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Notes and Queries, Jan. 23, 1897. 



o^r, <& y vj. 1-0 


#lfctum of Intercommunication 



When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLK. 





Notes and Queries, Jan. 23, 1897. 


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8<" 8. X. JOLT 4, '96.J 



NOTES: The Murder of Mountfort, 1 Literature v 
Science, 2 Pepysiana Portraits of Bishop Morley, 3 
Farmer's Library One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago 
Rev. R. Simpson Entries in Parish Registers Custom 
of the Manor of Wales Rough Lee Hall, 4 Quotation 
from Scott Rotten Row Scotland and Rushbrooke 
Surnames Episcopal Chapels, 5 National Portrait Gal 
lery Miracles Church Briefs Governor " Whoa t " 6. 

QUERIES : John Malcolm Tannachie Inscription Scot 
tish National Music Church Brief for a Theatre Sii 
George Nares, 7 Dialect Philippine Wellser Pate Stuart 
Ferrar-Collett Relics Author Wanted St. Paul' 
Churchyard, 8 J. Everard Military Flags Haddow, 9. 

REPLIES .Windmills, 9 Lead Lettering Cramp Ring s 
10 White Boar as a Badge Southey's English Poets ' 
" Chauvin "Straps' The Giaour,' 11 Oxford " Simili- 
tive " ' ' Hyperion," 12' ' Child " " Fantigue " Fleur 
de-lis, 13 Ognall St. Mary Overie Tunstall Church 
warden Prebendary Victoria, 14 The National Debt 
Holborn, Hanwell, and Harrow Austrian Lip Ancient 
Service Book, 15 Dr. Freman 'The Two Peacocks of 
Bedfont 'Flags Title-page and Date of Book Inscribed 
Fonts, 16 The Suffix "well "Book of Common Prayer- 
Mural Memorials, 17 Maid Marian's Tomb Flittermouse 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem Universities of the 
United States, 18 Authors Wanted, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Wheatley's ' Diary of Samuel Pepys 
Vol. VIII. 'Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica' 
4 Specimens of Caslon Old Face Types 'Guide Books, &c. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(See I 8t S. ii. 516; 5* S. viii. 231.) 

Lord Macaulay tells U8 that Capt. Richard Hill, 
the murderer of Wm. Mountfort, the actor, was " a 
profligate captain in the army "; and Mountfort's 
biographer in the ' Diet, of Nat. Biog. 1 describes 
Hill as "a known ruffler and cutthroat." Both 
these sweeping assertions are, to say the least of 
them, somewhat hyperbolical. Hill was only six- 
teen years of age when he ran the unfortunate actor 
through with his sword, in Howard Street, Strand, 
on 9 Dec. , 1692. Lord Mohun, who was Hill's 
accomplice and an accessory after the fact, was 
seventeen, and this point went in his favour when 
he was tried by his peers for murder. But no one 
has, heretofore, ever made any excuse for Hill, who 
lived to repent and to amend his ways, which 
cannot be said for Lord Mohun, who, five 
years subsequent to the above murder, was again 
arraigned for manslaughter. Curious to say, 
Mohun's victim on this latter occasion was Capt. 
William Hill, of the Coldstream Guards, who was 
stabbed in a drunken brawl, at a tavern near 
Charing Cross, in September, 1697. 

At the age of twelve Richard Hill was appointed 
a subaltern in Viscount Lisburne's newly raised 
regiment of foot. He served in the Irish campaign, 
and owing to the mortality in his regiment from 
Uver and losses in action, he obtained command 

of a company when he was only fifteen. We may 
conclude that Lord Lisburne's regiment was rather 
a fast corps, and a bad school, as regards morals, 
for a very young officer, for we find the inspecting 
officer at Dundalk Camp, in December, 1689, 
sending the following confidential report to William 
III. relative to Lord Lisburne's regiment : " Le 
Colonel s'en mette fort peu et avec cela d'un humeur 
extravagant ; qui anssi prend tousles jours plnsde 
vin qu'il ne peust [sic] porter." On 21 March, 
1692, Hill exchanged with Capt. Vincent Googene, 
of Col. Thos. Erie's regiment of foot (' Military 
Entry Book,' vol. ii., H. 0. Series). By this 
exchange Hill found himself in command of the 
grenadier company in a crack infantry regiment. 
This fact was a little trying for a youth of his age, 
and the society of an unlicked cub like young Lord 
Mohun had a bad effect on Hill's character. He 
also had the misfortune to have money at his dis- 
posal ; and it came out in evidence, at Lord Mohan's 
trial, that Hill's scheme for carrying off Anne 
Bracegirdle, the well-known actress, was to coat 
him 502. The fair actress was rescued as she was 
being forcibly hurried into the coach by the soldiers 
whom Hill had hired for the occasion. Frustrated 
in his villainy, young Hill dismissed his military 
hirelings. " Begone ! I have done with you," 
cried this veteran centurion, in a tone which 
Jonathan Wild might have adopted when he dis- 
missed his myrmidons. Unfortunately Hill stayed 
behind with Lord Mohun, and their brains, over- 
heated by wine, to which in the case of the former 
was added mad jealousy against Mountfort, a sup- 
posed favoured rival in the fair actress's affections, 
devised the scheme of murder which Hill carried 
nto effect the same night. Hill escaped after com- 
mitting the crime, and nothing further is recorded 

f him by the historian. But in the cellars of the 
Public Record Office is a MS. petition to Queen 
Anne, which runs as follows : 

" To the Queen's most Excellent Majestic. 

The humble petition of Captain Richard Hill. 

" Showeth that your Petitioner at the age of sixteen, 
after four years' service in Ireland and Flanders, under 
the command of Lieut-General Earl, was unhappily 
drawn into a quarrel with Mr. Montford wherein he 
md the misfortune to give him a mortal wound; for 
which unadvised act your Petitioner has humbled him- 
self before God these eleven years past, and since his 
misfortune went volunteer with Col. Gibson to New- 
bundland, who has given a character of your Petitioner's 
>ehaviour there, as Lieut.-General Erie has of his car- 
riage and conduct in Ireland and Flanders, as appears by 
he certificates herewith annexed. 

" May it therefore please your most Sacred Majestic, 

n consideration of your Petitioner's past services, and in 

compassion to his youth, to extend your Royal mercy to 

your Petitioner for a crime to which he was betrayed by 

he heat and folly of youth, that he may thereby be 

mabled to serve your Majestic and his Country, aa his 

earnest desire is, to the last drop of his blood. 

" And your Petitioner shall ever pray, &c." 

Only one of the two certificates annexed to the 


(.8** S. X. JULY 4, '96. 

above petition need be given here, although both 
are equally favourable : 

Whereas Capt. Richard Hill was under my command 
during the late Irish war, and a volunteer with me in 
Flandew, I must needs give him this character that be 
behav'd himself on all occasions as a man of honour and 
really with more courage and conduct than from one of 
his years could have been expected, tor he was but 
twelve years old when he came into the army, and but 
sixteen when his misfortune hap'ned, which is eleven 
years since. Now the great concern for his misfortune, 
and his earnest desire to serve her Majesty again, even 
in any poet, will I hope move her compassion and mercy 
in obtaining his freedom which I am ready to certify to 
her Majesty whenever 'tis thought convenient. 

"Tno. EARLE." 

Hill had friends at court to plead for him, as 
witness the following : 

"A Memorial for the Rt. Hon. Sir Chas. Hedges, 
Secretary of State. 

"That his Grace the Duke of Somerset has promised 
to call for Captain Hill's petition in the first Cabinet 
Council and the Lord President has promised to speak to 
both. Therefore your Honour is most humbly desired 
to have the said Captain's petition and certificates in 
readiness to lay before her Majesty for the more effectual 
obtaining of her Royal mercy." 

There is reason to believe that Hill was pardoned. 
In * Recommendations for Commissions in the New 
Levies in 1706' (War Office MS.), the name of 
Capt. Richard Hill appears in a list of officers 
recommended by the Duke of Ormonde. 


(See 8 th S. viii. 286, 332; ix. 51.) 

What PROF. TOMLINSON says under this head 
ing is an interesting addition to the question on 
the relations between these two branches of human 
knowledge, a question which is peculiar to, and 
characteristic of, our century. 

I had occasion to touch on it in my study on 
Tennyson (pp. 175 <(?.), speaking of the scientific 
element in the works of your late Laureate, of 
whom it was well said that "he spiritualized 
Evolution and brought it into Poetry.' * I pointed 
out the numerous allusions to the progress oi 
science and the scientific similes in which he 
indulges, as well as his views on the future ol 
science, t and concluded that he certainly would 

* See Nineteenth Century, October, 1893, p. 670. 
f Truth of ecience waiting to be caught. 

The Golden Year. 
Science moves, but slowly, slowly, creeping on from 

point to point. ' Locksley Hall.' 

I wander'd nourishing a youth sublime 
With the fairy tales of science. lb. 

All diseases quench'd by science, no man halt, or deaf 

or blind. ' Locksley Hall Sixty Tears After.' 

When science reaches forth her arms 
To feel from world to world, and charms 
Her secret from tbe latest moon. 

'In Memoriam,' xxi. 

ot have joined in the much-quoted toast given 

y Keats to the infamy of Newton : " The only 

hiogs which threatened to paralyze his artistic 

unction were the overwhelming revelations of 

astronomy";* which fear is strange enough when 

we remember that Tennyson was a great star- 

;azer and that of this very science, in which he 

bought to behold a menace looming over poetry, 

a contemporary poet had sung : 

L'astronomie, au vol sublime et prompt.f 
Victor Hugo was not afraid of any science what- 
ver, and Mr. Swinburne could write of him : 

'The mysteries of calculation were hitherto, 

' imagine, a field unploughed, a sea uncloven, by 
(he share or by the prow of an adventurer in verse. 
Che feat was reserved for the sovereign poet of 
he nineteenth century." 

Counterparts to Tennyson's and Hugo's enthu- 
siasm for science are exhibited in Foe's sonnet 
entitled ' Science/ of which I give here the first 
ines : 

Science ! true daughter of Old Time thou art ! 
Who alterest all things with thy peering eyes : 
Why preyest thou thus upon the poet's heart., 
Vulture, whose wings are dull realties ? 
How should he love tbee ? 

and in the opening words of Coleridge's ' Essay on 
Shakespeare 7 : " Poetry is not the proper antithesis 
to prose, but to science. Poetry is opposed to 
science, as prose to metre." In the same spirit 
wrote Macaulay in one of his ' Essays': 

"In an enlightened age there will be much intelli 
sconce, much science, much philosophy, abundance of 
just classification and subtle analysis, and of wit and 
eloquence, and of verses, and even of good ones; but 
Little poetry. Men will judge and compare. They will 
talk about the old poets, and comment on them, but they 
will not create them, and to a certain degree enjoy them. 
But they will scarcely be able to conceive tbe effect 
which poetry produced on their ruder ancestors, the 
agony, the ecstasy, the plenitude of belief." 

Of a quite contrary opinion seems to have been 
Carlyle, at least when he wrote: "Poetry is not 
dead ! it will never die. Its dwelling and birth- 
place is in the soul of man, and it is eternal as 
the being of man." Byron repeatedly stated 
that poetry has nothing to fear from science : 

Truth sometimes will lend her noblest fires, 
And decorate the verse herself inspires. 
Let Poesy go forth, pervade the whole. || 
Tmth, the great desideratum !^[ 

'Tis the part 

Of a true poet to escape from fiction 
Whene'er he can.** 

* Nineteenth Century, October, 1893, pp. 662, 663. 
f Victor Hugo, ' L'Ane.' 
j Nineteenth Century, November, 1893, p. 734. 
| ' Essays,' 1894, vol. i. p. 73. Cp. ' Signs of the 
Times ' in vol. ii. pp. 230 tqq. 
II 'English Bards.' 
4f 'Don Juan,' vii. 81. 
** lb., viii. 86. 

8*8. X. JULT 4, '96 ] 


That true nature which sublimes 
Whate'er it shows with truth. * 

Even Wordsworth, who is known not to have 
been a great friend of science, did not hesitate to 
to say f that 

"if the time should ever come when what is now called 

science shall be ready to put on, as it were, a form 

of flesh and blood, the poet will lend his divine spirit to 
aid the transfiguration, and will welcome the being thus 
produced aa a dear and genuine inmate of the household 
of man." 

The question of the relation of science to litera- 
ture an important one, as it also implies that of 
the future of the latter has been recently taken 
up and treated in different ways by men both of 
letters and science. In an article entitled * Hopes 
and Fears for Literature, ' Prof. Dowden refers to 
the opinion held on the matter by Miss F. P. 
Cobbe, who, in writing on 'Literature, Reli- 
gion, and Moral versus Science,' affirms : " When 
science, like poverty, comes in at the door, art, like 
love, flies out of the window." Quite different is 
the opinion of Matthew Arnold for him 

"the future of poetry is immense. Criticism and science 
having deprived ua of old faiths and traditional dogmas, 
poetry, which attaches itself to the idea, will take the 
place of religion and philosophy, or what now pass for 
such, and will sustain those who, but for it, are forlorn." 

Prof. Dowden sums up his own views in these 
words : 

" The results of scientific study are in no respect 
antagonistic to literature, though they may profoundly 
modify that view of the world which has hitherto found 
in literature an imaginative expression. The concep- 
tions of a great cosmos, of the reign of law in nature, of 
the persistence of force, of astronomic, geologic, bio- 
logic evolution, have in them nothing which should 
paralyze the emotions or the imagination. To attempt, 
indeed, a poetical 'De Rerum Natura' at the present 
moment were premature ; but when these and other 
scientific conceptions have become familiar they will 
form an accepted intellectual background from which 
the thoughts and feelings and images of poetry will stand 
out quite as effectively as the antiquated cosmology of 
the Middle Ages." 

Sir John Lubbock combats those who pretend 
that science withers whatever it touches (because 
" Science teaches us that the clouds are a sleety 
mist, Art that they are a golden throne "), affirm- 
ing that, "for our knowledge, and even more for 
our appreciation, feeble as even yet it is, of the 
overwhelming grandeur of the Heavens, we are 
mainly indebted to Science."!) ID the same spirit 
speak of the subject Mr. H. M. Posnett, in the 
preface to his 'Comparative Literature ' (1886), 
and Mr. J. Burrough, in an article on ' The Lite- 

* 'Don Juan,' xiv. 16. 

t In his essay on the ' Principle* of Poetry.' 

1 Fortnightly Revise, February, 1889. 

See in his posthumous volume of ' Essays.' Cp. also 

iojo erature and Science ' (Nineteenth Century, August, 
Io82, p. 216). 

i| 'Beauties of Nature,' 1893, p. 257. 

rary Value of Science,'* who shows how (p. 188) 
"a literary and poetical substrate" is to be found 
in Darwin's works. I shall also add that the 
question was treated in England so early as 
1824 in an article of the European Magazine 
(pp. 383 sqq.) 'On the Necessity of Uniting the 
Study of the Belles Lettres to that of the Sciences.' 
But the question is an international one ; and 
perhaps it will not be uninteresting to see how it 
was differently discussed by scientific and literary 
men in France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. Con- 
sidering the peculiar character of this paper, I 
shall limit myself to a list of quotations and refer- 
ences, which, however, will not prove quite useless 
to him who chooses to trace the history of the 
question. PAOLO BELLEZZA. 

Circolo Filologico, Milan. 

( To be continued.) 

PEPYSIANA. 1. In a brief for the French 
Protestants, dated 31 Jan., 1688, the name of 
" Samuel Pepys " appears amongst the number of 
those appointed "to dispose and distribute the 

2. In 1685 was published * A True Account of 
the Captivity of Thomas Phelps, at Machaness, in 
Barbary, and of his Strange Escape ' in that; year. 
It contains the following dedication, printed at the 
back of the title-page : 

To the Honourable Samuel Pepys, Esq. ; 

SIR, Having by your generous Favour had the 
Honour of being introduc'd into His Majesties presence, 
where I delivered the substance of this following Narra- 
tive, and being press'd by the importunity of Friends to 
Publish it to the World, to which mine own inclinations 
were not averse, as which might tend to the information 
of my fellow Sea-men, as well as satisfying the curiosity 
of my Country-men, who delight in Novel and strange 
Storias ; I thought I should be very far wanting to my- 
self, if I should not implore the Patronage of your ever 
Honoured Name, for none ever will dare to dispute the 
truth of any matter of Fact here delivered, when they 
shall understand that it has stood the test of your sagacity. 
Sir, Your Eminent and Steady Loyalty, whereby you 
asserted His Majesties just Rights, and the true Privi- 
ledges of your Country in the worst of times, gives me 
confidence to expect, that you will vouchsafe this con- 
descension to a poor, yet honest Sea-man, who have 
devoted my Life to the Service of His Sacred Majesty 
and my Country ; who have been a Slave, but now have 
attained my freedom, which I prize so much the more, 
in that I can with Heart and Hand subscribe my self, 
Honourable Sir, 

Your most Obliged and Humble Servant 


Salterton, Devon. 

(1662-1684). There are two portraits in oils of 
this eminent prelate at Oxford, one in Christ 
Church Hall, by Sir Peter Lely, and another ia the 
hall of Pembroke College, which have doubtless 

* Macmillan's Magazine, vol. liv. (1835), pp. 184 t<iq. 


[8"> S. X. JULY 4, '96. 

been several times engraved. A very fine one, a 
three-quarter length, in oils, depicting the bishop 
in his episcopal habit, used to hang in the dining- 
room at Balnaboth, in Forfarshire, the seat of the 
Hon. Col. Donald Ogilvy, of Clova, who had 
married Maria, fourth daughter of James Morley 
Esq., a lineal descendant of the bishop. No doubt 
there is an additional one in the collection at Farn- 
ham Castle. An old friend of mine, who died in 
1864 the Rev. George Morley, vicar of Newport 
Pagnell, Bucks was also lineally descended from 
his namesake. 

Charles II., who seems to have admired good 
men, and often to have preferred them to high 
ecclesiastical appointments, is reported to have 
said, on nominating him to the valuable see of 
Winchester, knowing the prelate's munificent 
nature, " Morley never would be the richer for it." 
For in those days, in reference to its value, it was 
said, "Canterbury was the higher rack, but Win 
Chester was the better manager." "Non deficit 
alter,' 1 the recently deceased prelate, the eighty- 
fourth bishop, has bequeathed to his successor 
Farnham Castle, beautifully furnished, and a col- 
lection of full-length portraits in oil ranging from 
William of Wykeham to himself. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

AND FIFTY YEARS AGO. Perhaps this clipping 
from a recent second-hand bookseller's catalogue is 
worth noting : 

"Beveridge (Bp.), Private Thoughts on Religion, &c., 
tenth edition, thick 12mo., calf, M.T., 1720. The late 
owner baa written on fly-leaf, ' This Book 100 years ago 
(note written in 1845) was the most prominent Book in 
the Country Farmer's Library. A fanner at that time 
had seldom more than half a dozen books, and this was 
the most prominent. My Grandfather's Library con- 
sisted of the following : 1. The Bible, Testament, and 
Prayer Book ; 2. Beveridge's Private Thoughts ; 3. The 
Practice of Piety; 4. Robinson Crusoe; 5. The Ready 
Reckoner ; 6. Dictionary ; 7. Robin Hood.' I give this 
note as I think it worth preserving." 

Seven volumes in all : three religious ; poetry and 
fiction, two ; history of language, one ; commercial, 
one. It would have been very easy to make a worse 
selection. W. SPARROW SIMPSON. 

REV. ROBERT SIMPSON. Born in 1796, the 
eldest son of Robert Simpson, jeweller, of Osmas- 
ton Street, Derby. Of Queen's College, Cambridge 
(B. A. 1819, M. A. 1822). Having taken orders he 
became curate of St. Peter's, and subsequently 
minister of St. George'*, Derby. He then removed 
to Newark, Notts, as curate of St. Mary Magdalen. 
In 1837 he was appointed perpetual curate of the 
newly formed parish of Christ Church, Newark, 
but was compelled to resign the living in February, 
1844, on account of declining health. He, however, 
accepted the perpetual curacy of St. Luke's, Sker- 

ton, near Lancaster, in 1850. Simpson died at 
Skerton on 6 May, 1855. He was author of : 
(1) * A Collection of Fragments, illustrative of the 
History and Antiquities of Derby,' 2 vols. 8vo., 
Derby, 1826; (2) ' State of the Church in the 
County of Nottingham and Diocese of York,' 8vo. ? 
London, 1836 ; (3) 'The History and Antiquities 
of the Town of Lancaster/ 8vo., Lancaster, 1852. 
According to Glover ('Hist, of Derbyshire,' ed. 
Noble, vol. i. pt. i. p. 109, and vol. ii. pt. i. 
p. 610) Simpson made large collections towards 
a history of Derbyshire. He was F.S.A. and 

entries in the registers of St. Dunstan, Stepney, 
may be thought worth bringing to light historically : 

" 9 April, 1641. Baptism of William, son of Frances 
Cleere, of Ratcliffe Highway, single woman, begotten as 
she affirmeth by William Davis, of St. Mary Overies, in 
Southwerke, Keeper of the Counter in Southwerke, 
delivered in the Cage in Ratcliffe Highway." 

"4 August, 1641. Baptism of Gabriel), sonne of Anstis, 
the wife of Thomas Preston, of Ratcliffe Highway, 
Maryner, whom she affirmeth to be begotten by her said 
husband, who is yet reported to have been forth at sea 
ever since Midsomer, A.D. 16404 days olde." 

"9 September, 1647. Marriage of Peeter Pyper, of 
Shadwell, Maryner, and Elizabeth Curwin, of the same, 

"4 January, 1649. Baptism of Contrition, son of 
Contrition Sparrow, of Ratcliffe, Shipwright, and Re- 
becca, his wife." 

C. J. F. 

paper document, of which the following is a copy, 
has been lent to me : 

Wales Cork. 

The xxiii of October 1593 wee doe find certayne cus- 
tomes amongst others for coppyholders. 

1. We may let our lands for three yeares or less with- 
out fyne to the lord, by our custome. 

2. We may take all kind of wood for our own useges as 
hay boute, geire boute, plow boute, wayne boute, and all 
kind of nessesary useges by our customes, so we doe not 
sell it or give it. 

3. An heir of copiehold land ought by our costomes 
to come in and crave to be admitted tennant within three 
half years after the death of his annsessors; if the lord 
dp keep his court costamly or els the lord may sease of 
ais lands. 

4. We ought to keep our houses in repare with thack 
and morter or [be] presented according to trespas. 

5. We ought to have marie for oure own land byour 

6. We may have turfes whinnes and brakin and stone 
or our buildings and repareing our houses upon the com- 
mon or waste by our custom. 

These instans wear found by homage of the court of 
Wales upon their othes the day and year abovesaid 
before mee John Milner steward of the said court. 

The paper document is in a contemporary hand. 
Wales is about eight miles from Rotherham. 

S. 0. ADDT. 

ROUGH LEE HALL. While on a visit recently 
o the district rendered famous by Ainswortb'0 

8*8. X. JULY 4, '96.] 


'Lancashire Witches,' my rambles took me to Rough 
Lee, near Barrrowford, where Alice Natter's quaint 
gabled mansion still stands picturesquely on the 
banks of Pendle Water. The old trees, encircling 
wall and terrace, have long since disappeared, but 
the outward framework of the old hall (" mansion," 
the novelist calls it) is in fairly good condition, 
though two-thirds of the interior are sadly in need 
of repair, albeit the good woman of the inhabited 
portion informed me that the rest of the building 
was "soon going to be fettled." The sooner the 
better, otherwise this interesting relic of bygone 
days will soon have joined the things that were, 
the little chamber which was the scene of Mistress 
Nutter's nocturnal interviews with the arch-fiend 
being particularly rickety. Adjoining the disused 
part of the edifice is a low wall, in which an oblong 
stone lies embedded, about one and a half by two 
feet, bearing an inscription, now too weather-worn 
to be deciphered. Local tradition says it came 
from the celebrated Malkin Tower, hard by ; but I 
question very much whether that tower existed 
otherwise than in Ainsworth's brain. The 
stone evidently did come from some tower in the 
neighbourhood, for the only traceable lettering is 
the first line, which sets forth that "this Tower 
was built " but where ? The inscription ends with 
a date, of which only the first two figures remain, 
" 16 ." Can any one say where this stone hails 
from ; and does any one possess a tracing of the 
inscription ? Mr. James Carr makes no allusion 
to it in his 'Annals of Come.' Does Whittaker 
give it in his ' History of Whalley ' ? It seems a 
far cry from Rough Lee to London ; but I have 
inquired in local journals unsuccessfully, and hope 
to have better luck in ' N. & Q. J. B. S. 


QUOTATION FROM SCOTT. In a remarkably 
exhaustive and lucid article on Lyly, a writer in 
the Quarterly Review for January, p. 135, speaks 
thus of the dramatist's presentation of women : 

" AB to women, Lyly gives us only their outward husk 
of wit, raillery, and flirtation. It is 

Woman in her hours of ease, 
Uncertain, coy, and hard to please, 
that he paints : the lepida et dicacula puellavroTO&n on 
her Bocial and superficial side." 

Now Scott's apostrophe to woman in ' Marmion,' 
vi. 30, is broader than this quotation indicates', 
for it points to the female attitude in the ordinary 
and even tenor of life the exact words are "our 
hours of ease" the circumstances not demanding, 
and therefore not eliciting, the depth of her 
nature and her manifold resources. 

Helensburgb, N.B. 

ROTTEN Row. I am not aware whether a 
satisfactory explanation of this name has ever been 
offered. If not, may I suggest that its origin may 

have something in common with that of a way 
which once existed in Fulham, called Raton Rowe ? 
This spelling occurs in the minutes of a Court 
Baron held 28 April, 1455. Possibly some of the 
learned philological readers of 'N. & Q.' will 
favour us with their opinions. 


[See !* S. i. 441 ; ii. 235 ; v. 40, 160 ; 2 nd S. iv. 385 ; 
3 rd S. ix. 213, 361, 443; xii. 423, 509.] 

Possibly the following inscription, from the little 
church of All Saints, at Honington, Suffolk, may 
be of interest : 

" In memory of Robert Rusbbrooke of this parish, 
gent: descended from the antient Family of Scotland of 
Scotland Hall in Polstead, Suffolk. But about the year 
MCL Rushbrooke near St. Edmund's Bury becoming their 
chief Seat they acquired by the Usage of those Times A 
Surname from the Place, and were called Rusbbrooke of 
Rusbbrooke. He lived an animating Example of all 
those Virtues which render even a private Station 
eminent. He died Nov. the xxi. MDCCLIII. Jilt. LXXXI. 
Susanna Rushbrooke his wife (the daughter of George 
Barbara, Gent.) after lamenting him Ten Years, died 
Nov. the viu. MDCCLXIII. J3t. ixxv.' : 

Hard by Honington Church is the cottage in 
which Robert Blopmfield was born in 1766. It 
has been very considerably restored, but the main 
structure is said to be as it was when the author 
of the ' Farmer's Boy ' was born there. 


ix. 221.) I have before me a copy of the 'Works of 
the Rev. Richard Cecil,' in four volumes, arranged 
by Josiah Pratt, 1811, from which some particulars 
may be gathered as to Episcopal chapels in London 
at the beginning of the present century. From 
'Memoir of Cecil,' vol. i. p. xvi, I make the 
following extract : " For some years he [Cecil] 
preached a lecture at Lothbury at 6 o'clock on the 
Sunday morning [this was not at a chapel but, I 
believe, at the church at which afterwards the Rev. 
Mr. Wilkinson officiated]. He found the walk at 
that early hour in winter very dangerous, as most 
of the lamps were gone out and few persons stirring 
except those who wander for prey. At this time 
he had the whole duty of St. John's [i. c., St. John's 
Chapel, Bedford Row] ; and also an evening lecture 
at a chapel in Orange Street, Leicester Fields, at 
that period a regular chapel in the establishment. 

The chapel at Orange Street where he preached 

on Sunday evenings and on Wednesday evenings 
for many years being about to be repaired, it was 
relinquished, and the chapel in Long Acre was 
engaged in conjunction with his friend the Rev. 
Henry Foster, who had the morning duty: here 
the same congregation attended." I may add that 
the chapel in Orange Street, Leicester Fields, still 
remains, but is now in the hands of a Dissenting 
body. St. John's Chapel, Bedford Row, has dis- 
appeared ; it was " Mr. Cecil's most important 



[8* S. X. JULY 4, *96. 

sphere of duty," and further particulars of his 
ministry there are given in the memoir. 

While we have Cecil's works before us it may be 
well to take an opportunity of noticing his funeral 
sermon, " preached Jan. 8, 1808, at the Church of 
the United Parishes of St. Mary Woolnoth and St. 
Mary Woolchuroh Haw, Lombard Street, on the 
death of their late Rector, the Rev. John Newton, 
who departed Dec. 21, 1807, in the 83rd year of 
his age." He is described as the faithful and wise 
steward (Luke xii.). Newton had just been buried 
at the east end of the church, as appears from the 
following passage in the sermon : " The worne-out 
body of him who long intreated you to be mindful 
of the day of your visitation is now a mass of in- 
animate clay under that communion table, his lamp 
broken, his tongue silent " (vol. ii. p. 436). 


appear invidious to point out deficiences in the 
arrangement of the pictures at the National Por- 
trait Gallery, looking to the hasty manner in which 
the collection was put together ; but it is not too 
much to expect that the inscriptions on the por- 
traits should be consistent, instead of being in some 
instances contradictory ; and the authorities will 
perhaps not object to have their attention 
called to a few cases in point. A portrait of Sir 
William Erie is described as being by a painter 
unknown, but at the left-hand corner is the name 
" F. A. Tilt, 1868," which appears to be the name 
of the artist and the date of the drawing. Another 
portrait, of Lord Hard wick, copied from a picture, is 
said to be by an unknown artist, but the words 
"Gardiner delin." are clearly discernible at the right- 
hand corner of the drawing. An inscription on the 
frame of a portrait of the Countess of Grammont 
(La belle Hamilton), " L'anglaise insupportable de 
M e . de Caylus," by Lely, sets out that "the 
popular memoirs bearing her husband's name were 
written by her brother, Antony Hamilton, who 
fought in the army of James II.," while on another 
portrait of the same lady, copied from Lely by J. G. 
Eccardt, the countess is described as " married to 
Philibert, Comte de Grammont, author of the 
* M6moires.' " One of these inscriptions is clearly 
wrong. The first is the right version. 


How MIRACLES CAN BE MADE. The porch of 
the recently erected Roman Catholic church of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury, at St. Leonard's-on-Sea, 
contains a figure of St. Thomas, over the door, 
with the hand stretched out in the act of blessing. 
Coming up the road on the morning of 14 June, 
I saw the fingers move several times, slowly from 
side to side, as if bestowing a benediction. Had 
I been purblind I might have gone away thinking 
of miracles. But looking closely, I saw a sparrow 

sitting on the statue, its head on a line with the 
fingeri?. As the sparrow turned its head from side 
to side, the bird being much of the same colour as 
the stone, the effect was just as if the motion were 
in the hand when seen from a few yards off. 


CHURCH BRIEFS. (See 8 th S. ix. 421.) The 
ancient church collections upon briefs are often 
valuable in bringing light upon past events. Even 
where in themselves they are ambiguous or want- 
ing, yet by comparison one with another they 
may help in elucidating and perpetuating events. 
The process of "putting two and two together" 
often converts doubt into tolerable certainty. I 
have a case in point. 

The following entries occur respectively in the 
parish books of East Wellow and Stanton St. 
John : 

1671, May ye 14. Collected for ye towne of Mere in 
ye County of Wilts, 2s. Id. 
1671. Collected for Meere in Wilt?, 3s. 2d. 

In neither entry is the object of the collection 
given. But in the church books of St. Margaret, 
Westminster, is this entry : 

1671, Jan. 18. Towards the great loaa by fyre in the 
towne of in our County of Wilts, 2Z. 12*. 

Putting these three entries together, they seem 
fairly to evidence the fact that a fire took place 
here in 1670. We have no local record of such a 
fire, and even tradition is silent ; though indirect 
evidence points to the probability of a fire having 
taken place. 

It is probable that some of the readers of * N. & Q.' 
may know of notices of briefs in church books where 
the "fyre" at Mere is distinctly stated. If so, 
and they will kindly send them to me, I shall 
feel much obliged. J. FARLEY RUTTER. 

Mere, Wilts. 

Majesty appointed the Princess Henry of Batten- 
berg " Governor of the Isle of Wight "; but the Isle 
of Wight Express, either facetiously or ignorantly, 
styles the Princess " Governess " of this island. 
To what cause should this blunder be ascribed ? 


V r entnor, Isle of Wight. 

" WHOA !" The word whoa! used in calling on 
a horse to stop is merely a variant and emphatic 
form of ho ! formerly used in the same sense. This 
is easily proved ; for Chaucer has ho ! in the sense 
of "halt" ('Cant. Tales/ B 3957). When King 
Edward IV. had to use this exclamation, he 
actually turned it into whoo ! " Then the kyngr, 
perceyvyng the cruell assaile [onset], cast his staff, 
and with high voice cried whoo ! " (' Excerpta His- 
torica,' p. 211), Which stopped the tournament ; 
and no wonder. WALTER W. SKJEAT. 

8" 8. X. JOLT 4, '96.] 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

JOHN MALCOLM. Can any one give me in- 
formation as to the family of John Malcolm 
Born probably in 1713 ; he appears first in 
America in 1749, at which date he had a child 
born to him by Margaretta Ward, his first wife. 
He owned a large plantation in the State of Dela- 
ware, which was named Monkton Park Monkton 
appearing also in the names of his children. It is 
known that he had considerable interests in the 
West Indies, was a man of some importance in his 
own neighbourhood, and had a coat of arms, since 
lost. He is said to hare been at one time an officer 
in the British navy. Died 1803, aged ninety 
years. The name Neill occurs in the names of 
some of his children. Was he any relation to 
Neill Malcolm, of Poltalloch, mentioned in Burke's 
' History of the Landed Gentry,' who succeeded to 
that estate through his cousin in 1785? This 
Neill Malcolm married Mary, daughter of Philip 
Honghton, of Jamaica. It is known that either 
he or some other member of the Malcolm family of 
Poltalloch had large interests in the West Indies 
about this time. M. L. 

TANNACHIB. What is the meaning of Tannachie, 
or, as the old spelling has it, Tannachy ? This is a 
Scotch name. It occurs in Sutherland shire, Banff- 
shire, and, till within one hundred and fifty years 
or so, also in Elginshire. HY. B. TULLOCB. 

Glencairn, Torquay. 

Summer in the Pyrenees,' by the Hon. James 
Erskine (Murray, 1837), that in the cathedral 
church of Perpignan there is a "Gothic inscription 
upon two pillars [which] states that in the year 
1324, the epoch of its foundation, the first stone 
was laid by Sanchez, King of Aragon, and the 
second by Edward, Prince of England " (vol. i. 
p. 32). The author suggests that the stone was 
laid by the Black Prince when on a visit to the 
King of Aragon. Has the original text of this 
inscription been printed ? If so, where is it to be 
seen ? ASTARTE. 

SCOTTISH NATIONAL Music. This subject has 
attracted my attention from my observing in a book 
published by Mr. John Glen, of Edinburgh, the 
following, referring to the song "Lost, lost is my 
quiet." Mr. Chappell, in his ' Popular Music of 
the Olden Time,' contends that it is an English 
tune, although Burns, who wrote to it " Ye banks 
and braes o' bonny Doon," considered it the com- 
position of an amateur. Being anxious to ascertain 

Songs," which Mr. Chappell quotes, can any of 
your readers give me, and others like me, the 
correct date of that publication ? Chappell states 
it was not entered at Stationers' Hall, as the 
collection consisted exclusively of "old songs," 
while Glen maintains that " Dale's Scotch Songs," 
though all old, are entered there, and asks, Why 
in the one case and not in the other ? Chappell 
informs us that Dale began printing in 1780 ; but 
that has nothing whatever to do with this question. 
In the ' Popular Music of the Olden Time ' there 
is the following garbled quotation from Sir John 
Hawkins's ' History of Music ' : 

' Mr. Gosling and Mrs. Hunt sung several compositions 
of Purcell, who accompanied them on the harpsichord ; 
at length the Queen, beginning to grow tired, asked 
Mrs. Hunt if she could not sing the old Scots ballad of 
' Cold and Raw.' Mrs. Hunt answered ' Yep/ and sung 
it to her lute." 

Mr. Chappell leaves out the words " old Scots." 
Still, in a foot-note he gives apparently his reason 
for doing so, and, referring to Hilton, does not 
mention that he terms his catch a Northern catch, 
either there or elsewhere. 

If any of your readers can throw additional 
light on these questions, or on the history of the 
music of our country, it would be greatly valued 
by those who, like myself, take an interest in this 
subject. I like the truth, whatever it may be. 


many lists of church briefs contained in parish 
registers, &c., will be found recorded collections to 
aid the rebuilding of a theatre that was burnt 
about the year 1762. The following are cited as 
examples : 

Loughborough. " 1673, Brief for rebuilding 
the Theatre Royal in London" (Burn, ' Parish 
Registers,' 178). 

Chapel-en-le-Frith. "1673, May 18th, Collec- 
ion made for Royal Theatre, nr. Brussel [Russell] 
Street, St. Martin-in-the-Field, London, 3*. Sd." 
Reliquary, vi. 67). 

Other notices in 'N. & Q.,' 5 th S. iii. 385 ; iv. 

I have been unable to find any mention of this 
heatre, its site, or account of the fire in any of 
he ordinary works on London. I have a note that 
t occurred in January, 1672, and that at the same 
ime sixty houses were burnt ; but the authority 
or the information is warftrng. Any references 
x> works or particulars will be of especial value. 
Salterton, Devon. 

SIR GEORGE NARES. An old friend of mine, 
Capt. W. H. Nares, R.N., had a fine engraving of 
this judge, a Justice of the Common Pleas, who 
was his grandfather, wearing his robes, and often 
used to inquire where the original portrait was. 

the real date of " Dale's Collection of English | On the authority of FOBS, in his ' Dictionary of 



[8* S. X. JULY 4, '96. 

English Judges,' Sir George was born in 1716 and 
educated at Magdalen College School and at New 
College, Oxford, married a daughter of Sir John 
Strange, and died in 1786. The same authority 
gives Eversley, in Hampshire, as his burial-place, 
where Charles Kingsley, the well-known writer, 
who was for so many years the respected rector 
of that parish, is buried. Did he possess an estate 
in that parish ; or was he in any way connected 
with it ? One of his sons was Dr. Edward Nares, 
Professor of Modern History at Oxford, and at 
one time vicar of St. Peter in the East in Oxford, 
a benefice in the gift of Merton College, of which 
he was formerly fellow. He married Lady Char- 
lotte Churchill, daughter of the Duke of Marl- 
borough, and died in 1848. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

DIALECT. A native of Lincolnshire said to me, 
not long ago, "That raw of radishes has been 
wealed all ower sin 1 1 sew it "; by which he meant 
that various accidents had happened to the young 
plants, so that in many parts of the row empty 
gaps occurred, the earth in some places being dis- 
turbed and raised in mounds. By "wealed" 
he probably intended wealed or waled, which 
usually signifies marked with blows or stripes. Is 
not his application of the word unusual ? 

A girl who was also born and brought up in 
Lincolnshire remarked, a few days since, " She 
does make a dole after him w " dole " being the 
equivalent of lamentation. W. L. 

PHILIPPINE WELLSER. Is anything known of 
the painter of the portrait of Philippine Wellser 
at Innspruck (8 th S. ix. 355), said to be the only 
authentic portrait of her 1 E. G. 

reader of ' N. & Q. 1 help me respecting the fol- 
lowing ? Where can an account be found of Pate 
Stuart, Earl of Orkney (a natural son of one of the 
kings of Scotland), his pedigree and descendants ? 
Is the present Earl of Orkney descended from him ? 
Are the Stewarts of Appin related to Pate Stewart ; 
and was Alan Peck Stewart (see Robert Louis 
Stevenson's 'Kidnapped') a real person? Can 
an account be found anywhere of the Rev. William 
Stewart, late Vicar of Swords (eight miles from 
Dublin), a Church of Ireland beneficed clergyman, 
who was waylaid and murdered after having 
recited a " Satyre on Priestly Indulgences in the 
Church of Rome"? What were the date and 
place of his birth and date of his murder ; and 
are any of his descendants alive; and where are 
they? Was it Samuel Stewart, brother of the 
reverend Vicar of Swords, who, wandering to 
London, heard John Wesley, being indoctrinated, 
became a son spiritual, and lastly a Primitive 
Methodist preacher? What were the date and 

place of his birth and death, and the names of his 
parents? What were the names of the Stewarts 
of Appin who crossed with King James's army 
and fought in the Battle of the Boyne, 1690 ; and 
the names of the Stewarts who, after an amnesty 
was proclaimed, accepted it and took the oath of 
allegiance ? Where were their lands situated ; and 
were the same lands returned to them, or did they 
receive grants in other parts of the country ; if so, 
where? In what Irish county is Dore Glore 
situated; and are the present occupiers members 
of the Murphy family ? MORO DE MORO. 


FERRAR-COLLETT RELICS. Wanted a descrip- 
tion of any books, portraits, or other relics of the 
Ferrar or Collett families who were living at Little 
Gidding, in Huntingdonshire, in the reign of 
Charles I. I have already a goodly list of interest- 
ing things which are now in the possession of the 
Trustees of the British Museum and of descend- 
ants of the two families. I shall, therefore, be 
grateful for any further additions to the list. 


Beacon Lights, Westward Ho. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Macaulay, in his essay on 
Lord Chatham, quotes six lines from a "lively 
contemporary satire": 

No more they make a Fiddle-Faddle 
About an Hessian Horse, or Saddle ; 
No more of Continental Measures, 
No more of wasting British Treasures ; 
Ten millions, and a Vote of Credit. 
'Tie right He can't be wrong who did it. 

The quotation is taken from * A Simile,' a poem, 
printed for M. Cooper, in Paternoster Row, 1759 
folio. Can any of your readers tell me who was 
the author of this poem ? F. G. 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD. The following verse 
from Pope's " Essay on Criticism ' (1. 623) 
Nor is Paul's church more safe than Paul's churchyard 
suggests two queries. How comes it that the 
" St." in " St. Paul's Churchyard " is now always 
prefixed, while in Pope's time, and long before, it 
was omitted ? The translation by George Colville 
(alias Coldewell) of the 'De Consolatione ' of 
Boethius, dated " Anno 1556," was " Imprynted 
at London in Paules Churche Yarde at the Sygne 
of the Holy Ghost by John Cawoode, Prynter to 
the Kynge and Queenes Majesties." No doubt 
much earlier mention of " Paul's Churchyard " 
(without the "St.") exists than the above, the 
earliest I can find. When did the full term, St. 
Paul's Churchyard, couie (again ?) into common use ? 
Further, How is it that the emphasis is upon the 
second syllable of " Churchyard n in this case ? I 
think that in the majority of analogous two-worded 
compounds the first word takes, like " church- 
yard," the stress : bee-hive, grave-stone, bird's-nest, 
boot-jack, lich-gate, &c. Still, we say barn-door, 

8 ta S. X. JULY 4, '96.] 



elm-bank', and are adopting the North-country 
week-end'; but such compounds, made up of tw 
nouns, with the emphasis on the second, are com 
paratively rare. HENRY ATTWELL. 


JOHN EVERARD. I would greatly value an 
scrap of information concerning John Everard 
D.D., temp. Charles I, The name is various! 
spelt Evered, Everitt, Everad, &c. He diec 
at Fulham about the end of 1640. In the Stat 
Papers is a copy of an order directing Sir Wm 
Becher and Ed. Nicholas, Clerks of the Council 
to repair " to the dwelling of Dr. Everitt a 
Fulham and to seize all his papers and bring away 
such of them as may concern the State," &c 
What are the facts concerning this matter ? Was 
the doctor a political agitator, or suspected 
sedition? CHAS. JAS. Ffe 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

MILITARY FLAGS. Being interested in certain 
foreign military flags carried Muring the end ol 
last century or beginning of the present, I would 
be glad if any of your readers could give me the 
following information : 

1. Flag of the Invincibles (French regiment), 
captured by the 42nd, lost, and afterwards re- 
captured by Lutz of the Queen's Germans, now 
96th (Manchester) Regiment, at the battle of 
Alexandria, in Egypt, 21 March, 1801 (see Wil- 
son's Egypt,' 1803). It is stated that a repre- 
sentation of this flag appeared in the prints of 
the day, and is shown in one as laid out at the 
feet of Sir Ralph Abercromby. Can any one say 
where the prints referred to can be seen, or give 
their titles ? 

2. Sketch of a Dutch flag bearing the follow- 
ing emblems : a figure with shield and spear, 
having a distant resemblance to that of Britannia, 
but more Eastern in character ; a monogram v o c 
on it (v being the central letter), at the top of the 
flag, and the letters p and D (widely apart) at the 
bottom. What do these letters and emblems 
represent ? 

3. Sketch of the flag of a Hesse Darmstadt 
regiment in the French service, bearing the 
following emblems : a double L and x within a 
wreath (1 Louis, or Ludwig, Landgrave, the tenth) ; 
a crown much like an English one, and what 
resembles somewhat a tulip or lily, but may be a 
rough representation of a grenade. What do these 
emblems represent ? C. W. 

HADDOW. I shall be glad to learn the signi- 
fication of this place-name. A low-lying farm of 
some size, adjacent to a canal which forms the 
western boundary of the parish, is popularly 
known as Hodder named on the Ordnance map 
Hathow but in the (seventeenth century) parish 
registers Haddow. J. FERNIK. 

Burton by Lincoln. 


(8 th S. ix. 488.) 

There is this delightful description of windmills 
in Robert Louis Stevenson's 'Foreigner at Home 1 : 

'There are, indeed, few merrier spectacles than that 
of many windmills bickering together in a fresh breeze 
over a woody country; their halting alacrity of move- 
ment, their pleasant business, making bread all day with 
uncouth gesticulations, their air, gigantically human, as 
of a creature half alive, put a spirit of romance into the 
tamest landscape." 

Hugh Miller speaks somewhat to the same 
effect in his * First Impressions of England and its 
People,' but I cannot give the exact reference. 

The "poet's corner" of a country newspaper is 
hardly the place in which to look for " literature," 
but perhaps the following verses from an old 
number of the Epworth Bells may interest your 
correspondent. It will be noticed that the rhymes 
are not arranged in the orthodox rondeau order : 

The Whirling Mill. 
The whirling mill goes blithely round, 
I love to hear its busy sound, 
I love to mark against the blue 
Its white arms swinging, two and two, 
Its dome with shadowy fantail crowned. 

Its feet are firm in earthen mound, 
Its bulk with oaken beams inbound, 
It stands erect where all may view, 
The Whirling Mill. 

And facing windward straight and true, 
It does the work it finds to do, 
The wheat, the barley, sun-embrowned, 
To sweet and snowy meal are ground, 
And ho ! the wind sings blithely through 

The Whirling Mill. B. 
C. C. B. 

S. W. will find the subject treated of in De 

abley's 'The Windmill,' * Poems Dramatic and 

yrical,' Second Series, John Lane. The poem, 

onsisting of thirteen verses, is made up for the 

most part of a fine metaphoric allusiveness, which 

s one marked phase of this poet's work. Here 

re three verses a little apart in style from the 


Emblem of Life, whose roots are torn asunder, 

An isolated soul that hates its kind, 
Who loves the region of the rolling thunder, 
And finds seclusion in the misty wind. 

Type of a love, that wrecks itself to pieces 
Against the barriers of relentless Fate, 

And tears its lovely pinions on the breezes 
Of just too early or of just too late. 

Emblem of man, who, after all his moaning 
And strain of dire immeasurable strife, 

Has yet this consolation, all atoning, 
Life, as a windmill, grinds the bread of Life 

The windmill in the Cheshire (De Tabley's 
county) landscape, perched as it often is on some 



[8* 8. X. JULT 4, '96. 

eminence to catch the breezes, even in a ruined 
and quiescent state, is a noteworthy object. 


The diatricts in England in which windmills are, 
or were, common have not produced many poets. 
Such mills are seldom found except in flat countries, 
where streams are few and sluggish, and they have 
been almost exterminated by steam. I am a native 
of Holderness, in East Yorkshire, and my earliest 
recollections include windmills of many kinds, of 
wood and of brick, with four, five, and six sails. 
There were some very ancient and picturesque 
wooden mills near York, one of which belonged 
to the family of Etty the painter. I fancy it is 
mentioned in his ' Autobiography.' Was not the 
" tall mill that whistled on the waste," in ' Enoch 
Ardeo/ a windmill ? Dr. Grosart mentions the 
" whir of windmills " and the Dutch landscape of 
Holderness. Mar veil's ' Poems,' p. xxi. 

W. C. B. 

Born in a district in which steam has long sup- 
planted mills, I have always attached some notion 
of romance as well as beauty to these picturesque 
objects. Views very similar to my own as to 
their appearance and influence found expression 
in the * Table Talk' of the Gentleman's Magazine 
some dozen or more years ago. I forget the date. 
H. T. 

(8 !l1 S. ix. 425). This question reminds me of an 
incident at Ischia, which, although adding no fresh 
evidence as to the date of the custom, yet has 
reference to a monument of whose existence a note 
in ' N. & Q.' may be desirable. One evening, in 
the spring of 1876, at the Piccola Sentinella in 
that island, an American, a General Darling, who 
bad been in the War of Secession, and was staying 
there with his wife, produced and passed round 
the table a small fragment of white marble, with 
embedded in it a small italic t in lead or some 
other white shiny metal. He had picked it up 
that day amongst the debris of a tomb erected in 
the bottom of an extinct crater in Ischia and once 
containing the body of, it was said, the brother of 
Sir John Moore, who fell at Corunna. The tomb 
had been broken to pieces, in the hope, probably, 
of finding something of value inside, the loneliness 
of the situation affording good opportunity for such 
an act of spoliation. Never was a more singular 
place chosen v for a grave the sides of the crater 
being overgrown with scrub, and the place con- 
veying the sensation of fiery forces underneath, 
once active above, and yet latent though unseen. 

J. B. 

The use of lead on sepulchral monuments is by 
no means so modern a practice as, in what is surely 
but a temporary lapse of his memory, MR. H, 

HEMS thinksr. There is ample evidence that the 
Romans used lead in this manner, if not, as I think, 
the Greeks likewise. An ancient English instance 
occurs to me, while I recollect that when I saw that 
extraordinary specimen of its kind, the great brass 
of Sir John d'Aubernoun I, c. 1277, the very 
patriarch of its order, which for so many centuries 
has adorned the church of Stoke d'Aubernoun, 
Surrey, one at least of the little escutcheons at the 
head of the slab in which the plate is set was (and, 
I hope, still is) blazoned with the arms of the 
knight, Azure, a chevron or, where lead, and not 
enamel, served for the former colour. Other 
observers may have noticed similar examples in 
various places. F. G. S. 

Surely not so very uncommon. There is a French 
inscription in Lombardic letters to Emeric de 
Lumley, Prior of Finchale in 1341 and 1342, in 
the south choir aisle of Durham Cathedral, and one 
to Robert de Graystanes, who died about 1333, or 
not long after, in the Chapter House ; both these 
in lead letters. In Brancepeth Church are one or 
two examples of later date, and we sometimes see 
the letters that have had lead in them. 

J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

In the chancel of Sundridge Church, Kent, is a 
slab with inscription in Lombardic capital letters, 
" each letter was inlaid in brass," says the late Mr. 
Herbert Haines, in * Arch. Cantiana,' vol. xvi. It 
is over the tomb of John Delarue, but there is no- 

Wingham, Kent. 

In Brancepeth Church, co. Durham, is a very 
rude inscription, reading, " Pray for | the Soull | 
of Nicho | las Cokke," the incised letters of 
which have been filled with lead. In the same 
church is another inscription, reading, "Obiifc 
Octob. | 21 | 1600 | Hie iacet Nicho | lavsMvu[Tj 
qvondam de Stockley, qvi | hanc sponse vocem 
veluti cygneam | cantilenam mo- | riens cantita- j 
bat, veni Domi | ne lesv et lam | veni cito." I 
think the letters of it are also filled with lead. 

R. B. 

CRAMP RINGS (8 th S. ix. 127, 253, 357). PROP. 
TOMLINSON'S note at the last reference recalls to 
mind a remark made by Mr. T. F. Thiselton Dyer, 
M. A. , in his ' Domestic Folk-Lore.' In'writing of 
the many charms resorted to for the cure of crainp, 
he says : 

'In many counties finger-rings made from the screws 
or handles of coffins are still considered excellent pre- 
servatives in days gone by a celebrated cure for this 

complaint was the 'cramp ring/ allusions to which we 
find in many of our old authors. Its supposed virtue 
was conferred by solemn consecration on Good Friday." 

In John Timbs's 'Something for Everybody, 
and a Garland for the Year,' we read that " the 
kings of England formerly hallowed with much 

8 th 8. X. JULY 4, '96.] 



ceremony, on Good Friday, rings which were worn 
as remedies against cramp and falling sickness/ 
He also adds that a Mr. Gage Rookwode, in 1838 
stated the belief in the efficacy of such rings to bi 
still extant in Suffolk. 

The following, from an article on ' Medical Super- 
stitions,' which appeared in Chambers 8 Edinburgh 
Journal, vol. i., New Series, 1844, may be worth 
quoting : 

" It ia by no means uncommon to meet with educatec 
people who wear rings composed of zinc and copper, 
which are supposed to bave a favourable effect in rheu- 
matic affections, merely because platea of these metals 
with a fluid between tbem. nre employed to form a 
galvanic c rcle. To fire off a child's pop-gun at a 
Flanders fortress would be quite as rational, and equally 

This would appear to be another phase of the 
"cramp-ring" superstition. C. P. HALE. 

THE WHITE BOAR AS A BADGE (8 ttt S. ix. 267, 
331, 358). MR. CASS, in the last paragraph of his 
reply on p. 331, apparently was* misled by a mis- 
print, or a mistake, in the passage he quotes from 
Barke's 'General Armory,' where " boar" should 
be bear. See Montagu's ' Guide to the Study of 
Heraldry,' London, Pickering, 1840, p. 63 : 

"The badge of his [Richard III.'s] queen, Anne 
Neville, was a white bear, collared, chained, and muzzled 
gold ; an ancient mark of the house of Warwick, said to 
be derived from Ureo d'Abitot." 

St. Mary's Abbey, Windermere. 

SOUTHEY'S * ENGLISH POETS ' (8 th S. ix. 445). 
MR. THOMAS BATNE says that the line, 

Hope springs eternal in the aspiring breast, 
was written by Samuel Rogers, the elder. Has 
he forgotten that Pope had already written, 
Hope springs eternal in the human breast : 
Man never Is, but always To be blest 1 

Epistle I., 11. 95, 96. 


" CHAUVIN ": " CHAUVINISM " (8 th S. ix. 428). 
In addition to the references given by the Editor 
to articles on this subject in the Sixth Series, permit 
me to note those in 4 ttt S. vii. 408 ; x. 226, 281. 


STRAPS (8 th S. ix. 468). In the market-place 
at Hull there stands a classical equestrian* statue 
of William III. There used to be a foolish story, 
current among schoolboys, that the sculptor (Schee- 
inakers, I believe, but I have no books at hand), 
on discovering that he had omitted the stirrups, 
committed suicide. W. 0. B. 

1 THE GIAOUR' (8 th S. ix. 386, 418, 491). The 
other day, asking a friend with a better memory 
than my own if he could call to mind any particular 
occasion on which he had been called an infidel, I 
received answer, "I remember a man seizing me 

by the coat in a street of Constantinople and 
snarling at me Ghiawr." Now this is the very 
sound that Zenker caught and literated Gjawr, 
being careful to explain in his preface that he 
means by g the German g t or Arabic ghain, and by 
j the Arabic ye. The interpolation of this ye is 
the first step in the endless Turkish corruption of 
such Arabic words as Jcdfir. Just as some English 
turn kind into kee-ind, so all Turks turn kdghaz 
into kidghaz, after which it becomes kidhaz and 
kidhat. Similarly they turn kdfir into kidjir, afte? 
which guttural commencement and growling ter- 
mination are all that are required to turn it into 
abusive Ghiawr. 

However, the Edinburgh Review for July, 1813, 
a mail-coach copy of which Byron mentions on 
22 Aug. as having reached him, was content to trust 
Byron. And there was confirmation. Dr. Clarke, 
the second volume of whose travels the Edinburgh 
had taken in hand in its preceding number, spelt the 
word Djour, which comes to the same thing, the dj 
rendering of the Arabic (and English) j being appa- 
rently picked up from French writers, whose em- 
ployment of this lettering, as in the case of Djerid 
and Djinn is necessitated by their own j having a 
different sound. Our ordinary literation of such 
a word would be jawr. But the Edinburgh re- 
ceives with the same equanimity that wonderful 
gem, " the gem of Gi-am-schid." This was too 
much for the orientalism of Tom Moore, on whose 
representation " the jewel of Giam-schid " was 
eventually substituted. But besides the irregular 
division of the word is to be noted the fact that 
the first letters are written exactly as those of 
Giaour, though the word is one which, unlike the 
Persian Gdivr, really does begin with j, and in Eng- 
lish literation is Jamshed. The Edinburgh men- 
tions the Chiaus among those well-sounding words 
probably expressing things for which we have no 
appropriate words of our own. But no opinion is 
advanced as to what its sound is, nor is the couplet 
quoted in which it occurs : 

The Cbiaus spake, and as he said 
A bullet whistled o'er his head. 

But how Byron spake of the Chiaus, only Byron 
could say. The previous occurrence of Gi-am-shid 
would lead one to suspect Chi-aus, though the num- 
ber of syllables required by the metre would be as 
well secured by Chia-us ; and this would be more 

n accordance with the actual pronunciation of the 
word, which we transliterate chdwsh, though the 

:hiaus spelling is not peculiar to Byron. The 
derivation therefrom of English chouse, suggested 

>y a passage in Ben Jonson'a ' Alchemist,' sub- 

tantially explained by Gifford, approved by Dr. 

Brewer and Mr. Sala, but not supported by the 

0. E. D.,' has been discussed in the current sevies. 

f ' N. & Q.' In any case the * Giaour' most 
be accepted us a highly poetical fragment, not as a 
guide to Oriental philology. 



[8 th S. X. JOLT 4, '96. 

If Dr. Clarke, who travelled in 1*01, is con- 
sidered a more careful observer than Lord Byron, 
it is nevertheless to be observed regarding him 
that he comes still nearer to the goodly etymo- 
logical time of the great Sir Eoger Dowler, and 
regarding both of them that, in the absence of a 
guide to their systems of liberation, it is difficult 
to tell for certain what either meant. 


Dr. Edward Clarke, in his well-known 'Travels 
in Various Countries of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa,' invariably spells this word djour. Lord 
Byron adopted the spelling usual among the 
Franks of the Levant. Dr. Clarke's work was 
published 1819-24. I think it may be stated, 
without fear of contradiction, that in England 
Lord Byron's poem has been hitherto known as 
' The D jour/ although I well remember the late 
Mr. Murray having once pronounced it in my 
hearing "Gower." RICHARD EDGCUMBB. 

33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

Byron published his poem in 1813, and I doubt 
if this word was known in English literature before 
that date. Italian was then the lingua franca of 
the Mediterranean, and PROF. SEE AT is almost 
certainly right in saying that Byron adopted 
the usual spelling among the Franks in the 
Levant. But MR. JAS. PLATT, Jun., has, in his 
last note, indicated the road by which that 
spelling came into vogue. Oriental words 
beginning with y are almost universally spelt 
with a soft g, gi, j, when occidentalized. This is 
most commonly seen in local and personal names, 
as Jerusalem, Jericho, Jaffa, Jacob, Joseph, and 
many others. The Arabic yarbu* becomes jerboa 
in English books of natural history. The Turkish 
yeni-cheri comes to us through the Italian as 
janiuary. Similarly the form yawr (Teutonice 
jawr), which, according to Zenker, is the vulgar 
pronunciation of Kafir, becomes giaour in the 
mouth of an Italian. The combination aou is not 
diphthongal, as MR. PLATT seems to think, but 
represents the sounds d and wi or u in gdwir. 
At the same time, MR. PLATT rightly hits a 
peculiarity in modern Turkish pronunciation, 
namely, the slight sound of i after the consonants 
g and k. For instance, kdtib, a writer, is pro- 
nounced kiatib, and the well-known statesman 
Kamil Pasha, has always been spoken of as 
Kiatnil. Even in the British Isles kyar for car, 
&c., is occasionally heard. 

The note of A. H. merits a short reply. In 
Arabic jebel means a mountain, but there is no 
such word as gebd in Hebrew. In that language har 
corresponds with jebel A. H. may have been 
thinking of the proper name Gebal. There is no 
doubt that originally the Hebrew letter gime 
and the Arabic letter jlm were both pro- 
nounced hard. Even at the present day the 

Im is pronounced hard in Egypt and some 
>arts of Arabia (Wright's * Arabic Grammar,' 
econd edition, i. 5, and personal knowledge). 
On this point also A. H. may consult the 
Thesaurus ' of Gesenius, p. 252, with advantage. 
Such words, therefore, as the Hebrew gamal and 
he Arabic jamal (a camel) were originally pro- 
nounced in the same way. The derivation of 
giaour from the root gur is plausible. The Turks 
did not borrow any words from Hebrew, but in 
Arabic this root appears as jur, and jawr, the 
nfinitive of the verb jdra (he deviated from the 
right course) is used as an epithet, and might be 
pplied to one who had deserted the faith (see 
Jane's ' Arabic-English Lexicon,' book i. part ii. 
p. 483). The lexicographers, however, generally 
regard giaour as meaning not an apostate, but an 
unbeliever in Islam, and if this signification is 
admitted, the derivation from kajir would be the 
more accurate. Perhaps A. H. will kindly give 
the authority of a trained Orientalist for his 
assertion. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

OXFORD IN EARLY TIMES (8 th S. ix. 308). 
When I was a child, some fifty years ago now 
eheu ! fugaces), I was taught that the Ox in Ox- 
ford had nothing to do with the useful bovine 
mammal of that name, but that it was a corruption 
of the Celtic word for water, as in usquebaugh, 
and the rivers Uake and Eske. Thus interpreted, 
Oxford signified not the ford over which the oxen 
crossed, but the ford across the water. Perhaps 
the esteemed PROF. SKEAT will (in Shakspearian 
phrase) now unmuzzle his wisdom on this knotty 
point, and set the question at rest for ever. 


Oseney is not Oxford, any more than Southwark 
is London ; the site of Oxford is between the 
rivers Cherwell and the Isis or Thames ; Oseney is 
a mere island between two branches of the latter 
river, and wholly disconnected from the Cherwell. 
No doubt Osenford is a mistake for Oxenford, and, 
as many understand it, ox is put for ux, i. ., Usk, 
Isca, Exe, an old water-name preserved in Whiskey. 

A. H. 

"SIMILITIVE" (8 th S. viii. 507). This word is 
not an invention on the part of Mr. G. H. Kitchin. 
Ash's 'Dictionary,' 1775, has, " Similitive (adj. 
from simile), Expressing similitude. Sc." 


THE WORD " HYPERION " (8 th S. viii. 249 ; ix. 
193, 471). I make bold to say that the language 
which we speak is English, and that a large number 
of words in it, including proper names, were taken 
into English from French. Consequently, we 
must look at the French intermediate forms, and 
we are not bound by the laws of quantity in 
Greek and Latin. 

8">S. X. JCLY4, '96J 



No one can understand English aright till h 
realizes that it is a language governed by accent 
and that it takes small regard of original quantity 
It is of no use for classical scholars to refer us t 
Greek originals ; we shall go on saying anemon 
(with a short unaccented o) in spite of them al] 
And why not ? 

I open, for example, my Name-index to Chaucer 
and the first name I light upon is Amphioun 
What is the length of the i? The man wh< 
guesses will go by Latin and Greek, and wil 
declare it to be long ; but it does not follow tha 
it is long in English because it was long originally 
On the other hand, the man who knows Old French 
will ask where the accent really fell a question o 
far more importance. 

Now the O.F. Amphioun was formed, as th< 
spelling with ou shows, not from the nom. Am 
phion, but from the accus. Amphionem ; and the 
accent, in late Latin, fell upon the first and third 
syllables ; indeed, any Englishman, if left to him- 
self, will say Amphionem still. Consequently, 
the Middle English form neglected the accent on 
the t, and therefore shortened the i as a conse- 
quence of that neglect ; of course, the same thing 
had already happened in Old French. This expla- 
nation enables us to scan Chaucer's lines in ' Cant. 
Tales,' A 1546, E 1716, H 116 : 

The blood roydl of Cadme and Amphioun. 
That Orpheus, nor of Theb-es Amphioun. 
Certes, the king of Theb-es, Amphioun. 
I am not prepared with quotations, but I feel 
sure that the pronunciation Am'phion was common 
in the sixteenth century. If it is not so stilJ, it is 
because we teach our boys Latin and Greek, and 
at the same time resolutely withhold from them 
every chance of becoming acquainted with the 
meanings of English spellings, the history of the 
English language, the history of the French lan- 
guage, the laws of accent, the laws of phonetic 
change, and every other thing that can in any way 
conduce to their knowledge of the facts that most 
nearly concern our daily pronunciation. Hence 
endless debates, and small sympathy with the few 
who, despite all hindrances, dare to try to learn. 

I suppose that Shakspeare said Hyperion because 
every one else said so in his age ; for they used a 
natural pronunciation, that had regularly come 
about, without troubling to look out vowel-lengths 
in a dictionary. Those who dispute this view can 
confute me at once if they can produce evidence 
to the contrary. But the evidence must be con- 
temporary, or it will not be convincing. 


" CHILD " = A GIRL, AND NOT A BOY (8 th S. ix. 
326)." Is it a boy or a cheel ? " is a question asked 
in domestic circles in the west country hundreds 
of times every day. A " cheel " is, of course, a 
girl. Mrs. Hewett, in her 'Peasant Speech of 

Devon' (1892), thus illustrates the use of the word : 
" Well, miss, whot'th tha missis got these time, 
than ? A bwoy or a cheel [daughter] ? " 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

This expression is sometimes heard in the south 
of England. For instance, "Is it a boy or a 
child?" When asked for an explanation, the 
answer is, " A boy is a boy, a girl is a child." 

T. F. 

It may be worthy of note that the phrase "a 
young person," as properly employed, is almost 
invariably used of a female. 


49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

" FANTIGUB " (8 th S. viii. 326 ; ix. 36, 90, 254, 
358). I agree with C. C. B. in his doubt as to 
whether this word is the same as fantod, and I 
should very much like to know what is the origin 
of the latter word. It is given in a ' Dictionary of 
the Kentish Dialect' (E.D.S.), after fanteeg, as an 
adjective, meaning "fidgetty, restless, uneasy." 
Wright's ' Provincial Dictionary ' gives " Fantodds, 
s., indisposition. Leic." Jago's * Glossary of the 
Cornish Dialect,' 1882, has : " Fantads. Eedi- 
culous [sic] notions." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

FLEUR-DE-LIS (8 th S. viii. 369, 411 ; ix. 412). 
M. de Saintfoix, in his 'Historical Essays upon 
Paris/ translated from the French, and published 
in three volumes in London, 1767, appears to give 
two distinct origins for the fleur-de-lis as used in 
the arms of the kings of France. He states : 

' Under the first Race [which ended A.D. 752], the 
heir to the Throne had the hatchet, or Angon of hia 
predecessor put into his hand. He was then raised upon 
the shield ; that is, he was carried by Soldiers round the 
Camp upon their bucklers. Such was the noble and 
simple method of inaugurating our first Kings. Neither 
those who presented the hatchet or Angon, nor the 
Soldiers who carried them round the Camp, ever imagined 
Tom this ceremony, that they had a power of dethroning 
them. This Angon was a kind of Javelin, one of whose 
ends resembled a Flower de Luce. The iron in the 
middle was streight, pointed, and sharp ; the other two 
parts which joined to it, were curved, in the manner of 
Crescent. There is all the reason in the world to 
believe, that the figure formed by thia end of the Angon, 
was first of all placed as an ornament, at the end of 
cepters, and round crowns ; that our Kings chose it 
afterwards for their Arms, and that people are mistaken 
n believing that this was a Flower de Luce." Vol. ii. 


It is certain, there are no vestiges of flowers de luce 
o be found, either in stone or metal, nor upon medals 
r seals, before the time of Lewis the Young [i.e., 
jouis VII.]. It was in his Reign, about the year 1147, 
hat the Escutcheons of France began to be charged with 
ilies." Ibid., p. 63. 
" The coat of arms of our Kings was blue, sown with 

riower[s] de luce Or It was in the Reign of 

'harles V. [1364-80] that the Flower[s] de luce, which 
were formerly innumerable in the standard of France, 
were first reduced to three." Ibid., p. 54. 



"Bees, it is eaid, were the Symbol of tbe first Kings 
of France ; and when Scutcheons were afterwards de- 
vised under the third Race [which dated from A.D. y87], 
those bees, which were badly cut upon ancient tomb- 
stone?, were taken for Flowers de Luce. In the tomb 
of Ckildfric, the father of Clovit, discovered in 1653, 
near Tournay, on the banks of tbe Escaut, there was 
found, among many other things, more than three 
hundred small bees of gold, which had been separated, 
in all likelihood, from his Coat of Arms, into which they 
had been introduced." Vol, i. pp. 300 seq. 

By " our Kingc," the author, of course, meant 
kings of France. W. I. B. V. 

The following account, from an old writer, may 
be interesting to some readers : 

"Thus Clodoueus perseuerynge in his erronyous lawe/ 
made warre vppon the Almaynes. In whych warre 
beynge one daye occupyed in fyght agayn* hys enemyep/ 
he wyth hys people was put to tbe werse, wherof when 
Clodoueus was ware/ hauyng greate drede of hym selfe, 
called to mynde the often exortHcjon of hys wyfe, and 
of the great vertue of her goddes Jawe/ and sodaynly 
lyfte his eyen towarde beuen and sayde, god the whyche 
Clptylde my wyfe doth bonoure, now helpe me. And yf 
this daye 1 may passe this daunger and opteyne vyctory/ 
I shall euer after worsbyp the with true fayth. The 

whyche prayer ekantly fynysshed the Frenchmen in 

Bhortwhyle opteyned the vyctory It was not longe 

after y e bleisyd Remigius was sent for. The whyche 
enfourmed the kynge euffycyently in the fayth of Cryat/ 
& vpon an Beater daye folowynge, wyth great solempnyte 

baptysed the kynge Then the kyng buylded certeyne 

newe monasteryes/ and dedycat the olde temples of 
idollys in honoure of Crystes sayntes. Among y e which 
one was nere vnto the cytye of Parys, in the honour of 
the Apostles Peter and Paule. It is wytnessed of mayster 
Robert Gagwyne/ that before these dayes all Frenche 
kynges vsed to bere in theyr armes . iii . todys. But after 
thys Clodoueus bad receyued Crystes relygyon . iii . floure 
de lyse were sente to hym by dyuyne power, sette in a 
ahylde of asure/ the whyche syns y tyme hath ben borne 
f 40 U Frenche KvD K e8 -" 'Fabyan'a Cronicle,' 1533, 

Perhaps some will agree with me in thinking 
this account quite as credible as that of the date- 
tree and horns. R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

OGNALL (8 tt S. ir. 48). Being unable to find 
Ognall, or Augnell, I send the following suggestion 
for the consideration of J. G. C. Sir Henry Spel- 
man, in his * Villare Anglicum,' 1656, gives " Hugh 
Hall, Lancashire, Salford Hund." A Description 
of the Country Forty Miles round Manchester,' by 
J. Aitkin, 1795, p. 207, says: "Hough Hall, 
commonly called Hough's- end, was the seat of Sir 
Edward Moseley, Bart." It is situated near the 
boundary between Withington and Chorlton cum 
Hardy townships. Ognall may be a corruption of 
Hough or Hugh Hall. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

ST. MARY OVERIE (8> S. viii. 68, 115, 171, 
238, 369 ; ix. 92).- On the south side of the chancel 
of Cranford Church, Middlesex, is a figure in a 
winding sheet, commemorating Lady Elizabeth 
Berkeley, who died in 1635. She was a grand 

niece to Anne Boleyn. The effigy is beautifully 
carved in white marble and rests on a black marble 
slab. One hand is clasped on the heart, as if in 
the throes of the death agony, and the legs are 
crossed. The whole is wonderfully realistic. 
Shroud brasses are common, especially in the 
Eastern Counties. There are two fine examples 
at Aylsham, Norfolk, and others are met with 
at Norwich, Margate, Wey bridge, Hildersham, 
Cambridgeshire, and other places. 

93, Barry Road, Stonebridge Park. 

An emaciated recumbent figure exists over the 
tomb of Edmund Lacy, twenty-first Bishop of 
Exeter (A.D. 1420-55), in the north aisle of his 
cathedral here. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

429), From previous contributions to *N. & Q.' 
it appears that at some places the two church- 
wardens were chosen by the parishioners ; at other 
towns both were appointed by the corporation, 
and elsewhere one by the corporation and the 
other by the vicar. Those who may be inter- 
ested in this subject I would refer to 2 nd S. 
xii. 471 ; 3 rd S. i. 19 ; 6 th S. iii. 207, 370 ; 7 th S. 
i. 29, 110, 251, where they will find interesting 
communications from DR. MARSHALL, JOHN S. 
BURN, the author of the ' History of Parish Ee- 
gisters in England,' and others. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"At Bicton [Devonshire], there is only one Warden, 
who is appointed by the Rector, and this has been un- 
altered since 1763, the earliest year recorded in the 
Parish Accounts." Trans. Devonshire Association, xxvi. 
(1894), p. 339. 


Salterton, Devon. 

The church of Sb. Mary-in-the-Castle, Hastings, 
has one churchwarden only, appointed by the 
incumbent. But this church was built not under 
any of the Church Building Acts, but by authority 
of a private Act of about the year 1825. 



An article with reference to the late Cardinal 
Manning, in the Nineteenth Century for June, men- 
tions that Lavington has only one churchwarden. 

Wingham, Kent. 

PREBRNDARY VICTORIA (8 h S. ix. 329, 377) 
There is the following mention of this in Murray's 
'Handbook to the Welsh Cathedrals/ in the 
account of St. David's : 

" It should be mentioned that the Sovereign is entitled 
to a stall in the choir, together with one of the Prebends, 
known as the * King's Cursal,' or ' Praebenda Regis.' It 
is not certain when this annexation was made. There 

8i b. X. JULY 4, '96.] 



IB no evidence that it is more ancient than the Reforma- 
tion ; but it may possibly be so, since in some foreign 
cathedrals (chiefly in Spain), a 'King's Prebend ' is also 
to be found." P. 132. 

No doubt in the ' History of St. David's Cathe- 
dral,' by E. A. Freeman and W. Basil Jones, an 
old friend of mine who worthily presides over that 
see, some further information upon the subject 
would be found, as the book is most exhaustive. 
Until recently the title of dean was unknown at 
St. David's, the chief officer of the church being 
the precentor. JOHN PICKFORD, M. A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

THE NATIONAL DEBT (8 tb S. ix. 488). 
Whitaker's 'Almanack' for 1896, p. 183, states 
that at the Revolution, 1688, the debt was some- 
what over half a million ; that King William 
added nearly sixteen millions, and Queen Anne 
nearly thirty - eight. Probably, therefore, the 
required date is about the beginning of George I.'s 
reign, 1714. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 


1 86, 289, 369, 437). When E. L. G. says he is con- 
v inced that Holborn took its name from Hockley 
i n the Hole, I presume be means that it took its 
name from the depression in which Hockley was 
situated. It is quite true that an affluent of the 
Fleet took the course which is noted by E. L. G. , 
but Hockley in the Hole was on the east or left 
bank of the river, while Holborn was on the west 
or right bank. The affluent in question was not, 
I think, the one mentioned by Stow, which I take 
to have run down Holborn Hill. The inhabitants 
of St. Andrew's, Holborn (ix. 369), would not have 
petitioned about a stream which ran through the 
parishes of St. Pancras and Clerkenwell, as was 
the case with the rivulet mentioned by E. L. G. 
The Fleet river naturally ran its course along a 
hollow or depression, and both Hockley in the 
Hole and the stream and street of Holborn derived 
their appellations from this geographical fact. 

I do not wish to raise a discussion on Hockley 
in the Hole, which has received exhaustive treat- 
ment in Pinks's * History of Clerkenwell,' pp. 155- 
164, 646-649, but I should be glad to learn some- 
thing of the origin of the name. Picks merely 

" Camden, writing in the sixteenth century of a village 
so named in Bedfordshire, says, ' We came to Hockley- 
in-tbe-Hole, BO named of the miry way in winter time, 
very troublesome to travelling. For the old Englishmen 
our progenitours called deepe myre hock, and hocks. 
The name appears obviously to have been derived from 
the Saxon hoc dirt, and leaz a pasture, muddy or dirty 
field.' " 

This account seems to have been followed by 
Mr. Thornbury in his ' Old and New London,' 
ii. 306, and it would be desirable to have expert 
opinion on it. I will merely throw out the sug- 
gestion that as the Domesday name of Hoxton 

was Hochestone, the first syllable of that word 
may have had something to do with Hockley. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

AUSTRIAN LIP (8 th S. ix. 248, 274, 374). MR. 
E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP says that " the Austrian 
lip is said to have come into the Hapsburg family, 
together with the dowry of the Netherlands, by the 
marriage of Maximilian with Mary of Burgundy, 
daughter of Charles the Bold and Margaret, sister 
of Edward IV., in 1477." This is a very astound- 
ing piece of genealogy. Margaret, sister of Ed- 
ward IV. , was Charles the Bold's second wife, and 
Mary of Burgundy was his daughter by his first 
wife. It is a study for the imagination to think 
what the history of England and of Europe would 
have been if Charles V. and Philip II. had really 
been direct descendants of the House of York. If 
such was the case, Margaret, Duchess Dowager of 
Burgundy, the childless widow of Charles the 
Bold, would not have had to go to the trouble 
of inventing spurious " White Koses " to vex the 
soul of Henry VIL, and Charles V. and Philip II. 
would have had a title to the crown of England 
which neither of them would have neglected to 
prosecute. This same blunder appeared, most 
unaccountably, a great many years ago, in genea- 
logical tables in both Dr. Smith's * Student's 
Hume 'and his smaller history of England. The 
present writer, on calling the attention of the pub- 
lishers to it, received a letter thanking him, and 
saying that the mistake would be rectified in future 
editions, which was done. This was very long ago, 
I should say fully thirty years, or perhaps even 
more. F.R. S.A.Ireland. 

ANCIENT SERVICE BOOK (8 th S. ix. 467).- 
A similar illuminated MS. vellum cover is in 
existence at St. Lawrence, Thanet. It forms the 
cover of the first paper book of churchwardens' 
accounts from 1582 to 1659. This paper book was 
originally intended to be used as a register, but 
entries were made for only about three months. 
They were then cancelled, and they appear in the 
parchment register, which dates from the first year 
of Elizabeth. It is a leaf from a fourteenth cen- 
tury service book, and the contents are chiefly 
devoted to the praises of St. Baldwin (of Laon) 
and St. Elizabeth of Hungary. 

It is fully described in a recently published 
local history of the church and of the antiquities of 
the church and parish. K. W. W. 

It is quite a common thing to find paper books 
with covers made of old MS. service books. The 
leaves about which MR. VANE inquires appear to 
have formed parts of a Sarum Missal. Gen. xxxvif. 
6-22 is the section which takes the place of the 
epistle on the Friday after the Second Sunday 
in Lent, and St. Matt. xxxi. 33-46 is the 



> S. X. JULY 4, '96. 

gospel. "Ad Dominum," &c., is the gradual, 
formerly sung on the steps of the ambo or rood 
screen. St. Matt. xv. 1-20 is the gospel for the 
Thursday in the following week, and Jer. vii. 1-7 
is the lection in place of epistle for the Friday. 
" Suscipe," &c., is the secret, said secreto by the 
priest between the offertory and the preface. The 
probable date could only be determined by inspec- 
tion. J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield'a Hal), Durham. 

WILLIAM FREMAN, D.D. (8 th S. ix. 467). In 
the ' Graduati Oxonienses ' and * Cantabrigienses ' 
there is no William Freman or Freeman, D.D. 
There is a William Freman, of Hamells, Hert- 
fordshire, of Magdalene College, Oxford, created 
D.O.L. 1 Aug., 1747. The date suits. Freman, 
so spelt, is an uncommon name, and this is pro- 
bably the man wanted. It is not an unusual 
blunder, when a man is spoken of as " Dr.," to 
take it for granted that he is D.D. 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

William Freman, born 1702, M.A. 1733, and 
D.C.L. 1747, was son of Ralph Freman, of Ham- 
mells, in co. Herts, Esq., and brother of Rev. 
Oatesby Freman. LEO CULLETON. 

'THE Two PEACOCKS OP BEDFONT'(8 tb S. ix. 486). 
A good account of these peacocks, with a dis- 
sertation on clipped yews, will be found in Wal- 
ford'a ' Greater London/ vol. i. p. 195. The story, 
however, of the two proud sisters is only legendary, 
and seems to have been evolved to account for the 
curious shape of the yews, which really were only 
ordinary products of the " landscape gardening " of 
the last century. Sperling, in his * Church Walks 
of Middlesex/ describes the yew trees as being cut 
into the shape of fighting cocks. 


93, Barry Road, Stonebridge Park, N.W. 

The legend of these birds is thus given by me 
in my ' Greater London/ vol. i. p. 195 : 

" The local tradition is that they represent satirically 
two sisters who lived at Bedfont, and who were so very 
haughty that they both refused the hand of some local 
magnate, who thus immortalized their being ' as proud as 
peacocks.' " 

This, however, I am careful to add, "is a legend 
only." E. WALFORD. 


FLAGS (8 S. ix. 328, 394, 472, 499). MR. 
RALPH THOMAS'S authority is obviously MacGeorge 
on ' Flags ' (p. 64, 11. 1-4 from bottom). If MR. 
RALPH THOMAS is a constant reader of * N. & Q.' 
he must be aware that this is not the first occasion 
on which exception has been taken in its columns 
to the claim set up by the late Dr. MacGeorge for 
the exclusive use of the term Union Jack by th 
navy. If in the naval service the term is onl 

applicable to a diminutive of the union, " flown on 
the jackstaff, a staff on the bowsprit or fore part 
of the ship," MR. RALPH THOMAS need not con- 
ine the search for the origin of the term Jack to 
he bowsprit or any other part of a ship ; he 
might even give a moment's consideration to the 
ague, or surcoat, which was worn over body armour 
and on which heraldic bearings were displayed. 

The application of the term to the union when 
lown on forts on shore is sanctioned by the 
Queen's regulations for the army. I do not know 
f in an account given recently in the Times of 
;be hoisting of the Union Jack on the castle of 
St. Angelo by Capt. Louis Stevenson of the Mino- 
taur, on 30 September, 1799, the use of the term 
s due to Capt. Stevenson himself, but I do know 
ihat naval officers of experience see no objection 
to its use in similar circumstances. 


It is no unusual thing to see the national flag, 
mown generally as the Union Jack, flying on high 
days and holidays upside down upon the staff on 
the top of our (Exeter) ancient Guildhall. But 
;he city is always very lax in the way of its flags. 
3n the last occasion appointed to be kept as the 
Queen's birthday the anniversary was overlooked 
entirely by the civic authorities, and no royal 
standard or other flag was flown on its public 
offices. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

S. ix. 328). The title desired by ST. SWITHIN 
will be ' Compendium Librorum Sententiarum 
Quatuor.' A copy in the Corsini Library bears no 
date, place of publication, or printer's name, and 
is attributed in the catalogue (54 D. 24) to the 
fifteenth century. It is one of the innumerable 
epitomes of the work of Peter Lombard. 

It may be worth remarking that two works by 
an author of the same name that is Juan da 
Fuente were published in 1582 and 1585, respec- 
tively at Alcala and at Lyons. Presumably quite 
a distinct personage of the same name was Joannis 
de Fonte, who was chaplain to the Dean of 
Cuenca in 1647, at which place he printed ' Com- 
pendium Fusion is,' and another work issued in 
the year following. ST. CLAIR BADDELET. 

INSCRIBED FONTS (8 tb S. ix. 167, 253, 295). 
The Guardian, to which W. C. B. refers, for 
3, 10 June, 1891, contains, I think, the latest 
exact history of this line. It is a line in one of 
the leonine compositions of the Emperor Leo VI., 
the Philosopher, A.D. 886-911 son of Basil I., the 
Macedonian (Leo Allatius, ' Excerpta/ Horn., 1641, 
p. 398). It was one of the lines inscribed by the 
Emperor Basil (Cedrenus, ap. Baron., ' Mart. 
Eom.,' 16 Aug.) on the tomb of the Physician 
St. Diomede, a martyr in the Diocletian per- 
secution (' Anthologia,' H. Steph., Francof., 1600, 

8"> 8, X. JULY 4, '96.] 



p. 563). It was frequently inscribed on vessels 
for purification (Rosweyde's note to Paulinus 
Migne, p. 850). Gruter has an engraving of one 
such from Constantinople ('Inscriptt.,' p. 1047 
num. ix., fol., 1616). Grelot, the traveller, saw a 
vessel of this sort at the church of St. Sophia 
(' Travel?,' with plates, translation, Lond., 1683). 
Later than this, Bekker, in his notes on Paulus 
Silentiarius (ap. 'Scriptt. Byzant.,' Bonn, 1837, 
p. 179), gives the French : 

" Entre cea deux colonnea cerclees, il y a de part et 
1'autre de grosses jarres, urnes ou pots de marbre armea 
de leura petites canelles ou robinets. On les emplit tous 

lea matins de 1'eau de la citerne qui est sous 1'eglise 

Si ces deux urnea ne aont pas anciennes, on peut dire 
au moins qu'ellea sont en la place de celles qui y etoient 
du temps des Empereurs Grec?, ellea servoient d'agiasma 
ou de sanctification aux Chretiens qui venoien't dans 

cette egliae Ces vases etoient comrae les eau-benitiers 

des e'glises Catholiques ; et Ton remarque memo, qu'il y 
ayoit ecrit au-dessus ce beau yers Grec retrograde : 
vtyov, K.T.X. Maia aujourd'hui ila ne aervent plus qu'a 

For the statement of which this is a short notice, 
see ' N. & Q.,' 5* S. vii. 372 ; viii. 77. 


See * Inscriptions on Wells/ 6 th S. xii. 349, 394, 
at which latter reference F. G. refers to 5 th S. vii. 
372; viii. 77, concerning the font at Melton 
Mowbray. See also 'Inscriptions on Wells and 
Fonts,' 7* S. i. 15, 58. CELER ET AUDAX. 

ix. 345, 451). I agree with CANON TAYLOR when 
he says that the O.N. vollr would make "wall" 
rather than "well," and at the first reference I 
gave two place-names in which the suffix was 
"wall." I might add to these Corker Walls and 
Turner Walls old field-names which occur near 
Sheffield. In a list of the hamlets and freeholders 
of Derbyshire, dated 1633, which I published 
some years ago, Tideswell popularly called Tidsa' 
was written Tideswall, and Bradwell was written 
Bradwall. These are late instances, but they help 
us to ascertain the true origin of the names. 

Bearing in mind, however, that the dative 
singular of vollr is velli, and that, moreover, 
English place-names are often in the dative, it is 
to be expected that the form " well " would be as 
frequently found as "wall." Again, the force of 
the accent on the first syllable of dissyllabic place- 
names tends to make the second very short, so 
that there would be little difference between the 
sound of a and e in such cases. Further, popular 
interpretation may in some cases have changed 
"wall" into "well." Still further, the O.N? 6 
often makes English e, as old, eld ; blbogL elbow : 
orn = O.E. earn, M.E. erne, an eagle. 

In the majority of cases the meaning " field " 
makes far better sense than "well," and on this 
ground alone the derivation from vollr gains great 
weight. For instance Brad well = broad field is 

much more reasonable than Brad well = broad well. 
For what could " broad well " be ? Not a broad 
stream certainly, for there is no such thing at 

I know very little of the place-names of the 
southern counties. I see, however, that Somerset 
is one of the counties in which, according to 
CANON TAYLOR, no Norse place-names are to be 
found. But is not Somerset itself a Norse word, 
viz., sumar-setr, a summer abode? 

With regard to MR. LEPPINGWELL'S query, I 
notice that lepping as a variant of leaping is men- 
tioned. This form also occurs in the lepping stones 
by which streams are crossed. It would appear, 
then, that a leaping well might mean a well of 
water bubbling up or leaping from the ground or, 
it may be, ebbing. But if we take " well " as the 
O.N. vollr, the word might be hlaupinga-vollr, 
land-louper's field, i. e., a field settled or inhabited 
by some wandering tribe or family. This would 
make Lowpingwall (or well) or Leapingwell (or 
wall). S. 0. ADDY. 

OFFICES (8" S. ix. 469). If there is not exactly 
a copy of the Common Prayer which will suit the 
wish of PALAMEDES, the means of arriving at the 
state of the case as to the compilation of the Prayer 
Book are not wanting. Palmer's ' Origines Litur- 
gicae,' Oxf. Univ. Press, was perhaps the earliest 
contribution. Then there was the * Prayer Book 
Interleaved ' of Beaumont and Campion, first pub- 
lished by Rivington in 1865. There is also the 
larger c Annotated Book of Common Prayer,' by 
J. H. Blunt, first published in 1862. Dr. Goul- 
burn, ' On the Collects,' illustrates the history of 
this form of prayer in connexion with the ancient 
offices. The question, How much comes from 
ancient sources ? will be found invariably to have 
passed into this How little is not ? 


In Blunt's ' Annotated Book of Common Prayer ' 
he Latin and other originals are given, so far as 
)ossible, in columns side by side with the English. 
3ee also Procter on the Prayer Book, and Cam- 
)ion and Beaumont's ' Prayer Book Interleaved.' 

I may mention that the * Dictionary of Hymno- 
logy ' and Moorsom's ' Companion to Hymns An- 
cient and Modern' give the originals of all the 
translated hymns in that collection. I do not see 
why four columns should be wanted. J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

MURAL MEMORIALS (8 th S. ix. 508). A query 
similar to that of NEMO appeared last year in the 
Middlesex and Hertfordshire Notes and Queries 
(pp. 32, 84, and 88), and therein will be found the 
answer required. The heads in question are the 
crests of the Mercers' Company, a demi-virgin, 
with her hair dishevelled, crowned, issuing out 
of and within an orle of clouds, all proper. This 



[8 th 8. X. JULY 4, '96. 

is to represent the Virgin. Mr. J. Watney, 
F.S.A., clerk to the Mercers' Company, gave, in 
the publication already referred to, an able sketch 
of the Company's property in Long Acre. 

93, Barry Road, Stonebridge Park, X.W. 

MAID MARIAN'S TOMB (8 th S. ix. 188, 334). 
The Graphic Illustrator (1834) contains an article 
on Maid Marian's tomb, by J. F. Russell, who, 
after his visit to the Priory Church, Little Dun- 
mow, writes as follows : 

" I was aware that Mr. Douce considers the story of 
Maid Marian a dramatic fiction, and that the female 
character which figures in the old ballads was borrowed 
from a French pastoral drama of the eleventh century, 
entitled 'Le Jeu du Berger, et de la Bergere,' in which 
the principal persons are Robin and Marian, a shepherd 
and shepherdess ; and I am well acquainted, on the other 
hand, with the opinion of Mr. Steevens, Bishop Percy, 
and Master Drayton, that the name Marian was origin- 
ally assumed by a 'lady of high degree' who was 
murdered at Dunmow Priory. On the left side of the 
church I found the fair alabaster effigy of the celebrated 
Matilda. The face, although much disfigured, bears 
traces of former beauty; her bands are clasped as in 
prayer. The following description of this figure is 
deri?ed from Gough's Sepulchral Monuments.' Oo the 
head, which reposes on a cushion, is a covering like a 
woollen nightcap. She has the collar of 88., a necklace 
of pendants falling from a rich embroidered neckerchief, 
a rich girdle, and long robes. Her fingers are loaded 
with rings. Her face is round and full and rather in- 
expressive. At her head were two angels, now mutilated, 
and a dog on each side her feet. This lady's history is 
briefly as follows : She was the daughter of Robert, 
Baron Fiti-walter, proprietor of Castle Baynard. who is 
distinguished in English history as the ' Marshall of the 
Army of God, and Holy Church,' and the leader of the 
illustrious barons who extorted Magna Charta from 
King John. Upon her entering her eighteenth year, 
he invited the neighbouring nobles to a costly banquet. 
For three days, jousts and tourneys delighted the 
assembled guests; on the fourth a strange warrior 
entered the lists and vanquished the bravest of the com- 
batants. His gallant bearing and handsome features 
enamoured the fair young queen of that high festival. 
His countenance was clouded with sorrow, and as he 
came, so he departed, none knew whither. Prince John 
(afterwards king), who had honoured the castle with his 
presence, became smitten by the charms of the high-born 
maiden, and basely endeavoured to obtain her for a mis- 
tress. The Baron Fitz-walter, her father, treated his pro- 
posals with just and natural indignation, which so enraged 
the headstrong prince that he immediately attacked 
Castle Baynard and slew its owner ; but Matilda fled away 
to the forest, and there on the day following was met by 
the stranger knight. His burnished steel was laid aside 
and he was clad in Lincoln green, the archer's garb. He 
told the lady that he was Robin Hood, the outlawed Earl 
of Huntingdon, and that he would shield her innocence 
from the fierce and cruel ravisher. She afterwards 
married Robin Hood, and when King Richard restored 
him his earldom and estates, she became Countess of 
Huntingdon. When her husband was again outlawed by 
King John, she shared his misfortunes, and at his death 
took refuge in Dunmow Priory, trusting to spend the 
residue of her days in peace. King John, however dis 
patched a gallant knight, one Robert de Medewe (the 
common ancestor of the present Earl Manvers and 

>f the writer of these notes) with a token to the fair 
ecluse a poisoned bracelet. Ignorant of the accursed 
leed he went to perform, Sir Robert arrived at the 
'riory, and was respectfully and cordially received, left 
he bracelet, and set out on his return to London, 
becoming possessed of strong yearnings of love towards 
Matilda, he immediately resolved to return to the priory, 
and with fearful forebodings he entered the house of 
rayer, and there in the chancel, on a bier covered with 
lowers, was stretched the lifeless body of the unfortunate 
Matilda. The bracelet was on her wrist ; it had eaten 
ts way to the bone, and the fiery poison had dried her 
ife blood." 

R. L. 

FLITTERMOUSE = BAT (8 th S. ix. 348, 476). 
^enny son's employment of the word seems to 
ave been so far unnoticed. It occurs in 'The 
Voyage of Maeldune,' in his 'Ballads and other 
:*oems' : 

And we hated the beautiful Isle, for whenever we strove 

to speak 
Our voices were thinner and fainter than any flitter- 



The word flittermouse, German Fledermaus = 
bat, was in such common use in Surrey some forty 

rears ago that I doubt whether a peasant in that 
county would have understood the meaning of 
the word bat in that sense. A full account of the 
word will be found in a publication on Surrey 
etymology, written by my brother, and published, 

f I mistake not, by Messrs. Mitchell & Hughes 
about twenty-five years ago. 


ix. 467). The following etchings by Hollar are in 
the Grace Collection in the British Museum (Port- 
folio xxxii) : North View of the Hospital of St. 
John of Jerusalem, South Gate ; West View of 
the Chapel ; North-east View of the House. Re- 
productions of these views are numerous. Those 
most easily accessible will be found in Brayley's 
' Londiniana,' vol. i. ; Pinks's ' History of Clerken- 
well,' pp. 145, 217, 241; and Thornbury's 'Old 
and New London,' ii. 307. The general view from 
the north-east forms the frontispiece of Cromwell's 
1 History of Clerkenwell.' W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

ix. 468). The Rev. T. W. Wood's 'Degrees, Gown?, 
and Hoods ' gives a list of one hundred and thirty 
universities and colleges in the United States. 
But I think the following three conclusions are not 
at all unsafe : (1) Since the book is of some years' 
date, the list is probably now far from accurate ; 

(2) it would be very difficult to obtain a list which 
would remain accurate for many years together ; 

(3) some, at least, of the " universities" are likely 
to have no real claim to the title. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

8 th S. X.JULY 4, '96.] 




They eat the fruit and blame the woman still, 
is the laat line of a clever little poem, called 'Man/ 
which appeared in the Spectator of 7 NOT., 1891. It 
was signed " Dorothea A. Alexander." H. C. B. 

He sleeps his last sleep, &c., 

'The Grave of Bonaparte,' by Leonard Heath, in 1842. 
See Bela Chapin, The Poets of New Hampshire,' 1883, 
p. 760. From Bartlett's 'Familiar Quotations,' 1891, 
p. 666. ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. 

(8 th S. ix. 449.) 
Hoc Matthaeus agens, &c. 

From Seduliue, translated in Neale, 'Mediaeval Hymns,' 
1851, p. 82. W. C. B. 

Seduliu*, 'Carmen Pascbale,' lib. i. w. 355-8, ap. 
"Poett. Christ. Saec. iv.," Migne, col. 591. 

(8 th S. ix. 469.) 

He was born a man, he died a grocer. 
In 1860, a grocer's apprentice in Paris hanged himself, 
leaving a letter, in which he said, " I always think of 
that caricature representing a grocer standing on the 
threshold of his door, and making this reflection, ' Born 

to be a man and condemned to become a grocer.' I 

beg my parents to erect a simple tombstone to my 
memory, and to inscribe upoa it these words, ' Born to 
be a man; died a grocer.'" See Illustrated London 
Newt, 6 October, 1860, p. 305. W. C. B. 

The Diary of Samuel Pepys, M.A., F.R.S. Vol. VIII. 

Edited, with Additions, by Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A. 

(Bell & Sons.) 

So far as regards the text of the Diary,' Mr. Wheatley's 
authoritative edition of Pepys is complete. A further 
and indispensable volume will contain an introduction, 
a paper on the London of Pepys's time (with a map in 
illustration of his wanderings from east to west), an 
elaborate index, appendices, and, it is to be hoped, 
the correspondence. Other appetizing items include a 
corrected pedigree by Windsor Herald. What is of most 
importance is the index, awaiting which the work, how- 
ever delightful for purposes of reperusal, is useless for 
literary or historical pursuits. It is with a feeling of 
keen regret that the long chat with the most expansive 
and truthful of companions is closed. So long have we 
been accustomed to anticipate a further instalment that 
we read the termination with a sigh, and feel a die- 
appointment kindred to that of the reader of ' Pamela ' 
or ' Dombey and Son ' or ' Vanity Fair ' when the last 
was known concerning the characters peopling that 
microcosm. It is all very well for Coleridge, quoted by 
Mr. Wheatley, to say : " It makes me restless and dis- 
contented to think what a diary equal in minuteness and 
truth of portraiture to the preceding, from 1669 to 1688 
or 1690, would have been for the true causes, process 
and character of the Revolution " (see 4 N. & Q.,' lt S. 
vi. 215). This is the correct and edifying thing to say. 
No doubt it is the most serious aspect of the loss we have 
sustained through Pepys's fears, happily needless, for his 
eyesight. We regret less, however, the uncompleted 
history than the death of the friend. No more long, 
curious, stimulating, and outspoken gossips can be pro- 
longed into the late hours. It i#, of course, as a con- 
tribution to history that the ' Diary ' was first published 
its unedifying passages being cut out Very long indeed 

since the translation of the MS. has it taken us to get it 
"nearly" all, which represents the point, supposedly 
final, now reached. Asa revelation of humanity, as what 
it is the fashion to call a human document, its value is 
most signal. Mr. John Morley has dwelt upon the reve- 
lations of character in Rousseau. A well-known and 
vivacious contributor to N. & Q.' is now telling U3 at 
some length how much there is that is true in the revela- 
tions of that unmitigated scapegrace and vagabond 
Jacques Casanova. Schiller dwelt with approval on the 
pictures of social life and morals ( !) in the confessions 
of M. Nicholas. Mr. Craik is throwing all the light he 
can on the scorching cynicism of Swift. Desforges, 
even, has found hi? defenders. In some respects, at 
least, Pepys stands facile princept. He scorns as much 
the affectations of sincerity of Jean Jacques as the 
boasts of impossible prowess (!) of the Chevalier de 
Seingalt. He never lies. His meanest and most con- 
temptible thoughts he reveals with the same frankness 
as his personal maladies. He is inconceivably sincere, 
and, had he not said what he has, we should have 
thought it impossible that it ever should have been 
said. In this respect it is that Pepys is moet mar- 
vellous. Mr. Wheatley, as in duty bound, holds a brief 
for him. It is supererogatory, needless. We admire 
Pepys and we condemn, are shocked at him and love him. 
He is, let it be owned, indifferent honest, standing with 
the Coveatrys and Gaudens in an age of Petts and 
Mennises. He is one of the loyal lest and most trust- 
worthy servants the king baa, All sorts of good 
things may be said about him. Nathless, he is the 
most unmitigated and unpardonable scapegrace and 
scamp ever known. Goethe says, somewhere or other, 
that every man has in him that which, if known, would 
make us love him or hate him, Pepys reveals both. He 
is as true as conscience itself. In this latest volume be 
is very " down on his luck." It is not his eyes only that 
trouble him. His carefully prepared depravation of 
Deb has been found out by Mrs. Pepyo, who puts him 
through the smallest of sieves, watches him with lynx- 
like cunning and keenness of vision. Deb has had to go, 
and Jane has followed after. Poor Pepys swears fidelity 
to his wife, resolves, and prays devoutly for strength to 
keep his resolution. Yet be constantly tries to renew 
intercourse with Deb, and at the close of the confessions 
is obviously wondering how to approach the new maid, 
in spite of her large hands. His other escapades we 
may pass over. Like woman in the chorus in Samson 
Agonistes,' he "again transgresses and again repents." 
In the midst of his deepest regrets he is plotting new 
turpitudes. He is indeed irreclaimable, hopeless. 
Should Mr. Wheatley or another protest against dealing 
with this aspect of a many-sided character, we answer 
that it is this aspect this edition first reveals. Pepys in 
most respects has been long before us, and we have not 
now to deal with the light his ' Diary ' throws upon 
history. Now first, however, do we see the self-avowed 
and at heart impenitent libertine. The new volume has 
valuable notes by Mr. Wheatley, and is adorned with 
well-executed portraits of Charles II. and the Dake of 
Albemarle. We thank Mr. Wheatley for his splendid 
services. " To work, to work," we say to him, " and let 
us have the index and the other promised luxuries." 

Miscellanea Oenealogica et Heraldica. Edited by Joseph 
Jackson Howard, LL.D., F.8.A., Maltravers Herald 
Extraordinary. Vol. I. Third Series. (Mitchell & 

IP our memory be a faithful servant to us, Dr. Howard's 
Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica came into being 
about thirty years ago. It has from the first gone on 
making steady improvement. Something a little short 



[8 th 8. X. JULY 4, '96. 

of a third of a century ia a long period in human life and 
manners, and habits of thought have changed much 
during that time. Then, as we can well remember, a 
man who devoted himself to genealogical lore was not 
regarded with much complacency. The pedigree-hunter 
if he escaped gibes was a lucky man. Now the aspect of 
things has so far changed that it ia well understood by 
all but the very ignorant that genealogy is not only a 
most important help to the right understanding of history, 
but, when properly employed, is calculated to throw no 
little light on some of the most obscure questions of 

An interesting group of stories might be gathered 
together showing the contempt in which genealogy and 
its sister, heraldry, were held not ao long ago. We need 
not dwell upon the brutalities which occurred during the 
French Revolution, when a whole people seemed bent on 
answering in the affirmative Bishop Butler's question 
to Dean Tucker as to whether " nations might not go 
mad aa well as individuals." 

We were once engaged in examining a parish register 
of the time of James I., when its custodian, the clergy- 
man of the parish, said gravely that the laws with regard 
to the devolution of property had been so much altered 
of late that there waa now no use in preserving any 
registers of an earlier date than 1812, and that, for his 
part, he wished they were all destroyed previous to that 
time, as, if that were done, people could not waste their 
time by reading them. This we were sure was by no 
means a jest, but an exercise of what the man would 
have called his reasoning faculty. Here is another 
instance, which at the time made a deep impression upon 
us. We were in a large public library, and an under 
official, who had on many occasions taken much trouble 
to serve ua, pointed out with pride a valuable acquisition 
which had just been made. It waa a beautiful volume, 
and bore stamped on its sides the arms of a great French 
noble. The design and execution were of singular 
beauty. We made some remark upon them, whereupon 
our friend exclaimed : " I wish another copy had been 
procured, without things like that upon it. They will 
corrupt the minds of the young who come to read here. 
If I had my way, they would be rubbed off." 

Dr. Howard interprets the title of his work liberally, 
and for this we are glad. He gives his readers, from the 
collection of Sir Wollaaton Franks, K.C.B., an engraving 
of the book-plate of Charles O'Brien, Earl of Thoraond 
in Ireland, and Field-Marshal and a Knight of the Saint 
Esprit of France. The collar of the order surrounds the 
shield, and behind it are two marshals 1 batons semee of 
fleura-de-lya. We never saw this book-plate elsewhere. 
It is especially interesting as a memorial of one of the 
attainted peerages. Of course, Charles O'Brien was no 
peer in British law, as the title had been attainted on 
account'of its owner's loyalty to the bouse of Stuart ; but 
the French king recognized these Jacobite titles, and 
they are interesting to antiquaries of the present day, 
now that dynastic feuds are forgotten. 

To give a proper idea of this interesting volume we 
should have to reprint the table of contents, so very mis- 
cellaneous are the things commented on. Many old 
book-plates are given in facsimile. Some are strangely 
like in execution those given in the 'Analogia Hono- 
rum,' which is commonly bound up with the fifth edition 
of John Guillim's Display of Heraldry,' 1679. Are they 
by the same artist ? The engravings of the two Monaon 
brasses in Northorpe Church are very interesting. The 
family are said to have been Roman Catholics. It ia 
noteworthy that the brass with the arms attached is 
affixed to the mediaeval altar-slab, which liea just beneath 
the east window. This moat interesting church ia, we 
fear, threatened with restoration. We believe there are 

other Monaon memorials, which are not seen by the 
casual visitor. 

Among certain memoranda made by Henry Downe, a 
merchant of Barnataple, we find a record of a very great 
flood which occurred at Barnataple in 1537. This is 
noteworthy if there be, as we have heard reported, 
persons engaged in trying to form a record of the weather 
in past years from chronicles and private documents. 

Specimens of the Original Caslon Old Face Printing 

Types. (H. W. Caslon & Co.) 

To the discussion concerning the Whittingham and 
Pickering types which has been conducted in our columns 
we owe the receipt of this handsome volume of specimens 
of the types due to the first Caslon in the early part of 
last century. The interest of the volume is not confined 
to the practical printer, though to such it makes most 
direct appeal. It supplies, among other things, a history 
of the establishment and fortunes of the Caslon foundry. 

Mountain, Moor, and Loch. Illustrated by Pen and 

Pencil. (Causton & Sons.) 

A SECOHD edition of this guide to the West Highland 
Railway has been issued. It is, as experience tells us, 
a very pleasant companion on a Highland tour. Its 
illustrations are well executed, and its letterpreas is 

Through the Green hies. (Waterford, Harvey & Co.) 
A VERY pleasant and serviceable illustrated guide to the 
South and West of Ireland, which intending tourists will 
do well to slip into their pockets. 

The Tourist Guide to the Continent. (Lindley.) 
THE new issue of this well-known guide to the portion of 
the Continent served by the Great Eastern Railway is 
richer than before in maps and illustrations. 

How to Visit Italy. By Henry S. Lunn. (Horace Mar- 
shall & Son.) 

THIS work, by the editor of 'Travel,' answers well its 
purpose, and is a cheap, useful, and delightful guide to 
the principal cities of the Italian peninsula. 

fjtolirw to 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wiahea to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

B. B. (" Punnet"). This is a word of common use, 
and may be found in most dictionaries. 

W. S. ("Gibbous Moon"). Giblous=s welling out, 
protuberant. The term is applied to the moon when, 
before and after the full, its shape is convex. 

E. A. CORFIELD (" Holbein's ' Ambassadors ' "). See 
4 N. & Q.,' 8 th S. viii. 502, 28 Dec., 1895. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publiaher " at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8' h 8. X. JOLT 11, '96.] 




CONTENT 8. N 237. 

NOTES : Pope's Villa at Twickenham, 21 Shakspeariana, 
22 Shakspeare's First Folio New England and the 
Wmthrops Curious Place-Names, 23 Burial at Cross- 

Roads steam Carriage for Common Roads James Simon 

St. Uncumber, 24 The Grange, Brook Green Belem- 
nites Misquotation Pius VI. Miracles at York, 25 
41 St. Sepulchre " " To Slop " Thorold Family Wheeler s 
Noted Names of Fiction,' 26. 

QUERIES : The Broom Dance, 26 Saunders=Crompton 
Hugo's Dfiaint^ressement,' 27 John Morris Edward 
Lofthouse Translation of Virgil" Displenish "Clock 
' Auchtermuchty Dog " Ubaldino's 'Account of Eng- 
land 'Coat of Arms Gordon and Sinclair Headley, 28 
Theatre In Hammersmith Statue of Wellington Cotton 
A Joke of Sheridan, 29. 

BEPLIES : Parish Constables' Staves, 29 Local Works on 
Brasses, 30 Topographical Collections for Counties A 
Sbakspeariau Desideratum' The Secret of Stoke Manor ' 
Fool's Paradise, 32 Kingsley's Hypatia ' Peacock's 
Feathers Unlucky Nelson's "Little Emma" Samuel 
Pepys, 33 Patriot " Pottle "Lady Knights" Kneeler " 
Pin and Bowl " Sicker," 34 S. Blower Column in 
Orme Square Alley Shakspeare and Ben Jonson 
Saunderson Thomson's 'Seasons' The Eye of a Por- 
trait, 35 Family Societies Dragon Weighing the Earth 
' General Pardon ' Bedford Chapel, 37 Folk-lore : 
Washing Hands-St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' Dictionary of National Biography' 
'Journal of the Ex-Libris Society' Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

IQ Curll's edition of Pope's 'Literary Corre- 
spondence,' 1735, vol. ii., we learn, in the 
" Address to the Reader," that 

" while Mr. Pope was dangling, and making Gilliver and 
Cooper his Cabinet-Counsel, away goes Mr. Curll, on 
the 12th Day of June in the Year of our Lord God 
1735, and by the assistance of that Celebrated Artist Mr. 
Rijabrack [sic], takes a full view of our Bard 'a Grotto, 
Subterraneous Way, Gardens, Statues, Inscriptions, and 
his Dog Bounce. An Account of some of them are [sic] 
hereunto subjoined. And a Prospect of Mr. Pope's 
House from the Surrey Side, is now exhibited in a very 
curious Print, engraven by the best Hands." 

Further on in the volume, at p. 221, is a "De- 
scription of Mr. Pope's House." 

In ' N. & Q.' for 14 December, 1850, a query 
was inserted asking for information about this 
engraving of Pope's villa, published by Curll, but 
no reply, 1 believe, has hitherto been sent. A 
few years ago, thanks to Mr. Bertram Dobell, of 
Charing Cross Road, I came into possession of a 
copy of this rare print, which contains the earliest 
engraved view of the poet's home. It is by Parr, 
after a picture by Rysbrack ; not the sculptor of 
that name, but (as Sir George Scharf informed 
me) his father, Peter Rysbrack, a landscape 
painter (1646-1726), who resided some time in 

The famous villa was taken on lease by Pope 

in 1717, and at that time the building consisted 
of a central hall, with two small rooms on each 
side and corresponding rooms above. The grounds 
extended to about five acres. Pope enlarged the 
building considerably, and in 1735, the date of 
this engraving, the house comprised a brick centre 
of four floors, with wings of three floors each. An 
inventory of the contents of the villa at the time 
of Pope's death was given in *N. & Q.' for 
13 May, 1882. In 1743, on the death of Mrs. 
Vernon, Pope's landlady, the house and grounds 
were offered to him for 1,0002., but he was then 
past fifty years of age, and he declined to purchase 
the property. 

The engraving published by Curll measures 
18J in. by 11^ in. (plate mark), and is well exe- 
cuted. The view is taken from the Surrey shore, 
and conveys an idea of being very carefully drawn 
on the spot. In the foreground some friends of 
the poet are landing in the grounds from a boat, 
and another boat, rowed by watermen and con- 
taining two ladies and a gentleman, is apparently 
proceeding to the same destination. In front of 
the house is the dog Bounce. Above the picture 
is the title ' An Exact Drawing and View of Mr. 
Pope's House at Twickenham.' Below are printed 
sixteen lines from Pope's Second Satire. 

The next published view, in point of date, of 
Pope's villa appears to be a coloured print by J. 
Mason after A. Heckell. Both the design and 
engraving are good, but the details are probably 
not so exact as in Rysbrack's work. Mason's 
print is dated 1749, and was " Printed for John 
Bowles at the Black Horse in Cornhill." There 
is no alteration in the villa since 1735, but the 
trees in the background have considerably grown, 
and a good many of the outhouses and sheds on 
the river bank have been cleared away. The 
well-trimmed hedge on the right of the house in 
Rysbrack's picture is here replaced by a row of 
trees, but this change must be due to the imagina- 
tion of the artist. A few years later there was 
another issue of this plate, but without a date, 
and with the address " Printed for John Bowles 
at the Black Horse in Cornhill and Carington 
Bowles at No. 69, in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
London." There is little change from the first 
state of the plate, except in the sky, in which 
more clouds have been introduced. Another 
early view of Pope's villa was "Printed for Rob 1 
Sayer at the Golden Buck, opposite Fetter Lane, 
Fleet St." This bears a strong resemblance to 
Bowles's print; but the angler on the Surrey shore 
in that view is here replaced by a man who is 
dressing himself after bathing, while at a short 
distance from the bank another man is swimming. 
Curll's print was never, I believe, reproduced, but 
nearly all the other views of Pope's villa are 
reprints from Bowles's or Sayer's engravings. 

After Pope's death the villa belonged successively 


. X.JULY 11 ,'96. 

to Sir Wm. Stanhope, who enlarged it consider- 
ably ; to Mr. Welbore Ellis, afterwards Lord 
Mendip ; and lastly, to Baroness Howe. This 
lady was so much annoyed at the number of 
pilgrims who came to see the place that she razed 
it to the ground, cut down the trees, and endea- 
voured to obliterate all vestiges of its former dis- 
tinguished occupant. F. G. 


"A BARB BODKIN" (8" 1 S. ix. 362, 422). I 
was not a little surprised on opening my ' N. & Q.' 
to find that what I meant for a quizzical protest 
against guess-work had been taken by some readers 
of Capt. Cuttle's note-book an siritux. My letter 
stated that guess-work had been driven from 
etymology, and I might have added science and 
history, and had taken refuge in Shakespeare, 
where it is still rampant. I pitched upon the 
phrase " bare bodkin " in ' Hamlet/ and jestingly 
suggested the hypothesis of "hair bodkin"; and, 
after the manner of guessers, proceeded to make 
the " new reading " somewhat plausible, but added 
that I felt sure no future editor (M alone) of the 
great poet would adopt the substitute. In fact, 1 
took it for granted that the suggestion would be 
placed in the limbo of Stevens's etymology of the 
word " brethren," which he derives from the word 
"tabernacle," because we all "breathe-therein." 
I sincerely hope that no one will charge me with a 
desire to amend Shakespeare. I have so great a 
reverence for the dear old bard, that I would just 
as soon attempt to paint the rose or " throw a per- 
fume on the violet," as attempt to amend him. 

