probably 
of rare occurrence. ST. SWITHIN. 

TANDEM D.O.M. (See 1 st S. iii. 62, 173 ; v. 
330 ; ix. 137, 286 ; x. 255.) la looking through 
the early volumes of 'N. & Q.,' among many un- 
answered queries I have come upon one to which 
I am able to give a reply, viz., that of S v S. (1 st S. 
v. 330) as to the habitat of the ancient library 
described by FABER MARINUS (1 st S. iii. 62) as 
reposing in an ancient mansion in the distant 
recesses of Cornwall. 

Lanhydrock, near Bodmin, is the place referred 
to, and the owner, Lord Robartes, whose father 
was " the present proprietor " in 1851, keeps the 
old books with the most reverent care and in per- 
fect order, an announcement which I am sure will 
be gratifying to 8. 8. if, as I trust, be is still, after 
more than forty years, a subscriber to ' N. & Q. ' 

There is no certain solution of the mysterious 
"Tandem D.O.M.," written by Hannibal Gamon 
in some of the books, but the initials can hardly 
be imagined to stand for anything but " Deo 
Optimo Maximo," of which they are such a well- 
known abbreviation. J. EASTWOOD (l t S. iii. 173) 
may probably be near the mark in suggesting the 
idea of the collector's thanks to God on at length 
obtaining a long-sought volume. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addressee to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

"DALMAHOY." Two recent dictionaries have 
" Dalmahoy, a kind of bushy bob-wig worn by 
tradesmen in the last century, especially by che- 
mists." I shall be glad of any information as to 
this name, and for references to its mention in 
literature. J. A. H. MURRAY. 


BEWICK BLOCKS. In the sale of the Hugo 
collection of books illustrated by the Bewicks, held 
at Sotheby's in August, 1877, lot 389, consisting 
of a number of engraved wooden blocks to ' The 
New Invented Horn-Book,' &c., was bought by a 
Mr. Lewis, whose address, or the whereabouts of the 
blocks, I am anxious to find. I shall also be very 
much obliged if collectors owning blocks of this 
class will kindly communicate with me. 


The Leadenhall Press, B.C. 

MARSHAL JDNOT. Can any one tell me of any 
reference to Marshal Junot as a violinist, and 
whether his wife has said anything on this point 

in the ' Memoirs ' that she wrote ? The name of 
Marshal Junot is associated with a celebrated 
Stradivari instrument that was in the Chapel Royal 
at Madrid in 1785 ; and which, in common with 
others, disappeared at the time of the invasion of 
that city by the French. Marshal Junot is credited 
with having abstracted several instruments. This 
particular violin is next heard of in Paris in 
1819. Was it the practice of Napoleon's generals 
to furnish any inventory or report of the works of 
art they obtained in the countries they invaded ? 

this like? In the recently published * Life of 
Georgiana, Lady de Ros,' p. 29, it is stated that 
" George the Fourth had been in the habit of 
carrying about a douillette pocket-book." In Gaec's 
'Dictionary 1 I find douillette to mean "wadded 
gown, wadded slipper, furred shoe." How came 
the word to be applied to a pocket-book 1 

[Similar things are still on sale.] 

century ago some good engravings of this ship- 
building yard (situated on the Beanlien River, in 
the New Forest, and belonging to the Adams 
family) were executed. I believe they were oval 
in shape, size about eight inches by six. I am 
anxious to trace them, and shall feel deeply in- 
debted for assistance. BEAULIEU. 

CAPT. CORMAND. Who was this? Faulkner 
says he was living at the Hermitage, North End, 
in 1813. Please answer direct. 


49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

HIGH SHERIFF'S GILT ROD. Why does a high 
sheriff carry a gilt rod when in attendance on the 
judge ? Is it as a badge of office, or as a weapon 
of defence; or is it symbolical of authority from the 
sovereign to keep the peace, and a symbol of the 
sceptre ? PHCENIX. 

ESSEX. I should be obliged if any of your readers 
could give me information as to when the above 
church was built, and to whom it was dedicated. 


TRANCES. Where can I find the best account 
of trances, or cataleptic sleep, including particular 8 
as to premonitory symptoms, duration of sleep? 
&c. ? Do the senses wake first ; and are people 
sometimes, while conscious, unable to speak or 
signal? Would a person falling asleep with a 
dominant thought awake with it still in possession 
of the mind? M. W. 

REAL NAME SOUGHT. I should be greatly 
obliged if one of your readers could give me the 



[8" S. IV. AUG. 5, '93. 

real name of the East Anglian Quaker banker and 
Hebrew scholar mentioned in Sorrow's * Lavengro,' 
together with any facts concerning him. 


ARCHDEACON BERENS. This well-known and 
TOoat respected clergyman, who died in 1859, is 
said to have written or compiled a manual of 
' Prayers for Schoolboys '; but the book is not to 
be found in any list of his writings. I should be 
glad of information still more glad to have a copy. 

The Braasey Institute, Hastings. 

announcement appears in the London Evening 
Post, No. 2376, Jan. 29-Feb. 1, 1743: 

" A Great Cock-Match to be Fought at Mr. White- 
field's at the Bell Inn in Gloucester, (in a Pit built for 
that Purpose) between the Gentlemen of Shropshire and 
the Gentlemen of Monmouthshire : To shew Forty- one 
Cocks in the Main for Ten Guineas a Battle, and Two 
Hundred Guineas the Odd Battle ; and Twenty-one 
Cocka for By-Battles, for Four Guineas each. To weigh 
on Monday the 2d of May next, and to fight the three 
following Days." 

It would be interesting to learn what relation 
the then landlord of the "Bell Inn" bore to the 
Rev. George Whitefield (1714-1770), founder of 
the Calvinistic Methodists. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

PETER DE LA KOCHE. He was one of the early 
Bishops of Winchester. He was also named De 
Rupibus. I suppose his name was simply Peter 
Rock ; but when made bishop he assumed its Latin 
and French equivalent as being grander and more 
dignified. Is this so; and are there any other 
examples ? PETROS. 

N. POCOCK, ARTIST. What is known of this 
artist ? Three of his water-colour paintings, signed 
and dated 1795, representing naval fights, were 
sold a few weeks ago, at a country house near 
Canterbury, for 100Z. each. They were considered 
excellent examples of his works, and cheap at the 
price. WINGEHAM. 


[Born in Bristol in 1741, died at Maidenhead in 1821. 
Between 1782 and 1815 he contributed a hundred and 
thirteen sea-pieces to the Royal Acaiemy, and twenty- 
five to the British Institution. See Graves's ' Dictionary 
of Artists.' A memoir also appears in Bryan's 'Dic- 
tionary of Painters.'] 

COPPER TOKEN. I should be glad of informa- 
tion about a small copper token which was lately 
discovered here on taking up a plank in the floor 
of an old house. The token is very slightly bigger 
than a sixpence, and has been much worn. The 
obverse is a man's bust turned to the left, with the 
inscription ISAAC NEWTON. On the reverse is, 
apparently, Britannia facing to the left, with the 
inscription BRITANNIA RULES, and in the base the 

date 1707. I see that Sir Isaac Newton was made 
Warden of the Mint in 1696. C. W. PENNY. 

period did the old practice of burying suicides 
at cross roads commence 1 A. WILLIAMS. 

Kingston Hall, Hull. 

[See 1 S. iv.116, 212,329; v.405; vi. 44,353; vii.617.] 

DAUBIGNT'S. Where was Daubigny's Club 
held ? And what sort of a club was it ? Timbs, 
Walpole, Wright, Cunningham, Wheatley do not 
mention it ; yet it is memorable as the place 
where the words were alleged to have been uttered 
which brought about the famous duel between 
Lieut. -Col. Charles Lenox, Coldstream Guards, 
afterwards fourth Duke of Richmond, and H.R.H. 
of York, his commanding officer, a hundred and 
four years ago this 26th of May. 


be well to reprint in ' N..& Q.'the following ques- 
tion, asked by B. L. in the Weekly Eegister of 
June 10. In Green's c Short History of the Eng- 
lish People,' vol. ii. p. 670, 

" is a view of the old rood-screen of Westminster Abbey, 
on which are statues of St. Peter and St. Paul; the 
former is denoted by the key in the right hand and the 
triple-crowned mitre on the head. Was this a common 
way of representing him 1 " 

E. W. 

EVA, WIFE OF STRONGBOW. Her father was 
Dermod MacMurrogh, King of Leinster; but who 
was her mother a daughter of O'More, Prince of 
Leix ? If so, what was his full name and pedigree ? 

X. Y. Z. 

FERRERI FAMILY. Is the Italian house of 
Ferreri (one branch of which exists at Alassio 
between San Remo and Savona) identical in its 
origin with the Norman house of Ferrars, Earls 
of Derby Henry de Ferriis, or Ferrarius, a Nor- 
man, Robert de Ferrare, created Earl of Derby, 
A.D. 1137 and its later issue the Ferrers de 
Chartley and the Ferrers de Groby ? 

Sansovino, in his ' Dell' Origine et de' Fatti delle 
Case Illustrid' Italia'(NovemberlO,1582, Venezia), 
states, under the heading of "Ferreri": "The 
Acciauola in Florence, 'nobilissima per sangue 
antico' [i. e. t most noble by ancient blood], once 

Dukes of Athens. Of these the most 

renowned was, perhaps, Nicola Acciauoli, a great 
magnate and seneschal of the kingdom of Naples " 
(" il regno di Puglia "). Here he quotes Leonardo 
d' Aretino, " who came to Florence, ' da lontano 
luogo ' [i. e., from afar]. This house then, eventu- 
ally driven thence through the violence of the 
Guelph and Ghibelline factions, exiles with- 
drew to divers parts of Italy to Vercelli Pied- 
mont, where, the people of the district proving 

8 th S. IV. AUG. 5, 'J 



slow to learn the name Acciauoli, they lost th 
patronymic, and were called Ferreri, Forrere, o 
Forestieri (i. e., foreigners), and with this cog 
nomen they remain to the present day " (A.D. 1582 
So far Sansovino ; but Acciajo, Acciajuolo (steel 
Ferro, Ferrare, Ferrarie (iron) are clearly all bu 
convertible terms, modifications of one idea, im 
plying the quality or characteristic of the name 
These Acciauoli, Ferreri, who came up, as we hav 
seen, from " il regno di Puglia," were they no 
the presumption is strong of the race of Rober 
Guiscard and his Normans, of the self-same hous 
whose members passed from the Latinized duch; 
with William the Conqueror to the conquest o 
England Ferro, the house of Ferrars, Earls o 
Derby ? 

Entering the service of the Dukes of Savo] 
and the King of France, the Piedmont-Lombarc 
Ferreri acquired wealth, lands, fame, and honours 
If they lost their patronymic, they retained theii 
armorial bearings. " Conservandq pero le insegm 
antiche della famiglia " (Sansovino). The Ferreri 
d' Alassio bear upon their shield, carved in stone 
over the portal of their palazzo (Marchese Ferreri 
d' Alassio), the three bars borne by Earl Ferrers 
(see Lodge's ' Peerage,' Plates, 1832 ; Sharpe's 
ditto, " Genealogical," 1830). Some of your corre- 
spondents will doubtless be able to inform me if 
this surmise of the common origin of the house is 

FAIR ROSAMUND. Can any one tell me to what 
authority we owe the history of the fair, frail 
Rosamund, whose wrongs have of late enlisted the 
sympathies of the playgoing public ? 

I have seen it stated in more than one English 
history that she was the mother of Geoffrey, Arch- 
bishop of York. Walter Mapes, who was the 
friend and companion of Henry II., and probably 
better versed than any other writer of the period 
in the Court scandals of those days, distinctly 
states that Geoffrey was the son of a certain pub- 
lica named Hikenai or Ykenai (' De Nugio Curia- 
lium,' cap. vi. dist. 5). Hoveden tells us that 
Hugh of Lincoln ordered the remains of Fair 
Rosamund to be disinterred from their resting- 
place in Godstow nunnery and buried outside the 
church, and Stow furnishes a somewhat unsavoury 
epitaph. Where can I find any other trustworthy 
information? E. S. A. 

[Have you consulted Lyttelton's ' Life of Henry II.' 
and Barington's history of the reign of the same monarch; 
also Speed and Holinshed?] 

PICTURE. A friend of mine has a picture 
which I am almost certain represents the nativity 
of St. John the Baptist. In the background two 
female attendants are represented, one of whom 
holds in her hand a dish or salver in which lies 
an egg. I wish some one would interpret for me 
this piece of symbolism. K. P. D. E. 


(8 th S. iv. 8.) 

He claimed descent from the family of Shad- 
well, of Lyndowne, co. Stafford to whom arms 
were granted 1537 but was son of John Shadwell, 
of the parish of Broomhill (near Brandon), co. 
Norfolk, where he was born. Chalmers says " at 
Staunton Hall," so that if there be such a place in 
said parish, he is probably correct. Was educated 
at home for five years under a Mr. Roberts, after- 
wards for a year at Bury St. Edmunds under a 
Mr. Stephens. Admitted pensioner to Caius Col., 
Cambridge, Dec. 17, 1656, "then aged fourteen"; 
left without taking any degree, and proceeded to 
the Middle Temple. For his works see Chalmers. 
Appointed Laureate and Historiographer Royal at 
the Revolution ; died at his house at Chelsea, 
Nov. 20, 1692 ; there interred, his friend Dr. 
Nicholas Brady preaching the funeral sermon on 
the occasion. (Chelsea Register, " Thomas Shad- 
well Esq. poet laureat buried Nov. 24 1692.") 
There was a contemporary rumour that his end 
was caused by an overdose of opium. I cannot 
learn that any memorial was erected at the grave, 
but his son, Sir John Shadwell, Knight-Physician 
in Ordinary to Queen Anne, George I., and George 
II., placed a small monument of white marble, 
with a Latin inscription, in the Poets' Corner; 
the age thereon is given as fifty-five. 
His will (P.C.C. 231, Fane): 
'To be buryed in flannell with the least charge that 

may bee to the Earl of Dorset, Sir Charles Sedley, 

iVilliam Jephson Esq., and Col. Edmund Ashton my 
most dear ffriends to each a ring of gold weighing twenty 

shillings with this motto Memor esto tui to my brother 

a similar ring to my son John 51. for mourning and 

my Latine and Philosophicall Books with Mr. Hobbs his 
works warning him to have a care of some ill opinions of 
lis concerning Government but hee may make an excel- 

ent use of what is good in him I do alsoe Charge my 

aid sonne to be obedient to his mother my beloved wife 
Anne the daughter of Thomas Gibbs late of Norwich 

leceased proctor and publick notary said wife to be 

ole executrix and to her my lease of two Tenements 

olden by me in Dorset Gardens alias Salisbury Court in 
London by the Theatre as alsoe the Eent I purchased of 
he Lady Davenant and Mr. Cave Underbill issueing out 

f the Daily profitts of the said Theatre to said wife 

11 my plate and money as declared in a deed of 

'rust for her Sir Charles Sedley and William Jephson 

Esq. her Trustees intreating her to reserve all for my 

hildren after her death as I doubt not that she will 

avinge been a diligent and carefull and provident 

woman and very indulgent to her children as ever I 

new but principally I recommend my poore little 

aughter Ann the greatest comfort to mee of all my 
hildren to her p'ticular care." 

This will is sans date or style, but Dec. 3, 1692, 
ppeared Ellinor Leigh, wife of Anthony Leigh, 
f St. Bride's, London, gent, and made oath that 
tie was present when Mr. Thos. Shadwell did seal 



[5 th S. IV. AUG. 5, '93. 

and execute his will in his own house at Chelsea 
some time between Bartholomew Tide and Michael- 
mas, 1690, for that she took lodgings at Chelsea 
at Bartholomew Tide and left the same at Michael- 
mas aforesaid. "Probate granted the same day 
[Dec. 3, 1692] to Ann Shadwell, widow and relict, 
the sole erecutrix." She is said to have been on 
the stage tempo Car. II. Can any one tell 
where I could find an account of actresses of that 
period ? Were " stage names " ever adopted then ? 
No mention of Ann Gibbs in Baker, Pepys, or 
Evelyn ? 

Since writing the above, I am able to add the 
poet's father was a member of the Middle Temple, 
a J. P. for Middlesex, Norfolk, and Suffolk, a great 
sufferer in the royal cause, appointed Recorder of 
Galway and Receiver- General by James II., Attor- 
ney-General at Tangier under the Earl of Inchi- 
quin, buried at Oxburgh, co. Norfolk, in 1684, 
having owned many lands in that shire. In a 
short life of the poet prefixed to the 1720 edition 
of his works written by Sir John Shadwell it is 
stated that the Laureate was born at San ton Hall, 
Norfolk, a seat of his father's, and this statement 
probably got corrupted into Chalmers's Staunton. 
Blomefield, however, agrees with the Gonville and 
Caius register, giving Broomhill House as the 
birthplace. I see from Kelly's 'Directory' that 
the registers of both Broomhill and Santon are 
nissing for date of baptism ; but if the transcripts 
be extant at Norwich, one might decide whether 
to accept the evidence of his Alma Mater or the 
memory of his son. 


Eden Bridge. 

The questions raised by MR. JAMES HOOPER as 
to the birthplace and burial place of this long- 
forgotten comic dramatist afford me an opportunity 
of explaining that the hospitable pages of * N. & Q.' 
were not ample enough for me to insert in my 
table all the details I could have desired. Still 
less could I insert in it any statements of a contro- 
versial nature ; and the actual birthplace of Shad- 
well is a disputed point. That it was in Norfolk 
is certain, but whether at Lanton, or Santon, or 
Stanton Hall I have never been able to discover, 
nor in what part of the county this hall with the 
doubtful name was situated. 

The Shadwell family came originally from Staf- 
fordshire, as is mentioned on the monument to the 
poet in Westminster Abbey, which I copied 
recently as well as its awkward position would 
allow : 

" Thoraae Shadwell, Annigeri | Antiqua Stirpe in Comi- 
tatu Staffordiae oriundus : | Poeta Laureati et Historio- 
graph! Regii | Titulojneruit. | Ob. Nov. 20, 1692, Mt. 
" J< " 


53 | Christissimo Parenti Johannis Shadwell, M.D. | 

This inscription is surmounted by a bust of the 
dramatist, showing a clean-shaven, very fat face, 

with a sharp, prominent nose. Although] this 
monument exists in Poets' Corner, Westminster 
Abbey, Mr. J. Ewing Ritchie is in error in stating 
that Shadwell was buried in that stately edifice. 
His remains rest in a quiet, quaint, red-brick 
corner of suburban London, old Chelsea Church. 

Thomas Faulkner, in his interesting ' Description 
of Chelsea,' 1810, gives a tolerably full account of 
Shadwell, who he states was born at Stanton 
Hall, Norwich, and educated at Bury School and 
Caius College, Cambridge. He adds, " Shadwell 
died at Chelsea in 1692, and was buried in the 
church, when a funeral sermon was preached by 
Dr. Nicholas Brady" (Tate and Brady). His 
widow, who had been an actress, survived him, 
and resided at Chelsea some years. This seems 
conclusive as to his burial. As to his birthplace 
I pause for a reply. WALTER HAMILTON. 

ABBEY (8 th S. iii. 364). Although I hail with 
delight PROP. TOMLINSON'S note under the above 
heading, I am sorry to see that he has misquoted 
and short quoted the epitaph over Shakespeare's 
grave at Stratford. May I give a correct copy aa 
follows ? 

Good frend for lesvs sake forbeare, 
To digg the dvst encloased heare : 
Bleste be y c man yt spares tlies stones, 
And cvrst be he y l moves my bones. 

The Misses Bradley and Grahame, in their 
'Popular Guide to Westminster Abbey' (Pall 
Mall Gazette Extra, No. 19), would seem to agree 
with PROF. TOMLINSON in his estimate of the monu- 
ment in the Abbey, for they quote Milton's lines, 

What needs my Shakspeare for his honour'd bones 

The labour of an age in piled stones ] 

Dear son of Memory, great heir of fame, 

What need'st thou such weak witness of thy name ? 

as " quite prophetically applicable to the present 
' preposterous monument ' " (p. 30). 

On the other hand, I feel that I must quote the 
following bit of fulsome praise from Allen's * His- 
tory of London,' 1829 (vol. iv. pp. 120, 121), if 
only that it may be compared with the sentence 
given by PROF. TOMLINSON as contained in the 
vergers' ' Complete Guide ': 

" The design and workmanship of this monument are 
peculiarly elegant. The figure of Shakespeare, his atti- 
tude, his dress, shape, genteel air, and fine composure, 
so forcibly expressed by the sculptor, create universal 

In the face of this sentence it would be interest- 
ing to know whether Allen or the vergers were 
first in the field. JOHN T. PAGE. 

Holmby House, Forest Gate. 

It may interest PROF. TOMLINSON and other 
readers of ' N. & Q.' to know that the remarks on 
the above monument contained in the " Complete- 

8 th S. IV. AUG. 5, '93.] 



Guide to Westminster Abbey, Printed for the 
Vergers, 1892," do not convey the original opinions 
of the vergers of the present day, bat are tran- 
scribed almost verbatim from the supplement to 
vol. xxviii. of the Universal Magazine, pub- 
lished in July, 1761. They have therefore posed 
as the critique of the vergers for more than four 
generations. The original words in the Universal 
Magazine are as follows : 

" Both the design and execution are extremely elegant. 

The attitude, the dresa, the shape, the genteel air, 

and fine composure observable in this figure of Shake- 

ppear, cannot be sufficiently admired The heads on 

the pedestal, representing Henry V., Richard III., and 
Queen Elizabeth, three principal characters in his plays, 
are likewise proper ornaments to grace his tomb. In short, 
the taste that is here shewn, does honour to those great 
names under whose direction, by the public favour, it 
was BO elegantly constructed ; these were the Earl of 
Burlington, Dr. Mead, Mr. Pope, and Mr. Martin." 

The article says nothing about the funds having 
been raised by a subscription of the ladies of Eng- 
land, but states that "Mr. Fleetwood, then Master 
of Drury Lane Theatre, and Mr. Rich, of Covent 
Garden, gave each a benefit, arising from one of 
his own [Shakspeare's] plays, towards it, and the 
Dean and Chapter made a present of the ground." 
The article is accompanied by a full-page engrav- 
ing of the monument. Fancy Queen Elizabeth 
being one of the " principal characters" in Shak- 
speare's plays ! W. R. TATE. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

ITALIAN IDIOM (8 th S. ii. 445, 498 ; iii. 37, 
171, 289, 414 ; iv. 56). To DR. YOUNG'S re- 
marks as to the formal mode of addressing a king 
I have nothing to say. I did not intend to raise 
that question, and I have no doubt that he is per- 
fectly correct when he states that on formal 
occasions it is customary to use voi. Indeed, at 
the grand tournament recently held in Rome to 
celebrate the royal silver wedding, one of the 
heralds concluded his address with the words, 
" Saluti a voi, Maesta" and presumably he ought 
to know the correct form of salutation. If I were 
to deprecate anything in DR. YOUNG'S remarks in 
this connexion, it would be the quotations from 
cinquecento literature in illustration of modern 
usages. I might as well quote Shakespeare to show 
that the sovereign is correctly addressed as 
1 Madam," and my authority would be worthless. 
It was open to DR. CHANCE to resent my inter- 

srence by repudiating the interpretation which I 
put upon his language. Instead of that he takes 
up the cudgels, and somewhat rashly pits an Italian 
governess against the authorities adduced by me. 
What would he think of me if I ventured to deny 
a statement of Sir Henry Ponsonby's as to some 

;ourt usage on the authority of an English gover- 
ness who had never been to Court ? For my chief 
authority is one of the oldest of the king's equer- 
nes (an Italian, of course), and the words which 

are so abundantly wrong were taken straight from 
his lips. They were not intended to be put into- 
writing, but were given as the ordinary colloquial 
language in which the king would be addressed at 
Court. Colloquial language is often nngrammatical, 
and there are plenty of spoken phrases in all lan- 
guages which will not bear strict grammatical 
analysis. But that does not make them neces- 
sarily incorrect, and, in spite of the criticisms of 
DR. CHANCE'S friends and his own knowledge, the 
phrases cited may be accepted as the ordinary lan- 
guage addressed to the king by those who can 
claim to be courtiers. The long and short of 
which is that, after formally saluting the king in 
the second person plural, they would naturally fall 
into the use of the third person singular, as is 
still generally customary in good society in Italy. 
Further, I question if any of the king's personal 
friends would ever address him as tu, unless such, 
a privilege is extended to the Knights of the 

In conclusion, I agree with DR. CHANCE'S Italian 
governess in the statement that '' the use of voi is. 
now gaining ground among the m embers of the higher 
aristocracy," so far as parts of Italy are concerned. 
That is what I stated in my first note. Certainly 
I never stated that its use at Court was dying out v 
for it is still my contention that it has never been 
so employed. HOLCOMBE INGLBBY. 

RICHARD SAVAGE (8 th S. iv. 7). I hardly dare 
to assume that M. H. P. has not read the life of 
this wretched individual by Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
published in his ' Lives of the English Poets.' It 
has been said that the doctor gave more space and 
consideration to Savage than he did to others who 
were both better poets and better men than he. 
The chief point of interest about his literary career 
is that on the death of Laurence Eusden he applied 
for, and very nearly obtained, the office of Poet 
Laureate, but Colley Gibber was eventually pre- 

M. H. P. will find a short history of this poet 
in Fitzgerald's * English Stage,' vol. ii. pp. 16-22, 
but I do not think that there exists a complete 
biography. Boswell writes on the subject, but I 
am too far from a library to give the reference?. 
Mr. Fitzgerald accepts the theory that Savage wa& 
the son of Anne, Countess of Macclesfield, but I 
observe that Dr. Doran, in * Their Majesties' Ser- 
vants,' vol. i. p. 345, rejects this. W. H. Q. 

See ' N. & Q. ,' 4 th S. iii. passim. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

The details asked for, together with a full account 
of the career of Mohammed-ibn-Ibrahim-ibn- 
Thimna, will be found in the ' Storia dei Musul- 
mani di Sicelia,' the masterpiece of Michele Amaii, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. iv. A, s, ' 

the greatest of Italian historians ; a book on which, 
as I happen to know, the late Prof. Freeman 
intended to rely for the period of the Arab domi- 
nation in Sicily. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

GUTTA-PERCHA (8 th S. iii. 468; iv. 50). I used 
to take impressions from devices on bells in gutta- 
percha softened in water heated over a spirit-lamp 
in the towers. These lasted for many years in a 
sound condition, packed in paper in boxes. I 
think I gave them all away some time ago, and am 
not aware whether any of them are now in exist- 
ence. They served admirably for taking plaster 
casts from ; but in my later wanderings I used 
Mr. L'Estrange's composition of wax, lard, and 
whiting, which could be softened with much less 
trouble. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lincolnshire. 

Replying to PROF. TOMLIN SON, wax tablets with 
the writing perfectly legible have been found in 
the old Roman workings in Transylvanian gold 
mines, and I believe also in old Egyptian tombs, 
showing that beeswax, if properly protected, will last 
for about 2,000 years and probably longer. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Leist, the earliest known seal made with 
sealing wax (on the Continent known under the 
name "Spanish wax") occurs on a private letter 
dated 1553. What was probably the very first piece 
of gutta-percha brought to Europe was among the 
natural curiosities of the Tradescant Collection at 
South Lambeth, the catalogue of which was pub- 
lished in 1656. The bulk of this collection, if not 
the whole, has been transferred to the Ashmolean 
Museum. L. L. K. 

(8 th S. iv. 48). This roll is not, where it ought to 
be, in my possession. The last time I saw it was 
a good many years ago, when an application was 
made to its owner, my late father-in-law, Dr. John 
Stuart, for a loan thereof by a person (I think a 
Scottish peer) who forgot to return it, and in 
whose charter chest or repositories it probably now 
is. Lord Huntly, who needs it at present, ap- 
parently has it not. MR. D. MURRAY -Ross 
requests that information as to its present where- 
abouts may be sent directly to him. May I say 
that this information would be of at least equal 
interest to its present proprietor ? 



"HOUYHNHNM" (8 th S. iv. 48). There is now 
such a craze for finding or making recondite 
reasons for everything, that I almost fear to write 
what I am about to write. But surely the last 
two forms mentioned by MR. ERSKINE are sheer 
blunders, and nothing else, and we are wasting our 
own time and our Editor's space in discussing 
them. The first form is, as MR. ERSKINE says, 
correct I can speak positively, as I happen to have 

an original ' Gulliver'; but no one can be expected 
to remember the exact position of the letters stuck 
together by Swift to imitate a horse's neigh, or to 
refer to the book whenever he has to use the word. 
Just in the same way Swift's Brobdingnag is almost 
always spelt Brobdignag. As to the pronunciation, 
I cannot 

my organs so dispose 
To hymn harmonious Houyhnhnm through the nose. 

I have been used to call it Hoonim; but the only 
way to get at anything "correct," in default of 
Swift's own authority (which may be somewhere in 
bis letters), would be, if it were worth while, to 
take a poll of society, or at least of ' N. & Q.' 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

In * A Letter from Captain Gulliver to his Cousin 
Sympson,' written in the year 1727, " Hou- 
yhnhnrn," as above, is the spelling given ; " Hou- 
yhnhnm " is therefore undoubtedly the correct 
spelling. Indeed, in the letter referred to Swift 
complains of the carelessness of the printer in 
confounding the times, mistaking the dates, and 
misspelling the words. In particular he pointed 
out the word " Brobdingrag," "for so," says he, 
" the word should have been spelt, and not Brob- 

It is strange that the printer's mistake of " Brob- 
dingnag " should be perpetuated to this day, in 
spite of Swift's explicit repudiation. 

As to " Houyhnhnm," any other spelling of the 
word must be rejected as spurious. Had Swift 
spelt it otherwise in a letter to Gay, a discord 
would have been produced for fastidiousness to 
muse over ; but it was the other way about, for 
Gay, in a letter to Swift, simply misspelt the word 
(a very easy thing to do) by leaving out the 
second h. 

As to the third mode of spelling, which starts 
handicapped with a double h, I think it should be 
laughed out of court. If the first h is to be dropped 
in pronouncing the word Uhinim, doubling it is 
an added absurdity ; one h is surely enough to 
drop. I should pronounce the word " Hoo-in-im. " 


This curious jumble of letters was, I believe, 
devised by Swift to represent the whinnying of a 
horse. It is a dissyllable. I have heard it variously 
pronounced by educated persons. The prevailing 
pronunciations may be phonetically rendered as 
follows: "hoo'-himz," " hoo'-inmz," " whin'imz," 
and " hoo-in-imz." The initial aspirate is always 
sounded. Pope uses it as a dissyllable : 

Nay, would kind Jove my organs BO dispose 

To hymn harmonious Houyhnhnms through the nose. 

Am I wrong in supposing that this name was 
suggested to Swift by the word whinny or whinny- 


8th s. IV. Auo. 5, '93.] 



ing ? If so, should it not be pronounced something 
like whininim or whinhinim ? 


ABBEY CHURCHES (8* S. iii. 188, 257, 349, 378, 
451 ; iv. 54). With reference to CAPT. BALDOCK" 
statement which appeared in your interesting 
periodical, July 15 last, viz., that 

" the parish church of West Ham is another example o 
a church which was partly parochial and partly con 
ventual in pro-Reformation times, the western end form 
ing part of the celebrated West Ham Abbey," &c., 

I may be allowed to make the following correction 
The parish church of West Ham stands about hal 
a mile distant from the abbey site, and therefore 
never could have formed part of the ancient abbey 
Moreover, every vestige of the abbey was swept 
from the face of the earth more than a century ago 
(see Lysons's ' Environs of London '), and nearly 
the whole site part of which can still be traced 
has long ago been covered with .workshops anc 
factories. That the ancient conventual church of 
which nothing remains in pre-Reformation times 
was of a dual character is more than probable, 
since a population independent of the monks 
appears to have resided within the boundaries of 
the abbey, and there are still records extant from 
which it may be inferred that the precincts of the 
abbey formed a parish quite distinct from that oi 
West Ham. But the parish church, the original 
foundation of which dates back to about 1150 (the 
exact date is not known), was given to the abbott 
and convent by Gilbert de Montfichet, son of Wil 
Ham de Montfichet, who founded the abbey in 
1134-5, and never formed part of the ancient 
abbey itself. Full particulars of the history of the 
abbey, as well as of the parish church, may be 
found in ray edition of Miss K. Fry's * History of 
East and West Ham.' G. PAGENSTECHER. 

West Ham. 

CHARLES MERCY (8 th S. iv. 49, 77). With all 
respect to LADY RUSSELL, the information she 
gives respecting Charles Mercy is not exact. Al- 
though I am not aware who B. V. may be, I, too, 
am, on my mother's side, descended from the same 
ancestor as B. V. is, and I have in vain endeavoured 
to find out who Charles Mercy was. I have made 
inquiries from the present representative of the 
Conte de Merci's family respecting an ancestor of 
his of the name of Charles being a medical man in 
Louis XlV.'s reign, and I am assured that there 
never was a Charles Merci in his family about the 
period mentioned. 

The same legend is preserved in my family 
about Charles Mercy having married a daughter of 
Louis XIV., who with us is supposed to have 
been named Blanche. It is reported, too, that in 
some history of France, in existence forty or fifty 
years ago, the incident of Charles Mercy being 
sent by the king to look after the health 

of his daughter somewhere on the borders of 
France and Spain is fully set forth, and that 
Charles Mercy, falling in love with said Blanche, 
prevailed on her to run away with him, which she 
did, and both came to England and settled here. 
I have not, however, seen this history. 

From Charles Mercy downwards I have the 
pedigree in detail, and I shall be happy to corre- 
spond with B.V. on the subject. E. A. FRY. 

172, Edmund Street, Birmingham. 

TURY (8 th S. iv. 28). Haydn in his ' Dictionary 
of Dates,' also Lewins in ' Her Majesty's Mails,' 
state that the revenue of the Post Office was farmed 
for the year 1674 at 43,OOOZ., and the net revenue 
yielded in 1685 was 65,OOOZ. "Millions" must 
be a misprint for thousands in the work referred 
to, as the public revenue during the reign of 
Charles II. was only 1,400,0002. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

This is what Macaulay says on the subject : 
" In the year of the Restoration a committee of the 
House of Commons, after strict inquiry, had estimated 
the net receipt at about twenty thousand pounds. At 
the close of the reign of Charles II. the net receipt was 
little short of fifty thousand pounds ; and this was then 
thought a stupendous sum. The gross receipt was about 
seventy thousand pounds." Vide 'The History of Eng- 
land,' chap. iii. 


The sum in millions is obviously inaccurate. A 
more likely estimate is that 

the entire revenue of the Post Office is settled by 
statute, 15 Car. II. c. 14, upon James, Duke of York, and 
his heirs male in perpetuity. The arrangement existed 
only during the lifetime of Charles, for when, at hia 
death, the Duke of York ascended the throne, the revenue 
of the Post Office, which had by that time reached to 
65.000J. a year, again reverted to the Crown." 'Her 
Majesty's Mails,' p. 29. 

This makes the grant date from about the year 


ARMORIAL FAMILIES (8 th S. iv. 7). I have not 
seen the work or prospectus referred to, but have 
no doubt that the arms of Taunton as to which 
nformation is desired are those of Mr. William 
Grarnett Taunton, son of the Re V.Frederick Taunton, 
Vicar of Kingwood, Epsom, by Ann Rollo Garnett, 
daughter of the Rev. William Garnett, born 1760, 
die.d 1844, Rector of Barbados, who bore the arms 
of Garnett of Westmorland, Az., three gryphons 
leads erased or, and who was a lineal descendant 
of William Garnett, of Kirkby Ravensworth, 
Yorkshire, 1689. Perhaps the inquiry at the 
College of Arms was not made of the proper officer, 
as information could, no doubt, have been ob- 
tained from Mr. Athill, Blue Mantle Pursuivant of 
Arms, who was concerned in the matter. Amongst 



[8 th S. IV. AUG. 5, '93. 

the quarterings I remember those of Taunton of 
Oxfordshire, Tanner of Court, and Grosvenor of 
Drayton. Mr. W. G. Taunton wap, if I mistake 
not, a correspondent of * N. & Q.' 5" 1 S. viii. 403, 

4, Argyll Road. 

(8 th S. iv. 28). The sub-deacon would not say 
mass until he became a priest. Mean time the 
prior of the monastery would probably send a 
priest to say mass on Sundays and holy days at 
least, and perform other strictly sacerdotal 
functions. Apart from these the sub-deacon 
might manage the parish. He would be bound to 
recite the Divine Office either publicly or privately. 
A benefice may be held by a cleric even if not in 
holy orders, but it is held by canonists that he 
should have received at least the tonsure. 

I St. Andrews, N.B. 

W. L. S. has given a misleading title to his 
query. Of course mass never was, nor could be, 
said by a sub- deacon. When the incumbent of a 
parish was unable to do his own duty, either for 
lack of proper orders (which impediment can no 
longer exist) or for any other cause, a priest was 
placed with him by the ordinary, just as a modern 
curate might be. See Johnson's ' English Canons/ 
ii. 38 (Oxford, 1851). 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventfy. 

THE PASSING BELL (8 th S. iii. 408 ; iv. 58). 
Harland's allusion to the Lancashire custom of 
indicating the sex, &c., of the deceased by the 
concluding strokes of the bell reminds me of the 
practice I was familiar with as a boy in South 
Notts. Three times three strokes were given for 
a man, with a considerable interval between each 
three ; three times two, with a similar interval, for 
a woman ; and three single strokes for a child. In 
this neighbourhood the custom is different. At 
Epworth we have six bells, of which the heaviest 
is rung as a passing bell for an adult, a lighter one 
for a child. At the conclusion, one stroke is tolled 
on the first bell, two on the second, three on the 
third, and so on to the sixth, upon which if the 
deceased is a man twelve, if a woman only nine, are 
tolled. I have never heard this done elsewhere. 

C. C. B. 

F When MR. COLEMAN says that the custom of 
ringing the passing bell "has now entirely died 
out," does he mean in England only ? Otherwise, 
is he not under a mistake? I heard it as lately 
as last year at St. Jean de Luz, where it is called 
"L'agonie." E. H. HICKEY. 

WILLIAM PONT DE L'ARCHE (8 th S. iv. 28, 54). 
Will ARCUS be good enough to give us his 
authority for stating that William Pont de 1'Arche 

was a Norman knight ? The earliest reference to 
the picturesque little town of Pont de 1'Arche 
occurs in a charter of Henry II., where it is termed 
Pontem arc-is. It is not known when the bridge 
was built. There are plenty of stories told about 
it. One is to the effect that the devil agreed to 
help the architect to build it, on the condition that 
he had the soul of the first person who crossed it. 
When the bridge was completed, the architect 
induced the authorities at the lock-up to liberate 
a prisoner who had been convicted of robbery. 
The fellow, on being turned loose, at once sped off 
across the new bridge. The devil, however, was 
done out of his due, for the robber's soul was, of 
course, already his. In anger, his Satanic majesty 
knocked over a piece of the parapet of the bridge, 
which could never be perfected, such was the 
power of his curse. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

"Bess of Hardwicke" was beforehand with 
Lady Waldegrave. She married her first husband, 
Alexander Barley, at fourteen. Her second was 
William Cavendish ; her third Queen Elizabeth's 
Captain of the Guard, Sir William St. Loe ; and 
her fourth the greatest subject in the realm, George, 
Earl of Shrewsbury. W. F. WALLER. 

CHESS (8 th S. iv. 45). This so-called Puritan 
disapproval of games was unquestionably a sur- 
vival from Lollardism. Witness John Wycliffe, 
who says, in his * Grete Sentence of Curs Ex- 
pounded,' where he is treating of false and covetous 

"To this ende many drawen hem to grete citees, 
where is occasion of moche synne, not for to diatroie 
it, but rathere encresse it be taverne goynpr, pleiyng at 
the tablis, chees, and othere vanyteea." ' English Ser- 
mons,' ed. Arnold, iii. 286. 


If it is commonly thought that the people who 
murdered Charles I. and Archbishop Laud were 
also the first to object to games of chance and 
gambling, the idea is erroneous. A reference to 
the very full General Index of the Parker Society's 
Publications will show that cards, dice, and gaming 
were severely reprobated in the previous century, 
when a learned divine taught that "dicers, &c., 
who would overreach and win of their neighbours, 
are thieves." EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


OLD ENGLISH SPINNING (8 tb S. iii. 368, 411, 
496). There is a fine picture of this by George 
Morland, who died in 1804, painted probably 
ninety or a hundred years ago, entitled the ' In- 
dustrious Cottager,' which has been beautifully 
engraved in mezzotint. A handsome young woman 
is represented at her spinning-wheel, whilst in a 
back room opening from it are depicted several 
younger ones making pillow-lace. There is an old 

S. IV. AUG. 5, '93.] 



sone descriptive of the industry, entitled the with balm and musk, typifying the sweet odours which 

eooriyvivc ui v J should exhale from the good deeds of all of us. espe- 

' Merry Spinning - Wheel.' Among the many of thoge } . y .^ .* high placeg Accept ' it> 

> . 

portraits of Her Most Gracious Majesty which have loved daughter, who in the temporal order art noble, 
appeared, I can remember an engraving which de- mighty, and endowed with great virtue, and may virtue 
picted her as seated at a spinning-wheel in a cot- grow in thee even as a rose planted beside a brook,' &c 
tage, at least it was always said to represent her. 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The rose was after the ceremony deposited upon the 
altar of the Queen's private oratory in the palace." 
From ' A Pastoral for the Times,' by a Cambridge Under- 
graduate (Cambridge, 1869). 

At this period the Hon. Dundas Murray, who 
wrote an interesting work on Andalusia, informed 

Doubtless Q. V. might obtain permission from 

the Secretary of the Chemical Society, Burlington me that the copper coin of the realm was fre 
House, Piccadilly, to consult the chemical library quently found stamped across the portrait of the 
of that institution. The collection of chemical | queen with a word of infamy. C. A. WHITE. 
papers there is probably unequalled in England. 
The Brewery, Reading. 

The sentence for which there is a query, " Quse 
eat ista, speciosa sicut columba, quasi rosa plantata 

13, Wolverton Gardens, Hammersmith, W. 

super rivos aquarum," is a composite citation. 

Q. V. will find many scientific magazines and re- I The clause "Quae est ista, speciosa sicut columba," 
views, both English and foreign, at the Patent Office is an imperfect reminiscence of " Quse est ista, quse 
Library, Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, progreditur quasi aurora consurgens, pulchra ut 
JOHN CHURCHILL SIKES. | luna ...... ?" (Canticum Canticorum, vi. 9), "co- 

lumba " being substituted from its occurrence in 

, verse 8, apparently. The other clause occurs in 
" STOA.T," ITS DERIVATION (8 th S. 11. 349, 514; ' - 

iii. 417, 455). Can nothing authoritatively be 
stated with regard to the derivation of the name 
of this animal ? Is it known when the word first 
appears in English ? " Stote, a kind of stinking 
ferret," is given in the ' Dictionarium Busticum, 
Urbanicum et Botanicum,' 1726. 

Liber Ecclesiastici, xxxix. 17: "E& quasi rosa 
plantata super rivos aquarum fructificate" (Vulg.). 



Heraclitus and his followers. 
tetus,' 181 A. 

I have not the reference 

(8 th S. iv. 8). 
See Plato, 'These- 
F. D. 

to Tennyson, but 

THE POPE'S GOLDEN ROSE (6 th S. iii. 464; 7 th doubtless the "flowing philosopher^' are Heraclitus 

and his school, referred to as rovspeovra? in Plato, 
' There tetus,' 181 A. Heraclitus "denied every- 
thing in the nature of a permanent and perpetual 
substratum ; he laid down nothing as permanent 
and perpetual except the process of change" 
(Grote's * Plato,' ch. i.). W. M. HARRIS. 

