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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 160, Jan. 19, 1395, 


SCUT, C 2 ) 

of Bntercommuntcatiott 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 






Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 160, Jan. 19, 1895. 






8* h S. VI. JULY 7, '94.] 




NOTES J. Margetson, Archbishop of Armagh, 1 The 
Ancestry of Agatha, 2 -Mrs. Sophia Williams, 3-Dr. 
Baillie Thomson, 4 " Jymiams " A May Custom 
S T Coleridge Members of Parliament, 5 Anachronism 
"In Apple-pie Order " Merks Sterne's Plagiarisms- 
Triplets ' Wise Women in Norfolk' ' The Imitation of 

QUERIES 'Sussex Court Rolls Dictionaries Isabella of 
France "Pin" 'The Oath of Varges ' Haymarket 
"The King's Head" Rolland " Morphil" Riding of 
Ecclesiastics, 7 " To gride " Translation Wanted 
" N C P." Prusias Christmas Greetings ' Macbeth 
Olympian Victors ' Frank Farleigh ' Edinburghean 
Grammar' Desmond 'Descendants of Flora Macdonald, 
8 Prince of Wales, 1805 Domremy Battle of Naseby 
Simon de Montfort Montcalm Matthew Paris Early 
Postal Cover, 9. 

REPLIES : Lamb's Residence at Dalston, 9 De Burghs, 
Earls of Ulster, 10 Churching of Women" Mending " 
or "Ending" Rev. Henry Stebbing, 11 Egg Service- 
Disestablishment Lines in Cemetery Colley Cibber 
Picnic Macbride Tower of London, 12" Thirty days 
hath September " Breaking on the Wheel Artificial 
Eyes Beans St. Edmund Hall, 13 Parents of Baldwin 
II. Sir J. Germaine Dickens's Funeral" Canary Bird," 
14 _ Folk-lore " Niveling "Kennedy R. J. Thornton, 
15 Delescot " Phrontistere " Hairay : Barclay : Downie 
Swift and Stella Robert Brough Italian Anthology 
Capt. Cheney Bostock, 16 J. J. Smith " Synall " 
Wellington and Waterloo Queen's English, 17 The 15th 
Hussars and Tailors Battle-Axe Guards, 18 Burnet, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Addy's ' The Hall of Waltheof ' 
Lang's Scott's ' Anne of Geierstein 'Joyce's ' Old Celtic 
Romances 'Magazines. 


In the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' there 
is an account of this prelate by Mr. Richard Bag- 
well, which I have read with interest. I should 
like to add some particulars of him and his family 
in the pages of ' N. & Q.' 

In a courteous letter which I received in 1883 
from the Incumbent of Drighlington, Yorkshire, 
the birthplace of the archbishop, he mentioned 
a tradition existing there that Margetson was of 
humble birth, and began life as a gyp in Cam- 
bridge, but having attracted the attention of one 
of the Fellows, he was educated, and afterwards 
matriculated in Peterhouse College. 

Now, in his ' Surrey Pedigrees,' Berry gives an 
extensive account of his family, beginning with 
John Margetson, of Wakefield (A.D. 1400), whose 
son Richard, of Rotherham (1430), was father of 
Thomas, who was buried in January, 1540, aged 
eighty-one. Thomas was father of John, of Wake- 
field, buried at Birstall in October, 1580, whose 
son Thomas (buried Feb. 1, 1589) married, in 
1560, Mary Lowther, and their son John, married 
at Birstall, Nov. 9, 1589, Mary Layton, and was 
father of James, born 1600, the future archbishop. 
Berry adds in a note : 

" The family possessed lands in the county of York in 
the latter end of the reign of Richard II. or beginning 
of that of Henry IV. before 1400." 

He also describes the family arms, crest, and 
motto. It would seem, therefore, that he was of 
ancient lineage and gentle birth. Berry states that 
the archbishop's eldest son, James, of Cherry 
Hinton, co. Cumberland, was buried Oct. 7, 1660. 
I find that Margetson had two sons named James, 
and if Berry's statement is correct, both of them 
were alive at the same time. 

Mr. Bagwell, following the example of other 
writers, calls Major John Margetson the eldest 
son of the primate a mistake, beyond a doubt, as 
I shall presently show. 

John and James, twin sons of the primate, 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, on the same day, 
May 27, 1672 (or more correctly 1673, as the 
college year began on July 9), aged sixteen their 
next birthday, and were therefore born in 1656-7. 
Both of them graduated B.A. in 1676, and James 
became M.A. in 1679. There was a third son, 
Robert, who entered April 6, 1677 (1678), cetatis 
sixteen, and therefore born in 1661/2. But there 
was an elder son then alive, in the person of Thomas 
Maryetson, M.D,, who in 1666 was elected M.P. 
for the city of Armagh, and in 1670 became Regius 
Professor of Physic in the Dublin University. 
He married on Aug. 31, 1667, Mary, second 
daughter of Sir George Carr, Knt., of Southey 
Hall, Yorkshire, Clerk of the Council of Munster 
(she married, secondly. Dr. Michael Ward, Bishop 
of Derry), and had issue one daughter, Mary, 
born Nov. 6, 1668, who married, in 1684, Maurice 
Keating, Esq., of Narraghmore, co. Kildare, and 
their daughter Anne was second wife to Dr. 
Charles Carr, Bishop of Killaloe, grandson of Sir 
George Carr. Dr. Thomas Margetson died March 17, 
and was buried in St. Patrick's March 19, 1673; 
and in 1676 his widow had a grant of lands in co. 
Clare. He was baptized (as hereinafter mentioned) 
at Thornton Watlass, Bedale, Yorkshire, in 1631. 
In the Fun. Ent. Ulster Office his arms are given, 
identical with those of the primate, with a crescent 
for cadency, showing that he was a second son, 
and that he had an elder brother then living or 
who had left issue. The arms of the primate, con- 
firmed by Roberts, "Ulster," in 1649, were Sa., 
a lion pass, arg., armed and langued guies ; a chief 
engrailed or almost the same as those described by 

Margetson had been rector of Thornton Watlass, 
and the present rector, the Rev. J. D. Anderson 
(like the great majority of incumbents to whom I 
have had occasion to apply), most courteously and 
kindly took the trouble of searching the almost 
illegible parish records, and informed me that James 
Margetson's name, as rector, first appears in 1627 ; 
in which year, on March 20, his wife Ann was 
buried, apparently immediately after the birth of 
twin sons, who were baptized on the 16th of the 
same month as James and Francis. The latter, 
Francis, died young, and was buriei on March 31, 


[8th s. VI. JCLY 7, '94. 

1630, and as be died before he grew up his brother 
Thomas took his place as second SOD, heraldically. 
And soon afterwards the rector was married a 
second time, for his son Thomas (no doubt identical 
with Dr. Thomas, mentioned above) was baptized 
" in Bedall " in 1631, but the month and day are 
omitted ; and on Nov. 17, 1633, another son John 
was baptized. In that same year Margetson re- 
signed the rectory, and accompanied Lord Went- 
worth (afterwards the ill-fated Earl of Stratford) to 
Ireland as bis chaplain. 

Mr. Anderson could not find any entry of 
Margetson's second marriage, nor is his second 
wife's Christian name mentioned ; but from the 
facts I have given it seems clear that he was 
married no fewer than three times. His eldest son 
was, I presume, the James given by Berry. His 
second son, Thomas, was, doubtless, the M.D. and 
M.P., and the third son, John, probably died 

Besides the seven sons named, the archbishop 
had a daughter Anne, married in 1678 to William, 
Viscount Charlemont, and she died in 1729. 

Margetson's first wire, Ann, was buried March 20, 
1627 ; his second wife remains unknown ; and his 
third wife, to whom he was probably married 
during his life in London in poverty, under the 
Commonwealth, was Anne Bonnett, sister of 
Thomas Bonnett. 

Of his sons by her, John and James were born 
in London, and Robert in Leicestershire. I have 
not ascertained what became of James, but very 
probably he entered the Church, and in the dio- 
cese of Armagh, where, perhaps, some of your 
readers might find his name in the diocesan 

The incumbent of Drighlington informed me 
that Birstall formerly included that parish, which 
was afterwards separated, and made a perpetual 

The primate died Aug. 28, 1678, and was buried 
on the 30th in Christ Church Cathedral. Mr. 
Bagwell states that he was rector of Armagh, co. 
Cavan ; this is doubtless a misprint for Arvagb, 
there being no such name as Armagh amongst the 
parishes in Cavan. 

Possibly a search amongst the marriage bonds 
or licence books in the diocesan records of Ely or 
York might disclose the names of Margetson's first 
and second wives, and also the date and particulars 
of his ordination. E. LOFTUS TOTTENHAM. 



(Concluded from p. 462.) 

Did it ever occur to the investigators of the 
problem of Agatha to find out what the Scottish 
chroniclers had to offer on the topic? It seems 
to me that here would be a good field, since we 

know so much of her daughter, the sainted Queen 
Margaret, who is revered so highly there. I 
accordingly wrote to the Rev. A. W. Cornelius 
Hallen, the learned editor of the Scottish Anti- 
quary, on the subject, and received the following 
reply : 

" Reusner states that the parent of Agatha, the mother 
of St. Margaret, was Canute the Dane, the son of Canute 
the Great by Emma of Normandy. No authority, how- 
ever, is given. Reusner published his royal pedigrees 
A.D. 1592." 

This is probably the oldest writer on the topic; 
but those who know the pedigree of Cnut can lay 
no stress on Reusnei'a story ; vide Freeman's 'Nor- 
man Conquest ' and Keary's ' The Vikings in 
Western Christendom.' 

From the ' History of the Church of Scotland ' 
(Spottiswoode Society Publications, vol. i. p. 60) : 

' This Edmund left two sons, Edwin and Edward, 
whom Canutus in the beginning entertained very kindly, 
but afterwards, seeking to establish the crown in his own 
posterity, he sent them to Volgarus, the governor of 
Swain (Sweden), to be murthered. The governor, pity- 
ing the state of these innocent youths, conveyed them 
secretly unto Solomon, King of Hungary, giving out to 
Canutus that they were made away. Edward (surviving 
Edwin his brother) married Agatha, sister to the Queen 
of Hungary, and daughter to the Emperor Henry II., 
by whom he had a son called Edgar, and two daughters, 
Margaret and Christian." 

From Buchanan's 'History of Scotland,' vol. i. 
bk. vii. p. 346 : Volgar, governor of Sweden, 
"sent them to Hungary to King Solomon. After 
being there royally educated, Edward displayed so 
amiable a disposition that the king chose him, in 
preference to any of the young nobility, as a hus- 
band for his daughter Agatha." A note added to 
this by a later compiler says : " The genealogy of 
the lady copied by Buchanan from the English 
historians is doubtful" (see Hailes'a 'Annals,' vol. i. 
p. 1). 

From Lord Hailes's ' Annals of Scotland,' 1797, 
note, pp. 13, 14 : 

" This Margaret was the grand-niece of Edward the 
Confessor. The English historians unanimously assert 
' that Edward, the father of Margaret, was educated at 
the court of Solomon, King of Hungary, and that Solo- 
mon gave his sister-in-law Agatha, the daughter of the 
Emperor Henry II., to him.' But thia account is incon- 
sistent with the truth of history. Edward, the son of 
Edmund Ironside, returned to England in 1067 (' Chron. 
Sax./ p. 169). At that time Solomon, born in 1051, wan 
but six years old. He did not ascend the throne of 
Hungary till 1062. Five years after the death of Ed- 
ward, he married Soplm, daughter of the Emperor Henry 
III. It follows that Solomon could not receive Edward 
at his court, and could not give his sister-in-law in mar- 
riage to him. 

" Besides, Agatha, the wife of Ed ward, could not be the 
daughter of the Emperor Henry II. ; for Henry II. had 
no children. We all know his unnatural crime, termed 
sanctity by a superstitious age, and the declaration 
which he made to the parents of the virgin Cunegonda." 

Papebrock, 'Ad Vit, S. Margarets,' June 10, 

. VI JOIY 7, 'S4.1 


p. 325, has endeavoured to reconcile this genealogy 
with historical truth. He says 

"that Solomon is an error of transcribers for Stephen, 
and that Edward may have been received at the court 
of Stephen I., King of Hungary, who began to reign in 
1001. Stephen married Gisela, the sister of the Em- 
peror Henry II. Henry had a brother Bruno, who 
rebelled against him in 1003. This Bruno may have 
gone into Hungary, may have married, may have had a 
daughter Agatha, who may have been given in marriage 
to Edward." 

Aldred, ' De Genealogia Regura Anglorum,' 
p. 366, says : "Rex Hungarorum Edwardo filiam 
Germani, sui Henrici imperatoris, in matrimonium 
junxit." Papebrock, by an ingenious conjecture, 
instead of " Germani sui Henrici " reads " Germani 
sancti Henrici." There is another passage in the 
same page of Aldred which cannot be cured by 
this critical application: "Imperator Edwardum 
cum uxore Agatha, generi sui filia, ad Angliam 
mittit." The hypothesis of Papebrock is, shortly, 
this, and without it we can have no genealogy of 
Agatha and her daughter Margaret : " That in- 
stead of Agatha, the daughter of Henry II. and 
sister-in-law of Solomon, King of Hungary, we 
ought to read Agatha, daughter of Bruno, and 
niece of Gisela, the wife of Stephen of Hungary." 

It is not worth while to devote much attention 
to Papebrock, as he has been effectually riddled 
by Prof. Freeman and others. Let us look into 
Hungarian history a little further, for some dates. 

King Geisa (972-997) was the first pacific ruler 
of pagan Hungary ; from 972, Duke of Hungary ; 
baptized by Bruno, Bishop of Verdun, ambassador 
to Geisa, sent by Otho I. Geisa married a Christian 
princess as his second wife, a sister of the Duke of 
Poland, Mieczyslaw ; her name was Sarolta, and 
she was the daughter of Gyulas, one of two Hun- 
garian princes baptized at Constantinople 948; 
the other prince, Bolusudes, however, relapsed into 
barbarism. Geisa and Sarolta had a daughter who 
married Boleslau the Brave, Duke of Poland ; a 
daughter who married Urseolus, Doge of Venice ; 
and Waik, son and heir, who was baptized by 
Adalbert of Prague with the baptismal name of 
Stephen, when he was four years old, 983 or 984. 
He succeeded his father Geisa in 997, and reigned 
forty-one years, and died Aug. 15, 1038 (just 
thirty-eight years after his coronation to the very 
day, according to another authority ; this is ac- 
counted for by the fact that he really began his 
reign 1000 or 1001). Stephen married Gisela, 
daughter of the Duke of Bavaria , while through 
the alliances of his father's family Hungary ob- 
tained a recognition among European nations. 
When Stephen came to the throne, Otho III. 
governed Germany ; Boleslaw III., Bohemia ; 
Boleslau the Brave, Poland ; Vladimir the Great, 
Russia ; and Basil II., Constantinople. Emmerich, 
or Henry, son of Stephen and Gisela, died before 
his father, in 1031, Stephen chose for his succes- 

sor his nephew Peter, son of the Doge Urseolus ; 
but this prince made himself unpopular. After 
various changes a popular assembly declared in his 
stead for Andrew I., son of Ladislaw the Bald, 
in 1046. This Andrew was nearly related to 
Stephen, and by some said to be a cousin. I 
should like to know if he was a cousin. He was 
forced to yield to his brother Bela in 1061, who, 
however, died in 1063. Then came Solomon, son 
of Andrew I. W. FARRAND FELCH. 

Hartford, Conn., U.S. 

MRS. SOPHIA WILLIAMS. This lady, whose 
death, June 25, 1823, at the Dowager Viscountess 
Sidney's house in Chapel Street, South Audley 
Street, is announced in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
Supplement i., 1823, vol. xciii. pt. i. p. 651, was 
the only daughter of the celebrated Mrs. Thersea 
Cornelys, a native of Germany, who once held a 
distinguished station in the regions of fashion. 
Her mansion was called Carlisle House, in Soho 
Square. The premises were very extensive, and 
reached to what is now known as Crown Street. 
The rooms in this capacious mansion were numer- 
ous, and were laid out with considerable taste. The 
fashionable world in general warmly patronized 
Mrs. Cornelys, and the proceeds of concerts, balls, 
and masquerades enabled her to live in luxurious 
style. She kept carriages, and had a villa at 
Hammersmith. At length, however, the eminent 
architect, Mr. James Wyatt, erected that beautiful 
and classical mansion the Pantheon, in Oxford 
Street, and the tide of fashion turned in its favour. 
Unluckily about this period (1771) Mrs. Cornelys 
attempted to introduce the performance of Italian 
Operas at Carlisle House, and thus placed herself 
in an attitude of direct hostility to the Italian 
Opera House, then under the superintendence of 
the Hon. George Hobart (1732-1804), afterwards 
third Earl of Buckinghamshire. He applied to the 
magistrates to prohibit the entertainments, and was 
so tar successful that Sir John Fielding ordered 
the arrest of Guadagni, the chief singer at Carlisle 
House, and fined Cornelys and the other organizers 
of the "harmonic meetings." An indictment of 
Mrs. Cornelys for keeping a " common disorderly 
house" was brought before the grand jury on 
Wednesday, Feb. 20, 1771. The elegance of the 
Pantheon, the institution of "The Coterie," by 
certain of the " Society of Carlisle House," and the 
influence of Mr. Hobart resenting the attempt to 
injure his interest in the Opera House successfully 
combined to withdraw the fashionable world from 
Mrs. Cornelys, and her fall (in November, 1772) 
naturally followed. As late, however, as 1777, 
we find Mrs. Cornelys still organizing masques at 
Carlisle House. In 1785 the property was in 
Chancery, and the house sold under a decree of 
the Court, and Mrs. Cornelys retired into private 
life at Knightsbridge, " the world forgetting, by 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. vi. JULY 7, 

the world forgot." After remaining in grea 
obscurity for many years, under the name of Mrs 
Smith, she was eventually compelled to seek relug 
in the rules of the Fleet Prison, where she died on 
Aug 19 1797, aged seventy-four (Gent. Mag. 
October, 1797, vol. Ixvii. pt. ii. p. 890). 

Her son and daughter, who had received all the 
accomplishments suitable to the fortune which 
their mother was expected to acquire, were com- 
pelled to resort for support to the exercise of their 
talents. They both changed their names. The 
Bon "le petit Aranda" of Casonova an amiable 
and accomplished man, assumed the name of 
Altorf and became tutor to the Earl of Pomfret. 
He died a few years before his mother, for whom 
he bad provided during his life. The daughter, 
Sophia Wilhelmina, who had been educated at 
the Koman Catholic nunnery at Hammersmith, 
after her mother's fall, adopted the surname 
of Williams, which she retained till her death. 
Under the name of Miss Williams, she was warmly 
countenanced by the families of the Duke of New- 
castle and the Earl of Harrington, and also by 
the family of Mr. Charles Butler, well known 
and esteemed in legal circles. She afterwards 
acted as governess in several noble families, among 
whom were Lords Newhaven, Dormer, &c. At 
length she became companion to Lady Spencer 
at Richmond, who on her death bequeathed to her 
an annuity of 100Z. In due time she obtained 
the patronage of Queen Charlotte and of the 
Princess Augusta, to whom she acted as a private 
almonress, pointing out fit objects for royal bene- 
volence, and being the means of conveying it. 
She established the Adult Orphan Institution for 
the relief and education of those orphan daughters 
of the clergy and of military and naval officers 
who should be left friendless and unprovided to 
contend with the hardships and temptations to 
which they might be exposed. On June 24, 1820, 
the institution was actually opened in two houses, 
Nos. 32 and 33, Mornington Place, Hampstead 
Road, but it was afterwards removed to St. An- 
drew's Place, Regent's Park. 

Miss Cornelys, or Williams, of whom an account 
appears in John Taylor's * Records of my Life/ 
1832, vol. i. pp. 267-271, was also instrumental 
in the first institution (in 1806) of the Cheltenham 
Female Orphan Asylum, originally established as 
" The Old School of Industry," for the education 
of female under-servants, and acquired particular 
influence over her royal patronesses, especially the 
Princess Augusta. She was formerly a rigid Roman 
Catholic, but it is said that she eventually con- 
formed to the Established Church : 

" Nobody understood tlie world better, or could better 
adapt themselves to its weaknesses, passions, and follies. 
Her manners were mild and submissive. She possessed 
great musical talents in early life, sung with expression, 
and accompanied herself skilfully on the harp. She was 
low in stature, and by no means beautiful in features. 

She must have reached her seventy-fourth year, when, 
fate put a period to her eventful and variegated life." 

DR. BAILLIE. (See ' Wells on Dew/ 8 th S. v. 
464.) MR. NORGATE has called my attention to 
what he is so good as to name " a slight mistake "" 
of mine (ante, p. 464) in referring to Dr. Baillie 
as the father, instead of the brother, of Joanna. In 
my young days, when the century was yet in its 
teens, anecdotes were afloat respecting the doctor 
similar to those which were afterwards current in 
the case of Abernethy. For example : a lady 
entered the consulting-room in Grosvenor Street 
and called the doctor's attention to a pimple on 
her arm. He said, " I am glad you came here- 
this morning, madam." " What, it is dangerous 
then ? " " Not at all ; but if you had waited 
until to-morrow, it would have gone away of itself 
and I should have lost a guinea ! " 


THOMSON. Thomson in his ' Seasons ' seems to 
me to be somewhat indebted for his style, especially 
when he is in the mock heroic vein, to Philips, the 
author of ' Cider' and The Splendid Shilling.' He 
mentions Philips in his * Autumn,' showing that he 
had read and admired him. I think that Cowper 
also owes something to this author or to Thomson. 
Philips imitated and parodied Milton, but Thom- 
son and Cowper resemble Philips more than they 
do Milton. 

In ' Spring ' Thomson has these lines : 

Great Spring before 

Greened all the year, and fruits and blossoms blushed 

In social sweetness on the self-same bough. 

He may have been remembering Waller : 
For the kind Spring which but salutes us here, 
Inhabits there, and courts them all the year. 
Ripe fruits and blossoms on the same tree live : 
At once they promise what at once they give, 
fn 'Spring' also there are lines evidently taken? 
Tom Ovid. But Thomson half acknowledges 
whence they are derived. For in Ovid Pythagoras 
s the speaker of the lines ; and Thomson refers to- 
;he Samian sage : 

But you, ye flocks ! 

What have ye done ? ye peaceful people ! what 
To merit death? you who have given us milk 
In luscious streams, and lent us your own coat 
Against the winter's cold? And the plain ox, 
That harmless, honest, guileless animal ! 
In what has he offended ] 

Quid meruistis, oves, placidum pecus, inque tuendos 
Natum homines, pleno quse fertis in ubere nectar, 
Mollia quae nobis vestraa velamina lanas 
Praebetis, vitaque magis, quam morte iuvatis 1 ? 
Quid meruere boves, animal sine fraude doloque, 
Innocuum, simplex, natum tolerare labores? 

' Metamorphoses,' B. 15, lines 116-121. 
He has also in f Autumn ' an imitation of Virgil, 
,nd in 'Liberty' some absolute translations of 
Horace. In ' Autumn ' he has this verse on a 
unted deer : 

8 th S. VI. JULY 7, '94.] 


The big round tears run down his dappled face. 
This is an imitation of Shakspeare in ' As You 

Like It ' : 

The .big round tears 
Coursed one another down his innocent nose. 

In 'The Castle of Indolence' he has these lines : 
You cannot shut the windows of the sky, 
Through which Aurora shows her brightening face. 

Three very eminent poets have produced the idea 
before him : 

Her looks were like beams of the morning sun, 
Forth-looking through the windows of the East. 

Spenser's 'Colin Clout's come Home Again.' 
Madam, an hour before the worshipt sun 
Peered forth the golden window of the East, 

Shakspeare's ' Komeo and Juliet.' 
Ere the blabbing eastern scout, 
The nice morn on the Indian steep 
From her cabined loop-hole peep. 

Milton's ' Comus.' 

Thomson in the idea, though not in the expres- 
sion, seems to come nearest to Milton, who himself 
was remembering two passages of Shakspeare, not 
only the one quoted above, but also that in 
' Henry VI., concerning the * blabbing day.' There 
is also something similar to these ideas in Fletcher's 
' Faithful Shepherdess.' 

The following parallels between Thomson and 
other poets may also be noted : 

As thikke as motes in the Sonne beme. 

Chaucer, ' Wif of Bathes Tale.' 
As thick and numberless 
Aa the gay motes that people the sun-beams. 

Milton, ' II Penseroso.' 
As thick as idle motes in sunny ray. 

Thomson's ' Castle of Indolence.' 
If Thomson imitates others, he himself has been 
imitated : 

Or ruminate in the contiguous shade. 

Cowper has borrowed this image : 

Some boundless contiguity of shade. 

* Task,' Book 2. 

Dr. Johnson censured Gray for using the word 
liiany-twinkling/ but he failed to notice that Gray 
was only reproducing a word that Thomson had 
used already in his ' Spring.' Lines 342-351 of 
' Summer* may be compared with the lines of Green 
and Gray to which I referred in my note on Gray. 
Perhaps in that note I extolled Gray too highly and 
depreciated Green too much. Thomson's poem 
appeared before those of Green and Gray. 


" JYMIAMS." Thomas Nash, ridiculing the 
antiquaries in * Pierce Penniless's Supplication 
to the Devill,' 1592 (Shakespeare Society, 1842, 
p. 30), says, " a thousand jymiams and toyes have 
they in theyr chambers"; and Mr. Payne Collier, 
in a note, remarks, *' I do not recollect the word 
jymiam to have occurred in any other writer, 
and goes on to refer to gimmal and jemmy. Nash, 

be says, seems to employ the word as an equiva- 
lent to gimcrack. I would suggest that the word 
should be written " jimjams," and I believe such a 
word is actually in use in the United States to de- 
note d. t. In this form it ranges with knick-knacks, 
" auld knick-knackets, 77 and many other trivial 
words formed by reduplication. 


England papers are full with accounts of a sad 
accident arising from the custom at Loddiswell, 
near Kingsbridge, 

of throwing water on May 1, at horses' legs, which 
resulted in the death of Dr. Twining, who, when driving 
with a friend, was thrown out of his carriage through, his 
horse taking fright at the treatment it received." 

According to the evidence of this friend, 
" They left Loddiswell about a quarter to nine in the 
evening, and had just got clear of the village when some- 
one threw water from the top of a high bank. The horse 
started forward, arid the coachman tried to hold him, 
but before they got ten yards a great deal more water 
was thrown. The horse at once bolted, and got entirely 
out of control." 

L. L. K. 

S. T. COLERIDGE. There was sold at Sotheby's 
on June 14, 1870 (Manners Collection) a letter 
of Coleridge to John Fellows, dated " Tewkes- 
bury, July 28, 1796." It was bought by Mr. 
Waller. Should this meet the eye of its present 
possessor, I should feel very grateful if he would 
give me a transcript, J. DYKES CAMPBELL. 

St. Leonards-on Sea. 

MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. The following small 
items will serve as corrections and additions to the 
notices of the undermentioned worthies in the 
recently issued volume of the ' Diet. Nat. Biog. ' 

Major-General Sir Edward Massey did not "take 
his seat as member for Gloucester in July, 1646," 
He was elected for Wotton Basset, in Wiltshire, on 
June 18, 1646, for which he took his seat ap- 
parently on Aug. 26 following, when he subscribed 
to the Solemn League and Covenant. As one of the 
Presbyterian " Eleven " he was expelled the House 
in December, 1648, and did not sib again until the 
Convention Parliament of 1660, to which, and also 
to its successor in 1661, he was, as correctly stated, 
returned as M.P. for Gloucester. 

Serjeant John Maynard did not " sit for Beeral- 
ston, Devonshire, in the Convention Parliament " 
of 1660. He represented Exeter. The following 
is, I think, the full list of the Parliamentary returns 
of this ultimately octogenarian member. He was 
elected by both Totness and Newport to the Short 
and Long Parliaments of 1640, upon each occasion 
preferring Totness, until secluded in 1648. Ply- 
mouth, 1656-58. Elected by three constituences 
in 1659, namely, Beeralston, Camelford, and New- 
town, I. W., and sat for Newtown. Keturned by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8< s. v i. JULY 7, '94. 

Plymouth and Exeter in 1660, and preferred Exeter. 
Beeralston, 1661-78. Elected by Beeralson and 
Plymouth (preferred Plymouth) 1678-9. Sat for 
Plymouth in 1879-81 and 1681. Beeralston 1685- 
1687. Elected by Plymouth and Beeralston (sat for 
Plymouth), 1689-90. Plymouth, 1690, till decease 
in October of the same year. Either he or his 
namesake, John Maynard, of Essex, was M.P. for 
Chippenham 1624-5 and 1625. 

Sir Philip Meadows, Junior, was M.P. for Tre- 
gony 1698-1700. Truro, 1702-1705. Tregony, 
1705-1708. Although he lived until 1757 he seems 
not to have sought further Parliamentary honours. 

Sir Walter Mildmay, Elizabeth's Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, was returned to at least two Parlia- 
ments before his election for Maiden in 1553. He 
sat for Lostwithiel in 1545-47, and for Lewes in 
1547-52. His son, Sir Anthony Mildmay, also sat 
in one Parliament, being M.P. for Wiltshire in 
1584-85. W. D. PINK. 

AN ANACHRONISM. Subjoined is a cutting from 
a second-hand bookseller's catalogue published this 
month : " Aristotle on the American Constitution, 
translated by Kenyon." K. 

"!N APPLE-PIE ORDER." As several of your 
correspondents have lately referred to " an apple- 
pie bed " as one in disorder, it may, perhaps, be 
curious to note the opposite sense of the words 
when employed as above, i. e. t I have made every- 
thing tidy ; put everything into " apple-pie order." 

R. B. 


85, 190.) There is in my collection of pamphlets 
a speech of this bishop, alleged to have been made 
in defence of his fallen master, Eichard II., in the 
first Parliament of Henry IV. It is a small quarto, 
of four leaves, without pagination, and looks of 
date about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
There is no subjective evidence of date of printing 
except what may be gathered from the title-page, 
which is as follows : 

"A pious and learned Speech delivered in the High 
Court of Parliament, 1 H. 4, by Thomas Mercks then 
Bishop of Carlile, wherein bee gravely and judiciously 
declares his opinion concerning the Question, What 
should be done with the deposed King Richard the 
Second! London, printed for N. V. and J. B." 

It should be mentioned that above the imprint 
there is a device with the motto " veritas viressit 
vulnere" in the legend, and with a representa- 
tion of the expulsion of Adam from Paradise (as 
I take it) on the field. I am very anxious to know 
the date when this pamphlet was printed. 

Dalston Vicarage, Carlisle. 

lowing instance of Sterne's unblushing "conveying'' 

has not, I think, been hitherto recorded, and may 
be added to Dr. Ferriar's indictment. In ' Tris- 
tram Shandy,' vol. i. chap, xii., is the following 
well-known passage : 

" When, to gratify a private appetite, it is once re- 
solved upon that an innocent and a helpless creature shall 
be sacrificed, 'tis an easy matter to pick up sticks enough 
from any thicket where it has strayed, to make a fire to 
offer it up with." 

In the Introduction to 'Baconiana,' London, 
1679, T. T. (i. e. Dr. Thomas Tenison), in com- 
ment on Bacon's words to King James " I wish that 
as I am the first so I may be the last of sacrifices in 
your times," writes as follows (page 16) : 

" And when from private Appetite, it is resolv'd that 
a Creature shall be sacrificed; it is easie to pick upstickg 
enough, from any Thicket whither it hath etraied, to 
made a Fire to offer it with." 

There could not be a more audacious example of 
literary theft. C. M. TENISON. 


following cutting taken from the Birmingham 
Daily Post of Nov. 14, 1893, but mislaid until 
now seems remarkable enough to deserve pre- 
servation in ' N. & Q.': 

"Coming-of-sge festivities of a remarkable kind were 
celebrated at Whitnash, near Leamington, yesterday. 
Twenty-one years ago the wife of a cattleman, the 
mother of thirteen children in all, gave birth to triplets. 
All three lived, and yesterday attained their majority. 
The medical authorities who have been consulted state 
that a case of triplets reaching the age of twenty-one is- 
unprecedented in England." 


heading, in the Diss Express, March 23, there is a 
letter from a Mr. W. H. Berry, of Kenninghall, 
sent to a Norwich contemporary, in which the 
following passage occurs : 

" About two years ago, on a calm Sabbath noon, a fire 
was seen smouldering in the midst of a cottage garden 
at South Lopham, and the fumes from the smoke are 
said to have been extremely disagreeable. On inquiry, 
the fact was elicited that an old lady was engaged in 
' burning a witch.' Two days afterwards I saw the old 
dame and spoke to her about the event. She then told 
me that her neighbour had bewitched her hens, and that 
she had been told by a woman she wouldn't give her 
name to burn one of the fowls on a Sunday at noon 
and she would have no more trouble." 


Fitzgerald, writing in the Month for May, quotes 
the saying of Dr. Johnson that this work "had 
been printed in one language or other as many 
times as there have been months since it first came 
out" (p. 117). This, we are told, has been exclaimed 
against as wild exaggeration, but Mr. Fitzgerald 
shows that Johnson understated the fact. There 
are, it seems, upwards of six thousand editions 
known to bibliographers. How many have perished 

8 th S. VI, JOLT 7, '94.] 


or have yet to be discovered no one can tell. Has 
a bibliography of the known editions and of the 
literature appertaining thereto ever been given to 
the world ? 

The strangest book relating to ' The Imitation ' 
that it has ever been my lot to encounter was pub- 
lished at the Hague thirty-four years ago by M. 
William de Constant Kebecque. It is entitled 
1 Appreciation positive de limitation de J6sus 
Christ, ou de 1' Assimilation a 1'HumaniteV There 
is a copy of this work in the London Library. 

K. P. D. E. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

SUSSEX COURT ROLLS. Can any of your 
readers give me information as to the present 
possessor of the ancient Court Rolls of the manor 
of Ote Hall, otherwise Hot-hall or What-all, a 
subinfeudation of the manor of Withdean Caylif, 
in Sussex? Sir Wm. Burrell, in his MSS., mentions 
having seen and examined them, since which time 
I have been unable to trace them. 

Muntham, Horsham. 

" Homer was the first inventor of the art which hath 
eo long lain dormant, of publishing by numbers ; an art 
now brought to such perfection, that even dictionaries 
are divided and exhibited piecemeal to the public ; nay, 
one bookseller hath (to encourage learning and ease the 
public) contrived to give them a dictionary in this divided 
manner for only fifteen shillings more than it would 
have cost entire." Fielding, Joseph Andrews,' bk. ii. 
ch. i., vol. i. p. 84 (ed. 1893). 

To what dictionary does Fielding allude ? 


ISABELLA OF FRANCE. I shall be grateful to 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' who will kindly explain 
which Isabella of France gave her name to a 
peculiar yellow colour. G. L. S. 

" PIN." When I order a small cask of ale, it is 
charged in the bill as " one pin." I thought, that 
probably the word was a provincialism ; but in 
Goldsmith's ' Almanack ' it appears at the head of 
beer measure, meaning four gallons and a half, 
and it has so appeared for the last twenty-five 
years. Whitaker takes no notice of " pin." What 
is the origin of the term ? J. DIXON. 

either side, some tonsured, and a figure is seated 
in a high chair, on a dais in the centre, in a red 
tight-fitting jerkin (?) and green light nether gar- 
ments. A few people are pressing forward, with 
looks of awe and astonishment, on the extreme 
left. The sanguinary Sir John de Vargas was 
appointed president of the Bloody Council, which 
was established by Duke Alva of Spain, who pre- 
sided until he appointed Vargas. To what does 
the picture refer ? E. R. 

HAYMARKET. With regard to the search I have 
been making concerning my family history, how 
could I obtain the name of the ground landlord of 
the property which adjoined the Opera House in 
the Hay make t ? The Opera House was destroyed 
by fire in 1789, and I believe it was part of the 
eame property. This information is wanted to 
determine the exact position of the business place 
of my ancestor Joseph Hill in the Haymarket. 
38, New Bond Street, W. 

"THE KING'S HEAD." When was this sign 
first used for inns ? Was it in consequence of the 
beheading of King Charles I. ; or is there any 
notice of it at an earlier date ? In case the latter 
can be proved, what was its origin ? 


Saffron Walden. 

EOLLAND. Is there any record of the marriage 
of a Miss Holland (Christian name and place of 
residence unknown) with George Haig, who was 
born at Alloa in 1712 ? He went to South Caro- 
lina, and married Elizabeth Watson, of St. John's 
parish there, in 1742. (Mrs.) A. STUART. 

19, Regent Terrace, Edinburgh. 

"MORPHIL." What is the meaning of this 
word ? It is not to be found in Littre, Tarver, or 
ordinary French dictionaries. It occurs in an 
early poem by Leon Gozlan, * L'Ennui du Sultan, 1 
contributed about 1830 to * Le Keepsake Ameri- 
cain,' an annual conducted by the engraver Gal- 
adon. Here is the context : 

Les almees a travers leur voile, 

En voyant ton male profil, 

Disent tes dents de pur morphil, 

Et ton oeil si doux une etoile. 

It may be an Arabic word, from the vocabulary of 
the author of ' Les Orientales ' or ' Lalla Rookh. 1 

Willesden Green. 

J. H. 

OATH OF VARGES.' A friend has a 
picture called 'The Oath of Varges.' The oath is 
being sworn by a man in dark velvet, with the 
order of the Golden Fleece. Ecclesiastics are on 

(ed. Gairdner), xiii. i. 1205, sub anno 1538, occurs 
the following, from Edward, Bishop of Meath, to 
Ant. St. Leger : " As my disease of stranguillion 
gets worse, I desire licence to ride on a pillion, if 
I am to attend Parliament and the like as I have 
done." Does this refer to a dispensation from 



[8 th 8. VI. JULY 7, '94. 

some article of the Canon Law as to the riding of 
ecclesiastics? I presume the dispensation was 
asked for under the Act of 1534, 25 Hen. VIII., 
c. 21. Will some one give me the reference to the 
Canon Law ? I. S. LBADAM. 

"To GRIDE." In that division of 'In Me- 
moriam ' which has successively taken its place as 
" cv.," " cvi.," and " cvii.," without change of text, 
Tennyson describes a February storm which blew 
without, while his dead friend's birthday was being 
kept within, "with festal cheer." The fierce 
" blast of north and east " shakes 

the wood which grides and clangs 

Its leafless ribs and iron horns 


I have not elsewhere seen grides used in this sense, 
and after consulting Richardson and Skeat feel 
somewhat doubtful whether it is one the word will 
bear. ^ But as no wise man lightly charges Tenny- 
son with inaccuracy, I submit the question to your 

J. D. C. 

son with inaccuracy, 
expert readers. 

TRANSLATION WANTED. Will one of your 
readers take compassion on ignorance, and kindly 
send to me direct a translation of the following, 
which is inscribed round the bowl of a silver-gilt 
spoon in my possession ? " Froukie en Doiiwe S. 
Obbema Zyn [? Lynjgeboren de 13 Sep' 1812." 
High Ercall Vicarage, Wellington, Salop. 

"N.C.P." I have recently come into posses- 
sion of a book published in 1726, by Thomas 
Lediard, N.C.P., Philos. Cult. The writer was 
well acquainted with German, as the book in 
question is an English-German grammar. May I 
ask you to tell me the signification of the letters 
N.C.P., which follow the name ? 


PRUSIAS. Victor Hugo, in 'Les Mise'rables/ 
partie iv. livre i. chap, i., says that, after great 
convulsions, like the French Revolution and the 
wars of Napoleon, 

" La nation ne que le repos ; on n'a qu'une 
soif, la paix ; on n'a qu'une ambition, etre petit. Ce qui 
est la traduction de rester tranquille. Les grands evene- 
mente, les grands haeards, les grandes aventures, lea 
grands hommes, Dieu merci, on en a assez vu, on en a 
par-dessus la tete. On donnerait Cesar pour Prusias et 
JNapoleon pour le roi d'Yvetot." 

Who is Prusias a real or fictitious character ? 

did it first become the custom to wish " A Merry 
Christmas " by letter ? In James Howell's ' Fami- 
liar Letters ' there is an instance : " Till then I 
bid you farewell, and, as the Season invites me, 1 
wish you a Merry Christmas" (bk. i. sec. ii. 
letter x., 1622). Surely there are many earlier. 

' MACBETH.' Can any reader of < N. & Q.' tell 
me where an article on the Third Murderer in 
Macbeth, written within the last few years, is to 
be found ? Nothing later than the discussion in 
' N. & Q.' in J869 is quoted by MR. FURNESS ; 
but I am under the impression that some one has 
attempted since to connect this unexplained per- 
sonage with the requirements of stage craft in 
Shakspeare's day. R. F. CHOLMELEY. 

The High House, Brook Green. 

Verifier les Dates,' vol. iii. pp. 172-227, I find in 
their order the names of the victors who gave name 
each to his Olympiad. But one would like to 
know from what source this list was drawn up. 
In the Parian or Arundelian Chronicle in Boeckh, 
ii. 293, No. 2374, I find no Olympian names. 
Whence, then, did the Benedictines obtain their 
Olympic table ? JAMES D. BDTLER. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

' English Catalogue/ Sonnenschein's ' Best Books/ 
and in most library catalogues, the title of this 
work is spelt Frank Fairleigh. But in Allibone 
it is Farleigh, and on an edition published by 
Messrs. Routledge the name appears as Fairleigh. 
Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' give me Mr. Smed- 
ley's own mode of spelling this name ? 


common than to hear, even from well-educated 
Edinburgh people, who would be incapable of any 
other solecism, a most atrocious use of the first 
personal pronoun. Who has not heard in 
Modern Athens expressions such as the follow- 
ing ? " He told you and I," " It will give much 
pleasure to my wife and I," &c. How can this 
anomaly be accounted for ? 


Manse of Arbuthnofct, N,B. 

NOVEL OF ' DESMOND.' In Scott's 'Journal' 
(p. 156) I read : " In the evening (March 16, 
1826), after dinner, read Mrs. Charlott Smith's 
novel of ' Desmond/ decidedly the worst of her 
compositions." The book was published in 1792, 
and a note refers the reader to vol. iv. of Scott's 
'Miscellaneous Works' for criticisms of the 
author's works. Can any one give me a description 
of the plot and the period of which it treats ? I 
am particularly anxious to learn both. 

J. B. S. 


heroine, by her husband Macdonald of Floddigarry, 
had a large family. I should be glad to learn 
something of their descendants, who, I believe, are 
widely spread at the present day. Should the 
information available on the subject exceed the 

. vi. JULY 7, '94.] 



limits of '"N. & Q.,' private communications woul 
be welcome. One of the daughters married Majo 
MacLeod, and it is especially in this branch o 
the family that I am interested. 

Jaipur, Rajputana. 

PRINCE OF WALES, 1805. I have a sma] 
coloured print of George Augustus, Prince o 
Wales, drawn by E. Scott, engraved by W. Evans 
engraved from a drawing in the collection of th 
Prince of Wales, and published by his Roya 
Highness's permission by W. Walker, 48, Albe 
marie Street, Piccadilly, July 8, 1805. H.R.H 
is in uniform. I should like to ascertain of wha 
corps. The tunic is a light blue. R. J. F. 

DOMR^MY. Twice over in the notes to Lamar 
tine's * Jeanne d'Arc,' in the Pitt Press series o 
University Local Examination Aids, does a carefu 
editor tell us that, at the request of La Pucelle 
her birthplace was set free by Charles VII. from 
any kind of impost. " This privilege was granted 
by the king in an Ordinance dated July 31, 1429 
and confirmed by another in 1459. It continued 
in force for more than three centuries." When 
and why was Domremy delivered again into the 
power of the tax-gatherers ? Am I right in think- 
ing that Domremy = Remichurch ? I want to see 
a book on French place-names. ST. SWITHIN. 

BATTLE OF NASJDBY. Can any one refer me to 
a good bibliography of the above battle ? 

3, Forest Villas, South Woodford. 

SIMON DE MONTFORT. Where can I find the 
best account of the life and work of this great 
man ? Has any monograph or separate biography 
ver been published ? W. FLETCHER. 

MONTCALM. The Marquis Montcalm had issue 
by his wife, Angelique Louise Talon du Boulay, 
ten children, of whom two sons and four daughters 
only were in 1752 surviving. Can any one give 
the names of these children, and say whether they 
iiave any existing descendants ? 

Eden Bridge. 

the correct coat of arms, as illustrated in the Rolls 
Series of his ' History of England.' He gives the 
same shield a lion rampant, with double tail for 
Wm. Mareschal, who died 1219 ; Simon Mont- 
fort, 1219 ; Earl of Arundel, 1221 ; Richard, Earl 
of Cornwall, 1225. In the original (according to 
the editor's notes) the colouring was different. 
Later on in the same work Matthew Paris gives to 
the sons of the above the lion with ordinary tail. 

Wingeham, near Dover. 

AN EARLY POSTAL COVER. I have a pamphlet 
of ninety-seven pages, by Rowland Hill, on Post 
Office reform, published by Charles Knight, 1837 ; 
and on p. 93 he gives a description of a postal 
cover : 

" The covers are manufactured upon a highly ingenious 
plan of Mr. Dickinson's, the blue lines, which are, in 
fact, formed by silken threads enwoven in the texture of 
the paper, being intended as a security against forgery." 

Inserted in the pamphlet is a specimen of the 
cover. It is nine inches by seven when open, 
covered with buff chequered lines, an ornamental 
circle, with white centre, for the direction. There 
are four oval medallions on the circle, with " Lon- 
don District Post, V.R." and crown on each. 
One has " One ounce one penny "; another, " Not 
exceeding one ounce." There are ten blue threads 
at irregular distances passing through it. Can 
any of your readers inform me if this cover was in 
general use ; and is it uncommon ? 


(8 th S. iii. 88; v. 18, 114, 194, 477.) 
COL. PRIDEAUX'S notice of my identification of 
the site of Lamb's lodging-place at Dalston induces 
me to remind such of your readers as are interested 
in the subject that the few remaining houses of 
Kingsland Row (20 to 23, Market Row), being, as 
I believe, the property of the railway company, are 
likely to disappear at any time should the ground 
whereon they stand be required for extension pur- 
poses. They might meanwhile be photographed 
>r sketched : an engraving of them would be an 
nteresting appendage to a future edition of the 
Essays.' Miss Pollard wrote to me some 
months ago, saying that she intended to make a 
pilgrimage to the place, and in reply I gave her 
he names and addresses of old inhabitants who 
might be able to describe Kingsland Row as it was 
jefore it fell a sacrifice to the railway navvy. One 
of these persons is Mr. Peter Basham, bootmaker, 
who in 1860 (to choose a year for example) carried 
n business at la, Kingsland Row, according to 
belly's London directory, and at l[a], Market 
Jow, according to the same publisher's suburban 
lirectory as well as according to Mr. Basham him- 
elf, but whose present address is 51, Stamford 
"toad, within two minutes' walk of his old abode, 
nd immediately facing the shop of a rival cobbler 
pho owns the wonderfully apt name of Charles 
Jowter. I have had a chat with Mr. Bashara, 
rhose acquaintance with the Row dates back 
early fifty years, he having served his apprentice- 
hip to the " gentle craft " at a house therein ; yet, 
trange to say, he has no recollection of the name 
"ingsland Row. " It has always," he says, " been 



[8 th S. VI. JULY 7, '94. 

called Market Row." This shows how difficult the 
identification would have been had it depended 
upon oral inquiries addressed to residents in Kings- 
land. I have already adverted to the curious fact 
that the two directories for one and the same year 
notice the place by different name?, the London 
directory having called it Kingsland Eow from 
the beginning ; still more curiously, each absolutely 
ignores an alternative name. No doubt, as Mr. 
Basham observed, and as I have previously sug- 
gested, the appellation Market Row arose out of 
the commercial character of the place; all the houses 
from No. 1 to No. 11 (No. 1 consisting of four 
houses, and No. 7 of two, differentiated by letters) 
appear in the 1860 suburban directory with 
tradesmen for their occupants, when there is a 
blank until we come to the last shop at the eastern 
corner, No. 23, now occupied by Mrs. Goldsmith, 
leading us to suppose that the intermediate houses 
were in private occupation. Mr. Basham told me 
that the Row was never a public thoroughfare, 
a bar having originally been placed at the Kings- 
land Green end to exclude carriages, which might 
otherwise have passed through in order to evade 
toll ; at a rather late period the bar was removed 
and succeeded by a series of posts. His animad- 
versions upon the former rural aspect of the neigh- 
bourhood coincided with my boyish impressions of 
fifty years ago, and he showed me two lithographic 
views of Kingsland Gate as it appeared in 1820 
and 1860 respectively. The earlier of these trans- 
ports us to a country roadside ; but as I question 
their fidelity, especially that of the 1860 view, 
which contains a palpable anachronism, I pass 
them by. It cannot, however, be doubted that the 
place bore much resemblance to a country village 
when Lamb chose lodgings there. If there were 
houses on the northern side of Dalston Lane, his 
abode must have faced their backs, so that there 
could have been little inviting to the eye in 
front. But a map of so late a date as 1847 shows 
a very open stretch in rear, in the direction of 
Shacklewell. An examination of the maps in the 
Grace Collection, if I could obtain a sight of them, 
would enable me to judge more precisely of the 
environment. Anyhow, if Lamb wanted seclusion 
and quiet in inexpensive lodgings, he selected the 
right spot in Kingsland Row. F. ADAMS. 

80, Saltoun Road, Brixton, 8.W. 

DE BURGHS, EARLS OF ULSTER (8 th S. v. 229, 
391). Mr. T. A. Archer has stated sufficiently in 
the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' (vii. 329) 
the reasons for discrediting the story that Walter 
de Burgh was husband of Maud de L^cy, daughter 
of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster. The story first 
appears in a fifteenth century manuscript, and, as 
T. W. remarks, Walter's father, Richard de Burgh, 
was certainly married to Egidia, daughter of 
Walter de Lacy, before April 21, 1225 (see 

Roberta's ' Excerpta e Rotulis Finium,' i. 128). 
The only daughters of Hugh de Lacy to whom I 
have found contemporary references are the wives 
of Alan of Galloway and Miles MacCostelloe. 

But even if Maud de Lacy were accepted, the 
descent of Queen Victoria from Cathal Crobhderg 
would not be proved, for Hugh de Lacy, Earl of 
Ulster, and his brother Walter were sons of Hugh 
de Lacy the elder by his first wife, and not by 
the daughter of the King of Connaught. This is 
shown by Earl Hugh's own grants to the Abbey 
of St. Thomas', Dublin, "pro salute anime mee, et 
domini patris mei Hugonis de Lasci, et matris mee 
Roeis de Monemune, cujus corpus in predicta 
ecclesia requiescit " (' Register of St. Thomas, 
Dublin/ pp. 7 and 13, Rolls Series). Moreover, 
Hugh de Lacy the elder probably did not marry 
the daughter of the King of Connaught till 1180 
or 1181, and his eldest son Walter was certainly 
of full age when he did homage to Richard for his 
Irish lands at Northampton in March, 1194 ('His- 
toire de Guillaume le Marechal ') ; nor is it pro- 
bable that the second son, Hugh, was but a lad 
of seventeen when he fought under John de 
Courci in 1199, or a young man of three-and- 
twenty when he was made Earl of Ulster in May, 
1205, and appointed to be the chief adviser of the 
Justiciar Meiler FitzHenry. I should notice also 
that the second wife of the elder Hugh de Lacy 
was probably a daughter of Roderic O'Connor, and 
not of Cathal Crobhderg. Under any circum- 
stances, therefore, the supposed descent of Queen 
Victoria is untenable. 

All the points raised by F. G., T. W., and MB. 
JOHN RADCLIFFE are easily settled by reference 
to the articles on Walter de Burgh, the Lacys, and 
John de Monmouth in the * Dictionary of National 
Biography ' with the authorities therein quoted. 

T. W. states that he has never seen it stated 
that Hugh de Lacy the elder married Rohais de 
Monmouth. He will find it in the * Dictionary of 
National Biography,' and also that she was the 
mother of two sons, Walter, Lord of Meath, and 
Hugh, Earl of Ulster, and two daughters, who 
married Richard de Beaufo and William FitzA.lan. 

The same authority states that by Rose, daughter 
of Roderick O'Conor, he had one son William, 
killed 1253, s.p., and one daughter Matilda, who 
married Geoffrey de Marisco. 

Again, the ' Dictionary of National Biography' 
mentions that Geoffrey de Marisco had nine sons, 
but does not say by which of his wives, Eva de 
Bermingham or Matilda de Lacy, so that it is un- 
certain whether any descendants of the marriage 
of the De Lacys with the daughter of the King of 
Connaught exist or not. Can any of your readers 
give information on this point ? 

Several of Geoffrey de Marisco's sons married, 
and one daughter, Joan, married Theobald Fitz 

8 th 8. VI. JULY 7, '94.] 



Walter, and was ancestress of the Dukes of Or 

T. W. also states that Bolderon of Monmouth 
(the probable father of Rohais above mentioned 
married a daughter of " Strongbow/' The ' Die 
tionary of National Biography ' makes her Strong- 
bow's sister. 

I believe the pedigree making Geoffrey de 
Mariaco grandfather of Geoffrey FitzPiers, Earl oj 
Essex (through a supposed fifth son Piers) is ex- 
ploded. I should be glad to know the name ol 
his father. 

T. W. is mistaken in thinking Walter de Burg 
married Aveline, daughter of John FitzGeoffrey. 
She was his granddaughter, daughter of John Fitz 
John FitzGeoffrey (vide Burke's 'Extinct Peerages,' 
p. 209, edit. 1883). 

MR. RADCLIFFE states that Rich, de Burg, sen., 
married Una or Agnes, daughter of Hugh O'Conor, 
son of Cahill Oroibdearg, King of Connaught, and 
grand-niece of Roderick above mentioned. 

Burke's 'Peerage' says he married Hodierna, 
daughter of Robert de Gernon and granddaughter 
of Cahill Croibdearg. T. W. and the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography ' state that his wife was 
Egidia, daughter of Walter de Lacy, second Lord 
of Meath. Had he three wives ; and, if so, which 
was the mother of his son Walter, Earl of Ulster ? 

J. G. 

<8 tu S. v. 385). The Rev. John Hunte, curate of 
Herne, Kent, in a letter dated August 10, 1621, 
mentions an " ancient custom beyond the memory 
of man," then observed in his parish. After men- 
tioning the amount of tithe due to the vicar he 
gives the " church fees ": 

" It. For a chrystning at the mother's churchinge, if 
the clnlde then be living, half an ell of linen cloth ; and 
a penny if the child be departed ; l d only at the mother's 
comeing to give thanks. But the antient duty for 
chrystning was a crysome (or the face cloth that covered 
the child at its baptisme), if it lived ; but, if the child 
died, the minister was to have ij. for the baptizing, and 
was to loose the face cloth (for that was to wind the child 
in)."' Memorials of Herne,' pp. 58, 59. 


There is a somewhat similar observance alluded 
to by Dickens, the great collector of lower middle- 
class customs : 

"[The marriage] was completely done, however, and 
when we were going out of church, Wemmick took the 
cover off the font, and put his white gloves in it, and 
put the cover on again. Mrs. Wemmick, more heedful 
of the future, put her white gloves in her pocket, and 
assumed her green."' Great Expectations,' ch. Iv. 

Was this ceremony ever considered the correct 


Was not this a survival of the custom of return- 
ing the chrisom to the priest (vide Rubric of 

1549), which custom appears to have been prac- 
tised for many years after that date, perhaps till 
1723, the year in which the Rev. John Lewis 
published his ' History of Thanet'? The learned 
orientalist, John Gregory, Prebendary of Sarum 
(collated Nov. 28, 1643), thus writes : 

" Remaining yet [1646] unto ua of this, is that which 
we more commonly call the Chrisome (ab unctione, as the 
Manuel, &c.), wherewith the women use to shrowd the 
Child, if dying within the month. Otherwise it is to be 
brought to the Church at the day of Purification." 

On referring to Gurgany's life of Gregory, I find 
that the latter was born at Amersham. He was 
instructed in Oriental learning by John Dod, the 
Puritan, and became in 1638 chaplain to Bishop 
Duppa. J. H. W. 

" MENDING " OR " ENDING " (8 th S. v. 486). 
It may be interesting to add to the examples given 
of the "little jingle "about ending or mending 
the following, from the * Eikon Basilike ': 

" I had the charity to interpret that most part of my 
subjects fought against my supposed errors, not my per- 
son; and intended to mend me, not to end me." 

J. T. Y. 

REV. HENRY STEBBING, D.D. (8 th S. v. 424). 
According to the obituary notice in the City Press, 
Sept. 26, 1883, his mother was " a member of the 
Suffok family of Rede " (not Read). There is a 
portrait of him in the Illustrated London News, 
Oct. 6, 1883, where he is described as " first editor 
of the Athenceum." And in the Athenceum, 
Sept. 29, 1883, is a long obituary notice of him, 
with a list of his principal works. I may also 
mention that there is a fine portrait of him, en- 
graved by S. W. Reynolds, after T. W. Harland, 
and also a large lithograph by C. Baugniet. 


Dr. Stebbing was a versatile writer, and it is 
recorded of him that he was ready to accept any 
commission from a publisher, whether to compose 
a volume of sermons or a cookery book. I have 
heard him refer to his connexion with the Athe~ 
iceum in its early days ; he is stated to have been 
oint editor with J. S. Buckingham in 1828, and 
ne told me that he wrote the "leaders" which 
appeared in the four volumes of 1828-9 there 
are none in 1830 also the review of Hampden's 
Evidences' (p. 2, 1828). This is merely the 
ittle-tattle of an old bookseller. P. N. R. 

For a short but sympathetic memoir see * Annual 
Register,' 1883, p. 171. St. James's, Hampstead, 
had a burial-ground in very bad condition. The 
chapel was an afterthought (see 'Interment in 
Towns Report/ 1843, p. 98). For notice of Dr. 
Stebbing's " Fast-Day " sermon there, with a por- 
trait, see Illustrated London News, April 29, 1854, 
pp. 398-400. He is said to have taken a view of 
the war which was not considered orthodox in 
those days. EDWAKD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 



[8< h S. VI. JULY 7, '94. 

EGG SERVICE (8 th S. v. 429). There can be 
hardly a doubt as to the nature of this. It is no 
"ancient custom" of any kind whatever, but 
merely one of the numerous modern devices for 
obtaining funds for any object, whether in money 
or kind. I am loth to appear to speak harshly, 
but their principle is wrong from beginning to end. 
Broadly speaking, it is that of giving in one shape 
or other a quid pro quo, which leads to action 
clean contrary to the Scriptural command to do 
good and lend hoping for nothing again. Of course 
this is less prominent with flower services and 
"egg services"; but how many donors give for 
notoriety, with no thought of the object ? With 
bazaars, &c., it is undisguised. When 1 lived at 
Kenwyn and watched the building of Truro Cathe- 
dral, I was hardly ever more grieved than at the great 
bazaar got up for the purpose. I nearly attempted 
a public remonstrance, but was dissuaded. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

Quite recently a service like that reported in the 
Church Times of April 20 took place at Naburn, 
near York. The offerings were afterwards sent to 
a charitable institution in the city ; and it was 
hoped that the children who brought them learned 
a lesson as to the duty of giving and experienced 
the pleasure involved in it. ST. SWITHIN. 

DISESTABLISHMENT (8 th S. v. 407). The doc- 
trine would hardly have suited the Convenanters. 
The Poultry gentlemen probably drew their in- 
spiration from a very congenial source. For on 
Oct. 30, 1789, that very "righteous" person, 
Mirabeau, said in the National Assembly, " Every 
nation is the sole and true proprietor of the pro- 
perty of its clergy." Certainly, he modified this 
general principle, by allowing that the mainten- 
ance of public worship was a first charge upon the 
property ; but the decree of Nov. 2, which em- 
bodied his resolution, stated the same assumption, 
that Church property was " at the disposal of the 
nation." Hence came the assignats, and much 
financial trouble. (See Jervis's ' Galilean Church 
and the Revolution,' pp. 38, 53.) 



LINES IN A CEMETERY (8 th S. v. 306, 412). MR. 
HDSSEY can hardly think that any general answer 
can be given to his query on the authorshipof country 
epitaphs. Of course the author might be the clerk 
or the parson ; or some other local poet or poetaster ; 
or the friends of the deceased; or " the corpse " 
himself. But as a general rule it is safe to say 
that the friends either composed them or procured 
their composition. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

(7 th S. i. 307, 413, 513; ii. 35, 94, 152). The 

burial in Audley, South Audley, or Grosvenor 
Chapel, on December 18, 1757, of Colley Gibber, 
Esq. (aged eighty-seven years), of Berkeley Square, 
is duly recorded (p. 343) in the burial register and 
sexton's book of the parish of St. George, Hanover 
Square, co. Middlesex. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

PICNIC (8 th S. v. 189, 218, 412). The following 
extract from Smith's ' Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities ' may prove illustrative of the 
extreme antiquity of this custom : 

" Epaj/ot were clubs or societies established for 
charitable or convivial purposes, or for both. They were 
very common at Athens, and suited the temper of the 
people, who were both social and generous. The term 
tpavog, in the sense of a convivial party, is of ancient 
date (Homer, ' Od.,' i. 226). It resembled our picnics, or 
the German pilcenilcs> and was also called Stlirvov airb 
airvpitioQ, or airb trt/^oXwv, where every guest brought 
his own dish, or (to save trouble) one was deputed to 
cater for the rest, and was afterwards repaid by contri- 
butions," &c. 

The initials C. R. K. are appended, indicating 
Charles Rann Kennedy, M.A., late Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

It may amuse some of your readers to learn that 
the Hindustani invariably calls a picnic a pdgli- 
Jchdna, or madman's dinner, just as he names a 
fancy ball a pdgli-nautch, or madman's dance. 
He means no disrespect. The view that he takes 
of such proceedings is that the sahib is wont 
" desipere in locis." H. S. BOYS. 

MACBRIDE (8 tb S. v. 468). A letter was printed 
in the Ballymoney Free Press, Feb. 6, 1868, which 
gave an account of three generations of this family, 
but only mentioned two sons of Robert Macbride. 
There was, however, also a daughter, Mary Anne, 
who died unmarried. Of the sons, David, M.D., 
married Mrs. Darcus Cummin, widow, and died 
without issue, 1778. His widow died 1790. The 
other son, John, Admiral of the Blue, was twice 
married, with issue by his first wife one daughter, 
Charlotte Anne ; and by his second wife, one son, 
John David, D.C.L., and one daughter, Mary 
Anne Dorothy, who died unmarried, April 13, 
1855. John David Macbride left an only child, 
Frances, who died unmarried, 1878. A. T. M. 

TOWER OF LONDON (8 th S. v. 468). The Tower 
of London was from early ages used as a prison, 
especially for state delinquents, and in many of the 
cells the memorials of suffering are still presented 
on their walls. The only persons confined in the 
Tower during the present century were Sir Francis 
Burdett, Bart., by order of the House of Commons, 
on April 6, 1810 ; Watson, Preston, Hooper, and 
Keens, by warrant of the Privy Council, on charges 
of high treason ; and, April 28, Arthur Thistle- 

S. VI. JULY 7, '94.] 



wood, for the like offence ; and lastly, on March 3, 
1820, Thistlewood, Ings, Harrison, Davidson, 
Wilson, Brunt, Tidd, and Monument, by warrant 
of the Secretary of State, for high treason. 
These persons were the Cato Street conspirators. 
Very good accounts of both occurrences appear in 
All the Year Round, under the heading of 'Old 
Stories Retold,' first series, xvii. 230 and xvi. 415 
respectively. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Hepworth Dixon's ' Her Majesty's Tower ' states 
that the Cato Street party, in 1820, were "the 
lust of our state prisoners from the Tower." 


p. 603 (Paris, 1840), from which it appears that 
in subsequent editions of his books Pare proposed 
in some cases to keep the eye in place by a thin 
wire passing behind the ear. As a non-professional 
man, I venture to suggest that most persons would 
rather wear a shade than put up with the incon- 
venience of Park's artificial eye. Is there any 
record of the actual use of artificial eyes of this 
kind? R. B. P. 

BEANS (8 th S. v. 409, 494). The advice 
of Pythagoras to his disciples, to abstain from 
beans, was probably, like our Lord's warning to 
beware of the leaven of the Scribes and Pharisees, 
a parabolic injunction to keep clear of politics, 

It may be that a man accused of " participating voting being conducted by beans put into an urn. 
in some rebellion in Canada (doubtless that of the 
Sons of Liberty, 1837) "was confined in the Tower 
of London ; but I have always understood though 
I write quite as much for information as on the 
chance of being corrected that the last man sent 
to the Tower was Sir Francis Burdett, father of 
Lady Burdett-Coutts. H. DE B. H. 


See Pliny, ' Natural History,' xviii. 30, " Beans 
are used in the funeral banquets of the Parentalia," 
or the feast held at Rome in honour of departed 
ancestors. JOHN E. SUGARS. 

ST. EDMUND HALL, OXFORD (8 th S. v. 447). 
I never heard of the All Saints' dedication in my 
day, 1863-66. I think we supposed that as the 
hall, so the chapel ; both taking their name from 
Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, No- 
vember 16 being his feast day. The arms assigned 
to him, after his death, are used by the hall, and 
appear on the chapel : Or, a cross flory gules 
between three choughs sable. 


St. Andrew?, N.B. 

Dr. Ingram, in his 'Memorials,' has at "St. 
Edmund's Hall," p. 9 : " The first stone of the 
chapel was laid April 19, 1680, and it was con- 

titution, fourteenth edition, 1885, these lines are secrated under the name of St. Edmund by Bishop 
given, from which it would appear they are still Fell, April 7, 1682." ED. MARSHALL. 

taught there. W. W. DAVIES. 

Glenmore, Lisburn, co. Antrim. According to Wood's ' History of the Colleges 

and Halls of Oxford' (edited by John Gutcb, 

,.^ . . wufj-*u9 , I 1786-90), it was called by this name because it 
ii ; / v -?V) > ~ I ., beobllgedt aifhewi11 ^longed originally to a man named Edmund, 
kindly furnish me with an account of this mode of He savs (D 660)- 

rmniahmnnf an *V U/^l, x~: J 1 T-: t. ii_ _ * ^"* '" 

245, 475 ; iv. 77 ; v. 337, 373, 458). It may be 
of interest to note that at the well-known school 
of the Society of Friends at Ackworth the pupils 
were taught the number of days in each month 
thus : 

Days twenty-eight in second month appear ; 
And one day more is added each leap year : 
The fourth, eleventh, ninth, and sixth months run 
To thirty days ; the rest have thirty-one. 
This, I am informed by an old pupil of the school, 
was many years ago ; and in Tables of Weights, 
Measures,' &c., compiled for the use of that in- 

punishment, as the book mentioned by him at the 
last reference is not to be had here. 

Fort, Bombay. 

" The next Hall to be mentioned is Edmund Hall, 

opposite to Queen's College, in the Parish of St. Peter's 
in the East. The reason of whose name all writers have 
hitherto attributed to St. Edmund, who was Archbishop 
of Canterbury in the reign of Henry III., as if he, while 

ARTTFTPTAT TiVwa /'ftth e 1 07 OQ* o^a\ I o anerury n e regn o enry ., as i , 

-CIAL .LYES (8 tQ S. V. 187, 236, 379). a student in Oxford, had made it from a messuage to be 

The artificial eyes proposed by Ambroise Pare 
were thin curved plates of gold, painted and ena- 
melled to match the sound eye. Glass eyes seem 
to have been of more recent origin, and I should 

a place of learning or that he had read to his scholars 
therein ; but all, whosoever they have been, that have 
8 P ken concerning that matter have erred ; for from 
record it appears, that it was anciently no more than an 
ordinary tenement, and that it was posses^ by one Ed- 

ajt- * A ti, i u 11. --.> - -~ * ordinary tenement, ana tnat ic was possessc oy one .nu- 

know by whom they were invented. Pare's mund , an inhabitant or Burgher of Oxford, in the 
suggestion first appeared in his ' Methode Curative 
des Playes de la Teste Humaine,' fol. 226 (Paris, 
1561), where he gives four illustrations showing 

beginning of Henry III., and after his death by his son 

Ealph, it appears, sold it to Sir Brian deBerming- 

the back and front of a right and left eye. Some ham, who parted with it to Thomas de Malmsbury. 
further particulars are given in Malgaigne's He, in turn, about six years later "gave it to the 
CEuvres completes d' Ambroise Pare,' vol. ii. | Canons of Osney, an. 1269 " for a mark a year as 



[8 th S. VI JULY 7, '94. 

long as he lived, and 8. yeatly to "Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Adam de Oclee." ' 

The Canons of Osney greatly improved it, but 
Wood was unable to find out when they turned it 
into a house of learning. 

In the Rent Roll of 1317 it is named "Aula 

Edmundi," in 1324 "Aula S. Edmundi," &c., 


" even till about the middle of Edward III. it is written 
Aula S. Edmundi, as 'tis also in certain evidences ; but in 
all the rest from that time to the reign of Henry VIII. 
thus, Dooms Vicarii de Cowley, viz., AulaEdmimdi, &c., 
seldom or never yielding under forty shillings per 
an. to the Canons of Osney." 


PARENTS OF BALDWIN II. (8 tb S. v. 229, 411). 
There seems some difference of opinion as to the 
parentage of Baldwin II., King of Jerusalem. 
Your correspondents T. W. and the REV. C. F. S. 
WARREN have apparently been misled by a pedi- 
gree in Anderson's ' Royal Genealogies.' ' L'Art 
de Verifier les Dates,' which is my authority for 
asserting that Baldwin was the second son of Hugh, 
Count of Rethe!, by Melesinde, his wife, goes fully 
into the subject. Eustace, Count of Boulogne, by 
Ida, daughter of Godfrey de Bouillon, bad three 
sons, viz., (1) Godfrey, King of Jerusalem ; (2) 
Eustace, Count of Boulogne, father of Matilda, 
Queen of England; (3) Baldwin I., King of 
Jerusalem. These appear to have been his only 
issue. Voigtel gives him another son William and 
a daughter Ida, who is said to have been the wife 
of " Baldwin, Count of Berg." In his table of 
the Christian Kings of Jerusalem, Voigtel describes 
5 <!"??, ? correctl y as "son of Hugh, Count of 
Kethel,' but at the same time draws a line of 
descent from Ida, the supposed daughter of 
Eustace of Boulogne, and wife of " Baldwin, Count 
of Berg." < L'Art de Verifier les Dates' says 
Baldwin II. was " surnamed " De Bourg. 

C. H. 

SIR JOHN GERMAINE (8 tb S. v. 329 412)- 
Horace Walpole tells this story, and the anony- 
mous compiler of ' Walpoliana,' printed for R 
Phillips, St. Paul's Churchyard, no date, repeats 

"Sir John Germain was a Dutch adventurer who 
came over here in the reign of Charles II. He had an 
intrigue with a countess [the Duchess of Norfolk] who 
was divorced and married him. This man was so 

S n M a ?fi > ^" g *?'! tbat Sir Mat ^vr Decker wrote 
bt. Matthew s Gospel, he firmly believed it. I doubted 
this tale very much till I asked a lady of quality his 
descendant, about it, who told me it was true She 
added that Sir John Germain was in consequence so 
much persuaded of Sir Matthew Decker's piety, that by 
h, 8 w,)lbeleft2( Sir Matthew, to be by him dis 
tnbuted among the Dutch paupers in London.'' 

* S -n? bn Germain was said to be the natural son 
of William of Orange by the beautiful wife of a 
Dutch trooper, whose good looks he inherited He 

married, secondly, Lady Betty, daughter of Lord 
Berkeley, a handsome, clever woman, very much 
his junior, the life-long friend and correspondent 
of Swift, who, on her father's being appointed 
Governor of Ireland, had accompanied him to 
Dublin as his private secretary and probably chap- 
lain. C. A. WHITE. 

DICEBNS'S FUNERAL (8 th S. v. 386). B. W. S. 
speaks of a leading article in the Time*, which Dean 
Stanley said appeared on Monday, June 9, 1870,and 
B. W. S. corrects the dates thus : " In point of 
fact, Dickens died on Thursday, June 9, and the 
article appeared on Monday, the 10th." He adds 
" Accuracy is never a small matter," and here is 
proof of it for a Monday to be one day's date 
later than the preceding Thursday. 



My recollection tallied with your correspondent's, 
and a reference to the ' Annual Register ' (cxii. 62) 
has proved our memories to be right; for it is 
stated that, 

"A vault bad been prepared in St. Mary's Chapel, 
Rochester Cathedral, for the interment of the deceased, 
and a vault wag rapidly constructed. A number of men 
were engaged in filling up the vault with earth, and re- 
storing the pavement, while the bell was tolling for the 


Humanum est errare. B. W. S., while he de- 
plores the fact that "the value of Dean Stanley's 
narratives should be so much lessened by his 
habitual inaccuracy as to details," himself errs 
when he tells us that " in point of fact, Dickens 
died on Thursday, June 9, and the article [in the 
Times] appeared on Monday, the 10th." He 
means, apparently, Monday, 13th. 


(8 th S. i. 109, 198, 339 ; ii. 378, 433 ; iii. 395, 
472). Allow me to thank ST. SWITHIN, though 
late (I have been absent for some months in the 
colonies), for his reply at the last reference. The 
Fijian appetite is quite satisfied, as he has 
enabled me to identify the John Udal he men- 
tioned with the John Udall or Uvedale, the author 
of the first Hebrew grammar printed in English 
'Leyden, 1593), the primary object of my first note. 

I was surprised to see the editorial note appended 
to ST. SWITEIN'S reply relative to a communication 
the Editor had received concerning Nicholas Udal, 
who is, I presume, the same person as Nicholas 
Udall or Uvedale, the author of the first English 
comedy (' Ralph Roister Doister '), the only copy 
of which now known (except, of course, Mr. 
Arber's well-known reprint) is in the Eton College 
Library, minus the title-page, if I remember 

8t> g. vi. JULY 7, '94.] 



If the l< shameful offence " alluded to, and to 
which he is now stated to have pleaded guilty, 
was that of conniving at the stealing of some 
college plate whilst head master of Eton, as has 
been somewhere suggested, it is somewhat strange 
that he should subsequently have been appointed 
head master of Westminster School, where he died 
the following year. The whole story is impro- 
bable on the face of it. He lies buried in 
St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, Dec. 23, 
1556. The name in the register reads more like 
" Yevedale," with the interchangeable u and v of 
the period. J. S. UDAL. 


P.S. The signature of your correspondent 
ST. SWITHIN reminds me of a note I intended to 
make in * N. & Q.' years ago ; but, heedless of Capt. 
Cuttle's advice, did not. Does ST. SWITHIN re- 
member a discussion in ' N. & Q.' as to the proper 
spelling of his name ? Apparently at that time 
the City Fathers were themselves divided in 
opinion, for at one end of St. Swithin's Lane, in 
the City of London, unless my memory fails me, 
it was written up St. Swithin's Lane, and at the 
other St. Swithun's. Probably the London County 
Council has seen to this ere now. 

[The offence was not theft, but comes under Sir 
Thomas Browne's definition of " sins heteroclitical." It 
is to be feared that the matter is beyond dispute.] 

FOLK-LORE (8 tb S. v. 449). There is more, per- 
haps, in the influence of the moon upon fish than 
appears from the query of MR. C. LEESON PRINCE. 
Sharon Turner, in ' The Sacred History of the 
World,' has this note (letter iii. vol. i. p. 55, 1840) 

" 'Fish hung up all night in the light of the moon, 
when eaten next day has occasioned violent sickness and 
excruciating pains.' Montgom., ' Travels of Tyerm. and 
Bonnett.' " 

The book to which there is reference has this 
for its full title : 

" Rev. Daniel Tyerman and George Bennet ' Journal of 
Voyages and Travels in the South Sea Islands, China, 
India, &c., Deputed by the London Missionary Society, 
compiled from Original Document by James Mont- 
gomery, Lond., 1831, 2 vols. portraits, plates." (Lowndea.) 

There are two replies to the same effect in 
' N. & Q.,' l s: S. iv. 355, with reference to the 
effect of the moon in causing putrefaction in 
tropical climates. There are various other notices 
of the influence of the moon's rays. 


It is an old usage, not quite forgotten about 
here, to have tea by daylight for the first time in 
the season on Candlemas Day. The custom seems 
to account for the following maxim, which I have 
heard in connexion with it, and which Mr. In- 
wards gives on p. 15 of ' Weather Lore ': 

On p. 35 of the same work we have another 
piece of advice, referring, I suppose, to bedtime : 
St. Mathew ; 
Get candlesticks new; 
St. Mathi, 
Lay candlesticks by. 

This would entail going to bed before seven 
o'clock, a habit which was formerly pretty general 
in country places. W O. M. 


There is an old saying in the county of Norfolk: 
You should on Candlemas Day 
Throw candle and candlestick away. 

This appears to be an answer to MR. PRINCE'S 
first query. For the lunar influence on animate 
and inanimate bodies and vegetable matter, I 
must refer him to 'N. & Q.,' 1 st S. iv. 273, 332, 
355 ; 3 rd S. x. 230 ; xi. 8 ; xii. 173, 444, 510. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

" NIVELING " (8 th S. v. 248, 395, 437, 493). 
Please let me correct a mistake at the lasb 
reference. ST. SWITHIN suggests that I ought to 
have printed the word snivelling with two Z's, and 
not one. If he will only have the goodness to- 
ook at my 'Glossary,' as printed for the Early 
English Text Society (p. 705, col. 2), he will find 
it so spelt. I hope this will satisfy him, and that 
we " entirely agree." WALTER W. SKEAT. 

KENNEDY FAMILY (8 th S. v. 369). Sir Eichard 
Kennedy, Bart., of Mount Kennedy, co. Wicklow, 
second Baron of the Exchequer, who died in 
London, May 10, 1703, and was buried at St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, had a daughter Elizabeth, 
who was married to Edward Jones, Bishop of 
Cloyne 1682-1692, whence he was translated to 
St. Asapb, and was created Lord High Almoner 
to Queen Anne. A younger daughter of Sir 
Richard Kennedy was called Bridget, and was 
married to the Rev. Matthew Jones, the bishop's 
younger brother, Archdeacon of Lismore. 

4, Argyll Road, Kensington. 

You should on Candlemas Day 
Throw candles and candlesticks away. 

ROBERT JOHN THORNTON (8 th S. v. 467). I, 
in common with many others, am as anxious to 
obtain a complete collation of Thornton's * New 
Illustration of the Sexual System,' his ' Temple 
of Flora,' 'Philosophy of Botany,' and other 
botanical works, as P. F. W., if such a thing be 
possible ; but I know of no two copies exactly 
alike. I have not seen any part of any of the 
books named in the original wrapper or cover ; but 
I think the parts must have been issued most 
irregularly and unequally that is to say, each and 
every subscriber did not receive the same text 
and plates. For instance, there is no plate in the 
second volume of the Kew copy of the ' Philosophy 
of Botany,' but otherwise it seems to be the same 



3* S. VI. JULY 7, '94. 

as P. F. W.'s. I have long been on the 
look - out for anything bearing on the life 
and works of this little-known though exceedingly 
fertile author ; and, with a view of obtaining 
further information, I have drawn up a very brief 
sketch of Thornton's life and works, which is 
in the hands of the editor of the Gardeners 1 
Chronicle. This contains a complete, though not 
detailed collation of the Kew copy of ' The Temple 
of Flora' and 'New Illustration of the Sexual Sys- 
tem.' Therefore, I will only add now that several 
of the large engravings were reproduced on a 
reduced scale. W. BOTTING HEMSLET. 

DELESCOT (8 th S. v. 367). The circular pot is 
probably an ancient apothecary's utensil, and the 
capital letters form a medical label placed on it by 
the potter, as was usual long ago. Numerous 
errors, of course, occurred in the spelling of such 
labels, d's being used instead of o's, &c. If my 
conjecture is well founded, the label refers to a 
preparation of the Scotia speciosa (Guaiacum 
afrum), a favourite drug of old physicians, and 
the letters would thus run, "Dil: e: Scot: " disso- 
lutio (solution) of guaiacum ; or, if the D will stand 
for (and if the letters are Gothic the mistake is 
easy), it may be "Oel: e: Scot:," oil of guaiacum. 


A " PHRONTISTERE " (8 th S. v. 246, 358). 
Here is a much earlier instance of the use of this 
word than those given by your correspondents at 
the second reference : 

Pan. Whose lodging 'a this ? is 't not the astrologer's ] 
Ron. His lodging ! no : 'tis the learn' d frontisterion 
Of most divine Albumazar. 

' Albumazir,' 1615, Act I. sc. iii. vol. xi. p 310, 

Dodsley's ' O.E. Plays,' ed. Hazlitt. 
A note thus curiously explains the word, " En- 
trance to a house " ! The editor has evidently 
been napping. F. 0. BIRKBECK TEKRY. 

HAIRAY : BARCLAY : DOWNIE (8 th S. iv. 267). 
I cannot offer uny information on the family 
history of these officers, but if MR. McCoRD wishes 
more particulars of the naval war of 1812-15, he 
will find some in the last appendix to James's 
* Naval History,' edition of 1886, or in Collier's 
United Service Magazine for April, 1885. I pre- 
sume he has seen James's ' Naval Occurrences.' 
American authors are Dawson and recently Roose- 
velt, besides Fenimore Cooper. A discussion also was 
carried oil in the Army and Navy Journal of New 
York between September, 1888, and June, 1889. 

H. Y. P. 

SWIFT AND STELLA (8 th S. v. 107, 215). Your 
querist might be referred to ' Swift, the Mystery 
of his Life and Love,' by James Hay, published 
by Chapman & Hall, in which the author asserts 
that he has proved, " beyond the shadow of a 
doubt, that the marriage story is a scandalous 

myth." Attention may also be directed to Mr. G. A. 
Aitken's letter to the Athenceum, No. 3328, 
Aug. 8, 1891, p. 192. W. A. HENDERSON. 


EGBERT BROUGH (8 th S. v. 309, 418). 'Songs 
of the Governing Classes,' by Robert Brough, was 
certainly published. I have seen two editions.. 
One of them is illustrated. THOS. WHITE. 


ITALIAN ANTHOLOGY (8 th S. v. 387). From, 
Hoepli's select bibliographical list of ' I migliort 
Libri Italiani ' (Milano, 1892), I gather the titles of 
three or four recent anthologies which may serve 
for the student's purpose : 

1. Finzi (G.). Antologia di prose e poesie classicbe e 
moderne. Torino. 1889. 5 lire. 

2. Targioni-Tzzetti (A.). Antologia della popsia i 
prosa Italiana. 2 vols. 4 a ed. Livorno, 1887-88. 8 lire. 

3. Puccianti (G.). Antologia della prosa Italiana. 
2 vole,. Firenze. 5 lire. 

4. Puccianti (G.). Antoloajia della poeaia Italiana. 
2 vola. (Vol. i. Da Dante a Mctastaaio ; vol. ii. Poesia. 
Moderna.) 5 lire. 

An edition of vol. ih, published separately by 
Lemonnier (Fir., 1872), which lies before me r 
comprises 588 pages, and deals with thirty-six 

Lastly, I may refer to A. Biaggi's 'Prosatori 
Italian!,' published in London (second ed. in 1892). 


A. very good collection of translations from the 
Italian, by G. A. Greene, has been recently puo- 
lished by Mathews & Lane, Vigo Street. 

W. B. S. 
Crouch End. 

CAPT. CHENEY BOSTOCK, 1620-1675 (8 th S. v. 
89). With respect to the query as to whether 
the Captain of the Guard at the execution of 
Charles I. was Cheney Bostock, of Col. Brooke's- 
regiment, I quote the following from a contem- 
porary account of the trial of the regicides, dated 

"October 15th, 1660. TheTryal of William Huletfc.... 
Richard Gittens sworn states ' The thing is this my 
Lord, this Gentleman at the bar and my se It were both in 
a Regiment in one Company as Serjeants, about 12 or 
13 years together. About a day or two before the King 
came to the Scaffold, Colonel Hewson did give notice to 
a Lieutenant, that we should come to him. about 38 of 
us; and he put us all to our oaths that we should say 
nothing of what they did : he swore us to the book 
after he had sworn ua, he asked us if we would undertake 
to do such an Act, if we would, we should have an hun- 
dred pounds down, and preferrment in the Army as long 
as that stood, and the Parliament. Afterwards we 
rfused every person, we thought Captain Hulett did 
refuse : after a'l refused, it seems, he did undertake to do 
the deed. When the King was on the Scaffold, we were 
Dtland Yard, and they were upon the Guard in the 

mquetting-Chamber : when they were there I laid 
down my Armes and got into the company : Captain, 

8 th S. VI. JULY?, '94.] 



Webb kept the Guard with his Halbert in his hand, by 
the Scaffold, and i did bustle to come near to them : 
then I returned back. Hulett (as far as I can gnene) 
when the King was on the Scaffold, for his execution; 
and said "Executioner, is the block fast? " then he fell 
upon his knees.' 

"Conned. 'Who did?' 

" Oittens. ' Hulett, to ask him forgivene*se,' &c 

"Benjamin Francis sworn states. 'My Lords and 
Gentlemen of the Jury, as to the Prisoner at the bar 
(William Hulett) he was very active in that horrid act, 
there was two of them had both clothes alike, their 
frocks were close to their bodies (as I remember) they 
were rather in Butchers habits of wollen, one had a black 
hat on his head cockt up, and a black beard, and the 
other had a grey grisled periwig hung down very low, I 
affirm, that he that cut off the King's head was he in the 
gray periwig, and I beleeve this was about that man's 
stature (pointing to Mr. Hulett) and his beard was of 
the same colour, if he had any. I was coming from 
Westminster, the scaffold was encompassed within, with 
a great guard of Souldiers of Redcoats, I think com- 
manded by Biscoe.' " 

It is possible in the above evidence that the 
name Biscoe may have been given in mistake for 
Bostock. 0. S. HARRIS. 

Fort Carlisle. 

JOSHUA JONATHAN SMITH (8 th S. iv. 308, 497; 
v. 72, 238, 435). I cannot trace in the registers 
of St. Mary's, Fulham, the interments referred to 
by your querist MR. HARRISON. Alderman 
Smith's coffin used to be in a vault beneath this 
church, and I am informed that it was the only 
coffin in that vault. I presume that if the rela- 
tives had been buried at St. Mary's the same 
vault would have been need. I am not sure 
whether it has been put on record that Alderman 
Smith was, conjointly with Lady Hamilton, execu- 
tor of the last will and testament of Viscount 
Nelson. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

" SYNALL" (8 th S. v. 347). I am sorry that I can- 
not answer your correspondent's query. Synall is 
a word that baffles my search. Assuming, however, 
that the documents in which MR. PRINGLE finds it 
are manuscript, I would ask him if he is quite cer- 
tain of the decipherment. Could a badly written 
small have been misread as synall ? Small has a 
technical meaning as applied to diamonds. Jeffries, 
in his ' Treatise on Diamonds,' 1751, p. 20, defines 
"small stones" as " stones under the weight of a 
carat" ; and " small diamonds" are referred to by 
Malynes, in the ' Lex Mercatoria/ 1622, p. 75, as 
having " some proportionable price." 

Since the above was written I have discovered 
the following manuscript entries in a dictionary 
that belonged to a deceased friend : 

" Boart (bortl), granular or imperfectly crystallized 
diamonds, crushed into powder, or used for engraving on 
hard stones : 22s. to 30s. per carat." 

"Bort (boart), small fragments of diamond." 
This strengthens my suspicion that small is the 
proper word. F. ADAMS. 

80, Saltoun Road, Brixton. 

WATERLOO (8 t& S. v. 345, 389, 433). I extract 
the following from the l Memoirs ' of Pryse Lock- 
hart Gordon, published by Henry Colburn & 
Richard Bentley in 1830. The writer was at 
Brussels on June, 18, 1815, and took pains to 
arrive at the truth : 

" Perhaps no general in the world except the Duke of 
Wellington could have maintained for so long a time so 
unequal a conflict, making every allowance for the steadi- 
ness and bravery of the British troops...... Prom every 

account [says this writer, and he cites many], the French 
appear to have exceeded the British in numerical 
force from 30,000 to 40,000 men. But when we call to 
mind that the former consisted of picked men, all of one 
nation, animated by one soul, who had seen a hundred 
battles, and were called to fight for lost honour and life ; 
and that Wellington's foreign troops were composed of 
different nations, almost all raw levies from the militia, 
and recruits who had never been engaged (a part of the 
German legion, and three English regiments just disem- 
barked from America excepted), it must be admitted that 
the difference between the two armies was indeed tre- 
mendous I have taken all these details from the best 

authorities, and hope they will not be considered unin- 
teresting at this distant period." 

The ' ' distant period " above named was only 
fifteen years ; and it cannot be doubted that the 
author would have been roughly handled if his 
statements had not been accurate in every 
particular. In writing from memory I was mistaken 
in saying that only one regiment engaged on our 
side at Waterloo had fought in the Peninsula, 
should have said that the Peninsula regiments had 
been filled up by raw recruits, and that only three 
regiments of British infantry, lately disembarked 
from America, could claim to be styled veterans. 
33. Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

I am very much obliged for the quotation. 
The dyke is still there to see ; but I do not remem- 
ber reading in any account of the campaign what 
the breadth or depth of it was after the heavy rains. 
Some of our cavalry forded it on the retreat or 
retirement through Genappe on the 17th. As to 
works on the campaign, I cannot see anywhere the 
' Me"moires ' of Col. Lemonnier-Delafosse quoted 
by Creasy. R- B. S. 

MR. JUSTIN SIMPSON gives a list of ' French 
Regiments of the Line at Waterloo and in the 
Crimea, 7 7 th S. xi. 506. CELER ET AUDAX. 

QUEEN'S ENGLISH (8 th S. v. 445) Nor has been 
used without another negative by the best writers. 
Virgil frequently uses a single nee, 

Nee modus inserere atque oculos imponere simplex. 
Georgics,' book ii, 1. 73. 

There are many such sentences in the works of 
Virgil, who is much given to expressing himself 
in this way. "Nee mora," unaccompanied by 
another negative, occurs often in Ovid's ' Metamor- 
phoses.' Dr. Johnson, in his life of Milton, has 



. vi. JULY 7, 

written this sentence : " Nor would Milton have 
begun it after he had lost his eyes." There is no 
other negative. Milton himself also uses one nor 
only in the following passage ; and similar passages 
may be found in hia works : 

Nor content with such 

Audacious neighbourhood, the wisest heart of Solomon 
he led, &c. ' Paradise Lost,' book i. 11. 399-401. 

Another example may be added : 

For who, to dumb Forgetfulness a prey, 
This pleasing anxious being e'er resigned, 

Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day, 
Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind ? 
Gray's ' Elegy.' 


Your correspondent appears to assume as a prin- 
ciple too well known to require proof that the word 
nor should not be used without a preceding 
negative. Only "slipshod writings," it seems, ever 
transgress this rule. As such a canon of criticism 
is an absolute novelty to me, I should be glad to 
know upon what ground it is alleged to be a set- 
tled rule of our grammar. I quote a few instances 
from English writers of authority where the very 
thing your correspondent stands aghast at is un- 
blushingly done. Milton (' Paradise Lost,' i. 714-5) 

Doric pillars overlaid 

With golden architrave ; nor did there want 
Cornice or frieze. 

Macaulay, at the beginning of his essay on Addison, 
says, " Some reviewers are of opinion that a lady 
who dares to publish a book renounces by that act 

the franchises appertaining to her sex From 

that opinion we dissent Nor are the immunities 

of sex the only immunities which Miss Aikin may 
rightfully plead." Further on in the same essay 
he says, " Gay supposed that some plan to serve 
him had been in agitation at Court, and had been 
frustrated by Addison's influence. Nor is this im- 
probable." The late Prof. Freeman ('Norman 
Conquest,' second ed., iii. 484) has a similar con- 
struction : " He had died in the noblest of causes, 
and by the band of the mightiest of enemies. Nor 
did he fall alone." 

These examples present themselves at once. No 
doubt a little search would discover countless 
others. But first let us hear by what authority the 
prohibition is supported. I venture to think that 
there is not, and never was, any rule of the kind. 


The use of nor without a preceding negative is 
allowable for and never or and not ever, especially 
in verse. If 4 H. A. and M./ 368, be slipshod, 
it is in good company, for John Gilpinrode a race 

and won it too, 

For he got first to town ; 
Nor stopp'd, till where he had got up, 
He did again get down. 

W. C. B. 

THE 15TH HUSSARS AND TAILORS (8 tb S. v. 328, 
13, 478). There is a recent memoir of General 
George Augustus Eliott, Lord Heathfield of Sussex, 
t appeared in the Royal Engineers' Journal of 
?eb. 1, 1888, and was written by the late Capk 
T. W. Conolly, R.E. In this it is stated that in 
n 1759 Major-General Eliott was commissioned by 
ing George II. to raise the first corps of light 
avalry, afterwards known as Eliott's Light Horse 
the present 15th King's Hussars), and that this 
orps first came into action at Emsdorf, July 16, 

In the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xxix., 1759, 
). 385, is given the line of battle of the allied 
rmy before the battle of Minden on August l r 
.759. The British cavalry mentioned consisted of 
hree squadrons of Eland's Dragoons (present 1st 
king's Dragoon Guards), two squadrons of Innis- 
dlling Dragoons, three squadrons of Blue Guards, 
wo squadrons of Howard's Dragoons, two squad- 
ons of Mordaunt's Dragoons, and two squadrons 
f Scotch Greys a total of fourteen squadrons, 
which, though present during the action, took no 
active part in it, as Lord George Sackville, who 
commanded the British troops, failed to carry out 
the orders sent him by Prince Ferdinand of Bruns- 
wick for advancing his cavalry. 

My great-grandfather, Capt. Floyd, of the 1st 
King's Dragoon Guards, died on duty in Germany 
on Sept. 12, 1759 ; his son John (afterwards 
General Sir John Floyd, who commanded the 19th 
Light Dragoons in India), when twelve years and 
;wo months old received a commission, dated May 5, 
1760, as cornet in Eliott's Light Horse, and em- 
barked at Gravesend on June 10, 1760, on board 
the Port Mahon, twenty gun ship, with Lord Pem- 
broke and Major-General Eliott. They approached 
the Elbe in bad weather ; during one of the squalls 
the vessel ran aground at no great distance from 
Heligoland, and they left her and went with the 
regiment up the Weser, landing near Bremen. 
Cornet Floyd had a horse shot under him close to 
the line of the French infantry at Emsdorf on 
July 16, 1760, and carried off as a trophy a French 
cavalry sabre, which is still preserved ; on the blade 
are the inscriptions, "Regiment de Turpin," 
"Vi vat Hussar," " Vive le Roy." Can any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' kindly help me to identity this regi- 
ment ? In the London Gazette of that time only 
Berchini's Hussars are mentioned in the list of 
French prisoners taken in this action. 

W. C. L. FLOYD. 

THE BATTLE-AXE GUARDS (8 th S. v. 429). The 
Battle-Axe Guard?, or Beaufetiers (commonly called 
Beef-eaters), will be the Yeomen of the Guard. A 
list of the captains from 1486 to 1850, with a brief 
historical sketch, is in The Book of Dignities,' by 
Joseph Haydn, 1851, p. 212. A more extensive 
history will be found in ' The Book of Court,' by 
William J . Thorns, 1844, p, 363. The ' Anglioe 

8 th S.VI. JULY?, '94.] 



Notitia ' by Edward Chamberlayne, published in 
various years from 1667 to 1755, states the name 
and rank of each man in the Guard. The above 
works contain information respecting the dress and 
arms ; but if a more correct description is required 
consult Sir George Nayler's 'Coronation of 
George IV. ,' which gives an excellent coloured plate 
of the lieutenant of the Yeomen of the Guard, 
July 18, 1821. JOHN BADCLIFFE. 

A question of the same purport appeared in 
'N. & Q.,' 6 th S. xii. 147, and did not elicit a 
reply. As your correspondent's inquiry is dated 
from the county of Down, I would refer him to the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin, where he may 
consult 'Army Lists' from 1743, or to the Hon. 
Society of King's Inns, Dublin, where one pub- 
lished in March, 1744, may be seen. Those at 
the Horse Guards, London, commence in 1795. 


BURNET FAMILY (8 tb S, v. 409, 498). If VER- 
HON will kindly communicate to me any particulars 
he may possess respecting the Burnet family I 
shall be very grateful. 


Junior Carlton Club, S.W. 


The Hall of Waltheof; or, the Early Condition and 
Settlement of Hallamshire. By Sidney Oldall Addy. 
(Sheffield, Townsend; London, Nutt.) 
THIS is a beautifully illustrated work. When, however, 
we say this, we do not wish to be understood to imply 
that the text has been written as a mere set-off to the 
plates. Such is not the case. Had every engraving 
been omitted, Mr. Addy's work would still have a 
distinct value as a commentary on some of the earlier 
antiquities of Hallamshire. There are several matters 
on which we do not agree with the author; but in 
tho-e cases in which we hold him to be wrong he is able 
to make out a very fair case for himself. Mr. Addy is 
not one of those rash persons who regard the derivation 
of words and place-names as a matter of guesswork. He 
has escaped from the old superstition that if two words 
seem nearly the same to the eye or the ear they must 
necessarily be nearly related ; but though he employs 
the modern methods, we cannot but think that some ol 
his speculations are not a little rash. 

Ti'e cross found at Bradfield is an interesting relic. 
We have little doubt that it was a preaching-cross a 
station where the Christian and half -heathen folk 
assembled to hear the truths of the Gospel ere there was 
a church in the neighbourhood. We do not think, how- 
ever, that the author's surmise that there were very few 
churches in Hallamshire is in any way strengthened by 
the fact that in the Domesday Survey only one church 
is mentioned in that wide district. When a church is 
spoken of therein it is positive evidence that a church 
existed at the time the returns were made ; but we 
cannot argue that there was not a church in this place 
or that because there ie no mention of it in the survey 
Why the churches are mentioned in some places and nol 
in others is not easy to exp'ahi ; but as to the fact nc 
doubt can be entertained. 

In some cases Mr. Addy carries historic caution to 
unreasonable lengths. The arrant scepticism of a pas- 
age such as the following ought not to pass unrebuked: 
The many legends and old wives' tales which are 
related about St. Patrick lead one to think that he is a 
myth, a creation of popular fancy." This is really too 
)ad. We might as well regard Oliver Cromwell as a 
freak of the imagination because there are many old 
Dives' fables told concerning him, some of which are 
enshrined in modern books, where we might have hoped 
that the sifting process would have been applied. 

Anne of Geierstein. By Sir Walter Scott. Edited by 

Andrew Lang. (Nimmo.) 
As has already been sbid, Mr. Lang is a little unjust to 

Anne of Geierstein,' which he takes to mark the recog- 
nizable decline of Scott's capacity. We, on the other 
aand, prefer it to ' The Fair Maid of Perth.' It is true 
;hat the elfin tricks of Anne are a little puzzling, that 
:he fortunes of Queen Margaret inspire but moderate 
interest, and that the termination is more than a little 
nebulous. The description of Swiss scenes is, however, 
very clever. The spirit of adventure dominates the 
whole. Arthur is one of the most acceptable of Scott's 
heroes, and the young " sons of Ariak," though they recall 
tbe Osbaldistones in ' Rob Roy,' are fine young fellows. 
The illustrations to this favourite edition are by R. de 
Los Rios, and are specially dramatic. The pictures of 

The Defiance,' 'The Duel,' and 'The Execution' are 
among the most vigorous that have yet appeared in any 
volume of this enchanting series. 

Old Celtic Romances. By P. W. Joyce. Second Edition. 


IT is delightful to think that Dr. Joyce's charming 
translations are again available to those who have wished 
to possess them. This edition, too, contains an addi- 
tional tale, good notes, and a list of proper names, all of 
them welcome to the student. Dr. Joyce says be has 
translated from the original MSS. faithlully and freely, 
and there is no doubt he has combined ithe two qualities 
as thoroughly as it is possible. The stories are old 
favourites the fate of the children of Lir, or the four 
white swans; the fate of the children of Turenn, or the 
quest for the eric fine ; the overflowing of Lough Neagh 
and the story of Liban the mermaid; Connla of the 
golden hair and the fairy maiden ; the voyage of Mail- 
dun ; the fairy palace of the QuicKen Trees ; the pursuit 
of the Gilla Dacker and his horse ; the pursuit of Der- 
mat and Grania; the chase of Slieve Cullinn ; the chase 
of Slieve Fuad ; Oisin in Tirnanoge, or the last of the 
Fena; and the voyage of the sons of O'Corra. There 
are few charms in ancient literature equal to the Celtic 
romances, and few problems in historical science so 
interesting as their origin and value. As we understand 
them, there is a world of real ancient Irish culture 
enshrined in the descriptions of places and events with 
which they abound a culture which reveals . Celtic 
belief and Celtic institutions and the only doubtful 
element is as to the origin of the forms in which they 
appear, the Homer or Homers who made them into 
literature. But while scholars are discussing and trying 
to settle these things, those who love the romances for 
themselves will thank Dr. Joyce and his publisher for 
this gain to their means of enjoying that fascinating 
past which Ireland, above all countries, has known how 
best to reveal to modern days. Will not Dr. Joyce give 
us a second series '.' 

PROF. DOWDEN contributes to the Fortnightly an emi- 
nently sympathetic, discriminating, and appreciative 
estimate of The Poetry of Robert Bridges.' This will 
do somewhat to spread the fame of a poet who has con- 



g. VI . JULY 7j 

sciously affected the shade. Some of the sonnets quoted 
are excellent. Dr. Robinson's article on 'Every Day 
Cruelty ' is to some extent a defence of the vivisectionist. 
It shows, which few will deny, that immeasurably more 
cruelty comes as the result of sport than is produced by 
scientific research, and its author is of opinion that many 
domestic animals are treated with great, though not 
always conscious, cruelty. Over the notion that certain 
animals are good and others bad he makes merry. The 
entire article is very thoughtful, ingenious, and interest- 
ing. 'A Lesson from the Chicago/ by Nauticus, gives 
advice we might well take to heart concerning the im- 
portance to the world of a good understanding between 
England and America. M. Paul Verlaine's ' Notes on 
England ' show very great observation. Few people, we 
fancy, knew that the poet wag, during some years, usher 
in a boys' school in England, and has a fine knowledge of 
English. Mr. Wilde sends 'Poems in Prose.' Few of 
his rivals have such power of self-analysis and self- 
appraisal. The Nineteenth Century opens with a sonnet 
by Mr. Swinburne to M. Carnot. Sir William Des 
Voeux continues, in the same periodical, his removal 
of popular delusions concerning the tropics. He writes 
with a practical regard to Australia, and seems to have 
doubts concerning the future of Queensland. Even with 
a large supply of immigrants, it seems doubtful, Sir 
William thinks, whether Australia will be able to 
compete with some other countries on even lines. Miss 
J. A. Taylor contribute? a very suggestive paper on 
'The Art of Dying.' It is most Montaigne-like in 
character, but its illustrations are principally modern, 
or comparatively so Kneller, Scott, Keats, and the 
like. Under the heading ' A Land of Incredible Bar- 
barity,' the Earl of Meath describes not Spain, as might 
have been expected, but Morocco, where, indeed, things 
seem to be even worse. Some of the stories told of the 
treatment accorded the Moors take away the breath. 
Mr. Frederic Harrison wishes us to commemorate the 
centenary of Edward Gibbon, and declares, eloquently 
and happily, that " when we yearn for a book, a man, 

an idea then, for the tenth or the twentieth time, we 

take down ' The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,' 
and we have one of the greatest dramas of human civi- 
lization, rehearsed with the ordered imagination of a 
poet and the monumental form of a consummate master 
of language." Mr. Bernard Shaw, in the New Review, 
" goes for " the so-called dramatic critics who persisted 
in taking his 'Arms and the Man' as extravaganza. 
For so versatile and able a man not to see that his 
defence lays him open to tenfold more vigorous attacks 
shows how sad are the results of taking oneself seriously. 
It is no defence for an unconvincing novelist to say that 
the story he tells is true ; nor is it more wise when a 
whole drama conveys the idea of sauciness to say that 
each separate item is the result of close observation of 
realities. Mr. Shaw and his critics amuse one another. 
In so doing they amuse society. Surely " things are for 
the best in the best of possible worlds." 'The Real 
Madame Sans-Gene ' deals less with the famous Duchess 
de Dantzig than with another female so christened, who 
was famous as a warrior. ' Secrets from the Court of 
Spain ' is continued. Mr. F. Marion Crawford depicts, 
in the Century, Coasting by Sorrento and Amain,' 
while the high road to Sorrento is tracked by Mr. 
Adams. The illustrations, which are quite excellent, 
are by Mr. Harry Fenn. Mr. Jerrold Kelley supplies^ 
in ' Superstitions from the Sea,' matter of interest to our 
readers. An essay on Schubert is by Antonin Dvorak. 
Jacob Van Ruiedael is dealt with under ' Old Dutch 
Masters.' ' Painting at the Fair' repays attention. Some 
admirable pictures by pen and pencil of The North 
Shore of Massachusetts' appear in Scnlner's, aud include 

pictures of some very home-like scenes. ' Among the 
Tarahumaria ' describes a remarkable and interesting 
t tribe of American cave-dwellers. Some scenery of mar- 
vellous grandeur is also depicted. Portraits of Francois 
Flamang accompany an account by Mr. P. G. Hamerton. 
One of them, by Mr. John S. Sargent, exhibits a gentle- 
man of very tragic appearance. A second, from a por- 
trait, reveals a pleasant, good-natured looking gentleman. 
' Beasts of Burden ' is also good. ' Some Recollections 
of Yesterday,' in Temple Bar, are obviously from some 
member of the Bentley family, and supply much matter 
of high interest concerning Dickens, Frances Anne 
Kemble, and other celebrities. ' A Chat with Mrs. 
Lynn Linton ' shows that clever lady at her best. 
' Dante and Tennyson ' is a subject familiar enough to 
our readers. Macmdlan's gives a capital account of 
Madame Du Deffand, writes the history of the ' Founders 
of the Bank of England,' and has an interesting account 
of 'Scholar-Gipsies.' The Gentleman's supplies a ' Gas- 
con Tragedy," largely drawn from Froissart. Mr. Schtttz 
Wilson writes on ' The Women of Fiction,' and Mr. 
Leonard on ' The Dog in English Poetry.' The English, 
Illustrated has a pretty frontispiece of 'Glycera'; a 
characteristic article, by Mr. Phil Robinson, on ' The 
Zoo Revisited '; a capitally illustrated ' Humours of the 
Duchy '; and a paper on ' Conversation in Society,' by 
Lady Jeune, illustrated by Mr. Phil May. We do not 
care for articles on the chase, but ' Polar Bear Shooting,' 
by Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, which appears in Longman's, 
is of more than average merit. A second article of a 
similar character is also given. 'WithR. L. Stevenson 
in Samoa ' attracts attention in the Cornhill. ' Gleams 
of Memory, with some Recollections,' by Mr. James 
Payn, contains gome very pleasant gossip, and drifts, 
characteristically enough, on to whist. 

CASSELL'S Storehouse of General Information, Part 
XLIL, carries the alphabet to 4i Rubeola." The most 
important article is on Rome, a view of which, from the 
Appian Way, is given. The Gazetteer, Part X., ends at 
Cheddar, of which delightful Somersetshire township a 
pleasant description and illustration are given. Castle 
Howard, in Yorkshire, is also depicted. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the came and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

E. B. (" Haunted House in Berkeley Square "). See 
4th S . x. 373, 399; xi. 85; 5<" S. xiL 87; 6th g. . 417 
435, 452, 471, 514; iii. 29, 53, 111, 151. 

E. R. ("Ballad"). 'Guy Faux' is obtainable in a 
sixpenny book of baritone and bass songs published by 
A. Hall, Paternoster Row. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; aud 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8 S. VI. JULY 14, '94] 





NOTES Burke's 'Landed Gentry,' 21 Wren Churches, 23 
-Capital Letters-" Carefully edited," 24-The Dove in 
Russia' Pickwick 'Pioneer Newspaper, 25 Drought m 
Winter-Palliser Twice Buried-Races Ridden by Women 
Thomas Kirkland, M.D. Author of Quotation Land 
Sale Custom Island of Barbados, 26. 

QUERIES : Charles Walmesley Sir Alexander Burnes 
-" Sojournars ": " Advena "-Source of Quotation-The 
Duke of York's Son Sir John Talbot's Second Wife- 
Easter Sepulchres Nelthorp, 27 "During' Green 
House, Kensington Gardens Hedgehog's Jawbone Ger- 
man Bands G. Samuel Rev. E. Woodcock Poems of 
Richard Verstegan, 28 Norris Military Officers in Ire- 
land Helmerawe Oxford and Cambridge Heaving : 
Lifting Longevity, 29. 

REPLIES -.Joan I. of Naples, 29 English Monuments in 
the Crimea, 31 Title of Prince George Small-Pox, 32 
Manchester Author Mothers' Maiden Names Thistle 
The 'Gentleman's Magazine 'Extraordinary Field The 
Lion of Scotland U as a Capital Letter, 33 Irish Song 
" Chacun a son gout" Jews, Christians, and George III. 
Sir J. Armertre : Dr. Wotton, &c. " To hang out," 34 
"Putt gaily" "Necklace" R. Haines Dominichetti's, 
35 University Graces Marquis of Huntly Portrait- 
Mother of Adeliza of Louvain, 36 Post - Reformation 
Chancel Screens " Antigropelos," 37 Prusias ' Venice 
Preserved ' Smedley's ' Frank Farleigh ' The Mansion 
House, 38 Authors Wanted, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Cowper's ' Register Book of St. Paul, 
Canterbury ' Stanning's ' Royalist Composition Papers ' 
Fishwick's ' List of Lancashire Wills ' Earwaker's ' Index 
of Wills at Chester' Seccombe's 'Lives of Twelve Bad 
Men 'Bell's ' Charles Whitehead ' Sherborn's ' Index to 
Foraminifera ' ' Dorset Records.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

It was hoped by many genealogists that when 
Burke's * Landed Gentry ' got into the hands of its 
new editors it would become a really trustworthy 
and scientific collection of the pedigrees of our 
untitled aristocracy. An examination of the new 
edition will certainly blast their hopes. Some of 
the grosser forgeries have disappeared, but there 
remain very many doubtful pedigrees ; the ancient 
Irish and Welsh pedigrees are treated with great 
respect ; many families are shown to be of Saxon or 
Norman descent from their surnames alone ; ille- 
gitimate descents are treated as if legitimate, and 
in numberless cases descents are implied that will 
not bear a moment's examination. The following 
notes maybe of interest to readers of ' N. & Q.': 
Astley (p. 52). F. D. P. Astley, "grandson 
(by his first wife, Lady Dukinfield Daniel) of John 
Astley, Esq., son of Richard Astley, a physician." 
Mr. F. D. P. Astley was the grandson of John 
Astley 's third wife. Lady Dukinfield Daniel was the 
second wife. Richard Astley was a surgeon, not a 
physician. Mrs. Nicholson, sister of the late Mr. 
Astley, is stated to have only one child. Under 
Nicholson (p. 1486) five children are named. 

Baghot De La Bere (p. 495). No reason is 
given why the Rev. John Edwards changed his 
name to Baghot De La Bere. 

Blaauw (p. 156). The first of this family is 
named indifferently "Gerald" and " Gerard." 

Braddon (p. 209). The names at the head of 
ihis pedigree are not connected with the others in 
;he genealogy. 

Brooke (p. 224). "This family is a younger 
Branch of the Brookes of Cheshire, descended from 
Sir Peter Brooke of Astley Hall and Mere." 
The pedigree claimed from this family by the late 
J. Ferguson, and apparently recognized by Burke, 
s an extremely doubtful one, Richard Brooke of 
Astley married Margaret Charnock, the date of 
whose parents' marriage was 1649. The (alleged) 
fourth son of Richard Brooke and Margaret Char- 
nock, Thomas Brooke, ancestor of this family of 
Brooke, married in 1679, Ann Williamson. This 
would make Thomas Brooke's mother less than 
thirty at the time of her son's marriage. Of. 

. &Q.,'7 th S. vi. 158. 

Broun (p. 227). After an elaborate pedigree of 
the Brouns of Hertr, is a pedigree of " Broun of 
Gorgiemylne and Braid," the first of whom is 
vaguely stated to have been a " younger son of one 
of the later proprietors of Hartrie. " Adam Broun, 
Lord Provost of Edinburgh, also said to be de- 
scended from the Hartrie family, married Isobel 
Broun of the Gorgiemylne family, and was ancestor 
of the present representative of the family, who is 
scarcely entitled to claim to be descended from the 
Brouns of Hartrie without more evidence of John 
Broun of Gorgiemylne being really son of one of 
the Brouns of Hartrie. 

Byrom (p. 268). Issue of second wife not 
named. (Of. Grimston, p. 837.) 

Clowes (p. 356). "Samuel Clowes, Esq 

married Mary Chetham, great-granddaughter and 
heiress of Humphrey Chetham (who died 1653)." 
It is well known that Humphrey Chetham, the 
generous founder of the Chetham Hospital and 
Library in Manchester, was a bachelor. 

Clutterbuck (p. 357). "This family came 

to England from the Low Countries at the time of 
the Duke of Alva'g persecutions, and was estab- 
lished in Gloucestershire by Walter Clotherbooke, 
about the year 1521." Alva was born in 1508, so 
that, if Burke is to be trusted, he began his career 
of persecution at a very early age. 

Cowper (p. 412). The only "lineage" given is 
that the present representative is " Descended from 
Sir Richard Cowper, of Cowper, son of Richard 
Cowper, of Salop, vide Heralds' Visitation, 1568." 
Unfortunately this Visitation pedigree does not 
throw much light on the last three hundred years. 

Delap (p. 498). No explanation of Robert 
Dunlop being the father of Robert Delap. 

De Lisle (p. 498). The early generations of this 
family show an unusual succession of only sons. 
Is there any authentic instance of a family pro- 
ducing only one son in each of six successive 
generations ? 



Dunne (p. 555)." The Dunnes, of Bircher and 
Galley, are direct descendants of John Donne, 
Dean of St. Paul's." No attempt is made to show 
the precise connexion between the Dean and 
Philip Donne of Welsh Newton. 

Flood (p. 675). The Eight Hon. Henry Flood 
is stated to be the son of Warden Flood, by his 
marriage with Miss Whiteside. Flood was illegiti- 
mate (cf. ' D. N. B. '). 

Gillman (p. 764)." This family is of very 
ancient Welsh descent, the earliest records of the 
name of Gillman are connected with Wales, and 
with Cilmin Troed dhu of Glynllifon in Uwch 
Gwir vai in Cear-yn-Arvonshire, where he lived in 
the year 843, the time of Rhodri Mawr (Roderick 
the Great), King of all Wales. Cilmin was head 
of one of the fifteen Noble Tribes of North Wales, 
and bore arms, Argent, a man's leg couped. The 
records prove him the ancestor of the Gillmans of 
England, Ireland, and America." The next ap- 
pearance of the Gillmans is in England in the 
fourteenth century. The " records," while supply- 
ing the Welsh ancestor, do not throw any light on 
the family during the intermediate five centuries. 

Grseme (p. 803)." This ancient family derives 
its lineage from Grseme, who was made Governor 
of Scotland, and guardian to the young king, 
Eugene II., in 435." No proof attempted, and 
there is a break of nearly a thousand years before 
the next known member of the family. 

Gronow (p. 839). A connexion is implied be- 
tween Sir Tudor ap Gronow, temp, (if he ever 
existed) Edward III., and the present family, 
whose pedigree as given by Burke goes back to the 
eighteenth century. 

Herbert (p. 938). It is not stated that the 
brothers of Mr. Herbert of Llanarth assumed the 
surname of Herbert in lieu of the paternal Jones. 

McKerrell (p. 1299). The first seventeen lines 
of the family history do not refer to this family. 

Mackie (p. 1302). "Ivie Mackie, Esq., of 
Auchencairn," was a munificent merchant in Man- 
chester, and thrice Mayor of that City. 

May hew (p. 1366). Of the four columns under 
this name, nearly three are taken up with pedi- 
grees of Mayhew families from which this one is 
not descended. 

