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Notes and Queries, July 29, 1899. 




of Intercommunication 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 






Notes and Queries, July 29, 1899. 





9* S. III. JAN. 7, '99.] 



CONTENTS. -No. 54. 

NOTES : Names : Saxon and Norman, 1 Ghost-words 
" Ploughing the sands," 2 Barricade Relic of Napoleon 
Barracks" Felicity " Lyke-Wake, 3 R. Cumberland 

Thackeray and Edward FitzGerald Trisantona, 4 
Weight of King George III. Myrmecides A " Reprint" 
Riming Advertisement French " Glastonbury Thorn," 
5" Btitherum," 6. 

QUERIES : Glyndyfrdwy Beamish Armorial An In- 
dian Nobleman Dunbar Gulls, 6 Paget and Cobbe 
Beltchar Surname Early Italian Lawrence Florio's 
Montaigne' Kemps of Hendon Learmont, 7 Ward 
Surname " Sleever " " Copper-tailed " Reference to 
Quotation Rev. A. Stevenson Authors Wanted, 8. 

REPLIES : Hexham Priory, 8-The Church at Silchester, 
11 Midsummer Gillyflower, 12 Brampton Bekesbourne 

" Bounder," 13 W. Prynn Gladstone's Welsh Fore- 
fathers " Soot," 14 Vanity Fair John Oxenbridge 
Prime Minister, 15 Sir E. B. Godfrey The George worn 
by Charles I. Minutes and Seconds, 16 Anne Boleyn 
M. P.P. Henrietta M. Price, 17-Crafts in the Fourteenth 
Century, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
'The Sportsman's Year-Book ' ' Whitaker's Almanack' 
Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

A CURIOUS result of the Norman Conquest 
was the complete transformation which it 
effected in personal nomenclature. In the 
tenth century names were of the Saxon type 
in the south, and of either the Anglian or 
the Danish type in the north and east. 
Thus we have such Saxon names as Ulward, 
Godric, Gudmund, Sirewald, Reinbald, Leod- 
mar, Edric, Colebrand, or Brictric ; such 
Danish names as Olafr, Thorgrimr, Rblfr, 
Ormr, or Hrafn: and Anglian names like 
Cynimund, Lindbercht, Cuthmund, or Ean- 
bald. In less than two hundred years these 
names were replaced by Norman names such 
as William, Robert, Richard, Walter, or 
Roger. We can even trace the actual process. 
Thus in 1172 we have a list of the miraculous 
cures effected at the tomb of St. Thomas of 
Canterbury. More than half the names are 
still of the Old English ^type, probably 
because the cures were chiefly among the 
peasant class. In the Durham 'Boldon Book, 
compiled in 1183, Norman names are usual 
among the tenants, but the fathers of these 
men, whose names are frequently recorded, 
are mostly of the Old English type. But in 
1380, when Bishop Hatfield made a survey of 

the same manors, the Old English names had 
completely disappeared. So in the Poll Book 
of 1379 Norman names are found exclusively. 

The Old English names are distinguished 
by their almost endless variety. Thus from 
the stem cyng we have Cynebald, Cynebert, 
Cyneheard, Cynlaf, Cynemund, and Cyne- 
ward ; and a similar variety formed from a 
host of other stems might be adduced. 

In singular contrast to this wealth of Saxon 
names is the poverty of those belonging to 
the Norman type. In 1379 more than half 
the men are called John or William, while 
more than three quarters are called either 
John, William, Thomas, Richard, or Robert, 
which in common parlance must have been 
Jack, Will, Tom, Dick, or Rob, since among 
the commonest patronymics are Jackson, 
Wilson, Thompson, Dixon, and Robson. Other 
names are less usual, Henry and Adam being 
each three per cent.; Roger and Hugh are 

a two per cent. ; while Walter, Simon, 
jh, and Nicholas are one per cent. Still 
fewer are Geoffrey, Alan, and Stephen; 
Denis and Jacob occur only once in four 
hundred names ; Martin and Peter once in 
eight hundred. 

In the thirteenth century William is the 
commonest name. In the fourteenth and 
following centuries John is first, with William 
second. Thus in Bishop Hatfield's survey 
forty per cent, of the men are named John, 
followed by William with twenty- two per 
cent. ; while if we add Robert and Thomas, 
eighty per cent, of all the men's names are 
accounted for. 

From the York wills it appears that in 
1636 John heads the list with sixteen per 
cent. William follows close behind with 
fifteen per cent. Thomas is twelve per cent., 
followed by Richard and Robert with eight 
per cent. each. Henry and George are only 
half as numerous ; still fewer are Roger, 
Ralph, Nicholas, Edward, James, Charles, 
Francis, Humphrey, Anthony, Gilbert, Law- 
rence, and Joseph. 

The popularity of John is believed to be 
due to the supposed suitability in baptism 
of the Baptist's name, just as Jordan was a 
name usually given to children who were 
baptized in water brought from Palestine by 
pilgrims or crusaders. The prevalence of Wil- 
liam is due to William the Conqueror, that of 
Robert to sympathy with the misfortunes of 
his son. Thomas came in with the murder of 
the great archbishop. The crusading exploits 
of Richard I. made the name popular, while 
to the adventures of the Paladins we owe 
Roland, Roger, and Reginald. In the four- 
teenth century Charles, James, and George 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. in. JAN. 7, m 

are almost unknown. Charles only became 
popular after the execution of Charles I., 
and George came in with the Hanoverian 

The names of women present similar 
phenomena. What occurred with the 
names of men was also the case with those 
of women, though more frequently than men 
they received what we may call fancy names, 
such as Enota, Amicia, Diota, Avicia, Lora, 
Ameria, Lelice, or Anabilla. Such names, 
however, were unusual, since we find that in 
the fourteenth century one - third of the 
women were called either Agnes or Alice, 
while Agnes, Alice, Joan, and Margaret 
amount altogether to half of the whole num- 
ber ; and if we add Isabella, Cecilia, and 
Matilda, three-fourths are accounted for. 

The great vogue of Agnes and Alice, and 
to a lesser degree of Barbara and Cecilia, is 
explained by popular metrical legends. In 
the time of Charles I. Agnes has descended 
from the first place to the tenth, and Alice 
from the second to the sixth. Ann and 
Elizabeth now head the list, followed by Jane, 
Margaret, Mary, Alice, Isobel, Dorothy, and 
Ellen, while Sarah, now so popular, has 
already the seventeenth place, having only 
been introduced at the Reformation. Eliza- 
beth came in with Elizabeth Woodville, and 
Arine with the queen of Richard II. 


GHOST-WORDS. (See 9 th S. ii. 341, 406, 
485.) 4. Cherisaunce, Cherisaunie.The real 
word, chevisaunce, duly explained in the 
* H.E.D.,' occurs five times in Chaucer : once 
in the ' Prologue,' once in the ' Legend of 
Phillis,' and thrice in the 'Shipman's Tale.' 
It generally refers to some business transac- 
tion, but also means resource or remedy. 

In the French 'Roman de la Rose,' ed. 
Meon, 11. 3112-3, we have the passage : 
Sovent plore et sovent me plains 
Que ne soi de moi chevissance ; 

i.e., I often lament and often complain that I 
know for myself no resource (or remedy). 

The translator of this passage in the 
English version of the 'Romaunt of the Rose' 
expressed it, rather freely, as follows : 

Tho, dismayed, I lefte [remained] al sool [sole], 

Wery, forwandred as a fool, 

For I ne knew no chevisaunce. 

But unluckily the scribe who copied out 
the MS. turned chevisaunce into cherisaunce, 
mistaking the v for an r, and all the old 
editions reproduced this mistake. Hence 
the word was duly recorded in Speght's 
' Glossary,' with the explanation " comfort." 
This explanation was doubtless due to an 

imaginary connexion of the word with the 
verb to cherish. This suggested " cherishing," 
and " cherishing " suggested " comfort." By 
extraordinary good luck the interpretation 
is not much amiss. 

Nevertheless, cherisaunce is truly a ghost- 
word, and, as such, has been avoided in the 

This, however, is not the end of the story. 
The troubles of the word were not over ; it 
suffered yet another forcible (but accidental) 
alteration by a printer's substitution of i for 
the second c. And this is why we find in 
Bailey's dictionary the grave entry : "Cheri- 
saunie, comfort." 

Nor was even this the end. Kersey also 
made a note of the word, but his printer 
turned the final -ie into -ei, giving us 
" Cherisaunei, comfort." We see that Bailey, 
who succeeded Kersey, had the wit to put 
the final -ie right again ; but he had no 
suspicion that the r was wrong ! 

The interesting point about Kersey's mis- 
print is that Chatterton got hold of it in this 
strangely perverted form. The very first line 
of his 'Introduction to vElla' runs thus : 

Somme cherisaunei 'tys to gentle mynde, 
where the explanation " comfort " has 
obviously been accepted in all innocence. It 
may suffice to say that this singular and 
wonderful use of a non-existent word is quite 
sufficient to show that the line just quoted 
was not written by Rowley in the fifteenth 

And it can now be clearly seen that 
cherisaunei is an error for cherisaunie, which 
is an error for cherisaunce; and that cheri- 
saunce is itself a ghost-word, being an error 
for chevisaunce. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

expressive phrase, brought into public notice 
by Mr. Asquith in a political speech towards 
the end of 1897, and recently quoted by 
Mr. Chamberlain at Manchester and by 
Mr. A. J. Balfour at Bristol, has not, so far 
as I am aware, suggested a query as to its 
origin.* There can be no doubt that it is of 
immemorial antiquity. I cannot, however, 
find anything resembling it in the sacred 
writings, where the sands of the sea-shore 
are frequently referred to as an illustration 
of a vast collection of units impossible to be 
numbered, such as the generations of men or 
the myriad soldiers of a mighty army. It is 
unnecessary to give instances with which 
every one will be more or less acquainted. 
It is interesting to know that Homer used 

[* See 8 th S. xii. 306, 432.] 

9 th S. III. JAN. 7, '99.] 


the word in exactly the same way ('Iliad,' 
ii. 800 and ix. 385). In the former he joins 
" leaves and sands " together ; in the latter, 
"sand and dust." Passing by the other 
Greek writers, we come to Virgil, Horace, and 
Juvenal, whose works I have examined, by 
the help of the " Indices Verborum " in the 
Delphin editions, without finding a trace of 
the origin of the phrase as employed by 
Mr. Asquith. The only classical authority I 
can furnish for an expression almost identical 
is Ovid ('Epistolee Heroidum,' v. 115-6), 
where CEnone, after being abandoned by 
Paris, remembers the warning that had been 
addressed to her by Cassandra : 

Quid facis, (Enone ? quid arense semina mandas ? 

Non profecturis littora bubus aras. 

The following lines, from Sannazaro's 
'Arcadia,' published in the year 1504, are to 
the same effect : 
Solca nell' onde, e nell' arene semina, 
E tenta i vaghi venti in rete accogliere, 
Chi fonda sue speranze in cor di femmina. 

In quoting this author for the sake of his 
expression, I must declare that I altogether 
dissent from the ungallant conclusion he 
comes to, which has never been shared by 
his countrymen in his own age or any other. 
In one English writer I have found the exact 
phrase. It is in Robert Burton's * Anatomy 
of Melancholy,' part iii. sec. 2, mem. 1, 
subs. 2. The words arenas arantes plough- 
ing the sands, are in a long passage written 
in Latin, in which tongue he originally 
intended to compose the whole book, had not 
the "stationers" very sensibly refused to 
print it. Did Mr. Asquith get the phrase 
from Burton 1 There is no mention of it in 
Dr. Brewer's ' Dictionary of Phrase and 
Fable.' JOHN T. CURRY. 

BARRICADE. (See 4 th S. iv. 208.) In the 
year 1596-7 the Corporation of Plymouth 
paid "for erectinge of the barracathes and 
for other charges layed out about the same 
clxxij/?;. ijs. ijd." (' Tenth Report Hist. MSS. 
Comin.,' App. IV. 540). This early instance of 
the English form of the word should be re- 
corded in ' N. & Q.,' pending the issue of the 
supplement to the 'H.E.D.' Q. V. 

be recorded in ' N. & Q.' that a very curious 
item was disposed of in a London auction- 
room on 13 Dec., 1898 namely, the bronze 
mask of the Emperor Napoleon, taken from 
a plaster cast of his face at St. Helena by 
Dr. Antommarchi 1 It was stated at the sale 
that this relic of the great Emperor of France 
was for many years the property of the club 

" Les Fils de la Gloire," which was composed 
of old officers of " La Grande Armee"; and at 
the death of each member it was placed on 
his coffin on the road to the interment, and 
at the death of the last member of all came 
into the possession of the recent owners. 

Elms Road, S.W. 

BARRACKS. In Sir S. D. Scott's book en- 
titled 'The British Army,' iii. 399, I find a 
mention of barracks seven years earlier than 
that given in the 'Hist. Eng. Diet.': 

"Monmouth writes from Ostend in 1678: Many 
men ill of agues and fevers, which they attribute 
much to the cold and damp lodging of men in the 


is an oft-told story of a rustic who, when 
asked to explain the meaning of "felicity' 
(a word which had been freely used in a sermon 
to which he had been a supposed listener), re- 
plied that he believed " 'twere some part of 
the innards of a pig." I have often wondered 
what process of mind could have suggested 
so incongruous a reply, and think I have nov 
the clue. The poor man thus challenged for 
a definition simply bethought him of " flick," 
the common Somerset term for the inner fat 
of a pig. Given a short vowel (a stiva sound) 
between /and I, a hard pronunciation of the 
c, and the absurdity vanishes. For we may 
not too hastily assume that the parties to the 
dialogue were thoroughly en rapport. The 
farmer may have been slightly "chinch"; he 
may possibly for such things are have in- 
dulged in forty winks during " sarment," and 
so have regarded the question as one of a 
purely abstract character. W. F. R. 

Hutton Rectory. 

LYKE-WAKE AND LATE- WAKE. It is curious 
that Scott, in 'The Antiquary,' chap, xl., 
should make Mr. Old buck commend old 
Alison Breck for using " lyke-wake " instead 
of "late-wake," and yet in 'The Lord of the 
Isles,' vi. xxxiv., published only the year 
before, should have made Bruce say : 
Bid Ninian's convent light their shrine 
For late- wake of De Argentine. 

It cannot be that Scott thought "late- wake' 
more appropriate in poetry, because "lyke- 
wake " occurs in ' The Lay of the Last 
Minstrel,' iv. xxvi.: 

Our slogan is their lyke-wake dirge. 

Probably Scott considered it more suitable 
to make Mr. Oldbuck, who was of German 
extraction, prefer " lyke-wake," which he tells 
his nephew is " genuine Teutonic, from the 


Gothic Leichnam, a corpse. It is quite errone- 
ously called late-wake, though Brand favours 
that modern corruption and derivation." 

In 'Guy Mannering,' chap, xxvii, pub- 
lished in the same year as ' The Lord of the 
Isles,' one of the smugglers uses " lykewake " 
printed as one word without a hyphen. 

In ' The Bride of Lammermoor,' last chapter 
but one, "late- wake" occurs. Scott, accord- 
ingly, appears to use " lyke-wake " or " late- 
wake " indifferently. 


be worth noting that the inscription upon 
the gravestone, in Poets' Corner in Westmin- 
ster Abbey, of this once celebrated dramatic 
writer has been recut recently. He died 7 May, 
1811, aged eighty years, and is alluded to by 
Goldsmith in his poem 'Retaliation': 
Here Cumberland lies, having acted his parts, 
The Terence of England, the mender of hearts, 
A flattering painter who made it his care 
To draw men as they ought to be, not as they are. 

He is said to have been the original of Sir 
Fretful Plagiary in Sheridan's ' Critic.' 