S. ii. 125; iv. 289, 491; vi. 114, 384; x. 166, 
431 ; xii. 13, 132; 8 h S. iii. 343, 476). 

" The institution of the ' Golden Rose ' is one of great 
antiquity. Some writers fix it in the fifth, others in the 
ninth century. Pope Innocent III., in his discourse on 
the mystery of the Golden Rose, describes it as com- 
posed of gold, musk, and balm. Durandus relates that 
the Popes had long been used to consecrate eucli a rose 


SON ; 

the ' Golden Rose ' to the Queen of Sicily, and from that 
time began the custom of presenting such roses to queens 
and princesses. Henry VIII. was honoured with the 
present of the Golden Rose by Pope Julius IT. and by 
Pope Leo X. The most recent honour of this kind has 
been conferred on Isabella II., Queen of Spain. His 
Holiness Pope Pius IX., passing over the Emperor of 
the French and other Catholic sovereigns, selected the 



has access to the volume of a Londonperiodical, 
somewhat akin in character to * N. & Q.,' entitled 
the Antiquary, published in 1873, he will find in 
one of the numbers a short note touching Dr. 
Blitnber'a blunder, together with a suggestion that 
possibly the mistake was a sly hit at the pedant's 
ignorance. This view is quite neutralized, how- 

Queen of Spain on account of her 'surpassing virtues' to ever, by the circumstance of the extraordinary 

eive this distinction, the highest to which royalty poena existing only in the first edition of the novel, 

may aspire. The blessed symbol was sent from Rome * j 

J the hands of Monnignor Luigi Pallotti, the Pope's 
Legate. The ceremony of presentation took place in the 

Loyal Chapel of the Palace at Madrid, on Feb. 8, 1863. I TftRAPpn /a* a : v 97 N Tvlv'aenitt ; oro- 

The Queen's confessor, Archbishop Claret, received the . * 1V ' 27;. Ltfly s 

Golden Rose from the Legate, and in the name of his bably refers to the names given to the plant m 

Holiness presented it to her kneeling at the altar, with Lobel and Pena's * Adversaria,' where it is called 

9 following address : ' Receive, beloved daughter in Sacra herba, Sancta herba, and Sana sancta In- 

ist, this evidence and lasting monument which dorum These names doubtless refer to its sup- 

thy 'signal ^tatoJ^ **$S& P 08ed ****** tU63 > b f T th ^ "W * *& 

S as for the high virtues by which thou shinest due to the fact that the Indians themselves 

among women. Accept this mystic rose, bedewed accounted the plant sacred, and used it in their 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. A. 5/93. 

most solemn religious rites. Dekker's phrase, 
"this divine weed," is probably ironical. He 
scoffs at tobacco-smokers all through the ' Horne- 
booke.' 0. 0. B. 

If Nash called tobacco a " divine drngge," 
Spenser had already anticipated him in the use of 
the epithet : 

There, whether yt divine Tobacco were, 
Or Panacbaea, or Polygony, 
Shoe fownd, and brought it to her patient deare, 
Who al this while lay bleding out his hart-blood neare. 
' The Faerie Queene,' bk. iii. canto v. 32. 


MACARONI LATIN (8 th S. iii. 449). I suppose 
that this is connected with the common eatable 
macaroni through macerare. But Hofman, in his 
* Lex. Univ. ,' forgetting his Latin vocation for a 
moment, passes over to the Greek. After speak- 
ing of the placenta known as macaronies, he has 
his derivation pro conjectura, " Voci origo a 
Grseco juaKa/9, quod beatorum epulis dignse sunt." 

The first application of the term to verse is 
attributed to Folengi, circ. 1520, or at any rate 
the ascription of it in his use : 

" Ars ista nuncupatur ars macaronica, a macaronibus 
derivata : qui macaronea sunt quoddam pulmentum, 
farina, caseo, butyro compaginatum ; grpssum, rude, et 
rusticanum. Ideo macaronica nil nisi grossedinem, 
ruditatem, et vocabulezzos, debet in ee continere." 
1 Specimens of Macaronic Poetry,' Lond., 1831, Introd. 
p. ix. 

In the same page there is mention of the authority 
for " the subject critically and bibliographically " 
in ' Geschichte der Macaronischen Poesie,' by Dr. 
F. W. Genthe, Leipsic, 1829, 8vo. 

If the statement in Collier's 'Dictionary' is 
correct as to the fact that "Theophilus Folengi, 
who flourished about 1520, is said to have been 
the author of that kind of poetry," the name 
cannot well have been earlier ; but verses of an 
erratic character, such as palindromes, were, of 
course, earlier than the time of Folengi. 


There is no such phrase as macaroni Latin ; 
there is macaronic Latin and macaronic poetry. 
Why the French and English spell it with one c I 
do not know. The Italians spell it usually with 
two c's and an h. Littre", however, gives the 
Venetian as macarone. He adds, " On n'en connalt 
pas 1'e^ymologie." Some think it is from macco, 
beans skinned and boiled ; others take it from 
/xaKa/ota, low Greek for a dish of meat, genera 
beef or veal, boiled with barley flour. It looks 
very much as if it had a kindred root with macerer. 
Catalonian macar is to bruise, so our mace is akin 
to it. Wedgwood gives the passage from Mer- 
linus Coccaius, who seems to have invented 
macaronic verse. 

"Are ilia poetica nuncupatur ars macaronica, a 
macaronibus derivator, qui macaronea aunt quoddam 

pulmentum, farina, caseo, butyro compaginatum, gros- 
sum, rude, et rusticanum." 

So that it is a medley of ingredients. The poetry 
is a mixture of a vernacular language with some 
native words having Latin terminations tacked on, 
and occasionally interspersed with whole lines of 
Latin. Coccaius died 1544 and Rabelais employs 
"t, so it is a sixteenth century word. As regards 
dandies of fashion, it merely meant they had made 
ihe comme ilfaut tour of Italy, or to show, accord- 
ing to Cowper, 

How much the fool who has been sent to Rome 
Excels the fool who haa remained at home. 

This is a rather hard bite to come from the gentle 
Cowper, who, as a great master in English, be it 
prosing or versing, has always something to say and 
jays it ; which, as to the poets, is a lost art nearly 
in our day. They are perhaps studying now how 
bo sing through science and make science sing. 
The glorious purpose explains the phenomenon we 

Latin de cuisine is not equivalent in French, so 
far as I know. It rather stands for dog Latin, 
bad Latin such as cooks and scullions talked at 
the Sorbonne and other colleges, where all had to 
speak in Latin. C. A. WARD. 

Chingford Hatch, E. 

" Macaroni amongst the Italians, as has been observed 
by Cselius Rhodiginus, signifies a coarse, clownish 
man ; and because this kind of poetry is patched out of 
several languages and full of extravagant words, &c., the 

Italians gave it the name of macaronic poetry. Others 

choose to derive it from ' macaroons,' a kind of confec- 
tion which, from being composed of various ingre- 
dients, occasioned this kind of poetry, which consists of 
Latio, Italian, French, &c., to be called by that name." 
Abridged from Encyclop. Londin.,' 1816. 

The term was first applied to the burlesque 
writings of T. Folengo (Merlino Coccajo), who 
died in 1544. A. COLLINQWOOD LEE. 

Waltham Abbey, Essex. 

Ogilvie's ' Imperial Dictionary ' gives the follow- 
ing explanation : 

" Macaronic, consisting of a mixture or jumble of ill- 
formed or ill-connected words, or expressed in words of a 
barbarous or burlesque coinage, as of vulgar words 
Latinized or Latin words modernized; as macaronic 
verse. Macaronic verse, properly a kind of humorous 
poetry, in which, along with Latin, words of other lan- 
guages are introduced with Latin inflections and con- 
struction. The name, however, is sometimes applied to 
verses which are merely a mixture of Latin and the 
unadulterated vernacular of the author. [The term was ; 
first employed to designate such verse by Teofilo 
Folengo, a Benedictine, who was born at Mantua, 1484 
and died 1544, and was selected with reference to the 
mixture of ingredients in the dish macaroni.]" 

Macaronic verse certainly existed before the time 
of Folengo, who can only be said to have devised , 
the name. The bad Latin of the monks not im- ' 
probably gave origin to the idea. 


8* S. IV. ADG. 5, ! 93.] 



436). An amusing example of the confusion some- 
times caused by the use of sphere in its derived 
sense of " province or duty " occurs to my memory. 
The late Bishop of Ely, Dr. Woodford, was, like 
myself, a scholar of Pembroke College, Cambridge. 
A former master of that college, the once famous 
Lowndean Profes8or, Roger Long, celebrated in his 
day for his mechanical inventiveness and astrono- 
mical knowledge, constructed a hollow copper 
sphere representing the celestial firmament, in 
which the constellations were shown by holes 
drilled according to their magnitude. It was large 
enough to stand or Bit in, and was made to revolve 
by a winch. This sphere Dr. Long bequeathed to 
the college, and left a small sum to be paid 
annually to an undergraduate to exhibit it when 
called on. Long's sphere was a marvel in its day, 
but when Woodford and I were undergraduates 
that day was past, and it had been allowed to 
fall into decay, and was only visited as an old- 
world curiosity. Now to my story 1 . After Wood- 
ford had taken his degree and was preparing for 
Holy Orders, be happened to call on an old clergy- 
man, who, with reference to his future profession, 
asked him if he " had got a sphere." Not at once 
realizing what the good man meant, and wondering 
how he could have heard of our Cambridge astro- 
nomical curiosity, Woodford replied somewhat 
confusedly, " Yes, we have one at Pembroke, but 
it is rather out of order." Mutual explanation 
ensued, which showed that the two were using this 
word in different but strictly legitimate senses. 

The use of the word sphere was scientific in 
early days, and referred to the ancient system of 
cosmogony, when the universe was conceived as 
being composed of concentric spheres, on the sur- 
face of which moved the seven planets and the 
fixed stars. 

It is surely more scientific to assume that 
"popular errors" were once truth?, and to en- 
deavour to find out what these truths were and to 
whom they were true, than the reverse. 

The quotations from Shakspeare given by ST. 
SWITHIN are, of course, scientifically correct. See 
Bartholomew Anglicus, or my little book of extracts 
from him. EGBERT STEELE. 

Both "from hence" and " from thence," referred 
to by ST. SWITHIN on p. 437, are frequently used 
in the Bible (A.V.) ; the latter one also occurs 
very often in Shakespeare, but the former only in 
4 1 Henry IV.,' IV. i. 65, and 'Lear,' II. i. 127. 

G. J. 

"SOUL-CAKING" (8 th S. iv. 49). Your corre- 
spondent will find much information about soul- 
cakes in Brand's Popular Antiquities,' art. " All- 
hallow Even" (ed. Bohn, i. 390, tqq.\ This 
includes a note by Tollett: 

" That on All Saints' Day, the poor people in Stafford- 
shire go from parish to parish a souling, as they call 

it, i.e., begging and puling (or singing small, as Bailey's 
' Dictionary ' explains puling) for soul cakes, or any good 
thing to make them merry. This custom ia mentioned 
by Peck, and seems a remnant of Popish superstition to 
pray for departed souls, particularly those of friends." 

It is added by the editor: 

" The custom of going a Soulirig still continues in some 
parts of the county, peasant girls going to farmhouses, 

Soul, soul, for a soul cake, 

Pray you, good mistress, a soul cake." 


For soul-cakes in Chester in the year 1878 see 
'N. & Q.,' 5 th S. x. 426. Consult also 'A Gar- 
land for the Year,' by John Timbs, p. 115 ; Brand's 
4 Popular Antiquities,' vol. i. p. 217 (notes to "All- 
hallow Eve"); and ' Clavis Calendaria,' vol. ii. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

In Austria " Halloween cakes" are still eaten 
on November 1 ; but to my knowledge there 
is no special custom in connexion with them. A 
specimen may no doubt be procured in London at 
either the Vienna Cafe" in New Oxford Street, or 
at an Austrian confectioner's shop towards the 
Shepherd's Bush end of High Street, Notting Hill. 
The name of the cake is " Heiligen Stritzl" 

L. L. K. 

SKOPTS (8 th S. iv. 48). See ' From the Arctic 
Ocean to the Yellow Sea/ by Julius M. Price, 
p. 77:- 

" On September 30 [1890] we passed Selivanaka, a 
picturesque and flourishing little settlement, which is 
entirely inhabited by a portion of the secret sect called 
' Skopti ' or ' White Doves,' who are perpetually banished 
from Russia on account of their peculiar doctrines. I 
had lately read much about these curious people, and 
Was hoping that we should stop here for wood, so that 
I should be able to go ashore and have a look round ; but 
we were not in need of fuel, and our time was too precious 
to allow of any needless delays, so I had to content my- 
self with as good a look at the settlement, and its in- 
habitants, as I could get through my binocular, for 
although a boat containing three men rowed off to us, 
we did not stop. However we had plenty of opportunity 
later on for a closer inspection of these men. It hap- 
pened this way : the boat returned to the shore and 
Selivanaka was fast disappearing behind us, when we 
observed another boat rapidly catching us up, coming 
along close to the shore. In a very short time it was 
abreast of us, and we then saw it was drawn by three 
dogs, and contained the same men we had previously 
seen. They stopped when a little ahead of us, and, 
taking their dogs on board, rowed off to us and asked us 
if we would allow them to tow behind us as far as Turn- 
chanek, some few versts further on. The desired permii- 
eion being given to them, they shortly after came up on 
deck, and we therefore had plenty of time to examine 
more closely these specimens of one of the most curious 
sects in the world. I was lucky enough to get one of 
them, who turned out to be the ' village elder,' to let me 
make a careful sketch of him, as he had a face full of 
character ; during which time I managed, through an 



IV. AUG. 5, '93. 

interpreter, to obtain some interesting particulars of 
these ' peculiar people.' They are all eunuchs, marriage 
being forbidden among them. The Holy Virgin and the 
Christ they worship are appointed by their elders, and 
it is said they consider Peter III. as their god, imagin- 
ing him to be still living. They are also strict vegetarians 
and total abstainers, from which facts one gathers that, 
taking one consideration with another, a Skopti's life is 
not a happy one." 


The Skoptskis believe io self- mutilation, which 
they base on the injunction of Christ in Matt. xix. 
12 : " For there are some eunuchs, which were so 
born from their mother's womb : and there are 
some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men : 
and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves 
eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He 
that is able to receive it, let him receive it." They 
accept literally the saying, " If thy hand or foot 
offend thee, cut it off"; and destroy their breasts, for 
which they cite Luke xxiii. 29 : " Blessed are the 
barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the 
paps which never gave suck." They know nothing 
of the science of ovariotomy, and their fashion of 
mutilating the women is very barbarous. The 
Christian father Origen was a Skopti in every- 
thing but name. A Russian writer, M. Tsakni, 
.gives some very interesting particulars in his work 
-entitled ' Queer Eeligious Sects of Russia. 1 


Woleingbam, co. Durham. 

LADT CHARLOTTE EDWIN (8 th S. iv. 28). She 
was the eldest surviving daughter of James 
(Hamilton), died 1712, fourth Duke of Hamilton 
by his second wife, Elizabeth, only daughter and 
heiress of Digby (Gerard), fifth Baron Gerard oi 
Gerard's Bromley, co. Stafford. Lady Charlotte 
was married May 1, 1736, to Charles Edwin, Esq 
(06. 1801), returned for the City of Westminster 
Dec. 31, 1741, and many years (1747-1790) M.P 
for co. Glamorgan, the son of Samuel Edwin, of 
Llanmihangel PJas, in that county, by his wif< 
Katherine, third daughter of Robert (Montagu) 
third Earl of Manchester. Her death is thus re 
corded in Gent. Mag., Dec., 1776, vol. xlvi. p. 579 
" Dec. 4. Right Hon. Lady Charlotte Edwin, in 
ber 64th Year." DANIEL HIPWELL. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

Is not this connected in some way with the pre- 
cedence of the Bishop of London 1 But I should 
be obliged to any correspondent who could refer 
me to an account of a dispute amounting almost 
to a fracas arising out of this very question of 
episcopal precedence, which occurred, I believe, at 
the opening of the Westminster Hospital in the 
last century. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


ALTAR (8 th S. iii. 168, 254, 397 ; iv. 51). In 
reply to the REV. E. MARSHALL I wish to state 

bat I was referring to propitiatory sacrifice only, 
'here is no question about the sacrifice of praise 
nd prayer, or the "living sacrifice of our bodies." 
MR. MARSHALL observes that " no contributor 
efers to the frequent use of ' altar ' in the first 
'rayer Book of Edward VI." May I say that this 
ery fact, coupled with the entire absence of the 
word in the second book, and the substitution : 
table " is the main argument on which I rest the 
issertion that " both the name and thing " were 
deliberately "repudiated" by the maturer judg- 
ment of the Anglican Reformers 1 I write historic- 
ally, not polemically. 

Expellas furcd, &c. Terms long in use, repudiate 
,hem as you will, are found to crop up continually 
n the speech of the vuljus ; hence the common 
expressions referred to by your correspondents 
A. T. M. and the REV. C. F. S. WARREN. 


The word altar is used throughout in the printed 
copies of the Coronation Services in all that I have 
seen since the seventeenth century. In the later 
copies there actually stands a note, " The Com- 
munion Table." E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. 

SUGAR-PLUMS (8 th S. iii. 407, 489 ; iv. 58). 
In regard to comfits it is said in Froissart, " Johnes's 
translation " (vol. iv. chap, ix) : 

After this, wine and spices was brought, and the 
comfit box was presented solely to the king [Charles VI.] 
by the count de Harcourt. Sir Gerard de la Pierre did 
the same to the duke of Bourbon and Sir Menaut de 
Noailles to the count de Foix." 

An engraving represents the " Count de Har- 
court presenting the comfit-box to the King. 
Designed from Royal MS. 14. E. 4." The date 
would be probably 1389, and the place was Tou- 
louse. An appended note adds : 

" There was another custom at the tables of the king 
and great barons, which was not unusual at the enter- 
tainment of private persons. Besides the spices which 
composed the dessert, and were intended for the guests 
in common, there were other more rare spicea, that were 
served in a box divided into compartments, which was of 
gold, silver, or silver-gilt, and called a ' drageoir ' (com- 
fit-box). It was commonly a squire or eome person of 
distinction who had the honour to present it to his lord 
alone, unless he wished to have particular respect paid to 
any of his guests, to whom he sent it." 

Froissart is then quoted as in the text by M. Le 
Grand d'Aussy, to whom I refer for further par- 
ticulars respecting this and other ancient customs 
in his ' Vie Priv6e des Francois.' 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The Rolls contain no information, so far as I 
have searched them, concerning the source of sugar ; 
but Fosbroke, in his ' Encyclopaedia of Antiquities,' 
refers to Joinville's 'Vie de St. Louis' as his 
authority for saying that the sugar-cane was grown 
at Acre, and states that Barbary was the chief 

8>S. IV. Aoo. 5, '93.] 



place whence it was obtained before its cultivation The siege of Derry is a notable event m Ir sh history, 
w f Tn/1i TnwnHPnd's Minual of and the fi g htin S parson Col. George Walker, D.D., 
m the We9t Indies, lownsends Manual 01 * ^ Yorkshire stock, and 

Dates' gives India and Arabia as the source of almo g 8t ^ M ^ y born in J hftt COU nty, may by a very' per- 
sugar in A.D. 54; Cyprus, 1148-1420; Madeira, m i BB ible bull be spoken of as a distinguished Irishman. 

The famous defence of Derry was so heroic that even 
two centuries of unwise boasting cannot dim its lustre. 
Whatever our opinions may be on the politics of the hour, 
or our convictions on those great religious questions which 
underlie so much that seems at first suht purely secular, 
we cannot, unless we have the misfortune to be in- 
vincibly prejudiced, hesitate to admit that the brave 
men who fought for King William and what used to be 
i " were true patriots. Their 
not attribute to them any 

, wide notions of religious toleration, but having arrived 

4/4) ; sugar from Soperelane (Ibid., 28/8), &c. The at certain clear and definite conclusions they were will- 
item is not of uncommon occurrence in the Ward- ing to peril everything that was dear to them in their 
robe Rolls defence. Such virtue has never at any time been so com- 

o T /.on m>thor " nonvdaa won lit** mon that we can afford to forget it when it does occur 
So far as I can gatner, penydes was, a or damn it with faint p rai6e , because, with a couple of 
" pmnonade," a confection obtained from the cones centurieg > more experience than that which fell to the 
of the common pine tree, which our ancestors i t O f Walker and his compatriots we see almost in the 
called pineapples, and considered very nourishing, light of necessary truths many things which were hidden 
See the ' Catholicon Anglicum,' art. " Pyne tre " from their narrow outlook. 

(Camden Society, 1882). HRMENTRUDE. Mr. Dwyer has not only gathered together Walker's 

literary remains, but has added very many interesting 

" Penettes " and other sugar-plums were bought facts bearing on the history of the time. We do not 

1 think that he has omitted anything of importance. The 

1420-1506 ; and Spain before the Moorish in- 
vasion of 711. Beetroot was not used before 1747. 
The earliest mention I have found of sugar is 
u 300 Ibs. of zacre de Roche " in 1243 (Close Roll, 
28 Hen. III.); then come " 2* Ibs. zucar' rosat'," 
1253 (Wardrobe Account, 1/22, Q.R.); "Zucar' 
Alex'" 5 Ibs. at IQd. per lb., 1264 (Ibid., 1/29) ; 
4] Ibs. " zucur " at 2s. (Ibid.} ; 6258 Ibs. "zucarV 
and 1226 Ibs. "zucar' roa' et violett'," 1288 (Ibid., 

every year for the Maundy at Ripon, probably for thinl 
the children of the choir. ' Memorials of Ripon ' 

the children of 
(Surt. Soc.), i. 216-221. 
208 n. 
Winterton, Lincolnshire. 

On "Pennets," se( 
J. T. F. 


The Samian sage, and all who taught the right. 

This is from ' Childe Harold's Pilgrimage,' canto ii. 1. 8: 
Yet if, as holiest men have deemed, there be 
A land of souls beyond that gable shore, 
To shame the doctrine of the Sadducee 
And Sophists, madly vain of dubious lore ; 
How sweet it were ia concert to adore 
With those who made our mortal labours light ! 
To hear each voice we fear'd to hear no more ! 
Behold each mighty shade reveal'd to sight, 
The Bactrian, Samian gage, and all who taught the right ! 

Leave me not wild and drei\r and comfortless, &c. 

Shelley, ' Adonais,' stanza xxv. 
Shepherds, rise and shake off sleep, 
See, the blushing morn doth peep, &c. 
Fletcher, The Faithful Shepherdess/ Act V. sc. i. 



The Siege of Londonderry in 1689. As Set Forth in the 
Literary Remains of Colonel the Rev. George Walker, 
D.D., which are now first collected. Edited by the 
Rev. Philip Dwyer. (Dublin, Hodges, Figgis & Co.; 
London, Stock.) 

WE have tut one fault to find with the interesting 

so far as we remember, have not appeared in 
an accessible form before. We welcome them gladly, as 
they give a picture of the times when party feeling was 
at boiling point. Walker was a good soldier, and con- 
temporary evidence testifies that he was a pious divine; 
but in the matter of style we cannot praise him. This 
ia, however, a very trivial matter. Some of his state- 
ments have from time to time been fiercely questioned, 
but no unprejudiced person can now doubt that his state- 
ments are true, with the exception of a few very venial 
slips of memory. 

Mr. Dwyer's notes add much to the value of the book, 
especially for English people; indeed, we feel that, 
copious as they are, they might have been enlarged with 
advantage to the English reader, who is commonly 
ehamefully ignorant of almost everything relating to the 
history of Ireland. 

Memorials of St. Edmund's Alley. Vol. II. Edited 
by Thomas Arnold. Rolls Series. (Her Majesty's 
Stationery Ofl&ce.) 

WE gladly welcome another volume of this magnificent 
series. We wish the pleasure was vouchsafed to us 
oftener than it has been of late. Scholars, not only at 
home but of every f .reign land, look forward to the issue 
of the successive volumes of the u Chronicles and Memo- 
rials " with a conviction that almost reaches certainty 
that the text will be of value and that the work of 
editing will reach the high-water mark of modern* 

Mr. Arnold is a most exact scholar. In the volume 
before us we miss nothing we could desire except the 
learned notes with which he could have illustrated his 
text had not the regulations imposed by authority on 
the editors forbidden him to do so. We do not wish to- 
call in question the expediency of this rule. If editors 
were permitted to annotate at will, it is easy to see that 
evil results might follow ; it is, however, certain that we 
lose not a little by compelling some of the first scholars 
of our time to remain silent. The volume before us 

volume before us, and that is that the editor, imitating 
the customs of the seventeenth century, has crowded his contains nine several articles, the more important por 
title-page with facts which should have been placed in tion of which has hitherto remained locked in manu- 
a table of contents. I script. The must interesting tract in the collection 



3 th S. IV. AUG. 5, '93. 

beyond all doubt the one entitled ' Depraedatio Abbatiae 
Sancti Edmundi,' which gives a life-like picture of a 
rising of the townsmen against the convent. The 
government of the house seems at this period to have 
been lax, though we doubt if any cases of vicious living 
can be found. Great destruction of property took place, 
but, considering the manners of the time, the rioters 
were treated with leniency. The old French poem on 
the life of St. Edmund exists, so far as is known, in one 
single manuscript only, which is preserved among the 
Cotton manuscripts. Poetry it is not, but it is very 
creditable verse, and throws a pleasant light on the time 
(circa 1240) in which it was written. The glossary of 
old French which the editor has compiled to assist the 
reader will be of value in reading other documents 
written in the French of the northern provinces. 

A REMARKABLE variety of articles of interest appears 
in the Fortnightly Review. Science takes, perhaps, the 
lead with the clever papers of Sir Robert Ball on ' The 
Wanderings of the North Pole,' of Mr. W. H. Hudson 
on < The Serpent's Temple,' and of Prof. Lloyd Morgan 
on 'The Limits of Animal Intelligence.' Mr. Leslie 
Stephen represents literature, and, writing of Thomas 
Paine, recants some errors he formerly made in accepting 
on untrustworthy authority some scandal concerning 
him. Paine had, Mr. Stephen holds, " the most valuable 
instinct that a journalist can possess," and in some 
respects, at least, is able to say what everybody is going 
to say to-morrow, but does not quite dare to say to-day. 
Mr. Grundy has a good deal to say concerning ' Mission- 
aries in China.' Mr. William Archer devotes several 
pages to summing up ' The Plays and Acting of the 
Season.' Mr. Samuel A. Barnett writes impressively on 
' The Poor of the World ' in India, Japan, and the United 
States. A good many papers in the Nineteenth Century 
are controversial, and more than one is an answer to 
something that has gone before. Prof. St. George Mivart 
thus heads his contribution ' Evolution in Professor 
Huxley,' and Bishop Fitzgerald writes ' An Open Letter 
to Lord Meath.' Some startling assertions are made by 
the bishop, who declares that the "average negro is 
more eloquent than the average white man of equal 
intelligence," holds that almost every negro iff a natural 
musician, and adds that he never knew a negro who was 
an infidel. Eminently controversial, again, is Prof. 
Max Miiller's ' Esoteric Buddhism,' which is announced 
as "a rejoinder." Mr. Worsfold has something to say 
concerning 'The Poetry of D. G. Kossetti.' On the 
whole, his attitude is patronizing. Lord Meath pleads 
for ' Public Playgrounds for Children '; Lady Catherine 
Milnes Gaskell has some interesting and moving records 
of her stay in the Highlands ; the Hon. William Gibson 
writes in praise of the Abbe" Gregoire ; Prince Kropotkin 
on ' Recent Science '; and Prof. Mahaffy on ' The Future 
of Education.' The most stimulating portion of the con- 
tents is Dr. Jessopp's ' An Incident in the Career of the 
Rev. Luke Tremain.' ' Saint Izaak,' in the New Review, 
gives, among other particulars of Jzaak Walton, an 
account of a book once belonging to him, and now in the 
possession of the writer, Mr. Richard Le Gallienne. Very 
agreeable reading is the account of a French eye-witness 
of ' The Battle of the Nile.' Gallic demands ' Will Eng- 
land become Roman Catholic 1 ' and seems not wholly dis- 
inclined to answer his own question in the affirmative. 
Prof. Ludwig Buchner speaks of the ' Brains of Women,' 
and Mr. Henry Arthur Jones writes earnestly and 
competently on ' The Future of the English Drama.' 
In the Century is a picture of Phillips Brooks, presenting, 
as might be expected, a very kind face. His letters to 
children, a selection of which is given, are delightful. Of 
Fez, which is called " the Mecca of the Moors," a capital 
and well illustrated account is given. A remarkable 

modern picture, depicting a 'Fox and Crows/ is en- 
graved. 'Cup Defenders, Old and New,' ia season- 
able, giving many pictures of racing yachts. Further 
accounts of ' The Famine in Eastern Russia ' and ' Con- 
temporary Japanese Art ' are supplied. Very amusing 
is the illustrated account in Scribner's of ' The News- 
paper Correspondent.' Fantastic, too, is ' Types and 
People at the Fair,' presenting some fancy sketches of 
real or expected visitors to Chicago. There is a short 
and delightful story by Thomas Bailey Aldrich. The 
Literature of the Sea ' in Macmillan's gives an account 
of principal works of naval adventure. Mr. Julian Cor- 
bett seeks to ferret out the cause for the execution of 
Thomas Doughty by Drake. ' A Forgotten Worthy,' by 
Mr. Sherer, C.S.I., deals with James Thomason, the 
founder of Thomason College. Mrs. Alec Tweedie 
depicts in Temple Bar interviews with Henrik Ibsen and 
Bjornstjerne Bjornson. 'Marlowe's "Faustus"' and 
'Amelia Opie ' may also be read. Some Ruskin letters 
in the English Illustrated are accompanied by a portrait 
of Mr. Ruskin. Second of the ' Historic Homes of 
England ' comes Belvoir Castle, which is described by 
the Duchess of Rutland. 'The Romance of Modern 
London' deals with the Underground Railway. Mr. 
Austin Dobson writes in Longman's on ' The Topography 
of Humphry Clinker,' and Mr. Froude gives his second 
lecture on ' English Seamen in the Sixteenth Century.' 
The Cornhill has ' Some Portuguesa Sketches,' and Bel- 
gravia ' A Few West Country Superstitions.' 

To the Journal of the Ex-Libris Society Mr. F. J. 
Thairlwall contributes an edifying paper on ' Mistakes in 
Heraldry on Book-plates.' These are sufficiently numer- 
ous. Mr. C. M. Carlander depicts some Swedish book- 
plates, and Mr. Dexter Allen continues his annotated 
list of ' Early American Book-plates.' 

'MEDLEVAL Music/ an historical sketch, by R. C. 
Hope, is announced as to be published shortly by Mr. 
Elliot Stock. The work will contain a history of early 
Church music with numerous illustrations. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 


For full five hundred years I 've swung. 
' The Old Bell,' words by J. Augustine Wade, music by 
Robert Guylott, published by Broome, Holborn Bars. 

PALAMEDES (" Once in a blue moon "). The expression 
is familiar. See 6^ S. ii. 125, 236, 335 ; 7'" S. v. 248. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8 th 8. IV. AUG. 12, '93.] 



N, SATURDAY, AUGUST 12, 1893. 


NOTES -.-Letters of Sir W. Ealegh, 121-" La Couvade/' 122 
-Elizabeth and Mary, Queen of Scots, 123-Dairy-Marat, 
125-A Pauper's Hoard-Scott Bibliography-Macaulay on 
Boswell-Orlando the Paladin, 126. 

QUERIES F. W. Wilkin Lanimer Festival Lancashire 
Pedigreed - Tyrrell - Sir Edwin Landseer Harrijo - 
Waverley/ 127 -College of Collegiate Church-" The 
Dexterous Charioteer " Bartolozzi Litle Wyeyyn 
Soondaye "-Words of Song Wanted-Queen Elizabeths 
GhSt-Warton's 'History of English Poetry," 128-Sir 
Fleetwood Sheppard-Sir W. Boteler-Lectern at South- 
well Minster Falstaff and " Equity," 129. 

REPLIES :-" Chouse," 129-Sir Basil Brooke-A Motto for 
Theatrical Managers Italian Translation of Varillas 
"Wedding Knife?" 130-" Hedge-Priest "-Parr Family- 
" Ale-dagger" 131 Col. Torrens " Lute of Wisdom 
" Durable," 132 "A snick-a-snee "Orthodox Direction 
for building Churches Aust Teneriffe Wroth, 1?3 
Mandragora Lucifer Matches William Brown, 134 
National Anthems" Dilly-dally "Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Clarke's ' Concordance to Shakspeare,' 135 Archbishop 
Tenison " Skouse "Member of Parliament, 13t5 Aus- 
trian Flag at Acre Old Book, 137 Surgeon Anthony 
Adams Washington Folk-lore " Wederynges," 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Madan's ' Books in Manuscript ' 
Lang's Scott's ' Abbot ' Paul's 'Ordinary of Arms in 
Scotland '-' Wiltshire Notes and Queries 'Black's ' What 
are Teinds ? ' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(Concluded from p. 64.) 

It remains to give the most important various 
readings from my MS., especially those which 
seem to improve the text as printed by Mr. Ed- 
wards. The letter to the Lords of the Privy 
Council (Edwards, ii. 271) is reprinted from 
Ralegh's collective works without comparison with 
any other MS. The following are the principal 

variations: " have examined me on, upon 

Saturday the 14th of this present," omit ham; 
for " on " read of; for "upon," on; for " 14th," 
13M, which latter date is right. Bottom of p. 271, 
" upon some other considerations," for " considera- 
tions " read condition. P. 273, L 3, omit per ann. ; 
"that I have been a violent persecutor and turtherer 
of all enterprises against thatnation/'omit persecutor 
and; for " that nation " read him (i.e., the king). 
Ib., 1. 11, for "if all the endeavours of so many 
testimonies" read if all our endeavours, if so many 
testimonies. 16., 1. 13, for "prevented by one 
man's word" read perverted with, &c. Ib., 1. 23, 
for " you take from me all hope ever to receive his 
Majesty's least grace again " read you take me from 
all hope to recover, &c. 16., 1. 28, for " mistakes " 
read mislikes. The following letter to the king is 
printed by Mr. Edwards (ii. 280) from the original 
at Hatfield, and so may be left alone. It is slightly 

altered here, to make it read better, as it seems to 
me. The same account may be given of the letter 
to the king (Edwards, ii. 296), also printed from 
the original. There are considerable variations, 
but none of real moment. 

Great differences of reading are found in the 
four contemporaneous transcripts of the well- 
known letter to Lady Ealegh, written on the eve 
of his expected execution, which Mr. Edwards 
compared for his edition (ii. 284-7). The tran- 
script here differs widely from all. In it the writer 
seems to have aimed, in some passages, at sorting 
his materials, and putting them in an improved 
shape. The variations may best be shown by 
printing Edwards's text for a short passage side by 
side with the present transcript. 

Edwards. Manuscript. 

Most sorry I am (aa God Moat sorrye I ame, that 

knoweth) that being thua beinge surprized with death, 

surprised with death, I can I cann leave you in noe 

leave you noe better estate. 
I meant you all myne office 
of wynes, or that I could 
purchase by selling it ; half 
my stuffe and Jewells, but 
some few, for my boy. But 
God bath prevented all my 
determinations; tbe great 
God that worketh all in all. 
If you can live free from 
want, care for no more ; for 

better estate, god knowes. 
I left you all my offyce of 
wynes, or that I could have 
purchased by aellinge it, 
halffe my stuffe and halffe 
my Jewells, But some one 
ffor the Boye ; But god hath 
prevented all my determi- 
nac'ons, god, even that 
greate god, that worcketh 
all in all. Butt yf you cann 

the rest is but vanity. Love ly ve fl'ree from wahte, care 
God, and beginne betymea ffor noe more, ffor the rest 
to repose youraelf on Him ; 
therein shall you find true 
and laatinge pitches, and 
endlea comfort. For the 
rest, when you have tra- 
velled and wearied your 
thoughts on all sorts of 
worldly cogitacions, you ~ V vv e>~- - 
shall sit downe by Sorrow aelfe betymes u 
in the end There shall you 

The everlasting, infinite, 
powerful!, and inscrutable 
God, that Almightie God 
that ia goodnes itself, mercy 
itself, the true lief and 
light, keep you and yours, 
and have mercy on me, and 
teach me to forgeve my 
persecutors and false ac- 
cusers; and eend us to 
meete in Hia glorious king- 
dome. My true wief, fare- 
well. Blease my poor boye; 

is butt vanitye, ffor when 
you have travelled, and 
wearyed yo r thoughts over 
all worldlye cogitac'ons, you 
shall but eett downe by 
Sorrowe in the ende. 
Thincke thereffore onely 
uppon god, and repose yo r 
)on him. 
nde last- 
inge riches and endlesse 


The everlastinge power- 
full and inscruteable god, 
that god w 011 ia truth it 
selfe, goodnes it aelfe, and 
Mercye it selfe, True lyfe, 
and True light keepe you 
and yo r> have mercye on 
mee, Teache mee to fforgive 
my persecutors and ffalse 
Accusers, and send us to 
meete agayne, in his glo- 
ryous kingdome. Mytrewe 

wyfe ffdrewell. Blisse my 

pray for me. My true God poore Boye, praye for mee, 
hold you both in Hia armea. And lett my true god hould 

you both in his Armea. 

The letter to Sir Robert Carr about Sherborne 
is printed by Mr. Edwards from a nearly contem- 
poraneous copy in the British Museum. He men- 
tions another copy in the Harleian MSS., but did 
not collate the two. Our present MS. differs from 
Edwards (cxliii.) in nearly forty places. I only 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. iv. AUG. 12/93. 

note here the principal various readings, which 
give, on the whole, a considerably improved text. 
P. 326, 1. 24, omit yeares; 1. 28, for "our" read 
one. P. 327, 1. 1, for " wordes," a word (marginal 
note, " stand seazed ") ;* 1. 2, omit bare ; 1. 3, for 
" tythe," Tytle ; 1. 6, for " hate," hurte ; 1. 9, for 
"retayned," receyved; 1. 12, before "daye" insert 
ffayer; 1. 13, for "come," growne; 1. 14, for 
"vertues," vertue; ib. 9 for "assuringe," assureth; 
1. 16, for " buildings " and "ruyns," buildinge&nd 
ruyne ; 1. 17, for " ther greifes and sorrowes doe 
not attende," they and my sorrowes maye not 
attende; 1. 18, before "bounden" insert ever; 
1. 19, for "the," their; 1. 23, before "greatest 
number" insert myndes of; 1. 26, for " woulde," 
could; 1. 30, for "will," shall P. 328, 1. 1, for 
" fame," farme ; ib., for "and," but; 1. 3, for 
" gentlemen," a gentleman; 1. 4, for " who have," 
which had; 1. 5, for "the," my; 1. 6, after "com- 
maundments" add yo r honno rs ever to bee com- 

Mr. Edwards's transcript of the letter (cxlvi.) to 
Queen Anne, making an offer of foreign service, 
differs from the present MS. in only two places. 
P. 333, 1. 18, before "that I wold" insert and. 
P. 334, 1. 2, for "allewre," alterr. 

The last letter in this collection, Ralegh's well- 
known account of his disastrous voyage to Guiana, 
addressed to Secretary Win wood, need not delay 
us long. It is here said to be to " My Lord 
Treasurer," and gives a very corrupt text. Some 
parts, which are absolute nonsense, give the idea 
of an amanuensis who heard imperfectly writing 
from dictation. Thus, "if they conquer us " reads 
" of the conquerors "; " the country being aspera 
et fragosa " appears "the contrarye bee aspera et 
frigora"; "and when hefounde a descent, a volley 
of muskets came from the woodes uppon the boat " 
stands here " hee ffounde the discent of a vollye 
of musketts which came forth the woodes, uppon 
the Banckes." 

I subjoin the few readings which seem improve- 
ments on the printed text, or otherwise noticeable. 
Edwards, ii. p. 351, 1. 3, for "America" read 
ffinerrita-, 1. 13, for "17," IMh; 1. 15, for " at," 
o/-off. P. 352, 1. 3, for " Chudlay," Cheidleigh; 
1. 23, omit as and insert Captayne Symon ; 1. 25, 
for " Plesington," Blesington. P. 353, 1. 25, for 
"stay," stayed; 1. 26, for "know," knew; 1. 27, 
after "little" insert rate. P. 354,1. 1, for "in 
post sent," posted; 1. 28, before "bring" insert 
we. P. 355, 1. 8, for "rivers," river; 1. 17, for 
" in their," at the ; 1. 25, for " Herman," Hermano ; 
L 26, for " ? left them," they complain, and omit 
the. P. 356, 1. 6, for " most," best ; 1. 14, for " he," 
I; 1. 31, for " dare," doe. P. 357, L 1, for " renew- 
ing the sorrow for her sonne," the renewing of hir 
sorrowes, &c. ; ib., before " beseech " insert I. In 

See Coke's opinion, quoted in Edwards, i, 

the large number of proper names occurring in this 
last letter there are naturally many variations of 
spelling, some of them strange enough ; e.g., Cap- 
tains Whitney and Woollaston are here respectively 
"Captain Childnoce" and "Wolverton." Palo- 
meque becomes " Paleniego >; ; Zanchio, "Zeran- 
gio "; and El Dorado, " Eldiado." 

I think from the comparisons made above we 
must conclude that our transcriber in this series of 
letters is not to be depended on for strict accuracy ; 
and that with regard to the letters now first pub- 
lished, the discovery of the originals (a quite 
possible contingency, at Hatfield or elsewhere), 
or even of another transcript, would serve to clear 
up the meaning of two or three doubtful passages. 

Am I right in supposing that the Richard Tich- 
borne who formerly owned this MS. volume was 
Sir Richard Tichborne, second baronet, son of Sir 
Benjamin Tichborne, who was Sheriff of Hants in- 
1603, at the time of the famous trials of Markham^ 
Grey, and Cobham who were produced on the 
scaffold for execution, and then respited and of 
Ralegh himself ? Sir Richard had been knighted 
at Whitehall this very year on May 11 (Foster's 
1 Baronetage/ 613), when Ralegh was still at Court ; 
and if this volume were compiled under his direc- 
tion, it is natural enough that it should include 
letters which throw light on the latter part of his 
career. 0. DEEDES. 



(See 7 th S. viii. 442 ; ix. 9, 54.) 
A lengthy correspondence about this subject has 
lately been carried on in the Academy, principally 
between Dr. Murray and Dr. E. B. Tylor. The 
question treated there was chiefly the reality 
of the custom. The question which I wish to- 
consider here, and which is a much briefer one, 
is the real meaning of the word couvade. Little, 
if anything, was said upon this point in the Aca- 
demy, and yet the discussion would, I believe, 
have been much shortened if this very essential 
point had been discussed ; for Dr. Tylor's ren- 
dering of the word is most unfortunate, and 
yet nobody discovered that it was incorrect. This 
rendering is " hatching," and will be found in his 
'Early History of Mankind' (first edition, 1865, 
p. 288). Dr. Murray was, no doubt, a good deal 
influenced by it when he said in the Academy of 
Dec. 17, 1892, p. 567, that " when scientists hence- 
forth use couvade, they should use it simply as a j 
name, and should not build theories upon its sup- 
posed etymology, as, for example, to explain it as 
meaning ' hatching,' and to argue thence that . 
some kind of ' hatching ' by the father is thereby i 
proved or implied. " And many other people also, ' 
no doubt, found the word " hatching " anything but , 
appropriate, for how can a father, who, after the ! 
birth of a child, turns his wife out of her bed andj 

8* S. IV. AUG. 12, '93.] 



takes her place in it beside the new-bora babe, be 
said in any way to " hatch " it ? 

The fact is that couvade does not mean " hatch- 
ing," or anything like hatching.* It means that 
brooding over, or sitting on, eggs which may give 
tise to the birth of chickens, and it includes also 
the same brooding or sitting which is bestowed by 
the hen on the chickens for a certain period after 
their birth ;t and the term couvade so understood 
seems to me very appropriately applied to the 
action of the husband described above; for in 
two places Dr. Tylor distinctly tells us that the 
child is left in bed with the father, and it would 
seem that this generally was the case. At any rate, 
Littre', like myself, has understood this to be so. 

But Dr. Murray's chief difficulty seems to have 
been that in dictionaries of Middle French, such 
as Cotgrave's and Lacurue's, faire la couvade is 
given in its figurative sense only. Cotgrave inter- 
prets it: "To sit cowringj or ekowking within 
doores ; to lurke in the campe when Gallants are 
at the battell." Lacunae, who has'/atre couvade 
(without the article), says : " Se tenir a convert 
dans son pare, dans une asseure"e retraite." Now 
I am quite willing to admit that faire couvade 
may have nothing to do with a hen's sitting, be- 
cause faire couvade without the definite article 
is very much the same as couver, and may, therefore, 
have any one of its meanings ; though I think it 
much more likely that it has to do with a hen, and 
so does Lacurne also. But faire la couvade is a 
very different thing. That means to perform some 
definite action known as la couvade. Similarly, 
faire parade =-= to make a parade (of a thing) ; whilst 
faire la parade means something quite different, 
viz., to do or go through the distinct military 
exercise known as la parade. And this definite 
action in the case of la couvade I take to be the 
very familiar one of the brooding of a hen over her 
eggs or chickens. Couvade had this meaning, we 
know, for Cotgrave gives it not only the concrete 
sense of couvce, but also the active sense of couve- 
= brooding. And from this meaning we 

* To " hatch " is/cure eclore. See Littr6 (s.v. eclore), 
who quotes from La Fontaine, " elle batit un nid, pond, 
<x>uye, fait eclore a la bate." But as the result of brood- 
ing is to hatch, so Cotgrave gives one passage in which 
<ouver may be rendered to hatch, though it need not be 
taken so. 