Micklethwait (p. 1380). "The family of Mykle- 
thwayt, or Micklethwait, has been seated on its 
own lands in the neighbourhood of Barnsley, W.R., 
co. York, over six centuries. The name indicates 
it to be of Scandinavian origin." 

Molineux (p. 1404). This family is stated to be 
descended from a younger son of Sir Francis Mo- 
lineux, Bart., of Teversal. "Molineux of Tever- 
sal " is not found in the current ' Peerages '; but if 
this pedigree is accurate it should appear. 

Monro (p. 1412). The pedigree of Binning 
under this heading begins with a legend of a 
" William Bynnie." It is not stated what con- 

nexion there is between this Bynnie and the Bin- 
ning family. 

More (p. 1427). "This is a family of great 
antiquity, deriving its name from the parish of 
More, near Bishop's Castle." Richard (or Thomas) 
de la More came over from Normandy, and was 
slain at Hastings, leaving a son " Sir Thomas de 
la More, who ' bnilte faire houses at Launceston ? 
in Cornwall ; Hal ton, in Cheshire ; and More, in 
Shropshire, giving to the latter place his paternal 
name.' " How can these statements be reconciled 
with each other ? 

O'Grady (p. 1519). "The Milesian family of 
O'Grady is one of the most ancient of co. Limerick. 

Dr. O'Brien assigns Conal Eachluath, King of 

Munster, A.D. 366, and sixth in descent from Oil- 
liol Olum (of the race of Heber, the eldest son of 
Milesius, King of Spain, who colonized Ireland), 
as the common ancestor of the O'Gradys and the 
O'Briens." The next of the family was "Donald 
O'Grady, who fell in battle, 1309." This is but a 
sample of a dozen or more ancient Milesian 

Ormerod (p. 1537). "Henry Mere, of Man- 
chester, born Jan. 10, 1816 and died March 17, 

1873." Mr. Ormerod was alive and well on the 
day of the publication of Burke. 

Owen (p. 1544)." The pedigree of this family 
is registered in the Heralds' College from Rodri 
Mawr, King of all Wales." The printed pedigree 
starts with " Madac ap Jevan, of Caerinion, de- 
scended from Grono ap Owen, son or grandson of 
Ho well Dda, King of South Wales," and proceeds, 
without the formality of dates, through several 
generations until it arrives at Rowland Owen, ia 
1611. Then four more dateless generations. 
William Owen, Esq., of Bettws, married in 1704 r 
and the eldest son of that marriage himself got 
married two years later. 

Peareth (p. 1579). Hercules Peareth, living 
1576, is stated to have been " probably a descend- 
ant " of the family of De Penreth, though there is 
no apparent reason for the guess. 

Philips (p. 1606)." John Philips, Esq., of the 

Heath House born 1695," cf. Philips (p. 1607), 

where his younger brother is stated to have been 
"born Feb. 15, 1693." "Robert, of The Park, Man- 
chester, bom 1759, married 1798, and died 

March 14, 1884." A hitherto unnoticed centena- 

Prichard (p. 1654). A delightful Welsh pedi 
gree, beginning with "Caradoc Vraich Vras, Earl 
of Hereford and Prince between Wye and Severn. 
He reigned from A.D. 520 to 570, and married Tegan 
Eurvron, daughter and sole heir of Belenaur, King 
of Monmouth." The family remained "princes 
between Wye and Severn " for eight generations ; 
several laterrepresentatives borethe titles of "Prince 
of Brecon, Regulus of Radnor and Builtb." The 
fourteenth in descent from Caradoc Vraich Vras 

8 th 8. VI, JULY 14, '94.] 


was one of the eight tributary princes who rowed 
King Edgar down the Dee. This prince married 
the " Princess " Ohrisly ap Meyric, ap Edwal. 

Skinner (p. 1852). The pedigree of the author 
of ' Tulloohgorum ' is almost certainly false. Burke 
states that his grandfather was Robert Skinner, 
Bishop of Oxford. The Rev. William Walker, in 
his life of ' John Skinner of Linshart,' was quite 
unaware of this descent. So long a time elapsed 
between the birth (1590) of the Bishop and that 
(1721) of his alleged grandson, that on that account 
only the pedigree might be looked on as doubtful, 
and it is very unlikely that a bishop's son would 
become a Presbyterian schoolmaster in a poor 
district of Scotland. 

Smith - Carington (p. 1859). Is there any 
authority for connecting the Smith family with the 
ancient Caringtons? There does not seen any good 
reason why John Carington's temporary disguise 
of Smith should have been perpetuated by his de- 
cendants. This John Carington, alias Smith, was 
born 1374 and died 1446. His son, Hugh Smith, 
died 1485, leaving a son Sir John, died 1547. The 
generations are suspiciously long. 

Smythe (p. 1876)." There is every reason to 
believe that the family of Smythe became settled 
at Hilton at a remote period ; but as the Court Rolls 
extend only as far back as 1327, temp. Edward II., 
there is no documentary proof of the fact beyond a 
charter granted by Edward I." The actual pedigree 
here given begins in the last century ! 

Sneyd (p. 1878). The descent of this family is 
shown in great detail from " Eadulf vel Eadwulf, 
son of Ordgar, ealdormon of the Defnsoetas." Al- 
though the family is pretended to have been a 
ianded one, there is not a single knight between 
the Conquest and the sixteenth century. 

Sneyd-Kynnersley (p. 1881). This pedigree 
begins with a quotation from an old pedigree. 
According to this the Kynnersleys had Kynnardsley 
Castle at the time of the Conquest, they had also a 
surname, and the head of the family was " by title 
a knight (if any knights were before the Conquest)." 

Stevenson (p. 1921). R. A. Stevenson married 
*' Margery Frissel (originally the name was Fraser), 
of Scottish and French ancestry, of whom Pierre 
Fraser, Seigneur de Froile, came to Scotland with 
the ambassadors of Charlemagne, in the year 807. 
Charles Fraser, an ancestor of Lord Lovat, was 
Thane of Mann in 814." Do the editors of Burke 
really suppose that surnames were used in the 
ninth century ? 

Swettenham (p. 1962). "The Swettenhams of 
Swettenham, always a family of high position 
among the Cheshire gentry, preserved a male suc- 
cession from the Saxon times." The pedigree 
given shows that the estates have several times 
passed to heiresses. 

Wood (p. 2260). -"According to Lower VPatro- 
nymica Britannica,' the Wood families are un- 

doubtedly of Anglo-Saxon origin, the surname 
occurring as early as 'Domesday Book' in the form 
of De Silva, and as De La Wode in the Hundred 
Rolls." Rather unstable premises from which to 
deduce the origin of a family. ERNEST AXON. 
Heaton Moor. 


It is much to be lamented that Bishop Tate ever 
took the step he hazarded on utility lines, of pull- 
ing down and desecrating the City churches, seeing 
how large a portion of them consisted of the work 
of one man, and he the architect of greatest figure 
in our nation a man of European reputation, 
whose church in Walbrook for its interior, and 
whose church in Cheapside for its steeple, have 
brought the best constructors of the Continent to 
our shores to see, of their own knowledge, how 
those islanders in the dark Hyperborean can make 
living stones into temples, and temples into flowers 
to ornament the highways of black Babylon, and 
preach " sermons in stones," whence Beauty, if not 
Wisdom, crieth aloud to the passer by in the street 
below. Architecture that is noble has a use apper- 
taining to it that has perhaps never yet been suffi- 
ciently insisted on : it is the cheapest and most 
effective art instructor that can be devised. If 
there were more of such beautiful objects in our 
streets, schools for art culture would be largely 
superseded, and national improvement make rapid 
strides by the perpetual though unconscious play 
of the eye over the symmetry of exquisite forms 
strewn thickly in main thoroughfares. No galleries 
of sculpture, paintings, or engravings, however 
numerous, could well exercise upon the general popu- 
lation a tithe of the good effect that fine external 
street architecture must do. Nothing teaches 
the fitness of things like building when stamped 
by noble genius. Solid form on a large scale well 
handled is practicalness in epitome, and the severity 
of ornamentation, that a consummate master reti- 
cently introduces, is a bequeathal for all time to 
men of sensitive apperception who meet it in their 
daily round. It is that KTrjpa es act, as the happy 
Greek puts it, that possession in mortmain, that 
never grows old, and after the thousandth round is 
worshipped the more thankfully by the capable 

External architecture is, of course, for this educa- 
tional purpose more available and promotive than 
internal developments, however fine, can be. 
there were a few more things like the campaniles of 
St. Paul's, and theplus-quam perfection of a steeple 
such as that of Bow Church yields us in the stone- 
crop of our streets, who can doubt but that we should 
have many more men of aesthetic appreciation than 
we now possess ? The cheapness of the thing, if to 
be had at all, is an accompanying wonder. First of 
all you build a something that is wanted by civic 
arrangement, and then, if you can find a man of 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. JULY u, '94. 

genius to throw you in that mystical thing beauty, by Churchmen who allow or perpetrate further 
you get it actually for nothing, and it stands there removals. Shall bishops disestablish the church 
for ever, as a mountain does in nature, a glory in fabric to aid inimical politicians in disestablishing 

the sun, and the sum-total of everyday life. the Church itself? C. A. WARD. 

No architect in the world has ever had such a Chingford Hatch. _ 
chance of doing for a city what fell to be done 

by the hand of Wren. Very few could have met CAPITAL LETTERS. There is, I think, a notice- 

it with such abundant originality on such a stu- able decrease in the use of initial capitals. This is 

pendous scale. But Sir Christopher Wren was not so marked m print as in manuscript; a large 

more stupendous even than ever was his oppor- Proportion of the manuscript destined for the press 

tunity. He has left behind him proof that if depending for the distribution of capitals, stops, 

it had been required he could have easily thrown &c -> u P on tne . Pinter and the proof-corrector. 

off three times as much work, and it is probable Tnere are > for instance, many substantives which 

that it would have been still better than it is. For mav or ma y not chance to be treated as "proper " 

the variety of circumstances would have brought no ns when set up in type: ex. gr., a Meeting, an 

him new suggestion of variety, and the greater his Entertainment, the Event of the day, a Committee, 

restrictions the more were his ease of adjustment a Minister, an Archangel, a Pope the Pope, the 

and his originality made apparent, as in St. Kin are always treated as u proper " nouns. 

Nicholas Cole Abbey and St. Mary Aldermary. North, South, East, West not unfrequently retain 

Or take the steeple of St. Vedast Foster, and their capitals when used as adjectives. 

observe the facility and mastery of the geometric \ Q the delightful letters of Edward Fitzgerald a 

mason manipulating the lower story concave to the Cu 5\ ous ly large proportion of the nouns have 

next convex or nearly circular scope, with a rigid initial capitals, and this applies no less to the later 

rectilinear spire surmounting all. He has achieved . than to tne earlier letters. The following passage 

this without a discord. It is possibly the most ls taken from what was probably the last letter he 

curiously skilful steeple in the world, as Bow is the wrote : ~ 

most beautiful by far. Before pulling down any- " ! ne ver see a new Picture, nor hear a note of Music 

thing of Wren's we ought to remember that, with exce P t when l drum oufc some old Tune in Winter on an 


the last three hundred years decorated London on The Cu8tom . of g l g initial capitals to all 

any scale of importance. We should also bear in noun3 substantive seems to have become pretty 

mind that all his pinnacled towers and pointed g e ?? ral Awards the middle of the last century. 

steeples, jutting up above the houses into the air, Drench writers and printers vary hut little in 

have (in each case) a special reason of their own for thei ? U8 1 e * ca P lfcala wnich thev employ far more 

being where they are, a special office to perform; they s P arin g Iy an . we . do - Tn *y g^e minuscules to 

are grouped and planned with infallible instinct by aje 7^ VeS derl . ved from P r P er nouns (/?**?<***, 

a master in such studies j one elicits beauty from an 9 lais > P^nsten, &c.) ; they do not, as a rule, 

the other, and all, as they mount in air, are meant, ^ lte th ? u nam . e * of ? h da J 8 of the week and of 

as they cluster round it, to embellish the mighty mODt h s with capitals ; and such words as les 

curvatures of cupolated Paul's. Every steeple that lsades > la renaissance, are not thus distinguished. 

the Bishop's blunder takes away knocks as it were Most Eo g lishmen would write "the Edict of 

a hole through the sky picture carefully calculated Na 1 fc f s 'X but * think the ma J orit y of Frenchmen 

we would wnte lfc de Nantes." An educated 

by the consummate draughtsman with whom 

have to do. This is simple madness on the part of En g lishman rarel y writes " street " in addressing a 

London. We can never restore it once it is de- ! etter ' bufc " rae de - " on an envel P e would 

stroyed, though we should seek it with repentance y no means su ggest to its recipient that the writer 

and in tears. We have now no breed of architects wa iuit erate 

who can lift a building into ether symmetrically ay not the tenden cy to use initial capitals 

that like his shall yield an eye-culture involuntary more a . nd more s P arin g 1 y be attributed to the 

and gratuitous. Before you pull down wait in the lncreasin g prominence we are giving to the study 

name of common sense, until you at least are able of 1 J he French language ? HENRY ATTWELL. 

to build rm*1prnt.lT7 anain a, ^ m ^4.v.: ___ i ________ i I Barnes. 

magnitude thereof by edition 

r. - . 

f wlf ya ! ' ^ - D0t . t , 6n di88ent COUrse ' needless to enlar g e "P n the P e " ls besett Dg 

from us who maintain that a crime is being done | him that puts his trust in reprints, but it is alway! 

8 th S. VI. JULY 14, '94.] 



relevant to investigate careful editing. This volume 
conies from the eminent house of Messrs. Ward, 
Lock & Co., and a note at the end of the table of 
contents states that it has "been carefully edited 
by Alex. Murray, 26th Dec., 1868." It is, of 
course, a long time since 1868, and it is possible 
that, in the interim, Mr. Murray and his pub- 
lishers may have given fresh consideration to the 
work ; but the fact remains that within the year 
this copy formed one of a fresh stock of new books, 
claiming distinction as one of f Moxon's Popular 
Poets.' And it is a handsome and attractive 
volume, which one would gladly take up at such 
odd moments as are favourable for the perusal of 
one of the immortal ballads. It was in this way 
that I thought of using my copy, and I recently 
began with the romance entitled (according to 
Scott) ' The Lass of Lochroyan.' An example of 
careful editing occurs in the alteration of the title 
to ' The Lass o' Lochryan,' but few of Mr. Murray's 
readers would be inclined to take objection to this, 
although it is quite unnecessary in the light of 
Scott's explicit introduction. Why Mr. Murray 
should have been careful to omit Scott's note on 
Dr. Wolcott, illustrative of the last sentence of the 
introduction, is more difficult to comprehend. In 
the sixth stanza, however, of the ballad itself one 
is brought completely to a stand. This is how the 
story goes according to Mr. Alex. Murray : 

Syne she 's gar'd, built a bonny boat, 
To Bail the salt, salt sea. 

On turning to Scott, to see whether he could be 
capable of passing such nonsense, this is what we 
find : 

Syne she 's gar'd build a bonny boat, 
To sail the salt, salt sea. 

That is, she has ordered (boat-builders to) build 
a bonny boat. The reading presents no difficulty 
whatever until after it has been carefully edited, 
and then it is as tough as an obscurity of ' Sor- 
dello.' It is possible to unravel, as a rule, the 
tangled confusion of a bald and blundering reprint, 
but it is not always so easy to grapple with unin- 
telligent editing, especially when it has been 
very carefully done. Several other emendations 
throughout this ballad do not destroy the sense, 
but they were uncalled for. "Ye'er" for ye're 
may be a misprint ; but "yett " for yate, " deid " 
for dead, "dee" for die, and a comma for Scott's 
mark of exclamation need not have been intro- 
duced. Shall we say, Ab uno disce omnes ; and 
conclude that if one ballad in this reprint pre- 
sents such various notes of offence, the accumu- 
lated mass of error would be of an overwhelming 
character ? While not unduly pressing this point, 
I think there is no rashness in saying that the 
condition in which the one ballad has been found 
is enough to stir an alert suspicion regarding the 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

following paragraph, from the Sporting Magazine 
of January, 1825, is worth reproducing in 'N. & Q.': 

" Pigeons are rarely seen at the tables of the Russians, 
who entertain a superstitious veneration for these birds, 
because the Holy Ghost assumed the form of a dove. 
They are therefore kept more for amusement than for 
food, and are often maintained with great care, at a con- 
siderable expense." Vol. xxv. N.S., p. 307. 


'PICKWICK.' Everything which relates to 
' Pickwick ' has great attraction for many of the 
readers of ' N. & Q.' I therefore make no 
apology for asking you to transfer the following 
from the Church Times to your own pages, where 
it will be indexed for future use. It has been con- 
tributed to your contemporary by a gentleman who 
writes under the pen-name of "Peter Lombard" : 

" I picked up one little bit of information about ' Pick- 
wick ' which appears to be quite genuine. Strolling up 
Abbeygate Street in the afternoon I turned into a shop to 
make a small purchase, and as the keeper appeared dis- 
posed for conversation I sat down and joined in. First 
he told me that this was the house in which Bishop Tom- 
line was born. Though I am not an enthusiastic admirer 
of that prelate, I was interested because of his connexion 
with Winchester, a city very dear to me, so I heard what 
little my new acquaintance had to tell me. Then he 
went on to say that his father was for some years pro- 
prietor of the Great White Horse at Ipswich. I was on 
the alert in a moment. ' It was there,' I said, ' that Mr. 
Pickwick went after Jingle, after leaving Bury.' ' It 
was, sir.' ' And it is quite clear,' I went on, ' that for 
some reason Dickens did not like the White Horse, for 
he slates it right and left.' ' Dickens,' was the reply, ' did 
his best to ruin the house, but he really made its fortune. 
Hundreds of people have been there to see it after reading 
about it. But I can tell you a curious thing about it. It 
was Dickens's own mistake about going into the wrong 
bedroom. There is a sort of triangle on the top of the 
stairs, and there are two doors just alike, and he went in 
where some people were in bed, and they roared out at 
him and he bolted all in confusion.' He went on to tell me 
that the room is still called Mr. Pickwick's room, and 
that it is ' No. 16.' That same evening in the coffee- 
room of the Angel we met a party, one member of which 
was known to me as a literary character, and he told us 
that they had just come from Ipswich, and that they had 
been to the Great White Horse, and he had slept in Mr. 
Pickwick's room. 'Number sixteen?' said I. 'The 
very one,' was the answer. Of course, after that, I read 
to my little party that same evening the adventure with 
the middle-aged lady with the curl papers, and most ex- 
hilarating was the laughter which it produced." Church 
Times, April 6, p. 362. 

K. P. D. E. 


"Wednesday last was May 2nd. On May 2nd, 1720, 
the first number of the Northampton Mercury was pub- 
lished, with the imprimatur of ' R. Raikes and W. Dicey, 
near All Saints' Church.' Wednesday last was, there- 
fore, the one hundred and seventy-fourth anniversary of 
the birth of this journal. The Northampton Mercury 
has happily attained an age which very few newspapers 

in the world can boast To-day begins the one hundred 

and seventy-fifth yearly volume of this journal, and the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. v i. JULY u, '94. 

number of the issue is 9,050 The Robert Raikea < 

the Northampton Mercury afterwards went to Glouce 
ter, where he established the Gloucester Journal. H 
was the father of the Robert Raikes, the founder of Sun 
day schools. The name of Dicey was upon every iseu 
of the Northampton Mercury from May 2nd, 1720, t 
May 2nd, 1885." 

The above interesting note is extracted from th 
Northampton Mercury of May 4. How man 
other COUP**"? newspapers can boast of an equal! 
long existence 1 I think the list is a very smal 
one, and might very suitably find a place in th 
pages of ' N. & Q.' JOHN T. PAGE. 

5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

MS. apparently compiled between the years 167S 
and 1684, by the Rev. Thos. Leigh, B.D., Fellow o 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, it is incidentally 
recorded (in Latin) that there were "no rains from 
the beginning of September, 1517, to the month o 
May, 1518," a period of at least eight months 
Having failed to find mention of the fact in print 
I make note of it for the benefit of your readers. 

W. I. R. V. 

PALLISER. It may interest some of your 
numerous readers to know that this rather common 
name in the north of England is derived from the 
paliser, or man who attended to the oak palings of 
the deer parks. In North Yorkshire the boundary 
of the ancient park is still known as the paled dyke. 


" The Sixth day Anthony Cole, of Chadwick, was twice 
buryed, ffirst in the Quaker's Yard, then in the Church- 
yard." Parish Register of Bromsgrove, Sept., 1661. 


Eden Bridge. 

perley, who, when George IV. was king, was an 
accomplished writer on hunting, racing, coaching, 
and kindred topics, under the name of Nimrod, 
on one occasion visited Ripon. Among the ob- 
servations he made there is one worth transferring 
to 'N. &Q.': 

"On the Monday succeeding St. Wilfrid's Sunday, 
thre were for many years races on Ripon Common, for 
prizes of various value ; and one called the Lady's Plate 
ofUL value, for horses, &c., the best of heats, and twice 
round the common for a heat, to be ridden by women. 
This is the only proper definition of what is now called 
the Ladies' Plate that I have ever met with." Sporting 
Magazine, 1827, vol. xx. N.8., p. 287. 


His baptism is thus recorded in the parish 
register of Ashbourne, co. Derby : " October, Anno 
Domini 1772, Baptized 14 Thomas Son of M r Tho: 
Kirland & Mary Ux. Ashbourn." He married at 
Packington, co. Leicester, Aug. 3, 1747, Dorothy 
(born 1723), daughter and coheir of Joseph Palmer, 

Esq., Queen's Messenger (born circa 1683, died 
in London, December, 1750), by his wife Elizabeth 
(born 1689, married 1708, ob. circa 1728), 
daughter of Thomas Bate, of Ashby-de-la-Zoucb, 
co. Leicester, gent. She died Jan. 24, 1785, and 
was buried at Ashby aforesaid on Jan. 28 following. 

The name of Thomas Kirkland fails to appear in 
the 'List of the Graduates in Medicine in the 
University of Edinburgh, 1705-1866,' 8vo., Edin., 
1867, although an entry therein records that Wil- 
liam Kirkland graduated M.D. in 1772. 

Dr. Kirkland died at Ashby-de-la-Zoucb, 
Jan. 17, and was buried in the chancel of the 
parish church on Jan. 22, 1798. 

This note will serve as an addition to the account 
of him appearing in 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. xxxi. 

AUTHOR OF QUOTATION So long ago as Oct. 26, 
1889 (7* S. viii. 329), I asked as to the author- 
ship of a little French song, which, it appears, I 
did not then quote correctly. Perhaps I may now 
be permitted to give the correct version and the 
author's name : 

Peu de Chose. 

La vie est vaine : 

Un peu d'amour, 

Un peu de baine 

Et puis bonjour ! 

La vie est breve : 

Un peu d'espoir, 

Un peu de reve 

Et puis bon soir ! 

From an article by Mr. William Sharp on ' La 
Jeune Belgique, 1 in the Nineteenth Century of 
September last, I have ascertained that this de- 
icate marvel of rhymed philosophy is by the Bel- 
gian author Ldon Montenaeken. Mr. Sharp says 
;he lines have been attributed to a dozen different 
French poets, old and latter-day. The more reason 
;hat justice should be done here and now to the 
talented Belgian poet. JAMES HOOPER. 


cently the ancient Lincolnshire town Bourne was, 
in the occasion of the disposal of some meadow 
and within the district, the scene of a curious 
ustom, an account of which may be worth pre- 
erving in ' N. & Q.': 

"The land, known as the White Bread Meadow, was 
rought to the hammer by direction of the Charity 
Yustees, and, in accordance with traditional usage, 

number of boys started in a race, the bidding lasting 
rhile the boys were running, the lot being ultimately 
et to the person who had made the highest offer at the 
loment the possession of the first place in the race was 
ecided. The rent of the meadow was then expended 
n white bread loaves, which were distributed to the 
oor of the locality." Echo, April 16. 

C. P. HALE. 

ISLAND OF BARBADOS. It is curious that 
eference books and newspapers should still be 

s.- s. vi. JOLT u, '9t] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


found in no inconsiderable number speaking of a 
colony called "Barbadoes." Every postage stamp 
ever issued from the island will, I believe, be 
found to have the word " Barbados " upon it. A 
letter from me calling attention to this appeared 
in the Literary World two or three years ago. 
Locally the middle syllable is strongly accented 
and the last syllable often sounded much like dz. 
No doubt the spelling with an e was once used in 
the island as well as in England, but it is obsolete 
now. See all official documents emanating from 
the colony. HERBERT STURMER. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

CHARLES WALMESLEY. A friend has lent me 
his copy of * A New Theatrical Dictionary,' Lon- 
don, 1792, a work very well known to collectors 
and of no great esteem ; but the copy in question 
is enhanced in value by interesting annotations 
and varied information in MS. by one Charles 
Walmesley, to whom the book formerly belonged. 
I shall be grateful to any of your readers who may 
be able to give me particulars of Charles Walmes- 
ley, as I am ignorant of any interest, literary or 
otherwise, attaching to him. 

Ware Priory. 

allow me to inquire through the pages of ' N. & Q.' 
for information as to the family of Sir Alexander 
Burnes, the traveller and political officer ? As is 
well known, Sir Alexander and his brother were 
murdered at Kabul on the same day; but I believe 
they were members of a large family. I am anx- 
ious to be placed in communication with the present 
representative of the family, in order to ask for 
information which is likely to be found in the 
letters written by Sir Alexander Burnes to his 
relations during the last few months of his life. 
103, Strada Vescovo, Valletta, Malta. 

"SOJOURNARS": " ADVENA." In a parish register 

I am reading I frequently find persons marked as 
"Sojournars." Does this indicate that they had 
no settlement in the parish for poor law purposes ? 
In one case a death entry has a marginal note 

II Ad vena." What does this word convey ? 


SOURCE OF QUOTATION. I shall be obliged by 
information as to what book contains the fol- 
lowing passage, or something similar, and what 
reign is referred to. " Old king, old ministers, 
old courtiers, old generals, old poets, old musicians, 

rouged, wrinkled, toothless, were descending to the 


W. B. 

THE DUKE OP YORK'S SON. The following 
is a cutting from the Times : 

" While so many are rejoicing at the safe arrival of tbe 
little prince on Saturday evening, it may interest youir 
readers to be reminded of the old saying 

Under the stars, on the eve of St. John, 
Lucky the babe that those stars shine on I 
and hope that it may indeed be fulfilled in his case." 
Can any one tell me whence this saying is taken 1 

(1630-1714), OF LACOCK ABBEY. She was, as is 
well known, Barbara, only daughter of Sir Henry 
Slingsby, Bart., of Scriven, who was beheaded for 
his loyalty in 1658. Can any informant greatly 
oblige me by stating the date and the place of he? 
marriage ? It must have taken place between the 
years 1656 and 1661, because Sir John's first wife y 
Elizabeth Keyt, lived till the former year, and 
because Frances Talbot, an infant daughter by his 
second marriage, was buried at Isleworth o 
June 13, 1662. 

The possible period can be further narrowed; 
down to the two years 1660 and 1661, if we may 
rely on the correctness of the letter "S" in the 
initials " B. S." under Barbara's letter (to her 
brother Sir Thomas Slingsby), dated Feb. 18, 
1659/60, printed at pp. 355-6 of Sir Henry 
Slingsby's ' Diary,' edited by the Rev. D. Parsons. 
For these two years I have searched the Bishop 
of London's, the Vicar General's, and the Faculty 
marriage licences, also the registers of all the 
likely London parishes and of Knaresborough, 
without success. MALCOLM Low. 

22, Roland Gardens, S.W. 

EASTER SEPULCHRES. I should be obliged by 
some information on these, the ceremonies con- 
nected therewith, and their decoration. I espe- 
cially want to learn something of the wooden 
movable erections going by the same name ; and if 
any still exist, and where they are. A gentleman 
near Eugby is said to possess one from Kilsby 
Church, Northamptonshire ; but I am unable to 
locate it. In making one on old lines, how would 
one proceed as to measurements, shape, decoration 
(by painting, hangings around it, &c.) ? How 
would the stand on which it is set be constructed ? 


11, Testing Road, Putney, S.W. 

NELTHORP FAMILY. John Nelthorp and James 
Nelthorp were elected Members for Beverley in 
1645. The first was a barrister of Gray's Inn, and 
was "secluded" in December, 1648; the other 
was a mercer and grocer of Beverley, and mayor 
in 1641. Being a more extreme Parliamentarian, 
tie sat until the dissolution of 1653. Were these 


[8 th S. VI. JULY 14, '94, 

two M,P.s identical respectively with " John 
Nelthorp of Barton-upon-Humber " and "James 
Nelthorp of Bartholomew Close, London," the 
third and fifth sons of Edward Nelthorp, of Glass- 
ford Briggs, Lincoln ? (Vide Kimber's 'Baronetage,' 
ii. 331.) John Nelthorp, of Beverley, was ad- 
mitted to Gray's Inn Nov. 19, 1634, the same day 
as (? his cousin) " John Nelthorp, second son of 
Richard Nelthorp, of Glanfordbridge, co. Lincoln " 
(Foster's 'Register'). The latter was created a 
baronet in 1666, a dignity that became extinct in 
1865. The registers of St. James's, Clerkenwell, 
contain several Nelthorp entries, but relating 
mostly, it would seem, to the family of Sir God- 
dard, second baronet. W. D. PINK. 

" DURING." Is it quite correct to use " during " 
with reference to a point of time and the occurrence 
of a particular event ? Should the word not always 
denote continuity of existence or action ? Yet we 
are constantly coming upon such a sentence as 
this : " Two books of different classes of interest 
have been issued during the week" (Saturday 
Review of June 16, p. 628). Does this not mean 
that the process of issuing took the entire week for 
its consummation ? The books appeared at some 
time, or times, in the course of the week ; but, 
unless the publication were protracted through- 
out six days, it is surely inexact to say that they 
were issued " during the week," 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

read that the Green House in Kensington Gardens, 
in which George II. took so much pleasure, was 
the work of Inigo Jones. In 1815 it underwent 
complete repair, after having been neglected for so 
long a time that it had become quite dilapidated. 
Is anything known of this Green House ? Does it 
still exist ? C. A. WHITE. 

peasants in Algarve, at least at Bensafrim, one of 
the most archaeological of Portuguese villages, wear 
as a charm to cure pains in the eye the jawbone of 
a hedgehog which has received the benison of a 
priest. They wear it on the breast, suspended 
from a string round the neck. Does the same super- 
stition exist among the country folk in any parts 
of the British Islands 1 PALAMEDES. 

GERMAN BANDS. There is a belief in Suffolk 
that the advent of a German band to a village is 
the precursor of rain. In what other counties does 
a similar belief prevail ? 


GEORGE SAMUEL. Can any of your readers 
favour me with information as to the life and work 
of George Samuel, a landscape painter, who was 
born in the latter half of the eighteenth century, 

and contributed to the Academy for nearly forty 
years, namely, from 1786 to 1823 ? I appeal in 
vain to dictionaries of painters and biographies, 
and the Royal Academy knows nothing of him. 
Any facts, however slight, will be valued. 

A. D. 

REV. EDWARD WOODCOCK, LL.D. (temp. 1735- 
1792). I shall be very glad of any biographical 
details concerning this gentleman. He is buried 
in the chancel of West Haddon Church, North- 
amptonshire. A tablet to his memory formerly 
occupied a position on the north chancel wall, but 
was, with others, removed a few years ago to make 
room for the organ chamber. It has now been 
placed about the centre on the north aisle wall. 
It bears the following inscription : 

Sacred to tbe memory 

of the Rev d Edward Woodcock, LL.D. 

Vicar of Watford in the county of Hertford 

and Rector of the united Parishes of 

St. Michael, Wood Street, 

and St. Mary Steyning, in the City of London. 

He married Hannah the only surviving Daughter of 

Thomas Whitfield Esq r late of this place : 

and had by her four Sons and ten Daughters 

of whom the youngest Son and eight Daughters have 

survived their most excellent father : 
He departed this life upon the 6th O f June 1792 aged 57. 

This monument is erected by his Widow 
to testify her affectionate regard for her most beloved 


and to perpetuate the Memory of the best of Men. 
Also, near this place are deposited the remains 

of Edward Whitfield Woodcock Esq r 

their second Son who departed this Life 

the 22 d of September 1779 : 

Aged 21. 

The West Haddon register of burials con- 
tains the following entry : 

" 1792, June 16th. The Rev. Edward Woodcock, LL.D. 
buried in the chancel." 

A tablet to the memory of Mrs. Woodcock has 
also been removed from the north chancel wall to 
a position near the west end of the south aisle 
wall. It bears the following inscription : 
Sacred to the memory 


Hannah Woodcock 

widow of the Rev. Edward Woodcock, LL.D. 

who also is interred n this chancel. 

This stone is raised and inscribed by 

her surviving Children 

in token of her Virtues 

and of their dutiful Affection and Gratitude ; 

She died deeply lamented 

on the 1 st i ay of May 

in the 64th yea r of her Age. 

Any replies sent direct or through 'N. & Q.' 
would be much appreciated. JOHN T. PAGE. 
5, Capel Terrace, Southend on-Sea. 

ever been collected and edited in modern times ? 
From the specimen given in Mr. Orby Shipley's 

8 th S. VI. JULY 14, 94.] 



* Carmina Mariana ' and the scraps quoted in Mr 
Gillow's ' St. Thomas's Priory, Stafford/ they seem 
well worthy of introduction to the modern reader. 

K. P. D. E. 

NORRIS OR NORREYS. Sir Thomas Norris, a 
younger son of Lord Norris, of Rycote, was Lord 
President of Munster, temp. Elizabeth. Whom 
did he marry ? His daughter Elizabeth was 
married to Sir John Jephson, but I cannot dis- 
cover her mother's name. Y. S. M. 

inform me if there is any list of officers who served 
under Cromwell in Ireland now known to be ex- 
tant, in print or MS. ; also any list of officers who 
served under William III. about the time of the 
battle of Aughrim ; and where respectively to be 
seen 1 Or is there information on these subjects 
in any work on the Cromwellian settlement of 
Ireland ? H. Y. POWELL. 

17, Bayswater Terrace, Lancaster Gate. 

HELMEEAWE FAMILY. I should be much obliged 
to any correspondent who could give me informa 
tion respecting the family of Helmerawe. It is 
evidently a place name, and apparently a Durham 
one. There was a John de Helmerawe at Hesilden, 
co. Durham, in 1384, who had land of the prior. 
A Leonard Helmerawe, of Evenwood,co. Durham, 
tirca 1550, married a Hall of Birtley ; and a 
Thomas Helmerawe, 1580-1620, was living at 
Keverston, co. Durham ; since when the pedigree 
is clear. Is it possible that the present Helming- 
ton Kow, co. Durham, was the place of origin ? 


Ortelius, 'His Epitome of the Theater of the 
Worlde,' 1603, it is stated in the " Description of 
Englande": "Oxford and Cambridge and the 
which as Ancient writters recorde were the two 
firste Academies after the deathe of or Savior 
Christe." Is this recorded ; and by whom ? 


HEAVING : LIFTING. Is heaving or lifting a 
custom amongst the continental peasantry ] I ask 
the question because the Kev. S. Baring-Gould 
says, in a note on p. 65 of W. Henderson's ' Folk- 
lore of the Northern Counties of England '(1866), 
that " the same custom prevails in the Pyrenees, 
where I have been lifted by a party of stout Basque 
damsels." My question is not prompted by idle 
curiosity ; and if the custom prevail, I shall be glad 
to have reference?, though I need hardly say that 
I do not want references to the custom in England. 


LOCAL LONGEVITY. The North Devon Journal 
of Jan. 18 contains a list of sixty-five deaths, all 
occurring between Jan. 5 and 17, in the district 
within about twenty miles of Barnstaple. Of 

these, eight persons were ninety years of age and 
upwards ; seven over eighty years ; eighteen over 
seventy years; and seven over sixty years cer- 
tainly remarkable figures for a small district. Can 
any readers having access to newspaper files find 
a parallel 1 W. COGHILL. 

llfracombe, N. Devon. 

(8 th S. v. 261, 301, 369, 429, 509.) 

While painstaking Giuseppe de Blasiis has not 
been able to discover even the name of Fra Roberto 
in any state paper or contemporary chronicle, 
excellent Matteo Camero has succeeded in proving 
to MR. BADDELEY'S entire satisfaction that it was 
the wily friar who, acting on instructions received 
from Hungary, incited Andrew to seize the crown. 
We are told that he was opposed in this purpose by 
Joan, who endeavoured to strictly fulfil her grand- 
father's will, which purposely excluded Andrew 
from the sovereign position, and in so doing MR. 
BADDELEY surmises she doubtless acted in accord- 
ance with the advice of Queen Sancia, " the sur 
viving widow of that beloved monarch." Thi 
reads as if King Eobert had left more than on 

Unfortunately for excellent Signor Matteo 
Camera's theory, there are no fewer than four letters 
extant in the Vatican collection, all dated Feb- 
ruary 2, 1344 (iv. nonas Feb. Anno ii.), in which 
the Pope informs the addressees that yielding to 
the solicitations of King Louis of Hungary, Queen 
Elizabeth, his mother, Queen Joan herself, Queen 
Sancia, her grandmother, and the archbishops, 
bishops, nobles, &c., of the kingdom of Sicily it 
was resolved in the Consistory held on January 19, 
to grant Andrew permission to have himself 
crowned and anointed king. The resolution was 
moved by Aymerich, Cardinal of St. Martinus in 
Montibus.* Here is an ounce of fact against 
! amera's tons of theory. 

Aymerich, the reader will remember, was the 
shepherd sent by the Pope to Naples for the pro- 
motion of his two pet lambs, Joan and her sister. 
But as, in the elder lambkin's opinion, the cardinal's 
protection was wholly superfluous, and the fun 
enjoyed by her in the company of the wolves no 
doubt far more to her taste when the shepherd 
was absent than when he was present, the cardinal, 
' impeded by Queen Joan " in every way, had no 
alternative but to resign his post and leave the 

I am sorry to be obliged to disappoint MR. 
BADDELEY by telling him that the story of An- 

* Regest. Vat. Pontif. Clem. VI., vol. cxxxvii 
Nos. 672-675. Of. also the Pope's letter to Andrew. 
Jan. 19, 1344 (Ibid., No. 1221). 



vi. JULY H, 

drew's death, as related by the Modena Chronicle, 
was not new, but well known to me long before 
he announced the discovery. When, however, in 
the first part of his communication he forewarned 
his readers to be prepared for a fresh development 
in the story, as he held in reserve another account 
of the murder by a contemporary chronicler, far 
more convincing to his mind than Gravina, I cer- 
tainly was not prepared to see the Modena 
Chronicle's version produced. I trust MB. 
BADDKLEY can be induced to see in what an ex- 
tremely delicate situation he has thereby placed 
not only himself, but also the queen whose cause 
he has espoused. MR. BADDELEY himself confesses 
that the elaborate account of the Duke of Durazzo's 
secret marriage given by this "far more con- 
vincing" chronicler is wholly a fabrication, and 
that the orations so glibly and constantly put by 
him into the mouths of his characters are as long 
and as elaborate as if some one had taken them 
down in shorthand. Yet (can it be believed?) 
MR. BADDELEY accepts this obviously prevaricating 
writer's version of the murder, and summarily 
rejects Joan's own account thereof as communicated 
by her in the " quasi-official " letter addressed to 
the Republic of Florence. Both versions cannot 
possibly be true, because, whereas according to the 
chronicler Joan heard the struggle and screamed 
'"Open the door !" Geoffrey, one of the conspirators, 
all the time pointing his knife to her throat, the 
queen, in her letter to the Republic of Florence, 
on the other hand, professes to have been wholly 
ignorant of what was going on outside her bed- 
chamber, and not to have heard of the murder till 
the nurse informed her that she had found Andrew's 
body, with the rope round its neck, on the lawn 
below. This "diversity of description" cannot 
very well be reconciled by a supercilious reference 
to ' The Ring and the Book,' unless one reads the 
two accounts with one's capo figuratively in a 
sacco. If an accused person's statement, in which 
she tries to exculpate herself, is disbelieved even 
by her own counsel, that person's case, I fear, is 
getting desperate. 

I made, it seems, a very good guess when I 
stated that perhaps MR. BADDELEY had not dipped 
very deeply into his Muratori. If he had done 
so he would, no doubt, have left the Modena 
Chronicle severely alone and pounced upon the 
version furnished by the Este Chronicle ('R.I.S.,' 
xv. 445) in preference. It was this account 
(strictly expurgated, of course) that I thought MR. 
BADDELEY had in view when promising his 
readers a new version of the story. 

MR. BADDELEY credits me with having given 
undue importance to the account of the murder 
supplied by Gravina. If he will kindly refer to my 
note again he will see that I simply pointed to the 
fact ^ that his account was merely an expurgated 
version of that Ghibelline chronicler's narrative. 

As regards Joan's privity to the crime of her 
consort's murder, MR. BADDELEY'S ways of plead- 
ing on her behalf are unique if ingenious. 
As Alphonse Karr would say, " Mesdames les 
Assassines," please note that if there be grave 
circumstantial evidence of having killed your hus- 
bands against you, of such "a peculiar nature" 
that the best of advocates could not save your 
necks, " deny the accusation indignantly," make 
lavish use of " substantial expressions of grief," 
state that you " have been paralyzed by the blow," 
" write and send envoys " to the victim's brother, 
putting yourself upon his protection, have the body 
of the victim removed for burial "as soon as 
practicable," and pay " for masses to be said daily 
for the repose of his soul." Further, promptly 
give effect to any edict authorizing judicial 
severities to be taken against anybody else save 
yourselves, professing all the time not to know 
anything about the murder; but on no account 
face a trial, and leave the place in a huff if any 
judge dare have the impudence to cite you peremp- 
torily. If your would-be judge should at the same 
time be looking out for some landed property, and 
you should be in a position to be able to gratify 
his wish, so much the better. 

According to MR. BADDELEY it was on the sub- 
stantial expressions of grief contained in her letters 
to Avignon that Clement and his advisers based 
largely their belief in the queen's innocence. But 
if he will peep at p. 89 of Wills's * Principles of 
Circumstantial Evidence ' he will find that "the 
officious affectation of grief and concern " is a well- 
known " artifice to prevent or avert suspicion." 

In face of these facts I fear that, unless MR. 
BADDELEY can produce more substantial proofs of 
Joan's innocence, the guilt of Andrew's murder will 
have to "continue to hang picturesquely on the 
shoulders of the young, beautiful, and much- 
tempted queen." 

MB. BADDELEY rallies me for having stated 
that he had devoted to the subject of Joan's so- 
called "trial "a whole chapter, and pleads that I 
ought to have deducted all pages containing ex- 
traneous matters. But if we were to apply the 
same boiling-down process to the contents of the 
whole book there would nob be left much of 
1 Joanna I.' According to the opinion of the 
English Historical Review, the book 

" consists of a series of diffuse sketches and essays on 
various historical points which are not always closely 
related to the life of his heroine, and which convey a 
minimum of historical information with a maximum of 
cheap eloquence." 

I quote this opinion in order to prove that want 
of space cannot be urged as an excuse for the 
wholly inadequate treatment of the subject, and 
that MR. BADDELEY and I are not the only people 
who are dissatisfied with the book. The chapter 
in question is headed " Queen Joanna at Avignon," 

8"> S. VI. JDIT 14, '94.] 



and consists, as correctly stated, of thirteen page?, 
rather more than less. On the top of the third 
page the author introduces the subject of the tria 
with the sentence, " It is soon arranged that her 
[Joan's] desire to be heard in defence of her cha- 
racter shall be gratified," and immediately wanders 
off the subject, but returns to it eventually, and 
finishes up the chapter with the sale of Avignon, 
which, rightly or wrongly, I regarded in the light 
of paying the bill of costs.* 

I am glad MB. BADDELBY has given a list of 
the authorities he consulted when writing the 
account of the trial, as it enables me to show the 
reader how history is sometimes manufactured, 
note that MR. BADDELEY'S list does not include a 
single contemporary author.f The trial was 
alleged to have taken place in 1348. The oldest 
source now quoted is Tristan Caracciolo, who 
wrote a century and a half after the murder ; and 
no one knows where he obtained all his informa- 
tion. He is, I believe, the earliest, though a very 
lukewarm, apologist of Joan. Next we have 
Maimburg, who wrote towards the end of the 
seventeenth century. The balance of MR. BADDE 
LEY'S authorities is made up of writers belonging 
to our present century, including one or two authors 
of guide-books, who are all " supinely content" with 
accepting the story without question, and pass it on 
without troubling themselves about any authorities. 
Some of the graphic details, we are now told, were 
"borrowed" from the English anonymous bio- 
grapher of 1824, in this case also without any 
attempt at a " scientific amusement" as another 
writer calls it known as "investigation of 
sources "; and the whole baseless fabric is appro- 
priately capped by MB,. BADDELEY'S own in- 
quiries at Avignon, where the local "traditions" 
(created and fostered by the aforementioned nine- 
teenth century local guide-books, no doubt) com- 
pletely reassured our author that " the romantic 
episode in the troubled career" of the " well- 
brought-up " queen was not a fantastic vision, but 
an established historic fact. This is not at ail bad 
for an author who, in a magniloquent preface, pro- 
mised his readers to reform the ways of previous 
authors and to clear away a little the nightshade 
and the bramble that had been not only allowed, 
but even encouraged to overgrow and conceal the 
real character of his heroine. 

What MR. BADDELEY preaches and what he 
practises are evidently two different things. Under 
such circumstances it cannot be a matter of wonder 
that, in spite of the fresh accession of material, he 

* In addition to this, the whole of p. 17 is about the 
' little fresco " representing the trial scene. 

f Matteo Villani has a very confused chapter about 
some kind of trial of Joan; but so far as I can understand 
him it is to clear her of a charge "di non perfetto 
amore matrimoniale " (lib. ii, c. xxiv.). But more about 
this anon. 

finds himself not a whit further advanced than he 
was previously towards a clearer perception of the 
truth about the queen. 

He is still unconvinced, and not yet prepared 
to take it for granted that Joan was not heard at 
all in the Papal Consistory. Well, if she was 
heard, Clement did not consider it safe to com- 
municate the result to Louis of Hungary. 

What other " far simpler way " of acquiring 
Avignon could have occurred to Clement than a 
sham sale, and the " little financial and diplomatic- 
arrangement " with the " distressed queen and the 
Florentine banker "1 Would not the " avaricious 
Emperor Charles IV." have claimed a substantial 
share in the booty if Clement had declared Joan 
guilty and seized her Provencal city 1 As regards 
Naples, he would have had to reckon with those 
hosts of " wild Huns and Germans," with whom, 
greatly to his annoyance, King Louis of Hungary 
bad taken upan himself to invade and appropriate 
that realm. 

As regards the " sale " of Avignon, MR. BADDE- 
LEY'S own authorities play him false. Penjon 
makes merry over the subject. For the delecta- 
tion of the reader let me quote in full what he 
has to say : 

" On parle bien d'un prix de quatre-vingt mille florins, 
et Ton voit sur 1'un des vitraux de Notre Dame des Dome 
1'image de ce marche ; mais le pape tient encore a la 
main la bourse toute pleine : 1'argent ne fut jamaia 
donue." ' Avignon,' p. 40. 

The points raised by JANNEMEJAYAH require a 
somewhat lengthy answer, which, by his and the 
Editor's leave, I propose to reserve for a future 
communication. L. L. K. 

428). Probably this extract from the Standard of 
May 31, 1884, will serve MR. FABMER for answer. 
I thought it would very probably have been 
reprinted in ' N. & Q.' at the time, but I cannot 
find it : 

" A Correspondent writes to us : The British cemetery 
on Cathcart's Hill was consecrated on the morning of 
May the 23rd, by the Bishop of Gibraltar, intimation 
having been previously given by Earl Granville of his- 
approval to her Majesty's Consul General at Odessa. The 
cemetery has just been greatly enlarged, and surrounded 
by a strong and high wall. All the memorial-stones have 
been transferred hither from the other cemeteries, ex- 
cept two stone crosses at Balaclava, marking the graves 
of Sisters of Mercy attached during the war to the hos- 
pital there. These have been left, in compliance with 
special request. The remains of the brave men who fell 
n the cause of duty for Queen and country thirty years 
ago have not been disturbed. Even had it been possible 
to remove them, reverence demanded that they should 
rest in the ground where they were buried. The num- 
ber of cemeteries was reduced in 1875 from the original 
number of one hundred and thirty-nine to eleven. Even 
this reduced number it was found impossible to protect 
against the depredations of roving Tartars. Accordingly, 
he committee appointed last year, at a meeting held in 
London under the presidency of the Prince of Wales., 


decided that in future one cemetery only should be main- 
tained. Owing to its size, its commanding and con- 
spicuous site, and its associations as having been the 
centre of the English poeition, and the resting place of 
our most illustrious dead, the cemetery on Cathcart s H; 
was necessarily chosen.* Now that an annual allowance 
of two hundred pounds is granted by the Board of Works 
for the maintenance of the one cemetery retained, it is 
to be hoped that the British Vice-Consul at Sebastopol, 
who has charge of the cemetery, will be enabled to stock 
it more abundantly with trees, and to keep it in perfect 
order. There is. however, at present no water on the 
spot, and a well is absolutely necessary. The service of 
consecration was attended by Mr. G. R. Perry, lier 
Majesty's Consul General for the district ; Capt. Har- 
ford. her Majesty's Vice-Consul at Sebaatopol ; the Rev. 
E. W. Ford, English Chaplain at Odessa, and other Bri- 
tish subjects. The French, Italian, Greek, and Turkish 
Consulates were represented. The most remarkable 
feature of the ceremony was the presence of the Governor 
of Sebaetopol, Admiral Radenov, Admiral Popandopolo, 
Major-General Baron Vraitski, Acting Commander of 
the Forces at Sebastopol; Capt. Konkavitch, and other 
representatives of our former courageous foes, but now 
generous friends, f A guard of honour, consisting of 
Russian marines, was stationed within the walls of the 
cemetery along the path girdling the ground. The 
solemn and picturesque ceremony ended with three vol- 
leys fired over the graves by the Russian marines from 
each side of the cemetery, in token that past animosities 
were buried and forgotten. Nothing could exceed the 
courtesy and helpful friendliness of the Russian authori- 
ties, who, on hearing of the proposed ceremony, volun- 
teered to assist and to send a guard of honour. At the 
close of the service they were heartily thanked by the 
Bishop of Gibraltar on behalf of his countrymen. " 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry, 

[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

TITLE OF PRINCE GEORGE (8 th S. v. 249, 314, 
375, 476). Prince George (as such) was never Duke 
of Cornwall. That title is conferred only upon a 
son of the reigning sovereign. The eldest living 
son (filius primogenitus existens), if also heir appa- 
rent, is Duke of Cornwall. Thus Henry, Duke of 
York (afterwards Henry VIII.), became Duke 
of Cornwall upon the death s. p. of his brother 
Arthur, Prince of Wales, April 2, 1502, but was 
not created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 
until ten months later, viz., Feb. 18, 1502/3. In 
like manner, Charles, Duke of York (afterwards 
Charles I.), upon the death s. p. of his brother 
Henry, Prince of Wales, Nov. 6, 1612, im- 
mediately succeeded him as Duke of Cornwall, 
although his patent as Prince of Wales and Earl 
of Chester was not passed until Nov. 4, 1616. 

The grandson of the sovereign (although be may 
be heir apparent) is not Duke of Cornwall. The 
present Prince of Wales (like his predecessor, 

" * The walls of the other cemeteries have been pulled 
down, and all trace of the spots having been used for 
burial has been obliterated." 

" f The two admirals served in the defence of Sebas- 
topol during the Crimean war. The Russian authorities 
accompanied the Bishop and congregation in the proces- 
sion customary at such services round the ground." 

George IV.) was born Duke, but in the event 
of his decease in the lifetime of the Queen, his son 
would not become Duke of Cornwall. Whereas, 
if the Prince of Wales left no surviving issue of 
any kind, the Duke of Saxe Coburg and Gotha 
(Duke of Edinburgh), if he survived his brother, 
would immediately become Duke of Cornwall, as 
eldest living son of the Crown and heir apparent 
as well. C. H. 

desires any further corroboration of fact touching 
the date of the death of Prince Frederick, he will 
find it in the ' Diary ' of the notorious Geo. Bubb 
Dodington, better known as Lord Melcombe, one 
of the prince's confidants. On March 6, 1751, he 
notes : *' Went to Leicester House, where the 
Prince told me he had catched cold, the day before, 
at Kew, and had been blooded. " After recording 
the progress of the malady, Lord Melcombe enters, 
on March 20, 1751 : 

" I was told at Leicester House, at three o'clock, that 
the Prince was much better, and had slept eight hours in 
the night before, while, I suppose, the mortification was 
forming ; for he died this evening a quarter before ten 
This agrees with the Gazette. 


SMALL-POX (8 tt S. v. 108, 317). 

" Rev. J. Goadby, writer of the following extract (vide 
Report of General Baptist Missionary Society for the 
year 1867, p. 22), was at that time itinerating amongst 
the wild tribes inhabiting the mountain fastnesses of 
Khondistan. He was staying for a time at Linapurda, 
visiting the villages around and preaching to the people 
who crowded to hear : ' Whilst we were here (Lina- 
purda) small-pox was very prevalent, and the third day 
after our arrival was the time they had appointed for 
inoculating the children of the district. Every child, 
from four months to eight or nine years, waa to undergo 
the operation. Hundreds were brought, and amongst 
them numbers who were suffering from almost every 
disease, I expostulated with their parents, especially 
those of the latter, and urged them at least to wait until 
their children were in good health ; but as they, in com- 
mon with the people in the plains, look upon the disease 
as a caprice of the goddess, they paid no heed to my 
advice. The ceremony commenced by the sacrifice of a 
goat, whose blood was sprinkled on the door-post, walls, 
and floor of the house specially erected for the perform- 
ance of the operation. Upwards of 800 were inoculated 
in one day, and the last day we stayed we heard upwards 
of 1,000 were going to be operated upon. We met crowds 
of people carrying or leading their children. All the 
villages on the line of our route were forsaken except by 
the aged. For successful cases the operator would 
receive value at the rate of 6cZ. a head. I have since heard 
the whole district is full of the disease, scarcely a house 
in which there are not two or more suffering. The 
operator told me himself a week later, when I met him 
in another district, two months before he had inoculated 
2,000 children, and that he knew upwards of 800 had 
died. It seems very terrible that Government dees not 
do someting to stop a system so fraught with danger to 
human life. Below the Ghauts (the mountain fastnesses) 
the punishment is heavy. Small-pox in the Khond Hills 
has this year been terribly fatal from this cause. The 

8" 8. VI. JULY 14, '94.] 



incision is made between the eyes, and appears to attack 
the brain first.' " Communicated by W. T. Stephens 
Vaccination Inquirer, March 1, 1892, vol. xiii., No 156 
p. 204. 

Wolsingham, co. Durham. 

MANCHESTER AUTHOR (8 th S. v. 328). ' A 
Treatise on the Solar Creation and Universal 
Deluge of the Earth ' was written by John Lowe 
Jan., a Manchester tradesman, who died in 1818. 
He wrote also 'An Explanation of the Aurora 
Borealis '; 'Liberty or Death,' 1789, being a tract 
on the slave trade ; and a small volume of ' Poems, 
1803. Such particulars of his life and works as 
could be collected will be found in an article by 
Mr. W. E. A. Axon in Manchester Notes anc 
Queries, June 25, 1887. 

360, Moss Lane East, Manchester. 

MOTHERS' MAIDEN NAMES (8 th S. v. 486) The 
suggestion of perpetuating the mother's maiden 
name was made by Mr. Jonathan Hutchinson in his 
Hunterian Oration, delivered before the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England, Feb. 14, 1891. He 

" In speaking of the biography of a biologist, of one 
who himself took the keenest interest in hereditary trans- 
mission above all, in speaking before an audience of bio- 
logists by profession I cannot think that it is out of place 
to ask attention to the facts which I have adverted to. 
May 1 venture on the practical suggestion that it would 
be a matter of social convenience, great help to bio- 
graphers, and at the same time a mere act of justice to 
the maternal parentage which all share, if the maiden 
name of the mother were always prefixed to that of the 
father? Thus, for one generation at least, we should 
recognize that our mothers have, with our fathers, an 
equal share in the credit accruing to the family name 
from the deeds of the children. Under such a plan we 
should have a William Arden-Shakespeare, a John Jef- 
frey-Milton, a John Paul-Hunter, and a Matthew Hun- 

J. B. B. 

THISTLE (8 th S. iv. 89, 197). At 8 th S. ii. 129, 
under a query as to the thistle motto, "Ce que 
Dieu garde est bien garde" "to which, by the way, 
I have got no reply your correspondent will find 
the following references : 1 st S. i. 90, 166; v. 281 ; 
3 r * S. vii. 282; 5 th S. xi. 227, 295; 6 th S. vi. 320, 
493; 7 tb S. vi. 207, 311, 429, and will there get a 
full answer to his query. J. B. FLEMING. 

THE ' GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE ' (8 th S. v. 407). 

-" Prodesse et delectare e pluribus unum." There 
occurs in Cicero, 'In Catilin.,' the expression "Unus 
ex omnibus " (iii. 7). ED. MARSHALL. 

EXTRAORDINARY FIELD (8 tb S. v. 29, 97, 133, 
353). MR. HENDERSON'S suggestion at the last 
reference, that the deleterious effect of the field at 
Dunsany upon live stock may be due to top- 
dressing from the soil of an adjoining cemetery, 

reminds me of Freeman's account of a mysterious 
field at Saintes, near the remains of the amphi- 
theatre. It belongs, he says, to the chief antiquary 
of Saintes : 

" In the field he fed a cow. At a certain point of the 
field, whenever the cow reached it, she tossed her head, 
threw up her tail, pawed the ground, even ploughed it 
with her horns, behaved in all points like a cow bereft 
of understanding. What was the cause ? A cloth was 
thrown over her head that she might not see, she was 
muzzled that she might not smell; yet still at that one 
marked spot she went through exactly the same antics. 
In course of time this cow was sold, and another cow was 
bought. The second cow did as the first. The second 
was sold, and a third bought, and the third did even as 
the second. The time was clearly come for a more 
minute scientific inquiry into the cause of these strange 
doings on the part of three successive kine. Diggings were 
made, and a drain was found to run across the whole 
field, from the house to the amphitheatre. At the parti- 
cular spot chosen for the cow's gambols was a further 
hole, like a well, stuffed full of rubbish of every kind, 
but mainly of the bones of animals. The hole was cleared 
out and filled up, and made like the rest of the field, and 
from that time such cows as have fed in the field have 
shown no tendency to the strange pranks of those that 
went before them. Now what is the explanation? 
Animals have a keen sense of smell, and are often much 
affected by the presence of anything like animal remains ; 
but here the experiment of the muzzle seems to shut out 
the possibility of smell being the faculty called into play, 
if any smell could have attached to bones or anything 
else after so long a time as they are likely to have been 
hidden. It seems more likely that the faculty that was 
called forth was the power of discerning insecurity in the 
ground, a power which animals often show in a high 
degree. Anyhow there is the story; one would have 
liked to know how it would have struck Gregory of 
Tours." 'Sketches from French Travel' (Tauchnitz, 
1891), pp, 290, 291. 



THE LION OF SCOTLAND (8 th S. y. 366, 433, 
493). I am afraid I have, unintentionally, mis- 
represented SIR WILLIAM ERASER'S statement in a 
? ormer note for which I humbly crave pardon 
and thus misled SIR HERBERT MAXWELL. What 
SIR WILLIAM FRASER does state is, that the field 
of the royal arms of England is scarlet or vermilion, 

hile the Scottish lion rampant is crimson (or the 
ordinary red of heraldry). 

In 'Hicet Ubique,' p, 215, 1. 5, " Scarlet being 
)orne only in the royal arms," that is of England : 

'In the Royal Arms of Scotland 'the ruddy lion 
ramped in gold ' is crimson. At the recent Jubilee four- 
ifths of the Royal flags hoisted in London were incor- 
rect; the first and fourth quarters being crimson." 

[n my ignorance I supposed there was only one 
incture of red used in heraldry, and that the Scot- 
ish lion and the field of England were of the same 
incture, viz., the ordinary gules of heraldry. On 
his point I sought information. 


U AS A CAPITAL LETTER (8 th S. v. 347, 375, 
435, 474, 493). CANON ISAAC TAYLOR will for- 



give me pointing out that I have refrained from 
flattering U by elevating it to a rank never claimed. 
I asked whether it was used as a capital letter by 
English founders, printers, or founder-printers, as 
early as Queen Elizabeth ; and when I saw before 
me the whole alphabet set forth STUVW, I think 
that I was justified in putting the question in a 
commonly understood form. Quite content am I 
if the learned CANON thinks otherwise ; the mis- 
take will not be my first, and I sincerely hope it 
will not be my last. ANDREW W. TUER. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

IRISH SONG (8"> S. v. 467). I do not think the 
lines quoted by A. G. B. are taken from ' Roisin 
Duvh ' (or Dhu). It is evident, from the epithet 
"bright" applied to dark Eosaleen, as well as 
from a comparison of the rest of the quotation with 
the Gaelic original, that they are not part of a 
translation of the well-known Irish song. A. G. B. 
will find a somewhat imperfect reading of this 
political song under the title 'Roisin Dhuv' at 
p. 234 of Hardiman's 'Irish Minstrelsy,' being 
included in the "Sentimental" section of that 
work, doubtless on account of a " milk-and-water " 
translation by Thomas Furlong which is given on 
the opposite page. The proper title of the song 
is ' Ros geal duvb/ meaning fair (-skinned), dark 
(haired) Rose, this being one of the many names 
under which Ireland was personified in the politi- 
cal songs of her sixteenth-century poets. A care- 
fully edited version of ' Ros geal duvb/ together 
with a spirited and remarkably accurate translation 
by Edward Walsh, will be found at p. 60 of a col- 
lection of 'Irish Popular Songs,' published by 
Roe, Dublin, 1847. JAMES DONELAN. 

A translation of the Irish ballad 'Roisin Dub/ 
by James Clarence Mangan, is intluded in ' The 
Book of Irish Ballads/ 1846, compiled by D. F. 
McCarthy, for "Daffy's Library of Ireland." I 
quote the complete verse, portion of which is 
sought for by A. G. B. : 

I could scale the blue air, 

I could plough the high hills. 
Oh I could kneel all night in prayer, 

To heal your many ills ! 
And one beamy smile from you 

Would float like light between 
My toils and me, my own, my true , 

My Dark Rosaleen ! 

My fond Rosaleen ! 
Would give me life and soul anew, 
A second life, a soul anew, 

My Dark Rosaleen ! 


A translation of the Irish song of 'Roisin Dubh' 
and also ' Dark Rosaleen ' will be found in the 
'Lyrics of Ireland/ by Samuel Lover; but the 
words differ from those given by your corre- 

71, Brecknock Road. 

A. G. B. will find in ' Irish Love Songs/ selected 
by Katharine Tynan ("Cameo Series," T. Fisher 
Unwin, 1892), James Clarence Mangan's 'Dark 
Rosaleen/ a translation of which the last verse but 
one ends thus : 

And one beamy smile from you 

Would float like light between 
31y toils and me, my own, my true, 
My Dark Rosaleen ! 
My fond Rosaleen ! 
Would give me life and soul anew, 
A second life, a soul anew, 
My Dark Rosaleen ! 


"CHACUN A SON GOUT" (8 th S. iv. 245, 317; 
v. 136, 271,412). The ' Keepsake ' poem referred 
to in MR. DRURY'S reply has been brought back 
to life by Mr. Clifford Harrison's clever recitation. 
I have several times thought of it during this dis- 
cussion in ' N. & Q./ and have wondered as to the 
grammatical value of the lonely vowel. That 
question MR. DRURT'S citation has set at rest. 
The reflection "Chacun a son tour" is not un- 
known in English literature, e.g., see ' The Senti- 
mental Journey. ' ST. SWITHIN. 

507; v. 78, 276). The true story seems given by 
the Rev. Gavin Carlyle, in his ' Memoir of Adolph 
Saphir, D.D./ 1893, p. 299: 

" Frederick the Great said one day, before a large 
company of sceptics and unbelievers, to his general 
Ziethen, whose courage and loyalty were as well known 
as his simple faith and piety, ' Give us a good argument 
to prove Christianity, but something abort and con- 
vincing.' ' The Jews, your Majesty/ replied the veteran, 
and the company was silent." 

E. L. G. 

GRUFFITHE (8 th S. v. 268). Anthony Wotton, 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, chosen Pro- 
fessor of Divinity in Gresham College 1596, and 
about 1598 lecturer of Allhallows Barking, where 
he was buried, December 11, 1626. He was the 
author of a number of theological works. 

Sir Morris Griffith, knighted at Whitehall 
July 23, 1603. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

"To HANG OUT" (8 th S. v. 366). This phrase 
certainly occurs in the ' Pickwick Papers.' Bob 
Sawyer says to Mr. Pickwick, " Where do you 
hang out ? " and that gentleman replied " that he 
was at present suspended at the George and Vul- 
ture, Cornhill." An earlier instance of its use I do 
not remember ; but forty years ago it was a com- 
mon enough question at Oxford, " Where do you 
hang out?" i.e., live, or reside. At Cambridge 
the question put was " Where do you keep ? " and 
the use of one expression or other used to be re- 
garded as showing the Oxford or Cambridge man. 
In East Anglia, the dining-room is often called the 

8* S. VI. JOLT 14, '94.] 



" keeping room." Both universities yet retain, 
suppose, some peculiar words in their vocabulary 
Some little time since the case of a proctor a 
Cambridge having sent a girl to the spinning 
house was tried at Ipswich, and her apprehensio 
by one of the bull-dogs (i.e., proctor's men 
was mentioned. A brother cleric, who did no 
belong to either Oxford or Cambridge, observed, t 
my great amusement, " that it must be very dan 
gerous to set savage dogs at people." My repl 
was that it reminded me of Shakspeare : 
Cry havoc, and let slip the dogs of war. 

Newbourne Kectory, Woodbridge. 

The following is an early instance from John 
Cleveland's ' Miscellaneous Poems.' He is de 
scribing a knight, one Sir Thomas Martin, as on 
exhibition : 

Hang out a flag, and gather pence a piece 
(Which Afric never bred, nor swelling Greece 
With stories tympany), a beast so rare, 
No lecturer's wrought cup, nor Bartholomew Fair 
Can match him ; nature's whimsey, that outvies 
Tradescant and his ark of novelties. 

This shows that hanging out a flag was an 
advertisement of any show. AYEAHR. 

" PUTT GALLY " (8 th S. v. 348). Judging from 
the context, I should say the " putt gaily " was the 
old " gulley-hole " for the reception of house slops, 
represented by the present-day sewer "gulley- 
grate." Probably the word " gaily " was a clerical 
error in the original deed, and ought to have been 
written gulley. G. WATSON. 

18, Wordsworth Street, Penrith. 

"NECKLACE" (8 th S. v. 186). As an addendum 
to K. P. D. E.'s note, it may be worth while to 
record Sir William Jones's phrase, " The hooded 
and the necklaced snake/' i.e., a snake where the 
markings round the neck " hung together" like so 
many strings of beads. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

RICHARD HAINES (8 th S. v. 328). The only 
bearer of this name whom I have found in the 
1 Suss. Arch. Colls.,' is one Richard Haines, of 
Pulborough, who issued a token in 1667 (xvi. 310, 
xxiv. 132). EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


DOMINICHETTI'S (8 th S. v. 448). As MR. 
JAMES HOOPER appeals to me, I am glad to be 
able to furnish him with a few facts. Dr. B. 
Dominichetti, or Dominiceti, the author of ' Medical 
Anecdotes,' was a notorious quack. For many 
years he conducted a very questionable business 
in "medicated baths" at No. 6, Cheyne Walk, 
Chelsea, a house which was afterwards the resi- 
dence of the Rev. Weedon Butler, the friend of 
old Tom Faulkner. He seems to have opened 
practice in Bristol. In May, 1764, he migrated 
to London, taking a house at Millbank, West- 

minster. Thence he removed to Chelsea, where 
he had two sets of bath apparatus fitted up. 
His c Anecdotes ' consist chiefly of a series of 
"puffs." His quackery was very plainly seen 
through by the medical profession, though he 
numbered the Duke of York among his dupes. In 
1777 the " doctor" found it needful to publish a 
' Vindication/ in which he sorely complains of the 
" uncandid behaviour of many gentlemen of the 
faculty," who sought to depreciate his fame and 
abilities in order to promote their own selfish and 
mercenary views ! 

The following letter is a fair specimen of the 
fulsome rubbish which the great " Chelsea Doctor " 
saw fit to publish to the world : 

" Dr. Solander presents his compliments to Dr. 
Dominiceti, and is much obliged to him for his polite 
permission of bringing Mr. Alsbroemer, a Swedish noble- 
man, to see Dr. Dominiceti's excellent contrivances at 

Chelsea. If Saturday next is not an inconvenient day, 
. Solander would be glad to wait on Dr. Dominiceti 


about 12 o'c., and if agreeable wishes to bring with him 
two of his friends, who, from having heard much of the 
doctor's oeconomist, wish to see it set up. Their intention 
is not to trouble the Doctor to prepare any dinner in it, 
as that in all probability would interfere with the 
Doctor's engagements, and add unnecessary trouble." 

MR. HOOPER will find a pretty full account of 
Dr. Dominiceti's baths in Faulkner's 'Chelsea' 
(vol. i. pp. 392-4), and in the Local Antiquary, 
edited by myself, for April, 1887. 


The question raised by MR. JAMES HOOPER is 
one always of interest for those who know anything 
of Old Chelsea. The house was No. 6, Cheyne 
Walk, which, when taken by Dr. Bartholomew 
de Dominicetti in 1765, was described as " large, 
pleasant, and convenient, with four spacious and 
"ofty parlours, two dining-rooms, and thirteen 
Dedrooms." It was taken for the purpose of con- 
version into a sanatorium, the great speciality 
being fumigatory baths. 'Old and New Lon- 
don,' says that Domioicetti was "an Italian 
quack "; but Mr. John Eyre, in a communication 
o the Gentleman's Magazine, Jan,, 1829, speaks 
>f a certificate of his nobility, signed by Ralph 
Bigland, Garter King of Arms, and others have 
described him as a " Venetian of an ancient and 
loble family." In Boswell's 'Life of Johnson' 
his establishment comes in for a small amount of 
mmortality. We may just quote : 

" Dominicetti being mentioned he (the Doctor) would 
ot allow him any merit. ' There is nothing in hia 
oasted system, No, Sir; medicated baths can be no 
etter than warm water ; their only effect can be that of 
epid moisture.' One of the company took the other 
ide, maintaining that medicines of various sorts, and 
ome, too, of most powerful effect, are introduced into 
ic human frame by the medium of the pores. The 
)octor turned round and said, ' Well, Sir ; go to 
orainicetti, and get thyself fumigated ; but be sure that 
he steam be directed to thy head, for that is the peccant 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. JULY u, 

A pamphlet was issued in which a full descrip- 
tion was given of the process, there called 
"A plan for extending the use of artificial water-bathe, 
pumps, &c., dedicated to Sir John Fielding, Knt., 
Chelsea, November 1, 1771." 
It is there spoken of 

" The entrance of the building which contains the 
apparatus is in Robinson's Lane, very contiguous to 
China Walk, Thames side, and to the King's Road; it is 
situated in my garden, 220 feet in length, 30 in breadth, 
and two stories high; it contains 36 Sweating and 
Fumigatory bedchambers." 

There were also separate rooms for cases deemed 
infectious, and also a place for recreation and 
amusement. He made a great stir in the society 
of the time, and numbered among his patients the 
Duke of York and Sir John Fielding, the blind 
magistrate, a son of the novelist. He claimed to 
cure all diseases, alleging that " he never sent put 
one of his patients dead " those that died being 
sent away by a back door. Sir John Fielding 
expressed great faith in the doctor, and said he 
was so much benefited that he wrote what we may 
call a vindication of the treatment pursued. It is 
stated that over 37,OOOZ. was spent upon this 
establishment ; but after some seventeen years he 
became involved in debt, and was a bankrupt in 
1782, fled from Chelsea, and finally disappeared 
from the scene, there being apparently very few 
friends left to him, although it is asserted that 
from first to last he had had under his care up- 
wards of sixteen thousand persons. 


20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Dr. Dominichetti resided at No. 6, Cheyne 
Walk, Chelsea. He was an early advocate of 
hydropathy, and was very popular for a short 
period. Dr. Johnson told one of his admirers to 
get his head fumigated by Dr. Dominichetti, as 
that was the peccant part. See ' Memorials of Old 
Chelsea. A New History of the Village of Palaces.' 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Medicated baths in Cheyne Walk, famous from 
1765 to 1782, when Dominichetti became bankrupt 
and disappeared. See Walford's 'Old and New 
London/ v. 60. F. ADAMS 

80, Saltoun Road, Brixton, S.W. 

UNIVERSITY GRACES (8 th S. iv. 507 ; v. 15, 77, 
455). Your correspondent asked only for graces 
from Oxford and from "the sister university." 
The following, which have long been in use at 
Durham, may be interesting to some : 
University 'College. 

Ante Cibum. Benedictus benedicat. 

Post Cibum. Domine Oranipotens, Sterne Deus, qui 
tarn benigne nos pascere hoc tempore dignatus ea, largire 
nobis, ut tibi semper pro tua in nos bonitate ex animo 
gratias agamus ; vitam honeste et pie tranaigamua et 
studia ea sectemur quse gloriam tuam illustrare et 

ecclesise tuae adjumenta esse possint; per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Bishop Hatfidd's Hall. 

Ante Cibum. Benedictus benedicat. 

Post Cibum. Benedicte Deus, qui pascis nos a juven- 
tute nostra, et praebes cibum omni carni ; reple gaudio 
et laetitia corda nostra, ut nos, quod satis est habentes, 
abundemus in omne opus bonum, per Jesum Christum 
Dominum nostrum, cui tecum et Spiritu Sancto sit omnis 
honos, laus, et imperium, in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

This latter is a version of the beautiful Greek 
grace in the 'Apostolical Constitutions,' vii. 49, 
quoted in Conybeare and Howson, note on 1 Tim. 
iv. 5. In Durham the graces are said by the 
scholars in turn, each beginning on Saturday even- 
ing and going on for a week. J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield'e Hall, Durham. 

At Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, the same 
grace is used, or very nearly the same, as at Gon- 
ville and Caius. 

H. J. MOULE, M.A., of C.C.C. 


The grace before dinner at Sidney Sussex Col- 
lege, Cambridge, is as follows : 

Oculi omnium in te spectant, Domine, tuque das eis 
escam eorum in tempore opportune. Aperis tu manum 
tuam, et imples omne animal benedictione tua. Santi- 
fica nos, quaesumus, per verbum et orationem, istisque 
tuis donis, quae de tua bonitate sumus percepturi, bene- 
dicito per lesum Christum, dominum nostrum. 

Louth, Lines. 

In the St. John's grace, there should be a full 
stop after Dominum nostrum; ceteris and caelestem 
should be spelt as here written ; and the under- 
signed was never, he regrets to say, Socius. 


MARQUIS OF HUNTLT (8 th S. v. 287). Inter 
alios, consult ' History of the Ancient House of 
Gordon/ by William Gordon, 8vo., 2 vols., 1726, 
Edinburgh, and ' A History of the Ancient House 
of Gordon,' by C. A. Gordon, 12rno., 1754, Aber- 

Eden Bridge. 

488). The arms about which MR. FINCH inquires 
are obviously those of Wankford. The blazon is : 
Or, a lion rampant double queued azure, between 
three hurts. Crest : a lion rampant guardant or, 
holding between the paws a hurt. This was 
granted to Wankford, of Berwick Hall, co. Essex, 
Sept. 18, 1664. S. JAMES A. SALTER. 

Basingfield, near Basingstoke. 

S. v. 367). MR. BROWN seems to have got a 
little " mixed " among the puzzling Carlovingian 
genealogies. Adeliza was niece neither of Pope 
Calixtus nor of Archbishop Albert of Treves. Her 
mother was Ida, daughter of Albert, Count of 

8 th S. VI JULY 14, '94.] 



Namur, and of Ermengarde, daughter of Charles 
Duke of Lorraine, and her father (Godfrey of Lou 
vain) being great-grandson of the same Duke 
Charles, Adeliza was thus sprung on both sides 
from the imperial line of Charlemagne. 

Miss Strickland, by the way, calls Ida, "sol 
daughter and heiress " of Albert of Namur. This 
is surely wrong. Heylin and others mention his 
son Godfrey, lineal ancestor (through his daughter 
Alice, married to Baldwin, Count of Hainault) o 
Louis VIII. of France, who thus united in his own 
person the illustrious Carlovingian dynasty and 
the house of Capet. OSWALD, O.S.B. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

Anderson's * Royal Genealogies ' gives two wives 
to Godfrey I., Duke of Brabant, namely, Sophia, 
daughter of the Emperor Henry IV., and Clementia, 
daughter of William II., Count of Burgundy (she, 
after Godfrey's death, married Robert II., Count 
of Flanders), but it is not specified by which wife 
Godfrey's children were. Betham's ' Tables ' state 
that Adeliza was daughter of Godfrey by Ida, 
daughter of Albert III., Count of Namur. 

E. A. FRY. 

Mr. Freeman ('Norman Conquest,' v. 196) 
writes, " the new Queen was Adelaide or Adeliza, 
the daughter of Godfrey, Count of Lowen, and 
Duke of Lower Lothringen." And Miss Strick- 
land (' Queens of England,' i. 112) states that her 
mother was " Ida, Countess of Namur," whose 
parents were Ermengarde, daughter of Charles, 
brother of Lothaire, and Albert, Count of Namur. 
Adeliza's name is cherished by us in Sussex as the 
heroine of a siege in the Castle of Pevensey, and as 
the traditional founder of Calceto and benefactor 
of Boxgrove Priories. 



Though Burke ('Peerage') states that Adeliza 
was daughter of Duke of Louvain, Foster 
('Peerage') calls her "Adeliza, daughter of God- 
frey, Duke of Lorraine and Count of Brabant." 
In this he agrees with Reusner ('Opus. Gen. 
Cath.,' ed. 1592), who states (pt. ii. p. 6) that 
Henry married, secondly, " Adeliciam Lotharingiae 
Ducissam." In his genealogy of the Dukes of Lor- 
raine (pt. i. p. 520), Adelina, eldest daughter of 
Theodoric the Violent (who died 1133), by Bertha, 
daughter, " Simonis Ducis Mosellani," is stated to 
have married Henry 1. Her brothers were Simon 
(succeeding Duke), Henry (Bishop), Frederick, 
Theodoric, Charles (Ecclesiastics), and Theobald, 
(Count " Tullensi "). There is no brother Josceline. 
The ' Peerages ' state that Josceline, ancestor of the 
Dukes of Northumberland, was son of Godfrey 
Barbatus, Count of Louvain. Reusner (p. 480) 
states he died circa 1140, having married " N.," 
sister to Henry V., emperor, and by her had issue 
one son, Godfrey, his successor, and three daughters, 

Aleida, " nupsit Anglise Regi"; Ida sive Joann, 
wife of Theodoric IV., Count of Cleve ; Clara, a 
nun. Here Reusner gives Aleida as wife of Henry, 
which contradicts his other two statements, but 
throws no light on Josceline. Oliver Vredius 
('Gen. Com. Flandriae,' vol. i. p. 65) states that 
Henry I. married Adeliza, daughter of Godfrey, 
Duke of Louvain, and quotes William of Malmee- 
bury and Orderic. 


v. 487). Add Brancepeth, Durham ; Sedgefield, 
Durham; St. Mary in the North Bailey, Durham; 
Cathedral, Durham. The post-Reformation organ- 
screen was swept away, together with the fine 
clock-case (partly pre-Reformation) and many 
chapel screens, &c., in the early "Restoration" 
period. See plates in Billings's * Durham Cathe- 
dral' (1843), and for Brancepeth and Sedgefield, 
his ' Durham County ' (1846). J. T. F. 

Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

" ANTIGROPELOS " (8"> S. v. 249, 353, 394). I 
write from personal knowledge, well remembering 
the time when these conveniences were in use. In 
the last line quoted by your correspondent from a 
song familiar to me, " coat " should be boot, or, to 
be precisely accurate, boots. The line runs : 
Your boots are antigropelos, your shoes are pannus 


Observe the connexion of idea of boots with shoes. 
"Antigropelos" were introduced as a substitute 
for the boot that formerly protected the horseman's 
leg, and were brought in in order to keep his 
pantaloons free from mud splashes and stains. 
They from equestrians descended to the pedestrians, 
by whom they were christened " knickerbockers " 
during the lustre 1860-5. I think the introduc- 
tion of the volunteer service reintroduced the idea 
in this form. Even the ladies appear to have 
adopted these leathern leg-protectors ; for how runs 
the ballad, singing of a fair maiden in about 1862? 
A pork- pie hat and a little white feather 
And knickerbockers for the dirty weather. 

My contention, then, is (based upon personal 
memory) that knickerbockers superseded anti- 
gropelo's, both being protective against the mud 
of London. Antigropelos we have no longer 
with us, and the knickerbocker, in leather or 
American cloth, at all events, has become obsolete 
as bizarre ; but to this hour at which I am writing 
any "tenderfoot" can secure a pair of pannus 
corium shoes by giving an order to any London 
shoemaker. NEMO. 


This word was first used to describe some 
eggings, fastened by a steel blade in the material, 
which hooked on instantly, by a spring-action, 



pushed in to an upper and lower button from the 
knee to the ankle. The name was familiar as an 
advertisement about fifty years ago. ESTE. 

PRUSIAS (8 th S. vi. 8). Prusias was a King of 
Bithynia (192-148 B.C.), who was so basely servile 
to the Romans that his name has become a synonym 
to mean flatterer. To please the Romans he would 
have put to death Hannibal, who had sought for a 
refuge in his court ; but the great warrior antici- 
pated his host's crime by poisoning himself. 

B. H. G. 

f VENICE PRESERVED' (8 th S. v. 488). MR. 
PICKFORD'S very natural question raises an issue 
hardly compatible with the space in ' N. & Q.,' 
and is one that might perhaps be best answered by 
a theatrical manager. Nowadays the reasonable 
anticipation of a run is the inducement for the 
revival of some old favourite play, and its rescue 
from the limbo of oblivion. Whether 'Venice 
Preserved' encourages hope of even temporary 
success is doubtful. To the star actor it presents 
the disadvantages of two male characters of nearly 
equal (stage) value ; and although Belvidera has 
been handed down by a long train of distinguished 
queens of tragedy from the days of Mrs. Barry, 
yet the part is wanting in variety, and the actress's 
opportunity, when it comes, comes somewhat late. 

When each important town boasted its stock com- 
pany, Jaffier, Pierre, and Belvidera met with their 
casual chances of appearance. In his early days, 
Macready often played Pierre ; but, once a manager, 
he gave the part to Warde, and Jaffier to Phelps ; 
and ' Venice Preserved ' is only found in the bills 
six times during his management of Covent Gar- 
den and Drury Lane collectively. At Sadler's 
Wells, in Phelps's first four seasons, it was played 
but four times. 

It is well known to all students of the drama 
that every management of repute for nearly two 
centuries has familiarized the public with Ot way's 
powerful, though indecent stage portrait of an his- 
torical episode. Though excision was a matter of 
necessity, the piece has greatly suffered from indis- 
criminate use of the pruning-knife, and such 
strength as is left of Otway's most popular play 
would appear to lie in an absence of anti-climax, 
and a really awful there is no better word 
situation towards the close of the last act. To 
compass the deaths of the three principal cha 
racters within three minutes, without risk o 
raising a smile, is an achievement that any drama- 
tist may be proud of; but in our more prosaic 
times, when the mean between the sublime anc 
the ridiculous is so difficult to determine, the 
horrors of the rack, the gleam of the dagger, anc 
the death-shriek of the maddened wife might fai 
in the effect produced on the audiences of the las 

On the merits or demerits of ' Venice Preserved 

pinions vary greatly. Dryden's praise of his brother 
ioet came a little too late. Samuel Johnson, con- 
radicting Goldsmith, peremptorily pronounced 
that there were not forty good lines in the whole 
)lay." Thomas Davies, one very capable of taking 

good stage view of the subject, in his ' Dramatic 
Miscellanies,' devotes much critical care to a con- 
ideration of Otway's beauties and blemishes, and 
redits the poet with more power over the heart 
ban any (English) writer, Richardson perhaps 
xcepted. Sir Walter Scott, in his ' Remarks on 
Unglish Tragedy,' speaks of the " exquisite touches 
f passionate and natural feeling " in 'The Orphan' 
ind ' Venice Preserved.' The author of the re- 
marks in 'Oxberry's English Drama' (query, who?) 
>oldly takes the unpopular side, and asserts " there 
snot one passage of transcendent excellence," and 
urns up, not unfairly, that there is great pathos of 
ituation,but very little of language. Richard Cum- 
>erland, though sensible to the poet's beauties, sticks 
o his last, " that ' Venice Preserved,' admired and 
praised as it has been, is nevertheless one of the 
most corrupt and vicious compositions in the lan- 

Ware Priory. 

When, in 1794, the Rev. Wm. Jackson fell in 
he dock from poison, previous to being sentenced 
:o death for high treason, he pressed the hand of 
lis counsel, Leonard MacNally, muttering, " We 
lave deceived the Senate ! " This, quoted from 

Venice Preserved ' at the very moment when life 
was ebbing away, shows the deep impression which 
hat powerful play had produced ; and it is indeed 
strange that it should be now wellnigh forgotten. 
The tragic incident referred to is described in 

Secret Service under Pitt,' p. 192, Longman. 


SMEDLET'S ' FRANK FARLEIGH ' (8 tb S. vi. 8). 
This work was first published in Sharpens London 
Magazine as a serial tale, 1847-8, and is entitled 
' Frank Fairlegh,' and this mode of spelling is no 
doubt the correct mode. E. A. BURTON. 

[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

THE MANSION HOUSE, LONDON (8 th S. v. 487). 
Dance disfigured his Mansion House with two 
separate superstructures of the kind that E. L. G. 
refers to. One was near the front, and the other 
towards the back, or Walbrook end, of the build- 
ing. A good view of the house, as thus adorned 
by the City architect, will be found in Chamber- 
lain's 'History of London' (1769). Singularly 
enough, though these hideous excrescences were 
much abused and satirized they were commonly 
known as the " Mayor's (mare's) nest " those in- 
veterate copyists the London historians do not 
seem to have thought the exact date of their re- 
moval a matter of any consequence. No doubt 
the facts may be found in rcme of them but th 

8 th S. VI. JULY 14, '94.] 



phrase used in 'Old and New London,' "now 
removed," or, by more than one compiler, " taken 
down some years ago," represents the extent of 
the information vouchsafed by thirteen compilers 
whose works I have consulted in my own library. 
Nevertheless, we can fix the date approximately. 
Hughson, in * Walks through London,' published 
in 1817, gives a pretty engraving of the Mansion 
House with Dance's eccentric story still intact ; 
Percy, in his ' History of London,' writing in 1823, 
says that it was taken down "a few years ago"; 
so that the removal must have been between 1817 
and 1823. As Hughson gives no hint of any im- 
pending alteration, it was probably about midway 
between these dates, say in 1820. ^ Now, as the 
Mansion House was completed in 1752, the 
" hump-like" roof, as Percy calls it, of the Lord 
Mayor's house must have been an eyesore to the 
City pedestrian for sixty-eight years or so. 



129, 279). 

Generosus nascitur non fit. 

At the latter reference it is asked, "What snob perpe- 
trated this vile parody on Horace's ' Poeta nascitur,' &c. ?" 
It would be very interesting to be told where this occurs 
in Horace. Hitherto it has not been found. Touching 
" Generoeus nascitur non fit," whoever invented the say- 
ing erred in good company. Seneca, in his forty-fourth 
Epistle, says : "Quis est generosus] ad virtutem bene a 
natura compoeitus." Surely" Generosus nascitur non fit" 
does not necessarily mean that a homo generosus must be 
well born, but rather that he must be " ad virtutem bene 
a natura compositus." A little further on Seneca says : 
' Non facit nobilem atrium plenum fumosis imaginibus." 
If generosus is taken to mean " nobly born," the truth of 
the saying is obvious, and the proverb unnecessary. If 
it means " noble hearted," the saying is probably true. 
It appears to be wrongly assumed that generosus means 
"gentleman." I do not find that meaning in either 
Bailey's * Facciolati ' or Gosset's ' Dumesnil's Latin 


The Register Book of Christenings, Marriages, ana 
Burials in the Parish oj St. Paid without the Walls in 
the City of Canterbury, 1562-1800. Edited by Joseph 
Meadows Cowper. (Canterbury, Cross & Jackman.) 
MR. COWPER is a most industrious antiquary. He pos 
eesses, moreover, a faculty which, for work such as his 
is more important than even industry. He is scru 
pulously accurate. He has already printed the parisl 
registers of six of the Canterbury churches. They ar 
models of painstaking work of this kind. We do no 
know a single parish register which has issued from th 
press and we have, we believe, examined nearly all tha 
have been printed which surpasses those of Canterbur 
which Mr. Cowper has edited. For all practical pur 
poses they are quite as serviceable as the original docu 
ments themselves. 

When parish registers began to be transcribed for th 
press, we well remember that such work was describe 
as archaeology run mad. We were told that, now th 

aws had been BO modified, they could be useful for no 
usiness purpose, and that a mere list of names and dates 
ould interest no one. It is not necessary for ' N. & Q.' 
o reply to nonsense of this sort ; but we fear there are 
ret uninstructed persons in whose brains such-like folly 
inds harbour. If for no other reason, these registers 
sire of service in helping to disprove the silly calumny 
a,s to the Puritans taking a delight in harsh-sounding 
lames culled from the Old Testament, and modern 
abrications based thereon. Mr. Cowper has been good 
jnough to give us, in his introduction, a list of the 
uncommon Christian names which he has encountered 
n transcribing these pages. There are a good many of 
hem ; but very few are open to the charge of Puritanism. 
Abijah, Bethiah, Elhanah, Freewill, Hevah, Mehetabill, 
Methuselah, Mnason, and Uriah exhaust the list. 

We gather from a passage near the end of the intro- 
duction that Mr. Cowper has no intention of printing the 
^emaining nine Canterbury registers which yet remain 
n manuscript, subject to loss by theft, fire, and all the 
)ther mischances to which unique documents are liable. 
Ve trust he maybe induced to change his mind; or if 
that cannot be, that some one else will carry on the 
good work. To use the editor's own words, " The day is 
surely coming when the registers, which contain the 
)rief memorials of the makers of England, of Greater 
Britain, and (may I not add?) of the United States of 
America, will all be printed." The sooner this great 
national work is undertaken the better. Fire is an agent 
of destruction which never sleeps. 

The Royalist Composition Papers. Being the Proceed- 
ings of the Committee for Compounding, A.D. 1643- 
1660, so far as they relate to the County of Lancaster. 
Vol. I. A-B. Edited by J. H. Stanning. (Lancashire 
and Cheshire Record Society.) 

A List of Lancashire Wills proved ^v^thin the Arch- 
deaconry of Richmond. 1748-1792. Also a List of 
Wills proved in the Peculiar of Hallon, 1615-1792. 
Edited by Lieut.-Col. Henry Fishwick. (Same Society.) 
An Index of Wills and Inventories preserved in the 
Court of Probate at Chester, 1741-1J60. Edited by 
J. P. Earwaker. (Same Society.) 
WE welcome these volumes very gladly. The two volumes 
of indexes of wills are not literature, as we commonly 
understand the term, but they are of very great use, as 
furnishing a key to an immense mass of evidence which 
is useful not only as helping to prove pedigrees, but also 
aa throwing light on the domestic life of those who have 
gone before us. It is barely a century since wills have 
become the dry legal documents such as we now know 
them. Before that time there was hardly a will exe- 
cuted which did not contain some fact or allusion which 
the antiquary will be glad to remember. 

The volume of ' Royalist Composition Papers ' belongs 
to a class widely different from the foregoing. Here we 
have, so far as Lancashire is concerned, the papers 
relating to the fines inflicted on the Royalists between 
1643 and the Restoration, so far as the surnames A and 
B are concerned. The papers here given are, we 
need hardly say, not printed in full. Writers of legal 
documents were, in the seventeenth century, well-nigh 
as fluent in legal verbosity as their successors of to-day. 
We do not believe, however, that any facts have been, 
omitted which could be of interest to the local historian,, 
the genealogist, or the student of dialect. We have 
carefully examined every page of the volume, and have 
come to the conclusion that the utmost care has been, 
bestowed upon its preparation. There are many facts 
which have a wide interest. Thus, in the papers relating 
to John Ackers, of Whiston, we find that three members 
of the family died of " the sore visitation of the plague " 



VI. JULY 14, '94. 

in September and October, 1652. Was this the true 
plague or some kind of malignant fever? There seems 
to be no certain authority for stating that the true 
plague ravaged this country between 1650, when it was 
at Shrewsbury, and the great plague in London and 
elsewhere in 1665. Whether this was the true plague or 
not, we gather from Dr. Creighton's History of Epi- 
demics ' that fatal sickness was prevalent in the West of 
England in those years. 

There is a common impression that it was the .Par- 
liamentarians only who used the churches as prisons. 
This is a mistake, as is clear from the depositions regard- 
ing Christopher Anderton. A certain Roger Nicholson, 
of Over Hulton, deposed that " being taken prisoner at 
Midlewich [he] was put into the church among the 
other prisoners," when he was visited by Christopher 
Anderton, who we know, from other evidence, was in 
service ex parte regis. In the depositions regarding the 
case of Richard Ashton, of Croston, a certain William 
Jumpe swears that he had served under the Parliament, 
was taken prisoner by the forces of Prince Rupert, and 
was secured in Bolton church. 

Many of the persons in these depositions were Roman 
Catholics. They illustrate in various ways the working 
of the old penal system, so very different in its action 
from anything that could happen in these days. For 
instance, a trustee applies for money for the maintenance 
of an infant of about ten years of age. A sum which 
seems to have been sufficient was allowed on condition 
that the boy was brought up a Protestant, his father 
having been a recusant. There are several other entries 
which lead us to believe that, over and beyond the effect 
of the penal laws, the recusants did not receive treatment 
similar to that of the other Cavaliers who were in trouble. 

Lives of Twelve Bad Men. Edited by Thomas Seccombe. 

(Fisher Unwin.) 

WHY twelve? From the title, this work would seem 
intended to be a counter-blast to the late Dean Burgon's 
' Lives of Twelve Good Men.' In those charming 
memoirs, however, there was some reason for the limita- 
tion, as twelve has been accepted from time of old as the 
symbolic number of the Church. For Mr. Seccombe's 
purpose we should have thought that six, the number of 
reprobation, would have been more appropriate ; or, if 
that allowance seemed insufficient, the same symbol 
raised to the power of intensified malignity as 666. 
Material would not have run short, even then, with the 
'Newgate Calendar,' Charles Johnson's ' Highwaymen,' 
and other copious records of human villainy to fall back 
on. Amongst the eminent scoundrels here sympathetic- 
ally treated by various hands we have Judge Jeffreys ; 
Matthew Hopkins, the witch -finder; the notorious 
debauche Col. Charteris ; Jonathan Wild ; Wainewright, 
the poisoner; "Fighting Fitzgerald," and other black 
sheep of various degrees of nigritude. On tbe whole, 
the sketches are not so objectionable as might be ex- 
pected. Some, like Mr. Pollard's account of Edward 
Kelly, the necromancer, are relieved by an agreeable 
irony. But surely Mr. Seccombe might have found a 
more congenial occupation than acting as resurrection- 
man to ruffians who were better left in the oblivion they 
deserved. Unwept and unhonoured, they might well 
remain unsung. 

Charles Whitehead : a Forgotten Genius. By Mackenzie 

Bell. Second Edition. '(Ward, Lock & Co.) 
MR. BELL has made it his pious task to redress the 
wrong implied in the secondary title of his book. Poor 
Whitehead was, no doubt, a genius of a certain order, 
and certainly was almost forgotten from the day when 
be died in destitution in a Melbourne hospital till Mr. 
tell rediscovered him. He was one more of those 

infanti perduti who have been lifelong martyrs to 
hyper-aestheticism, physical as well as intellectual ; and, 
as Moore puts it, 

The heart that is soonest awake to the flowers, 
Is always the first to be touch'd by the thorns. 
Sufficient weight, perhaps, has not been given to the 
hereditary taint of insanity which is known to have 
afflicted his family, and may have contributed largely 
to the lurid gloom which hung over the life of the 
unhappy poet. We gave a favourable notice to Mr. Bell's 
book when it first appeared, and need now only add that 
this new edition is introduced by a good appreciation of 
Whitehead from the pen of Mr. Hall Caine. 

An Index to the Genera and Species of the Foraminijera. 

By Charles Davies Sherborn. (Washington, Smith- 

sonian Institution.) 

IT is well when science has such a true devotee to its 
cause as Mr. Charles Davies Sherborn. For years past 
this gentleman has been steadily at work in the pre- 
paration of the present book, some idea of the extent of 
which may be formed when it is stated that, although 
as yet the author has only gone from A to Non, he has 
noted or described as many as ten thousand genera and 
species of Foraminifera. The public spirit of that 
magnificent institution the Smithsonian, of Washington, 
is worthy of all praise, for by its recognition of Mr. 
Sherborn'a vast labour the world is able to see this 
scientific text-book appear in immortal type a work 
not for to-day, but for all time. 

We have received the first part of Dorset Records 
(Clark), which is intended to furnish indexes, calendars, 
and abstracts of records relating to the county as well 
as to furnish transcripts of the various parish registers. 
We wish * Dorset Records ' every success. The vast 
mass of information relating to the shire remaining in 
the Record Office, Somerset House, the British Museum, 
and elsewhere is undreamed of by most persons. To 
bring the facts contained in these records before those 
persons who have neither time nor skill for the study of 
the originals is surely a good work. The determination 
that has been arrived at of printing the whole of the 
parish registers of the county is very admirable. 

gtoiim * 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written tbe name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

VERA (" Countries to whom," &c.) Incorrect. Sub- 
stitute which. 

PAOLO BELLEZZA (" Note on Wyatt "). Not received. 
R. CLARK (" Stow'a ' London ' "). Appeared. See 8 th 
S. v. 308, 519. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8 th S. VI. JULY 21, '94.] 





NOTES: Westbourne Green Manor House, 41 Shak- 
speariana, 43 City Churches, 44 Archiepiscopal English 
William Day, Bishop of Winchester Jews and Place- 
names, 45 Ages of Animals Vanishing London" Varsal 
World "Animals Employed as Thieves St. Swithun 
Milliner's Bill Handshaking, 46. 

QUERIES : John Nyren John Hebden "Fifty-dole" St. 
Bathildes Maid Bidibone-Wright Vernor, Hood & Co. 
Delia Bacon, 47 Penkhurst Kelland and Fisher- 
Indian Magic " Strange Oaths" Rev. G. ArnetBur- 
goyne Advent Preachers " Caucus," 48 Cup-cake 
Spiders" St. Stephens "Authors Wanted, 49. 

REPLIES : Admiral Hales, 49 Psalm Ixvii., 50 "Jingo" 
" Niveling," 51 Thomas Noel-" Gigadibs "Isabella of 
France, 52 James Margetson "Radical Reformers" 
Wellington and Waterloo Edinburghean Grammar, 53 
Barren Island " Platform" Burial in Lace Presaging 
Death, 54 Folk-lore, 55 Thomas Newberie Banded Mail 
" Iron " Furness Abbey, 56 Ostrich Eggs in Churches 
Lady Danlove, 57 "The King's Head" "Nuts in 
May," 58-Prince of Wales Wilson, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
Vol. XXXIX. Hazlitts ' Coinage of the European Con- 
tinent ' Gasquet's Hope's ' First Divorce of Henry VIII.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(See 8"' S. v. 327.) 

It falls to me, after inquiry, to answer my own 
question, and so doing to put on record a few facts 
gathered in relation to Westbourne Green, addi- 
tional to those noted in my replies touching the 
residence of Mrs. Siddons (8 th S. v. 258, 354, 453). 

I find that were the vanished Manor House 
again to take form and substance on its old site, 
it would stand across the broad thoroughfare 
Sutherland Avenue, its western face about forty- 
five yards from the end of the avenue at the Harrow 
Road, its southern side about seventy-seven yards 
north of the canal. Very fortunately for the 
history of the district when it comes to be written 
{and for which Lysons, Hughson, and Robins have 
furnished the basis), a sketch of the old house is pre- 
served in the family of one of its latest occupants, 
and has been kindly shown to me by Mr. John 
Carbonell, who was born here. The sketch shows 
two faces of the building that towards the Harrow 
Road, and that towards the canal. It is a large 
two-storied house with an additional attic story 
in the high and hipped (i.e., of two slopes) slate- 
covered roof, above which appear the chimney 
stacks. To the north of this, the principal portion 
of the house, is an annex of less height, and be- 
yond, rising above tall shrubbery, is seen the belfry 

of the stable buildings. The walls of the house 
externally are rough-cast. Architectural attempt 
is absent, but the building has the pleasing irre- 
gularity of outline and depth of roof associated 
with old houses, and its setting amidst fine trees 
and green shrubberies adds much to its appear- 
ance. Internally were many and pleasant rooms, 
and the varying floor levels bore witness to age 
and to alterations and additions which in the long 
course of years the house had experienced. How 
old was the structure there is probably nothing to 
show. The ' Index Villaris ' of 1690, as Robins 
points out, notes "more than three gentlemen's 
seats " in Paddington, and he considers one of 
these to have been Westbourne Green Manor 

In addition to Mr. Carbonell's sketch the Ord- 
nance Survey, made again fortunately for local 
history the year before the demolition of the 
house, well preserves the memory of the place. 
The block-plan of the house, with its adjoining 
stable-yard and outbuildings, the surrounding 
pleasure grounds, garden, and shrubberies, and 
even the flower-beds and large trees, are faithfully 
mapped. The approach from the gate lodge on 
the Harrow Road was by a curving carriage sweep. 
Sixty yards of lawn and shrubbery lay between the 
road and the house, and behind it upwards of a 
hundred yards in depth was similarly laid out ; 
while beyond through a belt of trees extended 
" the Long Walk," a furlong in length, terminating 
at the West Bourne, from which the district took 
its name. The grounds surrounding the house 
were four acres in extent, and beyond these lay 
twenty acres of fields appertaining. 

The part of the Westminster Abbey lands which 
comprehended the Manor House and its appur- 
tenances had if I rightly apprehend become copy- 
hold, and at the beginning of the century was in the 
possession of Rundell, the king's goldsmith, whose 
business house was at Ludgate Hill. Rundell 
died very wealthy, and left his property to his 
nephew, Mr. Joseph Neeld, of Fulham, a solicitor, 
who is said by Robins, in ' Paddington, Past and 
Present/ to have had in lease all the land in the 
parish pertaining to the Dean and Chapter, and 
other land which he had purchased, or more cor- 
rectly had inherited from Rundell. Subsequently 
an arrangement was made between the ecclesiastical 
body and Mr. Neeld by which the latter, surrender- 
ing his lease, became fully the owner of a large 
portion of the estate, including that on which 
stood the Manor House ; his son, Sir John Neeld, 
was created a baronet in 1859, and dying in 1891, 
was succeeded in this and his estate at Grittleton, 
near Chippenham, by his son Sir Algernon. 

The house was not inhabited by either Rundell 
or Neeld, its owners. Of its occupants the earliest 
I hear of and for my information I am much in- 
debted to Mr. Edward Vigers, who has resided 



many years in the neighbourhood, and has had 
much to do with its development as London is 
John Braithwaite, mechanical engineer, one of the 
first successful constructors of the diving-bell. By 
its means in 1783 he rescued from the Rojal 
George, sunk at Spithead the preceding year, 
many of her guns and the sheet-anchor ; and in 
1788 recovered dollars to the value of 38,OOOZ. 
from the wreck of the Hartwell, lost off Boavista, 
one of the Cape Verd Islatid*. Braiihwaite died 
in June, 1810, at the Manor House, which for 
many years after was occupied by his son, another 
John Braithwaite, who, originally distinguished, 
like his father, as a mechanist (and as the con- 
structor of " the Novelty," one of the first loco- 
motives), became a civil engineer, when the making 
of railways gave rise to that profession. The 
Eastern Counties, now the Great Eastern, was his 
principal work. The second Braithwaite appears 
to have vacated the Manor House about 1840, and 
was soon after succeeded there by William Charles 
Carbonell, of the firm of wine merchants then and 
cow located in Regent Street. Mr. Carbonell did 
much towards the improvement of his residence, 
and gave it up in 1854. The last tenant was John 
Humphreys, the coroner for Eist Middlesex ; he 
lived here twelve years, and the Manor House, 
which holds its place on the Post Office Directory 
Map of 1866, is in that of 1867 expunged; the 
great wave of London had swept it away. 

I will, if allowed, conclude my notes on West- 
bourne Green by enumerating collectively the 
principal persons associated with its history. Con- 
sidering its small extent and seclusion before 
absorption by London, the list is not a scant one, 
and it is certainly a witness to the former beauty 
and salubrity of the place which attracted so many 
notable people here to seek pleasant retirement. 
In the Universal Magazine of a hundred years 
since (September, 1793), the green is described as 
one of those beautiful rural spots for which Pad- 
dington was distinguished ; the rising ground 
commanded pleasant views of Hampstead, High- 
gate, and " the village of Paddington," and " as no 
part of London could be seen, a person disposed to 
enjoy the pleasures of rural retirement might here 
forget his proximity to the busy hum of men." 
Hughson, however, quoting this in 1809, includes 
in the prospect *' the distant city," which had pro- 
gressed westward. The article in the magazine is 
accompanied by a view of Westbourne Place. 

Isaac Ware, the builder of Westbourne Place, 
was eminent as an architect and as an exponent 
of Palladio, whose works he edited in English. 
His career had an interesting, though perhaps not 
uncommon origin ; the story is related in * Nol- 
lekens and his Times/ by J. T. Smith, 1828. A 
thin, sickly little chimney-sweeper was one morning 
observed by a gentleman of taste and fortune 
drawing with a piece of chalk, on the basement 

stones of the building itself, the street front of the 
fine work of Inigo Jones at Whitehall Genius 
recognized, and the master chimney-sweeper com- 
pensated for the loss of his apprentice, the boy was 
educated, sent to Italy to study, and on his return 
employed and introduced by his patron as an 
architect. He was eminently successful, and 
when employed by the Earl of Chesterfield to build 
his splendid mansion yet existing in May Fair 
was allowed to appropriate certain materials, which 
he transported to Westbourne Green, and used 
there in the house destined for himself. West- 
bourne Place appears to have been built near an 
old "messuage" of the same name, shown by 
Lysons to have existed in the reign of Henry VIII. 
(see Robins'* ' Paddiogton/ p. 35). Ware died 
Jan. 5, 1766. His successor was Sir William 
Yorke, Bart., a distinguished lawyer, who became 
Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Ireland. 
He let the house for a short time to the Venetian 
Ambassador (we have rot the name of His Excel- 
lency), and in 1768 sold the property to Jukes 
Coulson, iron merchant and " eminent anchor- 
smith," of Thames Street, who, as I have said 
(8 th S. v. 354), spent much money on the house 
and grounds. Coulson died at the beginning of 
the century, and the next owner of Westbourne 
Place was Samuel Pepys Cockerell, an architect of 
considerable practice and surveyor to the East 
India Company. His name came to him through 
his mother, the daughter of John Jackson, nephew 
and heir of Samuel Pepys, the writer of the famous 
1 Diary.' Charles Robert Cockerell, the eminent 
architect and author, who died in 1863, and was 
deemed worthy of sepulture beside Wren in Sr. 
Paul's, was a younger son of the above, and pro- 
bably spent his boyhood here. S. P. Cockerell 
died July 12, 1827, and a year or two later the 
mansion was occupied, as I have shown (8 th S. 
v. 453), by General Lord Hill, the hero of Almaraz 
and Waterloo. 

Leaving Westbourne Place and proceeding to- 
wards the country, at Desborough Lodge some time 
resided Charles Kemble with his talented wife and 
children, John Mitchell Kemble, the distinguished 
Anglo-Saxon scholar, Fanny Kemble (Mrs. Pierce 
Butler), and Adelaide Kemble (Mrs. Sartoris). 
Fifty yards further up the hill was found West- 
bourne Farm, afterwards Desborough House, for 
welve years the home of Mrs. Siddons, and twenty - 
jight years later of Charles James Mathews and 
Lucia Elizabeth Vestris. Then, crossing the canal, 
was reached the Manor House associated with the 
Braithwaites, father and son, both great engineers. 
To these may be added the Marquis of Bucking- 
ham, George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, a promi- 
nent politician of his time, and twice Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, who is said in the article of the 
Universal Magazine above quoted to have at that 
period (1793) occasionally occupied a farmhouse 

ih S. VI. JULY 21, '94.] 



close to Mr. Coulson's mansion. Could this have 
been Westbourne Farm ; or was there another house 
a little to the south of Westbourne Place ? If, 
indeed, the "cottage" which later Mrs. Siddons 
found necessary to enlarge, the master of Stowe 
must have experienced but narrow accommodation 
in his quarters at Westbourne Green. 

Thus the list is no mean record, comprehending 
as it does Isaac Ware, Sir William Yorke, the 
Venetian Ambassador, Jukes Coulson, the two 
Cockerells, Lord Hill, the Kemble?, Mrs. Siddons, 
Charles James Mathews, Madame Vestris, the 
two Braithwaite?, and the Marquis of Buckingham. 
Tradition, moreover, claims as sometime residents 
at Westbourne Green, Ben Jonson, General Iretop, 
General Desborough (to whom in previous mention 
I did not give full rank), and Giulia Grisi, of Ita- 
lian Opera fame, which gifted lady is reported to 
have at one time occupied the cottage formerly Mrs. 
Sir! dona's. W. L. ROTTON. 

27, Elgin Avenue, Westbourne Green (now Park). 


'THE COMEDY OF ERRORS,' II. i. 109-115. 
Could not a more satisfactory emendation of this 
passage than that usually adopted be obtained by 
taking " and no " to be a misprint for " away so "? 
"That others touch "may be an error for "that 
suffers touch," but it is not necessary to alter the 
text here : 

I see the jewel best enamelled 
Will lose hia beauty ; yet the gold bides still : 
That others touch, and often touching will 
Wear gold away ; so man that hath a name 
By falsehood and corruption doth it shame : 
Since that my beauty cannot please his eye, 
I '11 weep what 's left away, and weeping die. 

Under the metaphor of the jewel is Adriana 
alluding to her husband or to herself 1 $he says 
above that a look of his would soon restore her 
beauty ; and it may be her meaning is that she is 
the jewel that has lost its enamel, yet the gold 
(herself) remains ; but as often touching gold 
wears even it away, so her husband's treatment oi 
her will wear her down to the grave. In this case, 
11. 112, 113 would be a parenthesis. Her emotion 
increases towards the end of the scene, which 
would lead to her thoughts being expressed some 
what disjointedly. 

Is the Henry Irving edition correct in taking 
*' jewel enamelled " to be a piece of enamelled 
substance in a gold setting, and not an ornament 
of gold overlaid with some delicate ornamentation 1 
In Mr. Boyle's 'County of Durham' (p. 310) it is 
quoted that Edward II., visiting Durham, offeree 
at St. Cuthbert's shrine "an ouch of golc 
enamelled, worth 20$." This seems to describe an 
ouch covered with enamel, for the other ouches 
offered by the king, all of which bore stones, are 
described as having the stone in the middle, " an 

uch of gold with a sapphire in the middle, worth 


IV. i. 21. As this expression still remains a 

juzzle, and as it is better to have a poor interpre- 

ation of a passage than none at all, I venture to 

suggest that there is a play on the word pound 

"ntended, and that the line should read : 

Ay, buy a thousand pounds a year ; ay, buy a rope. 

The mention of a rope may bring to Dromio's 
remembrance the beatings that he is constantly 
receiving, and he may think that when the rope is 
bought he is sure to get a taste of it for his wages 
iv. 30-40). He therefore rubs his shoulder as 
he departs, and mutters the words to himself. The 
objection to this explanation is that there is no 
substantive corresponding to the verb pound= 
to beat. " A thousand pound " was a common 
expression, and it may be that it is a slip of the 
pen for "a thousand marks" the mark being 
often mentioned in this comedy, but the pound 
never, except in this instance. In any case ifc 
looks as if " I " should be printed ay. 

IV. iii. 25. 

" The man, sir, that, when gentlemen are tired, gives 
them a sob and 'rests them." 

The Folio has " sob," which is similar in MS. 
to " fob," but neither of the words makes any 
sense of the passage. As it is very likely that 
there was a pun intended (cf. ' Komeo,' II. iv. 35) 
it is possible that "form" has been changed to 
" fob," either in transcribing (through "fobbe"), 
or through the word having been imperfectly 
heard, " gives them a form and rests them." Of 
course, this conjecture implies that in Shake- 
speare's time a warrant was produced when an 
arrest for " overrunning the constable" was made, 
or, if not a warrant, a document containing a state- 
ment of the amount of debt due. I have not 
noticed that Shakespeare uses " form " elsewhere 
in the sense of document, but it is so used in Mar- 
lowb'd 'Edward II.': 

Lancaster. Here is the form of Gaveaton's exile ; 
May it please your lordship to subscribe your name. 

Archbishop. Give me the paper. Act I. sc. iv. 

IV. iii. 13. Dromio would be astonished to 
find his master unattended by the sergeant, so it 
is probable that his question should read, " Where 
have you got the picture," &c. G. JOICEY. 

' Two GENTLEMEN OF VERONA,' II. iii. 30. 
" Now como I to my mother : Oh that she could speak 
now like a would-woman." First Folio. 

The Globe, following Theobald, substitutes 
"wood" for "would"; but why should Launce 
wish that the shoe (which, as representing his 
mother, he speaks of as " she ") could speak like 
a mad woman ? A far slighter change in the 
original text gives a far more appropriate meaning. 
I think we should read, " Oh that she could speak 
now like as would woman." No doubt the ex- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* B. vi. JULY 21, 9*. 

pression is colloquial. It is all the fitter for the 
mouth of Launce. 

II. iv. 196. 

IB it mine, or Valentine's praise? 

It is strange that this manifestly defective line 
should persistently hold its place in the text, when 
the cause of misprint is so obvious, and the emen- 
dation so simple. Most certainly, as I think, we 
should read : 

Is it mine eyne, or Valentinus' praise ? 
"Eyne" has been lost through absorption by 
the cognate. The full form " Valentinus," here 
necessary to complete the verse, occurs elsewhere 
in the play at I. iii. 68, 

With Valentinus in the emperor's court. 

What, Proteous asks himself, can excuse his in- 
fidelity to Julia ? Is it what he himself has seen 
of Silvia's superior beauty ; or what he has heard 
from Valentine in her praise ? 


Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

thou caitiff ! O thou rarlet ! 
thou wicked Hannibal ! 

It is Elbow, the " poor Duke's Constable," who 
thus rates the clown for saying that his (Elbow's) 
wife was "respected with him before he was 
married to her." 

Shakespeare is generally rough on constables, 
and Elbow is a veritable Mrs. Malaprop all through 
the play, and especially in this scene. He brings 
before Angelo, " two notorious benefactors, precise 
villains, void of all profanation in the world that 
good Christians ought to have." His wicked 
" Hannibal " is malaprop for " cannibal," and is 
so explained in my old Shakespeare. 

Inquiring for any other interpretation of the 
term is something like inquiring whether the 
Nurse's husband in * Borneo and Juliet ' had been 
really a " merry man " or not. 