On the occasion of his funeral in the Abbey, 
Dr. Vincent, then Dean of Westminster, 
delivered the following oration over his 
grave : 

"Good people, the person you see now deposited 
is Richard Cumberland, an author of no small 
merit. His writings were chiefly for the stage, but 
of strict moral tendency; they were not without 
faults, but they were not gross, abounding with 
oaths and libidinous expressions, as I am shocked 
to observe is the case of many at the present day. 
He wrote as much as any; few wrote better; and 
his works will be held in the highest estimation as 
long as the English language is understood. He 
considered the theatre as a school for moral im- 
provement ; and his remains are truly worthy of 
mingling with the illustrious dead which surround 
us. Read his prose subjects on divinity ! there you 
will find the true Christian spirit of the man who 
trusted in our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. May 
God forgive him his sins, and at the resurrection 
of the just receive him into everlasting glory ! " 

This funeral oration may be found in a 
note in Croker's edition of Boswell's ' Life of 
Johnson,' the large one-volume edition. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

1831. Permission is requested to direct 
attention to the fact that much can now be 
learnt of the lights and shades of Thackeray'_ 
career by the perusal of Mrs. Ritchie's deeply 
interesting introduction to the "Biographical 
Edition" of her father's 'Christmas Books,' 
just published by Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co.. 
and also how deeply the author of ' Vanity 
Fair ' was indebted to Edward FitzGerald for 

lis kindness during the saddest period of 
lis life. With regard to the friendship of 
Thackeray with FitzGerald, I venture to 
think that the following lines, written in 
1831 by the generous and impressionable 
FitzGerald to nis friend, may not be out of 
place in 'N. & Q.': 

I cared not for life, for true friend I had none 
I had heard 'twas a blessing not under the sun ; 
Some figures called friends, hollow, proud, or cold- 

Came to me like shadows, like shadows departed ; 
But a day came that turned all niy sorrow to glee, 
When first I saw Willy, and Willy saw me. 
The thought of my Willy is always a cheerer : 
The wine has new flavour, the fire burns clearer, 
The sun ever shines, I am pleased with all things, 
And the crazy old Avorld seems to go with new 


If I get to be fifty may Willy get too, 
And we '11 laugh, Will, at all that grim sixties can 


Old age ! Let him do what poets complain, 
We '11 thank him for making us children again ; 
Let him make us grey, gouty, blind, toothless, or 

Still old Ned shall be Ned, and old Willy be Willy. 

Elms Road, S.W. 

TRISANTONA. The postulated form "Tris- 
antonam " never meant the Trent river, nor, 
indeed, any one river whatever ; put literally 
it means " the three waters." The difficulty 
has arisen with Ptolemy, who places an 
anomalous Trisanton river on the south 
coast of Britain, generally identified with the 
Anton or Test at Southampton ; but it more 
probably refers to the three openings or 
havens formed by the adjoining islands, 
called Hayling and Portsea, thus constituting 
one large shallow inlet of the sea, including 
Portsmouth Harbour and leading up to Por- 
chester. Following the line of coast as de- 
nned by Ptolemy, we find Tamarus, the 
Tamar, at Devonport and Plymouth ; the 
Isca or Exe, leading up to Exeter \ the Alau- 
nus, named from a small stream, known as 
the Alen at Wimborne, but joining the Stour 
and Avon at Christchurch (Allan and Alne 
are common) ; then we have the great port 
(megas limeri), that is Southampton Water, 
with Clausentum, where Carausius put up 
his shipping after leaving Boulogne. Then 
comes Trisanton, including Portsmouth Har- 
bour ; then the New Haven (Kaine limeri), that 
is Lymne or Stutfall Castle ; and lastly the 
North Foreland, in Thanet. This seems per- 
fectly lucid and incontrovertible. 

Now if we are to search for a "three 
waters " in the Midlands, take Alrewas and 
Wichnor, a flooded district ; here we find the 
Teme and Mease join the so-called Trent 

9 th S. III. JAN. 7, '99.] 


which makes a sharp angle in such an arti- 
ficial way as to break the connexion in fact, 
to suggest an engineering feat to form the 
connexion, that is, to carry off the super- 
abundant water, necessary to the safety 
of Eiknield Street. This particular opera- 
tion may be compared with the Roman 
limes Germanicus, from Moguntiacum on the 
Rhine to Reginum on the Danube ; the simile 
is exact. So, starting at the important post 
of Uriconium on the Severn, we proceed along 
a section of Watling Street to Well, near 
Lichfield ; then turn north-east along Rik- 
nield Street towards Alrewas, Wichnor, Bur- 
ton, and Derby (Little Chester) ; at Derby we 
meet with the Derwent, and that is the Trent. 
Let us compare Derwent, Darenth, Tarrant, 
Tranent, and Trent, the latter being also a 
place-name near Yeovil in Somersetshire. 
At Wichnor is a reputed Roman camp ; at 
Alrewas (cf. wash, woes, a marshy district) 
is a Roman vicinal way called "Stratford 
Lane," to connect Alrewas with Wichnor, at 
a junction for Stretton-in-the-Field and Wat- 
ling Street, about Atherstone. It seems to 
me that the position taken up by Publius 
Ostorius Scapula may thus be very fairly 
guessed at without discussing the language 
actually used by Tacitus. A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row, B.C. 

lowing memoranda, partly, it would seem, 
written by George III., were formerly in the 
possession of MR. W. J. THOMS, the genial 
first editor of 'N. & Q.' They are copied 
verbatim : 

" The King and Queen breakfasted at Caversham 
Park, July y e 7 th , 1778. The Queen was weighed by 
Merlin's Steelyard in the library; her Majesty's 
weight was eight stone thirteen pounds. Their 
Majesties did Lord and Lady Cadogan the honour 
to stay four hours in the house, park, and gardens. 
" The King 14 s 10 lb . 

" Sept. 13, 1779. 

" The Queen was weighed by Merlin's Steelyard 
Sept. 13 th , 1779. Her weight was Nine Stone and 
half of a pound. 

' Princess Royal Six Stone and ten pounds. 

' Princess Augusta four Stone and thirteen Pounds. 

'Prince of Wales thirteen Stone and half of a 

' Prince Frederick ten Stone and one half. 

'Their Majesties repeated their visit, with their 
Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales, Prince 
Frederick, the Princess Royal, and Princess Au- 
gusta, when the last Six Lines were entered in this 
book by the King Himself." 


MYRMECIDES. This curious word, appa- 
rently a derivative from /zvp/zr^, is used, 
possibly invented by Bishop John King, who 

died 1621. See his tenth lecture on Jonas, 
ed. 1618, p. 131 : 

"Others, though they went not so far as to ex- 
empt all things, yet they withdrewe the smaller 
from the heauenly prouidence. For it was thought 
most iniurious to bring doun the maiesty of God so 
lowe, as to the husbanding of bees and pismires, as 
if in the number of Gods there were some Myrme- 
cides to carue and procure the smaller works. 

Portland, Oregon. 

A " REPRINT." In 1855 Mr. John N. Bag- 
nail issued what he calls a " reprint " of three 
books on the manufacture of iron : Dud Dud- 
ley's 'Mettallum Martis,' John Rovenzon's 
'Treatise of Metallica,' and Simon Sturte- 
vant's * Metallica.' At p. 44 of the last-named 
book a solid block of twenty-two lines is 
omitted. Q. V. 

advertisement appears in Lysons's 'Collect- 
anea ' (ii. 163) : 

Hannah Ward 

At the sign of the Four Coffins in the Strand, 
From Surry street the second Door, 
The Number is One Hundred Four-score ; 
Where are sold Comic Masks with many Ends and 


And also Watson's History of the Heathen Gods. 
W. G. P., Deer. 2nd, 1769. 

The site of the house with this strange sign 
is either No. 170 or No. 173 Strand. The 
houses between Nos. 161 and 166 Strand 
were renumbered in 1880, but the other num- 
bers near Surrey Street appear to have been 
undisturbed since the beginning of the cen- 
tury. I have not been able to find Watson's 
'History,' but I noticed in a catalogue the 
other day an 'Historical Account of the 
Heathen Gods and Heroes,' by Dr. King 
(1727), priced at Is. 6d. JOHN HEBB. 

Canonoury Mansions, N. 

following cutting from Le Petit Journal of 
Monday, 31 Oct., 1898, will be best preserved 
in your pages : 

" Un de nos lecteurs, M. Julien, nous informe 
qu'il existe k Dagny (Seine-et-Marne) une vieille 
souched'e'pine prunelieredont les rejetoiis s'e"tendent 
a droite et a gauche de ladite souche. Cette epine, 
ainsi que les rejetons, ont la particvilarite" de fleurir 
deux fois par an : une premiere fois au printemps 
avec fruits et une seconde fois en hiver, au mois de 
d^cembre, mais sans fruits. Ce phenomene de vege"- 
tation n'a jamais 6te expliqu. Void la legende qui 
a cours dans le pays k son sujet. En 1'an 611, 1'abbe 
Geroche, cur6 de 'Dagny, confesseur au couvent de 
Faremoutiers, allait porter le viatique k une fenmie 
de la Malgagne, hameau de la commune de Dagny. 
C'etait & fepoque cle Noel, par uri fort degel ; 1'abM 
avait une canne d'^pine. II glissa un peu et se retint 
sur sa canne, qui s'enfona dans le sol assez pro- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. JAN. 7, m 

fondement. A ce moment, l'abb Geroche aurait dit: 
Reste en terre ...... prends racine ...... et tu fleuriras 

chaque annee a Noel, pour la deuxieme fois. Et tu 
ne rapporteras pas de fruits. Un buste de 1 abb6 
Geroche existe k 1'eglise de Dagny. Le pretre a 6t6 
canonise, et la commune a choisi pour sa fete 
patronale la Saint-Geroehe, qui est celebree le 2 
juillet de chaque annee." 


" STITHERUM." In the Midlands this is a 
common useful word in the dialects. " Stithe- 
rum" = bother, worry, confusion, commotion, 
and is used in other ways. Some one relating 
a simple event, going a long way round to the 
finish, makes " a long stitherum." A serious 
event creates a great " stitherum "; and if a 
boy pokes a stick into a wasps' nest, the re- 
sult is a " stitherum " among the wasps. The 
banging of a big drum makes a " stitherum " 
of noise. A woman (never man) in a worry 
is making " a stitherum," if she exhibits her 
trouble in any exceptional fashion. 


Worksop. _ 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

GLYNDYFRDWY. In Mr. Bradley's recently 
published ' Highways and Byways in North 
Wales ' I find the following on the origin and 
meaning of this name : 

"Glyndyfrdwy or, as usually written in former 
days, Glyndwfrdwy merely signifies the Glen of 
the Dee, dwfrdwy being the Welsh name for the 
sacred rivers, the termination, in fact, being a cor- 
ruption of ddu, divine, while dwfr is the Kymric 
for water." P. 75. 

This derivation of dyfrdwy is quite new to 
me, as is also the spelling dwfrdwy (Cainden 
has " Dovvr Dwy "). How is it that dwy, 
which usually means water, is here a corrup- 
tion of ddu, and that ddu itself, which usually 
means black (cf. Afon ddu, Allt ddu), here 
means divine ? And is not dyfr related to 
dyji, slowly moving, the Welsh name of the 
Dovey? C. C. B. 

BEAMISH FAMILY. I seek for informa- 
tion regarding the family of Beamish, 
formerly Bearais, Beaumis, or Beaumetz, from 
Beaumetz, near Abbeville. I find in 'His- 
tory of the Norman People ' (H. S. King & 
Co., 1874) that Richard de Belmiz, Viscount 
of Salop, witnessed (1087) the charter of Salop 
Abbey (' Mon.,' i. 376) ; also that Hugh de 
Belmiz was lord of Donnington, Salop, 1316. 
From this it would appear that this family 

was connected for a considerable period with 
the county of Salop, while the writer also states 
that Richard de Belmiz was Bishop of London 
in 1107. Then the name appears amongst 
the list of settlers from England in Ireland 
(co. Cork) during Queen Elizabeth's reign, 
and though the direct links connecting with 
the earlier ancestry have been, it is feared, 
lost, yet sufficient evidence exists to prove 
that the family is of Norman descent. Can 
any of your readers supply information 
from the records of Salop or from any other 
source which would fill the apparent gap 
between the year 1316 and the year 1642, 
when the name first appears in Cork records 
in connexion with this family 1 The crest 
of this family is a demi-lion rampant (the 
lion rampant is borne on the first and fourth 
quarters of the coat of arms), and the motto 
is " Virtus insignit audentes." 


ARMORIAL. Can any one tell me if the 
following arms belong to one of the Dutch 
towns? Shield gutte (tincture unknown), 
a lion rampant, standing on the pommels 
of two swords crossed in sal tire. On an 
escutcheon of pretence ar. a sal tire gu., 
pierced of the first. Crest, a stork drinking 
from a tall vase-shaped cup. F. E. 

AN INDIAN NOBLEMAN. Can any one give 
further information about, and explain the 
titles of, the personage whose death is 
announced in the following extract from the 
Echo of 19 November, 1898 ? 

" Yesterday was buried, at Abney Park, Cornelius 
Mogienie, the last of his race, aged 77. His great- 
grandfather was Omrah Nessur, of the Mogul 
Empire, Prince of Didpn and Indus, Lord Cham- 
berlain and Generalissimo (1749). In consequence 
of Omrah Nessur's high pedigree, he was permitted 
to marry the Mogul's sister. He also found favour 
by his successful generalship in the battles fought 
against the Persians and Afghans." 


DUNBAR FAMILY. Ninian Dunbar, of 
Grangehill, is said by Douglas to have 
married a daughter of Lord Banff. Is it 
known of which Lord Banff she was the 
daughter 1 ? And whose daughter was Mary 
Sutherland, of Duffus, the second wife of 
George Ogilvy, first Lord Banff? 


GULLS. I should like to know of what 
species are the gulls that frequent the parks 
(St. James's Park especially) in the winter. 
On consulting Yarrell they seem to be either 
the kitty wake or the black-headed gull in its 
winter plumage. The heads of these are not 
black in the winter ; what they may be in the 

III. JAN. 7, '99.] 


uminer I do not know, as they do not come 
:n the summer. They are more numerous 
HOW than I have ever seen them. 

I should add that these gulls go eastwards 
>;very evening, presumably to the Thames 
narshes. The kitty wake, according to Yar- 
-ell, frequents rocky coasts. 


PAGET AND COBBE. Can any of your 
readers give me information as to the date 
and place of marriage of Thomas Paget (son 
of the Rev. John Paget, rector of Pointington), 
of Corpus College, Oxford, with Elizabeth, 
daughter of Richard and Jane Cobbe, or 
Cobb, of Basildon, Berks also of Oxford 
and of Tavistock, gent. 1 The above Thomas, 
afterwards M.A., Fellow of Corpus College, 
Oxford, held various livings in Cornwall, 
Dorset, and Somerset, and at his decease was 
rector of Pointington and of Mells, Somerset. 
He was baptized at Pointington, 1706, and 
probably matriculated as an undergraduate 
about 1724-5. His son Thomas, the first 
issue of the marriage, was baptized January, 
1726, at Basildon, Berks. R. H. PAGET. 


give me the derivation of this surname, 
which, since the seventeenth century, has 
been corrupted in many families to Belsher, 
Belcher, Belchier, &c. ? Has it a trade 
origin? I have heard it stated both in 
Canada ^ and England that Henry Ward 
Beecher's family were formerly known as 
Belcher, but that he, or his father, adopted 
Beecher. Is this a fact ? H. BELTCHAR. 

Bibury, Gloucestershire. 

EARLY ITALIAN. Perhaps some of your 
readers can kindly tell me, (1) Is there a 
reasonably cheap edition of the 'Divina 
Commedia ' and (or) others of Dante's works 
from the earliest MSJ (2) Is there any 
book of Italian extracts corresponding to 
Morris and Skeat's 'Specimens of Early 
English ' ? (3) What is the approximate date 
of the version of St. Francis's ' Song of the 
Sun' at pp. 234-5 of Sabatier's 'Speculum 
Perfectionis ' (Paris, 1898) ? 


70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

LAWRENCE FAMILY. The father of John 
(Lord Lawrence), Henry, and George Law- 
rence was Col. Alexander Lawrence. The 
'Baronetage' says that the father of Col. 
Alexander Lawrence was William Lawrence 
of Coleraine, but I have failed to discover the 
tombstone at Coleraine of any William Law- 
rence of the last century. According to 

" Veritas " in the Belfast News Letter dated 
11 January, 1864, the father of Col. Alexander 
Lawrence was Alexander Lawrence, who had 
settled at Magherafelt. I have reason to 
doubt the absolute accuracy of this state 
ment, but think it possible that John Law- 
rence, who died at Magherafelt about 1776, 
was Col. Alexander Lawrence's father. I 
should be glad to receive any information 
regarding the parentage and ancestry of 
Col. Alexander Lawrence. 


FLORIO'S * MONTAIGNE.' May I be allowed 
to call attention to two apparent misprints 
in Florio's ' Montaigne,' edited by Dr. Henry 
Morley (Routledge, 1885), vol. ii. ? 

P. 337. " The world lookes ever for right" 
Should not this be "forthright," i.e., straight 
forward ? Hazlitt has " opposite," the French 
being vis-a-vis. 