{ This second use of couver is well exemplified in the 
following passage, in which the writer ia speaking of a 
delicate girl, " II avait fallu 1'elever en eerre chaude, la 
couver, comme disait M m * de Savenay " (reference mis- 

t It should be observed that Cotgrave uses (s.v. couver) 
to cowre over in the sense of to brood. 

Mr. Mayhew (Academy, Nov. 12, 1892, p. 437) says 
that la couvade could be no more used of the custom de- 
signated by faire la couvade than It maigre and la queue 
could represent the customs designated by faire maigrt 
and/tttr queue. This shows that Mr. Mayhew knows 
nothing of the active meaning which the termination ode 

readily deduce that given by Cotgrave, for a sitting 
hen does stay at home, though it is for a laudable 
purpose. Lacurne is of this opinion also, for he 

" proprement se baisser, s'accroupir comme une poule 
qui couve, afin de voir ce qui se passe, sans se hasarder. 
C'eat 1'explication naturelle que semble indiquer Cot- 

Strong confirmation is, moreover, to be found ia 
the Itai. far la covata, which is still commonly 
use( l_ 80 an Italian lady tells me of a hen which 
broods over her eggs or chickens, as well as of a 
woman who sallies forth with a number of children, 
whether they are her own or not. 

I altogether disagree with Dr. Murray, there- 
fore, when he says that couvade t in this technical 
sense, should be regarded " simply as a name," by 
which I take him to mean " as a word to which no 
reasonable meaning can be assigned "; for I trust 
that I have shown that the technical use of the 
word is very readily to be deduced from its ordi- 
nary meaning of "brooding." The Italian lady 
I have mentioned says that if such a practice pre- 
vailed in Italy, far la covata would be a most suit- 
able expression to use, because it would be under- 
stood jokingly, and so would well express the rail- 
lery which such a practice would deserve. And 
Littre", too, evidently understands the word couvade 
in faire la couvade in its ordinary sense, and sees 
no reason why it should not be so understood. 


Sjdenham Hill. 

(Continued from p. 5.) 

There seem to be no written memorials of the 
Thomas Randolph whose name occurs in every 
history of the above queens, and who played a very 
prominent part in the intrigues of the rival courts. 
He is accused of having received bribes from both 
parties, and biographers and historians have 
blackened his name with such accusations. From 
these Privy Council " Orders " it is very plain that 
he had a most difficult part to play, and was sent 
out with close instructionjkfrom the Privy Council 
to act as ambassador or court spy, to inform his royal 
mistress and her councillors on all points and 
affairs of the Scottish Court. 

Thomas Randolph was a Kentish man of good 
birth, born in 1523, educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, after leaving which he studied law and 
then politics. He must have been considered very 

commonly has as compared with the much more concrete 
ending ee, for else he would not have compared la 
couvade with such concrete words as le maigre and la 
queue. That la couvade might perfectly well be used of 
the custom is shown by Littr6's words : " La couvade se 

dit encore de la coutume bizarre en vertude laquelle, 

quand une femme est, le mari se met au lit, 
prend Penfant, et recoit les compliments de sea VOIBIM." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. A, i 

clever to have been entrusted with the imp< rtan 
missions he undertook. 

Under Sir Ralph Sadler he became involved 
in Scotch affairs, and continued the work untf 
his appointment as English ambassador at the 
Court of Russia in 1569. In 1571, Thomas Ran- 
dolph was knighted ; he had had previous tokens 
of royal favour, being Master of the Posts and 
Packets, High Constable of the Castle of Queens- 
borough, and Steward of the Lordships of Middle- 
ton and Merdon, co. Kent. This last he ap- 
parently owned through his marriage with Anne 
Walsingham. Sir Thomas occupied the position of 
an influential county gentleman in Kent, and part 
of his political duty was to receive and entertain 
foreign royalties while on visits to England. 

After 1580 Randolph's name seldom, if ever, 
appears in public affairs. His death occurred in 
1590, at the age of sixty-seven years. 

My old MS. Privy Council Book contains no 
orders from 1564 until 1572. In that time Queen 
Mary had a son and heir, her second husband 
had been barbarously murdered, and she had 
formed a third marriage with the man by many 
believed to be Darnley's murderer. The poor 
queen, no longer a dangerous rival, was a prisoner 
in her enemies' power, placed under the charge of 
an English nobleman, while her unfortunate 
suitor, the Duke of Norfolk, had suffered death 
upon the scaffold. Truly a life history of romance 
and adventure enough to enlist the sympathies of the 
whole world in favour of the beautiful young queen. 
The month of August, 1572, is memorable 
for the massacre of the Huguenots in Paris, a 
subject of terrible interest to the captive queen. 
In the Privy Council order to Killigrew here 
quoted reference is made to this tragedy. Some 
historians go so far as to say that Queen Elizabeth 
tried to foment disturbances and outbreaks of all 
kinds in foreign countries for her own private ends. 
The present order goes far to prove that Queen 
Elizabeth was not a party to the Catholic League, 
and that she regarded Scotland as part and parcel 
of her own domain, and was determined to pre- 
serve it as such against any foreign power. 

In the Burghley Papers is quoted a Privy 
Council order to Killigrew at this time, in which 
one paragraph is said to refer to the contemplated 
execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. 

This present Privy Council order was written 
after St. Bartholomew's Day (Friday, Aug. 22, 
1572), and before the death of Regent Murray 
and the assumption of the regency by his sus- 
pected murderer, the Earl of Morton ; this last- 
named nobleman was elected regent Nov. 24, 
1572, under Queen Elizabeth's patronage, so that 
he was virtually governor of the kindgom of Scot- 
land under the Queen of England : 

Instructions giuen to Henrie Killigree Esquier touch- 
inge the troubles in Scotland beinge Bent thither imme- 

diately after the great Murdre that was in ffraunce in 
August 1572 and the pacification therof. 

ffirst you shall declare to the Regent the Erie Mur- 
ton and to all those that be to him associate and likewise 
to the Erie of Huntley the lords Siddington & Graunge 
and their associates that the cause of your sendinge 
thither at this tymo is for that we hearinge complaintes 
of bothe the parties the one complaininge of the other 
as violatinge the Articles of abstinence And yet that 
they both doe referre the hearinge and remeadiynge 
therof to us and to our good brother the ffrenche Kinge 
by whose Ambassadors bothe the parties fyrat beinge 
moved haue agreed and assented to the Abstinence 
Therfore you shall saie that we continewinge in our 
former disposition and desier to haue an universal! peace 
in that Eealme to succeade upon this abstinence haue 
thought good that in place of Sir William Drurie Knight 
Marshall of Berwicke whoe now in the absence of 
the L: of Hunsdon our governour there cannot well be 
sparred from Barwicke to sende you thither to under- 
stand of eyther side their complaints and to joyne with 
la Drogue or by any other good meanes to procure the 
due observations of the accorde and abstynence and to 
hasten them to keepe the dales of meetinge of certaine 
of the nobilitie who should indifferently compounde the 
particuler complaintes amongst themselues yf it weare 
possible as was appointed in the accorde intended. 

And you shall further saye that as wee are minded to 
dispatche you to this intent there hath happened a uerie 
straunge accident in ffraunce That the Adrairall and a 
great nomber of the noble men of the Relligion reformed 
in ffraunce hath bene of unwares manie in the night and 
many in the daie tyme murdered and slayne The which 
at the first we suposed to haue come but of priuate 
quarrells and contentions betwixt the howse of Guyse 
and them and unknowinge to the kinge and against his 
will: But understandinge sithence that the kinge hath 
openly in Parlament verified and alowed the cruell mur- 
deringe of so many in Paris and one that straunge sorte 
as you can declare unto them: And that in other places 
of ffraunce they of the Relligion be likewise persequuted 
and are faine to flye so many as cane you may saie that 
we are afraide and in maner perfectly doe see that this 
hath been premeditated and minded of longe tyme be- 
fore and that it is concluded amongeste them to eradicate 
and utterly destroye all such as make profession of their 
trew Relligion Accordinge as is said to be concluded in 
the league mad betwixt the Pope the Kinge of Spaine 
and other the princes of Italie: And do much feare that 
as they haue here with gentle countenances and great 
promises of frendshippe allured the Admirall, the Kinge 
>f Navarre the younge prince of Condie Counte Roche- 
'aucault and other noble men of the Relligion with their 
adherents to come together under collor of the marriage 
and Royall intertaynement where they might be all at 
once attrapped and murdered of whome they haue eaued 
verie fewe: So that there shalbe some practises made 
ether by pencions & faier promises to allure such of 
;he nobilitie of Englande as doth favour the worde of 
God either privatly to be atrapped and made awaie by 
poyson or otherwise or els to be sett one against another 
o the entente that in sendinge collorable aide to the 
jne they may worrke the destruction of them both: or 
els that by collourable meanes they maye bringe thither 
Strozeye or some other with a number of shippes and 
Soldiers under some gentle color, which done, to do that 
jy force which suttiltie and sleight could not bringe to 
>asse and worrke the subversion of all the whole estate 
nd destorie there all the nobilitie which professeth the 

You maye saie as we take it our amitie with that 
lealme hath begone and encreaeed cheifly by conformitie 

8* S. IV. Ana. 12, '93.] 



in good relligion: Wberfore nowe seinge the extirppation 
of that only and chiefly is sought by some of our neigh 
boura we could not but be carefull of them and to give 
them this warninge that they wisely and warely take heede 
that they be not uttrapped with anye slightfull devises 
But rather the one to accorde frendly and amiable 
with the other, remittinge all old offences, agreeinge to 
all indifferent and just motions acceptinge reasonable 
conditions where they be offered and to loke warely to 
the preservation of their younge kinge in eafetie and the 
Realme in quiet: Gevinge no eare nor place to suche 
forraine and subtill practises as should be the over f ,hrowe 
of their king and the realme in generall and each one 
of them in particuler: 

And yf that they can so finde in their hartes to come 
to frendly accorde and joyne together to the preservation 
of the Kinge and his Estate and the Conservation of our 
amitie you maye saie unto them that so we haue care- 
fully looked to and gyven order for our Suretie and the 
defence of our realme against all forraine attemptes: So 
if any thinge should be attempted against that realme or 
state we will be no lease carefull of it than we would be 
of our owne Whereof you maye saie they haue had 
alreadie some experience and shall not faile of the like 
againe if we maye perceave that they flrustinge upon our 
amitie should be by any forriane power assailed or 

And further you shall saie unto them, that havinge 
advertisements of so many seuerall practises as nowe be 
attempted we haue harde also that there should be suche 
as hath alreadie attempted and almost do make them- 
elf* sure to gett the younge kinge owte of their hands 
by blyndinge the lords the keepers of him with greate 
somes of money and huge promises and so to conveigbe 
him forthe of the realme the which thinge if any should 
be so wicked to consent unto it and the rest to suffer it 
wee shall not only thincke then that all our kindnesse and 
benefites shewed unto that nation to keepe them in 
.libertie is utterly lost: But also doe see and forewarne 
them that that Kinge will turne to their utter undoinge 
and whole subvertion of that state: The which thinge 
wee take so much at harte, you shall saie, that wee 
cannot be quiette. 


DAIKY. The etymology of this word, by Chaucer 
spelt deyerie, from deye (also in Chaucer), in Icel. 
deigja, a female servant at a farm, a dairy- woman, 
with the suffix -ery or -ry, is now so well known, 
that the remarks on the subject by Jacob Grimm, 
in his ' Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache,' read 
like an old-world fable. But they are worth 
reading as a warning against etymological con- 
jecture, even on the part of acknowledged etymo- 
logists and philologists. Grimm says : 
" The English call Icuhweide and milcherei by a name 
7. which I find nowhere explained. I will haz-ird 
a conjecture: Anglo-Saxon had <%rm=diluculum, 
a [dawn], like afenrim, crepusculum [evening 
ight] ; for diigrim, the ' Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ' has 
ie weakened dairim, out of which could easily be pro- 
duced dairy, which thus signifies the time of the break 
day when the cows are milked.' Such an expression 
arising out of the pastoral life was the Homeric VVKT&C 
<V used now for the morning-, now for the evening- 
gat. Dairy is not likely to have sprung out of the 
..explained by M.icleod as * hill-pasture, or 
summer residence for herdsmen and cattle/ our sommer- 

Dairy out of airidh ! one would think not, in- 
deed ; and one is surprised to find the notion even 
alluded to. But as to Grimm's own vermuthung ; 
the Anglo-Saxon words meant by him are dceg-rima 
and cefen-rima, the " rim " or " edge of day " and 
" of night " respectively ; dag-rim, which he has 
erroneously given for the former, means " number 
of days "; the word in the ' Chronicle ' (anno 1122) 
is not dairim, but dcei-rime. That Grimm should 
have so confounded and garbled these Old English 
words is surprising ; but that he should have 
thought that dceg-rima, or its twelfth century form 
dcei-rime, or even his own fictitious dairim, could 
have easily become dairy, is to us now almost in- 
credible, and reads like some of the beliefs of 
mediaeval zoology, e,g., that horsehairs easily 
become eels. The Greek parallel is also quite 
erroneous : Liddell and Scott say, " the natural 
supposition that d/ieAyco is the root, and that 
ajUoAyo? meant milking-time, cannot be sustained. 
Buttmann makes VVKTOS dp. to mean the depth 
or dead of night." Thus the conjecture hazarded 
by Grimm was a pretty, but wholly baseless fancy, 
and remains a solemn warning to all speculators 
on word-history. E. D. 

MARAT. This present July 13 being the cen- 
tenary of the death of Marat, I am reminded of a 
statement concerning him which, in the form of 
extracts from the Glasgow Star newspaper of 
March 4, 1793, and of a letter from a Mr. Edward 
Cress well, of Oxford, dated Feb. 12, 1776, ap- 
peared in the numbers of c N. & Q.' for Sept. 24, 
1859, and Sept. 16, 1860. The statement amounts 
to this : that Marat once taught " tambouring " in 
Glasgow under the name of John White, and that 
John White was identical with one Le Mailie, or 
Le Mair, who had been teacher of languages in 
Priestley's academy at Warrington ; had robbed 
the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford of 2001. worth 
of " medals and other coins"; had gone off" with 
his plunder to Dublin ; and, after figuring there 
as a '* German Count," had bejjn^arrested, tried, 
and sentenced to five years' labour on the Thames. 

Now, that Marat taught " tambouring " at Glas- 
gow " a few years " antecedent to 1793 is, at any 
rate, possible. He was in this country "some 
months" before July, 1790, and again from 
December, 1791, to April, 1792 ; and he would 
consider himself quite capable of giving instruc- 
tions in the art of " tambouring " or in anything 
else ; his last letter to the Convention was a pro- 
posal to teach that body the art of war. It is 
possible, too, that he may have called himself John 
White, But, if he did, John White cannot be 
identical with "the Swiss hairdresser, Petre 
Lemair," who was a school usher at Warrington, 
who robbed the Ashmolean, and "did time" 
therefor upon the Thames ; for this " Petre 
Lemair " figures, with his crime fresh upon him, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. iv. A. 12, m 

in the (rm. Ma</., February, March, and Septem 
ber, 1776. In that year was published in London 
' An Enquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of 
a Singular Disease of the Eyes,' which, of course, 
nobody knew anything about but the author, 
"J. P. Marat, M.D.," who dated from Church 
Street, Soho. In his preface the author makes 
incidental mention of his whereabouts the previous 
year Edinburgh. Now, " Petre Lemair " was at 
Warrington in 1775, and the Ashmolean was 
robbed in February, 1776, when Marat was in 
London. Moreover, whilst Lemair was working 
out his sentence, in 1779, Marat was what Carlyle 
calls " horse-leech " to D'Artois he had, that is to 
say, been appointed surgeon to the personnel of 
the prince's stables. And last, when J. P.'s per- 
sonalty came to be inquired into, it was found to 
consist of an assignat for 5 francs, which works out 
to something like elevenpence halfpenny. Who- 
ever robbed the museum, it was not Marat, I trow. 


A PAUPER'S HOARD. The following incident 
in parochial history is recorded on the south wall 
of the belfry in Cowden Church, Kent: 

" This church was ceiled and repaired in 1742 with 
be money found in the custody of Joan Wickenden, 
who was relieved and maintained by this parish nearly 
40 years." 

W. M. B. 

SCOTT BIBLIOGRAPHY. Addenda to J. P. Ander- 
son's bibliography in Yonge's 'Life of Scott* 
(" Great Writers " series) : 

P. 2. Waverley Novels. New Popular Edition. 
Re-collated from the original copyright material, 
and each novel supplied with a special glossary. 
Illustrated with introductory vignettes. 5 vols. 
London and Edinburgh, 1892. 8vo. 

P. 5. Tales of a Grandfather. New Popular 
Edition. 1893, London and Edinburgh. 8vo. 

P. 7. Poems. New Popular Edition. 1893, 
London and Edinburgh. 8vo. 

P. 24. Lang (Andrew). Essays in Little. 
London, 1891. 8vo. 'The Poems of Sir Walter 
Scott,' pp. 171-181. 

P. 26. DeQuincey (Thorn as). Works. Vol. xiv. 
1890, Edinburgh. 8vo. (Reprinted from Tail's 
Magazine, Sept., 1838.) ' Walladmor, a Pseudo- 
Waverley Novel,' pp. 132-145. 

P. 26. Ramsay (E. B.). Reminiscences of 
Scottish Life and Character. 1867 (Fourteenth 
Edition), Edinburgh. 8vo. Many references to 

P. 26. Rogers (Rev. Charles). A Century of 
Scottish Life. 1871, Edinburgh, 8vo. Frequent 
references to Scott. 

P. 26. Sir Walter Scott, The Journal of, 1825- 
1832, from the original manuscript at Abbotsford. 
2 vols. Edinburgh, 1890. 8vo. 

P. 26. The same. New Edition. (In 1 vol.) 
Edinburgh, 1891. 8vo. 

P. 28. Sharpe (Charles Kirkpatrick, Esq.), 
Letters from and to. Edited by Alexander Allar- 
dyce. Edinburgh, 1890. 2 vols. 8 vo. Contains 
correspondence between Scott and Sharpe. 

P. 29. Winter (William). Gray Days and 
Gold. Edinburgh, 1891. 32mo. 'Sir Walter 
Scott/ pp. 267-293. W. H. C. 

MACADLAT ON BOSWELL. In the catalogue of 
Boswell's sins, as recorded by himself, Macaulay 
has set down the following, in words which cling 
to the memory as with hooks : "how impertinent 
he was to the Duchess of Argyle, and with 
what stately contempt she put down his imperti- 
nence." Is it worth while to go over the facts, as 
Boswell has given them in his ' Tour to the He- 
brides ' ? He and Johnson were at Inverary ; and 
Johnson, wishing much for an invitation to the 
castle, sent him to make a call. He knew that he 
was in disgrace with the duchess, owing to the 
part he had taken in the " Douglas case." He went, 
however, and was courteously received by the 
duke, who took him into the drawing-room where 
the ladies were. The duchess "took no sort of 
notice " of him. Next day they dined there, and in 
the course of dinner Boswell, anxious to show that 
he was not overawed by the duchess, lifted his 
glass, and " with a respectful air " drank her health. 
He knew that this was (as we should say) " not 
good form "; but he pleads that " something must 
be allowed to human feelings." He does not tell 
us how she took the unwelcome attention. After 
dinner she was talking with Johnson, and re- 
marked that his visit to the Hebrides had been 
made much too late in the season. He replied 
that he could not have made it earlier, as Boswell 
was occupied in the Court of Session until Aug. 12. 
"Oh," she answered, of course in Boswell's hear- 
ing,* and probably with intention that he should 
hear, "I know nothing of Mr. Boswell." And 
this to a guest in her house ! On the whole, it 
appears that the duchess was guilty of initial rude- 
ness to a visitor introduced by her husband ; that 
Boswell retaliated by drinking her health ; and 
that the lady had the last word with her petulant 
snap, " I know nothing of Mr. Boswell." It must 
be owned in the matter of good breeding there 
was little to choose between the two. Of " state- 
liness" on her part, of that true dignity with 
which a great lady might have made even Boswell 
to wince, there is no trace whatever, if, at least, 
we may trust his record, and any way Macaulay 

had nothing else to go by. 


BRUCE. Readers of Sir Walter Scott's poetry 
will remember the episode, related in the sixth 

* I gather this from his narrative. But Miss Burney 
iaa told us how Boswell would in every company plant 
limaelf close to Johnson, in order to pick up bis sayings. 

8* S . IV. AUG. 12, '93.] 



canto of 'The Lord of the Isles,' of Sir Henry 
de Boune's, or Bohun's, charging King Robert on 
the evening before the battle of Bannock burn, and 
his slaughter by a single blow of the king's battle- 
axe. This incident, although it is told at full 
length in the poem, is historical. See ' Tales of a 
Grandfather,' chap. i. The following episode is so 
similar that one might suppose that Ariosto had 

First of that fatal field, how soon, 
How sudden, fell the fierce De Boune. 

If Ariosto knew so much of the British nobility 
as I have recently pointed out in ' N. & Q.,' he 
may well have known the story of Bannockburn, 
and have borrowed the above-mentioned incident. 
At all events the parallel is interesting : 

Era giovane Alzirdo ed arrogante, 

Per molta forza e per gran cor pregiato. 

Per giostrar spinse il BUG cavallo innante : 

Meglio per lui se fosse in schiera etato ; 

Che nello scontro il principe d'Anglante [Orlando] 

Lo fe' cader per mezzo il cor passalo. 

Giva in fuga il destrier di timor pieno, 

Che su non v' era chi reggesse il freno. 

* Orlando Furioao,' canto xii. 75. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

readers or contributors give information respecting 
the above-named artist? I am the owner of a 
charming water colour done by him in 1811 of 
Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, G.C.B. It 
has all the appearance of the finest miniature 
painted on ivory. Are Wilkin'a works well known ; 
and had he any reputation as a painter ? LAC. 

LANIMER FESTIVAL. Could any Scotch corre- 
spondent of * N. & Q.' kindly tell me the mean- 
ing of Lanimer, and something about the festival ? 
It is, I suppose, the common Riding of Lanark, 
but it seems to have ceremonial attached to it 
which other ridings have not VERNON. 

LANCASHIRE PEDIGREES. I should be obliged 
for information of the existence of any MS. 
collection of pedigrees of Lancashire families 
of minor importance, including the Bentley and 
Braithwaite families, and their origin, and where 
they can be seen. W. J. B. 

TYRRELL. Sir Thomas Tyrrell, Bart., of Thorn- 
ton, co. Bucks, married Frances, daughter of Sir 
Henry Blount, Knt., of Titenhanger, co. Herts. 
He died October 14, 1705, leaving six sons, viz., 
Harry, Charles, John, Timothy, Francis, and 

Thomas, and four daughters. I should like to 
know where Charles, John, Timothy, and Francis 
were baptized, if and when they married, and what 
issue they had, and if they died leaving wills. 

Derby Road, Burton-upon- Trent. 

SIB EDWIN LANDSEER. In the Athenaeum of 
July 29, p. 170, is an interesting reference to the 
early days of this distinguished artist, in which it 
is stated that, on the suggestion of Mayer, the pic- 
ture-dealer, Land seer gave up his studio in Upper 
Con way Street (now Southampton Street, Fitzroy 
Square), and 

" found a small house with a garden, part of the then Bed 
Hand Farm, and a large barn, which was soon converted 
into a studio, and ultimately became by successive 
additions the mansion in St. John's Wood Road where 
the painter lived nearly fifty years, and in which Mr. 
H. W. B. Davis now lives." 

I cannot find the " Red Hand Farm " on any 
map which I have consulted, bat the "Red 
Barn " is marked on early maps as situated at the 
junction of St. John's Wood Road and Grove End 
Road on the spot now occupied by the house of 
Mr. Phil. Morris, R. A. In the beginning of the 
century a fine avenue of trees extended from 
Lisson Green to the Red Barn, which was known 
as St. John's Wood Grove, and which was main- 
tained until the removal of Lord's Cricket Ground 
to its present site. I should be glad to be 
referred to any map on which the "Red Hand 
Farm " is shown. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

HARRIJO FAMILY. Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' 
give me any information in regard to a Spanish 
family by the name of Harrijo, or put me in the 
way of finding out such information ? MORO. 


reader of Scott know if the French ' ' military 
ariette," sung by the Baron of Bradwardine in 
" the manner and tone of a French mousquetaire," 
in the eleventh chapter of 'Waverley,' is Sir 
Walter's own ? also the lines quoted by Fergus 
in the twenty-third chapter? In the large one- 
volume edition of Scott's ' Poem?,' 1857, which I 
think contains all, or nearly all, the verse which is 
known or believed to be Scott's, including the 
poetry in the " Waverley Novels " as well as his 
dramas, both the above passages are given, pp. 644 
and 646. As this seems to be on the authority of 
Lockhart, we must conclude that the French verses 
are really Scott's. Still it is difficult to suppose 
that Sir Walter could write verses in a foreign 
tongue. He read French, probably, or rather cer- 
tainly, as easily as English ; but to compose, 
especially to compose verses, in a language other 
than one's own is a very different matter from 
reading the language. It is no doubt possible for 
great geniuses to write verses in a foreign tongue 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s s. iv. A. 12, -93. 

I am not speaking of Greek and Latin e. g., 
Milton's Italian sonnets, and Mr. Swinburne's 
French sonnet on the death of Theodore de Ban- 
ville and songs in ( Chastelard.' The verses in 
' Waverley ' may, therefore, after all, be Scott's 

reader kindly inform me of any place where the 
buildings (or college) in which the secular canons 
or prebends of a collegiate church lived were a 
separate house for each canon? In this village, on 
the opposite side of the road to the church, there 
are three old houses, about twenty yards apart, 
which are said to be the college, or house where 
the canons lived. They may have been one side 
of the quadrangle of buildings, only portions of 
which remain, or the houses may have been rebuilt 
on the site. 

Archbishop Peckham, in 1282, made Wingeham 
Church collegiate, for a provost and six canons, 
each to have a vicar ; so there were fourteen priests. 
The vicarage was then made into the house for the 
provost. Now, on Sept. 9, 1511, Archbishop 
Warham " visited " the church, and complaint was 
made that the canons "did not reside in their own 
house, or kept their own table as required "; so 
that they could not have lived a community life, 
and most of them held one or more livings else- 
where. When the college was suppressed, in 1547, 
the house of the provost and the tithes then 
600Z. a year paid to the church were given to 
the Palmer family, from Sussex, who rebuilt the 
house as s residence. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Wingeham, near Dover. 

Whitehead describes an Athenian youth who, 
after driving to the goal in a race-course, would 
return on the self- same track, and that so dex- 
terously that his wheels never deviated from the 
lines they had cut when outward bound. The 
crowd applauded; but Plato censured, saying : 
With indignation I survey 
Such skill and judgment thrown away: 
The time profusely squandered there, 
On vulgar arts beneath thy care, 
If well-employed, at lees expense, 
Had taught thee honor, virtue, sense, 
And raised thee from a coachman's fate, 
To govern men and guide the State. 

What was the name of this charioteer ; and in 
what classic can his story can read ? 


BARTOLOZZI. I should be glad of any informa- 
tion concerning Bartolozzi's residence at Cambridge 
Lodge, Fulbam, or about that of any of his pupils 
(such as Bettelini, Delatre, Vendramini, &c.), who 
lived near their master at North End. I am ac- 
quainted with ' Bartolozzi and his Works;' by Mr. 
Tuer. Can any one say where Lucy Elizabeth, 

the elder of Bartolozzi's two granddaughters (the 
children of his son Gaetano) spent her girlhood ? 
She became, of course, the famous Madame Vestris. 
It seems not improbable that she lived with her 
grandfather at Cambridge Lodge. She certainly 
went to school at Manor Hull, in the Fulham Road. 
In Mr. Tuer's possession is a letter, dated North 
End, Fulham, July 6, 1800, written in Italian by 
Bartolozzi to his friend Signer Colnaghi, com- 
mending to the care of his friend Signer Gasperini 
and his wife " my dear little girl," who seems to 
have been setting out for a journey. Can this 
child have been the Lucy Elizabeth ? (Madame 
Vestris was born in January, 1797, so would then 
have been in her fourth year.) Please reply 
direct. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

recently been made as to the meaning of this 
appellation, which is said to occur in a work on 
the West Country. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
supply the required explanation ? F. JARRATT. 

WORDS OF SONG WANTED. Can any of your 
readers help me to obtain the words of any song or 
songs relating to the incident in Landseer's picture 
' The Maid and the Magpie ' ? JAMES YATES. 

Ilia,' the month of Mary, in Biscayan Basque, by 
Jose* Antonio de Uriarte-Bilbon (In Bilbao), 1885, 
p. 105, one reads : " Isabel Inglaterraco Erreguina 
aguerturic ill ezquero, ebillen diadarrez Tamesis 
derichon ibai inguruan cifiuala : Erreinuco aguin- 
taritzia berroguei urtecua : infernua beticua," 
which may be Englished as follows : " Elizabeth, 
Queen of England, appearing after death, walked 
with shrieks round about the river which is called 
Thames, saying, The Sovranty of the Kingdom 
(was) for 40 years: hell (is) for ever." Can this 
strange bit of monkish lore be traced to any seven- 
teenth century document? The author of the 
above book wrote translations in Spanish Basque 
of the Books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, the 
Song of Songs, the Gospel of St. Matthew, and 
the Apocalypse, which were published at the 
expense of Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, and of 
which a new edition is much desired. It is not 
stated that the " Queenes Maiestie " uttered this 
advertisement in Euscarian, but it may well have 
scared her loyal people. How came she to forget 
five years of her reign ? 


I shall be glad to know who was the anonymous 
editor of Warton's ' History of English Poetry,' 
published in 4 vols., in 1824, " A new edition, 
carefully revised, with numerous additional notes 
by the late Mr. Ritson, the late Dr. Ashby, Mr. 
Douce, Mr. Park, and other eminent antiquaries, 

. IV. Ana. 12, '93.] 



and by the Editor." At the end of vol. iv. 
there is an announcement, " Shortly will be pub- 
lished, in vol. 8vo., Illustrations of Warton's * His- 
tory of English Poetry,' &c." Did this ever 
appear ? A. COLLING WOOD LEE. 

Waltham Abbey. 

[The editor was Richard Price.] 

SIR FLEETWOOD SHEPPARD. There is always a 
doubt as to the statements made in earlier days oi 
the great age of a person at death. In the ' Annual 
Register' for September, 1768, p. 175, occurs, 
" There is now living, at his seat in Essex, Sir 
Fleetwood Sheppard (a friend of the late cele- 
brated Mr. Prior), who is in perfect health, though 
at the age of 120 years." Who was this gentle- 
man ? When did he die, at what age, and where 
buried? W. P. 

SIR WILLIAM BOTELER. Who was the gentle 
man of this name, said by Noble ('Memoirs of the 
House of Cromwell') to have beenknighted by the 
Protector, in 1653 or 1654? Usually he is 
thought to be Sir William Boteler, of Biddenham, 
Bedford, M.P. for Bedfordshire in the Crom- 
wellian Parliament of 1654-56. But that gentle- 
man had received knighthood from King Charles I. 
so far back as July 4, 1641, so that knighthood by 
Cromwell would be needless. May not Noble be 
mistaken altogether in this alleged knighthood, 
the date of which he fixes so indefinitely ? 

W. D. PINK. 

Leigb, Lancashire. 

legend has been perpetuated and repeated in many 
notices and accounts of Lord Byron, that the eagle 
forming the lectern in the choir of Southwell was 
fished out of the lake at Newstead Abbey, where 
it was said to have been thrown by the monks at 
the time of the dissolution of the monasteries in 
1536. The site of Newstead was then granted to 
Sir John Byron. The story goes on to say that on 
careful examination a sliding piece was found in 
the back, and in the hollow beneath many parch- 
ments and documents containing grants to the 
abbey. Some two years ago I paid a visit to 
Southwell, attending the service at the minster, 
but quite forgot to inquire whether the lectern at 
present in use is the same eagle. Can any one 
inform me ? JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

FALSTAFF AND "EQUITY." In the American 
uketpeariana, July and October, 1892, there are 
two very elaborate and learned papers on the 
origin, meaning, and use of Falstaff's " There 's no 
Equity stirring" ('1 Henry IV./ Act II. sc. ii.) 
by Mr. Charles C. Phelps, of Baltimore, U.S.A. 
The 'Variorum' of 1821 and the 'Henry Irving 
Shakespeare ' have no notes on this phrase. Are 
there any in other critical editions ? ESTE. 

(8 th S. iii. 425.) 

Besides the couplet quoted by COL. PRIDEAUX 
this word occurs in ' Hudibras,' part ii. canto iii. 
1010 : 

Chow'sd and caldes'd ye like a Blockhead. 
The note in Dr. Grey's edition states that Butler 
invented the word caldes'd, and that it signifies 
putting upon you the fortune-tellers called Gal- 
deans (sic). 

As regards the origin of the word chouse, it is a 
very remarkable thing that Mr. Sala should not 
mention Dr. Murray's 'Dictionary,' where it is 
stated that no authority but Gifford's can be cited 
for the derivation from the swindling Turkish 
chiaus, and that so far the derivation remains un- 

Strange, too, it is that COL. PRIDEAUX should 
write of the theory of Mr. Sala and the dictionary 
makers, while ignoring the fact that the most per- 
fect English dictionary (so far as it has gone) 
expressly states that the theory lacks evidence. 
It is high time that all students of English 
words should recognize that to ignore the ' New 
English Dictionary/ wherever it is come-at-able, is 
to be guilty of neglecting the governing authority 
on the subject Of which they write. 

It may be noted that Nathan Bailey gives chiaus, 
an officer in the Turkish Court who performs the 
duty of an usher, also an ambassador to foreign 
princes, &c. ; but chowse, to cheat or cozen, which 
he derives from F. gauster (now gdter, to spoil, 
from L. vastare). He also gives chowse, a cheat 
or trick, and a silly fellow. JAMES HOOPER. 

As Gilford is not here to defend himself, it 
looks very much as if judgment must go against 
him by default. In the note to which COL./ 
PRIDEAUX makes reference I did not say, though 
it was certainly in my mind, that he can scarcely 
be acquitted of having invented his story about 
the swindling chiaus. Dr. Murray, writing a short 
time afterwards to the Academy, expressed this 
opinion pretty plainly, though, with the caution of 
a lexicographer, he has only said in the ' N. E. D.' 
fk,f Gifford's note must be taken with reserve.' 1 



The ' N. E. D.' has dealt with this word, and 
evidently had in view MR. MOUNT'S note at the 
first reference. It reproduces Gifford's note, with 
a remark that it " must be taken with reserve. 1 * 
The evidence seems, however, to be in favour of 
Grifford. The incident of the sending of the 
Turkish messenger, or chiaus, to England is fixed 
as having occurred in 1609. Ben Jonson's ' Al- 
chemist' was published in 1610. There is proof iii 



[8 S. IV. AUG. 12, '93. 

the play that the use of the word chiaus had refer- 
ence to some recent transaction that was the sub- 
ject of common talk. This is clear if we carry 
MR. MOUNT'S quotation a few lines further back. 
Dapper (lawyer's clerk) is trying to persuade 
Subtle (sham doctor) to an act which the latter pre- 
tends is unlawful : 

Dap. I dare assure you, I'll not be ungrateful. 

Face. I cannot think you will, Sir. But the law is 
such a thing, and then he [Subtle] says, Head's matter 
falling so lately, 

Dap. Bead ! He was an ass, and dealt, Sir, with a 

Face. It was a clerk, Sir. 

Dap. A clerk ! 

Face. Nay, hear me, Sir 

Dap. What do you think of me, that / am a chiaus ] 

" Read," we may suppose, was the name (or sub- 
stituted for the name) of the man who had been 
choused. It seems certainly significant that the 
' N. E. D.' should have no quotation for this word 
earlier than this of 1610. It follows on with many 
others, 1632, 1639, 1649, 1658, 1659, 1754, and 
of course later to our own days. Some of these, 
between the time of Ben Jonson and that of 
Butler, are undoubtedly instances of the use of the 
word in its modern sense, and seem to satisfy the 
demand of COL. PRIDEAUX ; others show that the 
word was used loosely, the chowse being sometimes 
the cheat, and at others the cheatee. 



Dickens, who was usually happy in his choice of 
names, has bestowed that of Col. Chouser on one 
of the routs whom Kate Nickleby is invited to 
meet at her uncle's residence in Golden Square. 
The other guests are Sir Mulberry Hawk, Messrs. 
Pyke and Pluck, and Lord Frederick Verisopht, 
who must presumably have been the son of a duke 
or a marquis. JofiN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The "dictionary pedigree" of the word seems 
rather against the swindling chiaus theory. The 
kiaus or chiaus was, according to Henshaw, little 
better than a fool. The " alai chiaus " of Drum 
mond's 'Travels' was a buffoon. The "sottish 
chouse" of 'Hudibras' was a deal fitter to be 
cheated than to cheat. W. F. WALLER. 

The Turkish version is curious in this. Chaush 
was at that time understood to be a serjeant or 
bailiff, and as he was not in any mercantile capacity 
it in difficult to see how he could have swindlec 
Turkish merchants here, who knew what a chaush 

SIR BASIL BROOKE (8 th S. iii. 487). At the 
church at Madeley, Shropshire, are the effigies 
with inscriptions, which were parts of the 
memorials erected after their interments in the 
older church, of John Brooke and of Ann, hi 

wife ; and of their son Basil Brooke, Knt. , and of 
is first wife Etheldreda. The inscription records 
hat Sir Basil "obiit Decem. 31 anno 1646," and that 
lis mother was Ann, daughter of "Francisci Shirley 
.rmigeri de Staunton Harold com: Leicest:"; but 
makes no reference to Leicestershire in any other 
elation. The first Parliament of King James I. 
)egan in 1603, and was not dissolved until 1611. 
members returned in 1603 for co. Leicester 
were Sir George Villers and Sir Tho. Beaumont, 
and an election in 1607 must have been a by- 
lection. Sir Basil Brooke, of Madeley Court, 
,ook the Royalist side, and his mansion was 
garrisoned prior to 1645, when the troops were 
withdrawn or driven off. An attempt was made 
n 1648 to surprise Madeley Court and a neigh- 
>ouring residence, Dawley Castle, but it was frus- 
trated by the Governor of Hartlebury. The nama 
of Sir Basil Brooke does not appear among those 
of Shropshire noblemen and gentlemen who com- 
pounded for their estates, or whose estates were 
lequestered. A Thomas Brooke, who was a 
Parliamentary Commissioner for dealing with 
some sequestered estates, is believed to have been 
a near relative. W. G. N. 

iii. 106, 315, 434). The following "gem" from 
Plato seems to fit in here very well : 

" Writing has this terrible disadvantage, which puts it 
on the same footing with painting. The artist's produc- 
tions stand before you, as if they were alive : but if you 
ask them anything, they keep a solemn silence. Just 
so with written discourse. You would fancy it full of 
the thoughts it speaks : but if you ask it something that 
you want to know about what is said, it looks at you 
always with the same one sign. And, once committed to 
writing, discourse is tossed about everywhere indis- 
criminately among those who understand and those to 
whom it is naught ; and cannot select fit audience from 
the unfit. And when maltreated and unjustly abused, it 
always needs its father to help it, for it has no power ta 
help or defend itself."' The Phaedrus,' p. 275. 

Quoted from Dr. Martineau's ' Types of Ethical 
Theory.' A. HALL. 

(8 th S. iii. 468). Moreri, in giving a list of the 
works attributed to Varillas, but repudiated by 
him, says, "II de"aavoua aussi 1'histoire du roi 
Francois I., qu'on publia Pan 1684 a la Haye sous 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

" WEDDING KNIFE" (8 th S. iii. 449 ; iv. 17, 78). 

The quotation from Bishop at the last reference 

should read : 

A knife, dear girl, cuts love, they say- 
Mere modish love perhaps it may ; 
For any tool of any kind 
Can separate what was never join'd. 

I have known gifts of knives and scissors or 
other cutting articles refused, unless the giver 

8"S. IV. ATO. 12, '93.] 



would receive a small coin as nominal payment, for 
fear they should thus " cut love." 0. C. B. 

MR. PICKFORD finds Mr. Bishop's lines 
"rather puzzling." He has not made them less 
so by writing them in such a way that they will 
not scan. The first two should stand thus : 

A knife, dear girl, cuts love, they gay ; 
Mere modish love, perhaps, it may. 


A knife, dear girl, cuts love, they say ; 
Mere modish love perhaps it may ; 
For any tool of any kind 
Can separate what was never joined. 

The point is that the knife was given not to a 
betrothed girl, but to a married wife on her four- 
teenth wedding-day, and that whatever evil in- 
fluence it might have had in the former case, on 
love which " was never joined/' it could have none 
in the latter. Accordingly the writer goes on, 
The knife that cuts our love in two, 
Will have much tougher w*)rk to do, 

and proceeds with two dozen more graceful lines, 
which may be found in Locker's ' Lyra Eleganti- 
arum.' There succeeds. a like poem, with a ring, 
on the sixteenth wedding-day. Was there one on 
the fifteenth, and a regular series ? 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

Upon further investigation of the use of the 
anelace, I believe the term " knightly " was in- 
correctly applied, and am obliged by your corre- 
spondent directing my attention to the matter. 
The anelace and the misericords were not one and 
the same weapon. The former had a broad, flat 
blade, which became narrower from hilt to point, 
and was sharp on both edges, while the latter was 
a dagger, narrow bladed, used by a knight against 
a wounded antagonist when inflicting the mercy 
stroke which deprived him of life. Again, in the 
romance of * Partonopex,' King Sornegur is de- 
scribed as armed with both weapons : 

His misericorde at his girdle, 
But lately prepared for its purpose, 
And an ane/as sharp pointed ; 
Much could he do with these. 


MR. COLEMAN at the second reference has 
omitted to mention that a large portion of his 
communication is taken almost verbatim from Fair- 
holt's ' Costume of England, ' vol. ii., pp. 266-8, 
ed. 1885. He seems indebted to Brand for the 
quotations on p. 18. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

" HEDGE-PRIEST " (8 th S. iv. 27). This expres- 
sion is used by Roger Ascham in ' The School- 
master,' 1570, pp. 163-4, edited by J. E. B. 
Mayor, 1863 : 

"And therefore did som of them at Cambrige (whom 
I will not name openlie) cause hedge priestes sette out of 
the countrie, to be made fellowes in the universitie : 

saying in their talke privilie, and declaring by their 
deedes openlie, that he was felow good enough for their 
tyme, if he could were a gowne and a tipet cumlie, and 
have hys crowne shorne faire and roundlie, and could 
turne his Portesse and pie readilie." 

Prof. Mayor refers to ' Parker Index ' for the 
use of the expression. Grose defines the term as 
" an illiterate unbeneficed priest, a patrico." 


Irish grievances do not seem to be in it at all, 
Your correspondents should consult their Shake- 
speare, for "the pedant, the braggart, the hedge- 
priest, the fool, and the boy." 



PARR FAMILY (8* S. iv. 9). At Kirkby Lons- 
dale there is a monument to John Parr, Esq. (late 
major in the 22nd Regiment of Foot), who died at 
Burrow Hall, Oct. 1, 1825, aged sixty-one ; also of 
Helen Clements, died Oct. 3, 1818, aged eighty, 
" the beloved mother of Helen Parr." Arms : 
Arg , two bars within border engrailed az. The 
arms of Parr are given without the border, quar- 
tered with Eos, Fitzhugb, and Marmion, upon an 
altar tomb in the Parr chapel at Kendal parish 
church. The family of Parr derived their name 
from a manor in the parish of Prescot, co. Lan- 
caster, of which they were lords, and from whom 
came the Parrs of Bachford, co. Chester ; the Parrs 
of Kempnall, represented by Starkie of Huntroyd ;. 
the Parrs of Rainford, afterwards of Liverpool and 
Grappenhall ; and the Parrs of Eccleston. 

The Parrs of Kendal descended from Sir John 
Parre, who married Agnes, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Crophull, and whose eventual representative, Sir 
William Parr, Marquess of Northampton, is said 
to have died s.p. in 1571. There is no pedigree of 
Parr or arms of that family recorded in the Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland Visitations, 1615 and 
1666. Burke says : 

" There is an ancient mansion, formerly called Lag- 
hooge, now Leafog, which remained in the possession of 
the Parra of Kendal to the time of their extinction. la 
159Z Thomas Norris claimed, by virtue of a grant from 
the Crown, the capital mansion and lands called Laghoge 
in Parr; the claim was resisted by William Parr and 
others, in right of William, Marquess of Northampton, 
deceased. This estate was the subject of further litiga- 
tion in 1600, when Thurstan Parr was plaintiff and 
Thomas Parr and others defendants, but the result does 
not appear by the Duchy records." 