" THE DEVIL AND HIS DAM " (8 th S. iv. 442 ; 
v. 442). Under the heading 'Devil beats his 
Wife' some instructive articles may be found 
4 th S. vi. 25, 400 ; vii. 273, 356. To my thinking 
there can be no doubt that originally " dam," in 
the phrase cited above, meant wife, and not mother. 
When hoary tradition was lost sight of, and the 
current meaning of " dam/' only, remembered by 
writers, the other signification may have been 
attached to it. According to some, Satan had 
four wives Lilitb, Lamech's daughter Naama, 
Igereth and Machalath. Lilith is best known to 
us. She is said to have been the first wife of 
Adam, simultaneously created ; but her temper 
was such that the grand forefather could not put 
up with her, and Eve was given him as " an help 

meet/' upon which Lilith went over to the enemy, 
whom she sorely tried. She had 480 troops of 
devils under her control. 

Touching the Devil's mother, there is an old 
French saying, 

Ou le diable ne peut aller, 
8a mere tasche d'y mander. 

The comparison " moucher la chandelle comma 
le diable moucha sa mere " has reference to a man. 
named Le Diable, who, on the point of being 
executed for his crimes, bit off his mother's nose 
in the farewell kiss, to mark his sense of the bad 
training she had given him. ST. SWITHIN. 

Shakspeare mentions the devil and his dam 
many times. In ' Titus Andronicus ' Aaron calls 
Tamora the devil's dam, because she is the mother 
of a black child. In ' King John ' Constance 
says : 

Being as like 

As rain to water or devil to his dam. 
All this is fatal to the conjecture of MR. COL* 
LINGWOOD LEE that " dam " means dame. 



One feels indebted for any account of the bits of 
old London now passing away. My letter does 
not go into destruction, but alterations and repairs. 
Having been born within the sound of Bow bells, 
anything relating to the City churches I take the 
deepest interest in, more particularly so St. Mary- 
le-Bow, Cheapside. 

In the Great Fire of London, 1666, all Cheap- 
side perished, and with it the churches of All- 
hallowes Honey Lane, St. Pancras Soper Lane, 
and St. Mary-le-Bow, all of which three parishes 
being subsequently united, the new edifice in 
Cheapside was appointed the parish church. For 
a period of over thirty-six years I was on and off 
churchwarden and overseer of St. Pancras Soper 
Lane. I remember the heavy gales which passed 
over the City in November, 1877, doing so much 
damage to the vane, the celebrated " dragon," of 
St. Mary-le-Bow Church, that it was thought 
advisable by the united vestries to have it reported 
upon ; and the result was that it was ordered to 
be taken down. This was done under the super- 
intendence of Messrs. Procter & Co., engineers, 
and when it was at their establishment I received 
a note from those gentlemen : 

Mr. Tegg. December 11, 1877. 

DEAR SIR, On repairing the ball of the vane of Bow- 
Church we find the name of Tegg on it. Supposing 
this to have been written by your father, we thought you 
might like to see it ; if so, please call at our worka by 11 
o'clock in the morning, as we are going to gild to-morrow- 
Yours, &c., PROCTER & Co. 

Turnagain Lane, Farringdon Street. 

In 1819 a committee was appointed to inquire 
and report upon the state of the spire. It was 

8 lll 8. VI. JULV 21, '94.] 



found to be so bad that George Gwilt, Esq., archi- 
tect, was commissioned to undertake its rebuild- 
ing. The late Mr. Tegg was on the committee, 
and no doubt, upon the completion of the work, he 
being a very active member and churchwarden, his 
name was placed on the ball. I may say the 
dragon measures 8 ft. S in. in length, the height of 
the church, with spire, 235 ft. Sir 0. Wren pro- 
vided in building the belfry for twelve bells, but 
only eight were furnished during his lifetime, four 
being added from time to time, the last two treble 
bells in 1881. Old Stow records that they set up 
this rhyme : 

Clarke of Bow Bells with the yellow lockes, 
For the late ringing, thy head shall have knocks. 

To which the clerk humbly replied, 
Children of Cheape, hold you all still. 
For you shall have the Bow Bells rung at your wil'. 

If my memory serves me, the dragon of Bow 
Church and the grasshopper of the Royal Exchange 
were also in Messrs. Procter's yard, both under- 
going repairs caused by the storm in 1877. One 
of Mother Shipton's prophecies states " that when 
the dragon of Bow Church and the grasshopper of 
the Exchange shall meet the London streets would 
be deluged with blood." The old lady here is a 
little out. 

House No. 2, Bow Lane. This house, formerly 
two, was left to the rector and churchwardens by 
the will of John Don, dated in 1479, and proved 
in the Court of Hustings, for the maintenance of 
Bow bells, which, after the death of a person 
therein named, testator directed to be rung nightly 
at 9 P.M. 

Those who know Bow Church will have noticed 
the balcony under the clock. That balcony carries 
with it one of the most pleasing reminiscences of 
London pageantry. On all Lord Mayors' days 
and those of civic processions this was the position 
of honour for royalty to view them from. 

During the alterations in the interior of St. Mary- 
le-Bow Church, Aug. 21, 1878, the workmen came 
across five coffins in the centre aisle. 

Mr. Smith and myself, churchwardens of St. 
Pancras Soper Lane, proceeded to the church, and 
after inspecting the coffins, ordered them to be 
carefully removed and placed in the crypt. One 
coffin being all broken, we ordered the remains to 
be gathered up and placed in another coffin, putting 
the plates with the inscriptions outside. 

The following are the inscriptions on four of 
the coffins : 

Mr. Anthony Harrison 
Died Sept. 1st, 1773. 

Mrs Sarah Harrison 

Died Dec. 3rd, 1772 

In her 7Gth year. 

William Charles Bird 

died Sept. 18tb, 1758 

In the 29th year of his age. 

Mrs. Susannah Scrimshaw 
died llth of December, 1782 
aged 69. 

13, Doughty Street, W.C. 

Prayer and Thanksgiving " used on the first of this 
month in Church of England places of worship in 
celebration of the birth of a prince who is pro- 
bably destined to become our king, is so remark- 
able a specimen of the Queen's English that I 
wonder its phraselogy has called forth no comment. 
Surely "Christianly trained," if English, is clumsy 
English. In " Quicken in us all dutiful affections 
to our Sovereign Lady the Queen," the "all" is 
somewhat ambiguous. The phrase " Make her 
Koyal House true lovers of thy people " may be 
grammatical, but it is hardly felicitous. The 
hypercritical will see other blemishes in this short 
composition; e. g. t while "Son" (i.e., the infant 
prince) has a capital initial letter, "thee" and 
"tbou," addressed to God, have small initials. 
Such a document as this "Form" cannot be 
classed with such ephemeral compositions as 
prayers written for occasional services, for the 
laying of foundation stones, the launching of ships, 
&c. It is historical, and should have been written 
in pure and simple language. I submit that it is 
not such an example of the English of our day as 
deserves to be handed down to posterity. 



the biographers of this prelate appear to have been 
unaware of the fact that on Aug. 29, 1569, he was 
instituted to the rectory of Lavenham, in Suf- 
folk, on the presentation of the queen. Canon 
Venables, in his memoir of Day in the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography,' has omitted to mention 
that the bishop was the author of " Narratio de 
Festivitate D. Georgii in reginali Palatio West- 
monasteriensi per Reginam Elizabethan) Ordinis 
ejusdem Divi supremam, Commilitonesque plures, 
die 22 mensis Aprilis, anno regni sui 26 [1584] 
celebrata." In Harleian MS. 304, f. 144. 


families in England, mostly of foreign extraction, 
derive their surnames from localities abroad, such 
as Berlin, Emden, Frankfort, Hamburg, &c. 
Frequently an er is added, as in Berliner, Ham- 
burger, and such like. English towns and cities 
are almost unknown. London as a surname is 
common enough, but is foreign in this respect. 
Some early ancestor resided there once, but quit- 
ted the capital, proceeding abroad, dropping his 
ordinary name, and substituting his old home. 
His descendants retained the appellation in their 
native place, and continued to use it on their 


NOTES AND QUERIES. (** s. vi. JULY 21, '94. 

arrival in this country. In our national records 
those that relate to events occurring in England be 
fore the expulsion of the Jews in 1290 numerous 
place-names are mentioned. I have noted Abra- 
ham Dorking, Bonenfant Sagmoor (Sedgemoor) 
Isaac Polefc and Pulet (Oxon.), Isaac Suwerk 
(Southwark), Jacob BurliDgham, Vives Grenefield 
and others. M. D. DAVIS. 

AGES OP ANIMALS. The founder of ' N. & Q. 
did a great service to his fellow creatures when by 
his work on ' The Longevity of Man ' he showed 
the baselessness of many of the well-known stories 
regarding very old men and women. It ia much 
to be desired that some one would give us in a 
similarly popular form an account of what is really 
known as to the ages attained by some of the 
higher animals. I am led to make this remark by 
having come upon the following passage relating 
to the age of the horse : 

I' M. Pessina computes the natural age of the horse at 
thirty. We have several instances in this country of 
horses living to beyond forty ; and Mr. Percival produces 
the well-authenticated one of the Mersey and Irwell 
Navigation horse that died at &ixty-six." Sporting 
Magazine, 1829, vol. xxiii. New Series, p. 217. 

I do not know who the Mr. Percival was who 
is here quoted. It would be interesting to ascer- 
tain in what the testimony consisted which he 
regarded as authentic. K. P. D. E. 


" Another relic of old London is about to be handed 
over to the ' housebreakers.' The Goose and Gridiron, a 
tavern to London House Yard, rich with old-world asso- 
ciations, is coining down to make room for some modern 
structure. It was in this hostelry that the workmen 
received their wages during the rebuilding of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and here it was that the St. Paul's Free- 
masons' Lodge, of which Sir Christopher Wren was 
master for thirteen years, held ita meetings. Before it 
became the Goose and Gridiron the house was known as 
the Mitre, and was the first music house in London. 
Robert Herbert, who was 'sworn servant to His 
Majesty,' kept the house prior to 1664, when he enter- 
tained his visitors with good liquor and music, as well as 
with a curious museum of ' natural rarites collected with 
great Industrie, cost, and thirty years' travel into foreign 
countries. Among the treasures belonging to the old 
Goose and Gridiron are three beautifully carved maho- 
gany candlesticks given by Sir Christopher Wren, together 
with the trowel and mallet used by him in laving the 
first stone of the cathedral in 1675." Newcastle Weekly 
Chronicle, June 2. 

Wolsmgham, co. Durham. 

"VARSAL WORLD." -These words are, I dare 
say, familiar to most of your readers as having 
been used by the Nurse in 'Romeo and Juliet,' 
II. iv., when she remarks, with respect to Juliet's 
not favouring the suit of Paris, " But I '11 warrant 
you, when I say so, she looks as pale as any clout 
in theversal world: 1 I have heard the expression 
used in Lincolnshire, but as equivalent to "a 

miserable world." " Ay, it's a varsal world," 
has been the reply in answer to the announcement 
of some disagreeable tidings. 


GLARS. (See 8 tb S. v. 366.) MR. WALLER'S note 
on Poe prompts me to inquire what animals have 
been employed in fiction or in fact as thieves or 
burglars. ME. WALLER, in his note, seems to 
show that the employment of a baboon in the 
capacity of a thief actually occurred in 1834; but I 
doubt the correctness of the statement that the 
baboon had been taught to " burgle." In ' The 
Lenton Croft Robberies/ investigated by Martin 
Hewitt, in the Strand Magazine for March last 
(pp. 308-321), the agent of the robbery is dis- 
covered to be a " parrot " belonging to the secre- 
tary of Sir James Norris. The jackdaw of Rheims 
has earned a world-wide reputation, and moreover 
points a moral in the shape of the adornment of a 
bedraggled tail. The number of animals capable of 
being so employed is, I imagine, very limited ; but 
the subject is one of some interest. A. C. W. 

ST. SWITHUN. The spelling of this saint's name 
is inquired after, under another heading, in 
'N. & Q.,' ante, p. 15. The A.-S. spelling was 
" Swith-hun," as in ^Etfric ; for the obvious reason 
that it was compounded of swlth (strong) and 
hfm (savage). One h was dropped (like the 
one t in eightth) because it looked odd. The 
spelling " Swithin " arose from loss of the etymo- 
logy and indistinctness of speech ; it has nothing 
to recommend it except that it is much in vogue. 

EARLY MILLINER'S BILL. The following is a 
cutting from the Evening Post (Jersey) of Feb- 
ruary 27 : 

" The earliest specimen of a milliners bill has jusfe 
>een discovered on a chalk tablet at Nippur, in Chaldea. 
The inscription enumerates 92 robes and tunics, 14 of 
which were perfumed with myrrh, aloes, and cassia. The 
date of this curious relic of antiquity cannot be later than 
2,800 years before the Christian era." 


HANDSHAKING. An incident in the assassina- 
tion of President Carnot illustrates in a curious 
way the significance of the custom of handshaking, 
now so greatly fallen into abuse. Originally a 
ceremonial token of confident friendship or, at 
east, friendliness the clasp of the right hand has 
become degraded by incessant use in canvassing 
nd other democratic proceedings. By the in- 
tensely tragic circumstance at Lyons we are 
suddenly reminded of the true nature of the 
pledge, namely, that when two persons meet, each 
mrrenders his right hand (the weapon wielder) 
nto the grasp of the other's right hand, thereby 
;iving practical and physical surety of amity. 

President Carnot allowed every one of the 

8 th 8. VI, JULY 21, '94.] 


populace who could squeeze near enough to him I young into France, and there sold for a slave at a 
to seize his right hand, and would not allow his very low price," and then goes on to tell that 
escort to keep the people back. Up comes the " King Clovia II., in 649, took her for his royal 
assassin and seizes the President's right hand, but consort, with the applause of his princes and whole 
not with his right hand. He seizes it with his left kingdom ; such was the renown of her extra- 
hand, and, throwing up his victim's arm, plunges ordinary endowments." The Rev. Richard Stan- 
the dagger into his right side. Had it been ton, in his ' Menology of England and Wales,' 
possible for the President to insist upon mutual speaks of her as being, " according to the general 
surrender of right hand?, the attack upon him opinion, a native of England." Dean Milman, in 
would assuredly have miscarried. his ' History of Latin Christianity/ says " she was 

HERBERT MAXWELL. | a Saxon captive of exquisite beauty," and proceeds 
to speak of her as " the holiest and most devout of 
women " (edit. 1854, vol. ii. p. 221). By calling 
her a Saxon, the dean leaves in doubt whether 
she was a native of our island or a continental 
Saxon. Has evidence reached our time which 
puts the question at rest? She had several 
children. Can ehe be proved to be an ancestress 
of our royal family ? We have read somewhere, 
but have failed to remember where, of some one 
of our own royal, or semi-royal, people purchasing 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

JOHN NTREN. It is stated in Oowden Clarke's 
introduction to 'The Young Cricketer's Tutor/ 

1833, that the f Cricketers of my Time,' appended a slave in some Baltic port) whom he afterwards 

to that work, had already appeared in the form of 
sketches contributed to a periodical. Could any 
reader inform me what that periodical was 1 I 
have also seen it stated that Leigh Hunt once 
wrote a paper on Nyren probably in one of his 
numerous periodical ventures which I am anxious 
to trace, if possible. THOMAS SECCOMBE. 

15, Waterloo Place. 

married, and from whom our Queen is descended. 
Is this a romance founded on the life of St. 
Bathildes ; or were there, in those disturbed times, 
two instances of kings whose consorts had been 
slaves ? N. M. & A. 

JOHN HEBDEN. Among the portraits I have 
collected of players of stringed instruments, I pos- 
sess an engraving in mezzotint of a man named 
John Hebden, who is represented playing the i res t ore( j 
violoncello. I am curious to know something ^r nere 
this man, as next to no information is to be 
concerning him in any book I have come 
across treating of music and musicians. I have 
been unable to find any reference to him, beyond 
seeing his name in a list of subscribers in an old 
music-book, wherein he is described as one of His 

MAID RIDIBONE. Mr. Rye, in his ' History of 
Norfolk ' (1885, p. 291), states that there was at 
one time "Maid Ridibone's Chapel" in Cromer 
Church, and that Maid Ridibone was remarkable 
for having been killed by falling through a mill- 
wheel, and yet having no bones broken, and being 

this legend be found ; and is there 

01 t/DG QtlDlG xCldlDOH6 



Burke's 'Landed Gentry,' of 1850, it is stated 

Majesty's Musicians in Ordinary ; and again, in a | that the Wrights of Wordstone are a branch of 
little book setting forth the rules of the Royal 
Society of Musicians, of which Society he was one 
of the original members and founders. 

38, New Bond Street. 

the baronetical family of Wright, of Cranham 
Hall, co. Essex. In what way were they related ? 

VERNOR, HOOD & SHARP. I am wanting par 
ticulars of the firm of Vernor, Hood & Sharp, 

"FIFTY-DOLE." This word, apparently denoting I publishers, formerly of the Poultry. Hood was 
a rate or assessment of some kind affecting land, the father of the celebrated humourist. Was he 
appears in a MS. of the sixteenth century relating of Scotch descent ? W. WRIGHT. 

to Devonshire. What is its precise meaning ? 10, Little College Street, S.W. 

H. J. C. DELIA BACON. Acknowledging my indebted- 

ST. BATHILDES. Was St. Bathilde?, who is ness for the reply to my inquiry about the author 

commemorated on January 30, a native of Eng- of the letter to Lord Ellesmere, I crave the 

land ? Alban Butler, whose authority is never Editor's permission to ask for sources of informa- 

lightly to be cast aside, except when positive tion concerning Delia Bacon. I have Hawthorne's 

evidence as to facts has been discovered since he account of her in ' Our Old Home, but do not 

wrote, had no doubt on the matter. He says she know whether her story has been given elsewhere. 
" was an Englishwoman who was carried over very I F. JARRATT. 



[8 th S. VI. JULY 21, ? 94. 

PANKHURST. Can any of your readers give me 
information regarding this family, which was 
once at Buxted Place, and at Great Trodgers, 
May field, Sussex, and also in Kent ? Portions of 
it intermarried with the Marshams, the Fowles, 
the Cobhams, and also the Hammonds, of East 
Kent. T. H. 

jour readers inform me of the relationship between 
the above families, and the connexion between the 
Kellands of Lipford and Sir Clement Fisher, living 
temp. James I. ? I hear that Sir Charles Dilke, 
M.P., is lineally descended from the above Sir 
Clement Fisher. Is this so ; and how is the relation- 
ship traced ? W. D. PINK. 

[There was probably more than one Sir Clement 
Fisher, as there was probably more than one Sir Clement 
Throckmorton. The Sir Clement Fisher named as 
living in the reign of James I. was perhaps not the one 
from whom Sir Charles Dilke is descended, who was 
christened in 1538, and married in 1568. This Sir 
Clement FUher is reputed to have been a friend or patron 
of Shakspeare in his early days ; but there is no evi- 
dence of this except tradition. His daughter, born May, 
1572, and married to Sir Thomas Dilke January, 1588, 
became, after Sir Thomas Dilke's death, the wife of Sir 
Hervey Bagot and the Lady Bagot who defended Lich- 
field Castle for the king. This Sir Clement Fisher was. 
therefore, the grandfather of Fisher Dilke, of whom Sir 
Charles Dilke is representative by lineal descent in the 
eldest line, the family of Dilke of Maxstoke Castle being 
descended from his elder brother. The Aylesfords and 
the Dilkes are the joint representatives of these Fishers, 
whose family portraits are in the Aylesford collection : 
a portrait of Anne Fisher (afterwards Lady Dilke) when 
young, and the family Bible being in Sir Charles Dilke's 
possession. The Bible contains entries of the births, 
christenings, and marriages of many members of the 
family between 1538 and 1601. Sir Clement Fisher's 
mother had a name not unlike Kelland, but not that 

INDIAN MAGIC. Has any attempt ever been 
made to offer a rational explanation of the extra- 
ordinary tricks performed by Indian magicians, 
e. g. t putting a seed in the ground and then making 
the plant grow and blossom before the eyes of the 
spectators ? The feats said to be performed by these 
uncanny gentry seem to us so utterly impossible 
that we feel inclined to laugh at them ; but when 
English officers and gentlemen whose veracity one 
can accept declare that they have seen such feats 
performed we are puzzled. W. E. W. 

[Consult Messrs. Maskelyne and Cooke.] 

"STRANGE OATHS." In 'Guy Mannering,' 
chap, xxxiv., Dirk Hatteraick says to Glossin, in 
upeaking of Brown or Bertram : " By the knocking 
Nicholas ! he 'Jl plague you now he 's come over 
the herring-pond." Who or what is " the knock- 
ing Nicholas " ? Is not this an early instance of 
"herring-pond" as applied to the ocean? In 
'Les Mis^rables,' partie v. livre v. chap, iii., M. 

Gillenormand says, " Par les cent mille Javottes 
du diable, ces brigands 1'ont assassine ! " The 
allusion is to Andre" Che'nier, who was guillotined 
three days before Robespierre. What are " les 
cent mille Javottes du diable"? "Javottes" is 
spelt with a capital J. Victor Hugo has 
" Javotte " also in ' Les Cbatiment?,' livre iv. vii. 
In Desaugiers's ' Tableau de Paris a cinq heures du 
matin ' are these lines : 

J 'en tends Javotte, 

Portant sa hotte, 

Crier, " Garotte. 

Panais et chou-fleur ! " 

In George Sand's * Horace,' chap, v., Horace says, 
"Si Eugenie s'^tait appel^e Margot ou Javotte." 
To which The'ophile replies, " J'eusse mieux aime* 
Margot ou Javotte que Le*ocadie ou Phoedora." 

REV. GEORGE ARNET. Information about the 
marriage and children (if any) of this Vicar of Wake- 
field (1729-1750) will much oblige. He was a 
King's, Cambridge, M.A., apparently. References 
to ordinary printed books about Wakefield Parish 
Church not needed. I want to connect him with 
a (Wakefield ?) family named Matthewman. 


BURGOYNE. Sir John Burgoyne resided at 
Holcrofts, Fulham. Here he gave some noted 
private dramatic performances, assisted by the 
Hon. Mr. W. Wrottesley, son of Lord Wrottesley, 
who afterwards married Sir John's daughter, a 
clever amateur actress. Can any reader furnish 
dates as to when Sir John Burgoyne resided in 
Fulham, or in any way add to the above facts 
touching any of the persons named ? 


ADVENT PREACHERS. Under the heading 
1 Ingoldsby Letters (Original) ' appears the follow- 
ing in Willis's Current Notes for February, 1851 : 
" Tbe following extracts are from letters of the late 
Rev. R. H. Barham (1841), which have been kindly for- 
warded to us : 

" ' What do you mean by Advent Preachers ? I never 
heard of such creatures.' 

" ' In Lent, the Bishop of London appoints certain 
clergymen to preach at certain churches on Wednesdays 
and Fridays, and against these, I euepect, you have been 
knocking your Milesian head. Did you never hear the 
old rhyme : 

To the Church then I went, 

But I grieved and I sorrowed, 
For the preacher was lent, 
And the sermon was borrowed ? ' " 

The second extract mentions the tradition that no 
native of Folkstone could ever make a rhyme. 
How many volumes of Current Notes were issued ? 


to the * New English Dictionary,' the word caucus 
11 was first applied in 1878, by Lord Beacons- 
field and the Times newspaper, to the organization 

8 th 8. VI. JULY 21, '94.] 



of the Birmingham Liberal 'Six Hundred,' and 
thence to those which were speedily formed on its 
model elsewhere "; and it goes on to quote a letter 
to the Times, of Aug. 1, 1878, by Mr. Chamber- 
lain, saying : " I observe that you, in common 
with the Prime Minister [Lord Beaconsfield], have 
adopted the word caucus to designate our organiza- 
tion." When and where did Lord Beaconsfield 
so designate it ; and was his the earliest use of the 
word in English politics ? POLITICIAN. 

CUP-CAKE. In Miss Wilkins's delightful New 
England stories, and in other tales relating to this 
corner of the United States, I have frequently 
found mention of cup-cake, a dainty unknown, I 
think, in this country. Will some friendly reader 
of ' N. & Q.' on the other side of the Atlantic 
kindly answer this query, and initiate an English 
lover of New England folks and ways into the 
mysteries of cup-cake 1 G. L. APPERSON. 


SPIDERS. The following paragraph is copied 
from the Sporting Magazine for September, 1821. 
Are the statements therein pure fiction ? If not, 
can any one tell me how much we may safely be- 
lieve ? A spider weighing four pounds is indeed 
a heavy tax on the reader's credulity : 

" The eexton of tbe church of St. Eustace, at Paris, 
amazed to find frequently a particular lamp extinct 
early, and yet the oil consumed only, fat up several nights 
to perceive the cause. At length he discovered that a 
spider of surprising size came down the cord to drink 
the oil. A still more extraordinary instance of the same 
kind ocurred during the year 1751, in the Cathedral of 
Milan. A vast spider was observed there, which fed on 
the oil of the lamps. M. Morland, of the Academy of 
Sciences, has described this spider, and furnished a 
drawing of it. It weighed four pounds, and was sent to 
the Emperor of Austria, and is now in the Imperial 
Museum at Vienna." P. 289. 


"ST. STEPHEN'S." Can any one inform me 
why the Houses of Parliament are sometimes 
called "St. Stephen's," and when that name was 
first used? A. B. 

[The chapel, of which tbe crypt remains, and in 
wbich the Commons used to sit, was dedicated to St. 
Stephen, and the whole palace hence took that name.] 

Believe not each aspersing tale 

As most weak people do, 
But always think that story false 

Wbich ought not to be true. 

I only am the man 

Among all married men, 
That do not ask the priest 

To be unloosed again. R. F. B. 

When danger 's rife and wars are nigh, 
God and the soldier 'a all the cry ; 
When danger 'a o'er and matters rigbted 
God 'a forgotten and the soldier slighted. 

S. J. A. F. 

(8 th S.v. 40,98.) 

I am preparing a ' History of the Haleses ' (the 
Hale and Hales families of England and America), 
and your notes on Admiral Hales naturally fell 
under my eye, particularly since I was engaged 
in writing about the Admiral then. What Hume, 
Burke, Walsyngham, and others have had to 
say is noted ; but in tracing back for the sources 
of their information I found that Walsyngham 
had derived his data from the * Chronicon Anglise ' 
(1328-1388) now printed, and in the index of that 
work (series " Chronicles and Memorials of Great 
Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages ") I 
found mention of (1) Hale, Robert, "one of the 
captors of the Count of Denia (Hispano) ; holds 
the count's son as hostage ; his prisoner is de- 
manded of him by the Crown ; he is sent to the 
Tower, but escapes to Westminster ; he is mur- 
dered in the Abbey ; his murderers excommuni- 
cated. A servant of the church is also killed ; 
Hale's body dragged through the choir," &c. All 
this occurred in 1378. The same work refers to 
(2) Hales, Robert, Lord Treasurer, Prior of the 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, in England, 
&c., giving an account of his death in Wat Tyler's 
insurrection, in 1380. Inasmuch as it is impos- 
sible for a man to die two deaths, and at two dif- 
ferent places, I at once concluded the first Robert 
was the Admiral, the last Robert the Lord Treasurer, 
&c. But I was soon undeceived. Turning to 
Beatson's 'Political Index,' vol. i., I found 
among the Lord High Admirals of England : 
" 1377. Nov. 24. Michael, Lord of Wingfield, 
Baron de Hales, Prior of the Hospital of St. John, 
N. and W." (the letter N. denotes northern 
station, and W, the western) ; succeeded, appa- 
rently in about two weeks, by " 1377. Dec. 5. 
Thomas Earl of Warwick, N., and Richard, son 
of Alain, Earl of Arundel, W." The same book 
gave as Lord Treasurer, " 1381. Robert Hales," 
&c. This made the matter still more mysterious, 
and Michael had to be accounted for. I could 
not connect him with any of the Wingfields of 
Suffolk, Norfolk, Salop, or elsewhere. I had 
never heard of a Michael de Hales, and the 
mystery was only solved later on, when I found 
that Michael de la Pole had been an admiral con- 
temporaneously with Sir Robert de Hales. This 
is not the only slip that Beatson makes. 

The historians told us to fight shy of the early 
chroniclers. Lingard says : " The history of this 
insurrection has been transmitted to us with many 
variations by Walsyngham, Knyghton, and Frois- 
sart," and Keightley added to our discomfort by 
saying, " We must remember that all the details 
are furnished by Walsyngham and Knyghton, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. JCLY 21, '94. 

two inveterate enemies of the insurgents." Guizot 
called the Lord Treasurer " Thomas de Hales," 
but that was to be expected in a popular history. 
Green added one item to our stock of data, by 
showing that a Hales was engaged on Tyler's side. 
' ' A hundred thousand Kentishmen gathered 
around Walter Tyler of Essex and John Hales of 
Mailing to march upon London." The ' Chronicon 
AnglisB ' said also that " Sir Stephen de Hales 
was forced by the Norfolk insurgents to join them 
in 1381, under John Lytstere of Norwich," and 
I knew that Stephen was a prominent knight of 
Norfolk, and an extreme Royalist. But all this 
did not solve the doubts in my mind as to whether 
t he Lord High Admiral and the Lord Treasurer 
were one and the same. Finally I consulted the 
standard work on Westminster, the 'History of 
the Abbey Church of St. Peter's, Westminster, 
its Antiquities and Monuments,' London, 1812, 
vol. i. p. 102, where I found a full and succinct 
account of the murder of Robert Hawley in 
the Abbey. The story therein reads like a 
romance, but it is too long to give here. Suffice 
it that it is taken from Walsyngham, and says 
that Robert Hawley and John Schakell, two 
brave soldiers under the Black Prince in 1367, 
took prisoner the Count of Denia, who gave his 
eon as ransom, and then utterly neglected to reclaim 
him; and years after, when he was produced by 
Schakell, he had become the latter's valet. Per- 
haps he may have been the Count's valet in the 
first place, which would account for not ransoming 
him. The circumstances of the killing are given, 
and even his epitipb, where the name is given 
Haule. The only other place where I find Haule 
is in Knight's 'London,' 1843, vol. iv. p. 75: 
" At the battle of Najara, during the campaign of 
the Black Prince iu Spain, two of Sir John 
Chandos's squires, Frank de Haule and John 
Schakell," &c. Now where did he get the name 
Frank from? Rymer's * Foedera,' iii. p. 1066, 
says that Sir Robert Hales, when made admiral, 
"appointed Walter Haule and John Legg, ser- 
jeants-at-arms, his deputies." This is still another 
permutation of the name, and leads us deeper into 
the mire of doubt. Looking into 'Diet. Nat. 
Biog.,' I can find no Sir Robert Hale or Hales to help 
me out. Under " Sir John Chandos " is nothing 
about Frank de Haule. Among papers in the 
Tower records regarding forfeited estates is one 
relating to Lord Francis Hawley and others. This 
may serve as a clue. Genealogical data about the 
Hawleys is very scarce. From the connexion of 
the Duke of Lancaster in the story (vide ' History 
of Westminster ' quoted) there may be something 
found among the papers at Duchy of Lancaster 
Office, Lancaster Place, Waterloo Bridge. Also 
see lists of serjeants-at-arms. 

Now as to the tenure of the office of Admiralty, 
about which Beatson is wrong. Nicolas's ' History 

of the Royal Navy ' gives William, Earl of Suffolk 
N.), and William, Earl of Salisbury, admirals, 
Fuly 16 tb, 1376 ; succeeded by Sir Michael de la 
Pole (N.) and Sir Robert Hales (W.), Nov. 24tb, 
1376 (both these anno 50 Edward III). The two 
last were reappointed Aug. 14tb, 1377 (anno 
1 Richard II.), but were succeeded, December 5th, 
same year, by Thoma?, Earl of Warwick (N.), and 
Richard, Earl of Arundel (W.); all which is a 
quite different story from what Mr. Beatson told, 
and accounts for the Michael, besides giving them 
not only two weeks tenure, but a year and two 
weeks previously. 

There is no doubt, then, that Sir Robert Hales 
was Admiral of the Western seas for over a year, 
according to Nicolas, Walsyngham, and Rymer ; 
but who was the man killed in Westminster, of 
nearly the same name, two years previously to the 
death of Sir Robert Hales ? Was it a Frank do 
Haule, Lord Francis Hawley, or Walter Haule the 
admiral's assistant or deputy ? Or was it really 
a Robert Hale, as his epitaph says, and as the 
' Chronicon Angliae ' intimates ? And if it was the 
latter, was it not most likely a relative of Admiral 
Hales? I cannot trace the admiral's ancestry 
beyond his father, Nicholas de Hales (vide Burke), 
but I believe they connect with the Norfolk 
Haleses, who were also called De Calthrop and De 
Bosco, as I shall try to prove anon. 

That the De Calthrops and the De Boscos were 
the same lineage can be found in Mumford's 
'Analysis of the Domesday Book of Norfolk,' and 
that the Haleses came from the same stock, see 
account in Blomefield's ' Norfolk' of Walter de Suf- 
field, alias De Calthrop, tenth Bishop of Norwich, 
and his brother, Sir Roger de Hales, aliasDe Suf- 
field, alias De Calthrop, founder of the Norfolk 
Hales family, and father of Alice, who captivated 
by her beauty Thomas de Brotherton, son of 
Edward I., and thus became Duchess of Norfolk 
(vide Burke, et at) 

Admiralty affairs will be found on Close Rolls 
in Chancery. Admiralty and Navy lists and 
lists of officers will be found in High Court of 
Admiralty or Public Admiralty department. For 
particulars as to Sir Robert Hales's death, see 
Foxe's ' Book of Martyrs ' and Hasted's ' Kent.' 

There was a Nicholas de Bosco, one of the last 
of the line in Norfolk, about 1333 (see under 
"Fersfield"), and also a Nicholas de Bosco is 
found early in Herts. Can this be the same as 
the Nicholas de Halee, father of Admiral Hales? 
Norfolk, Kent, and Herts are the three principal 
strongholds of the Hale and Hales families in 

Hartford, Conn., U.S. 

PSALM LXVK. (8 th S. v. 408, 498). If MR. 
WARREN will please to look at the original form 
of the introduction of "yea" into verse 5, his 

8" 1 S. VI. JCILI 21, '94.] 



experienced eye will, I thin*, at once perceive the 
reason of the introduction, to preserve uniformity 
in "saying." 

In verse 3 there is "yea, let all the people." 
In verse 5 there was no "yea" in the text. In 
musical intonation it was unsuitable to have a 
variation so soon after. The compilers, therefore, 
of set purpose, inserted the " yea " in verse 5. In 
the authorized copy of the C. P. it appears thus : 
at verse 3, " Yea, let all the people praise Thee"; 

at verse 5, " Y a let all the people " (sic). I have 
not the facsimile edition, so I take the form from 
A. J. Stephens's 0. P., vol. i. p. 477. This shows 
the addition of the "Yea" purposely. It was not 
a printer's repetition from the former verse (v. 3). 


If the REV. J. CATER will refer to the ' Speaker's 
Commentary ' (N. Test., vol. iii. p. 86) he will find 
that the learned annotator of the Epistle to the 
Romans (Dr. Gifford) regards the three additional 
verses of Psalm xiv. in the Vulgate and in our 
Prayer-Book Psalter as an interpolation, the 
passage from Romans having probably first been 
written in the margin of some MS. of the LXX , 
and thence having crept into the text. 

T. B. J. 

The variation is thus explained in that useful 
book, " The Psalms, by Four Friends ": 

" The fact of these three verses, which are really a 
cento from various Psalms, following immediately upon 
the quotation of the 3rd and 4th verses in the Epistle to 
the Romans (iii. 13-] 8) led the copyist into the belief 
that was a continuous quotation, and he consequently 
inserted the three verses in the MS. of the Psalm." 

For the connexion between Psalms xiv. and liii- 
and Romans iii., see the indispensable Perowne, 
and Dr. Vaughan's admirable 'Epistle to the 
Romans,' in locis. 


The REV. J. CATER is mistaken in regarding the 
difference between the Prayer Book and the 
Authorized Version in their respective presenta- 
tions of Psalm xiv. as a question of accuracy. 
Both are accurate ; the former (in this instance) in 
following the Vulgate, the latter as a translation 
from the Hebrew. MR. CATER surely cannot mean 
to blame those responsible for the Authorized 
Version for not inserting in their translation what 
they did not find in the original. 

The Psalms in the Prayer Book are, as MR. 
CATER knows, taken from what is known as 
"Cranmer's Great Bible." "A magnificent and 
probably unique copy of it on vellum," says Mr. 
Hartwell Home, 

41 which formerly belonged to Henry VIII., is preserved 
in the Library of the British Museum. In the text those 
parts of the Latin Version which are not to be found in 
the Hebrew or Greek are inserted in a smaller letter; 
such, for instance, as the three verses in the fourteenth 
Pealm, which are the fifth, sixth, and seventh in the 

translation of the English Liturgy." Home' a ' Intro- 
duction/ ninth edition, vol. v. p. 88. 

The verses thus " inserted in a smaller letter," 
to indicate that they were not to be found in the 
Hebrew or Greek, while not to be found in the 
Hebrew, are to be found in the Codex Vaticanus 
of the Septuagint, but not in the Codex Alex- 
andrinus. From St. Jerome downwards the 
rational belief has been that the Codex 
Vaticanus has, in Psalm xiv., been tampered 
with by a Christian band to make it conform with 
St. Paul's quotation in Romans iii. The error of 
the rash interpolator was his regarding St. Paul's 
quotation as from one passage only (Psalm xiv ; ), 
whereas it is from several, which can be easily 
identified. MR. CATER will find them given 
at large in "Tables of Quotations from the 
Old Testament in the New," in Home's ' Intro- 
duction,' vol. ii. p. 301. 


THE ETYMOLOGY OF "JINGO" (5 th S. x. 7, 96, 
456). The following extract is taken from an 
article written for the Matin by M. Frangois 
Deloncle, a translation of which appeared in the 
Times of June 25 (p. 6, col. 1) : 

"This state of mind is called in a term of Anglo- 
Indian slang 'jingoism.' A 'jingo' in England is the 
holder of the doctrine that everything must be done, 
especially against France, that the whole world may 
one day become a British Empire. It is the cold fana- 
ticism of Imperial policy. Now Lord Dufferin knows 
what 'jingo' means in Persian Hindustan. It is the 
man of the ' jing,' a Persian word signifying the ' Holy 
War,' in the sense of a general insurrection of India 
against the infidels. 'Jingoism' is thus the policy of 
the 'Holy War.'" 

Has not M, Deloncle, in the heat of argument 
against Lord Dufferin, confused the Persian word 
jang (spelt by French scholars djeng), meaning 
" war," with the Arabic jihad, meaning " a holy 

One would like to know what experts in Anglo- 
Indian slang have to say to a Persian derivation 
of the word jingo. A. L. MAYHEW. 

[Is not jung, not "jang," Persian for war?] 

"NivELiNG " (8 th S. v. 248, 395, 437, 493 ; vi. 
15). I beg ten thousand pardons for writing any- 
thing which seemed to cast a reflection on so 
eminent a scholar as PROF. SKEAT. I have always 
understood his edition of Piers Plowman ' to be 
a learned and exhaustive work, or I dare say I 
should have placed it in my library before now ; 
but I do not like "learned and exhaustive" works; 
the authors are so apt to write down to one's capa- 
city, and to make one feel small. Too much pap 
or chewed food does not suit all stomachs. It is 
healthier to do one's own mastication. However, 
I shall get PROF. SKEAT'S book next time I go to 
town, and expect to profit by it. But my habit is 
not to consult dictionaries and glossaries much, but 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.v I.JULY 21, '94. 

to judge of the meanings of words by their con- 
nexion, and by comparing them as used by various 
authors, according to Sir T. Elyot's advice : 

" It is not inugh for bym to haue red poetes, but all 
kyndes of wrytyng must also be sought for, not for the 
histories only, but also for the propretie of wordes, 
which communely doo receiue tbeir auctoritie of noble 
auctours." Sir T. Elyot's ' Governour ' (1537), f. 57. 

On the whole this plan has served me very well. 
In process of time words come to be used in a very 
different sense from their root-meaning ; then this 
way of ascertaining their value is the most satis- 

All but PROF. SKEAT, I hope, would see that 
the objectionable expression was only a rhetorical 
exaggeration, and it was scarcely worth while to 
notice it, coming from such an obscure individual. 
But, on the whole, there is not much reason to be 
displeased with his note, because, with an evident 
desire to find all the fault possible with me, 
he has not done much damage. But why did he 
reserve all his criticism for me, and not bestow a 
word on the definition of niggling as "chopping 
and changing " ? 

I only hazarded a conjecture as to the meaning 
of the passage in ' Piers Plowman '; and it is not 
yet proved to be wrong. It reads : 
And nevelynge with the nose, 
And his neJcke hangyng. 

How could he hang his neck without carrying his 
nose along with it that is, downward ? Snivelling 
means something weak and contemptible, and this 
is not always true of wrath. The matter is not yet 
plain. As neuelynge and nevelynge (spelt nyuelynge 
foyST. SWITHIN), are stated by PROF. SKEAT to 
be "quite different words," would he kindly 
oblige by giving the root of the one which means 
downwards ? 

ST. SWITHIN is probably right ; but I should 
prefer passages from old authors to a bare quota- 
tion from a dictionary. Common sense told me 
MR. MARSHALL'S word might be snivelling, and 
I knew neese or nese was old English for sneeze, 
because there are passages in the Bible where it 
can mean nothing else. But does it always mean 
this? When we read, "His nesynge is like a 
glystrynge fyre," is ST. SWITHIN quite sure that 
it describes the Leviathan as sneezing in the water? 
It might well make " the depe to boyle lyke a pot." 
All the glossarists and dictionary. men in the world 
will have difficulty in persuading me that is a cor- 
rect rendering of the Hebrew, because it introduces 
a touch of the grotesque into one of the grandest 
.passages of the Bible. Why should the crocodile 
be the only animal or reptile represented as 
sneezing? R R 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

THOMAS NOEL (8 th S. v. 487). Thomas Noel, 
the author of ' Byrnes and Roundelayes,' was the 
-eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Noel, M.A., rector 

of Kirkby Mallory, and also rector of Elmthorp?, 
both in the county of Leicester. He was born in 
1800, and took his degree at Oxford, Merton 
College, in 1824. He died at Brighton upwards 
of thirty years ago. I have the above information 
from the late Rev. H. A. Noel, for several years 
the highly respected rector of St. Clement's, Long- 
sight, Manchester, and youngest brother of the 
poet, in reply to a query in the Manchester City 
News, October 1, 1892. " G. H. S. 

Beaton Moor, Stockport. 

" GIGADIBS" (8 th S. v. 467). Is this word a 
variant of jigger-dubber, a term applied to a jailor 
or turnkey, cf. ' The Slang Dictionary,' 1864 ? 

Dickens (if he uses it, which I think he does not) 
has not a monopoly of this word, whatever it may 
imply. It is hardly necessary to refer to " Giga- 
dibs the literary man," in * Bishop Blougram's 


Is CORRESPONDENT thinking of " Gigadibs the 
literary man " in Mr. Browning's ' Bishop Blou- 
gram's Apology ' ? Dickens is alluded to in the 
poem. M. C. HALLET. 

Mr. Gigadibs is the sapient litterateur of Brown- 
ing's * Bishop Blougram's Apology.' It was he 
who despaired of literature after his momentous 
interview with the practical bishop : 

And having bought, not cab in -furniture 
But, settler's implements (enough for three) 
He started for Australia. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

Mr. Gigadibs is " the literary man " who inter- 
views Bishop Blougram in Browning's poem. It 
is curious that your correspondent should associate 
the name with Dickens, since Gigadibs is addressed 
as the author of 

That lively lightsome article we took 

Almost for the true Dickens what 's its name ? 

" Tbe Slum and Cellar, or Whitecbapel life 

Limned after dark." 

C. C. B. 

ISABELLA OF FRANCE (8 th S. vi. 7). " Couleur 
isabelle" is a light yellow colour, a mixture of 
white, yellow, and flesh colour (see Rozan, * Petites 
Ignorance de la Conversation,' p. 257 in the ninth 
ed.). The colour is said to have derived its name 
from the appearance of some archducal linen. Isa- 
bella of Austria, daughter of Philip II. of Spain 
and of Elizabeth, daughter of Henry II. of France, 
married Albert of Austria, son of Maximilian II. 
Her father gave her the Netherlands as a dowry, 
and it was while besieging Ostend, which was in 
a state of revolt, that she gave her name to a 
colour. Isabella swore not to change her linen till 
the town was taken. The siege lasted three years, 

8>s. VI. JULY 21, '94.] 



with the result that the linen became "couleur 
isabelle." S. MAVROJANT. 

From the query of G. L. S. it seems that another 
Isabella makes a claim, hitherto, I had thought, in 
dispute only between Isabella " the Catholic," and 
Isabella, daughter of Philip II. of Spain and Arch- 
duchess of Austria, to give her name to the peculiar 
yellow colour which her unchanged linen had in 
course of time acquired. The first of these ladies 
set out with her husband in April, 1491, on their 
crusade against Grenada, which did not capitulate 
till November. But if her vow to make no change 
in her underclothing covered the whole of that 
period, she was far outdone by the second lady, 
whose similar vow with regard to the siege of 
Ostend in 1601 left her free from washerwomen's 
bills till 1604. Her portrait may now be seen 
among others of fair women (and foul) at the 
Grafton Gallery. G. L. S. will doubtless have 
ascertained, before writing to *N. & Q.,' that the 
query and reply on * Isabel Colour ' in 6 th S. ii. 
307, 525, did not give the information of which he 
is in search with regard to Isabella of France. And 
he will not need to be reminded that Isabella of 
France was imprisoned after the execution of the 
u Gentle Mortimer " at Castle Rising and elsewhere. 
But there is no reason to suppose that scantiness 
of wardrobe was a condition of her incarceration. 
And though she might have been willing to go to 
the last extremity to save her lover, Edward III. 
has never been credited with the joke of trans- 
lating "Love's last shift" into "La derni&re 
chemise de 1'Amour." Indeed, he always bore in 
mind that, however faulty Isabella's conduct, she 
was a queen, a king's daughter, and his mother. 


It was Isabella of Castile, wife of Ferdinand 
of Aragon, who gave her name to the colour, 
known ever after as " couleur isabelle." 

E. S. H. 

Castle Semple. 

The lady said to have given her name to the 
colour was Isabella of Austria, daughter of 
Philip II., King of Spain, and Elizabeth of France. 
She was married to Albert, son of Maximilian II., 
and was given by her father on her marriage the 
sovereignty of the Low Countries. She accom- 
panied her husband in his wars against the Dutch, 
and at the siege of Ostend, which lasted more than 
three years, she swore she would not change her 
linen till it was taken. She died in 1633. For a 
brief moment she was put forward by the Spanish 
Government as Queen of France, being niece and 
nearest relative of Henry III. 



1 JAMES MARGETSON (8 th S. vi. 1). As a de- 
scendant I have been much interested in this 

account of the archbishop. Am I to understand that 
the children of Ann were (1) Thomas, the doctor ; 
(2) Major John, killed at Limerick ; and (3) 
James, died young? Major John's daughter 
married the Earl of Bessborough, and seems to 
have been an heiress, or possessed of Sysonby in 
Leicestershire. HENRY F. PONSONBY. 

" RADICAL REFORMERS" (8 tb S. iv. 226,337, 
458 ; v. 409). MR. J. P. OWEN, in his interesting 
notes hereon, asks, when referring to the principles 
of the Chartist agitators, whether he is not correct 
in thinking that the points which were advanced at 
the meeting at Birmingham on August 6, 1838, as 
the political creed of the Chartists, had not been 
urged at a period some fifty years previous to the 
date named. He is quite right in so thinking. 
Afcer my perusal of his remarks on the point in 
question, I found, on reference to the article on 
" Chartism " in the ' National Cyclopaedia,' that, 
apparently, in the principles or details of the 
" People's Charter " there is nothing new ; for we 
find that in 1780 the Duke of Richmond intro- 
duced a Bill into the House of Lords for annual 
parliaments and universal suffrage. In the same 
year the electors of Westminster appointed a com- 
mittee to take into consideration the election of 
members of the House of Commons, and in their 
report they recommended the identical points 
which constitute the main features of what is now 
called the u People's Charter." The society of the 
Friends of the People, established in 1792, three 
years afterwards published a declaration which 
recommended a very large extension of the suffrage. 
And in seasons of national distress, says the writer 
of the article referred to, the amendment of the 
representative system has always been warmly 
taken up by the people of England. 

C. P. HALE. 

(8 th S. v. 345, 389, 433; vi. 17). Not long 
before his death, 1867, Sir James South told me 
he following : 

" Lori Ashley after -visiting at Strathfieldsaye dined 
with me at the Observatory here : he alluded to con- 
versations with the Duke one was, the Duke of Welling- 
ton said the opposed generals were clever men, Soult 
especially. ' But how was it, Sir, you always had the 
better of them ? ' asked Lord Ashley. ' Why, I blundered 
as well as they, but my men got me out of scrapes, 
heirs left them in,' was the reply." 


make, in English, no distinction of form between 
nominative and accusative in the case of nouns. 
This has led to occasional confuaion between the 
jases of pronouns ; and that is all. 

The matter is discussed in Matzner'd ' English 
Grammar,' translated by Grice, vol. i. p. 294. 
['he confusion spoken of is there said to be common 


v I.JULY 21, '9*. 

in Yorkshire, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, War- 
wickshire, Worcestershire, and Herefordshire. In 
fact, it is common everywhere, and is nothing new, 
being found in many authors from the fourteenth 
century to the present day ; only, of course, 
meddling editors usually try to suppress the evi- 
dence. Matzner gives numerous references. It is 
sufficient to give one of them : " Yes, you have 
seen Cassio and she together" ('Othello,' IV. ii. 3). 

A case recently occurred, within my knowledge, 
of an engagement between a young lady of Scottish 
extraction and a somewhat pedantic young English- 
man being broken off in consequence of a quarrel 
occasioned by his correcting her for saying " You 
and I," when she ought to have said " You and 
me." Scottish young ladies beware ! I do not 
think, however, that this error is peculiar to Scot- 
land. 0. 0. B. 

Who has not heard, not only in modern Athens, 
but in every town in England, well-educated 
people stumble in the same and similar expressions ? 
An examiner in English for one of the largest 
educational examining bodies in London recently 
began a sentence with " Between you and I." He 
would not have written the phrase in that form, of 
course. PAUL BIERLEY. 

BARREN ISLAND (8 th S. v. 447). Barren Island 
is marked with its volcano in J. Rennell's Map 
of Hindoostan, 1782, and in his ' Memoir of the 
Mogul's Empire,' published 1785, he says that 
he took it "from the remarks of Capt. Justice in 

Swallowfield, Beading. 

"PLATFORM" (8 tb S. v. 26, 66, 190). The 
following passage may be of interest : 

"[Plato] says [in hia 'Timaeus'] that [God made the 
world according to that Pattern or Idea, which he had 
in bis mind. The Btme you will find more amply con- 
firmed in his ' Hippias,' his ' Parmenides,' and his sixth 
book of 'Repub.,' and many other places. And these 
Ideas he calls rd^pwra voqrd, the 'first Intelligibles,' 
and rStv OVTUV /ilrpa, 'the Measures of the things that 
are,' implying, that as all things were formed according 
to these specificall Platforms ; BO their truth must be 
measured from their conformity to them.' The Rev 
J. JJorrig, Collection of Miscellanies ' (Dedication dated 
June 1, 1687), p. 438. 

J. P. OWEN. 

BURIAL IN POINT LACE (8 th S. v. 69, 132, 255). 
The legend is well known concerning the famous 
actress, Anne Oldfield, who died in 1730, being 
buried, according to her own desire, in point lace 
in Westminster Abbey, and also Pope's lines upon 
it in his 'Moral Essays/ epistle i., v. 246-251. 
It must be remembered that at the date there was 
an Act of Parliament in existence enjoining burial 
in woollen, in order to stimulate the trade in it. 
There is the annexed paraphrase of Pope's lines in 

'Carmina Qaadragesimalia,' Volumen Secundum, 
Oxonii, 1748, which may be worth citation : 

A n Idem semper agat Idem t Affr. 
Talibus affatur flentem Narcissa ministram, 

Fatalem traheret ctm moribunda diem 
Non humili pompa tristes celebrare peremptae 

Exequias, tuushic ultimue esto labor. 
Veetiri scabra nolim vel mortua lana ; 

Exanimis palla versicolore tegar. 
Turn caput exornet subtili stamine limbus, 

Quern Bruxellenses implicuere nurus. 
Et quoniam turpe eat ipsum pallere cadaver, 

Dextra tua assuetas ponat in ore rosas. 
Narciesas semper comptse, semperque venustae 

Prima fuit, fuerit cura suprema decor. P. 57. 

A MS. note in my copy of the book attributes this 
version to William Markham, afterwards head 
master of Westminster School, and subsequently 
Archbishop of York. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Thomas Thirlebye, " the first and last Bishop " 
of Westminster, who was translated to Norwich in 
Edward VI.'s reign, was buried in St. Mary's 
Church, Lambeth, in a silk cap adorned with point 

It appears, from an account in Allen's 'Lam- 
beth,' that his grave was opened for the interment 
of Archbishop Cornwallis. The gravedigger found 
a coffin shaped something like a horse-trough, made 
of lead, and it had all the appearance of never 
having been covered with wood : 

11 The body, which was wrapped in fine linen, was 
moist, and had evidently been preserved in some species 
of pickle, which etill retained a volatile smell, not un- 
like that of hartshorn ; the flesh was preserved, and had 
the appearance of a mummy ; the face was perfect, and 
the limbs flexible ; the beard of a remarkable length, 
and beautifully white. The linen and woollen garments 

were all well preserved A slouched hat, with 

strings fastened to it, was under the left arm. There 
was also a cassock, so fastened as to appear like an apron 
with strings, and several small pieces of the bishop's 
garments, which had the appearance of a pilgrim's 
habit."-P. 112. 

Archbishop Cornwallis was buried in an adjoin- 
ing grave. PAUL BIERLEY, 

PRESAGING DEATH (8 th S. v. 408). Burton 
probably refers to the floating blocks or logs that 
were seen on a lake at Brereton, in Cheshire, 
before the death of the head of the family of 
Brereton. In the 'Seven Wonders of England* 
Sir Philip Sidney wrote : 
The Bruertons have a lake, which when the sun 
Approaching, warms not else ; dead logs up sends 
From hideous depth : which tribute, when it ends ; 
Sore sign it is, the lord's last thread is spun. 

Camden also reports (' Britannia,' Gibson's edition, 
vol. i. p. 677): 

" Here is one thing exceeding strange, but attested in 
my hearing by many persons and commonly believ'd. 
Before any heir of this [Brereton] family dies, there are 
seen in a lake adjoyning the bodies of trees swimming on 
the water for several days together." 

8* h S. VI, JULY 21, : 94.] 



In the eleventh song of ' Polyolbion,' Drayton 
mentions : 

that black ominous mere 

Accounted one of those that England's wonders make; 
Of neighbours, Black-mere nam'd, of strangers, Brereton' 

lake ; 

Whose property seems far from reason's way to stand : 
For, near before his death that 's owner of the land, 
She sends up stocks of trees, that on the top do float ; 
By which the world her first did for a wonder note. 

Admirers of Mrs. Hemans will remember that she 
has a poem on the subject. ST. SWITHIN. 

Burton, in speaking of " those blocks in Cheshire 
which (they say) presage death to the master 01 
the family," probably refers to the legend of the 
old family of Brereton, of Brereton, in Cheshire. 
There is a chapter on " The Brereton Death Omen ; 
in ' Cheshire Gleanings,' by William E. A. Axon 
Manchester, 1884. It begins (p. 84) with the 
following quotation : 

" When any Heir in the Worshipful Family of the 
Breertons in Cheshire is neer his Death there are seen 
in the Pool adjoyning Bodies of Trees swimming for 
certain days together." Increase Mather: 'Cases of 
Conscience concerning Evil Spirits,' 1693. 

Reference is made to Camden, who mentions the 
legend in his 'Britannia' (Gough's edit., 1789, 
vol. ii. p. 425). Speaking of the river Croke, 
"which, rising out of Bagmere lake, runs by 
Brereton," Camden cites a somewhat similar 
legend of a stew pond near the Abbey of St. 
Maurice, in Burgundy. Mr. Axon then gives a 
poem by Felicia Hemans, called 'The Vassal's 
Lament for the Fallen Tree.' He then says : 

" The Brereton family have now passed away. The 
death omen is alluded to in Sir Philip Sidney's ' Seven 
Wonders of England,' and the late Major Egerton Leigh 
made it the subject of a poem in his ' Cheshire Ballads.' " 

Several analogies are given. 

The note to Egerton Leigh's ballad ' The Death 
Omen' says: 

" The mere known by the three names mentioned as 
above, and quoted by Fuller two hundred years since, as 
the only wonder in Cheshire, and specially noticed by 
Drayton in his ' Polyolbion,' published in 1613, is par- 
tially drained and its mysteries vanished. In Sir Philip 
Sydney's 'Seven Wonders of England' we find the 
following : 

The Breretons have a lake which, when the sun 
Approaching warms (not else) dead logs up sends 
From hideous depth, which tribute when it ends, 
Sore sign it is the lord's last thread is spun." 

The three names referred to are Blackmere, Brere- 
ton's Lake, and Bagmere. At the head of the 
ballad is : 

Of neighbours Blackmere named of strangers Brereton's 
lake. Drayton, 

See ' Ballads and Legends of Cheshire,' Longmans 
& Co., London, 1867 (collected by Egerton Leigh), 
p. 262. ' The Death Omen' is by Egerton Leigh 
Mention of the legend is made in " A Cavalier's 

Note Book, being Notes of William Blundell, 

of Crosby, Lancashire, Esquire, Captain of Dra- 
goons in the Royalist Army of 1642, edited by 

the Rev. T. Ellison Gibson, London, Longmans, 
Green & Co., 1880," p. 301, as follows : 

"Mr. Camden speaks of the prodigious floating of 
certain fatal blocks as predicting the death of the heirs 
of the family of the Breertons. I never heard the thing 
contradicted, saving that in a long discourse which an, 
ancient lady of that house made of that subject to 
Sherlotta, Countess of Derby, I heard her say that she 
did not give much credit to it. Yet she seemed to 
ground her disbelief too much upon one late imposture 
proved upon the boatmen of the place, who had drawn 
much people together, and gotten some money from 
them, by playing a knavish trick. The truth of the 
main matter may be worth the search." 

A friend of mine tells me that the fatal blocks 
were not whole trunks of trees, but "stous" 
(rhyming with " brows "). A " stou " is Cheshire 
for a stool, where a tree or shrub has been cut 
down, and from which suckers have sprung if left 
in the ground. See Egerton Leigh's ' Glossary of 
Words used in the Dialect of Cheshire,' 1877. 
Lysons's ' Magna Britannia,' " County of Chester," 
1810, p. 374, says : 

" The present representative in the female line [of the> 
Breretons of Brereton] is the lady of Abraham Brace- 
bridge. Esq., of Atheraton, in Warwickshire, who occa- 
sionally resides in the old mansion at Brereton." 

Brereton Hall is about two miles south of Holmes 
Chapel, on the road between Knutsford and Church 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 

308, 397). As the church keys which came under 
my notice were far more cumbrous than the cotton 
reel accompanying them, it does not appear likely 
that it was tied to them simply for the purpose 
of preventing their being mislaid or pocketed by- 
accident. Possibly there may be two motives 
underlying the custom of tying various things to 
>unches of keys the one arising from the idea 
,hat it secures them from loss by carelessness, and 
he other grounded on the notion that it is lucky. 

Will MR. PENNY be kind enough to say whether 

he old woman possessing the witch-stones was a 

native of Stixwould ; and if not, in what part of the 

world she was " insensed " with traditional respect 

or their virtues. T. R. E. N. T. 

Supposing that there is some charm or mystic 
meaning attached to these, mention ought to be 
made of a very remarkable one which once existed 
n Orkney, amongst the standing stones of Stenni?, 
Between Kirkwall and Stromness. This was a 
arge obelisk, perforated by a large hole, and 
ailed the Stone of Odin, through which lovers 
vere accustomed to plight their troth by joining, 
heir hands. The Odin stone, long the favourite 
rysting-place of Orcadian lovers, was carried away 
n 1814 by a neighbouring farmer, who used it in- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. JULY 21, *. 

the erection of a cow-house, or what is called in 
those regions a " cattle-byre." The betrothal eas- 
tern is alluded to by Sir Walter Scott in his fine 
novel * The Pirate': 

" ' Hear me,' said Minna. ' I will bind myself to you, 
if you will dare accept such an engagement, by the 
promise of Odin, the most sacred of our Northern rites 
which are yet practised among us, that I will never 
favour another, until you resign the pretensions which I 
have given to you. Will that satisfy you? for more I 
cannot, more I will not give.' "Chapter xxii. 

This scene occurs in Shetland ; but it is men- 
tioned that the troth must be plighted in Orkney, 
at the ancient circle of Stennis. Notes P and 
U, at the end of the story, give a more full 
explanation. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I have recently been told by an auctioneer that 
some years since he was employed to value the 
furniture in a public-house, which was about 
changing hands, at Shenfield, Essex, and on going 
through one of the bed-rooms he noticed a chalk 
flint stone, with a hole through it, suspended over 
one of the beds. The lady informed him, in reply 
to his inquiry as to the object of it, that her lodger 
who occupied the bed was subject to rheumatism, 
and that he had hung up the stone as a remedy 
against it. THOMAS BIRD. 


In Yorkshire there exists some sort of super 
stition with regard to these perforated stones 
While looking through a * Glossary of Yorkshire 
Words and Phrases,' collected in Whitby and the 
neighbourhood, I met with the following : 

"'Holy-stone,' a flint or pebble in its natural state 
with a hole through it, numbers of which are found on 
our coast. They are also called ' lucky stonea,' and are 
hung by a string to the street-door key to insure pro 
eperity to the house and its inmates, as the horseshoe i 
nailed behind the door for the same purpose." 

I myself remember, while staying at an Eas 
Coast seaside resort, hearing a child who had dis 
covered such a stone as is mentioned in the abov 
call it a " lucky stone." C. P. HALE. 

v. 368, 496).!. Ralph Newbery. See Gray' 
1 Index to Hazlitt's Collections and Notes,' 1893 
p. 539, where are references to a large nurnbe 
of books with his imprint from 1559/60 to 1600 
Arber's ' List of London Publishers,' 1553-1640 
p. 22 ; British Museum Catalogue of Early Englis 
Books to 1640, vol. iii. p. 1768 ; Timperley's ' Die 
tionary of Printers,' 1839, pp. 441, 455; Ames's 
'Typographical Antiquities,' ed. Herbert^ 1786, 
vol. ii. p. 900-918. 

2. Thomas Newberie. British Museum Cata- 

logue of Early English Books to 1640, vol. ii. 

p. 955, has "A briefe Homily right use of the 

Lords Supper Imprinted for T. Newberie, 

London, 1580." A Thomas Newbery wrote 

Dives Pragmaticus,' 1563 (a copy in Althorp> 
Library, according to Hazlitt's ' Handbook,' 1867,, 
, 416). G, J. GRAY. 

5, Downing Place, Cambridge. 

BANDED MAIL (8 th S. v. 448). Only five effigies* 
with banded mail are known. 1. That of Sii 

lobert de Keynes in Dodford Church, near 

Weedon, d. 1305 (' Effigies in Northamptonshire/ 
by A. Hartshorne, 1876, p. 38). 2. The De Solny 
effigy, temp. Ric. II. (' Ancient Armour,' &c., by 
J. Hewitt, vol. i. p. 263). 3. One in Tewkesbury 
Abbey Church. 4. One in Kirstead Abbey (Arch. 
Journal, vol. xl. p. 299. 5. The effigy of Sir Wm. 

Payne in the Church of Tollard Royal, described 
(1890) by General Pitt Rivers, F.R.S., and illus- 

irated with six drawings. The chausses, hauberk, 
and coif are of banded mail. Vide ' King John's 
House, Tollard Royal, Wilts,' by General Pitt 

Rivers, F.R.S., F.S.A., 1890, in which book further 
information on the subject will be found. 


If I remember rightly, I saw on June 9, in the 
Oxford Journal, in a glance at a notice of St. 
Mary's Church, that one of the figures which have 
been taken from the tower in the course of the 
repairs has "banded armour." 


" IRON " (8 S. v. 327, 474). 
I 'm sorry that I can't agree 
With the remarks of C. K. T., 
Who says the " r in iron 's mute," 
Which shows he lacketh ears acute. 
Tho' " iron " rhymeth not with " Byron," 
No more doth " try on " with " environ." 
" Lion," of course, may rhyme with " scion, ' 
But not with " iron," though with " Zion." 
" Iron " pronounced is as " iurn," 
And so it rhymes with " my " or " thy urn "; 
But perhaps the r to Southern ears 
And tongues is nil, and disappears. 


Does MR. WARREN mean to say that in common 
every- day speech he pronounces "iron" as it is 
written, or hears it so pronounced ? I suppose the 
every-day speech of educated people is, after all, 
the only true guide to pronunciation. 

I cannot say that I think "Sion" a perfect 
rhyme to "iron." Unless my ear is very faulty, 
the true sound of the latter word is " iern." 

C. C. B. 

FCJRNESS ABBEY (8 th S. v. 348, 474). Dug- 
dale and all other writers got their information 
from the Furness Coucher Book, which was com- 
piled A.D. 1412. The first volume of this work 
has recently been republished by the Chetham 
Society. In vol. i. fol. 8, we are informed that 

the abbey was founded A.D. 1127, "in loco Vallis 
qui tune Bekansguyll vocabatur," which means in 
English, " in a valley which was at that time called 
' Bekansguyll '"; and in a metrical description of 

8 th S. VI JULY 21, '94.] 



the abbey composed by a monk named Richarc 

Esk, he says, 

Haec vallis tcnuit olim sibi nomen ab herba 
Bekan qua viruit dulcis nunc tune acerba 
Inde Dona us nomen " Bekanesgill " claruit ante 
Jam patriae tantse nomen sortitur et omen. 

In English 

" Thia valley took its name a long time ago from the 
herb Bekan, the bittersweet, where it flourished. Thence 
the name of the house ' Bekan's gill ' was known afore- 
time. Now it receives the auspicious name* for so im 
portant a dwelling place." 

From the foregoing it appears that the vale 
was named Bekansgill before the arrival of the 
monks (1127), They finding an abundance of 
woody nightshade or bittersweet, renamed it " The 
Vale of Nightshade." Now the name Bekan 
cannot be found in any modern or obsolete 
language as the name of a plant, therefore it must 
be understood that the fact of the finding of woody 
nightshade when the monks arrived or the dis- 
covery of plants of the "deadly nightshade " since 
can have no real connexion with the title Bekans- 
gill given to the valley. How, then, has the name 
originated ? Is it not possible, nay very probable, 
that the name Bekan, which can only be found in 
Cleasby's * Icelandic Dictionary ' as a surname of 
Gaelic origin, is responsible for the creation of this 
title ? It is well known that the Norsemen occupied 
Furness before the Norman Conquest, as is proved 
by the Doomsday Survey. THOS. K. FELL. 

Barrow- in- Furness. 

Your correspondent at the second reference 
states that " Bekan is a Scandinavian proper name, 
and the origin of the English surname Bacon. " Is 
this correct ? Of. Bardsley's ' English Surnames,' 
1875, p. 491 : 

" I am afraid of the connexion of ideas that gave rise 
to such sobriquets as were represented by ' Alice le Hog,' 
'John le Bacun,' 'William le Gryse,' 'Gilbert Gait,' 
' Walter Pigge,' ' Roger Sugge,' ' Richard le Bor ' (Boar), 
Richard Wildbore,' 'John Pork,' and 'John Parcel!' 
( little porker, that is), is not of the pleafanteat." 

For " John le Bacun " he refers to ' Excerpta e 
Rotulis Finium in Turri Londinensi.' 


I presume the plant spoken of as growing in 
Furness Abbey is the Solarium dulcamara, or 
woody nightshade, belonging to the order Solanaceee. 
This is a common British plant, but is only in a 
minor degree poisonous, and is not what is usually 
known as " deadly nightshade." It is, I am aware, 
so called in Bentham's ' Handbook of the British 
Flora/ but in Bentiey's * Manual of Botany,' the 
* British Pharmacopoeia/ and all other books 
that I am acquainted with, this name is applied, 
and much more appropriately, to the highly 
poisonous Atropa belladonna, of the order Atrc- 
paceae, the plant employed in medicine under the 

* St. Mary's Fumes?. 

name of belladonna, and not very common in this 
country. J. FOSTER PALMER. 

434, 511). Apropos of the custom of eggs being 
exhibited in churches, the following excerpt may r 
perhaps, be admissible, though not strictly speak- 
ing relevant with regard to ostrich eggs : 

" It was at this period that a hen laid a miraculous egg 
on the High Altar of the Cathedral [at Lisbon] bearing 
in raised characters the words ' Death to the French.' In 
a few minutes the anathematizing egg was conveyed to- 
Head Quarters and estimated at its real value as an ill 
executed deception on the part of the priests. Junot 
laughed at the incident, sent for a quantity of eggs and 
directed his aides-de-camp to write on each of them in, 
grease that the former egg was a liar, immersed them in 
acid, and the next morning sent these eggs with their 
inscriptions in relief to all the altars in Lisbon together 
with a recipe for the performance of the miracle." 
'Memoirs of Madame d'Abrantes,' English edition of 
1893, vol. iv. p. 69. 

See also a different account of the exhibition of 
miraculous eggs in the churches given in Napier's- 
' Peninsular War,' vol. i. p. 153, edition of 1835. 

K. B. 

LADY DANLOVE (8 th S. v. 88). At the above 
reference I inserted a query regarding a supposed 
" Lady Danlove." It elicited no reply ; and no 
wonder. The spelling I gave on the strength of 
the Rev. F. H. Fisher's * Endowed Charities of ye 
Antiente Parishe of Fulham,' printed by that 
gentleman from the original MS., which I had not 
then seen. In going through the rate book for 
1628-36, I got at the bottom of the mystery. 
Under " ffulham streete " there is rated for these 
years the Lady Vanlore. Evidently the late 
vicar mistook the old-fashioned V for a D, which 
it much resembles, while the German form of the 
r passed muster for a v, and so poor Lady Vanlore 
appeared as Lady Danlove, an impossible person- 
age. Faulkner, I now notice, gives the name as 
"Lady Vanlowe." My own examination of the 
MS. has convinced me that there is not a particle 
of doubt that the true reading is "Vanlore." In 
the 1636 assessment I find, " The executors of the 
Ladie Vanlore or tennants " are rated, so that her 
death must have occurred just before, as her lady- 
ship is duly rated fcr 1635. 

I do not know when her will was proved, but it 
seems to have been made shortly before her death. 
I should much like to discover it, as it may throw 
ight on some very interesting points now involved 
in obscurity. 

Lady Vanlore was Jacoba or Jacomina, daughter 
of Henry Teighbot, of London, merchant stranger, 
and wife of Sir Peter Vanlore, Knt, a Dutch 
merchant, naturalized by Act of Parliament. ID 
the Chelsea registers I find that "The ritte 
worshipful Lady Wanlore " was buried April 30 t 
1636, a date which just fits in with my Fulham 



[8">S. VI JULT 21, '94. 

The fourth daughter of Sir Peter and Lady Van- 
lore, Mary, was married to Sir Edward Powell, 
Bart., of Munster House, Fulham, and Pengethly, 
co. Hereford. 

As Sir Ed. Powell does not come into the Ful- 
ham rating till 1639, it seems very probable that 
Lady Vanlore may have been his predecessor at 
Munster House. I shall be glad of any informa- 
tion concerning Lady Vanlore, and especially of any 
facts which may help to show the circumstances of 
her connexion with Fulham. 


49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

N.B. Mr. Fisher writes me, in reply to a note 
of mine, drawing his attention to the " Danlove " 
error : " Danlowe is clearly my mistake ; both 
Faulkner and myself copied from the same book, 
viz., the old Benefaction Book, of whose strange 
fortunes you know. If you look at it, I hope you 
will find some justification for my blunder." 

" THE KING'S HEAD" (8 th S. vi. 7). This sign 
was not adopted for inns on account of the be- 
heading of King Charles I., as there is an earlier 
instance of its use by nearly a century. When 
Princess (afterwards Queen) Elizabeth left the 
Tower, Nov. 17, 1558, she first thanked God in 
the church of All Hallows Staining for her 
deliverance from prison, and then proceeded to 
the " King's Head," in Fenchurch Street, where, it 
is stated, she dined on pork and peas. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

I should doubt if any innkeeper would have 
used so grim a sign as the detruncated head of 
Charles I., save, perhaps, a Puritan whose con- 
science did not forbid him to sell liquor. Mr. 
M. A. Lower (in the "Suss, Arch. Colls.," x. 189) 
points out that 
" the King's Head in West Street, Brighton, so named 
from the fact of King Charles [II.] having taken 

temporary shelter there had previously been called 

the George/' 


As an inn sign I fail to see why any one (save 
Mr. Dick) should connect the "King's Head" 
with Charles T. The question arises, When were 
tavern signs first used in England ? " Queens' 
Heads," "Dukes' Heads," &c., abound, just as 
King Streets, Queen Streets, and Duke Streets 
abound. JAMES HOOPER. 


The * History of Signboards/ by Jacob Larwood 
and John Camden Hotten, London, 1868, p. 305 
chap, x., on "Dignities," &c., states : 

"Among the latter, the King's Head and Queen'a 
Head stand foremost, and none were more prominen 
types than Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, even foi 
more than two centuries after their decease." 

[t also mentions that Princess (afterwards 
Queen) Elizabeth, after returning thanks for her 
deliverance from prison (Nov. 17, 1558) at the 
church of All Hallows Staining, went to the 
'' King's Head " in Fenchurch Street, and dined 
on pork and peas. These signs were set up as 
tributes of respect to the persons whose portraits 
were painted thereon. The book is worth 
perusing, especially by those interested in the 
signboards of the past. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

"NciTS IN MAY" (8 th S. v. 319, 426). MR. 
3. M. BATSON'S suggestion does not at all fit in 
with the version of this game with which I am 
most familiar, the one commonly used in and near 
Liverpool. The words run thus : 

Here we come gathering nuts in May, 

Nuts in May, nuts in May, 
Here we come gathering nuta in May, 

On a fine summer's morning. 

Who (sic) will you have for your nuts in May, 

Nuts in May, nuts in May, 
Who will you have for your nuts in May, 

On a fine summer's morning 1 
And so on. 

I do not think children would ever ask 

Who will you have for your nuts aw ay 
the phrase is not a likely one at all. On the other 
hand, " knot" is still in common use as a synonym 
for " bunch," and bunches of may would not be 
more out of season in summer than nuts themselves. 
If I remember rightly, Mrs. Gomme has other 
authority than her own for referring this game to 
marriage by capture. C. C. B. 

In my 'Traditional Games' (vol. i. p. 426), MR. 
BATSON will find that a version "gathering nuts 
away," sent me from Newbury, Berk?., by Mrs. S. 
Batson, is given. It is much more probable that 
" gathering nuts away " is a modern alteration of 
"nuts and may" to " make sense "of the words 
than the reverse, the rest of the words and the 
method of playing being practically the same. Oat 
of the very large number of versions of this game 
sent me from different parts of the country, by far 
the larger number is " nuts in May " and " nuts 
and may." I do not attribute much importance 
to the word "nuts" in considering the probable 
meaning and origin of the game ; and my theory 
that it owes its origin to a survival of the custom 
of marriage by capture is derived from the method 
of playing the game and all the words. These 
taken together show that this is a contest game, 
but differing from ordinary contest games in the 
fact that one party does not wage war against the 
opposite party for possession of a particular piece 
of ground or for the purpose of taking prisoners, 
but individual against individual for the possession 
of an individual. One player is selected for cap- 
ture and another player is de6nitely appointed ta 
capture or "fetch her away," this player being 

8 g. VI. JULY 21, '94.] 



expected in the larger number of cases to be 
always successful. Further evidence is given 
(pp. 430-432) of its probable connexion with the 
custom and the May festivals. The way in which a 
game is played is often older than the words said 
or sung. These frequently get altered when their 
meaning is forgotten and other words take their 
place. It is only when all the words of a game 
and the way in which it is played are considered 
together, and this of more than one version, that 
an opinion can well be formed as to its meaning 
and origin. The survival in custom of marriage 
by capture is surely too well known for surprise to 
be expressed at the suggestion that it is to be 
found in children's games, this being exactly the 
place where we should expect to find traces of it. 
Children playing at gathering fruit of any kind 
would not be at all likely to invent a game like 
"Nuts and May" for the purpose. I may add 
that an ordinary version (" Nuts and May ") was 
sent me by another correspondent from Newbury. 
This will show MR. BATSON that " nuts away " is 
not even universal in that place. I think, too, 
that your correspondent, before becoming a critic 
of my views, might at least have looked at the 
book itself, to ascertain what evidence, if any, was 
given in support of them. ALICE B. GOMME. 

Your correspondent does not state in what part 
of the countiy he has heard the variant "nuts 
away." This variant is new to me, though I have 
frequently heard children singing 

Here we come gathering nuts in May. 

In Mr. G. F. Northall's 'English Folk-Rhymes' 
(p. 386) is the remark : 

"As nuts do not grow in May, the phrase may 
possibly have been ' knots [of flowers] in May ' or 

"knots of may' [the hawthorn blossom] However, 

extravagances are common in folk rhymes." 


PRINCE OF WALES, 1805 (8 th S. vi. 9). In 
1783 the 10th Dragoons became the " 10th or 
Prince of Walea's own Regiment of Light Dra- 
goons," and in the following year the colour of the 
jackets was changed from red to blue. His Royal 
Highness was in 1793 appointed commandant of 
the regiment ; 1805, the date of the engraving 
inquired about by R. J. F., was the last year of 
its appearance as a Light Dragoon Regiment ; and 
this print represents H.R.H. as a 10th Light 
Dragoon previous to its change into Hussars. The 
jacket should be blue, with red facings. 


WILSON (8 th S. v. 448). No place bearing this 
name will be found in Northumberland (England), 
but there is a town in Northumberland, New Bruns- 
wick, lat. 47 N., long. 65 37' W.; also another 
in Carolina, United States. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Dictionary oj National Biography. Edited by Sidney 

Lee. Vol. XXXIX. (Smith, Elder & Co.) 
WHILE memories are still fresh of the honours paid the 
publisher of the < Dictionary of National Biography ' 
the thirty-ninth volume makes its appearance with cus- 
tomary and exemplary punctuality. The letter M, one 
of the most exacting as regards space, has now appeared, 
and half the letters of the alphabet, including nearly 
all the most important, are completed. Neither the late 
nor the present editor occupies much space in a volume 
largely taken up by Mortimers, Mowbraye, Murrays, 
and Musgraves. The most interesting life supplied by 
Mr. Sidney Lee ia that of Edward Moxon, a man of no 
special attainments or importance. Moxon's associa- 
tions with Lamb, Wordsworth, Talfourd, Tennyson, and 
others assign him a reflected splendour, and his marriage 
to Emma Isola, Lamb's adopted daughter, is an in- 
teresting feature in his life. " Puny " is the adjective 
Mr. Lee accepts as appropriately applied to Moxon's 
verse. Moxon, however, himself held a recognized 
position in literary society, and as the " discriminating 
patron of young or little-known poets " deserves to be 
remembered. Pynes Moryson, of the Itinerary, has also 
been selected by Mr. Lee, who describes him as "a sober 
and truthful writer, without imagination or much 
literary skill," and speaks of his work as " invaluable 
to the social historian." Thomas Morgan, the Catholic 
conspirator and faithful and devoted servant of Mary 
Stuart, is in the same hands. His life is sufficiently 
romantic. A personal interest attaches to Mr. Stephen's 
life of James Augustus Cutter Morison, who, besides 
being the friend of Mr. Leslie Stephen, was that of 
most modern men of English letters. Morison's ambi- 
tions were greater than his powers, but he had an 
original and a very attractive personality. The only 
other life by Mr. Stephen we have is the brief life of 
Thomas Morgan the Deist. Moxon is not the only pub- 
lisher dealt with in the volume, since three John 
Murrays grandfather, father, and son are included 
in the volume. The first two of the name are brightly 
depicted by Dr. Garnett, while the third is in" the 
hands of Mr. Thomas Seccombe. Another paper of 
high interest by Dr. Garnett is the life of Dinah Mulock 
(Mrs. Craik), the author of John Halifax, Gentleman.' 
Dr. Garnett had some knowledge of the lady in ques- 
tion, concerning whom he writes very sympathetically. 
Mr. Seccombe's position on the 'Dictionary' enables 
him to send in many biographies of high importance, 
the best of all and the most interesting being, perhaps, 
Anthony Munday, actor, poet, and dramatist. Very 
much curious and valuable information is herein 
appended, and the list of works is of great importance. 
Among other valuable lives by Mr. Seccombe is the bio- 
graphy of Capt. Morris, the author of ' Lyra Urbanica' 
and the inventor of the well-known phrase, " The sweet 
shady side of Pall Mall." Motteux, the translator of 
Rabelais, is the subject of a capital life by Mr. Aitken, 
and Sir Thomas Morgan, the coadjutor of Monck, of a 
second, no less excellent, by Mr. C. H. Firth. In addition 
to his lives of sailors, Prof. Laughton depicts the 
romantic, if execrable, career of Sir Henry Morgan, the 
buccaneer. Mr. J. M. Rigg sends many lives of import- 
ance, including that of Lord Mansfield ; and Mr. W. P 
Courtenay's list is headed by Morritt, the friend of Scott 
Canon Venables supplies a valuable record concerning 
Thomas Musgrave, and a second concerning Thomas 
Morton, both of them ecclesiastics. Mulready, with 
many other painters, is dealt with by Mr, Cosmo Monk- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ th s. VI.JULT 21/94. 

house : " Lucretius " Munro ia in the hands of Mr. Duff, 
and Mudie in those of Mr. Boase. Mr. Thoma 3 Bayne a 
Scottish writers include men of mark, as Motherwell 
and Alexander Murray. Prof. Tout senda numerous 
lives of Mortimers, and Mr. Tait of Mowbraya. Mr. 
ust, Mr. Russell Barker, and Mr. Graves are well 

The Coinage of the European Continent. With an Intro- 
duction and Catalogues of Mints, Denominations, and 
Rulers. By VV. Carew Hazlitt. (Sonnenechein & Co.) 
MR. HAZLITT ia the author and compiler of many books 
of very varying degrees of merit. In dealing with the 
works of so voluminous an author, some of whose 
productions we do not claim to Lave read, it would be 
very unsafe for us to institute comparisons. We are 
bound, however, to Bay that, BO far as we know hia 
writings, the volume before ua seems to be the most 
thoughtful. We are certain it will appeal to a far wider 
circle of readers than any of the others with which we 
ihave come in contact. It is well worthy of a place on 
the same shelf with Hawkins's ' Silver Coins of England,' 
a work which has no superior in numismatic literature 
for accuracy and minutenesa of detail. It is, we need 
not say, written on a different plan. Embracing as it 
does the coinages of the whole of Europe, with the 
exception of the British Isles, it waa not within the 
.limits of possibility to give for any one state the elaborate 
details which Mr. Hawkins furnished for England. No 
human life would have been long enough for such a task, 
: and no collection in this country, public or private, con- 
tains the necessary material. Even in the more modeat 
limits by which Mr. Hazlitt has circumscribed himself, 
we are puzzled to know where he baa found some of the 
-pieces he haa figured and described. They are every 
one of them, he tells us, in his own cabinets ; but that 
-removes the difficulty only one stage further back. We, 
in our ignorance, had conceived it to be well-nigh im- 
possible to have made such a gathering without visiting 
every town between Lisbon and Moscow. The platea 
are of a high order of merit. On the one hand, they do 
not cause the moneys to look better than they are ; and 
on the other, they do not reproduce the rude barbarisms 
of the old coin-books, where every object engraved haa the 
same uniform character of ungainly ugliness. We need 
not, indeed, limit ourselves to the illustrations of former 
-days. In the ' Dictionnaire de Numismatique,' pub- 
lished some forty years ago in the great series of works 
of reference issued by the Abbe Migne, we find some 
-engravings which would have disgraced a book-illustrator 
.of the seventeenth century. 

Mr. Hazlitt's volume will prove very useful to many 
of our readers who have not a single old coin belonging 
to them. The dated list which he gives of European 
.rulers will be useful to every one engaged in historical 
studies. The value of tables of this kind depends on 
.their accuracy. We have, so far as our own knowledge 
extends, tested them carefully, and have found no errors. 
The glossary of the names of coins haa been very care- 
ifully compiled. It will be of wide usefulness. We doubt 
if any one of our readers can remember the interpretation 
of all the various names which coins have borne during 
-the last twelve hundred years of European history. 

The First Divorce of Henry VII J., as (old in the State 

Papers. By Mrs. Hope. Edited by Francis Aidan 

Gasquet. D.D., O.S.B. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 

THE late Mrs. Hope was well known in Roman Catholic 

circles as a careful and picturesque writer. Her works 

on the early Christian martyrs and on the conversion of 

the Pranks evidence much research and an independence 

of judgment which was very praiseworthy. The book 

before us is of high character. Unhappily, its author 

died before she was able to revise it for the press. This 
is to be deplored ; for although Father Gasquet ia an 
excellent editor, we cannot doubt that had Mrs. Hope 
lived to see it through the preaa the information on 
some points would have been fuller than we now find it. 

The idea of giving a history of Henry's divorce from 
Eatherine undisturbed by any of the many side isaues 
which arose from it is an admirable one. The latter 
years of the reign f Henry VIII. are so encum- 
bered by contending parties and principles that it is 
well-nigh impossible for any one but a student who is 
willing to devote yeara to the task to arrive at a distinct 
view of what was really occupying the minds of men at 
any given period. The separation of the divorce pro- 
ceedings and intrigues from all irrelevant matter haa 
been most useful; for whether we take the author's 
view or not aa to the characters of the many persona 
who played their parts in that long and tedious litiga- 
tion, we cannot but feel that the society in which such 
duplicity and perjury could take place was perhaps viler 
than at any other period of our history. The hearts of 
the common people were sound ; but among the nobles 
and the more powerful ecclesiastics there were very few 
indeed who seem to have understood what common 
honesty signified. 

The picture Mrs. Hope haa given of Gardiner ia not 
favourable. Roman Catholic writers have been wont to 
praise him on account of hia zeal for Queen Mary and 
the restored Roman Church, forgetting, or casting into 
shadow, his conduct in her father's time. How far he 
was honest in the earlier period it is not for us to deter- 
mine. He may have thought as undoubtedly many 
honest men did that Henry waa entitled to a divorce ; 
but cannot have considered his violence to the Pope, 
whom he regarded ae his ecclesiastical superior, as in 
any way to be justified by the manners of the time. 

All historians worthy of the name, whatever may have 
been their views regarding this great ecclesiastical " law 
plea," have been unanimous in representing Queen 
Katherme's character as marked by a deep sense of 
personal dignity. We dp not remember ever before to 
have seen her character illustrated so fully. The cruel 
sufferings she endured, almost without complaint, ought 
to give her a high place in the hearts of all Englishmen. 
We have but one fault to find with the editor. He has 
not compiled an index. We trust that when a second 
edition is called for he will supply this deficiency. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the. sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

J, H. HARRISON (" Nelson Relic "). Not traceable. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings. Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8> S. VI. JULY 28, '94.] 





NOTES : John Lilburne : a Bibliography" Conservative," 
61 Parliamentary Polls, 63 " Cockney "" Punch " 
The Skull of Sir T. Browne, 64 Temperature where the 
Dead lie The Queen's Great-grandson Iron and Garlic 
" Boneshaw " St. Bennet's Langdale's ' System of Short- 
hand,' 65 " Alsike " " Ha-ha "Baffling for Bibles- 
William Taylor Holly Hunting Battle of Worcester, 66. 

QUERIES .Visiting Cards Celliwig Col. Keene Old 
Rhyme Fussell Gams Scratch-back, 67 Bolton Re- 
gent Street" Shoters hyll" and " Stangat hole" Trans- 
lation Blake " The Derby "Sheriffs of Leicestershire 
Despair' Ineen Dubh Militia Club, 68 Sir D. Carrel- 
Turner New Tunbridge Wells Tract Wanted Pistols, 69. 

REPLIES : Simon de Montfort Knights of the Carpet, 69 
Sir J. Birkenhead Races Ridden by Women Triplets- 
Thomson T. Kirkland, 70 Scotts of Essex English Pro- 
sody Green-wax Process Salisbury and other Closes 
Niece of J. W. Croker " Infant Charity "Source of Quo- 
tation " Carefully edited" Sir A. Burnes, 71 Eccle- 
siastical Ornaments Domrgmy " Bullifant " Prusias 
Galvani, 72 " Kiender " Deodand, 73 Delia Bacon 
15th Hussars" Jingo" Fathers of the House of Commons 
' History of the Popes ' Highland L.I. Regiment Cake- 
bread, 74 Scholarships in Johnson's Time Gingham 
Oxford M.P.s Wells on Dew Village Superstitions, 75 
" Ozenbridges " Guild of the Companions of the Ark 
" Whips " " Crying down the credit " Pin " Petti- 
fogging solicitors" Beating a Dog, &c., 76 Aerolites 
Italian Anthology " Tempora mutantur," &c. "A 
mutual friend" Holy Mr. Gifford, 77 Lemon Sole 
Apple-pie Bed The Mansion House Son of the Duke of 
York Bourchier Cleeve, 78 Authors Wanted, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Skeat's Chaucer,' Vol. III.-Hamil- 
ton's ' Dated Book-Plates ' Larminie's ' West Irish Folk- 
Tales ' Bellezza's 'Tennyson' Fletcher's 'Public Libraries 
in America ' ' Bibliographies,' Part II. Neilson's ' Peel.' 

(See 7<h S. v. 163, 242, 342, 424, 503.) 

Some variations in editions, dates, &c., and a 
few additions to MR. EDWARD PEACOCK'S valuable 
bibliography of Lilburne are perhaps worth noting. 
To avoid repetition I state in each case the number 
of the page in ' N. &Q.': 

P. 163. 'Liberty Vindicated.' For "of England" 
read " and common freedomes of the people." Add 
at end "28 of the 17 month." According to a 
contemporary MS. note, it appeared Aug. 21. 

P. 163. Add "To the Hoble the House of 

Commons now assembled The humble Petition 

of John Lilburne Leif Colonel." A single folio 
sheet ; no place or date, but probably 1645 ; 
describing his brave actions and losses, and 
petitioning for arrears due. Below, on same 
sheet, another earlier petition to House of Com- 
mons, praying to be released from the Fleet Prison 
and complaining of cruel treatment. From internal 
evidence, 1640. 

P. 242. Add "A Plea made by Liev Col John 
Lilburne, Prerogative Prisoner in the Tower of 
London the 2 of Decem. 1647, against the present 
proceedings of the close and illegal Committee of 
Lords and Commons, appointed to examin those 

that are called London Agents From my 

Arbitrary tyrannical and murthering imprisonment 

in the Tower of London this 2 of Decem 1647." 
A single folio sheet. 

P. 243. Add " Truths triumphed, or Treachery 

anatomized by John Wildman. London, 

Printed for Ja. Hornish, Feb. 1, 1647." Sm. 
4to., title and 18 pp. 

P. 342. 'A Manifestation.' Add at foot of 
title-page " Printed for W. Lamer ; and are to be 
sold at his shop in Bishops gate Street, at the 
signe of the Black-Moor. Ap. 14, 1649." 

P. 342. 'Walwins Wiles.' After "Col." read 
" John Lilburn, Mr. Will Walwin, Mr. Kichard 

Overton, and Mr, Tho. Prince By a Lover of 

the present and Eternall interest of Mankinde. 
April 23, 1649. Imprimatur, Henry Whalley. 
London, Printed for H. C. and L. L." 

P. 343. Add " Walwyns Just defence against 
the Aspertions cast upon him in a late un-christian 
Pamphlet entituled Walwyns Wiles. By William 
Walwyn, Merchant. London, Printed by H. Hils 

for W. Larnar MDCXLIX." Sm. 4to., title-page 

and 34 pp. 

P. 343. " A brief discourse." For " by K. L." 
read " Collected at the request of some friends for 
General Satisfaction. London, Printed by B. 
Alsop 1649." At end read " By L. B." 

P. 343. " To the Supreme authority." Read 
" and begins at p. 9." 

P. 424. Add "L. Colonel John Lilburne. His 

letter to his dearely beloved wife March 1652. 

Printed at Amsterdam, by L. I. Anno Domini 

1652." Sm. 4to., no title, 8 pp. This is evidently 
a translation from the Dutch tract in B.M. 

P. 503. Add " The Trial of Mr. John Lilburne 
at the Sessions House in the Old Bailey, on Wed- 
nesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday last 

With a Diurnal of all the Chief and Memorable 

Transactions since the 13 day of July to the 

13 of this instant August 1653 London, Printed 

for Gr. Horton 1653." Sm. 4to., 8 pp. 

P. 503. Add another (probably first) edition of 
*A Defensive declaration.' Sm. 4to., 8 pp., no 
title, printed in double columns, in Dutch and 
English, and without the " Additional Appendix." 

These are all in my library, and are very much 
at the disposal of MR. EDWARD PEACOCK if he 
wishes to see them. CHARLES L. LINDSAY. 


I take the following from the Quarterly Review 
for July, 1816 : 

" Perhaps if M. Simond had Been England under its 
present aspect, he might have thought that the danger 
was real as well as apparent. But there is a vis con- 
servatrix in the state, and the preventive means which 
exist are easy and effectual." P. 575. 

Besides the use (probably common) of the above 
phrase in scientific works, where vis = virtue, 
energy, potency, &c., I may remind the reader 
that vis is found as a synonym for Juno : 



Et eoror et conjux fratris regina Deum, Vis. 

Ausonius, Idyll. (' De Deis '). 

Conservatrix is also an epithet of Juno, so found 
in inscriptions. Conservative as an adjective is 
in Cicero ; and as a substantive masculine in 
Boethius, 6 Top. Arist., cf. 1 ibid. 13, et 2 ibid. 5 
(I take this reference, which I have not verified, 
from Forcellini). Conservatif as a political term 
is not found in Littre* (1872), but Bescherelle (1887) 
has the following : 

" Conservatif s, s.m. pi., Polit. nom. donne" quelquefois 
au parti des Tories Anglais, opposes aux Whigs reform- 

If the term was not used in a political sense in 
France before its introduction from England (as 
one would conclude from the silence of Littre and 
the quotation just given), there is a curious fact 
to be noted in regard to the above extract from the 
Quarterly. The passage is taken from an article 
' Works on England ' in the course of which M. 
Louis Simond's ' Journal of a Tour and Residence 
in Great Britain during the years 1810 and 1811,' 
Edinburgh, 1815, is noticed. 

M. Simond was a Frenchman, married to an 
Englishwoman. He had resided for twenty years 
in the United States, and his work, the fruit of a 
couple of years' sojourn here, was first published in 
English. The second edition, published at Paris in 
1817, is in French. The original English edition 
was printed partly from his English journal and 
partly from a translation of disquisitions, originally 
written in French, on our political institutions, 
&c. As many readers of ( N. & Q.' no doubt 
know, this work throws a very valuable light on 
the state of England in 1810-11. So much being 
premised, I now give a couple of quotations from 
this work : 

" What would the Parisians say to an affair like this 
in their Senat Conservatif; and of one of the members 
in grand costume giving battle to the door-keeper on the 
senatorial floor? "I. p. 65. 

In the second (French) edition the reading is : 
" Que dieaient lea Parieiens d'un coup de tete comme 
celui-la, au milieu du corps legislatif ! et d'un membre 
en grand costume, livrant bataille au portier, devant 
I'aseemblee auguste des eenateurs ! " 

On turning to Littre" I read, " Senat conservateur, 
corps ere* 6 en France par la constitution de Tan vii., 
et qui a e*te* rdtabli par le second empire." It would 
be interesting to get dated references, if such are 
known, to contemporary writings, where the "Senat 
conservateur " is loosely described as Conservatif. 
Am I right in suggesting that the word is a mis- 
take such a mistake as the writer modestly craves 
allowance for in his preface on the part of this 
clever and intelligent Franco-American ? From 
the date of the Quarterly article to the same review 
for January, 1830, I have no note of the use of 
the word in a political sense ; but from a cursory 
glance at the conservat- family in the ' N. E. D. 7 
one sees that there was a revival of the medical 

and scientific use shortly before that date, which 
seems to suggest that the word was flying about 
before 1830. 

The locus classicus is, of course, in Croker's 
article in the Quarterly for January, 1830, ' In- 
ternal Policy.' This has often been given already, 
but the reader may, perhaps, like to have it, with 
the other quotations that follow : 

"We despise and abominate the details of partizan 
warfare, but we now are, as we always have been, de- 
cidedly and conscientiously attached to what is called 
the Tory, and which might with more propriety be 

called the Conservative, party We have no hesitation 

in stating it to be our conviction that an immense 
majority of the Tories are as anxious to promote any 
prudent and practicable amelioration of the state as any 
of their fellow subjects." Quarterly Review. January. 
1830, p. 276. 

It took two or three years to establish the term 
as a recognized party name, as the following ex- 
tracts will show. At first it simply marked off the 
moderates from the ultras of both parties : 

" It would ill become those who desire to preserve the 
Conservative principle, to withhold, in circumstances 
like the present, on any mere party considerations, their 
cordial support from any Government which should 
evince a fixed determination to uphold the principle." 
Quarterly, February, 1831, p. 595. 

" My Lord, you are now on the Conservative side-. 
Minor differences of opinion are infinitely insignificant at 
this time, when, in truth, there are but two parties in 
this kingdom, the Revolutionists and the Loyalists." 
Southey to Brougham, Feb. 1, 1831. 

In the Anti-Canningite Blackwood the term is 
applied as follows, August, 1831 : 

"Lord Grey has openly declared in the House of Peers 
that it (i. e., the Reform Bill) was constructed on con- 
servative principles But on what grounds is their 

belief rested ? Is it on the signal success with which, 
in all the open places, tbey have overthrown the Conser- 
vative party, by raising the cry of Reform? (p. 290) 

But to what does the Bill amount, if this, the real view of 

the Conservative Whigs is well founded? (p. 293) Now, 

if the present crisis shall have caused the Conservative 
party to see their error, tbey may yet dissipate, by their 
union, the dangers which have been caused by their 
divisions. They now see what they have to expect from 
the professions of moderate reformers, when such men 
as Lord Palmerston and Charles Grant are found ready 
and willing, upon an energency, to lead off the first set 
in the gallopade of revolution." P. 312. 

"The Whigs called the meeting, the Radicals had 
their own way at it, and both have done what the Con- 
servative party would have wished them to do." 
Southey to Rickman, Oct. 14, 1831. 

"Mr. Byng, the Whig candidate for Middlesex, and 
Sir F. Burdett, the quondam- Radical representative of 
Westminster, have been, by the hostile pressure of their 
former friends and supporters, obliged to talk language 
more conservative than any real Conservative has dared 

to use and even the Times newspaper, hitherto the 

most effective and unhesitating advocate of the Bill, has 
been obliged to designate those whom it formerly 
glorified as Radicals, by the more appropriate and 
emphatic title of the Destructives." Quarterly, De- 
cember, 1832, Art. How will it Work ? ' p. 545. 

" He is for advancement to a certain point till his 
party comes in ; he then becomes a Conservative, lest 

8 S. VI. JULY 28, '94.] 



his party go out." Lytton, ( England and the English, 
'Illustrations of Character,' "Tom Whitehead" (the 
Preface is dated July, 1833). 

" Two causes militate against the compact solidity of 
this democratic body ; corruption is the first. A second 
cause is to be found in the establishment of Political 
Unions, or combinations under whatever name Chartist, 
Radical, or Conservative." Ibid., p. 274. 

Hookham Frere uses the term, as that of his 
own party, at about the same date as my last 
quotation. He subsequently said, however, that 
a Conservative was a Tory who was ashamed of 
his name (I am relying on memory). 

J. P. OWEN. 

48, Comeragh .Road, West Kensington. 


BEFORE 1832. 

(Continued from 8"> S. v. 204.) 


1702 JohnWilkins 2475 

Hon. John Verney 2457 

LordSherrard 2054 

Lord Roos 2020 

Polls in Smith, 1719, 1741, 1775, 1818, 1830. 


1654 William Stanley 41 

Sir Arthur Hazlerigg, Bart 35 

Grey 11 

Francis Hacker 2 

James Winstanley 2 

Cornelius Burton J. 

1656 Sir Arthur Hazlerigg, Bart. ... 53 

William Stanley 44 

Lord Grey 22 

James Winstanley 1 

1658 William Stanley 55 

Sir Arthur Hazlerigg, Bart 51 

Thomas Pochin 21 

Richard Ludlam 2 

1660 John Grey ... 63 

Thomas Armstrong 47 

Sir Arthur Hazlerigg, Bart 20 

1722 Lawrence Carter 795 

Sir George Beaumont, Bart 766 

Thomas B. Skrymsher 660 

1734 Sir George Beaumont, Bart 1080 

George Wright 1028 

Walter Ruding 704 

William Hewitt 264 

1737 Vice Beaumont, dead. 

James Wigley 993 

Walter Ruding 654 

Polls in Smith, 1705, 1754, 1768, 1790, 1796, 1800, 1802, 
1807, 1812, 1826. 


1705 George Whichcote 2492 

Hon. Albemarle Bertie 2373 

Hon. Lewis Dymoke 1990 

Sir John Thorold, Bart 1742 

Polls in Smith, 1721, 1724, 1807, 1816, 1818, 1824. 

1711 Vice Hon. Peregrine Bertie, dead. 

William Cotesworth ... 125 

Hon. Philip Bertie 60 

On this election being declared void. 

William Coteaworth ......... 80 

Hon. Philip Bertie ............ 60 

1713 Richard Wynn ............ 130 

Henry Heron ............ 101 

William Cotesworth ......... 6i 

1729 Vice Henry Pacey, dead. 

Lord Coleraine ............ 71 

- Wood ............... 46 

- Langton ............ 16 

- Marten ............ 13 

Polls in Smith, 1719, 1722, 1747, 1780, 1784,1790, 1796, 

1802, 1803, 1806, 1807, 1812 (two), 1818, 1820, 1826, 1830, 


1710 Sir William Ellis, Bart .......... 

Marquis of Granby ............ 176 

Sir John Thorold, Bart .......... 175 

On petition Thorold vice Granby. 

1714 Edward Rolt 302 
John Heathcote ............ 195 

Andrew Hacket ............ 147 

1722 Francis Fisher ............ 186 

Viscount Tyrconnel ......... 166 

Edward Rolt ............ 156 

Polls in Smith, 1796, 1802,1807, 1818, 1820 (two), 1826, 
1830, 1831. 


Polls in Smith, 1700, 1701, 1702, 1705, 1710, 1713, 1741, 

1784, 1790, 1796, 1802, 1807, 1812, 1818, 1820, 1826, 1830, 
1831 (two). 


1688 Sir Henry Monson, Bart .......... 

Sir Christopher Nevill, Knt ....... 

Sir Thomas Meres, Knt .......... 9 

Monson and Nevill are said to have polled each more 
than 200. 

1713 Thomas Lister ............ 392 

John Sibthorpe ............ 304 

Richard Grantham ......... 232 

1727 Sir John Monson, Bart .......... 541 

Charles Hall ........... 362 

Sir John Tyrwhitt, Bart .......... 329 

1728 Vice Monson, created Lord Monson. 

Sir John Tyrwhitt, Bart .......... 257 

Charles Moneon ............ 221 

1734 Charles Monson ............ 509 

Coningsby Sibthorpe ......... 461 

Thomas Chaplin ............ 216 

1754 Hon. George Monson 

John Chaplin 

Robert Cracroft 
1761 Hon. George Monson 

Cpningsby Sibthorp 

Lister Scrope 


Polls in Smith, 1741, 1747, 1768, 1774, 1780, 1790, 1806, 
1808, 1818, 1820, 1826. 

Polls in Smith, 1734, 1809, 1812, 1818, 1830, 1831. 

1679 Sir William Roberts, Bart ....... 720 

Sir Robert Peyton, Knt .......... 670 

Sir Francis Gerard, Bart .......... 100 

Sir William Smith ............ 

1681 Sir William Roberts, Bart ....... 1054 

Nicholas Raynton ............ 874 

- Middleton ............ 607 

Sir Charles Gerard, Bart .......... 415 



[8 th S. VI. JULY 28, '94. 

1695 Sir John Wolstenholme, Bart. 

Edward Russell 

Sir Charles Gerard, Bart.... 
Ralph Hawtrey 

1701 Warwick Lake 

John Austen 

Sir John Wolstenholme, Bart. 

Hugh Smithson 

Scorie Barker 

Sir John Bucknall, Knt. ... 

1702 Warwick Lake 

Hugh Smithson 

Sir John Wolstenholme, Bart. 
John Austen 

1705 Scorie Barker 

Sir John Wolstenholme, Bart. 
Warwick Lake 



Hugh Smithson 1336 

1714 Hon. James Bertie 1604 

Hugh Smithson 1553 

Sir John Austen, Bart 1330 

Henry Barker 1325 

1722 Hon. James Bertie 1800 

Sir John Austen, Bart 967 

Henry Barker 908 

Sir George Cook, Knt 662 

William Withers 228 

1727 Hon. James Bertie 1410 

Francis Child 1305 

LordPaget 1039 

Henry Barker 1074 

Polls in Smith, 1740, 1747, 1749, 1768 (two), 1769, 1784, 
1802, 1804, 1806, 1807, 1820. 

W. W. BEAN. 

4, Montague Place, Bedford Square. 
(To le continued.) 

" COCKNEY." Better men than I have looked 
into the origin of the esteemed cockney, but with 
indifferent success. If the ' New English Diction- 
ary ' and Prof. Skeat will forgive me, I shall think 
that the cockney is named after something nearer 
London than the Welsh language and the lord of 
hens. Here is my reason. In that book dear to 
those engaged in postal studies, the Eeport from 
the Secret Committee on the Post- Office,' printed 
in the Parliament Papers of 1844, Sir Francis Pal- 
grave, ever happy in such things, printed a series 
of wardrobe accounts from the thirteenth century. 
These accounts, written in Latin, called the persons 
who carried the court letters by a series of graded 
names. The chief letter carriers were called nuncius. 
The men next in order were the cokinus, the garcio, 
the valetus^ and others. The cokinus disappeared 
with the thirteenth century. But in that century 
he is frequeutly mentioned by the wardrobe 
accounts ; and generally as a letter carrier. In 
other words, the court officer who carried the 
king's letters to the king's friends and the members 
of the royal family was called cockney. It is not i 
reasonable to think that in the thirteenth century 
the word cockney can have been a term of reproach. 
It denoted a trusty officer at the king's court ; and 
very cogent reasons must be alleged to support the 

belief that cokinus or cockney could be derived 
from any other word than the Latin coquinus. 
The wardrobe accounts called the officer in question 
a coquinus, or cockney, because he had something to 
do with the king's kitchen, that is, the king's 
kitchen supplied the man's dinners. Possibly the 
cockney helped occasionally in the kitchen or at 
meals ; in any event, his name had something to 
do with the royal kitchen. He was a part 
of the king's household, but held a subordinate 
position that made letter carrying a proper em- 
ployment. Being employed at court, the cockney 
would be well dressed, perhaps a little affected in 
his speech, and not always a sturdy Englishman. 
The wardrobe accounts call him cockney in good 
faith ; the men of London would call him cockney 
in derision ; English speech followed suit. Cockney 
originally meant a courtier who had his meals from 
the king's kitchen, and tried to be a swell on that 
account. In French he became a mere scamp ; in 
English he remained an effeminate person that 
loves to bask in the sunshine of real or pretended 
noblemen. C. W. ERNST. 

Boston, Mass. 

"PUNCH." In the diary of Henry Teonge, 
chaplain on board H.M. Ships Assistance, Bristol, 
and Royal Oak (1675-9), under date of June 1, 
1675, is the following entry : 

" Omnia mea mecum portans I take water, and com 
on board the ship Assistance (then still in the Longe 
Reach); drank part of three boules of punch (a liquor 
very strange to me), and so to bed in a cabin so much 
out of order that when I thought to find my pillow on 
the topp I found it elipt between the coards and under 
the bed." 

In a note on this entry the editor observes : 

"In Fryer's ' Travels to the East Indies' (1672), we 
have the following account of our mixture called punch : 
' At Nerule (near Goa) is made the best arach or nepct 
die Goa, \\ith which the English on this coast make that 
enervating liquor called paunch (which is Indostan for 
five) from five ingredients, as the physicians name this 
jomposition Diapente or from four things Diatessaron.' " 

JNO. H. 

Willesden Green, N.W. 

Allowing statement appeared in the Yarmouth 

Mercury of Dec. 23, 1893, and I have been wait- 
ng to hear some further account of it ; but as the 

matter seems to be at rest, I venture to send it to 
N. &Q.' : - 

"The Skull of Sir Thomas Browne. Considerable 
nterest has been excited in Norwich by a dispute con- 
cerning the skull of Sir Thomas Browne, the writer of 
Beligio Medici.' Hia body was interred in the chancel 
of St. Peter Mancroft Church, about a couple of cen- 
turies ago ; and in 1840 some workmen, in digging a 
vault, broke the lid of the coffin. The remains were 
examined by a local antiquary, who ordered the coffin 
and its contents to be re-interred. It appears, however, 
that the sexton took possession of the skull, which was 
purchased by a celebrated Norwich surgeon, and on his 

8* S. VI. JULY 28, '94,] 


death was handed over to the Norfolk and Norwich 
Hospital Museum, where it now remains. Recently the 
attention of the Vicar of St. Peter was called to the cir- 
cumstances, and naturally regarding the removal as an 
act of desecration and dishonour, the vestry requested 
the Hospital authorities to restore the skull of this illus- 
trious man to its resting place. This application, how- 
ever, has been refused ; and at another vestry meeting 
it was agreed by eight votes to six, that no further steps 
should be taken. The vicar has expressed his intention 
of consulting Sir Walter Philliinore on the matter." 

Great Yarmouth. 

LIES DEAD. In a nurse's story given in J. K. 
Jerome's * Novel Notes ' (p. 199), occurs the fol- 
lowing remark : 

" In that part of the country where I was born and 
grew up, the folk say that wherever the dead lie, there 
round them, whether the time be summer or winter, the 
air grows colder and colder, and that no fire, though you 
pile the logs half-way up the chimney, will ever make it 


worth noting that this is, as I believe, the only 
time in British history that four generations, three 
direct heirs in succession to the throne of England 
have been alive at the same time. Even had the 
Princess Charlotte and her babe lived, there was, of 
course, the possibility that in case of Queen 
Caroline's death George IV. might have married 
again and a prince might have been born who 
would have superseded the princess ; but here we 
have, as I believe, a perfectly unique event in 
English history. The only corresponding circum- 
stances, so far as I know, are that of (in France) 
Louis XIV., who died in 1715; his son, Louis le 
Dauphin, died 1711 ; his grandson, Louis, Duke 
of Burgundy, died 1712; his great-grandson, Louis, 
Duke of Anjou, born 1710, succeeded to the throne 
on his great-grandfather's death as Louis XV. ; and 
in our own time, in Germany, that of the Emperor 
William, who died 1888; his son, afterwards the 
Emperor Frederick ; his grandson, the present 
Emperor, whose son, the present Crown Prince, 
was born in 1882. In each case the four genera- 
tions were soon broken. Absit omen. 


St. Saviour's. 

Count Benyowsky (' The Memoirs and Travels 
of Mauritius Augustus, Count de Benyowsky,' 
edited by Capt. S. P. Oliver) states in chap. iii. that 
he and other exiles embarked at Ochoczk in the 
St. Peter and St. Paul for Kamchatka, and that 
during the voyage they encountered a most vio- 
lent storm, during which the captain and his men 
got drunk. At three in the morning the main- 
mast sprang, and as the captain came on deck 
part of the wreck fell on him, broke his arm, and 

rendered him incapable of doing his duty. The 
officers and sailors were unable to manage the ship> 
so the captain placed the command of the vessel in 
the hands of the count. Two days later they saw 
land, which the sailors said was Sachalin. Here 
he wished to stay, ostensibly to repair the damage 
done to the ship, really to endeavour to escape 
from slavery. " All the rhetoric I could use was 
incapable of prevailing over the crew, who ...... 

obliged me to bear away from the coast of Korea " 
(he means Sachalin). He continues "It was in 
vain that I made use of iron and garlic to falsify 
the compass." In a note (p. 114) the editor 
remarks : 

" This Bo-called stratagem, or ruee, is difficult to com- 
prehend. How iron and garlic could falsify the compass 
more than use of iron alone is decidedly puzzling. 
The French text is : ' J'employai inutilement le fer efc 
Tail pour donner une fausse inclination a 1'aiguille de la 
boussole ...... ' It is just possible the Tail' may have 

been an abbreviated hieroglyphic for Taimant' or 
' pierre d'aimant,' a magnet or loadstone." 


"BONESHAW." For this word, see the 'New- 
English Dictionary.' Dr. Murray does not give 
the etymology of the latter syllable. 

Shaw corresponds to a Norse skag-. The Icel. 
skagd is to project, stick out, and skagi is a pro- 
jection of almost any kind; see Norweg. shage, 
sb., anything that sticks out ; and see Kietz 
(' Swedish Dialect Dictionary '). 

Hence boneshaw, or sciatica, was supposed, ori- 
ginally, to be caused by some sort of lump on the 
bone. This is not true, so far I know, but was a 
natural idea. In modern times, the sense of shaw 
being lost, it has been altered to shave ; as if the 
disease were due to a scraping of the bone. But 
in Somersetshire the word still means " an horny 
excrescence on the heel of a horse." Precisely so, 

through the original allegation books of the Bishop 
of London, I am struck by the number of mar- 
riages to be solemnized at this church. The reason,. 
I suppose, was its then proximity ; the parties were 
either in a desperate hurry or unable to select a 
hymeneal altar, and the officials would naturally 
choose the nearest. Any way, St. Bennet's register 
should be interesting, for the couples came from all 


Eden Bridge. 

most modern lists of shorthand inventors there 
occurs the name of Langdale, who is said to have 
published his system in the year 1825. His name 
is duly chronicled in Julius Ensign Rockwell's 
* Shorthand Instruction and Practice,' published 
by the Bureau of Education at Washington in 
1893 (p. 15), and an engraved specimen of hi& 
system is given in Carl Faulmann's ' Historische 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. JULY 28, ' 94 . 

Grammatik der Stenographic,' Vienna, 1887, 8vo 
Dr. Westby-Gibson, in his Bibliography of Short- 
hand,' has inserted the following entry : 

"Langdale, 1825. [Date given from Thompson 
Cooper, 'Parliamentary History of Shorthand.' w <> 
do not know the name of his work.]" 

After a good deal of trouble I have succeeded in 
ascertaining that Langdale was not the author, but 
merely the publisher of the system explained in 
the following anonymous work : 

" Short Hand Simplified. Quid nimis ? Ripon : 
printed and sold by T. Langdale ; sold also by Baldwin, 
Cradock & Joy, Paternoster Row ; Oliver & Boyd, Edin- 
burgh ; and H. Mozley, Derby, 1824. Price four shillings 
[8vo., 17 pp., and 4 plates]." 

Dr. Westby-Gibson (p. 205) gives the title-page 
correctly, except that the publisher is wrongly 
described as D. Langdale. 

The system is a modification, though in my 
judgment by no means an improvement, of the 
well-known Mason-Gurney system. The signs for 
the initial vowels are discarded, and the device of 
indicating medial vowels by position or " mode " 
is seldom resorted to ; the general result being that 
a slight increase of speed is obtained, while the 
legibility of the writing is sacrificed. In brief, the 
distinctive principles of the Gurney system have 
been abandoned by the anonymous author. 


" ALSIKE." This word in the { N. E. D.' only 
stands for a species of clover, named from Alsike, 
near Upsala, and the first quotation is dated 1852 ; 
but I recently found the following stanza devoted 
to another alsike in the translation of ' Palladius 
on Husbondrie,' published by the Early English 
Text Society, from a MS. of about 1420 : 
Alsike is made with barly, half mature 
A party grene and uppon repes bounde, 
And in an oven ybake and made to endure 
That lightly on a querne it may be grounde, 
Nowe til a strike a litel salt infounde 
As it is grounde, and kepe it therin boote ia. 
This Juyn and Juyl accorde in houres footes. 