Has the following passage ever been used to 
illustrate Shakespeare's use of " bodkin " ? 

" Pbillis in wandering the woodes, hanged hir eelfc. 
Asiarchua forsaking companye spoyled himselfe with his 
owne bodkin. Biarua a Romaine more wise than for- 
tunate, being alone destroyed himself with a potsherd." 
Lyly, ' Euphuee,' pp. 117, 118, ed. Arber, 1868. 


TROILUS AND CRBSSIDA,' III. iii. 175 (8 ia S. 
ix. 423). May I deprecate a renewal in your 
valuable space of the exhausted discussion of ' one 
touch of nature." MR. SPBNCE has paid me the 
compliment of paraphrasing a note on the subject 
which you admitted in your Sixth Series. But he 
will find, which is more to the purpose, that PKOF. 
PKEAT has expressed himself to the same tffect. 
There are many less well-informed that MR. SPKMCE 
who, either from familiarity with English literature 
or the habit of verifying quotations, are aware that 
the one natural characteristic referred to as common 
to all is the love of novelty. There are many more 
who,in ignorance that any characteristic is intended, 
that is, if the words have any meaning, put a full 
stop at kin, and effectually prevent their having 

any. So irrepressible indeed is that full stop that, 
notwithstanding MR. SPENCE'S argument, it ap- 
pears at the end of his quotation, and confers on 
the "touch of nature" its imaginary but popular 

Accustomed to this constant use of the words in 
the best serious and serio-comic periodicals, un- 
accustomed to * Troilus and Cressida ' on or off the 
stage, people are angry when made aware that their 
pet piece of gush is baseless. However, as in the 
last discussion in * N. & Q.'it was maintained that, 
though Shakspeare's meaning was plain, etymo- 
logical purism should not be allowed to inter- 
fere with this improvement on Shakspeare, little 
more remains to be said in these columns. 


'MACBETH/ V. ii. 

The English power is near, led on by Malcolm, 
His uncle Siward and the good Macduff. 
Revenges burn in them ; for their dear causes 
Would to the bleeding and the grim alarm 
Excite the mortified man. 

One of them says that " mortified man " means 
'* desperate man"; the other eays that it means 
"ascetic." They have missed the meaning alto- 
gether. Perhaps more modern commentators have 
put them right. If not, I will do so. " Mortified 
man" means a man made dead, or, in other 
words, a corpse. The causes that incite Siward 
and the others are as strong as that which would 
make a corpse bleed, and give tokens of alarm. It 
is a well-known superstition that a corpse bleeds in 
the presence of its murderer. In 'Kichard III/ 
Lady Anne says : 

O gentlemen, see, see ! dead Henry's wounds 
Open their congealed mouths, and bleed afresh ! 


Persuade him that he hath been lunatic ; 
t And when be eays he if, eay that he dreams, 
For he is nothing but a mighty lord. 

I cannot see any difficulty in the line which the 
Globe edition marks with an obelus. To remove 
the supposed difficulty all that is necessary is to 
emphasize the "is" in opposition to the "hath 
been" preceding. "Persuade him that he hath 
been lunatic; and when he says he is [lunatic], 
say that he dreams," &c. What more natural 
than that poor Sly, awakening out of his drunken 
sleep, and finding himself in the midst of such un- 
wonted surroundings, should imagine that he was 
the subject of delusion, with only sanity enough to 
prevent him from altogether mistaking illusion for 
reality ? Anticipating this, the nobleman directed 
the servants to use all means to persuade him that, 
having for fifteen years laboured under the hallu- 
cination that he, a great lord, was a poor tailor, 
now, though his sanity was restored, the dregs of 
his strange delusion were still affecting him, so 

8 th S. X. JOLT 11, '96. J 



that not all at once was he able to "bethink him 
of his birth, call home his ancient thoughts from 
banishment, and banish bis abject lowly dreams." 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 


The dram of eale 

Doth all the noble substance of a doubt 
To his own scandal. 

In his recent work, 'Shakespeare Studies/ Prof. 
Baynes condemns the " Globe " editors for rejecting 
Staunton's reading. But they were quite right in 
so doing. Had Staunton's proposed emendation 
stood alone, an independent sentence, thus : 
A dram of evil 

Doth all a noble substance oft debase 

To his own scandal, 

no particular objections could have been urged 
against it ; but in Hamlet's speech it is the corollary 
or summing up of previous argument, and the 
4< oft " is disallowable. Following the context, 

So oft it chancM in particular men, Ice., 
the second " oft " is not only a needless repetition 
but an absolute error in composition, and was cer- 
tainly not perpetrated by Shakespeare ; an un- 
qualified trisyllabic verb is what is wanted. 

It is more than probable that much of the play 
was read aloud to the compositor (in 1604, when 
the MS. was removed from the theatre for publica- 
tion), and that eale is a mistake of type, as thus : 
(e)a(2)e an e got among the 6's, and an I among 
the long '*. The word should have been " base," 
which is the right antithesis to the "noble "in 
the second line : 

From whose so many weights of baseness cannot 
A dram of worth be drawn. Gym.,' III. y. 

"Of a doubt" I take to be a sound blunder for 
"overdoubt," and the passage really left Shake- 
speare's pen thus : 

The dram of base 

Doth all the noble substance overdoubt 

To his own scandal. 


SHAKSPEARE'S FIRST FOLIO. Slight variations 
In different copies of the First Folio of Shake- 
speare are not uncommon. Bohn in his 'Manual' 
refers to a copy in the possession of Messrs. 
Longman which differs from all others. On 
p. 333 of the "Tragedies," in the play of 
* Othello, 1 the words " and hell gnaw his bones " 
are printed instead of Roderigo's speech. This 
version is found in no other copy until I pur- 
chased, the other day, an imperfect First Folio 
having this peculiar reading. Judging by the 
printer's marks on the margin, it looks like a 
corrected proof-sheet which ought to have been 
cancelled. It would be interesting to know 
whether in any other copies proof-sheets have 
been overlooked. Collier has the following note : 

"Here we meet with an extraordinary variation in 
copies of Folio 1, that belonging to the Duke of Devon- 
shire [no doubt the copy of Messrs. Longman quoted in 
Bobn] has the following at tbe top of the page, ' I have 
heard too much and hell gnaw his bones Perform- 
ances.' " 

The Cambridge editors say the mistake was dis- 
covered and corrected in other copies. This accounts 
for the "and," which the corrected copies still 
retain instead of "for." MAURICE JONAS. 

the English local antiquary is apt to get away 
from his bearings when touching events off his 
own particular piece of ground is shown in the 
following excerpt from Mr. Lyon's scholarly 
' Chronicles of Finchampstead,' London, 1895 : 
" A great Puritan emigration to Massachusetts, 
or the States of New England in North America, 
was the result of this persecution." Is Mr. Lyon 
not aware that Massachusetts is one of the New 
England States 1 Moreover, has he forgotten that 
Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and 
Maine, with their teeming cities, towns, and vil- 
lages, all in New England, too, were not known 
as States until after the United States had de- 
clared their (or its) independence? This is in line 
with the recent but very excellent 'History of 
Suffolk ' (" Popular County History " series) of Mr. 
Raven, who, in his summary of the Suffolk Win- 
throps, gravely throws out the fact that their 
descendant the late Hon. C. R. Winthrop, of 
Boston, Mass., one of the most eminent of Ame- 
rican statesmen, once President of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, Boston, was a " Mas- 
sachusetts politician." Shades of John Quincy 
Adams, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, and others 
of that ilk ! Politician, indeed ! One might as well 
speak of Mr. Gladstone as a Welsh politician 
simply, because he resides in Wales. 


CURIOUS PLACE-NAMES. Almost every town 

n every country rejoices in the possession of odd 

names bestowed upon them long ago, the original 

meaning of which they have long since outlived 

r belied. Thus a certain locality in Manchester 

3 still known by the appellation of Angel 

Meadow two words redolent of ethereal and 

ustic charms but is the veriest antipodes 

of everything that is beautiful. Green Yale is 

nother equally inappropriate sobriquet, borne 

>y as wretched and squalid a place in the same 

city as the eye could rest upon. Tiger's Bay 

also a local name here is a far more fitting 

pithet, as really descriptive of the place which 

>wns it. But I am more concerned in this note 

with such place-names as Little Ireland and Petty 

'ranee. The first covers a certain Mancnssian 

istrict ; the second I find in Ainsworth's ' Miser's 

Daughter.' What was the origin of these and 



similar curious place-names? One can readily 
guess at the meaning of the Roman Ghetto or 
London Jewry; but how are Little Ireland and 
Petty France explained ? Perhaps some of my 
confreres in * N. & Q.' can add to this scanty list 
and account for their additions. J. B. S. 


P.S. By an odd literary coincidence, I had just 
penned the above when I came across, whilst idly 
turning over the leaves of the bound volume of 
L' Intermediate for 1895, an interesting article 
headed * Denominations Bizarres,' in which the 
writer gives many curious specimens of strange 
place-names in thirteen French territories, e. g. 
(translating them) : the New Tail of Villiers, 
the Strong Cow, the Old Dead Woman, the Lost 
Stocking, Deaf Woman's Hole, White Head, the 
Fountain of Pigs, Priests' Land, Goat's Beard, 
&c., all which bears out admirably my opening 

BUKIAL AT CROSS-ROADS. (See 8 th S. ix. 325.) 
" Interred with all the superstitious rites of 
our ancestors." Surely this expression of opinion 
ought not to be transferred to the pages of 
'N. & Q.' without a note of explanation. It is 
indefensible. Was not the mode of burial merely 
an indignity prescribed by the law, by way of dis- 
couraging suicide as far as possible ? Whatever 
stories afterwards arose about preventing the 
spirit walking by means of the stake, surely the 
original meaning of the process was indignity and 
nothing else. And if a rite be a sacred ceremony, 
is it quite correct to refer to the ghastly process 
in this language of religion ? F. P. 

In searching the pages of that extraordinary publi- 
cation the Town for another object, I came across 
the following paragraph, on p. 525, and of the date 
1 Sept., 1838. It is such a remarkable anticipation 
of the motor-carriages of the present day that I 
send it to you for use in * N. & Q.,' should it not 
already have been contributed thereto : 

" Sir James Anderson, who resides at Buttevant Castle, 
has devoted the whole of his life to scientific pursuits- 
his extraordinary talents have been mainly directed to 
the construction of a Steam Drag or Carriage for Common 
Roads. Sir James has expended no less a sum than 
30,OOOJ. in his experiments, and so extraordinary has 
been his perseverance that he spent a fortune in building 
twenty-nine unsuccessful Carriages, to succeed in the 
thirtieth. Hear this, ye who boast of sacrifices and per- 
severance ! The ' Drag,' or steam engine, is not like those 
hitherto attempted ; it is a machine to do the work now 
done by horse?. The vehicle, by which the passengers are 
conveyed, is to be attached to it, and thus in the remote 
cases of accident no injury can arise to the passengers. 
The Drag can be at once detached, and the carriage 
forwarded by horses. No noise is heard, no smoke, no 
unpleasant odour perceived, and the gallant panting 
ateed can gallop to his journey's end untiredand untiring. 
How admirable ia this arrangement ! Let us look a 
little forward and we shall see Bishop Berkeley's pro- 

phecy realised. ' Sir,' said he, ' mark me, ere long we 
shall see a pan of coals brought to use in place of a feed 
of oats.' And who can doubt it will be so 1 It appears 
the cost of fuel for a ' drag ' to convey thirty passengers 
and luggage will not be above fourpence per mile, and 
that the average speed will be about fifteen miles per 

Caunton, Notts. 

JAMES SIMON. Author of 'An Essay towards 
an Historical Account of Irish Coins, and of the 
Currency of Foreign Monies in Ireland,' 4to., Dub- 
lin, 1749, and a contributor to the Philosophical 
Transactions. He was elected F.R.S. on 17 Nov., 
1748. In his certificate he is described as " of the 
City of Dublin, merchant, a native of France [La 
Rochelle], who has communicated to the Society 
observations on Petrefactions of Lough Neagh and 
made a present of the same : he is now writing on 
the Coins of Ireland." Simon died in Dublin, in 
1767, his death being announced at the anniversary 
meeting of the Society on 30 Nov. of that year. 
From the letters of administration granted in the 
P.C.C. on 21 March, 1757, it appears that he left 
a widow Susanna and a son Stuckey. 


ST. UNCUMBER. A female saint with this un- 
couth name is connected with St. Paul's. We 
read, in a note on p. 38 of ' Women under Monas- 
ticism,' by Lina Eckenstein : 

"Ellis, H., 'Original Letters,' Third Series, vol. iii, 
p. 194, quotes the following sentence from Michael 
Woddes, ' Dialogues,' 1554: ' If a wife were weary of her 
husband she offered Otes at Poules at London to St. Un- 
cumber.' This Uncumber is identified with Ontkommer 
or Kummerniss. ' The peculiarity of the images of Ont- 
kommer or Kummerniss consists in this, that she is 
represented as crucified, and that the lower part of her 
face is covered by a beard, and her body in some instances 
by long shaggy fur. Her legend explains the presence 
of the beard and fur by telling us that it grew to protect 
the maiden from the persecutions of a lover, or the 
incestuous love of her father ; such love is often men- 
tioned in the legends of women pseudo saints.' ' In the 
Tyrol the image of the saint is sometimes hung in the 
chief bedroom of the house in order to secure a fruitful 
marriage, but often it is hung in chapel and cloister in 
order to protect the dead. Images of the saint are pre- 
served and venerated in a great number of churches in 
Bavaria and the Tyrol, but the ideas popularly associated 
with them have raised feeling in the church against their 

cult Associations of a twofold character have also 

been attached to the term Eiinimerniss. For in the 
Tryol Kummerniss is venerated as a saint, but the word 
Kummerniss in ordinary parlance is applied to immoral 
women.' "P. 37. 

The conclusion the writer comes to is this, that 
the legends of this saint are really heathen legends, 
" and that she is heiress to a tribal goddess of the 
past." The like conclusion is come to for many 
of the early women saints ; such is that of St. 
Ursula and the eleven thousand virgins who were 
martyred at Koln. How the number of Ursula's 
companions amounted to eleven thousand is thus 

X. JULY 11, '96.] 


accounted for ; it originated in the misreading of an 
inscription which refers to eleven martyred virgins, 
which was written thus, xi. M. v. History speaks 
of virgin martyrs at Koln at an early date (p. 283). 
I think Mr. Baring-Gould, in his ' Myths of the 
Middle Ages,' identifies St. Ursula and the eleven 
thousand as really the moon and stars, showing 
how heathen tradition was developed into Christian 
hagiology. One would like to know how St. Un- 
cumber came to be connected with St. Paul'?, and 
why oats were offered to her. Can DR. SPARROW 
SIMPSON enlighten us 1 


THE GRANGE, BROOK GREEN. Paragraphs have 
appeared lately in the newspapers of a misleading 
character with regard to Sir Henry Irving's house, 
The Grange, Brook Green, Hammersmith, which 
is about to be pulled down, its antiquity being 
greatly exaggerated. The house is a plain, sub- 
stantial building, apparently not older than the 
time of Queen Anne, and has been so altered from 
time to time as to have almost entirely lost its 
interest. Sir Henry made in 1884 extensive 
alterations and additions, which, although im- 
proving the building as a residence to some 
extent, destroyed its artistic character. The plan 
of the house, however, remains unimpaired, and 
gives evidence of its antiquity, there being no 
passages, and the rooms being approached by going 
from one room to another. In the course of carry- 
ing out these alterations it was stated that 
evidences of former alterations to the building, 
dating probably from the early part of the reign of 
George II., were brought to light. The service 
accommodation being inadequate, it was found 
necessary to build out-offices at the back, together 
with a servants' hall, By removing a partition, and 
the addition of a bay window, the entrance hall was 
considerably enlarged, and the staircase was opened 
to view. The front next Brook Green was but 
little altered, but the ivy was removed in con- 
sequence of the damp. There is a plan of the 
house and a view of the back as altered in the 
Builder, 13 Sept., 1884. JNO. HEBB. 

BELEMNITES. These fossils have been, and 
perhaps still are, popularly called thunder-stones. 
They had formerly a place in medicine, and were 
supposed to prevent abortion. In our old dispensa- 
tories they appear indifferently under the names 
Belemnites, Lapis lyncis, and Lyncurium ; and in 
the 'Medico-Botanical Glossary ' from the Bodleian 
MS. SeldenB. 35, edited, under the name ' Alphita,' 
by Mr. J. L. G. Mowat, for the "Anecdota Oxoni- 
ensia" series, they are credited with the same 
origin as the Lyncurium of Pliny. This is the 
article in the glossary referred to : " Lapis lincis 
dicunt quidem quod fit de urina lincis tern pore 
petulancis, qui induratur et transit in lapidem." 
Are these fossils really the Lyncurium of Pliny, 

which is described by him as resembling the fiery 
carbuncle ; and who is the first author of this 
absurd theory as to their origin ? The last men- 
tion of them in medicine that I have come across 
is in Alleyne's ' Dispensatory ' (1733), where they 
appear as " Thunder - bolt : Belemnites, Lapis 
Lyncis" but without note or comment. 

0. C. B. 

MISQUOTATION. The following words appear in 
inverted commas, 8 tu S. ix. 444 : " Sed aliquando 
dormitat bonus Homerus." This is too bad. The 
ungarbled quotation is well known : 

Indignor quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. 

Horace,' Are Poetica,' 1.359. 


Pius VI. The following extract from the 
' Annual Register ' of December, 1799, may be of 
interest to many of your readers as an historical 
curiosity : 

" 30th. The Consuls of the French Republic, consider- 
ing that for six months past the body of Pius VI. has 
been lying in the City of Valence without having had 
the honours of burial granted to it, have published a 
Decree, reciting that, though this old man, respectable 
by his misfortunes, was for a moment the enemy of 
France, it was only when seduced, by the councils of 
men who surrounded his old age ; that it became the 
dignity of the French nation, and is conformable to the 
sensibility of the National character, to bestow the marks 
of consideration upon a man who occupied one of the 
highest ranks upon earth ; and, therefore, ' first, the 
Minister of the Interior shall give orders that the body 
of Pius VI. be buried with the honours due to those of 
his rank. Second, that a simple monument be raised to 
him, on the place of his burial, expressing the dignity 
which he bore.' " 

In 1801 his remains were transferred to St. 
Peter's, where his statue by Canova stands. 


MIRACLES AT YORK. Two interesting legends, 
concerning the sixteenth century persecution of 
Nonconforming Catholics, were related by the 
Rev. Philip Fletcher a few days ago to some 
pilgrims to York, who were made happy by hia 
announcement that the Holy See had granted an 
Indulgence of seven years and seven quarantines 
to all those who made the pilgrimage and prayed 
for the conversion of England. He said (York- 
shire Herald, 11 June) : 

" In all the rolls of martyrdom other countries might 
be able to show, he doubted if one could show a record 
more helpful, more touching, and more beautiful than 
the history of the English, Irish, and Scotch martyrs 01 
these islands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
They saw the same pathway of suffering in York. The 
hand of Margaret Clitherow, which they were going to 
venerate, reminded them of a poor, feeble woman, who 
suffered martyrdom for harbouring a priest. Her hand 
was preserved in the convent near Micklegate Bar the 
first convent established after the Reformation, and 
established with great danger and immense difficulty. 
One day the priest-hunters came to that convent and 



'h S . x. JULY 11, 'S6. 

opened the chapel door. The candles were lighted, mass 
had only just been said, and the priest had jut taken 
off his vestments, but the priest-hunters saw nothing. 
Their eyes were blinded by a miracle, and they went 
their way. On another day an angry mob of citizens 
surrounded the convent, shouting ' Down with the nuns, 
down with the Pope,' and declaring their intention of 
etting fire to the building. Then the mob melted away 
quietly and slowly without any apparent cause. Some 
one had seen above the convent the figure of a heavenly 
horseman, which the nuns believed to be St. Michael, 
because they had been praying to St. Michael before a 
picture of him which stood above the door of the 


" ST. SEPULCHRE." In writing and talking of 
the churches dedicated to the memory of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem, how often is it the 
practice to put " St. Sepulchre" instead of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre ! The round church 
in Northampton, of this dedication, is universally 
spoken of in the town as " St. Sepulchre/' although 
the notice-board of the church itself bears the 
correct designation. I was greatly horrified the 
other day, when passing Snow Hill, London, to find 
upon the notice-board of its church the heading as 
"St. Sepulchre." Even worthy Stow and also 
Maitland, when treating of this church, mention it 
as "St. Sepulchre." Perhaps we shall find a 
future Butler attempting a life of this extraordinary 

93, Barry Road, Stonebridge Park, N.W. 

"To SLOP." A friend of mine had retired to 
his room somewhat early at a first-rate hotel in 
Manchester. He had scarcely done so when a 
knock came to the door, and opening it slightly 
he inquired who was there, and what was wanted. 
The chambermaid, for it was she, replied, "Please, 
sir, I want to slop the room." It is believed in 
well-informed quarters that she wished to empty 
the slops. But to slop the room ! How does this 
compare with to sample customers, &c. 


THOROLD FAMILY. It may be well to note that 
the original will, dated 11 Nov., 1768, from the 
Convent of the English Dominican Nuns at 
Brussels, of Dorothy Compton (06. 2 March, 1773, 
cet. eighty-two), widow of William Thorold, Esq. 
(buried at Little Ponton, co. Lincoln, 21 Sept., 
1725), is preserved among the archives of the 
Dominican Priory at Haverstock Hill, London. 

examining this dictionary I have made a few 
additions and corrections, and forward the same to 
'N. & Q.' Perhaps the author or publisher of the 
dictionary might make use of them in some future 
edition. The edition which I have seen is that 
of the year 1866. Some alterations may have 
been made in the book since that date. 

Briareus. This is the wrong quantity. It is 

Briareus. See Homer's ' Iliad.' Pope, however, 
when translating Homer, neglected his original, 
and gave the wrong quantity. 

Dagon. The author says : " In profane history 
the name by which he is known is Derceto. He is 
represented," &c. Derceto, or Dercetis, is a 
female divinity, and is the same as Atergatis. 
Without doubt the two deities are similar ; but 
the one is male, the other female. 

Holofernes. The author refers to the Scriptural 
Holofernes, to that mentioned by Rabelais, and to 
him of ' Love's Labour 's Lost,' but he does not 
remark that Holofernes is also the name of the fire- 
king in the Hungarian folk-tale of * Magic Helen ' 
in the collection made by Count Mailath. 

Prince of Darkness. The author gives the title 
to Satan, and quotes Shakepeare and Walter Scott 
only. But Spenser used this expression before 
Shakspeare, and did not apply it to Satan : 
Great Gorgon, prince of darkness and dead night. 
'Faerie Queen,' bk. i. 

Einaldo. The author supposes that the Binaldo 
of Tasso and he of Ariosto are the same man. But 
the one was of the time of Charlemagne, and the 
other was a Crusader. 

Eaminagrobis. The author mentions Rabelais, 
but not La Fontaine, who gives the name to a cat. 

Rubesahl. The author says that the origin of 
the name is obscure. But Riibezahl in German 
means counter of turnips, or Number (tur) Nip, and 
has reference to Riibezahl's chief adventure. It is, 
however, said that Musreus invented the legend in 
order to account for the name. E. YARDLET. 

I Milton makes the a long in Briareus : "Bri 
Titan" (' Par. Lost,' i. 199).] 

Briareos or 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

THE BROOM DANCE. Can any of your readers 
impart information as to the history and antiquity 
of this singular exercise ? It has been performed 
publicly at a flower show here, and recently at 
Newton Abbot, but, on inquiry, " nobody doHnt 
know nothen about et," and, though I have resided 
here for over thirty summers, I never heard before 
of this startling variation on beer and skittles. A 
stalwart young labourer grasps with both hands 
a broom-handle, which he proceeds to twirl, thus 
causing the head to rise and fall. There are two 
movements, one a sideling motion from one foot 
to the other, striking the heels together, like gutter 
children to an organ, but this passes into throwing 
the thighs alternately over the broomstick the 
dancer during both movements advancing and 
retiring. The tune ' The Keel Row ' was played 

8" 8. X. JULY 11, '96.J 


on the accordion, and is said to " belong" to it. 
The performers were three males, and none of the 
women from whom the broom was borrowed came 
oat to look on, although work was over and it was 
9 P.M. on a sweet, soft Jane gloaming in a hamlet 
below Paignton Beacon. The performance is thus 
a "household " one, for no women no broom and 
yet in spite of the lively music, not often heard in 
dull cottage life, the women kept aloof; it is a 
dance also more suitable for a loose robe and san- 
dalled or bare feet than fustian trousers and hob- 
nailed boots, as in the present case. The air, too, 
is a nautical one. My own theory (and it is on 
this I submit my query) is that the dance is dis- 
tinctly " Phallic" and a survival of Semitic coloniza- 
tion. This ancient village is full of such instances 
the venerable preaching cross has a dragon's claw 
carved on the four corners of its pedestal, as if 
serpent worship were dominant and had to be 
conciliated. There was a dragon's well at Jeru- 
salem, which Nehemiah dare not touch. The name 
of Bal occurs over a hundred times in names of 
closes, fields, and fountains, while in the village 
five names live side by side : Easter brook, Ishtar 
Iruch, blessed of Ashtaroth ; Maddicott, Mardukh 
ydd, Merodach is my help ; Balhatchet, Baal- 
achdd, Baal only or Baal first ; Amory, Amori, 
the Amorite ; Symons, EshmHn, yEsculapius. 
Do any of your readers know of any similar dances? 

Ipplepen, Newton Abbot. 

SAUNDERS = CROMPTON. I want the marriage 
register of Rev. John Saunders to Dorothy Cromp- 
ton, said, on a monument in Ashborne Church, to be 
daughter of John Crompton, of Stone Hall, esquire, 
Staff:}. This register has been vainly sought in 
Oolton, of which the Eev. John Saunders was rector 
from 1651 till his death in 1682 ; also in Stone, 
Checkley, Chebsey, Cheadle. Dorothy Saunders 
n6e Crompton, was buried at Colton 1667. Her 
eldest son was born 1647/8. Wanted, register of 
his and her baptism and details of the early life and 
descent of her husband, said in ' Fasti Oxonienses ' 
to be son of William Saunders, of Colton, Staffs, 
Pleb. Was he connected with Samuel Sanders, 
A.M., admitted 9 Aug., 1601, Prebendary of Lich- 
field Cathedral ; and was this Samuel descended 
from Laurence Saunders, martyred 1555 ? Family 
tradition says that the Rev. John Saunders, of 
Colton, was descended from Laurence Saunders, 
who was of the Saunderses of Shankton, Leicester- 
shire. C. S. L. 

sent this splendid Alpine poem one of " La 
Legende des Sifccles " series to a friend, who may 
say of himself, "lo anche poeta." He says, in 
reply, "These are truly magnificent verses of Victor 
Hugo's that you have sent me. I do not think I 
have received so much pleasure from any of your 

favours of this kind One or two passages I do 

not quite understand." Before quoting these pas- 
sages, in the hope that some of your poetic readers 
may be able to help my friend and myself, I had 
better say that the poem is a hymn of praise in 
honour of Mont Blanc " the monarch of moun- 
tains/' as Byron calls him supposed to be sung 
by the other Alpine summits. The poem concludes 
with the following couplet : 
II eat plus haut, plus pur, plus grand que nous ne aommea; 
Et nous 1'ineulterions ei noua etiona des hommea. 

Hence its title, 'D&inte'ressement.' 
My friend says : 

" Et Ton croit de Titan voir 1'effrayante larve : 
I render this, 'And one thinks one sees the frightful 
phantom of Prometheus.' Is this correct 1" 

What do your readers think ? 

" Criniere de glacons digne du lion Pole. 
Doea thia mean ' Mane of iciclea worthy of the conatella- 
tion of the Lion ' ? Leo is in the northern half of the 
sky, I believe, and Pole ' I take to be, by poetic licence, 
written for polaire. Perhapa thia is a ' howler ' ! At 
any rate, it baa tbe merit of crediting Victor Hugo with 
a noble image. Another crux ia : 

La cime, pour aavoir lequel a plus d'amour, 
Et quel eat le plus grand du regard ou du jour, 
Confronte le soleil avec le gypaete : 
I cannot make aenae of thia. Will you please interpret." 
As I cannot make sense of it either, may I pass 
on my friend's request to your readers generally ? 
The "gypaete" is the lammergeier, or bearded 
vulture (see * Anne of Geierstein,' chap. i.). 

Victor Hugo is almost at his best on the moun- 
tains ; I say " almost," because he is perhaps still 
greater when amongst the stars (see ' La D^couverte 
du Titan ' and ' Abime,' both in " La Le"gende des 
Siecles "). Mr. Swinburne, in his ' Study of Victor 
Hugo, says : "It can hardly be said that he who 
knows the Pyrenees has read Victor Hugo ; bat 
certainly it may be said that he who knows Victor 
Hugo has seen the Pyrenees." In this respect the 
Alpine * Desint^ressement ' is a worthy pendant of 
the Pyrenean ' Masferrer.' Would that the great 
poet could have flashed the light of his genius on 
the Andes ! So far as I am aware, he has not 
done so ; but although I have read much of Victor 
Hugo's poetry, I have not read all of it. 

I hope there is no harm in my saying that a few 
weeks ago I sent my friend Victor Hugo's charm- 
ing little poem beginning 

Jeune fille, la grace emplit tea dix-aept ans, 
in ' Les Contemplations,' suggesting that he should 
translate it into English verse. He did so ; and 
he then sent it on to his son, a lad of sixteen, at 
school. The latter has translated it also ; and very 
well he has done it. When one thinks what most 
boys of sixteen are, or were in my time, I think 
that a lad of this age who is able not only to read 
Victor Hugo, but to translate him into more than 
creditable English verse, may certainly be described, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.x.joLYiv96. 

in Sam Waller's vernacular, as a "hinfant fer- 
nomenon." I knew the boy was very clever, but 
I did not know that he was equal to this. 

Kopley, Hanta. 

JOHN MORRIS, POET. The writer would be 
glad of any information concerning the life or 
works of John Morris, a rather obscure Irish poet, 
who lived in Monaghan county, Ireland, about 
1840 or 1845. It is understood he published one 
or two small volumes of verses, but the writer has 
been unable to trace them up to the present. 

J. F. M. 


EDWARD LOFTHOUSB. I should be much 
obliged if any correspondent of *N. & Q.' would 
kindly give me information about the antecedents 
of Edward Lofthouse, of Swineshead, co. York, 
father of the Eev. Adam Lofthouse, who in 1562 
was Archbishop of Armagh, and in 1578 " Lord 
High Chancellor of Ireland * (Adam was a very 
great favourite of Queen Elizabeth ; her Majesty 
first met him at some revels at Cambridge, and 
much admired him for his graces both of mind 
and body), and an ancestor of Arthur, Duke of 
Wellington ; of Charles Tottenham, M.P. (so 
well known as " Tottenham in his boots "), whose 
grandson subsequently became Marquis of Ely ; 
and also of John Toler, Earl of Norbury. 


Clapham, S.W. 

TRANSLATION OF VIRGIL. It has been said 
that the line of Virgil ('.En.,' ii. 104), 

Hoc Ithacua velit et magno mercentur Atridae, 
has been translated, 

Intestine quarrels place an obvious lever 

In every hand of every unbeliever. 

Which translator of Virgil was this ? G. 

"DEPLENISH." Is this word allowable; and is 
it not entirely Scottish? An auction catalogue 
just received from Edinburgh describes several 
minor libraries as being "removed from houses 
recently displenished." W. ROBERTS. 

86, Grosvenor Eoad, S.W. 

CLOCK. I should be glad of any information 
as to "Godft Poy, London." This signature is 
engraved on the back of a small gilt clock, said 
to have been made for King Charles II. when 
Prince of Wales, which seems likely, as the key 
forms the plumes and crown of a Prince of Wales. 
Also the Tudor rose, and (the old standard of 
the Stuarts I am told) the fringed banner of St. 
George, a cross only, extending to the edge of the 
flag, occurs among the ornamentations, which are 
very elaborate and beautifully done flags, guns, 
trumpets, cannon-balls, and much scroll- work. 
The dials are silver, and on the small top dial is 

engraved " Schlaat Nit Schla," which may be old 
Dutch. The works, although barely three and a 
half inches high, engraved also, comprise arrange- 
ments for a fine-toned striker, repeater, and alarum, 
like kettle-drums. The clock sounds the hours, 
half-hours, and quarters with clearness and pre- 
cision. There is no pendulum, but a spring, like 
that of a watch. Can any one translate the Dutch 
motto, which was, perhaps, engraved during the 
king's exile, in Holland ? CURIOSITY. 

" AUCHTERMUCHTT DOG." Reading in a weekly 
an article on ' How Pepsin is procured in Chicago,' 
I came across the following sentence: "Here fill 
in the horrors of starvation, squealing, &c., and 
imagine that the pig becomes in appearance a 
veritable Auchtermuchty dog, a shadowy thing 
buttoned up the back." What is "a veritable 
Auchtermuchty dog," the " shadowy thing but- 
toned up the back " 1 What is its history ? 


LAND.' Has this book ever been printed or trans- 
lated ? The full title of the MS. before me 
(apparently a contemporary copy, if not the 
original) is : 

" Belatione delle cose del regno d'Inghilterra, nella 
quale si contengano per capi, come nella tavola appare, 
tutti gli ordini piu degni di cognitione politic!, militari, 
et ecclesiastic!. II governo politico, et il familiar della 
corti, et de' nobili et popolari, 1'attione di alcuni ultimi 
re. II modo della coronatione di quelli. Entrate et 
spese ordinarie politicbe et icpnomiche, et altre cose 
non meno utili che piacevoli da intendere, scritta 
per Petruccio Ubaldino cittadin fiorentino. L' anno 
MDLXXVJ in Londra." 

In what capacity did Ubaldino visit England ? 
Is anything further known of him ? Q. V. 

COAT OF ARMS, 1561. Erm., on a bend a 
lion passant between two fleurs-de-lis, occurs in 
Calvin's * Fovr Godlye Sermons ' (London, Row- 
land Hall, 1561, 8vo.), and probably throws some 
light on the history of the book. Hot in Papworth 
and Morant. C. SAYLE. 

GORDON AND SINCLAIR. Can any of your 
readers give me information about the following ? 
Is it known whether or not there ever existed 
a daughter of the first, second, or third Duke of 
Gordon of the name of Ophelia; also, is there 
any record of a marriage between the above Lady 
Ophelia Gordon and a Sinclair, or St. Clair, of 
Scotland, about the date of the second Jacobite 
rebellion, 1745, or previous to it ? 

W. H. R. KERRY. 

Wheatland Windermere. 

HEADLET FAMILY. I should be very much 
obliged if any of your readers could inform me 
whether in the following coat of arms Gules, 
on a chevron between three falcons argent, mem- 
ber ed and belled or, a cross crosslet fitch de sable 

8"-S. X.Jt>tTll.'96.] 



(Headleyor Hedley family) there is any probable 
meaning attached to the cross, and why one 
branch of the family should bear it and another 
not. I should be very glad to know anything 
about the above family. B. H. HEADLET. 

of play-bills of this place of amusement, dated in 
1785-86 (when it is called "The New Theatre"), 
and on all of them appear the names of Mr. and 
Mrs. Waldron as the chief performers. The plays 
announced are all comedies, among them being 
'She Stoops to Conquer.' In one of the play-bills 
is an appeal to the public for better support. 
" The days of performing," says one of the play- 
bills, are " Monday, Wednesday, and Friday," and 
the company were engaged at Windsor on the 
other three nights. Apparently this " New 
Theatre " was open only in the summer. 

What is known of this theatre ; and where- 
abouts in Hammersmith did it stand ? The play- 
bills are dated from "Mr. Waldron's, 17, Dor- 
ville's Row/where tickets for the Boxes may be 
taken." E. WALFORD. 


like to know what has become of the Duke of 
Wellington's statue which used to stand on the 
green in front of the church of St. Peter ad Vincula 
in the Tower. I remember asking a sergeant on 
duty there, but he could give me no information. 


COTTON FAMILY. I have recently become 
possessed of a small collection of books one of 
which excites my curiosity. It is a Concordance 
of the Bible. It lacks a title-page, but is other- 
wise in good condition. From the dedication to 
the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Coventry, Knt., &c., 
I find the author to be Clement Cotton ; and a 
long "advertisement to the reader," by Daniel 
Featley, bears date " Lambeth, Nov r ult. 1630." 
Can you inform me if the above Clement was a 
son of Sir Robt. Bruce Cotton, founder of the 
Cottonian Library, and if this Concordance has 
any literary reputation or value ? T. S. N. 

New York. 

A JOKE OF SHERIDAN. Early in the century 
there was a well-known teacher of elocution who 
either was a baker or lived at a baker's shop in 
Fleet Street. This man had for pupils many pro- 
minent persons, including members of Parlia- 
ment. Sheridan, referring to a political opponent, 
a needy place-hunter, known to have been a pupil, 
eaid, "The right honourable gentleman went to 
the baker for his eloquence and to the House 
of Commons for his bread." Can any reader of 
* N. & Q.' refer to a record of this ? 


(8 th S. ix. 464.) 

The sage Hector informs us that 

modest doubt is call'd 
The beacon of the wise.* 

The communication of MR. PAGE is likely to open 
up a very interesting topic ; and I confess to a 
" modest doubt " whether the weapon described in 
the Northampton Mercury ever was a constable's 
staff, or had anything whatever to do with that 
symbolic instrument of authority. In the first 
place, let me ask, Does the miniature flail described 
by the local correspondent bear any insignia the 
crown, the royal arms, or initials, &c., for in- 
stance 1 Constables' staves at least, such as have 
from time to time come tinder my observation 
have invariably been authorized by some such 
badge of issue. Secondly, permit me to relate 
an actual personal experience of a weapon similar 
to that described. 

On Tuesday, 4 Jan., 1870, I was present, in my 
professional capacity, at the Court of Quarter 
Sessions holden in the Town Hall of Lewes, Sussex, 
at a trial of certain labourers for trespassing at 
night time on land in pursuit of game. During 
the inquiry an implement was produced exactly 
of the description given in the local newspaper 
quoted by MR. PAGE. I handled the article, and 
there and then made a sketch of it, which I trans- 
ferred to my commonplace book, where the draw- 
ing has remained undisturbed for now twenty- 
six years and a half. Inasmuch as illustrations 
are inadmissible in the columns of 'N. & Q./ 
I am precluded from presenting this memorial to 
its readers ; but the description upon which I am 
commenting so exactly applies that I have but a 
note or two to add to it to enable the peruser to 
understand a suggestion I shall venture to found 
upon the communication. In the course of the 
trial it appeared in evidence that the game-pre- 
serving squire had armed his keepers with these 
instruments for their personal protection. Whether 
the weapons were used or not during the affray 
that it transpired had taken place, or what the 
result of the trial was, is immaterial for the pur- 
poses of present expatiation. Now it must be 
borne in mind that the transaction, the subject of 
the judicial process, occurred in the county of 
Sussex, within a very few miles of the southern sea 
coast ; and then attend to what we learn from Mr. 
Percy Fitzgerald, in his ' Chronicles of Bow Street 
Police Office,' vol. i. p. 315, describing smuggling 
on this shore just after the expiration of the first 
quarter of the present century. In recording an 
application made to Sir Richard Birnie, the famous 

* ' Troilus and Crewida,' II. ii. 15, 16. 



Bow Street magistrate, in October, 1827, the author 
informs us that " the smugglers were armed with 
swords, pistol?, and instruments called 'swingles,' 
which are made like flails, and with which they 
can knock people's brains out. Those instruments 
are a new invention [I shall presently adduce some 
reasons for doubting the novelty], and there is 
no possibility of guarding against them, on account 
of their capacity of flying round the body." Mr. 
Fitzgerald goes on to tell us that " the * swingles ' 
were found upon this occasion to do great execu- 
tion ; heads and arms were broken with them, and 
we understand that all round the coast (quoting 
the contemporary report) they are now in use." 
The smuggled cargo in this instance had been 
"run " on shore at Ringbourn, on the Hampshire 
coast,* on the boundary of the counties of Hants 
and Dorset speaking nautically, in the marine 
neighbourhood of the home county, Sussex. 

The Sussex weapon of this kind that I had thus 
an opportunity of examining, as I have said, 
resembled that described in the Northampton 
paper, with the trivial variation that the suspended 
striker was ovoid rather than spherical in shape. 
The lower half, or bulbous butt, of the staff was 
encircled on its thickest part by a rather deeply 
indented series of notched turnings, evidently 
designed to ensure firmness of grip when the article 
was in active use, and the turned knobs on the 
extreme base, decreasing in size, terminated in a 
ring through which passed a cord loop, whereby to 
secure the staff to the wrist of the wielder. Neither 
hilt, staff, nor striker bore any device whatever. 

The contemplation of this formidable machine 
brought to my mind an historical reminiscence, 
which I now proceed to adduce as a reason for 
doubting that the invention was an absolute novelty 
so lately as 1827. 

In Lord Macaulay's ' History of England,' vol. i. 
chap. ii. p. 236 (the five-volume edition of 1858), 
we read, anent the panic that ensued in London on 
the discovery of the murder of Sir Edmondbury 
Godfrey in 1678: "No citizen thought himself 
safe unless he carried under his coat a small flail 
loaded with lead to brain the Popish assassins." 
Now if we imagine the ovoid ball to be hollowed 
out where the strap, secured by the iron rivet, is 
inserted, and molten lead poured in to fill up the 
cavity thus made, we have an exact model of the 
weapon described by the noble historian, while its 
size, as described, would adapt it to be privily 
carried in one of the capacious pockets of the coats 
then worn. 

In an article in the Athenaum (No. 1723, 
3 Nov., 1860, p. 581), entitled 'A Full and 
Particular Account of the Lord Mayor's Pro- 
cession, by Land and Water (Street Boy),' of 

* Ringbourn is a coast village, near St. Alban's Head, 
a well-known point in Dorsetshire to the west of the 
Isle of Wight. 

which the part that I am about to quote is cited 
verbatim, with expressed approval, in the late Mr. 
Mark Lemon's * Up and Down the London Streets/ 
at p. 144, we read anent the pageant which passed 
through the City on 17 Nov., 1680, " in honour of 
the birthday of Queen Elizabeth* and the Pro- 
testant religion": 

" The Green Ribbon Glob, invented, for the defence 
of all honest men, who dreaded being massacred by the 
Duke of York and the Papists, a pocket weapon, harmless 
to look at [?], but effective enough when employed, as it 
sometimes wa?, not against Papists, but in knocking: 
down adverse pollers going up to vote at elections. The 
handle is described by gentlemen who grasped or felt it, 
as resembling a farrier's bleeding stick ; the fall was 
joined to the end by a strong nervous ligature, ' that in 
its swing fell just short of the hand and was made of 
lignum vita, or, rather, as the poet termed it, mortis.' 
Contemporaries called this the Protestant flail." 

The writer is in error, however, when he goes on 
to say "we know it now as the life-preserver." 
The weapon called by that title in 1860 was not in 
two pieces ; it was integral, a stout piece, about 
nine inches in length, of flexible horn or whalebone ; 
if of horn, the material fashioned into a hollow 
knob, which was filled up with lead, if of whale- 
bone, a knob formed by plaiting round a core of 
the same metal. 

Naturally, then, in handling the flail displayed in 
court in 1870, my thoughts were directed to the 
similar weapon carried in 1680. A quarter of a 
century and more afterwards, on reading the extract 
from the Northampton Mercury, the "modest 
doubt " suggested itself that the implement therein 
described had never served as a constable's staff, 
but was a " swingle," and that probably " swingles " 
are survivals of the Green Ribbon Club "Pro- 
testant flail." NEMO. 

The most noted of these is described (at 7 th S. 
x. 387) as the " Dumb Borsholder," of Chart, in 
Kent, used for legalized housebreaking ; " a squared 
pole of wood, about two feet in length, with a 

spike of iron at the end and clamps and rings 

of iron on each side"; the primary use, no doubt, 
was for " ejectment "; you unroof the house and 
the tenant quits voluntarily, he is disfranchised, 
and ejected from the community. Lambarde- 
(1596) writes Bosholder, and the variation between 
Bos and Bors resembles the fluctuations in Bosta! 
and Borstal. In the North we find "bastle," a 
sort of compromise between castle and Bastile, with 
the same meanings. A. H. 

LOCAL WORKS ON BRASSES (8 th S. ix. 188). 
The bibliography of monumental brasses is a 

* This was a widely diffused error at the time of the 
Popish Plot in Charles II.'s reign, when the 17th had 
been substituted for " Gunpowder Plot Day," 5 November, 
as the anniversary date for anti-Popish demonstrations. 
Queen Elizabeth was born on 7 September, 1533. 
17 November was the anniversary of her accession to the 
throne in 1558. 

8ti 8. X. JCLT 11, '96.1 



subject of very considerable interest to the eccle 
Biologist and general antiquary. I am able to 
call H. T. G.'s attention to some additional books 
and papers on brasses under counties. As far 
back as 1812, Thomas Fisher published his ' Col- 
lections, Historical, Genealogical, and Topo- 
graphical, for Bedfordshire.' This is a handsome 
quarto volume, and contains a great number of 
good plates of the brasses of the county. Northants 
has been done, not by Hailstone, but by the late 
Rev. 0. H. Hartshorne. This was in 1840. There 
is a more modern book (1853) on * The Brasses of 
Northamptonshire,' by Franklin Hudson a large 
folio with bronze-tinted lithographic plates, like 
Waller's fine book. 

My friend Mr. Cecil T. Davis, the courteous 
Wandsworth librarian, has contributed to several 
Midland newspapers good accounts of the brasses 
of Herefordshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucester- 
shire. These appeared in the Gloucester Journal, 
from June, 1882, to September, 1885 ; in the 
Worcester Herald, from Marck to December, 
1883 ; and in the Evesham Journal and Four 
Shires [i. e., Gloucester, Worcester, Oxford, and 
Warwick] Advertiser, commencing in July, 1886. 
Mr. Davis, at my suggestion, was asked by the 
Eoyal Archaeological Institute to read his account 
of the Gloucestershire brasses at their Gloucester 
Congress in 1890, and it was published in 
vol. xlviii. of the Archaeological Journal, pp. 19- 
28. In the same volume is a paper by Mr. 
Andrew Oliver on 'Brasses in the London 

The following list of recent brass papers (not 
nearly complete, I fear) may be of use to H. T. G. : 

Fairbank, F. R., M.D.. F.8.A., < Brasses in the Old 
Deanery of Doncaster ,' Tories. Arch, and Top, Jour., 
xi. 71-92. 

Fail-bunk, F. R., M.D., F.S.A., ' Brasses in Howden 
Church, Yorkshire,' Yorks. Arch, and Top. Jour., xi. 

Foster, ^y. E., F.S.A., 'A Brass of a Lady in Gidney 
Church, Lincolnshire,' Proc. Soc. Ant., second series, 
xiii. 212. 

Hope, W. H. St. John, Same subject, Proc. Soc. Ant, 
second aeries, xiii. 212-4. 

Oliver, Andrew, ' Brass of Andrew Eyyngar in All 
Hallows, Barking,' Trans. St. Paul's Ecc. Soc., vol. iii. 
pp. iv, v. 

Waller, John Green, F.S.A., ' Brasses in Northumber- 
land and Durham,' Arch. JEliana, N.S., xv. 76-89, 207. 

Waller, John Green, F.S.A., ' Brass in Possession of 
Surrey Archaeological Society,' Surrey Arch. Soc., x. 

Axon, W. E. A., ' Manchester and Macclesfield Pardon 
Brasses,' Tram. Lane, and Ches. Ant. Soc., x. 99-110. 

Letts, Rev. E. F., Radclyffe Brasses in Manchester 
Church,' Trans. Lane, and Ches. Ant. Soc., ix. 90-100. 

Oliver, Andrew, ' Notes on the Brass of Andrew 
Evyngar,' Journ. Brit Arch. Asso., xlriii. 263-4. 

Stephenson, Mill, F.8.A., 'Monumental Brasses in 
the East Riding,' Yorks. Arch, and Top. Jour., xii. 

Bower, Rev. R., 'Brasses in the Diocese of Carlisle,' 
Trans. Cumb. and West Ant Soc., xiii. 142-51. 

Clarke, Ernest, F.S.A., ' On the Palimpsest Brass of 
Sir Anthony and Dame Fitzherbert in Norbury Church, 
Derbyshire,' Proc. Antiq. Soc., second series, xv. 96-9. 

Manning, Rev. C. R., F.8.A., 'Monumental Brass 
Inscriptions, &c., in Norfolk, omitted in Blomefield's 
History of the County,' Norfolk Arch. Soc., xi. 72-104, 

Oliver, Andrew, ' Notes on English Monumental 
Brasses,' Salisbury Field Club, i. 57-76. 

Davis. Cecil T., ' Monumental Brass in the Old or 
West Church, Aberdeen,' Arch. Jour., vol. li. pp. 76-80. 

Stephenson, Mill, ' Monumental Brasses in Shrop- 
shire/ Arch. Jour., vol. Iii. pp. 47-103. 

Only so late as 6 March I heard Mr. F. A. 
Bromwich read a paper on * Monumental Brasses " 
before the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian 
Society at Chetham's Hospital, Manchester, which 
indicated that a fitting chronicler has at last 
arisen of our local brasses. I believe Mr. J. E. 
Worsley, F.S.A., of Warrington, has in MS. a 
very full history of these brasses, but all efforts 
hitherto made have failed in persuading this, 
gentleman to publish his work. Two other collec- 
tions, also unfortunately existing in manuscript, 
may here be mentioned, both relating to Cam- 
bridgeshire: the first by the Rev. B. HaleWortham ; 
the other, by H. K. St. J. Sanderson and Rev. 
A. Brown, is, I understand, most full. 

The Groves, Chester. 

The brasses of Warwickshire were very care- 
fully and fully described by Mr. E. W. Badger 
in a series of articles in the Midland Naturalist 
for 1886 (vol. ix.), these within the last few 
months have been reprinted and published under 
the title of ' The Monumental Brasses of Warwick- 
shire. ' Some notes on the brasses of this county 
by Mr. F. W. Beynon will also be found in the 
Old Cross Magazine (Coventry) for November, 
1878, and February, 1879 ; and by Mr. 0. 
Williams in vol. xii. of the Transactions of the 
Archaeological Section of the Birmingham and 
Midland Institute, which also contains an illus- 
trated paper by Mr. Cecil T. Davis on the brasses 
of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. The brasses 
of Sussex have been described by Mr. E. Turner 
in vol. xxiii. of the Collections of the Sussex 
Archssological Society ; those of Northampton- 
shire by Dr. Franklin Hudson (London, 1853) ; 
and of Westminster in the ' Antiquities of West- 
minster Abbey,' by G. P. Harding and Thomas 
Moule (London, 1825). BEN. WALKER. 

Langetone, Erdington. 

la answer to H. T. G.'s inquiry for the names 
of local works on brasses, I beg to inform him 
that a very complete account of Warwickshire 
brasses has recently been published by Cornish 
Brothers, Birmingham. Its title is " ' The Monu- 
mental Brasses of Warwickshire, accurately Tran- 
scribed, with Translations and Descriptive Notes/ 
By the Rev. E. W. Badger, M.A. (Oxon) 



Assistant Master in King Edward's School, Bir- ' 
mingham." Only one hand red copies, each num- 
bered and signed, were printed. This book is not 
illustrated, but the descriptions are minute and 

Complete lists of the brasses, extant and lost, 
and of the matrices in the counties of Bedford and 
Cambridge are now being published in the Trans- 
actions of the Monumental Brass Society, of 
which the secretary is the Rev. A. J. Walker, 
B.A., 10, St. Dunstan Koad, Tunbridge Wells. 
A Huntingdonshire list on the same lines is 
ready, and others are in preparation. 


For a description of the brasses in the counties 
of Durham and Northumberland by Mr. J. G. 
Waller, F.S.A., see the Archceologia JEliana, 
vol. xv. pp. 76-89 j also pp. 207 and 311 of the 
Bame volume. R, B. 

South Shields. 

A full list (but needing corrections occasionally) 
of ' Brasses in Sussex Churches ' was contributed 
by the late Rev. Edward Turner to the ' Sussex 
Arch. Colls./ vol. xxxiii. 


* A List of Monumental Brasses ' has been pub- 
lished by the late Mr. Justin Simpson, of Stam- 
ford (see ' Mr. Justin Simpson,' 8 th S. ix. 200). 

(8 th S. ix. 361, 497). G. W. M. will find a very 
complete catalogue of the genealogical matter 
collected by antiquaries for each county in Eng- 
land in the ' Guide to Heraldry and Genealogy,' 
by George Gatfield, published by Mitchell & 
Hughes in 1892. DUNCAN PITCHER, Col. 

Gwalior, Central India. 

268, 476). Notwithstanding MR. HENDERSON'S 
remarks at the second reference, I am not disposed 
to qualify the judgment which I gave as to the 
" unspeakably great boon " which Messrs. Chatto & 
Windus conferred on students of Shakespeare 
when they published the reduced facsimile of the 
First Folio. I purchased the book when it ap- 
peared in 1876, induced to do so by the following 
high encomium (as I think, fully merited), which had 
appeared in the Athenaeum : 

"To Messrs. Chatto & Windus belongs the merit of 
having done more to facilitate the critical study of our 
great dramatist than all the Shakspeare clubs and 
societies put together. A complete facsimile of the 
celebrated first folio edition of 1623 for half-a-guinea is 
at once a miracle of cheapness an<l enterprise. Being in 
a reduced form, the type is necessarily rather diminutive, 
but it is as distinct as in a genuine copy of the original, 
and will be found to be as useful and far more handy to 
the student than the latter." 

MR, HENDERSON must be unfortunate in the 
printing of his copy. Whether later issues were 
more indistinct than the first I cannot say. I can 
say only that in my copy I have never come across 
a single " blurred or indistinct " word. 


Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

The best of all I take to have been Howard 
Staunton's full-size facsimile. I had a copy, but 
found it cumbersome, for it needed a special desk 
all to itself. Now I am content to work with that 
of 1876, "Chatbo & Windus"; the size is con- 
venient, and, being short sighted, the small type is 
no detriment to me ; but it has many " batters," 
so, when I find a letter indistinct, I check it by 
Booth's reprint of 1864, which is very clearly I 
may say cleanly done. A. H. 

'THE SECRET OF STOKE MANOR* (8 th S. ix. 67). 
The incomplete Blackwood story bearing this name, 
and never republished in book form, was from the 
pen of the late George Cupples, of Edinburgh, 
whose sea story the ' Green Hand 'also a Black- 
wood novel is still remembered. Its title appears 
in a privately printed list of his works which I got 
when I paid him a visit in 1887. A particular 
copy of the story, carefully rebound by one of his 
near relatives (deceased) at the time of its appear- 
ance, I own. The cause of the non-completion 
came from one of the peculiar fits of procrastination 
to which its author was prone, more especially 
severe when he would abandon luid-out work 
to tackle bis favourite subject of anthropology. 
Procrastination is often the bane of the literary 
mind, bringing loss and discomfort to the publisher. 
Cupples died at Edinburgh five years ago, and the 
following inscription is on his tombstone : 


George Cupplea, 

Novelist, Critic. Philologist, 

Who died October 17th, 1891, aged 69, 

This stone is erected 
By a few of his Oldest Friends, 

In recognition of the varied literary gifts and attainments 
of the Author, 


In Loving Memory of 
The Simple, Upright and Reverent Character 

of the Man. 
' He giveth his Beloved Sleep." 

J. G. C. 

FOOL'S PARADISE (8 th S. ix. 327, 414, 496). 
The Aladine spoken of in the ' New Help to Dis- 
course/ quoted by E. R. at the second reference, 
is called Aloadine by Marco Polo, who speaks of 
him as Prince of Mulehet, the place of heretics, in 
the north of Persia, and says that he was put to 
death by Ulan, in 1262 of our era. In Abulghazi's 
* History of the Tatars/ he figures as "Calif Imo- 
tasim," of Mulabaida, in Iran ; but this, according 
to the English translator, is an error due to the 




confusion of this old man of the mountain with 
" Almotassem, Chalif of Bagdad," both of them 
haying been put to death by Halaku Chan. The 
translator calls the chief of these Iranian assassins 
Rokn Al-din Chuz Shah, and his followers Mela- 
hedah, or Ismaeliano. They lived in the country 
of Chorasan, and were not finally extirpated until 
the time of Timur. It is quite clear that they 
were not Druses. C. 0. B. 

KINOSLET'S ' HYPATIA ' (8 th S. ix. 464). I have 
mislaid my copy of * Hypatia,' and forgotten what 
Kingsley said about this fine manly old heathen, 
or, as Spurgeon termed him, " this fine old Con- 
servative." The story has been often repeated. 
It is alluded to by Burton, in his 'Anatomy' 
(1651, p. 662), and related by several old chroni- 
clers, the quaint account of one of whom is here 
given, that readers may compare it with that in old 
French : 

"Aboute that tyme Eycoldus duke of Frysons was 
tourned by the prechyng of saynt Wulfranus y e bysshop 
and wolde be crystned/ and put hia one foote in y" 
fontestone & withdrewe y e other and axyd of them that 
etoode aboute whether there were moo of his pre- 
deceBSours in paradyse or in helle/ and was answered moo 
in helle he herde y* and drough his foote out of y e water 
& sayd It is esyer that I folowe the moo than y e lesse/ 
and so he was begyled of y e fende/ & deyde y e thyrde 
daye after. Willelmua. de. po. li. iiii." ' Polycronicon,' 
1527, f. 217v. (Written about 1340, and first printed by 
Caxton in 1482.) 

There is a modern variant of this history, clever 
and amusing, but as it reflects on a section of the 
Church, it would be out of place in * N. & Q.' 

R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

458). When and where this superstition had its 
origin is a question your correspondent J. B. 8. 
must be content to leave unsettled. It may, how- 
ever, be taken as tolerably certain that this and 
many other similar beliefs are of high antiquity, 
usually traceable to what we call pagan sources. 
Next, any belief concerning the peacock must of 
necessity be of southern or eastern origin "Ivory 
and apes and peacocks" (1 Kings x. 22) can 
have nothing to do with Scandinavian or Teutonic 
mythology. Moreover, the divinities of Assyria 
and Egypt, down to those of classic times, had 
some one or more animals or birds sacred to each 
of them, which became his or her recognized 
symbol, and was worshipped as representative 

Images in the likeness of these creatures were 
made, and were worn as amulets for the perpetual 
propitiation of the deity symbolized ; or, like the 
golden calf, the brazen serpent, the cricket of 
Pisistratus, the lion of St. Mark, were set up in 
conspicuous places as public objects of veneration 
or as popular prophylactics. 

The peacock was Juno's own bird, and its re- 
presentation, whether in the Christian catacombs 
as a symbol of the resurrection, or on the old gate- 
way of Citta Vecchia as the symbol of Juno, the 
protectress of Malta, has among southern people 
always been held as a bird of good omen, and as a 
bringer of " good luck." As a modern charm 
against the evil eye the peacock, like the lily, 
the royal flower, Juno's own, is worn to-day in 
classic lands. Inter alia, I have, not many 
weeks ago, bought in Italy a silver charm, much 
worn, in which a peacock is the central object, set 
in a sort of lyre-shaped frame, from which hang 
three hands, the centre one in the position known 
as cornuta, pointing the index and little finger; 
the others in the position called infica. There are 
many bronze peacocks to be seen in classic 
museums, which in their day were something 
more than ornaments in the houses whereto they 
once belonged. It can be only suggested, but the 
evidence seems to support the suggestion, that such 
beliefs as are now current in England are bequests 
from our Roman conquerors, probably reinforced 
by the intercourse with Italy all through the 
Middle Ages. 

Unluckiness seems to be confined to the 
bringing of the tail feathers of Juno's bird iato a 
house. I am not aware that this idea is held out- 
side this country, and, if it is confined to England, 
many various causes may have led to the belief, 
which possibly arose in comparatively modern 
times no earlier than the Crusades. 

Nothing is more probable than that several 
Crusaders brought home the gorgeous feathers as 
curiosities, a strange sight, and BO likely to make 
a deep impression. Nothing is easier to conceive 
than that some misfortune, death from disease, 
loss of wealth, or other "bad luck" may have 
happened to more than one possessor of the 
beautiful feathers, and that they would on that 
account soon be credited with being the cause. A 
belief of this kind once started is of rapid growth, 
and very long lived. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

NELSON'S "LITTLE EMMA" (8 th S. ix. 488). 
The statement in the * Diet. Nat. Biog.' is made 
on the faith of Jeaffreson's ' Queen of Naples and 
Lord Nelson,' vol. ii. p. 257. Jeaffreson's state- 
ment, again, is presumably based on evidence to 
be found in the Nelson- Hamilton MSS. in the 
possession of Mr. Alfred Morrison, though it is not 
so specifically stated. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY. 

SAMUEL PEPTS (8 tk S. ix. 307, 489). In MR. 
G. MARSHALL'S remarks upon Pepys's song he 
has made some allusions to Davenant's operas 
which require correction. They are based, appa- 
rently, upon Burney's history, a work more than a 
hundred years old. Complete copies of the * Siege 
of Rhodes ' are now known, and give us full in- 
formation concerning the music. Henry Liwes 


set the first and last acts, Capt. Cooke the second 
and third, and] Matthew Lock the fourth, the 
entr'actes being composed by Hudson and Dr. 
Colman. Also the assertion that Lock was far 
superior as a composer to Lawes and Cooke is 
one which (apart from the disputed ' Macbeth ' 
music) few will be found to agree with. The 
* Macbeth ' music is quite unlike Lock's recognized 
works. For further particulars regarding operas 
during the Commonwealth see ChappelTs ' Popular 
Music of the Olden Time ' or my own ' History of 
English Music/ a special feature of which is a 

whitewashing " of the Puritans as regards music. 


82, Grand Parade, Brighton. 

PATBIOT (8" S. viii. 367, 517 ; ix. 493). I 
cannot help what Mr. Wheatley or any one else 
says about the second edition of Minsheu. All 
that I know of the matter is that I possess a copy 
of it, " printed 22 July, 1625," and published, not 
in 1626, but in 1627. So says the title-page; 
and, if desired, I will send the book to MB. TERRY 
for his inspection. 

This reminds me how I once received a most 
insulting letter, from an unknown correspondent, 
telling me, with reprehensible frankness, that 
my statement as to the existence of Minsheu's 
' Spanish Dictionary/ dated 1623, was a plain 
falsehood, as there was no such book. Yet I have 
had a copy of it in my possession these twenty 
years. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

" POTTLE " (7 th S. iv. 365, 436). So long ago as 
1887 MR. E. WALFORD remarked, in these columns, 
that the word pottle, as applied to a long straw- 
berry basket with a gradually diminishing circum- 
ference, would soon be obsolete. At this particular 
season I can remember, almost so long as fifty years 
ago, the street call of, "Strawberries tup'ence a 
pottle ! " sounding far and wide. And, young as 
we children were, we knew full well all the fine 
strawberries would be on the top, whilst the bottoms 
of the elongated baskets would be filled with, at 
best, inferior fruit, and too often with paper. In 
Exeter market recently, I asked a strawberry 
vendor how much a pottle his wares were, and the 
man looked vacantly at me, without in the least 
understanding the purport of my query. The 
nearest approach I know of now to the old pottle, 
are some fruit-baskets we see in Egypt. But the 
latter are matted, or platted with more flexible 
withy or reed, and are shorter and wider. The 
Egyptian pottle is 7 in. or 8 in. long by 4J in. dia- 
meter at top, or thereabouts, whereas its English 
counterpart (so well as I remember it) was 10 in 
long by 3^ in. to 4 in. at its widest diameter 
dwindling down to 1 in. Further, the latter had a 
stiff, bowed handle, the former has a looped one, oi 
rush-made twisted twine. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

A KNIGHTED LADY (8 th S. ix. 124, 239, 372). 
[n the introduction to the ' Poetical Works ' of W, 
Drummond, edited by W. B. Turnbull, 1856, it is. 
stated at p. vi that John, the second son of Sir 
Robert Drnmmond of Oarnock, who founded the 
'amily of Hawthornden, was in 1590 appointed 
Gentleman Usher to James VI.; and on his 
sovereign's accession to the English sceptre re- 
ceived from him the rank of knighthood ; that he 
married Susannah Fowler, daughter of a respect- 
able burgess of Edinburgh, who subsequently had 
also the accolade, and served as secretary to Queen 

"KNEELER" (8 to S. ix. 226, 350, 514). It ia 
embarrassing to be contradicted by MR. HEMS. 
Nevertheless my statement is correct. In the 
Illustrated Catalogue ' of Jones & Willis, sixty- 
fourth edition, pp. 28, 29 are occupied by textile 
fabrics called "Mats and Kneelers." In that of 
Frank Smith & Co., twenty-fifth edition, there is 
a similar page of "Woolwork and Appliqud 
Kneelers" (p. 39). In some lists, however, the 
word is applied to a small stool, and sometimes to 
the continuous carpet on which the communicants 
kneel. But generally a "kneeler" is "a small 
mat upon which to kneel/' as distinguished from & 
door- mat, and from a mat on which to stand (as 
at a lectern), which last mat is properly a pede- 
mat. W. 0. B. 

PIN AND BOWL (8 th S. ix. 424). There is no 
doubt as to the meaning of this, for although as 
the actual sign of an inn it may be rare, yet a 
representation, often highly coloured, of a " pin " 
falling from the blow of the " bowl " is still to be 
seen, in Bristol and elsewhere, on many a public 
house, usually at the side of the door, to show that 
there is a "skittle alley" within. No doubt the 
frequent use of this historical advertisement has 
led to its adoption for the principal sign of the inn 
referred to by MR. PENNY, and that would also 
partly account for "pin," instead of "pins." It 
is, however, only in one sense that the word " pins" 
in this connexion is ever used. The people's game 
is " skittles." " Nine pins " are toys for children, 
and the name belongs to society. Skittles are cer- 
tainly played with nine "pins" and "bowls," of 
course, but only in speaking of the individuals are 
pins so called. To " set up the pins " is the duty 
of the attendant, but collectively they are the 
"pack." In a crowded carriage of the Exeter 
market train, I heard an old-fashioned farmer call 
out to the person next the window, " Here J 
Maister Cornder Pin, do 'ee plaise to let in a leetle 
fresh air, us be 'most a-steefled." To hit the 
" corner pin " is the aim of every skittle-player. 

"SICKER" (8 th S. ix. 485, 511). I have no 
pretensions to Scots scholarship, and as I merely 

. X. JOLT 11, '98.1 



wrote sicktr from my recollections of ' The Tales of 
a Grandfather,' I had not intended to say any- 
thing on the subject ; but SIR HERBERT MAXWELL'S 
last courteous note seems to demand one word. I 
cannot see that any argument in regard to Domes- 
day spelling can be founded on such a word as 
sicker. The various spellings of that word are 
purely accidental, while the difference between the 
Domesday " Holeburne," confirmed as it is by the 
numerous ancient writings which I collated, and 
Stow's bogus etymology of "Old Bourne," is organic. 
On the whole, I consider it safer to assume that the 
spelling of the Survey is right, unless by a com- 
parison with the spelling in earlier A.-S. charters 
it is clearly shown to be wrong. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

SAMUEL BLOWER (8 th S. ix. 89, 435). Samuel 
Blower, Nonconformist divine, born at Lough- 
borough, co. Leicester, matriculated from Magdalen 
College, Oxford, 20 Feb., 1648/9. (of which society 
he was demy 1648-52, and fellow 1652-1660), and 
graduated B.A. 24 Feb., 1651/2, proceeding M.A. 
13 June, 1654. He was ejected, at the Restora- 
tion, from his lectureship at Woodstock, Oxford- 
shire, and became (in 1662-3) the first pastor of 
the Independent Church at Castle Hill, North- 
ampton, which charge he quitted in 1694 or 1695, 
and removed to Abingdon, where he died in 

more, and may not improbably be able to give 
him the information that he seeks. George Alley, 
Esq., J. P., is one of them. M. 

(8 th S. viii. 27, 132, 272, 317 ; ix. 150). MR. 
JOHN MALONE regrets that the plain English of 
Greene and Jonson misleads my " opinion." Un- 
fortunately for his point of view, it has so misled 
almost every English commentator on Shakespeare. 
To quote one only, the Rev. Alex. Dyce : 

" By the ' crow beautified with our feathers/ and 
'the onely Shake-scene in a countrey,' it ia evident 
that Greene alludes to Shakespeare, who beyond all 
doubt began to cater for the stage by altering the works 
of other dramatists : ' our feathers ' mutt mean certain 
plays which had been written either separately or con- 
jointly by Greene, Marlowe, Lodge, or Peele." 

In ' Greene's Funeralls,' by R. B., 1594, there is 
reference again to this literary plagiarism : 
Greene ia the ground of every painter's die : 
Greene gave the ground to all that wrote upon him. 
Nay, more, the men that so eclipst his fame, 
Purloynde his plumes : can they deny the same ? 
Henrie Chettle, who edited Greene's tract in the 
preface to ' Kind-Harts Dreame,' distinctly states 
that one or two play makers took offence at 
Greene's deathbed reproachings, and apologizes to 
one in terms which are generally accepted as in- 
dicating Shakespeare. W. A. HENDERSON. 


,' 1853, p. 10.) 


COLUMN IN ORME SQUARE (8 th S. ix. 507). 
The history of the column, as it has been told to 
me by several of the oldest residents hereabouts, 
is as follows. Early in the century Mr. Edward 
Orme became possessed of the land in this imme- 
diate neighbourhood, and at the time after 
Waterloo that the basements of the houses in 
Orme Square, St. Petersburg Place, Moscow Road, 
&c., were being excavated, the Emperor of 
Russia (Alexander I.), who was on a visit to 
London, happened to be driving by and noticed 
the beautiful colour and quality of the gravel. A 
contract was arranged between the Czar and Mr. 
Orrae that the gravel should be sent to Russia for 
the grounds of one of the royal residences, a con- 
tract carried out so much to Mr. Orme's satisfac- 
tion that he named two of the streets after Russian 
cities and put up the eagle in his own square. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

ALLEY (8 th S. ix. 488). In reply to SIGMA-TAU, 
the Rev. Peter Alley was rector of Donamore, in 
the Queen's Co., not the county Wicklow. De- 
scendants of Mr. Alley are still living in Dona- 

H. C. will find a pedigree of the Saunderson 
family, of Sheffield, co. York, in Hunter's * Hal- 
lamshire ' (' History, &c., of the Parish of Shef- 
field '), edited by the Rev. Alfred Gatty, 1869. 
It begins with John Saunderson, of Tickhill, and 
is brought down to Nicholas and Edward, of 
Sheffield, circa 1670 ; states, also, that Edward 
had a numerous progeny, most of whom settled 
in Sheffield and the neighbourhood. The ' History 
of Blyth,' 1860, may contain some information. 

ix. 443). The editor of the Clarendon Press 
Thomson, annotating the passage on the comet 
in ' Summer,' says it was "added after 1738." The 
likelihood, therefore, is that it was inspired as 
MR. LYNN suggests. In the memoir of Thomson 
prefixed to the Aldine edition of his works, pub- 
id in 1860, a footnote on p. liii states that 
" Mr. Bolton Corney has clearly shown the addi- 
tions made to each edition of 'The Seasons' in a 
tabular form. Altogether Thomson added 5,541 
lines." A reference to Corney's edition of 1842 
would probably settle the matter. 

Helensburgb, N.B. 

THE EYE OF A PORTRAIT (8 th S. ix. 468). 
The note in the * Christian Year ' referred to by 



your correspondent is under St. Bartholomew's 
Day, and is from Miller's Bampton Lectures, to 
the effect that the eye of Scripture, like the eye 
of a portrait, is uniformly fixed upon us, turn 
where we will. The great authority on this subject 
is Dr. Wollaston, the contemporary of Davy and 
Thomas Young, a man who had a profound know- 
ledge of many sciences, so that it was truly eaid of 
him " Nil erat quod non tetigit, nil tetigit quod 
non ornavit." 

While meditating on the old and well-known 
fact that the eyes of a portrait seem to follow the 
observer howsoever he may shift his position, 
Wollaston 's first care was to obtain a pair of eyes, 
which were to be well made, clear, and free from 
all squinting propensities, in order to illustrate his 
paper, ' On the Apparent Direction of Eyes in a 
Portrait.' To this end he paid a visit to Sir 
Thomas Lawrence at his house on the east side of 
Russell Square (where I was taken when a little 
boy on the chance of seeing some of the allied 
sovereigns, who sat to this artist for their por- 
traits). On hearing Wollaston's request that he 
would paint him such a pair of eyes, Lawrence 
replied, " I know the very eyes you require sit 
down, for you are the possessor of them." Wol- 
laston had the same objection as Cavendish to sit 
for his portrait, but on this occasion he yielded, 
and it was long supposed that the well-known 
portrait in the possession of the Royal Society was 
the result of this sitting. But it was stated 
by Mrs. Somerville that at her urgent request 
Wollaston sat to Jackson, who painted the 
portrait just referred to. The eyes painted by 
Lawrence were used to illustrate the paper in the 
Phil. Trans., which represented two heads, 
one of a male and the other of a female, with 
an arrangement for altering the lower part of 
the face in each case. Sir D. Brewster, in his book 
on * Natural Magic,' contained in the "Family 
Library " (Murray, 1832), has copied two of these 
figures in wood, which, though inferior to those in 
the original memoir, are really effective in illus- 
trating Wollaston's curious discovery that by 
adding to each pair of eyes a nose directed to 
the right or the left, the eyes lose their front 
direction, and look to the right or the left accord- 
ing to the direction of the nose. By means of a 
flap representing the lower features in a different 
position, as Dr. Wollaston remarks, 

"a lost look of devout abstraction in an uplifted 
countenance may be exchanged for an appearance of 
inquisitive archness in the leer of a younger face 
turned downwards and obliquely towards the opposite 

As by changing the direction of the lower 
features we change the direction of the eyes, so by 
changing our position the eye of the portrait appa- 
rently follows us. If a vertical line be drawn 
through the tip of the nose and half way between 

the eyes, there will be the same breadth of head, 
of cheek, of chin, and of neck on each side of 
this middle line, and each iris will be in the 
middle of the whole of the eye. If we now move 
to one side, the apparent horizontal breadth of 
every part of the head and face will be diminished, 
but the parts on each side of the middle line will 
be diminished equally, and at any position, how- 
ever oblique, there will be the same breadth of 
face on each side of the middle line, and the iris 
will be in the centre of the whole of the eye-ball, 
so that, being on a flat surface, the iris will be seen 
in front of the picture or obliquely. 

Brewster illustrates the subject in various ways, 
and to him we refer as well as to Wollaston's 
original memoir in the Phil. Trans, for 1824. 


Highgate, N. 

There used to be a notion current among 
country people forty or fifty years ago (and pos- 
sibly there still is) that if the eye of a portrait 
appears to follow you the picture must be a good 
one. I have frequently heard it said of a portrait, 
" Well, it isn't much of a likeness, but it is well 
painted, the eyes follow you." 0. 0. B. 

Xavier de Maistre, in his ' Voyage autour de 
ma Chambre,' which appears to have been pub- 
lished in 1791, makes this the subject of his fif- 
teenth and of a portion of his sixteenth chapters. 

4, Bloomsbury Place, Brighton. 

When the eyes of a portrait look straight for- 
ward they always seem to follow you. If the 
glance is upward, downward, or askance, it keeps 
the one direction it was intended by the painter 
to have. R. M. SPENCE, M.A. 

Manee of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

Sir D. Brewster, ' Natural Magic,' pp. 121, 122, 
1832, observes : 

" Having thus determined the influence which the 
general perspective of the face has upon the apparent 
direction of the eyes in a portrait, Dr. Wollaston applies 
it to the explanation of the well-known fact that when 
the eyes of a portrait look at a spectator in front of it 
they will follow him, and appear to look at him in every 
other direction. This curious fact, which has received 
less consideration than it merits, has been often skilfully 
employed by the novelist in alarming the fears or 
exciting the courage of his hero." 


I fancy that MR. EDWARD MARSHALL'S query 
refers rather to literary allusion to this phenomenon 
than to its physical cause. Nevertheless, at the 
risk of being thought superfluous, the explanation 
may bear repetition. When a sitter is painted 
with his eyes directed into those of the artist, the 
light is represented as it is reflected from the orbs 
in that position. If this is faithfully done, the 
eyes of the portrait have the appearance of always 
gazing at the beholder, irrespectively of his posi- 

8" S. X. JOLT 11, '96.] 



tion on the one hand, and of that of the pupils o 
the portrait on the other. This illusion seldom 
occurs in photographs, because photographers 
generally request their patients to direct their 
gaze, not into the lenses, but to a point to one side 

FAMILY SOCIETIES (8 th S. ix. 424, 513). Both 
your correspondents' communications at the latte 
reference are wide of the mark, and furnish 
nothing new to me. Mine related to famil 
societies, and not to feasts or other socia 
gatherings, nor to meetings for any purpose o: 
particular families, or of the bearers of a like 
patronymic, as unconnected with such a society or 
its proposed formation. We are, therefore, still 
without evidence (satisfactory or otherwise) 
respecting the formation or attempted formation 
of a family society prior to the date of that given 
by me. But if any such be forthcoming it might 
prove of interest to many both here and in the 
States. ^ W. I. E. V. 

Your correspondents remind me of the story 
told by Sir N. W. Wraxall about Charles, Duke 
of Norfolk. His Grace, wishing to bring together 
in a family gathering "all the Howards" at 
Arundel Castle, gave up the idea in despair, as he 
found that in order to accommodate them he should 
have to find room for several hundreds, if not 
thousands of persons, all descended from the first 
peer, t quote from memory, not having Wraxall 
at hand. E. WALFORD. 


Has MR. W. T. LYNN quoted his "mock 
hexameter line " correctly ? To me it seems most 
halting, and not rightly scanned. Surely "the 
story " is not a dactyl, but an amphibrach, and 
" relates " can hardly be regarded as a spondee 

curiously enough, it has " Drag'on, an herb, the 
dracunculus." Bailey has drag on. The latter pro- 
nunciation is that of the old ballad ' The Dragon 

Do but slay this dragon, who won't leave us a rag on. 
We '11 give thee all our goods. 

Pope, also, in ' The Dunciad,' iii. 285-6, has : 
Yet lo ! in me what authors have to brag on ! 
Reduc'd at last to hiss in my own dragon. 


WEIGHING THE EARTH (8 th S. ix. 224, 314, 
93, 470). There can be no doubt about the house 
which was occupied by Francis Baily, LL.D., 
F.R.S., and President of the Astronomical Society. 
It was No. 37, Tavistock Place, and was originally 
built by James Burton for his own occupation. 

It came subsequently into the possession of Mr. 
Benjamin Oakley, of the Stock Exchange, from 
whom it was purchased by Mr. Baily, who occu- 
pied it till his death on 30 August, 1844. A good 
account of this part of London and of the dis- 
tinguished persons who have resided in or near 
Burton Street is given by John Britton in the 
appendix to his 'Autobiography/ pp. 137-165. 
Britton was an intimate friend of Mr. Baily, and 
a portrait of that gentleman will be found in 
part i. of the ' Autobiography.' Every one must 
wish that a house of such historic interest had 
been spared. W. F. PRIDEATTX. 

Kingaland, Shrewsbury. 

' GENERAL PARDON,' &c. (8 th S. ix. 428). la 
1853, Charles 0. Babington, of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, possessed an imperfect copy of this 
pamphlet, and requested the loan of a complete 
copy to enable him to transcribe the missing por- 
tion. He stated he had not been able to meet 
with the tract in the British Museum, Bodleian, 
Cambridge University, Lambeth, and several of 
the college libraries at Cambridge. 


429). For four or five years in the sixties this 
chapel was a somewhat favourite resort of mine of 
a Sunday evening, and I have therefore read these 
notes with peculiar interest. But surely MR. 
TUCKETT must be mistaken in applying Hook's 
verses to it. I have always heard of them as having 
been written of Dr. Lief child's Chapel, situate, I 
believe, in or near Gower Street. Nor is it the 
fact, unless my memory greatly errs, that Mr. 
Brooke removed to Bedford Chapel when he 
quitted the Church of England. I remember 
him well at York Chapel. He must have migrated 
to Bloomsbury some years before his secession 
from the Church. Mr. Bellew had, as COL. PRI- 
DEAUX says, a remarkably fine presence in the 
pulpit, but his reading of the service (and especially 

the lessons) always struck me as somewhat 
theatrical. He had one habit, however, which 
might be copied with advantage by others of his 
cloth. He would sometimes say upon ascending 
.he pulpit : " I have not prepared a sermon for 
this evening, but shall read you one from St. 
Augustine," or it might be from some other old 
writer. Of all the Bedford Chapel preachers I 
remember, I should say that Mr. Christopherson 
was the most noteworthy (Mr. Brooke I never 
leard there). There are not many sermons that 
me can remember after the lapse of twenty-five 
>r thirty years ; but of one or two of his I have 
till a very vivid impression. His style was very 
>old and ironical, and his delivery did it full 
ustice. C. 0. B. 

Neither A. H.'s statement nor his impression 
oncerning the Kev. Stopford Brooke is strictly 



[8 S.X. JULY 11, '96. 

correct. Mr. Brooke was curate of St. Matthew's, luck," of which BO mnch has been lately written 

Marylebone, from 1857 to 1859 ; curate of Ken- 
sington from 1860 to 1863, chaplain to the British 
Embassy at Berlin from 1863 to 1865, and minister 
of York Chapel, St. James's, from 1866 to 1875. 
In the year 1876 he became minister of Bedford 
Chapel, Bloomsbury, but he did not quit the 
Church of England until 1883. In that year he 
announced to his congregation that in future he 
intended to conduct the services at Bedford Chapel 
upon the principles of Unitarianism. 

5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

There is another, and I think the original, version 
of Theodore Hook's lines, running thus : 
'Tifl right that the friends of this building should know 
There 's a spirit above, and a spirit below, 
The spirit above is the spirit divine, 
But the spirit below is the spirit of wine. 

A similar caution was written, sixty years ago, 
in Birmingham, when Christ Church, New Street, 
had its congregation divided, males and females : 
The churches and chapels we generally find 
Are the places where men unto women are joined 
But at Christ Church it seems they are more cruel-hearted 
For women and men go there to be parted. 


I am glad to be put right about Dr. Sacheverell. 
It is many years since Mr. Stopford Brooke 
" opened his ministry " in London, as curate of 
Kensington, when Archdeacon Sinclair was vicar. 
He moved to Bedford Chapel, when Lord Car- 

in <N. &Q.' C. P. HALE. 

Mr. W. HENDERSON, in 'Folk-lore of the 
Northern Counties' (Folk-lore Society), 1879, 
remarks, at p. 112 : 

If two persons wash their hands together in the 
game basin they will be sure to fall out before bed-time. 
This is said all England over. A lady informs me that 
the belief held its ground when she was at school, and 
that it was necessary to avert the evil omen by ' cross- 
ing the water' with the forefinger. I have seen this 
done by a farmer's daughter in Devonshire." 

Mr. Jesse Salisbury, in ' A Glossary of Words 
and Phrases used in S.E. Worcestershire,' says 
(p. 72) . 

If two persons wash their hands at the same time 
in one bowl, they must spit in the water, otherwise they 
will quarrel before the day is over." 


It is commonly believed in Lincolnshire that if 
a person washes his or her hands in water that 
has been used for a like purpose by any one else, 
unless the second user of it makes the sign of the 
cross over the water that the two will most surely 
quarrel, or, as it is locally expressed, " fall out." 
I never heard of it being made in the water, as 
recorded by C. C. B. A great-aunt of mine, who 
were she now alive would be in her hundred and 
second year, told me that it was the custom to 
make the cross over water in Norfolk for the 
same reason that it is done in Lincolnshire, and 

in the same manner. It is, however, more than 

** * v **v *v ..'VU* vri\A vyu-wpflj TT UGU J~JVSJ.ll V-/C*i ~ I - 1 1 J"l_ "VT" f II 

narvon brought the York Street Chapel (not known, sevent y- five 7 ears since my relative leffc Norfolk, 
I think, as York Chapel) to an end ; he was then | and l do not know whether * e custom ** "mams, 
in the Church of England, and he took Bedford 


Chapel with him when he seceded. 


Another quite explicable charm in its use, so 
far as I know, not confined to any particular 
locality when two people share the same hand- 
washing water, is for the second comer to spit into 
the basin. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

The custom referred to by C. C. B. still obtains 
in Berkshire, where the less refined natives em- 

425). As the editorial note implies, this item of 
folk-lore is not uncommon. It is mentioned by 

Grose, who tells us that washing the hands in the w 

same basin or with the same water that another I phasize their desire for amity by, under the cir- 
perspn has washed in is extremely unlucky, as the cumstances in question, spitting in the water, and 
parties will infallibly quarrel. No reason, he thus "spitting their spite " by means of the action, 
adds, is assigned for this absurd opinion. Ob- F. G. S. 

viously the notion of making the sign of a cross, Is - t not ible that the BUper8 tition is intended 
which C. C. B s little niece advised as a preven- to illustrat the disadvantages attendant on too 
tive of quarrelling, must be referred to the general ' 
belief prevailing in the good fortune which attaches 
itself to the symbol. We have many instances of 

this belief, of which 0. C. B. is probably aware. I The mystery is easily explained. It is true that 
But with reference to its use in connexion with Gibbs built the present church in 1721-6, but it 
this " washing hands " superstition, I must confess simply replaced a previous structure. In the reign 
its newness to me. I have heard, however, that of Henry VIII. the church of St. Martin-in-the- 
the danger of a quarrel may be avoided by each Fields was found to be in a ruinous state, and was 

close intimacies ? H. T. 

ST. MARTIN'S-IN-THE-FIELDS (8 th S. ix. 446). 

of the parties spitting into the water. This notion 
prevails, I understand, among children in the 
Metropolis. We have in this, it will be seen, 
another instance of the so-called "spitting for 

rebuilt, and in 1607 Prince Henry, the eldest son 
of James I., added a chancel at his own expense. 
The church, having fallen into decay, was taken 
down in 1721, and the foundation-stone of the 

8> 8. S.JULY 11, '96.] 



present structure was laid on 19 March, 1722. 
As to Nell Gwynne, I certainly had no idea her 
remains had been removed. I have consulted 
several books which refer to St. Martin's, and 
none of them says a word about any removal. 
Was she buried in the church, or in the church- 
yar( i ] JOHN T. PAGE. 

[Many replies to the same effect are acknowledged.] 


THE most important life in the forty-seventh volume of 
the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' that of the 
"spider of hell," as Sir Walter Ralegh was called by 
Coke, bears two signatures, those of Prof. Laughton and 
to believe that, while the 
assigned the professor who 

the physician, is in the hands of Mr. Aitken, and Robert 
Radcliffe, the first Earl of Sussex, in those of Mr. Robert 
Dunlop. Dr. Garnett deals with Ann Radcliffe, the 
novelist, and says that she " cannot be excluded from a 
place among great romancers." Allan Ramsay, wig-maker 
and poet, to whom we owe ' The Gentle Shepherd,' is the 
most valuable of Mr. Baynea's contributions, and John 
Reeves, the king's printer, the most important of those of 
Mr. Gordon Goodwin. Mr. W. P. Courtney, Mr. Russell 
Barker, Mr. P. J. Anderaon, Mr. Boase, Mr. Thompson 
Cooper and Miss Elizabeth Lee are, as usual, responsible 
for many lives of importance. Mr. Austin Dobson, 
Dr. Jeseopp, and the Rev. William Hunt are contributors. 
Mr. Charles Kent sends a sympathetic memoir of that 
strange being Charles Reade, and Mr. H. Davey in- 
troduces us in John Redford to a little-known musician. 
Among the names of writers that will not be sought for 
in vain are those of the Rev. W. D. Macray, Dr. Norman 
Moore, Mr. D'Arcy Power, Mr. Tedder, and Mr. Charles 

Journal of the Ex-Librit Society. 
THIS well-conducted journal maintains its interest and 
value. To the last number Mr. J. Carlton Stitt contri- 
butes a list of ' English Ladies' Armorial Book-plates.' 
to find that the errors in the 

World ' is classed among " the noblefct of literary enter 
prises." The difficulty in the way of identifying Ralegh's 
poems the signatures " Sir W. R." and " Ignoto," which 
he occasionally attached to them, not being an infallible 
guide to authorship is shown to extend to Ralegh's 
prose writings, many of which are apparently lost. The 
sentiment inspired by the greatness of his downfall and 
the baseness of his persecution are said to have exalted 
the popular estimate of Ralegh's character, and to have 
assigned him an importance to which he was not entitled. 
"Physical courage, patriotism, resourcefulness " are to 
be ungrudgingly ascribed to him. He had, however, 
"small regard for truth, and reckless daring was the 
main characteristic of bis stirring adventures as politician, 
soldier, sailor, and traveller." The volume opens with 
a contribution of the editor, who, writing of Puckle, the 
author of ' The Club,' the moral reflection in which Mr. 
Lee justly decries as tedious, says that "the book's 
long lease of popularity seems to exceed its literary 
merits." The Puttenhame, George and Richard, one of 
whom wrote the ' Arte of English Poesie,' are also in the 
hands of Mr. Lee, who is, moreover, responsible for the 
laureate, Pye ; Francis Quarles, of ' Emblems ' fame ; 
Randolph, one of the literary offspring of Ben Jonson ; 
Isaac Reed, the Shakspearean editor, and many other 
men of interest or importance, with whom has, curiously 
enough, to be classed one highwayman. The solitary 
contribution of Mr. Leslie Stephen consists of a bio- 
graphy of Thomas Reid, " the philosopher " (meta- 
physician ?), the representative of the school of " common 
sense." An important life of Pym is by Dr. Samuel 
Rawson Gardiner. It is a valuable addition to our 
knowledge of a struggle on which too much light can 
never be poured. Mr. C. H. Firth is seen to advantage 
in lives of Sir James Ramsay and Rapin, otherwise 
Rapin-Thoyras, the historian and soldier, of whose 
career a stimulating narrative is given. The spirited 
account of the career of the first Marquees of Dalhousie is 
from the pen of Sir Alexander J. Arbuthnot ; that of 
Henry Puree!!, first of English musician?, is by Mr.Fuller- 
Maitland ; Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole depicts Sir Henry 
Rawlinson. Among many careful and erudite lives by 
Mr. Seccombe, that of Cyrus Redding, the journalist and 
historian of wines, is the most generally interesting. 
A striking account of James Radcliffe, third Earl of 
Derwentwater, is from the same pen. John Radcliffe, 

;, we are presumably indebted for 
the account of the fifth annual exhibition held under 
the protection of the Society. 

MAKING its appearance in its enlarged shape, and at 
its old price of a shilling, the Cornhill takes, for once, 
precedence of all competitors. It is announced as No. 1 
of a new series. It is difficult to imagine an opening 
number of more varied interest. Mrs. Richmond Ritchie 
leads off with an account of the original first number 
of the Cornhill, with extracts from the letters received 
by her father (Thackeray) from Monckton Milnes (Lord 
Houghton), Carlyle, Macaulay, Mrs. Barrett Browning, 
and other celebrities. Some of her father's discomforts 
as an editor are also narrated. Prof. Goldwin Smith 
supplies an anniversary study of ' Burke.' A very curious 
article is supplied in the ' Memoirs of a Soudanese 
Soldier,' translated by Capt. Percy Machell. Mr. Grant 
Duff gives several stories from the ' Menagiana.' One 
is somewhat surprised to see this collection once more 
laid under contribution, and wonders if other of the 
French ana are to follow. ' Animal Helpers and Servers ' 
is happy and new. ' Black Ghosts ' is an attractive study 
in folk-lore. ' Pages from a Private Diary ' is very well 
written. We fancy, however, the revelations are pastiches, 
and that no such diary ha?, in fact, been kept. In the 
Fortnightly Mr. Traill writes with characteristic spirit 
and brightness upon the ' Analytical Humourist.' Him- 
eelf a humourist of the first water, he supplies the best 
definitions of the relative provinces of wit and humour 
that we have yet read. Prof. Max MUller deals, in 
' Coincidences,' with the resemblances between Catholic 
and pagan ceremonial, and passes thence into some 
philological investigations of keenest interest. 'The 
Highway Robber,' at whom Ouida preaches, is the motor 
car, the introduction of which into England she solemnly 
deprecates. An earnest and an eloquent writer, Ouida, 
many of whose views we share, often conveys to us the 
idea of over-proving her case. We agree with her that 
the long, straight, and not seldom wearisome roads of 
France and Belgium are immeasurably better suited to 
that form of engine than the lovely green lanes of 
England, wandering indolently and, as it seems, inten- 
tionally by the longest route from hamlet to hamlet. 
Mr. Claude Phillips discusses 'The Salons,' and Mr. 
T. H. 8. Escott ' The Development of Lord Salisbury.' 
Special attention is attracted in the Nineteenth Century 


to a translation of a letter from the Emperor of China 
to King George III. One wondera whether an epistle 
80 condescending in its patronage ever, in its integrity, 
reached the hands to which it was addressed. One 
cannot easily fancy George 111. accepting with perfect 
equanimity the assurance that he lived " in an obscure 
Bpot across the oceans." A profoundly important and 
Btimulating paper, to which it is not necessary to direct 
the attention of our readers, is that of Prof. Tylor on 
The Matriarchal Family System.' What is said about 
the pretence of wife capture still prevailing in some 
countries, on purchase of wives, and on other similar sub- 
jects, ia of highest interest. Mr. Walter Alison Phillips 
draws attention to Walter von der Vogelweide, some of 
whose lyrics he translates. The adventurous career of 
Alvar Nunez is told by Mr. 11. B. Cunninghame Graham. 
Mr. Rowland . Prothero gives Btimulating excerpts 
from ' New Letters of Edmund Gibbon.' Mrs. Bertrand 
Russell contemplates woman in Germany from the 
Social Democratic point of view. Mr. Frederic Wed- 
more opens his mind on the subject of ' The Music Halls/ 
and Lord Meath thinks that ' Manners in Great Britain ' 
are on the decline. If his lament is justified, the fault 
is probably found in the almost total absence of disci- 
pline as applied to youth. The same complaint is, how- 
ever, as old as the hills. The author, in the New 
Review, of ' Talks with Tennyson ' has been admitted 
into close intimacy with the poet. His revelations are 
all interesting, and possibly escape the charge of indis- 
cretion. The alterations made by Tennyson in answer 
to implied, even if unspoken, criticism, are unmistakable 
improvements. ' The Stream's Secret,' by Mr. Maxwell 
Gray, shows close sense of poetry and insight into it. 
Some of the views expressed win our concurrence. In 
dealing with poetry concerning the sea we are surprised, 
while reading "More than any poet Tennyson has 
brought the sea into poetry," to find no mention of Mr. 
Swinburne. In a paper by Mr. Gladstone on 'Man 
Making and Verse Making' it is curious to find that 
veteran scholar passing over two misquotations from 
Horace. Sir Herbert Stephen writes thoughtfully and 
sagely on ' Criminals' Confessions.' The Century leads 
off with an account, by Mr. F. Marion Crawford, of 
St. Peter's, Rome. This gives a good idea of the dimen- 
sions of tbat noble pile, and is well illustrated by M. A. 
Castaigne. ' Glimpses of Venezuela and Guiana ' has 
more than temporary interest. Mr. Sloaue's stirring 
'Life of Napoleon Bonaparte' deals with the retreat 
from Moscow, and concludes with the last imperial 
victory. Very striking are the pictures of Russian and 
Austrian delays and tergiversations. What might almost 
be a continuation of the same valuable history is fur- 
nished in ' A Family Record of Ney's Execution,' from 
an unpublished memory of the Genet family. As an 
illustration, Gerard's fine portrait of " The bravest of 
the brave " is reproduced. ' An Arctic Studio ' repays 
attention. Scnlners opens with a well-written and no 
less well-illustrated account of Coney Island. It has a 
pleasant holiday flavour. Mr. Brander Matthews writes 
on ' The Beauty of Place-Names,' and supports Irving's 
suggestion that New York City should be Manhattan; 
the state, Ontario; the Hudson, the Mohegan; and the 
United States, Appalachia. Sir Martin Con way's ' A 
Thousand Miles through the Alps ' gives a stimulating 
account of ascents, beginning at the Col de Tenda and 
ending in the Austrian and Bavarian Tyrol. 'Some 
Portraits of Turner ' is very curious. ' The English 
Settlement of Canada,' which appears in Macmillan's, 
deals with historical events concerning which, recent as 
they are, very little knowledge exists in England. ' A 
Modern Sindbad ' records recent adventures of a suffi- 
ciently surprising kind. 'Some Thoughts on Racine* 

undertakes the defence of a writer who has never 
appealed, and will not appeal, to the majority of Eng- 
lish readers. 'An Italian Adventurer' deals with the 
romantic and unhappy career of Leonardo Trissino. 
Very startling is the information conveyed in ' How 
[English] History is written in America.' Mr. E. A. 
Petherick sends to the Gentleman's an account of ' Mun- 
dus Alter et Idem,' an anonymous romance of the 
time of James 1., from which it ia supposed Swift bor- 
rowed the idea of ' Gulliver's Travels.' In the erudite, 
but not always impeccable Lowndes the work is ascribed 
to Bishop Hall, the author of ' Virgidemiarium.' It is 
known to have been humorously translated by John 
Healey as ' The Discovery of a New World.' This John 
Healey Mr. Petherick identifies with a recusant of the 
name, concerning whom many curious particulars are 
unearthed. As a bibliographical study the article has 
much value. Mr. Adams writes pleasantly on Burton and 
the 'Anatomy of Melancholy.' A sympathetic paper on 
' Henriette Renan ' appears in Temple Bar, in which 
'A Triad of Elegies' deals competently with 'Lycidas,' 
* Thyrsis,' and ' Adonais.' Subtle points of difference are 
dwelt upon by the writer, who scarcely seems so sensible 
to the magic of Milton as he is to that of Shelley and 
Arnold. An appreciative estimate of Verlaine is also 
given. The Pall Mall, the illustrations in which are 
a credit to English art, gives ' Notes on some Dickens 
Places and People,' by Charles Dickens the younger. 
These notes may be read with abundant interest, and 
the spots, picturesque or other, that are reproduced are 
excellent. Mr. H. A. Bryden writes well on 'Zebras' 
and their characteristics. Much to be commended is 
also Sir E. B. Malet's spirited record, 'Through the 
Lines.' The English Illustrated gives a portrait and 
memoir of Li Hung Chang, a well-illustrated account of 
' The Intermarriages of England and Denmark,' and 
other noteworthy contents. Longman's has also a well- 
assorted variety of contents. Chapman's, as is its pro- 
fession, overflows with fiction, much of it stirring. 

CASSELL'S Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Part XXXIV., extends from Liddington Warren to 
Llanfihangel, and deals largely with Welsh names, such 
as Llandudno. Lincoln, the fine cathedral of which 
furnishes an illustration, is the place of most importance 
in the part. 

IJtotfjCi* 10 &0ms0tttais, 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

A. V. GOUGH ("Lunar Calendar"). Has been for- 
warded to ME. NEILSON. 

J. H. (" Rhedarium "). Consult a Latin dictionary. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8 th S. X. JOLT 18, '96.] 




CONTENT 8. N* 238. 

NOTES : Burns Bibliography, 41 Burns in Dumfries- 
Burns in Fife Burns's Love of Books, 42 Burns at the 
Plough Linkumdoddie Burns's Lass Burns Belie 
A Daimen-icker," 43 Massinger T. Fuller, 44 
' Trouble " Bunyan, 45" It 's a very good world," &c. 
M.P.s, 46" Pony of Beef " J. B. Taylor Hair Folk-lore 
Steel Pens Coleridge and Lytton, 47 Mary Stuart 
" Clem "-St. Comply, 48. 

QUERIES : Drawn Battle Scotch " Legend " Bemman 
Gray Astrological Signatures, 49 Norman Charters 
' Gulliver's Travels ' " Marcella "Inscription" Irpe " 
Aerolites J. Payne" Pushful "Gordons, 50 Arms of 
Ipswich School Armorial John Norman Quotation- 
Scrimshaw ' The Mill ' " Billingsgate," 51 Plague 
Stones" Bombellieas," 52. 

REPLIES : Oxford in Early Times, 52 Umbriel Fourth 
Earl Ferrers G. Borrow University Grace Darling, 53 

Chinese Collection Southwell MSS. Prebendary 
Victoria Victor Hugo Lloyd Knighthood, 54" Bosch " 
New Help to Discourse ' " Jemmy," 55 Spanish 
Motto Boak, 56 Perris Princess Leonora Christina 
The Rover's Bride 'Thames or Isis, 57 Gainsborough 

Florence Osbaldeston Church Brief Changes in 
Country Life, 58 Wedding Ceremony " Findy "Play 
on Words Haddow, 59 Chapel of Fulham Palace Pic- 
ture of Waterloo Dinner American Universities Tan- 
nachie Flying Dutchman Book of Common Prayer- 
Tom Paine, 60 Dog Stories Spanish Armada Burns 
Descendants N. Stone Maid Marian's Tomb, 61 
" Populist" Foolscap Drury Lane Theatre Banishment 
of Earl of Somerset Angelica Catalan!, 62 Arresting a 
Body Hugo's ' Dfisinteressement' "Dead Men's Fin- 
gers" Rough Lee Hall Straps, 63 Steam Carriage- 
Governor French Prisoners of War Alderman Cornish- 
Authors Wanted, 64. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Shilleto's Burton's 'Anatomy of 
Melancholy' Waugh's 'Johnson's Lives of the Poets,' 
Vols. II., Ill , and IV. Maurice's ' Bohemia' Holmes's 
London Burial Grounds ' ' Gentleman's Magazine 
Library ' ' English Topography ' Lane - Poole's ' Coins 
and Medals.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Now that we are commemorating the Burns 
centenary, a reference to the communications con- 
cerning the poet, many of them of pregnant 
interest, that haye appeared in ' N. & Q.' may be 
acceptable to readers. 

The First Series, 3 Nov., 1849, to 29 Dec., 
1855, supplies the following : 

Burns (Robert), and Propertius, iv. 54 ; lines by him, 
i. 300 ; x. 521 ; relics, iy. 434, 486; supposed plagiary in 
the ' Vision,' Hi. 206. 

The Second Series, 5 Jan., 1856, to 28 Dec., 
1861, gives : 

Burns (Robert), inedited poetry, ii. 506; punch-bowl, 
iv. 454; his centenary, vi. 496; vii. 146; death of his 
mother, vi. 529 ; grace after meat, 324 ; and Dr. Moor, 
tii. 453; first copy of his poems, 146; fugitive line?, 
414 ; song, " A man 's a man for a' that," 146, 184, 226, 
266; Ilev. John Dun's opinion of him, Yin. 23; birth- 
place of Highland Mary, 380; MS. poems, ix. 24, 88; 
similarity of sentiment between him and others, x. 305, 
397; 'The Jingler' attributed to him, 43, 158, 459; 
The Whistle,' date of tbe contest, x. 423 ; xi. 232, 337 ; 
unpublished line*, x 510: "Willie brewed a peck o' 
maut," xi. 307, 366, 377. 

In the Third Series, 4 Jan., 1662, to 28 Dec., 
1867, are : 

Burns (Robert), and Andrew Homer, i. 147, 256 
poetical Epistle to him, iii. 348, 413 ; and George IV. 
iv. 69 ; the drinking bout of ' The Whistle,' vi. 123 , 
poem, ' The Jolly Beggars,' viii. 355 ; supposed acquaint- 
ance with old plays, 390, 485 ; and Nicholas Rowe, ix. 
25; 'Bibliotheca Burnsiana,' x. 7; 'The Caledonian 
Hunt's Delight,' xi. 158, 321; autograph of Bruce's 
Address to his Troops at Bannockburn,' xii. 105. 

The Fourth Series, 4 Jan., 1868, to 27 Dec., 
1873, furnishes : 

Burns (Robert), inedited letter, i. 218 ; noticed, 552, 
553; and the Thomson family, 283, 355, 429; anecdotes 
of him, 5i. 483; iii. 117; v. 375; x. 409; portraits, iv. 
274, 318, 392, 395, 543; and Polly Stewart, v. 55; at 
Brownbill Inn, vi. 150; relics and letters, vii. 449; viii. 
32; xii. 385; his watch, viii. 398; copy of Sbakspeare 
and Blind Harry's ' Wallace,' ix. 236, 371, 392 ; and 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, x. 273, 359; and Highland Mary, 
lines in the 'American Spiritualist,' xi. 92, 143; his 
biographers, 215; snuff-boxes, xii. 7, 56, 96, 154. 

Auld Lang Syne,' error in, vii. 386, 501; viii, 55; 
xii. 75 

" Black 's your coat," &c., vii. 451 ; viii. 32 

' Bonnie Jean,' iii. 592 

" Clouts," xi. 116, 161, 309, 455 

' Gallant Weaver,' v. 117, 261 

Horace and Burns, xii. 5 

' John Barleycorn,' iv. 274 

Lines attributed to him, iii. 171, 254 

Motto to his Poems,' v. 314, 391 

On the death of Sir James Hunter Blair, v. 593 

Original pieces, ix. 317 

Parallel passages, ix. 158, 285, 329, 475, 523; xi. 460 
xii. 5, 25, 66 

Poem, unpublished, ii. 339, 399, 476, 477, 537, 614; iii. 
37,117,516; v. 547 

Poems, review of them, iv. 252, 326 ; motto to, v. 314, 
391 ; edit, of 1821, viii. 165, 234 ; early editions, x. 
387,456; xi. 26, 106 

" 'Prentice ban'," ix. 91, 170, 229 

"Richt gude- willie waucht," vii. 386, 501; viii, 55; 
xii. 75 

Rival Rhymes in Honour of Burns,' vi. 196, 265 

'Roy's Wife of Aldivalloch,' iii. 281, 396 ; xi. 25, 185, 
225, 226,263, 349, 489 ; Latin version, ix. 507; x. 38 

Skylark allusions, xi. 323, 348 

Songs, six unpublished, xii. 470 

Stanza, unpublished, iii. 281,396; xi. 226, 263, 349, 489 

Sterne (Lawrence) and Burns, xii. 66 

' Tarn o^ Shanter,' i. 508, 565, 614; ii. 309; viii. 186 

Text of his works, viii. 161 

1 To the Potato,' iv. 371, 464 

" Welcome to your gory bed," &c., viii. 424 

Works, viii. 409 

Wycherley (Wm.) and Burn?, ii. 200, 285, 332 ; xii. 25 

" Your pin wad help to mend a mill," viii. 336, 424, 
533; ix. 79, 144 

In the Fifth Series, 3 Jan., 1874, to 27 Dec., 
1879, appear : 

Burns (Robert), at Brownhill Inn, i. 235, 359; his 
autograph, i. 283; ii. 11, 72, 196; as an excise officer, 
iii. 180; and the Doon Bridges, iv. 126, 253; Carlyle on, 
T. 8, 372 ; vi. 177 ; at the trial of Mr. Miller's steam- 
boat, v. 247, 275, 317; his Edinburgh private journal, 
be. ML 



. X. JULY 18, '96. 


' Rye *YA, 150, 191, 309, 350 

Glenriddell MSS., iii. 121 

Lines ascribed to Bums, ii. 425, 523 

" bonnie las?, it grieves me eair," xii. 307 

1 Ode on the American War,' i. 242 

Parallel passages, ii. 31, 158: xii. 426 

Poems, early edition*, iii. 136 

Songs, unpublished, i. 29 

Sterne ( Laurence) and Burns, i. 164 

' The Merry Muses of CaleJonia,' i. 29 

" The rank is but the guinea's stamp," i. 164, 274 ; 
xii. 426 

" The wind blaws cauld o'er Dunnet Head," xii 68 

Thomson (George) and Burns, ii. 407 

4 To Terraughty on his Birthday,' i. 283 ; ii. 11, 72, 196 

" When I think on the happy days," ix. 425 ; x. 58 

The Sixth Series, 3 Jan., 1880, to 26 Dec., 
1885, has: 

Burns (Robert), " The rank is but the guinea's stamp," 
i. 25, 344; authenticity of 'Verses to my Bed,' 55, 146; 
and Dryden, ii. 205 ; his punch-bowl, iii. 107, 314 ; quo- 
tation by, iv. 9, 153 ; a contemporary, 47; original MSS., 
86, 135; an undescribed edition, 168, 335; his friend 
John Murdoch, 365, 437 ; portrait by Skirving, 425, 475; 
early appreciation of him, v. 63, 134, 199, 333; letter, 
Tii. 46 ; and violin music, 304 ; republisbed letter, ix. 25, 
94; edition dedicated to the Caledonian Hunt, with 
memoir, x. 49 ; line in his address ' To a Louse,' 330; his 
'Joyful Widower,' x. 409, 502; xi. 74, 174; date of his 
birth, xii. 387, 473 ; prose version of ' Tarn o' Shanter/ 

The Seventh Series, 2 Jan., 1886, to 26 Dec., 
1891, gives : 

Burns (Robert), his birth, i. 15, 73 ; Tarn o' Shanter in 
a Derbyshire story, iii. 305, 417; Wordsworth on, iii. 
427; iv. 97; unpublished letters, iv. 23, 323; relics in 
the Burns Museum, Edinburgh, 166 ; first edition of his 
'Poems,' vi. 146, 275; article on, by R. L.S.vii. 308, 
855 ; Concordance, by J. B. Reid, 419 ; his portrait by 
Nasmyth, viii. 247, 416, 421, 481 ; his " Of a' the airts," 
ix. 46, 494 ; portrait by Hardie, 53 ; his ' Address to the 
Deil,' 149 ; facsimile of his signature, 405 ; Italian version 
of 'My Heart's in the Highland*,' 443; 'The Joyful 
Widower ' a plagiarism, ix. 465 ; x. 36, 56 ; ' Down the 
Burn, Davie,' xi. 104, 197; as a character in novels, 148; 
his sonnets, 228, 352 ; ' John Anderson my Jo,' 293, 485 ; 
portrait by Miers, xii. 268, 371 ; other portraits, 280, 373, 
437 ; his seals, 427, 515. 

Since then, in the Eighth Series, have appeared 
the following : 

Bums (Robert), his portraits, i. 53, 190, 404; ii. 428; 
iii. 29, 95, 151; ix. 304, 376; his seals, i. 77; epigram 
and song, missing lines, i. 475 ; ii. 14 ; first edition of his 
'Poems,' ii. 163, 199 ? 210; and Coleridge, 164; biblio- 
graphy, 174 ; translations, 327 ; pictures founded on his 
poems, ii. 428, 451, 472 ; iii. 11, 196 ; on woman as a work 
of nature, iv. 486; misquoted as " Mr. Burn," vii. 406; 
and Robert Semple, viii. 205, 373, 515 ,* ix. 75 ; his last 
descendant, ix, 226, 392. 

H. T. 

BURNS IN DUMFRIES. About ten years ago I 
met in Dumfries a venerable lady who told me 
that her mother had vivid recollections of Burns. 
As a child she frequently saw him in the evenings 
at her father's fireside, and heard him entertaining 

the social circle with fluent and merry talk. There 
invariably came a stage in the proceedings at 
which the matron of the household sent the youth- 
ful members of the family " ben the hoose," for 
"it wasna' richt," said the narrator, "that they 
should hear a* Robbie's nonsense." He might be 
a very clever poet, she gravely admitted, " but he 
was gey an' weel kent in Dumfries, an' folk had 
their ain thochts aboot him." Like Principal 
Shairp, my venerable friend was inclined to think 
that the exaggerated praise of Burns had gone too 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

BURNS IN FIFESHIRB. A very clever anony- 
mous diarist, in the admirable Cornhill for July, 
has a fling at the Scottish accent. His Scotch 
governess, he avers, asked him one day if he liked 
buns, and then explained that she meant " the poet 
* Buns.' " He then proceeds thus : 

" This, it seems, is the patriotic manner of pronouncing 
Burns. Or let me say a patriotic manner. For I recol- 
lect being taken to hear a lecture in Edinburgh by a 
Scotch friend, who, when it was over, inveighed against 
the speaker's accent. ' Why,' said I, 'I thought it was 
Scotch 1' ' Scotch,' said he; 'it was Pifeshire, man.' 
Miss A. may hail from Fife." 

As a Fifer, I strenuously protest against this 
insinuation. The governess may, of course, hail 
from Fife, but her pronunciation of the national 
poet's name certainly does not illustrate Fife 
practice. We may drawl a little in our mode of 
speaking, but we do not fail to give value to the r, 
unless we, unfortunately, wax affected, when there 
is no limit to absurdity. A worthy Fife farmer 
recently told me that he had known respectable 
young tradesmen masons, joiners, and the like 
return to his neighbourhood after a few months' 
sojourn in England, and then they addressed him 
in an unknown tongue. The author of the * Private 
Diary ' had better consider this in looking for an 
explanation of the woful corruption that has exer- 
cised him. THOMAS BATNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

of knowledge was a favourite object with Burns. 
For this he established his reading and debating 
clubs in the west, and in the same spirit he desired 
to excite a love of literature among the peasants of 
Dunscore. He undertook the management of a 
small parochial library, and wrote out the rules. 
Mr. Riddell, of Friars-Oarse, and other gentlemen, 
contributed money and books. The library com- 
menced briskly, but soon languished. The poet 
could not always be present at the meetings ; the 
subscribers lived far apart ; disputes and disunion 
crept in, and it died away like a flower which fades 
for want of watering. Burns alludes ironically to 
the scheme in one of his letters. " Wisdom," he 
averred, " might be gained by the mere handling of 
books/ His letters to the booksellers on the eub- 

8*S. X. JULY 18, '96.3 



ject of this subscription library do him much 
honour ; his choice of authors, which business was 
actually left to his discretion, being in the highest 
degree judicious. 

Such institutions are now common, indeed 
almost universal, in the rural districts of Southern 
Scotland, but it should never be forgotten that 
Burns was among the 6rst, if not the very first, to 
set the example. ''He was so good," says Mr. 
Eiddell, " as to take the whole management of this 
concern ; he was treasurer, librarian, and censor, 
to our little society, which will long have a grateful 
sense of his public spirit and exertions for its 
improvement and information " (vide ' The Works 
of Robert Burn*,' p. 98, London, Henry G. Bohn, 
1860) : 

What bird in beauty, flight, or eong, 

Can with the bard compare, 
Who sang as sweet and aoar'd as strong 

AB ever child of air ? 
Peace to the dead ! In Scotia's choir 

Of minstrels great and small, 
He sprang from his spontaneous fire 
The Phoenix of them all-! 

Clapham, S.W. 