P. 349. "Yea, madnesse encited them to 
it," said of gladiators boldly confronting 
death. Surely this is a misprint for 
" maidens." The French reads : " Les filles 
mesmes les incitoient," which Hazlitt correctly 
renders : " The very girls themselves set them 


KEMPS OF HENDON. It appears from the 
Middlesex Session Rolls (7 Feb., 7 James I.) 
that Edward Kemp was living at Hendon in 
1610. Edward Kemp, of Clutterhouse, Hen- 
don, whose will was dated 1648, and proved 
1649, had a sister (widow) Rose Marsh. I 
desire to know the parentage of the latter. 
Evans in his 'History of Hendon' connects 
with this family Francis Kemp of London ; 
but this gentleman was descended not from 
the Hendon family, but from the Kemps of 

issing, Norfolk. FRED. HITCHIN-KEMP. 

14, Beechfield Road, Catford. 

LEARMONT : LERMONTOV. It is a common- 
place to students of Russian literature that 
Mikhail Lermontov, pupil and successor of 
Alexander Pushkin, was descended from the 
Scotch family of Learmont. Having occasion 
lately to refer to the poems of the Wizard of 
the North for the purposes of a lecture, I was 
reminded that the shadowy bard, Thomas the 
Rhymer of Ercildpune, was a Learmont. It 
would be interesting, if practicable, to trace 
;he kinship between "true Thomas," the 
lero of Elfland, and the sombre creator of 
The Demon' and the cynical Petchorin. 
There was something uncanny and elfish 
about Lermontov, who delighted to note 
-esemblances between himself and Byron, 
vith his unsociability and caustic remarks, 



[9* h S. III. JAN.7,'99. 

one of which cost him his life in a duel 
Mi'. W. R. Morfill has recorded numerouj 
links of connexion between Scotland and 
Russia, and the establishment of relationship 
of blood or of genius between these scions of 
the house of Learmont would add another. 
Brixton Hill. 

THE SURNAME WARD. This is rather a 
common name. In the 'Brighton General 
Directory' it fills two -thirds of a page. 
Smith itself takes only six pages. Did all 
Wards get their name in the same way ? I 
have read somewhere that in the earliest 
documents in which the name occurs it had 
the prefix "de." Now what was this Ward ? 
Was it a district, or calling, or what ; and in 
what language ? W. 


" SLEEVES." A short time ago a publican 
in the Rhondda Valley, Glamorganshire, was 
ned for selling a "sleever" of beer. This 
contains about three-quarters of a pint. In 
several parts of Glamorgan "a square of 
beer," measuring two- thirds of a pint, is also 
a favourite drink, so called, I have heard it 
said, because it is a " square " drink, that is, 
just enough to take at a draught. Are these 
measures general in England, and is anything 
known why they are so called? D. M. R. 

"COPPER-TAILED." In the eighty-fifth of 
the 'Letters from a Citizen of the World,' 
near the end, Goldsmith describes certain 
people as "wrangling in the defence of a 
copper-tailed actress." In the seventy-ninth 
letter he says, referring to the reopening of 
the theatres, " The hero resolves to cover his 
forehead with brass, and the heroine begins 
to scour up her copper tail, preparative to 
tuture operations." I do not find copper- 
tailed in the ' H.E.D.,' rior do I understand 
with precision what the copper tail was. 
Can an explanation be given ? 

Portland, Oregon. 

long ago as 1892 a member of Parliament, I 
think ot Cabinet rank, quoted in a speech the 
lines descriptive of the tribe of demagogues : 

Their life is agitation, and their breath 

A sea whereon they ride, 

and cited Shakespeare as the author, a refer- 
ence I of course, knew to be inaccurate 
nevertheless I confirmed my impression by 
consulting a concordance. I have just (six 
years and upwards afterwards) met with the 
passage attributed to Byron. Unfortunately 

so far as I am aware, there is no concordance 
to the works of the last-named poet, and I 
have in vain examined the usually met with 
dictionaries of quotations. Can you, or any 
of the courteous readers of * N. & Q.,' help me 
to the poem containing the quotation ? 


of your readers inform me regarding the 
late Rev. Alex. Stevenson, at one time 
minister at Widdrington in Northumberland, 
and afterwards at Earlston in Berwickshire % 
He possessed the farm of Braid wood shiel, a 
property on the Leader a few miles from 
Earlston, but latterly he lived in Glasgow. 
Did he study medicine and practise there? 
When and where did he die ? His widow 
died at Glasgow in 1829. W. C. 


My dead love came to me and said, 
"God gives me one hour's rest 

To spend with thee upon the earth ; 
How shall we spend it best ? " 

E. W. D. 

In the notes to Bloomfield's Greek Testament 
occurs the following quotation, "The feeling com- 
pass, navigation's aid." What is the source from 
which it is taken ? C. B. 

You, who never turned your back, 
But marched straight forward ; 
Never doubted clouds would break, 
Never dreamed, though right was worsted, 
Wrong would triumph. W. A. LAW. 

I wish you health, 

I wish you wealth, 

I wish you love in store ; 

I wish you heaven after death : 

I cannot wish you more. 




(9 th S. ii. 241, 391.) 

I SHOULD like to see some documentary 
proof of the statement that, according to 
Germanic law, the " younger son " " merely 
possessed a 'haw,'" whilst "the elder son 
inherited the chief house, the 'hof.'" How 
would it be if a man had ten sons? Who 
would then "possess" the "haw"? A custom 
by which the eldest son inherited the chief 
bouse and the younger sons, if that is really 
meant, inherited " haws " would have to be 
strictly proved before it could be admitted as 
an historical fact. MR. STEVENSON sees the 
difficulty of using the word " inherit " in the 
case of the younger son or sons, for that 


S. III. JAN. 7, '99.] 


vquld imply that each successive owner of a 
ihief house, or " hof," would be possessed 
throughout his tenancy of one or more 
'haws," which would pass, on intestacy, to 
the younger son or sons. ^ Accordingly he 
uses the word " possess," which is too vague 
to be of scientific use, for we are not told 
how the ancestor himself became '"possessed," 
or whether the younger son or sons became 
" possessed " by inheritance or by grant. I can 
find no such custom in Grimm's 'Rechtsalter- 
thiimer.' There is nothing like it in the 
Icelandic Gragas. It is directly at variance 
with English customs as to inheritance. It 
does not resemble borough English, gavel- 
kind, or any other tenure known to me. As 
Prof. Vinogradoff has shown, the holding of 
the English villain was a fixed and indivisible 
quantity : " It does not admit of partition by 
sale or descent."* 

As regards "the diverse Latin words by 
which hagusteald and its continental forms 
are glossed," I only find one Latin word used 
throughout the Wright- Wiilcker vocabularies, 
and that is coelebs. And it is remarkable that 
in a vocabulary of the tenth century, printed 
in the same volume, the words ""hegsteald 
men " are glossed by " colibates " (sic). Here 
a class of men is referred to, and "colibates" 
may denote either single men regarded as a 
class, or, as seems more likely, monks, or men 
who professed celibacy. As to the gloss 
"agricola," I find that in Grimm's 'Rechts- 
alterthiimer,' p. 313, haistaldi is explained in 
a document as " agricola liber qui non tenet 
hereditatem a curia." Here the word is not 
glossed simply as " agricola," but as " a hus- 
bandman who does not hold his inheritance 
from the court." Among the persons who, in 
England at any rate, did not hold their lands 
" from the court " were monks. I do not, of 
course, say that the " agricola liber " in the 
passage cited was a monk. Inhere were other 
persons besides monks whose lands were 
"free," and did not pass by surrender and 
admittance in the manorial court. But in 
English, if not in continental documents, 
monks are usually said to hold their lands 
"in libera et pura eleemosyna." The word 
augustalis, or its English or German equiva- 
lent, might easily have acquired the secondary 
meaning of " freeholder." 

The Norse nickname or surname Hagu- 
staldaR, found in two runic inscriptions, does 
not by any means put my theory out of court, 
but, on the contrary, is a valuable piece of 
evidence in support of the theory. Assuming, 
as MR. STEVENSON does, that the dates of the 

* ' Villainage in England,' p. 246. 

inscriptions are "somewhere between the 
years 500 and 700," there is nothing to show 
that the Norwegians were unfamiliar with 
*hagustaldr in the sense of " monk " or " celi- 
bate." We know that on the first arrival of 
the Norsemen in Iceland in the ninth cen- 
tury they found papas or monks in the east 
of that country. If monks could settle in so 
distant a place as Iceland before the ninth 
century, they may have settled in Norway at 
a still earlier time. If the Norwegians had 
possessed an ancient literature like that of 
the Icelanders we might have heard some- 
thing about them. It is very significant that 
*hagustaldr is a surname, a name which, in 
this case, described a man's condition in life. 
What was that condition ? I suggest that it 
was the condition of a monk or celibate, and 
the suggestion gains weight from the fact 
that, on ME. STEVENSON'S showing, hog stall 
and haugstall in modern Norwegian dialects 
mean "widower," for a widower is a celi- 
bate. What ground is there for believing 
that, according to Norwegian custom, a 
*hagustaldr was a younger son who " pos- 
sessed " a " haw," whilst his elder brother 
inherited the "hof"? It lies on MR. STEVEN- 
SON to show the existence of such a custom. 

MR. STEVENSON thinks that the word 
Hexhain, which occurs as Hagustaldes-ham in 
the ' Chronicle,' may be derived from a per- 
sonal name, Hagustald. We are told in effect 
that this Roman town, with its magnificent 
basilica and its sculptured Roman tombs and 
altars,* may have taken its name from a petty 
crofter or cottager called Hagustald, or the 
descendant of such a crofter. It may have 
been so. It is within the infinite possibilities. 
But can we suppose that such places as 
Monkton, Monk Bretton, or Nun Staintpn 
took their names from a Mr. Monk or a Miss 
Nun who once lived there ? Is it not far 
more likely nay, is it not certain that these 
places were called after the monks and nuns 
who once lived there ? 

MR. STEVENSON says that the brook-name 
Hextold or Hextild, to the west of the town 
of Hexham, " should clearly be added to the 
long list of bogus river-names evolved from 
local names." I quite agree with him. And 
why should we not also say that Hcegstaldes- 
cumb in the forged charter, Hagustaldces-ce in 
Eddi, Hagustaldes-ham in the 'Chronicle,' 
and Hehst'ealdes-ig in Simeon of Durham, are 
bogus place-names'? Is it likely that a 
valley, a river, a Roman town, and an island 

* Prior Richard describes the town as "nunc 
quidem mpdica, et raro cultore habitata, sed, ut 
antiquitatis vestigia testantur, quondam ampla et 
magnifica" (Raines ' Hexham,' i. 8). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. m. JAN. 7, 

took their names from a man called Hagu- 
stald ? I could as soon believe that the man 
gave his name to a mountain. The true 
name is given by Raine, viz., Hagustalham for 
Agustalham, i.e. Augustalham. 

The surname Hextall may represent the 
Latin augustalis, as the surname Monk repre- 
sents the Latin monachus. 

There is no evidence that the syllable au in 
the Latin word Augustus would be repre- 
sented in Old English by ea. On the con- 
trary, we have clear evidence that it was not 
so represented, for Bede spells Augustus and 
Augustin as Agustus and Agustin. Therefore, 
when we find Hagustaldensis ecclesia in Bede, 
it will not do to say that Augustaldensis, 
which occurs in a chronicle of the twelfth 
century is a "doctored" form. It is not a 
" doctored " form, but one of those lucky 
accidents by which historical truth is some- 
times preserved. 

It is said that I do not produce the 
slightest proof of my assumed change of 
meaning from "priest of Augustus" into 
" monk " or " celibate." A change of meaning 
would naturally follow from a changed mode 
of life, and what I suggested was that, in the 
course of social evolution, the Augustinian 
canons succeeded the Augustales in the same 
way that the priests of the Church of England 
have succeeded the priests of the Church of 
Rome. The evidence on this point is nega- 
tive rather than positive. No other way of 
accounting for the origin of the monastery at 
Hexham seems possible. 

As regards the form Hagustald, ME. 
STEVENSON knows that prothesis of an initial 
h^ was not an uncommon phenomenon in Old 
English. And in a vvord derived from the 
Latin the final d was more likely in Northern 
English to have been inserted than omitted. 

MR. STEVENSON'S historical objections to 
my theory are that the Augustales were not 
priests, or celibates, or a C9rporation, and 
that Hexham was not a municipium. 

It may be that the latest discoveries of 
modern research have proved that the Augus- 
tales were not priests. My only guide was 
the article by Prof. Wayte in the last edition 
of Smith's ' Diet, of Greek and Roman Anti- 
quities,' 1890, where the Augustales are 
defined as "two classes of priests, one at 
Rome and the other in the municipia," and 
where books and articles specially dealing 
with the subject are cited. 

I have not said that the Augustales were 
celibates. But I have somewhere read a 
statement, founded, I think, on discoveries 
nade in opening graves, that the canons of 
Mexham were once married men. Perhaps 

some reader of 'N. & Q.' could supply the 

As to Augustales not forming a corporation, 
Prof. Wayte says that their functions remind 
us "of some of the incidents of municipal 
dignity in modern times." ME. STEVENSON 
admits that their " principal functions were 
economic." So were the functions of old 
municipal corporations. And so were the 
functions of the canons of Hexham and other 
great monasteries. 

I am not aware that any direct evidence 
exists to show whether Hexham was a muni- 
cipium or not. MR. STEVENSON says it " was 
certainly not," so the burden of proof rests 
on him. He will probably admit that it 
possessed a magnificent basilica built in the 
typical Roman form, and that Roman remains 
are occasionally found under the floor of the 
present church, and elsewhere in the build- 
ing. He may not be aware that the crypt 
under the church resembles the crypt under 
the tribunal of the basilica at Pompeii. Can 
we believe that there was a magnificent town 
hall in this place without a town council 1 
Some part of the building must have been 
used by a college of decuriones or by an ordo 
of Augustales. Now the ordo was the town 
council, and it is worthy of note that the 
Augustinian canons, as well as other monastic 
bodies, constantly speak of themselves in 
their chronicles as an ordo. I do not, how- 
ever, lay much stress on this, because the 
word ordo had other meanings. But when 
we find monasteries like that at Bury St. 
Edmunds acting as the town council, or ap- 
pointing prefects to carry on the municipal 
business, we can hardly fail to see in them 
the remains or the modified form of a Roman 
ordo. It will not do to speak of such and 
similar things as "purely manorial privi- 
leges." It has to be snow T n how such " privi- 
leges" arose. Nobody knows better than 
MR. STEVENSON that documents which pur- 
port to be foundation charters of monasteries 
are often forged. Such a fact raises the 
presumption that the men who forged the 
charters either did not know the origin of 
the institutions to which such charters pur- 
ported to relate, or, if they did know, wished 
to conceal or disguise that origin. They had 
no title deeds to show, so they made some in 
the hope that posterity would take them as 
genuine. The existence of such forgeries 
should open our eyes to the probability, if 
not to the certainty, that the chronicles of 
the period abound with fiction. 

S. O. ADDY. 

9 th 8. III. JAN. 7, '99.] 



(9 th S. ii. 101, 158, 277, 429.) 

made an altar in the apse, and have cut and 
framed with odd bits of marble a " piscina " 
in the wall at the left-hand side of it. The 

MR. ST. JOHN HOPE commences his reply formerly beautiful stucco panels of the apse, 
on this subject with argument regarding the some stl11 adhering to its vault, belong to 
size of the building, and in doing so he the earl y Augustan period ; and the entire 
states that the courts of justice were already chamber is constructed of "opus incertura/'of 
provided for in a basilica 270 feet long, hard which ifc forms a good example. The Augus- 
by this so-called British church, which in tan mosaic floors of the chambers above it 
length was itself but 42 feet ; both being stl11 m P art remain, together with walls 
situated, as previously remarked, in the most which have been restored or rebuilt in the 
significant part of this large walled town of later " P US reticulatum." Here, therefore, we 
Calleva. He then asks, pertinently enough, have an exceedingly interesting structure 
"Why should so small a building be wanted a once lovely room, probably a "triclinium" 
for another court of justice ? " of a small Roman villa, observing the basilican 

Now among such a number of apsidal form a trin<e smaller in its ground plan than 
buildings in the most central insulse of the MR - HOPE'S church(?)at Silchester, belonging 
city (MR. HOPE mentions four), it becomes to tn ? a S e of tne nr st emperor, and before 
lacking inscriptions, &c.) extremely difficult t he birfch of Christianity. It probably opened 
to determine with any approach to exactitude i nto a small court. 

what each particular one actually was. Con- So that already in (say) the year A.D. 1 the 
jecture alone is our guide. But the ground basilican type had been adapted for other 
plan is at least sufficiently clear to determine tnan basilican uses. Now between this 
for us the length, breadth, and partly the period and the third and fourth centuries of 
design of each edifice ; and this tiny buildin- our era this type had become adapted for 
certainly possessed the basilican form. ' various other uses ; and the reason is not far 

Here it becomes necessary to say a word or to s ? e ^- Ik was found to be the most con- 
two about the "evolution" of this basilican venient form for accommodating a large 
form at the hands of the Komans, the more attendance of persons, whether for legal or 
especially as MR. HOPE asks if I can refer "to religious purposes or for civic entertain- 
any examples of similar plan and so small a merits. One cannot always with perfect safety 
size," fully aware, I should imagine him to be argue from the centre to the circumference 
how very difficult it would be for me to do so! in matters architectural, though perhaps one 
For does it not follow that the later were the ought to be able so to do. In this case, how- 
buildings the more flimsy their construction, eve r, evidence enables one to do so. Even 
and the smaller their size the easier their * n remote Britain, the western end of the 
demolition ? The earliest, of course, have all Roman world, the basilican type was used for 
perished. other purposes than lawcourts and temples. 