This is stanza 20 of book vii. of the poem, and has 
this marginal note : 

" Alica [sic'] is made of unripe barley, bound in 
sheaves and roasted in an oven until hard enough to 
grind in a mill." 

It is hardly likely that this is the only example 
of the word in early English, nor is it likely that 
any word in the publications of the E.E.T.S. has 
escaped Dr. Murray and his coadjutors. I there- 
fore conclude that there was some good reason 
for its exclusion (with the meaning given above) 
from the ' N. E. D.' In any case the word deserves 
a corner in ' N. & O.' JAMES HOOPER. 


" HA-HA." This name is given to a deep dry 
ditch, bounding a lawn, and giving it the appear- 
ance of being continuous with grass or garden 

beyond. It is said to have been introduced by 
the landscape-gardener Bridgman. Horace Wai- 
pole attributed the name ha-ha to the supposed 
exclamation of surprise which such an unexpected 
obstacle would elicit from a stranger. A corre- 
spondent in * N. & Q.' (6 th S. vii. 206) calls this 
"a mistaken derivation," and says the Rev. W. 
D. Macray discovered in a document of the year 
1194 the haha meaning a hedge. Now this is 
exactly what a ha-ha is not. A hedge and a ha-ha 
are just the opposites of each other ; one is an 
elevation, the other a depression. Chaucer uses 
haw to mean a hedge : 

Like thee to scorn Dame Nature's single fence, 
Leap each ha-ha of truth and common sense. 

Mason's ' Heroic Epistle to Sir William 
Chambers,' 1773. 

If the ha-ha originated with Bridgman, the name 
also was probably due to him, and it would be 
preposterous to suggest an Anglo-Saxon derivation : 

A little Saxon is a dangerous thing ; 

Drink deep, or taste not of the Anglian spring. 

J. DlXON. 

BAFFLING FOR BIBLES. The following is a 
cutting from the Standard of May 17 : 

" The annual custom of raffling for Bibles at the 
parish of St. Ives, Hunts, took place on Tuesday. The 
money for the Bibles is obtained under an old charity 
known as Wylde's Charity, which provides six Bibles, 
to be won by three boys and three girls who shall score 
the highest points whilst raffling on the altar table. 
The successful candidates this year were Sydney Stevens, 
Frederick Ibbott, Henry Watson, Mary Golding, Eliza- 
beth Brairs, and Hilda Skeeles." 


paring a monograph on William Taylor, of Norwich, 
with special reference to his influence in introducing 
German literature into England. I should feel 
greatly obliged if any one possessing letters written 
by, or addressed to, Taylor would kindly place 
copies of them at my disposal. Of course, I would 
undertake not to print them without the consent 
of the owners. GEORGE HERZFELD. 

68, Loudoun Road, N.W. 

June 15, at Harleston Petty Sessions, Holly Hunt- 
ing, a butcher, was before the Bench. 


Belle Vue Rise, Norwich. 

one of the many instances how an error once made 
gets repeated, it may be worth while to point out 
hat the date of this battle is given as September 3, 
1654 (three years after the true date), in the 
eighth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
and that the mistake is not corrected in the ninth 
edition. The writer had evidently forgotten the 
silly story told in Echard (left by him "to the 

8 U S. VI. JOLT 28, '94.] 



Reader's Faith and Judgment and not to any 
Determination of our own ") that Cromwell had 
an interview with the Devil in a wood on the 
morning of the battle, in which he signed a con- 
tract that, on condition of having everything his 
own way for seven years, he was to be at the com 
mand of the evil spirit afterwards. Probably his 
death, exactly seven years after the battle (his 
" crowning mercy," as he called it), on September 3, 
1658, gave occasion to the invention, on the part 
of his enemies, of an absurdity which Echard might 
well have omitted, though the author of his life in 
the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' thinks 
his history is " chiefly remarkable " for its inser- 
tion. It will do, however, for a mnemonic of the 
date of the battle. W. T. LYNN. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

VISITING CARDS. When did they come into 
use 1 By whom were they introduced 1 Are there 
any allusions to them in the works of authors who 
wrote more than a hundred years ago ? Are they 
English in origin, or introduced from abroad ? 


CELLIWIG. I should be glad if any of your 
readers could identify the town of Celliwig. This 
place is described in the ' Historical Triads of the 
Island of Britain ' as being one of the three chief 
Courts of King Arthur in Britain, the other two 
being Caerlleon upon Usk, in Wales, and Edin- 
burgh, in North Britain. At these chief courts 
the Triads say King Arthur kept the three chief 
festivals Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide. 
Another of the Triads describes Celliwig as being 
one of the three archbishoprics of the Island of 
Britain, the other two being (temp. Arthur) Caerl- 
leon upon Usk and Edinburgh. Bed win is de- 
scribed as Archbishop of Celliwig (temp. Arthur). 
The difficulty in fixing the locality of Celliwig 
arises from the Triad stating that Celliwig is in 
Cornwall. I have searched the county histories 
and works on topography in vain, and can find no 
trace of any such place. I find, however, one palp- 
able copyist's error in these Triads. " Boadicea " 
is written, by an evident blunder, for " Cartis- 
mandua" or " Cartismunda " as the betrayer of 
Caractacug. It seems to me not improbable that 
the word translated as Cornwall must originally 
have been Lloegyr or Lloegria, which includes all 
the country south of the Thames and south of that 
portion of Wansdyke connecting the Severn and 
the Thamep, and in this case two likely places sug- 
gest themselves as the site of King Arthur's Celli- 
wig. The first is Ilchester (Somersetshire), situated 

in the midst of King Arthur's country and of 
undoubted Roman origin ; the second is Silchester, 
which was the coronation city of the Pendragons or 
supreme kings of Britain after the Roman exodus. 
Arthur was crowned here by St. Dubritius, Arch- 
bishop of Caerlleon upon Usk. 


COL. KEENE. John Johnstone, fourth son of Sir 
James Johnstone of Westerhall, married Elizabeth 
Caroline, daughter of Col. Keene, and niece to 
Bishop Keene of Ely and Sir Benjamin Keene. 
Who was the mother of Miss Keene ; and where 
can I find an account of Col. Keene's family ? 
Replies can be sent direct. 


Alloa, N.B. 

OLD RHYME WANTED. Can any one let me 
know where I can find a complete copy of the 
rhyme, commencing, 

There was a little man, and he had a little horse, 
And he saddled it, and bridled it, and threw his leg 
across ; 

With a high diddle, diddle, &c. ? 

C. H. SP. P. 

FUSSELL. Eliza Ann, younger daughter of the 
late Henry Finch, Esq. , Lieutenant 13th Regiment 
B. N. I. , and Eliza, nee Martindell, his wife, and 
granddaughter of John Finch, Esq., of Redheath, 

Watford, married Fussell, Esq. I shall be glad 

to know to what county and branch of the Fussell 
family, and to what profession this last gentleman 
belonged. I notice in the ' Clergy List ' for 1868 
the following : Rev. James Fussell, C.C., M.A., 
H. M. Inspector of Schools, Council Office, White- 
ball, 1868. Was this gentleman in any way con- 
nected with him ? HENRY C. FINCH. 

Crandeen Gate, Henley-on-Thames. 

GAMS. Will a contributor give me a biography 
of the German Church historian Gams, the 
dates of birth and death, principal works, &c. ? He 
appears to have been a prolific and learned writer. 

E. C. 

THE SCRATCH-BACK. In Chambers's ( Book of 
Days,' vol. ii. p. 237, there are some particulars 
concerning a curious little instrument called the 
scratch-back. It is stated to be rare, and that few 
readers have heard of it and fewer have seen it in 
the present day, although it was in general use in the 
past century. I think it is not quite so rare as the 
writer supposes, for several examples have come 
under my notice. A collector in Hull has three 
specimens, another has one, and I have two. A 
xiend bought me one in London the other day 
'or a few shillings from a dealer in curiosities. It 
has a beautifully carved white bone handle, about 
nine inches in length, in which is fastened an 
elegantly carved slender shaft of ivory, five inches 
n length, and at the end is a beautifully carved 



hand in ivory, slightly over an inch in length. The 

fingers on the hand are extremely well cut. The 

whole length of the instrument is about fifteen 

inches. Under a raised piece of the handle 

is a hole for passing through a band to hang it up 

by in the dressing-room, or to be fastened to the 

dress if taken to the play, for use in the theatre. 

In bygone days, when ladies were not so particular 

in respect to personal cleanliness, and when high 

head-dresses once fixed remained without being 

disturbed for a month, much to the annoyance oi 

the wearer and her friends, the little instrument 

for scratching the back must have proved useful. 

I believe the instrument is still in use in India. 

*N"ot long ago one with a neatly carved hand in 

bone affixed to the end of a slender shaft of wood 

was brought for me from Bombay by a Hull seaman. 

It is the same length as the fine example bought 

in London. Can any reader kindly refer me to 

any notes on this subject ? I have only seen those 

in the Book of Days. ' WILLIAM ANDREWS. 

Hull Press. 

BOLTON. I should be much obliged if any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' would inform me when and to 
whom the following crest was granted, or whether 
it is only fictitious: "A horse courant saddled 
and bridled." Burke, in his 'General Armory/ 
attributes this crest to " Bolton or Boulton," and 
adds that the arms belonging to it are, "Ar., 
on a chevron gu. a lion's head or." Under 
"" Boultoun (Suffolk) " he gives " Ar., on a chevron 
gu. a leopard's face of the field." The motto was, 
I believe, " Bolt on," being, of course, a play of 
words on the family name. The above arms were 
used by Ralph Bolton. of Wigan, co. Lane., who 
died about 1842. He married, first, a Miss Davies, 
and by her had one son, William Bolton, of Wigan, 
who changed his name to Davies, and died unmarried 
about October, 1867. Ralph Bolton married, 
secondly, Dinah Nixson, of Carlisle, co. Cumber- 
land. He had a brother, Robert Bolton, who was 
partner with him in a copper foundry in Wigan. 
Any further information with reference to this 
family would be very acceptable. Can any reader 
tell me the inscription on the stone in memory of 
this Ralph Bolton and his second wife in the 
churchyard of the old parish church, Wigan ? 

R. B. 

REGENT STREET. When I was a boy at Charter- 
mouse School, 1835-40, I recollect reading in a 
magazine a song, the burden of each verse of which 
ran thus: "I 'm always young in Regent Street." 
<Jan any reader of ' N. & Q.' refer me to it ? 


In reading " The thyrde sermon of Mayster Hughe 
Latimer whyche he preached before the kynge 
wythin hys graces Palace at Westminster the xxii 
aaye of Marche MCCCCCXLIX," I notice, where he 

speaks of the magistrates as being susceptible to 
bribes, &c., he asks, " Had they a standynge at 

Shoters hyll or Stangat hole to take a purse ? " 

I shall be thankful to any one who will inform 
me, through the columns of * N. & Q.' or other- 
wise, as to what and where were "Shoters hill" 
and "Stangat hole." The above quotation of 
Bishop Latimer is from a 12mo. volume of his ser- 
mons, "Imprinted at London by Ihon Daye 
dwellynge at Aldersgate & William Seres dwell- 
ynge in Peter College." 

Monson, Mass., U.S. 

TRANSLATION. Will one of your readers kindly 
inform me if there is a good English translation 
of the French song " Marlborough s'en va-t-en 
guerre " ? AUG. MARROT. 

BLAKE FAMILY. Can any reader inform me 
whether there is anywhere published a pedigree of 
the family of Blake, of Hants (Andover and Link- 
enholt) and of Wilts, showing their connexion with 
the family of Admiral Robert Blake ? the arms 
borne by the two families being the same. 


" THE DERBY." Would some of your readers 
kindly inform me if the first " Derby " was run at 
Oastletown, Isle of Man, during the time the 
Stanleys held the governorship of the island ? 

F. A. 

the office of High Sheriff of Leicestershire in the 
years 1832 and 1833 ? From the reign of Henry II. 
down to the ninth year of Elizabeth the counties 
of Leicester and Warwick were under one sheriff. 
For what reason and by what authority were the 
wo counties placed under separate sheriffs in the 
year 1566 ? W. FLETCHER. 

' DESPAIR/ a mezzotint engraving. Size of plate, 
15J in. by lOf- in. Wanted, any information con- 
cerning the subject of the engraving, the date of 
>ublication, and the names of the artists employed. 

Hillside, Liverpool Road, Kingston-on-Thames. 

me refer me to any work, other than the Four 
Masters, supplying trustworthy information about 
his remarkable personage, often called the Irish 
Helen MacGregor ? J. B. S. 


MILITIA CLUB. In the High Ercall Church- 
wardens' Accounts is the following : " 1795, 
Ap. 25th. Returned to the Club 21 2s., which the 
levd. Mr. Pryse extracted from them thro: the 
jower of Eloquence." The club here alluded to 
may possibly be the Militia Club, which in 1808 
eceived from fifty-four subscribers 591. 14s., but 
xpended over 2181. in bounties (varying from 

8 th S. VI. JULY 28, '94.] 



251 to 49Z. 7s.) given to five " Militia Substitutes,' 
and in " earnest money," swearing in, " examinant 
surgeon," "colours," expenses in engaging sub 
stitutes, &c. I should be much obliged for any in- 
formation regarding such a method of recruiting at 
the period mentioned. 

High Ercall Vicarage, Wellington, Salop. 

SIR DANIEL CARREL. What is known of Sir 
Daniel Carrel (or Caryel), living at Fulbam 1714? 

I have recently bought two small views as above 
by J. M. W. Turner, R.A., that of Hythe en- 
graved by Geo. Cooke, 1824, published by J. & A. 
Arch, 1824 ; that of Folkestone engraved by Robert 
Wallis, 1825, also published by Arch, 1826. Is it 
known whether any others of this neighbourhood, 
particularly Sandgate, were drawn by Turner, and 
published ? E. J. FYNMORE. 


some old family correspondence, I have come upon 
a letter, dated June 15, 1753, from a young lady 
then staying in London, containing the following 
passage : 

" Yesterday I went with Misa Coles to ye new Tun- 
bridge wells, and think it ia a very pretty Romantick 
place, and they say it ia very much alter'd within these 

lour years 1 drank a Glass of the water and think it 

is very much like Bath water, but makes one vastly cold 
and Hungary." 

Can any of your correspondents inform me 
whether there was at this time a spring in London 
which had obtained the name of " New Tunbridge 
Wells"? 0. L. S. 

TRACT WANTED. Will any one who possesses 
a copy of the tract whose title I give below be so 
kind as to lend it to me for a few days ? 

"John Dunton. A true journall of the Sally Fleet 
with the proceedings of the voyage whereunto is 
annexed a list of the Sally Captives' names, and the 
places where they dwell. London, 1637." 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

PISTOLS. A. friend asks me if I can give him 
any information on the following point. Will your 
readers kindly help me? Perhaps I had better 
state the question in my friend's own words : 

" Can you tell me whether pistols in the year 1677, or 
thereabouts, were double-barrelled, and did they cock ] 
I give you the question as it was asked me. My notion 
is that I have seen in museums double-barrelled pistols 
in, say, the time of the Commonwealth; and I take it that 
a flint pistol, as well as later cap pistols, and firearms 
generally, could all be said to cock ; that is to say, the 
trigger or hammer could be put at full or half cock, so 
that one movement of the finger could send the trigger 


(8 th S. vi. 9.) 

The works relating to the great Earl of Leicester 
which are mentioned in the subjoined list will, it 
is hoped, meet MR. FLETCHER'S inquiry : 

The Barons' War, by Wm. Hy. Blaauw, London, 1844, 
4to. Second edition, with additions and corrections, by 
C. W. Pearson, London, 1871, 8vo. 

Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, the Creator of 
the House of Commons, by Reinhold Pauli, translated by 
Una M. Goodwin, London, 1876, 8vo. 

The original German work was published at 
Tubingen in 1867. 

The Life of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, by 
the Rev. M. Creighton, London, 1877, 8vo. 

The Life of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, with 
special reference to the Parliamentary History of his 
Time, by G. W. Prothero, London, 1877. 

Simon de Montfort, Comte de Leicester, sa vie, son 
role politique en France et en Angleterre, par Charles 
Bemont, Paris, 1884, 8vo. 



MR. W. FLETCHER will find a full and exhaustive 
account of the life and work of this great man, 
"Creator of the House of Commons," in the 
thirty-eighth volume of the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography.' This excellent account was written by 
Miss Kate Norgate, and abundant authorities are 
given in support. GEO. F. CROWDT. 

The Grove, Faringdon. 

A history of Simon de Montfort, by M. Creigh- 
ton, M.A., was published, 1877, by Kivingtons, 
Waterloo Place, London, and may be what is 

Ingleside, Maidstone Road, Rochester. 

There is a life of Simon de Montfort, by Dr. 
Pauli, in German, and a more recent and probably 
a better one in English, by G. W. Prothero, Fellow 
of King's College, Cambridge (London, Longmans, 
1877), who was appointed the other day to the 
Professorship of History in Edinburgh University. 
J. T. B. 

KNIGHTS OF THE CARPET (8 th S. v. 447). 
Your correspondent will find an answer to the 
first of his queries in the ' N. K D.,' s.v. 
" Carpet." The following is from Kees's ' Cyclo- 

1 Carpet-Knights, a denomination given to gown-men, 
and others, of peaceable professions, who, on account of 
their birth, office, or merits to the public, or the like, 
are, by the prince, raised to the dignity of knighthood. 
They take the appellation carpet,' because they usually 
receive their honours from the king's hands in the court, 
kneeling on a carpet. By which they are distinguished 
from knights created in the camp, or field of battle, on 
account of their military prowess. Carpet-knights 
possess a medium between those called truck, or dunghill 



v I.JULY 28, >94. 

knights, who only purchase, or merit the honour by their 
wealth ; and knights bachelors, who are created for their 
services in the war." 

I find a variant notice in Blount's ' Law Dic- 
tionary,' 1691 ed. : 

"Knights of the Chamber (Milites Camera), mention'd 
in 2 Inst. fol. 666, and in Rot. Pat. 29 Ed. 3, par. 1, m. 
29, seem to be such Knights Batchelers, as are made in 
Time of Peace, because Knighted commonly in the 
Kings Chamber, not in the Field, as in time of War." 


Archdeacon Nares was of opinion that ** Knights 
of the Carpet "was not an order, but only one 
of social jocularity, like that of the Odd Fellows, 
Knights of the Green Cloth, &c. ; that they were 
knights dubbed in peace on a carpet, by mere 
court favour, not in a field for military prowess. 
He gives many quotations from old authors in 
support of this theory. For references to ' Carpet 
Knights ' and ' Knights of the Carpet,' see N. & Q.,' 
3 rd S. ii. 388, 476 ; iii. 15 ; 5 th S. iv. 428 ; v. 15, 
54 ; 8 ttl S. ii. 225. 

71, Brecknock Eoad. 

SIR JOHN BIRKENHBAD (8 th S. v. 288, 395). 
The mother of Sir John Birkenhead may possibly 
have been a Margaret My dd el ton of the family 
which settled in Cheshire, descended from a com- 
mon ancestor with the Myddeltons of Chirk. She 
certainly was not the daughter of Sir Thomas 
Myddelton, the Parliamentary general, for she is 
stated in her father's funeral certificate and also on 
his monument in Chirk Church to have died a 
maid. There is a letter of hers preserved at Chirk 
Castle, dated "Chirk Castel," Dec. 2 (1641), signed 
" Margarett Myddelton," to her father " S r Thomas 
Myddelton K ( at Doctor Chamberlain's house in 
Whiteffriers." W. M. MYDDELTON. 

St. Albane. 

The father of Sir John died in 1636, and in his 
will calls himself of Northwich, Cheshire, saddler. 
The name Nantwich was a foolish slip of the pen. 
The Lord Mayor Middleton had only two 
daughters, Alice, daughter by his first marriage, 
wife of John Dolby n, of Haverfordwest, and Mary, 
daughter by his second, married to Sir John May- 

KACES RIDDEN BY WOMEN (8 th S. vi. 26). 
There is an allusion to these races when the Duke 
of Cumberland's army was at Fort Augustus in 

vi. 6). When the Birmingham Daily Post for 
Nov. 14, 1893, remarked that medical authorities 
" state that a case of triplets reaching the age of 
twenty-one is unprecedented in England," either 
the paper or the doctors made a great mistake. 
Every middle-aged man hereabouts has seen 

triplets (girlp, the daughters of a late much- 
esteemed solicitor in this city) grow up into three 
of the finest women in the place. One, if not two, 
of these are married, and although it may be 
passing ungallant to guess a lady's age (and 
especially so when there are three in the nest), they 
cannot be a day less than thirty years old. 

To-day's (July 14) Sloper's Half-holiday, in an 
account of " Bendigo," a great prize-fighter in my 
boyhood days, says : 

" Bendigo was one of three boys at a birth, and these 
were playfully dubbed Shadrach, Meshech, and Abed- 
nego. The popular vernacular corruprion of Abed-nego 
was Bendigo." 

The " champion's " real name was William Thomp- 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

THOMSON (8 th S. vi. 4). I see that I have 
omitted a letter, and made Waller write ungram- 
matically. In justice to him I may mention that 
he wrote trees in the plural number, no: tree in 
the singular : 

Ripe fruits and blossoms on the same trees live ; 
At once they promise what at once they give. 


Compare also the first passage quoted from 
'Spring' with Rapin's description (Gardiner's 
translation) of " Atlantick apples ": 

They still new Robes of Fruit and Blossoms wear, 
And fading Charms with fresh Supplies repair. 

C. C. B. 

(8 th S. vi. 26). Dr. Kirkland's name does not 
appear in the list of graduates in medicine in the 
University of Edinburgh, because the degree of 
M.D. was conferred on him by the University 
of St. Andrews. His diploma of M.D., dated 
December 27, 1769, is in my possession, and also 
his diploma as a member of the Medical Society 
of Edinburgh, dated 8th Calends of May, 1777. 
In the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' he is stated to 
have been a native of Scotland, but such was 
not the case ; he belonged to a family resident in 
Derbyshire for several centuries. 

There are two inaccuracies in MR. HIPWELL'S 
communication. Joseph Palmer died in London 
in December, 1759 (not 1750), and Elizabeth, his 
wife, was probably born in 1686 (not 1689), as 
she was baptized at Ashby-de-la-Zoucb, Jan. 6, 
1686/7. J. PAUL KYLANDS. 

By an obvious misprint, Dr. Kirkland's baptism 
is recorded at the above reference as having been 
solemnized in 1772 in lieu of 1722. His son, 
James Kirkland, Surgeon to the Tower of London, 
published in 1813, 8vo., " An Appendix to an In- 
quiry into the Present State of Medical Surgery, 
by the late Thomas Kirklaud, M.D., taken from 
his MSS. with a Preface and Introduction " 

S-& S. VI JCLY 28, '94.] 



('Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 
1816, p. 191). DANIEL HIPWELL. 

SCOTTS OP ESSEX (7 th S. v. 468). If not too late 
to answer a query which appeared so long ago as 
1888, may I say that I shall be very grateful i 
BALIOL will kindly let me see his notes respecting 
the Scotts of Essex ? H. F. GIFFARD. 

2, Pump Court, Temple. 

ENGLISH PROSODY (8 th S. v. 487). The bes 

elementary treatise on rhythm and prosody is, ] 

think, Dr. Angua's 'Handbook of the English 

Tongue,' published by the Keligious Tract Society 


There is : 

The Art of English Poetry, containing : I. Rules for 
Making Verses. II. A Collection of the Most Natural 
Agreeable and Sublime Thoughts, from the heal 
English Poets. III. A Dictionary of Rhymes. By 
Edw. Bysshe, Gent. Lon., 1702, with many reprints 

' The Art of Poetry on a New Plan/ Lon., 1762, 
12mo., compiled by Newbery, revised by Goldl 
smith. See Prior's 'Life of Goldsmith,' vol. i. 
p. 389 (Lowndes) ; Guest's ' History of English 
Eythms,' Lon., 1838 (revision by Prof. Skeat). 


GREEN-WAX PROCESS (8 th S. v. 508). Estreats 
delivered to the Sheriffs of the Exchequer, under 
the seal of that court, made in green wax, were so 
called. An estreat was a true copy or note of some 
original writing or record, and especially of fines 
and amercements imposed in the rolls of a court, 
and extracted or drawn out thence and certified 
into the Court of Exchequer, whereupon process 
was awarded to the sheriff to levy the same. 


Richmond, Surrey. 

This word is mentioned in stat. 7 Hen. IV., c. 3. 
Tomlins, in his ' Law Dictionary,' gives the follow- 
ing definition : 

"Green-wax is where estreats are delivered to the 
sheriffs out of the Exchequer, under the seal of that 
court, made in green-wax, to be levied in the several 


Swallowfield, Reading. 

" Estreats delivered to the Sheriffs of the Exchequer, 
under the seal of that court made in green-wax. Cowel- 
Blount." Williams, ' Law Dictionary.' 

Eden Bridge. 

445). In so far as Canterbury Cathedral is con- 
cerned, may I correct E. L. G.'s correction ? The 
four central openings under the tower of our 
cathedral are not all crossed by " strutting arches." 
The arches across the nave and the south transept 
are so treated, the arch across the north transept 

is open, while the arch opening into the choir has 
a stone screen across it. J. M. COWPER. 


429). At the above reference I should have 
written Sir George (not Sir John) Barrow^ who 
married Miss Rosamond Hester Elizabeth Pennell, 
Croker's sister-in-law and adopted daughter. 


A reference to Mr. Walford's c County Families ' 
(ed. 1865) would have saved the trouble of this 
query. The lady was Miss Rosamond Pennell, 
who married Sir George Barrow in 1832. The 
'Annual Register' calls her "Miss Croker* 
(Ixxiv. 172). EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


" INFANT CHARITY " (8 th S. v. 480). See 
1 N. & Q.; 4 th S. x. 332, 381, 459 ; 5 th S. i. 413. 

SOURCE OF QUOTATION (8 th S. vi. 27). I am 
familiar with this quotation, as such. I have 
twice been asked lately where it comes from. But 
is it a quotation which ' N. & Q.' can properly 
assist in supplying ? This is not a literary ques- 
tion, proper. The quotation is given out by one 
of the literary (soi-disant) papers with the offer of 
a large prize. Unless I am much mistaken, the 
principal cause, or, at any rate, a chief cause of 
such insertions is to promote the sale of the paper. 
The answer is, in all probability, in a pigeon-hole at 
the office. ED. MARSHALL. 

Unsuspecting correspondents who can answer 
this should be informed that there is a prize of 
250Z. offered for so doing. The most persistent 
endeavours are being made to get this information 
gratuitously. I have been asked several times for 

and no one has been straightforward enough to 
say anything about the prize. W. L. 

"CAREFULLY EDITED" (8 th S. vi. 24). MR. 
BAYNE'S note on " a reprint of the original edition 
of Scott's ' Border Minstrelsy,' carefully edited by 
Alex. Murray, Dec. 26, 1868," raises the question 
whether this reprint is not identical with the edition 
produced by Mr. Alex. Murray, and enjoined by 
he Scotch courts as a piracy. About the year 
mentioned Messrs. A. & C. Black brought an 
action against Mr. Alex. Murray for publishing a 
)iratical reprint of the ' Border Minstrelsy,' and 
ucceeded in having it declared an infringement of 
heir copyright. Messrs. Black did not exact the 
)enalty of confiscating the stock in hand, and it 
s, therefore, just possible MR. BAYNE may have 
>ecome possessed of a contraband copy of this 
nterdicted publication. A. W. B. 

SIR ALEXANDER BURNES (8 th S. vi. 27). In 
he ' Genealogical Memoirs of the Family of Robert 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. JULY 28, '94. 

Burns/ by the Rev. Charles Rogers, LL.D., printed 
for the Royal Historical Society, London, in 1877, 
it is stated that the grandfather of Sir Alexander 
Burnes was brother to the father of Robert 
Burns, the poet. From this work MAJOR PBARSE 
might obtain the information he seeks, or Mr. 
John Muir, of 48, Abbotsford Place, Glasgow, who 
I find from a newspaper cutting dated July 18, 
1892, is the editor of a publication called the 
Annual Burns Chronicle, could give MAJOR 
PEARSE the name of the present representative of 
the family. R. 0. BOSTOCK. 

MAJOR PEARSE, I am sure, would obtain all the 
information that he requires by addressing Mrs. 
Burnes (widow of Dr. James Burnes, K.H., Sir 
Alexander's brother), at 40, Ladbroke Square. 


Could "rede birds " mean lecterns ? 


DOMRISMY (8 th S. vi. 9). Domremy (Vosges) is 

not the equivalent of Remichurch, but of St. R&ny 

(Bouches du Rhone), dome being a loan-word 

trom the Italian duomo, which did not find its way 

into French before the fifteenth century. Dom- 

lemy is a contraction of Domnus Remigius, the 

Latin dominus becoming domnus in the Imperial 

period, and the title domnus being applied in 

Merovingian times to ecclesiastical dignitaries, 

especially to bishops and abbots, The common 

village names Dommartiu and Dammartin are 

* m Dedications to Domnus Martinus, St. Martin 

of lours^ Dompierre and Dampierre to Domnus 

. etrus, Dammard and Dammas to Domnus Med- 

ius, Domleger to Domnus Leodegarius, Dom- 

man.e, -^mmarie, and Dannemarie to Domna 

Maria. On the Belgian and Spanish frontier dom 

L becomes don, thus Saint- Jean-de-Luz, near 

-Biarritz, is known among the Basque peasantry as 

Don-lban-Lohizun. We have a somewhat similar 

* m Ireland, Donnybrook, for instance, being 

a corruption of Domnach Broc, " the church of St. 

Broc the Old Irish domnach, a loan-word from 

;fie .Latin dominica, meaning a " church " and also 

bunday." We are told in the tripartite Life of 

fct. Tatrick ' that the title domnach was only 

applied to churches of which the first stone was laid 

n a bunday, but it seems more probable that it 

was a general term for the Lord's house as well as 

the Lord's day. As for the book ST. SWITHIN 

rants, I m ay inform him that I have in the press a 

work summarizing recent researches on the subject 

^ench place-names, which will, I hope, meet his 

re quirements. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

" BULLIFANT " (8 th S. v. 469). I cannot make 
a reasonable guess as to the meaning of this word. 

The only example of it that I have ever seen is 
that quoted from Skelton in the ' N. E. D.' I have 
long been curious about it, for if Skelton's mean- 
ing could be interpreted we might, perhaps, arrive 
at the origin of the surname, which, though rare, 
certainly exists. Some twenty years ago there 
were persons so called in the Isle of Axholme and 
the parts adjacent. White's ' Lincolnshire Direct- 
ory ' for the year 1882 records the existence of 
Thomas Builivant, of Whitton, and John T. Bulli- 
vant, of Cammeringham. Both of these were 
farmers. There was at the same time a grocer 
at Stamford who bore the name of Edward Buili- 

Bardsley, in c English Surnames,' says : " Evil- 
child found itself face to face with Malenfant, 
Little-desire with Petitsire, Goodchild with Bony- 
fant, Bonenfant, or Builivant, as we now have it." 
In the British Museum Catalogue there is only one 
instance of the name, and that of a woman, ' Han- 
nah Bullevant, Account of the Murder of,' by E. 

Four instances of the occurrence of Bullevant 
as a surname will be found in the ' Post Office 
Directory ' for the current year. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

There was a Wesleyan minister named Buili- 
vant living at Melton Mowbray when I was a 
child. Bardsley says the name is a corruption of 
"Bonenfant." C. 0. B. 

PRUSIAS (8 th S. vi. 8, 38). Prusias, the servile 
King of Bithynia, was an eminent contrast to 
Caesar. Livy, in the last chapter of his history, so 
far as we have it, sums up the character of Prusias 
by a translation from Polybius : 

" Polybius, eum regem indignum magiatate nominia 
tanti, tradit ; pileatum, capite raso, obviam vie legatis 
solitum, libertumque ee populi Roman! ferre ; et ideo in- 
signia ordinis ejus gerere. Romae quoque, quum veniret 
in curiam, submississe se, et osculo limen curiae conti- 
gisse : et ' Deos aervatores suos ' eenatum appellasse, 
aliamque orationem, non tarn honorificam audientibus, 
quam sibi deformem babuiase. Moratus circa urbem 
triginta baud amplius dies in regnum eat profectus." 

Prusias was put to death by his son Nicomedes, 
who had come with him to Rome, having been 
first brought to a state of ignominy : 

" Prusias regno sppliatua a filio, privatueque redditus, 
etiam a servis deseritur. Cum in latebris ageret, non 
minori scelere, quam filium occidi jusserat interficitur." 
' Juetin.,' 1. xxxiv. c. 4. 


GALVANI (8 th S. v. 148, 238, 469). Having 
read SIGNOR BELLEZZA'S interesting note, 1 ven- 
ture to remind him that the prosperity of a new 
fact, like that of a rare seed, depends upon the 
kind of soil that receives it. When Sulzer placed 
his tongue between two dissimilar metals and 

8">8. VI. JULY 28, '94.] 



brought them into contact, he experienced 
remarkable taste in the mouth, which he suppose* 
to be due to " a vibratory motion excited by th 
contact of the metals, and communicated to th 
nerves of the tongue." When this experimen 
was repeated by a man of genius, the seed fell upon 
good ground, and brought forth fruit in the shape 
of the voltaic pile, that wonderful source of heat 
light, and chemical action. Volta described the 
pile in the Transactions of the Koyal Society foi 
1800, and it is no exaggeration to say that this in 
fltrument has assisted the rapid development o 
scientific discovery more than any other invention 
of the century. Indeed, Arago refers to it as 

" the most wonderful instrument that human intelligence 
has ever invented ; for to it we owe some of the finest 
discoveries in chemical science ; and with it must the 
name of Volta be handed down to succeeding genera 

So also Galvani mistook the convulsions of the 
frog's legs when the nerve was touched by two 
metals. He supposed that the muscle gave of 
one kind of electricity and the nerve another, 
whereas Volta saw that the exciting cause of the 
motion was the contact of the two metals, and 
that the nerve and muscle of the frog acted only 
as a delicate electroscope. 

Volta's genius was accompanied by so many 
amiable qualities that his countrymen always 
referred to him as " Our Volta." Hence I venture 
to ask whether it is quite patriotic on the part ol 
an Italian to disturb the Abbe" Haiiy in his grave, 
so as to make him reproduce that foolish statement 
formulated in 1787, to the effect that Volta was not 
the inventor of those excellent instruments the con- 
denser and the electrophorus, the last-named being 
the parent of the modern electrical machine. The 
Abbe* assigns the merit of these inventions to Epinus ; 
but Biot, a much greater man than Hau'y, in his 
' Traite* de Physique,' 1810 (ii. 372), says : "Quoi- 

que Epinus eut decouvert le condensateur on 

doit a Volta d'en avoir pour ainsi dire cre"e Futilite"." 
See also Becquerel, < Traite" de r^lectricite',' 1834, 
ii. 220. The most satisfactory explanation, how- 
ever, is due to Arago in his biographical account 
of Volta, 'Ann. de Chimie,' liv: 

" The missionaries of Pekin, in the year 1775, com- 
municated to the philosophers of Europe the important 
fact, which they had accidentally observed, that electri- 
city shows itself or disappears in certain bodies, when 
they are separated, or in immediate contact. This fact 
originated the interesting researches of Epinus, Wilcke, 
Oigna, and Beccaria. Volta also made it his particular 
study, and drew from it his idea of the perpetual electro- 
phorus, an admirable instrument which, in the smallest 
size, forms a source of the electric fluid." 

I leave the vindication of Dr. Jenner's fame 
to the medical contributors of ( N. & Q.' My 
late colleague Prof. Guy, F.R.S., would have 
had much to say on the subject. I cannot, how- 
ever, conclude without referring to the statement 

of your correspondent, that a wounded mouse whose 
nerve was touched with a scalpel "produced elec- 
tricity sufficient to give a shock to his [the holder's] 
hand, which benumbed him." That statement is, 
I see, very properly referred to the occult sciences. 


"KIENDER" (8 S. v. 469). This word is 
common to several of our local dialects, and in New 
England. Lowell glosses it " kind of," and some- 
times spells it so, as in * What Mr. Eobinsou 
thinks' (' Biglow Papers') : 

We kind o' thought Christ went agin war an' pillage. 
It is usually spelt kinder. C. C. B. 

Kind o' or kinder is of universal use in East 
Anglia, and often means rather ; but it is by no 
means restricted to the East of England. In com- 
bination as sorter-kinder it is of daily help to per- 
sons with limited vocabularies ; e. g. , " He 'B sorter- 
kinder fulish like." When shall we have a complete 
dictionary of dialect-English ? 


As a Norfolk man, the expression referred to by 
MR. WALFORD as used by Dickens's Mr. Peg- 
gotty is as familiar to me as household words. I 
always supposed it be a corruption of " kind of," 
but it is much wider in its application, and I sus- 
pect it has its origin in some Anglian or Scan- 
dinavian adjective which has survived in the 
Norfolk dialect. It has been adopted in America, 
and is often used by Bret Harte. The double 
vowel is probably given by Dickens to indicate the 
ength of the first syllable, which in Norfolk is 
considerable. J. F. PALMER. 

DEODAND (8 th S. v. 509). By this was meant 
ihe forfeiture to the king, for alms, of any personal 
chattel which had caused the death of any reason- 
able creature. It was originally designed as an 
expiation for the souls of such as were snatched 
away by sudden death, and was supposed to be 
ipplied to purchase masses. This accounts for the 
ule that formerly no deodand was due where an 
nfant under the age of discretion was killed, such 
an infant being presumed incapable of actual sin, 
and therefore not needing a deodand to purchase 
propitiatory masses. This law has been said to be 
in imitation of that in Exodus xxi., " If an ox 
gore a man or a woman with his horns, so as they 
lie, the ox shall be stoned to death, and his flesh 
not be eaten, so shall his owner be innocent." 

Swallowfield. Reading. 

The law and the learning about deodands may 
>e seen in Stephen's 'Commentaries,' ii. 553. 
Whatever personal chattel caused the death of a 
easonable creature was forfeit to the Crown. The 



[8"s. VI JULY 28, '94- 

custom seems to have been originally religious, and 
the forfeiture to have been to the Church, for the 
good of the soul of the deceased. There were dis- 
tinctions. If a thing was not in motion, that part 
only which killed was forfeited ; if a thing was 
moving, the whole was a deodand. This became 
awkward when railways were invented, as the owner's 
liability was unlimited, and it mattered not whether 
he was or was not concerned in the killing. That 
was why the value of the lethal instrument was ex- 
pressed in indictments for homicide, to allow the 
jury to estimate the fine for the deodand. Juries 
got into the habit of putting the amount as low as 
possible, and (with a tender regard to their con- 
sciences) deodands were abolished by the Act 9 & 
10 Viet., c. 62. 


The information your correspondent requires 
will be found in ' N. & Q.,' I 8t S. iv. 484 ; 3 rd S. 
if. 275. A copy of an entry in the parish register 
of St. Mary's, Beading, in the year 1602, is given 
in 7 th S. x. 446. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

[Further replies have been received.] 

DELIA BACON (8 th S. vi. 47). Messrs. Samp- 
son Low & Co. have published a biography of 
Delia Bacon. This was reviewed in the Athenceum 
of Aug. 17, 1889. J. 0. F. 

THE CURFEW (8 tt S. v. 249, 376, 433). Mr. 
Jesse Salisbury, in his 'Glossary of Words and 
Phrases used in S.-E. Worcestershire,' 1893, states 
at p. 67, that : 

" The Curfew Bell is rang at Pershore at eight o'clock 
in the evening from November 5 until Candlemas Day. 
It was formerly rung also at five o'clock in the morning, 
but owing to the old sexton (named Blake), who for 
many years performed the duty of ringing the curfew 
bell, making a mistake as to the time on one occasion, 
and ringing it five hours too early, the practice was dis- 


THE 15ra HUSSARS AND TAILORS (8 th S. v. 328, 
413, 478; vi. 18). The cavalry regiment known 
as "Regiment de Turpin" must have been that 
commanded by Lancelot, Comte Turpin de Crisee', 
at the battles of Lawfeld and Maastricht (1747-8) 
He bad greatly distinguished himself previously at 
Ettlingen, Phillipsbourg, and Raucoux. In 1759 
he was appointed Inspector-General of Cavalry and 
Dragoons, and became Field-Marshal in 1761. 
I hope the above information will enable MR 
FLOYD to identify the regiment. E. S. H. 

Castle Semple. 

THE ETYMOLOGY OF <: JINGO " (5 th S. x. 7, 96 
456 ; 8 th S. vi. 51). I have always heard tha 
jingo was a Basque word for God, and, of course, 
the phrase comes from the oath " By Jingo," to 

rhich M. Deloncle's explanation is wholly in- 
pplicable. D. 

i. 327; iii. 34; iv. 249, 418). The following 
xtract from the London letter of the Birmingham 
^ost for June 4 brings this matter up to date : 

"The impending retirement of Mr. Whitbread has 
more than usual interest for Parliamentarians apart 
rora partisanship, because, having sat for the same con 
tituency for an unbroken period of forty- two years, he 
tands next in succession to Mr. Villiers as Father of 
he House of Commons.' Not three years ago he was 
me of four who could claim that position ; but Sir 
Charles Porster who entered Parliament for Walsall at 
,he same general election of 1852, and who represented 
ibat borough until his death in July, 1891 has passed 
away, and Sir Rainald Knightley and Sir Hussey Vivian 
lave been created peers. It will be an interesting 
question as to the member who, when Mr. Whitbread 
eaves the Parliamentary scene, can claim the reversion 
;o the honorary and honourable position of Mr. Villiers. 
Sir John Mowbray is the one of longest and most con- 
inuous service, having been returned at a by-election 
: or Durham in June, 1853, and having only left that 
place in December, 1868, to sit for the University of 
Oxford, which he still represents ; while Sir James Fer- 
gusson and Mr. Abel Smith came in at other by-elections 
during the same Parliament. If the test is continuous 
service, Sir John Mowbray, therefore, will be 'the 
Father '; but if the position (as some think) falls to the 
member who has sat longest for a single constituency, 
it will go to Mr. Bramston Beach, who was first returned 
for Hampshire at the general election of April, 1857, 
and has remained a representative of a division of that 
county ever since. Any breach of continuity, of course, 
is fatal to the succession ; and that is why Mr, Gladstone, 
though he entered Parliament two years before Mr. 
Villiers, but was out for eighteen months in 1846-47, 
because of his supporting the repeal of the Corn Laws, 
is not now ' the Father of the House.' " 


* THE HISTORY OF THE POPES, &c.' (8 th S. v. 
427). Once more I must call attention to the 
laborious but slighted Chalmers, who in his 
* Dictionary ' has really quite a long account of 
Bower, and anticipates the doubts which the * Diet. 
Nat. Biog.' throws upon his veracity. If he is 
untruthful, he is not the last of such religious 
romancers, as a late case in Scotland testifies. By 
the way, as a cognate question, In what year did 
Dr. Achilli die ? 



iii. 367, 498). Will F. C. K. allow me, in all 
courtesy, to correct him ? The 60th Rifles, or the 
King's Royal Rifle Corps, as the regiment is now 
called, has a record of thirty-one battles, the names 
of which are on the silver Maltese cross attached 
to the pouch-belt which is worn by the officers. 

CAKE-BREAD (8 th S. v. 128, 212, 515). I can 
nearly corroborate what ST. SWITHIN says at this 
last reference, but not quite. I have no knowledge 

8* S. VI. JULY 28, '94.] 



of the fine distinctions mentioned ; we simply ca 
soft or " half-rocked " people " cakes," not sluggis 
people, unless they are silly also, which is no 
always the case. 

I have a vivid recollection of " cake-bread." I 
was made of fine flour, with milk, and a littl 
sweetening and "shortening," nothing more. 1 
seeds were added, it then became "seed-cake 
plums and spice, candied lemon peel, &c. , made i 
plum-cake. I never heard "sweet-cake" o 
"little tarts" used as terms of endearment to 
children; but " sweet little pippins " I have; als( 
"I love you like pie." 

As "tarts" and " pie" have been mentioned, i 
may be as well to define them, as they are often 
confused. A "pie" is baked in a dish, with a 
crust over it. A "tart" is jam or fruit with a 
crust at bottom, and not at top. A " turnover ' 
is jam or fruit laid on crust, which is then " turnec 
over " it, so that it is enveloped in paste. Those 
superior people who think it genteel to call pies 
"tarts "are wrong. 

"Fine" flour is simply ordinary bread flour, 
When I was a boy a farmer used to send a sack 
of wheat to the mill to be ground with instructions 
which generally were, to make it into " fine flour 
seconds, sharps, chisels, and bran." K. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

In the Eastern Counties, according to Forby, a 
cake was always prepared for lying-in occasions, 
called a groaning-cake, with which about as many 
superstitious tricks are played as with bride-cake. 
Kichel cakes, given to god-children, have been 
referred to in 8"> S. iv. 433, &c., but without much 
elucidation. JAMES HOOPER. 


447). There were plenty of scholarships at Oxford 
in Dr. Johnson's time ; but they were, unfortunately, 
not open to competition. In many colleges they 
were given away by the heads and fellows to their 
friends or sons of friends, even down to my time. 
I believe that Balliol College, under Dr. Parsons 
and his successor, Dr. Jenkyns, was the first college 
to throw its scholarships open. 


There were scholarships in plenty, but they were 
not open that is, they were restricted to certain 
schools or to certain counties for the most part ; 
hence the difficulty for an uninfluential outsider 
to get hold of one. 


There were the Craven Scholarships, founded for 
' the maintenance of four poor scholars," two at 
Oxford and two at Cambridge, in 1647. Craven 
died a few months later, and, the executor having 
refused to act, his brother William " drew up cer- 
tain regulations for the election of the scholars, 

which were approved by Convocation in October, 
1649." The register is defective before the year 
1776. In 1726 Edward Bentham, afterwards 
Eegius Professor of Divinity, obtained one of the 
scholarships. See 'Historical Register of the 
University of Oxford,' p. 109. 


GINGHAM (8 th S. iv. 386, 516; v. 137). The 
derivation of this word quoted from * The Drapers' 
Dictionary ' at the second reference seems to me to 
be correct. There is still an indigenous stuff called 
in Gujarati gigham, manufactured at Surat. It was 
highly prized a generation ago, no gift of clothes 
from the bridegroom to the bride being held to be 
complete unless it contained a piece of the stuff long 
enough to make even one bodice. It has now been 
supplanted by the gaudy French and Japanese silks, 
though the Borahs, a sect of the Mohammedans, are 
still very fond of it. D. D. GILDER. 

Forfc, Bombay. 

OXFORD M.P.s (8 th S. v. 448). -Edward Rey- 
nolds, Bishop of Norwich, presented the MS. of 
bis 'Meditations on the Fall and Rising of St. 
Peter ' to Mrs. Joanna Nixon, of Oxon, " a pious 

and charitable gentlewoman, who did minister 

unto Christ of her substance, by liberal gifts to his 
preachers and poor." See the preface to the 
printed copy, 1677. The bishop died in 1676, and 
;his was one of his earliest compositions. 

W. 0. B. 

WELLS ON DEW (8 th S. v. 398, 464, 519). In 
he course of my scientific career I have had so 
much to do with Dr. Wells and his theory, and its 
application to the movements of camphor vapour 
and other vapours, that I am grateful for any 
correct information concerning that distinguished 
physicist. Therefore I thank MR. DIXON for his 
3orrection. His happy reference to the 'Court 
Guide ' for 1811 will be an answer to MR. WARD'S 
question as to whether Wells lived in the neigh- 
>ourhood of Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


VILLAGE SUPERSTITIONS, &c. (8 th S. v. 484). 
'he feeling against burial on the north side of the 
hurchyard exists in many of the parishes of Lind- 
ey. I cannot but think it has become stronger 
f late years. Somewhere about forty years ago the 
rst grave, so far as any one knew, was made on the 
orth side of Bottesford Churchyard. Now there 
ave been many interments there. On inquiry of 
le sextons I have ascertained that when a new 
rave is dug there, traces of previous burials are 
[most always come upon. I have heard that the 
ame thing has been observed in several other 
hurchyards in this neighbourhood, but have re- 
ived no direct testimony on the matter. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 



[8 S. VI. JULY 28, '94. 

"OZENBRIDGES" (8 th S. V. 87, 171, 411). MR. 

F. ADAMS has made short work of MR. PAUL 
BIERLEY'S guess. Ifc is curious to observe how 
many educated persons there are who delight in 
inventing pretty "conceits" to explain words of 
which the origin is obvious enough to any one who 
will take the least trouble to arrive at the truth. 
Rotten Row from " Route du roi," goloshes from 
Goliath's shoes, and Birdcage Walk from the 
French bocage, are instances of these amusing 
"translations of sound." Osnaburg is a well- 
known name for a species of coarse lining origin- 
ally made at Osnaburg, whence it was imported 
into England. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

v. 509). I am, perhaps, better able to answer this 
query than any other contributor to ' N. & Q. ,' 
having been one of its founders. Its constitution 
is very simple, it having been instituted for philan- 
thropic purposes upon what may be called a 
"masonic" basis, as three out of five founders were 
past masters in Freemasonry ; those who assisted me 
in the matter being companions E. Mitchel-Ban- 
nister, Rushton, Byrnes, and Bullock. It is purely 
a " philanthropic " society, in contradistinction to 
those known as "benefit" societies, and was 
formed as a higher degree (although really a 
distinct organization) for those upon whom the 
second degree in the "R.A.O.B." had been con- 
ferred. Its first meeting was held on Wednesday, 
October 8, 1873, although the preparatory work 
had taken the best part of two years previously. 
Its first meeting- place was at the " Coach and 
Horses," opposite Somerset House, in the Strand, 
where it met for some years. Circumstances com- 
pelling, at last, a removal, it met at the " Peacock," 
Maiden Lane, Covent Garden ; then at " Ye Savoy 
Palace," Savoy Street, Strand ; and subsequently 
at the " Portugal Hotel," Fleet Street, which for 
many years has been its home. There is only one 
lodge of this guild, " The Armenia," it having been 
deemed desirable to limit its area. Its very beauti- 
ful initiatory exordium was the work of companion 
Byrnes, the other founders having an equal share 
in all other matters. A large number of members 
have, during the nearly twenty-one years of its 
existence, joined its ranks; but just at the present 
moment it is in anything but a flourishing con- 
dition. The entrance fee is one guinea, and the 
yearly subscription half that sum. From the funds 
thus accumulated relief is given to those members 
whose way in life may be among its thorny paths. 
I hope that the information here given may be of 
use to the querist, and if anything further is 
wanted I shall be glad to be of use, if it is possible 
for me to be so. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 

20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

iv. 149, 190, 237, 274, 449 ; v. 39, 253). In Sir 

George Trevelyan's 'Early History of Charles James 
Fox ' there is a description of one of the famous 
debates in connexion with the election of Wilkes. 
The Ministers had been careful to bring back from 
Paris those of their men who had anticipated the 
recess, and to summon others from the north who 
hitherto had not thought it worth while to leave 
their country houses; and it was an allusion 
which Burke made in the course of the evening to 
the industry of the Treasury officials that first 
rendered the term "whipping in" classical (chap, v., 
1768-9). THOS. WHITE. 


"CRYING DOWN THE CREDIT" (8 th S. v. 506). 
This " time-honoured custom " is in accordance 
with ' The Queen's Regulations for the Army.' 

This ceremony took place the other day in Edin- 
burgh, when the Black Watch arrived to garrison 
the castle. W. E. WILSON. 

PIN (8 th S. vi. 7). Is not the term used in a 
diminutive sense ? Mayhew, in his ' London 
Labour,' 1851, ii. 108, has, " He gets two pins, or 
small casks of beer, containing eighteen pots." 

Eden Bridge. 

The word is in 'The Encyclopaedic Dictionary.' 
I need not say it is not =peg, each person's share 
in a toping-match ; but rather, according to an 
extract from Mayhew, it means a " small cask of 
beer, containing eighteen pots." But why " pin," 
is not stated. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


This epithet is similarly applied in the following 
passage from ' Ram- Alley ; or, Merrie Trickes,' 
1611 : 

Throat. Fcemince ludificantur viros : 
By that same rule these lips have taken seizin : 
Tut, I do all by statute law and reason. 

Lady Som. Hence, you base knave 1 you pettifogging 

groom ! 

Clad in old ends, and piec'd with brokery : 
You wed my daughter ! Act IV. ac. i. 


The word pettifogger was used by Nash in 
'Pierce Penniless,' 1592 (Shakspere Society 
edition, p. 10). It also occurs in ' The Anatomie 
of Belial,' 1602, by William Burton. Probably 
earlier examples will turn up before the great 
1 N. E. D.' reaches P. JAMES HOOPER. 


v. 407, 457). The proverb lacking to PROF. SKEAT 
was stored for him by Le Roux de Lincy, from a 
MS. of the thirteenth century : " Pour douter 
(par crainte) bat-on le chien devant le lyon." It 



is droll to find that the king of quadrupeds hac 
his "whipping-boy." The gloss "par crainte' 
suggests that the custom was a form of " kicking 
the corporal." ST. SWITHIN. 

AEROLITES : BOLIDES (8 th S. ii. 321, 438, 512 
v. 412). There is further correspondence on this 
subject in Symons's Meteorological Magazine o* 
February, March, and June (vol. xxix. pp. 8, 18 
20, 72, 74). CELER ET ADDAX. 

ITALIAN ANTHOLOGY (8 th S. v. 387 ; vi. 16). 
My attention haying been called to a kindly allu 
sion to my * Italian Lyrists of To-day' in your 
number for July 7, I beg to add the following 
anthologies to those already mentioned : 

Raffaello Barbiera. Almanacco delle Muse : Poesie 
moderne, 1815-1887. Treves, Milan, 1888. Price about 
6 lire. 

Severino Ferrari. Antologia della lirica moderna 
italiana. Zanichelli, Bologna, 1891. 2 lire. (Fully 
annotated for the use of schools.) 

Eugenia Levi. Dai Nostri Poeti Viyenti. Loescher 
Florence, 1891. An admirable and delightful work, but 
includes living authors only. 4 lire. 

The following I have not seen : 

Giuseppe Rigutini. Crestomazia italiana della poesia 
moderna. Paggi, Florence, 1886. 

Raffaello Fornaciari. Poesia italiana del eecolo XIX. 
Paggi, Florence, 1888. 

I am afraid nothing exactly corresponding to the 
'Golden Treasury' is to be found. Signorina 
Levi's anthology is indispensable. 


21, Pembroke Gardens, Kensington, W. 

I have another Italian anthology not mentioned 
in MR. H. KREBS'S note (8 th S. vi. 16): 'Fiore 
di Classiche Poesie Italiane ad uso della gioventii/ 
Milan, Maurizio Giugoni. 1863. 2 vols. 12mo. 
350+414 pp. Price 2 lire 40. Preface signed 
Ferdinando Bosio. T. WILSON. 

A very nice selection, and very well annotated 
by Miss Louisa A Merivale, ought not to be 
omitted from the list : " I Poeti Italiani Moderni. 
A Selection of Extracts from pur Modern Italian 
Poets, with English notes and biographical notices 
by Louisa A. Merivale. Williams & Norgate, 14, 
Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, and 20, 
South Frederick Street, Edinburgh. 1865. Small 
8vo. pp. 462." JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

To the list given by MR. KREBS may be added 
I Poeti Italiani Moderni,' with notes, &c., edited 
by Miss Louisa A. Merivale, sister of the late 
Dean of Ely. Both this and Biaggi's 'Prosatori' 
are published in London, at 44, Shaftesbury 
Avenue. F. N. 

"TEMPORA MUTANTUR" &c. (8 th S. iv. 446; 
v. 74, 192, 373, 452). As MR. HENRY H. GIBBS ! 
seems to object to the lengthening of the syllable 

" tur " in the hexameter line beginning " Omnia 
mutantur et," where " tur " is preceded by the long 
syllable "tan, "may I be permitted to direct his 
attention to the following lines from Virgil, in 
which a short syllable is made long by metricus 
ictus ? 

Non te nullms exercent numinis irae. 

Georg.,' iv. 453. 
Litora iactefrwr odiis lunonis acerbae. 

id,' i. 668. 

Nusquam amitte&a* oculoeque sub astra tenebat. 

For other cases, where a short syllable following 
a penultimate long syllable is lengthened, cf. 
'^Eneid,'i. 478, xi. 69,111. 


I cited ' Georgics,' iii, 76 because of the literal 
identity, but MR. Gi BBS'S note reminds me that I 
did not do enough. As he asks for examples of 
the lengthening after a spondee in the second foot, 
I give him four from Virgil "Non te nullius 
exercent" ('Georg.' iv. 453), "Litora jactetur 
odiis "('^En.'i. 668), "Nusquam amittebat ocu- 
losque" (v. 853), "Terga fatigamus hasta" (ix. 
610) and another from Horace, " Qui non defendit 
alio' ; ('Sat.' I. iv. 82). These perhaps will 
suffice to prove that if the oldest writing of the 
proverbial phrase is "Tempora mutantur et nos 
mutamur in illis," it is needless to interfere with it. 


80, Saltoun Road, Brixton. 

"A MUTUAL FRIEND " (8 th S. v. 326, 450, 492). 
There can be no doubt that Dr. Johnson's " common 
friend " is correct, and "mutual friend " logically 
indefensible. But " mutual friend " is used by 
such usually careful writers as Sir Walter Scott and 
Jane Austen; by the former in ' Waverley,' by the 
latter in her masterpiece ' Persuasion.' Not long 
since I observed and noted the passage ; but I am 
away from my books, and cannot give the refer- 
ences. Was Dickens quite inexcusable in follow- 
ng such a lead ? EDMUND VENABLES. 


HOLY MR. GIFFORD (8 th S. v. 148, 218). The 

Rev. John Gifford, " once a loose young officer in 

the royal army," was presented by the Corporation 

to the rectory of St. John, Bedford, in 1653, on 

;he sequestration of Theodore Crowley. In 1655 

le was ejected and Crowley reinstated. Of his 

'amily we have these particulars. His son John 

was buried in St. Paul's Churchyard, Bedford, 

June 30, 1651 ; Mary, his eldest daughter, baptized 

n the church of St. Peter Martin, Bedford, 

Aug. 23, 1649, was married to a Mr. Negus ; 

Elizabeth, another daughter, was buried Sept. 4, 

1665, in St. Paul's Churchyard aforesaid ; and 

Martha, born shortly after her father's death, was 

married in 1675 to William Hawkes. By will 

dated Aug. 2, 1655, Gifford constituted Margaret, 



his wife, sole executrix. He died in the early part 
of the succeeding month (September, 1655), and 
was buried in St. John's Churchyard. A few frag- 
mentary notes on Bunyan's pastor and friend, the 
" holy Mr. Gifford," find a place, pp. 91-95, in the 
Rev. Dr. John Brawn's 'John Bunyan, his Life, 
Times, and Work,' 8vo., Lond., 1887. 


LEMON SOLE (8 th S. v. 509). I have only been 
able to consult two works bearing upon this sub- 
ject, viz., Frank Buckland's ' Natural History of 
British Fishes,' 1880, and the Rev. J. G. Wood's 
'Natural History,' u Reptiles, Fishes, Molluscs, 
&c.," and from the former it would appear that, as 
it is frequently caught "in the direction of the 
French coast, the fishermen sometimes call it the 
French sole ; others call it the lemon sole, in refer- 
ence to its yellow colour." The latter work is 
even more exact, as the author says that " the 
lemon sole, or French sole, derives the former of 
these titles from the lemon yellow colour of its 
upper surface, and the latter from the localities in 
which it is most commonly found." 


20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Is not " lemon " in this connexion a corruption 
of the French limande, a dab, or flat-fish ? If so, 
the further derivation would, according to Brachet, 
be from Lat. lima, a file. W. F. ROSE. 

Worle Vicarage. 

AN APPLE-PIE BED (8 th S. v. 347, 497). I 
have just read the following article in the Scottish 
Antiquary for July : 

"Sheets in Scotland The custom of sleeping in 

one large sheet, doubled at the foot, seems to have been 
peculiar to Scotland, and to have made special impression 
on more than one English traveller. Fynes Moryson 
writing in 1598, says ' they used but one sheet, open at 
the sides and top but close at the feet and so doubled ' , 
aud John Kay, the naturalist, who visited Scotland aboui 
1662, remarks that ' it is the manner in some places there 
to lay on but one sheet as large as two, turned up from 
the feet upwards.' The practice, I imagine, was con 
tinued till quite recent times, and I have when a boy 
slept in a sheet of the kind. Such pieces of linen were 
termed 'sheets,' par excellence, the single covering 
which are now used being called 'half sheets.' Is th 
large size still in use anywhere ? If BO, it would be wel 
to make a note of it. J. B. P." 

Can the origin of the apple-pie bed be traced t 

71, Brecknock Road. 

vi. 38). I cannot see why Dance should be sai 
to disfigure this building by the two " humps." A 
a camel's humps look somewhat like small anirna 
on a large one, these, being not towers, but tw 
complete houses on one mansion, seem to hav 
suggested a similar name. But the southern on 
was the necessary clearstory to what he terme 

he " Egyptian Hall," because an intended reprp- 
uction of the kind of hall Vitruvius describes in 

oman villas, that was called Egyptian. At pre- 
ent, robbed of its clearstory, it makes by daylight 

gloomy and wretched room. The two upper 
rections seem to have been externally exactly 
like ; and if the northern contained only bedrooms, 

was well termed the " Mayor's nest." A group 
f three domed cupolas, or a single cupola, if 
igher, in the place of either or both of these 

hump?," would have answered well, and grace- 
ully finished the building. E. L. G. 

SON OF THE DUKE OF YORK (8 th S. vi. 27). 
t is asked where the old saying about the royal 
>aby and the Eve of St. John comes from. I got 
; from an old number of the Curates' Budget, 

where it occurs in a tale. The date of this is 1869. 
he tale is called * Under the Stars.' I believe 
he publication no longer exists; but the editor 

used to be the Eev. William Mitchell, incumbent 
f Chantry, Somerset, and the printer was John 
lodges, Church Street, Fronie. 


BOURCHIER CLEEVE (8 th S. v. 184, 318). 
Although the entry which MR. HIPWELL cites 
rom the London Evening Post does not relate to 
he father of Bourchier Cleeve, it is on that account 
none the less welcome. There were at least eight 
Alexander Cleeves, and the African Company's 
agent was first cousin to Bourchier's father. Per- 
haps it may be as well to place on record here 
some particulars of one member of this Alex- 
andrine octave. 

Alexander, son of John Cleeve, of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, gent., was born in that parish 1747, 
and on March 22, 1766, matriculated at Queen's 
College, Oxford. Transferring himself to Cam- 
bridge, he entered Corpus Christi as a sizar July 5, 
1767, graduating B.A. 1771. About this date 
he was ordained, and officiated as chaplain to the 
Cambridge County Gaol until his institution to the 
vicarage of Stockton-on-Tees, May 8, 1773. In 
this benefice he continued nearly seven years, and 
was, Jan. 31, 1780, instituted to the vicarage of 
Wooler, in Northumberland. It seems improbable 
that Cleeve spent much of his time in the north, for 
at this period he held a lectureship at Knightsbridge 
Chapel, and, besides being chaplain fco the third 
Duke of Portland, was looked upon as a popular 
preacher in the neighbourhood of the metropolis. 
Between 1773 and 1780 Cleeve was author or 
adapter of four devotional works, whose titles may 
be seen in the British Museum Catalogue. He died 
at Knightsbridge, Sept. 13, 1805, and a small mural 
tablet has been recently erected to his memory in 
the north porch of St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

A volume of sermons by Rev. Alexander Cleeve 
was published in 1806. This was dedicated by 
permission to Queen Charlotte, and the proceeds 



of its sale were to be for his widow and daughters, 
who would seem to have been poorly provided for. 
Can any one tell me the names of these ladies, 
and what became of them ; also whether their 
father was identical with the Rev. Mr. Cleeve, 
sometime tutor to the author of Waverley ' ? 

For MR. SPERLING'S note about John Bourchier 
I am much obliged ; the latter certainly owned land 
at Vaux, in Otten Belchamp, but I was unaware 
of his connexion with Great Maplestead and 
t ;_i. TT- u_j :., -besides his son, who died 


and Jane ; the former married a Mr. Walton and was 
connected with Streatham. Any further informa- 
tion that MR. SPERLING is disposed to communicate, 
either through your columns or direct, I shall much 

Eden Bridge. 



Vivit post funera virtue. 

"On a tomb, in Westminster Abbey, of Linacre, 
founder of the College of Physicians, and honorary physi- 
cian to four sovereigns, is a phoenix, with the motto 
Vivit post funera virtus ' " (' Historic Devices, Badges, 
and War-cries,' by Mrs. Bury Palliser, London, 1870). 

The whole epitaph is given by De Chaufpie in his 
1 Nouveau Dictionnnaire Historique,' &c., 1750-6, under 
"Linacer ou Linacre." He speaks of it (note H) as 
" 1'epitaphe dont son ami Caius a honor6 sa memoire." 
The epitaph ends : 

Vivit post funera virtus. 
Thomas Lynacro clarissimo medico, 

Joannes Caius posuit, anno 1557. 

Caius was Dr. John Kaye, by whose means Gonville 
Hall became Gonville and Caius College. Of him De 
Chaufpi6 says : " II visita un grand nombre de Biblio- 
theques, et y deterra les ouvrages de divers auteurs, qui 
etoient preque perdus, et les publia." 

probably took, like other stories, from a French fabliau? 
treating it, as usual, in a fashion to make it wholly his 
own. The idea, even, of the ' Decameron ' having 
suggested the framework is not entertained. Prof. 
SeeTey's idea, which connects the prologue with that of 
' William's Vision concerning Piers the Plowman,' is 
favoured, and the grouping of the tales accepted is that 
of Dr. Furniyall. Concerning 'The Plowman's Tale,' 
which is admittedly spurious, and is included in none of 
the MSS., Prof. Skeat holds that it never was intended 
as an imitation of Chaucer. Whether it was inserted by 
inadvertence or otherwise in the edition of 1542, he is at 
least thankful for its preservation, since no manuscript 
* "t exists, and it would probably not have been pre- 
ed. It is, necessarily, impossible to convey an idea 
of the mass of erudition Prof. Skeat supplies in each 
succeeding volume. The language of eulogy, meanwhile, 
which is that we are compelled to use, becomes mono- 
tonous when too often repeated. We can only say, indeed, 
that the work has already taken rank with the best 
editions of English classics, and that English scholarship 
awaits with anxious expectation the accomplishment of 
the professor's task. 

Dated Book- Plates (Ex-Libris). By Walter Hamilton. 

Parti. (Black.) 

MR. WALTEK HAMILTON, whose name is well known to 
our readers, is one of the most erudite and zealous of 
book-plate collectors, chairman of the Ex-Libris Society,, 
a vice-president of the kindred society in Paris, and the 
author of a work on French book-plates, in praise of 
which we have spoken. In a shape uniform with the 
Journal of the Ex-Libris Society he has now issued the 
first of three parts of a full account of ' Dated Book- 
Plates.' The present instalment deals with book-plates 
dated previously to 1700, twenty-four illustrations of 
which it supplies. It has, in addition, an interesting 
and instructive treatise on the origin and development 
of book-plates, with important hints as to identification 
and some specially useful suggestions as to the best mode 
of preservation and arrangement. Part ii., which will 
shortly appear, will deal with book-plates of the eigh- 
teenth century, and part iii. with those of the nine- 
teenth. A special feature in this first part consists in a 
few notes on armorial bearings and tinctures in heraldry. 

je's ' Peerage of Ireland,' Dublin, 1789, vol. ii. No. 

hough on p. 367 of the letterpress the motto given 
is " Spectemur Agendo." It is given in vol. i. as the 
motto of Boyle, Earl of Cork and Orrery. 


The motto of the Irish Earl of Shannon. 


The Complete Works of Geofrey Chaucer. Edited by the 

Rev. Walter W. Skeat, LL.D. Vol. III. (Oxford, 

Clarendon Press.) 
THE successive volumes of Prof. Skeat's authoritative 
edition of Chaucer appear with commendable regularity. 
The third volume, the most interesting, in some respects 
at least, that has yet appeared, contains ' The House of 
Fame,' The Legend of Good Women,' and the ' Treatise 
on the Astrolabe,' all with introductions, various read- 
ings, and notes, and an account of the sources of ' The 
Canterbury Tales.' Dealing with this latest portion, we 
find the professor repudiating the ' Decameron ' as the 
source of ' The Shipman's Tale,' and holding that Chaucer 
seems never to have read that book. The story Chaucer 

heraldry in book-plates is not always trustworthy. The 
respects in which it is apt to become faulty are pointed 
out at some length by Mr. Hamilton, who shows, for 
example, that widows will sometimes preserve the book- 
plates of their deceased lords, substituting their owa 
names for those of their husbands, and retaining helmet, 
crest, wreath, and motto, none of which should be borne 
by a woman. Mr. Rylands's arrangement of shields, first 
exhibited in his work on book-plates, is accepted by 
Mr. Hamilton, and is, by permission, reproduced, Mr. 
Rylands's book having been long out of print. The 
illustrations are excellently executed, and the letterpress 
is of abundant interest. The appearance of the follow- 
ing parts will be eagerly anticipated. Among other 
subjects Mr. Hamilton recurs to the reported, but as yet 
untraced, book-plate of Rabelais, concerning which men- 
tion in this country was first made in our columns. 

West Irish Folk-Tales and Romances. Collected and 

Translated by William Larminie. (Stock.) 
THE people who read books on folk-lore may be divided 
into classes those who are bent on amusing themselves 
and those who make of it a serious study. Both sections 
will be pleased by Mr. Larminie's book ; but we would 
especially recommend it to the students. The collector 



shows, by his carefully considered introduction, that h 
is acquainted with the folk-lore of many lands and is in 
a position to supply instruction, not to give mere guesses 
As in all new science *, guessing has, till lately, been the 
order of the day ; now we have had enough of it, and it 
is quite time that serious induction should take the 
place of fancy. 

There have been, till lately perhaps are still two 
schools disputing as to the origin of our folk-tales. 
When a tale that is evidently identical is found in widely 
distant parts of the world, one sect says that every 
variant must have come from a common centre. No, 
say the other party; they are very much alike, we 
admit; but they have sprung up among the people where 
we now find them without foreign influence. Mr. 
Larminie is, we are glad to find, a strong advocate of the 
theory that folk-tales have come from common centres, 
being, of course, modified, expanded, and contracted in 
their journey through space and time. He states his 
case so well that, though our extract is rather long, we 
have no hesitation in giving it : " Perhaps this is the 
best place to note that the theory of independent origin 
is contrary to one of the closest analogies to be observed 
in nature. When animals and plants of the same species 
are found in widely distant regions, no naturalist assumes 
for a moment that they originated separately. However 
puzzling the problem may be, the student of nature seeks 
to solve it by explanations of a very different kind ; and 
already many of the most difficult cases have yielded 
their secret to patient investigation. It will assuredly turn 
out to be the same with folk-tales. As regards Ireland 
we see that there is a presumption, which will scarcely 
be contested, in favour of the view that certain entire 
tales were dispersed from a common centre, thus show- 
ing, on a small scale, the working of the whole process." 
Mr. Larminie has not only collected and translated these 
tales, but has conferred a further boon which Celtic 
scholars will highly appreciate. He has given three of 
them in the dialect in which he heard them. The 
spelling is phonetic. Had that of what is known as the 
literary Irish been employed, his texts, as he carefully 
explains, would have been of little service. 

In conclusion, we may remark that, wherever these 
tales may have originated, they have now, nearly all of 
them, a distinctly Irish colouring. For example, ' Gilla 
of the Enchantments ' may have parallels in Teutonic, 
Sclavonic, or Mongol lands ; but it could not have pre- 
sented the form in which Mr. Larminie has recorded it 
anywhere but among a Celtic people. 

La Vita e le Opere di Alfredo Tennyson. Da Paolo 
Bellezza. (Firenze, Uffizio della Raseegna Nazionale.) 
SIGNOR BELLEZZA'S life and criticism of Tennyson is a 
thoughtful and scholarly book, to be warmly commended 
to English readers of Italian. The criticism is appre- 
ciative and sane, and the account of the life is pleasant 
and accurate. Diligent, indeed, has been the study of 
our contributor, and the passages quoted show a remark- 
able familiarity with the subject. The translations are 
happily executed by Signer Bellezza, who is already well 
known in England and Italy for his renderings of 

The Pullic Libraries in America. By William J. 

Fletcher, M.A. (Sampson Low & Co.) 
THIS useful and valuable little volume, by the librarian 
of Amherst College, forms No. II. of the " Columbian 
Knowledge Series." It gives full information as to the 
growth of public libraries in America, their founders, 
benefactors, &c., the number of volumes now contained 
in the principal libraries, with the names of the librarians, 
and other similar information. It is well illustrated, and 
supplies much sound, if incidental, advice as to the 

arrangement and cataloguing of books. To all concerned 
with bibliographical subjects it strongly recommends 

Billiographica. Part II. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 
AN excellent second number of ' Bibliographica ' opens 
with a very important contribution by Mr. E. Maunde 
Thompson on 'English Illuminated Manuscripts, 700- 
1066.' Illumination and the art of book decoration 
were, it is known, in England, in the period named, far 
in advance of those of continental Europe. On the con- 
trast between the Northern style of illumination, derived 
from Ireland, and the Southern the writer has much of 
highest interest to say. His article is profusely illus- 
trated. ' Two English Bookmen ' are in admirably com- 
petent hands Pepys in those of Mr. Wheatley, and 
Fielding in those of Mr. Austin Dobson. Mr. R. C. 
Christie, a bibliographer of rare observation and instinct, 
shows the errors that have been made in the computa- 
tion of the date of the early Aldines in consequence of 
mistakes that have been made as to what was tne first 
day of the year. Mr. E. Gordon Duff writes on ' The 
Booksellers at the Sign of the Trinity.' Mr. Falconer 
Madan's ' Early Representations of the Printing Press ' 
is illustrated. 

Peel: its Meaning and Derivation. By Geo. Neilson, 

F.S.A.Scot. (Glasgow, Strathern & Freeman.) 
MR. NEILSON has reprinted from the Transactions of the 
Glasgow Archaeological Society, in an edition limited to 
fifty-six copies, a rewritten lecture on the meaning and 
derivation of the word " Peel." It is an admirably 
erudite and convincing work, which leaves no more to 
be said, and is an all-important contribution to our 
knowledge of archaeology. 

The Poems of George Herlert have been added to the 
' Christian Classics " of Messrs. Bagster & Sons. The 
edition of this inspired poet is equally pretty and con- 
venient, and its appearance may spread a knowledge of 
the poet of ' The Temple ' among those too young to 
have known and loved him. 

MR. W. FRASER RAB, the chairman of the Library 
Committee of the Reform Club, has reprinted, under 
the title of The Reform Club and its Library, the intro- 
ductory matter to the new catalogue, giving a description 
of the formation of the club and the establishment of 
ts library. 

Itoiittjj to &Btm$Qtibmix. 

We mutt call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondenta 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
ippear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
;o head the second communication " Duplicate." 

E. LEATON-BLENK.INSOPP (" Four Living Generations 
of the Royal Family "). See 'The Queen's Great-grand- 
son,' ante, p. 65. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Sditor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Ofiice, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
o this rule we can make no exception. 

VI. Aoo. 4, '94.] 





NOTES Langland and Dante, 81 Books on Navigation 
83 " Horkeys "England in 1748, 84 Scotch Academic 
Periodicals Thackerayana Overy Truchsessian Gallery 
of Pictures Curious Latin Survival of Elizabethan Eng- 
lish, 85 Cornelius=O'Connor " To seem "Demolition 
of City Church Tabitha Custom at St. Cross, 86. 

QUERIES : Arabic Authorities on Undefined Food Sheri- 
dan's ' Rivals 'Poem R. Seymour Silver-paper, 87 
"Sorella cugina " James II.'s Irish Army Chevalier 
D'Eon's Book-plate' Shakspeare and his Friends "As 
drunk as David's sow"" Wadsett " Occultation of Spica 
T. Barstow Lady Hester Stanhope Sir Thomas Elyot 
Kyburg: Hapsburg " The Epistle Dedicatory," 88 
Piperdan "De gustibus," &c. Bonosus: Borexo : Dios- 
corides " Blenkard ": " London Flower," 89. 

REPLIES : Old Directories, 89 Morphil, 90 Chronology 
in England Tricycle The Derby May's 'Samples of 
Fine English' W. Waller, 91 Unfinished Books, &c. 
Eve of Naseby ' ' Huic " and " Cui "Holy-stone Military 
Etiquette Church near Royal Exchange Crepusculum, 
92 Haymarket " Philately "Mrs. Williams, 93 Indian 
Magic London Street Tablets Ancestry of the Duchess 
of York Bartizan, 94 Byron's Epitaph on his Dog Pro- 
verbs The Drama under the Commonwealth Parish 
Councils Heraldry, 95 T. Bekinton Beans Iron, 96 
Monogram Oasts : Hostelers Burial by Torchlight 
The Almond Tree, 97 Parallels in Tennyson News- 
Prince of Wales, 1805, 98 English Prosody Chancel 
Screens, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Ferguson's 'History of Westmor- 
land ' Ferguson's ' Carlisle Charters ' Gillow's ' St. 
Thomas's Priory.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


It is common in speaking of the author of the 
c Vision of Piers Plowman ' to name him, even in 
passing, with Dante. D'Israeli (' Curiosities of 
Literature ') remarks that in the depth of his emo- 
tions and in the wildness of his images he breaks 
forth "in the solemn tones and with the same 
majesty " as the great Tuscan poet. Speaking of 
his Catholicism, a writer in the Nineteenth Century 
(Palgrave, ' Chaucer and the Italian Renaissance, 7 
vol. xxiv. [1888], p. 340 ; see the note on p. 358) 
says that it is "marked as Dante's; they 
aimed at reform, not at disruption." Ten Brink, 
in that part of his * Early English Literature' 
(London, 1883, translation by H. M. Kennedy, 
see pp. 353-4) which he dedicates to William Lang- 
land, observes : 

" Before middle life, William, like Dante, had recog- 
nized that the world was out of joint. He too looked 
with longing for the deliverer who should Bet it right ; 
he too, with all the powers of his soul, wrestled for the 
knowledge of salvation, for himself and for others ; he 
too lifted up his voice in warning and menace, before 
the great and mighty of the earth, before princes and 
priests ; he too held up a mirror to the world, in which 
it saw both its own image and the ideal to which it had 
grown faithless. But unlike the Italian poet, William 
did not attain a full and clear theory of life, and hence 
he failed to put together what he had lived and seen, in 
a symmetrically drawn picture, with the mighty person- 
ality of the poet for its centre." 

And elsewhere ('Hist, of Engl. L't.,' i. p. 365): 
" The question that first presents itself : VVhc ** what 
is Piers Plowman ? is almost as hard to answer as that 
more frequently put : What is the Dantean Veltro ? " 
Finally, the last who spoke at any length of 
Langland, the French J. J. Jusserand (' Histoire 
Littraire du Peuple Anglais, des Origines a la 
Renaissance,' Paris, 1894, p. 405), says : 

" Le guide qu'il s'est choisi differe autant du VirgiJe 
de Dante quo de 1'Amant suivit par Guillaume de 

and calls his poem "Divine Come'die des pauvres 
gens" (p. 406; cp. p. 403, "Dans le dernier cercle 
de son enfer le poete enferme," &c.). 

On the other hand, all agree in admitting that 
Langland certainly could not have known Dante's 
works. In the preface to his edition of the ' Vision/ 
Dr. Wytaker says : 

" He has a smattering of French, but not of Italian. 
I have endeavoured in vain to discover in these Visions 
any imitations of Dante, whose ' Inferno ' and ' Purga- 
torio,' in some respects, resemble them." P. xxxvii. 

Now, it seems curious that no one of the learned 
commentators of * Piers Plowman ' has thought to 
search if > by chance closer and more particular 
analogies might be found between the two poets. 
Also Longfellow, who in his notes on Dante (in his 
translation of the 'Divina Commedia,' London, 
1867) illustrates many passages of the Italian poet 
with quotations from English writers, ancient and 
modern, only mentions Langland twice, and then 
not even to make parallels (' Purg.,' c. vi. v. 92 ; 
c. xx. v. 74). 

And yet such a research would be interesting, 
so much the more, at least under a certain aspect, 
exactly because the * Divina Commedia ' was quite 
unknown to the author of the* Vision.' Both poets 
survey in their work heaven, hell, and the world, 
and Langland might have said, as did Dante of 
his poem, that " both heaven and earth have set 
their hand " to it 

II poema sacro 
Al quale ha posto mano e cielo e terra. 

< Par.,' xxv. 1. 

Both detach themselves, so to say, from the entire 
humanity, putting their * Vision ' in contrast to 
the rest of the world, busily engaged in its avoca- 
tions. The description of the " faire felde ful ot 
folke" in the Prologue (1. 17 foil., B text) seems a 
more extended version of Dante's introduction to 
the eleventh canto of ' Paradise ; (II. 3-9) : 
One after laws and one to aphorisms 
Was going and one following the priesthood, 
And one to reign by force or sophistry, 
And one in thefts, and one in state affairs, 
One in the pleasures of the flesh involved 
Wearied himself, one gave himself to ease, 
When I, &c. * 

At the same time their mission is highly 
mmanitarian ; to both the advice is given to make 

I quote from Longfellow's translation. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. is* s. vi. AUG. 4,9. 

known what they have seen and heard to their 
fellow creatures : "lereth it \>\B lewde men," says 
Holy Church to Piers (Passus i. 1. 134), and in 
the same way Cacciaguida commands Dante 
Make manifest thy vision utterly ^ 

An admirable accord may be observed between 
the religious ideas of both, so that Langland's 
' Vision ' in that regard would not be better cha- 
racterized than by the words which a recent critic 
of Dante used speaking of his greatest work (see 
Fort. Rev., 1891, p. 345), "Between the lines of 
the great Catholic poem we can read the death 
sentence of the Catholic Church." Although the 
visionary cannot be called disciple or precursor of 
Wycliff in his broader religious views, and is, as 
to the doctrine, as strictly Catholic as Dante,* yet 
he is, like him, antipapal, denounces with the 
same indignant scorn the vices of the clergy and 
the abuses of the Church (" the pope and alle pre- 
latis," p. iii, 1. 214 ; cp. Dante, " e papi e cardinali," 
'Inf.,' vii. 47), and above all makes the degenerate 
monastic orders the object of his bitter invective. 
He scourges those friars who 

preched \>e peple for profit of hem-seluen, 

Glosed be gospel as hem god lyked 

(ProL, 1. 59), 

just as Dante deplores that too often the Holy 
Writ is " distorted " ( Par,,' xxix. 60). Sloth con- 
fesses that he does not care to know 

al >at euere Marke made Mathew, John and Lucas 

And thus Dante, 

The Evangel and the mighty Doctors 

Are derelict. ' Par.,' ix. 133. 

The reproach here levelled against ignorant clergy 
by Langland is even stronger than in the correspond- 
ing passage of Dante. The latter recognizes that 
at least the Decretals are studied (' Par./ ix. 134), 
while Langland makes Sloth say 
in canoun ne in pe decretales I can nou^te rede a lyne. 

' P. v.l. 429. 

The reproach that Langland makes against the 
clergy who 

rentes hem buggen 

With hat pe pore people shulde put in here wombe 

(P. iii. 1. 83), 

* See, among others, J. Stevenson (' The Truth about 
John Wycliff,' London, 1885, p. 46), and Dean Milman 
(' History of Latin Christianity,' vi. 536, quoted by Skeat, 
in his edition of 1886, introd., p. xlix). Lechler, in his 
classic work (i. 245), puts well in relief that Langland 
was " eben so wenig ein Aufwiegler als ein Irrlehrer." 
Other writers, on the contrary, claas him with Chaucer 
and Gower, as one of the immediate forerunners oj 
Wycliff (comp. Blackwood's Magazine, 1884, p. 755) ; the 
French Odysse-Barot (' Hist, de la Litter, contemp. en 
Anglet. 1830,' Paris, 1887, introd., p. 10) calls him " libre 
penseur"; and Weber ('Die Volksbewegungen in England 
und Wiclifs Auegang,' in his ' Weltgeschichte,' zweite 
Aufl., Leipzig, 1885, vol. viii. p. 45) represents him as an 

eminds one of the warning of Dante 
Whatsoever hath the Church in keeping 
Is for the folk that ask it in God's name, 
Not for one a kindred or for something worse. 

Par,,' xxii. 82. 

Reproaching the vices of the popes, he observes 
hat he has still much to say, yet he cannot speak 
more out of reverence (Prol,, 1. 110). Analogously, 
Dante, in his invective against the simoniacr 
Nicholas III. : 

And were it not that still forbids it me 
The reverence for the keys superlative 
Thou hadst on keeping in the gladsome life, 
I would make use of words more grievious still. 
'Inf.,'xix. 100. 

Quite Dantesque is likewise Langland's admira- 
tion for an ideal Pope, who would be a general 
mcificator, reconciling the sovereigns of the world 
;o universal amity. It must be remembered that 
among the many hypotheses to interpret the Dan- 
tean Veltro, Pope Benedetto XI. was suggested. 

Certain expressions, if found in Chaucer or 
Spenser, would leave no doubt that they were 
directly inspired by Dante. Such as "in owre 
sute " (P. v. 1. 495), instead of " in a human body " 
(comp. Dante, " la vesta," Purg./i. 75, and * Vita, 
Nova,' ch. iii.) ; " til sonne $ede to reste " (p. 5, 
1. 367 ; cp. "the sun shall lie upon the pillow^'* 
Purg.,' viii. 133) ; " after many manere metes his 
maw is afyngred " (P. vi. 1. 269), which is almost 
Literally the well-known verse, "dopo il pas to ha 
piii fame di pria" (' Inf.,' i. 99) ; " the pure tene," 
with which Piers makes his peroration on the small 
value of the Pope's pardons (P. vii. 116), and 
which is simply the "righteous zeal" attributed 
to Judge Nino (' Purg./ viii. 83), &c. 

Of the angels who were driven out of heaven 
they speak in the same contemptuous manner : 

none heuene mbte hem holde. 

P. i. 1.118. 
Cp. Dante, ' Inf.,' iii. 40 

The heavens expelled them, not to be less fair, 
Nor them the nethermore abyss receives. 

The words which Holy Church says to the 

be most parti e of bis people bat passeth on pis erthe, 

Haue bei worship in >is worlde jjei wilne no better; 

Of other heuene ban here holde bei no tale 


recall those of the angel in the ' Purgatorio ' (xiv. 
148) :- 

The heavens are calling you, and wheel around you, 
Displaying to you their eternal beauties, 
And still your eye is looking on the ground. 

Sloth says of himself, 

L I haue and haue hadde some dele haukes manere. 

P. v. 1. 438. 

Dante compares the monster Geryon to a " dis- 
dainful falcon" ('Inf./ xvii. 127), and by this 
image he intends also to describe the swiftness 
with which Geryon sped away after having de- 

S 8. VI. Ana. 4, '94.] 



posited him and Virgil on the ground of the last 
circle. And Langland says exactly, " as prest as a 
sperhauke " (P. vi. 1. 19). 

Elsewhere, at the invitation of Virgil to lift 
upward his eyes 

to the lure, that whirls 
The Eternal King, 

the poet becomes 

as the hawk, that first his feet surveys, 
Then turns him to the call and stretches forward 
Through the desire of food that draws him thither. 
' Purg.,' xix. 64. 

But it is especially in the symbolical figures and 
in personifications that the parallels are frequent 
and striking. Langland cannot better describe the 
nature of envy than in making her say 
I wolde be gladder, bi god >at gybbe had meschaunce, 
Than >ouie I had }>\B woke y wonne a weye of essex chese 


just as Dante makes the envious Sapia declare 

I was at another's harm 
More happy far than at my own good fortune. 

' Purg.,' xiii. 111. 
Sloth is described 

al bislabered with two slymy ei}en 

(P. v.l. 391); 

and the lazy are embedded by Dante in a " sable 
mire " (' Inf.,' vii. 124). The lazy Bell' Acqua 
is represented sitting behind a rock, 

and both his knees embraced 
Holding his face low down between them bowed. 

* Purg,/ iv. 107. 

Is it not a living illustration of that Sloth who 
says of himself ? 

I most eitte or elles shulde I nappe ; 

1 may noujte stonde ne stoupe ne with-oute a stole knele. 

P. v. 1. 392. 
Of covetousness Langland says that 

As a letheren purs lolled his chekes 
Wei sydder f>an his chyn. P. v. 1. 192. 

The same image is employed by Dante, who, de- 
scribing the usurers, still haunted in hell by the 
love of gold, says that 

from the neck of each there hangs a pouch. 

' Inf.,' xvii. 55. 

The woman in glorious apparel (Lady Meed) 
^described in Passus ii., with whom many long to 
unite themselves (1.44, 45), has affinity both with 
the figure of false worldly happiness (' Purg./ ix. 
), and with the allegorical she- wolf in the first 
canto of the ' Inferno,' of which Virgil says 
Many the animals with whom she weds. 

L. 100. 

The "noble castle" of human wit and learn- 
ing, encircled by the seven scholastic walls and 
washed round by the fair rivulet of eloquence and 
full of light ('Inf.,' iv.), has great resemblance 
to the " courte as clere as J?e sonne," as described 
in Passus v. 1. 594) : 

]>e mote is of mercy J?e manere aboute, 
And alle J>e wallis ben of witte. 

But here another analogy can be observed. The 
court of which " echo piler is of penaunce " (1. 602), 
11 grace hatte \>Q gateward a gode man for sothe " 
(1. 604), with "J>e keye and J>e cliket" (1. 613), 
and before which Piers says 

I parfourned f>e penaunce, >e preest me enioyned 
And am ful sori for my synnes (1. 607), 

has great resemblance to the gate of Purgatorio 
(c. ix.), with three steps (which symbolize the three 
conditions necessary to a good confession), on the first 
of which a "courteous gate-keeper" is seated, holding 
two keys and a sword in his hands, before whom 
the poet prostrates himself, smiting upon his 

It is scarcely necessary to say that I did not 
pretend to draw a complete parallel between the two 
poets, but merely to give a few hints, which, how- 
ever, I hope will be sufficient to show how interest- 
ing such a parallel might become in better hands 
than mine. PAOLO BELLBZZA. 

46, Guildford Street. 

(Continued from 8 th S. v. 305.) 

With the present part of this series of papers 
the influence of the maritime discoveries and 
adventurous spirit that marked the sixteenth cen- 
tury begins to make itself felt. Navigation is 
treated as a distinct science, and the number of 
works issued becomes greater year by year. The 
Spaniards and Italians are still amongst the chief 
writers, and the only works published in England 
are translations from foreign sources. 

1520. Grant routier & pilotage & enseigneraent etc. 

fait par Pierre garcie. Poictiers, Enguilbert de 

Marnef. 4to. 

Authority, * La Bibliotheque d' Antoine du Ver- 
dier,' Lyons, 1585, quoted by Brunet. For full 
title and account of this work see next article. 

1521 (?). " Grant routier & pilotage & enseigneme't 
pour ancrer tant es portz, haures, q' autres lieux de la 
mer, fait par Pierre garcie, dit ferra'de, tant des parties de 
Fra'ce, Bretaigne, Angleterre, Bspaigne, Fla'dres & 
haultes Allemaignes. avec les da'gers des portz, haures, 
rivieres & chenalz des parties & regions dessus dictes. 
avec ung kalendrier & co'post a la fin dudit livre tres- 
necessaire a tous co'paigno's. et les iugemens doleron 
touchant le fait des navirea. cum privilegio. On les 
trouvera a rouen ches Jeha' burges le jeune, demourant 
prez le moulin saint Ouen. (Sans date) in 4. goth. 
Volume de 78 ff. a long. lign. sign A (non marque) 
jusqu'a T, avec fig. en bois. Au verso du dernier f. 1'adressa 
et la marque de Jeha' Burges. On trouve au recto du 
second f. une lettre intitulee : ' Pierre garcie alias Fer- 
rande a Pierre ybert mon fillol et cher amy salut par 
durable,' et datee de * saint gille le dernier jour du moys 

de may. L'an mil quatre centz. quatre vingt et trois,' 

ce qui donne la date de la composition de 1'ouvrage. 
Quant a celle de I'impreasion ce doit etre 1521, a en juger 
par un exemple donne au commencement du calendrier, 
feuillet T. 2. Vend. 2 liv. 3 eh. Heber. Une edit, de Rouen, 

chez Jean de burges le jeune, 1525, pet. in 4 goth Du 

Verdier cite une edit, de cet ouvrage, ' Poictiers, Enguil- 



[8 th S. VI. AUG. 4, '94. 

bert de Marnef, 1520,' in 4to. II y en a une de Poictiers, 
Jean de Marnef, sans date, in 4, revue et corrigee de 
nouveau ; une autre de ' La Rochelle, Earth. Breton, 
1560,' et enfin de ' La Rochelle, 1571, pet. in 4.' Ces der- 
nieres, dans lesquelles 1'auteur est encore nomme Garcie, 
ont ete fort alterees quant au style, et il parait qu'on y a 
employe les figures grossieres des premieres Editions." 
Brunei's ' Manuel du Libraire,' 1861. 

None of our principal libraries has a copy of 
the first edition of this work. The earliest in the 
Bodleian is that of 1571 (q. u), and that in tne 
British Museum that of 1584. Watt, in his 
'Bibliotheca Britannica,' quotes nothing earlier 
than the 1571 edition. The writer upon sea laws 
in the 'Ency. Brit.' mentions this work as a new 
and enlarged edition of the 'Libre de Consolat' or 
'Book of the Consulate.' But this is entirely 
wrong, and is most misleading. As its title clearly 
shows, the principal part of the book contained 
sailing directions for coasting the English Channel, 
France, Spain, Flanders, and Germany, with the 
soundings and marks for entering the various ports 
and rivers. Indeed later editions, such as that of 
1584, for instance, contained lunar tables and 
roughly executed diagramsof the various landmarks. 
The ' Judgments of Ole"ron ' occupied but a very 
small part of the work, and were added as being 
essential things for masters of ships to know, in 
the same way as the rules of the road are now added 
to all books on navigation. It is no more entitled 
to be classed as a work on maritime law than a 
book on seamanship containing directions for 
restoring the drowned is entitled to be called a 
medical work. 

1523. El Consulado de la Mar, impreso en Catalan. 
Barcelona. 4to. Pinelo, Bibliotheca.' 

See Sir Travers Twiss's introduction to vol. iii. 
of the Black Book of the Admiralty,' published 
in the Eolls Series of " Chronicles and Memorials." 
I cannot trace any copy of this edition. 

1525. "Grand routier & pilotage & enseigneme't 

fait par Pierre garcie Rouen. Chez Jean deburges 

le jeune. 4to." Brunet, ' Manuel du Libraire.' 

1528. Butter of the Sea. Translated and printed by 
Robert Copland " at the costes and charges of Richard 
Banckea." Dibdin's edition of Ames's Typo. Antiqui- 

No copy of this, the first edition of Copland's 
work, is to be found in our public libraries, but in 
subsequent editions, three of which are in the 
British Museum, the title runs thus : " The | 
Rutter of the | See, With the havens, ro | des, 
soundynges, kennynges, | wyndes, flodes and ebbes, 
| daungers and coostes of divers regyons with | 
the lawes of the yele | Auleton, and the judge- 
inentes | of the | see." In the preface, Copland 
states that it is a translation of a French book 
called a 4 Rutter of the Sea,' which had been bought 
by a sailor in Bordeaux. There can be very little 
doubt that the book in question was a copy of 
Pierre Garcie's ' Grant routier, pilotage,' &c., printed 

at Poictiers in 1520, at Rouen in 1521 (q. v.\ 
and again in 1525, and noticed above. Copland's 
translation became popular, and was reprinted 
several times during the sixteenth century. It was- 
the first book printed in England on the subject of 
navigation. Some authorities have overlooked it 
altogether, whilst others have wrongly described 
it as a work on maritime law. 

18, Eresby Road. 

(To le continued.) 

" HORKEYS." The word horkey seems chiefly 
preserved by the farmer boys' laureate, Bloom- 
field ; but no satisfactory derivation of the word 
has, so far as I know, been suggested. Forby 
ventures to say that it is probably from " Hark 
ye !" i.e., to the festive call : he also quotes a 
lady's proposed derivation, "haut cri," as more 
plausible than probable. Pegge's Supplement to 
Grose gives hockey; it is also spelt hockay and 
hawkey. Forby concludes that the word is very 
intractable to an etymologist. Has any more 
recent inquirer found a more likely derivation ? 

This harvest feast has nearly died away ; it 
would, therefore, be well to garner up and eluci- 
date, as far as possible, everything connected with 
it. A writer on ' Witchcraft Superstitions in Nor- 
folk ' (Harper's Magazine, October, 1893) says: 

" Hodge burns the evil spirit of the harvest to this 
day in some remote villages. Horkey, a grotesque figure 
stuffed with straw, and representing a female, is carried 
round the village in procession on the last load of corn, 
and is then burnt in order to ensure good fortune with 
the garnered grain. Many of the rustics might say they 
did not believe there was much efficacy in this ; but it 
lingers, because many of them have faith in the cere- 

Now this personification of Horkey as " the evil 
spirit of the harvest " is quite remote from anything 
that I have met with concerning " horkey s," and, 
if substantiated, requires and deserves careful in- 
vestigation at the hands of skilled folk-lorists. 

Perhaps ' N. & Q.'s respected contributor MR. 
PICKFORD can throw some light on the matter, 
though I am disposed to think that the writer in 
Harper must have trimmed up some local yarn 
out of all knowledge, and old hands know how a 
village tale may be adorned and worked up into 
literary prettiness at the expense of accuracy. 


ENGLAND IN 1748. The following rough notes 
from Kalm's ' Journey in England ' (ed. by Lucas, 
1892) seem worthy of record : 

Water-carts for roads (p. 37) were in use, 
especially when the king went to the Houses of 
Parliament. They were large wooden boxes, which 
bad at the back a transverse row of small holes. 
When a board at the back which stopped these 
holes was raised the water escaped in streams. 

8 th S. VI. AUG. 4, '94.] 



Keeping clean the hulls of ships (Kalm, pp. 19- 
20). The great sea-rover Angria increased the 
speed of his vessels by having the halls cleaned 
and polished every month by rubbing them with 
cocoa-nuts split in two (I presume in dry-dock). 

Bags almost unknown in England in 1728 
(p. 51). 

Boots. No Englishman wore boots except when 
on horseback. If one walked in the town whilst 
wearing boots he held a riding-whip in his hand 
to show that he was about to ride or had just 
ridden. J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

iii. 516 ; iv. 69.) Since I replied to this query in 
July, 1887, I have obtained some additional in- 
formation regarding the magazines of St. Andrews 
and Edinburgh, a note of which I append : 

University of St. Andrews. 

1826. The St. Andrews University Magazine. Nine 
numbers, to March 31. 

1826. The Argus. Six numbers. 

1838. The St. Andrews Literary Magazine. One 

1866. The Comet. Fifteen numbers. 

1866-80. Kate Kennedy's Annual. Fifteen issues. 

1867. The St. Andrews University Monthly Review. 
Two numbers. 

1886-89. The University News Sheet. Thirty-two 

1889. College Echoes. First number on Nov. 7; still 

University of Edinburgh. 

1822. The College Magazine. First number on 
Nov. 30, the earliest known specimen of Scottish student 
journalism. ? numbers published. 

1823. The Edinburgh University Journal and Critical 
Review. Twelve numbers. Wrongly dated 1833 in 
British Museum Catalogue. 

1824. Speculum Academicum, or Edinburgh Miscel- 
lany. Six numbers. (Brit. Mus.) 

1825. The New Lapsus Linguse. Fifty numbers. 
(Brit. Mus.) 

1825. The College Mirror. ? numbers. 

1827. The Cheilead, or University Coterie. Sixteen 

1828. The College Observer. ? numbers. 

1832. Ante Nemo. Three numbers. (Brit. Mus.) 

1833. The University Squib. Two numbers. (Brit. 

1835. The University Medical and Quizzical Journal. 
Six numbers. The first is wrongly dated Jan. 15, 1834 

1838. The University Maga. Vol. 2. Twelve num- 

1839. The Edinburgh University Magazine. Three 
numbers. (Brit. Mus.) 

1866. The Edinburgh University Magazine. Three 
numbers. (Brit. Mus.) 

1887. The Student: a Casual. First number on 
Nov. 8; still current. 

Some account of St. Andrews and Edinburgh 
magazines will be found in : 

College Echoes, vol. i. p. 10 ; ii. p. 68. 

Alma Mater's Mirror, ' Old St. Leonard's Days,' An- 
drew Lang. 

My College Days, R. Menzies Ferguson, p. 89. 

University Maga, vol. i., No. 7. 

Edinburgh University Magazine (1871). No. 1. 

Edinburgh University Quarterly. No. 3. 

Student, vol. vi. pp. 141, 212, 243, 300, 306, 322. 

Memoir of Edward Forbes, Geo. Wilson, pp. 191, 236. 

Story of the University of Edinburgh, Sir Alex. Grant, 
vol. ii. p. 489. 

Memories and Portraits, ' A College Magazine,' Robert 
Louis Stevenson. 

Student's Pilgrimage, David Cuthbertson. p. 107. 

Scottish Notes and Queries. ' Bibliography of Dundee 
Periodical Literature' in vol. iii. p. 150; vol. iv. p. 49; 
vol. vi. p. 107 ; ' Bibliography ef Edinburgh Periodical 
Literature ' in vol. vi. pp. 17, 18, 19, 35, 57, 72, 73, 165. 


THACKERAYANA. The folio win g nonsense verses 
by Thackeray, quoted in the Daily Telegraph, 
July 18, are too good to be lost : 
When the bee is in the bonnet, and the heather on the 


And the lilting bubbly-jockey calls forth on every spray; 
When the haggis in the muirland, and the ostrich at the 

Sing their matins at the sunset, dost thou think, mi 

Jean, of me ? 

" Bubbly-jockey " is, of course, a turkey. " The 
haggis in the muirland " is a fine image. 


OVERT. In Wood's 'City of Oxford' (with 
additions by Sir J. Peshall), on p. 270, he says : 
" Near to Trill-Mill Bow, in the South of the 
Street, was Overee Lane, beyond the Kiver, q. 
over Rhe (Saxon) a River." It led, I think, out 
of Fish Street. The derivation, it will be noticed, 
is the same as that gibbeted by MR. WHEATLEY 
at 7 th S. x. 54. PAUL BIERLEY. 

Dec. 25, 1803, the high wind blew off part of the 
roof of this gallery, which was situated " opposite 
Portland Place," in consequence of which the pic- 
tures have been removed until the necessary re- 
pairs can be made. Such is the account given in 
the ' Annual Register ' (p. 467). I cannot, how- 
ever, learn anything as to this collection, who 
formed it, or what has become of the pictures. 

CURIOUS LATIN. The preface to Sir James 
Ley's 'Law Reports,' 1659, concludes with this 
curious piece of Latin, the last phrase of which 
puzzles me. The whole thing, in such a place, is 
unexpected : 

1 Verum laudent, culpent, occentent Pecus Arcadicum, 
maligniorum ronchi blaterent, adproberit, suspendant 
naso, an praevaricentur Lolio victitantes blenni et buc- 
cones, Lirae Lirse mihi neque Ciccum interduim. 


Portland, Oregon. 

beard or read somewhere that the English of 
Louis Kossuth was that of Shakespeare or of the 
Authorized Version of the Bible, inasmuch as he 


[8 th 8. VI. AUG. 4, '94. 

used the phraseology of the text-books from 
which his knowledge of the language had been 
acquired ; but where is the place in Pennsylvania 
where our mother tongue of the sixteenth century 
is still conserved, still " understanded of the 
people"? In 1871 Miss Marianne North re- 
corded : 

" General Cameron promised if I would come back in 
spring to lake me to a place in Pennsylvania, only eight 
hours off, where they still talked pure Elizabethan 
English." ' Recollections of a Happy Life,' vol. i. p. 75. 

By my troth, I would fain be there. 


CORNELIUS = O'CONNOR. A proof of this is 
afforded by the inscription on the monument 
erected to the memory of Col. Daniel O'Connor- 
Kerry, in the Garrison Chapel, Portsmouth, 
A.D. 1662, and copied in ' N. & Q.,' 4* h S. v. 150, 
thus : " Hie jacet Danielis O Connor (vulgo 
Cornelius dictus)." Considering the fact that the 
inscription is in Latin, there is nothing surprising 
about this ; but it does seem strange to find that 
even in English this gentleman was called 
Cornelius. That this is so appears from Dal ton's 
* English Army List,' where, among the officers in 
garrison at Portsmouth, in the year 1661, occurs 
"Dan. Cornelius, Capt." 0. 

P.S. It is evident from the arms a lion ram- 
pant, &c. that he was an O'Connor of Kerry ; 
perhaps some one can tell from what particular 
branch of that ancient race he came, and how he 
served his king. 

" To SEEM." A curious use of the verb " seem " 
has been recalled to rny mind by a young friend 
who hails from Newcastle. He has just informed 
me that he " seems a stand-up collar," by which 
he means that he looks well in such a collar. 


following record of another act of utilitarian vandal- 
ism is extracted from the Daily News of July 18, 
and seems worth preservation : 

"Allhallows the Great, which stands in Thames Street, 
between the great foundation arches of the South 
Eastern Railway terminus on the one side and the City 
of London Brewery premises on the other, is doomed, 
as is known, to the fate which befell St. Mildred's, 
Poultry, and, at a much more recent date, St. Olave, 
Jewry. Already the work of demolition has commenced, 
the bodiea of the dead and tie sacred relics and adorn- 
ments have been removed, the floors have been upheaved, 
and the old oak panelling taken from the walls. Only 
the fabric remains, and this, with the freehold site ou 
which it stands, will, on Tuesday, the 31st, be submitted 
at the Mart for auction by Messrs. Debenham, the well- 
known firm of auctioneers. Perhaps the most striking 
feature of interior adornment, and one that was unique 
of its kind in London, was the carved oak screen, which 
extended the whole width of the building, and separated 
it, as it were, into nave and choir. It was formed of 
twisted columns bearing an entablature and was profusely 

enriched with carvings, some of which were of fine and 
artistic workmanship. Over the doorway opening, in 
the centre, was an eagle with outspread wings, and above 
this the royal arms. This was given at some time or 
other by the merchants of the Hanseatic League, whose 
connexion with the church is one of its interesting 
features. The scheme for the demolition of the church 
and sale of the site, approved by the Queen in Council, 
provides for the union of the united parishes of All 
Hallows the Great and All Hallows the Less with the 
united parishes of St. Michael Royal and St. Martin 
Vintry, the Church of St. Michnel Royal in College Hill, 
the burial-place of Richard Whittington, the supposed 
hero of the well-known story, becoming the parish church 
of the united benefice, and the Rev. Thomas Moore, 
M.A., who will be known as the author, among other 
works, of * The Englishman's Brief on Behalf of his 
National Church,' being the occupant of the united 
living. The font and communion table are to go to the 
new parish church pending the decision of the bishop 
with regard to them, while the pulpit and the chancel 
screen have already been given to the Church of St. 
Margaret, Lothbury. The old oak panelling and paving, 
however, the antique oak chancel and font railings, an 
old lead three-division cistern of artistic design, dated 
1786. and other materials and fittings, are to be sold at 
the Mart in lots, by Messrs. Debenharn, on the occasion of 
the sale of the property. It is only necessary to add, as the 
Property Market Review reminds us, that the site covers 
an area of 4,130 feet, with a frontage to Thames Street 
of 87 feet ; that it stands practically isolated, with light 
on all sides, a sum of money being provided for main- 
taining the churchyard for ever as an open space ; that 
it lies in the heart of the iron and paper markets ; and 
that a part of the proceeds of the sale will be devoted 
to the erection of a church of the same name in another 
and more populous district." 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

TABITHA, ACTS ix. 40. Hearing this chapter 
read on July 1, I was struck by a curious coin- 
cidence which, so far as I know, is not mentioned 
by commentators. When the daughter of Jairua 
was raised (whether from actual death or from a 
death-like coma), the words of exhortation to her 
were "talitha cumi," see St. Mark v. 41. The 
Aramaic is reported by St. Mark only, and he is 
said traditionally to have been assisted by St. 
Peter in the composition of his gospeL St. Peter 
was one of the three disciples present when the 
raising of the damsel took place. May we not 
think that the recollection was fresh in his mind 
when he was summoned to Dorcas? Like his 
Master, he cleared the room of the mourners, like 
Him he took the dead person by the hand, and the 
word Tabitha must have reminded him of the 
talitha, the word which had such magic power 
when he last heard it in the chamber of death. 


a mile to the south of the historic town of Win- 
chester is the Hospital of St. Cross, with its inter- 
esting Norman church, first founded and endowed 
in the year 1136. One of the ancient and peculiar 

8 th S. VI. AUG. 4, '94.] 



privileges of this institution is, that when 
stranger presents himself at the porter's lodge and 
requests the bounty of the establishment, a smal 
tray is put before him on which are a piece of brea( 
and a horn of beer. The dole of bread is but small 
and the beer of the poorest possible brewage ; sti! 
the custom is kept up much in the same form 
since the days of King Stephen. 0. P. HALE. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

FOR MOHAMMEDANS. Will any reader of 'N.&Q. 
assist me to fill in the proper authorities anc 
quotations in the following report, which I received 
when in India ? The inquiry was whether sugar 
which had been refined according to the genera 
European method that is, decolorized by the use 
of animal charcoal, in which there might be the 
charcoal of pigs' bones is rendered unfit for con- 
sumption as food by the laws and rules of Moham- 
medan faith. The report was written in Urdu by 
two Moulvies in the North-West Provinces of 
India, and translated by a Munshi, who, however, 
was nonplussed by the Moulvies' quotations from 
Arabic authorities. I forward the original trans- 
lation of the Munshi as it reached me, so that it 
may be printed in all its quaintness. It will be 
noted that the Moulvies have supported their 
statement that the bones of all animals excepting 
pigs do not defile by reference to some Arabic 
authority or law. Again, they support their state- 
ment that even pigs 7 bones, by being turned into 
charcoal, become " holy " by reference to Arabic 
books ; and lastly, they support their statement 
that, the sugar having been boiled after it passed 
through the charcoal, the act of boiling itself would 
purify it, by an Arabic quotation. Can any reader 
conjecture what would be the authorities that 
these two learned Moulvies would quote in support 
of^ the statements made 1 I have not the Urdu 
original report, only the Munshi's translation. 
The translation referred to is as follows : 

Extract of Molvi abdul Rahman and Mohamed Motu 
oollah's sentence re use of sugar. 

Manufactures of sugar after the English method burn 
the bones of dead animals and use the charcoal in puri- 
fying sugar in the following manner. 

The charcoal is crushed and plased in a perforated 
vessel, Pootru, Rab, or Goor, is melted with water and 
the sherbet thus made is let into the vessel containing 
charcoal and from this placed in a pan and boiled and 
loaf and sugar are made by thia means. These sugars 
are thoroughly cleaned and neither taste, color or smell 
of the charcoal is left. The peoples who have contract 
for collecting bones for making charcoal are not so care- 
ful as to exclude uncleaced bones, such as pigs. It is 

therefore possible that in the charcoal there are some 
pigs bones which by Mohamidan law is unclean. The 
question proposed to the alim (or learned men) is whether 
purified by the bones of clean animals can be eaten and 
if uncleaned bones be mixed in the charcoal what would 
be lawful. 


1st. The use of sugar is in no way prohibited if it ia 
not purified through a charcoal in which there was a 
mixture of pigs bones because with the exception of 
pigs bones all other animal's bones are holy according 
to Should the t>ones of other animals 

with the exception of pig be placed in water that water 
is fit to bath in and drink according to law. 

2nd. The use of the sugar, purified with the mixture 
of pigs bones is also legal and proper, though some 
learned men are of opinion that pigs bones are unholy 
but when they have been burnt and turned into charcoal 
they become holy before their use as it is clear from 
Arabic books, More over the holiness of the 

sugar is apparent by its being boiled in pan suppose if it 
is filthy by the mixture of pigs charcoal when leaving 
the charcoal it becomes holy as soon as it is boiled as per 
Arabic sentence, 

Sweetmeat is generally holy such as corn wheat &e. 
which is not separated from husks. Unless it is crushed 
by animals feet and thus the filth of animals is un- 
doubtedly mixed in wheat but under the law its use is 
legal owing to the want and need of the public. In like 
manner different sorts of dirt and unpurities are met 
with in goor or sugar from the commencement to the 
end, but it is still used by the public and the use of this 
sugar is in every way as legal and proper as wheat. 
Sd. Moulvi abdul Rahman and Md. Moti ullah. 


SHERIDAN'S 'RIVALS.' Will any scholar kindly 
explain the following ? 

Act I. sc. i. "Thomas. Bravo I warrant 

she has a set of thousands at least." What is a 

set " of thousands ? 

Act II. sc. i. Cox's Museum. Where was this ? 

Act IV. sc. iii. "Sir Lucius. Caught, like 
vipers, with a bit of red cloth." What super- 
stition is alluded to here ? 

Ibid. " Faulkland. Now, Jack, should ' not 

unsought be won.' " Whence is the quotation ? 

F. W. 

POEM. Will any reader tell me the author of a 
riece of poetry beginning 

Oh ! Hampton down by the sea ? 
[s it Lowell ? CONSTANCE A. PRATER. 

EGBERT SEYMOUR. Can any of your readers 
ell me if any descendants or relations of Robert 
Seymour, the first illustrator of ' Pickwick,' are 
now living ? G. S. LAYARD. 

SILVER-PAPER. Why is this thin paper so called? 
s it because silversmiths first used it to wrap up 
heir wares ? I find the term in Madame 
D : Arblay's 'Diary,' ch. xv., 1783, but she misapplies 
t. She says : " Mr. Seward has sent me a proof- 
late, upon silver paper, of an extremely fine ira- 
ression of this dear Doctor, a mezzotinto by 
Doughty from Sir Joshua's picture." She means 



[8'h g. vi. AUG. 4, '94. 

what is called India paper, otherwise Chinese 
paper, used by engravers as giving a better impres- 
sion than common plate paper. Of course what 
we now call silver paper was never employed for 
this purpose. It is not mentioned by Richardson, 
Worcester, or Nuttall, nor by Annandale in his 
* Concise Dictionary,' 1886. I have not his larger 
edition at hand. J. DIXON. 

"SORELLA CUGINA." I should be grateful to 
any one who would make clear to me the full force 
of " sorella cugina " and " prima hermana." Of 
course I know that it is sister cousin and cousin 
sister, but I do not understand ; nor do I under- 
stand " brother german." That, too, I should be 
very glad to have made clear to me. VERNON. 

JAMES II. 's IRISH ARMY. Wanted a list of 
officers in Lord Louth's Brigade or in the regiments 
of Burke and Dillon, including captains and lieu- 
tenants who went to France in 1691. O'Cal- 
laghan's * Irish Brigades/ and the valuable Add. 
MS. Brit. Mus. relating to them, have been drawn 
blank. J. D. 

whereabouts of those charming personalities known 
as book-plates becomes a special study, I would 
ask, through the medium of ' N. & Q.,' if one 
exists of the Chevalier D'Eon. We know that his 
library (or. rather that known as the property of 
Mile. D'Eon) was sold by auction in London in 
1791, and I have reason to think that it contained 
a plate that was engraved in France, and that it 
had all the defects of the blazonry begotten under 
the Bourbons. I should like to know all the houses 
he resided in when in London and Westminster, 
and if any seals or signets are in existence. 


the author of a work of fiction so entitled? It 
was published in " Baudry's European Library " 
Paris, in 1838. W. A. HENDERSON. 


[Robert Folkestone Williams.] 

" As DRUNK AS DAVID'S sow." What is the 
meaning of this expression ; and in what locality is 
it in use? P AUL BIERLEY. 