BURNS AT THE PLOUGH. In the elaboration 
of his stately lyric 'Resolution and Independence' 
Wordsworth suddenly lights up his theme with 
two concrete examples, in lines that now constitute 
a popular quotation : 

I thought of Chatterton, the marvellous boy, 
The sleepless soul that perished in his pride ; 
Of him who walked in glory and in joy 
Following his plough, along the mountain-aide. 

A smart critic, whose name at the moment escapes 
the memory, but whose raids into literature are 
aaid to be admired, recently waxed merry over this 
matter at Wordsworth's expense. Ploughmen, he 
learnedly observed, do not pursue their avocations 
on the slopes of mountains. Undoubtedly that 
may be so, and yet Wordsworth's position may be 
defensible. Burns was ploughing when he paused 
before a wild flower, and apostrophized it in an 
immortal ode, which he entitles ' To a Mountain 
Daisy.' He must have had a reason for employing 
the epithet, and his most intelligent readers will 
understand him. Meanwhile, cheap merriment 
over Wordsworth, while intrinsically futile, may 
mislead the unwary, and it should, therefore, be 
unsparingly proclaimed. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helenaburgb, N.B. 


Willie Wastle dwalt on Tweed, 
The spot they ca'd it Linkumdoddie. 

In an article in one of the Scotch newspapers 
giving an account of the water-works now in course 
of construction near Tweedmuir there was a sketch 
of a gate and two trees, a little below where the 
Polmood Burn joins the Tweedj; this was said to be 

the site of Willie Wastle's cottage. I should like 
to know on what authority this statement rests. 


ROBBIE BURNS'S LASS. A genial and witty 
Glasgow bailie, who passed away some years ago, 
made a reputation for himself on the bench as a 
distinctly original, patient, and laborious police- 
judge. The sphere of his jurisdiction included the 
district in which his great predecessor, Bailie Jarvie, 
was wont to disport himself with so much self- 
consciousness and winning unction, and therefore 
he had some strange cases to consider. One Mon- 
day morning a disorderly of the previous Saturday 
night was called, under the name of Jean Armour, 
to stand forth and be charged. The panel's name 
touched the magistrate's imagination at once, and 
gave him pause. He could not think, he said, to 
sentence one with the name of Robbie Burns'd 
lass, and therefore he would dismiss the accused 
with a caution. On retiring the astonished culprit 
vehemently thanked the judge, and exclaimed, 
with gay surprise, " My certy, Robbie Burns has 
done me a gude turn this time." 


Helensburgb, N.B. 

appeared in the Scotsman of 9 July : 

" Dr. Alston, of Airdrie, bas forwarded to the Burns 
Exhibition at Glasgow a book in the possession of Mrs. 
Kidd, Drumgarland, which belonged to the poet Burns. 
The book is a volume of Cicero's ' Select Orations,' *nd 
bears tbe following inscription in the poet's own hand- 
writing on the flyleaf : 'Edinburgh, 23d April 1787. This 
book, a present from the truly worthy and learned Dr. 
Gregory, I shall preserve to my latest hour as a mark of 
tbe gratitude, esteem, and veneration I bear to the donor. 
So help me God! ROBERT BURNS.' The Dr. John 
Gregory referred to was professor of tbe practice of 
medicine in the University of Edinburgh from 1766 to 


Helenaburgh, N.B. 

BURNS : " A DAIMBN - ICKER. " In Burns's 
' Address to a Mouse ' occur the words, 
A daimen-icker in a thrave 
'S a sma' request. 

On which Mr. Jacks, in his recent work on ' Robert 
Burns in other Tongues,' remarks, p. 407 : " As is 
known, 'a daimen-icker' is the smaller of two 
grains in a husk of oats, the larger one being the 
daimen." For this he gives no authority, and 
there seems no sufficient distinction in the names of 
the smaller and the larger grain. Icker, of course, 
= ear. But it is probable that any one really 
familiar with the local dialect of Ayrshire rustics 
might give us the correct interpretation. Dr. 
Murray and Jamieson and all the glossarists 
interpret "a casual ear," "an ear now and then." 
Dr. Murray has only one (subsequent) analogue, 
from Gait, I think, from recollection, otherwise it 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 s. x. JULY is, '96. 

is a a7ra A.yofii/oi>, and the current explanation 
hardly convincing. J. M. COLLIER. 

WARK. The following, from the Daily News, 
13 July, deserves a niche in * N. & Q.': 

"On Saturday afternoon there was an interesting 
ceremony ia the new nave of St. Saviour's Church, 
Southwark, the unveiling by Sir Walter Besant of a 
memorial to Philip Maesinger, the dramatist. Laurel 
leaves were laid upon the spot in the choir where tradi- 
tion has it that Massinger was buried, in the grave of 
John Fletcher, his friend. The pavement in that spot 
now bears their names, and the name of Edmond 
Shakespeare, but no stone was placed over the grave of 
'Philip Massinger, stranger,' at the time when the 
place could have been marked with certainty. The 
windows in the nave are, in time, to become memorials 
of literary worthies more or less intimately connected 
with the parish. The principal window will be devoted 
to William and Edmond Shakespeare, and the others 
will he in memory of Fletcher, Beaumont, Alleyn, Dr. 
Johnson (Thrale's brewery was in the parish), Cruden 
(buried in the parish), Dr. Sacheverell (a chaplain of St. 
Saviour's), Bunyan (who preached at a place of worship 
in Loar Street), Baxter (who officiated in a place of 
worship on the site of Shakespeare's Globe Theatre), 
and Chaucer (whose Canterbury pilgrims started from the 
Tabard hostelry, not far away). The tomb of the poet 
Gower has been removed to this part of the church. The 
rector, the Rev. Dr. Thompson, presided over the gather- 
ing of ladies and gentlemen in the restored nave, and 
amongst those present were the Bishop of Southwark, 
Prof. J. W. Hales, Prof. Sylvester, Canon Benham, the 
Kev. C. Pierrepont Edwards, MM. Strachey, Mrs. Chas. 
Gould and family (New York), Mr. Moncure Conway, 
Mr. S. W. Kershaw, Mr. W. H. Wilcox, Mr. Henry 
Wood, Mr. Rogers, and Mr. H. Langston. The first 
proceeding was the unveiling of the memorial by Sir 
Walter Besant. The window designed and executed 
by Mr. C. E. Kempe was much admired. At the top is 
a portrait of Massinger, the centre ia occupied by a beauti- 
ful representation of an incident in the ' Virgin Martyr,' 
and at the bottom are the words: 'In memory of Philip 
Massinger, dramatist, buried as a stranger in this church. 
Those who admire his genius and sympathise with his 
struggles in life and loneliness in death, dedicate this 
window, A.D. MDCCCXCVI.' The rector then read a 
dedicatory prayer, and called upon Sir Walter Besant to 
address the company. Sir Walter Besant, who is chair- 
man of the Memorial Committee, delivered an address on 
the life and works of Massinger, whom he termed one of 
the most considerable of the glorious constellation of the 
Elizabethan poets. It was, he said, an extraordinary 
thing that, with all the research that had been bestowed 
upon that period, very little was known concerning 
Massinger. It was certain that he was born in Salis- 
bury in 1583, and that he left Oxford without a degree, 
for reasons not known. He came to London to try his 
fortune as a poet, to take up the literary life under the 
conditions of the time. There was nothing but the 
theatre by which he could live, and necessity drove him 
to write plays. It was a hard and poverty-striken life. 
The only document extant signed by him was a letter 
from a debtors 1 prison, addressed to Henalowe, the 
theatrical manager, asking for 51. for himself and two 
others, ' without which we cannot be bayled.' He died 
in 1639, and in the register of that church he was called 
'a stranger,' one who did not belong to the parish. 
These were all the facts we knew, except that his 
funeral cost 21. (equal to about 121. now), which, in a 

ime of great funeral pomp and magnificence, was proof 
positive that he was a poor man. Sir Walter drew the 
lame conclusions from Massinger's dedications to his- 
>atrons, all of which harped upon his poverty and 
dependence. With regard to the personal character of 
;he poet, he held it was a dangerous thing to look for H 
n the plays themselves, the words used by the characters- 
>eing spoken by the characters, and not by the author 
'or himself. What, he asked, could one learn of the 
)ersonal character of Browning from ' The Ring and the 
Book ' ? Sir Walter also drew from various oonsidera- 
ions the conclusion that Massinger was not a Roman 
Catholic, as some had supposed. In the concluding part 
of his address he gave a vivid sketch of Bankside, its 
>oetical dwellers, and its amusements, in Massinger's 
;ime. Prof. Hales moved a vote of thanks to Sir Walter 
Besant for his address. This was seconded by Mr. 
Rogers, who spoke of the service done for Londoners by 
Sir Walter, in making them feel an interest in the city 
in which they lived. The benediction by the Bishop of 
Southwark concluded the proceedings." 

H. T. 

THOMAS FULLER. On p. 716 of the late John 
Eglington Bailey's ' Life of Fuller ' (1875) occurs 
the following passage : 

'Mr. Davies' Copy (edition 1663?) contains an 
attempt at a verse in a seventeenth-century hand- 
writing : 

Great Fuller 1 fuller than thy name, 
but the second line only contains the words, ' thy fame/ 
one line for rhyme the other for reason." 

In my copy of Fuller's ' Historie of the Holy 
War re,' the first edition of 1639, there are written in 
seventeenth century handwriting on the fly-leaves 
no fewer than three poetical eulogies of the witty 
divine. The third of these, herewith sent for in- 
sertion in * N. & Q ,' gives the whole poem, of 
which Mr. Bailey had but a fragment to offer. I 
sent him transcripts of the three pieces in modern 
handwriting and in facsimile, which he told me he 
intended both to mount for placing amongst his 
Fuller relics and also to have printed. The latter 
intention the illness that ended in death prevented 
him from carrying into effect. Thinking that the 
poems might be valued by others as they were by 
Mr. Bailey, I forward them for preservation in 
your columns. I should add that the three pieces 
are all in different handwriting, bub the third older 
than the former two. 

On the first fly-leaf at beginning of the volume : 

Ye mornefull musis light yo r tortches all, 

Attend one wearied to his funiralle. 

Can one y l louith dye & you stand still, 

And not appeare vpon Parnassus Hill ? 

Goe, goe invoack Apollow's aid, tell him, 

That one you louied is dead & you dossier. 

To sacrifice a vearce & then retier. 

On the end fly-leaf and on the last cover are the 
two following : 

On y' A ulhor. 

Sith thy ffenthry-Arrowes flight 
baulkt y e But but hitt y e white ; 
Turne & take thy Arrowy-ffeather 
(wreath & weapon) which, together 
plume thy temples & entwine 
victory & Triumph Thine. 

. JULY 18, '96. J 



On the Author, M f Fuller. 
Fuller ! thy Learning 's fuller then thy Name, 
And yett That mounted on y e wings off ffame 
fflyes euerywhere, This Nimble Mercury 
Holds forth his Trumpett, makes thy name to fly. 
Peter the Hermitea Trumpet sounded farre 
To y e worlds end, and cald to th' holy vrarre, 
Even Britaynes sundred toto Orbe heare 
When Peter his sounding Alarm vpreare, 
But (Fuller) thou art further heard by farr 
ffor only this, 'cause thine owne Trumpeter. 
Peters successor w th hia winde was there 
like Mahomets Pigeon breathinge in his eare 
Else Peters lungs had neuer been so stout 
To Carry 's summons all y' world about 1 
Fuller ! the winde and breath that swells thy fame 
Far from a better place then Rome ! it came I 
Itt 's a deuiner Gale that actuates Thee 
And makes thy fuller topsayles driuen bee. 
Th' art gon as far as Jury ; ffor thy Booke 
By reason of its purenesse, clearnesse, looka 
As if t' had been in Jordan, and from thence 
Returnd seauen times dipt in pure Eloquence. 
Off Thee I 'le say thus much ! not to say more, ) 
Thy Fullers scpe purge Barbarisme'a Oare > 

More clean then Jordan Leprous Na'amans sore. J 
And they that veiw thy worke hetafter, shall 
Thee a Kefininge Whitinge Fuller call. 
But stay ! what 's that I heare 1 there '8 some do Bay 
This Fullers sope is turnd polluted clay. 
These Times haue giuen him, or He them a spott, 
('Tis strange so fayre and good a Pen should blott), 
Its seems that Now Poor Hee is att a losse, 
And Pilgrim-like himselfe now beares y* crosse. 
And are the streames of Jordan Now w th mud 
So sullied ? Or He bad, that Once was good? 
What ay leth Thee Fuller, How ia 't ? Alack ! 
Jordan w< aylst Thee ? why art driuen back ? 

Gaunton, Notts. 

8. ix. 512.) This new subject is started under the 
heading ' Ream and Eimmer.' We seem to be too 
frequently discussing some new question under a 
title with which it has nothing to do. 

We are there told that the phrase " we need not 
trouble about " is a modern solecism. I was not 
aware that it is a solecism, nor that it is modern. 
Let us see. 

The * Century Dictionary' says: "To take 
trouble or pains ; trouble oneself ; worry ; as, do 
not trouble about the matter.' 1 It also gives a 
quotation from Venn's * Symbolic Logic,' p. 281, 
note : " We have not troubled to shade the outside 
of this diagram." 

The expression is somewhat too brief, as I at 
once admit. It is better to insert myself or our- 
tclvei, for the sake of distinctness. But surely the 
phrase is common, and widely understood. I can- 
not trouble myself to hunt up quotations just now. 
May not a weary man sometimes hope for rest ? 

I doubt if it can fairly be called a neologism, for 
it is remarkable that Littro calls it antiquated. 
His twelfth sense of F. troubler is : " V. n. exciter 
des troubles, se soulever (emploi qui a vieilli)"; 
and he gives a quotation from Corneille. 

One rather common old sense is either "to 
render turbid," or " to become turbid"; and it was 
usually employed with respect to water. This 
doubtless arose from the use of the M.E. adjective 
trouble in the sense of "turbid," which easily 
gave rise to an intransitive use of the verb as well 
as a transitive one. Thus, in Sir J. Mandeville's 
4 Travels,' p. 156, we find : " In Ethiope alle the 
ryveres and alle the waters ben trouble." Whence 
we deduce, in the intransitive sense, such a phrase 
as that which also occurs in Mandeville, p. 52: 
" The watre shal nevere trouble" 

This explains why at least two MSS. of ' Piers 
Plowman ' (0. vii. 408) use the word trobled in- 
transitively in the sense of "stumbled." We 
there read : " He trobled at the threshfold, and 
threw to the erthe." We shall be told next that 
this use of threw is a " neologism." 

I think that, on the whole, it is for MR. WARREN 
to write his recantation ; but I would rather use 
much humbler language. I do not set myself up 
for a moment as a master of style, and I should 
advise no one to imitate any expression that I may 
use. I am merely a humble collector of facts, 
always endeavouring to find out authorities and 
quotations for the instruction of others. But I do 
not advise any one to ignore my authorities. 


copy of a letter appearing in the Presbyterian of 
21 May will doubtless be deemed of sufficient 
interest to warrant its inclusion in the pages of 
'N. &Q.': 

Any fresh well authenticated fact about "the im- 
mortal dreamer " of Bedford is welcome. Dr. John 
Brown, the latest nnd ablest biographer of Banyan, writes : 
" The side on which Bunyan was arrayed in the great 
civil conflict of the seventeenth century, Parliamentarian 
or Royalist, has long been matter of dispute." Macaulay 
puts him with the former side, Froude with the latter. 
Canon Venables, in his article on Bunyan in the Dic- 
tionary of National Biography,' writes on this point : 
"As there is not a tittle of evidence either way, the 
question can never be absolutely settled." But it can be, 
and is. and Runyan is now proved to have served on the 
Parliamentary side. Dr. Brown, with the keen instinct 
of one peculiarly vereed in the records and literature of 
his subject, makes some happy conjectures respecting 
Bunyan's military service. Some of these can now be 
verified, and additional light thrown on the eventa of the 

Certain muster rolls of the Commonwealth have 
recently turned up in this office, and, in going to them 
for fresh information on the point in question, I had 
the good fortune to alight on a jviper volume, of some 
three hundred leives (roughly speaking), containing the 
musters of the Newport Pagnei garrison in 1644 and 
1645. The Governor of the garrison was Sir Samuel 
Luke, of Cuple Wood End, that cheerful and doughty 
Presbyterian soldier, so meanly caricatured in Butler's 
'Sir Hudibras.' All the musters in the volume are 
certified by Henry Whitbread, the Muster-master. We 
have, first of all, the roll of Sir Samuel's regiment, but 
Bunyan is not to be found there. Next comes the roll 
of Colonel Richard Cockayne's company, mustered on 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.x.joLYi8,'9*. 

November 30th, 1644, and amongst the privates, or 
"centinells," as they are called, is the name of ''John 
Bunion." The name is also spelt " Bunnion." Now, it 
must be remembered that Bunyan was born on No- 
vember 30th, 1628, and was not eligible for service in the 
army until the age of sixteen. The musters of the several 
companies continue weekly after that, with two or three 
exceptions, until May 27tb, 1645. On Maich 22nd, 1645, 
Bunyan's name drops out of Colonel Cockayne s com- 
pany, and is found on that date in the company of Major 
Boulton. There it remains until May 27tb, four days 

benides officers." Its lowest is 88 men on March 1st, 
1645. The muster of Major Boulton's company on 
May 27th, 1645, gives " 45 centinells besides officers. 
The figures are important, because the war was virtually 
over after the battle of Naseby on June 14th, and Bunyan 
probably left the army in that month. 

Sometimes parties from the companies were told off 
for special service elsewhere than at Newport Pagnel. 
The volume I am treating of gives examples of thi?. On 
January 18th, 1645, a party of seventeen men and two 
officers from Colonel Cockayne's company was com- 
manded out by the committee of both kingdoms; but 
Banyan's name does not appear in the list. Nor in the 
case of a similar party out of Major Boulton's company, 
on May 6th, 1645, do we find his name. There is nothing 
to prove that Bunyan was at the siege of Leicester, 
though he may have been. Certainly, however, he was 
not under Major Ennis, for that officer commanded a 
troop of horse, and the roll is given in these musters. 
There was a Thomas Bunion, a drummer, in Captain 
Collingwood's company (Colonel Martin's regiment) from 
March to September, 1645. ERNEST G. ATKINSON. 

Public Kecord Office, Chancery Lane. 


&c. (See ! S. ii. 71, 102, 156 ; 3 rd S. i. 398 ; 
v. 114 ; 4" S. i. 400 ; xii. 8 ; 6*" S. i. 77, 127, 
166, 227, 267 ; ii. 19, 79.) Fussell, in his ' Journey 
round the Coast of Kent,' 1818, p. 33, under 
" Swanscombe," states : 

" On the brow of a hill which commands a fine view, 
is a respectable mansion belonging to an eccentric old 
gentleman, who amuses himself in the cultivation of a 
large garden contiguous, and has placed the following 
whimsical inscription near the road : 

Hortus Edensia The Garden of Eden. 

Ne nugare, Trifle not, 

Tuura tempo breve eat. Your time is short. 

Non tange prohibitum f rue- Touch not the forbidden 

turn fruit 

Ne moriarie. Lett you die. 

Habe tuam fiduciam in DcO, Put your trust in God, 
Et vives in seternum. And you will live for ever. 
This is the best world we live in, 
To spend, to lend, or to give in : 
But to borrow, or beg, or get a man's own, 
It is the worst world that ever was known. 
Lac mibi non restate novum, non frigore desit. 

N.B. I keep a cow. 

In Eden's garden plants like these were plac'd, 
And sacred vengeance came on those who once defac'd 
The forbidden tree, and pluck'd the golden fruit. 
Now, traveller, mark ! that vengeance is not mine ; 
Awful justice comes, though slow, yet sure in time : 

Therefore beware, nor tempt his vengeful arm 
Lest men-traps catch, or spring guns give th' alarm, 
Lest nightly watchmen seize the guileful band 
And Britain's laws transport thee from the land ! 
" This strange mixture of eacred and profane scarcely 
deserves a critique ; and perhaps the reader will add ' or 
the trouble of copying.' Writers usually entertain a good 
opinion of their own works, whatsoever the world or the 
critics may think of them ; and the ingenious author of 
this extraordinary production flatters himself that his 
verses have preserved 1m fruit, as well as established his 
reputation as a poet. He relates an anecdote of a sailor 
who appeared to have taken great pains to spell the in* 
scription, and then with an oath exclaimed, 'I have 
been so long in reading your d d nonsense, old gentle- 
man, that I have not time to rob your orchard.' " 

The mansion referred to was (as stated in my reply 
some sixteen years since) known as the "Little 
Hermitage," then the residence of Mr. William 
Day, brother to the banker of Rochester. It was 
situated near Gad's Hill, and not at Swanscombe 
as stated by Fussell, whose error in such respect 
is thus noted by Pocock, the Gravesend historian, 
in his ' Diary,' under Sunday, 24 Nov., 1822 : 

"Read Mr. Fuzzell's tour through Kent, and found 
errors, having placed some verses which stood at the 
Hermitage near Gad's Hill to Swanscombe. Yet it 
contained some good criticisms and judicious remarks ; 
but it appeared written prior to the tour, or perhaps no 
tour at all." 

Fussell was also wrong as to the authorship of 
the epigram in question, which was not, as he 
imagined, the production of Mr. Day, but of much 
earlier date, and apparently by one J. Bromfield, 
an unknown poet, whose original and somewhat 
different version, with his name appended, is 
given under 'The Gatherer* in the Mirror of 
12 Sept., 1840, as follows : 


'Tis a very good world we live in, 
To spend, and to lend, and to give in ; 
But to beg, or to borrow, or ask for our own, 
'Tis the very worst world that ever was known. 

I may add that the "eccentric old gentleman n 
was an intimate friend of our family, who then 
resided, and still possess extensive estates, in the 
neighbourhood of his residence. W. I. R. V. 

GRAPHY.' The following small additions and 
corrections may be made to the accounts given of 
the undermentioned in vol. xlvi. 

Sir John Pollard, Speaker (died 1557), sat for 
Chippenham in 1555, not for Wiltshire. 

Sir Lewis Pollard (died 1540) was M.P. for 
Totness in 1491-2. 

Sir John Pollard (died 1575) sat for Plymptoa 
1553, Barnstaple 1554, Exeter 1555, Grampound 
1559 and 1563-7. 

John Pollexfen (flourished 1697) was M.P. for 
Plympton 1679, 1681, 1689, and 1690-5. He 
was still living in 1702, and seems to have been 
the brother to Chief Justice Sir Henry Pollexfeo. 

8 th S. X.JULY 18, '96.] 



Edward Pophaui, who sat for Bridgwater from 
1621 to 162G, was of Huntworth, co. Somerset, and 
the representative of the elder line of the Popham 
family. His will waa proved 6 March, 1640/i. 
He and his brother Alexander would, in all pro- 
bability, be the two Pophams outlawed for debt in 

Col. Alexander Popham (died 1669), son of Sir 
Francis, did not sit quite continuously as member 
for Bath from 1640. His parliamentary honours 
were as follows : Elected for Bath and Minehead 
in the Short Parliament of 1640, he preferred 
Bath, which also he represented throughout the 
Long Parliament 1640-53. In 1654 he was re- 
turned by both Bath and co. Wilts, but again 
preferred his old constituency. To the Parliament 
of 1656-8 he was elected by cos. Wilts and 
Somerset, and seems to have sat for Somerset. In 
1659 he was member for Minehead. But to the 
first two Parliaments of the Restoration, 1660 and 
1661, he was again returned by his first consti- 
tuency, which he then represented until his decease. 

Sir John Popham, the Chief Justice, was, I 
think, the member for Lyme Regis in 1558. 

Sir Charles Porter, Irish Lord Chancellor (died 
1696), was M.P. for Tregony 1685-7, and New 
Windsor 1690-5. 

Sir Nicholas Poyntz (died 1557) was M.P. for 
co. Gloucester 1547-52, and for Cricklade in 1555. 

Sir John Price (died 1573) sat for co. Brecknock 
1547-52, Hereford in 1553, and Ludiow in 1554. 

Sir Edmond Prideaux, the Cromwellian At- 
torney-General, sat in both Parliaments of 1640 
for Lyme Regis, and continuously afterwards until 
his death. 

Sir Carbery Pryse was M.P. for co. Cardigan 
from 1690 until his death in November, 1694. 

W. D. PINK. 

Leigb, Lancashire. 

A "PoNY OF BEEF." The Essex Times of 
27 May reports a case lately beard at the Blooms- 
bury County Court, in which a butcher sued 
another for thirty shillings, the value of a pony of 
beef. The judge had evidently never heard of 
such an expression, and accordingly endeavoured 
to obtain an explanation, and after several ques- 
tions he elicited from the plaintiff that a pony of 
beef was six ribs and the shoulder. 

Teos. BIRD. 


JOHN BROUOH TAYLOR, F.S.A. Of this worthy 
surgeon and antiquary there is some account in 
Longstaffe's 'History of Darlington,' p. xlviii, 
note, and in Nichols's ' Herald and Genealogist,' 
ii. 515, 516. He died on 1 Oct., 1825, in Villers 
Street, Bishopwearmouth, aged thirty-eight, a 
victim to typhus fever, then epidemic in the town, 
and was buried on the 5th in Monkwearmouth 
Churchyard. His father was a brewer and ship- 

owner of Sunderland. His wife was Mary Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Jonathan Midgley, of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. She lived after her husband's death 
at Cleadon, but died in St. Thomas's Street, New- 
castle, on 30 Aug., 1855, aged sixty-five. Their 
son, John Taylor, became an eminent water en- 
gineer. Besides editing Hegge's * Legend of St. 
Cuthbert,' 4to., Sunderland, 1816, and the ' Dur- 
ham Visitation 1 of 1615, Taylor rendered Surtees 
some assistance in the compilation of the ' History 
of Durham ' (cf. Introduction to vol. i. p. 10), and 
would seem, from what is said in Gent. Mag. for 
November, 1856 (p. 612), to have left some valu- 
able manuscripts. GORDON GOODWIN. 

FOLK-LORE OF HAIR. In my childhood I used 
to be told in Yorkshire that if you swallowed a 
long hair it would twine about your heart and 
kill you. This belief was brought back to my 
mind the other day by reading the following 
passage in Middleton's ' Tragi-Ooomodie, Called 
the Witch,' IV. i., sub init. : 

11 If I trust her, aa she 's a woman, let one of her long 
hairs wind about my heart, and be the end of me ; which 
were a piteous lamentable tragedy, and might be entituled 
A fair warning for all hair-bracelets." 

Probably a similar belief prevails in other counties. 

STEEL PENS. (See ' Gilt-edged Writing-paper,' 
8 th S. ix. 414.) I have the following notes, which 
may possibly be of service. 

1829, a steel pen was enclosed in a letter as a 
great curiosity (J. L. Cherry, ' Life of John Clare,' 
p. 65). 

Engraving of a bronze mediaeval pen (' Archseo- 
logia Cantiana,' vii. 341). 

Pen of bone (Archceologia, xxxvi. 290). 


In Tuer's ' History of the Hornbook ' (vol. ii. 
p. 99), I find : 

" The pen is by no means BO late an invention as ia 
often supposed. One of the earliest must have been that 
used by the Ostrogoth Theodoric, who, by means of a 
stencil-plate, on which were cut the first four letters of 
his name, ingeniously followed the openings with a pen, 
and was thus enabled to write bis signature." 

And further : 

"According to the Nineteenth Century of May, 1891, 
a metal pen, slit, and shaped like a quill pen, was recently 
found in the so-called tomb of Aristotle at Eretria." 

J. H. D. 

Coleridge regarding Milton to wit, that "the 
egotism of such a man is a revelation of spirit" 
probably suggested a remark of Lord Lytton'a on 
Hazlitt. In his essay on ' Charles Lamb and some 
of his Companions 1 ('Quarterly Essays,' p. 100, 
Knebworth edition), Lord Lytton says : 

1 Still more than as a critic Hazlitt excels as a writer 
of the Essay of Sentiment ; when, in the spirit of hia 



favourite Montaigne, he abandons himself fairly to self- 
commune and self-confession For in essays of this 

kind the self-obtrusion to which we give the name of 
egotism is not a fault ; it is the essential quality, infusing 
into desultory reveries the distinct vitality of individu- 
alized being." 

Students of style could hardly have better examples 
of brevity and expansion than Coleridge's apoph- 
thegm and Lord Lytton's diffuse and laboured 
Btatement. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helexuburgh, N.B. 

SCOTS. About sixty years ago, a gentleman, writing 
of a tour he had made in Russia, included the 
following remarks concerning certain relics of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, which he had been privi- 
leged to see ; and what he has recorded of the 
portrait of Mary Stuart, known as the Blairs 
portrait, is important as giving a somewhat reliable 
and likely account of its origin. He says that 
"the Imperial Library at St. Petersburg received a 
great acquisition of French works and manuscripts 
which had been collected by Dubrovsky, who was in the 
suite of the Russian Ambassador at Paris at the period 
of the Revolution, when he was enabled to obtain them 
for almost anything. Among them was a manuscript 
volume of letters from Mary, Queen of Scots, to Queen 
Elizabeth. Her missal, which was also shown there, was 
bound in dark blue velvet secured by clasps ; it consisted 
of 230 pages. The first thirteen had the months and 
days of the year where particular prayers were intro- 
duced, beginning with the 80th Psalm in January. The 
book was illuminated with subjects from the Life of 
Christ and the Virgin Mary. The first was a picture 
of the Angel Gabriel, and at the bottom of the page 
were the words and figures : ' Marie Reyne, 1, 259.' " 

In all probability, this book and the letters were 
part of the numerous writings that belonged to 
the Scotch College at Douai, which was founded by 
Mary, Queen of Scots. 

On the return to the seminary of the Rev. Mr. 
Farquharson, the head of the college, after banish- 
ment during the Revolution, Mr. Wilson (the 
Russian tourist) relates that the reverend gentle- 
man showed him over the college and assured him 
that he had had in his possession not only Mary's 
original prayer book, but a table clock belonging 
to her, the first ever made, besides the MS. poems of 
Ossian and many other interesting papers that he 
had not seen since the Revolution. To continue 
in Mr. Wilson's own words : 

" A full-length portrait of her, which had been con- 
cealed in a chimney during the disastrous period and 
which was copied from a miniature given by the queen 
to Mies Curie, one of her maids of honour, at the time 
she was on the scaffold, was all that remained, every, 
thing else being carried off by the mob or committed 
to the flames. 

" The picture was set up in the dining-room of the 
college at Douai, and it was a singular circumstance 
that in the title deeds it was directed that to whatever 
place the seminary was removed the picture was to go 
with it. It was then taken to the Scotch College at 
Paris, where it was to remain until it was seen if the 
College at Douai were to be restored." 

It is now located at Blairs, near Aberdeen. 
Originally it came into the possession of the Col- 
lege at Douai by bequest from Elizabeth Curie, 
and, from the statement, coming evidently from 
herself, that it was copied from a miniature given 
to her by the mistress whose last kiss she had 
received prior to execution, it seems most probable 
that the large picture was painted under her in- 
structions as eye-witness, for in the background 
there is a vignette of the execution in miniature 
that tallies with the account of another eye-witness, 
R. Winkfield, in his letter to Lord Burleigh. It 
was bequeathed as " Grand portrait de sa Majeste 
vetue comme elle etait h, sa martyre." 

It was saved from the fury of the Jacobins by 
being hastily cut out of the frame, wound round a 
wooden roller, packed in a secure outer envelope, 
and secreted in one of the nooks in the wide 
chimney of the refectory, where, as the brethren 
judged, there would be cold cheer for awhile. There 
it remained from 1794 to 1815 nineteen years 
and was found uninjured. 

The order of English Dominican monks at Born- 
heim, in Flanders, founded by Cardinal Philip 
Howard, had a curious picture of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, ascending the scaffold. HILDA GAMLIN. 

Camden Lawn, Birkenhead. 

in ' N. & Q.' north-country folk have been stamped 
as being peculiar, because they not only account a 
man "starved" when he is slain by hunger, but 
likewise when he is stricken with cold. If Mr. 
0. G. Harper, author of 'The Marches of Wales/ 
may be trusted, he heard the word clemmed used 
with a similar extension of meaning in a Shrop- 
shire village. Nodal and Milner's ' Lancashire 
Glossary ' has " Clem, Clam, to starve from want 
of food": 

"'Ah,' said the farmer, 'you look at our large fire- 
place. 'Tis warm here in summer, but nation cowd in 
winter time, an' we'd be 'alf clemmed if we didn't 
always have a good large log on it then.' "P. 324. 

Kleumen in Dutch, as Nodal and Milner note, 
signifies to be benumbed with cold. 



Comely is the patron saint of the parish, and no 
one visiting Carnac and its mysterious alignments 
can fail to become acquainted with him. St. 
Cornely's fountain a large, built well, supplying 
the village with an abundance of excellent water 
has a figure of the saint above it, enclosed in an 
iron grating. Outside the church there is another 
figure of the saint above the entrance. He stands be- 
tween two cows, one black and white, and the other 
red and white, the entire group being composed of 
painted stucco. St. Comely is regarded as the 
protector of cattle. Behind one of the cows one 
sees a representation of menhirs, probably in allusion 

8 th 8. X. JULY 18, '96.] 



to the legend that the celebrated stones of Carna 
were Roman soldiers who pursued the saint, anc 
were in consequence petrified by his miraculou 
power. The stones are still called in the distric 
" les pierres de Saint Comply." This Comply i 
the St. Cornelius of ecclesiastical annals, usuallj 
described as Pope and Martyr, who was mad< 
Bishop of Rome about the middle of the third cen 
tury, and was soon after banished for his adherence 
to the Christian faith. In the ' Lives of the Saints 
(second edition, London, 1750) we are told : 

" All the ancient Martyrologies place our saint's name 
on the 14th of September, supposed to be the day of hi 
death; but, for the more solemn celebration of hi 
memory, it has been removed to the 16th of the same 
month. The venerable remains of the holy Pope were 
brought to Rome and buried in Callistus's ground 
where they lay till Adrian I., in the eighth century 
placed them in a church he had built in honour of the 

St. Cornelius was a friend of St. Cyprian o 
Carthage, who is also commemorated on 16 Sept. 

J. M. MACKINL'AY, F.S.A.Scot. 

We must request correspondent* desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
name* and addressei to their queries, in order that the 
niwers may be addressed to them direct. 

DRAWN BATTLE OR MATCH. If any readers of 
*N. & Q.' happen to know the origin of this 
expression, and can tell how or where the " draw- 
ing " comes in, or the sense of draw which is used, 
I shall be glad if he will communicate with me. 
We have plenty of instances of the phrase from the 
early part of the seventeenth century, but none 
which throws any light on the drawing, except, 
perhaps, this, of Selden : "The issue is like that of 
a drawn battle, wherein he that continueth last in 
the field is glad to be gone away." Could it be a 
battle or combat which was withdrawn from final 
decision, so that each side was glad to retire from 
the field as soon as he could ? I find nothing like 
it under withdraw. J. A. H. MURRAY 


A SCOTTISH "LEGEND." In Jamieson's 'Scot- 
tish Dictionary ' (s.v. " Bauchle, to shamble "), the 
quotation is found " a bair clock, and a bachlane 
naig," the reference being "Legend Bp. St. 
Androis, 'Poems,' sixteenth century, p. 327." I 
should be much obliged for a fuller reference to 
the book cited; the date, editor, or any particular 
by which I could identify the book ; or for refer- 
ence to any collection in which the above-named 
Legend ' may be found. A. L. MAYHEW. 

respecting this family has long remained un- 
answered. The announcement of the recent 

decease, at Upper Court, Woldington, Surrey, of 
Major John Berryman, V.C., one of the heroes of 
Balaclava, induces me to repeat my inquiry in 
some measure, by asking what is known of the 
pedigree and arms of this Crimean veteran's family. 
The Berrimans in whom I am interested were 
Gloucestershire folk, their arms being Argent, on 
a bend sable, cottised gules, three boars' heads 
couped of the field. LAC. 

GRAY OR GREY? Perhaps among the several 
common English words of which the spelling is 
unsettled there is no case the orthography of 
which is so uncertain as is this grey, or gray. Ac- 
cepting the old principle that where the spelling 
or pronunciation of a word is in question the 
practice of the majority of educated people should 
decide, I have asked many persons how they 
spell grey (?), and have also in scores of instances 
noted its spelling in print, but cannot determine 
which of the two forms is the more customary. As 
a proper name, Gray is certainly by far the com- 
moner spelling. In the Directory for this neigh- 
bourhood I find twenty-nine Gray* and not one 
Grey. But our old titled families prefer the e 
witness the Northumberland and the Wilton Greys, 
and the " twelfth-day queen," daughter of Henry 
Grey, Duke of Norfolk. Of English literary and 
scientific celebrities who wrote their name Gray 
we have, besides the author of the ' Elegy,' Asa 
Gray, the botanist ; George Robert Gray, the 
British Museum ornithologist, and his brother, 
George Edward, who long was at the head of the 
Natural History Department of the British Museum. 
Among Greys of our own day are Sir George Grey, 
the explorer and colonial administrator, and in 
he seventeenth century there were Dr. Richard 
Grey (whose memoria technica was an instrument 
of torture in common use in my boyhood) and 
Zachary Grey (like the chronologist, a theologian), 
well known for his excellent edition of ' Hudibras.' 
3y-the-by, the grey of greyhound is not akin to 
he name of the colour ; and it may not be quite 
afe to assume that the English surname is always 
a colour name. The Anglo-Saxon form of gray is 
rag, and the Middle English gray and grey. 



West Connaught,' published by the Irish 

Archaeological Society in 1846, occurs a facsimile 

f the author's signature to a letter dated 

7 January, 1681/2. Underneath his name 

O'Flaherty writes "Jly," and then makes the 

stronomical sign for Mars, almost attaching it to 

he end of the tail of the y in his name. From 

his I infer that his horoscope was cast at the time 

f his birth (July ?), and that Mars was his natal 

tar. I should like to be referred to other 

nstances of what may perhaps be called astro- 



S.X. JULY 18, '06. 

logical signatures. The editor gives Calway as 
the place of the letter's date; bat to me it seems to 
be "ny Galway"; this is, written at his place 
called "Parke," which was about seven miles 
west of the town, and so nigh to it. See p. 427, 
and " Parke" on its map. P. S. P. CONNER. 

Some time ago a notice appeared that it was in 
contemplation to form a society to explore Norman 
charters, and endeavour to obtain more informa- 
tion than we possess of Norman genealogies as 
they connect with our own. Could any of your 
readers oblige with information ? OIL. 

1 GULLIVER'S TRAVELS/ Is it anywhere noted 
in early criticism of this masterpiece that Swift 
chose his title as a punning one, in close touch 
with the old-fashioned words gull, gullible, and 
gnllish, all meaning either to mislead by decep- 
tioa or possessing the quality of being misled ? 
He was, as the world knows, the prince of 
punsters. J. G. C. 

"MARCELLA." What is the history of this 
word, which is familiar as an item in drapers' 
catalogues, but is generally ignored by the dic- 
tionaries ? The ' Century ' (if I remember rightly) 
gives marsella, and defines it as a linen fabric. 
The * Standard 'gives Marseilles, and defines it as a 
heavy cotton fabric with raised pattern. This last 
answers, I am told, to the marcella of our shops. 
Marseilles appears to be the current form in the 
United States, and the material is said to take its 
name from the French city. C. S. WARD. 

Wootton St. Lawrence. 

The Rev. Herbert Haines, in his Manual of 
Monumental Brasses,' 1861, gives in his list, 
under the heading of "Fulham, Middlesex," in 
addition to the Flemish brass of Margaret 
Saunders, a brass inscription to Augustus Parker, 
1590, at. sixty-three, with merchant's mark. Now 
I have been unable to find the existence of this 
inscription in the church, and also can trace no 
mention of it either in Bowack's * Middlesex ' or 
Faulkner's Fulham.' Did it ever exist ? Per- 
haps Haines has placed it wrongly. MR. 
CHAS. JAS. FERET might assist me. I am look- 
ing forward with pleasure to his forthcoming 
work on Fulham. ETHERT BRAND 

93, Barry Koad, Stonebridge Park, N.W. 

"IRPE." This word occurs, as adjective and 
noun, in Jonson's 'Cynthia's Revels': "Maintain 
your station, brisk and irpe, shew the supple 
motion of your pliant body, but in chief of your 
knee and hand" (Act III. sc. iii.), and "From 
Spanish shrugs, French faces, smirks, irpes, and 
all affected humours, good Mercury defend us," in 

the Palinode which closes the play. Are there 
any other instances of this word ? The dictionaries 
do not appear to give any. And what is the etymo- 
logy of it ? Gifford thinks it may be connected 
with the Dutch werp, wierp, or worp, bub this 
is evidently a mere guess on his part. 


AEROLITES. We are told in many books of 
reference that before the great shower of stones 
which fell in Normandy in 1803 it was the general 
opinion of men of science that the stories to be 
found in classical and mediaeval authors as to 
stones reaching our planet from outer space were 
mere fables, or the fancies of ignorant peasants. I 
shall be glad to be referred to the writings of 
persons who made mistakes of this kind. 


JOHN PAYNE. I should be obliged for any in- 
formation as to the present representatives of the 
family of John Payne, whose property was for- 
feited to the Crown in 1553. 

What is the debt to the Crown referred to in 
the following quotation from ' Calendar of State 
Papers, Queen Mary, Domestic Series,' vol. i.? 

" 1553. Warrant by the Queen (her first signature) to 
the Chancellor and of the Court of Firstfruits and 
Tenths to accept from John Payne the Manor of 
Cryston and all hia other lands in Uphill Cubstocke and 
Worle, co. of Somerset, in discharge of his debt to the 

The manor of Christen only passed into his 
hands by purchase in 1548. 

Christen Rectory. 

"PUSHFUL." Is this adjective, which I have 
always regarded as colloquial, if not dialectal, 
coming into general use ? In Punch, 14 March, 
the cartoon is styled ' Well Matched,' and Oom 
Paul is represented as saying to " Pushful Joe," 
" Look here ! Push-stroke barred you know." 

In the Daily News of the same date, in a lead- 
ing article on *The Soudan Again,' "pushful" 
occurs : " England, we need not say, has all along 
been not the pushful, but the restraining force, 
so far as the Soudan is concerned." 


be very glad of information as to the Scotch 
ancestors of (1) Peter Gordon, farmer, of Ballice, 
co. Tyrone, will dated 25 March, 1743, proved in 
the Diocesan Court of Derry, 7 Nov., 1744, 
married Mary, second daughter to Robert Boak, 
or Boke, farmer, of Ballice ; (2) William Gordon 
(Peter's brother), farmer of Bally sheagh, parish of 
Leckpatrick, co. Tyrone, will dated 2 Dec. , 1753 ; 
he married Mary Ross, sister to Aaron Ross of 
Miltoun and Joseph Ross of Strabane. An ancestor 
of William's possesses an old painting of arms, 
blazoned Azure, three boars' heads erassd or; 



crept, a dexter arm grasping a scimitar ppr. ; motto, 
" Dread God"; and underneath same is written, 
" An antient and respectable family of Scotland." 
It is believed these brothers went from Galloway 
to Ireland about the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. A. A. GORDON, F.S.A.Scot. 
Conservative Club, Edinburgh. 

for 19 June contains (pp. 37, 38) an interesting 
article on Ipswich Grammar School, including an 
excellent illustration of ' The School Arms,' which 
are as follow : France modern and England 
quarterly, surmounted by the imperial crown of 
England ; dexter supporter, a greyhound collared ; 
sinister supporter, a dragon ; on a scroll underneath 
are the words " SCHOLA : REGIA : GIPPESVICENSIS." 
On inquiry since made as to the tinctures usually 
accepted at the school, one of the co-editors of 
the Ipswich, School Maganim has courteously and 
carefully given the following particulars. The 
tinctures of the shield as those of the royal 
standard ; the crown is golden ; the greyhound 
is white, collared gules ; the dragon is brown 
(? " proper"); the scroll is gules and the letters 
golden. The writer of the article in St. James's 
Budget informs us that Queen Elizabeth granted 
to the school (which was founded as early at least 
as 1477) a new charter, and that " the school, out 
of compliment to the maiden queen, has adopted 
her motto of 'Semper eadem.'" The supporters 
are also those of Elizabeth, for in Boutell's ' Royal 
Armory of England,' chap. xii. (see the Art Journal 
for 1668, p. 270), we are told that she used a golden 
lion, and either a golden dragon or a white grey- 
hound. Can any reader give another instance of 
the dragon being coloured brown (? " proper ") ? 
Kindly reply direct to 


Stowmarket, Suffolk. 

ARMORIAL. I am the last of my branch of an 
ancient family, having to go back so far as the 
sixteenth century in order to find a connexion 
between any one now bearing my name and my- 
self. Do the laws of England and heraldry permit 
me to leave my right to the family coat of arms 
to whom I please ? If so, would a change of surname 
be necessary ? Could any correspondent furnish 
instances of arms being thus left ? G. 

of him in vol. xli. * Diet. Nat. Biography ' needs 
revision and addition. He was a son of Adrian 
Norman, rector of Trusham, Devon, donor of one 
of the bells there which bears his name. He 
(Adrian) married Joane Merdon, of North Bovey. 
Their son John's wife, in 1663, was a sister of 
Theodosia Alleine, of Batcombe, married to Joseph 
Alleine. But much uncertainty exists concerning 
the wife or wives and children of John, and there 

is no proof of his having been father of Henry 
Norman, Master of the Free Grammar School at 
Langport, Somerset, erroneously printed Longport 
in ' D. N. B.' (Boase's ' Reg. Coil. Exon.,' Pars II., 
1894, pp. 231 and 388 ; Parish Register of North 
Bovey). KANTIUS. 

Wellington Cottage, West Hill, Ottery St. Mary. 

QUOTATION. Where in Lord Macaulay's works 
can the following sentence, or something like it, be 
found? " The paradoxes of one age become the 
truisms of the next." W. PRYCE MAUNSELL. 

5, Martello Terrace, Kingstown. 

THE SCRIMSHAW FAMILY. Can any one give 
the history of this family ? Scotch I presume. It 
is stated that in the reign of Charles I. grants of 
1,0002. were given to Sir Edwin Scrimshaw and to 
Sir Charles Scrimshaw. What became of the 
descendants of these gentlemen ? Were the estates 
and rank forfeited ; and, if so, why not restored at 
the Restoration ? I should be glad to learn under 
what title the descendants (if any) are known to 
this day. Strange, is it not, for both rank and estates 
to be forfeited ? I presume it is right to say that 
the name of Scrimshaw is associated with the 
Scottish nobility, and one especially which owes 
its origin to knightly deeds. Strange to say, there 
is a family bearing this uncommon name having 
both the Christian names, viz., Edwin and Charles. 
Can it be asserted these gentlemen are the lineal 
descendants of Sir Edwin and Sir Charles ? 


' THE MILL.' Can you or any of your readers 
inform me who is the author of a poem entitled 
' The Mill,' published about seventy years ago ? 

A. J\l. 

"BILLINGSGATE." Why is coarse language so 
often described as " Billingsgate " 1 Is the per- 
sistent association of the old fish-market with 
blackguardism justifiable ? Our dictionaries band 
on the conceit from one generation to another. In 
a recent cyclopaedic dictionary I find Billingsgate 
defined as "foul abusive language such as is 
popularly supposed to be mutually employed by 
those who are unable to come to an amicable 
understanding as to the proper price of the fish 
about which they are negotiating." Dr. Brewer 
places the responsibility on the fish-vendors only. 
Bailey (eighth ed., 1737) calls a " Billingsgate " " a 
scolding impudent slut"; and Pope and other 
writers use the word in much the same connexion. 
When did this notoriety first attach to Billings- 
gate ; and is vituperation a distinguishing charac- 
teristic of all dealers in fish (vide Charnbera's 
4 Eng. Diet.,' 1872) ? There seems no reason why 
profanity should be more closely associated with 
Billingsgate Market than with Covent Garden or 
old Smithfield. But may not Billingsgate have 
suffered for the sins of others ? Between Billings- 



8. X. JULY 18, '96. 

gate and the old bridge was the favourite haunt of 
the riverside rough. All the down-river tilt-boats 
started and arrived at this point, and rascaldom 
reaped a rich harvest at this particular spot. The 
place swarmed with " b'low bridge " watermen 
the worst specimens of their class. Defoe has 
left on record his unfavourable impressions of the 
tilt-boat men, and in Dr. Johnson's days the slang- 
ing and swearing of Thames watermen (and, indeed, 
of many of their fares) had become a riverside 
nuisance. The stream was crowded with merchant 
vessels. Men-of-war were moored off the market. 
The whole neighbourhood was often in commotion 
as press-gangs arrived with fresh consignments for 
the tender off the Tower. Thus blackguardism 
seemed naturally to gravitate towards the neigh- 
bourhood of the market, though not necessarily to 
the market itself, of whose frequenters it may in 
all charity be inferred that they had the average 
low-class Londoner's disregard for the delicacies of 
speech. It would, perhaps, be interesting to know 
how far back this evil repute of Billingsgate can be 
traced, and how the odium has attached to the 
market which might possibly with more propriety 
be spread over at least the riverside section of the 
ward. W. H. HARPER. 

Duncombe Road, N. 

[See 2- 1 S. vii, 496, and N. E. D.'J 

the base of the mediaeval village cross yet to be 
seen in the street, at the village of Grayingham, 
Lincolnshire. It consists of a single large stone 
the remainder of the cross having perished. A few 
days ago I was informed that the villagers believe 
it to be what they call "a plague stone." What is 
this ? There is a local tradition which says that 
the base of a mediaeval cross which yet remains, 
half way between Fulford and York, about a mile 
and a half to the south of the city, was used as a 
place of meeting between the townsfolk and the 
country people during the Plague in 1665. We 
know that it was so used during the cholera in 
1833. Those who had market produce to dispose 
of placed their goods on the steps of the cross, 
and the purchasers, in their turn, laid the money 
upon it, so that none needed to touch the 
other. If "plague stones "have any connexion 
with this, I should suppose that it is more likely 
to be a tradition handed down from the time of the 
Black Death than to have arisen in 1665 ; but I 
should be glad to hear if any one else knows of 
" plague stone " used in this sense. 


"BoMBELLiEAs," Whatare these? The word 
occurs in the following connexion : " Die sinker, 
Stamper and Piercer. Manufacturer of Bright, 
Common and Japanned Tin Wares, Bombellieas 
and Gauze Eye Protectors, Tin Boxes, &c." 


(8 th S. ix. 308 ; x. 12.) 

It is well known that this name was always 
trisyllabic before A.D. 1400, and that Oxford, in 
two syllables, is modern. 

Chaucer has Oxenf.ord seven times. The A.-S. 
form is Oxna-ford, occurring in the * A.-S. Chro- 
nicle '; with which we may compare the plant-name 
oxna-lyb, ox -heal, in the 'A.-S. Leechdoms 

Oxna is not the genitive singular, but the geni- 
tive plural of ox ; the n is due to the fact that ox- 
belongs to the n-declension. Hence Oxna-ford 
does not mean " the ford of the ox," but " the ford 
of the oxen." 

We have no evidence of any earlier spelling, nor 
is there the least reason for supposing that the 
word was originally Celtic. 

Not only fifty years ago, but even at the present 
day, there are people who are ignorant of the 
commonest principles of language, and refuse to 
admit any phonetic laws or to take any trouble to 
discover the historical sequence of forms. Their 
only idea is that " etymology " is a question of 
assumption and assertion, founded on guesswork 
and proclaimed by reiteration and bluster. They 
will never cease to repeat that Ox is a " corruption " 
of Ouse, or Ose, or Usk, or something else that is 
equally ridiculous. The more " corruption" there 
is in a guess, the deeper is their conviction of its 
truth. They like to think that the A.-S. -na and 
the M.E. -en were inserted in the body of the 
name " by corruption "; that ox is a " corruption " 
of ux ; that ux is a ( ' corruption " of usk ; and that 
utk is a short form of the Celtic (Old Irish) usige, 
water. The last of these propositions is phonetic- 
ally possible, and accounts for the river-name UsJc 
fairly enough ; but it is a very far cry from uisge 
to the A.-S. oxna. I am not aware that there is 
any such river-name as Ox. 

The old Celtic word uisge has much to answer 
for. That it is now spelt whiskey is admitted ; as 
also the fact that it forms part of the word usque- 
baugh, "the water of life." But when it comes to 
river-names, we are asked to believe that it signifies 
any sort of vowel that is found in connexion with 
anything involving an s. There are books which 
make it the parent not merely of Ox- in Ox-ford, 
but of Esk, Es- in Esthwaite, Ease- in Ease- dale, 
Ewse-in Ewse-ley, the Is- in Is bourne, the Ash, 
the Ise, the Ex, the Axe, the Ock, the Usk, the 
Ouse, and a great many more. No attempt is 
made to explain the Protean nature of the vowel ; 
probably because it is a principle of the theory of 
11 corruption," that vowels are of no account. 


8" S. X. JOLT 18, '96.) 



The origin of the name of Oxford is examined 
at length in pp. 348-365, forming Appendix B. in 
Mr. James Parker's * Early History of Oxford,' 
Oxford, 1885. The writer allows the impossibility 
of arriving at a certainty in the comparison of the 
two theories, while the form "Oxnaforda," the 
ford of oxen, is unquestionably the earliest, 
occurring in the * Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,' 8. a. 912 
(p. 348, cf. p. 324). But this will not settle the 
question. There is strong reason 
" for the probability of the name of Ouse or some 
cognate form of the river-word having been applied at 
one time to the Thames as it flows past Oxford. That 
a ford over that river should be called from the river is 
more likely to have been the case than from certain 
cattle which may have crossed the river." P. 365. 

After noticing other local allusions to the 
river-name, Mr. Parker writes : 

" It must be admitted that all this amounts only to 
circumstantial evidence ; but then it is a case in which 
only circumstantial evidence can be obtained." Ib. 


UMBRIEL (8 th S. ix. 507). Your correspondent 
remarks that we know all about Ariel ; but I 
scarcely think we do. It is used many times in 
the Bible, and in Isaiah always as a designation 
of Jerusalem, but why does not seem quite clear. 
A marginal note in the Authorized Version 
(Is. xxix. 1) explains it to mean " the lion of 
God," but one in the Revised Version offers as 
an alternative explanation "the hearth of God," 
the latter being probably suggested by the use of 
the word in Ezekiel xliii. 15 (second clause), 16, 
for " altar," as it is rendered in the A.V., or 
"altar-hearth" in the R.V. The former has a 
marginal note, " Heb. Ariel, that is, the lion of 
God," whilst the latter simply refers to its note 
in Is. xxix. 1. It does not follow, however, that 
the word is used by both prophets in the same 
sense, though it is quite certain that Isaiah uses 
it as a metaphorical designation of Jerusalem. 
Ariel also appears as a proper name in Ezra viii. 
16, and in 2 Sam. xxiii. 20, and 1 Chron. xi. 
22, where the A. V. renders " lion-like men," but 
the R.V. takes Ariel as a proper name, and 
translates " sons of Ariel," supplying the word for 
sons, supposed to have dropped out of the text. 

What your correspondent means by knowing 
all about Ariel probably is that the name of the 
satellite was taken from Ariel in the ' Tempest,' 
with which we are all familiar. But it is not 
likely that Shakespeare intended to refer to the 
Biblical use of the word : he probably meant it 
as equivalent to aerial, to signify the light, airy 
nature of the dainty spirit. That Pope, in the 
' Rape of the Lock,' adopted it from ' The Tem- 
pest' there can be little doubt. Apparently he 
wished to introduce also a more saturnine and 
melancholy sprite, and the word Umbriel (I know 

no earlier use of it) may have been taken, like 
that for the game ombre, from the Spanish hombre, 
man, adding el that the termination might resemble 
that of Ariel. I need hardly remark that Um- 
briel, the second satellite of Uranus, moves much 
more slowly than Ariel (the first), being nearly 
twice as long revolving round the p'anet. 

W. T. LYNN. 

Respecting the above I can find no information. 
John Trithemius, a Benedictine monk (1462- 
1516), states, in a treatise on spirits, that Ambriel 
was the spirit (or angel) set over the sign " Gemini." 
Umbriel may be a variation of Ambriel. The posi- 
tion of Uranus in the heavens when Lassell made 
the discovery might to some extent explain the 
reason for naming the satellite Umbriel, 


(8 th S. ix. 308, 349, 435). In reference to the 
execution of this singular and unhappy man 
perhaps the following verse, said to have been 
found in his apartment, may not be out of place 
in'N. &Q.,'viz.:- 

In doubt I lived, in doubt I die, 

Yet stand prepared the vast abyss to try, 

And, undismayed, expect eternity. 

Vide ' The Book of Remarkable Trials,' John 
Camden Hotten, London, 1872. 

CJapham, S.W. 

GEORGE BORROW (8 th S. ix. 407, 474). May I 
be allowed to correct a misprint in my note at the 
last reference ? Borrow's wife came from Oulton, 
near Lowestoft, not Dalton. JAMES HOOPER. 

NAME OF UNIVERSITY (8 th S. ix. 488). I am 
quite sure that the Archbishop of Canterbury 
knows the Greek language too well to misplace 
the accents on the words as does your corre- 

436). The effigy here referred to is not the one that 
was originally sculptured. The monument was 
designed and executed by Mr. Raymond Smith. 
In 1884, owing to the wasted condition of the 
figure, the then Vicar of Bamburgh, the Rev. A. 0. 
Medd, originated a public subscription which 
amounted to 1372. Mr. Smith, who had fortu- 
nately preserved the original model, was commis- 
sioned to sculpture a new one ; and from the 
balance, a stained window, by Clayton and Bell, 
was erected in the north transept of the church. 
The unveiling took place in July, 1885. The old 
effigy has been placed inside the church, with the 
information that the monument and figure were 
placed in the churchyard in 1844, the whole cost 
of the monument being defrayed by Mrs. Catharine 
Sharp, Close Hall, Barnstaple, widow of the Rev. 


[8S. X. JULY] 8, '96. 

Andrew Boult Sharp, a former vicar of Bamburgb. 
It was unfortunate that the figure should have 
been a second time placed under an open canopy 
and in such an exposed situation, to be wasted 
away by the united action of sun and rain. The 
enormously heavy canopy resting on such frail 
pillars will inevitably suffer the same fate, if re- 
erected aa they were. Surely some solution might 
be applied to the figure to arrest further inevitable 
decay. I may add that I was at Bamburgh when 
the Forfarshire was lost, and, as soon aa the etorra 
had sufficiently abated, went off in the Castle boat 
to the wreck and to the Longstone Lighthouse 
where the survivors were ; a not to be forgotten 
event. G. H. THOMPSON. 


In N. & Q./ 29 March, 1884 (6 th S. ix. 250), 
the late Rev. A. 0. Medd, then vicar of Bam- 
bargb, alludes to Grace Darling's tomb, and states 
that he will gladly acknowledge any contributions 
for its repair. See ' Grace Darling, her Biography/ 
6" S. ix. 142, 190, 250, 279. In February, 1895, 
I visited the tomb, when I found that the canopy 
had been blown down, if I remember rightly, 
during a then recent gale. CKLER ET AUDAX. 

(8 th S. ir. 489). The Illustrated London News, 
22 April, 1848, speaks of " the premises formerly 
occupied by the Chinese Collection at Knights- 
bridge/' and on 21 Aug., 1847, the collection is 
announced to be opened on the 24th of that month, 
at Fairfield, near the Church, Bow, in a "Kin Teen" 
which had occupied eight months in building. 

W. 0. B. 

SOUTHWELL M3S. (8 th S. ix. 488).-Several of 
these manuscripts are, I believe, in the British 
Museum. One set of papers which formed a por- 
tion of the collection, and which is described on 
pp. 174-185 of Thorpe's ' Catalogue/ published in 
1834, is in the Royal Irish Academy. It contains 
many valuable documents relating to the Irish 
War of 1690-91, including a collection of letters 
and orders signed by James II., which were taken 
by the English at the battle of the Boyne. 

Fairy Hill, Limerick. 

These important collections of State Papers and 
other manuscripts appear to have been acquired, 
en bloc, by Thos. Thorpe, the bookseller, of Bedford 
Street, Covent Garden, who catalogued them for 
private sale, in 1,181 lots at the prices affixed ; 
and a copy of the catalogue, dated 1834, is in my 
library. No doubt many of the items were pur- 
chased from Thorpe by that well-known collector 
the late Sir Thos. Phillipps, of Broadway, co. 
Worcester, at all times his best customer. Others 
are now in the British Museum. During the last 
few years portions of the Phillipps collection have 

been dispersed under the hammer of Messrs. 
Sotheby, including some of the Southwell MSS. 

W. I. R. V. 

PREBENDARY VICTORIA (8 th S. ix. 329, 377 ; 
x. 14). The passage which MR. PICKFORD quotes 
from Murray is taken by the writer from Jones 
and Freeman's ' History of St. Davids'; the learned 
authors can throw no further light. George Owen, 
the Elizabethan historian of Pembrokeshire, speaks 
of the " prsebenda Regie 33 ratione collegii Mene- 
vensis," and his editor notes that the king's cursal 
originated when the college of St. Mary at St. 
David's was annexed by the Crown during the 
reign of Edward VI. H. 0. 

S. ix. 88). I am inclined to think " ce capitaiue 
anglais qui s'enliza dans un troupeau de crabes " 
(liv. ii. ch. vi.) may be found in one of the fanciful 
romances of Leon Gozlan dealing with tropical 
countries. I have looked over "the emotions of 
Polydore Marasquin/' which relates to an English 
captain and certain extraordinary islands in the 
Malay Archipelago, in expectation of finding it, but 
without success. I think it must be agreed that 
the allusion in all probability comes from a French 
source, as Hugo's acquaintance with English litera- 
ture was limited. JNO. HEBB. 

Willesden Green, N.T7. 

LLOYD FAMILY (8 th S. ix. 48). I have hoped 
some one of those who have seen the query would 
answer this more fully. All I know is that Bishop 
Lloyd was, from his arms, of the tribe of Brochwel 
Ysceithrog, and so related more or less distantly 
to the Lloyds of Llyv. Lloyd is a name of such 
frequent occurrence that the common ancestor 
might have lived five hundred years before the 
bishop. T. W. 

Aston, Clinton. 

289). I send G. S. C. S. the information given 
by a few writers on knighthood, ' The Theater of 
Honour and Knighthood/ by Andrew Favine, 
1623, says : 

" The first Kings and Princes, being Christians, at 
giving this golden Girdle, kissed tbe new made Knight 
on the left cheeke, and used these wopds. ' In honor of 
tbe Father, of the Sonne, and of the blessed Holy Ghost, 
I make you a Knight.' " 

This ceremony Ashmole states some authors think 
was the same as the one used by Charlemagne 
when he knighted his son Louis the Debonair. 

Segar, in his work, * The Book of Honor and 
Arms/ 1590, bk. v. p. 9, gives the ceremony of 
making knights about the year 1020 as follows : 

" This oath taken, two of the chief Lords led him unto 
the King, who presentlie drew forth his Sword and laied 
the same upon his head, and said : ' God and S. George 
(or what ether Saincta the King pleased to name) make 
thee a good Knight." 

X. JULY 18, '96.] 



Nisbet gives another: "Sis eques in nomine 
Dei (Be a knight in the name of God)," and adds, 
"Advance Chevalier, rise Sir A. B." Glover's 
' Nobility Political,' 1610, edited by Mills, has 
another version: "Soyez bon Chevalier d'ore- 
senauant au nom Dion (Be from henceforth 
good knight in the name of God)." In Selden's 
'Titles of Honor 'the formula is, "Avancez Chi- 
valer au nom de Dieu," and " Avancez Chivaler," 
which agrees with J. B. Burke, who gives the 
ceremony used at the present time : 

"The dignity of knighthood is now received by the 
person kneeling before the sovereign, who with a stroke 
of the sword over the right shoulder, pronounces these 
words : " Sola chevalier, au nom de Dieu (Rise up knight 
in the name of God)/ followed by ' Avance chevalier.' 
At present the command to rise is expressed in English, 
with the addition of the Christian name and surname of 
the new knight." 

In * An Essay on Chivalry ' (republished from 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 18 18) the formula 
is given thus 
God and St. 
Son, and Holy 

fortunate." No authority is given for the state- 
ment, but extracts are given from various poets, 
Sir Walter Scott being one of them. 


dutiea which the title then required were changed or 
lost, and the title itself became very general and com- 
paratively insignificant, the solemnity gradually decayed 
and all that remains in the making of a knight bachelor, 
or simple knight, is the slight blow on the shoulder from 
the sword of the monarch, who says, ' Sois chevalier, au 
nom de Dieu.' " 

71, Brecknock Road. 

" BOSCH" OR "BosH" (8 th S. ix. 324, 418). 
The origin of the word is doubtless well known. 
But if not already noticed, it may be worth men- 
tioning that the expression was probably popularized 
by Lady Sale's ' Journal, 1 1843. She says at p. 47 : 
" The people flatter the Envoy into the belief that 
the tumult is bash [nothing]." The book was 
widely read, the edition from which the above 
extract is made being the eighth thousand. 

J. H. R. C. 


\ " I dub thee knight in the name of I 489). There were two well-known seventeenth 
Michael (or in the name of the Father, century books : ' A Help to Discourse/ of which 
ioly Ghost). Be faithful, bold, and | the first edition_was published in 1619, and* A 

The seventh edition 

William Berry, in his ' Encyclopedia Heraldica/ 
vol. i., under the article " Knight," says : 

"The manner of conferring knighthood has been 
different at different periods, but became more cere 
monious and sacred when the cause of religion was 
believed to be closely connected with it; then, instead 
of the brief form of earlier times, v hen the king created 
a knight by putting a military belt over his shoulder, 
kissing his left cheek, and saying, ' in honour of the 
Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, 1 make you a 
knight '; or the still briefer form of modern times, the 
preparations occupied a considerable time, and the cere- 
monies were numerous. The words which were early in 
use on the occasion bear a near resemblance to those 
used at baptism, and at the period now under discussion 
some of the ceremonies also of that sacrament were 
introduced : a profanation occasioned by the superstitious 
zeal of those who fancied that the emblems of sanctifica- 

New Help to Discourse.' 

of the former work, according to Lowndes, was 
enlarged by W. B. (Baldwyn) and E. P. (Phillips), 
and was published in 1628. I have often seen it 
stated that the initials E. P. stand for Edward 
Phillips, the nephew of Milton; but this is impos- 
sible, as that writer was not born till August, 
1630. Nor do I think he had any hand in ( A 
New Help to Discourse.' Winstanley, who was 
undoubtedly the editor of the latter work, may 
have made use of Phillips's writings, just as he 
did in the case of his 'Lives of the English Poets/ 

hich is founded on Phillips's ' Theatrum 
Poetarum '; bat these vade mecums of the diner- 
out of Caroline days are not of sufficient interest 
to incite one to a critical examination of their 
contents. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Eingsland, Shrewsbury. 

The bottom part of the title-page of my copy 
reads : " By W. W. Gent. | The Second Edition. | 

tion and regeneration could not be misapplied to men 1 That Author best of all doth write, I Who mixeth 
who adopted a new mode of life for the defence of reli- p ro fi fc w j ta Delight, i London, Printed by P. J. 
^^^n^^^^S^i \toM * nd 8old bv the Booksellers of London and West- 
bath, as a sign of purification, and then was arrayed in minster, 1672." My book is in the original calf, 
a white garment, as an emblem of a new life which he and as clean and sound as can be. R. R. 

proposed to follow. When the solemn day was arrived, 
he was conducted in pomp to a cathedral or church, 
where he was invested with the sword and spurs, and 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

then offered his sword on the altar, which was blessed 
by the ministers of religion, and again restored to him ; 
and he took an oath, the tenor of which was that he 
would speak the truth, maintain the right, protect the 
distressed, practice courtesy, pursue the infidels, despise 
the allurements of ease and safety, and vindicate, in every 
perilous adventure, the honour of his character. Such 
were the ceremonies which, in the times of the holy 
wars, attended the creation of a knight; but when the 

JEMMY " = CROWBAR (8" S. ix. 424). I am 
^ t Ve' re b :\ W e acquainted with the reference to the J of this 

word which MR. PICKFORD quotes ; it is also 
quoted in Davies's ' Supplementary Glossary,' and 
is probably the earliest generally known instance 
of this usage of jemmy. But it is older than the 
year in which Ingoldsby's 'Nell Cook' appeared 
in Bentley's Miscellany. When, some time ago, 
I had occasion to consult Pierce Egan's edition 
of Grose's 'Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar 



[8i S. X. JULY 18, '96. 

Tongue,' I observed and made a note of this word. 
My note-book says : 

"Jemmy, a crow. This instrument is much used by 
housebreakers. Sometimes called Jemmy Rook." 

Egan does not, however, give any clue as to how 
the word came to be so applied ; but he gives 
another word, in gimcrack or jimcrack, which may 
possibly throw some little light on the subject. 
This he defines, in one of its two significations the 
other meaning is not material heretoas meaning 
(( a person who has a turn for mechanical con- 
trivances." This term gimcrack suggests a train of 
possibilities. The thought has occurred to me that 
possibly the persons so called may, from their 
reputed skill for mechanical contrivance, have been 
the originators of the implement which we now 
know as a jemmy the latter name thus having 
its rise from the original makers of the instrument. 
We have such instances. Of course, this suggestion 
is merely tentative, and will be taken at its worth, 
but, in the absence of anything like a settled etymo- 
logy, which so far I have never yet lighted on, may 
be worth considering. But there is another term, 
also quoted by Egan, which must claim attention. 
This is jenny, which Egan defines as "an instru- 
ment for lifting up the grate or top of a show glass, 
in order to rob it." This is an old cant word, and 
is contained in the ' Collection of Canting Words 
and Terms,' &c., affixed to Nathaniel Bailey's 
good old * English Dictionary/ Another name, 
which Bailey also gives, is betty or bess, which 
apparently applies to the same instrument ; for the 
definition here is " a small engine to force open the 
doors of houses." For both jenny, or jinny as it is 
sometimes written, and betty your readers may 
turn to MR. F. ADAMS'S article on '"Jemmy "= 
Sheep's-head ' (8" S. vi. 138), where it will ,be 
seen the suggestion is made that in jenny we may 
have the possible forerunner of the now common 
appellation jemmy. Jinny, in turn, calls to mind 
the gin of engine, the latter an old name for any 
mechanical contrivance, and might reasonably be 
referred thereto. But on these points all is merely 
speculative, and must be treated in a similar spirit. 
In the French argot, the equivalent for jemmy is 
monseigneur ; but from a few notes contributed by 
a writer to the Daily Chronicle, 30 May, I read 
that the French cambricleur as often calls it 
" Frere Jacques," i. e., James or Jemmy. It is 
peculiar that in this, as with many similar in- 
stance?, both the French and our own people 
should use the same form of expression to convey 
a similar idea; a fact upon which the writer 
in the Daily Chronicle comments. It might be 
interesting to learn the equivalents in other lan- 
guages. 0. P. HALE. 

An earlier form of this word seems to have been 
jenny, given in Grose's * Classical Dictionary of the 
Vulgar Tongue,' ed. 1796, and defined as "an 
instrument for lifting up the grate or top of a show- 

glass, in order to rob it. Cant." This form of the 
ord looks very much as if it were only a different 
spelling of ginny, which might be derived from 
gin, one definition of which as given by Bailey is 
( an engine for lifting up great guns." 

The Rev. A. S. Palmer, in Folk- Etymology/ 
remarks, sub "Jemmies," that the slang term 
emmy for a crowbar no doubt arose from the use 
of gimmer as a contrivance or piece of machinery. 
Ee quotes : 

I think by some odd gimmors or device 

Their arms are set like clocks, still to strike on. 

Shakespeare, 1 Hen. VI.,' I, ii. 42-3. 

In J. P. Collier's notes to * Pierce Penniless's 
Supplication to the Devil/ ed. 1842, at pp. 98-9, 
it is stated that " it would not be at all unpre- 
cedented if the word jemmy, an instrument now used 
by housebreakers, had as ancient an origin as 
jymiams" which occurs in the text (p. 30), " a thou- 
sand jymiams and toyes haue they in theyr cham- 

ix. 429). The earliest mention of "Fiel pero 
desdichado," meaning "Faithful though unfortu- 
nate," the motto of John Churchill, Duke of 
Marlborough, is given in the 'British Com- 
pendium' for 1726. The edition of 1719 gives 
the arms but no motto. Being short of material, 
I am unable to determine the date when it was 
first used ; but if it was in 1711 or after that year, 
may it not refer to his dismissal from all his offices 
by Queen Anne ; thereby intimating that he was 
still faithful to his sovereign, though so unfortunate 
in losing her confidence. JOHN KADCLIFFE. 

By Berry's 'Dictionary of Heraldry' "Fiel, 
pero desdichado/' is the motto of the Earl of 

71, Brecknock Road, 

The dull but laborious Coxe tells us (' Memoirs/ 
vol. i. p. xlvi): 

" He [Sir Winston Churchill, father of the first duke] 
assumed a motto indicative of hia services and his suffer- 
ings in the royal cause, ' Fiel pero desdichado/ faithful 
but unfortunate." 

This he did when the grant of arms was made to 
him in 1661. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

BOAK (8 th S. ix. 486). MONK may dismiss the 
Galloway place - name Beoch from his list of 
analogues to the surname Boak. Beoch is a dis- 
syllable, with the stress on the first vowel, and 
represents the Gaelic beitheach (bayoch), a birch 
wood. Cf. Beith, in Ayrshire ; Beagh, Behagb, 
and Behy, in Ireland. Slieve Beagh is written 
" Sliabh beatha" by Muircheartach. 


Betham's c Baronetage/ vol. v. p. 445, mentions 
that a Mr. Boik, a foreign merchant in Edinburgh 

8> S. X. JOLT 18, '96.] 



circa 1670, married a daughter of James and 
Marion Inglis, of the same place. His son 
William (designed by Niebet, of Edinburgh) had 
two daughters. Burke and Robson, 1830, give 
the arms, Or, a pale gu., in chief two frets, and 
in base another counter changed. The crest is 
the same as given in the query. According to 
Foster's * Alumni Oxonienses' a William Boak 
resided at Yanworth, Westmoreland, circa 1700. 

This appears to be a contraction of "by the 
oaks " (Lower's ' Surnames, 1 vol. i. p. 62). In 
Edinburgh, in 1825, a brochure was published em 
bodying the names of residents in that city. A 
foot-note to " Boak " explains it as belching (Ibid., 
vol. ii. p. 62). This is not inapplicable to a 
beacon, the crest of the family, as " belching forth 
fire and smoke." ATEAHR. 

I knew a family in humble circumstances 
named Boakes, who reached London from Kent 
about the year 1820. I paired* them off with 
Yokes, Folks, Faux, and Vaux, taking the last 
aristocratic name in the humble form, suggested 
by Punch, of one who had a " brougham and 
walks 1 '! A. H. 

Thirty years ago there was a photographer of 
this name at Driffield, in East Yorkshire. At 
the same date there was a druggist named Balk 
in the town of Hull W. C. B. 

There are Boaks and Boags in Edinburgh ; see 
directory of that town. SWAN. 

FERRIS (8 th S. viii. 508). Ts not this name 
identical with Piers, Pierce, Pears, Pearse, &c. ? 
Bardsley, in his 'English Surnames/ gives 
" Pierres de Belegrave " as occurring in ' Writs 
of Parliament.' Dr. Charnock, in ' Prsenomina,' 
remarks that Peres and Perrez were Anglo- 
Norman forms of Peter. 


(8* h S. ix. 446, 513). Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' 
give the names of the children of Christian IV. of 
Denmark by Christina Munk 1 The 'Nouvelle 
Biographie G6n6rale' says: " Les filles, parmi 
leaquelles se distinguait par les quality's de 1'esprit 
et du creur EMonore Christine, Spouse du fameux 
majordome Corfits Ulfeldt, furent marines a des 
nobles du pays, et le roi se procura quelque in- 
fluence dans le se"nat en y faisant entrer ses 
gendres." In the same publication, under " Frede- 
rick III. of Denmark," we find : " Ce ne fut que 
deux mois apres la mort de son pere que Fre'de'ric 
fut e"lu roi par les e"tats ge"ne>aux. Ulfeldt et 
trois autres secateurs qui formaient le conseil de 
r^gence avaient, dit-on, favoriee" un fils naturel de 
Charles IV." Was this a son of Christina Munk ? 


* THE ROVER'S BRIDE ' (8 th S. ix. 507). There 
was a song with this title very popular in the early 
"fifties." It seems to have been designed to 
illustrate the saying about going out for wool and 
coming home shorn, or that other saw on the folly 
of reckoning your chickens before they are hatched, 
or, still more forcibly, the legend Shakespeare 
makes Henry V. refer to in rebuking the bragga- 
docio spirit of the French herald on the morning 
of Agincourt : 

The man that once did sell the lion's skin 
While the beast lived was killed with hunting him. 

I am happy to be able to furnish IGNORANT with a 
version of the ballad he inquires for, but, as it is 
only transcribed from an old man's memory, I 
cannot guarantee its textual accuracy : 
If you love me, furl your sails 

And draw your boat on shore, 
Oh ! tell me talea of midnight gales, 

And tempt the seas no more, 
" Oh ! stay," Kate whispered, " stay with me," 

" Pear not," the Rover cried, 
" Yon barque you see my prize shall be, 
I Ml seize it for my bride i " 

The barque set sail, a fair wind blew, 

The schooner followed fast ; 
Poor Kate well knew the rover's crew 

Would struggle to the last. 
And ceaselessly 'till morning's light 

She prayed on bended knees, 
For all that night the sounds of fight 

Were borne upon the breeze. 

Morning came ; it brought despair. 

The rover'a boat had gone ; 
Kate tore her hair ; the barque was there, 

Triumphant, and alone ! 
She looked no more, but sought the shore, 

A corse lay by her side ; 
She sought to warm the lifeless form, 

Then kissed his lips and died ! 


The invitation in Hickenstern's song, " Oh, who 
will o'er the downs?" is "to win a blooming 
bride " the epithet happily nob being used in the 
sense to which our ears nowadays are too often 
perforce accustomed. VINCENT 8. LEAN. 

Windham Club. 

There is an old melodrama with this title, by 
George Almar, derived from the same source as 
Buckstone's ' Wreck Ashore.' WM. DOUGLAS. 

1, Biixton Road. 

THAMES OR Isis (8 th S. ix. 368, 455). The 
revival of this query has the result of showing that 
the interval of twelve years since it was last dis- 
cussed in ' N. & Q.' has produced no fresh argument. 

[t appears, indeed, that all there is to say on the 
subject has been said. In the interval, however, 

he Rev. Andrew Clark (quoted by MR. RANDALL 
at second reference) by his pungent remarks and 
the additional documentary evidence he brings 
toward, ranging from 1244 to 1553, as to the use 



of the name Thames for the upper river, has cer- 
tainly helped the conclusion that the name Isis 
" belongs to an age fertile in pseudo-classical fic- 
tions (ed. 1889 of Anthony Wood's * Survey of the 
Antiquities of Oxford,' vol. i. p. 397). It seems, 
moreover, if it cannot definitely be said Leland 
was the inventor of Isis, that the name was 
first applied in his time. Certainly, as CANON 
TAYLOR points out, the monk Ralph Higden 
wrote c. 1340 of the Ysa ; but this he did as 
referring to, or rather as conjecturing, a name of 
the past. For the chronicler says plainly that 
at the time he was writing i. e., the reign of Ed- 
ward ILL the whole river, from its source to the 
sea, was called Thames : " Totus flavins a sno 
ezortu usque ad mare orientate dicitur Thamisia." 
In preceding words he modestly suggests (" vide- 
tur") that Thamisia may be composed of the 
names of two rivers, Thama and Ysa, but in view 
of what he immediately afterwards says of the then 
name of the whole river, it must be understood 
that he used Ysa as an obsolete name, if, indeed, 
he thought it had ever been vernacular. Higden's 
hypothesis appears to have become solid fact by 
the time it had reached Stowe and Camden, and 
by them it was given to the world as the first and 
only example of a confluence of rivers represented 
by a confluence of names. 

So far back as A. D. 705 the name of the river at 
Somerford, five miles from the source, is given in 
Aldhelm's charter (Latin) as Temis (Gibson's 
ed. 1772 of Camden's ' Britannia,' p. 194), and 
this appears to be the earliest evidence available. 
Possibly in prehistoric time Ese or Ysa, meaning 
water, was sufficient expression for the aborigines 
of Britain, though very soon, if not from the first, 
these simple folk seem to have qualified the word 
" water " with the adjective tern = broad. Ese may 
have been the " ghost name "to use CANON TAY- 
LOR'S word in ' Names and their Histories 'and 
Tem-Ese its development. We may be well satis- 
fied that the "ghost name" has undergone so 
little change, and that we have in Thames a 
good English word of so long descent that it can 
be traced to the age of prehistoric mist. On the 
other hand, a most un-English name was coined by 
making Latin of the ghost name ; but it is little in 
favour now even at Oxford, and, as Bishop Gibson 
said a century and a half ago : 

" The name Isia is not so much as heard of but among 
scholars [and apparently not now countenanced by them, 
judging from what Mr. Clark baa eaid], the common 
people all along, from the head of it to Oxford, calling it 
by no other name but that of Thames." 

So let it be ; and let the land of the Nile have 
the full monopoly of Isis. W. L. RUTTON. 
27, Elgin Avenue, W. 

509). According to his biographer, Fulcher, the 
maiden name of the artist's mother "was "Bur- 

roughs," the sister of the Rev. Humphry Bur- 
roughs, the master of the grammar school, whose 
wife was a daughter of the celebrated Dr. Busby. 

R. R. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Fulcher, in his 'Life of Gainsborough,' states 
that the maiden name of the painter's mother was 
Burroughs. J. L. R. 

S. ix. 125, 435,455). The Rev. J. Edward Vaux, 
in his recent book, ' Church Folk-lore,' a work 
which refers frequently to ' N. & Q.,' and which will 
well repay perusal, states, at p. 336 : 

" Mr. H. P. Spencer writing from Oxford, says that, 
in a rural parish, he remembers a young man who was 
called Rose, his surname being Cherry. The writer adds : 
'Hyacinth is sometimes, and Florence often given in 
England to girls, but in Ireland to boys." 

At p. 333 of ' Church Folk-lore 1 we read that the 
Gentleman's Magazine of January, 1742, contained, 
amongst other announcements, the following : Lady 
of the deceased Alexander Nairn, of a posthumous 
son ; had three daughters, in 1740, christened 
James Agnes, Charles Amelia, Henry Margaret, 
all (in 1742) in good health. H. E. M. 

St. Petersburg. 

Quite recently I had a servant in my employ- 
ment who was named Florence. She was of Irish 
extraction, I believe, and was called by this name 
after her uncle. 



This was a name in the Kane family. Florence 
Kane was appointed lieutenant in the regiment 
now known as the Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1 Aug., 

32, West Cromwell Road, 8.W. 


328, 433). The annexed announcement appears 
(p. 490) in the London Chronicle, 24 May, 1764 : 

" This morning the remains of Dr. Richard Osbaldss- 
ton, late Bishop of London, after lying in state, were 
carried from his palace at Fulham, in order to be interred 
at Hunmanby, near Scarborough, in Yorkshire, of which 
parish his Lordship was Vicar many years." 


x. 7), The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, was burnl 
down in January, 1672, and, according to a corre- 
spondent of the Gentleman's Magazine (May, 1802, 
p. 422), its rebuilding was assisted by a brief, under 
which the sum of two shillings was collected in the 
Church of Symondsbury, Dorsetshire (Wheatley's 
' London Past and Present,' i. 525). 


CHANGES IN COUNTRY LIFE (8 th S. viii. 485 ; 
ir. 171, 453). I can testify to the accuracy of 

8th S . X. JOLT 18, '96'.] 



C. 0. B.'s note at the second reference. Th 
small farmers and labourers of the north of Lin 
colnshire are a frugal, industrious, and manly 
race, and I always visit that part of the count; 
with a deal of pleasure. Notwithstanding bat 
times, they manage to get along pretty comfort 
ably. In some villages there are no poor what 
ever. They are sober as well as hardy and in 
dustrious. At a recent clerical meeting at the 
bishop's one of the clergy said to a friend of mine 
41 What do you do about temperance societies in 
your parishes 1" "Do ; why I do nothing.' 
"In-d-e-e-e-d t Why, how is that?" "It is 
because there is no drunkenness. I have 800 
parishioners, and it is very rare indeed to see a 
man in the least affected with drink." 

As to milkmaids, my experience is that very 
few servant girls will milk. The women who milk 
are generally the daughters or wives of smal 
farmers. I constantly pass a " milkmaid " in my 
afternoon's walk on the river bank not half a 
mile from my house. She is a married woman, a 
little over thirty, of pleasant appearance and 
agreeable manners. She milks half a dozen cows 
and carries the milk up to town with a " pair o 
yoks." Directly I have finished this note, I shall 
be ready for the walk, and I have no doubt I shall 
see her as usual. 

In one respect, not noticed by any correspondent, 
our peasantry have altered much the last fifty 
years. When I was a boy one of the great cha- 
racteristics of the u Stattases " and May markets 
was the great number of bloody battles fought. 
Many of them were very bloody, for the combatants 
were strong men with muscles, by constant labour, 
hardened almost like iron. They fought, naked 
above the waist, as fiercely as tigers, till their 
chests were covered with blood. Sometimes it 
was some old quarrel they had agreed "to have 
out " at the " Stattas." Sometimes it was all for 
love and just to see which was "best man." 
These fights have almost ceased, and it is very 
rare to see a battle now. The sound of the 
blows on each other's ribs was terrific, and could 
be heard at a considerable distance. The men 
often had to be carried from the field and their 
wounds attended to. Grass fields, just outside of 
the towns, were generally selected for these 
Homeric contests. R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire 

WEDDING CEREMONY (8 th S. ix. 406, 475). 
Putting the stole round the joined hands has 
been the use at Newland, near Malvern, from the 
time of the late Rev. James Skinner (1861-77), 
who was in the first rank of patristic and liturgical 
scholars. W. 0. B. 

"FiNDY" (8 th S. ix. 465). This word is duly 
recorded in Stratmann, g.v. "Fundi," with a 
cross-reference from the form findiy. It is sad to 

find that such an obvious source of information 
has been overlooked. Again, it is in Miitzner, 
s.v., "Findiy." Thirdly, it is in Mayhew and 
Skeat's ' Concise M.E. Dictionary.' It occurs in 
the * Ormulum ' and in the * Old Eng. Homilies,' 
edited by Morris. It is given in Bos worth and 
Toller's 'A.-S. Diet./ s.v. " Findig." And it is 
obviously derived from the verb to find. 

Find has numerous senses ; one is to invent. 
Hence Swed. fyndig, inventive. Find also means 
to provide for, and a findy barn clearly means one 
that provides plentifully ; we may explain it by 
" plentiful." So far all seems easy, but difficulties 
begin when the A.-S. findig is looked up. 

Lye has an article on it, which he seems to have 
made up from Jnnius ; he notes the sense " in- 
ventor, raptor/' which he probably got at by a 
twist in the sense of the Swed. fyndig. Then be 
gives "soliditate, pondere prsestans," with the 
example "findig corn, ponderosum frnmentum ; 
fast [error for fast] and findig, firamm et solidum"; 
and then refers to Junius. But he gives no reference 
or authority. 

The only example traceable in Anglo-Saxon is 
this, " capax, numol oththe gefindig." Toller ex- 
plains it, fairly enough, as " finding, receiving, 
capable." There is no pretence for translating it 
as weighty, beyond the fact that a full ear of corn 
is necessarily a heavy one. It does not occur in 
the glosses ; there is nofindig, no fyndig, and no 
gefyndig ; for though the dictionaries give all 
these, they all go back to the one sole quotation 
given above. 

But the sense presents no special difficulty; 
and the etymology is obvious. 


PLAY ON WORDS (8" S. ix. 445). If MR. 
BLACK will consult the admirable General Index 
:o the publications of the Parker Society he will 
find that the joke and it is marvellous how poor 
and sometimes how dirty were the jokes then in 
vogue among theological controversialists is 
eleven years older than "An Order," &c. For 
B'ulke in 1583 wrote of " your Jebusites that must 
be called ( fathers/ though they be but young and 
ight persons " in his 'Defence,' &c., p. 568. 



HADDOW (8 lb S. x. 9). The last syllable of 
ocal names ending in -ow, especially in Lincoln- 
,hire, are usually from A.S. hldw, O.N. haugr, a 
?rave mound or tumulus, as Langoe, formerly 
janghow ; Graffoe, formerly Graf how ; Aslacoe, 
ormerly Aslachow ; Haverstoe, formerly Havards- 
how, where the first part of the name may be 
rom a personal name. Unless an earlier form is 
;iven nothing definite can be said about Haddow, 
ixcept that Hadda would be possible as a per- 
onal name. ISAAC TAYLOR. 



[8 th S. X. JULY 18, '96. 

321, 469). As an evidence of the antiquity of 
this chapel, I may add that the celebrated charter 
of Gilbert, Bishop of London, regarding the dis- 
puted jurisdiction of the Abbey of Westminster 
over the nunnery of Kilburn* (MS. Cotton Vesp., 
A. 19, fol. 406), is " acta in capella apud Fulham 
anno gratire KCCXXXI." (Dugdale's ' Monast. 
Anglic.,' ed. 1682, i. 362). 


(8 tb S. ix. 366, 416, 493). I recollect seeing this 
picture the original painting about thirty- 
three years ago in a house not very far from 
Henley - on - Thames. I do not like to be cer- 
tain as to the name of the owner, but, if my 
memory does not fail me, it was Mr. Mackenzie, 
and the house Fawley Court. S. C. 

(8 to S. ir. 468; x. 18). The World Almanac,' 
1896, pp. 271-290, published by the World news- 
paper at the city of New York, gives a list of all 
universities and colleges in the United States of 
America and all data concerning them the most 
complete account, with all details, that is pub- 
lished. GISORS can obtain a copy at the World 
office or agency in London. 


New York. 

The New York Tribune publishes a political 
almanac which contains a list of all institutions 
with charters empowering them to grant degrees. 

TANNACHIE (8 th S. x. 7). Many local names 
in Scotland and still more in Ireland are derived 
from the Gaelic tamhnach, a meadow or a green 
field. In Scotland we have such names as Tan- 
nach, Tannoch, or Tannock. In Ulster and Con- 
naught it is very common in modern names, 
usually appearing as Tawnagb, Tawny, Tonagh, 
Tamnagh, and Tamny. Thus Tavanaska, in 
Monaghan, is the field of the bushes, but in com- 
position it often takes the form Tawnagh or 
Tonagh, as Tawnaghlahan, the broad field, or 
Tonaghmore, the great field. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

THE FLYING DUTCHMAN (8 th S. ix. 448). 
This legend, of which there are many variants, is 
said by Mr. Con way to be a survival of the old 
Norse belief in the demon Nikke, a kind of 
" Wild Huntsman of the Sea." The account of it 
given by Scott in the note to ' Rokeby ' does not 
agree with the version of the legend of Yander- 
decken upon which Marryat founded his novel 
'The Phantom Ship. 1 According to this, the 
Dutch seaman, having for nine weeks striven in 

"Contentio cellae de Kylebourne terminata inter 
capitulum sancti Pauli et ecclesiam Westmonasterii." 

vain to double the Cape of Storms in the teeth of 
opposing winds and adverse currents, swore blas- 
phemously that he would gain his point, in spite 
of storm and seas, even if he should beat about 
until the Judgment Day, and struck dead the 
pilot who withstood him. For this double crime 
he was doomed to roam the seas until that day 
should come, unless a fragment of the Cross upon 
which he had sworn were borne to him, and he 
thereupon recanted his oath. This is also, I 
believe, the version of the legend upon which 
Wagner founded his opera * Der Fliegende Hol- 
lander.' The story is also localized in the German 
Ocean, where the rover's name is Von Falkenberg. 
In this variant the doomed mariner sits on his 
ship, without helm or steersman, playing at dice 
with the devil for his soul (see art. "Flying 
Dutchman" in ' Chambers's Encyclopaedia'), an 
incident of which Coleridge made such splendid 
use. 0. 0. B. 

I am surprised that my friend MR. BOUCHIER 
has not read 'The Phantom Ship,' by Capt. 
Marryat, in my opinion one of the best stories 
he ever wrote, but of a melancholy kind. The 
opening scene is laid in Holland, at the small 
fortified town of Terneuse, and the date of the story 
is about 1650. Amine, the beautiful wife of the 
hero, Philip Vanderdecken, is burnt by the Inquisi- 
tion at Goa, on a charge of sorcery. The ' Phantom 
Ship 7 originally appeared in the New Monthly 
Magazine of 1839, and was afterwards republished 
in three volumes, and again in one-volume form 
in Bentley's " Standard Novels." 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

See also 'The Sketch-Book,' by Washington 

OFFICES (8 th S. ix. 469 ; x. 17). Was not the 
question rather bow much of the offices derived 
from ancient sources is still used by Romans and 
Anglicans alike ? Putting aside the devotions of 
the religious houses, it may be safely asserted that 
the Anglican offices at the present day contain 
more ancient matter than do the congregational 
services of Christians under Cardinal Vaughan's 
obedience. The Psalms, for instance. By the 
way, two correspondents write of Beaumont as 
co-author with Campion. His name should 


For Beaumont read Beamont. Dr. Campic 
was Fellow and tutor of Queens' College, 
bridge, and Mr. Beamont Senior Fellow 
Trinity. J. T. F. 

TOM PAINE AND STAYS (8 th S. ir. 508). It 
was natural enough that the coarse fanatics wl 
hated, reviled, and caricatured Paine shoi 

8" S. X. JOLT 18, 'S6.] 



attach utays to his effigy, for his Quaker father at 
Thetford was a staymaker, and Paine himself 
worked as a journeyman staymaker in Long Acre 
and at Dover, 1756-8, and as a master' stay maker 
at Sandwich, 1759-60. 

Leeds was not by any means alone in burning 
Paine's effigy, for the Bury Post, of Bury St. 
Edmunds, recorded on 9 January, 1793, that " On 
Saturday last the effigy of T. Paine was carried 
round S waif bam, hung on a gibbet, and committed 
to the flames." 

May I strongly recommend ST. SWITHIN to 
read Mr. Moncure D. Con way's ' Life of Paine,' 
the first edition of which appeared in 1892, in 
two volumes ? JAMES HOOPER. 


The pair of stays held by the effigy of Tom 
Paine had nothing to do with the " rights of 
women " ; it was simply an allusion to the fact 
that he was the son of a staymaker, and in early 
life brought up to his father's trade. F. N. 
[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

DOG STORIES (8 th S. ir. 484). As I read the 
Spectator every week, I have, of course, seen the 
dog stories in its columns, and do not presume to 
doubt their authenticity ; but am I not correct in 
saying that many years ago Mr. Jesse published 
a number of canine anecdotes, to which Capt. 
Marryat and Theodore Hook were large con- 
tributors from their own invention ? 


Stories of remarkable intelligence in dogs are 
endless. A lady told me that whenever she 
played a particular tune on the piano her dog 
showed every sign of delight, which he did not 
when other tunes were played. 


SPANISH ARMADA (8** S. ix. 367). In John 
Pine's ' Tapestry Hangings of the House of Lords, 
representing the Several Engagements between 
the English and Spanish Fleets in the ever 
memorable year MDLXXXVIII.' (24 June, 1739), 
the name of Signior Jeronimo does not occur, but 
a portrait of Sir Edward Hoby (written Sr. 
Edward Hobye) is given on the borders of the 
superb plates ii., iv., vi., viii., and x., together 
with the portrait busts of twenty- one other of 
his brave contemporaries in the great sea fight. 
The five alternate plates give eight other portraits 
on their respective borders, so that thirty 
British heroes are illustrated altogether. His 
name does not occur, however, in the list 
of captains of the fleet, of which no fewer 
than 160 are mentioned. In * A Complete List 
of the Spanish Fleet,' taken from the Spanish 
book printed in 1588, the name of Signior 
Jeronimo is not amongst those of the commanders 
of the eleven squadrons, each of which consisted 

of from twenty-four to four ships respectively. 
The author gives ' Histoire Metallique des Pays 
Bas,' by G. van Loon, as his authority for Sir 
Edward Hobye's portrait. 

The following curious item of detail relative to 
the Spanish Armada in Pine's somewhat rare 
book may be worth quoting : 

" And because none [the Spaniards] were allowed to 
have Wives or Concubines on board, some Women had 
hired ships to follow tbe Fleet : two or three of which 
ships were driven by the storm on the Coast of France." 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

The Builder of 9 May, in a short article on the 
forthcoming sale of the Abbey Gate estate at 
Minster, says, "Scott drew the supposed effigy 
of Cerinemo, the Spanish general captured by 
Drake, who died at the Nore, and was buried 
here in 1591." This seems to refer to the Signor 
Jeronimo about whom DR. CAVE-BROWNE asks. 

DESCENDANTS OF BURNS (8 th S. ix. 226, 392.) 
Two of Burns's granddaughters and one great- 
granddaughter are, to my certain knowledge, 
residing in Cheltenham. P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

NICHOLAS STONE, MASON (8 th S. ix. 506). 
MR. HEBB'S note is very interesting, but the only 
Duke of Monmouth known to history was James 
Crofts, afterwards James Scott, who was created 
a duke in 1663, and lost his head in 1685. He 
could not, therefore, have been a party to pro- 
ceedings for the recovery of property in the year 
1650. The last Earl of Monmouth of the Carey 
family died in 1661, and it was probably he to 
whom the note refers. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

MAID MARIAN'S TOMB (8 th S. ix. 188, 334 ; x. 
18). The story of the lady buried at Dunmow 
Priory, the object of the dissolute King John's 
dishonourable pursuit Matilda, or Maud of the 
Tower, as she is known by tradition is admirably 
told by an accomplished lady novelist, Miss Eliza- 
beth Aldridge (who some ten years ago charmed 
the English reading world with two delightful his- 
torical romances, ' The Queen's House ' and * The 
Tower Gardens') in the January (or is it February?) 
number of the Argosy of this year. The writer was, 
I believe, born in the Tower of London, and cer- 
tainly has a more than ordinary knowledge of the 
subject she writes about. One little slip in her 
account, however, she will, I hope, if she does me 
the honour to peruse this note, forgive me (pro- 
bably she will feel grateful to me) for pointing out. 
Maud's prison was, according to the legend, in the 
topmost story of the north-east, not the south- 
east, turret of the White or Square Tower, the 
turret whence, centuries afterwards, Flamsteed, 
the astronomer, made his observations in the 
reign of Charles II. The south-east turret is 


X. JULY 18, '96. 

square, erected on the roof of the mala building 
over the chapel dedicated to St. John the 
Evangelist. Miss Aldridge locates her heroine in 
this, the south-east turret, but she obviously means 
the north-east turret, which is an excrescence on 
the main building, and is round, containing, up to 
the third story, a circular or newel staircase, giving 
access to the several floors. Bayley has no allusion 
to the Fitz water legend, and only refers casually, 
and very incidentally and generally, to Flamsteed's 
subsequent occupation of the chamber ; indeed, I 
do not remember that he mentions the astronomer's 
location at all. Miss Aldridge's narrative is very 
circumstantial, but she in no way connects Maud 
or Matilda with Maid Marian, an association which 
I opine to be fanciful. In many respects, indeed, 
the lady's account differs from that given on p. 18. 


The account at the last reference is very in- 
teresting to me, as I often see at Dogmersfield 
Park, the seat of Sir Henry St. John Mildmay, a 
portrait on panel of Matilda, which has an inscrip- 
tion in one corner of the panel to the effect that 
she was murdered at Dunmow Priory by order of 
King John. I should be very glad, therefore, if a 
discrepancy apparent in the account could be 
cleared up. In one part Matilda's father is said 
to be the leader of the barons who extorted Magna 
Charta from King John, and later on Prince John 
is stated to have slain her father before he became 
king. H. A. ST. J. M. 

"POPULIST" (8 tb S. ir. 507). The Populists 
are an organized political party with collectivist 
(not Socialistic) aims. Their numbers are not 
great, but they are increasing. They eschew con- 
nexion with either Democrats or Republicans, and 
maintain that no juggling with the currency wili 
settle the acute social question. I cannot refer for 
information. KICH. HUNTER. 

FOOLSCAP (8 th S. ix. 327, 373, 431). Dr 
Brewer, in his ' Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 
last edition, states that the water-mark of foolscap 
paper was, from the thirteenth to the seventeenth 
century, a fool's head, with cap and bells. I do 
not know what authority he has for the statement 
He gives the usual absurd derivation for the ex 
pression, Ital. foglio-capo (folio-sized sheet). 


The foolscap water-mark appears in the edition 
of Rushworth's ' Historical Collections ' printed in 
1659. C. M. 

Warrington Museum. 

DRURT LANE THEATRE (8 th S. ix. 427). 
In Hotten's * Slang Dictionary' the persons i- 
the upper gallery of a theatre are said to be " u, 
amongst the gods," so named from the high posi 

ion of that part, and the blue sky generally 

minted on the ceiling of the theatre, termed by 

he French " paradis." 
In the epilogue to David Garrick's dramatic 

omance of 'Cymon/ 1767, are the following 

nes : 

If this fair circle smile, and the gods thunder, 
I with this wand will keep the critics under. 

'his may be an early use of the expression. 
Another will be found in J. and H. Smith, 
Rejected Addresses, 1 1812 : 

Each one shilling god within reach of a nod is, 
And plain are the charms of each gallery goddess. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

Your correspondent may be interested to know 
,hat the expression " the gods " occurs in the 
Spilogue, by George Keate, which follows 
D. Garrick's play of Cymon,' first acted in 1767 : 
Jf this fair circle smile, and the gods thunder, 
I with this wand will keep the critics under. 

Of. ' N. & Q.,' 7 th S. x. 349. 


SOMERSET (8 th S. viii. 467 ; ix. 19, 151, 351,471). 
The following extract from Echard may interest 

After the execution of these inferior criminals the 
primary murtherers, the Earl of Somerset and his 
Countess, were solemnly arraigned before their Peers. 

But the Earl and herself being both condemned to 

die, found the King's mercy, notwithstanding his former 
imprecation, and after eome time of imprisonment in 
the Tower were set at liberty and lived in private and 

obscure condition They lived long after in the same 

house as strangers to each other. Her death happened 
first, having all reasonable marks of the vengeance of 

Heaven The Earl's death was obscure, without fame 

and without posterity." 


G walior, Central India. 

ANGELICA CATALANI (8 th S. ii. 485 ; iii. 113, 
211, 272). At the first reference, MR. F. ADAMS 
wrote that " in speaking of this celebrated canta- 
trice, my mother used to tell me that there was a 
popular rhyme about her : 

Madame Catnlani opens wide her throat, 

But to hear her singing I wouldn't give a groat," 

and he proceeded to say that he did not know if 
there was any record of this ; and that whatever 
explanation his mother gave of it he had forgotten. 
This note led to a short discussion, partly with 
reference to the throat of the songstress, and partly 
with reference to the place of her death ; but no 
explanation was given of the origin of the rhyme. 
On turning over some old volumes of ' N. & Q.,' 
with the intent to find a paper by the REV. J. 
PICKFORD on 'Towton Field' (4 th S. vi. 1), my 
eye lighted on some verses, on p. 3 of the same 
volume, which were written in the late Mr. Vincent 

8th 8. X. JOLT 18, '96.] 



called " God's hand." It would be interesting to 
know if these folk-names survive anywhere in 
spoken language. The statement given above is 
quoted from Lady Smith's ' Memoir ' of her huff- 
band (1832), vol. ii. p. 507. JAMES HOOPER. 

ROUGH LEE HALL (8 th S. x. 4). Your corre- 

Novello's album by Charles and Mary Lamb. 
Miss Lamb's effusion begins : 

The reason why my brother 's BO severe, 
Vincentio. is my brother has no ear; 
And Caradori her mellifluoui throat 
Might stretch in vain to make him learn a note. 
The last couplet which relates not to Catalani, but 
to Caradori is so remarkably like the lines which 

MR ADAMS learnt from his mother, that I cannot spondent J. B. S. remarks that he very much 
help thinking the latter originated from it. questions whether Malkin Tower ever existed 

TT n T 'otherwise than in Ains worth's brain? In G. 

Soane's 'Curiosities of Literature/ 1847, it ii 
stated, vol. i. p. 209, that 

'on Pendle Hill, Clithero, stands Malkin Tower, that 
in 1633 was much celebrated as being the resort of 
witches ; and at one time seventeen poor wretches were 
condemned for having held meetings there with the 
devil, though upon subsequent scrutiny the verdict was 


241 , 356). The idea that a corpse could be arrested 
for debt forms the basis of the curious * Tale of the 
Lady Prioress and her three Suitors,' in Lydgate's 
Minor Poems,' edited by Halliwell, p. 107. 
There is a great deal about the folk-lore aspect of 
the subject in " Ghost-thanks, or the Grateful 
Unburied, a Mythic Tale in its oldest European 
form, Sir Amadace, a Middle - North - English 
metrical romance of the thirteenth century. Re- 
printed from two texts with an. introduction by 
George Stephens " (Cheapinghaven, 1860). Prof. 
Stephens suggests that the root of the story is the 
narrative in the ' Book of Tobit,' and he gives 
references to variants from Scandinavia, Germany, 
France, Italy, Russia, Bohemia, and Wallachia. 

Moss Side, Manchester. 

The following passage, referring to the death of 
the great Sir Francis Walsingham, occurs in the 
Annual Register': 

" After all the services which he performed for his 
Queen and country, he gave a remarkable proof at his 
death how far he had preferred the public interest to his 

be arrested for debt." 

CHAS. JAS. ntm 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

set aside and they bad the good fortune to escape the 
hangman's clutches." 

Cf. also ' The Lancashire Witches of 1612,' pp. 
185 ettqq., in ' Lancashire Folk-Lore,' by Messrs. 
Harland and Wilkinson, 1882, and pp. 204, 205. 

Malkin Tower was certainly not an invention of 
Ainsworth's it is referred to many times as 
Malkyn, Mawking, or Malkin Tower by the wit- 
nesses in the famous trial of the Lancashire witches. 
The editor of ' Pott's Discoverie of Witches in the 
County of Lancaster' (Chetham Society, First 
Series, vol. vi.) states that this was the name given 
to the habitation of Mother Demdike. 


STRAPS (8" 1 S. ix. 468 ; x. 11). A similar 
tradition long clung to Le Souer'a bronze equestrian 
statue of King Charles I. at Charing Cross. It 

sculptor in designing the horse omitted the 
girth, or bellyband, and that the accessory was 
only supplied when the work was discovered, and 
replaced in titu, at the Restoration. This legend 
also ran that the artist, on the omission being 
pointed out, destroyed himself. No doubt it was 

x. 27). In my note I said, "Would that the 

great poet could have flashed the light of his I originally intended' to provide the strap in the 
genius on the Andes ! So far as I am aware he manner suggested, which I am inclined to think 
has not done so." When I wrote this I forgot 
the short poem entitled ' Les Raisons du Momo- 
tombo' in 'La Legende des Sieves.' Momotombo 
appears to be in Nicaragua a volcano, whether 
now active or extinct I do not know. It may 

was a very common practice with sculptors, more 
especially when the work came to be cast in metal. 


therefore, be considered to belong, though not 
strictly, to the great Andes chain. 


387, 449). Sir J. E. Smith, the eminent botanist, 
in a supplement to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
describing the tubers of the palmate orchid?, stated 
that they were in pairs, and that the exhausted 

Upwards of fifty years ago my father was de- 
scribing to me the equestrian statue of William III. 
which adorns the market-place at Hull a work of 
art which I had not then seen. A very ignorant 
man was present on the occasion, who kept a school 
at one of the Trent-side villages in the Isle of 
Axholme. This person took my father to task for 
the want of historical knowledge which he con- 
ceived that he showed. 

. He said, truly enough, 

tuber was known as " the Devil's hand," whereas I that the figure had no stirrups ; therefore he was 
the other, destined to blossom next season, was sure it represented William the Conqueror, for 

NOTES AND QUERIES. cs* s. x. JOLT is, ' 

stirrups were not known, so he averred, in the days 
of the great Norman, while when William III. 
was king they were as commonly used as at the 
time when he was speaking. E. PEACOCK. 

(8 th S. T. 24). The use of steam carriages upon 
ordinary roads during the last reign was of common 
occurrence, and only discontinued on account of 
legislative impediments. MR. TINKLER will find 
a succinct account of many of these vehicles (in- 
cluding those of Hancock, Gurney, Scott Russell, 
&c.) in the Journal of the Society of Arts for 
August, 1894. R. B. 

In the 'Annual Register,' vol. Ixxii. (1830) 
p. 84, I find a notice of a steam carriage which 
appeared in the neighbourhood of Portland Place, 
" and made its way through a crowded passage without 
any perceptible impulse. There was neither smoke nor 
noise ; there was no external force nor apparent direct- 
ing agent: the carriage seemed to move of its own 
volition, passing horses without giving them the least 
alarm. Five gentlemen and a lady were at their ease as 
passengers ; one gentleman directed the moving principle, 
and another appeared to sit unconcerned behind, but his 
object was ascertained to be the care of fuel and water. 
The carriage was lightly and conveniently built, not 
larger or heavier than a phaeton. It went without the 
least vibration and preserved a balance in the most 
complicated movements. The pace varied from five to 
twelve miles an hour, according to pleasure." 
And in the year 1833 (I think) a Mr. Brown 
exhibited an engine worked by gas explosions, 
in Leith Walk, Edinburgh. This was reported in 
the Edinburgh newspapers of the day. 



Albert VII., Archduke of Austria, married Isa- 
bella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain, who brought 
to him as dowry the sovereignty of the Low 
Countries, &c. When Philip IV. of Spain 
ascended the throne in 1621 he took from his 
aunt the sovereignty of the Low Countries, but 
left her the title of " Governess." Her husband 
died soon after, whereon she took the veil, though 
still retaining the reins of government. She died 
at Brussels in 1633, aged sixty-six. Here there is 
precedent for the use of the word "Governess" 
when a lady holds the post. Before the marriage 
of the Infanta to Duke Albert he bad entered the 
Church, and was Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo. 
But the Pope absolved him from his ecclesiastical 
obligations, and next year he married his cousin 
the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia. 


There is a story of a very " correct " clergyman 
who, upon the accession of her present Majesty, 
prayed for her in the Litany as " our most gracious 
Queen and Governess." W. C. B. 

S. ix. 289, 355, 497). French prisoners of war 

were confined, among other places, at Penuecuick, 
near Edinburgh, for several years. The paper mill 
belonging to the late Mr. Alexander Cowan was 
bought by Government as a temporary prison. 
Some of the prisoners died during captivity, and 
were buried in the neighbouring grounds of Valley- 
field, now in possession of Charles W. Cowan, Esq., 
of Loganhouse. After peace was declared the 
prison was given up, and reacquired by Mr. Cowan 
as a paper mill. Traces of the building having 
been used as a prison are found in the existence of 
iron bars to windows. The old building is incor- 
porated in the existing extensive paper works of 
Valleyfield. I believe a register, at least, of the 
names of prisoners is in the possession of Mr. 
C. W. Cowan. A very handsome monument to 
the French prisoners who died in prison was 
erected many years ago in the grounds of Valley- 
field by the late Mr. Alexander Cowan, at his 
private expense. SWAN. 

ALDERMAN CORNISH (8 th S. ix. 509). Henry 
Cornish, who was executed for high treason 
23 October, 1685, is supposed to have been the 
grandson of George Cornish, of London, haber- 
dasher, who registered a pedigree at the Visitation 
of 1634. H. FISHWICK. 


The lines beginning 

O Memory thou fond deceiver ! 

are in a song from the oratorio of ' The Captivity,' by 
Goldsmith, and will be found among his " Miscellaneous 
Poems." See the Globe edition, p. 687. H. B. P. 

The author of the hymn 

Since all the downward tracts of time 
ia the Rev. James Hervey, A.M., Rector of Weeton 
Favell, Northamptonshire (1713-1758). It appears in 
his ' Meditations and Contemplations,' in the section 
4 Reflections on a Flower Garden/ and is given there as 
a free rendering of Juvenal's lines (Satire x. 11. 346-9) : 
Permittee ipsis expendere numinibus, quid 
Conveniat nobis, rebusque sit utile nostris. 
Nam pro jocundis aptissima quaeque dabunt dii ; 
Carior est illis homo, quarn sibi. 

As the hymn editors have in some cases tampered with 
the text (as is their wont), it may be worth while giving 
it as it left Hervey's pen : 

Since all the downward tracts of time 

God's watchful eye surveys ; 
! who so wise to choose our lot, 
And regulate our ways ? 

Since none can doubt his equal love, 

Unmeasurably kind; 
To his unerring gracious will 

Be every wish resign'd. 

Good when he gives, supremely good ; 

Nor less when he denies; 
Ev'n crosses, from his sov'reign hand, 

Are blessings in disguise. 


[Many replies are acknowledged.] 

.X. JULY is, '96.] 




The Anatomy of Melancholy. By Robert Burton. 
Edited by the Rev. A. R. Sbilleto, M.A. 3 vols. 

IN adding to" the splendid series known as " Bonn's 
Standard Library " a scholarly, convenient, and, con- 
sidering the price, handsome edition of the immortal 
'Anatomy of Melancholy,' Messrs Bell & Sons are 
strengthening a set of books which for close on half a 
century has been a priceless boon to scholars with lean 
purses. About Burton there ia no more to be said. 
He rests on his merits ; one of those quaint, humorous, 
delightful writers who are the special favourites of 
scholars and poets, and he almost consoles us for not 
having a Montaigne. Duly, then, we announce the 
appearance of a new edition with a capitally edited 
text, some very serviceable notes, a brilliant introduction 
by Mr. A. H. Bullen, and an excellent reproduction of 
the famous Brasenose portrait. Of the series which the 
work enriches we may say a little. We know the stir that 
its appearance made. The books were the first really 
good cheap volumes, and they first aroused in many minds 
the ambition to possess books which, so far as historical 
and standard works are concerned, c/mld by men of 
limited means only be read in libraries. Next year will 
be the jubilee of the formation of the series. How are 
Messrs. Bell & Sons going to celebrate it] There appear* 
to us to be but one way. They must publish a jubilee 
edition of some work of importance not yet included in 
the series; and such are not easily found. The series 
boasts no Chaucer or Spenser, and is not indeed specially 
rich in poetry. Editions of the poets are, however, 
common enough. Perhaps the publishers might see their 
way to reproduce the Rabelais which, at the pestilent 
suggestion of meddling and puritanical busybodies, they 
suppressed. We, however, merely mention the approach- 
ing period. It is for Messrs. Bell & Sons to determine 
what form the commemoration will take. 

Johnson's Lives of the Poets. Edited by Arthur Waugh 

Vols. II., 1 1 1., and IV. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 
THE second, third, and fourth volumes have appeared ol 
the pretty, well-edited, and useful reprint of Johnson's 
' Lives,' the handiest, prettiest, and most convenient shape 
in which they have yet been issued. We have dipped 
again and again into the lives which are contained iu the 
four volumes already published, and always with rene wee 
amusement or edification. Dr. Johnson was not char] 
when he plensed in his employment of superlatives. 
that distinguished poet Smith, for instance, the poctoi 
says : " He had a quickness, apprehension, and vivacity 
of understanding which," &c. " His wit was prompt and 
flowing, yet solid and piercing, his taste delicate, hi 
head clear, and his way of expressing his thought 
perspicuous and engaging." Concerning the ' Phaedra ' o 
this same worthy the Doctor says : " She has certainly [! 
made a finer figure under Mr. Smith's conduct upon th 
English stage than either Rome or Athens ; and, if sh 
excels the Greek and Latin Phaedra, I need not say eh 
surpasses the French one, though embellished wit! 
whatever regular beauties and moving softness Kacin 
himself would give her." Bravo ! Dr. Johnson 1 Her 
be, indeed, brave words concerning an insipid adaptation 
which on the first night failed to please the public. 