Was this William Parr one of the illegitimated 
children of the Marquess of Northampton ? 

4, Argyll Road. 

"ALE-DAGGER" (8 th S. iii. 387, 436, 494 ; iv. 
32). MR. ADAMS'S serious oft'er of the extract from 
Holinshed as a proof surprises me. The quotation 
only shows that in an age when every one carried 
swords and daggers, if the owners got drunk 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. A. 12, '93. 

they were " knowen to worke much mischiefe 
with them " (which is so natural that it scarcely 
needed to be noted) ; but it says nothing about 
a particular weapon called an " aie-dagger." Men 
in drink frequently kick each other, but no 
one that I know of has found out that there was a 
special kind of boot made for that purpose, and 
called " ale-boots. " Drunken men also frequently 
" knobble " each other with sticks, but I do not 
suppose any one will say that is the origin of 

Nares's ' Glossary ' gives examples of the use of 
" dagger-ale," which was much celebrated for its 
strength, also of " dagger-pies," " dagger- furmety," 
and tells of a celebrated public- house in Holborn 
called " The Dagger." Here is an allusion I have 
just met with in reading, 

"as euery stanzo they pea after dinner, is full pointed 
with a stabbe. Which their dagger-drunkennesse, al- 
though it might be excused with tarn Marti, quam Mer- 
curio, yet will I couer it as well as I may," &c. Greene's 
* Arcadia,' 1616, p. 10. 

" Dagger " seems to have been used in the sense 
of the modern "stunning," superlative, or triple X. 
According to the method of the ' N. E. D.' the 
following passage from a more popular book than 
' Pappe with a Hatchet ' shows that " crisis " was a 
concealed weapon : 

"'Are you aware, Sir, that the Crisis is with us?' 
'No,' said I, getting up and looking under the seat, ' I 
must say that I can see nothing of no Crisis myself.' I 
felt somewhat alarmed, and observed that if any lady or 
gentleman in that car had a Crisis concealed about their 
persons, they had better produce it at once," Artemus 

R. R. 

" Upright-man " has another, and not decently 
explicable meaning, as may be seen in the glossary 
at the end of ' Beggars 7 Bush/ in Colman's edition 
of Beaumont and Fletcher. 



COL. TORRENS (8 th . S. iv. 68). The Col. 
Torrens regarding whom MR. FRET inquires may 
have been Col. Robert Torrens, M.P. for Bolton, 
who married Charity, second daughter of Richard 
Chute, of Roxburgh, co. Kerry, and was father 
of Col. Sir Robert Richard Torrence, K.C.M.G. 
(query, did Col. Robert marry, secondly, Dec. 12, 
1820, Esther, youngest daughter of Ambrose 
Serle?) ; or he may have been Major- General Sir 
Henry Torrens, who, as Major Henry Torrens, 
married at St. Helena, May, 1803, Sarah, daughter 
of Col. Patton, governor of that island, and was 
made K.C.B. in 1815, and died 1828. I can 
furnish a little genealogical information about both 
these colonels. SIGMA. 

"LUTE OF WISDOM" (8 to S. iv. 28). MR. 
WARD is referred to Albertus Magnus, who lived 
in the thirteenth century, for information regard- 

ng this lute. His description of it is thus quoted 
3y Percy, c Metallurgy of Silver and Gold,' pt. i. 
London, 1880), p. 387 : 

" Lutum autem sapientiae de quo fiunt testae fit ex 
iesta cpntrita et iterum coinmista et de cocta hoc enim 
vas in igne positum comrainuitur igne seasibili consump- 
tione. Tamen alio modo in alchemicis praeparatur 
utura sapientise, sed illud hie sufficiat qui aurificis 

And Percy translates the passage as follow : 

"The lute of wisdom from which 'testae' (lets 
rotir t of the French, clay roasting dishes) are formed 
is made of a baked mixture of pounded burnt earthen 
vessels (and raw clay ?) , as the vessel contracts in the 
fire and perceptibly wastes. There is, however, another 
method prescribed in Alchemical writings for making 
this lute, but that here given, which is used by gold- 
smiths, may suffice." 

Percy adds that the passage is obscure and that 
the rendering is to a certain extent conjectural. 

At p. 389 of Percy's treatise as above another 
receipt for lutum sapientice is given, according to 
a commentator (apparently) of Biringuccio, a 
Venetian writer of the sixteenth century, where 
it is stated of the lutum sapientice that : 

" It is made of a lean earth mixed with the fourth part 
of all or more of the shearings of woollen cloth (i. e. t 
shoddy), and about an eighth part of washed wood ashes, 
and the fourth part of the dung of the ass or horse or 
other animal, which is dry, and these things are well 
incorporated together and beaten with an iron rod." 

Percy adds that a " lean earth " means a clayey 
earth which does not contract and crack too much 
on drying. 

I may say that the first-mentioned lute that 
formed by a mixture of pounded burnt pots and 
raw fire clay is still used by chemists, who nowa- 
days, however, generally add a small quantity of 
borax in solution to the water wherewith the dry 
mixture is kneaded up into a paste. E. R. 


" Lute " in this expression is from Latin lutum , 
clay. Phillips's ' New World of Words,' 1720, 
sub "Lute," has this statement: 

" Among Chymists, a compound Paste, made of Sand, 
Clay, Potter's-Earth, Dross of Iron, &c., which serves^for 
the building of some sorts of Furnaces, or else to join 
together the Necks of Retorts and Receivers, or to coat 
over Glasses, and earthen Vessels, in order to preserve 
them in a vehement Fire." 


"DUMBLE" (8 th S. iii. 447, 497). Drayton 
uses dimble in his 'Poly-olbion': 
And Satyrs, that in slades and gloomy dinibles dwell, 
Run whooting to the hills to clap their ruder hands. 
The Second Song, 11. 190, 191. 

Dumbk-hole is used in Shropshire for a pitfall 
or a dangerous hollow. Dumble, dimble, dimple , 
dingle, are all diminutives of dip. Cf. Norse dipel, 
depil, and G. Dumpfel, a pool. Dub is used in 
Yorkshire to denote a pool of water. Grose's 
'Glossary' has "Dump, a deep hole of water; 

8* s. iv. A. 12, '93.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


feigned, at least, to be bottomless." Cf. Pro 
Skeat's 'Dictionary/ . "Dimple." Dumbhdore = 
humble bee, and dumble-bee = drone, have probabl 
nothing at all to do with the word, bat are s 
called from the sound made by the insects whic 
they designate. F. 0. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

In reference to the word dumbledore, quoted bj 
S. J. A. F. from the Rev. T. L. 0. Davies, it may 
interest some of your readers to know that in som 
country districts it is used as equivalent to "dumble 
bee,"or "bumble-bee," or "humble-bee," for I believe 
that all three forms exist. I was once told by a 
poor old woman at Goring Heath, Oxon (near 
Heading), that she had just seen a soul fly in at 
her door ; and on my asking what it was like, sh 
replied, "Oh! it was a buzzy, buzzy thing, just 
like a dumbledorey." E. WALFORD, M.A. 


" A SNICK- A-SNEE " (8 th S. iv. 4$). Nares gives 
the above rendering of the name of this instrument 
and explains that it is a Dutch word ; but in Nor- 
folk it is still called a " snicker-snee." Annandale 
gives Thackeray as the authority for the use of the 
word ; but its origin must be sought for long before 
his time. For instance : 

" Amongst other customs they have in that town, one 
i, that none must carry a pointed knif about him, which 
makes the Hollander, who is ua'd to snik and snee, to 
leave his horn-sheath and knif a shipboard when he 
comes a shore." Howell's 'Familiar Letters,' 1650. 
But they '1 erelong come to themselves you '1 see, 
When we in earnest are at snick a snee. 

'Norfolk Drollery ,'1673. 
What hand that can design a history 
Wou'd copy low-land boors at snick a snee ? 

' The Fatal Friendship,' 1698. 
Four Dutch-men of a bulky stature, 
As clumsy as they are by nature, 
With bottles full of brandy stor'd 
(The only God they e'er ador'd), 
By their sides, knives for snick-a-snee. 

'Hudibras Redivivus,' 1707. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Snickersneeze is used as a verb. See Peacock's 
Glossary,' s.v. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lincolnshire. 

In the 'Annual Register 'for 1760, p. 127, I can 
find no such occurrence as that mentioned by W. P. 
Where does it appear ? J. DIXON. 

Washington Irving uses this word : " One man 
being busy in lighting his pipe, and another in 
sharpening his snickersnee" (' Bracebridge Hall,' 
ed. 1823, ii. 253). ANON. 

The^ Editor says, "More properly 'snikker- 
There seems, however, to be a slight 

stinction between the phrase and the word. " A 
snick a snee" is, of course, nonsense. A "snick 
and enee" was a fight with large clasp-knives, 

snick coming from the Danish snik, a hatchet, and 
snee from the Danish snee (a contraction of snede), 
a cut. Barclay, Walker, &c., give " snick and 
snee" only, and define it as "a combat with 
knives." Snikkersnee or snickersnee, signifying a 
clasp-knife, may be regarded as one of those 
Anglicizings to which Englishmen are so much 
given. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

CHURCHES (7 th S. vii. 166, 250, 333, 469). I 
have often without success sought for an authority 
for the statement that churches were lined out in 
the direction of the rising of the sun on the morn- 
ing of the saint of the dedication. The nearest 
approach to an authority which I can point to is 
the following : 

" Capt. Silas Taylor says, that in days of yore when a 
church was to be built, they watched and prayed on the 
vigil of the dedication, and took that point where the 
sun arose for the east, which makes that variation, so that 
few stand true except those built between the two equi- 

This is taken from an article on 'Customs and 
Manners of the English,' professing to be from a 
MS. by Aubrey, written in 1678, in the Ashmolean 
[now in the Bodleian), Oxford. See the ' London 
Miscellany,' London, s.a., p. 42. Can any one refer 
more exactly to Silas Taylor, a writer in the middle 
of the seventeenth century, if he is the same with 
" Capt. Silas Taylor "; or state an earlier authority? 
Aubrey states that, from his own examination, he 
aas met with some instances which verify the 
statement. ED. MARSHALL. 

AUST (8 th S. iii. 409; iv. 15). May I be 
allowed to inquire for an authority in re "Tra- 
ectus Augusti " ? It is not so in any version of 
;he Antonine itineraries accessible to me. I am 
disposed to ascribe the form " Aust " to Austin, a 
corruption of Augustin, after the saint who came 
here to confer with the Welsh bishops about the 
>roper time for keeping Easter. We have other 
opographical survivals of this visit in the west of 
England. A. HALL. 

In Burke's 'General Armory' (third edition) 
find "Auste. Sa., three garbs or. Creat, a 
arb ppr." GUALTBRULUS. 

TENBRIFFE OR TENERIFE (8 th S. iii. 469 ; iv. 
7). Teneriffe (three syllables) is the French and 
be usual English form of the name. Tenerife 
four syllables, tdndreefd) is the Spanish. 


WROTH (8 th S. iii. 407). Did Lady Mary 

Wroth marry twice ? I have never met with any 

otice of a second marriage. She must have been 

little over twenty when Sir Robert Wroth died 

n 1614 (1613 Gwillim says). Her eldest brother 

ould not have been more than six-and-twenty 

hen he died in 1612, and she was the fifth or 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 th s. iv. A, 12, < 

sixth child of Lord Lisle. I think she was still 
Lady Mary Wroth in 1621/2 when she published 
the romance of ' Urania.' Gwillim gives her two 
SODS, James and Sir Henry. Was it Sir Henry 
who had the living in Ireland (not in ecclesiastical 
eense), and married Ann, daughter of William, 
Lord Maynard of Wicklow, then only an Irish 
peer, I fancy ? If this was the second son of Lady 
Mary, he did not die until 1671. But I am 
inclined to think the Henry who married Ann 
Maynard was the son of (Sir) Henry, the grantee 
in Ireland and grandson of Sir Robert. 

Aston Clinton. 

MANDRAGORA (8 th S. iii. 429, 498). A small 
collection might be formed of legendary lore on this 
plant. Let me add one to your correspondent's 
list from the ' Pseudodoxia Epidemica ' or ' Vulgar 
Errors' of the Norwich knight Sir Thomas 
Brown : 

"That the root of Mandrakes resembleth the shape 
of a man : that they naturally grow under Gallows and 
places of Execution : that the root gives a shriek upon 
eradication : that it is fatal or dangerous to dig them 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

iii. 466; iv. 70). PROF. TOMLINSON'S interesting 
paper on this subject has brought vividly back to 
my mind the time and circumstances under which 
I became acquainted with these useful inventions. 
It was in or about the year 1837. Up to that 
time we used to procure light by the old-fashioned 
method of the flint and steel. The Promethians 
which your correspondent mentions, were known 
to my father, but he, and other careful people 
prohibited their use in their families, as they hac 
been found highly dangerous ; several persons, it 
was averred, having had their hands shattered by 
the explosion of the bottles. 

The first of these matches whether called con- 
greves or lucifers I do not remember were brough 
from London by the late Eev. Robert Ousby, the 
clergyman here. The boxes were, so far as ] 
remember, about five inches long, and contained a 
folded paper, like a little square book, which had 
sandpaper in the inside; through this book th 
match was drawn, and it exploded with a louc 
noise, like the report of a pistol. These boxe 
cost eighteenpence each. Mr. Ousby gave one 
of them to my aunt, Maria Peacock, who regardec 
it as a great treasure. When I had behaved par 
ticularly well, I was, as a great favour, permittee 
to strike one of these matches. 

The book of sandpaper was soon dispensed 
with, the sand being gummed to the bottom o 
side of the box. No change of importance tool 
place until the invention of the safety match ; bu 
it may be worth mentioning that somewhere abou 

1840 matches were sold in elegantly formed boxes 
f turned wood, formed in the shape of barrels. 
Fhese were at first sold at sixpence each, but soon 
ell to half that price. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

PROF. TOMLINSON'S history of phosphorus- 
matches is minute and clear; but he gives no date 
to the "man Heurtner' in the Strand. There 

as for several years one "S. Jones," No. 201, 
Strand, whose matches I remember, as a boy, 
circa 1836. He sold them in boxes at various 
prices, five to twenty shillings, with a pair of pliera 
not nippers) under the lid, to squeeze the short, 
saper, twisted white papers which held the ex- 
plosive glass ball at the thick end. The " Huertner 
Eupyrion" seems to have been a match dipped 
into a phial. The "Jones Promethian" was a 
very small glass globe, broken by pliers ; but his 
earlier sales of his " Lucifers " were thus described : 
" Place the folded part of the sand paper next to 
the hand ; the black end of the match between ; 
press moderately with the finger and thumb ; then 
withdraw it briskly, and the effect of the friction 
will produce instant light." ESTE. 

It would be a pity if the inventor of so useful 
an article as the lucifer match were not ascertain- j 
able beyond the reach of doubt. At the first < 
reference a Mr. John Walker, chemist, of Stock- ; 
ton, is named as the original match-maker. In j 
the new edition of Chambers's ' Encyclopaedia ' 
(s.v. "Holden"), the invention is attributed, with I 
some detail, to Mr. Isaac Holden, M.P. : 

" It was in 1829, while illustrating chemical experi- j 
ments to his pupils at Reading, that he made known the 
principle of the lucifer match. Finding flint and steel 
inconvenient when he got up at 4 A.M. to pursue his 
studies, the idea occurred to him t6 put sulphur under 
explosive material, which solved the problem of the 
lucifer match. A young man in his class, the son of a 
chemist, acquainted his father in London with this dis- 
covery, and soon lucifer matches were in the market. 
Holden never took a patent for this important discovery, 
and therefore reaped no pecuniary advantage." 

Whose is the rightful or prior claim ? W. T. 

1513-14 (7 tfi S. v. 151). In the very interesting 
notice of several Lord Mayors of the name of 
Browne above referred to there is an error both in 
the date and in the probate of the will of the 
Mayor, and, inasmuch as he died during his 
mayoralty, this error is somewhat important. The 
date of the year in each case is 1514 (not 1513), 
and to the date of the probate " 1 July, 1514," the 
regnal date " 6 Hen. VIII." is added. The Mayor j 
was never knighted, and is not described as a ! 
knight in his will ; neither, indeed, is William 
Browne, the Lord Mayor of 1507-8 (also referred 
to, as above, as a knight), who also died in his i 
mayoralty. The knighthood of the former of j 

. IV. AUG. 12, '93.] 



these rests (as does that of many other Lord 
Mayors) solely on the not very accurate authority 
of the list in Stow'a ' London.' G. E. 0. 

NATIONAL ANTHEMS (8 th S. iv. 88). On the 
musical branch of this interesting topic VAP. will 
find much valuable information in * An Introduc- 
tion to the Study of National Music,' by Carl 
Engel (London, Longmans, Green, Keader & Dyer, 
1866). As to the poetry of the songs, their his- 
tory, authors, and the circumstances which called 
them into being, may I refer him to a series of 
articles, written by the undersigned, which appeared 
in Our Ocean Highways, March and subsequent 
months, 1872 ? Our Ocean Highways, a monthly 
geographical journal, was at that time published 
by Philip & Son, London, but was afterwards 
purchased by the Royal Geographical Society. 
In answer to a query of mine, * N. & Q.' also gave 
a list of authorities on the topic so long ago as 
April 13, 1872, and from that tim till now I have 
been diligently collecting materials with a view to 
making a book on national songs. One thing only 
has prevented me from carrying that excellent 
idea into practice, namely the absurd arrangement 
which limits a day to twenty-four hours, from 
which a few must perforce be deducted for those 
nuisances of life, eating, drinking, and sleeping. 
Perhaps VAP. would like to see my collections. 
If so, I should be pleased to hear from him. 

Ellarbee, Elms Road, Clapham Common, S.W. 

There is an article on the subject, with refer- 
ences, in the latest edition of ' Chambers's Ency- 
clopedia.' C. C. B. 

Hammond & Co., the well-known music pub- 
lishers, of Vigo Street, published a collection of 
' National Airs of all Countries ' some years ago. 
I have not seen it. L. L. K. 

" DILLY-DALLY" (8 th S. iv. 28). It seems to 
me hardly possible that a Londoner would use 
this word, except by a blunder, to denote a fib. 
What the lady of Lord Randolph Churchill's 
speech meant was " tarradiddle," for which she 
may have substituted " dilly-dally " from a whim 
of her own. Or she may have been " much too 
educated and much too cultivated" to be tho- 
roughly familiar with such homely vocables, and 
so have confused one with the other. But 
perhaps the jocular orator was telling a "dilly- 
dally" himself in order to raise a laugh. One 
cannot be sure that he was not alluding to a 
descendant of Mrs. Malaprop though, be it noted, 

ttdj scrupled not to tell her niece that "lying 
don't become a young woman." F. ADAMS. 

Surely either Lord Randolph Churchill or his 

'very great lady" has mistaken the word. 

"Tarrididdle" or " tallididdle " is often used to 

express the " thing that is not." * ' Dilly-dally " I 
never heard used to express anything but dawdling. 

St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

When I was a boy I used to hear the " short 
sharp word" called a "tarradiddle." Would it 
not save time and trouble to discuss the derivation 
of both euphemisms at once ? 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS (8 th S. iv. 101). MR. 
C. A. WARD, in his very interesting communica- 
tion on this subject, writes erroneously not to 
say unjustly about one of my published works, 
which he facetiously attributes to Cassell, though 
he ought to know better. His words are, " The 
square is said by Timbs, Gassell's ' London,' and 
others, repeating the same parrot's tale, to be 
821 ft. by 625 ft." My words, if the paragraph is 
given in full, do not look much like a " parrot's 
tale." The text runs thus : 

" It haa often been stated and repeated until generally 
accepted as true, that the square of Lincoln's Inn Fields 
was designedly laid out ao as to be exactly of the size 
of the base of the Great Pyramid. 'Thia' (remarks 
Horace Walpole) ' would have been much admired in an 
age when the keep of Kenilworth Castle waa erected in 
the form of a horse fetter, and the Escurial in the shape 
of St. Laurence's gridiron." 

I add : 

" But a reference to Col. Howard Vyse's work on the 
Pyramids will ahow that the fanciful idea is untrue, the 
Fields meaauring 821 feet by 625, while the Great Pyra- 
mid covers a apace 76 i feet aqmare." 
Surely these words do not deserve to be styled 
" a parrot's tale." I have no pecuniary interest in 
the sale of my book, but I am concerned in my 
reputation for literary honesty and industry. 



SHAKSPEARE' (8 th S. iv. 66). It is startling to 
find that ASTARTE still clings to this once useful, 
but now obsolete work, and recommends utiliza- 
tion of the numbered lines in the ' Globe Shake- 

Let her at once order a copy of Schmidt's 
'Shakespeare -Lexicon,' first printed in 1874-5, 
and now (for all I know) in some later edition. It 
gives all the references, noting acts and scenes 
and lines ; and it includes the poems. That any 
student of Shakespeare should never have heard of 
Dr. Schmidt is quite sensational. Most sincerely 
do I trust that the " labour has paid its expenses." 
It is the most meritorious work of its kind in the 
whole range of our literature. 

The concordance to the sonnets and poem?, to 
rhich allusion is made, is that by Mrs. H. H. 
Furness, printed at Philadelphia in 1874. I am 
the proud possessor of a copy sent to me by her 



IV. AUG. 12, '93. 

husband, the editor of several of Shakespeare's 
plays, the completeness and excellence of whose 
work leave but little to be further desired. I 
remember that it was simply addressed to " Mr. 
Skeat, London"; and it says something for the 
intelligence of St. Martin's-le-Grand that it reached 
me without delay. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Many persons have regarded Mrs. Cowden 
Clarke's useful work as the first index to Shak- 
spere that had appeared, and ASTARTE seems to 
think that an edition containing the number of the 
line in which a particular word occurs would be a 
novelty. Surely many of your readers must be 
acquainted with a work that appeared in 1790 
(which I have found very useful), entitled : 

" An Index to the remarkable passages and words 
made use of by Shakspere, calculated to point out the 
different meanings to which the words are applied. By 
the Rev. Samuel Ayscough, P.S.A. and Assistant Libra- 
rian of the British Museum. London, printed for John 
Stockdale, opposite Burlington House, Piccadilly, 1790." 

The work contains 672 royal octavo pages, and 
the references to each word are to the play, act, 
scene, page, column, and line. D.P. stands for 
dramatis persona, and Ch. for chorus. At the 
end of the volume a splendid edition of Shakspere, 
by the same editor, is announced in two -volumes, 
folio, to which the index is adapted. 


(8 th S. iii. 21). The late Poet Laureate's pedigree 
in Foster's ' Coll. Gen.' begins with Ralph Tenny 
son, of Barton and Wrawby, co. Lincoln, who died 
May 17, 1735, aged forty-three. Could he have 
been a descendant of Ralph Tenison, brother of the 
Rev. John Tenison, who was the father of the 
archbishop? This Ralph was born before 1606, 
was living in 1670, and was father of John and 
Anne, then also living. The diversity in the 
spelling of the name is of small moment, as the 
Rev. John Tenison's father's name is spelt "Tenny- 
son " in his marriage licence, and his father's name 
is indifferently spelt "Tgnysone," "Tennison," anc 
"Tennyson." SIGMA TAU. 

"SKOUSE" (8 th S. iv. 68). However clear th 
handwriting, the word is miswritten. It is a mere 
blunder for sconce, usually spelt sconce, which is 
fully explained in my t Etymological Dictionary. 
Godefroy,in his 'Old French Dictionary,' s.v.esconse 
gives thirteen quotations for it, and explains it as 
" lanterne sourde, bougeoir couvert et garanti du 
vent, muni d'un manche qu'on tenait & la main." 

The writing may be clear and distinct, bu 
skouse must surely be a clerical error for skons 
(skonce or sconce), a technical term of fortification 
As such it is now obsolete, but it was familia 
enough to our Cavaliers and Roundheads. Possibly 

his particular sconce had its part to play when 
Soring held Colchester against Fairfax. 


MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT (8 th S. iii. 88, 173, 
496). The question I asked at the first reference 
las been satisfactorily answered in the English 
historical Review, July (vol. viii. p. 525), by the 
ery best authority, Dr. S. R. Gardiner. I had 
no doubt whatever that the title "Member of 
Parliament " was comparatively modern, and had 
come into use when new theories of the constitution 
had become generally prevalent; but I was not 
ble from my own reading to trace its origin. Dr. 
Gardiner, however, shows what might almost 
lave been suspected beforehand that its origin 
was Cromwellian. The first instance he finds 
of such a designation being applied to a member 
of the House of Commons is of the time of the 
3ommonwealth, when there was no House of Lords. 
ft is an entry on the Order Book of the Council of 
State, dated June 27, 1650, in whieh Col. Ludlow 
is referred to as " a member of Parliament and of 
this Council." Eight years earlier, i.e., in 1642, 
there is an instance supplied by Mr. W. D. Hamil- 
ton in which the term " Member of Parliament " 
means distinctly a member of either house ; but 
its application, of course, became restricted by the 
abolition of the House of Lords, and after the Re- 
storation men had become so accustomed to the 
narrower use that it was not again extended to 
members of the upper house. 

I think this is a very interesting piece of con- 
stitutional history. To understand the English 
constitution we must look at it as a whole, and 
not interpret it by the latest theories of the plat- 
form orator and journalist. From a really con- 
stitutional point of view the House of Commons is 
not Parliament, nor even the most important part 
of Parliament. Parliament is, as its name implies, 
a conference ; but it is not a conference of the 
delegates of the people among themselves ; it is a 
conference of the three component parts of the 
nation i. e., the sovereign, the lords (or perma- 
nent council), and the representatives of the com- 
mons on matters of public importance. These are 
the three real " members " of Parliament, or rather 
the head and the two " members "; and it is most 
important for our commonweal that the head, tl 
standing council, and the delegates of the coi 
munity at large, should each do their duty thouj " 
fully, fearlessly, and conscientiously in the 
and momentous questions that continually coi 
before them. JAMES GAIRDNER. 

Dr. S. R. Gardiner, in a note in the English 
Historical Review for July (vol. viii. p. 525), gives 
an extract from a parliamentary remonstrance of 
1642 in proof of the early use of the title " Mem- 
ber of Parliament " as a common designation of 
members of the two houses. A distinctly earlier use, 




however, is to be found in the ' Commons' Journals 
(vol. i. p. 141), where, in a description of the open 
ing of the first Parliament of James I., on March 19 
1603/4, it is said : 

" This Day Knights and Burgesses returned (thre 
hundred, at least) were sworn, and took their Place i 
the House ; and there expected some Message (as th 
Manner is) of his Majesty's Pleasure, for their Attem 
ance in the Upper House : which, by some mistaking 
being neglected, his Majesty begun and continued a Ion 
Speech, without the General Presence of the Commons 

The Error was discovered to grow by the Intrusio 

of sundry Gentlemen, his Majesty's Servants, am 
others (no Members of Parliament) into the Highe 
House, during the time of this his Majesty's Speech, wh 
were taken for the Commons ; and thereby his Majest; 
was induced to direct his Speech, as if the whole Hous 
of Commons had been present and heard him." 

The context here would almost seem to limi 
"Member of Parliament" to the Commons. 


AUSTRIAN FLAG AT ACRE (8"*S. iii. 427, 497 
iv. 50). DR. WOODWARD is right in his surmise 
that Duke Leopold, King Richard's foe, bore a 
single-headed eagle displayed on his shield. Since 
sending you my previous note I found an oppor 
tunity to refer to Boeheim, who gives, on p. 505 o 
his ' Waffenlehre,' an illustration of the duke's 
seal after Sava. The banner on the lance is per 
haps the prototype of what is known as the 
modern arms of Austria. The fess is charged with 
two dots encircled, like the signs for full stops on 
printers' proofs. The top and bottom divisions oi 
the banner each have a bordure which is continued 
on to the two streamers. 

I cannot very well object to DR. WOODWARD'S 
calling the creature in the arms of Styria a 

nther, since most German books on heraldry, 
lelieve, refer to it by the same name con- 
ventionally, though the reason for their doing 
so may not be apparent. Its body and attitude are 
generally those of a lion rampant ; its head, and 
sometimes its neck, are those of a dragon ; its legs 
end in lion's paws or the claws of an eagle ; its 
tail is either bushy, like that of a horse or collie, 
or is tufted, like a lion's or bull's. The beast is 
horned or inflamed, or both in some instances ; in 
others it is neither. The flames issue from its 
mouth and ears only in some cases; in others from 
'openings in its lower body" also. It will be seen 
om this description that there is nothing what- 
ever of the panther about it, and a good deal of 
the lion. 

The theory that the creature was originally a 
ull, and the explanation given why this animal 
was chosen for the charge are very ingenious ; but 
the evidence adduced by DR. WOODWARD in sup- 
port of the theory is not convincing. Moreover, 
on referring to the best history of the province, 
viz., Alfons Huber's 'Geschichte Oesterreichs ' 
Gotha, 1885) we find that Styria was as late as 

A.D. 1058 only known as the " Marchia Karen- 
tana" or "Carintina," i.e., the "Marches of 
Carinthia," to which country it then belonged. It 
is not quite certain what part of Noricum the 
Tauriscans occupied; but even if they ever have 
been in Styria, probably their very name was 
already forgotten when the arms of Styria were 
conceived. According to Huber the German name 
of the province, Steiermark, is derived from the 
Castle of Stiraburg, or Steier, at the confluence of 
the rivers Steier and Enns. The early mark- 
graves of the Marches of Carinthia were owners of 
this castle, and assumed in about the last quarter 
of the eleventh century the title of * ' Markgraves 
of Steier." The name was in time transferred to 
the territory ruled over by them (" Marchia 
Stirie" in 1088), and became in German "die 
Mark von Steier," and ultimately "die Steier- 
mark." Cf. Huber, i. 217, where the authorities 
and references to documents are given. I do not 
believe that " Steir n and " Stier " are or ever were 
synonymous, and " Stira," in the name of " Stira- 
burg " has only so much in common with " Stier," 
that they are probably both derived from the same 
root, meaning "full grown, powerful, strong." 
That Stiraburg happens to be on the river Steier 
is probably merely a coincidence. 

The earliest instance given by DR. WOODWARD 
of the Styrian monster being found with horns is 
the Zurich ' Wappenrolle ' of the fourteenth cen- 
;ury, but I can refer him to an official seal of a 
Duke of Styria of an earlier date on which the 
creature is not yet horned or inflamed. This is 
the seal of Duke Stephen, appended to a docu- 
ment of 1267, when he was no longer ruler of the 
province. On it the shield is charged with a 
reature having the trunk, legs, and the attitude 
f a lion rampant, the head and neck of a dragon, 
and what looks like a horse's tail erect. The 
banner is charged with what is probably meant 
'or the same animal, but looks more like a 
dog with a bushy tail. Cf. Baron Nya~ry's 
Heraldika,' p. 210. 

Is DR. WOODWARD sure that the demi-bull is 
not wrongly ascribed to Styria in the Zurich 
Wappenrolle '? 

The process of evolving the Styrian monster 
ut of a bull is not so simple, and cannot be so 
asily traced as DR. WOODWARD seems to think, 
n addition to mistaking its horns for flames, the 
eralds and engravers must have mistaken its hoofs 
or eagle's talons, and its head for that of a dragon ; 
nd the body of a lion is also altogether different 
rom that of a bull. Besides, it yet remains to be 
roved that it ever was a bull L. L. K. 

OLD BOOK (8 th S. iv. 88). The author of this 
ook was Sir Thomas More, and his name appears 
n the title-page of the only copy I have ever 
een, thus; "A Dialoge of comfort against 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. AUG. 12, 

tribulation made by Syr Thomas More, Knyght, 

&c Londini in sedibus Kicardi Tottell. Cam 

priuilegio ad imprimendum solum." This was 
the first edition, and is certainly rarely to be met 
with. I am surprised, however, at Mr. EGBERTS 
having failed to find any mention of so well known 
a printer as Richard Tottell among the "many 
records" of early printers which he Bays he has 
examined, for there are between forty and fifty 
books in the British Museum Library printed by 
him ; and Dibdin, in the fourth volume of his 
edition of Ames and Herbert's 'Typographical 
Antiquities,' gives a list of more than seventy 
of his publications. The ' Dialoge ' was reprinted 
at Antwerp in 1573 by J. Fowler, and will also be 
found in More's collected works, as well as in one 
of the volumes of the " Anglo-Catholic Library " 

Mr. Fuller Russell had a copy of the first edi- 
tion, which was sold in June, 1885, for 3U., and is 
now in the British Museum. FRED. NORGATE. 

Tottel was one of the best-known printers of the 
sixteenth century. MR. ROBERTS will find a full 
notice of him in Ames's 'Typographical Anti- 
quities,' 1749, p. 288. ' The Dialogue of Corn- 
forte agaynst Tribulacion,' 1553, is mentioned on 
the following page. J. DIXON. 

<8 th S. iv. 7). It is probable that the subject of 
BEAULIEU'S query was identical with Anthony 
Adams, of Trinity College, Dublin, B.A. 1807, 
M. A. 1824. A note of jiis parentage, age, &c. , 
would appear in the university matriculation 
register. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

WASHINGTON (8 th S. iv. 69). This eminent 
man seems to have been mildly disposed towards 
his captives. Perhaps, though, Major Andre" 
was an exception. In Marshall's ' Washington,' 
i. 239, mention is made of several prisoners whose 
fate Congress determined should depend upon the 
treatment awarded to General Lee, who had been 
captured by the English, and was regarded, with 
eome show of reason, as a deserter. Washington, 
we are told, had a great abhorrence of the retalia- 
tion principle in treating prisoners in any case not 
of absolute and apparent necessity. 


iii. 466 ; iv. 77). Does not the following extract 
from one of Edgar Allan Poe's ' Tales of Mystery 
and Imagination ' (' The Mysterie of Mary Roget,' 
edit. Routledge, p. 72, col. 2, and p. 77, col. 2) 
contain the mention of a custom which reminds 
*s of "a boat being rowed up and down the river, 
with a man beating the drum in it, to cause the 
body of a drowned person to rise, by the vibration 

' All experience has shown that drowned bodies, or 
bodies thrown into the water immediately after death by 
violence, require from six to ten days for sufficient 
decomposition to take place, to bring them to the top of 
the water. Even where a cannon is fired over a corpse, 
and it rises before at least five or six days' immersion, it 
sinks again if let alone." 

All experience does not show that drowned 
bodies require from six to ten days for sufficient 
decomposition to take place to bring them to 
the surface. Both science and experience show 
that the period of their rising is, and necessarily 
must be, indeterminate. If, moreover, a body has 
risen to the surface through firing of cannon, it 
will not sink again if left alone, until decomposition 
has so far progressed as to permit the escape of 
the generated gas. I wish to call your attention 
to the distinction which is made between drowned 
bodies, and bodies thrown into the water im- 
mediately after death by violence. 


Heerenveen, Holland. 

" WEDERYNGES " (8 th S. iv. 6, 76). I know of no 

example older than that given by Stratmann from 

Morris's 'Old Eng. Homilies,' i. 13. Benson's 

A. -S. Dictionary ' mentions the verb wedrian, but 

gives no reference. 

I think it most unfortunate that W. S. B. H. 
has offered us his " fancy" and " belief" as to the 
use of d in Middle English. It is wrong and mis- 
leading, and clearly due to unacquaintance with 
MSS. The very mention of " the hard sound of 
th " is sufficiently startling ; for the sound of th in 
father happens to be the " voiced " sound, which 
has been stupidly called " soft "; though the terms 
"hard" and "soft" are quite unmeaning as regards 
sounds. We have a voiceless th in thin, and a 
voiced th in then ; and these terms " voiceless " and 
"voiced" have a real sense, since they tell us whether 
the sound is not, or is, accompanied by vibration of 
the vocal chords. 

The suggestion about the use of d for the voiced 
th is especially suitable for complicating matters 
instead of explaining them, because examples of 
such use really occur in one or two MSS. of a quite 
exceptional character. The MS. of Genesis and 
Exodus, as edited by Dr. Morris, which I have 
myself read, in the original, from end to end, 
employs the A.-S. $ for both the sounds of th ; and 
in a few cases the scribe has forgotten to cross 
his d, so that in 1. 342 the word that is written 
" dat." But this use is entirely exceptional, and 
has nothing whatever to do with fader and moder. 
The Middle English forms for father ; mother, and 
brother are normally fader, moder, and brother; 
and the forms father and mother are even rarer 
than the form broder ; just as in High German 
we never find Vader or Mudder any more than we 
find Bruter. 

It is not a question of orthography at all, but of 

8 th S. IV. AUG. 12, '93.] 



dialect. The A.-S. MSS., being m the Weuez 
or Southern dialect, are nearly as tenacious of d as 
modern Dutch is. We find weder for weather; 
gadrian for gather; and a great many more such 
words. But Icelandic has wetr, /afcir, moSir, 
&o. The whole question would require many 
paces ; so I must leave off. I will only say that 
some Northern dialects use lather for ladder, and 
that I believe father and mother are Northern dia- 
lectal forms. Moreover, much depends upon 
Verner's law, which explains much of the varia- 

Books in Manuscript. By Falconer Madan, M.A 

(Kegan Paul & Co.) 

AH all-important addition to the series of " Books about 
"Books " of Messrs. Kegan Paul & Co. is supplied in the 
' Books in Manuscript' of Mr. Falconer Madan. Few, 
if any, living writers know more about books and MSS. 
than the sub-librarian of the Bodleian, and none, 
assuredly, is more modest in advancing his pretensions. 
His present volume is thus described as a short intro- 
duction to the study and use of the MSS. with which 
Mr. Madan deals. Books and manuscripts being kepi 
in the same collections, some retreading of ground 
traversed in other works is inevitable. Particulars con- 
cerning the early fabrication and housing of books are 
always welcome, and much of the information on these 
subjects even is not easily obtainable elsewhere. When 
the chapters are reached which deal with famous maim 
scripts and the like, the information supplied is o 
deepest interest. Mr. Madan's labours in mediaeva 
palaeography enable him to speak with authority on the 
history of writing, and to describe the various forms am 
character?. His volume may, indeed, be read side bj 
side with Dr. Maunde Thompson's ' Manual of Greek 
and Roman Palaeography 'an important contribution 
recently noticed in ' N. & Q.,' to the "Internationa 
Scientific Series " and with Canon Taylor's profoundly 
interesting volumes on ' The Alphabet.' Specially remu 
nerative is the chapter on illuminations, and on wha 
the author calls the eeesaw of England with the Con 
tinent, the art exhibiting in England a truly nationa 
style, not to be found at the same epoch in France am 
Germany, and vice versa. Upon the marvellous develop 
ment of the art in Ireland, full recognition of which i 
at length awarded, much is said. Highly interesting is 
moreover, the account, of the blunders of the ecribes 
and the opinions expressed as to the class of reading t 
be taken will be of extreme value to scholars. Com 
paratively few manuscripts are to be found except i 
important col lections. The notes, accordingly, on treat- 
ment and cataloguing of manuscripts appeal to com 
paratively few. They are, nevertheless, of great im 
portance. A chapter on public and private record 
will supply to the general reader much informatio 
difficult to obtain elsewhere. Appendixes and an hide 
are also provided. The beauty as well as the utility o 
the volnme is augmented by the illustrations, which ar 
numerous and important. A design from the Book o 
Kells, a seventh century Irish MS., now in Trinity Co" 
lege, Dublin, is marvellously interesting, and the Si 
Mark from the Bedford Hours is one of the lovelies 
specimens in existence of fifteenth century illumination 
No less striking is the St. Michael slaying the dragon 

rom a fifteenth century Parisian book of hour?. The 
ntire volume merits highest praiee. 

The Abbot. By Sir Walter Scott. Edited by Andrew 
Lang. 2 vols. (Nimmo.) 

'o the " Border Edition " of the Waverley Novels, finely 
dited by Mr. Lang and issued in superb form by Mr. 
[immo, has now been added ' The Abbot.' The con- 
itions under which it appeared, close upon the com- 
arative failure of ' The Monastery,' are dwelt upon by 
he editor, who also supplies a selection from the 
riticisms passed upon the book on its first appearance 
>y the Edinburgh, the Quarterly, and Blackwood. These, 
.xcept in the case of the Edinburgh, are favourable, 
.hough less eulogistic than might have been expected, 
dr. Lang expresses his own opinion that "perhaps no 
aste places ' The Abbot ' in the very first flight of the 
Vaverley Novels." Perhaps not. It is inferior to ' Rob 
loy,' possibly to ' Redgauntlet.' It has no comic cha- 
racter that can compare with Andrew Fairservice 
or Baillie Nicol Jarvie. It, however, has in Catherine 
Seyton one of the most fascinating heroines Scott ever 
lepicted, and its hero is the most interesting to be found 
n the entire series. Mr. Lang shows, with some subtlety, 
low the incapacity of Scott to sympathize warmly with 
either side in the struggle of the Scottish Reformation 
extends to his heroes, and accounts for their being so- 
ften in appearance invertebrate. Scott seems also to 
lave been afraid of making his characters ridiculous, 
^sbaldistone, in ' Rob Roy,' is a lawyer; Colonel Everard, 
n ' Woodstock,' is a scientific prig. Again and again 
does he make his heroes hesitate, like so many Hamlets, 
and look with a Huxley-like scorn upon theories or super- 
stitions that Bacon did not dispute. For this weakness, 
or such it is, he makes amends in the delightful spirit 
of adventure that animates the whole. Roland Graeme 
is a creature of flesh and blood, and his adventures in 
Edinburgh are among the mo.-t fascinating in fiction. 
Mr. Gordon Browne's etchings are excellent. We are 
specially pleased with his ' Catherine and Roland,' his 
Roland and the Setons,' and his " Madman, let me 
go ! " all of which are dramatic, as, indeed, is, in an 
even higher degree, ' The Death of Dryfesdale.' 

An Ordinary of Arms contained in the Public Register of 
all A rms and Bearings in Scotland. By James Bal four 
Paul, Lyon King of Arms. (Edinburgh, Green & Sons.> 
ANY work on Scottish heraldry by an incumbent of the 
historic office of Lyon King must be sure to attract the 
attention of the student of genealogy and of the science 
of blazon. The late Lyon made his mark both as an, 
historian, in his long and valuable series of volumes of 
the ' Exchequer Rolls of Scotland,' and in the work, so 
magnificent alike in conception and execution, which it 
was left to our well-known contributor Dr. Woodward to 
bring out, but which is a monument to the late George 
Burnett no less than to the living John Woodward. An 
'Ordinary ' of Scottish arms at first suggests a work built 
up on the broad lines of Papworth's very useful volumes, 
which are all the more generally useful from taking in 
sources of historic interest, such as rolls of arms, and 
other testimonies to the bearing of arms outside the 
limits of the various colleges and oflices of arms. The 
volume issued by the present Lyon is, unfortunately, 
built on the narrowest possible lines, and is of no use as 
a work of reference for Scottish arms outside the exist- 
ing Lyon registers, though they may be well known from 
seals or other historic evidences ; and it is even of no- 
use for a collection of coats which obtained the formal 
approbation of the Privy Council of Scotland, as they 
appear enrolled on the register of the present Lyon'a 
predecessor, Sir David Lindsay. The exclusion of this 
latter source of information on Scottish heraldry appears 



. IV. Auo, 12, 

to us much to be regretted, especially as there could 
have been no difficulty in distinguishing by some appro- 
priate mark those coats which are recorded on the 
register of Sir David Lindsay, but which do not reappear 
on the more modern Lyon registers. 

The absence of many names which might easily have 
been illustrated by Scottish seals and other evidences 
only serves to bring out in strong relief the relative 
poverty of the existing Lyon registers. Thus we look 
in vain in the present volume for Barclay of Collairnie, 
and for many of the numerous families with which that 
ancient line of the great Scottish Barclays matched, and 
their alliances with which were recorded by Sir David 
Barclay on the roofs of two of the rooms in his place of 
Collairnie about forty years after the date of Sir David 
Lindsay's register. It is enough to say that we miss 
from the present Lyon's volume such names as Sibbald 
of Balgonie, Sandilands of St. Monance, Eincraigie of 
that ilk, Durie of that ilk, and Fernie of that ilk, to 
show what a loss the student of Scottish heraldry suffers 
by the restrictions under which the Lyon has worked. 
The absence of the arms of Sibbald of Balgonie would 
alone furnish ample ground for our gravamen, when it is 
remembered that the Stuart Kings of Scotland and of 
England from James VI. and I., and their successors, the 
present reigning family, as well as the foreign royal 
houses which have intermarried with either line since 
the days of Isabel Sibbald, Countess of Angus, are, as 
Nisbet pertinently reminds us, all descended of the 
ancient Sibbalds of Balgonie, who were said to represent 
stout Earl Siward of Northumbria. Another point 
brought out strongly by the present Lyon's volume is the 
apparently very inadequate description of the matri- 
culants on the modern register. Thus we find one of 
the best-known and most interesting coats in Scotland, 
that of Campbell of Craignish, assigned to "James 
Campbell, Blackerton, co. Devon," without the slightest 
hint that the coat matriculated by the present chief is 
the remarkable bearing of the chiefs of the clan Dougal 
Craignisb, figured in the pages of Nisbet and Seton from 
the ancient seal of their eponymous ancestor, " Dugallus 
de Creagginsh." Again, we find living Scottish land- 
owners entered simply as "A. B., London," seemingly 
because they happened also to have a London residence, 
whence they probably sent in their petition for matri- 
culation. But to give no indication of the historic 
position or actual status, relatively to Scotland, of per- 
sons matriculating Scottish arms at the present day is, 
we submit, to prevent the existing Lyon register from 
bearing its rightful testimony to the antiquity of Scottish 

Wiltshire Notts and Queries. No. I., March, 1893. 


