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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 212, Jan. 18, 1896. 


Jilefctum of JEntercommuntcatiott 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 212, Jan. 18, 1896, 




VIII. JULY 6. '95.] 




NOTES .-Cromwell's Soldiers' Bible, 1 Lady Katherine 
Grey 2 Massinger, 3 Pronunciation of Sea " Does your 
mother know you're out?" Turpin's Black Bess, 4" In- 
vestment " Barras Sir Pbineas Pett 'Taming of a 
Shrew 'Constitution Hill Speaker Onslow, 5 Tray- 
Fire caused by Water Keble Death of Mrs. Bloomer, 6 
Louis XVII., 7. 

QUERIES: Rock in the Mosque of Omar, 7 Partridge 
" Gallett " Cromartie Earldom Sir J. Marriott Jewish 
Funeral Custom Latin Proverb Sir A. Paschall Byron 
and lanthe, 8 St. Domingo " Tutum te sistam" "Ca- 
dowes "Buddhism W. Shore De Aylsbury Copy of 
Recipe _ Bachope " Cold Pig " " Cantankerous," 9 
Arthur's Coffee-HouseSong Wanted Authors Wanted, 

REPLIES : Dispensations for Polygamy. 10 Barnard 
Day's Psalter Translations of the New Testament Itur- 
bide Ploughing Oxen, 11 Collect Bull-Roarer Oil 
Painting Flag to Summon to Church Sibyl, 12 Church 
Registers " They were each of them " " Dimpsy " 
Author Wanted, 13 Trepanning " Poeta nascitur," &c. 
Dryden and Greek Hooper and Pepin Pronunciation 
of Place-names, 14 Thornton Yeoman False Rhymes in 
Tennyson, 15 " Blot "" Barth "Miss Manning Dove 
Family' Notts and Derbyshire Notes and Queries 'Vic- 
toria County, 16 Aldermen of Aldgate The Iconpclasm 
of John Shakspeare Stolen Relics Restored St. Nicholas 
Cole Abbey, 17 Mrs. Garrick Stanley : Vere Frankum's 
Night " Lapsus plum* "David ' Young Lochinvar' 
Hogarth's ' Sleeping Congregation ' Masons' Marks 
Vanishing London, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
Vol. XLIII. Morley and Griffin's ' English Writers' 
Boyle's ' History of the Town of Hedon.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


The curious tract republished under this title by 
Mr. Elliot Stock is au interesting memorial of our 
great Civil War. The copy in the British Museum 
was dated by George Thomason Aug. 3, 1643, 
and in the introduction to Mr. Stock's reprint it is 
stated that only one other copy, now in the United 
States, is known to have survived to the present 
day. It is possible, however, that others may still 
lurk in hidden and unsuspected quarters, though 
it must be acknowledged that a ' Soldiers' Pocket 
Bible ' would be exposed to many perils, both in 
peace and war. The title-page reads : 

" The Souldiers Pocket Bible : Containing the most 
{if not all) those places contained in holy Scripture, 
which doe shew the qualifications of his inner man, that 
is a fit souldier to fight the Lords Battels, both before he 
fight, in the fight, and after the fight ; Which Scriptures 
are reduced to several! heads, and fitly applied to the 
Souldiers severall occasions, and so may supply the want 
of the whole Bible, which a Souldier cannot conveniently 
carry about him : And may bee also usefull for any 
Christian to meditate upon, now in this miserable time 
of Wane. Imprimatur, Edm. Calamy, Jos., 18. This 
Book of the Law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but 
tbou shalt meditate therin day and night, that thou maist 
observe to doe according to all that is written therein, 
for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and have 
good aucceBse. Printed at London by 0. B. and R. W. 
for G. C-, 1643." 

Cromwell felt that, for the success of the Parlia- 

ment, its soldiers must be " such men aa had the 
fear of God before them, as made some conscience 
of what they did," and with such warriors he 
sought to replace the "old decayed serving men 
and tapsters and such kind of fellows," whom he 
thought unlikely to conquer the Cavalier troops, 
consisting of " gentlemen's sons, younger sons, and 
persons of quality." The British bravery of the 
Ironsides was not more conspicuous than their 
Hebraic piety, and it was natural that in the Old 
Testament narratives of the wars and conquests of 
the Chosen People they should find ample material 
to urge them onwards in the struggle against the 
Cavaliers, whom they regarded as enemies equally of 
religion and liberty. " Tradition has long asserted 
that every soldier in Cromwell's army was pro- 
vided with a pocket Bible," says the editor of this 
excellent facsimile reprint, and he points out with 
undeniable force that it could not have been Field's 
smallest Bible, printed in 1653. But whilst most 
of the earlier English editions of the Bible were in 
folio or quarto, there were several in octavo and 
duodecimo which might have found a place in the 
capacious harness of the Ironsides, and Lowndes 
mentions " a neat pocket Bible " as having been 
printed at Edinburgh in 1642. One would like to 
know on what authority it is said on the title-page 
of this reprint that the ' Soldiers' Pocket Bible ' 
was compiled by Edmund Calamy. There does 
not appear to be any evidence for this assertion, 
and doubt is increased by the fact that the editor 
confuses Calamy's Nonconformity with that of the 
Nonjurors. His name appears on the title-page 
simply as the licenser. 

The selection of texts is mainly from the Old 
Testament, and these are put under italic headings 
which are occasionally cryptic. Thus, in " a souldiei 
must denie his owne wisdome, his own strength, 
and all provision for war," much will depend upon 
the distributive force of " deny." That " a souldier 
must not feare his enemies " may be described 
both as an elementary injunction and as a counsel 
of perfection, and there was doubtless a consolation 
in the reflection that " sometimes Gods people 
have the worst in battel as well as Gods enemies." 
" For the iniquities of Gods people [they are] 

delivered into the hands of their enemies 

Therefore both souldiers and all Gods people upon 

such occasions must search out their sinnes 

especially whether we have not put two [sic] 

little confidence in the Arme of the Lord, and too 
much in the arme of flesh." They are reminded 
that " to prevent this sin and for the committing 
of this sin the Lord hath ever beene accustomed to 
give the victory to a few," and there is help against 
despair in the thought " that the very nicke of 
time that God hath promised us helpe, is when we 

see no helpe in man. and let souldiers, and all 

of us know, that if we obtaine any victory over our 
enemies, it is our dutie to give all the glory to the 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. vm. JULT e, '95. 

Lord." The headings from which these citations 
are taken are well adapted for the compiler's 
purpose. Even the peaceful adjuration "Love 
your enemies " is set to* martial music. ' ' A souldier 
must love his enemies as they are his enemies, and 
hate them as they are God's enemies," we are told, 
and, with a fine casuistical touch, Matt. v. 44, 
2 Chron. xix. 2, and Psalm cxxxix. 21, 22, are 
brought together as "proofs." There are five 
citations from the New Testament (not two, as the 
editor states), whilst the remainder are taken from 
the older Scriptures, the Psalms alone supplying 
eighteen texts. The citations are from the Genevan 

This facsimile of the ' Souldiers Pocket Bible ' 
may help us to realize better the spirit at work 
in the great struggle between Charles I. and the 
Parliamentarians. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

Moss Side, Manchester. 


(Continued from 8 th S. vii. 424.) 
I cannot produce any letter from Gosfield during 
Lady Katharine's residence there, but we can draw 
too surely from the sequel that her decline in 
strength and vitality was gradual and constant. 
Sir John Wentworth's plea of failing health seems 
also to have been well founded, for he died after 
being the poor lady's warden sixteen months, and 
while she was yet under his roof. This sad cir- 
cumstance must have added to her unhappiness 
a second time, so it might appear, the compul- 
sory duty of guarding her had shortened the life of 
her custodian. She remained at Gosfield rather 
more than a month after Wentworth's death, and 
from the letter I am about to quote it would seem 
that on his executor, Koke Green,* had devolved 
temporarily the unwelcome duty of the guardian- 

Oct. 3, 1567. Mr. Roke Green to Sir William 
Cecilf : 

After my humble duty unto your honour remembered, 
Whereas 1 have lately received from the name letters by 
the which I understand that the Queen's Majesty's 
pleasure is, that since it has pleased Almighty God to 
call unto his mercy Sr. John Wentworthe, I should take 
the charge he had of the Lady Catheryn until her High- 
ness' resolution were further known therein, forasmuch 
as the funerals of the said Mr. Wentworthe is now done, 
and that my Lady his late wife and I as his executors 
have taken such order with his goods here as the time 
will serve, I have now no further to do with this house, 
but the same doth belong unto her Ladyship, who 
besides her great age, which is 71 years, is grieven by 
the sorrow of her late husband's death so weak and 
sickly as it is to be feared she cannot long continue 

* Roke Green had property at Little Sandford, Essex, 
eight miles from Gosfield; from his letter it appears 
that he was related to Sir John Wentworth, and that, 
being a widower, he bad latterly lived at Gosfield, perhaps 
assisting Sir John in the management of his large estate. 

t ' State Papers, Dom.,' Eliz., vol. xliv. p. 24. 

without she shortly amend, And, as I hear, the Lady 
Matravers her daughter does not mind to keep the house, 
but is better disposed to sojourn in some convenient 
place for her Ladyship, 1 *' So that if I should be thought 
meet to have the charge of the said Lady Catberin, I 
must remove her from thence unto my house, which is 
nothing meet for many respects for such a personage. 
I have no wife to take the charge of my house, the want 
whereof hath occasioned me to lie most part at the said 
Mr. Wentworthe's, whose kinsman I was. My house 
and provision is neither within nor without furnished 
meet to receive such a charge, [and] my business is most 
times such, by the occasion of the great charge of 
children I have, that I am much enforced to be from my 
house. Sir I do not deal thus plainly and truly with 
you for that I am loth to take the charge of her Lady- 
ship (if I were meet for the same) for any misliking I 
have of her or hers, for I must for truth's sake confess, 
as one that hath had good experience of her Ladyship's 
behaviour here, that it hath been very honourable and 
quiet, and her Ladyship's servants very orderly. But 
my only insufficiency, and partly for the causes before 
touched, moveth me to be a humble suitor unto your 
honour to have consideration of the premises, nnd to be 
a mean unto her Majesty to know her Grace's resolution 
and pleasure touching the said Lady Catherin, and that 
I may be informed of the same from you by this bearer, 
which I will execute and preserve according to my most 
bound duty and to the best of my power. And thus I 
most humbly take my leave of your honour. Prom. 
Gosfield Hall in Essex the third day of October 1567. 
Your most humble at commandment, 


To the Right Honourable William Cyssell, Knight, 
Principal Secretary to the Queen her Majesty. 

[Endorsed] 3 d0 of October 1567. Mr. Rooke Green to 
my mr. La. Catherin Gray. 

The letter of Koke Green which I have just quoted 
must in transit have crossed the queen's command 
to him, dated a day earlier ; unless, indeed, in the 
above he refers to the following letter, very quickly 
conveyed to him and immediately replied to. This, 
the queen's letter, I transcribe from a draft pre- 

Oct. 2, 1567. The queen to Mr. Roke Greene t r 

By the Queen. Trusty and Well-beloved we greet you 
well. We have thought meet that the Lady Catherine 
now yet remaining since the death of Sr. John Went- 
worthe in that his late house under your charge should 
be committed to the custody of Sr. Owen Hopton, Knight, 
for which purpose we have signified our pleasure in that 
behalf unto him by our letters herewith sent also unto 
you, which our pleasure is you shall either by yourself 
or if you cannot for any reasonable impediment then by 
some other trusty person so to be conveyed to him, And 
thereby to accord upon the manner and time for the 
carriage of her, and consequently as it shall be agreed 1 
between you to see that she be safely delivered unto him, 
and to be kept by him according to the charge in our 
letters, Whereof we pray you not to fail, And these our 
letters shall be your sufficient warrant and discharge in 
this behalf. Given at Windsor 2 nd October 1567, nono 
regni Dn. Reg ne . (jSfnOj8^ ** .--' 

[Endorsed] M. to Mr. Roke Greene to deliver the Lady 
Catherin Gray to Sr. Owen Hopton. 1567. 

* See foot-note, 8 th S. vii. 423, as to Anne, Lady Mal- 
travers, and her father, Sir John Wentworth. 
f ' State Papers,[Dom.,' Eliz., vol. xliv. f. 22. 


The next letter to be produced is that mentioned 
in the above, viz. , one of the same date from the 
queen to Sir Owen Hopton. 

Oct. 2, 1567. The queen to Sir Owen Hopton* : 

By the Queen. Trusty and Well-beloved we greet you 
well. Whereas it hath pleased Almighty God to call 
to his mercy ST. John Wentworth, Knight, to whom the 
custody of the Lady Catherin was by us committed, We 
'have thought meet upon special trust of your faithful- 
ness and discretion to commit her to your custody. 
Wherefore we will and require you that upon the sight 
hereof and conference with Roke Greene, one of the 
executors of Sr. John Wentworth, either by himself or 
other knowledge from him in this behalf, you do receive 
-the said Lady Catherin unto your custody with such 
necessary servants as she presently hath to attend upon 
her, And that you do not suffer her to have any con- 
ference with any stranger, nor that any resort be made 
unto her other than by yourself and of your household, 
And in case you shall be occasioned either for our service 
or for neighbourhood to have any repair to your table, 
that she be not permitted to be in company of them, 
but so to be secluded as yourself and your wife be not 
thereby restrained from the entertainment of any of 
jour friends, And generally we require you and your wife 
to keep her as one committed to your charge from con- 
ference or sight of strangers according to the trust we 
repose in you. And as occasion shall arise wherein you 
shall desire to know our pleasure, you may thereof 
-advertise some of our Privy Council of whom you shall 
receive answer. And for the charges of the debts of her 
and her necessary servants attending upon her, you shall 
be satisfied as by the foresaid Roke Greene you may at 
more length understand was answered for the same unto 
the said Sr. John Wentworthe. 

[Endorsed] The Queen to Sr. Owen Hopton to receive 
the custody of Lady Mary [tic] Gray, 2, Oct. 1567. 

The queen's command to Sit Owen Hopton, 
dated from Windsor, October 2, reached him at 
Oockfield Hall, in Suffolk, on the 6th ; and after 
making arrangements for the reception of Lady 
Katherine he replied as follows. 

Oct. 1 1, 1567. Sir Owen Hopton to Sir William 
Cecilt : 

My duty most humbly remembered, may it like your 
honour to be advertised, that the sixth of this month I 
received the Queen her Highness' letters touching the 
charges and custody of the Lady Katerine, her High- 
ness' pleasure wherein 1 shall at all points endeavour 
myself to accomplish as one that dare not presume to 
make suit to the contrary, although I have great cause. 
For it may please you to understand that I was presently 
prepared with my wife and small household to lay at our 
little house in Ipswich, and have disposed all things 
touching my provision in such sort as I must be now 
driven speedily to alter the same, and to rest at my poor 
head-house in Suffolk, for that this house and place in 
Ipswich is in all respects unfit for the charge now im- 
posed unto me. I was upon this occasion driven to treat 
with Mr. Roke Greene, one of the executors of Sir John 
"Wentworth, to stay the Lady Katerine there, where she 
now remains till the 20 th of this month, at which time 
I mean to receive her, and in the meantime to furnish 
myself of things requisite as I may. And this much I 
thought it my duty to advertise your honour of my doing 
herein, I most humbly praying at all times your good 

* ' State Papers, Dom.,' Eliz., vol. xliv. f. 21. 
t ' State Papers, Dom.,' Eliz., vol. xliv. f. 28. 

aid and opinion in my doing, wherein I trust not to dis- 
appoint your good expectation. And so I humbly take 
my leave, the 11 th of October A 1567. 

Yours at all times to command, 


To the right honourable 8'. William Cissyll, Knight, 
Secretary to the Queen her Highness. 

[Endorsed] 11, 8 br 1567. Sr. Owen Hopton to my mr. 
for the rec. of the La. Katherin. 

An account, to be brought forward in its proper 
order, shows that on Oct. 20 Sir Owen took Lady 
Eatherine into his charge, whether at Gosfield or 
Ipswich is not quite clear, but most probably at 
the latter place, where the little cavalcade, baring 
travelled about thirty miles, rested for the night. 
The next day the journey was resumed, the poor 
ailing lady being conveyed in a "coche," which if 
a vehicle on wheels must have been one of the 
earliest and clumsiest type ; and the whole distance 
from Gosfield Hall to Cockfield Hall being about 
fifty-three miles, in whatever manner she may 
have been carried over the rough ways of the time, 
the journey could not have proved otherwise than 
very tedious and exhausting to the poor delicate 
Katherine. W. L. RUTTON. 

27, Elgin Avenue, Westbourne Park, W. 
(To be continued.) 

MASSINGER.* (Continued from 8 th S. vii. 484.) 
Gifford quotes an affecting letter tripartite, 
signed by Philip Massinger and two others, soli- 
citing a loan of five pounds, without which " they 
could not be bayled," and a receipt given by the 
bearer of the letter for that amount, " paid for the 
use of Mr. Daboerne, Mr. Feeld, and Mr. Messen- 
ger." This proves that the name of Massinger 
at that day was pronounced in the manner still 

There is something left to be made out in regard 
to the portraits of him in existence. The writer 

Quotations should be literally exact. That in the 
preceding article, from Greedy's speech, was not so, and 
ought to have run, " A Norfolk dumpling in the belly of 
it." In 'The City Madam,' II. i., occurs a parallel 
passage : " There were three sucking pigs served up in a 

dish Besides the puddings in their bellies, made of I 

know not what." Norfolk dumplings as stuffing seem to 
have been peculiar to roast fawn. In instancing Chante- 
loup as possibly a word of the same type as Chantemesse, 
I accidentally forgot to cite the parallel word, variously 
spelt Cantalupe, Cantelupe, Cantilupe, Cantulupe, Canti- 
lou, &c., the name of several towns in Normandy, from 
one of which the Earls Delaware are said to derive their 
second title. Cantaloup (a musk-melon) is said by Littre 
to be derived from Cantaluppo, a country house of the 
Popes, twelve or thirteen miles out of Home, from which 
this fruit was originally brought. Lupo, of course, means 
wolf, and luppolo hops ; but what luppo can stand for I 
have no idea. 

f I.e., as regards the accent on the first syllable and 
the j sound of the g. An emissary would be very apt to 
confuse the first two vowel sounds, and be led by a sort 
of natural attraction to make the whole word agree with 
the capacity in which he was himself acting. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ s. vm. j awe, -95, 

of the article on Massinger in the ' Diet. Nat. 
Biog.' (L894) says: "A portrait was engraved by 
Worthington after Thurston. Other engraved 
portraits by Grignon, T. Cross, and H. Robinson 
are extant (Evans's 'Cat.,' Nos. 7027 and 19N)." 
The second number is an error for 19154, which is 
Grignon's. 19156 stands against the name of 
H. Robinson, and is stated to be a copy of 19155 
by T. Cross (7027 being ascribed to Thurston- 
Worthington). Massinger 06. 1640, Cross fl. 
1632-82, Charles Grignon fl. 1717-1810, Thurston 
fl. 1774-1822, Worthington ob. 1795. 

No. 19155 is the very fine and spirited "print 
before the three octavo plays published by H. Mose- 
ley, 1655," which proudly, but with obvious 
justice, boasts itself as the " vera ac viva effigies 
Philippi Massinger." Gifford says that the head 
prefixed to his first volume was copied from this 
by his young friend Lascelles Hoppner, and adds, 
" It has not the air of a fancy portrait. There is, 
I believe, no other." This latter statement is 
corroborated by the writer of the article in the 
'Diet. Nat. Biog.' on T. Cross, who says, "His 
portraits are a valuable contribution to the history 
of the period, and some of them are the only 
likenesses we possess, e.g., that of Philip Massinger 
prefixed to an edition of his plays in 1655." If 
this is so, Evans must have made a mistake in 
treating the Grignon and the Thurston-Worthing- 
ton heads as distinct portraits, and they must be 
copies or derivatives from that by Cross. Con- 
sidering the mass of materials with which he had 
to deal (a good bit over twenty thousand distinct 
entries in his so-called two volumes) it would not 
be surprising if Evan?, or his aids, had committed 
some mistakes or oversights. The two volumes 
are really two distinct parts, with different title- 
pages, published at different times (there is no 
date to either), and the second (which starts with 
a fresh alphabetical arrangement of the names) is 
not a continuation, but a supplement of the first, 
laid (as a dynamo maker would say) in parallel, 
and not in series, with it. The experts will doubt- 
less, if they have not done so already, set forth on 
which side the truth lies. 

Non nostrum inter eos tantas componere lites. 

What when I last wrote was merely a pious 
opinion may now be accepted as an indisputable 
truth. Roma locuta est. Lord Acton and Mr. 
Eobert Tait (who passed many years in Italy as an 
art student) both inform me that Cantalamessa is 
quite a common name in that country, which is 
the more surprising on account of its length. I 
am at liberty also to mention that the lady of the 
incident in Battersea Park was Mrs. (DOW Lady) 
Brackenbury, the accomplished wife of General 
Sir Henry Brackenbury, K.C.B. , and that the 
trees in the neighbourhood which she was able to 
name from the sounds they gave out when rustled 
by the wind would have been the black poplar or 

the aspen. According to my recollection, she was 
able to distinguish these two, not only from other 
trees, but from each other, and to say which of 
them it was that gave out the determining sound. 

J. S. A. C. 

The derivation of this name from " le Messager " 
is too well established to be shaken by any guess- 
work. (See Bardsley, p. 217.) As for the dramatist's 
supposed change of religion, Lieut.-Col. Cunning- 
ham, in his edition of the plays, speaks strongly 
of the unlikelihood of such a change having escaped 
the notice of Wood, who " was himself again and 
again accused of exhibiting in his writings a strong 
leaning to all who were Papists or papistically 
inclined." C. C. B. 

PRONUNCIATION OF SEA. We find the poet 
Cowper rhyming sea with survey in his 'Alexander 
Selkirk '; and again in the hymn commencing 
with the words " God moves in a mysterious way." 
I have just observed, however, that in the last two 
lines of the poem entitled 'The Castaway,' written 
in 1799 (only one year before his death), he rhymes 
sea with he. I think we may hence safely conclude 
that the change of pronunciation of sea (from say 
to see) took place towards the close of the eigh- 
teenth century. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


This cant question was current a good many years 
ago I should think about twenty- five to thirty. 
Perhaps it had its popularity from some music-hall 
song of the time. It appears in almost identical 
words in a comic poem, published in the Mirror of 
April 28, 1838 (vol. xxxi., No. 890, p. 282), which 
is said to be an extract from ' Bentley's Miscellany.' 
It is entitled " The Meeting, after the manner of 
Ludwig Uhland." Five stanzas describe very 
sentimentally how the poet lay beside a fountain 
dreaming of Elysian plains, of old castles, gigantic 
forests, troops of nymphs, &c., and how a *' lovely 
May " advances towards him from the forest shade : 
Straight I rose, and ran to meet her, 

Seized her hand ; the heavenly blue 
Of her bright eyes smiled brighter sweeter 

As she asked me, " Who are you ] " 
To this question came another 

What its aim I still must doubt 
And she asked me, " How 's your mother ? 

Does she know that you are out 1 " 
" No ! my mother does not know it, 

Beauteous, heaven-descended Muse ! " 
" Then off get you, my handsome poet, 
And say I sent you with the news." 



"Another cherished declusion is falling beneath the 
hand of the spoiler. We have given over believing that 
Wellington shouted, ' Up, Guards ! and at 'em,' at 
Waterloo ; that Canute bade the sea to stand back ; that 
Gelert's grave covers the bones of Llewellyn's hound 
and now the genuine character of Dick Turpin'e Black 

. VIII. JCLY 6, '95 "} 


Bess is questioned. This is the most unkindest cut of 
all. The famous sable steed, whose counterfeit present- 
ment has figured in innumerable circus performances, 
is declared to be an invention. A correspondent who 
has taken up the cudgels on Bess's behalf states, how- 
ever, that if an invention, it is not an invention of Ains- 
worth's. As a child he has listened, he says, to hia 
mother's stories of Dick Turpin and Black Bess, which 
she had first hand from her father, and neither of them 
ever looked into ' Rookwood.' Still, it is saddening that 
a doubt has been cast on the famous quadruped. The 
gallop from London to York is probably taken from the 
performances of ' Swift Dick Nevison,' who in 1676 is 
said to have robbed a sailor at Gadahill at 4 A.M., and 
to have established an alibi by reaching York at 7.45 P.M. 
the same evening. That may be, but we cannot sur- 
render our sleek-coated favourite altogether without 
demur." Birmingham, Weekly Mercury, March 9. 

Bellgarth, Hendon, N.W. 

"INVESTMENT." The following carious use of 
this word deserves notice : 

" By this mode of carrying on the trade.. ....the [East 

India] Company became invested with a right in all the 

goods for which they had contracted and from this 

circumstance their purchases then received the appel- 
lation of investments, which they have ever since 
retained." Capt. Basil Hall, ' Travels and Voyages,' 
Third Series, vol. i. chap. ii. 

The whole context should be consulted. 


BARRAS. It may be worth while remarking that 
the name of Bams should be pronounced Barrdce, 
and not "Barrah," the pronunciation almost in- 
variably given to it by Englishmen, if I may judge 
by my own experience. As the final s is silent in 
most French words (among them embarras), the 
mistake is almost a matter of course. 



Sir Phineas Pett, the eminent naval architect, 
of the reigns of James I. and Charles, came of a 
Puritan family and was at Emmanuel College. 
His name does not appear in the I was about to 
say exhaustive list of eminent men belonging to 
the college in Le Keux and Cooper's ' Memorials 
of Cambridge,' nor is there, so far as I know, any 
memorial of him in the college. I first noticed 
that he was educated at Emmanuel in his hitherto 
unpublished autobiography (of which I have a 
copy), where it is recorded that he paid a visit to 
the college long after the time of his early educa- 
tion. Cole was aware Sir Phineas Pett was of 
Emmanuel, but I do not know whence he drew his 
information. There was a portrait of him exhibited 
in the year 1866 at the National Exhibition of 
Portraits held that year, lent by the Earl of Yar- 
borough ; he is described in the catalogue as M.A. 
of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. -It is a half- 
length, and shows in the background the Royal 
Sovereign or Sovereign of the Sea, constructed 

by him and his son Peter about 1637. As I was 
about the year 1866 perpetual curate of Chatham, 
I took an interest in the Petts and paid particular 
attention to the portrait ; and I have a genealogical 
table of the family, compiled with the aid of a 
friend while I was at Chatham. I should be glad 
if the Editor would allow this note of the great 
naval architect to appear in ' N. & Q.' If I mis- 
take not, there is a portrait of one of the family 
hanging in the hall at Christchurch, Oxford, and 
there may be portraits in Ireland ; but Emmanuel 
claims the most distinguished of the Petts. Others 
of the family bore the name of Phineas, and con- 
fusion easily arises ; but none of the family can 
compare with this Sir Phineas, the naval architect, 
the friend of Prince Henry. 

To refer, in conclusion, to another matter. I 
never could exactly understand why Dean Swift 
sent Gulliver to Emmanuel. Probably a certain 
tradition as to the connexion of the college with 
Puritanism lingered on and took this shape in the 
dean's time. The first edition of Gulliver was not 
published before 1746. 

S. ARNOTT, M.A., Emman. Coll. 


'TAMING OP A SHREW.' In the publications 
of the New Shakspere Society of 1875 appears an 
article by R. Simpson, Esq., on various plays 
attributed to Shakespeare, among which he men- 
tions 4 The Taming of a Shrew,' 1594, and adds 
that in Smetwick's reprint of 1631 it is said to be 
written by W. Shakespeare. It is evident that 
Mr. Simpson has confused the two plays bearing 
nearly a similar title, as the 1631 edition is the 
first and only quarto of Shakespeare's play entitled 
'The Taming of the Shrew.' The anonymous 
play of 'The Taming of a Shrew' was thrice 
printed in 1594, 1596, and 1607. 


CONSTITUTION HILL. As Thornbury's 'London' 
gives no reason for this name, it may be as well to 
quote Richard King's, from ' The Complete Modern 
London Spy,' 1781, p. 27: "Having left the 
hospital [St. George's], we proceeded through the 
Green Park, sometimes called Constitution Hill, 
on account of the salubrious air which is there 
found." F. J. F. 

COMMONS IN 1563. The ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' says 
that "he sat in the Parliaments of 1557-8 and 
1562-3 as member for Steyningr, and represented 
that borough till his death." This is not quite 
accurate. He was M.P. for Steyning in the Par- 
liaments of October-December, 1555, 1558, 1559, 
and (seemingly) through that of 1563 to 1567. It 
is to be observed that in the Crown Office Lists of 
this last Parliament, " Richard Ousley, Recorder 
of London," sat as M.P. for the City from circa 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. v,n. JOLT 6, -95. 

1563-7. As our Speaker was Recorder of Lon- 
don from 1563 to 1566, there can be no doubt but 
that he is intended by this name. I have already 
pointed this out in the pages of N. & Q.' (7 th S. 
iv. 243, 450), but so far have received no explana- 
tion of the difficulty. Richard Onslow could not 
have sat for two places at the same time, but there 
is no record of his vacating his seat at Steyning 
for that of the Metropolis. W. D. PINK. 

TRAY, NAME OF A DOG. Mr. Robert Fer- 
guson, in his ' Surnames as a Science,' p. 17, 
expresses the opinion that Tray is but a book- 
name for a dog. " Who," he says, " has not heard 
in verse or prose of the poor dog Tray ? And yet 
who ever heard, excepting in books, of a dog being 
called Tray?" 

I know not of any Tray in being at the present 
moment ; but there was one alive and doing well 
in London city in 1654. A certain Moll Gape, 
who was one of Sir Ralph Verney's most amusing 
correspondents, writes on Jan. 18 of that year : 

"Sir, Trey I thinke is just now upon her delivery, she 
hath had 12 pupyes but half of them bee dead, but 
them that are liveing are very fatt. and by the next return 
they will send you downe many tbankes for the bones of 
your partridges and larkes." ' Memoirs of the Verney 
Family,' by Margaret M. Verney, vol. iii. p. 187. 

Tray is mentioned in Gay's ' Shepherd's Week,' 
i. 56, and in the Sporting Magazine (1805), 
vol. xxv. p. 70, we read of "My faithful dog 
Tray." See also (1807) vol. xxix. p. 120. These 
may, however, be mere bock-names. 


FIRE CAUSED BY WATER. A newspaper account 
of the vessel Why Not catching fire, attributes the 
outbreak to some water being thrown on to some 
lime causing a flame, which spread to a quantity of 
hay which formed part of the cargo. Without 
expressing any opinion either way as to the fact 
which would be injudicious at the present moment 
it may be worthy of note that there is a record 
of such an event having occurred before : 

"About three weeks since, a house at Christchurch, 
Hants, was set on fire by water in the following manner. 
On the premises of Mr. Belbin, mason, a quantity of un- 
alacked lime was laid, with some laths upon it; the 
tide came up unusually high, and inundated the lower 
part of the house, kindled the lime, which set fire to the 
laths, and communicating with the buildings, burnt the 
whole to the ground, with part of the adjoining houses." 
Cambridge Chronicle, Nov. 29, 1811. 


in the Contemporary Review for Jane points out 
several infelicitous similes and allusions in the 
* Christian Year,' one of which is in the poem for 
the Monday after Easter, where occurs the line 

With monarcha at their helm, 

a position kings did (and do) not often occupy, 
though perhaps Eeble might say they did so meta- 

phorically, as the steersman guided at their behest. 
Few persons have a greater admiration for the 
poet in question than myself ; but I should like to 
point out an allusion in the poem for the tenth 
Sunday after Trinity which is scarcely apposite, 
and is not noticed (or, at any rate, noted) by the 
writer in the Contemporary Review. We are told 
by Herodotus (vii. 45, 46) that Xerxes, contem- 
plating his vast host assembled near Troy, before 
passing into Europe, wept to think that not one 
man amongst them would be alive a hundred years 
afterwards. This Eeble alludes to as a conqueror's 
grief, scarcely the epithet which can be applied to 
Xerxes, with respect to whom one more often 
thinks of the well-known lines of another poet : 

A king sate on the rocky brow 
Which looks o'er sea-born Salamis; 
And ships, by thousands, lay below, 
And men in nations ; all were his ! 
He counted them at break of day, 
And when the sun set, where were they 1 

W. T. LYNN. 


DEATH OF MRS. BLOOMER. It is probable 
that few people, before reading this note, were aware 
that the lady who gave her name to the eccentric 
"Bloomer" costume, so familiar to everybody 
from the inimitable drawings of Oruikshank, was 
living as recently as the last day of last year. It 
is the fate of notorious persons to be soon forgotten 
when no longer en evidence. Mrs. Bloomer died 
on the last day of the past year, and her death, I 
venture to think, is of sufficient interest to be noted 
in ' N. & Q.' for the benefit of the future historian 
of the period during which " bloomerism " 
flourished. The comparison of the costume of 
this period with the costume of the "new 
woman" with bicycling tastes of the present 
day will be inevitable. The accompanying account 
of Mrs. Bloomer's death is taken from the Stand- 
ard of Jan. 11 : 

" Mrs. Amelia J. Bloomer, the advocate of the Bloomer 
costume, died on Dec. 31, at Council Bluffs, Iowa, at 
the age of seventy-seven. The costume which went by 
her name was first worn by Mrs. Bloomer in 1849. It 
resembled male attire, being an open-fronted jacket and 
loose trousers, the latter wide, like those of the Turk, 
but gathered in at the ankles. The Bloomer dress was 
adopted by a few women in the West-end of London in 
1851; but, though recommended by some American 
ladies in popular lectures, it was soon totally discon- 
tinued. Mrs. Bloomer was born in Homer, N.Y., on 
May 27, 1818, her father's name being Jenks. Six years 
later her parents removed to Seneca Palls, N.Y., and 
there, on April 15, 1840, she was married to Mr. D. C. 
Bloomer. She became interested in the subjects of 
temperance and women's rights, and lectured on them. 
In 1849, after contributing articles to various papers, she 
started a semi-monthly of her own, the Lily. About 
this time Mrs. Miller, daughter of Gerrit Smith, went to 
visit in Seneca Falls. She wore a costume which con- 
sisted of a short skirt, full trousers, and an ordinary 
bodice. Mrs. Bloomer, looking from her window and 

VIII. JOLT 6, '95.] 


beholding the queer toilet for the first time, laughed at 
it. In a few day Mrs. Stan ton appeared in a short skirt 
and trousers, and in a week Mrs. Bloomer was persuaded 
to discard her ordinary garments and put on the dress 
which thenceforth bore her name. Her first reform 
costume was of figured Bilk, and the trousers, which were 
gathered at the ankle, were of the same material. 
Nothing was more unexpected to Mrs. Bloomer than the 
sudden notoriety which came to her. Nothing was 
further from her mind than the idea of setting the 
fashion. She pursued her work at the editorial desk and 
upon the lecture platform, always championing the cause 
of women, and never referring in any way to her costume. 
In the performance of her duties in the post-office as 
her husband's deputy, Mrs. Bloomer found her short 
skirt convenient and comfortable. But the fame of her 
costume spread rapidly, and the circulation of the Lily 
leaped from a few hundreds to several thousands. Mrs. 
Bloomer did not like the notoriety, and abandoned the 
costume to which she had given a name after wearing 
it seven or eight years. Why she did so she never made 
public. It is known, however, that it was always a 
source of anxiety lest she should be remembered only 
because she once wore an odd costume. She was an 
eloquent speaker on the lecture platform, as well as a 
graceful and forcible writer. She had been a member 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church for fifty years, and 
was noted for her great but unostentatious charities. 
The home was never enlivened by children of their 
own, but she and her husband adopted several waifs, and 
reared and educated them as if born to themselves. Her 
health had been failing for the last ten years." 

A. 0. W. 

Louis XVII. A hundred year ago (June 8) the 
unfortunate Dauphin, known as Louis XVII., died 
in the Tour du Temple. Although the reports of 
his escape from captivity, which encouraged several 
impostors to assume his title, and have furnished 
historians, novelists, and dramatists with subjects 
for their pens, are generally discredited, the royalist 
Gaulois of June 8 has devoted a considerable 
portion of its space to a reproduction of evidence 
which appears to leave no room to doubt that the 
young prince died in prison, bis end having been 
accelerated by harsh treatment ; and at the same 
time it gives the opinions of more than one living 
author among them M. Victorien Sardou, who 
is preparing a play under the title of 'Louis XVII.' 
who do not consider the identity of the youth 
who died in the Temple sufficiently established. 

The most important testimony, perhaps, is that 
of the Duchesse d'Angouleme. In her memoirs 
she gives an account of her brother's last illness, 
and refers to the report of his having been poisoned. 
That this report was false she considers proved by 
the post mortem examination of the medical men. 
She attributes his premature death to his insanitary 
surroundings, and to the hardships to which he was 
subjected . The doctors themselves, whose autopsy 
gave rise to very excited criticisms, declared that 
" the son of the deceased Louis Capet, recognized 
by two of them as the child who was under their 
care for some days before his death," tiied of dis- 
orders which arose from a long-standing scrofulous 
condition. M. de Beauchesne, the historian of 

Louis XVII. , who appears to have spared no pains 
to arrive at the truth, and who knew personally 
Lasne and Gomier, the last two guardians of the 
young prince (of whose considerate treatment of 
her brother the Duchesse d'Angouleme speaks in 
warm terms), came to the conclusion that the 
Dauphin's identity with the youth who died in the 
Temple on June 8, 1795, was established beyond 
question. M. Imbert de Saint- Amand, the author 
of 'Femmes de Versailles' and 'Femmes des 
Tuileries,' is of the same opinion. On the other- 
hand, M. Sardou, while he regards all the various 
narratives of the escape of the Dauphin as mere 
romance, does not consider that the documents 
cited to prove his death in the Temple are by any 
means conclusive. He makes much of the fact 
that the sister of the Dauphin, who was in an 
adjoining cell when her brother is supposed to have 
died, was not called as a witness ; and he also 
remarks that M. Desault, the only medical man 
who could have proved the identity of the corpse, 
had been dead a week before the autopsy took 
place. The Count d'He"riason, who was the first 
to publish any important documents in support of 
the "survival" theory, declares his firm belief that 
the Dauphin escaped from the Temple, and appears 
to regard the pretender Naundorff as having been 
the genuine claimant. M. Paul Roche points out 
that Barras appends to the account of his visit to 
the Temple, which took place ten months before 
the Dauphin's death, the following lines : " Mais 
le jeune prince e"tait travaille" par une maladie 
humorale qui avait de"ja fait des progres, de sorte 
que, malgre' tous les soins qu'on lui porta, il suc- 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

remarkable rock, says Dean Stanley (' Sinai and 
Palestine,' chap, iii.), quoting from previous tra- 
vellers, "is irregular in its form, and measures 
about sixty feet in one direction, and fifty feet in 
the other. It projects about five feet above the 
marble pavement, and the pavement of the mosque 
is twelve feet above the general level of the enclo- 
sure." I am informed, however, by the Hon. 
David P. Thompson, recently the U.S. minister 
to Turkey, that he measured the rock, and found 
it about sixty-five feet by nineteen ; and as he is 
a practical surveyor, and made his calculations by 
actually pacing the ground, I cannot doubt the 
accuracy of his conclusion. The rock in question 
is probably the spot where Isaac was to have been 
sacrificed, and the threshing floor purchased by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. JULY 6/95. 

David. Sir John Maundeville describes it as on 
the other side of the temple or mosque standing 
in the year 1322 ; but now the Dome of the Sakrah 
is built directly over it. The following questions 
occur : 1. What change, if any, has been made in 
the sculpturing or in the enclosing of this rock 
daring the present century? 2. Is it possible, 
upon comparison of measurements, that the rock 
could have been included within the walls of either 
the first or the second Temple 1 3. If this is not 
possible, is there any way of accounting for what, 
as Dean Stanley says, must always have been a 
disfigurement of the Temple area ? 

Portland, Oregon. 

PARTRIDGE, op SUFFOLK. Thomas, son of 
Tho. and Susan Partridge, was baptized at 
Higham April 24, 1603 ; was admitted at Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, May 22, 1619 ; 
became B.A. in 1622, and M.A. in 1626. Can 
any reader tell me anything of his subsequent 
history ? His father (then of Capel S. Mary, yeo- 
man) made his will May 19, 1624, in which he 
instructed his son Richard to " allow vnto his 
Brother Thomas Partridge sufficient maintenaunce 
till he haue Commenced M r of Arte." I have a 
number of notes on the Suffolk Partridges, and 
should be glarl to correspond with any one inter- 
ested therein. CHARLES S. PARTRIDGE. 

Christ's College, Cambridge. 

"GALLETT." The following is from the Bir- 
mingham Daily Mail of June 4 : 

" There was an element of grim pathos in the case of 
' Gallett ' Glasby, the king of the sloggers, heard at the 
Birmingham Police Court yesterday. ' Gallett,' it seems, 
is the title applied by the aloggerB to their chief ; it is an 
honourable term among them. Well, ' Gallett ' Glasby's 
child died, and hi* pale organized a subscription for him 
in his trouble. The appeal, as it was indited, is worthy 
of a place in the pages of Dickens. It ran thus : ' For 
Gallett Glasby. Kind friends, this his for Gallet; he as 
a bit of trouble, and I shall be very glad if you would 
put a copper towards burying his child. We would not 
ask, _ only he is out of work. All coppers thankfully 
received ; don't fur-get him, pals.' Among the donations 
collected by the toree of this original document were the 
following: ' Busb.v 6d., Jones 4d., BaenettSrf., Maggie 2d., 
Lagoe 2d., and Harrington 2d.' All this proves that 
even the slogger has his finer feelings, though in this 
case it remains to be told that ' Gallett' and his lieutenant 
were so elated with the success of the appeal that they 
had to give v. nt to their feelings by assaulting people 
with buckle belts. Prosperity, however, often leads to 
the undoing of people who are considerably higher in 
the human scale than the Birmingham slogger." 

Is " Gallett " in the above a survival or a freshly 
coined word ? FRAM. 

CROMARTIE EARLDOM. Is the title of Earl of 
Cromartie extinct or in abeyance ? The title was 
revived for the late Duchess of Sutherland (died 
1888) with a special remainder. Her grace was 
succeeded by her second son, who died in 1893 

s.p.m. The eldest daughter, Lady Sibell 
Mackenzie, is DOW Viscountess Tarbat, and heir 
of line to the Mackenzies, but she does not 
succeed to the earldom, which falls to heirs male. 
I take it that the title of viscountess is one of 
courtesy only, and almost fancy that the present 
Duke of Sutherland is in succession ; but the 
special remainder stands in the way, the terms of 
which have not been made public. A. HALL. 

[The title is borne by the elder daughter of the late 

ADMIRALTY. Whom did he marry? Where was 
he buried 1 The article in the ' D. N. B.' affords 
no light upon these points. 

Eden Bridge. 

commenting on St. Luke v. 19, makes the state- 
ment, " It was by this way [an opening in the 
roof] that the dead were often carried out of the 
houses " (ed. Lange, T. & T. Clark, vol. i. p. 169). 
Is this known to have been a custom among the 

S. Woodford. 

LATIN PROVERB. " Omne bonura est sui com- 
municativum (excepta uxore et pecunia)." This is 
given in "M. Joach. Zehneri Sententiae Insigniores, 
illustrates studio M. A. Schulteti auctse per M. A. 
Stiibelium, Lipsiae, 1727," p. 30, as an illustration 
of the proverb "Comnmnia esse amicornm inter se 
omnia." Is the source of the former proverb 
known ? The latter, which is attributed by Cicero 
to Pythagoras, appears in his ' De Officiis,' i. 16, 
sec. 51, also in Terence, ' Adelphi,' v. 3, 17. Is 
there not an English saying to the effect that it is 
well not to lend one's wife or one's razor ? 


SIR ANDREW PASCHALL. Who was this baronet 
or knight? In the register of Albury Church, 
near Bishop's Stortford, Herts, there is this 
entry : " A Dm' 1615 Sir Andrew Paschall and 
Mercy e Bonest marry ed the 28 Septe'b." 


LORD BYRON AND IANTHE. Can any of your 
readers enlighten me on the following points? 
Who was lanthe, to whom Byron inscribed ' Childe 
Harold ' ? What were the circumstances " which 
would have greatly enhanced the interest to the 
public " of the portrait picture of ' Childe Harold 
[Byron] and lanthe' which was engraved in the 
'Literary Souvenir' for 1830, which "circum- 
stances" are mysteriously alluded to in the 
"advertisement" of that volume? Why did 
lanthe's family interfere with Westall's completion 
of the picture, from which the engraving is taken ; 
and in whose possession is the uncompleted paint- 
ing? G. S. LAYARD. 

8th8.vm.joiY6,'95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Silence (' 2 Henry IT.' V. ii.) sings : 
Do me right 
And dub me knight 

Warton refers, says Malone, to a black-letter 
ballad in which either a San Domingo or a Signior 
Domingo is celebrated for his miraculous feats in 
drinking ; and Boswell, in a note in Malone's 
Shakspeare (vol. xxi. 1821, p. 467), says he does 
not know why St. Domingo should have been con- 
sidered the patron of topers, but quotes Gonzalo 
Berceo, a Castilian poet, who flourished in 1211, 
and wrote St. Domingo's life in the vulgar tongue : 
Ca no son tan lettrado por fer otro Latino, 
Bien valdra come creo, un vaso de buen vino. 

Is anything further known of the ballad referred 
to by Warton, and of St. Domingo's patronage of 
the bibulous ? JAMES HOOPER. 


"TuTUM TE SISTAM." Can you inform me 
from what Latin author the above quotation, 
adopted as its motto by an insurance company in 
this city, is derived ? I have a faint recollection 
of a hexameter verse ending " tutumque in littore 
sistam," but cannot recall where it occurs. Can 
any of your readers assist me ? 


"CADOWES." John Whitney, of London, gentle- 
man, by will dated May 21, 1597 (P.C.C. 46 
Cobham), bequeathes "'' My fetherbedd, boulster, 
pillowes, Twoo Spanish blancketts, and twoo 
Cadowes." What w;ts a cadowe ? The word is not 

from nine, the sacred number of the Buddhists, 
seems to suggest that Buddhism is of Arctic origin. 
Three, six, nine, and seven are the numbers which 
constantly recur in the ' Kalevala,' and the reason is 
more or less clearly stated in the poem ; viz., 
because the Finnish winter was seven and the 
Lapp winter nine months. The Arctic world, 
therefore, did not borrow the number nine from 
the Buddhists. Again, when Louki, the Nosten of 
the extreme north, sends the nine diseases to 
plague Waniomoinen's folk, this is but an alle- 
gorical way of saying that the nine long winter 
months produced them. But sin and disease are 
closely linked together in religious thought. Now 
the Buddhist rosary has 108 beads, each bead for 
one of the 108 sins, i.e., 12x9. In other words, 
each winter disease was imagined as originating a 
sin for each month in the year. The number nine, 
therefore, seems to offer a clear indication of the 
Arctic origin of Buddhism. 


Trinity College, Cambridge. 

WILLIAM SHORE. Can any of your readers 
refer to Holden's 'Church Music,' published about 
1840, or any tune book (if such there be) by Shore 
before 1848, and give rue the particulars regard- 
ing the tune usually called "Italian Chorale" or 
" Lugano " ? I ask this because I have been unable 
to procure or see these works, and I find in a 
book in my possession this tune is attributed to 
Shore. Love says he can find nothing regarding 
the tune. JAS. WARRINGTON. 

Philadelphia, U.S. 

THOS. ATLSBURT, BART., 1627. Any proof that 
Thomas Aylsbury, of Edstone, Warwick, grand- 
father of the baronet, was any relation to the De 
Aylsburys who bore the same arms (Azure, a cross 
argent), and also to Captain Aylsbury, who com- 
manded a privateer in 1815, and was buried at 
Nieuport, Holland, will oblige. A. C. H. 


To make Lord Pembroke's Port. 1 Hhd. 

12 Gall. Alicant Wine 2 

6 do. English Spirits 1 1 

3 do. French Brandy 1 1 

42 do. Southam Cyder 2 2 

6 4 

The prices were taken in the year 1736. Who 
was the Lord Pembroke for whose delectation this 
ideal concoction was made ? What was the cider 
described as "Southam," as well as can be 
deciphered? B. S. 

BACHOPE. I should be glad of any information 
with regard to this faii'ily, which is, I fancy, of 
Irish extraction. The last known member of it 
was a Captain James Bachope (? R.N. or privateer), 
who was living about 1800. A portrait, in oils, 
of him exists in the possession of the writer's 
family. R. W. K. GODDARD. 

133, Denmark Hill. 

"CoLD PIG." What is the origin of this ex- 
pression as applied to goods returned ? A friend 
tells me that it is usual in Ireland in some parts 
to kill the pig which has been taken alive to 
market for sale, if it is left on the hands of the 
seller, and to take it home dead. He declines to 
assume the responsibility of this derivation, and 
as the ' N. E. LV gives me no assistance, I appeal 
to the readers of ' N. & Q.' to assist in enlighten- 

" CANTANKEROUS." What is the unde derivatur 
of this word, not a very elegant one ; and is it to be 
"ound in the works of any English writer melioris 
cevi ac note ? Halliwell, in his ' Dictionary,' 
defines it as "contentious Far. Dial." The word 
s used in the new Church Patronage Bill, in which 
t is proposed, amongst other provisions, to remo\ 
clergymen guilty of this crime from their benefices. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. (.*" s. vm. JUM 6, -95. 

Surely the meaning of the word, which seems to 
me a relative term, and not an absolute one, ought 
to be defined and explained, or it will give rise to 
endless disputes and faultfindings. I ask this 
question both on my own behalf and on that of 
my brethren who are equally interested. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

[For origin see ' New English Dictionary,' s. v., where 
instances of use are given from Goldsmith, Sheridan, 
Miss Mitford, H. Livingstone, and St. Paul's Magazine.] 

ARTHUR'S COFFEE-HOUSE. To Gibbon's clever 
French essay, written when he was twenty-two, 
and published when he was twenty-four, in 1761, 
we find prefixed a letter from M. Maty, of the 
British Museum. In this he says : " Vos notes 
sont aavantes, mais qui a Newmarket ou dans le 
cage" [sic] d'Arthur peut les lire." Where was 
Arthur's coffee-house? Was Arthur's Club ever 
called a coffee-house ? LOSTWITHIEL. 

SONG WANTED. I should be much obliged if 
any of your correspondents could tell me where I 
can find the words of a song, of which the chorus, 
to the best of my recollection, is : 

Troll, troll, the jolly brown bowl, 

A lass, and a glass, and a friend for me ; 

For that is a toast, which all good fellows boast, 

Whether of high or low degree. 

It was a favourite undergraduate song at Oxford 
in the seventies. M. G. D. 

Laugh, and the world laughs with you 

Weep, and you weep alone. N. E. R. 

Rest must ask of Labour leave to be enjoyed. 
Where is this axiom to be found 1 0. 

(8 th S. vii. 489.) 

The statement in Ohambers's ' Book of Dayp ' 
referred to by 0. B., that Frederick William II., 
nephew and successor of Frederick the Great, had 
" three wives at the same time, Elizabeth of Bruns- 
wick, the Princess of Hesse, and the Countess of 
Euhof," does not appear to be correct. 

Frederick William II. was first married (in 
1765), during the life-time of his uncle Frederick 
the Great, to Princess Elizabeth of Brunswick 
From her (see Carlyle's ' Life of Frederick the 
Great,' vol. vi. p. 379), on account of her infidelities, 
though certainly not greater than his own, he was 
divorced in 1769 (she survived the divorce seventy- 
one years, not dying till 1840). The divorce "was 
done," Carlyle tells us, "in a beautiful private 
manner ; case tried with strictly-closed doors ; all 

the five judges under oath to carry into the grave 
whatever they came to know about it." Within 
three months of this divorce Frederick William 
married Princess Frederica Louisa of Hesse 
Darmstadt, who continued to be his wife till the 
end, " his Lichtenau and his second wife, jewel of 
women," says Carlyle, "nursing him in his last 
sickness." Carlyle says nothing about a marriage 
with another wife during the lifetime of the 

According to ' Biographie TJniverselle,' Frederick 
the Great made Frederick William " re"pudier la 
princesse Elizabeth de Brunswick, pour cause d'in- 
conduite. Si les vertus de la princesse de Hesse 
d'Armstadt, sa seconde espouse," the ' Biographie ' 
goes on, "la mirent a 1'abrid'une pareille disgrace, 
elle eut peut-etre plus a souffrir par le triomphe 

public des mai tresses du roi Devenn e*pris 

de mademoiselle de Voss, il la, fit comtesse d'ln- 
genheim, et Pcpousa de la main gauche." On her 
death, which took place soon after, " elle fut 
rempkcee par la comtesse Doenhoff" (Countess of 
Euhoff?). This lady was disgraced in her turn,, 
and then a certain Madame Kietz, who had formerly 
been his mistress perhaps was so still "reprit 
tout son credit." She was created Countess of 
Lichtenau, and lived in one of the most beautiful 
palaces at Berlin, where she kept a sort of court. 
This is the " Lichtenau " of Carlyle, who assisted 
the queen in nursing the king in his last illness. 

A short account of Frederick William II. in the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (by whose hand I know 
not) tells us that, having been divorced in 1769* 
from his first wife, Frederick William married the 
Princess Louise of Hesse Darmstadt, by whom he 
had five sons. 

It does not appear, then, that Frederick Wil- 
liam II. had three wives at the same time. It 
does appear, however, from the statement in ' Bio- 
graphie Universelle,' that while his second wife 
was still alive, and, apparently, while he was still 
living with her, he had contracted a marriage " de 
la main gauche " with the Countess d'Ingenheim. 

The marriage with the Countess d'Ingenheim 
would be what is called in Germany a " halbehe" 
(half - marriage), or left hand, or morganatic 
marriage left-hand, because the man gives the 
woman his left hand instead of the right : 

" It is a real marriage, though without the usual 
solemnity; and the parties are both bound to each other 
for ever, though the female cannot bear the husband's 
name and title. Neither spouse has any right of succes- 
sion to the other, but the children take a third of the 
father's estate, if he leaves no lawful children." 

So Frederick William II. seems to have married 
a wife and a half at the same time, and not three 
wives. May not the secrecy attending his divorce 
from his first wife have led some to believe that 
there had been no divorce at all ? 

C. W. CASS. 

United University Club. 

8* S, VIII. JOLT 6, '95.] 



BARNARD (8 tb S. iii. 327, 411). A gentleman 
of this name had a ship-building yard at Deptford 
at the latter end of the eighteenth century ; my 
great-grandfather, James Talbot, of Deptford 
(eldest son of James Talbot, who was for sixty- 
two years, 1731-1793, of the Deptford Dockyard), 
was Mr. Barnard's cousin, and took a leading place 
in his yard. The M.P. for Greenwich (1832-51) 
referred to by MR. WALFORD as above, would no 
doubt be a son of Mr. E. G. Barnard. 

William Barnard was a shipbuilder, of Grove 
Street, Deptford, in April, 1779. (Vide a paper re 
removal of ships driven ashore and damaged, in 
Phil Trans., read Dec. 23, 1779). 

William Barnard, son of one Barnard, a surveyor, 
in Abingdon's Building?, Westminster, was pro- 
secuted by the Duke of Marlborougb, in 1757, for 
sending him threatening letters, but was acquitted 
because his identity could not be satisfactorily 
established, and the evidence as to his good cha- 
racter went to prove the antecedent improbability 
of his being the criminal. He had a relation 
named James Greenwood, a brewer, at Deptford. 
(Vide Gent. Mag., May, 1758, and 'Annual Re- 
gister,' 1758.) 

I should be greatly obliged for genealogical 
information as to the Deptford Barnards, especially 
showing exactly through whom they were related 
to ray great-grandfather. This query has only 
just come under my notice, or I would have replied 
earlier. JAMES TALBOT. 

Adelaide, South Australia. 

DAY'S PSALTER (8 th S. vii. 147, 253, 329, 376, 
453). If MR. SPENCE cannot conceive that 
metrical version may be Psalmic in structure with- 
out necessarily following the original word by 
word, nor that by the expansion of a thought a 
characteristic feature of the poetry of one language 
may be reproduced in another, I have no more 
desire to teach him than he has right to lecture 
me.^ Mr) TroAAoi SiSacncaAoi yiveo-0e is the 
advice happily followed by most contributors to 
'N. & Q.,' and particularly in that part which is 
devoted to queries. Since MR. SPENCE'S sarcasm 
is directed against his own distortion of my words, 
which he repeats after my protest, it would be 
waste of time to notice further what he is pleased 
to call a challenge. A. T. M. 

vii. 467). Much interesting matter is contained 
in Dr. Mombert's 'English Versions,' 1883. A 
distinction must be drawn between new trans- 
lations and revisions of the " authorized " version. 
To the latter class belong Dean Alford's parallel 

text, in his ' New Testament for English Readers,' 
and the version to which John Wesley's ' Notes ' 
are appended. Every translator naturally (and it 
need not be purposely) colours his version with the 
tints of his own views; but very few, if any, j pp. 170, 176; 'Ohartulary of Rievaulx' (Surt. 

translations haveTbeen made avowedly to support 
special doctrines. This part of the business has 
been relegated usually to the notes. Rheims, of 
course, is in favour of the Romanists ; King 
James's translators now and then let their own 
opinions get the better of their Greek ; Sharpe's 
version favours the Unitarians; and Dr. Davidson's 
perhaps is not unfavourable to them. 


I have a copy of a translation of the New Testa- 
ment not mentioned by MR. INGRAM. The title- 
page is as follows : 

" The | New Testament | in | an improved Version | 
upon the basis of | Archbishop Newcome's New Trans- 
lation | with | a Corrected Text | and | Notes critical and 
explanatory. | Published by a Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge and the | Practice of Virtue, by 
the Distribution of Books. | London: | Printed by Richard 
Taylor & Co., Shoe Lane. | Sold by J. Johnson, St. 
Paul's Churchyard; and Longman, Hurst, Bees & Orme. 
Paternoster Row. 1808." 

There is no doubt but that this translation was 
undertaken and published for the promulgation of 
Unitarian principle?. THOS. H. BAKER. 

Mere Down, Mere, Wiltshire. 


308, 356, 412). Allow me to do penance for my 
slip as regards the pronunciation of this name. I 
am wrong, and MR. WALLER is quite right. It is 
of no use to explain what was passing in my mind 
when I wrote the paragraph ; but as Dr. Johnson, 
when rebuked for a wrong definition, pleaded 
"shear ignorance," may I be allowed to plead 
downright carelessness ? If Homer sometimes 
nodded, surely I may be permitted to fall asleep 
sometimes ! AYEAHR. 

It is new to me that "any Spaniard" would 
pronounce Iturbide, as MR. GIBBS says he would, 
with the lisped d. At the end of a word, of course, 
the d is lisped Madrith, verdath, and the rest. 
But surely MR. GIBBS does not mean to lay it 
down that verdad should be pronounced verthath f 


The Iturbide family resided here for many years, 
and though not personally acquainted with them, 

invariably heard their friends pronounce the 
name E-tur-bee-day, with the primary accent on 
the first and the secondary accent on the third 


PLOUGHING OXEN (8 tb S. vii. 366, 396, 469). 
To make these collections more nearly complete 
reference should be made to the instances and 

jarticulars already gathered in 7 th S. ii. 266, 317, 
572. I should like to add that others may be 
found in ' Yorkshire Diaries ' (Surt. Soc. 65), 
p. 250, n.; 'Life of S. Cuthbert' (Surt. Soc. 87), 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*8.7111. JULY e. 

Soc. 83), p. 65 ; Alexander, 'Northern Rural Life'; 
'N. & Q.,' 6 th S. vii. 5, 274 ; viii. 257. 

W. C. B. 

I remember, in going to school in 1830-7, that I 
used to see many oxen employed in ploughing in 
the fields between Ilford and Stratford, in Essex. 



EASTER (8 th S. vii. 446). Justice to the revisers 
of a book to which many of us attach considerable 
value makes me ask leave to suggest that your 
correspondent's remarks upon this prayer are a 
little wide of the mark. The alteration has per- 
plexed commentators ; but Dr. Goulburn, in his 
book upon ' The Collects,' offers a reasonable solu- 
tion of the difficulty. He says : 

"A most instructive connexion surely between the 
doctrine and the prayer founded upon it, but perhaps 
one which was not sufficiently obvious, which was too 
far-fetched, and does not strike the mind on the surface." 

This describes the original Gelasian collect. And 

he goes on : 

"And accordingly the old foundation was swept away, 

and this new one, the alliance of which with the petition 

is much more immediately apparent, was substituted," 



BULL-ROARER (8 tb S. vii. 98, 158, 258, 334, 

" A bull-roarer is so easily constructed that it is re- 
markable how few people are familiar with it. Take 
a common stick, say six inches in length, tie a cord three 
feet long to one end, and, grasping the other, whirl it 
round, with the result of astonishing all to whom it is not 
familiar by its sound : 

First it is but a gentle hum, 

Like bird-song warbling in the trees, 
Then like a torrent it doth foam, 

And then a well and soaring breeze. 
When vigorously spun it may be heard of a calm evening 
for a mile, and its effect is then indescribable I will not 
eay, as most novelists here would, ' weird, ; for I do not 
know that it prophesies anything, but it is certainly 
most suggestive of something mysterious." 'Legends of 
Florence,' by C. G. Leland, 185*5, p. 209. 

But I do not know whether Mr. Leland means 
that the bull-roarer is used in America. 


I remember, years ago, my father, who was a 
magistrate, taking from a poacher a partridge- 
caller. It was a tailor's thimble with a piece of 
parchment stretched over one end, perforated in 
the middle, with a waxed horsehair run through 
it ; this, when skilfully jerked, gave a sound like 
the call of a partridge, by which means he induced 
the birds to approach near enough to shoot them. 
A corncrake-caller is made of two flat bones, one 
notched like a saw, then the other scraped over it ; 
this gives the cry of the corncrake, and brings the 

bird within shot. I have often used the latter with 

AN OIL PAINTING (8 th S. vii. 489). MR. 
WILLIAM PAYNE must, I think, have been some- 
what inaccurate both in reading and in translating 
the German inscription above the picture which he 
describes; but the names and the pedigree are 
sufficient to identify the original of the portrait. 
The lady, as the inscription, if accurately de- 
ciphered, would no doubt state, is 

" Magdalena, wife of John [the first] Duke of Zwei- 
briicken, Count Palatine and Duke of Bavaria. She was 
daughter of William, Duke of Cloves and Juliers, and of 
Maria [or Margaret 1], Duchess of Austria, whose father 
was King Ferdinand I. of Hungary and Bohemia [the 
Emperor Ferdinand I.], and whose mother was [Anne] 
Princess of Hungary [daughter of Ladieluus I.]." 

" Traltz, Borough " is no doubt a clerical error for 
" Pfaltz Bayern," the Bavarian Palatinate forming 
the dominions of the Dukes of Zweibriicken, who, 
like all the scions of the house of Wittelsbach, 
styled themselves Counts Palatine and Dukes of 
(or in) Bavaria. "Piolch," of course, should be 

According to Moreri (edition of 1759), vol. ii., 
article "Baviere, maison," p. 199, Magdalena of 
Cleves was married to John, Duke of Deux Ponts, 
in 1579, and died in 1635. 


FLAG TO SUMMON TO CHURCH (8 th S. vii. 446). 
It was not unusual amongst the Puritans of 
New England to employ a flag to summon 
worshippers to church. In 1697, at Plymouth, 
the selectmen were ordered to " procure a flagg to 
be put out at the ringing of the first bell, and 
taken in when the last bell was rung." In Suther- 
land also a flag was used, and an old woman was 
paid ten shillings a year to tend " the flugg." 
Other means which were employed, besides the bell, 
were the drum, the horn, and the conch-shell. For 
a great deal that is interesting and amusing on the 
subject of the Puritans I would refer MR. HANDY 
to 'The Sabbath in Puritan New England,' by 
Mrs. (or Miss ?) Alice Morse Earle. 


SIBYL (8 th S. v. 425 ; vi. 158, 438 ; vii. 351). 
Isaac Watts, in his ' Art of Reading and Writing 
English,' Lon., 1770, ch. xxiv. table ix., "Proper 
names written very different from their pronuncia- 
tion " (p. 103), has "Sybil!, Sibbill." 

The form " Sybill " justifies MR. HERBERT 
STURMER'S "probably" in that instance. Min- 
shew (1617), who has, s.v., in the text " Sibyll," 
has in the margin a fresh form, " Sibill." Coles 
(1685) has another new form in "Sibils, as Sybils," 
s.v. " Sibils. " These are variations in the way of 
spelling the original form of the name. C. W. 
Bardsley, in his ' Curiosities of Puritan Nomen- 
clature,' Lon., 1888, supplies some of the actual 

s. vin. JULY 6, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


variations. He has in separate places the follow- 
ing observations : "Sill was the nick form of Sybil 
and Silas till the seventeenth century, when the 
Puritan Silence seized it "(p. 11, note). Silence 
" is not to be confounded with Sill, that is, Sybil, 
in the old Cavalier chorus 

And " God bless King Charles," quoth George, 
" And save him," says Simon and Sill. Pp. 145-6. 
"The favourite Sibylla became Sibot: 'Johannes de 
Estwode et Sibota uxor ejus, iiiid.' (W. D. S., tcil. 
' Wappentagium de Strafford ')." P. 24. 

Sibyl " had a tremendous run in her day, and 
narrowly escaped a second epoch of favour in the 
second Charles's reign." The ' Psalm of Mercie,' 
too, has it : 

" Spare none," cry's old Tib ; " No quarter," says Sib, 
"And, hey, for our monachie. 1 ' P. 105. 

In ' Cocke Lorelle's Boke ' one of the personages 
introduced is " Sibby Sole, mylke wyfe of Islyn- 
ton." "Sibb Smith, Near Westgate, Canter- 
bury, 1650 " (' Halfpenny Tokens of Seventeenth 
Century'). "1590, Aug. 30. Christening of 
Cibell Overton, d. of Lawrence Overton, bowyer" 
(p. 106). 

The proper form of spelling the name has been 
a subject of cosmopolitan interest, referred to 
' N. & Q.' for the decision of its contributors from 
Hong Kong. In the harbour of this town in 1855 
one of the questions between the English and the 
French, on the occasion of two frigates being 
in port at the same time, was that the British 
ship spelt her name "Sybille" and the French 
"Sibylle." Upon this Commodore the HON. C. 
ELLIOT, who was in charge of the Sybille, took the 
very sensible course of referring the decision to 
<N. & Q.,' 1 st S. xi. 445. A full reply was sent 
by a well-known contributor (T. J. BUCKTON, 
p. 515). Four other replies appear to have been 
sen* (vol. xii.). ED. MARSHALL. 

There can be no hesitation as to the correct 
spelling of this name, as it is derived from o-ios 
(i.e., Stos) /3ovA>7, " the counsel of Jove." 



CHURCH REGISTERS (8 tb S. vii. 382). Besides 
those mentioned at above references as having been 
printed, the following have appeared in ' Dorset 
Records,' and are complete copies of the registers 
themselves for the periods indicated, not mere 
extracts : Long Burton, 1580-1812 ; Holnest, 
1589-1812; Bishop's Caundle, 1570-1812. While 
on this subject, would it not be possible for some 
hundred persons to combine and form a " Parish 
Register Society," and print these valuable records ? 
Five or six registers could be started simul- 
taneously, and continued from quarter to quarter 
till completed. One hundred guineas per annum 
would in the course of a few years print a good 
many of the smaller registers, and as the society 

increased in numbers the larger ones could be 
undertaken. There are plenty of manuscript tran- 
scripts already made to begin upon. Could not 
Mr. Everard Home Coleman, Mr. Gildersome- 
Dickinaon, Dr. Marshall, Dr. Howard, and a few 
others meet and start such a society 1 I believe 
that, a commencement once made, the movement 
would soon be well supported. E. A. FRY. 
172, Edmund Street, Birmingham. 

The existing registers of Maidwell, co. North- 
ampton, date from 1718 only. The earlier books 
from 1570 are lost. But quite early in the last 
century Sir Justinian Isham copied, or caused to 
ba copied, probably all the important entries. 
These, from 1570 to 1696, 1 have given in North- 
amptonshire Notes and Queries, v. 165-7, 233-5. 
They mi^ht almost be classed amongst printed 
parish registers. H. ISHAM LONGDEN, M.A. 

Shankton Rectory, Leicester. 

"THEY WERE EACH OF THEM" (8 th S. vi. 225, 
349, 496 ; vii. 253). Inasmuch as plurality is 
implied by the word " each," it is easy to under- 
stand how the word may be used in apposition to 
a plural subject. This usage is often met with in 
English, and is not at all uncommon in either 
Latin or Greek. I have recently noticed the fol- 
lowing examples : 

Miacuimua lacrymas moestus uterque suas. 

Ovid, ' Heroides/ Ep. v. 1. 46. 

" Uterque eorum ex castris s tat i vis a fluorine Apso 
exercitum educunt." Caesar, ' De B. C.,' iii. 30. 

S' l/cciaT??'qv, ye< 
8' CTreicriv. Xenophon, 'Anabasis,' i. c. vii. 15. 
Kat Xvirov/jLevoi ox^oSpa r"pai/TO Aeyeiv avT( 
ets ?Kao"ros, Mrjrt eyw elfj.i, Kvpie ; St. Matthew, 
xxvi. 22. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

" DIMPSY " (8 th S. vii. 367). This is an ordinary 
West-Country word, meaning twilight, and is used 
by my household almost daily. But neither my 
wife nor grown-up daughters nor female servants 
all of whom were born and bred in Devonshire, 
and are good at preserves in all forms ever heard 
of a sweetmeat known by that name. " Dimpsy " 
and " dimmits " (for they both mean the same 
thing) will be found in Mrs. Hewett's 'Peasant 
Speech of Devon,' 1892. The authoress gives the 
following illustration of the use of "dimpsy": 
" Dawntie bide out late. Come in 'ouze avor 'tez 
dimpsy "; which, of course, means, Don't you stop 
out late. Come in the house before it is twilight. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

AUTHOR WANTED (8 th S. vii. 208). The book 
for which there is inquiry may perhaps be ' Fables 
of j33sop and other eminent Mythologists, with 
Morals and Reflections by Sir Roger L'Estrange,' 
Lon. 1692-4, fol., 2 vols. I have an edition of 
' JEsop's Fables,' with others, in verse. I cannot 



. vm. JOLT 6, '95. 

make out that it appears in Bohn's ' Bibl. Man.' 
The full title is as follows ; the preface only has 
"Your humble servant" : 

Naturalized : In a Collection of Diverting 
Fables and Stories in ./Esop, Lockman, Pilpay and 
others, with TJsefull Morals and Reflections in Easy and 
Familiar Verse. Adapted to all Capacities, and intended 
principally for the Entertainment and Instruction of the 
Youth of both sexes. The seventh edition, with the 
addition of above Fifty new Fables. Lon., 1771," pp. 160. 


TREPANNING (8 th S. vii. 388). Blount's ' Glosso- 
graphia ' (1681) has : 

" To trepan or trappan (from the Italian trappare or 
trappolare, i. e., to entrap or catch in a gin), in the 
modern acceptation, signifies to cheat or entrap in this 
manner. A w - admits a man to be naught with her, 
and in the very instant rings a bell, or gives a watch- 
word, and in comes a pander, who pretends to be her 
husband, and with vapouring and threats forces money 
or a bond from the deluded third person." 

Skeat gives instances from South, Cotton, and 
ADSOD, and refers to Cotton. E. S. A. 

" POETA NASCITUR NON FIT " (8 th S. Vli. 429). 

Biley, in his 'Classical Quotations,' has "'Nas- 
cimur poetse, fimus oratores,' Cic. We are born 
poets, we become orators." But we are not told 
where in Cicero to find the saying, and I have 
failed to trace it. Certainly Cicero was not dis- 
posed to make light of natural gifts as essential to 
the orator's success. 


DRTDEN AND GREEK (8 tb S. vii. 386, 451). 
The iSea never enters my head of commenting on 
a letter without reading the whole of it ; but that 
scarcely appears to be the rule of D. C. T. at 
least he seems to have overlooked my remark that 
before I wrote my note I consulted the original 
edition of ' Religio Laici.' Are we to suppose that 
Dryden did not correct his proofs, and that his 
printer understood Greek, but pronounced it as we 
do now, neglecting the written accents ? Even 
then he should have queried the place, as the 
printer of 'N. & Q.' did when I copied the word 
as it is in Dryden, with the accent over the e in 
the first syllable instead of the r. 

I am, however, much obliged for the information 
that Christie corrected the word in the Globe 
edition of Dryden (1870), and the letter of Cowper 
is very interesting as showing that our way ol 
pronouncing Greek is scarcely more than a century 
old. W. T. LYNN. 


" Toko " was a very general slang word at 
Haileybury ten years ago, and is probably so still. 
M R. LLOYD need not have gone back " at least 
sixty years " to find its use " among the vulgar, 
including schoolboys." Why " including " ? It 

may be general in other public schools. Can any 
of your correspondents record it ? 


HOOPER AND PEPIN (8 tt S. vii. 268, 332, 379). 
As a dilettante genealogist I must acknowledge 
the truth of what MRS. BOOER says as to the 
enerality of royal descent in the world ; in fact, 
one may say the universality, when one considers 
that the descendants of David and Solomon alone 
must now be numbered by millions. But how 
does she tell the difference between the descend- 
ants who are somebodies and the descendants who 
are nobodies ? JACCALL. 

7, 132, 196, 234, 349, 430). Following CANON 
TAYLOR'S friendly guidance, I have tracked Mr. 
Bradley's ' Treatise on Ptolemy,' which, though I 
had naturally supposed it to enjoy a substantive 
existence, lies buried in the Archceologia ; and 
I now recognize it as an old acquaintance which I 
bad known in a previous stage of existence (see the 
Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 
1881). I cannot pretend here to review it as a 
whole, but select two points to illustrate the diffi- 
culty of discussing Ptolemy in any shape. Mr. 
Dennis, of Etrurian fame, denounced Ptolemy's 
treatment of Italy as we do in Britain, and his 
inevitable ambiguities are illustrated in an amusing 
way. His proportion of names, as compared with a 
modern gazetteer, is so very meagre that any of 
his towns may have multiple candidates for identi- 
fication ; this means that the margin between his 
assigned measurements and the real position of 
any known place covers so many miles that any 
town within the area of difference may put in a 
claim, just as Maidstone claims to represent 

Ptolemy writes : " Then the Catyeuchlani with 
the cities : Salinae, 20 10', 55 40' ; Urolanion, 
19 20', 55 30'." Now Verdana is easily identi- 
fied, and finding it coupled with Salinae or Salenae, 
it is concluded that he means Sandy, in Bedford- 
shire ; but sand is not salt. If, however, we refer 
to Ptolemy's own map, we shall find Salinse placed 
in Lincolnshire, just where we should now look for 
Boston ; that county had a large salt trade (see 
Saltfleet, more to the north). I have notes of a 
"Baiter's Road," in Lincolnshire, and the Upper 
Saltway, having been traced from Cheshire to 
Grantham, may well have been continued to the 
coast, whether towards Boston or Loutb. But 
Mr. Bradley writes : " The position assigned to 
this place [Salinae] is inconsistent with the exten- 
sion of the territory of the tribe to which it 
belonged, and I have therefore found it necessary 
to omit this name." Poor Salinae ! Another case 
occurs in the far north. Ptolemy, starting from 
i what we call the Mull of Galloway, reaches the 

. vin. JULY 6, '95.] 



promontory Tarvidum or Orcas ; and, continuin 
from the Tarvidum or Orcas promontory, reaches th 
Kentish foreland, so Tarvidum vel Orcas is twic 
repeated ; but Mr. Bradley, finding this con 
junction destroy the symmetry of his new map 
shifts Orcas promontory away from Tarvidum an 
associates it with Vervedrum or Berubium (un 
defined), the difference either way being abou 
fifty or sixty miles. But what remains of Ptolemy 
under such treatment 1 

As to Moricambe, it is quite certain that Ptolem; 
locates it at the Wampool ; and this is probable 
because it gives direct access to Wigton, known a 
Olenacum and called Old Carlisle ; so anteceden 
to the wall. A. HALL. 

0. 0. B. is, I am sure, so well qualified to correc 
me on many points that he need not imagine a 
case for the purpose. Though I cannot speak wit! 
the same authority as he on the sound of th in 
Grantham and Witham, Lincolnshire, I coul( 
remind him if one probably acquainted with th 
windings of the Witham from its cradle could nee< 
to be reminded that the natives of the place o 
which it also is a native sound the th in Witham 
like the th in n:ith. 

In Essex, on the other hand in spite of al 
temptations to strange pronunciations, in spite 
also of an etymology suggested by Stukeley which 
would justify a departure the natives of Witham 
remain true to their Wit-ham or Wit-'am sound 
and, so far as I have observed, the natives 01 
Waltham do likewise. In Somersetshire the people 
of Witham would resent the imposition of the with 
sound at the mouths of outlandish folk. 

The more frequent occurrence of s before ham 
and the strong inducement to go wrong presented 
by a facile sound which embodies an existing word 
are not matters for consideration in Lincolnshire. 
Though the hams are so numerous as to compete 
with the thorpes and the bys, hams preceded by s 
are conspicuous by their absence. KILLIQREW. 

Forty years ago I knew two ladies, one of whom 
was a^ native of Grantham and the other, though 
born in the north of Lincolnshire, had lived in a 
village near that town for many years. Both were 
highly educated women. They were accustomed 
to speak of Grant-ham. I never heard either of 
them say Gran-tbam in my life. There are two 
villages near here, one named Cleatham and the 
other Elsham. When I was a boy every one spoke 
of Cleat-ham and Els-ham ; now, I regret to say, 
people talk of Clea-tham and Elsh-am. The first 
person I ever heard fall into this error was a south 
countryman, who officiated near these places for 
flome time as a curate. EDWARD PEACOCK. 


THORNTON (8 S. vii. 389). Sir B. Burke, in 
his 'Landed Gentry,' carries up, though some- 

what imperfectly, the pedigree of the Thorntons 
of Birkin to William Thornton, of East Newton, 
co. York, who was settled there so far back as A.D. 
1310, having married the heiress of the Newtons. 
Sir Bernard mentions a "John Thornton, Esq., 
merchant, in Hull "; but, as his daughter was the 
wife of the elder William Wilberforce, he will 
scarcely correspond with the dates given by SIGMA 


YEOMAN (8 th S. vi. 104, 178, 235, 291, 490 ; vii. 
96, 393). The following quotation from Bishop 
Latimer's ' First Sermon preached before King 
Edward the Sixth,' March 8, 1549, is a good 
illustration of the meaning of this word, and shows 
the primitive manners and customs of those times : 

" My father was a yeoman, and had no lands of his 
own, only he had a farm of three or four pound by year 
at the uttermost, and hereupon lie tilled so much as kept 
half a dozen men. He bad walk for a hundred sheep ; 
and my mother milked thirty kine. He was able, and 
did find the king a harness, with himself and his horse, 
while he came to the place that he should receive the 
king's wages. I can remember that I buckled his harness 
when he went unto Blackheath field. He kept me to 
school, or else I had not been able to have preached 
before the king's majesty now. He married my sisters 
with five pound, or twenty nobles a piece; BO that he 
brought them up in godliness and fear of God. He kept 
hospitality for his poor neighbours, and some alms he 
gave to the poor. And all this he did of the said farm, 
where he that now hath it payeth sixteen pound by year 
or more, and is not able to do anything for his prince, 
"or himself, nor for his children, or give a cup of drink 
;o the poor." 

Hugh Latimer was born at Thurcaston, in 
Leicestershire, in 1490. 

Newbourne Eectory, Woodbridge. \ 

I would draw attention to the fact that in the 

eventeenth and eighteenth centuries members 

f the " freedom " of the various City companies 

were usually termed yeomen ; and the freedom as 

a body " the yeomandry." Thus to a citizen the 

erm yeoman was equivalent to that of freeman. 

n Cumberland and Westmorland, freeholders who 

Drmerly held their land by border tenant right 

were termed " statesmen," i. e., estatesmen. Those 

ho were merely copyholders were the yeomen. 


FALSE RHYMES IN TBNNYSON (8 tb S. vi. 486 ; 
ii. 74, 395). In MR. PRINGLE'S quotation from 
ebastian Evans, for " screamed and hissed " read 
'howled and hissed"; and for "screen the 
raitor," "save the traitor." I doubt whether 
ither Dr. Evans or Tennyson meant " Christ " 
o be pronounced with a short i. In the poem 
om which MR. PRINGLE quotes, "Caiaphas" is 
hymed with " place," and " lost " with " coast," 
nd in the same writer's ' Dudman in Paradise* 
here are such rhymes as "acute," "foot," and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8">s.vm. JULY 6/95. 

"good," "lade." Tennyson makes "valleys" 
rhyme with "lilies," and "feud" with "blood." 
He also rhymes " Christ " with " sufficed." The 
fact is that no poet, worthy of the name, is so tied 
and bound by the chain of his rhyme as our critics 
suppose. C. 0. B. 

"BLOT" (8 tft S. vii. 407). A more familiar 
instance of blot = " in distinct mass" occurs in 
Milton's ' Comus,' 134, " makes one blot of all the 
air." This, I see, is quoted in the " New English 
Dictionary,' as also an instance from Thomson's 
' Autumn,' 1143 : 

Distinction lost one universal blot. 


"EARTH" (8 th S. vii. 407). Is not this only 
another form of the nautical term berth, a sleeping 
place on board ship ? G. H. THOMPSON. 


Miss MANNING (8 th S. vii. 489). By her own 
wish, no particulars of Miss Manning's life have 
been published. She was never married, and 
J. C. N. is mistaken in calling her Mrs. Rathbone. 
She was my aunt ; and I shall be happy to learn 
from J. C. N. by letter what information is desired. 
(Mrs.) E. C. DRAKE. 

23, Upper Phillimore Gardens, W. 

Anne Manning, author of ' Mary Powell,' &c., 
was a niece of the late Mr. Serjeant Manning, 
and a cousin of Sir Montagu Manning, Kt., lately 
deceased in Australia. She died unmarried, and 
was in no way related to Mrs. Bathbone, author 
of ' Lady Willoughby's Diary.' The ' Dictionary 
of National Biography' notices her brother, Mr. 
Wm. Oke Manning ; but as his sister lived in 
close retirement her name escaped notice. 

A. H. 

By a notice in the Athenceum of April 14, 1894, 
the life of Hannah Mary Rathbone, who died in 
1865, will appear in one of the forthcoming volumes 
of the 'Dictionary of National Biography.' 


FAMILY OF DOVE (6 th S. ix. 268, 377, 417). 
Register of Thrapston, co. Northampton : " 1605, 
Gulielmus Dove de Peterburg & ffrancisca Down- 
hall de Thrap. 1 die Maij." The Downhalls were 
residents in Thrapston. Henry, son of Wm. 
Downhall, was baptized there Dec. 6, 1690. 
Earlier there were Downhalls at Geddington and 
Paulerspury in the same county. 

Shankton Rectory, Leicester. 

(8 th S. vii. 500). Every statement of N. & Q.' is 
so fully accepted as correct nay, rather as autho- 
ritative that I venture to ask for a reconsidera- 

;ion of an opinion implied in your review of this 
periodical. The first " formal ordination " of a 
vicar cannot (I think) be understood as conveying 
the meaning that a pariah with a church had no 
priest before such ordination, for religious com- 
nunities and others had held the churches, and 
lad provided for the services therein. Is not the 
word "ordination" the proper term for the foun- 
dation of an office to be filled in future by a vicar 
to act (vice) in the place of those who had pre- 
viously been responsible for the duties ? If so, it 
does not apply to the appointment or the induction 
of any individual priest (still less to the ceremony 
of ordination in the modern sense), though all 
;hese may be necessary in each case. Its applica- 
tion is much wider. I believe that in almost all 
;ases the religious bodies in course of time 
ordained a vicar (or established a vicariate) in the 
ihurches held by them, as the circumstances of 
the parishes demanded ; and the same course was 
doubtless adopted in other parishes also. 

T. B. J. 

VICTORIA COUNTY (8 th S. vii. 428). Yes ; 
there was a project for taking in (embanking) the 
whole of the Wash, making a straight coast-line 
from Norfolk, a few miles north-east of Hunstan- 
ton, to Waiufleet (north-east corner of the Wash), 
in Lincolnshire ; and this land so taken in was to 
be called Victoria County. I was at the meeting 
held at Lynn to further the project in July or 
August, 1837, very soon after the Princess Victoria 
came to the throne, and Lord George Bentinck 
presided the first time I had seen that splendid 
specimen of an English nobleman. Of course 
there was strong opposition from the frontagers, 
Mr. Anthony Hammond being chief objector. A 
company was formed the Norfolk Estuary Com- 
pany. Three Bills in Parliament were defeated ; 
but in August, 1846, an Act was passed, and the 
projectors set to work ; but only a few thousand 
acres have been reclaimed from the sea, between 
Lynn Deeps and the Nene outfall from Wisbech. 
The engineer's estimate was that ten thousand 
acres would be ready for enclosure in 1860, ten 
thousand more in 1870, and the last ten thousand 
acres in 1880; but this has been a pleasant 
dream. The average depth of Lynn Deeps is not 
more than sixty feet, and the greater part of the 
sands proposed to be enclosed, which are under 
low-water mark, are not six feet deep. 



In ' The Land We Live In,' a work published 
some forty years ago, mention is made that " the 
Victoria Level scheme would comprise 150,000 
acres, now under the sea " (vol. i. p. 372). Thus 
a good-sized county would have been formed from 
the winnings, for Rutland has but 94,000 acres. 


ALDERMEN OF ALDGATE (8 tb S. vii. 307, 376). 
The following notes relating to tbe Perry family 
may be of use to MR. PINK : 

1663, Oct. 20, Micajah Perry, at St. Mary le 
Bow, London, Haberdasher, bachelor, about twenty- 
three, and Ann Owen, of St. Swithin's, London, 
spinster, about twenty-four ; consent of father Dr. 
Eichard Owen, at St. Swithin's or St. Michael's, 
Crooked Lane (Mar. Alleg. Vic. Gen. A.C.). 

Graduates of Leyden University. Micajah 
Perrij, Hibernus, Nov. 8, 1712. Another of the 
same name, May 25, 1715. 

1721, Oct. 1, died Mr. Micajah Perry, Virginia 
Merchant, at his bouse in Leadenball Street 
(' Historical Register/ p. 39). 

Will of Micjah Perry, dated Dec. 22, 1720, at 
London, proved P.C.C. Oct. 3, 1721 (185 Buck- 
ingham). To be buried in Bishop Church in the 
Middle Isle near the step into the chancel where 
my wife lies. Granddaughters Mary and Eliza- 
beth 1,500Z. Grandsons Micajah and Philip, and 
their mother Sarah ; their father's will. 

Burial at St. Botolpb, Bishopsgate. "1721, 
Oct. 10, Micajah Perry, aged." 

Will of Eicbard Perry, dated April 15, 1720, 
at London, proved P.C.C. May 4 following (118 
Shaller). Wife Sarah. My father settled his 
estate in Leadenhall Street on me. Sons Micajah 
and Philip, daughter Sarah Perry, daughter Mary 
Perry, 3,000?., daughter Elizabeth Perry, 1,OCOZ. 

1728, Feb. 24, Micujah Perry, Esq., unanimously 
elected Alderman cf Aldgate Ward, in the room 
of Sir Francis Porteen, Knt., deceased (' Historical 
Register,' p. 14). 

1733, Mr. Cade, son of the late Dr. Cade, to 
Miss Perry, sister to Mr. Alderman Perry, a 
young lady of 10,000?. fortune (London Magazine, 
P- 44). 

1734, September, Micajah Perry, Esq., Alder- 
man of Aldgate Ward, chosen Sheriff of London 
and Middlesex for the year ensuing (ibid., p. 24). 

1738, September, Micajah Perry, Esq., chosen 
Lord Mayor of the City of London for the year 
ensuing (' Historical Register,' p. 34). 

1738, October, at Epsom, in Surrey, the Lady of 
Micajah Perry, Esq., Lord Mayor elect. She was 
the daughter of Mr. Cock, a very eminent linen 
draper near Stocks Market, and has left no issue 
(ibid., p. 41). 

The alderman died intestate at Epsom in Janu- 
ary, 1753, his mother, brother, and two sisters 
surviving. Philip, the brother, was a merchant of 
London. Sarah, his first sister, born Aug. 31, 
1702, married Oct. 1, 1719, Wm. Heysham, of 
E. Greenwich, M.P. for Lancaster, who was born 
Dec. 10, 1691, and died s.p. April 14, 1727 ; 
M.I. at St. Paul'?, Waldon, co. Herts ; will 
dated April 22, 1725, proved P.C.C. June 28, 
1727 (142 Farrant). Elizabeth, his second sister, 
married, 1733, Saluabury Cade, Esq., whose will 

was proved P.C.C. 1773 (240 Stevens). The arms 
of Perry as impaled on the Heysham tomb are : 

On a bend between two cottises ermine three 

lions passant granted in 1700. 



I am obliged by the replies received. Alder- 
man MicHJah Perry resigned his aldermanship on 
Nov. 25, 1746. It has been pointed out to me 
that he died not in 1753, but in 1752. His 
obituary notice in the Gentleman's Magazine 
(volume for 1753, p. 53) expressly states that he 
died on Dec. 22, obviously in the previous year. 
On Oct. 20, 1663, a licence to marry was granted 
(Vicar Gen.) to " Micajah Perry, of St. Mary le 
Bow, London, Haberdasher, about twenty-three, 
and Anne Owen, of St. Swithin'c, London, spinster, 
about twenty-four," daughter of Dr. Eichard 
Owen, Prebendary of St. Paul's. These were pro- 
bably parents of the after Lord Mayor. The name 
of the alderman given Calcraft in tbe ' Official 
List of Lord Mayors, Aldermen, &c.,' should 
certainly read Cracraft (vide his obituary notice 
in the Gentleman's Magazine). He held the alder- 
mancy but eight months, and never served the 
office of sheriff. The spelling of Sir Francis 
Porten's name is variously rendered. The deaths of 
his widow and son are both recorded in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for 1737, and in each case the 
two e's are used. The name is unusual. I do not 
remember to have met with it elsewhere. 

W. D. PINK. 

S. vii. 328). In 1564 John Shakspeare was fined 
for permitting the accumulation of mud, or dung, 
in front of his house. It was the period of his 
greatest apparent prosperity. A. H. 

STOLEN EELICS RESTOKED (8 th S. vii. 165, 296). 
A most flagrant and useless theft was perpe- 
trated by some lady (I fear) when copying the 
Bayeux tapestry many years ago. This person 
appears to have wantonly cut out a piece of the 
tapestry (a few inches only). The place was 
repaired and filled up, and the stolen piece found 
its way, I believe, to the South Kensington 
Museum, whence it was restored to Bayeux, where, 
when I last saw it, it figured on a piece of board 
by the side of the tapestry from which it was ori- 
ginally cut. ARTHUR F. G. LEVESON GOWER. 


(8 tb S. vii. 462). It was customary in pre-Reforma- 
tion times for choir boys to wear copes, just aa 
choir-men, laymen, acting as cantors, do now. 
The cope is not a sacerdotal or sacrificial vestment, 
as is the chasuble, and its use is not confined to 
those in holv orders. GEORGE 

St. Andrew's, N.B. 



MRS. GARRICK (8 tb S. vii. 343). Mrs. Garrick 
was married to Garrick at the chapel (now Wes- 
leyan) in Great Queen Street, but then a chapel of 
ease to St. Giles's. In vol. Hi. of ' Old and New 
London ' it is said that she was married at the 
parish church ; but that is an error. She was 
afterwards married at the Chapel of the Portuguese 
Ambassador in South Audley Street. She denied 
being the daughter of Lord Burlington, Mr. 
Walford tells us, but admitted that she enjoyed the 
interest on 6,0001. paid her by the Duke of Devon- 
shire. Gainsborough's picture represents him in 
Ms own grounds at Hampton, near the bust of 
Shakspere. But I doubt if tie likeness is better 
than in Hogarth's picture of himself and his wife, 
a very lively painting, which was once exhibited at 
the Old Masters. The engraving of the Hampton 
picture was by Green. C. A. WARD. 

Cbarlecot, Walthamstow. 

STANLEY : VERB (8 th S. vii. 427). By Stow's 
'Annales,' p. 1279, on "The 26 of January, the 
Earle of Darbie married the Earle of Oxford's 
daughter at the Court, then at Greenwich, which 
marriage feast was there most royally kept." 

By the Registers of the Stationers' Company, 
under date of Feb. 5, 1594, Thomas Gosson 
entered a ballad entitled "A Lancashire man's 
joye for the late marriage of the right honorable 
the Erie of Derbie." 


71, Brecknock Koad. 

FRANKUM'S NIGHT (8 th S. vii. 427). See 2 nd 
S. xii. 303, where, on the authority of Fraser's 
Magazine, 1873, p. 778, " one Frankum " is said 
to have made "a sacrifice" in his orchard, 
with the object of getting a specially fine 
crop of apples. His spells were answered by a 
blight ; and the night is thus regarded as most 
critical. I am indebted to Dyer's 'English Folk- 
lore' for this reference. The contract with the 
devil was made by St. Dunstan. C. 0. B. 

"LAPSUS PLUMJE" (8 th S. vii. 409) This is 
new to me. Lapus calami is the usual expression 
I think. At any rate, this is the one recorded ii 
MaiYs ' Sayings and Phrases,' which professes to 
give words and phrases frequently occurring in 
literature and conversation. It might be well to 
compare with the phrase currente calamo fo 
further confirmation. C. P. HALE. 

DAVID (8 th S. vii. 149, 378, 418, 470). Accord 
Ing to a report in the ' Annual Register ' for 1762 
p. 113, Annet was not put in the pillory for pub 
lishing the tract about David, but for a piece callec 
* The Free Enquirer.' The former could not b 
called blasphemous. Blasphemy is the term use 
to signify an offence againstGod. Annet denounce^ 
David for his infamous conduct in the affair o 

Jriah's wife, and for various acts of hideous cruelty ; 
nd his contention is that the real blasphemy con- 
isted in ascribing any of David's ill deeds to the 
uggestions of the Almighty. J. DIXON. 

' YOUNG LOCHINVAR' (8 th S. vii. 325). MR. 

?HOMAS BAYNE makes fun of the illustration to 

Young Lochinvar,' but would seems to be blind 

o the ridiculous error made by Scott in supposing 

hat a rider could leap into the saddle after having 

carefully placed a person behind that saddle. Let 

V!R. BAYNE take a horse, and place a female (or 

any person) on the croup thereof ; then let him try 

10 mount in the ordinary way. His right leg will 

dethrone the fair equestrienne, an I err not. 


xi. 29, 59, 115). I find that in my reply at the 
"ast reference I should have stated that my picture 
s that mentioned by Nichols as belonging to Mr. 
John Gage, of Lincoln's Inn, while that at one 
.ime in Messrs. Colnaghi's possession appears to 
have formerly belonged to Sir Edward Walpole. 

W. I. R. V. 

ANCIENT MASONS' MARKS (8 th S. vii. 208, 334, 
416). I feel greatly obliged to your correspondents 
who have been good enough to furnish references 
relating to masons' marks. I have met with an 
interesting book upon the subject by Fort, pub- 
lished in Philadelphia about four years ago, with 
numerous illustrations, and have obtained a large 
number of drawings of the marks which literally 
cover the walls in the interior of Gloucester Cathe- 
dral. The interest in them, I take it, lies in how 
far they tend to prove the employment of foreign 
workmen in our ancient ecclesiastical and other 
buildings. Many of the marks correspond exactly 
with those on the Continent. The later ones only 
seem to be of " masonic " character as understood 
by the " craft." I shall be glad of any further 
references or information, and particularly if the 
article in the magazine referred to could be pointed 
out. It was published five or six years ago. 

A. H. A. 

Mr. George Godwin, F.R.S., editor of the 
Builder, made a collection of ancient masons' 
marks, chiefly mediaeval, which were afterwards 
published in book form, they having first appeared 
in the Builder. There are some hitherto unedited 
masons' marks from Pompeii and Herculaneum in 
a little work on ' Pompeii,' recently published by 
Messrs. Hazell, Viney & Co. JNO. H. 

VANISHING LONDON (8 th S. vii. 466). I observe 
at the above reference an extract from the Sun of 
April 9 regarding the then approaching demolition 
of Munster House, Fulham. It is, unfortunately, 
a very inaccurate paragraph, which certainly did 
not deaerve the space it occupies in ' N. & Q.' 

8"> 8. VIII. JOLT 6, '95.] 



The writer simply repeats the hackneyed state- 
ments he found in Croker's 'Walk,' Faulkner's 
'Fulham,' and Lysons's 'Environs of London.' 
There is not a scrap of information which is new, 
and no attempt at the least research. Geo. Col- 
man the Younger did not live at Fulham Lodge, 
though he doubtless visited Mrs. Carey there. So, 
also, Frederick, Duke of York, another admirer of 
" Lady " Carey, was merely a " visitor " here. 
Then, again, the writer agrees with the Builder in 
thinking Munster House could not have been 
used by Charles II. as a " hunting seat," because 
Lysons states that the house was, during the greater 
part of the seventeenth century, the property of the 
Powells. But the temporary sequestration of Sir 
William Powell's estate in 1664 seems, to my 
mind, to offer a very simple explanation as to how 
this house, with its fine stretch of grounds, might 
have occasionally been used by the Merry Monarch 
in his hunting exploits. Then the writer repeats 
the worn-out story that the name Munster House 
is supposed to have been derived from the title ol 
the Duchess of Munster, one of the favourites oi 
His Majesty King George I.; but, unfortunately 
for this theory, I have found the name "Mustow 
House " in the parish books as early as 1640. The 
house unquestionably owed its name to Mustew 
Lane, which, under the style of Munster Road, 
still crosses the Fulham Road at the point where 
Munster House stood. In the Court Bolls of the 
manor Mustew Lane occurs as early aa 1525. 
It is a great pity that journalists degrade their 
profession by repeating the silly guesswork of th~ 
old topographers. CHAS. JAS. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sidney 

Lee. Vol. XLIII. Owens-Passelewe. (Smith, Elde 


INTEREST in the latest volume of the ' Dictionary o 
National Biography ' seems monopolized by the articl 
on Charles Stewart Parnell. Under the light thrown 
upon this biography which is a model in its way, am" 
is, unlike the majority of the articles, unsigned th 
remaining contents of the volume undergo somethinj 
like eclipse. The very qualities of outspokenness anc 
fearlessness, which render it so piquant to the genera 
public, disqualify it for treatment here, where polemic 
of every description are, if possible, to be eschewed 
There are, moreover, many lives, less contentious in 
subject, on which it is a pleasure to dwell. Such is th 
life short, but of keen interest to scholars of William 
Painter, the translator and compiler of ' The Palace o 
Pleasure,' which is, as Mr. Lee says, " the mine whenc 
the Elizabethan dramatists drew the plots of their play 
or poems." A list of the plays of Sbakspeare, Webster 
Beaumont and Fletcher, Peele, Jonson, Shirley, Marston 
and others, which are wholly or in part derived fron 
' The Palace of Pleasure,' is given by Mr. Lee. No 
wholly edifying is the career of Painter, who seems 
for his own pecuniary advancement, to have abused th 

osition of trust he enjoyed as Clerk of the Ordnance in 
he Tower of London. The editor also supplies an 
xcellent life of Henry Parker, eighth Baron Morley, 
ourtier and author, with a surprisingly long list of 
vritings, chiefly translations, still known to exist iu 
MS. He is also responsible for some shorter notices, 
ncluding Thomas Palfreyman, author of various devo- 
ional or self-styled philosophical works, and Jhan 
'arfre, fl. 1512, for particulars as to whom we must 
efer the reader to the book. One or two difficult bio- 
graphies have beer, assigned to Mr. Leslie Stephen. At 
he head of these is Thon^ Paine, the author of ' The 
lights of Man.' Paine is assigned "whatever credit 
s due to absolute devotion to a creed believed by him- 
self to be demonatrably true and beneficial." He was 
courageous and free from mercenary motives. " His 
tigotry was of the logical kind which can see only one 
side of a question, and imagines that all political and 
religious questions are as simple as the first propositions 
of Euclid." Not lees important than this biography is 
,hat, from the same source, of Paley, of the ' Evidences/ 
As to Paley's absolute sincerity no doubt is said to be 
possible ; but " whether his peculiar compromise between 
orthodoxy and rationalism can be accepted is another 
question." Yet one more life that arrests and repays 
attention is that of Samuel Parr, the schoolmaster. He 
was a fine scholar ; but his writings, it is said, are un- 
readable through his mannerisms and verbosity. Two 
important lives are sent by Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole 
the first, that of Edward II. Palmer, whose murder in 
the desert is still fresh in memory ; the second that of 
Sir Harry Smith Parkes. Among numerous contributions' 
by Mr. Russell Barker attention is arrested by Sir Francis 
Page, of whom an excellent account is given, and John: 
Somerset Pakington, first Baron Hampton. His pre- 
decessor, Sir John Pakington, the supposed original of 
Sir Roger de Coverley, falls into the hands of Mr. G. A. 
Aitken, who Fees no claims which he possesses to that 
distinction. Dr. Garnett deals, as is to be expected, with 
his predecessor, Sir Antonio Panizzi, and Mr. C. H. Firth 
writes on William Packer, the Cromwellian soldier. The 
contributor of the life of John Oxenford might have 
credited that writer with picturesqueness and elegance 
as well as facility of style. Matthew Paris is in the 
admirably competent hands of the Rev. W. Hunt. 
Among many lives of sailors by Prof. Laughton are those 
of Sir C. Paget, Sir Hugh Palliser, and Sir Thomas 
Pakenbam. Mr. Seccombe has many lives of eccentrics, 
or literary men of secondary but curious reputation, as 
Thomas Ozell, adapter of plays and translator ; Martin 
Parker, ballad-monger; Old Parr, and the like. Mr. 
Rigg deals with Roundell Palmer (Lord Selborne), and 
William Palmer, archaeologist; and Mr. Tedder with 
Samuel Palmer, the printer. Mr. Sketchley and Mr. 
Courtney supply very many important lives. Miss E. Lee- 
deals with female writers, such as Mrs. Mary Palmer and 
Julia Pardce, and Mr. Thomas Bayne is still responsible 
for Scottish poets. Pascal Paoli is in the hands of -Mr, 
Charles Kerr, and Dr. Wm. Owtram, Jno. Oxenbridge, 
and Charles Paget in those of Mr. Thompson Cooper. Mr. 
G. S. Boulger, Mr. Lionel Oust, Mr. R. E. Graves, the 
Rev. W. D. Macray, Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse, Dr. Norman 
Moore, Mr. Charles Welch, Mr. Charles Wroth, and 
Prof. Tout still remain bulwarks of the undertaking, the 
regular progress of which, undiversified and unbroken, 
is a credit to English energy, as the inception of the 
scheme is to English enterprise. 

English Writers. By H. Morley, LL.D., and W. H. 

Griffin. Vol. XI. (Cassell & Co.) 
THE lamented death of Prof. Morley in the May of last 
year prevented him putting a finishing hand to the last 



volume of his nobly planned ' History of English Litera- 
ture.' We may be thankful that he was permitted to 
bring so large a part of it to accomplishment. The first 
twelve chapters of this last instalment, which deals with 
"Shakespeare and his Time, under James I.," it appears, 
were left ready for the press ; but the four concluding 
chapters are largely the work of Prof. Morley's faithful 
disciple Prof. Griffin, who has fully imbibed the critical 
spirit of his master and has worthily completed bis un- 
finished fragment. We find here a careful appreciation 
of some of the greatest names in English literature, from 
Bacon to Daniel, with an interesting running analysis of 
the most important works of each. As a moot point of 
criticism, it may be noted that Prof. Morley, in oppo- 
sition to most modern commentators, decides that no 
part of ' The Two Noble Kinsmen ' is worthy of being 
fathered upon Shakspeare. The best commendation of 
Mr. Griffin's share in the volume is to say that it is homo- 
geneous throughout, and that there is no falling-off in 
the accuracy and thoroughness which characterized the 
previous volumes. He has, further, appended a remark- 
ably full and careful bibliography of the Shakspearian 
period, which must have involved much patient research, 
and by so doing has earned the gratitude of every true 
student of our literature. We hope he may feel encour- 
raged to complete his account of the Jacobean writers 
in a twelfth volume. 

The Early History of the Town and Port of Hedon, in 

the East Riding of the County of York. By J. R. 

Boyle, F.S.A. (Hull and York, Brown & Sons.) 
HEDON is an interesting old town with a long and curious 
history. In some respects it reminds us of those dead 
cities of the Zuyder Zee which now attract so many 
English tourists j but there is nothing foreign in its 
aspect. Dwindled, as the old port has, to a mere village, 
no one who paces its streets could for a passing moment, 
even, imagine himself anywhere but in England. If we 
desire to make a comparison, some of the old Cinque 
Ports come to hand readily; but there is very little 
similarity between Hedon and any one of them. The 
noteworthy feature of Hedon that which gives it its 
character is its magnificent church, which, though 
much injured by vandalism in days gone by and inju- 
dicious restoration in recent times, is still worthy of that 
reverential regard which, we believe, it now receives 
from the townsmen. 

The Corporation of Hedon must at one time have 
possessed a most important series of records ; but they 
were so little cared for by their custodians that the 
room in which they were kept was in a ruinous state. 
" The roof was in such a state as to allow the rain to 
enter, by which many were destroyed." At length a time 
arrived when the whole of the records passed into private 
hands. However objectionable this may have been 
and we have not one word to say in its defence the 
result was that they were taken care of, kept dry, and, 
we believe, many of them bound in volumes. On the 
death of the gentleman who had acquired them they 
were sold, and, by means which we need not relate here, 
once more returned to proper custody. 

Mr. Boyle has had full access to all that remains of 
the Hedon records, and has examined them with care 
and intelligence. That he has not been able to achieve 
greater things than he has dune is due to the state of 
the material. He tells his readers that he has " never 
met with records which have suffered so severely from 
damp and neglect as those of Hedon ; and the limited 
measure of success I have achieved in deciphering them 
has been attained at the cost of irreparable injury to my 
sight. I have often printed especially in the series of 
churchwardens' accounts a mere fragment of a sen- 

tence ; but I have only done this when the incomplete 
statement revealed some fact or contained aoma unusual 

Hedon does not occur in the Conqueror's survey ; but 
if not in existence then, which is improbable, it soon 
sprang into being. It was important to the early lords 
of Holderness to have a port within their wide domains, 
and there was no other place so suitable as Hedon. So 
it grew rapidly in importance, until overshadowed by 
Kingston-upon-Hull, a creation of the first Edward. 
All its glory did not, however, depart at once. Until the 
passing of the first Reform Act it continued to send two 
members to Parliament. That in later times there was 
freedom of election no one would have the hardihood to 
maintain ; but more than one of those who represented 
Hedon in Parliament during the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries did good work for the State. 

We have no wish to depreciate Mr. Boyle's writing. 
He possesses a good style and great accuracy of expres- 
sion. We are, however, bound to say that the appendix 
of original documents is the most important part of his 
work. We know no instance where original documents 
have been edited with greater thoroughness and care. 
The labour spent on them will never be appreciated 
except -by the few self-denying persons who have under- 
gone similar drudgery. The glossary is copious and 
very accurate. Here and there we come upon a word 
the interpretation of which might, we think, have been 
left to the common sense of the reader ; but this, if it 
be an error, is in the the right direction. 

THE newly formed Society of Archivists and Auto- 
graph Collectors will publish the first part of their 
Journal early in July through Mr. Elliot Stock. Among 
its contributars are Dr. Furnivall, who has written an 
article upon the autograph of Shakspeare; Mr. Buxton 
Forman, who undertakes the congenial task of writing 
about Shelley; and Mr. George Pritchard, whose col- 
lection of Nelson letters specially qualifies him for the 
subject of the great admiral. Each article will be illus- 
trated by facsimiles. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

W. M. M. (" French Life of Wallace, the Composer "). 
Apply to Messrs. Hachette, King William Street, W.C. 

E. T. BRYDGES ('The Beggar's Opera '). Kindly 
send your address, as a letter awaits you here. 

COKOREVB. The three volumes may be purchased for 
fifteen shillings. A single volume is valueless. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 




NOTES : The Portraits of Sir Thomas Browne, 21 Shak- 
speariana, 23 Old Joke in New Dress C. Hatchett 
Gustave Nadaud Joseph Miller The ' Times,' 25 Jewish 
Cemetery Inscription Blackie on Scott, 26 Shakspeare 
and Ben Jonson, 27. 

' QUERIES : Claud de Crespigny Higbgate Pages of the 
Bedchamber" Fine-axed "Parish Charities, 27 Paschal 
Candles "The nearer the Kirk, the further from Grace" 
G. G. Johnson Arms Chiffinch Cornish Custom- 
Vestment Brasses "Clyst" Italian Love-Songs In- 
scription on Ring Anthony Upton George Charles- 
Jesse Window, 28 Reference Wanted Sir Thomas More 
Capt. Wood " Gavel" Blunt's 'Theological Dic- 
tionary 'Charles de Tavarez British Names" Solomon- 
gundy "Kendall Valse Simon de Montfort's Bones, 29. 

EEPLIES : Churches of St. Botolph, 30 ' Hermsprong' 
Hamoaze Victoria Cross, 31 "Playing the wag" 
Mason's 'History of Norfolk ' " Roll-waggon " Dip 
The Harp, Ireland Barbarossa Sir H. Herbert, 32 
" Running the gantlope " Pankhurst Family Quarter- 
staff Knox Thackeray's Novels" The wrong end of the 
stick" Hilda Tusculum University, 33" Links "Miss 
Wilkins's Books " Chinoiserie " Mrs. Garrick, 34 Sir 
S. Evance " Does your mother," &c. Cadowe " Still 
arid on," 35 John Listen A Foundation Sacrifice The 
New Bronze Coins Heron's Plumes and Knights of the 
Garter, 36 Barons O'Neill " Artists' Ghosts," 37 
" Ha-ha" Lilac Cock-fighting, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Simpson's 'Carmina Vedastina' 
' Ex-Libris Journal ' Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

There are in existence three portraits of Sir 
Thomas Browne : one in the Bodleian Library, 
the second in the Koyal College of Physicians, Lon- 
don, and the third in the Norfolk and Norwich 
Hospital. They may be designated respectively as 
the Bodleian, the London, and the Norwich por- 
traits. The three are painted on canvas, are in good 
condition, and are unquestionably original. There 
is a marked difference in all, not only in the cast 
of countenance, but in the general appearance of 
the face, and in the details of the dress and the 
disposition of them. They were, in all probability, 
painted about the same period, or within a few 
years of one another, and subsequently to the year 
1669, as will be demonstrated, and therefore after 
his sixty-fourth year of age ; they represent him as 
being over the middle period of life ; all possess a 
somewhat melancholy visage, not unlike that of 
Charles I., which they closely resemble in style ; 
all look to the left of the spectator. It is un- 
fortunate that the names of the painters are 
unknown ; in only one instance that of Norwich 
is the donor's name preserved. They are situated 
in places intimately associated with the life of Sir 
Thomas the Bodleian portrait at Oxford, where 
he had spent some years as a student at Pem- 
broke College, and of which university he was 

B.A., M.A., and M.D. ; the next in the Royal 
College of Physicians, London, of which he was 
elected an Honorary Fellow in 1664; and the 
third at Norwich, the city in which he lived and 
practised as a physician for forty-six years, and in 
which he died and is buried. 

The writer of Sir Thomas Browne's life in ' Bio- 
graphia Britannica '* says : 

" His picture in the College of Physicians shews him 
to have been remarkably handsome, and to have pos- 
sessed in a singular degree the blessing of a grave and 
yet cheerful and inviting countenance. As to his temper 

it was perfectly even and free from passions His 

virtues were many and remarkably conspicuous, big 
probity such as gained him universal respect." 

Mr. Whitefoct,t the rector of Heigham, who 
was intimately acquainted with him for two-thirds 
of his life, observes : 

" For a character of his person, his complexion and hair 
was answerable to his name, his stature was moderate 
and habit of body neither fat nor lean, in his habit of 
cloathing he had an aversion to all finery, and affected 
plainness both in the fashion and ornaments. He ever 
wore a cloak, or boots, when few others did. He kept 
himself always very warm and thought it most safe so 
to do, though he never loaded himself with such a multi- 
tude of garments as Suetonius reports of Augustus, enough 
to clothe a good family. He was never seen to be trans- 
ported with mirth or dejected with sadness; always 
cheerful but rarely merry, at any sensible rate, seldom 
heard to break a jest, and when he did he would be apt 
to blush at the levity of it ; his gravity was natural 
without affectation." 

The Bodleian Portrait. 

This likeness is located in the Bodleian Library ; 
no record has been preserved of either the donor 
or the painter, and the date of its reception is 
unknown. The picture itself is twenty-nine by 
twenty-four inches, is a half-length, about three- 
quarters face, and slightly turned to the left of the 
spectator. Sir Thomas is represented in a plain 
black gown, most probably "the cloak he evei 
wore," with his arms folded in front as if holding 
it up; a broad, plain white falling collar, the edges 
of which are attached to each other in front their 
whole length ; his hair is dark brown, long, and flow- 
ing, and parted down the middle ; he wears a mous- 
tache and a tuft of hair on his chin an imperial 
also divided down the middle, and scarcely any 
whisker. This portrait is unquestionably the best 
of the three, and was painted from the living sub- 
ject between 1669 and 1672. It has been engraved 
by six artists, three being Flemish and three Eng- 
lish : Van den Hove, Van der Banck, Van der 
Gucht, Robert White, Thomas Trotter, and W. C. 
Edwards. The first four lived and flourished as 
engravers in the lifetime of Sir Thomas. 

Van den Hove's engraved portrait appears in "the 
sixth and last edition" of 'Pseudodoxia Epidemica,' 
published in 1672, at which date Sir Thomas was 

* 1780, vol. ii. 

t ' Posthumous Works,' 1712. 


sixty-seven years of age. The portrait is in a plain 
oval frame, without ornament, and was, without 
doubt, engraved from the Bodleian. He is looking 
to the right of the spectator.* 

Van der Banck'st engraving forms the frontis- 
piece to 'Certain Miscellany Tracts,' published m 
1684, two years after the death of Sir Thomas. 
This work was edited by Archbishop Tenison, who 
says, "Concerning the author, I chuse to be 
silent, though I have had the happiness to have 
been for some years known to him." The arch- 
bishop was minister of St. Peter Mancroft in 1674, 
consequently well known to Sir Thomas Browne, 
who was a resident in the parish at that time. 
The portrait is finely engraved, is in an ornamental 
oval frame, and represents the great man looking to 
the right of the spectator. We must assume that 
this was a perfect likeness, or its appearance would 
not have been permitted by Lady Browne, Edward 
Browne, and the archbishop. 

Van der Gucht'sJ engraving appeared in I he 
Posthumous Works of the learned Sir Thomas 
Browne,' published in 1712, thirty years after the 
death of the author. The portrait is beautifully 
executed, in a plain oval frame, with a coat of arms 
beneath ; he looks to the right of the spectator. 
An edition of this work was brought out the same 
year by a different publisher, but without a por- 
trait; the edition of 1723 contains one. 

Robert White engraved the portrait which 
forms the frontispiece to the folio edition of 
Browne's works, "the seventh and last," 1686, 
four years after the death of the " light of Nor- 
wich." It is larger than the others, is a beautiful 
work of art, in a plain oval frame, with a full coat 
of arms beneath ; and that no doubt should ever 
arise respecting the authority of the picture, it is 
stated to be " The True Effigies of S r Tho. Brown, 
of Norwich, Knt., M.D." He looks to the specta- 
tor's right 

Thomas Trotter.|| An exquisite engraving by 
this artist appeared in 1815 in Malcolm's ' Lives 
of Topographers and Antiquaries.' 