Bohemia. By C. Edmund Maurice. (Fisher Unwin.) 
THIS new volume of " The Story of the Nations " pro 
fesses to give us a history of Bohemia from the earlies 
times to the fall of national independence in 1620. 1 
would be impossible in one volume of some five hundre 

ages to supply a satisfactory account of the rise and 
all of the kingdom of Bohemia. Though Bohemia now 
orms part of that great conglomerate the Habeburg 
Smpire, it has still a language and a history of its own. 
Ye doubt whether any Cech would allow tbat the 
nationality" is "lost." Mr. Maurice has had a very 
fficult task to compress the mass of material at his 
ommand into one readable volume. The wearisome 
etails of religious quarrels and intrigues are, of neces- 
ity, briefly recorded, and much that is picturesque and 
rapbic omitted. For instance, the " Defenestration " of 
lartinic and Slavata, and the description of the turbulent 
cenes on the Hradcin are barely told in a few lines, yet 
hey led to the Thirty Years' War. Bohemian history 
and literature are not very familiar to English readers. 
?he student will not in these pages obtain a vast supply 
f information; but to the general reader, who knows 
ittle of this ancient and deeply interesting country, this 
jook will be of service. 

The London Burial Grounds. By Mrs. Basil Holmes. 

(Fisher Unwin.) 

)EEPLY interested in the work done by the Metropolitan 
?ublic Gardens Association, Mrs. Holmes has pursued 
diligently, and under conditions calculated to damp 
'eminine ardour, her researches into the burying places 
ormerly existing in London, and now only with extreme 
difficulty, if at all, to be traced. Access has not seldom, 
for transparent motives, been denied her. In other 
cases little or nothing is to be seen. Undauntedly and 
earnestly she has prosecuted her task, and the result is a 
volume well written if not too conveniently arranged 
aandsomely and profusely illustrated, and likely to make 
direct appeal at once to the antiquaries or, as Mrs. 
Holmes too often calls them, " the antiquarians " the 
lovers of old London, and to those interested as who now 
is not 1 in the preservation of open spaces. A certain 
pensive interest always attaches itself to the spots where 
repose the countless generations that have gone before. 
It is an attribute of civilization, indeed, rather than of 
barbarism to neglect or desecrate the spots in which 
repose the bones of our ancestors. In London ghastly 
scenes of profanation of the dead have been teen. Cart- 
loads innumerable of bones have been carried from the 
spot in which they were originally interred, and great 
streets and railways have now removed all thought or 
knowledge of local churchyards. All that is likely to 
be known concerning these spots is preserved in Mrs. 
Holmes's pages. She tells UP, moreover, of the sites- 
more numerous than is generally supposed of pest fields 
and plague pits; draws our attention to private ceme- 
teries, and, indeed, leaves no aspect of the subject 
untouched. Appendices give lists of burial-grounds in 
existence, of others which have disappeared, and of 
churches without burial-grounds but with vaults under- 
neath them ; with directions how to lay out a burial- 
ground as a garden, and other matters. The book is 
indeed a solid contribution to our knowledge of London, 
its illustrations adding greatly to its attractions. Its 
special purpose is to secure the conversion into gardens 
of such disused burial-grounds as are now available for 
the purpose. So much that is new does it contain, how- 
ever, that no library dealing with London antiquities and 
topography can be complete without it. 

The Gentleman's Magazine Library. English Topo* 
graphy. Part VII. : Leicestershire Monmouthshire. 
Edited by F. A. Milne. (Stock.) 

WE have on more than one previous occasion drawn 
attention to the commendable regularity with which 
the volumes of this most useful series make their ap- 
pearance. This is no little praiee when we bear in mind 
the labour which must attend the preparation for the 


[5 th S. X. JULY 18, '96. 

press of each single volume. Although Mr. Gomme an 
Mr. Milne have now proceeded as far as Monmouthshire 
we detect no falling off in the exactness with which 
their work is carried on. 

The portion devoted to Leicestershire is very in 
teresting. This may be accounted for in more than one 
way. Several persons who knew the county well hav< 
been possessed of antiquarian tastes, and then Nichols 
the historian of the county, on account of his connexion 
with the Gentleman's Magazine, may have been the 
cause of not a few contributions reaching its pages 
which, had it not been for his historic zeal, would neve 
have been written. 

Though not famed for large towns, Leicestershire has 
many sites of historic interest ; but we fear that not i 
few of them have, from our point of view, been epoilec 
by agricultural improvements. St. Mary, in Arden. the 
mother-church of Market Harborough, is described by 
a writer of about a third of a century ago as having 
once possessed a stately church, which has dwindlec 
down to a mere plain room with hardly anything to tell 
of the past except a Norman doorway ornamented with 
a beak-head moulding. The parochial chapel of Market 
Harborough was, we are told, built by John of Gaunt 
as a penance in consequence of an injunction laid upon 
him by the Pope. John of Gaunt was far from strict 
either in morals or theology, besides the times in which 
he flourished were unfavourable for the stricter forms 
of penetential discipline, especially among the upper 
classes. Popes then did not exercise their powers 
so sternly as they had done in the reigns of St. 
Gregory VII. and Innocent III. We shall, therefore, 
require strong evidence ere we accept the story, espe- 
cially as, for some reason or another which has never been 
satisfactorily explained, his personality seems to have 
made so great an impression on the minds of contem- 
poraries that vain legends have arisen regarding him in 
many widely separated parts of England. The chapel 
here is said to have been dedicated to St. Dionysius the 
Areopagite. We wonder what evidence there is for 
this. It seems more probable that St. Dionysius of 
Parifr-commonly called St. Denis is the patron ; but it 
must be borne in mind that in the Middle Ages the two 
were often confounded. There is, or was in 1811, at 
Hinckley a highly curious carved bedstead, on which were 
many allegorical subjects, accompanied by Latin mottoes. 
If this interesting object be still preserved, it is much 
to be desired that it should be represented on a large 
scale, so that the more minute details may be shown. 

There are a large number of papers relating to Lin- 
colnshire, but few of them are of much importance. 
When, however, we remember that Lincolnshire, large 
as it is, has no county history worthy of the name, we 
may be well assured that nearly every one of these 
papers will be of interest to those connected with the 

A Mr. G. S. Green in 1756 writes to Bay that at Welsh 
Bicknor, in Monmouthshire, he had met with in the 
church a chalice bearing the date 1176. He was, of 
course, mistaken. Probably what he saw was the date 
1576, but his account is not very lucid. Does it still 
exist, we wonder ; or has it been exchanged for electro- 
plate of Gothic pattern ? As usual, the indexes are very 

Coins and Medals, their Place in History and Art. 
By the Authors of the British Museum Official Cata- 
logues. Edited by Stanley Lane-Poole. Third Edition, 
Revised. (Stock.) 

WE are glad to find that this useful work has already 
reached a third edition. On its first appearance we 
were afraid that there were too few who took an intel- 

ligent interest in coins to make such a book as the 
present a saleable article. We are very glad to find 
that we have been mistaken. A third edition appearing 
in so short a time shows that there are many persons, 
beyond the mere collector, who care for numismatics. 
We confess that we have very little sympathy for those 
who pick up odd coins here and there, stowing 
them away in a bag as children do the bright shells 
they find on the seashore. The study of coins is very 
useful for many purposes. Some are exceedingly beauti- 
ful and treasures as works of art. The Greek series, 
apart from their beauty and historic interest, are most 
important for their symbolism. In them we find an 
early instance though not the earliest of that form of 
picture writing which afterwards developed into heraldry. 
The article by Mr. Charles P. Keary on ' The Coinage 
of Christian Europe ' is very much too short, but will, we 
imagine, often be turned to, for we have in English 
hardly anything relating to the European coinages of 
the middle ages, which is, for many reasons, a subject of 
great interest. The same gentleman has also contributed 
to the work a paper on ' English Coin?,' which we cannot 
describe as being anything beyond a mere sketch, such 
as would form an excellent article for a magazine, but ia 
hardly worth a place on the shelves of the coin collector's 
library. Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole, the editor of the volume, 
whose knowledge of Oriental matters is unsurpassed, has 
written on the coins of Mohammedan dynasties. Hia 
paper is full of well-arranged facts. An English book 
on the subject entering into detail is much wanted. 
Why does not Mr. Lane-Poole give us one? Her 
Majesty rules over a larger number of the followers of 
the Prophet of Arabia than any other sovereign, yet we, 
almost all of us, are quite ignorant regarding the coinages 
which have at various times been issued by the children 
of Islam. 

THE 'Index to the Marriages in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, from Jan., 1731, to Dec., 1868,' will shortly 
be issued by subscription. Place of marriage and full 
details will be given where possible, and in the case of 
officers in the army the dates of commissions will be 

Stoiijtfa 10 jams00totti, 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

W. T. W. The subject is too controversial for our 

CORRIGENDA. S' h S. ix. 509, col. 2, 1. 15, for Matrix" 
read Nutrix ; x. 4, col. 1, 1. 21, for "manager" read 
manger ; p. 9, col. 2, 1. 29, for " inbound " read is bound. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
iusiness Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com* 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
o this rule we can make no exception. 



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8 th S. X. JULY 25, '96.] 





NOTES The "Gates" of York, 69 Shakspeariana, 70 
Thieves' Candles, 71 Lucifer Matches The Battle of the 
Nile Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk Meals of Our An- 
cestors, 72 Thomas Dyche Kev. George Munford 
Tbackerayana, 73 The Devil's Plot of Land Literary 
Knowledge Blessing Fisheries "Smoker": " Sleeper' 
' Diner " Fulwood's Rents, 74. 

QUERIES Prince Charles and Mile. Luci ' A Legend of 
Reading Abbey 'Gerry Oak Boughs Gordon Manor of 
Toley Fee A Washington and Milton Goldings, 75 
Soldier's Marriage Heriot and Cowan Hospitals Com- 
neni and Napoleon William Warham Timber Trees- 
Arms of the Mercers' Company Rider's ' British Merlin ' 
Source of Quotation" Feer and Flet," 76 Alexander 
Carlyle Pompadour Jack Sheppard Tout Family- 
Highland Sheep Churchwardens, 77. 

KEPLIBS: St. Paul's Churchyard, 77 St. Uncumber 
Slayer of Argus, 78 Dorset Dialect St. Sampson, 79 
" Bedstaves " Benest and Le Geyt Pedigrees ' Tom 
Brown's Schooldays 'Church Briefs, 80 Charr " Flitter- 
mouse "Henry Justice Pamela Edward Young. 81 
Lead Lettering F. Hobson R. Huish Ku Klux Klan 
" Napoleon galeux "Horse Chestnuts Dialect, 82 Metre 
of 'In Memoriam 'Margraves of Anspach Eschuid 
Dyce Sombre Flags, 83 Games in Churchyards Wind- 
mills Salter's 'Waterloo Banquet 'lord John Russell, 
84 " Bombellieas " Old Clock Colonist Wheeler's 
4 Noted Names 'Pope's Villa, 85 Knights of St. John of 
Jerusalem Service Book Family Societies Patriot, 86 
S. Blower Rose. 87. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' New English Dictionary ' Villari's 
'Florentine History' 'Naval and Military Trophies,' 
Part II. 'Catalogue of Engraved National Portraits' 
E. V. B.'s ' Ros Rosarum.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

To Bay nothing of the present four mediaeval 
bars of York, its other two arched openings called 
bars, and its two remaining old posterns, the old 
northern metropolis has to this day thirty actual 
gates either within or immediately without its 
faoary limestone walls, and I hare a* record of 
twenty-eight more which used to exist. The city 
bad at one time just about as many churches as 
gates, and the sites of nearly every one can still 
be traced. To most people of little or no con- 
sequence, to the man of antiquarian taste of great 
consequence, it is time that some stand was taken 
against the unsuspected gradual diminution of the 
gates. One can have nothing whatever to say 
against newly-built streets in the suburbs being 
called streets ; but the writer thinks there is some 
just cause for protest against the modernized gates 
being re-signboarded streets or roads. There seems 
no reason why York should not be allowed to pre- 
serve as much of her ancient character as possible, 
and her gates have for centuries been amongst her 
most noticeable characteristics. It has been said 
that the city had two " streets " only ; at present 
she has by far too many. The advent of Sequuh 
a few years ago will be remembered by the citizens, 
and how amusingly and eruditely he nightly ex- 
patiated on his new " finds " concerning the many 

gates. It is, therefore, not a little mortifying to 
find that the various local nomenclators are dis- 
abusing the city of one of her ancient claims, 
and so, in one particular, allowing her to fall to 
the level of industrial mushroom towns in the 

The word " gate " is probably derived from the 
Danish gata, a street. Some of these gates are 
broad arteries, others intricate viens, while many 
are mere capillaries in comparison. And, while 
several still retain the names they bore in mediaeval 
times, it is not a little strange to find that the prin- 
cipal thoroughfare in the city, Coney Street, has 
never been called a gate. 

Bishopgate, Castlegate, Colliergate, Coppergate, 
Davygate, and Feasegate head the list of the 
thirty existing gates. Lang with imagined that an 
image dedicated to St. Faith had at a remote 
period stood in Feasegate. Written S. Fe in old 
French, he hence submits that the present spelling 
should be Feesgate. Drake, however, supposes 
that Feasegate took its name from the Old Eng- 
lish " fease " or " feag flagellare," to beat with 
rods, and is thereby led to conjecture that 
offenders were whipped through this street and 
round the market. Allen thinks it probable that 
it was originally Feaatgate, from its proximity to 
Jubbergate, and, considering the peculiar religious 
customs of the people who resided there, he con- 
concludes that the Jews from the neighbouring 
towns and villages might, at their periodical 
feasts held in York, have been accommodated in this 

Then we have Fishergate, Fossgate, Friargate, 
Gillygate, and Goodramgate all names full of 
meaning. The quaint, winding thoroughfare called 
Goodramgate is said to have derived its name 
from the circumstance of its having, in the time 
of Alfred the Great, contained the residence of a 
Danish general named Godram, Gotheram, or 
Guthrum, who was Deputy- Governor of York. 
Following on in alphabetical order, we have Hoi- 
gate, Hungate, and Jubbergate. It goes without 
saying that Jubbergate was the principal Jew 
quarter in the middle ages, and Hargrove speaks 
of the remains of several ancient walls on its 
north side, which tradition claims to be part of a 
Jewish synagogue. In the neighbourhood of Jew- 
bury, without the walls, the Jews had their 
burial-ground. Then we have Marygate, Mickle- 
gate, Minstergate, Monkgate, Neesgate, Newgate, 
Ousegate, Petergate, Skeldergate, Spurriergate, 
and Stonegate. Formerly the principal street in 
the city, Stonegate is, perhaps, still the most pic- 
turesque. It derived its name from the tremendous 
loads of stone carried through, and no doubt 
strewed in it, during the various erections of the 
Minster. Here are the most antique houses of 
any principal street in the city ; here the old 
print, book, picture, and music shops. One of 



[8 lh S. X. JULY 25, '96, 

the best specimens is that occupied by Mr. J. W. 
Knowles, whose famous mediaeval art works are 
behind. Formerly this house was called " At the 
Sign of the Bible/' a great place for bibliophiles. 
The Bible, bearing a seventeenth-century date, is 
carefully preserved by Mr. Knowles. 

St. Andrewgate leads to the church of St. 
Andrew. The greater part of this edifice still 
stands, though it has been for long most woefully 
desecrated. No church in York has undergone 
stranger mutations. It has been a house of prayer 
and praise, then a den for thieves, then a common 
brothel, then (part of it) a stable, then a free 
grammar school. Following St. Saviourgate comes 
Swinegate, which may have taken its name from 
the many swine kept here by poor families. It is 
always said that the late Sir Joseph Barnby 
once a choir boy in the Minster emanated from 
Swinegate. As to Walmgate celebrated all 
England over for its bar and barbican Drake and 
others have supposed it to be a corruption of the 
Roman Watlingate. Hargrove considers the name 
to be but a corruption of Yallumgate, as being in 
proximity to a wall or bulwark. The bulwarks 
cited for this accommodation are Walmgate Bar, 
Fishergate Bar, and the Eed Tower. 

The thirtieth and last of the existing gates is 
Whipmawhopmagate surely an interesting ono- 
matope. As a street, it is at present a section 
of Colliergate, and may be regarded as a street 
with only one side, containing simply two shops 
a butcher's and a tobacconist's. Henry Brambam, 
the tobacconist, preserves the name on his paper 
bags, which show that 16, Colliergate and 1, Whip- 
mawhopmagate are synonymous addresses. All 
old documents show these two houses to be in 
Whipmawhopmagate. The original Whipma- 
whopmagate was a short, narrow street, formed by 
a row of houses which ran in a line with the south 
side of Colliergate to the centre of Pavement. The 
strange-named gate was very probably the ancient 
boundary for the public whipping of delinquents. 

Barbergate, Beggargate, and Besyngate head 
my list of twenty-eight gates removed or going 
under different names. If Besyngate, which occurs 
in 1426, really was the alley now called Little 
Shambles, it may have signified Beastgate. We 
are told that it was afterwards called Gyldgarths. 
The Gyldgarths still exist at the end of Little 
Shambles as a square enclosure, belonging origin- 
ally to the Merchant Butchers' Company. Here 
cattle are still penned before slaughtering. Gyld- 
garths evidently signifies the garth of the guild, 
the former word being ao equivalent in polite 
English to a small enclosed place, and the latter 
word meaning the Merchant Butchers' Company. 
Following once more in alphabetical order are 
Bloxamgate, Bretgate, Little Bretgate, Bripgate 
(now, of course, Bridge Street), Byrkgate, Carr- 
gate, and Girdlergate. This has become Church 

Street, a foolish change to make, for many reasons. 
Girdlergate was so called from its having been the 
general place of residence for the girdlers, who 
were formerly so numerous in York as to forca 
themselves into a guild. The Merchant Girdlers' 
Company was one of those numerous York guilds 
of which only two have survived to the present 
time. The etymology of Glovergate, Haymanger- 
gate, Hertergate, Ispyngate, Jowbretgate, and 
Kergate might also be given. That of Ketmangar- 
gate is most interesting. The upper part either of 
St. Saviourgate or St. Andrewgate was, about 
1585, known as Ketmangargate, probably because 
it may have at one time been the market for 
horseflesh, which was called " ket." Horseflesh i 
no more poison now than in olden times; but 
before the Conquest it was often eaten deliberately 
and ravenously, and there was a particular relish 
for the flesh of young foals. After Littlegate we 
have High Mangergate, an ancient name for the- 
Shambles-wynd, and variously supposed to be> 
derived from the French word manger, to eat, and 
from the Saxon word mangere, implying trade*. 
We then have, finally, Markgate, Nedlergate, 
Neutgate, Outergate, Thrusgate, and Watlingate. 
The etymology of many of these lost gates is not 
far to seek. HARWOOD BRIEKLEY. 

'HAMLET,' I. iii. 36 (8 th S. x. 23). 

The dram of eale 

Doth all the noble substance of a doubt 
To hia own scandal. 

To read " base " for eale requires almost the courage 
of that prince of emendators, Peter, in Swift's 
'Tale of a Tub,' who substituted "broomsticks^ 
for " silver fringe." A more likely word seems to 
me to be eisel (vinegar), for the use of which see- 
V. i. 265 and Sonnet CXI. 10. The word was pro- 
bably going out of use even in Shakspeare's time, and 
may have puzzled the printer. Should not " doubt " 
be dout = do out, so spelt at IV. vii. 191. I should 
suggest the lines be read as follows : 

The dram of eieel 

Doth all the noble substance often dout 

To his own scandal. 

E. S. A. 

The dram of eale 

Doth all the noble substance of a doubt 
To his owne ecandle. 

Quarto 2, 1604, D i. bk. 

I hoped I had stopped all emendations of eale, by 
showing thatQuarto 2 to which we owe eale upelt 
"devil" twice deale, in IF. ii. 628: 

The spirit that I have scene 

May be a deale, and the deale hath power 

T' assume a pleasing shape. 

Atdeak is "devil," so eale is "evil." "Doth" 
means " puts," and " of a doubt " is " into doubt, 
into a mess," as one has heard " instead of putting 

8 S. X. JOLY 25, 'i 



ft straight, she did it' all of a muddle." The 

* Hamlet ' lines need no emendation. 


WINTER'S TALE/ IV. iv. 250. 
Clamour your tongues. 

This admonition does not convey much meaning to 
modern ears. Should it not be " Chamber your 
tongues " ? See Udal's translation of Erasmus's 

* Apopthegmis,' p. 10 : 

Onelesse he chaumbreed his tougue. 

E. S. A. 

" A BARE BODKIN " (8 th S. ix. 362, 422 ; x. 22). 
I hope DR. BREWER does not imagine that he is 
singular in "reverence for the dear old bard." 
Does he suppose that any sane man would know- 
ingly "attempt to amend him"? It is a very 
different matter to attempt to " amend," not " him " 
but his editors' "emendations" and his printers' 
blunders. Shakespeare and Shakespeare's text are 
not identical. Would that they always were so ! 
Would DR. BREWER, in his superstitious reverence 
for the text of " the dear old bard " go so far as to 
leave untouched "the kind life rendering poli- 
tician" in the First Folio text of 'Hamlet,' IV. v. ? 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

TROILUS AND CRESSIDA,' III. iiu (6 th S. xi. 
325, 396,475; xii. 313 ; 8 th S. ix. 423 ; x. 22). 

One touch of nature. 

I much regret to find that eince the date of MR. 
SPENCE'S note fresh justification has arisen for his 
action in renewing the protest against the very 
vulgar error of the misapplication of these hackneyed 
word?. Most unfortunately the wide circulation of 
Punch was made the means, on 4 July, of sending 
them round the world in the conspicuous form of 
a motto to the cartoon of the week, with accom- 
panying verses. " c One touch of nature,' " I read, 
' ' makes the whole world kin,' our Shakspeare 
said." This is true, in the same sense that Shak- 
epeare also said, " My lord, 'tis I, the early village 
cock," a facetious misapplication of which words, 
produced in a precisely similar manner, I remember, 
illustrated, in a former number of Punch. But 
loos of life and exercise of charity are not subjects 
that Punch is in the habit of selecting for facetious 
treatment, and it is much to be regretted that, 
with the whole world of literature to choose from, 
a quotation should have been used in a form fit 
only for the lips of Punch's Baboo Jamsetjee. 


I think I have cause to complain that the note 
signed by KILLIGREW at the last reference is some- 
what discourteous. KILLIOREW might have done 
me the justice to believe that, if I had known of 
his note in the Sixth Series, I should have had the 
common honesty to refer to it. From circum- 

stances which I need not explain, I was not a 
reader of ( N. & Q.' during the years between 1880 
and 1888. In one of those years KILLIGREW'S 
note, and the discussion to which he refers as 
having followed it, must have appeared. But, 
though I now for the first time learn that the sub- 
ject has already been discussed, I take leave to 
remind KILLIGREW that it is you alone who 
have the right to determine whether or not a dis- 
cussion has been "exhausted." As to KILLI- 
GREW'S remarks on the "full stop " appearing at 
the end of my quotation, I think he might have 
seen that the " full stop " was purposely inserted 
by me in order that the quotation might appear in 
its pseudo-form of " popular individuality." 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

How many copies there may be with the variation 
in Othello,' p. 333 of the " Tragedies," no one 
can say ; but there are certainly more than two. 
Some five or six years ago I saw one at Sotheby's 
auction room. It was a fine tall copy, in old 
purple morocco, and quite complete ; but the title 
with portrait was rather faint, and had the appear- 
ance of having been taken out and washed. This 
greatly detracted from its value. Nevertheless, if 
I am not mistaken, it sold for 3201. or 3402. I 
am quite sure about the peculiar reading in 
' Othello,' because it was pointed out to me, and 
I yet have the note then made. I have some 
recollection, also, of having seen at least one other 
described in a bookseller's catalogue, but cannot 
remember whose. 

No doubt "the mistake was discovered and 
corrected"; but it would be singular to discover 
the mistake just as they had commenced printing, 
and more singular still not to destroy the incorrect 
copies, if there were only two or three of them. Is 
it not more probable that so considerable a portion 
had been worked off that it was considered the 
most economical plan to reprint that half-sheet and 
cancel the one with the error ? In doing this a 
few might easily be overlooked. 

I do not see how a "corrected proof-sheet" 
could get among the perfect sheets. If I am not 
mistaken, it is the custom for printers to take great 
care of their proofs, for many reasons, and to refer 
to the preceding when they receive a new one ; 
and if the earlier one is missed, diligent search has 
to be made till it is found, or "ructions " ensue. 

If, by unusual carelessness, a marked proof did 
get among the sheets, unless the binder was as 
careless as the printer, it would have been seen 
and thrown out oa " gathering " or " collating." 

R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

THIEVES' CANDLES. Some criminals, it would 
appear, entertain the horrible creed that the use of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. x. JULY 25, m 

a candle made of a murdered man's fat will protect 
them from discovery during their depredations. 
Actuated by this hideous and insane superstition, 
it is averred that two burglars in the district of 
Ostrogojsk (Voroneje Government) recently mur- 
dered a handsome stalwart young fellow villager 
of eighteen, for the sake of his tallow. The story 
goes on to state that, having butchered their victim, 
these fiends ripped open the body, and tore out 
the epiploon, which they put up in a tin box, and 
carried home. Next came the melting-down pro- 
cess. The men's strange operations aroused the 
suspicions of their landlady the more so, as ugly 
rumours of the poor young fellow's disappearance 
began to circulate and she gave information in the 
proper quarter. In conclusion it is mentioned that 
the tin box and its contents have been handed to 
two well-known professors for examination. 

The above circumstantial account is from the St. 
Petersburg Novosti and Bourse Gazette of 9th to 
21st June, which refers to the Kharlcoff Government 
Gazette as its authority. True or not true, the 
charge is noteworthy, as bearing upon a very grue- 
some piece of thieves' folk-lore or black art. 

The curious will find some interesting parti- 
culars under the beading 'Men and Candles' 
(Adipocere) in the Mirror for 1828 (vol. xi. pp. 1 69, 
274), but the above superstition is not mentioned 
there. H. E. M. 

St. Petersburg. 

unaccountable that so little notice has been taken 
of the first stages in the development of these useful 
articles. For example, how few are the readers of 
*N. & Q.' to whom the following, from Walter 
Thornbury's * Old and New London,' vol. i. p. 123, 
is not wholly unknown : 

"At the east corner of Peterborough Court, Fleet 
Street, was one of the earliest shops for the instan- 
taneous light apparatus, known as Hertner'a Eupyrion. 
These were phosphorus and oxymuriate matches, to be 
dipped in sulphuric acid and asbestos, the costly pre- 
decessors of our lucifer match." 



delphia's oldest citizens, whose bounteous hospi- 
tality in the "City of Brotherly Love" I have 
many time enjoyed, has sent me three engravings 
representing scenes in this great naval fight. Each 
engraving measures 2 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 51 in. They 
are dedicated "To the Bight Honourable Admiral 
Lord Nelson of the Nile," his officers and his men, 
by "Robt. Dodd," who painted and engraved 
them. This artist published these engravings at 
41, Charing Cross, London, February, 1799 the 
actual battle having taken place 1 August in the 
year before. There appear to have been four 
plates. The first in the series to hand is missing. 
No. 2 represents the condition of the fleets at 

10 P.M. In the foreground the Bellerophon is in 
flames, and the crew are clambering over the bow- 
sprit in sore dismay. The British flag is well 
displayed everywhere. No. 3 is midnight ; oner 
vessel is in the act of blowing up, sails shot through- 
are seen at every hand, but no flags are flying. 
No. 4 is entitled ' On the Ensuing Morning.' A 
ship is in flames nationality uncertain the 
British flag floats proudly at every hand; whilst 
the Frenchman's lies lowered on four several ships* 
My worthy friend says he has had these engravings- 
framed for thirty-six years in his home at Phila- 
delphia ; but he adds, "they are not appreciated 
here," so he sends them to me. Perhaps some 
reader can suggest where they might go to be fully 
appreciated. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

wrote my letter on the above subject in 8 th S. viiL 
286, I overlooked a previous communication from, 
the REV. E. M. TOMLINSON, formerly Vicar of Holy 
Trinity, Minories (6 th S. xii. 302), in which he- 
expresses the view that the head found and still 
preserved in that church is not that of the Duke of 
Suffolk (father of Lady Jane Grey), executed in 
1554, under Queen Mary, but of the Earl of Suf- 
folk (Edmund de la Pole), who was beheaded in 
the year 1513, in the reign of Henry VIII. This 
view seems to have been accepted by DR. SPARROW 
SIMPSON (see his letter, on which I commented, 8" 1 
S. viii. 242). But the point is still subject to doubt, 
Dr. Kinns, the present vicar, considers that the 
head may be that of the Duke of Suffolk, from the- 
resemblance of the features to those of bis portrait 
in the National Portrait Gallery, and also to one at 
Hatfield which is engraved in Lodge's * Portraits/ 
And, in reference to a remark by MR. TOMLINSON,. 
he does not think there are marks of two cuts by 
the axe of the executioner, but, on the contrary, 
one of the vertebrae of the neck seems to have been 
cut through at one stroke. Dr. Kinns, I may 
remark, is preparing an elaborate work on the 
history of this church, in which the matter ip 
question will be fully gone into, together with 
many other points of interest connected with the 
old priory and the present church. 

W. T. LYNN. 


inquiry was made in ' N. & Q. ' as to the hours afe 
which our ancestors took their meals. The follow- 
ing abstract of a lecture delivered by Mr. D'Arey 
Power at the London Institution will give infoima- 
tion on the subject : 

"Mr. Power said the old English had three meals 
day. of which the chief meal was taken when the work 
of the day was finished. The first meal was at 9, dinner 
was about 3 o'clock, and supper was taken just before- 
bedtime. The Normans dined at the old English break- 
fast time or a little later, and supped at 7 P.M. In 

8 th S. X. JOLT 25, '96.] 



Tudor times the higher classes dined at 11 and supped 
at 5, but the merchants seldom took their meals before 
12 and 6 o'clock. The chief meals, dinner and supper, 
were taken in the hall both by the old English and the 
Normans, for the parlour did not come into use until 
the reign of Elizabeth. Breakfast did not become a 
regular meal until quite lately, and Dr. Murray, in the 
' Oxford Dictionary,' gave 1463 as the date of the earliest 
quotation in which the word occurred. The meal did 
not become recognized until late in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, for Pepys habitually took his draught of half a pint 
of Rhenish wine or a dram of strong waters in place of 
a morning meal. Dinner was always the great meal of 
the day, and from the accession of Henry IV. to the 
death of Queen Elizabeth the dinners were as sumptuous 
and extravagant as any of those now served. Carving 
was then a fine art. Each guest brought his own knife 
and spoon, for the small fork was not introduced into 
England until Thomas Coryate, of Odcombe, published 
his 'Crudities' in 1611. Pepys took bis spoon and 
fork with him to the Lord Mayor's feast in 1663. The 
absence of forks led to much stress being laid upon the 
act of washing the hands both before and after meals 
and to the rule that the left hand alone should be 
dipped into the common dish, the right hand being 
occupied with the knife. The perfect dinner at the best 
time of English cookery consisted of three courses, each 
complete in itself, and terminated by a subtlety or 
device, the whole being rounded off with Ypocras, after 
which the guests retired into another room, where 
pastry, sweetmeats, and fruit were served with the 
choicer wines. The English were essentially meat eaters, 
and it was not until the time of the Commonwealth that 
pudding attained its extraordinary popularity; indeed, 
the first mention of pudding in the menus of the 
' Buckfeast ' at St. Bartholomew's Hospital did not occur 
until 1710, and in 1712 is an item of 5*. for ice." 


THOMAS DYCHE. I much regret that in my 
notice of this delightful old pedagogue contributed 
to Diet. Nat. Biog.' (xvi. 282) I entirely over- 
looked the reference to him in Smeeton's * Biog. 
Curiosa,' p. 13, where it is recorded that Thomas 
Dyche, " schoolmaster to the charity children of 
St. Andrew, Holborn, some time before his death 
(1719) made a solemn vow not to shift his linen 
till the Pretender was seated on the throne." 


THE REV. GEORGE MUNFORD. With reference 
to MR. HOLCOMBK INGLEBY'S note at 8 th S. ix. 
I am quite familiar with the name of the 
Rev. G. Munford, and cannot account for the 
misspelling, nor for the far worse error in the same 
note by which Mr. Walter Rye is transmogrified 
into Mr. Walters ! 

I adhere to my opinion about Mr. Munford's 
mythical Saxons, but am quite prepared to assent 
to MR. INGLEBY'S statement that, if Mr. Munford 
cannot claim to be a great authority on place- 
names, his book yet contains suggestions which 
cannot be lightly set aside. As Mr. Munford 
finds no place in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' perhaps I may be allowed to put on record 
a few particulars about him. 

George Munford was born at Great Yarmouth 

about 1795, and went to a school at Gorleston 
kept by a Mr. Wright. He entered at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, but, for some reason, took no degree. 
His first curacy was at North Walsham, and in 
1821 he held a curacy at Lynn, where he married 
Anna, eldest daughter of the Rev. Edward Ed- 
wards, sometime Fellow of Corpus Christi, Cam- 
bridge, and rector of the churchless parish of North 
Lynn, but lecturer at St. Margaret's, Lynn. 

In 1842 Mr. Edwards obtained, in addition to 
the above, the vicarage of East Winch, near Lynn, 
and Mr. Munford became his father-in-law's curate. 
On the death of Mr. Edwards, in 1849, Mr. Mun- 
ford succeeded him as vicar of East Winch. 

This living he retained until his death on 17 May, 
1871, and a large runic cross marks his burial- 
place in East. Winch Churchyard. He left one 
son, who is now rector of Swanton Abbot, near 
Aylsham, and (for what reason I know not) calls 
himself Montford the Rev. E. Edwards Montford. 

The Rev. George Munford was the author of : 

1. ' An Analysis of the Doomsday Book of the 
County of Norfolk,' published in 1858 by J. 
Russell Smith, 36, Soho Square, W. 

2. ' An Attempt to Ascertain the True Deriva- 
tion of the Names of Towns and Villages, and of 
Rivers, &c., of the County of Norfolk,' 1870, 
commonly called ' Local Names in Norfolk.' 

3. ' A List of Flowering Plants found growing 
wild in Western Norfolk,' 1841 (forty copies 
printed for private circulation). This list was 
prepared for the 1864 edition of White's ' Norfolk 

Mr. Walter Rye, in his ' Norfolk Topography,' 
1881 (preface, p. ix), states that Sir Henry Spel- 
man's * Icenia ' was being translated and annotated 
by the Rev. G. Munford, but he died before it was 

Mr. Rye adds, " I do not know if the MS. has 
been preserved." I have reason to believe that it 
remains in the possession of the translator's son 
before mentioned. Persons interested in the his- 
tory of Norfolk would be glad to see this work in 
print, but more, perhaps, for Mr. Munford's notes 
than for Spelman's rather superficial little uncom- 
pleted essay. * Icenia' occupies pp. 135-162 of 
1 Reliquiae Spelmannianse, London, 1723. 

I have found Mr. Munford's ' Local Names in 
Norfolk ' both useful and interesting, and I trust 
this little notice will tend to keep alive the authors 
name, and to acquit me of indifference to his 
reputation. As to the scientific value of his 
etymologies it would be interesting to have the 
opinion of such an expert as CANON TAYLOK. 



THACKERAYANA. The following story was lately 
told to me by an American professor. Thackeray, at 
the time he was writing ' The Virginians,' was dining 


[8 th 8. X. JULY 25, '96. 

one evening with a party of which John Kennedy, 
of Baltimore, an American writer of some repute, 
I am told, was one. While the evening was still 
young Thackeray rose to leave the party, stating as 
his excuse that he was under promise to furnish 
next day a chapter of ' The Virginians ' which he 
had not yet written. The whole company joined 
in protesting that he, the life of the party, should 
not thus break it up, and John Kennedy added to 
his protest the offer to go and write the required 
chapter, urging that, as it was to deal with incidents 
in a country with which he was personally more 
familiar than Thackeray, a mere indication of the 
line to be followed would enable him to act as an 
efficient substitute. To this proposal Thackeray 
ultimately assented. No copy of Thackeray being 
at hand, I was unable to obtain the number of 
the chapter referred to, which I was told is about 
the longest in the novel, and subsequent search 
has not led me to an identification. Is this story 
known ? And is it true ? If it be true, which is 
John Kennedy's chapter ? Readers of N. & Q.' 
interested in Thackerayana will be able to explode 
the myth, if such it be, and it is well, therefore, 
that the story, if it has not hitherto appeared in 
print, should now be subjected to the test of criti- 
cism. B. B. 

THE DEVIL'S PLOT OF LAND. The following 
passage from Henry F. Chorley's 'Memorials of 
Mrs. Hemans,' second edition, 1837, vol. i. p. 56, 
is worth transferring to the pages of ' N. & Q.': 

" In the villages of Scotland the Devil has a plot of 
land set apart to him, which ia never flowered, sown, 
or grassed, but devoted to cursing and barrenness." 


NINETEENTH CENTOBT. The following, from the 
Echo ' Notes and Queries,' 27 June, deserves to 
be preserved in 'N. & Q.': 

" Who ia the author of the following, and in which of 
his works does it occur ? 

Storied windows richly dight, 
Casting a dim religious light." 

Well may an influential literary paper say, 
"Nothing but novels are read nowadays. Other 
books may be bought for show, but few are read." 

R. R. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

BLESSING THE FISHERIES. The following para- 
graph is from the Daily Mail of 6 July ; and as no 
report of this '* unique custom " at Folkestone has 
appeared in ' N. & Q.' I forward it for insertion 
therein : 

" Thousands of spectators witnessed the unique 
spectacle of the annual blessing of the fisheries, which 
took place at Folkestone last evening. A procession, con- 
sisting of surpliced choir and clergy, with cross and 
banners, left St. Peter's Church, and after making a 

detour of the fishing quarter of the town, chanting the 
Litany, a position was taken up overlooking the sea. 
Here the vicar of the parish gave an appropriate address 
and prayers were offered asking a divine blessing on the 
fisherman's calling. The service concluded by the sing- 
ing of the well-known hymn, ' Eternal Father, strong to 

I sent a communication to 'N. & Q.,' which 
appeared in 5 th S. viii. 347, showing that this 
custom prevailed at Great Yarmouth. Other 
correspondents said it was general at Clovelly, 
North Devon, and in the Isle of Man. At the 
latter place it was customary in the Litany to 
insert the phrase "and the produce of the seas" 
in the clause in which the blessing of God was 
asked upon " the fruits of the earth." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"SMOKER": "SLEEPER": " DINER." Apropos 
to tho "kneeler" question, the railway people in 
the United States have pretty well established 
there the names " smoker " for smoking car, and 
"sleeper " for sleeping couch, but on a recent trip 
across the American continent I for the first time 
heard the dining car called " the diner." 

F. J. P. 

FULWOOD'S KENTS. (See 8 th S. ix. 385, 454). 
At the first of these references is a paragraph, cut 
from a provincial newspaper, recording the demo- 
lition of the old houses which have been known 
for more than three centuries as Fulwood's Bents. 
The effacement of any legendary or historical site 
in London deserves to be recorded in the columns 
of ' N. & Q.' ; but it would be well if the informa- 
tion were based on sounder authority than a stray 
paragraph in a local print. The extract in question 
is misleading in more than one particular. One 
mistake has been exposed by MR. HEBB ; another 
is to the effect that the original name of the cluster 
of buildings which is now in course of demolition 
was Fuller's Rents. This is not the case. Chris- 
topher Fulwood seems to have been in possession 
of the property at the end of the sixteenth century, 
and it was after him that it received its name. 
Douthwaite, in his 'History of Gray's Inn,' cites 
an order of 5 Feb., 1593, under which the Benchers 
paid 150Z. to Fulwood " for a parcel of ground in 
Holborne for building a gate out of Gray's Inn 
into Holborne," and "Jane Fulwood, gentle- 
woman, sister unto Christopher Fulwood, Esquire, 
out of Fulwood's Rents, was buried the first of 
December, 1618" (Register of St. Andrew's, Hoi- 
born, quoted by Cunningham, ' Handbook of 
London,' 1850, p. 193). Some time in the seven- 
teenth century the locality became generally known 
as Fuller's Rent?, and under that designation it 
frequently figures in the lighter literature of the 
period. Good accounts of the place are given in 
Wheatley's 'London Past and Present,' ii. 82, 
and in Thornbury'a * Old and New London,' ii. 




536 ; and at p. 534 of the latter work will be found 
a reproduction of one of the engravings in Archer's 
' Vestiges of Old London/ representing an interior 
on the ground floor of an old Jacobean house, 
which stood about the centre of the east side of 
the court. It would be interesting to know the 
fate of the fine carved woodwork of this house. 
The old red-brick house at the north-west corner, 
abutting on Field Court, Gray's Inn, which was 
identified by Timbs for whose authority I do not 
vouch as Squire's Coffee House, was dismantled 
and pulled down in the summer of 1894, and I 
presume that shortly there will be nothing left to 
remind the passer-by of this picturesque haunt of 
riotous frondeurs and impecunious wits. 

Kingeland, Shrewsbury. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

1752 a young lady, spoken of by Prince Charles 
as " Mademoiselle Luci," befriended him when in 
hiding near Paris. She bought books for him, and 
did his "shopping "in general. Who was she? 
She bad a married sister, spoken of as "La 
Grandemain "; both were very intimate with 
Montesquieu. Had the Duchesse d'Aiguillon 
(nee Florensac) an unmarried sister 1 Circum- 
stances point to Madame de Vasee" (nee De Peze), 
but she was fille unique of her father and mother ; 
her father may, however, have married twice, and 
had a daughter Mile. Luci by another wife. 
Mile. Luci died in October, 1752. Can any one 
help me as to this Mile. Luci ? I have vainly tried 
De Luyne?, D'Argenson, and other writers of 
memoirs. A. LANG. 

OF REFUGE.' Information is desired as to the 
authorship of above. The * Legend ' was issued in 
Knight's "Shilling Library" in 1845, and was 
stated to be by the author of * The Camp of Re- 
fuge.' Any information as to the latter work will 
also be acceptable. P. H. T. 

GERRY FAMILY. Can any genealogical con- 
tributor give me information respecting the Gal- 
way family of Gerry ? The mother of Catherine 
Vesey, Baroness FitzGerald and Vesey, is de- 
scribed thus in Burke's ' Extinct Peerage ': " Mary 
Gerry, daughter and coheiress of George Gerry, of 
Gal way." This Mary Gerry was the wife of the 
Xev. Henry Veaey, Warden of Galway, who died 
1774. Burke's 'General Armory' informs me 
that the family originated from Lancashire, and 

gives the arms thus : Gules, two bars or, each 
charged with three mascles az., on a canton of the 
last a leopard's head of the second. The arms of 
the respective families of Gery, Gerry, Geary, and 
Gerre are very similar. 

Also, is anything known of the parents of Pierce 
Lynch, of Leighcarrow, co. Galway ? He (by his 
wife Ellen Butler) was the father of Elizabeth 
Lynch, who married William FitzGerald, of 
Lahardine, co. Clare ; their son was the Right 
Hon. James FitzGerald, who married Catherine, 
Baroness FitzGerald and Vesey (creation 1826). 

Castle Ward, Downpatrick. 

OAK BOUGHS. On 1 August, 1799, George III. 
reviewed the volunteers of the county of Kent in 
the Mote Park, Maidstone. All the volunteers 
wore oak boughs in their hats. The royal 
family, on arrival, "requested to have oak 
boughs to decorate themselves, which were imme- 
diately brought, and the Queen and Princesses 
put them in their caps and pinned them to their 
bosoms" (Gentleman's Magazine, Ixix. part ii. 
p. 703, August, 1799). Query, reason for thia 
use of oak boughs ? E. S. 

[See 7* 9. xii. 289, 374, 417, 454.] 

GORDON FAMILY. I should be obliged if the 
readers of *N. & Q.' would furnish me with 
information relative to the genealogical tables of 
the family of Gordon and its branches published 
during the early part of this century. 


Chaucer's Head Library, Birmingham. 

should be glad if any one could give information 
which would enable me to identify this place. The 
name occurs in the Yorkshire Feet of Fines, temp. 
Eliz., and is mentioned in connexion with several 
places in the East Riding of Yorkshire, viz., Great 
and Little Driffield, Beswick, Kyllnm, Righton, 
and Sureby ; so probably Toley Fee also is in the 
East Riding. There is, I believe, a Toly Park in 
Leicestershire, but I hardly think this can be the 
same place. I have met with a reference to a 
Peter Toly, of Drimeld, in a fifteenth century docu- 
ment, which seems to make it probable that Toley 
Fee is to be looked for about there. Are there 
any traces of the place in existence now ? 

B. P. S. 

41, Park Square, Leeds. 

the Washington at Amsterdam who translated Mil- 
ton's ' Defence of the People of England,' 1692 ? 

A. C. H. 

readers of ' N. & Q.' kindly give me informa- 
tion as to the family of Nicholas GoldiDg, of the 



.X. JOLT 25, . 96 . 

City of Winchester, who, about 1634, was married 
to Ann, daughter of Edward Sherwood, of East 
Hundred, Berks, whose (Ann's) mother was Con- 
stance, daughter of William Saunders, of Newbury. 
She had a brother Edward Sherwood, who married 
Hanna Forster, of London, and another brother, 
John Sherwood, who was born 1619. He married 
Mary, daughter of Philip Yeates, of Farringdon, 
21 March, 1664. JACKSON GOLDING. 

Lettermacaward, Straba-ne. 

SOLDIER'S MARRIAGE. Can any of your readers 
say if the marriage of a soldier whilst abroad with 
his regiment, about 1740-5, would be registered, 
and also the births of his children. Did not each 
regiment keep some sort of a register ; and, if BO, 
where will they probably be now ? The particular 
regiment I want is the Buffs (East Kent Regi- 
ment), the old 3rd Foot. I have tried at the 
General Register Office and the War Office. 

S;ja. DOBSON. 
16, Overatone Road, Hammersmith, W. 

logue ever been printed, stretching back to the 
beginning, giving the names of the teachers and 
pupils of these two ancient Scottish institutions, 
one of which is located at Edinburgh, the other 
being at Stirling ? Did either, as teaching estab- 
lishments, at the beginning, or down to present 
century, or later, profess to give anything more 
than elementary instruction 1 SELPPUC. 

** COMNENI AND NAPOLEON I. Is it true that 
Napoleon was a descendant of Constantino Com- 
nenus, 1676, and therefore of royal descent ? 

A. C. H. 

BURY. I want to know the names of the parents 
of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury 
from 1502 to 1530. WM. JACKSON PIGOTT. 

Dundrum, co. Down. 

TIMBER TREES. A friend of mine, who is writing 
the history of a parish in Kent, has sent me an 
extract from a deed relating to a charity in the 
early part of this century, in which the term 
"timber trees" occurs several times, remarking 
that it is a curious expression. I believe that it 
refers to growing oak trees, that could be used 
for shipbuilding, but am not certain ; so I beg to 
ask if any reader of ' N. & Q.' versed in timber 
lore can throw any light on the subject. 


A recent query about the " mural memorials' 
in Long Acre leads me to ask if anything is known 
of the present whereabouts of the old stained glass 
which formerly adorned a window in the "Crown 
Inn," Lower Street, Islington. A coloured repro 
duction of a portion of this window will be founc 

n Ellis's ' Campagna of London,' p. 100. The 

writer imagined the female head to be a portrait of 
Elizabeth of York, the queen of King Henry VII. ; 

but there is no doubt that it represented the arms 
f the Mercers Company. Nelson, in his ' History 
f Islington,' 1811, p. 405, wrote that after the 
' Crown" was pulled down, " the original in stained 

jlass " was preserved in a window in the house of 
. Clifton, apothecary, on the terrace, Lower 

Street, and more than thirty years afterwards 

Lewis (' History of Islington,' 1842, p. 153) stated 
hat, the glass was lately in the possession of the 
'ormer owner's son, Nathaniel Clifton, Esq., sur- 
eon, of Cross Street. I do not know of a later 

reference to it, but should not be surprised to 
earn that it is still in existence. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

your numerous readers inform me if they know 
mything of a little work called ' Rider's British 
Merlin,' compiled by Cardanus Rider, and pub- 
ished by R. Nutt, 1757 ? Was it an annual pub- 
ication ; or was this the only year in which it 
appeared ? The copy which is before me has an 
nteresting history attached to it, if it is true. 
Some years ago an "ambassador of commerce" 
was travelling through a desolate portion of the 
south island of New Zealand, when he met a 
* swagger " who had come to the end of his re- 
sources, and begged for charity's sake some money, 
offering in exchange the only possession he had, 
the little volume whose title I have given above. 
The " swagger " stated that this was an heirloom 
in his family, and had been presented by Capt. 
Cook to his grandfather, who had been an officer 
in one of Cook's voyages to the South Seas. The 
book is beautifully bound in old red morocco, 
elaborately tooled in gold with figures of birds, 
insects, and flowers. It has silver clasps, which 
close by means of a long, thin needle of lead (?) 
with a silver top. The work is interleaved with 
blank pages, some of them smeared with a white 
composition upon which the marks made by the 
lead needle appear distinctly. 


is catching at a crown will not fish for gudgeons,' 
as Cleopatra once said to Mark Antony." Some- 
thing approximate to this, not necessarily the 
exact words. Could any references be traced in 
English plays or other sources ? S. T. S. 

" FEER AND FLET." What was this ? In 1429 
Avice, widow of Wm. Opwyk, surrendered a 
cottage in Bury Street. Fulham, to Robert Eyre, 
on condition that she should have for her life 
her dwelling house at the east end of the house 
called "ferehous," with " feer and flet " in the 
same, and part of the herbs growing in the cur- 

8<" 8. X. JOLT 25, '96.] 



tilage, with free ingress and egress towards the 
same when she pleased. I suppose ferehous = 
ferry-house. CHAS. JAS, FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

ALEXANDER CARLTLE, D.D., 1722-1805. 
John Hill Burton, who edited, in 1860, the well- 
known * Autobiography ' of this Scottish divine 
the Jupiter Carlyle of Sir Walter Scott mentions 
somewhere a collection of papers, letters, &c., left 
by Carlyle. Were they ever deposited at any 
public institution ? SELPPUC. 

POMPADOUR. As is generally known, pompa- 
dour, as a colour, is a sort of dark claret purple, 
and the 56th Foot is called the " Pompadours," 
from their claret facings ; but whence is this name 
for the colour derived ? Isabelle colour has, I 
believe, already been discussed in ' N. & Q.' 


JACK SHEPPARD. Can you inform me where 
the portrait of Jack Sheppard (painted by Sir 
James Thornhill in 1722 for George T.) is at 

TOUT FAMILY. Will some one give me any kind 
of information relating to the Tout family ? John 
Tout migrated from East Halton to Barnoldby-le- 
Beck, Lincolnshire, somewhere about a century 
ago. Had the aforesaid John any brothers? Is 
the name known in Yorkshire as a surname ? Is 
anything known as to the origin of our singular 
name ? C. GARDNER (ne TOUT). 

47, Chichester Road, Leytonstone, B. 

Before 1750 there existed a small species of sheep 
in the Highlands, having white or reddish faces, 
but so delicate that they required to be housed in 
the winter. They had very fine wool, and their 
mutton was very sweet. Had this old breed of 
native sheep any distinctive name ? Is the breed 
now totally extinct ? Seeing that these sheep 
were regarded as such tender animals that they 
could not be left in winter in the open air, and, it 
is said, could not defend themselves and their 
young from foxes and golden eagles, was it a 
native breed ? I shall be glad of references should 
this breed be noticed by any of the early travellers 
an the Highlands. R. HEDGER WALLACE. 

CHURCHWARDENS. The parish of Wingham 
appoints both the churchwardens at a vestry 
meeting, BO that both are people's wardens. Is 
this common ? The reason given is that since the 
ollege was suppressed, in 1547, there had only 
been a perpetual curate, who cannot appoint a 
churchwarden. Is this legally true ? as many per- 
petual curacies existed. Owing to the custom, it 
is said the vicar cannot now appoint. 

Wingham, Kent. 

(8"> S. x. 8.) 

It is not difficult to reply to PROF. ATTWELL'S 
two queries. So early as the fourteenth century the 
sect of Church reformers, then known as Lollards, 
conceived that the title of " Saint" savoured of 
papistry, and discontinued prefixing it to the 
names of those deceased individuals whom the 
Church had authoritatively designated as having 
been exemplarily holy in their lives, and there- 
fore entitled to special veneration after death. 
At the date given by Colville, 1526, the soi 
disant reformers, not yet known as Protestants, 
had generally abandoned the use of the eccle- 
siastically official title. 

In the succeeding reign (Elizabeth) these 
Gospellers, from a reputed austerity in mode of 
life, came to be known as Precisians, more fre- 
quently called Puritans.* Thus we find the court 
favourite Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, popu- 
larly reputed to be a Puritan, or a favourer of the 
Puritan the Precisian sect. This body adopted 
even more strictly the usuage, or non-usage, in 
this respect of their precursors, the Lollards. 

During the great Civil War the Low Church 
party to use a convenient designation followed 
the earlier innovators in reprobating the custom 
of affixing the canonical title, which the High 
Church the Cavalier section of the community 
as stubbornly declined to ignore. Is not PROF. 
ATTWELL acquainted with the charming story in 
the Spectator of Sir Roger de Coverley's experi- 
ence in his youth when the war between king and 
Parliament was raging? How, inquiring for 
St. Anne's Lane, to which he had been directed, 
a sour-visaged Precisian angrily asked him, Who 
made Anne a saint ? and, denouncing the lad as 
a malignant Prelatist, refused to assist him in his 
search ; and how the youth to accommodate his 
locution to the tone of the time asked the next 
wayfarer he happened to meet where Anne's Lane 
was, receiving for reply a hearty curse, for a prick- 
eared cur, and the information that St. Anne was 
a saint before the juvenile inquirer was born, and 
would continue to be known and venerated aa 
such long after be was hanged ; but not obtaining 
the information he sought ? 

For the next hundred years the habit of drop- 
ping the prefix continued general, spreading from 
the lower to all orders of society. This covers 
the time of Pope. I opine that the increasing 
attention given to Church matters during the 
latter part of the eighteenth century led to the 
popular recognition, and hence reintroduction, of 
the canonical designation. 

* See Shakespeare's ' Twelfth Night,' passim. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8-s.x.juLT 25/86. 

On the subject occupying the remainder of 
your correspondent's communication I do not 
profess myself competent to offer any useful com- 
ment. NBMO. 


PROF. ATTWBLL asks why in the above combina- 
tion the emphasis falls on the second syllable of 
"churchyard," whereas if that word is taken 
alone it falls upon the first. I beg to refer him 
to a letter of mine at 8 kt> S. vii. 235. Therein I 
explained a perfectly parallel case, which had 
puzzled another correspondent viz., that while 
the name Carlisle is accented on the last syllable, 
yet in the phrase Carlisle Wall it is stressed on 
the first. The reasons for both phenomena are 
rythmical. Two strong accents cannot well come 
together, hence when Paul's clashes with Church 
the latter gives up its own stress, and when Car- 
lisle is placed in front of Wall it throws back its 
accent to the first syllable. JAS. PLATT, Jan. 

Probably much earlier instances of Paul's 
Churchyard (without the "St.") than the one 
given by PROF. ATTWELL might be found. Here 
are two that are somewhat earlier. The colophon 
of ' The late Expedition in Scotland/ printed by 
Reynold Wolf in 1544, runs : " Imprinted at 
London in Paul's Church yard," &c. In the 
account of the coronation of Queen Anne (Boleyn), 
printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1533, there 
occurs the sentence: "And so her Grace passed 
forth into Paul's Churchyard." Both these 
instances I take from Mr. Arber's * English 

So far as my experience goes the last syllable 
of " churchyard " is accented in popular speech, 
not the first. Literary usage varies. Kingsley 

And the baby in his cradle in the churchyard ; 

In the village churchyard she lies. 
" Bird's-nest " I always hear accented on the last 
syllable. So, too, with " beef-tea," " bee's- wax," 
and scores of similar words which the dictionaries 
say ought to be accented on the first. 

C. C. B. 

An earlier instance of the omission of "St." 
than that quoted is in 'The Castell of Pleasure/ 
which was " Enprynted in poules churcbayrde at 
the sygne of the Trynyte by me Hary Pepwell in 
the yere of our lorde M.ccccc.xviij." A Donatus 
printed by Philip de Cowlance at Paris in 1515 
bears in its imprint, " Et in cymiterio sancti Pauli 
ad signura sancte Katerine vel diue trinitatis." 

ST. UNCUMBER (8 ttt S. x. 24). This useful 
saint is also known as Wilgefortis, Liberata, 
Eutropia, and Gehulf. A sixteenth century statue 

of her is to be seen in St. Etienne's church ab 
Beauvais, near the west end of the south wall* 
In his * Lives of the Saints/ sub 20 July, Baring- 
Gould translates a passage from Cahiet's ' Carac- 
teristiques des Saints,' which suggests an origin 
for the peculiar appendages of the holy maiden 
other than that suspected by Lina Eckenstein : 

" For my part I am inclined to think that the crown,. 
beard, gown, and cross which are regarded as the 
attributes of this miraculous virgin, are only a pious 
devotion to the celebrated crucifix of Lucca, somewhat 
gone astray. It is known that devotion to this image of 
Jesus Christ crucified was widely extended in the twelfth 
century; so that the favourite oath by William Rufus, 
king of England, was ' By the sacred face of Lucca.' 
Now tbia famous crucifix, like many others of the same 
period, was completely dressed and crowned. In course 
of time, the long gown caused it to be thought that the 
figure was that of a woman and the beard caused her to 
be called Vierge- forte. Let us add that the crucifix of 
Lucca wa* shod in silver, to obviate the deterioration 
caused by the kissing of the feet by pilgrims. This also has 
turned to the glorification of S. Wilgefortis. For it is 
said that a poor minstrel one day played an air under 
the statue of the Saint and was recompensed by he 
giving him one of her rich shoes." 


A similar figure is to be seen in the church of 
St. Stephen at Beauvais, on the wall (if I remember 
right) of the south aisle, towards the west end. It 
is described in Joanne's 'Geographic de TGise" 
(p. 44) as "une sainte Wilgeforte ou Milforte 
(vierge crucifiee et represented avec une barbe 
e'paisse) qui p*rait n'etre autre chose qu'un crucifix 
duXIlsiecle." C. C. J. W. 

This saint is mentioned in ' The Four P. P./ 
circa 1540, Dodsley's 'Gld English Plays,' ed. 
Hazlitt, vol. i. pp. 333-4 : 

Then at the Rhodes also I was ; 

And round about to Amias. 

At St. Uncumber and St. Trunnion ; 

At St. Botolph and St. Anne of Buxton. 

Respecting this saint Hazlitt refers to 'Popular 
Antiquities of Great Britain/ ii. 136. 


This is a very old acquaintance of ' N. & Q. f 
See I 8t S. ii. 381 ; iii. 404 ; 2 nd S. ix. 164 (where 
there is a valuable editorial note), 274 ; 4 tb S. vi. 
559. W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

(8 th S. ix. 344). There is classical 
authority for tne common origin of 'ApyciV^d vrrjs* 
Apollodorus, ' Biblioth./ 1. ii. c. i. 1, 3, Goetting., 
1782, vol. i. p. 79, has : 

AIOS 8e 7riTaai/TOS 'E/3/r^ xAe^at rrjv /3ovv f 
jj.r)VV<TavTO<s 'lepaKos, eTretSv) XaOtlv OVK rjS 
/2aAwv aTreKTeive rov "Apyov, oOtv ' 

Apollodorus fl. circ. A.D. 140. His 'Biblio- 
theca ' is one of the best works of this sort. 

MR. SPENCE observes that the new translators 

8> S. X. JOLI 25, ' 6.] 



have not given the source of their version of the 
term. But they might have referred to Hesychius 
(1 circ. A.D. 380), 'Lex.,' .v., a reference which 
MR. SPENCE, in his proposal, almost anticipates. 
Hesychius is in his favour in questioning the 
meaning. I have in use tho " ed. Minor" of 
M. Schmidt, Jen., 1862. In the text it is : 

'Apyci^ovT^s' o f EppJ9 r; o upyos <f>6vov 
ij V "Apyei TT/OWTOV 7r</>7/vctJS. rj Karapywv TOVS 

In the note, apparently from the variations in 
the larger edition, there is : 

8' av tirj CTTI (eiTry ircpT) TOV 6eov ravra' Sia rrjv 
TWV oVo/AaT(ov TO Ta^ecus, Sia Se -nyi/ 
TO o*a< 

MR. SPENCE in his conjecture has, therefore, 
the support or so ancient an authority in etymo- 
logy. In respect of the fate of etymological guesses 
in ' N. & Q.' from time to time, he may well 
receive congratulation upon his success. In my 
Liddell and Scott, I860, I see no reference to this 
variation of meaning as it appears in Hesychius, 
although there is mention of apyrjs as a serpent. 
I am not aware how it is in the new Paris 

There is more respecting the various words in 
Hesychius, but I only notice further in reference 
to the above : 

'Apyv}i> 7T<vev (trag. adesp. fr. 163) 6<f>w 

<?OTl 8 7T10TOV 8paKOVTOS. 


Your correspondent may, perhaps, not object to 
know that this epithet of Hermes may be trans- 
lated " clear - shining." Dr. G. Autenrieth's 
* Homeric Dictionary,' translated by R. P. Keep, 
Ph.D., 1877, has, " 'Apye'i-ijtovTYjs (apyei, instr., 
</'av, clear-shining), epuh. of 'Ep/r^s, swift mes- 
senger, a popular (mistaken) etymology seems to 
have been the origin of the myth of the Argos- 

Mr. Arthur Sidgwick, in his ' Homer's Iliad,' 
Bks. i., ii., 1877, Macmillan, remarks upon the 
word (p. 140), " Probably from apy-, bright, which 
appears in apyos, apyvpos, and <j>av-, 'bright- 
shining.' The later story, how Hermes slew Argos, 
the hundred-eyed, whom the jealous Here had set 
to watch lo, beloved of Zeus, was certainly un- 
known to Homer, and perhaps grew out of a 
misunderstanding of this adjective." 

Chapman uses " Argicides " in his ' Fifth Book 
of Homer's Odysseys' : 

Thus charged he; nor Argicides denied, 
But to hit feet his fair vring'd shoes be tied. 

Palgrave, Dies. 

DORSET DIALECT (8 tb S. viii. 285, 377, 411, 
458, 475). The village of Beer is itself interesting 
enough. Enclosed by hills, its single street of old, 
mostly thatched, houses, ends, some height above 
the sea, in a small cliff-bounded bay. Down it 
courses the water supply, an open stream with so 
steep a fall that the water rises into pipes at inter- 
vals, which open at a convenient height for pails. 
These are contained in old square stone pillars, 
about six feet high and two and a half wide, sur- 
mounted by an incurved apex. But a greater 
interest for the readers of ' N. & Q.' (if not already 
discussed) is in the statement that the inhabitants 
present a foreign cast of feature, which is accounted 
for by the following story. Some centuries ago 
the men were all killed in one of the civil wars. 
Just afterwards a foreign ship (I think French) 
was wrecked in the bay. The sailors got on shore, 
and, finding a village of women, stayed there. 
Hence the alleged foreign characteristics. I heard 
the story in connexion with a case of disease of 
curiously foreign type, but not of weight as regards 
the question. No doubt the story is somewhere 
in print. The way in which the village is shut in 
makes it less improbable than it would otherwise 
be, especially since of old, when Seaton was not, 
the now decayed Axmouth would be separated by 
the river. It would be interesting to know the 
facts regarding the physical features of the inha- 
bitants, and also if modified foreign names or cus- 
toms can be traced. W. R. GOWERS. 

query, I may say that the word rare is still used 
in the rural districts of Dorset as signifying and, 
indeed, is but another form of the farrow, or 
litter of pigs. According to Barnes's ' Glossary ' 
(ed. 1863) it is also used as a verb = to farrow. 
Mr. Barnes gives the derivation from the A.-S. 
/orw = a family or generation (s. v. " Veare "). Of 
the other names given by your correspondent, 
harms (from the Dutch haam) is used with refer- 
ence to the pieces of wood put on the collar of a 
horse with staples to take the traces. But this i* 
a different sense from that given, I think, in the 
extract from the ' Commissioners' Inquisitions.' 
(See 'Glossary,' *. v. " Htames.") 

J. S. UDAL. 

ST. SAMPSON (8 th S. viii. 427 ; ix. 16). He is 
said to have been a son of AQQWD, an American, 
who came over to Gwent at the Frankish invasion 
of Gaul. He married Anna, daughter of Meurig 
ap Tewdrig, King of Gwent, then living at Caer- 
went, probably. The two sons by this marriage 
were Samson and Tathan, the latter head of the 
school at Caerwent, and better known as St. 
Athan. Amwn's brother, Umbrafe), married 
Afrella, another daughter of King Menrig, and by 
her was father of St. Maglorius. I omit the "it 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8s,x. JULY 25/95. 

is said," " it is supposed," &c., which must be under- 
stood in all these statements.. Amwn may have 
been a brother or cousin of King Hoel II., who 
was a refugee from Armorica to Caerwent. One 
of his, Hoel's, uncles was Amwn Ddu, father of 
St. Tydecho, who gave name to Tythegston. 

T. W. 
Aston Clinton. 

" BEDSTAVES " (8 th S. ix. 304). I am very much 
inclined to think, in spite of all that has been said 
to the contrary, that Dr. Johnson's explanation is 
right, after all, when he defines a bedstaff as " A 
wooden pin stuck anciently on sides of the bed- 
stead to hold the clothes from slipping on either 
side." A few months ago I met with the follow- 
ing passage, which certainly seems to corroborate 
what Dr. Johnson has said : 
There with my mother earth, I thought it fit 
To lodge, and yet no incest did commit : 
My bed was curtained with good wholesome airs, 
And being weary, 1 went up no stairs : 
The sky my canopy, bright Phcebe shined, 
Sweet bawling Zephyrus breathed gentle wind ; 
In heaven's star-chamber I did lodge that night, 
Ten thousand stars me to my bed did light ; 
There barricadoed with a bank lay we 
Below the lofty branches of a tree, 
There my bed-fellows and companions were, 
My man, my horse, a bull, four cows, two steer : 
But yet for all this most confused rout, 
We had no bedstaves, yet we fell not out. 
Thus nature, like an ancient free upholster, 
Did furnish us with bedstead, bed and bolster ; 
And the kind skies, (for which high heaven be thanked,) 
Allowed us a large covering and a blanket. 

John Taylor's ' Pennyless Pilgrimage,' 1618. 

This allusion seems plain enough. 


A kindred word is bedpost. One of the mean- 
ings of this seems to have escaped notice in the 
* New English Dictionary.' It was used for the 
leg of the bedstead as well as for the support oi 
the canopy : 

"Adams deposited his carcase on the bedpost, a 

place which that good woman [Mrs. Adams] had always 
assigned him." ' Joseph Andrews,' bk. iv. ch. xiv. 


267). If MR. BERNAU will communicate with 
me, I can furnish him with a pedigree of the Le 
Oeyt family, taken from the Jersey Public Records 
and running back to the marriage of John Le 
Oeyt with Alicis Le Mallier in 1480. 


Gwalior, Central India. 

SONG (8 th S. vii. 8 ; ix. 515). The song, which 
is not quoted quite correctly, contains four mor 
verses than those given, and is to be found in ; 
collection of ' Hunting Songs ' by B. E. Egerton 

Warburton, published by Pickering. My copy 
s the fifth edition, 1873. The " whips" men- 
ioned are Mr. John Harrison, of Shelswell Park ; 

Sir Henry Peyton, of Swift's House, both in 
Oxfordshire ; and Mr. John Warde, of Squerries, 
ent to whom the quotation from Goldsmith is 
ertainly not applicable, as the present Mr. 
larrison, of Shelswell, and Sir Algernon Peyton, 
f Swift's House, whose coaches and teams may 
e seen constantly in the neighbourhood of 
Sicester, are country gentlemen actively perform- 
ng the duties of their station, while the present 

Col. Warde, of Squerries, is M.P. for Mid Kent. 
Ford " is the late Mr. Charles Ford, of Abbey- 
ield, Cheshire, at one time Master of the Cheshire 
iotmds; and " the Lancashire Lord " is the second 
Sari of Sefton, grandfather of the present peer. 

The song was written in 1834. F. D. H. 

" Peyton " is doubtless Sir Henry Peyton, third 
baronet, who died 24 February, 1854, aged seventy- 
r our, of whom the * Annual Register,' in his 
obituary, speaks as being " best known in London 
as a member of the old Four-in-Hand Club," and 
as being, " with the exception of another Cam- 
Dridgeshire baronet [doubtless Sir St. Vincent 
Cotton, sixth baronet, of Madingley Hall, co. 
Cambridge, well known on the Brighton road, 
who died 25 January, 1863, aged sixty-one], con- 
sidered the first amateur whip in England. As 
to " the Lancashire Lord," he, not improbably, 
s the late (the third) Earl of Sefton, who died 
2 August, 1855, in his sixtieth year. 

G. E. C. 

"Peyton." This is the name of Sir Henry 
Peyton, Bart., of Swift's House, near Bicester, 
a noted whip. " Harrison" may, perhaps, be his 
neighbour at Shelswell Park. If this is so, the 
son, E. Slater Harrison, Esq., of the Park, is an 
eminent representative of the family in this cha- 
racter. ED. MARSHALL. 

I think "the Lancashire Lord " commemorated 
in the stanzas quoted by MR. BOUCHIER was the 
late Earl of Sefton, who was celebrated in his day 
as a whip. E. WALFORD. 


(8 th S. ix. 421). The interesting note on this brief 
led me to refer to the long list of briefs collected 
in Ryton Church, in the county and diocese of 

The collection for the Philippen Colony was 
made on 16 Sept., 1764, and realized 5s. 

A collection was made under another brief, 
referred to in the note, that for " the Colleges of 
Philadelphia and New York in America." 

In this case the estimate was 12,000?., and the 
collection was made from house to house on May 9, 
10, 11, and 12, 1762, and amounted to 51 13s. 




The only other brief that I can find a record 
of for the needs of the colonies was one received 
here on Oct. 26, 1766, to meet an estimated loss of 
87,580Z. 8s. 10d., caused by fire at Montreal, in the 
province of Quebec. In this case a collection was 
made from house to house on May 11, 12, and 14, 
1767, producing 21. 4s. Id. 

Other briefs in aid of foreign objects found in 
our list are : 

1739. Bobig Villar in Valley of Luzerne in Piedmont. 
Loss by Inundation, &c., 4,354J. From House to House 
AUK" 12th, 61. Ss. 6jrf. 

1759. Hagen Church in Westphalia to be collected 
from House to House. Charge 3,1001. Rec d May 22nd. 
Read March 9th. Collected Mar. 10th, llth, 12th, and 
13th, 1760,6^.55. 6R 

1762. JSaarbruck School and Church in Germany. 
Charge 2,7321. from House to House. Rec d May 26th. 
Read Nov. 14th. Coll d Nov. 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18tb, 
21. 9s. id. 

1768. Vaudois Protestants in y e Vallies of Piedmont 
and Dutchy of Savoy from House to House. Rec d 
May 8th. Coll d Aug. 15th, 16tb, an/1 17th, 3*. Is. 9d. 

Can any correspondent give an account of the 
special circumstances under which these briefs were 
granted ? JOHNSON BAILT. 

Ryton Rectory. 

(8" S. ii. 124 ; ix. 227, 278). Whilst thanking 
MR. TERRY and MR. COLEMAN for their kindness, 
I venture to attempt placing myself deeper in the 
debt of * N. & Q.' Can any correspondent give me 
the extract in Camden's ' Britannia ' which Hol- 
land translated in reference to this fish, on p. 754 
of his edition ? There does not seem to be a copy 
of the work in this district. Of course the earlier 
the date the better; if I could choose, I should say 
the first edition in which the passage appears. But 
as I do not know, possibly the safe side will be any 
edition up to and including that of 1594. 



"FLITTERMODSE" = BAT (8 th S. ix. 348, 476; 
x. 18). I am obliged to correspondents and to 
the Editor for the quotations from Ben Jonson, 
<&c., that they have given me illustrative of the use 
of this word ; but I am surprised that MR. MICHAEL 
F. Cox should say, "Tennyson's employment of 
the word seems to have been so far unnoticed." If 
MR. Cox will kindly look at my note at the first 
reference he will see that I began with these words : 
_ Dees any one know of an instance of the use of 
his word in poetry other than in Tennyson's 
^ Voyage of Maeldune ' ? " I then quoted the line 
in which tlittermouse occurs. 


HENRY JUSTICE (8* h S. ix. 368). ' N. & Q.' 
bas already furnished reference to the very lengthy 
report of the trial on 8 May, 1736, given in the 
sessions paper of the trials at the Central Criminal 

Court for the year 1735-6, p. 110, and of his being 
sentenced to transportation to some of His 
Majesty's plantations in America for seven years. 
Particulars are also given of his father, wife, son, 
and daughter. 

The Cambridge Chronicle of 22 Oct., 1763, con- 
tains the following paragraph : 

" Lately died at the Hague, one Mr. Justice, who 
was some years ago transported for stealing of books 
belonging to the Public Library of this University." 

See ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. ii. 413, 514 ; v. 394, 487 ; 
and Hone's ' Everyday Book, 1 ii. 651. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

PAMELA (8"> S. vi. 468, 513 ; vii. 37, 91, 194, 
256, 330, 477). The testimony of an eye-witness 
is naturally of moro reliability than that of a con- 
scientious writer of a later generation, and one 
who was present at the funeral of Lady E. Fitz- 
gerald has left a few interesting lines. He says 
that after her divorce from Mr. Pitcairn, in 1812, 
she went to Paris, then to Montauban, for warmer 
climate. While in these rural scenes she garbed 
herself as a shepherdess, and went about with a 
crook, in imitation of one of the tales by Mar- 
montel, 'La Bergere des Alpes. 1 "But," using 
the writer's own words, 

" this wayward fancy yielded to the stirring movement 
of the French Revolution the glorious days of 1830, 
when she returned to the capital, and there died at the 
Hotel du Danube, Rue de la Sourdiere, in November the 
following year. The religious ceremony was performed 
in the Church of St. Roch, after which I witnessed the 
funeral procession, but do not recollect that it was 
attended by the royal carriages, as 1 had seen at the 
obsequies of Madame de Oenlis six months before. All 
the expenses, however, for the interment were defrayed 
by the King; for the thoughtless Pamela, little sub- 
missive in principle or practice to the dictates of pru- 
dencethe creature of impulse rather than the pupil of 
reason though in the enjoyment of 5001. income, was 
not found possessed of one ehilling at her decease. 
Among the mourners on the occasion Talleyrand was 
remarked. She was then about fifty- five years of age. 
Lord E. Fitzgerald had been fifteen years her senior. 1 ' 

The celebrated Ladies of Llangollen had over 
their drawing-room fireplace, in one frame, minia- 
tures of Madame de Genlie, Lady E. Fitzgerald, 
and Louis Philippe, and a drawing of flowers by 
M. de Genlis. HILDA GAMLIN. 


EDWARD YOUNG, THE POET (8 th S. ix. 488). 
'an E. W. D. give the locality of the Walling- 
ton he mentions? I am a great-great-grandson 
of a Henry Bell, of Wallington, Norfolk, who died 
n 1753, aged fifty-one, and am conversant with 
the family pedigree (going back to Sir Robert 
Bsll, Knt., L.C.B. of the Exchequer and Speaker 
of the Commons in 14 Elizabeth); but, so far as I 
jnow, the Henry Bell above mentioned had but 
wo daughters, neither of whom married a Frederic 
Young. It is, of course, possible that there was 


NOTES AND QUERIES. cs s. x. JULY 25/96. 

in 1765 some other family of Bell of some other 
WalliDgton ; but, if so, it would be a curious 
coincidence. E. W. D. can, if he pleases, write to 
me direct. JOHN H. JOSSELTN. 


(8 th S. ix. 425 ; x. 10). Is not the earliest refer- 
ence to this mode of inscribing on stone to be 
found in the words of Job (chap. xix. 24) : " Oh 
that my words were graven with an iron pen and 
lead in the rock for ever " ? If this, the render- 
ing of the text in the A.V., is correct, it proves the 
practice to be as old as civilization. I know the 
words are not understood in that sense by all. 
Bishop Symon Patrick, for instance, paraphrases 
the text : " May they be graven upon a plate of 
lead with an iron pen ; nay, cut into a rock or 
marble pillar to continue to all Posterity ! " Will 
some competent Hebrew scholar say what is the true 
meaning of the original words ; and are there any 
incised and leaded inscriptions on the face of the 
living rock in existence ? W. R. TATE. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

The several correspondents who have so kindly 
replied to my query, under the above heading, have 
each missed the point I am anxious to raise. In 
East Brent Churchyard, Somersetshire, there is a 
headstone to Grace Barrow, who died 21 Sept., 
1705. The characters are all of inlaid lead. Per- 
mit me to repeat my query : Is there an older 
instance of this kind of lettering to be found in 
any of our churchyards 1 Of course, we all know 
that in the Book of Job the prophet's regret is 
recorded that his words were not " graven with an 
iron pen and lead in the rock for ever." But if 
gravestone inscriptions in our churchyards were 
leaded prior to the eighteenth century there are 
certainly very few now in existence. East Brent 
is the earliest I have come across, and was the 
oldest the late Archdeacon Denison had seen. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

F. ROBSON, COMEDIAN (8 th S. ix. 468, 519). 
I observed the other day a very characteristi 
portrait (carte de visite size) of Robson with his 
two daughters at Messrs. Barke & Co.'s, 208 
Shaftesbury Avenue, together with other portraits 
of bygone theatrical celebrities. JNO. HEBB. 

Willeeden Green. 

ROBERT HUISH (8 th S. ix. 367, 497). In the 
* Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors,' 1816 
is the following notice : " Huisb, Robert, Esq. 
received the rudiments of education under Mrs 
Barbauld, at Palsgrave, in Suffolk, and completec 
it at the University of Frankfort-on-the-Maine. 
It also gives the following list of his works : ' Solo 
mon : a Sacred Drama, from the German of Klop 
stock,' 12mo., 1809 ; ' Mysteries of Ferney Castle 

ovel, 4 vols. 12mo., 1809; 'The Sorcerer,' a 
omance, 8vo., 1811; 'The Peruvians,' a poem, 
vo., 1813. JOHN PATCHING. 

THE Ku KLUX KLAN (8 th S. ix. 505). It may, 
perhaps, be of passing interest to note that Dr. 
"onan Doyle has a reference to the above society 
n his ' Adventures of Sherlock Holmes,' Adven- 
ure V., "The Five Orange Pips," the Strand 
ftagazine, November, 1891. BEN. WALKER. 

Langatone, Erdington. 

"NAPOLE*ON GALEUX" (8 th S. ix. 365). II 

Alison is any authority, Napoleon "early in life 

uttered much from a cutaneous disorder, contracted 

when serving a cannon at the siege of Toulon, and 

which only yielded, in 1801, to the scientific skill 

f Dr. Corvisart" (chap. Ixxviii.). 


Apropos of this note it is curious that the Duko 
of Wellington should also have been at one time 
psoric. Towards the close of his life the duke 
still retained a vivid recollection of the baths of 
dilute acid to which he was subjected as a cure foe 
the disease when in Bombay. D. G. P. 

Gwalior, Central India. 

MATISM (8* u S. ix. 507). The following remarks, 
from Mr. W. G. Black's * Folk-Medicine' (F.L.S.), 
1883, p. 193, may interest your correspondent : 

1 A chestnut begged or stolen is a preservative against 
rheumatism. So is a potato, and I know a gentleman 
who carries one always with him. He told me that he 
did not know whether it was superstition or not, but 
whenever by accident he left hia potato at home he was 
sure to feel a twinge of rheumatism. Some recommend 
a double hazel nut to be carried in the pocket against 


Some years ago I was suffering from haemorrhoids j 
a workman brought me a large horse chestnut 
which he had procured specially for me, with in- 
structions never to be without it and a cure would 
ensue. On informing the medical man who 
attended me of the circumstance, he stated that 
one of the principal remedies for the painful com- 
plaint in the homoeopathic pharmacopoeia was the 
horse chestnut. AYEAHR. 

I have not heard of this superstition in England. 
Folkard says that "the Venetians" carry a horse 
chestnut as a preventive of haemorrhoids. 

0. C. B. 

An instance of this, in which a keeper supplies 
a shopkeeper at Dollar, occurs in * N. & Q.,' 5'* S, 
vi. 424. There is another instance in 2 nd S. i. 249. 


DIALECT (8 th S. x. 8). In the instance quoted 
by W. L. dole seems to be the same word as dole 
grief, sorrow. The word, thus defined is in Wright's 

8 th S. X. JOLT 25, '96. J 



* Provincial Glossary. ' Here also is dolour, o 
similar meaning ; and an Essex word dolouring = 
, mournful noise. C. P. HALE. 

Halliwell says that dole= grief, sorrow, is stil 
in use in the North. I have heard dulish (u long 
in Lincolnshire for sad, sorrowful. C. C. B. 

METRE OF ' IN MEMORTAM ' (8 th S. iii. 288, 337 
430 ; iv. 57). Ben Jonson made use of this metn 
not only in the elegy in ' Underwoods,' but als< 
ia the chorus of the second act of ' Catiline,' pro 
duced and published in 1611. 


32, Great Ornrnd Street, W.C. 

215). Is it certain that the Margravine was 
buried at Speen, in which church she has a monu 
ment . I have a note of her interment at Naples 
in the Protestant burial-ground. I take this 
opportunity of asking where Brandenburg House 
exactly stood. Was it where Fhlham Workhouse 
BOW stands, in the Fulham Palace Road ; or per- 
haps rather where the workhouse infirmary is, in 
a side road close by ? Near this road is a street 
called Margravine Gardens. R. F. S. 

ESCHUID (8 th S. viii. 409, 452 ; ix. 53, 152, 218). 
At the penultimate reference your correspondent 
writes : " This modestly termed opusculus consists 
of about 1,200 columns." What authority is there 
for opusculus ? Surely the classical diminutive of 
opus is opusculum. Of.: "Dr. Hammond in a 

particular opusculum treated on this subject.' 

Evelyn, Corresp.,' vol. iii. p. 90, ed. 1872. Cicero 
has, 'Paradoxa,' "Proemium," 5: " Accipies 
igitur hoc parvum opusculum, lucubratum his iam 
contractioribus noctibus." 


DTCE SOMBRE (8* S.vii. 269, 309, 375, 479). 
Public Opinion, 22 November, 1895, contains an 
article entitled 'A Romantic Episode in Indian 
History,' extracted from Chambers's Journal. 
This account differs from those already given at 
above references, inasmuch as the Begum is repre- 
sented as stabbing herself. Her husband, Le Vas- 
soult, on hearing that she was dead, " placed a 
pistol to his forehead, fired, and fell dead from his 
saddle." A son of Somru (Reinhard) by a former 
wife was placed on the throne. Thomas is repre- 
sented not as coming to her rescue, but as 
opposing her, if not leading the revolt. 



FLAGS (8 th S. ix. 328, 394, 472, 499 ; x. 16). 
I am very glad to know that Union Jack is not 
an improper term for the union flag, as it is so 
universally used. My quotation was in inverted 
commas, but without the authority, for when I 
came to verify it having, as I thought, taken it 

from " Royal Edition : Flags of Britain and her 
Colonies," published at Glasgow by James Brown, 
54, Union Street, in 1887, I should think, though 
I bought it at Southampton in 18921 was 
unable to find it. The quotation has since turned 
up, and I find I took it from an advertisement, 
with a coloured representation of the union flag, 
issued by S. W. Wolff, the well-known flag makers, 
of High Street, Southampton. In James Brown's 
publication, however, I find "The Union flag 
(erroneously named the Union Jack)." So that 
the books are against, and your correspondents in 
favour of the two terms being identical, which 
appears to me to be unfortunate. I confess to 
knowing very little about the matter. 

A few weeks ago at a French port (Rouen) I saw a 
folio card of the flags of all nations, published by a 
French publisher. The Union Jack is there repre- 
sented as a blue flag with the red crosses (perfectly 
straight) only, the white is omitted altogether. 
The pilot's flag is also as wrong as it could be, 
being represented as the union flag with a white 
border ! RALPH THOMAS. 

The following extract shows the word "jack," 
for a flag, used without any qualifying adjunct : 

' The last night our boateswaine dyed very suddenly, 
and this afternoone I buryed him in the Greeks church- 
yard. He was nobly buryed, and like a souldyer. He 
bad a neate coffin, which was covered over with one of 
the King's jacks, and his boarson's eylver whisle and 
chaine layed on the top (to shew his office), between 
2 pistolls crost with a hangar drawne." 'Diary of 
Henry Teonge,' p. 100. 

The funeral took place on 5 December, 1675, at 
Soanderoon. AYEAHR. 

On 20 June, the anniversary of the accession of 
3ueen Victoria, I saw several flags flying in 
Oxford, one with the field argent bearing the red 
cross of St George, and some having the national 
Union Jack. Passing through London on Satur- 
day, 4 July, I saw several American flags flying, 
bearing the "stars and the stripes," or the "star- 
spangled banner," and it occurred to me that it 
was the anniversary of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence of the United States in 1776 one hundred 
and twenty years since. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

In reference to MR. HEMS'S note, I would 
emark that the Union Jack might be flown upside 
own on his ancient Guildhall without attracting 
he attention even of sailors or heralds. But if it 
ere flown reversed end for end, as, I regret to 
ay, I have seen it sometimes on public buildings, 
requently on public-houses, the effect would be 
be same as that of flying the flag of the United 
states of America with the stars on the fly instead 
f the hoist of the flag ; and the result would be 
o deprive Scotland of that precedence over Ire- 



[8> S. X. JULY 25, '96. 

land to which, as senior partner in the Union, she 
is entitled. KILLIGREW. 

GAMES IN CHURCHYARDS (8 th S. ix. 488). In 
a very interesting; volume, entitled 4 The History 
of a Village Community in the Eastern Counties/ 
1893, pp. 97, 93, the author says, " At Methwold 
in 1800, after Sunday afternoon service, the 
parson gave the first kick to the Camp-ball (foot- 
ball) at the Church Porch." The village community 
dealt with is that of Methwold, and the historian 
of it the Rev. J. Denny Gedge, vicar of the parish. 
Camping was a great game in Norfolk and Suffolk, 
and I am not sure that it is rightly described as 
identical with football. JAMES HOOPER. 


According to an old correspondent (!' S. ii. 55) 
the opinion prevails in some quarters that the 
north side of our rural churchyards was left un- 
consecrated so that it might be used as a play- 
ground. There is something in this; but it is 
rather an inversion of the truth. An old supersti- 
tion against burial on the north side has often 
been illustrated in ' N. & Q.,' and it would seem 
that quarter of the churchyard has been used for 
profane purposes, including that of burying profane 
persons. The above correspondent says that he 
has often had occasion to interrupt the game of 
football in a churchyard (see also 7" S. viii. 276). 


In the Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist, 
July, 1895, and July, 1896, is a paper about 
; Churchyard Games in Wales/ by Elias Owen, 

Wingham, Kent. 

WINDMILLS (8 th S. ix. 488 ; x. 9). 
" A Scotchman may tramp the better part of Europe 
and the United States, and never again receive so vivid 
an impression of foreign travel and strange lands and 
manners as on his first excursion into England. The 
change from a hilly to a level country strikes him with 
delighted wonder. Along the flat horizon there arise 
the frequent venerable towers of churches. He sees at 
the end of airy vistas the revolution of the windmill 
sails. He may go where he pleases in the future ; he 
may see Alps, and Pyramids, and lions ; but it will be 
hard to beat the pleasure of that moment. There are, 
indeed, few merrier spectacles than that of many wind- 
mills bickering together in a fresh breeze over a woody 
country; their halting alacrity of movement, their 
pleasant business, making bread all day with uncouth 
gesticulation?, their air, gigantically human, as of a 
creature half alive, put a spirit of romance into the 
tamest landscape. When the Scotch child sees them first 
he falls immediately in love ; and from that time for- 
ward windmills keep turning in his dreams." R. L. 
Stevenson, ' The Foreigner at Home/ in Memories and 
Portraits/ pp. 8,9. 

C. D. 

A windmill is the scene of Beaumont and Fletcher's 
odious play ' The Maid in the Mill.' Longfellow's 
little poem ' The Windmill, a Folk-song,' should 

be mentioned. There is an article on { Sussex 
Watermills and Windmills/ by M. A. Lower, in 
the * Sussex Arch. Colls./ vol. v. There are 
several in the neighbourhood of this town, but 
some have been eradicated to make way for houses 
and streets. A curious fatality is recorded in the 
'Annual Register/ 1830, p. 276. Sir Frederick 
Francis Baker, Bart., 

" was showing his children the effect and operations of 
a windmill near Hastings, when, being very short- 
sighted, he approached too near to it, and one of the 
flappers striking him on the back part of the head, he 
shortly after breathed his last." 


W. C. B. mentions "some very ancient and 
picturesque wooden mills near York, one of which 
belonged to the family of Etty, the painter." 
Jeanie Deans, writing to Reuben Butler from York, 
on her immortal journey to London, says : 

" I have seen many things which I trust to tell you 
one day, also the muckle kirk of this place ; and all 
around the city are mills whilk havena muckle wheels 
nor mill-dams, but gang by the wind strange to behold." 

Dante's allusion to windmills, though under very 
grim circumstances, should not be forgotten : 

Quando 1'emisperio nostro annotta. 
Par da lungi un mulin che il vento gira. 

' Inferno/ xzxiv. 5, 6. 

Tennyson's " whirring sail," in his little song * The 
Owl,' is, I suppose, the sail of a windmill. 

Shakespeare, I see by Mrs. Cowden Clarke, 
alludes twice to windmills ( 1 Henry IV./ III. i., 

Your correspondent may be glad to be referred 
to a pleasant paper ' Oa Windmills/ by Mr. John 
Mortimer, in the * Papers of the Manchester 
Literary Club/ 1894, or the Manchester Quarterly 
for October that year, although it may possibly not 
contain very much in answer to his question. 

C. W. S. 

(8 th S. ix. 366, 416, 493 ; x. 60). The original 
painting of the Waterloo banquet is still at Mr. 
Mackenzie's, at Fawley Court. It is a good deal 
shown to the public. The picture was purchased 
by the predecessor of the present Mackenzie of 
Fawley Court. D. 

LORD JOHN RUSSELL (8 th S. ix. 506). Those 
who fail to know or remember that from his child- 
hood Lord John Russell cultivated the muse of 
English poetry can scarcely have read the ' Life ' 
of that statesman published by Mr. Spencer Wai- 
pole in 1889. I would refer them especially to 
vol. i. pp. 21, 48, 50, 57 (where occur his lines 
quoted by MR. BLENKINSOPP), 72, 80,81, 97, &c., 
to say nothing of his tragedy of ' Don Carlos/ Mr. 
Walpole expressly states that "His ambition, at 
this period of his life, was probably poetry, and 


S. X. JULY 25, '96.] 



the pieces which he has left in print, as well as in 
manuscript, show that he had much facility in 
verse "; adding that it was only natural that his 
very fame as a politician should have thrown his 
poetry into the shade. E. WALFORD. 


" BOMBELLIEAS " (8 th S. x. 52). This word 
should be spelt bombillas. They are tubes of 
tin or plated metal with a pear-shaped bulging 
end which is perforated with holes, and are largely 
used in the Spanish-speaking countries of South 
America for sucking up the native tea, called matt ; 
hence their name, "little pumps." E. A. FRY. 

OLD CLOCK (8 th S. ix. 268, 434, 472). The name 
of John Whitfield does not occur in ' Former Clock 
and Watchmakers and their Work'; but that of 
Henry Whitfield is mentioned, with the date 1662. 


COLONIST (8 th S. ix. 347, 516). I am much 
obliged for the trouble MR. COLEMAN has taken. 
The ship named is not the one I want. I see now 
that my query ought to have been more explicit. 
Paulin Huggett Pearce (a notice of whom will be 
found in the second volume of Boase's * Modern 
English Biography,' shortly to be published) dis- 
tinguished himself in early life, for, according to 
the tombstone in St. Peter's Churchyard, he was a 
" skilful swimmer, saved many persons from 
drowning in various parts of the world, commenc- 
ing at the age of seventeen by saving the lives of 
captain and part of the crew of the ship Colonist 
at Barbadoes." The tombstone says he died 1888, 
aged eighty. 

According to his book, ' A Treatise on the Art 
of Swimming,' 1842, he was at Barbadoes in 1827; 
and if that was when the Colonist was wrecked he 
was then nineteen ; or if seventeen then, he was 
seventy-eight, and not eighty, when he died. He 
was born and died at Ramsgate. He was awarded 
a bronze medal of the Royal Humane Society for 
saving the life of Mr. Blake on 31 August, 1837. 
I need not apologize to the readers of *N. & Q.' 
for making all this fuss about a couple of years. 

Pearce has given me a great deal of trouble ; in 
fact I have found it quite impossible to give a full 
list of his publications, of which he issued shoals. 
He wrote instructions on swimming, and to them 
he tacked hundreds of lines of doggerel verse. 
That he was a real poet may be judged from the 
fact of his putting that word after his name on his 
bathing machines, "P. H. Pearce, poet." 


x. 26). This is a favourite book of mine, and an 
excellent work of reference, and I am pleased MR. 
YARDLEY has read it to such purpose. His list of 
errors is most interesting, and I venture to add 

some of those I have noted myself. I will preface 
my remarks by saying that although Wheeler is 
comparatively an old authority he is no worse in 
the points I have selected for illustration than the 
1 Cyclopaedia of Names,' edited by one of the great 
men of the * Century Dictionary,' assisted by 
" eminent specialists." 

1. It is a pity not one of these " eminent spe- 
cialists " was acquainted with the northern tongues. 
Wheeler and Smith both give names from the 
Teutonic mythology, and almost invariably mark 
the pronunciation incorrectly. There is the less 
excuse for this as Dr. Sweet has explained the 
subject of Icelandic pronunciation in one of his 
works published by the Clarendon Press. The 
diphthong ei or ey is an especial stumbling-block, 
being always rendered as if German instead of in 
the English grey or gray. See examples Freyja, 
Heimdall, Sleipnir, Jotunheim, Niflheim, &c. 

2. For names from the Arthurian cycle there 
can, of course, be no touchstone except the usage 
of poets. Books of the type we are discussing 
should register every form and give illustrative 
quotations. Thus Gawain is accented by Tenny- 
son indifferently on either syllable, as any one can 
see by reading the idyl of * Lancelot and Elaine/ 
The dictionaries only give one accent. Again, 
Isolde (there are thirty other ways of spelling it) is 
given with stress on the first syllable in Wheeler, 
but on the second in Smith. Scott and Arnold 
support the first, and Tennyson and Wagner the 
second. I have not space to go into this matter at 

3. It is curious that while several of the punning 
names which Scott delighted in adorn the pages 
of these books, the editors do not seem to be aware 
that there is any double meaning in them. Take 
Cleishbotham, for instance, or Moniplies. South- 
rons have so long made it a gibe against Scotsmen 
that they cannot understand a joke, that there is 
something of dramatic justice in this fact that a 
Scotch joke has passed during years through the 
hands of literary critics like Wheeler or Smith 
and eternally eludes their notice. It is proved by 
the pronunciation figured for Cleishbotham ^hat it 
has not been understood. 

Milton does, apparently, _ 

Briareos. But he begins many of his lines with 
a trochee. And this line may be read as though 
the a were short : 

Briareoa or Typhoa whom the den. 
Dryden, translating Virgil, makes the a short : 

Et centumgeminus Briareus. 
And BriareuB with all his hundred hands. 


With reference to the very interesting note on this 
subject, I ask permission to say that there is a 
charming illustration of 'Pope's House' (from a 

make the a long in 



[8i S. X. JULY 25, '96. 

print dated 1785) in ' Greater London,' by Edward 
Walford, M.A., vol. i. p. 102, Cassell & Co., 
London. And as regards your correspondent's 
remarks anent the action of Lady Howe in 
ordering the house to be razed and whatever was 
Pope's to be destroyed, it may not be out of 
place to mention that the vandalic disposition of 
her ladyship was not allowed to pass unrecorded 
nor unresented. For instance, Miss Berry, in her 
' Journal,' under the date of 2 1 Nov., 1807, writes : 
" We went into Pope's back garden, and saw the 
devastation going on upon his ' quincunx ' by its new 
possessor Baroness Howe. The anger and ill-humour 
expressed against her for pulling down his abode and 
destroying his grounds are much greater than one 
would have imagined." 

In connexion with the occurrence it has been sug- 
gested that Lady Howe was tempted by the chance 
of selling the materials of the old house at an 
enhanced price. However that may have been, 
she built herself a new residence on a site a 
hundred yards north of where once stood the 
beloved home of the poet, absorbing in the process 
the elegant little villa of Hudson the painter, 
master of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Perhaps I may 
add that the unpoetical baroness was the daughter 
of " the hero of the glorious 1st of June," and in- 
herited his title. Widow of the Hon. P. A. Ourzon, 
she took for her second husband the court oculist 
Dr. Phipps, who was made a baronet, and on his 
promotion emerged as Sir Jonathan Wathen 
Waller, Bart. Lady Howe gave many garden 
parties which were very attractive, and on " the 
1st of June " a silver cup to be rowed for on the 
Thames in honour of her father's great victory, 
when Sir Jonathan Wathen Waller, Bart., who 
formerly followed the gentle occupation of an 
oculist, used to be exhibited on the lawn decorated 
with all the orders and war medals of Admiral 
Earl Howe, E.G., &c. 

Sir J. Wathen Waller and his wife in their turn 
passed away, and in January, 1840, " Pope's 
Villa" although "Pope's Villa" had long 
ceased to exist was announced for sale ; but no 
one would purchase the counterfeit, and very 
shortly after the building materials were disposed 
of by auction. A portion of Lady Howe's house, 
however, was saved, and turned into two small 
tenements. The remains of the author of ' An 
Essay on Man ' rest, with those of his parents, in 
Twickenham Church ; but Pope's skull, sad to 
relate, is now in the private collection of a phreno- 
logist : 

Imperious Caesar, dead, and turned to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away. 

Clapham, S.W. 

ix. 467 ; x. 18). MR. GORDON will most probably 
obtain the information he wants relating to the 

etching by Hollar of the picture of the Priory of 
St. John of Jerusalem by addressing the Secretary 
of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jeru- 
salem, the Chancery, St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell. 


ANCIENT SERVICE BOOK (8 th S. ix. 467 ; x. 
15). The parchment leaves in which MR. VANB'S 
register book is wrapped are fragments of an old 
missal. The first leaf contains the mass (or part 
of the mass) for Friday in the second week of 
Lent, the epistle (or, as the Book of Common 
Prayer has it, the " portion of Scripture appointed 
for the epistle ") being from Genesis xxxyii., fol- 
lowed by the graduate, "Ad dominum cum 
tribularer clamavi," &c., and the gospel from 
Matt, xxu 33 - 46. The second leaf, so far as 
can be gathered from MR. VANE'S brief description, 
contains the gospel (Matt. xv. 1-20) from the mass 
for Wednesday in the third week of Lent, the 
epistle (Jerem. vii. 1-8) for the following day, 
Thursday, with the Secret (" Suscipe [qusesumus] 
Domine," &c.) from the same mass. It is im- 
possible to guess at the date without seeing the 
MS., but the fragments are probably from an 
English missal of the second half of the fifteenth 
century. I hope this note is not belated ; my 
* N. & Q.' has a far road to travel just now. 


Olinda, Brazil. 

FAMILY SOCIETIES (8 th S. ix. 424, 513 ; x. 37). 
Is the following the kind of society W. I. R. V. 
wishes information upon ? The Buchanan Society, 
as the name denotes, is composed of individuals of 
the name and clan of Buchanan, and is the oldest 
named society in Scotland. It was instituted in 
Glasgow so far back as 1725. At a friendly 
meeting of some of the name of Buchanan, held 
there on 5 March of that year, the following pro- 
posal was made : 

" That the name of Buchanan being now the most 
numerous name in the place, and many poor boys of 
that name who are found to be of good genius being lost 
for want of good education, a fund might be begun and 
carried on by the name, the interest of which in time 
might enable some of them to be useful in Church and 

This society has since gone on with almost un- 
interrupted success, it has attained a position of 
high importance, and is of great practical use. 


PATRIOT (8 th S. viii. 367, 517 ; ix. 493 ; x. 34). 
PROF. SKEAT appears to think that my remarks 
at the last reference but one were intended to 
impugn his veracity. I can assure him that nothing 
was further from my mind. I simply directed 
attention to what seemed to me to be an error in 
Mr. H. B. Wheatley's compilation, and I suppose 
I ought to have said BO. Curiously enough, how- 

8t 8. X. JULY 25, '96.] 



ever, in ' A Biographical List, &c.,' Part I. (E.D.S.), 
compiled by members and edited by PROF. SKEAT, 
there is on p. 5, with regard to Minsheu's ' Diction- 
ary ' the entry, " (second edition, revised). Folio. 
Ib. 1626." F. 0. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

SAMUEL BLOWER (8 th S. ix. 89, 435 ; x. 35). 
Particulars concerning him will be found in * The 
History of the Church of Doddridge (North- 
ampton),' by Thomas Arnold and J. J. Cooper 
(1895); also in 'A History of Northampton 
Castle Hill Church, now Doddridge, and its 
Pastorate, 1674-1895,' compiled by Mr. John 
Taylor (1896). On pp. 89, 90 of the latter book 
appears a copy of Blower's will. 


ROSE FAMILY (8 th S. ix. 327). Arthur Robert 
Rose, youngest surviving son of the Right Hon. 
Sir George Henry Rose (ob. 1855), was born 
13 Nov., 1811, and died 5 Feb., 1869. He lies 
interred in the churchyard of Northolt, Middlesex. 


A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 
Edited by Dr. James A. H. Murray. D'ffluent to Dis- 
burden. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
ANOTHER quarterly instalment of the ' Oxford Dic- 
tionary ' puts in an appearance, and the work is peen to 
be making vigorous and satisfactory progress. For the 
next quarter, indeed, two sections, " Disburse " to " Dis- 
observant," and "Fish" to " Flexuose," are promised. 
Quite needless is it to say that the old standard of ex- 
cellence is maintained, and that the number of quota- 
tions for the portion of tbe alphabet covered consists of 
thousands, as against hundreds in the best dictionary pre- 
viously existing. Six thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
eight are, in fact, the quotations, the largest number 
elsewhere to be found being nine hundred and forty- 
eight in the ' Century Dictionary.' A large number of 
the words in this section are formed with tbe Latin pre- 
fix dis, and its variants di and dif. In the val uable article 
on dis, the relation of the Latin dis to Us, originally 
dvis = Greek cig, twice, from duo, 3i>o, two, is shown. 
Originally proper to Latin and Romance words, dis has 
since been extended to native English words and words 
from all sources witness disbar, disbelieve, disbosom 
and, as Dr. Murray points out, discoach and dislurnpike 
Many words have naturally great historic interest. 
Dimity, according to popular etymology, is derived 
from Damietta. The origin is now given as from 
mediaeval Latin dimitum, Greek fli/iirof, of double 
thread ; and we have the quotation from Ducange, "ol 
the plurals amita, dimitaque et trimita explained to 
mean respectively fabrics with one, two, or three threads.'' 
The relation of these to the Persian word dvmyaii 
which "has the form of a derivative of Dimya'. 
Damietta" is said cautiously to be not clear. Milton'i 
word dingle, used previously by Drayton, and appa 
rently one hundred and ninety years earlier, is said to 
be of uncertain origin, and appears, on the whole, to 
have been of dialectal use until the seventeenth 
century. Interest will be inspired by the origin of dine 
tbe word disner being held to contain ultimately tin 
same elements as detjeuner, dejeuner, to break the fast o 

reakfast. For the dissection upon tbe phrase "to 
ine with Duke Humphrey " = to go dinnerlese,of which 
ifferent origins are given by Stowe and Fuller, we must 
efer our readers to the book. Various meanings are 
ven to the word dilly. In a folk-rhyme with which- 
e have been familiar for more than half a century a 
meaning not supplied is shown. It may or may not come 
under the ken of tbe editors of the 'English Dialect Dic- 
ionary.' The intention, familiar enough to folk-lore 
tudents of the riddle (for such it is, the answer being 
a cow "), is to suggest indelicacy which does not exist. 
' Four stiff-slanders, four dilly-danders, two lookers, two- 
rookers, and a wiggle-waggle." We are curious to know 
be significance in these children's rhymes of " dilly.^ 
' Ding-dong " is defined as echoic. It is curious, though 
,here is no apparent relation between tbe two uses of the 
word, that, besides signifying an imitation of the sound 
of a bell, "ding-dong," as a form of "ding-ding," is 
used by Beaumont and Fletcher as an expression of 
endearment. It seems as if Shakspeare, in tbe well- 
known lines from the ' Tempest,' by what was almost a 
stage direction, caused tbe word " bell " to be annexed to- 
a phrase complete in the two words " ding-dong." 
"Bell," however, comes in as an appropriate and a> 
euphonious addition, itn sound, indeed, conveying that of 
the thing indicated. We might go on for hours drawing 
from this single part matter of keenest historical as welt 
as philological interest. So full are successive parts of 
things curious, interesting, and delightful, that were the 
shape of the work other than it necessarily is, we might 
commend it as a delightful companion on a holiday 

The Two First Centuries of Florentine History. By 
Prof. Pasquale Villari. Translated by Linda VillarL 
(Fisher Unwin.) 

THOUGH still a sufficiently stiff bit of reading, tbe 
secend and concluding volume of Prof. Villari's history of 
Florence, completing the work, is both more interesting 
and more readable than its predecessor. Smarting a 
little, it may be supposed, at the accusation brought 
against the first volume, that the history lacked chrono- 
logical sequence, the provision of which was, under the 
conditions, impossible, and aware that its perusal bad- 
involved some labour, the Professor warns oft' from the 
opening chapter of hid second volume the general reader 
who happens to be not specially interested in its theme. 
It is to be hoped that few will take the advice contained 
in this self-denying ordinance, since the chapter in 
question is not only indispensable to the full apprecia- 
tion of what follows, but opens out a question of extreme 
interest that of the influence of the family and the State- 
in the Italian communes. Nowhere were paternal in- 
fluences and the sacredness of the family more felt than, 
in ancient Rome. The father was ' priest, judge, 
supreme arbiter." He was "absolute master of the 

good-, the liberty, and the life of big wife and of his 

children." By the time of Caesar the conditions had 
changed. The family, once " almost a state within the 
state," was practically dissolved. Christianity, recog- 
nizing tbe equality of man and woman, still further 
sapped paternal rule. Then came tbe collision between 
the Roman law and that of the Longobards, in which 
individual liberty was much greater, and the family 
seemed a society of "independent members, united by 
mutual agreement." How these separate influences wer* 
fused in tbe commune may be read in Prof. Villari's 
admirable chapter, but cannot occupy us here. The 
history of the Florence of Dante begins with the closing 
years of the thirteenth century, at which period Guelph 
ascendancy the ascendancy, that is, of the democracy 
was established, and the magnates were excluded from 


[8th 8.X. JULY 25, '96. 

all political posts, which were tenable by those onl 
engaged in some trade or craft. At the same time, tboug 
the great noblemen seemed in danger of extermination 
tbey possessed, in fact, great vitality, and were con 
tinually recruited. It was at this period that Gian 
delta Bella was mainly instrumental in having proclaime 
the " Ordinamenti di Giustizia," the purpose of whic' 
was to suppress the cruelties and injuries constantl 
inflicted by the nobles upon the burghers, who wer 
surrounded, attacked, maltreated, and even stabbed, with 
out being able to name the aggressors. The revolution 
accomplished by these ordinances had for its result t 
complete the overthrow of the feudal nobility. This i 
is the special purpose of the Professor to show, and hi 
exhibits also the processes of disintegration in the com 
mune that prepared the way for the society of the 
Renaissance. In these things, and in the fierce quarrel 
which ensued, Dante, before his banishment, took part 
A thorough comprehension, then, of this reconstitu 
tion of Florentine history is necessary to the complete 
understanding of Dante's life and works. Sufficiently 
animated fairly to carry away the reader is the history 
of Florence during the period of Dante's political activity 
and it is this portion of the work that is likely to be most 
widely popular. Space fails us to do anything approxi- 
mating to justice to Prof. Villari's treatment. Students 
of Dante are bound to accord it close attention. It is 
convincingly written and well translated. Numerous 
illustrations, many of them of high interest, are fur- 
nished, including a reproduction of a view of Florence 
in Renaissance times. 

Naval and Military Trophies and Personal Relics of 

British Heroes. Part II. (Nimmo.) 
THE second part of Mr. Nimmo's splendid and patriotic 
publication gives four further water-colour drawings by 
Mr. William Gibb. Two of these are from the royal 
collection at Windsor. First comes the crown of the 
King of Delhi, a magnificent piece of gold work ablaze 
with jewels, found in the palace at Delhi after the cap- 
ture by Hudson of Hodson's Horse of " the last of the 
Moguls." Not less splendid in its way is the cloak of 
the Emperor Napoleon, captured by the Prussians and 
presented, on behalf of Marshal BlUcher, to the Prince 
Regent, afterwards George IV., after the rout of Water- 
loo. It is of fine scarlet cloth, richly embroidered with 
gold thread, and came from Egypt. A gruesome tragedy 
ia the next, which consists of the main royal masthead of 
the Orient, picked up after that huge and ill-starred ship 
had been blown up in Aboukir Bay. It is the property 
of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, by whom 
it has been lent to the museum of the Royal United 
Service Institution. Last come, both broken, the swords 
of General Wolfe and Capt. Cook, from the Royal United 
Service Institution. Melancholy interest, of course, 
attaches to these weapons. The descriptive notes, by 
Mr. R. H. Holmes, F.S.A., remain short, pointed, and 

Catalogue of the Engraved National Portraits in the 
National Art Library. (South Kensington Museum.) 
THE publication of the official catalogue of the engraved 
portraits at South Kensington is a matter on which 
lovers of literature as well as of art are to be congratu- 
lated. Preserved as they are for the most part in port- 
folios, most of the engravings have, in spite of the 
unfailing courtesy and attention of the officials, been 
only accessible to those with much time and resolution 
at their disposal. The numbers now given will facilitate 
enormously the task of reference, and in innumerable 
cases the indication supplied will save the necessity for a 
personal investigation. The arrangement is alphabetical, 
and, except in the case of works already described in 

Smith's Catalogue, full information is afforded In the 
case of those mentioned in Smith the reference to the 
page in his eminently useful work is adequate. Mr 
Julian Marshall, whose signature is, or has been, plea- 
santly familiar in our columns, supplies the prefatory 
note, and is responsible for the work, for the merits of 
which his name is an adequate guarantee. It is, indeed 
moat carefully executed. Time and frequent use will be 
necessary in order to measure the extent of the boon 
bestowed upon us. 

fios Rosarum: Ex Horto Poetarum. By E. V. B. 


We are glad to find that a second edition of this delect- 
able volume has BO soon been called for. It now appears 
in a form no less dainty than it at first assumed, and 
with some slight but acceptable additions. 

THE second volume of ' The Centenary Burns,' edited 
by Messrs. W. E. Henley and T. F. Henderson, will be 
published by Messrs. T. C. & E. C. Jack, Edinburgh, in 
the beginning of next month. Embracing the post- 
humous poems, it will include eight pieces printed for 
the first time from the original MSS. and several other 
pieces which have not been printed in any earlier col- 
lected edition of Burns. Important additions and changes 
bave also been made in other parts of the text. The 
bibliographical and critical notes cover 180 pages. 

THE Rev. C. H. W. Stocking, D.D., of East Orange 
New Jersey, U.S.A., is preparing 'A History of the 
Knowltons of England and America,' and he would be 
grateful for any information, of whatever kind, concern- 
ng the English Knowltons, living and deceased. As 
,he name is now as uncommon in England as it is common 
n America, it is presumed that many persons have lost 
the name by intermarriage. Capt. William Knowlton 
sailed from London (Chiswick) about 1632, and became 
he progenitor of a large and thrifty race. His brother 
Thomas remained in England, and Thomas, the anti- 
quary and botanist of Yorkshire, and his son, the Rev. 
Charles Knowlton, for sixty-one years rector of Keighley, 
were his descendants. 

MESSES. DAWBARN & WARD promise ' Shakespeare's 
Town and Times,' by H. Snowden Ward and Catharine 
Veed Ward, with many illustrations. 

* to 

We must call special attention to the following notice*: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
ddressof the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
r reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
ignature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
ppear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
o head the second communication "Duplicate." 

MOLIERISTE. ' L'Ombre de Moliere ' is by Brecourt. 
t is included in vol. v. of the 1675 (Elzevir) edition of 
Les CEuvres.' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
ditor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
usiness Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
ream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
lunications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
o this rule we can make no exception. 

. 1,'96.] 



CONTENT S. N 240. 

NOTES :-Sir John Conway-Casanoviana, 89-A " Bee's 
Km* "-Good Friday Nigbt-The Revolution of 1688- 
Westminster Abbey, 92-" Gent "-Breaking Glass-Ser- 
jeant^Rings-The Order of the St. Esprit-" Go spin, you 
jades, go spin! "-Commemorative Pies, 93-" 'Twould a 
saint provoke "-Collins's ' Peerage "Brass at Cowfold, 94. 

OITKRIES Dreamland Dream-holes " Bechatted " 
Berrv Wournal-The " Reign " of Rectors, 94-Authors of 
S-The Shield for Wives-Thamar-Irish Historical 
Manuscripts-Dundee at Killiekrankie-Jacobite Soug- 
Aaron Miller -Robin Hood -'The Reel of Tulloch '- 
" Bobtail " " Lounder," 95 Authors Wanted, 96. 

REPLIES : A Joke of Sheridan Samuel Pepys, 96 Coin- 
cidences- Flat-irons-Perambulator-Tannachie, 97-St. 
Sepulchre Wedding Ceremony " Mac and Me 
Rev J Arrowsmith Coronation Service Potatoes for 
Rheumatism-Spider-wort, 98-Sedilia-Grimsby Castle- 
Weighing the Earth The Suffix " well "Earliest Cir- 
culating Library, 99 "Child" Saunders=Crompton 
Translation The Broom Dance, 100 Saxon Wheel Cross- 
Sir George Nares-" Only "-Pate Stuart. Earl of Orkney 
" Feared," 101 J. Everard Skull in Portrait Gray or 
Grey, 102 Norman Roll at Dives Tenure of Lands The 
Book of Common Prayer, 103 Prebendary Victoria 
William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury Emaciated 
Figures " Trouble "Angelica Cataiani, 104 Comneni 
and Napoleon Harmony in Verse A Shakspearian Desi- 
deratum ' A Legend of Reading' Thos. Gainsborough 
St. Paul's Churchyard, 105 St. Cornfily Churchwardens 
' Nickleby Married 'A Scottish " Legend "Heir-male 
of Maxwells" Flittermouse "Substituted Portraits, 106. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' English Dialect Dictionary' 
Egerton's Sir G. Phipps Hornby ' Munk's ' Sir Henry 

Notices to Correspondents. 