HERB is yet another of the prolific shoots from the old 
tree of Capt. Cuttle, in the shape of a quarterly Notes 
and Queries for Wiltshire. The old home of the Wil- 
saetas is well deserving of such a publication, and there 
should be enough of the antiquarian spirit in the county 
so long ago illustrated by Sir Richard Colt Hoare to keep 
such a magazine going. There is a charming frontis- 
piece, in the shape of a view of Great Chalfield Manor 
House, the first of the historic houses of Wiltshire to be 
described in the pages of our new contemporary. It is sad 
to know that the banqueting hall of this interesting Tudor 
house has been cut up into several rooms, and that all 
that is left of the interior has been " modernized " into a 
farmhouse. It is well that the north front yet remains 
to tell us of what Chalfield once was. Mr. R. B. Prosser 
contributes the firat of what promises to be a useful list 
of Wiltshire patentees, and throws light upon subjects 
mooted in the very same number. Laud's ' Articles ' for 

the Visitation of the Illustrious Church of Sarum in 
1634 contain much matter of interest to the student of 
the ecclesiastical history of England during a very event- 
ful period. Among the queries, it is much to be hoped 
that the query concerning the present hiding-place of 
the missing " Book No. 2 " of the vestry books of St. 
Edmund's, Salisbury, may lead to the recovery of a 
valuable parochial record. 

What are Teinds t By W. G. Black. (Edinburgh, Green 

& Sons.) 

MOST of us have a legal smattering enough to reply to 
Mr. Black's query, " Scottish for tithes "; but few pro- 
bably have a specific knowledge as to what differentiates 
teinds from tithes. Mr. Black, who is an authority on 
Scottish ecclesiastical law, traces here the custom of 
tithe-paying from its first civic enactment under Charle- 
magne, through its English observance, down to the 
time of its introduction into Scotland by King David I. 
By avoiding the use of technicalities as much as possible 
he has made his historical sketch the more interesting 
and understandable even by lay people. Any one curious 
to know on what terms teinds were held by " lords of 
erection," "titulars," "heritors," and "tacksmen," can 
here attain the coveted information. 

A SERIES of guides to holiday resorts are before us, 
and deserve a word of notice. Among them are Barrett's 
illustrations to the Eastern Counties, Yarmouth and 
Caister, Colchester and Lexden, Caister Castle, &c. 
(Lawrence & Bullen), capitally illustrated and full of 
antiquarian information; the sixth edition (Stanford) 
of Lof tie's admirable Round About London, a delightful 
companion to the pedestrian; and a new and revised 
edition, brought up to date (Stanford) of Miss Mary 
M. Howard's excellent guide to Hastings and St. 
Leonard's. To the antiquary these latter and more 
ambitious works make also direct appeal. 

MR. JAMES STILLIE, the oldest and most respected of 
Edinburgh booksellers, died on the 7th inst, in his 
ninety-first year. He was associated with Sir Walter 
Scott, whose proofs he took to Abbotsford. Mr. Stillie 
was an occasional contributor to our columns. 

* LITTONDALE : PAST AND PRESENT,' by the late Arch- 
deacon Boyd, edited by the Rev. W. A. Shuffrey, is 
promised for early publication. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

J. YOUNG. Shall be glad of a translation. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 


8 th S. IV. ADO. 19, '93.] 





NOTES : Coach, 141 Stanton Harcourt, 142 The Christian 
Bra " Beefeater " Maslin Pans, 144 The Man of Ross 
Wykeham's Monument, 145 "The Willing Mind" 
Linacre's ' Medicine ' Thurtell's Execution, 146. 

QUERIES : Jeake's MS. Diary Addison's Knowledge of 
Shakspeare The Pantheon" Three-decker "Northum- 
berland House, 147 Greensmith Michael Angelo Gar 
nett Dr. F. Pairman Impaling Arms Craven John A. 
Rolls Manners and Vernon Mottoes Book Wanted 
' Sir J. Russell's Post Bag' William Malet, 148 Kilmar- 
nock Willow-" Weeping Chancel "-Heraldic-The Hide 
in Domesday" Whips " Theodosius, 149. 

REPLIES : The Rebellion of '98, 149 " Stoat," 150 Fair 
Boeamund Sir T. Robinson, 151 " Inkhornize " Sir 
Cornelius Vermuyd en " Dandy," 152 Hypatia Beran- 
ger's Song, ' La Deesse' Startling Assertions, 153 Small 
bridge Epigraph The Persian Poet Khayyam Sir John 
Falataff "Salzbery" and " Sombreset," 154 Charles 
Mercy Shakspeare Biography Books with their Backs 
to the Wall, 155" Rumbelow " " Amorous," 156 Signet 
Ring " Hoodlumism " Vanishing London, 157 " Jenal ": 
"Jannock" Macau lay on Boswell Handie "Every 
mickle makes a muckle" Our Public Records William 
Pont de 1'Arche Hablot, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS -.Cavendish's 'Life of Wolsey' 
Foster's ' Oxford Men and their Colleges ' Thoyts's ' How 
to Decipher Old Documents ' Felbermann's ' Hungary ' 
' The Annual Register.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Dr. Murray, in the * New English Dictionary,' 
when enumerating the various cognate forms of the 
word " coach," remarks that they are to be found 
since the sixteenth century in nearly all European 
languages, and that all were derived originally from 
the Magyar word " kocsi." Some years ago I was 
myself a firm believer in this etymology ; but since 
I have more fully gone into the subject I have 
come to the conclusion that the derivation of some 
of the forms from the Magyar word is perhaps 

At the very outset we meet with a serious 
difficulty, and that is that, owing to the loose, not 
to say slovenly, way in which the old writers, 
especially lexicographers, have treated, and modern 
historians still treat, the subject of vehicles, it is 
very difficult to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion 
as to what kind of carriage, for instance, a French 
coche really was. Thus Jean Nicot, of tobacco 
fame, in his * Thrfoor de la Langue Frangoise ' 
(Paris, 1606), states that coche is a Hungarian word, 
and means chariote in French and petoritum and 
cisium in Latin ; and the explanation of the mean- 
ing of the word chariote in turn is given as a 
" petite charette a deux roues, aur le milieu et aiaaeul de 
lacjuelle eat asme une littiere sans brancara couverte de 
cuir, ou d'autre eatoffe ; a porter a couvert lea personnes 
per paya." 

Nicolas Bergier, the famous French antiquary of 
the seventeenth century, writes: 

"[De] nostris vebiculis, quoe coches vulgo vernacule 
vocamus, voce ab Hungaris mutuata, a quibua et prima 
eorum inventio ad noa pervenit." ' I>e publicia et 
militaribua Imperil Roman! viia,' lib. iv., sect, x., No. 8. 

He does not state what the exact feature of the 
French coches was, but only mentions them when 
speaking of the vehicula, rhedce, and carpenta of 
the Romans. In the French version of the same 
work (' Histoire des grands chemins de 1'Empire 
Romain,' Paris, 1622) it is stated that Charles IX. 
was the first to introduce " des coches publiques" 
(in 1571) which were to ply between Paris and 

Menage, in his ' Origines de la Langue Fran- 
Qoise ' (Paris, 1650), also derives " coche du mot 
hongrois kotczy" and credits the Hungarians with 
the invention of the coches. 

Roubo the Younger, " Maitre Menuisier," in his 
'L'Art du Menuisier- Carrossier,' publishes illus- 
trations (from old engravings in the Royal Library) 
of three vehicles of Henry IV.'s reign (1589-1610) 
which are not suspended, and of one of the days of 
Louis XIV. (1643-1715) which is suspended by 
braces. Henry IV. himself, as we know, is reputed 
to have used a " coche. "* 

Then we have Kruenitz, a German writer, who, 
in his 'Oekonomisch-Technologische Encyclopaedic,' 
p. 57, sub art. "Kutsche" (Briion, 1794), says 
that the difference between a coche and a carrosse is 
that the former has no straps. This is in distinct 
contradiction of Roubo, who a quarter of a century 
before him had stated that when "on suspendit 
les voitures elles prirent le nom de coches." 

With regard to other languages, I may just men- 
tion Junius Adrianus, who lived between 1511 and 
1575. The materials collected by him for a dic- 
tionary were published at Paris in 1606, under the 
title 'Nomenclator Octolinguis. ' In this book, 
too, cisium, which we know for certain was a 
Roman two-wheeled vehicle, and is explained in 
the book itself to be a " vehiculum duabus rotis 
nitens," is rendered as kntsche in German, cotse 
in Belgian, coche in French, cocchio in Italian, 
and coche in Spanish. The testimony of Adrianus 
would be very valuable if we could be quite sure 
that the material gathered by him was not altered 
in any way in the process of editing it after his 
death, as he was a careful observer, and is reputed 
to have collected his information about technical 
matters from the lips of men who from their daily 
occupation were the most competent to enlighten 
him on a particular subject. 

* The king is said to have written to Sully, " Je ne 
acaurais paa vous aller voir aujourd'hui parceque ma 
femme se *ert de ma coche." The authority for this 
rests with the writer of a French book, publiahed in 
1752, who recieved his information from a descendant of 
the king. 



With regard to the Hungarian Icocsi (pronounced 
kotshee "), Dr. Murray remarks that 
'it does not appear what was the precise new feature 
that distinguished the Hungarian kocsi, and led to its 
adoption throughout Europe. A German picture of 
' ein ungerische Gutsche,' after 1550, shows it still with- 
out covering and not suspended on springs." 
Dr. Murray wrote "springs," but no doubt 
meant " straps," as carriages with their bodies 
swinging on leather straps, cords, or chains are 
much older than those on springs. The earliest 
swing coaches were suspended by braces from short 
upright pillars, and the perch was originally 
straight. Gradually this assumed a curved form, 
known as " swan neck." Then was conceived the 
idea of bending the pillars also to which the braces 
were fixed and giving them a little spring. Dr. 
Murray gives the date of the picture as "after 
1550 "; but on referring to Grimm, and following 
up the references given in each book from author 
to author, I traced the original sketch to an old 
Chunteruet Buoch ' (' Book of Counterfeit Pre- 
sentments '), preserved in the Imperial Library in 
Vienna, and engraved by "Jeremias Schemel 
Maler zu Augsburg." The latest date to be found 
in this book is 1568; but on comparing the picture 
of the " Gutsche " with Herberstein's description 
of the vehicle in which he travelled in Hungary iu 
1518, given in his * Autobiography,' we find that 
the two agree remarkably well, and consequently 
that very little, if any, change has taken place in 
the construction of the kocsi during half a century. 
According to Herberstein these vehicles were 
drawn by three horses abreast, and there was very 
little, if any, ironwork about them. They carried 
four persons, including the driver, and were 
"indeed a very agreeable conveyance [in spite of the 
absence of straps or springs], so that any one was able to 
convey his bedding, clothes, eatables and drinkables, 
and other conveniences, provided the load was not a 
heavy one."* 

Herberstein further states that these vehicles 
ran day and night between Vienna and Buda, a 
distance of thirty-two miles ( = about 150 English 
miles) "well measured," baiting after every twenty- 

* I am quoting with slight alterations from the ' Notes 
upon Russia,' vol. i. p. cxiv (note), published by the 
Hakluyt Society in 1851. There is an amusing blunder 
in the translation of the passage referring to the total 
absence or scantily of ironwork. The translator, mis- 
taking German eisen (iron) for eis (ice), makes Herber- 
stein say that the vehicles " are drawn by three horses 
abreast, and at those times when there is little or no ice 
on the ground." The original text reads, " und derselben 
Zeit kain Eisen oder gar wenig daran war." I ought to 
have translated the word pferden as " maree/' as accord- 
ing to the evidence extant they seem to have been 
mares, as a rule. Thus the Archbishop of Kalocsa leaves 
in his will of 1543, "unum curriculum cum tribus 
equabus." Cuspinianus and, we are told, the Latin 
edition of Herberstein also mention mares. It will be 
remembered that she-mules, as a rule, drew also the 
vehicles in which the Roman ladies rode. 

four to twenty-eight English miles, and changing 
horses midway at Gjbr (Kab.).* 

Hence we have detailed information about, and 
consequently a very good notion of, what a Hun- 
garian kocsi was like. The plate referred to by Dr. 
Murray may be seen in pt. 57 of Kruenitz's ' En- 
cyclopaedia,' or on a larger scale in the * Ungrischee 
Magazin ' (Pressburg, 1781-87), both in the British 
Museum. The latter work contains two excellent 
articles by Cornides on the invention of "coaches"; 
and in order to save numerous foot-notes and refer- 
ences, I once for all acknowledge my indebtedness 
to that source for much information reproduced in 
these notes. 

It does not require the practised eye of a cart- 
wright to discover that Schemel has been very 
careless with regard to the details of the con- 
struction of the Hungarian vehicle represented by 
him, some of which are impossible. Thus he 
shows no shafts or poles, but only two pairs of 
traces for the middle horse, and one wonders how 
the vehicle was to be manoeuvred down a very 
steep road.f One would also like to know how 
the artist imagined the four struts supporting 
the sides of the vehicle were fixed, and how 
the wheels could be shifted on the axles, when 
greasing them, with the struts permanently fixed, 
as shown in the sketch. Allowing, therefore, for 
such minor inaccuracies in the details, vehicles 
like the one represented by Schemel can still be 
seen in Hungary, and are extensively used by all 
classes of people for quick locomotion in the 
country and also for carrying light loads. I have 
often travelled in them myself, and from personal 
experience may bear out Herberstein that they are 
not a bad kind of conveyance. With a layer of 
fine fragrant hay, about a yard deep, uncompressed, 
and a couple of horse-rugs they make a better 
couch for night travelling, in spite of the absence 
of straps and springs, than, for instance, the accom- 
modation offered by the Great Western Railway to 
weary travellers on a night journey to Penzance in 
their sleeping cars. By day the hay is gathered 
up to the rear end of the vehicle, and covered with 
the horse-rugs it forms an agreeable, elastic seat. 

L. L. K. 
(To be continued.) 

Let me place on record in the books of the 
chronicles of 'N. & Q.' a visit to a place of con- 
siderable genealogical and antiquarian interest, 

* ' Autobiography,' edit, by Kovachich, Buda, 1805. 

f I had a reference, but unfortunately mislaid it, to i 
prove that vehicles with poles were known in Hungary i 
long before Herberstein's time. Nowadays, the middle 
horse does not run between shafts, as in the Russian 
troika, but the kocsi has a pole, and both traces of the \ 
third horse are hitched to a draw gear at the aide of the 

8 th S. IV. AUG. 19, '93.] 



Stanton Harcourt, the ancient home of the family 
of Harcourt, and their burial-place even at the 
present time. 

The church is a cruciform structure, of greater 
size than is usually found in Tillages, and is distant 
only a few miles from Oxford. On the south side 
of the chancel, and about the same length, is the 
Harcourt aisle, quite filled with the monuments of 
the family. The probable date of its erection may 
be 1482, or perhaps a little earlier. It is of rich 
Perpendicular work with an open quatrefoil para- 
pet. Under the east window (now removed to the 
east wall of the transept) was the alabaster monu- 
ment of Sir Philip Harcourt, who died in 1688, 
and Ann his wife, daughter of Sir William Waller, 
the Parliamentary general. On the south side 
is the recumbent figure of Sir Robert Harcourt, 
slain in 1471, and that of his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Sir John Byron. Opposite is the 
monument of his grandson, Sir Robert Harcourt, 
who was standard-bearer to Henry VII. at Bos- 
worth Field. The crest of the family, a peacock 
upon a ducal coronet, and their coat, Gules, two 
bars or, are often figured. There is, coming to 
modern times, a mural monument, ornamented with 
flowers, to the memory of the Hon. Simon Har- 
court, who died in 1720, only son of Lord Chan- 
cellor Harcourt, or, as he was then called, Lord 
Keeper, with a Latin inscription by Dr. Robert 
Freind, head master of Westminster School, whose 
pupil he had been, and an English epitaph by his 
friend, the poet Alexander Pope, some lines of 
which may here be quoted : 

How vain is reason ! Eloquence how weak ! 

If Pope must tell what Harcourt cannot apeak ; 

Oh let thy once loved friend inscribe thy stone 

And with a father's sorrows mix his own. 

"An epitaph," says Dr. Johnson, "principally 
remarkable for the artful introduction of the name, 
which is inserted with a peculiar felicity." Near 
this is the recumbent effigy of his son, the first earl 
of the line, painted in most gorgeous colours in 
oils, red, yellow, and gold, and having on the head 
an earl's coronet gilt. He died from falling acci- 
dentally into a well in his park at Nuneham. On 
the other side is an altar tomb of Caen stone, on 
which is the sculptured effigy of the patriarchal 
Archbishop of York, Edward Harcourt, formerly 
Venables Vernon, in his episcopal dress, with his 
hands upraised in prayer : 

In sacred sleep the pious bishop lies, 
Say not ia death, a good man sever dies. 

This is an exact replica or copy of the marble 
monument of the archbishop in the nave of York 
Minster. His remains rest in the large ancestral 
vault below, and I can remember seeing them 
there deposited in November, 1847, the coffin- plate 
recording that he died " in the ninetieth year of 
his age, and fortieth of his primacy." Just in 
front of the iron gates of the chapel is the colossal 

statue of the third and last Earl Harcourt, who 
attained the high military rank of field marshal, 
who was born in 1747, and died in 1830. 

Yet another monument at the church with an 
inscription by Pope, a very simple one, is on the 
outside wall of the church, to a couple of young 
people in humble life, John He wet and Sarah 
Drew, who were killed by lightning on July 31, 
1718, when at harvest work. Some may remem- 
ber the fine engraving after Constable * A Storm in 
Harvest.' Gay has addressed a pathetic and 
touching letter to a friend from Stanton Harcourt, 
dated August 9, 1718, about a week after the 

A door in the churchyard wall leads into the 
garden, and enough remains of the manor house to 
show its former great importance. Pope, writing 
about 1718 to the Duke of Buckingham, gives a 
description of its former grandeur : 

" In former days there have dined in this very hall 
gartered knights and courtly dames, attended by ushers, 
sewers, and seneschals, and yet it was but last night an 
owl flew in hither, and mistook it for a barn." 

He then describes the " tips and downs " of the 
hall and the contents of the "great parlour/' viz., 
" the broken bellied virginal, the crippled velvet 
chairs, the mildewed portraits, and the dried 
poppies and mustard seed." " There are upon the 
ground floor," he says, 

" in all twenty-six apartments, among which I must not 
forget a chamber which has in it a large quantity of tim- 
ber that seems to have been either a bedstead or a cyder- 

The old kitchen is a remarkable structure, some- 
what resembling the abbot's kitchen at Glaston- 
bnry, having three lofty and wide recesses in the 
wall, which is a yard in thickness. What a waste 
of fuel there must have been in days when cooking 
ranges and oil stoves had never been even thought 
of! Across the garden the chapel, with its 
tower, which is divided into three stories, the 
room on the ground floor having been the chapel. 
The uppermost chamber of all is called Pope's 
study, and here it was that in 1718 he inscribed 
upon a pane, now preserved at Nuneham, "In 
the year 1718 Alexander Pope finished here the 
fifth volume of Homer." There is a little fireplace 
in one corner for the winter season ; the chamber 
has the appearance of the cell of a recluse, 
with perfect quiet and seclusion all around. Pope 
survived for many years, dying at Twickenham 
in 1744. The great patron of the little bard 
at this time was Simon, the first Baron Harcourt, 
who seems to have been kind and amiable in 
manners, and on intimate terms with all the 
great literary men of that day, as Pope, Swift, 
Addison, and Gay, and was evidently a man of 
great legal knowledge. He died in 1727, at the 
age of sixty-seven, and was buried in the adjacent 



. IV. AUG. 19, 

Lord Harcourt bad made powerful speeches 
opposition to the Bill of Attainder of Sir John 
Fen wick in 1696. He is classed by Macau lay a 
the equal of William Cowper, afterwards Ear 

"Both were gentlemen of honourable descent; hot 
were distinguished by their fine persons and gracefu 
manners ; both were renowned for eloquence ; and hot] 

loved learning and literary men They were destine 

to rise still higher, to be the bearers of the great seal o 
the realm, and the founders of patrician houses." ' His 
tory of England/ chap. xxii. 

Newbourne Rectory,' Woodbridge. 

USB or THE CHRISTIAN ERA. In the ' Penny 
Cyclopaedia/ under " Chronology," we read " The 
method of dating events from the birth of Christ 
is said to have been first practised by a Roman 
monk named Dionysius the Little about the year 
527." Abo in the ' American Cyclopaedia' (Ripley 
and Dana), under the same heading, " About the 
middle of the sixth century Dionysius Exiguus, a 
Roman abbot of Scythian birth, introduced the 
method of dating from the birth of Christ." Similar 
statements may be found in many other books, and 
it is singular that it should have been overlooked 
that Eusebius made use of this method in his 
' Chronicon ' about two centuries before the time 
of Dionysius. Eusebius places the Olympic dates 
on the left hand side of the page, and those from 
the birth of Christ on the right hand. But it 
would almost seem as if he relied principally for 
his succession of events on the years of the reigns 
of the Roman emperors, and inserted the other 
lists afterwards. For there are evidently mistakes 
in them, some of which were corrected by Jerome, 
who translated and continued the 'Chronicon.' 
That the Olympic dates of Eusebius are not to be 
belied on appears sufficiently from this, that he 
places the expedition of Xerxes into Greece in the 
fourth year of the seventy-fourth Olympiad, whereas 
we know from Herodotus (and it gave rise to one of 
the most familiar anecdotes in Grecian history) 
that the Olympic festival was being held during 
the expedition, the date of which was in all pro- 
bability the first year of the seventy-fifth Olympiad. 
Although the Olympic games were not finally 
abolished until thereignof the Emperor Theodosius, 
they had long before that ceased to attract much 
attention, and were not customarily used as dates 
in the time of Eusebius, who would seem to have 
inserted these by an afterthought, and to have made 
several mistakes in his lists. Thus, speaking of an 
eclipse of the sun which occurred in the reign of 
the Emperor Nero, he places it in the year before 
the murder of Agrippina, though we know from 
Tacitus that it took place in the same year, which 
we are enabled by astronomical calculations to fix 
as A.D. 59, when the sun was eclipsed on April 30. 

Possibly the tables in Eusebius were added by a 
later hand. W. T. LYNN. 


" BEEFEATER." The earliest known example of 
this nickname of the Yeomen of the Guard is 
dated 1671, but it can hardly be doubted that the 
sobriquet was current before that date. MR. BIRK- 
BECK TERRY quoted some verses in a previous 
number (8 tb S. ii. 319) in which the Yeomen are 
coupled with chines of beef as early as 1647 ; and 
the following, from Earle's * Micro-cosmographie * 
(character 30, " A plaine Country Fellow "), carries 
back the association to 1628: 

*' His Dinner is his other worke, for he sweats at it 
as much as at his labour; he is a terrible fastner on a 
piece of Beefe, and you may hope to staue the Guard off 

It is evident herefrom that the Yeomen derived 
their nickname from a popular belief in their 
voracity as eaters of beef. F. ADAMS. 

MASLIN PANS. (See 6 fh S. vi. 47, 158; x. 
289; xii. 471; 7 th S. iii. 385, 485; iv. 57, 310, 
451 ; xi. 83.) The account of the work carried on 
by Abraham Darby is interesting. He may be 
regarded as the first maker of cast brass Maslin 
sans in England. He lived at Coalbrookdale, in 
he parish of Madeley, where, since about 1640, 
)rass Maslin pans were made by the Flemish 
amily of Hallen, who had removed into Stafford- 
shire and Shropshire from Wands worth. The 
)ans they made, however, were not cast, but beaten 
>ut, and old specimens show the marks of the 
>lows. Hence their works were called the battery 
works. The fact has been already established that 
he Hallens were the sole makers of hammered 
Vlaslin pans in England. Now it appears that 
Darby with the aid of Dutch workmen was the 
first maker of cast brass pans such as now go by the 
name of Maslin pans, and have driven the more 
mostly utensils out of the market. This clearly 
proves that till the arrival of the Hallens from 
lalines in 1610 Maslin pans were not made in 
England ; John Brode, the only other pan-maker 
mown, evidently had a small works; he owned 
hat the pans were unique, and that the newly 
ome foreigners were ruining him. Again, till 1690 
ast brass pans were not made in England. The 
Maslin pans which existed in England during 
be sixteenth century must have been made 
broad and Mechlin (Maslinia) is known to 
ave produced them in great numbers having 
special guild of pan makers. I do not see how 
: can be doubted that they brought their name 
with them as much as Delft crockery or Cordovan 
eather. The idea that a long obsolete Saxon word 
mestlin was revived for them and for no other brass 
tensils appears untenable. Culen (Cologne) and 
jaton were the names applied generally to brass 
oods; but brass pots, when not called "brass," were 


8*s. iv. A, w, '93.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


called " Moulin,",, often till lately pronounced 
"Malen," because, so I hold, they were made at 
Mechlin (Maslinia), Malines. In the desire to con- 
nect oar words with the early English the fact is 
often overlooked that the introduction of foreign 
wares, and later of foreign workmen, led to the 
introduction of foreign designations. If the Old 
English word Mestlin had held its ground, it would 
have been applied to other brass utensils besides 
pans. It did not hold its ground it became obso- 
lete ; and there is nothing to show either that it was 
revived or that it was likely to be revived as a 
designation of goods imported from Malines, the 
manufacture of which was unknown in England 
for many years after they were in common use. 
It is only by pegging away that a subject obtains 
due consideration, just as it was by much battery 
that the plate of brass took the shape of a Maslin 


THE MAN OF Ross. (See l Bt S. v. 537 ; vi. 
642; 2 nd S. xi. 466, 519; xii. 72 ; 4 tt S. vi. 154; 
6 th S. ii. 514 ; iii. 157,) Among the family papers 
of the Earl of Romney I have found a small packet 
of letters from Robert Marsh am, of Stratton Straw- 
less, a well-known Norfolk squire and arboricul- 
turist in the last century, to his distant cousin, 
the Hon. Harriot Marshara, daughter of the first 
Lord Romney; and among them is one, dated 
July 6, 1789, containing a passage which may be 
worth adding to the many conflicting accounts of 
the Man of Ross : 

" I am charmed with the Kensington shoemaker. 
Perhaps he is a better man than the Man of Ross. I 
was at Ross soon after M r Popes Epistle was published. 
Kirle was dead ; but the people that i conversed with 
did not agree in the Character that Pope had given him : 
& M r Bethel (Popes blameless Bethel) told me that Pope 
bad asked him for a shining character of slender for- 
tune, which he gave him, but Pope was pleased with 
Kirles character as he had drawn it, & neglected 
Bethels man. Kirle i think was a low-life drunkard : 
but well meaning." 

Miss Harriot Marsham, who was born May 11, 
1721, and died unmarried, Aug. 7, 1796, had 
evidently given her old cousin and correspondent 
a description of some exemplary shoemaker in 
Kensington, but her letter is, unfortunately, not 
forthcoming. There is an account of Robert 
Marsham, who was born Jan. 27, 1707/8, and 
died Sept. 4, 1797, in Bell's edition of White's 
Natural History of Selborne ' (2 vols., London, 
1877), vol. ii. p. 243 ; and the letters from Mar- 
sham to White which Bell prints show his peculiar 
use, as in the passage quoted above, of the small i 
instead of the capital, except at the beginning of a 

5, Cheeterfield Street, Mayfair, W. 

WYKKHAM'S MONUMENT. Wykehamists are 
now anxious to restore Wykeham's own monument 

n Winchester Cathedral. It is well known that 
36 chose the spot for his tomb where he had 
istened in boyhood to the sermons of Friar Peking. 
Be was the second Winchester prelate to build 
trimself a chantry, which none omitted who died 
there from Edington, about 1364, to the Reforma- 
ion. According to Wharton, "his body lies 
buried in the chantry of the B.V.M. in the new 
cathedral, which chantry he himself ordered to be 
built in his lifetime, to the honour of the said 
Virgin." Now this erection blocks up one entire 
arch of the nave that he so well transformed, en- 
croaches on both nave and aisle, and by its vault- 
ing, about forty feet high, completely hides the 
arch, and disfigures the nave like nothing, I believe, 
in any other church, except the north transept of 
Westminster Abbey; and is so inferior in style 
that I always supposed it his successor Beaufort's 
work, till lately hearing that Wykeham's will men- 
tions it as " a certain chapel by me newly erected." 

Now as we no longer build chapels to the Virgin, 
nor make any use of sepulchral chantries, the 
question arises, May we not better honour hii 
memory and actual monument by well renewing, 
the tomb on its raised platform, with the eighteen 
surrounding statuettes, and displaying it by totally 
removing this injurious chapel? Though it has 
places for ten internal life-size statues and ten 
external, none of those places have ever been 
filled, and tho whole architecture is of the poorest 
description for its time. It will not bear the least 
comparison with either Edington's chantry or those 
of the later bishops, Beaufort, Waynfleet, or Fox. 
The only bits of carving about it are a score or two 
of little crockets, all alike. It is nowise superior 
to Mr. Ruskin's fig. xix. p. 223 of the * Nature of 
Gothic,' in * Stones of Venice,' vol. ii. The vaulting 
is without bosses, for, though contemporary with 
that of Guildhall porch, London, it is the earliest 
example I know of that peculiar English degrada- 
tion to panelwork, exemplified in St. Sepulchre's 
porch, Newgate. Even the flowers along the top 
of Edington's screen are degraded here to minia- 
ture battlements. There is not even a moderately 
bold bit of arch moulding or cornice. Even Gar- 
diner's Renaissance chantry, of Queen Mary's time, 
has really more design about it than Wykeham's. 
Those who may think the erection of any value 
might remove it to the westernmost arch, where 
it would be opposite an arch already blocked some- 
what ; but if I were a Wykehamist or Bishop of 
Winchester I should be for abolishing it wholly. 

The cathedral has many calls for restoration, if 
they could be done and nobody get a farthing of 
"percentage on outlay" the pestilent pelf that has 
cost this country, in about half a century, every ves- 
tige of old work that eight centuries had left. The 
four corners of the transept ought to be underpinned 
strong enough to bear again the four belfry towers 
that I mentioned, ante, p. 17. Then, the bells being 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 a. IT. A, w, . 

moved to some of these, the central tower ought t< 
be finished with a story of circular windows, as a 
East Meon Church. These would be wider than 
the present belfry windows, and largely splayec 
inward. The main walling of all these new work 
I should think necessary to distinguish from the 
old by light-coloured bricks, which were totally 
unknown in Hampshire in Walkelin's or Wyke 
ham's times. They ought to be larger and thinner 
than those made for the Law Courts in the Strand 
people having now little idea of the difference that 
well-proportioned bricks can make. The bricks 
within the lantern should also be enamelled white 
or gilt, for saving light. E. L. GARBETT. 

" THE WILLING MIND." Being at this house 
of entertainment lately with Mr. Peggotty, it 
occurred to me to wonder how such a sign ever 
came to swing for the likes of him. It does not 
seem to appeal with much point or directness to 
the mind of mariners. Dickens probably knew 
better when he chose it. For it appears the 
name has belonged to sea nomenclature these many 
years. The Willing Mind, of Poole, was one 
of the captures made by Captain Bartholomew 
Boberts, pirate, in the West Indian seas, about the 
middle of 1720. W. F. WALLER. 

Linacre dedicated his first translations of Galen to 
King Henry VIII. : * De Sanitate Tuenda,' 1517, 
' De Methode Medendi,' 1519. In the dedication 
of the latter he says : "Since of my lucubrations 
I have already dedicated to you two parts of 
Medicine I could not allow my duty to you to halt 
for want of the third part thereof." This passage 
formerly proved a difficulty to the biographer of 
Linacre, Dr. Noble Johnson, as it now does to 
Dr. Frank Payne, the most recent writer of the 
celebrated physician's life. ' Three Parts of Medi- 
cine ' are spoken of in it as having been presented 
to the king, and since up to that time Linacre is 
only known to have printed two works of Galen, 
his biographers have been naturally led to look for 
another. " Either the work," says Dr. Frank 
Payne, in the 'National Biography,' "never got 
beyond the stage of manuscript, or the printed 
edition has been entirely lost." 

The printer Claudius Chevalonius, who lived at 
the sign of the Golden Sun, in the Rue St. Jacques, 
Paris of an early edition, 1526, of ' Da Methode 
Medendi/ sets all doubt on this head at rest, in a 
petition to his readers requesting a prayer for the 
soul of Linacre, lately deceased. It runs : 

" To the Reader. For these twenty books in which 
the three principal parts of Medicine are embraced, 
Candid Reader, whoever thou art that hast drawn profit 
from them pray well for Linacre, the Englishman, who 
has translated them with the utmost possible fidelity." 

Linacre's first work, ' De Sanitate Tuenda,' of 
six books ; the second, ( De Methode Medendi,' of 

fourteen, making the total twenty, leave us none to 
look for, and thus the ' Three Parts of Medicine ' 
are complete in the two works. 

A passage from Hieronymus Mercurialis illus- 
trates this tripartite division. He says : 

"Since, all the goods of the body as Arislotle avers 
(< 1 Rhet.,' c. 5) are chiefly three, Health, Strength, and 
Beauty, Medicine consists of three parts, of which that 
concerning the care of the body, when Health is absent 
is named Therapeutics or Curative ; when present, Hy- 
giene or Preservative ; and that, the aim of which is 
the development of strength, Gymnastics." ' De Decora- 
tinne,' appended to ' De Morbis Cutaneis,' Venice, 4to., 

The division, however, as this passage might 
seem to imply, is not Aristotle's, who makes no 
mention at all of medicine in the place referred to, 
and no such division of the science in the whole 
compass of his works. But Mercurialis was such 
an Aristotelian that he was bound to find in his 
favourite author, at least by inference, the partition 
of his favourite science. The division is, in fact, 
Galen's own. Galen has two divisions of medicine, 
one of which, given as a comment on a passage of 
Hippocrates, makes the parts, Pharmacy, Surgery, 
and Dietetics ( De Viet. Rat. in Morb. Acut., 1 
c. 6) ; the other that of Mercurialis given above, 
though to Galen's view this latter division consisted 
of but two parts Therapeutics and Hygiene 
Gymnastics being subordinated by him as a branch 
of the latter (Galen, ' Epist. ad Thrasy bulum '). 

The British Museum has a copy of the 1526 
edition of * De Methode Medendi. ' Chevalonius 
was evidently after printing Linacre's other work, 
De Sanitate Tuenda.' A copy of his edition, if 
it have survived, has up to this escaped notice. 

'rom the Rev. Dr. Jessopp, of Norwich, in the 
Athenceum of July 8, speaks of " Thurtell, who was 
hung for murder about 1828." I am often applied 
:o for dates about Thurtell's trial and execution ; 
so please allow me space to state that he was hung 
at Hertford on Friday, Jan. 9, 1824, for the mur- 
der of William Weare, of Lyon's Inn, Strand, 
jondon, a place now pulled down, then between 
loly well Street and Wych Street. The murder was 
ommitted on Friday, Oct. 24, between eight and 
nine at night, in Gill's Hill Lane, Radlett, a hamlet 
>f Elstree, Herts ; the exact spot was just beyond 
he second turning in the lane, south-west from 
_?robert's Cottage. Thurtell was apprehended on 
'uesday, Oct. 24, at the "Coach and Horses Inn," 
Conduit Street, Bond Street. On Tuesday, Decem- 
>er 4, his ferial began at Hertford, before Mr. Justice 
ark, and the Hon. W. Lamb (Lord Melbourne 
was foreman of the grand jury. Next day, Dec. 5 
he trial was postponed for a month, and was 
esumed on Tuesday, Jan. 6. On Wednesday he 
*as found guilty, and though he begged hard for 
ime to see friends and settle affairs, he was sen- 

8-is.iv.Aoo.i9.-98.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tenced to be hung on the Friday (next day but one) 
and was executed accordingly. Georye Borrow 
mentions an incident of the execution in hi 
' Lavengro.' W. POLLARD. 


We muBt request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix thei 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

I recently obtained a very neatly written 4to 
MS. consisting of 'A Diary of the Actions anc 
Accidents of my Life/ &c., by Samuel Jeak 
(eldest eon of Samuel Jeake and Frances his wife) 
who was a native and resident of Rye (Sussex) 
and married in 1680 Elizabeth Hartshorn, when 
he was twenty-eight and she was only twelve 
years and eight months. Her mother's Christian 
name was Barbara. He was a merchant, and deal 
in wool, lockrams, dowlas, &c. There are severa 
kinds of goods mentioned in the diary the names 
of which I cannot find explained. They are not 
mentioned in Halliwell's * Dictionary. ' The wool, 
for instance, is packed in " serplers," which I infer 
was the name for the sheets in which wool is 
usually packed. Serpilliere is the French for 
" packing cloth." He also deals in " Tregar " and 
"Lan'ion" (which is possibly some woollen material] 
and "pieces of Garlits" and " silk armour." I shall 
be glad to know what these materials were. 

He purchases in London, in 1688, "a Japan 
suite" of furniture for his "Chamber," for the 
sum of ten guineas, which is sent by ship to Eye. 
He only mentions the table, as it arrived " dented 
and battered." He also writes that "y e jack- 
weight fell down in y e chamber overhead." What 
is ajackweight? He refers also to "bedstaffs" 
and was " presented by the Grand Jury at Rye for 
not coming to church three Sundays,'' and is fined 
twelvepence for each day. This was in 1685. He 
gives the names of the authors, titles, and sizes of 
283 books which he has read. Parts of his diary 
are written in cipher, somewhat like shorthand. 
Is anything known at Rye about Samuel Jeake ? 
The name of " Mrs. Frewen " is written in ink on 
the back of the diary. Some of that family (who 
belong also to Sussex) were members of Parliament 
for Rye. 

I also have another MS. of Jeake's of the same 
size and entitled ' Astrological Experiments.' 


De Quincey had some very strong prejudices ; the 
stupefying potencies of opium had no power on his 
mental capability of fiercely hating. Goethe, 
Josephus, Parr, Addison, and many others come 
under the fierce cut of the great critic's laoh. He 

attacks Addison for his ignorance of English poetry, 
and for a flagrant neglect of our national poet, 
surely a literary crime : 

" In particular, with regard to Shakspeare, we shall 
now proclaim a discovery which we made some twenty 
years ago. We, like others, from seeing frequent refer- 
ences to Shakspeare in the Spectator had acquiesced in 
the common belief, that although Addison was no doubt 
profoundly unlearned in Shakepeare's language, and 
thoroughly unable to do him justice, yet, that, of course, 
be bad a vague popular knowledge of the mighty poet's 
cardinal dramas. Accident only led us into a discovery of 
our mistake. Twice or tbrice we bad observed, that if 
Shakspeare were quoted, that paper turned out not to be 
Addison's : and at last, by express examination, we as- 
certained the curious fact, that Addison has never in 
one instance quoted or made any reference to Shak- 
speare." De Quincey's ' Works,' vol. xv. p. 9. 

In the Spectator, No. 592, which is attributed 
to Addison, there is the following reference to 
Shakespeare : 

" Our inimitable Shakspeare is a stumbling block to 
the whole tribe of these rigid critics. Who would not 
rather read one of his plays, where there is not a single 
rule of the stage observed, than any production of a 
modern critic, where there is not one of them violated 1 ' 

Perhaps some student of Addison could tell 
whether this paper is actually his, and if any other 
Shakespearean reference can be found in Addison's 
works. It would be well to have De Quincey's 
statement either confirmed or refuted. 



THE PANTHEON. Plato somewhere in his 
'Phsedrus,' I believe, describes Zeus as making 
a tour of animated nature ; mounted on a chariot in 
solitary state, he leads, followed, as I read it, by 
a " princely twelve." Who were they ? Let us 
say Poseidon, Apollo, Hermes, Ares, Dionysus, 
Hephaestus six male?, excluding Zens. Now 
Hestia was left at home to " keep the pot boiling," 
so we have the female principles or sakti, via., 
Hera, Aphrodite, Athena, Demeter, Artemis five 
nly. How, then, are the twelve made up; and, 
bove all, how do the couples pair off among them- 
selves ? A. H. 

" THREE-DECKER," When did this expression, 
as applied to the old-fashioned arrangement of 
ml pit, reading-desk, and clerk's desk, first came 
nto use? I have met with it in the Rev. Arthur 
Mozley's article on * Open Seats in Churches,' in 
he Christian Remembrancer for July, 1852, where 
he says : 

" In the midst of the church stands, elaborately 
arved, the offensive structure of pulpit, reading-desk, 
nd clerk's desk ; in fact, a regular old three-decker in 
ull sail westward." P. 92. 

Can any of your readers supply an earlier reference ? 

R. B. P. 

Northumberland, when suffering with the goat, was 



IV. AUG. 19, '93. 

visited here by a tiger. 0. J. Fox told Kogers he 
had heard the Duke tell the story. How could 
this be ? Cross's menagerie was not moved to the 
mews until 1829, or that might have rendered it 
more possible. C. A. WARD. 

Chingford Hatch, E. 

SHIRE. The following extract is from Burke's 
' General Armory/ edit, of 1842 : 

" Greenemitli (Steeple Grange, co. Derby ; granted in 
1714 : in the following year, Robert Greensmith, Esq., 
was high sheriff of the county). Vert, on a fesse or, 
betw. three doves close ar. beaked and legged gu., each 
with an ear of wheat in the bill of the second, as many 
pigs of lead az. Crest A dove as in the arms." 

A large old-fashioned gold seal, impressed with 
this coat of arms, was in the possession of Miss 
Partridge, late of Shelly Hall, Suffolk. I shall be 
obliged to any reader who will tell me the relation- 
ship (if any) that existed between the Greensmiths 
and the Partridges, or in what way the Derbyshire 
Greensmiths were connected with Suffolk. 

T. S. 

formed that his mortuary tablet is in some church 
or chapel in the western suburbs of London, and 
should be glad to know where it is to be seen. 

4, Argyll Road, W. 

FRANCIS FAIBMAN, D.D. He was presented to 
the Rectory of Godleston, Norfolk, in June, 1732, 
and to that of Oby, Norfolk, in July, 1747. Can 
any one tell me of his family or parentage, or place 
of burial ? KNOWLER. 

IMPALING ARMS. In what cases is it strictly 
permissible in England for a person holding official 
position to impale his arms ? Can, or could, a dean 
ever do so of right, and, if so, when did the custom 
cease ? Could a prior do so before the Reforma- 
tion ? It seems that a master or other head of a 
college has this right ; but supposing him to be 
pleb. fil, is he entitled (1) to use the college arms 
alone, or (2) to impale the college arms with a 
blank or a diaper, or (3) has he to dispense with 
arms altogether ? R. J. W. 

whom did this dignity become extinct? All 
authorities g\ye but one holder of the title, namely, 
Sir Anthony Craven, sixth son of Robert, of Apple- 
treewick, and brother of Sir William, of Lenchwike 
(knighted 1639, died 1665), and of Sir Thomas, of 
Burnsal (died 1682, aged seventy -one). Sir 
Anthony was created a baronet June 4, 1661, and 
knighted June 14 following, and is said to have 
diedjs.^. either in 1670 (Burke) or 1713 (Courthope). 
If the last date i& correct, he must have been very 
aged at death and have survived all his sons. 
For it is certain that he had issue. A John 

Craven matriculated from Wedham College in 
January, 1687/8, as a "baronet's son," and was 
admitted to the Middle Temple in 1691, as the 
"second son of Anthony, of Beenham, Berks, 
knight and baronet" (Foster's * Alumni Oxoni- 
enses'). It is probable, therefore, that the state- 
ment in Le Neve's 'Knights' (Harl. Soc.,vol cxliv.) 
that he had two sons and four daughter, is correct. 
A good deal of confusion exists in connexion 
with the earlier generations of the Craven family. 
I am inclined to think that there were two Sir 
Anthonys, the one a knight, the other a baronet 
When did Sir Thomas Craven of Burnsal receive 
knighthood? Also Sir Robert Craven, usher to 
the Queen of Bohemia who died Oct 4, 1672, 
aged forty ? (Collins's * Peerage,' vii. 148.) He is 
said to have been a younger brother of Sir Thomas 
of Burnsal and of Sir Anthony of Spersholt, but I 
suspect him to be of a younger generation. 