W. C. EdwardsIT engraved the portrait to be 
seen in Simon Wilkin's edition of Sir Thomas 

* Van den Hove was bora at Haarlem 1630 ; he was 
much employed as an engraver by the booksellers on 
portrait frontispieces between 1648 and 1692. Th- 
portraits of many eminent Englishmen were engrave^ 
by him. He was found murdered Oct. 17, 1698. Accord 
ing to Bryan he died after 1715. 

f Van der Banck, born in Paris 1649, came to Eng 
land 1674, died 1697. 

t Van der Qucht was born at Antwerp 1660, die 

Robert White, a very prolific engraver of grea 
repute, was born in London 1645, died 1704. 

II Thomas Trotter obtained a considerable reputatio 
for his portraits; bom 1785, died 1803. 

([ W. C. Edwards was living in 1841. He etched th 
series of " Norfolk Portraits." 

rowne's works, published in four volumes in 
836, and which the editor says, 
was engraved by Mr. Edwards from White's in the 
)lio of 1686, compared with a copy taken by Dr. Baadi- 
ell's kind permission from the original in the schools of 
xford, a decidedly better picture than that presented 
y Dr. Howman to the vestry of St. Peter, Norwich, 
nd I believe than that which is in the College of 

'his is not so finely executed an engraving as those 
y the Flemish artists, although of the same style 
nd character. 

The London Portrait. 

This likeness is to be seen in the Royal College 
f Physicians, London ; it measures twenty-four by 
wenty inches, is a half-length, three-quarter face, 
nd looks to the left of the spectator. Dr. Munk* 
bserves : 

" The College of Physicians possesses a good portrait 
f this distinguished physician. Although I cat find in 
be Annals no mention of the donor, we shall not pro- 
>ably be far from the truth if we attribute it to Dr. 
Mward Browne Sir Thomas's son a distinguished 
Bellow and President of the College." 

'.t has the same sombre look as the Bodleian, the 
ame flowing hair parted down the middle, a small 
moustache, and rather large imperial, also divided 
lown the middle, and a small amount of whisker, 
le wears a black gown, the edges of which are 
.rimmed with fur, probably an academical or doctor's 
jown of that day. The arms are not folded in front, 
so that the gown flows smoothly down, quite unlike 
hat of the other portraits. Sir Thomas looks 
somewhat older in this than in the others ; a falling, 
jlain white collar, the edges being attached to each 
>ther in front, similar to what is seen in the 
Bodleian, but different from that which is noticed 
in the Norwich picture. This portrait has been 
engraved by only one artist, J. Brown. It is 
carefully executed, and represents him looking to 
the spectator's left, and forms the frontispiece to 
' Christian Morals/ published by Rivington, 1863.f 

The Norwich Portrait. 

This likeness is placed in the Board Room of the 
Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. It measures 
twenty-eight by twenty-three inches, is a half- 
length, three-quarter face, and looks to the left of 
the spectator. He appears in the characteristic 
long flowing hair or wig of a dark colour, parted 
down the middle, the moustache light brown, a 
tuft of hair on the chin resembling an imperial, 
also divided down the middle, whiskers not 
abundant and mostly along the lower jaw. He 

* ' Roll of the Royal College of Physicians, 1878, 
vol. i. p. 326. 

f In the charming edition of ' Religio Medici,' edited 
by Dr. W. A. Greenhill : " The vignette of Sir Thomas 
Browne was engraved by the late C. H. Jeens, from the 
painting in the Library of the Royal College af Physi- 


wears a plain, broad white falling collar, the front 
margins of which meet at the upper points and 
open out downwards ; two short tassels hang from 
the point of junction, unlike the disposition of the 
collar in the other paintings. The gown is some- 
what indistinct, but is most probably the cloak he 
was so partial to. The features correspond entirely 
with those in the other portraits of the great man. 
No engraving has been made of this likeness, but 
an indifferent lithograph is to be occasionally met 

This portrait was presented to the parish of St. 
Peter Mancroft by Dr. Edward Howman, the 
owner and occupier of the house in which Sir 
Thomas Brewne lived and died. Bloomfield 
alludes to the residence in the parish of St. Peter, 
which was formerly tenanted by the famous knight, 
and "in which Dr. Howman now lives,"* but 
makes no reference to the portrait. 

There exists in the parish records no note of the 
date of its presentation. Dr. E. Howman died in 
1753, and was buried in the adjoining church of St. 
Stephen, where there is a monument to his memory. 
How he became possessed of it cannot now be 
traced. Miss Howman, his lineal descendant, has 
carefully searched the family papers without any 
satisfactory result. Circumstances favour the idea 
that when the residence was sold, after Lady 
Browne's death in 1685, by her son Edward to Dr. 
Koger Howman, of "The Red Well," and the 
father of Edward, who was then seven years of age, 
that the portrait was left in the house or given to 
his friend, Roger Howman, with some other things, 
such as his carved oak mantelpiece, now in the 

Sjssession of Henry Birkbeck, Esq., of Stoke Holy 
ross, and that Ed ward Howman inherited it after 
his father's death ; and as the family of Browne 
had almost died out, the male line having become 
extinot in 1708, Edward Howman most probably 
bequeathed it as a legacy to the parish of St. Peter ; 
and here it remained in the church until 1871, 
when the vestry were pleased to allow it to be 
placed in the Norwich Hospital, where it forms 
one of the most conspicuous of all the portraits in 
the Board Room of that institution, t It is still 
the property of St. Peter Mancroft. 

Roger Howman and Edward Browne were 
fellow citizens ; they were about the same age, 
followed the same profession ; and very likely 
Edward Browne became godfather to Edward 
Howman, this Christian name being unknown 
in the family before then ; and although Roger 
the family name was not given to the first-born, 
it was bestowed on the third son, which makes it 
appear the more probable that the name Edward 

* 'History of Norfolk,' folio, vol. ii., 1739. 

f The likenesses of nearly all who had done good work 
at this charity during the past hundred years were col- 
lected during the centenary year 1871, and placed in this 
room to commemorate the interesting event. 

was derived from Dr. Edward Browne, who was 
then thirty-six years of age, and in practice in 
London. He never resided in Norwich, and after 
his mother's death sold the property he held in 
that city* to Dr. Roger Howman. 

In addition to the three paintings there must 
have been a fourth, from which was engraved the 
portrait which appears in 'Paeudodoxia Epidemica,'' 
fifth edition, 1669. This is a very indifferent work 
of art, totally unlike the learned author, executed 
by an unknown person, and dissimilar to any 
already described. Sir Thomas thought badly of 
it, for three years later, 1672, when the next 
edition, " the sixth and last " of this work, came- 
out, this portrait had disappeared, and in its place 
is seen the finely engraved likeness by the Flemish 
artist Van den Hove, and evidently copied from 
the Bodleian, which it closely resembles in every 
particular. During those three years, 1669 to 
1672, Sir Thomas had become a great man, his 
reputation as a scholar had risen to the highest 
pitch, his works had attracted considerable notice- 
not only in England but on the Continent. 
Thirteen editions of ' Religio Medici ' had ap- 
peared in rapid succession, besides eleven in other 
languages, and his fame had been maintained by 
the publication of ' Hydriotaphia ' and the ' Gar- 
den of Cyrus.' Charles II. had heard of him, and 
on visiting Norwich in 1671 conferred on him the 
honour of knighthood. A good artist was chosen 
to render permanent the handsome face of the new 
knight, and the Bodleian portrait was painted. 
When the new edition, the sixth and last, of 'Pseu- 
dodoxia Epidemica' came out in 1672, it contained 
a likeness worthy of the author and the artist. 


'1 KING HENRY IV.,' IV. i. 97-99. 

All furnished, all in arms : 
tAll plumed like estridges that with the wind 
Baited like eagles having lately bathed. 

I propose to read the second line thus : 
All plumed like estridges that wait the wind. 

The "with" which I displace is universally 
regarded as a misprint. The only substitute for it 
which seems to have found favour is " wing," the 
suggestion of Rowe. I object to it that Harry of 
Monmonth and his comrades, waiting the onset of 
battle in the rich panoply of war, could not, with 
any propriety, be likened to ostriches speeding 
before the wind ; but with great propriety might 
they, with their plumed helms and bright coats of 
mail, be likened to ostriches quivering with excite- 
ment, expectant of the breeze, whose approach 
was indicated either by instinctive feeling or by 
the nearing sand-cloud. With equal propriety, in 

* ' The East Anglian,' vol. i., 1885, p. 194. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. vin, jnw is. -95. 

the line which follows, are they compared to eagles 
fluttering with delight after the refreshment of 
their bath. 

Supposing that " watt " was Shakespeare's word, 
how did the misprint " with " arise ? The answer 
to this question must be wholly conjectural. 
Readers must judge as to the amount of pro- 
bability in what I offer for their consideration. 

In writing, as the thoughts move faster than the 
pen, it is no uncommon cause of lapsus to anti- 
cipate, while intending to write one word, letters 
which belong to the word which is to follow. In 
the case before ns the th of the following " the " 
may have intruded themselves, so that " wait " may 
have been written "waith." This "waith" may 
afterwards have been wrongly corrected as " with," 
and so been printed. 

"Baited," passive for active, and the form is 
metaphysically correct. The ^X^i whether in 
man or eagle, is the mover ; the body, in its 
members, the moved. A wing does not bait or 
flap itself it is baited or flapped. 

It is scarcely necessary to add that in reading 
this passage we must translate poetry into prosej 
and understand it as if it had been written " They 
were all like plumed estridges ; they were like 
eagles with baited wings." 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

You, being in love, cannot see to put on your hoae. 

It is generally thought that there is some error 
here, though no one has yet proposed a satisfactory 
emendation. I think that some meaning can be 
forced into the passage as it stands by supposing 
Speed to point to the glove that Valentine holds 
in his hand. This glove of Silvia's was, perhaps, 
a longish one, suggesting a stocking, and Valen- 
tine had declared it to be his. Of. the phrase in 
'All's Well,' IT. iii. 265, "Dost thou make hose 
of thy sleeves 1 " G. JOICEY. 

suggestion was made at 8 tb S. vi. 283 for a new 
punctuation of 

That, through the sight I bear iii thinga to love, 

I have abandon'd Troy. 

This suggestion, which gives a very forced mean- 
ing to the lines, leads me to state my reasons for 
a conjecture of mine to be found among the 
addenda in vol. vi. of the new edition of the 
Cambridge Shakespeare. 

The Quarto and the first three Folios give "to 
love"; the fourth Folio "to come." Johnson 
proposed "things, to Jove" making "to Jove" a 
part of the construction of the next line ; Dyce 
reads "thinga to Jove" i. e., things pertaining to 
Jove. I would read " things of lore," i. e., matters 
of divine knowledge. As shown by a writer in 

the Edinburgh Review for July, 1869, sight was 
of old frequently used in the sense of acquaintance, 
skill, technical knowledge, professional con- 
versancy ; and such sight, it seems to me, Galenas 
is here claiming. The lore is his professional 
learning derived from omens, &c., the learning 
which bad warned him to forsake Troy, even 
though by so doing he earned the name of " traitor 
fals," as Chaucer calls him. Shakespeare's play 
was mainly founded upon Chaucer's ' Troylus and 
Cryseyde,' and in the first book of that poem we 
have a passage, 11. 84, &c., which to my mind was 
clearly in Shakespeare's memory when he wrote 
this speech. The lines to which I especially invite 
attention are these : 

Now fel it so, that in the town ther was 

Dwellynge a lord of grete autorite, 

A grete devyn that cleped was Calkas, 

That in science so expert was, that he 

Knew wele that Troye sholde destroyed be,. 

By answer of his god, that hyghte thus, 

Dann Phebus, or Apollo Delphicus. 

So when this Calkas knew by calkulynge,. 

And ek by answer of this Apollo, 

That Grekes sholden swiclie a peple brynge, 

Thorwgh whiche that Troye moste ben fordo, 

He cast onon out of the town to go; 

For wel wist he by sort that Troye sholde 

Destroyed ben, ye, wold who-so or nolde. 

Now the words "in science so expert was," 
"knew by calkulynge," "by answer of his god," 
" wel wist he by sort," seem to me to convey 
exactly the same meaning with Shakespeare's 
"through the sight I bear in things of lore," 
especially as scientia was of old the ordinary 
rendering of lore. Again, in bk. iv. 57-63, we 
have Calchas's account of what he had forfeited,, 
in words that Shakespeare closely imitates in 
11. 5-11 of this scene : 

Havynge unto my tresour, ne my rente 
Eight no resport in respecte of your eee; 
Thus al my goode I leste, and to yow wente, 
Wenynge in this yow lordes for to plese ; 
But al that los ne doth me no disese, 
I vouchesauf, as wysly haue I joye, 
For yow to leese al that I haue in Troye ; 

while the following stanzas of the same book (too 
many for quotation here) represent Calchas's next 
speech in the play. E. D. 

'2 HENRY IV.,' IV. iii. 45. 

The book'd nosed fellow of Rome, their cosin. 
The Quarto has both "their" and "there" cosin,.. 
but the phrase is omitted from the Folio. Perhaps 
the reading should be "their captain"; if the MS. 
had the latter word in the contracted form of cnpn, 
it might easily have been mistaken for "cosin." 


'As You LIKE IT,' II. vii. 139. 
All the world's a stage. 

The idea embalmed in this line appears to have 
oeen widely used in Sbakspere's time, not the 

8th S .viii.jTjLTi3,'95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


least curious instance being its employment by 
Sir George Moore in the House of Commons, 
Jan. 21, 1605/6, he describing Gunpowder Plot as 
a " Conspiracy, the like whereof never came upon 
the Stage of the World" ('Commons' Journals,' 
vol. i. p, 257). ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

' LEAR,' III. iv. : ST. WITHOLD. Tyrwhitt 
suggests that this stands for St. Yitalis. Has 
any learned commentator succeeded in fixing the 
identity of St. Withold ? JAMES HOOPER. 


"THE DEVIL AND HIS DAM" (8 th S. ir. 442; 
v. 442 ; vi. 44, 284 ; vii. 203). I am glad that 
C. C. B. confirms what I wrote. Ahriman is 
certainly the arch-devil, and Lilith is his mother. 
As, however, I have read that Samael and Asmo- 
deiis are the same, I think that I must have got 
my knowledge from another source than that men- 
tioned by U. C. B. E. YARDLEY. 

OLD JOKE IN NEW DRESS. (See 7 tb S. viii. 
66, 136, 291, 409, 433.) The following good story 
has been going the rounds of the press : 

" One of the most curious blunders of an author was 
that made by Thackeray, -when collecting material for 
his ' Irish Sketch-Book.' Driving along a road, he saw 
at due intervals posts set up with the letters ' G.P.O.' 
upon. them. Overtaking a peasant, he inquired the 
meaning of these initials, and was gravely informed that 
they stood for ' God Preserve O'Connell ! ' Out came 
the tourist's note-book, in which a memorandum was at 
once jotted down of the curious statement. In the first 
edition of the sketches the fact was duly mentioned, but 
it was suppressed in all the subsequent issues, owing to 
the tardv discovery that the initials stood for ' General 
Post Office,' indicating that the highway was a post 

It is due to the memory of Wm. Makepeace 
Thackeray to say that the above happened not to 
him, but to Lord Haddington when riding into 
Dublin from Kingstown in 1834. See 'Private 
Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell,' by W. J. 
Fitzpatrick (London, J. Murray), vol. i. p. 504. 
I doubt if the first edition of the ' Sketch-Book ' 
contains any reference to the amusing mistake. 


CHARLES HATCHETT. A bundle of old letters 
addressed to Mr. Charles Hatcbett lately came 
into my possession. They are dated towards the 
end of the last, or early part of the present, century. 
I believe he was treasurer to a literary club at the 
"Old Thatched House" tavern, and many of the 
letters are written to him as such. He appears to 
have been a good chemist and mineralogist, and to 
have moved in good society ; among the writers 
of the letters are Sir Humphry Davy, Faraday 
Wollaston, Sir John Soane, the Lords Spencer anc 
Stowell, Sir Walter Scott, and many others, in 
eluding Jekyll, the witty barrister, with whom he 
was on intimate terms. Of two short notes from 

ekyll I enclose copies for insertion in ' N. & Q.' 
am not aware that they have been published, and 
think it unlikely. It appears that Mr. Chas. 
Hatchett sent his portrait to Jekyll. 

Jan. 30, 1836. 

Thanks for a kind memento of our long Friendship, 
hough it looks somewhat radical on the 30th of Janu- 
ary, to thank the Hatchett for the Head of Charles. 


Feb. 13, 1836. 

I told my merry friend, Jas. Smith, author of the 
celebrated ' Rejected Addresses,' how I thanked you for 
;he Engraving on the Thirtieth of January; he sate 
lown directly, and versified it. 

An answer, Charles Hatchett, thou claimest ; 

So take it, both pithy and short. 
For surely so able a Chemist 

Can never reject a retort. 
Your Portrait, no painter can match it, 

So I scorn all their envy and snarls, 

And, like Cromwell, I owe to a Hatchett 

All I gain by the head of a Charles. 


H. W. LlVETT. 
Wells, Somerset. 

James's Gazette, in its notice of Gustave Nadaud'a 
death in April, 1893, said of his little poem ' Les 
Deux Gendarmes ' that it " caused the author to 
be summoned before the Imperial Courts on a 
charge of ridiculing the public forces. Nadaud 
was, however, acquitted, and was afterwards made 
a knight of the Legion of Honour by the Emperor." 

"Ridiculing the public forces" seems a very 
strange charge to bring against an author. How 
far back in French history does this law date ; and 
is there still such a law in France ] What would 
become of Punch's artists and writers if, every 
time they " joked a joke" at the expense of Police 
Inspector X or Corporal Pipeclay, they were 
liable to be pulled up before "the judges all 
ranged, a terrible show," to answer a charge of 
" ridiculing the public forces " ? 


Miller " is thus recorded in the London Evening 
Post, Thursday, Aug. 17, 1 738 : 

" Yesterday Morning died of a Pleurisy, at Strand on 
the Green, near Brentford, being taken ill but on Sunday 
last, Mr. Joseph Miller, a celebrated Comedian, belong- 
ing to the Theatre-Royal in Drury-lane ; much admir'd 
for his Performances in general, but particularly in the 
Character of Teague in the ' Committee ; or, the Faith- 
ful Irishman.' Very few of his Profession have gain'd 
more Applause on the Stage, and fewer have acted off of 
it with so much Approbation from their Neighbours." 

THE 'TIMES' NEWSPAPER. The following 
curious coincidence is perhaps worrh embalming 
in the columns of 'N. & Q ' The early impressions 
of the Times of Tuesday, June 11, were, as regards 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8>s.viii.juiYiv95. 

the first page, a reproduction, both as to date and 
matter, of the issue of Monday, June 10. I saw 
one, but it is probable that the larger number 
were dispatched to the provinces by the early 
trains. This will in a few years be a source of 
interest, and many correspondents may be glad to be 
put on the scent to obtain one. TENEBRJE. 

I have read up many topographical works on 
London, both ancient and modern, and find it 
passing strange that not a single writer has noted 
the existence of an ancient cemetery of the Jews 
within the walls. The Patent Roll of 1285 has 
an allusion to it, and defines its position with great 
clearness. It was situated in Wood Street. 
Another entry in the same roll says that "the 
Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral Church of St. 
Paul's receive licence to enclose the cemetery and 
its precincts with a stone wall, by reason of the 
night attacks of robbers in the streets and lanes of 
the said precinct." M. D. DAVIS. 

INSCRIPTION. The following curious inscription, 
to the memory of George Routleigh, a watchmaker 
by trade, occurs in the churchyard of Lydford, 
Devon : 

Here lies in horizontal position 
The outside case 


George Routleigh, 
whose abiding in that line 

was an honour 
To his Profession 

Integrity was his mainspring and prudence the 
regulator of all the actions of his life. 

Humane, generous, and liberal 

His hand never stopped till he had relieved distress 

Sincerely regular were his motions 

He never went wrong 
Except when set a-going 

By People 

who did not know his key 
Even then he was easily set right again 
He had the art of disposing of his time 

so well 
That his hours glided in one continual round of 

pleasure and delight 

Till an unlucky minute put an end to his existence. 

He departed this life 

Nov. 1802, 

Wound up 

In hope of being taken in hand 

By his Maker 

And of being thorough cleaned repaired and set a-going 
In the world to come. 


As Prof. J. S. Blackie, full of years and honours, 
has joined the majority, I do not think there can be 
any breach of confidence in my publishing the 
following extracts from two letters which I had 
from him in 1888. When the professor's mono- 
graph on Burns in the "Great Writers" series 

was published, I wrote to the author, reminding: 
him of our meeting in Shetland during a trip I took 
many years before. I saw a good deal of the 
learned professor at that time, comparatively speak- 
ing, seeing that I was an entire stranger to him, 
and that I was in the Shetlands merely as a tourist. 
In my first letter, in 1888, I said, so far as I can 
recollect my words after pearly seven years, that 
I was glad to see that he did net, like some of his 
countrymen, feel it necessary to exalt Burns at the 
expense of Scott. In the professor's reply he said : 

" Burns was more intense than Scott ; but in every 
other respect the author of ' Waverley ' was the bigger 
man; more wealthy in matter, more healthy in tone, 
and better balanced; in fact, the biggest literary man' 
using the English language, in my opinion, since Shake- 

I am not likely to quarrel with any one who 
exalts " good Sir Walter," even if I think that he 
exalts him more than is quite just ; but I demurred 
to the professor's opinion that Scott is "the 
biggest literary man using the English language 
since Shakespeare," because, as I pointed out to 
Prof. Blackie, this estimate necessarily exalts Scott 
above Milton. I also took the opportunity of 
asking the professor his opinion of Scott as a poet, 
apart from the " Waverley Novels." He replied : 

" I take Scott altogether poetry and prose and in 
this range feel that he is the healthiest and wealthiest 
intellect that has appeared in Britain since Shakespeare ; 
being, in fact, to Scotland, if Scotland would only be true 
to herself, what Homer was to the Greeks. No doubt 
Milton is more majestic, but we cannot feed upon 
grandeur; besides, his mixture of Christianity and' 
classicality is out of date ; and his theology is odious." 

The professor's remarks are interesting, and his 
words, " if Scotland would only be true to herself," 
ought to be laid to heart by all 

brither Scots 
Frae Maidenkirk to Johnny Groats ; 

but I do not think his reasoning with regard to 
Milton is quite sound. Homer's gods and heroes 
are " out of date," and Dante's theology is at least 
as " odious " as Milton's indeed, when we think 
that the ' Inferno ' is a fourmiliere of human life, 
Dante's theology is much more outwardly and 
visibly repulsive than Milton's yet Homer and 
Dante, in the estimation of most good judges,, 
share the crown of epic poetry with Milton. It is 
not what an author says so much as how he says it 
which we look to in our estimate of his rank in 
literature. Mr. Frank Marzials, in his excellent 
little work on Victor Hugo in the "Great Writers" 
series, truly says : 

" Very fortunately for mankind, the truth or falsehood 
of a great writer's systematized opinions is no measure of 
the value of his work. Pictures of the most superb 
power may be painted on very indifferent canvas, just as- 
immortal music may be allied to words that are almost 

This being so, I think Milton has painted on the 
" indifferent canvas " of his certainly narrow creed 


pictures " of the most superb power," which must fo 
ever rank him above every English author excep 
Shakespeare. My own estimate of Sir Walter Scot 
if my estimate is worth stating is that, takinj 
him, as Prof. Blackie says, " altogether poetry am 
.prose," he is our greatest author, except Milton 
since Shakespeare, and the greatest author in on 
whole literature except Shakespeare, Milton, am 

Ropley, Alresford. 

Green spitefully taunted Shakespeare with being 
_" beautified with our feathers." If the chronology 
is correct, I, as rampant an idolater as Ben Jon- 
son himself, purpose pointing out some instances 
of verbal appropriation on the part of the great 

Lately perusing ' Every Man in his Humour, 
I here and there noted the recurrence of many 
familiar phrases and words ; they were faintly 
reminiscent of some oft perused work, and I had 
little difficulty in tracing them to the first acts oi 
* Romeo and Juliet.' They show what a Venus 
trap the mind of Shakespeare was, and now he 
absorbed and rehabilitated the ideas and verbiage 
which were gyrating around him. 'Romeo and 
Juliet' was first published in quarto in 1597, 'Every 
Man in his Humour' was acted eleven times 
between Nov. 25, 1596, and May 10 in the suc- 
ceeding year. Tradition associated Shakespeare 
with this work, and I believe he is actually men- 
tioned as impersonating Old Knowel, one of the 
characters. If so, the inference is obvious. Ben 
Jonson, in his rdles of duellist and soldier, would 
be acquainted with the terminology of the duello. 
He makes use of the terms punto, reverso, passado, 
stocato, hay, time, distance, &c. Shakespeare puts 
them all in the mouth of Mercutio. Cos, for cousin, 
so often used by the greater dramatist, was possibly 
fixed in his mind by Ben Jonson's frequent harp- 
ing. That Elizabethan expletive " a plague ! " 
repeatedly sworn throughout the comedy, may have 
suggested "A plague on both your houses!" Counter- 
feit and slip, used by Brain wood, is re-echoed in the 
same sense by Mercutio. " Thou hast quarrelled 
with a man for coughing in the street, because he 
had wakened thy dog that had lain asleep in the 
sun. Dids't not thou fall out with a tailor for wearing 
his new doublet before Easter ? " is a case of out- 
Jonsoning " They say he will commit a man for 
taking the wall of his horse. Ay, or wearing his 
cloak on one shoulder, or serving of God." There 
are other phrases and words in 'Every Man in 
his Humour' which one feels were lingering in 
Shakespeare's mind when he penned the scenes in 
which Mercutio takes part, but they are scarcely 
palpable except to a close student. Ben Jonson 
was a great creative artist, never sufficiently appre- 
ciated, and Bobadill, if he did not give the cue for 

Mercutio, was the autotype of Pistol, Bessus, 
Parolles, and all the braggadocio that swagger 
through Elizabethan comedy. More of this anon. 


We mutt request correspondents desiring in formation 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

your readers assist me to complete the inscription 
to the memory of the family of Claud Champion 
de Crespigny, of which the following fragments 
can be traced on a stone in the churchyard of the 
old Parish Chapel (formerly Parish Church) of St. 
Marylebone ? 

Hie jacet in formica 

Claudius Champion de Crespigny 

et Maria de Vierville 

uzor ejus 
Gallia persecution!. 

Some years ago the inscription was copied in its 
entirety by some one interested ; but I am unable 
to trace it. Philip Champion de Crespigny was 
buried in the parish on Feb. 18, 1765, and Ann 
Champion de Crespigny, Jan. 22, 1837. 


one acquainted with the bygone history of High- 
gate give information as to the character and 
standing, &c., of Markquier's boarding school for 
young ladies, which existed there about the middle 
of last century ? The name, spelt as above, appears 
in an old letter of that period, the exact date of 
which I have an interest in fixing. LAC. 

Where can I see a list of them, dates of their 
appointment, &c.? C. MASON. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

- AXED." What is the precise meaning of 
;his term? In a locally published account 
c. 1874) of Gloucester Cathedral, the steps of the 
ont are described as " fine-axed." I cannot 
find it anywhere ; but the ' New English Diction- 
ary' has "axed, shaped or dressed with an ax," 
which is something towards it. 


PARISH CHARITIES. St. Mary's Church on 
'addington Green was the original parish church 
>f Paddington, but she was ousted from that 
msition in 1845 by St. James's Church. St. 
Gary's still retains the high pews and the gallery 

which extends round all sides of the church except- 
ng the east end. On the front of the gallery is 

painted in gold letters some five or more inscrip- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [s s. vm. JGH is, '95. 

tions of charitable bequests (dating from 1700 to 
1859) affecting the parish. Was it ever custom- 
ary in parish churcbes to put up inscriptions 
recording parochial benefactions ; and, if so, when 
did the custom cease ? In what other churches 
can similar inscriptions be seen ; or is the case of 
St. Mary's, Paddington, more or less unique ? 

A. C. W. 

PASCHAL CANDLES. I should be obliged if any 
of your readers could help me with information 
on the origin, history, and use of the Paschal 
candle, particularly with extracts from old church 
accounts describing the candle and its support, 
connexions and blessing. I have an idea the 
Roman Church adopted it from the Spanish. 
Can it be proved identical with the light before 
the sepulchre ? H. FEASEY. 

11, Festing Road, Putney, S.W. 

[See 5* S. xi. 321, 372, 418 ; xii. 13; 6b S. i. 428.] 


GRACE." This proverb is common all over Scot- 
land. Spenser, in the 'Shepherd's Calendar,' 
July, 11. 97, 98, tells us it was old even in his days : 
To Kirk the narre, from God more far 
Has been an old-said saw. 

How much further back can it be traced ? 


GEORGE GERARD JOHNSON was admitted to 
Westminster School Jan. 31, 1775. Can any 
correspondent help me to identify him ? Was he, 
by chance, descended from Thomas Johnson, the 
learned editor of 'Gerard's Herbal'; and is there 
any record extant of the descendants of this 
Thomas Johnson ? F. D. 

^ ARMS. Can any of your correspondents throw 
light on a coat of arms which is painted in an 
ancient MS. service book in the Library of Eton 
College, date presumably about 1500? Sa., a 
chevron ar. between three white lilies leaved ppr. 
On a chief gu. three white owls affronted. 


CHIFFINCH. What is the origin of this name ? 
Emerson, in his essay on 'Spiritual Law,' says 
" Can a cook, a Chiffinch, an lachimo be mistaken 
for Zeno or Paul ? " E. T. PAGE. 

CORNISH CUSTOM. A Cornish gentleman, 
writing in a manuscript magazine, says that 
' At St. Ives a feast is held on the nearest Sunday to 
Candlemas, and that on the following Monday the silver 
ball is thrown. This ball is kept in the custody of the 
Mayor, but on this particular day he brings it out and 
throws it to the young men, who toss it to one another 
until they are tired, and then it is returned to the 

Can anybody give me information as to the origin 
of this custom and its meaning ? 


VESTMENT BRASSES. Would it not be a good 
thing to make a collection of rubbings of these 
(which could be done by the clergy whose churches 
possess them), and deposit them at the Church 
House, or some similar institution, for the benefit 
of clergy generally, to whom they would be 
especially useful, and perhaps even publish them 
in book form, and so preserve them for posterity ? 

H. F. 

"CLYST." Can any reader assist me with the 
derivation and meaning of this word ? It is the 
name of a small river in Devonshire, and from it 
several villages take their titles, e. g. , Broad Clyst, 
Hornton Clyst, Clyst S. Mary, and so on, about 
seven or eight varieties. HENRY STONE. 


one find a record of the date of a selection of old 
Italian love-songs bearing the title, " Scelta di 
vaghissime Villanelle accomodate per cantarsi sur' 
ogni sorte di strumenti per passa tempo de' giovani 
innamorati"? It consists of twenty-five songs, 
beginning "Io vorrei pur' hormai," and ending 
" Pazzarella che fui, pazzarella che fui." 


cornelian ring with an intaglio head around which 
is the inscription M . GALE . TRACALUS in Roman 
capitals. I take it that the first two words are 
Marcus Galerius, but cannot make out the third 
word, which is, I presume, a cognomen or place 
name. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' assist me to 
a clue ? JNO. H. 

ANTHONY UPTON. Could any of your readers 
inform me as to the descent of Anthony Upton, 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland, 
1717, from Arthur Upton, of Lupton, co. Devon 
(ancestor of Viscount Templetown through his 
second son Henry) ? Also, who were his children, 
and by whom ? W. UPTON. 

GEORGE CHARLES. Where ought I to be able 
to find the will of the above, concerning whom 
several questions and answers have already ap- 
peared in ' N. & Q. ' ? He resided in Leicester 
Square, but died while on a visit at Brixton (in 
the archdeaconry of Surrey, but in the jurisdiction, 
for some purposes, at any rate, of the borough of 
South wark), in 1788. The will is not at Somerset 
House. He died possessed of very considerable 
property ; so that either his will or the record of 
administration, if he died intestate, ought to be in 
existence somewhere. R. J. WALKER. 

JESSE WINDOW. Can any of your readers say 
where an illustration can be found of a Jesse window, 
other than those at Dorchester (Oxon), Shrewsbury, 
Christ Church (Hants), and St. Cuthbert's, Wells 1 

8* 8. VIII. JULY 18, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

I. believe there are examples at St. George's, Han 
over Square, Winchester College, Salisbury, an< 
Llanrhaida, co. Denbigh ; also at Rheiois, Chartres 
and?Antwerp. Can engravings of any of these 
found ; and where ? 1 should be greatly obligee 
for any information. FRANCIS M. JACKSON. 
The Bed House, Alderley Edge. 

REFERENCE WANTED. Can any one tell me 
in which book of ' Aurora Leigh ' occurs the line : 
I will not barter the beautiful for barley ? 


SIR THOMAS MORE. Sir Thomas More is saic 
to have been famous for the skill which he dis- 
played in throwing at cocks, a well-known Shrove- 
tide sport. (See Lecky's ' History of Morals, 
vol. ii. p. 174, quoting Strutt's * Sports and 
Pastimes,' p. 283.) Is there any contemporary 
evidence tending to prove that he enjoyed this 
cruel sport ; or is it but one of those fables with 
which great men's lives have in all ages been so 
profusely decorated ? N. M. & A. 

CAPT. WOOD. I shall be obliged by any clue to 
a Capt. Wood (Customs Service), whose daughter 

married Suckling, supposed relation of Lord 

Nelson, through whose influence this Wood is 
said to have received his appointment. He had 
relations, Langmead, Jones, and Stevens. Sup- 
posed Wood crest, a griffia's head. Suffolk, 
Norfolk, or Lincoln. A. C. H. 

" GAVEL." With the apology which is due from 
one who neither possesses nor is near to a 'N. E. D.,' 
may I beg to be enlightened as to the use of this 
word in connexion with an auctioneer's mallet ? I 
lately came across it in a book of ritual belonging 
to a Juvenile Lodge of Good Templars, where the 
word is used for the mallet of the Chief Templar. 
The Good Templars hail from America. 


Chaplain H.M.'s Indian Service. 

TORICAL THEOLOGY.' What is the value, as a book 
of reference, of the above ? Its author was the 
Rev. John H. Blunt, F.S.A., and it was published 
by Messrs. Rivington, in 1870, in two volumes, or 
rather in two parts. It has long been out of print, 
I am told. I have the second part only, and would 
gladly buy part i., or give my own part to any one 
who has the other and requires it to make his set 
complete. E. WALFORD. 


CHARLES DE TAVAREZ. Any one will oblige 
the writer by copying the register of the baptism 
or birth of Charles de Tavarez, his grandfather, 
who was born at Amsterdam Nov. 5, 1771, if it 
is preserved. Any information concerning hia 

brother or sisters, who afterwards adopted the name 
of Taffare, would also be acceptable. His last 
surviving sister, Ann Taffare, formerly of Amster- 
dam, lived at Utrecht in 1843. 

30, Rueholme Grove, Rusholme, Manchester. 

BRITISH NAMES. Will any one kindly tell me 
where I might find the few British translations 
that exist of the Roman names occurring in the 
Itineraries ? LOSTWITHIEL. 

* SOLOMON-GUNDY." In ' Theodore : an opera,' 
by J. H. Colls, a poet of rural Norfolk, a rough 
country wench exclaims : " He 's as fond of you 
as I am of solomon-gundy ; and, ecod, I likes it 
so well, I could eat it morning, noon, and night. ' 
Colls's ' Poems ' were published in Norwich, with- 
out a date, but 1800 is the time approximately. 
Solomon-gundy seems to be a rural rendering of 
Salmagundi; but is such a rural word known? 
It is not in any dialect dictionary that I have been 
able to consult. JAMES HOOPER. 


ESSEX. I should be glad to know the names, 
matches, and issue of the children of William. 
Kendall, of the Middle Temple and Bassingbourne 
Hall, who married, in 1675, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Richard Beckford, Alderman of London. Mor- 
ant, under Takeley parish, mentions only the 
eldest surviving son John, who died unmarried in 
1734-5. G. W. WRIGLEY. 

68, Southborough Road, South Hackney. 

VALSE. What is the exact date when the 
"valse" or "waltz" found its way into English 
society and literature ? The date usually assigned 
is 1813 (' Encyclopaedic Dictionary'); but Byron's 
poem, published in that year, was written in 1812. 
A still earlier date seems correct, on the authority 
of a writer of a very different order : 

Then I have a dancing master, who teaches me the 
Scotch and Irish steps; and another who teaches me 
attitudes, and I shall soon learn the waltz, and I can 
stand longer on one leg already than Lady Di." ' Cffilebs 
n Search of a Wife,' chap, xxiii. 

["his entertaining work came out in 1809. 


;athedral church of St. Nazaire, in the delightful 
{ vieille cite" de Carcassonne," one sees against the 
wall in the south transept the dalle or tombstone 
on which the effigy of Simon de Montfort, in com- 
pete armour, is engraven ; and one is told that 
lis body was conveyed by his son to Montfort 
'Amaury, Seine et Oise, about an hour by train 
rom Paris. There is a ruined mediaeval castle 
here, and an ancient church. Can the 'resting- 
place of the body be discovered ? What documents 
efer to its removal ? PALAMEDES. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. vm. JULY is, '95. 


(6 tt S. vi. 506 ; vii. 457.) 
My note and the inquiry contained in it 
haying so long remained unnoticed except by a 
kind correspondent who wrote to me direct I 
have endeavoured to satisfy myself on the subject, 
and from the ready and convenient source afforded 
by the "List of Benefices" in the * Clergy List' have 
made an enumeration of the churches dedicated to 
St. Botolph throughout England. This the Editor 
may think worthy of place. In addition to its 
bearing on my particular subject it has relation to 
the correspondence which has appeared in 'N. & Q.' 
on ' Patron Saints of Churches.' 

List of places in England whereat are churches 
dedicated to St. Botolph : 

Allerthorpe, Yorka, B.E. Hevingham, Norfolk. 

Aspley-Guise, Beds. Iken, Suffolk. 

Banningham, Norfolk. Knottingley, Yorks, W.E. 

Barford, Norfolk. Limpenhoe, Norfolk. 

Beauchamp-Rodingr, Essex. Lincoln, Lincoln. 

Boasall, Yorks, N.B. London, three churches. 

Boston, Lincoln. Lullingstone, Kent. 

Botesdate, Suffolk. Newton, Lincoln. 

Botolph , Sussex. Northfleet, Kent. 

Botolph's Bridge, Hunte. Quarrington, Lincoln. 

Bradenham, Bucks. Bathby, Leicester. 

Burton-Hastings, Warw. Redgrave, Suffolk. 

Cambridge, Camb. Shenley, Herts. 

Chevening, Kent. Shepshed, Leicester. 

Colchester, Essex. Shingham, Norfolk. 

Cove, North, Suffolk.* Skidbrooke, Lincoln. 

Culpho, Suffolk. Slapton, Northants. 

Dogsthorpe, Northants. Stoke Albany, Northants. 

Eastwick, Herts. Stow Long, Hunts. 

Farnborough, Warw. Stow Bedon, Norfolk. 

Grimston, Norfolk. Swyncombe. Oxon. 

Hadstock, Essex. Tottenhill, Norfolk. 

Handham, Sussex. Trunch, Norfolk. 

Heene, Sussex. Westwick, Norfolk. 
Helpston, Northants. 

In the above list are forty-nine places which 
have churches dedicated to St. Botolph, and as 
among them is London, which previous to the Great 
Fire had four such dedications, and yet has three, 
the total number of existing churches thus dedi- 
cated is fifty-one. The distribution in counties 
is as follows : Norfolk 10, Suffolk 5, Lincoln 5, 
London 3 (originally 4), Northampton 4, Sussex 3, 
Kent 3t, Essex 3, Yorks 3, Leicester 2, Hunting- 
don 2, Hertford 2, Warwick 2, Cambridge 1 
Oxford 1, Bedford 1, Buckingham 1. 

I have, after further search, to add a little to 
what has already been said by me in regard to the 
saint. Twelve hundred years is a long way back 
in the history of our island, and at the end of the 
vista objects and facts are enveloped in misty 

.* 0r . Nortb -cove, apparently misprinted " Northcone " 
S. vii. 458. 
t Also formerly a chapel at Folkestone. 

obscurity. Thus the origin and career of St. 
Botolph appear uncertain and ill defined. We are 
assured that he lived in the seventh century, but 
authors find the date of his death with the varia- 
tion of a quarter of a century, the Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould giving it as 655,* and the writer in the 
' Diet. Nat. Biog.' as 680. The learned priest of 
the last century, Alban Butler, omits St. Botolph 
in his 'Lives of the Saints'; Mr. Baring-Gould 
supplies the omission, having gathered his account 
from the scanty mention of the ' Chronicles.' 
Nothing, he says, is known of the saint's origin, 
although there is a tradition, notwithstanding his 
purely Saxon name, that he was of Irish birth ; 
while the writer in the great dictionary records the 
story that he was of noble parents, an origin not 
infrequently attributed to ecclesiastical celebrities. 
Again, the identity of the king who, granting the 
prayer of the saint, gave him a desert spot on 
which he might settle as a hermit, is a vexed ques- 
tion ; Ethelmund, or, in the more approved form, 
yEthelmund, was his name, but whether he ruled 
the South Saxons or the South Angles is undeter- 
mined ; and in either case it will be asked how 
this king could have bestowed on St. Botolph a site 
in Mercia, for at Boston (or Botolph's Town), in 
Lincolnshire, is generally supposed to have been 
situated the monastery of Ikanhoe founded by the 
saint. Prof. Bonney, writing of Boston and its 
beautiful church ,f simply and judiciously calls 
Ethelmund " an English king," and it seems wisest 
to leave him thus without defining his dominion, 
for surely it would be a pity to weaken the belief 
that the most beautiful of all St. Botolph's churches 
stands on the site of the ancient Ikanhoe. I am, 
however, bound to mention that there is a claim- 
ant to the honour at Bottlebridge, i. e. , Botolph's 
Bridge, in Huntingdonshire (also in Mercia) ; but 
until the claim be proved otherwise, let us leave it 
unchallenged at Boston. 

As to the particular function attributed by some 
at least to the saint, I do not know that it rests 
on any written authority. Mr. Baring- Gould does 
not refer to it, but Mr. Loftie, writing of the four 
dedications at London, $ represents "the martyr 
of East Anglia " (not elsewhere, I think, thus in- 
dicated, Prof. Bonney relating that "he died at a 
good old age ") as " the patron, especially, of 
travellers to Botolph's Town, or Boston," and the 
professor says of St. Botolph that " he was held in 
honour by seafaring folk." On what basis this 
rests we do not learn. That there was such belief, 
however, seems exemplified in the position at least 
of the London churches which have given rise to 
the present remarks. How is it that these four 
churches dedicated to St. Botolph have the like pecu- 
liar position at gates and "without" the walls 

Lives of the Saints,' vi. 247. 
Cathedrals, Abbeys, and Churches,' 662. 
1 Historic Towns, London,' 159. 

viii. JULY is, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


if not built with one design ; and what design is 
more probable than that they should serve travellers, 
who as they left or entered the city might seek the 
aid of their saintly patron or express their grati- 
tude to him ? And at Boston the grand church 
on the bank of the river Witham, where " the sea- 
faring folk" embarked for the North Sea, its 
stately tower used as a beacon of guidance and 
warning, seems also to point to the belief in the 
protection of the saint. 

So what have we got ? A good English saint 
of the seventh century, perhaps of minor rank in 
the calendar, yet not so obscure but that over fifty 
English churches were dedicated in memory of his 
sanctity. That his influence was chiefly in the 
eastern counties, and that the monastery of Ikan- 
hoe, which he founded, was on a " hoe," or elevation 
of hard ground surrounded by desolate fens, the 
situation, probably, where now is Boston and the 
beautiful church which rose, or rather was re- 
edified, in his honour six hundred years after his 
body had Iain in dust. W. L. BUTTON. 

27, Elgin Avenue, Westbourne Park, W. 

P.S. Since writing the above I have had the 
advantage of communications at the last reference, 
and have found that to my list of places containing 
churches dedicated to St. Botolph there are to be 
Added Burgh and Whitton in Suffolk, and Morley 
in Norfolk. With these the existing churches of 
'this dedication number fifty -four, and adding 
three Norfolk churches destroyed as I learn a 
Norwich, Shotesham, and Tuttington, that formerly 
at Billingsgate, London, and a demolished chape 
at Folkestone, we have fifty-nine as the number o 
dedications to St. Botolph. 

In the * Peterborough Diocesan Ealendar 
find that there are eleven churches which are 
dedicated to St. Botolph, viz., Barton Seagrave, 
Brampton Church, Dogsthorpe, Harrington, Helps- 
ton, Longthorpe, Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake, Sheep- 
shed, Slapton, Stoke Albany, Wardley. I notice 
that Stoke Albany is dedicated also to St. Alban, 
the only church in the Peterborough diocese 
dedicated to this saint. CELEB ET AUDAX. 

'HERMSPRONG' (8 to S. vii. 449) is, as the Editor 
has noted, the work of Robert Bage, but there are 
several other novels by the same author, of which 
various editions appeared. Robert Bage (1728- 
1801) was born at Derby in 1728, and at the early 
age of seven he had become familiar with Latin. 
His father was the owner of a paper-mill at 
Elford, near Tamworth and Lichfield, and Bage 
himself was the owner of similar ventures, in 1766 
of iron-works, and in 1779 with Dr. Erasmus 
Darwin. His literary tastes continued, and his 
first novel appeared in his fifty-third year, with the 
title of ' Mount Kenneth,' in two volumes, which 
he sold to Lowndes for 302., with the addition of a 

humorous preface, and " anticipated his critics by 
reviewing himself." His other novels were ' Bar- 
ham Downs' (1784), 'The Fair Syrian' (1787), 
'James Wallace' (1788), 'Man as He Is' (1792), 
and ' Hermsprong : the Man as He Is Not ' 
(1796). His four duodecimo volumes, 'Man as 
He Is,' were printed at the Minerva Press in 
1792. His ' Hermsprong ' is in three volumes, of 
the same handy size, and in short, readable pages. 
His literary life occupied fifteen years (from his 
fifty-third to his sixty-eighth year), and his novels 
were extremely popular, and are even now, 
although rarely found, interesting, amusing, and 
graphic. He was a lifelong friend (for sixty-six, 
and closely for fifty-one years) of William Hutton, 
the historian of Birmingham and the author of 
numerous original and amusing works ; and 
Hutton wrote the obituary notice of his friend in 
the Monthly Magainne of December, 1801. Robert 
Bage had the good fortune of the praise of Sir 
Walter Scott, and to have a place in the 
" Novelists' Library " with an interesting record of 
his life and fame. Scott reprinted three of Bage's 
novels in the "Novelists' Library," and Mrs. 
Barbauld another of the novels, and one of them 
was translated into German. Catherine Hutton 
wrote some of the facts about her father's friend 
for Scott's reprint. Her father, in his own bio- 
graphy, recalled the memory of his old friend : 

" ' Mount Henneth ' became justly popular, from the 
vivacity of its style and dialogue, and the many well- 
drawn characters and apposite reflections on questions 
of morality and humanity All his works were favour- 
ably received by the public as far superior to the 
common run of novels." 

References to Bage have appeared in the ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog.'; Allibone's 'Critical Dictionary' 
(vol. i. col. 2), Philadelphia, 1882; Chalmers's 
'Biog. Diet.'; and Chambers's 'Cyclo. Eng. 
Literature,' vol. ii. p. 546, 1644. ESTE. 

HAMOAZE (8 th S. vi. 447 ; vii. 52). Camden 
(1806) in his Cornwall' says : 

" The Lymher takes its name from the lake it makes 
before it joins the Tamar at Hamoaze, a small stream in 
summer, but in winter rapid and dangerous. Hamoaze 
ia the antient Tamer-worth, appointed by Athelstan to 
be the general boundary of the Cornish Britons, 'till 
broken in upon by the Valetorts, who held lands ia 
Devonshire in the Cornish times (see Borlase, 'Nat. 
Hist.,' p. 37, 38)." 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

THE VICTORIA CROSS (8 th S. vii. 448, 498). 
This has, so far, been conferred upon men only. 
The order is granted to men of the army and navy, 
of all ranks, for a single act of valour in the pre- 
sence of an enemy. It is said to have been 
instituted as an imitation of the French Legion of 
Eonour. At the present time there are no fewer 
than one hundred and seventy-four soldiers who 



are in possession of the order. Your correspondent 
J. B. S. is in error in naming Mrs. Grimwood as 
having been presented with this decoration. No 
member of the fair sex has had that honour ; it is 
a purely masculine order. Mrs. Grimwood was 
honoured by Her Majesty with the Red Cross. 
This information is imparted by the lady herself, 
in her account of her life and adventures in 
Burmah, published under the title of 'Three 
Years in Manipur.' If J. B. S. will turn to the 
work named, he will there find an account of its 
bestowal on the heroine of Manipur by the Queen 
in person. C. P. HALE. 

No woman has ever received the decoration of 
the Victoria Cross. Mrs. Grimwood was given 
the Albert Cross (not Victoria and Albert), and, 
I believe, is the only lady who has it. 


{8 th S. vii. 7, 153). This expression reminds one 
of "played the Jack" in 'The Tempest,' where 
the phrase is equivalent to played the knave, 
deceived, deluded : 

" Cal. Pray you, tread softly, that tbe blind mole may 
not hear a foot fall : we are now near his cell. 

" Steph. Monster, your fairy, which you say is a harm- 
less fairy, has done little better than played the Jack 
with us." IV. i. 

C. C. B.'s version of the " old rhyme " cited by 
him differs from Halliwell's ('Popular Rhymes,' 
p. 119), which is : 

Charley wag, 

Ate the pudding and left the bag. 
As " wag " denotes an arch, frolicsome fellow, and 
"Charley" is sometimes used for a fox, perhaps 
the expression "Charley- wag" may be thus 
accounted for. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

MASON'S ' HISTORY OF NORFOLK ' (8 tb S. i. 293)' 
I have only just noticed MR. W. B. GERISH'S 
query as to this work, which comes into the list 
of unfinished books. Only five parts were pub- 
lished of this sumptuous history ; Part v., " Acle 
to Barford," having been reached when the author 


"ROLL-WAGGON" (8 tb S. vii. 147, 176, 232). 
A trundle, or go-cart, on two wheels. In every- 
day use by invalids at the German spas. It is 
pushed from behind, and can be tilted up to rest 
on the ground in front, so that the occupant can 
enter and leave conveniently. This name is as- 
signed to them in the public notices at Meran, in 
Tyrol, from which place I have just returned. 


Windham Club. 

DIP (8 tt S. vii. 407, 456). The dip as to which 
DR. MURRAY inquires is the curtsey uuce vulgarly 

known as the " charity bob," as it was always 
used by poor girls and women when meeting their 
benefactors or superiors. Of late years fashion 
decreed that it should no longer be confined to the 
poor. Possibly in these days of hurry the grace- 
ful reverences of our mothers and grandmothers 
were found to take too much valuable time. It 
simply consists in bending the knees while the 
body remains straight. MATILDA POLLARD. 
Belle Vue, Bengeo. 

THE HARP, IRELAND (8 th S. vii. 428). So 
many very able and exhaustive articles on the 
' Introduction of the Irish Harp into Europe ' have 
already appeared in ' N. & Q.,' that I cannot do 
better than refer your corrrespondent to 3 rd S. xi. 
214 ; xii. 141, 209, 229, 247, 298. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

BARBAROSSA (8 th S. vii. 367, 390, 498). MR. 
E. YARDLEY is doubtless alluding to F. Riickert's 
poem ' Barbarossa,' of which the first two lines 
are : 

Der alte Barbarossa, der Kaiser Friederich, 

Im unterird 'scheii Schlosse halt er verzaubert sich. 

Russell (' Modern Europe/ vol. i. p. 235) says that 
Frederick Barbarossa, having pillaged Iconium and 
crossed Mount Taurus on his way to the Holy 
Laud, during the third Crusade, " while leading 
his army over a narrow bridge that crossed the Selef 
or Calocadnus, unfortunately fell into the river, 
and being hurried away by its rapid stream, was 
drowned." Sir George W. Cox (' The Crusades ') 
says (p. 121), " Frederick was drowned in a Cicilian 
river, as some said, while he was crossing it ; as 
others had it, from the effects of bathing." 

Brixton Hill, S.W. 

The "German poem" alluded to at the last 
reference is a short ballad, entitled ' Barbarossa in 
Kyffhauser,' by Ruckert, and is reprinted in 
'Deutsches Balladenbuch.' 


The Bntssey Institute, Hastings. 

SIR HENRY HERBERT (8 th S. vii. 288, 372). 
The following are brief particulars from State 
Papers, 'Committee for Compounding,' Jan. 6, 

Sir Wm. Brereton begs favour for Sir Henry 
Herbert as being "respectful to prisoners, and 
having done other good offices." Sir Henry was 
M.P., deserted the House, and sat at Oxford. On 
Oct. 6 discharged from custody, having submitted 
and satisfied his fine. He brought a complaint of 
officers having driven away his cattle ; restitution 
ordered by the Committee, and the County Com- 
mittee to forbear pressing him for rent. 

John Ireton, mercer, of London, gives informa- 
tion that Sir Henry has undervalued his estate in 

. vni. JOLT is, -95] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Bewdley, Ribbesford (co. Wore.), and elsewher 
by 3001. a year, and the rectory of Kerry, co 
Montgomery (601. a year). He is to have si 
weeks allowed to answer this charge ; and the 
begs discharge of sequestration for supposed under 
valuation, and desires to grant a lease for twenty 
one years at the rate compounded for, 1651. Th 
Committee differing on case, request Brereton' 

"RUNNING THE GANTLOPE" (7 th S. xii. 364 
8 th S. vi. 398). The following passage from a 
broadside in the British Museum may be adduce 
as an earlier example. It is an account of " The 
tryal of John Foster, Private Centinel, for stealing 
mag-pye," dated 1693 : 

" Court. What is the Justice of Peace his Name ? 

" Mr. Connisbey. His Name is Hawley, my Lord. 

" Court. Pray where does he Live ? 

" Mr. Connisbey. At New Brandford. 

" Court. He was but a foolish man for his pains to 
commit a poor Fellow to Gaol for such a silly trifling 
business as this is; he had better have sent him to hi 
Captain, and let him run the Qantlet." 


48). In the year 1892 I was for some time occu- 
pying the house at Buxted Park, and while there 
I came upon an old iron fireback bearing the arms 
of Pankhurst, which I was the means of restoring 
to one of the representatives of the family. Sc 
far as I am aware there is no entry under the 
name of Pankhurst in any of the Buxted registers ; 
but if any one interested cares to apply to me, I 
will give him the address of one of the repre- 
sentatives of the family. 


H.B.M. Legation, Belgrade. 

Q0ARTERSTAFF (8 tb S. vii. 347, 413). Allow 

me to refer your correspondent to ' Ivanhoe,' 
chap. x. , which contains a graphic description of a 
bout at quarterstaff by moonlight between Gurth 
the swineherd and the Miller, one of Robin Hood's 
merry men. I rather think that in the Abbotsford 
edition of the " Waverley Novels " there is a small 
vignette illustration representing the combat pre- 
fixed to the chapter. 

In Evans's * Old Ballads,' in the account of the 
affray between Robin Hood and the tanner of 
Nottingham, Arthur a Bland, the quarterstaff 
appears to have been the weapon used : 
Then Robin Hood unbuckled his belt, 

And laid down his bow so long; 
He took up a staff of another oak craft, 
That was both stiff and strong. 

Vol. i. xxi. p. 113. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

KNOX FAMILIES (8 th S. vii. 368). In 'The 
Genealogical Memoirs of John Knox: and the 

Family of Knox,' by the Rev. Charles Rogers, 
LL.D., I find that A'ndrew Knox, Bishop of the 
Isles, and afterwards of Raphoe, who died in 1633, 
had three sons Thomas, James, and George 
who all took orders. Thomas succeeded his father 
as Bishop of the Isles. He died without issue, 
aged about forty, in 1628. I am unable to trace 
any descendants of James and George. It is 
stated by Crawfurd, who wrote about the year 
1726, that the male posterity of Bishop Andrew 
Knox had become extinct. E. GOFF. 

229). By the O'Milligan, R. W. H. must mean 
the Mulligan of Ballymulligan, whose original 
was William John O'Connell, commonly known 
as Lord Kilmallock, from his native town in co. 
Limerick. He was a follower, but not a connexion, 
of Daniel O'Connell. Morgan John O'Connell 
was a nephew of the " Liberator " and M.P. for 
co. Kerry. J. LEYNE. 

" THE WRONG END OF THE STICK " (8 th S. vii. 

486). There is a vulgar variant of this phrase, 
which, from its frequency on the lips of the class 
with whom such sayings originate, I believe to be 
the original form, and to which PROF. SKEAT'S 
explanation of the phrase would not apply. I 
cannot quote it here ; but I may say that it sup- 
poses one end of the stick to have been befouled, 
possibly of set purpose. However this may be, 
;he phrase thus amended is certainly more forcible 
than in its politer form as explained by PROF. 
SKEAT. 0. C. B. 

This expression means, as PROF. SKEAT rightly 
remarks, to be in an unpleasant position ; but not 
quite as he puts it. There is a handle to every 
stick, and there is also the point, that goes into 
mud (or " muck," as they say in the North). A 
man who gets hold of the wrong end of the stick, 
herefore, catches bold of the dirty part, and his 
lands are soiled for his pains. HARRY HEMS. 
Fair Park, Exeter. 

HILDA (8 th S. vii. 428). There appears to be 

no room for doubt that Hilda is derived from 

lildur, the war-maiden, or chooser of the dead. 

3ee Miss Yonge's ' Christian Names.' There are 

wo Huldas in northern story ; Hulda the pro- 

itious, the Queen of the Flax Maidens, and Hulda 

be Queen of the Kobolds. The name has thus 

ome to be interpreted variously as "darkness," 

nd as " mercy." The latter derivation is, accord- 

ng to Wagner, the more likely of the two. 

C. 0. B. 

TUSCDLUM UNIVERSITY (8 th S. vi. 209, 273, 
33, 436 ; vii. 36, 217, 433). May I, for the 
aird time, point out to readers of ' N. & Q.,' and 
articularly to MR. A. MONTGOMERY HANDY, that 
jrreeneville and Tusculum College is the correct 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.vm.jcLYiv95. 

name for J_this seat of learning ? Hence a person 
looking for Tusculum University among a list of 
regularly chartered universities and colleges would 
fail to find it. The name Greeneville and Tus- 
culum College thrice occurs in the latest Govern- 
ment Report issued by the Commissioner of 
Education, and printed at the Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, in 1891 (vide pp. 1122, 
1137, 1218). If MB. HANDY applies to the Com- 
missioner this report will be forwarded to him free 
of cost. 

As a final proof that the college exists, and that 
its status is unquestionable, I quote an extract 
from the letter of the Acting Commissioner which 
accompanied the ' Report ' (two bulky volumes) 
alluded to : 

Department of the Interior. 
Bureau of Education, Washington, D.C. 

In the second volume of the report you will find on 
page 1122, among the list of Colleges and Universities, 
the name of Greeneville and Tusculum College, to which 
it is admitted on the ground of possessing legal authority 
to confer degrees. (Signed) J. W. HOLCOMBE, 

Acting Commissioner. 

Perhaps after this letter MR. HANDY will inquire 
more deeply into the matter, and admit that Greene- 
ville and Tusculum College not only exists, but 
that its degrees are not negotiable in the way be 
seems to suggest. His letter appears to me to be 
manifestly unfair, and might tend to debar the 
progress of an institution which has existed since 
1794. Any readers of * N. & Q.' who apply to 
Prof. J. Moore, D.D. , Dean of Greeneville and 
Tusculum College, Tusculum, Greene County, 
E. Tennessee, for a Calendar of the College, wil 
readily be obliged, and they will find therein a full 
list of professors and students, and photographic 
reproductions of the college buildings from a cen- 
tury ago down to the present year. 


Winder House, Bradford. 

"LINKS" (8 to S. vii. 465). The following 
passage may be of use : 

" The country, I have said, was mixed sand-hill an 
links ; links being a Scottish name for sand which ha 
ceased drifting and become more or less solidly covere 
with turf." R. L. Stevenson, ' New Arabian Nights 
p. 181. 

Is this the characteristic of all golf links ; or ha 
the term been transferred from such a place wher 
golf was first played to other ground suitable fo 
the game but not composed in the same way ? 


Miss WILKINS'S BOOKS (8 tb S. vii. 388, 478). I 
addition to the books named at this reference, Mis 
Mary Eleanor Wilkins wrote ' The Adventures 
Ann,' which was published by Lothrop & Co., o 
Boston, in 1886. She is also the author 
' Silence,' which appeared in Harper's Magazin 
for July, 1893 ; ' The Buckley Lady,' in Harper's 
for March, 1894; and 'The New England Prophet,' 

n the same magazine for September, 1894. Your 
orrespondent will perhaps be pleased to know 
hat in the Author, vol. ii., for 1890, is an inter- 
sting article, entitled ' Mary E. Wilkins at Home,' 
which also several of her contributions to 
eriodical literature are mentioned. 


"CHINOISBRIE" (8 th S. vii. 508). The follow- 
ng passage from Lorddan Larchey's ' Dictionnaire 
Historique d'Argot,' 1880, p. 104, will help to 
xplain the force of the above term : 

" Chinoit : Homme singulier, bizarre d'aspect ou de 
aractere. Allusion au Chinois de paravent et a leur 
spect estrange. ' Parmi les badauds attires a Paris pour 
e sacre de Napoleon I", on distinguait les presidents de 
antons, bonnes gens pour la plupart, avec un air d'im- 
lortance qui amusait les Parisiens; on les appelait des 
jhinois, en leur qualite de presidents de cantons. Cette 
mauvaise plaisanterie eut du succes ' (Lamothe-Langon, 
Souvenirs d'une Femme de QualiteV p. 30)." 



This word is a neologism, admitted by the 
French Academy since 1878, and applies to such 
complicated formalities as foreigners meet with 
among the people of China. (See Hatzfeld et 
Darmesteter, ' Dictionnaire,' ed. A. Thomas, p. 428.) 


The subjoined extract from Littre" may supply 
the information sought by your correspondent as 
to the meaning of the above word : 

Chinoiserie, fig. et par plaisanterie, action, parole de 

" Chinois, se dit en moquerie de quelqu'un qui par sa 
tournure de corps ou d'esprit a quelque chose de burlesque 
et de desagreable." 

I have met with the word more than once in 
French novels ; but I take it that it is a new word, 
and only coming into use. T. R. GRUNDY. 

Grange Club, Guernsey. 

This French word is in common use. But 
surely a good French-English dictionary ought to 
give the English equivalents required by your 
correspondent. DELTA. 

" Dans le langage familier, une chinoiserie est une 
bizarrerie, une betise." Napole'on Landaia, 'Diction- 
narie,' 14 6dit., Paris, 1862. 

" (Familiar), quaint joke ; intricate and quaint pro- 
cedure or contrivance." ' Argot and Slang,' A. Barrere, 
London, 1887. 

"Farce, plaisanterie de bon ou de mauvais gout." 
' Dictionnaire de la Langue Verte ' (par) " Alfred Delvau, 
Nouvelle edition," not dated, but issued recently. 


MKS. GARRICK (8 th S. vii. 343 ; viii. 18). Your 
correspondent credits me with an " error " of jwhich 
I am certainly not guilty. So far from saying in 
my ' Old and New London ' that Mrs. Garrick was 

8*s. viii. j LTiv95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

married in "St. Giles's parish church," I wrot 
exactly the opposite ; see vol. iii. p. 213 : 

"Two doors eastward of Freemason's Tavern ia 
Wealeyan chapel ; and it may be interesting to recor 
here the fact ' not generally known ' that at a place o 
worship on or near this spot, on the 22nd of June, 1748 
one David Garrick was married by his friend, the cele 
brated Dr. Franklin, to Maria Violette, of St. James's 
Westminster, a celebrated dancer." 

MR. WARD has no doubt been misled by wha 
follows : "According, however, to her own state 
ment, Mrs. Garrick was married at the parisl 
church of St. Giles." E. WALFORD. 


SIR STEPHEN EVANCE (8 th S. iii. 469 ; iv. 191 
vii. 433). Will MR. DANIEL HIPWELL, who 
kindly gave the information respecting Sir Stephen 
Evance, supplement it with any information re 
garding the connexion existing between the saic 
Hugh Evance, of the Company of Cloth workers, Lon 
don, and Robert Evance, of Astley, Salop, who was 
the father of three clerical sons (viz., Rev. Cornelius 
Evance, rector of Westbury, Salop, born 1616 
Rev. John Evance, rector of Newtown and Llan- 
merewig, Canon of St. Asapb, born 1621, obi 
1688 ; and Rev. Nebemiah Evance, rector of 
Han wood, Salop, obit 1693) ; also between Ed- 
ward Evance, of Treveleth and Dryle, Salop, who 
was the father of Roger Evance, Sheriff of Shrop- 
shire, born 1621, sheriff 1677, obit 1679, also of 
Treveletb, Salop, as is recorded of Robert Evance 
and of Hugh Evance, and all bearing the same 
arms, viz., Arg., fesse between three fleurs de lis 
sable (borne by lorworth Voel, Lord of Plas y 
Dinas), pierced inter or, a cross moline between 
four lozenges azure (borne by Mael Mollenydd) ? 
The querist would be very grateful for any in- 
formation regarding the connexion between Robert 
Evance, of Astley, Salop, and Hugh Evance, of 
London, both being Evances of Treveleth. The 
family of Evance of Treveleth derive from 
Roderic the Great (Rhodri Mawr), and descend 
without break to Thomas Evance, obit 1604, aged 
seventy-three, who was Attorney-General for the 
Court of the Marches, and married Eleanor, 
daughter of Edward Lloyd, of Sweeny, and 
his brother "Richard Evance, second son," who 
married Catherine, daughter of John Lloyd, of 
Llanforda, Salop. Little seems to be known of 
this Richard Evance, except that he is said to 
have had " issue." Thomas Evance's son, Richard 
Evance, obit 1613, is recorded in the 'Vis. Fed.' 
He was the father of three sons Edward Evance, 
of Treveleth ; Thomas Evance, of Waltstay, whose 
son, "Eyton Evans," had an only daughter, Jane 
Evance, who married Sir John Wynne, carrying 
that estate into the Wynne family (they changed 
the name Waltstay to Wynstay), and John Evance, 
third son. All these appear to be contemporary with 
Robert Evance of Astley. The Oswestry registers 

give : 1569, Elinor, daughter of Richard Evance ; 
1578, Richard Evance buried (Robert Evance r gent. r 
was buried 1559) ; " Sir John Evance, married to 
Margaret, daughter of William," 1588 ; and "Sir 
John Evance, 1614 "(probably clerics). In Harl. 
1973 occurs Hugo Evance, but he is of the family 
of Evance of Shrewsbury, arms, Or, a cross moline 
between four lozenges azure pierced inter cross 
engrailed, ends fleury sable, between four Cornish 
choughs ppr., a boar's head couped of the first. 
This branch derive from Mael Mollenydd after 
nineteen descents from Bledyn ap Eynven. Evance 
of Crick ieth deduce from Rivid Flaidd. " Master 
Evance" is mentioned in a letter from Bishop 
Latimer to Lord Cromwell and the Privy Council 
1537. Le Neve's record concerning Sir Stephen 
Evance is proved to be somewhat incorrect. 
Stephen, son of John Evance, when his mother 
married again, "apprenticed himself" to a gold- 
smith, being then sixteen or seventeen, entered 
into partnership with Percival, became a banker, 
was the friend of Mr. Pitt, negotiated for him the 
sale of the Pitt or Regent diamond to the Duke 
of Orleans for 125,0002. (now valued at 450,0002.),. 
was member for Bridport in two Parliaments, was 
knight and baronet, Commissioner of Taxes, Com- 
missioner of Wine Licences, owned large property 
in Essex, became security in 20,0002. for Hub- 
bald's that they should " perform their duties " to 
Sir Thomas Littleton, then Treasurer to the Royal 
Navy. Sir Thomas prosecuted Sir Stephen for 
this amount, and he, being at the time unable to- 
meet it, shot himself. John Evance, brother to 
Sir Stephen, predeceased him and left an only 
daughter and heiress, Hester Evance, who at the 
age of nineteen, with the consent of her uncle 
3ir Stephen Evance, married Sir Caesar Child,. 
Bart.; with their son, Sir Caesar Child, Bart., the- 
male branch ceased. A. V. E. 


S. viii. 4). It is worth while to note that the 
" comic poem " quoted at the above reference is 
simply one of the well-known 'Bon Gaultier 
Ballads.' I suppose that the imitations of Uhland 
were written by Sir Theodore Martin. 


CADOWE (8 th S. viii. 9). The ' N. E. D.' sup- 
plies the information. The " twoo Cadowes " were 
ough woollen coverings. Quotations are given 
rom 1579 to 1880. PAUL BIERLEY. 

"STILL AND ON" (8 th S. yii. 204, 475). MR, 
VILBON is perfectly justified in his contention that 
xamples of still, in the sense of " continuously," 
re as common as blackberries. Will he now pro- 
eed a step further, and give some specimens of 
' still and on " with the same signification ? For, 
fter all, it was this that was asked, and not the 
ther. The query bore upon modern Scotch or 



Scotch of any period, for that matter and not 
Elizabethan English. In his next communication 
MR. WILSON will confer a favour, if he will kindly 
explain his remark that " Jamieson probably omits 
the more usual conjunction meaning, because it 
is not provincial but literary." This is too oracular. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

JOHN LISTON (8 th S. iii. 143, 216, 252, 374, 
418; v. 55, 77). Listen's father is said to have 
lived in Norris Street, St. George's Place (H. G. 
Davis, 'Memorials of Knightsbridge,' 1859, 
p. 188). The marriage (per the archbishop's 
licence) of John Listen, of the parish of St. 
George, Bloomsbury, bachelor, with Sarah Tyter, 
spinster, is recorded (p. 71) in the Register of 
Marriages in the Parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, co. Middlesex, under date March 22, 1807. 
The witnesses present on the occasion were Wm. 
and E. A. Leyburn and E. Williams. The inscrip- 
tion on the stone covering grave No. 6020 in Kensal 
Green Cemetery records that Listen died March 22, 
1846, aged seventy; his widow, Sarah Liston, 
died at 28, Brompton Square, whither she had 
removed from Knightsbridge Sept. 19, 1854, aged 
seventy. Their only son, Capt. John Terry Liston, 
of the 7th Dragoon Guards, who died Nov. 20, 
1854, aged forty-two, also lies buried at Kensal 

A FOUNDATION SACRIFICE (8 th S. vii. 486). Is 
not the idea that the grave and human remains 
found under the foundations of the tower at Dar- 
rington Church denote a human sacrifice, very 
improbable ? May not the church have been built 
on the site of a more ancient burial-place ? At 
Roydon Church, Norfolk, near Diss, while digging 
in the centre of the round tower, in 1893, for the 
construction of a warming apparatus, the workmen 
came upon a shallow urn, or pan, with a wide 
mouth, at a depth of about four feet. It was 
filled with earth, and beside it were bones of a 
man of large stature. No sufficiently exact anc 
accurate account of the discovery could be obtained 
from the men ; but the bones and the broken 
pottery were preserved. The church stands on 
high ground, overlooking the Waveney valley, anc 
is a likely site for an early burial-place. The urn 
is apparently Roman. C. R. MANNING. 

Have we not here an instance simply of a 
founder's tomb ? Human sacrifice is hardly likeb 
to have been practised in England in the thirteenth 
century ; but tombs in tower walls are occasional!; 
met with ; and if no outside show was made tc 
indicate the spot, perhaps that was to be accountec 
for by the parsimony of the heirs or the humility 
of the founder. Compare this with the humilit; 
which dictated burial under the gutters of abbe; 
or church building?, referred to by Cochet in 

Sepultures Ganloises, Romaines, Franques, et 
!?ormandes ' (1857) as " une coutume assez com- 
mune au moyen-age." Perhaps regard for the 
upposed sanctity of the water dripping on the 
gutters from the roofs of holy places may have had 
nore to do with this than the humility of the 
ubject. I. C. GOULD. 


THE NEW BRONZE COINS (8 th S. vii. 467). 
fhe following took place exactly as I describe it. 
["<> illustrate the meaning of a superscription, I 
asked in school, on one occasion, what was the 
uperscription on an English penny. To this the 
mswer was, " The Queen riding on a bicycle." 
This may show the possible misconception of the 
ntent of the device on the reverse of Britannia. 

[8 th S. vii. 489). The cap worn by a Knight of 
ihe Garter is made of black velvet, turned up in 
front, having a plume of ostrich feathers, about 
sixteen in number, with an egret, or heron's plume, 
issuing from and surmounting the whole. The 
cap may be adorned with a bandeau of precious 
stones, according to the taste of the knight. Pote, 
in his ' History and Antiquities, says, " Plumes of 
tine white feathers with a stately heron's feather 
rising in the middle." Burke, " A tuft of black 
heron's feathers." Formerly the covering for the 
head was the hood ; the exact time when the cap 
came into use is not stated. 


Sir Bernard Burke, in ' The Book of Orders of 
Knighthood and Decorations of Honour of All 1 
Nations,' 1858, p. 100, in describing the " Habit 
and Insignia " of the Order of the Garter, says : 

"The Hat is of black velvet lined with white Taffeta ; 
the plume of white ostrich feathers, in the centre of 
which a tuft of black heron's feathers, all fastened to 
the hat by a band of diamonds." 

In " An Accurate Historical Account of All the 

Orders of Knighthood by an Officer of the 

Chancery of the Equestrian-Secular and Chapteral 
Order of St. Joachim," London (not dated), is the 
following in the account of the order (vol. ii. p. 6) : 

" The Hat is rather high with a narrow brim. It is 
of black Velvet, and is adorned with a Band or Girdle- 
of precious Stones, and with Plumes of black and Ostrich 

The date of this book, from the Dissertation 
addressed to Lord Nelson, must be 1803 or there- 
abouts. Facing the title-page of the second volume 
of " Almanach der Ritter-Orden von Friedrich 

Gottschalck Leipzig bei Georg Joachim, Goe- 

schen, 1818," is a coloured print representing a 
Knight of the Garter in full dress. Th hat, which 
he holds in his right hand, is black with a white 
lining, and is shaped something like the ordinary 
tall hat of to-day, though lower. It has fixed to 

8*s. vm. JULY is, 


one side a plume, consisting of at least fire whit 
ostrich feathers with one or more black feather 
in the top. The whole plume appears to reac 
from the brim of the hat to about fifteen inche 
above the crown, i. e., about nineteen inches in al 
The plume and hat, however, are upside down i 
the picture, and perhaps the feathers would droo 
when the hat was on the head. 


BARONS O'NEILL (8 th S. vii. 448, 516). John 
O'Neill, of Shane's Castle, co. Antrim, born Jan 

16, 1740, was created, Oct. 25, 1793, Baron O'Neill 
and Oct. 3, 1795, Viscount O'Neill. He was son 
of Charles O'Neill, of Shane's Castle, by Catharine 
daughter of St. John Broderick, and grandson o 
John O'Neill, of Shane's Castle, descended from 
Shane McBrian O'Neill, the last Lord of Clanaboy 
John, Viscount O'Neill, was killed by the rebels at 
Antrim June 17, 1798. His eldest son, Charles 
Henry St. John, was advanced to the dignities o 
Earl O'Neill and Viscount Eaymond Aug., 1800. 
He was succeeded by his brother, John Bruce 
Eichard, in the viscountcy and barony. At the 
death of the latter, without children, in 1855, his 
property went to the Rev. William Chichester, 
great-grandson of the Rev. Arthur Chichester, whc 
married Mary, only child of Henry O'Neill, of 
Shane's Castle, uncle to the first viscount. Mr. 
William Chichester assumed the surname ol 
O'Neill, and was created Baron O'Neill in 1863. 
The present Lord O'Neill is his son. 

Catharine, one of the sisters of Charles O'Neill, 
married Richard, seventh Viscount Mountgarret, 
and Mary, another sister, married Robert Burrowes, 
son of Sir William Burrowes, Bart., and Anne 
O'Neill, his daughter, married Richard Jackson, 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

" ARTISTS' GHOSTS" (8 th S. v. 227, 336, 374, 395 ; 
vii. 299, 474). The quotation MR. C. P. HALE 
gives from the Magazine of Art for July, 1894, 
is culled from an article in that publication headed 
'The Artist's Ghost,' written by a Mr. M. H. 
Spielmann, who evidently was not well informed 
upon the subject he wrote upon, Much that he 
said therein was contradicted in the following 
September number of the same magazine. Noble, 
Edwards, and Bursill have all in turn passed away ; 
and so, as they cannot speak for themselves, I 
take this opportunity of doing so for them. The 
expression " ghost " was never used in connexion 
with Noble and any one in his employ. Joseph 
Edwards was a very clever Welsh sculptor, settled 
in London, with a small connexion of his own. 
He used to " put in " time, after hours, at Noble's 
studio, but there was no secrecy or mystery about 
the matter. Bursill (William Bursill), who also 
had a small private studio in Camden Town, died 
sixteen or seventeen years ago of small-pox. He 

was another clever modeller and sculptor (a Royal 
Academy Gold Medallist) upon Noble's staff ; but 
he was not known as a " devil." The expression 
savours of a printing office, and not of a sculptor's 
studio. Bursill certainly did not invent the ex- 
pression " a sculptor's ghost." It was first used 
publicly in the celebrated trial of Belt v. Lawes, 
on June 23, 1882, that being the third day of 
that tremendously long action (forty-three days). 
According to the Daily Telegraph's report, the 
next day, Mr. C. Russell, Q.C. (now the Lord 
Chief Justice), for the defendant, cross-examined 
the plaintiff, who, in reply to a question, said, 
" He had never heard the expression ' a sculptor's 
ghost' until a few months ago. I understand it to 
mean that a person who is supposed to do the 
work does not do it." 

Let me add my personal testimony that Richard 
Belt was, in spite of all that was said against him, 
an artist and a clever sculptor. I first knew him 
as a barber's assistant, in a shaving shop, now 
pulled down, which fronted what is now St. 
Thomas's Hospital, and the back of which ran 
towards the rear of Astley's Theatre, in West- 
minster Bridge Road, S.W. That must have been 
about thirty years ago. He was then known 
amongst the people who lived in the neighbourhood 
as the " sculptor barber." Amongst those who 
used' the shop was the late W. Woodington, A.R.A., 
who did one of the panels in the base of the 
Nelson monument in Trafalgar Square. He took 
great interest in the artistic shaver, and gave him 
many useful hints. Belt was particularly good at 
busts, and numerous casts of his workmanship not 
only adorned the inside of the hairdresser's sanctum,, 
but were stuck up outside, over the sign, and even, 
if I remember rightly, upon the parapet in front of 
;he roof. The fact of Belt's once having been 
a barber was not, I believe, mentioned during the 
"ibel trial ; so this is probably the first time the 
'act has been recorded in print. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

P,S. The barber in whose employ was the eru- 
>ryo sculptor Richard Belt was named Long. 

The use of the expression may be illustrated 
urther by referring to Dickens's sketch ' The 
host of Art ' (' Reprinted Pieces '). 


I do not know at what date the name " ghost " 

was invented by the familiar of Mr. Noble, but 

hink it must be older than the trial of Belt v. 

awes, for, if I remember rightly, it was used in 

onnexion with the controversy there was in Rome 

n the winter of 1873-4 on the subject of ghostly 

ssistance there in the sculptors' studios ; when, 

las ! from what I heard of artistic opinion on the- 

ubject, it appeared to be generally acknowledged 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s s. vm. JULY 13, 

and deplored. In fact, some sculptors and sculp- 
tresses of European reputation were reported to 
have largely availed themselves of this super- 
natural assistance. J. B. 

11 HA-HA " (8 th S. vi. 66, 198, 271 ; vii. 354). 
Perhaps the following passage may throw some 
light on the etymology : 

" A labyrinth of alleys was penned out at a convenient 
part of the wood, and here the archers lay under covert. 
The hunt began bj sending men round to brush and 
beat the wood and drive the game with dogs and horns 
into the ambuscade. This pen is the haia so frequently 
occurring among the silvce of Domesday." Earle's 
' Saxon Chronicles,' p. 367. 

This would seem to correspond with what is called 
a deer-leap. The following description of one in 
Wotton, near Dorking, Surrey, may not be devoid 
of interest : 

"There are two things to which the term deer-leap, 
or, as it was more commonly called, buck-leap, was 
applied. It was generally applied to a narrow strip of 
land adjoining to and running round the outside of the 
paling or fence of an ancient park. The breadth of 
this strip was the distance which it was supposed a deer 
could leap at one bound, and hence its name was de- 
rived. The other kind of buck-leap is where a park 
adjoins a forest or chase. It is made by digging a hole 
along the boundary, some six or seven feet deep, and 
building a wall on the side next the forest or chase up 
to the level of the ground. The ground in the park is 
gradually eloped upwards from the bottom of the wall 
to the level of the park. The result is that a deer can 
leap from the forest or chase into the park, but cannot 
leap back again. It is, in fact, a deer-trap." 

This is from the Abinger Monthly Record, No- 
vember, 1890, a parish magazine much above the 
average of such publications. AYEAHR. 

Ha-ha is probably related to ho ho or soho, and 
Lord Berners says it is equivalent to stop, or hold. 
Now hold was also written halt. Ealten Wachter 
gives as to hold. Thus a ha-ha might very well 
be a stop or halt, a ditch that brings to a standstill. 
To haw-haw between your words in speaking 
indicates the same meaning of hiatus or halting. 
But there is another etymon that is very plausible, 
and which I have never seen alluded to. Haha 
in German is a garden window opening upon a 
prospect. Now our ha-ha is a garden wall sunken 
so as not to interrupt the view. It is a gap 
preventing trespass, but an adjustment helping 
sight. As the invention was evidently devised 
to facilitate outlook, perhaps the last suggestion 
should have the preference given to it. 

0. A. WARD. 

Charlecot, Walthamstow. 

LILAC (8 h S. vii. 489). I do not think there is 
any doubt that this word is derived from the 
Persian lilaj, or lilanj, which, according to Skeat, 
is equivalent to nil, or nilac, and means, strictly, 
the indigo plant, although older writers apply it 
to any flower. There are at least three white 

lilacs : Syringa alba, S. alba major, and S. alba 
plena (the latter with double flowers), all varieties- 
of the common lilac (S. -vulgaris). There are also 
red varieties (rubra and rubra major], so Cowper's 
classification is not an incorrect one. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

Both name and tree are of Persian origin, but 
came to us through Turkey. The name means 
" blneish " (see Skeat), and indicates the colour of 
the flower. The tree is said to have been brought 
to Vienna by Bnsbecq late in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The first mention of the name I have seen 
in English is in Gerard, where it is given as 
" lillach or lilach," and is said to have been applied 
by " the later physitians " to Syringa ccerulea, or 
" Blew Pipe," by which, evidently, Gerard means 
the lilac.* "These trees," he says, "grow not 
wild in England, but I have them growing in my 
garden in great plenty." There are, as is well 
known, different varieties, some white, some of 
different shades of purple. I doubt whether Cow- 
per meant more than this. " Sanguine " is a some- 
what ambiguous term. C. C. B. 

The lilac, says some punster slily, 
Is named from smelling like a ll-ly I 
He must have thought us wondrous silly; 
We know the sound of t in lily. 


For the origin of the word, and the various 
names by which the tree has been known, see 
1 N. & Q.,' 2 na S. vii. 293, 460 ; viii. 73, 109. 

71, Brecknock Boad. 

COCK-FIGHTING (8 th S. vii. 288, 338, 473). Is 
MR. PICKFORD quite justified in saying that Dr. 
John Freind was the most celebrated physician of 
his time ? I do not feel that in learning, celebrity, 
or lofty character he could at all hold his own 
against Eichard Mead, a man brilliant as well as 
learned. If in the practical I had had to consult 
a physician, I would have chosen the fellow student 
of Boerhaave much in preference to Freind. Mead 
refused to prescribe for Walpole, the corrupter of 
the Commons, till he released Freind from the 
Tower, who there wrote his grand ' History of 
Physic.' All the time Mead kept his practice 
together for him, and when he came out handed 
him the money proceeds. Who ever did the like ? 
This puts Mead above Hippocrates. It is due to 
add that MR. PICKFORD'S is a capital and most 
suggestive note. There is something brutal in 
cock-fighting, and even in hunting. But man ia 
two-thirds brutal, and we are off the balance now. 

C. A. WARD. 

Charlecot, Walthansstow, E. 

* The name " lilac " originally belonged to the indigo 
| plant. 




Carolina Vedaslina. Collected and Edited by W. Spar- 
row Simpson, D.D., F.S.A. (Stock.) 
THERE are few more hardworking antiquaries than Dr. 
Simpson. We have read much that he has written, and 
we fear that still more has escaped us. The lives and 
writings of mediaeval saints have a natural attraction for 
him ; but there is a special reason why he should take 
interest in St. Yedast. There are, it appears, but two 
churches in this country dedicated to the saint one in 
the City of London (St. Vedast, Poster Lane, of which 
he is the incumbent) and another at Tathwell, in Lin- 
colnshire. There was once a third, at Norwich, but it 
perished during the great religious revolution of the 
sixteenth century. We are not aware that it has been 
ascertained why this Prankish saint was honoured even 
to this limited degree in England. The place of his 
birth seems to be unknown. He became, when young, a 
hermit in the diocese of Toul, where he was raised to 
the priesthood, and afterwards assisted St. Remigius in 
-the conversion of the Pranks, and was, we may believe, 
in consequence, consecrated Bishop of Arras; and in 
after times an important abbey arose bearing his name. 
"When the religious houses in Prance were swept away by 
the Revolution, the great collection of manuscripts 
possessed by the monks of St. Vedast had a happier fate 
than that which befell many of the other monastic 
libraries with which Prance abounded. These treasures 
were not, in this case, burnt, made into cartridges, or 
dispersed, but transferred to the town library of Arras. 
Out of the 1,102 manuscripts which that institution 
possesses, no fewer than 857 were written in the scrip- 
torium of the monastery. They are there well cared for, 
and have been, we are glad to hear, carefully described 
in an excellent catalogue. 

Dr. Simpson, unlike many of his brother clergy, takes 
a vivid interest in all that belongs to his church and 
parish. The patron saint is naturally included among 
Dr. Simpson's parishioners, although we may be certain 
that he never set foot in our island. An opportunity 
was found of paying a long visit to Arras, for the pur- 
pose of gathering up all that was to be known regarding 
Vedast, and especially to find put what literary remains 
concerning him are still in existence. Dr. Simpson has 
come back with a goodly sheaf of hymns in his honour, 
many of which seem to have been unknown to Daniel, 
Mone, Kehrein, and the other modern hymnologiats 
who have accumulated so large a treasure of mediaeval 
poetry. Is it possible any of the verses preserved by 
Dr. Simpson can have been written by the saint him- 
self? We fear not; but in the eleventh century it is 
certain that he had the character of being an author, as 
is demonstrated by the interesting illumination of which 
a facsimile is given at the beginning of the pamphlet, 

The Ex-Libris Journal. 
THE new number of this opens with an essay, by Mr. 
Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A., on ' Horace Walpole and his 
Book-plates.' Of the plates two only are undisputed. Con- 
cerning the third, attributed to Bewick, much information 
has been gathered by the writer and by Mr. J. Roberts 
Brown. Some elaborate designs by Mr. John Leighton, 
F.S.A., are reproduced, and there are several plates for 
identification. Much of the number is occupied by a 
continued account of the general meeting and of Bub- 
sequent festivities. 

ACCORDING to Mr. Richard Davey, who writes in the 
Fortnightly on ' The Present Condition of Muhammadan 
Women in Turkey,' family life as we uuderatand it does 

tot exist among the Turks, and a complete change in 
:lie position and education of Turkish women seems an 
ndispensable preliminary to any improvement in Moham- 
medan life. It is not wholly news that " nothing can 

exceed the coarseness of Turkish conversation, rendered 
ill the more exasperating because the voices of Turkish 
adies are the most deliciously musical imaginable/' On 
;he whole, however, the average Turkish woman has a 
right to be considered " honest." Turning from Turkish 
women to English, we find Prof. Case protesting against 
Oxford degrees for women. The professor strongly 
objects to mixed education, and is in favour of a separate 
university, or, if necessary, separate universities for 
women. With his comfortable and comforting omni- 
science, Mr. Orant Allen writes sensibly on ' The Mys- 
tery of Birth.' Writing on 'The Prench Salons' of 
painting, Mr. Pennell finds that it grows " wearisome to 
protest against the flamboyant vulgarity of the public 
shows," a crticism equally applicable to our own Aca- 
demy exhibition. Esme Stuart supplies what is called 
"a short study" of Lee onto de Lisle, presenting a full 
insight into the poet's Oriental pessimism. Mr. Traill 
has a Johnsonian dialogue, the subject of which is ' The 
Revolution in Grub Street.' The remaining contents of 
tlie Jieview are political or controversial. In a number of 
the Nineteenth Cntw-y principally occupied with matters 
of current interest or importance, an article by Sir Herbert 
Maxwell upon an abstract theme stands out pleasantly 
conspicuous. The subject of this is ' Intellectual Detach- 
ment.' We are not prepared to accept unquestioningly 
all Sir Herbert's conclusions. When he gives as an 
attribute of inferior poets the " pathetic fallacy " that 
" the aspects of nature, the brightness of flowers, the 
murmur of streams, are enlisted as exponents of human 
accident and sympathizers with mortal experience," we 
ask him if Milton, Tennyson, and Matthew Arnold are to 
be considered " poets of an inferior order," and if ' Lycidas,' 
which is regarded by many as the quintessence of poetry, 
is to be held uninspired work 1 In what is said concern- 
ing the use of intellectual detachment in the case of ark 
we are completely at accord, and what is said concerning 
its presence in, or absence from, politics is very interest- 
ing. The habit of praising past times and decrying the 
present springs wholly, it is said, from the absence of 
the power of detachment. Sir Herbert's paper is very 
thoughtful and entertaining. ' My Native Salmon 
River,' by Mr. Archibald Forbes, sounds in very eloquent 
fashion the praises of the Spey, and has some excellent 
anecdotes. Mr. Wm. Schooling writes on ' Colour-Music,' 
and inquires why colour is far behind sound in artistic 
development. Another non-contentious article is on 
1 How to Obtain a School of English Opera.' Mr. Vernon 
Blackburn, whose Italian experiences have stood him in 
good stead, writes in the New Review upon ' Eleonora 
Duse,' and finds her acting in the third act of ' Magda ' 
the very highest histrionic accomplishment. Mr. Justin 
Huntly McCarthy writes on Barras, and condemns the 
omission by the editor of the memoirs of passages show- 
ing the depth of Barras's degradation. He holds that, in 
kindred fashion, Symonds erred in suppressing portions 
of the memoirs of Gozzi, and Mr. Wheatley errs in 
omitting anything from the ' Diary ' of Pepys. The con- 
tention opens out a wide field. Against Barras himself 
Mr. McCarthy launches a fearful diatribe. Writing on 
' The Picaresque Novel," Mr. Fitzmaurice Kelly traces 
its origin to Petronius Arbiter, and takes Francois Villon 
as the ideal type of the Picaroon. ' An Immortal Story,' 
by Mr. Benson, deals with the origin of 'Romeo and 
Juliet.' A paper of much interest to a large section of 
our readers is that in the Century on 'American Rural 
Festivals.' These are held at Midsummer from Maine 
to California, are " vividly stamped " with local colour, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ft*s.vm. juiTis,96. 

and seem, it is said though on that point incredulity is 
pardonable to have " been fashioned without reference 
to a common original." The Ice-glass Procession at 
Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and the Tub Parade at 
Lenox are spoken of as the most important. Ihe illus- 
trations which are afforded of these festivities are very 
striking. Some of the proceedings take place by torch- 
light At Stockbridge the ' Masque of Comua ' has been 
given as an outdoor play, with music of the epoch from 
a manuscript lent by Harvard University. Mr. Brander 
Matthews draws attention to the paper covers ot books, 
reproducing many designs, French, English, and Ame- 
rican Mr. Gosse's ' Personal Memories of Robert Louis 
Stevenson ' convey a gloomy idea of the sufferings that 
writer must have undergone, and might constitute a 
painful chapter in some new ' Calamities of Authors.' 
A fresh chapter of Mr. Sloane's ' Life of Napoleon 
Bonaparte ' is supplied. In Scribner's appears a full and 
capitally illustrated account of ' Life at the [American] 
Athletic Clubs.' Some of the amusements practised at 
these seem unknown here. We have not, at least per- 
sonally, heard of water polo, such as is witnessed at the 
New York Athletic Club. Some of these cluba seem 
very comfortable institutions. Mr. Spielman, writing 
on ' Posters and Poster Designing in England,' reproduces, 
in much reduced facsimile, many familiar designs from 
the walls and hoardings, by artists from P. Walker and 
. Sir John Millais to Mr. Aubrey Beardsley. The ' His- 
tory of the Last Quarter-Century in the United btates 
,is continued, and has some highly dramatic pictures, 
together with a vigorous account of the extirpation of 
the Molly Maguires. Temple Bar, which appears with a 
mourning cover for the death of Mr. George Bentley, 
contains also some ' In Memoriam ' verses addressed to 
him. The penultimate part has been reached of The 
Letters of Edward Fitzgerald to Fanny Kemble.' These 
will, we suppose, be shortly issued in a separate form. 
They throw much light on literature and writers. In 
' Thackeray's London ' comparatively new ground is 
broken. With Dickens's London, or Lamb's or John- 
son's we are familiar. ' Maria Edgeworth ' is an article, 
half gossiping, half critical, such as Temple Bar often 
supplies. 'A Drive from Paris to Nice,' in the Gentle- 
man's, describes a sufficiently arduous, but, as events 
proved, not very hazardous undertaking. Five weeks, 
including, of course, stoppages, were occupied in the 
journey. ' A Chapter on Pipes ' and ' Physicians of the 
Olden Days ' have both some antiquarian interest. Mr. 
Saintsbury contributes to Macmillan's a valuable and an 
appreciative account of Maria Edgeworth. ' The Soldier 
of the Sixteenth Century ' is a good paper. ' The Battle 
of Beachey Head' is very unlike ordinary records of 
English naval warfare. ' A Forgotten Hero ' deals with 
Schamyl. Admirers of the Pall Malt will not grudge 
the addition to the price that is made in the July num- 
ber, the money's worth being supplied. The letterpress 
includes the first part of a spirited account, by Judge 
O Connor Morris, of 'The Campaign of Trafalgar'; an 
illustrated description of ' The Home of the Hohen- 
zollerns '; part iii. of Mr, Grant Allen's ' Evolution in 
Early Italian Art '; an .account of Lord- Kelvin ; and 
' Combe Florey and Sydney Smith.' The illustrations to 
'A Ballade of an Old Signboard,' Mr. Percy Reeve's 
' Ballade of the Playhouse,' and others of the contents 
are quite admirable. The English Illustrated has an 
excellent account, by Mr. Walter Herries Pollock, of 
' Marseilles Old and New.' There is a further extract 
from the memoirs of Sully. ' The Monkey House at the 
,ZuO ' is readable and interesting. The illustrations 
throughout are very spirited. ' Tbe Romance of Violin 
Collecting,' ' The Valley of the Duddon,' and A Black 
.Forest Wedding' repay perusal in the Cornhill. Sir 

Benjamin Ward Richardson writes, in Longman's, on 
' Past and Ideal Sanitation,' an old subject with him. 
Yet one more contribution from the late Richard Jefferies 
has been discovered. JSelgravia supplies an account of 
Robert Burns. 

THE publications of Messrs. Cassell lead off with 
Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Part XL, 
" Peony " to " R'ght as a trivet." Under " People's 
Charter," a new entry, an intrusive full stop causes a 
strange error, establishing as one of the points the 
abolition of property. The whole article needs rewriting, 
since it makes one claim into two and omits entirely 
payment of members. Cassell's Gazetteer, Part XXII., 
ends at Grantley. It supplies a list of illustrations, &c., to 
vol. i., but no title. Cassell's Portrait Gallery, Part IX., 
has portraits of many celebrities or notorieties, including 
Canon Enox Little, Dean Bradley, Lord Rayleigh, Miss 
Cobbe, Mr. James Payn, and Lord Cross. 

THE centenary edition of Burns promised by Messrs 
T. C. & E. C. Jack, of Edinburgh, to be edited by Messrs 
W. E. Henley and T. F. Henderson, will be in four 
volumes, in the last of which, in addition to an eeeay by 
Mr. Henley on the life and genius of Burns, the doubtful 
pieces, glossarial index, &c., will be included. Messrs. 
Jack, with a view to obtaining the utmost possible cor- 
rectness, seek to communicate with the possessors of 
original MSS. of the poet. 

OOR conjecture concerning the number of volumes to 
which North's ' Plutarch ' will extend proves to be 
correct. Before Mr. Nutt issues the sixth and last 
volume the first two seem likely to be out of print. 

CANON W. SPARROW SIMPSON will issue immediately, 
through Mr. Elliot Stock, an English translation of the 
' Tragico-Comcedia de Santo Vedasto,' from the MS. in 
the Library at Arras, with an extended introduction. 
The work will be uniform with ' Carmiua Vedaatina,' 
recently published by the same editor. 


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CONTENT S. N 186. 

UOTES : " Swan Inn," Watford, 41 Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
42_Deficient Lines in English Verse Death Microbe 
Eye-stones, 45 Prince Charles Edward' The Shaving of 
Shagpat 'Death of Hampden Scott's First Love, 46. 

QUERIES : Early Scottish Printing Owen O'Neil Pagan 
Historian : Arabian King Mrs. Pitt Gilbert The Rosary 

Fontenelle Boothby Arms " Nepos " : " Sororius " 
French Family, 48 King's Evil Gordon " Princely 
Meditations "Child's Poem T. Chapman, 49. 

BEPLIES : Lord Mordaunt, 49 "Chum," 50 Deputy 
Philazer Record Keeping in Pennsylvania Fenton 
Lady Philadelphia Wharton, 51 " Left-handedness " 
Folk-lore, 52" The Man in the Moon "Driving " Piek- 
axe " " Spit " Easter Sepulchres Kant's Supererogatory 
Truthfulness Cromwell's Soldier's Bible "Tutum te 
sistam " Iturbide, 53 'Young Lochinvar' " Hecatomb" 
Brown Baronetcy, 54 Bull-roarer Cromartie Earldom 
' Notts and Derbyshire Notes and Queries,' 55 Church 
Registers Constitution Hill Soli-Lunar Cycles Captain- 
Lieutenant, 56 Mary, Queen of Scots : Joan of Arc, 57 
Lewin Family Toby " Gavel "Byron and lanthe, 58 
Reference Wanted, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Furness's Shakspeare's ' Midsomer 
Night's Dream ' Bayne's ' Stormonth's English Dic- 
tionary 'Owen's ' Works of the Rev. Griffith Edwards ' 
Whateley's ' Napoleon Bonaparte ' ' Journal of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects'' The Library Journal.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



Both Cuasans and Clutterbuck give but a very 
brief history of Watford, and original deeds and 
charters, besides extracted copies of Court Rolls, 
afford me the opportunity of giving an account of 
this inn, which I understand does not now exist. 

The " Swan Inn," which formerly stood in 
Watford, can be authentically traced from temp. 
Henry VIII., when possessed by Thomas Heydon, 
of King's Langley, esquire, who conveyed to 
Henry Coydall, or Cogdall, of Chesham, Bucks, 
yeoman, who by charter (with livery of seisin) 
of 6 Edward VI. and 4 and 5 Philip and Mary 
(witnesses William Long, William Gray, John 
Gray, William Shawe, John Hough, Clement 
Martin, and others) conveyed the " Swan Inn," 
with one and a half acre of land adjoining, then in 
his tenure (formerly inheritance, as stated, of said 
Thomas Heydon, of King's Langley), unto Robert 
Grime (Gryme), of London, yeoman, in fee simple ; 
William Warren, yeoman, and John Ly noils, shoe- 
maker, both of Watford, being attorneys appointed 
for Henry Coydall. 

Robert Grime, in consideration of 400Z., by 
charter (with livery of seisin) dated April 6, 1560, 
(witnesses Andree Dallowe, clerk, William Warren, 
John Leonard, Richard Hallowell, Edward Thorn- 
ton, John Axtell, Peter Thornton, and others), 

conveyed same premises, then in vendor's posses- 
sion, formerly inheritance of Henry Coydall, unto 
Bernard Garter, citizen of London, in fee simple. 
Bernard Garter mortgaged same on June 30, 
2 Elizabeth, unto Thomas Wombwell, of North- 
fleet, Kent, gentleman, and Amey, his wife, cove- 
nanting to determine right of dower of Johan, wife 
of Robert Grime. 

The " Swan Inn " passed, by assurances in the 
law, unto Robert Perrey, of Bow, Middlesex, 
gentleman, who, with Sarah his wife, granted the 
premises, then holden of the chief lord or lords of 
the fee or fees, by rents and services thereof due 
and accustomed, by deed of August 13, 9 Charles I. 
unto Matthew Hoare (also written Hore), of Wat- 
ford, joiner, in fee simple ; the vendors covenant- 
ing to levy a fine before November 20 then next. 
The premises were in tenure of Edward Foster, 
under lease of December 6, 1617, for twenty-one 
years, who attorned as tenant to purchaser on 
Oct. 18, 9 Charles I. 

Matthew Hore conveyed same premises in fee 
simple on May 6, 1647, to Jeremy King, of Wat- 
ford, chandler, who mortgaged same, October 23, 
1661, to Mary Treagle, late of London, then of 
Watford, widow, who subsequently assigned the 
mortgage, on November 9, 1668, to Charles Finch, 
of Watford, gentleman, who eventually assigned 
same to Sylvester Chilcott, of St. Mary Axe, 
citizen and scrivener of London, brother to Eliza- 
beth, wife respectively of Thomas Hobson, of 
Watford Place, gentleman, William Martyn, of 
Lincoln's Inn, gentleman, and Edward Fuller, of St. 
Mary, Savoy, Strand, and Watford, gentleman ; she 
was the foundress of the free school at Watford. 

Jeremy King, late of Watford, then of Wapping 
Wall, Stepney, Middlesex, and Sarah his wife, by 
deed on November 12, 1668, granted the premises, 
then in tenure of George Brockett, to Thomas 
Hobson, of Watford Place (an old mansion so 
called in Watford), esquire, and Elizabeth his 
wife and the heirs of their two bodies, with re- 
mainder, in default, to the heirs of Thomas Hobson. 
In 1679 a release to the said Thomas Hobson has 
this endorsement : 

" Release of John Twitcliett, mercer, and John llun - 
nington, brewer, both of Watford, for a barn I bought of 
them July 17, 1679, and I set it up at Mrs. Brockett's 
[presumably the widow of George Brockett], for her use, 
and did then lay new deal upon the oak in the kitchen 
and parlor at y Swan in Watford." 

Thomas Hobson, from a pedigree of his family, 
is shown to have been born at Bushey, Herts, and 
was buried in the chancel there with his child. 
By his will, dated November 20, 1675, and proved 
October 8, 1679, he devised the "Swan Inn" 
(among other property) to Elizabeth, his second 
wife, by whom he had no issue. She survived her 
two other husbands, viz. William Martyn (whose 
heir-at-law was his nephew, Moses Martyn) and 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [s* s. vm. JULY 20, '95. 

Edward Fuller (who left issne by his first wife), 
and by her will she devised the "Swan Inn" 
(among other property) to her brother Sylvester 
Ghilcott, who died January 9, 1716, buried at 
Watford, and by his will of June 5, 1715, proved 
with codicils soon afterwards, gave the "Swan Inn " 
in trust for Theodora his wife and daughter 
Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Whitfield, and their 
children Thomas and Elizabeth Whitfield, in 
moieties. Thomas Whitfield, the elder, was of the 
Six Clerks' Office and Watford, gentleman ; his 
marriage settlement was dated June 7, 1698 ; he 
died May 4, 1737, and was buried at Watford. His 
wife Elizabeth (Ghilcott) was the only surviving 
child of her parents in 1720, and was dead in 1745, 
when her will was proved. From them descended, 
as shown by the pedigree, Hannah Whitfield, who 
married the Rev. Edward Woodcock, whose bio- 
graphy has formed an inquiry in N. & Q.' 

Thomas Whitfield the younger, their only son, 
was of Bartlett's Buildings and the Six Clerks' 
Office, London ; he died April 13, 1762, being 
buried at Watford. He eventually succeeded to 
the entire full moieties of the " Swan Inn," as he 
acquired his mother's life interest therein and his 
sister's moiety, the premises being in tenure of 
John Brewer, an appropriate name for an inn- 
holder. His sister Elizabeth, as appears from her 
marriage articles and other documents, married 
Matthew Skinner, of Lincoln's Inn and Eichmond, 
Surrey, serjeant-at-law, afterwards Chief Justice 
of Chester. 

Thomas Whitfield the younger left, besides 
daughters, by his wife Hannah Wheeler, of Bart- 
lett's Buildings, an only surviving son and heir, 
John Whitfield, of Manchester Square, London, 
esquire, who barred all the entails on the " Swan 
Inn," in tenure of Richard Saunders, and other 
premises, in 1775 ; he dying s.p., his wife Eliza- 
beth becoming his devisee, and his only surviving 
sister Hannah, wife of Edward Woodcock, was his 

The Heydon family is noted here beyond what is 
shown in the histories of Herts : 

1. Recovery November 28, 30 Henry VIII., 
wherein William Heydon, esquire, Henry Brad- 
shawe, gentleman, William Aubrey, esquire, and 
Thomas Foisted, gentleman, by William Chalfount, 
are demandants against Ralph Hawtry, gentle- 
man, concerning Serroyt (Sarrett) Manor, with the 
appurtenances and other premises there, in Herts ; 
John Hawtry and Nicholas Webster being 

2. April 16, 35 Henry VIII., William Heydon, 
of the Grove, Watford, Herts, esquire, by charter, 
in consideration of marriage between Ralph Hey- 
don, his fifth son, with Agnes, daughter of Thomas 
Abraham, of London, merchant, gave same manor 
and premises in trust for himself for life, then 
to Ralph and Agnes, in tail male, with like 

remainders to his sixth, fourth, third, second and 
first sons respectively, viz. : John, Thomas, 
Anthony, Jeremy, and Henry, with ultimate 
remainder to grantor, thus savouring of the tenure 
of borough English. 

3. April 17, 35 Henry VIII., Henry Heydon, of 
Newstrete, in Watford, son and heir apparent of 
Wm. Heydon, of the Grove, Watford, esquire, by 
charter, in which preceding charter is recited, con- 
firmed above trusts. 

4. May 21,41 Elizabeth. Recovery wherein John 
Ellis demanded against Humphrey Moore, concern- 
ing same manor and premises, Edward Ewer, 
gentleman, being vouchee. 

The title to Watford Place shows many 
entries of this family down to the seventeenth cen- 

181, Coldharbour Lane, S.E. 

(Continued from 8" 1 S. vii. 365.) 

The learned Dr. Stukeley explains, with regard 
to Watling Street, how it came to run through 
Holborn in its course from Dover to Chester. It 
ran across England from Dover to Anglesea, which 
has made some designate it as " the road to Ire- 
land." The old Watling, which Leland calls 
Atheling, or Noble Street, was called by some 
Gathelin Street. In Roman times it crossed the 
river at Stangate Ferry, just about where West- 
minster Bridge now stands. It then went by 
May Fair into Hyde Park, and there crossed the 
Oxford Road at Tyburn. But when London 
became considerable, the ferry at St. Mary Overy's 
superseded Stangate, and passengers went through 
the City into Canon Street, Watling Street, and 
Holborn. The Oxford Road, which now is simply 
a continuation of Holborn and Oxford Street, was 
originally carried north of London, in order to 
pass into Essex. It seems to have crossed St. 
Giles's, High Street, Bloomsbury, Theobalds Road, 
Portpool Lane, across the Fleet, to Clerkenwell 
Green, into Old Street, and so entered Essex at 
Old Ford. It is certainly somewhat curious that 
by the diversion of Watling Street from Stangate 
Ferry through London Bridge Ferry the two 
Roman roads of Watling Street, and what Stukeley 
calls the Oxford roads, were brought to coincide 
from Tyburn to London Stone.* 

Up to the present nearly all that relates to the 
old Roman roads is matter of dispute and con- 
fusion. Writers seem fairly well agreed that there 

* Stoney Street runs to the water side nearly opposite 
Dowgate. It was part of the great Watling Street, and 
in the line of the Roman trajectus connected it witb the 
Watling Street in the City. This was after the removal 
of it from Stangate at Westminster Bridge. Stukeley 
writes it "Stanegate." It is a little curious that both 
the spots should be named from stone. 

via Juw 20, 



were four main roads that ran through the kingdom 
Watling Street, Ikenild Street, Ermyn Street, 
and the Foss-way, or Fosse Street ; but when they 
descend to further particulars one runs into the 
other. Manifestly they do not know anything 
about branch roads, of which, doubtless, there were 
many. Now, as to the Foss-way, Dr. Brewer 
says it is called so from having a ditch on both 
sides. Cowel says " having a ditch on one side." 
I imagine that every Roman road had a ditch, 
vallum, or earth wall, on each side ; but if so, 
what becomes of your Foss-way as a designation ? 
It would be applicable to each of the four roads, 
and could not well describe one more than another. 
Under "Watling Street" Cowel gives another 
account, and says the road was called Fosse because 
in many parts it was never perfected, "but lies a 
large ditch." Of the two, it is better, perhaps, to 
say Cowel " lies," and not the road. Who will 
believe that the Romans left one of the four prin- 
cipal roads of a province uncompleted, so as to 
defeat communication 1 Never was a looser, 
wilder guess hazarded. Allen gives a plan of 
Roman London, and he makes a Roman road run 
through Hoi bom and Oxford Street to Ad Ponies 
(Staines). But, though his map professes to be 
based on " the best authorities," he does not trust 
himself to say what road it was. He makes Watling 
Street run out at Aldersgate, and so on to 
Verulamium. In that case it could not touch 
Tyburn at all. If Black be right that Cheape was 
the forum, it is clear that Holborn would be a 
Roman paved way out of London ; let who will 
give the correct name of it. This is enough for our 
present purpose. So far as I am concerned, our 
ignorance about the Roman roads may remain as 
it is if only it be admitted that Holborn was one of 
them. Still, as we are now upon it, there are one 
or two points of general interest that may as well 
be indicated before we pass on to something else. 

A great many good writers have pretended that 
Watling Street was called Vitellina Strata, or 
the paved road of Vitellins. Here we have to 
observe that none of the other roads in Britain 
is called after the name of an individual. 
Leland's Atheling, or Noble Street, is manifestly 
nothing beyond a mere guess. Oathelin and 
Guetheling are other forms, with more likelihood 
appertaining to them. A man who is rarely named 
is George Dyer, a bookseller of Exeter, who wrote on 
the Itineraries in 1814, and should, in my opinion, 
have attracted great attention. He says that aith 
in Gaelic stands for a hill or ridge. I do not find 
it so. But At, which may be varied to It, Id, Et, 
is a protuberance, and will serve to account for the 
names of the mountains Atlas, Ida, Etna. Thus 
you can obtain Guethelin. Wateling, Watling. 
Watling is said to have been a very highly raised 
road. Ing is land, or " a way " ; this would mean 
" high ridge way," and Dyer says that throughout 

its course it is still called the Eulgeway. Indeed, 
as Ling is line or way, it might come from Gwadal- 
ling. Gwadal in Welsh being " firm," so firm way 
would be the name of this paved roadway.* 
Richard of Cirencester, in his Itinerary, speaking 
of Richborough (Ehutupis), says that the Roman- 
way thence, running for 324 miles to Segontium 
(Carnavon), is called Guethelinga. That the road 
did form a high ridge is much confirmed by our 
still calling a main road " the highway," though at 
present there may be nothing elevated about it. 
The significance still clinging to phrases of this 
sort shows the almost invincible tenacity of tradi- 
tion. The Egyptian embalmers of mummies seem 
but novices in the trade when set against what 
words can do in the way of embalming. 

The Fosse-way was another road, sometimes 
called the Port-way. " Port " is said to mean 
bank, or raised way. I do not at all distinctly 
know its course, but there. is a good paper on it 
in the ' Penny Cyclopaedia,' though, oddly enough, 
Watling Street is left without mention. They say 
that the name of this route is better known to all 
classes of people than any other of the Roman 
roads. A Roman miliare was found close to it 
and near Leicester, which had been placed there in 
the reign of Hadrian, and the Leicester folk had 
the good sense to set it up in a conspicuous and 
public place in their town. Stukeley talks about 
the intersection of this Fosse-way with the Ermine 
Road, but I confess I cannot follow the learned 
Stukeley in his elucidations. However, at a certain 
point there occurs a bit of very singular pavement, 
consisting of flag-stones set edgewise, " great blue 
flag-stones." This is quite a novelty, and worth a 
little attention. Would not stones so laid across 
the grain of the strata last twenty times as long as 
when laid flat and with it ? The idea suggested 
deserves to be inquired into. Everything these 
Roman road-makers did will repay study. Another 
instance of their sagacity came to light in 1888. 
On the moor between Mehrholz and Bragel, in 
Lower Hanover, Prof. F. Knoke came upon some 
old Roman plank-roads running in two parallel 
lines across the moor. The learned on the spot 
are well assured that they have here the ponies 
longi by which, A.D. 15, A. Cceeina effected his 
retreat from Germany to the Ems. Every question 
relating to Roman roads is beset with doubt and 
confusion. We find every writer down to Smith's 
' Dictionary,' 1842, mentioning roads by three (if 
not four) epithets, viz., militares, consular es, pr<B~ 
torice. Smith adds that these terms answer to the 

* Chaucer, in 'The House of Fame,' records that men 
in his time called the Milky Way Watling Street 
" Lo," quod he, " cast up thyna eye, 
See yonder lo, the galaxie, 
The which men clepe the milky way, 
For it is white : and some parfay 
Gallon it Watling Streete." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8s.viii.JuiY2o f '96. 

Greek oSoi flacriXiKai, and to our "king's high- 
way." This is equivalent to all these terms being 
identical and meaning paved routes beyond or out- 
side of the city walls. No one has suggested, so 
far as I know, that they were styled militares when 
they were the work of the censors, as they generally 
were ; consulares when any particular consul pre- 
pared them ; prcetorice when the praetor happened 
to superintend their construction. The three terms 
pointed to no distinction as to the kind of road, 
but conveyed the somewhat useless intelligence as 
to the overseer or maker of it a quite useless 
distinction indeed, and one which, in the interests 
of lucidity, should never have been made at all. 
It stands as one of the many embarrassments that 
too much learning encumbers itself with. It yields 
fresh colour to that happy phrase of Festus, " Much 
learning doth make thee mad." We can throw it 
against the claptrap of Lord Bacon's "Knowledge 
is power." A man in prison knows it is better to 
be free, but that knowledge alone will never get 
him out of it. Then, my lord, where is the power ? 