I find there is a double puzzle about the date 
of Sir John Con way's book and the circum- 
stances under which were written * Meditations 
and Prayers,' &c., printed by Henry Wykes, 
without date. A writer in ' N. & Q.,' 1 S. 
xi. 48, takes it for granted that they were 
written during an unexplained imprisonment at 
Ostend, alluded to in Conway's letter to Walsing- 
ham, Harl. MS. 287, f. 102. The writer in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' accepts this, 
and further supposes "the license to Sir John 
Conway to return, July, 1590," means to return to 
Ostend. Now from the letter itself this imprison- 
ment was evidently municipal, short, and without 
disgrace or serious suffering, such as is bewailed in 
his book, and the " license " is evidently to return 
home from Ostend, where he was succeeded by Sir 
Edward Norreys(Murdin, < Burleigh Papers,'p. 794). 
Neither of these writers seems to know anything 
of an earlier imprisonment in connexion with " the 
Somerville-Arden plot," in 1583, in which the 
"Book of Meditations and Prayers, by Luis de 
Grenada," translated by Richard Hopkins in 1582, 
played an important part. It is much more than 
likely that Sir John Conway then expressed his 
woes in a form parallel to the book so eagerly 
hunted up by Burleigb, but with his spirit of 

loyalty, orthodoxy, and euphuistic flattery of 
Elizabeth. He spoke of the oppressions of his 
many foes, his long and severe imprisonment, and he 
wrote his prayers to God and praises of Elizabeth 
on his trencher, with "a leathy pensel of leade." 
Some friend may have had them printed in 1583-4 
and presented to the queen, and they seem to have 
moved Elizabeth's heart, as early in 1586 he was 
made Governor of Ostend. I had thus far per- 
fectly satisfied myself of the soundness of my 
theory, from the State Papers of the period, when 
Mr. Graves reminded me of the fact that there are 
no dated books of Henry Wykes published after 
1571 ! He certainly disappears then from the 
registers, and is supposed to have died shortly 
after, One of Mr. Ames's papers mentioms him as 
being in 1572 the servant of Sir Francis Knowles ; 
but he had not found any book of his printing of 
so late a date. It is impossible Sir John Conway's 
1 Meditations' were written in 1583 if Wykes was 
dead before that time. Another edition was 
printed by William How, also undated, but that 
does not simplify matters, though William How 
printed up till 1590. The two queries I wish to 
propose are these : (1) Is there any possibility that 
Henry Wykes, after retiring from business, may 
have printed for some special purpose this one 
book in 1583-4? Or (2) Is there any record of 
an unjust imprisonment of Sir John Conway, with- 
out trial, before that date ? It is possible he may 
have been arrested for complicity in the Rebellion 
of the North, 1569, in which some of his relatives 
were interested. But he seemed in favour when 
he wrote the introduction to Geffray Fenton's 
'Histoires Tragiques ' in 1567; and on 26 July, 
1573, he bad a licence to travel on the queen's 
service for two years, during which time no suit 
could proceed against him. 



(Continued from 8 th S. ix. 504.) 

Writers of * Memoirs ' too often portray their 
puppets in dress clothes. They show them to us 
on parade, and not as the proverbial valet de 
chambre is privileged to see them, wigless, in their 
dressing-gowns and slippers. Casanova's indis- 
creet flashes fall upon these heroes unawares, and 
enable the student to obtain a knowledge of their 
social peculiarities. At Lausanne he fell in with 
Lord Rosebery (whom he occasionally, with pro- 
phetic politeness, dubs a duke) and speaks of him 
thus : 

" I often found myself in the society of Lord Rosebery. 
I have never met a man more taciturn. They told me 
that he possessed some wit, that he was well read, and 
even that he could be lively, but I never found ic out. 
He never overcame an absurd shyness which placed him 
at a tremendous disadvantage. At assemblies, at dances, 
n fact everywhere, his one notion of politeness was bow- 



8. X AUG. 1, 

ing and scraping. When spoken to he answered in very 
good French, but without using more words than he 
could help, while the blush that suffused his face gave 
unmistakable signs of his discomfiture. One evening, 
while a guest at his table, I asked some trifling question 
about his native land a question which could easily 
have been answered in five or six short phrases. Lord 
Kosebery replied well, certainly, but he blushed crimson 
like a girl on making her first appearance in polite 
society. The celebrated Mr. Fox, then about twenty 
years of age, happened to be present, and succeeded in 
making Lord Rotebery laugh ; out they spoke in English, 
a language of which 1 did not understand one word." 

Casanova has here fallen into an error which may 
easily be excused. The Mr. Fox of whom he 
speaks was certainly not Charles James Fox, who 
in 1760 was only in his twelfth year. It is possible 
Casanova may always have believed that the 
young man who made Lord Roaebery laugh was a 
very extraordinary person, whom he subsequently 
confounded with his great namesake. The Lord 
Kosebery in question was Niel born 1728 who 
succeeded his father in 1756, and married in 1764 a 
Miss Ward of Hanover Square. At the house of 
Marshal Botta, in Florence, Casanova made the 
acquaintance of Sir Horace Mann, at that time 
English Resident at the Court of Tuscany : 

"Dining one day with Marshal Botta I made the 
acquaintance of Sir Horace Mann, who was the idol of 
Florence. He was a very rich man ; amiable, although 
English ; full of wit and good taste, besides being a good 
judge of art. Next day, by invitation, 1 visited Mann 
at bis own residence, which adjoined a very fine garden. 
In this residence, which Mann had himself created, the 
furniture, pictures, choice books, everything testified in 
a conclusive manner to the natural bent of his genius." 

Sir Horace was at this time in his sixty-first 
year, and lived at the Casa Mannetti by the Ponte 
de Trinita. The poet Gay visited him here, and, 
after describing him as the best and most obliging 
person in the world, says : " I am delighted with 
his house, from the windows of which we can fish 
in the Arno." 

Mann died at Florence in 1786, having passed 
forty-six years in an official capacity there. From 
Florence Casanova passed on to Rome, where he 
made the acquaintance of three remarkable men 
Raphael Mengs, Winckelmann, and Cardinal 
Fassionei. Meogs at that time resided at the 
famous Villa Albani, built by Carlo Marchionni, 
from the designs of the celebrated Cardinal Albani. 
Casanova says : 

" I was much impressed by this villa, so full of won- 
drous works of art, of Greek statues, vases, and antique 
pedestal?. If it had been built by a king it would have 
cost him at least fifty millions of francs ; whereas 
Cardinal Alexander Albani, who purchased the greater 
part of his collection on credit, did so at a comparatively 
email outlay. It being impossible to adorn the walls 
and ceilings with antique paintings, the Cardinal em- 
ployed Mengp, who was indisputably the most laborious 
ana the greatest painter of his epoch." 

On the ceiling of the fine gallery on the ground 
floor of this palace, Raphael Mengs painted a 

superb fresco, representing Apollo and Mnemosyne 
on Mount Parnassus, surrounded by the Muses. 
It was while engaged upon that grand work that 
Casanova first made his acquaintance. Winckel- 
mann was a man of middle height, with a very low 
forehead, sharp nose, and little black hollow eyes, 
which gave him a gloomy aspect. If there was 
anything graceful in his physiognomy it was his 
mouth, yet his lips were too prominent. When 
animated and in good humour his features formed 
an ensemble that was pleasing. A fiery, impetuous 
disposition often threw him into extremes ; and 
being naturally enthusiastic he allowed his imagina- 
tion to run away with him. Fortunately, he was 
gifted with a good deal of tound common sense, 
which enabled his acute judgment to assert itself. 
He had little or no self-control, and no reserve what- 
ever. Fearless as a writer, he was still more BO in 
conversation, and often made his associates tremble 
for the temerity of his remarks. If ever maD 
knew the true meaning of friendship that man was 
Winckelmann. Staunch and loyal to the core, he 
could boast of having friends in every walk of life. 
He was naturally unsuspicious ; while the frank- 
ness with which he uttered his sentiments upon 
all occasions and his absolute trust in the good 
faith of others ultimately led to his untimely 
death. In June, 1768, while passing through 
Trieste, on his way from Vienna, he fell in with- a 
native of Campiglio named Arcangeli. This man, 
recently liberated from the galleys, to which be had 
been condemned for robbery, after wandering about 
for some time took up his quarters at an n n out- 
side Trieste, where Winckelmann happened to pass 
the night. Arcangeli paid the unsuspicious savant 
assiduous attentions, and so completely gained his 
confidence that Winckelmann showed him the 
rich presents he had received at Vienna. Arcangeli 
at sight of these treasures resolved to murder and 
rob him, and bought a sharp knife for that purpose. 
Next morning, while Winckelmann (who bad 
in the most, friendly manner invited Arcangeli 
to Rome) was sitting in his chair that villain 
threw a rope over his head, and before Winckel- 
mann could disengage himself stabbed him in 
five different places. Winckelmann had strength 
enough to get down to the ground floor and call 
for help. Being laid on a bed, suffering the most 
horrible pain, he yet had sufficient composure to 
receive the last sacrament, and then made a will 
by which he appointed Cardinal Albani his 
residuary legatee. That afternoon he died. His 
assassin, who meanwhile had effected his escape, 
was soon afterwards arrested, and executed on the 
wheel opposite to the ion. Casanova, writing 
from memory a quarter of a century later, errone- 
ously states that Winckelmann was assassinated at 
Trieste in 1772, whereas, as a matter of fact, that 
untoward event took place four years earlier. 
Winckelmann's accomplishments deeply impressed 

?. X.Aoo. 1, '96.. 



Casanova, who speaks of him as a second volnme 
to the celebrated Abbe" de Voisenon. He presented 
Casanova to Cardinal Albani, who was at that time 
nearly blind and talked incessantly without ever 
saying anything worth hearing. He was sub- 
sequently presented to Cardinal Passionei, the 
implacable foe of Jesuits, and a man of wit well 
versed in literature. Passionei was appointed 
librarian of the Vatican by Benedict XIV., and 
had received the honour of election to the French 
Academy under the peculiar title " Assocte 
Stranger." He was at this time in his seventy- 
ninth year, and decidedly eccentric. He died on 
10 July in the following year : 

" Cardinal Passionei received me in a spacious apart- 
ment, where he wa* occupied in writing. Having asked 
me to wait until he was at liberty, he continued to write, 
but it wa< not in his power to offer me a chair, because 
tie himself occupied the only seat in that huge apart- 
ment. When ha had finished, Passionei rose, nnd 
advanced towards me. He told me that he would 
acquaint the P< pe of my desire presented, and 
added : ' But my friend Cornaro could easily have made 
* better choice, became he well knows that the Holy 
Father has no love for me.' 

" ' It is evident,' said I, ' that Cornaro preferred a man 
whom the Pope respect?, to one whom His Holiness 

" ' I do not know whether the Pope respects me. but 
am certain he knows that I do not respect him. I liked 
and respected him while he was a Cardinal, and I helped 
to make him a Pope; but since he has worn the tiara 
I have changed my opinion.' I was much amused to 
hear a cardinal BO express himself in regard to the 
Sovereign Pontiff, but Cardinal Passionei was original in 
every sense of the word. 

" Next day I returned to the cardinal's apartment at 
an earlier hour than usual. 

" ' I am glad that you have come so early,' said Pas- 
sionei, ' for I can now satisfy my curiosity by listening 
to the details of your marvellous escape from the Piombi.' 

"' Monseigneur,' said I, ' I am willing to tell you that 
tory, but it is a long one.' 

" ' All the better, for I hear that you tell it well.' 

" ' But, Monseigneur. do you wish me to sit upon the 
floor 1 ' 

" ' By no means. You would spoil those fine clothes.' 
The cardinal rang, and ordered an attendant to bring a 

11 A few momenta later a servant entered, bringing a 

footstool under his arm. I was so much annoyed that 

I gabbled through my narrative in a quarter of an hour. 

' ' You do not narrate so well as I can write,' said the 

cardinal drily. 

" ' Monseigneur, I only speak eloquently when at my 

1 1 hope that my presence does not disconcert you ? ' 
'No, Monseigneur. A man, and above all, a wise 
man, never disconcerts me. But your footstool' 

' ' You like your creature comforts, I perceive.' 

41 Above all things.' 

"Here,' mid the cardinal, abruptly changing the 
subject, ' I make you a present of the oration which I 
delivered at the funeral of Prince Eugene. 1 trust that 
you will not find my Latin bad. You may kiss the Holy 
Father's slipper at ten o'clock to-morrow morning.' " 

The funeral oration in question was delivered 
ever Oie body of Prince Eugene by Cardinal Pas- 

sionei when sent by Clement XII. as Nuncio to 
the Court of Vienna in 1736. OQ his return home 
that day, Casanova thought over his interview 
with that eccentric cardinal, and resolved to make 
him a suitable present. He selected a book which 
had been given to him at Berne, and for which he 
had no further use. It was the ' Pandectarum 
liber unicus.' As that work was superbly printed 
and exqusitely bound it seemed to be an appro- 
priate gift to make to a cardinal who possessed a 
fine private library under the superintendence of 
Winckelmann. Having written a short letter in 
Latin, Casanova enclosed it in another to his friend 
Winckelmann, begging him to present that humble 
offering to His Eminence : 

" This rare work seemed to me to be well worth the 
cardinal's funeral oration nay, it might possibly pro- 
mote me to the dignity of a chair on my next visit." 

On the following morning Casanova presented 
himself at the Quirinal : 

"It was not absolutely necessary for me to be intro- 
duced by any one, because every Christian may enter the 
audience chamber the moment the doors are opened. 
Besides. I bad known His Holiness at Padua while he 
was bishop of that city. But I had made up my mind to 
have the honour of being presented by a cardinal. Having 
made my humble obeisance to the Head of the Church, 
I kissed the sacred emblem embroidered on his holy 
slipper. Whereupon the Pope, placing his right hand 
on my left shoulder, told me he remembered that at 
Padua I always slipped out of the room the moment he 
began to tell his beads. 

" ' Holy Father ! I have many greater sins with which 
to reproach myself. I now prostrate myself before your 
Holiness in order to receive absolution.' 

" The Pope gave me absolution, and graciously inquired 
what special favour he couM accord to me. 

" ' I seek the intercession of your Holinea, so that I 
may be permitted to return in safety to Venice.' 

"'We will confer with the Ambassador,' replied the 
Pope, 'and we will give an answer later on. Do you 
often visit Cardinal Pasaionci 1 ' 

" I have waited on his Eminence three times. He 
has been good enough to make me a present of his 
funeral oration, and, in order to prove my gratitude for 
that condescension, I have sent him a precious volume 
for his library.' 

" ' Has be received it ? ' 

" ' I believe so, Holy Father.' 

" ' In that case he will send Winckelmann to pay you 
for it.' 

" ' That would be treating me like a bookseller. I will 
not accept payment.' 

'"If you pereist, he will return the book. There can 
be no question about that,' ^id the Pope. 

" ' And if His Eminence returns the book, I shall send 
back his funeral oration.' 

" This reply fairly tickled the Pope. His Holiness 
clapped his hands to his sides, and shook with laughter. 

"'It would be pleasant to know the end of this 
business,' he said at length ; ' but we do not wish any one 
to be informed of our harmless curiosity.' 

" The Pope then gave me his blessing, and my audience 

" Later in the day Winckelmann 'called upon me, and 
said that I had the good fortune to be in Cardinal Pas- 
sionei's good graces. That the book which I had sent 
to him was valuable becau-e rare, and in far better pie- 



[8 th S. X.Auo. 1,'96. 

servation than the copy in tl>e Vatican library. He 
ended up by saying that he had orders to pay for it. T 
told Winckelmann that I had already written to Hi 
Eminence saying that it was my intention to make bin 
a present of the book. Winckelmann replied that the 
Cardinal never accepts presents, and wished to purchase 
the book for his own library. 

" ' That may be,' I rejoined ; ' but I am not a bookseller 
This work was presented to me, and I will not part with 
it for money. I impore you to explain this to the Car 
dinal, and tell him that I should feel honoured by its 

44 ' He will return the book,' said Winckelmann drily. 

'"He ia welcome to do PO. But in that case I shal 
return his funeral oration, for I will not accept presents 
from any one who declines a like favour at my hands.' " 

The next day the eccentric cardinal sent back 
the book, and Casanova returned the cardinal's 
funeral oration. Although Casanova bad barely 
glanced through that effusion, he thought proper to 
write a letter to its author in which he expressed 
his humble opinion that the work in question was 
a masterpiece. The cardinal's scruples turned out 
to Casanova's advantage. His Holiness the Pope, 
having deigned to accept the work for the Vatican 
library, bestowed upon its donor the cross per 
taming to the order of the Golden Spur. 

33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

(To be continued.'] 

A "BBE'S KNEE." Among the minor curio- 
sities of language is what one may call the unequal 
or the irregular distribution of similes. Colloquial 
comparisons which are as familiar as household 
words in one family or district are quite unknown 
in another. I have just come upon a case in point 
in reading Mr. Locker-Lampson's ' Confidences.' 
In a foot-note to p. 98, speaking of an aunt, a nun 
at Bruges, he remarks that, offering him, as a boy, 
some gift of slender dimensions, the nun said, 
" Well, only this ; it isn't so big as a bee's knee." 
On this Mr. Locker- Lampaon comments that he 
had never heard the simile before, nor had he since. 
I do not know whether the " bee's knee " is familiar 
to other people, but I have known and used the 
simile ever since I was a small child. 


GOOD FRIDAY NIGHT. The following story, 
illustrative of the Lincolnshire superstition that 
persons born on Good Friday night cannot be 
frightened, was told me by a fellow- servant of its 
hero and its victim. 

There was a lad living on the farm who had 
been born on Good Friday night, and who, there- 
fore, could not be frightened. One of his mates 
determined to test his immunity, and, covering 
himself with a white sheet, waylaid him, on a dark 
night, in the churchyard. The lad coolly asked 
what he was "fooling at," and knocked him down 
with a stick he was carrying. When he got home 
he was asked by some who were in the plot whether 

he had met anything. He replied that Jim had 
tried to frighten him, but he had "lamed" him 
a lesson. As "Jim " did not return to the house, 
he was sought for, and found dead. The " lesson >f 
had been effectual. This happened some forty 
or fifty years ago, I believe. C. C. B. 

following are copies of warrants issued in prepara- 
tion for the coming struggle, from the originals in 
my possession : 

The Master of His Maties Ordenance is hereby ordered 
to deliver unto Sir John Drumond of Machanie for the 
use of the Governor in the Castle of Innerary The num- 
ber of Threttie sex fyrelocks Threttie-six Patwutasheg 
and Threttie six Bajonetts For wch these presents and 
bis receipt oblidgeing himselfe to returne them when 
called for sail be your warrand. Dated at Edr. this 21 
day of March 1688. 


At Halyrood house the 2 d day of September 1688. 

These are warranding & impowering you L 4 General! 
Dowglas to seaze & secure the armes of all commones 
& all Heritors under ten pound sterlin of valued rent 
within the shyres of Renfrew Clidesdale Nithsdale Air 
& its baylries of Kyle Carrick & Cunninghame Gallo 
way & Kirkcudbright & that with all diligence & secrecy 
& as near as can be in on tyme to evite alarming of 
them ; But you shall strictly prohibit all who are im- 
ployed to injure any diretly or indirectly in persons or 
goods, except in seazing of armes allenarly, & what 
armes shall be seazed you shall cause cary them to the 
Castles of Stirlin or Dumbarton as you find most con- 
venient, this being in obedience to his Maties pleasure 
signified to us by my Lord Chanceler. 


You are like ways to put all the people whether 
Tenants their Sons & Daughters or any other sort of 
people living in the countries you are to search to their 
oaths concerning their having or knowledge of others 
having any arms concealed & where they are hid. 


A. G. REID. 

WESTMINSTER ABBKY. I have no doubt that 
many of your readers will be as delighted as I am 
to hear that at last that unsightly hoarding is 
about to be removed from the north-east corner of 
the Abbey. It has been an eyesore ever since I 
can recollect ; but as that is very indefinite, I wish 
to ask when it was first put there. It will be as 
well to have some authentic record of the date, so 
that posterity may see what a patient, long-suffer- 
ing being a nineteenth-century Londoner was. 

Once I was able to roam about the Abbey freely 
and in solitude : the freedom disappeared at the 
ime of the dynamite scare, since which date the 
mblic have not been allowed to enter by the Poets* 
Corner door. This was an inestimable loss which 
may be recovered, but the solitude has gone for 
iver ; one must now seek that in country cathedrals, 

I have seen every abbey and cathedral in England, 

X. AUG. 1, '96.] 



and in none do I recollect the nave being con- 
stantly closed to the public as at the Abbey. On 
Sundays the inconvenience of this is even more 
noticeable, when the sole door open, the north door, 
is completely blocked. True, out of service time 
you may slink into the nave through one of the 
delightful cloister doors; but why not the west 
doors ? Fancy the west doors of St. Paul's being 
always closed ! RALPH THOMAS. 

" GENT." An early use of this elang expression 
is to be found in some verses (probably by Elkanah 
Settle) quoted by Walter Thornbury, in his ' Old 
and New London/ from a poem on the 'Lord 
Mayor's Banquet of Sir Samuel Fiudyer,' 1761, 
and apparently published at the time : 
Where are your eyes and ears 1 
See there what honourable gent appears ! 


BREAKING GLASS. (See 8 th S! iv. 243, 315,) 

" Few there are who know why truth is said to be at 
the bottom of a well ; but this I can, indeed, declare 
to you. For as a mirror was above all things an emblem 
of truth, because it shows all things exactly as they 
are, so the water in a well was, as many traditions prove, 
considered as a mirror, because looking into it we see 
our face and for this reason a mirror was also re- 
garded as expressing life itself, for which reason people 
BO greatly fear to break them." C. G. Leland, ' Legends 
of Florence/ First Series, p. 39. 

C. C. B. 

SERJEANTS' RINGS. (See 6 th and 7 tb S. passim) 
With a view to its identification, I send you 
particulars of one of these gold rings, which I 
have within the last few days been so fortunate as 
to acquire. It was picked up on land at or near 
Sittingbourne, Kent. Its width is nearly two- 
eighths of an inch, and weight fifty-eight grain?. 
On its outer surface, between a row on either side 
of small indentations, it bears the following 
motto in capital letters : LEGis-f EXECVCIO+ 
REGis-4-pRESERVACio. After each sentence is an 
ornament, similar to a Maltese cross, but having 
five members ; and between the words of each 
sentence two small lines crossing each other. 
There is no mark on the inner side. I shall be 
much obliged for help in tracing this ring to its 
originator. HUMPHREY WOOD. 


Nemours was the last surviving member of the 
extinct Order of the St. Esprit (World, 1 July, 

address, said to have been made by the Earl of 
Pembroke to the nuns of Wilton Abbey, is so 
familiar as to have a quasi-proverbial sound : yet 
on looking for the story, I found it in none of the 

well-known histories, from Strype to Green. At 
last MR. E. H. MARSHALL kindly referred me to 
Miss Yonge's ' Cameos.' Speaking of the dissolu- 
tion of abbeys, carried out by the agency of Crom- 
well c. 1535, she says : " The poor nuns were 
treated with the utmost harshness. At Wilton 
the Earl of Pembroke drove them out to destitu- 
tion, saying, ' Go spin, you jades, go spin ! ' " This 
account, if not absolutely incorrect, is at least 
misleading, as we should gather therefrom that 
the ignominious expulsion took place at this time. 
In point of fact, the abbey was quietly rendered 
up, a grant of it was made to Lord Pembroke, and 
the nuns were pensioned. In the third year of 
Queen Mary seventeen nuns were in receipt of 
pensions varying from 10J. to 4Z. annually the 
latter sum, it must be owned, being received by 
much the greater number. (Note in Dugdale.) At 
this time they were reinstated in the abbey, and 
what follows I have found in Aubrey, whom I 
suppose to be the sole authority for oar anecdote. 
Being a Wiltshire man, he would probably have 
learnt it through local tradition. In his bio- 
graphical notice of that laical Vicar of Bray, Lord 
Pembroke, he says : 

"In Queen Mary's time, upon the returne of the 
Catholique Religion, the nunnes came again to Wilton 
Abbey : and this William E. of P. came to the gate 
(which lookes towards the Court by the street, but is 
now walled up) with his cappe in hand, and fell upon 
his knee to the Lady Abbeese and the nuance, crying 
peccavi. Upon Q. Mary's death the Earle came to 
Wilton (like a tygre) and turned them out, crying, ' Out 
ye whores, to worke to worke ye whores, go spinne.' " 

During the three or four years of restitution 
death may have thinned the rank of the older 
nuns, and in all probability the sisterhood was 
recruited with new members. For these, if such 
there were, one can scarcely feel so much sympathy. 
They would be young, with some possibility of a 
career yet before them ; moreover one thinks they 
might have better read the signs of the time. In 
their case, therefore, some little abatement may be 
made in respect of the earl's cruel insult. We 
should like to think that the elder nuns again 
received their small pensions ; bat as to this there 
seems to be no evidence forthcoming. 


COMMEMORATIVE PIES. The following account 
of a huge commemorative pie at Denby Dale, near 
Barnsley, should surely find a place in ' N. & Q.' 
It is from the Daily News of 27 June, p. 7 : 

"Would this not be a dainty dish to set before the 
Cobden Clubl What a pity it will not be ready for the 
feast to-day. Our Barnsley correspondent says : The 
inhabitants of Denby Dale, a hamlet in the township of 
Denby, near Barnsley, who for over a century have 
baked large pies in commemoration of remarkable events 
in the history of the country, are preparing to celebrate 
the Jubilee of the Repeal of the Corn Laws on Saturday, 
August 1, by means of another large pie. A pie was 
baked in commemoration of the recovery of George III. 



[8" S. X. AUG. 1, 

from mental affliction. At the conclusion of peac 
between England and France in 1815 another large pi 
was baked, containing half a sheep, twenty fowls ar .< 
half a peck of flour. The Repeal Pie,' as it is lo'ca 
called waj made on August 29, IS^ and was drawn 
through the village with thirty-one hordes, headed by 
three bands of music. The pie was 7 feet in diameter 7 
1 foot 10 inches deep, and contained forty stones o 

crn U w^/f^n 8 nn 8erVe( ) in ^' e P re8ence of n estimated 
crowd df 60,000 people. On the occasion of the Jubilee 
o^f Queen Victoria another monster pie was provided on 
August 27, 1887. The pie was baked in a dish weighing 

Th CW * S I h Wa8 8 feet in diameter an <l 2 feet deep 
1 he total weight was over two tons, and the cost va 
put down at 250*. It was drawn by ten horses The 
pie when cut into was gamey, and few could eat 'it A 
smaller pie was made on September 3, 1887, and fully 
2,000 persons dined off it. The coming pie will be 6 feet 

la . n T*** 1 ! feet 6 T, Che8 in "5S Owing to the 
Jarge crowds which assemble, arrangements are being 
made for mounted and other police. Barriers will 

Norwich. JAMES H PfiR - 

m Swaledale, says Cooke's < Guide to Richmond,' 
&c. (p. 82), 

" the parish registers begin with the year 1640 In the 

De r r n 9 ai h e d li - e %H nn M Barker - A8 e known all 
defauH of v , th % olden time to be bu d in wool, in 
default of which a fine was levied on the next of kin 
It is said that Ann Barker was the last person in En^ 
land in respect of whose burial such a fine was chafed 
he having been buried in linen, contrary to the statute! 
The document levying the fine is dated 2 May, 1692." 

[See Indexes to ' N. & Q.,' pearim.] 

COLLINS'S ' PEERAGE.' In a letter of 20 Dec 
1735, from the Hon. Edward Southwell to Dr' 
Marmaduke Coghill, Chancellor of the Exchequer 

TV? ' m? lch was formerl y in the possession 
of Thos. Thorpe, the bookseller, of London, it is 


i. i!i" 8 u * ^ reat book f*- ' the ' Peerage of England ' 
first pub .shed, in 3 vols. 8vo., same yearf is only from a 
manuscript he bought, and these kind of claims [refer* 
rmg to his (Southwell's) claim to the lapsed barony of 
Cromwell] do not seem to be the v orks of his own 
btudy and profession." 

Southwell was personally acquainted with Collins 
and there seems no reason to doubt that the state- 
ment was well founded. It would therefore appear 
that the latter was not the real author of the 
Peerage ' which goes by his name. 

W. I. R. V. 

of archaeologists should, I think, be drawn to the 
following paragraph in the Chichester Diocesan 
gazette for May, in order that means may 
be taken before it is too late, to prevent the 
removel from its proper place on the floor of so 
fane a specimen of a monumental brass The 

ting, there seems no sufficient reason why this well- 
preserved brass should be removed from the 
position it has occupied for more than four and a 
half centuries : 

"A suggestion was made at the Easter Vestry for the 
preservation of the splendid brass to Thomas Nelond 
Prior of Lewes (06. 1433), now to be seen in the floor of 
tha nave, though covered by matting. It is getting very 
much worn, and Mr. Churchwarden Godman suggested 
that it might be removed and placed on one of the walls, 
and a cross put to mark the spot it had occupied. No' 
action, however, was taken." 

E. H. W. D. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

DREAMLAND. Was Lamb the first to make 
mention of this now familiar region ? He is cited 
by Latham as saying, in a letter to Coleridge, 

They are real, and have a venue in their re- 
spective districts m dreamland." Will any reader 
of Lamb send to the ' Dictionary ' an exact reference 
:o this letter, and especially its date ? Has Dream- 
and a capital D ? J. A. H. MURRAY. 


DREAM-HOLES. Is there any historical or 
jopular evidence that these were sound-holes ? 
So far as I see this is only a recent speculation of 
'iterary men ; the popular use seems to know them 
mly as holes for light, as stated by Grose in 1787, 
>nd many dialect glossaries since. 

J. A. H. M. 

" BECHATTED. "This word, with the sense of 
1 bewitched," is said to be used in Lincolnshire and 
)evonshire. I should be glad to be informed 
hether the word is in use in any other part of 
reat Britain. THE EDITOR OF 

The Clarendon Pres?, Oxford. 

m anxious to ascertain whether the journal of the 
Rev. John Berry, M.A., mentioned in Calamy's 
* History of the Nonconformists,' is still in exist- 
ence, and in the possession of any of his descend- 
ants, of whom 1 am one. He was one of the 
ministers ejected on St. Bartholomew's Day, 
24 Aug., 1662, formerly a fellow of Oriel College, 
Oxford, and then Rector of East Down, near 
Barnstaple. MARIA POOLE. 

15, Nottingham Place, W. 

THE " REIGN " OF RECTORS. Over the porch of 
the church of Mouzkildi ( = sproutery in Basque), 
Basses Pyre'ne'e?, the following inscription shows 
the desire of an ecclesiastic to magnify his office : 

. , "oo. J.UG imo ueaiic ui ii DWioaiOBUU tu mayuiiy IIIH uiliue . 

motive may be good ; but, covered as it is by mat- | " Get ovvrage a este fait av comancem' dv regne 

8*8. X. A co. 1, '96.] 



dArnavd Lovis Darhex cvre Jan 1709 Barneix 
Marc." Can instances be adduced from any Eng 
lieh documents or inscriptions since the Reforma 
tion under Henry VIII. of Anglican rectors o 
parishes described as "reigning" in their sphere o 
jurisdiction ? PALAMKDES, 


Will Whimeical's Miscellany. Chichester : printec 
by J. Seagrave for Longman & Reee. London. 8vo 
Preface dated 1799. 

The Squib; or, Searchfoot : an unedited little work 
which Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra wrote in defence o 
the first part of the Quijote. Published by Don Adolfo 
de Castro, at Cadiz, 1847. Translated from the Origin* 
Spanish by a Member of the University of Cambridge 
Cambridge, J. Deighton ; London, John W. Parker 
Liverpool, Deighton & Luughton. 1849. 8vo. 

A. B. W. 

THE SHIELD FOR WIVES. On what authority 
rests the displaying of a married woman's coat on 
a crestless shield instead of a loznge ? Y. 


"We see from a Suffolk i.ewspaper that the organ in 
St. Michael's Church, Frainlingham, probably one of the 
oldest in the country, was reopened on Easter Sunday, 
after repairs. The instrument, it is taid, was built as 
long ago as 1674, by Thumar, of Peterborough, and is 
the oniy known organ of his construction. We should 
like to know a little more about this Thamar. This 
organ was made for the chapel at Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, but about 1700 it was presented to Frain- 
lingham Church by the Master and Fellows of the Col- 
lege, who are the pations of the living. The carved 
case is an interesting piece of work, and is well known 
to ecclesiologists." 

The above paragraph is taken from the North- 
ampton Mercury of 10 April. Any particulars 
concerning Thamar, of Peterborougb, would be 
welcome. JOHN T. PAGE. 

5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

COLLEGF, DUBLIN. Much of Harris's 'Life of 
William JII.' is based upon a collection of official 
correspondence which was in his possession when 
he wrote, and which is now in the library of 
Trinity College, Dublin. I do not know the title 
under which this collection is indexed, and hitherto 
all efforts of mine to trace it in the catalogue or 
through the assistance of the courteous officials of 
the library have been unavailing. I shall be 
greatly obliged to any person who will tell me 
under what reference the volumes are to be found. 
Portions of their contents have been published at 
various times, and some of the letterp, notably 
those of Sarsfield, were reproduced in facsimile in 
The National Manuscripts of Ireland.' 

* airy Hill, Limerick. 

by a man who married his widow ? i. ., was he 

not assassinated by one of his own side I The mur- 
derer's wife and child were killed in Holland by 
the house falling down, and brought to Scotland 
for burial. About a hundred years later she was 
dug up, and exposed to the curious. A. 0. H. 

JACOBITE SONG. Who wrote the words and 
the beautiful music of the following ? Can any 
one supply the other verses ? 
Once in fair England my Blackbird did flourish, 
He was the chief flower that in it did spring ; 
Prime ladies of honour his person did nourish, 
Because that he was the true son of a King. 
But this false fortune 
Which still is uncertain 

Has caused this long parting between him and me ; 
His name 1 '11 advance 
In Spain and in France, 
And seek out my Blackbird, wherever he be. 


kindly give me the date of an old clock made by 
Aaron Miller ? The house in which it stands was 
built about 1695. The clock is supposed to be 
as old as the house. MORICHES. 

ROBIN HOOD. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
furnish me with a list of the springs or runnels of 
water named after Robin Hood, and give me 
information concerning their whereabouts? I 
should also be glad to learn whether such springs 
are supposed to be connected with the ancient 
May games, or whether they are imagined to owe 
their relationship with Robin to once existing 
myths now lost. If the- " gentle thief " was for- 
merly a supernatural ruler of the greenwood, it 
is not only possible, but likely that he also had 
control of water and sunlight, for a power directing 
vegetative energy would be almost helpless without 
such authority. E. N. F. C. 

*THE REEL OF TOLLOCH.' What is the origin 
of * The Reel of Tulloch '; and are there any words 
to the tune ? There are to some reels, such as 
Tullocbgorum,' of which the origin and meaning 
seems not to be known for certain. I believe 
; Tullochgorum ' was first printed in Craig's col- 
ection of 1730. HY. B. TULLOCH. 

Olencairn, Torquay. 

" BOBTAIL." In the ' Masque of Flowers,' 
L614, the word " bobtail" occurs as the name of 
i musical instrument. What kind of an instru- 
ment was it ? H. A. EVANS, 
16, Manchester Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy. 

"LouNDER." Can any philological reader of 
N. & Q.' suggest a derivation lor this word ? 
t is not uncommon in Scottish speech to-day, 
and means " to beat severely," " to thrash." The 
lictionaries, so far as I can find, do cot settle the 
rigin. The * Century ' gives no explanation, 
whilst the 'Imperial' truces the word to Icel. 



[8 th S. X. AUG. 1,'96. 

Lh'.un, the buttock. The primary meaning might 
suit this explanation; but in Scotch, as I have 
been accustomed to hear it, a " foundering " might 
as readily be associated with punishable parts of 
the person indiscriminately, as the shoulders or the 
hands ; the expression, indeed, seems to refer more 
to the nature than the direction of the blows. The 
use of a strap or thong, or other weapon, however, 
is always implied. Perhaps some of your readers 
could throw light on the subject. W. B. 


Mediis tranquillua in undis. 


When luxury opens wide her arms, 
And smiling woos thee to those charma 
Whose fascination thousands own, 
Shall thy brows wear the Stoic frown ? 

V. 8. L. 
He fought 

For truth and wisdom, foremost of the brave ; 
Him glory's idle glances dazzled not ; 
'Twas his ambition, generous and great, 
A life to life's great end to consecrate. 
Quoted by Shelley on the subject of Washington, in 
Trelawny's ' Records of Shelley, Byron, and the Author,' 
p. 86, Pickering, 1887. E. S. 


(8" S. x. 29.) 

THORNFIELD desires a reference to these words, 
said to have been spoken by Sheridan : " Referring 
to a political opponent, a needy place-hunter, known 
to have been a pupil [of a baker or of one who 
lived at a baker's shop], said, ' the right honourable 
gentleman went to the baker for his eloquence and 
to the House of Commons for his bread.' " .If 
Sheridan ever uttered these words, the right hon- 
ourable gentleman must have been Burke, who, in 
his earlier years, in common with many others who 
afterwards made their mark, was a member of the 
Robin Hood Society, which met in Essex Street 
and was called by Horace Walpole " the Oratorical 
Club." The chairman of the society was a speaker 
of remarkable ability, and he summed up the debate. 
I do not see any point in the remark that " the 
right honourable gentleman went to the baker for 
his eloquence," or the additional one that he had 
also gone "to the House of Commons for his 
bread." But did Sheridan ever utter the words ? 
There is 110 trace of them in ' The Parliamentary 
History,' or in the collected edition of his speeches. 
They are to be found, it is true, in ' Sheridaniana/ 
among other things which, as I have written in my 
4 Biography of Sheridan,' he never did nor uttered. 
They have been reproduced in * Bon Mots/ edited 
by W. Jerrold, but I am not one of those who 
maintain that a mis-statement gains credibility 
by repetition. A few words in the passage are 

authentic, just as certain parts in the current report 
of Sheridan's great speech in Westminster Hall 
were his own, while in both cases the reporter or 
the repeater is responsible for the fiction. Sheridan 
did use these words, with reference to Burke, on 
4 March, 1793 : 

"Mr. Sheridan then expressed his surprise at the 
manner in which Mr. Burke had talked of the conduct 
of parties, who had long since stated that he was uncon- 
nected with any party, who had gone from the living 
Whigs to the dead, and whom, having quitted the camp 
as a deserter, he never suspected of returning to it as a 
spy." 'Speeches,' vol. ii. p. 178. 

This is the record of what Sheridan said. I fear 
that THORNFIELD will never be supplied with an 
authority for the added words in ' Sheridaniana.' 


The Reform Club. 

THORNFIELD is not quite correct as regards the 
facts put forward in his query, if my authority 
speaks truthfully. In ' Sheridaniana ; or, Anec- 
dotes of the Life of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, his 
Table Talk and Bon Mots,' London, Henry Col- 
burn, New Burlington Street, 1826, p. 278, the 
following is given as the anecdote referred to : 

" It is, of course, known that Mr. Burke, in the early 
part of his life, enlisted under the banners of Opposition, 
and was a constant frequenter of the house of a baker 
of the name of Tarcome, where the aspirants for fame, 
on that side of the question, used to meet, and debate 
certain proposed questions; the baker himself was 
eventually constituted perpetual president of the well- 
known Robin Hood Society ; such was the estimation in 
which he was held by the disciples of Whiggery. Upon 
a memorable occasion, Mr. Burke, in the House of 
Commons, exclaimed, ' I quit the camp,' and suddenly 
crossed the House, and having seated himself on the 
Ministerial Benches, shortly after rose, and made a most 
brilliant speech in opposition to his ci-devant friends 
and adherents. Sheridan was a good deal nettled at 
what he considered a needless defection, and replied with 
something like asperity to Mr. Burke's attack, and con- 
cluded his speech with nearly these words : ' The 
honourable gentleman, to quote his own expression, 
has " quitted the camp," he will recollect that he quitted 
it as a deserter, and I sincerely hope he will never 
attempt to return as a spy; but 1, for one, cannot sym- 
pathise in the astonishment with which an act of apostacy 
so flagrant has electrified the house ; for neither I nor 
the honourable gentleman have forgotten whence he 
obtained the weapons which he now uses against us ; so 
far from being at all astonished at the honourable gentle- 
man's tergiversation, I consider it not only characteristic 
but consistent, that he who in the outset of life made so 
extraordinary a blunder as to go to a baker's for elo- 
quence, should finish such a career by coming to the 
House of Commons to get bread.' " 


SAMUEL PEPYS (8 th S. ix. 307,489; x. 33). 
The nature of MR. DAVEY'S corrections might, in 
the case of a less-known name, suggest an incom- 
plete acquaintance with D'Avenant's works. Cer- 
tainly they are not corrective in any single sense. 

I gave in my notes a list of the composers who 

8 k S. X. Atra. 1, '86.] 



wrote the music to the first part of ' The Siege o 
Rhodes.' MR. DAVEY repeats my list, and add 
the arrangement of the acts ; in other words 
merely confirms my statement, leaving the matte 
exactly where it was. 

The two parts of the ' Siege ' are widely enough 
separated in matter, and above all in style to 
warrant our regarding them as different plays 
indeed, it is difficult to see how they could have 
been combined effectively. Combined, however, 
they were, forming the third and last stage of the 
opera. When MR. DAVEY speaks of the complete 
score of the * Siege ' being in existence, one would 
suppose that the combined work is referred to. 
In this case it would not be difficult to discover 
the original setting of the words " Beauty, retire !" 
to which Pepys had apparently added some music 
himself. But, after mentioning " complete copies " 
of the work, MR. DAVEY adds a list of composers 
who collaborated in the music of the first part 
only ; and in this not only the* words referred to, 
but the character to whom they are addressed, do 
not even exist ! 

The first part (1656), in five acts, concludes with 
the ridiculous " coffee " chorus ; the second (1661), 
also in five acts, reflects more credit on D'Avenant, 
is well knit, and superior from a dramatic point of 
view to the first, though less full of musical con- 
cessions ; the third (1661-2) appears to have been 
merely a combination of the first .and second. If 
MR. DAVEY is acquainted with the music to the 
second part, he certainly does not mention the 
fact. Nor do different opinions of Lawes, Cooke, 
and Locke help the matter very much. Hawkins 
dubs Cooke " but a dry composer "; and " dry " is 
a mild term for the few songs of his which appear 
in Piayford's collections. 

Burney certainly has the misfortune to be " more 
than one hundred years old"; but how MR. DAVEY 
arrives at the conclusion that I have founded my 
remarks on the sands of his ' History ' I cannot 
imagine. I made but one allusion to Burney, 
merely to show that doubts have existed as to the 
thoroughly "operatic" nature of the work as 
advertised by D'Avenant in his prefaces. In the 
absence of any approved contradiction or alter- 
native theory by MR. DAVEY, I may repeat my 
suggestion that Cooke, rather than Lawes or Locke, 
was responsible for the greater part of the music 
in the later productions of * The Siege of Rhodes,' 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

COINCIDENCES (8 th S. viii. 124, 177, 270, 334). 
The following occurs in the Illustrated Carpenter 
and Builder for 13 Dec., 1895 : 

" Many of the occurrences in actual life are stranger 
than the most unlikely dreams of novelists. The truth 
of the following curious incident is guaranteed. In 
September, 1892, the daughter of the blacksmith in 
Canna, in the far Hebrides, waa wandering on the shore, 

gathering driftwood for fuel, when in a small bay, about 
100 yards distant from her father's house, she picked up 
a piece of wood bearing the inscription, cut with a knife, 
' Lachlan Campbell, Bilbao, March 23, 1892.' On taking 
it to her mother she became much concerned, as this 
was the name of her own eon, who was a boiler-maker 
in Spain, and, as would be the case with most people 
certainly with Highlanders she could not get over the 
superstitious dread that this message from the sea was 
the harbinger of evil tidings regarding her son. Her 
friends did their best to calm her terror, exhorting her 
to wait for an explanation. When writing to her son 
she told him of what had happened, and was greatly 
relieved on receiving a reply assuring her of his well- 
being, but was astonished to learn that he perfectly 
remembered how, when on a holiday, he had cut, as 
described, on a piece of wood, and had idly thrown it 
into the sea from a rock near Bilbao. We all know the 
power of ocean currents, and need not be surprised at 
this piece of wood having been carried for six months; 
but the marvellous and, except for undoubted evidence, 
the incredible circumstance in this case is, that this 
piece of wood, after its long wandering, should have 
been washed on the shore within 100 yards of where 
the writer's mother lived, and that it should be picked 
up by one of his own family and taken home." 

I remember, a few years ago, when in the Arctic 
Regions, seeing a buoy, that had got loose and 
drifted from the Goodwins, beached high and dry 
on shore near Tromso. But that erratic instance 
of the ways of ocean currents is as nothing to the 
above. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

FLAT-IRONS (8* S. viii. 428, 510 ; ir. 96, 174). 
The following, from the * Diary ' of John Evelyn, 
under date 8 Oct., 1672, is perhaps earlier than 
any note made by previous correspondents : 

Richardson, the famous Fire-eater also tooke up 

a thick piece of yron, such as laundresses use to put in 
heir smoothing boxes, when it was fiery hot, held it 
)etween his teeth," &c. 

The Kectory, Wem, Salop. 

PERAMBULATOR (8 tb S. viii. 345). In the ' Life 
of George Wilson, the Pedestrian,' 1815, the 
following notice of the measuring wheel occurs : 

" He [t. e., Carey, the mapaeller in the Strand] pro- 
posed to give me, for my assistance, a Mechanic il Wheel, 
called an Ambulator, to aid me in more accurately 
ascertaining my measurements of the roads I was to 
travel." P. 20. 

Wilson did not avail himself of the proffered 
aid, but measured the distances by walking, which 
throws considerable doubt as to the accuracy of 
Gary's maps of that period. AYEAHR. 

TANNACHIE (8 th S. x. 7, 60). I do not think 
CANON TAYLOR has got hold of the right clue to 
this name, which is probably professional or official, 
and not locative. Compare another Scottish sur- 
name, Mactaggart, i.e., mac-an-t-shagairt, the 
priest's son. Here the .< of sagart has been silenced 
by aspiration, and a t inserted for euphony. Many 
other instances of these changes in the oblique 


[8 th S. X. AUG. 1, '96. 

case in Gaelic might be quoted ; e. g., Mactier = 
vnac-t-shiair, Macintyre = mac-an-t-shiair, both 
meaning the son of the carpenter. Tannachie, 
originally Mactannachie, would, in like manner, 
represent mac-t-sheannachaidh, the son of the 
sennachy, bard or seer. The prefix Mac is often 
dropped in colloquial use of patronymics. 


"ST. SEPULCHRE" (8 tb S. x. 26). MR. BRAND'S 
horror at finding St. Sepulchre, Snow Hill, 
London, so designated upon the notice-board of 
the church was uncalled for. That Stow and 
Maitland speak of the church as St. Sepulchre 
should have caused him to reflect before writing 
to 'N. & Q.' MR. BRAND had for the moment 
forgotten that saint is from sanctus, and means 
holy, whether place or person is intended. The 
prefix St. is now generally reserved for persons, 
but, as the present case proves, not necessarily so. 
Other examples of saint being used in the sense of 
holy are not uncommon in the dedication of 
churches, as for instance St. Saviour and St. 
Gabriel. Neither our Lord nor the archangel are 
to be numbered amongst the saints in the restricted 
sense that MB. BRAND would attach to the word. 


But what is the difference between Saint 
Sepulchre and Holy Sepulchre? There is really 
no occasion to object to the expression if it is 
understood that the term saint is the equivalent of 
the term holy, and that it may be, and is, quite 
as properly used with regard to places and things 
such as doctrines, events, and books as it is to 
persons. Incidentally, it is incorrect to speak of 
the church in question as "dedicated to the 
memory of " the Holy Sepulchre. Churches are, 
as a matter of fact, dedicated to God, and named 
in honour of distinguished Christian persons, 
places, doctrines, and events. F. P. 

WEDDING CEREMONY (8 th S. ix. 406, 475; x. 
59). Is not J. T. F. mistaken when he says that 
the priest, when he knotted the stole round the 
hands of the contracting parties at the wedding 
described by MR. ENGLAND HOWLETT, was but 
doing what is a modern invention ? Surely in Vander 
Wey den's great picture of 'The Seven Sacraments,' 
at Antwerp, in that part of it which represents the 
sacrament of matrimony the priest is represented 
as so doing. M. W. 

"MAC" AND "Me" (8 th S. ix. 508). Although, 
like MR. PLATT'S friend, I am a native of Limerick, 
I cannot corroborate his statement with reference 
to the spelling of the prefix Mac. In my experi- 
ence the word is invariably pronounced as spelt ; 
nor have I known the word Mahon to be pro- 
nounced otherwise than with the accent on the 
first syllable. The difference in the spelling of 
the prefix Mac simply arises from a desire of some 

people to abbreviate the word when writing it, 
and every one seems to spell it as he wills. A 
common abbreviation of it is " M V this, though 
I doubt if it would be considered elegant, or even 
intelligible, by Celtic scholars, is familiarized to us 
in many names ; but I think there are few 
Englishmen who could at once correctly pronounce 
the name M'Betb, or who would recognize it as an 
old familiar friend, yet at least one family I know 
of spells its name this way. I was myself grievously 
disappointed several years ago to find that the works 
of a certain " T. B. M'Aulay," which I saw adver- 
tised for sale in an auctioneer's catalogue, were 
neither the rarities nor the novelties I bad taken 
them for. Perhaps it may interest your corre- 
spondent to learn that here, on the borders of the 
ancient Thomond, the MacNamaras, a great and 
powerful Clare clan, are seemingly considered the 
Macs par excellence, and that members of that 
clan are, in ordinary conversation, always referred 
to as "Denny Mac," "Bob Mac," &c., it being 
understood that when Mac alone is used Mac- 
Namara is meant. 

Fairy Hill, Limerick. 

Compare herewith the " Mhic-Mac-Methusaleh " 
in Aytoun's ' Massacre of the Macpherson,' in the 
' Bon Gaultier Ballads.' G. E. C. 

REV. J. ARROWSMITH (8 th S. viii. 327). The 
Kev. John Arrowsmitb, instituted to the rectory 
of Wilcote or Wilcott, co. Oxford, 11 February,. 
1733/4 (Bishops' Certificates of Institutions to- 
Benefices, dio. Oxford, P.R.O.), was resident at 
Charlbury in 1754, in which year he voted at 
Oxford as a freeholder, in respect of a freehold at 
Wilcote aforesaid (p. 54, " Poll of the Freeholder 
of Oxfordshire, taken 17lh of April, 1754," 8vo. 
Oxford, 1754). DANIEL HJPWELL. 

CORONATION SERVICE (8 th S. ix. 446, 492). 
The late Basil Montague Pickering, in 1875, pub- 
lished " The Coronation Service according to 
the Church of England, edited by John Fuller 
Russell," price one shilling. I believe copies may 
yet be had of Messrs. Pickering & Chatto, 66, 
Haymarket. This pamphlet seems to me to give 
in the text and the notes all the information that 
can be desired. R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

S. ix. 248, 396, 438). It may appropriately be 
noted under this heading that roll sulphur is fre- 
quently carried in the pocket as a remedy far 
rheumatism. C. C. B. 

109, 177 ; ix. 511). In 'A Dictionary of English 
Plant-Names,' by Messr?. Britten and Holland 
(E.D.S.) there is the entry : " Trinity. Tradescanti* 

8 a 8.X. Aco. 1,'SW.] 



virginica, L. Kent (Higham). ' Given the name 
about Lee, because they say it blossoms all the 
Trinity.' ROT. 0. H. Fielding : no doubt sug- 
gested by the three petals of the flower." 


SEDILIA (8 th S. ix. 507). A similar question 
respecting the existence of sedilia in foreign 
churches appears in 'N. & Q.,' 1" S. xii. 344, to 
which there are instances given in reply at pp. 392, 
479, with which may be compared a communica- 
tion in vol. iii. p. 142. It is apparently the case 
that their occurrence is more rare in foreign than 
in English churches, but that they are not entirely 
absent from the latter. ED. MARSHALL. 

For Grimsby read Grimsbury ; the so-called 
"castle" is a very important earthwork, of com- 
paratively late construction, standing in Hampstead- 
Norris parish, near the remains of a Roman villa. 
The district was marshy, and there are indications 
of a Celtic crannog or pile dwelling adjoining. 
Grim is supposed to be a form of Odin, thus in- 
dicating the presence of the Scandinavian element. 
There is a Grimsditch, near East Ilsley, between 
the two ridgeways, called variously Icknield Street 
and Ickleton Street, also in Berkshire ; and we 
find a Grimsdyke in Oxfordshire, which severed 
Icknield Street between Mongewell and Nuffield. 
Grinosbury also names two hamlets near Banbury. 
All this indicates hard fighting ; but we know nothing 
certain of the combatants beyond what is reported 
of King Alfred at Ashdown, A.D. 871, also in Berk- 
shire. But, greatest of all English Grims is the 
so-called Grim's dyke, a survival of Antonine's 
Roman Wall in the Anglian lowlands of Scotland. 


WEIGHING THE EARTH (8 tb S. ix. 224, 314, 393, 
470 ; x. 37). If the astronomer Baily dwelt in 
37, Tavistock Place, I gather that this (which was 
pulled down this year) must be the house wherein 
the earth was weighed. My notion that Britton 
the antiquary's house was the one, arose from some 
mention by him, when I saw him therein in 1844. 
The site of his house will some day form a hand- 
pome and useful street from Crescent Place to 
Tavistock Square. Bat only the south side thereof 
is yet built, and it forms now a front garden to the 
three houses called Russell, Bedford, and Tavistock 
houses. It is curious that both this and 37, Tavi- 
stock Place (lately called The Grove) have been 
demolished, and each of them was detached in its 
own garden, which can be said of no other in the 
thousands within a radius of three or four mile?, 
except the three mansions in Regent's Park. 

E. L. G. 

ix. 345, 451 ; T. 17). I can neither understand 
nor subscribe to some of the statements made under 

this heading. But I should like to make a few 

No one has yet told us what the O.N. vottr 
really is ; so it is worth while to say that it is 
merely the Norse equivalent of E. wold, as ex- 
plained in my ' Dictionary ' under that title. 

I entirely dissent from the statement that " the 
O.N. 6 often makes English e "; fora reader might 
suppose that "makes" is here equivalent to 
"originates." The words eld, elbow, and ern are 
all pure English, and exist independently of the 
O.N. o. We might as well say that the O.N. o~ 
" makes " the German e in Ellen-bogen. 

In fact, there is a very good reason why the 
N. o is totally independent of E. e. It is simply 
this ; the O.N. 6 is the w-umlaut of a ; the E. e is 
the i-umlaut of a. Hence they are quite different 
sounds, and can only be confounded by such as do 
not rightly appreciate what umlaut signifies. 

To the question, " Is not Somerset itself a Norse 
word 1" I at once reply, Certainly not. The 
English Somerset has nothing to do with Norse, 
but is merely the modern form of A.-S. Sumor- 
scetan (plural), with long ce. This word does not 
mean " summer abode," but '* summer-settlers." 
The A.-S. equivalent of O.N. sumarsetr happens 
to be sumerselde. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

447). Assuming that the querist means the 
earliest lending library, I may inform him (my 
authority being an article by the late James 
Clephan, a local antiquary of some note) that 
"the first lending library established in England 
was that of the Bishop of Durham, Richard de 
Bury." Bishop Bury was born in 1281, elevated 
to the see of Durham in 1333, and died at Bishop- 
Auckland in 1345. A library was founded by 
him at Oxford. 

"The students of the hall in which the books weie 
lodged had the free use of them, under 'a provident 
arrangement,' drawn up by the donor, who enacted, 
besides,' that books might be lent to strangers,' befog 
students of the university not belonging to the hall, the 
keepers taking as security a sum exceeding the value of 
the loan." 



Your correspondent will find, on referring to 
' N. & Q.' (4" S. ix. 442 ; 5" S. i. 69, 154 ; ix. 
426), that a circulating library was in existence 
at Dunfermline in 1711, Edinburgh 1725, and 

71, Brecknock Road. 

See the account of Samuel Fancourt in the- 
'Dict. Nbt. Biog.,' and consult 'N. & Q.,' 7" S. 
vii. 247, 374 ; xii. 66. W. C. B. 

Apropos of C.'s query, though it is not an answer 
to it, I hhould like to state that I possess a set of 
ihe original issue of Dr. Johnson's ' Lives of the 



[8 S. X. Ana, 1, '96. 

Poets,' London, 1781, which is in very good con- 
dition. ? On the fly-leaf of the first volume is a list 
of names of persons among whom it was circulated 
from some lending library or book-club. Could 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' identify the locality from 
the names ? They are as follow, together with the 
dates of forwarding : 

Johnson's Lives of y e Poet?, Vol. 1. 3 weeks. 
I. Humphrys 

Nov r 6 to M Brett 26 to 

Dec br P. Parkes 14 to 

Jan' 1782 Miss Wbitehouse 4 to 

E. Elwell 25 to 

W m Brett 15Feb r to 

John Wright 7 March to 

W m Turton 27 to 

Jo" Jesson April 17 to 

JOB. Wright May 10^ to 


The same names recur in the same order in each 
of the other three volumes, Mrs. Brett receiving 
her copies of vols. ii.,iii., and iv. from I. Humphrys 
on 16 Feb., 6 June, and 24 June, 1782, the others 
receiving the books in due course. It would add 
considerably to the interest and value of the set of 
volumes could the town in which they were first 
circulated as new books be identified. 

W. R. TATE. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

[Many replies have been received.] 

" CHILD "= A GIRL, AND NOT A BOY (8 th S. ix. 
326 ; x. 13). In Wright's 'Provincial Glossary' 
*' child" is given as an equivalent of " girl." Here 
it is marked as a Devonshire word. It will be 
remembered that Shakspeare, in the * Winter's 
Tale/ III. iii., uses the word similarly, where he 
makes the old shepherd say, " A boy or a child, J 
wonder?" C. P. HALE. 

Shakespeare, as is well known, made liberal use 
of West-country phrases. On this topic, see the olc 
shepherd's query, when he discovers an infant cas 
away on the seashore, "A boy or a child, ] 
wonder V ('Winter's Tale,' III. iii. 71). 



I wrote " popularly employed," but the printer 
makes me say " properly employed," to which 
by no means assent. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

SAUNDERS=CROMPTON (8 tb S. x. 27). I seek 
further to trace connexion between Dorothy Cromp 
ton and the Lord Forfar of circa 1667. Jane 
daughter of Sir Walter Aston, of Ticksall, wh 
died 1589, married William Crompton, Esq., o 
Stone Park, Staffs. Dorothy is described in th 
Ashborne Church monument as "neptis" t 
Walter, Lord Forfar. How was she related t 
William Crompton ? The Sir Walter above name 
was grandfather to the first Baron Forfar. 

C. S. L. 

TRANSLATION (8 th S, ix. 484). I trust, for the 
ke of Longfellow's Latioity, that the epitaph 
uoted does not contain " tetegit," but tetigit. 
lay I be permitted to give a rendering as terse as 
le words seem to demand ? 

A maid-of-all-works 

Lies below ; 
Wbate'er she handled 

Smash did go. 


THE BROOM DANCE (8 th S. x. 26). It is sur- 
rising that MR. THORPE should have lived thirty 
ears in Devonshire without hearing of this dance, 
r hich is one of the best known and most commonly 
>ractised in the West. The present writer remem- 
)ers seeing it at a farmhouse ashen faggot burning 
n a Christmas Eve over fifty years ago, and to- 
lay it may be seen in the kitchen of almost any 
public-house. I could produce twenty men who 
an and would dance it for a small consideration 
particularly if liquid. Like the "monkey's 
ornpipe," it is not seen except in "kitchen com- 
>any." Your correspondent fairly describes the 
action, and a good deal of dexterity and agility 
s needed to throw the legs alternately over the 
tick while keeping the head of the broom on the 
ground. Here, in Somerset, it is called " The 
)ursh stick-dance," or "To dance the bursh" 
he brush being the housemaid's long-handled 

Perhaps Mrs. Lily Grove can give some infor- 
mation as to the history and antiquity of the 
dance ; but I have a notion that the ' Keel Row,' 
though a nautical air, is scarcely Semitic, nor of 
tiigh antiquity. The music at the first of the two 
performances I have witnessed was on that very 
expressive instrument an iron teatray, while the 
dancer sang and hummed a lively accompaniment ; 
but I only remember one line, not quite suitable 
for your pages. Generally the words were of no 
meaning not the same, though similar in character 
to those I give below, which were written down 
for me by the very first old man I spoke to on the 
subject : 

The Brush-stick Dance. 

The Tuther lettle Tune, 

The Tuther lettle Tune. 

And can you dance 

the Tuther lettle Tune. 

The Luptey Tumpey, Tuther lettle Tune, 

The Lettle Tune. 

I find the air now used here is generally the 
' Keel Row ' when fiddle or accordion are forth- 
coming ; a teatray is not quite suitable for it. 
By the way, that tune is known by the name of 
"The monkey cocks his tail." I cannot account 
for the absence of the women ; it must surely have 
been accidental, or the performance too common 
to rouse their interest. 

No doubt there are many survivals of the kind 
referred to by MR. THORPE, more or less gross, 

8 th 8. X. AUG. 1, '96. j 



but except, perhaps, in the cant phrase "jumping 
over the broom " for an irregular cohabitation, there 
seems little evidence of antiquity in this particular 

The name Bdl is, I submit, scarcely Phoenician, 
but is most certainly the Devonshire rendering 
of our West Country ball, a knoll. The nam 
" Cloutsham-Ball " is a familiar instance, anc 
is a household word at this time of the year 
among those who attend the opening meet of the 
Devon and Somerset staghounds, called the 
"Dunkery Derby." 

Your correspondent can hardly be serious in 
connecting Easter-brook, Maddicott, Balhatchet, 
Amory, and Symons with Babylonia, though ] 
have been confidently informed that our modern 
sheriff is Arabic shereef. Coincidence of sound 
is often curious, as well as curiously misleading. 

I suspect that "the broom dance" is somewhat 
similar to its brother "the cudgel dance," common 
in some districts of the north of Ireland, and should say 
that this dance is so immoral in the different move- 
ments that females having any feelings of refine- 
ment or decency would naturally remain out oi 
sight during its performance, i.e., stay indoors. 

Manor House, Dundrum, co. Down. 

SAXON WHEEL CROSS (8 th S. ix. 447). This 
is probably a consecration cross. It is of the form 
which Mr. J. H. Middleton, in vol. xlviii. of the 
Archceologia, p. 458, mentions as follows: "The 
forms of the crosses are numerous, but the com- 
monest of all is type A." There is an example in 
plate xxxiii. fig. 1, from Bishop's Cleeve, Gloucester- 
shire, with various similar ones in pi. xxxiii., 
xxxiv. ED. MARSHALL. 

SIR GEORGE NARES (8 th S. x. 7). See the 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' vol. xl. 91, 92. 

W. C. B. 

" ONLY " (8 th S. viii. 84, 273 ; ix. 213, 332). 
At the last reference MR. THOMAS BAYNE states 
that the use of this word as a preposition is not 
uncommon. What author so uses the word ? I 
shall be glad to have a quotation or quotations 
for such usages. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

8). I think MORO DE MORO must be in error 
respecting the above-named earl. Patrick Stewart, 
second Earl of Orkney (beheaded 1614), was the 
son of Robert Stewart, Abbot of Holyrood, Earl 
of Orkney, natural eon of King James V. The 
famOy (in the male line) became extinct on the 
death of Robert Stewart, grandson of Sir James 
of Tullas, brother of Earl Patrick. For pedigree 
see ' Peerage of Scotland ' by Douglas, and the 
' Extinct Peerages ' by Burke. The present Earl 

of Orkney is not descended from Patrick Stewart, 
the family name being originally Hamilton, now 
Hamilton-Fitzmaurice. The title was granted to 
Lord George Hamilton, fifth son of William 
Douglas, Duke of Hamilton, 3 Jan., 1696. Neither 
are the Stewarts of Appin, who claim descent 
through Dougal, a natural son of John Stewart, 
Lord of Lorn, a descendant of Sir John Stewart, 
of Bonkyl, second son of Alexander, High 
Steward of Scotland circa 1255-83. The Stewarts 
of Appin were located on the east side of 
Loch Linnhe, in Argyleshire. 'The Stewarts 
of Appin,' by John H. J. Stewart (1880), would 
probably give some information respecting any of 
the clan who (as the query states) served under 
King James at the battle of the Boyne. 


Is it not Robert Stuart, Earl of Orkney, that 
MORO DE MORO refers to ? He was a natural 
son of King James V. His son Patrick (Pate ?), 
Earl of Orkney, was executed for a mistake in 
Latin grammar. Robert Stuart, proud of his 
birth, but no scholar, had styled himself " Dominus 
Robertus Stuartus filius Jacobi Quinti Eex 
Scotorum," an error which helped to bring his 
son to the scaffold. His fate was not altogether 
undeserved, however. Few, even among the 
Stuarbs, surpassed him in crime. There is a short 
account of this gentleman in my small book on 
'Orkney, Past and Present,' now nearly out of 
print. I shall be happy to give MORO DE MORO 
a copy if he will favour me with his address and 
would care to see it. The principal authority on 
all matters connected with the Orkney Islands is 
Torfaeus, in whose work, ' Historia Rernm Orca- 
densium,' he might find further information about 
this character if necessary. The Stuarts were 
probably a Norman family, being descended 
in the direct male line from Alan, one of the 
companions of William the Conqueror. 

8, Koyal Avenue, S.W. 

"FEARBD" = FRIGHTEN ED (8 th S. ix. 385). 
'Feared" in the sense mentioned by MR. BAYNE 
s, like many other Scottish colloquialisms, a word 
of common use in England. Among the working 
classes of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, for instance, 
people are "feared of a savage bull" and 
'strangely feared when it thunders heavily," 
while a ghost " fears them almost to death." 

In a few years, it may be, the poor will have 
acquired the art of speaking schoolmaster's Eng- 
lish, but at present Elizabethan phraseology still 
comes easily to their lips. 

By-the-by, is it too late to prevent the exclusion 
of the good old words " yon " and " yonder" from 
ordinary use among educated people ? The lan- 
guage will be the poorer if they are allowed to 
become obsolete. To the villager " this " means 



[8* S. X. Aco. 1, '96. 

the thing here, "that" signifies the thing there, 
and " yon " the thing at a still greater distance. 
But those who have been tutored and governessed 
into Bo-called correctness of diction know that 
" yon " is vulgar, and avoid it accordingly. When 
and wherefore did it fall into discredit in cultivated 
society? G. W. 

" Feared " and " a'fearded " are common enough 
words in Devonshire, and may be heard every 
day in the villages here, a very long way from 
Scotland. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

This use of the word is not novel ; my email 
edition of Dr. Johnson's * Dictionary ' gives the 
following as the second meaning of the verb /ear, 
" to fright, to make afraid/' and quotes as an 
authority Dr. John Donne, the poetical Dean of 
St. Paul'*. E. WALFORD. 


"Feard," " feared "= afraid, frightened, is no 
doubt a Scottish colloquialism, but it is, I think, 
common throughout the greater part of England. 
It occurs in my ' Manley and Corringham Glossary,' 
with the following example: "Silly bairn, he's 
feard to go thrif th' check yard i' th' daayleet." 
I hear the word very frequently so often, indeed, 
that it makes no impression on my memory. 


Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 


All were full feared that there were fun 
Their leaders may they barely ban. 

Lawrence Minot's ' War Poems,' 1352. 

I quote from Prof. Henry Morley's 'Shorter 
English Poems' (" Lib. of Eog. Lit."). 

A. 0. W. 

JOHN EVERAKD (8" 1 S. x. 9). See the ' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography,' vol. xviii. 84, 85. 

W. 0. B. 

SKULL IN PORTRAIT (8 th S. ix. 109, 357, 412). 
I regret my inability to add directly to the 
elucidation of the truly remarkable picture in the 
Dulwich collection referred to by MRS. LEGA- 
WEEKES. In view, however, of the two Leominster 
wool packs in it and certain of the quarterings in 
the shield on the lady's side of the picture, which 
are stated to be those of Lloyd and Williams, I 
should be tempted to infer the probability of the 
initials W. I. and I. I. representing the name of 
Jones. Some real light, however, may well be 
thrown upon this view of the work by commend- 
ing the gentleman's arms to students of heraldry. 
They are these : Quarterly, 1 and 4, Gules, a fess 
gules engrailed between three boars' heads couped 
or ; 2 and 3, three lions rampant argent ; over all 
a crescent of difference. The gentleman carries, 
stuck in his unworn gloves, an iris ; the lady wears 
one in her bosom. The arms of the latter are 

Quarterly of six : 1 and 6, Sable, a lion rampant 
arg. ; 2, Sable, two spear-heads (?) arg. ; 3, Argent, 
a chevron between three fleurs-de-lis sable ; 4, 
Argent, three chevrons gules ; 5, Argent, a lion 
rampant sable. The date of the picture is 1560, 
or the third year of Elizabeth's reign. 

It was not my intention to do more than single 
out the skull portrait mentioned in my last com- 
munication as a beautiful example of the good taste 
manifested by Lotto, the Italian, in dealing with 
this unpleasant accessory. A hundred years later 
than his time it was utilized by certain Dutch and 
Flemish masters as an emblem not merely of death, 
but as a token of the medical profession. In this 
manner it occurs in a portrait of a water-doctor 
by Gerard Dow, in the possession of Heywood 
Lonsdale, Esq., and perhaps similarly in the half- 
length portrait (sixteenth century) of a man in 
cap and vest of black velvet, with a mulberry- 
coloured gown, in the National Gallery, whose 
right hand rests upon a skull, while in his left he 
holds pansies. If I do not err, Gerard Dow has 
placed a skull in the foreground of his own por- 
trait in the Pitti collection. Another German 
portrait (sixteenth century), half-length, of a man,, 
in the National Gallery, likewise exhibits this 
emblem of death.* His left hand rests upon a 
skull. Van Dyck has employed it peculiarly in 
two distinct portraits of Rachel de Rouvigny,, 
Countess of Southampton, belonging respectively 
to Lords Cowper and Spencer. In both instances 
the subject rests her right foot upon a skull, the 
meaning being evident. An Italian example may 
be recalled as having been exhibited in the New 
Gallery a year ago, being a half-length portrait of 
a clean-shaven young man, by B. Licinio, in front 
of whom, though untouched by him, lies a skulL 

It is manifest from the foregoing that the skull,, 
skeleton, or even entire corpse, was made use ot' 
by painters as an accessory or property in one or 
other of three secular capacities namely, as an 
emblem of the danger of death incurred or over- 
come by the person portrayed ; secondly (perhaps 
in the Dulwich picture), as a gloomy reminder of 
the precarious nature of even sanctified ties (" The 
word of God bathe knit us twayne, and death shall 
us divide again"); lastly, it was used as the 
symbol of a profession. The seventeenth centuiy 
yields by far the greater number of instances of 
the three practice?. ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

GRAY OR GREY (8 tn S. x. 49). MR. ATTWELL 
does not notice that for several centuries it has 
been the custom of the English feudal families 
of this name to write it Grey, while the Scottish 
wrote it invariably Gray. It was different as late 
as the fourteenth century. Sir Thomas Gray, of 

* I recollect in the Munich and Dresden galleries two 
or three examples of entire ekeletona peeping through 
green curtains in portrait?. 

8*8. X.Auo. 1/96.] 



Hetoun, in Northumberland, though the founde 
of the noble families of Grey in that county, alway 
wrote his name with a, and BO did his son Si 
Thomas, author of that fascinating and too littl 
known work the 'Scalacronica/ written in th 
language they both spoke, viz., Norman French 
The elder Gray was taken prisoner at Bannock 
burn, and the younger wrote the ' Scalacronica 
when a prisoner of war in Edinburgh Castle abou 
1355. In their case it seems not to have been 
territorial name, as they never prefixed the charac 
teristic de t but a colour name, equivalent to th 

" Our old titled families prefer the e. 
Not in Scotland. Witness the barony of Gray 
which, on the death of the late Earl of Moray 
emerged, and is held by Mrs. Eveleen McLaren 
Smith, now Lady Gray in the peerage of Scot 

St. Andrew?, N.B. 

Against the English titles of Grey may be se 
tfae old Scotch barony of Gray, just successfully 
claimed by Mrs. Eveleen Smith. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

NORMAN ROLL AT DIVES (8 th S. ix. 467). 
1. Raoul de Mortemer or Ralph de Mortimer, son 
of Roger de Mortimer, of St. Martin, Normandy, 
from whom are descended the Barons Mortimer oi 
Wigmore and Earls of March, &c. 2. Renaud 
and Tnrstin de Sainte Helene, sons of Rou, pro- 
bably take the name from some parish or lordship 
3. Robert de Rhuddlan, son of Umfrid, an Anglo- 
Dane, by Adeliza, sinter of Hugh de Grantmesnil 
of the family of Giroie. Knighted by Edward the 
Confessor ; visits his relations in Normandy and 
returns to England after the battle of Senlac. 
He was attached to the service of Hugh, Earl of 
Chester, and commanded the troops on the Welsh 
border. His principal residence was Rhuddlan 
Castle, and from that place he takes his name (see 
Ordericus Vitalis). 4. Richard de Saint Clair 
the Sinclairg of Rosslyn, Earls of Orkney and 
Caithness, claim descent from this family, who 
resided at St. Clair, near St. Lo, in the Cotentin, 

I am sure J. B. S. will forgive me for pointing 
out that his statement that a roll or list of the 
companions of the Conqueror was "erected" in 
tbe church of Dives is likely to cause misappre- 
hension. The list of names is inside the church 
of Notre Dame in Dives, and carved in bold 
letters in the stone wall above the west door. It 
may be as well to add that Dives is within a mile 
of Cabourg, a sea-bathing place about an hour's 
railway ride from Trouville. THORNFIELD. 

What connexion in there between Rhuddlan 
Caatle and the third Edward ? I ask for informa- 

tion's sake. The pronunciation of Rhuddlan is, 
I believe, Rhythlan (th soft). This is how I have 
beard it in the neighbourhood, and it accords with 
the rules given in Rowland's * Welsh Grammar.' 

C. C. B. 

CURIOUS TENURE OF LANDS (8 tb S. ix. 489). 
The subject to which the query of C. refers has 
been several times in ' N. & Q.' (I 8t S. iv. 406 ; 
2 nd S. xi. 246 ; 3 rd S. vii. 354, 388 ; 5 th S. i. 506), 
but no explanation of the custom has been given. 
Mr. W. Andrews, in ' Curiosities of the Church/ 
1 890, pp. 22-9, mentions a tradition that it arose 
in expiation for a murder. He has a full account 
of it, with a print of the gad-whip and of the 
ceremony of the procession of the as.*, with which 
it is also compared in Cbambers's ' Book of Days/ 
vol. i. pp. 396-8. There are illustrations of the 
whip and the procession both in Chambers and 
Andrews, but the print of the whip is more com- 
plete in the latter. Mr. Andrews also mentions that 
there was an unsuccessful petition to the House of 
Lords for the abolition of the custom from the 
Lord of the Manor of Hundon, but that it was not 
abolished until the sale of the Manor of Broughton 
in 1846. It is supposed, but without any authority, 
to have its origin in " a self-inflicted penance by 
a former nun of the Broughton estate for killing 
a boy with such a whip (Andrews, p. 27). Sir 
C. H. J. Anderson, in his * Pocket Guide to 
Lincoln/ gives an account of it, with the statement 
that it is now given up," 1880, p. 87. The 
symbolical character of the proceedings appears in 
Andrews, p. 24. Eo. MARSHALL. 

Surely by this time the Caistor gad-whip must 
be quite an old friend. See ' N. & Q.,' 5"> S. i. 
506, and the references there ; Mr. Andrews's 
books, &c. W. C. B. 

This manorial custom continued for a consider- 

ble period until 1846, when the land was sold. 

). is referred to Andrews's * Bygone Lincolnshire' 

and Andrews's 'Curiosities of the Church* for 

nformation on this subject. J. P. B. 

[Many replies, some of them very long, are acknow- 

OFFICES (8 ta S. ix. 469 ; x. 17, 60). The use of 
he Psalms is not confined to religious houses, as 
I!R. EDWARD H. MARSHALL seems to think. If 
e will look through the 'Catholic Directory' 
Burns & Oates) he will find a good many churches, 
erved by seculars, where vespers, or compline, or 
oth, are sung. No doubt, in a great many places, 
be Divine Office cannot be chanted, but that is 
mply on account of eur poverty and paucity of 
lergy and choirs. Nor can we pretend to vie with 
be Church of England cathedrals as regards the 
ower and sweetness with which the Psalms are 
sung. But we lack endowments with which to 



[8 th S. X. Aua. 1, '96. 

provide choir-schools, vicars-choral, organists, and 
choir-masters. It is our misfortune, not our fault. 
Of course, all our clergy, from the Pope downwards, 
recite the Psalms appointed in the office for each 
day, and a great many more of these are said or 
sung in the Breviary daily office than in the 
matins and evensong of the Prayer Book. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

PREBENDARY VICTORIA (8 th S. ix. 329, 377 ; 
x. 14, 54). With reference to this subject, a 
" Prebenda Kegis " was proposed in another 
instance more than seven hundred years ago. 
Hackington College, near Canterbury, which 
Archbishop Baldwin attempted to found in 1186, 
was to consist of sixty to seventy prebendaries, 
one stall assigned to the king, and one to each 
bishop, who, however, were to endow and appoint 
each his prebendary and vicar. See Bishop Stubbs's 
introduction to ' E pistol te Cantuariensis,' vol. ii., 
Rolls Series, No. 38, which contains a full account 
of this dispute. The monks of Canterbury pre- 
vented this design being carried out. 


Wingham, Kent. 

BURY (8* S. x. 76). Wood, in the second (Hook, 
in his * Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury,' 
erroneously quotes this as third) volume of his 
'Athene Oxonienses,' col. 738, states that the 
name of William's father was Robert. That of his 
mother I have not been able to ascertain. 

W. T. LYNN. 


In place of a reply I send another query. Where 
is there a portrait of the archbishop ? D. 

Chalmers's ' Dictionary ' says the archbishop's 
father was Robert Warham, of a genteel family 
at Okely, in Hampshire. 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

According to Wood's ' Ath. Oxon.' and Foster's 
1 Alum. Oxon.' his father's name was Robert. 

G. F. R. B. 

EMACIATED FIGURES (8 1 * S. viii. 386, 464, 509 ; 
ix. 152, 254, 478). One of the finest examples, 
which has not been alluded to by any of your 
correspondents, is the tomb of Archbishop Chiche- 
ley, in Canterbury Cathedral. I remember forty 
years ago the description of it given by the show- 
man who then accompanied visitors round the 
church. " Above yon sees the Harchbishop in his 
Harchbishop's robes, and below you sees him as he 
lays a copse." In the course of many wanderings 
on the Continent, I only remember one example, 
viz. , in the Abbey Church of St. Martin, at Laon. 
This is a mural tablet without a date, but I should 
judge it to be of about the middle of the sixteenth 

century, commemorating " Petrus de Ponte, hujus 
Monasterii Abbas." In the upper part he is repre- 
sented " in pontificatibus," on bis knees before the 
B. V. M. and Child, and below lying naked, with 
mitre and pastoral staff, and covered with worms, 
with the following inscription : 

Vermibus hie donor, et sic ostendere conor, 
Qualiter hie ponor, ponitur omnis honor. 

F. D. H. 

Can E. C. inform me whether the monument to 
Sir William Weston, which was purchased by Sir 
George Booth and removed to Burleigh in 1788, 
is still in existence ; and what Burleigh is referred 
to ; who is the present representative of Sir George 
Booth at Burleigh ; and generally to whom I could 
apply for information on the subject of the monu- 
ment, if still in existence ? 


45). I did wrong to challenge PROF. SKEAT. I 
should have taken it for granted that he was not 
mistaken, and asked, if I wrote at all, for informa- 
tion. He has produced his ancient authority, also 
his modern ; the existence of the latter I never 
doubted, nor did I doubt that the phrase was 
common and widely understood many real sole- 
cisms are that. Still, from Mandeville and ' Piers 
Plowman ' to the ' Century Dictionary ' and Venn's 
' Symbolic Logic ' (1881) is a long step, or, in 
modern slang, a far cry ; and I should like to see 
quotations from writers of classical English of, say, 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. But 
PROF. SKEAT thinks such may be found ; and so, 
in deference to his far better knowledge, I write 
my recantation. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

In the following scrap of quotation we have 
" trouble" so used, the context showing that the 
meaning is " be troubled or concerned " : 

" As I trou&led to know the eequele of my adventures, 
Ennoramita came to see me, ;> &c. Wiliam Browne, 
tran?. ' Gomberville'a Polexander ' (1647), ii.-iv., 178. 

Any one familiar with recent American news- 
papers or light literature of an inferior order must 
remember the Transatlantic use of oversleep and 
overwork as intransitives. F. H. 


ANGELICA CATALANI (8 th S. ii. 485 ; iii. 113, 
211, 272 ; x. 62). If I may trust my memory 
in a matter reaching back near upon half a century, 
Dr. Stephen Elvey, organist of New College, once 
told me that Angelica Catalani, with a voice " like 
an angel," was capable of singing so sadly out of 
tune (sharp, I think he said) as to be quite pain- 
ful. If so, a good musician might well say that 
"for her singing he wouldn't give a groat"; and 
Mary Lamb's epigram, with its reference to Cara- 

. X. AUG. 1, '96.] 



dori's throat, may be a mere coincidence. Bio- 
graphers are apt to overlook these rifts within th 
lute. C. B. MOUNT. 


There is a good deal about Bonaparte's descent in 
the ' Memoirs ' of the Duchess d'Abrant^s. D- 

HARMONY IN VERSE (8 th S. ix. 225, 482). It is 
not difficult to make an addition to MR. JONATHAN 
BOUCHIER'S dozen quotations for Tennyson's use 
of the letter L 

1 QEoone ' thus begins : 

There lies a vale in Ida lovelier 
Than all the valleys of Ionian hills. 

The last stanza but one in 'To . L. on his 
Travels in Greece ' is 

A glimmering shoulder under gloom 

Of cavern pillars ; on the swell 

The silver lily heaved and fell ; 

And many a slope was rich in bloom. 

The poem begins with : 

Illyrian woodlands echoing falls. 
In The Lotos-Eaters,' 7, there are eleven FB 
in two lines : 

How sweet (while warm airs lull us. blowing lowly') 
With Lalf-dropt eyelids still. 
At length I saw a lady within call 
Stiller than chisell'd marble, standing there. 

' A Dream of Pair Women.' 

And past his ear 
Went shrilling, " Hollow, hollow all delight ! " 

' The Passing of Arthur.' 
Here there are nine I's in a single line. 
For expression cf. 

A riotous confluence of watercourses 
Blanching and billowing in a hollow of it. 


But perhaps the most remarkable line in Tenny- 
son is the third in the following passage from 
1 Lucretius ': 

And I saw the flaring atom-streams 
And torrents of her myriad universe, 
Ruining along the illimitable inane. 
The sweeping swish of the line is moat remarkable. 
This line contains fourteen vowels, eleven liquids, 
and only six consonants. 

MR. ARTHUR MAYALL seems to think that in 
the line 

Silent upon a peak in Darien 

the second syllable of the first word is em- 
phasized. Surely "silent" is a trochee. His 
idea, too, of what is meant by alliteration is quite 
new to me. He says it " deals with the repetition 

?\r ne li( J a i? 80und -" Hear tne definition of the 
N. E. D.': " The commencing of two or more words 
in close connexion with the same letter, or rather 
the same sound." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

8, 476; x. 32). In view of the slight variations 

which are found in different copies of the First 
Folio, it would be interesting to know from what 
copy Messrs. Chatto & Windus made their fac- 
simile. Halliwell-Phillipps's preface does not give 
this information. Reading ' Cymbeline ' in Dyce's 
second edition, I find a note on II. ii. 43 ("that's 
riveted"), "The first folio has ' that's riuete.'" 
The reduced facsimile reads " riueted," but no 
doubt Dyce's copy, now under a glass case at South 
Kensington, has ** riuete." 

When the next facsimile is produced (and there 
should soon be room for another, though I believe 
second-hand copies of that of 1876 are often to be 
found) it is to be hoped that, though not full size, 
it will be large enough to be read easily without a 
magnifier. I am not so fortunate in my copy as 
MR. SPENCE ; mine is frequently indistinct, in 
some places so much so that it would be rash to 
affirm from it what the reading of the folio it. 

A. G. C. 

CAMP OF REFUGE' (8 th S. x. 75). These are both 
by Charles Macfarlane, who was one of Mr. Charles 
Knight's most industrious helpers. 


A Legend of Reading Abbey,' The Camp of 
Refuge,' and ' The Dutch in the Medway,' are by 
Charles Macfarlane. See Allibone's * Dictionary ' 
and'N. & Q.,' 6 tb S. x. 125. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH (8 th S. ix. 509 ; x. 58). 
Fulcher's statement that the wife of the Rev. 
Humphrey Burroughs, Master of the Grammar 
School at Sudbury, was a daughter of the cele- 
brated Dr. Busby is obviously incorrect. Busby 
never married, and his nearest relations at the 
time of his death were the grandchildren of his 
Eirst cousin, Sir Thomas Robinson, sometime 
Treasurer of the Inner Temple. G. F. R. B. 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD (8 tb S. x. 8, 77). If 
our revered Editor will permit a humble picker- up 
of ancient crumbs to cite an older instance of the 
practice of speaking of the cathedral of the metro- 
polis without the prefix to the great Apostle's name 
;han any which ' N. & Q.'s correspondents have 
mentioned under the above references,! will venture 
to quote the Miller's description of that " hendy 
Absolon," the parish clerk, who went to con- 
spicuous grief in illicit love-making, as all may 
read in Chaucer's 'Canterbury Tales.' To the 
stupendous disgust of his fellow traveller, the 
Reve, the Miller told us of Absolon that 
Crulle was his heer, and as the gold it schon, 
And strowted as a fan right large and brood ; 
Ful streyt and evene lay hie jolly echood. 
His rode was reed, his eyghen gray as goos, 
With Powles wyndowes carven in his shoos. 
In hosen reed be went ful fetualy. 

The allusion is, of course, to the complex and 



[8 ?. X. AUG. 1, '96. 

radial tracery in the windows of the Gothic cathe- 
dral as it existed in Chaucer's time, c. 1350, when 
the phrase in this form must have been perfectly 
understood by such as I, " a sonne of Cokenay." 
On the other hand, we may refer part of the 
irreverence implied by the term to the ways of 
Robyn the Miller when "dronke he was of ale," 
as on that eventful morning, and while 

in Pilatea voya he gan to crye, 

And swar by armes and by blood and bones. 

To drop a saint's title was, at the time in question, 
no irreverence. Thus we read of Chaucer's monk, 
What schulde he studie, and raak himselven wood, 
Upon a book in cloystre alway to powre, 
Or ewynke with handes, and laboure, 
At Auystyn byt? How achal the world be served 1 
Lat Auystyn have his swynk to him reserved ; 

and St. Benedict was often " Benet," while, con- 
trariwise, in the portrait of the "Persoun of a 
toun," we read that he would not run 

to Londone, unto seynte Poules, 

To seeken him a chaunterie for soules. 
To this day the man who in the Mount's Bay 
region asks a fisher, a miner, or a farming man 
for the church town of St. Paul by Penzance will 
have to stand corrected till he knows the place as 
"Paul," and yet all Cornishmen know of St. 
Buryan, St. Teath, St. Erth, and even Sancreed, 
as well as St. Just, St. Ervan, and St. Austel. 

F. G. S. 

S. x. 48). According to Roman hagiography St. 
Cornelius was twenty-second Pope, was sovereign 
pontiff A.D. 254, and reprehended St. Cyprian, 
Bishop of Carthage, for rebaptizing heretics. 
Besides presiding over cat f lp, he had another 
attribute, for Bale, in a list of '* bons petitz saintz, 
as Rabelais calls them, mentions " St. Fiacre for 
the ague, St. Apolline for the tooth-ache, St. 
Gratian for lost thrift, St. Walstone for good 
harvest, St. Cornells for the foul evil," &c. ('Select 
Works,' Parker Society, 1849, p. 498). But was 
there more than one St. Cornells 1 



CHURCHWARDENS (8 th S. x. 77). The four 
churchwardens at St. Hilda's Church here, a per- 
petual curacy, are elected annually at Easter by 
the ancient select vestry of twenty-four members. 
As is, I believe, usual with these select vestries, 
vacancies as they occur are filled up by the 
members. R. B. 

South Shields. 

'NICKLEBY MARRIED' (8 tb S. ix. 489). The 
full title of this curious plagiaristic publication 
reads as follows : " Scenes from the Life of Nickleby 
Married: containing certain remarkable passages 
and strange adventures that befel the Nickleby 
f&mily, being a sequel to the ' Life and Adventures 

of Nicholas Nickleby.'" It was edited by " Guess," 
md contains twenty-one etched illustrations by 
'Quiz." The book was published in London by 

John Williams, 1840, pp. vi, 516, being issued 
n parts, with green wrappers, in imitation of 

Dickens's serials. The etchings are in the style of 
' Phiz," but much inferior. The actual name of 

the author has never, I believe, transpired. 


A SCOTTISH "LEGEND" (8 th S. x. 49). The 
reference is to J. G. Dalvell'a ' Scottish Poems of 
the Sixteenth Century,' Elinburgb, 1801. 

C. D. 

OR CAERLAVBROCK (8 th S. ii. 24, 364 ; ix. 408). 
Your correspondents signing themselves SIGMA 
and BERNAU AND MAXWELL seem to have over- 
looked the fact that it has not yet been shown 
(a) whether Charles wa* the eldest or a younger 
son of Alexander Maxwell, of Park, by his second 
marriage ; nor (6) whether Alexander, a son by 
the first marriage, died s.p.; nor (c) where and 
when Charles Maxwell married Miss McBriar. 
It is a pity that BERNAU AND MAXWELL did not 
tell us what connexion their query about an 
Alexander Maxwell, b. 1776, in London, has with 
the rest of their note. Was his father a grandson 
of Alexander Maxwell, of Park ? F. C. P. 

"FLITTERMOUSE"=BAT (8 th S. ix. 348,476; x. 
18, 81). This word was discussed in 4 ta S. iii. 
576 ; iv. 45, 167; and if MR. BOUCHIER had con- 
sulted the last reference he would have read some 
quotations from Ben Jonson, which would have 
shown that Tennyson was not the first to introduce 
this word into English poetry. " Flittermouse" 
or " flindermouse " is the German fledermaus, 
Flemish vledermuis. MR. CHICHESTER HART says 
that flinder is a little too much to put "on a 
bat's back"; but a former correspondent pointed 
out that vlinder is one of the names given in 
Belgium to the butterfly, and a butterfly would 
surely not outweigh the tricksy Ariel. 


Kingaland, Shrewsbury. 

SUBSTITUTED PORTRAITS (8 tb P. vii. 266, 314, 
369, 452, 496 ; ix. 277, 371, 434, 458).-! have 
a miniature copy of the portrait by Parmigianino, 
said to be of Columbus. In it he is depicted 
sitting with a helmet and breastplate behind him, 
on his head a red velvet I6ret. He has a drooping 
moustache and a ringleted beard of auburn colour. 
The long oval face and hair parted down the middle 
certainly reminds one of some " Christus." There 
is an engraving from the same picture in Weiss's 
* Biographie Universelle.' Washington Irving, in 
his ' Life of Columbus,' says, " his visage was long, 
nose aquiline, cheek-bones rather high," which 
tallies with the miniature ; but he goes on to say 




that (according to Laa Casas), " his hair, which was 
in his youthful days of a light colour, soon turned 
to grey, and at thirty years of age it was quite 

The Englith Dialect Dictionary. Edited by Joseph 

Wright, M.A. Part 1. A to Ballot. (Frowde.) 
MOST sincerely do we congratulate the English Dialect 
Society upon the beginning of its important t*sk. Our 
congratulations are not offered to the Society alone, t ut 
to all concerned with the literature, antiquities, and folk- 
lore of England to all, in fact, interested in the pre- 
servation of our old speech, old thought, old custom, and 
old lore. "Begun is half done," fays a proverb, not 
wholly true, perhaps, but containing ro much truth as 
justifies its existence among aphorisms of kindred origin. 
Twenty-three years have been spent in the collection of 
materials, a tack in which some three or four hundred 
readers have voluntarily assisted. Some of these have 
naturally during this time joined the mjority. The 
most arduous, though not the most .responsible part of 
the task has now been accomplished, and the ship is at 
last under weigh. How important is the labour under- 
taken needs not be told In *K. fc Q.,' in which as soon as 
elsewhere the demand for a work of the class was ex- 
pressed. Fortunate indeed will be the following genera- 
tion, with its lexicon lotius Anglicitatis (then it is to be 
hoped complete), its 'English Dialect Dictionary,' and its 
' Dictionary of Slang and its Analogues.' The aim of the 
present work, a full preface to which is reserved for the 
completion of volume i., is to supply, so far as possible, 
a " complete vocabulary of all English dialect words 
which are still in use or are known to have been in use 
at any time during the last two hundred years in Eng- 
land, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales," and comprehending 
also "Ameiican and colonial words which are still in 
use in Great Britain and Ireland, or which are to be 
found in early printed dialect books and glossaries." It 
is only within years comparatively recent that the notion 
of collecting the variations of folk-speech has com- 
mended itself to English scholarship. Secure in the 
possession of treasures the extent or value of which they 
did not attempt to fathom, our ancestors took little pains 
to transmit to us unimpaired, according to the advice of 
Samuel Daniel, the " treasure of our tongue." Very 
many words are, accordingly, permanently lost, and 
others are excluded from this work even, inasmuch as no 
instance of their use can be advanced. Among the words 
kept back for want of further information is thus 
ladlins=out of health, a word with the use of which in 
the West Riding we have been quite familiar, and one 
which was immediately recognized by a member of the 
household to whom we mentioned it. On the whole, 
there is, however, more cause for gratitude that the 
task has been begun so soon than for regret that it has 
been so long deferred. How much work has been 
accomplished is shown in the select bibliographical \i?t 
of works consulted which accompanies the first number, 
and still better in the contents of the number itself. 
This part includes 2,166 simple and compound words and 
500 phrases, illustrated by 8,536 quotations. All the 
ground now occupied has, of course, been previously 
covered by the ' Oxford Dictionary,' and some of the 
information supplied is necessarily the same. The later 
work is complementary to the other, and tie two to 
students of philology are equally indispensable. Take, 
for instance, the word addle = to tarn, a word in com- 

mon use in the Northern c< unties, though unknown in 
Scotland. The ' Oxford Dictionary ' treats this as it was- 
in early literature, before its use became purely dialectal. 
The 'Dialect Dictionary' gives such (locally) familiar 
use as "Ah addled t' brass," "1 earned the money." Full 
definitions or accounts are given of such vulgar pleasantries 
as making an apple-pie bed a form of torture in general 
use in England, but unknown, perhaps, where sheets, 
necessary, apparently, to its carrying out, are not uni- 
versal. The present work, moreover, does not burden its 
pages with derivations, such not coming within its scope. 
It supplies, instead, full information as to the counties or 
districts in which a word is in use. A simple and eai-y 
system of indicating pronunciation is adopted. The task 
of compilation and organization has fallen into the most 
competent hands, and Dr. Wright and Lia assistants are 
to be congratulated upon the manner in which their task 
has been, up to the present, accomplished. Support will 
not be wanting to work so excellent in aim and so praise- 
worthy in accomplishment. We commend to our readers 
a publication on the further progress of which we hope 
to have much to say. 

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Geoffrey Phippt Hornby, 
G.C.B. By Mrs. Fred Eger ton. (Blackwood & Sons.) 
IT is easy to cavil at the devotion to Admiral Hornby of 
a volume of four hundred and odd pages. A record of 
his services might well, it may be urged, have been left 
to Prof. Laughton in some supplementary volume to the 
great ' Dictionary of National Biography.' It is at least 
certain that, if a similar amount of space were assigned 
to all our great eea-captains, naval biography would 
assume portentous dimensions, and would demand a dis- 
proportionate and preponderating space in our libraries. 
While conceding these things, however, we feel it hard to 
condemn, or, indeed, award anything except praise to a 
very readable book, a portion, at least, of which is of his- 
torical importance, and the whole of which is a pious 
tribute from an affectionate daughter to a worthy father. 
That the name Phipps Hornby will not jank with those of 
our greatest naval heroes is due to chance alone. A bold, 
resourceful, and competent man, with an inherited love 
ef his profession, he rendered great and peaceful service 
to his country, won the friendship and esteem of those 
with whom he was thrown into closest association, was 
a silent force in the history of his country, and merited 
the honours accorded him. "A peerage or Westminster 
Abbey " was predicted for him, and would doubtless 
under different we dare not say happier circumstances 
have been his. To win either, however, as in the case of 
Gray's obscure hero, " his lot forbade," compelling him 
to remain a useful and worthy rather than a brilliant 
servant of his country and the Crown. On 3 Nov., 1840, 
Hornby served as a midshipman on board the Princess 
Charlotte when the British fleet, under Admirals Stop- 
ford and Napier, bombarded St. Jean d'Acre. No oppor- 
tunity for specially distinguishing himself was afforded 
the young sailor, and the biographer is compelled eadly 
to own that this was " the only time in his life that 
Geoffrey Hornby saw a shot fired in anger." It must 
not therefore be supposed that he did not render his 
country fine service. " Peace," says Milton, in a noble 
and often-quoted line, addressed to Oliver Cromwell, 

bath her victories 
No less renowned than war, 

and in these Hornby took a noble part. In command 
of the Mediterranean fleet from 1877 to 1880, he went 
with it to Besika Bay, close to the entrance of the 
Dardanelles, when the news was received that the 
Russians had crossed the Danube. At this point the 
volume becomes deeply interesting. Few except those 
who kLOw or have studied the history of that period are 



[8 th S. X. AUG. 1, '96. 

aware how near we were to a European conflagration 
His energies were bent upon retarding the Russian 
advance on Constantinople, and he urged strongly and 
persistently upon the Government the expediency of 
strengthening and holding the lines of Bulan. Did space 
permit, we could extract from this portion of the volume 
many passages of keenest historic interest, and actions 
which we might almost put down as deeds of prowess. 
We specially commend to the readers the despatch to the 
Right Hon. W. H. Smith, dated from Besika Bay, 8 Feb., 
1878 (pp. 234 et seq.}. With these events of contemporary 
history we are not called upon to deal. Some few facts 
worthy of the attention of the folk-lorist are sent from 
places visited by young Hornby. As a whole, however, 
his impressions concerning places and things which he 
has seen are more interesting from the point of revela- 
tion of an honest, worthy, sturdy, thoroughly English 
lad than for any remarkable powers of observation or 
discernment they reveal. Three well-executed portraits 
of Hornby at various ages add to the attraction of a book 
destined to a large, though scarcely, perhaps, an enduring 

The Life of Sir Henry Halford, Bart. By William 

Munk, M.D. (Longmans & Co.) 

SIR HENRY HALPORD'S name is prominent among the 
great English physicians of past times. We doubt, 
indeed, whether any member of the medical profession 
ever attained so wide a popularity. It is not easy to 
account for this, for Sir Henry made no brilliant dis- 
covery in the art of healing, and, even if he had, such 
things rarely appeal to a very wide circle. He was the 
chief medical adviser of the royal family for a long 
period ; but this alone, though it may ensure wealth and 
a certain measure of popularity in the upper ranks of 
society, cannot count for much elsewhere. We believe the 
chief reason why Sir Henry was so widely known and so 
much admired to be that he possessed a charm of manner 
and a power of sympathy with suffering such as is given 
to few. He was, to put it tersely, as well as an accom- 
plished physician, a refined gentleman, who almost 
always said and did the right thing and at the right 
moment. Very few people are judges of those who 
minister to our wants in hours of suffering, but we all 
of us know whether our medical attendant's manners 
are brusque or gentle. Sir Henry Halford was of 
opinion that in moat cases of illness very much depends 
on the state of mind of the patient. He therefore 
made it his study to give harmless pleasure and relaxa- 
tion whenever it was possible. The duty of doing this 
is now so well known that it seems hardly necessary to 
dwell upon it ; but when Sir Henry began to practise at 
Leicester, more than a hundred years ago, this was very 
far from being a generally accepted doctrine. We have 
heard, indeed, that some of the old practitioners culti- 
vated a certain roughness of manner, thinking, it may 
be, that by such means they were the more likely to have 
their orders obeyed to the letter. 

Sir Henry Halford's father, James Vaughan, was a 
medical practitioner living at Leicester. He seems to 
have had a large practice and to have been a man of 
high character. When he had attained a moderate com- 
petency, which he did early in life, he made up his mind 
not to save money for bis children, but to devote the 
whole of his yearly income derived from his profession 
to giving his children the best education in his power. 
His eldest son it was known was to inherit the estate 
of Wistow, in Leicestershire. He, however, died young, 
and his next brother Henry, tbe subject of the present 
memoir, inherited the succession. He did not, however, 
come into possession of the property until 1814, when he 
assumed the name of Halford. The Halfords had been 

settled at Wistow since the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. They were Royalists, and one of them had 
entertained Charles I. on more than one occasion. For 
some years before he succeeded to the Leicestershire 
estates his income had been very large. A table of Sir 
Henry's professional receipts, is given, from 1792, when 
it amounted but to the modest sum of 220J., to 1809 
when it amounted to 9,850/. 

We are not called upon to enter into any details re- 
garding Sir Henry Halford's medical career, but may 
notice that it was probably on account of his personal 
intimacy with the Prince Regent that he was called upon, 
in the year 1813, to be one of the very few persons who 
were present at the opening of the coffin of King 
Charles I. Dr. Munk gives an account of what occurred 
somewhat abridged from the record prepared by Sir 
Henry in obedience to the command of the Prince 

Sir Henry Halford was elected in 1820 President of 
the Royal College of Physicians, a post which he filled 
for nearly a quarter of a century. In 1809 he was created 
a baronet. A special friendship existed between the 
Duke of York and Sir Henry. On the death of the 
former, the king, to mark the special attention which 
Sir Henry had bestowed on his patient during his death- 
illness, granted him a white rose as an augmentation to 
his arras and two emus as supporters. Dr. Munk says 
that this is " the only instance in English heraldry of 
the grant of supporters to a practising physician." 

Dr. Munk, we gather, laments that classical scholar- 
ship is not so common among members of the medical 
profession as it was in the early years of the century. 
Holding, as we do, that no other knowledge, however 
wide and varied, can supply the place of the two dead 
languages, we are always sorry when we become aware 
that this deficiency in scholarship exists in any member 
of a learned profession. We think, however, that Dr. 
Munk takes a somewhat gloomy view of things as they 
now are. There are doctors at the present day himself 
among the number who have a high reputation for 
that refined scholarship which was so marked a feature 
in Sir Henry Halford. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written tbe name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
Slate, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, B.C. 

C. M. TENISON, Hobart, Tasmania ("Additions to 
Burke's * Extinct Baronetage of Ireland ' "). Please 
send. Room shall be found. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Oflice, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

ff h 8. X. AUG. 8, '96.] 





UOTBS . Foubert's Biding Academy Cpndell and He- 
mince 109 'Dictionary of National Biography,' 110 
Book Prices St. Swithun St. Swithin and the Apples- 
Burns and Shakspeare, 112 Thirty-six Kinds of Malt 
Liquor Inkhorns Swift Concordance Chalking the Un- 
married, 113 Commonplace-Books Phoebus " The Quiet 
Woman "-Leonard Poe, 114. 

QUERIES: "Beazed" Domesday Survey Hill, 114 
1 Cor. ii. 9 Marquis of Granby's Regiment Religious 
Dancing Vectis ' Salem and Byzavnce' Arthur Gold- 
ing Unidentified Heraldry, 115 Blenkard " Pilomet" 
Highland Horses Circular Bread-baking Ovens J. Cobb 
Surnames of Natural Children Church Key Figured in 
Register Domesday Oak Family Arms in. Republics- 
Authors Wanted, 116. 

HEPLIBS : Oxford in Early Times, 117 Umbriel Grace 
Darling Monument Boak " Irpe " " Twilight of Plate " 
Cockades Heraldic Position of Font " Entire," 118 
"Bathe Ripe" Great Beds Lieut.-General Webb- 
Steam Carriages for Common Roads, 119 "Linkum- 
doddie" 'The Secret of Stoke Manor' Pin and Bowl 
4 The Giaour,' 120 Brass Inscription Monseigneur d'An- 
terroches Hulke ; Hulse Southwell MSS. Leap Year 
Growing Stones, 121 St. Uncumber Clock New Bug- 
land and the Winthrops, 122 The Label Merchants' 
Marks Meeting-house Plague Stones Force of Dimi- 
nutives, 123 Coleman " Billingsgafe " " Bedstaves " 
Dog Stories, 124 Local Works on Brasses Arms of John 
Shakspeare ' Tom Brown's Schooldays ' Aerolites 
" Displenish "Malta, 125 Florence as a Name "To 
Slop >T _Universities of the United States A " Pony of 
Beef "Wedding Ceremony Episcopal Chapels in Lon- 
don, 126. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Woodward's Heraldry ' ' Journal 
of the Ex-Libris Society 'Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



(See 8 th S. ix. 383.) 

At this reference is an extract, under the 
heading ' Leicester Square,' from the Si. James's 
Gazette of 4 April, which was "lifted" bodily, 
though not without acknowledgment, from the 
Builder of the same date. Amongst other things, 
it stated that the Military Yard of Henry, Prince 
of Wales, was afterwards used for Major Foubert's 
riding academy. Mr. Wheatley, in his ' Round 
about Piccadilly and Pall Mall,' p. 179, says that 
** Major Foubert, in Charles II. 'a reign, moved his 
riding academy from the Military Yard, behind 
Leicester House, to Swallow Street, opposite where 
Conduit Street is situated." The occupation of 
Military Yard by Major Foubert must, if it 
occurred at all, have been of very short duration, 
and I should be glad to know on what authority 
the statement rests. Evelyn, in his 'Diary,' under 
date 17 Sept., 1681, says : "I went with Monsieur 
Faubert about taking the Countess of Bristol's 
house for an academy, he being lately come from 
Paris for his religion, and resolving to settle here." 
Bat in 1681, when Major Foubert had lately come 
from Paris, Prince Henry's Military Yard was in the 
possession of Charles Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield, 
who was then letting out the ground for building 
purposes, and it was about the year 1681, as we 

learn from the rate-books of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, that Gerard Street was built upon the site 
in question (Cunningham's ' Handbook of London/ 
ed. 1850, p. 200). Lord Macclesfield may, of 
course, have allowed Major Foubert to make use 
of Military Yard while he was on the look-out for 
more permanent quarters. Two years afterwards 
Major Foubert seems to have been still " hoping 
to procure his Academy to be built by subscrip- 
tion of worthy gentlemen and noblemen " (Evelyn's 
1 Diary,' 9 Aug., 1683) ; but by 18 Dec., 1684, he 
appears to have been permanently settled, as Eve- 
lyn on that day " went with Lord Cornwallis to see 
the young gallants do their exercise, Mr. Faubert 
having newly railed in a manage, and fitted it for 
the academy." This academy was located in 
Foubert's Passage, which connected Swallow 
Street with King Street, and it remained in exis- 
tence until the greater part of Swallow Street was 
pulled down for the Regent Street improvements 
in 1813-20. Mr. Walford, in his Old and New 
London,' iv. 251, says : " On the site of Foubert's 
Academy had previously stood the mansion of the 
Countess of Bristol"; but this is a mistake, origi- 
nating probably in the first entry from Evelyn's 
' Diary ' which I have quoted above. The Countess 
of Bristol's mansion was situated in Chelsea, and 
stood at the north end of the present Beaufort Row. 
In 1679 she became anxious to sell it, and Evelyn 
seems to have been employed as an agent in the 
matter (' Diary,' 17 June, 1679 ; 3 Sept., 1683). 
It was in this capacity that the idea occurred to him 
of securing the place for Major Foubert's academy, 
but the project came to nothing, and in 1682 the 
house was purchased by the Duke of Beaufort, and 
became known as Beaufort House. There is a 
long account of the house and of its many illus- 
trious owners in Faulkner's ' History of Chelsea,' 
ed. 1829, i. 92-137. My quest on the present 
occasion, however, is for Major Foubert's habitat 
when he first came to London. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

In the churchyard of St. Mary the Virgin, 
Aldermanbury, are buried two of the personal 
friends and stage associates of Shakespeare, Henry 
Condell and John Heminge, to whom the world 
owes a great debt for the loving trouble they took 
in collecting the works of the great bard, and pub- 
lishing them in book form. Many of the plays 
had, it is true, been published previously, but 
Heminge and Condell's First Folio, issued in 
1623, contained at least as many more as had 
then seen the light. With a modesty somewhat 
uncommon in that age, they refused to be regarded 
as editors, but, in their own words, they " but 

collected [the plays] only to keep the memory 

of so worthy a friend and fellow alive, as was our 



[8 th S. X. AUG. 8, '96-. 

Shakespeare, by the offer of bis plays to your most 
noble patronage." Singularly enough, considering 
the low estimation in which the acting profession 
was then held, both of these men were parish 
officials, having served the office of sidesman of St. 
Mary's. Closely following upon the unveiling of 
a memorial window to Philip Massinger in St. 
Saviour's, Southwark (see ante, p. 44), a monument 
to these two estimable Elizabethan actors was 
unveiled on 15 July in Alderman bury Church- 
jard, where it forms a very conspicuous object 
from the busy street. It is of Aberdeen red 
granite, polished, and is adorned with an open 
book of grey granite, representing the famous 
First Folio of 1623. One leaf exhibits its quaint 
title-page : " Mr. William Shakespeare's Comedies, 
Histories, and Tragedies. Published according to 
the true originall copies. London, 1623." The 
other has the extract from the epistle dedicatory, 
part of which is given above. The tablet on the 
front reads : 

" To the memory of John Heminge and Henry Con- 
dell, fellow-actors and personal friends of Shakespeare. 
They lived many years in this parish and are buried 
here. To their disinterested affection the world owes 
all that it calls Shakespeare. They alone collected his 
dramatic writings regardless of pecuniary loss, and with- 
out the hope of any profit, gave them to the world. 
They thus merited the gratitude of mankind." 
On the left tablet is written : 
"The fame of Shakespeare rests on his incomparable 
dramas. There is no evidence that he ever intended to 
publish them, and his premature death in 1616 made 
this the interest of no one else. Heminge and Condell 
had been co-partners with him at the Globe Theatre, 
Southwark, and from the accumulated plays there of 
thirty-five years with great labour selected them. No 
men then living were so competent, having acted with 
him in them for many years, and well knowing his manu- 
scripts. They were published in 1623 in folio, thus 
giving away their private rights therein. What they 
did was priceless, for the whole of his manuscripts, with 
almost all those of the drama of the period, have 

The right tablet contains an extract from the 
preface to the First Folio ; on the back of the monu- 
ment are a few biographical particulars regarding 
Condell and Heminge, and the quotation from 
'Henry VIII.' (III. ii.), "Let all the ends thou 
aim'st at be thy country's, thy God's, and truth's. 1 
Quite consistently with the characteristic modesty 
of the issuers of the First Folio, Shakespeare himself 
is kept paramount in this monument, for it is sur- 
mounted by a bronze bust of the great dramatist, 
modelled from that in Stratford-on-Avon Church 
by Mr. C. J. Allen, of University College, Liver 
pool, who has also used the Droeshout portrait to 
ensure a better likeness. At the unveiling the 
Lord Mayor was present in state, and Mr. Bayard 
(the American ambassador), Sir Henry Irving, the 
"Rev. 0. 0. Collins (Vicar of St. Mary, Alderman 
bury), and Sir Henry Knight (Alderman of the 
Ward of Aldermanbury), gave addresses. Palmam 

qui meruit ferat : the monument, it should have 
been said, has been erected from the design and at 
the cost of Mr. Charles Clement Walker, of Lilies- 
ball Old Hall, Shropshire, who also selected the 
"npcriptions. R. CI*ARK. 



(See 6t g. x {. 105, 443 ; xii. 321 ; 7* S. i. 25, 82, 342, 
376; ii. 102, 324, 355; iii. 101, 382; iv. 123, 325, 422 ; 
v. 3, 43, 130, 362, 463, 506; vii. 22, 122, 202, 402 ; viii. 
123, 382; ix. 182, 402 ; x. 102 ; xi. 162, 242, 342 ; xii. 
102 ; 8th s. i. 162, 348, 509 ; ii. 82, 136, 222, 346, 522 ; 
iii. 183 ; iv. 384; v. 82, 284, 504; vi. 142, 383; vii. 102; 
viii. 63, 203, 443 ; ix. 263.) 

Vol. XLVI. 

Pp. 7-11 . Edw. Pococke. See 'Synopsis Metaph. 
Frommenii,'0xon., 1704, in epist. nuncup. Wells, 
1 Minor Prophets,' 1723, pref. 

P. 11 b. Ockley's tranal. of ' Ebn Tophair 
appeared in 1708, with ded. to Edw. Pococke,. 
Rector of Minal, q.v. 

P. 13. Rich. Pococke employed a foreigner to 
transcribe for him in Brit. Mus., ' Gray,' by Mason, 
1827, p. 224. 

P. 14 b, and often. For " license " read licence. 

Pp. 35-46. Card. Pole. See 'Ascbami Epistola?/ 
1602, pp. 99, 101, 275, 289, 552, 664 ; H. Whar- 
ton's * Life,' prefixed to ' Sermons,' 1700 ; Word&- 
worth, 'Eccl. Biog.,' 1818, ii. 118, 146. 

P. 42 a. " To carefully weigh." 

P. 49 a. For " Miton " read Myton. It was not 
in Holderness. 

Pp. 49-50. "Trinity chapel" is the church of 
the Holy Trinity. 

P. 50 a. " A hospital at the Maison Dieu "; th* 
hospital was the Maison Dieu. 

P. 68 a. Sir G. Pollock. Add * Annual Reg./ 

P. 74 a. A 12th ed. of John Pomfret's 'Poems/ 
1753 ; a later separate ed. issued by W. Suttaby, 

Pp. 84 b, 90 a. Observe the curious coincidence, 
two soldiers of the Ponsonby family are killed while 
in the act of handing over their watches. 