W. D. PINK. 

JOHN ALLAN ROLLS. (See 8 th S. iii. 370.) In 
the issue for May 13, under the heading 'St. 
Thomas Waterings,' MR. F. ADAMS, in a reference 
to the Rolls family, naturally infers that John 
Allan Rolls, Lord Llangattock, is a grandson of 
a Mr. John Rolls mentioned; but at the time when 
he was advanced to the peerage the London papers 
stated that his father, John Etherington-Welch- 
Rolla, was son of John Etherington- Welch. Can 
any correspondent give authentic information on 
this point ? J. E. 

have the Manners family borne their motto " Pour 
yparvenir"; and is there any authority for the 
statement that the Vernons ever used " Drede God 
our speed,' 7 as given in the Grundy and Sullivan 
opera of 'Haddon Hall'? 


Eden Bridge. 

BOOK WANTED. I shall be glad if you can 
assist me though the medium of *N. & Q.' in 
finding out where I can see a copy of a scarce 
book entitled ' Papers relative to the Family of 
Wicker, of Sussex,' folio, 1782. It does not 
appear to be in the British Museum or the London 
Library. A. MYNOTT. 

one give me the exact title of a book published in 
Oxford about the year 1850 under the name of 
1 Sir John Russell's Post Bag ' ? William Seweli 
was, I believe, the author. I should be glad to 
know where I could see a copy of the work. 

M. C. OWEN. 

charter in favour of the canons of Graville (Nor- 
mandy), handwriting of the twelfth century, but 
without any date, mentions in Anglia the church 

. IV. AUG. 19, '93.] 



of S. Peter de Linlea, and the church of All 
Hallows de Welia. Can any one refer this to 
localities known in England ; and to which possible 
branch of the Malet family ? G. R. 

KILMARNOCK WILLOW. This tree grows (W. D. 
Howells, in his * Undiscovered Country ') in the 
Public Garden, Boston. Does it grow in this 
country ; and by what name do we know it ? 


" WEEPING CHANCEL." Can any one tell me 
what is meant by a "weeping chancel," and 
refer me to examples of it in England ? GAT. 

[Is there some reference to the supposed symbolism in 
the deflection of chancels.? for which see 2 nd S. x. and 
xi. passim.~\ 

HERALDIC. Will any of your readers who are 
versed in heraldry let me have the proper English 
of the following French coats of arms ? 

De Gueules a 6 billettes d'argent, 3, 2, 1, an 
chef de meme. 

D'or au chef d'azur charg6 d'un dextrochere 
vetu d'un fauon d'hermines. 


any of your readers inform me as to the value to 
foe attached to the fraction of the hide in Domes- 
day ? For instance, in Cheshire, under Wervin, it 
is stated, " There is one hide and two parts of one 
hide." Again, under Neston, "There are two 
parts of two hides," In the same county mention 
is made of half a hide and a third of a hide, and 
also of a third of two hides (which I presume 
means two-thirds of one hide), but there seems to 
be no indication as to the value of a " part " of a 

Claughton, Cheshire. 

connexion with the recent death, in his eighty- 
sixth year, of Major Thomas Knox Holmes, it has 
been noted that he was '* the son of Mr. William 
Holmes, who for thirty-seven years was Tory 
Whip in the House of Commons." This lengthened 
period seems so abnormal that I should be glad to 
have dates in proof. Has any list of the leading 
party whips, or whippers-in, as old Parliamentarians 
used to call them (and Mr. Gladstone does so still), 
ver been compiled ? POLITICIAN. 

THEODOSIUS. In Baedeker's < Guide to Sicily ' 
occurs the following passage in reference to Syracuse 
and its siege by the Saracens in A.D. 878 : " The 
monk Theodosius gives an appaling account of the 
distress of the besieged and the ferocity of the 
victors." Can any of your readers tell me who 
Theodosius is, and what work he wrote ? I can 
procure no information. I thought at first it 
might be Theodosius Alexandras, but he lived 
in A.D. 417. MOHAMMED. 

(8 th S. iii. 422 ; iv. 70.) 

The publication within the last few years of a 
mass of hitherto inaccessible historical material, by 
Mr. J. T. Gilbert, LL.D., late Secretary, Record 
Office, Dublin, has been a great boon to lovers of 
Irish history ; and now this veteran compiler and 
editor has just issued a most important work, of 
priceless value, containing ' Documents relating to 
Ireland, 1795-1804.' These original state papers 
carry conviction with them, unlike some histories 
written to support the party views and prejudices 
of their writers. They can be said to represent 
the events happening at the respective periods, the 
details of which are given by the participators in 
the great historical dramas enacted. The schedule* 
of accounts in the first part of the volume supplies 
the names of those who " furnished private in- 
formation " and received " secret service money," 
clearly showing the modus operandi of the execu- 
tive of the English Gevernment in dealing with 
the rising. The infamous Francis Higgins obtained 
1,OOOZ. for the betrayal of the gallant Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald.t Mr. Gilbert informs us in his pre- 
face, p. xii, 

"that the letters and documents in the second part 
extend from 1795 to 1799. Many of them are from the 
hitherto unpublished papers of Thomas Pelham, Chief 
Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1795 
to 1798, and subsequently Earl of Chicheater." 
One of the grievances of Dissenters and Catholics 
was that they had to pay tithes to support clergy- 
men of the Church of England. Frederick Hervey, 
Protestant Bishop of Derry and Earl of Bristol, in 
a letter to Thomas Pelham (see p. 122), states : 

' You do not know the nature of tithes in Ulster, but 
here it is. Besides the general disadvantage it brings Co 
agriculture, by the short uncertain tenure which a parson 
can give of the tenth of the land's produce and the tiller's 
toil, a disadvantage so glaring and BO oppressive, it ia 
amazing that any enlightened legislature allows it to 
outlive the present year." 

The following high tribute to the bravery of the 
United Irishmen is paid by Lord Castlereagh in a 
despatch to William Elliot, pp. 135, 136: 

"The rebels fought at Ballynahinch (co. Down), as 
n Wexford, with determined bravery. They made the 
attack, and used some wretched ship guns mounted on 
cars with considerable address." 

* Printed from the original manuscript preserved in 
the library of the Royal Irish Academy, its contents are 
now for the first time printed in full by Mr. Gilbert. 
The payments commence on Aug. 21, 1797 and termi- 
nate on March 31, 1804. It was gratifying to me not to 
find any members of the sept McGauran or McGovern 
referred to therein. 

t Facing the title-page is a portrait of this gentleman ; 
the original, by Horace Stone, is in the collection of the 
Duke of Leinater. 



C8" 1 S. IV. AUG. 19, '93. 

Evidence is also borne as to the rales enforced for 
sobriety amongst their ranks, and the charge 
against them of universal cruelty is successfully 
rebutted. Mr. Gilbert has occasioned the memory 
of these brave men to be cleared. A perusal of 
his excellent work will show how absurd are the 
caricatures by Cruikshank illustrating Maxwell's 
History of the Irish Rebellion of 1798.' Vis- 
connt Castlereagh, in a despatch, dated June 6, 
1798, Dublin, p. 128, to Thomas Pelham, says : 
" The rebellion seems to have taken serious root in 
Wexford. Their force is very great, the body in question 
exceeding ten thousand men, a considerable proportion 
of fire-arms, and conducted with an attention to military 

A class of patriots called Defenders merged into 
the United Irishmen, open alike to Protestants 
and Catholics, Hiberno-Celt and Anglo-Gelt, and 
in Musgrave's ' Memoirs of the Rebellions in Ire- 
land/ in the appendix, some documents are given, 
one signed by the secretary, Daniel M'Goveran 
(McGovern or McGauran), confirms Mr. Gilbert's 
book in respect of it being a necessary condition 
that sobriety should be strictly observed. The 
ever-to-be-regretted massacre of Scullabogue would 
have been better left unnoticed by MB. WOODALL. 
Acts were committed on both sides and repented 
of afterwards. However, the Southron furnished a 
precedent after the battle of Culloden (see ' The 
White Cockade/ by James Grant, 1867, p. 411). 
rp hd Carew Manuscripts, carefully preserved in 
Lambeth Palace (see Carew's ' Cal. State Papers, 
Ireland ') give proof of most objectionable practices 
adopted by Care wand Mountjoy in their subjuga- 
tion and ruling of the sister isle at the close of the 
sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
turies, which would cause honourable soldiers and 
statesmen of the present time to blush. The infer- 
ence to be drawn from this tome of Mr. Gilbert's is 
quite clear : if there had been a general rising in 
Ireland, instead of it being confined to some few 
counties, the insurrection would have ended in favour 
of the Irish. Cooke, the Under-Secretary, in a letter 
to Pelham, dated June 16, 1798, p. 141, stated that 
the situation was "critical," and expressed his 
doubts as to what might be the result if parts of 
the south should " burst forth." The stout resist- 
ance these brave and hardy men made, together 
with their soldierly appearance, form a singular 
contrast to the scarecrow figures pictured in Max- 
well's book, which are more fitted for Fun or Judy 
than an historical work. The Eirl of Camden, 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in a letter, dated 
June 11, 1798, to Pelham, p. 132, states : 

" You may be assured that the complexion this rebel- 
lion wears is the most serious it is possible to conceive. 
Unless Great Britain pours an immense force into Ire- 
land the country is lost. Unless she sends her most able 
generals those troops may be sacrificed." 

I take this excerpt from a communication of Castle- 
reagh to Pelham dated June 8, 1798, pp. 130, 131 : 

" I send you a copy of a letter from Major Veeey, of 
the County Dublin regiment, an excellent officer, whose 
account is more detailed than the official despatch from 
General Johnson. An enemy that only yielded after a 
struggle of twelve hours is not contemptible. Our 
Militia soldiers have on every occasion manifested the 
greatest spirit and fidelity ; in many instances defective 
in subordination, but in none have they shown the smallest 
disposition to fraternize, but, on the contrary, pursue the 
insurgents with the rancour unfortunately connected 
with the nature of the struggle." 

The materials afforded by the publication of the 
' Cal. State Papers, Ireland/ with Mr. Gilbert's 
valuable collection, and the * Carew Cal. S.P.I./ 
present to the future historian of Old Erin addi- 
tional data that previous writers had not the ad- 
vantage of. JOSEPH HENRY McGovERN. 

60, Victoria Street, Liverpool. 

" STOAT," ITS DERIVATION (8 th S. ii. 349, 514 ; 
iii. 417, 455 ; iv. 115). I cannot say certainly 
how far this word goes back, but it occurs in Top- 
sell's ' History of Four-footed Beasts/ of which the 
original edition appeared in 1607. I have not this 
at hand, but ed. 1673, p. 171, has "neither Cat, 
Ferret, Weasel, Stoat, or other noysome Beast." 
John Taylor, the Water Poet (c. 1630), in ' The 
Praise of Hempseed,' ' Works/ pt. iii. p. 64, has: 

And Weazeh, Polecats, Wildcats, Stoats, and such 
Like spoyling Vermin should annoy men much. 

Whence the name appears to have been well known 
early in the seventeenth century. The dictionaries 
do not appear to have got the word so early ; 
Kersey's edition of Phillips, 1706, has "State, a 
kind of stinking Ferret," but the word is not in the 
preceding edition of 1696. We may possibly have 
an earlier example than these, but our more 
recent materials for S are not yet incorporated with 
the main series, and so not readily accessible. It 
has been assumed that the word is the same as 
stot, stott, in fourteenth to fifteenth century, applied 
opprobriously to a woman (mistress, prostitute), 
chiefly I suppose because of the phrase "stynkynge 
stott " in the ' Woman taken in Adultery ' in the 

* Coventry Mysteries.' But this is inadmissible ; 
this word occurs three times in the place in ques- 
tion, as"thou stotte," " thou stynkyng stotte," 
rhyming with lot, " such stottys "; also in Chaucer 

* Friar's Tale/ 332, "olde stot," ur., "stott"; in 
Caxton * Tulle ' as "rebawde stotte"; and in the 
'Book of St. Albans/ &c., "a Disworship of 
Stottis," all showing a short vowel. This stot, stott , 
stotte is identical, at least in spelling, with a word 
meaning an ox, steer, bullock, or nag ; but whether 
these are the same word or not, they have clearly 
nothing to do with stote, stoat. The notion that 
they have appears to be derived from Bailey, who 
having in his folio ' Dictionary ' appropriated Ker- 
sey-Phillips's entry, " Stote, a kind of stinking 
ferret/' has inserted as a separate word, " Stote, a 
young horse or bullock." The octavo hap, as one 

. IV. AUG. 19, '93.] 



entry, " Stoat, a stallion horse ; also a sort of rat,' 
apparently a ' ' conflation " of the two entries. But 
Bailey's stote, stoat, <- young horse or bullock," is, 
we know, a mere error, or chain of errors, for stot, 
stott, the short vowel of which is evidenced by a 
long series of instances from Pierce Plowman to 
the present day. In other words, stole, stoat, the 
weasel, has a long o wherever we know it, atot, 
stott, stotte, an ox or nag, and the same spellings 
meaning a courtezan or a strumpet, have short o 
wherever we find them, except in Bailey's " con 
Hated" entry. Thus all attempts at derivation 
which identify the weasel with the bullock are 
baseless and nugatory. Of the actual etymology of 
stoat nothing has yet, so far as I know, been dis- 
covered. I think the word is of southern nativity, 
and possibly, from its late appearance in books, 
originally local ; it is quite unknown to me as a 
northerner, except as a book-word, the meaning of 
which I have to recall by reflection every time I 
come across it. I think it is quite unknown in 
Scotland ; and I should like to know how far north it 
goes, as a native living word of the country people, 
in England. (Stott, a bullock, is, I need hardly 
mention, on the contrary, mainly northern ; and 
stott, a strumpet or mistress, seems to. have been 
generally known.) These few facts may help 
MR. BIRKBECK TERRY to investigate the word both 
geographically and historically ; I hope he may do 
so to some purpose before we reach S. 


FAIR ROSAMUND (8 th S. iv. 109). E. S. A. will 
find information, at once trustworthy and ex- 
haustive, in the 'Dictionary of National Biography,' 
s.v. "Clifford, Rosamund." K. N. 

SIR THOMAS ROBINSON (8 th S. iii. 427). Sir 
Thomas Robinson, of Kentwell Hall, in Long 
Melford, co. Suffolk, one of the prothonotaries 
of the Common Pleas, was created a baronet 
January 26, 1681/2, and leaping from his cham- 
ber window in the Middle Temple, August 12, 
1683, to escape a fire then raging, was killed 
npon the spot (admon. P.C.C., August, 1683). 
By Jane, his wife, daughter of Lumley Drew, 
of Upton Bishop, co. Hereford, Esq., he had 
issue an only child, Sir Lumley Robinson, of the 
Inner Temple, who succeeded as second baronet. 
He was born in or about 1648, and married 
(licence, V.G., July 26), 1680, Ann, only surviving 
child and sole heiress of John Lawrence, of the 
city of Westminster, gent., sometime secretary to 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer (third son of 
Edmund Lawrence, an alderman of Chichester), by 
Amy, his wife, daughter of Richard Williams and 
Emily Till, both likewise of Chichester. Sir 
Lumley Robinson died June 6, and waa interred 
in Westminster Abbey, June 10, 1684, aged 
thirty-six (admon. P.C.C., June, 1684). His 
relict married, secondly, August 2, 1688, at, 

St. Mary Aldermary, William Foulis, who after 
her death succeeded as fourth baronet of Ingleby 
Barwick. They had issue an only son, Sir William 
Foulis, fifth baronet. She was buried in West- 
minster Abbey, December 13, 1690, having had 
issue by her first husband a son and a daughter. 
The son, Sir Thomas Robinson, was baptized at 
the Abbey July 14, 1681, and died s.p. at Beccles 
April 21, 1743, when the title became extinct. 
The daughter, Ann Robinson, was baptized at the 
Abbey October 5, 1682, and married Sir Comport 
Fytch, of Southill, in Eltham, and Mount 
Maskell and Jacket's Court, in North Cray, all 
co. Kent, Bart. He died September 29, 1720 
(will P.C.C., 25 Buckingham). His widow was 
buried at Eltham April 29, 1737 (admon. P.C.C., 
May 10, 1737, to daughter Ann Fytch, erroneously 
styled " only daughter" in the grant).* Sir Com- 
port and Lady Fytch had besides other children 
who died in infancy a son Sir William Fytch, 
who succeeded as third baronet, and died in 
minority June 13, 1736 (buried at EUham), when 
the title became extinct ; and two daughters Ann 
and Alice. The former died in minority, the 
latter married, in the chapel of Morden College, 
in Charlton - by - Greenwich, October 28, 1740, 
Sir John Barker, of Sproughton, co. Suffolk, 
Bart.; and secondly, Philip Brooke, of Nacton 
Court, in the same county, Esquire, who died 
September 22, 1762. By her first husband, who 
died June 7, 1757, she had issue an only child, 
Sir John Fytch Barker, Bart., born July 25, 
1741, married in 1759 Lucy, daughter of Sir 
Richard Lloyd, Knt., but died s.p. January 3, 
1766, devising his lands in Eltham and North Cray, 
which he had inherited from the Comport and 
Fytch families, to an entire stranger, the descend- 
ants of Sir Comport Fytch having become extinct. 

Authorities Wills at P.C.C., Westminster 
Abbey Registers, Collins's 'Baronetage/ Burke's 
* Extinct Baronetage,' Hasted's 'Kent,' Streat- 
feild and Larkin's 'Kent,' and Gentleman's Maga- 

Jane Owtram, widow of Prebendary Owtram, of 
Westminster, Chaplain in Ordinary to Charles II., 
by her will dated July 17, 1721 (P.C.O., 185 
Buckingham), bequeaths to " Lady flitch my Bohea 
Teapott and lamp," and "to Miss Alice flitch 
daughter of the Said Lady flitch my little diamond 
buckle to whom in some sort it belongs." There 
is nothing in the above to explain the connexion 
with Dr. Busby. Can any one say anything of his 

Since the above was written, Mr. Challenor Smith 
has kindly referred to the bond, and there he discovered 
that the administratrix was " Alice Fytch of the parish 
of St. George the Martyr spinster only daughter of the 
said deceased." So that ' only daughter " was, after all, 
correct ; the error lay in the Christian name, which hae 
now been amended in the Act Book. I wonder if this 
a the first occasion on which 'N. & Q.' has caused a 
revision of P.C.C. " copy." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. A*G. 19, -os. 

genealogy, and at what date and in what court his 
will was proved ? 

Eden Bridge. 

"INKHORNIZE" (8 th S. iii. 486). Cotgrave's 
'Dictionary' has: " Pedantizer. To pedantize it, 
or play the Pedant ; to domineere over lads ; also 
to inkhornize it." " Inkhornism " is used in Hall's 
4 Satires,' i. viii.: 

Like as she were some light skirt of the rest, 
In mightiest inkhomitms he can thither wreat. 

Singer, in his edition, says in a note that this word 
was probably coined by Hall. But in Nares's 
' Glossary,' edited by Halliwell and Wright, it is 
stated that "an example of the word has been 
quoted from Wilson's ' Khetorike,' fol. 82, printed 
in 1553." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

Though this word is rare indeed, as rare as 
MR. SPINGARN says it had a companion in old 
days in the substantive " inkhornism," which meant 
exactly what your correspondent tells us " inkhorn 
terms " meant, though I am not acquainted with 
that expression beyond the instance he gives, but 
only with " inkhornism " in its place. Of this 
word there is an instance in Bishop Hall : 
In mightiest inkhornisms he can thither wrest. 

Sat. viii. bk. i. 

Barnes Common. 

Halliwel), in his ' Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words,' gives the following example of 
the use of this word : 

"Inkhorn. To use inkhorn terms, i.e., to write 
affectedly, and use fine language. ' Escorcher le Latin, 
to inkhornize it, or use inkhorn tearmes ' (Cotgrave)." 

"Inkhornism" will be found in Hall's 'Satires,' 
i. viii. (London, 1599): 

In mightiest inkhornisms he can thither wrest. 
See also * N. & Q.,' 5 th S. vi. 109, 254. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

478). I have the following notes on this name and 
that of Fairmedow : 

(a.) Mary Upton, of a Devonshire family, 

married, first, Vermuyden, M.D. ; secondly, 

as fourth wife of Sir John Maynard, serjeant-at- 
law, knighted 1660, born 1602, died October 9, 
1690; thirdly (Lie., November 17, 1691), as second 
wife of Henry, sixth Earl of Suffolk. She died 
1720. See Le Neve, ' Knights,' p. 117. 

(6.) The London Visitation of 1633 has the 
following : 

Giles Vermuyden, of St. Martin's Dyke in Ze 
land, married Sarah, daughter of Cornelius War 
kendike, of the same, and had a son. 

Sir Cornelius Vermuyden, of Hatfield, co. York 

int., and of London, had arms 1629, married 
Catherine, daughter of Allsaints Lapps, of Lon- 
don, and had issue, 

1. Cornelius Vermuyden, born 1626 (probably 
married Mary, daughter of Sir Compton Keade, 
created a baronet in 1660. Her sister Elizabeth 
or Anne Reade married Sir Fairmedow Peney- 
stone, Bart., of Leigh, co. Sussex). 

2. John. 

3. Sarah (probably the Sarah Venn referred to 
KANTIUS as married to Thomas Blake, clerk). 

4. Katherine (probably married Thomas Babing- 
;on, of Somersham, who was born August 11, 
1615, and died 1680, leaving two sons, who died 
without issue). See Burke's * History of the Com- 
moners,' iv. 517. 

5. Adriana. 

To whom may be added, 

6. Deborah, daughter of Sir Cornelius Ver- 
muyden, Knt., married as first wife of Sir Francis 
Bickley, third baronet of Attleburgh, co. Norfolk, 
and died March 6, 1669, leaving a son whose issue 
seems to be extinct. 

(c.) Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Cornelius 
Fairmedow, Knt., of London, married Sir Thomas 
Peney stone, second baronet, and was mother of 
Sir Thomas, third baronet, and of Sir Fairmedow, 
fourth baronet, mentioned above. Her issue is 

(d.) I think it is Betham (? i. 317 or ii., appendix, 
22) who mentions that Sir Cornelius Fairmedow 
married Dionysia Stonhouse ; but my note is im- 
perfect. Probably the same person as is mentioned 
by Col. Chester as dead before April 20, 1683, 
when administration was taken by his relict Dame 
Dionysia. SIGMA. 

"DANDY" (6 th S. viii. 515 ; ix. 35, 135, 213, 
319 ; 7 th S. viii. 487 ; ix. 149 ; 8 th S. iv. 81). 
MR. C. B. MOUNT can hardly be correct when he 
says, " the dandy, though often laughed at, has 
always received a certain amount of popular 
or vulgar admiration." The thing "dandy," my 
experience goes to show, in general estimation, is 
never anything else than "something mean and 
contemptible," like Bishop Fleetwood's dandiprats. 
And, at any rate, the newspapers of the time when 
dandies were numerous failed to find anything in 
them to admire. I copy the following from the 
Northampton Mercury of April 17, 1819, because 
it shows the estimation in which, in the provinces, 
the dandy was held, and because it mentions the 
error MR. MOUNT has already pointed out : 

" Origin of the word Dandy. This term, which has 
recently been applied to a species of reptile very common 
in the metropolis, appears to have arisen from a small 
silver coin, struck by King Henry VI F., of little value, 
called a dandy pratt ; and hence Bishop Fleetwood ob- 
serves, the term is applied to worthless and contemptible 

In the following month (May 15) the same 

8" 3. IV.Aoo. 19, '93.] 



paper commences a paragraph: "At a dinne 
table, a short time ago, one of those nondesrcipt 
called a dandy was seated at the top." In th 
remaining eighteen lines the nondescript is indif 
ferently referred to as beau, fop (" with an affectec 
mincing tone" of voice), and dandy. Amon 
operative shoemakers of to-day, whilst the eland 
is contemptible, the "dandy workman" is 
superior craftsman ; and a dandy pair of boots ar 
the work of a " don " hand. A. D. 


I was writing to suggest that the child, th 
urchin, was the original sense of the word dandi 
prat, and that the coin, having a diminutive effig; 
on it, was perhaps thence itself called a dandiprat 
even as the Scottish coin was called a bawbee from 
the baby face of James IV. on it. But I bethough 
me of writing to Mr. Head, of the Coin Departmen 
of the British Museum, who could tell me, if any on< 
could, whether there was any s^uch coin (value 
Ijd.) and what was the effigy upon it. H< 
answered, in effect, that there was no such coin o_ 
Henry VII., and that perhaps it was the sum, not 
the coin, of three halfpence which was called a 
dandiprat. I wrote again, mentioning the objecl 
of my inquiry, and asking if there was any, and 
what, coin of those times with a diminative effigy, 
suggesting also the comparison with the Scottish 
bawbee, and further, that if there was a silver two- 
pence it might have been worn and cried down to 
three halfpence. 

This produced the enclosed letter from Mr. 
Wroth, which is an interesting contribution to the 
discussion : 

"Mr. Head asks me to answer your letter of yesterday. 
Leake (who quotes Camden) does not specify the coin 
of Henry VII. to which the name dandiprat is said to 
hare been given. We can only suppose that it was some 
small coin of the Tudor period. The 2rf. piece (half 
groat) of Henry VII. has a small head of the king on it 
(o also, however, has the shilling of the same reign), 
and the silver penny of Henry VII. has a small seated 
figure of the king on it. Your ingenious explanation 
that the name dandiprat was given because of the small 
head, or the small figure on the coin, is therefore possible. 
However, the derivation of the coin-name bawbee from 
ie baby James IV. which you quote as analogous in- 
rolves a numismatic difficulty, and is not now generally 
accepted, I think. I am rather inclined myself to be- 
lieve that dandiprat was merely suggested by the small 
wze of the coin : thus the 2d. and Id. of Henry VII., and 
the ld. piece (firat issued by Elizabeth) would be in 
popular estimation the small children, the dandipratg of 
the coinage. (What, however, is the date of the first 
known appearance of the word dandiprat in the sense 
a child?) The passage from the old arithmetic, 
previously referred to in Mr. Head's letter, shows that 

vria also applied to the sum of lArf., not neces- 
sarily to a coin of that value. 

The seated figure, had the sum been Hrf., would 

nave very well suited my argument ; and indeed 

name may have really been given to the coins, 

itner for the reason given by me or for that sug- 

gested by Mr. Wroth, and may have been inherited 
by the l$d. piece of Elizabeth. In either case the 
dwarf or "child name may well have preceded the 
coin-name, even though we have no literary evi- 
dence of it. Your correspondents probably know 

if yeet soom progenie from me 

Had crawl'd by the fatherd, if a cockney dandiprat hop- 
Pretty lad ./Eneas in my court wantoned. 

' ^n.,' iv. 349. 



MR. MOUNT'S article on this word reminds me 
that there is yet another sense in which it is used. 
Chambers's 'Book of Days' (article "Spectre- 
Dogs ") gives one local name of the " Gabriel 
hounds" as "the devil and his dandy -dogs." 
Why "dandy-dogs"? Surely there can be no 
connexion between the attendants of der wilde 
Jciger, a Pall Mall exquisite, or poor " tu Pas 
voulu " Dandin. A. 0. Pushkin, the eminent Rus- 
sian author, in introducing his Pendennis-like 
hero Eugene Ooegin, describes him as being 
dressed ''like a London dandy." 

51, Medora Road, Brixton Hill, S.W. 

For a rather startling opinion as to the origin of 
dandy, see the first published ' Hie et Ubique ' of 
Sir William Fraser, pp. 102, 103. 


HYPATIA (8 th S. iv. 106). I submit readily to 
the correction of so competent a scientific authority 
as MR. W. T. LYNN. But I may be allowed to 
state that in a treatise on hydrostatics, I think by 
Or. Lardner, the author, after denying that Archi- 
medes invented the hydrometer, goes on to state 
hat the real inventor was a learned lady of Con- 
tantinople, named Hypatia. I consulted such 
accounts as were at hand respecting her of Alex- 
andria, and finding no reference to the hydro- 
meter in connexion with her name, I adopted the 
tatement in question, inasmuch as it did not seem 
;o me impossible that there might have been two 
earned ladies of the same name. 

Highgate. N. 

ON B RANGER'S SONG, * LA DESSE ' (8 th S. iv. 
05). See * The Book of French Songs ' ("Chandos 
Classics"), translated by the late John Oxenford. 
n a brief preface to this song he gives the in- 
orination sought by your correspondent. 

C. H. S. 

BirkJale, Southport. 

STARTLING ASSERTIONS (8 th S. iv. 48). It 
eems probable that a sixteenth century candle 
would not perish in the way W. S. B. H. men- 
ions. The Archaeological Journal (Institute), 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8" s. iv. A. 19, <&. 

April 5, 1883, contains an engraving of a candle 
which is believed to be of pre -Reformation date. 
I have heard of candles of the Roman time being 
found in mines, but I am not able to give refer- 
ence to my authority. I think the discovery was 
made somewhere in the Austrian Empire. I can 
remember well the time when tinder was in com- 
mon use. It certainly did not flame. So far as I 
know, there is but one way of making tinder, 
therefore it is fair to assume that it did not do so in 
the sixteenth century. A YORKSHIREMAN. 

I do not think it possible that tinder will flare 
up. I was familiar with getting a light by this 
means more than sixty years ago. I could by 
blowing produce a greater heat, but never flame. 
I have the old apparatus, and have just tried it, 
but there was no flame. As to the candle, pro- 
bably mice had eaten it up. G. H. THOMPSON. 


Wax would certainly not moulder away. I have 
a piece of candle from Wykeham's chantry in 1404 ; 
at any rate, pre-Reformation. E. L. G. 

SMALLBRIDGE, SUFFOLK (8 th S. iv. 68). Your 
correspondent BEAULIED will, I think, find that the 
place he is inquiring for is a noted mansion house, 
called Smallbridge, in the parish of Bures St. 
Mary, in Suffolk. The Walgrave or De Walde- 
grave families were long residents there, and many 
were knighted. Of the \Vulgraves seated here in 
1483 and 1526 I have many notes and memo- 
randa. C. GOLDING. 


There is a farm of that name in the parish of 
Bures St. Mary, Suffolk, which may possibly be the 
small estate inquired for by BEAULIEU. 

J. H. J. 

There is a Smallbridge in the village of Bures, 
on the Essex border of Suffolk, some six miles 
from Sudbury. This was long the seat of the 
ancient family of Waldegrave, but is, I believe, 
now a farmhouse. Probably this is the estate 
referred to by BEAULIEU. JAMES HOOPER. 


EPIGRAPH (8 th S. iv. 26). For some rhymes of a 
similar kind see ' Metrical Life of St. Cuthbert ' 
(Surtees Soc.), 245-7. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

MR. BOUCHIER queries the name of this poet. 
The real surname of 'Omar was Khayyam, an 
Arabic word signifying a tentmaker, derived from 
Khaima, a tent, and adopted into the Persian 
language. Keyam is entirely inadmissible. 


SIR JOHN FALSTAFF (8 th S. iii. 425 ; iv. 36). 
Shakespeare may have borrowed the name of 
Falstaff from that of Sir John Fastolfe of. Caistor, 

but I believe that his conception of this, his finest 
creation, was entirely original, and that it was 
based on his own keen appreciation of the 
amalgam which is known as human nature rather 
ban on any dryasdust reading of history. That 
Shakespeare must have known the " fat knight," 
not, perhaps, in one personality, but amongst his 
own intimates of the tavern and the stage, I feel 
perfectly certain. 

MRS. BOGER mentions a messuage belonging to 
Sir John Fastolfe in Horsleydown called "The 
Bores-head," and adds, "May not this have sug- 
gested to Shakespeare the meetings at the ' Boar's 
Head ' in Eastcheap ? " Apart from the fact that 
Shakespeare was hardly likely to be cognizant of 
the details of Sir John Fastolfe's property, he 
nowhere mentions that the meetings of Prince 
Hal and his boon companions took place at the 
"Boar's Head" in Eastcheap. They certainly 
took place at a tavern in Eastcheap, but that 
that tavern was the " Boar's Head " is mere con- 
jecture, founded on a tradition that dates back to 
the seventeenth century, and is not corroborated 
except by the fact that the " Boar's Head " seems 
to have been the principal inn in that thoroughfare 
in the days of Elizabeth. The fact cited by MRS. 
BOGER has therefore no bearing on the question. 

Shakspere's character of Sir John Falstaff was 
not imaginary ; indeed, it is well known that he 
drew from Sir John Oldcastle. It has been 
clearly proved that our great dramatist followed 
the scheme of an old play entitled ' The Famous 
Victories of Henry V.,' acted before 1588, in 
which the Lollard martyr is degraded as 
"Jockey," a sort of pantaloon, a useful stock 
character in Catholic times. The identification of 
Jockey with Lord Cobham was fully carried out 
in a later play, 'Sir John Oldcastle,' part i., 
and is confirmed by Shakspere himself in 
' 2 Henry IV.,' III. ii., " Then was Jack Fal- 
staff, now Sir John, a boy ; and page to Thomas 
Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk " ; it being proved 
that Oldcastle was so brought up. 

In the play of ' Sir John Oldcastle,' part i., the 
martyr is, so to put it, canonized, and the 
degraded Jockey becomes Sir John of Wrotham, 
a debauched Catholic priest, thus turning the 
tables ; just as in chap-books of that day we find 
"the Mirror of Martyrs" and the "Rufl&an 
Knight " put for the same person. Thus were the 
renowned Fastolf and Cobham dragged through 
the mud of hostile bigotry ; the debauched Sir 
John Falstaff, vice Oldcastle, promoted, is 
denounced as " a pampered glutton " in one play, 
while another explains " Oldcastle died a martyr, 
and this is not the man." A. HALL. 

101, 197, 272, 370 ; iv. 31). I have not " 

8 th S. IV. AUG. 19, '93.] 



able to discover who the anonymous author of the I member of the Lorraine family of that name, and 
French MS. was, but there is internal evidence to that he was a distinguished medical man ; and 
show that he was a member of the special embassy I gave it as a suggestion that this might be the 
sent to represent the Court of France at the Dr. Mercy concerning whom inquiry was made, 
nuptials at Buda in 1502. The festivities are although he did not live in Louis XIV.'u reign, 
described in the shape of a report or letter written | having been born in 1775. 
by the author of his own accord to Anne of Brit- 
tany, Queen of France, in which he speaks of 
Madame Anne de Foix as "votre cousine ger- 
maine," and it is he, not I, who stated that when 
Anne de Foix's arms were displayed they proved 
her relationship to two royal families. One of 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

these was, of course, Navarre ; the other could 

SHAKSPEARE'S BIOGRAPHY (8 th S. iv. 104). In 
my reply (8 th S. iii. 169) to MR. W. A. HENDER- 
SON'S article (p. 9 of the same volume) I 
endeavoured to be as full and complete in my 

only have been France, through either the Albret answera as the circumstances would admit. If I 
family or Anne of Brittany, who was the daughter were to attempt to reply to his recent rejoinder 
of Margaret de Foil and Francis II., the last Duke ( ant *, P- 104), I should have to repeat what has 

of Margaret 

of Brittany. The writer, perhaps, assumed that 
everybody knew that his royal mistress was 
De Foix's daughter, but the lilies of France would, 
of course, be more obvious to the uninitiated. 

It is not impossible that Katharine, the 
daughter of the third Michael de la Pole, was 
released from her vows, and that it was she who 
married the son of the " Capidawe." Who found 
her dowry 1 Her grandfather was carried off by 
the "flux "under the walls of Haifleur on Sep- 
tember 18, 1415 ; her father died a soldier's death 
about five weeks after that date at Agincourt, and 
her mother followed him in 1419. Little Katharine 
and her two younger sisters were now coheiresses 
to all their grandfather's land?, manors, and 
estates not held in tail male. At the inquisition 
post mortem, held at Sculcoates, near Hull 
(7 Hen. V., No. 62), her second son, William, 
then Earl, later Marquis and Duke of Suffolk, was 
declared heir male. There is no record to show 
how and when these children were disinherited (cf. 

been already said. In my original note (8 th S. ii. 
42) I brought forward fifteen points of comparison 
in the respective careers of Shakspere and Moliere. 
Some of these points were sufficiently obvious ; 
others (such as the reluctance to print their 
dramas) seemed to me to admit of proof ; while a 
third set (such as whether Shakspere 'a marriage 
were happy or unhappy) were a matter of 
inference from the scanty material at command. 
Now I would ask whether it is worth while to 
pursue the subject further. MR. HENDERSON 
and I may, it is hoped, entertain friendly relations 
with each other, and yet agree to differ. 

MR. HENDERSON is of opinion that Shakspere 
dedicated many of his sonnets to his wife. This 
opens the door to a very wide subject of discus- 
sion. C. TOMLINSON. 

Highgate, N. 


S. i. 577 ; ii. 44, 214; iv. 11, 40; x. 451, 523). 
That the volumes on the shelves of a library should 

* The History of the Manor of Myton,' by John gta nd with their backs to the wall is an odd in- 

Travis-Cook, Hull, 1890). The two younger 
children died about New Year, 1421/2, and 
Katharine entered a nunnery in 1423. If she was 
released from her vows, and married the son of 
the Captal of Buch, Duke William felt morally 
bound to find her a dowry, and it is for this 
reason, probably, that he induced the king to make 
her husband Earl of Kendal, and otherwise " sin- 
gularly enrich " the young couple. History, there- 
fore, favours MR. WILLIAMS'S theory ; but do not 
let us forget that it is only a theory. 

According to Frost, Richard, the uncle of Duke 
William, died without leaving issue. L. L. K. 

version of the present fashion. Like other obso- 
lete practices, it now seems as absurd as it once 
appeared natural. 

Well-nigh a dozen writers in ' N. & Q.' have 
written on this inverted style of arrangement, but 
have adduced no instance of its recent existence, 
save in the Spanish Escorial, where the present 
writer wondered at it in 1867. They argue that 
it must have once been a reality from engravings, 
no one of which is later than 1747. One and all, 
however, were ignorant of a survival of the ancient 
mode not only within the four seas, but not a 
hundred miles from London. 

The library in Wimborne Minster is to-day as 

CHARLES MERCY (8 th S. iv. 49, 77, 113). I beg perfect a specimen as could anywhere be seen in 

to state that I did not furnish any information, mediaeval times of the inverted order of ranging 

exact or otherwise, respecting Charles Mercy, nor books. Near the middle of the south aisle a door 

did I say that there was "a medical man of the opens into a vestry, from which we ascend by a 

name of Charles Merci in Louis XlV.'s reign," or corkscrew stair into the minster library, formerly 

that there was a Charles Mercy in the Comte de called the treasure chamber. The volumes, said 

Merci's family. What I did say was that there to number 240, stand on the shelves with the cut 
was a Francois Chriatophe Florimond de Mercy, a | edges of their leaves toward the spectator, except 



* S. IV. AUG. 19, '93. 

some half a dozen tamed about in modern fashion 
by accident. On an upper shelf there are 52 
volumes, 10 of which, forming a set, are numbered 
on their leaf edges. The names of others are in- 
scribed in the same way on several books of the 47 
on a lower shelf. Each tome, whether above 
or below, is secured by a chain riveted into the 
left side of the cover, which also has a ring 
fastened to an iron bar running along the edge of 
the shelf. A sloping consultation-stand, very much 
like a prie-dieu, slides from side to side just below 
the shelf. These minutiae are among those shown 
by a photograph brought home in 1891 from an 
English cycling tour by the secretary of the Wis- 
consin Historical Society. The volumes are noted 
in Baedeker as chained, but nothing is said of 
their placement. Hutchins also is cilent on this 
point, though he has much to say of the library in 
his four magnificent quartos concei-ning Dorset- 
shire. He complained that the treasure room 
collection had no tolerable catalogue, and claimed 
that, as the local clergy had no cure of souls, they 
might easily have leisure to supply the deficiency. 
Such a catalogue, by W. Lowe, was published at 
Wimborne in 1863. It is worth study as a typical 
specimen of the bibliothecal store of richer English 
incumbents two centuries ago, for the library, 
dating from 1686, was a bequest from the local 
rector, and no doubt composed of the books in his 
study. JAMES D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wia., U.S. 

"RUMBELOW": ST. YAGO DE LEON (8 th S. iv. 
89). Halliwell gives rumbelow as " a very favour- 
ite burden of a sea-song." The burden of the 
Cornwall Furryday song is " with halantow rum- 
below." Bardsley quotes from 'The Squire of 
Low Degree ': 

Your mariners shall synge arow 
Hey ho and rumbelow. 

It can also be found as a burden to a " new 
ballade made of Thomas Cromwell" (1540) in 
Percy's * Reliques ' (book ii. No. 11), beginning, 

Both man and chylde is glad to here tell 
Of that false traytoure Thomas Cromwell, 
Now that he is set to learn to spell. 
Synge trolle on away, trolle on away, 
Synge heave and howe rombelowe trolle on away. 

The word does not seem to have any definite 
meaning, save as a roystering chorus, or refrain, 
sung by the sailors when heaving the anchor. Such 
choruses are still in use among our local seamen, 
when hauling " with a long pull, and a strong 
pull, and a pull all together." Curiously the wore 
has become a surname of a family in this and the 
adjoining county, probably derived from the same 
source. W. B. GERISH. 

Great Yarmouth. 

This word is registered, but not explained, in 
my * Supplementary Glossary,' s.v. "Rombelow.' 

t occurs in Marlowe's 4 Edward II.,' Il.'ii., as the 

mrden of a song or "jig": 
With a heave and a ho, 
What weeneth the King of England 
So soon to have won Scotland? 
With a rombelow. 

[)yce notes on this, " Common burdens to songs ; 
see Skelton's ' Works,' ii. 110, ed. Dyce." 

I cannot now verify this reference, but if row- 
wlow occurs there, it is an older instance of its use, 
or Skelton died in 1529. Surely such burdens of 
songs have often no meaning at all. I doubt 
whether there is any definite significance in " Tol- 
de-rol-lol " or " Ta-ra-ra-boom-de-ay." 

Rumbelow, however, is found in another con- 
nexion. Hycke-Scorner (Hawkins's ' Eng. Drama, 7 
. 88) mentions " the londe of Rumbelowe thre myl 
out of hell"; and Stanyhurst ('^n.,' i. 206) 
peaks of the Trojans as sailing " through Sicil his 
raging wyld frets and rumbolo rustling." 


Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

Halliwell has " Rumbelow, a very favourite 
burden to an ancient sea song " ; with a reference 
to a Cornish song. 

Raleigh, in the * Discovery of Guiana,' refers to 
St. Yago de Leon as " Sant lago de Leon on the 
coast of the Caracas." Caracas is now the capital 
city of the Venezuelan states, and Santiago is 
written as one word. C. C. B. 

" AMOROUS " (8 th S. iv. 69). It is evident that 
"to court an amorous looking-glass" is a phrase 
of eloquence in which an idea is conveyed sono- 
rously to the hearer's mind, without being in itself 
strictly reducible to what is called logical sequence, 
or severe grammar. Schmidt's interpretation is to 
me more inexplicable than the original. It is what 
you may expect of a commentator, especially when 
he is a German Bohemia is not Germany. Richard 
says in the preceding line that he is not shaped 
by Nature for amorous disport and the fantastic 
posturings that lovers practice. Then, of course, 
Shakspere's next step is to conjure life into the 
looking-glass, and make it amorous, giving back 
reflexively love's tricks displayed before it, the 
rehearsal of a lover's paces to that " picture of no- 
body," the mistress of his impassioned soul. Dyce 
says nothing on this line, Johnson and Steevens 
nothing, and Cowden Clarke nothing. It is only 
since we have begun challenging every word that 
anybody has wanted an explanation. Our mistake 
to-day is to suppose that great poets care anything 
for logic or grammar. If they feel they will be 
understood, they will risk any form provided it 
sound well. They are content with achieving the 
object of speech and I think the reader might 
be also. C. A. WARD. 

For the interpretation of a poet we require 
imagination as well as a dictionary, and especially 

8" 8. IV. ADO. 19, '93.) 



so when the poet is Shakspeare. Here we have a 
man ogling his image in the glass, and the image 
in the glass ogling him back. In the poet's mind the 
glass stands for the reflection in it, and as the 
reflection is an amorous one, so is the glass. A more 
perfect and living picture of a vain self-love wa: 
never drawn. C. 0. B. 

As Richard was ugly and misshapen, his face 
could call up no thought of love in any one who 
saw it, but, on the contrary, a repulsive feeling ; so 
the reflection to himself would show, and take 
away the desire to look again. A. B. 