Ermine Street wants just a word said about it. 
The learned Camden quotes Obsopseus, saying that 
it is derived from the Germans, who, under the 
name of Irmunsull, worshipped a deity represented 
by a column or statue of Mercury. He adds that 
the squared statues or hermce were constantly 
placed on the roadside boundaries. But this must 
be taken with some caution, as any four-cornered 
terminal figure with a head was so called ; and if 
we take that original one which is at the Capitol 
at Rome, we may perceive that it might even be 
a hermaphrodite, for it has two heads, one male, 
the other female ; in fact, hermaphrodite means 
Mercury and Venus on one base or stem. Mercury 
was the patron of tradesmen and of robbers, and 
he also presided over highways, so that roadside 
hermce may, perhaps, be plausibly assigned to 
Mercury. But if this were the case, it is very 
extraordinary that no more Roman roads were so 
named after him than this one in Britain. Now, 
Irmin is given by Wachter as bello validus, strong 
in battle, from the Welsh <%r, war, and man, a 
strong man. Now, aer is certainly slaughter and 
battle, so that it is more akin to Mars or "Ap^s 
than to Mercury, whence the French word guerre 
comes. The essence of virtue is courage and man- 
hood, apery, virtus; so Irman is really war-man, 
and Ermine Street is soldier's road, and is a 
translation of via militaris. We are confirmed in 
this by Somner's 'A.-S. Dictionary.' Boswortb, 
under " Erming-straete," gives his interpretation as 
here man street, via strata militaris, and thus it 
has nothing at all to do with Mercury. Though 
Mercury had to do with it in common with all 
other roads in the universe, or even out of it, to 
Hades, where this road ran I do not distinguish 

Canon Taylor makes the Ermin Road tun from 

London to Lincoln, but some put it on the south 
coast, running towards Bath. Cowel says it 
began at St. David's and stopped at Southampton. 
Then Canon Taylor adds, what can hardly be 
correct, that it is equivalent to "paupers' road." 
Irman, Ermin is certainly war-man. Ikenild Street 
Canon Taylor calls Icknield Street, and says it led 
from Norwich to Exeter. That, I believe, is so, as 
the Jceni, from whom it is named, were in Norfolk., 
But yet Cowel makes it run from Southampton 
through Lichfield and Derby; whilst Lloyd, in his 
1 Dictionary, Classic and Geographical,' follows 
Camden, and places the Iceni in Essex instead 
of Norfolk. These are all competent men, but all 
they serve for is to establish how very little learn- 
ing is worth in intricate matters. It is like the dirt 
settling that coats a filter, and so helps to clarify 
such fluid as can pass through and escape it. On 
Akeman Street, which is the road running to 
Bath, anciently named Achmannum, Canon Taylor 
indulges in the romance that it was the Roman 
road from London that took sick men to the Bath 
springs, and that it was very appropriately called 
Akeman (Ache) by the Saxons. I do not know there 
is anything to show that it is Saxon at all. Dyer 
says it is from Acka (ach, ak, ac), Gaelic head, and 
man (fonn, vonn, monn), land, so it would mean 
bank or ridge road. The Saxons, if I mistake not, 
called it Rigweg, moderns call it the ridge- way, 
rig or liric being the back of man or beast. This 
seems to me to carry its proofs along with it. 

Before closing these remarks upon the Roman 
roads in Britain and elsewhere there is a singular 
matter that should be mentioned, though it is very 
seldom, so far as I know, placed in connexion with 
the Roman road service. It was a custom with 
Oriental emperors, when purposing to make a 
journey, to send forth several thousand men to 
remove all obstacles from the route, to level hills 
even, and fill up valleys, as far as practicable. It 
was the brag of Semiramis, amongst others, to have 
opened pathless rocks with the sword, and that her 
chariot-wheels had borne her where the wild beasts 
of the forest had failed to climb. Here, it is true, 
as Beckmann ingeniously discovers, Polysenus'a 
words admit of being rendered that her wheels cut 
deep ruts as they went along. Suffice it to say 
that these imperial progresses seemed to the 
inflated Oriental imagination to be very grand 
events ; and accordingly we find Isaiah employing 
the poetic symbol to depict the first advent : A 
voice crying in the desert " Prepare ye the way of 
the Lord," make the crooked straight, and the 
rough places plain. The Jewish people is grass, 
and to be swept away before it, but the Logos 
endureth for ever. The Sybilline oracles and 
heritant tradition the wide world over looked for a 
great birth, it was said. But what came, and was 
visible, was only a child in a cattle-stall that a 
king strove to obliterate ; but like the word, once 



uttered, it flew irrevocable. What, however, is 
seldom added is that the wings on which practically 
it flew, even more than on the voice baptismal of 
the Eremite, was the Koman roads* of three-foot 
concrete that had at the instant just grown world- 
wide, as may pardonably be said. From north- 
west to south-east they spanned the empire to a 
length of 4,080 Roman miles, or 3,740 English, 
and not an inch beyond the Roman roads has 
Christianity penetrated. Spirit is universal. Yes ; 
where Roman concrete is. It is curious to realize 
the material and physical prse-preparation serving 
for the readier diffusion of the Pentecostal fire 
when heralded by preachers through the wilderness 
of this world to every creature (human) bom 
Trda-f) TTJ KTtVei into its sterile desolation its 
dry places. It is strange from every point of view, 
be that view Deistic, Christian, atheist, or sceptic, 
drifting to leeward on a dubious shore. If 
miracles are not made they must make themselves 
sometimes, for they certainly come about. Put it 
how a man may, they happen. C. A. WARD. 
Charlecot, Walthamstow. 

(.To le continued.) 

shown that Chaucer frequently begins a line of 
five accents with a single accented syllable, and 
that similar lines are very common in Lydgate. 
I suspect they were also fairly common in our old 
dramatic poetry, only the editors (believing in them- 
selves more than in the author) frequently added a 
sly additional syllable. Nevertheless, I just note 
a few that have fallen casually under my notice. 
In Routledge's reprint (1883) of Greene and Peele's 
' Works,' I find these examples : 

Proud, | dis-dainful, cruel, and unjust. P. 98. 

Mine, | and none but mine shall honour thee. P. 99. 

I | am she that cured thy disease. P. 107. 
Here the editor calmly purposes to read : "And 
I am." That is just what comes of meddlesome- 

Fire, famine, and as cruel death. P. 108. 
Here Fire is a dissyllable, as usual ; read "Fi | er." 

Gra | eious as the morning-star of heaven. P. 168. 

Were | I baser born, my mean estate. P. 206. 
Here the editor proposes two different emenda- 
tions, none being needed. 

Bow | thee, Andrew, bend thy sturdy knee. P. 211. 

* The streets of Rome were 424, but of those only 
thirty-one were main streets. They all emanated from 
the large space near the temple of Saturn to as many 
gates, and thence passed out into all Italy. At this 
temple stood a gilt pillar, thence called millearium 
aureum. But it is very singular that the distances were 
not measured from this pillar, but from the gate in the 
wall where the roads quitted the city. It is probable that 
the same prevailed in London; so that London Stone, 
even if a millearium, would not be the point measured 
from, as is commonly taken for granted. 

So, again, in Cunningham's edition of Marlowe's 
Works,' I have already noted these : 

Tan I ti: I '11 first fawn [uplon the wind. 

1 Edw. II.,' I. i. p. 118. 
Der I by, Sal-is-bury, Lincoln, Leicester. 

< Edw. II.,' I. i. p. 119. 

Here are two consecutive lines of this character : 
Lay | hands on that traitor Mortimer ! 
Lay I hands on that traitor Gav-es-ton. 

< Edw. II.,' I. iv. p. 122. 

'Tis I my hand : what gather you by this ] 

Edw. II.,' V. vi. p. 153. 

Here the editor has done well in resisting the 
temptation to substitute It is for 'Tis. 

Mar | ry, air, in having a smack in all. 

' Massacre at Paris," I. viii. p. 160. 
Je | rome's Bible, Faustus, view it well. 

' Faustus,' I. i. p. 60. 

Eo\mo,fuget Whither shall I fly? 

' FaustuR,' II. i. p. 65. 
Frank | fort, Lubeck, Moscow, and where not. 

' Jew of Malta,' IV. i. p. 107. 
Ba I rabas, send me three hundred crowns. 

'Jew of Malta,' I V.v. p. 110. 

Truly times are altered since that (usually) 
excellent critic James Russell Lowell denied that 
such lines as these existed, or could exist, in Eng- 
lish poetry, in his (otherwise) excellent article on 
Chaucer. The statement that they could not exist 
I easily refuted by a simple reference to Tennyson's 
' Vision of Sin.' The moral is, that editors should 
let the texts alone where they can. 


THE DEATH MICROBE. The discovery of the 
death microbe has been announced as the last 
new wonder. But it is old, for Southey (' Com- 
monplace Book,' iii. 766), quoting from Garmannus 
'DeMiraculis Mortuorum,' mentions: " Haupt- 
mann's notion that death is the smallest and worst 
of all animalcula ! " 



EYE-STONES. Many years ago a gentleman gave 
me a couple of small objects of a shelly nature, 
which he said were found on seaweeds on the 
shores of the North Sea, and were called " eye- 
stones," from the fact of their being used by sailors 
to remove any fragments which might have acci- 
dentally got into their eyes. The " eye-stone " was 
put under the lid, and left there until, by the irri- 
tation which it caused, the fragments were removed. 
The upper surface of the stones is slightly convex; 
and conchoidal in structure, the under surface 
smooth and solid, and both surfaces are marked 
with a spiral line. It was further stated that they 
are inhabited by living animals, which, on being 
excited by immersion in vinegar, put out tentacula 
and move about. The experiment was tried, and 
they certainly do move about when placed in a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 lh s. vm. JULY 20, '95. 

thin stratum of vinegar or dilute hydrocblor 
acid, but the motion is due to the formation 
bubbles of carbonic acid gas, liberated by the aci 
from the carbonate of lime of which their shell-lik 
bodies are formed. I made a number of them 
artificially from several varieties of carbonate o 
lime, covering the upper surface with tin-foil o 
bees-wax or sealing-wax, and they moved abou 
under the rolling action of the gas bubbles forme 
beneath them. Of course, the living beings an 
the tentacula existed only in the imagination of a: 
incompetent observer. These so-called "eye 
stones " are the opercula of some variety of turbo 
the horny operculum or lid, which closes the mout" 
of the common periwinkle, being in this case re 
placed by a stony or shelly one. 

Higbgate, N. 

a "Collection of Scottish Antiquities, selected by 
Robert Riddell, Esq., of Friars Carse and Glen 
riddell, 1786," lately came into my hands. Th 
remaining seven volumes are in the possession o 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Mr. Rid 
dell was a learned antiquary and an intimat< 
friend of Capt. Grose and Robert Burns, the latter 
having inscribed two of his poems to him. The 
following extract from his autograph as to Prince 
Charles will be read with interest, although it does 
not represent the prince in a favourable light : 

" In the year 1745, when the Pretender and his Rebei 
Army were at Dumfries, he laid that town under a con- 
tribution, and as the money could not be raised in the 
short time the Highlanders remained there, Walter 
Riddell, of Newhouse, Esq. (my father), and Provosl 
Crosbie offered themselves as hostages and went with 
the rebels to Glasgow, where the money was sent, and 
they released. In the year 1747 my father went to Paris, 
where he was recognized by the Pretender, who remem- 
bered his face, but took him for Lougbgarry. They met 
in a coffie house where the London papers were taken, 
and that day were filled with the account of the execu- 
tion of Lovat and the Rebel Lords on Towerhill; the 
Pretender seemed the only man in the room not affected 
with the news, he talked loud, and laughed much that 
day. R. R." 

A. G. REID. 

interesting illustration of the impression made 
upon some readers by certain of Mr. George Mere- 
dith's works, and by this book in especial, may 
deserve a nook in ' N. & Q.' I lately chanced to 
borrow two novels from a large public library, 
north of the Tweed, the one Mr. Meredith's 'Shav- 
ing of Shagpat,' the other Mr. Clark Russell's ' A 
Marriage at Sea.' The time limit for reading novels 
from this library is one week ; for other volumes a 
fortnight is allowed. I was at first puzzled and 
then amused, when a day or two overdue with my 
volumes, on receiving a post-card from an assistant 

librarian, urging upon me, in accordance with the 
rules of the library, to return Mr. Clark Russell's 
book at once ; the second, obviously for the reason 
that it was no novel, remained unchallenged with 
me for a fortnight. W. B. 

THE DEATH OF HAMPDEN. The number of the 
Gentleman's Magazine for May, 1815, contains an 
article purporting to be an account of the last 
days and death of John Hampden, by Edward 
Clougb, said to have been written in 1643. But 
an examination of the language and expressions 
used in this document (which has been used in 
Green's and many other histories) enabled Mr. 
Firth a few years ago to prove that it was a nine- 
teenth-century forgery. Dr. Gardiner remarks 
upon this (' Hist, of the Great Civil War,' vol. i. 
p. 153, note), "The belief that we possess the 
words of Hampden's last prayer must, therefore, be 
abandoned." It may be worth while to note that 
be makes a small mistake in his reference to Mr. 
Firth's article, which he states is in the Academy 
for Nov. 29, 1889. No number of the Academy 
was published on that day ; but the article in 
question was divided into two, and issued in the 
numbers for Nov. 2 and 9. W. T. LYNN. 

SCOTT'S FIRST LOVE. Is there in existence- 
any portrait of Miss Stuart Belches, representing 
ber as she was about the time of her marriage or 
earlier 1 I am acquainted with the portrait of her 
in Shairp's ' Life of Forbes,' which, however, 
represents her as a woman of mature years. It 
las always appeared to me that Lockhart does not 
give the incident of Scott's affaire de coeur as 
nuch space, nor does he attach so much importance 
to it, as it deserves. He remarks (' Life,' chap, v.) 
,hat he has neither the power nor the wish to give 
n detail the sequel of the story ; but there can be 
ittle doubt that if Scott bad gained the hand of 
Miss Belches his life would have been far different, 
and we should probably have been spared that 
pectacle, surely the saddest in literary history, of 
Sir Walter trying to write off the debts which his 
and-hunger had brought him and perishing in the 

Mr. Hutton, in his little work on Scott (" Eng- 
ish Men of Letters," Macmillan), remarks, and 
is suggestion is very feasible 

" The pride which was always so notable a feature in 
cott, probably sustained him through the keen, inward 
ain which it is very certain from a great many of his 
wn words that he must have suffered in this uprooting 
f his most passionate hopes. And it was in part pro- 
ably the same ttride which led him to form, within the 
;ar, a new tie." 

nd there can be little doubt that while Lady 
cott bad many estimable qualities, she did not 
ossess the strength of character and intellect 
hich distinguished the wife of Sir William Forbes, 
: Pitsligo. 

viii. JULY 20, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

With' the publication of Sir Walter's 'Journal' 
and his ' Familiar Letters,' there is room now for a 
new annotated edition of Lockhart's ' Life,' incor- 
porating these two works. The statement was 
recently made that the late Mr. Dykes Campbell 
was collecting material for a book supplementary 
to Lockhart, and a writer in the June number of 
Temple -Ear suggests that Mr. Andrew Lang 
"should complete his labours on Scott by re- 
editing his 'Life.'" Mr. Lang appears to be the 
only person in any degree fitted for the work, and 
it may be hoped that he will undertake it. And 
should the shades of the reverend M'Crie arise to 
disturb the placidity of his Cavalier sympathies, the 
balance of judicial calm might perhaps be restored 
by his allowing Mr. Crockett to correct his proof- 
sheets. W. E. WILSON. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Deeds of Sir William Wallace ' (1508 ?) and ' The 
Buke of the Howlat ' (1520 ?). Unique fragments 
of these two books were discovered by Dr. David 
Laing, whose description of them is quoted in 
Dickson and Edmond's ' Annals of Scottish Print- 
ing. ' Is it known where or in whose possession 
these fragments now are 1 The information is 
desired in connexion with the issue of a series of 
facsimiles of early Scottish printing which the 
Edinburgh Bibliographical Society have in view. 


Can any of your readers inform me from whom 
Owen O'Neil, of Philipstown, King's Co., who 
died about 1798, was descended? His son, 
Thomas O'Neil (Major), born 1768 or 1769 (after- 
wards Assistant Quartermaster General, Horse 
Guards, London, 1812), was cut off by his father ; 
and owing to his early death (1814?) and the 
early age of his children at that time, nothing is 
known by his descendants of his people. C. 

Martyrdom of Man,' by Winwood Reade, 1872, 
I find the following : 

P. 244. "Until a Pagan historian could observe to 
the polished and intellectual coterie, for whom alone he 
wrote, that now the hatred of the Christians against one 
another surpassed the fury of savage beasts against man." 

P. 252. " A king of Arabia Felix, in the fourth cen- 
tury, received an embassy from the Byzantine Empire, 
with a request that Christians might be allowed to settle 
in his kingdom, and also that he would make Christianity 
the religion of the state. He assented to the first pro- 

position ; with reference to the second, he replied, ' I 
reign over men's bodies, not over their opinions. I exact 
from my subjects obedience to the government; as to 
their religious doctrine, the judge of that is the great 
Creator.' " 

1. Who was the pagan historian ; and where can 
the passage referred to be found? 2. Who was 
the Arabian king; and where can his reply be 
found ? JOHN JAGO. 

[See 5 th S. i. 387.] 

MRS. PITT, ACTRESS, 1721 ?-l799, was buried 
in St. James's Chapel, Pentonville, somewhere 
between Dec. 21, 1799, and the close of February, 
1800. Can the exact date be fixed. Was her 
name Anne ? URBAN. 

GILBERT. Will any of your readers who have 
access to the British Musem find out the following ? 
In the Domesday Book in which the division of 
lands is given, I was once shown the name of 
William Gilbert as having lands at Maddington, 
Wilts, which was held in our family until some 
time in the last century. Was he related to 
Richard, son of Count Gilbert, who had lands at 
Sudtone 1 The old name of Maddington I cannot 
find ; but it is a hamlet of Shrewton. I hear the 
information might be obtained in a book called 
' Inquisitiones Post Mortem.' In my great-grand- 
father's days (J. Gilbert, Esq., of Puckshipton 
House, Wilts), Burke sent a man specially to ask 
him for information for his book on ' Landed 
Gentry,' as the Gilbert family is one of the oldest 
in Wilts ; and this he would not take the trouble 
to give. BRYAN GILBERT. 

THE ROSARY. Is it possible that the early 
English devotion of the rosary was a devotion to 
our Lord himself, exclusive of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary ? In those days the beads were all pater- 
nosters, varying in number, as old prints, &c., 
abundantly show. The word " rosary " is derived 
from the five " roses," or wounds of our Lord. A 
discussion on the subject would be interesting, and 
instances of the make and composition of the 
rosary, as appearing in pictures, prints, wills, &c., 
useful. St. Dominic is presumed to have arranged 
the modern usage. O. R. 

PINKE FAMILY. In the Church of Stanton St. 
John, co. Oxford, is the following M.I. : 

Here lyeth the body of 

William Pinke borne in the 

famous Citty of London 

who served the Reverend 

Doctor Bond, sometime President of 

St. Marie Magdalen Colledge in Oxford 

and died in the yeare of his age 49 

the 16 of May 1610. 

I am desirous of ascertaining the parentage of this 
William Pinke. His connexion with Stanton St. 
John, of which church the well-known Dr. Robert 
Pinke, Warden of New College, was some few 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s tb s. vm. JULY 20, -95. 

years later the rector, would seem to indicate a 
relationship. They may have been uncle and 
nephew. The William Pinke who was Fellow of 
Magdalen College in 1629, and was buried in the 
College Chapel the following year (Foster's 
'Alumni Oxon.'), was, too, undoubtedly closely 
connected with the foregoing, although he was not 
his son. 

I shall also be glad to learn something more of 
the Eev. John Pincke, Vicar of Whaddon, Bucks, 
and one of the ejected. He matriculated from 
New College, July 4, 1623, aged fifteen, took his 
B.A. in 1630, and M.A. in 1633 (Foster). In the 
Matriculation Eegister he is described as the 
"son of John Pincke of the City of Gloucester." 
He was, I believe, the " Mr. John Pincke one of 
the Chapleins of Newe Colledge," to whom Dr. 
Robert Pinke in his will bequeathed " the bedd 
beddings and Trunck which I heretofore lent him"; 
but I am unable further to connect him with the 
Pinkes of Kempshott. W. D. PINK. 

' Memoirs,' by Mark Pattison, the following pas- 
sage occurs near the conclusion : 

" I immediately acted on Dr. Priestley's advice to a 
man who asked him how he might get to know some- 
thing of a subject he named : ' Oh, sit down and write 
a book upon it.' I sat down and wrote an article on 
Gasaubon. and sent it up to the Edinburgh Review," 
P. 318. 

However, the article in question appeared in the 
Quarterly Review about 1852, and grew out of an 
edition of the ' Ephemerides,' printed at the 
Clarendon Press in 1851. Did this saying really 
owe its paternity to Dr. Priestley, who died in 
1804 ? I have heard it attributed to Dr. Thomson, 
the late Archbishop of York. But it is not every- 
one in the world who has ability enough to follow 
the advice. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbrjdge. 

CHARLES'S RESTORATION. To what do these 
lines belong ? I made a note of them years ago : 

Poor simple fellow ! what to thee 

Is Charles's restoration? 
Let whosoever will be king, 

Thy lot is nought but toil and tribulation ! 


NAMES. This termination is found in many place- 
names in the North of England. As examples ol 
what I mean I may mention Goosnargh, Grimsargh 
and Kellamergh (in Lancashire), Brettargh, Mans- 
ergh and Sizergh (in Westmoreland). These are 
all names of places, but some of them are also usec 
as family names. What I want to know is the 
correct local pronunciation of the ending -argh 
-ergh. Not being able to make an excursion to the 
counties indicated, I shall be glad if any readers o: 
' N. & Q.' can assist me. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

D.D. CAMBRIDGE. Can any Cambridge gra- 
luate tell me the differences, as regards creation and 
irivileges, of the following ? D.D. honoris causa, 
).D. jure dignitatis, D.D. per literas regias, Doctor 
designate in Divinity. Does Cambridge grant 
D.D. by diploma ? M.A.Oxon. 

DE VERB : DE ATON. William de Aton, father 

f Gilbert, first Lord Aton (1324), married Isabel 

de Vere " of the Oxenford family." How was she 

related to the Earls of Oxford ? T. 

What has become of the original exhibits ? 


This is quoted, but no authority given, in the 
Spistle Dedicatory of Sir Thomas Browne's ' Gar- 
den of Cyrus.' Where is it to be found ? 


BERNARD FONTENELLE. I have lately obtained 
a copy of ' A Discourse of the Plurality of Worlds,' 
described on the title-page thus : " Written in 
French by the most ingenious Author of the Dia- 
logues of the Dead, and translated into English by 
Sir W. D. Knight." It is printed and published 
in Dublin " for Wm. Norman, Bookbinder to His 
Grace the Duke of Ormond." The date has been 
erased. The dedication is to " William Molyneux, 
Esq." Can any of your readers say who was " Sir 
W. D. Knight," and give the date of this work? 
E. R. McC. Dix. 

17, Kildare Street, Dublin. 

three or four hundred years ago the arms of the 
Boothby family, represented by the present Sir 
Brooke Boothby, underwent a change. Why was 
this ; and what was the original coat of arms ? Can 
any one inform me 1 LION'S PAW. 

"NEPOS" AND "SoRORius." How are these 
words, found so frequently in our mediaeval 
chronicles and records, to be interpreted ? Is nepos 
a grandson, or a nephew, or both 1 In numerous 
calendars and abstracts done into English it is 
translated "nephew," whereas in the Hebrew 
counterparts we find necked, which is invariably 
understood to signify "grandson." Is sororius a 
sister's husband, or a sister's son, brother-in-law, 
or nephew ? The point is of some importance in 
the arrangement of pedigrees. M. D. DAVIS. 

FRENCH FAMILY. Can you give me any in- 
formation as to who are the descendants of 
Nathaniel Bogle French and Augustine Bogle 
French, who traded as merchants in London, as 
N. Bogle French, Augustine Bogle French, and 
John Barton, Old South Sea House, Broad Street, 
London, about 1815 ; or where can I get any 
information ? GEO. H. COLLINS. 



KING'S EVIL. In the chapel register here is 
an entry : 

" Sept. 29th, 1694 : that day made a certificate for Alice 
the daughter of Christopher Williams of thy gift for the 
king's evil my name and seale to it as minister, her 
father's as guardian." 

What was this certificate 1 The words " thy gift " 
are indistinct. JOSEPH H. PARRY. 

Harewood, Boas. 

GORDON. Who was the Gordon that wrote ' The 
Character of an Independent Whig,' second edition, 
1719 ? He wrote other pamphlets ; and his style 
is always pungent. Witness the following utter- 
ance : 

" There ia no Sanctity in Garments. A Rose in a 
Man's Hat does not enlarge his Piety. Grace is not 
conveyed by a piece of Laun, or Chastity by the wearing 
of a Girdle. A black Gown has neither more Sense, nor 
better Manners, than a black Cloak. Nor is a black 
Cloak more Edifying than a Fustian Frock ; no more 
than a Cambrick Bib is an Antidote against Lewdness, 
or an Atonement for it." 


Portland, Oregon. 

[See the life of Tho. Gordon, by Mr. Leslie Stephen, 
in the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.'] 

" PRINCELY MEDITATIONS." In the preface to 
R. Turner's ' Botanologia," 1687, a quotation is 
given about the marigold, " which his Sacred 
Majesty King Charles the First mentions in his 
Princely Meditations walking in a Garden in the 
Isle of Wight." I should be glad to know in what 
book these meditations are published. 


CHILD'S POEM. Can you inform me who is the 
author and who are the publishers of a little poem 
entitled ' If Wishes were Horses," commencing 
If wishes were horses my dearie, 
How fast and how far would we ride ? 

It occurs in a children's (lesson) book, or " reader," 
the name of which I cannot ascertain. 

[The saying is old 

If wishes were horses beggars would ride ; 
If turnips were watches I 'd have one by my side.] 

THOMAS CHAPMAN. A book entitled 'Tales 
from Boccaccio,' Bentley, 1846, has been wrongly 
attributed to Leigh Hunt. It is stated in biblio- 
graphies that a copy of this book was presented by 
the author to T. Chapman, F.R.S., F.S.A. Now 
this very copy has turned up in Chicago with the 
book-plate of Thomas Chapman and his armorial 
bearings. The present possessor of the 'Tales' would 
gladly learn through ' N. & Q.' the real name of 
their author, or at least something more about 
Thomas Chapman than he can ascertain from his 
bookplate, which is emblazoned on the inside of 
cover. JAMES D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

(8 to S. vii. 488.) 

He was great-great-great-grandson of the first 
baron of that name (cre'ated Baron Mordaunt 23 
Henry VIII). Lord Mordaunt was the second son 
of the fifth baron, who was created Earl of Peter- 
borough in 1627. Lord Peterborough's eldest son, 
Henry Mordaunt, succeeded him as second earl, 
but the latter having but one child, a daughter 
(married to the seventh Duke of Norfolk), the earl- 
dom eventually passed to his nephew, Charles Mor- 
daunt, the eldest son of the subject of this query. 
The latter had been created Viscount Mordaunt of 
Avalon in the lifetime of his elder brother, Henry, 
the second Earl of Peterborough. Lord Mordaunt 
married Elizabeth Carey, of the Monmouth family ; 
and her original diary, which I have seen, de- 
scribing the Great Plague, and many other striking 
events in the reign of Charles II., is in the pos- 
session of the present Lord Boden. Lord Mor- 
daunt's eldest son Charles (mentioned above) was 
the famous general of whom Pope wrote in the 
lines beginning 

Mordanto hears the trump of Fame. 
Lord Mordaunt died in 1675, and was buried at 
Fulham. There is a monument to him in the 
Church of All Saints there, by Bushnell, sculptor 
of the figures on Temple Bar, also a statue by Bird. 

18, Albert Hall Mansions, S.W. 

According to 'A Synopsis of the Peerage of 
England,' by Nicholas Harris Nicolas, 1825, 
vol. ii. p. 447, John Mordaunt, second son of 
John, first Earl of Peterborough, was created Baron 
Mordaunt of Ryegate, co. Surrey, and Viscount 
Mordaunt of Avalon, co. Somerset, July 10, 1659, 
06. 1675. His son Charles succeeded him, and 
was, in 1689, created Earl of Monmouth. He 
succeeded as third Earl of Peterborough in 1697. 
All the honours became extinct by the death of 
Charles Henry, fifth Earl of Peterborough. 

In " Regum Pariumque Magnse Britanniae 

Historia Genealogica studio ac opera Jacobi 

Wilhelmi Im-Hoff, Norimbergae, 1690," tab. 77, 
the first baron and viscount is described as 
"Johannes Baro Mordant de Rygate, Vicecomes 
Avalon, cr. 10 Jul, 1660." He is there said to 
have married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Carey, 
son of the Earl of Monmuth. His portrait is 
amongst Richardson's portraits in the fifth edition 
of Granger's 'Biographical History* (Hi. 313). 
The title is in Italian, and is to the following effect : 

" The most illustrious Cavalier John Viscount Mor- 
daunt, of Aviland, Baron of Rygate, Constable of the 
Royal Castle of Windsor, Lieutenant of the County of 
Granger gives July 10, 1659, as the date of the 



T in. JULY 20, -95. 

creation. At the end of the short account, he 
says : 

"He was numbered with the neglected royalists. Ob. 
June 5, 1675, ast. 48." 

In Baker's ' Chronicle of the Kings of England,' 
seventh edition, 1679, p. 712, he is called " John 
Mordant, Viscount Mordant of Aveland." 

Gough's Camden's 'Britannia' (vol. i. p. 58), 
speaking of the River Brae, a good deal below 
Bruiton, says that 

" coming to a softer soil it in a manner stagnates, and 
surrounds the isle of Avallon [in the margin " Avalon "], 
antiently so named by the Britans from its apples, after- 
wards Inis Witrin or the Glassy Island In this island 

stood the famous abbey of Glastonbury." 

It was, of coarse, the burial-place of King Arthur' 
who, as he lay dying in the barge, said to Sir 
Bedivere : 

" I will into the vale of Avalon for to heal me of my 
grievous wound ; and if tliou never hear more of me, 
pray for my soul." See ' The Romance of King Arthur.' 

Tennyson makes King Arthur say : 

"I am going to the island valley of Avilion 

where I may heal me of my grievous wound." 'Morte 

There is a legend that Joseph of Arimathea visited 
Avalon, and that an oak was planted afterwards on 
the spot where he landed, which was called the 
oak of Avalon ; also that further on he stuck his 
staff into the ground, from which grew the mira- 
culous thorn - tree of Glastonbury Abbey (see 
Chambers's ' Book of Days,' ii. 758). 

Within the abbey, according to legend, were 

buried not only King Arthur, but also Queen 

Gninever and Joseph of Arimathea (see Murray's 

' Handbook for Wilts, Dorset, and Somerset '). 


St. Austin's, Warrington. 

The Lord Mordaunt mentioned by H. F. was 
John, second son of John, fifth Baron Mordaunt 
and first Earl of Peterborough, and Elizabeth, 
only daughter and heir of William Howard, Lord 
Effingham, his wife. He was born June llth, 1626, 
educated at Brazenose College, Oxford, created 
July 10, 1659, Baron Mordaunt of Reigate, co. 
Surrey, and Viscount Mordaunt of Avalon, in 
Somersetshire, for his zeal in the cause of Charles 
II. He was tried during the usurpation for his 
exertions in behalf of the exiled monarch, but was 
acquitted. 'His lordship and Sir John Grenvile 
were the bearers of the letters to Monk, to Parlia- 
ment, and the Corporation of London. He was 
a commissioner to treat for the restoration of the 
king, March 11, 1859. Married Elizabeth Gary, 
daughter of Robert, first Earl of Monmouth, 1657. 
Died June 5, 1675. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

For a biographical notice of, and a very full list 
of authorities relating to, John Mordaunt, Viscounl 
Mordaunt of Avalon, in Somerset (created 1659), 

see 'Diet, of National Biography,' vol. xxxviii. 

Fort Augustus, KB. 

Full particulars regarding John, Baron Mor- 
daunt, of Ryegate, co. Surrey, and Viscount Mor- 
daunt, of Avalon, in co. Somerset, will be found 
at p. 380 of Burke'a * Extinct Peerages.' 


"CHUM" (8 th S. vii. 304, 474, 514). PROF. 
SKEAT rarely makes a slip when he confines him- 
self to the department of science which he has 
made his own. But a not very profound acquaint- 
ance with the kindred science of palaeography 
would, I venture to think, have led him, at the 
last reference, to modify his remarks as to the 
"original" sound of the letter c in the Latin 
alphabet. He says that " much nonsense is often 
talked about the Latin c. It was originally pro- 
nounced like the Greek k before all vowels "; and 
he adds that change invariably " softens " sounds, 
and never "hardens" them. Now every tyro in 
palaeography knows that the " original " sound of 
the letter c in the Latin alphabet was not that of 
the Greek k, but that of g, a soft mute, and that 
afterwards, contrary to PROF. SKEAT'S "in- 
variable " rule, it acquired the hard sound of the 
Greek k. That the "original" sound was g is 
proved by the fact that the Latin c had the form 
and the alphabetic position of the Greek gamma. 
That it retained this value when the Chalcidian 
alphabet had been transmitted to Italy is shown 
by the legend " Recinon " on the early coins of 
Rhegium, and by the retention at Rome of the 
archaic abbreviations C. and CN. for the 
names Gaius and Gnseus. This proves that in 
the prehistoric or "original" Latin alphabet c 
had the value of g, while that it did not possess 
the hard sound of k which it afterwards acquired 
is shown by the use of k to denote that sound. This 
is proved by early inscriptions in which " Kael." 
stands for Cselius, "Dekem."for Decembres, and 
"Kastorvs" for Castoris. A further proof is 
afforded by the retention of the conventional 
archaic abbreviations of "K."for Cseso, "Kal." 
for Calendse, and " Merk." for Mercatus. We are 
therefore confronted with the fact that the symbol 
originally denoting in Latin the soft sound gr, 
afterwards came to denote the hard sound k, 
whereas PROF. SKEAT affirms that any change 
is " invariably" the other way. Of course this is 
an anomaly, and in my book on 'The Alphabet' 
(vol. ii. p. 140) I have endeavoured to explain 
how it may have been due to Etruscan influence. 
The Etruscan language possessed no soft mutes, 
6 and d being wanting in their alphabet as well as 
k, which was replaced by the simpler and more 
easily written form c. When, under Etruscan 
influence, k had become obsolete in the Latin 
alphabet, the letter c was used to denote the sound 



of k as well as of g. Afterwards, in the thin 
century B.C., it was found inconvenient to hare th 
same symbol to represent two different sounds, am 
the letter c was differentiated into the two forma 
and G. These differentiated forms first appear in 
the epitaph of Cornelius Lucius Scipio Bar bat us 
now in the Vatican, which, however, is probabl; 
not of contemporary date, being assigned b; 
Ritschl to a period not later than 234 B.C. In 
this inscription we have the form C in the words 
censor and consol, and the form (? in " Prognatvs ' 
and " Gnaivod." In an earlier inscription c woulc 
have been used in both cases, and at a still earlier 
time k and c. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

Under this head PROF. SKEAT issues a challenge 
to philologists to give an example of a change from 
ch to k. We need go no further than the Spanish 
language to find that " soft " g or j which is to all 
intents and purposes the same as ch can become 
not, it is true, k, but what is next door to it, the 
"open" k, which is represented by the Greek 
letter chi. 

PROF. SKEAT will hardly deny that it is easy 
enough for the "open"& to become a "stop"; 
which done, what he declares to be impossible 
will have taken place. 

Englishmen unable to pronounce the Spanish 
guttural correctly actually replace it by k, and are 
ridiculed accordingly. 

I have before me, as I write, a Spanish comic 
opera, in which the English pronunciation of the 
word M ejor is represented by the spelling " Mecor." 

The tendency of " phonetic decay " is always to 
reduce double consonants to simple ones. Thus 
the Greek , , and ^ were anciently double 
sounds, now everywhere reduced to single ones. 
I can assure PROF. SKEAT that our tsh does become 
k, and not only our ch but the French ch, which is 
only part of ours. At Rouen chaud and chien 
become kaud and kien. Our dj similarly becomes 
hard g, as in Gizeh. In all attempts at reviving 
Latin pronunciation the main difficulty is with 
these two letters c and g. Now my theory is 
simply that their names, however changed else- 
where, have always remained constant at Rome, 
and have there expressed their original powers. 
But if they were hard mutes, as Welshmen now 
make them, how does he sound such words as 
gnosco and Cnidus ? Then remember Catullus 
derided cockneys of his time for saying chommoda 
when they meant commoda. Well, I suppose the 
h here to have the exact effect Italians still give it. 
These cockneys were simply beginning our present 
bad habit of saying kom when we mean tshom. 

(undoubtedly better authorities than Welshmen) 
call Cicero exactly what he called himself, and 
Caesar too as regards consonants, only they have 
reduced his ce to e, which Germans have not. Of 
course all that I say of c applies equally to k. 
Charlemagne signed his name Karolus, and sounded 
it, I dcubt not, nearly as Irishmen (who now 
speak English best) pronounce Charles. I am told 
that in the Greek islands the syllables /ce, KI, KV, 
have now the sound of Italian ce, ci, so that 
KvpiaKr) might become our church, not the Scotch 
kirk. E. L. G. 

LAWRIES (8 th S. vii. 467). The editorial note 
attached to this query makes further reply almost 
unnecessary. I may, perhaps, just mention that, 
as a sort of intermediate form between filacer and 
philazer, I have met with filazer. 


The meaning and origin of filacer, with quota- 
ions for its use, has already been given on two 
occasions in ' N. & Q.' (see 2 nd S. ii. 354 ; 4 th S. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

325). It may be interesting to know that the 
tatement quoted : " The City Library of Pbila- 
lelphia contains two huge volumes of original 
>apers, communications from the Privy Council 
nd warrants from the king himself to the Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland," is no longer true. The 
uthorities of the Library, many years since, 
ealizing that these and a number of other 
jrecious volumes were rightly the property of 
le British Government, voluntarily forwarded 
lem to their proper custodians, and they are now, 

believe, in the possession of the Master of the 


FENTON (8 th S. vii. 507). Elijah Fenton assisted 
Pope in his Shakespeare, and was paid 352. for his 
trouble (Malone, i. 230). Johnson wrote his life 
in the ' Lives of the Poets.' Fenton died 1730 ; 
but the portrait may have belonged to his repre- 
sentative. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


The dative cui was naturally a more complex word 

than qui. The Italians have made them ci and 

chi, the former more (in sound) than the latter, j Puritan * Philip, Lord Wharton. 

each having simply lost their u sound. Italians | second son, I think, was K.B. 

This lady was daughter of Robert Carey, Earl of 
Monmouth. She married Thomas Wharton in 1610. 
He had just become heir to Philip, Lord Wharton, 
by the death of his elder brother in a duel. A 
letter of the time says the jointure was to be 
1,200. a year, while the father, then only Sir 
Robert Carey, gave 6,0001. as her portion. Sir 
Thomas Wharton died before his father. Lady 
Philadelphia's eldest son was the celebrated 

Thomas, the 
Lady Phila- 


delphia's mother, Elizabeth Trevanion, was as 
sweet a woman as her daughter. The religious 
principles which Lady Philadelphia instilled into 
her sons, did not, alas ! influence her grandson 
Thomas, Marquis of Wharton, who was as great a 
scamp as any in the three kingdoms. T. W. 
Aston Clinton. 

" LEFT-HANDEDNESS " (8 th S. vii. 105, 235, 316, 
479.) The synonym for this word in the neigh- 
bourhood of Leeds is dawky. I well remember my 
first acquaintance with it. I was a boy at school, 
and in the grammar lesson which we ought to have 
learnt overnight the word " left-handed," amongst 
others, occurred, illustrative of some rule. It so 
happened that I had to repeat this particular 
portion of the lesson, and, grammar not being my 
forte, I floundered badly. My next class-mate, no 
doubt with an eye to a similar favour on my part 
when the subject changed to arithmetic, stealthily 
whispered "dawky. 1 Although I did not know 
what word was required, I knew dawky was not it. 
The result was a loss of place for me, and a full 
amount of chaff from the class at my ignorance of 
what was to them a common everyday word. I 
have often heard it since, but I never hear it 
without seeing the whole scene of my schoolboy 
days re-enacted. 

It is rather strange, too, that while daivky means 
left-handed, dawks means the fingers of either 
hand or both. 

Gawky, given by some correspondents as the 
local name for left-handed, with us means nothing 
more than ungainly in appearance or build ; while 
mawky refers to an unnatural hue of the com- 
plexion. E. G. B. 

308, 397; vi. 55, 153; vii. 413). Here in 
Somerset, and in Dorset where they abound, these 
are called " holy flints " (see ' W. Som. W. 
Book,' p. 347, E.D.S.). My experience is that 
these are more protective as amulets than lucky 
as talismans. It may be interesting to point out 
that in Italy the belief in their power is evidently 
greater even than in England. Dr. Bellucci, of 
Perugia, is the great collector of these things. In 
1881 he published a ' Catologo della Collezione di 
Amuleti,' containing upwards of four thousand 
items, of which a great number consists of per- 
forated gems and stones of various kinds. In 1889 
he published a ' Catalogue descriptif d'une Collec- 
tion d'Amulettes Italiennes envoye'e a 1'Expost- 
tion Universelle de Paris,' which is not the same 
as the former. Both are of much interest, although 
his collection is mostly antique. 

The purport of this note, however, is to point 
out to visitors to Southern Italy where they may 
actually see these things in situ for themselves. 
Many who read these lines have doubtless passed 

them by without having noticed them, for I have 
not been able to meet with any person who has 
observed them, although I have known them for 
many years. 

On the road to Amalfi, immediately beneath 
the terrace on which stands the church with the 
Chinese-looking campanile, at the entrance to 
Atrani, are at this moment four consecutive door- 
ways, with an iron grating over each to give light 
to the indwellers. To each one of these gratings 
is fastened by a cord a small flat holey pebble. In 
two cases the stone is alone, in the third it has a 
small goat's horn attached, and in the fourth there 
is a piece of red pottery along with the stone. The 
piece of pot with the hole in it is the only instance 
with which I am acquainted. It has evidently 
been much worn by the sea, and was doubtless 
found with the pebbles on the adjacent beach. If 
the traveller will ask the driver of his carriage why 
these things are hung there he will be told instantly 
contra mad occhio. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

Having been favoured with a photograph, I am 
disposed to regard these trifles as amulets, repre- 
senting a very ancient superstition. See the 
" adder gem," Pliny, 29, 12 ; modern Welsh 
" glain naidr" or "gemmae anguinee." Of course 
all sense of personal ornament is lost, but the hole 
serves as medium for attachment ; I think they 
should be connected with the so-called "aggry 
beads," which were strung as necklaces and classed 
in Dr. Murray's ' Cyclopaedia ' as British adder 
stones, aggry of "unknown origin." Is it not a 
corruption of augury ? The ancient Druids were 
augurs, and they are known as Druids' glass rings. 


Among the virtues of holed stones there is one 
which I do not see named in the notes on the sub- 
ject. When I was a boy it was common enough 
to see "holy stones," sea-rolled flints with a 
natural bore, tied as charms inside the bows of 
Weymouth boats. I have watched a boatman in 
the act of fastening one in his craft. 


There has not yet been mention of the stone at 
Uffington, of which there are two prints in ' The 
Scouring of the White Horse,' Cambridge, 1859, 
pp. 102, 105, with the following notice of it at 
p. 105 : 

" la front of the door [of the little inn] was an oak 
tree, and under the tree a big stone with some curious 
holes in it, into which pieces of wood were fitted, secured 
by a padlock and chain. I was wondering what it 
could be, when the landlord came out with some of his 
guests, and, pulling out a key. unlocked the padlock and 
took the pieces of wood out of the holes. Then there 
was some talk between the young men and their sweet- 
hearts, and first one and then another stooped down and 
blew into the hole at the top, and the stone made a dull 
moaning sound, unlike anything I had ever heard." 


. viii. JULY 20, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" THE MAN IN THE MOON " (8 th S. vii. 449). 
Consult ' Moon Lore,' by the Rev. Timothy Harley, 
1885, and 'N. & Q.,' 1 st S. v. 468; vi. 61, 182, 
232, 424 ; ix. 184 ; xi. 82, 334, 493 ; 3 rd S. viii. 
209 ; 5 th S. V. 428, 522 ; vi. 58 ; 7 th S. xi. 409, 
490, for references to other works on the same sub- 

71, Brecknock Road. 

DRIVING "PICKAXE" (8 th S. vii. 309, 394, 434). 
A pair of wheel-horses with one leader is called 
in New England a spike team. F. J. P. 

Boston, Mass. 

" SPIT " (8 th S. vii. 487). This is a very common 
word among the working classes in London. With 
many it appears to be a favourite substitute for 
"likeness "; so that one who resembles another is 
said to be the spit of him. The word is in Davies's 
* Supplementary Glossary,' where the following 
extracts of its usage are quoted : 

" Twoo girles the one as like an owle, the other as 

like an urchin, as if they had been spitte out of the mouthes 
of them.'" Breton, ' Merry Wonders,' p. 8. 

Nay, I 'm as like my dad, in sooth, 
As he had spit me out on 's mouth. 
Cotton, ' Burlesque upon Burlesque,' p. 278. 

" Poor child ! he 's as like his own dadda as if he were 
spit out of his mouth." Farquhar, 'Love and a Bottle,' 
i. 1. 

0. P. HALE. 

" Frisco (puts on Vandal's cloak). Now look I as like 
the Dutchman as if I were spit out of his mouth." 
' Englishmen for My Money,' iv. 1 (1616), Hazlitt's ' Old 
English Plays,' x. 522. 

" Ditty. Look you here ; here 's one as like you as if it 
had been spit out of your mouth." 'The London Chanti- 
cleers ' (1659), i. 3, Hazlitt's ' Old English Plays,' xii. 

The phrase will also be found in Withal's * Eng- 
lish and Latin Dictionary,' edition of 1616. 

Windham Club. 

The French have, to describe a likeness to some 
one, the phrase, " C'est lui tout orache"." 

B. H. G. 

Here, in the North, the common phrase of a good 
>rtrait is, " It 's the varry spit and image of him ! " 


portrait is, 

EASTER SEPULCHRES (8 th S. vi. 27, 114, 210, 
338 ; vii. 512). DR. THOMPSON will find a great 
deal to interest him in connexion with this subject 
in an article in the Nineteenth Century for May, 
on 'The Ancient English Office of the Easter 
Sepulchre.' JOHNSON BAILT. 

Eyton Rectory. 

S. vii. 508). Benjamin Constant (in his work 
' France,' pt. vi., No. 1, on ' Political Reactions ') 
was the " celebrated French writer " referred to by 

De Quincey for the moral proposition in question, 
the terms of which are not exactly as quoted by 
him, though nearly equivalent. Kant, in a brief 
reply, entitled ' On a Supposed Right of Philan- 
thropic Lying ' (' Ueber ein vermeintes Recht, aus 
Menschenliche zu lu'gen '), of date 1797, and pub- 
lished in the seventh volume of Hartenstein's 
edition of his works, cites the passage from Con- 
stant, and says in a note : " I hereby admit that I 
have really said this in some place which I cannot 
now recollect " (" Dass dieses wirklich an irgend 
einer Stelle, deren ich uiich aber itzt nicht mehr 
besinnen kann, von mir gesagt worden, gestehe 
ich hiedurch "). The proposition thus admitted by 
Kant was that " to tell a falsehood to a murderer 
who asked us whether our friend, of whom he was 
in pursuit, had not taken refuge in our house, 
would be a crime." (See also Appendix to Abbot's 
translation of ' The Critique of Practical Reason.') 

0. C. M. 
Athenaeum Club. 

CROMWELL'S SOLDIER'S BIBLE (8 th S. viii. 1). 
As MR. AXON makes no mention of a previous 
reprint, probably he is not aware that Mr. Fry, 
F.S.A., published one, more than a quarter of a 
century since, which is still to be had at the book- 
sellers'. He remarks in the advertisement : 

" There has been a prevalent opinion that the Soldiers 
in Cromwell's Army were supplied with a Pocket Bible, 
but as to what edition of the Bible was used there has 
hitherto been no evidence. That this was the Pocket 
Bible there can be no doubt. One copy only of this 
tract is known in this kingdom, which is in the British 

R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

In MR. AXON'S interesting article upon this 
reprint is is said that " there are five citations 
from the New Testament (not two as the editor 
states)." The real number of New Testament 
texts is seven, but eight references are given, the 
last being a mistake, as the passage is, in fact, 
from the First Book of Chronicles (xxix. 13), but 
quoted as 1 Cor., as if from the First Epistle to the 
Corinthians. W. T. LYNN. 


"TUTUM TE SISTAM" (8 th S. viii. 9). Is not 
MR. DAVIES thinking of the end of Venus's speech 
to ^Eaeas (' JEo.,' ii. 619, 620) ? 

Bripe, nate, fugam, finemque impoue labori ! 

Nugquam abero, et tutum patrio ta limine sistam. 


308, 356, 412 ; viii. 11). Certainly verdad is not 
pronounced vtrtkath, as we should pronounce that 
queer collection of letters. I had to use the letters 
th, because they were the nearest I could find to 
express the Spanish pronunciation ; but th in teeth 
does not properly convey the last d, nor does th in 


. vm. JULY 20, '95. 

those convey the first. Still less does the English 
d convey it. In my Spanish days it was always 
considered Anglo- or Gallo-Spanish to sound the 
middle d! as in the English word dough. My 
Spanish master explained to me, some fifty years 
ago, that whereas the English d was given by a 
firm touch of the end of the tongue above the teeth, 
the Spanish d was given by a very slight touch of 
the tongue on nearly the same spot, but rather 
nearer the teeth. Certainly neither the Iturbide 
whom I knew nor any of his Mexican compatriots 
would have pronounced his name otherwise than 
with a slurred d. HENRY H. GIBBS. 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 

YOUNG LOCHINVAR ' (8 th S. vii. 325 ; viii. 18). 
Sir Walter Scott did not make any mistake in 
stating that the hero of the poem leaped into the 
saddle after having carefully placed his beloved 
on the horse behind it. Among the twenty-four 
horse exercises taught us in Prof. Huguenin's 
gymnasium was this very one. We placed the left 
hand on the pommel of the saddle (having gathered 
up the reins) and the right hand on the cantle ; 
then, springing off the left foot, we shot the right 
leg between our arms, and so were instantly 
mounted. I have done it hundreds of times. On 
a stuffed model of a horse this was a little difficult 
at first, but very easily done on a living one, for 
the horse, on feeling the pressure, yielded a little, 
and then moving himself, helped the rider into the 

Hawthorn, Black Bock. 

vii. 166). Does not the quotation from Pope 
really support Mr. Gladstone's rhyme ? The bard 
of Twickenham surely would have pronounced 
"dome" as if it rhymed with "tomb"and "gloom," 
not as if it rhymed with "home" and "roam." 
And Byron wrote : 

His parent's iron hand did doom 
More than a human hecatomb. 

' Siege of Corinth.' 


BROWN BARONETCY (8 th S. vii. 468). All that 
is on record of the descent of this baronetcy so 
unaccountably omitted by Burke will be found 
in the pages of the Genealogist (First Series, iii. 
377-9 ; iv. 128, 129). The identity of the first 
baronet was long obscure, but he is now known 
to be the celebrated Parliamentary Major-General 
Richard Browne, one of the most active officers 
in the Civil War. He is styled variously 
" woodmonger," " clothworker," and *' merchant 
taylor," and according to Stowe (ed. Strype) was 
"son of John Brown, alias Moses of Okingham 
,Ti. e., Wokingham], Berks, and London, who was 
son of Richard Brown, alias Moses of Okingham." 

At the commencement cf the Civil War he com- 
manded the train bands of the City of London, 
and afterwards served under Waller at Winchester 
and elsewhere. He was present at many of the 
more important sieges and conflicts throughout 
the war, including the siege and capture of Oxford. 
On June 8, 1644, he was appointed Sergeant- 
Major-General of the counties of Oxford, Bucks, 
and Berks, and Major-General June 26 following. 
He was Governor of Abingdon in 1645, and one 
of the Parliamentary Commissioners to arrange 
the Treaty of Newport in 1648. 

In October, 1645, upon the vacancy caused by 
the death of Sir Edmund Verney, he was elected 
M.P. for Wycombe ; but being one of the pro- 
minent leaders of the Presbyterian party in the 
House, was " secluded " in Pride's Purge, expelled 
the House, and, December 12, 1648, ordered by 
Lord Fairfax to be imprisoned, with four other 
leading Presbyterian M.P.S, at St. James's. On. 
June 29, 1648, he had been elected an alderman 
of London (Langbourne Ward), but from that 
office was disabled, and removed by vote of the 
House December 11, 1649. During his brief 
aldermancy he served the office of sheriff, 1648-9; 
any doubt that might exist of the identity of 
Richard Browne the sheriff with Richard Browne 
the major-general and M.P. being removed by the 
following notice in the ' Commons' Journals ': 

"6 July, 1648. Ordered, That this House do give 
leave to Major-General Browne to be Sheriff of the City 
of London, according to the desire of the City." 

No friend to Cromwell, he was by the Protector 
imprisoned for several years. He was, however, 
elected M.P. for London, to the two Cromwellian 
Parliaments of 1656-8 and 1659. Upon the fall 
of the Protectorate the vote disabling him from 
the office of alderman was annulled (March 6, 
1659), and he was ordered to receive payment of 
9,01 61. owing to him from the State. With the 
rest of the secluded members of the Long Parlia- 
ment he took his seat in March, 1660, being at 
the same time restored to his aldermanry of Lang- 
bourne. When the king entered London at the 
Restoration, Major - General Browne headed the 
triumphal procession with a troop of gentlemen, 
and upon that occasion received (together with 
his eldest son) the honour of knighthood at 
Whitehall, May 29, 1660. He was further created 
a baronet July 22 following, and appointed Major- 
General of the City of London. To the Conven- 
tion Parliament of 1660 he was returned by both 
London and Wycombe, and sat for Ludgershall 
from 1661 till his death. 

In October, 1660, he was elected Lord Mayor, 
being then, according to Le Neve, " senior Alder- 
man," dating from his original election in 1648. 
About 1662 he purchased the estate of Debden, 
in Essex, where he fixed his residence. According 
to some authorities he removed from Langbourne 



Ward to Bridge Out in November, 1663, and re- with little tin cylinders, " vegetable " parchment,. 

and a length of waxed thread. Jackdaws of this 
lastnamed fashion were a pervading feature of 
Mi-Carme this year, and were sold in enormous 
numbers by the camelots though by no means 
to the neglecting of confetti and balais. 

H. H. S. 

signed altogether in March, 1664; but this seems 

an error. He continued to represent Langbourne 

Ward until his death, which occurred September 

24, 1669 (Smyth's ' Obit.'), and was buried at 

Debden October 12 following. 

The Debden register contains the following 

entries of this family : 
" 1669. Richardus Browne, miles et baronettus, sepult 

Octob. 12." 

" 1684. Bichardus Browne, miles et baronettus, et 

ffrancisca, uxor ejus sepulti Sept. 22." I aa lnev . were - une was maae OI a H* 1 <* 1S C Of wood 

"1681. Uxor Joannes Brown, Armiger et Civis Lon- three inches in diameter and about one-eighth in 

dinensis, sepult. Jun. 1." thickness ; two holes were made through it olose 

This John Browne whose wife died in 1681 is together, through which was passed a string about 
clearly the John Browne who inherited as fourth two feet long. It could be used with the two 
baronet, and died in 1707, " a pauper in the bands, or one end nf the doubled string tied to a 
Charterhouse." His eldest son, Sir Thomas, the nai l in the wall. You pulled upon the end in the- 
last known baronet, was living in 1727, when nan d a nd the disc revolved and got up a great 
the first edition of Wotton's ' Baronetage ' was speed with a buzzing noise, or a four-holed button 
published ; but as the title is omitted in the would also go. Another was made of two discs 
edition of 1741, it may fairly be assumed that it of wood joined in the middle, and a string wa 

I never heard, to my knowledge, a bull-roarer y 
but there were two other toys I have not seen for 
a long time. Boys do not seem to be so inventive 
as they were. One was made of a flat disc of wood 

became extinct between those dates. 

That the family was of Jewish extraction is new 
to me, though the " alias Moses " borne by the 
father and grandfather of the first baronet is cer- 
tainly suggestive. The major-general was clearly 
a Presbyterian in religion. W. D. PINK. 

Leigb, Lancashire. 

wound round. You let it drop, checked it, and 
pulled it up, and the disc would rise and fall at 
the end of the string. Boys seem to have no- 
indoor games, and nothing but cricket and foot- 
ball outside. We had a dozen. "Laudator," &c. 

R. B. S. 

CROMAKTIE EARLDOM (8 tb S. viii. 8). MR. 

In Chamberlayne's ' Anglise Notitia ; or, Present I HALL is quite misinformed about this. 1. The 
State of England,' fifteenth edition, 1684, part i., earldom of Cromartie is neither extinct nor in 
in the " List of Baronets of England now Living abeyance. 2. Lady Sibell Mackenzie has succeeded 
according to their Seniority," there are to be found to the earldom as well as to the inferior titles of 
Sir Robert Brown, p. 325 ; Sir Adam Brown, Tarbat, Macleod, and Castlehaven, not as " heir- 
p. 326 ; Sir Richard Browne, p. 329 ; Sir Richard of-line to the Mackenzies " (which she is not), but 
Brown, p. 330 ; Sir John Brown, p. 333. by virtue of special letters patent issued last 

In Salmon's ' Chronological Historian,' second February, and calling in her favour the above titles 
edition, 1733, in the "List of Baronets Created out of the abeyance into which they had fallen on 
Anno 1660," is (p. 137) "Sir Richard Browne, her father's death. 3 She is, therefore, Viscountess 
Knt., Alderman of London, July 22." The title Tarbat not by courtesy, but in her own right, 
is not said there to be extinct, although that is 4. The present Duke of Sutherland is not in suc- 
said of many others in the list. cession, having been specially excluded by the 

In the "List of Baronets Extinct as in patent of 1861. If MR. HALL is desirious of 

Sir William Dugdale and other Catalogues of knowing the exact terms of the special remainder 
Baronets," amongst those created by Charles II. of the above patent, I shall be happy to let him 
are Browne, of Deptford, Kent, created Sept. 1, have a copy of them. I may add that the peerages 
1649 ; Browne, Lord Mayor of London, created conferred on the late Duchess of Sutherland in 
July 22, 1660 (' The English Baronetage,' London, 1861, and now revived in favour of her grand- 
printed for Tho. Wotton, 1741, vol. iv. pp. 275, daughter, are, of course, U.K. creations, and not 


St. Austin's, Warrington. 

BULL-ROARER (8 th S. vii. 7, 98, 158, 258, 334, 
457 ; viii. 12). Bull-roarers and jackdaws both 
are yet rife among Parisian boydom. Only last 

the old Scottish dignities restored. The latter 
been dormant since the attainder of George, 
third Earl of Cromartie, in 1746. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

See 8 tb S. iv. 461 for a full account of this very 

Sunday, at the Point du Jour, I had the pleasure , 

of spending some time in the unavoidable company cunous and 1 uite exceptional case. 

of half a dozen enthusiastic jackdawists. But one 
of them had constructed his instrument after the 
fashion described by R. R. One had reVerted to 
the secular shank-bone. The others were content 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

(8 th S. vii. 500 ; viii. 16). The ordination of a 



. vm. JULY 20, -95. 

vicarage is the technical or legal term for its 
endowment on the appropriation of the tithes to 
a religious institution. So by the statute of 
4 Henry IV., c. 12, it was enacted : 

" Prom henceforth in every church appropriated, there 
shall be a secular person ordained vicar perpetual, canoni- 
cally instituted and inducted, and covenably endowed by 
the discretion of the ordinary to do divine service, and to 
inform the people, and to keep hospitality there : and 
no religious shall in any wise be made Vicar in any 
church appropriated." 

Vicarages, when the tithes were granted pkno 
jure to a religious body, were exempt from the last 
provision, so that they might be served by a 
religious priest. ED. MARSHALL. 

CHURCH REGISTERS (8 th S. vii. 382 ; viii. 13). 
Your correspondent MR. E. A. FRY must isolate 
himself very much in the town of Birmingham not 
to be aware that for the last eighteen years the 
Harleian Society has formed a register section, to 
print any registers which were exposed to the 
clanger of being destroyed by age or damp, or 
which belonged to the City churches now obsolete, 
and some which were allowed to be transcribed. 
MR. FRY'S own town of Birmingham's Free 
Library has subscribed to the registers since 1883, 
and the Harleian Society has issued those of eight 
City churches, including the Charterhouse, six of 
the parish church of St. James, Clerkenwell, three of 
St. George's (the fourth is now being transcribed), 
and May Fair Chapel for marriages only, the 
parish church of Kensington, Canterbury Cathe- 
dral, those of Stourton, Wilts, and Christ Church, 
Newgate Street (now in the press), in all twenty- 
two volumes. Besides the Harleian Society, there 
have been published the Registers of St. Colunib 
Major, Bardwell, and Bramfield, co. Suffolk ; Shropshire ;Llantuthyd, in Glamorgan- 
shire, Stock, co. Essex; Maxey, co. Northants, 
&c. ; besides several registers issued by the Rev. 
Cornelius Hallen and many of the clergy through- 
out the kingdom. The two gentlemen he names, 
Drs. Howard and Marshall, have been on the 
Council of the Harleian Society since 1869. 

W. E. H. 

The Registers of Perlthorpe and of Carburton, 
both in Notts, were printed, in 1887 and 1888 
respectively, by Mr. Robert White, of Worksop, 
under the editorship of Dr. G. W. Marshall, 
F.S.A., now Rouge Croix. 



CONSTITUTION HILL (8 th S. viii. 5). It is not 
Mr. W. Thornbury, but myself who is responsibl 
for the volume of ' Old and New London ' which 
treats of the Green Park ; and I should not hav 
readily accepted the derivation of Constitution 
Hill which your correspondent F. J. F. mention 
without being more sure than I am that a centur 

ago the word constitution was used in such a 
lense as he suggests. E. WALFORD. 


SOLI-LUNAR CYCLES (8 th S. vii. 425, 518). 
The nearness of 2,300 years to 28,447 lunations, 
differing only by 10 hours, seems enough to prove 
,hat this number is right in Daniel viii. 14 ; and 
,hat the 2,400 in the Alexandrian LXX. is wrong. 
But there seems no relation to the period of the 
nodical revolutions, or to the saros and the 
eclipses. A Frenchman has lately pointed out a 
much more remarkable soli-lunar cycle, of 372 
iropical years, or 4,601 lunations, which differ by 
only 3 hours, and exceed 20 nodical revolutions by 
only 2 days 7 hours. This must make all 
eclipses practically recur after 372 years. The 
Daschal full moon also recurs, and Easter, because 
;hat is affected by the days of the week, and this 
cycle is 19,410 weeks exactly. Neither of De 
!heseau's cycles, 2,300, or 1,260, or 1,040 years 
are exact weeks, and are several years from nodical 
revolutions. E. L. G. 

CAPTAIN-LIEUTENANT (8 th S. vii. 467). Quot- 
ing from the late Col. Walton's very valuable 
History of the British Standing Army,' unfortu- 
nately only a fragment, Harrison & Sons, 1894, we 
find that this rank was in use in the commence- 
ment of the formation of the standing army, i. e., 
1660. The earliest reference given to this rank is 
contained in the following royal warranb, issued 
"to our Right trusty and Right well- beloved 
Cousin and Counsellor Aubrey, Earl of Oxford, 
Colonell of our Regiment of Horse Guards '': 

'And you are likewise to give orders to your re- 
spective Captains of your Regiment, and your own 
Captain-Lieutenant, that they recruit their Troops re- 
spectively to three score soldiers a piece by the 1 st March 
next, at which time the additional establishment for 
them will commence ; and we do bid you very humbly 
farewell. Given at our Court at Whitehall this 31 9t of 
January, 1671. By His Ma 1 ? 8 Command 


In 1772 a change in style took place, and 
" Captain-Lieutenant" was called " Captain-Lieu- 
tenant and Captain." In 1804 the rank was 
abolished, the holders becoming " Captains." So 
much for the origin and period of existence. 
Their duties, Col. Walton explains, were as those 
of the captain, for 

" in Regiments where the Colonel held a Troop or 
Company, the two next senior Lieutenants acted in like 
manner for the Lieutenant-Colonel and the Major, when 
they held Companies. The Captain- Lieutenant took pre- 
cedence as youngest Captain, insomuch that in the Foot 
Guards he held rank as a Lieutenant-Colonel as the other 
Captains did." 


In " Captain Thomas Venn's Military Observa- 
tions | or the | Tackticks | put into | Practice. | 
Collected and Composed for the Exercise | both of 

8's.vm.j0LY2o,'95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

I Horse and Foot. | To our present mode of Dis 
cipline, &c. 1672." In the second part, viz. 
" The | Art | of | Drilling | or New Mode of | 
Exercising | A Foot Company," &c., p. 180 
chap. iv. (of an addition dealing with ensigns) 
" Of the Dignitie of Ensigns," there is a paragraph 
which I give myself the pleasure of sending in full 
of which the lines italicized by me deal with thi 
position of Captain-Lieutenants in 1 672. I trus 
they may be of use to MR. FORD. They seem to 
bear out the quotation he gives from Macmillan's 
Magazine : 

" I have read of another resolve ; Three Captains (or 
more as occasion happeneth) were all inrolled upon a day 
and all their Colours flying; presently upon a Truce 
Composition, or other Occasion, there is some smal 
cessation of Amies, and these new inrolled Captains are 
Casheered (or dismist) for the present service : Now the 
two first that had priority of place, not only by inroll 
ment but by flying of their Ensignes, because they woulc 
not be out of action (to a Souldier the tast of gain ia 
pleasant) took upon them the Commands as Lieutenants 
of two Colonels' Companies, &c., which are Captain's 
placet in courtesy, retaining those titles, and in some Courts 
of War have had their Voyces ; now the third all this 
time taketh upon him no place, but remaineth in Stntv, 
quo prius ; and in revolution of time all these three 
Captains aforesaid are again Commissionated for three 
new Companies of their own, the Question was, Whose 
Ensigne should fly first, and which of these three shall 
have the priority of place 1 It was thus answered and 
adjudged by the old Earle of Essex and Sir Francis 
Vere, so that the two first who had taken on them Lieu- 
tenancies had utterly lost their Superiorities, and the 
third whose Honour slept, but diminished not, had pre- 
cedencie of place, and his Ensign flew before the other 
ever after." 



The following particulars are given in ' The Self 
Instructor,' Liverpool, 1811, a book possibly of 
little authority and drawing its statements from 
acknowledged older sources : 

" A Captain-lieutenant, is he who with the rank of 
captain, but with the pay of lieutenant, commands a 
troop or company, in the name and place of some other 
person, who is dispensed with on account of his quality 
from performing the functions of his post. Thus the 
colonel being usually the captain of the first company of 
his regiment, that company is commanded by his deputy 
under the title of captain-lieutenant." P. 576. 

W. 0. B. 

To your correspondent, a resident in the United 
States, who may find a difficulty in referring to 
the previous volumes of ' N. & Q.,' I have sent a 
manuscript copy of the query and reply given in 
6 th S. ii. 7, 52, to which I can commend the 
attention of your other subscribers who may be 
interested in the subject. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

It would be interesting to know how far this 
title is the same as, or different from,* the well- 
known modern designation of " Lieutenant and 

Captain," which, I believe, is, or was, peculiar to- 
the Guards. E. WALFORD. 


vii. 409). The martyrdom of Joan of Arc has long 
been relegated by some writers to the category of 
"historic doubts." The periodical press of to-day 
is largely of the scissors and paste order ; hence 
the appearance of such a paragraph as MB. CLARK 
refers to. The veracity of the contention is, how- 
ever, quite another matter. It has been a much 
discussed question. In the ' Curiosities of History,' 
Timbs refers to it in his section upon "Historic 
Doubts." Two French writers, MM. Renzie and 
Delepierre, some years ago published ancient 
documents to prove that Joan of Arc was living 
long after the period when she is said to have been 
burnt at Rouen. The whole story of her martyr- 
dom is declared to be a myth. According to 
history and poetry she was burnt in 1431 ; but 
on Aug. 1, 1439, the Council of the City of Rouen 
made her a gift of 210 livres, " for service rendered 
by her at the siege of the said city." The question 
is also referred to in Dr. Brewer's ' Phrase and 
Fable,' whence we learn that the story of Joan's 
martyrdom was invented for the purpose of throw- 
ing odium on the English. 

Reference to the same subject will also be found 
in the ' Miscellanies ' of Disraeli, who writes of 
having read somewhere that a bundle of faggots 
was made to supply the heroine's place at the 
scene of the supposed martyrdom. Historians appear 
not to have noticed this anecdote, says Disraeli,, 
though some have mentioned that after her death 
an imposter arose, and was even married to a 
French gentleman, by whom she had several 
children. There is a curious and amusing epitaph 
quoted by Disraeli on the point in question. 

Even at this day the matter is not yet settled. 
Mr. Andrew Lang has been recently having his 
say on the disputed point. In the Morning of 
June 25 I find the following, entitled ' The False 

' One of the most extraordinary impostures in history 
is, according to Mr. Andrew Lang, the story of the false 
Pucelle. On this subject M. Gaston Save has recently 
written a pamphlet, and Mr. Lang seems to dispose of 
M.Save's contention by repeating that writer's arguments. 
Thus writes Mr. Lang : ' M. Save points out that, in 
1456, a burgess of Rouen, at the Trial of Rehabilitation 
of the Maid, says, " many " (in Rouen) " believed that 
she had escaped." The charred body of the martyr was 
shown to the crowd, but populus vult decipi. There is 
no proces-verlal of the burning, but there is an official 
document setting forth the fact of Jeanne's death ; in 
act, there are two, though M. Save does not notice this 
circumstance. M. Save fancies that the Duchess of Bed- 
brd substituted another victim for Jeanne, and let her 
50, on the death of the duke. The confessors who were 
with Jeanne to the last do not count; they were pro- 
bably bribed by the duchess. The Scottish witness does 
lot count ; he must have been among the deceived, I 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. viii. JULT 20, 


presume. The brothers, says M. Save, could not have 
been deluded ; the scars of Jeanne's wounds were in- 
imitable evidence. The brothers, and the recognition 
by Orleans, are, indeed, the difficult points ; however, 
M. Save appears to me to glide over the passages hostile 
to his belief, and to express himself very inaccurately on 
other points in this inexplicable affair. M. Save argues 
that a substitution at the stake -was possible, because, 
according to one chronicler, Jeanne WHS led to the spot 
under a veil. But this writer, Perceval de Cagny, is 
often wrong where he is not an eye-witness, and lie adds 
that, according to eye-witnesses, she was burned ; while 
other eye-witnesses aver that her body was exposed to 
public view, that there might be no error.' " 

C. P. HALE. 

LEWIN FAMILY (8 th S. vii. 409, 477). The 
annexed announcement appears in the London 
Evening Post (No. 1584), Saturday, Jan. 7 
Tuesday, Jan. 10, 1738 : 

" Last Friday Morning the Corpse of the Lady Lewen, 
Sister to the late Mr. Deputy Taylor of New-street, who 
died a few Days since in an advanc'd Age in New-street, 
was carried from thence, and decently interr'd the same 
Day at Ewel in Surrey, near the Remains of her Hus- 
band Sir William Lewen, Kt. Lord Mayor of London in 
1718, who; died March 16, 1721/2, in the 65th Year of 
his Age." 


TOBY (8 tb S. vii. 449). The current issue of the 
local directory of this city quotes four of its 
residents as named Toby. The senior one is Mr. 
John Toby, an old and much respected solicitor, 
now retired from active life. He has exceeded the 
allotted span of human life by some years, and tells 
me his grandfather, one Isaac Toby, was Mayor of 
Saltash, an ancient eastern Cornish border town, 
which claims, though wrongly, to be the oldest 
corporation in England. Isaac had a nephew, a 
colonel in the British army, who ultimately died in 
the Naval Barracks at Plymouth. This suggests 
he was in the Royal Marines. My venerable 
friend never heard of the Toby family having a 
coat of arms. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

"GAVEL" (8 th S. viii. 29). Is any other word 
ever used for the instrument with which a chair- 
man obtains order ? It seems unfamiliar to MR. 

LORD BYRON AND IANTHE (8 th S. viii. 8). The 
lanthe to whom ' Ohilde Harold ' was inscribed was 
Lady Charlotte Harley, daughter of the Earl of 
Oxford. For further information Murray's com- 
plete edition of Lord Byron's ' Poems ' and Moore's 
' Life and Letters of Lord Byron ' may be con- 
sulted ; but I have neither of these at hand, and 
will not quote from memory. 

The interference of lanthe's family is pro- 
bably traceable to prejudice against much of the 
tone of ' Childe Harold ' and the wild reputation 
of the author. In many families, it should be 
remembered, Byron's poetry was interdicted for its 

absorbing effects on young readers. I have heard 
my mother say that her father (a barrister and 
brother of Judge Sir W. Taunton, of Oxford) 
would not allow Byron's poems to be read by his 
children ; and it appears that many were equally 
strict in those days. Or the unfinished state in 
which the portrait of the "Young Peri of the 
West " was left may be, perhaps, referred to the 
unromantic question of price. Artists are some- 
times inclined to advance in their charge for a 
picture which they think may become very 

I cannot say where the painting is now ; but 
many of Lord Byron's pictures passed to Lady 
Holland, to Col. Wildman (who bought New- 
stead Abbey), and to Sir John Hobhouse, at the 
time when pecuniary difficulties pressed upon the 
poet. J. W. 

Chard, Somerset. 

lanthe was Lady Charlotte Harley,, daughter of 
the Earl and Countess of Oxford. She married, 
in 1820, Brigadier-General Bacon. At the com- 
mencement of 1813 Byron thus wrote to Mr. 

"Westall has, I believe, agreed to illustrate your 
Book [a projected edition of the first two cantos of 
'Childe Harold'], and I fancy one of the engravings 
will be from the pretty little girl you saw the other day, 
though without her name, and merely as a model for 
some sketch connected with the subject." 

On April 21, 1813, Byron wrote again to 
Murray : 

" I shall be in town on Sunday next, and will call and 
have some conversation on the subject of Westall's- 
designs. I am to sit to him for a picture, at the request 
of a friend of mine." 

As a matter of fact, Westall painted a portrait 
of Byron in 1814. A spirited portrait of lanthe, 
by Westall, appeared in part ix. of Finden's 
' Illustrations ' to Mr. Murray's uniform edition of. 
' The Life and Works of Lord Byron,' published in 
1832. I know nothing of the "circumstances 
which would have greatly enhanced the interest 
to the public of the portrait picture of Byron and 
lanthe," but can well understand the incongruity 
and absurdity of blending the semblances of two 
individuals so entirely distinct from one another 
in every circumstance of their lives. We must 
remember that in 1813 lanthe was a mere child, 
and the dedication of the first two cantos to her 
was intended by Byron as a graceful compliment 
to her mother, the beautiful Lady Oxford. 


33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

The following note from the Paris, 1835, edition 
of Byron's ' Works ' may perhaps answer your cor- 
respondent : 

"The Lady Charlotte Harley, second daughter of 
Edward, fifth Earl of Oxford (now Lady Charlotte 
Bacon), in the autumn of 1812, when these lines were- 



addressed to her, had not completed her eleventh year. 
Mr. Westall's portrait of the juvenile beauty, painted 
at Lord Byron's request, is engraved in Finden's ' Illus- 
trations.' L. E. [i.e., London editor]." 

" Lord Byron appears to have been much struck with 
the sweetness and beauty of this young lady. The 
introductory stanzas ' To lanthe ' did not appear until 
after the sale of several editions of ' Childe Harold,' 
Finden's ' illustrations.' P. B. [t. e., Paris editor]." 


Waltham Abbey, Essex. 

See note in the one-volume edition of Byron's 
Works,' 1837. P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

REFERENCE WANTED (8 th S. viii. 29). The 
lines asked for occur in the second book of * Aurora 

We '11 not barter, sir, 
The beautiful for barley. 



A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare. By Horace 

Howard Furness. Vol. X. A Midsomer Night's 

Dream. (Philadelphia, Lippincott.) 

JUST after an American company has been showing us, 

at Daly's Theatre, in a performance of ' A Midsummer 

Night's Dream,' how inaccurate, meddlesome, and 

squeamish a managerial editor can be, an edition of the 

same play appears as a part of the American ' Variorum 

Shakespeare ' as a corrective. To all who are familiar 

with the work of Mr. Furness it is unnecessary to saj 

that this tenth volume of his series is a model of sounc 

judgment, strenuous labour, and diversified erudition 

Human effort is necessarily imperfect, and the most 

continuous struggle cannot ensure perfect accuracy. We 

have, however, turned again to the original text, in the 

expectation of finding an error, and have not succeeded 

The volume is, indeed, as exemplary in accuracy as it is 

in sanity. This to the uninitiated may sound common 

place or timid praise. It is the reverse. Hard is it to 

gay whether conjecture has been more preposterous in 

elucidation of meaning or so-called reformation of text 

We have previously said, but it needs to be repeated 

tbat the text supplied by Mr. Furness in his recen 

volumes including, of course, the latest is that, pure 

and simple, of the first edition. The readings of the 

various quartos and of the other folios are supplied in 

foot-notes, together with the alterations, emendations 

&c., of subsequent editors, the explanatory suggestion 

or statements of various commentators being given 

beneath. These are, naturally, extensive. Not seldor 

a signed note, ordinarily short, of the latest editor' 

closes the controversy. A work such as this is, naturally 

intended for scholars. To the average reader spellin 

such as a " meare-maide " for a mermaid, " reremise 

for rear-mice, and the like, though scarcely baffling, i 

perturbing, and he will naturally seek a modernized an 

sophisticated text. For the scholar, however, the pla 

adopted by Mr. Furness is far away the best. Not onl 

can he read it with more pleasure in the quaint an 

antiquated text, but he can see how, from the very mi 

prints and the like, confusion and mistake have come ir 

The value of the two quartos of ' A Midsummer Night 

Dream ' known respectively as the Roberts and Fishe 

quartos is widespread, and there is a suspicion that on 

" them may have been amended by the very hand of 
liaknpeare. This must remain a suspicion, and is now 
ot likely to be resolved into a certainty. In the pre- 
atory matter and notes Mr. Furness supplies all that 
s known, and pretty nearly all of importance that has 
een written, concerning the play. Its sources, the 
ime of its action, its text, and all other matters are 
iscussed, the opinions of all scholars of weight and 
mportance being given, and there is a mass of criticism, 
English, American, German, what not. Each succeeding 
olume is, in fact, encyclopaedic in information, giving 
verything that any student, whatever his purpose, can 
esire. It is impossible for us, in a book so many-sided, 
o deal with the execution. We can but state what are 
he scheme and scope. One thing more we can do. We 
an congratulate scholars on the addition of one more 
olume to this augmenting and invaluable series. Mr. 
furness comes, we are glad to think, of a long-lived 
itock, and his father, we believe, is still alive to help 
lim. Scholars may hope, then, to see yet many more 
>lays treated in fashion equally exhaustive ; perhaps, 
:ven who knows ? the entire dramas of Shakspeare. 

Stormonth's English Dictionary. With Supplement by 

William Bayne. (Blackwood & Sons.) 
THE essential thing in a good dictionary is a compre- 
icnsive and trustworthy vocabulary. Words with a 
iterary character, and actually used by standard authors, 
should all be included. The next consideration is that 
;he lexicographer should offer clear, direct, and precise 
definitions. In this respect Johnson is a model to follow ; 
lis wide knowledge, critical judgment, and sense of 
itness, specially qualified him for lucidity and precision 
of treatment. We have greatly outgrown him in extent 
of vocabulary, in philological reach and expertness, and 
in minute philosophical penetration ; but he still sets the 
example in neatness and exhaustiveness of equivalent. 
In the matter of pronunciation, also, there have been 
great changes in the latter days, so that in this particular 
department recent usage rather than earlier practice 
should be represented in the well-informed dictionary. 

Stormonth's Dictionary ' has been for many years a 
handbook in constant use at the table on which these 
lines are written. It is Johnsonian in pith and succinct- 
ness of definition, and alert as to modern attainment 
and fashion in etymology and pronunciation. It was an 
admirable book as the author left it, and fully deserved 
the popularity it has steadily enjoyed. Progress, how- 
ever, has been so great and so multiform in recent years, 
that a work prepared under the conditions that limited 
the knowledge of the last generation had begun to run 
some risk of being slightly inadequate towards present 
demands. The publishers have in good time recognized 
the necessity for a new edition, and with admirable 

The text of the dictionary is essentially what it was 
in the original work, and Mr. William Bayne, the editor, 
has provided an elaborate and exhaustive supplement, 
steadily following the method of his predecessor. Thus 
the admirers of Stormonth's book may consult the new 
issue with a sense of satisfaction in finding that con- 
tinuity and uniformity are steadily preserved. Many of 
the new words now included are necessarily philosophical, 
scientific, or technical, and they are all satisfactorily 
traced and defined. Then there are words like bejant, 
cid, duniwassal, folk-song, gangrel, hummel, jerry, ken- 
speckle, &.C., which are now reasonably regarded as dic- 
tionary terms, and should therefore be found in any 
exhaustive work. It was wise, also, to give words and 
phrases usually looked for (and often in vain) in an 
encyclopaedia Ahriman, e.g., Bhagavad Gita, Bright'* 
disease, Brownism, Glenlivet, Memnonian, Panslavism, 



'Toltecs, and so on. As an instance of the freshness o 
information supplied, reference may be made to the 
definition and etymologies given of Jingoism, which 
include the drift of Prof. Skeat's recent discussion of the 
term in these columns. The appendixes of postfixes 
contractions, Latin and foreign phrases, and Scripture 
and geographical names also deserve commendation. 
The grouping of the words under their respective heads, 
the varieties of type employed, and the admirable print- 
ing and binding are all features of the work that make 
it attractive and convenient to consult. Altogether, 
'Stormonth's Dictionary,' as now adapted to presenl 
requirements, is at once a sound working manual for the 
scholar and a trustworthy compendium of reference for 
the general reader. 

Works of ike Rev. Griffith Edwards. Edited by E. 

Owen. (Stock.) 

MR. EDWARDS was a Welsh clergyman of antiquarian 
tastes, who set himself to do what every country clergy- 
man might well undertake to write a history of the 
parishes with which he was at various times connected. 
The late Bishop Short, of St. Asapli, used to encourage 
his clergy to compile such parochial histories, and Mr. 
Edwards was one of the few who seem to have taken his 
advice. Three sequestered parishes lying among the 
hills of Montgomeryshire Llangadfan, Garthbeibio, and 
Llanerfyl have here their uneventful story told, and 
a faithful record given of their archaeological remains 
and other features of interest. The latter half of the 
volume consists of the bardic effusions or prize poems 
-of course in pure Cymric which found favour at 
Eisteddfods. These a Saxon critic may not presume to 
pass an opinion upon ; but the English verse into which 
Mr. Edwards was occasionally betrayed he has no scruple 
in characterizing as stiff and conventional. 

Historic Doubts relative to Napoleon Bonaparte. By 

Richard Whateley, D.D. (Putnam's Sons.) 
IN a prettily printed and every way attractive volume, 
this American house has issued a new edition of this 
brilliant jeu d'esprit. Those who know it as do all 
scholars of ripe age will be glad to have it in eo pleasing 
a form. Those who do not are advised to form instant 
acquaintance with it. The reprint is welcome. 

WE have before us the issue of The Journal of tJie 
Royal Institute of British Architects for June 13 (Lon- 
don, Conduit Street). We trust we need not say that 
not one of the articles is unworthy of the place it holds ; 
but this being understood, a feeling comes over us that 
none of them has that strong claim on the attention of 
the outside world which many former papers have shown. 
The article by the President on 'Art in Primitive 
Greece 'is a review of the English translation of MM. 
Georges Perrot and Charles Cbipiez's work entitled ' His- 
tory of Art in Ancient Greece Mycenian Art.' We 
gather from what Mr. Penrose says that it brings 
together much that has been separated hitherto, so far 
at least as English readers are concerned. Several of 
the engravings are reproduced here and add much to the 
interest of the paper. There are two papers on the 
church of Sancta Sophia, both of which we have enjoyed. 
The review by Mr. Paul Waterhouse of the late Walter 
Pater's ' Greek Studies,' which the writer calls ' A Vision 
of Greece,' is valuable for its lucid appreciation of 
Pater's style. So good is it that if we had room we 
should be tempted to transfer more than one paragraph 
to our own columns. 

WE have received the June number of the Library 
J'&fKmal, the official organ of the American Library 
Association. It maintains its high character as a record 
of the progress of the libraries of the United States. 

Our Transatlantic cousins have a devotion to public 
libraries which we should be glad to see imitated in 
this country. We do not know how many of our large 
towns are yet without a free library, but we believe 
that they are shamefully many. Mr. Francis H. Parsons 
contributes a very useful paper on ' The Care of Maps ' 
taking for his text the following remark, which he who 
enunciated it regarded as axiomatic : " Don't try to find 
a convenient form of arrangement for maps : there is 
none." Mr. Parsons combats this sweeping assertion 
and makes some valuable suggestions. Our own opinion 
is that in every library not cramped for space there 
should be a room with a large table in the centre de- 
voted to maps only. Large maps are unwieldy things. 
Iney should never be taken from their own room except 
mease of necessity; therefore the table on which they 
are to be used should be sufficiently broad, so that when 
unfolded they do not hang down over the sides and 
become broken or strained. 

WE have received from Mr. Charles W. Gamble of 
Mansion House Chambers, Queen Victoria Street a 
photographic reproduction of the 'Interrogatories of 
James I. for the First Examination of Guy Fawkes ' 
This spendidly executed facsimile is a specimen of the 
excellent work Mr. Gamble is doing for us in the repro- 
duction of our State Papers. A list of those already 
executed can be had on application. The series com- 
mends itself warmly to our readers, to many of whom it 
will be of paramount interest and importance. The 
reproductions are solidly mounted on cardboard, and may 
either be framed or kept in a large portfolio. 

WITH much regret we announce the death of Mr 
Richard Herne Shepherd, the patient, laborious and 
accurate compiler of many useful and accepted biblio- 
graphies. His ' Bibliography of Coleridge,' contributed 
to these columns, appeared in our latest volume, and the 
nrst instalment of a promised bibliography of Charles 
Lamb is in our hands. Mr. Shepherd had been for some 
time in weak health, but his demise was unexpected Mr 
Shepherd was a well-recognized authority on Tennyson 

&otict& to C0ms0tettis. 

We mutt call special attention to the following notice*: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
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as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

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T M- Bl (" Filliwi y")- This query was inserted on 
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CORRIGENDA. P. 16, col. 2, 1. 2 from bottom, for 
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Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
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8 :h S. VIII. JOLT 27, '95.] 





NOTES : Westminster Demolishments, 61 "The Three 
Estates of the Realm," 62 'Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' 63 Fact and Fiction Theodolite Rev. B. Mar- 
ten, 64" Parson " " Wederoue " Leyrestowe Toad- 
stones, 65 " Dfibonnaire " Finger Pillory " Uncut " 
Books Lawrence Washington, 66. 

QUERIES : Sir Kenelm Digby " Educationalist " " Phi- 
lanthropy " John Vaughan Corrupt Practices oi the 
E. I. Company Priests' Orders Saftord, of Canterbury, 
67 ' Hampshire Visitations' Sir Gore, of Sacombe 
St. Marie Overie Epitaph on Johnson Barthelemon's 
'Morning Hymn' Manor of Tidswell " Reformades " 
Miami University F. Newbold West Family " The 
Ever Loyal City," 68 Church of King Charles the Martyr 
Andrew Stewart Sir R. Clarke Sir R. Dillon, 69. 

REPLIES : Mrs. Garrick, 69 French Map of North Ame- 
rica, 70 " The wrong end of the stick "Roberts Sydney 
Papers" Cadowes," 71 Hilda Morris of Ballybiggan 
Blunt's ' Dictionary,' 72 Sir T. Bond Great Bed of Ware 
Aldermen of Aldgate Flag to summon to Church 
"Red Whip," 73 " Dimpsy " Le Despencer Finger- 
Hicks ' The Flowers of the Forest,' 74 Jesse Window- 
Patron Saints of Churches London Patois, 75 Copy of 
Recipe Ploughing Oxen Latin Motto" Coign of Van- 
tage," 76 Stolen Relics Restored Joke Anticipated 
"Playing the wag" "Fine-axed" "Still and on," 77 
Valse Clans of Innsbruck The Royal Anne Charles I. 
at Little Gidding London Street Tablets " Muggles- 
wick" "Orisons" Richard Reynolds, 78 Christian 
Name William Kurd, D.D., 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Sonnenschein's 'Reader's Guide' 
Leland's ' Legends of Florence 'Hardy's ' Denham Tracts ' 
Buchheim's Schiller's ' Maria Stuart ' Bickerton's ' New 
Story of the Stars.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

The last two years have seen a great change 
come over the outward and visible aspect of many 
of our Westminster streets. Old world landmarks 
have fallen before the march of the builder, and the 
housebreaker has had a busy time of it, and 
things have changed, not always, I think, for the 
better. Where these alterations can be noted, 
they always should be, in the interest of inquirers 
who come afterwards ; and having this feeling upon 
the subject I propose to put a few of the most 
recent upon record in the pages of 'N. & Q.,' where 
they may be found whenever they may be required. 
First and foremost, the loss of Emmanuel Hospital 
or Lady Dacre's Almshouses is greatly to be de- 
plored. It was founded and built in 1600, under 
the will of Ann, widow of Gregory Fiennes, Lord 
Dacre, "for the support of ten men, and ten 
women as pensioners ; and also for ten boys and 
ten girls, with a master for the former, and a mis- 
tress for the latter," and was to be entitled " Em- 
manuel Hospital." Changes came, as it was 
inevitable they would do during a long course of 
years, agricultural depression being answerable for 
many of them in latter years ; and at last the 
almshouses had fallen into such a state of decay as 
to require a very large sum to rehabilitate them, 
that it was felt by the governors to be advisable 

to sell the site, so that the almsmen and almswomen, 
&c., might be provided for. This was done, the 
land was sold and the buildings demolished, and 
the site is at present vacant, with a big black board 
staring one in the face making the announcement 
that residential flats, to be called " Dacre Gardens," 
will be, some day, put up on the ground. Another 
clearance has been made hard by. Wood's Brewery, 
or, as it was named, the Artillery Brewery, has been 
sold, the ground cleared, to give place to what 
was to have been a very town of flats, then to be 
known as the " Avenue Estate," but which scheme 
has apparently been somewhat modified, owing to 
squabbles with the local vestry and the County 
Council. The Victoria Street frontage is nearly 
ready for occupation, and now known as " Artillery 
Mansions"; but what the ultimate development 
may be is hardly yet known, as the land in the rear 
is as yet scarcely touched. This land, it is said, 
has been in the possession of the family of the 
present owner, Mr. Joseph Carter Wood, from the 
time of the Commonwealth, and in part is on the 
site of the ancient practice ground of the old trained 
bands and archers. Almost adjoining another but 
smaller clearance has been made. The buildings 
formerly occupied by Bay's Mineral Water Manu- 
factory have been demolished, the land being at 
present vacant, and a board put up notifying that 
it is to let for the erection of mansions. The 
business was established in 1816 by George Bay, 
and until less than twelve months ago was in full 
work at this spot, but has now migrated to larger 
premises in the Marylebone Boad. Within a few 
yards, about sixteen houses, formerly known as St. 
Margaret's Terrace, with twelve smaller ones at the 
rear, known as St. Margaret's Place, have been 
pulled down, to make way for some large manu- 
facturing premises for the Army and Navy Co- 
operative Society, Limited, and for the Army and 
Navy Auxiliary Co-operative Supply, Limited, the 
former only as yet being built. St. Margaret's 
Place, a right of way for several centuries, has been 
closed, and the width of the land, by an arrange- 
ment with the parish authorities, will be ultimately 
thrown into the front street, now known through its 
entire length as " Coburg Bow," where it was sadly 
needed, the traffic at this spot being very great. 

In Francis Street a large number of very small 
houses have been displaced, the land at present 
being vacant. In this clearance three small courts, 
full of little one-story tenements, have gone they 
were known as " Pool Place," " Pond Court," and 
" Kine Court "; all of which places, it seems safe to 
assert, must have had an existence from the days 
of Tothill Fields, their very names being redolent 
of the former rurality of this spot, the last remnant 
of which is in the modern Warwick Street, that 
thoroughfare being the old "Willow Walk" ef 
bygone days. A number of houses at the entrance 
of St. James's Park, at Storey's Gate and Prince's 

NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. vm. JULT 27, 

Court, have also gone, the land here also being un 
utilized at present. In Prince's Court lived John 
Wilkes ; and it is to be hoped that in whatever 
erections may be put up here this fact will be 
notified by a tablet, and that the old street tablet, 
until this present demolition on the corner house, 
will be reinstated. At the corner of Rochester 
Bow and Grey Coat Street some small houses, 
mostly, if not entirely, the property of the Grey 
Coat Hospital governors, have been replaced by a 
large block of residential flats, now nearly finished 
and largely occupied, known as "Grey Coat Gar- 
dens," the rear of which overlooks the gardens of 
the Grey Coat Hospital a very pleasant outlook 
for residences in one of the most crowded parts of 
Westminster. Further up Rochester Bow, at the 
corner of Walcott Street, are rapidly approaching 
completion some flats, I believe to be called " Vin- 
cent Square Mansions," but the character of which 
is not yet very apparent. Changes these, indeed, 
and all of which I have seen consummated in about 
two years. Old Westminster will soon seem to be 
non-existent. Verily we may say the " old order 
changetb, giving place to new." 

20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

In a very brief answer to a very wide question 

What is education ? Mr. Walter Wren has the 

following note : 

"I believe ' Imperium et Libertas' is the 'motto' of 
the Primrose League. That Dizzy's ' gag,' or ' wheeze,' 
or blunder should be embalmed in the Chancellor and 
Vice-Chancellor, and Knights and Dames, and Ruling 
Councillors of the Primrose League is comical. Their 
Vice-Chancellor is their leading comedian. He wrote 
an article in the Paternoster Review of October, 1890, in 
praise of his League, and informed his readers that the 
three estates of the realm were Queen, Lords, and 
Commons. As the punster said, ' The King, sir, is no 
subject.' "P. 28. 

" I wonder the extra loyal writer did not write ' Em- 
press, Lords and Commons.' The same blunder was 
made quite lately by a distinguished soldier writing to a 
leading daily paper. As I believe he had never been 
under fire, it came natural to him to bluster and blunder 
about the ' Constitution.' " P. 35. 

Of course everybody is nowadays aware of the 
legal and parliamentary phrase, " The Lords 
Spiritual, the Lords Temporal, and Commons in 
Parliament assembled "; but (as Dr. Brewer says 
in his ' Dictionary of Phrase and Fable ') nine 
persons out of ten still persist in considering the 
"three estates" to be "King, Lords, and Com- 
mons." I cannot but think it a mistake for writers 
of school histories to speak of the Three Estates (sic} 
as if such a term had ever obtained currency among 
the lay element of our community. On the Con- 
tinent and in Scotland the term " estates " had a 
definite political meaning, which has never been 
naturalized in England. " The two houses," " the 

Lords," " the Commons " are terms every one 
understands. " The three estates of the realm, " 
in the " correct" sense, nothing short of a surgical 
operation will suffice to lodge in the ordinary lay- 
man's mind. If there are two "estates" in the 
upper house, it is equally true that there are two 
" estates" in the lower house. As to the spiritu- 
alty, I venture to say " Ditto to Mr. Burke " in his- 
famous description of our Established Church: 
"No ! we will have her to exalt her mitred front . 
in courts and parliaments. We will have her 
mixed throughout the whole mass of life, and 
blended with all the classes of society," &c. 
('French Bevolution '). That the " correct " mean- 
ing of the phrase under discussion is a technicality,, 
as devoid of foundation as the style " King of 
France" assumed by our Tudor, Stuart, and 
Brunswick sovereigns, is acknowledged even by 
" authorities on the Constitution." 

Thus, the late Mr. E. A. Freeman, in his 
' Growth of the English Constitution,' says (pp. 

" Thus we got a Parliament of two houses, Lords 

and Commons, attended by a kind of ecclesiastical 
shadow of the Parliament in the shape of the two Houses 
of Convocation. Thus, for all practical purposes, there- 
were only two estates in the English Parliament, Lords and 
Commons. Thus the phrase of the three estates, which 
had a meaning in France, became meaningless in Eng- 
land. For centuries past there has been no separate 
estate of the clergy; some of their highest members 
have belonged to the estate of the Lords, and the rest to 
the estate of the Common?. Hence has arisen a common, 
but not unnatural misconception, as old as the Long 
Parliament, as to the meaning of the three estates. Men 
constantly use those words as if they meant the three 
elements among which the legislative power is divided,. 
King, Lords, and Commons. But an estate means a 
rank, or order, or class of men, like the Lords, the Clergy, 
or the Commons. The king is not an estate, because there 
is no class or order of kings, the king being one person 
alone by himself. The proper phrase is the king and 
the three estates of the realm. But in England, as I 
have already shown, the phrase is meaningless, as we 
have, in truth, two estates only." 

I shall have something to say as to this reasoning 
of Freeman's when I come to quote a similar 
passage from Twysden. According to Bishop 
Stubbs, the "mistake" is as old as the fifteenth, 
century at least. 

The ' N. E. D.' has, under " estate," the follow- 
ing : 

" The phrase has often been misused to denote the 
three powers whose concurrence is necessary for legisla- 
tion 1559. Bp. J. Aylmer, ' Harb. Fnithf. Subjects,' 

H. iij In the parliament house you shal find these 3 

estats. The King or Queene, which representeth the 
Monarchie. The noble men which be the Aristocratic. 

And the Burgesses and Knights, the Democratic 1887, 

Pall Mall Gazette, 8 June, 3/2. Mr. Bryce's accuracy is 
at fault when he tells us that the Canadian Parliament 
' like its model in Westminster, is made up of the three 
estates, the Queen, and the two Houses.' " 

Sir Francis Pal grave, in his ' Merchant and the 
Friar' (1837), says (pp. 230, 231) : 

.8* 8. VIII. JULY 27, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" It would have been a 'bootless bene' to have referred 
the suppliant to the third estate, the Commons in Parlia- 
ment, whilst they themselves scarcely ventured to appear 
as humble petitioners on their own behalf. Had the 
i-uitor presented himself to the prelates and magnates, 
the second estate of Parliament, they would have denied 
their own competency to entertain his prayer. It was, 
therefore, to the first estate, the King in Parliament, 
that the prayer was to be addressed, and the suit made. 
Our king was the popular member." 

" In the Crown, the first estate of Parliament, resided 
the power of originating relief." Ibid., p. 246. 

Earl Grey, in bis speech before resigning on the 
king's refusal to create new peers (May, 1832), 
said (I quote from the ' Annual Register ' for that 
year, p. 182) : 

" I can refer the noble and learned lord to books on 
the constitution, in which he will find that this pre- 
rogative of creating peers was given to the crown in 
order to counteract the serious evils that might arise 
from this house placing itself in opposition to the re- 
maining estates of the realm Should this house com- 
bine, in some purpose adverse to the crown and the House 
of Commons, and should it be able to hold out in its 
determination, no power existing to check its proceed- 
ings, then is this no longer a government of King, Lords, 
and Commons, but an oligarchy ruling the country." 

In the course of the debate (March, 1831) con- 
sequent on the introduction of the Reform Bill, 
the Attorney-General (Sir T., afterwards Lord, 
Denman) said : 

" There had been two alterations in the House in 
Cromwell's time ; at the earlier period, the change was 
effected by violence ; at the later, by a plan brought 
forward on a conservative principle a plan by which 
the three estates were to be retained, mutilated, indeed, 
in some respects, but still preserved in form as the 
government of the country." 

Mr. Baring said that 
"he had been taught that this constitution consisted of 
three e.-tates King, Lords, and Commons. Pass this 
bill, and you must reverse the order : you will have a 
constitution consisting of Commons, Lords, and King." 
'Annual Register,' 1831, p. 39. 

Pitt, in his speech (May 7, 1793) on Grey's 
motion for reform, said : 

" The constitution of England consists of King, Lords, 
and Commons ; but if it was declared that all men were 
naturally equal, that equality would instantly annihilate 
the two superior orders of the state." 

Compare Freeman's remarks, ante. 

Lord Chatham, in his speech on Rockingham's 
motion respecting the judicature of the Bouse of 
Commons in matters of election (Feb. 2, 1770), 
said : 

" Need I remind you, my Lords, at this period, of that 
common schoolboy position, that the constitution of this 
country depends upon King, Lords, and Commons ; that 
each by its power is a balance to the others 1 If this is 
.not the case, why were the three estates constituted 1 ?" 

In his famous speech in the Commons (Jan. 14, 
1766), he had said: 

" Taxation is no part of the governing or legislative 
power. The taxes are the voluntary gift and grant ol 
tthe Commons alone. In legislation the three estates of 

the realm are alike concerned, but the concurrence of 
;he Peers and the Crown to a tax is only necessary to 
clothe it with the form of a law." 

J. P. OWEN. 

48, Comeragh Road, West Kensington, W. 
(To be continued.) 


(See 6tt> g. x i. 105, 443 ; xii. 321 ; 7'> S. i. 25, 82, 342, 
376; ii. 102, 324, 355; iii. 101, 382; iv. 123, 325, 422; 
v. 3, 43, 130, 362, 463, 506 ; vii. 22, 122. 202, 402 ; viii. 
123, 382; ix. 182, 402 ; x. 102 ; xi. 162, 242, 342 ; xii. 
102 ; 8th s. i. 162, 348, 509 ; ii. 82, 136, 222, 346, 522; 
iii. 183; iv. 384; v. 82, 284,504; vi. 142, 383; vii. 102.) 

Vol. XLII. 

P. 6 b. For "biography," read bibliography. 

P. 7 a. For " Newbold " read Newbald. 

P. 12 a, line 13. For " 1889" read 1869. 

Pp. 20-1. John Ogilvie. See Byron, ' Engl. B. 
and Sc. Rev.,' note on line 219. 

P. 40 a. Ogle. See an anecdote in Peacham, 
1 Compl. Gent.,' p. 5. 

Pp. 45 a, 46 a. For " Whitfield" read Whitefield 
(156 a). 

P. 47 b. Oglethorpe. Thomson's 'Liberty,' 
part v., line 645. 

P. 50 b. Tho. Warton addressed a poem to the 
" Miss Oglethorpes," 1705, ' Poems,' 1748. p. 146. 

P. 58 a, line 20. How can the years before 1774 
of a man who did not die until 1807 be called the 
latter period of his life ? 

P. 73. O'Ketffe. SeeMathias, ' P. of L.,'ed. 11, 
1801, p. 79 ; Gifford, ' Baviad and Maeviad.' 

Pp. 85-6. John Old. See Hammond, 'Directory 
and Liturgy,' 1646, p. 14. 

P. 94 a. John Oldcorn. Burnet saw his portrait 
in the Gallery of the English Jesuits at Rome, 
' Letters,' 1686, p. 244. 

P. 104. T. H. B. Oldfield. Mathias, ' P. of L.,' 
p. 28. 

P. 109. Oldham. Isaac Watts burnt his poems 
on account of their lewdness, ' Horse Lyricae,' 1743, 
p. 194. They were edited by Robert Bell, 1854. 

Pp. 127-9. Oley. ' Clergyman's Instructor, 1 
ed. 3, 1824, pp. 5-17. 

P. 217. A. Onslow. Thomson's ' Autumn,' ad 
init. Young's ' Night Thoughts,' i. 

P. 230 b. "On both sides from an family." 

Omit "an" and read families. 

P. 238 a. For "Langburgb," " Boyce," read 
Langbargh, Boyne. 

P. 242. Ordericu?. Sacristy, No. 9, July, 1873, 
pp. 30-55 ; Church, chap, vi., should be v. 

P. 264 a, line 22. For " Book " read Books. 

P. 276. Bp. Osbaldeston. Coates's 'Poems,' 
1770, p. 59. 

P. 303 b. Osborne. "His sister"? some mis- 
take. He allowed C. Letsome to see Lord Oxford's 
vast collection of single sermons for his Preacher's 
Assistant, 1753. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [- s. vm. JULY 27, '95. 

P. 346. Otway. One Humphry 0. was Rector 
of Rise in Holderness, 1624-1664, Poulson's 
' Holderness,' ii. 476. Rochester calls him 
" puzzling Otway," ' Poems,' 1707, p. 19 ; one ol 
bis poems in Roscommon's ' Works,' 1707, p. 131 
Gay's 'Trivia,' ii. 561, "saunt'ring prentices o'er 
Otway weep." His ' Poems ' were also published 
by Cooke. 

P. 352. On 'Venice Preserved,' see 'N. & Q., 
8 tb S. v. 488 ; vi. 38. 

P. 361. For " Liga " read Siga (ii. 440 a). 

P. 363. SirW. Ouseley. Mathias, 'P. ofL., 

P. 375 b. Overall. Mountagn, ' Appello 
Caesarem,' 1625, p. 31 ; Ellis ' Thirty-nine Articles,' 
1710, pp. 125, 162 sq. 

P. 382 a. The Campden Wonder was often 
reprinted in 1743, in ' The Cries of Blood,' 1767, 
in 'Eight Historical Tales,' 1801 ; 'N. & Q.,' 3 rd 
S. vi., vii. (under " Harrison"). 

P. 383. For " Ronaldkirk " read Romaldkirk 
(48 a). 

P. 384. Ov'erton, printseller. Gay says his 
coloured prints were posted up in Arundel Street, 
Strand. ' Trivia,' ii. 488-9. 

P. 384 b. For " Churchman " (bis) read Church- 

P. 385. Rd. Overton. 'Man's Mortality' is 
attributed to Col. Robert Overton in ' D. N. B.,' 
viii. 412 a. 

P. 399 b. For "Pinks's" read Pink's. 

P. 420. John Owen, Epigrammatist. ' N. & Q.,' 
1 st S. viii. 495 ; 4"> S. xii. 32 ; 5 th S. vii. 59, 99, 
155, 298 ; Academy, April 13, 1895 ; he is men- 
tioned by Dryden in his ' Virgil ' and ' Juvenal.' 

Pp. 424-8. John Owen wrote pref. to Theoph. 
Gale's 'Jansenism,' 1669. 

W. C. B. 

FACT AND FICTION. It is very much to be 
desired that writers of biographical articles for 
magazines, &c., would not repeat unsupported 
statements, and would abstain from stating any- 
thing as a fact unless they have proof. Better far 
to let unsupported statements pass unmentioned, 
if they do not care to take the trouble and time to 
hunt up the evidence ; for the repetition of un- 
supported assertions causes afterwards a very large 
amount of trouble, confusion, and error. 

Long since an article on General Washington 
appeared in an illustrated paper, in which the old 
and mistaken line of his descent was mentioned as 
of an unquestioned fact, notwithstanding that the 
Jate Col. J. L. Chester proved (in the Herald and 
Genealogist) conclusively that such descent was 
impossible, and that the missing links of his 
descent have been found and published. Again, 
some time since there appeared in one of the 
monthlies a notice of Bamfyld Moore Carew, in 
which was the unsupported statement that he was 

married in Bath, whereas there appears among 
some extracts from the parish register of Stoke 
Damerell, now before me, the entry of the marriage 
of Bamfyld Moore Carew with Mary Gray on 
Dec. 29, 1733. 

Then again, in the March number of a London 
magazine, in an account of Robert Southey, the 
unsupported statement of the poet, in one of his 
letters, that his family were entitled to arms, is 
repeated as a fact, notwithstanding that Southey 
wrote in a way that admitted his own ignorance of 
the facts of the case. Now had the writer of this 
last article looked his subject well up, and re- 
ferred to that storehouse of miscellaneous infor- 
mation 'N. & Q.,' there in Nos. 113, 116, and 
117, 8 th S., he would have found that statement 
disproved. Editors cannot be expected to know 
or hunt up proof of all facts stated, but they might 
require their contributors to give the evidence for 
any facts they state. Some may say, Is this 
worth the ink? Yes, decidedly, if we value 
historical truth rather than misplaced fiction. 


Dr. Hanaius, in his work on geometrical instru- 
ments, published at Hanover in 1862-4, says, 
speaking of the theodolite (p. 140, note), that 
there has been much discussion as to the origin of 
the term, but as the instrument was first used in 
great trigonometrical surveys and degree measure- 
ments, in which very firm supports, made, if 
possible, of stone, are requisite, there is no room 
for doubt that the inventor took the name from 
the three Greek words Ola, a looking, 6Sos, a way, 
and XiOos, a stone. Hence he contends that the 
correct spelling is theodolith, and he spells it so 
throughout his work. 

I mention this merely because I do not think it 
is referred to in any English book ; but I am 
afraid it only amounts to another guess. More- 
over, the fact that in the first known place in 
which theodolite is mentioned (the 'Pantometria' 
of Thomas Digges, as was pointed out by DE 
MORGAN in 'N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. iv. 51) the word is 
spelt theodditus, is surely fatal to the conjecture 
of Hanaus. I may here point out a slip or mis- 
print in. PROF. SKEAT'S letter in ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. 
x. 290, where he speaks of theodolitus as the 
oldest form. Digges, as I remarked above, spells 
it theodditus^ which apparently militates as much 
against a connexion with oSds as with Ai#os. The 
4 Pantometria ' was first published in 1571. 

W. T. LYNN. 


REV. EDMUND MARTEN. (See 8 th S. vii. 506). 
Edmund Marten, son of the Rev. John Marten, 
of Lavington, Wilts, was born at Lavington 
Episcopi March 31, 1688, and matriculated from 
Sew College, Oxford, Dec. 17, 1706, graduating 



B.C.L. in 1713, and proceeding D.C.L. in 1718. 
He became rector of Somerton, Oxon, 1713, of 
Angmering, 1719, and of Woolbeding, Sussex, 
1732, prebendary of St. Paul's 1730, morning 
preacher at Grosvenor Chapel, London, 1731, 
canon of Windsor 1733, vicar of Twickenham, 
Middlesex, 1741, Master of St. Oswald's Hospital, 
Worcester, and Dean of Worcester 1746. Dr. 
Marten married, February, 1734, Miss Hawkins, 
of Soho, a lady with a fortune of 40,000?., and 
died Oct. 8, 1751 (Foster's ' Alumni Oxonienses,' 
1500-1714, vol. iii. p. 977). 


"PARSON." Perhaps the clearest old example 
of this word, as being a variant of person, is in the 
edition of 1555 of Lydgate'a ' Siege of Troye,' fol. 
H 1, col. 2 : 

For echo trespasse must consydered be, 

lastly measured by the qualyty 

Of hym that is offended, and also 

After the parson by whom the wrong is do. 

Probably the original MS. expressed the word in 
a contracted form, with the usual symbol which 
may be read either as par or per. 


queer mistake, s.v. "wederoue," in Godefroy's 
'Old French Dictionary.' He gives wederoue (a 
scribal error for woderoue, by the usual confusion 
of e with o in the fifteenth century), with the 
variant forms ivuderoue, wodruffe, which occur in 
glosses to translate Lat. hastula regie.. Hence 
Godefroy gives the conjectural sense "p.-e. une 
arme de jet, lance ou autre." But hastula regia 
was an old name for asphodel (Lewis and Short), 
and was translated in English by the word which 
we now spell woodruff. Hence woderoue is not 
" a little lance," but the English name of a plant. 

LEYRESTOWE. The ancient burial-ground of the 
London Jews escheated at the expulsion in 1290 
was known by this name ere it was termed Jews- 
gardyn, now Jewin Street. What is the signi- 
fication of the term ? Leyr in Chaucer means 
"flesh." Lere is connected with our modern 
" learning." Certain of the earlier London sheriffs 
belonged to the family of Leyre; but I do not find 
that any member was connected at all with this 
parcel of ground. M. D. DAVIS. 

TOAD-STONES. Many years ago I visited a 
nephew who was incumbent of a parish within two 
miles of Wantage. One day we walked into that 
town for the purpose of inspecting the bronze 
statue of King Alfred. There I was introduced 
to a local antiquary, who, in discoursisg about the 
natural curiosities of the place, informed me that 
toad-stones were sometimes found, and he pre- 
sented me with two of them from his own collection. 

They had somewhat the appearance of ivory studs, 
and were, it was supposed, identical with the 

precious jewel " which Shakspere in ' As You 
Like It,' II. i., puts into the head of the venomous 

Some people have supposed that the beautiful 
eye of an otherwise ugly reptile is meant ; bat 
when we consider the mass of superstition con- 
nected with toad-stones how they were worn as 
charms, and swallowed as antidotes to poison they 
must have had a more substantial existence than 
the eye. A large number of these superstitions 
were collected by my nephew, in an article contri- 
buted to Temple Bar in August, 1879 ; but he, 
apparently, forgot to consult Sir Thomas Browne, 
who includes toad-stones among the vulgar errors, 
and sagaciously refers them to their real origin. 

In order to ascertain whether your toad-stone 
is genuine, all you have to do, according to Lupton, 
in his ' Notable Things,' is to present it to a toad, 
" so that he may see it well, and if it be a right 
and true stone, he will leap towards it, and make as 
though he would snatch it from you, for he envieth 
so much that man should have that stone ! " 
Another writer, wishing to be quite sure of the 
genuineness of the stone, gives the following 
directions : 

" Take a large and old he-toad, and place him on a 
table upon a red cloth. Watch him carefully all night, 
and before morning he will vomit up hia stone." 

Boetius, when a young man, followed this direction, 
but unfortunately nothing came of it. 

The so-called toad-stones were formerly worn 
about the person. In the Exhibition at South 
Kensington, in 1862, the late Cardinal Wiseman 
exhibited a large silver ring with a toad-stone in 
it. In 1838 a beautiful locket, forming a small 
padlock, was found in digging a grave in the 
churchyard at Devizes, in Wiltshire. It was com- 
posed of two toad-stones united by a silver band, 
and having the wards of the lock in the cavity 
between them, and the keyhole in the centre of 
one of the stones. The workmanship appeared to 
belong to the sixteenth century. It was probably 
worn as a charm, and as such was buried with its 

These stones were dignified with the name of 
bufonites ; but a good observer such as Sir Thomas 
Browne saw that they had nothing to do with the 
toad. He says : " They are found to be taken not 
out of toads' heads, but out of a fish's mouth, being 
handsomely contrived out of the teeth of the lupus 
marinus." And he recommends as a test the 
application of a red-hot iron, " whereupon, if they 
be true stones, they will not be apt to burn or 
afford a burnt odour, which they may be apt to 
do, if contrived out of animal parts or the teeth of 

Eecent science has made the matter quite clear. 
According to Agassiz, the great authority on 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. JOH 27, 

Ichthyology, these teeth belong to a species o 
shark, and form "a sort of bony pavement," we! 
adapted for cracking the shells of the molluscs on 
which it feeds. Lyell likens the old fossil fishe 
of this type to the living variety of shark callec 
Port Jackson shark. The fossil teeth are found a 
Seend, neat Devizes; near Faringdon, in Berk 
shire ; and in the phosphatic diggings near Potten 
in Bedfordshire. 0. TOMLINSON. 

Highgate, N. 