" WADSETT." This word is of frequent occur- 
rence, both as a verb and as a substantive, in Scottish 
legal and genealogical works ; for instance, on 
almost every page of ' Caithness Family History ' 
by John Henderson, W.S. (Edinburgh, 1884, pri- 
vately printed). What is the exact meaning of 
the term ? Is it equivalent, or nearly equivalent, 
to " mortgage " ? And if different from it, wherein 
lies the difference ? Probably one of your corre- 
spondents north of the Tweed will enlighten me. 



FRIDAY. A writer in the Guardian asks the fol- 
lowing question with respect to the above : 

"The French papers assert that this occultation of 
what they call ' 1'epi de la Vierge,' the spike or ear of the 
Virgin, has not occurred on the anniversary of the Cruci- 
fixion since it occurred on the First Good Friday." 

Is this the case 1 Perhaps MR. LYNN can tell us. 

THOMAS BARSTOW, married at Northallerton, 
Sept. 18, 1761, to Isabella, only daughter of Sir 
Alexander Bannerman, third baronet of Elsick. 
Wanted, date of Thomas Barstow's birth and 

Army and Navy Club. 

LADY HESTER STANHOPE. Who was this titled 
exile? Why did she take up her residence in 
Palestine ; and who was the fiance over whom she 
mourned so long and passionately ? An interesting 
correspondence went on for some time last year in 
L 1 Inter m&diaire about her, initiated by an evidently 
ardent admirer, M. Durighello, who says, inter alia: 

" A trois heures de la ville de Sai'd t (1'antique Sidon) 
sont des ruines solitaires habitees par lea hiboux, et qui 
ne sont guere frequentees que par les patres du Liban. 
Ce sont les restes de la splendide residence ou la ce"lebre 
Lady Esther Stanhope vint passer ses dernieres annees 
dans un cruel abandon. Cette douce et fiere vierge de 
1'Angleterre, qui fut un jour acclamee Heine de 1'Orient, 
pres de Palmyre, par cinquante mille Arabes reunis 
autour de sa tente ...... n'a pas memo une tombe pour re- 

couvrir ses depouilles ! " 

He concludes by stating that the lady retired at 
certain times to her room, where she spent hours 
bending over a miniature of a young man ; that he 
is in possession of the portrait, and asks (so far 
profitlessly) who the young man was. J. B. S. 

[See Allibone, p. 2220.] 

Sir Thomas Elyot printed in most of his books 
his own coat of arms, a very fine block. He bears 
his proper Elyot coat in the first and fourth quarters, 
and as second and third a chevron between three 
chess rooks or castles. Whose arms are these ? Un- 
fortunately the tinctures are not given. Papworth 
and Morant give these arms to several families, 
but I cannot find any clue to the right one. No 
life of Sir Thomas Elyot seems to give the informa- 
tion. C. S. 

KYBURG : HAPSBURG. Can you inform me of 
a book or books giving the history of the house of 
Kyburg and the house of Hapsburg ? JACK. 

possession an old book entitled, "The Historie of 
the Civill Warres of France, written in Italian by 
H. C. Davila. Translated out of the original." It 
was printed in London in 1647, under an Order of 
Parliament dated Thursday, Jan. 7, 1646, and 

8S. VI. Ato. 4,'94.] 



" The Epistle Dedicatory," dated London, Jan. I 
1648, is addressed "To the King's Most Sacre 
Majesty, Charles, By the Grace of God, King o 
Great Britain, &c." by his Majesty's " most Loya 
and Obedient subjects and servants Charles Cot 
terell, William Aylesbury." The dedication, afte 
the usual amount of adulation, concludes byexpres 
sing the hope that the civil wars of England ma 
resemble those of France, " not in length of con 
tinuance, but in a joyful conclusion," and goes 01 
to say, " may your Majesty not onely soon re 
establish as happy a Peace in all your Kingdoms 
as the Great Henry your Queens Heroick Fathe 
did in France, but live much longer to enjoy th 
fruits of it in a Reign of many glorious years." Ii 
little more than a year after this was written 
(Jan. 30, 1649) the king was brought to the block 
and at the very date of it Charles was a close pri 
soner of the Parliament in the Isle of Wight, hi 
personal servants having been dismissed. Can an; 
of your readers inform me whether this consti 
tutional fiction of loyalty was common to all the 
publications of the period in question ? 

Matfield, Kent. 

PIPERDAN. Where is this place ? An English 
army under Percy was met at it by the Scots under 
Douglas, 1436. It is in the south of Scotland. 

W. M. 


earliest quotation which the ' Stanford Dictionary 
gives for the usa of this familiar expression is from 
Sterne's ' Tristram Shandy,' 1759. Jeremy Collier, 
in his ' Eeflexions upon Ridicule,' 1707, remarks 
at p. 122 : " 'Tis a kind of Maxim which every 
Body takes up without Examination, that Tastes 
are not to be disputed." How old is the expression ? 
Is it known where it first appeared ? 


Jude (circa 1603, but printed 1633) has some good 
points on natural history, and is otherwise well 
worth reading. He tell us (p. 353) of " the beast 
Bonosus, mentioned by Aristotle, who having his 
homes reflexed, not being able to' defend himselfe 
with them, three or foure furlongs off poysoneth 
the dogges with his dung ; which is so hot, as it 
burneth off all their haire." And the magistrate 
(p. 209) is like " the frog called Borexo, which hath 
two Livers, one for poyson, the other for treacle." 

The stone Dioscorides (p. 106) is nothing in the 
mouth of a dead man." Ergo, it does good in that 
of a living man. Boras or borax is mentioned by 
Chaucer. Did Otes suppose that it was extracted 
from a frog ? RICHARD H. THORNTON. 

Portland, Oregon. 

tavern bill of 1695, for a dianer at or near to Hull, 

the first item is "To 30 Bottles of Blenkard 
03 : 00 : 00." It was the chief drink, costing two 
shillings a bottle, while a bottle of canary cost four- 
pence more. Ale and beer were also consumed. 
In another bill, of about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, there is a charge for " London Flower 2 d ," 
which I suppose to have been flour used in 
cooking. What was " Blenkard," and what was 
" London Flower " ? THOS. BLASHILL. 

(8 th S. v. 329). 

The earliest known directory of people and 
places seems to be that of London in 1677, of 
which only three copies are known one in the 
Bodleian Library, one in the Manchester Free 
Library (which was bought for 51.), and one sold 
at the Rev. Mr. Hunter's sale, which realized 91., 
although imperfect. The Manchester copy was 
carefully reprinted in 1878 (by Chatto & Windus) 
with an interesting introduction ; and the next 
London directory seems to have been one of 300 
pages, published in 1732. The editor of the reprint 
in 1878 gives some details of earlier manuscript 
directories, or ' Office of Addresses,' by Henry 
Robinson, in 1650, who had an " Office in Thread- 
needle Street, over against the Castle Tavern, 
close to the Old Exchange in London "; and it was 
described as " keeping particular registers of all 
manners of addresses," with a "Catalogue of 
subjects of inquiry " so copious and so curious as 
o be a fresh proof that there is nothing new under 
the sun. Sixpence was the fee, and for this small 
sum answers to all sorts of questions connected 
with business could be obtained. 

The earliest directories seem to have appeared 
n the second half of the last century, and the 
dates of these may be found in Manchester, Glas- 
gow, Liverpool, and other old cities and towns. An 
icreditary interest in directories (from my grand- 
ather's days) has led me to look out for those of the 
Vlidland Counties, and the following notes may 
>erhaps be of value to MR. CECIL SIMPSON and 
ther readers. My earliest general directory is one 
f 1800, 'Kent's Directory for the Year 1800,' and 
his is the sixty-eighth edition. It has 139 pages, 
ollowed by twenty-eight pages of very curious 
etails of " Rates of Hackney Carriages," from one 
hilling up to half-a-crown fares, " Charges for 
onveying Parcels from the Inns," and two pages 
only) on the "Rates of Postage of the General 
nd Penny Post Offices," with many remarkable 

The earliest local directory in my collection is 
ne of Birmingham in 1770, of which only two 
opies (the other in the Birmingham Reference 



Library) have survived. This is probably one of 
the moat complete of its time, and its title is : 

Sketchley's and Adams's Tradesmen's True Guide; 
or, an Universal [!] Directory for the Towns of Birming- 
ham, Wolverhampton, Walaall, Dudley, and the Manu- 
facturing Villages in the Neighbourhood of Birmingham, 
the Whole being a compleat View of the Trade and Com- 
merce of this large and populous Country [src]; Containing 
in Classical and Alphabetical Order, the Names, Places 
of Abode, Number of their Houses, &c.,of the Professors 
of the Liberal and Polite Arts and Sciences, Gentle- 
men of the Physical [sic\ Profession, Attorneys, Music 
Masters, Merchants, Manufacturers, Tradesmen, and 
Publicans, &c., in the said Places and Hamlet of Deri- 
tend, adjoining to Birmingham ; Together with an exact 
Account of the Number of Houses, and Inhabitants, 
Male and Female, in the Town of Birmingham, with a 
copious Index to the Whole. The Fourth Edition, with 
great Improvement*. Birmingham : Printed by and for 
J. Sketchley at No. 81, 0. Adams, No. 83 in High Street, 
and S. Sketchley, No. 74, in Bull Street. MDCCLXX. 

The volume is an octavo, 122 pages, of which 
seventy-six relate to Birmingham, and the rest to 
the towns mentioned in the title-page. The Bir- 
mingham section has the names classed under the 
various trades, many of which are briefly described ; 
but in 1886 my friend Mr. R. B. Prosser indexed 
carefully and rearranged the entries into streets, 
and fifty copies were privately printed. 

In 1772 (or perhaps 1773) another edition was 
issued by the same printers (pp. 72), but no date ; 
another in 1774 as the 'Tradesman's Compleat 
Memorandum Book,' 12mo. and not paged. In 
1780 Pearson & Rollason published the ' Birming- 
ham, Wolverhampton, Walsall, Dudley, Bilston, 
and Willenhall Directory of Merchants and Traders, 
with a Useful Companion ' (a diary, in fact), in a 
12mo. volume, pp. 128, and another edition in 
1781; and in 1785 the same printers published 
* A New Directory for the Town of Birmingham 
and its Hamlet of Deritend, Taken from Personal 
Application,' &c., and printed for the compiler, 
Charles Pye, in 12mo. size and pp. 100 a rather 
remarkable and interesting local work. 

Another volume of more varied interest will 
probably be more useful to MR. SIMPSON, as it is 
one of the earliest of its class, and, in fact, the only 
one I have ever seen. It is entitled 

Bailey's Western and Midland Directory, or Mer- 
chant's and Tradesman's Useful Companion for the Year 
1783, containing an Alphabetical List of the Names and 
Places and Abode of the Bankers, Merchants, Manufac- 
turers, Gentlemen of the Law and Physic, and other 
eminent Traders, in Every Principal Town, in Berkshire, 
Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, Devon- 
shire, Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Here- 
fordshire, Oxfordshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, .Not- 
tinghamshire, Warwickshire and Lancashire, with the 
Cities of London and Westminster, upon a Survey lately 
Taken, and which contains a far greater Number of 
respectable Tradesmen than any Work of this kind ever 
yet Published. Compiled with the Greatest Care and 
Accuracy. Birmingham, Printed by Pearson & Holla- 

The preface says that the utility of the ' London 

Directory' "is sufficiently known, and the same 
Plan is closely pursued and has been personally 
supplied in each Town." The volume is 8vo. size, 
and London has a large share of its contents, and 
the outlying towns and places are only very briefly 
described, but the volume is curiously interesting 
as a record of facts a hundred years ago. ESTB. 

The first known work which has any resemblance 
to a directory has the title " The names of all 
such gentlemen of Accompts as were residing 
within ye City of London, Liberties, and Suburbs 
thereof, 28 November, 1595 ; anno 38 Elizabethe 
Kegina." A copy may be seen in the British 
Museum. Its successor is entitled ' List of the 
Principal Inhabitants of the City of London, 1640/ 
and was published in 1886, a copy of which, as- 
also directories for the following years, may be con- 
sulted in the Library of the Corporation of the 
City of London viz., 1677 (reprinted in 1878),. 
1749, '52, '55, '63, '65, '71, '72, '74, '75, '77, '78, 
'81, '83, '86, '88 to ; 94, '98, '99, 1800, 1803 to 1811, 
1813 to 1817, 1819 to 1850, &c. Also for the 
following counties, commencing at the dates 
given: Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Derbyshire, 
Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Nottingham- 
shire, Oxfordshire from 1847 ; Eutland, 1848 ; 
Lincolnshire, 1849 ; Birmingham, Staffordshire, 
and Worcestershire from 1850; Essex, Hertford- 
shire, Kent, Middlesex, Surrey, Sussex from 1851. 

An account of a London directory for 1722 
appears in the City Press for September 1, 1886, 
and a ' History of the First London Street Direc- 
tory' is given in the same publication for December 
30, 1891. The subject has also been treated on in 
< N. & Q.' 2 Bd S. iii. 270, 342 ; iv. 16 ; 4 th S. iiL 
336, 384, 467. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

MORPHIL (8 th S. vi. 7). The ' Dictionnaire 
technologique dans les langues franchise, anglaise, 
et allemande,' by Alexandre and Louis Tolhaussn 
(Leipzig, Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1883), has : 

Morfil, marfil; rohe Elephantenzahne, rohes Elfen- 
bein ; unmanufactured elephants' tusks. 

'Dictionnaire historique de 1'ancien langaga 
frangois,' by La Curne de Sainte-Palaye, tome 
VII. (Niort, L. Favre) : 

Morfil, ivoire (Oudin). En Espagnol morfil, mot 
d'origine arabe. 

* Dictionnaire de la langue franchise de Pierre- 
Kichelet (Amsterdam, 1732) : 

Morfil. On appelle ainsi les dents d' Elephant se"parees 
du corps de 1'animal, et avant qu'elles soient travaille"es. 
(Les cotes de Guinee fournissent beaucoup de morfil.) 

Littre" : 

Nom donne" a 1'ivoire qui n'a pas ete travaill^, aur 
dents d'elephant separees de 1'animal. Morfil ou ivoire, le 
cent pesant, 30 livres, Decl. du roi, nov. 1640, tarif. On 
dit uussi marfil. 

I have taken a note of the following passage from 

8*8. VI. AUG. 4, '94.] 



an historian whose name I have lost : " On aval 
trouve dans les eaux du Guadalete les insignes d 
. sa royaute" [Roderik's, the last Gothic king c 
Spain], son char de morfil et son cheval appel 

This word is also used by cutlers to mean th 
wiry edge of a blade. It is to be found with thi 
last meaning in Cotgrave. The etymology is mort 
fil, dead or blunt edge. B.-H. G. 


It is simply a misprint for morfil, found in al 
dictionaries. In the text quoted the meaning ii 
"ivory." F. E. A. GASC. 


Morphil signifies ivory. In Nemnich's 'Euro 
pean Dictionary of Merchandise,' 1799, morfil is 
given "unwrought ivory," and in Cotgrave's 
^French-English Dictionary,' 1550, "Morphie: 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

[Very many replies are acknowledged.] 

CHRONOLOGY IN ENGLAND (8 t!l S. v. 328). If 
K. would peruse the list of dates (about 130) given 
by various writers as being the time when the 
world was created, he would see how wide are their 
variations. The computations of Bede and Rey 
noldus were accepted by some chroniclers, but, after 
consulting a number of works written before Usher's 
time, I have concluded that no special system 
of chronology was accepted by the historians. 
Ralegh in his ' Historie of the World,' 1614 (p. 18), 
says, " The Julian Period, which placed," &c., 
" being accommodated to the Julian yeeres now in 
use among us." Speed in his 'History ' confesses 
that the sixteen writers, &c., "differ much, and 
that not only each from others, but even among 
themselves," &c. Having such a variety of 
opinions, it is difficult (if not impossible) to give 
the year of Christ's incarnation. The following 
writer gives the most definite date of the Incarna- 
tion, also shows how he computes the time he 
assigns : ' Xpto-roAoytd ; or, a Brief (but True) 
Account of the certain Year, Monetb, Day and 
Minute of the Birth of Jesus Christ/ by John 
Butler, B.D., &c., London, 1671, pp. 91, 92 : 
"Adam therefore waa Created just as the Sun was 

Setting After this, 4,000 years from the Sun's 

Creation, came the Sun to his Vernal Point in the Julian 

year 45 And on Thursday, the 25 th of March in the 

Climate of Judsea at 6 of clock in the morning came up 
the same point of the Sun as it was at Adam Creation 
in 2 degrees and 30 minutes of the Vernal Sign Aries : 
And this was the punctual time of Incarnation of the 
Ever Blessed." 

I must leave K. to pass his own verdict as to the 
truth of the above. JOHN RADCLIFFE, 

The knowledge most accessible in the sixteenth 
century made the "year of the world" (ac they 
called it, meaning year of Adam's birth) at the 

Incarnation little short of Dante's 5400. The 
Septuagint made the Deluge 2256, and the Hindus 
made that event B.C. 3102, the sum being 5358. 
Josephus, by omitting a century from one of the 
antediluvian generations, reduced them to 2156, 
and the accounts of Berosus, giving the ante- 
diluvian ten reigns 120 Sari, as a natural Sams is 
eighteen years and ten days, made the years 2162, 
nearly agreeing. The Hindu 3102 B.C. agrees 
exactly with the Septuagint, if we take the longest 
of the three readings of Nahor's generation (the 
only one in the ' Speaker's Commentary '), omit 
the postdiluvian Cainan (unknown to any other 
version), but add half a year to each generation. 

E. L. G. 

TRICYCLE (8 th S. v. 485). In the summer of 
1837 I travelled from Tours down the valley of 
the Loire by a slow and lumbering conveyance 
with three wheels one in front, two behind 
calling itself "Diligence Tricycle." It was, of 
course, drawn by horses, and very sluggish brutes 
they were. EDMUND VENABLES. 

La Nature for December 18, 1886, contains a 
reproduction of an English print, dated 1819, and 
entitled f The Ladies' Hobby,' which shows a lady 
on a tricycle driven by pedal levers. 


THE DERBY (8 th S. vi. 68). A local 'Guide 
to the Isle of Man' (Brown's, p. 249) states as 
follows : 

" Proceeding northward along the coast, a pleasant 
walk of a mile and a half, partly along the top of the 
cliffs, brings us to the Isle of Man Racecourse. This 
spot will be interesting to Englishmen as the site of the 
original ' Derby Day,' the principal event of the annual 
carnival on the Epsom Downs. During his residence on 
the Island, James, seventh Earl of Derby, instituted a 
eries of races for the amusement of his followers, to 
which the name of The Derby was given, thus anticipat- 
g by a century and a half its establishment on Epsom, 


v. 287). Is not this a work from the pen of 
Caroline May, authoress of ' Pearls from the- 
A.merican Female Poets ' (New York, 1869) ? 

Eden Bridga. 

ELLER (8** S. v. 487). This estimable man is 
bus referred to in Noble's ' Memorials of Temple 
Bar '(p. 118): 

At No. 58 [Fleet Street] carries on business as a 
ookseller, Mr Waller, of an 'ancient' family, and a 
escendant of Waller, the Poet." 
sToble's book is not dated, but he wrote his pre- 
ace to it in November, 1869, so that Mr. Waller 
ems to have been in Fleet Street up to that date. 
He left the City in the seventies, and retired, I 



[8'h S. VI. AUG. 4, '94. 

fancy, to Hampstead, whence he used to issue his 
catalogues of autographs, on which he was a great 
authority. These used regularly to be advertised 
in the Athenceum, and if MR. PARTRIDGE has 
access to a file of that paper, he may ascertain the 
address, and possibly communicate with some of 
the Waller family by that means. Mr. Waller 
was an admirably courteous and cultivated man ; 
but I am sorry to say he has now joined the great 
majority. R. CLARK. 



BUT NEVER PUBLISHED (8 th S. IV. 467 J V. 95). 

MR. EDWARD H. MARSHALL will be glad to 
know that a second volume of Didron's ' Christian 
Iconography,' translated by E. J. Millington, and 
completed with additions and appendices by 
Margaret Stokes, was added to " Bohn's Illustrated 
Library," by George Bell & Sons, in 1886. By 
that time the learned author had passed away. 


'History of Kent,' by John Harris, D.D., 1719, 
2 vols. folio. Only one volume published, incom- 
plete and highly inaccurate. 

' Life of Shelley/ by Thomas Jefferson Hogg, 
4 vols. 8vo. (Moxon, 1858). Two volumes only 
published. W. F. WALLER. 

To the lists already given may be added : Earl 
Russell commenced in 1842 'A History of the 
Middle Ages/ which, as Mr. Spencer Wai pole 
writes (' Life of Lord J. Russell/ i. 401), " was 
never destined to be completed." 


Blore, * History of Rutland,' vol. i. pt. ii., re- 
ferring to the East Hundred, was printed at Stam- 
ford, folio, 1811. Part ii. has not yet been printed. 

We must not, I fear, expect more of Ruskin's 
' Praeterita/ of which we have two volumes and 
some odd numbers. KILLIGREW. 

EVE OF NASEBY (8 th S. v. 303, 342, 412). I 
remember seeing a good many relics, pieces of 
armour, swords, &c., from the Battle of Naseby, at 
the residence of the late Capt. Ashby, Naseby 
Wolleys, in August, 1883. Are they dispersed now; 
or, if not, where are they preserved 1 F. 

PRONUNCIATION OF " Huic " AND " Cui " (8 th 
S. v. 449). Continental scholars and Scotsmen 
pronounce these words as " hooick " and " cooee." 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

Continental scholars pronounce huic and cui 
"hooick" and "cooee." 


HOLT-STONE (8 th S. v. 446). Admiral W. H. 
Smyth, in his ' Sailor's Word - Book ' (London, 

1867),. describes it as a sandstone for scrubbing 
decks, so called from being originally used for 
Sunday cleaning, or obtained by plundering church- 
yards of their tombstones, or because the seamen 
have to go on their knees to use it. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

A sandstone for scrubbing decks, so called from 
being originally used for Sunday cleaning, or 
obtained by plundering churchyards of their 
tombstones, or because the seamen have to go on 
their knees to use it (W. H. Smyth's 'Sailor's 
Word-Book'). PAUL BIERLEY. 

336, 455). Certainly he is Private Wright in the 
Illustrated London News, June 20, 1857, where is 
a sketch of his prowess, and in the same paper of 
March 7. I must have written Sergeant by mis- 
take, unless it was by a sort of prolepsis, with an 
eye to his future promotion. He is not mentioned 
as having been at Inkerman. 



v. 407, 470). It seems curious that there should 
be any doubt as to the identity of this church, 
which I certainly saw unroofed in the summer 
of 1844, when the present Royal Exchange was 
building. It was situated, to the best of my 
remembrance, at the corner of Threadneedle Street, 
on the left-hand side as you walked from Broad 
Street to Cornhill,and its site was on the Exchange 
flags, near Mr. Peabody's statue. Very likely 
some account of it may be found in one of a series 
of interesting articles on ' London Churches ' pub- 
lished weekly in the Illustrated London News when 
that paper was in its infancy, about 1841-42, and 
now valuable as a record of structures which have 
been removed entirely. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I seem to be alone in my identification of the 
church inquired for by MR. PICKFORD with St. 
Benet Fink. I should be slow to question any 
statement of one so intimately acquainted with 
"vanishing London" as DR. SPARROW SIMPSON, 
but may I ask if any portion of a church the 
materials of which were sold by auction in 1841 
as was the case with St. Bartholomew's, ac- 
cording to Mr. Wheatley was likely to have 
been standing in 1844, the date of MR. PICKFORD'S 
visit ] Besides, he says that he saw it " in course 
of demolition." This can hardly have occupied 
three years. The destruction of St. Benet's was 

CREPUSCULUM (8 th S. v. 306, 397, 514). MR. 
ADAMS'S defence of Lord Tennyson is quite valid, 
and I thank him for reminding L me of what I 

8 lh S.VI. AUG. 4, '94.] 



should not have forgotten, that the Greek word 
had adopted a Latin declension. Still I must say 
that, in spite of Pliny and Plautus, polypi offends 
my ears no less than the antipi of England and 
the tripi of Cambridge would doubtless offend 
those of MR. ADAMS. As to the English plural, 
our derivative is polyp, and the plural, of course, 
polyps. Octopus has not yet thrown out octop or 
octope ; that, I suppose, is to come. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

With respect to polypus, it seems to me that 
both your correspondents are right. The word 
TroAvTrovs in Greek would have for its genitive 
case 7ro\v7roSos, and for its plural 
but when it is absorbed into the Latin language it 
would naturally become (as it stands in RiddelFs 
* Dictionary ') a noun of the second declension, 
and then polypi would be correct, whether as a 
But then 

of the subject. In the Collectionneur de Timbres- 
Poste (a Paris magazine, still issued) for November, 
1864, p. 20, appears an article from his pen (see 
p. 30) entitled 'Bapteme.' After discussing the 
objections to the word timbromanie, which had 
been previously employed, M. Herpin goes on to 
propose, as preferable, 

" Philatelie, forme de deux mots grecs, 0i\of ami, 
amateur, et drt\r]G (en parlant d'un object)- franc, libre 
de toute charge ou impot affranchi; substantif, drf\a, 
Philatelie signifierait done amour de 1'etude de tout ce 
qui se rapporte a I'aflFranchissement." 

The words philately, philatelist, philatelic were 
introduced to English collectors in the Stamp Col- 
lectors' Magazine for 1865, see pp. 112, 127, 182. 
The form philatelical was first used by the late Mr. 
Edward L. Pemberton, in his Philatelical Journal, 
January, 1872. P. J. ANDERSON. 

be admitted into any langua^ 
in its inflections 1 E. g., I have had it suggested to 
me that the proper plural of omnibus is omnibi. 

HAYMARKET (8 th S. vi. 7). Having lived there 
ten years (1827-1837), I know something of 
the locality, and have obtained particulars of 
the principal houses of business (McLean, Garrards, 
Brecknell & Turner, Fribourg & Treyer, Hudson, 
Adams & Hooper). It is a somewhat remarkable 
street, and has been in the past a place of great 
dissipation. Some of its numerous taverns have 
histories ; one, the " Anglesea," long since closed, 
was kept by Thurtell's brother (Thomas). John 
was hung at Hertford for the murder of William 
Weare. George Morland was born in the Hay- 
market, and was well known at all the inns in the 
West-End and the Edgware Koad. The history of 
the street, if well compiled, would make a popular 
book, and I wonder Dickens or Sala has not taken 
the matter up. At No. 1 resides Bain, the second- 
hand bookseller, the oldest, I think, in London. 
Emma Hart, afterwards Lady Hamilton, lived as 
a servant at a tavern in St. James's Market. 

10, Little College Street, Westminster. 

Has MR. HILL consulted the parochial rate 
books, and the records of Middlesex Deeds' Ee- 

Eden Bridge. 

"PHILATELY" (8* S. v. 509). It would be 
well if many recent formations could have their 
origin as definitely traced as philately. The word, 
in a French form, was invented by M. G. Herpin, 
one of the pioneers of the scientific study of stamps, 
and a frequent contributor to the early literature 

first number of the Philatelist (a monthly journal, 
not now, I believe, " in terra viventium ") was 
issued on Dec. 1, 1866, and begins with an article 
by Mr. Camoens, from which I quote the follow- 
ing : 

Having secured a position, a suitable name of title 
next became indispensable. Timbromania was its first 
designation ; but this being suggestive of madness, and 
as no one likes to be thought mad, it soon became un- 
popular. Timbrophily and Tinibrology next had a short 
reign as a technical term, till Philately, having the 
double charm of being very euphonious [?] as well as 
slightly incomprehensible to all but the learned, has 
proved to be the right word in the right place." 

W. T. LYNN. 


[Many other replies are acknowledged.] 

MRS. WILLIAMS (8 th S. vi. 3). As an addition 
to MR. D. HIPWELL'S communication respecting 
Mrs. Cornelys, it may be interesting to remind 
your readers that what was that lady's music and 
dancing room now forms part and parcel of St. 
Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, Soho Square. 


In his very interesting note MR. HIPWELL 
seems to be slightly in error as to Mrs. Cornelys 
(the mother) when he says that after the sale of 
the property, under a decree of the Court, she (Mrs. 
Cornelys) "retired into private life at Knights- 
bridge"; to which is added," The world forgetting, 
by the world forgot." "By the world forgot" 
most probably, for those one tries to please are 
ever the first to prove forgetful when troubles 
surround one ; but " the world forgetting" seems 
not to be quite so true. Chambers, in ' The Book 
of Days ' (vol. ii. b. 12), seems to favour the idea 
of private life at Knightsbridge ; but Davis, in 
1 The Memorials of the Hamlet of Knightsbridge ' 



[8 th S. VI. AUG. 4, '94. 

(1859, p. 158), says that after her bankruptcy, &c., 
in 1785, she " ten years after, to the great surprise 
of the public, reappeared at Knightsbridge as Mrs. 
Smith, a retailer of asses' milk. A suite of break- 
fast rooms was opened, but her former influence 
could not be recovered. The speculation utterly 
failed, and at length she was consigned to the 
Fleet Prison." This is borne out by Walford 
('Old and New London, 7 v. 21), who adds "that 
the manners of the age were changed, and her 
taste had not adapted itself to the varieties of 
fashion "; and Wheatley, in ' London Past and 
Present ' (iii. 267), says, " She turned up again, 
however, as a vendor of asses' milk at Knights- 
bridge." There is evidently, therefore, something 
in it, and it would appear that she was very far 
from "the world forgetting," as she made a very 
decided bid for its favour, but, unfortunately for 
her, failed in obtaining it. 


20, Artillery Building?, Victoria Street, S.W. 

INDIAN MAGIC (8 th S. vi. 48). The explanation 
of this trick is well known. It is given in detail 
in a book on conjuring by Hofmann. Practically, 
it is done by sleight of hand. On each occasion 
the plant is covered up and again uncovered, so as 
to show its stages of growth ; and on each occasion 
you see a different plant ; so that it is done by 
repeated substitution. Crude and unlikely as this 
explanation seems, it gives the right answer ; for 
details, see a printed account. It can be done in 
any country, and is not peculiar to India. 


The Indian mango-growing trick is rarely de- 
scribed fully as to facts and length of time required 
by the juggler. This "Indian Plant Trick" was 
fully and clearly described and the methods used 
explained in the Picture Magazine of May, 1894, 
p. 296. The conjurer is more clever than the 
observer, as in all such exhibitions. ESTE. 

174, 316, 449). Your correspondent says, "There 
was one in the wall of the Red Lion Inn, flolborn, 
in a square frame, with 1C. 1611." It still exists 
in situ, but is covered by a huge signboard. The 
sign was taken down recently for repainting, and 
revealed the still existing date and monogram, cut, 
apparently, in the end of a beam supporting the 
first floor of the house. There was a very nice 
bas-relief tablet in Newgate Street, over the en- 
trance to Bull's Head Court, before the street was 
widened, the subject being a man in the costume of 
Charles II., holding a long staff, and standing by him 
a very diminutive male figure in similar dress. 
The legend was, " The King's Porter and Dwarf." 
The tablet has been inserted in the front of the new 
building, but is so much obscured by stucco that the 
inscription cannot be seen, and part of the figures 

,lso. The tablet is now painted drab, but when in 
he old house they were in proper colours, blue 
ind red livery, &c. With reference to the " Man 
Loaded with Mischief" in Oxford Street, there is 
tradition that it was originally painted by 
Hogarth. F. G. 

MR. NORMAN has noted that a house in Rose 
Street, Covent Garden, which is now to a great 
extent cleared away or absorbed by Garrick Street, 
lad a tablet inscribed " This is Rose Streete 1623." 
[n the first volume of Once a Week, p. 307, there 
s a very interesting paper, by the late Robert Bell, 
on Rose Street, which at that time (October, 1859), 
was in process of demolition. The paper is illus- 
rated by a woodcut, by W. R. Woods, showing 
:he appearance of the street at the time. " The 
formal epitaph of this street," wrote Mr. Belf, 
' now lies in the mason's yard adjoining, in the 
"orm of a tablet detached from one of the houses, 
and which bears the superscription, ' This is Red 
Rose Street, 1623."' 

This tablet, which has probably long been out of 
existence, is not only the oldest of those recorded 
>y MR. NORMAN, but commemorates a street which 
s associated with England's greatest satirist, and 
one of her greatest poets. In a garret in Rose 
Street or Rose Alley, as it was often called 
Samuel Butler died in 1680. In the previous 
year, a week before Christmas Day, Dryden was 
almost beaten to death in the same street when 
returning home from his accustomed haunt in Bow 
Street. Mr. Bell has gone carefully into the 
history of the occurrence, and has incidentally 
discussed the question of Dryden's residence at 
the time, a point which seems still undertermined 
(see 8 td S. v. 382, note). According to the Rate 
Books of St. Bride's, he was living in Fleet Street in 
1679 ; according to the Rate Books of St. Martin's, 
in Long Acre. As the road to Long Acre from 
Bow Street lay through Rose Alley, the weight of 
probability seems to lie in favour of his living in 
the thoroughfare sacred to coachmakers. He did 
not more to Gerard Street till 1686. Another 
notability connected with Rose Street is Edmund 
Curll, the bookseller, who issued his unsavoury 
publications from the "Pope's Head" in that 
alley. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

S. iv. 42). Since sending you my note I have been 
able to consult Ivan Nagy's ' Families of Hungary ' 
(in Hungarian), the book referred to by me, and 
find I was right in my surmise that all that the 
Rh^deys claim is that their ancestors belonged to 
the same clan as King Aba Samu. L. L. K. 

BARTIZAN (7 th S. ix. 224). An early instance of 
this word, in the form used by Scott, occurs in 
Foulis of Ravelston's Account Book (Scottish 
History Society, 1894), at p. 200 : "Dec. 12, 1696. 

8th s. VI. AUG. 4, '94.] 



to and. baverage, sklaitfcer, for pointing about th 
bartizan and spouts." K. D. WILSON. 

ME. BUTLER will find the epitaph he mentions i 
vol. vii. pp. 292-3 of the ' Works of Lord Byron 
edited by Thomas Moore, Esq., published by John 
Murray, 1832. Also, in a note, the inscription 
which precedes the above, giving the good qualitie 
of the dog Boatswain, with other information 
Some editions do not give the inscription. 


The lines dated " Newstead Abbey, Nov. 30 
1808," and copy of the inscription on the monu 
ment, will be found in vol. i. p. 292 of the ' Work 
of Lord Byron,' published by Murray, in ten 
volumes, 1851. EVERARD HOME GOLEM AN. 

71, Brecknock Koad. 

PROVERBS (8 th S. v. 385). I have met with 
other versions of the second of the two proverbs 
quoted by 0. E., and think he is correct in assum 
ing the non-originality of that, at least. From 
what I have learnt concerning the saying, I imagine 
there are several variants in force. One runs thus 
" I was meant for an aristocrat, but there were too 
many born at the same time, and I was taken to 
the wrong house." Another form runs, "I was 
meant for better things, but they spoilt me in the 
cutting out." And as a piece of genuine sarcasm 
for a conceited person, which most nearly ap 
proaches the example quoted by 0. E., there is 
the following : " They only made one like you, and 
then they lost the pattern." These expressions 
are, I may remark, common property in London 
at the present time. 0. P. HALE. 

" When the devil is blind, but he has not got 
sore eyes yet." This proverb is used by Dandie 
Dinmont ('Guy Mannering/ chap. xxii.). Tib 
Mumps says, " There 's no ane in Bewcastle would 
do the like o' that now we be a* true folk now." 
To which Dandie replies, " Ay, Tib, that will be 
when the de'il's blind, and his een 's no sair yet." 

Ropley, Hants. 

S. v. 464). The suppression of the drama under 
the Commonwealth was never intended to be per- 
manent, nor to extend to private performances. 
The plays were prohibited, as I pointed out in a 
paper on 'The Development of the Fine Arts 
under the Puritans' (Transactions of the Royal 
Historical Society for 1891, p. 212), for a definite 
reason, viz., " that public sports do not well agree 
with public calamities," and that the prohibition 
was only to last " while these sad causes " do con- 
tinue. They were publicly recommenced during 
the Commonwealth by Sir W. Davenant, who 
brought out ' The Siege of Rhodes ' at Rutland 

House in 1656. If, therefore, as MR. FIRTH has 
pointed out, plays continued to be acted until 
1655, the period of actual suppression was very 

(8 th S. v. 61, 122, 189). Will the REV. JOHN 
PICKFORD kindly inform me in what volume of the 
Jurist the case of Steele v. Williams, Rector of 
Stoke Newington, is to be found 1 


NERS (8 th S. iv. 29, 213). Unless I have been 
anticipated, I would venture to answer the heraldic 
query of R. S. as follows, basing my reply upon 
Mr. J. E. Doyle's most interesting, and I might 
almost say monumental work, ' The Official Baron- 
age of England.' I hope we may one day see the 
"Barons" included. 

1. The first Baron Hastings (created 1461) bore 
upon his seal in 1468, Argent, a manche sable, so 
that the change from Or, a manche gules must 
have been previous to that date. 

2. "Lord Hastings de Hungerford," or Edward 
de Hastings, son of the last-named, was sum- 
moned to Parliament as Baron Hungerford in 
the lifetime of his father (1482), having married 
the granddaughter and heiress of Robert, third 
Lord Hungerford, and presumably would bear the 
Hungerford arms (Sable, two bars argent, in chief 
three plates), together with its alliances, in pre- 
tence, as we find that his son George (created Earl 
of Huntingdon in 1529), quartered with the 
Hastings arms those of flungerford, Botreaux 
(Argent, a griffin segreant gules, beak, legs, and 
claws azure), and Moels (Paly, wavy of six or and 
gules). Lord Hastings de Hungerford died on 
November 8, 1506, not in 1507, as stated by R. S. 

3. The arms of John de la Pole, Duke of 
Suffolk, may be arrived at in this way. His 
father, Duke William, bore Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Azure, a fess between three leopards' faces or 
(Pole) ; 2, Argent, on a bend gules, cotised sable, 
three wings in lure of the field (Wingfield) ; 3, 
Argent, a chief gules, over all a lion rampant 
queue-fourch^e or (Chaucer). 

John de la Pole married Lady Elizabeth Planta- 
genet, second daughter of Richard, Duke of 

4. The Manners family (Dukes of Rutland) 

akes its barony of Ros or Roos from the marriage 

)f Sir Robert Manners of Etal or Ethale, co. 

Northumberland, to Eleanor, daughter of Thomas, 

eldest sister and co-heiress of Edmund, Lord 
Joos of Hamlake, co. York. 

Mr. Foster, in his ' Peerage ' (s.v. De Ros), states 
hat on the death of Edmund, eleventh Lord Roos, 
m October 15, 1508, s.p., the representation of the 
amily and title devolved upon the issue of his 
Idest sister Eleanor. Sir Robert Manners died 



[8 th S. VI. AUG. 4, '94 

about 1485 (says Foster). Their son, Sir George, 
styled Lord Eoos, died in France on October 27, 
1513, and was succeeded by his son Sir Thomas, 
afterwards created Earl of Rutland, the first of 
the Manners family mentioned in Mr. Doyle's 

There would appear to be one or two little dis- 
crepancies as to dates in the two works I have 
mentioned, to which authorities I would refer 
K. S. for fuller information. J. S. UDAL. 


T. BEKINTON (8 th S. v. 449). I beseech readers 
of ' N. & Q.' not to follow Mr. Matthew Arnold in 
his contempt for Chalmers. In that despised com- 
piler's ' Dictionary ' you will find Thomas Becking- 
ton, Bekyngton, or De Bekinton, "Secretary of 
State, Keeper of the Privy Seal, and Bishop of Bath 
and Wells," temp. Hen. VI. We think a good 
deal of him here, as he was for a time rector of the 
parish of St. Leonard near Hastings. He is buried 
in Wells Cathedral. 


BEANS (8 th S. v. 409, 494; vi. 13). CANON 
TAYLOR'S view that the injunction of Pythagoras, 
Fdbis abstine, was meant as a deterrent from 
politics, is that given in Lyly's * Euphues,' 
" to absteiue from beanes, that is, not to meddle in ciuile 
affaires or businesse of the common weale, for in the old 
tunes the election of Magistrates was made by the pullyng 
of beanes." 

Sir J. E. Smith, in his ' Exotic Botany,' wrote : 
" We can no longer wonder at the prohibition of these 
beans (Cyamus nelumbo) to the Egyptian priests and 
disciples of Pythagoras. A plant consecrated to religious 
veneration as an emblem of reproduction and fertility 
would be very improper for the food, or even the con- 
sideration, of persons dedicated to peculiar purity. The 
Egyptian priests were not even allowed to look upon it. 
Authors scarcely explain sufficiently whether Pythagoras 
avoided it from respect or abhorrence. However that 
might be, we need not, in order to ascertain his motives, 
have recourse to any of the five reasons supposed by 
Aristotle, nor to the conjectures of Cicero. JS either can 
there be any doubt that the prohibition given by Pytha- 
goras was literal, and not merely allegorical, as for- 
bidding his followers to eat this kind of pulse because 
the magistrates in some places were chosen by a ballot 
with black and white beans, thereby giving them to 
understand that they should not meddle with public 
affairs. Such far-fetched explanations show the in- 
genuity of commentators rather than their knowledge. 
As the Pythagorean prohibitions are now obsolete, per- 
haps these beans, imported from India, might not be 
unwelcome at our tables." 

Is it not also a fact that beans have an aphro- 
disiac tendency, which would be a further reason 
for the master's veto on their use ? 

I presume no connexion can be traced between 
the Fabaria of the Romans and the bean feasts of 
these latter days. Londoners were wont to eat 
beans and bacon at the celebrated Fairlop Oak. 


IRON (8 th S. v. 327, 474; vi. 56). Some say 
the r is mute, and some say it is not so, because 
we say " iern." All turns on the difference between 
sound and symbol. When a Southerner says 
" iern," he does not sound the r at all. Neither 
is the r "mute." What really happens is, that 
the supposed (non-mute) r is really pronounced, as 
Mr. Sweet says, as "a vocal murmur." Instead of 
the trilled consonant, we hear the " obscure vowel, 7 ' 
not very different (if at all) from the sound of a in 
China. This is why it rhymes to "thy urn," as 
MR. TERRY says ; only let it be noted that the 
supposed ur is really vocalic. The obscure vowel 
is commonly denoted by a " turned " e. Hence 
iron is pronounced as " aien "; urn, as " aen "; and 
Byron as " bairen," the r being in this case trilled. 
In some dialects the r is trilled, and iron then 
rhymes with Byron. I have heard it, but I forget 
where. The phonetic symbol for our " long i " is 

I confess that I do not in common speech pro- 
nounce, or hear pronounced, iron as it is written. 
But then I deny that every-day speech is a guide 
to pronunciation. The true guide is to be found 
in oratory and declamation, or in the reading 
aloud of an accomplished reader. There are many 
words pronounced differently in the different cases. 
No one, I suppose, thinks that forehead should be 
pronounced to rhyme with horrid, or victual with 
little ; but in common speech many even educated 
people call them so. As to the pronunciation of 
wind, that is a very old subject of discussion ; but 
for me, I find that my mind is as the mind of Dr. 
Johnson. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

Just as there is a literary style and a colloquial 
style, so there is a literary pronunciation and a 
colloquial pronunciation. When C. C. B. says 
that " the every-day speech of educated people is 
the only true guide to pronunciation," which does 
he mean ? Colloquially we all say " 'apeny "; but 
in public most of us say " halfpenny." C. 0. B. 
says the " true sound " of " iron" is " iern." What 
he means is that he hears many people so pro- 
nounce it ; otherwise, why does he need to alter 
the spelling? In Kavenshaw and Rockstro's 
1 Ferial Psalter,' fourth ed., 1877, p. 2, there is a 
request to choristers " not to sing this word as if 
it were spelt i-ern." Those who have had practical 
experience know that the pronunciation i-ron 
makes the singing more distinct, and therefore 
more edifying. W. C. B. 

I was pleased to see the communications upon 
this subject at the last reference, because they 
bear out what had seemed to me the real solution 
of the "diamond" pronunciation question. Our 
great poets have not talked or sung about 
"dimonds," nor about "vilets." They have 
adopted the pronunciation represented by " dire- 

8 th S. VI, AUG. 4, '94.] 



monds " and " virelets," a not vulgar dissyllabiza 
tion of the words. 


MONOGRAM ON PRINT (8 th S. v. 368). Th 
grenade, fireball, or bombshell, fired, proper, is th 
crest of the families of Collison and Leeds. 


OASTS : HOSTELERS (8 th S. iii. 107, 134, 173 
271). According to Brand, ' History of Newcastle 
it appears, from the earliest entries in the books o 
the fraternity of hostmen, that the stranger wh 
went to Newcastle to buy coals was called th 
" oaste," so that the transposition must have beei 
general at that time. MR. WALFORD did not te] 
us that one of the reasons why the hostmen wer 
specially incorporated was that the arrears of two 
pence per chaldron on all coals sold to " unfree 
men," due to Elizabeth, were demanded. The 
hostmen were unable to pay, and begged to have 
them remitted, at the same time asking for a 
charter of incorporation, promising in "return t 
pay twelvepence per chaldron upon all coal exportec 
coastwise, with the exception of coals sold am 
carried from Newcastle to Hartlepool for the salt 

pans at that place to Lord Lumley or to any o 

the burgesses of Newcastle." 

MR. LAWRENCE-HAMILTON wished for an ex 
planation of " oasts " in reference to the fish trade 
To the present we have dealt only in coals ; but 
may not the " hostelers " of Yarmouth have some- 
thing to do with the subject ? It appears from the 
' Statute of Herrings 'it was written in French 
and passed in 31 Edward III. that complaints had 
been made of the people of Yarmouth for buying 
the fish of the fishermen before they landed it : 
also that the hostelers sold the fish as dearly as 
they could, but gave the fishers what they pleased ; 
"and so is the herring set at much greater price 
than ever it was, to the great damage of our lord 
the king, of the lords, and of all the people." It 
was, therefore, ordained " that no herring should be 
bought or sold in the sea, till the fishers be come 
in the haven with their herring, and that the cable 
of the ship be drawn to land"; that the fishers should 
be free to sell without disturbance at the fair of 
Yarmouth ; and that 

"all the hostelers be sworn before the wardens of the 
said fair, and enjoined, upon a great forfeiture to the 
king, to receive their guests well and conveniently, and 
to aid and ease them reasonably, taking of every last 
that shall be sold to other merchants than to the said 

hostelers 40d And that the hostelers, because of this 

ordinance, do not refuse their guests, but receive them, 
and entreat them in good and friendly manner, as they 
have before time." Blomefield, Norfolk,' xi. p. 347. 


BURIAL BY TORCHLIGHT (8 th S. iii. 226, 338, 
455 ; iv. 97, 273 ; v. 254, 437). Apropos of the 
famous poem, The Burial of Sir John Moore,' 

written in 1817 by the Rev. Charles Wolfe, and 
pronounced by Lord Byron to be " the most per- 
fect ode in the language," let me narrate the follow- 
ing anecdote. When a little boy in 1840, I had 
gone to spend the day with an officer who had been 
in the celebrated retreat from Coruna, Jan. 20, 
1809, and was called upon to recite this famous 
poem, or "piece," as it was called. It seemed, 
however, to be more poetically than historically 
true, for the host informed us thab spades, and not 
bayonets, were used in digging the grave, and that 
the gallant hero was buried in a coffin, though we 
read that " No useless coffin enclosed his breast." 
There can, however, be no one alive now either to 
contradict or affirm the statement. The poem 
consists of merely eight quatrain stanzas. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The following passage is from ' Lancashire Folk- 
lore,' by J. Harland and T. T. Wilkinson, 1882, 
p. 273 : 

" Fifty-five years ago, says Mr. Thornber, writing in 
1837, the more respectable portion of the inhabitants 
of Poulton were buried by candle-light, a custom long 
observed by some of the oldest families in the town. 
It was regarded as a sacred duty to expose a lighted 
candle in the window of every house as the corpse passed 
through the streets towards the church for interment; 
and he was poor indeed who did not pay this tribute of 
respect to the dead." 


On the score of accuracy exception must be made 
to the including of the burial of Sir John Moore 
in the list of midnight burials. Beautiful as 
Wolfe's poem is, yet it is not correct. As a matter 
of fact, the hero was not buried till daylight the 
morning after the battle, and not on the field, but 
n the citadel of Coruna. See ' The Narrative of 
he Campaign of the British Army in Spain, 
commanded by his Excellency Sir John Moore, 
ECB., &c., authenticated by Official Papers and 
better."/ by James Moore, Esq. I regret exceed- 
ngly that I cannot give the entire passage nor the 
exact reference, but owing to the note- book in 
which I copied receiving some accidental damage 
he greater portion is mutilated considerably. 


THE ALMOND TREE (8 th S. iv. 309, 359). Among 
he natives on this side of India a curious custom 
revails, viz., that of waving dry almonds, dry 
.ates, an egg, a cocoanut, patdsd (a kind of sweet- 
meat cake), water, and rice over the heads of 
hildren on their birthdays, and over those of the 
arties concerned on other auspicious domestic 
ccurrences, as betrothals, marriages, &c. As a 
matter of form, this practice is in vogue both 
mong educated and uneducated classes. The 
eremony is performed by the mother or some 
ther near female relative. The person to be so 
onoured is desired or stand outside the threshold 



[8*8. VI. AUG. 4, '94. 

of the entrance door, when the lady of the house 
comes with a tray containing the above-mentioned 
articles and a little water in a vessel. First of all 
she makes a mark with a sort of red powder on the 
forehead of the person on whose account the cere- 
mony is to be performed, then puts a garland of 
flowers round his or her neck, as the case may be, 
and, taking the above-mentioned articles by turns 
from the tray, waves them in a circle seven times 
over the head, and dashes them on the ground. 
Finally, a little water is poured into the tray, 
which undergoes a similar waving, the water being 
subsequently spilled on the ground. She then 
takes about a pincbful of rice in both her hands, and, 
dexterously throwing it over the head of the 
recipient of the honour, cracks her own knuckles 
against her temples. This finishes the ceremony, 
and the person is desired to step in with the right 
foot foremost. If the ceremony is to be performed 
inside the house, the person is made to stand on 
a flat two-legged stool, made out of only one piece 
of wood, as a joint one is considered inauspicious. 
It will be interesting to learn from any of your 
numerous correspondents how the almond has 
come to be regarded as a sign of good luck in 
countries so widely separated as England and 
India. D. D. GILDER. 

Bombay, India. 

PARALLELS IN TENNYSON (8 t!l S. iv. 325 ; v. 
135, 515) Tennyson's " Tears from the depth," 
&c., may be compared with the well-known anec- 
dote of Leo Alberti, which will be found men- 
tioned in Symonds's ' Renaissance in Italy ' as 
follows : " An assertion of his anonymous bio- 
grapher that, when he saw the corn-fields and vine- 
yards of autumn, tears gathered to his eyes." Leo 
Alberti's genius, noble and tender, uniting antique 
reverence with modern thought, at once practical 
and aesthetic, may be compared on one side with 
that of Kossetti and on another with that of 

NEWS (8 th S. v. 384, 431). -There are two fata 
objections to the oft-exploded theory with respec 1 
to the origin of the word news revived by MR 
EDGCUMBE. In addition to the orthographica 
one, which he casts aside so summarily, there i 
the fact that the word was in current use lonj 
Ijefore the advent of newspapers. The earlies 
printed news-sheets consecutively numbered, an 
appearing at regular intervals, date no further back 
than 1622 ; but the word newes, as it was invariabl 
spelt, was in use a full century earlier. It occur 
in a letter dated " Rome, September, 1513," from 

copy of which now lies before me. Prov. xxv. 25 
there rendered, "As are the cold waters to a 
weary soule so is good newes from a farre countrey." 
lad the word been a recent coinage of the despised 
ews-letter writers, is it reasonable to suppose that 
he scholars of the day would have adopted it, and 
>y introducing it into the sacred volume elevated 
t to the dignity of classic English ? The term is, 
n the face of it, derived from the adjective new, 
he synonymous word novels being adopted by the 
arly continental journalists. See further Andrews's 
Hist, of British Journalism,' vol. i. p. 18. 


PROF. SKEAT'S crushing reply on MR. EDG- 
CUMBE'S pretty "conceit" regarding the origin of 
he word news from the initials of the words 
North, East, West, South, is, perhaps, sufficient 
o convince your correspondent that he is in error ; 
jut if it is not, may I venture to remind him that 
he earliest news-letter or newspaper published in 
/his country was some two or three centuries sub- 
sequent to the earliest use of the word news ? This 
fact is, in itself, complete evidence that the bold 
heory of your correspondent is wholly fallacious. 

A few instances of the use of the word : 
" The kyng beeyng glad of these ioyous good newel." 
Hall, ' Chronicle,' 1550, Hen. IV., f. 17, 1. 37. 

The duke of Bedford beyng sore greued and vn- 
quieted with these newes." Ibid,, Hen. VI., f. 12, 1. 39. 

"The lorde Talbot hering these newes." Ibid., f. 21 
verso, 1. 20. 

The erle of Shrewsbury hearyng of these newes" 
Ibid., f. 83, 1. 39. 

The coragious erle hearyng these newes." Ibid,, 
f . 83 verso, 1. 9. 

And in many other places. 

" But when he was settyng forwarde, newes were 
brought to him." Graf ton, 1569, f. 650, 1. 17. 

" When the Duke of Somerset heard these newes." 
Ibid., 660 verso, 1. 10. 
And in many other places. 

And here is an early reference to News-books : 

With Pagan-Fisher, who e'rst made a speech, 
To shew that he could versifie, and preach ; 
And put it in the News-books too, for all 
To know how he via,* jeer" d in Chrisls-Church Hall. 
1 Naps upon Parnassus,' 1658, bk. v. 

R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

PRINCE OF WALES, 1805 (8 th S. vi. 9, 59). As 
the picture of the Prince of Wales at the head of a 

the Cardinal of York to Henry VIII. : " After thi 
* newes ' afforesaide was dyvulgate in the citi 
here " (vide Grant's ' Newspaper Press,' vol. i. p. 8). 
It not merely finds a place in the Authorized Ver- 
sion of the English Bible, first published 1611, 
but also appears in the Genevan Version of 1560, 

Light Dragoon regiment has attracted attention, 
I may mention a circumstance about it not generally 
known. My father was intimate with old Lord Sid- 
mouth, who had been Speaker and Prime Minister, 
and who at the time I am about to speak of (some- 
where about 1830) was living at the White Lodge 
in Richmond Park. He invited my father and me, 

8 h 8. VI. AUG. 4, '94.] 



then a young man, to dine. In the drawing-room 
I saw the picture of George III. reviewing the 
Light Dragoon regiment, which I was familiar 
with from the print. But there was one remark- 
able difference. The figure of the Prince of Wales 
was wanting. I said to Lord Sidmouth, " I have 
seen an engraving of that picture, but the Prince 
of Wales was at the head of the troops." Lord 
Sidmouth then told us this curious story. The 
picture was painted as engraved; but when the 
king quarrelled with the prince he caused the 
figure of the prince to be painted out, and gave 
the picture in that state to Lord Sidmouth. He 
went on to tell us that after George IV. came to 
the throne the king one day honoured him with a 
visit at the White Lodge. So soon as the king saw 
the picture, he said, " Oh ! I ought to be there. I 
will send Lawrence down to put me in." Lord 
Sidmouth made a bow, and said, "Your Majesty's 
royal father gave me the picture in that state, and 
in that state it must remain." The king bore it 
very well. Lord Sidmouth had not the abilities 
required for governing England in most perilous 
times, but he had courage enough for any 
emergency. J. CARRICK MOORE. 

ENGLISH PROSODY (8 th S. v. 223, 315). The 
abundance of monosyllables in the English lan- 
guage prevents verse intended to be anapaestic 
from being altogether so ; and the feet which 
ought to be anapsests are often cretics or baccheii. 

The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold. 
The second foot here may be called a baccheius 
and the third a cretic. 

Arethusa arose 
From her couch of snows 
In the Acroceraunian mountains. 
The first of the above lines is perfectly anapaestic ; 
and almost the same thing may be said of the third 
line. The quantity of Acroceraunia is shown by 
Horace : 

Infames scopulos Acroceraunia. Bk. i. ode iii. 
That syllables are omitted in anapaestic lines is 
proved in the following verse, which is anapaestic, 
although the opening words do not show it to be 

Break 1 break ! break ! o'er thy cold gray stones, oh ! sea 
This metre is that of Hood : 
Stitch ! stitch ! stitch ! in poverty, hunger, and dirt. 


v. 487 ; vi. 37). The church of North Baddesly. 
near Romsey, has a chancel screen with balusters 
of oak, bearing the date 1601. Cosin's screen at 
Brancepeth, co. Durham, may be added to DR. 
STMPSON'S list. There must be many others. The 
magnificent Jacobean screen at Wimborne Minster 
has fallen a victim to the restoration demon. 



A. History of Westmorland. By Richard S. Ferguson. 


MR. FERGUSON is a worthy successor of the northern 
antiquaries of earlier days, whose names are dear ta 
modern students. As Chancellor of the Diocese of Car- 
isle Mr. Ferguson might find many excuses, did he need 
them, for refraining to help forward the cause of historical- 
research. It is a trite remark that it is from busy men 
;hat we have received the most important contributions 
;o archaeological science. Mr. Ferguson is a case in point^ 
How many books he has written and how many papers 
lie has contributed to learned societies we do not remem- 
oer. The list, if posted up, would be a very long one. 
Perhaps the one by which he is best known is his ' Cum- 
berland,' which forms one of the most important volumes 
of the series known as " Popular County Histories." 
When it appeared it was welcomed with praise on all 
sides, as the author had shown himself to be not only 
learned, but also a powerful writer, able to tell what he 
had got to say in such a manner as to cause his facts to 
take a permanent place in the memory of the reader. 
The ' Westmorland ' now before us may bo regarded aa a 
companion volume. That the writer regards it as such 
is rendered certain by the fact that, on several occasions, 
instead of repeating what he bad already said in the 
former volume, he has been content with a mere reference 
to its pages. 

The ' Westmorland ' is in no sense inferior to its pre- 
decessor; on some points we are inclined to give it the 
precedence. The early pages, where the author endeavours 
to state clearly the little that is known as to the early 
inhabitants of the land, are worthy of all praise. The 
task must have been very difficult. The light which 
illumines those early times is at present very dim. Mr. 
Ferguson is, however, to be congratulated on having 
written with great lucidity. The careful reader cannot 
fail to grasp his meaning. Whether further discoveries 
may not lead the learned author, as time goes on, to 
modify some of his opinions is another matter. He has 
unquestionably put before the world that view which at 
the present time presents the fewest difficulties. 

It is impossible to follow the author step by step. We 
must content ourselves by making a very few notes as we 
pass under his guidance down the stream of time. Here 
is an example which throws new light on a subject of no 
little interest. The North of England is very justly proud 
of its grammar schools. Centuries before the State 
troubled itself concerning education there were in the 
towns and villages of Cumberland and Westmorland ex- 
cellent schools which furnished many north-country men 
to the Church and the Law. It has been commonly 
assumed that these valuable institutions owe their origin 
to the zeal for knowledge of the ministers of Edward VI. 
and Queen Elizabeth. Mr. Ferguson points out that this 
is only true in part. Take the famous Appleby Grammar 
School as an example. In this town in mediaeval days 
the Corporation was the patron of the chantries in the 
parish church. There were three of them, and the civic 
authorities were in the habit of giving all of them to one 
man on the condition that he should teach a school. When 
the Reformation came the chantries were suppressed, 
but the endowment was handed on to the schoolmaster; 
and this disposition of the funds, which were clearly town 
property, was confirmed by Elizabeth, and thus, as the 
author points out, she become formally the foundress of 
a new school, but really only put on a legal basis an 
institution which had lasted for ages. 

The account of the Pilgrimage of Grace is accurate and 



graphic, but far too short. That ill-fated insurrection 
still awaits an historian whose zeal and patience is able 
to master tbe wilderness of State Papers and other docu- 
ments in which the proceedings of the outbreak are 
recorded, almost from day to day, with the precision of a 

The author reproduces from the book known aa Dring's 
' Catalogue of Compounders ' a Hat of tbe Westmorland 
men who were fined for loyalty to Charles I. Has he 
compared the facts given here with the " Royalist Com- 
position Papers " in the Record Office ? We trust that 
he has done so, for Dring'a little book is lamentably im- 
perfect, and disfigured by many errors. 

The history of the '15 and '45 is well told indeed, the 
account of tbe battle of Clifton is by far the best we have 
ever seen. Though few lives were sacrificed, the skirmish 
had an important effect on succeeding events. It is, 
moreover, noteworthy as the last battle fought on Eng- 
lish ground. 

The Royal Charters of the City of Carlisle. Printed at 
the expense of the Mayor and Corporation. Edited by 
R. S. Ferguson. (Carlisle, Thurnam ; Kendal, Wilson ; 
London, Stock.) 

WE highly commend the city of Carlisle for giving to the 
world its ancient charters. The earliest document of 
this kind was of the reign of Henry II. This document 
is not now in existence, having been burnt at an early 
period. We know, however, its nature from an exempli- 
fication of later date. 

These charters themselves call for little notice from 
us. We cannot but note the excellent introduction 
written by the editor. It is full of highly condensed 
knowledge. With some little expansion, indeed, it might 
be reprinted under the title of a municipal history of 

Mr. Ferguson cannot, we are happy to say, resist 
repeating an amusing anecdete when one falls in his 
way. In 1688 Carlisle Castle was garrisoned by an Irish 
regiment. On June 10 news came that the Queen had 
given birth to a son, who afterwards went by the name 
of "the Old Pretender. ' The Irish officers were over- 
joyed at the intelligence. They celebrated the event in 
wonderful fashion. First they made a big fire in the 
market place, and, becoming distracted with wine, they 
threw " their hats into the fire at one health, their coats 
the next, their waistcoats at a third, and so on to their 
shoes, and some of them threw in their shirts and then 
ran about naked like madmen." A plate somewhat 
blurred in the copy before us gives the initial letter of 
the charter of 9 Edward II., that is, 1316. It represents 
the defence of Carlisle Castle by Sir Andrew de Harcla. 

St. Thomas's Priory; or, the Story of St. Austin's, 

Stafford. By Joseph Gillow. (Burns & Gates.) 
MR. GILLOW is well known as the author of a bio- 
graphical dictionary of English Roman Catholics who 
have lived since the Reformation ; he is also the author 
or editor of several other works of much interest to the 
Roman Catholic body in this country. 

The history of the Stafford Mission, which he has now 
given us, is a good book, carefully planned, and, so far 
as we are able to teat it, of extreme accuracy. We have 
but one fault to find. There are not so many references 
to authorities as there ought to be. We do not mean 
that such things are absent, this is by no means the case, 
but in a book of this kind every statement should be 
capable of verification. 

A work of this kind does not lend itself readily to 
sensational writing or word-painting. There is nothing 
of the kind in Mr. Gillow's pages ; but none the less it 
affords to the student who can look behind the facts 
which the author has gathered and arranged in orderly 

sequence, materials for a number of mind-pictures of no 
little interest. The long tragedy of upwards of two 
hundred years of bitter persecution which the English 
Roman Catholics endured is seldom realized, except by 
those who hold the same faith as the victims. Our older 
books pass over these cruelties almost without a word. 

The St. Austin's Mission at Stafford has a curioua 
history. It is in some sort a picture of what was hap- 
pening in many other places. In former times the 
poorer Roman Catholics could do very little for them- 
selves. In most cases they were dependent on their 
richer neighbours for providing a priest for them and 
sheltering the outcast misaioner from informers and 
legal officials who would have handed him over to death 
or life-long imprisonment had they captured him. 

The family which discharged this function at Stafford 
was named Fowler. The Fowlers had come into pos- 
session of a great part of the estates of the Austin 
Priory of St. Thomas the Martyr, at Stafford, by the 

pression of the monasteries. The first of the Roman 
Catholic Fowlers was Brian, and his descendants con- 
tinued to profess the same faith until the reign of 
George I., when the male line came to an end. The 
devolution of the property of this last of the Fowlers 
was the cause of a protracted lawsuit, far too long and 
complex to treat of here. It came to an end at last by 
a decision of the House of Lords. We wonder that no 
novelist has ever taken these bewildering proceedings 
as the foundation for a plot. There are not many things 
in modern fiction more strangely improbable. 

We gather from Mr. Gillow's preface that he has 
large collections relating to many other places where 
the Roman Catholic faith has continued to be professed 
without any break from the Middle Ages down to the 
present time. We trust that he may be induced to give 
them to the world. He should bear in mind that there 
are many persons far away removed in thought from 
the body to which he belongs who are deeply interested 
in the religious history of the last four centuries. 


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NOTES : The Ancestry of Agatha, 101" Cock and Pye,' 
103 Book of MS. Sonnets Late Marriage "Yeoman" 
Sir Walter Scott A Shower of Frogs, 104 Creasing 
Philippe Egalite, 105 J. H. Reynolds Black Death 
" London Bridge"" Hanging and wiving," &c., 106. 

QUERIES : Derail Adam Buck Quotation Watermarks 
on Paper Satires Mnipp6es Dr. Hurd " Contamina- 
tion" E. Pick, 107 An Oxford Society Brazil Salts 
4 Shakspeare's Early Days 'Armorial' Romeo and Juliet' 
Attack on the Reformed Religion References Sought^ 
The Poet's Flowers Portrait Sir M. Wright, 108 Inez de 
Castro John of Times Knights of the Garter, 109. 

REPLIES : Bacon and Seneca, 109 The Sons of Harold, 
HO Vernor, Hood & Sharpe, 111 Hartfield Church- 
Stocks Burning the Cla vie Carew " Take two cows, 
Taffy," 112 Regent Street Address on '(Economy' 
Folk-lore, 113 Poe's ' Murders in the Rue Morgue' Tsar 
Fresher=Freshman GermanBands Easter Sepulchres, 
114 Parents of Baldwin Lady Danlove Maid Ridibone, 
115 Civic Insignia for Manchester" Niveling "Visiting 
Cards, 116 Griffith=Geoffrey Delia Bacon Early Postal 
Cover Rev. E. Woodcock Pin " Synall "Creole, 117 
Exits Sheridan's ' Rivals ' " As drunk as David's sow" 
Piperdan Golf ' ' Demi-pique " The Queen's Great- 
grandson, 118 Raffling for Bibles, 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lang's Scott's 'Count Robert of 
Paris ' and ' The Surgeon's Daughter ' Buchheim's Halm's 
'Griseldis' Wardrop's 'Georgian Folk-Tales '' The An- 
nual Register for 1893 'The Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(See 8th S.v. 421, 461; v i. 2.) 

MR. FELCH raises a good many moot points, and 
to discuss them fully would require a good deal 
more space than ' N. & Q. ' could place at my dis- 
posal. I propose, therefore, merely to touch upon 
some of them, and even on these very cursorily. 

About the Byzantine ancestry of Agatha we need 
not trouble ourselves at all until we have solved 
the question as to who her parents were. 

That Yaroslav married Ingigerdis, a daughter of 
Olaf of Norway, and that he had at least three 
daughters, Elizabeth, Anne, and Anastasia by name, 
all three married to kings, as stated by MR. FELCH, 
are well-established historical facts.* According 
to Karamsin, the Russian chronicles do not mention 
any of Yaroslav's daughters, but we find sufficient 
information about the three princesses in the his- 
tories of their husbands' countries. 

The name and parentage of Agatha, however, I 
have not yet been able to discover in any chronicle, 
Russian or foreign. As MR. FELCH in his letter 
to the Hungarian Academy had stated that, accord- 

ing to " another authority she was a daughter 

of Ladislaus, by his wife Enguerharde, who was 
daughter of Olaf, King of Norway," I had hoped 
that he would be able to give chapter and verse 
for this statement. 

MR. FELCH, on the authority of Rambaud, states 
further that Yaroslav was also known as " George," 
for we are told that coins were struck for him by 
Byzantine artists with his Slavonic name in Slav 
characters on one side and his Christian name 
loury (George) on the other. But Rambaud is 
wrong on this point, and was misled by Karamsin, 
who misread the inscription on the obverse of 
Yaroslav's coins. Dr. Schiemann reproduces four 
of these. The reverse on two shows in exergue 
what is, perhaps, Yaroslav's badge (a trident, the 
middle prong surmounted by a circle), and bears 
the inscription " Yaroslav's silver" in Russian, as 
Karamsin correctly read it. The obverse shows 
the rude effigy of a man holding a spear in his right 
hand and a shield in his left, and bears an inscrip- 
tion which Karamsin thought was Greek, and read 
as '0 Tewpytos. He evidently read the first 
three letters in the wrong direction, mistook the 
Russian letter sh for a Greek w, the Russian i 
(ijitza) for a Greek p, and supplied the missing 
9 from his own imagination. The inscription is 
no doubt Russian and reads "ego shigio." Karam- 
sin also states that there are three letters on the 
circumference of the reverse, viz., M, A, and N, 
which he thinks are Greek and mean McyaAov 
"Ap^ovros i/o/xtoTza. I see, however, that there 
are four letters, namely, M, I, H, and N, which 
are quite distinct and cannot possibly be mistaken 
for anything else. They are probably also meant 
for Russian characters. Karamsin must have seen 
a coin that was very much worn and the lettering 
on it very indistinct in consequence.* 

Another argument usually adduced in support of 
the assertion that George was Yaroslav's Christian 
name is that he founded the town of Dorpat and 
named it Yuryevf (i. e., Georgetown). According 
to the most recent opinion, however, Yaroslav 
probably merely enlarged and renamed an old castle 
taken from the Esthonians in 1030. This stood 
for about thirty years, when it was burnt down by 
its previous owners during a rising. The present 
German town of Dorpat was founded on its site, 
but not until the thirteenth century.^ There is 
nothing in history to prove that Yaroslav conferred 
one of his own names on the town, and therefore 
the possibility is not excluded that he named it 
after a favourite. 

The question why Yaroslav was called Ladislaus 
need not be discussed until some authority can be 

* Cf. e.g. Adam of Bremen in Pertz's "Mon. Germ. 
Script.," vol. iv. ; Nestor's Chronicle, edited by Louis 
Paris (Paris, 1834) ; Dr. Ch. Schiemann's ' Russia, Poland, 
and Livland ' in Oncken's series (Berlin, 1886) ; Ralston's 
' Earliest History of Russia ' (Oxford, 1874), 

* The badge in question occurs also in a modified form 
on Vladimir's andSvyaetopolk's coins. What "ego shigio " 
may mean I am unable to tell. 

f Cf.e.g. Ralston. 

j Dr. Schiemann's ' Russia,' &c. 



VI. AUG. 11, '94. 

found in support of the statement that he was so 

Before leaving the subject of Agatha's Russian 
ancestry, I may be allowed just to mention that the 
controversy about the question whether the Varan- 
gians were Norsemen or not has been fairly settled 
and answered in the affirmative by the masterly 
articles published by Kunik in Dorn's 'Caspia.' 
Of. the three Ilchester lectures on ' Ancient Scan- 
dinavia and Russia,' delivered by Dr. V. Thomsen, 
professor of Copenhagen, in 1877, which give a 
brief outline of the state of the case. 

As regards Hungarian history, MR. FELCH asks 
what relation was Andrew I. to Stephen I. This 
is also a moot point, and cannot be answered here 
fully. Perhaps it will suffice at present to state 
that there are four different versions given in the 
chronicles regarding his relationship. Version one 
states that Andrew was the son of Ladislaus the 
Bald and grandson of Michael, who was the 
brother of Ge"za, the father of Stephen j and that 
Ladislaus had a brother named Basil. According 
to version two, Andrew was the son of Ladislaus, 
and Basil was the son of Michael ; Ladislaus and 
Michael were the brothers of Geza, the father of 
Stephen. Version three makes Michael the father 
of St. Stephen, and Geza the father of Basil and 
Ladislaus, which is manifestly wrong. Andrew in 
this version, too, is mentioned as the son of Ladis- 
laus. Finally, the fourth version makes Andrew 
the son of Basil, Basil and Ladislaus the sons of 
Michael, and Michael the brother of Geza, the 
father of Stephen.* 

The first pacific ruler of pagan Hungary, Ge"za, 
was Duke (not King) of Hungary. That he was 
baptized by Bruno, Bishop of Verdun, is news to 
me, and I should be glad to have a reference from 
MR. FELCH to his authority for the statement, t If 
Geza's second wife was a daughter of the elder 
Gyula, she could not have been the sister of the 
Duke of Poland. 

The age attained by Stephen is also a matter of 
dispute. It is not yet settled, and probably never 
will be, whether he was sixty-three or seventy-one 
years of age.J 

Hungarian histories, including even the very 
latest, state that King Peter of Hungary was the 
son of Otto Urseolo, Doge of Venice, though about 
twenty-five years ago Florian M&tyas, an Hun- 
garian historian, I am told, produced documen- 
tary evidence to prove that Otto Urseolo died at 
Constantinople without leaving issue. Some of 

' ' Szazadok,' xxviii., pp. 399 et seq. 

f All I can find ia that " temporibus Brunonis decimi 
sexti episcopi Verdensis S. Adalbertus Pragensis episco- 
pusStejihanuna reKemUiiKarorumcum multis baptizavit" 
('Chronicon Bpiacopuin Verdensium'). Bruno was bishop 
from 962 to VII. Idus Martii, 975. 

J Cf. " Disquisitio de anno natali St. Stephani 

regie" in ' Chronica Minora ' (vol. iv. of the "Hist. 
Hung. Fontes Domestici "). 

the chronicles state that Peter's father was a Bur- 
gundian by birth, others that he was a German, yet 
others that he was a son of a Count of Poitou.* 

These are some of the unsolved problems of 
history I wished to mention. L. L. K. 

In relation to the subject discussed by MR 
FELCH, it may be of interest, though of little value' 
to note that I dealt with the Arsacid genealogy of 
Gibbon, and traced the descent of Queen Victoria 
on this hypothesis. My Armenian friends were 
much struck with this, and very desirous to annex 
the Queen. One of them, on the proposal of Mr. 
C. Papasian, translated my memorandum into 
Armenian, and it was published at Smyrna in 
English and Armenian. It is now scarce, but i& 
in the Royal Library at Windsor and in the'British 
Museum. I never examined into the evidences 
any more than for the descent from Jupiter and 
the gods of Olympus. It is possible that if the 
attention of the Armenians, through the Arevalk 
of Constantinople, were called to this paper of MR 
FELCH, a thorough investigation of Armenian 
material might be obtained. The Armenians are 
very fond of the Arsacid descent, and adopt 
Arsacid and Parthian names. 

Surely it is time among English writers that w 
should pay some attention to the relationship of 
Warangian and Russian to ourown kindred, instead 
of repeating the Norse theory. It is now above 
forty years ago that I laid before the Society of 
Antiquaries, and afterwards elsewhere, those testi- 
monies to the descent of Varangian from " Angli et 
Varini" (of the ' Germania' of Tacitus), and of 
Russian from Rugii, which have been repeated 
by many writers, and last by Karl Blind this year 
in a long article in the Scottish Quarterly Review. 
On this basis the statements of Nestor are more- 
easily reconciled, as also MR. FELCH'S positions 
as to the relations of the English princes. 


Without disputing the descent of the Mace- 
donian family as given by MR. W. F. FELCH I 
may, perhaps, be allowed to show that he is m'is- 
taken in supposing that " only through Agatha caa 
the reigning sovereign claim extended ancient 
lineage," for all Edward III.'s children were de- 
scended from the lines of Aquitaine and France 
and these, equally with Agatha, derived from the 
Macedonian race. Thus, Philippa of Hainault's 
ancestor in the twelfth degree, Arnolf of Aquitaine 
993, married Luitgarde, daughter of Basil II/ 
Porphyrigenitus, who was own brother to Anne the 
wife of St. Vladimir. 

Again, Edward III.'s ancestor in the tenth 
degree, Henry I. of France, married Anne, 
daughter of Yaroslaf of Russia, Sr. Vladimir's son. 

Again, Philippa's great - great - grandfather* 

Akademiai <rtesito/ newest series, vol. iii., 1869. 

8S.VI. AUG. 11, '94.] 



Stephen V. of Hungary, was descended from 
several very ancient royal lines, his mother being 
a daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodore 
Lascarus, who was descended from four other 
Eastern emperors viz., Alexius Angelus, Andro- 
nicus Angelus, Alexius Comnenus, and Isaac 

Again, Stephen V.'s great-grandfather, Bela III. 
of Hungary, was son of Geysa III. by Githa, 
daughter of Mieceslaf I. of Russia, and this last 
was fifth in descent, through a line of kings or 
grand dukes, from St. Vladimir. 

It is therefore clear that the descendants of 
Edward III. do not depend solely upon Agatha 
for their most ancient lineage. Indeed, a careful 
study of Betham's Genealogical Tables of Kings/ 
&c., will show that among their forefathers must 
be reckoned considerably more than two hundred 
kings and queens regnant, without taking count of 
semi- mythical ancestries. C. MOOR. 

Barton-on- H umber. 


COL. PRIDEAUX, in his interesting paper on 
* Vanishing London ' (8 th S. iv. 11), says that 
he believes the gabled tenement in Drury Lane, 
lately pulled down, was the "Cock and Pye." 
This is a natural error to fall into unless one has 
devoted more attention to the subject than it is 
worth. I, as a contributor of long standing to 
' N. & Q.' that dear old repertory of utterly use- 
less quillets and vaporously empty quiddities 
know better by chance. I think contributors to 
our small old-world quarto ought to nickname 
themselves " Quidditists," and so confess boldly 
that until a thing has grown into a captious nicety 
or nothing worth it can sarcely be drawn into the 
radius of a true interest for them. 

Larwood grows very learned, out of Johnson, 
Todd, and others, about the meaning of " Cock and 
Pie," which is " God and the Pie " of the Catholic 
Service Book. Himself, however, he thinks it 
was "Peacock and Pie," because that was a 
favourite and tempting dish. This is as good as 
anything else, only had it been accurate it is cer- 
tain it would have been called " The Peacock Pie." 
In the same page he goes on to talk of the " Cock 
and Magpie" in Drury Lane as the alehouse that 
" gave its name to the Cock and Pie Fields be- 
tween Drury Lane and St. Giles's Hospital." This 
is a total mistake. The Cock and Pye Fields, if 
we may trust Newton's careful map, did not touch 
the lower end of Drury Lane at all, two- fifths of 
which from the Strand northward was ground cut 
off by a palisade enclosure and called " Covent 
Garden"; at a further distance of one- fifth more 
ran a road connecting Drury Lane with St. Mar- 
tin's Lane ; and the two-fifths to the north of that, 
up to Holborn Road, was the Cock and Pye Fields. 
On a branch loop of St. Martin's Lane stood the 

old " Cock and Pye" hostelry, with a lake or large 
pond at the back of it, through which ran a rivulet 
which flowed under Ivy Bridge, in the Strand, to 
Durham Steps, by Durham House, into the Thames. 
Aggas's map only shows the spaces, but marks no 
tavern puts a cow where the pond was, but gives 
the road that runs from St. Martin's Lane, and 
continues it across Drury Lane, making it enter 
High Holborn at the side of the last house drawn on 
the south side of the street, close to the " Red Lion 
Inn," which gave the name to " Red Lion Fields " 
(now Square) on the north side of Holborn. ' Old 
and New London' gives this rightly, and says that 
the house where cakes and ale were sold gave its 
name to the fields. It is added that the country 
lane was called St. Martin's Lane about the time 
of Charles I., without any authority, and it is cer- 
tainly wrong, for it is written " St. Martin's Lane " 
in the rate- book of 1617. Before that it was called 
West Church Lane, as may be read in Cunning- 
ham, our second Stow. That was eight years 
before the first Charles was king. 

It is mentioned in the life of Jack Sheppard 
that he and Page, the butcher of Clare Market, 
went to "caress themselves " in some good liquor 
at the " Cock and Pye." This would be the house 
at the top of Drury Lane, not the older one in 
St. Martin's Lane, pulled down before Jack 
Sheppard's day. "Quidditists" would like to 
know the exact date. In the ' Tavern Anecdotes/ 
a very well-compiled little book, " By One of the 
Old School," published by Wm. Cole, 10, Newgate 
Street, in 1825, we learn that there was, up, at 
least, to the middle of the eighteenth century, a 
house called the " Cock and Pie." This seems to 
have been the old house removed a second time, and 
revived on the site of Rathbone Place, famed for con- 
viviality. Busts were there of Broughton, Slack, G. 
Taylor, and Stevenson. The first named had his 
bruising booth in Tottenham Court Road, and a row 
of elms connected this house with one where Bath- 
buns and Tunbridge- water cakes were sold. This 
bun-house was, perhaps, at the corner of Tottenham 
Court Road, for Smith, in his charming 'Nollekens,' 
tells us that Nollekens could remember thirteen 
fine walnut trees between that road and Hanway 
Yard. Walnut trees and elms are all the same 
to most Londoners. 

As to the Shaksperian oath of " Cock and Pye," 
put into the mouth of Page, Dyce says nothing ; 
Steevens calls it a popular adjuration, common 
enough in dramatic pieces. Cowden Clarke takes 
it for the common alehouse sign " Cock and Mag- 
pie," and I think we had better do the same. 
As for Pie standing for the Popish ordinal, being 
pinax cut short, or pied from its colours, rubric, 
white, and black, and cock, a corruption of the 
word God, it may be, or it may not. We have 
said enough for the present. Piebald Johnson 
defines as " of various colours," bub I thought it 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. A, n, 

was black and white ; if so, the rubric would ex- 
plain nothing, but rather prevent explanation. 

C. A. WARD. 
Chingford Hatch. 

A BOOK OP MS. SONNETS. Mr. E. W. Sweten- 
ham, of Chester, lately showed me a small MS. 
book of quaint sonnets and couplets which was 
found some years ago in pulling down an old black- 
and-white farmhouse on his father's estate at Eos- 
sett. It was in a secret room against the chimney. 
Unfortunately, mice have eaten a good deal off the 
edge of most of the leaves, and the paper is in a 
very tender and crumbling state. I should put 
it down to about the middle of the seventeenth 
century ; and Mr. Swetenham tells me that a leaf, 
now lost, stated or implied that the writer was 
in hiding at the time it was written. There are 
two sonnets to Hobson, the Cambridge carrier, 
which are not without some thoughts parallel to 
those of Milton. Twice " Ben J." or "B. J." is 
referred to, apparently meaning Ben Jonson. 
These personal references would point to the first 
half of the seventeenth century ; but the use of 
the word " its " requires a date nearer the middle 
than the beginning of the century. I give a few 
extracts below ; and I should be glad to learn 
from any one who is intimate with the literature 
of that time whether they are original or not. 

On a paire of tonnges. 

The burnt childe drads the fire, if this be true 
Who first invented tonnges Its furry knew. 

On fine aparall. 

Som that there wifes may neate and clanly [go] 
Doe all ther substance upon them bestow 
But who a gould finch would meak his wife 
Makes her perhaps a wagtaile all her life. 

On men and women. 

Ill thrives that haples familie that shows 
A cock thats silent and a hen that crows 
I know not wich lives more unnatureall lives 
Obeying husbands or commanding wifes. 

On mariage. 

Marriage as ould men note hath likned been 
Unto a public feast or common rout 
Where those that are without would faine get in 
And those that are within would faine get out. 

St. Thomas, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

LATE MARRIAGE, The parish register of 
Greenwich records the marriage, 1685, Nov. 18, of 
" John Cooper of this Parish, Almsman in Queen 
Elizabeth College, Aged 108, and Margarett 
Thomas of Charlton in Kent, Aged 80 years, by 
Licence of y e Lord Bishop of Rochester and leave 
of y f Governors of y Drapers." 

It would be difficult, in all probability, after this 
lapse of time, to substantiate the age of the bride- 
groom, but that of the bride indicates, I think, 
that Cooper, whether centenarian or no, was, at any 
rate, a very old man. One wonders " who pro- 

Next year, on Oct. 31, we find the burial 
of " Ould Cooper." 

The same register, under Nov. 25, 1788, con- 
tains the baptismal entry of " Will m Keith, son of 
Alexander John Ball, a Cap* in the Navy, and 
Mary, born Oct. 27." He remained a bachelor 
until 1870, and was then married at Eichmond 
Parish Church, Surrey. Unfortunately, he had 
been intoxicated by his bride for the occasion. 
One can only hope that this was not the case with 
"Ould Cooper." 

Eden Bridge. 

"YEOMAN." I appeal to writers and journal- 
ists to use this word only as describing a farmer 
who owns some land. A writer of some standing 
has used it recently of a farmer's SOD, as if it meant 
merely a person connected with rural life. 


(See 4 tb S. xii. 27.) Is it too late for me to answer 
a query of my own, made somewhere near twenty- 
one years ago, to which no one, so far as I am 
aware, replied ? I asked what was the meaning of 
" bacon, with reverence," twice mentioned by Caleb 
Balderstone in ' The Bride of Lammermoor,' chap, x, 
(xi. in the older editions). I suggested that it was, 
perhaps, a Scottish dish so called. In this I was 
mistaken. The following note in the 4 Vocabulaire 
du Berry et de quelques Cantons Voisins,' 1842, 
although not referring specially to bacon, I think 
satisfactorily explains Caleb's meaning : 

" Sous, sauf, vot' [votre] respect : Non seulement 
cette formula d'adoucissement et de courtoisie s'emploie 
chez nous comme partout quand en parlant a un euperieur 
on mentionne des animaux ; mais il arrive sou vent qu'on 
en fait usage relativement a d'autres objets auxquels 
s'attache, parmi lea gens a prevention, une id6e mepri- 
sante : par example, une de ces carrioles suspendues 
appelees ' pataches ': ' j'ons vu passer, sous vot' respect^ 
une patache.' " 

When, therefore, Caleb includes, amongst the 
imaginary dishes of his Barmecide's feast, " bacon, 
with reverence," he clearly means the words " with 
reverence " as an apology for mentioning so com- 
paratively humble a dish as bacon to " quality 
folk " like Sir William Ashton and his daughter. 
Compare La Merluche in 'L'Avare,' Acte III. 
scene ii. "et qu'on me voit, re"ve"rence parler." 

For a description of a patache of the old-fashioned 
kind " ce respectable te'moignage de la simplicity 
de nos peres" see George Sand's Berrichon 
romance, * Le Meunier d'Angibault ' (chap. ii.). 

Ropley, Alresford. 

A SHOWER OF FROGS. A correspondence has 
been going on during July in the columns of the 
Glasgow Herald relative to a shower of frogs. 
One correspondent, writing from Langs id e, states 
that he had been informed by two gentlemen 

8"> S. VI. Am 11, '94.] 



that in a heavy thunderstorm they had encoun- 
tered a shower of frogs. Another correspondent 
writes that on the road at Lassodie, near Dun- 
fermline, he had been overtaken about noon by 
a shower and had sheltered himself at the side 
of an unpointed stone wall by the roadside. The 
shower finished, he found on the road a consider- 
able number of the smallest frogs he had ever seen. 
Another correspondent, evidently the captain of a 
steamer, states that when four days out from Aden, 
on his voyage to Bombay, his officer drew his 
attention to a dark cloud which was coming in 
their wake. A part of the cloud struck the ship, 
when it was found that from stem to stern the ship 
was covered a foot deep with live locusts. The 
newspaper in question winds up the correspondence 
with a leading article on the subject, in which the 
writer states that Major Forbes Mackenzie, Fod- 
derty, Ross- shire, some years ago found a field 
partially covered with herring fry, also that herrings 
of a larger growth have been found at Syke and 
other points some distance from the sea. It is also 
recorded that during a severe gale a quantity of 
herrings were transferred from the Firth of Forth 
to Loch Leven, and that fish three inches long fell 
before an English officer in 1839 within the space 
of a cubit at a spot not far from Calcutta. The 
writer of the leader in question considers that 
such a phenomenon as a shower of frogs is not 
impossible, for why should not a young frog or a 
colony of young frogs (a very juvenile frog is 
not much heavier than a leaf) be lifted up by a 
whirlwind or cyclone ? 

" The unfortunate thing," he adds, " about frog showers 
is that none of them has ever been reported to fall upon 
the roof of a house or down a chimney, or on some spot 
which could not be reached by a frog by the ordinary 
peripatetic means." 

Can any of the readers of ' N. & Q.' furnish a 
statement which would prove that frogs have been 
found in positions which are, so to speak, abnormal? 
In a little book, published in 1882, by William 
Andrews, F.R.H.S., entitled ' The Book of Od- 
dities/ I find it stated that 

" Thomas Cooper, the popular lecturer on Christianity, 
in his well-written life, stages that when a boy he wit- 
nessed a shower of frogs in Lincolnshire. He gays : ' I 
record the natural phenomenon, because I have read, 
not only in that beautiful old book of Ray's " The Wisdom 
of God in the Creation," but in later books affecting great 
fidelity to facts in science, that such a sight is impossible. 
I am as sure of what I relate as I am of my own exist- 
ence. The minute frogs, jumping alive, fell on the 
pavement at our feet, and came tumbling down the 
spouts from the tiles of the houses into the water tubs." 

Mr. Andrews also records that at Selby, in June, 
1844, there was a shower of frogs, and that several 
about the size of a horse-bean were caught in their 
descent by holding out hats for that purpose. Three 
other showers are also noted by Andrews which are 
abnormal in so far as the localities named could not 
be reached by the " ordinary peripatetic means." 

The first is a shower of live lizards which fell on 
the side walks and in the streets of Montreal, 
recorded in the Montreal Weekly Gazette of Dec. 28, 
1857. The second is a shower of pilchards at 
Mountain Ash, Glamorganshire, recorded in a 
letter to the Times of Feb. 25, 1859, by the Rev. 
Aaron Roberts, B.A., curate of St. Peter's, Caer- 
marthen. The third and last is said to have taken 
place on Wednesday before Easter in 1666, at 
Cranstead, near Wrotham, in Kent, as noted by 
Carriber in 'Odd Showers,' and is a shower of 
young whitings on a two-acre pasture field. 

Since the above was written the following letter 
has been published in the Glasgoiv Herald : 

Dundee, July 19th, 1894. 

SIR, During a walk with my wife before we were 
married, in Scotscraig grounds, near Tayport, we came 
upon a shower of miuute frogs. They fell on our clothes, 
and the ground for a considerable distance was covered 
with them. I gathered a few and carried them home in 
my pocket. I am quite sure they fell from the sky. 
This occurred in the year 1847 or 1848. I am, &c. 


The above, at any rate, is personal evidence. 

Will readers of ' N. & Q.' kindly note any in- 
stances which would go towards meeting the very 
sensible reservation the leader-writer in question 
makes regarding frog showers as an authentic fact 
in natural history ? R. HEDGBR WALLACE. 

CRESSING, co. ESSEX. The following curious 
memorandum I have transcribed from a parchment. 
It bears no date, but from the handwriting I 
should say it was written in the thirteenth or four- 
teenth century : 

Memorandum quod Elphelinus atte Gore et Penelok 
uxor sua fundauerunt capellam de Kyrsingg [Creasing] 
et idem Elphelinus dedit viginti acras terre ad suatinen- 
dum dictam capellam imperpetuum et ad inveniendum 
omnia necessaria in capella predicta et rector ecclesie de 
Witham recepit dictas viginti acras terre cum onere 
predicto et jacent predicte viginti acre terre in quodam 
campo vocato Scolhous [? schoolhouse] field. 

Item post hoc Rex Stephanas dedit rectoriam de 
Witham canonicis Sancti Martini Londonie et decanua 
ejusdem loci ordinavit et constituit suum vicarium qui 
tenetur sustinere predictam capellam per compositionem 
inter eoadem factam. 

Et Memorandum quod Brungor Le Wythye dedit 
quatuor acras terre ad inveniendum pania undecim in 
dicta capella imperpetuum Et Johannes de Stondone 
recepit dictas quatuor acras terre cum onere predicto et 
predicte quatuor acre terre jacent sub cimiterio predicte 

Memorandum quod idem Brumgor dedit tres acras 
terre ad inveniendum duos cruces processionarios summo 
altari et vicarius ejusdem loci recepit dictas tres acraa 
terre cum onere predicto et predicte tres acre terre 
jacent sub vicaria predicta. 


Sulhamstead, Reading. 

PHILIPPE EGALITE". There is a finely engraved 
portrait of Louis Philippe Joseph, Duke of Orleans 
surnamed Egalite", large folio in size, representing 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8< s. vi. A, n, 

him in uniform, in a standing posture, and in the missal containing a mass composed by Pope Cle- 
background to his right hand is seen the head of ment VI. for preservation from this scourge. An 
an orderly holding his horse. He was guillotined account of it may be seen in the Tablet of March 17, 
in 1793, having voted for the death of his cousin p. 403, K. P. D. E. 

Louis XVI. only a few months before. The 

painting from which it is taken is said to be by "LONDON BRIDGE." (See I 8t S. ii. 338.) 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. It would be interesting to Mrs - Gomme, in her valuable book on ' Traditional 
know the circumstances under which it was painted, Games,' says, in reference to this old set of rhymes, 
and in whose possession the original picture is at tnafc i fc would be interesting to find out which is 

the more ancient of the two the song or the game. 
Although played as a children's game now, " Lon- 
don Bridge " would appear to have been originally 
a dance, to the tune of which the words were 
adapted. As Mrs. Gomme points out, the tune of 
the dance is given in Play ford's 'Dancing Master.' 

the present time. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

JOHN H. REYNOLDS. (See 8 th S. v. 361.) I re- 
ferred to Mr. Reynolds as the author of " a pen-and- 
ink sketch of a trial at Hertford" (Thurtell's), rf _ 

signed Edward Herbert, in the London Magazine I The following quotation 
of February, 1824. " " 
roboration of 

author ol Hood's ' Udes and Addresses to Great I " Curd. I have been one in my daies, when we kept the 
People' (not to " Eminent Persons " as MR. HBBB Whitsun-Ale, where we daunc't the building of London- 

from 'The London 

MR. HEBB'S article is a cor- Ohaunticleres, a Witty Oomoedy,' 1659, is earlier 
oration of my belief that Mr. Eeynolds was than any of the references given by Mrs. Gomme : 

writer. But I never heard that he was joint Heath thou sha't be the Lady o' the Town. 

hor of Hoods 'Odes and Addresses to Great " Curd. I have been one in mv daies. when we keot the 


have the first and second editions of the Br * d g e u P n wool-packs and the hay upon a Grasse-plat, 

1 and when we were a weary with dauncing hard, we 
alwaies went to the Cushion daunce." Scene viii. 
Mrs. Gomme shows (p. 92) how the different 

, Cradock 
Annual' for 
1830 (the first published) three contributions from 

. u u . 1 

E. Herbert, 'The Pillory," Lines to Fanny ' and v . e ? slon , 8 of th j cushlon dance illustrate the tran- 
' ' S D f m a dan t0 aure ame and thi ' 

Sonnet to Vauxhall'; also two designs for en- 
gravings from Mr. J. H. Reynolds, the two (Mr. 
Reynolds and Mr. Herbert) being one and the 
name person. But Mr. Reynolds's most curious 

from a dance to a pure game, and this tran- 
s probably taken place in the case of 
Bridge," "Green Grass," "Green Gravel," 
and many other children's games. Amongst 

literary performance was his"' Peter "Bell "a Ly'rTcal I "tT* 86 raC6S> dancin S is the usual > if not invari ' 
Ballad.' Wordsworth's ' Peter Bell ' had been ad \ f\ accompaniment of all religious ceremonies, 
vertised, but was long in coming out Reynolds , mme is P robabl y perfectly right in 
got to know of the peculiar metre of the poem Dg a , lineal connexlon between these modern 

and indeed must have seen a copv or proof-sheet games and the mama g e > burial > a <* building rites 
in advance, for he wrote ' Peter Bell the Second ' f .? Ur { refa t her8 ' 11 It 1 is fortunate that this inter - 
(and Shelley wrote ' Peter Bell the Third ') Mr g branch of folk -l re na fallen into such corn- 

Reynolds wrote the parody, got his ' Peter Bell ' P 6 ^ ha d . S< , W< F ' PRIDBAUX - 

out first, and the original advertisement of Words- J&lpUr ' Ra ->P utana ' 

worth's 'Peter Bell 'sold 'Peter Bell the Second.' "HANGING AND WIVING GO BY DESTINY." 
it has forty-two stanzas, all in the peculiar metre Shakspere, in the 'Merchant of Venice,' VI. ix. 

f\T rn/a AM /* I ^ -. ^ t U ...._ _j.-i____ i Q^ OO L. 

The ancient saying is no beresy 
Hanging and wiving go by destiny. 

And again, in 'All's Well that Ends Well,' I. iii. 
63 1 

Your marriage comes by destiny. 
_ up the history of Simon Heynes, Dean 

worth, printed by Taylor & Hessey^isi 9,' twenty- I of Exeter j &c., who died in 1552, I have come 
nine pages, and motto on title from ' Bold Stroke across a curious illustration of the first passage 
for a Wife': "I do affirm that I am the real Simon above quoted, which may interest your readers. 
Pure." Jt was a regular literary sell, in two senses ^ onn ^ oxe > i n ' s * Acts and Monuments' (vol. v. 

W. POLLARD. ' P- 474 ) under date 1543 > sa y s : ~ 

Hertford. At this time the Canons of Exeter, had accused Dr. 

Haynes their Dean to the Council for preaching against 
BLACK DEATH. As Dr. Gasquet's important holy bread and hol y Wiiter > and that he should say in 
book on 'The Great Pestilence of 1348-9' has I ne f h ^ 8ermon ? (having occasion to speak of matri- 
drawn attention to the Black Death, it may not ' 
be out of place to note in your columns that there 

rf * ' VJV [Jt^U. 

of the original, and the preface states, 

"As these are the days of counterfeits, I am compelled 
to caution my readers against them, for such are abroad 
However 1 declare this to be the true Peter; this the old 
original Bell. I commit my ballad confidently to 
love to read ~ 

The verses are admirable burlesques of Words- 

is preserved in the town library at Bruges a 

mony), that marriage and hanging were destiny ; upon 
which they gathered treason against him, because of the 
king's marriage." 

Simon Haynes, though a priest, was married, 

8">s. VI. AUG. 11, '94.] 



which was unusual at that time. He was accuse 
of being a Lutheran, and imprisoned in the Fleet. 


We must request correspondents desiring informatio 
on family matters of only private interest to affix the! 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

DERAIL. I should be glad of assistance in 

tracking the first appearance of this verb. I find i 

in Webster's 'Dictionary 'of 1864, " to run oti 

from the rails of a railway, as a locomotive," on th 

authority of Lardner. If any one can tell in which 

of Dr. Lardner's works the word appears he wil 

do a service to the ' Dictionary.' Possible source! 

are his 'Railway Economy/ 1850, and * Cabine 

Cyclopedia,' 1829 44; but both of these seem 

rather early in date. Webster's explanation *' to 

run off from the rails," reads as if the verb were in 

transitive, though it is lettered v. t. The common 

English use is transitive, " a train was derailed " (for 

which I have a quotation of 1881); but theintrac 

sitive use is occasional, and was recorded in 

' N. & Q.' 7 th S. iv. 365, from the Times of Sept. 15 

1887. The intransitive use," sortir des rails," is the 

only one given for derailler, or derailer in French 

The verb, with its derivative deraillement, occurs 

in Littre", 1873-4, and from his discussion of the cur- 

rent orthography, as well as from the admission of 

the words by the Acade"mie in 1878, it appears that 

they were not then entirely new. Neither Littre" 

nor DarmeBteter derives the French word from 

English ; the question, therefore, arises, In which 

language did it originate? Railway terras, in 

general, have pissed from English into French ; 

but in the case of derail, derailler, there is some 

reason to think that the French word was adopted 

in America, and thence came into Great Britain. 

Can any correspondent supply information on the 

point ? To run down the Lardner reference would 

be most useful. J. A. H. MURRAY. 


ADAM BUCK. I shall feel much obliged to any 
one who will refer me to a work containing par- 
ticulars of the family and life of Adam Buck, 
portrait and subject painter, exhibiting in London 
between 1793 and 1833. I am aware of the bio- 
graphical note in the National Portrait Gallery 
Catalogue. Kindly reply direct. 


12, Egerton Gardens, S. W. 

SOURCE OF QUOTATION. Canyon tell me where 
the following lines are to be found ? 

Oh, Hudson Low(e), oh, Hudson Low(e), 
By name and, oh, by nature so. 

As it refers to Hudson Lowe, Governor of St. 

Helena during Napoleon's captivity there, the poet 
must belong to this century. Can it be Byron ? 


WATERMARKS ON PAPER. (See 8 th S. v. 234, 
295.) I shall be much obliged if some one will 
refer me to a work treating of watermarks, and 
which will enable one to approximate the date of 
old paper by the different devices which appear aa 
watermarks on paper in old MSS. A. 

SATIRES ME'NIPPE'ES. What is the peculiarity 
of these productions ; and is the style of writing 
thus designated really traceable to Menippus 1 

Portland, Oregon. 

[There is only one sixteenth century work known as 
the ' Satire Menippee.' It was written in imitation of 
the ' Satires Me'nippees ' of Varro by partisans of Henri 
IV., and was directed against the League. You will find 
a full account in the ' Dictionnaire Universel des Litt- 
ratures' of Vapereau (Paris, Hachette, 1876).] 

WILLIAM HURD, D.D. I shall be glad if any 
contributor to ' N. & Q.' can give me some informa- 
tion about this author. I have before me a ' His 
tory of the Religious Rites, Ceremonies, and Cus 
toms of all Religions,' published in 1815 by J. 
Gleave, 196, Deansgate, Manchester, and stated to 
be a sixth edition. I find this Dr. Hurd is men- 
tioned in Allibone's 'Dictionary of English and 
American Authors,' where the reference to him 
runs thus : 

"Hurd, William, D.D. 'View of all the Religious 
Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs of the Whole World,' 
fol, s.a. New ed. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1812, 4to. 
Frequently recommended by Dr. Samuel Parr." 

Dr. William Kurd's name does not appear in 
the new ' Dictionary of National Biography.' 

H. W. 

"CONTAMINATION." The Classical Review for 
June contains a criticism of Mr. Walker's (the 
Eigh Master of St. Paul's School) interesting and 
earned papers on the evolution of certain Greek 
verbal forms. The writer (Dr. J. H. Moulton) 
makes the following remark: "Then we can in- 
terpret rjia as a contamination of -fiat, and *rjea, 
without questioning the tradition." 

My son tells me that a few weeks ago a writer 

n the Academy, when suggesting a new reading 

n a verse of Chaucer's (I think), used the word 

'contamination," apparently in the technical sense 

n which textual critics employ " dittography." 

There is no reference to this use in the ' N. E. D.,' 

nor, indeed, to the one familiar to students of 

Latin literature. Is this new use borrowed from 

writers on natural science; or has it "come in 

rom the States " ] J. P. OWEN, 

EDWARD PICK. Can any of your readers inform 

me how the late Dr. Edward Pick, in his system 

f mnemonics, treated dates and numbers ? His 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. A. 11, 

book is decidedly hard to get ; but I have the 
first and the fifth editions, and neither gives any 
hint of his plans so far as numbers are concerned. 
Mnemonics are generally worse than useless, but 
they have considerable psychological interest ; and 
Dr. Pick was very far above the common charlatan. 
Hence my query. J. N. SHEARMAN. 

AN OXFORD SOCIETY. A quaint little sheet, 
seven and a half inches by five and three-quarters 
inches, which has lain among my curios unheeded 
for twenty years, runs as follows, in the form of a 
letter : 

Sir, For the Improvement of Society and Trade 
amongst Gentlemen Born in the County and City of 
Oxford, there is, by the Desire and Advice of several 
Gentlemen formerly Stewards of the Oxfordshire Feast, 
and others, a Society of the said Countrymen Settled at 
Mr. Richard Trubey's at the King's-Arms Tavern in St. 
Paul's Church-yard, who will meet every Wednesday 
Night ; in the Summer Season from Seven to Ten, and in 
the Winter from Six to Nine; no Gentleman to be con- 
fin'd to come but when he pleases, at the Expense of 
One Shilling, there being no Quarterly Feasts. 

N.B. The Society will begin on Wednesday the 28th 
of August, 1717. 

The word " will" in the KB. is altered to did in 
ink, and the letter bears the inscription " To Mr. 

Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' give me any par- 
ticulars of this friendly society or of the apparently 
defunct Oxfordshire feast referred to ; also when 
the club ceased to exist, and who was Mr. Briquit ? 


BRAZIL SALTS. What did the medicine termed 
Brazil salts consist of; and what was it taken 
for ? It was in use some sixty or seventy years ago, 
and seems to be unknown at chemists' shops now 

C. H. SP. P. 

* SHAKSPEARE'S EARLY DAYS.' In April, 1832, 
a play was performed at Boston (Lincolnshire) en- 
titled Shakspeare's Early Days ; or, the Reign of 
Good Queen Bess.' Is it known who was the 
writer ? Did it appear in a printed form ? An 
advertisement of the performance occurs in the 
Boston Herald for April 24 of that year 

K. P. D. E. 

[It is doubtless the work, in two acts, with the same 
name, by Somerset, produced at Covent Garden, Oct. 29 
1829. Charles Kemble was Shakspeare ; Keeley, Gilbert 
Sbakspeare, his brother; Mrs. Gibbs, Mary Sbakspeare; 
Abbott, Lord Southampton ; Warde, Burbadge and 
Wrench, Tariton. It was acted eleven times.] 

ARMORIAL. In Boston Church, Lincoln, is a 
hatchment with the following armorial bearings, 
viz., on a chief three stags' heads cabossed, quarter- 
ing a chevron argent, three swans argent, gules, and 
azure. In the centre, on an escutcheon of pretence, 
the Tilney arms are represented. To whom does 
this hatchment refer ? Are the swans the alternative 
Carey coat? Has Carey Street (Lincoln's Inn 

Fields), London, a connexion with the above ; and 
when did Tilney Street (London) acquire its name ? 

T. W. C. 

' ROMEO AND JULIET.' Will one of your Shake- 
spearian scholars kindly tell me why Mercutio's 
" Queen Mab" speech in Act I. sc. iv. is printed 
as prose in the 1623 Folio (Booth's reprint) ? Is it 
so printed in any more modern edition ? 


following words are quoted from a "German 
writer " in Mr. E. G. Kirwan Browne's ' Annals of 
the Tractarian Movement,' third edition, 1861, 
p. 190. Can any one tell me who the violent per- 
son was who used them, and give such a reference 
that I may see them with their context ? 

" Delenda est ista infernalis, scelerata, sanguinea, et 
execranda religionis Christianas deformatio, quae falsis- 
sime vocatur, Reformatio." 


REFERENCES SOUGHT. Will some one kindly 
say to whom and to what works the Archbishop of 
Canterbury referred when, in his sermon at the 
Church Congress, Birmingham, on October 2, 1893, 
and in speaking of Balaam, he said : 

" Three of our greatest philosophic preachers and our 
greatest word-painter of Scripture have, each in their 
own unique fashion, penetrated at least some of the 
secrets of that almost inconceivable character " 1 

He also quoted the following passage : 

Taking his stand, 

His wild hair floating on the eastern breeze, 
His tranced yet open gaze following the 
Giant forms of empires on their way to ruin. 

From what work is the quotation ? Lucis. 

And though the fields look rough with hoary dew, 
All will be gay when noontide wakes anew 
The buttercups, the little Children's dower. 

' Home Thoughts, from Abroad.' 

What does Browning mean by this ? The butter- 
cup is no slug-a-bed. I suspect it was rather more 
awake at the time than the poet. C. C. B. 

PORTRAIT. Can any of your readers tell me 
what has become of a portrait on panel of Nicholas 
Heath, Archbishop of York, 1555-1559, which a 
few years ago was in the possession of Mr. Grind- 
lay, Duke Street, St. James's Square ? 

J. R. K. 

SIR MARTIN WRIGHT. I should be much 
obliged for any information concerning Mr. Justice 
Wright, who purchased Holcrofts, Fulham, about 
1742. Sir Martin was one of the Justices of the 
King's Bench. He died at Fulham in 1767. The 
property descended to his only surviving daughter, 
Elizabeth Wright, who was residing here when 
Lysons wrote his ' Environs ' (1795). In 1811 the 
house was the property of the devisees of Lady 

8 th S. VI. AUG. 11, '94.] 



Guise, the niece of Elizabeth Wright. Any furthe 
facts about these two ladies would also be of ser 
vice. CHAS. JAS. F&RET. 

INEZ DE CASTRO. Among the poetical work 
of Mrs. Hemans there is a poem entitled ' Tbj 
Coronation of Inez de Castro,' The lady has gom 
the way of all flesh, and been buried in the grea 
cathedral ; but her husband, King Pedro, anxiou 
to show honour to his wife even in death, causes he 
remains to be disinterred, and at a weird midnigh 
service her corpse, clad in queenly attire, is crowned 
All the flower of the nation's nobility attend to paj 
homage to the dead queen ; and, when the solemn 
and awful ceremony is over, her body is borne 
once more to its resting place in the tomb, and her 
crown and jewels laid with her there. Who was 
this lady, and is the story true ? 



[She was a queen of Portugal, assassinated Jan. 7, 1355 
The subject, which is partly historic, has been frequently 
treated in poetry, drama, and painting.] 

JOHN OF TIMES. What is the origin, or sup- 
posed origin, of the story of John of Times? 
Kalph Higden, after describing the flight of 
Matilda from Oxford in the reign of Stephen, con- 
cludes his ' Polychronicon ' thus : 

" Quo etiam anno Johannes de Temporibus, qui vixerat 
treecentis sexaginta uno annia et armiger magni Karoli 
xtiterat, obiit." 

Or, as the Harleian MS. 2261 has it : 

" In whiche yere John of Tymes dyed, which hade 
lyvede ccclxj yere, somme tyme esqwier to grete Kynge 

I quote from ' Polychronicon Eanulphi Higden,' 
vol. vii. p, 496 (Rolls Series, 1879). 

Shad well mentions "John of the Times and 
Old Parre " in ' The Miser,' 1691, Act II. 


'Dictionary of National Biography' it is stated 
that John, second Lord Grey of Rotherfield 
(1300-1359) was an original E.G. 1 am unable to 
refer to the histories of the Order of the Garter, 
but I see a list of the original knights in Burke's 
'Extinct Peerages,' in a note under "Audley," 
copied from Camden, and Lord Grey's name is not 
included. I am very desirous to know whether 
the omission is a mistake, there being (exclusive of 
King Edward) twenty-six knights named. One 
f them was Sir Cupdall de Buche (or de Buz), 
whose real name, however, appears to have been 
Sir John Grayllie (see Dugdale's ' Ancient Usage 
of Arms,' referring to Ashmole's 'History of the 
Garter'). What were the circumstances under 
which this name was given to Sir John ? 



(8 th S. v. 407.) 

Montaigne, before Bacon, had the same thought 
and expression (' Easais,' 1. i. 19, " Que philosopher 
c'est apprendre a mourir ") : 

" Je crois, a la verite, que ce sont ces mines et appareils 
effroyables, dequoy nous 1'entournons, qui nous font plus 
de peur qu'elle : une toute nouvelle forme de vivre; les 
cris des meres, des femmes et des enfants ; la visitation 
de personnes estonnees et transies; I'assistance dun 
nombre de valets pasles et esplorez; une chambre sans 
jour, des cierges allumez; nostre chevet assiege de 
medecins et de prescheurs; somme, tout horreur et tout 
effroy autour de nous : nous voyla desia ensepvelis et 
enterrez. Les enfans ont peur de leurs amis mesmes, 
quand ils les veoyent masquez: aussi avons nous. [This 
is from Seneca, Epist. 24.] II faut oster le masque aussi 
bien des choses que des personnes, oste qu'il sera, nous 
ne trouverons au dessoubs que cette mesme mort, qu'un 
valet ou simple chambriere passerent dernierement sans 
peur. Heureuse la mort qui oste le loisir aux apprests 
de tel equipage." 

And later, Jeremy Taylor (1613-67) is much in 
the same vein : 

" Take away but the pomps of death, the disguises and 
solemn bugbears, and the actings by candlelight, and 
proper and fantastic ceremonies, the minstrels and the 
noise makers, the women and the weepers, the swoonings 
and the shriekings, the nurses and the physicians, the 
dark room and the ministers, the kindred and the watches, 
and then to die is easy, ready, and quitted from its trouble- 
some consequences. It is the same harmless thing that 
a poor shepherd suffered yesterday or a maid-servant to- 

There is a good deal of Seneca and Lucretius 
n Montaigne's essay. Whomsoever Bacon meant by 
;he "natural man and philosopher," the descrip- 
tion is very applicable to Montaigne. 


"Pompa mortis magis terrat, quam mors ipsa." 
Ought not "terrat" to be terret ?) Perhaps Bacon 
refers to the following : 

"Illud autem ante omnia memento, demere rebus 
umultum, ac videre quid in quaque re sit : scies nihil 
esse in istis terribile, nisi ipsum timorem. Quod vides 
accidere pueris, hoc nobia quoque, majusculis pueris, 
venit : illi, quos amant, quibus assueverunt, cum quibus 
udunt, si personates vident, expavescunt. Non homi- 
ibus tantum, sed rebus persona demenda est, et red- 
enda facies sua. Quid mihi gladios et ignes ostendis, et 
urbam carnificum circa te frementium ? Tolle istam pom- 
am, sub qua lates, et stultos territas ! Mors es, quam 
uper servus meus, quam ancilla contempsit." 'L. An- 
331 Senecse Epist.,' xxiv. sect. 12. 

Lodge, who speaks of this epistle as " worthy to 
>e ranked amongst the best," translates the passage 

follows : 

'But above all things, remember thou to esteeme 
hings simply as they be, and despoyle them of the 
umult and bruit that is accustomably given them, and 
tiou shalt find in them, that there is nothing terrible, 
ut only feare. That which thou seest befall young 



[8 th 8. VI. AUG. 11, '94. 

Children, befalleth UB also that are greater Boyes; they 
are afraid of those whom they love, and with whom they 
frequent and disport everie day, if they Bee them masked 
and disguised. Not from men onely ought we to take 
the maske, but from things themselves, and yeeld them 
their true and naturall appearance. Why she west thou 
me swords and fire, and a troupe of grinning hang-men 
about thee 1 Take away this pompe, under which thou 
liest hidden, and wherewith thou terrifiest fooles : thou 
art Death, which of late my slave or my hand-maiden 
hath contemned." 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 

May not Bacon, quoting memoriter, have by 
mistake written " pompa " for dogma ? This 
granted, I believe his reference to have been to 
the ' Encheiridion ' of Epictetus, chap. v. : 

Tapaoxret TOVS dvOpioTrovs ov rot Trpayjuara, 
aAAa TO, Tre/ot TWV 7rpayfjLa.T(DV Soyp-ara. Oibv, 
6 OoLvaros ovSev Setvov 7ret /cat SojK/oarct di/ 
<f>aivTO. 'AAAa TO Soy/xa TO ircpl TOV 


Epictetus employs Soviet in its etymological 
sense, as derived from oo/ceo), "to appear." We 
see things not as they are in themselves, but 
through the coloured medium of our own idiosyn- 
crasy. Epictetus speaks of death as does our own 
Parnell : 

When men my scythe and darts supply, 
How great a king of fears am I ! 
They view me like the last of things : 
They make, and then they dread, my stings. 
Fools ! if you less provoked your fears, 
No more my spectre-form appears. 
Death 's but a path that must be trod, 
If man would ever pass to God : 
A port of calms, a state of ease, 
From the rough rage of swelling eeas. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

Dr. Abbott, in his edition of Bacon's ' Essays, 
1876, says in a note (vol. ii. p. 114), with reference 
to the passage quoted by your correspondent : 

" Freely quoted from Seneca (' Ep.,' iii. 3, 14), Tolle 
istam pompam sub qua lates et stultos territas : Mora es, 
queni nuper eervus meus, quern ancilla contempsit.' The 
original is rather more closely quoted by Montaigne at 
the end of his ' Essay on Death.' " 


The following passage from Seneca bears a strong 
verbal resemblance to what Bacon says : 

" Quid mihi gladios et ignes oatendis, et turbam carni- 
ficum circa te frequentem ? Tolle istam pompam, sub 
qua lates, et stultos territas : mors es, quam nuper servus 
meus, quam ancilla contemsit." ' Epiatolse,' xxiv. 13. 