P. 91 a, line 6. For " York" read Cork. 

P. 96. Geo. Ayliffe Poole married a daughter of 
Jonathan Wilks, of St. Ann's, Burley. He also 
wrote 'Illustrations of Patrington Church,' 1855 ; 
there is a bibliography of his works in Northampton- 
shire Notes and Queries, part i., Jan., 1884. 

P. 125 b, line 22. For "Nos. 268-70" read 
1 st 8. x. 

Pp. 141, 148, 149, 305. Raleigh, Ralegh. 

P. 142 b. Edw. Popham. See ' Literse Crom- 
wellii,' 1676, p. 15. 

P. 148. Sir John Popham was a manager of 
Blundell's School, Nelson's 'Bull,' p. 10, Words- 
worth's 'Eccl. Biog.,' 1818, v. 279; Willet 
dedicated to him part of ' Synopsis Papism!,' 1609. 

8S.X. AUG. 8/96.] 



P. 150 a. For "Sheehan" read Sheahan. 

P. 150. John Pordage. See W. Law's ' Works,' 
1892, vi. 201. 

Pp. 154-163. Porson. See Mathias, 'P. of L.,' 
pp. 98, 144, 157, 414 ; Wrangham's ' Zouch,' i. 
p. xii ; Byron's ' Hours of Idleness'; ' D. N. B.,' 
Txxvii. 69 a. 

P. 187. B.A. Glasgow? 

P. 192. R. K. Porter. Add 'N. & Q.,' 6* S. 
xi. 330; 7">S.vii. 312. 

P. 197. Bp. Porteus. See Roberts's ' Memoir 
of Hannah More '; ' Memoir of Amos Green,' 1823, 
p. 174; Mathias, *P. of L.,' p. 317; he was a 
friend of Beattie, and offered him a living in the 
Church of England ; see especially a large mass of 
material, gathered by Prof. Mayor and others, in 
4 N. & Q.,' 5 th 8. xii. 164, 209, 255, 296, 373, 515 ; 
add 'Life of W. Wilberforce,' iii. 365; Neale, 
4 Church Difficulties,' 1852, p. 223. 

P. 205. John Postlethwayt. See Bp. Patrick's 
<Autob.,'p. 128. 

P. 212. Christopher Potter. It was at his sug- 
gestion that Hammond published his * Practical 
Catechism '; Wordsworth, ' Eccl. Biog.,' 1818, v. 
356, 407. 

P. 216. Abp. Potter. Blackwall says he is a 
" noble critic, sound divine, great man," * Sacred 
Classic?,' 1737, i. 126. 

P. 217 b. John Potter. The 9th ed. of Salmon's 
' Gazetteer,' 1773, was edited by " Mr. Potter." 

P. 223 a. For " Stockhead, Beverley," read 
Stockeld, Bewerley. 

P. 231 b. For "Seignory," " Nunkealing," read 
Seigniory, NunJceeling. 

P. 237. B. Powell's 'Essay on the Study of 
Natural Theology' waa in the 'Oxford Essays,' 

P. 242 b. George Powell was acticg at Oxford 
in 1713, Guardian, 1756, ii. 61. 

P. 244 b. Sir John Powell gave an opinion on a 
point in Sachevereirs trial. 

P. 246. Powell's puppets, see ' Book of Days/ii. 

P. 256 a. For "Ealand " read Elland. 

P. 269 a. Sir L. Powys gave an opinion in 
Sacheverell's case. 

P. 269 b. Sir Tho. Powys. Garth gives him a 
bad character, 4 Dispensary,' canto iv. 

P. 270 b. "Diosemea," ? Diosemeia. 

P. 281 b, line 34. Omit " then," which makes 

P. 294. Josiah Pratt. See Jowett's ' Memoir 
of C. Neale,' 1835, p. 89; 'Memoir of T. Dykes ' 
1849, p. 216 ; Illust. Land. N., 1847, i. 416. 

P. 294 b, line 16 from foot. For " 1865 " read 

P. 295 b. Dean Samuel Pratt. Blackwall calls 
him "the learned Dr. Pratt," 'Sacred Classics,' 
1737, i. 45. 

P. 296. S. J. Pratt. See Gifford, ' Mreviad,' 
296, note. 

P. 303. Prentis. See 'N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. ix. 

P. 309 a. John Preston. On forms of prayer, 
see Hammond, 'Directory and Liturgy,' 1646, 
p. 15. 

P. 314 a. Tho. Preeton. See Wordsworth, 
' Eccl. Biog.,' 1818, iv. 322-3. 

P. 321. Sir G. Prevoat edited R. W. Huntley's 
' Sermons with Memoir,' 1860. 

P. 328. Price, alchemist. See 'N. & Q.,' 3 rd 
S. viii. 290, 405. 

P. 330 a, line 2 from foot. For "York" read 

P. 336 a. Price and the Revolution, see Wrang- 
ham's ' Zouch,' ii. 439. 

Pp. 338-9. Theodore Price. Owen has two epi- 
grams to him. 

Pp. 346-7. Rhys Prichard. Bp. Bull at first 
desired to be buried at Llandovery, out of respect 
to him, Nelson's ' Bull,' 1714, p. 475. 

Pp. 347-8. R. Pricket. See 'N. & Q.,' 6 th S. 
ii. 235; Hazlitt's 'Collections,' 1876, p. 341; 
Catal. of Freeling's Sale, 1836. 

P. 353 b. On Prideaux's affliction through the 
stone, see the preface to his ' Old and New Testa- 
ment connected.' 

P. 354. Bp. Prideaux, as Regius Prof, of Divinity, 
see Sanderson, 'De Juramenti Oblig.,' 1647, oratio, 
p. 10. 

P. 355 b. Prideaux. 10. Fasciculus, ed. 3., 

Pp. 357-376. Priestley. See Jones's preface to 
Leslie's 'Short Method with Deists'; Mathias, 
* P. of L.,' p. 48 ; sn orig. letter, on character of 
clergy, in Wrangham's 'Zouch,' i. p. Ixv. 

P. 368 a. Priestley. Joseph Benson and John 
Fletcher wrote against bis Materialism and 
Socinianism, 1788-91. 

P. 380 a. The reference to the present peer is 
out of place. 

P. 380 a. " Earl of Stanhope " ? 

Pp. 397 a, b, 398 a. For "Shepherd" read 

P. 401. M. Prior. Gay classes him with Con- 
greve, Swift, and Pope, 4 Poems,' 1752, ii. 37 ; in 
Curll's 'Miscellanea,' 1727, i. 140-1, he is classed 
with Pope and Puck. Some of his poems are 
printed with Rochester and Roscommon, 1707, ii. 

P. 402 a. Tho. Prior. ' Dialogue between Dean 
Swift and Tho. Prior,' Dubl., 1753, 8vo. pp. 134. 

P. 406 b. E. W. Pritchard. The ' Observations 
on Filey ' reached a 3rd ed., 1856. 

P. 421 b, line 19. For " C. W." read W. C. 

P. 430 b, lines 8, 49. For " Transactions " read 

P. 444 a. Jane Puckering. See ' Literse Crom- 
wellii,' 1676, p. 1 2. 

The article on Joseph Priestley, pp. 357-376, is a 
typical instance of an unfortunate want of balance 
in the 'Dictionary.' To the great majority of 



[8> S. X. AUG. 8, '96, 

English readers, Joseph Priestley is now but a 
name. For one who cares to know anything about 
him, there are hundreds who are still willing to 
read anything about Pope. Yet the bibliography 
and authorities under Priestley are nearly twice 
the length of those under Pope. Moreover the 
whole account is too technical and minute for any 
but an expert, who is precisely the person who 
would never take his facts from this source. Again, 
to mention two other cases : the clergy should be 
included in the same proportion as dissenting 
ministers, and the other counties of England should 
nave an equal proportionate share with (e. g.) Lan- 
cashire and Scotland. W. C. B. 

BOOK PRICES. The following remarkable prices 
given for some books and Shakspearian relics at 
Sotheby's and Christie's are worthy of being 
chronicled in ' N. & Q.' I gleaned them from a 
June number of the Manchester Courier : 

" Some very interesting books from the library of Mr 
Alfred Crampon, of Paris, were disposed of recently at 
the rooms of Messrs. Sotheby at remarkably high prices. 
A folio, first edition, in calf, with gilt back and edges, of 
the comedies and tragedies of Beaumont and Fletcher 
realized 101. 10s. Lord Byron's * Poems on Various 
Occasions,' a very fine copy, in red morocco, of the 
exceedingly rare privately printed edition, fetched 45J. ; 
and the same poet's ' Hours of Idleness,' a large-paper 
copy, in boards, 201 An edition of Byron's English 
Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' which is said to be unique, 
was sold at 281. The copy, which belonged to James 
Boswell, the son of Johnson's biographer, was elegantly 
bound in green morocco by De Corerley. In 1881, at 
the sale of Col. Grant's library, a rare first edition of 
Byron's ' Waltz ' was disposed of for 241. The same 
copy now realized 551. The sum of 151. was obtained 
for Chapman's ' Homer ' (1616), and a similar sum for 
Chaucer's works, in black letter, of about the year 1542. 
A first edition, in calf, of Coleridge's ' Poems on Various 
Subjects ' changed hands at 201. Inserted in the copy 
was Coleridge's receipt for ' the sum of thirty guineas 
for the copyright of my poems, beginning with the 
monody on Chattertpn and ending with religious 
musings.' A first edition of Defoe's ' Robinson Crusoe,' 
in three volumes, fetched 751. The sensation of the 
sale was reached when Browning's 'Pauline,' a first 
edition, in green morocco extra, by Bedford, was put up. 
Only three or four copies of the book are known, and on 
the fly-leaf there is an interesting note in Browning's 
writing. Fifteen years ago the book was sold by Messrs. 
Pearson & Co., of London, to Mr. Crampon for 15/. 15*. 
After some exciting bidding, the copy was bought back 
by the same firm for 145Z. The continuation of the sale 
of Mr. Crampon's library was productive of further 
sensational prices. A volume of Milton's which con- 
tained the first edition of his ' Lycidas,' went for 87, 
and a large copy of his poems, with the rare portrait by 
Marshall, for 511. His ' Paradise Lost,' with the very 
first title-page, brought 902,, notwithstanding the outside 
line in a few pages had been cut into. 

" Collectors of Shakespearian relics had also an oppor- 
tunity of adding to their store, when a large number of 
articles were disposed of at Christie's. The visitors' book 
of Shakespeare's birthplace, from July, 1812, to August, 
1819, and the two visitors' books of the house opposite, 
from 1819 to 1888 were sold for 11*. Among the signa- 

tures in the books were those of Byron, Charles 
Mathews, Duke of Clarence (William IV.), Maria Edge- 
worth, Charles Kean, and Longfellow. A square-shaped 
lantern of painted lead, made of the remains of the window- 
frame belonging to the poet's study, was secured for 6J., 
while an oak arm-chair, the back carved with scrolls and 
ornaments in relief, fetched 12*. 105. Anne Hathaway's 
oak chest went for SI. 5s. The sum of 26*. was given for 
an oblong panel of plaster, with the subject of David 
and Goliath in high relief in colours and gold. The- 
panel, which bore an inscription and the date 1606, was 
taken from the wall of Shakespeare's houee. 

" At the same sale, * Breviarium Romanum cum Galen - 
dariis,' a grand illuminated manuscript of the fifteenth 
century, executed in Italy, realized the high figure of 
155*. A two-page quarto letter of Gay's, in which he 
humorously described the characteristics of different 
cities, was sold for 48*." 

J. B. S. 

ST. SWITHUN. In ' Whitaker's Almanack ' for 
the present year St. Swithin's name appears spelt 
as above under the date 15 July. Last year the 
1 Almanack ' had " St. S within." Is such altera- 
tion necessary? The saint has long been known 
as St. Swithin, and no doubt will long continue 
to be so known. 

In the 'Country Almanac/ 1675, we have : 
If St. Swithin weeps, the proverb says, 
The weather will be foul for forty days. 
R. T. Hampson, in his ' Medii Mvi Kalen- 
darium,' vol. ii. p. 369, remarks : 

" Though the name is Swithun [cf. 861, 'Chron. Sax.'J 
there is ancient authority for the modern orthography : 
Seint Swifjjnn pe confessour was her of Engelonde, 
Biside Wynchestre he was ibore as ich understonde. 
Bi ]>e kinges day Egberd Jns gode man was ibore, 
l> 1 bo was king of Engelond and somewhat ek bifore. 
Harl. MS. 2:247, fo. 78." 

Freeman spells the name " Swithhun," ' Old Eng- 
lish History,' p. 103, 1873. 

[See 5 th S. xi. 185, 275.] 

a lad we were told not to eat apples before St. 
Swithin's day or they would make us ill, as they 
had not been christened. This was in South Notts. 
I do not know whether this bit of folk-lore is 
generally current or has been noted in these 
columns. C. C. B, 

[See 5 th S. xii. 46.] 

BURNS AND SHAKSPEARE. In an interesting 
article which appeared in the Scotsman recently,, 
entitled ' The Burial of Burn*/ it is stated that 
the poet's remains were removed from the grave 
n St. Michael's Churchyard, Dumfries, where? 
they had lain since 1796, to a new resting-p3ace- 
beneath the monument erected in 1815. The- 
re-interment took place in September of the- 
same year. The article further relates that io 
March, 1834, the night preceding the burial of 
"Bonnie Jean," the vault was opened and a east 
taken of the skull of the poet, a report being made 
to the Phrenological Society of Edinburgh giving 

8* 8. X. AUG. 8, '96.3 



statistics of measurement. After having been out 
of the vault some hours, the skull was replaced and 
lay at peace till the poet's eldest son was buried in 
1857, when the restless skull was again handed 
about before it was replaced ; the casket of lead that 
contained it was filled with pitch to secure its 
preservation. What a contrast these movings and 
manipulations form to the unbroken peace in which 
the bones of Shakespeare have rested ! We do not 
know the sentiments of Burns regarding his mortal 
remains, but we know Shakespeare's at least we 
can imagine them to be his from the verse engraven 
on the stone over his grave : 

Good frend for Jesvs sake forbeare 
To digg the dvst encloaeed heare : 
Blest be y e man y l spares tbes stones 
And cvrst be he y l moves my bones. 

Whether Shakespeare wrote the above or not, I 
think there can be little doubt that the verse has had 
much influence in checking morbid curiosity ; in 
disappointing those who rejoice in such statistics 
as the exact circumference, length, breadth, and 
height of a man's skull ; and above all in pre- 
serving the tranquillity of the grave. 

Spitalhaugh, West Linton, N.B. 

IN LONDON IN 1708. In * A Dissertation upon 
Drunkenness, shewing to what an intolerable Pitch 
that Vice is arriv'd at in this Kingdom,' &c., the 
writer says, p. 5 : 

" I shall proceed to take a View of the sundry Sorts of 
Malt Liquors now used in this Town, according to their 
eeverall Appellations, viz., the first that enters the Lists is 
the so-much magnified Beer of Dorchester, next Burton 
Ale, Lincoln Ale, Derby Ale, Litchfield Ale, Yorkshire 
Ale, Yorkshire Stingo, Doncaster Ale, Basingstoke Beer, 
October Beer, Nottingham Ale, Boston Ale, Abingdon 
Beer, Newberry Beer, Chesterfield Ale, Welch Ale, Nor- 
wich Nogg, Amber Beer, Sir John Parson's Beer, Tarn- 
worth Ale, Dr. Butler's Ale, Devonshire Beer, Plymouth 
White Ale, Oxford Ale, Sussex Beer, Home-brew'd or 
Town Ale: These are all capital Liquors, that have 
lain their Thousands : Next follows Jobson's Julep, or 
Lyon's Blood, a most furious Beer, devis'd at a Con- 
sultation of Brewers, to reach the Pallate of an infamous 
Drunkard : The Czarina's Tea, a fierce Drink, projected 
in the Island of Jersey, said to be a Degree beyond Brandy, 
and is at present but in Rehearsal about the Town : 
Devil's Diuretick, a humming Liquor, used by Coach- 
men and Grooms : Coal-Heaver's Cordial, a heady beer, 
dispens'd by an Alehouse-keeper in Milford Lane: 
Twankam, a West- Country Beer: Three Threads and 
Six Threads, Compositions of sundry Liquors : Twopenny: 
Besides Numbers of Pale Ales.nam'd after the respective 
Brewers that prepare them; and, lastly, plain Humble 

" Every one may remember, that little more than a 
Year since, it appear'd by the Returns of the High and 
i etty Constables of the County of Middlesex, made upon 
their Oaths, that there were within the Weekly Bills of 
Mortality, and such other Parts of that County as are 
now by the Contiguity of Buildings become Part of the 
lown (exclusive of London and Southwark) 6,187 Houses 
and Shops, wherein Geneva and other Strong Waters 

are publickly sold by Retail. Nothing is more destructive, 
either in Regard to the Health, or the Vigilance and 
Industry of the Poor, than this infamous Liquor." 

F. J. F. 

INKHORNS. The subject of hornbooks has 
recently, I understand, been exhaustively treated. 
Has any one ever taken up the subject of inkhorns ? 
The general idea of one conveyed by the impres- 
sionist artist is that of a clumsy contrivance of a 
barbarous and benighted age. I have in my pos- 
session a screw-capped ink-bottle of horn that 
rather belies this notion. It was used at the com- 
munal school of their native village in Burgundy 
by my mother, by her elder sisters, and by the 
father of these latter before them, so that it must 
be more than a hundred years old. In shape it 
very much reminds one of an ordinary cannon- 
pattern street-post, the widest portion being close 
above the base, and the cap, which is flush with 
the conically tapering sides, surmounted by a 
squat acorn-and-cup-shaped knob on a short neck. 

4, Bloomsbury Place, Brighton. 

SWIFT CONCORDANCE. I crave for a concordance 
to the writings of the most brilliant mind in Eng- 
lish literature next to Shakespeare in originality 
and knowledge of every walk of life. Surely 
Jonathan Swift deserves one. It is time that the 
treasures of wit, knowledge, and expression buried 
in the nineteen volumes thrown together so loosely 
by Scott were opened up to the busy man. I venture 
to say that if made, no other concordance would be 
handled so often, barring, of course, Shakespeare's. 


may be worthy of a niche in * N. & Q. 1 : 

" The old custom of chalking the youths and maidens 
who remain unmarried after Shrovetide is generally 
known in the South of Ireland. In Irish agricultural 
districts the time for weddings is limited to the interval 
between Christmas and Ash Wednesday, the first day of 
Lent. Shrovetide ends with the gaieties of carnival, 
which, in this country, brings with it none of the wild 
excitement so often witnessed on the Continent. Lent 
then comes on, and there is a temporary cessation of all 
frolics; but, on the firat Sunday of Lent, the light- 
hearted have a fresh opportunity for fun. All the 
children arm themselves with pieces of chalk, or with 
sticks chalked at the end ; this latter is a device of the 
more wary, to keep them beyond reach of those passers- 
by whose tempers are easily ruffled. Sometimes, in a 
cottage doorway, a group of little urchins may be seen 
industriously covering each finger, and even the whole 
front of the hand, with a thick coating of chalk ; then 
they wait patiently for a favourable opportunity to im- 
print the marks on a nicely-brushed black coat, or, better 
still, a lady's sealskin jacket. In the country all this 
goes on when the people are going to or from church ; 
but it is carried on to a much greater extent in towns. 
There, towards evening, the reinforcements to the chalk- 
ing army are so strong that few can go many yards 
without some chalk mark?. In the excitement of the 
moment the original meaning is forgotten ; or, perhaps, 



[8 th S. X. AUG. 8, '96. 

like Morgiana in the ' Forty Thieves,' those who have 
been judiciously marked try to turn attention from them- 
selves by chalking all indiscriminately. When the night 
is fine the flagways are white with powdered chalk, and 
remind one by their appearance of the continental custom 
of throwing comfits during the carnival." Morning. 
18 March. 

0. P. HALE. 

COMMONPLACE-BOOKS. I think the following 
from the Athenceum of 21 Dec., 1895, is worth 
enshrining in ' N. & Q.' I transcribe the passage 
with peculiar pleasure, as my own commonplace- 
books are a small library in themselves : 

"Rightly apprehended, a commonplace-book, although 
entirely of quotations, is an intellectual self-revelation 
of peculiar interest. It is, in spite of itself, autobio- 
graphical a workshop where thought ia seen in the 
making, even though it be merely in assorting the thought 
of other people." 


Ropley, Alresford. 

PHCEBUS. I may call attention to the fact that 
Ovid gives the name of Phoebus to two different 
gods, Helios and Apollo. Horace and other authors 
make Apollo and the sun-god Phoebus the same. 
Ovid, in the story of Phaeton, calls the sun-god 
Phoebus, but never Apollo. The commentators, 
however, in their notes do call him Apollo, and make 
confusion. In the fourth book of the ' Metamor- 
phoses ' the sun-god is mentioned as " Hyperione 
catus " ; and at the same time it is said that the fate 
of Leucothoe affected him as much as that of 
Phaeton. It is clear, therefore, that Phoebus is the 
eon of Hyperion, and that he is not the same as 
Phoebus Apollo, the son of Latona and Jupiter. 
Ovid identifies Phoebus the sun-god with Titan. 
In the part of the ' Metamorphoses ' relating to 
Phaeton is the line, 

Jungere equoa Titan velocibus imperat Horis. 

Bk. ii. 1. 118. 
Homer makes Hyperion and Helios the same. 


"THE QUIET WOMAN." Old inhabitants of 
Bedford remember that the " Queen's Head Inn," 
which has recently been pulled down, formerly 
bore the remarkable sign of " The Quiet Woman." 
The Bedfordshire Times of 16 May says there is a 
legend associated with this strange title, and asks 
if any one can recall it. I think the question 
might be repeated in * N. & Q.' 


Brent Street, Hendon, N.W. 

LEONARD POE, M.D. His will is registered in 
the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 37 St. John, 
and, like most wills of that period, doubtless con- 
tains some interesting particulars. His son Tbeo- 
philns Poe, of Pembroke College, Oxford, contri- 
buted verses to ' Oxoniensis Academies Parentalia 
(1625)' on the death of James I. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

"BEAZED." "Them 'ops gets reg'lur beazed 
this 'ot weather " is said in West Worcestershire 
of hops when dried and withered in the sun. Is 
this word used in any other part of England ? 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

DOMESDAY SURVEY. Will any reader help me 
in the following difficulty? In the account of 
Fulham Manor occurs the following item as a 
source of revenue to the Bishop of London, the 
lord of the manor : " De dimid' gurgite x sol'," 
which, extended, reads, " De dimidio gurgite x 
solidi." What is to be understood by "gur- 
gite"? Baldwin translates it, "For half the 
stream, ten shillings." In lieu of stream, others 
read weir, but still the meaning is no clearer. If 
" de dimidio gurgite" means "from half the 
stream" (i. e., the river Thames), one might fairly 
assume that the sum of ten shillings was derived 
from the fishery along the Fulham shore, which, 
from time out of mind, was owned by the bishop, 
and leased by him to fishermen and others. The 
ordinary meaning of gurges is, of course, a whirl- 
pool, a deep place in water, in a lake or river. 
It seems to me that the reference must be to the 
ancient ferry between Fulham and Putney, the 
ownership of which lay between the lord of the 
manor of Wimbledon and the Bishop of London. 
Can gurges mean the deep part of the river at 
Fulham, where the ferry plied ? 

Can any one also help me to identify the position 
of the five hides of land in Fulham which the 
Domesday Survey records were held by the 
Canons of St. Paul's ; or tell me when, or under 
what circumstances, this small manor passed out 
of their possession ? I have reason to believe that 
the land was in Hammersmith, but adjacent to 
Fulham parish. The parish church of Hammer- 
smith is, curiously enough, dedicated to St. Paul. 
Is this a mere coincidence ? Part of the land of 
the Brandenburgh estate belonged to the Chan- 
cellors of St. Paul's. The Chancellors, Chancellor's 
Road, &o., in this portion of Hammersmith also 
suggest a connexion with the Chancellors of St. 
Paul's. Any information on this obscure subject 
would be greatly valued by me. 


49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

HILL FAMILY. " Robert Hill, of Newtowr, co. 
Cambridge, gent.," was living in 1667, and was 
then married. Can any of your correspondents 
who are canversant with Cambridge genealogies 

8" 8.X. Auo.8,'96.] 



inform me as to his descent, his wife's parentage 
&c. ? Any information regarding the family will be 
acceptable. SIGMA TAU. 

1 COR. n. 9. There is a well-known, but an 
unauthorized, variation of this text, which is hearc 
often in sermons, and even finds its way into 
printed discourses. Can the first appearance in 
literature be traced ? There is an intimation of its 
currency in ' Midsummer Night's Dream/ IV. ii. 
but the earliest place in which I have found the 
actual misquotation is the Guardian, No. 27 
(11 April, 1713). 



MANY. Does any muster roll exist of this corps . 
or are there any muster rolls of our army at the 
period? DRUM AND B'IFE. 

RELIGIOUS DANCING. In 'Fae to Face with 
the Mexicans,' by F. C. Gooch, p. 257, there is a 
description of the dance in honour of Our Lady of 
Guadalupe, held at her fete in the middle of 
December. "The circles, with all their varied 
colours," says the author, "danced in opposite 
directions with a slow bounding step that was half 

waltz, half minuet It was the wildest, most 

mournful dance that mortal could invent." Is 
this dance supposed to have been transferred from 
the native religion of Mexico to the existing faith ? 
Our Lady of Guadalupe, whose adoration has 
become a national cult, was placed on the banner 
of the patriots In revolt against Spanish misrule. 
The Royalists, on their part, are said to have per- 
secuted bitterly the worshippers at her shrine, and 
to have opposed Virgin to Virgin by placing on 
their own banner the Spanish " Nuestra Seiiora 
de loa Remedies." Is it known that any goddess 
or demi-goddess of the days anterior to the Spanish 
invasion, with attributes resembling those of the 
Madonna now honoured, was worshipped with 
saltatory rites, or that any feast on the approach 
of the winter solstice was celebrated by circular 
dances? Dancing, of course, belonged to the 
religious ceremonial of the Aztecs; but did it occur 
in instances likely to be blended with and adapted 
to the creed of their conquerors ? A. E. 0. E. 

VECTIS. Was this name given to the Isle of 
Wight by the Romans; and, if so, has it any 
meaning ? Any information on this will be much 
appreciated. M. H. C. 

'SALEM AND BYZAVNCE.' There has been for 
several years among my collections a fragment of 
eight mutilated uncut leaves (including title, table, 
and end) of a small 8vo. tract of forty-four leavep, 
entitled 'The eeconde Dialogue betwene Salem 
and Bjzavnce,' printed in Gothic letter at London 
by Tho. Berthelet, 1534. It should contain an 

introduction, with the text in" eight chapter?, 
of which the titles are given in the table. This I 
claim to have discovered as ft work hitherto un- 
known to all bibliographers. Some of them,lhow- 
ever, mention ' Salem and Byzance,' a rare email 
square 8vo. tract, in black-letter, by the 1 same 
printer, published in the previous year, and con- 
taining one hundred and seven leaves, including- 
title and leaf of errata at end, the text being 
divided into twenty-four chapters. Of this latter 
(which forms the first " Dialogue ") a copy is in 
the British Museum, under press-mark C. 21. b. 
Both these works, although without name of 
author, are doubtless by C. Saint Germain. My 
fragment, as above, has formed part of the sheet- 
or quire * waste " of the book, and evidently beea 
used towards making up the boards from which 
it has been purposely separated by immersion in 
water of the binding of a copy of some contem- 
porary work of small folio size, which apparently 
belonged to Sir Roger Man wood, the judge 
(1525-92), it bearing across the text the signature, 
in a good hand,* "Rogerus Manwood precija 
vij 8 iiij d ," as well as " Thomas Sloughton is " (un- 
finished). Can any reference whatever to this? 
"Seconde Dialogue" be found either in print or 
MS. ? W. I. R. V. 

ARTHUR GOLDING. I should feel greatly 
obliged to any reader of ' N. & Q.' if he would 
;ell me when and where the above author and 
translator of the time of Queen Elizabeth died, and 
f there is a tablet or monument to his memory 
anywhere. It seems very strange that such a 
celebrated man, and one who had such influential 
'riends and connexions, and was also the owner of 
such extensive properties, should have suddenly 
disappeared, and that there should be no record 
of where he was buried or if he left any family. 
The account given of him in the 'Dictionary of 
National Biography ' (vol. xxii. p. 75), published 
n 1885, may since have induced some one to col- 
ect additional information. J. GOLDINO. 

Lettermacaward, Strabane. 


A silver salver showing the marks of the year 1694 

has engraved upon it the following arms : Semee 

there are seven) of fleur-de-lis, a lion rampant, 

mpaling a chevron ermine between three cross- 

rosslets fitchy ; crest, a lion passant ; wreath and 

mantling. On the under side of the salver the 

etters " E. S." are very neatly scratched. Below 

he arms are engraved, in flowing ornamental 

apitals of a much later date than the other work, 

he letters "S. G." The dexter coat and crest 

eem to be those of the Beaumont family ; but 

* The article relating to him in ' D. N. B ,' however, 
states that " his hand is one of the least legible ever 
written." But possibly this does not apply correctly 
to the same in the younger period of his life. 



[8 8. X. Auo. 8, '95. 

whom does the sinister coat represent ? Pap worth 
assigns it to Reynolds and Randes. Can any 
reader point to a Beaumont who married, before 
or at this date (1694), a lady of either of these 
families ? All that is known about the history of 
this piece of plate is as follows : It belonged for- 
merly to Susanna Garnham, who was born in 
1787-8 and died in 1870, having married Joseph 
Welham, of Earl Stonham, co. Suffolk. She was 
daughter of John Garnham (born 1750-1, died 
1820), of Stonham, by Rebecca (born 1756-7, 
died 1807), his wife. Mrs. Welham, at her death, 
bequeathed the salver to a niece, in the possession 
of whose descendants it still remains. According 
to tradition it passed to the Garnhams from some 
one of the name of either Burroughs or Jenney. 
Any information will be gratefully acknowledged. 
Kindly reply direct to 

Stowmarket, Suffolk. 

P.S. I shall be pleased to send to any one in- 
terested in this query a rubbing of the coat of 
arms and a sealing-wax impression of the plate- 

BLENKARD. In a volume published this year, 
entitled ' Sutton in Holderness,' by Thomas Bias- 
hill, there is an account of a dinner given in 1695, 
and one of the items is as follows : " To : 30 : 
Bottles of Blenkard ^03 : 00 : 00." What is, or 
was, Blenkard? FLORENCE PEACOCK. 

" PILOMET. " Can any reader who knows Hebrew 
help me in the following matter ? In a book 
called 'I. D. B.,' and dealing with "Illicit 
Diamond Buying" (Chapman & Hall), I find the 
mysterious word "Pilomef frequently used by 
the Jewish hero. On p. 250 it is explained as 
being a vulgar term for Petticoat Lane. It occurs 
again on the next page. " ' What do you think ? ' 
ejaculated Solomon, falling back on Pilomet for 
his expletives." I should like to know the origin 
and exact significance of this slang expression, 
which I do nob remember having seen before. 


stated that the Highlands possessed a native breed 
of very handsome horses small, hardy, sure- 
footed, good-tempered, and of great endurance. 
The pure breed was spoiled by crossing with 
English stallions and brood mares, and latterly 
with Clydesdales. Had this breed any distinctive 
name 1 ? Would they be truly indigenous? ] 
shall be glad of any reference to this breed founc 
previous to the eighteenth century. 


BAKING OVENS. In Central Sussex I have re 
cently examined several circular or horse -shoe 
shaped bread-baking ovens in various old house 

and cottages. I should gratefully appreciate in- 
ormation as to their probable date, as to when 
he circular or horse-shoe shaped oven ceased 
o be built, and about when it was replaced by 
he straight-sided bread-baking ovens, which are, 
f course, much cheaper and easier to construct. 
30, Sussex Square, Brighton. 

JOHN COBB, Warden of Winchester College, 
married Sarah, daughter of Sir Hugh Stukeley, 
second baronet, of Hinton Ampner, Hants. She is 

said to have twice remarried, (1) to St. John, 

Esq., of Farley, and (2) to Capt. Francis Towns- 
end. Any proofs of these three marriages and the 
)lace of her death and burial would much oblige. 

E. H. W. D. 

SCOTCH BORDER. Can any readers of f N. & Q.' 
nform me whether in earlier days it was customary 
for the natural children of men in influential 
positions to take the surnames of their fathers, and 
whether say prior to 1700 illegitimate children 
were any considerable portion of the population 
in Dumfriesshire and neighbouring counties ? 

A. J. 

Hearne says : 

' The figure of the key of the west door of the Church 
was put down in the register, a thing frequently prac- 
ticed by the Ancients at the delivery of the Church Keys 

to the Ostiarii They were even marked among the 

dates of some charters to denote on what days movable 
feasts fell, and were called ' Clavea Terminorum.' " 

Will any reader of * N. & Q.' supply me with 
instances of their occurrence ? C. E. P. 

DOMESDAY OAK. In Berkeley Park, Gloucester- 
shire, there are the remnants of a magnificent oak 
tree which I have been told by those who live in 
the neighbourhood is called " the Domesday oak," 
because it is mentioned in that record. I have 
spent no little time, without effect, in searching for 
the passage. If it exists I should be glad if any 
one would send the reference to ' N. & Q.' 


How and by what authority are these borne 
and regulated in Switzerland and other such 
republics ? As for Holland, I have heard that a 
man was free to design and bear a coat of arms at 
his pleasure. Is this so ? Y. 


and true he say, 

All mankind, one and t' other, 
Kegro, Mulatto, and Malay, 
Through all de world be brother. 

Nox nulla secura est. 

V. S. L. 


sths.x.Auo.8,'96.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(8">S.ix. 308; x. 12,52.) 
I think MR. MARSHALL does well to refer tc 
Appendix B in Mr. Parker's ' Early History o 
Oxford,' as it was evidently written with grea 
care. But anything more futile than the summing 
tip of the question which is there given I hav< 
seldom seen. 

We are told (1) that there is " strong reason fo 

the probability of the name of Ouse or some 

cognate form of the river- word having been appliec 

at one time to the Thames as it flows past Oxford.' 

I know of no reason, except that the author is so 

cowed and terrified by the everlasting assertions 

of the guessers that he does not dare to pass them 

by in silence. Yet it is obvious that Ouse-ford is 

not Oxford ; nor could it have produced Oxford 

by any known phonetic laws. Tfcis is practically 

acknowledged by the addition of the otherwise 

unmeaning clause " or some cognate form." As 

to what the cognate form is, we are left to guess. 

In other words, all this unfounded assertion is 

built upon nothing but an old and needless guess 

that wholly fails to account for the A.-3. oxna. 

Then we are told (2) " that a ford over that river 

should be called from the river is more likely to 

have been the case than from certain cattle which 

may have crossed the river." Here we come, at 

least, to something that one can test. And we can 

easily tell that there is nothing in this assertion 

that is of any weight at all. 

The evidence is altogether the other way. As a 
fact, the English did call fords after the names of 
animal?, not necessarily because animals crossed 
the rivers, but as a note of the depth of the ford ; 
for there are well-known and easily producible 

Cow-ford is the A.-S. Cu-ford (in Kemble) ; and 
<u simply means "cow." I think it highly pro- 
bable that the same prefix occurs in Cowbridge, 
Cowbit, Cowden, Cowfold, Cowley, and Cowton ; 
all in the index to Philips' ' County Atlas.' 

Gos-ford is the A.-S. gos-ford (Kemble) ; from 
gos y a goose ; cf. gos-ling. Of. Gosfield, Gos- 

Hert-ford is the A.-S. heart- ford; from heorot, 
a hart. It also appears as Hartford. Cf. Hart- 
burn, Hartfield, Harthill, Hartland, Hartley, 

Hertford answers to A.-S. hors-ford (Kemble) ; 
from hors, a horse. Cf. Horseheatb, Horseley, 
Horsey, Horsforth, Horsham, Horsley, Horsted. 

Kemble gives a place-name Hrvthera- ford, 
literally, "ford of the rothers"; a rother being a 
related word to Sc. runt. Cf. Rotherhaoi, Rother- 
field, Rotherby. However, there is a river-name 
Bother ; so let this evidence go for nothing. 

But there still remains Swinford, from the A.-S. 
Swln-ford obviously, as I think, the ford of 
swine. Of course, the accented i is shortened 
before two consonants. Cf. Swinbridge, Swin- 
brook, Swindale, Swindon, Swinefleet, Swines- 
head, Swinfen. It is curious that Cat-ford crosses 
the Raven's-bourne. 

Besides these there are names like Strat-ford, 
Stret-ford, where I entirely decline to accept the 
above dictum. There is no such river as Strat. 
It is high time for Englishmen to understand that 
at least some English names are of English origin. 

The Right Hon. G. N. Curzon, M.P., in a paper 
on * The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus, 1 which 
appeared in the July number of the Geographical 
Journal, while discussing the various theories 
which have been advanced to account for the 
Hellenic name of that river, says, in conclusion : 

" To me it appears more likely that the Greeks of 
Alexander's day should have heard a Tajik or Iranian 
name, t. e., a word of Aryan descent ; and whether this 
now unknown word was allied or not to the root-forms 
cited by Rawlinson and Yule, it may conceivably in its 
origin have sprung from that primordial form signifying 
water which is variously supposed to reappear in the 
Latin aqua, French Aix, Erse uisge, Gaelic usque-b&ugh, 
English whisky, and in the river names Usk, Axe, Exe, 
Esk, Ox-ford, and Ouse." 

Whatever may be the origin of the river-names, 
I think it will be generally admitted that PROF. 
SKEAT has conclusively settled the question so far 
as Oxford is concerned. The Hebrew form Oaen- 
ford, cited by ME. M. D. DAVIS, proves nothing 
either way, for Hebrew does not possess the letter 
x. The name Xerxes, for instance, is written 
Akhashverosh (cf. Gesenius, ' Thesaurus,' p. 74, 
for a learned dissertation on the Ahasuerus of the 
Bible), and Osenford is the natural transliteration 
of Oxen ford in Hebrew characters. 

Mr. James Parker, as quoted by the REV. ED. 
MARSHALL, says: (1) "That there is a strong 
>robabilityof the name of Ouse or some cognate form 
of the river-word having been applied at one time 
o the Thames as it flows past Oxford," and 
2) " that a ford over that river should be called 
rom the river is more likely to have been the case 
han from certain cattle which may have crossed 
he river." As regards (I), even a probability 
must spring from some kind of base, and I would 
ask if there is anv evidence, beyond Higden's 
entative guess at Ysa, that the Thames at Ox- 
ord was ever called Ouse or some cognate form of 
hat word. Next, with reference to (2), is it 
eally a usual thing for a ford to be called from the 
iver which it crosses 1 A few instances in sup- 
>ort of this " probability " would be welcome. 
Vith Oxford we have the analogous forms Hors- 
ord and Swinford, and I can see nothing unlikely 
n a ford receiving its name from the animals that 
hiefly use it. If fords are named from rivers, 



how is it that Bedford is not named Ouseford or 
Oxford ? Here we have, not a hypothetical, but 
a real Oase, and a river, too, which seems at times 
to have been liberal in the facilities which it 
afforded for the accommodation of foot passengers 
(see 4 th S. ii. 276). W. F. PRIDBAUX. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

UMBRIKL (8 th S. ix. 507 ; x. 53). Certainly the 
last word has not been said about Ariel. MB. 
W. T. LYNN may perhaps recall an interesting 
correspondence which passed between Dr. A. 
Neubauer and Prof. Sayce on this subject a few 
years ago (Athenaum, 25 Sept. and 9 Oct., 1886). 
As for Umbriel, I think it probable that Pope 
derived the name of this "dusky, melancholy 
sprite" from umbra, a shade, rather than from 
hombre. I cannot find that it has any etymon in 
Hebrew. W. F. PRIDEATJX. 

Surely Pope coined this name from umbra, 
shade or shadow. He as good as says so : 
Umbriel, a dusky, melancholy sprite, 
As ever sullied tne fair face of light, 
Down to the Central Earth, his proper acenp. 
Repaired to search the gloomy Cave of Spleen : 
Swift on his sooty pinions flits the Gnome, 
And in a vapour reached the dismal dome. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

486 ; x. 53). The biography of Grace Darling, 
a description of the wreck of the Forfarshire, her 
illness, death, and burial, with her portrait and 
that of her father, also a full-page illustration of 
her tomb in Bamborough Churchyard, appear in 
the Monthly Chronicle of North-Country Lore and 
Legend, 1888, pp. 263-9. The same volume also 
gives a ' Contemporary Account of the Wreck of 
the Forfarshire,' from the Newcastle Chronicle of 
15 Sept., 1838. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

BOAK (8 th S. ix. 486 ; x. 56). A. H. is not justi- 
fied in tracing any analogy or relationship between 
Boakes and Vaux. Vuux has suffered some 
singular changes. Latinized de Vallibus, it came 
to be written Vaus in the fifteenth century, and 
the common mistake of u for n produced the 
ghost-names Vans and Vance, in which forms it 
remains the former a surname, the latter a 
Christian name in Scotland to this day. 


" IRPE " (8 th S. x. 50). There is nothing for 
it but to guess. I distrust the reading in both 
places, and think the printer may have assimilated 
the forms by some mistake. In the first instance, 
irpe looks like a mistake for yepe, i. e., active (yeap 
in Stratmann) ; and in the second instance, irpes 
looks like an error for iapes, i.e., japes, tricks. 

Yepe may have been written iepe. I believe there 
is evidence that initial i was used before a vowel 
with the variable value of y and j. Compare yerk 
withjerfc. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

" TWILIGHT OF PLATE " (8 th S. ix. 109, 137, 
175, 293). Since I sent my communication at 
the third reference, I have accidentally met with 
he following passage in the * Diary of John 
Evelyn/ under date 9 June, 1662 : " The greate 
looking-glasse and toilet of beaten and massivfr 
gold was given by the Queene Mother." 


COCKADES (8* S. viii. 506 ; ix. 97, 192). Tha 
following passage from * Waverley ' may prove an 
illustration. The scene is the garden at Tally 
Veolan, the speaker the Baron of Brad war dine, and 
the date 1745 : 

" And so ye have mounted the cockade ? Right, right ;. 
though I could have wished the colour different, and so 
I would ha' deemed might Sir Everard. But no more of 
that : I am old and times are changed." Chap. x. 

Newbourno Rectory, Woodbridge. 

HERALDIC (8 th S. v. 127, 171, 393). Reference 
was made to the Tau cross carved on the capitals 
(which are all different) of the Tower of London 
Norman Chapel. Eev. T. Hugo mentions that the 
Tau cross was a symbol of St. Anthony. Is it,, 
therefore, possible that this chapel was dedicated 
to St. Anthony 1 In 1856 a pewter pilgrims' sign 
was dug out of the river mud at Blackfriars. It is a 
crucifix, but on a Tau cross, of thirteenth to 
fifteenth century work. It bears the word " Sig- 
num " on its cross arm. Might this Tau form 
pilgrim sign have been worn by one who had 
visited some relic in the Tau-adorned Tower 
chapel 1 The Tau cross " was especially regarded 
during the Middle Ages as being the sign put 
on the foreheads of the faithful" (cf. Ezekiel 
ix. 4). The Vulgate calls this mark "Signs 
Thau." The inscription to Thomas Talbot, a 
priest, in Southwell Minster, terminates, waiting 
the resurrection, " Sub signo thau." Vide Archceo- 
logia, 1860, xxxviii. 133. D. J. 

POSITION OF FONT (8 th S. ix. 128, 190). Words- 
worth's view of this subject, as given in a note to 
his poem on c Rydal Chapel,' is worth quoting : 
" The font, instead of standing at its proper place 
at the entrance, is thrust into the farther end of a 


"ENTIRE" (8 th S. ix. 265, 397, 518). Thougt 
they will not throw any light on the origin of this 
word, I think readers of *N. & Q. 1 will not object 
to the following extracts, which have a jocular 
bearing on the subject. They are from the second 
volume of that very interesting work ' Fifty Years 

"> 8. X. Aoo. 8, '96.] 



of My Life,' by the sixth Earl of Albemarle 
The writer is describing the start which ended in 

" Our Colonel, Lieut.-General Sir Harry Calvert, wa 
brother to the celebrated brewer of the same name, am 
as the Fourteenth was one of the few Regiments in th< 
service with three Battalions, we obtained the additiona 
nickname of ' Calvert's Entire.' " P. 9. 

At p. 71 the earl wrote : 

" The 14th Regiment, stripped of its third battalion 
lost its nickname of ' Calvert's Entire,' or rather exchangee 
it for that of another malt liquor, 'Calvert's all Butt' 



Since writing my last note on this word I have 
come across a reference which antedates the use ol 
the word considerably : 

Looks formidably great, no Monarch higher, 
Than when blust'ring o'er Tom Man's Entire, 
For so the Belch is call'd that sets his face on fire. 
E. Ward, ' Vade Mecum for Malt Worms,' p. 12. 

The date in the British Museum Catalogue is 
given as 1715. Dr. Brewer has a curious slip 
concerning the word. Under " Entire " he wrongly 
Bays it is ale, "in contradistinction to cooper, 
which is half ale and half porter"; but under 
cooper " he correctly describes that beverage as 

half stout and half porter. 


"KATHE RIPE" (8 th S. ix. 426). In Sussex a 
sort of small apple that comes into the market 
very early is known as a " rathe-ripe." I do not 
know whether the name occurs elsewhere, or, if so, 
whether it is written in the same manner. 



Mr. Hardy, in 'The Return of the Native' 
(ed. 1880, p. 283), refers to a kind of apple called 
"ratheripe," written as one word. 



GREAT BEDS (8 th S. viii. 348, 473 ; ix. 137). 
Together with the great bed at Scole, Norfolk, the 
wonderful sign at the " White Hart Inn " seems to 
have had a great attraction for travellers. In an 
interesting paper, * An Old English Topographer, 1 
in Chambers's Journal, 8 June, 1895, narrating 
the experiences of Thomas Baskerville in 1678, in 
his peregrinations in England, occurs the following 
mention of the conspicuous sign at this inn : 

"The inns at Northampton might be 'such gallant 
and stately structures the like is scarcely to be seen '; 
but for a sumptuous signpost the 'Scole Inn,' near 
Edmondsbury, hore away the bell. It is thus described : 
The signpost, having most of the effigies cut in full 
proportion, ia contrived with these poetical fancies for 
supporters to the post. On the further side of the way 
there is Cerberus or a large dog with three heads on one 
side ; and Charon with a boat rowing an old woman with 
a letter in her hand, on the other aide. The other 

figures are Saturn, with a child in his arms eating it up j 
Diana, with a crescent moon on her head ; Actaeon, with 
his hounds eating him, and the effigies of bis huntsmen. 
Here also are cut in wood the effigies of Justice, Pru- 
dence, Temperance, and Fortitude ; Neptune, the sea- 
god, with his eceptre or trident ; and for a weathercock, 
a man taking the altitude with a quadrant. Moreover, 
this signpost is adorned with two figures of lions, two 
of harts, the one painted on a board, the other cut in 
wood in full proportion of it; ten escutcheons; two 
figures of angels ; Bacchus, the god of wine ; and a 
whale's head spewing up Jonas, with other figures and 
flourishes.' "Vol. xii. 365. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Your correspondent ATEAUR might, and should, 
have added to his note, so as to prevent any mis- 
conception on the score of morality (?), that the 
"twenty-six butchers and their wives" a very 
tight fit it must have been, if my recollection of the 
bed serves me rightly were so arranged (or so 
arranged themselves) that each "purveyor of meat 1 ' 
had his own wife only next to him. 


LIEDT.-GENERAL WEBB (8 tb S, ix. 288). In 
Kite's * Monumental Brasses ' the arms of Webb 
(M.P. for Sarum 1559, and mayor 1561)are given r 
Gules, a cross between four falcons or. These are 
engraved in the ( Collections ' of Aubrey and Jack- 
son as the arms of Richmond Webb ; and, with 
those of St. John, as Richmond St. John. This 
connexion may have been accountable for much in 
the career of General John Richmond Webb. 

The family was certainly a Wiltshire one, and 
Webb possessed in that county the manor of 
Biddesden, which was sold after his death. This 
was not, however, "at Malplaquet in 1709," as 
stated in the ' Collections. ' In a popular account 
of Mynendael fight we meet the assertion that 
Webb, together with two other officers, named Ross 
and Stuart, was " laid aside " by George I. for no- 
other crime than being a Scotsman. Rather, I 
suspect, for his Tory predilections. Berwick 
attaches great importance to this battle, and 
draws up a strong indictment against De la 
Motte. There will be no necessity to remind MR. 
MACLENNAN of the curious tale told of Webb and 
Argyll by Speaker Onslow. 


(8 th S. x. 24, 64). The period 1830-1840 was a 
very active one in connexion with steam passenger 
carriages for common roads ; during one part of it,. 
;he end of 1833, as many as twenty carriages were 
milt or being built in and around London alone. 
Sir James Anderson was a very well-known 
jrojector, who we associated for some time with 
mother gentleman, W. H. James ; but he does 
not appear to have met with so much success as 
ither Gurney, Hancock, or Scott Russell, all of 



[8 th S. X. AUG. 8, '96. 

whom actually ran their carriages for hire. The 
origin of the steam carriage is, however, very much 
earlier than this. I am inclined to fix the date 
of the construction of Father Yerbiest's model at 
1665, and in 1698 Papin also constructed a model. 
In a bibliography of the subject which I have in 
the press, * Power Locomotion on the Highway/ 
will be found a brief sketch of the history of the 
subject. The quotation from Bishop Berkeley 
given by MR. TINKLER is very interesting. 
Where does it occur ? RHYS JENKINS. 

" LINKUMDODDIE " (8 th S. x. 43). I have known 
the spot with the above name all my life, and 
bave often passed it on fishing excursions on the 
Tweed. Tradition and the eong of Burns ate, so 
far as I can find, alone responsible for the state- 
ment that it was the site of Willie Wastle's 
cottage. The song only informs us that Willie 
4 welt on Tweed, gives the name of the spot, and, 
after stating that Willie was a "wabster guid," 
proceeds to a minute description of his wife and 
her habits a description that leads us to the con- 
clusion that Willie's domestic comfort and happi- 
ness could not have rendered him an object of 

The parish records of Tweedsmuir might fur- 
nish evidence if such a family resided there. Sir 
Graham Montgomery, of Stanhope, some years 
ago put up a memorial stone on the spot with the 
two lines quoted by your correspondent engraved 


<>7 ; x. 32). I am not a publisher, only a mere 
author. I have often thought that if fortune had 
been so gracious as to raise me to the higher 
dignity that I should have refused to treat with 
any author for an unfinished work. I saw some- 
where a few years ago a list of the works left 
unfinished by eminent men and women of our own 
time. It was painful to contemplate, not only 
from the value of the literature which had never 
come to perfection, but also for the pecuniary loss 
which I cannot doubt must have fallen on the 

I have written a good many books in my time, 
but, whether they have come into the world with 
my name attached or have remained fatherless, I 
have never offered anything to a publisher until it 
was quite finished, and if necessary a fair copy 
made thereof, such as was not calculated to inflict 
injury on either the eyesight or the temper of the 
"reader." AN AUTHOR. 

PIN AND BOWL (8 th S. ix. 424 ; x. 34). Nine- 
pins, bowls, and skittles are names for the same 
game, and yet in Derbyshire this men's game on 
a, bowling green or bowling alley was bowls or 
ninepins, skittles being the toy ninepins with 

which children play. The game was, however, 
always skittles in the days when at fairs and 
wakes the public could play it on skittle carts or 
barrows affairs on two wheels, and kept at the 
proper level by props under the handles. The 
pins and bowls, or balls, for skittles are much 
smaller than those on the bowling alleys. In 
bowls or ninepins the balls are round or oval, and 
the front corner pin and the middle pin much 
stouter than the rest. The middle pin, being 
higher than the rest, with a round head, was called 
"the king." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


' THE GIAOUR ' (8 th S. ix. 386, 418, 491 ; x. 11). 
The consonantal gabel in Hebrew is certainly a 
full equivalent to the Arabic jebel, and that it 
means hill or mount is proved by the Septuagint 
version, where Gaibal is used to transliterate 
Mount Ebal in Deut. xi. 29. It is also universally 
admitted that the Giblites of Joshua xiii. 5 occu- 
pied a mountainous country they were an unruly 
set of miners. As to chaious, it is a form of the 
Oriental cavasse, a sort of policeman. I do not 
remember to have written about kafir, so the 
question addressed to a " trained Orientalist " does 
not apply to a mere amateur like myself. 


13, Paternoster Kow, E.G. 

The last words of MR. EDGCDMBE'S reply are 
most instructive. If Murray pronounced the g 
hard we may well suppose that it was because 
Byron did so. What reason have we to think 
that he did otherwise 1 It is true that in Italian 
g is soft before i, but Byron wrote in English, and 
in English g is as hard before i in begin as it is 
soft before i in gin. One can point to such an 
Oriental word as jarra, imported into Italian in 
the form giarro. But we have got this word in 
English also, and write it jar, not giar. All that 
Byron wanted of his word was that it should 
rhyme with lower, boioer, hour, and power. 

Dr. Clarke is rather puzzling. He writes the 
word either djowr or djour, defining it as a term 
used by the Turks to express a dog or an infidel, 
and mentions how he was abused as a djour at 
Acre and hailed as a djowr at Athens, and how 
in a Turkish gazette of 8 November, 1801, 
announcing the expulsion of the French from 
Egypt, which had taken place some months before, 
and which is attributed to the bravery of Hussein 
Pasha, allusion is made to the English djowrs 
as having acted friendly on the occasion. His 
preference of djirit to djerid, to represent the word 
that we now write jarld, on the ground that that 
was the sound as it appears to him, not only shows 
that he observed attentively, but, as this word 
undoubtedly begins with Arabic jim, indicates that 
he supposed his word djowr to begin similarly. 
Yet in a catalogue of MSS. on sale he writes with 

X.Aco. 8/96.] 



a j such words beginning with jim as jafer, jaml 
jehan, jemdll, and in no instance uses dj for the 
purpose. Again, his Charem is not a very intel- 
ligible rendering of Haram. On the whole, it 
would seem rash to form a decided opinion of his 
aystem of literation. 

MR. EDQCUMBE will find that Dr. Clarke's 
volumes began to be issued some years earlier than 
he supposes, and that those on the East, beginning 
in 1810, record travels beginning in 1801. 


(8 th S. x. 50). Fulham Church once possessed 
several brasses, all of which, with the solitary 
exception of that to the memory of Margaret 
Svanders, have now disappeared. With the 
omission of two or three, it is not known to whom 
they were erected. John Parker is mentioned on 
the Svanders brass, and several members of the 
family resided in Fulham, but I know of no 
Augustus Parker who died in 1590* I much doubt 
whether there was ever such a brass in Fulham 
Church. Since the early years of this century 
Falham Church has possessed only one brass. I 
think I am acquainted with every list of monu- 
ments, printed or in MS., in the church, and no- 
where have I found any reference to one to an 
Augustus Parker. Probably, as MR. BRAND 
suggests, it has been misplaced by Mr. Haines. 
49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 


CONDOM (8 S. ix. 387). Alexandre Ce'sar 
d'Anterroches, Count de Brisade, Bishop of Con- 
dom, in the province of Bordeaux, was buried at 
St. Pancras, Middlesex, 31 Jan., 1793 (Par. Reg.). 
It may be added that an entry in the 'Laity's 
Directory,' 1794, erroneously records that he died 
28 Oct., 1792. The same information is contained 
(vol. ii. p. 426) in Canon Plasse's ' Clerg6 Frangais 
Re'fugie' en Angleterre,' 2 vols., Paris, 1886. 


HULKE : HOLSE (8" S. ix. 427). There are 
several references (too long to send to ' N. & Q.') 
to the Hulse family of Bethereden, Kent, in an 
article about Bethersden Church, in * Archseologia 
Cantiana,' xvi. 66-98, by the Kev. A. J. Pearman, 
the Precinct, Rochester. ARTHUR HUSSET. 

Wingham, Kent. 

SOUTHWELL MSS. (8 th S. ix. 488; x. 54). 
A considerable portion of Sir Thomas Phillipps's 
library has been recently acquired by the Cardiff 
Free Library 'or 3,6667. ; but whether it contains 
any of the Southwell MSS. or not I have not yet 
had an opportunity of ascertaining. D. M. R. 

LEAP YEAR (8 S. ix. 448). It is rather 
strange to find your correspondent asking for an 
earlier date for this expression than 1704, when 

there is the following rhyme in A. Hopton'a ' A 
Concordancy of Yeares,' 1615, p. 60 : 
Thirtie dayes hath September, 
Aprill, June, and November, 
The rest have thirtie and one, 
Saue February alone. 

Which moneth hath but eight and twenty meere, 
Saue when it is bissextile or leap yeare. 

Cf. Mr. G. F. Northall's ' English Folk-Rhymes,' 
p. 530. Minsheu's 'Ductor in Linguas,' 1617, 
has : 

" Leape yeare. B. Loop-iare, g. annus transiliens, 
viz., vltra terminos aliorum, nam bissextili dies additor. 
T. Schalt-iar, q. annus propulsus." 

There is, however, a much earlier use of the 
term. In Sir John Maundevile's * Voiage and 
Travaile,' ed. 1866, p. 77, there is the passage :- 

"But Gayug, that waa Emperour of Rome, putten 
theise 2 Monethes there to, Jany ver and Feverer ; and 
ordeyned the Zeer of 12 Monethes; that is to seye, 365 
Dayes, with oute Lepe Zeer, aftre the propre cours of 
the Sonne." 


It is in Minsheu, 1617, with comparison of the 
Belgic loop-tare, also in Cole, 1685. Minsheu 
explains it as: "Annus transiliens, viz., ultra 
terminos aliorum, nam bissextili dies additur." 
Wedgwood compares the Old Norse hlaup-ar. 


GROWING STONES (8 th S. viii. 365, 431, 497). 
The opinion that certain stones grow, or at least 
that they repair their artificial losses, is very old. 
Archdeacon Hakewill inclines to think that all 
minerals receive increase by process of time, " they 
being somewhat of the nature of stones, which 
undoubtedly grow, though not by augmentation 
or accretion, yet by assimulation [sic] or apposition, 
turning the neighbour earth into their substance." 
He says further : 

" To conclude this point, there being BO great an affinitie 
betwixt the generation of stones and mettalle, if it shall 
appeare that in Quarries, after the digging up of stones, 
they are againe filled in a naturall course with stufife of 
the same kinde; mee thinkes little doubt should be left, 
but that the same may also be done " 

in the case of metals ; quoting Pliny, lib. xxxvi. 
c. 15, as to marble, and later authors as to quarries 
in France and .Spain. See Hake will's * Apologie,' 
1635, pp. 163, 166. RICHARD H. THORNTON. 
Portland, Oregon. 

The stones spoken of in the rocks overhanging 
the rivulet in the parish of Rerrick remind me of 
some that I have seen in the neighbourhood of 
Vesuvius. These were like crystals, though not 
transparent, but faceted on the surface, and the 
size of a large pea, and they were scattered about, 
ike currants in a cake, in a red, friable rock of 
igneous formation. The only place I think I saw 
hem at was Vallo di Pompeii, in a rock between 
t and the artificial branch of the Sarno at Pompeii. 
A French geologist a M. de Cessac who visited 



[8S.X.Auo.8, t 9fiL 

Pompeii (1875 about), inquired for the spot under 
the name of Rocca del Sarno, and it was he who 
first caused me to observe them. They may, 
perhaps, be common enough and well known to 
geologists, but these certainly did not grow. 


We have in Stanford-on-Teme, Worcestershire, 
the remains of an old hermitage formed in a 
travertine rock ; it is said that this mass has been 
produced by deposits from a local stream highly 
charged with calcareous matter, thus affording to 
successive generations of villagers the process of a 
stone growing under their very eyes. 


The following is an extract from ' County Folk- 
lore ' (Leicestershire and Rutland), issued by the 
Folk-lore Society : 

"Mothers-Stone or Mothering- Stone, i. e., conglomerate; 
pudding-stone'; ' breeding-stone ' (Herts). The belief 
that stones grow in size by degrees is almost universal, 
and the email pebbles found in conglomerates are gener- 
ally recognised as ova, which under favourable auspices 
will ultimately be developed into boulders. Evan?, 
p. 196. (I have found it all but impossible to eradicate 
this belief from one Leicester boy's mind. Ed.)" 


Mr. W. Arthur Cornaby, in his 'A String of 
Chinese Peach-Stones/ 1895, writes (p. 130), "The 
Chinese think of their hills as ulive," and this foot- 
note follows : 

A notion by no means confined to China. An English 
farmer who had made some money and had bought an 
old country residence, once affirmed that all stones grew, 
except those killed by the chisel his marble mantel- 
piece, for instance." 



See 8* S. vii. 269, 334, . v. "Grotto of Anti- 
paros," where Tournefort's theory of the vegetation 
of stones is referred to. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

ST. UNCUMBER (8 th S. x. 24, 78). The follow- 
ing extract from the works of the "blessed" 
Thomas More, in addition to much pleasant 
information about other saints, gives all that is 
necessary to be known about St. Wilgeforte or 
Uncumber, and her fee of a "peck o' wheats," as 
they say in Lincolnshire. Those readers who 
desire to learn about saints more peculiar and 
" facetious " even than Uncumber had better con- 
sult Sir T. More. 

' What say we then quoth he of the harme that goeth 
by goinge of pylgrimages, royling aboute in ydlenes, with 
the riot, reueling, and rybawdry, glotony, wantonnes, 
wast and lecheri ? Trowe ye that god and his holy saites 
had not leuer thei syt styl at home, then thus to come 
eeke them, with such worsbipfull seruice ? Yes surely 
quod I. What ay we then quod he to y l I spake not of 
yet, in which we doo theim littell worship while we set 
euery taint to bys office and assigne him a craft suche as 
pleaseth vs 1 Sainte Loy we make an horseleche, & must 
let our horse rather reune vnshod & marre his hoofe, tha 

;o shooe him on his daye, which we must for y l point 
nore religiously kepe hygh & holy then Ester day. And 
)ecause one smith is to fewe at a forge, we set eaynt 
Ipolitus to helpe hym. And on saint Stephes day w* 
must let al our horses bloud with a knife, because saynt 
Stephen was killed with stones. Sainct Apoline we make 
t toth drawer, & may speke to her of nothing but of sore 
etb. Saint Sythe women set to seke theyr keyes. Saint 
lloke we sette to se to the great sykenes, bycause he had 
i sore. And with hym they ioine saint Sebastian, 
bycauee he was martired w* arowes. Some serue for the 
eye onely. And some for a sore brest. Saint Germayne 
onely for chyldren. And yet wyll he not ones loke at 
the, but if the mother bring with the a white lofe and a 
pot of good ale. And yet is he wiser then sainct wil- 
gefort, for she good soule is as thei saye serued and con- 
tent with otes. Wherof I ca not perceiue the reason, 
but if it be bicause she should prouide an horse for an 
euyl housbonde to ryde to the deuyll vpon, for that is tha 
thynge that she is so sought for as they saie. In so much 
that women bathe therefore chaunged her name, and in 
stede of saint Wilgeforte call her saynt Uncumber, 
bicause they reken that for a pecke of Otes she wil not 
faile to vncomber them of their housbondes. Longe worke 
were it to reherse you the diuers maner of manye prety, 
pylgrimages, but one or two wil I tell you. The one 
Pontanus spekyth of in his dialoges, how saint Martin is 
worshipped. I haue forgot the towne, but the maner I 
can not forget it is so straunge. Hys image is on hys daye 
borne in processio about al y* stretes. And if it be a 
fayre day the vse they as he cometh by, to cast roso 
water & al thinges of pleasant sauour vpo his ymage. 
But and it happen to raine, out poure they pispottes 
vppn his hed, at euery dore & euery window. Is not 
this a swete seruice & a worshipfull worship." More'a 
' Works,' 1577, pp. 194-5. 

B. K. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

CLOCK (8 th S. x. 28). I think the Dutch words 
are not a motto, but a direction. There is pro- 
bably a movable hand pointing to them. They 
would now be written "Slaat," " Niet slaat," i.e., 
"Strikes," "Strikes not," used according as one 
wishes the clock to speak or be silent. It might 
be German ; but not so likely, because of the 
modified vowel. The German would read 
" Scblagt," ' ' Schlagt nicht." ALDENHAM. 

St. Dunstan's. 

x. 23). Englishmen may be amused at the indig- 
nation with which MASSACHUSETTS repudiates, on 
behalf of a certain American statesman, the title 
of " politician." I dare say that Mr. Gladstone^ 
to whom he makes reference, would nob feel it a 
grave insult to be so described, whatever he might 
have to say about being called a " Welsh politician." 
But here, as in many other cases where the Ame- 
rican use seems strange to u a , it may, after all,. 
point back to an older English usage. In the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries " policy " com- 
monly meant trickery ; and Shakspeare, in his use 
of the word "politician," seems once or twice, at 
least to mean little else but knave pure and 
simple. Thus Hamlet says, " This might be the 
pate of a politician, which this ass o'er-reaches ; 

8> S. X. Ato. 8, '960 



one that could circumvent God, might it not? 
and in 'Twelfth Night' Fabyan tells Sir Andrew 
be must make some laudable attempt, either o 
valour or policy ; to which Sir Andrew replies 
11 It must be with valour, for policy I hate : I had 
as lief be a Brown let as a politician." Appa 
rently there is no reference in either case to wha 
we call " politics." The American use, therefore 
in which "politician" means an unscrupulous 
political adventurer, may be nothing more than a 
snecial application of the older more general sense 


THE LABEL (8 th S. ix. 308, 477). Suppose 
Mr. Blank bears Gules, a lion rampant or, his son 
and heir bears the eame coat, but during his 
father's life differences it with a label. Now, since 
the label argent, according to Burke's ' Armory, 
is reserved exclusively for princes of the blood 
royal, and since, as asserted, colour must never lie 
upon colour, nor metal on metal, this simple gentle- 
man can correctly use for his label Jbut two things, 
viz., a fur or a metal, and that metal must be gold. 
Such is one of the inferences I draw from MR. 
RADCLIFFK'S courteous reply. But where is there 
an instance of a label or ? and labels ermine are 
not common, I think. 

After all, I fancy the rule (if rule it really is) 
restricting the use of the label argent to royalty 
is but a novelty an unwarrantable attempt to 
deprive gentlemen of their ancient, prescriptive 
right to the use of that label. 

As for the rule that metal should not lie on 
metal, or colour on colour, it pertains only to the 
component parts of a coat of arms borne upon 
the shield, viz., its field and the charges therein. 
Hence, when a label is a charge, it must conform 
to that rule ; but when it is not a charge of the 
coat, but a mere transient external mark of cadency, 
then it is not within the rule, and it may lie a 
colour upon colour, or a metal upon metal ; so, at 
least, say some. 

But what is the present actual practice of the 

I College of Arms regarding the colour matter and 

! the label allowed to eldest sons of gentlemen, 

having regard to the kind of field it must rest 

upon ? Y. 

MERCHANTS' MARKS (8 th S. ix. 147, 409, 454). 
-In an old house in the village of Cleadon, co. 
Durham, formerly the residence of the Chambers 
family, the Chambers arms and a merchant's mark 
both occur above one of the fireplaces. R. B. 

These are treated upon in the Notts and Derby- 
shire Notes and Queries, vol. ii., 1894. 

J. P. B. 

MEETING-HOUSE (8* S. viii. 368 ; ix. 118). 
A common compound word, prevalent throughout 
New England, especially in rural districts, where 
it is used to designate any church building irre- 

spective of denomination. Sewall use* it in his 
' Diary,M 674-1729. The fact of the " Puritan" 
Pepys (as he is called) employing it would imply its 
use in England long before 1628, the date of the 
beginning of the English Puritan exodus to the 
shores of Massachusetts. J. GEE. 

Boston, Mass. 

PLAGUE STONES (8 th S. x. 52). Such an ex- 
pedient was adopted by the hero -priest Giles 
Mompesson, when he fought the plague at Eyam. 
See, among other references, Miss Yonge's ( Book 
of Golden Deeds.' 



' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. v., vi., contains eleven articles 
on this subject. Descriptions are given of the 
condition of the so-named stones in ten or more 
counties in all parts of England. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Substitute Stretford (Manchester) for Graying- 
ham, and all that Miss PEACOCK writes of the 
stone at Grayingham will stand for that at Stret- 
ford. Several hypotheses have been advanced ; the 
one most generally accepted is that it is a " plague" 


[8 ltl S. ix. 487). I do not think that any rule can 
be laid down as to such forms of words either 
diminishing or intensifying. Such words seem to 
me used almost entirely for the purposes of metrical 
scansion. I would quote in support, also from 

Oraeculus esuriena, in caelum jueseris, ibit. 


Without entering on the general question raised 
>y PERTINAX in his interesting note, I venture to 
,ake exception to his suggestion that the word 
candiduli, in the passage of Juvenal referred to, 
ihould, "if the diminishing force still cleaves to 
he adjective," be translated " whitish, fairly white," 
nstead of " white little " pig, as usually rendered. 
Surely the common rendering is correct? The 
ransference of the diminutive from the substantive 
o the qualifying adjective is an elegance truly 
laseical ; witness (to take a single example out of 
many) Cicero's phrase, in one of his Tusculan dis- 
utations, " candiduli denies [little white teeth], 
enusti oculi, color suavis." To translate candiduli 
here by " whitish" or "fairly white" would con- 
ey the very reverse of the author's meaning. 

Apropos, it may be of interest to note that Pope 

eo XIII., in one of the most exquisite of his 

ustly admired Latin poems, applies to himself the 

pithet "languiduluB senex." Here, I imagine, 

he diminutive adjective is intended to convey an 



. X.Auo. 8, '96. 

idea of disparagement, or perhaps of self-pity, 
equivalent to the English " poor weary old man." 
The Latinity of the venerable Pontiff is, however, 
of perfectly Augustan purity, and has little in 
common with the versification of the silver age of 
Koinan poetry. 

Olinda, Brazil. 

GOLEM AN (8 th S. ix. 508), should, of course, be 
spelt Colman. The quotation is from the ' Poor 
Gentleman' (II. iii.), by George Colman the 
younger. It is put into the mouth of that most 
delightful of his creations, Ollapod, the sporting 
apothecary. Between the jerky, abrupt style of 
this individual and the breathless, short-snapped 
utterances of the immortal Mr. Jingle there is not 
a very wide difference ; and the resemblance is 
strengthened, to my mind, by this very quotation. 
No Pickwickian will need reminding of the scene 
at the " Bull," Rochester, when Tracy Tupman 
expresses "an earnest wish to be present" at the 

" ' Many fine women in this town, do you know, sir ? ' 
inquired Mr. Tupman, with great interest. 

" ' Splendid capital. Kent, sir. Everybody knows 
Kent apples, cherries, hops, and women. Glass of 
wine, sir?' 

" ' With great pleasure,' replied Mr. Tupman. 

"The stranger filled and emptied. 

" ' I should very much like to go,' said Mr. Tupman." 

And so on ; till the " additional stimulus of the 
last glass settled his determination." 

Jingle, we are told, was present to " assist " at 
some regimental theatricals, in other words, to 
play the most exacting part at the lowest figure. 
As the Poor Gentleman himself was a soldier, and 
as a distinctly military flavour seasons the whole 
play, Dickens most probably had Colman's work 
in his mind ; and the turn which Jingle gives to 
one of his stage-tags, " cherries, hops, and women," 
is delightful, and quite in keeping with his cha- 
racter. That wonderful book the 'History of 
Pickwick,' by Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, which, in 
spite of the claim put in by the Athenceum for the 
earlier edition of Wordsworth by Prof. Knight, I 
believe to be the most inaccurate book ever com- 
piled, does not notice this ; nor have I ever seen 
it before, so far as I can remember. Any reader 
placing the two characters side by side, however, 
can scarcely fail to see the prototype of Jingle in 
Oolman's Ollapod. The ' Poor Gentleman,' I may 
add, was produced at the Theatre Royal, Covent 
Garden, in February, 1801. 


Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

The sentence quoted is by George Colman the 
younger ; it occurs in the ' Poor Gentleman/ IV. i., 
and is addressed by Ollapod to Miss Lucretia Mac 

1, Brixton Road. 

"BILLINGSGATE " (8* 11 S. x. 51). Whatever the 
cause may be, dealers in fish, and especially fish- 
wives, have long held an unenviable pre-eminence 
as notorious and ranting scolds. William Dunbar, 
who died at the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
gives them a place in his ' Devil's Inquest,' which 
is sometimes designated by its first line, " This 
nycht in my Sleip I wes agast." The poet had 
good reason for his astonishment, inasmuch as it 
fell to him to witness terrible things in his 
slumbers. He saw the devil passing " throw the 
mereat," and heard his dire communings with 
various classes of mankind, from the priest down- 
wards. The fishwives in a body commended 
themselves in this wise to Satan : 

The fische wyffis flett and swoir with granig, 
And to the Feind, saule, flesch and banie, 
Thay gaif thame, with ane schowt on hie ; 
The Deuill said, " Welcum all attanis, 
Renunce thy God and cum to me." 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

"BEDSTAVES" (8 tb S. ix. 304; x. 80). MR. 
F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY'S quotation from John 
Taylor's * Pennyless Pilgrimage ' is valuable. Cer- 
tainly after this Dr. Johnson's explanation of 
" bedstaves " cannot be ruled out of court. But 
MR. TERRY'S note seems to tacitly assume this as 
the only explanation of the word. My reference 
to the print from Abraham Bosse is clear proof of 
the stick being used to beat up the bed in making 
it. The natural inference is that there was more 
than one kind of bedstaff. Since I wrote in 
*N. & Q.' on this subject, I have come across 
another explanation in the glossary appended to 
Dr. Brinsley Nicholson's edition of Scot's 'Dis- 
coverie of Witchcraft': 

"The Johnson - Nares explanation is, I believe, 
wrong. With Miss Emma Phipaon, I rather take it to 
be a staff to summon attendance, a substitute for the 
modern bell, still used by invalids and others. Cf. 
' Ev. M. in his Humour,' I. iv." 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' say where confirmation 
is to be found of this view? It derives no support 
from the passage to which Dr. Nicholson refers. 


DOG STORIES (8 th S. ix. 484 ; x. 61). The 
most intelligent dog I know "resides " at Haxey, 
in the Isle of Axholme, and is named Staffa. 
Some years since, when his owner was appointed 
sub-postmaster of the village, Staffa learned to dis- 
tinguish the telegraph call signal of the office in 
less than three weeks. I was present in the office 
one day, and was asking the telegraph clerk how 
she got on with her work, when the needle began 
to sound. Almost immediately Staffa came trotting 
in with the messenger's hat in his mouth. " Why," 
said the girl, " that must be our call "; and so it 
was. The dog had known it before the clerk. To 
appreciate this fact it should be known that the 




call signals of two or three of the offices on the the most, but a venial fault, especially when it is 

, J A! A. 1 1 j 1 j * j 1 1 j * 1- 1 

circuit are so much alike in sound that even 
practised ear may be in doubt as to which is 
which. Staffa, however, I was assured, never 
made a mistake. At the time I speak of the office 
had been open about three weeks. C, C. B. 

Stories of canine sagacity are indeed innumer 
able, but all seem to me comparatively poor in 
contrast with the marvellous story narrated in the 
'Pickwick Papers/ Mr. Jingle's dog Ponto is 
said to have read on the notice-board at the entrance 
to a plantation, '* The gamekeeper has orders to 
shoot all dogs found in this enclosure." An etch- 
ing by Seymour represents Ponto looking hard at 
the notice, in a most suspicions manner, bending 
his forefoot and making a point at it. If I mis- 
take not, a note in the first edition mentions Mr. 
Edward Jesse's ' Anecdotes ' as narrating stories 
quite as remarkable. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

LOCAL WORKS ON BRASSES (8 th S. ix. 188 ; x. 
30). There is a good 'List of the existing Sepul- 
chral Brasses in Lincolnshire,' by the Eev. G. E. 
Jeans, in that admirably edited periodical Lin- 
colnshire Notes and Queries, vols. i.-iii. 

C. W. S. 

ARMS OF JOHN SHAKSPEARE (8 lb S. viii. 448). 
With reference to the above grant MR. CHEN- 
DISLET asks whether it is not 

" contrary to two usually accepted laws of armory, first, 
that only kuighta bannerets can display their arms on 
flags, guydons, or pennons ; and, secondly, that only 
badges, and not crests or arms, can rightly be displayed 
on servants' liveries." 

considered that in the selection of livery colours 
a distinct reference is made to the family arms by 
following their principal tinctures. 

J. S. UDAL, 

(8 th S. vii. 8 ; ix. 515 ; x. 80). Will F. D. H. 
kindly send me the remaining four verses of this 
or, better still, send them to * N. & Q.' as 
the other verses have been quoted there ? Will 
he also please point out the errors he alludes to in 
the version quoted in my note? 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

AEROLITES (8 tb S. x. 50). ASTARTE may be 
referred to the well-known answer of Lavoisier, in 
the name of the French Academy of Sciences, to 
the evidence of the fall of aerolites : " II n'existe 
pas de pierres dans le ciel ; il ne sanrait, par con- 
se'quent, en tomber sur la terre." The only citation 
of it I have at hand is taken from a French author of 
scientific attainments, M. Adolphe d' Assier, in the 
introduction to his essay ' Sur 1'Humanite Post- 
hume,' published in 1883. He prefaces it by 
saying : 

" Chaque fois que les journaux armoncent une chute 
de meteorite?, je ne puis m'empecher de me rappeler le 
dedain superbe avec lequel les eavants accueillaient autre- 
fois touto communication de ce genre, et les delegations 
obstinees qu'ils opposaient aux affirmations les plus 

M. d'Assier adds : 

" II etait permis de supposer que de telles legons ne 
seraient pas perdues, et que les personnes se diaant 
eerieuses ee montreraient a 1'avenir plua circonspectes 

With regard to the first question I would like 

to remark that it does not follow, because the grant I dans leurs delegations systematiques. lln'enfutrien 

may confer upon the grantee and his heirs the Pendant trente ans j'ai ri de la r^ponse de Lavoisier, sans 

oiro tuts m ' a pp ercev0 i r que j'mvoquai le memo argument dans 
tight to bear the achievement upon their " shields implication de certains phenomenes non moins extra- 

...pennons, guydons liveries, &c., that the | ordinaires que les pluies de pierres ou de crapauds. 

But to quote further would be to attribute to the 
question of ASTARTE a wider and more contem- 
porary significance than is explicit in it. 

C. C. M. 
" DISPLENISH " (8 th S. x. 28). This word, in 

grantees may place it upon " pennons " or " guy- 

dons," unless they hold a position entitling them 
to do so that is, are of knightly rank. 

But is not MR. CHENDISLET inaccurate when he 
states that only knights bannerets can display 
their arms on pennons ? Surely the ordinary or , . 

simple knight had a right to bear his badge or ^ he . n 8eD8e of fco de P rive o furnlture > 18 U3ed b 7 
armorial insignia on his pennon. The banner l '' 

was reserved for the achievement of the knight " We re "Tr dl8 P" eni8he ^ a ? d (f, fi 
banneret. This latter was a square-shaped ensiL, tbat We had Deed f much mor %, - Lett L 1166 - 
and on the elevation of a simple knight to the 
rank of knight banneret on the field of battle was 

We were so sore displenished, and so far out of use. 
e." Lett. 1166. 
49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

often formed by cutting off the points of his pennon, MALTA (8 tb S. viii. 247, 310). There are no- 

which then became converted into a banner. 

biographies of Vincenzo Barbara, only in the 

With regard to MR. CHENDISLEY'S second state- works by the Rev. Canon Panzavecchia and Dr. 

ment, in my inability to consult any standard heraldic Gio. Ant. Vassallo. Barbara is stated to have 

authority at the present time I should not like to been tried, during the rule of Or. M. de Rohan, 

er any positive opinion. But, inasmuch as by a commission, composed of four bailiffs and 

adges are much more scarce than crests or three Maltese lawyers, on a charge of disloyalty, 

arms, the prevailing custom would Beem to be, at for which he was banished from the island. Vas- 



X. AUG. 8, '96. 

sallo, moreover, adds that Barbara did his utmost 
to dissuade Murat from embarking on his hazardous 
enterprise to regain the kingdom of Naples. Not- 
withstanding the many inquiries made, no infor- 
mation could be obtained of Barbara's return to 
Malta or of his having rendered himself con- 
spicuous to the people of this island for his wealth. 

Malta, Valletta. 

ix. 125,435,455; x. 58). I know two Irish Catholic 
clergymen, one of whom has as Christian name 
Florence, and the other Hyacinth. In James 
Grant's historical romance * Mary of Lorraine,' 
the hero, a Scotsman, bears the name of Florence 
Fawside, with, as arms, Gules, a fesse between 
three bezants. But how far this is history or 
romance I cannot say. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

I have known Florentius used as a male Christian 
name. Denis Florence MacCarthy was, on the 
authority of Allibone's ' Dictionary,' a writer of 
some eminence. The Christian name of Lady 
Sale, the wife of the gallant general Sir Robert 
Sale, who fell at Moodkee in 1845, was Florentia. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Florance occurs as a male name in Lord Boston's 
family (Irby). A. F. G. L. G. 

" To SLOP " (8 th S. x. 26). To " slop " certainly 
may sound rather extraordinary to the unaccus 
tomed ear, but it really ia perfectly regular. To 
*' dust "the room is to remove the "dust" from 
off the furniture and other effects ; to " weed " the 
garden is to eradicate adventitious natural growths 
to " stone " fruit always a great business for the 
pudding at Christmas time is to extract the 
' stones" or "pips"; to "suddle" clothes is to 
rinse out the " suds " after washing with soap ; a 
field (agricultural) is both "weeded "and "stoned" 
whilst to go " hopping " is to go u a hop-picking." 

4, Bloomebury Place, Brighton. 

468 ; x. 18, 60). The Report of the Commissioners 
of Education for 1892-93, Washington, D.C., 1 vol 
Svo., cloth, 21,533 pp., has a list of United State 
universities, which is supposed to be complete anc 
official. A non-official publication is : 

"American College and Public School Directory 
C. H. Evans & Co., Managers of American Teachers 
Bureau, St. Louis, Mo., 1896, 1 vol. 8vo. cloth, 344 pp.' 

Any English-speaking person or British library 
an obtain, I think, United States Governmen 
documents gratis, provided they are not out o 
print, by a formal application addressed 
" Government Printing Office, Washington, Dist 
of Col, U.S.A." The Washington second-han 

ook dealers W. H. Lowdermilk & Co. make a 
pecialty of supplying Government publications. 


A " PONT OF BEEF " (8 th S. x. 47). MR. BIRD 
rovides us with an instance of an extension of the 
meaning of the word " pony." It recalls to mind 
nother I heard some time ago, in a different con- 
exion, but none the less interesting, perhaps, 
'his is a "pony of bitter." According to my 
iformant, ib is the custom in some hostelries to 
eal out to their patrons small glasses of liquor called 
' ponies." These glasses are, I understand, about 
alf the size of an ordinary half-pint glass. Hence 
re have the phrase a " pony of bitter." It seems 
irobable the origin is due to the dirninutiveness of 
he glass ; but I speak with no certain knowledge. 

C. P. HALE. 

The expression " a pony of beer " is often used 
n South Wales for a small glass containing about 
he fourth of a pint. D. M. R. 

WEDDING CEREMONY (8 tk S. ix. 406, 475 ; x. 
>9, 98). The usage by which the priest, joining 
,he hands of the man and woman after their con- 
sent to the marriage, with such words as " Et ego 
vos conjungo," &c., laid the ends of his stole upon 
.he hands so joined is ancient, but was not 
universally followed. It is ordered in some early 
[toman Sacerdotalia, but disappeared from the 
Roman Rituale at, or before, the revision of Paul V. 
[t was, however, retained in the local books of many 
continental dioceses. At Lie*ge the hands were 
bound together with the ends of the stole, and the 
practice was very possibly the same elsewhere, 
though I cannot at this moment give another 
instance of this particular detail. But it would 
seem that the usage was not followed in England. 
I am not aware of any trace of it in any ancient 
English service-book. Indeed the ceremony witl 
which it is connected is absent from most Eoglu 
books, probably because in the English forms 
the service the joining of hands took place at tl 
time when the man and woman gave their 
to one another. The later joining of their hands 
by the priest, after the delivery of the ring, was 
introduced into England in 1549. It is a ceremony 
analogous to, but distinct from, that with which 
the action with the stole is sometimes conjoined. 
Hence it would appear that the use of that action 
in the marriage service of the Church of England 
is of the nature of innovation, rather than of 
restoration, and that the innovation is founded on 
a mistake. H. A. W. 

A list of these chapels, much too long for in- 
sertion in ' N. & Q.,' will be found on pp. 613-15 
of Henry Chamberlain's ' History and Survey of 
the Cities of London and Westminster,' &c. (1770). 


. X. AUG. 8, '96.] 



already extending to five hundred pages each, and deter- 
mined to postpone their employment ui.til he can issue a 
separate work, in which he aims at doing for the law and 
practice of arms in general what was ably done for 
Scotland " in the well-known work of Mr. Seton." We 
make no attempt to deal afresh with the general con- 
tents of a book in praise of which we have already been 
outspoken. We despair of conveying to our readers an 
idea of the extent of the service rendered in rooting out 
errors perfunctorily repeated in successive publications, 
each as ignorant as the preceding. Nothing, indeed, 
eeems more hopeless to the worker in any line than to 

inks to his official pomion i>r. B "f '" I find out bow some mistake or falsehood once promulgated 
matters connected with Scotland an authority, and 1 b s . ftted unti , itjjeem8 to 8tand M firm ^ Ro] Writ 
name appears with that of Dr. Woodward i what is Dr Woodwitrd we r t ig one of tbe 8OUDd est and 
practically the first edition of the preeent work .In bble8t of berald and in Ug latep gb hia new bigt 
respect of breadth and diversity of knowledge D wm commend itgelf to all Crested in the study. We 
ward was far the more potent spirit as has be< i ^d to see that tbe double glossary of English and 

by his subsequent labours, and notably by his important ^JJJ ^^ of w which f orme / a ^gj feature 
authoritative work on ecclesif itical bei dry. of the ori inal ig reta ined. Now that his magnum opus 
and enlarged edition L of Heraldry, . Q the ^^.^ gh fae wigbeB . fc ^ aggume Df w< jj 
icrn. the share of Dr. Burnett has dis- . . ... . , . ^^*.;K.. f.,u^. t.~ 


Heraldry, British and Foreign. By John Woodward, 

LL D. 2 vols. (W. & A. K. Johnston.) 
FOUR and a half years have elapsed since we drew 
attention (7* 8. xii. 519) to the appearance of 
a 'Treatise on Heraldry, British and Foreign,' corn- 
piled by the Rev. (now Dr.) John Woodward, 
in part from collections left at his disposition 
by Dr. George Burnett, late Lyon King of Amns. 
Thanks to his official position, Dr. Burnett was in 


From the new 
British and Foreign,' the share 
appeared, and the entire work is by Dr. Woodward The 
additions amount to about a third of the work. What is 
of equal value, a great part has been rewritten, and has 
gained in accuracy as well as in lucidity. From the out- 
set the signs of the influence of revision are apparent. 
Further authorities are quoted, and the disputable deriva 

ward will, we trust, see his way to contribute further to 
the columns of ' N. & Q.,' which have not seldom bene- 
fited by his communications. 

Journal of the Ex-Libris Society. 
THE August number of this gives the musical book-plate 
of Job. Frid von Uffenbach. It is a large-sized plate, 

IT UriDCr ftVUUUrillCD ol O UUUtc*', uvt *uv vop* i vt /vii. WftJHi vu wv*MMrB J.v 10 c* At*A|^-o.Avvi picW| 

tion of the mediaeval herald from Heer, a host, and Held, presenting a harpsichord, violin, and other musical 
a champion, though mentioned, has no longer an implied instruments. The list of Englishwomen's armorial book- 
sanction: Very many similar improvements reveal them- | plates is continued, as is the catalogue of the fifth Annual 
selves on the most cursory glance. Special chapters are 

added in the second volume on orders of knighthood and 
other subjects of interest and importance. Of British 
orders of knighthood a detailed account is given, and short 
but adequate information is supplied concerning the prin- 
cipal foreign orders. National arms, mottoes, liveries, 
badges, &c., receive amplified treatment. On the rela- 
tion that should exist between the tinctures of the arms 
and the colours used in liveries, Dr. Woodward refers to 
the conclusions established in ' N. & Q.' The growth of 
the black cockade from the broad strings by which the 
flaps of the seventeenth century round hat were 
"cocked" is shown, and the wild views that prevail as 
to the right to wear it are derided. The Scotch song 
of ' Sberramuir ' alludes to the English soldiers as " the 
redcoat lads with black cockades." Small marvel that 
their Scotch antagonists took the opposite colour and 
wore "a knot of white ribbons." Under the head 
" Mottoes" are some curious and unfamiliar instances of 

Exhibition of the Society. 

THE first number has reached us of Balmoral, a 
monthly review of art, literature, &c. A special feature 
in its illustrations consists in the printing in coloured 
inks, which is well done. 

IN the Fortnightly Review the praise of Sir John 
Seeley is sung by Mr. Herbert A. L. Fisher, who doubts 
whether any English historian has cast into a portable 
form so many valuable historical truths. What is n eant 
by a portable form is indicated in the following quota- 
tion Irom a review by Seeley : " We remember all th 
subtle suggestions of Tocqueville on the causes of the 
fall of the monarchy. ' Well, 1 Napoleon said, 

do you know the cause of the fall of the Bourbons 1 It 
was the battle < f Rosabach.' How much more con- 
crete! " Mr. Alfred R. Wallace writes on ' The Gorge 
of the Aar and its Teachings,' and deals with the vast 
amount of glacial erosion that it exhibits. Mr. R. E. S. 

punning mottoes and of canting heraldry. Le Maistre Hart has much to say on ( Zola's Philosophy of Life,' 
thus bears Azure, three marigolds or, and the happy | and on his theory of " Heredity and Circumstance," 

?, again, 

motto "Aux maitres les soucis." Le Gendre, again, otherwise "Environment," "with capital letters," who 
bears Azure, a fess between three girls' busta argent, have been described as the " Lords of Life." Mr. H. W. 
crowned or, and the device " Qui a [sic] des filles aura I Wilson's ' Human Animal in Battle ' gives a very stirring 
del gendres." Valetta has " Plus quam valor Yaletta I account of the sufferings undergone by the combatants, 
valet." O'Kourke (of France) has " Prou de pis, peu j their conditions and other matters, which in fancy 
do pairs, point de plus," a curious instance of allitera- 
tion as well as of assertion. The ordinance of 
Charles III., Duke of Lorraine, concerning the assump- 
tion of the particle de now appears, with other matters 
of no less interest, among the appendices. Most important 

sketches of warfare do not readily present themselves : 
' At Sadowa sixty wounded were found in a barn six 
days after the battle. They had lived God knows how. 
When found, the state of their wounds was such that 
not one of them could hope to survive." Again we hear 

of all among the additions made to the book are those to the I of those wlo, crawling clear of the thickets, "were eaten 

illustrations, illuminated and other. Families of exalted | alive by the beetles o' nights." ' On an Old American 

rank now replace others of inferior consequence, and 

tbe work puts forward the pretension to be a lilro d'oro 

of the great European families. These illustrations are 

in every case splendidly executed. It was Dr. Wood- 

ward's original intention to have included chapters on 
the College of Anus, the Lyon Office, and other heraldic 
" institutions of authority, existing or defunct, at home 
and abroad." As materials grew on his hand he found 

Turnpike ' gives a gloomy account of the conditions of 
things in Virginia. Mr. Wilfrid Ward's* Reminiscence ' 
of Thomas Henry Huxley, contributed to the Nineteenth 
Century, is remarkable in many respects. Huxley appears 
to Mr. Ward to have been " almost the ideal of a con- 

verser never frivolous and never dull." Some of the 

anecdotes preserved are quite excellent. Mr. Ward tells 
us that Wordsworth " once said of the peak of a Swiss 

the inconvenience of further augmenting two volumes 1 mountain, hidden behind the low clouds/' that " you 



[8* 8. X. Aua. 8, '96. 

felt [it] to be there, though you could not see it." Did he ] 
We know not where, and wo doubt it. Coleridge said 
something of the kind in his ' Hymn before Sunrise in 
the Valley of Cbamouni,' and we funcy this is what Mr. 
Ward recalls. We agree so completely in spirit with 
Ouida in much that she writes that we wish she would 
not in her ' Quality of Mercy ' overstate her case. In 
much that she says she is quite right, and her anathemas 
are simply launched against human vulgarity using 
the word in its right sense. Women will never learn 
that it is cruel to wear the osprey egret in their hair 
or a carcase in their hats. Individuals will, but the 
bulk is unteachable, and will always remain so. Quite 
hopeless is it also to preach to men on the cruelty 
of sport; but the world is growing perceptibly 
milder and more humane. Public sentiment is indig- 
nant with tome forms of cruelty, especially cruelty 
to a horse. When one interferes now to prevent a man 
from ill-treating an animal public sentiment is with one, 
and the offender slinks away sullen, but silent. This was 
not always so. Sentiment is, indeed, growing so strongly 
that it is quite conceivable that before long legal 
restrictions upon the size and character of the whip to 
be used may be imposed. Prof. Courthope gives the 
first of three papers on ' Life in Poetry,' and deals, in 
the present case, with 'Poetical Conception.' This 
appears to the professor, as to Horace, in " the power to 
give individual form to universal ideas." Prince Kro- 
potkin writes on ' Recent Science,' and Father Clarke, 
S.J., gives a long paper on ' The Training of a Jesuit.' 
In the New Review Mr. Francis Watt undertakes the 
partial rehabilitation of ' Bloody Jeffreys,' advancing 
many instances of his " real regard for justice," and even 
of his magnanimity. His faults, it is held, were balanced 
by some virtues, and " much may be pleaded in mitiga- 
tion of the judgment history has passed upon him. Mr. 
David Hannay sends a brightly written article upon 
' Brantorae,' whom he calls the Froissart of the later 
sixteenth century. In the great conflict waged around 
him he took but faint interest. " What the men and 
women of the world about him said and did, and what 
was lofty, passionate, and insolent in their words and 
deeds were everything to him. Dr. Carfrae has an im- 
portant paper on ' The Drift of Modern Medicine,' and 
Mr. Ian Malcolm, M.P., gives some ' Coronation Notes ' 
from Moscow.' An Island without Death,' with which 
the Century opens, gives an account of Miyajima, the 
sacred island in the Inland Sea of Japan. Very interest- 
ing is the account of life in this favoured spot, and 
the illustrations impart much vivacity. Mr. Sloane's 
' Life of Napoleon Buonaparte ' begins with the collapse 
of the Western Empire, and ends with "The Great 
Captain at Bay." When complete and published sepa- 
rately, as doubtless it will be, the work will form a useful 
history. Among important contributions are ' Pharaoh 
of the Hard Heart,' by Prof. Flinders Petrie, and Mr. F. 
Marion Crawford's* The Vatican.' With its new pictorial 
cover Scrilner's looks very bright. It opens with a 
pleasant travel article from a feminine pen, ' On the 
Trail of Don Quixote.' As Strangers ' is an excellent 
comedietta by Miss Annie Eliot. 'Old-Time Flower 
Gardens ' is a delightful article delightfully illustrated. 
The ninth volume of the Pall Mall Magazine is con- 
cluded with the August number. Very handsomely 
illustrated in colours is the opening article, ' The Fan.' 
An account of Hardwick Hall is by A. H. Malan. It is 
freshly written and well illustrated. Very pleasing is, 
too. The Country and Towns of the Dart.' The Follies 
of Fashion,' which retains a pleasant antiquarian flavour, 
deals with balloons. Matthew Prior and Lord Bramwell 
are the subjects of papers in Temple Bar. The life of 
the former, written by Mr. John Macdonell, shows 

much familiarity with Bramwell's career. An account 
of ' A Day in Goa ' describes travelling under difficulties. 
' Bicetre ' gives some curious revelations concerning 
that prison hospital. The entire number is exceptionally 
excellent.' A Prince of Wales,' in Macmillan's, deals 
with Owen Glendower, commemorated by Shakspeare. 
'Rahel Levin and her Times' gives some appetising 
extracts from her letters. ' Shall we return to the 
Land 1 ' exposes the disadvantages attending the substi- 
tution of country for town life. Mr. James Platt con- 
tributes to the Gentleman's ' In Spanish Gipsyner.' He 
gives a striking account of the dance that he saw in the cave 
dwellings on the skirts of the Alpujarras. ' The White 
Rose on the Border ' depicts scenes subsequent to the 
battle of Culloden. 'Cisse's City and Round About It ' 
is a fantastic way of describing Chichester and its 
neighbourhood. The 1st of August being the anni- 
versary of the battle of the Nile, Prof. Laughton has 
commemorated that splendid triumph by giving in the 
Cornhill a full account of it. 'Children's Theology' 
gives some amusing instances of the mistaken ideas 
children derive from oral tuition. Master Jackie, 
being told that he had broken one of the command- 
ments, said, with much cheerfulness, " I've only got nine 
more to break now." Mr. Spencer Wilkinson writes on 
' Gustavus Adolphus,' and Mr. A. P. Martin on ' Sir 
Henry Parkes.' A. K. H. B. supplies Longman's with 
interesting recollections of Oliver Wendell Holmes. To 
the English Illustrated Mr. Charles Marquardt, a sur- 
vivor from the Drummond Castle, sends ' My Voyage ' 
in the doomed ship. This is illustrated with pictures, 
some of them of pathetic interest. Mr. R. S. Loveday 
writes on the hats of our grandmothers. Intending 
travellers to the North may read ' The Right Way to 
See Norway.' In addition to the ordinary number Bel- 
gravia publishes a holiday number. Among the con- 
tributors to this is John Strange Winter. Chapman's 
gives the customary selection of modern fiction. 

PART XXXV. of Cassell's Gazetteer, Llanfillo to Long- 
stowe, has a coloured map of London, of which city a 
long account is given. Londonderry is also dealt with, 
as are many Welsh and Scottish localities of interest. 

AN illustrated volume, giving 'An Account of the 
Ancient Crosses at Gosforth, in Cumberland,' by Charles 
Arundel Parker, will forthwith be published by Mr. 
Elliot Stock. 

itoiijws 10 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

E. D. Shall appear. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8>S. X. Ata. 15, '98,] 



", SATURDAY. AUGUST 15, 1896. 


NOTES -.The ' Oraculum Spirituale,' 129 Hicks Family 
130 The Eustace Baronetcy The Days of the Week, 131 
American University Cheers Funeral of Capt. Addison 
Descendants of Thomas Percy, 132 Richard Topcliffe 
Saints' Wells in Cornwall George Baxter, 133 Letter 
of Locke " Chaffer " " Spurrings " Burns Parish 
Councils The Queen's Heign" Laze and flane," 134. 

QUKKIKS -."Bedding Pewter Brass" Mrs. Penobsoot 
T. G. Killigrew Mrs. Browning's Birthplace Milkmaids 
in Pictures Bishop Lloyd's Palace, Chester, 135 The 
Lollards of Kyle Despencer Pedigree Bishopric of Lon 
don Seymour and Stretchley Families " Our incom 
parable Liturgy " " Beveller's boy," 136 Miraculous 
Statues Coinage Portrait of Surgeon Wynne Records 
Sir Robert Viner " Tussuria " Pye-house, 137. 

REPLIES : French Prisoners of War, 137" Brucolaques,' 
138 Chelsea Enamel The Weeping Infant A Joke of 
Sheridan, 140" Little Wales " " As plainfas a pike-staff ' 
Lucifer Matches Grace Darling Monument Lord John 
Russell Gray or Grey, 141 Translation" Mac " and 
' Me "Samuel Pepys Westminster Abbey, 142 Blessing 
the Fisheries Pole's MS. of Charters Norman Roll at 
Dives Ognall, 143 Tannachie Ubaldino's 'Account of 
England' Henry Grey Parish Constables' Staves, 144 
The Margraves of Auspach " Ade" TJie Scarlet Hunting- 
coatJohn Dory Earliest Circulating Library Potatoes 
for Rheumatism Proverb, 145 Commemorative Pies- 
William Warham Rough Lee Hall" Marcella," 146. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Maxwell's Rainy Days in a Library ' 
Almack's Bibliography of the Eikon Basilike 'Fisher's 
Boissier's ' Country of Horace and Virgil ' Boas's ' Bhak- 
gpereand his Predecessors ' Neilson's ' Caudatus Anglicus' 
Scargill-Bird's ' Guide to Documents in the Record 
Office 'Magazines, Journals, &c. 


A very curious little book has lately fallen into 
my hands, filled with epigrams, chronograms, 
anagrams, and verbal puzzles of many kinds ; I 
have never seen it before, and whilst I am in the 
first joy of possession (an emotion which every 
book-lover will understand), it occurs to me that 
others may be glad to make some acquaintance 
with its pages. This first joy of possession is, 
however, so evanescent a feeling, and the passage 
of the book from the study table to the oblivion of 
the shelf is so near at hand, that I think it safer 
to write at once. 

Here is the title-page : 

Apollinia apiritualis Oraculum de lumine Dei lumino- 
sum, de raelle coeli mellifluum, gratis plenum odoribua 
condimentutu, et morum Floa hie, nectar qui sensibua 
balet, sive 

v L PEA 

L V V R U 

praefulgidia mentis ornamentia plena, & glorioais Crucia 
mysteriig passim decora & adornata : Oblatio votiva 
curioaia cujuavia status PhilomusiB pro prsepostera 
equentium annorum in eaecula eaeculorum strena p. 
JAOOBI POOHET. Liber unicus, trea alioa, calamo quidem, 
ted nondum typia exaratos, precedent. 

Bruxellae, Typia Joannia Momraartl 1651. 
From which it may be gathered that Dom Pochet 
had a very good opinion of his own work. 

Certainly verbal and literal ingenuity could 
hardly be carried much further than the author 
has done in the 370 small octavo pages of which 
the book consists. 

He plunges at once into a series of anagrams, 
dedicating his book to Leopold of Austria, in whose 
honour a full-page plate is given representing an 
eight-pointed star, the arms of which are com- 
posed of the following lines, with a capital A in the 
centre common to them all : 

1. LeopolduB Auatriacua. 

2. Directus a polo salvus. 

3. Lude solus autor paoia. 

4. llepulsas valido scuto. 

Whilst on the crown itself are three more ana. 
grams : 

5. Proavia ut sol adluces. 

6. Clarus tuua dies & polo. 

7. Tu das plus claro losuo. 

Of other anagrams I select a few : 

8. Virgo Maria, Mira Virago. 

9. Beata Virgo. Beat Virago, p. 46. 

Four or five on Calvin, pp. 120, 121: 

10. Ego BumrauB vat en, Mua ego sum, vetasl 

11. Calvinus eat Propbeta. Lunaticua ea Propheta. 

12. Calvinus Leno tot formans. Tales noluut Romani 

13. Joannes Calvinus doctor. Nota, luridua canis 

14. Calvinus est Idololatra. Area doli, sus in luto 

One or two more general anagrams : 

15. Laud a tor. Adulator, p. 136. 

16. Beata solitude. Sola Beatitude, 137. 

Here is a verbal puzzle, No. 521, In Superbum: 

SJSIJ I fit I At *-* 

Te tam gutter eaa, quam super ire rogas. 
I need not insult the readers of ( N. & Q.' by 
offering a solution. 

Of chronograms there is a goodly collection, 
Here are a few : 

1. Ease tVIs Vere sIDVa LeopoLDe pVtarl*, 
AVt PboebVs parena eXorlensqVe Dies. 

2. EXorerla alDVs patrlae aoL gratVa. ab ortV 
sVpra nog Mentea eXILIere tVo. 

8. AMoR Deo saCer eat aaL terne. 

4. Metra Dotes saCraa et Laetas parant. 

5. ManData aaCra et Laata. 

6. LVX Mea git leaVs, CVnCla proCVL Ite tenebra, 
EXCeLLens sVrget noater In orbe nltor. 

Perhaps it is scarcely necessary to give the printer 
the labour of setting the other chronograms with 
the numeral letters in capitals : 

7. A superia vatea Phoeboque parente requirit, 
Vt pia musa crebria sit aua digna typia. 

8. AD LeCtoreM. (aliud simile chronicum) . 

9. Utiliter cunctis cupio pia pingere metra : 
Tu fac qui legia liasc, gis bone atque piu. 

10. Sit bona pax vati vivo, requiesque perennia 
Defuncto, tanta dote, favente Deo. 



[8 th 8.X. AUG. 15, '96. 

It will be observed that all these chronograms give 
the date 1650, the year before that in which the 
book was printed. Here is one of a different 
order : 

11. Abundantia gratia?, et pax rediviya 
Nobig git, Dante jubileo universal!. 

The seventeenth century writers seem to have 
delighted in the composition of chronograms and 
to have found the task singularly easy. I have com- 
posed only two, in which I feel a certain paternal 
pride ; and I am afraid I must confess that they 
cost me more labour than they are worth. The 
first I have printed at the end of my catalogue of 
some of the rarer books and of books and plates 
relating to London in St. Paul's Cathedral Library, 
published in 1893 : 

CataLogVs LlbrorVM eCCLeglse B. PaVLI eXpLICIt 
feLIOIter ID Ipgo beatl PaVLI patron J nostrl festo. 

The second is in my ' Life and Legend of St. 
Vedast,' issued in the present year : 

SanCtVa VeDastVg epIsCopVs atrebatensls Llbera 
gratia saLVatorlg Chrletl CateChlsta et InstrVCtor 
reglg ChLoDoVeel. 

Those who have seen the noble volumes issued by 
Mr. James Hilton, F,S. A., three in number, contain- 
ing in all some thirty-eight thousand chronograms, 
will certainly not complain that they have not 
sufficient material before them for an exhaustive 
study of the subject. 

Probably, however, the readers of ' N. & Q.' 
will not endure any more specimens of this kind of 
ingenuity, though the little volume before me 
could supply others. 

I do not know whether there is any proper name 
for the class of verbal puzzles of which I now give 
an example. This is perhaps the best, and is fre- 
quently met with. It is often found in churches, 
near the font. I saw it a short time since in the 
old church at Hazebrouck, at the intersection of 
the railway lines to Arras, Dunkirk, Lille, and 
Calais : 

Qu an di trig m p 

oa guis rug ti ulcedine avit. 
H san mi chris d 1 

Of words set cross-wise or in other geometrical 
figures there is a great variety ; perhaps these are 
the happiest in allusion to the cross itself : 




8 X A 

A R 


Of epigrams there is a large number. The book 
concludes with some highly laudatory verses ad- 
dressed to Dom Pochet by Lucas Lancelottus, 
I.V.D. ; with a Censura approbans by Joannes du 
Trieu, Beguinagii Parochus Archiepiscopalis Libro- 
rum Censor ; and an Approbatio by the Archdeacon 
of Malines, Henricus Calenus, Vicar-General of 
the Archbishop. 

May I conclude with a question : Who was D. 
Jacobus Pochet ? 

My copy has the words " Bibliotecss ffr. minor*, 
bruxell:" written across the title-page. Does this 
Franciscan library still exist ? 


(See 8'h S . vii. 347, 417, 471 ; viii. 74, 153, 278.) 

The following notes relating to the family of 
Hicks, although they do not answer the query of 
MR. CHAS. JAS. F&RET, may be of interest. The 
notes were made by the late Nathan D'Ews, author 
of the ' History of -Deptford/ for the late Hastings 
Hicks, Esq. A few trifling additions I have 
inserted in brackets : 

There are four branches. Shipston-on-Stour, Arraa : 
Azure, a fess wavy argent between three fleurs-de-lys or. 
Motto, " Tout en bonne heure." Beverston, London and 
Gloucester, and Nunnington branches bear: Gules, a 
fegse wavy argent between three fleur-de-lyg or, with the 
game motto. All descended from Sir Ellis Hicks, Knt., 
who fought under the Black Prince ; knighted by Ed- 
ward III. Supposed born at Nunnington, near York, 
early in the fourteenth century. 

Had two great-grandsons. (1) John Hicks, of Tort- 
worth, co. Gloucester, obit. 1488, and (2) Hicks, of 


A. (1) The son or grandson of John was Thomas, 
married daughter and heiress of James Attwod, Esq., 
and Alice, daughter of Wm. Payne, Esq. 

The issue of this marriage was William, of Shipston- 

He had a son William, rector of Stretton-super-Foas, 
co. Warwick, and Vicar of Campden, co. Gloucester. 

Had issue : 1. Baptist, Rector of Stretton-auper-Fosa. 
Issue thirteen children. 

2. Thomas, of Deptford. 

3. Sir Henry Hicks, born at Stretton-super-Poss, 1677. 
High Sheriff of Kent 1734, knighted the same year. 
First churchwarden of St. Paul's, Deptford. Died at the 
Brewery, Deptford Bridge, 6 Jan., 1757, and buried in the 
family vault beneath St. Paul's, Deptford. [Sir Henry 
Hickes, brewer, 69, Deptford Bridge, Jany. 13th, 1757. 
Burials, in St. Paul's Register. He was Steward, 1726, 
and Master, 1731, of the Society of Ancient College \ 
Youths.] Married Margaret, daughter of Sir Snelling 
Thomas, brewer, of Deptford Bridge, obit. 1738, and was 
buried in the family vault at St. Paul's, Deptford [Mar- 
garet, Lady Hickes, wife of Sir Henry Hickes. Knt. 
Peb. 9, 1738. Burials, in St. Paul's Register], There is a 
monument to this lady in St. Paul's, Deptford, on which 
the date is given of her death 28 Jan., 1738, aged forty- 
six years. In the second south window of St. Nicholas's 
Church, Deptford, are the arms of Snelling Thomas, 
Sheriff of Kent 1706 : Quarterly, 1 and 4, Party per 
pale, argent and sable, a chevron between three martlets 
counterchanged ; 2 and 3, Sable, a bezant between three 
eagles' heads erased or, a chief indented ermine ; over 
all an escutcheon of pretence, Sable, a fesse between two 
chevronels ermine, in chief a covered cup or. See 
Drake's ' Hundred of Blackheath,' p. 32. 

Issue of 2 : Thomas, born at Deptford, 1716 [1717 ?], 
storekeeper H.M. Dockyard at Deptford. Died at Ex- 
mouth and was buried in St. Paul's, Deptford. Had 
issue four daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, Ann, and Rebecca. 
[Thomas Hicks, Esq., from Axmouth, in the County of 
Devon. Aged 78. 1795. Burial, in St. Paul's Register.] 

8 th 8. X. Am. 15, '96.] 



Issue of 3 : A daughter Mary, obit. 1753 ; Margaret, 
and a son Thomas, who probably died at Marylebone, 
and was buried in a private vault at St. George's, Han- 
over Square, London, 20 Oct., 1771. 

Had issue : Charlotte, born May. 1751 ; Frances, born 
1752, obit. 1757; Thomas, born 1753; and William, of 
Nottingham Street, Marylebone, London, solicitor, born 
1757, olit. 26 Dec., 1819, buried as St. George's, Hanover 
Square. Married Susan, daughter of James Pigge, Esq., 
of Norfolk. 

His son, George, married Ellen Tempest, daughter of 
Aaron Graham, Esq., Chief Margistrate of Bow Street. 

Issue 1 : George Henry Tempest, married Arabella, 
daughter of Edward Stone, Esq., of Thorpe Lodge, 

2. Ellen. 

3. William Frederick, of the Ceylon Civil Service, obit. 

4. Henry Erekine, a general in the Royal Artillery, 
married Hood, and died 1880. 

Issue of 1 : 1. Henry Tempest, married Ann, daughter 
of Charles Henery, Esq., of Gladsmuir, Barnet. 

2. Hastings Edward. 

Issue of 1 : Hastings, of Deptford, married Edith, 
daughter of George Ellis, Esq., Madras Civil Service. 
[Died at Hampden House, Clapham, 17 May, 1893, buried 
at Mortlake, 20 May.] 

Issue : Mary Adeline, born 1870 ; Sidonie Mary, born 
1873 ; and George Baptist Ellis, born 1878. 

A. (2) Thomas, son or grandson of John Hicks, of 
Tortworth, had a brother Robert, mercer of Cbeapside, 
London, who married Juliana, daughter of Wm. Arthur, 
of Clapham, Surrey. 

Issue : Sir Michael Hicks, Knt., born 21 Oct., 1544, 
died 16 Aug., 1612. Secretary to Lord Treasurer Bur- 
leigh. Married Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Colston, of 
Ruck holts, co. Essex. 

Issue : 1. Sir William Hicks, first Bart., obit. October, 
1680, married Margaret, daughter of William, Lord Fagot. 

2. Elizabeth, married Sir William Armine, Bart., of 
Osgoldsby, Lincoln. 

Issue of 1 : Sir William Hicks, second Bart., obit. 
26 April, 1702, aged 73 ; married Marthannes, daughter 
of Sir Harry Conningsby, Knt, of North Mimnis, Herts. 

2. Lactitia, married Arthur, Earl of Donegal. 

3. Sir Michael Hicks, Knt., married Susanna, daughter 
of Sir Richard Howe. 

4 Mary, married James Darcy, Esq., of Tedburgh, 

Issue of 8: Sir Henry Hicks, third Bart., born 
October, 1666, obit. 1765, married, first, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Holmes, Knt., by whom he had 
two daughters, Margaret and Elizabeth, and one son 
Henry, born 1705, obit. 1721 ; and, secondly, Barbara, 
daughter of Joseph Johnson, Esq., of Walthamstow. 

Issue : Sir Robert Hicks, fourth Bart., born 1712, obit. 
1 1 68, unmarried. 

Martha, bom 1712, Elizabeth 1714, Barbara 1715, 
Ardina 1716, John 1718, and Michael 1719. 

The third baronet had a brother Michael ; a sister 
Margaret, who married Anthony Wharton, of Gilling- 
wood. co. York ; three brothers, William, Robert, John ; 
? W A d * Uirhter8 ' Eliz *betb, and Anne, born 1679, died 

80; and another brother Charles, born 1677, married 
Coninpsby, died 1760, had issue. 

Sir John Baptist Hicks, fifth Bart , died 1791, s.p. 

(To It continued.) 

THE EUSTACE BARONETCY. The account given 
of this title in Burke's 'Extinct Baronetage' 

appears to be very inaccurate. It states that the 
baronetcy was conferred 23 Dec., 1685, on Maurice 
Eustace (son of William FitzJohn Eustace), the 
Speaker of the Irish House of Commons and Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland, and that he was succeeded 
by his son Sir Maurice, second baronet, who 
married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Newcomen, 
and bad " a daughter and heir, married to Tickell, 
the poet." With this alleged second baronet the 
title seems to have expired, as no further inheritors 
of it are given by Burke. Now, Sir Maurice 
Eustace, the Chancellor, died in 1665, and there- 
fore could not be holder of a baronetcy conferred 
in 1685 ; moreover, as he left his estates to his 
nephews, it is not likely he had "a son and 
successor." The following pedigree is perhaps 

John Eustace of Castlemartin. 

William Eustace. 

Maurice Eustace. 