." In the French Bible (Version 
d'Ostervald), published by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, "Blessed are the meek," in our 
Authorized and Revised Versions, is translatec 
"Heureux les de*bonnaires." " De" bonnaire " is 
an exceedingly pretty word. It is used by Milton 
in ' L' Allegro,' by E. A. Poe in his beautiful lines 
io ' Lenore,' " For her the fair and debonair," &c., 
and by Tennyson in 'Harold,' II. ii. ; but does 
it exactly represent the Greek Trpaos or 7r/cas, 
which is the word used in St. Matthew v. 5, 
zi. 29, and xxi. 5 ? In the second of these pas- 
sages the French version has " doux," which seems 
to me the more appropriate word of the two. 
In our versions, both the Authorized and the Re- 
rised, it is " meek " in all three passages. Annan- 
dale's ' Dictionary,' ed. 1892, defines " debonair " 
as " characterized by courtesy, affability, or gentle- 
ness; elegant; well-bred; winning; accomplished." 
Spiers defines " de"bonnaire " as " compliant ; easy." 
M. Gasc, however, gives " meek " as one of the 
meanings of "de'bonnaire." Richardson gives some 
interesting examples of the use of "debonair." 
His quotation from Chaucer's 'Persones Tale' 
seems to support the translation in the French 
Bible : " Debonairtee withdraweth and refreineth 
the stirrings and mevings of mennes corage in his 
herte in swich maner that they ne skip not out by 
anger ne ire." In Diodati'a Italian version the 
word is " mansueto " in all the above-mentioned 
passages. Todd, in his Spenser's 'Works' (ed. 
1861), says, " debonaire gracious, kind. Fr. The 
accustomed epithet of gallant Knights." Again, 
"Debonaire, applied to the Ladies, means elegant, 
winning, accomplished ; to Knights, courteous and 

FINGER PILLORY. The following is a cutting 
from "Peter Lombard's" notes (" Varia") in the 
Church Times of June 21 : 

" J. E. H. sends an interesting account f 'the finger 
pillory,' still preserved carefully in the parish church of 
St. Helen's, Ashby-de-la-Zouch : 'An ancient and rather 
singular curiosity a finger pillory : this instrument eeems 
to bare been used for the punishment of disorderly per- 
sons during Divine service; it consists of two upright 
posts about three feet high, which support a beam of 
nearly the same lengthen which are bored holes of various 
dimensions, cut first horizontally, and then perpendi- 
cularly, in order that the first joint of the finger may be 
inserted, and the finger retained in an angular form ;" the 
culprit is then secured by bringing down over the holes 

another beam which is attached by a hinge at the end to 
one of the posts, and fastentd at the other by a lock.' " 


"UNCUT" BOOKS. The following paragraph, 
from the ' Art Notes ' of the St. James's Gazette of 
June 18, unconsciously embalms a common error 
concerning the meaning of the technical term 
" uncut " as applied to books, which deserves 
note : 

" Apropos of Romney, in a catalogue of a book sale 
which is shortly to be held are seven lot?, to which 
attention is drawn in that they once belonged to him. 
It is somewhat of a satire upon his artistic aspirations 
that those which refer to the art which he practised are 
all uncut. For instance, Sir Joshua's discourses to the 
Royal Academy in 1776, 1778, and 1790 ' all uncut,' and 
the same with Benjamin West's, two years later ; and 
even two epistles on painting addressed to Mr. Romney 
are in the same condition. In fact, the only work into 
which the great artist seems to have looked is a funeral 
sermon preached at Olney in 1800 on the death of 


NORTHAMPTON. On Jan. 19, 1616/7, adminis- 
tration of goods " of Lawrence Washington was 
granted to Margaret Washington, relict of Law- 
rence Washington, late of Wickamon, co. North- 
ampton, deceased " (Admon. P.C.C.). Wyke Dyve 
and Wyke Hamon parishes were united in 1587, 
and form the present parish of Wicken. Here, 
apparently, Lawrence lived, as he is described as 
"of Wickamon." But in the pedigrees he is 
called "of Sulgrave and Brington." He died, 
tiowever, some four years or so before his father, 
Robert, the squire of Sulgrave, and was buried at 
Brington, Dec. 15, 1616. This Lawrence married 
Margaret Butler, of Tees, or Tighes, co. Sussex 
'where is it ?), and was the father of Sir William, 
3ir John, and the rector of Purleigh. Wicken, 
ike Brington, was the property of his kinsman, 
Robert, Lord Spencer, and the reason of his living 
here is thus partly explained. 

Through the kindness of the rector, the Rev. 
W. S. Andrew?, I give the following extract?, 
which I made from the registers of Wicken : 

1616. George Washington, the sonne of William and 
Anne, was baptzd the vij th of Aprill, 1616. 
1617-8. Sara Washington buried Januarie xzvij th 1617. 

'hese seem to be new to the Washington pedigree. 
'erhaps both were children of Sir William. 

Joan Washington, one of the nine daughters of 
jawrence, married Francis Pill, and they also lived 
,t Wicken. Between the years 1616 and 1629, 
heir eight children, William, Frances, Edward, 
"enelope, Richard, Margaret, Ann, and Lawrence, 
were baptized there. On Feb. 20, 1629/30, 
' ffrancis Pill" was buried, but whether father 
r daughter is uncertain. 


Shangton Rectory, Leicester. 




We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
aamea and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

MANUFACTURE. The connexion of Digby with 
some improvement in the manufacture of bottles 
has apparently escaped the notice of his biographers. 
The fact is brought to light in the ' Seventh Report 
of the Hist. MSS. Comm.,' p. 164, under the fol- 
lowing circumstances : In or before 1662 a certain 
John Colnett obtained a patent for glass bottles 
and procured a Bill confirming the patent, which 
was bad for want of novelty at the date of the grant, 
on the ground that in the late rebellions times the 
patent could not be immediately obtained. A peti- 
tion against the Bill was filed by John Vinion and 
Robert Ward on behalf of the London glass trade, 
in which it was stated that the petitioners had 
already moved for the revocation of the patent, 
which related to an invention of which Colnett was 
not the inventor. The Attorney General reported 
in favour of the petitioners, and stated that " Sir 
Kenelm Digby first invented glass bottles nearly 
thirty years since, and employed Colnett and others 
to make them for him." Is anything further known 
as to the nature of the improvement introduced by 
Digby ? Selden, in his Table Talk,' refers to the 
confinement of Digby at Winchester House, South- 
wark, where, in 1611, Sturtevant asserts that coal 
was used successfully in the manufacture of green 
glass. I should be glad of any information re- 
specting this Southwark glass manufacture. There 
is good reason to believe that this new process 
was introduced by Zoucb, Percival, and others, and 
formed the subject-matter of the patent which led 
to the celebrated monopoly of Mansel ; but it is 
far from certain that the glass manufacture did 
not exist in this district at an earlier date. A 
reference to the parish registers ought to determine 
the question. E. WTNDHAM HULME. 

"EDUCATIONALIST." Can any philological or 
other reasons be advanced for the legitimacy or 
otherwise of this word ? If I mistake not, it is 
invariably used by the Times ; but I have come 
across a small country newspaper proprietor who 
would not have it upon any consideration. Drop- 
ping the penult, he always printed " educationist." 
On referring to the so-called standard dictionaries, 
I find they are simply bewildering. Webster (ed. 
1884) and Worcester (1889) give "educationist" 
only. Neither form is given by Latham (1876), 
and both words are also absent in the ' Imperial ' 
(1881). The Century ' says that " educationalist " 
is the same as "educationist," and only appends 
the definition with illustrations to the latter. This 
order is reversed in the ' Encyclopaedic,' while Nuttall 

gives the one form "educationalist." I am sorry 
I am not at the moment able to refer to Dr. 
Murray. The matter may seem somewhat insigni- 
ficant ; but if one form is more correct than the 
other, pray which one is it ? A. INGRAM. 

" PHILANTHROPY." Reference is wanted to the 
earliest use of this word in English and the cir- 
cumstances which called it forth ; also to its use 
in the Greek, with the sense ia which it was em- 
ployed. J. H. 

JOHN VAUGHAN. Wanted the pedigree of 
John Vaughan, Governor of Londonderry, whose 
daughter and coheir, Sidney, married Sir Frederick 
Hamilton, who ob. 1661 ; her sister coheiress, Bar- 
bara, married William Lathom, ob. 1665. la Sic 
William Belturn's MSS. there is the statement 
made, and then crossed out, that John Vaughan 
married Lady Barbara Sydney, daughter of Robert, 
Earl of Leicester. The names of his daughters, 
Barbara and Sidney, would lead one to suppose 
there was some connexion between the families of 
Vaughan and Sydney. But Sir B. Burke, in his 
1 Extinct Peerages,' says Lady Barbara Sydney 
married first, Viscount Strangford, and second, 
Sir Thos. Colepepper. A Sir John Vaughan was 
M.P. for Donegal 1613 and 1634. 


Toowoomba, Queensland. 



nexion therewith the Duke of Leeds was impeached, 
and Sir Tho3. Cook, Knt., Sir Basil Firebrace, Knt., 
Charles Bates, E*q , and James Cragga were 
committed to the Tower of London in April, 1695 
(see ' Journals of the H. of C.,' vol. ii. pp. 327, 
329, &c.). I am very desirous of knowing (1) on 
which days of the month they were received into 
the Tower ; (2) in which particular parts of the 
Tower they were imprisoned respectively ; and (3)in 
which year, and on which day of the month they 
were discharged respectively from their imprison- 
ment. My inquiry relates most particularly to 
Sir B. Firebrace. C. MASOK. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

PRIESTS' ORDERS. What is the best way to 
find out, since the year A.D. 1830, in England and 
Wales (1) how many Roman priests have become 
Anglican ; (2) how many Anglican priests hara 
become Roman ; (3) how many Nonconformist 
ministers have become Anglican priests ; (4) how 
many Nonconformist ministers have become Roman 
priests ? Roman priests are not Nonconformists 
for the purpose of this query. 


SAFFORD, OF CANTERBURY. (See 4 th S. i. 366, 
viii. 312, 489.) I am desirous of obtaining, for 
genealogical purposes, information as to the familj 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t' h s. vm. JULY 27, '95. 

of Henry Truman Safford, more especially con- 
cerning the lineage of his English ancestor, Joseph 
Safford, of Canterbury, whose sons Joseph, Silas, 
and three unmarried brothers, with Samuel Robin- 
son, of Bristol, and other?, emigrated to Plymouth, 
Mass., in 1700. J. BURHAM SAFFORD. 

94, Norwood Road, S.B. 

HAMPSHIRE VISITATIONS,' 1575, 1622, and 
part of 1686, from the MSS. of the Rev. Wm. 
Bingley. Folio, privately printed by Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, Bart. Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' 
inform me where a copy of this work may be found ? 

High Street, Portsmouth. 

SIR GORE, OF SACOMBE. Can any one tell me 
who was Sir Gore, of Sacombe, Herts 1 He married 
Katherine, daughter of Sir John Boteler, and was 
knighted by King Charles at York in 1642, and 
died 1697. Sir John's origin and pedigree are 
not given in the ' History of Hertfordshire '; but I 
suppose he was some connexion of Gore, ancestors 
of the Earl of Arran, for his daughter, Anne Gore, 
married a Paul Gore, of Ireland, who was probably 
her cousin. DOMINICK BROWNE. 


ST. MARIE OVERIE. Stow explains Overie 
(Overy) to mean " Over the River." But is not 
the name derived from the Saxon words ofer, upon 
the brink of, and ea, a river or running water? 
Bailey (' Diet.,' 1782) writes " Overea " for Overy. 
The termination ry or rie signifies, I presume, not 
rivus, but ripa (i. e., Bankside, the old Roman 
embankment). Any information on the point 
would be much valued. 

W. THOMPSON, D.D., Rector. 


Here lies poor Johnson, Reader, have a care, 

Tread lightly, lest you rouse a sleeping bear; 

Religious, moral, generous and humane 

He was, but self sufficient, rude and vain. 

Haughty and overbearing in dispute, 

A Christian and a scholar, yet a brute. 

Would you know all his wisdom and his folly, 

His actions, sayings, mirth and melancholy, 

Boswell and Thrale, retailers of his wit, 

Tell how he wrote, and talked, and coughed, and spit. 

This was well known fifty years ago. Can any 
one inform me who was the author, or whether it 
has appeared in print ? G. T. 

tune, Parr says it came into use early in the pre- 
sent century ; but Love says he has not seen it 
earlier than 1819. I find it in Coombs's ' Divine 
Amusement ' and Clark's * Congregational Har- 
monist,' both of which books are certainly earlier. 
I also find it in ' Hymns selected from the most 
approved Authors,' for the use of Trinity Church, 
Boston (U.S.), 1808. The Rev. J. Duche, for 

whom the tune was written, was a Philadelphian 
then living in London, and I imagine he brought 
the tune with him when he returned to this country. 
I have made inquiries about this latter book, but 
up to the present can gain no information. The 
Rector of Trinity Church informs me that old 
members of the church whom he asked know 
nothing of the book. JAS. WARRINGTON. 

Philadelphia, U.S. 

MANOR OF TIDSWELL, co. DERBY. In the reign 
of Elizabeth this manor became the property of 
Edmund Slater, through Ursula his wife, widow of 
George Foljambe. Can any one say when the 
manor passed out of his possession ? 


1031, Chester Road, Manchester. 

" REFORMADES." In Banyan's 'Holy War,' 
ch. iv. (p. 507 in Cassell's edition), I find the fol- 
lowing fine passage, describing the march of Im- 
manuel's troops : 

" When they set out for their march, oh ! how the 
trumpets sounded, their armour glittered, and how the 
colours waved in the wind ! The Prince's armour was 
all of gold, and it shone like the sun in the firmament ; 
the captains' armour was of proof, and was in appear- 
ance like the glittering stars. There were also some 
from the court that rode reformades for the love that 
they had to the King Shaddai, and for the happy deliver- 
ance of the town of Mansoul. Those that rode reform- 
ades, they went about to encourage the captains." 
P. 524. ' 

What is the meaning of reformades in these 
passages? Nares has reformado, an officer deprived 
of his command, but retaining his rank, and per- 
haps his pay. This meaning is, however, unsuit- 
able here. A. L. MAYHEW. 


[For " Reformadoes," see 7 th S. xi. 507 ; xii. 74, 213.] 

MIAMI UNIVERSITY. Can particulars be fur- 
nished of the founding, status, and degrees, &c., 
of Miami University, in the United States 1 

A. W. 

1800-1. Any information as to the above, his 
ancestors and descendants, will oblige 


99, Moor Street, Burton-on-Trent. 

WEST FAMILY. Aholiab West, ob. at Fawsley, 
co. Northants, 1628. Can any one inform me where 
his will was proved and where he was buried '( 
His father John was of Banbury, co. Oxford. I 
should like to know date of his death. He was 
the son of Leonard, fifth son of Thomas, Lord Dela- 
war. Kindly communicate with 

0. G. ROCK- WEST. 

Derby Road, Burton-on-Trent. 

"THE EVER LOYAL CITY." I am anxious to 
find out what place earned the title of " The Ever 



Loyal City " during the Civil War. I believe it to 
have been Exeter, but I want evidence upon the 
point. Oxford and Worcester have both been sug- 
gested to roe, also Bristol, as cities that might have 
been so termed. I fully believe Exeter to have 
been the place, but I want proof of it. Worcester 
I know was termed " The Faithful City," and it 
is unlikely that it should have had a second title 
of the kind bestowed upon it. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Liudaey. 

TONBRIDGE WELLS. Was this church, which the 
popularity of Tunbridge Wells has rendered a 
familiar object to so many, formally dedicated to 
King Charles I. ? I do not mean by any religious 
function, but by any definite act. It is sometimes 
called the Church of " Saint " Charles the Martyr, 
and I believe there are not a few people who have 
a notion that Charles I. has the same right to the 
title of " Saint " as the duly canonized Edward the 
Confessor. Mr. Hare, in ' Sussex,' speaks of the 
church as the "Church of S. Charles the Martyr"; 
and Macaulay says (' History of England,' i. 346) : 

" In 1685 a subscription had been raised among those 
who frequented the Wells for building a church, which 
the Tories insisted on dedicating to S. Charles the 



ANDREW STEWART. Lockhart tells us, in his 
* Life of Sir Walter Scott,' that a native of Edin- 
burgh of the above name, who was the author of 
some Scottish poems of merit, but who had fallen 
into poverty and low company, was capitally con- 
victed, in the winter of 1808-9, on a charge of 
burglary, and that he was saved by the inter- 
cession of his brother poet, his sentence being com- 
muted to transportation. Can any correspondent 
of ' N. & Q.' throw light on Stewart's subsequent 
career. All that Lockhart can tell about him is 
that " a thin octavo pamphlet, entitled 'Poems in 
the Scottish Dialect,' by Andrew Stewart, printed 
for the Author's father, and sold by Manners & 
Miller, and A. Constable & Co., 1809," was pub- 
lished soon after the convict's departure for Botany 


SIR ROBERT CLARKE, Baron of the Exchequer, 
was buried Jan. 26, 1606. Can any one tell me 
who were his parents 1 The registers of Good 
Easter, Essex, do not throw any light on this 
question. M.A.Oxon. 

SIR ROBERT DILLON. Ancestry wanted of Sir 
Robert Dillon, whose daughter Alicia married 
David Fleming, tenth Baron of Slane. 


Toowoomba, Queensland* 

(8* S. vii. 343 ; viii. 18, 34.) 

This matter is not yet satisfactorily disposed of. 
Boaden, in his introduction to the ' Garrick Corre- 
spondence,' writes as follows : 

" On the 22nd June, 1749, David Garrick was married 
to Eva Maria Violette, by Mr. Franeklin, at his chapel 
near Russell Street, Bloomsbury, and afterwards, on the 
same day, according to the rites of the Roman Catholic 
Church, by the Rev. Mr. Blyth, at the chapel of the 
Portuguese Embassy, in South Audley Street." 

MR. WALFORD more than hints, and it is far from 
me to question his authority, that the place of 
worship at which the ceremony took place was on or 
near the spot, two doors eastward of " Freemasons' 
Tavern," where the Wesleyan chapel stands. If 
the chapel in Great Queen Street was a chapel of 
ease to St. Giles's parish church, would not the 
register supply the evidence ? Mr. J. P. Collier's 
statement is clearly an error in figures 1799 for 
1749. MR. WALFORD gives June 22, 1748 ; but 
the Gent. Mag. has the following : " May 25, 
1749, Mr. Garrick, the comedian, to Made- 
moiselle Violetti, the famous dancer "; but this is 
amended in the next month by " June 22, David 
Garrick, Esq. (not before), to Mademoiselle Eva 
Maria Violette, 10,000?." Mr. J. T. Smith, quoting 
his interview with Mrs. Garrick, August, 1821, 
states that she said she " was married at the parish 
of St. Giles's," naming no church or chapel in the 
parish. The Mr., not then Dr. Franeklin (he did 
not take his D.D. degree till 1770) who performed 
the ceremony was the well-known miscellaneous 
writer, Greek professor at Cambridge, sometime 
Vicar of Ware, author of a few successful plays 
produced by Garrick, and best remembered by his 
translation of ' Sophocles.' The ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' 
(see Franeklin) says that in 1759, in conjunction 
with his other preferments, he held " a proprietary 
chapel in Queen Street, London." 

Ware Priory. 

MR. WALFORD certainly does not say in ' Old 
and New London ' that Mrs. Garrick was married 
in St. Giles's. I remember reading in that work, 
under the head of " South Audley Street," that 
Garrick was married to Maria Violette in the 
chapel of the Portuguese Embassy in that street, 
and the fact is repeated in the more recently pub- 
lished ' London, Past and Present,' by Wheatley 
and Cunningham (i. 80). The marriage is recorded 
in the register still preserved at the Portuguese 
Mission. The impression as regards the nuptials 
having been solemnized at St. Giles's is quite ex- 
plainable. On referring to the valuable ' Life of 
Garrick,' by Joseph Knight (p. 126), I find that 
the great actor was " married nrst at the church in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8tbs.vm.joLv 27, 

Eassell Street, Bloomsbury, and subsequently at 
the Chapel of the Portuguese Embassy." After 
the death, in 1792, of Lord Bute, the favourite 
Prime Minister of George III., at 73, South Aud- 
ley Street, one of its palatial salons was used as 
the Chapel of the Portuguese Embassy ; but this 
was not the older chapel in which Garrick had been 
married. That the historic house became the 
residence of the Portuguese minister I learnt, 
during a recent visit to Bute House, through the 
kindness of its present occupants, Mr. and Mrs. 
Bischoffiheim. An attempt to wreck Bute House 
was made during the Wilkes riots. 


Mrs. Garrick was not married at the chapel 
(now Wesleyan) in Great Queen Street, but, as I 
pointed out several years ago (' N. & Q.,' 5" 1 S. 
vii. 249), at the chapel in Queen Street (afterwards 
Museum Street), Bloomsbury, by the Rev. Thomas 
Francklin, who was the minister of that chapel. 
In biography, as in history, correctness is of the 
greatest importance. JOHN TDCKETT. 

L;t me follow the admirable example set us the 
other day by PROF. TOMLINSON, and plead guilty 
at once. I am sorry to see that I am entirely 
wrong in stating that MR. WAXFORD has repre- 
sented Mrs. Garrick as being married at St. 
Giles's Church. He puts it quite correctly on 
his own part as to the facts, and then quotes her 
account as given by herself to J. T. Smith. In 
this he deviates slightly from her words, and makes 
her say that she was married at the parish church 
of St. Giles's. The word church is added. She 
said, "I was married at the parish of St. Giles's." 
She meant in the parish, but, being a foreigner, 
blundered in the use of the preposition. I carried 
away an impression from this of the erroneous 
statement as being MR. WALFORD'S, and I only 
now notice that his interpolation of the word 
church was to make sense of what Mrs. Garrick 
expressed wrongly. Had I referred to the passage 
again, I should have seen that MR. WALFORD had 
just before this put the facts quite correctly, and I 
should then have done what I am now doing I 
should have shown that the mistake was Mrs. 
Garrick's ; a mere trivial slip of a foreigner un- 
familiar with our prepositions, which seem to me 
a terrific difficulty for any one not bom amongst 
them and accustomed to their right employment. 
This explains my mistake, but does not excuse it 
in the least. I ought to have referred back, and I 
apologize to MR. WALFORD for not have done so. 
For myself I care nothing ; I strive for accuracy, 
but I never expect to reach it perfectly. I define 
man as an animal born to make mistakes, and 
conceit myself that it is the best definition ever 
given of him. But as all definitions are folly, that 
is not a thing to be proud of. C. A. WARD. 
Charlecot, Walthametow. 

(8' b S. vii. 421, 515). When writing my note on 
1 Estotiland ' (vii. 461) I identified most of MR. 
BOUCHIER'S "jaw-breaking" tribe-names; but 
aware of the Editor's taste for brevity, and think- 
ing my paper already too long, I threw away the 
list. Bat as MR. BOUCHIER, at the last reference, 
makes a personal appeal to me for an explanation^ 
I will endeavour to recover some of the contents 
of the lost list. 

To begin with, the map being French, the un- 
couth OM, which so frequently recurs, must be 
replaced by t#Jt or w. The suffix -onons or -eronons, 
which is found in five of the names, may be dis- 
carded, as it is merely the Iroquois ethnic suffix, 
meaning " people " or " tribe." We have it in the 
tribe name of the Onontakeronon, or " People of 
the Mountains," now contracted to Onondaga, and 
in the native names of all the " five nations " of 
the Iroquois confederacy. Thus the Senecas, as 
we call them, called themselves Nundawaono, or 
" People of the Great Hill "; the Cayugas called 
themselves Guegwehono, or "People of the Dirty 
Land"; and the Mohawks called themselves 
Ganeagaono, or " People with the Fire-Stone." 
We may also discard the suffix -et, which is the 
Algonkin locative post- position, familiar to as 
in such names as Narraganset, Pawtucket, or 
Massachusetts. Thus, Oupapinachoet, which MR. 
BOUCHIER regards as a " fearsome poser," resolves 
itself into Wapapinacho, which is obviously to be 
identified with Wapanachki, the older native name 
of an Algonkin tribe, now familiar to us in the 
Anglicized form Abenaki. The name of the 
Nadoueboueronons may probably be identified 
with the Naudowessie or Nadowessier, an old 
French name of the Sioux or Dakotas who dwelt 
on Lake Superior, called from them Grand Lac de 
Nadouessiou in a letter of 1620. The French ch 
being our sh, the Cacouchaqui may be the 
Chikasaw or Chicachas, a tribe belenging to 
the Choktaw group. Discarding the prefix and 
the suffix, Eachiriouachaeronons becomes Chir- 
wacha, which may be identified with the Cherokee 
or Cheroki ; and remembering the interchange of 
r and I in Indian names, the Oukovarararonons 
may be the Ogolalla, a Dakota tribe. Lastly, 
Coaouaeronons becomes Coawa, which may be the 
Kiowas or Kiowans, a branch of the Shoshone or 
Snake tribe. 

Some of these identifications, which, not having 
seen the map, I offer with great diffidence, may be 
thought somewhat daring, though hardly so if we 
consider the wonderful transformations of other. 
Indian names Potopaco, in Maryland, having 
become Port Tobacco ; while Oggusse-paugsuck, in 
Connecticut, is now Oxyboxy, and Kehteiktukqut^ 
in Massachusetts, has been transformed into Titi- 

As to Norumbega, I hesitate to give the opinion., 95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


MR. BOUCHIER asks for, since one or two of the 
books I should wish to consult are not in my 
library ; but since on Diogo Eibero's Spanish map 
of 1529 Norway is called Norbegia, where the 
Spanish b stands for the v of Norvegia, as in the 
Spanish Ginebra for Geneva, or Saboya for Savoy, 
I am inclined to think that Norumbega may be 
Norway. How it got shifted into North America 
is explained by the fact that in several maps of 
the time Norway is joined on to Greenland and 
Labrador, so as to form a North American penin- 
sula separated from Denmark by the Skagerack. 


" THE WRONG END OF THE STICK " (8 th S. vii. 

486; viii. 33). "The wrong end of the staff" 
(which is the old and correct form), " To take hold 
by the wrong handle," and " To take the wrong 
sow by the ear," in my judgment have all pretty 
nearly the same meaning ; and that is, to make a 
mistake or to do a thing in a stupid manner. It 
is not necessary that any of these phrases should 
have arisen from any " practice," it is enough that 
such actions might be possible. 

In old times people walked with " staves." I 
remember several who did. Although some had 
knobs, and some were " reverend staves tipt with 
horn," the majority were simply plain, tall, straight 
sticks, which, when laid by or placed in a corner, 
would sometimes be put wrong end up, and the 
owner unsuspectingly handling one in that position, 
would soon find he had got hold of the "wrong 
end of the staff." It would not fit his hand. It 
would not be smooth and comfortable to it like 
the right end. In other words, it would feel 

Will any one who does not agree with this 
explanation kindly explain the difference between 
' ' getting hold of the wrong end of the staff," and 
" getting hold of the wrong handle "? Also if the 
latter may be thought to be derived from any 
"practice"? Some information about "taking 
sows by the ear " might be thrown in at the same 
time. Why should sows be taken by the ear? 
Who are they who take sows by the ear ? Do they 
ever do it twice ? R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

I have now no doubt that the right explanation 
of this phrase is that given at the latter reference, 
and not the one suggested by myself, which I beg 
leave to withdraw. I remember now " the vulgar 
Tariant " of the phrase, which is decisive. 


ROBERTS FAMILY (8 th S. vii. 408, 496). The 
arms referred to by MR. HUBERT SMITH, with the 
crest " a derm-lion azure, holding in the dexter 
paw a mullet as in the arms," were ^granted by 
Camden, in 1614, to Richard Roberts, of Truro, 
co. Cornwall, and they were borne by Richard 
Robert?, who came from Truro and was the High 

Sheriff of co. Worcester in 1740. So states Grazfi- 
brook in his ' Heraldry of Worcestershire.' 


SYDNEY PAPERS (8 tb S. vii. 507). Your corre- 
spondent is referred to ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. i. 266> 
443, from which he may derive such particulars 
as may enable him to obtain some information 
respecting the Sydney Papers from the family of 
the late Deputy Chairman of the Quarter Sessions 
for East Sussex. EVERARD HOME GOLEM AN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"CADOWES" (8 th S. viii. 9, 35). " Cadowe," 
or "caddowe," was a name given to a coverlet 
made of coarse woollen material. MR. GILDER- 
SOME-DICKINSON will find the word in Davies's 
'Supplementary Glossary, 1 where the following 
quotation is given : 

" They have many goodly flockes of sheepe, which 

they sheare twice a yeere, and make of their course wooll, 
rugges or shagge mantles, caddowes also or coverlets, 
which are vented into foreign countries." Holland's 
' Camden/ ii. 63. 

C. P. HALE. 

These are an inferior quality of bed-sheets, made 
from cotton waste in the weft with a low quality 
of warp, also of cotton. Their appearance in in- 
ventories of the period named by A. B. C. is not 
uncommon, and the definition of a ' cadowe" sheet 
is usually a subject for speculation. The word 
is usually spelt caddie, or caddy, in the Man- 
chester district, where these sheets are now made- 
and still used. RICHARD LAWSON. 

Urmston, Manchester. 

Coles, in his 'Latin Dictionary' (1754), gives 
cadow, "an Irish mantle," and "gausapa," and 
"gausapina psenula" as its Latin equivalent. If 
BO, there are several allusions to it in Latin authors. 
It appears to have been of a thick material with a 
long nap, and used as a wrap to the person, and 
also as a coverlet, &c. Thus Ovid (' Art. Am./ 
bk. ii. 300) 

Gausapa ei euniBit, gausapa sumta proba. 
And Martial (bk. xiv. 145) : 

Paenula gausapina. 
Is mihi candor inest, villorum gratia tanta est, 

Ut me vel media sumere messe veils. 
There are several other allusions to it as a coverlet, 
&c. , in the same writer. I think it was mostly 
used in winter. G. T. SHERBORN. 


In the Parker Society's ' Select Works of Bishop 
Bale,' 1849, p. 153, Bale writes of "witless 
mayors and graceless officers," that they are more 
fit to " feed swine, or to keep kaddows, than to 
rule a Christian commonalty." The editor (Rev. 
H. Christmas), in a note, says that a kaddow is a 
jackdaw ; but Halliwell spells the word caddow. 
Bailey has " Caddow, a Jackdaw, or Chough, Norf." 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. viii. jaw 27, -M. 

Nail, '1866, has this word, and gives examples 
from L Chapman's 'Iliad' and Tusser, with cog- 
nate words in various languages. The word is 
far from uncommon; but "twoo cadowes " as a 
legacy looks odd. In the accounts of the parish of 
Sprowston, Norfolk, one shilling was paid " for 
Kyling the Kardows in the church," in 1702. 
' N. E. D.' has quotations for the word from 1440 
to 1864, and it duly appears in Wright's ' Pro- 
vincial Dictionary.' JAMES HOOPER. 

The answer to this query is to the found in 
Metivier's ' Dictionnaire Franco-Norman,' pub- 
lished in 1870 by Williams & Norgate, 14, 
Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London. The 
word is still in use in Guernsey, and is applied to 
a thick woollen quilt. E. McC. 


^ HILDA (8 th S. vii. 428; viii. 33). I beg leave to 
dissent from the dictum at the latter reference, to 
the effect that " Hilda is derived from Hildur, the 
war-maiden, or chooser of the dead "; and I en- 
tirely decline to submit to Miss Yonge's authority 
as to Christian names. No doubt Miss Yonge's 
book is the best on this subject ; but only because 
there is no better. It was written in the time of 
pre- scientific etymology ; and for purposes of 
scholarship cannot be depended on for a moment. 

The whole matter is obscured by the terrible 
inaccuracy of the authorities. Good English names 
are turned into Latin, and so disfigured as to be 
almost unrecognizable. For example, ^Ethelthryth 
is turned into Etheldreda, which is merely bad 
English without having the merit of being Latin 
at all. Even Audry is better than that. Again, 
Swithhun is not only turned into Swithun, with 
one h, rendering the word meaningless, but is 
ven changed into Swithin. Briefly, no one will 
ever understand English names until he grasps the 
fact that they are English, and not Latin, nor yet 
High German. What is the use of citing foreign 
forms when we can get at the native ones ? And 
when will it ever even dawn on the English mind 
that the forms given in our native manuscripts 
are usually older, better, and altogether more 
primitive and original than any other " Germanic " 
forms, with the sole exception of Mceso-Gothic ? 
Possessing manuscripts of priceless authority, we 
often prefer modern High German, of all lan- 
guages ! What can we expect from such a process 
but darkness ? 

In what language does such a form as " Hildur " 
occur? In Icelandic we have the masculine form 
Hildir and the feminine Hildr. " Hildur " is 
probably an ignorant substitution for the latter. 

As to Hilda, "there is no room for doubt " that 
it is the Latinized spelling of the English Hild. 
Even Beda, though writing in Latin, uses the 
form Hild as the name of the Abbess of Whitby. 

The ridiculous form Hild-a is a Latinism of later 
date. As to the sens?, Hild does not mean 
" darkness," nor does it mean " mercy." The 
word for "mercy" is Ger. Huld, which differs 
from hild just as pull differs from pill, i. e., totally. 
The symbols u and i are different, and the differ- 
ence in the words is in the vowel. Different 
vowels make different words a golden sentence, 
which I recommend all readers of this article to 
learn by heart. 

As to the sense, hild means simply " battle," 
neither more nor less. It does not mean war- 
maiden at all, but could be applied to an abbess, 
as every one knows. Neither has it anything 
whatever to do with choosing the dead. To call 
a girl simply " battle " seems a strange proceeding, 
but this does not alter the fact. It so happens 
that the giving of such names to girls was a 
favourite habit of the English, as is well known 
to all students of Anglo-Saxon. 

To sum up. Hilda does not mean " Hildur," 
but stands for Hild. It is neither Icelandic nor 
German, but a bad monkish-Latin form of a native 
English name. It is unconnected with "dark- 
ness" and with " mercy." It neither means war- 
maiden nor chooser of the slain. That is, there 
are at least six mistakes in an article in which we 
are told that there is "no room for doubt." 

I will merely say, to all whom it may concern, 
that the whole subject of English names and Eng- 
lish place-names is in a parlous state ; so much so, 
that nothing can be taken on trust. Verify your 
references, and consult the list at the end of 
Bardsley's book on surnames. And do not put 
faith in Miss Yonge ; hers was a good book for its 
date, and that is all that can be said. 


co. KERRY (8"> S. vii. 329). Mrs. Morris, of 
Dublin (the widow of the late Kev. Edward Collis 
Morris, M.A., the last male representative of the 
family), having kindly sent me the impression of 
a seal in her possession, I can now answer part of 
this inquiry. The inescutcheon is a wing dis- 
played between four crosses pate"e, and the motto 
should read "L'Honnete al Agreable." The point 
is now, When was the inescutcheon changed ; and 
what are the tinctures of the whole shield ? 


TORICAL THEOLOGY ' (8 tb S. viii. 29). The Rev. 
J. H. Blunt, D.D., F.S.A., was editor, not sole 
author, of this book. The authors were many: 
forty-four articles, e.g., were written by my father, 
whose curate Dr. Blunt at one time was. As such 
books are almost sure to be, it is somewhat un- 
equal, but is on the whole considered as a good 
and trustworthy authority. It was succeeded by a 
similar book, the ' Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, 

8*8. viii. JOLY 27, >95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Parties, and Schools of Thought '; in that my father 
wrote sixty-seven articles. Dr. Blunt was not a 
really deep scholar, and his learning is more super- 
ficial than appears to be the case ; but for all that 
his works are very useful and valuable. The best 
of them is the Annotated Book of Common Prayer. 
A notice of him will be found in the ' D. N. B.' 
C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

SIR THOMAS BOND (8 th S. vii. 268, 319, 414). 
At the last reference AYEAHR quotes an inscription 
to the memory of Thomas Bonde, as given in a 
collection of London epitaphs, Egerton MSS. The 
epitaph, as quoted, is terribly corrupt. I venture, 
therefore, to append the following version, which I 
take from the monument itself : 
At Earth in Cornwall was my firste begininge 
From Boudes and Corringtons as it may apere 
Now to earth in Fvlham, God dyspos'd my endinge, 
In March the thovsand & six hvndred yere, 
Of Christ in whome my body here doth rest, 
Tyll both in body & sovle I shalbe fvlly blest. 

Thomas Bonde 

Obijt A W a svae 


ATEAHR'S suggestion that this Thomas Bonde 
may have been the father of Sir Thomas Bond, 
the subject of the query, is not borne out by facts. 
According to the pedigree of Bonde, given in 
Harl. Soc. iz. 14, 15, Thomas Bonde, of Fulham, 
had by his wife Joan one son, William Bonde, of 
Holewoode, co. Cornwall. No mention, however, 
is made of any children in his will, which is dated 
March 20, 1599, and was proved April 12, 1600, 
by Richard Hawkes, sole executor. 


GREAT BED or WARE (8 th S. vii. 467). In 
Litchfield, ' Illustrated History of Furniture ' 
(1892), this sixteenth-century bed is illustrated in 
a full-page plate. Speaking of furniture of that 
time, the author says : 

" To this period of English furniture belongs the 
celebrated ' Great Bed of Ware,' of which there is an 
illustration. This was formerly at the Saracen's Head 
at Ware, but has been removed to Rye House, about two 
miles away. Shakespeare's allusion to it in the ' Twelfth 
Night ' has identified the approximate date and gives the 
bed a character. The following are the lines : 

"' Sir Toby Belch. And as many lies as shall lie in thy 
sheet of paper, altho' the sheet were big enough for the 
Bed of Ware in England, set 'em down, go about it.' " 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

If he is not already familiar with it, your corre- 
spondent might note what Chambers says in the 
' Book of Days,' L 229, 230. CHAS. J. FERET. 

ALDERMEN or ALDGATE (8 th S. viu 307, 376 ; 
viii. 17). Add to the interesting notes of MR. 
OLIVER respecting Lord Mayor Perry the follow- 
ing burial, from St. Botolph, Bishopsgate : " 1701/2, 

March 1, Ann Perry, 66." This doubtless is the 
wife of Micajah Perry, mentioned in his will of 
1720 as having been there buried, being the same 
lady who as "Ann Owen, spinster," was "about 
twenty- four" (i.e., twenty-seven, or nearly so), in 
1663. G. E. C. 

FLAG TO SUMMON TO CHURCH (8 th S. vii. 446 ; 
viii. 12). The hours of service in the pretty little 
English church at Kissingen, which is built on 
ground granted by the late King Maximilian of 
Bavaria, are notified by the hoisting of the Union 
Jack on a staff in front of the door. 


Hawthorn, Black Rock. 

" KED WHIP " (8 th S. vii. 408, 472). The_exact 
meaning of this term was incidentally given in the 
Times of June 24, in its special account of the 
recent ministerial crisis, as follows : 

" The issue of Mr. T. Ellis's red-line whip on Satur- 
day morning (as the result of the previous night's con- 
sultations) is a further proof that the rehabilitation of 
the Secretary for War was for a time deemed possible. 
The practice of underlining a whip in red ink, which 
was brought into vogue by Lord Tweedmouth while 
Patronage Secretary to the Treasury, is resorted to only 
when a division of supreme importance is anticipated ; 
and the significance of Mr. Ellis's appeal, therefore, lay 
as much in the manner of its preparation as In its 

It was, indeed, during the session of 1893, when 
the Home Eule Bill was under protracted discus- 
sion, that Mr. Edward Marjoribanks (now Lord 
Tweedmouth, and then the chief ministerial whip) 
introduced the system of underlining his circulars in 
red ink, instead of black as hitherto ; and, as far 
as the House of Commons is concerned, this has 
been the extent of the change, for no "whips" 
printed all in red have there been issued. The 
custom, it may be noted, is spreading in political 
circles outside Parliament, for the leading words in 
a circular convening a meeting of the Midland 
Liberal Federation on June 26 were " underlined 
in red as many as five times " (Birmingham Daily 
Post, June 26). 

Regarding the general question of " whips," the 
following extract from the "London Gossip," 
which is weekly published in the journal just 
quoted, and which appeared on June 28 in a 
description of the Aosta-Orleans wedding, is of 
interest : 

" Among the company assembled in the drawing-room 
at Claremont after the return of the bridal party from 
the church was one of the new ' men of mark,' who 
assumes great authority in the Orleans party. He has 
been for some weeks domiciled in England, and prides 
himself therefore on his thorough acquaintance with the 
English language. As was natural enough, the con- 
versation turned upon the changes in the English Par- 
liament, and, with characteristic readiness to play the 
part of professor to the assembly, Count H. under- 
took the explanation of the different customs of the 
House of Commons, and the terms in which they are 


a. vm. 

27, 96. 

expressed. From his description of the office of the 
'Whip' information maybe gained. In answer to the 
inquiries of an old lady present, he described the office 
in a most novel and satisfactory manner : ' A certain 
number of functionaries attached to the House go round 
to the residences of those members who answer not to 
their names when summoned by the roll-call. Each 
visitor is armed with a heavy whip, which is cracked 
with a startling sour,d as warning to the refractory 
member who has failed to appear at the House. The 
summons is generally answered by an amicable recogni- 
tion, and gives rise to much merriment, and the tardy 
member is marched down to join his colleagues.' The 
roars of laughter to which this extraordinary statement 
gave rise culminated in a scene which would have ended 
in a fight with swords or pistols cm choix, had not one 
of the guests displayed a copy of a provincial French 
paper in which the explanation of the terms was given 
at full length as we have quoted. It is but fair to say 
that the statement was repeated in two of the most 
responsible of the Paris journals, and marie subject of 
comment concerning the brutal customs of the English 
House of Commons." 


"DIMPSY" (8 th S. vii. 367). For the last 
twenty-five years I have made " Dumpsey Dearie " 
from a. recipe given me by an Irish lady. Equal 
quantities of apples, pears, and either damsons or 
plums, the first two to be weighed after being 
pared and cut up into small pieces, whole cloves 
and whole ginger according to taste, say one 
ounce of each, to about four pounds of fruit. The 
spices must not be ground, or they will spoil the 
colour of the jam, but the ginger must be sliced 
very thin, and one pound of sugar to every pound 
of fruit. Boil for about twenty minutes. 

J. W. T. 

LE DESPENCER (8 th S. vii. 428, 513). Sir 
Philip Despencer was summoned to Parliament as 
a baron from Dec. 17, 11 Rich. II. (1387), to Oct. 3, 
2 Hen. IV. (1400). He died 1423 s.p.m. His 
only daughter and heiress, Margery, married as 
her second husband Roger Wentworth, of Nettel- 
lested, co. Suffolk, Esq., and had issue by him 
('Visitations of Essex,' 1558 and 1612). Sir 
Harris Nicolas presumes this Philip Despencer to 
have been of the same family as the Le Despencers, 
the favourites of Edward II. I should be glad if 
some one would kindly inform me whether more 
recent researches have cleared this up. He may 
have been a grandson of Hugh LeDespencer, junior, 
in which case his descendants through the Went- 
wortbs could claim descent from Joan of Acre, 
second daughter of Edward I. 

Beaurepaire, Guernsey. 

FINGER (8 th S. vii. 408, 492). DOT is decidedly 
wrong as regards the pronunciation of finger, nor 
is it true that " another g seems to be required " 
to pronounce the word in the usually accepted 
way. This reasoning would equally apply to Eng- 
lish, longer, and hundreds of words. The simple 
rule is, that n before a guttural (g or /;) in the 

middle of a word is invariably pronounced like ng 
(e. g., conquer, angle, England) ; before k it is ng> 
wherever k may stand (link, anchor, drink). Words 
like singer form no exception, this word being 
derived from sing, where ng is final and not medial. 
The comparative and superlative forms of strong; 
long, and young, however, are pronounced with 


Curiously enough, just as the pronunciation of 
this and similar words is being discussed, a very 
eminent critic and poet writes these lines in a 
leading literary paper : 

I felt the paper felt her thumb's device 
That stamped the wax ; I seemed to feel the fingers 

Which wrote these misspelt words of rarer price 
Than Shelley or Keats, or all the be&uty-bringers, 
Brought from those stars where spheral music lingers? 

Before she came with notes that could entice 

My soul to that diviner Paradiee 

Where lovers are the singers. 

R. R. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

HICKS FAMILY (8 th S. vii. 347, 417, 471). It 
is quite possible that I was mistaken as to the 
exact position of the stone to " Ye Rev. Mr. John 
Hicks." My original informant, writing now some 
years ago, said she had been told that the grand- 
father of Admiral Hicks " was a Canon of Exeter 
who was buried under the organ in the cathedral,'' 
and when my brother, Count Philip de Ruvigny, 
wrote to one of the canons there, asking for in- 
formation on this point, he received a very courteous 
reply, saying a clergyman of this name was buried 
in the cathedral, and enclosing a copy of the 
inscription, which I have already given. Nothing 
was said about the position of the stone, however, 
and I therefore concluded it was, as stated, " under 
the organ." I must thank MR. HEMS for his 
correction. The dates are probably correct. In 
the Gentleman's Magazine for 1762 is a note of 
the death of " Ye Rev. Mr. Hick?, Minor Canon 
of Exeter, on August 14." RUVIGNY. 

Peter, son of Admiral Thos. Hicks, of Stoke 
Gabriel, Devon, married, atBrixham, 1809, Sarah. 
daughter of Theophilus Hearsey, of Denmark 
Hill, London (vide Gentleman's Magazine). Peter 
Hicks was a solicitor, and died at Northampton, 
s.p. I shall be glad to trace these Hearseys. 

A. C. H. 

' THE FLOWERS OF THE FOREST ' (8 th S. vii. 
506). It is difficult to say whether Jean Elliot's 
or Mrs. Cockburn's lyric was the earlier com- 
position, although there is a tradition that the 
former was written about 1755, while the latter 
appeared in the Lark (Edin.) in 1765. It is a 
pity, however, to cumber these columns with 
pipers' news. For an account of the writers and 
especially for Sir Walter Scott's reminiscences of 
Mrs. Cockburn, and his statement regarding the 



*' calamitous period in Selkirkshire " whicl 
prompted her song see Johnson's Musica 
Museum, iv. 122*, ed. David Laing ; and compar 
Chambers's ' Scottish Songs prior to Burns ' anc 
well-edited collections of Scottish song. Visitor 
to Edinburgh should spend a few minutes in th 
churchyard of Buccleuch parish, where they wil 
see the sadly neglected tombstones of Mrs. Cock 
burn and David Herd, the first critical collector o 
Scottish soogs. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgb, N.B. 

JESSE WINDOW (8 th S. viii. 28). That a 
Chartres is finely illustrated in Lassus, Duval 
and Durand, ' Monographic de la Cathedrale, 
plates 42-47. Each of these six plates is wrongb 
cumbered 58. 

The Jesse window at the abbey of St. Denis i 
mentioned by Warrington, ' History of Staineo 
Glass," who states (p. 13) that many of the windows 
of that church are figured in Montfaucon, ' Monu 
mens de la Monarchic FratQiise.' Possibly it ouu 
be among them. 

I am told that the one at Winchester College 
has been figured, but my informant was unable to 
remember where, nor have I succeeded in finding it 
In 1865 was exhibited at the rooms of the 
Arundel Society, London, a collection of drawings 
by C. Winston from ancient glass paintings. 
these, Nos. 141-143 represented part of a tree o: 
Jesse from Westwell, Kent ; Nos. 332 and 333 
fragments of one from Neatherseale, Leicester- 
shire ; No. 401 from Leverington, Cambs. ; No. 503 
from Bristol Cathedral ; No. 586 from Llanrhaiadr, 
Denbighshire ; and No. 588 from Dyserth, Flint- 
shire. Inquiry of the secretary of the Arundel 
Society might elicit the information whether these 
drawings were ever publiahed, or what has become 
of them. 

Winston, ' Inquiry into the difference of Style 
in Ancient Glass Paintings,' mentions a Jesse 
window at York Cathedral (a portion is figured in 
Browne, ' History of St. Peter's, York,' plate 123) ; 
one at St. Cunibert's, Cologne (figured in Boisseree, 
4 Monuments d'architecture du Rhin infetieur/ 
plate 72) ; one figured in Lysons, ' Gloucester- 
shire ' (probably ' A Collection of Gloucestershire 
Antiquities ' is referred to), plates 93 and 94 ; and 
one figured in Lasteyrie, ' Histoire de la Peinture 
aur Verre,' plate 74. 

ALEX. BEAZELEY, Librarian. 
Royal Institute of British Architects. 

The centre light of the east window at Wim- 
borne Minster, Dorset, is a Jesse window of 
excellent Flemish glass brought from the Nether- 
lands many years ago and given to the church by 
Mr. W. J. Bankes, of Kingston Lacy. 


For a description of the various windows and 
altars bearing this name see ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. ii. 

485 ; 4 th S. iii. 240, 283, 427; iv. 66 ; 7 th S. x. 
166, 274, 428. An illustration of one at Rouen 
will be found in ' A Dictionary of Ttrms in Art,' 
by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The finest Jesse window in England is that, 
perhaps, at the Cathedral at Winchester. There is 
one at Llanrhaiadr yn Kinmerch, in Denbigh- 
shire. That at St. George's, Hanover Square, 
was placed there a little before 1845. There are 
plenty of examples both in France and England. 
It is said not to be at all uncommon. 

C. A. WARD. 

Charlecot, Walthamstow. 

There never has been a Jesse window at Salis- 
bury. E. L. G. 

389, 512). MR. HENDERSON thinks St. Paul 
should be called " Prince of the Apostles." I 
never heard him so styled. In the Breviary he is 
addressed as " Doctor Gentium," and St. Peter as 
"Princeps Apostolorum." As to my quotation 
of "lovely and pleasant," it was suggested by 
another antiphon in the Divine Office, com- 
memorating Peter and Paul, " in vita sua dilexe- 
runt se, ita et in morte non sunt separati." 

I fear to trench upon forbidden matters, other- 
wise I should ask of what rival and contending 
Church is St. Paul the apostolic head. 


St. Andrew?, N.B. 

I do not originate, and have no wish needlessly 
to prolong, a controversy, but I should like to 
remark upon MR. HENDERSON'S observations 
that I do not suppose "many" people think 
Christianity would have become extinct but for 
St. Paul; that lives may be "lovely and 
pleasant " even though (or even because) they 
Eire passed in persecution and crowned with 
martyrdom ; that, if we accept the tradition of 
their deaths at Rome, either at the same time 
or with no long interval, it is no less true that 

in their death" St. Peter and St. Paul " were 
not divided "; and that Anglicans do not accept 
3t. Paul, apart from St. Peter, as the " apostolic 
lead " of their communion, nor regard the position 
of their own branch of the Church, as distinct 
'rom the Roman branch, as one merely of 
' rivalry and contention." 



LONDON PATOIS (8" S. vii. 487). Twenty or 
o years ago, coming to London, and having much 
o do with the East- End, I was much struck by 
' rahnd," " ryne," and other characteristic mis- 
pronunciations. It seemed then as though they 
were most rife in Aldgate, the hither part of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*8.7111. JULY 27, -95. 

Whitechapel, and thereabouts. In fact, the cant 
phrase for one who so spoke was that he had been 
"dahnHahndsditch." H. H. S. 

COPT OF RECIPE (8 th S. viiu 9). A query 
relating to this compound appeared in ' N. & Q.,' 
2 nd S. x. 386, and was answered in the same 
volume, p. 479, where the wine mentioned as 
" Bone Carlo " should be Benicarlo, a locality in 
the neighbourhood of Tarragona, where a strong 
fruity wine, known in England as " black strap," 
is produced. Lord Pembroke was Governor in 
Chief of the island of Guernsey in 1807, a 
sinecure office, which was abolished in 1835. In 
1736 a system of bonded stores had not yet been 
invented. To avoid paying the duty immediately 
on importation into England, wine was imported 
into the Channel Islands, where it was kept in 
store by merchants until wanted in England, the 
equable climate of the islands being very favour- 
able to the ripening of the wine, and there being 
no Custom-house or Excise officers to interfere with 
their proceedings. E. McC. 

The Lord Pembroke referred to is probably 
Philip Herbert, seventh Earl of Pembroke (" the 
drunken earl "), baptized Jan. 5tb, 1652/3, suc- 
ceeded to the earldom July 8th, 1674, d.s.p. 
Aug. 29th, 1683. Aubrey says of him, " He was 

addicted to field sports and hospitality but 

chiefly known for deeds of drunkenness and man- 
slaughter." He was tried March 1st, 1678, by his 
peers for the murder of Nathanael Cony, but was 
discharged, the death having resulted from blows 
given in a drunken brawl. See the ' Complete 
Peerage,' by G. E. C., vol. vi. p. 222. 


PLOUGHING OXEN (8 th S. vii. 366, 396, 469 ; 
viii. 11). I am surprised to find that ploughing 
oxen have come to be considered as a thing of 
the past. They are still to be seen in many parts 
of Wiltshire, but much more rarely met with now 
than thirty years ago. Then nearly every large 
farm in this locality had one or more teams of 
oxen. The steam plough took the place of many, 
but the quantity of land gone out of cultivation 
during the last decade has decreased the number 
required considerably, as a certain staff of horses 
is necessary on every farm and cannot be dis- 
pensed with. Again, the demand for old beef 
has fallen off (the old oxen having been fattened 
in bygone days after working eight or ten years, 
sometimes more) ; now the public insist on having 
young beef, and the steers are generally grazed, 
without working at all, at three or four years old. 


Mere Down, Wiltshire. 

LATIN MOTTO (8 th S. vii. 448, 512). MR. 
HAINES'S suggested correction is, of course, right. 
Perhaps he will have no objection to having 

corroboration for it. In Arber's 'English Garner,' 
L877, in vol. i. p. 618, appears "Pari jugo, dulcis 
tractus." This motto is given in 'Love Posies,' of 
which Prof. Arber says that the manuscript in 
which the collection was found was written about 

Palgrave, Diss. 

Compare Martial, ii. 43, 1. Holden's edition of 
icero, ' De Officiis,' refers to Aristotle, ' Eth. Nic.,' 
viii. 9 (11), 1, and 'Politics,' ii. 3. 


" COIGN OF VANTAGE" (8 th S. vii. 227, 315, 
393, 491). The following extracts from Mr. 
Robert Forster's ' History of Corbridge ' may be 
of interest to AYEAHR and others : 

' Another old custom, which still continues, deserves 
to be noticed only on account of its origin, and not for 
its continuance, which has been in modern times often 
a moral nuisance rather than otherwise. We mean the 
Coins Foot gathering of men and boys. The orthography 
of the coins or coignees point to its position as a place 
where nearly all thoroughfares converge. The origin 
of this custom will be made the more understandable by 
a reference to the turnpike roads, or rather lanes, which 
were then in existence, and bad been for agea pre- 

The writer, after giving an account of the con- 
struction of the military road between Newcastle 
and Carlisle, proceeds thus : 

11 On the completion of this branch road, an enter- 
prising man of the name of Johnson constructed a wain , 
or waggon, for the conveyance of goods betwixt Hexham 
and Newcastle by this road, the first conveyance, it 
would appear, of the kind for the purpose used in this 
neighbourhood. The owner made two journeys weekly, 
passing through Corbridge by the way of Coins. It was 
his return journey from Newcastle which gave rise to 
this assemblage. It should, however, be borne in mind 
that at this period the great powers of commerce, of 
knowledge, and of civilization, in its true sense, had 
hardly begun to develope themselves; therefore every 
opportunity of obtaining information on the great or 
smaller affairs of the nation was resorted to ; this was an 
opportunity the Corbridge people embraced of assembling 
together and waiting for Johnson's return to ' hear the 
news.' Although this way of obtaining news has long 
since passed away, yet the assemblage still continues 
and sometimes for hours together, in rain or fair weather 
alike to discuss and settle local and national affairs, 
and has been significantly designated 'the Coins Foot 
Parliament.' " 

Mr. Richard Oliver Heslop, in his ' North- 
umberland Words,' gives the local meaning of 
coins or coigns as " a street corner." 



Forster's ' History of Corbridge,' a small 8vo. of 
202 pages, was published in 1881 by J. Beall, 
32, High Friar Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Hes- 
lop, in his ' Glossary of Northumberland Words,' 
quotes Forster, and defines coins as a "street 
corner," from its being a place where several 
thoroughfares converge. As to the historical value 
of Forster's work I cannot speak ; but in foot- 

8* S , viil. JULY 27, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

note (p. 62) to a description of a " kern baby, or 
harvest queen," we are told that " the image is 
thought to have represented the Roman Ceres, the 
god of plenty." G. H. THOMPSON. 


STOLEN RELICS RESTORED (8 th S. vii. 165, 296; 
viii. 17). There is not the least need of making 
any mystery about the name of the lady who took 
away a piece of the Bayeux tapestry. Any one 
can refer to the Times of Sept. 24, 1881, p. 10, 
and there find a letter signed " Charles N. Kempe, 
47, Half Moon Street, Sep. 21," vindicating Mrs. 
Bray from the charge of taking away a small piece 
of the tapestry. The facts, however, seem to be 
that while Mrs. Bray's first husband, Charles 
Alfred Stothard, F.S.A., was making drawings 
from the tapestry, during the years 1816-18, Mrs. 
Bray cut off a small hanging fragment, which was 
afterwards, aa stated, restored to the Museum at 
Bayeux:. GEORGE C. BOASE. 

36, James Street, Buckingham Gate. 

OLD JOKE ANTICIPATED (8 th S. vii. 427). 
Should not compliment be substituted for "joke" 
in the above title ? In ' Cupid's Posies,' recently 
reprinted by L. Humphreys, Piccadilly, a little 
book of the seventeenth century, of which only 
three copies are said to be in existence, there is a 
similar compliment : 

Though these gloves be white and fair, 
Yet thy hands more whiter are. 


SIR WILLIAM PETTY (8 th S. iii. 367 ; v. 331). 
Petty died in 1687. In 1690 his son, Charles, 
Baron Shelborne, published his 'Political Arith- 
metick ; or, a Discourse concerning the Extent 
and Value of Lands,' &c., with a dedication to 
King William, in which the following passage 
occurs : 

" Had not the Doctrins of this Essay offended France, 
they had long since seen the light, and had Followers, as 
well as improvements before this time, to the advantage 
perhaps of Man-Kind. But this has heen reserved to 
the felicity of Your Majesty's Reign, and to the expecta- 
tion which the Learned have therein." 

In accordance with this assertion it is commonly 
said (e.g., Fitzmaurice, 'Life of Petty,' 1895, 
p. 225 ; Bevan, 'Sir William Petty, a Study,' 1894, 
p. 11) that the "Book called Political Arithmetick, 
which was long since Writ [circa 1676] by Sir 
William Petty Deceased" (licence to print given 
Nov. 7, 1690), was not published until 1690. It 
is, however, well known that the book, like others 
of Pettj's writings, circulated extensively in MS. 
before it was printed (' Fourth Rept. Hist. MSS. 
Com.,' p. 596b, 'Eighth Rept.,' Third Appendix, 
p. 39a; Wood's 'Athena; Oxon.,' 1721, ifc col. 810; 
Pett's 'Happy Future State of England,' 1688, 
pp. 106, 193), and it now appears that one of these ! 
MS. copies was used for the printing of an edition 

of the 'Political Arithmetick,' probably unautho- 
rized, as early as 1683. This edition is appended 
to the (spurious) 

Fourth Part [by "J. S."] of the Present State of 
England [by Chamberlayne], relating to its Trade and 
Commerce within it self, and with all Countries traded 
to by the English, as it is found at this Day established 
[&c.]. To which is likewise added England's Guide to 
Industry, or Improvement of Trade, for the Good of all 
People in General, written by a Person of Quality. 
London, Printed by R. Holt for William Whitwood, near 
the George Inn in Little Britain, 1683. 

The ' Guide to Industry ' has separate title-page, 
pagination, and signatures, thus : 

England's ] guide | to | Industry : | or, | Improvement 
of Trade, | for the good of all Peo- | pie in general. 

London, | Printed by R. Holt for T. Passinger at | the 
three Bibles on London-Bridge, and | B. Took at the 
Ship in St. Pauls-Church- | Yard. 1683. 

Title, verso blank, 1 I, preface 5 11., text, 
caption : " A Discourse of Trade. Being a Com- 
parison between England and other parts of 
Europe, wherein the Incouragement of Industry is 
promoted in these Islands of Great Britain and 
Ireland," pp. 1-102, in twelves. The ' Guide to 
Industry ' is, with slight verbal discrepancies, the 
same as the ' Political Arithmetick ' of 1690. 


Ithaca, New York. 

(8 th S. vii. 7, 153; viii. 32). The citation 
Charley wag, 
Ate the pudding and left the bag, 

reminds me that I was told in Lincolnshire, in the 
days of my youth, that Wag was a recognized 
synonym for Charlie. Somewhere, too I believe 
it was in York I heard a person remark that she 
could not think how parents who gave a child the 
name of Charles could expect it to turn out well 
a prejudice which may have originated in ancestral 
experiences of the Stuart line. Miss Austen, as 
we may remember, wrote, "Her father was a 
clergyman, without being neglected or poor, and a 
very respectable man, though his name was 
Richard." I am afraid the humour of the latter 
part of this passage is too fine for me. Was 
Richard under a cloud when ' Northanger Abbey ' 
(chap, i.) was written? ST. SWITHIN. 

"FINE- AXED" (8 tb S. viii. 27). I think the 
light of nature will tell us enough about this 
without seeking unto the letter N, whether that 
letter be followed by Q or by E D. If " axed " is 
shaped or dressed with an axe, " fine-axed " must 
be finely or smoothly shaped, or dressed with a 
fine or keen axe. Q.E.D. without N. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

"STILL AND ON" (8 th S. vii. 204, 475; viii. 
35). I frankly confess that I cannot give examples 
of " still and on." I venture to doubt if a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. no. JY 27. -ML 

classical phrase worthy of repetition and imitation. 
My remark anent Jamieson's ' Dictionary ' was 
intended to mean that probably Jamieson omitted 
"still" in the sense of "continually" because 
this sense is not provincial at all, but frequent in 
literary or common English. T. WILSON. 


VALSE (8 tb S. viii. 29). In Gillray's ' Cari- 
catures,' No. 457, Bohn's edition, published 1851, 
will be found a sketch, dated Jan. 20, 1800, 
" Waltzer au Mouchoir "; and in the accompanying 
account is the following remark : " This was in- 
tended for a quiz upon the then foreign dance 
waltzing." Again, No. 569 in the same work is 
another sketch, dated 1810, "La Walse. Le Bon 
Genre," with the note, " The walae was at this 
time new in England, and just coming into 
fashion." THOS. H. BAKER. 

CLANS OF INNSBRUCK (8 th S. vii. 507). There 
must be a misprint in MR. BLEASE'S ' Last 
Duchess. 1 The word is properly " Glaus." Inns- 
bruck was celebrated for its sculptures. I do not 
find anywhere the name of Glaus as a worker in 
bronze ; but probably research will bring him to 


THE ROYAL ANNE (8 th S. vii. 447, 511). Your 
correspondent's grandfather's clock was probably 
manufactured by Obed Cluer, during the reign of 
Queen Anne (1702-14), he having been admitted a 
member of the Glockmakers' Company, London, 
in the year 1709. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Obed Cluer was admitted a member of the 
Clockmakers' Company in 1709. P. 9 of the 
Company's list, by 0. S. Morgan. M.A.Oxon. 

CHARLES I. AT LITILE GIDDING (8 th S. vii. 321, 
412, 472, 512). Charles I. visited Little Gidding on 
March 15, 1641/2, on his way from Huntingdon to 
Stamford, where he slept that night ; and the next 
day, before starting for York, he issued a proclama- 
tion for putting the laws against Popish recusants 
in due execution, " Given at His Majesties Court 
at Stanford the sixteenth day of March in the 
seventeenth year of His Reign." Will MR. W. A. 
PERRAR give the authority for his statement that 
the king was at Little Gidding again in 1646 ? 



174, 316, 449 ; vi. 94, 278, 331 ; vii. 212, 455). 
A very interesting one is to be seen any day, though 
not in its original place, by travelling by the 
South-Eastern Railway to New Cross and turning 
down Amersham Vale. A builder has built into 
the front wall of his house the old mural tablet 
from St. Olave's School, Southwatk. In an oval 

medallion is a figure of the boys in front of the 
schoolmaster and the date 1571 a figure in each 
iorner and the letters " St. 0." The present 
jroprietor informed me that he purchased it from 
he man who pulled the old school down. 


Part of Upper Street (formerly High Street), 
[slington, N., was, it seems, known as Hedge Row 
so recently as 1854, as the following entry, in the 
' Post Office London Official Directory ' for that 
year, of my father's residence goes to prove. It 
runs, " Hems, Henry, furn. ironmonger and cutler, 
39, Hedge Row, Islington." HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

" (8 th S. vii. 449). Can your 
querist furnish a genuine spelling of the name, say 
ante 1200 ? The supposed connexion with mickle 
is, of course, nonsense. It seems not improbable 
that the first portion of the word is merely an A.-S. 
proper name perhaps that of some local worthy 
long since forgotten. CHAS. JAP. FERET. 

428, 495 ; vii. 152, 372, 391). In The Reforma- 
tion,' a comedy acted at the Duke's Theatre, 1673, 
Act I. sc. iv. : 

Lysander. Methinks I loath my former life. Oh, 
could we but call it back, Emilia. 

Emilia. Then we were blest indeed. But since that 
cannot be, I 'le double all my Orisons, and that may 
make up my arrears : And never speak, or thii.k of man, 
but when I put up prayers for you, O Lysander. 

Lysander. I 'le to a cloyster too, for 'tis but just 
the residue of life be spent in punishing this too much 
pamper'd flesh. There in our several cells we '11 fast, 
and watch, and wash away our guilt, and when we 're 
fit to dye remove to heaven. Oh, Emilia. 

Emilia. Well, dear Lysander (for now I dare call 
thee so), since our designs agree, let 's time our Prayers, 
that Heaven may hear us both together. 



In Brachet's French dictionary it is stated 
that Tertullian uses oratio for prayer. What 
evidence is there that orisons only signify " prayers 
uttered aloud," as MR. SHERBORN suggests (8 tn S. ' 
vii. 372)? Thomas Randolph (16C5-34) sings in 
his 'Epithalamium' : 

Put out the torch. Love loves no lights : 
Those that perform bis mystic rites 
Must pay their orisons by nights. 


S. vii. 508). I am unable to supply MR. REYNOLDS 
with any information as to the descendants of this 
sheriff, but would point out that the will of 
Richard Reynolds, of the parishes of St Pan eras 
and St. Christopher, London, was proved in the 
P.C.C. in 1543 (20 Spert). Malcolm says that 
the sheriff was buried on April 14, 1533, at St. 



Pancras, Soper Lane, but is clearly in error as to 
the year. The will of " John Reynold of St. Pan- 
crace, London " seemingly the sheriff's father 
was proved in 1492 (vide 'List of P.C.C. Will?,' 
Index Library). W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

CHRISTIAN NAME (8 lh S. yii. 168, 352). The 
following passage from ' Marmion ' will illustrate 
the practice of arms of conquered foemen being 
adopted by their victors : 

Ourselves beheld the listed field, 

A sight both sad and fair; 
We saw Lord Marmion pierce his shield, 

And saw his saddle bare; 
We saw the victor win the crest 
He wears with worthy pride ; 
And on the gibbet-tree reversed 
His foeman's scutcheon tied. 

Canto i. stanza xii. 

The speakers are the heralds at Norham Castle, on 
the Tweed, and the allusion is to De Wilton, 
defeated by Lord Marmion some time before in 
the lists at " Cotswold Fight." 


WILLIAM HORD, D.D. (8 t!l S. vi. 107, 296, 
377). In an interesting article contributed to the 
New Church Magazine for July, by Mr. Charles 
Higham, entitled ' The Ethics of Quotation,' that 
writer inquires into the authorship of an opinion 
respecting the writings of Swedenborg, sometimes 
given as a quotation from Bishop Hard and some- 
times as from William Hurd's ' History of the 
Rites and Ceremonies of all Nations.' Mr. Higham 
has examined the bishop's works, and all the 
editions he could find of William Hurd's book, 
but has not been successful in discovering the 
original of the "quotation," and comes to the 
conclusion that its genuineness is open to more 
than doubt. As to the ' Rites and Ceremonies ' 
and its author, he says : 

" Judging from the character of the book itself, and 
from some distant acquaintance with the seamy side of 
book production, one would not be surprised to learn 
that it might with confidence be said of ' William Hurd, 
D.D.,' as of a memorable character in modern fiction, 
under the same initial letter, ' I don't believe there 's 
no sich a person.' " 

c. w. s. 

A Reader's Guide to Contemporary Literature. By Wm 

Swan Sonnenschein. (Sonnenschein & Co.) 
UPWARDS of four years have elapsed since Mr. Sonnen- 
schein published the second edition of his marvellous 
compilation 'The Best Books,' to which this comes as 
the first supplement. Like its predecessor, it is a work 
of immense labour and corresponding utility. One 
recoils baffled from the task of indicating its nature. 
Its modest aim is to keep the student au courant with 
the latest literature, conveniently classified under head- 
ings euch as " Theology " (subdivided into ten eec- 

ions and one hundred and thirty - four subjects), 
' Mythology and Folk-lore," " Philosophy,'' and innu- 
merable other heads. It gives an account of the works, 
English and American some fifty thousand in all 
lublished during the years under consideration, with 
:he date, form, price, and name of publisher. Close on 
eight hundred pages are occupied in the task. A com- 
plete list of authors and subjects renders the task of 
reference as simple as it can be. Take, for instance, 
selecting at haphazard, the name Maurice Maeterlinck. 
We find that two plays of his ' The Princess Maleine ' 
and ' The Intruder ' were translated (very badly) by- 
Harry Gerard, and, with an introduction by Mr. Hall 
Caine, published, in octavo, by Heinemann at the price 
of five shillings in 1892. A long paragraph which follows 
gives an account of Maeterlinck, his introduction to 
English readers, the performance of one of his plays at 
the Haymarket, and a general estimate of bis position 
in letters. How useful a work such as this must be is 
at once apparent. Supposing the supplements to be 
c -ntiriued every four years, one has an available index 
to literature with something approaching almost to a 
digest of contents. The only objection we have is that 
the series, though invaluable to a public institution, will 
soon become burdensome to private shelves when these 
are not numerous. We congratulate Mr. Sonnenschein 
heartily upon his task, and do not doubt having to own 
frequent obligation to his labours. 

Legends of Florence. Collected from the People and 
Retold by Charles Godfrey Leland. First Series. 

MR. LELAHD is an assiduous collector of folk-lore and 
a most entertaining companion. He works, moreover, 
in mines not often explored, and he preserves for us 
many strange, useful, and suggestive stories. So con- 
firmed a gossip and reshaper is he that he does not 
always get full credit for his industry. He scarcely 
seems to think how essential is absolute accuracy, and 
jogs along in a pleasant, haphazard way that is more 
beguiling than convincing. His quotations strike us 
sometimes with marvel, as, 

Oh for one blast of that dread horn 

On Fontarabian echoes borne, 

When Roland brave and Olivier, 

And every paladin and peer 

At Roncesvalles died. 

To these he appends the name Walter Scott. Now did 
Scott write two poems with almost the same beginning I 
With the following we are familiar : 

Oh for the voice of that wild horn 

On Fontarabian echoes borne, 
The dying hero's call. 

That told imperial Charlemagne, 

How Paynim sons of swarthy Spain 
Had wrought his champion's fall. 
Shakspeare is better treated a little better, but not 
much the second line in his 

Jog on, jog on, the foot-path way 

And merrily hent the stile-a, 

And cheerily jump the stile. 

In a book intended for popular perusal these things, an<J 
others in abundance like them, may be held of trivia} 
importance. In the case of collected folk-lore one is 
compelled to hope that Mr. Leland's memory is better 
for oral than for written communications. His book is 
in part a supplement to his ' Etruscan Roman Remains,' 
with which we recently dealt. It contains many very 
strange stories, most of them collected by Mr. Leland. 
others to be found in the facezie of Arlotto Mainardo, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [<" s. vm. J^Y 27, '95. 

Poggio, and other writers. Many things are very strik- 
ing, notably the version of Cain and Abe), which blends 
strangely Scripture narrative. The volume, which is 
prettily got up, is, indeed, to be commended. We only 
wish it inspired more confidence and were provided with 
an index. Under "The Mysterious Fig-tree," pp.205 
et sfq., some information, which though not all new is 
of use to students of comparative folk-lore, is given. As 
a clue to Mr. Leland's method and views we commend 
to attention what is said, p. 235 of his volume, as to the 
"new Renaissance" on which we are entering the 
conflict between the stylists and the more liberally en- 

The -Denham Tracts. Edited by Dr. James Hardy. 

Vol. II. (Nutt.) 

THE task of editing for the Folk-lore Society the second 
volume of the Denham Tracts, begun by Dr. Hardy, was 
interrupted by illness and has been continued by Mr. G. 
Laurence Gomme. In safer hands it could not be. The 
volume consists of tracts and pamphlets issued by 
Michael Aislabie Denham between 1846 and 1859 in the 
infancy of folk-lore. They deal with subjects with 
which from the outset ' N. & Q.' has been concerned : 
with charms, witchcraft, apparitions, local proverbs 
and saying?, wells, river worship, fire worship, holy 
stones everything, indeed, for which the originator of 
' N. & Q.' invented the word folk-lore. Denham dealt 
principally with the North of England and the Scottish 
Borders. Not in the least scientific were his researches. 
He was a questioner, a collector, scraping together every- 
thing that came in his way, jotting it down and issuing 
it in the most haphazard fashion. As materials his col- 
lections are of great value. Not very much is there, 
perhaps, that in variants may not be found elsewhere. 
We share, however, Mr. Gomme's avowed sympathy 
with the antiquaries who were content year after year 
to record small things for the sake of recording, and we 
fancy that Denham would have been flattered to hear 
himself likened to Aubrey. The volume constitutes 
Part XXXV. of the publications of the Folk-lore 
Society. It can be read, as we have proved, from be- 
ginning to end, and is a pleasant and valuable contribu- 
tion to the folk-lorist. 

German Classics. Edited, with English Notes, &c., by 
C. A. Buchheim, Phil.Doc., F.C.P. Vol. XIII. 
Schiller's Maria Stuart. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
ENGLISH students of the noble German language and 
literature owe already a deep debt of gratitude to Prof. 
Buchheim ; and he again places them under obligation 
to him for an edition of ' Maria Stuart ' which is sup- 
plemented by copious notes, by a complete commentary, 
and by an historical and critical introduction. We may 
not be able always to agree with the professor on ques- 
tions of history or of dramatic art, but within his own 
special scope and range as a teacher of the German 
tongue he is excellent. ' Maria Stuart ' is by no means 
Schiller's best, though it is his most melodramatic work. 
A dramatist when writing an historical drama should 
take care to use his free fantasy only when that fancy 
is finer and truer than the facts of history ; but in the 
case of Schiller's ' Maria Stuart ' the truth of history is 
grander and more moving than his fantasy. A greater 
than Schiller Shakspeare has shown that the facts of 
history may be adhered to without injury to dramatic 
poetry or to the cunning of the scene. An historical 
dramatist has no right to alter unless he can improve. 
Take as a model of dramatized history Shakspeare's 
'Richard III.' Elizabeth and Mary could not meet, 
never did meet ; and this inexorable and characteristic 
fact is far finer than the " Zankscene," the scolding match 
between the two queen?, which Schiller introduces for 

the sake of stage effect. He depicts Elizabeth going 
out hunting from Westminster, extending her ride to 
Fotheringbay, and returning to London to hold a 
Council of State. Now Fotheringhay is about seventy- 
six miles from London, and in those days the chief, 
if not the only means of locomotion was a horse, so that 
her majesty must, indeed, have performed a record ride 
in order to do that which Schiller says she did. In this 
instance his imagination has not much improved upon fact. 
If the action of the play took place in Germany, Schiller 
would not have made such a mistake; but it must be 
borne in mind that he wrote for a German public, which 
would not be startled by such an error. 

We cannot, however, afford space for a critical ex- 
amination of the play. Whatever we may think of the 
professor's historical or art views, we can only congratu- 
late him upon his useful notes and his conscientious 
labours. He is a master of the science of language, and 
is able to give most valuable philological assistance to 
English students of German. 

A New Story of the Stars. By Prof. Bickerton. (Christ- 
church, N.Z., Whitcombe & Tombs.) 
SUCH is the title of a pamphlet sent us by the author, 
who is Professor of Chemistry and Physics at Canter- 
bury College, Christchurch, New Zealand. But examina- 
tion shows that it is in fact the first of a series of ten, 
the whole of which is to bear that name. The author 
claims that the phenomena attending the outburst of 
the new star called Nova Cygni (he says in 1877, but it 
was really first seen on November 24, 1876) led him to 
form the theory that such appearances were produced 
by partial impacts, i. e., collisions not of stellar bodies, 
but of their outer parts. He thinks that his views have 
not met with the attention they deserve, though they 
were fully confirmed by the phenomena of Nova Aurigse 
in 1892. It would be unfair to judge of his work by the 
small portion of it now issued ; but we may remark that 
Prof. Bickerton seems inclined to generalize too fast; 
and when he speaks of the unwillingness of astronomers 
to accept the theory of stellar encounters, or regard it 
as new, one is inclined to ask whether he has read Sir 
W. Herschel's paper on the 'Construction of the 
Heavens ' in the Philosophical Transactions for 1785. 


We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the came and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate," 

C. W. W. (" The Marquis of Lome "). That he is 
not a peer is shown by his election to serve in the pre- 
sent Parliament. 

A. M. HANDT. Will appear soon. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
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NOTES : Nelson Belies, 81 Lady Katherine Grey, 82 
Local Anecdotes in Literature, 83 John Flamsteed 
' ' Only "Letter of Tennyson, 84 H. Mossop ' La Grippe ' 
"Battletwig": "Landlady": "Boggart" "Effrontery' 
Statues- Welsh Place-names " Denting ": " Ringer,' 
85 Mistakes in Books of Reference" Frightened of 
Audrey and Awdry, 86. 

QUERIES : " Disghibelline " ' Memoirs of the Marquis de 
Bretagne,' &c. " Plantain "Portrait of Warren Hastings 
Gigantic Bones Oil of Eggs Gower Tournaments- 
Freemason Female Charity, 87 Blunder Worcester 
Cloisters' Kalevala ' " A woman with a past "Sporting 
Names of Birds " Camberwell Fringe" " Drink to me 
only" Lincoln Inventory, 88 Goldfinches Poisoning 
Pelham of Tillington Swimming The " Coulin," 89. 

EEPLIES : Shakspeare : Billiard Portrait, 89' Legends 
of Florence,' 90 Le Despencer The .Victoria Cross Lord 
Mordaunt Ancient Masons' Marks Translations of the 
New Testament Leather Drinking Jacks, 91 Needlework 
Samplers " Gavel " Sibyl " Cantankerous " Room 
where Family in Centre takes in Lodgers, 92 Massinger 
Blackie on Scott" Chum," 93 Changelings Wraxall 
The Scratch-back Coeur de Lion Pronunciation of Place- 
names, 94 Church Registers Sir Andrew Paachall, 95 
Claud Champion de Crespigny Tip-cat Cock-fighting, 
96 Saying attributed to Priestley Captain-Lieutenant 
" Gallett " Joseph Miller Dryden and Greek, 97 
"Dictate" A Dumb Bell Parish Charities Chiffinch 
Pages of the Bedchamber, 98 Authors Wanted, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Sharpe's ' London and the King- 
dom,' Vol. III. Maugras's 'Due deLauzun 'Richardson's 
' George Morland ' Bowes's ' Notes on Shippo ' Huvigny's 
' Legitimist Kalendar for 1895.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


On a recent visit to Madame Tussaud'a ex- 
hibition I found myself among a crowd of persons 
gazing at that memorable scene in the cockpit of 
the Victory, described in the catalogue as " The 
Death of Nelson." It is certainly a realistic group, 
sufficient to enlighten the most untutored mind. 
While standing there contemplating the tragic 
scene before me, 1 heard a woman say to her com- 
panion, "Who is Nelson?" The man, startled 
for a moment, pulled himself together, and with 
creditable promptitude replied, " Nelson ! Oh ! 
he was the captain of a man-of-war." No one 
laughed. It was a very natural answer, and it 
seemed to satisfy the company, which moved on- 
wards to inspect the Polish giant, who, ever since 
I was a boy, has been poising Tom Thumb on the 
palm of his hand. How surprised that well- 
dressed mechanic must have been to discover in 
his morning paper on July 13 that the Government 
of England had paid no less than 2,5002. to Lord 
Bridport for the medals and orders worn by that 
<( captain of a man-of-war " on the fatal morning 
of Trafalgar ! He will probably have thought that 
the taxpayer's money was being sadly wasted ; and 
when he saw a report in the newspapers, on July 15, 
that an unsophisticated Englishman had paid 2,550 
guineas for a whole-length portrait (by Hoppner) 

of that same "captain of a man-of-war," he will 
have thought that "there is a sight of money about 

The medals and orders that have thus become 
the property of the nation are : 

1. The service gold medal of the victory of St. 

2. The service gold medal of the victory of the 

3. The jewel of the Order of the Bath. 

4. The jewel of the Sardinian Order of San 

5. The Grand Cross of the Order of San Joachim 

6. The jewel of the Neapolitan Order of San 

7. The Grand Cross of the Order of San Ferdi- 

8. The gold star of the Turkish Order of the 

9, 10. Two badges of the Turkish Order of the 

And, lastly, the gold medal struck to commemo- 
rate the victory of Trafalgar, which was presented 
to Nelson's family after that hero's death. 

Private individuals have acquired for 1,250Z. 
the precious stones removed from the sword of 
honour presented to Lord Nelson by the King of 
Naples. An aigrette of rose diamonds, presented 
to Lord Nelson by the Sultan of Turkey after 
the Battle of the Nile, was bought for 710Z. The 
gold sword hilt, presented by the captains of the 
fleet, formed as a terminal figure of a crocodile, 
enamelled with an allegorical group of Britannia 
and Africa and the arms of Lord Nelson, was 
purchased for 1,0802. The inscription upon it 
runs thus : 

" The Captains of the Squadron under the orders of 
Rear Admiral Sir Horatio Kelson, K.B., desirous of 
testifying the high sense they entertain of his prompt 
decision and intrepid conduct in the attack of the French 
Fleet in Bequir Road of the Nile, the 1 st of August, 
1798, request his acceptance of a sword, and as a further 
proof of their esteem and regard hope that he will permit 
his portrait to be taken and hung up in the Egyptian 
Club now established in commemoration of that glorious 
day. Dated on board Hia Majesty's ship ' Orion.' on this 
3 d of August, 1798." 

I am glad to note that a valued correspondent 
of N. & Q.,' Sir William Fraser, has acquired the 
brooch which formed the fastening to the " cloak 
of honour " presented to Nelson by the Sultan of 
Turkey. Believing that the sale of these relics is 
interesting to the nation, I venture to draw atten- 
tion to that fact, thus enabling the historian of the 
future easily to discover when the dispersal actually 
took place. These and many other valuable relics, 
lately the property of Viscount Bridport, came 
under the hammer at Christie's on Friday, July 12, 
1895, within three months of ninety years after 
Nelson's death. EICHARD EDQCTJMBB. 

83, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [s s, vm. AUG. 3, -95. 

(Concluded from p. 3.) 

Lady Katherine spent the last fourteen weeks 
of her captivity and her life at Cockfield Hall, 
Yozford. What was the precise nature of the 
malady that wasted her cannot now be determined ; 
the action of mental trouble and " hope deferred " 
on the bodily structure is subtle and mysterious ; 
yet when in her letter (8 th S. vii. 343) the poor lady 
expressed the effect as the " torment and wasting" 
of her frame, we readily understood her. Fourteen 
weeks of mournful autumn and cheerless winter at 
Yozford sufficed to bring her life to its close ; nor 
did the beauty of her place of sojourn, veiled during 
these sad weeks, bring to her hope or solace. Three 
times had Sir Owen Hopton sent to London for 
the physician ; but of what avail could be medical 
treatment in this case? On Jan. 11, however, 
Sir Owen, in the letter now to be given, represent- 
ing that Katherine's state had become worse since 
the departure of Dr. Symondes, prays that he may 
again be sent. 

Jan. 11, 1568. Sir Owen Hopton to Sir William 
Cecil* : 

My duty most humbly remembered, These are to 
advertise your honour that the Lady Katerine hath been 
much more sick sithena Doctor Symondes going from 
here than she was before. And she is now come to such 
weakness that she hath kept her bed these three days, 
being not able to rise, and taketh little sustenance, and 
the worst is she standeth in fear of herself (never to 
escape this sickness). Now forasmuch as I am com- 
manded by the queen her majesty's letters that as 
occasion shall rise wherein needful is to know her grace's 
pleasure I should thereof advertise some of her privy 
council, which this present giveth me boldness to write, 
beseeching you to advertise the queen's majesty that it 
may stand with her highness' pleasure to permit Doctor 
Symondes to come again, he then shall show his coming, 
and God shall do the cure. I think it my duty to 
acquaint you with her sickness, and then I remain in 
willing readiness to do all that I am commanded by the 
prince, as knowetb God, who send you long honourable 
life. Written the 11"> of January. A 1567. 

Yours whom you may command 


To the Right Honourable Sr. Willm. Cecill, Chief 
Secretary to the Queen's Highness. 

[Endorsed] 11 Januar. 1567. Sr. Owen Hopton to my 

Within a fortnight from the dispatch of this 
letter Lady Katherine breathed her last. "The 
manner of her departing," a very touching narrative, 
apparently written at the time, and probably by a 
witness of the scene, I have already partially 
quoted (3 th S. vii. 122). It is well worth reading 
as printed in full by Sir H. Ellis in his ' Original 
Letters,' for it gives us, better than anything else, 
a knowledge of the poor lady, whom, whatever 
may have been her sins here repented, we can 
appreciate as a woman of noble and gentle nature. 

* ' State Paper?, Dom.,' Eliz., vol. xlvi. f. 1. 

It now only remains for me to give Sir Owen 
Hopton's notification of Lady Eatherine's decease, 
and the accounts he rendered of expenses, includ- 
ing those of the funeral at Yoxford. 

Jan. 27, 1568. Memorandum by Sir Owen 
Hopton of having received Lady Katherine into 
his custody, and of her death* : 

M. that the 20 tb day of October in the 9 th year of the 
reign of our sovereign lady Queen Elizabeth, Sr. Owym 
Hopton, Knight, took into his custody the lady Eatheryn. 
which dyed the 27 th day of January in the tenth year of 
our said sovereign lady the queen, so she remained with 
him fourteen weeks. 

[Endorsed] 8 r Owen Hopton for y* diet of y* Lady 

Account rendered by Sir Owen Hopton for ex- 
penses of Lady Katherine's journey to Cockfield 
Hall, of her board there and that of her servants, 
and of her funeralf : 

The charges of the receipt of the Lady Eatherine, and 
for the board of her and her ordinary servants by the 
space of 14 weeks, and for other charges sitbens her 
being in the custody of S r Owen Hopton, Enight, as 
followeth, whereof the said S r Owen asketh allowance. 

Imprimis expended at Ipswich upon the receipt of 
the Lady Eatherine for one supper and one dinner, fire. 
lodging and horsemeat there, 7 U 15*. 

Itm' for one bait at Snape when the said Lady Eathe- 
rine came from Ipswich to Cockfield (" Cokfild "), 20'. 

Itm' for the hire of a cart for the carriage of the stuff 
and apparel of the same Lady Eatherine from Ipswich 
to Cockfield, 20'. 

Itm' given in reward for the coach, 10'. 

Itm' for the diet of the Lady Eatherine and the be ard of 
her ordinary servants, by the time and space of 14 weeks 
at 5" the week, 70". 

Itm' for the board of the Lady Eatherine's ordinary 
servants sithens her departure, by the time of 3 weeks 
and 3 days at 33* 4 d the week, 6 U . 

Itm' for sending to London 3 times while the Lady 
Eatherine was sick, 3 U . 

Itm' [mourners' expenses, in account following], 

Itm' paid to one M r Hannse, s'geon, for cering and 
coffering of the Lady Eatherine, 6 U [repeated in two 
items of account following]. 

Itm' paid to the singing men at the same funeral, 20'. 

Itm' paid for the watchers of the Lady Eatherine, 40*. 

Itm' for the charge of Doctor Simondes and his man 
& his horse at Cockfield twice [blank]. 

Itm' for my own charge two times coming to London 
[blank], [Sum wanting.] 

[Endorsed] The charges of the Lady Catherin and of 
her servants until her funeral, at Sir Owen Hopton's. 

Funeral expenses : 

The charges of the diet and other things at the funeral 
of the Lady Katherine. J 

Imprimis for 4 meals & 2 nights lodging of all the 
mourners being to the number of 77, for their horsemeat 
during that time, 40". Besides a great number of comers 
to see the solemnity of that burial. 

Itm' for one M r Hannse S'geon for the cering of the 
corpse of the Lady Eatherine, 3 U . 

Itm' for spice, flax, rosin, wax, & the coffin making & 
for the serge clothes, 3". Sm. 46". 

' State Papers, Dom.,' Eliz., vol. xlvi. f. 12. 

Ibid., vol. xlvi. f. 49. 

t Ibid., vol. xlvi. f. 48. 

8 S. VIII. AUG. 3, '95.] 



Heralds' charges and additional expenses*: 

Received of S r Owen Hopton as followeth. 

For the liveries of one herald, 5 yards at 16' the yard, 


For 2 pursuivants at arms for their liveries 9 yards at 
13' 4", 6". 

For 4 servants to attend upon the herald and pur- 
suivants, every one a yard di. 6 yards at 8' the yard, 

For the herald's fee, 3 U 6' 8 d , & for hia transportation 
hither and back again at 6 d a mile, 3 U 7*. 

For the two pursuivants' fees, 4 n , and for the trans- 
portation of them thither and back at 4 d a mile either of 
them, 4" 9' 4 d . In all, 27" 11'. 

For M r Garter's fee, 10". 

To the painter, first for a great banner of arms, 50*. 

For 4 bannerolls at 30* the piece, 6 U . 

For 6 dozen of pencils furnished at 12* the dozen, 3 U 12'. 

For 6 great scutcheons on paste paper, 3 U . 

For 2 dozen of scutcheons on buckram, 48'. 

For one dozen of small scutcheons for the valence, 20'. 

For 2 dozen of scutcheons of paper in metal for gar- 
nishing of the house and the church, and 6 dozen of 
paper scutcheons in colours, 6" 8'. 

For 5 staves & 5 braces of iron for the banner and 
bannerolls, 20'. In all, 25" 18'. 

S m received by the officers of arms, [and] the painter 
as above particularly appeareth, 63" 9'. f 27 1 " 11 s and 10" 
and 25" 18-=-63" 9'.] 

By me, Hugh Cotgrave, By me, John Hart, 

,, als. Richmond Herald, Chester Herald. 

Itm' for the frame of the hearse and for the making 
of the rails, 6 U 13' 4 d . 

Itm' paid to the tailors for working of the cloth & 
other things upon the hearse, 20". 

Itm' given in alms to the poor people, 4" 17* 8 d . 

gm 12 u ni [ an d 63" 9' above=] S m Total 76". 

Received by me S r Owen Hopton, Knight, by warrant 
out of the exchequer, 76". 

[Endorsed] Feb r 1567. The fees paid by Sr. Owen 
Hopton to y e heralds at y e funerals of y 9 Lady Gatheryn. 

The Queen to the Treasurer and Chamberlain of 
the Exchequer. Warrant dated Feb. 6, 1568, for 
payment of 76Z. to Sir Owen Hoptonf : 

Elizabeth, etc., to the Treasurer and Chamberlain of 
our exchequer greeting. 

Whereas we have given order to S r Owen Hopton, 
Knight, to take the care of the interment and burial o. 
our cousin the Lady Katheryne lately deceased, daughter 
of our entirely beloved cousin the Lady Frances Duchess 
of Suffolk, Our will and pleasure is that of our treasure 
in the receipt of our said exchequer you shall deliver o^ 
cause to be delivered to the said S r Owen Hopton, to be 
by him employed and paid for the fees of officers of arms, 
banners, scutcheons, hearse, and other things abouts the 
said burial, the sum of threescore sixteen pounds, And 
these our letters shall be your sufficient warrant and 
discharge in that behalf. Given under our privy seal 
at our palace of Westmr. the sixth of February in the 
tenth year of our reign. 

Same to same. Warrant dated March 10, 1568 
for payment of 140Z. to Sir Owen Hoptont : 

Elizabeth, etc., to the Treasurer and Chamberlain of 
our exchequer greeting. 

We will and command you out of our treasure within 
the receipt of our said exchequer to pay or cause to be 

* 'State Papers, Dom.,' Eliz., vol. xlvi. f. 24. 
t Rid., vol. xlvi. f. 23. 

aid to S r Owen Hopton, Knight, as well for the board 
f our cousin the Lady Katheryne lately deceased and of 
ier servants whiles she wan in his keeping by our order, 
nd for charges for her coming thither, as also for money 
aid out by him for household charges during her sickness 

and belonging thereunto, the sum of one hundred and 
orty pounds. And these our letters shall be your suffi- 
ient warrant and discharge in this behalf. Given under 
ur privy seal at our palace of Westmr. the tenth day of 
larch in the tenth year of our reign, 
[Endorsed] S r Owen Hopton, Knight, for the funerals 

and other charges of the Lady Katheryne one of the 
laughters of the Lady Frances late Duchess of Suffolk. 

27, Elgin Avenue, Westbourne Park, W. 

Every one who reads much comes occasionally 
across anecdotes dealing with local events or places 
which, nevertheless, the local historian may miss, 
a he is only likely by accident to light on them. I 
would suggest that any one happening on any such 
n his reading should label it with its place-name 
and send a copy to 'N. & Q.,' where the local 
antiquary is sure to see it. I send two, as an 
llustration of my meaning. 

1. Dover : fromCapt. Venn's* Military Observa- 
ions,' 1672, 'A Military discourse Whether it be 
letter for England to give an Invader present 
Battle or to temporize and defer the same,' (p. 201, 
at end of ' Military Observations for the Exercise of 

Where can it be remembered that a strong Enemy 
proffering to land, hath been prevented by the Frontier 
Forces? I think few or none who be avouched unless 
the president of the Priest of St. Margaret's, near Dover, 
shall be admitted for one, of whom the old Fletchers 
retain a Memorial in honour of their Bowes ; who is said 
with his Bow and Sheaf of Arrows to have kept down 
the French men* that offered to land in a narrow 
passage up the Clift near Dover, where they found a 
gate fast barred and lockt to stop the same, And he 
standing over them on the top of the Clift, played a tall 
Bowman's part, when as in these days the French had 
not any shot but some few Cross-bowes, that could not 
deliver an Arrow half-way up the Clift to him, and so it 
was given out that he kept them down till the Country 
was come down to the sea-side to repel them back to 
their Boats; or rather I suppose (myself knowing the 
place) when they saw the gate was so fast they could not 
suddenly break it open, they returned before their coming. 
But yet I must confess the Bow bare the Bell, before 
the Divel (I suppose) sent themusquet, &c., out of Hell." 
2. Warwick : from James Cooke's ' Mellificium 
Chirurgise or the Marrow of Chirurgery,' &c., fourth 
edition, 1685, pt. i. sec. iv. chap. viii. p. 129 : 

"The Scots under Lesly in their March from Hereford 
to Newark, past through Warwick; there being Guards 
set at several places to prevent disorders. A Scots 
Trooper quarrelling with one of the Guards, the said 
Captain and hia Manf passing by, the man intreated 
him to be quiet, for they did but discharge their duty. 
The Scot immediately leaving them, with his Tuck ran 

* Who came for fresh water, as was supposed, 
t "Moses Lander, servant to Captain Matthew 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. AUG. 3, '95. 

him in at the left side, which passed between the ribs into 
Mucronata; the Man finding himself wounded set spurs 
to his Horse, and rid from St. John's Brook to the 
Castle, the best part of half a quarter of a Mile : as he 
dame riding up I with others standing at the outmost 
Gate of the Castle, seeing him make such haste with a 
wan Countenance (that always had been Ruddy) and the 
Horse side bloody, scarce my thoughts of his wounding 
being perfected, before he came near me by twenty 
yards, he fell from his Horse. I with another ran and 
carried him within the Gate, laying him on a Form 
without, at the Porter's Lodg upon bis Back, by which 
time an universal coldness had seized him ; his Pulse 
was gone and so to all appearance past recovery. I used 
Frictions till a handful of Salt came, which I sent for ; 
with which rubbing his lips for a quarter of an hour, his 
colour came and he began to look up. Being after 
carried into the Castle, I prescribed this : R. Aq. Borag. 
Bugloss. Julap. Noriinberg an. J J- <! Cinnamomi 3 vj. 
Confect. Alker. 3 j. syr. Caryophil. % j. M. Having taken 
six or eight spoonfuls at several times he seemed to 
revive more, and his pulse got up a little. About two 
hours after, coming to him with my Wife, speaking some- 
thing to him to prepare for Heaven, he understanding 
called out for all or most part of that night, Heaven, 
Heaven. The next Morning finding him in a Fever, 
after I had dressed his wound which was very small, I 
opened a Vein. Towards the Afternoon he spoke pretty 
plain and knew me. This day I was sent to by the 
Commissioners to know the state of the Man : that so 
General Leven with a Council of War might try him. I 
returned Answer, that I conceived he was wounded into 
Mucronata, and that he could not long continue. The 
next morning finding the Fever again increased, I 
repeated V.S. as also the next morning, after that, yet 
in the Afternoon he died. The next day I opened him, 
there being present his Captain, Mr. Trap Minister, and 
several Officers and Soldiers. I found the Tuck had 
passed through the Diaphragm into the point of the 
Heart, almost to the right Ventricle, and the Stomach 
drawn up above tho Midriff. He was a Congregational 
Member, meeting then in Warwick Castle. He made a 
very sweet and comfortable end." 


NOMER ROYAL. His marriage is thus recorded in 
the parish register of St. Lawrence Jewry, London : 

" John fflamsted of G[r]eenwich and Maraarett Lock 
of S' Andrews Holborne were Marryed the 23> of Oct. 
[16J92 by D' Mapletoft" 


"ONLY." It seems extremely difficult to give 
the adverb " only " the place in a sentence which 
accurate syntax would appear to demand. What- 
ever its special function should be, the word dis- 
plays a strong predilection for the company of the 
main verb in a statement, the result on a strict 
analysis being curiously different from that mani- 
festly aimed at. Both in speech and writing this 

particle is prone to disport itself as an interloper 
given to mischievous and amusing pranks. There 
are probably not many speakers who would adopt 
the form used by Lucilius (' Julius Caesar,' V. iv. 
12), and say, " Only I yield to die"; but suffi- 
ciently ready favour would be accorded the arrange- 

ment, "I only yield to die." A noted orator, at 
an 'ancient Scottish university a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago, used to introduce some of his most 
telling passages with the inevitable formula, " I 
merely mean to say this," his " merely " being, of 
course, simply a variant on the pushing and per- 
sistent " only." Literary examples offer them- 
selves daily. For the sake of illustration let us 
take a number of a specially well- written periodical, 
and see whether the peculiarity does not assert 
itself in the work of very different writers and in 
a great variety of circumstances. 

In the Saturday Review of May 25 the writer of 
the summaries, p. 682, says in two successive para- 
graphs: (1) "The Lower House is apt only to 
consider questions of practical expediency," and 
(2) "A company of 150 men can only muster forty 
fit for service." Two paragraphs later, presumably 
the same writer says, " The magnitude of the sum 
can only be fully realized when it is understood," 
&c. The writer of an article on ' Chitral and the 
Forward Policy ' a vigorous and enlightened con- 
tribution towards the settlement of a difficult ques- 
tion writes at one point that " the desert can only 
be crossed on the two or three lines," at another that 
"an advance could only be made in small bodies," 

and at another that "the Dura Pass is only 

open for 100 days in the year." Mr. Arthur A. Bau- 
mann, in a signed paper on Mr. T. H. S. Escott's 
biography of Lord Eandolph Churchill, considers 
that Lord Randolph's friends " will hardly thank 
Mr. Escott for so often reminding the public of 
advantages of birth, which only serve to obscure 
the natural force and genius of the man." There are 
two examples in an article on ' Architecture at the 
Academy ': (1) "a building only remains a build- 
ing," and (2) " a vulgarity and pretentiousness 
which is only equalled in English art by," &c> 
Writing on 'Richter v. Mottl,' J. F. R. says of 
Mottl, " As he only likes what is Wagnerian in 
Beethoven, he converts," &c. There may be other 
examples in the number, but these are sufficient to 
show how persistently the particle "only" gets a 
position to which it is not entitled, and how its 
dominating presence is readily descried even in 
specimens of the best modern prose. 

Helensburgb, N.B. 

" Les Nouvelles de 1'Intermediaire " for June 30 
the following finds a conspicuous position, and is 
equally (or rather more) deserving of similar 
honour in ' N. & Q.' It is not said whether the 
letter is a translation or not. I should think, 
from internal evidence, that it stands as the late 
Laureate penned it, and is undated. 

Une Lettre in^dite d' Alfred Tennyson. 

A Hippolyte Lucas. 

CHER MONSIEUR, Ce m'est veritablement une douce 
chose que d'avoir trouve une dme poetique qui puisae 

. vm. AUG. s, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


fraterniser avec la mienne de 1'autre cote de la grande 
mer. Lea poetes, comme vous le dites fort bien, sont on 
plutot devraient etre relics ensemble par une chaine 
electrique, car ils ne doivent paa parlor settlement pour 
leurs compatriotes. J'a lu vps vers plusieura fois, et ils 
m'ont cause plus de plaisir a chaque nouvelle lecture. 
Je suis particulierement flatte de leur ressemblance avec 
mon propre poeme. 

Si jamais je fais un voyage en Bretagne, j'aurai 
1'honneur et le plaisir de vous faire une visite. Votre 
province est riche en legendea poetiques de toute espece, 
et par cela mSme particulierement chere aux Anglais. 
J'espere la voir un jour, et vous en mime temps. 

En attendant, croyez-moi, cher monsieur, votre tout 

(Collection L. Lucas.) 

It would be interesting to know to which 
" propre poeme " the poet referred. J. B. S. 

HENRY MOSSOP. According to the excellent 
memoir of this popular actor in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography,' some doubt exists as to the 
exact date of his decease. It is there said that 
" he died in the Strand, Nov. 18, 1773, or, accord- 
ing to the Gentleman's Magazine, on Dec. 27, 1774, 
at Chelsea." It is certain that the latter date is 
the correct one. Faulkner, in his 'Historical 
Description of Chelsea,' ii. 136, informs us that 

"lie died in great poverty and distress at bis lodgings in 
Chelsea, December, 1774, aged forty-three. His brothers 
of the buskin, who during his lifetime had refused him 
any assistance, were anxious, after his death, to pay due 
respect to his name ; for Mossop was unquestionably one 
of the first actors of his time. His remains were followed 
by all the theatrical corps at that time in London ; and 
the funeral was conducted to Chelsea Church with great 
magnificence and pomp." 

.The entry in the register shows that he was 
buried on Jan. 1, 1775. If the statement as to 
his age be correct, the date of his birth may be 
pretty safely assigned to the year 1731. 


' LA GRIPPE.' I do not remember having seen 
the following mentioned, and have, therefore, 
noted it for any future bibliography of the subject : 

" La Grippe, Comedie ipisodique en prose et en un 

acte ; par M. ***. A Paris, chez J. F. Bastion (Rue 

du Petit-Lion, Fauxbourg St. Germain). 1776, in-8vo. 
1 livre, 4 sols." 

H. H. S. 

[See 7 th S. xi. 265; xii. 465; 8 th S. i. 80, 132. The 
comedy II. H. S. mentions has, we find, been variously 
attributed to Fr. Nau and Pierre Jean Baptiste Nou- 

In the review of Notts and Derbyshire Notes 
and Queries (8 th S. vii. 500) reference is made to 
the folk-name of the earwig, "battletwig." I 
heard this for the first time when on a visit to 
Cleethorpes in 1884. Until then the" only name 
by which I had heard it called, excepting its 
proper name was " twinee." also heard another 

folk-name for the ladybird or cowlady, which 
I have never heard since, viz. , " landlady." My 
landlady, who was the person from whose lips 
both these new words fell, was naturally carious 
to know why the latter name was, in my opinion, 
such a suitable one for the ladybird, and I am 
afraid I incurred her lifelong displeasure by reply- 
ing "because they live on their lodgers." The 
word "boggart" is not an uncommon name in 
some parts of the south-west riding of Yorkshire. 
At the village of Ardsley, near Barnaley, there ia 
a house known to old residents as "the little 
boggard house," for that is the way in which they 
pronounce "boggart." As to the origin of its 
name, however, I have no notes as yet. 

E. G. B. 

[" Boggart " in Yorkshire signifies ghost, goblin. la 
it a corruption of " barghest." for which see ' N. E. D.' 1 
See also " Boggard " in ' N. E. D.'j 

" EFFRONTERY." According to the 'New Eng- 
lish Dictionary ' there is some difficulty as to the 
original sense of the O.Fr. esfronter. It seems 
worth while to suggest that it has been confused 
with O.F. afronter. At any rate, I find in the supple- 
ment to Godefroy the entry : " Afronterie, s.f. 
bravado insolente, effronterie"; and it is remark- 
able that all the three quotations which Godefroy 
cites spell the word affronterie with double/. 


STATUES. I have discovered one of Alfred the 
Great the only one in London, I believe in Trinity 
Square, Southwark. It looks utterly woe-begone 
in the midst of a wilderness of grass, where used 
to be a nice shrubbery in my younger days. 

Is it not disgraceful to us as a nation that there 
is no memorial to the heroic General Wolfe at 
Greenwich Church, where he was buried ? Surely 
it is time something was done. 


Montcalm, Dagmar Road, Camberwell. 

WELSH PLACE-NAMES. (See 8 th S. vii. 421, 
515.) The following, which I have had amongst 
my newspaper cuttings for many years, and which 
I fancy I cut out of a Carlisle paper, will, I think, 
amuse even your Welsh readers : 

"The revising barristers for the county of Anglesey 
last week announced that they would visit Beaumaris 
for the purpose of revising the lists for the parishes of 
Llanddanielfab, Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, Llanfairycwmma, 
Llanntrangellmsilwy, and Llanfitrangelesaifiog. We hope 
they did their duty thoroughly, and made no mistake in 

I find the second of these names, spelt exactly 
as I have written, it, in the ' Post Office Guide.' 
I fancy, but I am not sure, that the tr in the last 
two should be h. JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

" DENTING ": " RINGEK. " Some coal - mining 
terms are curious. Frequently in coal mines it ia 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. YIII. A. 3, '95. 

necessary to take up portions of the floor of the 
roads on which the miners and pit-ponies travel, 
because, as some of the men have it, "the road 
rises with the pressure." This road taking up is 
called " denting," which means that the " hills an' 
holes " of the road are made level with pick and 

When portions of the roof of the roads hang loosely, 
to the danger of life and limb, the masses of stone 
have to be fetched down before the roads may be 
again used. This is done by means of a " ringer " = 
a long bar of steel a crowbar, in fact and the 
work is called "ringering"= getting down the roof. 
When the stones have been thus prised down, the 
workmen say " it 's ringered down." The steel bar 
is called a "ringer" because of the ringing which 
steel makes with every blow struck. 


are two curious errors in Watt's 'Bibl. Brit.' 
respecting two of Madame D'Arblay's novels. The 
list of her works contains ' Evalina [sic] ; or, a 
Toung Lady's Entrance into the World,' 1777 ; 
and ' The Wanderer ; or, Female Difficulties,' 
1814. But ' Evelina ' is also included among the 
writings of Caroline Burney, and ' The Wanderer ' 
among those of Sarah Harriet Burney. The works 
of the two latter are unrecorded in Lowndes's 
work. Sarah Harriet Burney was a step-sister of 
Madame D'Arblay ; but who was Caroline Burney? 
She published ' Seraphina ; or, a Winter in Town,' 
in 1809. Her name does not appear in the 'Dic- 
tionary of National Biography.' 


Salterton, Devon. 

"FRIGHTENED OF." One does not expect a 
slip in English from Mr. Raskin. In the May 
number of the Nineteenth Century, p. 743, a letter 
of his contains the sentence, " Photos both quite 
safe, but I 'm rather frightened of my Queen." 


AUDREY AND AWDRT. Are the two names in 
the title necessarily identical? The latter we 
know, on Prof. Skeat's indisputable authority, is 
a corruption of Etheldrida, brought about by the 
withering away of the head and tail of the word, 
and the passing of el into au in the body of it.* 

Lithe" lays it down that au, ou, u, on represent 
ail and el. If Audrey name so fancied by Shake- 
spere that he uses it not fewer than thirteen times 
in one play alone (as if he had Audrey on the 
brain when he wrote ' As You Like It ') is the 
same name, we can well understand how Etheldrida, 
in its slow course of decay and evolution into 

* By a further corruption Saint Awdry becomes the 
adjective "tawdry," the legitimate deduction of which 
from St. Etheldrida fairly beats the record. 

Awdry, may have continually gravitated towards, 
and ultimately become identical in sound with, 
and merged into, Audrey. 

This latter may possibly be of Norman origin, as 
was suggested to me by reading of the jument 
Andr4e running for, and I believe winning if not 
she, it was her companion jument who won the 
Grand Prix de Paris on the last occasion.* 

We have a precedent for the Fr. an becoming 
Eng. au in the word braule (now brawl), a limb- 
shaking sort of dance, which all agree is derived 
from bransle or branle. So dawdle evidently 
comes from dandle, which Prof. Skeat says is 
" made by the help of the suffix le from an old 
Low German base dand or dant, signifying to 
trifle, play, delay, loiter." 

Again, am nearly the same thing as an passing 
into au is seen in the word bauble, derived from 
bambola, a doll made by children out of rags and 
other loose material. Also Maurice (Mav/H/aos) 
is doubtless connected with Manrico, Manrique.t 
Finally, the name Chautemps, which has so fre- 
quently turned up of late in the newspapers, may 
probably be derived from Chantemps or Chante- 
temps ( = Precentor). 

If, then, the change of Andre'e into Audrey can 
be maintained, the latter will be the feminine, or, so 
to say, own sister to Andrew, which name curiously 
enough occurs no fewer than fifteen times in 
'Twelfth Night,' the next comedy but one pro- 
duced by Shakespere after ' As You Like It.' 

The interchanges of al and an with au have led 
me to notice an interesting cyclic connexion 
between the triad of sounds au, al, an, viewed 
with regard to their several modes of production 
by the organs of speech. To understand this, 
begin with placing the tongue (the clapper of the 
bell) at the junction of the gum and upper set of 
teeth so as to give rise to the sound al; on pushing 
it forward to the junction of the two rows of teeth 
the sound au, but if it be moved in the opposite 
direction until it reaches the outer periphery of the 
upper gum, an will result. On moving the tongue 
still further to the rear, until its point touches the 
vertex of the roof of the mouth, the sound au will 
reappear ; and pushing or curling it backwards in 

* It was noticed in the Debats on the morning of the 
race that seven years before, in 188S, and seven years 
before that again, a jument had won the race, so that a 
sort of septennial period was thought to have been dis- 
covered, and was regarded as of happy augury to the 
chances to win of the two juments (against whom enor- 
mous odds had been laid) who were to run that after- 
noon a prognostication justified by the event. Book- 
makers, therefore if any there be who read ' N. & Q.' 
may take the hint in placing their money on the Grand 
Prix for the year of grace 1902. 

f As an becomes au, so, and for similar physical 
reasons, it is liable to change into aun, as in the familiar 
instances of Roman into Romaunt, Kanbpur into 
Caunpur, John of Gand and Mandati dies into John 
Gaunt and Maundy Thursday. 


Q Of 

8s. vm. A, s, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES, 


two successive jerks as far as it will go, a higher al 
and a higher an (the latter not without some effort) 
will be produced. Thus it will be seen that, genet- 
ically considered, au, al, an, au, form a cycle 
extensible into the second period (or, speaking 
more or less figuratively, octave), so that we have 
the completed scale au, al, an, au, aJ, an, beyond 
which on the verge of the third octave it is not 
possible to proceed. J. J. S. 

We muat request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
Barnes and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

" DISGHIBELLINE." In the 'Rehearsal Trans- 
prosed ' of Andrew Marvel (1672), pt. i. p. 299, it 
is written, " In their conversation they thought fit 
to take some more license, the better to dis-Ghibeline 
themselves from the Puritans. Does dis-Ghibeline 
here mean to separate from Ghibellinism ; or to 
separate as a Ghibelline from a Guelf ? Is there 
any historical allusion beyond what appears on the 
surface to the strong antagonism between Guelfs 
and Ghibellines ? J. A. H. MURRAY. 

THE " Memoirs and Adventures of the Marquis 

de Bretagne and Due d'Harcourt To which is 

added The History of the Chevalier de Grieu and 
Moll Lescaut, an extravagant Love adventure. 
Translated from the original French by Mr. 
Erskine. 3 vols. 12mo., Lond., 1743." Is this 
translation, of which I have not previously heard, 
of L'Abbe 1 Provost's famous tale known ? Who is 
Mr. Erskine ? H. T. 

This is certainly by usage an English word, though 
it is not thus employed in Skeat's ' Etymological 
Dictionary.' Could any one enlighten me as to 
the history of this word ? I take it to be from the 
Spanish platano or plantano (banana), and infer 
that it has by assimilation taken the shape of a 
very old English plant-name. It would seem that 
the ^ Spaniards have obtained platano from the 
Carib and Galibi words for banana, viz., "bala- 
tanna " and "palatana," by the process followed 
by the Australian colonists when they converted a 
native word for the casuarina trees in to "she-oak"; 
and that we can thus explain how platano comes 
in Spanish to signify both the plane-tree and the 
banana. Spanish lexicographers seem as much 
irritated at having to employ the ancient name of 
the plane-tree to designate the banana as an edu- 
cated Englishman must be when he sees a casu- 
arina tree and hears it called an oak. 

H. B. GUPPY, M.B. 

[The ' Century Dictionary ' gives it as from the same 
source as planta, the sole of the foot and a sucker. J 

in what collection the fine portrait of Hastings by 
Sir Joshua Eeynolds is preserved ? There is a 
large engraving of it, three-quarters length, in the 
possession of a friend of mine, though a copy is 
not to be found in the Hope Collection, in the 
Bodleian, at Oxford. Underneath the engraving is 
inscribed, "Painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Engraved by Thomas Watson. London, March 
20th, 1777. Warren Hastings, Governor-General 
of Bengal, &c." It represents a handsome man, in 
the prime of life, and at that date Warren Hast- 
ings was forty-five years of age. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

GIGANTIC BONES. In the porch of Mallwyd 
Church, Montgomeryshire, are hung certain 
gigantic bones, which never seem to have been 
properly described. Perhaps some of your readers 
may be able to inform me what these bones are, 
where they were found, and when placed in their 
present situation. 


OIL OF EGGS. In an old cookery book that I 
have, oil of the yolks of hard eggs is described 
as of immense value in allaying pains and for 
relieving burns, also as good for many other 
things. Is this one of the innumerable lies con- 
signed to the mala fides of black printer's ink ; or 
is it one of the facts that our wisdomite world, in 
full chase of science, has let slip ? In consequence, 
the heap of knowledge lost, compared with that 
retained, is as Chimborazo to Snowdon. 

C. A. WARD-. 

Charlecot, Walthamatow. 

GOWER, THE POET. He lies buried, as all 
know, in St. Saviour's, Southwark, As Poet 
Laureate, his recumbent figure has round the 
brow a fillet of roses. The spaces between the 
roses seem to be occupied with an inscription, 
which no one has yet deciphered. Two of the 
quaint carved wooden bosses, now lying on the 
floor of the new nave, also bear inscriptions. If 
some expert in these matters amongst your readers 
would kindly pay a visit to the church, which is 
open from 11 to 4 daily, and examine and report 
upon these inscriptions, I should be very greatly 
obliged. W. THOMPSON, D.D., Rector. 

TOURNAMENTS. I should be glad if any of your 
correspondents would give me information or 
names of books bearing on tournaments in France 
during the sixteenth century. R. BOEHM. 

[See ' Ceremonie des Gages de Bataille,' Paris, Crapelet, 
1830, though it deals with an earlier epoch.] 

graving by Bartolozzi, after Stothard, dated 1802, 
and wish to trace the portraits of those represented 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 th s. vm. A. 3/95. 

if any one can help me. It is titled ( The Distin- 
guishing Characteristic of Masonry, Charity exerted 
on Proper Objects.' The artist has taken an in- 
cident after one of the first annual dinners of the 
subscribers to the girls' orphan charity of the 
Masonic Institution. Those present formed two 
lines, through which walked a procession of the 
children headed by Chevalier Ruspini, the founder 
of the charity, who held the two youngest by either 
hand. One of the Eoyal Dukes stands to the 
right. The print is dedicated to the Grand Lodge 
of England, and there are several items of interest 
independent of the matter already described. 
Stothard and Bartolozzi, both Eoyal Academicians, 
were likewise both Freemasons, as is testified by 
the prefix Bro. to their names on the plate. 
In the picture the apron is worn under the coat, 
not over as at present. One qualification for ad- 
mission to the school under the original rules was 
that the applicant must have had the small-pox. 
A sad fate befell the kind-hearted founder of the 
charity. Bell's Weekly Messenger, Jan. 23, 1831, 
tells the tale, under the heading ' Reverse of For- 
tune,' thus : 

"Among the paupers who applied a few days since 
at the Board Boom, St. James's, for relief was the well- 
known Chevalier Kuspini, dentist to his late Majesty 
(George IV.), and who at one time kept a large house 
in Pall Mall. The board immediately granted him a 
sufficient sum to relieve him and his family for a few 
days, who are in great distress. The Chevalier Kuspini 
is, we believe, the fonnder of one of our most admired 
public charities for children." 