The phrase seems explained by the sequel 
I that am rudely stamp'd and want love's majesty 
To strut before a wanton ambling nymph, 

looking-glass being thus an epithet applied to the 
nymph before whom Richard says he cannot strut 
as if it were before a mirror. By-the-by, I wonder 
nobody has suggested "an amonms-looking lass 
but perhaps Theobald or some such man has. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

A CURIOUS SIGNET RING (8 th S. iv. 9). The 
signet ring is silver. The engraved profile on the 
white cornelian, I am informed by the kindness 
of Mr. Robert Ready, chief of the Department of 
Seals at the British Museum, is that of Sir Isaac 
Newton, the emblem engraved on the side of the 
portrait being a comet. Is anything known of L. 
Wattier, the engraver, whose name is beautifully 
cut in minute characters on the side of the seal. 


"HOODLUMISM" (8 th S. iii. 449; iv. 17). This 
word does not appear to be given in any dictionary 
or glossary, and is, I imagine, a product of very 
modern journalism, although I had never seen it 
until it came under my observation in MR. BIER- 
LET'S query. Hoodlum is, however, of common 
occurrence in the language, and is denned by both 
the ' Century ' and by Webster's * International ' 
dictionaries, the latter stating that it is "U.S. 
colloq., of unknown origin"; but in Bartlett's 
'Diet, of Americanisms' we have an embarrass- 
ment de richesse, inasmuch as four different sources 
are given whence the word is derived. 

One explanation is from the Congregationalist of 
Sept. 26, 1877 : 

" A newspaper man in San Francisco, in attempting to 
coin a word to designate a gang of young street arabs 
under the beck of one ' Muldoon,' hit upon the idea of 
dubbing them noodlums; that i*, simply reversing the 
leader name. In writing the word the strokes of the 
n did not correspond in height, and the compositor, 
taking the n for an h, printed it hoodlum. Hoodlum it 
w, and probably ever will be." 

In the LOB Angeles Express of Aug. 25, 1877, 

b is said to be derived from the fact that several 

bad boys associated together for the purpose of 

stealing had, as their cry of warning, " Huddle 
'em, huddle 'em." An article headed 'Huddle 
'em/ appeared in the San Francisco Times, 
describing the gang. The name thus applied to 
them was soon contracted into hoodlum. 

A correspondent in the San Francisco Morning 
Call of Oct. 27, 1877, says that before the war a 
boys' military company was formed, which adopted 
as part of their uniform a curious headdress which 
resembled a fez : 

" The gamins called it a hood, and the company 
became known as the hoods. The rowdy element of the 
city adopted much of the dress of the company referred 
to, who were soon after designated as hoodlums." 

Another writer in the same paper says that the 
term was first applied to certain girls who wore 

I decidedly favour the first derivation of the 
word given. Hoodlumism is clearly derived from 

New Brighton, N.Y., U.S. 

VANISHING LONDON (8 th S. iii. 446; iv. 11). 
Since writing my former note I have become 
acquainted with Mr. Philip Norman's excellent 
little book on 'London Signs and Inscriptions/ 
which was reviewed at p. 60 of the present volume 
of ' N. & Q.' The old house, No. 22, Cloth Fair, 
to which I drew attention, ha? not passed unnoticed 
by Mr. Norman, who points out (p. 137) that the 
armorial shield on the front is the coat of Richard 
Rich, who was made a baron in 1547, and was the 
ancestor of the Earls of Warwick and Holland. 
The tinctures which I gave are not correct, the 
field of the shield being gules and the crosses or ; 
but the relic has suffered so much from wind and 
weather that it is impossible to rightly make it 
out. I may add that there is more than one view 
of the old house in the Crace Collection, in the 
Print Room of the British Museum, and it seems 
lard to think that this interesting historical 
memento of the distinguished family that founded 
Holland House at Kensington must soon, in the 
nature of things, pass away. 

The tablets on which are inscribed the names of 
jondon streets and the dates of their building or 
ompletion possess some historical value; and 
although so many remain that Mr. Norman does 
not attempt a list, he mentions several good ex- 
mples. One of those omitted by him is the tablet 
at the south-eastern corner of Rathbone Place, now 
iffixed to a modern house, which bears the inscrip- 
ion, "Rathbones | Place in | Oxford | Street | 
.718." This possesses some interest from the fact 
hat Rathbone Place is believed to be the first 
treet built on the northern side of the Tyburn 
load to the westward of St. Giles's Pound, which 
tood on the site of the brewery at the corner of 
^ottenham Court Road. Who Rathbone was I 
;now not. Smith, in his ' History of Marylebone/ 
alls him Capt. Rathbone ; but he was more pro- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. iv. A. 19, 

bably a speculative builder. Another inscription is 
of interest in connexion with Charles Lamb, who 
resided for several years in Colebrooke Row, 
Islington. On No. 32 (Colebrooke House) is the 
inscription, "Colebrooke | Row 1768." The oppo- 
site side, now called Duncan Terrace, was not built 
till several years afterwards, as the inscription on 
the centre house testifies : " New Terrace | 1791." 
The neighbourhood must have been fairly new 
when Lamb took up his quarters in the cottage of 
which a portion only now remains. 


"JENAL": " JANNOCK" (8 S. iv. 89). Jenal 
is no doubt the same word as ginnel, which Halli- 
well glosses "a narrow entrance/'and labels "North." 
We find it in 'A Glossary of the Dialect of Almond- 
bury and Huddersfield ' (E.D.3.), with an etymo- 
logical note of some value attached to it : 

Gennd or Oinnel (pronounced ginnil), a long, narrow 
passage : according to some unroofed ; others Bay either 
roofed or unroofed. (A.-S. gin, an opening; Icel. gin, a 
mouth. W. W. S.)." 

Jannock or jannik, meaning fair, honest, and 
the like, is used all over the North of England, 
and at least as far south as Manley and Corring- 
ham. ST. SWITHIN. 

" It's noan jannock [or jannocks] " is a common 
expression in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and 
means " It 's not fair." Jenal, under the form 
ginnell or ginnill, is also very commonly applied 
to narrow alleys or short, narrow lanes. 

E. S. A. 

Jannock is common enough in East Anglia, and 
means fair or candid. It is included in a list ol 
Norfolk localisms in a sixpenny book called 'Broad 
Norfolk,' recently published in Norwich by the 
Norfolk News Company, and noticed in * N. & Q., 
8 tt S. iii. 260. In ' Broad Norfolk' the word is 
spelt jannick. I have no idea of what its derivation 


Ogilvie says : 

" Jannock, n. Pair - play, open dealing (Provincia 
English and Scotch); and a., fair, straightforward 
downright (Provincial). Comp. Gael, ionannach, equal.' 


MACAULAT ON BOSWELL (8 th S. iv. 126). 
Walter Scott (quoted by Dr. Birkbeck Hill) says 

" Boswell had shewn all the bustling importance o 

his character in the Douglas cause, and it was said, 
know not on what authority, that he headed the mol 
which broke the windows of some of the judges, and o 
Lord Auchinleck. his father, in particular." 

Perhaps, then, the Duchess of Argyle had som 
slight justification for her conduct, especially if 
as I am afraid is more than probable, Boswell hac 
exceeded the limits of temperance when he had th 
temerity to propose her health. Boswell seems t 

ave been quite in his moat objectionable and silly 
ein about this period : witness his remarks about 
tie chambermaids (October 25). It is worth 
oticing that he and Dr. Johnson were accom 
anied on this occasion by the Rev. J. M'Aulay, 
jord Macaulay's grandfather, to whom the doctor 
ubsequently behaved with characteristic rough- 
ess. See Birkbeck Hill's edition of the ' Journal,' 
nd the references quoted by him, especially Tre- 
'elyan's ' Life of Macaulay,' vol. i. p. 7. 

W. H. C. 

HANDIE FAMILY (8 th S. iii. 349 ; iv. 15). I am 
greatly indebted to MR. PIOOTT for calling my 
ittention to an apparently inexcusable error. 
"h rough the mistake of the type- writer the word 
'or" was omitted between "King's co." and 
'near the vale of Avoca." My notes are very 
mperfect, and I could not tell positively which 
was right. Perhaps MR. PIQOTT will further 
blige me by tracing the relationship between the 
>ranch of the family which he mentions and that 
which settled in co. Cavan, and also give me some 
acts concerning the early history of the former. 
New Brighton, N.Y., U.S. 

348; iv. 19). The above is a misrendering of a 
amiliar Scotch saying, and is, besides, on the face 
of it, absurd. The proverb runs, "Mony a little 
macks a meikle"; Anglice, "Many a small makes 
a big." " Mickle " and ' ' muckle " are synonymous 


OUR PUBLIC RECORDS (8 th S. iii. 341, 383, 421, 
461 ; iv. 2, 43). MR. HARDY, in the concluding 
portion of his article under this head, gives the 
date of the death of the Palace Court. It may be 
added that the famous action over " Jacob Horn- 
nium's Hoss," killed it. W. F. WALLER. 

WILLIAM PONT DE L'ARCHE (8 th S. iv. 28, 54, 
114). If it is a blunder to call Henry I.'s treasurer 
Pont de 1'Arche without the prefix " de," it is a 
blunder shared with, and probably copied from, 
dear old Stow in his survey of London, and not a 
nineteenth century invention. These are Stow's 
words: "And then in the year 1106 was this 
Church [St. Mary Overie] again founded for 
canons regulars by William Pont de la Arche 
and William Danney, knights, Normans." 

I notice that Bishop Stubbs in his constitu- 
tional history calls him, in his list of King's 
" Treasurers," William of Pont de 1'Arche. 


St. Sav;cur's, Southwark. 

HABLOT (8 th S. iii. 348 ; iv. 32). The suj 
of DR. CHANCE that Hablot comes from 
is ingenious ; it would, however, carry more weight 

8 s. IV. Au. 19, '93.] 



if it could be shown that Habert in any instance 
had assumed a diminutive form. In 1883, when 
I first invited your readers to assist me in finding 
the derivation to which there was no response 
I had looked through many directories and name- 
lists of French and Belgian cities without meeting 
one Hablot, and since I have more than once 
employed help abroad to elucidate the difficulty, 
but still without success ; consequently it is, at all 
events, certain that this surname must be very 
rare. Generally every name is more or less 
abundant in some special district; but I have 
sought in vain for the locality where Hablots are. 

For my own part, if the name be a French or 
Flemish one at all, I rather incline to the belief 
that it is a trade-name, a place-name, or that the 
a has been carelessly substituted for u. The 
wooden coupling of a log-raft is called hubillot in 
France, hence a maker of it may have been desig- 
nated by his occupation, just as we have the names 
Carpenter and Thatcher. Or Hablot is, perhaps, 
only an abbreviation of Habloville, which two 
villages in the departments of Eure and Orne are 
called. But most likely of all, it seems to me, it 
is a mere misspelling of the tolerably common 
Hublot. The letters h and i are of little im- 
portance and misleading. Hilaire I have seen 
spelt Her in a register, and last week I noticed, 
over several shops in a Cornish village, Oliver and 

MR. FfcRET, your second correspondent, is 
entirely wrong in believing Hablot requires a cir- 
cumflex accent. It never had one, and it would 
be an ungrammatical, meaningless superfluity. 
Napoleon's marshal was Junot, not Junot. Mr. 
Croall Thomson unjustifiably invented Hablot, 
and I called attention both to it and a heap oi 
other blunders in his book at the time (6 th 8 
xi. 5). A. S. BICKNELL. 

Reform Club. 

The Life of Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal Archbishop o) 

York, Written by George Cavendish. 
IN an exquisite edition, with a special and lovely font o 
type and with a spotless binding of vellum, Cavendish'; 
'Life of Wolsey ' IB now for the first time given in its 
integrity to the world. The fate of this marvellous book 
has been curious. Written in 1557, it remained for pru 
deutial reasons unprinted until 1641, when, for party 
reasons, one of many garbled manuscripts was pub 
lished with the title of ' The Negotiations of Thomas 
Woolsey, the Great Cardinal of England.' Other 
editions no more trustworthy followed, until in 1825 
Mr. Singer gave an edition in two volumes from the 
original autograph MS., which he had been fortunate 
enough to obtain. Now even this work was not pub 
lished as its author left it, the orthography having been 
modernized. For the first time then, as has been said 
the first separate biography in the English language i 
in the shape intended by its author brought within reach 
of a limited public, and is, at least, saved from the risk 

f destruction. Doubt as to the authorship of the work 
_revailed for a tim3, and is now finally set at rest. It 
s by George Cavendish, the faithful and attached 
ervant of the Cardinal, of whom Wolsey himself said 
,hat he " abandoned his own country, wife, and children, 
iis own house and family, his rest and quietness, only 
o serve me." During Wolsey's triumph Cavendish was 
iis gentleman usher. Through the Cardinal's evil 
ortunes he served him with exemplary fidelity, was with 
rim when he died at Leicester, and carried to London 
nformation as to his last words, winning from the Duke 
)f Norfolk the tribute conveyed in the words, " This 
gentleman hath justly and painfully served the Cardinal, 
iis master, like a just and diligent servant." Cavendish 
hen retreated into privacy, and occupied himself with 
,he task of writing his master's biography. To his 
abours we owe most that we know concerning the great 
Cardinal. The book in which this story is told is a 
masterpiece worthy to rank with the memoirs of her 
ausband by another Cavendish, Margaret, Duchess of 
Newcastle, or in a totally different line with the 
Arcadia ' or ' The Compleat Angler.' It is the work of 
a loyal, noble, and contemplative mind, which looks- 
back with resignation and melancholy upon an active 
and a broken past. It shows Wolsey just as he is de- 
picted by Shakspeare, and the surmise has been hazarded 
that Shakspeare had access to the manuscript, which 
might well have been the case. Intensely dramatic is 
the story, the portraiture is marvellous, and the obvious 
justice, sincerity, and distinction of the whole make it 
one of the noblest and most pleasing of biographies. 
Well worthy is it then of the typographical luxury 
lavished upon it. No name of editor or publisher appears 
upon it. We feel justified, however, in assigning it to 
Mr. F. S. Ellis, to whom we owe the noble Concordance 
to Shelley ai well as the publication of the poems of 
Rossetti and many other obligations. As regards the 
absence of publisher, the bibliophile may console 
himself, since the book, though made to be hugged to 
the bosom and carried off to be devoured at leisure, is 
already out of print. Fortunate indeed is the possessor 
of a copy. 

Oxford Men and their College*. By Joseph Foster. 

Hon. M.A.Oxon. (Parker & Co.) 

THE handsome and portly volume on Oxford now issued 
by Mr. Foster is an indispensable supplement to the 
' Alumni Oxonienses ' of the same industrious compiler 
and author. It is, indeed, something more than this, 
being a record and picture of the Oxford of to-day, 
which every member of the university and all interested 
in its past and present glories must long to possess. For 
the notices of the various colleges Mr. Foster is not per- 
sonally responsible. Each of these is written by the 
president or principal or by some eminent fellow of the 
college. The matriculation register has once more been 
placed at the disposal of Mr. Foster, who has also full 
access to college records. In arranging and annotating 
the former document from 1880 to 1892, and so com- 
pleting up to date the information he supplies as to the 
members of the university, he has been able to give in 
the majority of instances the birthday and school of 
each. A splendid feature in the volume consists of the 
illustrations. By aid of photographic processes a collec- 
tion absolutely unrivalled of views relative to Oxford 
and its collegiate life has been given to the world. 
Nearly all the views of colleges in David Logman's 
' Oxonia Illustrata,' folio, 1675, have been reproduced 
as have those from Nelus'a ' Collegiorum Scholarumque 

Delineatio,' 1566. The first of these books sold for 

close on 201. a couple of years ago. Skelton's ' Oxonia 
Antiqua Restaurata,' the Oxford Almanacs, and other 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. iv. AUG. 19, -w. 

important works have been laid under contribution, the 
result being one of the most beautiful and valuable works 
in its class that any university can boast. Another 
special feature in the work is found in the portraits of 
representative "eights," "elevens," and football teams. 
In its combination of ancient and modern life, in its 
association of the life of Mediaeval or Renaissance times 
with that of to-day, the work of Mr. Foster is original as 
well as attractive. Its value will be denied by no lover 
of the noble university. It is regrettable to hear that 
the huge labour involved in the compilation of the 
' Alumni ' has been unremunerutive. An honorary 
degree, for which we were the first to appeal, has been 
granted, and this is the only reward for enduring and 
heroic service. Mr. Foster holds on, however, hopeful 
and undismayed. Should his latest book meet with the 
recognition he has a right to expect, he is prepared to 
undertake a similar labour on behalf of the sister uni- 

How to Decipher and Study Old Documents. By E. E. 

Thoyts. (Stock.) 

FROM the work on manuscripts of Mr. Falconer Madan, to 
which we recently drew attention, Miss Thoyts's volume 
differs, inasmuch as its purpose is less ambitious. She 
deals with English documents only, and styles her book 
' The Key to the Family Deed Chest.' To those anxious 
to obtain a knowledge concerning title-deeds, parish or 
corporation records, and the like it is an absolute boon, 
as much on account of the zeal the author displays for 
her subject as of the information she supplies concern- 
ing it. A veritable enthusiast, she sees no more difficulty 
in the way of obtaining an eminently desirable form of 
knowledge than should serve as a stimulus. Her chapters 
on old deeds, law technicalities, manor and court rolls, 
monastic charters, and parish registers are all excellent, 
and her book may be warmly commended to students. 
With some things that are said on character by hand- 
writing we are not wholly in accord, and the relation of 
this chapter to the rest of the book is not very obvious. 
On this subject even Miss Thoyts writes so cheerily and 
with an air of so profound conviction that she carries 
away the reader. Mr. C. Trice Martin, Assistant-Keeper 
of H.M. Records, supplies an introduction, in which the 
study of palaeography is warmly commended to historians 
and biographers, and some amusing proofs of the errors 
that ignorance involves are given. Miss Thoyts is her- 
self an able palaeographer, and her book will be of great 

Hungary and its People. By Louis Felbermann. 

(Griffith & Farran.) 

FEW books of the present day have given us more plea- 
sure than the volume before us, and yet we confess that 
we find some difficulty in conveying our impressions to 
our readers. It is not a history, it is not a guide-book, 
neither ia it a treatise on the arts, manners, and customs 
of the Hungarians, but it is a compound of all these put 
together in a very pleasing manner. 

The early pages are historical, but are in no sort a 
chronicle. The complex history of Hungary, extending 
over a thousand years, could not by any amount of com- 
pression be forced within the limits of the pages Mr. 
Felbermanu has had at his disposal, so he has chosen by 
far the better plan of sketching the careers of some of 
Hungary's more prominent heroes. Time moves so 
rapidly, and historical events crowd one another out so 
quickly, that we fear many of our readers have no dis- 
tinct idea of the Hungarian civil war of 1848. The 
author tells the tale in a few words. Had he chosen, he 
might, without one word of exaggeration, have made his 
tale far more shocking. Hungary is, however, a free 

and independent state now, and it is, perhaps, well that 
a native of that fair land should treat this recent past as 
a nightmare-dream. English people will long remember 
it. Nothing ever touched the hearts of our people more 

The sketches of the different states, their manners and 
costumes, are excellently done. We are sure that many 
of Mr. Felbermann's readers will long to take a tourist's 
ticket and visit the author's native land. The plates with 
which the book is illustrated are very good. The young 
lady who appears at p. 168 is especially charming. 

The Annual Register, 1892. (Longmans & Co.) 
IN its new form the ' Annual Register ' has so firmly 
established itself in public estimation that eulogy is 
uncalled for. There are entire classes of students to 
whom its admirably shapen synopsis of public affairs is 
indispensable. Compressed, moreover, as necessarily are 
the chapters on foreign history, there are few to whom 
they are not adequate. See, for instance, how admirable 
is the summary of African affairs, especially the accounts 
of Egypt and of Mashonaland. The chronicle of events, 
the accounts of literature, art, drama, music, and science 
have their old merits. The obituary is in itself sufficient 
to justify the purchase of the volume, and the com- 
prehensive index facilitates the labour of research. The 
supremacy of this most useful of records is not likely to 
be soon challenged. 

FROM Dr. Brushfield we have received his presidential 
address, delivered at Torquay on July 25 before the 
Devonian Association, in the Transactions of which 
society it will appear. It deals with Devonian worthies 
the list of which, as all know, is long is brilliantly 
written, and supplies much curious antiquarian infor- 
mation. It constitutes, indeed, an important contri- 
bution to biography. 

THE Rev. J. Cater, of Bisley Rectory, Woking, pro- 
mises, by subscription, ' Gens Caterorum,' being a col- 
lection of material, genealogical, historical, and literary, 
relating to the Cater family. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

T. L. ("Stolen kisses are the sweetest," &c.). This is 
not in Shakspeare. It is, we believe, Leigh Hunt's 
translation of a Latin song in Thomas Randolph. 

ERRATUM. P. 125, col. 2, 1. 36, for " Le Mailie " read 
Le Mailre. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8>S.IV. ADO. 26, '93.] 





NOTES :-Henry V-, 161-English Words ending ia "-ther," 
162 Coleridge's ' Hymn before Sunrise Letter of Lamb, 
163-Lawrence Bedeman-Date of First Steel Engraving- 
Inscription to Fielding-Capt. Cook, 164-Qift of Humour 
Reclaimed " Wasberine" Spenser "To Launder 
Folk-lore, 165 Col. Landmann " Flourished, 166. 

QUERIES Cipriani Chevrons on Uniforms Work by 
Cobbett - " Oof "=Money - King's Scholars' Pond - Sir 
Anthony Denny A " Sheela-na-gig," 166 Krakatoa 
Squirrel Folk-lore Heraldic Murray of Ardbany Croke 
Lady Hariett Heber Bodimant New Jerusalem Church, 
167 Dante and Noah's Ark Book Wanted Caring Fair- 
Mr John Adams " Buried Alive "Ballad Estcourt 
Fynes Sir W. Stanley Book-plates Inscription on 
Sundial ' Sartor Besartus ' Crown Offices of Nominal 
Value, 168. 

REPLIES : Lincoln's Inn Fields, 169 Ariosto and the 
British Nobility, 170 Royal House of France Rev. T. 
Garratt Macaroni Latin, 171 "Eavesdropper" Invite- 
Sir W Scott and Ariosto " Cruelty "" Telepathic Ob- 
session," 172 Name Sought Black for Evening Wear, 173 
'The Bottle Imp' King of Northumbria " Hou- 
yhnhnm" Peter de la Roche, 174 Chaucer's "Stflbon" 
" Like a bolt from the blue," 175 Norton Family, 176 
Wedding Knife Lucifer Matches " Let us walk down 
Fleet Street," 177 "The babies in *he eyes "-Golf- 
Thatched Churches Sapek Daubigny's Engines with 
Paddles National Anthems, 178 J. Robertson Thomas 
Hood John Hutton, 179. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Duff's 'Early Printed Books' 
Canning's 'Words on Existing Religions ' Gil tspur's 
' Story of Church Street, Stoke Newington ' Wright's 
'Early Bibles of America" Higgeus's 'Hebrew Idolatry 
and Superstition ' Chetham Society Publications. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



Under the heading 'Sir John Falstaff' (ante, 
p. 36) MRS. BOGER writes : 

"It appears to me that Shakspeare in his travesty of the 
character of Sir John Falstaff had far more ground to go 
upon than in that of Prince Henry, afterwards Henry V., 
whose real character was singularly pure and stainless ; 
the only escapade that he ever indulged in was, I believe, 
robbing the royal mails when his father detained his in- 
come as Prince of Wales." 

Courtesy makes one diffident of one's manners, 
if not of one's accuracy, when joining issue with a 
lady; so, hat in hand, I ask, Was the "real cha- 
racter " of Henry V. (I am not concerned here with 
that of Falstaff) so very " singularly pure and stain- 
less"? I have a notion (pretty well founded on 
facts) that it was not. Shakespeare's estimate of 
the warrior king was, I submit, plainly one-sided 
and historically inaccurate. " Harry Madcap" 
was the poet's ideal hero, and he necessarily and 
successfully sought to present him as such to others. 
The profligacy of his youth, and the cruelty, ambi- 
tion, and governing incapacity of his manhood are 
submerged by clever contrast in his triple role of 
Christian, warrior, and lover. "No doubt," 
writes Dr. Furnivall (Leopold ed., p. liii), 
" Henry the Fifth is, as we all acknowledge, the hero of 
Shakspere's manhood. See with what love he dwells 
on him, by mouth of Chorus, as well as subjects, from 

lords spiritual and temporal, to the rank and file of the 
army ! Shakspere doesn't refrain from reminding us 
of Henry's wayward youth ; but he does it only as he 
has done it all along that the present glory may seem 
more glorious by contrast with its former darkness. He 
puts nearly the old specious defence into the Bishop of 
Ely's mouth. But we care not to dwell on its sophistry. 
Enough for us that the change at touch his father's 
death, has come, and that (as Miss Heygate says) Henry 
' has cast his slough of bad habits and loose company, and 
has come forth a hero, a Bayard, chevalier saus pew et 
sans reprochc.'" 

Sans peur and a hero he certainly was, but was 
he sans reproche ? Opinions, at least, are divided. 
Sismondi says not, and Hazlitt remarks : 

" Shakespeare labours hard tor apologize for the action 
of the king, by showing us the character of the man, aa 
' the king of good fellows ' "; 

and Miss Strickland's evidence is more damaging 
still ( Queens of England/ vol. ii. p. 129) : 

Thus was the honeymoon of Katherine the Fair 
passed at sieges and leaguers : her bridal music was the 
groans of France. Horror, unutterable horror, was the 
attendant on their nuptials ; for the cruel massacre of 
Monteran took place within a fortnight of the Queen's 
espousals. This sad page is detailed by Monstrelet. 
Henry V., exasperated by tlie desperate defence of the 
town for its native sovereign, butchered the garrison 
under pretence of revenging the death of John, Duke of 
Burgundy, with whose death the garrison had not the 
slightest concern, nor was Henry in the least called upon 
to avenge it." 

The following item from the same author (ibid., 
p. 136) will further instance Henry's cruel vindic- 
tiveness : 

" As the Scottish army had defeated Clarence (at the 
battle of Baugy), he hung every Scotchman he took in 
arms in France, under pretence that they were fighting 
against their king, James I., who followed the English 
banner as a private knight." 

Nor do the horrors of the siege of Rouen 
(1418-19) exonerate Henry from a charge of gross 
inhumanity unworthy of a knight. It is a matter 
of history that he refused to help twelve thousand 
unfortunate beings who had been expelled the city 
from lack of provisions, but the darkest stain on 
his escutcheon is the murder of its brave defender 
Alan Blanchard in cold blood. 

It is idle to defend such atrocities on the plea 
that they were the outcome of the spirit of the 
times. At no period would Christian chivalry 
have sanctioned them, and chivalry was not dead 
then. The conclusion of the whole matter is, with 
the addition of two adverbs, struck off by Miss 
Strickland in one memorable line ; ruthlessly and 
wantonly, Henry " deluged the Continent with 
blood, and rendered the Crown bankrupt in the 
vain attempt to unite England and France." His 
cruelty and ambition find their only historical 
parallel in the life and wars of Napoleon. 

The best and latest defence of Henry's early 
misdemeanours is unquestionably Prof. Church's 
monograph (1889), but his "possible explana- 
tions " are simply special pleadings, They have 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8- s. iv. AW. as. -ra. 

an air of partisanship which robs them of their 
historical value ; and his chapter on the siege of 
Rouen is of a piece with those preceding and fol- 
lowing it. He admits Henry's cruelty, but falls 
into a biassed distinction without a difference. 
Here are his words : 

" For wanton cruelty he had no taste : it did not come 
within the scope of his business ; but from cruelty that 
was not wanton that is, was dictated by some considera- 
tion of necessity or expediency he never shrank. There 
is something, it must be allowed, that is repulsive about 
this, and it is made more repulsive by the contrast which 
it makes with Henry's almost ostentatious piety." 

The professor's narration of the king's in- 
humanity to the twelve thousand outcasts is 
characteristic : 

" Rouen soon began to feel the pressure of famine. Its 
governor made an attempt to relieve it by expelling from 
the town twelve thousand non-combatants. Henry re- 
fused to let these miserable creatures pass through his 
lines, and they perished by degrees under tbe walls. The 
story of their fate is pitiable in the extreme. Some of 
them lingered on till the very end of the siege. Many 
of the soldiers on either side bad hearts more tender, or 
perhaps it should be said intelligences less alive to the 
necessities of the military situation, than the generals 
who directed the attack and the defence of Rouen. These 
secretly supplied the outcasts with such provisions as 
they could spare. Henry himself departed from tbe 
severity of his policy by furnishing the few who were left 
alive on Christmas Day with a meal. But neither the 
governor nor the king relented." 

The suggested parallel between Henry and 
Blanchard is ingenious but sophistical, for whereas 
(to use the professor's words) <( Henry's own camp 
was abundantly supplied with provisions," the 
governor's stock was of the scantiest. 

Henry's treatment of the latter is thus briefly 
referred to : "A noted partisan leader, Alan 
Blanchard, who had treated his prisoners with 
great cruelty, was beheaded." Upon what 
authority does the professor found this grave 
italicized accusation ? 

As to the monarch's alleged piety Prof. Church 
writes : 

"The devotional aspect of his character has been 
spoken of more than once in these pages. It would be 
unjust to doubt the sincerity of his piety because many 
of his acts seem inconsistent with our own conceptions of 
the character which piety should produce. It was not 
the less genuine in him because it did not make him 
tender-hearted or philanthropic, because he pursued his 
great scheme of conquest without scruple, without 
remorse, without a thought for the blood he was 
shedding, or for the desolation he was causing. 
His religion made him what few kings have been, tem- 
perate and chaste. It did not make him merciful ; it 
would not be too much to say that in Henry's age it made 
no man merciful." 

Then (as the writer admits lower down) his 
religion was fanatical rather than Pauline, and 
fanaticism is as perfectly compatible with cruelty 
as it is with temperance and chastity : 

" Of his qualities as a ruler it is difficult to speak 

We do not find in him we have indeed no opportunity 

of finding in him the great legislative power of Edward 
the First." 

Thus finally the professor and pretty accurately. 
Henry V. was indeed but a blundering and un- 
merciful legislator. Witness his treatment of his 
Irish (so-called) subjects. By 4 Henry V., c. 6, 
the native Irish were forbidden to hold any 
bishopric in their own country, lest they should 
bring with them attendants to Parliament who 
might betray "the secrets of the English"- 
penalties were imposed on Irish prelates for col- 
lating Irishmen to benefices in England ; and 
Irish students of the Inns of Court were precluded 
(by their expulsion) from studying the very laws 
by which they were to be governed ! Truly a 
peculiar olive branch from Henry to the "mere 
Irish." Solomon's wisdom pales before such 
sagacity. Thomas le Botiler (the " fighting Prior 
of Kilmainham") must have been the veriest 
sycophant to take over 1,600 kernes to help Henry 
at the siege of Harfleur in the face of such an Act ; 
but perhaps he believed, like a consistent Church- 
man, in returning good for evil. 

But enough. The above is the estimate I have 
formed very reluctantly of the so-called " singularly 
pure and stainless " character of Henry V., viewed 
in the "fierce white light" of history. MRS. 
BOGER, I am aware, referred only to its youthful 
period, but " the boy is father to the man." 

J. B. S. 


to draw attention to a remarkable phenomenon, on 
which much more light is desirable. 

The English words ending in -ther fall into two 
distinct sets. 

1. The following words are spelt with th in 
Anglo-Saxon and Middle English, and give no 
trouble to the etymologist. Brother, either, feather, 
lather, leather, neither, nether, other, rather, whether, 
wether. With them we may class heather, as being 
formed from heath; smother, of which the M.E. 
form is smorther ; and even fathom, as compared 
with A.-S. fce$m, though ending in -thorn instead 
of -ther. Related words in German end in -der. 
Compare Bruder, Feder, Leder, nieder, ander, ent- 
weder, Widder ; also Faden. 

2. But the following words are spelt with d, not 
only in Anglo-Saxon but even in Middle-English. 
Father, gather, hither, mother, tether, thither, to- 
gether, weather, whither, wither. Belated German 
words end in -ter ; compare Vater, Gatte, Mutter, 
Wetter. Of course hither, thither, and whither 
all changed together ; and the words together and 
gather (being closely related) did the same. More- 
over, wither is a mere derivative of weather. Hence 
the list of independent words is reduced to father, 
gather, hither, mother , tether, weather ; but we may 
add to the list the provincial word ether, A.-S. 
edor, O.H.G. Utar, a pliant rod. 

8< 8. IV. Aoa. 26, 



The remarkable point is this ; that the change, 
In these words, from d to th, is quite late. Strat- 
mann's ' Dictionary of Middle English' gives only 
forms with d ; there is (with one exception)* not a 
single form with th, so far as I can discover. That 
is to say, the change was later than 1400, and 
hardly, perhaps, before 1500. What was the 
cause of it ? 

I believe it was due to the Wars of the Roses, 
when the dialects seem to have been mixed up. I 
have little doubt that the forms in -ther were 
Northern, and due, in the first instance, to Scan- 
dinavian influence. For we really find, in Ice- 
landic, forms with th. Icelandic has fathir, for 
A.-S. feeder ; hethra, for A.-S. hider ; mothir, for 
A.-S. modor ; tjothr, for 0. Friesic tiader ; vethr, for 
A.-S. weder ; jatharr, for A.-S. edor. In every 
case the Icel. th is voiced, and is written $. 

The most remarkable case is that of the verb to 
wither. The A.-S. verb is wedrian, to weather ; 
but the Icel. verb is vithra, with an, as in modern 
English. I think this goes far to prove my point. 

I would appeal to correspondents to produce, if 
they can, any dated example in which any of the 
words in my second list is spelt with th, at an 
earlier date than 1500. It is no easy task. I have 
for years been hunting for the form father, and 
can find nothing earlier than a quotation from 
Skelton ; see Dyce's edition, L 139. 

A collection of quotations, for spellings with th, 
older than 1500, may help us greatly. I repeat 
the list of words for which they are desired. They 
are: ether (a rod), father, gather, hither, mother, 
tether, thither, together, weather, whither, wither. 

VALE OF CHAMOUNI.' Under the unpleasant 
heading of ' Shelley the Atheist ' there was some 
discussion last year in ' N. & Q.' with regard to 
the original of this grand hymn. MR. BATNE and 
ESTE are quite correct. The hymn is an expansion 
of a poem in five four-line stanzas by the German 
poetess Frederica Brun, or Brunn. As the subject 
has been on the carpet of * N. & Q., 1 perhaps 
Henry Nelson Coleridge's account of the matter, 
together with the poem in the original German, 
may be allowed to be transferred to the pages of 
N. & Q.,' as it will interest those of your readers 
3 are, like myself, admirers of Coleridge's 

I have become acquainted with Frederica 

Brun's poem quite recently. I quote from Prof. 

Henry Motley's edition of Coleridge's ( Table 

Talk '&c., in Morley's " Universal Library," 1884. 

do not wish to obtain literary credit and 

10 which I am not justly entitled, I ought 

ex< r e P tion w tf*en i.v. tetheren. The word 
written) in ' Thomas of Ercildoune,' I. 437, is 

to say that, although I quote the German poem in 
the original, I do not know German. But as 
H. N. Coleridge appends a literal translation, I 
am able, with the help of my dictionary, to fib the 
English words to the German : 

" What Mr. Dequincey [sic] gays about the ' Hymn in 
the Vale of Ohamouni ' is just. This glorious composi- 
tion of upwards of ninety lines [eighty-five actually] 
is truly indebted for many images and some striking 
expressions to Frederica Brun's little poem. The obliga- 
tion is so clear that a reference to the original ought 
certainly to have been given, as Coleridge gave in other 
instances. Yet, as to any ungenerous wish on the part 
of Mr. Coleridge to conceal the obligation, I for on* 
totally disbelieve it ; the words and images that are 
taken are taken bodily and without alteration, and not the 
slightest art is used and a little would have sufficed 
to disguise the fact of any community between the two 
poems. The German is in twenty lines, and I print them 
here with a very bald English translation, that all my 
readers may compare them as a curiosity with their 
glorification in Coleridge." 

I need not add the translation : 

Aus tiefem Schatten des schweigenden Tannenhainj 
Erblick' ich bebend dich, Scheitel der Ewigkeit, 
Blendender Gipfel, von dessen Hone 
Ahndend mein Geist ins Unendliche schwebet ! 
Wer senkte den Pfeiler tief in der Erde Schooas 
Der, seit Jahrtausenden, feat deine masse stiitzt ? 
Wer thiirmte hoch in des Aethers Wolbung 
Machtig und kiihn dein umstrahltes Antlitz 1 
Wer goss euch hoch aua des ewigen Winters Reich, 
O Zatkenstrome, mit Donnergetos', herab ] 
Und wer gebietet laut mit der Allmacht Stirame : 
" Hier eollen ruhen die starrenden Wogen V 
Wer zeichnet dort dem Morgensterne die Bahn ? 
Wer kranzt mit Bliithen dea ewigen Frostea Saum ? 
Wem tont in echrecklicben Harmonieen, 
Wilden Arveiron, dein Wogentummel? 
Jehovah ! Jehovah ! Eracht's im berstenden Eia ; 
Lavinendonner rollen's die Eluft hinab : 
Jehovah ! rauscht's in den hellen Wipfeln, 
Fliistert's an rieselnden Silberbachen. 

This poem is given also, in the original, in the 
notes to Coleridge's ' Poems,' ed. 1856. 

Ropley, Alresford. 

LETTER OF CHARLES LAMB. I have just now 
seen the Cornhill Magazine for December, 1892, 
containing ' Unpublished Letters of Charles and 
Mary Lamb.' One of these refers to a visit to 
Hastings, and is dated, " Hastings, at Mrs. Gibbs, 
York Cottage, Priory, No. 4 [1825-6]," a date 
which is perplexing ; but a locality which can be 
identified as 4, York Cottages, near the Priory 
Bridge, where, as shown by a guide-book of 1825, 
Mrs. Gibbs had one sitting-room and three bed- 
rooms to let. And it is worth notice, at Pelham 
Place, not far off, Mr. Hogsflesh had a large lodging- 
house. I should like to draw attention to a passage 
in the letter written by Mary Lamb : " We eat 
turbot, and we drink smuggled Hollands, and we 
walk up hill and down hill all day long." But 
Lord Byron wrote in 1814, from Hastings House, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. iv. A. 2 , 

" I have been swimming and eating turbot, and 

smuggling neat brandies and silk handerchiefs 

and walking on cliffs and tumbling down hills, &c.' 
The coincidence is so remarkable that further in- 
formation as to the source whence the letters in the 
Cornhitt were derived seems very desirable. I pre- 
sume there is no reason for supposing that Mary 
Lamb knew anything of Byron's letter to Moore. 
The Brassey Institute, Hastings. 

ITE. It may be added to the statement in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' (vol. iv. p. 108) 
that Bedeman 

* was made rector of Liffcon. in Devonshire, and held 
this benefice as late as 11 June, 1410, when he was 
licensed to preach in Latin and English," 

that, according to Prebendary Hingeston-Ran- 
dolph's * Episcopal Registers of the Diocese of 
Exeter (Stafford),' p. 242, Bedeman, as rector of 
Lifton, was named on April 21, 1418, upon a com- 
mission for the reconciliation of the cemetery, 
which had been polluted with bloodshed. 

The point is of interest as further confirming the 
biographer's statement that 

" Foxe is mistaken in reckoning him, on the authority 
of 'a. ncient writers,' among those who ' suffered most 
cruel death,' or else ' did forsake the realm,' on account 
of their attachment to Wycliffe's teaching." 


been stated that one of the illustrations of Coxe's 
The Social Day' (? 1825), Wilkie's 'The Broken 
Jar/ was the first engraved steel plate. My 
memory carries me back to 1818, when 'The Uni- 
versal Spelling Book ' had an elaborate frontispiece 
engraved in line, " Minerva encourages the In- 
dustrious and rejects the Idle and Vile." This 
plate had as an imprint, "Perkins, Fairman & 
Heath, patent hardend steel plate." 

U. O. N,, F.S.A. 

of Sir J. E. Smith ' (1832, vol. ii. p. 233) the follow- 
ing inscription to Fielding is quoted : 

Huraanitati Sacrum. 
Cineribus Henrici Fielding, Angli. 
quae heic abrque honore jacebant 

Johannes de Braganza 

monument urn hoc ponendi curavit, 

no Musis inbocpita 

haec tellns videretur. 

This was written by the Abbe* Correa de Serra, an 
eminent botanist, who had a chequered career and 
died at Lisbon in 1823. Referring to the above 
ascription, Sir J. E. Smith says : 

11 This intended tribute to our admirable historian of 
human nature proved abortive. The virtues, the taste, 
the liberality, and even the illustrious rank of the Duke 
of Lafoene (John de Braganza), uncle to the Queen of 
Portugal, had no weight against monkish fanaticism, 

which would by no means connive at such a compliment 
to a heretic; and the monument was never executed." 

Mr. Austin Dobson, in his * Life of Fielding/ 
1883, says Fielding's first tomb, which Wrarall 
found in 1772, 

" nearly concealed by weeds and nettles, was erected by 
the English factory, in consequence mainly as it seems 
of a proposal made by an enthusiastic Chevalier de 
Meyrionnet, to provide one (with an epitaph) at his own 
expense. That now exisiting was substituted in 1830, 
by the exertions of the Rev. Christopher Neville, British 
Chaplain at Lisbon. It is a heavy sarcophagus, resting 
upon a large base, and surmounted by just such another 
urn and flame as that on Hogarth's tomb at Chiswick. 
On the front is a long Latin inscription ; on the back 
the better-known words : 

Luget Britannia Gremio non dari 
Fovere Natum. 

It may, I suppose, be concluded that the tomb 
erected by the English factory bore no epitaph. 
I cannot but wish that Mr. Dobson had given as 
the text of the " long Latin inscription "; most of 
us who delight to do honour to genius are curious 
to know in what terms that genius is celebrated in 
the last resting places of eminent men. It would 
seem that in the case of Fielding two foreigners, 
at least, purposed to commemorate his genius on 
his tombstone before his fellow-countrymen moved 
in the matter (1) the Chevalier de Meyrionnet, 
whoever he was ; (2) the Abbe" Joseph Correa de 

It would have been much to the credit of 
Portugal had John of Braganza's generous inten- 
tion been carried out, though one may not agree 
with Borrow that Fielding was "the most singular 
genius England has ever produced." 


CAPTAIN COOK. The following correspondence 
deserves preservation : 

Soho Square 12 Augt 1784. 

Madam, By the direction of the Council of the Royal 
Society, I request you to accept from them a medal in 
gold, struck in honour of your late husband Captain 
Cook, and in consideration of the many services he did 
to the cause of science. 

As his friend, I join to yours, my sincere regret for the 
loss this nation has suffered in the death of so valuable - 
a man ; and that which the Royal Society feels in go 
useful a member ; but while we lament his loss with a 
tear of real affliction, we must not forget that his well- 
spent life secures to us who survive him, that best con- 
solation, the recollection that his name will live for ever 
in the remembrance of a people, grateful for the services 
bis labours have afforded to mankind in general. 

Cease then Madam to lament a man whose virtues 
have exacted a tribute of regret from a large portion of 
the natives of the earth, and let your best affections con- 
tinue the task they have hitherto BO well fulfilled, of 
rraining up his son in the paths of virtue and honour, 
that under the influence of his Father's example he will 
emulate at least, and perhaps attain as great a share of 
well-earned reputation as his Father left behind, to dry 
the tears of us who survive him. I am, &c. 


8> S. IV. Aua. 26, '93.] 



Mile End, Aug. 16, 1784. 

Sir, I received your exceeding kind letter of the 
12'i> inst., and want words to express in any adequate 
degree my feelings on the very singular honour which 
you Sir and the honourable and learned Society over 
which you so worthily preside have been pleased to con- 
fer on my late husband, and, through him, on me and 
his children, who are left to lament the loss of him, and 
to be the receivers of those most noble marks of appro- 
bation, which, if Providence bad been pleased to permit 
him to receive, would have rendered me happy indeed. 

Be assured Sir, that however unequal I may be to the 
task of expressing it, I feel as I ought the high honour 
which the Royal Society has been pleased to do me. My 
greatest pleasure now remaining is in my sons, who I 
hope will ever strive to copy after so good an example ; 
and, animated by the honours bestowed on their Father's 
memory, be ambitious of attaining by their own merits 
your notice and approbation. Let me entreat you to 
add to the many acts of friendship which I have already 
received at your hands, that of expressing my gratitude 
and thanks to that learned body in such a manner as 
may be acceptable to them. I am, &c. 


Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. 