The apsidal basilica, like most other build- We everi near of one built afc Netherby, 
ings, developed size according to the in- A - D - 235 > 3 ust ai>fcer tne l ' ei g n * Alexander 
creasing necessities of business. We do not Severus (who, by the way, had favoured the 
know the measurements of the early basilicse Christians), as a riding school : " Basilicam 
" Sempronia," " Fulvia," " Portia," &c. we equestrem exercitatoriam jampridem a solo 
only have records of some of their successive cceptam sedificavit." 

restorations and enlargements. Possibly the Now the main object of a basilican public 
very largest size ever attained was that of building being that of accommodation, this 
the so-called " Constantinian " Basilica, re- basilican building at Silchester will have 
ferred to in my last ; and about this a little been presumably no exception to this prin- 
more presently. But MR. HOPE shows that ciple. As, however, this building was 
Calleva had a still larger one ! situated in the immediate neighbourhood of 

In miniature, however, the form was to be tne forum and of the tribunals of justice, it 
seen even in private Roman houses so early as must have been intended to subserve a very 
the Augustan period. There is one perfect ex- distinct civic or religious purpose; it may 
ample within twenty miles of me as I write, have been a sort of " secretarium senatus," 
which has been used as a (perhaps subter- a municipal residence of some kind, a little 
ranean) church, probably in the earlier guild-hall, a " schola," or a military tribunal, 
Christian periods. It measures 34 feet or possibly a pagan temple dedicated to some 
m length ; it has originally had rows of popular deity. 

columns forming diminutive aisles. The If, however, it was a pagan temple, there is 
Christian occupiers have, at a later date, some reason for its small size. There were 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. m. JAN. 7, 

many temples in Calleva.* To theorize, how- 
ever, that it was a Christian church would, 
on the contrary, indicate that there were 
very few Christians, and that they were per- 
mitted to worship in public in the very heart 
of the noisy business of a large pagan popu- 
lation. It stands to reason that before 
Calleva could have become Christian (if it 
ever did) this central portion of it was 
covered with buildings, was indeed a speci- 
ally important site. It was for that reason 
in particular I asked for evidences con- 
firmatory of what I still venture to consider 
to be a somewhat gratuitous theory. Was it, 
then, occupied by this building or some 
other ? 

MR. HOPE proceeds : " Seeing that the 
Silchester building is now reduced to its 
foundations and mosaic floor, where does MR. 
BADDELEY expect such emblems [as he asks 
for] to be found?" I answer, among the sur- 
rounding debris, and especially by excavating 
completely the "catch-pit" of the "labrum" 
he mentions. He should there be likely to 
find bits of vessels, bricks possibly stamped 
or scratched with a cross or an anchor, or, 
better still (as in African instances), frag- 
ments of commemorative tablets fallen from 
upper portions of the building. Furthermore 
I particularly recommend him to discover a 
crypt, a feature habitual to the earliest 
Christian churches. Any one of these evi- 
dences might throw all the weight he so 
much desires entirely into the scale in MR. 
HOPE'S favour, and, personally, I can assure 
him I shall not be afraid to confess I have 
been utterly worsted if this substantial kind 
of evidence (peradventure ever so little of it) 
be forthcoming. It would be useful to him, 
also, to discover an " atrium." 

Before concluding, I would remind MR. 
HOPE that the African and French early 
Christian basilicse known to us, even in 
smaller places than the town of Calleva, 
greatly exceeded his church (?) in dimensions. 
The case, then, appears to me to remain 
thus : that the architectural evidence is not 
sufficient to make out the case for the basili- 
can building at Silchester having been a 
church. It is not that it fails to conform to 
the ground plan of a church of the fourth or 
fifth century, but that the ground plan of such 
a church and the plan of a pagan, basilica- 
formed building are often so indistinguish- 
able as to compel us to wait modestly for cor- 
roborative evidence before we can pronounce 

* A similar explanation would apply to a small 
basilica. Either the cases which had to be tried 
in it were few, and it sufficed for the purpose, or 
else it was an extra or special tribunal. 

: or one or the other. I venture to consider 
that to be the precise position in which 
archaeologists stand with regard to Silchester 
church (?). 

In conclusion, I feel I must say a few words 
respecting the Basilica of Constantine. MR. 
HOPE has stated that he " cannot accept my 
reading of the plan." What was my astonish- 
ment, then, to find him quoting against it the 
plan of Ligorio ! Now Ligorio has a very bad 
lame, and his work has always to be used 
with great caution. He was a Neapolitan, 
[n this case, however, it must be admitted his 
plan, though not true to scale, is very fairly 
correct. His drawing shows quite clearly 
:he awkwardly narrow vestibule of the 
original plan, also a portion of the entrance, 
which, as before stated, faced towards the 
Coliseum, not to the Via Sacra. It was for 
blundering, among other things, over this 
obviously vital feature of the original design 
of this basilica that the German as well as 
[talian archaeologists fell so mercilessly upon 
bhe late and much lamented Prof. Middleton. 
Not recognizing the very simple, though quite 
revolutionary change made in the building in 
order to make it face the Via Sacra, Prof. 
Middleton dragged in the vague term " chal- 
cidicum " in order to account " for the long 
hall forming an antechamber." But he was 
just sufficiently cautious in using it to say : 
" This is possibly what Vitruvius calls a 
'chalcidicum' a hall which he says may be 
added if there is room for it at the end of a 
basilica" (Middleton, ' Remains,' vol. ii. 227-8). 
MR. ST. JOHN HOPE, without making the 
least reference to this fallacious authority, 
has deliberately adopted his dictum, with the 
" chalcidicum " and all. This is all very well, 
perhaps, but it is not archaeology ; and to use 
Middleton and Ligorio on the Basilica of 
Constantine is almost as bad as to use them 
as authorities on the House of Tiberius to 
say the least, very unwise and still more un- 
fortunate. ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

MIDSUMMER GILLYFLOWER (9 fch S. ii. 447). 
There are so many plants to which the name 
gillyflower is given that, without knowing 
the particular flower referred to, it is im- 
possible to say what it is. Dianthus caryo- 
phyllus, the clove gillyflower (by corruption 
July flower), may be the one, since it is a true 
midsummer flower ; but it is usually found in 
stony places, not on river banks. The ragged 
robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi\ which flowers in 
June and loves moist meadows, is sometimes 
called the marsh gillyflower. Can this be the 
one meant ? Hottonia palu&tris, the water 
gillyflower (or violet), grows in the water 


9 th S. III. JAN. 7, '99.] 



rather than on the banks. It is, of course 
useless to ask for a specimen just now, but i 
your correspondent cannot otherwise obtain 
the information he seeks I fancy the name 
must be purely local a description might be 
helpful. There are several other " gilly 
flowers" besides those I have named, but 
none of them seems likely to be the one 
inquired about. C. C. B. 

The Hesperis matronalis is called in some 
places Whitsun gillyflower, and is probably 
the plant meant by your correspondent al 
this reference. W. Coles writes ('Art o1 
Simpling,' 1656, p. 32), "May brings roses, 
pinks, Whitsun gillyflowers." 

W. T. LYNN. 


Is not this the Dianthus caryophyllus, clove 
pink, clove carnation, gillyflower ? See Miss 
Pratt's ' Flowering Plants,' i. 89. 



BRAMPTON FAMILY (9 th S. ii. 427). For a 
pedigree of the above family see * Visitation 
of Norfolk,' 1563-80 and 1612, vol. xxxii. 
pp. 46-53 of the Harleian Society, which 
gives twelve generations between Botyld and 
Edward Brampton, of Brampton, 1622. 


BEKESBOURNE, KENT (9 th S. ii. 368, 493). 
The ruins are those of the Chapel of Well (a 
strong spring rises there), once in the parish 
of Littlebourne, but now part of the parish of 
Ickham. The chapel had nothing to do with 
Bekesbourne Manor House, in the parish of 
that name. Well Chapel is probably on the 
site of a chapel attached to the manor of 
Garwinton (modern Garrington), the War- 
minton of the Domesday Survey, for, accord- 
ing to the author of ' Csesar in Kent,' it was 
on the rising ground east of this chapel that 
the extreme right wing of the Roman army 
was entrenched under Csesar in 54 B.C. As 
early as 1194 Richard de Garwinton was 
allowed by the Abbot of St. Augustine's at 
Canterbury to have service in his chapel 
three days every week by the priest of Little- 
bourne Church, which, with Littlebourne 
Manor, belonged to that abbey. Well Manor 
afterwards went to the Cornhill family, 
owners of another small manor called Luke- 
dale, and the chapel may perhaps be the same 
as Lukedale Chapel, which Reginald de Corn- 
hill (second son of Gervase Cornhill) built on 
his manor in the parish of Littlebourne : 

" Roger, by the grace of God Abbot of St. 
Augustine s at Canterbury, and the monks of the 
same, grant to Reginald de Cornhill and his heirs 

that they may have a chantry in his chapel (capella) 
which he has built within the bounds of his manor 
of Lukedale, and have a chapel at his own expense, 
saving in all rights the mother church of Little- 
bourne, so that the said Reginald or his heirs at 
any future time do not oppress (or interfere with) 
the priest of the church of Littlebourne, or make 
him officiate in the chapel ...... Also they shall go to 

the mother church with their offerings at the four 
yearly festivals of the Nativity, Purification, Easter, 
and the Festival of St. Vincent [to whom Little- 
bourne Church is dedicated], as parishioners of the 
church of Littlebourne." 

The abbot most probably was Roger de 
Lurdington, 1176-1212. 

Well Chapel and Manor eventually became 
part of Ickham parish, which belonged to 
Christ Church monastery at Canterbury, 
and William de Sellindge, prior of that monas- 
tery, on 6 Aug., 1480, wrote to Archbishop 
Bourchier that he had viewed the house and 
grounds which Isaacs (of Howletts) offered 
to the rector of Ickham in exchange for the 
house and grounds that belonged to the 
parsonage of Well, which is a chapel of Ick- 
fiam. The priest's house at Well is near the 
new gate of the house of Isaacs, and there- 
Pore inconvenient to both parties. The 
ground offered in exchange by Isaacs is quite 
as much, and rather better than the present 
ground. The barn also is a better one, and 
will give one acre more of good ground, 
and pay all costs and charges. John Franke- 
in, rector of Ickham, who died in 1535, left 
i marc for the repair of this chapel. Well 
Chapel probably ceased to be used for service 
n 1547. If MR. SHARP will write to me, I 
shall be pleased to give him further parti- 

Wingham, Kent. 

"BOUNDER" (9 th S. ii. 388). I suggest a 
more direct explanation of the term than the 
ngenipus one offered by NEMO, the last word 
)f which, " outsider," I would, however, con- 
ider to the purpose. Whatever difference of 
>pinion verbal bounders may venture to 
sxpress on words inside the coyer of vol. i. 
H.E.D.,' a reference thereto is necessary 
)efore expressing it, and may often stop all 
urther expression. In the present instance 
find, if nothing more, a suggestive clue. 
After the primary signification of one who 
marks out bounds, I read, "1.2. One who 
ccupies a district bounding another, a 
)orderer, obs," with the informing quotation : 
1542, Udall, ' Erasm. Apophth.,' 105 b. The 
ordreers or bounders inhabityng round 
bout any place are called in greke 
Is it 

not likely that this meaning 
as been picked up again ? By an accident 
bat might easily happen, another obsolete 


NOTES AND QtJERIES. t8*s.m.jA.7 f m 

meaning of "bounder" expresses the very 
opposite the insider. See " I. 3. One who 
occupies a 'bound' or tract of tin-ore ground"; 
with an equally informing quotation : " 1708, 
Lond. Gaz., 4458/1. The Owners, Bounders, 

Adventurers concerned in Tin at 

Truroe." But as there is no indication of 
the word being revived in this sense, no 
confusion need be occasioned. "Bounder" 
in its present invidious sense need not, I 
suppose, be confined to one gender, but I heard 
it applied to a woman for the first time in 
John Oliver Hobbes's ' Ambassador,' the 
speaker being represented as a woman in 
good society. KILLIGREW. 

" What is a bounder 1 " With a view to getting 
at the root-idea of the word I put this ques- 
tion to an acquaintance whose knowledge of 
slang is extensive and peculiar. "A bounder?" 
he answered ; " a howling bounder ? Oh, he 's 
a fellow with lots of bounce no end of a cad." 
I think the definition suggests a far more 
likely origin for the term than NEMO'S. How- 
ever this may be, NEMO'S suggestion derives 
no support from the phrase " a rank outsider," 
which denotes a horse that has been entered 
for a race, but has no chance of winning, or 
only the remotest possible chance. 

C. C. B. 

It, appears to me that the paling which this 
kind of person attempts to scale is the pale 
of " society," beyond which his natural habitat 
is found. If guesses may be hazarded, here is 
mine : it is his self-assertion, his " bounce," 
that entitles him to the name of " bounder." 


Is not the idea that of the man who habitu- 
ally goes to the utmost bound, or limit, in 
dress, or ethics, or manners, or all three ? He 
is one who has no reserve force, and is always 
at the last gasp or penny's length, so to speak. 

Obviously "one on the boundary of the 
demi-monde" " Bounder " is not likely to 
supplant " cad." The latter is found in society, 
the former wants to be there. 


High Street, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Surely this word means " outsider," and is 
formed, schoolboy fashion, from " bounds." 
When it first came into fashion it was always 
used as above, and accepted as expressing the 
secular contempt of " gown " for " town," of 
"class" for "mass," of culture for philis- 
tinism. The late E. F. Fay, whose pen- 
name it was, most certainly meant it as an 
equivalent for " outsider." As public-school 

and Varsity man, and admitted expert in 
slang, his testimony is good. H. H. S. 

Sausset, Bouches-du-Rhone. 

WILLIAM PRYNN (9 th S. ii. 288, 336, 496). 
MR. HEMS is in error I trust he will pardon 
me for correcting him in stating at the last 
reference that Mr. George Halford Fellowes- 
Prynne is President of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects. He should have said Pre- 
sident of the London Architectural Associa- 
tion, a quite different body, whose active 
members are, for the most part, pupils 
and junior assistants in London offices, 
and which meets at 56, Great Marlborough 
Street. The R.I.B.A., whose rooms are at 
9, Conduit Street, where it possesses a very 
extensive library of books on architecture 
and the allied arts, is at present presided 
over by Prof. George Aitchison, R.A. 


Langstone, Erdington. 

486). Is it not a pity to waste space on such 
a question as this ? The Welsh blood in Mr. 
Gladstone's veins must have been so attenu- 
ated in the interval between the thirteenth 
and the eighteenth centuries as to be of no 
account. Moreover, as I pointed out in 
'N. <fe Q.' many years ago, most of us are 
descended from kings and queens one way or 
another if we only knew it ; and even I who 
write might claim cousinship with Mr. Glad- 
stone if descent from Llewelyn ap lorwerth 
constituted affinity. A. CALDER 

" SOOT " (9 th S. ii. 427). Smart in his 
edition of Walker (1846, p. xxiii, 118) 
writes : 

"The other words in which the short sound is 
denoted by the letters oo in the ordinary spelling of 
the language are wool, wood, good, hood, stood, foot, 
and their compounds, to which we may add soot ; 
for though this word, probably from being con- 
founded with those which are spelled with , long 
exhibited the anomaly of being pronounced sut, it 
is now by the best speakers classed with the words 
preceding it." 

I suspect soot has served as a rime tor foot 
from the earliest times, but rimes are hard 
to find, and are fallacious indices of pronun- 
ciation. Bysshe in his 'Dictionary of 
Rhymes,' published in 1702, gives the follow- 
ing under oot : " Boot, coot, root, foot, shoot, 
soot, hoot." Walker says (I quote from the 
1818 or eighteenth edition) : "Soot is vulgarly 

E renounced so as to rhyme with but, hut, &c., 
ut ought to have its long, regular sound, 
rhyming with boot, as we always hear it in 
the compound sooty" Coleridge in his 
'Ancient Mariner' (part iii. penult, stanza) 

9 th S. III. JAN. 7, '99.] 



rimes soot with root, but we cannot be sure 
of the pronunciation of one so lax in hi 
rimes. For aught we can say he may hav 
sounded the doubled vowel of soot as u in bu 
or oo in foot, for the latter pronunciation is a 
least a hundred years old.* No one to'-daj 
regards Walker's precept ; foot and put arc 
the only perfect rimes for soot, matching it 
further in having vulgar pronunciation 
riming with but. F. ADAMS. 