Cam Jen Lawn, Birkenhead. 

EXTRAORDINARY BLUNDER. In a recent number 
of the Saturday Review, in an article on ' English 
Conductors and German Capellmeisters,' the 
writer speaks of compassing "the destruction of 
the terrible Frankensteins which musically threaten 
to destroy us," whereby it is evident that he 
mistakes Frankenstein, the student, for Franken- 
stein's monster. Can any of your readers mention 
a similar slip on this subject ? 

[Such are familiar. See 8 th S. vii. 485.] 

WORCESTER CLOISTERS. There is a peculiar 
feature about these. Can any one give me the 
correct architectural term, and say if the instance 
is, so far as English cathedrals are concerned, 

' KALEVALA/ I shall feel obliged if any of your 
readers can tell me the correct pronunciation of the 
name of this poem, which I do not find in any 
dictionary. F. E. WALHS. 

"A WOMAN WITH A PAST." This phrase has 
come much into vogue within the last three years, 
and especially since the production, in May, 1893, 
of Mr. Pinero's play 'The Second Mrs. Tan- 

queray.' But was not its first use as the title of 
a three-volume novel, by Mrs. Berens, published 
in 1886 ? ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

SPORTING NAMES OF BIRDS. There are several 
names or terms applied to groups or companies 
of birds, in general use among sportsmen and game- 
keepers. Of these I know seven : 

A covey of partridges. 

A nide of pheasants (? nidus, neat). 

A bevy of quails. 

A pack of grouse, 

A knob of widgeon and various wild ducka. 

A flock of geese. 

A whiting of swans. 

Can these be added to ? I should be much obliged 
for any information on this matter. These as- 
semblages of birds are at first confined each to a 
single family ; but as the season advances they 
merge and combine, especially where sportsmen 
have been at work. With some of the wild ducks 
one often meets with two or three species together. 
I have shot the common widgeon, the pochard, 
and the pintail out of the same knob. 

Basingfield, Basingstokc. 

[In Yorkshire we have "a cletch"=a brood of 
chickens. ] 

"CAHBERWELL FRINGE." Some time ago, in 
an article on the subject of beards, this was given 
as a name for a peculiar style of beard common, 
perhaps, in the district implied. Can any one 
explain the term ? I have heard of " Piccadilly 
fringe," as denoting a certain style of dressing the 
hair ; but " Camberwell fringe " is altogether new 
and strange, and induces me to ask the inevitable, 
Why? C. P. HALE. 

second-hand edition of Lempriere's ' Classical Dic- 
tionary,' I recently purchased, there is the follow- 
ing marginal note pencilled against the article on 
' Philostratus I.': 

" ' Brink to me only with thine eyes,' &c., is an exact 
translation by Ben Jonson from the prose letter of 
Philostratus; his collection of letters (Greek) is very 
elegant, so that the well-known English song is much 
more ancient than people fancy." 

Is there any reason for doubting this statement? 
Crouch Hill. 

LINCOLN INVENTORY. Many years ago I met 
with, in a volume of some magazine issued in the 
last century, some extracts from an old inventory 
relating to the City of Lincoln or some one living 
therein, in which occurred entries referring to 
ecclesiastical objects. A person named Fulbeck 
was mentioned therein. I think he was mayor of 
the city; but of this I am not certain. I had 
the impression that the document which I am 
anxious to see was to be found in the Gentleman's 

8*s. vm. AUG. s, -95.3 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Magazine; but^a long-continued search therein, 
aided by others, has been fruitless. If any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' can help me I shall be grateful. 

Duustan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

ago two young goldfinches (in Bearnais cardinal 
or hilhou) in a cage in an -inn at Montory. The 
mistress informed me that she supposed the 
parents would come and fed them for a few days, 
and then poison them. The same evening the inn- 
keeper at Lanne, a little further on in Beam, told 
me he had witnessed a case of such feeding and 
poisoning, followed by the suicide of the parent 
birds. He said the poison used was a kind of 
paste, secreted in the stomachs of the parents. 
Buffon, in his "Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux. 
Tome Septieme. A Paris. Suivant la Copie in 
4 De 1'Imprimerie Eoyale. MDCCLXXIX, pp. 
270 and 271," in the article on Chardonnerets,' 
refers to the "dit-on" that these birds make their 
offspring in captivity die out of compassion, by 
poisoning them with a certain herb. Do the people 
of the British islands share the belief of the Bearnais 
peasants that this really happens ? Is it a mere 
superstition ? PALAMEDES. 

Oloron, Basses Pyren6es. 

ham's daughter Elizabeth married William Hersey 
(vide King's Bench Roll in 1484). Where did 
this John Pelham die ; and where can his will be 
seen? A. C. H. 

SWIMMING. In 1868 1 printed a bibliographical 
list of books on this subject. I have for some time 
past been engaged on a new edition, and I shall 
feel obliged if you would allow me to mention this, 
in case any of your readers, as they did before, 
should be able to let me see any books I have not 
seen. I particularly want to see any editions of 

* The Angler and Swimmer,' also published as the 

* Art of Angling with the Art of Swimming/ I be- 
lieve by Smeeton, Hodgson, and Dean & Mun- 
day, 1820-1832 (see Westwood and Satchell, 
'Bibliotheca Piscatoria,' 1883, pp. 17 and xiv). 
A number of chap-books were published about 
1815, many of which I have not seen. 

13, Clifford's Inn, E.G. 

THE " COULIN." I take the following paragraph 
from the Daily News of July 23 : 

"There was a sort of Celtic fringe called the ' Coulin,' 
which it was at one time penal to wear, and which is 
kept in the world's memwy by a poem of exquisite 
pathos, and by music of an almost divine melancholy." 

What was the " conlin," and what was the poem 
alluded to ? As a collector of national songs, I ask 
for purely literary purposes, without any political 
motive whatever. WAITER HAMILTON. 

(8 tt S. vii. 508.) 

W. I. R. V. will find the fullest details of 
the supposed Hilliard portrait of Shakespeare in 
the excellent and exhaustive quarto volume, ' The 
Portraits of Shakespeare," by J. Parker Norris, 
Philadelphia, 1885. This volume was printed for 
subscribers, and is largely illustrated with very 
full descriptions of thirty-three supposed portraits 
of Shakespeare, from the Stratford bust down to 
the American statue by Mr. J. Q. A. Ward. As 
the volume is rare (my copy is No. 125), there are 
few available in England, but probably the Museum 
Library has one. "The Hilliard Miniature" is 
described in four pages, and was engraved by 
J. W. Harland. Mr. Norris writes : 

" This curious little miniature has a history, which is 
apparently authentic, and certainly far better than most 
of the pictures that claim to represent Shakespeare." 

He quotes the letter of Sir J. Bland Burges (to 
Boswell), who 

" thought well of it, and concluded to have an engraving 
made from it for the edition of Malone's Shakespeare, 
that he was about to publish. By the advice of Sir 
Thomas Lawrence he employed Mr. Agar to engrave a 
plate for him. This was done, and the print appeared 
in the second volume of that work in 1821." 
Mr. Norris says that Boaden recorded that 
" Boswell showed him the miniature, and that it at once 
struck him ' to have been unquestionably painted by 
Hilliard ' [who died in 1619]." 

Mr. Norris adds : 

" Unfortunately, however, he does not tell us the 
reasons which led him to believe this ; and there is 
nothing known concerning the miniature that supports 
such a belief, and it will be observed that Sir James does 
not say a word as to who the painter was. No doubts, 
however, seem to have troubled Boaden ; and he speaks 
of Hilliard as if he was unquestionably the painter of 
the miniature, which will go down to posterity as the 
Hilliard Miniature,' though it would have been far 
better to call it after Burges." 

Speaking of Sir James's account of the history 
of the miniature, Boaden remarks : 

" It would be merely rude to ask for more particulars 
as to this transmission of this picture, than Sir James has 
been pleased to give ; but I hope I may, without offence, 
express some astonishment that Somerville the Poet, a 
man born almost on the banks of the Avon, glorying in 
his countryman, and writing occasionally verses to poets 
on the subjects of Poetry, should have [had] in his pos- 
session an authentic portrait of Shakespeare and never 
allow it to be engraved." 
Boaden further states, that 

" as Somerville's death did not take place till 1742, he 
must have beard of these matters, and yet he never 
communicated the fact of his having such a picture in 
bis possession." 

The pedigree of this miniature picture is more 
than doubtful, and the portrait has no resemblance 



VIII. AUG. 3,' 

to the Stratford bast or the Droeshout print, 
which are the only contemporary representations 
of Shakespeare " in his habit as he lived." 


The claim to authenticity of the miniature 
referred to by W. I. R. V. is set forth in Sir 
James Bland Barges's letter to James Boswell, 
the younger, of June 26, 1818, which is printed in 
Abraham Wivell's 'Inquiry into the History, 
Authenticity, and Characteristics of the Shake- 
speare Portraits,' Lond., 1827, p. 150. May not 
the miniature be in the possession of Sir James's 
great-grandson and successor, Sir Archibald 
Lamb, Bart. ? GEO. WILL. CAMPBELL. 

6, Clarendon Square, Leamington. 

The miniature referred to in the extract from 
the Morning Post of Sept. 21, 1818, is now the 
property of J. Lumsden Propert, Esq., of London, 
the well-known collector and historian of minia- 
tures. It was fully described by Sir James Bland 
Burges in a letter to the younger Boswell, pub- 
lished by J. Boaden in his essay on the ' Portraits 
of Shakspere.' It was first engraved for Malone's 
' Shakspere ' in 1821, and has since been several 
times reproduced. It is, and was, a mistake to 
speak of it as accidentally discovered. It was 
preserved in the family of the descendants ol 
William Somerville, of Edston House, Warwick- 
shire, as a precious family heirloom ; and when 
Wm. Somerville, the author of ' The Chase,' trans- 
ferred that estate, with others, to his kinsman, 
Lord Somerville, the miniature was given by the 
poet to Miss Somerville, an only child, who after 
wards became the mother of Sir James Blanc 
Burges. The history of this miniature entitles i 
to be considered the only life portrait of Shakspere 
of which we have any knowledge. 


' LEGENDS OF FLORENCE ' (8 th S. viii. 79). I am 
surprised to find in ' N. & Q.' the following criti 
cism : 

"His [Mr. Leland's] quotations strike us sometime 
with marvel, as, 

Oh for one blast of that dread horn 

On Fontarabian echoes borne, 

When Roland brave and Olivier, 

And every paladin and peer 

At Roncesvalles died. 

To these [c] he appends the name Walter Scott. Nov 
did Scott write two poems with almost the same begin 
ning ? With the following we are familiar : 

Oh for the voice of that wild horn 

On Fontarabian echoes borne, 
The dying hero's call, 

That told imperial Charlemagne, 

How Paynim sons of swarthy Spain 
Had wrought his champion's fall." 
It seems to be insinuated that no one is familL 
with the former quotation ! But it is, to me, th 
most familiar passage in one of Scott's best-know 

oems, viz., ' Marmion ' ! The quotation is a 
ttle mutilated, as there is an omission after 
; borne "; but it is really not very much amiss. 

Neither Mr. Leland's " quotation " from Scott 
or the Editor's is familiar to me. Scott wrote, in 
Marmion,' canto vi. 33 : 

O for a blast of that dread horn 
On Fontarabian echoes borne, 

That to King Charles did come, 
When Rowland brave, and Olivier, 
And every paladin and peer, 
On Roncesvalles died ! 

0. 0. B. 

Mr. Leland is more nearly right than his re- 
viewer thinks. In ' Marmion,' vi. 33, is this : 

O for a blast of that dread horn, 
On Fontarabian echoes borne, 

That to King Charles did come, 
When Rowland brave, and Olivier, 
And every paladin and peer, 
On Roncesvalles died ! 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

In a short review of 'Legends of Florence/ 
;he reviewer takes Mr. Leland, the author of the 
Dook, to task for having ascribed the authorship of 
certain lines to Walter Scott. Now the lines in 
question were written by Walter Scott, and are to 
be found in ' Marmion,' canto vi. 33. I append 
the lines, with their context : 

By this, though deep the evening fell, 
Still rose the battle's deadly swell, 
For still the Scots, around their king, 
Unbroken, fought in desperate ring. 
Where's now their victor raward wing, 
Where Huntly, and where Home 1 
for a blast of that dread horn, 
On Fontarabian echoes borne, 

That to King Charles did come, 
When Rowland brave, and Olivier, 
And every paladin and peer, 

On Ronceavalles died ! 
Such blasts might warn them, not in vain. 
To quit the plunder of the slain, 
And turn the doubtful day again, 

While yet on Flodden side, 
Afar, the Royal Standard flies, 
And round it toils, and bleeds, and dies, 
Our Caledonian pride ! 

Mr. Leland, in his quotation, leaves out the 


That to King Charles did come. 

He has also substituted the words "At Ronces- 
valles " for " On Roncesvalles." 

If Mr. Leland reads the review, as I suppose is 
likely, he will no doubt defend himself. 

C. W. CASS. 

Your reviewer, in his notice of Mr. 0. G. Leland's 
' Legends of Florence,' at the above reference, is 
rather unjustly " down " on Mr. Leland. He says, 
"His [Mr. Leland's] quotations strike us some- 
times with marvel Now did Scott write two 

VIlI.Auo.3, 95.] 



poems with almost the same beginning 1" T 
which I reply, Yes, he did. The five fine line 
(should be six, the third is omitted) to which Mr 
Leland rightly appends the name " Walter Scott, 
are in ' Marmion,' canto vi. Besides the omission 
of the third line there are two very slight verba 
errors, "one" for a, and "at" for on. Thj 
six lines with which the reviewer says he i 
familiar, and which he quotes perfectly correctly 
are supposed to be written by Frank Osbaldistone 
' Eob Roy,' chap. ii. Sir Walter, in * Rob Roy, 
unconsciously, and, as he afterwards admitted to a 
friend when the " Waverley " secret had been 
divulged, "very carelessly," quoted himself. Se< 
'N. &Q.,'1S. ix. 72. 

Ropley, Alresford. 

The lines Mr. Leland gives in 'Legends o: 

Florence,' though not quite accurately quoted, are 

Scott's, and occur at the close of the great battle 

scene in ' Marmion,' vi. 33. They run thus : 

for a blast of that dread horn, 

On Fontarabian echoes borne, 

That to King Charles did come, 
When Rowland brave, and Olivier, 
And every paladin and peer, 

On Roncesvalles died ! 
The last line presently finds rhymes in " Flodden 
side " and " Caledonian pride." It was this pas- 
sage, with its strong and resonant movement, that 
caught the youthful fervour of Mr. Francis Os- 
baldistone, and gave occasion for his father's 
scathing criticism of his poetical achievement, and 
his denunciation of verse-making as a " beggarly 
trade ' (' Rob Roy,' chap. ii.). THOMAS BAYNE. 
Helenaburgh, N.B. 

LE DESPENCER (8 th S. vii. 428, 513 ; viii. 74). 
See ' Three Branches of the Family of Wentworth/ 
by W. L. Rutton, p. 2. Philip was son to Hugh 
the elder, but there were, from father to son, no 
fewer than four of these Sir Philips. There is 
thus no Wentworth descent from Edward I. 


THE VICTORIA CROSS (8 th S. vii. 448, 498; 
viii. 31). A reference to Mr. T. E. Toomey's 
recently published ' Heroes of the Victoria Cross ' 
(Newnes) would have obviated the necessity of 
J.^B. S.'s query. No woman ever received the 
Victoria Cross. The decoration which Mrs. Grim- 
wood personally received from the Queen was the 
Royal Red Cross, which was instituted with the 
primary object of rewarding ladies who had done 
good work in the nursing service. Mrs. Grim- 
wood wears this decoration in the portrait which 
is prefixed to her book on Manipur. 


Your correspondent J. B. S. was led, probably, 
into supposing that the Victoria Cross was given 
in 1891 to the lady who was then Mrs. Grimwood 

by the fact thatja suggestion to that effect was 
made by an M.P. in the.House of Commons. 


LORD MORDATJNT (8 th S. vii. 488 ; viii. 49). 
I was mistaken in ascribing the lines on Lord 
Peterborough to Pope. I find they were written 
by Swift. KATHLEEN WARD. , 

ANCIENT MASONS' MARKS (8 th S. vii. 208, 334, 
416 ; viii. 18). In the Reliquary for January, 
1871, will be found a plate giving sixty-five 
different examples of the masons' marks to be 
found in and about Strasburg Cathedral. They 
are an interesting collection No. 39 bearing a 
strong resemblance to the insignia of the Isle of 

Urmston, Manchester. 

Your correspondent A. H. A. will find much to 
interest him in a paper on masons' marks, con- 
tributed by Mr. W. H. Ry lands, F.S.A., to the 
Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire, vol. vii. N. S. ; also in the Trans- 
actions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Free- 
masons. TERRY BANK. 

Some masons' marks from Persia are given in 
King's ' Gnostics,' first edition, p. 229. A large 
number are given in the book referred to by JNO. 
H., the title of which is "Facts about Pompeii : 
its Masons' Marks, Town Walls, Houses, and Por- 
traits. With a complete list of all the Mason's 
Marks cut in the Stones." Another collection 
from Early Norman in Jedburgh Abbey, and other 
places, down to the end of the fifteenth century, is 
2[iven in 'History of Freemasonry in Roxburgh 
and Selkirk,' London, George Kenning. 


S. vii. 467 ; viii. 11). Darling's bibliography is 
not within my reach, but at a venture I contribute 
.he following. Neither of these seems to have 
jeen intended to support any theory : 

"A Translation of the New Testament, by Gilbert 
iVakcfield, B.A. The second edition, with improvements. 
~n two volumes. London, printed by A. Hamilton for 
George Kearsley. No. 46, Fleet Street. 1795." 

"The New Testament; or, the Book of the Holy 
} ospol of our Lord and our God, Jesus the Messiah. A 
iteral translation from the Syriac Peshito Version. By 
Tames Murdock, D.D. New York, Robert Carter & 
Brothers, No. 530, Broadway. 1879." 

F. J. P. 

Boston, Mass. 

LEATHER DRINKING JACKS (8 th S. vii. 249, 312, 
95, 437, 475, 518). I am glad to know of the 
ne Cromwellian jack described by MR. ARTHUR 
r icARS. I have also heard that another, once 
>elonging to Cromwell, and apparently very 
imilar to the above, is in the possession of the 



a. vm. A. 3, 


Duke of Manchester. A friend also tells me that 
he saw at Sudeley Castle, Gloucester, two black 
jacks, one foot ten inches high, lipped with silver, 
and inscribed " Cromwell, L. Protector of England." 
I have heard, but have not yet verified the state- 
ment, that when the first Duke of Wellington was 
Constable at the Tower he turned out a large 
number of black jacks and other relics, which 
were sold as lumber. 

As to the size of leather bottles, they were, I 
think, always in set sizes, holding a full measure. 
I notice that the letters I have most frequently 
seen on them are I. S., stamped three times, which 
I take to be the initials of an important maker. 


Gough Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

NEEDLEWORK SAMPLERS (8 th S. vii. 409,513). 
The correct reading of A. W. D.'e quotation is : 

Now have skirts, and minds, grown ampler; 

Now not all they seek to do 
Is create upon a sampler 

Beaats which Buff on never knew. 

I have a copy of the book, in which the following 
note is added on the tight dress which after a time 
succeeded crinoline : 

Now if minds be, skirts are not so 

Whose fair wearers can't ascend 
Hansom cabs, their skirts have got so 

Tight about their lower end. 

This I happen to know was based on an actual 
fact. A young lady was seen to hail a cab in 
London streets, and after struggling in vain, right 
foot first, and left foot first, to get into it, she gave 
the driver a shilling, and said, " Thank you, I don't 
want you." C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

Maid of the village inn 

Who workest woe on satin, 
(The grass in black, the graves in green, 

The epitaph in Latin). 

This verse is from 'The Poet's Lot, 1 by 0. W. 
Holmes, and may be of interest to L. M. 


Lisburn, co. Antrim. 

There is a delightful poem entitled 'On a 
Sampler,' by Reginald Holder, in the English 
Illustrated Magazine for August, 1894. 


Moorcroft, Totnes. 

See Calverley's third Charade, in 'Verses and 
Fly-leaves.' Answer, "Outlaw." 

W. G. F. P. 

"GAVEL" (8 th S. viii. 29, 58). The following 
passage is from Bartlett's 'Dictionary of Ame- 

" Gavel. A small mallet used by a chairman or pre- 
siding officer to attract attention and preserve order. 
It is used by our legislative bodies, but originated, |pro- 

bably, with the Free-Masons. Mr. Paton says, ' The 
name of gavel is derived from the German gipfd, a peak, 
from which also comes the same term applied to the end 
of a house, the gavel or gable, running up to a point at 
the summit, the form in the one case and in the other 
being somewhat similar.' ' Free-Masonry, its Symbol- 
ism/ &c. (London, 1873)." 

For derivation cf. Prof, Skeat's 'Etymological 
Dictionary.' F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

The 'N. E. D.' would be less serviceable than 
usual if referred to for "gavel." Webster-Mann 
and the ' Encyclopaedic Dictionary ' give the word 
as meaning a hammer, and the latter book adds, 
cautiously, " etymology doubtful." 



Annandale, in his ' Imperial Dictionary,' de- 
scribes it as a small mallet used by the president 
of a legislative or public assembly to attract atten- 
tion and preserve order. A former correspondent 
of ' N. & Q.' (3 rd S. xi. 417), so long ago as May, 
1867, required an illustration of " gavel " = mallet, 
but no reply followed. 

71, Brecknock Eoad. 

SIBYL (8 th S. v. 425 ; vi. 158, 438 j vii. 351 ; 
viii. 12). It would be interesting to know MR. E. 
WALFORD'S grounds for the positive statement 
that Sibyl is derived from crtos (i.e., Sios) /3ovA^, 
"the counsel of Jove." Dr. Charnock('Prsenomina,' 
1882) says, "Sybil, an old name corrupted from 
Isabella," and "Sibill, another spelling of Sybil" 
he does not give Sibyl. But Dr. Charnock's 
derivations often seem to be of the weakest. 



See Max Miiller's ' Lectures on the Science of 
Language,' i. 109, ed. 1871. 


"CANTANKEROUS" (8 th S. viii. 9). Your refer- 
ence to the ' N. E. D.' is, for all practical purposes, 
probably sufficient to satisfy MR. PICKFORD'S 
aspirations as to this word. Nevertheless, the 
following, from the ' Slang Dictionary,' may not be 
without interest to that gentleman and others : 

" Cantankerous, litigious, bad-tempered. An American 
corruption, probably, of contentious. ^ Afreviewer of an 
early edition of this book derives it from the Anglo- 
Norman contek, litigation or strife. Others have sug- 
gested 'cankerous' as the origin. Bailey has conteke, 
contention, as a Spenserian word, and there is the O.E. 
contekors, quarrelsome persons." P. 108, ed. 1873. 

The ' Encyclopaedic Dictionary,' while doubtful 
as to the etymology of the word, favours contek, 
mentioned in the above, as a possible origin. 

C. P. HALE. 

LODGERS (8 th S. vii. 309, 439, 519). MR. MAR- 
SHALL'S inquiry does not seem to be conclusively 

VIII. AUG. 3, '95.] 



answered. Therefore, while myself unable to d 
this, I may be allowed to say where particular 
can be found. Some twelve years ago a Eoya 
Commission gathered facts about the housing, &c. 
of the London poor. Among the evidence obtainei 
was that of the "good" Earl of Shaftesbury, wh 
had himself seen the five families in one room 
That, at least, is my remembrance. The minute 
of the Commission could probably be found anc 
searched in the British Museum. 


MASSINGER (8 th S. vii. 484 ; viii. 3). Messenge: 
is a rather common name in these parts. I hav< 
thought it possibly a corruption by assimilation o: 
Missenden, a surname of local origin. Messer 
also occurs as a surname, but imported, I think 
from Norfolk. I cannot think that Mass singer 
would change to M&singer by passing from mouth 
to mouth. T. WILSON. 


Let me cite the following passage from Shak- 
spere as parallel to the "puddings in their bellies" 
in Massinger's 'City Madam.' Prince Henry, 
addressing Falstaff, says : 

" That roasted Manningtree ox with the pudding in 
his belly, that reverend vice, that grey iniquity, that 
father ruffian, that vanity in years."! King Henry IV 
II. iv. 


Newbourne Kectory, Woodbridge. 

I would like to take this opportunity to say a 
few last words on the debated question whether 
Massinger was buried in the churchyard or in 
the church of St. Saviour's. Notwithstanding the 
positive and precise statements of Wood in favour 
of the churchyard, I have been furnished by the 
rector with evidence which seems to settle beyond 
all cavil that Wood was mistaken. 

Dr. Thompson has been kind enough to send 
me a tracing of the entry taken from the parochial 
monthly accounts, which were kept by the sexton, 
and periodically examined by the wardens, and are, 
he says, generally more complete than the burial 
registers. This entry runs: "Burials in March, 
1639. Philip Massenger stranger in ye church, 
21." meaning that he was not a parishioner, and 
that the expenses of the burial amounted to 21. 

There is evidence to show that " in the church " 
meant buried in the church, for in other entries 
where a similar expression is used, the particular 
part of the church is stated where the body is 
interred. This is not the only discovery made by 
Dr. Thompson connected with the birth and death 
of Massinger, and it is much to be desired that he 
will give the result of his researches to this journal 
in his own words. J. j. g. 

(8* h S. viii 26). It does not appear that Prof. 

Blackie meant to exalt Scott as a poet above 
Milton ; but if he had done so he might have 
quoted Matthew Arnold's saying 

Not deep the poet sees, but wide, 
in justification of his opinion. Whether we regard 
Scott or Milton as the greater name in literature 
depends upon whether we consider sublimity or 
breadth of vision the greater gift, and only as a 
test of the relative importance of these has the 
question any interest. Milton's greatest achieve- 
ment, I take it, and that for which we are most in 
his debt, is the picture of his own sublime courage 
in daring and suffering which he presents to us in 
his Satan and his Christ ; in the former as 

The unconquerable will, 
And study of revenge, immortal hate, 
And courage never to submit or yield, 
And what is else not to be overcome ; 
in the latter in the attitude he opposes to tempta- 

Who best 

Can suffer, best can do ; best reign, who first 
Well hath obey'd; 

and I doubt whether all that Scott has given us 
amounts to so much as this. C. C. B. 

" CHUM" (8 th S. vii. 304, 474, 514 ; viii. 50). 
I cannot reply at length to the objections at the 
last reference, for want of space. 

CANON TAYLOR mixes up sounds with symbols. I 
do not believe that the Latin H, P, and F were "ori- 
ginally pronounced " like eta, rho, and digamma. 
tt is true that the Latin -sound was denoted by a 
symbol which in Greek meant the g in go. But 
>his is a different question. Similarly, a High- 
ander misapprehends the sound of the English 
good, and if asked to spell it phonetically would 
irobably write down coot. That the Latin c had 
ihe /.--sound is proved by its coincidence with the 
original Aryan k. See Brugmann, 'Elements of 
he Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic 
Languages,' sect. 387. 

MR. JAMES PLATT talks of a thing to which I 
made no allusion. I was speaking of the sound of 
h in chum, and he refers me to the Spanish j. But 
he Spanish j represents a guttural sound, quite 
lifferent from that of soft g. I suppose the argu- 
ment is that the Spanish j had, once upon a time, 
he sound of soft g. But I do not suppose that 
he change from this sound to that of the modern 
ipanish j is an instance of ordinary phonetic 
ecay. It is much more likely to have been due to 
Moorish influence, and to the confusion between 
ounds and symbols caused by the concurrent use 
f a Semitic and a Romance language within the 
'panish peninsula. How did a Moor pronounce 
eloj ? 

E. L. G. refers me to the fact that " at Rouen 
hand and chien became kaud and Jcien." It was 
ust the other way. The &-sound of the Lat. cali- 
um was preserved in the Norman kaud, though it 


s. vm. A. V9. 

became chaud elsewhere. The case otkien presents 
quite a crucial point. The old Norman for " dog " 
was simply ken, from Lat. can-em, both pronounced 
with the fc-sound. This old form is preserved in 
Eng. kennet, a little dog, and kennel, a dog-house. 
In later French an i was introduced, giving the 
form kien. This palatalized the k, giving it a 
tendency to turn into the ch in chum. In Nor- 
mandy it remained kien still; but elsewhere it 
turned into chien (with ch as in chum). Lastly, 
the Old French ch, as preserved in Eng. chamber, 
change, &c., became the mod. French ch, which 
resembles the Eng. ch in French words borrowed 
in quite recent times, such as chandelier. 

E. L. G. speaks of ch as a " double consonant " ! 
It is a simple sound, denoted by two consonantal 
symbols ; compare Eng. th, wh, Welsh rh, &c. 

As to chommoda in Plautus, surely ch had its 
usual Latin meaning, as in character, Charon, &c. 
i. e., the sound was guttural. 


CHANGELINGS (8 th S. vii. 428, 494). The 
details of the Tipperary witch case may not have 
reached MB. HANDY across the Atlantic. The 
shocking story may be briefly chronicled in 
' N. & Q.' for the benefit of future folk-lorists and 
others interested in the survival of superstitious 
beliefs and practices. MR. HANDY seeks con- 
temporary evidence of a belief in changelings ; he 
will be amazed to learn that in this year of grace 
1895 an adult was actually believed to have been 
possessed with fairies, and the old-time pyromantic 
test tragically applied. On March 16 Bridget 
Cleary was barbarously roasted to death at Bally- 
vadlea, near Clonmel, co. Tipperary, by her 
husband, in the presence of several neighbours 
and friends, some of whom stood impassively by 
while others co-operated in the brutal incantations 
and drivings out, presumably under the belief tha 
she was possessed with fairies. After her death 
her husband stated that the fairies had gone 
the chimney, and that on the following Sunda; 
night he would go to Eilnagranagh Fort, where he 
would see her riding a white horse, and be said h 
would bring a knife to cut the straps with, an< 
rescue her from the fairies. He afterwards seem 
to have repented, for he put the blame on another 
" She's burned now, and God knows I would neve 
do it but for Jack Dunne. It was he told me m 
wife was a fairy." I excerpt portion of Mr. Justic 
O'Brien's charge to the jury : 

" She lived in a part of this county, it appears, in th 
house with her husband and her father, who is a ma 
named Patrick Boland. She had been married severe 
years, and had no family, and, for some cause or anothe 
her husband, a person named Michael Cleary, conceive 
the idea that his wife was under some preternatur 
influence which led to a transposition of her identit 
that, in fact, she was not his wife, but a witch, and fro: 
some idea that subsisted in his own mind, or on the ev 
instigation of some, or the foolish instigation of other 

e appears to have conceived and attained the idea of 
dopting means, as I have said, partly by a combination 
f medicinal administration of charms and incantations, 
nd the use of sacred names, to restore his own wife to 
hat he supposed to be her original condition, and 
nvited to his house a considerable number of his rela- 
ons and immediate neighbours ; and it appears almost 
icredible that there should be such a degree of humaa 
elusion, as that so many persons, not incapable of 
motions of pity or sympathy with suffering, should 
ctually have been present when the extraordinary facts 
lat will be related to you happened, and which ended 
n this woman's life being taken away." 


WRAXALL (8 th S. v. 367, vii. 312). There is yet 
nother Wroxall, a station on the railway between 
bis town and Shanklin. E. WALFORD. 


THE SCRATCH-BACK (8 th S. vi. 67, 156). 
)avies's ' Supplementary Glossary ' gives as variant 
names for this little instrument "back-scraper" and 
'back-scratcher." In the description of the 
nstrument reference is made to the 'Book of 
Days'; but Mr. Davies gives two quotations as 
.uthorities ; for the former term one from Wol- 
;ot's 'Peter Pindar,' p. 228, and for "back- 
icratcher " Southey's 'The Doctor,' chap. iv. 

C. P. HALE. 

COEUR DE LION (8 th S. vii. 167, 313). Many 
fears ago, when a little boy, I can remember read- 
ng the account of Richard I. plucking out the 
ion's heart, to which beast he had been exposed 
ay the Duke of Austria for killing his son, in the 
'Romance of History,' by Henry Neele, a book 
which had at that time an absorbing interest for 
me. The work was in three volumes, was illus- 
trated, and contained a story, founded either on 
legend or historical tradition, on every monarch's 
reign from William the Conqueror to Charles I. 
The author died, I think, in 1829. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

7, 132, 196, 234, 349, 430; viii. 14). In order to 
find out the proper pronunciation of Witham and 
Grantham you must find out their meaning and 

1. The river Witham takes its name from a place 
called Witham, about nine miles north-eastof Grant- 
ham. The word Witham is compounded of two Saxon 
words, wit , whit, or white, and ham, a settlement. 
The place ought to be pronounced Wit-ham, but 
as a matter of fact all local people pronounce it 
With- am. Of course, to call a river a " white settle- 
ment" is absurd, and it is obvious that it must 
have had a different name in the time of the Celts. 

2. I believe that all archaeologists are now agreed 
that the Celtic name of the river Witham was the 
Granta, and that Grantham received its name 

3 s " 8. VIII. AUG. 3, '95.] 



from the Saxons through that circumstance 
Granta-ham, the settlement on the Granta. 
This is so well acknowledged that all educated 
people call the place Grant-ham ; though formerly 
all local people, to my knowledge, pronounced the 
place Gran-tfaam. 

Salina, the " salt way," may be traced all the 
way from the salt mines in the West of England 
to the east coast near Boston. 

Among other places it crosses the Avon at 
Warwick at Saltersford ; it crosses the Leicester- 
shire heath at Saltby, where there is a consider- 
able Roman encampment ; in many parishes of 
Leicestershire and Lincolnshire pieces of it exist 
which are always called " the Saltway "; it crosses 
the Witham between Grantham and Little Ponton 
at the Saltersford, and from there it passes due 
east near to Boston along a road which I believe 
is never called " the Saltway," but along which 
local tradition says that the Romans used to carry 
their salt on pack-horses. GKO. SILLS. 

The Temple, B.C. 

In Essex the aborigines would resent the pro- 
nunciation of Witham as With-am, always pro- 
nouncing it Wit-am, and certainly if pronounced 
in the former way the point of the joke would be 
lost, as stupid people are bidden to go to Wit-am 
to get brains. But at Boston the river flowing 
through the town is always called the With-am, 
and so is the name of the ancient line of Witham, 
of Lartington Hall, near Barnard Castle. In York- 
shire the name of the little town of Masham is 
always pronounced Mas-sam, and many people 
persistently call Sir John Johnstone, Sir John 
Johnson. People in the neighbourhood of Oxford 
always call Charlton-on-Otmore Chorlton ; and in 
Suffolk Martlesbam becomes Martlesome, and 
Bucklesham, Bucklesome. Pronunciation, like 
superstition, dies hard, if it ever will be altered, 

'Twas throwing words away ; for still 
The little maid would have her will 
And said, " Nay, we are seven." 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

May I correct, under this heading, an error of 
the pen which may have puzzled C. C. B. ? The 
words printed on p. 15, col. 1, 1. 20, " Grantham 
and Witham " should be Grantham and Waltham. 
It was with regard to these two place-names 
that I was unwilling to dispute the fact that 
the transformation occasioned by blending the 
preceding t with ham was in Lincolnshire shared 
in by the natives, while with regard to Witham 
I could confidently assert that it was. MR. 
PEACOCK'S note is most interesting, as he can 
not only answer for the different pronunciation of 
Grantham and Waltbam at a not distant date, 
but can bear witness to changes that have taken 
place under his own ears, including the sad fate 

of Elsham, with its ham adjoining s a common 
matter elsewhere, but so rare in Lincolnshire that 
I thought the place might have escaped. And he 
shows us how it came to pass. The new curate 
arrives from the South, or the new schoolmaster 
from the North, or the new squire from nowhere, 
and the unfortunate natives are told that they do not 
know their own names. Finally comes the branch 
line, bringing with other blessings the bountiful 
language of Bond Street, and the mother-speech 
is bullied oat of existence. KILLIGREW. 

A fact, though a small one, may be of use. In 
Rothamsted, a manor in this parish, the t is 
always pronounced apart from the h. The first 
syllable is Rot. I believe railways have a con- 
servative or restorative effect on place-names. 
This parish is still called by some old people 
Harding, and there is a Harden Dells on the 
map a few miles off. Literary porters from a dis- 

tance read and pronounce 


every syllable in 

CHTTRCH REGISTERS (8 th S. vii. 382 ; viii. 13,56). 
I am thoroughly aware of what parish registers 
have been printed in the Register Section of the 
Harleian Society and elsewhere, all which is very 
creditable and useful, but a Parish Register Society, 
which, I take it, would be entirely devoted to 
transcribing and printing parish registers, ought to 
print more than twenty-two volumes in eighteen 
years. Three or four such societies, even, would 
not be too many to take the matter in hand when 
it is considered that there are upwards of ten 
thousand parishes, with registers commencing at 
varying dates. 

I am in very great hopes that such a society will 
shortly be formed, and I should be glad to receive 
promises of help in so doing from any one inter- 

ested in the matter. 
172, Edmund Street, Birmingham. 

E. A. FBY. 

SIR ANDREW PASCHALL (8 th S. viii. 8). Since 
sending the query about him, I have found in the 
'Visit, of Essex, 1612,' that the Pascall family 
belonged to Much Baddow, and that Sir Andrew 
Pascall, of Springfilde, Enight, was son of Andrew 
Pascall, of the same place, and that the knight 
married Mary, daughter of Wm. Glascocke, of 
Dunmow, Esq. His marriage with Mercye Bonest 
is omitted, which was solemnized in Albury 
Church, Herts. A marriage licence was granted 
by the Bishop of London in 1577, to a man named 
Bownest or Bonest, of Little Hormead, to Marciam 
Cooke, of Great Chishall; and in 1597 Margary 
Boneste, of Layston, daughter of John Boneste, 
yeoman, and Nicolas Dyer, yeoman, were granted 
a general licence. Can it be that Sir Andrew 
Pascall's family deemed his match with Mercye 
Bonest unsuitable ? There are no registers belong- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a s. vm. A. 3, 


ing to Springfield before 1653. Edward and 
M. A. Paschall were buried at Springfield, one in 
1679, the latter in 1684. I still wish to ascertain 
what position was held by Sir Andrew Paschall, 
and why he was knighted. M.A.Oxon. 

He was of Springfield, in Essex, and received 
knighthood at Whitehall July 23, 1603, having 
matriculated from Exeter College, Oxford, Dec. 3, 
1575, aged fourteen. His pedigree is given in the 
Visitation of Essex, 1612 (Harl. Soc. Vol.). His 
marriage in 1615 must have been to a second wife. 
His first wife was Mary, daughter of William 
Glasscocke, of Danmow, in Essex. 

W. D. PINK. 

He was only son and heir to Andrew Pascal), 
of Springfield, co. Essex, gent., by Jane, his wife, 
daughter to John Pinchon, of Writtle, in the same 
county, Esq. He succeeded his father at Spring- 
field, and married Mary, daughter to William 
Glascocke, of Dunmow, Essex, Esq., by whom he 
had at least four sons. He was knighted at White- 
hall, July 23, 1603, before the coronation of 
James I. ('Visitation of Essex, 1612,' Harl. Soc., 
xiii. 260; Morant, ii. 18; Metcalfe's ' Knights.') 


27). Philip Champion de Crespigny, buried in 
1765, although he lived in Camberwell, in the 
family vault at Marylebone, was the refugee's 
eldest grandson. His wife Ann, nee Fonnereau, 
died in 1782. His daughter Ann died at a date 
unknown, the wife or widow of James Vernon, 
her second husband. Who, then, was the Anne 
stated to have been buried at Marylebone on 
January 22, 1837 ? Was she one of the children 
of Philip Champion de Crespigny, the member for 
Sudbury, by his third wife, Clarissa Brooke, 
whom he had married at Marylebone, July 1, 1774? 
Let me add that I should be very glad to learn the 
dates of marriage and of death of this worthy's 
first wife, Sarah Cocksedge, and still more the 
names and parentage, as well as life-dates, of the 
second wife. H. W. 

New Univ. Club. 

Entries in Thomas Smith's ' Topographical and 
Historical Account of the Parish of St. Mary-le- 
Bone,' 1833, record (p. 81) the existence in 
St. Marylebone churchyard of monumental in- 
scriptions commemorating Claudius de Crespigny, 
Esq. (died 1695), a French refugee ; Maria de 
Vierville, his wife, who died in 1708 ; and Betsey 
Crespigny (ob. 1772), wife of Philip Champion 

TIP-CAT (8> S. vii. 287, 331, 375). No doubt 
this is a very old game for boys, and attended 
with some danger when played, as it often used to 
be, in the streets. Many years ago, perhaps thirty, 
I can remember a drawing in Punch representing 

an old gentleman almost covered with tip-cats 
3ying about in every direction, and so far as can 
be recollected it was called the ' Cat Nuisance.' 
John Bunyan has left it on record that he 
received a solemn warning when playing at tip- cat 
on Sunday at Elstow, near Bedford. Perhaps 
the date of this occurrence might be 1650. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

COCK-FIGHTING (8 th S. vii. 288, 338, 473 ; viii. 
38.) At the penultimate reference MB. PICK- 
FORD states that ' Jack Mordaunt's Cock-fight ' was 
painted for Warren Hastings, that it was purchased 
at the sale at Daylesford House, near Over Norton, 
and that it now forms part of the collection of his 
friend Lieut.-Col. Dawkins at Over Norton House. 

On October 24, 1885, MR. PICKFORD, in 
6 th S. xii. 325, favoured us with an extract from 
Once a Week (x. 404), published April 2, 1864, 
from which it appears that 

Zoffany'g picture of Col. Mordaunt's cock-match, which 
came off at Lucknow in 1786, was painted in the East, 
being a commission for Governor Hastings. It was 
shipped for England, but the ship was wrecked and th e 
picture lost." 

It is further recorded that Zoffany, from sketches 
in his possession, painted another picture of the 
cock-fight, and " Governor Hastings was never let 
into the secret." If, then, this be the picture now 
at Over Norton House, it will not be without 
interest to inquire whether the cock-fight originally 
painted by Zoffany for Warren Hastings, which 
was lost at sea, was an original or a replica. 

Enjoying a very handsome salary as Court 
painter, Zoffany lived for several years at Luck- 
now during the reign of Asaf-ood-Dowlah, who in 
1775 succeeded his father Shujah-ood-Dowlah 
as fourth Nawab of Oudh, and third Vazeer of 
the Empire of Delhi, and who died in 1797. 

The original of the picture of the fight between 
the cocks belonging to Asaf-ood-Dowlah and to 
Col. Mordannt was painted by Zoffany for his 
royal patron, and until A.D. 1857 was carefully 
preserved in one of the palaces at Lncknow of the 
Nawab Vazeers (subsequently the kings) of 
Oudh ; but during the Mutiny it, with many 
others of great value, was ruthlessly destroyed. 

It was of large size, and the grouping of the 
many figures was masterly. The Nawab Vazeer 
Asaf-ood-Dowlah, the Nawab Salar Jung, CoL 
Mordaunt, Col. Claud Martin (afterwards General, 
the founder of the Martinier Colleges at Lueknow, 
Calcutta, and Lyons), Zoffany, the artist, and 
several European and native officials occupied the 
foreground, whilst nautch girls, musicians, and 
attendants completed this very striking scene. 

Warren Hastings arrived at Lueknow on his 
only visit on March 27, 1784, and remained there 
for five months. He left India finally on 
February 8, 1785. 

. VIII. Am. 3, '95.] 



If then, as stated above, the cock-fight came of 
in 1786, the Governor-General could not have 
seen Zoffany's picture of that event, and assuredly 
therefore, the writer in Once a Week should have 
antedated it. It is probable that the match took place 
some short time previous to the visit of Hastings to 
Lucknow, and that on seeing the picture when in 
progress, or when completed, he ordered the 
replica which was lost on its way to England. 

A coloured lithograph of, as well as an engravec 
key to, the original picture was published. The 
key, bearing the names of Laurie & Whittle, is 
dated London, May 12, 1794. 

In 1853 reduced copies in water colours ol 
Zoffany's ' Cock-fight,' and of other very interest- 
ing historical paintings forming part of the col 
lections in the Kaiser Bagh and Chutter Mnnzil 
palaces, were made (under the special permission 
of H.M. Wajid Ullee Shah, the last King of 
Oudh) by Masauwar Khan, Court miniature 
painter, for an officer then serving on political 
employ at Lucknow, and they have since remained 
uninterruptedly in his possession. The originals 
having perished, these drawings are believed to be 

It is almost unnecessary to supplement the 
interesting note by MR. PICKFORD by reminding 
your readers that Warren Hastings, after his im- 
peachment, resided for many years at Daylesford, 
dying there at a good old age on August 22, 1818. 

I am ignorant of the history of Col. Mordaunt, 
and should welcome any information regarding 
him. W. KILBRIDE. 

viii. 48). This was a well - known axiom more 
than fifty years ago : "If you want to understand 
a subject, write a book about it." My late uncle, 
Prof. Bell, of King's College, London, and of Sel- 
borne, used frequently to quote it and say he had 
found its truth. I can fix the date when I first 
heard him use it : it was on the occasion of my 
going to college, October, 1844. 


Basingfield, Baaingstoke. 

Almost identical with the drift of this saying 
was the answer of Dr. Whately to a friend at 
Oxford, who complained to him that he could not 
understand logic, and that he must take a tutor 
or "coach." "Take a coach?" was Whately's 
reply ; " take a pupil." In both cases the meaning 
was the same, namely, docendo disdmus. 


CAPTAIN - LIEUTENANT (8 th S. vii. 467 ; viii. 
56). With regard to the question raised in the 
last of the replies at the latter reference, the title 
of captain-lieutenant has nothing in common with 
that of lieutenant-and-captain formerly in use in 
the Guards. The former was the title of a senior 
lieutenant in actual command of a company, the 

nominal commander of which was precluded from 
exercising the command by having other functions 
to discharge, those, for instance, of the colonel of 
the regiment. The latter was due to a distinction 
conferred for special reasons on all lieutenants of 
the Guards by William III. in 1691. It was in 
accordance with the distinction conferred by 
James II. on captains of the Guards in 1687, that 
of ranking as lieutenant-colonels, for which addi- 
tional reasons existed. In accordance with both, 
but by reason only of the gallantry of the Guards 
at Waterloo, their ensigns received from the Prince 
Regent in 1815 the distinction of ranking as 
lieutenants. All these distinctions were abolished 
in 1871 for officers thenceforward entering the 
service. KILLIGREW. 

"GALLETT" (8 th S. viii. 8). Your correspond- 
ent's extract from the Birmingham, Daily Mail 
concerning this singular term will doubtless arouse 
much curiosity as to its origin. The excerpt, on 
the whole, is decidedly interesting. My only 
regret is that it did not go further, and explain 
the origin of the name a regret which, I am sure, 
will be shared by many other readers of your 
interesting columns. To me the name is wholly 
strange ; but there is a word in Wright's ' Pro- 
vincial Dictionary ' which appears singularly sug- 
gestive to wit, gallier, a fight, romping. This, 
Wright declares, has a vogue in the West. I shall 
await with eagerness to learn what some of your 
correspondents have to say with regard to the 
Birmingham term. C. P. HALE. 

The " king of the sloggers," to hold that position, 
must be a gallant man, in the sense of being brave, 
and therefore gallett = gallant, brave and plucky. 
Gallett is a pronunciation of "gallant " peculiar 
to the class whence sloggers spring, and I used 
to hear the word in connexion with schoolboys of 
daring character, and a shade pluckier than the 
rest. It is a question, however, whether the 
slogger king and his subjects would be aware that 
their gallett stands for our "gallant." 


JOSEPH OR JOSIAS MILLER (8 th S. viii. 25). A 
copy of, I think, the first edition of ' Joe Miller/ 
ihained to its niche, can be seen at the Reform 
Club, Pall MalL The jests are in many instances 
grossly indecent. W. J. F. 

Garrick Club, W.C. 

DRYDEN AND GREEK (8 th S. vii. 386, 451 ; viii. 
14). In my reply to MR. W. T. LYNN my main 
object was to give readers of ' N. & Q.' who might 
not know a clue to the scansion of the line in 
Religio Laici.' Unless I much misunderstood 
MR. LYNN, he was under the impression that 
Dryden could not have written eiprfKa because 
he line would thus have been unmetrical. I 
>elieve I have given evidence to show that, accord- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. A. 3, '95. 

ing to the pronunciation of the word as known to 
Dryden, the line is metrical with fvprjKa. 

I went too far in affirming positively that the 
error was not Dryden's. I forgot that one result 
of pronunciation by accent would be an indiffer- 
ence, even in some fairly good scholars, to the 
distinction between long and short vowels. 

D. 0. T. 

In D. C. T.'s note on this subject a most amusing 
blunder is made in deriving toko from Gr. TOKOS. 
The word is really the imperative of the Hindi 
word tokna, to hammer ; and to " give toko to " 
means to give a sound hammering or drubbing 
to. The word was no doubt brought to England 
from the East by our soldiers and sailors who had 
served there. MELANCTHON MADVIG. 

[See ' Toko for Yam,' 6 th S. i. 455 ; ii. 56, 277.] 

" DICTATE" (8 th S. vii. 247). 

Or shall I say, Vain word, false thought, 
Since Prudence bath her martyrs too, 
And Wisdom dictates not to do, 
Till doing shall be not for nought 1 

Arthur Hugh Clough, ' Alteram Partem,' 1849. 

M. 0. HALLKT. 

A DUMB BELL (8 tb S. vii. 507). The dumb 
bell has already been described in 'N. & Q.'; see 
2 nd S. xii. 45 ; 7 th S. vi. 282, and references given 
to the works of Addison and Franklin, both 
describing a machine similar to MB. FERGUSON'S, 
but for the object of bodily exercise. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

PARISH CHARITIES (8 th S. viii. 27). There are 
numberless cases in old churches, and used to be 
many more, of such inscriptions as A. 0. W. 
speaks of. It is true that they are seldom, if ever, 
placed now ; but if A. 0. W. will think, he will 
see that where a custom of the kind depends on 
the good will and pleasure of many persons quite 
unconnected with each other, it could not be 
possible to fix a date for its ceasing, unless it had 
been forbidden by some authority. All that 
could be done would be to state which could 
hardly be done with any approach to certainty 
that cases are not found after such a date. A 
man could only guess with more or less accuracy 
according to the number of churches that he 
knows. I should guess that there are not many 
cases after A. C. W.'s later date. I speak, of 
course, as I suppose he does, of records of gifts or 
bequests concerning the parish as distinct from 
the church. Inscriptions concerning the latter are 
still, and will be, common. 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

There is nothing singular in the inscription in 
St. Mary's, Paddington, recording its parochia 
benefactions. Whatever may be the case now 

well recollect that when I was a boy most of the 
hurcbes in and round London and in my native 
Sssex contained such records, generally painted on 
lanels, either in front of the gallery or on the 
rails of the nave or aisles. Probably they are 
now relegated, for the most part, to the lower walls 
f the tower or belfry. E. WALFORD. 


These laudatory announcements of benefactions 
were quite common in the seventeenth and eight- 
eenth centuries. Against them the iconoclastic 
eal of the early Tractarian " restorers " of churches 
was mercilessly directed. One such was set up in 
St. Clement's Church, Hastings, in 1721. A 
good many must still be about on the walls of 
unrestored" churches. 


Almost every old church has its board, either in 
he tower or some other part of the church, giving 
. list of "Benefactions to the parish," and from 
uch notice lost charities have been recovered to a 

Wingham, Kent. 

CHIFFINCH (8 th S. viii. 28). Is not the allusion 
o William Chiffinch, whom Scott, in ' Peveril of 
he Peak' (ch. xxvii.), calls "the well-known 
minister of Charles's pleasures " ? He succeeded 
iis brother Thomas as one of the Pages of His 
Majesty's Bedchamber and Keeper of his Private 
"loaet. "Tom Cheffins" is mentioned in Pepys's 
' Diary ' as having died on April 8, 1666. 


William Chiffinch was a Page in the Court of 
Charles II., and was disreputably concerned in 
many of that respectable monarch's disreputable 
intrigues. He is often mentioned in Pepys's 
' Diary '; also in ' Peveril of the Peak.' 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

This, surely, is the name of a courtier much 
engaged in backstairs duties for Charles II. and 
well known to readers of ' Peveril of the Peak.' 


This is the name of an odious character in 
Scott's ' Peveril of the Peak.' ST. SWITHIN. 

(8 th S. viii. 27). MR. C. MASON should consult 
' The Royal Kalendar ; or, Correct Annual 
Register for England, Scotland, and Ireland,' 
published at first by J. Almon, afterwards by J. 
Debrett. This publication began in 1767, is in 
progress, and can be seen at the British Museum. 
The volume for 1796 is, or recently was, missing. 

For earlier years E. Chamberlayne's ' Angliae 
Notitia,' 1669-1702 ; ' Angliae Notitia,' continued 

g* 8 . viii. AUO. 3, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


by J. Chamberlayne, 1704-7 ; J. Chamberlayne'a 
1 Magnae Britannia* Notitia,' 1708-55 ; J. Wat- 
son's ' Court Kalendar,' 1733-48 ; and J. Cooper's 
' Court and City Register,' 1742-1806, may be 
referred to. Particulars of the kind required are 
given in these books, which are to be seen at the 
British Museum. E. G. CLAYTON. 


MR. MASON will find lists of the Pages of the 
Bedchamber in Chamberlayne's ' Magnae Britanniae 


The world is wide, these things are small, &c. 
Refrain of a poem entitled ' Moments,' in ' Poems of 
Sentiment and Reflection,' by Monckton Milne*, first 
Lord Houghton. V. S. L. 

(8 th S. vii. 469.) 

Res misera medicus eat cui nunquam bene eat, 
Nisi quum male sit cum caeteris. 
This is traceable apparently at last to the lines : 
Tie ianv ovroe ; iarpoc. wf KOLKWC ex" 
airac iarpof, dv KUKuf pqStif ?%y. 
Qaisnam hie est? Medicus. O quam male habet 
Quivis medicus, si nemo male habuerit- 
Philemon Junior, in Stobseua, ' Sentt.,' " Serm." ccxliv. 
p. 803, Francof., 1581. 


What yf a daye, &c. 

See the particulars given in 'N. & Q.,' 5 th S. viii. 188, 
219. 220 ; and Grey's note on ' Hudibras,' part i. canto iii. 
1. 10. W. C. B. 

(8 th S. viii. 10.) 

Laugh, and the world laughs with you ; 

Weep, and you weep alone. 

These are the first two lines of a poem by Ella Wheeler 
Wilcox, entitled ' The Way of the World.' It appears in 
a little book, ' Everybody's Book of Short Poema,' p. 89, 
to be had at the railway stations. It is a poor repetition 
of a sentiment expressed by Moore in his exquisite 
poem "Oh, Thou ! who dryest the mourner's tear ': 

The friends who in our sunshine live, 

When winter cornea, are flown ; 

And he who has but tears to give 

Must weep those tears alone. 
This was written and published in 1816. 


London and the Kingdom. By Reginald R. Sharpe 

D.C.L. Vol. III. (Longmans & Co.) 
IN successive notices of Dr. Sharpe's two earlier volume 
(see S th S. v. 499 and vi. 359) we have dwelt on the 
scope of the work and the conditions under which, b; 
the direction of the Library Committee of the Corpora 
tion of the City, it baa been issued. The third volume 
completing the work, now sees the light. Of its pages 
not far short of six hundred half are occupied by an 
index, exemplary in fulness, and, so far as we have teste 
it, hi accuracy, and by two appendices, of which tb 
second gives a list of the knights and burgesses of th 
City of London from 1284 to 1892, while the earlie 
reprints the original documents upon which Dr. Sharpe' 

tatements and conclusions are based. These latter, 
which are of supreme interest, begin with a reply from 
be City, dated September 8, 1418, to a letter from King 
lenry V. asking for wine and provisions for the army 
it Rouen, and end in 1780 with letters from Edmund 
Jurke and Charles Fox. Between these periods are 
many letters of highest importance and interest, as " a 
jetter from the Duke of Bedford to the City, claiming 
he government of the realm at the death of Henry V., 
dated Rouen, 26 Oct. [1422] " ; "a Letter from the City 
o Henry VI. touching the capture of Sandwich by the 
Trench ; " Account of the invasion of the City by the 
lentiah rebels"; "Letter from Sir Thomas Greaham 

o Thomas Cromwell touching the purchase of cer- 

iain houses in Lombard Street for the purpose of a 

lite for an exchange " ; " Proclamation against the 
Saris of Northumberland and Westmoreland [f]or their 
rebellion against the Queen's Majesty"; and others, 
eighty-nine in all. The body of the volume continues 
;he history of London from the accession of George I. 
:o the passage of the Reform Bill, where the history 
ends, a mere glimpse being given at subsequent events 
such as the enfranchisement of the Jews, the abolition 
of the Coal and Wine Dues, &c. During the period now 
covered the relations between the City and the Court, 
though sometimes strained, were in the main comfort- 
able. There were, of course, troublous periods. There 
were the scares caused in 1715 and 1745 by the two 
Pretenders, the bursting of the bubble of the South Sea 
Company, the troubles in connexion with Wilkes (suffi- 
ciently enduring these) and with Beckford, the outbreak 
of the North American colonies (in whose favour the 
City took frequent action), the Lord George Gordon 
Riota, and innumerable troublea more. On these things 
and other matters of importance a bright light is thrown. 
Dr. Sharpe has executed his task in masterly fashion, 
and his completed work is an all-important contribution 
to our historical knowledge. Our thanks are due and 
are paid to the Library Committee, which has done 
yeoman's service in rendering accessible our civic re- 
cords, and to their " Records Clerk," who has celebrated 
the public spirit, the worthy deeds, and occasionally the 
broils of our civic fathers. 

The Due de Lauzun and the Court of Louis XV. From 
the French of Gaston Maugras. (Osgood, Mcllvaine 

AMONG prominent Frenchmen of the latter half of the 
eighteenth century Armand Louis Gontaut, Due de 
Lauzun, subsequently Due de Biron, enjoys an unen- 
viable pre-eminence. The moat libertine member of a 
libertine court, he seems to have carried out in practice 
the enormities feigned concerning their fictitious heroes 
by the licentious novelists of the revolutionary period. 
He was, moreover, the most indiscreet as well as the 
moat faithless of men, and wrote for the delectation of 
one mistress a full record, with names, of the favours 
bestowed upon him by others. His memoirs were sup- 
pressed by Government, but found their way furtively 
to light in 1821. One of the most interesting chapters 
or articles in the ' Supercheries Litteraires Devoilees ' 
of Querard declares the memoirs to be nothing more 
than a pamphlet against Marie Antoinette, and ascribes 
the authorship to the Jew and libelliet Lewia Goldsmith 
together with Tissot the historian. This display of 
erudition, though included in the second edition of Que- 
rard's work, vol. ii. pp. 681-3, aeems to have been out 
of place, and the latest scholars accept the memoirs as 
genuine. So thinks M. Maugras, who in writing a 
popular life of the Due de Lauzun up to 1774 practically 
an account of his youth supplements from the memoirs 
the information he does not derive directly from them 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. vm. A. 3, -95. 

To some extent the task attempted ia a rehabilitation, 
from the French standpoint at least ; but the effect will 
scarcely be held in this country to have been obtained, 
even though some of the most vivacious passages of the 
original disappear from the translation. The book may 
be read with pleasure and amusement. It gives a vivid 
picture of life and ceremonial in the most depraved of 
eighteenth century courts, and it brings on the stage 
many interesting figures : noblemen, wits, priests, 
grandes dames, and the rest of a period when illicit 
love seems to have been almost the only pursuit and 
when conjugal virtue was a mere subject for jest. Re- 
ferences to the Duke and Duchess, both of whom visited 
England, are numerous in the letters of Walpole. Both 
died on the scaffold in the days of the Terror. A con- 
tinuation of the work is promised. It is admirably 
got up, and contains a well-executed portrait of the 
Duke, apparently at the age of about fourteen. 

George Norland, Painter, London, 1763-1804. By 

Ralph Richardson, F.R.S.E. (Stock.) 
Is depicting once more the tempestuous career of George 
Morland, Mr. Richardson, the latest biographer, trusts 
mainly to the previous biography by George Dawe, R. A., 
the work of a man who, besides being a competent judge 
of Morland's work, was his friend and the friend of his 
family. Though not wholly or often edifying, the story 
of George Morland'a productive and yet in a sense wasted 
life will bear retelling. Biographies of men of genius 
who are restless and perverse are, whenever particulars 
are obtainable, of high interest. Who does not, in the 
case of ' Johnson's Lives of the Poets,' turn first to the 
life of Savage? Who, again, wearies of hearing con- 
cerning Burns or Eean, or would weary, were there any- 
thing definite to be told, of hearing of Marlowe ? The 
story of Morland's erratic and in a sense culpable life is 
told with much animation, and the successive stages of 
his career are exhibited to us from the period when, as 
Master G. Morland, apprenticed to his father, he exhi- 
bited at the Royal Academy two landscapes, "stained 
drawings," to that when, drunk and paralyzed, he roused 
himself from sleep in a public-house to make a drawing 
which his man could sell in order to pay his scot. An 
appendix gives a full list of paintings by Morland and of 
engravings after him, with accounts of the paintings sold 
at Christie's, with their price and much matter not pre- 
viously accessible. A portrait of Morland, from a water- 
colour sketch by Rowlandson, now in the British 
Museum, and reproductions of his 'Juvenile Navigators,' 
'The Farmer's Stable,' 'Gipsies,' 'Selling Fish,' and 
' Peasant and Pigs ' add to the value and attractions of. a 
handsome and readable volume. 

Notes on Shippo. By James L. Bowes. (Kegan Paul, 

Trench & Go.) 

ELEVEN years have elapsed since in a privately printed 
form Mr. Bowes issued his ' Japanese Enamels. ' Nothing 
since this time has been publicly done to draw further 
attention to the exquisite art of cloisonne enamelling. 
Shippo ware the term shippo represents the seven pre- 
cious things, gold, silver, emerald, coral, agate, crystal, 
and pearl is now extinct, modern imitations being cal- 
culated to impose upon none. Mr. Bowes has, however, 
acquired much further information upon the subject. 
This he arranged and formulated with a view to giving 
it before the Japan Society. Material has since accu- 
mulated, and he has seen better to bring his work before 
the society and a select public in the shape of a volume 
which forms a supplement to his ' Japanese Enamels.' 
In this shape it commends itself to all interested in the 
study of Japanese art, and constitutes an important addi- 
tion to Mr. Bowes's contribution to our knowledge of the 

subject. Plates of various objects of interest are supplied, 
including a picture of the Mikado attended by his Court. 
Mr. Bowes's volume appeals only to the initiated; but to 
them it has highest interest and significance. 

The Legitimist Kalendar for 1895. Edited by the Mar- 
quis de Ruvigny and Raineval. (Henry & Co.) 
READERS of ' N. & Q.' have not to be told that a legiti- 
mist cult still exists in England, that faith in the divine 
right of kings still survives, and that there are indi- 
viduals for whom the government of the Commonwealth 
and Cromwell and the revolution of 1688, followed by 
the accession of the Hanoverian dynasty, are mere im- 
pertinent interferences with the sequence of Stuart 
monarchs. Not to rulers of this country is this fidelity 
to lost causes, or at least to causes under a cloud of un- 
common thickness, confined. The appearance of the 
second issue of the ' Legitimist Kalendar ' the first 
issue we have not seen is calculated to make not a few 
readers rub their eyes and marvel if they have been in- 
dulging in a Rip van Winkle sleep. As a frontispiece 
we have portraits of " Their Most Christian and 
Catholic Majesties the King and Queen of Spain, France, 
and Navarre." The alleged monarch of these wide 
domains is, of course, Carlos VII., or, as he is known 
outside legitimist circles, Don Carlos. In like manner 
the Queen of England, "whom God preserve" we 
quote from the book is Mary IV. of the house of Este. 
Lists sufficiently perturbing of French, Portuguese, and 
Spanish sovereigns are given. The miscellaneous con- 
tents are of great variety, and are not a little startling 
to those who are not votaries of the White Rose or 
similar societies, of which many seem to be in existence. 
Our estimate of their importance and influence to 
" welcome home again discarded faith " would be more 
exact if we knew the names or, if these would swell 
unduly the volume, the numbers of their members. 
Much information concerning Jacobite proceedings, not 
easy of access elsewhere, is supplied, and the volume, 
which has, of course, keen interest for the few, may be 
read by the many with interest and possible advantage 
as well as with amusement. 


We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

ASTERISK (" Tennyson's ' Dream of Fair Women ' "). 
The allusion is supposed to be to Margaret Roper and 
Sir Thomas More. 

ERRATUM. P. 64, col. 2, 11. 25 and 46, for " Hanaus " 
read Huntius. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception.,'95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NOTES ' Childe Harold 'Bibliographical Exhibit, 101 
"The Three Estates of the Realm," 103 Roman Roads, 
104 Bishop Cotton The Humble Bee Burning for 
Heresy in England "A Tweedside Kettle," 105 City 
Parishes Sheep Stealer Hanged-Sir Walter Scott' The 
Extraordinary Black Book,' 106. 

OUERIES Giovanni Fontana Engraved Portrait Thos. 
Haley Pope Joan-" Grandmother's Nightcap" "Link 
The Welshman and the Fleas" Oaken "Heraldic. 107 
Cuthbert Scot, Bp. of Chester The Spanish Language 
^-Kentish M.P.s-Pitt Club Bibliography Burial Cus- 
tom Cherrv-stones, 103 G. Errington Spider-wort 
William of Wykeham Peter Benson Collins's 'Ode to 
the Passions,' 109. 

EEPLIES Sea, 1C9 Keble, 110 Oil Painting Mrs. Pitt 
' The Shaving of Shagpat' Ihe Tenth Beatitude, 111 
Saunders The Death Microbe Child Marriages " Heca- 
tomb " 112 " Solomon-gundy" Iconoclasm of John 
Shakespeare Inscription on Ring Spinning-wheel 
" Jockteleg," 113-Child's Poem Rev. G. Piggott Buck- 
land's ' Reliquia Diluviante ' Whister-poop Bull-roarer, 
114" The nearer the Kirk," &c. Dalrymples, Earls of 
Stair St. Marie Overie Mrs, S. Williams, 115 " Muggles- 
w ick "Arthur's Coffee-house G. G. Johnson A "Can- 
terbury " Valse, 116 "Ha-ha" Simon de Montfort 
The Flowers of the Forest' Sir R. Clarke, 117 Miami 
University Sir Thomas More Le win Family Prince 
Charles Edward Rosary, 113. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Murray's ' New English Dictionary' 
Reviews and Magazines Cassell's Publications. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Byronic students are aware that the following 
stanza, which was originally intended to follow 
stanza cxxxv. in the fourth canto, was eliminated 
when Mr. Murray published that poem in 1818 : 

If to forgive be heaping coals of fire 
As God hath spoken on the heads of foes, 
Mine should be a volcano, and rise higher 
Than o'er the Titans crush'd, Olympus rose, 
Or Athos soars, or blazing Etna glows : 
True, they who stung were creeping things; bat what 
Than Serpents' teeth inflicts with deadlier throes ] 
The Lion may be goaded by the Gnat 
Who sucks the slumberer's blood] The Eagle] No: the 


There does not at first sight appear to be any 
special reason for the suppression of that particular 
stanza. It is not more vehement nor more per- 
sonal than any of the other stanzas which refer to 
his domestic circumstances. From the opening 
line in stanza cxxxii. to the pathetic close of stanza 
cxxxvii. the poet proclaims his grief, and his con- 
tempt for those who were in any degree responsible 
for his misfortunes. The stanza might well have 
taken its allotted place among the others had there 
not been good reason to suppress it. Two facts 
that have come to my notice lately go far to solve 
the problem, and I offer them for what they are 
worth to the readers of ' N. & Q. ' It must be borne 

in mind that on July 12, 1816, Madame de Stael 
informed Byron that his whilom friend Lady 
Caroline Lamb had written " marvellous and 
grievous things" against him. She alluded, of 
course, to the novel ' Glenarvon,' and there is no 
doubt that its publication was intended to injure 
the poet's reputation. There were many who never 
had read a line of Byron's poetry many, in fact, 
who never read poetry at all but who would with 
avidity read so peculiar and so personal a novel. 
It was to that class of readers Lady Caroline 
Lamb appealed, and, as every one knows, she did 
not appeal in vain. 

On July 22, 1816, Byron, writing to Murray, 
made the following remark : " The generous moment 
selected for the publication is probably its kindest 
accompaniment, and truth to say the time was 
well chosen." Byron had just completed the third 
canto of ' Childe Harold,' in which he laid bare 
the depth of his affection for his only child. A 
year later, while writing the fourth canto, he was 
informed by the censor that an Italian translation 
of ' Glenarvon ' was in the press at Venice. Byron, 
who must have felt annoyed by that intelligence, 
did not feel justified in seconding the censor's pro- 
posal to interdict its publication, and the work 
appeared. It may be taken for granted that Byron 
retorted by introducing his metaphor of " the Bat " 
a sobriquet by which Lady Caroline Lamb was 
well known in London society. I am supported 
in this opinion by a fact which recently came to 
my knowledge. In the Zwickau edition of ' Childe 
Harold,' and in a copy that belonged to Byron, the 
poet has written these words opposite to stanza 
cxxxv. : "One or two entire stanzas are hereomitted, 
in which the poet curses all those who were allied to 
his wife, and the cause of his separation." That 
copy of ' Childe Harold ' is, or was recently, in 
the hands of a correspondent of ' N. & Q.' 


33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 


When I first undertook to write upon this subject, 
it was with the intention of using those notes only 
which I had taken while visiting Chicago during 
the summer of 1893. No work or articles treating 
of the bibliographical exhibit at the World's Fair 
had appeared, and the importance of the exhibit 
and the insufficiency of my notes induced me to 
pursue some further investigations. These made 
me realize that a complete catalogue of this exhibit 
would be too extended for the pages of ' N. & Q.' 
I shall, therefore, only make mention of the more 
important, or rather the more rare and curious of 
the books exhibited, giving the title-page in full 
where I have been able to obtain it, together with 
brief notices of some of the MSS. and historic 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. vm. AUG. 10, 

documents and papers which came under my 
observation, or to which my attention has since 
been drawn. Before concluding this short intro- 
duction, I wish to acknowledge my obligations to 
Mr. George F. Kunz, of New York, for his kind- 
ness in aiding me to obtain much valuable infor- 
mation, and also to those exhibitors who have 
granted me private views of or furnished me with 
particulars concerning their collections, and to all 
others to whom I may be indebted. 

The exhibit of the American publishers, situated 
in the north-west corner of the gallery of the Manu- 
factures and Liberal Arts Building a comparatively 
quiet place, away from the noise and bustle of the 
ceaselessly moving throngs, which flowed like a 
great river through the main corridors of the hall 
was distinctly disappointing both in extent and 
matter. Of the numerous publishers in the United 
States, a very small proportion exhibited. In fact, 
they were far outnumbered by their German con- 
freres, who comprised more than one-half of all the 
exhibitors engaged in the publishing and allied 
trades. The largest exhibit, and one also of the 
finest, is generally conceded to have been that of 
the Century Company, of New York. Not only 
did this company display in attractive form all 
its principal publications, but many original MSS. 
and artists' sketches of the illustrations which 
appeared in its books and magazines were also 
shown. Hanging upon the wall, immediately 
outside of the doorway to its pavilion, was a 
frame containing original MSS. of short poems 
by Tennyson ('Minnie and Winnie"), Long- 
fellow ('King Trisanku'), W. C. Bryant ('The 
Woodman and the Sandal Tree'), and Whittier 
(' The Brown Dwarf of Rugan ') four of the 
greater poets of the last half of this century, and 
now all gone. All along the outer wall or side of 
the pavilion were the artists' sketches already 
spoken of, which, being somewhat without the 
scope of these articles, will not be more particularly 
mentioned. To give a list of all the original 
MSS. which were displayed inside of the pavilion 
would require too much space, so I shall only 
mention the more important ones which occur to 
me as I write. There was the MS. of Mary Mapes 
Dodge's popular book ' Hans Brinker, or the Silver 
Skates,' in which I noticed a large number of inter- 
lineations and corrections a bad example for an 
editor to set. Near it were two manuscripts, ' A 
Colorado Woman's Museum,' by H. H. (Helen 
Hunt Jackson), and ' Sweet Marjoram Day : a 
Fairy Tale,' by Frank R. Stockton. Both of these 
authors affect orange-coloured paper. The MS. of 
the first chapter of Mrs. Burnett's ever-famous 
'Little Lord Fauntleroy," which first appeared 
in St. Nicholas, written in a clear, woman-like 
hand, and with few errors, seemed to attract con- 
siderable attention. There was also part of the 
manuscript of Louisa M. Alcott's 'Under the 

Lilacs,' the collection thus comprising works of two 
of the most celebrated women writers of juvenile 
literature of the United States. Besides these may 
be mentioned the MSS. of 'The Chevalier de 
Resseguier,' by Thomas Bailey Aldricb, with a 
memorandum by the author, "Proof to T. B. 
Aldrich, Boston, Mass."; of Howells's 'A Flo- 
rentine Mosaic'; of George W. Cable's 'Sieur 
George,' in fine, pretty handwriting like that of a, 
woman ; of ' Nights with Uncle Remus : The 
Moon in the Mill-Pond,' by Joel Chandler Harris ; 
and of a paper on Keats by Stedman, and of ' An 
Episode of Fiddletown,' by Bret Harte, the former 
author rioting in blue paper and the latter in 
purple ink. There was, moreover, an extensive 
collection of autograph letters from Edward Eggle- 
ston, Palmer Cox, Mary Virginia Terhune, Celia 
Thaxter, Thomas Hughes, Mary E. Wilkins, and 
Holmes and Whittier, the last two being compli- 
mentary to St. Nicholas. 

An important feature of the exhibit was some of 
the material used by Messrs. Nicholas and Hay, 
sometime private secretaries to President Lincoln, 
in the preparation of his biography. This in- 
cluded an autograph letter of Lincoln's to General 
Grant, dated Washington, April 30, 1864, ex- 
pressing pleasure with what he had done up to that 
time ; Grant's reply to this letter ; the original 
draft of the proclamation accompanying the Pre- 
sident's message of Aug. 16, 1863 ; and corrected 
copy (proof-sheets) of his first inaugural address, 
from which he read at his inauguration on March 4, 
1861. There were also many other original letters 
and documents, too numerous to mention. I was 
told that the whole collection was insured for 
75,000 dollars. Beside these was some of the 
material used in the preparation of ' Battles and 
Leaders of the Civil War' (New York, 1893), 
including original letters, documents, &c. , and an 
autograph copy of the once-popular song, " We are 
coming, Father Abra'am," signed "A true copy 
J. J. Gibbons." 

Of less value than the documents just under 
notice, but of as great interest as anything 
else in the exhibit, were the contents of a 
number of cases, illustrating the " progress of the 
dictionary." First in order came ' An English 
Expositor,' by John Balloker, Doctor of Physick, 
London, 1641, " printed by John Legatt, and are 
to be sold by Andrew Crook " (first edition, 1616), 
said to be the earliest English dictionary. Following 
this was 'The English Dictionarie : or, An Interpreter 
of Hard English Words,' by Henry Cockeram, 
gent., seventh edition, London, 1642 (first edition, 
1623). Next we had ' Glossographia : or a Dic- 
tionary, Interpreting the Hard Words of Whatso- 
ever Language, now used in our refined English 
Tongue,' edited by Thomas Blount, Barrister, of 
Inner Temple, London, 1670 (first edition, 1656). 
Here appears the first attempt to give the deriva- 

.vin. A. io, '*;.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tion of words. On the inside of the front cover 
-was written," Jas. Cross his book 1673." Fourth 
in order came ' The Moderne World of Words : or, 
A Universall English Dictionary," compiled by 
Edward Phillips, gent, (first edition, 1658). This 
was the edition of 1706, revised by Kersey. Several 
dictionaries were, I believe, published between this 
and the next one exhibited, which was * An Uni- 
versal Etimological English Dictionary,' &c., edited 
by Nathan Bailey. On the card which accom- 
panied it, it was said to be a reprint of the edition 
of 1728 ; but on inspecting the title-page, through 
the courtesy of the Century Company, I find it to 
'be the first edition (London, 1721). Three other 
-editions of this dictionary were also exhibited. 
There were two second editions, dated, respectively, 
London, 1727 and 1731, and also a fifth edition, 
" with considerable improvements," of the last- 
mentioned date. The second edition was the first 
dictionary into which illustrative cuts were intro- 
duced ; and although this has been denied, yet I 
am told that the earlier dictionaries for which the 
claim is made contain merely heraldic devices and 
no illustrations proper. I cannot explain why two 
books of the same edition (second) should differ in 
date and otherwise ; but perhaps some other 
reader of ' N. & Q.' will afford the desired informa- 
tion, and also correct any errors into which I may 
inadvertently have fallen. There now only remain 
to be noticed the first (?) American dictionary 
{Philadelphia, 1819), which was a copy of the 
-eleventh English edition of Dr. Johnson's 'Dic- 
tionary' (London, 1816) ; and the 'Imperial' and 
* Century' dictionaries, with contributions, printer's 
copy, proof, and plates used in the preparation of 
the latter. Little is now left to be mentioned in 
the Century exhibit. All the various covers of the 
"Century and St. Nicholas, from the respective 
beginning of each magazine, were shown, as were 
also copies of their principal publications. 

New Brighton, N.Y. 

(To be continued.) 

(Continued from p. 63.) 

Before leaving the last century I give one 
quotation from Bolingbroke. 

In his 'Dissertation upon Parties' (fifth edition, 
1739) that brilliant writer says (p. 195) : 

" But I propose to make a short Reflection or two on 
the Property and Power of the three Estates that com 
pose our Parliament, as they stood formerly, and as they 
now stand; because although our Parliaments were 
composed of King, Lords and Commons in those Days, 
as well as these, yet the Difference of the Weight 
which each of these Estate; bath cast into the Scale ol 
Government, at different Periods, does in Effect make 
some Difference in the Constitution of Parliaments; anc 
'by considering this Difference, our Thoughts will be lee 
the better to judge of the true Poise of our Constitution 

>n maintaining which our All depends ; since the nearer 
Ye keep to it, the safer our Liberty is, and since every 
Variation from it is dangerous to our Liberty, in a 
Degree proportionable to such Variation." 

Among the twenty-four propositions which the 
'on vocation of the University of Oxford (July 21, 

' declared, judged and decreed to be False, Seditious 
and Impious, and most of them to be also Heretical and 
Blasphemous, Infamous to Christian Religion and De- 
structive of all good Government in Church and State," 
was the following : 

" The Fourth. ' The Sovereignty of England is in the 
three Estates, viz. King, Lords and Commons. The 
King has but a co-ordinate Power, and may be over- 
ruled by the other two. Lex Rex. Hunton, Of a limited 
and mixed Monarchy. Baxter, H. C. Polit. Catech.' "* 

In the course of the debates in the Parliament 
held at Oxford, March, 1680/1, Sir Thomas Little- 
ton said : 

' It may be wondred, why in Portugal, upon deposing 
that King, there was a great Debate of the three Estates 
(though they hold not the proportion as they do here). 
In this great Debate, the Commons were for Don Pedro 
to be King, the Nobility to have him Regent, the Ec- 
clesiasticks demurr'd ; but at last both came over to the 

The extract is from the ' Faithful Register,' but it 
will be found also in the ' Parliamentary History.' 

Thomas Phillips (i. e. Sir William Drake) in his 
' Long Parliament Revived,' 1661, says : 

" The Three Estates, viz. King, Lords and Commons, 

legally called have power to do the highest actions 

the nation is capable of, though it be to the dismember- 
ing of the Parliament itself, and dissolving a considerable 
part of it, or altering any other fundamental constitutions 
they please, so they see it necessary for the public good, 
as particularly in the case of Bishops, called the Spiritual 
Lords, and by some affirmed to be the Third Estate in 

"R. C.," in his 'Long Parliament not Revived 
by Thomas Phillips, 1 says : 

"First then, a parliament ia a politic body, com- 
pounded (not of three states, as our author would, of 
king, lords, and commons, but) of heterogenial or dis- 
similar parts, viz. the king, the principium, caput et 
finis of it, and of the lords spiritual and temporal, one 
distinct house, and the house of commons another 
distinct house; both which houses are convened and 
created by the king's writ." 

I now proceed to transcribe the earlier sections 
of the twelfth chapter of Twysden's ' Government 
of England' (Camden Society, 1849) : 

" For my owne particular, I did never question but 
the king, as he was ' principium et finis parliament! ' 
('Mod. Ten. Parl.'), the beginner and ender of parlia- 
ments, the governor and director of them, so the three 

* This judgment and decree was ordered by the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal to be burnt by the common 
hangman, along with Dr. Sacheverell's Sermons, as con- 
taining in it "several Positions contrary to the Con- 
stitution, and destructive of the Protestant Succession as 
by Law Established " ('Tryall of Dr. Henry Sacheverell,' 
1710, pp. 236, 456). 



estates were those who were governed by him, vidz 
1. The lords spirituall. 2. The lords temporall. 3. Th 
commons. But of late I have met with some that hoi 
the king himselfe to bee one of three, and both tbe lord 
spirituall and temporall but one, not two estate Anc 
though it seeme to me, even in the nature of the thing 
it selfe. a forced construction to take a single man, a 
the king is, for ' ordo hominum,' an estate of men, ye 
I have found that have stiffely mainteyned it. What 5 
the opinion of these daies I conceive not greatly material 
for such as seek the basis or foundation on which tin 
commonwealth is built, but how former tymes before 
the dispute came did interpret it ; and in their memo 
rialls 1 could never observe any passage sounding at al 
that way, but that they mentioned ever the prince as a 
person distinct from the three estates. 

" 2. It will bee heere therefore only necessary to repeal 
such places as remember them and him together, am 
marke after what manner it is done; and so every reader 
may best satisfy himselfe. Richard the 2 (' Rot. Parl., 
20 Ri. II., n. 1) tells the parliament hee had summonec 
them to settle the kingdome ' ovek 1'eyde de Dieu et par 
bon conseil des estate de son royalme.' The king thai 
dead is (vizt. Henry the 5, ' Rot. Parl.,' 6 H. VI., n. 29) 
might not alter, change, or abrogue the lawe of the land, 
without th' assent of [the] three estates. 1 Hen. ( 
('Rot. Parl.,' 1 H. VI., n. 40), 'Le roy a observer jura 
(scil. Hen. 5) come les troys egtats del dit royalme. 
39 Hen. 6 (39 H. VI., n. 29), ' After the agreement of 
the said act of record by the king and three estates in 
this present parliament.' 

" In all which the king is clearly distinguished from 
the three estates. Indeede the act 9 Hen. 5 (' Rot. Parl.,' 
2 Maii) to which that 1 H. 6 had reference, doth not 
onely affirme the three estates to differ from the king, 
but declares who they were to whom the peace and 
articles of the same betweene England and France were 
shewed, videlicet 'prelatos et clerum, nobiles et magnates, 
necnon communitates regni sui,' which they, by the com- 
mand of the king, ' velud tres status dicti regni sui appro- 
barunt,' etc. Certainly in so solemne an action as this 
wee cannot think anything past but maturely digested. 

"3. The Parliament Roll 1 R. 3 carries a petition 
presented unto him 'In the name of the three estates of 
the realme of England, to wit, the lords spirituall and 
temporall and other nobles and persons of the commons,' 
and a while after (I use the wordes of the record) ' There- 
fore at the request and by the assent of the three estates 
of this realme (that is to say), the lords spirituall and 
temporall and commons of this land assembled in this 
present parliament, and by auctority of the same, bee 
it,' etc. 

" So likewise in the printed statutes 1 Eliz. cap. 3 at 
the beginning, ' Wee your most humble, faithful!, and 
obedient subjects, the lords spirituall and temporal!,' and 
a little after, representing the three estates of the realme 
of England, 8 Eliz. cap. 1, ' The state of the clergy, one 
of the greatest states of this realm.' Agreeing with all 
which records is the opinion of Sir Ed. Cook, Inst. iv. 
cap. 1, p. 1. So likewise Inst. ii. 585, 'De Asportatis 

"4. These three estates, summoned by the king's writ, 
meeting in their severall houses, and both joyned with 
the king, make that court wee now call the parliament; 
and though some tymes in common epeach wee call the 
two houses the parliament, yet properly it cannot bee so 
taken, and I doe well remember in these late differences, 
in certain articles presented to his majesty for a ces- 
sation, the two houses used this expression, ' The armies 
raysed by the parliament.' At which his majesty ex- 
cepted, as beeing that which did inferr either himselfe 
to bee no part of the parliament, or himselfe to have 

raysed that army ; which was therefore, the 29 March 
1643, allowed to bee thus alterd, ' The army raysed by 
both howses of parliament.' " 

On the technical usage, Twysden proves his 
point, of course ; but it is noticeable that he leaves 
a great gap between Kichard III. and Elizabeth 
a gap, however, that can no doubt be easily filled 
up from state documents. The best commentary 
at my command on Twyaden's general position I 
take from the recently published ' Const. Hist, of 
the House of Lords,' by Mr. L. 0. Pike, who, I 
need not say, knows infinitely more about state 
documents than I do. 

" The mode of legislation began to be altered towards 
the end of the reign of Henry VI., when Bills in the 
form of Acts (as in the modern system) were introduced 
into Parliament as well as petitions. In the meantime 
there grew up an idea that the consent of the Lords 
Spiritual, as distinguished from other lords, was not in 
itself necessary to give validity to an Act of Parliament. 

[But] the idea [that an Act could not be considered 

duly made law unless the spiritual lords had, in person or 
by proxy, consented to it] did not survive beyond the reign 
of Henry VIII., for in the seventh year of this reign it 
was held by all the Judges that a Parliament in the 
modern sense might be held without any Spiritual Lords 
at all. The reason assigned was that doctrine which the 
Prelates of Richard II. had enunciated, and which the 
greatest lawyers have always held that the Spiritual 
Lords have a place in the Parliament House not in virtue 
of any spiritual office, but solely in virtue of their temporal 
possessions (Keilway's ' Reports,' 1846). Twenty years 
later the distinction between Lords Spiritual and Lords 
Temporal as constituting two estates appears to have 
been disregarded. Parliament, it was then said, 'con- 
sists of three part?, the King, as the head, the Lords as 
the chief and principal members of the body, and the 
Commons ai the inferior members ' (Dyer's ' Reports,' 
36 & 37 H. VIII., p. 60)." Pp. 326-7. 

" The clerical view that the Lords Spiritual constitute 
an estate apart from the Lords Temporal has prevailed 
in more modern views of the constitution, but it can 
hardly be said to have been recognized by the earlier . 
lawyers." Ibid., p. 395. 

J. P. OWEN. 

43, Comeragh Road, West Kensington, W. 
(.To le continued.) 

ROMAN ROADS. (See ante, p. 42.) When MB, 
WARD leaves the safe precincts of Lincoln's Inn 
Fields to wander along the perilous tracks of 
Eloman roads, he naturally stumbles badly. He 
quotes authorities of all sorts good, bad, and in- 
different as if they were of equal value. Bad is, 
lowever, hardly an appropriate adjective to be 
pplied to the notorious forgery put forth in 1747 
>y Dr. Charles Bertram, under the name of Kichard 
f Cirencester, which MR. WARD cites, under a 
wrong title, with charming innocence and perfect 
aith. It need hardly be said that to quote this 
mposture puts a man out of court in the eyes of 
cholars. Dr. Stukeley, the most credulous and 
anciful of antiquaries, who is another of MR. 
WARD'S authorities, warmly welcomed Bertram's 
udacious forgery when it first appeared. 

s. vm. AU. io, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Hardly less amusing is MR. WAKD'S account of 
the imperial progresses of Semiramis, who is now 
known to have beenno mortal queen, butthe goddess 
Istar, whose mythological adventures, described in 
the well-known cuneiform tablets, were mistaken 
by Ctesias and Diodorus for sober history. After 
this we are not surprised to be told that "not an 
inch beyond the Eoman roads has Christianity 
penetrated." How about Ireland, the Isle of 
Saints ; how about Norway, Sweden, Denmark, 
North Germany, or Eussia ? 

While the absurdities of " the learned Stukeley," 
"Richard of Cirencester," Wachter, and Somner 
are quoted, not a word is said about Henry of 
Huntingdon or Higden, who are practically our 
two earliest authorities, nor is any mention made 
of Dr. Guest's essay on * The Four Roman Ways,' 
which, in spite of some dubious etymologies, is the 
latest and best monograph on the subject. Its 
perusal might, at all events, have saved MR. WARD 
from following the preposterous Celtic derivations 
of Watling Street and Akeman Street propounded 
by the Exeter bookseller George Dyer. In the 
' Saxon Chronicle ' Bath is twice mentioned by the 
name of Acemannes-ceaster, or Acemannes-burh, 
the "sick man's town," and the later name 
Akeman Street is simply what we should call 
the Bath road. The Ridgeway was not a Roman 
road, but a British trackway which ran along the 
ridge of the chalk downs, as the Pilgrim's Way in 
Kent, traversed by Chaucer's pilgrims, followed 
the ridge of the North Downs. MR. WARD, in his 
wisdom, rejects Jacob Grimm's etymology of the 
Earminga Street, which is the only one philo- 
logically admissible. 

The dithyrambics about the " child in a cattle- 
stall that a king strove to obliterate," or about 
" the voice baptismal of the Eremite," may as well 
be left unnoticed. But to say that " the wings on 
which practically it [i. e., the voice baptismal] flew, 
was the Roman roads of three-foot concrete " is to 
use a metaphor as curiously mixed as it is un- 
grammatical. FENTON. 

BISHOP COTTON. In the life of this prelate 
given in the twelfth volume of the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography' it is stated that his father 
"was killed at the battle of Nivelle a fortnight 
before the birth of his son." As a matter of fact, 
the future bishop was born on Oct. 29, 1813, and 
the battle of the Nivelle (perhaps I may be excused 
for mentioning that my father was present at it as 
assistant-surgeon) was fought on Nov. 13, a fort- 
night afterwards. Capt. Cotton was killed whilst 
storming a redoubt on the left of the enemy's en- 
trenchments before the village of Ainhoue". 

W. T. LYNN. 


THE HUMBLE BEE. Some years ago I paid a 
visit to my nephew's vicarage in Buckinghamshire. 

He informed me that a new industry had sprang 
up in his parish there was a demand for humble 
bees, which could be sold for fourpence a head. 
He could not inform me what led to this demand, 
nor could the villagers who had sold the bees do 
so. On inquiring who took the bees and paid the 
money, I was referred to the bee-master of a neigh- 
bouring village. I found him out on the next 
day, when he informed me that the growing of red 
clover in New Zealand had failed for want of a 
native insect capable of fertilizing the plant. As 
the humble bee fertilized the red clover in England, 
it was proposed to send a colony of humble beee 
over to New Zealand, which he did ; but the first 
lot perished, as was supposed, from excess of heat 
in crossing the equator. A second colony was 
more fortunate ; it took kindly to the islands, and 
performed the function required of it successfully. 
The case is well put by an entomologist : 
(i Many of our English flowers are capable of being 
fertilized by only one kind of insect. The common rel 
clover is visited by the humble bee, the petals are fused 
together, forming a narrow tube, surrounding the honey 
glands and the organs that form the pollen ; the long 
proboscis of the humble bee can reach the honey, but 
the hive bee's tongue is shorter, and cannot do so. Wheo 
clover was first grown in Australia, it never seeded^ 
because the tongues of the native bees were too short to 
reach the pollen." 

Highgate, X. 

William Sawtre, or Sautre, priest of St. Margaret's 
Church, King's Lynn, is repeatedly referred to as 
the first martyr burnt for heresy in England, A.D. 
1401. But in the "Advertisement" to Bale'z 
' Select Works,' Parker Society, 1849, 1 find : 

" Fox expressly says Sautre was the first, and he ia 
followed herein by Bishop Burnet and Mr. Collier. But the 
latter of these had forgot what himself had told us under 
Henry III. of a deacon, that, apostatizing to Judaism, 
was first degraded, at a council at Oxford, A.D. 1222, and 
afterwards sentenced to the stake by the secular power. 
And there is good evidence of a more early example than 
even this. A chronicle of London mentions of the Albi- 
genses burnt A.D. 1210 (Bale, 'De Script. Brit.,' Cent. iii. 
cap. Ixv. in Append.). And Camden probably alludes to 
this when he says, 'ex quo reguante Joanne Christian! in 
Christianos apud nos flammis ssevire coeperunt."' 

The fifty-first and fifty-second of Langton's Con- 
stitutions of 1222 are directed against the Jews. 


" A TWEEDSIDE KETTLE." The following 
account of a Tweedside kettle appeared in the 
Newcastle Daily Chronicle of June 29 : 

" ' A Tweedside Kettle ' is after the fashion of an up- 
river picnic, but it has its own peculiar characteristics. 
The company foregather under a great marquee pitched 
on the pleasantly-situated green sward at South Bells 
Fishery on the English side of Tweed, about four miles 
up the river from old Berwick Town and after doing 
full justice to real Tweed salmon ' new drawn frae the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. AUG. 10, 

Tweed ' by the net-fishers who ply their avocation not a 
stone's throw away, a short toast-list is honoured, and 
then the worshippers at the shrine of St. Kettle adjourn 
to the open, and many indulge in two games which go 
hand in hand with the Kettle four-holed kit-kat, in 
which teams of four a side play, and quoits. As the 
shades of evening creep up the river, the company again 
muster in the marquee, at this historic and romantic 
spot which St. Aidan must have passed in his journey 
on foot from lona via Melrose to Lindisfarne ; and a 
short concert winds up the proceedings of the famous 
Tweedside Kettle. This local institution is of no modern 
origin; it is almost lost in the mists of antiquity. As 
far back as 1675 this special form of festivity was known 
on the classic Borderland, for the Guild of Berwick-upon- 
Tweed in this year ' made a treat of a kettle of salmon 
on the river-side.' These salmon feasts go back to an 
even more remote era, for as far back as 1286, when 
Berwick touched its highest point of prosperity and 
rivalled mighty London, salmon formed part of the staple 
trade of the ancient Border town, and were a consider- 
able source of wealth to the inhabitants. Indeed, salmon 
was the first article of trade the ancient Guild of Ber- 
wick proceeded to regulate, and there was actually a 
time when no fishing-water was, on any condition, let to 
any but a Freeman of Berwick, and fish could only be 
taken from the river between Horncliffe and Berwick 
from ' the sonne aryse vnto the sonne be gon down.' So 
much importance was attached to Tweed salmon in by- 
gone days that Queen Elizabeth had a royalty of all the 
fisheries in this river which divides Scotch from English 
territory; and in 1568 one barrel out of every 'last' 
(twelve barrels) was set aside for the queen's use, and it 
may be added, 720 barrels at least was the produce that 


CITY PARISHES. The following clauses from 
the will of " Thomas Walthall thelder," citizen and 
mercer of London (dated May 14, 1611, proved 
May 11, 1613, P.C.C. 47 Capell), seem worthy of 
record. After desiring sepulture in the church of 
St. Peter's, Cornhill, "and to be laide as neare 
unto the place where my brother Alderman Walt- 
hall was buried as maie be with as little 

ostentacon or shewe as may be with noe Binginge 
which I holde to be meare vanitie," testator 
directs his executors 

" to prouide for fifty poore men mourninge gownes of 
blacke or other good sad coulored cloath and six of them 
to be bestowed uppon six of the chiefe Porters that 
belonge to the Mercers' Company at the Water syde and 
they to carry my corpes to the grounde and to have 
twelve pence a man those six onelie and such poore men 
of the parrish of Sainte Peters as are thought fitt to have 
gownes giuen them to be firat respected before straungers," 

and gives " unto Jeames Buffeilde a poore water 
bearer one that laboureth hard for his lyviog a 
monrninge gowne andtwentie shillinges,"and "unto 
the wandringe and Roagish poore amonge whome 
are a nomber of wicked and ungodlie people the 
some of ffive markes." 

Eden Bridge. 

or more years ago I was told by a Lincolnshire 

gentleman that, many years since, when sheep- 
stealing was a common offence, a thief of this sort 
stole " a fat hog," and, fastening it on his shoulders 
by a cord, made off with it. On his way he had to 
get over a high stile in a stone wall. During the 
climb, the sheep slipped from off the felon's 
shoulders, and fell over the stile ; the consequence 
being that the next morning, when the shepherd 
went in search ef the lost sheep, he found the man 
hanged by his prey and quite dead. I have an 
impression that my informant said that this hap- 
pened on a farm in one of the parishes between Kir- 
ton-in-Lindsey and Lincoln. I am sure he fully 
believed what he told me to be true, as I did when 
I heard it, for it is not improbable that such 
an accident should befall a man overburdened 
by the weight of the animal, conscious that the 
crime he was perpetrating was a hanging matter, 
and going on his way in the darkness of night. 

Some time ago my faith was shaken by meeting 
with a Northumberland story not unlike it, accom- 
panied by references to three others of a similar 
character (' Denham Tracts,' vol. i. p. 328). I 
shall be grateful to any one who can give further 
information, so that I may be able to class this tale 
either with fact or folk-lore. 


Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

FAMILY.' (See 8 th S. vii. 372, 466.) I have a 
copy of Sir Walter Scott's ' Poems ' (A. & 0. 
Black, first title-page 1851, second 1852), given 
me by a good aunt when I was not quite fourteen, 
a few months after I bad fallen in love with Scott's 
poetry a " first love " that has lasted down to the 
present hour. The frontispiece to this volume is 
an engraving of Sir David Wilkie's picture above 
mentioned. I have an amusing remembrance con- 
nected with this picture. Feeling as proud of my 
newly acquired treasure as a peacock with a double 
train (not tail, see Gilbert White), I showed the 
book to my aunt's footman, a very good fellow ; 
and thinking that he might wonder at seeing Sir 
Walter Scott and his family dressed like peasants, 
with milk-pails, &c., I explained to him that they 
were " taken " in this way. The good lad, not 
understanding my use of the word " taken," evi- 
dently thought I meant that Scott was taken into 
custody, and asked me what he was taken for ! 
"Forsan et hsec olim meminisse juvabit." 


just seen a copy of this book at Mr. G. A. Sala's 
sale (Sotheby's, July 23), and on the title, in his 
beautiful handwriting, is written, after the words 
by "the original editor," "old William Carpenter." 
I think Mr. Sala is mistaken; it was by John 
Wade, who died in 1875. It is not in Halkett 
and Laing. The first edition, by "the original 

s* a. Yin. AM. io, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


editor," was published in 1831, a "new edition' 
1832. At the British Museum this book is 
ascribed to John Wade. Mr. Boase, in ' Modern 
English Biography,' says nothing about it under 
Carpenter. But for the attribution being by so 
great an authority as Mr. Sala, I should not take 
any notice of it. RALPH THOMAS. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

months ago an article appeared in an illustrated 
weekly or monthly paper with some sketches from 
allegorial subjects executed by the late Signer 
Fontana. Can any one oblige me with name and 
date of the paper ? HILDA GAMLIN. 

ENGRAVED PORTRAIT. I have a small engraved 
portrait of " Colonel James Robertson, of the West- 
minster Volunteers," engraved by R. Woodman, 
after a miniature by L. T. Mitchell, period 1780. 
Under it are the arms of Eobertson of Struan. 
Any information about it will be most acceptable. 

F. S. R. 

At what period did he produce ? Is anything 
known concerning him ? H. T. 

POPE JOAN. In the introduction to Bellinger's 
' Papstfablen des Mittelalters ' (English translation 
by A. Plummer, 1871, p. xv) there is mentioned 
a " round game which immortalizes the memory of 
the papess." Will some reader of N. & Q. ; tell 
me what game is referred to ? 

[The name is, we believe, Pope Joan.] 

which I enclose the Editor a sprig, gathered in a 
garden-bed close to where I am writing, is called 
in these parts by this quaint name though, after 
all, is it really more quaint than the familiar " fox- 
glove " ? Grandmothers, I suppose, do often wear 
nightcaps, but foxes, I fancy, are not in the habit 
of wearing gloves, unless, perhaps, when they " a- 
wooing go." Is the Editor, or any correspondent, 
acquainted with this term ; and what is the proper 
botanical name of the plant 1 

Ropley, Hampshire. 

[In Britten and Holland's ' Dictionary of Plant Names ' 
(1886), p. 218, the following plants are stated to be called 
by the above name in various counties : (1) Convolvulus 
sepium, (2) Aconilum napellus, (3) Lychnis respertina, 
(4) Anemone nemorosa. In each case the form of the 
flower would suggest the name. The leaf sent was 
not in a very satisfactory condition for examination, but 
in all probability it is the leaf of No. 2 (Aconi- 

turn napellus). If so, the old lady's nightcap would be 
of a purplish blue colour, and, bearing in mind the ex- 
tremely poisonous character of the plant, we should 
earnestly impress upon her the desirability of discard- 
ing any portion of the plant as an article of attire. If 
our correspondent will kindly enclose a flower (common 
in cottage gardens at this season), the matter could be 
at once determined. M. T. MO 

"LINK." In these days of universal golf we 
are all familiar with the word link, or links, as 
seems to be the correct way of writing it. 
What is its origin ? It was not confined to Scot- 
land. A suburb of Malvern is called Malvern 
Link, and is an open green or common, now sur- 
rounded with houses. Chambers mentions it in 
his ' History of Malvern,' 1817. He says : " The 
Link is a common on which latterly many houses 
have been erected." In Sussex, link means a high 
bank ; the very reverse of the link used for golfing. 

[See 8 th S. vii. 465; viii. 34.] 

Bulleo's notice of Joshua Barnes (1654-1712) in 
' D. N. B.,' it is stated that Barnes wrote, or pro- 
posed to write, a work entitled " <$>\TJ taSos, or a 
supplement to the old ludicrous poem under that 
title at Trinity House, in Cambridge, upon the 
battle between the fleas and a Welshman." Is 
that " old ludicrous poem " still extant ; and is it 
known who is the author 1 It would be interest- 
ing to know more about a poem with so odd a 


" OAKEN." In the one- volume edition of ' The 
Poetical Works of Sir Walter Scott,' issued in 
1841 by Robert Cadell, the following lines occur : 
With the dullest hermit I 'd rather dine 
On an oaken cake and a draught of the Tyne. 

' Harold the Dauntless,' canto iv. st. viii. 

Is not "oaken" a misprint for oaten ? It is possible 
that " oaken" is the true reading, and that the poet 
meant a cake made of the meal of acorns, but this 
seems to us very improbable. The great import- 
ance that attaches to everything that Sir Walter 
Scott wrote, and the necessity there is that the 
text of his works should be freed from errors, is a 
sufficient apology for this trivial query. 

N. M. & A. 

[" Oaken " is preserved in the Clarendon Press edition 
of last year. J 

HERALDIC. I own a little plate temp. James II. 
(1685) and William III. (1699). All is engraved 
with a ducal coronet, two lions rampant and 
ducally gorged as supporters, shield four stars ; 
the tincture is, I suppose, azure. I am, obviously, 
no herald, and shall feel very grateful if any of 
your readers will tell me to whom this coat of arms 
|motto, " Produsse quam conspeci ") belongs. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. A. 10, -95. 

BRIDGE. Can any of your readers give me infor- 
mation as to the birthplace or family connexions 
of the above ? F. SANDERS. 

Hoylake Vicarage. 

THE SPANISH LANGUAGE. I shall be glad if 
any of your readers can refer me to such book or 
books as may exist giving any information on the 
three carious and interesting prefixes re, rete, re- 
qutte, in colloquial Spanish. I am pretty familiar 
with grammatical literature, but never came across 
any mention of them. My own information about 
them is derived from intercourse with natives both 
here and in Spain. These three prefixes form a 
kind of three degrees of comparison, re being some- 
thing like our " very," rete still stronger, and 
requete most forcible of all, and as we might say 
" quite too too." They are used (1) before per- 
sonal names as a kind of joke, as in the well-known 
repepe from Pepe ; (2) most frequently before ad- 
jectives, as, for example, resalada, retesalada, 
requetesalada ; (3) before adverbs, as rebien, rete- 
bien, requetebien ; (4) before the negative, reno, 
reteno, requeteno ; (5) before expletives, as in the 
case of reco&o, relene. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

Any assistance towards identifying more definitely 
the following M.P.s will be most acceptable. 

Capt. Augustine Skinner, M.P., Kent, 1642-53. 
He was a pronounced Rumper, one of the King's 
judges, and survived the Restoration. Augustine 
Skinner, ironmonger, was elected Alderman oi 
Farringdon Within in April, 1621, but discharged 
at his own request in the following month. Were 
the Alderman and the M.P. identical or related ? 

Capt. John Nutt, M.P., Canterbury, 1640-53, 
also a strong Parliamentarian, King's judge, anc 
survived the Restoration. 

William Harrison, M.P., Queenborough, 1640 
till disabled in 1643 for Royalism. He died before 
September,' 1645. 

Capt. Richard Lee, M.P., Rochester, 1640-48 
was an active Parliamentary officer, and is de- 
scribed in 1642 as "of Rochester, Kent." ? i 
.Richard Lee, of Delee Magna, Mayor of Rochester 
in 1643 (vide Berry's ' Kent Pedigrees '). 

Thomas Webb, M.P., New Romney, 1640 til 
expelled January, 1641, as a monopolist. ? i 
Thomas Webb, secretary to the Duke of Richmond 
who died in 1649. 

Richard Browne, M.P., New Romney, 1641 til 
secluded in 1 648. He was of Great Chart, Ashford 
Kent, and seemingly a barrister of the Middl 
Temple. Possibly either "Richard Browne, o 
Southants, gent.," admitted to the Middle Tempi 
in January, 1601, or "Richard Browne, son ant 
fceir of Richard Browne, of Calne, Wilts," admitte( 
an November, 1612. Sir Roger Twisden, in hi 

Diary,' speaks of him as "my cosen Richard 
kowne, a Parliament man, whose memory is ever 
eere with me," and elsewhere as " my cosen 
lichard Browne, one of the Cinque Ports, serving 
or New Romney" (Arch. Cant., ii. 175, iii. 174). 

W. D. PINK. 
Leigh, Lancashire. 

PITT CLUB. Where can I find any particulars 
especting the Pitt Club, the date of its founda- 
ion, list of original members, &c. ? Does the club 
till exist ? I fancy I have seen a notice in the 
newspapers of an annual dinner having been held 
within the last few years. M. A. T. 


[See 7 th S. v. 187, 357 ; vi. 89.] 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. In M. Lacroix's c Bibliographie 
Molie'resque ' I find the following note (p. 157) : 

'Le Etourdi ; or, The Blunderer, Comedy,' Lyon. 
1653, in-12. Nous transcrivons ce titre tel que nous 
'avons trouve dans ' The Bibliographer's Manual of 
English Literature,' de W. Th. Lowndes, et nous avouons 
lumblement n'y rien comprendre. ' L'Etourdi ' de Moliere 
"ut represente a Lyon en 1653 ; est-il possible qu'une 
traduction anglaise de cette comedie ait ete imprlmee a 
Lyon (London?) la memo annee, tandis que la piece 
originate frangaiee ne fut publiee que dix ans plus tard, 
a Paris? II y a certainement une erreur, que nous 
signalons, sans pouvoir en deviner 1'origine." 

Is this a mistake of Lowndes's or does such an 
edition exist ? FRAM. 

[We fail to trace in Lowndes's 'Bibliographer's 
Manual' any entry such as M. Lacroix mentions. No 
such play is mentioned in any theatrical authority. In 
the third volume of ' A Select Collection of Moliere's 
Plays' a translation appears of 'L'Etourdi' under the 
title of ' The Blunderer.' It is dedicated to Philip, Earl 
of Chesterfield. A second translation, with the same 
title, stands first in vol. i. of ' Moliere, French and 
English,' 1732, 1739, and 1755. A third, also with the 
same title, is in vol. iv. of Foote's 'Comic Theatre,' 
1762. ' L'Etourdi' was translated in or before 1667 by 
the Duke of Newcastle, and this version was given to 
Dryden, who incorporated much of it in his ' Sir Martin 
Marr-all ; or, Feigned Innocence,' played for the second 
time Aug. 16, 1667, at Lincoln's inn Fields. This may 
safely be assumed to be the first English translation. 
Dryden's play was published, without the author's name, 
in 1668. JOSEPH KNIGHT.] 

BURIAL CUSTOM. Are there any Lincolnshire 
instances of one special road leading to a church 
being considered the " corpse-way," along which, 
and no other, the dead ought to be carried to the 
grave ? There are, I understand, several of these 
" corpse-ways " in Yorkshire, and I am desirous to 
learn whether they also occur south of the Humber, 
and whether there are instances of coffins being 
borne into church through one door in preference 
to another. Gr. W. 

CHERKT-STONES. In East Anglia there is a not 
uncommon habit among the poor, when eating 
cherries, to swallow the stones, likewise of goose- 
berries the skins, the eaters giving as a reason 

vin. AUG. 10, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

that they digest the better, la this so in other 
counties where cherries grow ; Kant, to wit 1 I 
should add that it is not only a child's trick to 
escape detection, but practised quite as much by 
adults. D. L. 

GEORGE ERRINGTON. His only daughter Jane 
married Eobert Johnson. She was alive in 1814. 
Of what family was he ? I think his son or grand- 
son lived near Colchester. 

Shangton Rectory, Leicester. 

week June 16-22 that is, between the first and 
second Sundays after Trinity a flower appeared 
in our garden, which is apparently a waif. Im- 
mediately it was greeted by the old lady of the 
household as the flower called " Trinity," and so 
called on account of the tradition that it always 
flowered on Trinity Sunday. The flower is actually 
spider-wort (Tradescantia virginica), but the 
origin of the name is obvious, from the three sepals 
and three deep-blue petals of which it consists. 
The fact of the second name, " Trinity," I can find 
stated in no botanical work ; but its genuineness 
was further attested by another person on the 
following day. Is this name generally known ; and 
in what districts? The fitness of the name is 
obvious, and it is worth putting on record. I may 
add that I am no botanist, and a botanist of skill 
may be able to supply me with printed references. 
The plant is figured in Hibberd and Hulme's 
' Familiar Garden Flowers,' pt. xlv. 

2, Harvey Road, Cambridge. 

WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM. Will any of your 
readers kindly inform me if William of Wykeham 
was ever married ? It is, of course, generally 
understood that the marriage of priests was for- 
bidden at this period ; but in a pedigree I possess 
(otherwise well authenticated) it is stated that 
one Thomas Wolriche, of Alconbury, married 
Frances, a daughter of William Wykeham, Bishop 
of Winchester. The life of Wykeham, by Louth, 
Bishop of London, is, unfortunately, not accessible 
to me, or possibly that may throw some light 
upon the subject. J. LDTTRELL PALMER. 

PETER BENSON. Can any of your readers 
supply me with information regarding Peter 
Benson, whose name appears in the Patent Rolls 
of Ireland, Charles I., A.D. 1629, as having been 
granted 1,500 acres of land in Donegal under title 
of the manor of Shraghmurlar, barony of Rafoe 1 

F. W. B. 

famous poem was written about 1747, and used to 
be a favourite piece for recitation. Is it known 
who set it to music ? for it used to be often per- 
formed by amateurs. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

(8 th S. viii. 4.) 

PROF. SKEAT has assuredly drawn too precise an 
inference from the instances he gives in expressing 
the opinion that "we may hence safely conclude 
that the change of pronunciation of sea (from say to 
see) took place towards the close of the eighteenth 
century "; for the transition commenced as early 
as the days of Dryden. 

It may be taken that the accustomed pronuncia- 
tion before the eighteenth century was as George 
Herbert indicated it in the proverb 

He that will learn to pray, let him go to sea; 
but Dryden wrote the lines 

Art thoa of Bethlem's noble College free ? 

Stark, staring mad, that thou vouldst tempt the Sea ? 

and these were quoted by Addison in No. 55 of the 

Spectator (Way 3, 1711). 
Again, in the Weekly Miscellany of June 23, 

1733 (quoted in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 

iii. p. 312) is to be found 'A Meditation on 

Solitude,' with some "beautiful Lines from Mr. 

Norm's Poem call'd the ' Prospect,' " two of which 

are : 

When just about to try that unknown Sea, 
What a strange Moment will that be ! 

The transitional state, however, is best repre- 
sented in the sixth volume of the Gentleman's 
Magazine, that for 1736. On p. 45 is given 
Colley Gibber's 'New Year's Ode,' with the con- 
cluding chorus : 

While truth and virtue guide the helm, 

Secure we range the seas ; 
While George, with justice, sways the realm, 
With pride the land obeys. 

But on p. 158 is a prize epigram containing the 

lines : 

A voyage, my only dear, says she, 
Why will you trust the faithless sea ? 

On p. 284, however, are some "club verses" 
which declare : 

Better we all were in our graves, 

Than live in slavery to slaves ; 

Worse than the anarchy at sea, 

Where fishes on each other prey. 

And again, on p. 416, are verses "on the Nuptial 
of the Prince of Wales," in which sea is rhymed to 

Pope, in the second of two ' Verses to the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Oxford,' had the modern pro- 
nunciation : 

What Patron this, a doubt must be, 

Which none but you can clear, 
Or father Francis, cross the sea, 

Or else Earl Edward here. 

Dr. Watts (who died in 1748, or four years 
after Pope) also adopted the modern style in his 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8< s. vm. A. 10, -95. 

'Launching into Eternity,' included among his 

' Lyric Poems.' where he wrote : 

It was a brave attempt ! advent'rous he, 
Who in the first ship broke the unknown sea. 

The same transition of pronunciation is to be 
simultaneously noted, of course, in regard to tea. 
The earliest English advertisement of that com- 
modity (see 'N. & Q.,' 8 tft S. i. 511) describes it, 
in 1658, as "Tay, alias Tee"; but the former was 
long the pronunciation. Prior, in his ballad of 
' Down Hall ' (which, I believe, is of the date of 
1715) alludes to 

A nymph with an urn that divides the highway, 
And into a puddle throws mother of tea. 

Pope's references are classic : 

Soft yielding minds to Water glide away, 
And sip, with Nymphs, their elemental Tea, 

is from the first canto of ' The Kape of the Lock,' 

just as 

Here thou, great Anna ! whom three realms obey, 
Dost sometimes counsel take and sometimes Tea, 

is from the third. But Churchill, in ' The Ghost' 
(1762), wrote of 

Matrons, who toss the cup, and see 
The grounds of fate in grounds of tea. 

And Johnson is said to have addressed to Mrs. 
Thrale the extempore verse : 

And now, I pray thee, Hetty dear, 

That thou wilt give to me, 
With cream and sugar soften'd well, 
Another dish of tea. 

An American poet, Timothy Dwight, in his 
' Greenfield Hill,' later, however, had the lines 
To inhale from proud Nanking a sip of tea, 
And wave a courtesy trim and flirt away. 

The transition, moreover, was of an all-round 
character, for it applied to flea equally as to sea 
and tea. The lines are sufficiently familiar : 

So naturalists observe, a flea 

Ha? smaller fleas that on him prey; 

And these have smaller still to bite 'em, 

And so proceed ad infinilum. 

But, although the pronunciation is now altered, 
one cannot be certain which Cowper used in 
' Charity," when he wrote 

Whether he measure earth, compute the sea, 
Weigh sunbeams, carve a fly, or split a flea ; 
The solemn trifler with his boasted skill 
Toils much, and is a solemn trifler still, 

for, as PROF. SKEAT has noted, the poet rhymed at 
different periods sea as see and say. 

It is to be further observed that, although we still 
sound ea as ay in great, we have ceased to do so, 
save in remote country districts where old pro- 
nunciations linger the longest, in beat, meat, pleat, 
seat, and treat. ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

PROF. SKEAT is not quite accurate in conclud- 
ing that the pronunciation changed " from tay to 
see " in the eighteenth century, unless he refers to 

literature solely. Here in the West that change 
has not been recognized by vernacular speakers. 
We still invariably say that we are going to zee 
the say. The sharp s in sea is sometimes altered 
to z by facetious writers of dialect, but in so doing, 
they give themselves away. F. T. ELWORTHY. 
Wellington, Somerset. 