Rawley, in his 'Life of Bacon' ('Works of 
F. Bacon,' ed. Spedding, i. 12), remarks : 

" I have often observed, and so have other men of great 
account, that if he had occasion to repeat another man's 

words after him, he bad an use and faculty to dress them 
in better vestments and apparel than they had before ; 
so that the author should find his own speech much 
amended, and yet the substance of it still retained." 

Mr. Spedding, in his note hereon, thinks that 
this habit of inaccurate quotation ("of which a 
great many instances have been pointed out by Mr. 
Ellis "), when not attributable to faults of memory, 
was caused by a desire to " present the substance 
in a better form, or a form better suited to the 
particular occasion." Hence, as he suggests (vi. 
379), we may accept the phrase " Pompa mortis 
magis terret quam mors ipsa " as a concise presenta- 
tion of the sense of the passage in Seneca's twenty- 
fourth epistle beginning, ' ' Tolle istam pompam 
sub qua lates et stultos territas : mors es, quam 
nuper servus meus, quam ancilla contempsit." 


80, Saltoun Road, Brixton. 

THE SONS OF HAROLD (8 th S. v. 507). Harold 
was twice married ; but his first wife, whose name 
is not given, died long before he was king. By 
her he had three sons Godwin, Edmund, and 
Magnus. The two eldest, after their father's over- 
throw, fled into Ireland, but came back into Eng- 
land, and fought against King William in the 
second year of his reign. Ultimately they retired 
to Denmark, to King Sweyn, where they died. 
Magnus went with his brothers to Ireland, and 
came back with them to England ; but we find 
nothing more of him after this. Harold had a 
fourth son, Wolfe, who seems to have been the 
son of Queen Algitha. He was a prisoner at the 
accession of William Rufus, who released him and 
knighted him (Guthrie). Gunhilda, a daughter of 
Harold's, and a nun, is mentioned by John Cap- 
grave in the life of Wolstan, Bishop of Wor- 
cester, who is stated to have restored her eyesight 
miraculously. Another daughter of Harold's is 
mentioned by Saxo Grammaticus, in his * Danish 
History/ as having been well received by her kins- 
man King Sweyn, the younger, and afterwards 
married to Waldemar, King of the Russians, and 
to have had a daughter by him, who was the 
mother of Waldemar, the first King of Denmark 
of that name, from whom all the Danish kings for 
many ages afterwards succeeded. 


Swallowfield, Reading. 

Freeman, ' Norman Conquest/ vol. iv. p. 142 
(second edition), says : 

" Harold had left behind him five children, who, as I 
have elsewhere hinted, were most likely the offspring of 
Eadgyth Swanneshals. Of their mother we bear no 
more after her sad errand to Senlac. But her three 
sons, Godwine, Eadmund, and Magnus, of whom God- 
wine was a bolder of lands in Somerset, and her daughters 
Gytha and Gunhild, will all call for momentary notice." 

In a note (M, p. 752) the learned historian adds 
much information on the same subject, and says : 

8 th S. VI. Auo. 11, '94.] 



" As to the children of Harold and Ealdgyth, it 
certain (see Florence, 1087) that Harold had a son Ul 
who, at the time of William's death, was imprisoned i 
Normandy, and was released by Robert." 

Another son named Harold is also mentioned 
and Mr. Freeman says, "Any child of Harol 
and Ealdgyth must have been born after his father' 
death, but Ulf and Harold may have been post 
humous twins." FRED. C. FROST, F.S.I. 


" 8. The sons of Harold. This same year, 1068, th 
three sons of Harold, Godwine, Edmund, and Magnus 
who had escaped with their grandmother, Gytha, cam 
back by sea with a force from Ireland, doubtless chiefl 
Irish Danes. But they did nothing but plunder. The' 
were driven off from Bristol, and there fought a battl 
with the men of Somerset, who were led by Eadnoth, i 
man who had been their father's Sialler, or master o 
the horse, but who was now in the service of William 
Eadnoth was killed, and Harold's sons sailed, having 
only made matters worse." Freeman, ' Short Hist, o 
Norm. Conq.,' p. 99. 

Areputed daughter of the Conqueror's former wife 
Matilda, was Gundrada de Warenne. Whether the 
Conqueror was or was not her father was disputed in 
the Sixth and Seventh Series. The last contribu- 
tion, from which the others may be traced back, 
was 7 th S. vii. 311. Later discovery is in favour 
of it, from a charter or charters in the Nationa 
Library in Paris. ED. MARSHALL. 

"Harold is said to have been twice married. By his 
first wife, whose name has not been preserved, he hac 

three eons, Edmund, Godwin, and Magnus His second 

wife, Editha, otherwise called Algitha, the daughter ol 
the Earl of Alfgar, is said to have been the widow of 
Griffith, the Welsh prince, whose head had been sent by 
his subjects as a peace-offering to Harold. By her 
Harold is asserted to have had a son and two daughters; 
but as it is admitted that he was only married to her 
some time in 1065 at the earliest, we may doubt if she 
could already have produced so considerable a family. 
The son, named Wolf, is said to have been knighted by 
William Rufus; Gunilda, the eldest daughter, became 
blind, and passed her life in a nunnery; the second, 
whose name is unknown, is supposed to have gone to 
Denmark with her half-brothers. Queen Editha sur- 
vived her husband many years, during which she is said 
to have lived in obscurity in Westminster [? \Vestchester]. 
This lady, according to the Scottish historians, was the 
mother, by her first husband, of a daughter, who married 
Fleance, the son of Banquo, thane of Lochaber, whose 
son Walter, marrying a daughter of Alan the Red, Earl 
of Brittany, became the progenitor of the Stewarts. 
(On this story see Appendix No. x. to the first volume 
of Hailes's 'Annals of Scotland.') "Charles Knight's 
English Cyclopaedia,' 1856, under " Harold." 

Betham, in his * Genealogical Tables' (Table 602), 
gives Goodwin, Edmond, and Magnus as the issue 
of Harald's marriage with his first wife (name 
unknown). He calls the second wife Agatha, 
daughter of Algar, Earl of Mercia, and gives as 
issue Wolf and Gunhild. 

Speed, in his ' History of Great Britaine,' at the 
end of the eighth book, speaks of the first wife as 
not named by any writer ; of the second as 

" Algith, widow of Gruflith ap Lhewelyn, King of North 
Wales, the sister of Ed wine and Morcar, Earles of Yorke- 
shire and Chester, and daughter of Algar, sonne of 
Leofricke, son of Leofwine, all Earls of Chester, Lei- 
cester, and Lincolne." 

He makes the date of the marriage 1065. After 
mentioning Wolf and Gunhild, he says : 

"Another daughter of King Harold, not named by 
any Story-writer of our owne Nation, is mentioned by 
Saxo-Grammaticus, in his Danish history." 

She married " Gereslef, called in Latine larislaves, 
and of the Danes Waldemar, King of the Rus- 
sians," and by him "had a daughter, that was 
the mother of Waldemar, the first of that name 
King of Denmarke, from whom all the Danish 
kings for many ages after succeeded." 

Speed says that Algith, after the death of Harold, 
was conveyed by her brothers to Westchester (i.e., 
Chester), "where she remained in meane estate, 

and in good quiet during the rest of her life, 

which lasted a great part of the Oonquerours 



VERNOR, HOOD & SHARPS (8 th S. vi. 47). 
" Of Mr. William Barton and Mr. Thomas Hood I shall 
have to speak hereafter, as connected with the associated 
booksellers ; and, as a man of enterprise, I recollect the 
latter fifty-four years ago as librarian to that good 
and venerable character, Mr. Vernor, in Birchin Lane, 
Cornhill (subsequently Button's library). Vernor was a 
Sandimanian [sic], so was Hood." Aldine Magazine, 
1839, p. 311. 

The promise to give further details as to Mr. Hood 
was never carried out, as the Aldine Magazine 
died with the issue (undated) of the number con- 
taining the above. The extract given is from the 
ast of a very interesting series of papers entitled 
Annals of Authors, Artists, Books, and Book- 
sellers.' These were written by William West, 
who also published anonymously ' Fifty Years" 
Recollections of an old Bookseller,' 1837, a very 
rambling and incoherent book, but valuable as 
sontaining many details not easily obtainable else- 
where. I believe West died in the Charterhouse at 
i great age. His matter was largely used in Cur- 
wen's ' History of Booksellers.' 

39, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

This firm appears to have originated as Vernor 
& Chater in 1772 ; it became Vernor & Hood 
n 1798 ; and Vernor, Hood & Sharpe in 1806, 
hese dates are approximate. The senior partner 
lad no male issue, and his family is now repre- 
ented in the eminent firm of Grosvenor, Chater 
& Co., wholesale stationers and paper-makers, with 
ery numerous family connexions. Thomas Hood, 
native of Scotland, married a Miss Sands ; his 
on, the poet (' Song of a Shirt/ &c.), was born in 
799, and in 1825 he married Jane Reynolds, 
ying in 1845. Thomas Hood, jun. (editor of 
, &o.), born in 1835, died in 1874 ; his sister, 



J. 11, '94. 

Mrs. Broderip, I believe still survives. The 
junior partner, Charles Sharpe, great-uncle to Dr. 
BowdJer Sharpe, of the Zoological Department, 
British Museum, settled finally in Dublin as a 
literary auctioneer. LYSART. 

The humourist's son gives the following account 
of Hood, the bookseller, in the 'Memorials of 
Thomas Hood ' (London, 1873) : 

" My father's own joking account of his birth was, 
that as Ijis grandmother was a Miss Armstrong, he was 
descended from two notorious thieves, i. e., Robin Hood 
and Johnnie Armstrong. I have found his father's name 
mentioned in Illustrations of the Literary History of 
the Eighteenth Century,' by J. B. Nichols, F.S.A.: 
' August 20th. At Islington, of a malignant fever, ori- 
ginating from the effects of the night air in travelling, 
Mr. Thomas Hood, bookseller, of the Poultry. Mr. Hood 
was a native of Scotland, and came to London to seek 
his fortune, where he was in a humble position for four 

or five years His partner, Mr. Vernor, died soon 

afterwards. Mr. Thomas Hood married a sister of Mr. 
Vernor, juni<T, by whom he had a large family. He was 
a truly domestic man and a real man of business. Mr. 
Hood was one of the " Associated Booksellers," who 
selected valuable old books for reprinting, with great 
success. Messrs. Vernor & Hood afterwards moved into 
the Poultry, and took into partnership Mr. C. Sharpe [sic']. 
The firm of Messrs. Vernor & Hood published " The 
Beauties of England and Wales," "The Mirror," " Bloom- 
field's Poems," and those of Henry Kirke White. Mr. 
Hood was the father of Thomas Hood, the celebrated 
comic poet.' The above account is tolerably correct, 
except that Mr. Hood married a Miss Sands, sister to 
the engraver of that name, to whom his son was after- 
wards articled. Mr. Hood's family consisted of many 
children, of whom two sons, James and Thomas, and 
four daughters, Elizabeth, Anne, Jesse, and Catherine, 
alone survived to riper age. At his house in the Poultry, 
on My 23, as far as we trace, in the year 1799, was born 
his secoud son, Thomas, the subject of this memoir." 

C. C. B. 

Some particulars of this firm and the books pub- 
lished by them will be found in Timperley's ' Dic- 
tionary of Printers and Printing,' pp. 817, 833. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The Rev. Kichard Eandes, of co. York, matriculatec 
as pleb. fil. from Trinity College, Oxford, in 1604 
(matriculation register entry under date Dec. 14 
1604), then aged fourteen, graduating B.A. on 
June 2, 1608, and proceeding M.A. April 29 
1612, and B.D. July 1, 1619, in which latte 
degree he was incorporated at Cambridge in 1621 
He received a licence to preach on July 2, 1622 
(Foster's * Alumni Oxonienses/ 1500-1714, iii 

STOCKS (8 th S. v. 387). "This yere was or 
deyned in euery warde a peyr stockis " (Richan 
Arnold's 'Chronicle of London,' A.D. 1503, p. xxxvl 
I think there is an earlier instance in 'Piers Plough 
man,' but I have not chapter and verse. 


BURNING THE CLAVIE (8 th S. v. 484). There is 
n account of this superstitious practice, with refer- 
nces to other authorities, in Mitchell's 'Past in 
he Present,' 1880, pp. 145, 256-263. I may add : 
\ Buckland, 'Notes and Jottings' 1886, pp. 183, 
84 ; N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. ix. 38 ; ' Brand,' ed. Bohn, 

310. It is briefly mentioned by Polydore Vergil, 
De Invent. Reb.,' 1604, pp. 386, 387, who says 
t comes down from Roman pre-Christian times, 
n August, 1868, there was found at Banavie, 
bree feet below the solid peat, a bag made of a 
alf's skin and filled with Archangel tar. A similar 
was found four years before on the opposite 
ide of the river Lochy. W. C. B. 

CAREW OF GARRIVOE (4 th S. x. 296, 397; 7 th S. 
iii. 389). Some time ago I made an inquiry 
especting the parentage of a William Carew, killed 
n the earthquake at Lisbon in 1775. For reasons 
which have appeared in the Miscellanea Genea- 
ogica (Second Series, vol. iv. p. 231; and New 
Series, vol. i. p. 28), I believe that be is the per- 
lon stated to have been killed in the earthquake 
it Lisbon in an article on the Carews in the Col- 
ectanea Topographica et Genealogica, vol. v. p. 98, 
ind described as " Peter " Carew in a pedigree given 
n Cussans's ' History of Hertfordshire ' (" Hundred 
of Cashio," p. 187), and that his parents were 
Thomas Carew, of the Garrivoe family, and 
Susanna Frankland, of the family seated at Ash- 
I shall be glad, however, to have the 

matter further elucidated. 

G. D. LUMB. 

' TAKE TWO cows, TAFFY " (8 th S. v. 488). Mr. 
Bellenden Ker, in his ' Archaeology of Popular 
Phrases and Nursery Rhymes' (Longmans & Oo., 
1835), No. 36, page 283, gives two more lines, 
thus : 

Taffy was a Welshman, Taffy was a thief, 

Taffy came to my house, and stole a leg of beef; 

I went to Taffy's house, Taffy was not at home ; 

Taffy came to my house, and stole a marrowbone, 

Mr. Ker's curious theory as to this and thirty-five 
other nursery rhymes is that they are lampoons in 
Low Dutch on the priests of many centuries ago 
for their greed and selfishness. I only give 
specimens of two first lines : 
Tayf je was er wee helsch m'aen, Tayf je was er dief ; 
Tayf je gee em t'oom bye buys: aen stoel er leeck af 


and so on ; and his explanation or translation of the 
four lines as quoted above is this : 

" Tuyf (the priest) by his calling, baa ever proved a 
hell-contrived grievance to us all. Tuyf has ever been 
a diminisher of our property. Tuyf will hardly ever let 
my cousin Farmer leave his house, while up in the 
pulpit he shudders at the very name of the profane lay- 
man. The farmer places his house and its contents at 
the disposal of Tuyf ; and Tuyf, for the sake of what he 
can take out of it, is very condescending and officious to 
the master of it. Tuyf will hardly ever let my cousin 
Farmer leave his house, while up in his pulpit he turns 

8" S. VI. ATO. 11, '84.] 



the austere and unsympathising denouncer of affliction 
upon the whole class." 

Then follows a sort of explanatory dictionary thus : 

Tuyf was the term for the high cylindrical rimless 

black professional cap worn by the priest in all outdoor 

functions, auch as burial, host carrying, &c." 

(8 th S. v. 469). The Preliminary Address to the 
Pennsylvania almanac, entitled * Poor Richard's 
Almanac, for the Year 1758,' signed Richard 
Saunders, was written by Benjamin Franklin. 

In 1732, Franklin began to publish Poor Richard's 

And in a preface to a second edition of the book Almanack. 'This was remarkable for the numerous and 
Mr. Ker speaks plainly with regard to adverse valuable concise maxims which it contained, all tending 
criticisms in the Times and Aihenawm. The other *" "~ u ""* *~ s " l -*~ ~ i **- ^ -^ *- 
thirty-five nursery rhymes are all treated in the 
same way converted into Low Dutch and trans- 

to exhort to industry and frugality. It was continued for 
many years. In the almanack for the last year, all the 
maxims were collected in an address to the reader, 
entitled ' The Way to Wealth.' This has been translated 

Jated, as is this one of Taffy ; and curious they are. into various languages, and inserted in different publica 

In the Midland Counties there used to be two 
extra lines added to this rhyme about Taffy but 
ioasmuch as Mr. Ker does not quote them, I need 
not. W. POLLARD. 


I thought it was a well-recognized fact that 
Taffy is simply a base form of David, the patron 
saint of Wales. The Welsh habitually sound d as 
t, just as Highlanders say "Tonal" for Donald. 


tions. It has also been printed in a large sheet, and may 
be seen framed in many houses in the city. This address 

appeared The demand for this almanack 

was so great that ten thousand have been sold in one 
year," &c. Dr. Stuber's ' Life of Franklin.' 


Richard Saunders is the name assumed by Ben- 
jamin Franklin in the series of Pennsylvania 
almanacs which he issued under the title ' Poor 
Richard' from 1732 to 1758. The last almanac 
was prefaced by an "Address to the Reader," 
entitled 'The Way to Wealth,' and signed 
" Richard Saunders." This piece contained nearly 

AD LIBRAM'S memory plays him false. The 

theft of the marrowbone was Taffy's second pre 

datory exploit, not that of the supposed English- all the maxims collected from the previous issues of 

man, by whom it was speedily avenged, using the the almanac, as I have already informed MR. 

stolen bone as his weapon. The second and third WALLACE in my reply to another of his queries 

(8"> S. v. 496). The date 1577 is, of course, a mis- 
print: 1732+25 = 1757, the correct date. On 
July 7 of that year, however, Franklin was on his 
way to England. The lines quoted by your corre- 
spondent are not in ' The Way to Wealth 'which 
is presumably what he describes as "an address 
' On (Economy and Frugality ' " as printed in 
the edition of Franklin's ' Complete Works ' which 
I have consulted, and which I cite in my other 
note. F. ADAMS. 

80, Saltoun Road, Brixton, S.W. 

stanzas of the nursery rhyme surely run thus : 

I went to Taffy's house, 
Taffy wasn't at home ; 
Taffy came to my house 
And stole a marrowbone. 
I went to Taffy's house, 
Taffy was in bed ; 
I took the marrowbone 
And broke Taffy's head. 


REGENT STREET (8 th S. vi. 68). This song was 
published in 'Duncombe's Social Songster.' I 

remember the song many years ago. 
verses ran thus : 

le of the 

Old gentlemen who still are gay 

Go toddling thither every day ; 

Invigorated by the air 

They plume their crests and quiz the fair. 

" Ah, ah, my charmer, is that you ? " 

' O, go along, you old fool, do ! " 

" Not old, my dear ; be more discreet, 

I 'm always young in Regent Street ! " 

Duncombe kept a book-shop in Middle Row, 

Holborn (now pulled down). Every evening he 

held a sale by auction of books. At the door 

stood a poor half-witted man, with a most miser- 

In both the copies of the l Pleasing Instructor ' 
which I have, the ' Address on Frugality and Eco- 
nomy ' has the date of July 7, 1757, and is stated 
to form the preface to the Pennsylvanian almanac 
for 1758, with the signature of Richard Saunders. 
The authorship is settled by its being among 
Franklin's ' Essays,' as at p. 100, London, 1850. 
' Poor Richard's Almanac ' was another name for 
the Pennsylvanian almanac. 


FOLK-LORE : BANAGHER SAND (8 th S. v. 486). 
I extract the following from my portly volume 
folk-lore and words and sayings of Ulster, des- 

able countenance and voice, inviting the people in tined, I trust, to be one day printed : 

to buy, crying "Step in ; sale about to com- "There is another place of cure at the basin of a 

mence." The house and the master and man are P rett 7 waterfall on a tributary of the Owenrigh river, in 

all gone, and nothing left to recall the past per- ? he ?, a f t g r b . er G1 ?> n8 ' about four miles from Dungiven It 

ham nnthinry vAi-f k P 1S called Lig na Peasta ' (the stone or burial-place of the 

nng worth remembering. beast) from g the following legend : A dragon or serpent 

WILLIAM TEGG. was devastating the country round. St. O'Heany 

13, Doughty Street, W.C. | (twelfth century) who was the builder of the old church 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* a. vi. AUG. n, 94. 

of Banagher (co. Derry), and whose tomb is still standing 
in that churchyard, cast the dragon into Lig na Peasta, 
and gave him the third of the fish that swim in the 
river for his food, and laid upon him a third of the 
diseases of all that should bathe in the waters. A bush 
near the fall is often decorated with rags, proving that 
some still believe in its efficacy. Near the bottom of 
the saint's tomb the celebrated Banagher sand is got. 
It must be lifted by an O'Heaney, one of the line 
descended from St. Murrough O'Heaney. A grain 
thrown over a horse in a race will make him win ; or 
carried and sprinkled by a young lover will incline the 
fair one favourably. So also sprinkled on an adversary 
in a law suit, it will spoil his evidence and gain a verdict. 
It is also carried in a small bag by seafaring folk, and 
saves them from drowning. A man made a ring of 
Banagher sand, and placed inside it one of those accursed 
insects, a diaoul (alias noncrook, devil's coach-horse, 
dardeil), it travelled seven times round the inside of the 
ring and then died." 

Most of the above was obtained from my friend 
the late Canon Ross, of Dungiven. 


S. v. 366). MR. WALLER writes : 

" The employment of an ourang-outang in the com- 
mittal of these murders baa always seemed to me one 
of the most original ideas in fiction with which I am 

Does not Sir W. Scott, in 'Count Robert of 
Paris/ introduce a baboon in a prison at Con- 
stantinople to do something of the sort ? I have 
not the book by me to give reference to the 
chapter where it occurs. 


TSAR (8 th S. v. 85, 232). Evelyn spells this 
word Zarr : 

" Aug. 28, 1667. He [i. ., the Russian Envoy] de- 
liver^ his speech in the Russe language aloud, but 

without the least action or motion of his body Half of 

it consisted in repetition of the Zarr's titles, which were 
very haughty and oriental, the substance of the rest was 
that he was only sent to see the King and Queene, and 
how they did, with much compliment and frothy lan- 


FRESHER = FRESHMAN (8 th S. v. 447). I have 
always thought that fresher was due to Harrow in- 
fluence at the universities. The school slang is 
rich in words ending in -er, and the boys rather 
pride themselves on the fact. Fooler is football, 
noter a note-book, sicker a sick-room, ducker the 
bathing-place, speedier the speech-room and the 
public prize -giving which is accompanied by 
recitations. ST. SWITHIN. 

MR. OWEN asks for some of the words to which 
the termination -er is applied by undergraduates a 
Oxford. They are innumerable. Any word can 
be thus mutilated. Soccer stands for Association 
football ; rugger for the Rugby game ; togger for 
the torpid boat-races ; footer for the game of foot 
ball in general ; Quagger I have heard applied 

Queen's College ; Ugger to the Union Society ; 
Vagger to a literary club in Magdalen named after 
hat eminent man Waynflete ; and I have heard 
he phrase ''deceased wife's sister" abbreviated 
nto Deaser. Doubtless the usage is slovenly, and 
t is certainly not graceful. But why MR. OWEN 
hould call it " intolerably mean " is more than I, 
n common with most Oxford undergraduates, can 
nderstand. D. L. 

GERMAN BANDS (8 th S. vi. 28). In all parts of 
he West Riding of Yorkshire I have found in- 
tances of the belief that rain will quickly follow 

after a German band has been in the district. la 
ome places rain is looked for the same day. 

I should like to suggest to older contributors 
hat, instead of merely giving references to early 

numbers of N. & Q.,' they should, in the interests 
f younger subscribers and students, give brief 
Answers to the questions asked. Few young 
tudents have the opportunity of referring to a 

complete set of ' N. & Q. ,' and it is simply giving 
L stone in place of bread to state where informa- 
ion may be found when it is impossible to refer 

to the source indicated. Even in this city, with 
ts admirable free reference library, I have ex- 
perienced occasional difficulty when I wanted to 
ook through early volumes of ' N. & Q.' I have 

noticed a greater tendency than usual, during the 
last few months, to give references instead of 

actual information. ALFONZO GARDINER. 


The superstition that the advent of a German 
band is a forerunner of rain evidently extends to 
North- West Essex, as an old servant of ours, a 
native of that part of the county, on one occasion, 
when I was particularly anxious that the day 
should be fine, told me she was sure it would rain 
as she had heard a German band. The rain came, 
but I do not imagine the band was responsible. 

Belle Vue, Bengeo. 

EASTER SEPULCHRES (8 th S. vi. 27). In Stanton 
Harcourt Church, in the chancel on the north side of 
the altar, is a small monument, about four feet long 
by two wide, with the emblems of the Crucifixion, 
as well as family coats of arms, with a tall and rich 
Decorated canopy over it, which is supposed to 
have been used for the Easter sepulchre. It is 
stated in the Gentleman's Magazine (1841) that 
there are other examples in Germany of the same 
form (J. H. Parker's ' Deanery Guide '). I am 
not able to say whether the canopy is of wood or 
of stone. ED. MARSHALL. 

The movable Easter sepulchre formerly belong- 
ing to the church at Kilsby, Northamptonshire, is 
fully described in ' The Principles of Gothic Eccle- 
siastical Architecture,' by Matthew Holbeche 
Bloxam (ii. 116-119, eleventh edition, 1882), a 

8 th S. VI. AUG. 11, '94.] 



copy of which may be seen in the Library of th 
Corporation of the City of London, Guildhall. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

So far as I know there is not a single example o 
an English Easter sepulchre made of wood i 
existence. I have made inquiries in the hope tha 
one, at least, might have come down to our time 
but have never received a satisfactory answer to th 
questions I have asked. There is a very valuabl 
paper on Easter sepulchres, by Major Alfred Heales 
in the forty- second volume of the Archceologia 
Mention of Easter sepulchres made of wood occur 
in my * English Church Furniture,' pp. 34, 39, 44 
50, 60, 65, 67, 73, 99, 108, 120, 143, 152, 167. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

The desired information will be found full 
treated in Bloxam's ' Principles of Gothic Archi 
tecture,' 1882, vol. ii. pp. 98-124. After statin 
that some of the best examples of sepulchral arche 
or receptacles for the movable wooden structure 
are to be found at Cubbington and Long Itching 
ton, Warwickshire ; Garthorpe, Leicestershire 
Hawton and St. Peter Sibthorp, Notts ; Hecking 
ton, Navenby, and Lincoln Minster, Lincolnshire 
Patrington, Yorks ; Northwold, Norfolk ; am 
Holcome Burnell, Devon Bloxam says : 

" What appears to have been the movable Easte 
sepulchre formerly belonging, I think, to Kilsby 

Church, Northamptonshire consists of a wooden 

coffer, 3ft. 9 in. in length, 1ft. Sin. in width, and 
1ft. 9 in. in height, exclusive of modern supports. The 
cover is comparatively modern. The back, which was 
placed against the north wall of the chancel, is plain, 
but the ends and front have five square panels carved ir 
relief, one at each end and three in front. Each panel 
is about 13 in. by 11 in. These panels have each a group 
of figures." 

Commencing with the east end, (1) our Lord before 
Pilate ; (2) our Saviour in the garden after the 
resurrection appearing to Mary Magdalene ; (3) 
the resurrection ; (4) partly destroyed, appears to 
represent the deposition from the cross (ladder, 
hammer, and pincers, and probably the Blessed 
Virgin and St. John) ; (5) our Lord bearing the 
cross. "This," adds Bloxam, "is the only 
movable Easter sepulchre of wood (for such I 
believe it to be) I have met with." From the 
hood Pilate wears the author quoted would attri- 
bute the coffer to the reign of Kichard II. or the 
last twenty years of the fourteenth century. No 
sepulchral arches appear to be of earlier date than 
the thirteenth century. 


Books and authorities on this subject are cata- 
logued at 8 th S. i. 310. W. C. B. 

PARENTS OF BALDWIN (8 th S. v. 229, 411 ; vi. 
14). Baldwin II. I now admit to have been a son 
of Hugh, Count of Bethel, but not in deference to 

'L'Art de Verifier les Dates,' great as is the 
authority of that work. Sigebert Gemblacenses, 
or rather the continuation of his chronicle by 
Robert de Monte, savs, sub 1118, "tertius regnat 
[i. e., in Jerusalem] Balduinus filius Hugonis 
Comitis de Reitesta." Baldwin de Berg (or Bourg) 
did marry a lady of the name of Ida, as Sigebert 
himself says, under 1084, " comes Montensis 
Balduinus uxorem ducit Idam." Why Ida has 
been taken to be a daughter of Count Eustace 
with the Whiskers I know not. She is not men- 
tioned by Ordericus Vitalis. Perhaps the name of 
Ida being also the name of Eustace's wife suggested 
the relationship. I thank C. H. for calling atten- 
tion to what clearly seems an error. 
Aston Clinton. 

T. W. 

LADY DANLOVE (8 th S. v. 88 ; vi. 57). The 
will of "Dame Jacoba Vanloore, widow, late wife 
of Sir Peter Vanloore, late of London, knight, 
deceased," was dated Sept. 6, 11 Car., anno 1635, 
and proved in the P.C.C. by Thomas Crompton, 
of Westminster, gentleman, the sole executor, 
April 27, 1636. 

Amongst other legacies, she bequeathes, 
" to the poor of the city of Westminster 101. ; to the poor 
of the parish of Fulham 10Z. ; to the poor of the parish 
of Cheleey 10J. ; to each of my grandchildren, being 
children of my late daughter Katherine, late wife of Sir 
Thomas Glembam, Kt., and of my daughter Elizabeth, 
late wife of John Vandeubemden, 500J. apiece; to my 
son-in-law Sir Edward Powell, Kt. and Bart., one of 
H.M. Masters of the Court of Requests, 5001.; to my 
executor, in trust for my daughter, dame Mary Powell, 
now wife of Sir Edward Powell, Kt. and Bart., her 
executors and assigns, all my late husband's adventures 
in the East and West Indian Companies ; to my son-in- 
law Sir Thomas Glemham, Kt. 1001. for a ring in 
memory of me. Whereas I have been much vexed and 
iroubled with suits by my son Sir Peter Vanloore (Bart.), 
md he has been disobedient and undutiful to me, and I 
aave been put to expense and questioned by my son-in- 
aw Sir Charles Caesar, Kt., I have therefore given 
nothing to them or their children by this my will." 
Register Pile 42. 


I would beg to suggest to MR. FERET that there 
s, after, all a particle of doubt, and that the true 
name is not " Vanlore," as given in the Fulham 
ate book, 1628-36, nor " Wanlore," as in the 
Chelsea register of burials, 1636, but really "Van 
joor," which is unmistakably the way her husband 
igned a deed on April 28, 1618, jointly with Sir 
Saptiste Hicks (afterwards Viscount Campden). 
"'he deed is bound up in a grangerized Faulkner's 
Kensington,' otherwise I would with pleasure 
end it for MR. FIRST'S inspection. 


MAID RIDIBONE (8 th S. vi. 47). The legend of 

ancta Puella Ridibone, believed to be Redbourne, 

Herts, is given by Walsingham (edit. 1603, Frank- 



[8 th S. VI. AUG. 11, '94. 

fort, p. 164). It is said that in the year 1344, 
a damsel falling into a millstream, passed under 
the wheel, and was taken out lifeless ; yet having 
none of her bones broken, she was restored to life 
through the instrumentality of St. Alban, invoked 
by her parents. At Redbourne was a Benedictine 
cell to St. Alban's Abbey, and the priory church 
was richly furnished with relics. Matthew Paris 
(edit. Wats, p. 135) says that the relics of St. 
Amphibalus, St. Alban's instructor, were found 
there in 1178, and several miracles were wrought 
before the relics were translated to St. Albans. 
A girl of fifteen years of age, who had been a 
cripple from her birth, was at once restored to 
health and activity (see * Norfolk Archaeology/ ii. 
290). The later puella seems to have been raised 
to the dignity of a local saint, and her figure is 
represented on the screen at Gateley, Norfolk. 

325). The following is a cutting from the Daily 
Telegraph of July 21 : 

" The Lady Mayoress of Manchester is shortly to be 
presented with an official collar and badge, the gift of 
Sir William Cunliffe Brooks, Bart. It is an example of 
British art-goldsmith work of the Tudor style, and is 
made of the finest wrought gold. The design consists of 
ten Lancaster roses, hammered in three tiers, enamelled 
in ruby translucent red, alternating with ten miniature 
cotton bales, enamelled white. These emblems are 
united by links on the pattern of those found in an 
ancient cairn known as the ' Lucky Links of Glen Tana,' 
and are also identical with those of a Runic chain pre- 
served in the museum at Copenhagen. The badge shows 
the armorial bearings of the city of Manchester. The 
shield, its supporters, crest, and motto (Concilio et 
Lahore), chased in pure gold, are in their heraldic 
colours. This official collar was made by Messrs. 
Phillipp, art-goldsmiths, Cockspur Street, who claim that 
the work may favourably compare with the finest speci- 
mens of pure gold enamel of the sixteenth century. The 
only other official collar for a Lady Mayoress is that of 
the Lady Mayoress of York." 


"NIVELING" (8 th S. v. 248, 395, 437, 493 ; vi. 
15, 51). It is difficult to continue this discussion, 
as I surely do not want "to find all the fault 
possible." Far from it ; I merely thought it hard 
that my book should be condemned without 

The new charge against me is that my work is 
learned and exhaustive. I fear there are errors, 
and that many things are missed. I merely ex- 
plained what I could make out, and this is resented 
as spoiling guess-work. That is no reason why I 
should not try to do my best. 

There are several editions of my ' Piers Plow- 
man.' The " exhaustive " edition is that published 
for the English Text Society. The Oxford edition, 
in parallel columns, is much reduced, in the inter- 
est of the general reader, and is now being offered 
at a guinea. Lastly, there is the edition of about 

one-third of the poem, published at a few shillings, 
and well known to students. It has gone through 
six editions, and is the one in which " snivelling" 
is misprinted with one I. I hope they are not all 
alike to be condemned as " learned" merely 
because they are fairly accurate. 

The passage quoted proves very little. The 
words ''his nekke hanging " have nothing to do 
with " nevelynge." So little is there any con- 
nexion, that in the later version (C-text) of the 
poem the line runs, " With a nyuylyng nose, 
nyppyng bus [his] lyppes." See my parallel-text 

I am asked for the root of the word which means 
downwards.* It is duly given in Stratrnann's 
* Dictionary,' p. 452, which should have been con- 
sulted. It is allied to the A.-S. neowol, nywol, 
niwol, prone, prostrate, low. It is hard to have to 
look out words for others, and I do not know why 
this should be expected for English any more than 
for Latin. If a man does not know the meaning 
of a Latin word, he is expected to look it out for 
himself. As E. E. prefers passages from old 
authors, the same book will provide them. I copy 
these : Layamon, 16777 (later text) ; Trevisa, 
ii. 203 ; 0. Eng. Homilies, i. 225, 233. 

As to sneeze, it is all in my ' Dictionary.' The 
Greek TTVCW is to blow ; the cognate A. -S. fneosan 
is to sneeze, also to snort or puff, as in fncest, a 
puff, blast. Hence Mid. Eng. fneosen or /nesen, 
to snort or sneeze ; cf. Du. fniezen t Dan. fnyse, 
Swed. fnysa. Owing to the difficulty of pronoun- 
cing fn, some people dropped the /, and others 
turned it into s ; so that fneeze, neeze, and sneeze are 
all one word, with the various senses of snort, puff, 
and sneeze. If " passages" are desired, see the 
'Tale of Beryn,' 42; Chaucer, 'Cant. Tales/ 
Mane. Prol. H 62 (in my small edition) ; Wyclif, 
Job. xli. 9. 

I hope E. E. will think none the worse of me if 
I say that I highly commend his plan of reading 
authors for oneself, and getting information at 
first hand. This is where we are quite at one, 
and I hope he will forgive all rhetorical expressions. 

VISITING CARDS (8 th S. vi. 67). Visiting cards 
were in use at the date of 'St. Eonan's Well,' 
put somewhat indefinitely as the time when " the 
Peninsular War was at its height." But they were 
not then called "cards." Lady Penfeather sends 
the earl "a card for her blow-out"; but when 
Captain Jekyl, of the Guards, introduces himself 
he presents " his ticket." W. F. WALLER, 

Disused playing cards appear to have been 
utilized as visiting and also as cards of invitation 
during the last century. In Hogarth's ' Marriage 
a la Mode,' plate iv., painted in 1745, there are 

* I doubt if the u means v in this word. We find 
nuel, neuelinge, nyuelinge ; the u may be vocalic. 

. vi. A, n, '94.] 



several lying on the floor. On one of them is in- 
scribed, "Count Basset begs to no how Lade 
Squander sleapt last nite." ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. i. 
267, gives two instances of their use in 1799 and 
1800, in one of which the visitors are said to have 
"only dropped tickets." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I have among my autograph collections a 
quantity of the cards used by titled personages. 
They are almost all addressed to George Selwyn, 
in Chesterfield Street. Many of them are written 
on the backs of cards which have been used and 
handled at gaming clubs or at private houses ; and 
they would seem to have served the same purpose as 
the cards on which ladies to-day enclose short com- 
munications. A few of them have the names of 
the senders printed or engraved. These would 
range mostly between 1770 and 1780, and seem to 
solve MR. MARCUS BRAND'S question approximately 
at least. E. WALFORD. 


GRIFFITH = GEOFFREY (8 th S. v. 507). Accord- 
ing to Miss Yonge, Griffith or Griffin is the 
Welsh equivalent for Rufus, red, and is entirely 
distinct from Geoffrey or Godfry. 

Eden Bridge. 

DELIA BACON (8 th S. vi. 47, 74). The alleged 
biography of this unfortunate lady is a mere rhap- 
sody ; indeed, it is very difficult to write seriously 
about Delia's delusions. The Bacon craze does 
not belong to the study or illustration of Shakspere 
as an author, but to the criticism of his com- 
mentators. The attempt to show that Francis 
Bacon personated William Shakspere is one of 
those mysticisms that arise from spiritualistic in- 
fluences ; the thing is physically impossible. There 
are some similarities in idea and diction, which 
may be rationally explained by the assumption 
that Shakspere saw some of the ' Essays ' in manu- 
script before publication and assimilated it. Miss 
Bacon was probably influenced by the similarity 
of her family name to do a something to identify 
her personality with his lordship. Her prolusions 
appeared first in Putnam's Magazine for January, 
1856 ; Mr. W. H. Smith lectured thereon in Lon- 
don a few weeks later, and contests priority. The 
lady died under restraint in 1859, owing to dis- 
appointment in a love affair. A. HALL. 

AN EARLY POSTAL COVER (8 th S. vi. 9). The 
postal cover given in the pamphlet published by 
Sir Rowland Hill in 1837 must have been an 
illustration or specimen of one proposed for general 
use when the Act of Parliament (which was sub- 
sequently passed in 1839) came into operation. 

The penny post commenced on Jan. 10, 1840, 
with the uniform rate of one penny per letter of 

half an ounce weight, but one penny per ounce was 
not in force till April, 1865. 

The Mulready covers, which were the first issued, 
were on paper manufactured by Mr. Dickinson, with 
three red silken cords stretched through its sub- 
stance above the design, and two in blue at the 
lower part of the sheet, which measured nine 
inches by seven. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

The cover mentioned by MR. JAMES B. MORRIS 
was a mere " essay," and never in use. It is un- 
common. MR. MORRIS will find some account of 
it, and other postal proposals of the 1837-40 
period, in London and Westminster Review, 1840, 
p. 504; Magasin Pittoresque, 1863, pp. 119, 
151, 199 ; Stamp Collector's Magazine, 1863, 
pp. 37, 52, 56 ; 1868, p. 130 ; ' Catalogue of Post- 
age Stamps,' by Mount Brown, fifth edition, 1864 ; 
' Catalogue of Postage Stamps/ by J. E. Gray, 
fourth edition, 1866; * Postage and Telegraph 
Stamps of Great Britain,' by F. A. Philbrick and 
W. A. S. Westoby, 1881. P. J. ANDERSON. 

Aberdeen Univoraity. 

REV. EDWARD WOODCOCK, LL.D. (8 th S. vi. 28). 
Edward Woodcock, of Corpus Christi College, 
admitted M. A. at Cambridge per Literas Eegias in 
1762, proceeded to the degree of LL.D. in that 
university in 1771. He was instituted to the 
vicarage of Watford, co. Hertford, July 30, 1762, 
on the presentation of William, Earl of Essex. 
His death is thus recorded in Gent. Mag., June, 
1792, vol. Ixii. pt. i. p. 580 : 

"June 6. At Kelston, near Bath, the Kev. Dr. Wood- 
cock, vicar of Watford, Herts, and rector of the united 
parishes of St. Michael, Wood-street and St. Mary 
Steyning, in the city of London." 


PIN (8 th S. vi. 7, 76). Two correspondents 
have strangely misunderstood my very plain query. 
I stated that a pin represented four gallons and a 
half of ale ; but I wished to know why the name 
pin was given to that measure. This I still wish 
to know. J. DIXON. 

" SYNALL " (8 th S. v. 347; vi. 17). I am obliged 
to MR. ADAMS for his reply to my inquiry, but, as 
I have in a private letter informed him, there is no 
doubt as regards the correctness of the decipher- 
ment of the word synall. The manuscript volumes 
in which it is to be found are for the most part in 
very legible handwriting, and when at Madras 
I satisfied myself that there was no possibility of 
a misreading. The word cannot be traced in any 
South Indian language, or in any Arabic, Persian, 
or Hindustani lexicon. It does not appear to be 
of Dutch or Portuguese origin. 



CREOLE (8 S. iv. 488, 535; v. 135, 178, 277). 
In Mauritius which, though it has been a British 



colony for nearly a century, is still practically a 
French place " Creole " is never used in con- 
nexion with colour. It means simply " born in 
the colony," and is applied equally to the children 
of European parents and to those of Indian im- 
migrants ; also to dogs, horses, and cattle bred in 
the island. J. D. C. 

EXITS = EXIT (8 th S. v. 248, 478). I do not 
think that MR. CHAS. JAS. FERET has quite 
understood the point of my objection to the use of 
txits. I fail to perceive any earthly reason why 
the long-continued stage directions exit and exeunt 
should be supplanted by a modern verb to exit, 
which your correspondent says is a recognized 
English word. If it is so, I for one have not met 
with it. But even if it is, exit and exeunt are 
quite sufficiently understandable for stage pur- 
poses, and it is mere affectation to alter them. 


SHERIDAN'S 'RIVALS' (8 th S. vi. 87). Mr. 
Cox, a great and ingenious mechanician, watch- 
maker, and jeweller, resided at 103, Shoe Lane, 
Fleet Street. His collection of mechanical curi- 
osities, consisting of fifty-six pieces, and valued at 
197,500Z., was exhibited in 1773 and 1774 in 
Spring Gardens. 

The catalogue was entitled 'A Descriptive 
Inventory of the several exquisite and magnificent 
Pieces of Mechanism and Jewellery, comprised in 
the Schedule annexed to an Act of Parliament, 
made in the 13th George III., for enabling Mr. 
James Cox, of the City of London, Jeweller, to 
dispose of his Museum by way of Lottery,' London, 
1774. The lottery commenced at Guildhall, May 1, 

A good deal of interesting matter connected 
with Cox's Museum will be found in ' N. & Q./ 
2 nd S. iv. 32, 75 ; ix. 367 ; 3 rd S. v. 305 ; vi. 46 ; 
ix. 91 ; 4" 1 S. i. 271 ; 5 th S. iv. 46, 92 ; also in 
the Gentleman's Magazine and 'Annual Register* 
for 1771, and Wood's ' Curiosities of Clocks and 
Watches,' 150-155. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

" As DRUNK AS DAVID'S sow " (8 th S. vi. 88). 
Since sending my query I have obtained the in- 
formation I require on the subject. It is not new 
to the pages of ' N. & Q.,' I find ; but at the time 
of writing I was not able to consult the back 
volumes. PAUL BIERLEY. 

knowledge, but there can be little doubt that the 
place was that Pyperden described in the Berwick- 
shire Retours, Nos. 236 and 402, amongst the 
demesne lands of Auldcambus, an ancient parish 
now absorbed by Cockburnspath. 


GOLF (8 th S. iv. 87, 178, 272, 297, 338, 378, 415, 
512; v. 256, 313). May I send a belated note on 
this? In Act III. of Shadwell's 'Royal Shep- 
herdess ' a " shepherd's song " begins : 
Thus all our Life long we are frolick and gay, 
And, instead of Court-Bevels, we merrily play 
At Trap, and at Keels, and at Barlibreakrun, 
At Goff, and at Stool-ball, and when we have done 
Chorus These Innocent Sports, \ve laugh, and lie down,. 
And to each pretty Lass we give a green gown. 

Bailey also has " Go/, a sort of play at ball." 
The date of the 'Royal Shepherdess' is 1669, and 
the edition of Bailey which I quote is dated 1728. 
From this it would seem that the form golf is com- 
paratively modern. Wright, in his ' Provincial 
Dictionary' (Bohn, 1857), says that golf is an old 
game with a ball and club, very fashionable at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. Webster 
gives the pronunciation gSlf t and says the word is 
derived from the Danish kolf, a club or bat. Is 
this etymology correct ? JAMES HOOPER. 


" DEMI-PIQUE " (8 th S. v. 447). There is another 
reference to this kind of saddle, which seems to 
have been adapted to chargers, in ' The Antiquary.' 
It is said of Sir Anthony Wardour, the father of 
Sir Arthur, in the outbreak of 1745 : 

He talked much, indeed, of taking the field for the 
rights of Scotland and Charles Stuart ; but his demi-pique 
would suit only one of his horses, and that horse could by 
no means be brought to stand fire." Chap. v. 

I should say that a visit to the Tower of London, 
and an inspection of the caparisons of the figures 
in armour there, would throw some light upon the 
point queried. No doubt in many private collec- 
tions such saddles may be seen. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

It is nearly 217 years since a Duchess of York 
gave birth to a son. On Wednesday, November 7, 
1677, the Princess Mary Beatrice d'Este, wife of 
James, Duke of York (afterwards James IT.), and 
sister-in-law to King Charles II., was safely de- 
livered of a prince at St. James's Palace, who was 
baptized the day following by the name of Charles, 
the king himself being godfather. Although both 

PIPERDAN (8 th S. vi. 89). The site of this 
battle, fought September 10, 1436, was, I believe, 
in the north of Berwickshire, within the bounds of 

the present parish of Cockburnspath. It is styled 1 the parents of the royal infant were members of the 
by the earliest Scots authority the " conflictus de Roman Catholic Church, he was baptized with all 
Piperden n (Bower's ' Scotichronicon,' xvi. 25). the rites and ceremonies prescribed by the Book of 
The ' Extracta ex Cronicis,' p. 235, refers to it as Common Prayer, Dr. Crew, Bishop of Durham, 
"Bello Piperdene." I regret I have no local I performing the ceremony. The nation rejoiced in 

8> 8. VI, AUG. 11, '94.] 



V,i* hirth as thev saw in him a probable successor of Halm's 'Gnseldis ; and although we cannot rank 

his birth, as t p npoa f ftr ft f Halui's drama very highly, we must commend the edi- 

to the throne who might prove the ancestor ot a ^^ ]abourg of he & pr fe880r) who gives ua a lucid> 

long line of Protestant Stuarts. He died, how- Bcho | ar ] y introduction and very valuable notes. The 

ever on Wednesday, December 12 following, pi av itself is elegant and mellifluous, and is, therefore, 

havine lived exactly five weeks, and was buried well suited for Dr. Buchheim's special purpose, since it 
i .,if of WAotminatftr thft Hav after- U 8 i" essence a Lesedrama. Halm has departed from the 

in the royal vault at Westminster the day alter . old QrUelda 1 d f Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Chaucer, 

wards. He was styled Duke of Cambridge, whi i &nd h&8 made f he eyil conducfc Q f the husb ' and the resul 

title had been borne by three elder brothers who of ft wager with Arthur's Queen Ginevra. Halm's Per- 

predeceased him ; but no patent of creation ever c i va l is no improvement upon the old Gualtiero, and the 

H. MURRAY LANE, Chester Herald. 

1 th S. vi. 66). Perhaps 

names of his dramatis personce comprise a singular 
mixture and jumble of Knights of the Round Table, of 
Kenneth of Scotland, of Cedric, of Ronald, of Allan and 
Athelstan, of Oriane, and the drama plays chiefly in 


ent's cutting from the Standard of May 17 
another from the same paper of May 21 : 
Sir, The Standard of Wednesday last contained 

Georgian Folk-Tales. Translated by Marjory Wardrop. 

, THE " G rimm Library" starts well with this volume, 

paragraph professing to give an account of the raffling &nd we cordially W i 8n it all success. Charmingly printed 

for Bibles in the church of this parish. As a consider- &nd bound ifc - g ft de i ightful collection of tales. We 

able number of people have written to me after s< emg haye read them through . and though they are the old, 

this in your columns, I shall be glad if you will allow m2 ol(J favourite8j in the ir Georgian, Mingrelian, or Guriari 

The Vicarage, St. Ives, Hunts, May 19. 

Comberford, Teignmouth. 

add one more point to the questions which have been 
asked so many times in vain, whence they come and 
what is their value for historical purposes. Some fea- 
tures are specially interesting. The pregnancy of a 
woman by eating an apple, the winning of a bride by 
shooting an arrow, the marriage by substitute incident 
in which the proxy husband places a sword between 
himself and his friend's wife, and other incidents of 
importance, occur in these tales in somewhat different 
order and significance to the more general cases. The 
story of Ghothisavari seems to be just starting on its way 
towards epic form, and it would be interesting if Miss 
Wardrop could find out if it is arrested at its present 
stage or if it is still in growth. We have not been able 
to test the translations, but the language is singularly 
frank and simple, and therefore well suited for its pur- 
pose. As this is the first English collection from Georgia 
it is all the more welcome. 

The Annual Register for 1893. New Series. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

IN saying that the ' Annual Register ' is indispensable, all 
that is necessary is said. So soon as it appears the 
labours of the editor and journalist are diminished, and 
the volume, with a sigh of thankfulness and relief, is 
placed within immediate reach. Each part of it is 
admirably done. Unlike more ambitious undertakings, 
also, the information supplied is wholly trustworthy a 
record of fact, not a work of fiction. The obituary alone 
renders the student yeoman's service, and the splendid 
index brings within easiest reach the stores of informa- 
tion which the book contains. If a journalist or a poli- 
The book-lover and the connoisseur will look at no other tician is to have but one book, that book must be the 

Count Robert of Paris and The Surgeon's Daughter. By 

Sir Walter Scott, Bart. Edited by Andrew Lang. 


THE penultimate portion of Mr. Nimmo's noble reprint of 
the " Waverley Novels" has now appeared, and next 
month will see the entire work in the hands of the public. 
Not all Mr. Lang's admiration for Scott can blind him to 
the fact that neither of the works now reprinted is worthy 
of the Wizard's reputation. Not all the luxury of type 
and the excellence of the illustrations can tempt us to 
reread ' The Surgeon's Daughter,' which alone among 
Scott's works has been perused by us but once. Scenes 
and passages in 'Count Robert of Paris' dwell in the 
memory ; but the whole is dull and uninteresting. Had 
it been duller than it is, it would have had to be included 
in the series. Few of the novels have been better illus- 
trated. ' The Rescue of Bertha by Hereward,' which is 
the frontispiece to the first volume, is a delightfully 
spirited design, and the following pictures are not less 
admirable. We have noted the appearance of each 
succeeding volume, and now that all but the entire 
series is before us we find no words of eulogy excessive. 


Clarendon Press Series : German Classics. Edited, with 
English Notes, by C. A. Buchheim. Halm's Griseldis. 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

1871) was, under the nom de plume of Friedrich Halm, a 
prolific and popular German dramatist, best known in this 
country as author of the play which we call 'Ingomar.' 
Prof. Buchheim, who has rendered so many services to 
English students of German, has just issued an edition 

Annual Register.' 

MR. RUNOIMAN'S article on ' Musical Criticism and the 
Critics,' in the Fortnightly, is readable and impertinent. 
As an avowal of its author's opinions with regard to his 
predecessors and contemporaries it causes some amuse- 
ment. Mr. Runciman is in favour of the new criticism, 
a chief function in which appears to consist of the 
arraignment of critics rather than musicians. For the 
general public the whole matter has no special interest. 
A much more important contribution is an essay on 



'Hamlet and Don Quixote,' translated from Ivan Tour- 
genieff. It furnishes curious proof how representative is 
the character of Hamlet that men are induced to compare 
or contrast it with nearly everything. Miss Barney gives 
& not very pleasing picture of ' The American Sports- 
woman.' Dealing with the question of * Where to Spend a 
Holiday,' Lady Jeune recommends Berks, Mr. Arthur 
Symons the Quartier Latin, Paris, and the Rev. J. 
Verschoyle, Achill and Erris. We have not the slightest 
objection, but would also suggest Tenby, Moscow, the 
North Cape, and Brook Green. * A Visit to Corea ' has 
more than temporary interest. Mr. Cobden-Sanderson 
writes on ' Bookbinding,' a subject on which he is entitled 
to speak. An excellent number of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury has a remarkable variety of contents. * Behind the 
Scenes of Nature,' by Mr. Sinnett, which deals with the 
astral plain, requires a kind of knowledge to which we put 
in no pretension, and is to us simply unintelligible. It is 
interesting to learn that the coming century will pro- 
bably know all about it. In connexion with this subject 
it is edifying to read the assertion of Mr. Le Gallienne, 
in his ' Death and Two Friends,' that if some one, Mr. 
Edison or other, were to be the Columbus of the Unseen, 
"it would soon be as overrun with gaping tourists as 
Switzerland, and within a year railway [?] companies 
would be advertising ' Bank holidays in Eternity.' " Dr. 
W. H. Russell's ' A Part of a Ghost ' tells a good ghost 
story, for the truth of which the writer may or may not be 
understood to be pledged. ' In the Tarumensian Woods ' 
deals with the Jesuits in Paraguay. Mr. Whibley derides 
what he calls ' The Farce of University Extension.' Dr. 
Hugh Percy Dunn answers encouragingly in the negative 
the question, 'Is our Race Deteriorating?' Mr. W. 
Roberts writes on the prices obtained for some modern 
pictures. Mr. Swinburne translates the recently dis- 
covered Delphic ' Hymn to Apollo.' In his paper on 
' The Present Position of Egyptology,' Prof. Mahaffy 
urges the necessity of a further study of Coptic. To the 
Mew Review Mr. W. S. Lilly sends ' In Praise of Hang- 
ing,' a protest against modern humanitarianism as 
regards criminals. Mr. Hall Caine is disposed to assign 
great importance to ' The Novelist in Shakespeare.' 
His words, first spoken at a Shakspeare birthday dinner, 
are ingenious and fervid, but do not always carry con- 
viction. Mr. Atherley Jones deals at some length on 
'The Grievances of Railway Passengers,' attributable 
principally to the exorbitant pretensions of the railway 
companies. Of two important expeditions to the North 
Pole, Me. Herbert Ward attaches most importance to the 
English. A fourth instalment of 'Secrets from the 
Court of Spain ' is not less stimulating than the previous 
portions. Lord Meath, dealing with ' The Possibilities 
of the Public Parks,' inspires some fear lest certain of 
his views should find acceptance, which would be a mis- 
fortune. Mrs. T. Sparrow gives a terrible picture of ' The 
Women's Doss House.'' Why and How the Great Dic- 
tionary was Made,' in the Century, deals not, as might be 
supposed, with the Oxford ' New Dictionary,' but with 
'The Century Dictionary,' now completed and in the 
hands of the public. This, though interesting, is in part 
an advertisement, and is separated from the general con- 
tents, which begin with ' Washington as a Spectacle,' by 
Mr. F. Marion Crawford. This is well worth reading, 
and is profusely illustrated. Most of the designs are 
excellent, though many are needlessly nebulous. Part iv. 
is given of ' Across Asia on a Bicycle.' ' Walking as a 
Pastime' finds a defender, a thing not too common 
nowadays. Quintin Matsys is dealt with in ' Old Dutch 
Masters. There are good portraits of Poe and of Dr. 
Morton, the alleged inventor of anaesthesia. Scribner's 
gives a pleasant section of ' Newport,' with many delight- 
ful illustrations. Carolus Duran is treated by Mr. P. G. 

Hamerton, an engraving of ' The Poet with the Man- 
dolin ' serving as frontispiece to the number. ' Lowell's 
Letters to Poe ' have permanent interest. M. Octave 
Uzanne expounds his quaint and original views as to 
'The End of Books.' The English Illustrated repro- 
duces a pleasing picture of the Queen at the age of 
three. ' The Apron of Flowers,' after Herrick, is a very 
taking illustration. Mr. Lionel Gust has a capital article 
on Grinling Gibbons. The entire contents are excellent. 
Thomas Hughes comes forward from his solitude to 
speak, in Macmillan's, in favour of hero worship, and to 
tell Rugby boys concerning William Cotton Oswell. In 
beginning an article, to be continued, on ' The Historical 
Novel,' Mr. Saintsbury speaks humorously of Xenophon 
as the author of the first. An account, anonymous, of 
Mr. Secretary Thurloe is given, and there is a paper, 
not, perhaps, very remarkable, on ' The Unconscious 
Humourist.' A very strange and eventful life is that 
described in Temple Bar under the title ' A West-End 
Physician.' The last fight in armour was fought, it 
seems, so late as 1799. An estimate of William Collins 
appears. ' Records of an All-round Man ' supplies much 
pleasant gossip concerning Sir Richard Owen and his 
circle. Dr. McPherson describes, in the Gentleman's, 
1 Cloud, Fog, and Haze.' Mrs. Laura Alex. Smith gives 
some interesting English harvest songs. Lady Verney 
describes, in Longman's, from the Verney MSS., 'A 
Physician of the Seventeenth Century,' who proves to 
be Dr. William Denton. Mr. Lang entertains his readers 
once more ' At the Sign of the Ship.' The general con- 
tents are excellent. Mr. Payn's reminiscences, supplied 
to the Cornhill, remain most pleasant reading. 

PART XI. of Cassell's Gazetteer includes Cheddington 
to Clifton, and has a map of portions of South Wales. 
Part XLII. of the Storehouse of General Information 
carries the alphabet to "Seasons," and includes a bio- 
graphy of Sir Walter Scott. 

THE Journal of the Ex-Libris Society for August repro- 
duces two plates from Mr. Walter Hamilton's work on 
'Dated Book-plates,' gives some designs, plain and 
coloured, by John Forbes Nixon, and an article by Mr. 
William Bolton on ' Early Entries referring to Book 

MR. THAIRLWALL'S useful index to Lord de Tabley's 
' Study of Book-plates ' is issued in a separate form, so as 
to be capable of being bound with the work. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
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or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
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to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

EDWARD PEACOCK (" Wife Selling "). See 7'h S. xii. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
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8 th S. VI. AUG. 18, '94.] 





rnT Wolsev's Hall at the Treasury, 121 The Battle of 
Nafebv 122-8hakspeariana, 123-The Stars and Stripes 
iS-Chronogram- Folk-lore of Shell s- Salmon- Dorset 
Custom-Homer and Thebes 125-Tenny son : Kingsley: 
Dickens-Westbourne Green Manor House" The girl I 
left behind me "-Christian Names-Braying of Asses- 
Horn Fair, Charlton Headache, 126. 

QUERIES Douglas Jerrold-John Owen-Lake Family- 
Place-names- American War of Independence -Thomas 
Carey-Noyade-Miss James, 127-Portraits of Miss Ferner 
Parsons's ' Christian Directory '-Source of Quotation- 
The Basque People-Lines on Bishop Colenso- Warlh- 
barthauch "-Dr. Horneck - Pantheon - Scolan, 128-St. 
Fagan's-Stanhope and Thornhagh - Gold Ring-Roger 

REPLIES : Fulham Pottery and Dwight Family, 129 
Dr Parsons-Lemon Sole. 131-Celliwig-Sunset- Village 
Superstitions-The Derby-Temperature where the Dead 
lie-Oxford M.P.s, 132-Shakspeare s Natural History- 
Edinburghean Grammar Jews and Place-names frac- 
tion of the Hide in Domesday - Lord Lyttelton-Troy 
Town-George Samuel - Danteiana, 133- A Persian Am- 
bassador-The Pharaoh of the Oppression'; This earth s 
immortal three," 134-Cockney-" Fifty-dole," 135-"Good 
intentions" Lady Hester Stanhope City Churches 
Sojournars": " Advena," 136 -" During "-'Groves of 
Blarney' "Come" and "Go" Teague, 137 Oasts: 
Hostelers Arkwright Jemmy=Sheep's Head Church 
near Royal Exchange, 138-Authors Wanted, 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Furnivall's 'Child Marriages, Di- 
vorces, &c.' Baddeley's 'Charles III. of Naples and 
Urban VI.'' The Scientific Chronology of the World in 
its Relation to the Advent of Christ ' Henderson s ' His- 
tory of Germany in the Middle Ages.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 




It is not generally recognized that the northern 
block of the Treasury buildings, on the west side 
of Parliament Street, contains, under Barry's 
classical mask, the shell of the banqueting hall of 
Wolsey's Palace of Whitehall. It is, in fact, only 
in comparatively recent times that this building 
has entirely lost all traces of its early character. 
The older among us can well remember the decayed, 
time-blackened front, divided by stepped buttresses, 
looking singularly out of place between Soane's 
Corinthian faade on the one side, and the Ionic 
portico of Melbourne House on the other. The 
incongruity struck me as a schoolboy, when one 
day official business took my father to the place ; 
and I recollect asking for an explanation of it, 
which failed to receive a satisfactory answer. But 
what perplexed me then was cleared up some years 
afterwards, when my burrowings in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine brought to my notice three views 
of the building, on the same page, representing it 
as it was when first built, then after its first altera- 
tion, and, finally, as it appeared till Barry's re- 
fashioning. (The reference is Gentleman's Mag., 
vol. Ixxxvi. ii. p. 489.) The earliest view repre- 
sents a hall with lofty Gothic windows, of the 
style of Wolsey's day, divided with massive 

stepped buttresses. In the second view, the 
arches of the windows remain, but the tracery has 
been removed, the arches filled up, and two stories 
of modern sash windows inserted in the wall. In 
the third view all trace of the window arches is 
gone, and the buttresses are the only original 
features left. Spared, as I have said, in Soane's 
incomplete rebuilding of the Treasury, this vener- 
able memorial of one of the greatest statesmen 
that England ever gave birth to completely lost its 
individuality in Barry's remodelling of his pre- 
decessor's work. The walls, however, are still 
those of Wolsey's hall ; and if ever it is its fate to 
be demolished, this portion of the Treasury will 
doubtless surprise the contractor by disclosing 
masonry and cut- stone of the sixteenth century, 
where he looked for nothing earlier than the nine- 
teenth ; and, like Virgil's ploughman, 

Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulcbris. 
Some fragments, indeed, may still be lurking 
unsuspected in out-of-the-way corners of the build- 
ing. I used to catch sight of a Tudor window on 
its flank as I passed from Downing Street under 
Kent's Treasury into the park ; indeed, I often 
used to take that way on purpose to see it, but 
now I look for it in vain. 

Modern convenience wipes out one historic land- 
mark after another, and before long probably 
and this is my apology for troubling you with this 
communication all memory of the great cardinal's 
banqueting hall will have passed away, and the 
whole building will be regarded as Soane's and 
Barry's work. 

Practically obliterated as it has been for the 
last century and a half, Wolsey's hall appears as a 
leading feature in the old views of Whitehall, such 
as those appended to Smith's * Westminster.' We 
see it there as a lofty gabled building, rendered 
more conspicuous by the octangular turrets, 
crowned with leaden cupolas, which stood at each 
corner. By the end of the seventeenth century it 
had lost its original distinction, and was divided 
by floors into three stories, and cut up into apart- 
ments, which in Fisher's plan, 1680, are assigned 
to the Dukes of Monmouth and Ormond. In a 
view by Silvestre Scott, taken about the same 
time, looking south, above the low buildings of 
the Tilt Yard to the right, we see the north gable 
end of the hall, obtuse in shape and embattled, 
flanked by tall domed turrets, and crowned with a 
small square pinnacled turret. From an undated 
print in the same collection, giving a view of 
Whitehall from St. James's Park, looking east- 
wards, in which the hall, with its four domical 
turrets, is a very prominent object, we learn lhat 
the tall traceried windows survived the conversion 
of the interior into three stories of chambers, to 
fall a sacrifice to the so-called march of improve- 
ment in the next century. May I hope that some 
of your readers, whose knowledge of Old West- 



. AUG. is, '94. 

minster far exceeds any I can pretend to, may be 
able to supplement tnese imperfect notes with 
facts and dates which will help to the recovery of 
the history of this long- overlooked survival of the 


(See 8th s. vi. 9.) 

I venture to assert that no good bibliography 
of the Battle of Naseby has yet been compiled. 
Carlyle's 'Cromwell/ Gardiner's 'Great Civil War/ 
and Markham's ( Fairfax ' contain the best lists 
of references, but these are mostly contemporary. 
I have thrown together from my note-books the 
following list in a somewhat haphazard fashion, in 
the hope that it may form the nucleus of a biblio- 
graphy of the most momentous battle, with the ex- 
ception of Hastings, ever fought on English soil. 

Three Letters, From the Right Honourable Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, Lieut. Gen. Cromwell and the Committee residing 
in the Army. (London, 1645.) Pamphlet. 

A True Eolation of the Victory over the Kings Forces 
by the Army of Sir Thomas Fairfax, (London, 1645.) 

A Glorious Victory obtained by Sir Thomas Fairfax, 
June the 14, 1645. (London, 1645.) Pamphlet. 

A Relation of the Victory obtained by Sr. Thomas 
Fairfax Generall of the Parliaments Forces, over the 
Enemies Forces, neer Harborough, on Saturday, June 14 
1645. (Letter to Alderman Win. Gibbs, London, 1645.) 

A More Particular and Exact Relation of the Victory 
obtained by the Parliaments Forces under the command 
of Sir Thomas Fairfax. (Two Letters written by G(eorge) 
B(ishop) and Colonel Okey, London, 1645.) Pamphlet. 

A More Exact and perfect Relation of the great 
Victory (By God's providence) obtained by the Parlia- 
ment Forces under command of Sir Tho. Fairfax in 
Naisby Field, on Saturday, 14 June 1645. (Letter from 
a Gentleman in Northampton, London, 1645.) Pamphlet. 

An Ordinance of the Lords and Commons Assembled 
in Parliament, for Thursday next to be a day of Thanks- 
giving within the Lines of Communication. And through- 
out the whole Kingdome the 27 of this instant June, for 
the great Victory. Obtained against the Kings Forces, 
nere Knasby in Northamptonshire the fourteenth of 

this instant June Together with two exact Relations 

of the said Victory. (One from Cromwell and the other 
"from a gallant Gentleman of publique imployment." 
London, 1645.) Pamphlet. 

The Kings Cabinet Opened : or, certain Pacquets of 
Secret Letters and Papers, Written with the Kings own 
hand, and taken in his Cabinet at Nasby Field. June 14. 
1645. (London, 1645.) Pamphlet. 

Bridges' 'History of Northamptonshire ' (1791), vol. i. 
p. 574. 

Whitlock'a ' Memorials of the English Affairs ' (1682), 
pp. 144-5. 

Sprigg's ' Anglia Rediviva ' (1647), pp. 36-47. 

Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, 3 vols. (3rd ed., 1751), 
vol. i. pp. 131-6. 

Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, 3 vols. (1703), 
book ix. pp. 506-9. 

History and Antiquities of Naseby, by Rev. John 
Mastin (Cambridge, 1792) ; second edition, with additions 
(London, 1818 ). (Both copies contain plan of battle.) 

Historical Gleanings on the Memorable Field of 

Northamptonshire Notes and Queries, vol. i. pp. 138, 
i; vol. ii. pp. 5, 86-9 (with plan of battle), 116; 
I. iii. 27, 48, 66-9, 107-9, 222 (engravings). 
Lecture by Major Whyte Melville on ' The Battle of 

Naseby, by Rev. Henry Lockinge. (London, 1830.) (Plan 
of battle and other engravings.) 

The Life of the Great Lord Fairfax, by Clements R. 
Markham, F.S.A. (Macmillan, 1870), chaps, xix. andxx. 
(With plan of battle and valuable list of authorities.) 

Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, with elucida- 
tions by Thomas Carlyle, 5 vols. (London, 1871.) Vol. i. 
Letter xxix., Naseby, pp. 188-193; vol. v. Appendix, 
No. 8, pp. 176-8. 

History of Southwell, by W. Dickinson Rastall (1787), 
pp. 430-2. 

History of the Great Civil War, 1642-1649, by Saml. 
R. Gardiner, M.A., &c. (London, 1889.) Vol. ii., 1644-47, 
ch. xxxi., Naseby, pp. 196-218 (with plan of battle) ; 
also Appendix Note, " On the strength and preliminary 
movements of the Armies at Naseby," pp. 583-598. 

Northamptonshire Notes and Queries, vol. i. pp. 

1 224; vol. ii. p. * " '- ?l1 ' * 

vol. iii. 27, 


Naseby and the Crisis of the Civil War,' delivered at 
Northampton and reported verbatim in Northampton 
Mercury, Jan. 22, 1862 ; reprinted with permission iu 
Keltering Leader April 25, May 2, 16, 23, June 20, 27, 
and July 4, 1890. 

A Visit to Naseby Field, by Rev. John Pickford, M.A. 
' N. & Q.,' 5th s. xii. 81. 

4 Oliver Cromwell as a Soldier,' Temple Bar, Novem- 
ber, 1892, pp. 354-5. 

The Battle of Naseby, by A. H. W., Boy's Own Paper. 
Jan. 26, 1889 ; reprinted in Kettering Leader, March 8, 

Cromwell's Charge at Naseby, ex. Gardiner's ' Great 
Civil War.' Literary World, March 29, 1889, pp. 284-5, 
and reprinted in Kettering Leader, May 10, 1889. 

The Battle of Naseby, by Lieut. W. G. Ross. English 
Historical Review, October, 1888, pp. 668-679. 

* Country Corners,' by Marianne Farningham. No. 5. 
Naseby. Christian World, May 29, 1884. 

Naseby Field, article in Daily News, May 29, 1890 ; 
reprinted in Northampton Herald, June 7, 1890. 

The Battle of Naseby. Article accompanying en- 
graving of Sir John Gilbert's picture ' Prince Rupert's 
Charge,' in the London Journal, March 13, 1852, 
pp. 9-10. 

A Day at Naseby Field, by F. S. W. Christian 
Spectator, April, 1865, pp. 213-18. 

The Great Civil War: How it began and ended in 
Northamptonshire. Told from contemporary sources by 
John T. Page. Part vi.-ix. The East London Maga- 
zine, October and November, 1893, pp. 299-307. 

Episodes of the Great Civil War, by John T. Page. 
II. Naseby. East End News, May 26 and June 3, 1894. 

Naseby. by John T. Page. Olla-Podrida (Kettering), 
October, 1888, vol. ii., No. 23, pp. 174-5; November, 
1888, vol. ii., No. 24, pp. 183-4. 

A Historical Mystery (Cromwell's Burial at Naseby). 
Chamlers's Journal, Feb. 23, 1856, pp. 114-5. 

A Pilgrimage to Naseby, vide Article on Cromwell 
and bis Independents by W. T. Stead, Review of Reviews, 
July, 1891, pp. 69-73 (with plan of battle). 

British Battles on Land and Sea by James Grant 
(Cassell), chap, xlii., Naseby, pp. 236-241. 

Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army kept by 
Richard Symonds. Ed. by C. E, Long, M.A., and pub- 
lished by the Camden Soc. (1859), pp. 186 et seq. 

Our Own Country (Cassell), Edge Hill and Naseby, 
vol. i. pp. 134-9 (illustrations and map). 

Bygone Northamptonshire (1891), The Battle of Nase- 

by, by Edward Lamplough, pp. 55-66. 
Henson's Concise History of 

ton, Naeeby, pp. 51-61. 

istory of the County of North amp- 

8 th S. VI. Ana. 18, '94.] 



Cooke's Topographical Library, Northampton, pp. 

Murray's Handbook of Northampton and Rutland 
(1878) , pp. 175-7. 

Cole's History of Northampton and Vicinity (1831), 
pp. 122-8. 

* Holmby House,' by Whyte Melville, chap, xxv., 
Naseby Field, pp. 210-223 (cheap edition). 

Pleasant Spots and Famous Places, by John Alfred 
Langford (1862), Naseby and its Fight, pp. 125-135. 

Historical Legends of Northamptonshire, by Alfred 
T. Story (1883), pp. 143-149. 

Whellan's History of Northamptonshire (1849) , pp. 

King Charles at Naseby, by F. A. Tole (1882). 

Oliver Cromwell, by Paxton Hood (1882), chap. x. 
Tbe Battle of Naseby, pp. 197-208. 

Oliver Cromwell, by J. Allanson Picton (1882), chap, 
xi. Naseby, pp. 178-189. 

Gu-zot's History of the English Revolution (1846), 
pp. 273-6. 

Oliver Cromwell and the Protectorate, by Daniel Wil- 
son, F.S. A.Scot. (1848), chap. x. The Battle of Naseby, 
pp. 102-119. (Vignette of battle on title-page.) 

Banks's ' Critical Review of the Life of Oliver Crom- 
well,' fifth edition (1769), pp. 25-9. 

Constable's Miscellany Life of Oliver Cromwell 
(2 vols., 1829), vol. i. pp. 209-17. (Engraving of battle 
on title-page.) 

Letters and Literary Remains of Edward Fitzgerald. 
Ed. by Wm. Aldis Wright. 3 vols. (London, 1889.) 
References to Naseby mainly respecting an idea of Fitz- 
gerald's and Carlyle's as to setting up a memorial on the 
battle-field, vol. i. pp. 62, 74-76, 100, 103-110, 119, 152, 
156, 157, 164, 236-8, 333-4, 336, 339, 355, 353-60, 364, 
475, 485. 

Life and Correspondence of Dr. Arnold, by Dean Stan- 
ley (twelfth edition, 1881), vol. ii. pp. 267, 275, 280. 

Rupert of the Rhine, by Lord Rouald Gower (London, 
1890), pp. 87-92. 

Green's Short History of the English People (1893), 
vol. iii. pp. 1171-3 (plan of battle, p. 1172). 

Kelly's Directory of Northamptonshire, &c. (1890), 
Naseby, p. 427. 

Warburton's Memoirs of Prince Rupert, vol. iii. pp. 
99-112 (plan of battle). 

Life of Oliver Cromwell, by F. W. Cornish (London, 
1882), pp. 99-105 (small plan of battle). 

The Parliamentary Generals of the Great Civil War, 
by Major Walford, R.A. (London, 1886), pp. 127-137 

Collins's County Geographies Northampton, by W. G. 
Fretton, pp. 28-9 (engraving of Naseby Obelisk). 

Oliver Cromwell, by Frederic Harrison, chap, v., 
pp. 90-4. 


5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

The descriptive details given in Whyte-Mel- 
ville's * Holmby House ' are graphic and might 
not be beneath MR. PAYNE'S consideration. By 
the way, is this story historically correct ? 



i. 369). I stated 1 had psychological evidence to 
justify my hypothesis that ' Hamlet' was directly 

the result of the inspiration of bereavement. I 
will now as succinctly as possible produce the 
evidence. First I notice that daring the closing 
years of his father's life Shakespeare lived in his 
native town. Even so careful and so circumstantial 
a biographer as the late J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps 
had no doubt that after the purchase of New Place 
in 1597 Shakespeare permanently fixed it as his 
home. I quote from his invaluable { Outlines ': 

"However limited may have been the character of 
the poet's visits to his native town, there is no doubt 
that New Place was henceforth to be accepted as his 
established residence. Early in the following year, on 
Feb. 4, 1598, corn being then at an unprecedented and 
almost famine price at Stratford-on-Avon, he is returned 
as the holder of ten quarters in the Chapel Street Ward, 
that in which the newly acquired property was situated, 
and in none of the indentures is he described as a Lon- 
doner, but always as Wm. Shakespeare, of Stratford-on- 
Avon, in the county of Warwick, gentleman." 

Shakespeare would thus be brought into per- 
sonal, every-day communion with his father ; the 
latter, a shrewd man of business and versed in the 
science of agriculture, could offer approved prac- 
tical counsel, not only on the purchase of estate, 
on which at this time the son was eagerly bent, but 
on the after stocking and cultivation. So not 
alone at his father's demise would he lose his best 
friend, but his trustiest adviser ; this would create 
a void in his life such as he had not before 
experienced, and this would lead me to ascribe the 
detailed knowledge of mortuary phenomena and 
the sombre character of this play to the funeral 
rites and mourning duties which were the peculiar 
experience of Shakespeare at this time. 

Turning to ' Hamlet/ we find it permeated with 
the sentiment of lamentation ; it is infected with 
the odour of death. The conventional speech, the 
well-meant comfort, the weary reflections on the 
universality of death and the absurdity of excessive 
grieving, uttered constantly adown the ages, echoed 
and re-echoed in every elegy, lament, and 
epitaph, are perfectly expressed in the truly 
' Tragicall Historie of Hamlet.' 

How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable 
Seem to me all the uses of this world! 

and again in the prose commencing, "I have of 

late " (II. ii. 291) we have genuine pieces of 

autobiography, and when Shakespeare worded them 
he was actually describing his own mind's condition. 
Every modern editor, every Shakespearian chrono- 
logist has borne unconscious evidence to this fact. 
In ' Hamlet,' Shakespeare makes us cognizant of 
startling transitions. He had bidden farewell to his 
season of pleasant comedy, with its cheerful humour 
its quaint wit, its bright optimism, its delightful 
situations, its gentle characters ; his soul was in 
eclipse, some dark body shadowed it, and the transit 
was never more correctly chronicled than in the 
above- noted passages. 

Students have noted the storm and stress of this 



[8 th S. VI. AUG. 18, '94. 

period, they tell of the obscuration of his faith and 
the overthrow of the moral equilibrium, they 
notice that 'Hamlet' succeeded suchbrightcomedies 
as 'All's Well,' 'Twelfth Night,' and 'As You 
Like It' (see Mr. Furnivall's * Trial Table'); but 
they have not satisfied us as to the cause, they 
cannot tell the why and wherefore of these changes. 
I point to this deathly visitation, and mark that 
a like cause has produced similar effects in Tenny- 
son, Rossetti, and a host of other poets, both 
ancient and modern. 

Though all Shakespeare's earlier tragic plays are 
crowded with murders and " exits," we feel he 
uses death only in the conventional way of writers. 
From 'Hamlet,' through the dark tragedies hegrasps 
its awful reality. It was part of the design of this 
play to delineate the relentless grievings, the mind 
harrowings, and the melancholy forebodings which 
the Angel of Death engenders in our souls. He 
who perceived the play of every passion and 
emotion, taught this time by bitter experience, 
studied in his own heart the familiar movements 
of grief, and mirrored them so that those in 
mourning catch in his glass the express image of 
their souls. 

So far back as 1709 Eowe showed that the 
motive of ' Hamlet ' was identical with that of 
Sophocles in the ' Electra,' while commentators are 
almost unanimous that ' Hamlet' is more closely 
associated with its author than any of his other 
works. This is best expressed by the anonymous 
writer quoted by Mrs. Jameson in her * Charac- 
teristics ': 

" I believe that, of every other character, either in 
tragic or epic poetry, the story makes part of the con- 
ception ; but of Hamlet the deep and permanent interest 
is the conception of himself. This seems to belong not 
to the character being more perfectly drawn, but to 
there being a more intense conception of individual 
human life than perhaps in any other human composition. 
Here is a being with springs of thought, and feeling, and 
action, deeper than we can search. These springs rise 
from an unknown depth, and in that depth there seems 
to be a oneness of being, which we cannot distinctly 
behold, but which we believe to be there." 

These conclusions, vaguely apprehended by 
many writers, but insufficiently vouched for by 
actual evidence, may now be substantiated if I 
have succeeded in establishing a nexus between 
Hamlet and his creator. W. A. HENDERSON 


' KING HENRY V.,' IV. i. 261. 

O ceremonie, show me but thy worth. 

What ? is thy Soule of Odoration ? 

First Folio. 

O ceremony, show me but thy worth ! 

What is thy soul of adoration ? Globe . 

The emendation of this passage seems so very easy 
that I shall be surprised if I do not hear that, 
unknown to myself, I have been anticipated by 
others. I read : 

O ceremony, show me but thy worth ! 
What is thy soul, adoration ? 

In the second line, as it stands in the Folio, we 
have an instance of mishearing of the copy. The 
two lines resemble a parallelism in Hebrew poetry, 
the second repeating the thought of the first but 
varying the terms through which the thought is 
conveyed. Shakespeare often means by the "soul" 
of a thing its inner or essential worth, or that 
which gives value to the outward form. Thus, 
when Troilus witnesses the compromising meeting 
of Cressid with Diomed, he exclaims : 
If beauty have a soul, this is not she. 

' T. and C.,' V. ii. 138. 

The Duke says to Isabella : 

" The hand that hath made you fair hath made you 
good ; the goodness that is cheap in beauty makes beauty 
brief in goodness; but grace, being the soul of your 
complexion, shall keep the body of it for ever fair." 
' M. for M.,' III. i. 

So here, " What is thy soul, adoration ? " means, 
What inner worth or significance is there in the 
outward homage which I receive ? 

What drick'st thou oft, instead of homage sweet, 
But poison'd flattery ? 

Manse of Arbuthnott. 


How may likeness made in crimes. 
No explanation of this has been offered that can 
oe considered satisfactory, and the numerous 

mendations that have been proposed show that 
most readers feel the text to be corrupt. If 
Vtalone's conjecture that made should read wade 
is accepted, we get, under the figure of anglers 
wading and drawing fish to land with fine tackle, 
a description of those who, through wily and un- 
scrupulous practices on the world, secure some 
substantial profit to themselves. Taking this 
reading of Malone's to be correct so far as it goes, 

t seems to be worth consideration whether the 
whole line may not have read : 

How many likewise wade in crimes, 
Making practice on the times, &c. 

?rom particular reference to Angelo in 1. 18, the 
duke naturally passes through the reflection, " O 
what may man within him hide," to the thought 
of the many who do likewise. G. JOICEY. 

THE STARS AND STRIPES. The evolution of a 

national flag is invariably an interesting study ; 

nd next to that of our own country there is none 

rhich appeals more directly to us than the flag of 

;he United States of America. Some particulars 

of the origin of the " Stars and Stripes " which have 

>een recently published in the New York Herald, 

nd to which reference was made in the Morning, 

July 24, will therefore be deemed worthy of being 

ecorded in ' N. & Q.' 

8 th S. VI. Aoo. 18, '94.] 



The first and earliest instance of the stripes 
being used was on a banner presented to the Phila- 
delphia Troop of Light Horse in 1774-75, by 
Capt. Abraham Markoe. Some uncertainty exists 
as to what flag, if any were carried, the American 
soldiers fought under at Bunker's Hill ; but that dis- 
played by Putnam on Prospect Hill, in July, 1775, 
was red, with " Qui transtulit sustinet" on one 
side and " An appeal to Heaven" on the other. 
The first armed vessels commissioned by Washing- 
ton sailed under " a white flag with a green pine 
tree," this being the flag previously adopted by 
the Provincial Congress of ^Massachusetts for the 
cruisers of that colony. The colours of the stripes 
were probably suggested by blending the red flag 
of the army and the white flag of the navy. The 
" evolution " on the " stars " is supposed to have 
originated as follows. The cuts displayed at the 
head of many newspapers of the time represented 
a snake divided into thirteen parts, each bearing 
the abbreviation of a colony, with the motto, 
"Join or die." Then came the famous flag dis- 
played by Commodore Hopkins, representing the 
rattlesnake having thirteen rattles, with the motto, 
" Don't tread on me." This rattlesnake coiled 
up in a circle gradually gave way to thirteen stars, 
arranged also in a circle. At last Congress resolved, 
on June 14, 1777, " that the flag of the thirteen 
United States be thirteen stripes alternately red 
and white ; that the union be thirteen stars, white 
in a blue field, representing a new constellation." 
Hence the " Stars and Stripes." 0. P. HALE. 
[See 7 th S. vi. 328, 494.] 

CHRONOGRAM. The following is a chronogram 
for the year 1656, from a little book entitled 
" Some sober Inspections made into the Carriage 
and Consults of the late Long- Parliament, whereby 
occasion is taken to speake of Parliaments in former 
Times, and of Magna Charta, with some Reflexes 
upon Government in general," London, 1656 : 
" GLoria Konorqu Deo sseCVLorVM In sseCVLa 
sVnto."* It is stated the chronogram will last to 
the year 1920. C. L. F. 

[This chronogram, in slightly different forms, is found 
in various editions of James Bowel's ' The Parly of 
Beasts' and 'Ho-elianae.' See Mr. Hilton's 'Chrono- 
grams,' p. 10.] 

FOLK-LORE OF SHELLS. The following fragment 
of shell- lore occurs in Kohl's ' Reisen in Danemark,' 
1846, vol. ii. p. 116. Speaking of the fine concho- 
logical collection of the then King of Denmark, the 
writer observes : 

" A, to me, very remarkable and rare shell, which I 
saw here, was an example of the Tschanko-ehell ; against 
all ordinary rules of nature, it was twisted to the left 
and not to the right. When certain Indian peoples find 
such a left-whorled Tschanko-shell they reverence it as 

* " Gloria Honor que Deo saeculorum in ssecula 

something holy, and carry it into their temple. In 
Europe, an almost similar idolatry of snails wound 
towards the sinister-side was formerly indulged in. Col- 
lectors paid a hundred, and a hundred and fifty, pounds 
sterling for examples of many conchological species 
twisting to the left. At present this fashion has somewhat 
declined, perhaps as a result of our geological researches, 
which have caused us to discover that here and there in 
the earth there are whole deposits of many million of 
shells turned towards the left." 

It is to be regretted that the author does not 
name the Indian peoples who venerate such shells 
more explicitly, nor explain the significance they 
bear to their fortunate discoverers. As a general 
rule turning to the right, or sun-wise, is esteemed 
lucky in Europe and Asia, therefore it is interest- 
ing to find that the opposite course is occasionally 
held in favour. P. W. G. M. 

SALMON FOR SERVANTS. There is a common 
belief, not, I think, entirely borne out by facts, that 
it was formerly the custom in and about Carlisle 
for servants on taking new places to stipulate that 
the master should not require them to eat salmon 
more than twice a week. I find in ' Les Devices 
des Pays-Bas,' edit. 1785, tome iy. p. 313, Dort or 
Dordrecht, the following information bearing upon 
the question : 

" Cette ville est si abondante en poissons, et sur-tout 
en saumons, que 1'an 1620, depuis le 15 d'Avril jusqu'au 
dernier Fevrier de 1'annee suivante, on a vendu jusqu'a 
8920 saumons. On debite que les servantes entrant en 
ce temps-la en service, obligerent leurs Maltresses a ne 
leur en donner que deux fois par semaine ; mais je crois 
qu'a present elles ne prescrivent plus ces conditions." 

Can the belief as to Carlisle have had its origin 
in a temporary glut of salmon similar to that which 
took place at Dort ? ALBERT HARTSHORNE. 

which I clip from the Echo of Feb. 6, seems to 
deserve a niche in *N. & Q.': 

" For centuries past only members of the ' Ancient 
Company of JVlarblers or Stonecutters inhabiting within, 
the town of Corfe Castle, in the island of Purbeck,' and 
sons of members duly bound as apprentices, have been 
allowed to quarry stone or marble in Purbeck. Every 
Shrove Tuesday the company holds its annual meeting 
for 'the enrolment of apprentices, the registration of 
members' marriages, and the discussion of questions 
affecting the company's rights and privileges.' Yesterday 
the meeting was held as usual. The proceedings were 
strictly private, but it is generally understood that the 
apprentices, 'upon being accepted into the company 
have to pay to the wardens 6s. 8d., a loaf, and two pots 
of beer,' while every member who has married during the 
year has to pay 12tf. to the wardens. To preserve a 
right-of-way over the lands of Eempstone Manor, 
Dorset, a football and a pound of pepper are carried 
every year on Shrove Tuesday by the way in question to 
a certain house and deposited there." 


" Egypt "or " Egyptian " is not to be found in the 
* Iliad,' excepting in one place, the famous passage 



s. vi. AUG. is, '94. 

in the ninth book in which Achilles refuses the 
offer of Agamemnon, and declares that he would 
refuse it if it were ten or twenty times as great. 
According to our copies, he strengthens this by 
adding that not if everything were offered that 
came into Orchomenos, or even into the Egyptian 
Thebes, which contained great store of treasure, 
and had a hundred gates, out of each of which issued 
two hundred men with horses and chariots (Cow- 
per does the multiplication, and renders, "Whence 
twenty thousand chariots rush to war "), would he 
consent to the proposals. Achilles, however, was 
much more celebrated for his swiftness of foot 
than for his knowledge of geography ; and one 
cannot help feeling that the passage is an inter- 
polation by a later hand. F. A. Paley points out, in 
loco, how much more naturally v. 385 would follow 
immediately after v. 380, suggesting that the four 
lines between are a subsequent addition. Besides 
the fact already mentioned, that neither "Egypt" 
nor " Egyptian " occurs elsewhere in the ' Iliad/ 
it seems strange that the poet should pass at a 
jump from Orchomenos, in Bceotia, to the Egyptian 
Thebes. Is it possible that the Grecian Thebes is 
meant, and that the interpolation begins at v. 382 ? 
Perhaps it may be of interest to add a remark 
on two English translations of the passage. Pope 
inserts a line (probably on the same principle as 
the well-known one, 4< A wit's a feather and a 
chiefs a rod," in the ' Essay on Man ') to which 
nothing corresponds in the original, " That spreads 
her conquests [those of the Egyptian Thebes] o'er 
a thousand states." Chapman, on the other hand, 
amplifies (though in a more permissible way) the 
expression about OrchomenoB, "to which men 
bring their wealth for strength "the idea evi- 
dently being that it was deposited there as a safety 
place. But a modern copy I have seen absurdly 
substitutes " health" for " wealth." Sir E. Bun- 
bury says that the exaggerated rumours of the 
wealth and grandeur of the Egyptian Thebes "are 
a sufficient proof that the Greeks in the time of 
Homer had intercourse, more or less direct, with 
Egypt, as we shall find more clearly shown in the 
* Odyssey/ " But it is scarcely open to doubt that 
the flomer of the ' Odyssey ' lived at a later date 
than the Homer of the ' Iliad.' W. T. LYNN. 

spondent of the Athenceum writes : 

" In * A List of Papists and Recusants in the Shires of 
England, 1587,' there appears, in Cornwall, one ' Mr. 
Tennyson' (Lansdowne MSS., British Museum). In the 
parish register of Newington, Oxfordshire, on the same 
page, in the eame year, 1758, appear the names of a 
' Kingsley ' and of a ' Dickens.'" 

J. C. F. 

ante, p. 41.) In the above article, omit in fourth 
paragraph the words " had if I rightly appre- 

hend become copyhold, and"; also the words 
"of Fulham"; and for "son, Sir John Neeld " 
read " brother, Sir John Neeld." And in eighth 
paragraph, after words " Then, crossing the canal," 
read, as parenthesis, " and passing ' Bridge House,' 
scarcely twenty yards from the water edge, and 
inhabited by John White, an architect, the owner 
of land here, and, I think, of the house once 
tenanted by Mrs. Siddons." W. L. BUTTON. 
27, Elgin Avenue, Westbourne Green (now Park). 


ing paragraph from the Isle of Wight Express 
seems worth being preserved in ' N. & Q.' : 

" Although the song ' The girl I left behind me ' is 
so well known, its authorship is obscure. No one can 
tell who wrote either the words or the music. In this 
respect it is like a good many songs, notably the old 
ballad of ' The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington.' The 
song, ' The girl I left behind me,' has been the soldiers' 
and sailors' loth-to-leave for nearly a century, and it has 
been so long played on men-of-war as they weigh anchor, 
and by the bands of regiments as they quit towns where 
they have been quartered, that its omission would be 
regarded as a slight upon the fair sex. The song is 
doubtless of Irish origin. Chappell, however, puts in an 
English claim to the air, though he admits it may be 
Irish. This authority thinks that it was probably written 
about 1758, when there were encampments along the 
coast where many tunes of this sort originated. Bunting 
supports the Irish theory. He says the air was taken 
down from an Irish harper, named O'Neil, in 1800, the 
author and date being unknown. The song has been 
found in a manuscript dated 1770, but its true origin IB 
veiled in obscurity." 

E. W. 

CHRISTIAN NAMES. " Veinea Lucretia " is re- 
corded in the Eastern Daily Press as the name of 
a woman aged thirty-two. WM. VINCENT. 

Belle Vue Rise, Norwich. 

BRAYING OF ASSES. In various parts of the 
country the braying of asses is usually regarded as 
indicative of rain, hence the Eutlandshire couplet : 

Hark ! I hear the asses bray, 

We shall have some rain to-day. 

Here, however, in Suffolk, when an ass brays, 
the usual remark is, " Another good Irishman is 


HORN FAIR, CHARLTON. (See 6 th S. vii. 329 ; 
viii. 19.) It may be pardonable to refer to an 
exhaustive article on this subject in vol. ii. of ' The 
Kentish Note Book,' p. 138, recently published, 
where it is contended that the fair had its origin 
in some form of horn tenure. Any criticisms on 
the points raised there would be welcomed by the 
writer. AYEAHR. 

HEADACHE. I lately heard a Norfolk man, in 
speaking of one of the most noted clergymen in 
East Anglia, say that " he was of no more use than 
a headache. " I have never heard the expression a .i8,'94.] NOTES AND QUERIES, 


before, but I am told on inquiry that it is not Stenson, hamlet, par. Barrow on Trent, co. Derby; 

uncommon. PAUL BIERLEY. | Ingson, co. Devon; Glason, co. Lane.; Milson, 

Salop ; Matson, co. Gloucester ? Is son=filius in 
these ; or is it in any a corruption of -ston ? 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

DOUGLAS JERROLD. Can any reader tell 
whether the following work was ever published ? 
I have copied the particulars from the Mirror of 
the Stage for Jan. 26, 1824 : 

" In the course of next week will be published by 
J. Duncombe, 19, Little Queen Street, ' The Seven Ages,' 
a Dramatic Sketch, by Douglas William Jerrold. To 
which is affixed an Essay on ' The Pleasures of Minor 
Authorship,' by Peter." 


National Liberal Club, Whitehall Place, S.W. 

1560, DIED 1622. Can any of the contributors 
to ' N. & Q.' kindly inform me where this author 
was born, and where he died and was buried ? 
He is stated to have been educated at Winchester 
and Oxford, and the first two editions of his Latin 
epigrams were published in 1606. Lowndes 
enumerates many editions of this popular work, 
of which I have a Spanish translation by Don 
Francisco de la Torre, dedicated to the English 
ambassador, Senor Don Guillermo Godolphin, 
published at Madrid in 1674. An edition appears 
to have been published at Paris, 1794, in 2 vols. 
18mo. John Owen, it is stated, was head master 
of the Free School at Warwick ; but I do not find 
any information as to whether he was a native of 
Wales or England. HUBERT SMITH. 


LAKE FAMILY. (See 8 th S. ii. 306, 375.) Mar- 
garet Read, daughter of Col. Edmund Read, of 
Wickford, Essex, married John Lake. She came 
to America in 1645, bringing her two daughters, 
Hannah and Martha. She accompanied Governor 
John Winthrop, of Connecticut, who had married 
her sister Elizabeth for his second wife. John 
Lake never came to America, and died, 1667, in 
England. Who was he ; and of what family of 
Lakes? It has been thought possibly of one 

1* _ F J 

correspondent tell me the Christian name of Bene- 
dict Arnold's second wife ; and where I can find 
the words and setting of * Yankee Doodle Dandy,' 
me I contemporary with the siege of Boston, during 
which the air was a favourite with the British 
bands? A. E. W. 

THOMAS CARET. In ' N. & Q.,' 8 th S. iii. 75, 
LADY RUSSELL, after stating that Margaret Smith 
married Thomas Carey, son of the Earl of Mon- 
mouth, added, " He was one of the king's [Charles 
I.] most attached servants, and died, it was said, 
of grief at his master's death." Will LADY RUSSELL 
kindly give her authority for the latter statement ? 
The Hon. Thos. Carey, the second son of Robert, 
Earl of Monmouth, must have died in or about 
1635, and, of course, the king was not executed 
till 1649. The widow married, as her second 
husband, Sir Edward Herbert, the Attorney 
General. The Smiths, Careys, Herbert?, &c., 
lived at Peterborough House, Fulham. Sir Ed- 
ward Herbert's name is brought into the rating 
in April, 1644, so that he must have been married 
to the Lady Margaret before that date. So far as 
I can trace, Sir Edward Herbert never returned 
to Fulham after the king's execution, for his name 
does not appear later in the rate books. He died 
in Paris in December, 1657. In 1653 his name is 
found as of Parson's Green, Fulham, in the lists 
of the loyalists whose estates were ordered to be 
sold. I have reason to believe, however, that 
Dame Margaret was allowed to continue in her 
home at Peterborough House. Any information 
on this point would be most welcome. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

NoYADE,or killing by drowning, as practised by 
Jean-Baptiste Carrier during 1793 and 1794 at 
Nantes on the River Loire in France. The word 
Noyade is mentioned in the ' Century Dictionary/ 
and also in ' Chambers's Encyclopaedia,' under the 
article " Carrier, J.-B." (1888). I should be very 
grateful for the kind favour of references to pub- 

mi t . -3 . " | ttl*UvllA* L\JL V'UV O.1LIVA AtVVWl** W* J. ^m,Vf . VMJ. V WW wvr />-*. 

^omas, of Queen Elizaoeths time, and servant ; ii ca ti on s and old prints in English and in French 

Trnr. rnn A/ iMi4-4. AH ~ff 17*.^- i/>o>i J^-~ ^i. i I __ ^L - 

on this subject of the Nantes Noyades. 

30, Sussex Square, Brighton. 

Miss JAMES, OP BATH. Information as to the 
parentage and life of this lady will much oblige. 
She was on terms of intimate friendship with Miss 
Mitford, Lord Lytton, Savage Landor, and other 

yet the Visitation of Essex, 1634, does not make 
this clear. Tradition from Margaret Read Lake 
says he was of the Normanston branch, and, 
through the Cailleys, descended from the right 
line of Charlemagne. Can any one throw light on 
this point? K. S. MCCARTHY. 

Wilkes Barre, Pa., U.S. 

PLACE-NAMES ENDING IN " -SON." Can you cite literary people, and was herself the author of a 
any other place-names ending in -son besides | story called * Jenny Spinner.' Does any of her 



correspondence with Miss Mitford exist ; and are 
any of her friends living ? G. W. MILLER. 

White House, Chislehurst. 

PORTRAITS OF Miss FERRIBR. Will any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' kindly send me, at the address given 
below, some information about the existence or 
whereabouts of any portrait or portraits of Miss 

Llandaff House, Cambridge. 

called ' The Secret Policy of the English Society 
of Jesus ' I find these words : 

" Now unless you will urge the Law of Prescription, in 
that the ignorant Part of the world have for about a 
Century, ascrib'd this work to Father Parsons, I 
must make bold to return it to the right owner, whom 
I mention'd not long ago. My Presumptions to make 
Gaspar Loartes, an Italian, the true Author, are very 
capable to determine any man's Judgment in this affair. 
In the first place 1 have met with an old English Trans- 
lation of it, from the Italian original, long before Father 
Parsons laid his Hands upon it. Again I found a Second 
Edition in English by Father Parsons himself; in both 
which Editions, Gaspar Loartes is acknowledged to be 
Author; and at these Times, it had the name of the 
' Christian Exercise.' At length some Zealots of your 
Society (if not Father Parsons himself) publish'd it in 
his name, with the Stile a little open'd, and a Discourse 
concerning God's Existence and Truths of Christianity 
by way of Introduction, prefix'd unto it : and this is all 
the Grounds which has drawn some into a mistake con- 
cerning the Author. I am not alone in these Observa- 
tions : The Clergy above one Hundred Years ago, repre- 
sented you as Plagiaries upon this same Account : as I 
find them recorded in several Memoirs and Letters. Also 
Dr. Wood, a diligent and very impartial Writer, will not 
pillow Father Parsons any more, but the credit of being a 
Collector and Translator of other Men's thoughts." 
jrp, 129, 130. 

Dodd, the writer of the above book, was a bitter 
antagonist of the Jesuits, and I should be glad to 
know whether his statement as to the authorship 
of the ' Christian Directory ' can be corroborated 
from other sources. J. J. H. 

inform us where the following lines occur ? 
How rev'rend is the face of this tall pile, 
Whose ancient pillars rear their marble heads 
To bear aloft its arch'd and ponderous roof, 
By its own weight made steadfast and immovable, 
Looking tranquillity ! It strikes an awe 
And terror on my aching sight. The Tombs 
And monumental caves of death look cold, 
And shoot a chillness to my trembling heart ! 
Give me thy hand, and let me hear thy voice ; 
Nay, quickly speak to me, and let me hear 
Thy voice mine own affrights me with its echoes. 

N. M. & A. 

THS BASQUE PEOPLE. In or about the year 
1854 I read a book, then quite new, giving an 
account of travels in Western France, in which 
there were some details regarding the daily life of 
the Basque people, which I am anxious to refer to. 

Among other things, it is said that the peasants all 
use coat-armour. Their shields are carved over 
their doorways. I cannot call to mind the name 
of the author or the title of the volume. Can any 
one help me 1 K. P. D. E. 

correspondents tell me where I can find these lines 
on Bishop Colenso ? 

To own that I am in the dark 
Because I 've doubts 'bout Noah's Ark, 
And then to have to tell all men so, 
Is not the course for Yours, 


There were more of them, but I cannot now 
recollect them. WM. GRAHAM F. PIGOTT. 

Abington Pigotts. 

What Northumbrian name is hidden under these 
forms, used by the Scotch historian Leslie? He 
makes it a town near which the Earl of Angus 
encamped in 1461, before relieving a number of 
Frenchmen in Alnwick. W. M. 

ANTHONY HORNECK, D.D., 1641-1696. Is there 
any engraved portrait in existence of this divine, 
who is said to have been " a man of great piety and 
profound learning"; and was he author of a number 
of treatises and theological works ? He was edu- 
cated at Queen's College, Oxford, Vicar of All 
Saints' in Oxford, and Prebendary of Westminster. 
He is, I believe, buried in either the Abbey or the 
Cloisters, and, according to an old guide-book to 
the Abbey and its monumental inscriptions, the 
following verses, in Hebrew, from the Psalms, were 
cut upon his gravestone : 

All my bones shall say, 
Lord, who is like unto thee ? 

Is this epitaph still in existence ? I am trusting 
to a very distant memory, not having seen the 
guide-book since my boyhood. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

one tell me the name of, or give any information 
about, the master stonemason employed on the 
Pantheon in Oxford Street, London, circa 1772? He 
lived on the south side of Parliament Stairs, West- 
minster, and his stoneyard abutted on the Thames 
on the west. W. B. THOMAS. 


SCOLAN. I give the following translation from 
an old Welsh history in order to make an inquiry : 

" After this the Welsh chieftains submitted to the 
King of England [Edward I.], and he received them to 
his favour without punishing any; and he gave to the 
heirs of the rebels the inheritances which they had lost. 
But lest his temperance in this matter should occasion 
another rebellion, he assured them that he would utterly 
destroy their nation if they attempted to oppose his 

8 th 8. VI. AUG. 18, '94.] 



authority again. The moat famous of the Welsh noble 
men were retained in different castles in England whilst 
the King was carrying on the war in Scotland. Some of 
them were retained in the Tower of London, and they 
sent for old Welsh writings in order that they might 
amuse their minds in their captivity by reading ; and so 
the Tower of London became in time the chief storehouse 
of Welsh lore. This valuable collection was afterwards 
burned by one Scolan, who is known to the world only as 
the author of this scandalous act, which caused so great 
a loss to the Welsh." 


Is there anything known of this Scolan ? 
he hold any office ? What was the motive which 
actuated him in this infamous act ? 


tion as to the origin or early history of the above 
village, or any tradition, &c., connecting it in any 
way with the St. Fagan who is supposed to have 
assisted in introducing the Christian religion into 
the British islands in the second century, will be 
thankfully received. Also any hints, with a view 
to future research, in the above direction. 

0. S. F. F. 

plate, dexter, Stanhope; sinister, Arg., two annu- 
lets interlaced between three cross forme"e gules 

{apparently Thornhagh). What marriage is here 
commemorated ? 


GOLD RING. The following is from the Archceo- 
logical Journal, vol. ii., 1846 : 

" Mr. Hodejkinson, of East Acton, sent, for the inspec- 
tion of the Committee [of the Archseological Society] 
a gold ring, engraved both in the interior and exterior 
with cabalistic characters ; date about the middle of the 
fourteenth century. It was discovered in a creek of the 
Thames in the parish of Fulham." 

Can any one say where this ring may now be seen, 
or add aught to the above ? 


dates of his birth and death. Redgrave and the 
'Dictionary of National Biography,' in their 
accounts of his more famous nephew, John 
Hamilton Mortimer, agree that he "was a painter 

(8 th S. v. 507.) 

I believe I am correct in stating that no pedi- 
gree of the D wights has hitherto appeared in 
Did | print, and the article in the 'D. N. B.' is genea- 
logically meagre. I am, therefore, glad of the 
opportunity of placing here on record such infor- 
mation upon the subject as I possess. 

William D wight, citizen and tallowchandler of 
London, was buried at St. Peter's, Cornhill, 
April 18, 1637, seized of freehold lands at Wemb- 
ley and Aperton, in Harrow-on-the-Hill. From 
his will (P.C.C., 83 Goare) it appears that he had 
a kinsman Philip D wight, and as Philip was 
afterwards a name in the Fulham family, it is 
possible that the citizen was a collateral ancestor 
of the potter. To come to more certain facts, 
however, Joane D wight, of St. Peter le Bailey, 
Oxford, widow, by will dated Oct. 22, 1677 
(proved June 17, 1680, P.C.C., 77 Bath), desires 
sepulture beside her relatives in Ifley Church, gives 

legacies to brothers and cousins named Evans, and 
" to my daughter-in-law Joane Goeth 10s. to buy 
her a ring." This bequest proves testatrix to have 
been either mother or stepmother to the potter, 
as we shall presently see. 

John D wight, of the City of Chester, was on 
June 29, 1661, appointed secretary to Bishop 
Bryan Walton (and so continued to his successors 
Bishops Feme, Hall, and Wilkins). Dec. 17 fol- 
lowing he became B.C.L. of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford. There is nothing in the ' Alumni ' to tell us 
whether he was ever an undergraduate or held 
any minor degrees ; but possibly " the late troubles " 
may account for our lack of information upon the 
subject. The births of his three elder children at 
Cheater prove his residence in that city till 1665 ; 
but between that date and the end of 1668 he 
migrated to Wigan, Lancashire. This is account- 
able ; the bishops of Chester had a house at Wigan. 

of some ability"; and Chalmers is no less laudatory, From Charles II., Dwight obtained the first patent 

styling him "an itinerant painter of merit much 
above mediocrity." Critics may judge for them- 
selves if they wish. He decorated St. Clement's 
Church in this town. In the words of 'The 
Hastings Guide,' 1797, " In this church is likewise 
a very neat altar-piece by Mortimer." It had 
"the heavenly regions" on the ceiling; Faith, 
Hope, Charity, below ; and Moses and Aaron with 
the Ten Commandments. All these works of art 
have gone from the church years ago; but Moses 
and Aaron still survive. They may be seen, life 
ize, and Aaron especially very like, in the en- 
trance hall of the Literary Institution, in George 

for his invention, April 23, 1671, his second being 
dated June 12, 1684. In the mean time he had 
given up his official post and gone to settle at 
Fulham, dr. 1675. What decided the selection 
of Fulham as the site of his manufacture we shall 
probably never know, bub here he continued to 
reside for the remainder of his life, and here he 
ended his days in 1703, although that parish register 
contains no entry of his burial. Possibly he was 
" carried away " to Wigan, but more likely this is 
only one more case of clerical omission. In his 
will (dated Jan. 13, 1702/3, proved by his relict 
Oct. 23, 1703, P.C.O., 165 Degg), he desires "to 
be buried privately without charge or trouble to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rs* s. vi. A, is, '94. 

survivors,"* gives "to my sister Goweth," life 
annuity of lOZ., and to Mr. John Goweth, of Ox- 
ford, senior, 101. To Mrs. Anne Parker, of Toot- 
in?, 201 To Mr. Nathaniell Parker, of Fulham, 
201. To godson, John D wight, 200Z., to be in- 
vested in his behalf. To son, Mr. Philip Dwight, 
D.D., 1001 yearly for next three years. "To my 
undutifull son, Mr. Samuel Dwight, the sum of 5L, 
desiring his mother, my executrix, according to her 
ability to confer on him what he may hereafter 
deserve when he shall return to his duty. To my 
wife, Mrs. Lydia Dwight, all my title in my now 
dwelling-house and all personal estate, in full 
assurance that she will employ it to the best 
advantage of her son or sons, as one or both shall 
deserve, which I myself would have done if my 
circumstances had permitted. And if upon further 
Tryall it shall be thought fit to continue the Manu- 
facture by me invented and set up at Fulham, and 
the same in part or all shall be disposed of by my exe- 
cutrix to the use and benefit of the said Mr. Philip 
Dwight and his son, then from such date the said 
payment yearly to him of 100Z. shall cease. My 
wife sole executrix." 

I have no record of the death of his widow, nor 
do I know her maiden name. Her issue by John 
Dwight were, 

1. John, baptized at St. Oswald's, Chester, 
Nov. 5, 1662, ob. ju. Where buried ? 

2. George, baptized at St. Oswald's, Feb. 18, 
1663/4 ; matriculated at Christ Church, July 2, 
1683 ; B.A. 1687; M.A. from Brazenose, Feb. 5, 
1689/90 ; buried at Fulham, July 3, 1690. 

3. Gertrude, baptized at St. Oswald's, April 18, 
1665, obit ju. Where buried ? 

4. Lydia, baptized at Wigan, July 24, 1667, 
died March 3, 1673/4, of whom there is an effigy 
in South Kensington Museum. Where buried ? 

5. Samuel, baptized at Wigan, Dec. 25, 1668 ; 
admitted to Westminster School, 1686 ; matriculated 
at Christ Church, July 12, 1687 ; B. A. 1691 ; M. A. 
Feb. 14, 1693/4; wrote one of the Oxford poems 
on the birth of James, son of Jac. II., in 1688, and 
another on the return of William III. from Ire- 
land, 1690, after the Battle of the Boyne. A 
licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, 
June 25, 1731 ; author of three medical works, 
1722, 1723, and 1725, the last dedicated to Sir Hans 
Sloane, whom the writer was accustomed to con- 
sult in cases of more than ordinary difficulty arising 
in his practice at Fulham. His death at Fulham, 
Nov. 10, 1737, is duly recorded in the Gent. Mag., 
but unfortunately omitted from the Index Society's 
obituary. He was buried at Fulham, Nov. 17; 
will or administration not found. By Margaret, 
his wife, buried at Fulham, April 3, 1750, he had 
issue an only child. Lydia, baptized at Fulham, 

* If I may consider myself as included in the term 
survivors, his wishes, at the end of this century, at all 
events, have not been carried out. 

March 3, 1716/7, with consent; of her mother, 
Nov. 24, 1737, being then aged "upwards of 
twenty," had licence from the Bishop of London 
to marry at St. Bennet, Paul's Wharf, with Thomas 
Warland, of Fulham, bachelor, aged upwards of 
twenty-two. Margaret Dwight and Thomas War- 
land, of Fulham, potters, were gazetted bankrupts, 
January, 1746. 

6. Philip, of whom presently. 

7. Edmund, born at Fulham, 1676 ; admitted to 
Westminster School, 1687; matriculated at Christ 
Church, July 2, 1692, then aged sixteen ;. buried at 
Fulham, Nov. 6, 1692. 

Philip Dwight, baptized at Wigan, March 6, 
1670/1 ; admitted to Westminster, 1685 ; matri- 
culated at Christ Church, June 17, 1689 ; B.A. 
1693; M.A. 1696; B.D. and D.D. July 12, 1712; 
wrote one of the prize poems on the return of 
William III. from Ireland. Presented to the vicar- 
age of Fulham, 1708. Died there, Dec. 29, 1729, 
siezed of a copyhold under the manor of West Ham, 
Essex ; buried in the Fulham Churchyard, Jan. 2, 
aged fifty -nine ; will dated July 20, 1727 ; admon. 
Jan. 7, 1729/30 (P.C.C., 5 Auber), to son, because 
Jane, the wife, the sole executrix, was already 
dead. She was buried beside her husband, the 
funerals being solemnized on the same day. A 
monumental slab, still extant, displays their arms 
as, Dexter, a chevron ermine between three leo- 
pards' faces sinister ; a lion rampant and a canton. 

John Dwight, only child of Philip and Jane, 
went to reside at Wandsworth, having purchased 
a freehold of one Mr. Richard West. He was buried 
at Fulham, Dec. 13, 1746; will dated Oct. 3,1745; 
proved Dec. 6, 1746 (P.C.C., 348 Edmunds), by 
Milicent, his wife, who died in the parish of St. 
Clement Danes (admon., P.C.C., Aug. 23, 1742, 
to husband). He had issue a son Philip, who married 
at May fair Chapel, Oct. 8, 1752, with Sarah How, 
of Wandsworth, and had three children (vide 
' Wandsworth Register/ by J. T. Squire), George 
Henry, a Bluecoat boy, Jane, born Aug. 19, baptized 
at Fulham, Sept. 5, 1728, and Milicent, buried at 
Fulham May 3, 1732. 

I am unable to say whether there are any existing 
descendants, male or female, of John Dwight, the 
potter, and this note is already of abnormal length; 
but I cannot close without thanking Mr. Earwaker 
and Canon Bridgenian for kind assistance in its 
compilation, nor without expressing a hope that 
some reader of ' N. & Q.' will be able to add some- 
thing, however, small, towards making the bio- 
graphy of John Dwight and his decendants more 


Eden Bridge. 

Philip and John Dwight were sons of " a gentle- 
man in Oxfordshire" (vide Lysons's 'Environs,' 
vol. ii. p. 399). Philip married a Miss Owen, and 
died 1729, vicar of Fulham. John, the dates of 

8" 8. TI. AUG. 18, '94.] 



whose birth and death are unknown, had issue 
Samuel, Philip, John, and Lydia (ob. March 3, 
1672). In 1737, Samuel Dwight died, and about 
that time the Fulham pottery belonged to Margaret 
Dwight, who was "in partnership with a Mr. 
Warland, but they were not successful, for in 1746 
the Gazette informs us that Margaret Dwight and 
Thomas Warland, of Fulham, potters, were bank- 
rupts." She subsequently married William White, 
by whom she had issue, and died 1750. 

Who was this Margaret Dwight? Chaffers 
(' Pottery and Porcelain,' ed. 1874, p. 872) says 
she was daughter of John, the founder of the 
business, which, as Prof. Church (''English Earthen- 
ware,' 1884, p. 44) points out, is incredible, because 
in that case she would have been a sister of the 
Lydia Dwight who died in 1672 at the age of 
about fifteen, and, if so, must have been about 
seventy at the date of her marriage with Mr. 
White. The last-named author thinks and his 
surmise appears to me to be correct that Mar- 
garet was a granddaughter of John. MR. FERET 
writes of her as the widow of Samuel Dwight. 
Will he kindly give his reason for doing so ? 