In my early recollection soot was pro 
nounced to rime with cut about as often a 
with/oo*. But J. S. is wrong in saying tha 
fifty years ago it was always made to rime 
with cut. 'The Ancient Mariner' was pub 
lished, if I mistake not, before the end of lasi 
century : 

And every tongue through utter drought 

Was withered at the root : 
We could not speak 110 more than if 
We had been choked with soot. 


In the dialect of North Lincolnshire soot is 
pronounced so as to rime with boot. That 
was the form I used as a child, but those whc 
had the care of my education corrected me, 
saying sut (like unto cut) was the correct pro- 
nunciation. This took place between fifty 
and sixty years ago. In or about 1852 I 
observed that soot (like boot) was coming into 
use among young people, but many of the 
old folk adhered to sut. Now our dialectic 
pronunciation seems to have become nearly 
universal. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Tom Hood's 'The Sweep's Complaint' 
has : 
Why isn't the mouths of muffin-men compell'd to 

he equally shut ? 

Why, because Parliament members eat muffins, but 
they never eat no sut [sic]. 

If one might draw an inference from dialect 
pronunciation, it would be that in Hood's day 
soot was improperly made to rhyme with shut. 
The course of refinement in its ordinary trend 
would turn soot into sut, not sut into soot. 


Fifty years ago, as your correspondent 
avers, soot was made to rhyme with cut, but 
did it ever become customary to rhyme it 
with foot ? I do not think you can round 
the vowels in foot so that they may bear a 
kindred sound to that which we have in the 
word loot. Arid yet soot would rhyme with 
the latter perfectly. I can quite understand, 
however, that modernity would scarcely 
stickle at taking away the rotundity of the 

* See, for instance, Chambaud's ' Engl.-Fr. Diet.' 
(my copy dated 1805), s.v. 

sound common to this word in order to give 
it colloquial similarity to foot. In the North 
soot pronounced like loot is everywhere notice- 
able among the better classes, but among 
working classes the tendency is to give the 
word a short sound, as sut. Yet there are to 
be found old people who cling to this latter 
way, in spite of usage. 

Winlaton, co. Durham, 

VANITY FAIR (9 th S. ii. 29). With regard 
to ASTARTE'S query whether there is any 
mention of this popular phrase, immortalized 
by Thackeray, earlier than 'The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress ' (1678), has it never been pointed out 
that Chaucer, towards the close of book v. of 
' Troilus and Creseide,' seems clearly to allude 
thereto, unless, indeed, it be supposed that 
he was father to it? The lines I refer to, 
which I wrote down years ago on a fly-leaf 
of my copy of " a Novel without a Hero," are 
as follows : 

young fresh folkes, he or she, 

In which that love upgroweth with your age, 

Repaireth home from worldly Vanite, 

And of your hertes up casteth the visage, 

To thilke God that alter His image 

You made, and thinketh all nis but a Faire, 

This world that passeth sone, as floures faire. 

The italics are mine. I can sympathize with 
Charles Kingsley when, in a letter to his wife 
n 1850, he says : 

"I can read nothing but ' Vanity Fair' over and 
over again, which fills me with delight, wonder, and 
lumility. I would rather have drawn Rawdon 
Crawley than all the folks I ever drew." 

I remember that the late Archbishop of 

anterbury (Dr. E. W. Benson), when nead 

master at Wellington, told us boys of the 

sixth form in class one morning that he had 

;aken up the book recently and found it so 

"ascinating that he would go on reading it of 

i morning whenever he had a spare half-hour 

)efore getting up, the rest of his time being 

,00 busily occupied. H. E. M. 

St. Petersburg. 

JOHN OXENBRIDGE (9 th S. ii. 467). Consult 
he 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xliii. 7, and notes 
hereon in ' N. & Q.,' 8 th S. viii. 203. See also 
N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. i. 141, 322, 361. Clement 
Dxenbridge, Esq., was in the Navy Prize 
)ffice, London, 1654. W. C. B. 

PRIME MINISTER (8 th S. x. 357, 438 ; xi. 69, 
51, 510 ; xii. 55, 431; 9 th S. ii. 99). Vanbrugh, 
ear the close of the seventeenth century, em- 
Joyed the term "First Minister," showing 
ow the idea of a premiership was coming 
nto vogue. In ' The Provok'd Wife,' which 
as produced in the spring of 1697, Mr 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. in. JAN. 7, 

Treble, who had set to music a " dialogue " 
written by Lady Fancyfull, observes : 

" I guess the dialogue, madam, is suppos'd to be 
between your Majesty and your first Minister of 
And the author replies : 

" Just : He, as minister, advises me to trouble my 
head about the welfare of my subjects ; which I, as 
sovereign, find a very impertinent proposal." 
Act II. sc. ii. 

Eight years later Vanbrugh produced 'The 
Confederacy,' and in this (Act I. sc. iii.) Brass 
remarks to Flippanta : 

" As first minister of state to the colonel I have 
an affair to communicate to thee." 


SiRE.B. GODFREY (9 th S.ii.367,414). I never 
heard of any daggers made to commemorate 
the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, but 
there were two medals struck, one having on 
the obverse " Godfrey walks vp hil after hee 
is dead Ergo pares," and a figure of Sir 
Edmund Berry; below his feet the word "pro." 
On the reverse, " Dennys walks downe hil 
carrying his head Sumus." A figure of St. 
Denis ; below his feet the letters " P. A."; 
while the other medal has on the obverse 
" Moriendo restitvit. Rem. E. Godfrey," with 
the head of Sir Edmund Berry. The reverse 
has " Eqvo credite. Tevcri "; two men on a 
horse, and a third walking, holding a sword. 

Belle Vue, Bengeo. 

263, 354). I ask permission to revert to the 
history of this relic, which presents the claim 
of being the most interesting of any relic of 
the king, and of having occupied so little 
space in 'N. & Q.' that from the second 
volume of the First Series to the second 
volume of the Ninth it is not mentioned. 

It is to be noted that, while the rules of the 
Order of the Garter forbade the increased 
enrichment of the collar with stones or other 
things, they permitted the image to be en- 
riched at the pleasure of the knight. The 
George, therefore, was sometimes studded 
with diamonds, sometimes set about with 
them in an oval setting, sometimes surrounded 
by a solid garter, with motto, in the same way 
as the roses of the collar. This helps to 
identify the George which, alone among his 
jewels, the king retained to the last, as we 
have Herbert's personal testimony to i 
being " cut in an onyx with great curiosity 
and set about with 21 fair Diamonds, and the 
Reverse with the like number." This corre 
spends with the ornament shown in Van 
Dyck's equestrian portrait at Hampton Cour 

the same, I believe, as those at Windsor, 
Warwick, and Lamport Hall), in which it 
*ests on the hip, at the end of the ribbon. I 
ind the same ornament similarly worn by 
Tames II. in a picture in the National Por- 
;rait Gallery, and by the Chevalier St. George 
n the picture in the same gallery in which 
le appears as a boy with his sister. I have 
not yet seen it on portraits of Charles II., the 

eorges that I have noticed worn by him 
Deing unencircled. It does not appear on the 
ribbon worn by the Count of Albany in his 
Dortrait as a boy in the National Portrait 
~ allery; the end of the ribbon is out of the 

I would withdraw any suggestion of the 
George at Edinburgh Castle being the one in 
question, as it is not " set about," and there- 
: ore cannot be the one described by Herbert, 
:hough it may be the one which Charles II. 

shown as wearing, and which, as well as 
:he other, James II. may have taken with 
lim in his flight, in preference to leaving it 
aehind him or throwing it, with the Great 
Seal, into the Thames. 

I should be very much interested by an- 
swers to the questions I was allowed to raise 
at 9 th S. ii. 263. SPERANS may have prose- 
uted his researches since writing his note at 
1 st S. ii. 135, but I have not seen his pseudonym 
lately. MR. TAVARE, who seems interested 
in Stuart relics, might perhaps render some 
service. There are one or two points on 
which light could be thrown at once if the 
right people always read ' N. & Q.' I should 
like to make its reading compulsory. 

There are, however, some points touching 
the last moments of Charles I. about which 
absolute certainty is unattainable. Among 
them the very fact of the king having de- 
livered his George to Juxon, with the word 
"Remember," is disputed, and I know no 
closer evidence in its favour than that of 
Bulstrode Whitelocke, who may have been a 
spectator of the scene and who was in a posi- 
tion to receive information from those on the 
scaffold, but whose memoirs were not pub- 
lished till after his death. KILLIGREW. 

MINUTES AND SECONDS (9 th S. ii. 509). The 
' Diet, of Phrase and Fable ' says, " The six- 
tieth part of an hour was called by the 
Romans scrupulwm, and the sixtieth part of a 
minute scnt/pulum secundum" This is inter- 
esting in itself, and useful to any one who 
wishes to translate such modern ideas into 
Latin ; but the fact that lies behind this 
statement is hazy, because scrupulum might 
mean either the twenty-fourth part of an hour, 
or a minute, or a second. As a guide to horo- 

9 th S. III. JAN. 7, '99.] 



logical history it is comparatively valueles 
The 'National Cyclopaedia,' s.v. 'Horology 
says, "In 1560 Tycho Brahe had fou 
clocks which indicated hours, minutes, anc 
seconds." Seconds, however, did not ver 
soon become a recognized measure of tim 
because, although Shakspeare uses the wore 
"minute" freely, he never once employ 
"second" in this sense. Queen Elizabeth 
watch, preserved in the library of the Roya 
Institution, London, would be worth lookin 
at as regards its dialling. And a consultatio 
of Prof. J. D. Everett's ' Units and Physica 
Constants,' London, 1879, would probabl 
reveal the date when the second supplantec 
the minute as the unit in the measuremen 
of time. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

I am inclined to think that prior to 148 
the sword, and not the axe, was usually em 
ployed as the weapon for judicial decapitation 
arid that a block was dispensed with, th 
victims receiving their doom " meekly kneel 
ing upon their knees," and in this opinion ! 
am fortified by the concurrence of an eminen 
clerical historian, now a distinguished prelate 
with whom I was many years since engagec 
in a most agreeable correspondence upon 
this very subject. This learned writer agreec 
with me that the axe did not become the 
"regulation" lethal implement until after 
the rough-and-ready "heading" of Lore 
Hastings on the Tower Green, when he was 
summarily dispatched by order of the Pro- 
tector Gloucester. In this instance, accord- 
ing to the chroniclers, the victim's neck was 
stretched upon a piece of timber then in use 
for the repair of the adjacent church of St. 
Peter ad Vincula, probably a " putlog," part 
of the scaffolding which we read "con- 
veniently lay in the way." Contemporary 
accounts seem to indicate that the executioner 
straddled over the prone body, and from this 
position I infer that the decapitation was 
effected by the tool known as an adze, the cut- 
ting edge of which is at a right angle to, and 
not in a plane with, the haft. I may add that 
the only contemporary reference I have come 
across of the use, or proposed use, of an axe 
and block for inflicting capital punishment 
prior to this tragedy is in one of the Paston 
series of letters, describing the peril of an 
unfortunate captive of Jack Cade's rebels 
(A.D. 1450), a generation before Lord Hastings 
was jso clumsily hacked to death. MR. PICK- 
FORD'S query may be partially answered by a 
reference to the case of Richard Scrope, Arch- 
bishop of York, executed in Clementhorpe 
I icld, outside the walls of York, on the feast 

day of St. William, the patron saint of that 
city, Whit Monday, 8 June, 1405, after the 
abortive rebellion suppressed by the treacher- 
ous equivocation of Prince John of Lancaster 
against his father Henry IV. (see Shake- 
speare, * Henry IV.,' part ii.). That erudite 
historian Mr. J. H. Wylie, in his * History of 
Henry IV.,' vol. ii. pp. 240-4, does not refer 
to the tradition that the prelate died from 
sword strokes, and, indeed, by his mention of 
a block appears to imply that an axe was 
used, and it may be conceded that the martial 
weapon would scarcely be the one to be 
wielded by the executioner, who was a convict 
fetched from York Castle, where he was 
undergoing a term of imprisonment; but 
there is preserved in the Bodleian Library 
a Book of Hours of the middle of the fifteenth 
century, supposed to have belonged to Queen 
Margaret of Scotland, ornamented in a style 
of somewhat earlier date, including a Latin 
hymn and a collect in honour of this arch- 
prelate, who was generally regarded as a 
martyr, and the volume contains a full- 
page miniature representation (apparently 
by a contemporary eye - witness) of the 
execution, where a sword is the weapon 
employed. The archbishop is said (and 
this tradition Mr. Wylie accepts) to have 
entreated the executioner to deal him 
five strokes, corresponding with the five 
wounds of Christ, and Hall, the chronicler, 
records a contemporary superstition that 
at the moment the head fell five several 
wounds broke out on the neck of the king, 
:hen sitting at table dining in York (the 
execution took place at midday, in the first 
lour of the afternoon, 1 P.M.), and that these 
esions were the precursors of the leprosy 
which afterwards developed on the royal 
)pdy, and from which Henry suffered until 
lis death (the immediate cause of which was 
apoplexy) eight years later. Miracles were 
>elieved to have been wrought over the tomb 
n the minster where the holy man's remains 
were laid to rest for many years after the 
onsummation of the tragedy. NEMO. 


M.P.P. (9 th S. ii. 528). As " M.P." in Canada 
means member of the Dominion Parliament, 
M.P.P." probably stanels for member of Pro- 
incial Parliament. British Columbia is, of 
ourse, a province of the Dominion. 

A. M. P. 

HENRIETTA MARIA PRICE (9 th S. ii. 448). 
Some particulars of this lady will be found 
n the 'Diary of Samuel Pepys, F.E.S.,' 

nder dates of 8 Feb., 1662, and 10 June, 1666; 

iso in the ' Memoirs of the Court of Eng- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. in. JAN. 7, 99. 

land during the Keign of the Stuarts,' by 
J. H. Jesse, iii. 234, 289, 403 (Bohn, 1837). 


CENTURY (9 th S. ii. 481). The accompanying 
extract from my rough proof of a paper about 
to appear in the Transactions of the Essex 
Archaeological Society may be of some inter- 
est to CANON TAYLOR. The occupations of 
witnesses to local deeds recorded in the 
cartulary of St. John's Abbey, Colchester, 
are here roughly summarized. Their date is 
the middle of the thirteenth century : 

"Of names of occupation, naturally the clerks 
(10) come first, practically including all the pro- 
fessions of to-day, with Presbyters (6) (Sacerdos 
and Parson are equally rare throughout the chartu- 
lary). Cooks number 7, Smiths 6, Stewards (dis- 
pensa tores) and Marshals 5, Millers, Bakers, Porters, 
and Janitors 3, Dapifers, Chamberlains, Foresters, 
Goldsmiths, Tailors, Weavers, and Tanners 2, while, 
of the following, only one representative signed, 
though others doubtless existed : Sacrist, Cellarer, 
Pincerna (a Gild officer, according to Dr. Gross), 
Carter, Thresher (of cloth), Dyer, Chaloner (maker 
of chalons, coverlets), Furrier, Tasseler (? linen 
spinner), Tunner (of wine), Vintner, Brewer, Lor- 
riner, Shoemaker, Shopkeeper, Carpenter, Glass- 
wright, Frarur (? Friar), and a Messier, a Fucher, 
and a Niker, whose occupations are a mystery. A 
' Nikers medwe ' occurs as a place-name. There is 
little in this roll of burgesses to indicate that the 
clothing industry had yet assumed any large pro- 
portions in the neighbourhood, but it evidently 
existed, and the fact that the ' Black Book of the 
Admiralty 'gives the duty payable at Ipswich by 
4 Cloth of Colchester ' in the early years of Ed- 
ward the First's reign (when the census shows no 
larger number of artisans than we have here noted; 
leads us to infer that its origin may be placed at a 
somewhat early date." 

These names do not throw light on the 
numbers of persons engaged in the differed 
trades and occupations, but they afford prool 
of their existence in one borough in early 
mediaeval times. GEO. RICKWORD. 




Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sid 
ney Lee. Vol. LVIL TomTytler. (Smith 
Elder & Co.) 