Surely two pronunciations of sea prevailed 
during last century, and it is hardly safe to con- 
clude that the change of pronunciation from say to 
see took place towards its close. The following 
quotations for the pronunciation see have at once 
occurred to me : 

A place there is, betwixt earth, air, and seas, 
Where, from Ambrosia, Jove retires for ease. 

' The Dunciad,' bk. ii. 11. 83-4. 
Extols the treasures of the stormy seas, 
And his Jong nights of revelry and ease. 

Goldsmith, ' The Traveller,' 11. 67-8- 
Full oft we tempt the land, and oft the sea; 
And are we only yet repaid by thee 1 

Collins, 'Eclogue II.,' 11. 37-8. 


viii. 6). If MR. LYNN will please to refer to 
Herodotus, he will see that it was especially in the 
time of his success, as well as because of it, that 
Xerxes wept ; so that it was not out of place for 
Keble to speak of him as a conqueror, for such was 
a proper description of him at the time. In Hero- 
dotus, ' Polymnia," ch. xlv. it is : 

'2s Se (apa Travra {J.V TOV 'EAA^cnrovrov VTTO 
TCOV vewv a.TroKKpvfj./Jievov, TToxras Se ras a/era? 
KOL TO, A/3i)S^vcuv TreSia 7ri7rAea dvOpdnruv, 
fvOavra &epr)<s etovrov ip-aKapure ' //.era 8e 

It was out of this incongruity, as it seemed to 
him, that the subsequent conversation of Arta- 
banus with him arose the contrast between the 
two states of feeling (chap, xlvi.) : 

epyatrto vvv re KOU oAiy^) Trporepov ; 
yap crewwov Sa/c/avets. 

Xerxes especially speaks of himself as a future 
" conqueror" in this colloquy (chap. 1.) : 
KaracrpeTJsdfJLfvoi Traq-av TTJV ' 

There is more to the same effect. 


Is it possible in grammar that the line 

This were a conqueror's grief 
can apply particularly to Xerxes ? The word were, 
thus poetically used, has the sense of would be or 
might be, but not, so far as I know, the sense of 
was, so as to make an actual assertion. The 

. viii. AUG. io, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


thought in question, says the poet, might occur t 
a victorious monarch of this world, and an historica 
instance is referred to where it did occur to 
monarch ; but there is no statement that tha 
monarch was a conqueror. The line is general, no 

As to royal coxswains, certainly the only case 
remember is the celebrated one of King Edga 

Eulled down the Dee to Chester by a crew of eigh 
ings ; but there can be no reason why a kinj 
should not steer a ship or a boat, and Keble onl; 
says it might be. 

The Bon of the Archbishop has written a mos 
unacceptable paper about dear John Keble. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

AN OLD OIL PAINTING (8"> S. vii. 489 ; viii 
12). Eeferring to MR. CHRISTIE'S note, I now sent 
you a copy of the inscription and an improvec 
translation : 

" Magdalena Pfalk, Graf Johann von Zweibriickei 
Gemahlin, Eine Tochter Herzogs Wilbelm zu Siilcb, 
undt Marien Erzherzoginn von Oesterreich, deren Hen 
Vater Keyszer Ferd. j. die Frau Mutter Marien Konig- 
liche Erbprincessin von Ungern, gebohren den 2 Novem- 
bris, Ao. 1553." 

Magdalena Pfalk, wife of Count John of Zweibrucken, 
a daughter of Duke William of Sulch and of Maria, 
Archduchess of Austria, whose father was Emperor 
Ferdinand I., and mother Maria, Princess Koyal of 
Hungary. Born November 2, 1553. 

South sea. 

MRS. PITT, ACTRESS (8 th S. viii. 47). The 
date of her death may be arrived at by following 
up the indications given in the ' Autobiography ' of 
her grandson, Thomas Dibdin. On p. 264, vol. i. 
(edition 1834), he records that she was buried two 
days prior to the production of his ' The Volcano ; 
or, the Rival Harlequins' at Covent Garden 
Theatre ; and in a paragraph which he quotes from 
"a morning journal" of the following day, the 
death is said to have taken place " on Wednesday 
last." The Thespian Dictionary ' (1802) says she 
died February, 1800. It is probable that the 
quite indispensable and almost impeccable Genest 
gives the exact date, but I am not able to make 
the reference. I do not know Mrs. Pitt's baptismal 
name. It may interest URBAN to learn that there 
is a small engraved portrait of her as Lady Wish- 
fort ("Dodd ad viv. del., Walker so., published 
by T. Lowndes & Partners, Oct. 26, 1776 "). There 
is also a small full-length in oil by Hogarth in the 
valuable collection at the Garrick Club. Descrip- 
tions of her playing are to be found, e.g., in Hugh 
Kelly's 'Thespis' and Pasquin's 'Children of 
Thespis.' I am anxious to increase my slender 
stock of information regarding Mrs. Pitt, and 
should be much obliged to URBAN for any addition, 
especially her birth-date (1721 is probably the year) 

and her maiden name, which may, however, have 
been Pitt, as Thomas Dibdin (i. 21) mentions her 
brother, "Cecil Pitt, Esq., of Dalston." I have 
been told that she was related to the Pitts who 
were noted in politics. 

Orraes View, Liscard, Cheshire. 

The obituary notice in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, January, 1800, vol. Ixx. parti., p. 84, records 
that Mrs. Pitt, the grandmother of Charles Dibdin, 
jun., was for upwards of forty years an actress at 
Ccvent Garden Theatre. 

An inscription on the upright stone covering 
the family grave of Charles and Mary Dibdin in 
the now sadly neglected burial-ground of St. 
James's Chapel, Pentonville, furnishes the in- 
formation that Mrs. Ann Pitt died Dec. 18> 
1799, aged seventy-eight years. 

Other inscriptions on the same stone com- 
memorate the above - named Charles Dibdin, 
Esq., born Oct. 27, 1767, died Jan. 14, 1833 ; 
Mary, his wife, died Aug. 20, 1816, in her thirty- 
fifth year; and Mrs. Harriet Dibdin, who died 
Dec. 10, 1814. 

The under-named children of Charles and Mary 
Dibdin lie interred in the same grave : John 
Bates, born March 23, 1798, died May 10, 1828 - r 
Charles Richard, born Dec. 20, 1800, died Dec. 5, 
1820 ; Frances Holmes, born Jan. 27, 1804, died 
Feb. 25, 1805 ; Thomas Chatteris, born Aug. 16 r 
1809, died Nov. 8, 1813 ; and Edward Henry, 
a twin, who died Sept. 20, 1813, aged twelve days. 

This famous actress of old women, who, as Tate 
Wilkinson says, "nursed many Juliets," died 
Dec. 18, 1799, aged seventy -nine. Her Christian 
name was Ann. WM. DOUGLAS. 

1, Brixton Road. ; 

Some Dibden Pitts were actors daring the 
^resent half century in London and the country,, 
and may survive. H. T. 

' THE SHAVING OF SHAGPAT ' (8 th S. viii. 46). 
[ suspect that W. B. is unaware of the rule which 
>revails in most large libraries. One may "steym" 

book which is already lent by leaving a postcard 
with the librarian, who will send notice as soon as 
t is brought in. I expect the simple explanation 
s that 'A Marriage at Sea' was asked for, and 'The 
Shaving of Shagpat ' was not. 


8 th S. vii. 308, 492). Grotius, in his ' De Jure 
Jelli ac Pacis ' (lib. ii. cap. ii. sec. 8), says : 

" Non concedendum hoc ei pari necessitate ipse ppg- 
essor teneatur : nam in pari causa, possidentis melior 
st conditio." 

Hoc " refers to the pristine right, in extreme 
ecessity, of using things as if they had remained 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [u B. tin. A. 10, 


common. Grotius, to illustrate this limitation of 
the rights of necessity, quotes Lactantius as saying 
that he does not do amiss who abstains from 
thrusting a drowning man from a plank, or a 
wounded man from his horse, even for the sake of 
his own preservation. (See Lack, ' Div. Inst.,' 
lib. v. cap. xvi.) He also quotes Cicero and Curtius 
in illustration. 

In lib. i. cap. xxiii. sec. 11 Grotius says, when 
speaking of the greater obligation to seek for a 
compromise before going to war which rests on 
the claimant : 

"Ut enim in pari causa melior sit possidentia con- 
ditio, non civili tantum juri sed et natural! convenit." 

It may not be possible to point out the first use 
of this expression ; but the origin of it from the 
legal phrases of the same meaning seems certain. 
It appears so in ' Quelque six mille Proverbes et 
Aphorismes usuels, emprunte"s a notre age et aux 
eiecles derniers,' par le P. Ch. Cahier, S.J., Paris, 
1856, p. 562 : " 'Possidentis melior est conditio.' 
Unde : ' qui possidet dicitur beatus.' " The 
legal maxims are : " Possessor in pari causa potior 
haberi debet," 1. in pari. "Possidentis causa 
melior est, cum de duorum lucro quseritur," 1. 
nemo prredo. " In pari delicto vel causa potior 
(al. melior) est conditio possidentis." (P. Bonif. 
VIII., 'Sexti Decretal.,' lib. v. tit. xii., "De 
regulis juris," reg. Ixv.) 

"In pari delicto potior est conditio possidentis" 
appears in Warren's " Table of English Maxims," 
in his 'Legal Studies.' In ' N. & Q.,' 7"> S. iii. 
273, MIL. A. K. SBILLETO points out that the 
frequent use of it by Prince Bismarck comes 
from its use by Frederick the Great (Carlyle's 
'Fr.,' bk. iv. ch. xi.). Buchmann, in his ' Ge- 
fliigelte Worte,' only refers to it as from Horace, 
bat notes the variation. ED. MARSHALL. 

SAUNDERS (8 th S. vii. 409, 514). I always under- 
stood that Miss Louisa Saunders, sometime mistress 
of a school at Cottage Grove, Mile End, E., who 
died at Eastbourne, July 30, 1885, aged sixty 
eight, was a descendant of the Eev. Laurence 
Saunders. This information, although not autho- 
ritative, may help MR. W. BULLOCK in discovering 
the martyr's present representative. 


THE DEATH MICROBE (8 tt S. viii. 45). MR. 
MARSHALL is mistaken. The discovery is recent. 
The microbes which the very high powers o; 
modern miscroscopes have revealed were entirely 
unknown in the days of Garmannus and Haupt- 
mann. That specific microbes constitute the 
essence of specific diseases is one of the most im 
portant discoveries of modern science. Calling 
death an animalcule is clearly a figure of speech. 

Basingfield, Basingetoke. 

CHILD MARRIAGES (8 th S. vii. 447, 519). The 
tupid, but well-informed Chalmers tells us that 
he child-wife of Symonds d'Ewes was "Anne, 
daughter of Sir William Clopton, of Essex, an 
'xquisite beauty, not fourteen years old "; and 
adds that " his passion for her seems to have in- 
ireased almost to a degree of extravagance, even 
after she was his wife." 


On p. 37, vol. i., of the 'Autobiography and 
Correspondence of Sir Simonds D'Ewes, Bart.,' 
1845, I read : 

''Sir William Clopton, elder brother to the said 
Walter [Clopton, of Kentwell], married Anne, the first 
daughter of the said Sir Thomas Barnardiston, by whom 
le bad issue Anne, his sole daughter and heir, my 
Simonds D'Ewes's] now wife." 

This, as to the lady's name, is the information 
I. A. W. wants. On p. 52 of the same volume I 
read : 

"The following Shrove, this very Shrove Sunday 
L after the marriage of the Elector Palatine and Eliza- 
ietb, daughter of James I., i.e., 1613], also was borne 
Dame Anne D'Ewes, my dear and faithful wife, at Clare 
?riory, in the county of Suffolk ; Sir Thomas Barnardis- 
;on, her grandfather, then dwelling there : so as she 
ever observed the account of her age from that Princess 
icr nuptial day, as I informed Charles. Prince Elector 
Palatine, her son and heir, in the year 1635, when we 
joth went to Newmarket to see his Highness." 

On p. 134 following Sir Simonds says he was, 
in 1626, " admitted to be a suitor " to this young 
lady. On p. 322 we read : 

" It pleased God, out of his infinite goodness and 
mercy unto me far above my desert, to add a final end 
to my cares and suspicions, upon the 24th day of October 
[1626] by the blessed solemnization of our espousals in 
Blacklriars Church [London]." 

The text repeatedly states that the happy pair 
constantly lived and travelled together from that 
date. Further, see pp. 416, 417, 419, 420, 428, and 
431 of the same text. As to one of H. A. W.'s 
inquiries, he will especially notice a statement on 
the above-named p. 417. D'Ewes's first child was 
born April 30, 1630. As to Lady D'Ewes's birth 
see p. 258, vol. ii. of the 'Correspondence,' &c. 
She died July, 1641. F. G. S. 

See ' Early Marriages,' 6 th S. vi. 347 ; vii. 91, 
134 ; viii. 94, 176, 413, 524 ; ix. 236 ; also ' A 
Hundred Years between the Marriage of a Father 
and his Son,' 6 th S. ix. 465 ; x. 138. 


vii. 166 ; viii. 54). Before MR. EDWARD H. 
MARSHALL penned his note, he should have as- 
sured himself of the "bard of Twickenham's" 
pronunciation of "dome." To judge from the 
following passages, the bard pronounced " dome " 
as I do, that is, as rhyming with "home," and cer- 
tainly not as "doom." 

su, s. viii. AUG. 10, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Pope rhymes "dome" with "home," "Rome," 
and " gnome ": 

She bids him wait her to her sacred Dome : 
Well pleas'd he enter'd, and confess'd his home. 

The Dunciad,' bk. i., 11. 265-6. 
Thus when we view some well-proportion'd dome, 
(The world's just wonder, and ev'n thine, Borne !) 
No single parts unequally surprize, 
All comes united to tu' admiring eyes. 

' An Essay on Criticism,' 11. 247-50. 
Swift on his sooty pinions flits the Gnome, 
And in a vapour reach'd the dismal dome. 

' The Rape of the Lock,' canto iv., 11. 17-18. 

" Tomb " he rhymes with " bloom " (' Epistle to 
Dr. Arbuthnot,' 1L 257-8, 'The Dunciad,' iv. 
11. 513-14) and also with " come" (< To Mrs. M. 
B. on her Birthday,' 11. 19-20). 

Palgrave, Diss. 

" SOLOMON-GUNDY " (8 th S. viii. 29). Halliwell, 
in his ' Dictionary of Archaisms and Provincial- 
isms,' describes salmon-gundy to be a mixture of 
apples, onions, veal, or chicken, and pickled her- 
rings, minced fine, and eaten with oil and vinegar. 
Hence a nickname for a cook. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Halliwell-Phillipps's ' Dictionary of Archaisms 
and Provincialisms' has : "Salmon-gundy. Apples, 
onions, veal, or chicken, and pickled herrings, 
minced fine, and eaten with oil and vinegar. Hence 
a nickname for a cook." Cf. also Grose's 'Classical 
Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue.' Bailey's ' Dic- 
tionary ' has " salmingondin." 


Salmagundi, of course ; made of pickled herring 
minced up raw with pepper, vinegar, &c. From 
' Sea Words and Sea Phrases used along the Suf- 
folk Coast,' by Edward Fitzgerald, communicated 
by him to the East Anglian News. 

Stoke Newington. 

S. vii. 328 ; viii. 17). A. H. at the last reference 
does not answer my question. I have yet to learn 
that the rearing of a midden heap is an act of 
iconoclasm. Moreover, this violation of sanitary 
law is recorded in all the biographies. The de- 
facing of an image appears to be a newly discovered 
fact, and I am anxious to learn whence it ori- 
ginated. W. A. HENDERSON. 


This appears to be the ring of Galerius Trachalus, 
an orator contemporary with Quintilian, who fre- 
quently mentions him. In lib. xii. c. v. 5 there 
is : 

" Habuit oratores aetas nostra copiosiores, sed cum 
diceret, eminere inter aequales Trachalus videbatur." 

In vi. iii. 78 there is one of his sayings, a repartee : 
" Repercutiendi multa sunt genera, venustiasimum, 
quod etiam similitudine aliqua verbi adjuvatur; ut 
Trachalus dicenti suelio, ' si hoc ita est, is in exilium'; 
' si non est ita, redis,' inquit. " 

Tacitus has, in ' Hist.,' i. xc., " Galerii Trachili 
ingenio Othonem nti credebatur"; and in ii. lix., 
" Trachalum adversus criminantes Galeria, uxor 
Vitellii, protexit." ED. MARSHALL. 

SPINNING-WHEEL (8 th S. vii. 287, 336, 474, 
515). Those of your readers who are interested 
in this subject may like to see the following little 
poem of Leconte de Lisle's, as it may be unknown 
to some of them, as it was to myself until quite 
recently. It is one of the series entitled " Chansons 
Ecossaises," and it appears to be imitated, but not at 
all closely, from Burna's pretty song ' Bessy and 
her Spinning-wheel.' I do not like the idea in the 
last stanza, but it is a matter of taste. Bessy does 
not mention this amongst the joys conferred, or to 
be conferred, upon her by her "rock and reel": 

La Chanson du Rouet. 
mon cher rouet, ma blanche bobine, 
Je vous aime mieux que 1'or et 1'argent ! 
Vous me donnez tout, lait, beurre et fariue, 
Et le gai logis, et le vetement. 
Je vous aime mieux que Tor et 1'argent, 
mon cher rouet, ma blanche bobine ! 

mon cher rouet, ma blanche bobine, 
Vous chantez des 1'aube avec les oiseaux; 
Etc comme hiver, chanvre ou laine fine, 
Par vous, jusqu'au soir, charge les fuseaux. 
Vous chantez des 1'aube avec les oiseaux, 
mon cher rouet, ma blanche bobine ! 

O mon cher rouet, ma blanche bobine, 

Vous me filerez mon suaire etroit 

Quand, pres de mourir, et courbant 1'echine, 

Je ferai mon lit eternel et froid. 

Vous me filerez mon suaire etroit, 

mon cher rouet, ma blanche bobine ! 


"JOCKTELEG" (8 th S. vii. 506). If evidence 
were wanted to show that a jockteleg is not neces- 
sarily a sheath-knife it would be found in Burns's 
Hallowe'en.' The young people described in 
that poem pull cabbage-stalks, as one of the forma 
observed on the occasion : 

An' gif the custoc 's sweet or sour 
WF joctelegs they taste them. 

Chat is, they dig out the pith with their knives, 

and test its quality, to enable them to draw in- 

"erences regarding the tempers of their coming 

>artners. Peasants, in Bnrns's day or the days of 

any one else, were not in the habit of carrying 

heath-knives, and the poet's annotators therefore 

imply explain the word as " a knife," " a clasp- 

tnife," "a pocket-knife," "a knife named from 

he maker, Jacques de Lie"ge," &c. See editions 

f Burns by Chambers, Scott Douglas, Macpherson, 

jogie Robertson, and others. In Jamieson's 

' Scottish Dictionary,' s.v., the definition given is 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. vm. AUG. 10, '95. 

"folding knife," while there is added a legend of 
James VI., to the effect that, after going to London, 
he one day puzzled his courtiers by saying to a 
stable-boy, " Callan, hae, there 's thretty pennies, 
gae wa, and buy me a jockteleg," &c. It is further 
stated, on the authority of Grose's ' Provincial 
Glossary,' that " Lie"ge formerly supplied Scotland 
with cutlery." "Jocktaleg" is Allan Ramsay's 
spelling. THOMAS BATNE. 

Heleneburgh, N.B. 

I think the following extract from ' Handley 
Cross ; or, Mr. Jorrocks's Hunt,' first ed., p. 409, 
will bear out what MB. N. NEWE says about 
"jockteleg" being what we, as boys, called a 
"shut knife": "'Sink ar's left mar Jack-a-legs 
ahint,' says Pigg, wanting to cut off the fox's 
brush. ' Has ony on ye gotten a knife ? ' " The 
cart-horsed countryman has one, &c. Here " Jack- 
a-legs" is evidently "Newcassel" for the further 
Scotland "jockteleg." 


Abington Pigotts. 

I have always understood that this word was 
supposed to be a corruption not of " John de 
Liege," but of Jacques de Li&ge. In the North 
of England the form used is "jackalegs" or 
" jockelegs." The term is used for a large clasped 
pocket-knife. Jamieson's ' Dictionary ' defines the 
word as being equivalent to a folding knife. 


CHILD'S POIM (8 th S. viii. 49). I have heard 
in Yorkshire the following variants of the pro- 
verbial expression about " wishes ": 

If wishes were dishes, 
And dishes were horses, 
All beggars would ride. 

Another saying is : 

If wishes would bide, 
Beggars would ride. 

Then there is the Scottish proverb : 

If wishes were horses, beggars wad ride, 
And a' the warld be drooned in pride. 


This, in the form which is given, occurs in J. 0. 
Halliwell's 'Nursery Rhymes of England,' J. R. 
Smith publisher, s.a., at "Fourth Class : Pro- 
verbs," Ixxxii., p. 69. The first of the two lines, 
with the French equivalent, is in Hazlitt's ' English 
Proverbs/ 1882, p. 233. He also refers to Halli- 
well. The French is : 

Si souhaits furent vrais 
Pastoreaux eeroient rois. 


This will be found in Halliwell's 'Nursery 
Rhymes ' with the variant given by the Editor of 
' N. & Q.' Mr. Hazlitt, ' Proverbs,' 1882, p. 233, 
draws attention to the fact that a large silver 
watch is called a turnip in popular phraseology. 

He also gives the following reading of the first two 
lines : 

If wishes would bide, 

Beggars would ride. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I was taught : " If wishes were dishes, and 
dishes were horses, every beggar might ride." 


REV. GEORQE PIGGOTT (8 tb S. vii. 325, 458). 
I omitted to add to my list the following extracts 
from 'Liber Hibernse,' vol. i. p. 33 : "Clerks of 
the Market and Measures in and throughout the 
whole kingdom : (Ireland) George Piggott and 
John Walmesley, gent., Thos. Travers, deceased, 
and Robt. Cage surrendered patent Sept. 4, 1623. 
George Piggott, Esq., Persuvent at Arms, without 
fee, patent dated Nov. 9, 1638. George Piggott 
and Geo. Harwood, gent., former patent surren- 
dered, patent dated Dec. 24, 1666." Who was 
this George Piggott 1 


Dundrum, co. Down. 

vii. 28, 75, 136, 238). This poem may be found in 
' Fugitive Poems,' p. 22, collected by the late Prof. 
C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., published in 1869, and 
is there entitled ' On the Hysenas' Den at Kirk- 
dale, near Kirkby Moorside, in Yorkshire, dis- 
covered A.D. 1821,' and is signed " William Cony- 
beare [i.e., Dean Conybeare], 1822." Verse 8 runs: 
I know how they fared every day, 

Can tell Sunday from Saturday's dinner ; 
What rats they devoured, can say,* 
When the game of the forest grew thinner. 

At p. 80 is a ' Latin Epitaph on Professor Buck- 
land,' by John Conybeare. At p. 81 a poem 
entitled 'Picture of a Professor's Rooms [t. e. r 
Buckland's] in C. C. C., Oxford,' signed P. B. 
Duncan, 1821. At p. 85, 'Specimen of a Geological 
Lecture,' by Prof. Buckland, attributed to Dr. 
Shuttleworth, late Bishop of Chichester. At p. 87 
is an ' Elegy intended for Professor Buckland,' by 
Archbishop Whately, Dec. 1, 1820. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

WHISTER-POOP (8" S. vi. 488 ; vii. 112, 172). 
I have frequently heard my uncle, who was a 
native of Somerset, used the expression "a whister- 
poop under the ear," in the sense of a cuff or box 
on the ear. CHAS. JAS. FRET. 

BULL-ROARER (8 th S. vii. 7,98, 158, 258,334, 
457; viii. 12, 55). Like R. B. S., I am a lauder 
of the acted time. The bandilor I do not think 

An appended note says : 
For rats and mice, and such small deer, 
Had been Tom's food for irany a year. 

s* s. vm. AUG. io, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


I much affected, but the whirligig I was very fond 
of, and have shown dozens of modern boys how to 
make it. My brother and I once made a gigantic 
one ; our disc was more than a foot across and 
nearly an inch thick ; we fitted a strong cord and 
a cross handle at each end, and worked it between 
as. It took us some trouble to get up speed, but 
at last we did, and the noise made astonished us. 
Suddenly smack went our cord, both sides at once 
and the thing flew over the garden with really 
frightful force. We surveyed its course with 
horror : a cucumber-frame it would have smashed 
to atoms ; a small child it would have stunned, ii 
not killed. Luckily it did no harm ; but we did 
not again apply the ballista principle in such a 
style. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 


GRACE" (8 th S. viii. 28). For early instances ol 
the use of this proverb, and its English equivalent, 
" The nearer the Church, the further from God,' 
see ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. x. 471 ; xi. 21 ; 5" S. xi. 8, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The 'N. E. D.,' under "Church," meaning 
No. 12, has "The nerer the chyrche the fer fro 
Crist," with the reference a 1450 MS. Douce 52. 
15. The French and the Welsh, as well as the 
Scotch, have similar sayings. See ' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. 
xi. 8, 98, 158. G. L. APPERSON. 


This proverb is used by Cyril Tourneur in ' The 
Atheist's Tragedie,' 1611, I. iv.: 

"Bel. Come, set forward to the church. 

" Seba. And verifie the Prouerbe The nearer the 
Church, the further from God." 

It occurs also in John Hey wood's ' Proverbes, 1 
1546, p. 35, reprint 1874 : 

But first declare 

Where yours and your wives rich kinsfolkes do dwell. 
Envyronned about us (quoth hee), which sheweth well, 
The neer to the church, the further from God, 

The editor, Mr. Julian Sharman, has in a note : 
"Qui eg t pres de 1'Egliae est souvent loin de Dieu." 
' Les Proverbes Communs,' circa 1500. 


DALRTMPLES, EARLS OF STAIR (8 th S. vii. 301, 
330, 394). In his note on this subject, MR. HALL 
throws some doubt on the date assigned by me to 
the creation of the baronetcy of Sir Hew Dalrymple, 
which, according to Solly, he says, was granted in 
1697, not 1698 ; and he adds, " What are the 
facts ? " I can only say that, to the best of my 
knowledge, the date is as I gave it viz., 1698. I 
do not know what is the value of Solly's authority 
(I presume the reference is to the author of the 
'Index of Hereditary Titles of Honour, 1 1880); 
but all the ordinary sources give the date as 1698; 
and, moreover, the present baronet, Sir Walter 

Hamilton-Dairy mple, to whom I referred the point, 
assures me that the date is 1698, and that that is 
the year inscribed on the Nova Scotia badge of 
the baronetcy in his possession. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

ST. MARIE OVERIE (8 th S. viii. 68). Stow tells 
us that this church, long before the Conquest, was 
a house of sisters, which had the oversight and 
profits of a traverse ferry over the Thames. This 
house was afterwards converted into a college of 
priests, who in place of the ferry built a bridge of 
timber, and afterwards in its place a bridge of 
stone. In 1106 the church was again founded as 
a priory, which was surrendered to Henry VIII. 
in 1539. 

I have never seen a satisfactory explanation of 
the name Overie. Two etymologies are possible, 
both of which involve the hypothesis that the termi- 
nation -ie represents O.E. tge (tege), the dative 
case of Ig (leg), an island, land by water, which 
word is probably also found in the latter part of 
the name of Surrey, O.E. Su%r-lge. 

The element "over" may represent (1) O.E. 
o/er, over, across, in which case the name Overie 
would mean " the water-land across the river," or 
(2) O.E. o/er, a river-bank, a shore, in which case 
Overie would mean "the water-land on the 
river bank." A. L. MAYHEW. 


" Over " is found in many town suburbs sepa- 
rated by a river from the parent town ; thus, 
Northover, Southover, Eastover, &c.; and I have 
always connected it with the shout of " Over ! " when 
a traveller wishes to draw the attention of a ferry- 
man across the water. St. Marie Overie is closely 
identified with the old ferry from the Southwark 
Clink to Dowgate Dock Dowgate meaning 
"water gate"; so Overie is "over the rye," or 
water, i. e., across the water. A. fl. 

MRS. SOPHIA WILLIAMS (8 th S. vi. 3, 93). In 
the ' Annual Register,' under date Feb. 18, 1771, 
I find the following entry : 

' Mrs. Cornelys has been twice fined 501. for having 
operas (stiled Harmonic Meetings) at Carlisle House, 
3obo Square. Guadagni has been fined 501. for singing 
in the operas, and there are two other informations 
against him for the same. There is also another in- 
formation against Mrs. Cornelys, for having public 
masquerades at the same house." 

These informations seem to have ended Gua- 
dagni's London career, and to have driven him 
out of the country. My grandfather thus speaks 
of him of his ' Musical Reminiscences ': 

" In the spring of 1784, passing through Padua, I went 
o a grand mass in the church of St. Antonio, when, it 
>eing Whit Sunday, and, of course, a festival, I had the 
pood fortune to hear a motelto, or anthem, sung by Gua- 
dagni, of whom I had heard very much, as he had for a 
ong time been a great favourite in England, which he 



. YIII. AUG. 10, 

left in the year 1771. When he sang as first man at our 
opera he was uncommonly handsome, and a remarkably 
good actor ; Garrick himself having taken pains to in- 
struct him. His voice was then a soprano of the finest 
description, and his performance, particularly of Orfeo, 
was described as having been delightful. He was now 
advanced in years, and sang as contralto ; his voice was 
still full and well toned, and his style appeared to me 
excellent. He belonged to the choir of the church in 
which I heard him, where alone he ever sang, and that 
only on a few particular occasions. As he retained a 
great partiality for England, and had been much noticed 
by my family, he no sooner heard I was in the town 
than he came to call upon me, and insisted on my taking 
coffee at hia house, where he entertained me, not with 
singing, which I should have liked much better, but 
with exhibiting fantoccini on a little stage, in which he 
took great delight. I learnt lately that he died one year 
after I saw him [in 1785]." 

la the ' Annual Register,' under date Dec. 23, 
1772, 1 find the following : 

" Mrs. Cornelys' house and furniture, in Soho Square, 
was sold by auction for 10,2002." 

Farther information about the celebrated Mrs. 
Cornelys will be found in a book, recently pub- 
lished by Dulau & Co., Soho Square, entitled, 
' Soho and its Associations,' by George Clinch ; 
also in ' Humphry Clinker,' vol. i. p. 136, edition 
1796; in the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
an article by Henry Tedder, F.S.A. ; and in Bart- 
hold's ' Geschichlichen Personlichkeiten in Jacob 
Casanova's Memoiren,' vol. ii. pp. 217, 226, 231 ; 
besides, of course, those works already named by 
correspondents to 'N. & Q.' According to the 
' Memoirs of Frederica Wilhelmina,' sister of 
Frederick II., Mrs. Cornelys played a disastrous 
role in the contemplated marriage of that princess 
with the Markgraf Frederick of Bayreufch. 


33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

"MUGGLESWICK" (8 th S. vii. 449; viii. 78). 
MR. FERET has not read my query carefully when 
he asks for " a genuine spelling of the name, say 
ante 1200." I quoted the spelling from ' Boldon 
Buke,' and that ' Domesday ' of the north country 
was compiled, as appears in its opening paragraph, 
" Anno Incarnationis Doininicse millesimo cen- 
tasimo octogesimo tertio, ad festum Sancti Cuth- 
berti in Quadragesima," &c. The paragraph in 
which the name occurs reads thus : 

" Prior de Dunelm. habet Muglyngwyc, sicnt in carta 
quam inde habet continetur, tarn de gratia et dono 
Episcopi quam in escambium de Herdewic." 


ARTHUR'S COFFEE-HOUSE (8 th S. viii. 10). 
Timbs's ' Curiosities of London ' says : 

" Arthur's Club House by St. James's Street is named 
from Mr; Arthur, the keeper of White's Chocolate 
House, who died 1761." P. 241. 


GEORGE GERARD JOHNSON (8 to S. viii. 28). 
George and Gerard are names in a family of John 

son in which I am interested. Thomas Hayter 
Longden, my grandfather, married (September 21, 
1813, at St. George's, Hanover Square) Lavinia, 
youngest daughter of Robert Johnson, by his wife 
Jane, only daughter of George Errington. I know 
nothing of the earlier history of Robert Johnson's 
family. H. ISHAM LONGDEN, M.A. 

Shangton Rectory, Leicester. 

A " CANTERBURY " (8 th S. vii. 88). If MR. 
HOOPER will refer to Funk & Wagnalls's ' Standard 
Diet.,' s.i-., he will find the American recognition 
he asks for. CUSTOS. 

VALSE (8 th S. viii. 29, 78). Southey, in his 
' Commonplace Book," ii. 327, says Gifford shows 
that the waltz of the present day is the La Yolta 
of which our ancestors, two centuries ago, became 
either tired or ashamed. This dance was first 
introduced at the Court of Henry II. at Fontaine- 
bleau, in 1555, by the Comte de Sault, and its 
history is thus stated by Vincent Carloix in the 
memoirs of his master, Mareehal de Yieilleville : 

" He (the Comte de Sault) had the principal vogue in 
a ball royal, for his fondness for dancing and his good 
grace ; so that he introduced at Court a sort of dance 
called 'La volte de Province,' which had never been 
danced there, and which has afterwards had a great run 
throughout the kingdom. It has also been laid that he 
invented it, for many called it ' La volte de Sault '; and 
this name is suitable, both because of the etymology of 
the word and the character of the dance. ' Car 1'homme 
et la femme s'estant ernbrassez tous-jours de trois en 
quatre pas, tant que la dance dure, ne font quo tourner, 
virer, s'entre-soubslever, et bondir. Et est ceste dance, 
quind elle est bien menee par personnes expertes, tres 
agreable.' " 

The great popularity of the waltz gave rise to 
many disputes whether the dance came from " La 
Sauteuse"or " Volte," or the German national 
dance the " Landler," whence it made its way to 
Vienna, and was introduced in the opera ' Una 
Casa rara.' By-and-by it found its way to France. 
Dr. Burney saw it performed in Paris in 1780, 
and remarked : 

" How uneasy an English mother would feel to see her 
daughter so familiarly treated, and still more to note the 
obliging manner in which the freedom is returned by 
the females." 

Crabb Robinson witnessed one at Frankfort in 
1 800, afterwards described in his diary thus : 

" The man places the palms of his hands gently 
against the sides of his partner, not far from the arm- 
pits. His partner does the same, and instantly, with as 
much velocity as possible, they turn round, and at the 
same time gradually glide round the room." 

By the directions given in the ' Complete 
Dancing Master ' it was the custom at Almack's 
for only one or two quadrilles (and subsequently 
waltzes) to be danced at the same time, and thus 
it became a matter of exhibition, the whole com- 
pany standing on benches to view the per- 

. VIII. AUG. 10, '95.] 



Raikes, in bis journal, declares that " no even 
ever produced so great a sensation in Englisl 
society as the introduction of the German valtz ' 
by Baron Neuman and others in 1813. 

How profound was its popularity is proved bj 
the existence of Lord Byron's diatribe 

What ! the girl I adore by another embraced ! 
and by the fact that it supplied the title of 
comic opera, by Horn and Arnold, in the same yea 
as the satire. John Oxenford also wrote a fare 
called ' A Waltz by Arditi.' 

Waltzing has become now so common that we 
of the present day cannot understand the com 
motion which it at first created. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

' The Stanford Dictionary of Anglicised Word 
and Phrases' has : 

All these fair Flamandes gain force 
In the Valtz aa they spin in their whirligig course. 
1796, ' Campaigns,' 1793-4, vol. ii. let. 1, p. 6. 

Sub "Waltz," this quotation is given with date 
1712 : "I am also rejoysed to hear that you are 
clever and voltize and waltt a little" (Let. in 
Dunbar's 'Social Life,' p. 43, 1865). 


"HA-HA" (8 th S. vi. 66, 198, 271; vii. 354 
viii. 38), This word has frequently been dis- 
cussed in 4 N. & Q.,' but I do not remember 
seeing the right explanation given. 

It has nothing whatever to do with A.-S. haga, 
a hedge, which comes out in modern English as 
haw. Cf. haw-thorn. 

The derivation from the interjection ha ! ha ! 
is quite correct, as may easily be seen by consult- 
ing Littre" and the new French etymological dic- 
tionary by Hatzfeld. But the usual explanation, 
viz., that the haha so suddenly surprises you that 
you involuntarily cry haha ! (which no one ever 
did yet) is quite absurd. It is the haha itself 
which, as it were, cries ha ! ha ! that is, " Stop ! 
or you '11 tumble in ! " The very look of it is a 
warning, and that is all that is meant. 

The English word is merely a loan-word from 
French. The Old French hahe was a hunting 
term, calling upon the dogs to stop, a fact which 
gives the clue at once. The variant haha similarly 
denotes a break in the ground, calling upon one 
to stop. Scarron actually used haha to denote an 
old woman of such surpassing ugliness that she 
came upon the gazer as a surprise ! We should 
call her " a caution," which is just the sense of 

SIMON DE MONTFORT'S BONES (8 th S. viii. 29). 
It is not clear in the query which Simon de 
Montfort is the subject of the effigy in the church 
of St. Nazaire, in Carcassonne. Simon I. died in 
1087; Simon II, his son, died 1103 or 1104; 

Simon III., nephew of Simon II., died 1181; 
Simon IV., son of Simon III., amongst other ex- 
ploits, took Carcassonne, 1210. He became pos- 
sessed of large estates in England, was made Earl 
of Leicester by King John. In 1215 he was 
invested by the Council of the Lateran with the 
county of Toulouse. He was killed before the 
walls of Toulouse in 1218. Simon de Montfort, 
younger son of Simon IV., was born in France, 
and retired to England 1231 or 1236. Henry III. 
gave him the earldom of Leicester, which had 
been held by his father. He was slain at the 
battle of Evesham, 1265 (see ' Dictionnaire des 
Dates,' Paris, 1845, and ' Dictionary of Biography,' 
by Gates, London, 1885). 

The last-named can scarcely have been buried 
in France. After the battle of Evesham 

" some malicious disposed persones kut of bis bode and 
his distnysaaries, and fastened tbeym vpon eyther syd 
of his nose, and after made a present therof vnto the 
\vyfe of syr Roger Mortymer; his fete also and his 
handes were kut from the body, and sent to sondry 
place?, and the trunke of his body beryed within the 
churche of Euisham." See Fabyan's ' Chronicles,' re- 
printed 1811, p. 357. 

There was one more Simon de Montfort, viz., 
a son of the second Earl of Leicester, who, with 
his brother Guy, assassinated Henry d'Almaine in 
the city of Viterbo in 1271. 

Probably the Simon de Montfort whose effigy 
is in the church at Carcassonne was Simon IV., 
who was entitled " Simon Dei gratia Dux Narbonse, 
Comes Tolosse et Leicestriae, Vicecomes Bliterarum 
(Besiers) et Carcassonne, dynasta Montfortii " (see 
' Begum Pariumque Magnse Britannise Historia 
Genealogica' Jacobi Wilhelmi Im-Hoff, Norim- 

gse, 1690, cap. 33, p. 136). The family name 
was Montfort-l'Aumaury. 


506 ; viii. 74). I must plead ignorance as to the 
" point " of the last reference. My few lines were 
written with the self-evident object to point out 
that this song does not refer to the battle of 
Flodden. Perhaps I incorrectly assumed that few 
readers were acquainted with this ; still I have 
reasons for thinking so yet. Whether MR. BATNB 
considers my assumption and note as being matter 
calculated to "cumber" the pages of ' N. & Q.' is 
reside the question, at least so far as the first 
reference is concerned. 


For a very interesting life of Mrs. Cockburn, 
y Jane M. Butler, see the Caledonian Jottings, 
lublished by the Caledonian Insurance Company 
f Edinburgh, for July. A. G. REID. 


SIR ROBERT CLARKE (8 th S. viii. 69). Has 
VI. A.OXON. consulted all or any of the numerous 
uthorities referred to by Mr. Rigg at the conclu- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. viu. A. 10. -95. 

sion of his notice of Clarke in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography,' vol. x. p. 440 ? 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

MIAMI UNIVERSITY (8 th S. viii. 68). There 
are two institutions in America with this name. 
^The first is the Miami Medical College, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio ; the second, Miami University, Oxford, 
Ohio. The Dean of the Miami Medical College is 
W. H. Taylor, M.D. The charter was granted 
in 1865, and there are twenty professors connected 
with the College. In 1891 twenty-two gentlemen 
took the degree of M.D., leaving ninety-one 
students undergoing training for the same quali- 
fication. The annual charge for tuition is from 
<50 to 100 dols., the matriculation fee 5 dols., and 
the graduation fee 25 dols. 

The Dean of Miami University is Dr. Ethelbert 
D. Warfield. The charter was granted in 1809, 
and the University, which is of a non-sectarian 
character, was opened in 1816. There are eleven 
professors and instructors, and the number of 
etudents in 1891 was fifty-seven, two of whom 
were females. In 1891 six honorary degrees were 
-conferred, three D.D.s and three LL.D.s. Eight 
degrees were conferred on candidates who had 
undergone the University requirements, namely, 
seven received the B. A. and one the M. A. degree. 
For the degree of B.A. four years' tuition is re- 
quired. The annual charge for the tuition of each 
pupil is 45 dols. The library numbers 10,000 
volumes ; the value of the scientific apparatus is 

13,000 dols. ; the value of the ground and build- 
ings 150,000 dols. ; the amount of productive funds 
200,000 dols., which produces an annual income 
of 1,200 dols. The state grants 3,000 dols. 
annually, the receipts from tuition fees is 2,250 dols. 

and the total income 18,000 dole. For further 

information see ' The Annual lieport of the 
Secretary of the Interior,' vol. v. part ii., pp 

1118, 1135, 1189, 1198, 1216, 1222, from which 

the above has been compiled. 

Winder House, Bradford. 

SIR THOMAS MORE (8' h S. viii. 29). At the 
reference given (ii. 174), Sir Thomas More is no 
mentioned in ' European Morals,' fifth edition 
1882, although Strutt is there quoted. Referrin^ 
to the ' Sports and Pastimes,' it will be seen tha 
throwing at cocks was a childish amusement of th 
future chancellor's, presumably not indulged in 
when he came to years of discretion. 



LEWIN FAMILY (8 th S. vii. 409, 477 ; viii. 58) 
Administration of the goods of Dame Susann 
Lewen, of St. Bride's, London, widow, was grante 
March 16, 1737/8, in the C.P.C., to John Tayler 
Esq., nephew by brother, and to Elizabeth, wif 

f James Kettle, Esq., niece by sister, the next of 
in of the deceased. G. E. C. 

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD (8 ll> S. viii. 46). 
shall be glad if you will allow me to point out 
lat all the lords who suffered for their share in 
'45, with the sole exception of Lovat, were 
xecuted in 1746, not 1747, and that, therefore, the 
apers of the date mentioned by Robert Riddell 
annot have been " filled with an account of the 
jxecution of Lovat and the Rebel Lords on Tower 
lill." They may have contained an account of 
he beheading of Lovat ; but surely the prince 
ould not be expected to show much grief over the 
ate of this double-dyed traitor. RUVIGNY. 

ROSARY (8 th S. viii. 47). I have a book called 
The Rosary of our Sauyour Jesu : being Medita- 
ions on the Life of our Lord, and Prayers to Him 
>nly.' It was printed by Richarde Pynson. 


A New English Dictionary on Historical Principle!. 
Edited by Dr. Jas. A. H. Murray. Deject Deprava- 
tion. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

A FURTHER quarterly instalment of the ' New English 
Dictionary ' appeals to English scholarship, and proves 
,hat this huge and all- important undertaking is making 
sensible progress. No long time will elapse before 
vol. iii., of which the present livraison is a portion, 
will be in the hands of the public. The part cpntaina 
1,589 words as against 280 in Johnson, 959 in the 
Century Dictionary,' 1,002 in Funk's ' Standard,' and 
1,004 in the 'Encyclopaedic.' Of the 1,269 main words 
dealt with fewer than ten are of old English origin, the 
majority being of Latin origin derived through French. 
Many of the words are of high interest, the origin of 
the prefix de being not easy in all cases to explain. Such 
a case is that of the word demure, which is an extended 
ferm of meure, mewre, French mur, mellow, ripe, mature. 
We have in 1377 dimuuir applied to the sea. Malory 
has " semely and demure as a douuo." Milton ennobled 
the word by his use of it in ' II Penseroso.' As a model of 
historical information concerning a word take Demo- 
gorgon. The view that makes this word a corruption 
of demiurgus finds little favour. The 'Genealogia 
Deorum ' of Boccaccio, in which it is described as the 
primordial god of ancient mythology, is held to have 
given rise to the use of the word by writers such as 
Spenser, Milton, and Shelley. Another splendid instance 
of the historical treatment is given under Delf. Of that 
vile word dependable it is sad to find instances of use by 
Pope, Herschel, Sir F. Palgrave, and Boyd Carpenter; 
while the still viler word dependableness is used by 
Pusey, Carlyle, and Miss Mulpck. It is curious to find 
that dentist for tooth-drawer is not found in use earlier 
than 1759, and is at that period repudiated. While 
democracy appears in England so early as 1531, democrat 
is not found until the year 1740. Demi-rep is a curious, 
if well-known word, the rep in which is assumed to be 
short for reputation. In dealing with demean in the 
sense of debase Dr. Murray calls attention to a mono- 
graph on the word by Dr. Fitzedward Hall. The interest 
and value of the part are not inferior to those of preced- 
ing portions. 



THE Quarterly Review for July contains several articles 
which will be of interest to our readers. The first paper 
relates to the Spanish Armada, a subject of which Eng- 
lishmen never tire. It is written with great thought and 
care, and embodies much of the new knowledge which 
has come to light since the archives of our own nation 
and foreign countries have been thrown open to historical 
students. We cannot profess to accept every suggestion 
which the writer makes, for the subject is still beset 
with difficulties, but feel assured that it is a long way in 
advance of all that has hitherto been written on the sub- 
ject. The Passing of the Monk ' is a thoughtful paper, 
written, as is evident, by one who has a wide knowledge 
of monastic life. It is rare to find any one who is able 
to write on this thorny subject without betraying pre- 
judice. Here, as it seems to us, it is entirely absent. 
'The Passing of the Monk' will be equally enjoyed by 
those of ancient and of modern schools of thought. 
Monasticism, as a whole, is only praised within rigorous 
limitations; but the writer utterly discards the venerable 
fable that the monks were idle drones, of profligate life. 
The article on ' Tischendorf's Greek Testament ' is far 
from light reading ; but is perhaps, on the whole, the 
most important paper the number contains. There is 
much loose thinking and looser talk regarding the text 
of the New Testament as a whole, and especially of the 
Gospels. For some of this we fear Tischendorf must be 
held responsible. We regret that we are compelled to 
say this, for he was a very learned and most hard-working 
and zealous man, who devoted his life to settling the 
text of the New Testament. His labours were vast, and 
it is not easy to estimate the amount of good he did ; 
but his views changed often, and there are but few who 
have followed his literary career so steadily as to be in a 
position to weigh his reasons. This the writer has done 
for us with elaborate care. Though he is not in agreement 
with the illustrious scholar on all the many matters that 
divide us, we cannot doubt that the sketch he has given 
will increase the great student's fame. The writer has 
also done good work in showing that in not a few cases 
the textual importance of the uncial manuscripts has 
been exaggerated when compared with their cursive 
brethren. The article on ' The Evil Eye ' embodies, so 
far as we can see, nearly all the more important facts 
that have been collected by modern folk-lore students on 
this bewildering subject. 

THE July issue of the English Historical Review 
(Longmans & Co.), always of high character, contains 
more food for meditation than any other we remember 
to have seen. The Rev. Nicholas Pocock, the editor o* 
the standard edition of Bishop Burnett's ' History of tht 
Reformation,' is a high authority on everything relating 
to the great religious revolution of the sixteenth century 
He has contributed a careful and learned paper on ' Th( 
Condition of Moral and Religious Belief in the Reign o 
Edward VI.' There is, probably, no one in England a 
the present time who has accumulated the minute know 
ledge here displayed. The pamphlet literature of tha 
disturbed time has, for the most part, perished. Thi 
few remains of what must once have been a not incon 
siderable literature are scattered about, here and there 
in our great libraries, so that it requires no little zea 
and patience to gather together the facts they disclose 
and to work out from them a coherent picture. Mr 
Pocock has done this, and the result is not pleasant to 
contemplate. When an old order is giving place to a 
new one, we find that exceptional facilities are given 
for weak and evil persons to rise to the surface. Sue! 
was the case at the time of the French Revolution ; an< 
in our own days, when the Northern States of America 
had become in earnest regarding the disgrace of slavery 
so it was at the period of the Reformation. No com 

letently instructed person can, we imagine, be found at 
he present day who would deny the honesty and purity 
)f motive of many of the reformers; but Mr. Pocock 
nakes it evident that their steps were dogged at every 
urn by those who allied themselves with the new move- 
nent not because their religious feelings were touched, 
>ut that they might enjoy more unrestricted licence of 
ife. Much that Mr. Pocock tells of the divisions in the 
camp of the reformers is new to us, and so, we think, it 
will be to the greater part of his readers. The sufferers 
*pr Protestantism in the reign of Mary had, it seems, 
ittle sympathy shown them by the strict Lutherans. So 
violent were they that, it seems, the English who faced 
death in that terrible time were commonly spoken of as 
' the devil's martyrs." Mr. David Watson Rannie give* 
i very good account of Oliver Cromwell's major-generals. 
The appointment of these officers to rule in the shires 
with an authority almost as despotic as his own has 
usually been regarded as one of the chief blots on the 
Protector's reign. Even Carlyle's version of the affair 
does not leave on the minds of unprejudiced persons a 
favourable impression. The facts of the case and their 
surroundings have, however, never been made clear. 
Mr. Rannie has studied the matter with much care, and 
we are bound to say that he has removed from the 
character of the Lord Protector much of the moral culp- 
ability which seemed to stain it. While, however, we 
admit this, we must say that he does so at a consider- 
able sacrifice of that political sagacity which we are- 
in the habit of attributing to the Protector. The paper 
by Mr. E. Armstrong on the Constable Lesdiguieres 
shows an intimate acquaintance with the minute details' 
of French history. To criticize his paper justly we 
should possess an equal amount of this very rare know- 
ledge. To such attainments wo put in no claim. Our 
knowledge of the times is, however, sufficient to justify 
us in saying that the broad outlines of the portrait are 
correct. The last of the Constables of France was a 
brave, bad man, who made a high position and accu- 
mulated a vast fortune for himself by upwards of sixty 
years of continuous fighting. Such a man can command 
little sympathy ; but we may, perhaps, say that in those 
stormy days of religious warfare it was better that he, 
bad as he was, should rule than that the command of 
affairs should have fallen into less competent hands. 

THERE is little cause for astonishment, considering the 
stirring political times through which we have passed, 
that the principal articles in the English reviews deal with 
the recent election?, and in so doing remain outside our 
scope. There are, indeed, this month singularly few papers 
that have not some leaven of the controversial. Prof. Hux- 
ley is treated in the Fortnightly from four different points- 
of view, his personal characteristics being shown by the 
Warden of Morton, Prof. Tylor dealing with him as an 
anthropologist, Mr. W. L. Courtney as a philosopher, 
and "A Student of Science" as a biologist. What is 
said is both interesting and valuable ; but who shall say 
it does not furnish abundant matter for controversy] 
Mr. William Archer expresses his delight in Eleonora 
Duse, and strives hard to get at and explain the magic 
of her strangely sympathetic individuality. An article 
of keenest interest, by Mr. Russell P. Jacobuc, on ' Bour- 
get's "Andre Cornell," ' shows how closely the French 
writer, in modernizing the story of ' Hamlet,' and suiting 
it to modern French life, has adhered to his original. 
His essay is fine critical work. Vernon Lee has a strange 
meditation on ' Beauty and Sanity.' ' The Spectroscope 
in Recent Chemistry ' gives glimpses into the fairyland 
of science. Colonel Boxall writes on ' Railway Batteries ' 
as a means of defence, and Mr. Laslett Browne has some 
reflections on ' Common Sense and Crime.' The Nine- 
teenth Century is very polemical indeed, and Mr. Frederic 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [e* a. VIIL A. 10, w. 

Harrison, on ' Theological Pessimism,' and the Rev. Dr. 
Barry, ou ' A Defence of Prayer,' make vigorous assaults 
upon opponent?, as does also Prof. St. George Mivart. 
Miss Edith Sellers is on safe ground in depicting for us 
'The Old Age Homes in Austria.' To the Emperor 
Josef II., who was bent on bettering the condition of 
the aged poor, Austria owes these institutions, in which, 
apparently, the only thing to regret is the inadequacy of 
the accommodation. Mr. H. A. Kenney has a smartly 
written ' Dialogue on the Drama,' which may be read 
with interest, but tells us nothing new, and leaves 
matters where they were. 'Orgeas and Miradou (a 
Dream of Provence),' by Mr. Frederick Wedmore, is 
dreamy and tender, but not quite satisfying. Sir Edmund 
du Cane deals with ' The Prison Committee Report ' 
and Miss Annie M. Earle discusses ' University Exten- 
sion in America.' ' New British Markets, ' respectively 
in Western China and Tibet, are pointed out by Mr. 
Hallett and Mr. Black. Mr. G. S. Street's ' In Arcady ' 
is the pleasantest article in the New Review. It is, in 
fact, a simple eulogy of Mr. Kenneth Grahame's delight- 
ful 'Golden Age,' but it contains much genuine and 
valuable criticism. Mr. Chalmers Mitchell has something 
to say that is worth reading concerning Huxley, and 
Miss (?) Evelyn March Phillipps finds redeeming features 
in 'The New Journalism.' The Hon. Robert Lyttelton 
opines that it will be long before we see again a cricketer 
such as Grace, and Capt. Robinson, R.N., shows, in an 
article on 'Naval Experts,' that faddists are not confined 
to religion and politics. Mr. Millar praises some of the 
novels of John Gait. ' The Anterior Time ' and ' The 
Wolf's Life ' may also be read with pleasure. In the 
Century a life of Rubens is accompanied by a really 
excellent engraving by the author, Timothy Cole, of the 
beautiful portrait of Jacqueline de Caestre, with other 
pictures of far more Rubens-like beauties. Mr. Sloane's 
' Life of Napoleon ' gives a striking description of the 
great conquest of Marengo and the following Peace of 
Luneville. Like previous portions, the present instal- 
ment is brilliantly illustrated. A life of Sonya Kova- 
levsky is accompanied by a very attractive portrait. 
' Reminiscences of Literary Berkshire [U.S.] ' has high 
interest for English readers as well as American. Two 
articles on the sea fight between the Chinese and the 
Japanese will attract great attention in naval circles. 
One is by Commander McGiffen, of the Chen Yuen. 
Scr ilner's announces itself as a fiction number, and so 
scarcely comes under our purview. It has, however, 
some admirable papers that cannot be classed as fiction. 
Among these are a paper by Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith 
upon 'The Pastels of Edwin A. Abbey,' and Paris 
a-wheel, by M. Arsene Alexandre. The former repro- 
duces, in capital style, some admirable illustrations of 
Mr. Abbey to ' The Good Natured Man, ' and declares 
that the art of the painter has done " what Wagner has 
done in music, Tennyson and the poets in verse." The 
second has some delightful sketches by M. Paleologue. 
'A Decayed Profession,' in Macmillan 'i, deplores the 
disappearance of the pedler with his pack. ' When we 
were Boys ' continues admirable reading. Its descrip- 
tions of nature are excellent. ' Antarctic Explorations ' 
is on a subject which seems to stand every chance of 
becoming an actuality. The latest instalment, in Temple 
Bar, of ' Fitzgerald's Letters to Fanny Eemble ' are 
more indiscreet than ever. Interesting as these are, it 
is to be wished that initials had, in some case?, been 
substituted for names, by the employment of which 
much pain must necessarily be caused to worthy people 
atill living. Actors, from the highest downwards, are 
not spared by the writer. ' The Passing of Philip II.' 
gives a striking picture of the sufferings of that monarch. 
More care should have been exercised in revision. Some 

reader?, at least, will be puzzled to hear of Philip's 
"murders of Mons, Montignyof Egmont and Home," 
which is an exact quotation from the article. The Pall 
Mall has a well-written and well-illustrated account of 
'The Palace of Fontainebleau.' 'Re-incarnation,' by 
Mr. Robert S. Hichens, is queer and fantastic enough for 
Poe. Mrs. Parr's ' The Follies of Fashion' is quite anti- 
quarian in interest. Its reproductions of old plates are 
capital. Mr. Bancroft sends a curious paper on ' Box 
and Cox at the Engadine.' Mr. Grant Allen writes on 
' Evolution in Early Italian Art : the Madonna and 
Child.' Some of the illustrations sent are exquisite, 
others are well, of the day. The Gentleman's has a 
paper on ' Rural Bank?, ' a second on ' Curious Acts of 
Parliament, ' and a critical paper on ' Poetic Pride, ' by 
which title is designated the belief of the poet in hia 
mission. Mr. R. L. Stevenson's 'Fables,' which appear 
in Longman's, are characteristically strange and subtle. 
Mr. W. H. Pollock writes on ' Marseilles, ' and Mr. Whis- 
haw sends ' On a Russian Moor.' To the English Illus- 
trated Mr. Pollock contributes an account of the dull 
but picturesque city of Aix-en-Provence. An account is 
given of ' The Dogs' Home in Battersea.' Mr. Stanley 
J. Weyman continues his translations from Sully, and 
Mr. Grant Allen has some 'Moorland Idylls.' Chap- 
man's Magazine has powerful contributions from Bret 
Harte and Eden Phillpotts. The Cornhill, in addition 
to Mr. Crockett's vivid ' Cleg Kelly,' has ' The Place of 
the Sacred Bp-tree ' and an account of Corsica, ' The Land 
of the Bandit.' Belgravia gives ' A Visit to Vienna in 

BREWER'S Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Part XII. 
(Cassell & Co.) carries the alphabet from "Right of 
Way" to "Slubber-Degullion," the last a word with 
which we are unfamiliar. A correspondent protests 
against the meaning assigned to "Ronyon." It agrees, 
however, with the definition given in Schmidt's gener- 
ally trustworthy ' Shakespeare Lexicon.' Cassell's 
Gazetteer, Part XXIII., extends to Halloughton. It has 
good descriptions of Guernsey, Grimsby, Guildford, 
Hadley, and other places. The Universal Portrait 
Gallery, Part X., gives likenesses of Lord Brassey, Arch- 
deacon Sinclair, Mr. Leonard Courtney, M. Halevy, Sir 
John Stainer, Lady Dilke, and many other celebrities. 
The volume is now complete, and the concluding part 
supplies title-page and prefatory matter. 


We mutt call special attention to the following notices t 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

H. T., Cromer. We have no record of his proceed- 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8B.vm.Aoo.i7,m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENT S, N 190. 
NOTES : Archbishop Wake, 121 Almondbury, 122' Biko 
Basilike,' 123' Human Hibernation 'Coincidences, 124 
Thunderbolts as Door-props Hops Prices in 1662-3 
Lancers in the British Army Rhyme to " Chimney " 
Errors in Cataloguing, 125 Epitaph To Cure a Cough 
" Taking a rise "Church of St. Giles, Cripplegate Barto 
Booth Quotation Verified, 126. 

QUERIES : Addams : Ashley, 4c. Robinson Busby 
Wessex Col. F. E. de Ruvigne Dante's Geography, 12 
" Hoo, hee, have at all "Wellington on Napoleon Law 
of Eansom Arms of See of Canterbury List of Wills- 
History of St. Pancras Portrait of Dr. Richmond White- 
brook and the Siege of Vienna, 128" A Pot of Ink " 
" Hotterer " Nightmares Earl of Halifax Author 
Wanted, 129. 

REPLIES : Great Bed of Ware, 129 Stolen Relics Restored 
Le Despencer Gower Cromwell in Wales Theodolite 
130 Barras Iturbide Highgate in Last Century Rev 
Jno. Marriott Epitaph on Jobnson, 131 Shakspeare' 
Indebtedness to Jonson Philanthropy, 132 Finger Pil 
lory Jesse Windows Evance. 133 "Filliwilly" Graham 
of Gartur First Atlantic Steam Navigator Boothby 
Arms, 134 " Still and on" " Educationalist" Cornisl 
Custom ' Frankenstein ' " Fine-axed," 135 Vestmen 
Brasses So-ho Leonardo da Vinci Fish-head Shapei 
Windows -r Sedan-chair Sir Gore, of Sacombe, 136 
Punch-bowl Rum, 137 "Reformades" French Map o 
North America A Dumb Bell Seven Wonders of the 
World, 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Gurteen's ' Arthurian Epic 'Baker's 
' Model Republic ' Napper's ' Caesar in Surrey 'Howard's 
' Eliot Papers ' ' Bibliographica ' ' L'IntermSdiaire.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Evelyn's 'Diary,' Jan. 1 and March 20, 1686/7. 
Attempt at union with the Galilean Church (cor- 
respondence with Dupin, printed in Maclaine's 
Mosheim. 'The Confessional,' 1770, Ixxxvi-xciii. 
E. Michaud, 'Le Mouyement Contemporain des 
Eglises,' Paris, Sandoz et Fiachbacher, 1874, am. 
8vo., p. 217). ' Nouvelle Dictionnaire Historique,' 
Hi. 373, 374. 'Life of Isaac Milles,' 120. William 
Nicols dedicates to him his vepl dpvwv, 1717 
<'N. & Q.,' 5" 1 S. vi. 133 a). Calamy's 'Own 
Times,' ii. 352, 353, 381, 382. Letter to him on 
Eastern Missions, 1718, by Humph. Prideaux 
{'Life of Prideaux,' 183). His charge, 1712 
{Brydges's ' Restituta,' iii. 401). 

Four Biblical MSS. in Christ Church Library 
(March's ' Michaelis,' first ed., ii. 825). 

Many of his letters to Jo. Clericus are extant ; 
extracts printed by Abr. des Amorie van der 
Hoeven, ' Diss. de Joanne Clerico,' Amst., 1843, 
pp. 51-55, 246. His ' Enquiry into the Antiquity, 
Honour and Estate of the Name and Family of 
Wake,' Warminster, 1833, 8vo., 100 copies, pri- 
vately printed. 

His wife sister-in-law to Martin Folkes (' His- 
torical Register,' 1724, Chron., p. 47). 

His youngest daughter, Mary, married John 
Lynch, Rector of Allhallows, Bread Street, and 
Prebendary of Canterbury, April 9, 1728. His 

son-in-law Bennet, and his patent for the Register- 
ship of the Prerogative (Gent. Mag., 1787, pp. 1032, 

A daughter married William Churchill, a book- 
seller in Paternoster Row, Feb. 19, 1719 ('Histor. 
Reg.'). Resigned the office of High Almoner about 
March 8, 1716 (ibid., p. 117). Opposes (Dec. 18, 
1718) an Act which threatens the Test Act (ibid., 
1719, p. 59). His daughter Dorothy married 
James Penny man (Poulson's ' Be verlac/ pedigree 
at p. 499). Dorothy Penny man died Dec. 2, 1754, 
at. fifty-five (Steinman's 'Croydon,' p. 179). 

In favour of receiving the petition of the London 
clergy against the Quakers' Relief Bill (' Histor. 
Reg.,' 1722, pp. 91, 94, 95). 

Opposes the Quakers' Relief Bill, Jan. 19, 1721 
(' Life of A. A. Sykes,' 130). See index to J. M. 
Kemble's ' State Papers ' (under " Lincoln, Bishop 
of," 1715). Three letters to Dr. Beauvoir (Daw- 
son Turner's MS., 38). Other letters, ibid., n. 679, 
680. Bentley's ' Correspondence,' ed. Wordsworth, 
pp. 34, 502, 507, 680 seq., 791 (MSS. bequeathed 
by him to Christ Church). Supports the Bill 
against Blasphemy ('Histor. Reg.,' 1721, p. 187). 
On Nov. 20, 1719 (' Histor. Reg.,' p. 389) Wake, 
with many bishops, thanks the king for his favour 
to the poor Protestants in the Palatinate, Poland, 
and Lithuania. 

Patron of Father Courayer (Gent. Mag., 1787, 
). 900 a). Often mentioned in Lady Cowper's 
Diary,' 1864. 

Letter to John Disney (March 4, 1717/8) in 
Granger, 'Letters,' 197, 198. 

Gent. Mag., Oct., 1860, p. 415. 

Pedigree in Proceedings of Leicestershire Archaeo- 
logical Society for 1861. His son Charles Pre- 
bendary of Westminster and granddaughter Mrs. 
W. L. Bowles (Gent. Mag., June, 1850, p. 673 b). 

His consecration sermon (as Bishop of Lincoln) 
preached by White Kennett (Kennett's ' Life, '27). 

Appointed President of the Corporation of the 
Sons of the Clergy, Nov. 14, 1723 (' Histor. Re- 
jister '). 

Left upwards of 100,OOOZ. (Gent. Mag., 1737, 
). 61 a). Black bu me, who attacks him in ' The 
Confessional,' had not seen his correspondence 
with Dupin. See Von Einem's 'Kirchengeschichte.' 

Gibbing's 'Roman Forgeries,' p. 62, "Wake 
very commonly gets much more credit for corn- 
ering the first and second editions of Bossuet's 
rork," &c. 

Highly praised by Bingham, xv. 5 4. 

Works not contained in Watt's * Bibliotheca ': 

An exhortation to mutual charity and union among 
} rotestants. In a sermon preached before the King 
nd Queen at Hampton Court, May 21, 1689. London, 
LicLard Chiswell and William Rogers. 1689, 4to. (On 
lorn. xv. 5-7.) 

Sermon before the House of Commons, June 5, 1689. 
Fast day, on account of the war with the French king,) 
ondon, 1689, 4to, 



vm.AuG.i7, 95. 

Of our obligation to put our trust in God, rather than 
in men, and of the advantages of it. In a sermon 
preached before the Honorable Society of Grayes-Inn : 

upon the occasion of the death of Queen Mary. 

London, 1695, 4to. 

A Sermon preached in St. James 8, Westminster, 
April 16, 1696, being the day of the publick Thanks- 
giving for the preservation of His Majesty's person from 
the late horrid and barbarous conspiracy. London, 
1696, 4to. 

The case of the exiled Vaudois and French Protestants 
stated : and their relief recommended to all good Chris- 
tians, especially to those of the reformed religion : in a 
sermon preached in St. James's, Westminster, April 5, 
1699, being the day of the publick Fast. London, 1699, 

The False-Prophets try'd by their fruits : being a 
Sermon preached at St. James's, Westminster, Novem- 
ber 5, 1699. In which it is shewn, that the principles, 
and practices, of the Church of Rome, with relation to 
those, whom they call Hereticke ; are not only destruc- 
tive of civil society, but are utterly irreconcileable with 
the gospel of Christ. London, Richard Sare, 1700, 4 to. 

Sermon preached to the Societies for the Reformation 
of Manners at St. Lawrence Jewry, December 31, 1705. 
London, Richard Sare, 1706, 4to. 

Charge in his primary Visitation begun at Lincoln 
May 20, 1706. London, 1707, 4to. 

Charge in his triennial Visitation begun at Leicester 
June 1, 1709. London, 1710, 4to. 

Letter to the Bishops of his Province, June 5, 1716, 
4to. (About licensed curates.) 

The anonymous pamphlet, ' The Church of Rome no 
Guide in Matters of Faith,' London, 1705, 8vo., is acknow- 
ledged in Richard Sare's catalogues (pr. 6d.). 

A thirteenth edition of his ' Commentary on the 
Catechism' in Bent's Literary Advertiser, 1812. 
He printed with his 'Farewell Sermon at St. 
James's, Westminster,' a folio sheet, ' An Account 
of the Offertory Money in the Parish of St. James's, 
Westminster, as it stands upon our books for every 
year since I came to the parish' (1694-1706). 

Among the Adversaria of Cambridge University 
Library Nn. v. is a copy of Wake's ' State of the 
Church and Clergy of England,' 1703, fol., with 
MS. additions and corrections by the author. 
Given by him to Thomas Baker, who bequeathed 
it to the library (see ' Biogr. Brit.,' p. 4096 n.). 

Three letters to Strype (July 4 and 24, 1717, 
and March 30, 1720) are preserved in the same 
library among the Baumgartner papers. 

A Latin letter to the Pastors and Professors of 
Geneva (Croydon, July 10, 1724) is transcribed in 
MS. Baker, xxxii. 549, 550. 

In the Oxford libraries, especially Christ Church, 
are ample materials for a life of Wake. The 
libraries at Paris, Geneva, and Leyden should 
also be examined. He founded the Buckden 
Library ('N. & Q.,' 7 th S. xii. 345). 

There is an excellent account of Wake in the 
' Biographia Britannica.' Father Courayer supplied 
the author with many of the primate's letters to 
him. Few men ever laboured more assiduously 
for the reunion of Christendom. His advances to 
the English Nonconformists and the Sorbonne have 
long been known, His sympathies with the 

churches of the Refuge are also known from his 
published works and episcopal acts. But his 
knowledge of the intrigues which led to the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes a knowledge 
acquired when he lived at Paris as chaplain to our 
ambassador Lord Preston induced him to favour 
also the heroic chief of the churches of the Desert. 
Our primate, we record with pride, lives in the 
memory of the French Protestant Church, a body 
which daring the last half century has raised a 
monument to its martyrs and confessors which 
may serve as a model and a rebuke to our larger 
and wealthy communion. Wake supplied funds 
to Antoine Court, when, in 1729, that far-seeing 
leader founded at Lausanne a humble school of 
candidates for martyrdom, from which 450 students 
went forth before 1809, in which year Napoleon 
transferred the foundation to Montauban. See 
Edm. Hugues, ' Hist, de la Eestauration du Pro- 
testantisme en France,' Par., 1875, vol. i. pp. 220-1, 

I send these rough materials in the hope that 
others of your correspondents may add fuller 
details, so that at last some alumnus of the "house" 
(Christ Church) may undertake a worthy memorial 
of one of its noblest sons, and one of the best of 
our archbishops. JOHN E. B. MAYOR. 



In the autumn vacation of 1859 I paid a visit 
to a village near Huddersfield, where a relative of 
mine was vicar. On the morning after my arrival 
I set out for a solitary ramble, trusting to chance 
to make it interesting. On approaching a village, 
the name of which was not pronounced according 
to the spelling, I was struck with the brick-red 
appearance of the roads, which became more vivid 
under the influence of a slight shower. I was 
unable to account for this appearance, but on 
coming to a by-path the colour became still more- 
vivid. Pursuing this path, I found myself in an- 
extensive stone quarry, the vertical sides of which 
exhibited enormous patches of the tint in question. 
At the further end of the quarry a number of men 
were engaged in building up a stack of alternate 
layers of coal and fragments of rock. The men 
informed me that the stone of the neighbourhood 
not furnishing a durable road metal in its natural 
condition, it had long been the custom to harden 
it by the action of fire, for which purpose a stone 
stack was constructed two or three times a year, 
consisting of the refuse of the quarry after the build- 
ing stone had been taken out. The stack occupied 
an area of about sixty feet square, and one side 
(or, where practicable, two sides) was made to rest 
against the vertical wall of the quarry, thus account- 
ing for the red patches already referred to. The 
stack continued to burn during two or three 
months, air-holes being skilfully arranged as in a 

. viii. AUG. IT, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


brick- kiln. A coal-pit close to the quarry furnished 
an abundant supply of slack coal, and when the 
fuel was burnt out the stack was left to cool 
during two months. The calcined stone had now 
become greatly increased in hardness from being 
partially vitrified. Considerable labour had to be 
expended in breaking up the mass into fragments 
about the size of a hen's egg, and the process was 
assisted by the action of water poured upon the 
material while hot, or by the action of rain. 

I carried away some specimens of the rock, fired 
and unfired, and was surprised to find, on returning 
to the vicarage, that the details were as new to the 
vicar and his parishioners as they had been to me. 
They had noticed by night a fire in the direction 
of Almondbury, and, supposing it to proceed from 
an iron furnace, inquired no further. There was 
no mention of the process in Phillips'a geology 
of the district or in Mr. Hobkirk's ' History and 
Natural History of Huddersfield and the Neigh- 
bourhood.' I then consulted the vicar's copy of 
Oamden, who gave the following interesting parti- 
culars : 

" Six miles from Halifax, not far from the right side 
of the river Galder, and near Almondbury, a little 
village, there is a very steep hill, only accessible by one 
way from the plain, where the marks of an old rampire 
and some ruins of a wall and of a castle well guarded 
with a triple fortification are plainly visible." 

He then goes on to say that these are really the 
.remains of the Cambodunum of the Romans ; that 
in early Saxon history there was a royal seat here, 
and a cathedral built by Paulinus, the apostle of 
.these parts, and dedicated to St. Alban, whence 
the village of Albanbury, now called Almondbury. 
4 ' But," continues Camden, "in those cruel wars 
that Ceadwall the Britain and Penda the Mercian 
made upon Edwin, the prince of these territories, 
it was burnt down, which in some measure appears 
in the colour of the stones to this day." 

The event here recorded occurred in the eighth 
or ninth century of our era. Eight centuries had 
elapsed before Camden wrote his description, and 
yet the marks of fire remained unobliterated 
during that long period. No cause, so far as I 
.knew, had intervened since Camden's time to 
obliterate those marks of fire ; why should they not, 
therefore, still be visible ? " For this simple 
reason," was the reply ; " that the whole of the 
ruin has long since been cleared away, to make 
room for a public-house and tea-gardens, where 
our Yorkshire bands are fond of assembling for 
practice, and where parties of pleasure go to listen 
to them." 

"That is not a sufficient reason," I rejoined. 
" Stone is so plentiful in this district, that no one 
would think of carrying it from the top of the hill 
to the valley below, still less of carrying it from 
below upwards, where the ruin would furnish 
abundant material for constructing the musical 
hostelry, and I daresay enclosing it in a stone 

fence ; and in addition to all this, I have no doubt 
there is plenty of stone scattered about bearing 
the marks of the Mercian fire to this day." 

It was therefore agreed that we should ascend 
the Castle Hill next day ; and in order to satisfy 
my host as to the action of heat on the sandstone, 
I put an unburnt fragment in the fire before re- 
tiring for the night, and in the morning it was of a 
bright red colour from the oxidation of the iron. 

We climbed the hill accordingly, and had no 
sooner arrived at the wall which surrounds the 
grounds of the public- house than we were struck 
with the red appearance of many of the stones of 
which it is built. This left no doubt that, although 
a thousand years had elapsed since " Ceadwall the 
Britain and Penda the Mercian" in those cruel 
wars burnt down the castle and cathedral of St. 
Alban, there was still before us evidence of the 
fact as narrated by Camden, rendered, if possible, 
still more striking on breaking open some of the 
stones, where the action of the fire had in some 
cases penetrated only a short distance, and in 
others completely through, presenting to the eye 
the reddish tint as bright and fresh as that on the 
piece of stone which I bad passed through the fire 
on the preceding night. C. TOMLINSON. 

' EIKON BASILIKE.' Will you very kindly help 
me by inserting the following rough memoranda, 
as I am extremely anxious that my story of 
'Eikon BasilSke' shall not be issued until every 
inquiry has been made ? The descriptions of forty- 
eight 1648 and 1649 editions are all in type, accom- 
panied by facsimiles of titles. Some valuable 
information from MS. collections has come to 
light, and I am tempted to persevere further, 
especially with the object of proving the author- 
ship. Communications may be sent to me, care 
of Messrs. Blades, publishers, Abchurch Lane, 

1. Information desired from seventeenth cen- 
tury manuscript collections. 

2. On receipt of a letter or postcard giving one 
or two particulars of any Eikons, I will send a 
proof of the description which appears to be the 
same. On receiving a reply, I can then judge 
whether to ask the favour of seeing the book. 
This will save asking for the loan of copies of 
editions which I have evidently already described. 
Do not send long descriptions of emblematical 

3. I wish to know of manuscript copies of the 
Eikon ; also old manuscript notes in Eikon?. The 
Eikon was said to have been translated into Greek 
and Italian. Was it? 

4. Any information (perhaps from seventeenth 
century bills and account books) bearing on the 
subject of copies with, for instance, a crown, C.R., 
&c. , on binding. As to the tradition about such 
copies. Any particulars bearing on the Eikon. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. A. 17, ! 

5. Eikons handed down in a family for man; 
generations. Eikons in church libraries. 

6. Eikon emblematical portraits of the kin 
kneeling, placed in churches. I propose to enu 
merate these. Eikons bound up with Book o 
Common Prayer. 

7. Out-of-the-way writings relating to the sub 
ject. Magazine articles and reviews. Societies 

8. Manuscript documents, &c., of the followinj 
persons, as well as many others not named, mos 
of them living in the latter half of the seventeenth 
century : 

Dr. Thomas Gill. 

William Dugard, printer, bought Mr. Young's press. 

William Dugard's wife. 

Brian Duppa, bishop. 

Marquis of Hertford. 

William Levet. 

Seymour Bourman. 

Sir Thomas Herbert. 

John Holme, apothecary. 

Sir James Harrington, author of ' Oeeaiia.' 

Edward Shorte, gentleman pensioner. 

George Evan?, gentleman (1660). 

Mr. Cotton, gentleman harbinger (1660). 

John Armstrong. 

Samuel Browne, printer, &c. 

William Legge, Lord Dartmouth's ancestor. 

Henry, Lord Bishop of Meatb, 1679. 

Robert Hearne, schoolmaster and servant to Sir Philip 

Mr. Whitaker. 

Edward Hooker, corrector to Mr. Dugard's press. 
William Marshall, engraver. 
George Bates, M.D. 
Sir John Brattle. 

Sir Jeremy Whichcott, his handwriting. 
Francis Boyton, a Norfolk gentleman. 
Mrs. Fotherly, of Rickmansworth. 
Mr. Norman, a gentleman of Exeter, andJhiB friend Mr. 


Norton, a printer. 
Dr. Walker. 
M. Testard. 

M. Porree, French translator. 
Dr. Canaries. 

Mr. James Wood, minister of St. Andrews. 
Dr. John Earle, bishop. 
Rev. Cave Beck, of Ipswich. 
Dr. Morley, bishop. 
William Juxon, bishop. 
Major Huntington. 
Dr. Robert Hall. 
Dr. Byrom Eaton. 

Rev. Walter Getsius, Rector of Brixham. 
D. Osborn, Fellow of Exeter College, Oxon. 
Dr. J. Barwick, Dean of St. Paul's. 
Rev. Gifford, Gauden's curate. 
Dr. Nicholson, Bishop of Gloucester. 
Dr. Anthony Walker. 

Endymion Porter, did he write the ' Princely Pelican ' 1 
Rev. Henry John Todd. 
John Wilson, barrister. 

John Jones, secretary to first Earl Gainsborough. 
Legatt, printer. 
John Playford, printer. 

Shears, printer. 

Mathew Symons, printer. 


Christopher Wase. 

John Toland. 

Sir Philip Warwick. 

William Allen, a servant. 

Dr. Gauden. 

Robert Sanderson, the bishop. 

James Clifford, of Magdalen College, belonging to the 

church of St. Paul, reader of prayers at Serjeants' Inn 

and a compositor. 
Dr. Hooker. 
Sir E. Nicholas. 
Dr. Jeremiah Taylor. 

Richard Royston, bookseller and publisher. 
John Grisman, printer. 
Rev. Edward Symmons and his widow. I wish par 

ticularly to know his handwriting. 
Nicholas Oudart. 
Dr. Richard Hollingworth. 
Thomas Milbourn, printer. 
Mr. Le Pla, minister of Finchinfield, a letter from, to 

Dr. Goodall, dated Nov. 27, 1696. 
Luke Beaulieu, Prebendary of Gloucester. 
Arthur North, merchant. 
Peacock, brother of Dr. Gauden's steward. 
J. Young, of Plymouth. 
Capt. George Strangewaye, of Weymouth. 
Marmaduke Cooke. 


'HUMAN HIBERNATION.' About the year 1850 
a certain Dr. Braid, of Manchester, published a 
little work with the above title, in which are given 
instances of Indian fakirs being buried in the 
ground for long periods, with what appears to be 
very strong evidence of the genuineness of these 
feats. Sir Claude Wade, political agent at Lahore, 
after detailing cases of the kind, says : 

1 1 am bound to declare my belief in the facts which I 
have represented, however impossible their existence- 
may appear to others I merely state what I saw and 

beard, and think that when we consider the incredulity 
and ridicule, and actual persecution, with which some of 
;he [most wonderful discoveries of modern times have 

seen regarded. it is presumptuous in any of us to- 

deny to the Hindoos the possible discovery or attainment 
of an art which has hitherto escaped the researches of 
European science." 

Many writers about India have, I believe, given 
similar testimony ; but has any scientific explana- 
ion of the fakir performance been given? The 
ready assertion that it is a mere juggle proves 
nothing, notwithstanding tbe pronouncements on 
[ndian magic in 8 th S. vi. 153, &c. 


COINCIDENCES. An article in a weekly paper 

in the " tyranny " of these incidents brings to my 

mind one of place and name which lately came 

under my notice, and is, I think, sufficiently 

emarkable to deserve a corner in ' N. & Q.' 

Staying for some two months at Hounslow, I 
ound myself in the immediate neighbourhood of 
be well-known "Bell" Inn, which is situated at 
be top of Bell Eoad, and, as I believe, authentic- 
ity connected with the adventures of the notorious 
)ick Turpin. At the opposite corner of this road 

s. vni. AUG. 17, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


is a butcher's shop, the owner of which appeared, 
by the name on the shop-front, to be Stacey. 
Judge, then, of my surprise when, on seeing the 
butcher's meat-carts about the town, I discovered 
that Stacey had been succeeded by a man who 
bore the extraordinary, and yet, for the spot, 
appropriate name of Roadnight. A very slight 
effort of imagination suggested to me that the 
letter & had in times gone by accidentally been 
allowed to drop out of the name, and that the 
spirit of the bold highwayman who, in his day, 
was a veritable "Knight of the Eoad," still hovered 
around the scene of his carousals, even though the 
fast-trotting nag driven by the bonny butcher of 
Hounslow could hardly compare with the cele- 
brated Black Bess of the famous ride to York. 

In any case, the name itself is extraordinary, 
and quite new to me ; nor have I the faintest 
notion of its origin or nationality. But the acci- 
dent of its being found at this spot struck me as 
very remarkable. EDWARD P. WOLFERSTAN. 

days ago, when entering a cottage in Devon, not 
far from Exeter, I noticed that the door was 
propped open by a large celt. The tenant of the 
cottage called it a thunderbolt, and I ascertained 
that he had found it five feet below the surface, 
whilst digging a drain. The celt is a black stone, 
twelve and a quarter inches long, three inches 
broad at its trenchant end, and weighing exactly 
four pounds six ounces. It is somewhat corroded, 
but appears to have been once polished throughout. 
I have heard of two instances of stone axe-heads 
being found, which were also called thunderbolts 
and did duty as door-props. Might not more pre- 
historic implements be found in the cottages of 
Devon, and for a small sum be obtained from their 
owners for the enrichment of our museums ? 

L. J. W. 

HOPS. Among the muniments at Westminster 
Abbey I have found the following notice of hops 
for brewing in England : 

"Hec est firma Monachorum in Septimana. Ad 
panem vj Cumbas et Ix et vij soiidatoa ad Coquinam. Et 
xx Hopa de braaio et x de Gruto. Et iij Cumbas 

The date is at least as early as temp. Henry L, 
possibly earlier. Surely this must be the earliest 
allusion to hops yet discovered. 

Keeper of MSS. and Egerton Librarian. 

PRICES IN 1662-3. 

" At the Coffee-house in Exchange-Alley, is sold by 
retail the right Coffee-powder from 4 to 6*. per pound, 
as in goodness ; that pounded in a Morter at 3s. per 
pound; also that termed the right Turkic berry well 
garbled at 3,'. per pound ; the ungarbled for les : that 
termed the East-India-Berry at 20d. per 1 pound, with 
directions gratis how to make and use the same. Like- 
wise there you may have Tobacco, Verinus and Virginia, 

Chocolatta, the ordinary pound boxes at 2s. 6$. per pound, 
the perfumed from 4s. to 10s. per pound ; also Sherbets 
(made in Turkic) of Lemons, Roses and Violets per- 
fumed ; and Tea according to its goodness, from 6 to 
60s. per pound. For all which if any Gentleman shall 
write or send, they shall be sure of the best, as they 
shall order; and to avoid deceit, warranted under the 
House-Seal, viz., Morat the great, &c." Mereuriits 
PuMcus, No. 11, March 12-19, 1662. 

In the number for April 16-23, 1663, the same 
advertisement appears, but with significant altera- 
tions : " Coffee-powder (without adulteration) from 
ten Groats to a Noble per pound "; " Pounded in 
a mortar" has disappeared; "East-India-berry" 
is 2s. a pound ; tea is 16s. to 60s. a pound. 

H. H. S. 

picking up a number of the Strand Magazine (for 
May) I read a story called 'The Exploits of 
Brigadier Gerard,' attributed to A. Conan Doyle ; 
but Sherlock Holmes could easily point out a flaw 
in that gentleman's claim on the ground of in- 
accurate local colouring. At p. 376 he describes 
the Duke of Wellington and " some distance 
behind, three orderlies were holding as many 
horses, and an escort of lancers was waiting in the 
rear." It is the sentence I have marked in italics 
that enables me to act the detective. The date of 
the story is 1810, as is proved by the reference to 
the investment of Cindad Rodrigo ; but there were 
no lancers in the British army until 1816, as may 
be proved by the following : 

"The experience acquired during the war, of the 
value and importance of troops equipped with Lances, 
which weapon had been laid aside by the British horse 
about 200 years, and by the foot upwards of one 
hundred, led to the resumption of that weapon in 1816. 
On Sept. 19, the authority of the Prince Eegent was 
granted for the Ninth, Twelfth, Sixteenth, and Twenty- 
third Regiments of Light Dragoons to be armed and 
equipped as Lancers, and in consequence of that arrange- 
ment to discontinue the Carbine." Cannon, 'Historical 
Record of the Ninth Lancers,' pp. 50-1. 

One instance of the experience alluded to may 
be adduced from a contemporary record : 

"The Polish lancers with their pennons frightened 
our horses at Albuera so that our men could not urge 
their horses on." Cambridge Chronicle, Nov. 22, 1811. 


' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. ii. 190, there is a query as to the 
rhyme to chimney. A couplet from * Rejected 
Addresses ' accompanies this, in which it rhymes 
with " slim knee." I have seen another instance 
of actual occurrence in an earlier book : 

A third time she boasts that she cou'd with, her dim eye 
Perceive at a very great distance a chimney. 

' JEsop Naturalized,' Lon., 1771, Fab. xlvi. p. 35. 


ERRORS IN CATALOGUING. Among the curio- 
sities of cataloguing the following deserves a place. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. A. 17. -as. 

The Bookseller of June, in 'Publications of the 
Month,' sets down under the headingof " Oriental," 
"Carmina Vedastina, collected and edit, by W. 
Sparrow Simpson." Students of the Vedas, of 
course, will find the work indispensable. 

S. Woodford. 

In the Chelsea Free Library Catalogue (supposed 
to be classified), I recently, while looking; for a 
book to consult, alighted on the heading " Fungi," 
under which followed about seven works, the last 
of them being "Fur Country, The; J. Verne." 
There are many egregious curiosities fa polite word 
for blunders) in the same catalogue. The catalogue 
has been carelessly drawn up. The much maligned 
schoolboy could have, put together a more trust- 
worthy work ; and as for proof correcting, the 
proof cannot, it would seem, have been submitted 
to the management of the library. In Chelsea a 
rate is levied for the library, and I think we are 
entitled to less slipshod and more trustworthy 
work for our money. JOHN A. RANDOLPH. 

2, Halsey Street, Chelsea. 

EPITAPH. This curious epitaph is in the old 
churchyard of Duffus, near Elgin, KB.: 

Reader would you wish to hear 
Who took me and plac'd me here 
Well as you seem to be at leisure 
I was plac'd here by Sandy Eraser 

Burchead 1st May 1838 
Tis here John Eraser's ashes ly 
as soon as born he began to die 
22 May 1840. 

R. B. 

To CURE A COUGH. A friend of mine who is 
troubled with a bad cough has been told to steal 
a potato, and to bury it. As the potato decays 
the cough will become better. PAUL BIERLEY. 

"TAKING A RISE." In ' The Slang Dictionary,' 
the quotation given to explain the phrase " taking 
a rise " or " getting a rise " is from the ' Hints to 
Freshmen,' published at Oxford in 1843. Both 
the phrase and the underlying idea, however, 
appear to be much older, for in a debate in the 
House of Commons on June 1, 1678, Lord Caven- 
dish having moved " That the imputation in the 
Chancellor's speech, of this House being the 
occasion of making the peace, is injurious to this 
House," Sir William Coventry observed : 

" I hope it is not your intention to press this thing 
personally upon the Chancellor, but to take a rise only 
from his speech to vindicate yourselves upon this great 
matter of the peace." Grey's ' Debates of the House of 
Commons,' vol. vi. p. 55. 


informed by one of our daily papers that "a monu- 
ment" had been erected to Oliver Cromwell in 
this church, I paid it a visit. I found the "monu- 

ment " a very modest tribute indeed to the 
memory of the great Protector, being confined to 
a single line in a brass tablet erected in the wall 
of the north aisle. As a matter of record, how- 
ever, it may be of interest to readers of ' N. & Q.,' 
and it is certainly creditable to the wardens of this 
ancient and well-kept church that they thus keep 
its interesting memories well before the visitor : 

Men . of . mark . 
connected . with . this . Church . 

John . Fox . author . 1587 . 
Bishop . Andrewes . vicar . 1589 . 
Sir . Martin . Frobisher . knight . 

Navigator . buried . 1594 . 
Oliver . Cromwell . married . 1620 . 
John . Speed . historian . buried . 1629 . 
John . Milton . poet . buried . 1674. 

I may add that when pencil and paper were pro- 
duced, I was told, very courteously and kindly, 
that ' ' nothing must be copied " in the church. 
Of course, as a law-abiding citizen, I desisted ; 
but, as there is no reason to believe that the most 
zealous custodian of church edifices would object 
to an antiquary using his memory, here it is. 



BARTON BOOTH (1681-1733), ACTOR. His 
second marriage is thus recorded in the parish 
register of Ongar, co. Essex : 

" M r Barton Booth of y e Parish of S' Gyles in the 
fields Middlesex wid: and M" Hester Santlow of y e 
Parish of S l Paul Covent Garden Single : but in y e same 
County were Married at Chipping Ongar Church August 
y 3 d 1719." 


QUOTATION VERIFIED. In the ' Life of Lord 
Sherbrooke ' (vol. ii. p. 467), by A. Patchett Mar- 
tin, the following passage occurs (Lord Sherbrooke 
was, like many others, a great admirer of the 
writings of Sir Walter Scott) : 

" On this occasion Professor and Mrs. Sellar were of 
the party. Mrs. Sellar had been searching Scott's poems 
in vain for the lines : 

Sound, sound the clarion, fill the fife ; 
To all the sensual world proclaim, 
One crowded hour of glorious life 

Is worth an age without a name. 

Lord Sherbrooke referred her to the headings of chapters 
near the end of ' Old Mortality,' when she at once found 
the quotation." 

The lines in question are prefixed to chap, xxxiii. 
of ' Old Mortality,' in which Habakkuk Muckle- 
wrath appears to Claverhouse and Henry Morton, 
and are signed " Anonymous," so probably they 
owed their paternity to Sir Walter's pen. Tenny- 
son, in ' Locksley Hall,' seems to express the same 
idea : 
Thro' the shadow of the globs we sweep into the younger 

Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

fi*&vm.Aro.i7,'6,] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


^ turns. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

TON : TALBOTS, or DEPTFORD. I should be 
greatly obliged by any information through con- 
tributors to your columns respecting the following 
families and persona : 

James Addams. Married Harriet Curling, of 
Deptford (probably about 1819), and emigrated 
to the Cape of Good Hope, where he obtained 
some Government employment, about 1820. He 
is said to have died at the Cape, his widow and 
family subsequently returning to England ; was 
"a perfect gentleman and a very handsome man.' 1 
The late W. Courthope, Registrar and Somerset 
Herald, of the Heralds' College, London (1808- 
1866) was a relative. Published information re 
the Addams family is very scarce, and genealogical 
notes would be very acceptable. The arms of 
Addams, of Chetton, Salop, are Ermine, a chevron 
vaire, or and az., between three roses barbed and 
seeded proper. Another branch bears Azure, three 
mullets or, two and one. 

Ashley Family, of Ipswich, Suffolk. Ann, 
daughter of Mr. Jethro Ashley, of Ipswich, 
Suffolk, was married to James Talbot, of Dept- 
ford, on September 15, 1791, at St. Nicholas's 
Deptford. She had issue by him a daughter, 
Ann Ashley Talbot, born 1792 (afterwards married 
to Mr. John Ellis), and one son James, born 
April 22, 1797. 

Dehew Family. Sarah Dehew was married to 
James Talbot, of Deptford Dockyard, at St. 
Saviour's, Southwark, before the middle of last 
century, and by him had issue four daughters 
Ann, Uphin, Elizabeth, and another. I cannot 
find any published information respecting the 
Dehews. Were they identical with De Hoo, of 
Luton Hoo, co. Bedford, said by Sir Henry 
Chauncy to have been settled there before the 
Norman Conquest 1 

Morton. Ann Morton, second wife of the last- 
named James Talbot, of Deptford, to whom 
she was married October 19, 1756, at St. 
Nicholas's, Deptford, having by him issue two 
sons. Was she of the family of Dr. Richard 
Morton, who died 1698, and was probably son of 
Dr. Richard Morton, a celebrated physician of 
Greenwich temp. William and Mary, and who was 
possibly descended from the Mortons of Severn 
Stoke, co. Worcester, and related to the Mortons 
of Slaugham, co. Essex ? (Vide 'N. & Q.,' 1" S. 
T. 227, 474.) 

Saxton Family, of Yorkshire, Derbyshire, &c. 
I am collecting materials for memorials of this 
family. Sir Roger de Saxton founded a chapel at 

Saxton, near Towton battlefield, co. Yorks., in 
1292, where the family apparently seated them- 
selves. They were subsequently of Darley Dale, 
Derbyshire, South Yorkshire, Circourt, Berkshire, 
and elsewhere. Published information about them 
is excessively meagre, for some reason. 

Talbots, of Deptford. Who are the descendants 
of Robert Talbot, younger son of James Talbot, 
of Deptford Dockyard (b. 1713, d. 1794) ? Robert 
was born January 25, 1761. Any facts relat- 
ing to this family, and bearing on the personal 
history of its members, would be very acceptable 
in order to supplement the information already in 
their possession. JAMES TALBOT. 

Adelaide, South Australia. 

ROBINSON : BUSBY. I should be glad to hare 
any information respecting the paternal grandfather 
of Sir Thomas Robinson, Bart., Chief Prothonotary 
of the Common Pleas, and of his children. Henry 
Robinson, the father of Sir Thomas, appears to 
have resided at Westminster, and one of his sisters 
became the wife of Richard Busby, of Lutton, and 
the mother of Dr. Busby, the famous head master. 

G. F. R. B. 

RICHARD BUSBY. Where does Thackeray say 
"A wonderful fruit - bearing rod was that of 
Busby's"? G. F. R. B. 

WESSEX. By whom was this territorial designa- 
tion first revived in our day ? I see that in the 
preface to a new edition of one of his books Mr. 
Thomas Hardy practically lays claim to its dis- 
covery. But Prof. Freeman and also the author 
of ' Tom Brown's School Days ' used the word as 
denoting a certain geographical area many years 
ago the latter, I think, in or about 1857. I 
should be glad of information on the subject. 

H. M. B. 

Can any of your readers inform me where I 
should be likely to find the will of this officer, who 
was killed at the capture of Grenada, W.I., June 12, 
1 796 1 Major Whitworth, R. A., writing from St. 
Vincent a few days later, to the father in Switzer- 
land, to inform him of his son's death, says, " The 
will has gone to Mr. Fisher at the Tower, agreeable 
to his desire." No one of this name is mentioned 
in his correspondence, and the will is not at Somer- 
set House. His name has been misspelt, de 
Ruvijnes, de Ruvine, Deruvijnes, de Rouvignee, 

& c . RUVIGNY. 

DANTE'S GEOGRAPHY. The question I wish to 
raise is, whether Dante regarded the earth as a 
sphere or as a disc. In his scheme, Jerusalem is 
the centre of that side of the world on which the 
land lies ; and directly at its antipodes is the 
mountain of purgatory, rising from an island in 
the great ocean. The existence of a centre f 


NOTES AND QUERIES. O* s. vm. AUG. 17, '95. 

gravity is plainly recognized in 'Inf.,' xxxiv. 110, 
111 ; and in 'Purg.,' xxvii. 1-4, the writer says it 
was at the same time early morning at Jerusalem 
and noon on the Ganges. From such data one 
would suppose that, in his idea, the earth was 
clearly spherical. The great and perhaps insuper- 
able difficulty is that he allows only about eighteen 
hours for the ascent from the very centre to the 
base of the purgatorial mountain an ascent which 
is accomplished by sheer force of climbing, without 
any supernatural aid. The awkward deduction 
would be that the whole ascent, in vertical alti- 
tude, could not exceed five or ten miles, which 
would make the earth a disc, with a lesser dia- 
meter of not more than twenty miles. Among the 
contributors to ' N. & Q.' are several well-known 
students of ' The Divine Comedy,' and I venture to 
look to them for help, if the problem admits of 

Portland, Oregon. 

"Hoo, HEE, HAVE AT ALL." Bale, in 'The 
Image of both Churches' (' Select Works,' Parker 
Society, 1849, p. 628), says: "Christ breathed 
not upon the bread with hoo, hee, have at all, as 
you do. He only took it in his holy hands, and 
gave thanks unto God." What did the rough- 
tongued reformer mean by the italicized words T 


Athenceum, in a review of Field-Marshal Lord 
Koberts's ' Rise of Wellington,' July 13, 1895, 
Hays that Wellington " considered his great oppo- 
nent's presence in the field as equivalent to a body 
of forty thousand men." On what occasion did 
Wellington state this opinion ? Was it written, or 
made viva voce ? This beats Roderick Dhu out of 
the field ! 

One blast upon his bugle-horn 
Were worth a thousand men. 


LAW OF RANSOM. Early in the reign of Henry 
VI. John Craven and Simon Irby petitioned the 
Lord Chancellor with respect to some prisoners 
they had taken at the Battle of Agincourt. The 
terms of their petition suggest that the king 
claimed a certain percentage of moneys paid for 
the ransom of all prisoners. Was this a recognized 
rule ? Where can I find any information about it ? 

interesting point has recently been raised in corre- 
spondence which has occurred in Church Bells, 
upon which I should be glad if any reader of 
' N. & Q.' can furnish some additional information. 
It is to the effect that the arms of the See of Canter- 
bury have been appropriated by the Roman Catholic 
Archbishop of Westminster, the only difference 

being the " field," which in the case of the former 
is " azure " and in the case of the latter " gules." 
From a letter in the issue of Church Bells of 
Aug. 2, signed "J. R. Crawford," I quote the 
following : 

" The Earl Marshal, who alone can give authority for 
a new grant of arms, is a great Roman layman. Has 
he allowed these new arms of Cardinal Vaughan to be 
'entered ' officially; and, if so, ie it not a little curious 
that a Government official (for so I take the Earl Mar- 
shal to be) gives official recognition to an office which in 
no other way ia officially known or registered in Eng- 

As I know that many of the readers of 'N. & Q.' 
are expert in matters of heraldry, I have ventured 
to bring the question contained in this quotation 
before them, in order to ascertain if such an official 
permission can be granted as suggested by Mr. 
Crawford. I feel sure that many others besides 
myself will be interested in the subject. 


LIST OF WILLS PROVED. Can any reader say 
if there has been issued a list of the wills proved 
in the Commissary Court of London (Essex and 
Herts division); if so, where can the same be seen? 
Would it be of any advantage to the genealogist to 
inspect registers at Somerset House in the case of 
the administration grant only, a will not having 
been proved ? I understand that where a grant of 
administration was issued, the fact only was entered 
in the Admon. Act Book, but no names excepting 
the administrator. HATES. 

HISTORY OF ST. PANCRAS. A map, 1755, shows 
Tile Kilns, near St. Pancras Road. I shall be 
obliged by any reference to a map showing when 
" Dear's Place " and the surrounding streets were 
laid out, and any clue to the builder or owner, 
Charles Dear, 1760-1849, who married, about 
1789, Elizabeth, daughter of Matthew Warton, of 
Stepney. A. C. H. 

Is there any engraved portrait or painting in oils in 
existence of this clergyman, who was Head Master 
of Rugby School from 1751 to 1755 ? He was of 
Queen's College, Oxford, and held the rectory of 
Newnham with the chapelry of Mapledurwell, 
Hants, in the gift of that college, until his death in 
1816, at the advanced age of ninety-eight. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

In the British Museum there is a printed copy of a 
letter from "A. Whitebrook" to an "English Officer 
in Holland, concernicg the Total Rout of the 
Turks" in 1683. It is dated from the " Imperial 
Camp, Aug. the 31th" (sic), and was printed by 
" E. Mallet." There is no internal evidence to 
identify or even lead to the identification of the 
writer, and Dr. Garnett, to whom I have written, 

. vni. AUG. 17, >95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


kindly tells me that he has DO information respect- 
ing him either. The Museum copy was purchased 
from the late Mr. H. Stevens in 1890. Can any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' enlighten me upon the parent- 
age and career of the author, and as to the existence 
of the original letter and of duplicates of the 
pamphlet ? WM. WHITEBROOK. 

14, Haddon Terrace, New Southgate, N. 

[See 8 th S. vii. 108.] 

" A POT OF INK": "THE INK-POT." Writers 
of all kinds to whom a pot of ink and the ink-pot 
are a daily necessity ought to feel interested in 
anything relating to ink, whether past or present. 
An inquiry heard the other day for " a pot of ink " 
brought to mind the time when a buyer invariably 
asked for a pot of ink at his stationer's. In fact, 
this " a pot " was the only term used up to fifty 
years or so ago ; and when I was a boy, though ink 
was then sold in bottles, nine out of ten persons 
asked for "a pot of ink." Can any one say when 
ink was sold in pots or jars, and not in bottles, as 
at the present day ? The term " ink-pot " was 
always used ; now everybody asks for the " ink- 
stand," or, more shortly, " the ink." 


"HOTTERER"(LOTTERER?). In the 'Chronicles 
of Twyford,' p. 178, we read: "1618. Gabriel 
Barber, a hotterer, gave to the poor inhabitants of 
this towne 40 pounds, 10 pounds whereof forth- 
with to be distributed, and 30 pounds remaining 
to be lent to said poor for ever." I am told that 
the word hotter eria a misprint for loiterer. Will some 
of the readers of 'N. & Q.' enlighten me as to the 
meaning of the word ? PAUL BIERLET. 

NIGHTMARES. According to German and 
Sclavonic folk-tales, the nightmare has a human 
shape, and is invariably believed to come from 
England ('Northern Mythology,' Thorpe). Can 
any folk-lorist explain the reason for the belief? 
I find no reference to the nightmare in our own 
folk-legends. A. MONTGOMERY HANDY. 

New Brighton, N.Y. 

EARL OF HALIFAX. In the will of Charles 
Montague, first Earl of Halifax, bequests are left 
to his nephews, John and Edward Lawton. Who 
were these nephews ? R. S. 

Before we leave thia consecrated spot, before this day of 

days is wholly dead, 

Before the dew obliterates all our steps from this light 
earth, let us record a vow. C. MELLOB. 

Ama et fac quod vis (? St. Augustine). 
To buy the merry madness of an hour 
With the long penitence of after time. G. 
As dull as ditchwater, or stale small beer. 

D. L. 


(8" S. vii. 467 ; viii. 73.) 
The early history of this strange relic must give 
way to conjecture ; still the common fable of 
its origin is ingenious. Although the carving of 
the bed does not indicate a period prior to the 
Elizabethan, it is said to have been made by a 
journeyman carpenter, one Jonas Fosbrooke, who, 
after thirty years' labour, presented it to Ed- 
ward IV. in 1463, for the use of the royal 
family, and for princes and nobles of gentle 
blood to lie in on great occasions. From this high 
condition it is first traced to the " Crown Inn," 
Ware, a hostel mentioned by W. Vallans, a native 
of Hertfordshire, in the 'Tale of Two Swannes,' 
printed in 1590 ; for proof is wanting of the bed 
having ever been in the old house of the Fan- 
shawes, Ware Park, as alleged by local chroniclers. 
The legend that the spirit of Jonas Fosbrooke, 
distressed by the base use of his favourite work, 
hovered round the bed, and haunted its occupants, 
is illustrated in romance in the venture of Harri- 
son Saxby, Master of the Horse to Henry VIII. , 
who, for the sake of the miller's fair daughter, 
dared the perils of a night in the Great Bed, and, 
though found bruised and prostrate in the morning, 
won the prize of the maiden's hand. In later days 
this tale was transferred to the stage of Covent 
Garden, during Madame Vestris's management, in 
the guise of the pantomime ' Harlequin, the Merry 
Devil of Edmonton, and the Great Bed of Ware.' 
The legend is briefly set out in the playbill, 
Christmas, 1839, but the scene of the bed was 
transferred to the " George Inn," Edmonton, for 
constructive purposes. When the " Crown " was 
pulled down in 1765 (see Cussans's 'Herts') the 
bed was placed in the " Bull," for many years the 
chief inn in Ware, and on the demolition in turn 
of that house (circa 1840) was moved to the 
" Saracen's Head," where (vide Murray's ' Hand- 
book, Herts,' 1895) it " was shortened by three 
feet" and placed in a room 14jft. square by 9 ft. 
high. On Aug. 30, 1864, the bed was put up 
for sale, when, on there being no bond fide com- 
petition, it was bought in nominally by a Mr. H. 
Wilmott, of the " Railway Tavern," Hertford, for 
100 guineas, but remained in the "Saracen's 
Head" till 1869, when it was privately sold to 
the late proprietor of the Rye House, where, in a 
shabby shed, in a remote corner of the grounds, it 
is exhibited at a charge of twopence per head. 
There is a good photograph of this mysterious 
piece of furniture as it now is by Chester Vaughan. 
In addition to the particulars given in 'N. & Q.' 
by various contributors, there is a woodcut in the 
Illustrated Times, Aug. 27, 1864, a description by 
Mr. Timbs in 'Abbeys, Castles, and Antient 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.vm.A.iv95 

Halls of England,' and a very full account in 
' Eecords of Ware,' by the late Mr. C. E. Dawes, 
now out of print. ROBERT WALTERS. 

Ware Priory. 

A very interesting article on ' The Great Bed of 
Ware ' appeared in the Literary World of Jan. 4, 
1840. A good engraving of the bed accompanies 
the letterpress. JOHN T. PAGE. 

5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

STOLEN RELICS RESTORED (8 th S. vii. 165, 296 ; 
viii.17,77). Your correspondent MR. G. C.BoASE 
refers your readers to a letter of mine, dated 
Sept. 21, 1882, to the Times newspaper, and 
repeats the exploded fiction that my late aunt 
Mrs. Bray, the well-known authoress, early in 
the present century pilfered a piece of the 
Bayeux tapestry. That he should have ventured 
to do so in face of the facts stated in that letter, 
and in the Times leader written upon it, is to me 
incomprehensible. I beg that you will give the 
same publicity to this my reiterated denial of the 
truth of the calumnious statement as you have 
given to MB. BOASE'S revival of it. 


A much more important restoration of relics 
than any yet recorded in these pages may be 
mentioned from Tenerife, in the Canary Isles. It 
will be remembered it was at Santa Cruz, the chief 
seaport of that island (La Laguna, five miles or so 
inland, is the ancient capital) that Nelson was 
beaten in fair fight by the Spaniards, and ifc was 
there he lost his arm. This was in A.D. 1797. 
Two of our flags were taken on that occasion by 
the enemy, and piously deposited by him in the 
church there, dedicated "de la Concepcion." 
Some years afterwards two young midshipmen, 
ashore from an English man-of-war, purloined 
them and carried the trophies in triumph to their 
ship. This action found no sympathy from our 
Government, who afterwards returned them to 
Spain, accompanied by many apologies for the 
indiscreet action of the youngsters. They now 
hang, one on each side the altar, in the dark 
central chapel on the north side of the church. 
They are in long glazed cases, very much like 
eight-day clock cases. I saw them there on 
Monday, July 22, 1895, and then realized to 
the full that the midshipmen's adventure was 
no great feat, for, alone as I was, there was 
practically nothing as regards precaution on the 
part of the authorities to prevent a chance 
visitor taking them away again. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

LE DESPENCER (8 th S. vii. 428, 513; viii. 74 
91). It is quite clear that Philip le Despencer' 
the ancestor of Margery Wentworth, was son of 
Hugh (senior) and not of Hugh (junior), who 

married the granddaughter of Edward I. The 
mistake of confusing the two is common even 
Mr. Foster has fallen into the mistake in his 
' Royal Descents'; and I may perhaps remark that 
it is the family of Landon whose claim to royal 
blood is thus mistaken. 

If it is of any interest to your correspondent, 
the descent of the issue of Margery's daughter-in- 
law, Mary de Clifford, can be traced to Edward I. 
in more ways than one. PERCEVAL LANDON. 

1, Cloisters, Temple. 

GOWER,THE PoET(8 th S. viii.87). In Chalmers's 
' Life of John Gower ' it is said, " On his head a 
coronet of roses, resting on three volumes intitled 
' Vox Clamantis,' ' Speculum Meditantis,' and 
' Confessio Amantis." " COKSTANCE RCSSELL. 

Swallowfield, Beading. 

CROMWELL IN WALES (8 th S. vii. 1, 191, 215). 
However this ordinance or directory may have 
arisen, I should ascribe it to statecraft rather than 
bigotry ; it is directed against the Established" 
Church. A. H. 

(8 th S. viii. 64). I think I have quite a new light 
upon this curious word. I do not believe that it has 
any connexion whatever with Bea, or with 0805, 
or with Ai$os. It is perfectly certain that it can- 
not be connected with Ai'0os, as is proved by the 
early usages of the word. The statement by Dr. 
Hunaus is not merely a guess, bub a very bad one s 
unsupported by a tittle of evidence. 

My own guess at the word is quite a new one, 
unlike any that has ever yet been suggested. My 
belief is that it is derived from the personal name 
Theodulus, which, as every schoolboy know?, 
means " servant of God." 

Contrary to the usual method of guessers, I have- 
founded my guess on evidence, of a sort. In 
Godefroy's ' Old French Dictionary ' will be found 
an entry under " Theodulet," a substantive which* 
he does not seem to be able to explain ; and my 
notion is that theodelitus is merely an (ignorant) 
Latinized form of the same word. 

Though Godefroy cannot explain theodultt, I 
think I can. It is well known that in mediaeval 
times a grammar was called a donet, from its- 
author, a certain Donatus. Again, a certain col- 
lection of fables was called an ysopet, from the 
writer whose name we spell JEsop. And it appears 
from the quotation in Godefroy (at this moment 
inaccessible to me) that theodulet was the name for 
some sort of book or treatise a treatise, namely.,, 
by a man called Theodnlus. 

This lands us in a track that is extremely diffi- 
cult to follow up. Who was the Theodulus who, 
presumably, first marked the rim of a circle (used 
in measuring) with considerable exactitude 1 Re- 
member that a theodolite meant at first " a marked' 

VIII. Aa Q , 17, '95.] 



circular rim," and was originally quite indepen- 
dent of a telescope, or any "way of seeing" a 
fact which entirely upsets the guesses hitherto 

All that I have found out as yet is that Theo- 
dulus was rather a common name, as there was a 
saint of that name. The last fact is familiar to all 
who have ever been to Zermatt. 


Whatever may be the origin of the term, the last 
syllable, if from At'#os, a stone, might still be -lite, 
as in aerolite, chrysolite, oolite, J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

BARRAS (8 th S. viii. 5). In this city we have 
Barras Lane and Barras Heath, and also Barr's 
Hill, each place being outside the ancient walls 
and situated on old roads. May we not conclude 
that here were bars at which toll was paid on the 
country produce taken into the city, and also that 
Barras is a mutation of Bars, Barres, Barras ? 


Moseley Terrace, Coventry. 

308, 356, 412 ; viii. 11, 53). It is with diffidence 
that I again enter into this matter, as I have to 
differ from MR. WALLER when he doubts that 
any Spaniard would pronounce the name under 
discussion with the lisped d. It is safe to say that 
thousands would ; but it may be permitted to 
examine what is Spanish. What is so called is 
the language of one province i.e., Castile but 
there are other provinces the natives of which can 
no more understand each other's dialects than a 
Cornishman could a Kaffir. There is the Gallego, 
who softens the gutturals into sibilants ; the 
Andalusian, who renders all the lisped sounds 
into sibilants ; the Catalan and the Basque, about 
whom I can give no information, but doubtless the 
natives of these provinces pronounce the Castilian 
differently from academic usage. My knowledge of 
Spanish was derived from a five years' residence 
in the north-west provinces, and I would put 
forward the following rough rule as to the pro- 
nunciation of d. As an initial it is always d, also 
when followed by e, except in a few words, such as, orden, and when it is the first letter of 
the ultimate syllable, as despide, ide, sede, pirdmide, 
amade, tarde, Iturbide, one exception to the excep- 
tion being Matilde ; it is d before o, except when it 
is the first letter of the ultimate syllable, and 
before u. Is there no Spaniard who can put the 
" Ingleses " right 1 ATEAHR. 


27). Mr. J. H. Lloyd, the latest historian of 
Higbgate, writes : 

" I have no record of the school in question. Up to 
the time of railways, Highgate was full of schools. In 
1830 there were nineteen boarding schools in Highgate 

ten for girls, nine for boys, practically'absorbing all the 
larger houses and twenty-three taverns, so that High^ 
gate was said to be ' all echoole and public houses.' " 

Highgate, N. 

KEY. JOHN MARRIOTT^ (7 th S. viii. 208, 277,. 
332 ; ix. 112). In the memoir of Charles Marriott, 
Dean Burgon (' Lives of Twelve Good Men,' 1888, 
i. 298) attributes the hymn commencing 

God that madest earth and heaven, 
to the Rev. John Marriott (father of Charles); 
whereas in the ' Hymnal Companion ' (1880) it is 
assigned to "Heber and Whateley." Are there- 
any satisfactory data for deciding as to the author- 
ship ? In the latter work, one with the first line 

Thou, whose almighty word 

has Marriott's name attached to it. Did he write 
any other hymns 1 T. N. BRUSHFIELD, M.D. 

Salterton, Devon. 

EPITAPH ON DR. JOHNSON (8 th S. viii. 68). 
The writer of the epitaph was Soame Jenyns. It 
appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1786, 
Boswell quotes it in a foot-note to chap. xii. of 
'Life of Johnson.' After commenting on it with 
deserved severity, he adds : 

"This unjust and sarcastic epitaph was met by ao 
answer, in terms by no means soft, and such as wanton- 
provocation alone could justify : 


Prepared for a creature not quite dead yet. 
Here lies a little ugly nauseous elf, 
Who, judging only from its wretched self, 
Feebly attempted, petulant and vain, 
The Origin of Evil' to explain. 
A mighty Genius, at this elf displeased, 
With a strong critic grasp the urchin squeezed* 
For thirty years its coward spleen it kept, 
Till in the dust the mighty Genius slept, 
Then stunk and fretted in expiring snuff, 
And blinked at Johnson with its last poor puff." 

Croker adds, " The answer was no doubt by Bos- 
well himself, and does more credit to his zeal than 
bis poetical talents." 

la the epitaph on Johnson as given by Boswell,. 
and as now given by G. T., there is a slight differ- 
ence in two lines. Where the former has 
111 bred and overbearing in dispute, 
A scholar and a Christian but a brute, 

the latter has 

Haughty and overbearing in dispute, 
A Christian and a scholar, but a brute. 