Mrs. White left one or more sons. W. J. 
White was, I believe, one of them, and it was he 
who owned the manufactory in 1800-1813. 
John Dwight established a manufactory for the 
at Fulham in 1671 (not 
is dated April 23, 1671 ; 
June 12, 1684. Some of 
his works are very beautiful the bust of Prince 
Rupert, for instance. But perhaps the most inter- 
esting and at the same time pathetic relic of all is 

elected a scholar (of Wadham) June 30, 1780 ; 
remained at Wadham till November 29, 1785, 
when he became a fellow of Balliol. Presented 
by Balliol College to the livings of All Saints and 
St. Leonard's in Colchester, to which living he 
was instituted in 1797. Chosen Master of Balliol, 
November 14, 1798. Admitted to the office of 
Vice-Chancellor, December 29, 1807, which office 
he held until October, 1810. Promoted to the 
Deanery of Bristol, " after more than eleven years 
of unwearied attention to the good government of 
his college and of the University at large." (Date 
not further given ; presumably c. 1809 or 1810.) 
Consecrated Bishop of Peterborough December 12, 
1813. Died at Oxford March 12, 1819. Buried 
in Balliol College Chapel privately, " in accordance 
with the Bishop's constant disapprobation of all 
unnecessary display," the funeral being only 
attended by his near relatives and a few intimate 
friends. "This excellent man left an afflicted 
widow, but no children." He was a Delegate of 
the Clarendon Press. " Of his many admirable 
sermons, one preached before the House of Com- 
mons on the Fast Day, March 20, 1811, was 
printed by order of the House. Another, preached 
before the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts," was published by them 
in 1818. W. SYKES, F.S.A. 

If CANON VENABLES pleases to write to Mr. 
Herbert Parsons, of the Manor House, Elsfield, 
near Oxford, who is the bishop's great-nephew, I 
think he will probably learn as much as can now 
be known. 

to Cox's 

9 * wDjeccureiiB he was a pp oint ed one of the Select Preachers in 
tells its own tale, for on the back is in- i fin/l 

C ^i JM y f 


f0r T e r b - akiDg ' 

. - 

i V KM 6 ' 

tmplesof the Fulham ware in the British Museum. 

34, St. Petersburg Place W ' FE> 

(8 S. v. 467). In the Gentleman's Magazine, 
vol. Ixxxix. part i. May, 1819, p. 481, there is a 
memoir of the deceased bishop, from which I ex- 
tract the following, which may be useful to CANON 
VENABLES. Dates of academical degrees : B.A., 
June 27, 1782 ; M.A., December 17, 1785 ; B.D., 
April 24, 1799 ; D.D., April 30, 1799. Born 
July 6, 1761, at Oxford, in the parish of St. Aldate. 
At school "at a very early age," in the school 
belonging to the cathedral, from which he was 
"soon removed" to that of Magdalen College. 
At college : Admitted to Wadham June 26, 1777 ; 

Dr. Ingram, in his * Memorials of Oxford,' in 
the notice of Balliol College, prints at length the 
Latin epitaph on the bishop's monument in the 
chapel, p. 14. Here his character as a preacher is, 
" Concionandi genere forti limatoque prsestans," 
which agrees with the notice in the ' Recollections.' 
His practical wisdom as Master is insisted upon. 


He had a share in the curious imbroglio con- 
nected with White's Bampton Lectures. See " Dr. 
Samuel Parr," by De Quincey, ' Works,' v. 157. 


LEMON SOLE (8 th S. v. 509; vi. 78). This fish 
was first described by Yarrell in 1829, in the Zoo- 
logical Journal^ and more fully in his ' History of 
British Fishes,' 1836, vol. ii. p. 260. The person 
who gave it the name "lemon" must have had a 
strange eye for colour, the rind of the fruit being a 
brilliant light yellow, and the back of the fish, as 
described by Yarrell, being "a mixture of orange 



S. VI. AUG. 18, '94. 

and light brown, freckled over with numerous small 
round spots of dark nutmeg brown, giving a mottled 
appearance to the whole upper surface." I have 
often seen the fish in the Hastings market. 


CELLIWIG (8 th S. vi. 67). MR. HALLETT pro- 
poses to identify Celliwig, one of the three archi- 
episcopal cities where Arthur held his court, with 
Silchester, where he was crowned. In support of 
this contention he has strangely omitted to notice 
the identity of the name. The older name of Sil- 
chester was Calleva, which with the Welsh forma- 
tive suffix ig would become Callewig. 


SUNSET (8 tb S. iv. 521 ; v. 71, 296, 458). Your 
correspondent says " is being " is odious to him. 
Let him read chap. v. of Max Adeler's ' Out of the 
Hurly Burly '(Ward, Lock, Bowden & Co., pp. 81-3), 
and the phrase will perhaps become amusing to him. 

W. C. B. 

MR. WILSON states that the form " The house 
is being built " is odious. Perhaps he will tell us, 
as a matter of general comparative grammar, whether 
in languages like the English, having the form " is 
building," the form "is being built" is also to be 
found. HYDE CLARKE. 

VILLAGE SUPERSTITIONS (8 th S. v. 484 ; vi. 75) 
MR. PEACOCK may be interested in hearing 
of another Lindsey churchyard in which ancient 
burials on the north side have been found. In 
1889 a small vestry was built against the north 
wall of Swinhope Church, and traces of seven or 
eight very old interments were found in digging 
the three short trenches for the foundations, the 
bodies lying very closely packed, about three feet 
from the surface. In one case two persons had 
been buried, one above the other, in the same 
grave, in a coffin made of loose slabs of chalk, 
roughly fitted together. This part of the ground, 
lying in the shadow of the church, has been wholly 
unused for burials in modern times ; further to 
the west there have been many interments, but 
only within the last forty-five years, and I believe 
no traces have been found of any old graves in 
that part. F. WM. ALINGTON. 

Charing Cross Road. 

THE DERBY (8 th S. vi. 68, 91). The following 
extract from an article contributed to the Liverpool 
Mercury of June, 1876, by a Manxman furnishes 
a reply to your correspondent's query : 

" The honour, if such it be, of founding ' The Derby ' 
is due to a greater earl than he who lived in 1780. 
Neither was it on English soil that the first Derby was 
contended for. James, the seventh Earl Derby, born in 
1606, called the great,' after the defeat of the Royalist 
cause by the Parliamentarians, betook himself to the 
Quietness and repose of his little kingdom of Man. Here, 
in the first instance, he seems to have given himself up 
to literary pursuits, as his letters to his eon and MSS. 

in existence testify. But he was soon surrounded by 
troops of Royalist friends driven to the Isle of Man as 
exiles. These gay Cavaliers would not be likely to for- 
get the merry days they had had in England, and there- 
fore lost no opportunity of establishing games and 
pastimes such as they were wont to indulge in on Eng- 
lish soil. The great Earl of Derby it may be, thankful 
for past favours and hopeful for those to come ' when 
the King should get his own again ' entered with some 
degree of spirit into the sports of the Cavaliers. He 
established a racecourse, and, moreover, he gave a sub- 
stantial prize to be run for. This was The Derby Cup,' 
and was contended for on July 28 in each year by horses 
bred in the Isle of Man. The racecourse was beauti- 
fully situated upon that strip of land which connects 
Langness with the mainland of the island, and close by 
the little fishing village of Derbyhaven, which doubtless 
was so named in honour of the then King of Mona. 
This was close to the seat of the great earl at Castle 

See also ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. iii. 251, 398. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Mr. Walford states in ' Greater London ' (vol. ii. 
p. 264) that "the Derby stakes were first in- 
stituted in 1780, the Oaks being the elder race by 
a year." He adds that both the "Derby" and 
the "Oaks" were named in compliment to the 
Earl of Derby of that day, who " had for many 
years a hunting-box for his stag-hounds near 
Epsom, which was called 'The Oaks."' If so, 
there is no reason for supposing that the name 
came from the Isle of Man. 


In Scott's ' Peveril of the Peak,' note 5, there is 
a copy of the rules under which horse-racing in the 
Isle of Man was conducted. Only horses foaled in 
the Island and Calf were allowed to enter. G. J. 

LIES DEAD (8 th S. vi. 65). That the presence of 
a corpse makes a room incurably cold must be, of 
course, the merest folk-lore. When I was a curate 
in a Lancashire town I have visited (e. g.) a cellar, 
where the family had but that one room. The 
mother would be baking the week's bread ; in an 
opposite corner would be " the body," awaiting 
the funeral ; perhaps in the middle of summer ; 
the air like that of a baker's oven. In the country, 
a dead body upstairs, under the thatch of a cottage, 
is a thing to be remembered. W. C. B. 

OXFORD M.P.s (8 th S. v. 448; vi. 75). John 
Nixon, sometime M.P. for Oxford, was the son 
of John Nixon, of Bletchingdon, Oxon, husband- 
man. Apprenticed to William Boswell, of Oxford, 
mercer, on the expiration of his indentures he 
was, on Feb. 3, 1625, admitted a freeman of 
Oxford. He entered the City Council in 1627, 
and filled in succession the usual civic offices, and 
carried on the business of a mercer in a house just 
opposite the porch of St. Mary's Church, the erection 
of which by Laud so much scandalized Puritan 

8'" S. VI. Atw. 18, '94.} 



feeling. He was a witness against the archbishop 
on his trial. In 1658 he endowed a grammar 
school with 301 a year for the benefit of forty 
boys, sons of freemen, the Corporation having 
provided a site and the building. The religious 
teaching was to be based upon the Assembly's 
Shorter Catechism. A scheme for the management 
of this endowment has just been settled by the 
Charity Commissioners. There are admirable 
portraits of John Nixon and Mrs. Joan Nixon, his 
wife (who was a benefactor to the school), in the 
Council Chamber of Oxford. Alderman Nixon 
died in 1662, and was buried in St. Mary's Church. 
See also ' Life of A. Wood/ edited by Bliss, 1848, 
pp. 78, 79. C. MOORE. 


306, 436). To those works referred to by me at the 
last reference should be added 'Natural History of 
Insects mentioned in Shakespeare,' by K. Patter- 
son, London, 1842, and 'The Ornithology of 
Shakespeare,' by J. E. Harting, London, 1892, 
which form the basis of an article on ' Shake- 
speare's Birds and Beasts ' in the Quarterly Review 
for April, 1894 (pp. 340-362). A. C. W. 

EDINBURGHEAN GRAMMAR (8 th S. vi. 8, 53). 
I had no idea till I read PROF. SKEAT'S note at 
the last reference that the abuse of the first per- 
sonal pronoun was so common as he avers it to be ; 
but I must demur to his statement that "it is 
common everywhere." I never heard educated 
people in the northern counties of Scotland make 

iv. 149). This question, asked nearly twelve 
months ago, to which, so far as I know, no reply 
has yet been received, is difficult to answer. The 
number of acres in a hide varied in different 
parts of the country, and depended on the quality 
of the land. In Sayer's ' History of Bristol,' vol. i. 
chap. v. p. 326 (1821), he says : 

" But from Domesday Book it is evident that the Hide 
was an ancient Saxon measurement of value, not of 
quantity ; so that a hide of bad or barren land contained 
far more acres than a hide of good land, and all the hides 
were consequently, though of different extent, yet of 
equal value, and paid equal geld or tax." 

In Faulkner's 'Chelsea' very much to the same 
effect will be found. PAUL BIERLEY. 

LORD LYTTELTON (8 th S. v. 367, 395). Thomas, 
second Lord Lyttelton (states the contemned but 
helpful Chalmers), " closed this unhappy life " in 
1779, and in 1780 was published a quarto volume 
of ' Poems,' which his executors publicly disowned, 
as " great part whereof are undoubtedly spurious." 
But this nobleman married Apphia, daughter of 
Broome Witts, Esq., of Chipping Norton, and 
widow of Joseph Peach, Esq., Governor of Cal- 
cutta (' Annual Register,' xxii. 249). 

The Brassey Institute, Hastings. 

TROY TOWN (8 th S.iv.8, 96 ; v. 37, 76, 351). The 
statement made at the last reference, that Walter 
Mapes supplied Geoffrey of Monmouth with the 
book of Breton legends on which his history was 

,., T , ,i founded, is incorrect, as Walter Mapes was not 

this mistake, while I have often heard it spoken of made A chdeacon of 6 xford till 1196 f some forty 
and laughed at there as an Edmburghism. yearg after Geoffrey > s death< Tne Wa ' lter referre j 

CE< to is Walter Calenius, who was Archdeacon of 

Dickens wrote and wrote twice in three lines Oxford at the time of the publication of Geoff rey'd 

what MR. BIERLEY says his English examiner History' (1147). E. S. A. 
would never have written. " Now my dear sir," 

GEORGE SAMUEL (8 th S. vi. 28). If your corre- 
spondent will turn to ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. ii. 236, 
316, he will find the different places where this 
artist resided, the number of pictures exhibited 
JEWS AND PLACE-NAMES (8 th S. vi. 45). Lon- by him, and the manner of his death. Should he 

says Perker to Jingle, at the White Hart, " be- 
tween you and I I say, between you and I, 

we know it." W, F. WALLER. 

clon as a surname is uncommon, but not unknown. 
It is by no means necessarily Jewish. There was 
a Dr. London employed by Cromwell on the visita- 
tion of the English monasteries in 1535-1536. 
As Jews were not permitted to live in England at 
that time, we may feel satisfied that he was of our 
own race. There are many references to this per- 
son in the index to the Kev. F. A. Gasquet's 
Henry VIII. and the English Monasteries,' and 
in fact in many other books treating on that period. 
Some of his letters are given in Wright's ' Letters 
relating to the Suppression of the Monasteries.' 
From Mr. Marshall's 'Genealogist's Guide' I 
gather that there is a pedigree of a family bearing 
the name of London in Morant's 'Essex,' ii. 219. 

experience any difficulty in referring to the volume, 
mine is open for his inspection. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

A copy of "Grove-Hill, a Descriptive Poem, 
with an Ode to Mithra, by the Author of ' Indian 
Antiquities' [Rev. Thomas Maurice], the En- 
gravings on Wood by J. Anderson, from Drawings 
by G. Samuel," 4to., London, 1799, finds a place 
in the British Museum Library. For an account 
of Samuel's works see 6 th S. ii. 236, 316. 


DANTEIANA (8 th S. v. 481). Dante in making 
ghosts do acts which could be expected only from 
substantial creatures follows Homer and Horace. 



[8 th S, VI. AUG. 18, '94. 

Homer in the ' Odyssey ' makes the ghosts drink 
blood. Horace, in the eighth satire of the first 
book, makes the witches pour blood into a trench, 
evidently in order that the ghosts which are 
raised may drink. E. YARDLEY. 

Dante, in the 'Inferno,' xiv., xxxi., xxxiii., 
xxxiv., mentions " Cocytus," which was one of the 
streams of Tartarus, and is introduced into the 
Vulgate version of Job xxi. 33. See ' N. & Q.,' 
8 tto S. ii. 125, where references to Dante and to 
Plato's ' Phaedo ' should be added. PROF. TOM- 
LINSON approaches too nearly to subjects of theo- 
logical controversy, forbidden to ' N. & Q.' 

W. C. B. 

A PERSIAN AMBASSADOR (8 th S. v. 428). I 
regret that I am unable to answer E. H. A.'s query, 
but I am interested in Hullmandel, on account of 
that distinguished lithographer having resided at 
Dungannon House, Fulham. Would E. H. A. 
kindly tell me the date of the portrait 1 I notice 
that he writes " Huilmandell" with two Z's at the 
end. Is this correct ? (My reference is, of course, 
to Charles Joseph Hullmandel). 


174, 245, 311, 414). A friend of mine, now 
deceased, told me that he had on one occasion 
bathed in the Dead Sea, and that he should never 
forget the remarkable buoyancy of the water, upon 
which he could float without exerting the slightest 
effort. This was in days long before a visit to the 
Holy Land was so common an occurrence as it is 
now, and when " personally conducted tours " 
were things wholly unheard of. 

It will prove interesting to mention some 
instances of megaliths in existence which seem 
to indicate that the account of Lot's wife being 
turned into a pillar of salt has pervaded the 
world. In the small remote parish of Little Boll- 
right,* on the extreme border of Oxfordshire, is a 
remarkable circle of stones, and about eighty yards 
distant, situated in Warwickshire, is a megalith or 
monolith, usually called the King. It is 8 ft. 6 in. 
in height, 7 ft. broad, and 12 in. in thickness ; and 
the legend runs that the king and his army were 
turned into stone when invading England. Popular 
tradition asserts that the gigantic stones at Stone- 
henge, " on Sarum's lonely plain," once were human 
beings, and that the stones at Stennis, in Ork- 
ney, were once endowed with life. Sir Walter 
Scott, in the * Black Dwarf ' (chap, i.), has given a 
realistic description of Mucklestane Moor and the 
large fragments of stone upon it, called the Grey 
Geese, whilst a " huge column of unhewn granite 
raises its massy head and towers above them." To 

* See an article on ' The Rollright Stones ' ii 
< N. & Q.,' 5th s. xii. 125, describing more fully a visi 
paid by me to that relic of antiquity. 

go back to the mythical period, we read of Perseus, 
jon of Zeus and Danae, turning people into stone 
ay showing them the head of the Gorgon Medusa 
fastened on his segis. 

The idea seems to have been as prevalent and 
universal as that of the deluge or cataclysm, which 
is frequently alluded to by many writers amongst 
the most civilized as well as barbarous nations in 
bhe world. Yet classic writers, as Lucian, Ovid, 
and Pindar, confine the cataclysm to Hellas. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

That Barneses II. carried on wars with the Hit- 
tites in the land of the Canaanites has been known 
ever since the third Sallier papyrus was translated 
and understood, which is many years back, and it 
was precisely in reference to the new discoveries 
with respect to the Hittites that the discussion 
about the Pharaoh of the Exodus was carried on in 
the Times in the autumn of 1892. In the Oriental 
Congress of the same year Prof. Hechler gave an 
address on this very subject, and, after giving 
cogent reasons for supposing Thothmes III. to have 
been the Pharaoh of the Exodus (i.e., of the 
Oppression), he said he "protested against the 
statement which was continually being made that 
Barneses II. was the Pharaoh of the Exodus." 

Will MR. LYNN kindly inform me what proof 
there is that Prof. Hechler and the other Egypto- 
logists mentioned in my previous communication 
have altered their opinions about the Pharaoh of 
the Oppression, and what the new discoveries ex- 
actly are that have induced them to do so ? 



If, as PROF. TOMLINSON admits, we have a shower 
of solids, apparently salt, whenever crossing the 
comet's path a short way behind it, I see no 
escape from the conclusion that the comet drops 
these salt meteors. There is no historical case of 
a fall of salt ; but I have found no account of a 
visit to the salt hill at Biskrah that does not insist 
on its appearance of having fallen from the sky. 

I find that Gomorrah is not to be connected with 
the Amorites any more than with Amarus, as it 
began with a different letter. E. L. G. 

508). The context shows clearly enough that in 
Mr. Andrew Lang's line 

Yet art thou with this earth's immortal three 
the word with is to be taken in the sense of 
"numbered with." Jeanne d'Arc is one among 
the three most conspicuous instances in the world's 
history of slandered beneficence, of goodness 
regarded as impiety. Mr. Lang is not the first to 
have associated the names of Socrates and Jesus in 
this connexion, and, I think, not the first poet ; 
others may be able to furnish a parallel. Among 

8 h 8. VI. AUG. 18, '94.] 



these victims of calumny, these types of judicial 
murder, a Dutchman might with justice desire to 
include John of Barneveldt as a fourth in "this 
strange [?] company." 

As to the point of grammar, it is an insignificant 
licence compared with Milton's famous solecism, 

Adam the goodliest man of men since born 
His sons, the fairest of her daughters Eve. 

2, Hawkswood Villas, Chingford. 

derivations of gogue, goguette, &c., are unknown, 
also of coquin, which latter word seems to come 
near our subject. Ten Brink refers to the old 
fable of the Land of Cokaygne (as he spells it), 
and a version satirizing the lazy life in a monastery 
(' Early English Literature,' 1891, vol. i. 259). A 
quaint English ballad on 'Lubberland' may be 
found in several collections. I fear I have only 
touched the fringe of the subject. 


COCKNEY (8* 11 S. vi. 64). Almost a volume 
might be written about this word. Tyrwhitt said 
it was probably a word of contempt borrowed from 
the kitchen to describe an inhabitant of Lubber- 

Far in see by West Spagne 

Is a lond ihote Cokagne. , - f ^ 

say that I now know better, thanks to Dr. Murray. 
The word cockney was unknown in the thirteenth 

The remarks at this reference explain nothing. 
The word cockney was trisyllabic in Chaucer's time, 
and was spelt cokenay. This, as the suffix shows, 
is quite a different word from cokinus, which is 
merely the modern French coquin. I can say this 
the more readily because I at one time advocated 

luxury and sloth, when he snapped his fingers at 

the King of Cokeney. 

A very interesting article on * Coccayne and the 
Cockneys ' appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine 
of 1838. It is reprinted in the "Gentleman's 
Magazine Library " ' Dialects, &c.,' 1884, pp, 

MR. C. W. ERNST seems to be familiar with the 
' N. E. D.' and Prof. Skeat's treatment of the word. 
The old jape of a citizen's son's surprise at the cock 
neighing has often been told, as of 

A daf, a cokenay. 

Perhaps Boileau's lines are not so familiar : 
Paris est pour un riche un pays de Cocagne : 
Sans sortir de la ville, il trouve la campagne. 

Satire vi. 119-20. 

In a note to this M. Geruzez, one of Boileau's 
editors, says : 

" On n'est pas d'accord sur Tetymologie de ce mot. 
Huet veut que ce soit une corruption de gogaille, gogue, 
goguette. La Monnoye le fait venir de Merlin Coccaie 
(Folengo), qui, dans ea premiere Macaronee, decrit une 

contree qui serait un paradis pour les gastrelatres 

Ne pourrait-on pas tirer tout simplement son nom de 
<oquina, cuisine? Le savant La Monnoye se trompe evi- 

demment Nous avons un fabliau du XIIl e ou du XIV e 

siecle, qui a pour titre : C'est li fabliaus de Coquaigne. 
La maniere dont ce mot est ecrit vient a 1'appui de 1'ety- 
mologie que nous proposons. Voici quelque vers de ce 
fabliau, 1'un dea plus piquants du recueil de M6on (tome 

century. It first appears in the fourteenth, when 
it is used by Chaucer as a very strong term of 
reproach. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

iv. p. 175) : 

Li pai's a nom Coquaigne 
Qui plus y dort, plus y gaaigne ; 
Gil qui dort jusqu'a miedi, 
Gaaigne cine sols et demi. 
De bars, de saumons et d'aloses, 
Sont toutes les maisons encloses ; 
Li chevrons y sont d'esturgons, 
Les couvertures de bacons (jambons) 
Et les lates sont de saucisses, &c. 
Le pays de Cocagne (Coquaigne) est done une vaste 

cuisine offerte par la nature a 1'appetit des gourmands. 

C est YUtopie des gastronomes." 

Brachet's French dictionary states that the 

Taylor, in his ' Antiquitates Curiosse,' makes the 
following suggestion for the origin of this word : 

A citizen of London making an excursion with his 
son to the neighbourhood of Higbgate, the lad (who had 
never before taken a journey of such magnitude and 
extent), happening to hear a horse neigh (which was 
quite new to him), hastily exclaimed, ; How that horse 
barks, daddy ! ' ' Barks, you booby ! ' replied the father ; 
( neighs, you mean ! ' They had not proceeded far when 
the youth, finding his ears assailed by the sudden crow- 
ing of a cock, was so fascinated with the shrill and 
unexpected sound, that he instantly attracted his com- 
panion's attention with ' Hark, daddy, how that cock 
neighs ! 'to which happy effusion of fancy the citizens 
of London -will probably stand indebted for the name of 
Cockney to the end of time." 


" FIFTY-DOLE" (8 th S. vi. 47). Worthy, in his 
'Practical Heraldry' (1889), p. 212, under the 
heading of " Liveries," says : 

Livery is derived from the French word livrer, to 
deliver or give, and thus, from time to time, it has really 
signified anything given or delivered. The distribution 
of provisions amongst retainers or the poor haa been 
called liveries, and in the neighbourhood of the city of 
Exeter there is a place called Livery Dole, which is 
derived from this term, and where some almshouses of 
an ancient foundation still stand." 

And in the same author's 'History of the Suburbs 
of Exeter' (1892), speaking of Livery Dole, he 

says : 

Dole is a Saxon word, which literally means a part 
or pittance, thence an alms. I incline to the opinion 
that the place received its name because this chapel was 
unendowed and depended for its support upon the gifts 
and alms of the charitable, who by their free offerings 
thus provided the prayers and masses for the souls of 
departed criminals. Jenkins in his ' History of Exeter ' 
I gives a different reason, and says that it was so called 



' because the magistrates and citizens, in their midsummer 
watch and other processions, dressed in their livery gowns, 
here dispensed their alms to the poor.' This explanation, 
however, is scarcely likely to be correct, if for no other 
reason, because the spot is outside the limits of the 
ancient glacis of the Exeter fortifications, and therefore 
beyond the jurisdiction of the city authoritiea. The 
earliest mention of Livery Dole occurs in a deed dated 
Exeter, the first day of August, 1270 ; and in another 
deed of 2nd Richard II., 1379, some land is said to be 
bounded by 'the highway leading from Lever-dole 
towards Monkinlake ' ; and again, in 1440, there is a 
record of 'the lane called Rygway, which leads from 
Levery Dole up the highway, leading from Exeter to 
Polslo. There is no mention of Livery Dole chapel in 
a deed preserved at the Guildhall, dated in 1418, which 
mentions the chapels of St. Loye and of St. Clement. 
Still the ' doles ' may have been provided for prayers or 
masses for the objects I have mentioned, to be said in the 
chapel of Exeter Castle, or even Heavitree Church, and 
the absence of a chapel at Livery Dole the place of 
execution where the alms of the charitable were 
collected and given to the priest, would not interfere 
with my supposed origin of the name." 

The Eev. Thomas Benet, M.A., who was burnt 
to death as a heretic on Jan. 15, 1531/2, is believed 
to be the last person who suffered at Livery Dole, 
the place of execution being removed soon after- 
wards to Kingswell. When excavating for the 
foundations of the new almshouses at Livery Dole, 
in 1851, the iron ring that was wont to encircle 
the victims' bodies, and the chain used to fasten 
them to the stake, were dug up. 

It will be seen by the above that Lieut. Worthy's 
references to the use of the word dole are very 
much earlier than is the sixteenth century one 
H. J. 0. calls attention to. Its meaning, as given in 
Routledge's * Dictionary,' that happens to be before 
me, is "anything dealt out, provision or money 
given in charity, portion, lot, grief, sorrow"; and 
these seem to be the precise definitions I should 
expect to hear given in any part of the English- 
ylobe. Certain it is that it does not 
rs. Hewett's * Peasant Speech of Devon ' 
(1892). She gives (pp. 71-80): 

" Doiled=ai\ly. ' Thee 'rt agoed doiled til-day, by tha 
Hikes o't ! Whot iver 'ast abin adiiing we' thee zel] ' " 

" Dollop=& big lump. ' Whot iver didee put zich gert 
dollops ov suet intii the pudden vur, Lizzie V " 

" Do.v=half-witted. Poor old Mrs. Fangdin is getty 
dotty, th'of 'er've a knaw'd a theng or tii in 'er life-time 
za well's Dr. Budd?'" 

These three words are the nearest approach ] 
find in my good friend Mrs. Hewett's pleasant 
little work upon the local dialect "down-along'" 
to that of dole. 

Since writing the above, it occurs to me that 
Dol, in Brittany (known in Roman times as 
Campi dolentes), is another illustration of the use 
of the word dole. It dates from very early times, 
for so long ago as A.D. 843 Convoion, Bishop o 
Eedon, crowned Nomenoe, King of Brittany, there 
I certainly remember hearing, on the spot, thai 
either the cathedral or the land on which i 

tands was given by one benefactor, hence its- 
name Dol. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

" GOOD INTENTIONS " (8 th S. v. 8, 89, 212, 276), 
Is there not a body of theological controversy 
ying under the proverb about the paving of pan- 
demonium ? MR. ADAMS finds it first in English 

n 1640. But it seems to be only a crisp and 
pungent form of one of the propositions con- 
lemned as heretical by Archbishop Warham in 
1530 : " Beware of good entents ; they are dampned 

f God." Quoted from Wilkins's 'Concilia, 7 
p. 729, in Hart's < Ecclesiastical Records,' p. 397. 


LADY HESTER STANHOPE (8 tb S. vi. 88). She 
was daughter of Earl Stanhope, and niece of 
William Pitt, whose house she kept when he lived 
n Downing Street. An account of her eccentricities 
and her life in the East will be found in Mr. E. 
Walford's ' Tales of Great Families, 7 vol. ii., second 
series. Mus- IN URBE. 

Is Mr. Pitt's niece forgotten so soon ? She was 
born 1776, and died (on Mount Lebanon) 1839. 
See * Annual Register,' for long obituary. King- 
ake met her, and a chapter in ' Eothen ' is devoted 


44). MR. TEGG, quoting the often repeated " pro- 
phecy " about the evil consequences to ensue when 
the dragon of Bow Church and the grasshopper 
of the Exchange shall meet, attributes the author- 
ship of the prediction to Mother Shipton. Can 
you refer me to any evidence on this point, or tell 
me whether the " prediction'' is really older than 
the ' Wonderful Prophecy breathed forth in the 
Year 1712,' by Dean Swift? In this burlesque 
effusion, among other tokens of the woe denounced 
upon London, and of the approaching end of the 
world, the dean assures us that "the Dragon upon 
Bow Church and the Grasshopper upon the Royal 
Exchange shall meet together upon Stocks Mar- 
ket, and shake hands like brethren." Did the 
dean borrow this prediction ; or has his fame as a- 
" prophet " been eclipsed in this instance by that 
of Mother Shipton ? F. WM. ALINGTON. 

"SOJOTJRNARS": "ADVENA" (8 th S. vi. 27). 
The first word must be intended for sojourners,. 
temporary residents. The latter is the Latin for 
a stranger or foreigner. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"Advena" (venire ad) simply means one who 
has left his own native place to inhabit another,, 
as opposed to indigena (quasi inde gmitus), a 
native of the place he lives in. The meaning of both 
words is shown in the following, from 'Livy,' bk. 

. vi, AUG. 18, '94. ] 



21, 30, "Nee majores quidem eorum indigenas, 
sed advenas." G. T. SHERBORN. 


" Sojourner n is a description to be found in 
most parish registers. Your correspondent is pro- 
bably correct in his supposition. " Advena," 
would, I think, indicate a new-comer, or one who 
had recently acquired a settlement ; but this I write 
without any grave authority for the statement. 


Eden Bridge. 

"DURING" (8 th S. vi. 28). Your correspond- 
ent seems to be under a misconception. " During 
the week " is an ablative absolute, as we used to 
be taught. The week was enduring, i.e., still 
going on, when the two books were issued. Some- 
times a clerk is instituted to a benefice sede vacante ; 
but this does not imply that the act of institution 
occupied the whole period of the vacancy. 

W. C. B. 

MR. BATNE asks whether "it is correct to use 
during with reference to a point of time and the 
occurrence of a particular event ; or whether the 
word should not always denote continuity of exist- 
ence or action "; and he cites as an instance of 
the misuse of the term such a sentence as this, 

"Two books have been issued during the 

week." The word is here correctly used, and does, 
of course, denote continuity ; but MR. BATNE 
seems to have been misled by a confusion of ideas. 
He refers " during," in the example he gives, to 
the act of publication, whereas it really applies to 
the continuance of that portion of time which is 
called a week. The publication might have oc- 
cupied only " a point of time," but even so it 
would have taken place during the week, i. e., 
while the week was " during " or " enduriag," or, 
as MR. BATNE himself phrases it, " in the course of 
the week." During was originally, says Prof. 
Skeat, the present participle of the (obsolete) verb 
dure, to last ; and surely the week was lasting 
while the publication took place. 

19, Tite Street, Chelsea. 

* GROVES OF BLARNET' (8 th S. v. 488). This 
song was written about 1798, by Richard Alfred 
Milliken, born at Castlemartyr, co. Cork, on 
Sept. 8, 1767, and died Dec. 16, 1815. He was 
buried at Douglas, near Cork, and his remains were 
honoured with a public funeral, his loss being so 
deeply lamented. There are various readings of 
some of the verses. Thomas Crofton Croker, in 
his ' Popular Songs of Ireland,' adopted the follow- 
ing version, which he states he printed from a 
MS. of the author : 

There 's statues gracing this noble place in, 
All heathen goddesses so fair 

Bold Neptune, Plutarch, and Nicodemus, 
All standing naked in the open air. 

Samuel Lover, in his ' Lyrics of Ireland,' 1858, 
gives the following variation in the second line : 

All heathen gods and nymphs so fair. 
The Kev. Francis Mahony (Father Prout, of 
Watergrasshill, co Cork), in his celebrated ' Re- 
liques,' has adopted Sir Walter Scott's rendering 
of the lines. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The song, with its "original" Greek, maybe 
seen in Father Prout's 'Reliques.' The second 
version (Scott's) is the correct. There are others 


DOUBLE SENSE : " COME " AND " Go " (8 th S. 
v. 126, 234, 336, 494). MR. WARD is ingenious, 
but not convincing. I asked my friend to "come," 
and he said he would " go." I maintain that he 
ought to have said he would " come." It is MR. 
WARD who poses as a grammarian, not I. I do 
not regard this as a question of grammar. The 
prosperity of a message (as of a jest) lies in the 
ear that hears it ; the sender, to make himself 
immediately intelligible, ought to put himself 
sympathetically in the place of the recipient. 
My friend's message seems to incidate that he 
was thinking more of his own movements than 
of my attitude ; it was addressed to his own 
thought rather than to my feelings. Moreover, 
" come " would have expressed his meaning, even 
to himself, more completely than " go " did. " Go," 
as MR. WARD virtually admits, requires supple- 
menting, " He will go from where he is to-morrow, 
and so doing will arrive at, or come to your place." 
The one word " come" would have expressed all this. 
I am really not unaware that we cannot come to one 
place without going from another ; but where the fact 
of arrival is the main point, it is proper to use the 
word that denotes arrival. And in good English 
this is invariably done ; the other form is a pecu- 
liarity of our northern speech. C. C. B. 

MR. WARD will not need to be reminded of 
Browning's : 

Say "No!" 
To that pulse's magnificent come-and-go. 

' The Laboratory.' 


TEAGUE (8 th S. ii. 161, 230, 350, 498). MR. J. 
HOOPER says that I derived Teague from Montague. 
I have not the number referred to in reach. It is 
at the binder's. I am very shy of philology, and 
I hardly think I can have ever intended to make 
tbis effort. I cannot recall such an opinion. Pro- 
bably what I meant was that the name Montague 
is corrupted in Ireland by the Irish to Teague in 
some cases. This is the case, and an ordinary in- 
stance of substituting a word they are familiar 
with for one like in sound or appearance that they 



do not know. Teague is an ancient Irish name 
(more often Tige), and will be found in the 'Annals 
of the Four Masters ' and other historical works. 

H. C. HART. 

P.S. I certainly did not say Mr. Matheson's 
paper appeared in the Ulster Journal of Archeo- 
logy. It was printed in Dublin in 1890. 

OASTS : HOSTELERS (8 th S. iii. 107, 134, 173, 
271 ; vi. 97). As an addition to my note on this 
subject it may be interesting to add that in 1503 
" John Osteler, of Norwich, fishmonger, otherwise 
called John Patherton," was buried in the church 
of the White Friars in that city (see J. Kirk- 
patrick's 'Religious Houses in Norwich,' pp. 184-5). 


ARKWRIGHT (8 th S. v. 308, 375, 497). It may 
be well to note that the word ark ( = chest or 
coffer), though it came to be widely used by our 
farmers and peasants, is really a Latin word, and 
therefore probably "came in with the Normans." 
Horace writes (1 Sat, i. 67), "Nummos con- 
templor in arcil" E. WALFORD, M.A. 


JEMMY= SHEEP'S HEAD (8 th S. v. 345,437). 
Had not MR. F&RET asked for further information, 
I should write no more about this word. With 
regard to the meaning " sheep's head," I think that 
the popular etymology, as set forth in the alter- 
native term " sanguinary James," is correct, 
though I cannot account for it. Animals are 
sometimes designated by names borrowed from 
human onomatology ; but this is perhaps the only 
example of such a name used to denote a parti- 
cular member of a particular animal. 

I will now consider other meanings of the word. 
An older name for the burglar's implement appears 
from the glossary of cant words in Bailey's 'Diction- 
ary ' to have been bess, betty (or bettee). I find 
also in the same repertory, " Jenny, an Instrument 
to lift up a Grate, and whip any Thing out of a 
Shop-window" the same instrument, no doubt, 
and equally lady-like in name ; but there is a 
variant ginny which momentarily complicates the 


appears a quotation containing two examples of 
jemmy as a substantive, with the respective mean- 
ings of fop and walking-cane or switch. The word 
in the former of these senses occurs in an old song, 
entitled ' Jacky and the Cow,' and written, I think, 
by T. Dibdin. Jacky, Farmer Thrasher's son, is 
sent apprentice to a barber in London, and returns 
home on a visit with manners and habiliments 
very different from those he took with him to town. 
This is how he bursts upon the old people : 

His spencer lie sported, his hat round he twirl'd, 

As, whistling a tune, he came bolt in ; 
A.nd bedock'd and belopp'd, zounds ! he look'd all the world 

Like trimm d bantams or magpies a moulting. 

Oh dear ! 'tis our Jacky ; come bring out the ale ! " 

And dame fell a skipping around him. 

Our Jacky ! why, dang't, he 's got never a tail ; 

Here, Roger, go take him and pound him ! " 
'Tis the kick, I say, old un, so I brought it down, 

Wore by jemmies so neat and so spunky." 
Ah, Jacky, thou went'sfc up a puppy to town, 

And now thou be'st come back a monkey ! " 

Chese three stanzas, quoted memoriter, do not 
contain the point of the song, but I cannot quote 
more (though I know the whole song by heart) on 
account of space. This jemmy, however, seems 
not to be derived from James. As an adjective 

t appears sometimes as gim and jim, and is pro- 
bably identical with the northern jimp as we find 

t in the Cumberland poet Anderson's song of 

King Roger': 

" Ay, fadder ! " cried out our lal Roger, 
" I wish I were nobbet a king ! 

I 'd wear neyce wheyte cottinet stockins, 
And new gambaleery clean shoes, 

Wi' jimp lively black fustin briches, 
And ev'ry feyue thing I cud choose." 

80, Saltoun Road, Brixton, S.W. 

MR. ADAMS has, I think, conclusively shown 
the error of Mr. Davies in assuming the reference 
to the savoury article of diet by Dickens to mean 
"baked potatoes." These, as has already been 
pointed out, are more generally spoken of in vulgar 
"" "" 

etymology, suggesting the gin of " engine." 
4 ' Jenny ^ is commonly pronounced "Jinny," 
spelling is of no importance. It seems reasonable 
however, to treat the jemmy of later days as an 
alteration of jenny ; mayhap the English cracks- 
man took the hint of sex-change from his French 
confrere, who wittily called the tool monseigneur, 
For more about betty see the ' N. E. D.' 

Passing to another meaning, I note the following 
in Davies's Supplementary Glossary ': " Jemmy, 
as an adjective=neat, smart. See L[atham], wh< 
adds that the word is used substantially, bu 
gives no example." Mr. Davies is wrong ; he 
either did not notice, or did not heed, Latham'i 
direction, "See Jessamy," under which 


parlance as "spuds" or "murphys." No one 
appears to have noticed that the word is contained 
in Camden Hotten's ' Slang Dictionary.' I find 
the word in the 1860 edition (the second) ; the 
first was published in 1859. Strange Mr. Davies 
should have overlooked this. This authority also 
gives us the synonyms (if I may venture to call 
them so), "Sanguinary James"="a raw sheep's 
head," and "Bloody Jemmy "=" an uncooked 
sheep's head." A less sanguinary appellation for a 
sheep's head is " mountain-pecker." C. P. H. 

407, 470 ; vi. 92). If it is any satisfaction to CANON 
VENABLES, I may inform him he was not " alone " 
in his identification of the church inquired for by 
MR. PICKFORD with St. Benet Fink. I, too, had 

8'hS.VI. AUG. 18, '94.] 



written an answer in the same terms, but refrained 
from burdening your columns with it on seeing 
CANON VENABLES'S clear and explicit letter. MR. 
PICKFORD has now described the site of St. Benet 
Fink so exactly as to leave no " possible, probable 
shadow of doubt " whatever. I have a view of the 
church now before me. It stood, as he says, " at 
the corner of Threadneedle Street, on the left- 
hand side as you walked from Broad Street to 
Oornhill, and its site was on the Exchange nags, near 
[where is now] Mr. Peabody's statue." I have in 
my possession the cutting from the Illustrated 
London News to which MR. PICKFORD refers, and 
a copy of it is very much at his service if he would 
signify, through you, his wish to have it. It 
begins, " This church has just been taken down in 
the progress of the improvements consequent upon 
the re-edification of the Royal Exchange." As to 
the church itself, it was a most unattractive 
structure, though built by Wren ; it is described 
more or less in all the histories of London, such as 
Maitland, Chamberlain, Hughson, Lambert, and 
so on. Godwin, in his * Churches of London,' 
depreciates it much. By the by, I was once told 
by an old citizen that Mr. Benetfink, the head of 
the well-known vast ironmongery establishment in 
Cheapside, who is now dead, was so named by the 
parish authorities from having been found deserted 
on the steps of this church ; and that, having been 
apprenticed by the guardians, he rose, through his 
own exertions, to the high position he ultimately 
occupied. Is this true ? If so, it was very much 
to Mr. Benetfink's credit ; but I would not re- 
vive the story had I not been further told that the 
old gentleman himself rather gloried in his humble 
origin. K. CLARK. 


In 1839 the old Exchange had been burnt, bat 
no new one designed till late in that year. I well 
remember, two churches of Wren, on opposite sides 
of Threadneedle Street, called St. Benet-finke 
and Su. Bartholomew by the Exchange. The 
latter must have been the nearer, and was on the 
south side, covering the present site of the Pea- 
body statue. The other was on the north side, 
and, with its churchyard, furnished the site for 
No. 52, which seems now perhaps the handsomest 
house-front in London. E. L. G. 


When danger 's rife, &c. 

Thia ia a variation of " God and the doctor," on which 
see 3 rd S. iv. 499; v. 62, 469, 527 ; 7 th S. i. 300. Both 
comparisons are stated in Gossou's Schoole of Abuse,' 
1579 (Arber, p. 49) : "The patient feeds his phisition 
with gold in time of sicknesse, and when he ia wel, 
scarcely affoords him a cup of water. Some there are 
that make gods of soldiers in open warrs, and trusse 
them vp like dogs in the time of peace." 

W. C. B. 

Child Marriages, Divorces, and Ratifications, &c., in the 
Diocese of Chester, A.D. 1562-6. Edited by F. J. Fur- 
nivall for the Early English Text Society. (Regan 
Paul & Co.) 

THE subject of early marriages has been more than once 
discussed in ' N. & Q.,' and has attracted much attention. 
Mr. J. P. Earwaker baa done much to spread and popu- 
larize knowledge concerning these curious contracts or 
troth-plighta. With customary and characteristic energy, 
Dr. Furnivall baa taken up the subject, the result of his 
labours appearing in the goodly and very interesting 
volume now before us, which constitutes No. 108 of the 
original series of the Early English Text Society. The 
work does not confine itself to child marriages and the 
divorces by which they were frequently and naturally fol- 
lowed. It deals with adulteries, affiliations, wills, clandes- 
tine marriages, and other matters, and furnishes thus a 
singularly animated picture of England at the period of 
Shaksp' are's birth. Of all the subjects dealt with, child 
marriages are the most interesting and extraordinary. 
We can scarcely conceive any motive strong enough to 
induce our ancestors to take to church, hold in their 
arms, and wed a tot of two to three years of age, incapable 
of repeating the worda of the ceremony, or even, in sub- 
sequent days, of recalling that ahe took part in it, or the 
priest holding back the boy who refused to say any more 
lessons, and wanted to go and play. Judging from the ex- 
amples Dr. Furnivall has collected, the practice of child 
marriages must have been much more common than was 
generally believed. The motives seem to have been 
always mercenary, the least shameless being those in 
which it was sought to obtain some form of assured 
protection for the child. Not seldom it was, however, 
that the father might obtain some pecuniary relief, and 
for the sake of this he would drive the girl to church 
with his walking-stick. Aatonishingly naive are many 
of the proceedings described. We hear, thus, of one young 
gentleman of ten, after hia marriage, refusing hia supper, 
and crying to go home, but compelled to share the couch 
of bis still more tender companion. In another case two 
elder sisters separate during the night the bridegroom 
from the bride. These buffooneries they can scarcely 
be otherwise described were not universally carried to 
such an extent. The children went to school or to 
labour, and if when they arrived at maturity they refused 
to fulfil the contract, and had had no intimate access to 
one another, a divorce was without difficulty obtained. 
Not seldom this enforced relationship led to a very hearty 
aversion. There seem to have been cases, however, in 
which the result was successful. It is difficult to believe 
how nai've are many of the descriptions, and how quaint 
facts come out in evidence. They are not, however, as a 
rule, suited to our columns, and the book itself belongs 
to the class of KptftmS&o. It is none the less a mine of 
information, inva uable to students of all classes. The 
very writer of fiction will find "human documents " in 
abundance to his hand. Dr. Furnivall has done his work 
zealously and well, and hia forewords supply a complete 
digest of what follows. His jokes at Cheshire antiquaries 
are characteristic. He urges that one should be slain to 
encourage the others to be less neglectful of their county 
documents. Against this we have nothing to urge. We 
see with regret, however, that Dr. Furnivall introducea 
fiercely controversial matter into a book which forms 
part of a series intended for scholars. Nothing can well 
be more damaging than this to the interest of the society. 
The book itself deserves, and will receive a warm 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [&* s. vi. A, is, '94. 

Charles 111. of Naples and Urban VI. Also Cecco 
d'Ascoli, Poet, Astrologer, Physician. Two Historical 
Essays. By St. Glair Baddeley. (Heinemann.) 
WHETHER we agree with Mr. Baddeley's conclusions or 
not, we always find his pages amusing reading. The 
mediaeval history of Italy is very puzzling to an English- 
man. In England, France, and to a less extent in Spain, 
and even in Germany, there is a centre around which it 
is possible to arrange our ideas. In Italy it was not BO. 
The Papacy was the dominant spiritual power; but it 
was not, except when an energetic and powerful 
Pope ruled, the centre of gravity for political life. 
Hence has arisen a confusion which none but specialists 
can make clear. Mr. Baddeley must pardon us for say- 
ing that, though he is deeply read in Italian chronicles, 
he does not fully grasp the meaning of the events of 
which he treats. The Italian chronicles are more diffi- 
cult to deal with than those of any other country in 
Europe. Many of them are mere party pamphlets in the 
guiae of history. 

Urban VI. fell far short of being a hero ; but we do not 
think Mr. Baddeley does him justice. It was necessary 
for the welfare of Europe that the sojourn of the Popes 
at Avignon should be put an end to. The Pope's removal 
to Rome was the real cause of the great schism which is 
one of the most perplexing events in Christian history. 

We see Mr. Baddeley at his best when treating of Cecco 
d'Ascoli. He was one of those men of whom we encounter 
so many between the twelfth century and the sixteenth, 
who had a most praiseworthy craving for extending the 
boundaries of the field of knowledge, but who were misled 
by the phantom lights of astrology and magic. It is to 
be deplored that both the Church and the State looked 
with suspicion on these men. Foretelling future events by 
the stars was not a mere harmless craze, as it is in our 
time, but too often a dangerous political engine. In 
England we have had several Acts of Parliament con- 
demning pretended prophecies. These things were, no 
doubt, far more harmful in Italy, where war was always 
in the air. 

We are not clear as to what was the kind of magic for 
which Cecco d'Ascoli suffered. Probably it was for 
invoking evil spirits and compelling them to do his 
bidding ; but how even Inquisitors could get evidence of 
such things is a mystery we do not pretend to fathom. 

The Scientific Chronology of the World in its Relation to 

the Advent of Christ. (Privately printed.) 
THE author informs us that his object is " to demonstrate 
that all the events of history, and consequently of religion 
in its historical aspect, are evolved in succession, and in 
a chain of causes and effects, according to the operation 
of a law ; that is to say, that the great events of history 
which mark the eras in its progress towards a consum- 
mation are evolved in regularly recurring periods of 
time." Chronology is the anatomy of history, and if it 
can be treated in this way, a vast deal of trouble will be 
saved to its students, not to mention the certainty of the 
conclusions thus made attainable in distant periods. 
The year of the Metonic Cycle is still called the Golden 
Number, although the story has long been discredited 
that the Athenians showed their sense of the value of 
Meton's discovery by ordering the number of his cycle 
to be engraved in gold on a public place. But golden, 
indeed, would this cycle be if, as our present author 
affirms, it and multiples formed from it were the founda- 
tions whence could be deduced all the important epochs 
in the world's history. Four of these periods, it seems, 
(forming the well-known Calippic period) are a week, 
and sixteen a month, in sacred chronology. But that a ' 
week in Jewish reckoning is formed of seven lower 
periods is, we apprehend, not open to doubt. The feast 

of weeks was kept at the end of seven weeks, and a sab- 
batical year was a week of years, whilst a jubile took 
place at the end of seven of these. But those who are 
interested in the subject had better peruse this brochure 
for themselves; they will at least find matter for thought. 
We may, however, just refer to the fact, as the author 
alludes to the period of Halley's comet (about seventy- 
six years, equal to one of his sacred weeks) that that 
period is liable to be altered by perturbation, and some 
of his other epochs may be altered by perturbations of 
another kind. He will find it difficult to prove that the 
appearances of the comet were always accompanied by 

A History of Germany in the Middle Ages. By E. F. 

Henderson. (Bell & Sons.) 

IT takes a full man, as every one knows, to write a small 
book on a great subject. The author, therefore, bespeaks 
our favourable judgment when he lays it down as an 
axiom of his belief that no one should attempt to write 
a popular history who is not thoroughly at home in the 
primal historical sources. And Mr. Henderson, we 
willingly admit, comes to his task well equipped. 
Having cleared the ground and laid his foundations in 
a wide preliminary study of his subject, which has 
already borne fruit in his volume ' Select Historical 
Documents of the Middle Ages,' he now proceeds to erect 
his edifice, and the result is this sound and thorough piece 
of work. His strength lies in a constant appeal to the 
oldest authorities and to the most recent to the one for 
his facts, to the other for his conclusions and critical 
judgments. The book is too full of matter and too con- 
densed to make easy reading ; but it will prove invaluable 
as a handbook of reference for a dark period of history, 
and one that may be trusted for the laborious accuracy 
and conscientious care with which it has been compiled. 
It would be still more useful if the publishers had not 
denied us an index. Mr. Henderson lets himself drop 
into a colloquial Americanism which a sedate historian 
should avoid. Pope John XII., he says, "lived like a 
robber-chief, and an impure and unchaste one at that " 
(p. 138). 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
Slate, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

ROBERT FERGUSON ("Rotten Row"). See 1 st S. i. 
441; ii. 235; v. 40, 160; 2 nd S. iv. '658; 3 rd S. ix. 213, 
361,443; xii. 423, 509. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8 S. VI. Aua. 25, '94.] 





'NOTES : The Mansion House, 141' Dictionary of National 
Biography,' 142 Prehistoric Remains at Mentone " One 
Mr. Sharpe" Queer Etymology, 143 Inglesant French 
Heraldic Kecords " Betterment " Byroniana, 144 
Translations of ' Don Quixote 'David Wilkins, D.D., 145 
Sermon on Malt Off ertory by Compulsion Milton's Pro- 
nunciation of Latin ' Memoirs of General Thiebault,' 146. 

QUERIES : " Volury " : " Paragone " " Protestant " 
Arms Armorial War Songs Heraldic Hewett Hamil- 
ton, 147 Bonnycastle Monastic Verses Thos. Menlove 
Queen of Sheba Fitzpatrick Mason Pedigree Thomas : 
Buller Engraving of Dr. Croft Somersetshire Families 
"Fancy Bread," 148 Sign of the Cross Welch John 
Williams Hill Lieut. Peter Lecount Admiral Saunders 
" Plat" for " Plot," 149. 

SBEPLIES : Etymology of " Jingo," 149 Inez de Castro 
"Punch" Logan Stone "Flotsam and Jetsam" 'The 
Pauper's Drive ' Archiepiscopal English, 150 Book-plate 
of Chevalier d'Eon, 151 " Wadsett " Occultation of 
Spica Capital Letters, 152" Stell "Translation Folk- 
lore Furness Abbey Indian Magic Strange Oaths, 153 
Craven Family Tax on Births Parish Councils 
Green House The ' Northampton Mercury ' De Warren, 
164 Charles Walmesley Burke's 'Landed Gentry' 
"Touch cold iron" Possession of Pews " Tallet," 155 
Thomson Length of Horse's Life The Scratch-back 
The " King's Head," 156 Green Wax Process Epitaphs 
on Horses Dante and Noah's Ark "Fog-throttled" 
'Crepusculum " Radical Reformers "The Almond Tree- 
Buried in Fetters, 157 Charles I. and Bishop Juxon 
Advent Preachers Militia Clubs Sibyl Cause of Death 
Helmerawe Golf, 158 Ailments of Napoleon, 159. 

'.NOTES ON BOOKS : Hamilton's ' Calendar of State 
Papers ' Orby Shipley's ' Carmina Mariana ' Moule's 
' Old Dorset ' Trenqualeon's ' West Grinstead ' Church's 
' St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports.' 


Those who are interested in the architectural 
history of the Mansion House, on which there 
have been some recent communications in ' N. & 
Q.,' will do well to consult the fourth volume of 
Colin Campbell's 'VitruviusBritannicus,' continued 
by Woolfe and Gandon (1767), which, in plates 41, 
42, 43, gives a ground-plan of the principal story, 
an elevation of the chief front to the north, and a 
section of the building from north to south. From 
this it will be seen that the heavy superstructures, 
resembling gigantic Noah's arks, with which Dance 
burdened his fabric, popularly known as the 
"mayor's nests," were designed for the purpose of 
giving additional internal height to the two chief 
^public apartments of the building the banqueting 
room, or Egyptian Hall, and the ball-room and 
lighting them more adequately. In fact, they 
answered the purpose of a clearstory in a church. 
Since the removal of the upper rows of windows 
neither of these apartments is too well lighted, 
especially the Egyptian Hall, which, now that the 
end windows have been filled with stained glass, 
cannot be used, even in broad day, except under 
artificial light. 

It was this upper tier of windows, or clearstory, 
which gave its now inappropriate designation to 
the Egyptian Hall. As originally built, with an 
upper story of three-quarter composite pillars above 

the tall Corinthian columns below, with windows 
between and a flat ceiling, the hall corresponded to 
the description given by Vitruvius of what he not 
very correctly terms an " Aula ^Egyptiaca." The 
name remains, though the removal of the upper 
story, with its second colonnade, has destroyed its 
appropriateness, and made people wonder why it 
is called the Egyptian Hall. The present semi- 
circular ceiling, with its deep caissons, was put up 
when the upper story was removed. The same 
was the case with the ball-room, though, to the 
disgrace of the Corporation, the architectural deco- 
rations of the ceiling, like those of Milan Cathedral, 
are only painted. The removal of the upper story 
of the Egyptian Hall long preceded that of the 
corresponding excrescence above the ball-room, 
which many now living can well remember. This 
was not a nest of bedrooms, as one of your corre- 
spondents supposes, but an open clearstory. The 
attic over the Egyptian Hall was removed in 1796 ; 
that over the ball-room not till 1842. 

The illustrations in the ' Vitruvius Britannicus ' 
show that the Mansion House has received another 
and more important alteration which deserves 
nothing but praise. That which is now the 
Saloon, in the centre of the building, which may 
be called the chief feature of the house, where the 
Lord Mayor receives his guests and where the 
guests assemble and circulate, was originally an 
open courtyard, with colonnaded passages along 
the sides and ends, with no lateral protection from 
the weather, so that the dresses of ladies passing 
from the Long Parlour, the ordinary official dining- 
room, to the drawing-rooms on the other side of 
the court, were subject to be wetted with rain 
or sprinkled with snow on an inclement evening. 
This most desirable change was made by the younger 
Dance in 1795. It has since been greatly decorated 
and improved by the late Sir Horace Jones in 1865-6 
and 1 867-8. One of the chief defects of the Mansion 
House at present is the narrowness and steepness 
of the two staircases which furnish the only com 
munication between the different stories. But for 
this Dance is not to be blamed. The Mansion House 
as he built it had a grand staircase, in keeping with 
the size and stateliness of the building. This, the 
plan shows us, was situated where the inner draw- 
ing-room is now, the upper part occupying the 
Lord Mayor's bedroom. Other minor alterations 
have been made ; e. </., the police-court, or justice- 
room, was removed by Mr. Bunning from the front 
to the side of the building in 1849 ; the Lord 
Mayor's parlour, which originally corresponded 
with the justice -room on the other side of the 
entrance, has been divided up into the secretary's 
room and other offices; a Doric portico was put 
up at the side entrance in 1847 ; but those which 
I have described are the chief changes made in 
this much decried, but really stately and sump- 
tuous building. EDMUND VENABLES. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [v* s. vi. AUG. 25, '94. 



(See 6th s. xi. 105, 443 ; xii. 321 ; 7th s. i. 25, 82, 342, 
376; ii. 102, 324, 355; iii. 101, 382; iv. 123, 325, 422 ; 
v. 3, 43, 130, 362, 463, 506; vii. 22. 122. 202, 402 ; viii. 
123, 382; ix. 182, 402 ; x. 102 ; xi. 162, 242, 342 ; xii. 
102: 8t S. i. 162, 348, 509; ii. 82, 136, 222, 346, 522 
iii. 183; iv.384; v. 82, 284, 504.) 

Vol. XXXIX. 

P. 3 a. B.A. Glasgow. Is this correct ? 

P. 3. J. D. Morell. See Tennemann's < Hist. 
Philos.,' by J. R. Morell, 1852, p. 490. J. D. M. 
and J. R. M. were cousins-german. 

Pp. 15 b, 187 a, 203 a, and often. Kead " took 
holy orders." 

P. 42. Maurice Morgann. See Mathias, ' Pur- 
suits of Literature,' ed. 11, 1801, p. 353. 

Pp. 68-73. Sir S. Morland. His trumpet 
mentioned in Leigh's 'Transproser Rehears'd,' 
1673, p. 119 ; his arithmetical machine in Leib- 
nitz, ' Theodice"e/ 1760, i. 248 ; his Perpetual 
Almanack, reprinted in John Playford's ' Vade 
Mecum,' 1717. 

P. 73. For " portrait in a wig " read portrait of 
him in a wig. 

Pp. 74-78. Bishop George Morley. His extra- 
ordinary opposition to Bull's writings, Nelson's 
'Bull,' 1714, pp. 102, 219 ; he left his books for 
the use of the clergy of the diocese of Winchester, 
and they were gratefully used by Joseph Bingham, 
then Rector of Headborn Worthy, in his ' Christian 
Antiquities,' 1708. Tho. Hockin, fellow of AH 
Souls, dedicated to the bishop his ' Disc, on God's 
Decrees,' 1684, and praises him for his contra- 
diction of Calvinism, his loyalty to Charles II., 
and his zeal in promoting religion. 

P. 75 a, line 27. For " affixed " read prefixed. 

P. 77 a, line 3 from foot. For "Creasy" read 
Cressy (see xiii. 75). 

P. 95 a. For " Monongohela " read Monongahela. 

P. 106 a. H. G. Morris died 24 Nov. 1851 (not 
1852), and his tombstone is in the churchyard of 
Beverley Minster. 

P. 107 b, line 3. For " 1829 " read 1729. 

Pp. 157-8. Richard Morton. See Locke's 
* Letters,' 1708, pp. 281-4 ; Garth's ' Dispensary, 1 
1775, pp. 11, 84. 

Pp. 160-5. Bishop Morton. Baxter's praise of 
him, ' Reform' d Pastor,' 1656, pp. 161, 186 ; when 
Bp. of Lichfield he abated his fine to increase the 
vicarage of Pitchley, Northants, Spelman, * Tithes,' 
1647 ; his anti-Roman writings, Field, * Church,' 
1628, p. 748; R. Sanderson, 'De Juramenti 
Obligatione,' 1647, p. 177. 

P. 166. Tho. Morton, dramatist, often ridiculed 
by Giffordin'Baviad.' 

P. 175 a. For " Newcastle-under-Lyne " read 

P. 182 a. Bishop Charles Moss. Fast Sermon 
at Westminster, 6 Feb. 1756. 

P. 183. Robert Moss. He was one of the 
trustees for providing Scotland with the Book of 
Common Prayer, Wells, ' Rich Man's Duty/ 1715. 
He had a brother Charles?, M.D., of Hull (died 
1731), some of whose letters are in print. 

P. 183 b. Brinley Hill, Brierley Hill. Are 
they not identical] 

P. 185. Mr. Mossman presumed to ordain, for 
which he had to make an act of public contrition. 

P. 186 b. R. Mossom. In Feb., 1657, be was 
living near Blackfriars, over against the Old Ward- 
: robe. 

P. 191. Sir Roger Mostyn. Farquhar's ' Con- 
1 stant Couple ' was dedicated to him. 

P. 193. George Motherby died 19 July. 

P. 203 a. How could Mr. Moultrie decide to 
" enter the church " after his " presentation " to a 
living, and how could he be " also ordained " after 
those two events ? See * Conversations at Cam- 
bridge,' 1836. 

P. 204 a. The wardenship of St. James's Col- 
lege, " Southleigh," was simply the headship of a 
private school at South Leigh, an account of which 
was given in a pamphlet edited by Moultrie. 

P. 240 b, line 4. For " impression " read copy. 

P. 242. Joseph Moxon. See Wrangham'a 
'Zoucb,' ii. 143. 

Pp. 246-7. Walter Moyle. Dry den also thanks 
him in the dedication to the ' ^Eneid.' See J. H. 
Newman, * Miracles,' 1870, pp. 241 sq. 

P. 247 a. For"whole were " read whole 


P. 260 b. Z. Mudge. See Bp. Home's 'Psalms,' 

P. 275. " Mulcaster, an experienced teacher, 
Prsefat. to Cato Christ.," in Robotham's pref. to 
Comenius, ' Janua Linguarum,' 1664. 

P. 282 a. For " Kerr" read Ker. 

P. 285 a. For " over the signature " read under 
the signature. 

P. 287 a, line 4 from foot, read " regulate com- 

P. 296. Motteux was assisted by Farqubar in a 
farce called ' The Stage Coach/ and he wrote the 
Prologues for F.'s ' Inconstant ' and ' Twin Rivals.' 

P. 303 b. For "entry on either" read entry of either. 

P. 315 b. Banagher sand, N. & Q.,' 8* S. v. 
486; vi. 113. 

P. 321 a, line 15 from foot. For "Ashbury" 
read Astbury. 

P. 330. William Mure. There is a Mure 
Scholarship at Westminster School. 

P. 340. Father Murphy. See De Quincey's 
Works,' 1863, xiv. 248 sq. 

P. 353 a. Sir David Murray. Owen has an 
epigram upon him, 3rd coll. i. 33. 

P. 376. Sir J. Murray Pulteney. See Mathias, 
'P. ofL.,'p. 354. 

P. 400 b (and elsewhere). For " catholic " read 
Roman Caiholic. 

8>S.TI. Ana. 25, '94.] 



P. 404. Thomas Murray. Two epigrams by 
Owen, 3rd coll. iii. 26, 86. 

P. 407. William Murray. Denham's 'Poems,' 
1684, p. 70. 

P. 413 b. [The notes on vol. xxxvi. pp. 91-2, 
printed at 8' n S. v. 83, should have been printed 

P. 414 b. The technicality about indentures still 
remains. Is it more " silly " than to call that in- 
dented which is not indented ? 

P. 424 a. Samuel Musgrave. See ' Letters of 
Junius,' xxxix., 28 May, 1770. 

P. 427. Wm. Musgrave. See Ray, 'Three 
Disc.,' 1713, p. 186 ; Stukeley's ' Diariea,' Surt. 

P. 445 b. For " Folkstone " read Folkestone. 

W, 0. B. 

MENTONE. The following is a cutting from the 
Scotsman of July 12 : 

" M. Adolphe Megret, a Paris sculptor, writes : ' On 
January 12 last M. Abbo. master quarryman, who is 
exploiting the massive rocks known under the name of 
Baousse-Rousse, near Mentone, was informed by his son, 
at work in one of the caverns (the Banna Grande), of 
the presence of a human skeleton, which he had partly 
uncovered. On the two following days the exhumation 
of this prehistoric human skeleton was completed. The 
precious remains were neatly embedded in the soil of the 
cavern, which consisted (as had been observed in pre- 
vious discoveries) of a mixture of red ferruginous ore, 
evidently carried thither in connexion with the inter- 
ment of the bodies. This sort of clay was extremely 
difficult to extract, inasmuch as, until a certain depth 
was reached, it presented the appearance as if an intense 
fire had nearly reduced the elements of the soil, as well 
as those of the bones of the skeleton, to a vitrified state. 
The remains were found in what seemed to have been 
one of the last beds superposed, known under the name 
of " foyera " or layers. Since the commencement of the 
present explorations M. Boufels, Conservator of the Geo- 
logical Museum of Mentone, has counted eight of these 
layers in the grotto in question. They are all identical 
in composition, consisting of a kind of dark earth, ex- 
tending horizontally over the whole surface of the 
cavern, and reaching to a depth of four or five feet. 
Mixed with the debris are bones of animals, some of 
which have been identified as belonging to primitive and 
extinct species, while others may have served as food 
for the early human inhabitants of the earth. Most of 
the bones seem to have been broken for the purpose of 
extracting the marrow. The upper part of the beds 
was covered with charcoal ashes and flints, while 
amongst these were found all sorts of primitive imple- 
ments, affording undeniable evidence of the direction in 
which prehistoric man's industry took shape. Specimens 
were discovered of rough, uncut flints, hammer stones, 
shells, and fish bones, some of the latter articles being 
pierced and otherwise treated as if they had been adapted 
for useful or ornamental purposes. It seems to the 
writer as if the skeleton under notice had been one of 
the last of his species, the body having been discovered 
in one of the last deposits in the cavern, about forty feet 
above what appears to have been the original level of 
the grotto. The skeleton was lying only about ten feet 
above three others, which were found in a group in the 

year 1892, and described by Mr. G. tivans in the 
Anthropologist, as well as by M. le Dr. Verneau, of Paris. 
The body lay on the right part of the wall of the cavern, 
the skull nearly touching it. The remains are compara- 
tively well preserved, considering the ancient period of 
interment. The right arm and the carp and metacarp 
of the hand are perfect. The head was lying towards 
the north-east ; the body was curved and receding to a 
backward position the legs and feet being at an open 
angle towards the south-west. The left leg was slightly 
bended under the right one, the feet closed together. 
The right arm waa folded first backward from the 
shoulder, the elbow touching the soil ; while the forearm 
was extended at right angles, the hand being placed on 
the chest. The left hand supported the head under the 
jaw. Altogether the attitude of the body waa that of a 
man who had been sound asleep and unconscious when 
he died. Although there are slight differences in the 
positions in which these remains of prehistoric man are 
found in these caves, all the bodies, in spite of the in< 
calculable time which has elapsed since they breathed 
their last, present the appearance of a man asleep. This 
has been commented on by M. Riviere, and no observer 
can fail to notice it. It would seem as if they had been 
left in this position on purpose, as if to suggest that they 
were slumbering in an eternal sleep, and the position 
suggests some curious reflections. After death the body 
was probably just covered up as it lay, and left there for 
ever. The earth and iron ore with which it was covered 
seem to have preserved the remains from entire destruc- 
tion, as their form is still visible. The forehead is 
crowned with a sort of head-gear composed of several 
rows of the vertebrae of a fish of the trout family, sym- 
metrically interspersed with stag's teeth and various sea 
shells, some of which are still adhering to the forehead 
or are fixed in a mass of red clay which forms a kind of 
halo round the head. A similar adornment has been, 
observed on the heada of the akeletona previously dis- 
covered. At the side on the ground lay a very large 
atone, rough and thick, of a trapezoidal form. Near the 
right arm was another large stone, several others being 
found near the left. These stones appear to have been 
worked, and bear traces of the action of fire.' " 


* Diary,' under date May 4, 1660, the diarist states 
that on the ship which arrived with him and 
others at Flushing there came on board "a 
minister, one Mr. Sharpe," evidently one of those 
deputed to see and to bring over Charles II. My 
edition, although containing many notes by Lord 
Braybrooke, identifying persons and giving their 
history, is silent as to Mr. Sharpe. But it is clear 
from Mr. A. Lang's ' History of St. Andrews ' 
that this was the minister who ended his life so 
disastrously as the Archbishop of St. Andrews. 
Harsh things have been said about Sharpe, but 
he seems, from Mr. Lang's account, to have been 
(in spite of one passage in his life) an amiable and 
well - meaning ecclesiastic. The details will be 
found in Mr. Lang's interesting book on St. 
Andrews. B. DENNY URLIN. 

A QUEER ETYMOLOGY. I have seen some 
strange etymologies in my time, but I think the 
following is the worst case. 

In 'A Dictionary of Slang,' by Barrere and 



[8> S. VI. AUG. 25, '94. 

Leland, p. xxi, we are offered the etymology of 
gnoffe, iheaning a churl or miser. 

" Its true root is probably in the Anglo-Saxon 
cneov, cnuf, or cnuvan (also cneav, knave), to bend, 
yield to, cneovjan (genvflectere)." 

For whom is this written? Certainly not for 
those who know the Anglo-Saxon alphabet. The 
following are the mistakes. 

1. There is no A.-S. cneov. Some Germans 
write v for w ; but the sound of v is not intended 
by it. Probably cneow is meant. 

2. But cneow is a substantive, and means a knee. 
It is merely the old form of knee. What has knee 
to do with gnoffe ? 

3. There is no A.-S. cnuf, nor anything_like it. 

4. There is no A.-S. cnuvan. If cnawan is 
intended, it is the old spelling of know ; which has 
nothing to do with knee, nor anything to do with 

5. There is no A.-S. cneav, nor yet cneaw. The 
A.-S. for " knave " is cnafa, or cnapa. 

6. Knave has nothing to do with gnoffe, nor 
yet with Jcnee, nor yet with know. 

7. By cneovjan is meant cneowian, to kneel. 
But what has this to do with gnoffe ? 

Surely it is mere charlatanry to cite non-existent 
words, or to pretend to a knowledge of Anglo- 
Saxon when not even the sense of the symbols has 
been ascertained. It would have been better to 
say, in plain English, that gnoffe is derived from 
knee, or from knave, or from know, or from kneel. 
Then any plain man could have seen at once the 
absurdity of the suggestions. Of course knee, 
knave, and know are unrelated words, so we have 
no clue as to which of them is really meant. Knave 
comes the nearest, perhaps ; but it does not much 
matter, as there is, even in this case, no con- 
nexion whatever. 

The days are past when sham Anglo-Saxon can 
be seriously quoted without discovery. There 
must be several hundred students by this time in 
England, Germany, and America who have learnt 
the simplest rudiments of the language ; and all 
such will regard the above performance with more 
amusement than respect. 


INGLESANT AS A SURNAME. It may interest 
those of your readers who are lovers of Mr. Short- 
house's delightful romance 4 John Inglesant' to 
know that among the ringers of "Grandsire 
Triples" at Quorndon on Aug. 12, 1891, was 
a Mr. W. T. Inglesant. HERBERT STURMER. 

OF FRANCE. As there always appears to be a 
doubt in the public mind as to whether there is 
any office in France at all corresponding to our 
heralds' offices in this country, I ventured to put 
this query to a well-known authority in Paris, 
together with the queries as to whether there is 

any ground for the statement that the archives of 
the French Heralds' College were destroyed by fire 
by the Commune, and also if there is any Heraldic 
or Genealogical Society at all corresponding to the 
Government Office; and I received the following 
reply, a translation of which I venture to send for 
the benefit of readers of * N. & Q.': 

"The old Government had the ' Genealogistes du Roi,' 
for proofs of nobility, and the ' Jugea d'Armes,' such aa 
d'Hozierand Cherieu. The Monarchical Governments of 
this century had the 'Conseil du Sceau des Titres,' now 
suppressed. The archives of these officers are now dis- 
persed, part to the Bibliotheque Nationale (Cabinet des 
Titrea), part to the Hotel de Soubise (in the series M^ 
and MM.), part to the Ministere de la Justice (for the 
period after 1789). In short, the equivalent of the 
Heralds' College of England never existed in France,. 
However, the Conseil du Sceau had some similarity to 
that body. There is no Heraldic Society, but some persons, 
without legal authority, occupy themselves with ques- 
tions of nobility, but they necessarily cannot be regarded 
as altogether trustworthy. Not knowing of a Heralds 7 
College in France, I cannot accuse the Commune of 
having burnt the archives. The fires of 1871 destroyed 
the parochial registers (entries of birth, marriage, and 
death) preserved at the Hotel de Ville and the Library 
of the Louvre, which included some precious MSS. con- 
taining some correspondence of the last two centuries." 


" BETTERMENT." There has been a deal of 
"pother " of late about " betterment," and it has 
come to be commonly understood that for the word 
as well as the principle we are indebted to our 
friends across the Atlantic. But according to some 
remarks which recently appeared in a London even- 
ing paper, commenting on the evidence given before 
the House of Lords' Committee on Betterment, by 
General Viele, a member of the United States 
Congress, such is not the case. In replying to one 
of the questions put to him by the Committee, 
General Viole" stated that " betterment " is not an 
American word, neither is " worsement." The 
word used in America is "benefit," not "better- 
ment." " We were all under the impression that 
the word was of Transatlantic origin," remarked 
the Marquis of Salisbury. "Then you were all 
wrong," answered the general ; "the word is not 
to be found in the English language current in- 
America." As this word will most likely become 
exceedingly popular in the course of time, and 
will probably occupy the attention of some future 
lexicographer, it is as well, perhaps, to chronicle 
the above information in ' N. & Q.' 

C. P. HALE. 

273, Wilmot Street, E. 

BYRONIANA. Recently I bought in Nottingham 
the second volume of ' Selections of Poems, 7 in two 
thick small octavo volumes, " printed and sold by 
M. Hage, of Newark, 1808." The volume appears 
to have belonged to the Byron family, and at the 
beginning in pencil is the name " Mrs. Byron," and 
at end, " 66 from the Nott Journal," both in the- 

8 to S. VI. Aua. 25, '94.] 



handwriting of the poet. I send a copy of the 
poem alluded to at p. 66, believing the same to be 
an anonymous poem of Byron in his early years, 
and not in any of his collected works. It is a 
sweet poem, though not, perhaps, possessing the 
beauty and vigour of his later pieces : 

The Mountain Violet. 
Sweet fragile flow'r, that bloom'st unsought, 

And bloom'st by many an eye unseen, 

Thy beauty wakes my pensive thought, 

And shews thee worthy of my theme. 

Expanding wild, thy rich perfume 
Impregnates sweet th' unhallow'd air 

Which reckless on thy virgin bloom, 
Sweeps not o'er thee more mild or fair. 

Now brighten'd by the morning ray, 
Luxuriant spreads thy grateful breast : 

Now ev'ning comes, with tyrant sway, 
And chills thy little form to rest. 

Sweet emblem of the soul-fraught mind, 
Expos'd life's keenest storms to bearj 

Yet, like thee, tenderly refin'd, 
And shrinking from ungenial air. 

The ray which gilds with lucid gleam, 
Is inward peace, which none can wrest ; 

The evening chill which shrouds the beam, 
The sad reflection of the breast. 

Like thee, too, from the vulgar eye, 

The chasten'd mind shall live forlorn ; 
For tho' no kindred soul may sigh, 

In solitude there 's none to scorn. 
Dear flow'r, be thou my fav'rite sweet, 

I'll rear with care thy lowly head, 
Save thy soft breast from guardless feet, 

And court young zephyrs to thy bed. 
Yet if perchance, in evil hour, 

Some lawless hand invade thy shrine ; 
Or nightly blast, with cruel pow'r, 

Sap the short life which might be thine : 
Ah ! then with sad regret I '11 kneel, 

And try thy beauties lost to cheer; 
When, vain if all my hopes I feel, 

I '11, dead, embalm thee with a tear. 

Nottingham Journal. 

Fritchley, Derby. 

note on this subject (8 tb S. iv. 402), MR. H. E. 
WATTS said that, so far as he knew, there was only 
one copy extant of the first edition of Shelton's 
translation of the first part, and that that copy was 
in the possession of Mr. Yates Thompson. I have 
since come across in the library of the Frome 
Literary and Scientific Institution what appears 
to be another copy of the same. In order that 
MR. WATTS, or any other authority on the matter, 
may be in a position to say whether it is a genuine 
first edition, and not a subsequent reprint with a 
wrong date, I will give a few particulars concerning 
the volume. It is a small quarto, in dilapidated 
leather binding, and is, exclusive of the covers, 
about one inch in thickness. The size of each 
page is about seven and one-eighth by five and 

three-eighths inches. The width of the column of 
type is three and a quarter inches, and the face of 
the type is about the same size as that which goea 
by the name of small pica. The printed matter 
on each page is enclosed within plain rules six and 
three-quarters by four and a quarter inches. Of 
the space within these outer rules, about three*- 
quarters of an inch in width is cut off by another 
lengthwise rule to accommodate the few notes 
that are to be found in the volume. The total 
number of pages including dedication, preface, 
contents, &c. is over 600 : the last but one seems 
to be missing. The "history" is divided into 
four " parts," and comprises the following chapters : 
Part i., 7 ; ii., 6 ; iii., 13 ; iv. 25. The title-page 
reads as follows : 

" The | History | of | the Valorovs | and Wittie \ 
Knight-Errant, | Don-Qvixote | Of the Mancba. | Trans- 
lated out of the Spanish. | London | Printed by William 
Stansby, for Ed. Blount and | W. Barret. 1612." 

It will doubtless be of interest if I reproduce the 
dedication in full : 

" To the Right Honovrable his verie good Lord, the 
Lord of Walden, &c. Mine Honourable Lord; hauing 
Translated some fiue or sixe yeares agoe, the Historie 
of Don Quixote, out of the Spanish tongue into the Eng- 
lish, in the space of forty daies : being thervnto more 
then halfe enforced, through the importunitie of a very 
deere friend, that was desirous to vnderstand the subject : 
After I had giuen him once a view thereof, I cast it 
aside, where it lay long time neglected in a corner, and, 
so little regarded by me, as I neuer once set hand to 
reuiew or correct the same. Since when, at the in- 
treatie of others my friends, I was content to let it come 
to light, conditionally, that some one or other, would 
peruse and amend the errours escaped ; my many affaires 
hindering mee from vndergoing that labour. Now I 
vnderstand by the Printer, that the Gopie was presented 
to your Honour : which did at the first somewhat disgust 
mee, because as it must pagse, I feare much, it will proue 
farre vnworthy, either of your Noble view or protection. 
Yet since it is mine, though abortiue, I doe humbly in- 
treate, that your Honour will lend it a fauourable 
countenance, thereby to animate the parent thereof to 
produce in time some worthier subiect, in your Honour- 
able name, whose many rare vertues haue already rendred 
me so highly deuoted to your seruice, as I will some day 
giue very euident tokens of the same, and till then I 
rest, Your Honours most affectionate seruitor, Thomas 

The headlines used throughout the work (from 
p. 2) are, "The delightfull Historie of the" and 
"wittie Knight Don-Quixote." The printing of 
the volume as regards the type is indifferent, and 
the rule work is abominable. In the same library 
is a set of the critical edition of the Spanish text 
issued by Tonson in 1738. J. COLES. 

DAVID WILKINS, D.D. (1685-1745), ANTI- 
QUART. ^It may be noted that an entry in the 
' Subscription and Ordination Book,' 1706-1722, 
preserved in the Muniment Room of the Palace at 
Ely, records the ordination in 1711 of David 
Wilkins, A.M., born at Memela, in Prussia, 1685, 
for seven years and more "in Academia Kegio- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. rs* s. vi. AUG. 25, '94. 

montana" (A. Gibbons, ' Ely Episcopal Records,' 
1891, p. 6). He received the honorary degree of 
D.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1717. 

SERMON ON MALT. This is commonly attri- 
buted to the unfortunate Dr. Dodd, who was 
executed in 1777. But it is to be found in a col- 
lection of 'Coffee-House Jests,' fourth ed., 1686, 
where it is stated that certain townsmen of Prisal 
compelled a preacher to discourse on this word. 
See Ashton's 'Humour of the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury/ p. 411. KICHARD H. THORNTON. 

Portland, Oregon. 


" Agreed that every p'son coming to the Communion 
should pay one half-penie for brede and wyne in the 
place of the holy loffe which is dismissed." Church- 
wardens' Accounts, 1585, St. Giles, Beading. 


Eden Bridge. 

ever, at the present day, English scholars may 
adhere to pur insular and absurd pronunciation of 
Latin, it is certain that Milton, one of the most 
admirable Latin scholars and Latin poets, followed 
the continental usage. It will be remembered 
that Thomas Elwood was employed by Milton, 
when blind, to read to him Latin books. Now 
Elwood writes in reference to this subject : 

" At my first sitting to read to him [Milton], observing 
lat I used the English pronunciation, he told me, if I 
would have the benefit of the Latin tongue, not only to 

read and understand Latin authors but to converse with 
foreigners, either abroad or at home, I must learn the 
foreign pronunciation. To this 1 consenting, he in- 
structed me how to sound the vowels ; so different from 
the common pronunciation used by the English, who 
speak their Latin Anglice, that the Latin thus spoken 
seemed as different from that which was delivered as 
the English generally speak it, as if it were another 

Besides the "vowels," Elwood adds that Milton 
drew his attention to " some few other variations " 
in sounding sundry consonants, " as c before e or i 
like cfr, and sc before i like ah." The interesting 
question then arises, How came Milton to speak 
Latin after the foreign fashion ? Was it one con- 
sequence of his early travels in Italy, when he 
made the acquaintance of Galileo, and of Tasso's 
patron, Manson, Diodati, and others ? Or, as we 
know that his father was born and brought up a 
Roman Catholic, did he inherit it from his parent ? 
Or was the foreign pronunciation followed and 
taught at St. Paul's School under his master, 
Alexander Gill? Much of the old foreign pro- 
nunciation, as we know, has remained in many, if 
not in most, of the Scottish universities and col- 
leges, and also at Winchester, where I believe 
to the present day "amabarn" is pronounced as 
" amarbam," &c. The sounding of c like ch and 

of sc as sh, to which Milton refers, is, I fancy, only 
Italian, and would not be heard in France, or in 
Austria, or Southern Germany. 

Various efforts have been made in my own time 
at Charterhouse, for instance to revive the conti- 
nental pronunciation ; but they were given up, 
as it was found that the boys on reaching Oxford 
were terribly handicapped by it. Still the truth of 
Milton's remarks must be felt by all Latin scholars 
who have travelled much abroad. Is it too much 
to hope that one effect of railways and constant 
travelling on the Continent may in the course of 
time be the revival of the older and, me judice t 
better usage ? 

The change, after all, would not be so very ex- 
tensive. Take, for instance, the well-known and 
familiar stanza : 

Stabat Mater dolorosa, 

Juxta crucem lacrymosa 
Dum pendebat films ; 

Cujus animam dolentem 

Contriatatam et gementem 
Pertransivit gladius. 

I have put in italics the only vowels which would 
have to be sounded differently from our present 
insular use. The second c in " crucem " and the j 
in "cujus" might or might not be sounded, the 
former as ch and the latter as a softened y ; but 
this would be quite optional. 


just read the first volume of these ' Memoirs/ 
(1893, Librairie Plon), comprising the years 1769- 
1795, which is certainly a work of merit, throwing 
more particularly light on the manners and cus- 
toms of French society of that epoch, rather than 
as a contribution to military history. Several of 
the minor commanders, such as General Jouy and 
General O'Moran, cross the stage, and the descrip- 
tion of these comparatively little-known officers is 

There is a singular anecdote of Louis XVI., 
which I have never seen before. The author, 
when acting as a National Guard, during the 
king's last sojourn at the Tuileries, was on one of 
the terraces when Louis was taking walking 
exercise. A lady appeared on the terrace, accom- 
panied by a little spaniel, which passed close to 
the king, who struck it violently with a heavy 
walking-stick, breaking the animal's back. While 
the lady burst into tears, and the animal was 
dying, " le roi continuait sa promenade, enchante 
de ce qu'il venait de faire, se dandinant nn pen 
plus que de coutume et riant comme le plus gros 
paysan aurait pu le faire." Is not this a new trait 
in the character of Louis XVI., as recorded in 
history ? 

There is a curious similarity between an incident 
related in this work and one in a very different 

8* S. VI. Ana. 25, '94.] 



book, namely, the droll, though somewhat coarse, 
' Lilie, Tutue, Be'beth,' of Eugene Ohavette. 

Thie*bault relates that one Madame Schmitz, 
residing atCharlottenbourg, near Berlin, desired her 
husband one year not to bring a number of guests 
from the capital to celebrate her birthday ; but 
merely to ask a sufficient number to fill one car- 
riage. In the evening a carriage arrived, which 
was drawn up obliquely at the entrance of the 
courtyard, so that only one door could be seen. 
From the window Madame Schmitz saw issue 
from the carriage door forty-two people, one by 
one, coming to celebrate the auspicious occasion, 
the secret of the joke not leaking out till the ninth 
guest had emerged from the carriage. Any one 
who has read Chavette's book will at once recollect 
the comical incident related by the concierge Louis 
Poux, whereby Oscar contrived to oust Madame de 
Sainte-Opulente (who proved to be his respected 
aunt Bebeth), the neighbour who hindered bis 
amours with the charming Bilboquette, by making 
it appear that six hundred and twenty conspirators 
had descended from the old lady's apartments. 
Chavette's droll imagination would appear to be 
justified by history. W. H. QUARRELL. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

"VOLURY": "PARAGONE." Can any reader of 
*N. & Q.' help me to the meaning of the word 
"volury"? When the Duke and Duchess of 
Lauderdale occupied Ham House in 1679 one of 
their rooms was called the Volury Room. It was 
on the ground floor, looking into the garden, but 
had no staircase leading from it. The word would 
seem to suggest something spiral, and just beyond 
the Volury Koom there was a very narrow and 
winding staircase leading to the top of the house. 

I should also be glad of any information as to 
"paragone," a rich Turkish material with which 
some of the rooms at Ham House were hung. 

" PROTESTANT. "Is there any instance on record 
before the Tractarian movement, which originated 
in 1832, of any minister of the Established Church 
of England repudiating the title " Protestant " ? 
It would be interesting, also, to know what ad- 
herent of that movement was the first to assume 
this position, and when. OXONIENSIS. 

ARMS. Will some of your correspondents 
who may be interested in heraldry tell me what 
families bear the following device on their shield, 
and where they dwelt in the last and seventeenth 
centuries 1 The device is a pelican or stork stand- 

ing upright in her nest, surrounded by her young, 
wings erect. A. E. C. 

ARMORIAL. I should be much obliged for help 
in determining the following arms, which appear on 
a fine Oriental plate in my possession. Quarterly, 
1 and 4, Arg., between two couplecloses, three 
martlets gu. ; 2 and 3, Sa., on a bend arg., three 
roses gu., in the sinister chief point a chess-rook of 
the second (which are the arms of Smalley or Small) ; 
bearing on a shield of pretence, Arg., three cocks 
gu (Cockburn ?). Over all appears the crest, A 
demi-lion gu., holding in its paws a rose leaved 
proper. The arms of the family of Peach are 
similar to those in the first and fourth quarters, 
but the tinctures are exactly reversed. 


WAR SONGS. I am engaged upon a collection 
of the war songs and battle music of all nations, 
from the earliest ages to the present time, giving, 
wherever it is possible, the music as well as the 
words. If any readers of ' N. & Q.' can give me 
information on tho subject I shall be most grateful. 
I particularly want Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, 
old Dutch, Danish, Italian, and any savage people's 
songs, or facts relating to the use of music on the 
field of battle or en route to it. I should also be 
glad of any authentic facts concerning the famous 
" death marches." 

12D, Portman Mansions, Baker Street, W. 

HERALDIC. Can any of your readers name the 
following coat? Argent, a chevron between three 
martlets sable, in the mouth an ermine spot. 
Crest, a demi-lion rampant or, holding a plant of 
broom. J. G. BRADFORD. 

157, Balaton Lane, E.G. 

HEWBTT FAMILY. According to Marshall's 
'Genealogist's Guide,' there is to be found, at 
p. 325 of William Berry's 'Hampshire Genea- 
logies/ a pedigree of the Hewetts of Heckfield. 
There is no copy of this book in Cambridge Uni- 
versity Library. Perhaps some reader who pos- 
sesses, or has means of consulting, Berry's work, 
will be so kind as to send me a copy of the Hewett 

Christ's Coll., Camb. 

HAMILTON. James, second Baron of Paisley, 
created Earl of Abercorn 1606, had three sons, the 
youngest of whom, the Hon. Sir George Hamilton, 
created baronet of Nova Scotia 1660, married Mary, 
third daughter of Viscount Thurles, and by her 
had six sons and three daughters. The eldest son 
was James Hamilton, died 1673, father of James, 
sixth Earl of Abercorn, and the fifth son, Richard, 
was in service in the French Army about 1 670. He 

said to be the ancestor in direct descent of the 
late James Douglas Hamilton, J.P., D.L. of Fintea, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. A. 25, '94. 

Killybegg, co. Donegal, born 1802, and married, 
1820, to Anne, daughter of Wm. Hutchinson, of 
Earby Hall, Kichmond, Yorks. Can any one give 
me the connexion between Richard Hamilton and 
James Douglas Hamilton ; or tell me who James 
Douglas Hamilton was descended from ? 


BONNTCASTLE. The 'Dictionary of National 
Biography ' states that Sir Eichard Henry Bonny- 
castle died in 1 848 ; but I find, by reference to 
the Times, that this general really died in Novem- 
ber, 1847. It appears that his death took place 
in Canada, and the London Times of Dec. 4, 1847, 
prints a short paragraph from a local paper of 
Kingston, in Canada, dated Nov. 3, announcing 
his decease, in " this city "; it reads " this day," 
put, most probably, for Nov. 2, so it took a whole 
month to communicate between Canada and Lon- 
don at that time. In < N. & Q.,' 7 th S. iii. 226, 
I referred to this family. It appears that Prof. 
John Bonnycastle, of Woolwich, father of the 
general, married a young lady named Rolt, pro- 
bably of Chesham, Bucks ; and I wish to ascertain 
if any representative of the professor still survives, 
possessed of family details on this subject pos- 
sibly in Canada. A. HALL. 

MONASTIC VERSES. At the end of the fifth 
chapter of Peacock's delightful ' Gryll Grange ' 
there are some lines from a hymn to St. Katharine : 

Dei virgo Catharina, 

Lege constana in divina, 

Coeli gemma preciosa, 

Margarita fulgida, 

Sponaa Christ! gloriosa, 

Paradisi viola. 

In the eleventh chapter he says they are " genuine 
old monastic verses." Where is the hymn to be 
found 1 I have searched for it in vain in Daniel 
and Mone, and in Dreves's 'Analecta Hymnica 
Medii ^Evi.' j. S. 

THOMAS MENLOVE. I am informed a Thomas 
Menlove was owner and lord of the manors oi 
Styche, near Whitchurch, Salop, and of Bletchley, 
Salop, about 1770 or 1780. Is this correct ; and 
how came these manors in possession of present 
owners ? Did this Thomas Menlove leave any 
descendants ? SALOPIAN. 

QUEEN OF SHEBA, At a distance here from 
anything like a learned library, I should feel much 
obliged to any more fortunate reader who coulc 
kindly refer to the ' Geography ' of the Sheree: 
Abou-Abdallah-Mohammed Al Edrisi (an Arabian 
writer of the twelfth century), and tell me by wha 
name he speaks of the Queen of Sheba who visitec 
Solomon, and whether he says anything speciall] 
noteworthy of her visit. Jeremy Collier, in his 
' Great Historical, &c., Dictionary' (ed. 1701), cite 
him as " the Nubian Geographer," which Gibbon 

chaps, xlvii. and 1.) calls an "absurd title" and 
' false description." I find that a complete trans- 
ation of the ' Geography ' of Edrisi was published 
)y M. Ame'de'e Jaubert, in 2 vols. 4to., Paris, 
1837-39. I hope it may be in the British Museum, 
r elsewhere within reach of some obliging and not 
;oo busy correspondent of ' N. & Q.' 

Birkdale, Southport. 

FITZPATRICK. Who was the "Honourable Mr. 
?itzpatrick " ? In 1780 he defrayed the cost of 
;he removal of the pulpit in Fulham Church. 


PEDIGREE OF MASON. I shall be obliged to 
any of the readers of * N. & Q.' who will inform 
me on the following point. The poet Mason be- 
ieved himself to be descended from the Sir Thomas 
Mason " who was Chancellor of Oxford, and 
flourished in great wealth in the reigns of Henry 
VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth." The 
poet had this statement from his grandfather. Is 
this correct ? and if so, I desire to have the pedi- 
gree showing the descent from Sir Richard. 


THOMAS : BULLER. Any intelligence concern- 
ing Dr. John Thomas, Bishop of Winchester in 
1761, and of his wife, including a description 
of the coat of arms belonging to each ; and also of 
Dr. William Buller, Bishop of Exeter, who 
married their daughter, would be gratefully re- 
ceived by F. M. H. 

ENGRAVING OF DR. CROFT. Will you kindly 
ask in your paper if any one knows of an engrav- 
ing of William Croft, Mus.D. Oxon, 1678-1727, 
other than those contained in his 'Musica Sacra' 
(which is engraved from the portrait in the Music 
School at Oxford) and Hawkins's * History of 
Music ' ? My reason for asking is that I have 
lately bought a picture which I believe is a portrait 
of William Croft, and am anxious to identify it. 


spondent skilled in the heraldry of Somerstershire 
have the kindness to inform me of the armorial 
bearings of the following families, once resident in 
the county? Hill of Poundsford, Sandford of 
Walford, Pitt of Abbott's He, Younge of Kelston, 
Rayer of Temple-Coombe, Mayowe. I shall be 
also glad to know the arms of the Gloucestershire 
families of Cartwright and Bick, both of Tredding- 
ton, in that county. S. G. 

" FANCY BREAD " IN 1836. By the Act passed 
in this year, and known as the Bread Act, bakers 
are required to sell all bread by weight, except 
French and fancy bread. Bakers now generally 
claim that loaves baked in a fancy shape, as "cottage," 
&c., are such as are exempted by the Act. Recent 

8 s. vi. AUG. 25, '94.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


prosecutions show that magistrates do not allow 
this plea. Can it be ascertained from record ( " 
parliamentary proceedings what was meant whe 
the Act was passed ? W. S. B. H. 

Maitland, in his 'Dark Ages'(ed. 1853, p. 15) 
speaks of the sign of the cross on certain solemn 
occasions being made with the consecrated wine o 
the Holy Eucharist. Two instances of this prac 
tice are mentioned by Dean Milman in his ' His 
tory of Latin Christianity.' Pope Theodore, cira 
642, seems to have ordered it, or at least con 
sented to its being done, in the instance of the con 
demnation of Pyrrhus the Monothelite ; and when 
Photius was condemned, about 869, a similar ac 
took place (see voL ii. pp. 129, 356). Was the 
any law of the Church authorizing this strange 
custom? N. M. & A. 

WELCH. Can any one give me information 
respecting a Major John Etherington Welch, 10th 
Dragoons, supposed to have died about 1844-45 ? 

J. E. 

JOHN WILLIAMS. Can any reader of *N. & Q. 
.give me any particulars of John Williams, Esq., 
of Gray's Inn, who in 1696 married Catherine, 
daughter of Sir Hugh Owen, of Ouilton, Pem- 

HILL. Who was Capt. Richard Hill, a Com- 
missioner of the Admiralty and one of Prince 
George of Denmark's Council, 1702-1708 1 


LIEUT. PETER LECOUNT. Will any one oblige 
by giving information of what became of Lieut. 
Peter Lecount, who wrote the well-known * Treatise 
on Railways ' in 1839, and also the article on Rail- 
ways in the f Encyclopaedia Britannica ' about the 
same time? He was also, I believe, author of 
* Letters of Veritas Vincit.' He once resided in 
Birmingham ; but no one now seems to remember 
anything of him. S. COTTERELL. 

196, Frederick Road, Aston, Birmingham. 

any one give me details of the ancestors of this 
gentleman? He commanded in the expedition 
against Quebec in 1759 ; married a London banker's 
daughter, by whom he had a child or children ; 
was created First Lord of the Admiralty in 1766 ; 
was buried in Westminster Abbey in 1775. I 
should feel very grateful for any information what- 
soever. Replies may be sent direct. 


23, Ashley Road, Crouch Hill, N. 

" PLAT " FOR " PLOT." In the Bulletins of the 
University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment 
Station I find, without exception, the word plat 
used in place of the word we would use here, i. e. t 

plot. On an experimental farm we have "test 
plots," in Illinois they have " test plats." Which 
is correct ? R. HEDGER WALLACE. 

(5 th S. x. V, 96, 456 ; 8 tb S. vi. 51, 74). 
It is an old superstition that Jingo is derived 
from the Basque word for God. And I know 
of no reason why we should believe it. This 
strange notion is, however, put forward for accept- 
ance in the * Century Dictionary, 1 which has no 
evidence to offer but the following vague and 
unlikely guess that it is " probably [!] a form, 
introduced perhaps [!] by gipsies or soldiers, of the 
Basque Jinkoa, Jainhoa, contracted forms of 
Jaungoicoa, Jangoikoa, God, lit. the lord of the 
high." So that the true Basque form has first to 
be contracted ; then used by gipsies, who notori- 
ously come from Biscay, or else by soldiers, who 
must have come over the Pyrenees, and then across 
the whole of France to get here ; and then these 
gipsies or soldiers further mauled the word till they 
reduced it to a form comfortable to swear by, 
and so on. And all this is so extremely probable ! 
It all tallies with the old-world style of etymology 
viz., that we must always have a make-up story, 
which is to be accepted without proof, and handed 
on as an article of faith, to disbelieve which is to be 

If we must have a guess, let it at least be a pro- 
aable one. And this is why the rival theory, 
given in * Webster's Dictionary,' is worth notice : 
' Said to be a corruption of St. Gingoulf." Who 
;his was we are not told ; but, of course, it means 
3t. Gengulfus. 

The statement that it is " a corruption " is 
rroneous. Jingo comes from Gengulphus or Gen- 
gulfus not by corruption, but by the strictest 
>honetic laws. It was not possible for it to become 
anything else, as any one who knows the phonetic 
aws of Anglo-French and of English can easily see 
or himself. 

Gengulphus must, in French, become Gengoulf, 
Gengoul, Gengou, and, in English, can only be 
r ingoo or Jingo. We can test the ending -ulfus 
y the word werwolf ; in the French loup-garou 
he ou represents the Latinized -ulfus, correspond- 
ng to the Teutonic wulf. The change of en to in 
s a fixed law in English ; the very word " Eng- 
sh" itself is pronounced Inglish, and I have 
iven a list of words showing the same sound- 

Who was St. Gengulphus? Alban Butler 
trangely omits him ; yet most of us must have 
met with him in the ' Ingoldsby Legends.' His 
ay was May 11, and his life is given at length in 
he ' Acta Sanctorum.' He was a Burgundian in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s, YI. A. 25, >9*. 

the reign of King Pepin (752-768), and was 
martyred on May 11, 760. It is especially noted 
in the ' Acta ' that Belgians called him Gengoal 
"Gengulphum Belgae Gengoal vocant" though 
this is surely a slight error, as the right phonetic 
form is Gengoul. 

Sir Harris Nicolas quotes him as "Gengoul, 
Gengoux, and Gengou, in the Low Countries, or 
Gengulph " ; and here the forms " Gengoul, Gen- 
gou " are the very ones which we know must have 
been evolved not by any corruption (an idiotic term, 
dear to all who abhor phonetic laws), but regularly. 

That we should love to swear by French saints 
needs no proof. Even Chaucer's Prioress swore by 
St. Loy, who was the Eligius of Limoges and 
Paris, just a century earlier than St. Jingo. Our 
ancestors swore by St. Martin of Tours, by St. 
Loy, by St. Denis, and many more. But we shall 
wait long for evidence that they ever swore- in 
Basque ! It is a pity they did not. 


It may be interesting to note that this word was 
added to the nomenclature of political literature 
by Mr. George Jacob Holyoake, in a letter of his 
which appeared in the Daily News of March 13, 
1878, with the head-line "The Jingoes in the 
Park" (see 'Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life '), 
thus making use of the " By Jingo " in the music- 
hall ditty popular at the time. J. 0. F. 

The Persian word for war contains the English 
sound of u as in bung ; so the spelling for an Eng- 
lishman is jung, but the scientific Jonesian spelling 
is jang, and the French spelling is djeng. The 
sound intended is the same, whatever be the 
spelling. Of course, you know that the word 
Jingo has nothing whatever to do with war, holy 
or otherwise, but simply comes from the oath " By 
Jingo " in the song. F. J. CANDY. 

INEZ DE CASTRO (8 th S. vi. 109). In your 
notes to MR. SWIFT'S inquiry this lady is said to 
have been a Queen of Portugal ; but she never was 
so. She was clandestinely married to the Prince 
Dom Pedro, the son and heir of his father Alfonzo, 
IV., called " The Brave," and in 1355, during his 
reign, which ended in 1357, she was assassinated, 
on account of this marriage, by Alvaro GonQales, 
Pedro Coelho, and Dom Lopez Pacheco. The 
whole story is related in the introduction to my 
translation of ' The Lusiads.' Camoens himself 
refers to the coronation of her corpse by Dom 
Pedro when he mounted the throne in his well- 
known episode : " Depois de ser morta, foi 
rainha " (canto iii. st. cxviii). J. J. AUBERTIN. 

"PUNCH" (8 th S. vi. 64). This additional 
quotation is very interesting, as it carries our 
information back to a date some twenty years 
earlier than that given by Mr. Wedgwood. That 

the explanation, as here given, is correct has been 
well ascertained. But I do not understand the 
editorial note. It quotes from Fryer's 'Travels' 
the well-known passage copied into Mr. Wedg- 
wood's 'Dictionary/ at the same time giving the 
date 1672 for that work. Is there any such edi- 
tion ? Lowndes only mentions one edition that 
of 1698. Has the edition of 1672 any real exist- 
ence, or is it a blunder ? WALTER W. SKEAT. 

[There is no editorial comment on this note emanating, 
as might be supposed by the reader, from ' N. & Q.'] 

THE LOGAN STONE (8 tb S. i. 467). The article 
here referred to gives a sufficiently full account of 
the formation of logan or rocking stones by what 
is known as weathering. I have just been sur- 
prised to read in Mr. Leslie Stephen's interesting 
work * Hours in a Library,' vol. iii., 1892, in the 
essay * On Country Books,' p. 197, the following 
passage : " We are not in search of the scenery 
which appears now as it appeared in the remote 
days when painted savages managed to raise a 
granite block upon its supports for the amusement 
of future antiquaries." It is remarkable that so 
accurate a writer should thus revive an old and 
exploded superstition. C. TOMLINSON. 

Highgate, N. 

" FLOTSAM AND JETSAM " (8 th S. v. 428, 475). 
Blackstone, in his 'Commentaries' (vol. i. 
p. 292), defining these terms, speaks of them as 
"barbarous and uncouth appellations," evidently 
on account of the un-English " look " of the words. 
PROF. SKEAT'S valuable note at the last reference 
affords, no doubt, the correct explanation of the 
origin of these words ; but we are still left without 
an answer to MR. AULD'S query as to when or by 
whom they were introducted. Ligan, noted by 
MR. E. H. MARSHALL, is also written lagan (L. 
ligamen, a band). CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

' THE PAUPER'S DRIVE' (7 th S. xii. 486 ; 8 tb S. 
i. 153). The following is a cutting from the Daily 
Telegraph of June 30 : 

SIR, Will you permit me to correct a slight error in 
a paragraph which appears in your paper of to-day, 
wherein you quote "Rattle his bones over the stones" 
by Hood. I beg to say the 'Pauper's Drive,' from 
which this refrain is taken, was written some fifty-five 
years ago, expressly for me to set to music, by the Rev. 
J. M. Neil, of Maidenhead. I enclose my card, and beg 
to remain, Sir, your obedient servant, HENRY RUSSELL. 

curious ex officio incapacity to compose forms of 
prayer in sedate and stately English is not confined 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury, but is shared 
by his brother of York, whose ' Office for the Con- 
secration of a Church,' recently published, abounds 
with solecisms, and exhibits a distressing want of 
acquaintance with liturgical English. 

8"" 3. VI. Ana. 25, '9i.] 



The opening collect is not only marvellously 
clumsy in construction, but contains a serious 
offence against the laws of grammar. Disentanglec 
from its parentheses, it prays that the bishop anc 
clergy "may ever be esteemed what they are 
called," meaning, probably, " may be thought 
worthy of the name they bear." The use o 
*' esteemed" instead of "esteemed as" or "es 
teemed to be" is a venial fault, and the use 
of "what" in the sense of "that which" is a 
comparatively modern colloquialism, which migh 
pass muster in a newspaper article or on the 
stage, and can be defended by the authority 
of the Hulsean Lectures for 1869. But the rela- 
tive pronoun " what," being a neuter singular, can 
only be used of an antecedent which is also neuter 
and singular, whereas in this case the antecedent 
is " bishop and clergy," which is masculine and 
plural. The sentence is, therefore, not only clumsy 
but grammatically inadmissible. 

The archbishop's unpleasant use of technical and 
liturgical terms in their colloquial modern senses is 
exemplified in the repeated warning that the 
Church is not to be employed for " ordinary and 
common uses." From the title-page of the Prayer 
Book he might have learnt that the chief use of a 
Church is for "common prayer," and from the 
prayer of St. Chrysostom that the prayers which 
have been offered are all " common supplications." 
As for " ordinary uses " they also are prescribed. 
Two rubrics and the preface to the Prayer Book 
ordain that when no " proper " Psalms or Lessons 
are appointed the " ordinary " Psalms and Lessons 
are to be used in their "ordinary course." If, 
therefore, the Church is not to be employed for 
any " ordinary or common " purposes, it could 
only be opened for special services, and would 
have to be closed for " common " worship and 
for the " ordinary" Sunday and weekday services. 

Such phrases as "religious worship," "religious 


are not 

religious solemnity, 1 __ __. 
liturgical English, but odious modem telegraphese. 
On p. 6 "compassionate their infirmities " should 
be u have compassion on their infirmities," and on 
p. 15 " erect this house to thy honour and worship" 
should be " to thy honour and for thy worship." 

Worst of all, on the first page our teeth are set 
on edge by the opening rubric, which cites 
Psalm cxxii. as " LGETATUS SUM" instead of 
"L^TATUS SUM," a blunder which would 
have been impossible in the case of one archbishop, 
who took a first in the Classical Tripos, but which 
must be condoned in the case of the other, who 
was only a Junior Op. 

It is no wonder that, with this specimen of his 
liturgical capabilities before them, the clergy of 
the diocese should have received without warmth 
the archbishop's proposal that he should compose 
for them a number of special services as an 
appendix to the Prayer Book. EBORACENSIS. 

We do not know that the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury was the sole or chief author of the thanks- 
giving prayer for the birth of the Duke of York's 
son. But the composer of it has little to fear from 
your correspondent's criticisms. " Christianly 
trained " is almost a verbal repetition of part of 
the prayer used when his parents were married, 
" that they may see their children Christianly and 
virtuously brought up." The ambiguity of the 
word " all " is a common incident of the English 
language, e. g. t in the Litany, " That it may please 
thee to forgive us all our sins"; and another in- 
stance, 8 th S. v. 126. As for the use of capital 
letters, the Book of Common Prayer seldom uses 
them for pronouns relating to God ; see, e. g. , the 
" Prayer for the Queen's Majesty." A few years 
ago the Church Quarterly Review deprecated the 
excessive use of such capitals. 

In St. John xxi. 15, " Lovestthou me more than 
these ? " both Greek and English are ambiguous. 

W. C. B. 

I would remind PROF. ATTWELL (on the authority 
of the ' Encyclopaedic Dictionary') that" Christianly," 
if not quite &fin de siecle word in form or meaning, 
has a good authority in its favour, 

This child Maurice was siththen emperour 
Imaad by the pope and lyved cristenly. 

Chaucer, ' C. T.,' 5541. 


I noticed the miserable English (especially 
" Christianly ") of the archbishop's prayer, which 
PROF. ATTWELL, of Barnes, exposes. But did he 
notice the ghastly blunder in the same prelate's 
new year's letter to his clergy ? He actually flung 
non neglige teipsum in the face of the diocese. Of 
course it should be ne neglexeris. This, too, was 
the blunder of a late head master. Is it not ferula, 
dignissimum ? OXON. 

88). MR. LEIGHTON refers to the sale of books at 
Christie's, Pall Mall, on May 5, 1791, but the 
Chevalier subsequently returned to London, and 
another sale of his MS3. and printed books took 
place, by order of the administrator, at the same 
auction rooms, on February 19, 1813. 

The Chevalier resided partly in a house a few 
doors from Astley's Theatre, Westminster Bridge 
Road, occupied by Col. Thornton, and afterwards 
at the house of Mrs. Cole, in Millman Street, 
Foundling Hospital, where he died on May 21, 
1810, aged eighty-three years, and was buried in 
St. Pancras Churchyard on the 28fch of the same 
month. Mr. Copeland, surgeon, of Golden Square, 
examined the body in the presence of these wit- 
nesses, and gave a certificate that he had "found 
he male organs in every respect perfectly formed." 

Those who may be interested in the life of this 
extraordinary man are referred to *N. & Q.,' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vi. AUG. 25, w. 

3 rd S. xi. 209, 286 ; 4 th S. ii. 131, 215, 236, 278, 
351 ; 5 th S. ii. 160, 200 ; viii. 309, 377 ; ix. 307, 
339. Also to Kirby's * Wonderful Museum' 
(iv. 1-29) for portrait and biography. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

D'Eon had two printed ex libris, both of which 
I possess, but the former of which alone I can now 
refer to. It is six inches long by two and three- 
eighths wide, and is merely a letterpress label, 
reading "The Chevalier D'Eon." The second 
specimen is of "La Chevaliere D'Eon." When I 
come across it I will send a description. I do not 
think that I have seen an heraldic ex libris of 
D'Eon, though I believe that one exists. But I 
have his arms stamped in gold on the covers of the 
portfolio in which he kept a collection of 
engravings and drawings relating to himself 
(and very strange and startling some of these are) 
and also an engraved portrait of the Chevaliere as 
Minerva, flanked by a shield displaying the follow- 
ing coat, On a chief azure, three mullets of six 
points, a fesse gules, on a base argent, a cock 
holding a burning heart in his dexter claw. His 
motto was "Vigil et audax." It would be a 
matter of some little difficulty to make a list of all 
the houses in which D'&on resided in England, but 
I probably^ have the data in the mass of his original 
MSS. D'Eon's own heraldic seal is still in existence 
in private hands. J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

"WADSETT" (8 th S. vi. 88). A wadset is 
a mortgage of lands. In Erskine's ' Institutes of 
the Law of Scotland ' (p. 310) it is written that in 
1469 wadsets were executed in the form of a 
charter, by which the reversor (mortgagor) impig- 
norated the lands to his creditor, to be enjoyed 
by him till payment of the sum lent. Then, 
apparently, in process of time the lawyers on each 
side tried to deprive the other party of its rights, 
so that, as Erskine says,- 

" Creditors seldom chuse, by the present practice, to 
secure their debts by way of Wadset : but when they do, 
the right is commonly executed in the form of a mutual 
contract : in which the reverser does not merely impig- 
norate, but alienate the lands, in consideration of the 
eum borrowed by him : and the Wadsetter on the other 
part grants the right of reversion." 

Wad, he says, in the old Saxon language, 
signifies a pledge, in Latin, vadimonium. 


In 1831 Sir F. T. Palgrave, in the preface to his 
'History of the Anglo-Saxons,' for Murray's 
''Family Library," pp. x, xi, anticipates the ob- 
jections which may be issued to his etymology. He 
enters upon the history of the word from the Latin 
vadiare, the A.-S. wcedian, to the transitions qua- 
diare, guagiare, gageure, with others, so on to weed 
or wed in our ancient speech, to bet, " a pledge 

or engagement that you will pay the thing you 
venture," with other relatives, such as wadset, 
wedding, all founded upon the primary notion of 
pledge, or compact. ED. MARSHALL. 

The ordinary spelling is wadset, and the word 
means (1) "a legal deed, by which a debtor gives 
his lands, or other heritable subjects, into the 
hands of his creditor, that the latter may draw the 
rents in payment of the debt"; (2) a pledge in a 
general sense, as in Burns's 

Here 's that little wadset, 

Butle's Scrap o' Truth, 

Pawned in a gin-shop, &c. 

See Jamieson's ' Dictionary,' ed. 1882. 

In * Death and Dr. Hornbook' the verb wad 
occurs in the sense of pledge or wager. Death 
assures his listener that, in spite of the quack's 
acuteness, he will yet overreach him : 

I '11 nail the self- conceited sot 

As dead's aherrin': 
Neist time we meet, I '11 ioad a groat, 
He gets hia fairin' ! 

Helensburgh, N.B. 


FRIDAY (8 th S. vi. 88). One occurred at four 
o'clock on the morning of April 17 (which was 
Good Friday), in the year 1772. No doubt there 
were others in previous centuries since the Chris- 
tian era; but it would be a laborious matter to 
calculate them before the existence of nautical 
almanacs, nor could it serve any useful purpose. 

The writer in the Guardian appears to limit the 
statement in the French papers to occultations of 
Spica on Good Friday; but, according to the 
periodical L' Astronomie, the assertions of some 
were more sweeping than this: "Les journaux 
[No. for May] ont annonce* que ce phe"nomene ne 
s'etait pas produit depuis la mort de Jesus-Christ ! 
C'est la une ide'e asaez fantastique, car il n'est 
point rare du tout." What is the authority for 
saying it occurred on the day of the Crucifixion ; 
and what day is taken to be the true one ? 

W. T. LYNN. 


CAPITAL LETTERS (8 th S. vi, 24). The late 
PROF. DE MORGAN, at 3 rd S. vi. 103, quoted a 
passage from a treatise on logic by Prof. Langius, 
of Giessen, 1714, showing that the work 

" is rendered almost unreadable by excess of a practice 
very common in German works of its time : namely, 
printing many words in italics and many in capitals. I 
am glad I was not an acquaintance of Langius. I am 
sure he dug his knuckles into the ribs of his friends at 
every third word." 

W. C. B. 

Is PROF. ATTWELL'S comparison of French and 
English influence correct when he attributes to the 
French a greater influence from the increasing pro- 

8" S. VI. AUG. 25, '94.] 



minence we are giving to the study of the Frenc 
language ? In the recent review of French litera 
ture in the Aihenceum it is shown that the Frenc" 
are giving increasing prominence to publications on 
the English grammar and language. 


" STELL" (8 th S. v. 367). Stell is a very common 
name in these days for a wide ditch or rivulet in 
North Yorkshire. Dr. Atkinson, in his ' Glossary, 
-writes, "Stell, the abbreviation of water stead." 


TRANSLATION (8 th S. vi. 68). A translation p 
the song " Marlborough s'en va-t-en guerre " wil 
be found in John Oxenford's 'Book of French 
Songs/ published by Warne & Co. (no date given 
against which I must protest). 

71, Brecknock Road. 

308, 397; vi. 55). When visiting Treso, Scilly, 
three summers ago, the head gardener of those 
deservedly celebrated gardens showed me a " be- 
trothal stone" which had been unearthed there, a 
short time since, while manuring the ground. This 
atone consisted of an oblong slab of granite with 
two holes in its middle line, one above the other, 
the upper one the smaller of the two. When the 
happy pair wished to be " made one," I was in- 
formed that they joined hands through these holes, 
the fair one placing one of hers through the upper, 
while the male offered one of his through the lower. 

Crouch Hill. 

I do not think that any one has spoken of the 
use of "holy stones" as charms to keep a boat 
safe. I have seen them fastened in the bows to 
that end nay, I once saw a Weymouth boatman 
in the very act of lashing one in his craft. 