Sir Maurice Eustace, Knt., Prime Ser- John=?=Margaret 

jeant, 1634 ; Speaker of House of Com 
mons, 1639; Master of the Rolls, 1644 ; 
Lord Chancellor, 1660; died 1665. 
(1 Fellow of T.C.D. 1617 and M.A. 


Sir Maurice Eustace, Bart , Bo=Margaret Sir John, m. 
cr. 1685 ; P.C. 1686 ; Col. King Newcomen. and had 
James's army; possibly died four 

before 1697, when an Act wag daughters, 

passed in connexion with his Thomas, 

estates. In 1720 another Act 
was passed for the sale of the 
estates to pay his creditors. 

The baronetcy probably expired with the grantee, 
who does not appear to have had any male issue. 

Hobart, Tasmania. 

Few people are aware of the rule whereby the 
name of the day of the week following Sunday 
must needs be Monday. Yet it is not difficult. 
It is practically explained in my ' Notes to 
Chaucer,' vol. iii. p. 197; vol. v. p. 86 ; but some 
may like to see it very briefly stated. 

The earth being taken as the centre of the planet- 
ary system, the planets are to be arranged in the 
order of the lengths of their orbits. The nearest 
planet (with the shortest orbit) is the Moon ; and 
then come Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, 
Saturn. This order was reversed by the astrologers, 
giving the order following : Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, 
Sun, Venus, Mercury, MOOD. 

If we now divide Sunday into twenty-four 
planetary hours, and assign the first of these to the 
Sun, the second to Venus (next in rotation), the 
third to Mercury, the fourth to the Moon, the fifth 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.x.AtJo.i5,'9<j. 

to Saturn (beginning again), and so on, then the 
eighth will again fall to the Sun, and BO will the 
fifteenth and the twenty-second. Consequently 
the twenty-third (like the second) belongs to Venus, 
and the twenty-fourth to Mercury, which com- 
pletes the day. Hence the twenty-fifth hour, 
being the first hour of the new day, falls to the 
Moon. And so throughout. 

It is easily seen that, in order to obtain the 
successive ruling planets of the first hour of each 
day, we must pitch upon every third planet in the 
series by skipping two. Hence the order is : Sun, 
Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn ; 
or, in English terminology : Sun, Moon, Tlw, 
Woden, Thunor (Thur), Frige, Sseter. 


these peculiar manifestations of student enthusiasm 
have been reduced to type in ' Outremer,' by M. 
Paul Bourget, who considers that the cries " ex- 
press a singularly untamed joy of living." 

11 Sere, for example, is the ' cheer ' of the University 
of Illinois, ' Rah-hoo-rab, Zip-boom-ah ! Hip-zoo, rah 
Zoo, Jimmy, blow your bazoo. Ip-sidi-iki, U. of I. 
Champaign ! ' and that of the University of Indiana, 
' Gloriana, Frangipana, Indiana ! Kazoo, Kazan 1 Kazoo, 
Kazan ! Hoop Lah ! Hoop Lah 1 State University, 
Rah ! Rah ! Rah ! ' and that of Denver, ' U, U, U, of 
D, Den-ver, Ver-si-tee ! Kai Gar Wahoo Zip boom D. 
U. ! ' The University of North Dakota follows, with her 
cry, ' Odz-dzo-dzi ! Ri, ri, ri ! Hy-ah ! Hy-ah 1 North 
Dakota ! ' "-P. 304. 

The Yorkshire Evening Post of 8 July gives 
further information. 

" One who was at Henley yesterday described the Yale 
cry. That cry is more complicated than the 'Cornell I 
yell, I yell Cornell ' of last year. It is in part a corrup- 
tion of the frog chorus in the ' Frogs ' of Aristophanes. 
Mr. Treadway assured me (says a correspondent of the 
Manchester Guardian) it was not to be spelt. I write it 
phonetically ' Brakekeax Koax Koax, Brakekeax Koax 
Koax, Hulla Baloo ra ra ra Yale ! ' " 

Let us hope nobody has been misleading M. 
Paul Bourget. ST. SWITHIN. 

I append a letter of the last century from a boy 
to his sister. I should much like to have an 
account of the dipt. Addison mentioned in it, 
with the date of his funeral. This to establish the 
year in which the letter was written, which bears 
only the date of 23 January. Could a Glasgow 
antiquary furnish the fact, together with a tran- 
script of the inscription on the captain's tombstone, 
if now legible ? The boy was born in 1770, matri- 
culated at St. Andrews University in 1787, and 
died in 1788: 

MY DEAR JEANIE, What is the reason you never write 
me, is it because I could not answer in French ? I sup- 
pose by this time you talk with my Father in French. 
I shall try to give you an exact ace* of the funeral of a 
fine young fellow a Captain Addison of the 56 th Reg 1 as 
I can. He waa a Captain of Grenadiers. My Father 

can describe the Streets to you so to mention those thro* 
which they proceeded is Sufficient for me. 

I 8t Went the next officer of Grendadiers, with his Cap 
all dressed in White, which had a beautiful Contrast 
with the black turban he carried his Mueket with the 
mouth of it towards the ground below his Arm. It had 
a tine White Scarf hung over his Shoulders and tied with 
black Crape. Next the Grenadier Company ten men 
abreast, and there was just four tens at about 6 yards 
distance from one another. These carried their Muskets 
all in the Same way as the officer. Then came an officer 
of light Infantry dress'd in the Same way with the 
former. He was followed by the band of Music with 
their Instruments hung with Crape and playing mourn- 
fully. Then two drums covered with black, now and 
then giving a most dismal sound. Next came the Eng- 
lish Clergyman with his Clerk, both having in their hands 
the book open. They had on black gowna with White 
Scarfs, Then came the Corps carried on the heads of 
some of the soldiers, with four of the friends of the 
deceased as Pall bearers with White Scarfs. The Sword 
and Bayonet of the officer tied across the Corps with 
White Ribbons, The whole officers of the Reg 6 were 
next in order, and then the rest of the Reg 1 without 
arms. They proceeded from the head of the Stock wall [7] 
thro* the Thron gate and high Street up to the high 
Church within which he was interred. I saw the Pro- 
cession from my Window, then went to the Church 
Yard. None were allowed to get within the Church but 
the officers. The Grenadier Company drew up and fired 
three rounds after the Corps was into the Church. I got 
myself placed just by their backs. Captain Addison bad 
been about a twelve month married. 

I met with Cap' Ker from Edin r on the Street lately, 
he very kindly invited me to Sup with him at the 
Saracen's head, which I did, and there met a M' Cricli- 
ton formerly of the 43 d now of the 67 th . He and Cap* 
Ker kept house with my Uncle for a long time when 
they were Prisoners. 

It delighted me vastly to see the esteem and regard 
which both Cap 1 Ker seem'd to have for my Uncle. M r 
Ker beg'd his compliments to all at Swinton and Whit- 
some. I have not time to add any more as I am in a 
hurry to get ready for the Carrier. Write soon and let 
me have all yours news. 

I am, my D r Jeanie, your affect Brother, 


Glasgow, Jan? 23 d . 

For Miss Jean Kennedy Cupples, the Rev d M r George 
Cupples, at Swinton, near Dune, to the care of Gabriel 
Watson, to be delivered to Tho" Boston, Dunse, Carrier, 
on Thursday, 


Boston, New England. 

DROMORE (1729-1811). He was born at Bridg- 
nortb, Salop, in 1729, and was the son of Arthur 
Low Percy, or as it is often spelt Piercy, a grocer 
in that town, where a house in the Cartway is 
still pointed out as the place of his birth. He had 
at least two brothers, perhaps more, and the ques- 
tion is raised as to whether there were descendants 
of them, either male or female. Thomas Percy, 
called in the ' Admission Register of Merchant 
Taylors' School,' by 0. J. Robinson, "son of 
Anthony Percy, of Southwark, Esquire," a nephew 
of the bishop, was elected to St. John's College, 
Oxford, in 1786, B.G.L. 1792, D.C.L. 1797, Vicar 

8*8. X. A oo. 15/96.] 



of Grays Thurrock, Essex, editor of the fourth 
edition of the ' Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 
died unmarried, at the age of forty, in 1808, at 
Ecton Hall, Northamptonshire,tbe seat of his cousin 
Samuel Isted, Esq., and was buried at Ecton 
His cousin Henry Percy, the only son of thi 
bishop, predeceased him many years, having dice 
at Marseilles in 1783, at the age of twenty, after 
wintering at Madeira. He had been admitted 
into college at Westminster in 1777, at the age o 
fourteen. There is no doubt as to his being 
the only son, yet the ' Dictionary of Nationa 
Biography,' in a memoir of the bishop, erroneously 
assigns to Percy another son, who is said to have 
died at Dromore. 

It would appear that Bishop Percy had certainly 
a second brother named Arthur, for in the Free- 
mans' Roll of the Borough of Bridgnorth it is stated 
that Arthur Piercy (sic), of Birmingham, was, in 
1755, admitted a burgess. The bishop, shortly 
after his settlement at Dromore in 4783, alludes to 
him as " having become a bankrupt, and has in 
volved me in losses occasioned by my becoming 
security for him ; and is moreover with his family 
to be maintained by me into the bargain "(Nichols's 
' IH. of Literature/ vi. p. 578). The question arises, 
Were any members of this family males, and did 
they leave male issue ? 

Two daughters survived the bishop as coheirs, 
named Barbara and Elizabeth, the elder of whom 
married Samuel Isted, Esq., of Ecton House, co. 
Northampton, and died in 183-, leaving an only 
son, the late Ambrose Isted, Esq., who died issue- 
less some years ago. The younger daughter Eliza- 
beth married Archdeacon the Hon. Pierce Meade, 
by whom she had several sons and one daughter, 
and died in 1823. Her only surviving son, Major 
Edward Richard Meade, born in 1805, left no 
male issue, but had three daughters who survived, 
Mary Frances, Constance Isabel, and Helen 
Adelaide (see Burke's * Peerage,' under " Clan- 
william "). A daughter of the archdeacon, Theo- 
dosia Barbara Meade, is said, on the same autho- 
rity, to have married the Rev. John Whalley, of 
Ecton, co. Northampton, and to have had issue. 
Are any of this issue or their descendants sur- 

It would appear from what has been said that 
most probably the daughters of Major Meade are 
the representatives in the female line of Bishop 
Percy. Meade mentioned that he could just 
remember his grandfather, the good bishop, feeding 
his swans in the garden at Dromore. 


RICITARD TOPCLIFFE, Srr. He was the eldest 
son of Robert Topcliffe, of Somerby, Lincolnshire, 
according to 'Athenae Cantabr.,' ii. 386, but the 
Messrs. Cooper were unable to ascertain the date of 
his death. As his life will soon have to be rewritten 
for the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' it seems worth mention- 

ing that letters of administration of the estate of 
one Richard Topcliffe, of Lincolnshire, were taken 
out in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in 
July, 1615. A reference to the act would give 
the name of the parish in Lincolnshire where this 
Richard Topcliffe died. His identity with the 
spy might thus be established. 


Daily Mercury for 4 May records : 

"Sunday being the first May Sabbath, many young 
folk went to Madron Well, where they prayed or sought 
information (by the dropping of pins into the Saint's 
baptistery) as to the future, as their hearts inclined." 

Madron is a mile and a half from Penzance. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

PRINTER. George Baxter, second son of Mr. 
John Baxter (ob. 1858), printer, of Lewes, Sussex, 
settled in London about the year 1825, and was 
in much repute as an artist. He was for many 
years a frequent contributor to the Royal Academy 
exhibitions. Letters Patent were granted 23 Oct., 
1835, to George Baxter, of Charterhouse Square, 
London, engraver, for his invention of " Improve- 
ments in producing coloured steel-plate, copper- 
plate, and other impressions," and a further grant 
issued 30 Aug., 1849, to the said George Baxter, 
then of Northampton Square, Clerkenwell, en- 
graver and printer, of an extension for the term 
of five years of the aforenamed Letters Patent of 
1835. Patents bearing date 9 June, 1857, and 
14 Oct., 1858, respectively, were also received by 
Mr. Baxter for his inventions of printing in colours 
and colouring photographic pictures. Among some 
of his works may be mentioned his miniatures of 
Her Majesty the Queen and the Prince Consort, 
and a copy of Rubens's ' Descent from the Cross,' 
rom the original picture at Antwerp. He was 
awarded the Austrian gold medal for his ( Opening 
f the First Parliament of Queen Victoria ' and 
the ' Queen's Coronation.' His best original pro- 
duction, a miniature drawing of the baptism of 
he Prince of Wales, furnishes excellent likenesses 
if the royal family and the distinguished per- 
onages present at the ceremony. Though Baxter's 
)rints number altogether only about four hundred, 
so many variations are noted in each that a com- 
lete collection, assuming one could be made, 
would embrace many thousands of specimens. 
tf r. Baxter married Mary, eldest daughter of Robert 
Harrild, Esq., of Round Hill, Forest Hill, Kent, 
y whom he left issue one son and two daughters 
Gent. Mag., February, 1867, New Series, vol. iii. 
>. 263). 

An inscription on the stone covering the family 
rave of George and Mary Baxter, in the church- 
ard of Christ Church, Perry Vale, Forest Hill, 



. X. And. 15, '96. 

records that the said George Baxter "was gifted 
as an Artist with the highest qualities of artistic 
taste, and was the sole Inventor and Patentee of 
Oil Color Picture Printing." He died at the 
Retreat, Sydenham, 11 Jan,, 1867, in his sixty- 
third year. 

Other inscriptions on the same stone com- 
memorate his wife, Mary Baxter, died 29 Dec., 
1871, aged sixty *five years, and William Oliver, 
son-in-law of George and Mary Baxter, who died 
at Rotherfield, Sussex, 6 Jan., 1875, aged fifty - 
three years. DANIBL HIPWELL. 

LETTER OF LOCKE. (See 8 tn S. ix. 381.) It 
may interest readers of ME. W. 0. K. WILDE'S 
communication descriptive of the letter from John 
Locke, recently in the possession of Lady Wilde, 
to learn that it was purchased at Sotheby's, by 
Messrs* Pearson, for 24 J. 10s. Letters from Locke 
are far from common, and command, as is shown, 
high prices. H. T. 

'New English Dictionary' seems to doubt the truth 
of Archbishop Trench's assertion that " chaffer " is 
used in this sense at all. Mrs. Browning is not 
much of an authority, certainly, but she affords an 
example : 

And yet we do not take 
The chaffering swallow for the holy lark. 

Aurora Leigh,' First Book. 


"S?URRmGs"=-THE BANNS.- This is all that 
Halliwell says about "spurrings" as equivalent for 
the banns of marriage ; and ' Phrase and Fable ' 
has nothing whatever about the common and ex- 
pressive word "spurrings," which is used more 
frequently for banns than is the word " askings." 
When a couple has come to the point, " this is the 
first time of asking/' their friends spread the news 

by saying to others " has got his first 

spurring"; but never is this said of the woman. 
It is the man who is thus " spurred " to the final 
scene of a courtship the wedding. This is written 
as regards this portion of the Midlands. 



BURNS, HIS DAT. Not very long ago, being 
in London, my breakfast-table correspondence 
called me unexpectedly to Edinburgh. Arrived in 
the evening, later on I left my hotel for a walk to 
the General Post Office, and was surprised to find 
almost every other man and woman I met in the 
street (it was between 11 P.M. and midnight) in 
a state of intoxication. Many of the women were 
trying to dance on the sidewalks. As the season 
was not a bank holiday, I thought some local 
and popular election must have taken place ; and 
on going back to the coffee-room of the " Waver* 

ley " inquired the reason for the unusual out-door 
excitement. " It's Buna'a Day ! " replied a portly 
Scot, in a tone and with a look of some curiosity. 
" And," continued I (full of my own concerns, and 
not for one moment thinking of the poet), " who 
is Buns ? " The effect of this innocent remark 
upon the company I shall not readily forget, nor, 
indeed, the emphatic manner in which my in- 
formant said, ruefully, " Aweel, only to think of 
Robbie Buns and his day being ignored in his own 
city ! " HARRY HEMS. 


PARISH COUNCILS. The doings of parish 
councils have attracted some notice. Here is a 
specimen, taken from the window of the village 
cobbler, who is also postmaster and parish clerk, 
which might almost pass, so far as its orthography 
goes, for a piece of Chaucerian English i 

W Parish Council. 

Statement of Expenditure on the Foreshoar at S..,.,. 

Four New Seaten 2 10 

To leveling Road 1 16 9 

To Horses Hire 1 68 

5 13 5 

S , June 26tb, 1898. 

The foreshore at S Beach would have been 

commonplace, but " Foreshoar n with a capital and 
beach with a small initial seems to turn the phrase 
into an example of old-fashioned redundancy. The 
other features of the document are rudimentary in 
comparison. ARTHUR MAYALL. 


THE QUEEN'S REIGN. When Lord Braye 
made his recent motion in the House of Lords for 
a public holiday to mark the day on which Her 
Majesty will have out-reigned every one of her 
predecessors on the English throne, he asked that 
23 September should be so observed. Now surely 
this was a mistake. King George III. began bis 
reign 25 October, 1760, he died 29 January, 1820, 
having reigned fifty-nine years, three months, and 
four days. Her Majesty ascended the throne 
20 June, 1837. Consequently on the 25th of 
next month she will have reigned fifty-nine years, 
three months, and five days, i.e., one day more 
than her grandfather, but not before. 0. H. 

" LAZE AND FLANE." Mr. Du Maurier ('Trilby,' 
1895, p. 429) tells us how the redoubtable Taffy 
and his wife finished their holiday in Paris by 
" going to laze andflanc about the boulevards and 
buy things, and lunch anywhere, sur le pouce." 
Perhaps the aptness of the words expressive of 
idle lounging may secure them a welcome and 
some measure of acceptance in popular language. 



8* S, X, AUG. 15, '96,] 




We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
aames and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to thorn direct. 

'Glossary of Cheshire Words' (1877) this phrase 
occurs in the sense of a warming-pan, " mentioned 
in Margaret Holforde's will, sixteenth century." 
should much like to know in what book this will 
may be found, in order that I may give the exact 


Clarendon Press, Oxford, 

MRS. PENOBSCOT. At the sale of the late Sir 
George Scharf's library I bought his copy of Mr. 
Ohaloner W. Chute's 'History of the Vyne in 
Hampshire,' a book which was reviewed in 
'N. & Q.,' 7 tb S. v, 179, and which seems sub- 
sequently to have become rema'rkably scarce. 
Opposite p. 160 is inserted a photograph of a pic- 
ture representing 

"a lady in a richly ornamented costume of the later 
years of Queen Elizabeth, entitled, Mrs. Penobscot, a 
name not to be traced in England," 

Sir G. Scharf seems to have made some in- 
quiries on the subject of this picture, for a letter 
from the late Mr. Chute is also inserted in the 
book, in which he thanks Sir George for his 
" letter about the portrait said to be Mrs. Penob- 
gcot," and adds : 

" The picture is called by that name in the Topo- 
grapher,' vol. i. (tit. ' The Vyne '), which was published 
about 1790. The pictures of Mrs. Penobscot and the 
Duchess of Richmond are similar in size and in the same 
patterned frames. The corruption into ' Penobscot ' 
would be rather viva voce than from writing, and 
'Queen of Scots ' so unds very like 'Penobecot.' Some 
one might have thought the portrait like Mary Queen 
of Scots, and corruption into Penobscot might have fol- 

Corruptions of well-known names by house- 
keepers and other ignorant ciceroni do occasion- 
ally occur, as in the case of the old lady who 
described a picture in her master's gallery as 
"Paul very uneasy," but what he was uneasy 
about she didn't quite know. A servant's cor- 
ruption would, however, have hardly been em- 
balmed in the ' Topographer,' and accepted by the 
owner of the picture as a correct title. I have 
aeveral of Sir G. Scharf's notes and extracts, but 
can find in them no reference to this portrait. 
Perhaps ' N. & Q.' may be able to assist in 
identifying the subject of the picture. 


Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

reader oblige me with information about the above- 
named, who |s describe d in 1728 ^ " son of Mrs, 

De la Force, Hampstead, Middlesex," and who 
was probably aged about fourteen years at that 
date? I have noted that Charles Killigrew, of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, and Jemima Boken- 
ham had licence to marry 19 May, 1687 (Faculty 
Office, 1687), and that Charles Killigrew, of 
Somerset House, and Jemima, his wife, bad a son 
Guilford Killigrew, a Lieutenant of Dragoons, who 
died without issue 1751. As Charles, of Somerset 
House, died in 1723 or 1724, it is possible that 
his widow may have remarried before 1728, and 
Thomas Guilford and Guilford may be one and the 
same. A. T. M. 

paragraph which has gone the round of the press 
states that Elizabeth Barrett Browning was born 
at Ooxhoe Hall, Durham, and that this year 
is the ninetieth anniversary of her birth, accord- 
ing to which she was born in 1806. In the 
'Dictionary of National Biography' it is stated 
that she was born at Burn HalJ, Durham, 6 March, 
1809. Which of these statements is correct ? 

R. D. 

fin hig 'Critical Kit-Rats,' Mr. Gosse takes it for 
granted that 6 March, 1806, is correct; but adds, " The 
crux seems still unsettled."] 

known instances of a milkmaid being depicted 
on the proper side of a cow ? The milker ought 
to sit with her right hand towards the cow's head, 
but in pictures she is invariably shown (so far as 
my observation goes) on the other, that is to say, 
on the wrong side. C. C. B. 

CHESTER. There are two houses in Watergate 
Street, Chester, which formerly were the residence 
or palace of Dr. George Lloyd, Bishop of Chester, 
who died in 1615. They are well known from 
their being profusely decorated with carved panel 
work, consisting of elaborately chiselled coats of 
arms and illustrations of Bible texts. Bishop 
Lloyd has numerous descendants in America, and 
many of them would be glad to have some resi- 
dent of Chester or its vicinity, who has the neces- 
sary knowledge of heraldry, publish in 'N. & Q.' 
a correct heraldic description of the various 
arms depicted by these carvings, together with 
such notes as to the families to which they belong, 
and the connexion of the bishop therewith, as he 
may be able to furnish without spending too much 
time upon it. A correct heraldic description is 
the principal thing desired. Descriptions of these 
carvings have been published in Hemmingway's 
'Chester,' vol. ii. p. 4, and more recently in 
Crickmore's 'Old Cheater,' p. 11 ; but these are 
of no use to the genealogist, not being in heraldic 
language. Bishop Lloyd traced the descent from 
the Princes of Wales and Britain through the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t*s.x.Au 9 .i6.i. 

house of Tudor and Eduyved Vychan. See the 
pedigree in Burke's 'Royal Families of England,' 
&c., vol. i. p. xxxiv. E. A. H. 

THE LOLLARDS OP KYLE. In a well-known 
passage of his ' History of the Reformation,' i. p. 7, 
of Laing's edition, Knox mentions the prosecu- 
tion of the Lollards of Kyle by Robert Blackader, 
Archbishop of Glasgow, before James IV. and his 
Great Council in the year 1494, and gives as his 
authority the register of Glasgow, probably 
meaning the books of the official, not now known 
to be extant. Knox says their number was 
thirty, "some in Kyle Stewart, some in King's 
Kyle, and some in Cunningham "; amongst whom 
he names George Campbell of Cessnock, Adam 
Reid of Barskymming, John Campbell of New- 
mills, Andrew Shaw of Polkemmock, Helen 
Chalmers, Lady Polkelly, Marian Chalmers, and 
Lady Stair. Can any of your readers inform me 
of any authority, contemporary or nearly con- 
temporary to 1494, for the origin or existence 
of these Lollards of Kyle ; of any MSS. or 
traditions in the families of descendants of the 
persons named relating to the Lollards of Kyle ? 
Can any of your readers supply any of the 
missing links in the following genealogy ? 

Murdoch Nisbet, supposed to be one of the 
Lollards of Kyle, who went abroad to escape per 
sedition before 1500, but afterwards returned, and 
is believed to have died in Ayrshire, probably in 
the parish of Loudoun, ancestor of 

James Nisbet, of Hardhill, in the parish of 
Loudoun, who probably died about 1650. His son 
John Nisbet, of Hardhill, the well-known 
Covenanter. Born 1627. Executed at the Grass- 
market, 4 December, 1685. His life is given in 
Howie's 'Soots Worthies' and in Dict. Nat. 
Biog.' His son 

James Nisbet, of Hardhill, a Covenanter, and 
afterwards sergeant in the Cameronian Regiment, 
Born 1667. Survived until 1724. His life, written 
by himself, was published in Edinburgh, in 1827 
by William Oliphant, under the title 'Private Lif< 
of the Persecuted ; or, Memoirs of the First 
Years of James Nisbet, one of the Scottish 

M. J. G. MACKAY, Sheriff of Fife. 

DESPENCER PEDIGREE. Who was the mothe 
of Edward, fifth Lord Despencer ? The peerage 
say he was son of Edward Despencer by Anne 
daughter of Henry, Lord Ferrers of Groby ; bu 
this cannot be correct. Henry, Lord Ferrers o 
Groby (b. 1303, d. 1343), married Isabel, the post 
humous daughter of Theobald, Lord Verdon, b 
Elizabeth, widow of John de Burgh, Earl o 
Ulster. Theobald Verdon died in 1316, which 
therefore, is the earliest possible date of Isabel' 
birth. She married Henry, Lord Ferrers, abou 
1331 ; her daughter Anne, even if born in tha 

ear (1331), would have been only five years old 
rhen Edward Despencer, the fifth lord and her 
lleged son, was born (1336), which, as Euclid 
emarks, " is absurd." Though the peerages 
tate that Edward Despencer, father of Edward, 
he fifth lord, married Anne, daughter of Henry, 
iord Ferrers, no such daughter is attributed to 
im in the account of the Ferrers peerage. 


monastic houses held the larger portion of their 
ands by the system of tenure known as tenure 
n frankalmoigne. The nature of their office 
absolved them from all secular burdens bar the 
rinoda necessitous. Can any reader inform me 
whether the manors of the Bishop of London were 
o held? One of the three burdens that of 
ceeping bridges in repair the bishop certainly 
had to bear. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

any of your readers give me information relative 
;o the above families ? Richard Seymour married 
Mary Stretohley at Plympton St. Mary, Devon, 
in 1626, but it does not follow that the 
same Richard was son of Sir Edward Seymour, 
first baronet, and brother of the second Sir 
Edward, who is said to have expended upwards 
of 20,OOOZ. on Berry Pomeroy Castle, and who 
married Dorothy, daughter of Sir Henry Kille- 
grew. The family of Stretchley, or Stretohleigb, 
resided at Ermington, in the same county, and in 
the parish church there is a tomb and brass to 
their memory. They built the north chancel aisle, 
as it bears their name. I find the name of 
Stretchley in Ottery St. Mary, temp. James I., 
and in London, a citizen and salter, 1663, and in 
Exeter, 1706, a Richard Stretchley, a vintner. 
What I desire to have proof of is whether the 
above Richard Seymour, who married Mary 
Stretchley in 1626, is the son of the first baronet. 


88, Eosendale Road, Dulwicb, S.E. 


phrase in a visitation discourse by Bishop Sprat, 
of Rochester, delivered in 1695, and published in 
1696. Was he the inventor of it ? 

Portland, Oregon. 

"BBVELLER'S BOY." A witness at a recent 
inquest described himself as "a beveller's boy." 
He was working with his father on a barge on 
the Thames. What is " a beveller " ? 

Can any one inform me of the title and pub- 
lisher of a dictionary of trade terms ? I heard of 
such a book some years ago. W. D. PARISH. 

[Refer to Admiral Smyth's 'Sailor's Word-Book,' 
which suggests the explanation. See also ' N. E. D.'] 

8"'S. X, Auo. 15, '96.] 



Where can I find historical information and 
documents on the miraculous statues, crosses, and 
reliquaries (chiefly the vial at Hales and the cross 
at Boxley), which were destroyed in England 
during the reign of Henry VIII.? 


22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. 

COINAGE. I shall be glad if any numismatist 
will inform me whether shillings bearing Her 
Majesty's head were coined in 1837, and if 
hillings were issued in 1847. Also date of first 
florin, and whether they have been coined con- 
tinuously since that time, or what years have been 
passed over. J. T. 


Having a portrait by Opie of the above, who 
was with Lord Wellington during the Peninsular 
War, also a number of letters, private and official, 
from headquarters, I should be glad to know who 
are his present representatives. W. B. M. 

Yewtree Farm, Boughton Aluph. 

[See 8"> S. ix, 207.] 

RECORDS. I should feel grateful for reference 
to any trustworthy source naming records that 
link our old families of the Norman period with 
their foreign originals. A writer (MR. A. 8. 
ELLIS) gave an account of this kind of the Glouces- 
tershire Domesday tenants some twenty years ago, 
but I have been unable to trace him to inquire for 
his sources, and I have been unable to find in 
other and subsequent writers anything of the 
absolute kind I seek embracing other counties. 


[MR. A, S. ELLIS is still, happily, a contributor to our 

SIR ROBERT VINER. Can you say during 
what years in the seventeenth century Sir Robert 
Viner was Lord Mayor of London ? 

F. 0. H. 

" TUSSURIA." Arnauld Oihenart, in a note on 
the two hundred and eighth of his * Basque Pro- 
verbs ' (p. 33 in the Bordeaux edition of 1847), 
says, " They used to call the devil Tussuria in old 
Basque, and this word is still used in Soule." His 
book appeared in 1657 at Paris. Is any informa- 
tion about the name Tussuria to be found in any 
book on demonology ? Tus might be from deuce 
*=diabolus. Suna = the white. 


PYE-HOUSE. Remains still exist at Harrow-on- 
the-Hill of an old house which a century ago was 
known as the pye-house. Can any of your readers 
tell me where else such a name is found, and 
what is there its origin, if known ? 



(8 th S. ix. 289, 355, 497 ; x. 64.) 

I should like heartily to emphasize the queries 
of J. F. (8* h S, ix. 497) a propos of the French 
prisoners of war in England Where should one 
apply for registered particulars concerning them, 
their names, ages, and duration of imprisonment ? 
But I would by no means limit the investigation, 
as he does, to the prisoners made during the war 
with Buonaparte, there being many interesting 
references to be gleaned in various quarters con- 
cerning captives taken in earlier struggles and 
interned in this country. 

In connexion, for instance, with my own town 
of Launceston, I find that in 1756 two French 
prisoners of war on parole in that town deserted 
from the place, and a reward of two guineas 
was offered for their apprehension, they being 
thus described in an advertisement in the con- 
temporary Western Flying Post; or, Sherbome 
and Yeovil Mercury, and General Advertiser : 

" One, Mons. Barbier, a short Man, somewhat pock- 
marked and haa a very dejected look, and wore a snuff- 
coloured coat the other, Mona. Beth, a middle-sized 
man, very strong set, wore his own hair, and a blue 
Coat. The former speaks no English, but the latter, 
very well. They were both last seen near Exeter, riding 
to that City." 

Three years later record is to be found of another 
French prisoner on parole at Launceston, for there 
are among the British Museum Additional MSS. 
(28,233, S. 112, 126) letters from a D. Tonkin, of 
Plymouth, concerning such a captive. The first, 
dated 4 May, 1759, informs "John Rowe, Esq., 
at the Bull and Gate, Holbourne," London, in 
reply to a question, that 

"the Chevr. de Fire late officer of the Mignone ii 
on parole at Launceston in Cornwall. He received a 
slight wound in the leg in the engagement, but is now 
quite cured. You may depend Sir be shall be used with 
all the civilities imaginable, both in regard to his family 
and to your recommendation." 

On 15 May Tonkin wrote to " J. Caryll, Esq., 
at Ladyholt, in Sussex": 

" I have received the favour of yours of the 9th Inst. 
and have the pleasure to acquaint you that Mons. Fire 
embark'd from this port [Plymouth] for France the 
10th Inst. and as we have had fine weather ever since 

I make no doubt but that he is safe arrived You may 

depend Sir, if he had not been gone I would have 
advanced him what money he wanted. He had all the 
civilities imaginable shewn him here and seem'd to have 
money at will." 

Fire* would thus appear to have been a French 
officer of some consequence, and particulars regard- 
ing him would be of interest. 

In 1762 Sir Richard Adams, a Baron of the 
Exchequer, wrote on 20 March from Launceston, 
where he was taking the Lent Assize, to th.e $arj 



[8 8.X. AUG. 15, '96. 

of Bute, requesting the Prime Minister to lay 
before the King the case of Pierre Michel, a 
prisoner of war, confined at Topsham, Devonshire, 
who had been condemned before him at Exeter 
for the murder of one of his fellow prisoners. The 
judge had respited Michel until 16 April, not, as 
he explained to Bute, because of any doubt as to 
his guilt, but that there might be sufficient time 
to lay the case before the King, the criminal being 
one of his prisoners of war. Bute replied on 
2 April, stating that be had submitted the matter 
to George III., who approved of the judge's caution 
in respiting the prisoner until the royal pleasure 
should be made known. It appeared on con- 
sideration, however, that there was no reason to 
be dissatisfied with the verdict ; and that, as the 
murder was committed deliberately upon an un- 
armed man, without the least circumstance to 
lessen the guilt, the sentence was to be carried 
out which doubtless it was. 

Passing on to the period of the Napoleonic 
wars, it is to be found that Pierre de Bomfort, 
also known as Pierre la Koche, a French prisoner 
of war, was condemned at Launceston for forgery, 
and hanged at Bodmin on 13 April, 1812. He 
gave occasion for a poem by Tobias Martin, " De 
Bomfort's Soliloquy. Supposed to be spoken on 
the day previous to his execution "; and the fol- 
lowing extract concerning him is from the Bodmin 
Prison Begister : 

"No. 1,465, 25 Mar. 1812. Pierre Frangoia Xavier 
La Roche a French prisoner. For having forged and 
made a two note purporting to be of the Bank of Eng- 
land. Lent Assizes 1812. Death. Executed Monday 
13th Apr. behaved very penitent, was duly attended to 
the last moment by revd. Mr. Lefoss, a catholic priest 
residing at Lanhearne. Five feet seven high, aged 24, 
grey eyes, thin face, slight grown, dark complexion, 
black hair." 

A more pleasing record of the French prisoners 
of war is furnished in a memoir of Mr. William 
Pearse, of Launceston, published in the Wesleyan 
Methodist Magazine for October, 1844. It was 
therein said : 

"The charity that dwelt in Mr. Pearge's heart was 
not to be restricted by country or nation. On man in 
destitution or in distress, however nationally known, it 
poured its blessings. The miseries of horrid war had 
sent many officers, &c., aa prisoners on their parole, to 
Launceston. The more aged of these were of the Church 
of Rome ; the younger part were, generally, the disciples 
of Voltaire. Mr. Pearse deeply sympathized with those 
unhappy captives, and sought their highest good. 
Whether they were men of western or central Europe, 
he procured tracts in their different languages, and gave 
them for their religious instruction : he also relieved the 
necessities of those who were in distress. Many of these 
gentlemen professed to be very thankful for these atten- 
tions, and some attended regularly the public worship 
of Almighty Qod. It deserves notice, that one of these 
prisoners (who, at the general peace, returned to his 
home) at length came back to Launceston, lived in the 
service of the Trustees of the Wesleyan chapel, and has 
found a grave among their dead." 

In connexion with this last episode, I would 
recall an answer given by MR. B. BOBBINS in 
' N. & Q.,' 8 ttt S. v. 34, to a query regarding the 
English use of the word morbleu : 

"I can remember sixty and more yeara ago at 
Launceston the expression being used, if a boy were 
whipped, that he 'sang out "Morbleu"'; and it has 
frequently been employed in iuy hearing since. The 
idea 1 had was that it was a relic of the time when 
French prisoners of war, and especially officers on parole, 
were detained at Launceston, as they were at the 
beginning of the century. The officers were boarded 
with private families in the town ; and 1 recollect well 
that one of the privates continued to live in the place 
even after peace was concluded, and ended his days as 
caretaker of the local Wesleyan chapel." 

I myself have had many a conversation with an 
aged lady, now deceased, who as a girl was taught 
French by an officer on parole who lived at the 
house of her father, a leading trader of Launceston ; 
and it may be that others of your readers have 
had a similar experience in divers parts of the 
country where the French war captives were 
detained, ALFRED F. BOBBINS. 

"BRUCOLAQUES" (8> S. ix. 9, 55, 254). I read 
MR. BOUCHIER'S note with interest, but without 
being at that time able to find any clue to the 
meaning of the word. Quite recently, however, 
in glancing over M. Jules Bois's novel ( La 
Douleur d' Aimer' (P. Ollendorff, Paris, 1896), 
my eye lighted upon the following passage : 

" Insense, dit-il, calui qui peut croire que la mort 
termine 1'abominable destin. Memo au tombeau, on ne 
lui echappe pas. Quelques-uns ont soulev6 la pierre du 
sepulchre, pour continuer leur mission de massacre et de 
viol ; il en est pour qui la paix tumulaire ne fut que le 
commencement d'une guerre nouvelle. Ignorea-tu qu'il 
exiete des brucolaques et dea incubes ? " 

This passage at once led me to infer that the word 
had much the meaning of vampire, and I was con- 
firmed in my inference by the illustrative tale 
which follows, and in which the hero, an old man, 
becomes much more active after his death than he 
had been before. Indeed, his misdeeds ultimately 
lead to his being discovered in his grave in a much 
improved condition, and a stake is run through 
his body as being that of a vampire. This, and 
not brucolaque, is the word then used, and it had 
already more than once occurred in the course of 
the recital. 

Something now led me to suspect that the word 
might be derived from Mod. Greek, and in 
Schmidt's ' Mod. Gr. and Germ. Diet/ (Leipzig, 
1825) I found " BovpKoAa/ocas, der Vampyr."* 
Bov/o/ca (also marked with a t) is also there 
"der Kotb, Schlamm " (dirt, filth, mire), and 
"ich besudele." As for the second 

* The word is marked with a f> which signifies 
(according to the preface) that the word is a neologism, 
and may be either of foreign origin or derived from 
Angient Greek, with some change of meaning. 

S. X. Auo. 18, '98.] 



half of the word, Aa/c/cas, it seems to have to do 
with AaKKos = u der Graben ; die Gruhe " (ditch, 
pit), which is Old as well as Mod. Greek. BovpKa 
is not to be found in 0. Gr., but is given (as also 
/^oupKos) by Ducange in his ' Diet.' (of Middle 
and Low Greek), and so is ftovpKwvtiv (which, 
he says, is "pro povpKOVv"), though with the 
meaning of u in cieno volutare " only. But Du- 
cange does not give the compound word. 

BoupKoAaKK-as may, therefore, perhaps mean 
literally "one who soils or defiles a grave"; but a 
vampire does not break into other persons' graves. 
He breaks out of his own grave, and can be said 
to pollute it only by using it as a lair after in- 
dulging in his bestial orgies. 

Bat how did this Mod. Gr. word (if it is wholly 
Greek) find its way into French ? And if for the 
French it has no other meaning than vampire, 
why do they sometimes use it instead of vampire ; 
and why was the word introduced at all ? And, 
once introduced, why did it not find its way into 
French dictionaries ? At all events, it is neither 
in Littrt> nor in the new dictionary of Hatzfeld, 
Darmeeteter, and Thomas. 

I see that I have said nothing about the 
transposition of the r and the following vowel in 
the French form. If this was taken directly from 
the Greek word, it should have been either 
burcolaque or bourcolaque. 

Since writing the above, I have discovered that 
the Abb6 Eapagnolle, in his learned but very far- 
fetched work 'L'Origine du Francois,' in the 
appendix to vol. i. (Paris, 1886), gives broucha as 
used in B^arn = sorceress, and connects it with a 
Greek word ftpvKa (a Doric form of flpvKrj), which 
he quotes from Hesychius as having the meaning 
of sibyl, or woman consecrated to the worship of 
the gods.* And that this broucha (or broucho) is 
atill so used in Be'arn is confirmed by Mistral, who 
gives broucho or brouxe, and compares the Cat. 
(mm and the Span, ftruja, both of which also 
mean sorceress. Now a Greek word fipvKa is 
evidently more like the bruco of brucolaque than 
the fiovpKa of /JovpKoAaK/cas, for it does away 
with the transposition spoken of in the previous 
paragraph. And the meaning "grave-sorcerer," 
t. . , one who practises his magic arts in a grave, 
which one might, at first sight, be tempted to give 
to the new compound PpvKo\a.KKa<s, would be 
exactly equivalent to vampire. But I am much 
afraid that as, in this case, each part of the com- 
pound word would be a substantive, and the second, 

* The Abbe's eccentric theory is that the peoples 
whom the Romans found in Italy, France, and Spain 
were, like the Greeks, of Pelasgic origin, and that there- 
fore the true basis of Italian, French, and Spanish must 
be sought for in Greek, and not in Latin. He would, 
>nsequently, maintain, no doubt, that the Bear-nose 
broucha does not necessarily come from /3pu*a, although 
the Greeks did settle in the South of France, but that 
it may well be merely concurrent with it. 

meaning grave, would be in the genitive, we should 
have to transpose the order of the two parts, which 
would give us, in French, something like lako- 
bruque instead of brucolaque ! I must, therefore, 
leave the matter undecided. But perhaps some 
one can tell me whether fjpvKa is really to be 
found in Hesychius ; and I should also like to 
know which was first introduced into France 
vampire or brucolaque. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

MR. H. E. MORGAN, whose interesting noteg 
appear at the last reference, has very kindly sent 
me privately from St. Petersburg a great deal of 
additional information with regard to this curious 
subject. The following remarkable story, which is 
probably true, I think is worth reproducing in 
'N. *fe Q./ if the Editor can kindly make room for 
it. MB. MORGAN says that it is from " Chit-Chat 
of Humour, Wit, and Anecdote. With fifty 
original illustrations from designs by J. McLenan. 
Edited by Pierce Pungent," New York, 1847, 
p. 74 : 

" A German paper relates the following curious instance 
of the belief of the peasantry of Hungary, Croatia, Poland, 
and Turkey, in Vampires, who, according to the popular 
superstition, descend into their graves with their eyes 
open, and rise at dead of night to suck the blood of their 
victims, leaving no trace behind except a little spot on 
the neck or throat of their victim. 

" A young and beautiful girl, the daughter of wealthy 
peasants, had numerous suitors, from among whom she 
selected one of her own station of life. The betrothal 
was celebrated by a grand feast given by the bride's 
father. Towards midnight the girl and her mother 
retired to their chamber, leaving the guests at table. 
All at once the two women were heard to shriek dread- 
fully, and the moment after the mother, pale and 
haggard, tottered into the room, carrying her daughter 
senseless in her arms, and crying in a voice of indescrib- 
able agony, ' A vampire ! a vampire ! my daughter ia 
dead ! ' The village doctor happened to be among the 
guests, and, believing that the girl had only fainted, 
administered a cordial, which speedily restored her to 
consciousness. On being questioned, she stated that, 
while undressing, a pale spectre, dressed in a shroud, 
glided in by the window and rushed upon her, biting her 
throat. She added that she recognized him as one 
Keysnewsky, a rejected suitor who died a fortnight since 
[before]. The doctor in vain attempted to persuade her 
[that] she was labouring under some delusion. The 
next day the body of Eeysnewsky was disinterred, and 
twenty guns were fired at its skull, which, being shattered 
to fragments, was, amidst yells and dances, burnt to 
ashes [see the quotation from Larousse, 8"> S. ix. 254]. 
The girl, however, died within the fortnight, persisting 
to the last that she had been bitten by a vampire, though 
she would not suffer the wound to be examined. After 
lier death the doctor took off the bandages from her 
neck and discovered a small wound, which had the 
appearance of having been made by a harness-maker's 
awl poisoned. The doctor then learned that one of 
the poor girl's rejected suitors was a harness-maker of 
an adjacent village, and he did not doubt that it was he 
who stabbed the hapless bride. He gave information to 
:he authorities, but the young man, hearing that he was 
X) be arrested, fled to the mountains, and committed 
suicide by plunging into a cataract. Nothing like an 



[8> S, X. AUG. 15, '96. 

incredulous doctor for converting a spirit into flesh and 

MR. MORGAN has very kindly supplemented his 
notes with a number of the Russian magazine the 
yiva, which he tells me means "Corn-field, 71 
containing, amongst many excellent illustrations, 
an engraving of Max Kahn's picture 'The Vampire,' 
exhibited in the Berlin Art Exhibition, 1895. 
This particular brucolaque, except for a decidedly 
evil expression, particularly about his (or her) 
mouth, is, I think, good-looking rather than other- 
wise. MR. MORGAN says, in his letter to me, that 

" painting attracted much attention It represents a 

young artist stretched on his pallet, while a vampire or 
blood-sucking fiend has cast itself upon him, and gloat- 
ingly claws his brain and heart. This of course is an 
allegory, the vampire, in the present case, being Art, 
which is represented as draining the brain-power and 
life-blood of its too ardent devotees. A striking image." 

If the letterpress of the Niva (which, being in 
Buss, I am unable to read) is as good as the 
illustrations, this magazine is a credit to the land 

Jxoploy, Alresford. 

M.P. for the City ; but " from misfortunes in 
commerce" became bankrupt, resigned his alder- 
manic gown in 1765, and was elected Chamberlain, 
In 1776, having paid all his debts with interest, he 
retired from office, and died the following year. 

The manufacture probably ceased in 1756, when, 
in consequence of Mr. Janssen's bankruptcy, the 
furniture, stock, and utensils in trade, &c., were, 
according to the following advertisement in the 
Daily Advertiser of 7 June, 1756, sold by public 
auction, on the premises, by order of the assignees : 
To be Sold by Auction, By Order of the Assignees, 
this [7 June, 1756] and the following Days, at York- 
Place at Battersea in Surry, The Houshold Furniture 
and entire Stock, of Stephen Theodore Janssen, Esq. ; 
consisting of a great Variety of beautiful enamell'd Pic- 
tures, Snuff-Boxes, Watch-Cases. Bottle Tickets, &c., 
great Variety of blank Enamels of various Sizes, Copper 
Frames for mounting the unfinish'd Enamels, with all 
the Utensils. &c., belonging to the Manufactory; also 
a great Number of Copper- Plates, beautifully engrav'd 
by the best Hands; some hundred Dozens of Stone 
Plates and Dutch Tiles, painted and plain, with many 
other Particulars specified in the Catalogues, which are 
deliver'd at the House, and by T. Humphrys, Uphol- 
sterer, in St. Paul's Church- Yard ; and by Mr. Chesson, 
Upholsterer, in Fenchurch-Street. The Place is most 

At the last reference MR. MORGAN explains the 

^u . \ / %a A f t . I UJ1U XXJill/9 UUIUlIli; UU tW L1JD J.AV7UOG, tVlllVsiA UMIEJ WW> < 

Greek expression XVKOV tow as meaning " to see up at a very gre * t Expence, with every Conveniency 

the wolf, to be struck dumb with terror." He | carrying on the said Manufactory, which, if any Pei 

has omitted to add one important particular. 

According to the vulgar belief, the dumbness was 

caused by tbe woli's having seen you before you 

saw him. Virgil alludes to this in 'Eel,' ix 

11. 53, 54 : 

Vox quoque Moerim 
lam fugit ipsa ; lupi Moerim videre priores. 

In Theocritus, however (xiv. 22), we have : 01 
(frOty^rj ; XVKOV ciScs, where there is no mention 
of priority in seeing. Will MR. JONATHAN 
BOUCHIER pardon me for pointing out that he has 
made four mistakes in his reference to the c Northern 
Farmer'? "Thurnaby" should be "Thornaby/ 
and the line quoted by him should be 

But I stubb'd un oop wi' the lot, an ; ra'aved an' rembled 
vn oot. 


CHELSEA ENAMEL (8 th S. ix. 408, 471). There 
was no such thing as Chelsea enamel, and the 
reference must be to the ware known as Battersea 
enamel, which has the appearance of porcelain, 
and was made chiefly in small articles, such as 
snuff-boxes, watch-cases, bottle tickets, &c. , of 
copper covered with a white enamel, having some 
painted or printed decoration in colour thereon, 
similar to that previously produced at Canton, in 
China. It was manufactured at York Place, 
Battersea, in Surrey, by Stephen Theodore Janssen 
(afterwards a baronet), about the middle of the last 
century. He appears to have been a citizen and 
stationer of London, Sheriff of same 1749, and 



should "think of continuing, they may be treated with 
by the Assignees before the Day of Sale." 

The "Stone Plates" and "Dutch Tiles" men- 
tioned above were probably not made at Battersea, 
but imported by Janssen from Holland. 

W. I. R. V. 

THE WEEPING INFANT (8 th S. ix. 484). To 
the KEV. ED. MARSHALL'S note may be added 
the following passage from Cicero's (?) * Consolatio,' 
cap. ix. : 

Nasci vero, non intelligo, quibus expediat. Nam in 
aerumnas miseriasque ingredientes quid gratum, quid 
hilare aspicimus? qua re potiua non offendimur] quod 
primus ille nascentium infantium vagitus et eiulatua 
satis deolarat." 


I have missed my ' N. & Q.' for several weeks, 
en voyage, and do not know if any one has quoted, 
in reference to this, the beautiful lines from the 
Gulistan of Shaikh Sa'di ': 
On parent knees, a naked new-born child, 
Weeping thou sat'st, while all around thee smiled. 
So live, that sinking in thy last long sleep, 
Calm thou mayst smile, while all around thee weep. 
By whom is this translation, by the way ? I should 
be glad to know. 

Olinda, Brazil. 

A JOKE OF SHERIDAN (8 th S. x. 29, 96). I 
strongly suspect that this is an indifferent version 
of a real "mot" of Sheridan which I have read 

Lord Mayor 1754, Alderman of Bread Street, and in some life or notice of Sheridan's, though I 




cannot give the reference for which my excuse i 
that I am in my ninety-second year and canno 
hunt up indexes. Sheridan, in answering a mem 
ber of the house, said, "The hon. member i 
indebted to his imagination for his facts and t 
his memory for his wit." A sheet of paper wa 
found in his rooms on which he had written thi 
idea in seven or eight ways before he fixed on tha 
which was most incisive. 


(8 th S. ix. 426). The name "Little London "is 
I fancy, given to small, insignificant places in irony 
There is an "odd place " so called in the parish o 
Hickling, Nottinghamshire, and I have heard o 
others. C. 0. B. 

There is the parish of "Little London" with 
Brill in Bucks, and hamlets of that name in the 
parishes of Berden, near Walden, Essex ; also 
Findingham and Freshwell, Essex ; Willenhall 
Staffordshire ; Scarsdale, Derbyshire ; and Sky 
rack, Yorks. " Scotland " is a hamlet of the parish 
of Jngoldsby, Lincolnshire. " New England " is a 
hamlet of Dogsthorpe, Northampton. 


It is an accepted tradition that Queen Elizabeth 
bestowed the title of "Little London" upon the 
town of Winchelsea ; and, lest Eye should be 
jealous, called that place "Rye Royal." 



In Chiohester there is a street known as the 
11 Little London." E. E. STREET. 


There is a " Little London " in Leeds. 

H. T. 

"As PLAIN AS A PIKE-STAFF" (8 th S. ix. 346). 
It was a droll idea to suggest that this phrase was 
due to a writer in 1691. Its first appearance in 
literature was a century and a half earlier, so far 
as I know. It occurs in Becon's writings, " plaine 
as a pack-staffe" (invariably the early form), 
Parker Society, p. 276, circa 1540. See Oliphant's 
New English.' The expression, is used in Hall's 
' Satires,' " packstaffe plaine," iii. prol. 1598 ; 
Marston, 'Scourge of Villainy/ II. v. 1598; 
Middleton, ' Family of Love,' V. iii. 1607 ; 
Dekker, 'Witch of Edmonton,' II. i. 1621; 
MabbcB, Aleman's Guzman de Alfarache,' i. 234 
(ed. 1634), 1621; 'Merry Drollery,' Ebsworth 
reprint, p. 228, 1661 ; "as plain as a pike staff 
without guilding," Cotton, 'Virgil Travestie,' 1664. 
This appears to be nearly the first pike instance ; 
but Dry den knew better, and has "as plain as a 
packataff," Amphitryon,' III. i., 1690. These are 
all ante 1691. The packstaff was that on which 
the pedlar carried his pack. 


Your correspondent says, "It seems almost un- 
accountable that so little notice has been taken of 
the first stages in the development of these useful 
articles." It seems almost unaccountable that such 
a sentence as the above should be written 
nowadays, when the history of the lucifer match 
is almost as well known as a City omnibus. In 
vol. iv. of this series, p. 70, the more important 
steps of this invention are enumerated, not for- 
getting Heurtner's " Euperion," as, spelt in this 
way, it formed part of the mural literature of 
London, the incentive to its use being " to save 
your knuckles, time, and trouble." 


About the early history of lucifer matches there 
is much information, pleasantly told, in Dr. 
0. Meynott Tidy's little book ' The Story of a 



I have four of these early matches, which were 
found a few years ago in the fireplace cupboard 
of one of the oldest cottages in Worksop. They 
are each four inches and three-quarters long, a 
little over a quarter of an inch wide rough cut 
splinters of pine wood, each end slightly tapered, 
and both ends brimstone dipped. 



486 ; x. 53, 118). The fact of Mrs. Sharp, of Close 
Hall, Barnstaple, having defrayed the expense of 
this monument suggests the note that at St. 
Thomas's Church, Exeter (where General Gordon's 
grandparents lie interred), there is a cenotaph to 
jrrace Darling's memory. It stands against the 
outer wall on the north side. HARRY HEMS. 

LORD JOHN RUSSELL (8 tb S. ix. 506 ; x. 84). 
[n the ' Keepsake ' of 1832 is a short set of verses 
>y Lord John Russell ; the subject being ' London 
n September, not 1831.' D. R. 

GRAY OR GREY (8" 1 S. x. 49, 102). Both 
prma were used on either side of the Border 
luring the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
:enturies, as the records show. So late as 1584-94 
Sir Thomas Grey, of Chillingham, and his brother?, 
lalpb, of Horton, and Edward, of Morpeth, 
igned their names as Gray ( ( Border Papers ') ; and 
hirty years earlier Patrick, Lord Gray, was styled 
' of Scotland," to distinguish him from Lord 
Jrey of Wilton, Governor of Berwick ('State 

As SIR HERBERT MAXWELL says, the ' Scala- 
ronica' is "a fascinating and too little known 
ork." It tells many things in Scottish history 
not generally known." The late Father Steven- 



[8 S. X. AUG. 15, '96. 

son edited it in 1836 (Maitland Club). Even in 
print it is stiff reading, and better known by 
Leland's abstracts, though these often fall short of 
the original. The MS. is in the library of Corpus, 
Cambridge, but part, containing A.D. 1342 to 1355, 
has been lost since Leland's time. That Sir Thomas 
Gray, an active Border warrior, more used to handle 
the lance than the pen, could himself write such a 
work while in prison for a few months in 1355, is 
! questionable. More likely he dictated it to a 
clerk at a later period, for his last notice of 
Scottish events is dated 1363 (p. 203). He was 

_living in 1372, and doubtless was recalling the inci- 
dents of his father's and his own busy careers. The 
style of the MS. would guide an expert to its 
writer. I have never seen it, though the late 

librarian of Corpus invited me to do so. 

Heathfield, Wandsworth Common. 

I have noticed, both in my own custom and in 
that of others, that when gray hoary in men and 
things it is spelt gray ; when it merely denotes 
colour, as a grey horse or a grey cloak, it is spelt 

TRANSLATION (8 tb S. ix. 484; x. 100). I am 
thankful to MR. BIRKBECK TERRY for pointing 
out the error in my quotation. I quoted from 
memory, so there is no question of Longfellow's 
Latinity. I must have written the very imperfect 
perfect as it stood ; or, even if a more favourable 
view be taken, I omitted to correct it in the 
proof. I will not reserve my defence, as I have 
none to offer. I simply plead guilty, and can only 
rejoice that the laws are not so severe as they 
were in the days of Patrick Stuart, Earl of 
Orkney, referred to in the same number of 

" MAC" AND "Me" (8* S. ix. 508 ; x. 98). 
The statement that MacMahon is usually pro- 
nounced MacMahoon and McMahon MicMahoon 
in co. Limerick is as new to me as it is to MR. 
PLATT, though I have lived in that county over 
twenty years and am personally acquainted with 
several MacMahons and McMahons. It is only 
in a district like Limerick, where the Gaelic has 
almost entirely disappeared, that such a notion 
could have arisen. It is true that a rapid or care- 
less speaker might appear to sound the Me, which 
is invariably understood to stand for Mao, like 
Mic, but it would not be intentional. MacMahon 
means the son of Mahon ; MioMahon, of the son of 
Mahon ; MacMicMahon one could understand 
being the grandson, or literally son of the son of 
Mahon ; but Mic alone before an Irish surname is, 
in its way, as ridiculous as the redundant de with 
which the French MacMahons have graced (?) 
their ancient patronymic. As for the accentuation 
of the last syllable of Mahon (perhaps it would 

be more in accordance with the fitness of things 
bad I said the posterior syllable), the MacMahons 
when dropping the Gaelic spelling took that 
opportunity to throw forward the accent, and how* 
ever nearly MacMahoon may resemble the Gaelic, 
the modern or English equivalent is never pro- 
nounced in that manner unless by way of a rude 
jest or as an intentional discourtesy. 


SAMUEL PEPYS (8 th S. ix. 307, 489 ; x. 33, 96). 
In the portrait of Pepys painted by Hales, the 
song of which Pepys was so proud is introduced. 
On 17 March, 1666, he paid Hales Ul for the 
picture and 2,5s. for the frame. " He promises it 
shall be as good as my wife's, and I sit to have it 
full of shadows, and do almost break my neck 
looking over my shoulder to make the posture for 
him to work by." On 30 March Pepys went to 
Hales and sat in the Indian gown he had hired to 
be painted in. On 11 April the 'Diary' tells, 
"To Hales, where there was nothing found to be 
done more to my picture but the musique, which 
now pleases me mightily, it being painted true." 

The picture showed him " full of shadows," the 
head well turned over the shoulder, dressed in the 
hired Indian gown, holding in his hand the music 
the notes of which were painted true, and the 
words 'Beauty Retire' distinct as the heading. 
It was sold at Messrs. Christie's on 23 May, 1848, 
as "The Portrait of a Musician," and brought 
2Z. 10s. It was (with other pictures of Pepys, 
some by Kneller) sold at the end of a china sale 
and the company had gone. Will Hewer, so often 
mentioned in the * Diary,' only fetched five guineas, 
Pepys, by Kneller, ten and a half guineas; the 
three-quarter portrait of James II., for which he 
was sitting to Kneller when he was told the Prince 
of Orange had landed, was knocked down for nine 

There is no one familiar with the quaint ' Diary ' 
of Pepys but must wish he could hear the song 
that Pepys pestered all his friends to sing. Pic- 
ture and song would be welcome. 


Camden Lawn, Birkenbead. 

WESTMINSTER ABBEY (8 th S. x. 92). I am 
very glad to be able to answer the query of your 
correspondent MR. KALPH THOMAS as to the date 
when what he truly calls u that unsightly hoarding " 
at the north-east corner of the Abbey was first 
put up. It stood there for about twelve years to 
the day, for it was erected in July, 1884, and was 
removed in July, 1896, my authority being Mr. 
Wright, the respected Clerk of the Works to the 
Dean and Chapter. ^ I may remark that, although 
" the nineteenth century Londoner " may be <l a 
long-suffering being," the work carried on behind 
the hoarding just cleared away was of a most 
extensive character, and very heavy in detail, aa 

8<" 8. X. Aoo. 15, '96.) 



the restorations made in late years bear testimony 
so that perhaps pardon may now be granted i 
consideration of the magnificent results achieved 
When first pat up the enclosure was not so larg 
as of late years, as it extended only so far as th 
trees, the enlarged area being made about fou 
years afterwards. One result of the clearance i 
to expose an old doorway for many years blockei 
up in the east wall of St. Andrew's Chapel 
opening on to the green. Much of the old worl 
happily remains, and such as is new is don 
entirely upon the old lines. My old friend Mr 
Wright says and if any one knows he is th 
one that there is satisfactory evidence that thi 
doorway is of the time of Henry III., about 1240 
and that probably the king had passed through i 
many times when engaged upon the work o 
rebuilding the Abbey, which the late Mr. Streei 
BO justly called " the most lovely and lovable 
thing in Christendom." 

14, late 20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Bishop Wilson, Sodor and Man, prepared a form 
of prayer for fishermen to use before setting out to 
fish. I do not know whether the form be in use 
by the Manx fishermen now, or whether it has 
dropped out of use with so many other good old 

The phrase inserted in the Litany in the Isle of 
Man, as I have heard it, is " the harvest of the 
sea." C. C. B. 

POLE'S MS. OF CHARTERS (8 tt S. ix. 407, 475). 
In Mr. J. Brooking Howe's Presidential Ad- 
dress to the Members of the Devonshire Associa- 
tion in 1882, the following are included amongst 
the MSS. of Sir W. Pole in the Library, Shute 
House, Devonshire : 

" XXII. Large folio volume, containing copies of 
Deeds, Charters, and Grants, with coats of arms, &c. 

"XXIII. A thick folio volume, containing Charters 
and Grants to the Abbey of Tor, &c." Trans., xiv. 75. 

Salterton, Devon. 

NORMAN ROLL AT DIVES (8 111 S. ix. 467 ; x. 103). 
B. S. asks, Who was St. Clair ? a question 
difficult to answer in a few words, inasmuch as at 
least seven or eight saints of the name are honoured 
in the Catholic Church and mentioned by hagio- 
logiats ; the best-known, perhaps, being Clair, first 
Bishop of Nantes, sent to Gaul by Pope St. 
Kutychian about A.D. 280, and Clair of Tours, 
disciple of St. Martin and intimate friend of 
Sulpicius Severus, who died A.D. 397, a few days 
before St. Martin himself. The patron saint, 
however, of the St. Glairs of Rosslyn (if, as ia pro- 
bable, that family is of Norman origin), is most 
likely neither of the two mentioned above, but 

Clair, a humble priest, born at Rochester, who 
crossed over into Gaul in the ninth century and 
became famous for his virtues throughout Nor- 
mandy, where he lived the life of a hermit and 
died the death of a martyr in A.D. 894. St. Clair- 
sur-Epte, the scene of his martyrdom, on the eastern 
confines of Normandy, was the spot where a few 
years later (in 911) Charles the Simple ceded 
Normandy to Duke Hollo. It is still a celebrated 
place of pilgrimage. There is another town called 
St. Clair, near St. Lo, in the diocese of Coutances ; 
and many Norman parishes are dedicated in honour 
of the English hermit-martyr. 

Olinda, Brazil. 

At the second reference THORN FIELD takes ex- 
ception to my use of the word M erected " in con- 
nexion with this interesting Roll at Dives. I can 
only say, in reply, that I adopted Sir Bernard 
Burke's expression in giving the Roll. It is to be 
found in the appendix of vol. iii. of ' Vicissitudes 
of Families/ p. 441, and runs as follows : 

' The Roll in the Church of Dives, Normandy,' of the 
companions of William, in the Conquest of England, in 
1066. By M. Leopold Delisle, Member of the Institute. 
Erected by the French Society of Archaeology ia 
August, 1862, with permission of Mgr. Didiot, Bishop 
of Bayeux," &c. 

Pace THORNFIELD, it seems to me that erection 
or engraving are convertible terms. The rebuke 
of C. C. B. is somewhat better founded. For 
1 Ed ward III." read Edward I. It was a pure 
lapsus calami. In the gable of a small house 
'ormed by a part of an old wall a tablet bears the 
'ollowing inscription : 

This fragment 

Is the remains of the Building 

Where King Edward the First 

Held his Parliament, 

A.D. 1283, 
In which passed the Statute of Rhuddlan, 


To the Principality of Wales 
Its Judicial Rights 
And Independence. 

J. B. S. 

OQNALL (8 th S. ix. 48 ; x. 14). My thanks are 
ue to MR. RADCLIFFE for the interesting references 

made to this name. Curiously enough, one hour 
efore the number of ( N. & Q.' containing his 
digestions reached me my eye caught Ugnall 
n ' Ducastus Lancastrian,' in the matter which I 
eg to subjoin for his consideration : " Reign of 
'hillip and Mary. Robert Ugnall against Andrew 
Jgnall, Geo. Holme and others. Trespass and 
isturbance of a messuage or tenement called Old 
Jgnall, with lands and appurtenances, at Coppull, 
Lancashire" (p. 289). If MR. RADCLIFFB would 
nlighten me as to how additional information 

might be captured about "Old Ugnall" before 



. X. AUG. 15, '96. 

and since the days of Philip and Mary, and its 
exact location in the neighbourhood of Ooppull, he 
will be doing me a further kindness. I desire to 
know this simply for the purpose of establishing a 
link which I fancy I see in Ognall or Ugnall. 


P.S. Since writing this I find that Ognall is 
a patronymic, and that it appears in Burke's 
'General Armory,' edition of 1878, as follows : 

"Coppull alias Ognell. See Ognell. Ognal, Per 
saltire or and gu., two eagles displayed in pale of the 
first. Ognell (Ognell Hall, co. Lancashire, and Bad- 
degley Clinton, co. Warwick), Per saltire or and gu., two 
eagles in pale of the first. Crest, a lion's head eraaed 
or, guttee sa." 

The same information is found in Berry's * Cyclo- 
paedia of Heraldry,' 1814. May I ask, in view of 
ibis, whether this particular hall, place, or estate 
is still in existence ; and who owns it ? Also 
if Ugnall, Ognall, or Ognell is an extinct surname? 
Also whether there is any known complete printed 
account of the halls and manors of Lancashire? 
Seeing that this particular hall is in Ooppull a 
place of some importance, I believe would the 
alias as above stand to mean illegitimacy, other- 
wise, or belonging to ? Making the village name 
an alias to Ognell the patronymic seems queer. 

TANNACHIE (8 th S. x. 7, 60, 97). Tannachie, a 
local name occurring in Sutherlandshire, Banffahire, 
and Elginshire, together with numerous similar 
names found in Scotland and in various parts of 
Ireland, I have ventured to derive from the Gaelic 
tamhnach, a field. SIB HERBERT MAXWELL con- 
tends that I have got hold of the wrong clue, and 
that these names, all of which are now names of 
places, are not locatives, but professional or official 
designations, and that Tannachie is a corruption of 
Mactannachie, the " Son of the bard," transferred 
somehow from a man to a place. There are scores 
of such names in Ireland, which it seems to me 
at least more rational to refer to a stem meaning 
a "field" than to a patronymic meaning " son of a 
bard," especially when found in composition, as 
in some cases I have already cited a place called 
Tawnoghlahan being far more probably the " broad 
field" than the "son of the broad bard," and 
Tanaghmore being the "great field," and not the 
"Son of the great bard," while Tannachie, in 
Monaghan, can be more rationally explained as 
the " field of the bushes" than as the "son o 
the bushy bard." That the givers of these loca 
names should name them after bards who were 
bony, speckled, white, broad, great, little, or 
overgrown with lime trees or bushes, seems tc 
me an argument that they had gone clean daf 
instead of remaining in possession of their senses. 


LAND ' (8 th S. x. 28). Petmccio Ubaldino was t 

native and citizen of Florence, born about 1524. 
le was an illuminator on vellum and a teacher of 
he Italian language. He arrived in London about 
.547. He visited Venice in 1553, and died in 
jondon about 1560. He was author of 'Vita di 
arlo Magno,' 1581 (the first book printed in 
Italian in England) ; ' Descrizione di Scozia,' 
1588 ; ' Le Vite delle Donne Illustri del Regno 
d'Inghilterra et del Regno di Scotia,' &c., 1591. 
Whether this book is the same as the one men- 
ioned by Q. V., with a different title, can only be 
decided by comparing them. See British Museum 
Catalogue, p. 1530, ref. No. 137, b. 1. If not, it 
probably is the original MS. 


Another work of this Italian historian, which I 
aave before me, bears the title, " Le Vite delle 
Donne Illustri del Regno d'Inghilterra e di 
Scotia, 4to. London, 1691." Its preface is dedi- 
cated to Queen Elizabeth. According to Didot- 
Hoefer's 'Biographic G^ne'rale,' Petruccio Ubaldino 
was born c. 1524 at Florence, and died c. 1600 in 
London. As an illuminator of books he obtained 
the protection of Henry, Earl of Arundel, and 
entered the service of King Edward VI. He is 
the author of the following other works : ' Vita di 
Carlo Magno,' London, 1581 (said to be the first 
Italian work printed in England) ; ' Descrizione di 
Scozia,' Antwerp, 1588; 'Discourse concerning 
the Spanish Fleet invading England and Over- 
thrown,' London, 1590 ; ' Precetti Morali, Politei 
ed Economic!,' London, 1592 ; ' Rime,' London, 
1596. &c. H. KREBS. 


See 8 th S. iii. 466, 499 ; iv. 44. 

5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

x. 29). There is another reference to constables' 
staves of a historical character, of which there has 
not yet been a notice. In Mrs. Bryan Stapleton's 
' Three Oxfordshire Parishes,' for Oxf. Hist. Soc., 
1893, in the notice of Yarnton, p. 281, there 
appears among the entries in the " Constable's 
Book" of this parish the following : "1831. Paid 
William Hill for 25 Constables' staves, U 1*.," with 
this note in explanation : 

" The ' Swing' riots in 1831-2 are the explanation of 
this entry. The riots originated from the distress pre- 
valent in agricultural districts owing to the high price 
of bread and the fear among the farm labourers that the 
newly invented threshing machines would further reduce 
their wages." 

It was not uncommon for the peaceable in- 
habitants of parishes to be sworn in as special con- 
stables, and to arm themselves with such "staves," 
that they might repel an attack from the disaffected 
in their own or adjoining parishes. The " staves " 




which were for use at Yarnton are preserved. The,, 
are about two feet three inches in length, paintec 
of a blue colour. ED. MARSHALL. 

215 ; x. 83). R. F. S. seems to be confusing 
matters. It is the Margrave of Anspach, ob 
6 Jan., 1806, who is buried in the church o 
Speen. The Margravine, his widow, in 18 H 
retired to Naples, where she died in 1828 anc 
where she was buried. The precise site of olc 
Brandenbnrgh House, about which R. F. S. asks, 
is now covered by Messrs. Haig's distillery. He 
will see it clearly indicated on the Ordnance Sur 
vey Map. The present Margravine Road and Mar- 
gravine Gardens are a considerable distance from 
the site of the house. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

(8 th S. ix. 47, 112, 294, 412). I 
recently, as a general reader, ventured to suggest 
whether ade, in the sense of a deep field furrow, 
might not be a slurred pronunciation of adit (aditus), 
an approach or passage cut in mines to carry off 
water. The word may have passed from coal- 
miners to navigators on colliers, bargemen, and 
river people generally, and so on to waterside 
labourers and to farmers, and hence have been 
applied to field-draining operations. Charles 
Dickens uses ait in the fine opening description 
(chapter i.) of 'Bleak House'; he writes: "Fog 
everywhere. Fog up the river, where it flows 
among green aits and meadows," &c. Can any 
one decide in what sense our great novelist here 
used the word 1 J. Banks, in his ' English-Russian 
Dictionary' (Moscow, 1838), translates ait by a 
word meaning " small island," so that ait seems a 
way of spelling eyot (1 from the root which appears 
in island). Dickens thus probably means green 
islets, and ait is a different word from ade. 

St. Petersburg. 

THE SCARLET HUNTING-COAT (8 th S. vi. 447). 
At the above reference a question was asked as to 
the date when the scarlet hunting-coat was first 
worn. As I think this query failed to elicit a 
reply, the following note may be of interest to the 
querist : 

" Red was the favourite colour for stockings and also 
lor the trimmings of dresses, hut not for the dress itself, 
unless it was to hunt in. The popular ' pink ' of our 

>dern Bportsmen appears, therefore, to have been first 
worn in France in the early part of the seventeenth 
""jjj "~ PI * ncb6 ' 8 ' c 8tum e (The History),' vol. ii. 

B. H. L. 

JOHN DORY (8 th S. ix. 386, 457, 472). The 
question of DR. MURRAY, whether the name 
janitore is actually in use along the Adriatic for 
the John Dory, not having been anewered yet, a 
contribution to it may be timely. Eleven years ago, 

revolting from the etymology given by Dr. Giinther, 
I incautiously accepted the etymology of John 
Dory as given by the authors mentioned by DR. 
MURRAY ; but the improbability of such an origin 
soon became evident on reflection. I then ex* 
amined most of the catalogues of the fishes of the 
Adriatic, and failed to find any reference to such 
a name as janitore. The names at Venice, accord- 
ing to Von Martens, Nardo, Ninni, and Faber, 
were Pesce di San Pietro, Pesce San Pietro, San 
Pietro, or Sanpiero ; at Trieste, according to 
Plucar, Grnbe, and Perugia, Sanpietro, or San- 
piero ; in Dalmatia, Fabro ; in Croatia, Petar ; 
and at Spalato, Kovac. These names are also 
given by Carus. By none is janitore given as a 
current name. Only by Faber, in ' The Fisheries 
of the Adriatic' (p. 196), is " Janitor (Latin), the 
door-keeper, i.e., Saint Peter," mentioned as one 
of the names (not Italian) of the Zeus faber. Under 
the circumstances DR. MURRAY is probably right 
in thinking that " Janitore is entirely an inven- 
tion, a bogus name for tbe fish, invented to 

explain the vulgar English name." 


x. 99). In White's ' History of Inventions and 
Discoveries' (1827) we read that 
'tbe first circulating library was opened in the year 
1740, by Batho. JNo. 13, Strand (one of tbe houses taken 
down to form the approach to Waterloo Bridge)." 

The italics are the author's, whose information 
would seem to be at variance with what has pre- 
viously been supplied by correspondents of ' N. & Q.' 

0. P. HALE. 

The following reply was given in a local 'N. & Q. 1 
to a query precisely similar to that asked by C. : 

"The gentlemen and ladies growing and circulating 
ibrary in Crane Court, Fleet Street, consisting at present 
>f many thousand volumes of valuable and entertaining 
)ookc, 1745.'' 



x. 248, 396, 438 ; x. 98). I cut the following 
' useful recipe " from a fragment of an almanac 
he title and date of which do not appear ; but its 
mblication must have taken place within the last 
quarter of this century : 

" Bathe the parts affected with water in which potatoes 

iave been boiled, as hot as can be borne, just before 

joing to bed ; by the next morning the pain will be 

much relieved, if not removed. One application of this 

imple remedy has cured the most obstinate rheumatic 



PROVERB (8 lb S. ix. 509). Your correspondent 

will find the proverb " A fool and his money are 

oon parted" in Camden's 'Remains Concerning 

Britain,' ed. 1870, p. 316 ; in Ray'a 'Collection of 



. X* AUG. 15, '96. 

Proverbs '; and also in various subsequent collec- 
tions. James Howell uses the expression in his 
'Familiar Letters': 

" You write to me, that T. B. intends to give money 
for such a place, if he doth, I fear it will be verified in 
him, That a fool and his money is soon parted; for I 
know he will never be able to execute it." 

This quotation is from a letter to Mr. E. D., and 
is dated "Westmin. 5 June, 1630." I take it 
from 'Epistolee Ho-Elianse,' third edition, 1655, 
p. 233. An earlier form of the proverb is given 
in Tusser's ' Five Hundred Pointes of Good 
Husbandrie' (E.D.S.), p. 19 : 

A foole and his monie be soone at debate, 
which after with sorrow repenta him too late. 

I suppose that ' Janicula Prudentum ' is a slip for 
' Jacula Prudentum.' 


The pithy saying "A fool and his money are 
soon parted " is current coin in Fifeshire, where I 
have heard it hundreds of times. It is given in 
Andrew Henderson's * Scottish Proverbs,' p. 21, 
ed. James Donald, 1881. This volume, by the 
way, contains a remarkable joke in a prefatory 
editorial note. Henderson's * Proverbs/ as origin- 
ally published, had an introductory essay by 
Motherwell. Mr. Donald says: "This, which 
the writer himself characterized as prolix, is here 
presented considerably abridged." The fact is 
that the abridgment is final ; there is not a word 
of Motherwell's essay left. THOMAS BAYNB. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

This occurs in Hazlitt's 'English Proverbs,' 1882, 
p. 12, where there is a reference to Clarke's 
*Parcemiologia,'l639 ; also to 'EpistolsB Ho-Elianse,' 
1754, p. 230, " Letter to End. Porter," 5 January, 
1630/1. The reference, which Hazlitt omits, to 
the * Parcemiologia ' is *. -y. "Profusio," p. 281. 
The proverb also occurs in Ray's * Proverbs,' p. 94, 

This proverb is nearly a century older, at least, 
than the 'Jacula Prudentum' (not 'Janicula 
Prudentum,' as printed in query). The earliest 
example I am acquainted with is in Tusser's 
' Husbandrie/ 1580, ch. x. st. xi. p. 19 (English 
Dialect Society's reprint) : 

A foole and his monie be soone at debate, 
which after with Borrow repents him too late. 


COMMEMORATIVE PIES (8 th S. x. 93). Further 
particulars about the latest "Repeal Pie" are 
furnished by the Yorkshire Herald of 3 August : 

" On Saturday last the "jubilee " of the repeal of the 
Corn Laws was celebrated at Denby Dale, near Hudderj- 
field, in a singular fashion, namely, by the serving out 
to thousands of people of portions of an immense pie 
which had been made in the village. The pie contained 
1,120 Ib. of beef, 180 Ib. of veal, 112 Ib. of mutton, 
60 Ib. of lamb ; and the crust was made of 1,120 Ib. of 

flour and 160 Ib. of lard. The dish in which it was 
baked was 10 feet long, 6 feet 6 inches wide, and a foot 
deep, and a special oven had to be built in which to bake 
t. The gross weight of dish and pie was estimated at 
55 cwt. Some 2,350 commemorative plates had been 
provided, which were sold at Is. each, and a steady 
stream of people passed through the turnstile to get 
'heir piece of pie and pass out another way to eat it or 
ake it away as seemed best." 


BURY (8 th S. x. 76, 104). There is an engraving 
of this prelate, who died in 1532, after the picture 
!)y Holbein at Lambeth Palace, in ' Lodge's 
Portraits/ vol. i. Dinton Hall, near Aylesbury, 
now the seat of Lieut.-Col. Goodall, is said to have 
Belonged to tho Warhara family, and in the 
windows are the arms of Warbam impaling those 
of the see of Canterbury. Oakley, where he was 
born, is a small village in Hampshire, near Basing- 
stoke, and is at the present time a benefice in the 
gift of Queen's College, Oxford. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

William Warbam, Bishop of London 1502-3, 
Archbishop of Canterbury 1503-32, Lord Chan* 
cellor 21 January, 1504, to December, 1516, was 
the eldest son of William Warham, of Malsanger, 
in the parish of Okecliff, in the county of South" 
ampton, and Anne his wife, eldest daughter of 
Thomas Hadney, of Denton, in the county of 

Hook, in his ' Lives,' can tell us no more than 
that, " According to Wood, his father's name was 
Robert, ' Athenee,' iii. 738." 



ROUGH LEE HALL (8 th S. x. 4, 63). My hearty 
thanks are due to MR. F. C. BIRKBECK: TERRY 
and COL. FISHWICK for having conjured away my 
doubts as to the existence of Malkin Tower. They 
were but the echo of others I heard expressed by 
residents in and about Barrowford and Colne ; and 
to have elicited such convincing replies from my 
brother contributors seekers, like myself, after 
" whatsoever things are true " is a reward more 
than sufficient for my felix culpa. I only wish 
they could have satisfied me as fully on the inscrip- 
tion on the stone I mentioned at the first reference, 
though I more than half suspect now that it 
actually came from the famous tower, the exist* 
ence of which I no longer doubt. J. B. S. 


"MARCELLA" (8 th S. x. 50). The 'Encyclo- 
paedic Dictionary* gives "marceline" as from 
Latin marceo, and gives the meaning as "a thin 
silk tissue used for linings, &c,, in ladies' dresses." 

D. M. R, 





Rainy Days in a Library. By Sir Herbert Maxwell, 

IN the'preface to bis bright and agreeable volume Sir 
Herbert Maxwell is both bold and paradoxical in utter- 
ance He dares first to dispute with Burton of the 
Anatomy of Melancholy, ' maintains-heresy of heresies ! 
that there is a good deal that is dreary in Elizabethan 
literature, and defends those "ruder gentry" who, in- 
tead of swelling the mass of printed matter, by their 
"vain building," did better for their country. Sir 
Herbert then proceeds to show the conditions most 
favourable for reading, and " argal " for giving the world 
the product of his reading. He finds it in a country-house 
library on a pouring wet day some one else's house for 
choice. " There must be no mistake about the duration 
of the downpour, no alluring gleams of sunshine, no 
break in the gray canopy of vapour." We aver that our 
own cheerful philosophy does not attain such heights. 
A wet day in a country house tempts you to the smoking- 
room, the billiard-room, the stables even it is a choice 
of evils. If you invade the library, it is occupied by the 
ladies, sitting in such fashion that you can easily approach 
none, and your voice when you speak sounds aggressive 
or funereal. Take a book or two out of the shelves and 
carry it into your room, sit alone, and, if possible, shut out 
the day and turn on the electric light, listen for the 
dinner-bell, and, if the weather does not change, order 
your things to be packed, and recollect some imperious 
call elsewhere. Of the books he read under conditions 
that do not recommend themselves to us Sir Herbert, 
at least, writes delightfully. We have read his pages as 
be would have us, dilatorily, one at a time, and before we 
have reached the last have almost forgotten the first 
Still, a tense of pleasure remains behind, and the time 
has not been wasted. Sir Herbert does not write of the 
books one talks about, and Tallemant des Reaux is the 
only one we have recently read. Still, Baldassare'i 
' Perfect Courtier,' Bulwer's ' Artificial Changeling,' anc 
'Firmilian' are books into which we dip. Blaeu's 
' Atlas ' is a curious work to commend itself to a writer 
; but Sir Herbert has diversified tastes, and is, among 
I other things, a herald, a sportsman, a student, and the 
i encyclopaedic information surrounding the maps com 
! mends to him a volume handsome enough to need nc 
commendation. We have heartily enjoyed Sir Herbert'* 
ctions, all the more heartily that, had the library to 
which we have most familiar access been similar to tha 
from which he has chosen, we should probably have 
made an entirely different choice. 

A IHlliography of the King's Book, or Eikon Basilike 

By Edward Almack. (Blades, East & Blades.) 
THE first attempt to write what Mr. Almack justifiably 
calls " some sort of a bibliography " of the ' Eikoi 
Basilike* was made by our valued and lamented frient 
Edward Solly, F.R.S. Death arrested the progress o 
this, and most of his collection of ' Eikons ' passed, we an 
told, into the hands of that eminent bibliographer Mr 
Falconer Madan, and have been at the service of Mr 
Almack for the admirable bibliography now issued, 
firm believer in the royal authorship of the book, 
I staunch upholder of Church and king, Mr. Almack has 
worked with exemplary zeal and care, and baa pro 
duced one of the best bibliographies our country ca 
boaat. Into the contentious portion of his work we wi 
not follow him. We will leave him to his castigatio 
of Gauden, and will let the quettion of authorship b 
threshed out elsewhere. We will congratulate him 

owever, on the result of his labours, and the success 
bat has attended his endeavour to follow out the advice 
f Dr. Copinger to make his bibliography of general 
nterest, or, as Mr. Almack himself says, " to relieve the 
ull landscape with lights and shadows." His book, to 
hose interested in the subject, or in bibliography 
enerally, is never dull. It is full of curious and well- 
ligested information, and is executed with admirable 
are and perfection. Fortunate indeed has Mr. Almack 
>een in getting printers and publishers who would 
xecute their task in a style so admirable/ Mr. Almck 
laims that with his own written descriptions he has 
landed the compositor a copy of each edition. Every- 
hing has consequently been imitated exactly as from 
be copy before him. When necessary, type has been 
:ut for the purpose of exactly reproducing the original. 
A glance at the facsimiles of works executed at a time 

hen our typography was almost at its worst will 
show the admirable fidelity of the whole. The subject 

f the ' Eikon Baeilike ' is fascinating, and there is a 
;emptation which, however, must be resisted to 
'ollow Mr. Almack through his interesting and 
valuable volume. The history of the ' Eikon ' and 
of the appearance of successive editions is one of tl<e 
most romantic things in connexion with books. So 
great was the anxiety to obtain copies on the part of 
those whom the decollation of Charles had shocked and 
outraged, that after his death new editions poured forth 
daily, in spite of the persecution to which all concerned 
with its publication were subjected. Mr. Almack says that, 
according to contemporary authorities, " nothing but the 
Government's ingenious and persistent condemnation 
of the work prevented an immediate restoration of the 
monarchy." We warmly commend Mr. Almack's work 
to all interested in its subject. 

The Country of Horace and Virgil, By Gaston Boissier, 
of the French Academy. Translated by D. H. Fisher. 
(Fisher Unwin.) 

To lovers of classical scholarship and to visitors io 
Italy this translation of M. Boissier'a work will com- 
mend itself. A hundred years ago the site of Horace's 
house in the Sabine Hills was identified. Readers may 
now learn under what conditions it was given to the 
poet by Maecenas, and visitors to Tivoli may, if they can 
spare the time, visit the place and see the immortal 
fountain, still known as Fonte dell' Oratini or Fonte de' 
Ratini, in which name the ingenious may discover 
have discovered a distinct reminiscence of the poet. 
In the case of Virgil the reminiscences are less persona), 
and it is the country of the ' J'lneid ' that is brought before 
us. Much interesting information and speculation ia 
pleasantly conveyed. The volume is enriched with maps 
and plans. 

Shakspere and hit Predecessors. By Frederick S. Boap, 

M.A. (Murray.) 

MEN are not likely soon to tire of writing upon the 
growth and origin of our noble drama. Mr. Boas has no 
very special message to deliver concerning those with 
whom he deals, and his book seems intended rather for 
an advanced class than for ordinary students of dramatic 
literature. He is, however, generally trustworthy, and 
has made good and avowed use of the labours of his pre- 
decessors. Hia effort has been to deal in detail with 
Shakspeare's plays in their approximate chronological 
order, and to present in the clearest light the features in 
Shakspeare's works which link them with the pre- 
Renaissance period. A chapter on the mediaeval dranin 
and a second on the early Renaissance drama precede 
accordingly the chapters in which be deals with Mar- 
lowe's ' Dramatic Reform ' and with Kyd, Lyly, Peele, 
and Greene. There ia much in the volume that may be 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* ?. x. A, is, . 

read with interest, and the book is useful as a manual. 
The utterances of the writer are not, however, autho- 
ritative, and we rise from the perusal with a sense of 

Caudatus Anglicus : a Mediaeval Slander. By George 

Neilson. (Edinburgh, Johnston.) 

MR. NKILSON has here reprinted, in an edition limited to 
one hundred copies, a paper read not long since at a meet- 
ing of the Glasgow Archaeological Society. We advise 
our book-loving readers to get a copy. These short dis- 
quisitions of Mr. Neilson are always alike noticeable for 
matter and for style, and their vindication of the English- 
man, whether of Kent or elsewhere, from the scandalous 
imputations levelled at him not only in France, but 
across the Scottish Border, is capital reading, and dis- 
plays remarkable and very curious erudition. This and 
other similar opuscules will probably be before long 
collected. If they are not, these handsome quartos will 
be in great demand. 

A Guide to the Principal Classes of Documents preserved 
in the Public Record Office. By S. E. Scargill-Bird, 
P.S.A. Second Edition. (Stationery Office.) 
ON the first appearance of this admirably useful guide to 
the study of our national documents by Mr. Scargill- 
Bird, a well-known and an exemplary member of the 
Record Office staff, we drew attention to its purpose and 
its merits (7^ S. xi. 499). Nothing remains to be added 
to the eulogy there bestowed. Scoresprobably hundreds 
of readers have since then tested its utility, and the 
appearance of a second edition within five years is a 
proof of the service it renders and the estimation in 
which it is held. 

Billiographica. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 
THE tenth part of Bibliographica begins with an 
account by Mr. Cyril Davenport of ( The Bindings of 
Samuel Mearne and his School/ All that is practically 
known concerning Mearne is that he was the binder for 
Charles II. between 1660 and 1683, and that the work 
he did in that capacity generally in red morocco 
hows remarkable ability. Four of these designs are 
reproduced, and are, indeed, very handsome and elabo- 
rate. Mr. Henry R. Plomer writes on ' References to 
Books in the Historical Manuscripts Commissioners' 
Report. 1 These seem to have been less full than was to 
have been desired, the Commissioners, it is said, having 
in too many instances " paid more attention to the con- 
tents of the kitchen than to those of the library." These 
be hard words, but they are so writ. Among the works 
mentioned are naturally since such are abundant 
many MSS. of Chaucer. The Early English Writing 
Masters,' treated of by Mr. E. F. Strange, is an interest- 
ing subject. Some of the singularly intricate designs put 
forward as proofs of skill are reproduced. Mr. Edward 
Arber draws attention to books, and even classes of books, 
which, if not almost altogether lost, are at least very 
hard to meet with. C. and M. Elton deal with * Little 
Books,' and Mr. G. C. Williamson with ' The Books of the 
Carthusians.' Mr. A. W. Pollard reproduces ' Some 
Pictorial and Heraldic Initials,' and Mr. Robert Proctor, 
in his 'On Two Plates in Sotheby's " Principia Typo- 
graphica," ' throws lights upon a suspected forgery. 

The Reliquary. July. 

THIS quarterly magazine keeps up to a high standard of 
interest, but we could wish for a little more variety in 
the subjects chosen. The best paper in the present 
number is the second part of an article upon * Church- 
yard Games in Wales '; but in a magazine that comes out 
only four times a year we think it is a mistake to have 
papers continued from number to number, and this is 
done with three of those iu the present issue. 

Cosmo jwlis, edited by F. Ortmans, contains a paper by 
Mr. Frederic Harrison on ' The True Cosmopolis,' which 
is to be found as far removed as possible " from the roar 
of big capitals and the passions of dominant empire?." 
Mr. Justin McCarthy follows with a contribution, not 
wholly dissimilar in spirit, on ' Bloated Armaments,' and 
Mr. Oscar Browning brings forward some revelations, 
new to most readers, on the French Comite de Salut 
Public and the quarrels of Hebert and Robespierre. In 
the French portion the best article consists of ' Lettres 
Inedites ' of Ivan Tourgueneff to Gustavo Flaubert, and 
in the German 'Die Ethik des modernen Romans,' 
by Lady Blennerhasaett. 

THE Giornale di Erudizione'sMti the Intermediate are, 
as usual, full of information likely to be of service to the 
antiquary and the historian. In the issue of the latter 
periodical for the 10th of May there is a question relative 
to Guillaume CelthofF, inventor of muskets, arquebuses, 
and pistols, which could be fired eight or ten times with- 
out reloading:. Celthoff received letters patent from 
Louis XIII. in 1650, and it is asked whether he was the 
first deviser of repeating firearms. The numbers for the 
20th and 30th of May contain answers relative to the 
probability of William the Conqueror's father being 
the Robert the Devil of romance. That the Norman 
duke merited the title bestowed on him is probable, but 
Robert Guiscard was also worthy of bearing it. There 
appears, too, some reason to think that it may have been 
a nickname of the Conqueror's eldest son. And it has 
also been plausibly suggested that the legend which has 
become connected with one of these ill-famed over-lords 
of the days of violence is in reality a mythological fable 
in Christianized form. In a later number of the Inter- 
mediaire that for the 20th of June is an account of 
the baptism of " la Savoyarde," the great bell of the 
church of the Sacred Heart at Montmartre, which 
received the names of Fran<;oise Marguerite du Sac re 

fjtotijcw io Camspittottis. 

We mutt call special attention to the following ntlictt : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, | 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the I 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to { 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested I 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

ENQUIRER ("Clan Quhele "). Pronounced Hoo-eel, 
with a guttural in the h. Properly Dhughail, from an j 
eponymous hero of the Macpbersons. The battle of | 
the North Inch was almost certainly fought between 
them and the Davidsons (Clan Dhailh). See Sobieski 
Stuart's ' Lays and Traditions of the Clans/ 1848 ; also 
Skene, and authorities collected in MacphersonV Church 
and Social Life in the Highlands,' Blackwood, 1893. 

ERRATUM. P. 116, col. 2, last line, for "secura" read 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com* 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8'" S. X. ABO. 22, '96.] 





NOTES : Duchess of Gloucester and Peel Castle, 149 
Irinarch Ivanovich Vedensky Ben Jensen's Chair ' The 
Buried Mother,' 151 Cycling "A 1'outrance" Shetland 
Adulation Qrinling Gibbons Bryan, 152 Rev. G. A. 
Firth Birchin Lane, 153 ' Our Hedges' West Door of 
St. Paul's Statue of Claudian Vanishing London One- 
Volume Novel, 154. 

QUERIES : Lost Books Trimnell Poems by Frances 
Browne Masonic Shifford and King Alfred, 155" A 
Nelson" Simon Fraser Dope: Brock head : Foulmart 
Graham of Netherby John Peighton, M.P. " Strogin " 
Song of Pestal " Lillilo" Diploma : " Beggar's Benison," 
156 John Aylmer " Orts "Pilgrim Fathers, 157. 

BEPLIES :-What is a Town ? 157-" Jack Pudding," 158 
"Rathe-ripe" Foubert's Riding Academy ' Marmion 
Travestied,' 159 Jewish Commentaries Blenkard 
Source of Quotation Drawn Battle Walloons Blairs 
Portrait of Mary Stuart 'Dreamland' "Padoreen" 
Mare, 160 Primitive Distribution of Land Lead Letter- 
ingMilitary Standards Vectis, 1611 Cor. ii. 9 School 
Lists Straps Fountain of Youth, 162 Cannibalism in 
the British Isles, 163 Scottish ClericaLDress " Napoleon 
galeux "Countess of Angus Umbriel, 164 Heir-male of 
the Maxwells " Irpe "Clock Prince Charles and Mile. 
Luci Granby's Regiment, 165 Skull in Portrait Tout 
Family St. Uncumber Pepys " Peer and Flet " 
Southey's English Poets,' 166. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Henley and Henderson's ' Poetry of 
Burns,' Vol. II. Rye's 'Index to Norfolk Pedigrees' 
4 Views of the Pleasure Gardens of London ' ' Scottish 
Poetry of the Eighteenth Century ' Dodwell's Pocket 
County Companions' Field Columbian Museum Pub- 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See 8* S. ix. 382, 452.) 

I am indebted to MR. W. E. A. AXON for the 
following reference in the 'Dictionary of National 
Biography,' vol. xxviii. p. 246 : 

" In October, 1443, abe (the duchess) was transferred 
to Kenilworth (' Foedera,' xi. 45 ; cf. Devon, pp. 447-8). 
In July, 1446, she was imprisoned in the Isle of Man 
(' Ord. P. C.,' vi. 51). She is said to have been imprisoned 
in Peel Castle until her death." 

To some this is evidence with a vengeance, con- 
clusive enough to justify the exclamation " Causa 
finita eat." Not so to me, however. It left my 
doubt unimpaired by a hair's breadth. Not that 1 
am a Didymus in the face of hard facts ; but these, 
I contend, are what are lacking here. Let me 
prove my thesis. 

1. The author (Prof. Tout) of the article (loc. cit.) 
states that the duchess " was imprisoned in the 
Isle of Man," and grounds his bold assertion on a 
reference to the ' Ordinances of the Privy Council.' 
[ have examined the volume quoted above (ed. 
1837), from which I make the two following ex- 
cerpts : 

"Fragments of the original minutes of the Council 
the latter part of July, 1446, are preserved ; but the 

only material facts shown by them are that Eleanor 

Cobham, wife of the Duke of Gloucester, tea* ordered to be 

conveyed to the Isle of Man, in custody of Sir Thomas 
Stanley, 24 Hen. VI., 1446." Preface, xx. 

" The kyng wol that his letters under his p've seal le 
directed to Sir Th. Stanley to carie and do to be caried 
by land and by water Elienor Cobham in th' isle of Man 
and there that he rule her as he hath yeve him in 

Now, I maintain that from neither of those pas- 
sages can it be proved that the duchess was actually 
a prisoner in Man. It is evident, from the words 
italicized by me, that she had been ordered and 
directed so to be ; but were the order and direction 
ever carried out? The difficulty of proving a 
negative is traditional ; but I am persuaded that 
the following arguments are sufficiently cogent in 
this instance, at least to clear it away. 

2. Should there be any documents extant in the 
archives of the island (Governmental or antiquarian) 
reciting the incarcertion of the duchess there the 
matter would be beyond dispute. The existence 
of some such records, either at Castletown or 
Douglas, concerning an historical incident of such 
importance would be more than probable that is, 
assuming that Prof. Tout's statement is correct. 
This line of reasoning, the outcome of paragraph 1, 
led me to communicate with the Rev. E. B. Savage, 
of Douglas, who referred me to the Rev. T. Talbot, 
also of Douglas, an acknowledged authority on 
Manx historical questions, who replied, in answer 
to my query: 

" There is no known record in the archives of this 
island in which she (the duchess) is mentioned as having 
so much as set foot on this island, while every fragment 
of the tale as respects Peel Castle, from its origin to its 
present form, can be, and has been, traced to inventors." 

3. In a subsequent letter Mr. Talbot wrote, inter 

" The following points may be considered as made : 
" A. No evidence is produced from any English source 
that the duchess was ever brought to this island by Sir 
Thomas Stanley or his agents, or even that the king's 
will that letters be written to him to that end was carried 
out. The action against the duchess, as I conceive, was 
merely from first to last a hollow, as well as cunning 
and devilish part of the plot for the disgrace and ruin 
of the duke, and was liable to shift as the plot against 
him was varied. 

"B. No evidence is produced from any insular source 
that the duchess ever set foot on the island, nor did the 
earliest writer who alleged Peel Castle as the place of 
her imprisonment even pretend that he founded hia 
assertion on any 'tradition' here. Blundell's tale (ut 
infra") is a shameful perversion of an English authority. 
Further, the minute (Nicolas, vi. 51) under date July, 
1446, is not the latest mention of the duchess in the 
English records. There are three known to me, all of 
date subsequent to the duke's death (murder]) on 
Feb. 23 or 24, 1447, at Bury St. Edmunds, during the 
Parliament (25 Hen. VI.) begun there on Feb. 10. The 
first is an Act of that Parliament depriving the duchess 
of dower. The Act is in the printed Rolls of Parliament 
(' Record Comm.'), v. 135. There ii no indication in the 
Act as to the whereabouts of the duchesa at the time of 
passing the Act The Act was passed, ' Tertio die Martii 
Anno Vicesimo quinto supradicto, videlicet ultimo die 
ejusdem Parliamenti,' according to the heading. The 



X. AUG. 22/96. 

second ie a pardon to Thomas Herbard, in ' Pat Rot., 
25 Hen. VI.. and under date July 13, thus nearly fiv 
months after the duke'a death, but looks back to an 
names Feb. 7 and 11 as days of the said Herbard's allege 
crimes. As far as I am aware it has not been printed 
I learned of its existence on making inquiries at th 
Public Record Office in 1879, and asked for the Roll t< 
be brought to me. It begins by declaration of Herbard' 
indictment, verdict, and record of judgment. 

" ' The king to all his bailiffs and faithful men to whom 
&c., greeting. Know that since Thomas Herbard, lat 
of Greenwich, in the county of Kent, Knight, and others 
late servants of Humfrey, Duke of Gloucester, now 
deceased, staying both in the house and domicile of the 
duke, were, on the Sabbath next after the Feast of the 
Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr (July 7) last past 

indicted at Deptford that the said Tnomas togethe: 

with many other*, our enemies and false traitors un 
known, purposing to make the forenamed duke King o 
England, contrary to their due allegiance, and agains 
our will to take and deliver Alianor, late wife of the said 
duke, out of the prison in which by our command she 
was detained for divers high treasons specially touching 
our person whereof she had been indicted, and to make 
the same Alianor Queen of England ; and perceiving that 
they and others were not able to do the foresaid things 
so long as we stood in our regality and prosperity did/ &c. 
"Queriep. Where was 'the prison' in which the 
duchess, by the king's command, was detained at the 
date above referred to? Is it likely that if the Jsle of 
Man were meant it would be so spoken of ? Did Her 
bard and party contemplate coming here to rescue her ? 
I regard it as morally, if not absolutely, certain that ' the 
prison ' referred to must have been one within somewhat 
easier and readier reach than this island. The third is 
a record of payment, under date July 18 five days after 
date of above-mentioned pardon to one Montgomery. 
It is printed by Devon, ' Issue Rolls of Exchequer.' 

" ' Easter, 25 Hen. VI., 18th July (1447). To Thomas 
Montgomery, Esquire, one of the Marshalls of the King's 
hall, who at the ecpecial request of the said Lord the 
King attended at different times upon divers persons, to 
his great detriment and charge, viz., first upon the Duke 
of Norfolk at Killingworth and within the Tower of 
London ; secondly upon John Astley ; thirdly upon 
Eleanor Cobham from Ledys to London ; and fourthly 
upon John Davy an appellant ; also because he restored 
into Chancery the King's letters patent granting him 
301. per annum to be cancelled. In money paid to him 
by assignments this day, &c. By writ, &c., 402.' 

"Queries. When was the said attendance of Mont- 
gomery on the duchess from Ledys Castle to London ? 
The Chronicle ('An English Chronicle of the Reigns of 
Richard II., Henry IV., Henry V., and Henry VI., 
written before the year 1471,' Camden Society, 1856) 
compared with the records (' Patent and Exchequer 
Rolls,' &c.) shows that she was brought up from that 
Castle to London, or rather Westminster, for October 21 
and November 9, 1441, and that her custodians, John 
Stanley & Co, were paid 1002. on Jan. 31, 1442, and 
Ralph Lee 100/. 'in advance' on Feb. 16, 1442, for 
receiving and conducting her to Chester, from whence 
she was received at Kenilworth on Dec. 5, 1443. Was 
the payment to Montgomery in July, 1447, for bringing 
her up from 'Ledys Castle te London,' payment for 
service performed in October or November, 1441, and 
so left unpaid for towards six years ] Or was it for a 
service much more recent, Ledys Castle being the 
' prison ' referred to in the pardon, and the last place of 
the duchess's confinement by royal ' command ' 1 The 
duke dying in February, 1447, what reason in the world 
was there for longer keeping her in durance ? Even 

Thomas Herbard was absolutely pardoned, cleared from 
all stain of attaint, as the pardon shows. My belief is 
that the duchess was brought up to London, discharged, 
and in all probability went into some religious house,' 
and was thereafter no more heard of. Of course tho 
last two records quoted do not amount to a demonstration 
that the duchess was in England in the early part of the 
year 1447 and in July, but I think them worthy of con- 
sideration as at least looking in that direction." 

4. It was a fortunate wind that wafted me inta 
Mr. Talbot's treasure-cave of research, not only by 
reason of the foregoing masterly synopsis of the 
whole question, but because, curiously enough, be 
had gone into it exhaustively in 1879, and again 
in 1885, in a series of letters to the Isle of Man 
Times. The latter series he very courteously for- 
warded to me for further use. It is headed Eng- 
lish History versus Shakespeare and Manx History/ 
and consists of five lengthy and thoroughly pains- 
taking compositions. Much as I should wish it,, it 
would be impossible to transfer them in their 
entirety to the columns of ' N. & Q.'; but the sum- 
mary is worth reproducing : 

"I have shown how, when, and from whom all the 
elements of the story have had their origin. William 
Blundell at some time subsequent to the year 1660, 
George Waldroii in 1731, Samuel Haining in 1822, 
William Harrison in 1869, and Robert J. Moore about 
1874, did bit by bit build up that story, and did so on the 
basis of the discordant assertions of Fabyan and Shake- 
speare which have been proved to be fabulous. It io 
always important, often essential, to the testing of the 
Credibility of a story which is passed off as ' history,' to 
know its rise and progress up to completion; and 
generally nothing more is needed to show such story to 
3e devoid of credibility than to show what is said, and 
who says it. Not more than this is needed in regard to 
the story in question. That the Duchess of Gloucester, 
'n 1440-1, or any other year, was condemned to be 
mprisoned in the episcopal dungeon on the Peel islet, 
ihat she was imprisoned therein, that therein she was 
mprisoned for fourteen years, that during those fourteen 
years she took her one hour a day's exercise in a little 
r ard adjoining it, and that she died there, is a story that 
stands out in shameless nakedness as the manufacture 
of the five writers above named, and as manufactured 
'or at best no higher purpose than to make Manx ' his- 

;ories ' and 'guides.' In the whole series of our his- 

lories, guides, Manx Society volumes, &c., the only 

'ragment of information pertinent to the story is the 

Minute' discovered by Dr. Oliver in Sir Harris* 

tficolas's ' Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy 

Council of England,' vol. vi. p. 51 It is on the basis 

jf this 'Minute/ and on nothing else in our insular 
tory-books. that any future story about the imprison- 
ment of the due bet- s in this island must be framed, if 
)ne be framed. It will be quite time enough fo? 
history ' makers who refer to the ' Minute ' to legin to 
hink of asserting that the duchess was put down into 
he dungeon on the Peel islet, &c., when they produce 
vidence that she was conveyed to and set foot on this 

sland That the duchess was not only ordered to be 

onducted, but was conducted to Ledys Castle in August, 
441, to Chester Castle in the beginning of 14)2, and to 
[enilworth Castle towards the end of 1443, ' record ' 
vidence produced clearly proves. But it is not likely 
o be before the Greek Kalends that evidence will be 
ound that the above ' Minute ' was ever carried into 
ffect, because record evidence exists that for at least 

8>>S. X.Aro. 22/96.] 



even months it was not, and that then, Duke Hum- 
phrey's death occurring, there was no conceivable reason 
for doing it. In my letter of 29 August I adduced 
record evidence that at least as late as February, 1447. 
the duchess was in England, and in all probability then 
again confined in Ledys Castle in Kent; and other 
evidence exists that Sir Thomas Stanley alao was then in 
England and attending the Parliament held at Bury St. 

Edmunds Under these circumstances, let any future 

* history ' maker who refers to the above ' Minute ' as of 
any weight in this matter produce evidence that letters 
of order to convey the duchess to the Isle of Man were 
directed ' to Sir Thomas Stanley, and then evidence 

that he in pursuance thereof conveyed her hither 

The history of the Duchess of Gloucester, as all history 
properly 10 called, rests on worthy evidence, not on the 
mere assertions of men who live hundreds of years after 
the events they affect to write about ; of men, too, who 
show that they have no other source for their ' facts ' 
but their faculty of invention, and no better motive for 
asserting them than the profit they can make out of the 
ignorant and credulous." 

5. To sum up, therefore : whilst no record exists 
in the island, the genesis of the story lies io the 
famous " Minute," and its perpetuation is due (1) 
to Shakespeare (who erroneously laid it on Sir 
John Stanley, who was dead fourteen years before 
the " Minute ") ; (2) to Fabyan (06. circa 1512) & 
<3o. (ut supra) ; and (3) (proh dolor !) to the Manx 
Society (xvi. 191), and innumerable guide-book?, 
from that of Raining (the inventor of the "four- 
teen years" theory) in 1822 down to 'Brown's 
Popular Guide ' in 1896. One may well ask, in the 
face of such an astounding lack of historical criticism, 
Will this fable ever be stamped out? Some authors, 
to the credit of their discriminative faculty, have 
ruthlessly rejected it or passed it by with the 
silence it merits, e.g. , Sacheverell (Governor of the 
island 1694-6), in his * Survey of the Isle of Man,' 
1702 ; Bishop Wilson, in his * History of the Isle 
of Man '; Seacomb, in his ' Memoirs of the House 
of Stanley,' 1736 ; Rolt, in his ' History/ 1773 ; 
and Townley, in his 'Journal,' 1791. And Prof. 
Tout (ui supra) only ventures so far as " it is said " 
in the matter of the duchess's alleged life-long 
internment in Peel Castle, while the author of the 
'Guide to Peel,' printed for "George Goddard, 
Custodian of Peel Castle," gives the story with 

I may add, by way of epilogue, that it was recently 
ray good fortune to secure a long interview at 
Douglas with Mr. Talbot, who informed me that, 
in addition to the foregoing, a friend of bis met 
(since my last communication from him) the Clerk 
of the Rolls, who told him that, though be had 
eearched diligently, there was not a shred of any 
record in the island archives relative to the im- 
prisonment of the duchess. Vtrbum sat sapienti ! 

J. B. S. 


Cuttle's note-book may perhaps be allowed to 
-carry down to posterity that this is the real name 

of the talented translator into Rusa of ' Dombey 
& SOD,' in 1847-1848, as the numbers appeared. 
In my copy of Forster's ' Life of Charles Dickens ' 
the name ia misspelt Trinarch Ivansvich Vreden- 
eky (!), or massacred in some such fashion, and I 
do noc know if it has been corrected elsewhere. 
Vedensky was the son of a poor but intelligent 
village pope (or priest), who tilled his glebe to feed 
and clothe his large family of daughters and , this 
only son, to whom he still found time to impart the 
rudiments of education. Irinarch was a sickly 
and lonesome boy, cut off from all playfellows by 
his ascetic though well-meaning father, and he 
grew up to manhood in bitter poverty, having 
sometimes literally nowhere to lay his head. Yet, 
in spite of all obstacles, he became a distinguished 
scholar, a versatile linguist, and a beloved peda- 
gogue in the military schools at St. Petersburg. 
He was growing in fame and favour with the 
authorities, and had been called upon to undertake 
educational work of the highest importance, when 
bis blindness and premature death cut short his 
brave career. His translations of Dickens, Thacke- 
ray, Fenimore Cooper, &c., are classical, and laid 
the foundation of the wonderful popularity which 
their works still enjoy in this country. Suum 
cuique. H. E. MORGAN. 

St. Petersburg. 

EEN JONSON'S CHAIR IN 1685. Milton's nephew, 
Edward Phillips, asks, at p. 174 of his ' Mysteries 
of Love and Eloquence ; or, the Arts of Wooing 
and Complimenting,' &c. : 

" 9. Why is Ben Johnson's chair at Robert Wilson's 
Tipling-house in the Strand? 

" A. To signifie that Poets in these hard times, though 
they should invoke the nine Muses, may still want nine- 
pence to purchase a pint of Canary." 

F. J. F. 

'THE BURIED MOTHER.' I have just been 
reading Mrs. Woods's powerful but painful dramatic 
poem of ' Wild Justice,' in which the ballad sung 
by Nelto seems to fill the province of the chorus in 
a Greek tragedy. Mrs. Woods says in a prefatory 
note that she is indebted for the first lines of this 
ballad to the following two line?, quoted in 
* Wuthering Heights ' (chap. ix. Ji- 
lt was far in the night, and the bairnies grat ; 
The mither beneath the mools heard that 

These lines have, as observed by Prof. Child, been 
not unnaturally taken for a relic of a traditional 
Scottish ballad of a dead mother returning to her 
abused children.* They seem to have the pathos 
and the mystery which is bred in the solitude of 
the moors and fells, and to be of kindred essence 
to the spirit which breathes in 4 Clerk Saunders ' or 
The Elphin Nourice.' But Prof. Child has 
shown that these lines are, in fact, a stanza (not 

* ' The English and Scottish Popular Ballade,' part ix. 
p. 203. 



[8 th S. X. AUG. 22, '96. 

literally well remembered) from the Danish ballac 
' Moderen under Mulde,' Grundtvig, ii. 470, trans- 
lated by Jamieson, and given in the notes to the 
fourth canto of Scott's ' Lady of the Lake. 
Another translation, under the title which heads 
this note, will be found in Prior's ' Ancient 
Danish Ballads/ 1860, i. 368. The ballad as 
rendered by Mrs. Woods bears, of course, the 
impress of her own individual genius. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 


" Everything in nature has a tendency to move in 

cycles such myriads of cycles moving concurrently." 

S. T. Coleridge, ' Table Talk' (1823), ed. 1874, p. 22. 

W. 0. B. 

" A L'OUTRANCE." This Anglo-French expres- 
sion is not dead yet. One would hardly expect to 
find it in so well-written a publication as Punch, 
but there it is on p. 6, No. 2869, 4 July ; and, what 
is stranger still, in a letter professedly written by a 
Frenchman, Jacques Joliquet (Pompier de Nan- 
terre). Jacques writes : 

"Monsieur le Kedacteur, Accompanied by several 
of my brave comrades, I arrived this week in your 
splendid city of commerce to join in the magnificent 
demonstration which celebrated the victories of the 
limpid Water over the cruel and devastating Fire ele- 
ments ever at war and encouraged to fight d I'oulrance 
by the bitter memories of tradition and history." 

Has it ever been noticed that Palsgrave's ' Les- 
clarcissement de la Langue Francoyse ' has, p. 853, 
" To the utterance, a loultrance " ? This follows : 

"To the uttermoste, as folkes fyght who shall have 
the mastery, a oultrance, as et commands a wnfilz Pepin 
de leurfaire la guerre a oultrance." 


SHETLAND, ITS ETYMOLOGY. At the last meet- 
ing of the Viking Olub, the Rev. E. McClare 
derived Shetland from the Icelandic Hjaltland ; 
but neither he nor any other of the speakers could 
satisfactorily explain the difference of initial. My 
attention being directed to a report of this, I saw 
at once that to a student of phonetics the transi- 
tion possesses no difficulty whatever, and is a 
most interesting parallel to that of Scio from the 
classical Chios, which I explained in 8 th S. ix. 58. 
In the Icelandic pronunciation the initial of Hjalt- 
land is, like that of the modern Greek Chios, a 
"voiceless" y. It is similar to the aspirated 
initial of the English words hew or hue, and easily 
mistaken for sh. Therefore in the English Shet- 
land and Italian Scio we have a substitution of sh 
for it. Another and even more important example 
of the change in English is that of the Anglo- 
Saxon pronoun heo to the modern she. I cannot 
deny that the sound is a favourite one of mine ; but 
at the risk of trenching on valuable space I may 
add, for the benefit of the general reader, that its 
existence and resemblance to tli account for pheno- 

mena otherwise inexplicable in many quarters. 
Hence the facts that in Japanese the number 
"seven " is indifferently hichi or shichi; that the 
Afghan national name is sometimes Pukhto and 
sometimes Pnshto ; that Khama's capital is written 
both Palapye and Palapshe. Further, by assuming 
the intermediate stage to have been this quasi- 
guttural, we can see how certain Latin sibilants 
have in Spanish become genuine gutturals. 


flattering dedication were common enough in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The follow- 
ing specimen will be hard to beat for servility of 
thought and ingenuity of phrase. It is prefixed 
to an assize sermon, 13 March, 1693/4, preached 
at Ailesbury by Ab. Campion, D.D., rector of 
Monks Risborough : 

" To the Right Honorable Sir John Holt, Lord Chief 

Justice My Lord, Without leave I presume to prefix 

Your Lordship's Name to this Discourse. That it was 
Preach'd. I my self stand accountable ; but that it was 
Printed, It has nothing to justify it but Your Lordship's 
Command, whom nothing can or do's resist. For the great- 
est Obscurities of the Law, Its most sullen difficulties 
scatter before Your Lordship's Eye, as the Clouds before 
the Sun. The most intricate Knotty Cases, You untye with/ 
that Ease and Dexterity, as that they seem of themselves 
to open. It is not in You to cut or force, It consists not 
with that sweetness of Temper, by which You so charm 
all You have to deal with, as that You seem most de- 
servedly to inherit that Glorious Title of the Great 
Vespasian, of being the Darling of Mankind. For the 
very Curse of the Law You manage with that Tender- 
ness and Indulgent Affection, as even that the Condemn'd 
go away Satisfied, if not pleas'd. That I might not there- 
fore appear the only stubborn Thing in Nature, I submit 
and subscribe my Self, My Lord, Your Honors most 
humble and obedient Servant, Ab. Campion." 