Manso of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

This malicious epitaph was by Soame Jenyns_, 
the author of an ' Inquiry into the Origin of Evil,' 
which book had been severely and wittily exposed 
by Dr. Johnson. Jenyns kept his retort un- 
courteous till the Doctor was dead, and then in 
1786 it appeared in several newspapers and 
magazines. An anonymous author, who is sup- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ca* s. viii. A. 17, 


posed to have been Boswell, gave Jenyns a quid 
pro quo in an "Epitaph prepared for a creature 
not quite dead yet." Both epitaphs display a 
coarseness now rather at a discount ; but Horace 
Walpole in this respect " went one better " in a 
MS. epigram in his copy of the first edition of 
Boswell's ' Tour to the Hebrides,' which sold last 
June at Sotheby's for 41 Z. It runs as follows : 

When Boozy Bozzy belched put Johnson's Sayings, 
And half the volume filled with his own Brayings, 
Scotland beheld again before her pass 
A Brutal Bulldog coupled with an Ass. 

East Hyde. 

Soame Jenyns was the author of this epi- 
taph. It appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for May, 1786, part i. p. 428. It also " appeared 
in the newspapers and magazines." I refer G. T. 
to Birkbeck Hill's 'Johnson,' vol. i. p. 316 n. 2. 



(8 tn S. viii. 27). MR. HENDERSON gives Nov. 25, 
1596,* as the date of the first production of ' Every 
Man in his Humour,' 1597 as that of the first pub- 
lication of 'Romeo and Juliet.' He appears to 
have overlooked the fact that the revised version 
of the latter play was acted at the theatre in July, 
1596, if not earlier, and that, although not pub- 
lished until the following year, it was probably 
printed for publication (Fleay says "must have 
been ") in 1596. Moreover this play was but an 
altered version of another ' Romeo and Juliet,' of 
which Shakespeare was at least joint author, and 
which was acted in 1591. In the revised version 
of 1596 the work of Shakespeare's former coadjutor 
in the play was cut out and replaced by Shake- 
speare's own writing. The edition of 1597 was 
" an imperfect and abridged copy " of this revised 
play, " with lacunce filled up by portions of the 
original version of 1591." A correct edition 
appeared in 1599. I take these facts and quota- 
tions from Mr. Fleay's * Chronicle History.' They 
certainly seem to knock the bottom out of MR. 
HENDERSON'S theory, so far as it relates to the two 
plays he mentions. C. C. B. 

Some common and lamentable errors are repeated 
by MR. HENDERSON in his note on the similarity 
of certain expressions used by Shakspere in ' Romeo 
and Juliet ' to those of some of the characters in 
Jonson's ' Every Man in his Humour.' 

Greene's "Crow beautified with our feathers" 
was meant to describe the player, and the phrase 
must be replaced in the mind with the word 
"actor." It has no reference whatever to 

Ben Jonson was not an idolater of Shakspere. 

Upon the authority I suppose, of Henslowe. 

He tells us so himself, but his words are wrongly 

referred to as meaning the contrary. "I do 

lonor his memory, on this side idolatry, as much 
as any." This sentence " rare Ben " intended as 
a stinging rebuke to the imputation that he had 

n envious of Shakspere's popularity. Shak- 
spere is not mentioned as impersonating old 
Knowell, except by those who misread the printer's 
record. That merely tells us Shakspere was one 
of the " principal performers." 

It is a loose fashion with some Shaksperian 
readers and writers to speak of ' Romeo and Juliet ' 
as having been first played in 1597. It was first 
published in that year, and the title-page of the 
book informs us that this excellent conceited 
tragedy had been often with great applause played 
" publiquely." It must not be supposed that men 
in Shakspere's London gave away their property 
any more precipitately than do those of to-day. 
Plays were not printed until some time after their 
novelty and attractiveness had waned ; and it is 
certain, from the extraordinary references to its 
popularity printed upon the title-page of the 1597 
quarto, that ' Romeo and Juliet ' had been a long 
time before the " publique " at the theatre, that 
being the house of the Lord Chamberlain's (Lord 
Hunsdon's) players. I make these notes to indi- 
cate the danger of relying upon second - hand 
authorities. The errors here mentioned have been 
so often repeated by careless writers that from 
them the Shakspere garden is greatly in need of a 
thorough weeding. JNO. MALONE. 

PHILANTHROPY (8 th S. viii. 67). The word 
(f)iXavOp(DTria occurs twice in the New Testament 
(1) in Acts xxviii. 2, " the barbarous people [of 
Melita] showed us no little kindness " ($>i\o.v9p(i>- 
iriav) ; (2) in Titus iii. 4, "[the] love of God our 
Saviour toward man" ((juXavOpwiria). In both 
places the Vulgate renders the word by humanitas. 
Bishop Ellicott, in his note on the passage in 
Titus, refers to the use of the word by Philo 
('Leg. ad Cai.,' 10, vol. ii. p. 556). 

Johnson (s.v. "Philanthropy") only quotes 
Addison's Spectator, No. 177, for the use of the 
word. In Richardson's dictionary the following 
passage is cited from Dryden : 

" This philanthropy (which we have not a proper word , 
in English to express) is everywhere manifest in our 
author [Polybiusj, and from hence proceeded that divine 
rule which he gave to Scipio, that whensoever he went 
abroad he should take care not to return to his own 
house before he had acquired a friend by some new 



The word " philanthropic '' is used, according to 
Skeat, by Minsheu in 1627, presumably in his 
' Guide into the Tongues,' of which the second 
edition was published in that year. And Jeremy 
Taylor (1613-67) speaks of " a philanthropy and 

8fs.vm.AtrG.iv95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


love to all mankind." As to the Greek word 
<iAav#/>W7ros, it occurs in the writings of the 
Dorian comic poet Epicharmus, born B.C. 540, and 
frequently in later classic authors, such as Plato, 
Xenophon, and Demosthenes. By these and other 
writers it is applied as an epithet indifferently to 
gods, men, horses, and dogs. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

FINGER PILLORY (8 ta S. viii. 66). A description 
of the finger pillory at Ashby-de-la-Zouch appeared 
in 'N. &Q.' 1 st S. iv. 315. This communication 
elicited the information that another of these 
machines was preserved at Littlecote Hall, the 
seat of the Pophams in Wiltshire (p. 395). Illus- 
trations of both are given in ' Old Time Punish- 
ments,' by William Andrews, 1890, also a sketch 
of another, described by Plot in his ' History of 
Staffordshire,' published in 1686. A further ex- 
ample may be seen in the hall of the Eight Hon. 
William, Lord Paget, at Beaudesart. In an account 
of the customs of the manor of Ashton-under- 
Lyne in the fifteenth century it is stated that at the 
manorial festivals, " in order to preserve as much 
as possible the degree of decorum that was neces- 
sary, there were frequently introduced a diminu- 
tive pair of stone stocks, of about eighteen inches in 
length, for confining within them the fingers of the 

71, Brecknock Road. 

JESSE WINDOWS (8 th S. viii. 28, 75). There 
are very few complete examples of Jesse windows 
now remaining in this country. Over the altar 
at St. George's, Hanover Square, there is one, but 
this is Flemish, of sixteenth century date, and 
was brought from Malines and erected in its 
present position, with additions, in 1841. A view 
of part of it, showing the King Roboam, was pub- 
lished in the Magazine of Art in 1885, p. 345. 
In Bristol Cathedral, at the east end of the choir 
there is, or was, an example of Decorated date, of 
which there is a general view in Lysons's ' Col- 
lection of Gloucestershire Antiquities,' plate 92, 
and a detail of one of the figures to a larger scale 
on plate 93 ; and Carter, in his ' Ancient Architec- 
ture of England,' plate 79, figure Q, gives a portion 
of one at Salisbury, which, however, Winston, in 
the Transactions of the Archseological Institute at 
Salisbury in 1849, p. 137, says now no longer 
exists. In 'An Enquiry into the Difference of 
Style observable in Ancient Glass Painting, 
especially in England,' by an Amateur (i.e., 
Charles Winston), mention is made of a very early 
Jesse at York, said to be figured in Browne's 
' History of the Metropolitan Church of St. Peter, 
York'; and Bloxam, in bis 'Principles of Gothic 
Ecclesiastical Architecture,' vol. ii. p. 220 (1882 
edition), says there is a fine example at Lowick 
Church, Northampton, and that portions of one 

removed from Merevale Abbey, Warwickshire, 
are now preserved in the chapel of the gateway to 
that abbey and in the neighbouring church of 
Mancetter. At Llanrhaiadr, Denbighshire, there 
is said to be a Jesse which was found buried in an 
old chest in the churchyard ; and in the central 
lancet at the east end of Westwell Church, Kent, 
are the remains of another, consisting of two ovals, 
in one of which is a figure of the Virgin ; a full- 
size detail of one of the heads from this window 
is given in Winston's ' Enquiry,' plate 34. 

In France Viollet-le-Duc, in the ' Dictionnaire 
de 1' Architecture franchise,' article " Jesse," men- 
tions a window of the twelfth century at Chartres 
Cathedral, which, if I remember correctly, is 
engraved in the monograph of that cathedral by 
Lassus, Duval, and Durand ; and another of the 
same date is in the chapel to the Virgin in the 
Abbey of St. Denis. Examples of the thirteenth 
century are to be found in the cathedrals of 
Reims, Amiens, and Bourges, and the Sainte 
Chapelle du Palais, and of the sixteenth century 
in one of the apsidal chapels of the church of 
St. Etienne at Beauvais, and in the cathedrals of 
Autun and Sens. BEN. WALKER. 

Langstone, Erdington. 

The elaborate Jesse at Christchurch, Hants, is 
a carved altar screen, not a window. There is no 
Jesse at Salisbury now, and I never heard of any 
there. At Dorchester on Thames the stone 
tracery of window as well as glass painting con- 
tribute to the Jesse. At Winchester College, 
and other windows, it is the painting only. 

E. L. G. 

One of the finest of these is at Selby. See a 
very complete account of this and of some others 
by the late James Fowler, F.S.A., with an illus- 
tration, published by Mr. Bellerby, of Selby. 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

EVANCE (8 tb S. iii. 469 ; iv. 191 ; vii. 433 ; viii. 
35). Richard Evance and Thomas Evance married 
respectively the daughters of two brothers, viz., 
Richard Evance married to Catherine, daughter 
of John Lloyd, of Llanforda ; Thomas Evance, 
Eleanor, daughter of Edward Lloyd, of Swyn y 
maen. They were the sons of Robert Lloyd, of 
Llanforda and Swyn y maen, obt. 1496, his wife 
being Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Richard 
Stanney, of Oswestry. The elder brother John 
succeeded to the Llanforda estate, which ha? 
passed to the Wynnes of Wynstay by purchase. 
Edward Lloyd, of Swyn y maen, was the second 
son, he was Constable of Oswestry Castle. His 
will was proved 1544. The following occurs, 
fo. 119, Arch. Cambrenm, 1888 : " Richard 
Lloyd, of the Dryle, Oswestry [pronounced Drilth], 
Richard Lloyd had two daughters, coheiresses : one 
married Richard Evanse, Oswestry, and she was 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. vm. AM. 17. -M, 

the mother of Edward Evanse, of Dryle ; she had 
the land." This relates to the second wife of 
Kichard Evance, of Treveleth, obt. 1613, viz., 
Dorothy Lloyd, A. V. E. 

"FILLIWILLY" (8 th S. vii. 507). Perhaps a 
kind of plaid. Of. Q*t>l fiUeadk, a plait, a plaid, 
as in filibeg or filibeg. It looks like a word of the 
reduplicated class. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

GRAHAM OF GARTER (6 th S. viii. 288). There 
never appears to have been a pedigree published 
of this family. I have one, however, compiled in 
1795, which is incorrect at the commencement, as 
it makes out Walter Graham, brother of the second 
Earl of Menteith, to have been their ancestor. This 
Walter had no charter from his grandfather (first 
earl) or brother, and must have died young and 
unmarried. But it has been said in the past that 
he had a charter of the lands of Gartur in 1553 
from the Commendator or Abbot (David Erskine) 
of Inchmahome. No record exists of any such 
charter, and to disprove it the commendator, in 
1553, granted a charter of Gartur and other lands 
to Alexander Erskine of Cangnoir, and confirmed 
in 1562 a charter, dated October 5, 1560, of the 
said Alexander Erskine, to his brother John, Lord 
Erskine, of the lands of Gartur and others in ex- 
change for the half of Cambusbarron. This Walter 
Graham, therefore, could not have been of Gartur, 
the lands of which remained for generations in the 
Erskine family. For the same reason, if he had had 
a family, they could not have been of Gartur. In 
the pedigree Walter's grandson, Jasper of Gartur, 
is said to have married Agnes Graham of Gurt- 
more. The only Jasper Graham on record was 
Jasper Graham of Blaircessnock, who married an 
Agnes Graham. This Jasper of Blaircessnock was 
either uncle or brother-in-law to David Graham 
in Bednock (of Grahatnstown, in Bednock) and 
Patrick Graham of Blairquhoill (afterwards Leitch- 
town) ; he was certainly one or the other, but 
if brother-in-law, who his father was is not 
known for certain. He was murdered in 1618 
by John Graham of Polder and his brothers 
Andrew, Walter, and Thomas, sons of William 
Graham of Duchray, and in 1622 the king 
granted letters of remission, with the consent of 
Jasper's sons, John of Blaircessnock and Walter, 
their mother Agnes Graham, and David and 
Patrick Graham, above mentioned. The pedigree 
states that John had a son Walter of Gartnr 
(1681), but it is doubtful whether this was not 
his brother's son, for in 1724, while there was 
a John Graham of Blaircessnock, there was a 
James Graham of Gartur, showing that the Blair- 
cessnock, or chief line from Jasper, went on, 
although it is not said so in the pedigree before 
me. In my opinion the Gartur family here 
branched off Biaircessnock, the Walter (1681) 
being the first of Gartur, who married Marion, 

daughter of Sir James Graham, Governor of 
Drogheda. Before him no Graham of Gartur can 
be traced, and that there was only one subsequent 
generation of the family of Gartur in Menteith is 
an absolute certainty. He had three sons, James, 
John, and William, the last of whom bought 
Gartur from his brother James, and in turn sold 
it, about the middle of last century, to James 
Erskine of Cardross, great-grandfather of the pre- 
sent representative. James had a son of the same 
name, whose line failed with his grandson, another 
James. John died without issue ; and the youngest, 
William (who sold Gartur), had three sons, Walter 
(d.s.p.), John of Gartur (another Gartur, however), 
and James (who died s.p. ). John married 
Matilda Erskine, daughter of the gentleman to 
whom his father had sold Gartur. In regard to- 
him Mr. Erskine of Cardross informed me some 
time since that, after he had married his (Mr. 
Erskine's) grandaunt, he bought a small place 
near Stirling and called it Gartur, now the pro- 
perty of Col. Murray of Polmaise. He" died in 
1818, and the inscription on his gravestone in the 
island of Inchmahome records that he was the last 
of his line. This brief account of the Gartur 
family demonstrates two facts not before known : 
that their ancestor was Jasper Graham of Blair- 
cessnock, and not Walter, brother of the second earl, 
as has been reputed ; and that there were only 
two generations of Grahams of Gartur in Menteith. 
Of Walter, brother of the second earl, nothing is 
known, except that he died childless and charter- 
Carron Hall, Stirling. 

SHIP ACROSS THE ATLANTIC (8 tb S. vii. 486). At 
this late day the pages of ' N. & Q.' should not 
be the vehicle for perpetuating so gross an error aa 
is implied by the language of the above heading 
as applied at the reference. The Sirius, the Great 
Western, the President, and the British Queen were 
among the early steamers that crossed the Atlantic, 
but the Savannah preceded them all by at least nine- 
teen years. Her captain was Moses Bogers, of 
New London, Connecticut, and she made the trip 
from Savannah to Liverpool in twenty-five days, 
having sailed from Savannah May 26, and arrived 
at Liverpool June 20, 1819. 



267). If LION'S PAW had given his authority for 
the statement that the arms of the Boothby family 
had been altered it would have been more satis* 
factory. The writers on the subject I possess are 
silent as to any alteration. Wotton, in his 
' Baronetage,' states that " the coat of arms as 
now borne by the Boothbys is now, or lately was, 
painted on glass in the church windows and house 



there," referring to Boothby, in Lincolnshire. The 
' Visitations ' give the same. The arms on the 
monument to William (1622) and Henry Boothby 
(1648) at Boddington Church, co. Northampton, 
are, In a canton, a lion's paw (Boothby), impaling 
Ermine, three lions' heads erased (Hayes). The 
right to bear the latter coat I am unable to ascer- 

" STILL AND ON" (8 th S. vii. 204, 475 ; viii. 35, 
77). To prevent confusion it may be well briefly 
to recapitulate the points at issue here. First, in 
a set of verses by the late Mr. R. L. Stevenson 
these lines occur : 

Still art thou dear, and dear to me, 
Auld Reekie, still and on. 

Can any one give another example of " still and 
on" in this sense of " continuously " ? Secondly, 
Jamieson, in his 'Scottish Dictionary,' gives "with- 
out intermission " as a definition of " still and on," 
but furnishes no illustration. Thirdly, Jamieson 
Likewise gives " nevertheless " as an equivalent of 
the phrase, and thereby recognizes a usage still 
prevalent in Lowland Scotch. Lastly, Jamieson's 
latest editor arbitrarily omits this second defini- 
tion, and to that extent weakens the authoritative 
character of the work. I have heard ' ' still and 
on "in the sense of "nevertheless" hundreds of 
times, but never once with the other signification. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

"EDUCATIONALIST" (8 th S. viii. 67). The fol- 
lowing philological reasons for the ending of words 
like the above are from Latham's ' Dictionary,' 
t.v. "Naturalist": 

" This is the word which pre-eminently serves as the 
precedent in favour of certain derivatives in -ist, being 
attached to the affix -at, rather than to the base to which 
the -al itself is_ affixed; i.e, it favours such forms as 
agricultur-al-ist', rather than agricultur-ist. No man 
eays nalurist; indeed, the word means something else. 
That agriculturalist is over-long is not denied. It is 
held, however, that naturalist is the standard for words 
of four syllables at least." 

In the same work, "Agriculturalist" is defined 
" One whose pursuits are agricultural," and " Agri- 
culturist," "One employed in agriculture" a differ- 
ence of definitions much about the same as between 
six and half a dozen. Webster (new edition) and 
Annandale give both words as synonymous, the 
former adding that "agriculturist" is the pre- 
ferred form. " Scripturalist " Latham omits, 
giving only " Scripturist," "One who thoroughly 
understands the sacred writings." This is en- 
dorsed by Webster and by Annandale, who define 
" Scripturalist," " One who adheres literally to the 
Scriptures " a real difference in definitions this 
time. " Constitutionalist " and " Constitutionist " 
are both in Latham, as well as in Webster and in 
Annandale, with a slight definitional difference. 
" Educationist " and ''Educationalist" are con- 

spicuous by their absence in Latham ; the former 
alone is in Webster, and Annandale has both as 
synonymous. " Grammatici certant et adhuc sub 
judice Us est." F. E. A. GASC. 


Philologically, "educationalist" is a perfectly 
good form. It has the analogy of "nationalist," 
" denominationalist," " intuitionalist," and such 
words to recommend it, though there is the in- 
stance of " coercionist " on the other side. It is 
found interchangeably with "educationist" from 
the beginning of the present century, but recent 
usage appears to prefer it. It is the form adopted 
bv so noteworthy an authority as Mr. A. J. Ellis. 

W. B. 


CORNISH CCJSTOM (8 tb S. viii. 28). This is the 
remains of the old Dedication Feast of St. la, the 
patron saint of St. Ives, and of the old game of 
"hurling," played as part of the feast. The ball is, 
of course, only silver-plated ; I believe the body is 
cork. For a full description, see J. H. Matthews's 
History of St. Ives,' p. 393. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

' FRANKENSTEIN ' (8 th S. vii. 485). The identi- 
fication of Frankenstein's soulless monster with 
Frankenstein himself has become so common, that 
I fear it will be a long time before the error is 
finally eradicated. Here is another instance of the 
" unfortunate derangement," from the English 
Illustrated Magazine for July. In a short article 
on Prince von Bismarck the writer says (p. 295) : 
"Bismarck had, of course, not the faintest idea 
that he was creating a Frankenstein for himself 
and for the German monarchy." I have not Mrs. 
Shelley's novel at hand ; but was not its alternative 
title 'The Modern Prometheus'? The remem- 
brance of this would stop the error. 


" FINE-AXED " (8 th S. viii. 27, 77). A term used 
in masons' work. It is defined, not explained, in 
glossaries, &c., as " a more careful description of 
single-axed work." Through the kindness of Mr. 
C. A. Mitchell, head master of the Regent Street 
Polytechnic School, I am enabled to give a more 
intelligible account of it. 

The tool used resembles two wedges set butt to 
butt, forming a double-edged head about 9 in. long 
from edge to edge, 2 in. thick where the handle 
passes through it, and 3 in. to 4 in. broad along 
the cutting edges, parallel to the axis of the 
handle, the handle itself about 2ft. 6 in. long. 
The stone is brought to a plane face with a pick, 
and the surface is then chopped over with the axe, 
which leaves a number of parallel incisions, each 
of a length answering to the length of the cutting 
edge. When one row of these cuts has been made 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s s. vm. AUG. 17, "05. 

from side to Bide of the face to be dressed another 
row is worked, until the whole surface is covered. 
There are about sixteen cuts to the inch. 

" Axed " work is dressed in the same manner, 
but with a heavier axe, its cutting edges bevelled 
to a less acute angle, and about four cuts go to an 

" Axed" and " fine-axed " work is employed on 
hard stone ; freestone and soft stone are usually 
either "tooled" or "chiselled," as being more 
expeditious work. 


Thornton Heath. 

This term is used to describe the finest face, 
short of rubbing or polishing, given to granites 
and other hard stones, and is obtained by the use 
of the patent axe. 

The block is first taken out of winding, that is, 
all the surfaces are brought up as true and level 
as possible, and it is then gone over by the axe, 
which consists of an iron head into which six or 
eight steel blades are bolted with their cutting 
edges equidistant and level, and a true, slightly 
rough surface is the result. BEN. WALKER. 

Langstone, Erdington. 

VESTMENT BRASSES (8 th S. viii. 28). Is H. F., 
as he proposes the publication of a work on brasses, 
aware of 

"A Manual of Monumental Brasses, comprising an 
Introduction to the Study of these Memorials, and a List 
of those remaining in the British Isles. With two 
hundred illustrations. By the Kev, Herbert Haines, 
M.A., Ex. Coll., Oxford. The Parkers, 61 " 1 

There is a review in ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. xi. 40, 
from which it appears that this is the second publi- 
cation of the author on the subject ; and that in the 
second part of the book there is an accurate and 
comprehensive account of the present state of the 
monumental brasses in England ; that the list con- 
tains notices of more than 3,200 brasses in England 
with figures, and 1,200 inscriptions and fragments, 
The volume contains between 500 and 600 pages. 


SO-HO (7 th S. xii. 144, 198, 253, 296 ; 8"> S. vi. 
365, 455; vii. 195). In Shakespeare's 'King 
Henry V.,' III. vii., "c.aha" is addressed to a 
horse. W. C. B. 

(8 th S. vii. 488). Eight years have passed since 
Miss BUSK declined to give us the benefit of the 
vast store of knowledge accumlated by that talented 
contributor on the subject of the Cenacolo (7 tfi 
S. v. 410, 471), and here we are, wading among the 
myths relating to that sublime creation as gaily as 
ever. MR. W. E. LATTON asks where he "can 
find a verification of the story that, in the Milan 
fresco, Leonardo painted a porcelain vase " so 
exquisitely " that people who came to see the fresco 

were more struck with, and commented more on, the 
painting of the vase than on the face and aspect of 
our Lord ; and when this came to Leonardo's ears 
he immediately painted out tbe vase, " remarking 
that it was on our Lord, and not on any accessories, 
that he wanted attention fixed." 

MR. LAYTON'S difficulty in finding a satisfactory 
authority for that statement is not surprising, for 

I do not believe this story has ever appeared in print. 
Leonardo began his fresco in 1497, and, according 
to his friend Fra Luca Pacialo, he finished it in the 
following year. There is no evidence to show that 
Leonardo ever entered the Refectory after he com- 
pleted the Cenacolo. He had quarrelled with the 
prior of the convent about the head and features 
of Judas, and it is not to be supposed that the 
prior would easily have forgiven the insult implied 
by the words which Leonardo addressed to Lodovico 

II Moro : " se forse nol trover6 io, vi pono 
quello di questo padre Priore che ora me si molesta, 
cbe maravigliosamente gli si confani." We have 
this anecdote on the authority of Vasari. I do 
not remember to have seen that vase in Marco 
d'Oggiono's copy, executed circa 1500, during 
Leonardo's absence at Florence. In reply to MR. 
LAYTON'S question, "Where did Mrs. Jameson 
get her authority for the identification of tbe 
Apostles ? " I can only suppose that she was well 
acquainted with Stendhal's (Henry Beyle) ' His- 
toire de la Peinture en Italie,' where a descriptive 
list is given, on the authority of " Pierre Luini, 
fils du celebre Bernardino," who is supposed to 
have painted the fresco at Ponte Capriaso, a place 
which, according to Miss BUSK, is "situated 
among the mountains." RICHARD EDGCUMBE. 

33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

77, 337, 415).- Tbe windows enclosed by three 
equal curves in the triforium of Westminster 
Abbey, and the clearstory of Lichfield nave, 
might be called "fish-head shaped." Small copies 
of such are now very common, but they were rare 
in mediaeval England, and I never heard of any in 
other countries. E. L. G. 

SEDAN-CHAIR (8 th S. vii. 305, 396). The hypo- 
thesis put forward by MR. R. B. DOUGLASS seems 
scarcely tenable, but it is not improbable that he 
may, perhaps unwittingly, have thrown light on the 
subject. Is it not very likely that the name of the 
inventor or first celebrated maker of the chair was 
Sedan, and that the vehicle was called after him ? 
We have a precisely analogous instance in hansom 

SIR GORE, or SACOMBK (8 th S. viii. 68). Sir 
John Gore, eldest son of Sir Ralph Gore (who was 
seventh son of Gerard Gore, of London, alderman, 
by Ellen Davenant), knighted at York 1646 ; 
High Sheriff for Herts 6 Charles II. ; M.P. for 

8* a. via AUG. 17, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hertford 23 Charles II. (1671). Purchased the 
manors of Temple Chelsin and Sacombe from Lord 
Bellasis, and sold them, 4 James II., to Sir Thomas 
Bolt. Ob. Sept. 14, 1697, cet. 77; buried at 
Wotton. He married Catherine, eldest daughter 
of Sir John Boteler, of Woodhall, Herts, KB. 
From this Sir John Gore the Gores of Kilkenny 
are descended. FANNY BULKELEY-OWEN. 

Sir John Gore purchased the manors of Sacombe, 
Temple Chelsing, and Box from Lord Belasis in 
the reign of Charles I. ; was knighted at York 
1640 ; married Catherine, daughter of Sir John 
Boteler, of Woodhall, Herts. He was Sheriff 
1654, and Burgess for Hertford in the twenty- 
third year of Charles II. MATILDA POLLAED. 

369). In reply to W. I. R. V., I send particulars 
of some Sunderland ware in my possession. A 
bowl, twelve inches in diameter. In the inner 
centre, " The Arms of the Ancient and Honour- 
able Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons," 
which are the arms of the so-called Modern Masons, 
with supporters. At the bottom of the shield are 
depicted the square, compasses, and plumb, and 
the usual motto, " Audi Vide Tace," which is sur- 
rounded by the pink lustre decorations. On one 
side is depicted a view of the " Bridge over the 
Wear," with sailing vessels and a steam-packet 
underneath. On the opposite, "The Mariner's 
Compass." Between these are the second and 
fourth verses quoted by W. I. E. V. On the one 
side is a view of the " New Bridge over the Wear 
at Sunderland," with ships and a steam-packet 
underneath, the other being " The Agamemnon in 
a Storm," between which are the following verses, 
within two sprays of flowers, as on the inside : 

The Sailor lost in stormy seas, 

Though far his bark may roam, 
Still hears a voice in every breeze 

That wakens thoughts of home. 
He thinks upon his distant friends, 

His wife, his humble cot, 
And from his inmost heart ascends 

The prayer, " Forget-me-not." 
Ensigns of state that feed our pride, 
Distinctions troublesome and vain, 
By Masons true are laid aside ; 
Art's freeborn sons such toys disdain, 

Ennobled by the name they bear, 

Distinguished by the badge they wear. 

On the bottom is impressed " Moore & Co." 

A gallon jug, on which is depicted, on the out- 
side, "A South-East View of the Iron Bridge 
over the Wear near Sunderland, founded on Stone 
laid by P. Burdon, Esq., Sept. 24th, 1793, opened 
Aug. 9tb, 1796 "; and on oval on either side is 
given weight of iron in the structure. Below is, 
" J. Phillips Hylton Pottery." On the opposite 
side, within a wreath, Justice with the scales, 
Truth with a mirror, between which are the two 

pillars, in the centre of which is a building, the 
foreground of which is a tesselated pavement, 
below which is the following : 

The world is in pain 

Our secrets to gain, 
But still let them wonder and gaze on ; 

They ne'er can divine 

The word nor the sign 
Of a Free and Accepted Mason. 

Above, in the centre, is the All-seeing Eye, and 
on either side of the two figures are depicted 
several well-known Masonic emblems. Beneath 
all is "Dixon and Austin Sunderland Pottery.'* 
In the centre, under the spout, within a wreath, 
are the following lines, above which are the square 
and compasses, the pentalpha, with G in the 
centre, and the triple tau : 

Let Masonry from Pole to Pole 

Her sacred laws expand 
Far as the mighty waters roll, 

To wash remotest land. 
That virtue has not left mankind 

Her social maxims prove, 
For stamped upon the Mason's mind 
Are unity and love. 

The above are depicted in various colours, with a 
band of pink lustres above and below. No name 
or mark on bottom. 

A mug, five and a quarter inches in diameter 
and five and a quarter high inside, on the outside 
of which is depicted " New Bridge over the Wear 
at Sunderland." On the opposite side is depicted, 
in the distance, a ship at sea, with a boat near the 
shore with sailors in it. In the foreground is a 
sailor, with his wife in tears, and two children, 
behind which is their cottage, with the following 
lines underneath : 

Sailor's Farewell, 

Sweet ! oh ! sweet is that sensation 
Where two hearts in union meet ; 
But the pain of separation 

Mingles bitter with the sweet. 
The above is also depicted in colours, with the 
usual pink lustres dispersed about. 
All the above ware is white. T. F. 

Your correspondent's date (August 9, 1796) for 
the opening of the Wear Bridge is correct ; but I 
question the accuracy of the date (1803) assigned 
for the manufacture of the punch-bowl. 

Although the Comet was plying in the Clyde 
in 1812, the Tyne was the first of the rivers in 
England to begin passenger traffic by steam. The 
Tyne Packet Company's boat Perseverance ran 
for the first time between Newcastle and Shields 
on May 19, 1814, and it is probable that a few 
years elapsed before a steamboat appeared on the 
Wear. The Safety was the first steam vessel 
registered at Sunderland, and that in 1825. 


KUM (8 th S. vi. 363 ; vii. 38). Dr. Holmes, in 
bis charming ' Autocrat," alludes to the compre- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. vm. AUG. 17, -95. 

tensive meaning of the word " rum " in modern 
American speech. 


K REFORMADES " (8 th S. viii. 68). This means 
those who, having been in the service, return to it 
as volunteer?. The term has frequent treatment 
in ' N. & Q.' In 3 rd S. vii. 282 there is, after a 
query, a note with references to Burder and Offor 
as commentators, as also to Phillips's ' New World 
of Words.' A longer explanation is given by 
and E. H. MARSHALL, in reply to a repetition of 
the query, at 6 th S. ix. 432, as also by E. PEACOCK 
at p. 511 and by R. R. at x. 50. At p. 97 there 
is a reply by me to the supposition of R. R. that 
I wish to substitute " volunteers," because I quote 
from the edition of the R.T.S., which has the 
substitution. H. H. 8. reopens the question at 
7 th S. xi. 507, by a reference to the use of the 
term by the House of Commons in 1642, to which 
E. H. MARSHALL replies by a reference to De 
Quincey's 'Works,' as containing an account of 
the use of the term in vol. xvi. 490, at xii. 74, 
while F. 0. BIRKBECK TERRY supplies a list of 
the notices in 6 th S. ix. x. at 7 th S. xii. 213. 

Curiously, Johnson omits the term, although it 
occurs in some earlier dictionaries or glossaries, as 
in those of Bulloker, Blount, Cole, and Bailey. 


(8 tn S. vii. 421, 515 ; viii. 70). CANON TAYLOR'S 
ingenious hypothesis as to the identity of Norway 
and Norumbega will not do at all. In the Spanish 
State Papers of Elizabeth, now being calendared 
by me for the Record Office, Norumbega is several 
times mentioned as in America, although, appa- 
rently erroneously, it is described as being in 
Florida. The reason for this error is, I believe, the 
following. By virtue of a patent granted June 11. 
1578, Sir Humphrey Gilbert was authorized to 
discover and take possession of unappropriated 
territory in any part of the world ; and on June 6 
1582, he granted a sub-licence to two Catholic 
gentlemen, Sir George Peckham and Sir Thomas 
<jrerrard, to discover and colonize any place between 
Cape Breton and Cape Florida, the whole eastern 
seaboard of the present United States, the idea, in 
which Sir Philip Sidney was a prime mover, being 
to found a refuge where English Catholics migh 
live according to their conscience while retaining 
their English nationality ; and a large sum o 
money was subscribed by the Catholics for thi 
.purpose. Apparently, after the land had been 
reconnoitred, a place was fixed upon for th 
experiment to be made, and in February, 1583 
a specific grant was made by Gilbert to Peckham 
(Colonial State Papers) of "all that river ant 
bay called by Master John Dee, Dee river, whic 

.ver, by the description of John Verazamus, Flo- 
entine, lies in latitude N. 42." It is described as 
aving its entrance open to the south, about half a 
eague broad at the mouth, and extending inside, 
orth and east, for twelve leagues, when it forms 
gulf twenty leagues in circumference. The gulf 
s said to contain five islands, and these, together 
with 1,500,000 acres of land on the "supposed 
ontinent adjacent," are granted in soccage to 
'eckharn ; " but the 1,500,000 acres might not 
xtend more than sixty miles along the sea coast 
vest towards the river Norumbeage." The river 
STorumbeage or Norumbega, as it is called by the 
Spaniards was, therefore, probably the Hudson, 
nd the territory called after it no doubt extended 
ndefinitely round the site of the present city of 
tfew York. As Spanish attention at the time 
was mainly directed on the eastern shores of North 
America to preventing a French or English settle- 
ment in Florida, it was natural for them to fix 
upon the words " Cape Florida " in Gilbert's first 
;rant to Peckham, and to jump at the conclusion 
'hat "the banks of the Norumbeage (Norum- 
>ega)," where the Catholic colony was to be 
stablished, were in Florida. It is needless to say 
hat the Spanish diplomatists bitterly opposed the 
cheme, and moved the Church to warn the English 
atholics against joining in it. 


Will CANON TAYLOR accept my best thanks for 
lis long and kind reply, at the last reference, to 
my personal appeal to him at the last reference 


A DUMB BELL (8 th S. vii. 507 ; viii. 98). Mr. 
E. Edwards, in ' Words, Facts, and Phrases,' says : 

" The original dumb-bell was an apparatus contrived 
like that for ringing church bells ; that ia, a heavy fly- 
wheel with a weight attached, which was set in motion 
[ike a church bell, until it acquired sufficient impetus 
to carry the gymnast up and down, and BO bring the 
muscles into active play. There is one at New College, 
Oxford, to the present day." 


407 ; v. 50). When I sent my quotation from 
Tb^ophile Gautier's ' Voyage en Espagne,' Apropos 
of this subject, I had not read Victor Hugo's tine 
poem, or, rather, series of poems, entitled 'Lea 
Sept MerveiJles du Monde 'in 'La Legende des 
Siecles.' Victor Hugo's list of the seven wonders 
is the usual one at least, what I have been accus- 
tomed to regard as the usual one, namely, the 
Temple of Ephesus, the Hanging Gardens of Baby- 
lon, the Mausoleum of King Mausolus, the statue 
of Jupiter Olympius, the Pharos of Alexandria, 
the Colossus of Rhodes, the Pyramids, or strictly, 
perhaps, the Great Pyramid of Cheops. Perhaps 
I may be allowed to quote the following lines from 
the seventh division of the poem, as they maj 

8" h S. VIII. AUG. 17, '95.] 


interest those of your readers to whom they may be 

new : 

Et, comme dans un chceur les strophes s'accelerent, 

Toutes ces voix dans 1'ombre obscure se melerent. 

Les jardins de Belus repeterent : Lee jjurs 

Nous versent les rayons, les parfums, les amours ; 

Le printemps immortel, c'est nous, nous seuls; nous 


La joie epanouie en roses sur les hommes. 
Le mausolee altier dit: Je suis la douleur ; 
J e suis le marbre, auguste en sa sainte paleur ; 
Cieux ! je suis le grand trdne et le grand mauBolee ; 
Contemplez-moi. Je pleure une larme etoilee. 
La sagesse, c'est moi, dit le phare marin ; 
Je suis la force, dit le colosse d'airain ; 
Et 1'olympien dit : Moi, je suis la puissance. 
Et le temple d'Ephese, autel que 1'ame encense, 
Fronton qu'adore 1'art, dit: Je suis la beaute. 
Et moi, cria Cheops, je suis l'6ternite. 

Et je vis, a travers le crepuscule humide, 
Apparaitre la haute et sombre pyramide. 

The words which I have italicized are one of 
those golden phrases which one constantly meets 
with in Victor Hugo, and which gladden the heart of 
true lover of poetry. JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

Ropley, Alresford. 

The Arthurian Epic. By S. Humphreys Gurteen, 

M.A.Camb. (Putnam's Sons.) 

THIS painstaking, elaborate, and erudite study of the 
versions, Cambrian, Breton, and Anglo-Norman, of the 
epic and of Tennyson's ' Idylls of the King,' aims at, or 
at least succeeds in, promoting over two well-known and 
brilliant reputations a reputation not hitherto either 
very brilliant or very well known. Mr. Gurteen's book 
is, in fact, to a great extent a glorification of Walter 
31 ap. the supposed originator of the 'Quest of the Holy 
Graal.' We say advisedly supposed, since, though the 
authorship of the Latin version of the ' Roman du 
Saint Graal ' and that of the ' Roman de Merlin ' are 
ascribed to him by the best authorities, some doubt as 
to the authorship is yet possible. Mr. Gurteen is, in 
fact, an enthusiast, accepting Arthur as a genuine 
monarch who reigned in the sixth century, and being, 
indeed, jealous of his position, rank, and influence. Now 
the existence of Arthur is a little more open to doubt 
than is Map's authorship of the romances before men- 
tioned. That Arthur actually lived no one who has 
read the literature of Wales, Cornwall, and Brittany, 
says our author, can reasonably doubt. The Welsh 
poems to which Mr. Gurteen trusts are of very ques- 
tionable authority as regards date, and there are at least 
as many scholars who believe Arthur a fabulous person 
as who believe him to have lived. Mr. Gurteen's en- 
thusiasm is so sincere it carries away his readers; and 
though his exaltation of the 'Roman du Saint Graal' 
and his opinions generally on the Arthurian epic fail 
to carry conviction, his criticism is often valuable, and 
his work is an important as well as a pleasing contribu- 
tion to the subject on which he writes. Not at all the 
first man is he to arraign Tennyson's treatment of 
certain portions of the legend?, and his admiration of 
other portions is sincere and eloquently expressed. We 
dissent entirely from him when he speaks of La Mort 
Daithur' as "a stately folio, though of no artistic 

merit," and his subsequently expressed regret that "the- 
execution of the work was not performed by more skil- 
ful hands." Neither to Tennyson nor Malory is he in- 
tentionally unjust, and he concedes even that "the 
'Mort Darthur,' with all its imperfection?, has a subtle 
magnetic charm which is irresistible." We are glad to 
commend this new volume of comparative criticism. It 
strikes us as written throughout in a vein of needless 
exaltation, and some of its opinions seem more than a 
little fantastic. It is, however, a learned and readable 
book, and an important contribution to a popular and 
heroical theme. 

The Model Republic. By F. Grenfell Baker. (Nichols.) 
A STAUNCH admirer, friend, and disciple of Sir Richard' 
Burton, to whose memory his book is dedicated, Mr. 
Baker has bestowed upon a history of Switzerland, under- 
taken at Burton's suggestion, the title of ' The Model 
Republic.' The task of writing a comprehensive history 
of Switzerland demands a special and wide range of gifts 
and acquirements, with the possession of some, but not 
all, of which Mr. Baker may be credited. His highest 
qualification seems to be impartiality ; his gravest short- 
coming is in his style, which is cumbrous and overladen 
with epithets. On the whole, his difficult task is capably 
discharged, and bis work is a distinct contribution to 
historical knowledge. How arduous is his self-imposed 
labour may be judged from the fact that he begins with 
the lacustrine dwellers, remains of whose constructions 
are found in the waters of Geneva, Constance, Zurich,. 
Neuchatel, and Bienne, and ends with the Switzerland 
of to-day, to which alone the title he has chosen can be 
applied. The materials to his hand are abundant rather 
than trustworthy. During the period of Roman invasion 
and conquest historical data are forthcoming. After this 
comes a period almost wholly mythic before we arrive 
once more at an historical record of deeds heroic in the 
highest degree at the outset, but saddening and base 
before the end. Apart from the fact that they were the 
mercenaries of Europe, the Swiss peasants lived in a 
state of constant warfare among themselves, and the 
record of internecine combats becomes depressing. A 
tendency on the part of thoee whose life is spent in 
mountainous districts, where a hard living is laboriously 
wrung from an ungrateful soil, to descend upon and 
pillage the inhabitants of the plains, is known and is 
admirably satirized by Peacock in the lines beginning 

The mountain sheep were sweeter, 
But the valley sheep were fatter, 

We therefore thought it meeter 

To feed upon the latter. 

This fruitful source of rapine does not seem to have 
influenced the Swiss so much as local jealousies and reli- 
gious feuds. It is, of course, a disastrous thing for a 
country when it is practically divided between two anta- 
gonistic and implacably hostile religions such as were for 
two centuries Catholicism and Protestantism. The 
most interesting portion of the volume is necessarily that 
describing the emancipation of the Swiss from Austrian 
and Burgundian dominion and the establishment of what 
was a bourgeois and almost a peasant government, the- 
most picturesque chapter being that descriptive of the 
death of Peter von Hagenbach and the battles of Heri- 
court, Grandson, Morat, and Nancy, between the Con- 
federate Swiss and the Burgundian troops of Charles the 
Rash, in the last of which Charles lost his life. The use 
made of these actions by Scott in his ' Anne of Geieratein ' 
is well known. The progress of the Reformation in 
Switzerland is mainly told through the lives of the 
reformers. Materials as regards this portion are, as the 
writer says, abundant, but are necessarily strongly 
coloured by partisanship. Mr. Baker holds the scales 



VIII. AUG. 17, '95. 

equitably. Like impartiality is shown in dealing with 
the French conquest. Mr. Baker quotes freely from 
Winwood Reade, of whom he is obviously a great 
admirer, Freeman, Carlyle, and other writers of authority. 
He is careful, accurate in the main, and trustworthy. 
We find a few slips, the responsibility for which may 
possibly rest with the printer" incognito " for incog- 
nita, " noend " for nceud, " gaige " for gorge, and so 
forth. The book is handsomely printed and has two 
good maps, showing respectively the Switzerland of 
Roman times and that of to-day. 

Caesar in Surrey : Walling Street in Surrey and Mid- 
dlesex. By H. F. Napper. (Privately printed.) 
ME. NAPPER has given attention to Caesar's statements 
regarding his British campaign, but we do not think 
that he has fully mastered the modern literature on the 
subject. He rejects the old opinion that Caesar crossed 
the Thames at Coway Stakes, believing that Hungerford 
was the point where he and his soldiers forded the 
river. To ua this seems improbable, if for no other 
reason, because we do not think the Thames was fordable 
at that point. In this, however, we may be wrong. If 
the river was not confined by banks, as it seems to 
have been during the historic time, it may have spread 
ita waters far and wide, and thus the channel may have 
been shallower. This is an unlikely hypothesis. 

Mr. Napper thinks the original " Londinium must 
have been on the south side of the Thames, and pro- 
bably about the locality of South wark and Bermondsey." 
This, if we understand him rightly, was the old town, 
but after a time a new London arose, the Londinium 
Augusta of the Romans. We imagine that London anti- 
quaries will be slow in accepting these modifications of 
preconceived notions. 

Eliot Papers. By E. Howard. (E. Hicka, jun.) 
THE Eliots whose doings are chronicled here were a 
family of some consideration in the last century, pro- 
minent in that circle of well-known Quakers which had 
ita centre at Plaistow, and embraced the Frys, the 
Gurneys, the Barclays, and the Fowlers. Like moat of 
that excellent body, the Eliots seem to have possessed 
a full share of the serpentine shrewdness and columbine 
simplicity which manages to make the best of both 
worlds. These family papers, which Mr. Howard 
printed privately two years ago, he now presents to a 
larger public ; and though their interest must primarily 
be for kinsmen, there is much to interest others in the 
incidental light thrown on the history of the old Society 
of Friends and on the social life of the period. The 
second part of the papers consists chiefly of extracts 
from the deciphered diary of one Peter Briggins, a 
London merchant of the time of Queen Anne, which 
are sufficiently quaint. The peep into other people's 
lives which a diary affords seldom fails to gratify and 
stimulate inquiry. We would fain know, amongst other 
things, what was " ye sword blade office " which the 
peaceful Briggins much frequented about the year 1712. 

Bibliographica. Part VI. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 
THE sixth part of this attractive and valuable periodical 
is an advance upon most, if not all, of its predecessors. 
It contains five articles, all of supreme interest to biblio- 
graphers. Of these two are continuations. Mr. W. H. 
Allnutt gives further development to his history of 
English provincial presses, furnishing an account of the 
origin or resumption of printing in Norwich, Lambeth, 
Wandsworth and Hampstead, Greenstreet and Stonor, 
Cambridge, Oxford, and elsewhere, and dealing at some 
length with the productions of the Marprelate press ; and 
Mr. Paul Kristeller resumes his description of Florentine 
book illustration?, supplying numerous designs, many of 

them of unsurpassable interest. Mr. Cyril Daven- 
port's ' Little Gidding Bindings ' gives a full Hat of the 
Harmonies, and reproduces many bindings of remark- 
able beauty. The contrasts of colour and gold in these 
are truly remarkable. Mr. George Somes Layard gives 
an ample account of the illustrations to ' Robinson 
Crusoe,' from the first issue, the frontispiece to which is 
supplied, to editions published but a year or two ago. 
Mr. Henry R. Plomer sends notices of printers and 
printing in the State Papers, and supplies many facts 
concerning the history of printing now first brought to 

MANY subjects of great interest to archaeologists, 
literary men, and folk-lorists receive attention in the 
pages of the latest numbers of the Intermediate which 
have reached us. Among the questions discussed may 
be mentioned that of whether kissing is an instinctive 
caress, common to all branches of the human race, or a 
purely artificial usage. The celebrated legend of the 
devil and the Cathedral of Cologne is also noticed, and 
the number for July 10 contains curious data for a 
description of the French custom of burning cats on the 
Eve of St. John. As late as June, 1859, or I860, it 
appears that " un malheureux matou " was thus sacrificed 
at Saint-Prix (Seine-et-Oise), although the barbarous 
rite had dropped into desuetude at Paris before the end 
of the sixteenth century. The honour of firing the 
" backer de la Saint- Jean " belonged to the king in the 
capital. Louis XI. lighted the pile set up in the Place 
de Greve in 1471, and Henry IV. in 1596. Little by 
little, however, the fete lost its importance, and Louis 
XIV., in his minority, was the last king who presided at 
the solemnity. In 1787 the whole thing was abolished. 
A reply given to a correspondent of the Intermediaire 
concerning the orientation of churches mentions the 
curious fact that a parish in the diocese of Bayeux bears 
the official name of Ouville la Bien-Tournee, in ironical 
reference to the church, which is not properly orientated, 
the slope on which it stands necessitating a displace- 
ment of ita axis. Another reply, relative to ' Saint 
Charlemagne,' records that, though the canonization of 
the great emperor has never been officially admitted by 
any legitimate Pope, the University of Paris proclaimed 
him ita patron in 1661, without, however, giving him the 
title of saint expressly. 

|totijtts ia 

We mutt call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

G. G. SOMERVILLE ('"Twixt Tweedledum and Tweedle- 
dee"). Claimed by John Byrom, and most probably 
his ; but has been assigned to Swift and Pope. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to tate that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no* exception. 

6*8. viii. A TO .2V8fi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES :-The Early Life of Anne Boleyn, 141 Biblio- 
graphical Exhibit, 142" Ihe Three Estates of the Realm," 
143 Witham London Street Signs, 144 Spurgeon - 
Philip II. of Spain The Burial of Sir J. Moore Weldon 
Family. 145 Evil Eye Language Mary Magdalene, 146. 

QUERIES : Shakspeare Stamp Act, 1783 'The King's 
Quhair ' Baron Metge Duncalf ' The Bonnie Banks o' 
Loch Lomon '" Madam," 147 " Myriad-minded" Por- 
traitPopulation of Roman Britain Society for the Diffu- 
sion of Useful Knowledge The Sun and the Fire Grace 
Church Four Great-grandmothers, 148 " Banana " 
Closamont John Rogers Barclay's ' Euphormio,' 149. 

JJEPLIES : " Oaken "Errors in Cataloguing, 149 Graham 
of Gartur Leyrestowe " Debonnaire," 150 Tournaments 
' The Shaving of Shagpat ' Pronunciation of Sea, 151 
" Dog's-eared and turned down "Leather Drinking Jacks 
The " Coulin "Shakspeare : Hilliard Portrait, 152 
' ' Does your mother know you 're out ?" Hicks Family, 153 
Churching of Women " Frightened of " The Luminous 
Carbuncle Goldfinches Poisoning William of Wykeham, 
154 " Grandmother's Nightcap " Oil of Eggs" The 
Ever Loyal City," 155 Burning for Heresy ' Kalevala ' 
Parish Charities Bishop Cotton " Parson," 156' The 
Beggar's Opera ' " Chum " Mrs. Sophia Williams Date 
of the Equinox, 157 Ariosto Visiting Cards " Links " 
' The Flowers of the Forest,' 158 The Church of King 
Charles the Martyr, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Bellezza's ' Introduzipne allo Studio 
del Fonti Italian! de G. Chaucer' Larkin's 'Elliptical 
Orbits ' ' Edinburgh Review ' Archaeological Publica- 
Notices to Correspondents. 


It is somewhat remarkable that of the early days 
of a person so familiar ia English history as Anne 
Boleyn so little should be accurately known. We 
are not, at this moment, certain whether Anne was 
the elder or the second daughter of Sir Thomas 
Boleyn, nor can we definitely fix the date of her 
birth. The researches of Friedmann tend to prove 
that, as has been usually assumed, she was the 
eldest, but that she was born in 1502, or in the 
first half of 1503, and not in 1507, the date 
generally assigned on the authority of Camden. 
It has been contended by Brewer that Mary was 
the eldest daughter ; but his argument is vigorously 
combated by Friedmann. The conclusions of the 
latter writer are emphatic in opposition to Brewer's 
suggestion that it was Mary, and not Anne, who 
went to France in the suite of Mary Tudor in 1514. 
There are reasons for assuming that it was the 
elder sister, in any case, who made this journey 
(Mile, de Boleyn) ; and a metrical French tract, 
printed in 1545, and composed a fortnight after 
Anne's death, is responsible for the statement, as 
is more fully set forth hereafter, that it was Anne 
who accompanied Mary Tudor to France. It may, 
therefore, be conceded that the probabilities are in 
favour of Anne's having been born before Mary. 

A little bit of fresh information on this point 
has just come to light, in the shape of an original 
holograph letter, recently sold at Sotheby's, from 

Sir Thos. Boleyn to Margaret of Austria, Governor 
of the Netherlands. It runs as follows : 

" Ma treschiere et tres redoubtee dame dans sy hu'ble 
cuer quil mest possible a v're bonne grace me Re- 
com'ande. II voua playra a sauoir com'ent la seur du 
Hoy mon maistre madame marie Reyne fyancee de france 
ma Requyse dauoir auecques elle ma fille la petitte bouluiu 
laquelle ma tres redoubtee dame eat a present auesques 
vous en v're court a laquelle Requeste Je may peult 
ne sceut Refuzer nullement, sy est ma tres redoubtee 
dame que Je vous supplie tres humblement quil vous 
plaise de don'er et octroyer congiet a ma fille de pouuoir 
Retourner p'deuent moy auecquea mes gens lesquels Jay 
envoyet deuers voua a ceste cause ma tree redoubte dame 
Je me tiena fort obligiet envers v re bonne grace a cause 
de la gra't hon'eur que fait aues a ma fille et que ne mest 
possible a desaeruir deuers \ re bonne grace non obstant 
que Je ne dezire aultre chose synon que Je v os puisse 
faire aulcun seruice agreable ce que Jeapere de faire 
encores cy en apres un plaisir de dieu auquel Je prie ma 
trea redoubtee dame quil voua doinst lentier accom- 
plissement de vos nobles et bong desirs Escript deaoubz 
mon signe manuel a la court Royalle de grynewiche en 
engleterre/ le xiiij" Jour daoust m xv e et xiiij. 

v" trea hu'ble S'uiteur 

S r Thom a s Boleyn. 

By this document a considerable addition 
accrues to our stock of information. We find, in 
the first place, that a daughter of Sir Thos. Boleyn 
was, in August, 1514, at the Court of Margaret of 
Austria, Governor of the Netherlands, and was 
summoned thence to England by her father at the 
request of Mary Tudor, a fact quite unknown to 
the biographers of Anne Boleyn, who assume that 
she (or her sister Mary) was at Hever when sum- 
moned to attend Mary Tudor. In the second place 
we learn that the arrival of " la petitte boulain " in 
England could not have taken place much earlier 
than the end of August, 1514, whilst the espousal 
of Mary Tudor to Louis XII. took place at Green- 
wich on Aug. 13 of that year. Hence it appears 
that the resolution of Mary to have the little 
Boleyn in her train must have been a somewhat 
hurried one, as the girl could not have arrived till 
after the ceremonial (in which Miss Strickland 
assumes that she took part). Thirdly, What are we 
to infer from the words " la petitte boulain " ? Can 
this expression be construed to refer to the younger 
daughter, in view of the fact that the girl who was 
in Mary Tudor's suite was called Mademoiselle de 
Boulain (Cotton MSS.) ; or may it refer to her age ? 
According to Camden, Anne was only seven years 
old in 1514, whilst Friedmann, perhaps with soae 
reason, would make her twelve years of age. 

The main arguments for the statement that it 
was Anne, and not Mary, who went into France 
with Mary Tudor, are derived from a tract, en- 
titled "Epistre contenant le Proc&s Criminel fait 
a 1'encontre de la Eoyne Boullant d'Angleterre," 
Lyons, 1545, in which occur these lines : 

Or monseigneur je croia que bien scavcz 

Et de longtemps la connoissance avez 

Que Anne Boulant premierement aortit 

De ce pays quand Marie en partit, i 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. vm. A. 2*. -OR 

and from a work by Charles de Bourgville, who 
mentions "Une demoiselle nomme Anne Boullene 
laquelle avoit ete nourrie en France et y estoit 
venue lorsqae le Koy Louis douzieme epousa la 
Eoyne Marie sceur du Roy d'Angleterre." 

These authorities cited by Friedmann seem to 
be sufficient for the demonstration that it was 
Anne, and not Mary, who accompanied Mary Tudor ; 
and in the light of our letter the whole question 
as to which sister was the elder would appear to 
hinge on the construction of the words " la petitte 
boulain." If this expression indicates that it was 
the younger sister who was in the train of Mary 
Tudor, Brewer's contention is correct, and Mary 
Boleyn was older than Anne, whilst if it should 
appear that the words merely indicate that she was 
of very tender age, an additional argument may be 
found herein for the view that Anne was born in 
1507, and not in 1502-3. I invite suggestions 
from readers of ' N. & Q.' as to the legitimate 
conclusions to drawn from the new facts. 




(Continued from p. 103.) 

Next to the Century Company was the Harper's 
(New York) exhibit. This firm showed the first 
iook printed by them, 'Seneca's Morals,' L'Estrange, 
New York, 1817. They did not become publishers 
until the following year. Their exhibit also in- 
cluded the MS. of ' Ben Hur,' by Lew Wallace, 
written in a small compact hand, and also a manu- 
script of Mark Twain's, whose chirography is in 
strong contrast to that of Wallace, being large and 
scrawly, with many erasures. Other MSS. are 
those of ' Wessex Folk, 1 Hardy ; ' A Simpleton,' 
Charles Reade ; ' In a Strange People's Country,' 
Miss Mnrfee ; ' Twelfth Night,' an essay, by 
Andrew Lang ; and a page of Arnelie Rives's 
magnificent failure ' ./Ethel wold.' Of course, there 
were many others, besides numerous original draw- 
ings and a large number of their publications ; but 
the most interesting features of their exhibit have 
been already mentioned. 

Continuing on through the aisle, the Scribner's 
'New York) pavilion was next reached. There, 
eide by side, they displayed a time-stained copy of 
the American Magazine of December, 1787, and 
the " Exposition Number " of Scribner's Magazine 
(May, 1893). In connexion with the latter was 
shown the original MSS. of the articles and the 
drawings for the illustrations which appeared in it. 
The manuscripts included, among others, ' The 
Information of James Reilly,' by Bret Harte ; ' The 
Upward Pressure,' by Walter Besant ; 'The Middle 
Years,' by James ; and ' The One I Knew Best of 
All,' by Mrs. Burnett. One thing noticeable in all 
these exhibits, except that of the Century, was the 

number of MSS. which were type- written, possibly 
only half having- been written with pen and ink ; 
I confess that I lament the decadence of the pen. 
Imagine the MS. of ' Poems by Two Brothers ' 
having been ground off on the type- writer ; the very 
thought seems to take the poetry all out of it. 
But I digress. To return to the Scribner exhibit. 
The only thing which yet remains to be mentioned 
is an autograph letter from Henry M. Stanley to 
the firm, dated "Cairo, Egypt, March 6/90," 
announcing the mailing of half the MS. of 'In 
Darkest Africa.' 

Most of the other publishers who exhibited dis- 
played little worthy of extended notice. Lathrop 
& Co., of Boston, had the MS. of ' America,' re- 
written by Smith himself in 1892. Houghton,. 
Mifflin & Co. bad the space assigned them fitted 
up as a " gentleman's model library "; and Duprat 
and E. F. Bonaventnre, both of New York, dis- 
played some beautiful press- work and bindings, in 
the exhibit of the latter being a complete set of the 
Grolier Club publications. 

Scattered here and there throughout the various 
state buildings were to be found some historic- 
papers and documents, and a few old books, which 
were never, by any chance, open at the title-page, 
while the attendant in charge of the building could 
rarely furnish any information concerning them, 
or even the names and addresses of the owners. 
This explanation is rendered necessary because of 
the absence of place of publication, date, pagina- 
tion, or any other particulars in the following 
account. Old family Bibles were numerous. In 
the South Dakotah building was one in Bohemian, 
dated 1557, and bound in much-worn leather, 
while the Iowa building contained one in Dutch, 
brass bound, of 1686. New Hampshire was more 
fortunate in its exhibits, which included an early 
copy of the New Hampshire Gazette and Hittorie 
Chronicle, a small four-page paper, of Jan. 27, 
1764 ; ' The Poor Man's Family Book,' by Richard- 
Baxter ("Poor Richard"), 1762 ; and the Bible, 
London, 1698. Besides these there was the ori- 
ginal proclamation of peace, dated 1783, and signed 
' M. Weare, President." The Wisconsin building 
held the original MS. of ' The Sweet By and By/ 
written in lead pencil, and bearing the signature- 
3. F. Bennett, and some correspondence con- 
cerning the poem. California had on exhibition 
copy of the Californian, vol. i. No. 20, dated 
Monteray, Dec. 6, 1846. This was the first paper 
published west of the Rocky Mountains. The- 
exhibit of Minnesota in this department was of 
more than ordinary interest. Worthy of mention 
were a volume of the 'Plays of Beaumont and 
Fletcher,' London, 1647, once owned by Randolph 
of Roanoke ; and an old illustrated Testament 
which also contained the Psalms set to music and 
a catechism. The title-page is gone, but it was 
printed in Amsterdam, and is fully four hundred 

8S. VIII. AUG. 24, '95.] 



years of age. There were also a vellum MS. of the 
early part of the fifteenth century, containing the 
" Offices of the Dead," and bound in human skin ; 
three ancient Bibles, one of which was the 
-"Breeches Bible" (1588), and another a publica- 
tion of Elzevir of 1584 ; the 'Nuremburg Chronicle' 
(illustrated), dated 1496 ; the ' London Charter,' 
original (I have much doubt concerning the truth 
of this latter statement), of 1867, with "heraldic 
seal intact"; a copy of the ' Ephemerides Astro- 
nomica,' the same edition used by Columbus and 
Amerigo ; the Commission of Queen Isabel to 
Columbus, and his log-book (authenticity doubt- 
ful) ; and, finally, the book-plates and autographs 
of a number of well-known men. The Virginia 
building, a reproduction of Mount Vernon, the 
eld Washington homestead, was lacking in those 
valuable historic documents with which that state 
abounds ; nothing worthy of mention in the pre- 
sent article was to be found there beyond a few 
title-deeds to the Washington property, and a 
single noteworthy book : 

" Avli Persi | Flacci Satirarvm | Liber | Issacvs Casav- 
'bonvs | recrvit & Commentario | Libro Illvstravit | 
Advirym ampliesimvm | Dachillern Harlaevm | Senatvs 
Principetn | Parisiis | Apvd Hieronymvm Drovart | fvt 
acvto Solari, via lacobaea. | MDCXV." 

Among the exhibits of Maine was the reputed 
original MS. of Longfellow's poem, ' Chaucer,' 
dated Nov. 16, 1873. Pennsylvania's exhibit was 
rich in papers of historic interest, among which I 
may mention the old charter from Charles II. to 
William Penn, dated 1682, together with its 
elaborate wax seal, which is dried and cracked ; a 
quit claim deed from James, Duke of York, to 
Penn, only a portion of the seal of which is preserved ; 
the returns of the Pennsylvania state elections for 
governor, of December, 1793, signed by the 
members of the Senate and the House of Kepre- 
sentatives, an ancient, and to me unintelligible, 
document relating to the settlement of the Swedes 
in Pennsylvania before the time of Penn ; the 
certificate of incorporation of the Pennsylvania 
Prison Society, founded in 1731, the first of its 
kind ever organized ; also the certificate of incor- 
poration of the first Society for the Abolition of 
Slavery ; the manuscript of the first prayer in Con- 
gress, in the handwriting of John Hancock ; and 
finally, an old woodcut of 1767 which represented 
the house of Hancock. Above the main stairway 
of the Massachusetts building was the original 
ooat of arms of the Howe family, which for 160 
years hung over the fireplace in the parlour of the 
wayside inn at Sudbury, Mass., best described in 
the poet's words : 

But first the Landlord will I trace; 

Proud was he of his name and race, 
Of old Sir William and Sir Hugh, 

And in the parlour, full in view, 
Hig coat of arms, well framed and glazed, 

Upon the wall in colours blazed; 

He beareth gules upon his shield, 

A chevron argent in the field, 
With three wolf's heads, and for the creat 

A Wyvern part-per-pale addressed 
Upon a helmet barred ; below 
The scroll reads, " By the name of Howe." 

Longfellow, ' Tales of a Wayside Inn, Prelude, 
' The Wayside Inn.' 

There was also a copy of Dunlap's Pennsylvania 
Packet of July 8, 1876, containing the notification 
of the reading of the Declaration of Independence, 
besides many other valuable papers and documents ; 
but my notes on this building, as well as those on 
New York and Louisiana, both of which held in- 
teresting collections, are, I find, at fault. Nothing 
else in the state buildings remains to be mentioned, 

New Brighton, N.Y. 

(To le continued.) 

{Continued from p. 1C4.) 

There is a fallacy in Twysden's argument (re- 
peated by Freeman) that the king is not an estate 
because he is not an ordo hominum. 'Promp- 
torium Parvulorum ' gives status as the Latin 
equivalent of "estate." A quotation from Cicero 
is, therefore, to the point : " Kegum status de- 
cemviris donabantur " (Cic., ' Agr.,' i. 1, 2). Com- 
pare " Quos for tuna in amplissimo statu [i. e., 
regum] collocarat" (Auct. Her., iv. 16, 23). 
The other day Mr. Balfour, in his speeck on Lord 
Selborne's " bitter cry " to be allowed a choice 
between a seat in the Lords and one in the Com- 
mons, said that it was an attempt to create a 
perfectly novel status, the status of one who claimed 
a right of choosing either the status of a peer or 
the status of a commoner. Two hundred years 
ago the term that the right honourable gentleman 
would have probably employed would have been 
" estate." 

Compare the following : 

"Sir W. Jones If the Bill pass, and the Duke be 

banished 500 miles off, it must be out of England if the 
name will please him, in Civility beyond the Sea he shall 
be King, and it will be as much to his purpose beyond the 
Sea to be called King only, as here But for the Security 
of his Estate being here : He that would venture the 
loss of a Kingdom for Religion, will his Estate too, 
that 'a but a weak tie. It is less injustice to take away 
the Crown and Power from him, than to have of both 
but the Name." Oxford Parliament, March 26, 1681. 

It is clear from the quotations already given 
that practical statesmen, representing the educated 
opinions of their times, have, for the past two cen- 
turies at least, ignored the "correct" technical 
phraseology a phraseology that, as Freeman says, 
has no meaning in England. In ' N. & Q.,' 8" 1 S. 
v. 9, C. E. M. has given a quotation from Hallam's 
' Middle Ages,' eighth edition, ii. 237, in which 
that eminent authority characterizes the calling 
the kin an estate as an error, "the source of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8< a. vm. AUG. 24, '95. 

which is an inattention to the primary sense of the 
word estate [status], which means an order or con 
dition into which men are classed by the institutions 
of society." At the same reference ME. LEATON 
BLENKINSOPP calls attention to the well-known 
5th of November service in the Prayer Book, where 
the three estates are "correctly" enumerated. 

In the 'Basilikon Doron," if I remember aright 
King James regrets that the Scottish estates hac 
become obsolete, and expresses a wish for their 
revival. That sapient professor of king-craft 
would, no doubt, on the divide et impera principle 
after he came to England have been glad to see the 
English "estates" also revived, and a clear line 01 
demarcation drawn between them. So persistently 
ignorant, however, were Englishmen of King 
James's time that they could speak of the sovereign 
himself as an " estate." Thus Sir Walter Raleigh, 
in his ' Cabinet Council ' (' Works,' viii. p. 140), 
speaks of "the prince or any other state." Raleigh, 
indeed, frequently uses the expression "three 
estates" in the "correct" mode (see his 'Pre- 
rogative of Parliaments,' passim). How difficult 
of definition, however, he felt the term to be may 
be seen from the following passage : 

"The estates, right, interest, or free-hold of the sub- 
. jects in England, which they have in their land, how it 
agreeth or disagreeth with the inheritance, propriety, or 
dominion which the subjects of other Christian princes 
at this day have, or formerly had, will best appear by 
the description (I may not Bay definition, for they are 
as much impossible as dangerous in law matters) of 
usus, usufructus, emphyleuta, fe.uda, libellum, hereditas, 
allodium, majoratus, dominium, locatio, conducti'o ; and 
by a comparative instancing in some particulars of the 
common law, which in some parts nearest resembleth 
the foreign estates and interests to be described." 
' Works,' viii. p. 607. 

But this takes me a little out of my path. In 
'Troubles connected with the Prayer Book of 1549' 
(p. 96, Camden Soc.) I find the following : 

"How he [Somerset] hath subverted all Lawes, 
Justice, and good ordre of the Eealme, whereby he hath 
fearfully shaken the Chayre of his Maiestes Estate." 

J. P. OWEN. 

48, Comeragh Road, West Kensington, W. 

(To le continued.) 

WITHAM. (See ante, p. 94.) MR. SILLS informs 
us that " all archaeologists are now agreed that the 
Celtic name of the river Witham was the Granta." 
This statement has often been made, but I should 
be glad to know on what evidence it is based. ' So 
many similar assertions, when run to earth, prove 
to be only figments of archaeological ingenuity, 
that, till evidence which will bear examination has 
been produced, I should be inclined to believe that 
the river Granta has been invented by so-called 
" antiquarians " in order to account for the name 
of Grantham, just as the names of the non-existent 
rivers Penk, Eden, Cam, Rum, and Arun are 
archaeological figments devised to explain the 

names of Penkridge, Edenbridge, Cambridge,. 
Romford, and Arundel. Scores of geographical 
names found on our maps are mere ghost-names, 
as I have shown in various articles on the subject. 
MR. SILLS also asserts that the river Witham 
takes its name from a place about nine miles north- 
east of Grantham. There are three Lincolnshire 
villages called Witham, but none of them is north- 
east of Grantham. He goes on to say that Witham 
means the " white settlement," from the Saxon 
wit, whit, or white, and ham, a settlement. MR. 
SILLS evidently does not possess a very profound 
knowledge of Anglo-Saxon, since ham does not 
mean a settlement, and the word for white is not 
either wit, whit, or white. If the first element of 
the name meant "white" its normal form in 
modern English would be Whitbam, as in the case 
of the twelve places called Whitchurch, the seven- 
teen called Whitley, eleven called Whitwell, nine 
called Whitfield, and eight called Whitton. No- 
doubt Witham is a possible corruption of Hwit- 
ham, but the first element in the name Witham 
does not necessarily mean white. For example,, 
Witcombe, in Gloucestershire, appears in an A.-S. 
charter as Widancombe, the "wide combe," another 
nut to be cracked by Prof. Skeat, who asserts that 
phonetic change always softens sounds, and never 
hardens them. Also not far from Witham there are 
places called Withern and Withcall, appearing in 
Domesday as Widerne and Widcall or Wichale, in 
which the first element certainly does not mean 
" white," while one of the Withams is supposed to 
be a place called Widme in Domesday. We have 
also to take into account numerous names like 
Withcote, Withiel, Withyham, and Withernsea. 
Neither is the second element in Witham neces- 
sarily the A.-S. ham, as the suffix -liam or -am 
may be from other sources, such as the sign of the 
dative plural, as in the cases of Welham, Wellam,. 
and Howsham. Hence, without further evidence 
than we possess as to early forms, it would be rash- 
to dogmatize as to the etymology of Witham. 

If the river Witham, as MR. SILLS affirms, takes 
ts name from a village, it would be a unique instance 
of so large a stream obtaining its name from an ob- 
cure place on its banks, whereas villages constantly 
bear the names of the rivers on which they stand ;. 
witness the eight villages called Tarrant on the 
Tarrant, the two Perrots on the Parrot, the five- 
places called Piddle or Puddle on the Piddle, the 
seven Clists on the Clist, besides Culm, Tavy,. 
Dttery, Thame, Neath, Frome, Hull, and Leith, all 
>earing the names of the rivers on which they 
tand. Without affirming that MR. SILLS is 
wrong, I can say that analogy is against all his 
ontentions. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

LONDON STREET SIGNS. I was sorry to see the 
ther day that the well-known sign, " I am the only 
unning footman," in Charles Street, Berkeley 

. vni. AUG. 24, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Square, has disappeared ; a modern stag in a 
modern landscape has been substituted. I hope 
MR. PHILIP NORMAN, to whom we all look for 
help in these matters, may be able to rescue the 
picturesque old signboard. D. L. 

SPURGEON. The following, from Doncaster Act 
Book, 23b, preserved at York, seems a little out 
of the Spurgeon locality : "Aug. 31, 1681, Admon. 
of Thomas Spurgeon, of Thome, co. York, to John 
and Thomas Spurgeon, the sons of the deceased." 

Eden Bridge. 

PHILIP II. OF SPAIN. In a paper on ' The 
Passing of Philip II.,' in Temple Bar for August, 
there are some curious mistakes, which would have 
amused his Most Catholic Majesty had he been 
able to read the description of his last hours. 
Thus, when certain relics were brought into the 
death chamber, we read " each monk repeated the 
antiphone and ovation of the saint whose relic he 
carried. " Ovation "=I suppose, Oratio, prayer or 
collect. When a saint is commemorated in Divine 
Office his antiphon and prayer, or collect, are 
recited. When in Mass, the collect only. Again, 
the dying monarch insisted that "supreme [sic] 
unction should be given while he was far from 
being in extremis." Why not ? Catholics may 
receive the last sacrament when they are danger- 
ously, or seriously, ill. They do not wait until 
the last moment draws nigh. Then he died, 
" while the dawn was just breaking and while the 
choir-boys of the seminary were chanting the Mass 
of Matins." The Office of Matins is, I fancy, meant. 
Mass and Matins, Mass and Office, are distinct and 
different things. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

months ago (see N. & Q.,' 8 th S. vi. 97) the 
accuracy of Wolfe's famous ballad was impugned. 
The REV. JOHN PICKFORD states he was buried in 
a coffin, AYEAHR that the burial took place in the 
citadel, and not in the field. In 1841 the author- 
ship of the poem was claimed by a Scotch school- 
master, named Macintosh, but the evidence in 
favour of Wolfe was at once so conclusive, that he 
publicly avowed his shameless imposture. In the 
Patrician, September, 1848, there is an interesting 
account of the man and his works ; his claim to the 
authorship is definitively settled, the source of the 
poem is given, and the conditions under which it 
was produced. I transcribe a contemporary accounl 
of the burial, and also a portion of a letter from 
Wolfe's fellow collegian, the Eev. Samuel O'Sullivan, 
to Arcbdeacon Russell on the subject of the poem 

"Sir John Moore bad often Baid, that if he were 
killed in battle, he wished to be buried where he fell 
The body was removed at midnight to the citadel o: 
Corunna. A grave was dug for him, on the rampari 
there, by a party of the 9th Regiment, the aides-de-camp 

attending by turns. No coffin could be procured, and 
;he officers of his staff wrapped the body, dressed as it 
was, in a military cloak and blankets. The interment 
vas hastened ; for, about eight in the morning, some 
iring was heard, and the officers feared that if a serious 
attack was made, they should be ordered away, and not 
suffered to pay him their last duty. The officers of hi 
r amily bore him to the grave ; the funeral service waa 
read by the chaplain, and the corpse was covered witk 
earth."' Edinburgh Annual Register,' 1808, p. 458. 

" Phcenix Park, 22nd April, 1841. 
"I think it was about the summer of 1814 or 1815 (I 
cannot at the moment say for a certainty which) I was 
sitting in my college rooms. I then occupied the ground 
loor of No. 26, and was reading the 'Edinburgh Annual 
Register,' in which a very striking and beautiful account 
is given of the burial of Sir John Moore. Wolfe came 
in, and (as you know my custom was) I made him listea 
bo me as I read the passage, which he heard with deep 
and sensible emotion. We were both loud and ardent in 
our commendations of it ; and after some little time, I 
proposed to our friend to take a walk into the country. 
He consented, and we bent our way to Simpson's Nur- 
sery, a place about half way between Dublin and the 
Rock. During our stroll, Wolfe was unusually medita- 
tive and silent ; and I remember having been provoked 
a little by meeting with no response or sympathy to my 
frequent bursts of admiration about the country and the 
scenery, on which, on other occasions, he used so cordially 
to join. Bat he atoned for his apparent dulness and in- 
sensibility on hia return, when he repeated for me the 
first and last verses of his beautiful ode, in the coot- 
position of which he had been absorbed during our littla 
perambulation. I expressed a rapturous approbation witk 
which he seemed greatly pleased. My brother (Rev. 
Mortimer O'Sullivan) was present when this took place, 
and was also greatly delighted. These were the only 
verses which our dear friend at first contemplated; but 
moved, as he said, by my approbation, his mind worked 
on the subject after he left me, and in the morning he 
came over to me with the other verse, by which it was 
completed." Patrician, pp. 286, 287. 

If Sir John was killed on Jan. 16, 1809, how- 
did the account appear in the ' Annual Register* 
for 1808 ? It will be noticed that it is only in the 
second verse that Wolfe departs from the narra- 
tive, in giving the impression that the burial took 
place at midnight, though possibly he may refer 
only to the preparations for burial ; nowhere does 
he state that the interment was on the field of 
battle. Before the authorship was known, the ode 
waa ascribed to Byron, Moore, Wilson, Barry 
Cornwall, and Campbell. Was it Byron who said 
he would sooner be the author of 'The Burial* 
than the victor of Abraham ? 



in 'Armorial Families,' states that Sir Anthony 
Weldon, Bart., of Kilmorony, Queen's Co., claims 
a descent, "that he cannot establish, from the 
family of Weldon of Swanscomb, co. Kent," and 
that he uses arms " for which no authority has 
been established at the College of Arms." Mr. 
Davies questions, therefore, Sir Anthony Weldon'* 
right to assume as a crest the bust of Queen Eliza- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. A. 2*, 

betb, granted by that queen to Sir Anthony Weldon, 
Clerk of the Spicery, " with whom no connexion is 
shown in the pedigree published in Burke's 'Peer 
age.' " It is probable, however, that the pedigree re 
ferred to is not exhaustive. "The direct ancestor o 
the Irish branch" is mentioned in it, but not named 
and in ' The History of the Queen's Co.,' the fol 
lowing positive statements are made concerning 
the Weldon family in that county : " The Weldons 
are a very antient and highly descended family, 
being a noble branch of the Weldons of Swanscomb 
in Kent." So positive a statement as this woulc 
hardly have been permitted by the family if there 
were not satisfactory documentary or other evidence 
to sustain it. ATHY. 

THE EVIL EYE. Mr. F. T. El worthy, in his 
*The Evil Eye,' 1895, traces a marked connexion 
between this superstition and the legend of the 
Medusa's head. As the Gorgon's head was placed 
by Pallas on her aegis, and as it is represented on 
breastplate and shield, so the people believe in the 
power of something which is repulsive-looking to 
keep off the dreaded influence of the evil eye, thus 
accounting for the hideousness of many amulets. 
Apropos, Dor man, in his ' Primitive Superstitions,' 
1881, says among the fables of Brazilian tribes is 
one of 

" a bird of evil eye which kills with a look. The ground 
under its nest is white with human bones. There is a 
myth that a hunter once killed one of these [birds] and 
cut off its head without the eye being turned upon him. He 
killed his game thereafter by turning the evil eye upon 
it. His wife, not dreaming of its destructive power, 
however, once turned it toward her husband and killed 
him, and then accidentally turned it toward herself and 
died." P. 284. 


LANGUAGE. It is sometimes asserted in print 
that a student of philology has given it as his 
opinion that the conversational vocabulary of many 
raral working people is limited to about a hundred 
words. What is the number of nouns and verbs 
relating to the home, domestic utensils, and out- 
door employment of a farm-labourer with which he 
must of necessity be familiar ? The nouns connected 
with the family dwelling-room alone must often 
mount far above fifty in a comfortable north- 
country cottage, while those relating to natural 
objects and to agriculture are still more numerous. 
All the men on a farm are acquainted with the 
terms applied to various parts of a waggon, plough, 
harrow, drill, threshing-machine, &c., and they 
have a sufficiently useful vocabulary in discussing 
matters appertaining to the stable, byre, and sheep- 
fold. There are also special words to describe the 
condition and quality of the land and its crops, to 
designate the crops themselves in their various 
stages, and to express the state of the weather. 
In words relating to abstract thought the country- 
man is poor, no doubt. He has scarcely reached 

the self-conscious condition in which a man not 
only thinks, but is constantly aware that he thinks 
and takes cognizance of his surroundings. He 
has, however, a name for each of the many objects 
which affect his existence, and he can use the 
appropriate verbs in connexion with all the ordi- 
nary activities of life, though he is sometimes 
hard set when trying to give utterance to opinions 
and sentiments which have little to do with ordi- 
nary routine. Talking to a savant on unfamiliar 
questions, or on familiar questions from an un- 
accustomed point of view, a day-labourer may 
have difficulty in finding words ; but is it so when 
he is master of his subject, and is unconscious of 
any social bar between him and his interlocutor ? 

B. 0. 

MART MAGDALENE. Surely it is a pity that 
Dr. Brewer, in his new edition of ' Phrase and 
Fable,' should under the word "Magdalene" 
positively state that Mary Magdalene was a great 
profligate until she met the Saviour, thus identi- 
fying her with the " woman which was a sinner " 
in Luke vii. 37-39. 

True it is that, in the Roman Church, Mary 
Magdalen, Penitent, is commemorated on July 22, 
and is shown on rood-screens, &c., with a box of 
ointment in her hand, thus assuming as a matter 
of course that Mary called Magdalene, from whom 
the seven devils were cast (Luke viii. 2), was the 
sinful woman of the previous chapter, an assump- 
tion most unfortunately supported by the chapter 
heading in the A.V. 

We know, too, that Mary Magdalen described 
as " the Penitent " is said to have spent the last 
thirty years of her life at St. Baume, near Mar- 
seilles, where her holy place, strictly guarded by 
Dominican monks, is visited by some 15,000 
pilgrims every year. (A most interesting account 
of this by M. Albalat appeared in the Nouvelle 
Revue of Sept. 15, 1893.) 

Dr. Husenbeth says that in one place St. Mary 
Magdalen is represented preaching to King Rene' 
at Marseilles. 

It is also the fact that in Kitto's ' Cyclopaedia 
of Biblical Literature' (vol. Hi., 1866) reference 
is made to " the independent life of sin which has 
been traditionally, we may almost say authori- 
tatively, ascribed to Mary Magdalene." 

But what warrant is there for the tradition, 
lowever authoritative ? 

I have seen it stated that the error was initiated 
}y Gregory the Great in a homily, and perpetuated 
out of reverence for his name and authority. 
3ow far this may be correct I cannot say, but it 
s rather late in the day for a popular manual to 
perpetuate an obiter dictum of St. Gregory as if it 
were undoubted fact. Is it not rather the fact that 
he best authorities affirm that the word " Mag- 
lalen," as commonly used, has no reference what- 
ver to " Mary called Magdalene " ? 

8>s. vin. A. 24/95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


It is most desirable that literature should b 
purged as far as possible of false assumptions anc 
misleading analogies, and it is no belated chivalry 
to wish to redeem a Scripture name from being 
soiled with ignoble use. JAMES HOOPER. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

SHAKSPEARB. I have a volume consisting 01 
" Some Account of the Life, &c., of Mr. William 
Shakespear," and six of his plays. They appear 
to have been separately published, and to have 
been bound after, each having its own title-page 
and a wood engraving of some scene in its re 
spective play. One of these I have never seen 
elsewhere. The title-page to it is as follows : 
" The | Life and Death | of | Thomas | Lord 
Cromwell. | By Mr. William Shakespear. | Lon- 
don : | Printed for J. Tonson, and the rest of the | 
Proprietors ; and sold by the Booksellers | of Lon- 
don and Westminster. MDCCXXXIV." Can any 
one conversant with Shakespearian literature give 
me information respecting this play ? 

Were Down, Mere, Wiltshire. 

['The Chronicle History of Thomas, Lord Cromwell' 
was published in 4to., for William Jones and other book- 
seller?, 1602. "The true Chronicle Historic of the 
whole life and death of Thomas Lord Cromwell. As it 
hath heene sundry times publikely Acted by the Kings 
Maiesties Seruants. Written by W. S. Lond., printed 
by Thomas Snodham, 1613," followed. Both these plays 
are scarce, and bring high prices. On the strength of 
the initials W. S. the play was attributed to Sbakspeare. 
It was one of the seven plays added to the third and 
fourth folios, was reprinted by Tonson in 1734, and is 
included among the doubtful plays in several editions of 
Shakspeare's works. It is, " more or less conjecturally," 
assigned by Mr. Fleay to Michael Drayton. Consult 
also Halliwell-Phillipps's ' Outlines of the Life of Shake- 
speare,' sixth edition, vol. ii. p. 193. What Mr. Fleay's 
reasons are for assigning it to Drayton we know not. It 
is, at least, not by Shakspeare.j 

STAMP ACT, 1783. This imposed a duty of three- 
pence upon every entry in a parish register (seeR. E. 
Chester Waters's 'Parish Registers'). Did this 
Act also require the registers to be sent to London ? 
For in 1783-4 the churchwardens of Wingham, in 
their accounts, enter, "Licence to enable Mr. Loftie 
[the perpetual curate] to keep the Register Books 
without their being sent to London to be Stanapt 
according to Act of Parliament." Licence cost 
six shillings. What is the connexion between these 

Wingham, near Dover. 

'THE KING'S QUHAIR.' The author of the 
poem with this title, James I. of Scotland, was 

married in S\ Marie Overie, Sauthwark. A modem 
writer on Southwark says quhair signifies choir. 
Can this be so I Does it not mean little book ? 

S. M. 0. S. 

BARON METGE. Will any one kindly give me 
information as to who was the mother of Baron 
Metge, of Athlumney, Meath ; and whether he 
left after him any family ? 


DUNCALF. Is not this rather a peculiar sur- 
name 1 The bearer resides as hind on a farm at 
Crosscliff, in the parish of Allerston, and came, I 
believe, from Robin Hood's Bay, where it may be 
a common name. WILLIAM BETHELL. 

THE PRETENDER. Thirty or more years ago this 
song was commonly sung in Scotland ; of recent 
years it has nearly fallen into desuetude. I have 
never seen or heard any account of the author of 
the words ; the music is an old Jacobite air, I 
believe. There is nothing about the words calling 
for special remark as regards their beauty or con- 
ception; but the rather extraordinary tale they 
seem to convey has forced me to refer to the song, 
with the hope that some reader may be able to 
throw light on the matter. The singer, it would 
appear, is in England, that he is separated from 
his companion, that the last time they were to- 
gether was "in yon shad-dy glen, on the steep, 
steep side o' Ben Lornon." The singer tells his 
companion, " Ye '11 tak' the high road, an' I '11 tak' 
the low road," and that he (the singer) will " be in 
Scotland before ye." The special reference to 
" Culloden," together with the arranging that the 
two should not be seen together on their way to 
the place of meeting, appear to me to point to 
the singer being the Pretender, and his companion 
a lover he had met on the banks of Loch Lomond. 
It is generally admitted that after the Pretender's 
defeat at Culloden he was chased from hill to 
dale, from cave to cottage, without attendant 01 
support, except what the poorest peasant afforded. 
He went about disguised, in fishing boats, among 
the Hebrides even dressed as a woman. It is c 
;herefore, not improbable he may have got into 
Northumberland or Cumberland, and may have 
even revisited " the banks o' Loch Lomon'," as the 
song indicates. 

Fairfield. Poundfald, near Swansea. 

"MADAM." Frequently meeting in parish 
registers and other manuscripts of about the time 
of Queen Anne with the names of English ladies 
of quality to which the French title of " Madam," 
n place of "Mrs.," was prefixed, I have endeavoured 
;o ascertain the origin and duration of its use here 
n such respect, but until recently without success, 
when a friend, to whom I had applied on the sub- 



s. vm. A. 24, -95. 

ject, informed me that in the Misc. Gen. et Her. 
for May, 1890, a learned antiquary had given the 
following interesting explanation : 

" The prefix of ' Madam ' [i.e., to the surname] as a 
title of respect, and which was applied to gentlewomen 
itnd to untitled ladies of wealth and good social position 
during a portion of the reign of Charles II., and the 
whole of that of his five successors, was doubtless of 
French origin, and probably owed its introduction into 
this country to Louise de Querouelle, who, as Maid of 
Honour, came over with the king's sister, the Princess 
Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, in 1670, and was after- 
wards one of that monarch's mistresses, and by him 
created Duchess of Portsmouth. But although the 
writer has met with its use in MSS. of the above date, 
he remembers no instance of its occurrence prior to 1690 
in the large number of parish registers examined by him 
in various parts of England. With the accession of 
ecrge III. (if not in some measure as early as 1745) the 
old English title of ' Mistris ' (M rU ) formerly applied 
indiscriminately to both married and unmarried ladies 
of quality, but, as regards the latter, then first used in 
its abbreviated form of ' Miss ' (M is ) appears to have 
again come into fashion : that of ' Madam ' being still, 
however, retained during their lifetime by many of its 
old possessors, so that we meet with its use here even so 
late as the early part of the present century, when our 
relations with the French under the first Napoleon pro- 
bably tended to bury it in oblivion." 

Can, however, any reader furnish contemporary 
references, either in print or MS., to the origin of 
the custom, and give the earliest and latest in- 
stances of the use of the title as above ? C. 

[See 4 th S. xi. 413 ; xii. 192, under the heading, " I 
mad the carles lairds," &c.] 

" MYKIAD-MINDED." No epithet of the myriads 
applied to Shakespeare is more singularly befitting 
than myriad-minded. Coleridge is said to have so 
applied it, and to have translated it from the Greek 
pvpiovovs, a term used by Photjus regarding a 
certain bishop, whom it could not have suited so 
well as the dramatist. Where in the ' Bibliotheca ' 
of Photius can the word be found 1 


Madison, Wis., U.S. 

PORTRAIT. I have a portrait of a gentleman, 
admirably painted, signed in the left-hand corner 
"K. P., 1766." I can find no corresponding 
initials in any dictionary of painters, and shall be 
glad if any of your readers can enlighten me upon 
the subject. It is of the English school. 


named Gibbins, in his 4 Industrial History of Eng- 
land,' has ventured to place the population of 
Roman Britain at ten millions. He has, however, 
informed me privately that he withdraws this 
computation, and will modify it in the next edition 
of his popular book. I have thus been led to con- 
aider the subject from an independent standpoint, 
it having been pointed out to me by an acquaint- 
ance that the Roman Government maintained an 

army of 60,000 troops (legionaries and allies) in 
Britain ; that such a force would probably be 
pitted against a multiple of ten, so that the native 
fighting population mounts up to 600,000. This 
number I take to be the entire male adult popula- 
tion, reckoning all from fourteen up to extreme 
old age, effective or non-effective. Then, allowing 
each male a family of five, females and children a 
fair average as I consider we arrive at a total 
population of three millions a reasonable estimate, 
judging from the capacity of the land. I shall be 
glad to learn of any rival estimates that may be 
afloat. A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row, E.C. 

LEDGE. The name of this society can hardly perish 
while the names of Charles Knight and Lord 
Brougham live. But I would ask whether it was 
not most probably suggested by a passage in Sir 
Walter Scott's ' Antiquary,' in which Oldbuck 
says to Lovell that his ancestor, the German 

" had his own device and impress, and boasted of it as 
much as if it had been displayed on a field of battle, 
though it betokened the diffusion of knowledge, not the 
effusion of blood." 




servants, and probably all their mistresses, say that 
it does, and carefully screen the fire from the solar 
ray. Can any of your scientific readers throw the 
light of reason on the subject ? P. U. R. 

GRACE CHURCH. There are in the United 
States about three hundred " Episcopal " churches 
rejoicing in this appellation, the one best known 
being a costly building on Broadway, New York. 
The only names outranking this in number are 
those of St. John, Christ, St. Paul, and Trinity. 
The earliest church thus named appears to be that 
of Jamaica, Long Island, which was opened on 
April 5, 1734. The origin of the name is a matter 
of doubt. Some contend that it was an Evangelical 
protest against the use of saints' names. The date 
would seem to be too early for this theory. It is 
possible that some eighteenth century colonist, 
remembering the name of Gracechurch Street in 
London, may have supposed that the street was 
named after a church. Any light on the topic 
would be welcome. EICHARD H. THORNTON. 

Portland, Oregon. 

just had staying at my house an infant who has 
four living great-grandmothers. Their ages are as 
follows : Father's father's mother, seventy-six ; 
father's mother's mother, eighty ; mother's father's 
mother, eighty-eight ; mother's mother's mother, 
seventy-four. Can any of the readers of ' N. & Q.' 

8ths.vm.AuG.2V95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


mention similar cases ? I may add that no great- 
grandfather is alive. V. 0. V. 

" BANANA." Could any of your readers give 
me information of the history of this word ? If, as 
it is suggested by Prof. Skeat, we have obtained 
it from the West Indies through the Spanish, then 
we arrive at the curious result that all our 
European banana names, with the exception of the 
Malay pisang, adopted by the Dutch, hail, appa- 
rently, from the New World. The pacoba of 
Portuguese, the pacova of Spanish (see Pineda's 
' Diet.'), and the bacove of French Guiana are Tupi 
words for this fruit ; whilst the Spanish platano, 
as indicated in a previous query, is probably 
derived from the Carib and Galibi names for the 
same. Botanists, as a rule, do not support the 
opinion of Humboldt that the banana existed and 
was cultivated in America before its discovery. 
Yet if we derived our banana names from that 
continent, we could scarcely have introduced the 
plants. I have only gone far enough into this sub- 
ject to add interest to my query. 

H. B. GUPPY, M.B. 

CLOSAMONT. Was there a champion of romance 
so called ; and, if so, what poet or romancier men- 
tions him ? In a very full list of the names of the 
swords of famous champions in Dr. Brewer's 
'Dictionary of Phrase and Fable,' twenty-third 
edition, Closamont's sword is stated to have been 
called " Haute-Claire." Further down " Haute- 
Olaire" is said to have been the name of Oliver's 
sword. In Victor Hugo's fine poem ' Le Mariage 
de Roland,' in ' La Le"gende des Siecles,' " Closa- 
mont " is not a person, but is Oliver's sword : 

L'epee est cette illustre et fiere Cloaamont 

Que d'autres quelquefois appellant Haute-Claire. 


Who was he ? His son John matriculated at Oriel 
College, Oxford, March 13, 1734/5, aged eighteen, 
B.A. 1738, M.A. 1741. I imagine his wife to have 
been Elizabeth, elder surviving daughter of Thomas 
Longden, Mayor of Gloucester. Mary Longden, 
in her will (P.C.C. Ill Bedford), dated May 13, 
1729, proved April 29, 1732, speaks of her brother- 
in-law John Rogers, and her nephews John and 
Thomas Rogers. And this will was proved by the 
Rev. John Rogers, Vicar of Bradford, Wilts. 

Shangton Rectory, Leicester. 

BARCLAY'S ' EUPHORMIO.' Gorton (' Biographi- 
cal Dictionary') says, "A singular story of romantic 
chivalry has been quoted from the ' Euphormio ' 
by Sir Walter Scott, in the notes to his 'Marmion.'" 
I have searched in vain. Will some one oblige 
me with the correct references both to ' Euphor- 
mio ' and to Scotc 1 G. L. FEN TON. 


(8 th S. viii. 107.) 

N. M. & A. will know that hermits lived prin- 
cipally upon roots and fruits, and will see from the 
following extracts that Sir Walter Scott was correct 
in his representation. John Parkinson, in his 
' Herbal,' dated London, 1640, p. 1389, says : 

" Yet it is extant by the testimony of Historians and 
Poets, that the Elder age before it knew the use of corne 
and bread thereof lived upon AckoTnes and were sustained 
thereby, yea they had the Oke in that honour that they 
dedicated it to Jupiter, especially that kind called 
Eaculus, because Jupiter himselfe fed thereon and was 
nourished by them, and the use of them is not every 
where yet utterly extinguished for that as I said before, 
the poor people in Spain in some places make the 
Akornes part of their feeding, and the rich have them 
served to their Tables for an after course, as with us is 
used with Apples, Nuts and such like fruites as the 
season requires." 

' Adam and Eve,' by William Coles, London, 
1657, p. 376, states : " Though the Acprnes were 
formerly used for food, yet our Age being able to 
subsist without them I shall leave them for the 
Hoggs to feed upon." JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

I have examined four copies of ' Harold the 
Dauntless,' viz., in Scott's 'Poems,' complete in 
one volume, 1857 ; a pocket copy, containing 
' The Bridal of Triermain,' ' Harold the Dauntless,' 
and ' The Field of Waterloo,' 1859 ; in Scott's 
' Poems,' 12 vols., 1868 ; and in the Oxford edition 
(University Press), one volume, 1894. It is "an 
oaken cake " in all these except the second, the 
little pocket copy, in which it is " an oaten cake." 
Although there are here three to one in favour of 
"oaken," I think "oaten" must really be the 
correct reading. Had Scott meant a cake made 
of acorn meal, would he not have said " an acorn 
cake," which would scan just as well as " oaken "? 
"An oaken cake" would appear to require the 
dura messorum ilia to enable the eater to digest 
it ! In yet another edition of Scott's ' Poems,' in 
6 vols., I see it is " oaken." 


The 1817 edition of ' Harold the Dauntless ' 
(the only one published during the author's life- 
time) gives the far more probable reading " oaten," 
which is also that of the Aldine edition (1892). 
"Oaken" occurs in the first collected edition of 
Scott's 'Poems' published during the two years 
following bis death (1833, 1834). Both the 
" Globe " (1866 and 1869) and the Clarendon Press 
editions (1894) follow this reading. G. W. W. 

ERRORS IN CATALOGUING (8 th S. viii. 125). In 
the absence of the chief librarian, Mr. Quinn, I 
have to reply to MR. JOHN A. RANDOLPH. Under 
the above heading he makes several totally un- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. viii. A. 2V95. 

founded charges against the arrangement of the 
Chelsea Free Library Catalogue, thereby showing 
his utter ignorance of the subject he criticize?. In 
the first place he states that the catalogue is " sup- 
posed to be classified." This is not the case, the 
compilation being a list of authors, subjects, and 
titles under one alphabet, on what is known as 
the " dictionary principle." This simplicity of 
arrangement is evidently what has addled the brain 
of your correspondent. 

The example he quotes does not appear in the 
catalogue in any way to indicate that ' The Fur 
Country,' by Jules Verne, is classified under 
" Fungi," but as follows : 


Badham, C. D. Esculent Funguses of England. 

Cooke, M. C. Fungi. 

. Rust, Smut, Mildew, and Mould. 

Farlow, W. G. : &c. List of Works on North Ame- 
rican F. 

Holmes, E. M., &c. British F., &c. 

Phillips, W. Manual of British Discomycetes. 
Fur Country, The. Verne, J. 

The titles indented alone belong to the subject- 
heading above ; an arrangement which any school- 
boy might be expected to understand. 

If the other " egregious blunders " hinted at by 
your critic are of a like nature, the Chelsea Free 
Library Catalogue need fear no comparison with 
that of any free library in the kingdom. 

DAVID H. GEDDIE, Sub- Librarian. 

[Other communications to the same effect, including 
one from the chief librarian, are acknowledged.] 

GRAHAM or GARTUR (6" 1 S. viii. 288 ; 8 th S. viii. 
134). By an unfortunate slip of the pen I men- 
tioned Walter Graham, second son of the second Earl 
of Menteith, as brother of that earl. I should have 
said he was younger brother of the third earl. 


LETRESTOWE (8 th S. viii. 65). This was once 
the ordinary English name for a burial-place or 
cemetery. Matzner and Stratmann cite the word 
leirstowe as occurring in Layamon's 'Brut,'ii. 538. 
In Bosworth-Toller there will be found abundanl 
proof of the commonness of leger-stow as an Old 
English word for a cemetery. O.E. leger means 
literally " a lying," and is used in three senses 
(1) a lying, (2) a lying sick, (3) a grave, a burial 
place. It is met with also in other compounds 
besides leger-stow, such as leger-bedd, a sick-bed 
the grave; leger-team, sexual intercourse; leger 
wlte, a fine for lying with a bond-woman. 


A lairstow is a burial-place ; we have the former 
element of the word in lairstall, a grave within 
a church, and lairstone, a stone to cover such a 
grave. The latter two words frequently occur in 
' Vestry Books,' Surtees Soc., vol. Ixxxiv. Lai 

s literally a Ij ing- place, whether for a living beast 
r for a dead man. Stov: is a place, and enters 
nto many place-names. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

This word has nothing to do with either leyr = 
lesh in Chaucer, or lere = learn ing. It is identical 
with the A.-S. leger-stow, a lying-place, a burial- 
jlace, a cemetery. Leger, whence we have lair, is- 
ilso used for a place where the dead lie, a grave. 
3ad the word not gone out of use, we could have- 
done without the Greek cemetery. 


" (8 th S. viii. 66). Your corre- 
spondent raises an interesting question. The- 
Greek -paos or Trpavs, or its noun Trpctdr^s or 
TrpaijT-njs, occurs sixteen times in the New Testa- 
ment : (1) Matt. v. 5 ; (2) ibid., xi. 29 ; (3) ibid., 
xxi. 5; (4) 1 Cor. iv. 21 ; (5) 2 Cor. x. 1 ; (6.) 
Gal. v. 23 ; (7) ibid., vi. 1 ; (8) Epb. iv. 2 ; (9) 
Col. iii. 12 ; (10) 1 Tim. vi. 11 ; (11) 2 Tim. ii. 25 ; 
(12) Tit. iii. 2 ; (13) James i. 21 ; (14) t&td.,iii. 13^ 
[15) 1 Peter iii. 4; (16) ibid., iii. 15. 

Of these Ostervald gives " de"bonnaire " in (1) 
and (3) only, and " benignite" " in (6), having used 
" douceur " for x/nycrroT^s just before ; in all the 
the rest he gives " doux " or " douceur." 

An old Lyons Testament (from the Greek) of 
1555, has " dSbonnaire " in (1), (2). (3), " d^bon- 
nairete"" in (6), "beninite" in (11), (16), " mo- 
destie" in (9), and "doux" or "douceur" in all 
the rest. Segond, one of the latest and best 
translators, has in all " doux " or " douceur." So 
also Lasserre and Crampon (Tournai, 1887), in 
their version of the Gospels only. De Sacy, trans- 
lating from the Vulgate, has " doux " or " douceur " 
in all but (9), "modestie," and (13), " dociliteV' 

The Vulgate itself has five different renderings : 
(1) and (2), "mitis"; (7), "lenitas"; (9), (11), 
(16), "modestia"; (15), " quies"; and " man- 
suetus " or its noun in all the rest. 

Diodati, in Italian, gives "mansueto" or its 
noun in all but (15), where he has " benigno." 

In English, Wyclif has "meek" or "meek- 
ness" in (3) and (9), "softness" in (7), "tem- 
perance" in (11), "mild" or "mildness" in the 
rest. Cranmer "softness" in (4), "at rest" in 
(15), and " meek " or " meekness " in the rest. 
The Rheims New Testament " mildness " in (4), 
(5), (6), (8), (10), (12), (14), "lenity" in (7), 
"modesty" in (9), (11), (16), "quiet" in (15), 
" meek " or " meekness" in the rest. The Autho- 
rized and Eevised Versions have " meek " or 
" meekness " throughout. 

Luther and De Wette have " sanft".or "sanft- 
miithig," or their nouns, throughout. 

" D^bonnaire " is defined by Littre" as " qui joint 
douceur et bonte," and would seem, therefore, 
especially appropriate in these passages. He quotes 
from Bossuet, " Je'sus, le debonnaire J^sns, il plain 

. viir, A. 24, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


nos miteres." But he also quotes, for a degraded 
sense of the word, Balzac, who says (in another 
connexion, of course), " Us ont nomnoe le debon- 
naire celui qu'ils n'ont ose nommer sot." Has not 
the word come generally to have something of this 
contemptuousness ? 

Guizot (' Synonymes Franchises ') takes no note 
of " debonnaire," but says of "doux" (comparing 
it with " benin " and " bumain "), " doux indique 
un caractere d'hurneur qui rend tres sociable et ne 
rebute personne." 

On the whole it would seem that " debonnaire," 
if it could still be sure of its nobler meaning, 
would best correspond to the Greek word. But 
this nobler meaning it seems to have lost. " Doux," 
on the other hand, having a much wider range, is 
less definite either in appreciation or disparage- 
ment, and modem translators seem by common 
consent to approve it. 

Has not " meek " also taken a lower place than 
TT/acfos ; and would not " gentle " better express the 
original in most of the passages cited ? 

B. W. S. 

The rendering of the Greek Trpaets at Matt. v. 5 
by the French " debonnaire" commended itself to 
Dean Stanley, who, if I remember right, thought 
the inheritance of the earth, promised in the beati- 
tude, to be rightly assigned to the courteous and 
cheerful of manner. Its rendering by " meek " 
seems more in accordance with the meaning 
attached to the word both in ancient and modern 

Littre's definition of "debonnaire": "Qui joint 
douceur et bonte," if not falling to the point of 
meekness, does not reach the level of cheerfulness. 
Among the examples of the word's use are " vain- 
queur debonnaire "from Maurel,and "le debonnaire 
Jesus " from Bossuet, a conjunction which brings 
to mind o (3ao-i\fv<; o-ov ep^fTai crot, Trpais. The 
word's history begins with a quotation from the 
'Chanson de Koland': "Eh! gentilzhom, chevalier 
de bon aire." Under its etymology we read : 

" Quand J. Bruyant dit qu'un homme debonnaire est 
un homme iseu de bonne aire, il donne 1'etymologie et le 
sens du mot, qui, signifiant d'abord de bonne race, s'eet 
particularise dans celui de doux, bienveillant." 

In fact, the epithet might well be applied to any 
one worthily bearing the English name of gentle- 
man, who possesses gentleness with other qualities, 
not necessarily including meekness on the one 
hand or cheerfulness on the other. 

But the English word " debonair " is shown by 
the 'N. E. D.' to have passed by degrees from 
gentleness to gaiety, one of the definitions in the 
first sense being "meek," while in its latter sense 
it is mentioned as connoting gaiety of heart. In 
1430 a " debonayre " wife is one who does not con- 
tradict her husband. This is meekness. In 1590 
Spenser writes of a prince " meeke and debonaire," 
so that the two are not precisely equivalent. In 

1707 a man is said to have too " debonair " and 
free a deportment with women. This is not meek- 
ness. After this time it came to be applied to 
pleasant and cheerful manners, as in the most 
modern examples. The use of the word by Milton, 
Poe, Tennyson, and Jean Ingelow, is not instanced 
by the ' N. E. D.' 

English " meek " may have at some time ap- 
proximated more closely to French " debonnaire." 
Dr. Brewer records that Louis le Debonnaire was 
called in English, The Meek. But it would be 
hard to find another instance if, indeed, this is 
one in which meekness does not imply humility or 
humiliation. " He that higheth himself," trans- 
lates Wiclif, "shall be mekid." KILLIGREW; 

TOURNAMENTS (8 tb S. viii. 87). MR. BOEH 
should consult Ste. Palaye's ' Me"moires sur 1'An- 
cienne Chevalerie' (1826), which contains informa- 
tion drawn from every conceivable source as to 
tournaments in France and elsewhere. I may 
mention also the magnificent MS. of King Rene of 
Anjou in the National Library at Paris, edited by 
Champollion Figeac (' Les Tournois du Roi Rene',,' 
Paris, 1828), and Vulson's famous work, 'Le Vray 
Theatre d'Honneuret de Chevalerie ' (Paris, 1648), 
which describes the chief tournaments held in 
France, with full instructions for the conduct ef 
jousts, &c. OSWALD HUNTER BLAIR, O.S.B. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

'THE SHAVING OF SHAGPAT" (8 tb S. viii. 46 r 
111). An experience of mine, recalled by the 
narrative of W. B. at the first reference, may here 
be set on record. About a dozen years ago, at a 
clearing sale of books from a subscription library, I 
examined a row advertised as three- volume novels 
at threepence a volume. Near the middle of the 
shelf I came apon Charles Knight's ' Passages of a 
Working Life' (3 vols., 1864-5), and suggested to- 
the attendant that a mistake had been made in 
including that work among novels. The reply 
was that the work was there to be sold, not dis- 
cussed, and that it would certainly go to the first 
customer willing to tender ninepence for possession 
of it. As the typical question in casuistry that 
as between seller and buyer had been duly raised 
and contemned (raised, moreover, from the side 
not usually considered to have the advantage in a 
transaction), the narrator, in now admitting that 
the purchase per force straightway took place, 
trusts that he carries with him the good voices of 

his readers. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helenaburgb, N.B. 

PRONUNCIATION OF SEA (8 th S. viii. 4, 109). 
The replies at the latter reference are quite beside 
the question ; and I think it would have been 
charitable to suppose that I know something of 
the works of Dryden and Pope and others, and 
that I have heard of such a thing as dialectal 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ' [s* s. vm. A. 24, '95. 

variation. I believe my note is of more value 
than seems to be supposed. The pronunciation of 
sea fluctuated for a long time ; and my conclusion 
was, that the question as to its sound was ulti- 
mately settled towards the close of the eighteenth 
century. I never said that it was not pronounced 
as see at a much earlier period ; but I say that I think 
it ceased, in standard literary English, to be pro- 
nounced as say shortly before 1800. I throw this 
out rather as a suggestion to be verified than as an 
explicit result. And I therefore ask, for the sake 
of the information of us all, what quotations, later 
than 1780, can be found in which some standard 
author, using a pronunciation that is neither pro- 
vincial, nor Irish, nor intentionally comic, clearly 
shows that he meant the word sea to be pronounced 
as say. I may add, that the spelling ea is an in- 
dication that, in Tudor English, the pronunciation 
resembled that of ay in say. Such a pronunciation 
is still preserved in great. The references to Pope 
and Dryden really tell us nothing that is new. 

P.S. The rhyme of seas with ease proves nothing 
at all. 

Here are some earlier instances of our present 
pronunciation, and to these others might easily be 
added : 

Four rivers branching forth like seas, 
And Paradise dividing these. 

Ben Jonson, ' Eupheme,' iii. 6. 
Are rent, spoil'd, scatter'd, tost with all disease, 
And for their thirst of Britain drink the seas. 

Jonson, ' Prince Henry's Barriers.' 

In safe conduct of these, 

Did thirty hollow-bottomed barks divide the seas. 
Chapman, ' Translation of the Iliad,' bk. ii. 

Her love a Ward, not he that awed the seas, 
Fighting the fearful Hamadryades. 

Randolph, ' An Epithalamium to Mr. F. H.' 

C. C. B. 

469). The reprehensible practice of producing 
" dog's ears" in a book is not of yesterday. Guy 
Miege, in his ' French Dictionary,' 1688, has : 
" Dogs ear, oreille de Livre, petite partie du haut 
ou du bas du feuillet d'un Livre qu'on a plieV' 
Miege's explanation shows that in his day the 
*' dog's ear" was not confined to the bottom corner. 
Surely the top corner also can be "dog's-eared." 
At all events, I have heard the expression used 
with reference to either corner. 


LEATHER DRINKING JACKS (8 th S. vii. 249, 312, 
395, 437, 475, 518 ; viii. 91). Since last writing, 
a beautifully made and somewhat elaborately 
decorated double-sewn leather bottle, in admirable 
preservation, the like of which I have never seen, 
has turned up. The capacity is a full quart, and 
the shape is somewhat like a stout ordinary wine 

bottle. On one side of the neck is a handle of 
elegant shape, and on the other is a circular pro- 
jecting piece, with a large hole in the centre. Both 
sides of the neck are ornamentally incised, and on 
one side of the body of the bottle is a device of 
crossed keys, with the initials J. K. On the other 
side are the initials J. J. K., and underneath N. W. 0. 
The inside of the neck is of pewter, and the metal 
appears to extend throughout the interior. The 
stopper is a leather metal-lined whistle, made in 
such a way as not to interfere with the sealing of the 
contents. ANDREW W. TUER. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

THE " COULIN " (8 th S. viii. 89). Coulin is an 
English version of the Gaelic coulfhion (pronounced 
coolyeen), a fair, long-haired person. It is a com- 
mon term of endearment, meaning " dear little 
fair head," with the implication of long-haired. In 
the reign of Henry VIII., amongst various Acts 
passed for the purpose of forcing the English habits 
and language on the ancient Irish, was one whereby 
the latter were forbidden to wear the long locks called 
coulins or glibbes, or moustaches .(crommeal). In 
allusion to these oppressive measures, as well as to 
others directed more especially against his own 
order, one of the ancient bards composed a song 
called ' Coulfhion,' of which only the air has been 
perserved. It is to this air that Moore, in his 
' Irish Melodies,' adapted the lines beginning 
" Though the last glimpse of Erin," first published 
in 1807. The character both of the music and the 
words is such as to fully deserve the praise be- 
stowed in the passage referred to in the query. 
MR. HAMILTON might refer to Walker's 'Historical 
Memoirs of the Irish Bards'; Irish Statutes, 
28 Henry VIII., c. 15-28; Spenser's 'State of Ire- 
land'; Hallam's 'Constitutional Hist, of England'; 
Prendergast's 'Cromwellian Settlement'; or, in 
fact, any work dealing with the origins of the ever- 
present Irish question. BREASAIL. 

508 ; viii. 89). MR. MALONE'S information as to 
the ownership of this miniature is most interesting. 
It is a mistake, however, to say that Ann Wich- 
nour Somerville, Sir James Bland Burges's mother, 
was an only child. She was the elder daughter of 
James, thirteenth Lord Somerville, and, besides a 
half sister Eliza, who died young, she had two full 
brothers, James, fourteenth Lord Somerville, and 
Col. Hugh Somerville, father of John Southey, 
fifteenth lord. She was, however, the god- 
daughter of Somervile the poet, as mentioned in 
his will, proved Sept. 3, 1742, which may have 
been the reason why she, in preference to her 
brothers, received this heirloom of the Somerviles 
of Edstone. 

It is very likely that there may have been an 
acquaintance between the Somerviles and the 
Shakespeares ; for Edstone, which is not more 

8"> S. VIII. AUG. 24, '95.] 



than six miles from Stratford-on-Avon, is onl 
three from Snitterfield, the early home of Shake 
speare's father, and a like distance from Wilmcote 
where his mother resided before her marriage. Th< 
great-grandfather of Somervile the poet, who 
according to Sir James Bland Barges, was th< 
intimate friend of Shakespeare, must have been 
younger than Shakespeare by some twenty years 
at least. It seems, therefore, more likely that 
Shakespeare's friend was Somervile the poet's 
great-great-grandfather, William Somervile, who 
was about the same age as Shakespeare, and died 
in the sameyear. (Seethe Somervile pedigrees in the 
4 Visitation of Warwickshire' of 1619 and Dngdale's 
Warwickshire.') This William, or Sir William. 
Somervile was the younger brother of John Somer- 
vile of Edstone, who, with Edward Arden, his 
father-in-law, was condemned for treason in 1583. 
It has often been pointed out that the attainder 
and execution of Arden, the head of Shakespeare's 
mother's family, appears to have completed the 
ruin of John Shakespeare's fortunes ; so that, besides 
neighbourhood, there was the bond of a common 
misfortune and some relationship by marriage, 
however distant, between the Somerviles and the 
Shakespeares. The Athenceum of July 13 con- 
tains an article on Sir Thomas Lucy, in which it is 
argued with some force that Shakespeare's hatred 
of Sir Thomas may have arisen from the knight's 
forward part in obtaining the conviction of Arden 
and Somervile. GEO. WILL. CAMPBELL. 

6, Clarendon Square, Leamington. 


(8 th S. viii. 4, 35.) Ingoldsby was acquainted with 
this saying ; see ' The Old Woman clothed in Grey,' 
written probably about 1840, eighteenth edition, 
vol. ii. p. 297 : 

She expired, with her last breath expressing a doubt 
If "his mother were fully aware he was out." 

I have heard this line : 

M<3i> rj TfKovara or' oiSev 019 Ovpaios ei, 
but cannot remember whether it is from any of the 
Greek poets or the casual concoction of an old 
schoolfellow. WM. GRAHAM F. PIGOTT. 

Abington Pigotts. 