The old woman who gave me the witches' stone 
was born seventy-eight years ago, in Stinwould, Lin- 
colnshire, where she has lived almost all her life; 
and if the gentleman who seems interested in the 
subject would like any further questions answered, 
or a pen-and-ink sketch of the stone, I shall be 
most happy to send him one. J. A. PENNY. 

Stinwould Vicarage, Lincoln. 

This subject has been freely dealt with under the 
heading of ' Holed Stones,' see 4 th S. ii. 392, 475, 
519, 558; iii. 93, 271; v. 14, 189, 327. The 
writers were MR. DUNKIN and MR. CHRISTOPHER 
COOKE, the latter of whom dealt largely in astro- 
logy and other mysticisms. A. H. 

FURNESS ABBEY (8 th S. v. 348, 474; vi. 56). 
At the last reference MR. BIRKBECK TERRY has 
called attention to the very far-fetched theory of 

Bekan as the origin of the English surname of 
Bacon ; but, if one may be allowed to differ from so 
great an authority as Bardsley, I should say there 
is nothing uncomplimentary about these names. 
They are merely the signs of their first bearers' 
houses, representing either the cognizance of the 
lord or the occupation and trade of the tenant, 
although, of course, there may be exceptions when 
Bardsley 's supposition would hold good. 

Whilst commenting upon porcine surnames, it 
may be worth while to remark on the repetition 
of that very funny marriage licence for Thomas 
Hoggery and Joane Piggyn (see Harl. Soc., 
vol. xxvi. pp. 81, 93). 

Eden Bridge. 

If MR. J. FOSTER PALMER has observed Atropa 
belladonna (L.) in any unrecorded locality in North 
Lancashire, I shall be much obliged if he will com- 
municate with me. In every station except one 
that is on record I have seen it. In the one ex- 
ception it has probably been uprooted on account 
of children being in its neighbourhood. 

When Dr. Barber's book is issued I shall see it ; 
but at present, I believe, the sheets are not yet 
sewn (July 21). LISTER PETTY. 

Ulverston, N. Lanes. 

INDIAN MAGIC (8 th S. vi. 48, 94.) An interest- 
ing article on this subject appeared in the Spectator 
of March 31, pp. 432-4, and in the following 
issue of the same paper will be found a letter by 
Mr. Andrew Lang on the same subject. Both 
article and letter are too long for quotation here. 

STRANGE OATHS (8 th S. vi. 48). Nares, in his 
4 Glossary/ gives the following instance of the use 
of " herring-pond " as a popular name for the sea 
upwards of a century before Sir Walter Scott 
mblished his novel of ' Guy Mannering ' : 

"The many thousands English, Scotch, and Irish 
mariners, who now yearly fiah for you, would hardly 
seek work abroad, if a fishery afforded 'em full employ- 
ment at home ; and 'tis odda but a finer country, cheaper 
and better food and raiment, wholesomer air, easier 
ents and taxes, will tempt many of your countrymen to 
roas the herring-pond." 'England's Path to Wealth,' 

71, Brecknock Road. 

What " Javotte " means in the passage cited by 
MR. BOUCHIER from Hugo it would be hard to 
ay, but in the ' Tableau de Paris ' of Desaugiers it 
s simply the name of a woman. Larousse and 
ther authors give "Javotte, nom propre de 
emme. Pop. Femme bavarde babillarde," a 
ense that suits the context very well. 


Your correspondent quotes from ' Guy Manner- 
ng ' an early instance of the use of the expres- 



[8 th S. VI. AUG. 25, '94. 

sion "herring-pond" for the ocean. Grose, in his 

* Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue,' third 
edition, 1796, has: " Herring- Pond. The Sea. 
To cross the herring-pond at the king's expense ; 
to be transported." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

CRAVEN FAMILY (8 th S. iv. 148, 219, 333). 
In the * Calendar of State Papers' we find the 
following : 

1661, May 25. Grant of baronetcy to Anthony Craven, 
of Sparsholt, Berks. 

1665. Grant to William, son and heir of late Sir 
William Craven and his brother Sir Anthony, of the 
title of Baron Craven in default of heirs male of the 
Earl of Craven. 

1665. Grant of Barony of Craven, after the Earl of 
Craven and his heirs, to Sir Anthony Craven and his 
heirs, and afterwards to Sir William Craven, eon of 
Thomas, brother of Sir Anthony. 

The Sir Anthony Craven here named must pro- 
bably be accepted as identical with "Anthony 
Craven, of Appletree Wicke, co. Yorke, Gent," 
in the indenture of July, 1660, quoted by MR. 
DICKINSON under ' Sir Walter Raleigh ' (v. 405). 
He must thus have received knighthood between 
1660 and 1665. It is somewhat remarkable that 
there should be so much ambiguity respecting one 
who was remainder heir to a peerage. 

W. D. PINK. 

TAX ON BIRTHS (8 th S. v. 367, 472). The fol- 
lowing custom at Shrewsbury seems suspiciously 
like a tax : 

"A custom there was in this town, that a woman 
taking (howsoever it were) a husband, if she were a 
widow, she gave the king twenty shillings, if a maid, ten 
shillings, in what manner soever it was she took a man." 
* Tenures of Laws and Customs,' p. 280. 


PATER will find full details of the tax in Burn's 

* History of Parish Registers in England,' 1829, 
pp. 31, 32. I shall be pleased to send him my 
copy to consult should he desire to do so. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

(8 th S. v. 61, 122, 189; vi. 95). The case of 
Steele v. Williams (Rector of Stoke Newington) 
is reported in the Jurist, xvii. p. 464, and was 
decided in 1853 (8 Exch., 655), and has already 
been fully discussed in 'N. & Q.' passim. Refer 
ring everything to precedent, the case shows tha 
parochial registers are public documents, and tha 
any incumbent who refused access to them migh 
be taken into court on the strength of Steele v 
Williams. JOHN PICKFORD. M.A. 

vi. 28). In 1754 was published ' A Plan of the 
Palace Gardens and Town of Kensington,' by John 
Rocque, upon which, numbered 11, we find a build 
ing designated the "Green House," in closi 

roximity to the palace itself. This building is 

ow known as "The Orangery," and is very much 

n the same condition as it was after its reparation 

n 1815. There seems to be some little doubt as 

o who was its designer. I have seen it stated 

hat Inigo Jones was the architect ; but Lof tie, in 

Kensington, Historical and Picturesque,' calls it 

, "very beautiful building of its kind, evidently 

rom Wren's own hand." Walford, in ' Old and 

tfew London,' vol. v., speaks of it as having been 

'originally built for a banqueting -house," and 

ays that it was "frequently used as such by 

Queen Anne." He adds that it is "considered 

a fine specimen of brickwork, the south front 

having rusticated columns supporting a Doric 

pediment, and the ends having semicircular re- 

ses." In John Timbs's ' Curiosities of Lon- 
don ' we catch a glimpse of its interior, for he tells 
is readers that " the interior was decorated with 
Corinthian columns, and fitted up as a drawing- 
room, music-room, and ball-room ; and thither the 
Queen was conveyed in her chair from the western 
end of the palace. Here were given full-dress fetes 
la Watteau, with a profusion of * brocaded robes, 
hoops, fly-caps, and fans,' songs by the court lyrist, 
&c." This building was completed in 1705; but 
when the Court ceased to hold its revels at Ken- 
sington it was devoted to the purposes of a 
greenhouse and for the storage in the winter 
of the orange trees in tubs brought out in the 
summer " to deck the front of the palace." It is 
^ustly considered a little masterpiece, by whomso- 
ever designed, and would be all the better for the 
removal of the dingy glass forcing-houses which 
have been placed close to it, " as if on purpose to 
hide its beauties" from those who admire the 
work of the period in which it was erected. 


20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

MERCURY' (8 th S. vi. 25). I have it on the 
authority of the publisher that the Lincoln, Hut- 
land, and Stamford Mercury, commonly called the 
Stamford Mercury, was first published in 1695, 
and that it is the oldest paper contained in the 
collection at the British Museum. The issue of 
July 13, 1894, is vol. cc. No. 10,395. 


DE WARREN FAMILY (8 th S. iv. 389, 473, 509 ; 
v. 294, 452). I have only just seen the last refer- 
ence above the name of C. G. BOGER. It is to be 
regretted my note should read to that lady 
"like a conundrum." My intention was not to 
perpetrate riddles or jokes. The suffix and prefix 
I imagined would be found from previous refer- 

The last paragraph to which C. G. B. calls atten- 
tion as being incorrect I am sorry appears so, 
through, most probably, my writing " Edward " in 

. VI. Ata. 25, '94.] 



place of Edmond ; the remainder of the para- 
graph, I think, is accurate at least, so far as a 
quotation goes. 

I have come across, in ' A New History of the 
Succession of the Crown of England,' London, 
1690, a passage in which Agatha is said to have 
been "the niece of the King of Hungary." So 
far as I remember, this is the first reference oi 
the kind I have seen or heard of. 


Whether the "latest," I cannot say ; but there 
is a recent " elucidation " of the Gundreda mystery 
in the Sussex Arch. Colls.,' vol. xxxviii. (1892), 
by Sir George Duckett, Bart. 


The Brasaey Institute, Hastings. 

CHARLES WALMESLBT (8 th S. vi. 27). The 
annexed obituary notice, appearing in Gent. Mag., 
Dec., 1797, vol. Ixvii. pt. ii. p. 1071, furnishes a 
brief account of Dr. Walmesley's life and career : 

" Nov. 25. At Bath, in the 76th year of his age, and 
40th of hia episocopacy, the Right Rev. Charles Walmes- 
ley, lord bishop of Rama, vicar apostolic of the western 
district, and senior bishop and vicar apostolic, doctor of 
theology in Sorbonne, F.R.S., and the last survivor of the 
eminent mathematicians who were consulted and cal- 
culated the alteration from the old to the new style; 
author of several literary works, particularly, an ex- 
planation of the Apocalypse, Ezekiel's vision, &c. By 
the fire at Bath, some years since, at the time of the 
riots, we believe, the other valuable MSS. he had been 
compiling during a well-spent life of labour and travel- 
ling through many countries before his return to England, 
were irretrievably lost." 


The slighted but instructive Chalmers may be 
of use here also. He records, " Charles Walmesley, 
D.D. and F.R.S., was an English Benedictine 
monk, and a Roman Catholic bishop and vicar 
apostolic of the western district," who died at Bath, 
1797, having written various books, mostly mathe- 
matical. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


(8 tb S. vi. 21). Skinner. The author of 'Tullocb- 
gorum' was no "Presbyterian schoolmaster," but 
an Episcopalian clergyman, and of the staun chest. 
In ' Buchan,' a little book published in 1858 by 
the Rev. John B. Pratt, Episcopal incumbent of 
Cruden, is the following, under "Longside": 

" On a knoll about a hundred yards south of the village 
stood the old episcopal church, in which the Rev. John 
Skinner, the learned ecclesiastical historian, theologian, 
and poet, officiated for the last twenty years of his life. 

Luishart, the house he occupied for upwards of half 

a century is about half a mile southwards from the 

village, and it was here that his congregation assembled 
during the time of the persecution, when it was unlawful 
for more than five persons, besides the clergyman's own 
family, to meet within the house for religious worship. The 
people assembled in the area formed by the two wings 
outside the house, while he read the service from the 

window, alike through the summer's heat and the 
winter's cold." 

In Mr. John Skelton's charming book 'The 
Crookit Meg ' there is a delightful chapter about 
the " sweet and venerable old man." I leave the 
correction of the pedigree to others. VERNON. 

Baghot De La Bere (p. 495). The late Rev. John 
Edwards, father of the present Mr. Baghot De La 
Bere, changed his name by royal licence, as being 
the representative of the ancient families of Baghot 
and of De La Bere, of Southam, co. Gloucester. 


St. Andrews, N.B. 

" TOUCH COLD IRON " (8 th S. v. 160, 235, 354). 
Another saying among boys is 

Give a thing and take a thing, 
To wear the devil's gold ring. 

Cotgrave, s. " Retirer," has : 

" Retirer ce qu'on donne. To give a thing and take a 
thing ; to weare the devills gold-ring (say we in a 
trivial! proverb)." 


In this neighbourhood there used to be, and I 
dare say still is, a game which we called "tiggy 
touch wood," where if the " man " succeeded in 
touching a boy before he could touch wood, he in 
turn became the " man." R. B* 

South Shields. 

POSSESSION OF PEWS (8 tb S. iv. 327, 396, 532 ; 
v. 97, 516). According to Cutt's Dictionary of 
the Church of England,' 

"doors and locks were probably coeval; there is one 
instance as early as 1515 : no doubt they became gra- 
dually more common, though we find that in 1631, the 
Bishop of Winchester issued a monition to the church- 
wardens of Elvetham, Hants, to remove them. Dr. 
Pocklington in 1637 wrote strongly against the pro- 
phaneness which was ' committed in close, exalted Pewes.' 
Pepys records that one day he was fain to stay at his pew 
door because the sexton had not opened it." 


Sutton Coldfield. 

246, 376, 398; 8 tto S. iv. 450, 495; v. 50, 231, 
352). I must decline MR. ELWORTHY'S invitation 
to philosophize on the lingual perversities of Somer- 
set. He can have that field to himself. Indeed, I 
do not see that it will serve any useful purpose to 
continue this discussion, as MR. ELWORTHY admits 
that he has been writing.about a subject "of which 
he knows nothing." The " educated native Welsh- 
man " behind the arras may be held responsible for 
misleading in some measure ; but the reasoning, the 
inferences, and the theory of the "usual form" 
are MR. ELWORTHY'S own, and he ought not to 
shirk the responsibility. MR. MAYHEW observes 
a discreet silence ; and I will close the subject, so 
far as I am concerned, by saying that the contri- 
butions on this subject of MR. MAYHEW and MR. 




ELWORTHY are not the trustworthy and sterling 
stuff we expect to be cast upon the table of ex- 
change of ' N. & Q.' JNO. HUGHES. 

THOMSON (8 th S. vi. 4, 70). An earlier and a 
better writer has the same thought : 
Oh, that I were an Orange-tree, 

That busie plant ! 
Then should I ever laden be, 
And never want 
Some fruit for him that dressed me. 

George Herbert, ' Employment.' 

By the way, I am glad to endorse the reviewer's 
praise (p. 80) of Bagster's new edition ; but does he 
mean to suggest that even the readers of older 
editions say Mr. Willmott's, for example can 
have known the sacred bard in the flesh ? 



HOW LONG WILL A HORSE LIVE ? (8 th S. V. 248, 

335, 478.) 

" There is now living, and in the possession of a hawker, 
at Brighthelmstone. a horse, which in the seven years 
war of our allies in Germany was the property of the late 
Marquis of Granby, when he commanded the English 
forces there. This horse, on his return from the Con- 
tinent, was sixteen years old, and at that age, in reward for 
past services, was turned loose, by order of the Marquis, 
into a park, where he lived, perfectly at his ease, sixteen 
more years at the end of which term he was sold to his 
present master, in whose service he has been regularly 
worked during the last fourteen years, and is now arrived 
at the uncommon age of forty-six years ! The above 
venerable horse is of a light grey colour, interspersed 
with bloody spots, is in good condition, and eats hay 
well ; his legs are quite free from windgalls, and his teeth 
are tolerably good, though very long." Northampton 
Mercury, November 5, 1796. 


THE SCRATCH-BACK (8 th S. vi. 67). I possess 
a very plain but pretty scratch-back, similar to one 
described by MR. ANDREWS. It was sent to 
me from Burmah with the following note appended : 
"Instrument universally used by Europeans, 
Chinese, Burmese, and natives, for scratching the 
back when suffering from prickly heat." The 
ivory hand is beautifully carved, and the handle, 
about fifteen inches long and a quarter of an inch 
thick, seems to be made of teak or rosewood. The 
thumb-nail appears to be inordinately lengthened, 
and this, I think, is a custom or conceit sometimes 
affected by Easterns. But another kind of scratch- 
back thrusts itself on my memory, in the shape of 
an instrument of torture which larking lasses at a 
fair are wont to pull down the backs of young lads, 
giving a sound as if the coat had been torn from 
top to bottom. The horror, consternation, and in- 
dignation of the victim constitute the joke, I believe. 


I possess one of these instrument BJ which has 
been in my family for nearly a century. The 
handle is of twisted whalebone, eighteen inches 

long, with a carved ivory hand, slightly curved. 
It may not be scarce ; but I know the literature 
treating on the article is what the secondhand' 
booksellers would term "very rare." Like my 
friend MR. ANDREWS, I am not acquainted with 
any description of it, excepting in Chambers's 
1 Book of Days,' although I have diligently searched 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I saw a "scratch-back" in early youth, just 
such as is here described, with the carved ivory 
fittings ; it was used daily by a very portly lady 
of eighty, as I fancy to stimulate a torpid liver. 

A. H. 

The article on this implement in Chambers'a 
'Book of Days/ vol. ii. p. 237, was probably 
written by that eminent antiquary the late Llewel- 
lyn Jewitt, than whom no one was more competent 
to form an opinion. Many years ago, Sir Frede- 
rick Ouseley showed me at St. Michael's College, 
Tenbury, one of these curious little implements, 
which had belonged to his father, Sir Gore Ouse- 
ley, Ambassador-Extraordinary and Minister-Pleni- 
potentiary at the Court of Persia. It was called a, 
"Persian scratch-back," and was, so far as I re- 
member, made of ivory and beautifully carved at 
the extremity into the semblance of a hand. Most 
probably its use originated in the East, and with 
civilization proceeded to the West. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

There are plenty of gratte-dos for sale for use 
not as curiosities in Paris. An ordinary gratte- 
dos is about fifteen inches long and consists of 
black (probably ebony) rod with a neatly carved 
ivory hand at one end. KOBSRT PIERPOINT. 

There are, or at least were, specimens of this 
quaint little implement at the South Kensington 
Museum. CHAS. JAS. F&RET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

"THE KING'S HEAD" (8 th S. vi. 7, 58). King 
John is the earliest monarch whose head I have 
seen upon an inn signboard. This is at the 
" King's Head," Egham. It would be interesting 
to know how long it was after the signing of Magna 
Charta upon the neighbouring island before his 
visage was selected as a sign of welcome, and 
whether any historical connexion can be shown 
as some say between the act and the inn. 

Before the "King's Head" at Harrow swings 
(in windy weather) the aspect of Bluff King Hal, 
and some thirty-eight miles away, as the crow flies, 
down at Hever, in Kent, another likeness of that 
monarch adorns the signboard of the " Harry the 
Eighth." In the last instance the sign is of com- 
paratively recent introduction. During the last 
century the house was known as " The Bull and 
Butcher," and this is said to have been a corruption 

8'*S.VI.ATO.25, '94.] 



of" The Boleyn butchered," a compliment to Queen 
Elizabeth. The only hostel portraiture of Charles I 
that comes to my mind is in front of the "King' 
Head" at Chigwell, the "Maypole" of Barnabj 

How many of our monarchs are represented on 
signboards ; and how many are contemporary ? ' 
have cited three, and all probably of posthumou 
introduction. C. E. GILDERSOME-DICKINSON. 

A deed in my possession refers to the " King's 
Head," Southwark (which came into the possession 
of an ancestor of mine about 1700 and descendec 
to me), as the inn " formerly known as the Pope's 
hed, now as le kynges hed, abutting on the high 
way called Longe Southwarke." This deed is 
dated 1559, and conveys the property to John 
Gresham (unole of Sir Thos. Gresham and John 
White). The king was, of course, Henry VIII. 

I can well understand with MR. COLEMAN that 
" this sign was not adopted at inns on account of the 
beheading of Charles I." But it led to an old 
joke usually levelled at those who took a chop at 
the " King's Head." W. J. F. 

GREEN WAX PROCESS (8 th S. v. 508 ; vi. 71). 
This word is included in Bailey's ' Dictionary J 
(sixth edition, 1733), where I find the following 
definition : 

" Green wax [Law Term], the estreats of fines, issues, 
and amercements in the Exchequer, delivered to the 
Sheriffs under the seal of that court, made in green wax, 
to be levy'd in the county." 

C. P. HALE. 

EPITAPHS ON HORSES (8 th S. v. 424). There 
is one in a shed under a brick pyramid, called 
Farley Mount, about five miles west of Winchester. 
It states that the horse commemorated made a 
leap down a chalk-pit twenty-five feet deep, without 
injuring itself or its rider. E. L. G. 

DANTE AND NOAH'S ARK (8 tb S. iv. 168, 256, 
373; v. 34, 212, 415). In the last- mentioned 
page reference is made by E. L. G, to Nouri and 
his statement concerning the ark. Will your 
correspondent oblige by saying where this account 
may be read ? W. S. B. H. 

"FOG-THROTTLED" (8 tb S. v. 247, 475). It is 
stated at the second reference that this stupid ex- 
pression has " little beyond its honest Saxon ring 
to recommend it." Has it even so much ? " Fog " 
is, I believe, of Danish origin. Unless, therefore, 
Danish is included in the term " Saxon," we must 
alter your correspondent's epithet to " Teutonic." 

CREPUSCULUM (8 th S. v. 306, 397, 514 ; vi. 92). 
I have seen somewhere, but cannot remember 
where, omnibi given, in sad earnest, as the plural 

of omnibus. This latter word, by the way, is not 
in Richardson (1836), though it occurs in the 
Quarterly for January, 1831 (p. 233): "There was 
seen the first barricade, formed by one of those 
long coaches called omnibus" Another crepuscular 
expression may be seen a few numbers back in 
* N. & Q.,' imprimatur, in the sense of printer's 
name and address at the foot of a title-page. 
Polypi, however, does not " belong here," as MR. 
F. ADAMS and MR. E. WALFORD have noted. 
Both second and third declension forms are good 
Greek, and the second declension forms, especially, 
are common in poetry, as Tennyson, of course, 
knew, and as a glance at the instances given in 
Liddell and Scott shows. J. P. OWEN. 

"RADICAL REFORMERS" (8 th S. iv. 226, 337, 458 ; 
v. 409 ; vi. 53). The main points of the " People's 
Charter " may be carried back at the least to May 
Day, 1649, the date on which Lieut. -Col. John 
Lilburne, with Masters William Walwyn, Thomas 
Prince, and Richard Overton, set his hand to " An 
Agreement of the Free People of England" [B.M. 
press-mark, E 571 (10)]. In it are claimed man- 
hood suffrage, annual parliaments, free trade,, 
abolition of hereditary rank or privilege, abolition 
of death penalty saving for murder, and many 
other things which make this a notable document 
in our political history. One of these days, when 
my study of John Lilburne gets itself published,, 
it will be seen to have been no isolated event. Of 
the restrictions to be placed upon the "Repre- 
sentative," one may be extracted here in full : 

1 XIX. That it shall not be in their power to continue 
Excise or Customs upon any sort of food, or any other 
goods, Wares, or Commodities longer then four months 
after the beginning of the next Representative, being 
both of them extreme burthensome and oppressive to 
Trade, and so expensive in the Receipt, as the moneys 
expended therein (if collected, as Subsidies have been) 
would extend very far towards defraying the public 
Charges ; and forasmuch as all moneys to be raised are 
drawn from the People, such burthensome and charge- 
able wayes shall never more be revived, nor shall they 
raise Money by any other wayes (after the aforesaid 
time) but only by an equal rate in the pound upon every 
reall and personal estate in the Nation." 


THE ALMOND TREE (8 th S. iv. 309, 359 ; vi. 97). 
Both in England and in India the almond is a 
symbol of hope, and for the same reason that its 
flowers precede its leaves. This alone may account 
'or its being considered a "lucky" tree. It is 
noteworthy in this connexion that Aaron's rod was 
f an almond tree (see Numbers xvii. 8). 

0. 0. B. 

BURIED IN FETTERS (8 th S. iv. 505; v. 56, 157). 
Richard Taylor, in his ' Index Monasticus,' p. vi, 
mentions that Matthew Paris relates an instance of 
i monk of St. Albans who, having behaved im- 
>roperly in his cell, was beaten by order of the 



abbot, and then sent to the cell at Binham, Nor- 
folk, where he was imprisoned in fetters, and, 
dying, was buried in them. PAUL BIERLBT, 

208, 210, 271, 391). The account of this last inter- 
view, as given by such a painstaking historical 
writer as Miss Strickland, may be worth adding to 
the notices already collected in 'N. & Q. 1 : 

" He unfastened his cloak, and took off the medallion 
of the order of the Garter. The latter he gave to Juxon, 
saying, with emphasis, 'Remember.' Beneath the 
medallion of Saint George was a secret spring, which 
removed a plate ornamented with lilies, beneath which 
was a beautiful miniature of his Henrietta. The warn- 
ing word, which has caused many historical surmises, 
evidently referred to the fact that he only had parted 
with the portrait of his beloved wife at the last moment 
of his existence."' Lives of the Queens of England,' 
London, 1875, vol. v. p. 382. 

A. B. G. 

ADVENT PREACHERS (8 th S. vi. 48), After all, 
who were they 1 ? A reply that they were Lent 
preachers may have been sufficient in 1841, but 
will hardly pass muster in these days. Were they 
connected in any way with the Second Advent 
preaching of Edward Irving and his followers'? 
By the way, did the Bishop of London appoint 
Wednesday and Friday Lent preachers in certain 
churches? What churches? Does he appoint 
them now? The Lord Chamberlain selects such 
for the Chapels Royal ; but he is another person. 


No. 1 of Willis's Current Notes was issued in 
January, 1851, and No. 84 (the last published) in 
December, 1857. It was a monthly periodical 
annexed to a "Price Current of New Works 
published in Great Britain, Ireland, and America/ 
and " A Catalogue of Superior Second hanc 
Books" on sale at Willis & Sotheran's, 136, Strand 

71, Brecknock Road. 

MILITIA CLUBS (8 th S. vi. 68). The recruiting 
for the Militia when these clubs were in use was 
by ballot. By means of the club a balloted man 
could engage a substitute. The legal service fo 
balloted men was five years. The length of ser 
vice for a substitute was longer, according to th 
war. My father, who had left the Militia befor 
I knew him, who often spoke of his experience in 
the service during seven years, said he engaged a 
a substitute, and received 40Z. as bounty. 


7, Ashley Street, Carlisle. 

In the first week of October, 1810, 601. was paid 
at Plymouth for a substitute for the Militia. If 
the chronicler of the ' An. Reg.' is to be trusted, 
" one man went on condition of receiving a shilling 
a day during the war, and another sold himself for 

even shillings and threepence per pound avoir- 
Lupoise." That the club's expenses should have 
xceeded its income whilst such rates obtained is 
not surprising. W. F. WALLER. 

SIBYL (8 th S. v. 425). Allow me to cite the 
>eautiful lines in * Marmion,' canto vi., "The 
Battle," where this name is spelt as below: 

A little fountain cell 
Where water, clear as diamond spark 

In a stone bason fell. 
Above some half-worn letters say, 
" Drink weary pilgrim, drink and pray 
For the kind soul of Sybil Grey 
Who built this cross and well." 

Stanza xxx. 



In vain the wish for far away, 
While spoil and havoc mark their way, 
Near Sybil's Cross the plunderers stray. 

Stanza xxxiii. 

Time's wasting hand has done away 
The simple Crosa of Sybil Grey, 
And broke her font of stone. 

Stanza xxxvii. 

There is also the excellent novel, by Disraeli, 
entitled 'Sybil,' published in 1845. The name 
also occurs in the pedigree of Wilbraham of Rode, 
co. Chester, as Sybella, Sibella, and Sybilla. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I am afraid that " the parson christening " has 
no power to regulate the spelling of names. The 
transposition of the vowels in " Sibyl " is, however, 
not recent, for the name is spelt " Sybil" in 
Blount's ' Glossographia,' 1681. Similarly we 
have "Hylda" for Hilda, and "Smythe" (most 
affected spelling) for Smith. 


This note suggests an inquiry as to the date 
when the misplacement of the i and y, now almost 
general, first began. It is not due to Lord 
Beaconsfield's s Sybil,' published in 1845, for 
" Sybil Grey " occurs in ' Marmion ' (ed. 1833). 


THE CAUSE OF DEATH (8 tb S. ii. 428, 533 ; 
iii. 76, 154, 275, 355). In Baldock churchyard, 
Hertfordshire, on a tombstone to the memory of 
Henry George Brown, who died on March 20, 1861, 
aged ten years and ten month?, is the following : 
How soon I was cut down, when innocent at play, 
The wind it blew a ladder down, and took my life away. 

G. F. R. B. 

HELMERAWE FAMILY (8 th S. vi. 29). Consult 
Eden Bridge. 

GOLF (8 th S. iv. 87, 178, 272, 297, 338, 378, 
415, 512; v. 256, 313; vi. 118). At the last 

8* h S. VI. AUG. 25, '94.] 



reference, Webster's 'Dictionary' is misquoted. 
Webster refers us, not to " the Danish kolf," but 
to the "D. W/"; and "D." means "Dutch." 
He is, of course, quite right ; the Danish form is 
kolv, the proper sense of which is "shaft" or 
"arrow," originally, a cross-bow bolt. In my 
' Dictionary ' I refer to the account in Jamieson's 
* Dictionary,' and I quote the Dutch kolf, " a club 
to strike little bouls or balls with," from Sewel's 
Dutch Dictionary,' 1754. I ought to have cited 
Hexham's * Dutch Dictionary,' 1658 (ninety-six 
years earlier). He gives " Etn kolve, a Banding- 
staff to strike a ball." Koolman and Kluge show 
that Jcolf is related to E, club and clump, and even 
to Lat. globus. WALTER W. SKBAT. 

AILMENTS OF NAPOLEON (8 th S. v. 248, 351, 
394, 435, 517). In the ' History of the Expedition 
to Russia,' by General Count Philip de Segur, 
there is the following passage, from which it would 
appear that the health of Napoleon during that 
memorable campaign was not what it was at 
Marengo and Austerlitz : 

" Let no one, however, really decide on the conduct of 
a genuia so great and universal ; we shall soon hear his 
own observations and statements; we shall see how he 
was urged on by his necessities, and that, even admitting 
that there was rashness in the rapidity of his expedition, 
yet success would in all probability have crowned it, if, 
instead of experiencing an early decline of health and 
constitution, the bodily frame of that extraordinary man 
had retained the vigour which was still preserved by his 
caind." Chapter i. 

This is extracted from a translation into English, 
with no author's name appended, published in 
1825 by Hunt & Clarke, 38, Tavistock Street, 
Covent Garden. At the time, 1812, Napoleon was 
only forty-three years of age. The precise nature 
of his complaint is not stated. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1648-1649. Edited 

by William Douglas Hamilton. (Stationery Office.) 
WE are disappointed in this volume ; but that is no fauli 
of the editor's. We find here, as in all else that Mr. Hamil 
ton does, an amount of care and conscientiousness that ii 
beyond praise ; but the fact is that, for some reason 01 
another, which we are not able to explain, there are 
fewer documents in the collection relating to the last 
year of Charles I. than there are for many previou 
periods. Were we left to glean our knowledge of tha 
disturbed time from these records alone our estate wouU 
not be gracious. Happily, it is not so. There are no 
only the wilderness of pamphlets of that time, every one 
of which is more or less useful, the great collections o " 
Rushworth and Whitelock, but we have in the archive 
of our old county families, which have been calendare< 
by the Historical Manuscripts Commission, a wealth 
of contemporary documents which well makes up fo 
the startling deficiency in this department. When w< 
epeak of deficiency, the term is, of course, only relative 

he volume before us contains many documents of a 
igh degree of interest, now for the first time made 
nown to the explorer. For the local history of the 
ar, or rather wars, of the summer of 1648, the docu- 
ments calendared here are invaluable. For example, 
aere is no event in our history that has been more 
wrangled over and less understood than what used to be 
ailed, when the event was fresh in men's minds, the 
Colchester business the siege wherein the inhabitants 
uffered so sadly, and which led to the military execution 
f Sir George Lysle and Sir Charles Lucas. A glance at 
he index shows that there are a great mass of papers 
icre relating to this subject, not one of which, if our 
memory serves us rightly, has hitherto been printed. 
The calendar of papers relating to the Navy, which 
re classed to themselves, will be found of great interest 
y any one who should make inquiries into our nautical 
flairs during the period of the Civil War and the Com- 
monwealth. It is a subject almost unknown to the 
general public except so far as relates to the career of 
Admiral Blake. A few of the curious Civil War news- 
papers are catalogued here. There do not seem to be 
nany in the Record Office. There ia a large, but very 
mperfect, collection in the British Museum, and another 
n the Bodleian. Probably the two compose nearly a 
perfect set. This mine of knowledge is yet almost un- 
worked. Is it too much to ask of her Majesty's Govern- 
ment to have a complete catalogue made of these highly 
important historical memorials between the years 1640 
and 1660. showing in the margin where they are to be 
found ] The cost would be little, and the gain to general 
and local history very great. Failing this, cannot private 
munificence be directed into this channel ? 

'armina Mariana: an English Anthology in Verse in 

Honour of or in Relation to the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Collected and Arranged by Orby Shipley, M.A. Second 

edition. (Burns & Oates.) 

WE welcome gladly a new edition of this beautiful book. 
The fact that the first issue should so soon have become 
exhausted is evidence that there are many persons, not 
members of the religious body to which Mr. Shipley 
belongs, who appreciate the poetry very much of it of 
a high order of merit which has gathered around the 
name of Mary. As she was for many centuries the chief 
merely human figure in the Christian art of the West, 
and still continues to be so in the Oriental communions, 
it would be surprising if the poetry of all lands had 
not honoured her. Many of our readers will, however, 
be surprised that English literature contains so much 
Marian verse, and that the editor has been able to cull 
flowers from so many well-known Protestant authors. 
He has adorned his pages with gems from Browning, 
Poe, Coleridge, Southey, Sir Edwin Arnold, and many 
others for whose names we have not space. 

The present reprint contains an index to the names of 
authors, which was unfortunately lacking in the first 
edition. Otherwise the two are practically identical. At 
first we were inclined to blame Mr. Shipley for not 
having added other verses, which we may be sure have 
occurred to him during the last two years. Had we 
done so we should have blundered, for a notice at the 
beginning of the volume, which we had at first over- 
looked, informs the reader that a companion volume, to 
be called ' Poema Domina,' is in preparation. We shall 
welcome it gladly when it appears. 

Old Dorset : Chapters in the History of the County. By 

H. J. Moule, M.A. (Cassell & Co.) 
THIS book is far superior in its arrangement to many 
books of the same character which have appeared in 
recent years. It is not made up of a aeries of detached 
papers, having little connexion with each other save 



auch as the printer and the bookbinder give. Mr. 
Moule begins with the geology of Dorsetshire. Then we 
are introduced to palaeolithic man, and go on by easy 
stages till we arrive at the great Parliamentary struggle 
in the seventeenth century. Mr. Moule writes modestly 
too modestly, perhaps, for he is very well instructed in 
the history of the shire, and might on some matters 
have spoken with more confidence than he has displayed. 
The chapters relating to Dorsetshire in Saxon and Danish 
times are especially instructive. They will, we trust, 
be read by many persons whose only knowledge of his- 
tory has hitherto been derived from cram books. To 
such they will come as a new revelation. There are 
many persons not despicable in intellect who have no 
notion of history having any value except as a means of 
gaining marks in examinations. We do not wish to 

. depreciate any part of Mr. Moule's volume. We cannot 
but feel, however, that his heart is in the more remote 
times, and that when he arrives at days wherein 
chronicles and records are plentiful they lose some of 
their interest. 

We have met with a few passages where we are not in 
agreement with Mr. Moule, but only one example of 
positive error, and in this instance the blunder is not 
his own, but that of the authority he quotes. Having 
occasion to refer to the great peat bog in Lincolnshire 
and Yorkshire, commonly known as Hatfield Chace, and 
the timber buried therein, he considers these trees as 
evidence of a great forest having been felled by the 
Romans. This was the current opinion a hundred, 
perhaps even fifty years ago, but it is now admitted by 
almost every one who is competent to form a judgment 
on such a matter that the forest had perished and 
become buried by peat long before the Roman occupa- 
tion of this island. When the trees grew the land 

.must have been higher than it is now by some thirteen 
or fourteen feet. 

West Grinstead et Les Caryll. Etude Historique et 
Religieuse sur le Comte de Sussex en Angleterre. 
Par Max de Trenqualeon. (Paris, Torre ; West Grin- 
stead, Denis ; London, Burns & Gates.) 
FOREIGNERS seldom devote themselves to the study of 
English topography. When they visit this country they 
have a natural desire to see our grand cathedrals. Can- 
terbury, Durham, Lincoln, and York become as familiar 
to them as to ourselves. Certain historic sites, too, 
attract many a French and German pilgrim ; but our 
small towns and villages are rarely visited. This is not 
surprising. How very few Englishmen there are, except 
architectural enthusiasts, who have ever tried to master 
the history of any of the smaller places in what is now 
France, over which our Angevin monarchs reigned. We 
are always pleased when we find cultivated inquirers 
straying from the beaten track in search of new know- 
ledge. M. Trenqualeon has been attracted by West 
Grinstead because it was long the home of a noteworthy 
Catholic race, and there have grown up thereabouts 
several religious institutions connected with that body. 

The author begins his account at a very early date. 
A good sketch is given of British and Roman Sussex. 
The story of St Wilfrid is excellently told, without any of 
that wild fanaticism which has so often inspired the 
pens^of British controversialists. 

The Carylls are said to have been of Irish race. There 
is a tempting likeness between their name and O'Carroll ; 
but we are not sure that the connexion has been demon- 
strated. They were enriched through the law, and 
became prominent Sussex people in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The third John Caryll was not opposed to Henry 
VIII.'s religious changes. He served that king as 
_ Attorney General for the Duchy of Lancaster, and in 

the reign of his son was one of the commissionera em- 
ployed in compiling the book of Common Prayer. The 
grandson of this person seems to have been a sincere 
believer in the old religion, and handed on his convic- 
tions to his descendants. John Caryll the seventh, as 
the author calls him, was sent by James II. on a mission 
to the Pope. 

The volumes are enriched by several interesting por- 
traits, and the pedigrees, so far as we can test them, 
seem to be accurate. 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports. Edited by W. S. 

Church, M.D., and W. J. Walsham, F.R.C.S. Vol. 

XXIX. (Smith, Elder & Co.) 

" THE truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth," 
might well be the test for the value of hospital reports. 
Viewed from this standpoint, nothing could be better 
than the account of ' A Year's Surgery at St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital,' by Mr. Butlin, contrasting the results 
of the simpler method used with those obtained under 
the more elaborate antiseptic and aseptic methods of 
wound treatment, and the article by Mr. Harrison 
Cripps on ' Abdominal Section for Ovariotomy, &c.,' in 
which the various improvements in the operating theatre 
are fully described. The remaining articles are varied, 
and worthy of careful perusal, that by Dr. Claye Shaw 
On the Early Stages of Acute Insanity' being both 
valuable and suggestive. 

WE regret to hear of the death of Mr. Wyatt Papworth, 
F.R.I.B.A,, curator of Sir John Soane's Museum. Mr. 
Papworth, who was responsible for the 'Dictionary of 
Architecture ' of the Architectural Publications Society, 
and who, as Master and Past Master of the Clothworkers' 
Company, took an active part in the promotion of technical 
education, was a constant contributor to ' N. & Q.' Com- 
munications from him, on his favourite architectural sub- 
jects, have appeared within the last few weeks. 

MR. E. WALFORD is contributing to the Isle of Wight 
Express some ' Random Recollections of Past Life,' deal- 
ing with Charles Dickens, Walter Savage Landor, W. J. 
Thorns, &c. 

UtoiiCjes i/y C0msg0ttta;te 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
Slate, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

W. A. HENDERSON ( Muss "). See 7* S. v. 69, 158, 
' Amuss and Muss.' 

CORRIGENDUM. P. 124, col. 2, 1. 14 from bottom, for 
" 18 " read 283. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Oflice, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8" S. VI. SEPT. 1, '94.] 





:NOTES: A Swiss Woman of Letters, 161 Robert Pollok, 
163 Date of the Prophet Nahum The Fuchsia Waller 
and Gray, 165 Dr. Baillie Welsh Surnames' ' Cherry 
Day" "Fuentes d'Onor "" Employe" " or "Employee ' 
Calverleyana, 166. 

QUERIES : " Descamisado "Parody by G-eorge Steevens 
Stephen Montagu Araucanian Language Portrait of 
Lady Nelson Author of Ode Source of Latin Line 
Family of Prince Lucien Bonaparte, 167 " Once" Sur- 
names Henry Pelham John Lilburne Source of 
Couplet Irish Family Kef erence Wanted Title of 
Baron "Incense-breathing morn" Beddoes, 168 Ho- 
garth Engravings, 169. 

REPLIES -.Joan I. of Naples, 169 Derail, 171 Source of 
Quotation, 172 Raleigh Island of Barbados Explana- 
tion of Phrases Bonfires, 173 " Horkeys " " Warlli- 
barthauch" Pin, 174 Mother of Adeliza of Louvaine 
News, 175 Reverence for the Dove in Russia " To gride " 
The Mace, 176 Lady Danlove Lines on Bishop Colenso 
Chelsea to Westminster in 1758 Wolsey's Banqueting 
Hall, 177 Macbride Yeoman " May line a box" Norris 
Wooden Leg Names of Olympic Victors Artificial 
Byes Theodore Groulston, 178' The Imitation of Christ ' 
Dr. John Parsons St. Fagan's, 179. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Calendar of Patent Rolls 'Bliss's 
4 Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers,' Vol. I. 

^Notices to Correspondents. 


The place-name Combe is as common in England 
as its equivalent Cwm is in Wales. From Acomb 
in Yorkshire, to Combe Flory Sydney Smith's 
<3ombe Flory in Devon, it is scattered over the 
land, or at least over the southern and western 
counties ; and we all know that Combe means a 

But perhaps we do not all know that the same 
word, and with the same meaning, is a native 
name in the Jura. It was from this fact that 
** T. Combe," herself a native of the Jura, derived 
the literary name which she has chosen or rather, 
which her modesty chose for her. When she 
began to write, Mile. Adele Huguenin, of Locle, 
simply desired to hide herself from the critics 
under a nom de plume; but the Swiss public, 
though not the English, have long since found her 
out ; and there is now, I think, no more popular 
novelist and /ewWefow-writer than T. Combe in 
aill La Suisse Eomande. Be it understood, more- 
over, that in literary matters La Suisse Komande 
looks with a dignified and courteous contempt upon 
German Switzerland, though German Switzerland 
contains the capital and the haute aristocratie of 

Locle, it need hardly be said, is, and has been 
or a hundred years and more, the centre of the 

Swiss watchmaking trade. And from the days 
of D'Ondi del Orologio, whose name and family 
still exist at Padua, the masters and skilled work- 
men of that trade have ranked high among crafts- 
men. Even in England, Graham and Tompion 
'to mention no other names) are still famous. But 
n places like Locle, remote from tourists and not 
exposed to the superior influences of nobility and 
he professions, a society of educated watchmakers 
perhaps ranks higher than elsewhere. At any 
rate, it has produced T. Combe. 

Mile. Huguenin was born some thirty-five 
years ago at Locle, where her father was a master 
watchmaker. Her mother also, I believe, was of 
the same social degree. Their daughter received a 
good education at the Ecole Super ieure of the 
place. She was trained to be herself a teacher, 
and in due time she became one, and held a post 
as such in one of the schools of the neighbourhood. 
But she did not like teaching, and she did like 
writing ; and she was one of those persons, not too 
numerous anywhere, who write because they have 
something to say to their countrymen, and not 
merely because they wish for fame. So, under 
the name of T. Combe, she began, in the Gazette 
de Lausanne (one of the oldest and best of Swiss 
newspapers) and elsewhere, a series of feuilktons, 
little things of one or two columns long, each deal- 
ing with some homely Swiss character or incident, 
and each wrought out with admirable insight and 
charming power of description. For these merits, 
indeed, they deserve to be compared with the New 
England stories of Miss Mary Wilkins. 

One of the best of these short feuilletons is called 
c La Petite Lieutenante.' It is an account of a 
young girl, a "Hallelujah Lass" of the Swiss 
Salvation Army, who with her band of followers has 
the courage to appear and preach and sing in a 
French town beyond the frontier. She is arrested 
in her uniform, and brought before the Prefet, 
and sent to gaol. She goes thither calmly and 
contentedly, in no boastful spirit, yet sustained 
by the thought that she is like St. Paul at Philippi. 
And, like St. Paul, she converts her gaoler not 
as he did, though, nor yet to the doctrine that she 
preached. She converts him, a married and 
elderly man, simply to reverent admiration of her- 
self. So happy and uncomplaining is she, so bright 
and clean she makes her cell, so tidy she keeps 
her person and her dress, so quick she is to per- 
ceive that the gaoler lacks a button and so ready 
to sew one on, that he, surly as he is at first, 
reports her many virtues to the governor of the 
prison. The governor comes to see her ; in him ' 
also a lack of buttons is found, and she supplies it. 
Finally, the Pre'fet himself visits her cell, attracted 
by the governor's account of her neatness and her 
quiet charm. The Pre'fet, of course, is full of 
buttons buttons unimpeachable and gorgeous. 
Yet even he has a rent in one of the lappels of his 



uniform coat ; she sees it, and completes her con- 
quest of the authorities by stitching it up. 

She is released, and departs, singing a hymn 
of thanksgiving, and artlessly ignorant that her 
own womanly simplicity and skill had brought 
about her deliverance. Such is T. Combe's brief 
narrative, told with no religious partisanship one 
way or other, but told with a feminine grace and 
lightness that can make any common subject 

Of the stories on a larger scale which Mile. 
Huguenin has written, two deal with English 
or rather with London life. Both are extremely 
accurate and good, and one of the two has a quasi- 
historical interest, for it has to do with that 
" aesthetic " craze which, as is natural in a period 
of decline, has already been superseded by other 
follies, more ridiculous and not so refined. But 
by far the best of T. Combe's novels and tales are 
those which relate to her own Jurasaien land and 
her own middle-class folk who dwell there. It is 
the land of Alice de Chambrier ; and though 
Adele Huguenin is not of the noblesse, like her, 
and writes in plain prose, and has not, so far as 
one can see, the sublime ardour and lofty enthu- 
siasm of that fair and lamented poetess, she has, 
at any rate, the same vivid sympathy with nature, 
and the same power of expressing in choice phrase 
and accurate detail all that she sees in nature 
and in human life. Perhaps no better example of 
these qualities can be found than her volume 
called * Chez Nous/ of which a handsome edition, 
gracefully illustrated by Swiss artists, appeared 
not long ago. ' Chez Nous ' is a collection of four 
elaborate stories, each of them concerned with the 
life and scenery of the Jura and its French frontier. 
The first of these, ' La Pommiere,' takes its title 
from the maisonnette of a thriving watchmaker, who 
lives on one of the hill slopes looking towards the 
Alps. He is a botanist, and has a pretty and 
fruitful garden, formed and tended by himself; 
and this gives occasion for the authoress to describe, 
in slight but suggestive detail, the beauty and the 
growths of such a garden. He has a noble moun- 
tain view from the house, and the varying aspects 
of this, its morning and evening glory, its sunshine 
and its shadows, are touched with all fidelity and 
grace. The watchmaker is a grave and upright 
man of fifty or so, a widower, living alone, 
peasant-fashion, with his servant Rosine, who had 
been trained as a girl by his wife, and had lived 
with her master and mistress for more than twenty 
years. Rosine is forty years old, an honest, in- 
nocent creature, slow of speech, slow of appre- 
hension, to whom the glorious snow-peaks which 
she sees daily from her attic window are as nothing, 
save that they help to indicate the weather and 
the timo of day. She is simply a good ser- 
vant, devoted to her master, and with a heart 
.that has never been warmed by any change of 

scene or by any emotion stronger than the respect 
and gratitude she feels for the household which 
has treated her so kindly. But now a new in- 
fluence comes into that household. M. le Patron has 
engaged an assistant, who is to live with him a 
lively and travelled Genevois, selfish, good look- 
ing, bent on getting on, and penetrated with the 
Socialist ideas of the Internationale. He is only 
thirty, yet he treats his elderly employer with 
impertinent familiarity and takes his own time 
over his work. The master, respectable and old- 
fashioned as he is, tolerates this for a time ; he is 
good-natured and forbearing, and the man is a 
most skilful workman when he chooses. Nor 
does M. le Patron perceive that this new-comer, 
ten years younger than Rosine, is paying attentions 
to his homely servant maid. Rosine herself does 
not perceive it for long ; but such homage, the 
first that was ever paid to her, has its effect. She 
begins to look in her glass, to adjust her cap more 
daintily, to wear a ribbon or two, or even a flower. 
At last her master observes these signs of coquetry, 
and divines their cause. Gravely and kindly he 
tells his assistant that the honest heart oflafille 
must not be trifled with, and must not be won at 
all, as yet, by a man who has no money and no 
settled position. In truth, the workman cares 
nothing for Rosine ; but he has by accident found 
out that she owns a pretty penny in the savings 
bank, and by its aid he means to advance him- 
self. Shall this excellent plan be defeated by an 
old fogie like his master ? Certainly not ! And 
he retires to his room, confident of victory and 
determined to propose on the morrow. But that 
same evening M. le Patron thinks it well to learn 
from Rosine herself her feelings towards the stranger. 
He tells her to come and sit beside him on the 
bench outside the house- door. And very soon, in 
a gentle and fatherly way, he finds out that she 
does not love the stranger ; she simply is flattered 
by his preference, and she thinks that " it would 
be so nice to be called Madame ! " 

These last words of hers (which will remind an 
Englishman of Chaucer) suggest a new thought 
to her master. Why should not he himself give 
her the title of Madame ? He had known her 
since her early youth ; his dead wife had liked her 
and valued her and taught her ; she had been his 
faithful servant all these years, and he knew that, 
if left to herself, she would be so always. True, 
she was only la servante ; but his own origin was 
humble, and at his age why should he care what 
the neighbours might say ? He looked in her 
honest candid face, and thought of these things ; 
and at last he took her hard-working hand and 
told her all that was in his mind. This little 
scene the tender courtesy of the master, the grate- 
ful surprise of the maid, the sudden blossoming of 
mere respect and regard into a warmer feeling in 
her heart is charmingly touched in. She thinka 

8< S. VI. SEPT. 1, '94.] 



herself unworthy of him ; but, of course, as in duty 
bound, she accepts. And in the morning that gay 
and airy workman descends not to victory, but to 
receive his conge, and to go a saddr, but pro- 
bably not a wiser man. 

Space will not allow me to describe in detail the 
longest and most important of the four stories in 
'Chez Nous.' It treats of the fortunes of three 
sisters, the daughters of a peasant-proprietor, who 
occupy and own a farm in one of the pleasant 
upland vales of the Jura, such as tho?e which greet 
you as you look back from the heights of La 
Tourne. Their father and mother are dead ; and 
how can they afford to keep the farm 1 Charlotte, 
the eldest, aged thirty, is, indeed, an experienced 
fermiere ; and the second daughter too is useful ; 
but Mica, the youngest and the pet, is skilled only 
in embroidery. The farm will not maintain them 
all ; and then there are the wages and keep of the 
bailiff and outdoor man, who has been their main- 
stay so long, and who is unmarried and but forty 
years old. Will it be proper, indeed, for them to 
have him with them any longer ? 

But he, that outdoor man, an admirable study 
of the stout impassive yet affectionate Swiss pea- 
sant, tells them flatly that the farm shall not be 
sold. He has savings ; he has a plan. " J'ai mon 
idee," says he ; but he won't say what it is. 

It is simply that he shall marry one of the 
three sisters it does not matter which ; the sole 
point is to preserve his old master's property and 
keep the girls together. And the humour of the 
story for T. Combe has much quiet humour 
consists chiefly in the working out of his design. 
He begins with Mica ; not that he likes her best, 
but because he wishes to save her from the dread- 
ful fate of going to live in a town and perhaps 
becoming a dressmaker. Mica laughingly but 
good-humouredly rejects him ; the second sister is 
then approached, in a different way but with a 
like result ; and finally, he proposes to Charlotte, 
with whom he ought to have begun. Each of the 
three sisters now knows that he has proposed to 
the other two ; and they all agree that such con- 
stancy and perseverance ought to be rewarded, 
though they are not without fear of being dedassees 
by a marriage with him. Charlotte, however, 
accepts him ; they marry, they live happily on the 
old farm, all four of them, and the rest of the 
story is occupied with the two younger maidens, 
their lovers and their lives. But the whole is set, 
so to speak, in a varying framework of Jurassien 
scenery ; and he who would know the farm-life of 
the Jura and the aspects of its hills and woods 
and valleys in every season of the year, cannot do 
better than read * Chez Nous.' 

It remains only to say a few words about the 
latest developement of Mile. Huguenin's work. 
Speaking with due reserve, one may mention that 
she has gone through that spiritual crisis which is 

true and venerable still, though the name of it has 
become soiled by all misuse. . Her stories, always 
pure and gracious, have now, I imagine, a higher 
aim and a more serious purpose than before. And 
she has established an association that may prove 
of great use to La Suisse Romande, and even to 
Eastern France. It is called "L'Union des Femmes 
pour le Bien," and its object, if I understand it 
rightly, is to unite all working women, not for any 
political nor any defined religious end, but for the 
great social purpose of " bettering themselves," in 
the highest to wit, the moral and religious sense 
of that phrase. 

In furtherance of this enterprise, Mile. Hugue- 
nin has already written, for circulation among the 
members of the union and others, some eight or 
ten tracts or brief stories, of a kind new in Switzer- 
land but familiar in England, for they are not 
unlike the slighter publications of the S.P.C.K., 
the R.T.S., and other kindred societies. Each 
tract is of sixteen pages, and costs ten centimes ; 
each is exemplary, not didactic ; each illustrates 
some domestic vice or virtue, and shows how 
men and women too may rise on stepping-stones 
of their dead selves to higher things ; and each is 
marked by the same literary grace and skill that 
distinguish the writer's larger efforts. The first 
tract of the series, called ' Ce que fit un Geranium,' 
has been, or is about to be, rendered into English. 
And, so far as I know, it is the only work of T. 
Combe's that has yet been translated. 

Considering that several thousand copies of each 
of these tracts have been sold in the course of two 
years or so, one may hope that "L'Union des 
Femmes pour le Bien" will effect much for the 
countrywomen of its foundress. 

But her health has given way. " Sa belle saute", 
qui faisait envie, est ties ebranlee," is, I regret to 
say, the latest news that I have about this amiable 
and popular authoress. A. J. M. 


He must have been a dreadfully smart man who 
contributed the article on Pollok, author of ' The 
Course of Time,' to the latest edition of Cham- 
bers's ' Encyclopaedia.' Eager to dismiss his subject 
with contempt, he spurns with unsparing energy. 
The memoir of the poet by his brother, on which 
the writer presumably bases his information, gives 
the date of Robert Pollok's birth as Oct. 19, 1798. 
The strenuous encyclopaedist, disdaining trifles, says 
this " minor Scottish poet was bom in 1799." The 
place of his birth is usually known as North Moor- 
bouse, or simply Moorhouse, but neither of these 
is to the mind of this modern biographer, who 
styles the spot " Muirhouse." Pollok himself, it 
may be noted, always uses " Moorhouse " when 
heading his letters ; and, although he may be a 
minor poet, he was a Glasgow graduate, and might 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8- s. vi. s Era . i, 

fairly be expected to know how to spell the nam 
of his birthplace. 

Eeaders of Chambers's 'Encyclopaedia' are 
presently given to understand that Pollok's rash- 
ness in publishing 'The Course of Time* was 
prompted and fostered by "Christopher North.' 
"He published," this critical biographer avers, 
" by the advice of Prof. Wilson, ' The Course 
of Time,' in ten books." It is just possible that i 
Prof. Wilson had had anything to do with the 
author and his project, he might have advised him 
to compress the work into five books instead of ten 
but, as it happens, the entire work was in the 
hands of Mr. William Blackwood before Wilson had 
ever spoken a word to Pollok. Publishers consult 
professional readers before undertaking to print 
the works of unknown authors especially, perhaps, 
if these works take the form of religious verse ; 
and as a prudent man and a careful publisher 
Mr. Blackwood submitted Pollok's MS. to Prof. 
Wilson and Moir (Delta) before making a bargain 
with the poet. The transaction, however, was en- 
tirely between themselves. Pollok gave the pub- 
lisher about a fortnight to consider whether he 
would undertake to bring out the work or not, and 
then he called, with the following result : 

" That gentleman received him courteously ; and said 
that he had read the poem, and had formed a very high 
opinion of it, also that he had sent the manuscript to 
Prof. Wilson and Mr. Moir, and that their opinion coin- 
cided with his own; he then frankly gave him their 
letters respecting it. When Kobert had read them, Mr. 
Blackwood told him, that from what he thought of it 
himself, as well as from what his two literary friends had 
said of it, though he was not sure how it would take 
with the public, he was willing to publish a small edition 
of this work."' The Life of Robert Pollok,' by his 
brother David Pollok, p. 316. 

^ Certainly there is no evidence in this plain and 
direct^ account of the matter that Pollok's deter- 
mination to publish was affected in the very least 
"by the advice of Prof. Wilson." The inter- 
view just described occurred on Dec. 5, 1826, and 
we learn, on the next page of the 'Life,' that 
Blackwood introduced Pollok to Prof. Wilson on 
January 3 following. Wilson then told the poet 
that he had rested his judgment of the work on 
two passages only, for he " was sure that the man 
who wrote them would not let anything out of 
his hands that was not good" ('Life,' p. 318). 
Pollok himself considered that he had produced 
something worth publishing, and it was that feeling 
which induced him to go to William Blackwood and 
ask him to take over the work. " Mr. Blackwood," 
he says in a letter to his father, " the only pub- 
lisher in Scotland to whom I would have given 
it, has agreed to publish it. I have reserved the 
copyright in my own hand, and, of course, have 
secured the profits for twenty-eight years if there 
be any profits." This young man, apparently, 
knew something of business as well as poetics, and 
was quite prepared to act for himself. 

The biographer for the Messrs. Chambers 
describes ' The Course of Time ' as " an attempt 
at a poetical description of the spiritual life and 
destiny of man," and it is something to find that 
he considers the work even approximately poetical. 
As to the " spiritual life," &c., he and his readers 
may settle it between them his editor, it may 
be surmised, was satisfied that he knew what he 
was saying. It seems odd that even a smart bio- 
grapher should have committed himself to such a 
series of statements as the following, and that a 
responsible editor should have allowed him to flow 
on unrestrained : 

" ' The Course of Time,' which is still read in Scotland, 
is curiously unequal in merit, as we might except when 
we remember that its two sources of inspiration are 
Milton and the ' Shorter Catechism.' " 

How does the narrator know that the poem is 
still read in Scotland ; what evidence has he that 
it is not read in England,Ireland, and the colonies ; 
and how does he account for the thirty or forty 
editions, including an edition illustrated by Birket 
Foster and others, through which the work has 
passed ? Why should the poem not be " unequal 
in merit " ? If Homer sometimes nods there surely 
need be no surprise that a youth of six-and-twenty 
should occasionally fall short of himself at his best. 
But why should Milton be blamed ; and where 
does the weakening effect of the ' Shorter Cate- 
chism ' specially appear ? Answers to these ques- 
tions cannot be attempted here, but it may vex 
readers of the ' Encyclopaedia' to find them. 

The date of Pollok's death is given in the ' En- 
cyclopaedia ' article as the " 17th September, 1827." 
The last sentence of his brother's pathetic account 
of the poet's end runs thus : 

11 He then closed his eyes, and lay down again as if he 
had been going to sleep ; remaining at ease in the same 
position, till one o'clock in the morning, when he died 
in peace, on Tuesday the 18th of September, 1827, in 
the twenty-ninth year of his age." 

What purpose a biographer serves by altering 
dates and disguising facts is for himself to explain ; 
f it is to set up a claim for freshness and origin- 
ality, he certainly deserves credit for the boldness 
of his idea ; but it might occur to him that his- 
method is not specially calculated to enhance the 
authority of the work to which he is a contributor. 
Nor will he rise in the opinion of the inquiring 
reader who desires to see for himself those feeble 
Tales of the Covenanters,' which the biographer 
asserts " ivas published anonymously," and learns 
ihat Pollok is responsible for no single work under 
such a title. But why is all this ; and why should 
an eminent firm like that of the Messrs. Chambers 
be loaded with such a serious responsibility 1 It is 
o be hoped that the rest of the ' Encyclopaedia ' 
s not put together thus. The methods of this 
>articular contributor may, perhaps, be those 
effected by the modern journalist ; but surely, un- 
ess all old standards and definitions are shattered 

8* S. VI. SEPT. 1, '94.] 



and gone, his performance cannot be classified as 
either wit or literature. THOMAS BATNB, 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

been much discussed whether Nahum wrote con- 
temporaneously with Isaiah and Micah, in the 
Teign of Hezekiah, or shortly before the destruction 
of Nineveh, whilst Josiah was King of Judab. The 
question is treated in the commentary commonly 
called the Speaker's, where the earlier date is sup- 
ported by an extraordinary confusion of argument. 
In tiie first place the traditional position of the 
book, between the prophecies of Micah and Habak- 
kuk is referred to, although this is quite consistent 
witk either date, as Habakkuk (who, if the pro- 
iphetical books were arranged according to date, 
should follow Zephaniah), admittedly wrote after 
the destruction of Nineveh by the Medes and 
'Chaldeans. The writer, however, contends for the 
earlier date, and then, apparently as a further 
support of it, mentions the prophet's reference to 
the capture of No-Amon, or the Egyptian Thebes 
<(iii. 8, R.V.). On the date of this, he truly 
remarks, " we possessed until recently no certain 
historical evidence." Some supposed that Isaiah 
prophesied of it as near in his chap, xx., and that 
it occurred in the reign of Sargon of Assyria. 
But there is no monumental evidence that that king 
ever entered Egypt, though he undoubtedly de- 
feated the Egyptian and Philistine armies on its 
borders. His grandson Esarhaddon made a victo- 
rious progress through it, and, as Prof. Eawlinson 
remarks, Nahum must allude either to a capture oi 
Thebes by Esarhaddon, or to a later one by his son 
Assur-bani-pal. The description of the taking and 
plundering of the city by Assur-bani-pal, as given 
by himself in the cuneiform inscriptions, was trans- 
lated by the late George Smith, of the British 
Museum, and is rightly referred to in the intro- 
duction to Nahum in the ' Speaker's Commentary,' 
SBut, oddly enough, the writer appears to think 
that this confirms the earlier date of the prophet, 
for he adds : 

* It should also toe remarked that when Sennacherib 
spoke of Egypt as a bruised reed, he may fairly be 
understood to refer to some severe blow that she had 
(recently received." 

Possibly this may be so (although boasters like 
Sennacherib are apt to speak contemptuously of 
their foes), and he may be alluding to the victories 
of his father Sargon on the confines of Egypt ; but 
this has nothing to do with the date of Nahum, 
who probably wrote in the reign of Assur-bani-pal, 
the last great King of Nineveh, and shortly before 
its destruction in that of his son, Assur-ebel-ili. 
The Greeks appear to have constructed an imagi- 
nary Sardanapalus from a confusion between the 
father's name and the son's fate. 

W. T. LYNN. 

THE FUCHSIA. The following cutting, from the 
Lincoln Herald of November 4, 1831, is worthy 
of a nook in the pages of ' N. & Q.' : 

'Mr. Shepherd, the respectable and well-informed 
conservator of the Botanical Gardens at Liverpool, gave 
the following curious account of the introduction of that 
elegant little flowering shrub, the fuchsia, into our Eng- 
lish greenhouses and parlour windows : ' Old Mr. Lee, 
a nurseryman and gardener near London, well known 
fifty or sixty years ago, was one day showing his varie- 
gated treasures to a friend, who suddenly turned to him 
and declared, " Well, you have not in your collection & 
prettier flower than I saw this morning at Wapping.'* 
" No 1 and pray what was this phoenix like? " " Why, 
the plant was elegant, and the flowers hung in rows likfr 
tassels from the pendent branches, their colour the 
richest crimson ; in the centre a fold of deep purple," 
and so forth. Particular directions being demanded and 
given, Mr. Lee posted off to the place, where he saw,. 
and at once perceived that the plant was new in this 
part of the world. He saw and admired. Entering the 
house, " My good woman, this is a nice plant ; I should 
like to buy it." " Ah, sir, I could not sell it for no 
money, for it was brought me from the West Indies by 
my husband, who has now left again, and I must keep 
it for his sake." "But I must have it." "No, sir!" 
" Here (emptying his pockets) here is gold, silver, and 
copper" his stock was something more than eight 
guineas. " Well-a-day, but this is a power of money* 
sure and sure." " 'Tis yours, and the plant is mine; 
and, my good dame, you shall have one of the first 
young ones I rear to keep for your husband's sake." 
"Alack, alack !" "You shall, I say." A coach was 
called, in which was safely deposited our florist and his 
seemingly dear purchase. His first work was to pull 
off and utterly destroy every vestige of blossom and 
blossom-bud : it was divided into cuttings, which were 
forced into bark beds and hot beds, were redivided and 
subdivided. Every effort was used to multiply the plant. 
By the commencement of the next flowering season Mr* 
Lee was the delighted possessor of three hundred fuchsia 
plants all giving promise of blossom. The two which 
opened first were removed into his show-house. A lady 
came. " Why, Mr. Lee, my dear Mr. Lee, where did 
you get this charming flower ? " ' Hem ! 'tis a new 
thing, my lady pretty ! 'tis lovely ! " " Its price ? " "A 
guinea : thank your ladyship," and one of the two plants 
stood proudly in her ladyship's boudoir. "My dear 
Charlotte ! where did you get," &c. " Oh ! 'tis a new 
thing; I saw it at old Mr. Lee's. Pretty, is it not?" 
" Pretty ! 'tis beautiful ! Its price ? " " A guinea : 
there was another left." The visitor's horses smoked off, 
to the suburb ; a third flowering plant stood on the spot 
whence the first had been taken. The second guinea 
was paid, and the second chosen fuchsia adorned the 
drawing-room of her second ladyship. The scene was 
repeated as new-comers saw and were attracted by the 
beauty of the plant. New chariots flew to the gates of 
old Lee's nursery grounds. Two fuchsias, young, graceful,, 
and bursting into healthy flower were constantly seen 
on the same spot in his repository. He neglected not to 
gladden the faithful sailor's wife by the promised gift; 
but ere the flower season closed three hundred golden 
guineas clinked in his purse, the produce of the single 
shrub of the widow in Wapping, the reward of the taste, 
decision, skill, and perseverance of old Mr. Lee.' " 

K. P. D. E. 

WALLER AND GRAY. In a letter to the Athe- 
ncKum of July 28 some lines of Thomson are said 
to have suggested Gray's lines, "Full many a 



[s< s, vi. SEPT. i, 

flower," &c. I think that Gray imitated the earlie 
poet, Waller : 

Go, lovely rose ! 

Tell her that wastes her time and me, 

That now she knows, 

When I resemble her to thee, 

How sweet and fair she seems to be. 

Tell her that 's young, 

And shuna to have her graces spied, 

That, hadst tliou sprung 

In deserts where no men abide, 

Thou must have uncommended died. 

Gray's two lines are these : 

Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air. 
I think that Gray has made better what it was 
very difficult to improve. Pope has a similar 
thought, but not so good as those of his predecessor 
and his successor : 

There kept my charms concealed from mortal eye, 
Like roses that in deserts bloom and die. 

' Rape of the Lock.' 

DR. BAILLIE. (See ' Wells on Dew,' 8 th S. v. 
464; vi. 4.) The anecdote told by PROF. TOM- 
LINSON is well known ; but the following, which 
is very characteristic of this great Scotchman, is 
less common. Baillie, when at the zenith of his 
fame, used to work sixteen hours a day ; but 
when his " round " was nearly done he would grow 
somewhat irritable. After listening to a multitude 
of trifling remarks from a lady patient, Baillie 
essayed to leave ; but before he had reached the 
door he was summoned back. "I am going to 
the Opera this evening, Dr. Baillie," observed the 
fair but tiresome patient ; " and I quite forgot to 
ask you whether, on my return, I might eat some 
oysters." " Yes, ma'am," bluntly replied Baillie ; 
" shells and all." CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

the earliest Book of Depositions left in the Dio- 
cesan Registry at Hereford, Erasmus Powell, vicar 
of Clun, deposes on Oct. 21, 1629, 
" that in some partes of Wales the christen names of 
the ffathers are the surnames of the children, but are 
not generally soe ; but more are named by their fathers 
surnames then by their christen names." 

F. J. F. 

"CHERRY DAY." Some day an inquisitive 
student will stumble across this festival, and will 
want to know what it signifies. The following 
cutting is from the Daily Telegraph, July 9 : 

"It was 'Cherry Day' at the Foundling Hospital 
yesterday so called because upon the occasion of the 
annual festival Sunday, upon which the morning service 
in the chapel is attended by the old boys and girls of the 
foundation, the inmates are regaled with cherries after 
their midday refection. The Bishop of Chester (the 
Bight Rev. Dr. Jayne) was the special preacher, and 
founded his discourse upon the words, ' Train up a child 
in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not 

depart from it.' The children afterwards assembledjn 
the school room, where rewards were presented to the 
boys who had attained their majority and satisfactorily 
completed their apprenticeships since the last festival, 
and to the girls who, during the same period, had reached 
their twentieth year and been reported as of good con- 
duct in their employment since leaving the hospital. 
The Bishop of Chester, supported by the Bishop of St. 
Albans, presided in the absence of the Duke of Cam- 
bridge, who usually takes the chair on the occasion. The 
gifts, which consisted of five guineas and a Church ser- 
vice each, were presented to six boys and a like number 
of girls. A large portion of the old boys wore the uni- 
forms of the various branches of the Imperial land and 
sea forces, into which many of the Foundlings pass on 
leaving the institution." 


"FUENTES D'ONOR." I lately had in my hands 
a Peninsular war medal one of the clasps of which 
bore this legend. The same is officially borne by 
the sixteen or seventeen British regiments which 
took part in the drawn battle of May 5, 1811. 
How this comes to be one must possess the official 
mind to be able to understand. Of course there 
neither is, nor was, nor could be on the face 
of the earth such a place as " Fuentes d'Onor." 
Napier calls the little village by the Dos Casas 
river (every house of which was familiar to the 
Light Division from frequent billetings therein), 
after an orthography of his own, " Fuentes Onoro." 
But Wellington sent home the right name at the 
head of his despatch, written " Fuentes de Onoro " 
tilde and all complete. Perhaps the tilde was 
;oo much for the official mind. Anyhow, the 
Horse Guards cut the word in halves, made im- 
possible elision of the e, and prints " Fuentes 
d'Onor " unto this day. W. F. WALLER. 

"EMPLOYE"" OR "EMPLOYEE." I Snd among 
my notes, under this heading, the following extract 
>om the Times of Oct. 9, 1889, which I think 
worth reproducing : 

"Why should the French word employe be ao much 
used when we have at hand the English form of the 

ame word, which seems at once to suggest itself and 
answers every purpose 1 Employee is surely the English 
correlative of employer. When we want the correlative 
of examiner we say at once examinee, and so in other 
analogous cases, e.g., licensee, assignee, addressee, consignee, 
mortgagee. Some French words, like rendezvous, restau- 
rant, coupon, are readily adopted into our own language. 

But it cannot be so with a word which requires to be 
written with an accent, and which further requires the 
addition of an e to indicate the feminine gender. The 
use of the French word has these, among other, dis- 
advantages, that it has always to be printed in italics, 
and that, when spoken or written by the illiterate, as 
when one reads, for instance, of ' the female employes of 

he firm,' there is offence in the one case to the eye, in 

he other to the ear." 

F. E. A. GASC. 

CALVERLEYANA. Perhaps the following passage 
rom James Payn's * Gleams of Memory ; with 
ome Reflections' (Cornhill Magazine, August, 

8 S. VI. SEPT. 1, '94,] 



pp. 154-5), is not unworthy of enshrinement in th 
well-read pages of 'N. & Q.': 

" A bearded friend of ours, Joseph W., was the occasio 
of a parody from Calverley's pen, 'John Anderson, m 
Jo.' Here ia his introduction to the composition : 'Sir, 
As a literary man you will be interested in the discover 
I have recently made of the subjoined poem. It wa 
written across the MS. (which I happen to possess) p 
one of Burns's published letters, and unquestionably i 
his hand. We have here no doubt the authentic veroio; 
of what has been hitherto only seen in a garbled form 
The absurdity, you will observe, is satisfactorily got rl 
of [a true Calverley touch 1 of persistently calling a mai 
" Jo " whose name was " John " ': 

Jo Crediton, my Jo, Jo, 

When we were first acquaint 

Your chops were neatly shaven, 

Your bonny brow was brent ; 

Now you 're a trifle bauld, Jo, 

Atop, but all below 

You 're hairy as a Hieland cow, 

Jo Crediton, my Jo." 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

" DESCAMISADO." Can any reader of * N. & Q.' 
inform me to what the following quotations refer ? 
Descamisado (Spanish, " shirtless, very poor ") is 
the kind of word one looks for in the ' Stanford 
Dictionary,' but looks, alas ! in vain. 1823, 
Blackwood's Magazine, xiv. 514, "They are, indeed, 
men of liberal ideas, and, in general, members of 
the Descamisados." 1848, Hare, Guesses at, Truth,' 
second series (1867), 542, " What is the folly of the 
descamisados but man's stripping himself of the 
fig-leaf?" 1877, Wraxall, transl. Hugo's ' Les 
Mise'rables/ chap, xxiii., " We are going to the 
abyss, and the descamisados have led us to it." 

find a satirical ode, written in 1769 by George 
Steevens, ridiculing the celebration of the Shake- 
speare Jubilee held at Stratford-on-Avon in that 
year? This ode, it is said, was a parody of 
Dryden's ode on St. Cecilia's Day, entitled ' Alex- 
ander's Feast.' NATHL. STEEVENS. 

STEPHEN MONTAGU. The headings of several 
chapters of Lytton's ' Maltravers,' 'Disowned,' 
and 'Zanoni' have quotations from "Stephen 
Montagu." Is this the name of a book ; or was 
there a writer of that name ? If so, who and what 
was he ? What books did he write ? 


ARAUCANIAN LANGUAGE. Could any of your 
readers kindly inform me whether there are any j 

grammars or dictionaries of the language of the 
Araucanian Indians of Chili ; and in what lan- 
guages they are compiled ? Has there ever been 
made any translation of the Scriptures, or of any 
parts of them into the Araucanian language ; and 
by whom ? Are there any other works of any 
kind that have been printed in that language ? 

45, Leeson Park, Dublin. 

greatly obliged if you or any of your readers can 
inform me if any portrait of Admiral Lord Nelson's 
wife exists. According to Clarke and McArthur's 
* Life,' Mrs. Nisbet, the young and accomplished 
widow of Dr. Nisbet, who had been physician to 
the island of Nevis, was the daughter of Mr. 
Wool ward, and had not attained her eighteenth 
year when she became acquainted with Capt. 
Nelson. This was at St. Kitt's, in 1784. They 
were married in 1787. B. B. MARSTON. 

St. Dunstan's House, Fetter Lane. 

AUTHOR OF ODE WANTED. Wanted the author 
of 'Ode: the Death of Wallace/ consisting of 
eleven stanzas of four lines, and beginning, 

Joy, joy in London now ! 
He goes, the rebel Wallace goes to death 
At last the traitor meets the traitor's doom 1 
Joy, joy in London now ! 

G. P. J. 

Bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube. 
Will anybody tell me when, by whom, in what 
)i ece if IQ a piece and under what circumstances 
he above line was written ? 


SONAPARTE. Louis Lucien Bonaparte, the last 
urviving nephew of Napoleon I,, died Nov. 3, 
891. He had married at Florence, on Oct. 4, 
833, an Italian lady, Marianna Cecchi. The 
marriage was not a happy one, and the couple 
eparated. Princess Louis-Lucien died March 17, 
891. They had no issue. The prince, in his 
will, dated June 19 of the same year, left his 
money to his wife, Princess Clemence. Who was 
his lady ? The ' Almanach de Gotha ' knows her 
ot. The prince left a natural son, known by the 
ame of Louis Clavering Clovis, who figured a 
ew years ago before the law courts. In the 
vidence produced in court it was stated that he 
ad taken the name of Bonaparte by deed poll. 
He was let out on bail (5,OOOZ.), which was paid 
y "the Princess his mother." Was this the 
ame lady ? The ' Almanach de Gotha' also ignored 
he prince's son, who died lately. The announce- 
ment of his death appeared in the Daily Telegraph 
f May 18 last, and was thus worded: "Bona- 



parte. On the 14th inst., at Chepstow-villas 
Bayswater, H. H. the Prince Louis Clovis Bona 
parte, aged 35." He was, therefore, born abou 
1861, during the lifetime of Marianna Cecchi 
How, then, could he take the title of prince 
Was the marriage with Marianna Cecchi annulled 


"ONCB" FOR "WHEN ONCE. "Within the 
last few years this misuse of the word once has 
become quite common. Is it a provincialism 
which has gradually slipped into common use by 
mere unconscious imitation ? I read, " Once he 
had crossed the river, his victory was certain." 
Of course, " when once," or simply " when," is here 
the proper form of expression. J. DIXON. 

^ SURNAMES. I am collecting materials for a new 
dictionary of surnames, and should be much 
obliged by the assistance of any of your corre- 
spondents. Is there a class of surnames derived 
from cognizances, crests, house signs, and the like ? 
Peacock, Gull, Bull, Kook, Sparrow, Cock, Star- 
ling, &c., look like this. But I doubt whether 
most or all of them may not be otherwise classed. 
Gull, compared with Gully, looks like a contrac- 
tion of something else, possibly Guillaume. So 
Bull, compared with Bully, Bulleid, Boleyn, &c. 
Were private houses ever distinguished by signs ? 
Every house in Karlsbad, in a German part of 
Bohemia, has, to this day, its sign, now usually 
expressed only in words e. g., " Zum Herzog von 
Edimburg." But there nearly every house is a 
lodging-house. T. WILSON. 

HENRY PELHAM is said to have matriculated at 
Oxford on Sept. 6, 1710, aged fifteen. Can any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' give me the exact date of his 
ttrtb? G. F. R. B. 

JOHN LILBURNE. As John Lilburne's name has 
cropped up again in 'N. & Q.,' I should like to 
say that there are several unsettled dates in his 
early career which I should be glad to enlist friendly 
aid in determining. Among them are the very im- 
portant ones of his birth and marriage. Also that 
of the first edition of his ' Worke of the Beast,' no 
copy of which has yet come within my ken. For 
some years I have been at work upon his life, and 
find but little difficulty in getting full details after 
1642; up to that period it is naturally not so 

SOURCE OF COUPLET. -In what book does the 
following couplet occur ? I suppose that the Holy 
Scriptures are meant : 

Hie liber est in quo quaerifc sua dogmata quisque, 
Invenit et pariter dogmata quisque sua. 


IRISH FAMILY. What is the "great Irish 
family," alluded to by Mr. Marion Crawford in 

his novel 'Sant' Ilario,' "which to this day 
receives from another a yearly tribute, paid alter- 
nately in the shape of a golden rose and a golden 
spur"? F.D. H. 

REFERENCE WANTED. Washington Irving, in 
his * History of New York' (pref. xxix), gives the 
following as an extract from Aristotle : 

"Wars, conflagrations, deluges, destroy nations, and 
with them all their monuments, their discoveries, and 
their vanities. The torch of Science has more than 
once been extinguished and rekindled a few individuals 
who have escaped by accident reunite the thread of 

Is this a genuine quotation ? If so, I shall feel 
obliged if any one will give me the reference. 

J. 0. 

" The Butemen, in fighting times, were called Bran- 
dams, a distinction much prized, and the numerous small 
landed proprietors, in virtue of a charter granted them 
in 1506 by James IV., took the title of Baron, which is 
hereditary in their families. The title is all but extinct, 
with one or two exceptions, having passed into the Bute 

What is the title worth? Does it confer any 
dignity? Is it still recognized? How many 
families are there on the island entitled to this 
distinction? As I am interesting myself in a 
Buteman's pedigree, I shall be much obliged if any 
contributor to your columns will kindly help me. 
North Shields. 

11 INCENSE - BREATHING MORN." What is the 
precise meaning of this epithet, which certainly 
tias a flavour of Milton, and two instances of which 
[ have found ? one in Gray's * Elegy written in a 
Country Churchyard ' : 
The breezy call of incense-breathing morn, 

The swallow twittering from the straw-built shed, 
The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn, 
No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed. 

The other occurs in Wordsworth's * Ecclesiastical 

Sonnets' No. xl.): 

Yet will we not conceal the precious Cross, 
Like men ashamed : the Sun with his first smile 
Shall greet that symbol crowning the low Pile ; 
And the fresh air of incense-breathing morn 
Shall wooingly embrace it. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 
[The meaning does not seem to offer much difficulty 
f we accept incense=odour or perfume.] 

BEDDOES. Is it not desirable that 'N. & Q.' 
hould take upon itself the task of unravelling the 
mystery that surrounds the death of Beddoes, the 
iramatist ? The ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' says 
hat it was the result of an accident that took 
)lace while he was out riding. The l Dictionary 
f National Biography ' gives an account that sug- 
ests suicide. I do not know what place (if any) 

8* S. VI, SEPT. 1, '94.] 



Beddoes is likely to occupy in the firmament o 
fame; but there are so many cases in whic' 
lugubrious stories always flatly contradicted b 
somebody or other are told about the death of mei 
of genius (I need only instance Gilbert, Ob way, Jeai 
Jacques Kousseau, and Voltaire) that it seems un 
desirable to add another to the number. Besides 
the death of Beddoes is a comparatively recen 
event, and so it may be possible to arrive at th 
truth. T. P. ARMSTRONG. 

HOGARTH ENGRAVINGS. At the sale of thi 
property of the late Miss Langtry, of Alverstoke 
the last survivor of an old Alverstoke family, a 
set of Hogarth's ' Marriage a la Mode ' and two 
other Hogarth's engravings, viz., 'Paul before Felix, 
and one from the painting in the Foundling Hos 
pital, were disposed of recently, while she lefl 
another Hogarth engraving, * Garrick as Richard 
III./ to a friend. 

In connexion with these prints I find the follow- 
ing original letter pasted in a copy of Hogarth's 
* Analysis of Beauty,' opposite the name and book- 
plate of the Rev. Purefoy Collis, 1758. The letter 
is addressed to the Rev. Mr. Purefoy Collis, at 
Alverstoke, near Gosport, Hants, and is as follows : 

DEAR PYE, On Fryday last, the day after Mr. Hogarth 
advertised the delivery of his Prints, I received one of 
the first impressions for you. I think it's very well 
executed and much about the size of his former of Mr. 
Garrick. I suppose you will have it framed in the same 
manner, which I '11 take care to have done by the same 
person as soon as I receive your orders. Harry is still 
at Bath, and no one here knows when he intends to 
return from thence, but I shall expect him about Par- 
liament time, or conclude him Pettycoatly detained. 
They have it at Oxford yt Lord Cornbury will be called 
up by writt to the House of Lords, the beginning of the 
Sessions, by which his seat for that University will be- 
come vacant, to supply which there are two candidates 
already thought of, S r Edward Turner and S r Roger 
Newdigate, both of the same way of thinking, so that 
in all probability the other Party will find out a Third, 
and make some Bustle in the Election. 

Though I have had no answer, I hope you received my 
last with your note to Armstrong safe. 

Nothing stirring in Town but Executions and Rob- 
beries. My compliments to M r Prachy []]. I hope you 
have had a merry Xmas and I wish you many happy new 
years. I am, Dear Pye, 

y r most aff. Friend & humble serv* 


Craven St., Jan. 8^,1750. 

Can any of your readers suggest (1) Judging 
by date of letter, which of the engravings sold at 
Miss Langtry's sale is referred to in the above 
letter; (2) what Mr. P. Dodwell, of Craven Street, 
wrote the letter in question ; and (3) who was the 
Harry likely to be " Petticoatly detained " in Bath 
mentioned therein? 

There are many elaborate genealogical notes 
concerning the Langtrys (stated to be originally 
from Lancashire), the Purefoys, and the Collises, 
together with notes of their arms, contained in 

some other interesting books sold at the same sale, 
which I shall be glad to transcribe for the readers 
of ' N. & Q.' if of sufficient interest. 


(8 th S. v. 261, 301, 369, 429, 509 ; vi. 29.) 

Having in his first tilt at me questioned whether 
I had looked into Muratori's collection at all, 
L. L. K. now censures me for having followed at 
least the Chronicle of Gravina therein too closely. 
Was it not L. L. K. who first pushed to the front 
Matteo Camera, having stated that it was a "dis- 
appointment " to find that I had made no mention 
of him? He now rebukes me for relying on 
Camera, and confounds my statements as to the 
respective chronicles of Bazzano and Gravina, 
branding the former author as a prevaricator. If 
L. L. K. will look at the asterisk and note on 
p. 430, ' N. & Q. ,' he will see that it is Gravina's 
account of the Durazzo wedding to which I referred 
as a fabrication, not Bazzano's. It is Gravina, in 
the pay of the brother of Louis of Hungary, 
Stephen, the Vaiwode of Transylvania, who 
romances about the said wedding, as he does about 
so much else. Of one thing, however, I am certain, 
and that is, had L. L. K. really known the Modena 
Chronicle he would not have thus branded its 
author as a prevaricator ! 

Muratori, in his f Annali,' makes constant use 
of the Modena Chronicle; but with reference to 
;he death of Andrew, he gives more attention to 
ihat of Gravina, and, I think, rather unfairly 
mits to mention that the Modena Chronicle, the 
mthor of which he elsewhere praises as "neque 
ndiligentem neque judicii indignum," exculpates 
Toanna. L. L. K. shows that Muratori does not 
give his authority for the hearsay statement in 
egard to Andrew's supposed " incompetency." 

think a glance at Collenucio will tell him who 
he authority was, and perhaps the reason why 
Vluratori did not mention him. 

On my return to England the other day I again 

urned to the Ecclesiastical Annals (torn. i. H. 

Spondanus, Continuatio Caesar Baronius), ann. 

348, and found the following strange little 

Die quintadecima Martii, solemn! pompa universis 
bviantibus Cardinalibus, sub umbella ingressa est ; et a 
lementi Pap& benigne excepta atque publico conaistorio 
udita tanta facundia, prsesentibus etiam in civitate 
ratoribus Regis Hungarise, Causam suam perorayit, ut 
mnibus rite perpensis insons existimata fuerit necis viri 
ui Andreae." 

laynaldus, as has been shown by L. L. K., and 
s I was quite aware, gives us a letter from 
Element to Louis of Hungary, in which the Pope 


NOTES AND QUERIES. I** s. vi. SEPT. i, '94. 

states that he had not wished the queen to come 
into the Curia at all ; that he had even sent 
envoys as well as letters in order to dissuade her 
from coming, but that, she being sovereign of Pro- 
vence, he was at last persuaded by his cardinals 
that she ought to be received in becoming style : 
" fuerat fratrumnostrorum Consilium quod eadam 
Kegina recipi ut Regina debebat." But what did it 
not mean and involve to receive Queen Joanna and 
her husband at Avignon under such circumstances, 
she burning to clear herself of a criminal accusa- 
tion and resolved to force the anxious Clement to 
restore her to her kingdom ? Clement simply says 
he could not compel her to keep away. We may, 
therefore, take it for certain, almost, that she did 
come and was heard. Baluze (' Secunda Vita 
Clementis VI.') tells us plainly, " Venerunt ambo 
simul in Curiam " (Ludovicus et Johanna), that is, 
Luigi of Taranto and Joanna. Still, it is right to 
mention here that, besides clearing herself of the 
charge lodged against her by Louis and his mother, 
Elizabeth, she had to procure Clement's formal 
pardon for having married Luigi before the granted 
dispensation had reached Naples, though it was 
actually on the way thither. It is not improbable 
she and Luigi had entertained fears lest the active 
spies of the invader might intercept it ; at any 
rate Acciajuoli, the man of action, who ultimately 
saved the situation and, possibly, the lives of his 
sovereign and her consort, personally accelerated 
the union. But L. L. K. denied formerly (8 tD S. 
v, 302) that the queen was heard in Consistory 
at all, yet now I find him saying, " Well, if she 
was heard, Clement did not consider it safe to 
communicate the result to Louis of Hungary. " 

The so-called " pre-arranged plot " in my account 
of Queen Joanna arose from no personal hatred 
of Hungary and Hungarians, but solely from my 
having come to the simple, but, I think, inevitable, 
conclusion that, actual evidence against the queen in 
the matter of the murder of Andrew proving to be 
wholly insufficient for her conviction, she was, and 
is, entitled to the full benefit of the doubt, if not 
to positive absolution. With regard to the Hun- 
garians, I considered that the magnates of Naples, 
the courtiers, and the people were very naturally 
jealous of them ; with regard to the queen, I 
found that her censors had been constantly careful 
to select certain elements of suspicion against her, 
and to reject any and every circumstance which 
at all told in her favour. Many loudly accuse her 
of having murdered Andrew, and invent incredible 
details ; some declare she was only privy to the 
murder ; while others say that, at any rate, she did 
not assist him, and that she did not mourn him 
as vehemently as she should have done ; one or 
two only declare her to have been innocent. None 
brings proof. The mass of vilification that has been 
heaped upon her in consequence has been truly 
stupendous. She has been made a scapegoat for 

;he whole Angevine dynasty of Naples. She has 
been alternately described as a sort of Jael, a 
Jezebel, a Messalina, a Bess of Hardwick, a Jane 
Grey, a Mary Stuart. But to wish a certain man 
were not your husband, to object to his ambitions, 
to counteract them even, is not enough, I venture to 
consider, to warrant stamping one as his murderer 
n the event of his being politically assassinated. 
Yet this is, practically, what happened to Queen 
Joanna in her twenty-firat year (she was born in 

The burden of substantiating her guilt lies 
with some other writer than myself, perhaps with 
L. L. K., if he cares to undertake the task. Let 
me gently remind him, while it occurs to me, that 
the question of her proven guilt is, perhaps, of 
more moment than our own reciprocal chidings, 
however erudite. If, therefore, he can prove her 
So have been guilty, by all means let him do so. 

Had there been no other motive for the bungling 
assassination of her boy-husband than her own 
dissatisfaction at his resolution (prompted from 
Hungary) to be crowned and to rule over her (in 
spite of King Robert's opposing decree and the 
feeling against him at Naples), or than his possible 
inadequacy as a consort, it would clearly have 
been difficult to avoid arriving at the damnatory 
conclusion that Joan was the contriver of the 
crime ; but we have seen that there were several 
reasons, and truly significant one?, in the minds of 
other and far older members of the royal family of 
Naples, as well as in the minds of their jealous 
dependents, for desiring, at any cost, a postpone- 
ment of the long negotiated coronation of Andrew, 
if not for altogether getting rid of him and his 
Hungarian following by a deed of violence. Gra- 
vina declares that his injudicious liberation of the 
rebellious Pepini was the fatal step, as it had the 
effect of concentrating the energies of their high- 
placed enemies and directing the fury of these 
upon himself (' Chronicon. D. Gravina,' 553- 4). At 
any rate, by means of his death the titular Em- 
press Catherine trusted to secure the throne for 
one or other of her sons ; and likewise by means 
of his death Charles of Durazzo, son of Agnes of 
Perigord,* at any rate until Joanna should have a 
child, would advance a step nearer to that sove- 
reignty to which his duchess, Maria, was heiress 

Andrew had been dead but three months when 
Joanna gave birth (Dec., 1345) to Carlo Martello, 
whose paternity Hungarians and Neapolitans 
equally declared to be above question. Nobody, 
I take it, but L. L. K. will find any difficulty in 
admitting this abundantly chronicled fact in 

In atti lieti e gai 
Esser la mira e piacevol bellezza 
Di Peragota, nata genetrice 
Dell' onor di Durazzo. 

* Amoroea Visione,' cap. 40. 

8* 8. VI. SEW. 1, ; 94.] 



the queen's favour. Now, if she was as immoral 
as he adjudges her to have been, how did this un- 
commonly creditable circumstance come to pass ? 
It cannot be denied that Catherine lost no time 
whatever in urging the claims of her eldest son 
Robert to the hand of the widowed Joanna. The 

But does not this fact plainly show that she resented 
the unbecoming pressure put upon her by her un- 
scrupulous kinsfolk, and that she was relieved by 
being able to shut her doors upon Robert ? Now, 
it was not until nine months later still (August, 
1347) that Joanna yielded to the politic persua- 

queen, however, seems to have resolutely eluded sions of Niccolo Acciajuoli, and accepted the hand 

his aggressive advances. Evidence, as we shall of Luigi (the second son of the defunct Catherine), 

see, rather tends to show that he was by no means to whom, let us remember, the Florentine banker 

so agreeable to her as perhaps he considered kim- had been an affectionate guardian and preceptor, 

self to be. Louis of Hungary and his mother Where, then, is the exceeding and indecent hurry 

Elizabeth, made aware of what was taking place at | for remarriage on Joanna's part 1 Because a lady 
Naples, wrote vehemently about this affair to 
Clement at Avignon. Their letters are extant. 

In March, 1346, already, the Pope returned answer eleven months after her first husband's death, is 

to them that he should not permit a union to take she to be put down harshly for a carnally- minded 

place between Joanna and Robert. In May fol- woman ? Is it nob plain that the large opening 

lowing he further declares that he will not grant fo* scandal concerning Joanna in this crucial affair 

dispensation for such a union without taking time | was made by quite another person than herself 

to consider it maturely (Theiner., 'Monum.,' i. even by her whom authorities of every calibre de- 
clare to have been the most deeply implicated in 
the murder of Andrew 1 No wonder Petrarch, in 
his second Eclogue, vilified the corruption of the 


This fact discloses two things. It shows the 
anxiety of Louis to prevent Joanna and the Nea- 
politan branch of the family becoming independent I court of NaplesI It was dislocated with intrigue, 

of him again, and thus checkmating his design But in it he says no word against the queen her- 

upon the kingdom of Naples. It also shows SQ M- It is, of course, easy to say that it was 

clearly the rapid development of Catherine's own politic of him not to do so. According to Donato 

ambitious plans. Towards the ensuing autumn Albanzani,* Barbato Sulmone and Petrarch often 

(1346), after the execution of the assassins, actual predicted the death of Andrew in their conver- 

and suspected, Joanna had doubtless become fully sations. Unfortunately, Donato, besides making 

persuaded there was no escaping some such re- 
marriage. Naples was full of strife, and the Hun- 
garian invasion was becoming a distressing fact. 

many errors of fact, is wont, like Gravina, to 
repeat and accentuate every scandal relative to 
Naples, just as northern and central Italians are 

Clement, however, wrote exhorting her to do wont to do in our own day ; and neither he nor 

nothing calculated to further incense the King of Benvenuto da Imola can be trusted authoritatively 

Hungary, but to wait patiently. Meanwhile, find- in this matter. Still, after his visit to Andrew in 

ing her design not prospering, Catherine had 1343, Petrarch must have formed pretty clear 

actually forced herself, her son, Robert of Taranto, notions about the Tarantini and Durazzeschi. As 

and her suite, into the Castello Nuovo, and, to I have related, Petrarch's mission to Naples had 
the general scandal, took up her residence therein. 
Shocked by this audacious move, the Pope 

promptly sent the Abbot of Monte-Cassino to 

been made in order to procure that fatal setting at 
liberty of the Pepini for his friend Cardinal 
Colonna. No wonder, then, at the poet's intense 

compel Robert to retire from the castello altogether, subsequent pity for Andrew, f who liberated them, 
under severe spiritual threats. It now happened, and thus brought about his own death at the 
however, that Catherine fell sick and died (Sept. 20, hands of their foes. ST. GLAIR BADDELEY. 

1346), and on the occasion of her obsequies at 
Monte- Vergine Robert went out of the castle. 
Whereupon the Vatican Chronicle (c. 10) records 

"viii Octobris turn Domina Res?ina fecit licentiare 

omnes familiares dicti Imperatoris [Robert] a castro, et 
noluit quod dictus Imperator ulterius Castrum intraret, 
eed ipsa [Joanna] personaliter claudi fecit ostia dicti 
Lastn, et claves in suis manibus recepit.' 

In fact, Joanna turned him out, emperor or no 
emperor, and kept the keys of the castle, once 
more determined to rule her own realm. Mean- 
while, Queen Elizabeth of Hungary, Gravina, and 

no " " 

(To be continued.) 

DERAIL (8 th S. vi. 107). The French equiva- 
lent dirailhr (I have never seen nor heard derailer) 
will be found in Bescherelle's ' French Dictionary ' 
(1845), and even then the word was apparently not 
quite new, for, g.v. deraillement, he quotes a pas- 
sage from "F. Tourn.,"no doubt Tourneux, which 
is in his list of authors quoted. This F. (Felix) 
Tourneux, according to Vapereau (1858), was the 

leti vero duo S. Barbatus et Franciscus, in colloquio 

1 resu RobertL 



.vi. SEPT. V 

editor and in part author of a work called c L'Ency- 
clopedie des Chemins de Fer ' (Renouard, 1841), 
so that, if the quotation is from this work, the 
word deraillement dates back at least as far as 1841, 
and cUrailler would, of course, be earlier still. It 
is quite true that in 1841, and even in 1845, there 
were still no great lines of railway in France. I 
myself first went to Paris in 1845, and I well 
remember travelling by diligence from Boulogne to 
Paris (158 miles) in nineteen hours. But there 
was already a line to Versailles, and I think the 
line to Sceaux was made before that. Railway 
terms were, therefore, already in vogue, and the 
more so as these two lines started from Paris, and 
I well remember hearing the word derailler during 
my fifteen months' stay at Choisy-le-Roi, near 

As for the English derail, I have no doubt in my 
own mind that it has been borrowed from this 
derailler. Our verbs beginning with the particle 
de are, I believe, commonly derived from French, 
and are, most of them, I should say, made up of 
de and another already existing verb. But where 
is there a verb, in common use, made up in 
England out of de and a substantive, either 
originally English or thoroughly naturalized ? We 
have not yet got, fortunately, deway, deroad, or 
desea (=to strand), so why should derail have 
been put together here? The French, on the 
contrary, have often made up a verb out of de 
and a substantive e. g. t devoyer (voie), der outer, 
detraquer, &c., so why not derailler? Derailler 
(which has so long been in constant use) sounds 
very well, quite as well as the genuine French 
word debrailler, which differs from it only, both as 
far as form and pronunciation are concerned, in 
having a 6. But derail is hideous, and I am glad 
to say that, after all the years that it seems to have 
existed, I have not seen it in newspapers more than 
twice, and that quite recently, whilst I have never 
yet heard it, and sincerely hope I never may. 


Through the kindness of Dr. W. Sykes, of Gos- 
port, whose labours have contributed so much to 
the historical treatment of scientific and technical 
words in the * New English Dictionary,' my inquiry 
as to the use of derail, derailment, by Dr. Lardner 
has been fully answered, and two other correspon- 
dents, Messrs. E. H. Ooleman and L. Kropf, have 
called my attention to the same passage, which 
occurs inLardner's 'Museum of Science and Art," 
published in London, 1854. In the article " Ptail 
way Accidents," p. 176, he writes : 

'; Although in most cases of derailment it is the engine 
which escapes from the rails, yet it occasionally happens 
that while the engine maintains its position, one or more 
of the carriages forming the train are derailed." 

In a foot-note he says : 

" We have adopted this word from the French : ii 
expresses an effect which is often necessary to mention 

mt for which we have not yet had any term in our rail 
way nomenclature. By deraillement is meant the escape 
of the wheels of the engine or carriage from the rails ; 
and the verb to derail or to le derailed may be used in a 
corresponding sense." 

Nothing could be more satisfactory as showing 
the actual introduction and acknowledged source 
of the English word. It only remained to show 
;hat the word was used in French before 1854, and 
the link is supplied by DR. CHANCE'S admirable 
communication (which he has already shown me). 
We thence learn that derailler and dtrailkment 
were in use in French long before the dates given 
by Littre* and the new f Dictionnaire Ge'ne'ral.' 

It may be added that while Lardner introduced 
and freely used the words in 1854, they seem to 
have been generally adopted in America sooner 
than in Great Britain, probably because much more 
needed there. But they have been commonly 
used by the English newspapers and in works on 
railway engineering for twelve or fifteen years. 

There is a chapter on " Railway Accidents " in 
The Museum of Science and Art ' (i. 34), by Dr. 
Lardner, published by Walton & Maberley, 1854, 
in which the following passage occurs : 

" Although in most cases of derailment it is the engine 
which escapes from the rails, yet it occasionally happens 
that while the engine maintains its position, one or more 
of the carriages forming the train are derailed." 

The word is explained in the following foot- 
note : 

"We have adopted this word from the French ; it ex- 
presses an effect which is often necessary to mention, but 
for which we have not yet had any term in our railway 
nomenclature. By deraillement is meant the escape of 
the wheels of the engine or carriage from the rails ; and 
the verb to derail or to le derailed may be used in a cor- 
responding sense." 

Possibly there may be an earlier instance of its 

71, Brecknock Road. 

128). These lines are from the * Mourning Bride,' 
Congreve's only tragedy, 1697. 

" The noble passage which Johnson, both in writing 
and in conversation, extolled above any other in 
the English drama, has suffered greatly in the public 
estimation from the extravagance of his praise. Had 
he contented himself with saying that it was finer 
than anything in the tragedies of Dryden, Otway, Lee, 
Rowe, Southern, Hughes, and Addison than anything, 
in short, that had been written for the stage since the 
days of Charles I. he would not have been in the wrong." 
Lord Macaulay, ' Comic Dramatists of the Restora- 

J. H. W. 

The lines beginning 

How reverend is the face of this tall pile, 
whose origin has excited the curiosity of your 
correspondents N. M. & A., occur in Act II. sc. iii. 
of Congreve's ' Mourning Bride.' They are cited 

8 S. VI. SEPT. 1, '94.] 



by Dr. Johnson, in his ' Life of Congreye '; and in 
Boswell there is a report of a conversation between 
the Doctor and Garrick, in which the former 
rather preposterously pronounces these verses to 
be the finest passage in English poetry. 

H. W. C. 
[Very many replies are acknowledged.] 

RALEIGH FAMILY (4 th S. x. 308, 419, 505). In 
order to account for the death of Elizabeth Raleigh 
at "the Enbrook" in 1716,1 find the following 
clue. The manor of Enbrook, Cheriton, Kent 
was then vested in the Honywood family. Or 
referring to Burke's ' Peerage and Baronetage ' I 
find the eldest son of Sir W. Honywood, who pre- 
deceased his father, 1719, described as "William 
of Cherdon, m. Frances, dau. of Wm. Raleigh 
Esq." Is this correct ? Should it not be William 
Honywood of Cheriton, married to Frances, dau. o; 
Philip Raleigh ? If so, we have tolerable evidence 
that Elizabeth Raleigh was on a visit to her sister 
Frances Honywood ; but does any published pedi- 
gree prove that my theory is right? 

Sandgate, Kent. 

ISLAND OF BARBADOS (8 th S. vi. 26). MR. 
HERBERT STURMER renders good service in calling 
attention to the spelling of the name Barbados. 
As he remarks, the stamps of this colony have 
always borne the word Barbados. This is since 
1852. Still, the official spelling is not generally 
adopted in this country. In the Proceedings of 
our own Geographical Society the name will be 
found spelt both with and without the e. Mr. 
Keith Johnston, in his 'School Geography,' has 
both spellings on two consecutive pages (356 and 
357). The Rev. J. H. Button Moxly, in his 
excellent ' Guide to Barbados ' (Sampson Low, 
1886) adops the official orthography. 


The misspelling of Barbados is very a slight error 
in geographical nomenclature compared with 
" British Honduras," which we still find both in 
school-books and parliamentary papers, though it 
was shown by the correspondence that preceded 
the surrender of the island of Roatan by Lord 
Clarendon that the territory so called was, under 
the Spanish dominion, a province of the vice- 
royalty of Mexico, while Honduras was a province 
of the vice-royalty of Guatemala. This was proved 
to the satisfaction of the British Government by 
old maps and official documents produced by the 
diplomatic representatives of the Republic of 
Honduras, which showed that the name "British 
Honduras " applied to the territory of Belize was 
a misnomer. THOMAS FROST. 

Littleover, near Derby. 

489). Singularly enough, I had just been reading 

Shadwell's ' Miser,' 1691, and had noted for 
inquiry the phrases given by H. A. ST. J. M., 
except as to " King John's cup at Lyn." Accord- 
ing to Murray's * Handbook to the Eastern Coun- 
ties, M 892, p. 297, 

" A silver-gilt cup and sword, said to have been King 
John's gift to the town, are still carefully preserved in 
the custody of the mayor for the time being. The cup 
itself, in elegance of shape, might have come from the 
hand of Cellini. The figures in enamel of men and 
women hunting and hawking are extremely curious. 
Judging, however, from the costume and workmanship, 
this cup cannot be older than the time of Edward III. 
the period of the greatest prosperity and importance of 

In his address to the reader prefixed to * The 
Miser,' Shadwell says that Moli&re's play " having 
too few persons and too little action for an English 
theatre, I added to both so much that I may call 
more than half of this play my own "; and adds 
this comic apology : " 'Tis not barrenness of wit 
or invention that makes us borrow from the French, 
but laziness ; and this was the occasion of my 
making use of ' L'Avare.' " 

I think there is little doubt that " campaigne " 
= champagne of to-day ; though in ' The Woman 
Captain,' 1680, Act I., Shadwell mentions " Celery, 
Champaign, and Burgundy," the first named being, 
I suppose, Sillery. 

I give up Calvin's big cup. The association of 
ideas seems to lack actuality. Shadwell was a 
Norfolk man, and his father was buried at Ox- 
burgh, some dozen miles or so from Lynn. 

In this age of reprints, it is a pity that some 
competent editor does not take Shadwell in hand. 
His plays abound in odd sayings and bits of folk- 
lore, beyond their intrinsic interest, which is con- 

" Viper wine " from Viper's Bugloss seems rather 
far-fetched ; but it was evidently a cordial stimu- 

I have quite a large budget of Shadwell queries, 
which I hope to diminish by degrees. 


Viper wine was not, as your correspondent 
supposes, a decoction of Viper's Bugloss, but was 
made by digesting live or dry vipers (the College 
of Physicians ordered the latter, but many prac- 
titioners preferred the former) in Canary sack. 

C. C. B. 

BONFIRES (8 th S. v. 308, 432, 472). I have 
referred to both the K E. D.' and Prof. Skeat's 
Concise Dictionary,' but cannot say that I feel 
:onvinced about the " bone-fire " etymology being 
he correct one. My reasons are as follows. We 
are constantly told the bonfires are a pagan sur- 
vival, and the custom of lighting them is as old as 
he hills, yet the combined efforts of all the talent 
ngaged upon the ' N. E. D.' have not been able to 



[8* S. VI. SEPT. 1, '94. 

unearth a single quotation for any one of the forms 
given under "bonfire" of an earlier date than 
1483. Were not bonfires lit before that date ; and, 
if so, how is it that all traces of the name have dis- 
appeared? Then, who was the author of the 
'Gatholicon Anglicanum'? Some foreign monk 
who ascertained the meanings of the words bane 
and fire separately and explained the compound 
banefire as ignis ossium ? Or was he a Northum- 
brian himself who, unwittingly, made the etymo- 
logy ? For suchlike etymologies one gets one's 
knuckles rapped in * N. & Q.' nowadays. 

The illustration selected by PROF. SKEAT, of a 
pail of water being turned into a pane of glass, is 
not on all fours with the case at issue, because pail 
and pane never meant the same thing, but balefire 
and banefire did, as can be seen by a reference to 
the aforementioned * N. E. D.' 

Neglecting the newer ways of spelling the word, 
invented by modern authors with antiquarian 
tastes or bias, the following are the forms given 
by the * N. E. D.,' with the earliest dates of their 
occurrence appended : Bsel (1000), bale (1400), 
balowe (1430), bayle (1470), bane (1483), bone 
(1493), bonne (1530), baill (1535), bald (? misprint 
for bale, 1549), bon (1556), bain (1558), boane 
(1581), of all of which only " bonfire " has survived. 
The dates are instructive. The author of the 
northern 'Catholicon Anglicanum' mistakes the 
meaning of bane, and unwittingly invents an ety- 
mology, and thenceforth numerous instances crop 
up of the indiscriminate use of the various forms, 
and as a bone-fire without bones would be a mis- 
nomer, bones are actually collected and burnt in 
the fires. The use of these ingredients is, to the 
best of my belief, unknown to any other people, 
though the custom of lighting bonfires is pretty 
universal. But then other nations were not ham- 
pered in their observation of Midsummer Eve by 

The editor of the ' Catholicon ' does not either 
believe in the "bone" theory, and dubs ignis 
ossium " a very literal translation of bonfire." 

Dr. Johnson, in 1755, suggested the etymology 
of bon+fire, but although it has its analogies (as, 
. g., bonchief in 1340, bonere in 1300), it is not 
borne out by the history of the word, at least not 
by what we know of its history at present. 

L. L. K. 

It is almost heresy to question the authority of 
PROF. SKEAT on matters of etymology, and I have 
no intention to dispute his correctness in the pre- 
sent case. I plead guilty, however, to the fact 
that, in this instance, I did not consult his ' Con- 
cise Dictionary.* Dr. Ogilvie, while giving PROF. 
SKEAT'S "suggestion" as to bone-fire, furnishes 
the alternative theories that the word bonfire is 
from the Dan. baun, a beacon, and Eng. fire, or 
the Welsh ban, lofty, whence banffagl, a lofty 
blaze, a bon-fire. How the English way of pro- 

nouncing baun can be beacon (Anglo-Saxon been, 
bedceri) I do not understand. With regard to the 
Bel, Baal, or Baldr suggestion, I am not, of course, 
concerned. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

The following examples of the word may be 
acceptable : 

" & BO he died of euill diseases. But they made him 
no bonefyre/ like the bonefirea of his fathers." -Tyn- 
dale's Bible, 1537, 2 Chron. xxi. 19. 

" Bolempne processions and other prasyngestoahnightie 
God, with Bonefires and dauces were ordeigned in euery 
toune." Hall's ' Hen. V.,' f. 19 (1550). 

Kindle you summon'd Spirits and unite 
Your scatter'd Atomes, in this amorous fight : 
More innocent than those of hers, whose Troy 
Was made a Bone-fire by her Firebrand boy. 
Gayton's ' Notes on Don Quixote,' 1651, p. 213. 

K. R. 

" HORKETS " (8 S. vi. 84). J. G. Nail, who 
never seems at a loss for a derivation, does not give 
the spelling horkey, but only, " Hawkey, hockey, 
Norse hauka, to shout, Wei. hwa, Med Lat. 
huccus, a cry. Hence hawker, huckster." But are 
there any early quotations for the word to give 
historial support to the above ? 



This harvest doll, kern baby, ivy girl, Roman 
Ceres, Peruvian Perva, maiden, or harvest queen, 
is a very old story, which may be read in the 
pleasant pages of the curious Brand (ii. 16). 



(8 th S. vi. 128). Probably Warkworth, six miles 
from Alnwick. T. 

I fancy this must be a disguise for Wooler, a 
town about midway between Alnwick and Cold- 
stream, on the old inland route between Edin- 
burgh and Newcastle. In an account of expenses 
of a journey from Edinburgh to London and back 
in 1687, I find " Ullerhach head " mentioned as 
a stopping- place, which clearly stands for " Wooler- 
hauch-head." The " Warlli " and " hauch," in the 
first word given, I think stands for "Wooler 
hauch." What the " bart " or " bar " stands for 
I cannot explain. Half way between Wooler and 
Alnwick is Wooperton, which may be the place 
intended if Wooler fails. 



PIN (8 th S. vi. 7, 76, 117). A four and a half 
gallon cask of ale the smallest barrel of beer so 
called from its being little larger than the huge 
wooden pin tankards used at the old German 
drinking parties, when each drinker drank down 
to a pin, generally of silver, in the side of the 
tankard. Compare Bailey : 

8<" 8. VI. SEPT. 1, '94.] 



" Ad Pinttas bilere [t. to drink to the Pin], an ol 
Danish custom of drinking, which was having a r in fixe 
on the Side of a wooden Cup to drink exactly to the Pin 
or forfeit something. Hence the saying, 'He's in a 
merry Pin.'" 

DR. BREWER says that the custom of drinking 
out of a huge wooden howl with pins or pegs a 
fixed intervals was common among our Saxon 
ancestors, and was introduced by St. Dunstan to 
present brawling. By the rules of good fellowship 
a drinker was to stop drinking only at a pin, anc 
if he drank beyond it was to drink to the nex 

No song, no laugh, no jovial din 

Of drinking wassail to the pin. 

Longfellow, ' Golden Legend.' 


The small cask of four and a half gallons is per- 
haps called a pin from its resemblance to a skittle 
pin. F. ADAMS. 

80, Saltoun Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Is not this word related to penny, i.e., one- 
twelfth of a shilling ? One pennyweight = twenty- 
four grains is not, I think, one-twelfth of an ounce. 
Is it the weight of a silver penny ? If pin equals 
one-twelfth, it means one-twelfth of a hogshead oi 
fifty-four gallons. T. WILSON. 

S. v. 367 ; vi. 36). Did Godfrey of Louvaine 
really marry his father's first cousin ? As there 
was no important political question involved, it 
would seem difficult to suppose a dispensation 
would have been granted for such a marriage. 
Moreover, as Ida had a marriageable daughter in 
1121 (when Adeliza married Henry I.), it would 
be difficult to suppose that her mother was daughter 
of Charles, Duke of Lorraine, who died in 991, 
aged thirty-seven. Duke Charles's son died in 
1005, and his son-in-law, Lambert of Louvaine, 
died in 1015. Spener says Ermengarde, daughter 
of Duke Charles, married Albert I. of Namur, and 
that Albert III., the father of Ida, as I take it, 
was grandson of Albert I. 

Adeliza was young as well as beautiful, according 
to Lappenberg, when she married Henry I., and as 
she lived long enough with her second husband to 
have four sons and one or more daughters, we may 
fairly take it that she was not born much before 
1100, and so her mother could hardly be a grand- 
daughter of Duke Charles, who died 109 years 

That Josceline, head of the second line of Percies, 
was brother of Queen Adeliza admits of no doubt. 
In the Quo Warranto of 7 Edward I. the widow 
of Josceline's grandson is expressly to hold Pet- 
worth, " a tempore Joselini le castlelyn tune fratris 
reginae." William de Albini comes Sussexiee, son 
of Queen Adeliza, calls him " Joe castellani avun- 
culi mei." Josceline himself gave a charter of 

Lewes as "castellanus de arundel." The Percies 
bore the lions of Louvaine or Brabant in the first 
quarter, says Camden, by special covenant on his 
marriage. The tinctures seem changed. 

T. W. 
Aston Clinton. 

Your different correspondents have fallen into 
confusion between Godfrey Barbatus, of Upper and 
Lower Lorraine, ob. 1044, and Godfrey Barbatus, 
Duke of Brabant and Count of Lovaine, ob. 1069. 
The latter was father of Adeliza and Josceline ; 
but who their mother was is not clearly stated. 
Godfrey Barbatus, of Lovaine, had two wives : 

(1) Sophia, daughter of Emperor Henry IV. ; 

(2) dementia, daughter of William II., Count of 
Burgundy. Freeman correctly calls Adeliza's 
father Count of Lowen and Duke of Lower 
Lotheringen. The betrothal of the Empress 
Matilda to the Emperor Henry V. in 1119 may 
have had some influence on her father's marriage 
to the emperor's (?) niece in 1121. J. G. 

NEWS (8 th S. v. 384, 431; vi. 98). In Lord 
Salisbury's collection of State Papers at Hatfield is 
one dated March 31, 1594, containing "Matters 
disclosed by Eobert Barwys, priest." This has 
the following : 

" Mr. Richard Vestegan showed me the copy of a book 
that was now in the press, presently to be printed, and 

about Easter to be sent for England The title is ' News 

from Spain and Holland '; then in the preface the col- 
lector declares how, being at Amsterdam, were con- 
sorted thither certain travellers, some from Spain and