THE appearance of the fifty-seventh volume of thi 
truly national undertaking punctual to the day 
as has been that of every previous instalment- 
suggests some obvious and agreeable reflections 
together with others that may perhaps be regarde< 
as fantastic. It is, in the first place, a matter fo 
congratulation that the end is well in sight, th 
letter T being now concluded, and one letter, W 
alone of those that remain being likely to occup 
much space. The year on which we have jus 
entered will scarcely see the conclusion of Mr. Lee 
brilliantly executed task. Before the conclusion o 
the century the whole of the ' Dictionary ' will b 

ailable for the use of scholars, though a few sup- 
iementary volumes will, as announced, be necessary 
o deal with the celebrities who have died while 
le work has been in progress. It will, of course, 
aise a smile to hint that some collocations of 
tters seem unfavourable to literary develop- 
lent, and that, in spite of Juliet's question, there 

something in a name. It at least appears that 
__ere are tracts of the alphabet which are com- 
aratively barren of names of literary interest, 
uch a tract is traversed in the present volume. 
Tot a name is there between Tom and Tytler that 
i of anything approaching to primary importance, 
fhile, on the other hand, names such as Tupper 
nd Tusser abound. The only name, accordingly, to 
/hich we trace the initials of the editor is.that of 
lichard Tottell, the publisher, some of whose ven- 
ures as his publication of Hawes's ' Pastime of 
Measure,' Lydgate's ' Fall of Princes,' More's ' Dia- 
ogue of Comfort,' &c. -give him a claim on literary 
ecognition, while his ' Tottell's Miscellany,' besides 
reserving all the original verse we possess of Surrey 
nd Wyatt, is of undying interest, as supplying 
he model on which our early anthologies were 
iased. It is interesting to learn that the man who 
id so much for "the honor of the English tong and 
or the profit of the studious of Englishe eloquence," 
o quote from his preface to the ' Miscellany,' was 
>rincii:>ally a law publisher. Among the writers of 
econd or third rank Mr. Thomas Seccombe has 
>een busy. He has been fortunate in one case (that 
jf Cyril Tourneur, the author of ' The Revenger's 
Cragedie') to follow out a clue supplied him, and to 
obtain a full and probably accurate account of a 
dramatist concerning whom previous records have 
>een silent. Mr. Seccombe regards as "unduly 
enthusiastic " the rhapsody in which Mr. Swinburne 
las indulged concerning Tourneur, and asserts that, 
;reat as is his tragic intensity, " Tourneur luxuriates 
n hideous forms of vice to an extent which almost 
suggests moral aberration, and sets him in a cate- 
gory of dramatic art far below the highest." In 
dealing with James Townley, the author of 'High 
Life below Stairs,' Mr. Seccombe concurs, appa- 
rently, in the view that Townley, besides being of 
use to Hogarth, assisted Garrick in many of his 
best productions and revivals. Tupper, the butt of 
the critics for over half a century, is held to have 
been "a vain, genial, warm-hearted man, a close 
friend, and a good hater of cant, hypocrisy, and 
all other enemies of his country." One of the 
two Turbervilles with whom Mr. Seccombe deals 
is the poet George, the author of ' Tragical Tales,' 
concerning whom much is said. For Sharon 
Turner, the historian, an apology is proffered. Next 
to his life of Cyril Tourneur, that of Richard 
Trevithick is perhaps Mr. Seccombe's most im- 
portant contribution. It takes a highly favourable 
view of its subject. In a different line are also 
Israel or Ezekiel Tonge, the ally of Titus Gates, 
and Turpin, the famous Dick. Mr. Leslie Ste- 

S'len's solitary contribution is the life of John 
orne Tooke, philologist and politician. Tooke's 
contributions to philology are treated with a cer- 
tain measure of respect. They were meant, it is 
said, "to subserve a characteristic philosophy." An 
eminently able article of the Rev. Canon Ainger 
deals with the poems of Tennyson Turner. The 
most important life in the volume is perhaps that of 
J. M. W . Turner, carefully compiled by Mr. Cosmo 
Monkhouse, and accompanied by some sound criti- 
cism. Among biographies of historical importance, 

9 th S, III. JAN> 7, '99,] 



.hat of Tostig, by the Rev. W. Hunt, is one of the 
nost important. A short life of Tyndall, by his 
wife, prepares the public for the more important 
life in contemplation. The life of William Tyndale is 
by Mr. E. Irving Carlyle. Very interesting lives of 
Trelawny, the companion of Shelley and Byron, and 
of Anthony Trollope are supplied by Dr. Garnett. 
In addition to his medical biographies, Dr. Norman 
Moore deals with Mrs. Turner, among other quali- 
fications for a place, the murderess and the dis- 
coverer of yellow starch. Sir Ernest Clarke is 
responsible for a capital life of Tusser, and a second 
of Jethro Tull. Mr. Aitken writes on Jacob Torison, 
Mr. Thomas Bayne on President Tulloch, Mr. 
Henry Davey on Christopher Tye, Mr. Rigg on Sir 
Travers Twiss, Mr. A. F. Pollard on Cuthbert 
Tunstall, Prof. Laughton on Admirals Troubridge 
and Tryon. Mr. W. P. Courtney, Mr. Lionel Cust, 
Mr. C. H. Firth, Prof. Lane Poole, Mr. F. M. 
O'Donoghue, Miss E. Lee, and Mr. Thompson 
Cooper are among the contributors. 

The Sportsman's Year-Booh Edited by C. S. Colman 

and A. H. Windsor. (Lawrence & Bullen.) 
THIS book, intended to form a collection of the 
rules of the chief English sports and games, sprang 
out of ' The Encyclopaedia of Sport,' which Messrs. 
Lawrence & Bullen have just brought to a successful 
termination. The idea seems good in its class, and 
well, if at present tentatively, carried out. The 
contents of the volume are, however, not such as to 
appeal very directly to the majority of our readers. 

An Almanack for 1899. By Joseph Whitaker, F.S. A. 

( Whitaker. ) 

WHAT more remains to be said in favour of 
' Whitaker ' ? The language of eulogy is exhausted, 
and the tribute accorded it now is that of constant 
use and of anxiety for the appearance of each 
succeeding number. Nobody can afford to be with- 
out ' Whitaker.' Once more it appears, extended in 
shape, though portions of the ' Historical Peerage ' 
have been removed en bloc to ' Whitaker's Titled 
Classes.' It is impossible, as Mr. Whitaker says, 
to fix a limit to expansion which shall be final. 
New features are 'The Employers' Liability Act,' 
' The National Debts of the World,' and ' A Muni- 
cipal Directory of Scotland and Ireland.' There 
are also maps of Egypt, the Soudan, China, and 
other places in which English interests are involved. 
In the index alone appear 550 new entries. Of 
books for the desk 'Whitaker' remains, perhaps, 
the most indispensable. 

MR. CHARLES WHIBLEY, writing in the Fort- 
nightly, constitutes himself the interpreter of 
'Semantique or Semantics,' a word derived, it is 
to be supposed, from CTTJIJUIVTIKOQ, for the full sig- 
nificance of which as now used the reader is referred 
to the article. To the same source he must turn to 
estimate the value of the laws of " Speciality" and 
" Repartition." There is much that will repay read- 
ing in the article, though we are disposed to think 
of the eminent man in ' Hudibras,' who 

by geometric scale 

Could take the size of pots of ale ; 

And wisely tell what hour o' the day 

The clock does strike, by algebra. 

Mr. Basil Worsfold writes on ' Charlotte Bronte,' 

a propos of the recently published book upon her 

and her circle, and finds reason to doubt whether 

she was so universally unhappy and ill-treated as a 

governess as she thought herself. He deals also 
with the influences upon Charlotte Bronte, among 
which he includes her knowledge of French litera- 
ture. A perusal of the ' Letters of Horace Walpole ' 
las developed in Mr. G. S. Street a tendency to 
deal in airy impertinences, quite in the style of 
tiis model. Prof. Max Miiller writes on ' Dean 
Liddell : as I knew Him,' and supplies a few 
Letters of remarkable interest. A piece of fine 
criticism is supplied by Fiona Macleod in 'A 
Group of Celtic Writers.' Much of it will be, 
however, wholly intelligible and significant to 
the esoteric only. It is pleasant, now that 
peaceful thoughts are coming once more into men's 
heads, to see a large space accorded to literary 
matters. Webster the dramatist is the subject 
of two articles, if they may be so called, in the 
Nineteenth Century. Under the heading of 'Vit- 
toria Accoramboni,' Miss Margaret Maitland tells 
the true story of the woman she holds Webster in 
'The White Devil' to have misrepresented, or 
rather, indeed, to have outraged. The real Vittoria 
is, it is held, " very human." Hers is, however, 
but a sorry, albeit romantic story of frailty and 
crime. Mr. Swinburne's ' Prologue to " The Duchess 
of Malfy " ' does not err in any want of recognition, 
seeing that it bids Webster's 

light of fiery fame 

Endure with England's, yea, with Shakespeare'? 

Prof. Gardner's ' Impressions of American Univer 
sities ' is encouraging on the whole. It deals with 
the question of American residents in an English 
university, a thing that, frequently as Americans 
flock to Germany, has scarcely yet been tried. Con- 
demnation seems implied of the familiarity between 
the sexes at Chicago, where boys and girls "wander 
about in pairs." Philandering and study, it is held, 
" are not compatible." In ' Savage Gods and 
Mysteries,' Mr. Lang, always welcome in this field, 
combats successfully the hypothesis that "the 
higher religious ideas of American and Australian 
savages are borrowed from missionaries." It is natur- 
ally impossible for us to advance Mr. Lang's argu- 
ments, out the whole paper deserves careful study. 
Mr. Joseph Jacobs supplies ' Some Recollections of 
Sir Edward Burne-Jones,' which show, as might be 
expected, in the great painter a widely varied eru- 
dition and also an excellent memory. Perhaps the 
most significant expression of Burne-Jones that is 
quoted is : " Whatever I do in art, even if I deal 
with Greek or Norse legends, I treat it in the spirit 
of a Celt." In 'The Alps in 1898' Mr. Reginald 
Hughes protests solemnly against solitary climbing. 
Always the most spirited and enterprising of 
American magazines, Scribner's has secured a series 
(to last through the year) of Stevenson letters, 
edited by Mr. Colvin. The first instalment con- 
sists of Stevenson's domestic correspondence 
during his early engineering excursions, and is 
illustrated by drawings from photographs by Peix- 
otti of Lerwick, Kirkwall, Wick, and other spots 
visited or dwelt in by Stevenson. The letters dated 
1868 and 1869 are characteristic, and show Steven- 
son heartily sick of the cold, "gray, grim, sea-beaten 
hole " in which he was compelled to reside. The 
opening paper is by Col. Roosevelt upon 'The 
Rough - Riders,' and is accompanied by an excel- 
lent portrait of the Colonel. Two articles are 
on English military subjects, one by Capt. Cairnes 
on the 'British Army Manoeuvres,' a second by 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. m. JAN. 7, m 

Major Stuart Wortley, called 'With the Sirdar. - 
Mr Clark Russell continues, in the Pall Mall, his 
capital series of papers on ' The Ship : her Story,' 
and deals with the ships of Columbus, which he 
describes as " the most interesting vessels that were 
ever built, that were ever afloat, that are to be read 
of in ancient or modern literature." A picture of 
the ship of Columbus is given. Large and important 
ships were not built in England until the time of 
Henry VIII. We are then shown some Spanish 
galleons and ships belonging to the Armada, and, 
again, English and Dutch ships of the time of Van 
Tromp. Some fine pictures are reproduced in an 
account of the recent Rembrandt Exhibition in 
Amsterdam. Part i. appears of ' Naval Heroes at 
Westminster Abbey,' showing the tombs of Blake, 
Monck, Sir Cloude'sley Shovel, and others. Very 
beautiful are the views of Cambridge illustrating 
4 Lines written in the Court of a College Library/ 
'Suppressed Plates: No. 1, Thackeray,' will appeal 
to collectors. 'The Fall of Khartoum' will, 
by letterpress and illustrations, appeal to all. 
'Humours of Bird Life,' sent to the Cornhill by 
Lady Broome, describes very pleasantly the charm 
of bird-keeping under circumstances more propitious 
than can often attend the proprietorship of an 
aviary. Some of her revelations are startling. 
Once, when she received a consignment of tiny parra- 
keets, and put them into a cage with canaries, she 
discovered that these birds, apparently so gentle, 
were in the habit of sidling up to a canary and 
suddenly biting off a leg. Another bird, a member 
of the shrike family, used to twist off, occasionally, 
the head of a finch. Miss Edith Sichel descants very 
agreeably on ' Women as Letter- Writers,' and does 
not forget dear Dorothy Osborne, in some respects 
the best. Mr. Duffield's study of ' Daniel O'Connell ' 
is full of amusing anecdote. ' Hovelling,' by Frank 
T. Bullen, is a record of heroism. ' The Etchingham 
Letters 'are continued. In Temple Bar Mr. F. C. 
Hodgson begins, in ' Optimists and Pessimists,' with 
Sophocles and ^Eschylus, to end with Daudet and 
Nietzsche, bringing in by the way Schopenhauer 
and Ibsen, the latter of whom is not regarded 
wholly as a pessimist. The paper is both thought- 
ful and erudite, and if it is not conclusive, there 
is no cause for astonishment or complaint. An esti- 
mate of ' Christopher North ' deals with the curious 
fact that Wilson, once a great power in letters, 
is now practically dead. An attempt is made to 
account for what is really a somewhat startling fact. 
Daudet attracts much attention at present, and a 
narrative of the sad experiences of his early life is 
readable, if not particularly novel. 'The Man- 
chester of Portugal' is a description of Covelha. 
In the Gentleman's Mr. M. Q. Holyoake criticizes 
the last writings of Landor. in this some curiously 
characteristic correspondence of the ebullient poet 
is given. Mr. J. Ellard Gore, F.R.A.S., writes on 
* The Names of the Stars.' Mr. W. H. Olding has a 
thoughtful paper on ' Oaths and the Law,' and Miss 
Pauline W. Roose shows a wide range of reading in 
dealing with 'The Poets' Heaven/ The English 
Illustrated has made recently a new departure with 
its coloured printing, which is very successfully 
accomplished. It has, in addition to its striking 
cover, many coloured designs of remarkable beauty. 
The letterpress consists principally of fiction, 
though a portion of it deals with sport, and another 
portion will prove very tempting to the fair sex. 
Anthony Hope tells the story of his comedy of 
' Lady Ursula.' ' The Devil's Own' is occupied not 

with the legal volunteers, but with picturesque 
spots dedicated to his Satanic Majesty. ' M.P.s 
and their Fads' is amusing. In Longman's Mr. 
Rider Haggard continues his 'Farmer's Year.' 
Under the title 'A Paladin of Philanthropy,' Mr. 
Austin Dobson depicts General James Edward 
Oglethorpe, whom Hannah More called a Preux 
Chevalier. Mr. Lang appears to have inconvenient 
doubles or trebles, who under his name incur for 
him suspicions which are groundless and attacks 
which are unmerited. These he answers ' At the 
Sign of the Ship.' In the United Service Magazine 
the short biographies of our naval heroes are con- 
tinued, the Hon. A. N. Hood supplying that of 
King Edward III. Naturally, the claim of this 
illustrious sovereign to be a naval hero is not so 
fully supported as is his right to be considered as 
one of the foremost military leaders of his time. In 
his own person he gained two signal naval victories, 
and established a Board of Admiralty. The articles 
on Cuba and Turenne are continued. The latter is 
well written, and possesses great interest for the 
military student. Lieut. -Col. de la Poer Beresford 
furnishes a graphic description of Krasnoe-Selo, the 
Russian Aldershot. We think that he errs in 
stating that, in the magnificent regiments of the 
Chevaliers Gardes and Gardes k Cheval, men are 
posted to squadrons according to their "complexion 
and type." In the Pavlofsky regiment of Foot 
Guards the men were till very recently only selected 
who had turned-up noses, and the men still retain 
the quaint old sugar-loaf caps. Altogether, this 
magazine presents much to attract readers belonging 
to the Navy, Army, and Volunteers. 

WHAT may be regarded as the first of a projected 
series of reproductions of prints and drawings in the 
University Galleries at Oxford is announced for 
immediate publication by the Clarendon Press, 
This is ' The Master E. S. and the Ars Moriendi, a 
Chapter in the History of Engraving during the 
Fifteenth Century,' by Lionel Cust, Director of the 
National Portrait Gallery. It will be illustrated 
with forty-six collotype facsimiles. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

H. S. A. ("Poco Mas "). See 9 th S. i. 413. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 


s. in. JAN. 



CONTENTS. -No. 55. 

NOTES English Guttural Sounds, 21 A Chinese Novel, 
23-Ancient Zodiacs, 24-G. H. Lewes and Locke-Peas- 
King Charles I., 25 Gladstone on Shakspeare A Child s 
Caul Old London, 26. 