This saying is of older origin than that ascribed 
to it at the former reference. It was one of the 
first questions addressed to me on joining a private 
school in the neighbourhood of London in the 
early forties. MR. THORNBURY gave it the date 
of 1840 in a list of London street sayings which 
he contributed to ' N. & Q.' ; and as it appears in 
'Misadventure at Margate,' with the other 'In- 
goldsby Legends ' collected in 1840, it must have 
been current before that date. MR. THORNBURY 
asked for assistance to complete his list, but sub- 
sequent numbers of ' N. & Q.' do not show him to 
have received any. Such a list of London street 

sayings, dated and annotated, would be worth com- 
pleting. Occasionally they have risen to such 
rank as to be recorded under the ' N. & Q.' head- 
ing of * Proverbs and Phrases ' ; generally they are 
vagabond words, moved on from Whitechapel to 
Kensington or vice versa ; now and then they have 
a more picturesque history than wiser sayings. 
Sometimes they come on the streets from the 
police court, the stage, the music cellar, or hole, or 
hall ; sometimes the process is reversed. A song 
of the middle of the century had the most prevalent 
saying for its burden, and referred to others (the 
meaning of which I have never guessed), then 
going out of fashion : 

Strange sayings about the town have magnified a fame, 
"Is your rhubarb up?" and "Ducky, what's your game V 

But now 

The all-prevailing cry on town is " All serene." 

On the other hand, two ladies who met me 
lately in the alley that cuts off a corner of Totten- 
ham Court Road, and observed to one another, " 'E 
dunno where 'e are," must have derived their 
inspiration, directly or indirectly, from the music 
hall. Once set going, these cries pass from mouth 
to month without thought of their origin or even 
their applicability, and frequently in the natural 
sense of the words the metaphorical use of which 
made the joke which started them. " Ofae Lam- 
bert " soon becomes as difficult to trace as fiouaria 

MR. THORNBURY'S list ended with "Just like 
Roger." Many sayings have "magnified a fame" 
since the days of the Claimant. Who will under- 
take the work of completion? Perhaps, when 
that excellent series which is telling us the stories 
of the stars, and the plants, and other things, is 
approaching the end of its career and looking out 
for one more story, the story of the sayings may 
attract its attention ; but the sayings must be con- 
fined to those of the London streets, or the story 
would be without an end. KILLIQKEW. 

I have been acquainted with this expression for 
upwards of fifty years, and for almost as long a 
time with ap' oiSev 17 re/covo-a or' u>s OVK evSov e?; 
and " An bona te mater novit abesse domo ?" as 
versions of it. P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

MR. PIERPOINT may well say that this question 
was current a good many years ago, since it appears 
;o have been, in effect, current in the days of 
Horace ; see Sat. I. ix. 26 : 

Est tibi mater, 
Cognati, quis te salvo est opus ? 


HICKS OR HICKES FAMILY (8 th S. vii. 347, 417, 

17 1 ; viii. 74). My query at the first reference has, 

.pparently, been passed over or obscured by another 

question (relating to an altogether distinct family) 

aised at the second reference. If MR. DANIEL Hip- 



s* s. vm. AUG. 24, -95. 

WELL, MR. W. D. PINK, or any other genealogical 
reader could afford me any information, I should 
be greatly obliged. Mrs. Aurelia was, I find, the 
widow of Robt. Hicks. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

It is quite possible that I was mistaken as to 
the exact position of the stone to " Ye Rev. Mr. 
John Hicks." My original informant, writing 
some years ago, said she had been told that the 
grandfather of Admiral Hicks " was a Canon of 
Exeter, who was buried under the organ in the 
Cathedral "; and when my brother, Count Philip 
de Ruvigny, wrote to one of the canons there, asking 
for information on this point, he received a very 
courteous reply, saying a clergyman of this name 
was buried in the cathedral, and enclosing a copy 
of the inscription, which I have already given. 
Nothing was said about the position of the stone, 
however, and I therefore concluded it was, as 
stated, "under the organ." I must thank MR. 
HEMS for his correction. The dates are probably 
correct. In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1762 
is a note of the death of "Ye Rev. Mr. Hicks, 
Minor Canon of Exeter, on August 14." 


CHURCHING OF WOMEN (8 th S. v. 385 ; vi. 11, 
276, 512 ; vii. 113, 409, 436). Reference should 
be made to Brand's ' Antiquities,' ii. 76. Another 
peculiarity was the " churching pew," set apart in 
fashionable churches (in days when rubrics did not 
go for much) for ladies who were to be "churched," 
when the office was addressed to them from the 
reading-desk, just before the "General Thanks- 
giving," much to the astonishment of those 
members of the congregation whom it did not con- 
cern. I can remember this thirty-five years ago. 


"FRIGHTENED OF" (8 th S. viii. 86). "Frightened 
of " and " frightened for" are common Scotticisms. 
I think instances may be found in Mrs. Oliphant's 
novels. Not long ago I heard a speaker at a 
meeting say " they are frightened for us," meaning 

It A l_ f t r 11 *~ 

"they are afraid of us." 
St. Andrews, N.B. 


THE LUMINOUS CARBUNCLE (8 tb S. vii. 445). 
The following passage and note from the ' Pirate ' 
a novel which grew out of a voyage made by Sir 
Walter Scott round the north coast of Scotland in 
1814 may prove an illustrative instance of this 
superstition. The legend is narrated with many 
others by Norna of the Fitful Head, in the bed- 
chamber of Minna and Brenda Troil at Burgh 
Westra, in the dead of the night : 

" By that lamp it must be told, which is framed out 
of the gibbet-irons of the cruel Lord of Wodensvoe, who 
m iirdered his brother ; and has for its nourishment bu 
be that nameless enough that its food never came either 

from the fish or from the fruit ! Often when watch 

ing by the Dwarfie Stone, with mine eyes fixed on the 

Ward Hill, which rises above that gloomy valley, I have 
listinguished, among the dark rocka, that wonderful 
carbuncle, which gleams ruddy as a furnace to them who 
view it from beneath, but has ever become invisible to 
him whose daring foot has scaled the precipices from 
ivhich it darts its splendour." Chap. xix. 

The probable date of the ' Pirate ' is about 1702, 
and there is the following note M on the carbuncle 
on the Ward Hill : 

'At the west end of this stone [i.e., the Dwarfie 
Stone] stands an exceeding high mountain of a steep 
ascent called the Ward Hill of Hoy, near the top of 
which, in the months of May, June, and July, about 
midnight, is seen something that shines and sparkles 
admirably, and which is often seen a great way off. It 
aath ehined more brightly before than it does now, and 
though many have climbed up the hill and attempted to 
search for it, yet they could find nothing. The vulgar 
talk of it as some enchanted carbuncle, but I take it 
rather to be some water sliding down the face of some 
smooth rock, which when the sun, at such a time, shines 
upon, the reflection causeth that admirable splendour."' 
Dr. Wallace's ' Description of the Islands of Orkney/ 
8vo., London, 1700, p. 52. 

There is an account of the Dwarfie Stone, accom- 
panied by a whole-page engraving from a drawing 
by James Skene, the friend of Sir Walter Scott^ 
in Barry's ' History of Orkney,' published in 1805, 
but nothing mentioned about the " wonderful 
carbuncle " said to be seen from it. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

GOLDFINCHES POISONING (8 th S. viii. 89). It 
is a common belief in Lincolnshire that redcaps, 
i.e., goldfinches, frequently poison their captive 
young. I remember, as a child, hearing great 
lamentation made in a cottage-garden, when it was 
discovered that the nestlings confined in a cage 
hanging in an apple-tree had all been " poisoned 
by the old birds," who visited them with food. It 
was suggested by some person present that the 
little prisoners had died of sunstroke, but the 
general opinion was that their parents had ad- 
minstered poison, finding it impossible to free them. 

M. P. 

WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM (8 th S. viii. 109). 
William of Wykeham was certainly never married, 
nor does the name either of Frances or of Thomas 
Wolriche occur in Lowth. The fullest account of 
Wykeham's kin will be found in chap. vi. of Kirby's 
' Annals of Winchester College.' B. W. S. 

MR. PALMER has, I think, confused William 
Wickham with William of Wykeham. The same 
mistake has been made before, but dates would 
make the matter clear. The great prelate William 
of Wykeham was Bishop of Winchester from 1363 
to 1404. The later prelate was only Bishop of 
Winchester for nine month?, having been trans- 
lated from Lincoln. He died in 1595. 

He was one of the five bishops who married the 
five daughters of Bishop Barlow of Bath and 

8th S. VIII. Ana. 24, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Wells, the first married bishop after the Reforms 

Bishop William Wickham waa one of the fou 
Bishops of Winchester buried in St. Mar 
Overie's, now St. Saviour's, Southwark ; a ston 
is pointed out in the churchyard near the doo 
leading into the choir, where it is supposed he wa 
buried ; there are marks of a brass having bee 
removed from it. The other three were Bisho 
Sandall (died 1319), Bishop Home (died 1580; 
and last, but not least, Lancelot Andrews (1618- 
1626). They probably all died at the Bishop o 
Winchester's palace, on Bankside, and were buriec 
in the adjoining church or churchyard of St. Marj 

Chart, Sutton. 

This must refer to the second, or Protestant 
William Wickham or Wykeham (not " of Wyke 
bam ") who was bishop only one year, 1595. 

E. L. G. 

" GRANDMOTHER'S NIGHTCAP" (8 th S. viii. 107] 
I am very much obliged to the Editor for hi 
reply, per se or per alium, to my inquiry. I can 
not enclose a flower as the Editor requests, at leas 
not from the plant from which the other sprig was 
gathered, as it has ceased flowering for the present 
The Editor, however, is quite correct. I showec 
a sprig to a lady here, who at once pronounced it to 
be " monkshood," which I see is also called 
" wolfsbane " (aconite). The flower is dark blue 
as the Editor say?. Is not " respertina " a mis- 
print for vespertina ? JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

Ropley, Hampshire. 

In Shropshire this is the country name of the 
handsome tall - growing flowers of Aconitum 
napellus ; the children know it by no other. In 
ancient times it had the more heroic name ol 
<( Thpr's hat." It is also called " helmet flower," 
and is generally known as "monkshood." An 
old writer tells me it has its name of aconite from 
a Greek word signifying without a struggle, for, 
says Turner, " it is of all poysones the most hastie 
poyson"; a more modern one, that the term 
<Konite is from the Greek alcone, a whetstone, 
because this plant was anciently supposed to 
sharpen sight when taken, as that stone does 
catting instruments. Further it is called " wolf's- 
bane," the juice having been used by hunters to 
poison their arrows when in pursuit of this 
generally detested animal. In America it bas the 
prettier appellations of "Venus's shell " and 
"Cupid's car." 

Mythologists tell us it sprang up from the 
poisonous foam of Cerberus. In the language of 
flowers the " monkshood " means deceit. Though 
not indigenous, it is found growing wild beside 
the Teme in Hertfordshire and other riverside 
places. The poisonous qualities of the plant are 
well known, but not sufficiently guarded against ; 

the root to ignorant persons bears a resemblance 
to that of horse-radish, for which it has been 
frequently taken and used with fatal effects. 
Botanically the plant belongs to the natural 
order Ranunculacese. 

Foxglove is a corruption of " folk's-glove," or 
"fairy-glove." In Ireland it is not safe to 
meddle with it after sunset, on account of the 
"good people," especially if its tall spike of 
drooping bell-shaped flowers nod above the ditch 
of an old ancient fort which the leprochaun haunts. 


OIL OP EGGS (8 th S.viii. 87). The information 
given in the old cookery book mentioned by MB. 
WARD is no doubt correct, so far as the efficacy 
of the oil of eggs in curing certain disorders being 
believed in at the time when the book was printed. 
The ' Pharmacopeia Londinensis ; or, the London 
Dispensatory,' by Nich. Culpeper, London, 1669, 
p. 211, gives the mode of making the above, and 
says, " It is profitable in Fistulaes, Ulcers, Causes 
the hair to grow, Clears the skin and take away 
Deformities, viz., Tetters, Ringworms, Morphew, 

I am not sure that the world has Jet slip what- 
ever wisdom there may be in the use of oil of eggs 
as a medicine. At any rate, Oleum e vitellis had a 
place in the Paris ' Codex ' when Rennie published 
his supplement to the pharmacopoeias in 1837. It 
was prepared by heating the yolks in a silver 
vessel, evaporating in a water-bath, and pressing 
between two iron plates heated in boiling water. 
It was used to anoint chapped nipples and to 
drop into the ear for deafness from deficiency of 
wax. The London College ordered the oil to be 
prepared by boiling the eggs hard, pounding them, 
sprinkling them with wine, and pressing them 
secundum artem. Culpeper (from whom I quote) 
recommends the oil for fistula, ulcers, ringworm, 
scabs, &c., and adds, "I suppose none is so 
simple to make* it inwardly to clear their skin, 
nor to anoint their feet to take away the deformity 
of their face." The oil was omitted from sub- 
sequent editions of our pharmacopeia, though, as 
we have seen, it retained a place in the Paris 
Codex," and may, for aught I know, still be 
bund there. 0. C. B. 

"THE EVER LOYAL CITY" (8 th S. viii. 68). 
We cannot, as citizens of Exeter, lay claim to any 
uch distinction as Miss FLORENCE PEACOCK is 
pparently anxious to foist upon us. Jenkins, in 
is 'City of Exeter' (1806), under date of A.D. 
588, records : 

" The long projected invasion of this kingdom by the 
paniards (for which they had, many years, been making 
nmense preparations) was now about to take place ; and 
;ueen Elizabeth having notice of their intention of soon 

Qy., take. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8<* s. viii. A. 2V95. 

sailing, she sent orders to all maritime counties to 
embody their militia, and to make every necessary pre- 
paration, to defeat the designs of their enemies. These 
orders being received by the mayor of this city, he 
acquainted the citizens and represented to them the 
danger they were in, if they did not unanimously oppose 
the invasion of so cruel and implacable a foe ; the 
citizens immediately put themselves in arms, and joined 
in an address to the queen, declaring themselves ever 
ready to oppose her enemies, and to support the pro- 
testant religion at the hazard of their lives and fortunes; 
assuring her they were in readiness to march, and join 
her army whenever wanted. By a voluntary contri- 
bution, they also fitted out three ships, which were 
manned, armed and maintained at their own expense, 
and sent to reinforce the queen's fleet. The queen, in a 
letter, returned them her most grateful thanks, and 
granted them the honour of bearing the motto, ' Semper 
1'idelis,' for ever under their city arms." 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

Mr. Worth, in his short 'History of Devonshire' 
(1886), says of Exeter : 

"Elizabeth conferred the proud title of 'Semper 
fidelie,' which candour compels the admission has been 
chiefly shown in a staunch adherence to the ruling 
powers." P. 14. 


Does not this refer to Hereford ? King Charles I. 
giving it the following motto, for its able defence 
against the Cromwellians, " Invictse Fidelitatis 
prsemium," the reward of unconquerable fidelity. 


S. viii. 105). It is quite certain that there were 
several cases of burning for heresy in England 
before 1401. This question is discussed in the 
preface to Arnold's edition of Wyclif's ' Works,' 
and (if I remember rightly, for I have no present 
means of reference) in the preface to my edition of 
the third text (C-text) of 'Piers the Plowman.' 
William Sautre was the first person burnt for 
heresy under the new Act passed in the beginning 
of the reign of Henry IV. All that this Act did 
was to facilitate the process. Before it was passed, 
the ecclesiastics who condemned the heretics were 
powerless to carry out the sentence themselves ; 
they had to hand over the criminal to the secular 
arm. The new Act did away with this necessity, 
and so rendered the criminal's fate the more swift 
and certain. And that was all the difference. 
Hence the popular notion, that no one was burnt 
before 1401, is a mere delusion. 


The writer of the "Advertisement" to Bale's 
' Works' (Park. Soc.) is not exact in his statement. 
William Sautree was burnt because of the statute 
" de hseretico comburendo," 2 Hen. IV., c. 15, oi 
which he was the first to experience the severity. 
A more famous example was that of Sir John Old- 

castle (Lord Cobham). In the early part of the 
reign of Henry V. another statute was passed to 
xtend the powers of the former one, the statute 
2 Hen. V., c. 7, which became the operative 
statute for the future. The proper statement is 
;hat William Sautree was the first to suffer under 
the Act " de hseretico comburendo," 2 Hen. IV., 
c. 15. ED. MARSHALL. 

1 KALEVAIA ' (8 th S. viii. 88). English men of 
letters generally pronounce this name as if it were 
Italian, with the accent on the first and third 
syllables ; but I have reason to know that this ia 
really incorrect. A friend of mine who is a native 
of Finland, and who therefore ought to know how 
to pronounce this Finnish word, always accents it 
on the first and last syllables, and it appears justi- 
fied by the derivation of the word. Kalevala ia 
derived from Tcaleva (accent on first and third) and 
la (monosyllable). 

It will be perceived, therefore, that the accent as 
given by my native friend, on the first and last 
syllables, is the only one compatible with this 
etymology. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

PARISH CHARITIES (8 th S. viii. 27, 98). " Bene- 
faction tablets," as they were usually termed, were 
not uncommon in our country churches. I pre- 
sume that the object in placing these inscriptions 
around the front of galleries and in other pro- 
minent places in the church, was that wor- 
shippers might have before them a constant re- 
minder of the charitable deeds of their ancestors, 
a suggestive hint to purchase perpetual remem- 
brance by the exercise of similar deeds of charity. 
In Fulhain Church, until its demolition in 1880-1, 
were numerous benefaction tablets ranged round 
the gallery. As the new church has no gallery, the 
tablets now find an abiding place against a wall in 
the north porch. CHAS. JAS. F&RET. 

49, Edith Eoad, West Kensington, W. 

BISHOP COTTON (8 tb S. viii. 105). Will MR. 
LYNN forgive me for pointing out two slight in- 
accuracies in his note at the above reference? The 
battle of the Nivelle to which he refers was fought 
on November 10 (not 13), 1813. Brigade-Major 
Capt. Cotton was not killed in the battle. He 
was severely wounded, and died on the 13th at 
the village of Ainhon^, near Bayonne. See London 
Gazette, 1813, p. 2367, and Gent. Mag., 1813, 
part ii. p. 624. G. F. R. B. 

" PARSON (8 th S. viii. 65). On the south wall 
of the south transept of Orsett Church, Essex, is 
a brass to the memory of the Rev. Robert King, 
who died in 1584. The inscription is very strangely 
spelt throughout, and near the end the word 
" person " is used instead of "parson." 


5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 


8*s. vm. AUG. 24/95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


'THE BEGGAR'S OPERA' (8 th S. vii. 501). Th< 
painstaking Chalmers, in his ' Dictionary,' statei 
that Marshal Saxe "wrote a book on the art o 
war, called ' Mes Reveries,' of which a ver 
splendid edition, with his life, was published in 1757 
2 Tols., 4to. There is also an English translation 


"CHUM" (8" 1 S. vii. 304, 474, 514; viii. 50 
93). May this not have come, after all, from 
chummy, a chimney-sweeper's boy 1 Its earliest 
recorded application is to one who shared the bed- 
room of another ; and if the chummy did not 
actually share the bedroom of his master, it was 
probably necessary, considering the importance o: 
his being called early, that he should be within 
easy range of his master's well-aimed boot. The 
c, ch men may possibly be pleased to use this 
cammino up which to climb out of their difficulty, 
the foot ledges being cam, chem, chim, chum. In 
return for the suggestion, will they kindly answer 
for me the following question? Had Norman 
influence anything to do with the change of Anglo- 
Saxon c to English ch in such words as church, 
child, much, &c. ; or were these forms mere dia- 
lectical variations which existed before the advent 
of the Normans ? H. BATMEN T. 

Sidcup, Kent. 

No one who knows anything of philology can 
doubt that PROF. SKEAT is correct in what he 
says about the Norman kaud and Jcien. In case 
any further correspondence should appear under 
this head, it may be interesting for me to mention 
that in the Norman dialect of the Channel Islands 
the former of these two words is pronounced almost 
exactly like the English cow, whereas the latter is 
sounded with the English ch, and is, therefore, 
already half way towards the regular French form 
chien. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

The word was in use, but not in its present 
meaning, some three hundred years ago. Bacon, 
in his eighty- eighth Apophthegm, chronicles the 
behaviour of " a young maid who had married an 
old man" as being "somewhat moody, as if she 
had eaten a dish of chums." Can any one throw 
any light on the nature of this mood-making 
article of diet ? E. S. A. 

PROF. SKEAT would make this ch (or Italian name 
of c) a " simple sound, denoted by two consonant 
symbols," and parallels it with " Eng. th, ivh, and 
Welsh rh." Two of these, th and Welsh rh, are 
doubtless simple ; but wh is two sounds merely 
transposed, and should be written hw. The Eng- 
lish and Spanish ch (as in chum) is not simple, but 
composed of t and sh, or t and the French ch. It 
was an old Italian blunder to express compounds by 
single letters, as c and g, and by adding an h to 
make both into simple sounds ; but all old ortho- 

graphies have such blunders. The French rightly 
express the Italian name of c by tchi, and the 
Italian and English names of g by dji. The Italian 
blundering use of h may be as old as Catullus, and 
the Italians may have been always as destitute of a 
guttural ch as they still are. In all historic times 
they have expressed K by c and ^ by ch. The c 
could begin a word before n, as Cneius ; but the 
ch could precede no consonant but I or r. If the 
c was always our It, what need had they of q? 
Why did not Cicero write his name Qiqero? I 
am for keeping to the names of letters as Romans 
now name them. E. L. G. 

MRS. SOPHIA WILLIAMS (8 th S. vi. 3, 93 ; viiL 
115). Under this heading, the references to Mrs. 
Cornelys may be supplemented by a note to the 
effect that in the Town and Country Magazine, 
ii. 1770, facing p. 137, is an engraving representing 
a room in Mrs. Cornelys's house in Soho Square 
during a masquerade held there Feb. 26, 1770, 
which then and afterwards attracted a great deal 
of attention. The text comprises a dialogue con- 
cerning this entertainment. See likewise the 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1770, p. 118 ; the former 
magazine, same volume, p. 256 this concerns a 
second masquerade which was held in this place 
on May 14, 1770. See 'The New Foundling 
Hospital for Wit,' 1784, v. p. 8 ; the Oxford 
Magazine, iv., 1770, p. 174 (an error for 192) ; 
4 The Catalogue of Satirical Prints in the British 
Museum,' vol. iv. p. 608, Satirical Print No. 4375, 
'The Soho Masquerade Conference'; 'Remark- 
able Characters at Mrs. Cornellys Masquerade (A.),' 
Sat. Print No. 4376 ; and ' A Gentleman's Toi- 
lette,' Sat. Print No. 4789. In addition, see the 
Oxford Magazine, iv., 1770, p. 88 ; the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, 1770, p. 234; and, under Sat. 
Print, ' Cupid's soft Dart,' 1772 ; ' Correspondence 
of John Wilkes,' by Almon, 1805, iv. p. 45 ; and 
the Gentleman's Magazine, 1771, pp. 90 and 121. 
The London Magazine, 1771, p. 93, gives an 
account of Mrs. Cornelys's entertainments. Sat. 
Print 'Remarkable Characters,' &c. (B.), under 
Feb. 9, 1771, and ' Lady Fashion's Secretary's 
Office,' under the date 1772, should be examined. 
Again, likewise, ' Letters of the First Earl of 
Malmsbury,' 1870, i. p. 216. Having been "a 
great speculator," Mrs. Cornelys died, miserably 
soor, in the Fleet Prison, Aug. 19, 1797, after a 
long incarceration for debt. F. G. S. 

THE DATE OF THE EQUINOX (8 th S. vii. 265, 
336, 378, 431, 514). In writing of an "exact 
science" I meant to convey that mathematical 
astronomy cannot be such ; I do not dispute that 
,he figures look very well upon paper, but we 
;annot bring these results to the physical test of 
m exact measurement. An ideal unit is postulated, 
ind then "Pelion is piled upon Ossa" in blind 
onfidence, just as if the foundation were sound ; 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. AUG. 2*. -95. 

but, if the first proposition remains un proven, 
then all deductions based thereon are necessarily 
cpen to doubt. 

My great objection is to the use of the names of 
the zodiacal constellations in an ambiguous or 
non-natural sense, which does, when repeated in 
popular almanacs, produce an actual deception ; 
this is founded on the doctrine of precession, 
as yet only an unconfirmed though convenient 
theory, which may be defined thus. The so-called 
" first point of Aries" represents the hour hand of 
tin enormous dial, round which it makes one revo- 
lution in the course of something more than 24,000 
years. Now it is always moving, but so slowly that 
it has only marked off one-twelfth of the entire 
circle in 2,000 years ; yet, with the full knowledge 
of this movement, astronomers wilfully represent it 
as stationary, for it comes back every year to zero, 
at the vernal equinox. This is nonsense, but it has 
its uses in nautical astronomy ; or, rather, the com- 
putations of the ' Nautical Almanac ' are fabri- 
cated to suit this anomaly. This grand circle, called 
the ecliptic, contains the twelve signs of the zodiac 
divided into twenty-four hours ; and its time- 
record realizes our ideal of the grand unit of nature, 
to whom "a thousand years are as one day." 
Lenormant, a deceased archaeologist, says that it 
was known to the Chaldseans, now called Accadians, 
long before the time of Hipparchus ; and the great 
uncertainty caused by the non-recognition of actual 
movement to which I have referred prevents us 
from testing this movement with exactitude by 
mundane chronology. The constant, but imper- 
ceptible shifting of the celestial panorama, which 
we are able to prove by the recorded changes 
of position in the polar star, shows that our con- 
stellations are not now in the positions they 
occupied when first measured out, so that the real 
identification of name and season is lost to us ; it 
is supposed, however, that they were first defined 
about 3000 B.C. Among these signs in Capricornus, 
which appears to represent the fabulous Cannes ol 
the Persian Gulf, again identified with Proteus and 
the "Dag- On" of Philistia, so it is the fish-Oannes 
or sea goat, the goat being an aegis or divine pro- 
tector (ai', afyt's). The Ea quoted by MR. LYNN 
is Eridu-ga, called a god of wisdom, for these 
Mesopotamians received their enlightenment from 
abroad, as the Aztecs of America also are fabled to 
kave done ; so Ea is Cannes, as above. Perhaps 
the best defined of all is the glorious Orion, 
identified as Isdubhar or Ghisdubhar, a form o 
Hercules or Nimrod. A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

ARIOSTO (8 th S. vii. 507). Hallam partly sharei 
Tindal's opinion, and writes : 

" It has been sometimes hinted as an objection t< 
Ariosto that he is not sufficiently in earnest, and leave 
a little suspicion of laughing at his subject. I do no 
perceive that he does this in a greater degree than gooi 

ense and taste permit It was not easy in Italy, 

specially after the Morgante Maggiore had roused the 
ense of ridicule, to keep up at every moment the solemn 
one which Spain endured in the romances of the six- 
eenth century ; nor was this consonant to the gaiety of 
Ariosto. It is the light carelessness of his manner which 
constitutes a great part of its charm." ' Literary His- 
ory,' i. 310. 


VISITING CARDS (8 th S. vi. 67, 116, 196, 272, 

" Can you complain of my not visiting you, who have 
owed me a viait almost these three weeks] Nay, did I 
not even then send you a card, which sure was doing more 
;han all the friendship arid good breeding in the world 
required] " Fielding's 'Amelia' (1751), book v. ch. iv. 

Portland, Oregon. 

"LINKS" (8 th S. vii. 465 ; viii. 34). In Hill 
Burton's ' Lives of Lovat and Culloden ' there is, 
in the life of Culloden, an extract from a MS. at 
Culloden House (according to a foot-note), which 
*ives an account of the outdoor avocations of the 
time, where the word links is used. As an early 
instance the date is Nov. 1, 1728 it may be 
worth noting : 

" This day, after a very hard pull, I got the better of 
my son at the gouf in Musselburgh links. If he was 
is good at any other thing as he is at that, there might 
be some hopes of him." P. 330. 

C. P. HALE. 

The following extract may be worthy of a note : 

"This 'rustic pastime' [i.e., golf], we are further 
informed, was called ' Paganica, because it was used by 
the common people.' In that case the tools required 
must have been fewer, simpler, and less costly than 
those employed in our more scientific game a sup- 
position which amounts to a certainty when we reflect 
that the competitors were independent of a broad ex- 
panse like our links (Anglice ' downs ' or ' commons '), 
confining themselves, as they did, within comparatively 
circumscribed limits." ' The Popular Recreatcr,' vol. ii. 
p. 199. 

I have a note concerning a place-name Linces, 
in co. Bucks, which is given as one of the chariot 
courses of the Britons (' Lipscombe's * Hist, of 
Bucks,' vol. iii. p. 332); but local etymology is 
not the strong point of that work. AYEAIIK. 

506 ; viii. 74, 117). What I deemed it pertinent 
to indicate was that it is undesirable to block 
these columns with the intimation of stale news. 
If, as MR. JONAS assumes, few people are aware 
that Mrs. Cockburn's song has no reference to 
Flodden, that may be matter for regret, while not 
in the least implicating the character of ' N. & Q.' 
as "a medium of intercommunication." There 
are, unquestionably, a great many things that few 
readers are acquainted with points, e.g., in the 
career of Chaucer, the fate of the blatant beast, 

8*S.YlII.Aua24.'95.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the authorship of " Ca' the yowes to the knowes," 
the inner meaning of 'Bordello' but surely no 
one will say that specialists should expatiate on 
such matters in the columns of a literary journal. 
They will all be found duly discussed in the 
spheres to which they respectively belong. And 
the same holds true of Mrs. Cockburn's song. 
MB. JONAS wrote as if he had found a new thing 
had, in fact, " trodden the winepress alone " 
and I showed that he was in the excellent company 
of Sir Walter Scott, Dr. David Laing, and Dr. 
Chambers and other editors of Scottish song. In 
a word, I pointed out, for the benefit of such 
readers as MR. JONAS mentions, where they should 
apply if they wished full information on the sub- 
ject. He will, I trust, admit that he neglected to 

Helensburgb, N.B. 

TUNBRIDGK WELLS (8 tt S. viii. 69). By the 
Editor's remarks, on the authority of ' The Calendar 
of the Anglican Church Illustrated,' 1851, in reply 
to a similar inquiry in ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. ix. 37, 
there had been six churches named to the honour 
of King Charles I. one at Falmouth, one at 
Tunbridge Wells, two at Plymouth, and the 
churches at Peak Forest, Derbyshire, and New- 
town, in Wem, Salop. 

A correspondent (p. 165) replied that the church 
at Tunbridge Wells was a chapel of ease, also the 
one at Tavistock Place, Plymouth, was so desig- 
nated from its having been built in the parish ol 
Charles, and that the church at Falmouth was 
built soon after the Restoration, when the dedica- 
tion to "Charles, King and Martyr," was in full 
accordance with the just reaction against regicidal 

Introduzione allo Studio del Fonti Italiani de 6. Chaucer 

Da P. Bellezza. (Milano, Prtsso 1' Autore.) 
SIGNOK BELLEZZA, on the merit of whose translations 
from the English we have often dwelt, and whose know- 
ledge of our literature is exceptional in the case of a 
foreigner, has issued a brief, interesting, and valuable 
treatise on the Italian sources in Chaucer. These, as 
every student of Chaucer knows, are numerous. Signoi 
Bellezza' s task is discharged with remarkable zeal am 
erudition, and he displays great knowledge of most tba 
has been written concerning Chaucer in this country anc 
in the United States. Much that he writes should be reac 
in a chastened spirit, since he shows what insular igno 
ranee and bumptiousness is displayed by modern English 
critics, who, in their blind zeal for an idol worthy enough 
of worship and needing no adventitious support, depre 
ciate the great Italian writers, whose merits Chaucer 
himself would gladly and enthusiastically have acknow 
ledged. We have, in the case of a book printed abroad 
to b lenient to errors of the press " Chaxton " fo: 
Caxton, " Sysmonds " for Symonds,&c. Such instance 
are few, and no other indulgence is claimed. 

Vlliplical Orbits, their Distinctive Mechanical Character- 
istics and their Possible Origin. By Henry Larkin* 
(Fisher Unwin.) 

PEE author of this little pamphlet has studied his sub> 
ect, but he should, we think, have studied it more before 
10 availed himself of the suggestion in the Rambler that 
' the presses of England are open." He points out the 
duplicity of motion produced in any two bodies com- 
losing a system ; but it is a little too much to assuma 
.bat the orbits of binary stars are in all cases the mult* 
of explosions. It is difficult to see what be means by 
' such a risky experiment fas a circular orbit] seems- 
never to have been tried." The only consequence which 
would ensue in the case of a strictly circular orbit from 
the various forces acting is that it would cease to be 
circular. Some orbits for instance, those of Venus and 
Neptune in the solar system differ very slightly in form 
from circles. 

WE have received the Edinburgh Review for July. 
The oldest of our quarterlies still keeps up its repute 
for articles of sterling merit. There may not be in the 
part before us any paper of extraordinary attraction, but 
there is no padding ; everything is well worthy of atten- 
tion. The review of ' The Life of Sir William Petty,' 
by Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice, shows considerable in- 
sight into Petty's character. The writer, to use the 
ugly slang of the day, is perfectly at home in Potty's 
" environment." This is even now an uncommon quali- 
fication. Notwithstanding the number of books, good and 
bad, which have been produced during the last twenty 
years relating to the history of the seventeenth century, 
the picture as it exists in the minds of many is still the 
outcome of a blend of ' The Fortunes of Nigel,' ' Wood- 
stock,' and ' Peveril of the Peak.' No ignorance of this 
sort is displayed either by Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice or 
his reviewer. Sir William Petty was born late in the 
reign of James I. His family was what we should now 
describe as middle class. Whether in the technical sense 
they counted among the gentry, as being men of coat- 
armour, we do not know. Trade never entailed those 
disqualifications which have been the bane of some other 
countries. The family from which he sprang had been 
for several generations manufacturers of woollens at 
Romsey, in Hampshire. Sir William, however, soon 
became connected with Ireland. In the days of the 
Protectorate he was a most useful public servant there. 
The confiscations which had taken place in that un- 
happy country rendered some one who understood map- 
making and surveying a prime necessity. Petty was 
well instructed in these subjects. Though in these days 
we should denounce his views as extremely narrow, 
he was regarded as wide minded by all those with 
whom he had personally to deal. That he anticipated 
many of the opinions of Adam Smith seems certain, 
and there is no mistake about the fact that he advo- 
cated wider views as to religious toleration than were 
then current, though he dreaded putting power of 
any kind into the hands of the Roman Catholics. At 
the same time he seems to have realized that all the 
blame was not on the side of the vanquished, for he 
says : " As for the blood shed in these contests, God best 
knows who did occasion it : but upon the playing of the 
game or match the English won and had, amongst 
other pretences, a gamester's right at least to their 
estates." This is not the language of one who thought 
that all the wrong was on the side of the native popula- 
tion. There is an interesting paper on the ' Variation 
of Organic Life.' It is written by one who is master 
of the subject. Whether his conclusions be right or 
wrong it would not be well for us to discuss. The writer 
is one of strongly anti-Darwinian tendenciep, though he 
seems to be willing to admit a form of evolution. The 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s* s. vm. AUG. 2*. '95. 

review of Mr. John Martineau's ' Life and Correspond- 
ence of Sir Bartle Frere ' is written by one who has a 
good knowledge of Indian affairs, not only as they are 
now but as they were in those remote days before the 
Mutiny. Frere was a public servant of the highest 
class. Such men are seldom appreciated as they deserve. 
We trust that the life and the review before us will 
impress on many that it is simply shameful that a noble 
career such as his should be permiited to lapse into 
oblivion or be remembered only by Indian specialists. 
The paper on ' Archery ' is good, though we long for 
more details than the writer has thought fit to give us. 
The review of ' The Works of Robert Louis Stevenson ' 
has been carefully executed. His death is far too recent 
for us to be able to fix his place among the men of 
letters of the nineteenth century. We think that the 
verdict of posterity will give him a higher place than is 
awarded by the writer of the article before us. 

THE fiftieth part reaches us of the Journal of the 
Yorkshire Arc/i(sological Society (Bradbury, Agnew 
& Co.). We are glad to find there is no falling off in 
the sterling merit of the articles which it contains. 
Every one of them is well worth attentive study. Mr. 
Richard Holmes's paper on the manors of the wapen- 
take of Osgoldcrc as which are mentioned in the Domes- 
day Survey, is a work of great merit; the labour which 
it must have taken to produce this synopsis will be 
appreciated by few by no one, we fear, who has not 
undertaken and carried through drudgery of a like kind. 
It is illustrated by an excellent coloured map of the 
district. Mr. Fairbank's account of the house of the 
Carmelites at Doncaster contains many facts which have 
not hitherto been brought together. There was here 
in unreformed days an image called "Our Lady of 
Doncaster," which Bishop Latimer desired, with other 
objects of a like kind, to see burnt in Smithfield. So 
far as we can call to mind, his wish was not gratified. 
Mr. William Brown communicates an elaborate account, 
profusely illustrated by engravings, of the Bruce monu- 
ment which once adorned the great monastic church of 
Guisborough. It is now in a terribly mutilated condi- 
tion, but when perfect must have been one of the most 
magnificent works of the kind in existence. Mr. Brown 
thinks that it may have been erected by order of the 
Lady Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VII. and wife of 
the ill-fated James IV. of Scotland, who fell at Flodden. 
The various fragments of this once splendid work of art 
are now separated from each other. No such thing as 
restoration is to be desired ; the very idea is, indeed, in- 
tolerable, but the pieces might be brought together 
and set up again, the blank places being filled up by 
blocks of plain stone. 

WE have received the July issue of the Berks, 
and Oxon Archaeological Journal. The paper by Mr. 
J. Kirby Hedges on Wallingford Castle is of consider- 
able interest, although it is, we think, composed from 
information which has already seen the light in a printed 
form more thau once. Lady Russell contributes a por- 
tion of a paper on the life of Thomas Scot the regicide. 
We cannot pass an opinion upon it until we have seen 
the whole. The part before us is certainly very credit- 
able to its autbor. Scot well deserves an extended bio- 
graphy. The fires of the great seventeenth century 
conflagration still smoulder. It is not safe even now to 
express strong opinions regarding the characters of those 
who took a part in that great conflict. Whatever may 
be said, however, as to the rights or wrongs of those 
who fought for King or Commons, it is safe to affirm 
that Thomas Scot had the virtue of honesty, and that 
when the time of trial came, after the Restoration, he 
did not hide those opinions which he had uttered when 

his party was triumphant. The early Berkshire wills 
here given are of local interest. We wish the religious 
preambles had not been omitted. 

THE Reliquary and Illustrated Archceologist, July. 
(Bemrose.) The present issue of this handsomely illus- 
trated publication contains three important papers. The 
first in order, by Mr. Leader Scott, supplies an interest- 
ing account of the Roman thermae which have been 
recently discovered at Fiesole. Fiesole was an Etruscan 
city, which in after days was inhabited by Roman 
colonists. There had long been a tradition that the old 
city had possessed a batli, but proof of this has only 
recently come to light. The site is being excavated with 
great care by the authorities. Mr. Scott has given a 
sketch-plan, which, though not made from measurements, 
is, we doubt not, fairly accurate. We imagine there has 
not been as yet brought to light a more interesting speci- 
men of the kind in Europe. Mr. Elias Owen's paper on 
' Churchyard Games in Wales ' proves beyond question 
that football was played in some of the Welsh church- 
yards (on the north side) till quite modern times. The 
windows on the north side of the church were in some 
instances provided with shutters, to save them from the 
balls. It is believed that the shutters are now all gone, 
but there are, we gather, instances where the crooks 
remain. In England, at least as early as the fifteenth 
century, and we imagine much earlier, the ecclesiastical 
authorities forbade games in churchyards. Did this 
very sensible regulation extend into Wales? At 
Easterton, in the county of Elgin, a remarkable dis- 
covery of prehistoric remains has recently been made, 
which has been well described and illustrated by Mr. 
Hugh W. Young. A farmer ploughing turned up many 
human bones. When the place came to be examined 
many graves were found, as also arrow or spear heads, 
hammers, flint flakes, and other worked stones, of which 
illustrations are given. The most interesting discovery, 
however, was a stone, forming a portion of a cist, on one 
side of which was carved a comb, a mirror, and two 
crescent-like objects. On the other is a bird and a fish, 
most probably a goose and a salmon. If we may trust 
the engraving, and of that we see no reason for doubt, 
the sculpture is well executed. We shall wait with im- 
patience to know whether Scottish antiquaries regard 
these stones as being of as early an age as the flint and 
stone implements. 

itotijtts to mm$0nbmts. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address cf the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

M. (' Eikon Basilike '). The address is supplied in the 
first paragraph of the article. We have forwarded your 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8*8. VIII. Ana. 31, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENT S. N 192. 

NOTES: The Myres Macership John forster, 161 
Graham of Gartmore, 162-Bibliography of Sir W. Petty, 
163" Neither be ye of doubtful mind Dickens. Zola, 
and " Spontaneous Combustion," 165-Saye's Court, Dept- 
ford Roadnight " Knowledge is power Peter and 
Paul John Buckler, 166. 

QUERIES : The Duchess of Richmond " Lanky Man " 
Sunday Markets Sash Windows Mary Elizabeth Robin- 
sonBaptist Pamphlet O'Brien : De Bryan, 167 Lin- 
coln's Inn Channel Islands McDougall of LomeBears 
Wood Green Scott's 'Antiquary 'Lady Ralegh Leeds 
Family " Carrion Heath "Grace Curran Ball-playing 
in Churchyards, 168" Revolt" Dickinson Odd Volume 
Proposed New Houses of Parliament Callowhill The 
English Cardinals Authors Wanted, 169. 

REPLIES : Arms of See of Canterbury, 169 Sheep-stealer 
Hanged by a Sheep, 170-Buckland's ' Reliquiae Diluvianse 
St Mary Overie Valse, 171 Earl of Halifax Rev. J. 
Marriott Quarterstaff. 172 Breeding Stones Church 
Registers Tray, Name of a Dog, 173" Cold Pig ' pay- 
ing of Voltaire-Finger-Lilac-King's Evil, 174-" Taking 
a rise " Barthelemon's ' Morning Hymn, 175 Welling- 
ton on Napoleon Dalrymples, Earls of Stair Keble and 
The Christian Year,' 176 Charles I. at Little Giddmg 
Spider-wort Burial Custom Portrait of Dr. Richmond- 
Coincidences, 177 Heraldic " Link "' The Flowers of 
the Forest 'Burial of Sir John Moore Errors of Cata- 
loguingJesse Windows Witham, 178 "Running the 
gantlope," 179. 

NOTES OST BOOKS: Barclay's ' Stonehenge ' Robinson's 
' Old Q 'Howard's ' Armorial Book-plates.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


An ancient privilege has lately been exercised 
by the proprietor of the barony of Myres, parish 
of Auchtermuchty, in Fife, viz., that of appointing 
one of the four macers before the Scottish Lords of 
Council and Session. The history of this little bit 
of patronage, which originates from the first holder 
of the barony having been appointed macer and 
serjeant-at-arms to the kings of Scotland at Falk- 
land, is curious, and worth putting on record, 
especially now that, under the present disposition 
of the ancient barony, the connexion of the macer- 
ship with Myres may not improbably be lost sight 

James I. of Scotland, when a prisoner in Eng- 
land, had in attendance on him a young Englishman 
called Robert Coxwell, to whom he became attached, 
brought him back with him on his return to Scot- 
land, and, among other benefits, bestowed on him 
an estate in Fife, including what was afterwards 
known as the barony of Myres. Coxwell died in 
1453, and his widow, in the following year, married 
John Scrymgeour, who was some years later 
appointed macer (clavigerus) and serjeant-at-arms 
to James III., the charter of appointment specially 
alluding to the " faithful services done to the king's 
progenitor," and to the "lands of Auchtermuchty 
which he had for his fee." Scrymgeour's son John, 

master of works to James V., was confirmed in the 
possession of Myres, in acknowledgment of his 
"labours in the erection and reparation of the 
palaces and castles of Holyrood and Falkland," and 
also in his office of macer, to which he was granted 
leave to nominate any "able and convenient 
person " to act in his place, with the king's con- 
sent. James Scrymgeour of Myres (mentioned in 
the * Reg. of the Great Seal ' for 1608) was the 
last of the family ; and Myres afterwards passed 
successively into the hands of the Pattersons, 
Leslies, and Moncreiffs. Mr. Moncreiff Skene 
(died 1861) sold Myres to the late Mr. Bruce of 
Falkland. During these several changes in the 
occupancy of the barony the right of appointing 
the macer continued to be exercised, the last 
having been nominated by Mr. Bruce in 1883. In 
1887 the castle of Myres, including the " tower, 
fortalice, and mannor-house," which in the original 
deeds erecting Myres into a barony are described 
as the " principal messuage thereof," together with 
the adjoining policies, passed into the possession 
of Jamas Ogilvy Fairlie, the remainder of the lands 
of Myres being purchased by the Marquis of Bute. 
A vacancy having occurred in May, 1895, in the 
macership filled by the nominee of Mr. Bruce, one 
would have been inclined to expect that the 
privilege of patronage would have been exercised 
by the actual holder of the castle and manor, 
which continue, of course, to be known as Myres. 
The right, however, appears to have been claimed 
by Lord Bute, as the proprietor of the greater 
part of the barony lands ; and the appointment 
has consequently been made by him. 

Fort Augustus, N.8. 


Perhaps some of your readers may be able to 
give me information on a rather puzzling matter. 
I am anxious to ascertain precisely at what date 
John Forster became dramatic critic of the Ex- 
aminer. He was born in Newcastle, on April 2, 
1812, and spent his boyhood there. His bio- 
graphers state that he became dramatic critic of 
the True Sun in 1832, and that he began to write 
for the Examiner in 1833, but what class of articles 
he wrote is not specified. On June 8, 1834, there 
appears a mildly laudatory criticism of Macready's 
Lear, in which the writer observes: "We remem- 
ber well the majesty of John Kemble." On Sept. 7 
of the same year there appears a criticism con- 
taining the following sentence : " Mr. Kemble is 
represented (for we cannot speak with sufficient 
certainty from our own recollections) to have been 
a great ideal actor." A very severe criticism of 
Vandenhoff'a Brutus (in Howard Payne's play) 
appears on Nov. 16, and in this there occur several 
allusions to Kemble which clearly imply that the 
writer has seen him. Finally, on Dec. 14 of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. V th s. vm. AUG. 31, 

same year we find an attack on Vandenhoff's 
Othello and Denvil's lago, professedly written 
by the same critic who had formerly dealt with 
Vandenhoff, and containing a description of one 
of the fine touches in Kean's Othello, which is 
repeated almost word for word, a few months later, 
in a criticism indubitably written by Forster. I 
should conclude, then, that all these articles were 
by Forster, were it not that John Kemble made 
his last appearance on the stage when Forster was 
only five years and two months old (Covent Garden, 
June 23, 1817). 

This fact seems at first sight to prove that the 
articles alluding to Kemble cannot have been 
written by Forster ; yet they are quite in his style, 
and it is impossible to distinguish any break be- 
tween these doubtful articles and those which are 
certainly his. Then, again, the writer confesses 
that he cannot " speak with certainty " from his 
recollections of Kemble in other words, they 
dated from his boyhood. Was it possible, I asked 
myself, that Forster actually saw Kemble, and 
made the most, as a critic of twenty-two would 
be apt to do, of his juvenile impressions ? But 
Forstei's boyhood was passed in Newcastle ; could 
he possibly have seen him? Yes, he could. I 
found (as this train of reasoning had led me almost 
to expect) that Newcastle was probably the last 
provincial town which John Kemble visited. He 
played Coriolanus there on April 9 and 14, 1817, 
Penruddock on April 10, Brutus on April 11, 
and Lear on April 15, " being positively the last 
time of his ever performing on this stage." For- 
ster was five years old on the 2nd of this very 
April ; he was a precocious child, and it is certain 
that his attention was early directed to the theatre, 
for he was only fifteen when he wrote ' A Few 
Thoughts in Vindication of the Stage/ and he had 
a play produced in the following year. Does it 
not seem probable that his father, or the uncle who 
afterwards undertook the charge of his education, 
may have taken the child to one or more of these 
farewell performances of the great tragedian ? 
What the critic of 1834 professes to " remember 
well " is " the majesty of John Kemble," precisely 
what would impress itself on the memory of a 
child. And it is perhaps worth notice that this 
phrase occurs in an article on ' King Lear,' the 
part in which Kemble made his very last appear- 
ance on the Newcastle stage. 

Can any of your readers favour me with positive 
evidence in confirmation or refutation of my con- 
jecture? I hoped that Forster's own set of the 
Examiner (at South Kensington) might contain 
marks which should enable me to identify bis 
articles ; but nothing of the sort is to be found. Is 
there any marked set of the paper extant ? Or 
can any surviving friend of Forster's remember to 
have heard him speak of having, in his childhood, 
seen John Kemble ? WILLIAM ARCHER. 

Most genealogical works and books of reference 
mention Graham of Gartmore as heir male of the 
dormant earldom of Menteitb, which, however, he 
cannot in reality claim to be. The published 
pedigree of the family in no way bears out euch 
claim, and, apart from this deficiency, is manifestly 
false and misleading. It commences with "William 
Graham of Gartmore," claiming descent from "Sir 
John Graham of Kilbride, 'Sir John with the 
Bright Sword,' second son of Malise, Earl of 
Menteitb." To at once come to the poinf, the 
above-quoted William Graham was not " of Gart- 
more," and never had any connexion with Gartmore. 
The person meant was in reality of Duchray, and it 
here falls to be said that the Grahams of Duchray 
were not of the Mentieth Graham line, but a branch 
of the Grahams of Inchbrakie, cadet of Montrose. 
Montrose and Menteitb, the two noble divisions of 
the Graham name, are absolutely distinct. The 
Duchray family carried the coat of arms of Inch- 
brakie, introducing a crescent for difference, 
registering them so in the Lyon Office. The next 
person mentioned in the pedigree is William's son 
and heir, " John Graham of Gartmere," who, it is 
stated, had a sister married to the Hon. John 
Alexander, fourth son of William, first Earl of 
Stirling. This is a flagrant fiction, because it was 
from this very family of Alexander (who had in- 
herited it by marriage with a real Menteith Graham 
heiress), that John's son bought Gartmore in 1644. 
John, however, was truly John Graham of Polder, 
one of several sons (the others were Andrew, 
Walter, Thomas, and George) of the aforesaid 
William Graham of Duchray, erroneously desig- 
nated of Gartmore, none of whom excepting John- 
is mentioned in the pedigree. The brothers were 
outlawed in 1618 for murdering a Menteith 
Graham, to wit Jasper Graham of Blairceisnock, 
uncle of Patrick Graham of Blairquhoill, after- 
wards called Leitchtown. Bad blood was the pre- 
vailing feature between Duchray and the Menteith 
Grahams, a notable instance of which was when 
the former headed those who fought the Earl of 
Menteith on the bridge of Aberfoyle in 1671. 
One proof, and sufficient in itself, of the connexion 
between Duchray and Polder is found in the 
original renunciation by John Grahatn of Polder 
of any rights he or his father William Graham of 
Duchray had in the glebe lands of Aberfoyle. 
This document, bearing date March 21, 1625, is 
in the possession of the Duke of Montrose. John 
Graham of Polder, erroneously styled of Gartmore, 
had two sons, the elder of whom, William Graham 
of Polder, purchased Gartmore, as already stated, 
in 1644, from Charles Alexander, into whose hands 
the estate had come through the daughter and 
heiress of a great-grandson of the third Earl of 
Menteitb. On this slender connexion the trans- 
fer of a property the Grahams of Polder, descended 

a- s. vin. Aca. si, '95.] NOTES AND QUEK1ES. 


of Duchray, descended of Inchbrakie, descended 
of Montrose, set up a descent from the more 
ancient house of Meuteith with "Sir John with 
the Bright Sword" for a figure-head, ignoring 
the interval of 166 years which lay between the 
death of the actual John of Kilbride who it is 
proved left no son and the date of their pur- 
chase of Gartmore, excepting, of course, the period 
of the two names mentioned, these persons, it 
is shown, having been of Duchray and Polder 
respectively. William Graham of Polder, the 
purchaser of Gartmore, was created a baronet in 
K3G8, and married a sister of the last Earl of 
Menteith. Here was a connexion with Menteith ; 
but their only son, Sir John, second baronet, died 
unmarried in 1708, when that connexion was extin- 
guished. Sir William's nephew, Robert Graham 
of Gallangad, county Dumbarton (also, of course, 
d-escended from William Graham of Duchray), 
succeeded his cousin at Gartmore, and from him is 
descended the present representative, who for a con- 
nexion with the Menteith family falls back on 
John Graham of Kilbride, once supposed to have 
been " Sir John with the Bright Sword." It can 
be easily shown, however, how absurd it is to sup- 
pose any connexion between John of Eilbride and 
the euphemistically designated knight, presuming 
the latter to have existed in the flesh ; it is beyond 
dispute John of Kilbride could have left no legiti- 
mate male issue ; and it is proved that the first 
two persona named in the Gartmore pedigree were 
not " of Gartmore," but of Duchray and Polder 
respectively. There is, therefore, no need to com- 
ment on the discrepancies, the facts speak for 
themselves, enhanced in part by a study of the 
pedigree of the genuine Menteith Grahams of 
Gartmore, which is as follows : Robert Graham, 
third son of the third Earl of Menteith, acquired 
Gartmore from Walter Macaulay, 1554 ; William 
succeeded his uncle Robert, 1577; Robert suc- 
ceeded his father, William, 1606 ; Agnes suc- 
eeeded her father, the above Robert, 1634. She 
married John Alexander, a younger son of Wil- 
<liam, Earl of Stirling, and in 1636 disponed the 
lands of Gartmore to that earl. They afterwards 
passed into the hands of Charles Alexander, her 
brother-in-law, who sold them, in 1644, to William 
Graham of Polder, of the family of Duchray, who 
were not of the Menteith line. The price paid was 
13,300 merks Scots, and these lands never formed 
part of the territorial earldom. 

It is somewhat surprising that Mr. Cuningbame- 
Graham of Gartmore should publish, or allow 
himself to be published, as claiming to be heir- 
male to the dignity in question on the manifestly 
absurd pedigree just discussed. There is no con- 
nexion between the present family of Gartmore 
and the Grahams of Menteitb, although it has been 
sought for, the undoubted heir male being Mr. 
George Marshall Graham, titular of Leitchtown 

(now Blairhoyle), Port of Menteitb, whose ancestors 
since 1694 have been de jure Earls of Menteith. 

Some time ago, in advertising his estate for sale, 
Mr. Cuninghame-Graham described the farm of 
Arnbeg, in the pariah of Kippen and county of 
Stirling, "as anciently part of the territorial 
earldom of Menteith." This is a curious blunder. 
In the first place, the lands which were erected 
into the territorial earldom by charter of King 
James I., Sept. 6, 1427, were all in what at 
present forms Perthshire ; secondly, it is well 
known that on the death of the eighth and last 
Earl of Menteith, in 1694, the territorial lands 
of the earldom passed to the then Marquis of 
Montrose (whose descendant owns them now), 
as the result of a strange transaction in which 
King Charles II., the marquis, and the earl each 
played a remarkable part. These lands, of 
course, are specified in the original charter. 



PETTY (1623-1687). 

The following essay towards a bibliography of 
the printed writings of Sir William Petty is pub- 
lished now, partly because Lord Edmond Fitz- 
maurice's ' Life of Petty,' 1895, contains no such 
list, and Bevan's ' Petty : a Study,' 1894, contains 
a list so inaccurate that it is worse than none, 
partly because the compiler hopes, by publishing 
the titles already found, to secure for incorporation 
in a fuller bibliography of Petty those titles that 
have hitherto escaped. Limited space renders 
necessary the use of short titles. It is hoped, 
however, that title and imprint are in all cases full 
enough to render possible the identification of any 
edition. Editions no copy of which has been 
seen by the compiler are in the following list 
marked with an asterisk. Information as to the 
whereabouts of such editions, or any additions to 
this list or corrections of it, will be thankfully 

1. Double Writing. Broadside, folio. A prospectus 
beginning : " There ia invented an Instrument of small 
bulk and price," &c. Reprinted in part in III. 

II. A Declaration concerning the newly invented Art 
of Double Writing, wherein are expressed the Reasons 
of the Authors Proceedings in procuring a Priviledge for 
the same : as also the Time, Manner and Place of the 

Discovery of the said Art London, printed by R. L. 

for R.W., 1648. 1 1. , pp. 1-10, 4to. 

III. 1. The Advice of W. P. to Mr. Samuel Hartlib 
for the Advancement of some particular Parts of Learn- 
ing. London, printed Anno Dom. 1648. 3 11., pp. 1-26, 
4 to. 

2. Same. Reprinted in vol. vi., pp. 1-13, of ' Harleian 
Miscellany,' London, 1745, 4to. 

3. Same. Reprinted in vol. vi., pp. 1-14, of same, 
with notes by Park, London, 1810, 4to. 

IV. A Brief of Proceedings between Sr. Uierom 
Sankey and Dr. William Petty, with the State of the 
Controveraie between them, tendered to all indifferent 



Persons. London, Printed in the Year M.DC.L.IX. 2 11., 
pp. 1-8, folio. 

V. 1. Reflections upon some Persons and Things in 
Ireland by Letters to and from Dr. Petty : with Sir 
Hierome "Sankey's Speech in Parliament. London, 
Printed for John Martin, James Allestreye and Thomas 
Dicas, 1660. 1 1., pp. 1-142, 147-162, 159-185, 6 11., 8vo. 

2 Same. Dublin, printed by Zachariah Jackson for 
Grueber and M'Allister. 1790. Pp. i-xxiv, 1-187, 8vo. 

VI. 1. A Treatise of Taxes and Contributions, shewing 
the Nature and Measures of Crown-Lands, Assessment?, 

Customs, Coins, Housing, Liberty of Conscience, &c. 

The same being frequently applied to the present State 
and Affairs of Ireland. London, printed for N. Brooke 
at the Angel in Cornhill, 1662. 8 11., pp. 1-75, 1 1., 4to. 

2. Same. London, printed for Nath. Brooke at the 
Angel formerly in Cornhill, now in Gresham-College, 
1667. 8 11., pp. 1-72. 4to. 

3. Same to "Liberty of Conscience, &c." The same 
being frequently applied to the State and Affairs of 
Ireland, and is now thought seasonable for tbe present 
Affairs of England. London, Printed for Obadiah Bla- 
grave at the Sign of the Bear in St. Paul's Church- Yard, 
1679. 8 11., pp. 1-72, 4to. 

4. Same sheets issued with new (double-lined) title- 
page as : The Third [tie'] Edition. London, Blagrave, 
1685. 8 11., pp. 1-72, 4to. 

5. Same edition in "A Collection of three State Tracts : 
I. The Privileges and Practice of Parliaments. II. 

The Politician discovered III. A Treatise of Taxes 

and Contributions Written by Sir William Petty. 

London, Sold by 0. Blagrave at the Bear and Star in St. 
Paul's Church- Yard, 1690." Each tract has separate 
title-page, pagination, and signatures. Only the third, 
which is the 1685 ed. [VI. 4], was written by Petty. 

6. Same sheets again as : A Discourse of Taxes 

thought seasonable for tbe present Affairs of England ; 
humbly recommended to the present Parliament. Lon- 
don, Printed for Edward Poole, at the Ship, over against 
the Royal Exchange in Cornhill, 1689. 8 11., pp. 1-72, 

7. Also in XXVII. 

VII. 1. An Apparatus to the History of the common 
Practices of Dying. By Sir William Petty. At pp. 284- 
306 of " The History of the Royal Society of London. 
By Thomas Sprat. London, printed for J. Martyn and 
J. Allestry, MDCLXVII.," 4to. 

2. Also in same, second edition, London, printed for 
R. Scot, 1702, 4to. 

3. Also in same, third edition, London, printed for 
S. Chapman, MDCCXXII. 4to. 

4. Also in same, fourth edition, London, printed for 
J. Knapton, MDCCXXXIV , 4to. 

5. Also, in French, at pp. 346-374 of "L'histoire de la 
Societe [sic] Royale de Londres, escrite en Anglois par 
Thomas Sprat et trnduite en FranoU. A Geneve, pour 
I. H. Widerhold, M. DC. LXIX.," 4to. 

VIII. The Discourse made before the Royal Society 
the 26 November, 1674 concerning the Use of Duplicate 

Proportion By Sir William Petty London, printed 

for J. Martin, 1674. 16 11., pp. 1-135, 12mo. 

IX. Colloquium Davidis cum anima sua de magnalibus 
dei. 25 Martii 1678 fecit Cassid. Aureus Minvtive. 
Londini, impensis Thomse Burrell, M DC LXX ix. 1 1., 
pp. 1-6, folio. 

X. 1. *" Sir William Petty's Quantulurncunque con- 
cerning Money. 1682. 2 Sheets in 8vo." Title taken 
from " A complete Catalogue of all the Books lately 
printed concerning the Coin " which is appended to 
" Proposals for a National Bank. London, R. Cumberland. 
1697." McCulloch (' Lit. of Pol. Econ.,' p. 155) gives : 
" Quantulumcunque ; or a Tract concerning Money 

addressed to tbe Marquis of Halifax by Sir William 
Petty. 4to. (London) 1682." 

2. Same. Begins : Sir William Petty's Quantulum- 
cunque concerning Money, 1682. To tbe Lord Marquess 
ofHalyfax. Ends: London, printed in the Year 1695. 
No title-page, pp. 1-8, 4to. 

3. Same. Reprinted in vol. iv., pp. 73-7^, of Lord 
Somers's Tracts, London, 1748, 4to. 

4. Same. Reprinted in vol. viii., pp. 472-477, ofSomer?, 
second edition, London, 1812, 4to. 

5. Same. Reprinted at p. 32 seq. of " Observations 

relating to the Coin of Great Britain by J. Massie. 

London, Printed for T. Payne. MDCCLX." 4to. 

6. Same. Reprinted at p. 155 seq. of "A select Collec- 
tion of scarce and valuable Tracts on Money [edited by 

J. R. McCulloch] London : printed for the Political 

Economy Club. MDCCCLVI." 8vo. The title is there 
given as : 

77. *Sir William Petty his Quantulumcunque concern- 
ing Money. To the Lord Marquess of Halyfax, Anno 
1682. London : printed for A. and J. Churchill at th& 
Black Swan in Paternoster Row, 1695. Qy. Reprinted 
from a complete copy of X. 23 All I have seen (five 
copies) of X. 2 are without title-page. 

XI. England's Guide to Industry; or, Improvement 
of Trade for the Good of all People in general. Londoo, 
printed by R. Holt for T. Passinger at the three Bible* 
on London-Bridge, and B. Took at the Ship in St. Paul's- 
Church-Yard. 1683. 6 11., pp. 1-112, 12mo. This i 
the first issue undoubtedly made without Petty's con- 
sentof the 'Political Arithmetick' (No. XXI1L), the 
publication of which, according to Petty's son, Lord 
Shelburne, and to " all the bibliographers," as the 
second-hand catalogues put it, first occurred in 1690. 
The copies I have eeen are bound with the (spurious) 
fourth part of Chamberlayne's ' State of England': The 
fourth Part of the Present State of England, relating to 

its trade and commerce To which is likewise added 

England's Guide to Industry written by a Person of 

Quality. London, printed by R. Holt for William Whit- 
wood, 1683, 12mo. The address to the reader is signed : 
J. S. 

XII. 1. Observations upon the Dublin-Bills of Mor- 
tality, MDOLXXXI. and the State of that City. By the 
Observator on the London Bills of Mortality [who was 
John Graunt. But these Observations are by Petty]. 
London, printed for Mark Pardoe, 1683, 8vo. 1 1., pp. 1-8, 
2 11., 3 folded tables. 

2. Also in all editions of XX. 

XIII. Another Essay in Political Arithmetick con- 
cerning the Growth of the City of London, with tbe 
Measures, Periods, Causes, and Consequences thereof. 

1682. By Sir William Petty London, printed by 

H. H. for Mark Pardoe, 1683. Pp. 1-47, 8vo. Reprinted 
under the title given at XVI J. 

XIV. Experiments to be made relating to Land- 
Carriage, proposed by the learned Sir William Petty. 
In Philosophical Transaction?, vol. xiv. No. 161, pp. 666- 
667, 20 July, 1684. 

XV. Sme Queries whereby to examine mineral 
Waters, by the learned Sir William Petty. In same, 
vol. xv., No. 166, pp. 802-803, 20 Dec., 1684. 

XVI. A miscellaneous Catalogue of mean, vulgar, 
cheap, and simple Experiments, drawn up by Sir 
William Petty. In same, vol. xv., No. 167, pp. 849-853, 
28 Jan., 1685. 

XVII. 1. An Essay concerning the Multiplication of 
Mankind, together with another Essay [&o. as XIII.]. 

The second Edition. By Sir William Petty London, 

printed for Mark Pardoe, 1686. 1 1., pp. 1-50, 8vo. A 
reprint of XIII. with additional introductory matter 
and verbal alterations. 

8 :h S. VIII. AUG. 31, '95.] 


2. Same. Reprinted in " A Collection of the yearly 
Bills of Mortality from 1657 to 1758. London, printed 
for A. Millar, MDCCLIX," 4to. The editorship of this vol. 
is variously assigned to Dr. Birch and to the elder 
Heberden, cf. 'Encyclop. Brit.,' 7th ed., vol. xv. p. 515, 
and Dr. Ogle in 55 Jour, of the Statistical Society, 
p. 442, Sept. 1892. 

3-8. Also in XXVI. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and in XXVII. 

Ithaca, New York. 

( To le continued.) 

29). This is the reading of the A.V., with the 
alternative marginal rendering " live not in careful 
suspense." The K. V. has retained the text as it 
stands. But the Vulgate translates " et nolite in 
sublime tolli," and most of the earlier English 
versions give a similar rendering. Tyndale has 
" nether clyme ye vp an hye," and the Great 
Bible the same, whilst the Kheims rendering is 
quite similar, " and be not lifted up on high." 
The Greek word used by St. Luke is /TCt;pi'ecr0e. 
It occurs nowhere else in the New Testament, but 
repeatedly in the Septuagint, where it invariably 
means to be proud, lifted up, or exalted. But the 
interpretation is thought to be not acceptable, 
because the context is considered to require some 
word equivalent to being doubtful or distrustful. 
The Genevan version seems to be the first to act 
upon this view, and it renders the passage " nether 
let your myndes wander about these speculations," 
of which that in the Authorized and Revised 
Versions is evidently a modification. 

The chief reason for thinking that it was ad- 
missible to translate thus appears to have been 
because a sense of this kind was supposed to be 
found for the word in Polybius ; but this hardly 
bears out any such rendering. That author (xxiv. 
3, 6, and xxvi. 5, 4) uses the word to signify 
excite or lift up with hope ; and it seems to me 
that the fundamental meaning in v. 70, 10, to 
which reference has been made in the dictionaries, 
is not really very different. The passages in the 
Septuagint are quite clear. Thus in Mi cab iv. 1, 
" the mountain of the Lord's house shall be exalted 
(fieTewpivQ-rjcreTai} above the hills." In Obadiah, 
ver. 4, " Though thou mount on high (/wTewpto-flr/s) 
as the eagle." In Ezekiel x. 16, "when the cherubim 
lifted up their wings to mount up (/zercwpt'^ecrflai) 
from the earth." In Psalm cxxxi. [cxxx.] 1, 
" My heart is not haughty [better, lifted up, 
tytoOr)], nor mine eyes lofty" (better, exalted, 
e[ji:(T(opicr6-i](rav). Also 2 Maccabees vii. 34, 
" Be not lifted up without a cause " (pr) /X<XT?V 

Loesner (' Observations ad Novum Testa- 
mentum e Philone Alexandrine') cites in loco 
several passages from Philo, in some of which this 
word seems to have a meaning similar to that 
which it often does in Polybius, i. e., to be excited, 

lifted up, or carried away by hopes or desires. 
But I cannot find that in any place it has the mean- 
ing attributed to it in the Genevan or in the A.V. 
(still less in the margin of this) and E.V. of 
Luke xii. 29. Nor do I see why the context 
requires this signification. May not the clause be 
a caution against pride or stoical contempt ? The 
next verse states that the nations generally seek 
greedily and anxiously after these things ; let youc 
desires be moderate, trusting for such a supply as 
your Father sees to be best for you. 

W. T. LTNK. 

BUSTION." When, in ' Bleak House,' Dickenc 
described the death of Krook from "spontaneous 
combustion," much discussion, initiated by George 
Henry Lewes, arose concerning the possibility of 
such an event. The novelist held to his guns, and 
when the work was repnbliahed in volume forna 
he said in the preface : 

" I have no need to observe that I do not wilfully or 
negligently mislead my readers, and that before I wrote 
that description I took pains to investigate the subject 
There are about thirty cases on record, of which the 
most famous, that of the Countess Cornelia de Bandi 
Cesenate, was minutely investigated and described by 
Giuseppe Bianchini, a prebendary of Verona, otherwise 
distinguished in letters, who published an account of it 
at Verona, in 1731, which he afterwards republished at 
Rome. The appearances beyond all rational doubt 
observed in that case, are the appearances observed ia 
Mr. Krook's case." 

Dickens, however, did not mention that, long 
before he wrote, a description of this Italian in- 
cident had been given in English, in an " Extract 
of a Letter from Verona, on a Surprizing Accident 
which befel a Woman atCesena, a City of Romagna," 
which was published in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for November, 1736 (vol. vi. pp. 647-8). The 
date of death is therein put at March 14, 1731 ; 
and, though no names are furnished, there are 
similar loathsome details to those given by Dickens, 
though the explanation of the " spontaneous com- 
bustion " is not a thorough soaking of the system 
by intoxicating liquors, as in the case of Krook, 
but because the victim " had been used to wask 
and rub herself every Day with Spirit of Camphire, 
to prevent Colds and Coughs." 

M. Zola, however, in * Dr. Pascal,' has used th 
details of the incident of 1731 with even more 
completeness than Dickens, while following the 
example of the English author in attributing the 
cause to over-indulgence in drink. As is his 
custom, M. Zola does not spare a single nauseating 
touch ; and those who care to study the nintfa 
chapter of 'Dr. Pascal,' in which the death of 
Macquart is described, will find with what marked 
closeness he has adopted the details of a loathsome 
narrative, first read by English folk in 1736. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. A. 31, 

SAYE'S COURT, DEPTFORD. For the benefit ol 
future writers it may be worth recording the latest 
phase of this historic site. When Mr. Leslie 
Stephen was writing his life of John Evelyn, he 
wrote to an esteemed friend of mine (since deceased] 
asking for particulars as to the then actual state ol 
the grounds, which have undergone two alterations 
since then. The first garden was done away with 
about ten years ago, and a running track made 
round a field for cricket and football, with a small 
reserved garden under the management of the 
Kyrle Society. For reasons unnecessary to specify, 
the paddock, racing-track, and cricket-field were 
abolished in December, 1894, and the whole of the 
grounds laid out as a recreation ground, and the 
old manor house renovated, the gates being thrown 
open to the public on Monday the 12th inst. 
Visitors must be warned against looking on the 
" manor house " with veneration, so far as anti- 
quity is concerned, the present building dating 
only from 1820, and having undergone various 
repairs, till possibly not a brick or a stone of the 
original structure remains. In the hall in the 
grounds are a few choice pictures. ATEAHR. 

ROADNIGHT. Under the heading ' Coinci- 
dences '(ante, p. 124), the question is raised as 
to the etymology of the surname Koadnight. The 
answer is simple enough ; it certainly stands for 
"Koad-knight"; A.-S. radcniht. It does not, 
however, answer, in sense, to the Modern English 
"knight of the road." The A.-S. rdd was used 
with reference to riding, and cniht meant servant. 
So that radcniht was a riding retainer, a servant 
on horseback. The Mod. E. road was originally 
" a path for riding," as distinguished from a foot- 

" KNOWLEDGE is POWER." (See c Lincoln's Inn 
Fields,' ante, p. 44.) It is to me a matter of 
astonishment that an intellectual man can be 
found to denounce the above aphorism as mere 
claptrap. The difference between the flint-imple- 
ment primitive man and MR. WARD is due 
entirely to the beneficent growth of knowledge, 
which is a power that has enabled man to under- 
stand the operations, and partly to predict and 
control the forces, of nature. Unless MR. WARD 
includes Bacon's works in his contempt for all 
science, he might have known that the illustrious 
author does not put forth the above truism as a 
detached aphorism, for it comes in naturally in a 
sentence together with other words, in one of his 
minor works. MR. WARD'S illustration about the 
man in prison is a descent from his usual intellec- 
tual style. " A man in prison knows it is better to 
be free, but that knowledge alone will never get him 
out of it. Then, my lord, where is the power?" 
Surely MR. WARD will not defend such nonsense 

as this. C. TOMLINSON. 


PETER AND PAUL. (See 8 th S. viii. 75.) It is 
not my intention to meddle with this controversy 
on 'Patron Saints of Churches' further than to 
quote writers so far apart as Spurgeon and the 
author of the ' Golden Legend': 

" Ordained to be the apoatle of the uncircumsision, 
he proclaimed in the utmost ends of the earth the name 
of Jesus Christ. The apostle, moreover, as a writer 
takes the highest place in the Christian canon. It 
pleased God to select this most remarkable man to be 
the medium of inspiration by whose writings we should 
receive the most thorough and complete exhibition of 
the gospel of the grace of God. Turn to the New Testa- 
ment, and see with astonishment how large a space is 

occupied by his letters He not only directed the 

energy of the Christian Church of his own day, but 
shaped its mode of action, and in addition so toned the 
thought of the Christian world, that to this moment I 
suppose he exercise?, under God, a greater influence over 

the theology of Christendom than any other man 

heading a line of teachers among whom Auguatine and 
Calvin stand conspicuous." Spurgeon's ' Serm-jns,' 1870, 
p. 433. 

" Taken as a man, and a minister of Christ, he [Paul] 
was greater than any of the twelve ; taken as an apostle 
he was lesa than any of the twelve, because not originally 
in that body." Dr. A. Clarke's ' Com.,' 1 Cor. xv. 9. 

"The Epistles of Peter, John, James, and Jude are 
great and excellent ; but, when compared with those of 
Paul, they have no glory comparatively, by reason of the 
glory which excelleth. Next to Jesus Christ, St. Paul 
is the elory of the Christian Church: Jesus is the founda- 
tion ; Paul, the master-builder." Ibid., Acts xxii. 21. 

"St. Paul, who was the only learned amongst the 
Apostles, had hii pen most used in the Scriptures of the 
New Testament." Bacon's ' Advancement of Learning ' 
(1861), p. 61. 

" Paul breathed the atmosphere of heaven above all 
men on earth." Robertson's ' Sermons,' vol. iii. p. 211. 

" In some place it is sayd that poule is lasse than peter. 
Other whyle more : & Bomtyme egall & lyke, for in 
dignitie he is lesse. In prechynge greter and in hclynes 
they ben egal." ' Golden Legend,' 1512, f. 166 v. 

Will any one deny that the writings of St. Paul 
have had a greater influence over the theology of 
Christendom than those of St. Peter? MR. 
HENDERSON has expressed himself rather un- 
guardedly ; he should remember that we are, 
Anglicans and Romanists, all members of the 
" Catholic " Church, which is supposed not to be in 
rivalry and contention with any but heretics and 
schismatics. But I nearly agree with MR. HEN- 
DKRSON, for all that. 11. B. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

JOHN BUCKLER, F.S.A. (1770-1851), TOPO- 
GRAPHICAL ARTIST. John Buckler, son of Edward 
Buckler (born 1741, died 1792), and Hannah, his 
wife (born 1746, died 1804), daughter of Wm. 
Jacob, was born at Calbourne, Isle of Wight, 
Nov. 30, 1770. He married, Aug. 21, 1791, in 
;he parish church of Bermondsey, co. Surrey, 
Anne, eldest daughter and coheir of John and 
Mary Chessell. She was born Oct. 13, 1769, and 
died Sept. 21, 1847. Mr. Buckler, who died 
Dec. 6, 1851, aged eighty-one, lies buried with his 

8ths.viiLAuG.3V95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


wife in Newington Churchyard. (' Monumeuta 
Inscriptions in the Old Churchyard of St. Mary 
Newington, Surrey,' ed. Robert Hovenden, pt. i. 
1880, p. 38.) DANIEL HIPWELL. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix the! 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Madame d'Aulnoy's ' Memoires de la Cour 
d'Angleterre ' (edit. La Haye, 1695) the other day, 
I came across the following passage (vol. ii. p. 68) 

" Monsieur Porter ayant trouv6 le Portrait en 

rnignature de la Duchesse de Richemont ; ou elle 
e"tait peinte, toute de sa grandeur et vetue en 
homme, cornme elle est en plusieurs endroits a 
Withal [Whitehall]." The duchess here referred to 
was Lady Mary Villiers, daughter of the celebrated 
" Steenie," first Duke of Buckingham, and married 
first to Charles, Lord Herbert, secondly to the 
Duke of Richmond and Lennox, and thirdly to 
Mr. T. Howard, brother of Charles, Earl of Carlisle. 
I should be greatly indebted to any of your corre- 
spondents who could inform me if any of the 
portraits so described by Madame d'Aulnoy still 
exist, and, if so, where. Also if anything is known 
of her portrait as a little girl by Balthasar Gerbier, 
which he mentions in a letter to her father (to 
whom he was painter in ordinary and a species of 
artistic comptroller) in the following words : " The 
little lady has been painted in great haste ; the 
hands, which crave a blessing from your Excellency, 
are merely outlined." 

48, Charles Street, Berkeley Square. 

"LANE? MAN." What is known as "the 
Lanky Man," a figure said to be 240 feet high, cut 
in the turf on Wilmington, attracts a good deal of 
attention from travellers. A similar figure is at 
Cerne Abbas. A good deal has been said and 
written about the White Horses. Are any trust- 
worthy particulars obtainable as to these figures, 
which appear to be no less curious 1 H. T. 

SDNDAT MARKETS. By a grant from Henry I, 
a market was held at Battle on every Lord's Day. 
This market was continued until early in the 
seventeenth century, when, through the interven- 
tion of Antony, Viscount Montague, the market- 
day was changed to Thursday. This market has 
long fallen into disuse. Assuming this informa- 
tion, which I gather from the ' Sussex Directory,' 
to be trustworthy, I would ask whether Sunday 
markets were a frequent institution in pre-Refor- 
mation times ; and, if 30, whether they were all 
abolished at about the same date. I am unable 

to ascertain the year in which Viscount Montague 
is said to have caused Sunday marketing to be 
suppressed at Battle. HENRY ATTWELL. 


SASH WINDOW. Can any one give me the date 
of the invention of the sash window ? W. 

[Sash windows are mentioned by Swift.] 

Robinson ("Perdita"), wrote 'The Shrine of 
Bertha,' a novel, 1794, 2 vols. ; ' The Wild Wreath,' 
8vo. 1805. Is the date of her death known? 
Are biographical particulars to be obtained ? 


BAPTIST PAMPHLET. About the year 1674 
there was a controversy carried on between the 
Baptist "apostle" Matthew Caffyn and Richard 
Haines, both of whom belonged to the Baptist 
congregation of Southwater, near Horsham, Sussex. 
Richard Haines had been excommunicated for 
taking out a patent. He appeals against this in a 
pamphlet called ' New Lords, New Laws ; or, a 
Discovery of a Grand Usurpation.' Matthew 
CafFyn answered this by a pamphlet entitled 
' Envy's Bitterness corrected with the Rod of 
Shame.' These two pamphlets I have been unable 
to discover elsewhere than in the Bodleian, which 
possesses a single copy of each. That library also 
contains a second answer by Matthew Caffyn, 
called ' A Raging Wave foaming out its own 
Shame,' which refers to, and is an answer to, a 
second pamphlet of Richard Haines's, entitled ' A 
Protestation against Usurpation.' This work I 
have been unable to discover either at the British 
Museum or the Bodleian. I should feel very 
grateful to any one who could direct me to a 
library where the missing tract is likely to be 
mind. Is there any central Baptist hall or organ- 
zation possessing ancient records relating to their 
persuasion ? There is in the British Museum a 
:opy of Richard Haines's final appeal to the 
jeueral Assembly of Baptists in London, which 
ippeal was successful in getting his excommunica- 
ion reversed. C. R. HAINES. 


O'BRIEN : DE BRYAN. Were the O'Briens 
lescended from the Counts of Brionne, or Brienne, 

of Normandy, and nicknamed Brien Borhoilm 
Brown Bear) by the Keltic population ? Sir Guy de 
Sryan bore Or, three piles in point azure ; O'Brien 
he same, with tinctures altered, viz., Arg., three 
)iles in point gules. The Counts of Brionne 
escended from Richard I., Duke of Normandy. 
ts ancestor was Robert de Tonbridge, fifth son of 
lichard Fitz-Gilbert, son of Gilbert, Count of 
Jrion, in Normandy (vide Gilbert de Clare, of 

~embroke?). His son, Walter Fitz-Robert, was 
he progenitor of the house of Fitz- Walter (vide 
arony of Baynards, co. Essex). Robert Fitz- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. vm. AUG. si, -95. 

Gilbert married Margaret de Bohun. Branches 
ef the Brions of Normandy bore the arms of Beau- 
mont, viz., Seme"e of billets, a lion rampant, being 
viscounts of that town. T. WALTER CARET. 

LINCOLN'S INN. In the obituary notice of Lord 
Cranworth which appeared in the Law Times for 
Aug. 1, 1868, is the following passage : " Among 
legal circles his memory will be associated most 
intimately, perhaps, in future years with the 
removal of the sittings of the Equity Courts from 
Westminster to Lincoln's Inn." I should be glad 
to know the exact date of this removal. 

G. F. E. B. 

THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. Can any reader in- 
form me if there exists printed matter referring 
to the patois of the Channel Islands? I have 
lately acquired a certain amount of knowledge of 
their peculiar nomenclature, and have been much 
struck by the fact that surnames have generally 
two, and often three, different pronunciations, as 
they are sounded (1) a la Parisienne, as in the 
same Mauger ; (2) Anglicized, in which case the 
name just quoted would appear as Major ; (3) 
According to the rules of the patois itself, when 
the name I have used for an illustration would 
have its diphthong sounded as in Italian. I notice 
many letters are silent, as, for example, the final 
I in names like Tourtel, Touzel, Brusnel, and the 
s in Crespigny, Tostevin, Duchesne, Dumaresq, 
and others. The last mentioned is, however, still 
more aristocratic when pronounced as if it were 
spelt like the French Du Marais. Names like 
Le Fevre and Le Lievre are pronounced as if their 
second parts were the English Fever, Lever. 


MAcDotroALL OP LoRNE. Gregory, in his 
' History of the Western Highlands and Islands/ 
p. 63, states : 

" Among those Scots, who during the fifteenth century 
married daughters of the family (of the clan Ian Vohr, 
'. ., Macdonnell of Isla and the Glynnes) we find Roderick 
MacAlan of Moydert, MacDougall of Lome, and Banna- 
tyne of Kaimes." 

Could any of your readers give me, or tell me 
where I could find, the marriage of the Mac- 
Boagall above mentioned, or of his immediate 
ancestors or descendants, with the Christian names 
of the parties referred to 1 J. G. 

BEARS WOOD GREEN. In the days before 
railways there was a place called Bears Wood 
Green, a few miles to the east of Hatfield, in 
South Yorkshire. There was an inn there where 
folk from the western parts of Lincolnshire were 
wont to bait their horses when they went to the 
markets or fairs at Doncaster. I have been asked 
more than once how this place came by the name 
k bears, and have been driven to the humiliating 
confession that I did not know. Will some one 

wiser than I am explain the matter ? It is said, 
[ know not on what authority, that there have 
been no bears in England since the eleventh cen- 
tury. K. P. D. E. 

SCOTT'S 'ANTIQUARY.' Is it not probable that 
by the alchemist whom Mr. Dousterswivel (in his 
Last interview with Sir Arthur Wardour) calls 
Pelaso de Taranto he intends Valescus de Taranta, 
a list of whose works is catalogued in the British 
Museum Library, and who is mentioned in Pierre 
Borel's 'Bibliotheca Chimica,' vol. iii., Paris, 
1654? M. C. HALLEY. 

LADY EALEOH. She survived her husband, 
Sir Walter Ealegh, several years. Is it known 
where her remains were interred ? 


Salterton, Devon. 

LEEDS FAMILY. I shall be obliged by any 
clue to the English location of Thos. Leeds, 1619 
sons Daniel and William who emigrated about 
1670 to Maryland or Virginia. Daniel published 
an almanac, 1686 (copy in British Museum). He 
was a Friend, but turned Episcopal later on, and 
was surveyor to West New Jersey. Supposed 
arms : Argent, a fesae gules, three eagles displayed 
sable. A. C. H. 

" CARRION HEATH." I have lately acquired a 
small historical work, entitled "England's Chro- 
nicle ; or, the Lives and Eeigns of the Kings and 
Queens from the time of Julius Ceesar to the 
present Eeign of K. William and Q. Mary, &c., 
by J[ames] Heath ; London, 1689." Inside the 
cover of the volume is a small printed slip, presum- 
ably from a bookseller's catalogue, bearing the 
inscription : " ' Carrion Heath.' Carlyle." When 
and where did Carlyle refer to the author by this 
name ; and why "Carrion "? I should be glad to 
have an opinion as to the value of the work. My 
copy, from the title-page, purports to contain 
" copper cuts and whatever else is conduceable to 
the illustration of history"; but, as a previous 
possessor of the volume has inscribed in pencil 
within the covers of the book, there are "no 
' copper cuts' or ' whatever else.' " 

C. P. HALE. 

GRACE CURRAN. Perhaps some reader of 
' N. & Q.' will be able to tell me what became of 
this lady the daughter of John Phillpott Curran, 
the fiancee of Eobert Emmett, and the heroine of 
Moore's poem, "She is far from the land." 



of 'Somerset: Highways, Byway?, and Waterways,' 
by C. E. B. Barrett, which appeared in the Edin- 
lurgh Review, April, the custom of playing 

vin. ACO. si, -a*.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


fives in churchyards receives mention. Was thi 
practice formerly known in Northern and Eastern 
England ? And are sports specially connected with 
a sacred building or a burial-ground supposed to be 
of any great antiquity ? Has it not been assertec 
that ball games were connected with sun-worship 
in pre-Christian France 1 A. C. 

" REVOLT." Can revolt be properly a verb 
transitive 1 I frequently have noticed that it is 
so used of late ; the last time I saw it was in a 
leading article in the Times the other day, which 
revolted my sense of propriety. 


DICKINSON. Can any of your readers give 
me information concerning Edward Dickinson, a 
"" servant " of James I., and father of the wife of 
Richard Sterne, Archbishop of York ? 

A. E. K. 

ODD VOLUME. Can any one tell me where to 
seek for vol. xiii. of the ' Imperial Dictionary of 
Universal Biography,' Glasgow, W. Mackenzie ? 



1733. I take the following from the Gentleman's 
Magazine of 1733 : 

" The Earl of Burlington has projected a Plan for 
building two new Houses of Parliament, and a Public 
Library between them, to be finish'd against next 
Session, and to cost the Public about 30.000Z." Gentle- 
man's Magazine, vol. iii. p. 156. 

Is there any detailed description of this plan in 
existence ; or is aught known concerning it ? 


CALLOWHILL. Can any of your correspondents 
help me to trace the arms and pedigree of this 
family 1 Hannah Callowhil), of Bristol, was the 
second wife of William Penn, of Pennsylvania. 


THE ENGLISH CARDINALS. Can any reader of 
* N. & Q.' give me a complete list (with the dates) 
of Englishmen who have been created cardinals, 
from Nicholas Brakespeare the English Pope 
<iown to the present time ? 

105, Guilford Street, W.G. 

Consider, Man, how great thou art; 
Thy will is thy Redeemer. 
Wein, Wein, und Geaang. 

Stood amazed, 
In doubt to deem himself a god or beast. 


Dropping buckets into empty well?, 
And growing old in drawing nothing up. 

[Cowper, ' The Ta?k,' bk. iii.] 

(8 th S. viii. 128.) 

MEDESWELL will find that the arms are not 
peculiar to Canterbury, but are borne alike by the 
archbishops of Armagh and Dublin, and being 
merely charged with the insignia of an archbishop, 
may surely be appropriately borne by Cardinal 
Vaughan or any archbishop in Christendom. I 
have an impression of the cardinal's ex-libris plate, 
which, saving certain tinctures not represented 
thereon, may be blazoned thus : Gules, a staff in 
pale and thereon a cross botone"e, surmounted of a 
pall charged by four crosses patee sable, conjoined 
with the arms of his family, viz., Vaughan of 
Courtfield. The shield surmounts a patriarchal 
cross and over all a cardinal's hat. The motto 
(not that of his family) is " Amare et servire." It 
will be noticed that the arms differ considerably 
from those of Canterbury, Armagh, &c., in that the 
field is gules (emblematical, I am informed, of the 
blood of the martyrs), and not azure ; the cross is 
botonee, not patee ; and the crosses on the pall are 
patee, and not pate'e fitchee as in the arms of 

According to Fox Davies, ' Armorial Families,' 
p. 994, the arms described by your correspondent 
as those " of the See of Canterbury " have been 
recently "assigned by a warrant from His Holi- 
ness the Pope to the Roman Catholic archbishopric 
of Westminster." Without touching on the ques- 
tion as to whether this grant has been confirmed 
by the Duke of Norfolk in his official capacity as 
Earl Marshal, I should like to point out that there 
s no reason for styling these the " arms of Canter- 
jury," any more than those of any other of the 
archiepiscopal sees of the United Kingdom, 
Dublin, Armagh, or (pre-Reformation) York. All 
,hese bear the crozier surmounted by a pall on a 
ield azure. The newly assumed arms of West- 
minster are, therefore, simply those of a British 
archbishopric, with the marked difference of a 
ield gules instead of azure. A much greater 
anomaly, and one which I have never seen ex- 
gained, is the assumption by the present Arch- 
)ishop of Canterbury on his private seal, as figured 
jy Burke, &c., of the mitre of Durham encircled 
>y a ducal coronet. It would be interesting to 
Enow whether, and why, his grace claims the 
)alatinate jurisdiction of which the Durham mitre 
s the symbol. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

The Earl Marshal has not issued, and could not 
ssue, his warrant for arms to be granted to the 
Roman Catholic See of Westminster. The arms as 
nowused by Cardinal Vaughan were granted recently 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. TIII. A, si, -w. 

by the Pope. Of course any statement as to arms 
of a see of the Church of England having been 
granted to a Roman Catholic see is absurd on the 
face of it. A. 

There has been no appropriation of the arms of 
the See of Canterbury by Cardinal Vaughan, as 
may be seen at a glance by comparing the two 
coats. Not only is the colour of the field different, 
but the pall of Canterbury is blazoned argent, 
edged and fringed or with crosses formee-fitchee, 
whereas that of Cardinal Vaughan is a pall proper 
with crosses patee only. On the other hand, it 
would appear that in the present seal of Arch- 
bishop Benson he has deliberately appropriated 
the peculiar mitre with the ducal coronet ex- 
clusively appertaining to the Bishop of Durham, 
and shows an unauthenticated coat for Benson, 
which seems strange, as pointed out by Mr. Fox- 
Davies in his 'Armorial Families.' In the 'Ar- 
morial de Gelre,' 1334-69, the Durham mitre is 
represented as issuing out of a ducal coronet; 
and Mr. St. John Hope, assistant secretary S.A., 
in his valuable paper on the 'Seals of English 
Bishops,' Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London, 1887, xi. p. 271, points out that through- 
out the whole series of seals and monuments, from 
the Norman Conquest to the Reformation, the 
archiepiscopal mitre differs in no way from that of 
an ordinary bishop. 


viii. 106). See Whitney's 'Emblems,' 1586 : 
When silent nighte, did scepter take in hande, 
And dim'de the daie, with shade of mantle blacke, 
What time the theeues in priuie corners stande, 
And haue noe dowte, to robbe for what they lacke : 
A greedie theefe, in shambles broke a shoppe, 
And Hide a sacke, with fleshe vp to the toppe. 
Which done, with speede he lifted vp the sacke, 
And both the endes, aboute his necke he knittes, 
And ranne awaie, with burden on his backe 
Till afterwardes, as bee at alehowse sittes : 
The heauie loade, did weye so harde behinde, 
That whiles he slept, the weighte did stoppe his winde. 
Which truelie showes, to them that doe offende, 
Althowghe a while, they scape theire iust desertes, 
Yet punishment, dothe at theire backes attende, 
And plagues them hoame, when they haue meriest hartes- 
And thoughe longe time, they doe escape the pikes, 
Yet soone, or late, the Lorde in iustice strikes. P. 41. 
These verses have a woodcut at top, wherein is 
represented the man with his head held back over 
the top of the seat, and being throttled by the 
weight of the burden which hangs down the other 
side. But this is not a ' sacke," as stated in the 
verses, but the hinder quarters of a sheep, with the 
tail, quite distinct. The legs are over his shoulders 
and round his throat. The woodcut thus differing 
from the text shows that the artist was acquainted 
with a version_ something like that which yet sur- 

vives. Whitney's 'Emblems' are full of old 
saying?, proverbs, fables, and folk-lore, and in this 
instance he was doubtless referring to a well-known 
legend or apologue. R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

If MR. PEACOCK will refer to ' The Autocrat at 
the Breakfast Table,' he will find, amongst other 
items for breakfast xii. : 

"You remember the monument in Devizes market to 
the woman struck dead with a lie in her mouth. I never 
saw that, but it is in the books. Here is one I never 
heard mentioned. If any of the ' Note-and-Query ' tribe 
can tell the story, I hope they will. Where is thia 
monument 1 I was riding on an English stage coach 
when we passed a handsome marble column (so I remem- 
ber it) of considerable size and pretensions. 'What is 
that?' 1 said. ' That,' answered the coachman, 'is the 
hangman's pillar.' Then he told me how a man went out 
one night many years ago to steal eheep. He caught one, 
tied its legs together, passed the rope over his head, and 
started for home. In climbing a fence the rope slipped, 
caught him by the neck, and strangled him. Nexc 
morning he was found hanging dead on one side of the 
fence and the sheep on the other ; in memory whereof 
the lord of the manor caused this monument to be 
erected as a warning to all who love mutton better than 
virtue. I will send a copy of this record to him or her 
who shall first set me right about this column and its 

Not far from Bird well, on the high road from 
Barnsley to Sheffield, is a pillar answering to this 
story. At any rate, when Thomas Lister, of Barns- 
ley (died March 25, 1888), the poet and naturalist,, 
went to Canada in 1884, to attend the meeting of 
the British Association amongst other things, he 
paid Oliver Wendell Holmes a visit, related to him 
this story, and was presented with the volume by 
the author as promised in the above extract. 

E. G. B. 

A somewhat similar story is told of a sheep- 
stealer who sat down to rest against a large upright 
stone on Lambro Moor (then unenclosed), near 
Haverfordwest. The man fell asleep, and the sheep, 
wandering round the stone to the length of its cord, 
strangled him. The stone is there to this day to 
testify, and is called Hang Stone Davy. H. 0. 

In July, 1849, 1 was sent into Devonshire unde? 
the care of a holiday tutor. After staying a week 
at Lynmonth, it was settled that we should go on 
to Ilfracombe. Accordingly my tutor hired a small 
donkey cart to take the luggage, and we set off for 
Ilfracombe by the then almost unfrequented coast 
road through the Valley of Rocks and past Hed- 
don's Mouth. By-and-by we came to a very steep 
hill, and, on asking the boy who drove the cart, 
were told that it was known by the name of Hang- 
man's Hill. He added that the name was due 
to a sheep-stealer, who stole a sheep, and, having 
fastened the two forelegs together, put his head 
into the loop so formed, and proceeded to climb 
the hill. He just managed to reach the top ; but 
on preparing to descend his foot tripped, and, as 

8* s. viii. A, si, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the boy put it, be went one way and tbe sbeep the 
other. The latter then swung round with such a 
momentum that " the sheep chucked [i. e., choked] 
the man." Hence the name Hangman's Hill. 

0. W. PENNY. 

A somewhat similar story is related of an event 
which occurred in bygone days at Charlton Hore- 
thorne, in Somersetshire. On the borders of that 
parish stands a stone, apparently placed there to 
mark the boundary between Charlton Horethorne 
and Milborne Port, before the surrounding lands 
were enclosed. It is called the "Wether Stone," 
and gives its name to the fields adjoining. Tra- 
dition says it was so named from the following 
circumstance. A man having stolen a wether 
sheep, and fastened it on his shoulders by a rope, 
sat on this stone to rest ; the animal, either by its 
weight, or if alive by its struggles, pulled him 
backwards, and being unable to extricate himself, 
he was strangled, and when found was dead. 


Mere Down, Wiltshire. 

A legend like that related by MR. PEACOCK is 
attached to a gate known as " Gollowsgate," near 
the village of Marldon, about three miles from 
Torquay. The age of the story is unknown, but 
it is certainly much older than the memory of any 
person now living. A. J. DAVY. 


vii. 28, 75, 136, 238 ; viii. 114). Neither of your 
correspondents who have quoted the two lines 
given as a foot-note in Daubeny's ' Fugitive Poems ' 
appears to have noticed that as they stand in that 
work they are totally pointless and without mean- 
ing. They have doubtless been put there by the 
editor of that work, for I cannot believe that 
Daubeny himself would have so misquoted them. 
The true reading will be found in ' The Pursuits 
of Literature,' p. 98 (thirteenth edition, 1805) : 
Archdeacons, rats, and such small deer 
Have been Dick's food for many a year. 

The allusions are so well known as scarcely to need 
explanation, viz., to Archdeacon Travis and 
Richard Person. FRED. NOROATE. 

[See King Lear,' III. iv. 144.] 

ST. MARY OVERIB (8 th S. viii. 68, 115). A very 
interesting reference to this church is to be found 
in that unique volume entitled ' Chronicles of 
London Bridge by an Antiquary ' (Richard Thom- 
son), London, 1827, pp. 33-45. The author says : 

" Let me remark now, before I quit the history of St. 
Mary Overies that there is yet extant there, a monu- 
mental effigy conveying the strongest lesson of a man's 
mortality ; it being the resemblance of a body in that 
state when corruption is beginning its great triumph. 
Prating Vergers and Sextons commonly tell you, that the 
persons whom these figures represent, endeavoured to 

fast the whole of Lent, in imitation of the great Christian 
pattern, and that, dying in the act, they were reduced to 
such a cadaverous appearance at their decease. There- 
has, however, been a new legend invented for this sculp- 
ture, as it is commonly reported to be that of Audery r 
the Ferryman, father of the founder of St. Mary Overies. 
It was formerly placed on the ground, under the north' 
window of the Bishop's Court, which, before the present 
repairs, stood at the north-east corner of the chapel of 
the Virgin Mary. Where it will be removed to here- 
after, time only can unfold, for, as yet, even the church- 
wardens themselves know not. 

" In speaking of this person's tomb, I must not, how- 
ever, omit to notice, that there ia a singularly curious 
although, probably, fabulous tract of thirty pages, of his 
life, tbe title of which I shall give you at length : ' The 
True History of the Life and sudden Death of old John 
Overs, the rich Ferry-Man of London, shewing, how he 
lost his life by his own covetousness. And of his daughter 
Mary, who caused the Church of St. Mary Overs in 
Southwark to be built ; and of the building of London 
Bridge.' There are two editions of this book, the first 
of which was published in 12mo., in 1637, and a reprint 
of it in 8vo., which, though it be shorn of the wood- 
cuts that decorated the edilio princeps, is perhaps the 
most interesting to us, inasmuch as it bears this curious 
imprint : ' London : Printed for T. Harris at the Look- 
ing-Glaes, on London Bridge; and gold by C. Corbet at 
Addison's Head, in Fleet-street. 1744. Price Sixpence/ 
You may see this work in Sir W. Musgrave's ' Bio- 
graphical Tracts ' in the British Museum." 

Then follows an excerpt of the book. I should 
add that an engraving of the Audery sculpture 
accompanies the letterpress. Does this curious 
monumental effigy still exist 1 I cannot call to 
mind ever seeing it on the occasion of any of my 
visits to St. Saviour's, Southwark. 


5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

If MR. MAYHEW is right in saying that ofer is 
"a river- bank," then most assuredly I believe 
that his explanation of overie to mean the " water- 
land on the river - bank " is correct it would 
really have exactly the same meaning as Bank- 
side. I heartily wish I had known of this derivation 
a year ago ; for the more I study the matter, the more 
it seems certain to me that Ptolemy the geographer 
was right, and that Southwark was the ancient 
Londinium. And St. Mary Overie would then 
be St. Mary on Bankside, instead of the usual 
modern interpretation of St. Mary over the Water. 

Chart Sutton. 

VALSE (8 th S. viii. 29, 78, 116). Under the 
heading of ' A Novel Dance, 1 Richard Twining, 
dating from Frankfort in 1781, writes, in an 
account of a ball which he attended there : 

" I was engaged in looking at these fine people, when 
a gentleman and lady came whirling by, and bad almost 
overwhelmed me. I could not imagine what they were 
about. I had scarcely extricated myself from the danger 
with which they threatened me, when another and 
another couple came twisting by in like manner. I 
found, on inquiry, thiit this was a favourite German 
dance called a waltz, and is performed in the following 



* s. viii. AUG. si, -95. 

manner. The lady and gentleman stand face to face. 
The gentleman puts his arm round the lady's waist, and 
with the other hand he gets firm hold of her arm. You 
would at first think they are going to wrestle. Thus 
prepared, and the gentleman haying got so good a pur- 
chase upon the lady, they begin to spin round and 
round with a velocity which would have made me giddy 
in half a minute," &c. ' Selections from Papers of the 
Twining Family/ 1887, p. 74. 

F. H. 

There is an article which touches on this subject 
in the August number of the Pall Matt Magazine, 
vol. vi. No. 28, entitled ' The Follies of Fashion : 
Dancing,' by Mrs. Parr, "Illustrated by Fac- 
similes of Originals in Dr. Parr's Collection of Old 

The sensation produced in English and Irish 
society by the introduction of the German valtz 
in 1813, as Eaikes states, is shown by different 
poetic protests which I find among my newspaper 
cuttings of that time. Here is one : 


How arts improve in this inspiring age, 
Peers mount the box, and horses tread the stage; 
While waltzing females with unblushing face, 
Disdain to dance but in a man's embrace. 
How arts improve when modesty is dead, 
And sense and taste are, like our bullion, fled. 

A separate piece, embracing a long series of verses, 
begins : 

Shall the woman I love on another recline ? 

W. J. F. 

The line quoted by MR. COLEMAN, 

What ! the girl I adore by another embraced 1 
is not by Lord Byron. It appears to be by " Sir 
H. E. Bart. ," whoever that may be. See ' N. & C ' 
2 nd S. vii. 466. See a description of a dance called 
"Mol Patley" (sic), evidently a kind of waltz, 
spoken of with strong disapproval in the Spectator, 
No. 67 (Budgell's). Prof. Henry Morley, in a 
note, says : " Moll Peatley was a popular and 
vigorous dance, dating at least from 1622." 


EARL OF HALIFAX (8 th S. viii. 129). John and 
Edward Lawton were sons of Lord Halifax's sister 
Anne, who married John Lawton, of Lawton Hall, 
Cheshire. Edward, the elder of the two, married 
Charlotte, daughter of William Trafford, Esq., and 
died 1730. John, M.P. for Newcastle-under- 
Lyme, died 1740. CONSTANCE KUSSELL. 

Swallow field, Beading. 

*" Edward and John Lawton were the second and 
third sons of John Lawton, of Lawton, in Cheshire, 
who married Anne Montagu, granddaughter of the 
first Earl of Manchester, and sister of Charles, 
Earl of Halifax. Edward Lawton married Char- 
lotte, daughter of William Trafford, of Swithamley 
and died in 1730. John was some time M.P. for 


Newcastle-under-Lyme, and died in 1740. John 
Lawton, the father of these two brothers, was 
lineal ancestor, by his second wife, of the present 
John Edward Lawton, Esq., of Lawton. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

KEV. JOHN MARRIOTT (8 th S. viii. 131). 
Burgon was wrong. It is quite certain that 
" Heber and Whateley " wrote the two ordinary 
verses of 

God who madest earth and heaven. 
Mercer added two more, but these are not in com- 
mon use. 

Thou whose almighty world 

is Marriott's, and is the only hymn of his which has 
taken its position. He wrote others, but they are 
not collected, nor all printed. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

DR. BRUSHFIELD, if he will refer to Julian's 
' Dictionary of Hymnology,' will find an ample 
answer to his question. The Kev. John Marriott 
wrote the hymns 

A saint ! Oh would that I could claim, 

Thou whose almighty word, 
When Christ our human form did bear, 
and as the information from which the article on 
Marriott was written was compiled in great part 
from manuscript notes supplied by Mr. Marriott's 
son, it may be held to exclude him from the author- 
ship of the hymn about which DR. BRUSHFIELD 
inquires. This is negative evidence. 

On the positive side, Mr. Julian's article on the 

God that madeat earth and heaven 

supplies full information. It originally consisted 
of one stanza : 

God that madest earth and heaven, 
and this is by Bishop Heber. A second stanza, 

Guard us waking, guard us sleeping, 
was added by Archbishop Whately. To this the 
Rev, Thomas Darling in his ' Hymnal ' added a 
doxology. In Mercer's 'Church Psalter and 
Hymn Book' the hymn appears with four stanzas, 
of which the second and fourth are by Mr. Mercer, 
the first being Heber's, and the third Whately's : 

2. And when morn again shall call us. 

4. Holy Father throned in heaven. 
In Mr. Brown Borthwick's ' Select Hymns for 
Church and Home ' the four verses appear, but 
arranged thus : (1) Heber, (2) Whately, (3 and 4) 

The whole of this matter is taken from Mr. 
Julian's excellent article. 


QUARTERSTAFF (8 th S. vii. 347, 413 ; viii. 33). 
The quarterstaff of Lancashire was a more 

vin. AUG. 31, -95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


powerful weapon for attack than the quarterstaff 
of the rest of England ; but the smaller staff was 
handier for defence. The Lancashire rod, or pole, 
is seven yards long, and its quarterstaff five feet 
three inches ; whereas, the pole elsewhere being 
but fire and a half yards, the quarterstaff was no 
more than four feet two and a half inches in length. 

Hilfield, Yateley, Hants. 

BREEDING STONES (a* S. vii. 485). CANON 
TAYLOR will find a reference to the ^Etites, or 
Eagle Stone, at vol. iii. p. 155 of Brand's 
'Antiquities' (1841), by Sir Henry Ellis, which 
may be called a " breeding stone." From this we 
may ascend to Pliny bk. xxix. ch. xii. A. H. 

CHURCH REGISTERS (8 th S. vii. 382 ; viii. 13, 
56, 95). There is much to be said for MR. FRY'S 
suggestion for founding a society for printing 
parish registers. Two facts, however, must be 
borne in mind, which perhaps MR. FRY has not 
laid sufficient stress upon : one is the present 
practical existence of such a society, in the shape of 
the Harleian Society's "Register Section," and 
the other that the bulk of registers in England 
is so vast that any project for printing them in 
their entirety is necessarily an almost Utopian 
idea. As regards the first point, it seems to me 
that the preferable course would be to suggest to 
the Harleian Society the desirability of reorganizing 
their "Register Section," so that it should become 
a distinct book-publishing society, open to all, and 
not merely to members of the Harleian Society. 
As to the second point, we must bear in mind the 
fact that the vast majority of entries in a register 
will interest no one, not even the most ardent 
genealogist ; and in fact many of them are of 
persons who cannot even be identified. While 
there is so much more matter which is of the high- 
est value to the genealogist still in MS., it seems a 
pity to dissipate our energies by printing all the 
baptisms and burials of our parish registers. It 
may well be that MR. HALLEN'S scheme of print- 
ing London City registers has broken down, being 
overburdened by the appalling number of the 
baptisms and burials. But we must not run into 
the mistake of printing " selections " from registers. 
Such a course would be almost worse than leaving 
matters as they now stand; for "selections," unless 
they include all the entries of a name, are obviously 
very misleading. Moreover the genealogist does 
not exist who possesses adequate knowledge for 
acting as editor of such selections. 

But there is an alternative open to us, and one 
which I believe will render feasible the publication 
of parish registers upon a systematic plan. Mar- 
riages form but a thirteenth or fourteenth of any 
parish register. They, of course, form the key to the 
position in a pedigree ; and though, as with other 
entries in a register, many of them will interest no 

one, obviously that is less the case than with 
baptisms and burials. Then, too, we can print 
thirteen or fourteen registers where we could only 
print one if we include all entries ; and in that way 
we shall interest a far larger circle of subscribers 
than would otherwise be the case. In other words, 
if a parish register section or society is to be a 
sufficient success in the way of attracting an ade- 
quate number of subscribers, we should in the first 
instance, at any rate, print only the marriages. 
Such considerations have lately led me to com- 
mence dealing with the parish registers of Glou- 
cestershire on these lines, by issuing a few pages of 
marriage registers with each number of Gloucester- 
shire Notes and Queries. Some notes on this 
project may be of service to MR. FRY and others 
interested in the question. There are about 323 
parishes in Gloucestershire. Assuming that the 
marriages of a parish on an average will fill about 
fifteen small octavo pages, those of the whole county 
will fill about 4,355 pages. At my present rate of 
progress it will take nearly seventy years to print 
them all down to the year 1812. But with a guinea 
subscription the whole of the parishes in the county 
could be printed in about ten to twelve years. 
That is a sufficient reason for saying that a proposal 
for printing parish registers so far as marriages are 
concerned is quite practicable ; to include the 
baptisms and burials also means that it would take 
130 or 140 years to complete the work. But with 
the marriages printed we should have a fairly suffi- 
cient and handy guide in searching for the other 
entries. It would be sufficient, probably, to come 
down to the year 1812 only. Fifteen pages for 
each parish, representing about 600 marriages, may 
be considered an ample estimate ; many of the 
smaller parishes will occupy only three or four 
pages. It would not be difficult to organize a 
sufficient number of voluntary transcribers amongst 
the parish clergy and others, as the work thus 
divided would be comparatively light, very differ- 
ent from that of undertaking the transcription 
of a whole register. Obviously ^it would be 
impracticable to issue the parishes in any alpha- 
betical or topographical order ; we must be con- 
tent to take transcripts and print them as we 
get them. And though it may seen heretical to 
say so, the question of indexing the marriages 
would not be urgent, and could very well be 
allowed to stand over. It would be a sufficient 
boon to the genealogist to have them in print. 

124, Chancery Lane. 

TRAY, NAME OF A DOG (8 th S. viii. 6). 
About the time of the Crimean war, so far as I 
can remember, there was a song very popular con- 
cerning 'Old Dog Tray,' and to that I have 
attributed all references to Tray as a name of a 
dog, till a few months ago I came across a poem 
' Lubin and hia Dog Tray,' by a Mrs. Charlton, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 a. vm. A, si, -95, 

published in 1815, which demolished my belief, 
and now MR. PEACOCK'S note shows that, for 
some reason, Tray is a stock name for a dog in 
fiction. AYEAHR. 

I have always understood that Tray is put for 
draw, Latin traho, owing to the former uee of the 
dog for vehicular traction. A. H. 

Shakespeare must not be forgotten : 

The little dogs and all, 

Tray, Blanch, and Sweet-heart, see, they bark at me. 
' King Lear,' 111. vi. 62, 63. 


" COLD PIG " (8 th S. viii. 9). I know nothing 
of cold pig as returned merchandise, but in my 
boyhood often heard lie-a-beds threatened with 
cold pig and the lazy ones well knew that it 
meant a douche of cold water. I see the ' N. E. D.' 
gives this meaning. JAMES HOOPER. 


[Cold pig for returned merchandise was familiar in the 

West Hiding in the middle of the century.] 

A SAYING OF VOLTAIRE (8 th S. vii. 409, 438, 
516). Though I have lost the reference, it is but 
fair to add that Voltaire did not confine himself 
to the line "Si Dieu n'existait pas, il faudrait 
1'inventer," but followed it up with, "Mais toute 
la nature nous crie, qu'il existe." 


The church, but not the inscription, was there 
in 1879 (Murray's ' Switzerland '). Cowper alludes 
to it : 

Nor his, who for the bane of thousands born, 

Built God a church, and laughed his word to scorn. 
' Retirement/ and note. 


FINGER (8 th P. vii. 408, 492 ; viii. 74). ME. 
K. TEN BKUGGKNCATE'S rule will not apply to 
angel, danger, ranger, stranger, or manger. They 
might be better spelt with a j. Again, if hanger-on, 
anchor, ringer, bringer, and singer are sufficiently 
spelt, surely finger, linger, and anger require 
another g or a u, as well as longer, stronger, and 
hunger. They might be made anguer, jinguer, 
longuer, hunguer. E. L. G. 

Allow me deferentially to differ from MR. K. 
TEN BEUGGENCATE. Is not danger a dangerous 
word for foreigners ? It might, according to analogy, 
be pronounced dang-er, dang-gher, or dange-r; n 
is, of course, not = ngr in angel. I have heard 
singer rhymed nearly with finger in Cheshire. 


LILAC (8 th S. vii. 489; viii. 38). In my 
younger days, say thirty-five or forty years ago, 
though I have not heard it lately, this was very 

generally called by the country people hereabout 
' lily oak," and I have a distinct recollection of 
being told by a friend, in reply to a question, that 
lilac was simply a corruption from the name lily 
oak, (then) still retained by the country people. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

The common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) is a native- 
of the north of Persia, though now acclimatized 
over Europe and North America. It was brought 
from the East to Vienna by Dusbecq, ambassador 
of Ferdinand I. The name comes from the Ar. 
tilak, Per. lllaj, whence, of course, Sp. lilac, Ger- 
lilak, Fr. lilas, &c. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

KING'S EVIL (8 th S. viii. 49). For "thy" cor. 
the, of which the explanation is in the proclama- 
tion of Charles IL, Jan. 9, 1683 : 

"And all such as shall hereafter come or repair to the 
Court for this purpose shall bring with them Certificates 
under the hands and seals of the Parson, Vicar or 
Minister, and of both or one of the Churchwardens,, 
testifying according to the truth, that they have not at 
any time before been touched by His Majesty, to the 
intent to be healed of their disease. And all Ministers 
and Churchwardens are hereby required to be very care- 
ful to examine into the truth before they give eucb 
certificates, and also to keep a Register of all certificates 
they shall from time to time give." 

This was to prevent people coming more than 
once for the money which was given. So in the 
register of Hambledon, Bucks, there is : 

"1685, May 17. Mary Wellington had a certificate tfr 
goe before the King for a disease called the King's Evil." 

In the London Gazette of Sept. 22, 1687, the 
king's serjeant-surgeon expresses his sense of the 
neglect ot the ministers in not keeping the registers, 
and of the abuses consequent thereupon. 


May I be allowed to suggest that the words 
" thy gift," which your correspondent says are 
indistinct, should be touching ? Every minister 
was required, by a proclamation of Charles II., 
dated Jan. 9, 1683, to keep a register of the certifi- 
cates which he granted. Without a certificate no 
one was admitted to the king's presence for the 
purpose of being "touched." As 92,107 persons 
came to be " touched " between the years 1661 and 
1682, and each person received a gold coin with a 
hole in it, the necessity for the regulation is 
obvious. See 'Parish Registers in England,' by 
Mr. E. E. Chester Waters, 1883, p. 82. 


Between the years 1661 and 1682 as many as 
92,107 persons were touched for the king's evil. 
Each of them received a gold coin, with a hole in 
it, which the coin, not the hole " was suspended 
from the neck by a ribbon." It became necessary 
to limit the number of patients to be touched, and 
at last no person was allowed in the king's presence 

8s. viii. AUG. si, '95.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


for that purpose who had not previously obtained 
a certificate from the minister of the parish in 
which he or she lived, that he was suffering from 
the disease. 

"Hambledon, Buck?, 1685, May 17. Mary Walling- 
ton had a certificate to goe before the King for a disease 
called th* King's EviJ." 'Parish Registers,' p. 81, R. E. 
Chester Waters. 


This certificate has already appeared in 'N. & Q.' 
(see 3 rd S. vii. 93). By a proclamation issued by 
Charles II., dated Jan. 9, 1683, appointing the 
times at which the touch should be administed, 

" And all such as shall hereafter come or repair to the 
Court f