10, College Street, Westminster Abbey. 

the following avowal of Mr. Henry W. Lucy, in 
the article ' From Behind the Speaker's Chair,' 
found in the Strand Magazine for July, pp. 68, 
69, may fitly find place in the columns of 

" In Mr. Patchett Martin's ' Life of Lord Sherbrooke,' 
just issued, I find the following passage : ' Much as he 
bewailed the signs of democracy in the House of Com- 
mons, Mr. Lowe grew tolerant as the years passed by, and 
regarded legislative folly and dulness with an amused 
smile. It was in this mood that he pointed to the deaf 
M.P. who used to skirmish all over the House with an 
ear-trumpet, listening to the dreary speeches on both 
sides. " Good Heavens ! " said he, " to think of a man so 
throwing away his natural advantages.' " The story will 
be familiar to the public, since there was scarcely an 
obituary notice in the newspapers published immediately 
after the death of Lord Sherbrooke which did not 
include it. I did not take notice of that method of 
enshrining a myth, but when it comes to making part 
of a serious book, written avowedly upon special authority, 
I am impelled to unbosom myself. The fact ia Mr. Lowe 
is as innocent of this little as is Lord Selborne. One 
night in the session after he had gone to the House of 
Lords, the keen debater whom we long knew in the 
fommons as Mr. Lowe revisited the glimpses of the gas- 
f m the Commons. As he sat in the gallery, blink- 
the old familiar scene, Mr. Thompson, then 
mber for Bolton, happened to be sitting ear-trumpet 
me I, listening to the late Mr. Peter Rylands making 
>f his not infrequent speeches. Mr. Rylands was an 
estimable, well-meaning man, but not specially accept- 
able as a speaker. He had a loudly verbose way of say- 
I nothing particular which irritated the sensitive 
md and used to render Mr. Lowe more than usually 
Mr. Thomawon had a way of flitting over the 
lome (much as an hon. baronet in the present Parlia- 
ment has), and was wont to sit down drinking in, through 
his ear-trumpet, words that the ordinary person would 

? V V die ' Jt Btruck me at the mom t that 
Sherbrooke might be thinking, as in truth I was 

myself, of the pandering with Providence displayed by a 
deaf man putting himself to some inconvenience in order 
not to lose a word of one of Peter Rylands'a harangues. 
In a London letter to the provinces I was then con- 
tributing, I put in Lord Sherbrooke's mouth the phrase 
quoted a fashion habitually and sometimes less reason- 
ably adopted at the present time in the writing of 
' Toby's Diary ' in Punch. It took on immensely, largely 
because it was supposed to be Lord Sherbrooke's. It has 
since been quoted so widely and frequently that it is not 
impossible Lord Sherbrooke may have come to believe ho 
had really said it, just as King George, by dint of fre- 
quent repetitions, convinced himself that he had led a 
regiment in the last charge at Waterloo. But his 
memory is really free from the reproach." 


" W.ASHERINE." The fungus growth of new 
words is increasing apace. It is well that such 
monstrosities, as they spring up, should be put in 
the pillory, and thus exposed to contempt. The 
last new thing in ugliness that I have come upon 
is washerine. I saw some packets of this stuff in 
the window of a grocer's shop in & little rural 
market town a few days ago. It is not, as some 
of the readers of ' N. & Q.' might suppose, a kind 
of soap. It is a compound, the object of which is 
to make hard water soft for washing purposes. 
Who invented the word, or where it was first used, 
I do not pretend to know. The packets of it which 
I saw came from Sheffield. COM. EBOR. 

SPENSER. In book i. c. i. stanzas 8 and 9 of 
the * Faerie Queene,' we have a long list of trees 
found in the woods as if that strange mixture 
could be found in one forest ! and I do not think 
that any of the critics seem to know that this is 
evidently an imitation of a similar list in the last 
two stanzas of book iii. of Tasso's ' Gerusalemme 

I am rather astonished that Warton did not 
perceive the great similarity between stanza 31 
of book iii. c. 3 of the * Faerie Queene,' and 
lines 498 et *eq. of the first book of the 'uEneid'; 
the more so, as he notices that the speech "O 
Goddess e," &c., in stanza 33 of the same canto, is 
taken from ^Eaeas's address to his mother. 


" To LAUNDER." The word laundry is familiar 
enough to our housewives, and comes from laun- 
derium, short for lavendarium. But neither John- 
son nor Bailey gives the verb launder, though I 
am told it is still in use north of the Tweed. It 
is to be found in Sir Walter Scott's * Bride of 
Lammermoor ' (chap, vii.): "the old Baron's Hall 
that the maids launder the clothes in." This 
reference may be useful to Dr. Murray. 


[" Laund'ring " is, apparently in error, assigned to 
Shakepeare in Annandale'e 'Ogilvie.'] 

spondent informs me that it is considered an omen 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. iv. AUG. 26, 

of misfortune in Northamptonshire if three butter- 
flies are seen together. PAUL BIERLEY. 

COL. LANDMANN. The ' Dictionary of National 
Biography' is sometimes capricious. A memoir 
of Col. Landmann recounts his whole career as a 
Royal Engineer, and suppresses the latter part of 
his life, when he became a civil engineer, and one 
not undistinguished. His London and Greenwich 
Railway on arches was a work of great merit in 
those early days, and he was engineer of the 
Preston and Wyre, projected the North Kent 
Railway, and was consulting engineer of my Great 
Caledonian Railway, which now crosses More- 
cambe Bay. HYDE CLARKE. 

"FLOURISHED." The use of this expression in 
biographical dictionaries or lists, as applied to 
cases in which the exact dates of birth or death are 
not known, is familiar to us all. But it sometimes 
seems to lead to strange consequences. In vol. xxiii. 
of the 'Dictionary of National Biography' the 
name of a woman is included who is said to have 
flourished in the year 1650, that being the year in 
which she was hanged (though not killed) for a 
crime of which she was apparently not guilty. 
One cannot help thinking that some of the criminals 
might have been left out of the ' Dictionary ' alto- 
gether ; and let us hope that there will be no 
more hangmen besides the two already included. 
The space devoted to Anne Greene (referred to 
above), who " flourished " on the gallows in 1650, 
would have been more profitably given to Charles 
Green, the astronomer, who did much valuable 
work at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich (of 
which he was in charge between the death of Bliss 
and the appointment of Maskelyne as Astronomer 
Royal), and also on the voyage of Capt. Cook to 
observe the transit of Venus ; of this the complete 
account may now be read in Cook's own record, 
recently published. W. T. LYNN. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

JEAN BAPTISTE CIPRIANI, the Florentine en- 
graver, resided for some years at Fulham, first at 
a house next the workhouse, in the High Street, 
and afterwards at North End. Is there any bio- 
graphy in which I shall find an allusion to his 
residence at Fulham ? CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

CHEVRONS ON UNIFORMS. In the British army 
chevrons are worn on the sleeve by non-com- 
missioned officers as badges of rank ; but why are 
they worn inverted, or V shaped ? Probably the 

badge was first adopted from the heraldic chevron, 
in which case it should be shown with the point 
uppermost, as it has been on all the uniforms of 
continental soldiers I have seen. Good conduct 
badges in our services are also chevrons, which are 
borne correctly, point upwards ; so that there may 
be some interesting reason why the chevrons de- 
noting rank should differ. 

Ellarbee, Clapham Common. 

wards of half a century ago I possessed one of the 
late William Cobbett's books, whether it was his 
* English Grammar ' or his ' English Spelling Book ' 
I cannot call to mind. The only thing about it 
that clings to me, as a half effaced memory, is that 
in the latter part there was an account of Sisters 
of Mercy or of Charity, I do not call to mind 
which, and that this record of good works was 
illustrated by an engraving showing the ladies in 
their proper costume. From this source I first 
became acquainted with the fact that there are 
religious orders of women devoted to the service of 
their fellow creatures. I am anxious, for a literary 
purpose, to refresh my memory by a sight of this 
volume. Will any one lend me a copy for a day 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

" OOF "= MONET. Whence comes this recent 
addition to the language of the gutter, as exempli- 
fied in the following quotation from * Vocal Bits,' 
i. 205 (June 18, 1892)? 

While he has any oof to spare, 
He 's ready, boys, to pay. 

[See 7'" s. ix. 187.] 

KING'S SCHOLARS' POND. Can any reader of 
'N. & Q.' refer me to an accessible map or survey 
whereon the pond is marked by name ; or, failing 
that, say what was its exact position ? The name, 
I imagine, is derived from the foundation boys of 
Westminster School. Was the pond their bathing- 
place ; and was it a pool in an effluent of the 
Tyburn? W. E. D.-M. 

SIR ANTHONY DENNY. According to the 'Diet. 
Nat. Biog.' this well-known knight was second son 
of Sir Edward Denny, Baron of the Exchequer. 
Burke's * Extinct Peerage ' (sub " Denny, Earl of 
Norwich"), states that he was the baron's grandson. 
Which is correct ? Who was Sir Edward Denny, 
who was knighted in Holland in 1586 by Robert, 
Earl of Leicester? W. D. PINK. 

A "SHEELA-NA-GIG." This type of grotesque 
stone carving, which is said to represent a nude 
female figure, was, I believed, confined exclusively 
to Ireland. " Sheela-na-gigs," as Irish antiquaries 
call these somewhat unpleasing-looking Bgures, are 

8* S. IV. AUG. 26, '93.] 



usually, perhaps always, found built into the wall 
beside or over the door of small and very ancient 
Irish churches. The object or use of these figures 
has been discussed by writers on Irish antiquities, 
and some curious theories have been advanced 
regarding them. The object of this note is to say 
that I saw in May last what I think is a veritable 
" Sheela-na-gig," built into the wall of the parish 
church at Church Stretton, Shropshire ; it is over, 
and somewhat to one side of, a built-up or disused 
Norman doorway in the north wall of the church 
near the western end. I regret there was not 
time to make any inquiries on the spot about this 
figure ; but possibly some of the readers of 'N. & Q.' 
may be able to give some information. 


KRAKATOA. It is now just ten years since the 
terribly destructive volcanic eruptions in the 
Straits of Snnda, which occurred on Aug. 26, 1883, 
and almost destroyed this island. My query is 
respecting the correct form and origin of its name, 
which is usually spelt Krakatoa in English, and 
Krdkatau in German books. From what language 
is it derived ? W. T. LYNN. 


FOLK-LORE OP SQUIRREL. The 'Dictionarium 
Rusticum, Urbanicum et Botanicum,' 1726, con- 
tains this marvellous passage, sub "Squirrel": 

" To which, as a rarity in this little Animal, we may 
add, their admirable subtility in passing over a River ; 
for being constrained with Hunger ao to do, they seek 
out some Rind or small Bark of a Tree, which they set 
upon the Water ; then they go into it, and holding up 
their Tails, like a Bail, let the Wind drive them to the 
other aide ; they also carry Meat in their Mouths to pre- 
vent Famine, whatever should befal them." 

Whence has the compiler of this dictionary 
obtained this statement ? 


HERALDIC. Will one of your readers instruct 
me how to marshal the arms resulting from the 
following alliances ? A, E, I, 0, and U, stand for 
five families, who through their heiresses or co- 
heiresses are now represented by a family X. In 
the first place, the male line of E married the 
heiress of A ; their coheiress E- A married X 1 . 
2. A century later X 2, who quartered the arms 
of A and E, married the heiress of I. 3. married 
the coheiress of U, and left an only daughter 0-U. 
3 married 0-U. Problem, how to marshal 
the arms of the children of this last marriage. Is 
this correct ? (1) arms of X ; (2) arms of A and E 
quarterly ; (3) arms of I ; (4) arms of and U 
quarterly. p. L. G. 

be glad to receive references to this family, of Ard- 
bany and Trinity Gask in 1564. Where can an 
account of the seventeen sons of William Murray, 

Laird of Tnllibardine 1446, be seen ? The Ard- 
bany family is believed to be descendant from one 
of these seventeen ; but I have been unable to 
trace their names and issues. 


38, Albert Street, Kennington Park. 

CROKE FAMILY. Will any one who possesses 
a copy of Sir Alexander Croke's ' Genealogical 
History of the Croke Family' kindly lend it to me 
for a few days ? CONSTANCE (Lady) RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

LADY HARIETT HEBER. " The Right Honour- 
able Lady Hariett Heber, sister to Earl Powia." 
Can any one tell me who this lady was ? Her por- 
trait, now to be had in autotype, was painted by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. MRS. GELLWEGBR. 


BODIMANT FAMILY. At p. 47 of the 162& 
'Visitation of Somersetshire,' published by the 
Harleian Society and edited by F. T. Colby, he 
gives, as the arms of Bodimant, " Argent, a fese 
sable, between three bulls' heads cabossed gales," 
being the third quarter in the coat of arms of 
Harvy, of Brockley. These arms (Bodimant) are 
in old stained glass, in a window in Cbelvey 
(Somersetshire) Church, with the addition of a 
crescent or on the fess, and are impaled with Gales 
three bars argent within a bordure of the last. 
Neither of these coats is mentioned in Pupworth's 
' Ordinary/ nor is Bodimant mentioned in Burke's 
'Armory.' Possibly the latter arms are those of 
Cholke, which bear the same, except that the 
three bars are wavy, and the lead work of the 
window may conceal the wavy edge to the bars, 
as each bar is let in separately, with leadwork. 
I should like to know whose arms they are, and 
also should be glad of information about the Bodi- 
mant family, to whom I can find no reference 
in the indexes to Collinson's ' History of Somerset- 
shire/ nor in Marshall's 'Genealogist's Guide,' 
nor in other books connected with Somersetshire. 
Is there any pedigree published ? C. H. SP. P. 

FIELDS. In Coleridge's * Table - Talk,' under 
April 14, 1830, the editor, in a note, speaks of 

' a Jew, a Swedenborgian, a Roman Catholic, and a New 
JeruBaiemite, or by whatsoever other name the members 
of that small, bat very respectable church planted in 

he neighbourhood of Lincoln's Inn Fields delight to be 
known "; 

knd in another note, under May 5, 1830, he writes > 
' Meaning, I believe, that of the New Jerusalem 
or people of the New Church "; referring here to a 
passage above, " This Walkerite Church is a mis- 
jellany of Calvinism and Quakerism ; but it is 
lard to understand it." Now a Swedenborgian 
and a New Jernsalemite are wont to be spoken of 
as one and the same. Is the Walkerite or New 



. IV. AUG. 26, '93. 

Jerusalemite named above merely an offshoot of 
the Swedenborgian, or another sect quite distinct ; 
also, is the chapel near Lincoln's Inn Fields still 
standing and used ? Will some one kindly answer 
these questions?, AD LIB RAM. 

DANTE AND NOAH'S ARK. Where is the 
passage in Dante in which he mentions having 
seen rtlics brought by travellers from Noah's Ark ? 
And is there now any Archdeacon John Joseph 
Noari at Jerusalem or Bagdad who asserts that he 
saw the remains of the Ark last spring ? 

E. L. G. 

.BOOK WANTED. Can any of your readers name 
a work published some years back, before the time 
of African railways, describing the Boers' method 
of stretching the covering of their waggons from 
one waggon to another, so as to form a covered 
space for the display of their goods; or how it was 
managed? C. GORDON. 

CARING FAIR. The book known as Allen's 
* History of the County of Lincoln,' vol. ii. p. 308, 
states that the fair held at Grantham on the Monday 
before Palm Sunday, for horses, horned cattle, and 
sheep, is called "caring fair." What is the meaning 
of this name? N. M. & A. 

MR. JOHN ADAMS (1779-1814). Will some one 
having access to old London directories, &c., 
kindly inform me how long a certain John Adams 
resided in Essex Street, Strand, and what he is 
described as ? I think he must have been a timber 
merchant. He was shipwrecked and drowned, 
with the master and crew, in his vessel, the Suiter- 
ton, on the Gore Sand, off Berrow, Somerset, 
Dec. 15, 1814, when bound with a cargo of timber 
from Bridgwater to Chepstow. His body was 
recovered and interred at Berrow, in the register 
of which parish he is styled "John Adams, Esq., 
of London, aged 35 years." BEAULIEU. 

"BURIED ALIVE." -In Foxe's ' Acts and Monu- 
ments/ vol. iv. p. 387 (Seeley's edition, 1856), in 
an account of the sufferings of Protestants at 
Donnek (Tournai) in 1545, mention is made of a 
poor creature called Marion who was buried alive, 
and it is added that this was "after the usual 
punishment of that country for women." Can 

this be proved to be true ? ASTARTE. 

W. J. FitzPatrick, in his life of the great Domi- 
nican preacher Thomas N. Burke (vol. i. p. 17), 
speaks of a ballad relating to Dr. Butler, Lord 
Dunboyne, who was a benefactor to Maynooth. 
May I ask if this ballad has been printed ; and, if 
so, where it may be seen? E. P. D. E. 

ESTCOURT. 1. Who was " Judge Estcourt " ? 
Rudder notes an uninscribed tomb at Shipton, near 

Tetbury ; see * History of Gloucestershire, 5 p. 655. 
There is no record of him in Fosse's ' History of 
the Judges.' 2. Who was Sir Thomas Estcourt, 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry, Earl of 
Southampton, died 1624 ? Le Neve records a Sir 
Thomas Estcourt, of Cheston Pinkney, Wiltshire, 
knighted in 1660-1, and credits him with two 
wives, other than Elizabeth Wriothesley. 


FTNES. When I was at Tattershall Castle, in 
1850, in Tattershall, Lincoln county, England, 
I examined the old registers of the parish, and 
copied out the following items : 

" The Right Honourable Henry Fynes, knt., Lord 
Clinton and Say, Earl of Lincoln, was buryed the last 
day of September, 1615." 

" The Eight Honourable Thomas Fynes, Earl of Lin- 
coln, was buried the 15 daye of January, 1618." 

" Katherine Fynes, dau. of Thomas, Earl of Lincoln, 
buried Jan. 7." 

Now the heralds and genealogists of England 
give this Earl of Lincoln family the surname of 
Clinton, not Fynes. Which is the correct sur- 
name ? DEAN DUDLEY. 

Montrose, Mass., U.S. 

SIR WILLIAM STANLEY. Who was the knight 
of this name who held an important military com- 
mand in the Low Countries in 1585, and who 
afterwards surrendered Deventer to the Spaniards ? 
(Vide 'Correspondence of Dudley, Earl of Ley- 
cester,' Camden Soc. vol., 1844.) 

W. D. PINK. 

BOOKPLATES OR SEALS. Persons having any 
inscribed with the name Powell, and bearing the 
arms given in parenthesis, will greatly oblige the 
subscriber by sending him a copy of the name and 
inscription in full. (Per fesse argent and or, a 
lion rampant gules.) PHILIP S. P. CONNER. 

Octorara, Rowlandsville, Maryland. 

INSCRIPTION ON SUNDIAL. On an old sundial, 
dated 1776, is an inscription, which from age has 
become illegible, the first few words being all that 
can be read with the exception of the word " sun," 
which is repeated several times. The first four 
words are "I stand on Earth," and perhaps some 
one may be able to recognize some quotation, com- 
mencing thus, of several lines. GLENDOICK. 

' SARTOR RESARTUS. ' Where shall I find con- 
temporaneous criticisms, or criticisms within the 
next few years after its irst publication in Fraser, 
or as book, of ' Sartor Resartus ' ? 


CROWN. Of these the stewardship of the Chiltei 
Hundreds is best known. Then there is the stei 
ship of the Manor of Northstead. What are 
others? W. B. GERISH. 

8*8. IV. AUG. 26, '93.] 




(8 th S. iv. 101, 135.) 
In the very interesting article on this subject 
which appears at the first reference I observe 
certain statements as to which I would know 
more. MR. WARD says, " This gives the elevation 
of Lindsey House, which is still the finest faade 
of any mansion in London." What does "this' 
refer to ? It cannot be to a view of Co?ent 
Garden. MR. WARD continues speaking, I sup- 
pose, of Lindsey House "Assuredly the stone 
house now standing is not Inigo's." This is very 
puzzling. There is a stone-fronted house in Arch 
Row, the second from the north end, and there is 
a brick-faced house, the first in the same row. Of 
it, the brick-faced house, we know the architect's 
name. He was a Dutchman, called Winde or 
Windt. The stone-faced house next door is un- 
doubtedly by Inigo Jones, and still contains some 
features from hia hand, though it has been a good 
deal pulled about. MR. WARD also puzzles me 
when he describes the two brick pillars as being 
before the house next door. They really are 
before "the stone-faced house." Also it is quite 
true too true that symmetrical proportion is 
little thought of at the present day. But it did 
not die with Wren. Barry knew all about it : 
witness his two club-houses in Pall Mail There 
are traces of it even in his Houses of Parliament. 
Bat has MR. WARD forgotten Burlington, Kent, 
Campbell, Chambers, Adam, Wood of Bath, 
Gandon of Dublin, and many others who carried 
on the Wren tradition till the so-called Gothic 
revival ? I think the rivulet running to Wych 
Street is the same which crossed the Strand, 
where there was at first a ford, commemorated by 
Milford Lane, and afterwards a bridge. I think 
Piquet's or Fickett's Field was nearer the site of 
the present Law Courts. It belonged to the 
Temple, not to Lincoln's Inn, and it is always 
said was a tilting ground for the knights. Inci- 
dentally a great many interesting questions might 
be asked as to Lincoln's Inn Fields. Let me 
suggest one or two. What is the meaning of 
Whetstone Park? Where was Little Lincoln's 
Inn Fields? Where was Lord Cobham hung in 
his armour over a slow fire ? Where did William, 
Lord Russell, suffer, and which was the house he 
spoke of as he passed on his way to the scaffold ? 


MR. C. ,A. WARD will allow me to correct an 
rror in his interesting note on Lincoln's Inn 
b lelds. Cunningham was in no respect scientific- 
ally inaccurate in saying that " the seal had 
already got into circulation through the melting- 
There was, at least, no impediment to its 
so. MR. WARD, not unnaturally, looks at 

the matter with nineteenth century eyes, and has 
forgotten, or perhaps is not aware, that in 1784 the 
Mint was open as it had been for 118 years to 
the free coinage of both silver and gold, and that 
when the melting-pot had done its duty the thief 
had only to present his lump of silver at the Mint 
and receive full-weight coins, which, indeed, com- 
manded a premium at the time. 


Let me hasten to apologize if I have hurt MR. 
WALFORD'S feelings or literary reputation in any 
way. The latter I do not think I have. All he 
says about Col. Howard Vyse is taken straight 
out of Timbs. Now let me explain. I call every- 
thing that is repeated from another, without any 
application of one's own thought to it, " a parrot's 
tale," and if that be applied to my own paper on 
Lincoln's Inn Fields that has just appeared, much 
of that will belong largely to the order of the 
" parrot's tale" in literature. Now if to a scrap 
such as mine it applies, how in a prodigious work 
such as MR. WALFORD'S could it otherwise than 
apply ? I do not really think he need feel hurt 
at my use of the phrase ; but if he does I again 
apologize, for I do not seek to offend him. He 
thought once before that I went out of my way to 
pick holes in his book. He is wrong about the 
"Devil's Gap." The curious and impressive old 
archway leading into Sardinia Street was never so 
called ; but he took my meaning quite wrongly if 
he thought I mentioned it out of any ill will to 
him. I did not. 

Again, it is neither facetiousness nor ignorance that 
makes me designate the book " Cassell's London." 
MR. WALFORD wrote the last four volumes, Thorn- 
bury the first two. Would Thornbury, if living, 
think it fair to call the work " Walford's London n ? 
I really cannot call it " Thornbury and Walford's 
Old London" whenever citing it, and therefore 
I call it short " Cassell's London," just as I should 
say an Oxford, Cambridge, or Rheims Bible, from 
the place where it is printed. If MR. WALFORD 
will point out a brief and better title I will use it 
always in future. 

Let me tell MR. WALFORD that, so far as he is 
concerned, I think his four volumes quarto of 
double column are a colossal literary labour that 
ew are equal to, infinitely preferable to Knight's 
six volumes and to most other compilations on 
he subject. But that once heartily acknowledged, 
ie must let all subsequent investigators find all the 
aults they can in his pages, else how are we to 
advance to better ? His book is to me an always 
rritating book, for want of authorities, though it 
s a good compendium of facts. But when you want 
,o verify a fact it is so defective as to reference that 
: hardly ever use it at all This is no fault of MR. 
WALFORD'S. Hia business was to state the local 
'acts to ordinary readers. The popular form he 



was committed to prevented his from being a book 
of reference in the future. The fact exonerates 
him, bat I hope he will not think it ill-natured in 
me to point it out as a fact exonerating him 
because it happens to be accompanied by a serious 
drawback. As to myself, I pretend to no accuracy. 
I know I have taken more trouble to be accurate 
than many cold writers who pass for accurate ; but 
I also know that I do not succeed. Even as to 
these Fields alone, the facts flood one and defy 
arrangement. Sensible of this, am I likely to 
wish to throw dirt at or run down the Hercules- 
labour of a man like MR. WALFORD ? 

C. A. WARD. 
Chingford Hatch, E. 

iii. 445; iv. 12). I read MR. BOUCHIER'S communi- 
cation on this subject with interest. It is with 
considerable hesitation that I venture to make any 
remarks on it, as I do not profess to be an Italian 
scholar. I have beside me, however, no fewer than 
three translations of the 'Orlando,' and it is curious 
to observe how the different translators tackle the 
Italianized form of the British titles. The first 
translation is by William Huggins (London, 
Bivington, 1757), the second by John Hoole 
(second edition, London, Nicol, 1785), and the 
third is by William Stewart Bose (London, 
Murray, 1833). The last was, I believe, subse- 
quently published as one of Bonn's series. For 
the sake of convenience it may be as well to tabu- 
late the different renderings', designating Hug- 
gins A, Hoole B, and Bose C. 

Lincastro. A, B, C, Duke of Lancaster. 

Varveccia. A, B, 0, Earl of Warwick. 

Glocestra. A, B, 0, Duke of Gloucester. 

Chiarenza. A, B, C, Duke of Clarence. 

Eborace. A, B, C, Duke of York. 

Nortfozia. A, B, C, Duke of Norfolk. 

Cancia. A, B, C, Earl of Kent. 

Pembrozia. A, B. C, Earl of Pembroke. 

Suffolcia. A, B, C, Duke of Suffolk. 

Esonia. A and C, Earl of Kent ; B, Earl of 

Norbelana. A, B, C, Earl of Northumberland. 

Arindelia. A, B, C, Earl of Arundel. 

Berchlei. A, B, C, Marquis of Berkeley. 

Marchia. A, B, C, Earl of March. 

Bicmonda. A and C, Earl of Richmond ; B 
does not give the name. 

Dorsezia. A, B, C, Earl of Dorset. 

Antona. A and C, Earl of Southampton ; B, 
Earl of Ancaster. 

Devonia. A, B, C, Earl of Devon. 

Vigorina. A and C, Earl of Worcester ; B, 
Earl of Winchester. 

Derbia. A, B, 0, Earl of Derby. 

Ossonia. A, B, C, Earl of Oxford. 

Prelate di Battonia. A, Bath's rich prelate ; B, 

The prelate of the Bath ; C, Bath's wealthy pre- 

Somersedia. A, B, 0, Duke of Somerset. 

Bocchingamia. A, B, 0, Duke of Buckingham. 

Sarisberia. A, B, C, Earl of Salisbury, 

Burgenia. A, B, 0, Lord Abergavenny. 

Croisberia. A, B, 0, Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Boscia. A and B, Duke of Koss ; C, Duke of 

Ottonlei. A and B, Earl of Athol ; C, Earl of 

Marra. A, B, 0, Duke of Mar. 

Alcabrun. A Highland chief who has not been 

Straffordia, Trasfordia. A and B, Earl of Straf- 
ford ; C, Duke of Strathfortb. 

Angoscia. A, B, C, Earl of Angus. 

Albania. A, B, C, Duke of Albany. 

Boccania. A, B, C, Earl of Buchan. 

Forbesse. A and 0, Lord Forbes ; B evades it. 

Erelia. A, Count of Erely (Ogilvie of Airlie ?); 
B, Earl of Arrol ; C, Earl of Errol. 

Childera. A, B, C, Earl of Kildare. 

Desmonda. A, B, C, Earl of Desmond. 

With regard to the Duke of Strathfortb, Mr. 
Bose confesses that he has had to create a duke- 
dom for him ; the Carnegies and the Bamsays 
were the two principal Scottish families who bore 
an eagle on their shield, the cognizance assigned 
by Ariosto to "Trasfordia." But I am inclined 
to agree with the translator last mentioned that 
the armorial bearings given are (at least in thfr 
great majority of cases) purely fanciful. 

J. B. P. 

With respect to the " riccoprelato di Battonia,* 
Sir John Hariogton in his translation has the 
following marginal note : " The last Bishop M. 
Godwin a reuerent man, told me that that epitheton 
was vnfit for that sea at this time. " And we may 
infer as much from the statement of the bishop's 
son in his * Praesules ' that Wolsey resigned this 
see in 1518 for the wealthier one of Durham. 

I think DR. TAYLOR makes a slip in saying 
that Polydore Vergil " held the see of Bath." He 
was enthroned Bishop of Bath and Wells in 
October, 1504, as proxy for his kinsman Adrian 
de Castello, who held the see and farmed it. 
Polydore, however, obtained the archdeaconry of 
Wells in 1508. F. ADAMS. 

MR. BOUCHIER will find additional information- 
in W. S. Rose's translation of Ariosto. This 
translator differs from Hoole in several of the titles 
in question, e.g., Roscia, which is given as " Roth- 
say " (this, by the way, should be spelt Rothesay) 
by the former, is Ross in the latter translation. 
Hoole translates "Antona," Ancaster; "Ottonlei," 
Athole, instead of Huntly, as given by Rose ; 
"Vigorina," Winchester; and "Trasfordia, 
Stafford. In the case of "Trasfordia" Rose 

8" S. IT. Aue. 2, '93.] 



states in a note: "I have been here under th 
necessity of creating a dukedom." Bat he ha 
not been happy in translating " Trasfordia " 
Strathford. " Strath " has a very definite mean 
ing in these quarter?, bat I suppose " Transforthia 
was too clumsy, whilst " Albany " occurs in th 
same stanza. Hose differs from CANON TAYLO 
with regard to "Esenia," which he translate 
Essex. J. YOUNG. 


MR. BOUCHIER may rest assured that Italians o 
Ariosto's date did know a little about England 
Surely Polydore Vergil was a native of Urbino; ye 
he lived in England for years, and his ' History o 
England,' first published in 1534, and dedicated 
to Henry VIII., is still more or less of a classic 
The great Baldassare Castiglione, author of tha 
stainless " glass of fashion " the ' Cortegiano,' was 
over in England before the accession of Henry VIII 
to receive the Garter for his master, Quid' Ubaldo 
the blameless Duke of Urbino. He appears to 
have fared well at the hands of Henry VII. Again 
did not Erasmus visit England as well as Italy ' 
Does not Mr. Gladstone imagine that two hundred 
years earlier Dante may have seen ' 'Grey "Ox- 
ford ? 

MR. BOUCHIER is perfectly correct in most of 
his translations of Ariosto's " English a la 
Ferrarese." I mention only those that he 
doubtful abouf. " Antona " is Southampton, for 
in the first book of his ' History ' Polydore Vergil 
mentions that it is called "South" from its 
facing the south. Warwick, Kent, Richmond, 
Rothsay, Worcester, Bath, are the actual equiva- 
lents for Ariosto's uncouth names. Perhaps 
' Esenia" may stand for " Exonia," Vergil's 
name for the see of Exeter. " Marchia" I should 
take to be March, probably the Scotch title. I 
have no plausible guesses for the others. 

A later Italian historian calls Anne Boleyn 
"Anna di Bologna"! Further, Natalia Comes 
styles the abbey " Templum Divi Petri Vasmes- 
tn, and Sir Thomas Wyatt becomes " Thomas 
Huuiettus." It is a matter of common knowledge 
that our countryman the condottiere, Sir John 
Hawkwood, bore the Italianized name of " Gio- 
vanni Acuto," and Lope de Vega's epic, ' La Dra- 
>ntea, deals with the exploits of the immortal 

ROYAL HOUSE OF FRANCE (8 th S. iv. 88). 
odoric of Alsatia, Count of Flanders and 
Jrtois, a grandson of Baldwin VI. of Flanders, 

Matthew's sister Margaret, Countess of Hainault, 
had several children, including two sons, Baldwin 
and Henry, who became Emperors of Constanti- 
nople, a daughter Isabel, heiress of Artoie, who 
married Philip II., King of France, and a 
daughter Jolantha, who married Peter de Cour- 
tenay, Emperor of Constantinople, a daughter? 
lolantha, who married Andrew II., King of Hun- 
gary, and a daughter Mary, who married Theo- 
dore Lascares, Emperor of Constantinople. 

If, therefore, Matthew of Boulogne was not very 
closely connected with France, he could still boast 
of fairly distinguished relationships, for he had 
two nephews and two great-nephews who were 
eastern emperors, a niece and a great-niece who 
were consorts of the same throne, as well as a 
niece and a great-niece who were queens of other 
countries. If your correspondent is of this race, 
one may well describe him as distinguished-" par 
la splendeur " of his ancestry. C. MOOR. 

Barton on Humber. 

48, 91). It may be added that he was instituted 
bo the perpetual curacy of Alt car, co. Lancaster^. 
March 13, 1822, to the perpetual curacy of Talk, 
co. Stafford, February 22, 1831, and to the vicarage 
of Audley, in the same county, on February !&> 

I was very glad to see DR. FORSHAW*S interest- 
ng account of the above reverend gentleman (ante, 
p. 91). As he was for many years a resident of 
his district, and as I have frequently heard by- 
rone generations speak highly of him and his- 
writings, I should be grateful if the Doctor will 
dndly quote in ' N. & Q/ the address presented 
o Mr. Garratt by his Wilmslow parishioners in 




several children, of whom Matthew , 
.punt of Boulogne, and Margaret married Bald- 
win IV., Count of Hainault Matthew married 
Mary, daughter of Stephen, King of England, and 
had a daughter Matilda, who married Henry IV, 
Uake of Brabant (who after her death married 
Mary, daughter of Philip II., King of FranceX 

MACARONI LATIN (8 th S. iiL 449; iv. 116). 
possess a book entitled ' Maccheronee di cinque 
oeti italiani del secolo xv.,' published at Milan 
1864. The first of these five poets is Tifi 
)dassi, a Paduan, of whom his fellow-citizen Ber- 
ardino Scardeone says, in his work 'De antiquitate 
rbis Patavii ' (Basileae, 1560, p. 238) : 

Adinvenit primus ridiculum carminis genus, nun- 
uam prius a quopiam excogitatum : quod Macaronseum 
uncupavit multis farcitum aalibua, et aatyrica mordaci- 

ite respersum Merito (si conferre exemplum liceat). 

antum liuic noetro civi Macaronaeum carmen debet, 
quantum heroicum Virgilio, et Danti aut Petrarcbae ver- 

He adds that more than ten editions of Tin's 
poem had been published. The poem, as printed 
from a unique fifteenth-century copy in the public 
library at Parma, consists of 698 hexameter verses, 
and after a four-line proem begins : 

Portunara miseram et caeum riaibile certe 
Et macharoneos scura persone ficat^s. 



[8i S. IV. Aim. 26, '93. 

Reference is made to it in another macaronic, 
printed in Venice, May 7, 1502 ("perhaps," as 
Libri observes, " the oldest macaronic book extant 
with a certain date "), as follows : 
IHos jurares scutum parere guioti 
Sicut descripeit longo cum carmine Typhis. 
And there is extant an autograph letter from 
Tifi Odassi to Alessandro Strozzi, dated "da 
Padova, 15 ottobre 1487." Thus, then, your 
correspondent MR. FERET is right in asserting 
that macaronic verse existed before the time of 
Eolengo, but wrong in supposing that Folengo 
devised the name. F. ADAMS. 

105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. 

"EAVESDROPPER" (8 tl > S. iii. 485; iv. 72). 
Eavesdropper is much earlier in its use than is 
stated. It occurs in 1 Stat. Westminster, c. 33, 
temp. Ed. I. ED. MARSHALL. 

INVITE = INVITATION (8 th S. iv. 27). The Kev. 
T. L. 0. Davies, in his ' Supplementary English 
Glossary,' quotes " The lamprey swims to his 
Lord's invites " (Sandys, ' Travels/ p. 305). He 
quotes also from Madame D'Arblay, Th. Hook, 
and Dickens. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

66). If a passage in the Italian's delightful poem 
was sleeping in Sir Walter's ear, so that he uncon- 
sciously re-echoed it, another passage was probably 
wide awake in Lord Byron's ear when he appro- 
priated a master-thought. When Nature 
broke the die in moulding Sheridan, 
he made use of Ariosto's famous line, 

Natura lo fece e poi ruppe la stampa. 

x. 84. 

Highgate, N. 

J' CRUELTY" (8 th S. iii. 388). The word does, 
it is true, come to us from the Latin ; not straight, 
however, but through the medium of French, the 
mediaeval crudte having sprung from the Latin 
crudelitatem by the action of three quite normal 
changes, viz., the dropping of the intermediate d, 
the dropping of the non-stressed short vowel t, 
and the passing of the terminal -aim. into the 
French ending -te. 

1. As to the dropping of d from the body of a 
word ; we find very many instances of this in 

.French, e.g., confiance, formed from the Latin 
confi(d^entia, benir from bene(d)icere, croyance from 
cre(d)entia,juiffrom ju(d)aeus, louerfiom lau(d)are, 

2. The disappearance of the i is in accordance 
with a general law, given in the f Dictionnaire 
Etymologique ' of Auguste Brachet, as follows : 

"Every atonic [or non-stressed] vowel immediately 
preceding the accentuated [or stressed] vowel, (as, for 
example, the i in sanitdtem, and the e in coemeterium), 

disappears in French, if it is short, (thus sanitatem be- 
comes sante); but remains if it is long, (coem Cerium 
;hus making cimetiere" 

3. The change of -atem into the French termi- 
nation -U may be seen in the corruption of asperi- 
latem into dprete, bonitatem into bonte, civitatem 
into cite", paupertatem into pauvrete, &c. 

I presume that your correspondent's search in 
Freund, and in White and Riddle, was not for 
"the mediaeval etymology of the word cruelty" 
'he could hardly expect to find that there) ; 
but for the earlier genealogy or affinities of the 
Latin crudelis. The writers in question, however, 
belong to an etymological period which a more 
recent authority (Edward R. Wharton, Fellow 
and Lecturer of Jesus Coll., Oxford) pronounces 
" pre-scientific." Speaking of Latin etymology, he 
says : 

' Pre-scientific work like that of Hintner and Zehet- 
mayr, both of whom published in 1873, is hardly worth 
mentioning ; it was not till the publication in 1876 of 
Brugmann's discoveries that anything was known about 
vocalic laws." Wharton's ' Etyma Latina,' 1890, p. v. 

MR. COLLINSON, therefore, may like to compare, 
in reference to crudelis, the more exact etymology 
of to-day with the at that time new etymology of 
the first half of our century. White and Riddle, 
relying upon Pott, refer crudelis to the Sanskrit 
krudh, "to be angry"; Prof. Skeat, in a 
more advanced stage of knowledge ('Concise 
Etymol. Diet.,' 1882), connects it with crudus, 
"raw"; and so, through the latter, with the 
Sanskrit krura, "sore, cruel," from the Aryan 
root Jcru or hru, "to be hard, stiff, or sore "; and 
now comes Mr. Wharton (1890), who apparently 
agrees, upon this point, with none of his pre- 
decessors. He omits crudelis altogether, after 
notifying in his preface (p. x), that 

" where no etymology at all is given it is to be under- 
stood than none yet proposed is satisfactory ; in many of 
such cases the ordinary (unscientific) etymology may be 
found in Lewis and Short." 

MR. COLLINSON might study with advantage 
Prof. Skeat's ' Primerof English Etymology,' 1892 ; 
but it needs hard study, and is supremely dry. 



" TELEPATHIC OBSESSION " (8 th S. iii. 384, 494 ; 
iv. 35). I must beg leave to differ from DR. 
CHANCE in his estimation of telepathic obsessions, 
and also to inquire if the term hypnotic obsessions 
would not be equally correct. 

Telepathy and hypnotism now occupy clearly 
defined positions among psychic phenomena, and a 
belief in these mental forces now receives genei 

It is without doubt possible that one may be by 
notized by another person while in the wakii 
stage without being conscious of it, and the 
question is how far the subject is under the doi 

8 th S. IV. Aoo. 26, '93.] 



nance of psychical influence. I believe there is grea 
difficulty in producing complete moral obliquity 
and conceding this to be true, it would seem tha 
the same difficulty would arise in attempting t 
influence one to commit suicide. 

An interesting series of experiments has been 
conducted at Paris upon a number of women, al 
apparently under hypnotic influence ; and it wa 
invariably found that, while the depraved women 
of the town unhesitatingly disrobed in the presence 
of the spectators, it was impossible to make the 
decent women obey the suggestion of the operator 
Similar experiments have usually resulted in 
the same way ; and where one has committed a 
crime under hypnotic influence, it has generally 
been discovered that the criminal tendency was 
strong in that person, or, if not manifested in 
him, then in some of his ancestors, in which case 
it may be easily accounted for on the theory o 

Mr. Thomson Jay Hudson, in his recent work 
on the subject (' The Law of Psychic Phenomena, 
Chicago, 1893), also adopts much the same view, 
although he appears to have entirely overlooked 
the importance ef the influence of heredity. But 
another factor which must be taken into considera- 
tion is, that if the subject is predisposed to melan- 
cholia the mind is in a condition highly receptive 
to the suicidical suggestion, and it would seem 
that under these circumstances the efforts of the 
operator might meet with success. 

I absolutely disclaim any belief in psychometry, 
but yet am willing to admit that certain houses 
and localities are "pervaded by a mysterious 
atmosphere. " Those remarkable stories of haunted 
houses and haunted ruins are not all fictions evolved 
from the brain of the relator at a few minutes' 
notice ; he may honestly believe himself to have 
passed through the experiences which he describes 
so vividly, too vividly to be mere romancing. 
Mr. Hudson relates several such cases, and queries, 
Is it not true that a strong emotion may leave its 
impress upon the place where it was experienced, 
and be felt by others who occupy the same place ? 
He attempts to offer no other explanation for this 
mysterious phenomenon, which I must confess is 
not satisfactory to me. 

Personally I am inclined to attribute this strange 
influence to unconscious telepathy. Reasoning 
i the premises that there is some person living 
?on whom the terrible events made an indelible 
impression, it is natural to believe that these 
events are connected in his brain with the place 
srhere they transpired, and incidentally with the 
present occupants of that place. So a person 
j occupying a so-called haunted room or haunted 
house, while he may have no knowledge of its his- 
tory and be entirely separated from any one who 
has, yet he is unconsciously made the focus of the 
thought of the party who knows its history, and 

the telepathic communication is then complete, 
although they be thousands of miles apart. 

Of course, assuming this theory to be the true 
one, the explanation is simplified when an innocent 
guest is sent by a fun-loving host to sleep in a 
so-called haunted chamber ; presumably the other 
guests are in the plot, and each one, centring 
his mind upon the story of the apparition, the 
combined telepathic influence of all the minds 
would seem to be sufficient to act on a single 
mind least receptive to these influences. 

I am, perhaps, transgressing the bounds of 
' N. & Q.' in more than mentioning telepathy, and 
will therefore not attempt to distinguish between 
the influences exercised by the subjective and the 
objective minds ; but before closing I should like 
to bring up one remarkable case, which Mr. Clark 
Russell mentions in ' The Wreck of the Grosvenor.' 
One of the officers on a vessel dreams that several 
seamen are wrecked on a desert island, and are in 
need of assistance. So strong an impression does 
this make on him that he has the ship visit the 
island, and finds that the dream is true. Is this 
story founded upon fact ? If so it but affords 
another instance of unconscious telepathy. 

I should be obliged for any information on this 
point, and also for similar instances. 


New Brighton, N.Y., U.S. 

REAL NAME SOUGHT (8 th S. iv. 107). The 
Quaker banker and Hebrew scholar mentioned in 
chapter xv. of ' Lavengro ' was J. J. Gurney, who, 
according to Caroline Fox (' Journals,' vol. ii. p. 19), 
recommended Borrow to the Bible Society, his 
nfluence with which was almost supreme. The 
'old hall, still called the Earl's Home," is Earl- 
lam, near Norwich. 

Borrow refers to his benefactor again in 
shapter cvi. of 'Wild Wales.' "The Quakers," 
he says, 

have for some time past been a decaying sect, but 
hey have done good work in their day, and when they 
are extinct they are not destined to be soon forgotten, 
loon forgotten ! How should a sect ever be forgotten 
o which have belonged three such men as George Fox, 
William Penn, and Joseph Gurney?" 


BLACK FOR EVENING WEAR (8 th S. iii. 489 ; 
v. 75). Young Mr. Disraeli began to show 
t evening parties after "Pelham" had pre- 
cribed the black-and-all-black r