Portland, Oregon. 

ALBAN'S ABBEY CHURCH. The following adver- 
tisement is cut from the Antiquary for July : 

' Old oak organ case, 200 years old, beautifully carved 
by Grinling Gibbons, formerly in St. Alban's Abbey. 
Price 75 guineas. For particulars, address," &c. 

Nothing in connexion with the " restoration " of 
St. Alban's abbey church need cause us much 
surprise. It would be interesting, however, to 
know (without any reflection at all upon its pre- 
sent owner) how such an article as this could come 
nto private hands ; and, further, what "restorer" 
t was who could induce a church body to extrude j 
From a building under their control a large carving 
by Grinling Gibbons, in itself, if authentic, an 
ornament to any church. Certainly, Gibbons'* 
carvings were not Gothic. R. CLARK. 


BRYAN. The grave possibility of a hitherto 
unknown individual, born so late as 1860, living 
:>y his wits, BO to speak, bearing this patronymic, ! 

X. AUG. 22, '96.] 



who is not unlikely to become in the near future 
the President of the United States, to rule over 
its seventy millions or more of English-speaking 
person?, has brought about a discussion betwix 
the Hibernian -American and the vastly more 
numerous, earlier settled, and less noisy Anglo 
American. The 6rst, indeed, claims the surname 
for the Green Isle, and in proof thereof cites 
Moore's lines anent one of the early kings of that 

Remember the glories of Brian the brave, 

Though the days of the hero are o'er ; 

Though lost to Mononia and cold in the grave, 

He returns to Einkora no more. 

That star of the field, which so often has poured 

Its beams on the battle, is set ; 

But enough of its glory remains on each sword 

To light us to victory yet. 

The fact that history may yet repeat itself after 
a thousand years, more or less, and give to the 
world another king of the name, oT the republican 
order, naturally fires the Celtic heart. On the 
other hand, the unadulterated Anglo-American, 
proud of his descent from the same blood which 
produced Shakespeare a blood which has never 
been ruled by any individual possessing a dis- 
tinctively Irish name claims Bryan as an old 
English surname, and one which, according to 
the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' has produced a considerable 
number of English writers. He substantiates his 
belief in this by pointing out that three times as 
many Bryans appear in the London directory as 
in the Dublin one ; also that there are several 
places in London called Bryan Street, Square, &c., 
and that a Bryanstone is a locality in Middlesex. 
To him Bryan is the accentuation of Bryant, which 
surely is an ancient English father's name, for 
Briant belonged to a number of the very earliest 
of the Puritan settlers of New England, where 
the Irish cannot be said to have flocked until 
about 1830-1850. The American poet William 
Cullen Bryant was of this stock. The 'Encyc. 
Brit.,' eighth edition, in its article upon the old 
English statesman Sir Francis Bryant, famous 
under Henry VIII. , attaches Bryan as one of the 
forms of his name. An expression of opinion from 
those versed in Celtic and English nomenclature 
be appreciated by me. The political 
managers of Mr. Bryan, it may be said (full name 

lliam Jennings Bryan and a Protestant), have 

given out that the grandfather of his father 

itiao name Silas) emigrated from Aberdeen, 

bcotland this to counteract the widely dis- 

)d eagerness on the part of the O'Briens to 
t him as a possible cousin and a true orthodox 

i\A EV ' G ' A " FlRTH --The Vicarof St. Michael's, 

Walton the Rev. G. A. Firth, died on 22 July 

ring been over fortv-four years curate and vicar 

,e same parish. I think this is almost unique. 

Mr. Firth came to Malton in 1852 as curate to the 
Rev. William Carter, who held the combined 
livings of Old and New Malton ; and in 1855, on 
Mr. Carter removing to Slingsby, Mr. Firth was 
appointed to the incumbency of St. Michael's 
parish, which was then newly created, though the 
order in Council dividing the parishes of Old 
and New Malton, and constituting them separate 
vicarages, was not promulgated till 1856. Mr. 
Firth married a daughter of the Rev. W. Carter. 

W. B. 

BIRCHIN LANE. This name is one of the cruces 
of London local nomenclature. I had hoped to 
find some enlightenment in a little book which 
was recently reviewed in ' N. & Q.,' Mr. Habben's 
'London Street Names/ but unfortunately the 
writer has failed to grasp the truth that the his- 
torical method furnishes the only passport to a real 
knowledge of this difficult subject, and his work, in 
consequence, is merely an example of misapplied 
industry. Of Birchin Lane he says : 

Originally Burcbam, hands down the virtues, if there 
be any virtue in a name, of its builder. Stow says Birch- 
over was the builder, but modern researches, as well as 
the name itself, point to Burcham as more probable." 

It would be exceedingly interesting if Mr. Habben 
would indicate the authorities on which he bases 
these assertions. My own inquiries tend to show 
that Stow was probably right in this case. The 
Following instances of very early spelling are taken 
from Dr. Sharpe's * Calendar of Wills in the Court 
of H ust ing, London,' and go back forty years 
Defore the earliest example given by Mr. Wheatley 
n his ' London Past and Present.' In the will of 
Thomas Travers, 1260, and in that of William de 
Tanrugge, 1 349, the name is " Berchervereslane " 
Sharpe, ' Calendar,' i. 7, 538) ; in that of William 
Kelwedon, 1285, it is "Berchereverelane" (ibid. t 
74) ; in that of Stephen Ate Holte, 1326, it is 
Bercherverelane " (ibid., i. 318); in that of 
Stephen Atte Holte, 1348-9, it is "Bercherver- 
ane " (ibid., i. 538) ; and in those of John de 
Drayton, 1358, and of Robert de Holewelle, 1363, 
t is "Bercheverlane" (ibid., ii. 4, 80). The 
arliest example of the substitution of the letter n 
or v occurs in the * Liber Albus,'ed. Riley, p. 242, 
29 Edw. I., where the name is spelt " Berchenes- 
ane." In the will of Robert Motun, 1320, the 
name is spelt " Berchernerelane," and in that of 
"hornas Mokkynge, ] 372/3, we get the still later 
orms "Berchereslane" and "Bercherlane "(Sharpe, 
* Calendar,' i. 286, ii. 153). At the beginning of 
the fifteenth contury the spelling begins to approxi- 
mate more closely to the present orthography ; and, 
judging from the evidence at our disposal, the chief 
intermediate links were probably Berchervereslane, 
Bercherverlane, Bercheverlane, Berchenerlane, 
Berchenlane, Birchinlane. In all likelihood, there- 
fore, the lane derived its name from a certain 
Berchervere or Berchevere, which tends to corro- 



[8" 8. X. AUG. 22, '96. 

borate Stew's statement that " the first builder and 
owner " was Birchover. The " corruption," as Stow 
calls it, would be analogous to that of Andover, 
which was formerly called Andevere (see ' Liber 
Albu?,' pp. 535, 536). Of Mr. Habbon's Burcham 
1 have discovered no trace whatever.* 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

*OuR HEDGES.' In an article so entitled in 
Chambers's Journal for 6 June, Mr. Baring-Gould 
succeeds in astonishing one of his readers who has 
had but scant experience of West of England ways. 
He has remarked : 

"Our old English hedges are the poor man's con- 
servatory, are the playground of his children. How 
starred they are in spring with primroses ! How they 
flush with red robin ! How they mantle with bluebell ! 
How they wave with foxglove ! " 

And goes on ihortly afterwards to say : 

" In the West of England a hedge top is usually finished 
off with slates that project, and this is to prevent rabbits, 
even sheep, from overleaping. lu Cornwall, on the hedge 
top is a footpath beside a large deep cleft in the land, 
that converts itself into a torrent in wet weather. It is 
a common sight to see women, and children on their way 
to school, pencilled against the sky, walking on the hedge 
tops. So when certain hedges have been converted into 
footways, then a rail is often put across them to prevent 
horsemen from using them in like manner." 

Surely hedges that can be finished off with slates 
and that may serve as a promenade are more akin 
to walls than to the fences of thorn, brier- rose, 
bramble, and maple, which are seen, admired, and 
I might add, loved, in the Midlands and the 
northern parts of England. ST. SWITHIN. 

x. 93.) That which in the nineties requires a flight 
of fancy to realize was in the fifties a fact. The west 
doors of St. Paul's were not only closed, but the 
whole western end of the churchyard was enclosed 
by a low stone wall, stout railings of Sussex iron, 
and a locked gate. The south door of the Cathe- 
dral also was shut, and the only approach to the 
church was by the north door. 



THE STATUB OP OLAUDIAN. It is well known 
that a statue of the poet Claudian was erected 
by decree of the Eoman Senate in the forum of 
Trajan. He speaks of it himself, his words show- 
in cr, in the opinion of Gibbon (who thinks one 
ought to have been erected in his lifetime to a far 
superior poet, presumably meaning Horace, satis- 
fied or consoling himself with the thought of a more 
durable monument, perennius), that he felt the 

* The article preceding Birchin Lane in Mr. Habben's 
book, namely, Billiter Street, is equally unsatisfactory. 
Mr. Habben accepts the view of Stow, which the his- 
torical method of inquiry shows to be clearly erroneous, 
that Billiter was the name of the original builder. 

honour like a man who deserved ife. According to 
the 'American Cyclopaedia' (Ripley and Dana), this 
was discovered at Home in the fifteenth century. 
The statue itself, however, was probably destroyed 
not many years after its erection, when Claudian was 
involved in the ruin of bis patron Stilicho. What 
was found in the house of Pomponius Lsetus in the 
fifteenth century was the pedestal, injured at one 
of the upper corners, with the inscription upon it. 
The ' Encyclopaedia Britannica' says that it "is 
almost certainly spurious," but there scarcely seems 
any good reason for this conclusion. It was re- 
moved from Rome to Naples, and is now in the 
National (formerly called the Borbonian) Museum 
there. The inscription is given in Mommsen's 
* Inscriptions Regni Neapolitan! Latinae,' where 
it forms No. 6794. W. T. LYNN. 



" The celebrated coaching inn, the ' White Horse,' of 
Fetter Lane, is to be cleared for building purposes. 
London of last week had an excellent sketch of this 
old building, and gave the following interesting reminis- 
cences of Fetter Lane. It marks the westward limit of 
the Great Fire of London. Richard Baxter, the renowned 
divine, was Friday lecturer in the hall near Neville's 
Court, after his release from prison, in 1672. Until 1885 
there was a tablet upon the quaint little house, No. 16, 
over Fleur-de-Lys Court, saying that 



BORN 1631 DIED 1700. 

Here he had for neighbour Thomas Otway, whose house 
stood on the site of the present Record Office, and here 
occurred the celebrated conflict of wit between the two 
poets. Lamb went to school from Crown Office Row, in 
the Temple, to a dingy little house in a passage leading 
from Fetter Lane into Bartlett's Buildings, close to Hoi- 
born. The junction of Fetter Lane and Holborn marks 
the place where ' Nathaniel Tomkins, Esquire,' was exe- 
cuted on 5 July, 1643, with Chaloner, for treason and 
rebellion ; Waller, the poet, who was one of the plotters, 
securing his life at the purchase of 10.000/. In the ' Life of 
Lord Eldon ' we are told : ' After I got to town my brother, 
now Lord Stowell, met me at the " White Horse," in I 
Fetter Lane, Holborn, then the great Oxford house, as 
I was told.' Ben Jonson, in 'Every Man out of his 
Humour,' makes Fungoss say : ' Then forty shillings 
more I can borrow upon my gown in Fetter Lane.' " 
New Age, 4 June. 

Brent Street, Hendon, N.W. 

THE ONE-VOLUME NOVEL. In reference to the 
recent efforts that have been made to issue the 
modern novel in a single volume, it may be well 
to note that Mrs. Gore's ' Lettre de Cachet, a Tale 
of the Reign of Terror,' was published in a small 
8vo. volume in 1828, and that the author writes 
in her preface " in defence of one- volume novels, 
as opposed to 1,200 hot-pressed pages." 



8* 8. X. AUG. 22, '96.] 



died in 1702, aged seventy- seven. Can any 
reader give me further information about these 
three brothers, their ancestry or descendants? 
Any details about Trimnells of this family, or of 
any other, will be gratefully acknowledged. Is 
the connexion known between the Trimnell family 
f , of Stafford and Leicester ('Visit, of Leic.,' 1619, 
LOST BooK8.-In working at a bibliography of Har] Soc>> Vl 176) ^ beginning "Rogerus 

Trimnell al's Trinnell de Com' Staff" born I 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

early English books I have come across notices of Trimnell al's Trinnell de Com' Staff" (born, 
several which either never existed or are not at Bnppoae about 1610 ), an d the Trymnell family of 
present to be found. ] ! should be .jnuch obliged | Wo e ster ('Visit, of Wore.,' 1569, Harl. Soc., 

xxvii., p. 137), beginning " William Trymnell of 
Orley Hall in Com. Worst." (born about 1460)? 
The arms of Trimnell are Or, a cross engrailed 
gu., over all a bendlet az., while those of Trymnell 
are Arg., a cross engrailed and a canton gu., over 

to any one who could give me information on the 
subject : 

1. Aleock (J.). Sermo pro episcopo puerorum, 4to., 
Richard Pynson, London. 

2. Berners (J.), Treatise of fishing with an angle, 4 to., 
W. de Worde, Westminster. 

3. Contemplacyon of the shedding of blood, 4 to., W. de 
Worde, Westminster. 

4. Cordial, 4to., W. de Worde, Westminster [1500]. 

5. Elegantiarum viginti praecepta,,4to., R. Pynson, 
London [1498]. 

6. Legrand, Book of good manners, fol., R. Pynson, 
London, 1494. 

7. Lidgate, Horse, sheep, and goose, 4to., W. de Worde, 

8. Plowman's prayer, 4to., W. de Worde, Westminster. 

9. Stanbridge Vocabula, 4to., W. de Worde, West- 
minster, 1500. 

10. Vineis (R. de\ Life of St. Catherine, 4to., W. de 
Worde, Westminster. 

11. Vulgaria Terentii, 4to., W. de Machlinia, London. 
No*. 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, I imagine are 

with other editions and non-existent. 

No. 3, was seen and described by Herbert, vol. i. 
p. 208. 

all a bendlet az. CHAS. A. BERNAU. 

Clare House, Lee, Kent. 

little poems by Frances Browne required, especi- 
ally two entitled * Mark's Mother ' and ' The 
Wild Swan.' Could any one suggest a book, 
newspaper, or magazine where T might find these ? 
I have tried some collected editions without suc- 
cess. S. T. 8. 

MASONIC. Could any correspondent kindly tell 
me if it would be possible to find out to what 
lodge of Freemasons an officer of the Parliamentary 
party in 1647 belonged 1 He was an Englishman, 

ordered to Ireland in 

co. Cork, 1692. On his 

' No/5. I know of this only from two leaves in the vi8ibl * a B( l uare and compasses a wreath of roses, 

Sc^7i E ^8 bUfgh! ^ ^^ had 86en oTcfursThe 8 ' # ETb Ttlft 
XT~ .._ :_ xu- "i * TT . j -m* _ leaving England, in which case it would be 

No. 6 waVin the sales of Heber and Bliss. I leaV K in ft 

No. 7. The copy I wish to trace belonged at one P robablv m 

time to a Mr. Howorth. 
No. 11. Of this book I know two editions. Of 

one an almost complete copy is in the University 

Library, Cambridge ; of the other, fragments are in 

several libraries. 



interesting passage is found in ' Magna Britannia 
et Hibernia' (1727), vol. iv. p. 148 (?its first 
appearance in print it is repeated in several later 

Now two other copies were lately in existence. I works), and is said to be derived from " a manu- 
One wanting the first leaf and two others sold in script in Sir Robert Cotton's library." Having, 
Mr. Loscombe's sale in 1854. Of the other a however, searched the index and abstracts of the 
tracing of the first leaf was made by Mr. Tutet Cotton MSS. at the British Museum without die- 

some time in the last century. 

Brasenose Club, Manchester. 


TRIMNELL. William Trimnell, Dean of Win- 
chester, Hugh Trimnell, Apothecary to the King's 
Household (appointed 15 March, 1720), and 

covery, I shall be grateful to any kind reader 
wno may be able to direct me to the MS. It is 
said to be in Anglo-Saxon, and is thus rendered 

in I 5? deni Eng ( ! i8h ''77 . , 

There 8at at Sifford (sic) many thanes, many bishops, 
and many learned men, wise earl*, and awful kniyhts 
there was Earl Elfrick, very learned in the law ; and 

, , , 

JJavid Inmnell, Archdeacon of Leicester and Alfred, England's herdsman, England's darling, be was 

Chancellor of Lincoln, were all younger brothers of Kin B of England, he taught them as could hear him how 

the celebrated Charles Trimnell, Bishop of Nor- the * 8hould Iive> " 

wich and later of Winchester (born 27 December, One wishes for more of this, and would have the 

1663, and died s.p.s. 15 August, 1723), and sons context, if there be any. And is there anything 

the Rev. Charles Trimnell, for forty-five years more to be learned in relation to Shifford ? The 

rector of Ripton Abbots, Huntingdonshire, who ' place is on the left, or Oxfordshire bank of the 



[8* 8. X. Auo, 22/96. 

Thames, sixteen miles, by the winding course of 
the river, above Oxford, and two miles above the 
very ancient bridge called "New Bridge." It is 
a chapelry in Bam pton- Aston (a division of the 
parish of Bampton), has an area of 775 acres, and 
consists of two farms, called Old and New Shif- 
ford, belonging to the Harcourts of Nuneham 
Park. Old Shifford stands two hundred yards 
from the river margin, and a little west of the 
farmhouse is St. Mary's Church, a small edifice 
which replaced an older in 1863 ; it has a register 
dating from 1783. Near the church (or chapel) 
are a few dwellings, called on the Ordnance Map 
" Coldharbour Cottages," and these, with the two 
farmhouses New Shifford being three-quarters of 
a mile north of the old farm now constitute Shif- 
ford, so far as human habitation is implied. The 
population all told is thirty-one. New Shifford 
is on the public road between Standlake and 
Bampton, and from it a field-road leads to Old 
Shifford, where, across the river, is a ford, 
doubtless that from which the place had its name. 
The Directory of the county mentions a piece of 
ground near the church called "Court Close," 
where it is believed Alfred the Great held his 
council. Is that one council the only recorded 
fact touching Shifford; and have the succeeding 
thousand years passed it by unnoticed ? 

27, Elgin Avenue, W. 

" A NELSON." A person describing a fight 
between men said that one gave the other a 
" Nelson," which, so far as I could gather, meant 
either a knock down or a blow which went a long 
way towards giving the victory to the one who 
delivered the blow. Is this expression in common 
use ? There is no need to ask for its origin. 



SIMON FBASER. Mr. Leslie Stephen ('Diet, of 
Nat. Biog.') states at p. 224, under "Simon Fraser, 
Master of Lovat," p. 224, on col. 2, 1. 14, "Fraser 
married a Miss Bristo, an English lady, by whom 
he left no issue." Bnrke's ' Peerage,' under 
" Lovat," p. 886, top of col. 1, says that this 
Simon Fraser died unmarried in 1782. Now 
which is correct Mr. Leslie Stephen or Burke ? 


Toronto, Canada. 

churchwardens' accounts for Asby, Westmoreland, 
from 1657 to 1798, I learn it was a portion of the 
duty of a churchwarden to encourage the destruc- 
tion of foxes (which cost the parish 2s. 6d. each) 
and other vermin. Among the latter are dopes, 
for which twopence was paid. This word is not 
to be found in any of the fifteen dictionaries to 
which I have referred. For each brockhead 
destroyed one shilling was allowed. Is this the 

same animal as brock, a badger ? The catchers of 
a foulmart were awarded fourpence. In some 
old dictionaries this animal is described as a pole- 
cat, in others a weasel. Can any correspondent give 
information respecting the three animals named? 
71, Brecknock Road. 

(55th Begiment of Foot) married a Miss Hersey, 
an American, about 1790. Did they leave de- 
scendants? A. C. H. 

Was he John Peyton, of Iselham, Cambridge, who 
was created a baronet in 1611, and identical with 
the John Peyton who sat for Cambridgeshire in 
1593, Castle Bising in 1601, and for Cambridge- 
shire again in 1604-11 ? In the last Parliament 
he is styled "Knight," having received that 
honour on 28 March, 1603. W. D. PINK. 

"STROGIN." Observing a query, ante, p. 7, 
under the heading of ' Scottish National Music/ 
and taking an interest in that subject, I should 
like to know what is meant by a strogin. A 
tune found in an old Scottish musical MS. of the 
end of the seventeenth or beginning of the 
eighteenth century, said to have belonged to Dr. 
John Leyden, is named 'Strick upon a Strogin.' 
Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able 
to enlighten me. I have been unable to find the 
word in Jamieson's ' Scottish Dictionary ' or other 
sources. Probably its meaning was well known in 
Leyden's time. It may be a local word. 


Where can I find particulars of Col. Pestal, of 
the Bussian army, who died a traitor to his 
country (in the forties ?), and who is said to have 
written the melody of this song on the wall of his 
prison the night before he was shot ? Mrs. Craw- 
ford wrote the English words. S. J. A. F. 

" LILLILO." I notice the employment in a review 
of this dialect word. I am familiar with its use in 
Yorkshire, chiefly in the nursery, where any 
bright flame is commended to the attention of 
children as a "lillilo." I fancied the correct 
spelling to be "lily" or "lilly low," from low, a 
flame, and lily, soaring up as a lily. Is the 
reviewer's spelling, which is that also of Halliwell, 
correct ? MILES. 

before me a small parchment, thus docketed, 
and purporting to emanate from "The Super- 
eminently Beneficent and Superlatively Benevo- 
lent Sir James Lumsdaine, Sovereign of the most 
ancient and most puissant order of the Beggars 
Benison and Merry land, in the Thirteenth year 
of his Guardianship and in that of the Order 

8" 1 8. X. Aco. 22, '96.] 



5786." This potentate's signature is witnessed b 
"the Recorder Pat Plenderleath (?)" at th 
"Chambers of Anstruther," and the document i 
drawn up in favour of a young nobleman, wh 
in 1786 was in his twenty-first year. Afte 
reciting the sovereign's care for his well-belovec 
subjects, and for " the encouragement of Trad 
Manufactures and Agriculture," he admits th 
young nobleman as a "Knight Companion of th 
most ancient and most puissant order," am 
grants " our full powers and priviledges of Ingress 
Egress, and Regress from and to and to and from 
all the Harbours, Creeks, Havens, and Commo 
dions Inlets upon the Coasts of our said extensiv< 
Territories at his pleasure, and that without pay 
ment of Toll Custom or any other Taxes or Impo- 
sitions whatever." A seal is appended showing a 
large anchor and the legend " The Beggars Beni- 
son." I should be much obliged for any infor- 
mation about the order or society*thus whimsically 
described. The date is almost certainly 1786. 

The Rectory, Wera, Salop. 

[You will find an account of the 'Beggar's Benison ' 
in5 th S.xii. 98.] 

were his parents? On 21 March, 1540, the will 
of one Frances Aelmer was proved (P.C.C., 
25 Alenger). Was this lady the Bishop's mother ? 
From the will it is clear she was on intimate terms 
with Sir William and Lady Butts. The Buttses 
were a Norfolk family, and Bishop Aylmer be- 
longed to the same county. Is it known at what 
college at Cambridge Aylmer was educated? 
What relation was his wife, Judith Bures, to 
Henry Bures, of Acton, Suffolk, whose three 
daughters married the three sons of Sir William 
Butts, M.D. ? CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

4 'ORTS." Recently I heard an Essex parson 
make use of this term, in a sermon on the miracle 
of the loaves and fishes, as illustrative of " the frag- 
ments that remained." Upon making inquiry, I 
found that this term is very commonly used in 
Essex by the villagers. Upon turning to that ever 
useful ' Phrase and Fable ' I find " Orts = crumbs, 
refuse (Saxon oretlan, to make worthless), Gaelic 
ord, Irish orda, a fragment." 'The Rape of 
Lucrece ' is also quoted : 

Let him have time a beggar'a orts to crare. 
Is the term "orts" in use in other parts of the 
country ? ETHERT BRAND. 

93, Barry Road, Stonebridge Park, N.W. 

LThe use extends beyond the limits mentioned.] 

THE PILGRIM FATHERS. Can any of your 
aders furnish me with the names of those of the 

Pilgrim Fathers who, belonging to Southwark, 

sailed to America in the Mayflower? 



(8" 1 S. ix. 404, 456.) 

I must confess to some disappointment in regard 
to the replies which have so far appeared in answer 
to this query. MR. PEACOCK refers to Bishop 
Stubbs's 'Constitutional History of England. 1 
To that I have referred in vain for the terse and 
accurate definition which MR. PEACOCK led me to 
expect. I presume the passage to which he refers 
is that beginning, " The unit of the constitutional 
machinery or local administration, the simplest 
form of social organization, is the township, the 
villata or vicus." In a note the learned historian 
tells us that " the tdn is originally the enclosure or 
hedge, whether of the single farm or of the enclosed 
village." This is, of course, very interesting in 
its way, but by no means explains what may 
properly be called a town in England to-day. 

The " dictionary definitions" quoted by CANON 
TAYLOR are still less helpful. What a begging of 
be question to tell the inquirer that "anycol- 
ection of houses larger than a village " is a town ! 
When does a village become a town ? But if a 
market of any kind makes a place a town, other 
uestions arise. May we understand that CANON 
AYLOR accepts it as a rule that no place can be a 
own without a market, or that every place, in- 
erior to a city, which has a market is a town ? 


A most remarkable use of "town" is in St. 
uke xv. 15, in the Wycliffe- Purvey version, where 
apears " he sente hym in to his toun to fede swyn," 
ith which compare ch. xiv. 18, viii. 34. The first, 
probably, to attract attention to this use of " town," 
after Home Tooke, was Arnold, App. iii. Thucyd., 
vol. i. p. 655, 1830. He notices also the similarity 
of origin between the Greek Srj^os, from Sta>, and 
the English "town," from tynan, both verbs with 
the signification " to enclose." 


The following extract from the manuscript of 
Robt. Hawes (author of the 'History of Fram- 
lingham,' 1725) on the manors of Brandeston 
and Cretingham, Suffolk, may be of interest, with 
regard to the affix "ton" to place-names, at first 
suggestive of "town." In a former note I have 
referred to this manuscript relating to the Ryvet 

Such an Originall had the Manor of Brandeston, 
called Brandestune, or Branteetune in the Conqueror's 
Survey, and before : For too' he caused the Lands to be 
holden by new Tenures, yet the Cities, Towna, and 
Villages did retain those old Names which were given 
them by the Saxons : who in the Time of their Heptarchy, 
to Defend themselves from being spoiled by the Wars, 
or sodain Incursions of their Neighbours, did, instead of 

Palaiido, as now used, cast up Ditches, and make 



[8 S. X. AUG. 22, '96. 

strong Tunes (since called Hedges) thereon, about their 
Houses; and these Houses, so environed with Tunes, 
especially where Houses of several Persons stood near 
together, and were encompassed with one Tune, gave 
the termination of Tune to those Villages, as Brandes- 
tune, Cloptune, &c." 

Schloss Wildeck, Aargau. 

The answer to this question entirely depends on 
the locale where it is put. Sir Walter Scott, in 
'Old Mortality,' the date of which is 1679, thus 
speaks of its application to the house of Milnwood 
in Clydesdale : 

" It was a universal custom in Scotland, that when the 
family was at dinner, the outer gate of the courtyard, if 
there was one, and if not the door of the house itself, 
was always shut and locked, and only guests of import- 
ance, or persons upon urgent business, sought or received 

admittance at that time 'We were at dinner,' answered 

Milnwood, 'and the door was locked, as is usual in land- 
ward towns in this country.' " Chapter vii. 

An appended note says : 

" The Scots retain the use of the word town in its 
comprehensive Saxon meaning as a place of habitation. 
A mansion or a farmhouse, though solitary, is called the 
town. A landward town is a dwelling situated in the 

The Chateau of Hougoumont, on the field of 
Waterloo, so gallantly defended by General Byng, 
appears to have been a place of this description. 

As an illustration of the unsettled meaning of 
the word with the old English-born Puritans 
dying in New England, I would offer this, from the 
will of the Key. John Ward (born at Haverhill, 
England, 1606, died at Haverhill, New England, 
1680), who was the son of the Rev. Nathaniel 
Ward, the author of the celebrated merry conceit 
' The Simple Cobbler of Agawam '(Indian for fishing 
station), a tract intensely popular in England as well 
as in the colonies in its day, Agawam being Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, from which place the elder Ward, 
in company with his son and others, started and 
settled the younger Haverhill on the banks of the 
Merrimac river (Indian for sturgeon) : 

" Lord, into thy hands commit I my Spirit. Credo 
languida fide, ted tamen fide. I give to my beloved son 
Benja. Woodbridge, and to my beloved daughter, Mary, 
his wife, one parcell of land, containing 30 acres more or 
less, lying ate the nor-west end of the towne of Haver- 
hill, N.E. I give to my beloved son, Nath 1 Saltonetall, 
and to my beloved daughter his wife, my house and land 
in the towne of Haverhill. Lastly I constitute and 
appoynt my beloved son, Saltonstall, the executor of this 
my last Will and Testament." 

Twenty years previous to this will Merrick, in 
his ' Description of New England,' London, 1660, 
writes : 

" Four leagues up this river Merrimack is Haverell, a 
pretty towne, and a few miles higher up is the towne 
of Andover both townes subsist by husbandry." 

These three places at that time could hardly have 
had more than a hundred adults in each. 

The indiscriminate use of the word in New 
England nowadays, as opposed to its modern 
meanirg, is still kept up by many of the descend- 
ants of the Puritans. This is shown in the recent 
' N. & Q. 1 communication touching Gibbet Hill 
(8 a S. ix. 388) of S. A. G., who there, in a single 
breath, mentions Groton as being a village and & 
town both. Yet I notice that the last ' Gazetteer 
of Massachusetts' (1891) plainly calls Groton a 
village. It may be peculiar to town history litera- 
ture to ignore the widely spread modern usage of 
the two words, but my observations lead me to say 
that the ordinary class of beings, outside of the 
farmer and the topographer, notwithstanding all 
particular official designation, invariably call a 
place without laid- out side- walks, containing, say, 
2,000 inhabitants, a village ; one without that con- 
venience, &c., up to 10,000, a town ; beyond that 
number, with the enjoyment of libraries, electric 
street railways, theatres, good hotels, and plenty 
of bustle, a city. SALEM. 

Lately visiting a small village only a few miles- 
from Kirton-in-Lindsey, I found "the town" 
meant the centre of the place where three roads 
met in the shape of a T, in one angle of which 
stood the large old barn of the glebe farm, about 
the walls of which the youths and unmarried men 
used to assemble in the evenings. I never there 
heard the term "village," but always "in the 
town" or "down the lane" or "up the road.'* 
The old versions of the Bible give "town" in- 
many places where we now have " village"; I have 
looked out the following in the Great or Crom- 
well's Bible of 1539: Mat. xiv. 15, Mat. xxi. 2, 
Mark xi. 2, Luke xix. 30, Luke xxiv. 13 and 28, 
Judges v. 7. Probably all the six Cranmers, April, 
1540, to December, 1541, are the same, but I hav* 
not time to compare, and the above are sufficient. 

E. E. 

P.S. I find the Eouen 1566 Cranmer agrees 
with the 1539 Bible in all the above places. Thfr 
Bishops' Bible, 1568-1602, gives "town" in some 
places, and " village " in others. 

"JACK PUDDING" (8 th S. ix. 267). 

Five countries from five favourite dishes name- 

The popular stage-buffoon's professional name.. 

Half-fish himself, the Dutchman, never erring-, 

From native instinct styles him Pickle Herring. 

The German, whose strong palate haut gouts fit, 

Calls him Hans Werst, that is, John Sausage wit. 

The Frenchman, ever prone to badinage, 

Thinks of his soup, and shrugs. Eh ! voila Jean Potayti, 

Full of ideas his sweet food supplies, 

The Italian Ecco Maccaroni ! cries. 

While English taste, whose board with dumpling smokes r 

Inspired by what he loves, applauds Jack Pudding > jokes.. 

A charming bill of fare, you Ml eay, to suit 

One dish, and tbat one dish a fool to boot. S. Bishop. 

If be has not already seen them, MR. MOUN'J 
may be interested in reading the above lines. 

8" 8. X. AM. 22, '96.] 



him Knight of the Gridiron, giving him a gridiron of 
gold, the ensign of the Order of Ja< 

ack Puddings (who 

have since degenerated into Merry Andrews), which he 
always wore as a mark of his sovereign's favour." 

Jack Pudding was another name for Merry 

"Twas from the doctor's [Andrew Bordel method of 
using euch speeches at markets and fair?, that in after > , 
times thoge that imitated the like humorous jocose Column gives no authority for this account of the 
language were styled Merry Andrews, ji term much in [ origin of the English Jack Pudding. 


The following explanation is from 'A Dic- 
tionary of the Noted Names of Fiction,' 1866, 

vogue on our stages." Warton'i 'English Poetry,' 
vol. iii. p. 74. 

See * Things not Generally Known/ by John 

Timbs, First Series. 

Mr. 0. Lewis, in hi* ' Journal of a West India 

Proprietor,' 1834, p. 51, refers to the procession com P lJ ed by \\. A. Wheeler, M.A. : 

_r*u. T-I__ n .-_ T .- . Hansvurst [German, Jack Pudding]. A panto- 

mimic character formerly introduced into German 
comedies, and originally intended as a caricature of the 
Italian Harlequin, but corresponding more particularly 
with the Italian Macaroni, the French Jean Potage, the 
English Jack Pudding, and the Dutch Pickel-herringe 
all favourite characters of the population, and called 
after favourite national dishes. Hanswurst was noted 
for bis clumsiness, his gormandizing appetite, and his 
Falstaffian dimensions. He was driven from the German 

of the John Canoe in Jamaica : 

"The John Canoe is a Merry Andrew dressed in a 
striped doublet, and bearing upon his head a kind of 
pasteboard house-boat, filled with puppet?, representing, 
some sailors, others soldiers, others again slaves at work 
on a plantation, &c." 

What is the origin of the name John Canoe ? 

, A. C. W. 

Addison does not seem to be very far wrong, stage by Gottsched about the middle of the eighteenth 
Puddings, and even black puddings, seem to have century." P. 164. 

been favourite food amongst the populace, to judge 
from the numerous references in Elizabethan comic 
literature and (a better test still) proverbial 



"RATHE-RIPE" (8 th S. ix. 426 ; x. 119). The 

phrases. Very numerous proverbs showing this I Su88ex people eagt and wesfc call the rat he-ripe 
are given in_Hazhtt> ' Proverbs (see also Hazhtt's | apple P the P r ' at her-ri P e. It ripens early, aid 

notes to * Lusty Juventus,' p. 78 of voL ii. of 
Hazlitt's 'Dodsley'). An interesting account of 

quickly rots. In the short interval it is delicious. 

. - - A . . i "Very-ripe" would be a better descriptive name ; 

he characteristics of the Pickelharing and other but J rat he-ripe" is, of course, correct, from 
typical buffoons of the German stage will be found hr<xth A n e .-SaI, early. W. D. PARISH. 

at pp. xcm to cviu of the introduction to Creize- 

nach's valuable work ' Schauspiele der Englischen I FOUBERT'S RIDING ACADEMY (8 th S. x. 109). 
Komodianten,' which contains a full account of the Sir Edward HarJey, writing to his wife on 6 July ? 
travels of the English comedians in Germany, &c., 1680, says : 

in Shakesperian times. 

Waltham Abbey, Essex. 


Monsieur Foubert, who for his religion was driven 
out of France, has set up an academy near the Hay- 
market for riding, fencing, dancing, handling arms, and) 

T ~. , , I mathematics. He is greatly commended and has divers 

Kirke s beven Champions of Christendom,' as persons of quality. 1 was with him and like him very 
toted in Strutt's * Sports and Pastimes, 1 has : well, so that if you dislike not I would have Robin spend 
'"'Have you any squibs, any green men, in your 80me time there." ' Hist. MSS, Com., Fourteenth Ke- 
shows, and whizzes on lines, Jack-pudding upon port '' App ' pt ' iL 366 ' 

the rope, or resin fireworks?" (1638.) The same Robin, who afterwards became the famous Earl 
book refers also to a mention by Grainger of a of Oxford, was accordingly sent to M. Foubert's 
Jack Pudding, a mountebank named Hans Buline academy in 1681. From the letters addressed to- 

_ Ai_ -w f+ "' I u. ; . i_ i^?oi .. .3 I 

in the reign of James II. 


In ' Random Records,' by George Colman the ( manners 
of the puddings made by 


him in 1681 and 1682 it would appear that " the 
French academy," as it was sometimes called, was 
situated in Sherwood Street, Piccadilly (Ibid.+ 
pp. 370, 371, 374). A curious account of the 
and habits of M. Foubert's pupils is 
by one Edmund Nicholas, whose letter to 
Robin is dated from Sherwood Street, 9 Jan. 

M , ., 

r M f r y lebone 8emin ?ry> 1682/3 (Ibid., p. 374). I should perhaps add that 
a _ P r , lon of h18 earlv Vacation, in on ' e iUance the name of the street 

"Sherard Street." 

;and of puddings generally, says : 

^John Brnn d ' "^^f: instruc t h ^ [the reader] that I see Wheatley and Cunningham's 

Brun, of Norfolk, was ordered up to Court, and ' 
jointed cook to King John, of Magna Charta memory 
account of his skill in pudding-making; when, so 
was John Brun's fame, that he was called Jack 

is given as 

ftn j 

With regard to this variation 
London Past 
vol. iii. p. 239. G. F. R. B. 

* MARMION TRAVESTIED ' (8 th S. ix. 328, 374> 

- -- -^M^Wf nuciw uc VTCU9 VCbUCU */ BlUiL ir i , i i 

mg throughout the kingdom ; and being the first ~~ Mv thanks are due to the correspondents who 
ever broiled these dainties, the monarch instituted [ have given information. It does not yet appear 



[8 :h S.X, AUG. 22/96. 

how so bold a libel, affecting such prominent per- 
sonages, went unpunished, at a time when Lord 
Ellenborough presided in the King's Bench. The 
separate dedications, omitted from the edition of 
1811, occupy fifty-six pages in that of 1809, and 
are collectively inserted between the " Advertise- 
ment," which is a preface of nineteen pages, and 
the travesty itself. G. Hazard was the printer. 
Portland, Oregon. 

MENT (8 ln S. ix. 168, 431).! have a copy of a 
most valuable and useful work on the Hebrew 
Scriptures, containing paraphrases, translations, 
and commentaries. The title-page runs thus : 

" Pronaos to Holy Writ | Establishing on Document- 
ary Evidence, the | Authorship, Date, Form, and Con- 
tents | of each of its Books | and the | Authenticity of 
the Pentateuch | by | Isaac M. Wise | President of the 
Hebrew Union College Cincinnatti I Cincinnatti I Robert 
Clarke & Co., 1891." 

The work appears to be the result of ripe scholar- 
ship, thoroughly up to date, and presents in a 
concise form the Old Testament from the point of 
view of a modem Jewish Professor of Divinity. 
I should think it is the very thing MR. HOOPER 
has been looking for. G. YARROW BALDOCK. 

BLENKARD (8 th S. x. 116). This was discussed 
8 tto S. vi. 89, 398, 473. W. C. B. 

SOURCE or QUOTATION WANTED (8 tto S. x. 76). 
The source of the saying obviously is the story 
of Mark Antony's fishing misadventures, told by 
Plutarch in his ' Lives.' 



DRAWN BATTLE (8 th S. x. 49). Does "drawing- 
room " for l< withdrawiog-room " (if, at least, this is 
still thought good etymology) make more likely 
DR. MURRAY'S derivation ? 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

WALLOONS (8 tto S. ix. 468). If your corre- 
pondent will refer to my list of * Church Registers ' 
given in ' N. & Q.,' 8 th S. vii. 382, he will find 
that the ' Registers of the Walloon or Strangers' 
Church at Canterbury,' Baptisms, 1581-1684, 
also the ' Registers of St. Dunstan's, Canterbury,' 
1559-1800, have been printed, and are, therefore, 
accessible in that form. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

OF SCOTS (8 tb S. x. 48). This celebrated picture 
was exhibited at the Stuart Exhibition in 1889, 
being numbered 39 in the Catalogue, and there 
fully described. It was well reproduced as a full- 
page picture in the Graphic of 23 March, 1889, 

and very good representations were also given in 
the Scottish Art Review of September, 1888, and 
the Art Journal of January, 1889. 

5, Capel Terrace, South end-on-Sea. 

* DREAMLAND' (8 th S. x. 94). In 'Christian 
Ballads,' by the late Bishop Arthur Cleveland 
Coxe, the date of the first edition of which is 
1840, ia a poem entitled * Dreamland' (capital D). 
It is a Utopian description of a primitive church : 
In Dreamland once I saw a church ; 

Amid the trees it stood; 
And reared its little steeple-cross 
Above the sweet green- wood; 
And then I heard a Dreamland chime 

Peal out from Dreamland tower, 
And saw ho w Dreamland Christian folk 
Can keep the matin-hour. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

THE "PADOREEN" MARE (8 th S. ix. 289, 412, 
461). May not this mysterious racer have been 
named after Padreen MacFaad,orPaudhereen Fadh 
his name is spelt both ways the notorious high- 
wayman, whose daring arrest and robbery of 
General Napier was the talk of the time ? The 
episode is worthy of relation. Napier had expressed 
surprise that this noted marauder should be at 
large. Padreen heard him, and swore vengeance. 
With two brothers named Crossagh he laid his 
plans. I excerpt a portion of the story from the 
Dublin Penny Journal, 1833: 

" Knowing that the General was to march next day 
over a long narrow bridge, in a valley where the current 
had failed, Padreen took his station, with his associates, 
near the bridge, and some of them under the arches. The 
General, at the time expected, advanced at the head of 
his troop at a brisk trot, and when they got on the 
bridge his horse was suddenly shot under him and] 
Padreen MacFaad appeared. A show of resistance was 1 
attempted, but one of the Crossaghs roared aloud in' 
their rear and presented a blunderbuss, with which he 
swore to do bloody execution on the man who would put! 
hand to holster or sword. Padreen, in the mean time I 
stood before them in no very inviting attitude, a pisto. 
in each hand and his belt stuck full of daggers. Whet I 
thus completely jammed in on each side by the curtairi 
walls of the bridge and attacked front and rear, MacFaacI 
informed the General who he was, and commanded him! 
on the peril of his life, to give order to his troops tha I 
they should suffer themselves to be tied, one aftel 
another, by his associates, who had ropes prepared fo|l 
the purpose. The commander was obliged to givi 
orders accordingly; and the men were compelled t 
submit to inglorious bonds till all were firmly secured." jj 
Now oaths wildly eounded, and pistols were flashing, 
And horses high bounding, and broad swords wer|^ 

clashing ; 

The demon of plunder in glory did revel, 
For Shane and stout Padreen laid on like the devil ; 
Till at length fairly routed the whole scarlet squad 
Were tied neck and heels, by brave Padreen MacFaad. j 
I can add nothing to what has been said by D ; j 
Cox. The following notes have reference to horsi i 

8" 1 8. X. Aoo. 22, '96.] 



It is possible that I may have misunderstood 
E. L. G.'s meaning, but if I have not it is clear 
that E. L. G. and John Richard Green are not in 
agreement. ALFRED HARCOURT, Col. 

mentioned by him, and may be of interest in con 
nexion with the victory of Black and all Black, an 
event which seems to have created a considerable 
sensation. The following is an advertisement, 
dated 1750 : 

"This is to give notice to the Public, that the battle , LEAD^LETTERING ON SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS 
which was to he fought in Dublin, at the Back-sword, (8" 1 S. ix. 425 ; x. 10, 82). With reference to 
between Mr. James Dalzel of England, and Mr. Edward the REV. W. R. TATE'S question as to the fidelity 
Sill of Ireland, is, at the request of several noblemen and o f the translation of Job xix. 23, 24, in the A. V., 
gentlemen, to be decided at the Cockpit at Kilcullen ' 
Bridge, the day that Black and all Black runs at the 
Curragh, for fifty guineas and the whole house, and 
whoever gives the most bleeding wounds, in nine bouts, 
hall, by approbation [stc], have all the money. The 

perhaps Renan's rendering may be usefully given, 
viz. : 

doors to be opened at 9 o'clock in the forenoon, and fight 
between 11 and 12. Front seats, 55. 5d" 

In the Monthly Chronologer for Ireland, April, 
1749, 1 find : "His Majesty's plate of 100 Guineas 
was won by Mr. O'Neill's grey mare Irish Lass." 

Oh ! qui me donnera que mes paroles eoient ecrites, 
Qu'elles soient ecrites dans un livre, qu'elles soient gravees 
Avec un stylet de fer et avec du plomb, 
Qu* a jamais elles eoient sculpte'es BUT le roc. 

In a note Renan says : " On coulait du plomb dans 
les creux kisses par le burin sur les malic-res 
dures, pour rendre les traces plus visibles." It 
will be observed that Renan's version differs but 
little from the A.Y., but he avoids the solecism in 
the use of the word " printed " in the latter. In 
verse 25, however, the celebrated words " I know 

the latter entry, writes as follows': "With regard I f hat my Redeemer liveth," are rendered by the 
---- , ... . . . , B l learned Frenchman, 

OUR PLANET (8* S. ix. 408, 457). E. L. G., at 

Car, je le sais, mon vengeur existe. 


to the magnetic needle, it is not more affected, on 

the whole, by one of the earth's poles than by the 

other. At the equator it stands horizontal, and 

elsewhere it dips to the nearest pole." The English I Norwich. 

of this would seem to be that at the equator the , 

magnetic needle runs parallel with the equatorial MILITARY STANDARDS (7"> S. x. 326, 377). 

line, and that below the equator it points due P APT - HOLDEN says standards were not borne by 

south and above the equator due north. In con- infantl 7 regiments. I do not know the technical 

nexion with this subject I annex the following difference between standard and colours; but in 

from 'Geography,' by Sir Geo. Grove ("History 165 the Duke of St - Albans' Regiment bore two 

MW " *t.J?A.J 1 T_l T>* 1 3 f* I atan/1 at/ia Stna fVo i/\Yral nwtvta +ViA svtVtAM Vi i .-. rt ^.-- 

Primer," edited'by J'ohn Richard Green): 

" There are two lines on the Earth's surface along 
which the needle does point to the true north, and 
neither of the two has any connexion with parallels or 
meridians, but seems to cross them at haphazard. One 
of them sweeps up from the Antarctic Circle, enters the 
East coast of S. America in S. lat. 24, a little south of 
Rio Janeiro, leaves it again at Cayenne, north of the 
mouth of the Amazons, crossea the Atlantic outside the 
West Indian islands, enters N. America near Cape 
Hatteras, and runs to a point N.W. of the Hudson Bay. 
The other line lies nearly opposite across the world, and 
is much more irregular in its course. It too comes up 
from the Antarctic Circle and enters S. Australia in 
.. long. 129 S. lat. 32, in the Australian Bight. It 
leaves it again in King's Sound, lat. 17 S. and long. 123E., 

standards one the royal arms, the other his coat 
of arms. I should be very glad of any information 
about this duke or his regiment. 

Sulhamstead Park, Berks. 

VECTIS (8 th S. x. 115). For three different 
views see (1) Guest's ' Origines Celtics?,' vol. ii. 
pp. 32, 33, 37, 38 ; (2) Edmunds's ' Traces of His- 
tory in the Names of Places,' p. 286 ; (3) Canon 
Taylor's 'Words and Places,' pp. 48, 208 (ed. 

St. Mary's Abbey, Windermere. 

Vectis is a Latin perversion of the older British 

, . 11 ------ v "a" ** v *"> I ** J^wviM, JJV1. T 1 1 Ol^/U, \JL LUC VJlliCi. AJ 

na, talcing a sudden bend to the west, passes outside of name of the Isle of Wiaht This an w W 

sr A ^^ 

Caspian, passes between Lakes Ladoga and Onega, and channel > tne channel being evidently the Solent, 

iters the Arctic Sea near the North Cape. Along these as I nave endeavoured to show in ' Names and 

i there is no variation of the compass, but the needle their Histories,' pp. 262 and 295. 

points straight to the due north, and as you leave them T 8AAr 

on either side it varies. To the east of them it points 18AAC 

ie west of the true north, and to the west of them 
to the east of the true north, more and more as you 

west At Th 6 e Tes or 

variation eome together at two placed frbne. ? s north Sf 
Hudson s Bay near Port Kennedy in 70 N lat. 97 W aou e vear A - D - 


The Isle of Wight was called Vecta or Vectis 
by the Romans at the invasion of Britain by 

bv ^espatian 
Plln 7 al o refers to it in 

LA second is in the Antarctic regions 73 S. lat his ' Natural History,' iv. 30, A.D. 72. Akenside, 

I in his Hymn to the Naiads,' 1L 141-2, says : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.x.A.22,'96. 

Of Thames, or Medway's vale, or the green banks 
Of Vecta, Bhe her thundering navy leads. 

In 1825 George Brannon, of WoottoD, Isle of 
Wight, published the second edition of a book of 
views entitled 'The Vectis Scenery,' a copy of 
which is in the British Museum. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

1 COR. ii. 9 (8 th S. x. 115). This has been 
discussed 6"> S. i. 195, 423 ; ii. 377, 478 ; 7 th S. i. 
349, 434. W. C. B. 

^ SCHOOL LISTS (8 tt S. iz. 261, 443). By the 
kindness of some correspondents of ' N. & Q.' I 
am able to make the following additions and cor- 
rections to the lists already given : 

Stonyhurst. Stonyhurst Lists, 1794-1894, by John B. 
Hatt, Stonyhurst, 1886, 8vo. 

Ackworth. List of the Boys and Girls admitted into 
Ackworth School, 1779-1879, London, 1879, 8vo. 

Castle Howell. Castle Howell School Record, Register 
of Pupils, 1850-1888, by David Davis, Lancaster, 1888, 
4 to. 

Lancing. Calendar of the Corporation of 88. Mary 
and Nicholas, Lancing, London, 1896, 8vo. (Contains 
Lists of Admissions to Lancing, Hurstpierpoint, and 
Ardingly Schools, at pp. 48-82.) 

Radley. Calendar of the College of St. Peter, Radley, 
Oxford, 1895, 16mo. (contains Admissions, 1847-1892). 

Shrewsbury. Lists edited by the Rev. J. B. Auden. 
(I have not been able to see this book.) 

Wakefield. History of Grammar School, by M. H. 
Peacock, Wakefield, 1892, 8vo. (Register of Pupils, 
1604-1891, at pp. 201-225.) 

Winchester. Winchester Commoners, 1800-1890, by 
C. W. Holgate, London, 1891-3, 8vo., 2 vols. 
At 8 to S. ix. 443, add to Bradfield, line 11, " 1850- 
1888." Add to London, University College, 
" London, 1892." Wellington College Register was 
printed in 1890. GEORGE W. MARSHALL. 

In connexion with the centenary celebrations of 
the Ulster Provincial School, Lisburn (a Quaker 
school), two years ago, a complete list of the 
scholars was published officially by the School 
Committee. This is not in MR. MARSHALL'S Hat. 

J. H. Q. 

Chelsea, S.W. 

I think it must have been in or about 1893 
that Mr. Temple Orme prepared and published a 
list of past scholars of University College School, 
London. I regret that I have not the book by me, 
but MR. MARSHALL will no doubt be able to 
obtain particulars as to date and publisher either 
from Mr. Orme, at the School, or from the 
librarian of the School Library. 


G.P.O., Cape Town. 

STRAPS (8 th S. ix. 468 ; x. 11, G3). The stories 
relative to public statues this query has brought to 
light suggests the following. The finest granite 
statue and pedestal in London and probably in 

Sngland is that of King William III., at the 
London Bridge end of King William Street. Its 
sculptor was, if I remember rightly, a young Irish- 
man, a native of Belfast. He secured the commission 
at a very low price ; so low, indeed, that almost 
the whole sum was expended by him in " sharpes " 
i. ., in his blacksmith's bill, for *' points," and 
sharpening tools. He was assured, however, that 
f he pat the circumstances fairly before the powers 
that be he would get an additional grant ; but 
after mnch weary waiting, he received a curt 
refusal to the application. This had such a sad 
effect upon the spirits of the accomplished but 
discouraged artist, that, in a fit of despair, he pat 
an end to his life. The figure was his first and 
last great work. HARRY HEMS. 

Dorf, Schiermonnikoog. 

It may be worth noting in this connexion that 
in the famous antique bronze equestrian statue of 
Marcus Aurelius, now on the Capitoline Hill in 
Rome, the rider is represented without stirrups. 

J. T. F. 

Bp. Hattield's Hall, Durham. 

The equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington 
in front of the Royal Exchange, erected 20 June., 
1844, possesses neither stirrups nor straps. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The same story is attached to the equestrian 
statue of William III., in College Green, here. 
It is said the sculptor forgot the stirrups, and 
made one leg longer than the other. Having 
discovered these faults, and not being permitted 
to remedy them, he hung himself. This statue 
was erected in 1701 by the citizens of Dublin to 
commemorate the revolution. The story seems to 
be going the round concerning all " King Billy's " 
monuments. Perhaps it is true of one of them. 


ix. 468). The authority for Dr. Brewer's state- 
ment, in further particulars, is this : 

" Referunt in Borucca insula. quae ab Hispaniola orbis 
novi MCC. passuum millibus distat, fontem in vertice 
montis esse qui senes restituat, noii tamen canos mutet, 
nee tollat jam contractas rugas. Cujus rei praeter per- 
eeverantem famam locuples testis Petrus Martyr An- 
gerius Mediolaneneis, a secretis Regis olim Hispaniarum, 
in suis decadibua orbis nuper inventi. Cardanue, de Sub- 
tilitate, lib. de Elementis." Beyerlinck, ' Lit. F.,' 658 B. : 

The nearest approach to an ancient legend about 
perpetual youth is that which Bacon states inj 
respect of Prometheus, in 'Wisdom of the An-f 
cients,' xxvi., taken from ^tjlian, 'De Natural 
Animalium,' vi. 51, and the 'Theriaca' of Nican-; 

7 12yvytos 8' apa fj,vOo<s tv alfyoicri <o/oaTcu, K.T.* 
But this shows rather how the gift of perpetual; 

8*8. X. 



youth, obtained for a short time, was in a momen 
lost to man and transferred to the serpent, ex 
changed by the ass that carried it at the KpT/jvrj 
/on*, Lat, to allay its thirst. It is the coinmoi 
story in ancient mythology. For a long notic 
aee'N. & Q.,' 4* S. ii. 202, 305. 


In 1513 tidings reached Haiti of the island o 
Bimani, in the Bahamas, which, from the resem 
blance of the name, the Spaniards identified wit] 
Palombe, a place in Asia, where in his travels Si 
John Mandeville asserted that there was a 
miraculous fountain of youth, of which h 
affirmed that he had himself drunk. Palombe was 
an imaginary name, Mandeville having cribbed hi 
account of the place and its fountain from a letter 
purporting to have been written by Prester John 
which we now know to have been spurious I 
was in search of this imaginary fountain that Juan 
Ponce de Leon and his followers sailed on the expe 
dition which discovered the Bahamas and traversec 
Florida, where they drank of every fountain 

i which they came across, in order to test whether 

I it possessed the required properties. 


I do not recollect in the Latin or Greek Classics 
any reference to the " Fons Juventae" an idea 
which must have sprung up in later times. In the 
first book of the '^Eoeid,' when the goddess 
mother wishes to invest her son with the charms oi 
youth, it is not by immersion in any fount, bat by 
divine " afflation," if I may coin such a word, that 
ahe proceeds : 

lumenque juventae 

Purpureum et laetos oculia adflarat honorea. 


The query under this head seems to require 
fuller treatment than can be contained in a few 
words. At the outset, the problem presents itself 
whether the legend of the fountain is derived from 
some localized cult or has its origin in a widely 
diffused myth. In classic mythology I can find 
nothing to support the view ; but there are many 
of the cults of the Greek and Latin states of 
which I am ignorant. The earliest analogy which 
I have been able to trace in tradition and myth 
of the healing or purifying power of a lake, river, 
or pool, is to be found in the Bible (2 Kings v.), 
where Naaman the Syrian is told to go and wash 
in Jordan seven times and he should be clean. 
We find other somewhat similar instances running 
throughout Semitic tradition. Whether the Greeks 
"borrowed their myth of the rendering invulnerable 
of Achilles by being dipped in the river Styx from 
the Semitic it is impossible to say. It is to be 
noted, however, that these rivers appear to have 
had these marvellous powers only under certain | 
conditions ; and a coincidence worthy of note 

is that the Jordan is sometimes referred to as 
the Styx of Christian my thology that is, the 
dividing line between the material and the spirit 
worlds. The idea of the personification of the 
revivifying forces of nature is common in classic 
mythology, and, too, accounts of the restoration 
of youth are to be frequently found (Brewer 
gives several references under this head, which I 
have not taken the pains to verify) ; but these do 
not seem to aid us materially in determining the 
origin of the legend, although possibly derived 
from these sources. 

Coming down to post-Christian times, however, 
we discover the legend of the fountain of perpetual 
youth of more or less frequent occurrence through- 
out the whole range of Aryan mythology. These 
traditions seem to have had an equal mixture of Chris- 
tian credulity and pagan superstition in their com- 
position. We read of many holy wells and springs 
existing during the dark ages; springs which a 
saint had charmed out of the ground by his 
prayers were supposed to have healing properties. 
On the authority of Gregory, the Alamanns, Franks, 
and Saxons worshipped rivers and fountains. In 
the time of Augustine the potency of holy wells 
appears to have been acknowledged in Libya, 
although denounced by the fathers as a relic of 

" In Germany other circumstances point undisguisedly 
to a heathen consecration of water : it was not to be drawn 
at midnight, but in the morning before sunrise, down 

stream and silently, usually on Easter Sunday Thig 

water does not spoil, it restores youth, heali eruptions." 
Grimm's 'Teutonic Mythology' (ed. Stallybrass), 
p. 586. 

A man bitten by an adder would not die if he 
could jump over the nearest water before the 
adder (Lenz's ' Schlangenkunde,' p. 208). A ques- 
tion arises whether many of the springs supposed 
,o cure disease and restore youth did not have 
rue medicinal properties ; some of them certainly 
did. Certain it is, also, that the Middle Ages 
herished the idea of a jungbrunnen. Nor was 
he idea confined to the Teutonic nations, similar 
>eliefs being found in Spain, Denmark, and other 
European countries. The fountain of youth was 
Iso supposed to be situated in Florida, and thither 
'once de Leon sailed in search of it. See, further, 
Grimm's 'Teutonic Mythology' (ed. Stallybrass), 
i. 1456, and a brief but interesting account of 
well worship in Gomme's 'Ethnology and Folk- 
New Brighton, N.Y. 

29, 216). In 'Lives and Exploits of English 
lighwaymen, Pirates, and Robbers, drawn from 
most Authentic Sources, 1 by 0. Whitehead, 
839, there is an account of " Sawney Beane, the 
Ian Eater," pp. 23-26. The truth of the narra- 
ve is said to be " attested by the most unques- 



. x. AUG. 22, '96. 

tionable historical evidence," though it seems 
utterly incredible. The narrative states that Beane 
was born in East Lothian, about eight miles east 
of Edinburgh, in the reign of James I. of Scot- 
land, that he was idle and vicious, and left his 
home with a woman as bad as himself, and went 
to a desert part of Galloway, where they lived in 
a large cave on the sea-shore. Whitehead 
says : 

" In this cave they commenced their depredations, and 
to prevent the possibility of detection, they murdered 
every person they robbed. Destitute of the means of 
obtaining any other food, they resolved to live upon 
human flesh, and accordingly, when they had murdered 
any man, woman, or child they carried them to their 
den, quartered them, salted the limbs, and dried them 
for food. In this manner they lived, carrying on their 
depredations and murder, until they had eight sons and 
six daughters, eighteen grandsons and fourteen grand- 
daughters, all the offspring of incest." 

They were eventually all taken and put to death. 

How far is Whitebead's ''historical evidence" 
"unquestionable"? F. 0. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

The reference to his communication to ' N. & 
Q.' in respect of the passage of St. Jerome, which 
in his late notice of the subject MR. OSWALD 
HUNTER BLAIR, O.S.B., states that he has for- 
gotten, is to 8 tn S. ii. 156, with which is to be 
taken, for other contributors, p. 165. There is a 
full examination of the subject. 


SCOTTISH CLERICAL DRESS (8 th S. ix. 245, 358). 
I am sorry no correspondent has yet given me 
some new references. The following extracts refer 
to the diocese of Moray : 

"The Synod off the Diocie of Murray holden in the 
kirk of Elgin upon the 13 and 14 dayes of April, 1624. 
The Visitors of the Book of Invernes reports that ye 
brethern haunts to ye Presbitarie with uncomly babitte, 
such as bonats and plaids, wbairfor the assemblie ordains 
them not to haunt ye Presbitarie any mair with uncomly 

4 February, 1640. " That all members be grave and 
decent in thair apparrell. That none wear long hair, 
but yat both in lyf and habite they may be known by 
their mein to be ye ministers of Jeeus Chryet." 
Dunbar's ' Documents relating to the Province of Moray, 
1895, p. 39. 



" NAPOLEON GALEUX " (8 tb S. ix. 365 ; x. 82). 
D. G. P. is probably incorrect in stating that the 
Duke of Wellington had acid baths when in Bom- 
bay for a " psoric " affection. In Good's ' Study 
of Medicine,' fourth edition, 1834, vol. i. p. 329 
occurs the following : 

" Another remedy to be spoken of, which of late years 
has excited great attention, is the diluted aqua regia 

bath, invented by the late Dr. Scott He commence< 

his experiments in India, where, on account of the 
greater degree of torpitude the liver is apt to acquire 
than in more temperate climates, he was in the habit o 
forming his bath stronger and making it deeper than he 

found it proper to do in our own country, and where nearly 
thirty years ago he plunged the Duke of Wellington into 
one up to his chin for a severe hepatic affection he was 
then labouring under, and thus restored him to health in 
a short time." 

So that it appears the duke's disease for which he 
took the acid baths was of the liver, not of the 

If the duke was jaundiced from the affection, it 
is possible he remembered in latter years the itch- 
ing on the skin which sometimes accompanies 
jaundice, and confounded this sympton with the i 
disease for which he took the baths, so making the 
error of thinking that he then had some " psoric " 
affection. W. STKES, M.D. F.S.A. 

Gosport, Hants. 

The ' Life of Napoleon Buonaparte/ by William 
Hazlitt, gives a similar account. I have not a 
copy of the original edition for reference, but in 
;he edition published by Wiley & Putnam, 161, 1 
Broadway, New York, 1847, at p. 218 of vol. L I 
lie following passage occurs : 

" It was at the siege of Toulon that, standing by one 
of the batteries where a cannoneer was shot dead at his 
side, Buonaparte took the rarnrod which had fallen out j 
of his hands, and charged the gun several times. He by \ 
;his means caught an infectious cutaneous disease, which 
was not completely cured till many years after, and 

hich often did great injury to his health." 

H. E. M. 

St. Petersburg. 

COUNTESS OF ANGUS (8 th S. ix. 508). Sh 
Robert Douglas, in his ' Peerage,' edited by J. P.j 
Wood, 1813, vol. i. p. 66, says : 

" Upon her (Margaret, sister and coheir of Thoi 
Stewart, third Earl of Angus, and wife of William, fii 
Earl of Douglas) resignation in Parliament, 1389, Kir 
Robert II. granted the earldom of Angus, with the 1< 
ships of Abernethey, in Perthshire, and of Benkyl, ir| 
the county of Berwick, in favour of George de Douglas '[ 
her son, and the heirs of his body, whom failing, to Sii-j 
Alexander de Hamilton, and Elizabeth, sister of th<j 
said countess (wife of Sir Alexander Hamilton of Inner j 
wick), and the heirs procreated or to be procreate' 1 
betwixt them, reserving to the said countess the frai 
tenement of the earldom and lordships aforesaid, dui 
all the days of her life. The earldom of Angus beinj 
afterwards restricted to heirs male, is now vested in 
Duke of Hamilton, descendant and representative in 
line of George, Earl of Angus." 


The limitation of this earldom as granted i:| 
1389 was altered (after resignation) in 1547 tl 
"heirs male and assigns whatever"; such regran! 
being confirmed 11 Nov., 1564, ratified by Parli 
rnent 19 April, 1567, and held valid against Al 
claim of King James VI. of Scotland, who was 
heir of line. See fuller particulars in ' The Con, 
plete Peerage,' by G. E. 0., vol. i. p. 98, note 0. 

G. E. C. 

UMBRIEL (8* S. ix. 507; x. 53, 118). P*i 
bably your correspondents may be right as to tl 

8 th 8. X. Aua. 22, '96. J 



origin of this name. It was the frequent mention 
of the game ombre in Pope that made me think i 
might have a similar origin. I have to thank COL 
PRIDEAUX for reminding me of the letters in the 
Athenceum ten years ago, which I was much inter 
ested in at the time, but had forgotten when ] 
wrote my letter. It is worthy of notice that Prof 
Sayce thinks that what Benaiah is related to have 
achieved in 2 Sam. xxiii. 20, and 1 Chron. xi. 22 
was not the slaughter of two lion-like men o 
Moab (as the Authorized Version conjectural!} 
renders), or two sons of Ariel (as the Revised Ver 
sion alters it), but the destruction of two Moabiti 
altars, which he had reached under cover of a snow 
storm. Prof. Sayce also thinks that Isaiah calls 
Jerusalem Ariel, not as a metaphorical designation 
but as an ancient name of that city. 

W. T. LYNN. 

OR CAERLAVEROCK (8 th S. ii. 24, 364 ; ix. 408 
x. 106). If F. C. P. will read our note carefully 
through he will see that we make no mention of 
the heir-male except in the heading. We were 
replying to SIGMA'S query about the Lieutenant- 
General and his descendants, and were obliged to 
adopt the heading he had chosen. 

F. C. P.'s note amused us. If we had known 
all about Alexander Maxwell we would not have 
wasted the valuable space of ' N. & Q.' by asking 
for information. He is supposed to be a grandson 
of Alexander Maxwell, the upholsterer, who was 
born in 1696, and who lived and died in London 
(? where), but whose history is otherwise unknown. 
After the death of Alexander's mother (nte Eliza- 
beth Manley), his father married a Miss Norris (?), 
and by her had three daughters and a son, named 
Joseph, who married, and also had three daughters 
and a eon. This son (Joseph junior) was manager 
in some firm of iron merchants in Blackfriars. 
His sons (names unknown) were teachers in New- 
man Hall's chapel. We have not been able to 
trace this branch further. Can any reader say 
where they or any of their descendants are now 
living ? 

In the marriage licences of the Diocesan Registry 
of Worcester occurs the following, which we think 
partly answers F. C. P.'s third question : 

" Sept. 19, 1724. Charles Maxwell of St. Jamea in 
London, upwards of 23, bachelor, and Margaret M c Braire 
of St. Swithin'a in Worcester, upwards of 25, maiden. 
Allegation by Robert M'Braire of St. Swithin's aforeiaid, 
gent., and William Moorhead of the city of Ely, gent." 
Which St. James would this be ? They were not 
married at St. James's, Clerkenwell. 

The Lieutenant-General's two sons (see our note) 
were William, born at Dominica, 1817, and Chris- 
topher, born at St. Christopher, 1821. William's 
history is quite unknown to us. Christopher died 
at Auckland 13 Feb., 1872, leaving a widow, 

Emily Wernham Maxwell, who was then living at 
49, Upper Berkeley Street, Portman Square. His 
will, at Somerset House, mentions his children as 
minors, but does not give their names. 


" IRPE" (8 th S. x. 50, 118). It is pleasant and 
interesting to have the opinion of so high an 
authority as PROF. SKEAT on this difficult word. 
But I hesitate to accept the suggestion that the 
text of ' Cynthia's Revels ' in this point is unsound. 
" Irpe " first appears in the quarto of 1601. If 
it is a mistake, we should expect it to be corrected 
in the 1616 folio of Jonson's works, where the 
word reappears in both passages. This folio is 
very carefully printed, evidently under Jonson's 
supervision, as the elaborate punctuation show?. 
There are interesting touches of revision which 
tell against the theory that a blunder such as 
PROF. SKEAT suggests has been overlooked. A 
very instructive instance (which the editors ignore) 
is the opening of V. iv. in ' Every Man out of his 
Humour,' where Carlo Buffone enters a room at 
the "Mitre Tavern" and calls for the drawers. 
Holme's quarto of 1600 the earliest makes him 
say, "Holloa: where be these shot-markes ? " 
Linge's quarto of the same year, thinking to correct 
a misplaced r, prints "shot-makers." But the 
folio of 1616 gives what was evidently the original 
reading "shot-sharks." After this it is difficult 
to believe that " irpe," if it were a blunder, would 
have kept its place in the text. My own feeling 
about the word is that it is Court slang ; but I 
have no proof. PERCY SIMPSON. 

CLOCK (8 th S. x. 28, 122). Godfrie Poy, 1720- 
1729, was the maker of a very fine quarter-repeater, 
having the inner case pierced and repouss6 ; hall- 
mark 1729 ; outer case shagreen. Another of his 
works is a black pull- chime bracket clock. A 
Godfrey Poy was living at 78, Mortimer Street in 


x. 75). At this reference I asked whether any 
one could throw light on Mile. Luci, a corre- 
spondent and friend of Prince Charles (1749-52). 
Nobody has replied ; but I now believe that the 
ady was a Mile. Ferrand, of a Norman family, a 
friend of Condillac and other philosophes. Any 
nformation about Mile. Ferrand except that 
given by Grimm in his anecdote of Prince 
Charles in hiding at the Convent of St. Joseph- 
will be very welcome. A. LANG. 
1, Marloes Road, W. 

MANY (8 th S. x. 115). Where does this designa- 

ion occur ? The Marquis of Granby was appointed 
Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards 13 May, 1758, 

ust before the embarkation of the regiment for 



. X. Aua. 22, '96 

Germany. But the Eoyal Horse Guards, though 
known as the Oxford Blues in the long colonelcy 
of their first colonel, would not have been likely 
to be known as Granby's Horse at the time in 
question. Granby, however, was at the head of 
the regiment at Minden, 1 August, 1759, though 
the immediate command would naturally have 
been held by the lieutenant-colonel. Granby's 
-first commission was as Colonel of the Leicester 
Blues, a short-service regiment of foot, raised in 
1745 and disbanded in 1746. In 1760 he was 
appointed Colonel of the 21st Light Dragoons or 
Eoyal Foresters, a regiment which was disbanded 
in 1763 without having had an opportunity of 
serving in Germany. KILLIGREW. 

SKULL IN PORTRAIT (8 th S. ix. 109, 357, 412 ; 
x. 102). It seems probable that the skull was 
introduced into portraits in order to enhance by 
-contrast the beauty of the flesh, and not for any 
other purpose. There is, however, a portrait by 
Titian of his daughter Lavinia, which was etched 
by Vandyck, in which there is a skull at the right- 
hand lower corner, which seems to have some 
peculiar significance. Lavinia, who was married 
to Cornelio Sarcinelli, a noble of Serravalle, died 
in childbed, and in the etching, which bears the 
following inscription, Titian has introduced his 
own portrait caressing his daughter : 

Ecco il belvedere ! 6 che felice sorte 
Che la frittifera frutto in venire porte 
Ma ch' ella porte 6 me ! vita et morte piano 
Dimonatra 1'arte del magno Titiano. 

In a subsequent engraving of this portrait the 
rude Italian verse was replaced by the following 
more elegant lines : 

Ecce Viro, quae grata suo eat, nee pulchrior ulla 

Pigniora conjugii ventre pudica gent ; 
Sed tamen an vivens an raortua, pieta tabella 
Haec magni Titiani arte notunda refert. 

The portrait is erroneously said to be a portrait 
of Titian's mistress ; but the Abbe* Cadorin, in his 
celebrated work 'Dello amore ai Venez : ani d 
Tiziano Vecelli,' is of opinion that it represent 
the painter's daughter, who died at the age of abou 
thirty-five, Titian being at that time about eighty 
four. JOHN HEBB. 

Willesden Green, N.W. 

TOUT FAMILY (8 th S. x. 77). It may help you 
correspondent to know that the above is a common 
name at Huish Champflower, in Somerset, and tha 
the present writer has known two or three familie 
of Tout there. At this moment there are threi 
generations living. As to the meaning of th 
name, I suggest that it is the old word toot 
originally to blow a horn, then to blow as a signal 
then simply to signal, lastly to give the signa 
that a shoal of fish is in sight. There are severa 
toot-hills on our western coast, whence the moderi 
finer gives notice to his brother fishermen. Th 

name Toothill or Tuthill is not uncommon ; in my 
neighbourhood it has worn down to Tottle, of 
whom there are several families. 


ST. UNCUMBBR (8 th S. x. 24, 78, 122). I have 
>nly just now, on my return from vacation, seen 
he query which MR. E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP 
addresses to me, as to the manner in which St. 
Jncumber came to be connected with St. Paul's 
Cathedral. How much I wish that I could give 
, satisfactory answer to the question. It happens 
hat I am preparing a paper upon this very remark- 
tble personage ; and the information which ha 
desires would be most acceptable to me, if I could 
>rocure it. I can, however, add to that which 
las already appeared in ( N. & Q.' a very curious 
extract from a letter addressed by George Robyn- 
son to Cromwell, Lord Privy Seal. It is dated 
16 July, 1538. 

The writer says that he has visited Powlles, 
and that he found there St. " Uncumber standing 
n her old place and state, with her gay gown and 
silver shoes on, and a woman kneeling before her 
at eleven o'clock to God's dishonour. If the King 
puts them all away, he will have the blessing that 
King Josias had " (' Letters and Papers, Foreign 
and Domestic,' Henry VIII. 1538, vol. xiii. part i. 
No. 1393). The note about the silver shoes suggests 
some considerations which I must reserve for my 

[See 1" S. i. 287, 342; in. 404; L nd S. ix. 164; 4' b S. 

SAMUEL PBPYS (8 th S. ix. 307, 489 ; x. 33, 96, 
142). In my reply to MR. DAVY I stated that 
the words referred to in the query, "Beauty, 
retire ! " together with the character to whom 
they are addressed, do not even exist in the first 
part of the * Siege of Rhodes.' I should like to 
amend this statement, which is incorrect. The 
character does exist, the words and the circum- 
stances under which they were spoken do not. 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

" FEER AND FLET " (8 th S. x. 76).-Flet= home. 
This I know for certain. But when I say that 
feer=1ood (fare), I am only guessing. Will MB. 
FERKT take the guess for what it is worth? 


SOUTHEY'S ' ENGLISH POETS ' (8 th S. ix. 445 ; 
x. 11;. MR. BIRKBECK TERRY asks if I have for- 
gotten Pope's lines on Hope that springs eternal. 
I may answer that I remember them perfectly, 
and remembered them when writing my note on 
Rogers ; but that I did not feel it necessary to do 
more at the time of writing than draw attention to 
Mr. Saintsbury's inaccurate reference. 


Helenaburgb, N.B. 




The Poetry of Robert Burnt. Edited by W. E. Henley 

and T. F. Henderson. Vol. II. (Edinburgh, Jack.) 
THE second volume of the splendid centenary edition of 
Burns of Messrs. Jack contains the posthumous poems. 
Of these, some few see the light for the first time. Not 
specially important, as may be imagined, are these, a 
really significant trouvaille being no more probable in the 
case of Burns than in that of Shakspeare. With so much 
zeal has every tcrap been hunted up, partly through 
the affection and reverence felt for the poet and partly 
for the benefit of successive edition?, that the fact that 
discoveries are yet being made is a subject for surprise. 
A quatrain which now first sees the light is addressed to 
the Hon. William R. Maule, of Panmure, and is suffi- 
ciently venomous. Eight lines on ' Marriage,' which 
follow a few pages later, are from a MS. in the possession 
of the publishers, and are much more characteristic of 
the poet. The most noteworthy of the additions is a 
sonnet upon sonnets, printed from a MS. in the possession 
of Mrs. Andrews, of Newcastle. It is in the hand- 
writing of Burns, and is, as in a note the editors point 
out, one of the many pieces produced in imitation of 
Lope de Vega on the sonnet, 

Un soneto me mando hacer Violante, 
and of Voiture's better-known lines on the rondeau, 
Ma foy ! C'est fait de moi. Car Isabeau, &c., 
and is decidedly the weakest we have seen. The editors 
may well have been exercised in their minds as to whether 
it " be very Burns or merely a copy in Burns'e hand- 
writing." Counsel has been taken with experts, such 
aa Dr. Garnett and Mr. Austin Dobson, and it has been 
" assumed " that the sonnet, which for the rest is un- 
known, is one of Burns's " few metrical experiments." 
Very far from being experts are we, but we do not find 
in it a trace of Burns. In addition to poems and other 

<itters, abundant use has been nude by the editors of 
the opportunities afforded them. The notes retain their 
interest. The bibliographical note, which stands first, 
furnishes all necessary information concerning successive 
editions of the posthumous poems. That on ' The Jolly 
Beggars ' reveals a large amount of curious information, 
I and will be highly prized by students of early literature. 
The notes generally are indeed admirable, being ample 
and not oppressive. The arrangement of the poems, with 
gloesarial explanations by the side of the text and refer- 
I ences to notes for explanations, is naturally the same 
as before. Among the illustrations to what may well be, 
for the present generation at least, the final and autho- 
ritative edition of the text, are well-executed facsimiles 
of poems and portraits admirably reproduced. The com- 
pletion of this handsome edition will be eagerly anti- 

\A- Index to Norfolk Pedigrees, and Continuation, of 
Index to Norfolk Topography. By Walter Eye. 
(Norwich, Goose.) 
I MR. RYE is one of the very few enthusiasts who devote 
their time and abilities to indexing. It is a laborious 
talk, and to mnke a really serviceable index requires not 
only industry, but a kind of skill with which very few 
persons are blessed. We cannot speak of it as a lost art, 
but it seems to us as time passes on that the really good 
indexes become fewer and fewer. Madox's 'History of 
the Exchequer ' has an excellent index, and so have most 
of the calendars and chronicles in the Rolls Series ; but 
I we have never encountered an edition of any one ot our 
| standard historians wherein the index is satisfactory. 

The Index Society did good work for a time, but it re- 
ceived little support. We believe its labours are now at 
an end. Were we to give a catalogue of works which 
show how indexes should not be made, we should run to 
an unreasonable length. An amusing example is to be 
met with in the English version of Victor Helm's 
' Wanderings of Plants and Animals,' where the fact 
that at one time Spain suffered from a plague of rabbits 
is indexed under the word " Overrun." It may also be 
not out of place to note that when, in 1853, the Uni- 
versity of Oxford reprinted Whitelock's 'Memorials' 
from the folio edition of 1723, in 4 vols. 8vo., the expense 
of a new index was saved by reprinting the old one, 
giving the folio pagination in the margin. Such a course 
could not have been excused had the old index been a 
good one, but, as a matter of fact, it is execrably bad. 
Under one name only that of Rainsborough we have 
detected eight errors, and are by no means sure that we 
have found them all. 

The greater part of the work before us consists of an 
index to Norfolk pedigrees. It it, so far as we know, by 
far the most laborious work of the sort existing in our 
tongue. No one who takes interest in the history of 
Norfolk can carry on his inquiries without it being beside 
him. Mr. Rye thinks, and we are almost certain that be 
is correct, that this " is the first time that any one has 
tried to give references to MS. as well as to printed 
sources." On this point he begs for mercy, fearing that 
imperfections and omissions will be numerous. That the 
author cannot have examined all MSS. relating to Nor- 
folk is certain, but we believe his care as an indexer to 
be such that there will be very few blunders. Of course , 
it is absolutely impossible to steer clear of misprints 

Some fifteen years aeo Mr. Rye published for the Index 
Society an ' Index to Norfolk Topography,' which genea- 
logists both here and in America have found most use- 
ful. The second part of this volume is a continuation of 
the former work. Since it was published, Mr. Rye has 
become the possessor of important topographical MSS. 
compiled by Anthony Norris, Le Neve, and Tom Martin. 
He has also carried on his researches among MSS. and 
printed books in various places. The present issue i 
less in bulk than the former one, but is, in our opinion, 
of more value, as the Norris, Le Neve, and Martin collec- 
tions had been for many years inaccessible to the public. 
Mr. Rye is good enough to tell us in his preface that they 
are now freely open to any one who desires to consult 
them who will make an appointment with him to do 
so. This is a great favour, for which all genealogists, 
especially those of the eastern shire*, cannot be too 

View of the Pleasure Gardent of London. (Rogert.) 
WE have here a handsome volume, which will delight 
the antiquary and be indispensable to every collection 
of books dealing with London. No attempt has been 
made to write a history of the most celebrated bygone 
pleasure gardens of London. Seventeen views of these 
resorts are reproduced in very handsome and attractive 
style, and are accompanied by references to the gardens, 
chiefly poetical, from past writers, including Samuel 
Pepyp, Ned Ward, Thomas D'Urfey, Samuel Foote 
George Colman, Alfred Bunn, and others. Interesting 
enough are many of the extracts supplied, most of them 
from old and in some cases forgotten magazines and 
papers, chiefly of the last century, such as the London 
Magazine, the Whitehall Evening Pott, the Vauxhall 
Papers,' the Gentleman's Magazine, &c., but including one 
poem with an accompanying illustration from Punch of 
1844. In other cases the ballads, street bills, and adver- 
tisements of the various gardens have been laid under 



.X. AUG. 22, *9& 

contribution. This portion of the work baa undergone 
revision, the publisher having carefully excised the 
coarsenesses tolerated in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, but out of keeping with the taste of to-day. 
In ao doing he has fitted the book for the general 
circulation at which in a sense he aims. The chief 
charm of the volume lies, however, in the illustrations. 
A picture of Vauxhall by Wade which serves as a 
frontispiece gives a general view of the gardens in the 
middle of last century, with the open country beyond. It 
is from the 1754 edition of Stowe, edited by Strype, and is 
the best illustration of these gardens extant. Of Rane- 
lagh Gardens two excellent views one presenting the 
exterior with the canal, rotunda, &c., the other the 
interior are furnished. Two admirably executed illus- 
trations of Bagnigge Wells are also supplied. There 
are, besides, pictures of Busby's Folly, Islington, with a 
view of St. Paul's from the bowling green, the " Eagle 
Tavern " pleasure grounds, City Road, the Marylebone 
Gardens, Sadler's Wells, Mew Tunbridge Wells, Isling- 
ton, and the White Conduit House. Tickets of 
admission, advertisement posters, and bills of the 
entertainments are also reproduced. The whole is 
executed in unsurpassable style type, paper, and en- 
graving being of the highest class. The volume is, 
indeed, an edition de luxe, and as such is issued in a 
limited number. With the great demand now existing 
for memorials of old London, it is sure to become a 
rarity. Those who possess the original plates can be 
but few. Amateurs will accordingly be delighted to 
have them in this pleasing shape. 

Scottish Poetry of the Eighteenth Century. Vol. I. 

(Glasgow, Hodge.) 

WE have here a iurther contribution to the " Abbotsford 
Series of the Scottish Poets," edited by Mr. Eyre Todd. 
The editor claims for the Scotch bards of the last cen- 
tury that while the English poetry of the days of Queen 
Anne and the early Georges has been treated with dis- 
dain not wholly unmerited, a true note of song was 
struck by the Scottish poets. There is some truth in 
this. If we except Allan Ramsay, the Scotch poets of 
the last century have left no considerable literary bag- 
gage. Much that they have done is, however, genuine 
poetry, inspired and informed by folk speech and a 
keen sense of the beauty of home scenes and emotions. 
First in order there comes the ' Tweedside ' of Lord 
Yester, a short poem of two stanzas, which yet has the 
true singing note, and at least points the way to Burns. 
The last is the tender ballad of ' Cumnor Hall,' of which 
Scott was a great admirer. Between them there are 
plenty more pieces similarly musical, as * Logic o' Buchan ' 
and the like, with others of different quality but no less 
merit, such as ' The Castle of Indolence ' of Thomson, 
with extracts from Home's 'Douglas' and Falconer's 
' Shipwreck.' The introductory sketches are well exe- 
cuted. If, possibly, the amount of eulogy seems occa- 
sionally excessive, it is a fault on the right side. The 
series when complete will convey a good idea of Scottish 
poetry during its entire development. 

Pocket County Companions. Lancashire, Derbyshire, 
Hampshire, Berkshire. By Robert Dodwell. (Tylston 
& Edwards.) 

VEBY convenient in shape, and quite adapted to be 
slipped into the traveller's pocket, are these four open- 
ing volumes of a new series. This is, however, the least 
of their recommendations. They supply a large amount 
of information and gossip of the most attractive and read- 
able kind. After a preliminary chapter on the county 
itself and a map reduced from the Ordnance Survey, the 
towns and places of interest then follow in alphabetical 
order. Names and particulars are given of distinguished 

residents, and a large amount of information, much of it 
of interest to the folk-lorist, is supplied. See, for instance, 
what is said in the volume on Berkshire concerning 
Shottesbrooke, or on Lancashire of Proud Preston. In 
Hampshire one may with interest study the legend of 
Bevis and Ascapart. Derbyshire naturally abounds with 
references to ' Peveril of the Peak.' 

THE publications of the Field Columbian Museum 
(Chicago, U.S.A.) give evidence of much careful work. 
For instance, a Contribution to the Ornithology of San 
Domingo, by George K. Cherrie, contains observations of 
great interest made during a trip for collecting birds in 
the winter of 1894-95. Among other facts mentioned 
by Mr. Cherrie is the curious silence of the West Indian 
woodland. "During the years spent in Central America,' 
he says, " I constantly wondered why any one could ever 
speak of the birds of the tropics as being voiceless or 
songless ; but my experience at Catare and in San 
Domingo in general gave me abundant solution of the 

problem At Catare, where I did my first collecting, 

the most striking peculiarity to me about the region was 

the utter silence of the forest Birds were common 

enough, but in the semi-twilight of the forest they flitted 

noiselessly from branch to branch In the open 

savannas and along the edges of the forest the mocking- 
birds are almost always singing, but the forest itself is 
silentsave on those rare occasions when that wood- 
spirit, the Myiadestes, sets every nerve a-tingling with 
pleasure; but the Myiadestes are rare as their songs/' 
In British Columbia, too, according to English settlers, 
song-birds are scarce in the forest, but wherever clear- 
ings are made feathered minstrels appear and dwell in 
close neighbourhood with man. Another publication of 
the same Museum is Sundry Collections of Mammals, by 
D. G. Elliot, F.RS.E., which contains valuable notes, 
accompanied by illustrations of skulls, which will be wel- 
come to all students of mammal osteology. 

A NEW volume of " The Camden Library " is announced 
for early publication by Mr. Elliot Stock. It will treat 
of 'The History and Development of Ecclesiastical 
Vestments, 1 and is written by Mr. R. A. S. Macalister. 

a ta 

We mutt call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privatelv. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

A. E. HALL (" I slept and dreamed," &c.). The author 
was Mrs. Ellen Hooper, of Boston, U.S. See 6 th S. 
v. 139. 

JAMES DALLAS (" Boose=Drink "). See 'New Eng- 
lish Dictionary,' s. v. " Boza, bosa." 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8"' 8. X. AM. 29, '96.] 




CONTENT S. N 244. 

NOTES : Harsenet'a Discouerie ' Casanoviana, 169 Hun- 
irate Russian Folk-lore Gosford Wedding Folk-lore 
Dickens's House, 172 Richardson's House Portrait of 
Archbishop Thomson Relics of Founders of Sects Faunt- 
l er0 y _ Cardinals Winston Bridge, 173 Proverb Isaac 
Schomberg London Topography : Pentonville Strowan's 
MSS. Names used Synonymously New Dramatist, 174. 

QUERIES: "Montero" Cap Silver Heart " Boss "- 
Mainwaring Deed Douglass Tombs Tomb of Mahmood 
of Ghuznee 'Siddoniana' Portrait of Keats Anglo- 
Norman Pedigrees, 175 Song Wanted Sir W. Billers 
Sir John Gresham The House of Commons Drayton : 
Birds Sherwood " Compostella " Bp. Ezekiel Hopkins 
Scott Family John Athern, 176" Louvre " Bloxam 
"Colded" Authors Wanted, 177. 

REPLIES : Dante's Caorsa, 177 Mrs. Browning's Birth- 
place Salter's Picture of Waterloo Dinner Charr in 
Windermere Thackerayana, 178 Portrait of Lady Nelson, 
179 Sir R. Viner Victor Hugo, 180 Jack Sheppard 
Oxford in Early Times Domesday Survey Cat alani 
" Pilomet " Book Prices, 181 Inkhorns Bachope 
Domesday Oak Wedding Ceremony Lord John Russell 
" Brucolaques," 182 " Slop " Artthor Wanted Tan- 
nachie Dundee. 183 " Whoa ! " Coinage Pompadour, 
184 Weeping Infant " Populist " Pye-house, 185 
Rider's 'British Merlin' Ladies Scott ' Anatomy of 
Melancholy 'Battle of the Nile Burns at the Plough- 
Chalking the Unmarried Authors Wanted, 186. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Cowper's 'Canterbury Marriage 
Licences ' Gosse's ' Critical Kit-Kats 'Crowe's ' Eliza- 
bethan Sonnet Cycles 'Brown's 'Authorship of "The 
Kingis Quair"' Baring-Gould's 'English Minstrelsie' 
Thomson's 'Biographical and Critical Studies' Ward's 
' Shakespeare's Town and Times ' Le Bon's ' Crowd.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(See 1" S. ii. 342.) 

Will any kindly reader help me to verify a 
passage quoted at the above reference ? The writer 
of the short note to which I refer is no less a person 
than MR. WILLIAM J. THOMS, the first Editor of 
( N. & Q.,' so accurate a person and so exact in 
his citations that I cannot conceive it possible 
that he has made an error. I knew him too well 
to arrive at such a conclusion. 

He cites this passage : 

" And the commending himselfe to the tuition of S. 
Uncumber, or els our blessed Lady." 

And he gives as the source from which it is taken 
Harsenet's ' Discouerie,' &c., p. 134. 

I suppose that the book indicated by this short 
title is the following : 

A DiscoYery of the Fraudulent practises of John 
Barrel Bacheler of Artes in his proceedings concerning 
the pretended possession and dispossession of William 
Somers at Nottingham, &c. London. Imprinted by John 
Wolfe, 1599. 

The "Epistle to the Reader" is signed S. H., 
and the authorship of the tract is attributed to 
Samuel Harsnet, successively Bishop of Chicbester 
1609-1619, of Norwich 1619-1628, and Archbishop 
of York 1628-1631. There is a copy of the book 
in the British Museum (719, d. 7), and it is quite 

certain that the passage cited is not to be found on 
p. 134. Nor can I find it on any one of the 324 
pages contained within the covers of the work. 

The controversy of which this book forms part 
was the cause of two other publications : 

1. A True Narrative of the Strange and Grevous Vexa- 
tion by the Devil of 7 persons in Lancashire and William 
Somers of Nottingham. By John Darrell, Minister of 
the Word of God. Printed 1600. 

2. [A Detection of the Silnnful Shamful Lying and 
Ridiculous Discours of Samuel Harshnet entituled A Dis- 
coverie of the fravvdvlent practises of lohn Darrell. 
Imprinted 1600. 

Both these tracts, which, like that first named, 
are in small quarto, are in the British Museum, 
bound into one volume (8630, e. 39). I have ex- 
amined each of them, and do not find the object of 
my search. 

It occurs to me, however, that there may be 
some other edition than that which I have used of 
" A Discovery," &c.; and I am the more disposed 
to think so because ME. THOMS cites the title as A 
" Discouerie," which is not the exact form of the 
British Museum copy. 

Of course, it is quite possible that in turning 
over, rather rapidly, 324 pages, I may myself have 
overlooked so short a sentence ; but I am quite 
certain that it does not occur on p. 134. Will 
some one help me to find the passage ? 



(Continued from p. 92.) 

In the middle of May, 1761, Casanova left 
Turin, the bearer of a letter of introduction to 
Lord Stormont, who was expected at Augsburg as 
one of the plenipotentiaries at the forthcoming 
" Congress of Peace." The British envoys on that 
occasion were Lords Egremont and Stormont (our 
Ambassador in Poland) and General Yorke (our 
Ambassador in Holland). As all the world know?, 
that Congress, from which so much was expected, 
broke up in September, barren of results. At 
Augsburg Casanova made the acquaintance of 
Count Maximilian Lamberg, who bore the high- 
sounding title of " Grand Marshal to the Court 
of the Prince Bishop." Lamberg possessed a strong 
literary faculty, and, being a profound scholar, pub- 
lished several works that commanded attention. 
It is only necessary here to mention his * Memorial 
d'un Mondain,' in which Casanova is frequently 
mentioned. This acquaintance ripened into 
friendship, and formed the prelude to a long 
correspondence, which ended only at Count Lam- 
berg's death in 1792. Possibly, nay, almost 
certainly, these letters are still in existence and 
worthy of research. On 31 Dec., 1761, Casanova 
arrived in Paris and took up his quarters for a month 
at an apartment which had been prepared for him in 
the Ruedu Bac by the notorious old Marquise Jeanne 



[8*8. X. AUG. 29, '90. 

d'Urf i 1 , whose insatiable superstition, and invincible 
folly encouraged Casanova, while pretending to 
work miracles, occasionally to live at her expense. 
The peculiarities of this extraordinary woman are 
thus summed up by M. de Montbrison* : 

" Tous lea memoires de oette epoque font mention de 
la Marquise d'Urfe qui e'occupait d'alchimie, et travail- 
lait sans relache a la decouverte de la pierre philosophale. 
II n'eat pas necesaaire d'ajouter, qu'elle fut dupee par 
plueieurs fripons, qui sous le pretexte de venir dans son 
riche laboratoire travailler au grand- ceuvre, lui ravirent 
plus de quinze cent mille livres, c'est a dire presque toute 
sa fortune.'' 

It is only necessary to add that this eccentric 
woman died in July, 1763, having unintentionally 
poisoned herself by imbibing a decoction of her 
own invention for the indefinite prolongation of 
life. When her will was opened it was found to 
contain a clause appointing as her heir the child to 
which she would give birth after her death. By 
codicil she appointed Casanova guardian and tutor 
to that child : 

"While waiting for the birth of this posthumous 
infant (whose putative father was no less a personage 
than the sun), the Marquise du Chatelet entered into 
possession of Madame d'Urfe's fortune, which amounted 
to two millions of francs. The clause referring to my- 
self caused me the deepest mortification, for I well knew 
that it would expose me to the gibes of the whole of 

Casanova quitted Paris on 25 Jan., 1762, the 
recipient of many costly presents, and the bearer 
of a letter of credit for a large sum of money 
which Madame d'Urfe had given to him as a mark 
of her gratitude. After a short absence at Metz, 
Casanova paid Madame d'Urfe a visit at her 
country residence, three leagues from Paris : 

" The Chateau of Font-Carre, where the Marquise 
resided for a considerable period in each year, was 
situated in the forest of Armanvilliers. It was a kind 
of fortress, and had resisted several sieges during the 
Civil Wars. It was built in a solid square, flanked by 
four embattled towers, and was surrounded by a deep 
moat. Its rooms were spacious, and luxuriously ap- 
pointed with antique furniture. The chateau was infested 
by fleas, which ravaged our bodies, and made me regret 
having promised its mistress to spend a week in that 
place. But, as I could not with decency curtail my visit, 
I resolved to make the best of a bad bargain." 

Casanova's rambles with Madame d'Urte over 
various parts of France, Belgium, and Switzerland, 
have no historic interest ; we will therefore pass 
over that interval. When, in the summer of 1762, 
Casanova reached Geneva, he was told that Voltaire 
had just ceded ' Les polices ' to the Due de Villars 
the eccentric individual mentioned in a previous 
note and was then residing at Ferney. At th 
commencement of December, 1762, Casanova 
reached Turin. One evening, at a ball, he met a 
young man whom he describes as " Lord Percy 

* ' Les d'Urfe, Souvenirs historiquea et litteraires d 
Forez au XVI et au XVII Siecle,' par Auguflte Bernard d 
Montbriaon, Paris, 1839, vo), i. p. 195. 

on of the Duchess of Northumberland ; a young 
ool who was lavishing large sums of money in 

In accordance with a set purpose to elucidate 
nd verify such statements, I have been at some 
jains in this matter. The present creation of the 
dukedom of Northumberland dates from 1766. It 
herefore follows that the young nobleman in ques- 
ion must have been a son, probably a younger son, 
)f that Earl of Northumberland who, some years 
ater, was raised to the dignity of a duke. In 1763 
jord Northumberland was appointed Lieutenant- 
general and Governor of Ireland (see 'Annual 
Register,' 1763, p. 128). The following extracts 
rom contemporaneous periodicals may be cited. 
St. James's Chronicle, 3 Sept., 1763 : 
" Wednesday week is the day fixed for the departure 
)f the Earl and Countess of Northumberland for Ireland. 
They will be accompanied by Lord Warkwortb, and the 
3 on. Algernon Percy." 

St. James's Chronicle, 20 Sept., 1763 : 
"It is said that a treaty of marriage is on foot 
between the Right Hon. Lord Warkworth, eldest eon 
f the Earl of Northumberland, and the third daughter 
f the Earl of Bute." Public Advertiser. 

The statements contained in those paragraphs 
are inconsistent with the assumption that the 
poung spendthrift in question was Lord Percy, 
[n 1762 there was no such man as Lord Percy, 
and certainly there was neither Duke nor Duchess 
of Northumberland. I am inclined to think that 
the young gentleman alluded to was the Hon. 
Algernon Percy, a younger son of Lord North- 
umberland, whom Casanova, with the usual cour- 
tesy of foreigners, temporarily raised to the brevet 
rank of a lord. He tells us that young Percy gave 
him a miniature of his mother by way of an intro- 
duction to that lady, a circumstance of which he 
made good use on his subsequent visit to London. 
The * Annual Register' for 1763 contains a 
detailed account of the public reception accorded 
to the two Venetian envoys, Monsignore Querini, 
and the Procurator Morosini, who, having dis- 
embarked at Greenwich, entered London in state 
on 12 April, 1763. 

The London Magazine for April of that year 
contains a sketch of the Venetian state coach used 
on that occasion. During their sojourn in London 
the envoys resided in Great Ormond Street. On 
13 May, 1763, the two ambassadors took final 
leave of their majesties, and Monsignore Querini 
received the honour of knighthood. Towards the 
close of that month Casanova met at Lyons a young 
Venetian named Mem mo, who occupied a box at 
the theatre in close proximity to his own. Memmo 
informed him that the Venetian envoys, with Count 
Strafico, a professor in the University of Padua, 
were in an adjacent box. Casanova, being per- 
sonally acquainted with them, lost no time 
paying his respects. The envoys informed 

8" 8. X. Atra. 29, '96.J 



that they had recently left London, and were 
returning to their own country. This statement 
is another evidence of the historical accuracy of 
the ' Memoirs.' From Lyons, Casanova journeyed 
to Paris, where, at the house of Madame d'Urfe, 
he met the precocious son of Madame Gornelys, 
whom he invariably styles "le petit Aranda." 
Madame Cornelye, who at that time resided in 
London, had written to beg Casanova to bring the 
boy to England. In accordance with that request, 
Casanova, in company of the young Cornelys, left 
Paris at the beginning of June. They made the 
journey on horseback, and on arrival at Calais put 
up at the Hotel du Bras-d'Or. Finding only one 
vessel available for the passage to Dover, Casa- 
nova, on payment of six guineas, chartered that 
packet. On 27 Aug., 1763, the following notice 
appeared in the St. James's Chronicle : 

"The price of passages from Dover 4o Calais, in con- 
sequence of the great increase of passengers, is risen 
from ten shillings and sixpence to fifteen shillings each." 

This sudden efflux of tourists was one of the results 
of the recent declaration of peace. 

While Casanova and his young friend were at 
supper, the landlord announced the arrival of a 
courier in the service of the Duke of Bedford, Eng- 
lish Ambassador at Paris. The landlord seemed to 
be in a terrible fluster, the said courier having, 
with the usual pugnacity of his nation, challenged 
the skipper of the packet to fight because he would 
not surrender his vessel to the Duke of Bedford : 

" ' The man has only done his duty,' remarked Casanova. 
' I am the present proprietor of that vessel, and I shall 
not surrender it to any one.' " 

Next morning the landlord informed Casanova 
that the Duke of Bedford's valet was outside, wait- 
ing to speak with him : 

" The man, on being admitted, told me that affairs of 
the greatest importance made it imperative for his grace 
to reach Dover without delay, and ended by imploring me 
to surrender my undoubted claim to the vessel. I told 
the duke's valet that 1 considered myself fortunate in 
being able to render a service to the English ambassador, 
and that I was willing to place the packet at his Excel- 
lency's disposal provided that three places were reserved 
for myself. A moment later the valet returned, and offered 
me six guineas. I told the man that I was not a packet 
H^'< nt, and said that it was enough for me to know that 
I was rendering a slight service to his Excellency. 
Shortly afterwards the duke himself entered my apart- 
ment, and after mutual compliments said that he could 
not accept so great a sacrifice without personally express- 
ing his gratitude ; and ended by asking to be allowed to 
bare the expense. To that proposition I agreed, and, 
with renewed excuses and thanks, his Grace retired to 
hin own apartment. Shortly afterwards we embarked; 
a favourable breeze filled our sails, and brought us safely 
to Dover in lees than three hours." 

This accidental meeting with the Duke of Bed- 
ford enables us to fix the date of Casanova's arrival 
in London with tolerable precision. 

On 8 June, 1763, the following paragraph 
appeared in the St. James's Chronick ; 

" The Duke of Bedford was to have his audience of 
Leave of the Most Christian King on Sunday the 29th 

And in the same journal, 16 June : 

" Yesterday his Grace, the Duke of Bedford, waited 
on his Majesty at St. James's for the first time since his 
arrival from France, and was most graciously received." 

John, fourth Duke of Bedford, was born in 
September, 1710. In 1756 he was appointed 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and in 1762 was ac- 
credited as Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court 
of France ; in which character he signed, at 
Fontainebleau, the preliminaries of peace with 
France and Spain. He died in 1771. 

Casanova thus notes his first impressions of this 
country : 

" England has characteristics peculiar to itself. It is 
a land of mists and fogs, where the sun's rays seem to 
penetrate an atmosphere like oiled paper. In order to 
become reconciled to the prevailing gloom it is necessary 
to remain a long time in the British Isles. A protracted 
residence is also necessary to assimilate British modes of 
thought. For instance, it took me a long time to under- 
stand the full meaning of the word ' comfortable.' The 
visitor, on his first arrival upon British soil, inhales a 
salinous vapour, which permeates everything, and which 
cannot be avoided. The bread, meat, and beverages 
(always excepting unadulterated wines) are all im- 
pregnated with that sea savour. Its odours are exhaled 
from the sheets, towels, and tablecloths ; in fact, from 
every household utensil. Everywhere in England one is 
conscious of the proximity of the sea, that ocean which 
seems to mingle in a mysterious manner with the life- 
blood of this aquatic people. The men have a marked 
personality, which they are at no pains to conceal. In 
accordance with a natural pride that prevails to a great 
extent in every civilized country, Englishmen are justly 
proud of their native land. But they advance a step 
further, and have fully persuaded themselves that they 
belong to a race of human beings immeasurably superior 
to all others on the face of the globe." 

It may be noticed, in passing, that Casanova was 
not insensible to the natural beauty of the country, 
and the evident marks of prosperity among its 
inhabitants : 

"Along the entire route from Dover to the capital 
I had occasion to admire the beauty of the land- 
scapes the neatness and cleanliness of the cottages. It 
was a little less than sixteen hours after leaving Dover 
when we entered the busy streets of London." 

The period of Casanova's arrival coincides with 
an event for ever memorable in the annals of 
literature. It was in the month of May, 1763, 
that Boswell (then a young man of twenty-two) 
was first introduced to Dr. Johnson at No. 8, 
Russell Street, Covent Garden. 


Hotel d'Evolene, Valais, Suissc. 

(To be continued.) 

HUNGATB. There is an old by- street in Nor- 
wich called Huogate, said by Blomefield and 
others to be so called because the hounds of the 
bishops were kept there. Kirkpatrick, who died 



in 1728 (twenty-four years before Blomefield died) 
pointed out that the street was known as Hunde 
gate in the time of Henry III., and Houndegate in 
the time of Richard II., 
"perhaps from the sign of a dog there in antient time 
and, from the street, the Church of St. Peter here stand 
ing had the addition of Hundegate, now corrupted tc 
Hungate, of which name there is a family of note in 
Yorkshire, whereof Philip Hungate, Esq., was created a 
baronet in 1642." 

A living writer, Mr. Mark Knights (' Highways 
and Byways of Old Norwich,' 1887, p. 75), asserts 
that this Norwich Hungate was so named because 
it was the way to the Hundredgemot. 

But, besides this Norwich Hungate, there are 
streets of the same name at Aylsham, Beccles, and 
Emneth, and one in the city of York, mentioned 
by MR. BRIERLEY (p. 69 ante). 

Canon Isaac Taylor, in the smaller edition of 
' Words and Places/ states that the name Hun- 
stanton may be due to the Huns. But it hardly 
seems likely that these old town streets should 
have any connexion with those barbarians. Of 
the three derivations given above I doubt if any 
one of them is applicable to all the Hungates, if, 
indeed, to any of them. 

Street and local names in Norwich have afforded 
matter for much ingenious guessing, e.g., Coslany, 
Cows Long Island, and many more. Perhaps, 
when the "Gates "of York have been fully dis- 
cussed, I may have something to say about the 
street names of Norwich. JAMES HOOPER. 


BILLY-GOAT. Among the peasants in the Orloff 
Government the belief in witchcraft lingers on 
according to a writer in the Orloff News, quoted in 
a recent number of the St. Petersburg Novosti 
and witches are still accredited with the super- 
natural power of assuming the shapes of certain 
animals (dogs, goats, swine, and others). A cha- 
racteristic though unadorned little anecdote is 
given by the above correspondent in illustration of 
this superstition : 

" It befell that a party of country folk belonging to a 
village named Pal'na were returning home in the eve 
of St. Peter's Day (the 29th June last, Old Style). They 
had been hospitably entertained by their cronies in a 
neighbouring hamlet, and were in right merry pin. 
Suddenly, in the gloaming, they overtook an old black 
goat, walking demurely along the road in the direction 
they were going. To one of the women the aspect of this 
creature, which kept even pace with her, appeared un- 
canny, and, inspired by bold John Barleycorn, she adminis- 
tered to it a sound kick in the ribs by way of a hint to sheer 
off. The goat eyed its assailant in mute astonishment and 
displeasure, but continued to advance, keeping close beside 
her. Now vague suspicion gave place to certainty, and 
with shrill cries of Help ! Help ! A witch ! A witch ! ' 
the woman gave the signal for a general onslaught. The 
poor hapless brute, hotly pursued by an excited crowd, 
armed with sticks and staves, or whatever came handy, 
attempted in vain, by its loud and distracted bleatings, to 

depose to its mere goatish identity and to protest against 
the insulting insinuations of its human extraction. 
Things were looking bad for poor Billy, when, summon- 
ing up the last remnants of his strength, he put on a 
desperate spurt, and disappeared, having probably bolted 
through some friendly gateway and made himself scarce. 
Be that as it may, it is likely enough that these good 
peasants of the village of Pal'na will for many a long day 
to come nourish the belief in their having seen and eke 
beaten a wicked witch in goat's clothing. The evil 
spirit ycleped Vodka' had surely a finger in this pie." 

St. Petersburg. 

GOSFORD. (See 8 th S. x. 117.) Truly we live 
and learn. I have been residing for the past five- 
and-twenty years in the populous village of Gos- 
forth, situated on the Great North Road, at the 
northern boundary of the borough of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. Right through the parish of Gosforth 
runs the Ouse-burn, a streamlet that, after water- 
ing the far-famed Jesmond Dene, empties itself 
into the Tyne at the eastern end of Newcastle 
Quay. Up here in Northumberland we have been 
taught to believe that Gosforth, which in ancient 
documents frequently figures as Goseford, was 
simply the ford over the Ouse said ford being 
now replaced by a bridge, known to travellers as 
"Three Mile Bridge," and so named because it 
crosses tha Ouse-burn, about three miles from some 
part of the Tyneside metropolis. Now comes 
PROF. SKEAT and tells us that Gosforth is nothing 
but goose-ford a ford for geese ! This is cruel, 
and I protest. If this sorb of thing is allowed to 
go on I shall be having my own name rendered 
ridiculous next. RICH. WELFORD. 

WEDDING FOLK-LORE. I heard a piece of folk- 
lore at Fishlake, near Doncaster, which is new to 

me. A very strong feeling exists among the villagers 
;hat it is most unlucky for a wedding party to 
be in the church when the clock strikes. Care is, 
therefore, always taken to enter the church just 

after the hour has struck, so that there may be 
mple time for the marriage, signing the registers, 

&c. , before it strikes again. 



The house, No. 1, Devonshire Terrace, 
VEarylebone Road, at the north-west corner of 
3igh Street, Marylebone, is undergoing consider- 
able alterations and additions, Mr. Younghusband 
eing the architect and Mr. Wm. Tout the builder. 
Fhe house formerly consisted of a basement, two 
tories, and an attic ; the attic has been removed 
,nd a new square story with an attic floor over 
idded. There is a view of the house in Forster's 
Life of Dickens' (illustrated edition), p. 274, 
rom the drawing by Maclise, "done," as his 
iographer records, "on the first anniversary of 
he day when his daughter Kate (Mrs. Perugini) 

8 th S.X.Auo.29,'96.] 



was born," namely, in October, 1840. Dickens 
removed from No. 48, Doughty Street, to No. 1, 
Devonshire Terrace, at the end of 1839, and here 
he remained until November, 1851, when, the 
_' of the house having expired, and the house 
being too small for Dickens's growing family, the 
novelist removed to a house in Tavistock Square 
which had been for some years the residence of 
Mr. Frank Stone, R.A., where he remained until 
1860, when he removed to Gad's Hill. 


The following cutting from London, 30 July, 
deserves a corner in 4 N. & Q.' I have verified 
the statements it contains as far as possible, and 
have found them correct, with the exception that 
the exact date of Richardson's removal from North 
End to Parson's Green appears to hpve been Octo- 
ber, 1754 : 

" The house that Samuel Richardson built for himself in 
Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, has just been demolished. 
The novelist removed there from some adjacent pre- 
mises in what wag then Salisbury Court, where, circa 
1730, he had started in business as a printer, and through 
Speaker Onslow'n influence had been deputed to print the 
journals of the House. In 1754 he was elected master 
of the Stationers' Company. In 1756 he employed in 
that house Oliver Goldsmith as proof-reader for some 
portion of the twelve months which elapsed between 
Goldsmith's first arrival in London and his becoming 
usher in Dr. Milner's school at Peckham. At this same 
period Richardson removed his suburban home from 
Selby House (afterwards the Grange), North End, 
West Kensington, to a house, since destroyed, facing 
Parson's Green, Fulham, next west to Peterborough 
House. He died at Parson's Green on July 4, 1761, and 
was buried beneath the middle aisle of St. Bride's, Fleet 
Street, by the side of his first wife, daughter of John 
Wilde, printer, to whom he had been apprenticed on 
leaving the Bluecoat School; On Nov. 27, 1889, the 
200th anniversary of his birth, a mural tablet was un- 
veiled to his memory in St. Bride's." 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

portrait in oils of this prelate has recently been 
placed in the hall of Queen's College, Oxford, of 
which he was so distinguished an ornament. It is 
three-quarter length, and represents him habited 
in rochet and chimere, seated, and holding his 
gloves in his left hand. Are the gloves now a part 
of the episcopal dress, as they were of the abbot 
in pre-Reformation days ? According to Fosbroke, 
as I mentioned to a friend the other day as we 
looked fit the portrait, " the gloves, because oc- 
casionally worn and sometimes laid aside, indicated 
the concealment of good works for shunning vanity 
and the demonstration of them for edification." 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

In Jhe Times report of the recent election of the 

Rev. Dr. Randies as President of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Conference, mention was made of 
handing over to the new president, amongst other 
things, "the Bible used by John Wesley in his 
field preaching. " I presume it has been the cus- 
tom to hand down this heirloom from president to 
president since Wesley's time, but I do not remem- 
ber seeing the fact noted in the public press before. 
It seems to me a very interesting observance, and 
has suggested the thought that perhaps other reli- 
gious sects may adopt similar means of preserving 
relics of their founders. I shall be much obliged 
to any reader of ' N. & Q.' who will supply in- 
formation on this subject. JOHN T. PAGE. 
5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

FAUNTLEROY. When I was a small boy I used 
to hear a good deal about Fauntleroy, " the last man 
that was hanged for forgery." He had lived in the 
parish (Hampton-on-Thames) in which I resided, 
and the event was still talked about. Some of the 
older inhabitants had known him, had even had 
dealings with him. Old Heather who, in his 
youth, might have served Dickens as his model 
for Sam Weller, only that he was rather more 
rustic and sedate than that gay spark had once 
bought a " crop o' 'taters " of him, " and a werry 
nice gentleman he wur ! " Old Ruff, too, who only 
died last year, parish beadle, parish constable, and 
quondam fish-hawker, had as a boy sold him cray- 
fish caught in the river. I have been told 
that the house that Fauntleroy occupied at Hamp- 
ton was one situated on the west side of London 
Road, and now, I think, known as Parkbrook. 
I have also been told that the house he occupied 
at Brighton was one now known as West Hill 
Lodge, and situated on the north side of Western 
Road, between Montpelier Road and Codrington 
Place. I should be glad to know if these latter 
indications are correct. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

4, Bloomsbury Place, Brighton. 

CARDINALS. (See 8 th S. vi. 300.) The following 
passage from Mr. Egerton Beck's interesting paper 
on * Papal Elections and Coronations,' which 
appears in the July number of the Dublin Review, 
may interest some of your readers : 

' The title cardinal was not exclusively reserved for 
the dignitaries of the Roman Church till the time of 
Pius IV. ; formerly it was frequently bestowed on tho 
canons or some of the canons of certain great churches, 
such as the cathedrals of Milan, Ravenna, BesaiiQon, 
Compostella, and Cologne." 

N. M. & A. 

WINSTON BRIDGE. At Winston, a little village 
in the county of Durham, which furnished a sur- 
name for the Edmund of ' Rokeby ' and gained 
praise from Sir Walter, who wrote " sweet Win- 
ston's woodland scene," there is a bridge over the 
Tees, with an arch of one hundred and eleven feet in 
span. It was built in 1764, and it is said, though 
I do not vouch for the truth of the assertion, to 



X. Aua. 29, '90. 

have been, in those days, the largest bridge of a 
single span in