QUERIES "An Ice " Withycombe Church, 26 The 
Lady Nelson Collection of Letters-' The Christ with Blue 
Kyea ' Taxidermist " Warburton's Servant" Xmas 
The ' Eclectic Review ' " Filigalentee " Furly of 
Colchester, 27 Armorial " Kings ! "Government Offices 
Pope Street, Eltbam R. S. Godfrey-Trinity Windows 
-Trethowan-Sir G. Clifford-General G. J. Hall-Silver 
Ladle Authors Wanted, 28. 

REPLIES : Felibre, 28 Wollaston Arms, 29 Silhouettes 
Sir Thomas Munro, 30 Poem on the Horse-chestnut- 
Counts of Holland Tolling Bells, 31 Patronymics 
Architectural Niches-" Lynx-eyed "Lending Money by 
Measure Inaccuracies in Marriage Registers " Maills, 
32 Margaret Plantagenet-A Church Tradition-Biggles- 
wa de " To save one's bacon" "The sair saunt for the 
Crune," 33 Jew's Harp Pillar Dollar Sheldon : Wright 
Paul Jones English Translation Cecil Brothers with 
the same Name Evelyn's 'Diary' Mary Bowles 
Jacobites-Gilbert Glossin, 34 "Tryst" Books on Gam- 
ing, 35 Shakspeare and the Sea Mrs. Woodham 
" Rummer "Portrait Rings Private Gates in London- 
Royal Navy Club-Cedar Trees, 38 Field-Names " Carn- 
age is God's daughter" The Colour Green, 37 The Con- 
ventionalized Tartar Cloud, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Murray's ' New Historical Diction- 
ary ' Waters's ' Jerome Cardan 'Evans's Leo of Assisi's 
' Mirror of Perfection ' Dauze's ' Index Bibliographique 
Peters's 'King Solomon's Golden Ophir '-Gibbs's 'A 
Cotswold Village.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


IN the following note I propose to deal 
very briefly with four classes of words : 
(1) those which in Old English (O.E.) have a 
medial or final c, but which in Modern 
English (E.) have k instead of ch in one or 
more dialects ; (2) words which in O.E. have 
q, but which in E. show g instead of dge ; 
(3) O.E. words with 3 between back vowels 
such as a, o, which in some E. dialects have 
developed a g instead of a w; (4) words 
which liave final h in O.E., but which instead 
of having lost this sound altogether have 
developed a k sound in some dialects. Ex- 
amples : (1) O.E. secan, Middle English 
(M.E.) sechen, E. seek; O.E. \>yncean, M.E. 
}>inchen, E. think. (2) O.E. hryc$, M.E. rigge, 
rugge, E. rig (in many dialects) ; O.E. muc$- 
wortj inyc$, M.E. mugwurt, migge, E. mugwort 
and rnig (in many dialects). (3) O.E. ha$a- 
]>orn, hcejporn, M.E. hawe]>orn, E. (Devonshire 
dialect) hagthorn, standard English haw- 
thorn. (4) O.E. heahfore, M.E. haifare, E. 
(Hampshire dialect) heckfer ; O.E. heah\>u, 
M.E. heithe, &c., E. (Hants dialect) eckth. 

There are two well-known ways of account- 
.ng for these perplexing k and g words. 
Some of them are supposed to be Scandi- 
navian forms, others are said to be Northern 
rorms. Neither of these explanations is. 
entirely satisfactory, for the first cuts instead 
of unravelling the knot of the difficulty ; the 
second is not an explanation at all, for we are 
not told how it is that in some Northern 
words we find k and g, and in others the nor- 
mal ch and dge. Kluge (Paul's ' Grundriss,'' 
p. 839) has noticed that O.E. fronted c- 
becomes k when it stands by means of 
syncope immediately before a consonant. 
He instances M.E. tek\>, thenk\>, think]p. 

This statement is unfortunately incom- 
plete and misleading, for we are not told 
whether this change from c to k takes place 
in all dialects, or only in some, and the term. 
" consonant," without any hint as to what 
class of consonants affects the change, con- 
veys an erroneous impression. Kluge also* 
says that Scottish forms like steek, stitch, 
theek, thatch, &c., are to be explained by the 
return of O.E. fronted c to K. This is no> 
explanation at all, but a mere statement of 
fact. The question is, Under what condition* 
and in which dialects did O.E. c become un- 
f rented, that is, become k instead of develop- 
ing into ch ? 

I have collected a considerable amount of 
material illustrating the development of the- 
gutturals in English, and as a result of my 
observations on the ch, k, dge, g questions, I 
consider myself justified in formulating the- 
following statement. In a certain group of 
dialects (probably only in West Saxon and 
Kentish) O.E. c does not develope into ch, but 
becomes k, in the middle of words before 
open consonants, that is, before f>, /, s, w, <fec. 
This principle further applies to the final c in 
the first element of primitive compounds, in 
those cases where the second element begins- 
with an open consonant. The same applies 
to the voiced form of this sound, usually 
written c$ in O.E. This was a front stop 
consonant, which under ordinary circum- 
stances becomes dge, but which in the above 
conditions becomes a back voiced stop, g. 

I turn for a moment to O.E. 3 and h, medi- 
ally, or finally before the second element of 
an old compound. O.E. 3 in this position was-. 
either a back or a front open voiced consp- 
nant, according to the vowel which preceded" 
it. O.E. h was the voiceless form of this. 
sound. Now in certain dialects (again pro- 
bably in West Saxon and Kentish only) O.K 
and h are atopped when they stand before- 
open consonants, and become g and k re- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. in. JAN. 

As I hope before long to publish an exhaus- 
tive discussion of the above questions, with 
an examination of the chronology of the 
changes therein involved, and an attempt to 
fix, with as much precision as possible, the 
exact dialectal area within which the prin- 
ciple works, I shall content myself here with 
only adducing what I believe to be sufficient 
examples to prove my case. My excuse for 
publishing my results in this brief and incom- 
plete way is that they will probably be of 
use to those scholars engaged on the 'His- 
torical English Dictionary ' and the 'English 
Dialect Dictionary.' 

The above observations may be 
briefly as follows : 

O.E. c + f, J>, s, &c. = k (g). 
O.E. 03 + f, >, s, &c. = g (k). 

occurs in 

O.E. 3 , 
O.E. h + f, 

&c. = g. 
. = k. 

, s, &c 

As O.E. does not distinguish graphically 
between back and front c in any consistent 
manner, we have to infer from various con- 
siderations the nature of any given O.E. c. 
For our present purpose, therefore, we need 
not go further back than M.E. In a large 
number of early M.E. Southern texts we find 
.sechen, seche, werchen, werche, thenchen, thenche, 

then, reche (to reck, care), techen; but in the 

and the form 
Devonshire (see 

hoc/thorn, which 
Friend's 'Devon- 

shire Plant-Names,' 1882), can hardly be called 
a " Northern form" with any degree of plausi- 
bility. On the other hand, when we find O.E. 
hawthorn (Wright-Wiilcker, 269, 4; 349,4), and 
bear in mind that it is precisely in the 
Southern dialects of M.E. that we have so 
much evidence of stopping before open con- 
sonants, we are not surprised to find O.E. 3 
becoming g before th, and still less surprised 
to find some traces of it remaining in 
Devonshire. Again, from such a form as O.E. 
slatfhorn (Wright-Wiilcker, 453, 15) we might 
infer a Modern English slag or slagthorn = sloe. 
I have not found slagthorn, but slags and 
slaigh occur, in Westmoreland and Lancashire 
respectively (see Britten's 'English Plant- 
Names'). As examples of O.E. h becoming k 
we may take the forms heckth, O.E. heahfru, 
height, and heckfer, a heifer, heahfore, both 
of which occur in Southern dialects of the 
present day. 

It must be admitted that a great number 
of these k and g forms occur at the present 
day in North Midland and Northern dialects, 
but my material leads me to believe that they 
arose almost entirely in the South, and by- 
virtue of the law which I have enunciated. 

same texts we find, with equal regularity, 
.sefy, werkst, werk\>, thenkst, thenk}>, tek\>, 
&c. In other words, O.E. front c becomes ch 
regularly, except when, through inflexional 
hanges, it is brought into contact with an 
open consonant, in which case it promptly 
becomes k. Before stop consonants we get 
ch, as blenchte, cwenchte, &c. (St. Juliana, prose 
life), schrenckten (St. Kath.). 

Those dialects which do not apocopate the 
vowel of the second and third persons have 
thenchest, thencheth, &c. The apocope _took 
place in the South (see Morsbach, 'Middle 
English Grammar,' p. 102), and is found 
Already in the West Saxon and Kentish dia- 
lects of O.E. In the early M.E. period the 
eh and k forms occur only in accordance with 
above rule, but later on new formations from 
the k forms took place, which gave a set of 
new verbs with k throughout, and to this 
process we owe forms like seek in standarc 
English, and beseek, which occurs in the 
Induction of the 'Mirror for Magistrates 
(written by a Sussex man), and in Shake 
speare. In the same way think, drink (by 
the side of drench), to reck, &c., may be ex 

r.turn now to O.E. 3 and h. Forms like hag 
or haig, instead of haw, which occur in 
Modern English dialects, have always been a 

f this be so, it will no longer be possible to 

egard every word which has k where we 

might have expected cAas a "Northern form," 

and there is no further difficulty regarding 

his class of words. 

The whole question resolves itself into 
explaining under what conditions and in 
which dialects it was possible for the k and g 
: orms to arise. When w r e have once done 
;his, the subsequent distribution of them is 
a secondary matter, and demands separate 
nvestigation. As a matter of fact a very 
arge number of these k and g forms still 
exist in the Southern dialects, and the verbal 
forms, at any rate, could not have arisen 
anywhere else ; while a great number of dge 
and ch forms occur in the north of England. 
In consideration of this and the other facts 
which I have briefly mentioned, I see no 
reason whatever for assuming these so-called 
" irregular " forms to be either Scandina- 
vian or Northern. O.E. medial and final 
and q became ch and dge in all dialects 
except in the South under the conditions 
stated. Why the Southern dialects should, 
on the whole perhaps, have preferred the 
fronted forms, and why the North should 
have adopted the others, belongs to a dif- 
ferent order of investigation. 

Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. 

9 th S. III. JAN. 14, '99.] 



ALTHOUGH more than one European trans- 
lation has appeared, it cannot be said that 
the 'Hwa-tseen' or ' Hoa-tsien-ki ' is at all 
well known in the Western world, and an 
analysis of its plot may not be without 

It opens with the departure of Leang, a 
student, eighteen years old, from his own 
home to that of his aunt Heaou, with whose son 
he is to study, and endeavour to obtain that 
literary distinction which is, in theory at least, 
in China, the great avenue to all employment 
in the service of the State. After an affec- 
tionate interview with his aunt and cousin, 
he takes a walk alone in the garden and 
there espies two young ladies, attended by 
two maidservants, who are playing chess in 
an arbour, and who flee precipitately on his 
unexpected appearance. He at once falls 
desperately in love with Yaou-Seen, and 
makes eager inquiries about her from the 
servant who comes to fetch away the chess- 
board, which had been left behind in the 
flight. She is a relation of his aunt, and the 
daughter of General Yang, with whom Leang 
becomes acquainted. An ode written by the 
young lady is found by him when on a visit, 
and to this he writes a reply which greatly 
pleases her father, who is prepared to welcome 
him as a son-in-law, but hesitates to make the 
first advances. Meanwhile the young people 
have met in the garden and plighted their 
troth to each other. Their interviews are 
facilitated by the friendly offices of the two 
slave- girls. Leang returns home to see his 
father, and there learns that a marriage has 
been arranged for him with Yuh-Kiug. 
Although his affections are pledged to Yaou- 
Seen, he does not, so strong is the sense of filial 
duty among the Chinese, venture upon any 
remonstrance. He comes out brilliantly in 
the examination, and, after an accidental 
meeting with Yaou-Seen, asks to be sent to 
the relief of her father, General Yang, who 
is fighting against the rebels of a distant pro- 
vince. Leang leads his troops to the war, 
but finds himself completely surrounded by 
the superior forces of the rebels, and has to 
act on the defensive. So desperate is his 
position that his death is reported, and Yiih- 
King, to whom he had been betrothed by his 
parents, throws herself into the river, and is 
believed to have been drowned. His cousin 
Heaou sets out with further reinforcements, 

* ' Chinese Courtship.' By Peter Perring Thorns. 
Macao, 1824. 'Hoa-tsien-ki.' Geschiedenis van 
het gebloemde Briefpapier. Van Gustave Schlegel. 
Leyden, 1866.' The Flowery Scroll.' By Sir John 
Bowring. London, 1868. 

and manages to communicate both with 
General Yang and with Leang by means of 
letters fastened to arrows. The three leaders 
unite in manoeuvres by which the rebels are 
completely destroyed. On reaching the 
capital they are created dukes, and the 
emperor, learning by inquiry that Yang has a 
daughter, at once suggests that Leang and 
Yaou-Seen shall be married. Thus the two 
lovers are happily united. Yuh-King's at- 
tempt at suicide has not been successful, as 
she is rescued by an officer. But her kinsfolk, 
believing her dead, apply for a monument 
to be erected to her memory, her death 
under the circumstances being regarded as a 
remarkable and praiseworthy example of 
conjugal fidelity. Her rescuer makes known 
the real state of affairs to the emperor. The 
Son of Heaven, considering deeply this 
remarkable affair, decrees that Leang shall 
marry Yuh-King as well as Yaou-Seen, arid 
raises both ladies to the first rank. This 
arrangement has the approbation of Yaou- 
Seen, and the two wives dwell together in 
harmony undisturbed by jealousy. Notwith- 
standing his absorption with wife No. 1, 
whom he had loved so violently, and with 
wife No. 2, who had shown such proofs of 
affection, General Leang was able to see that 
Yun-heang and Pih-yue, the two slave-girls- 
who had aided him in his clandestine court- 
ship of Yaou-Seen, had each charms of their 
own, and in consequence both became his 
"women of call." The summit of bliss, 
according to the Chinese view of life, was 
reached when each of these four lovely girls 
presented Duke Leang with a blooming boy, 
of which he was the father. 

Such is the briefest outline of one of the 
most famous stories in the literature of China. 
There is some humour and knowledge of 
human nature in the conversations between 
the young lady and her maidservants. There 
is also some painting of natural scenery, 
which is effective from a Chinese point of 
view. Judged by the European standard, 
Leang is not a very heroic figure, and scarcely 
seems to have earned the prosperity and 
happiness which the author or authors 
shower upon him. The story exhibits the 
moral standard of the Chinese in a striking 
fashion. Thus polygamy and concubinage, 
though necessarily rare, do not offend the 
moral sense of the dwellers in the Middle 
Kingdom, whilst suicide, under certain cir- 
cumstances, so far from being thought 
blamable, is regarded as a positive virtue, to 
be rewarded by posthumous honours. 


Moss Side, Manchester. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. HI. JAN. w, 

(Continued from 9 th S. ii. 304.) 

French Zodiacs. 

174. On bas-reliefs on the frieze in the side 
^apsides of St. Paul, Issoire. Tenth century. 

175. In the court of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts, Paris, formerly on the church of St. 
Genevieve, Paris. ? Tenth century. In 
Lenoir, 'Des Arts de France,' 1811, pi. 23. 

176. In the archivolt of Germigny Church. 
Eleventh to twelfth century. 

177. In the Romanesque portal of the 
-church at Avallon in Auxerre. * Diet. Arch.' 

178. In a painted wheel window in Laon 
'Cathedral, dedicated 1114. Jennings, ' Rosi- 
crucians,' i. 211. 

179. On the voussoirs of the grand portal 
In the south front of Autun Cathedral, alter- 
nately with the agricultural operations. 1 160. 
" Diet. Arch.' 

180. On the pedestal of the west doorway 
of the abbey church of St. Denis. Twelfth 
century. In * An. Arch.,' xix. 220 ; Archceo- 
iogia, xliv. ; * Diet. Arch.' 

181. On the archivolt of the chief doorway 
of the abbey church of St. Vezelay are twenty- 
nine medallions containing monsters ; and a 
large zodiac with the apostles to correspond 
*witn them. Twelfth century. In Le-Duc, 'Diet. 
Rais ' vii. 390, fig. 51 ; Murray, 'France,' 350 ; 
4 Arcnives des Mon. Histor.'; Archceologia, 

182. On tablets in the pavement of the 
abbey church of St. Bertin at St. Omer. 
Twelfth century. Archceologia, xliv. ; Builder, 
xlii. 757. 

183. On encaustic tiles in the chapel of 
St. Firmin in the abbey of St. Denis. Four- 
teenth century. ' Diet. Arch.' 

184. Around the doorway of the Lady 
Chanel, Notre Dame, Paris. About 1220. 
Archceologia, xliv. 

185. According to Prof. Tanner, in a church 
at Lisieau in Normandy a zodiac was to be 
seen in 1876. 

186. Around the Portail St. Firmin, the 
northern of the three great doorways of 
Amiens Cathedral. Fourteenth century. In 
the Architect, 17 Dec., 1870 ; 'Diet. Arch.' 

187. Around the end doorway of Plaisance 
Cathedral. Twelfth or thirteenth century. 
Archceologia, xliv. 

188. Around the great centre doorway on 
the west front of Chartres Cathedral, with 
the agricultural labours. 1145. Archceologia, 
xliv. ; Murray, 114 ;' Diet. Arch.' 

189. Around the end doorway of Sens 
Cathedral. Thirteenth century. Archceologia, 

190. Around the great doorway of Bazas 
Cathedral. Archceologia, xliv. 

191. On the clock of Lyons Cathedral. 
Penny Magazine, 1840, p. 386. 

192. On the screen behind the high altar 
of St. Germain des Pres, Boulevard St. Ger- 
main, Paris. 

193. Painted on the chancel arch of Pretz 
Church, near Laval. Thirteenth century. 
De Caumont, ' Abece'daire,' 1854, pp.375, 376; 
' Diet. Arch.' 

194. Painted in the west window of Notre 
Dame Cathedral, Paris. Thirteenth century. 
Archceologia, xliv. ; ' Diet. Arch.' 

195. In mosaic on the pavement of Tournus 
Cathedral. Eleventh century. Archceologia, 

196. In mosaic on the pavement of Rheims 
Cathedral. Eleventh century. Archceologia, 

197. In mosaic on the pavement in the 
choir, before the altar of a church in Lyons. 
Twelfth century. Higgins, ' Anacalypsis.' 

198. A finely sculptured zodiac is around 
the great west doorway of St. Croix, Bor- 
deaux, connected with a circle of the 
labours, another of prophets, and one above 
of angels. Thirteenth century. Photograph 
by E. Neurdein, Bordeaux. 

199. Around the doorway of the cathedral 
of Notre Dame, Rheims, at the west end. 

200. In a French edition of Ovid's ' Meta- 
morphoses ' in verse, with borders and cuts 
on each page by Solomon Bernard the Little. 
Paris, 1545, 12mo. 

201. In a painted window with the opera- 
tions of agriculture in Mons Cathedral. 
Archceologia Cantiana, iv. 

202. In stone figures at the Portail de la 
Vierge, at the great doorway in the west 
fa9ade of Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, circa 
1220. "The most interesting bas-reliefs of 
this entrance are the twelve signs of the 
zodiac, and the agricultural labours of the 
twelve months of the year, on the doorposts. 
The eighth sign, Virgo, is represented by a 
sculptor forming a statue, supposed to be 
that of the Virgin." Galignani, 'Guide to 
Paris,' 1848, p. 306 ; ' Diet. Arch.' 

203. Civray " contains a Romanesque 
church whose facade is curiously ornamented 
with sculptures, including signs of the zodiac, 
somewhat like Notre Dame at Poictiers, but 
dating probably from the early part of the 
twelfth century." Murray, 'France,' 1852, 
p. 218. 

204. On a large clockface on the gateway 
called La Grosse Horloge at Rouen, 1527. 
'N. & Q.,'^ S. xii. 238. m 

205. Painted by Doneja on pilasters in a 

9* s. in. JAN. 14, 


chapel on the north side of the cathedral at 
Albi. Archceologia, 1896, Iv. 107. 

206. In the choir of Bourges Cathedral. 
Thirteenth century. ' Diet. Arch.' 

207. On the tympanum of the doorway of 
the church of St. Ursin. In Jauffroy, 'Siecles 
de la Monarchic Frangaise,' 1823, pi. 38; 
* Diet. Arch.' 

208. On the cathedral at Senlis. Twelfth 
century. * Diet. Arch.' A. B. G. 

( To be continued. ) 

G. H. LEWES AND LOCKE. G. H. Lewes, 
on p. 450 of the 'Biographical History of 
Philosophy ' (Routledge's edition), writes : 
'" In 1670 Locke planned his ' Essay concern- 
ing Human Understanding.' This he did 
not complete till 1687." Again, on p. 456: 
"The time came when for the purpose of this 
history we had to read the 'Essay 'once more. 
We read it through carefully, admiringly." 
Carefully forsooth ! This is what he did not 
apparently do. For on p. 250, book iv. (Bohn's 
edition), Locke writes : " Remembering that 
I saw it [water] yesterday, it will also be 
always true, and as long as my memory 
retains it, always an undoubted proposition 
to me, that water did exist the 10th day of 
July, 1688." He had then close upon a 
hundred more pages to write ere he com- 
pleted his monumental work. The book was 
published in 1690 ; perhaps 1687 is a printer's 
error, and ought to be 1689. 

At what date were pineapples introduced 
into England? Locke writes on p. 245, 
book iv. : " We see nobody gets the relish of a 
pineapple till he goes to the Indies, where it 
is, and tastes it." What is " Kin Kina," men- 
tioned by him on p. 260 in the same volume ? 

I would draw Messrs. Bell & Sons' atten- 
tion to a typographical error on p. 71, 
book iii. HKJp should read ntp, pronounced 
"Kinnah," not "Kinneah," as printed on 
p. 70. 

On p. 76, book iii. occurs a very remark- 
able statement for so ideal a man as Locke : 
" In the Hebrew tongue there is a particle 
consisting of but one single letter, or which 
there are reckoned up, as I remember, seventy, 
I am sure above fifty, several significations." 
Where did Locke derive his information 
from? M. L. BRESLAR. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

lexicographers and grammarians there is 
commonly great diversity in writing the 
plural of pea. Bailey under both pea and 
pease has " a well-known pulse "; later lexico- 
graphers distinguish between a definite 

number, as nine peas in a pod, and a col- 
lective sense, as a bushel of pease ; but most 
modern writers seem to use either form 
indiscriminately. Mr. Leo H. Grindon, in 
his 'Fruits and Fruit Trees' (1885, p. 77), 
says : 

"In cerasus we have the parent, first, of the 
French cerisier and cerise, and eventually of the 
English cherry, which, by the way, ought by rights 
to be spelt cherris or cheris. The established 
spelling came of our forefathers confounding the s 
with the sign usually employed in English to mark 
plurals. The very same mistake was made over the 
name of the vegetable in Latin called pisum, French 
poits, properly in English a ' peas,' plural ' peasen ' : 
He talked of turnips and of peasen, 
And set good seed in proper season." 

In Gosson's 'Schoole of Abuse,' 1579, we 
have " the quantitie of a beane, or the weight 
of a pease (Shakespeare Society ed., 1841, 
p. 24). 

The plural " pease " seems to have been 
almost universal in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries ; thus Bishop Corbet, 
circa 1615, wrote (ed. 1807, p. 128) : 

Oh ! thou deform'd unwomanlike disease, 
That plowst up flesh and blood, and there sows't 

Massinger refers to a man in "a barn, wrapp'd 
up in pease-straw," 'New Way to pay Old 
Debts,' II. ii. (1633). Butler in ' Hudibras ' 
has "pease" more than once; and Wilson, 
a translator of Petronius Arbiter in 1708 
describes " pease in a silver charger." 

Of modern writers who use the plural 
"peas," I may instance Dean Stanley, 
Mr. Blackmore in 'Lorna Doone,' and Miss 
Broughton ; but Miss Braddon and Borrow 
have " pease." JAMES HOOPER. 


KING CHARLES L As the two hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary of the beheading of 
King Charles I. is to be observed this year, 
the following notes may be read with interest. 

John Audley, in ' Englands Common- 
wealth,' 1652, writes : " When (in the face of 
death) he used a forme of prayer taken out 
of Sir Philip Sidny's 'Arcadia,' he proved 
himselfe neither vertuous, nor divine " (p. 34). 
On this see ' D.N.B.,' Iii. 231 b. 

Barnabas Oley, in the preface to George 
Herbert's ' Country Parson,' 1671, writes : 
" The king, St. Charles of blessed memory, 
and the good archbishop of Canterbury, with 

[* In the third edition, 1672, the distich in ques- 
tion runs : 

O thou deform'd unwoman-like disgrace, 
Thou Plow'st up Flesh and Blood, and there Sow'st 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. m. JAN. u, 

others, were endeavouring to perfect the 
clergy in regularity of life, uniformity of 
officiating, and all variety of learning. 

Edmund Hickeringill, rector of All Saints', 
Colchester, in his 'Gregory Father -Grey- 
beard,' 1673, being a reply to Andrew Mar- 
veil's 'Rehearsal Transposed,' reproves that 
author for " speaking lies of our glorious 
martyrs Charles I. and Archbishop Laud 
(p. 254). 

Edward Felling, Prebendary of Westmin- 
ster, preaching before the judges in West- 
minster Abbey, 30 January, 1683/4, stated 
that the Romanists helped to destroy 
Charles I. because he would not accept the 
Roman Church (p. 39), on which subject there 
is a confirmatory note in Wordsworth's 
'Eccles. Biog.,' 1818, v. 370. 

Bishop Beveridge, preaching before the 
Lords in Westminster Abbey, 30 January, 
1705/6, showed that the Parliament and the 
Church reckoned Charles a martyr (p._l_4). 

William Law, in his ' Christian Perfection,' 
1726, shows that the 30th of January was 
commonly observed as a fast, and the church 
service was usually attended (' Works,' 1893, 
iii. 113). W. C. B. 

be permitted in *N. & Q.' to call attention 
to the fact that, according to a letter in the 
Spectator of 3 December, 1898, Mr. Gladstone 
was of the opinion that the three greatest 
men who ever lived were Homer, Dante, and 
Shakespeare, and that Shakespeare was the 
greatest of them all ? 

Mr. Gladstone said that 

" Homer created a people, a language, and a 
religion. Dante created a people and a language, 
but not a religion. Shakespeare did not create any 
of the three, out his reputation will increase, and 
in another century he may be universally acknow- 
ledged to be the greatest man who ever lived." 

Clapham, S.W. 

A CHILD'S CAUL. The following folk-lore 
is from Liphook, Hants. A child oorn in a 
caul will always be a wanderer so long as the 
caul is kept, and, moreover, being unable to 
sink in water, cannot be drowned. An old 
woman told my niece lately of her brother 
who was so born, and so potent was the 
influence of the caul that wnen his mother 
tried to bathe him he sat on the surface of 
the water, and if forced down, came up again 
like a cork. There seems no doubt that this 
was fully believed and related in all serious- 
ness. The mother had kept the caul stretched 
on a sheet of note-paper, and whenever 

her son was in danger it became wet and 
soft, but it remained dry and like a dried 
bladder so long as he was safe. It got 
destroyed somehow, and soon after the 
brother, a sailor, was shipwrecked and 
drowned. J- T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

OLD LONDON. An interesting suggestion 
as to memorials of old London has been 
originated by Mr. John Latey, of the Penny 
Illustrated Paper. Mr. Latey proposes that, 
in order to preserve the finest specimens of 
architecture, as they are taken down for 
necessary alterations they should be sent 
to the garden at the South Kensington 
Museum, and there be reset sp as to form a 
street. Mr. Latey regrets that Temple Bar r 
the old "Bell" inn in Holborn, and the 
ancient "Tabard" should have been lost to 
London, but states that "time-honoured 
buildings enough yet remain the row of 
gabled houses in Holborn by Staple Inn, St. 
John's Gate, and Cardinal Wolsey's Palace in 
Fleet Street to form, when time is ripe tx> 
remove them, a desirable Old London street." 

N. S. S. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries^ 
in order that the answers may be addressed to- 
them direct. 

"AN ICE." This expression, as in "have an 
ice," appears to be recent. I shall be glad of 
a few quotations for it, sent directly to me 
(address simply " Oxford "). It can, no doubt, 
be found in novels. In French the plural 
glaces, in the sense of ice-creams or water-ices,, 
was admitted by the Academy in 1762 ; but 
une glace, " an ice," was condemned as late as 
1825, the proper equivalent being given as 
" une tasse de glace." A friend tells me that 
he remembers the time when "an ice " sounded 
as slangy as "a brandy-soda" or "a bread- 
and-butter." J. A. H. MURRAY. 



NING. In Baxter's ' Saints' Everlasting Rest,' 
pt. iii. chap. iv. sect. 10, he refers to a thunder- 
storm which burst upon the church of Withy- 
combe, in Devonshire, "when the lightning 
broke in, and scorched and burnt the people, 
and left the brains and hair upon the pillars," 
so that it would seem that the catastrophe 
occurred during the time of divine service. 
Is there any record of the date and parti- 
culars of this calamity *? According to the 

9* s. m. JAN. 14, '99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The description was 

'Post Office Directory,' the old church of 
Withycombe Raleigh (formerly spelt Withe- 
combe Raleigh), near Exmoutn, which must 
be the one meant, was built in the fifteenth 
century and called St. John the Baptist's. 
The greatest part of it was taken down about 
1748, but a portion (commonly called St. 
John's-in-the-Wilderness) still remains and 
is used as a mortuary chapel, being about a 
mile and a half distant from the village and 
the modern church, which was built in 1864 
And called St. John the Evangelist's. 

W. T. LYNN. 

I shall be very much obliged if you o 
any of your readers can tell me who is the 
present owner of the collection of Nelson 
letters which originally belonged to Lady 
Nelson and passed to her cousin Mrs. Franck 
lyn. I wish to communicate with the present 
owner. R. B. MARSTON. 

St. Dunstan's House, Fetter Lane, E.G. 

much struck with the woodcut of a bust 
named as above which appeared recently in 
a provincial newspaper. " 
as follows : 

"This bust a new discovery was purchased 
recently by the Russian Ambassador at Madrid, and 
has been pronounced by experts to be the work 
either of Michael Angelo or Donatello. The eyes 
are of blue rock-crystal. A photograph of the work 
has been sent to the Queen, who is desirous to have 
the bust copied in marble. The discovery has 
created a sensation in the world of art." 

Will any savant in art kindly favour me 
with his remarks ? By whomsoever executed, 
the work seems a very fine one ; but I think 
the " experts " must be mistaken in assigning 
it either to Michael Angelo or Donatello, as 
I am not aware that either of these sculptors 
ever inserted eyes, though the ancients some- 
times did, as notably Phidias in his great 
statue of Pallas. R. M. SPENCE, D.D. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

" TAXIDERMIST." Who is responsible for 
the invention of this vile phrase 1 ? It is 
not in Johnson's ' Dictionary.' I suppose we 
get it from the French. It would have been 
easy to suggest a more regular formation, 
such as " taxidermatist," or more correctly 
" dermatotaxist," or even " dermataxist." But 
scientific people are above such matters, and 
seem to contemn them. 


graphia Dramatica ; or, a Companion to the 

London, 1782, I find numerous entries of the 
names of plays, followed by the remark, " This 
was among those destroyed by Mr. War- 
burton's servant." I find no explanation of 
this in the book itself, and I am puzzled to 
know where to look for the details. Where 
can I find them ? I presume the Mr. War- 
burton referred to is the famous Bishop of 
Gloucester, to whom D'Israeli devotes a long 
chapter in his ' Quarrels of Authors '; but this 
article does not help me to understand why 
and when his servant destroyed a number of 
very scarce and early plays. I believe I have 
read the account somewhere ; but I neglected 
Capt. Cuttle's advice. Hence this query. 


[The servant used the quartos in order to baste 
fowls. The story is familiar.] 

" XMAS." From about what year does this 
(to my thinking) ugly and needless con- 
traction date? I mean, as a printed and 
written form. It was comparatively rare 
half a century ago. This year it has served 
not only to catch the eye of the shopping 
folk, and to help to adorn Christmas cards, 
but has been printed upon bills announcing 
church services. I have actually heard "Xmas " ! 
But, offensive as are some of the contractions 
that have been adopted into our spoken lan- 
guage, it may fairly be hoped that a word 
with such associations as "Christmas" will 
not be debased by English tongues. 


supply the names of the writers in the 
Eclectic Review between the years 1811 and 
1828 ? The articles written by Ann Taylor, 
of Ongar, between 1811 and 1813, and those 
by her brother, Isaac Taylor, of Stanford 
Rivers, who wrote from about 1818 to 1828, 
are specially wanted. The editor was Josiah 

" FILIGALENT^J." What is the meaning of 
the word filigalentce, which is surely not a 
pure Latin vocable 1 ? It occurs in the fol- 
owing phrase from an entry in a college 
register of the seventeenth century : 

"(Z) admissus est pensionarius filigalentae 
odem (X) [a principal of the college mentioned in 
, preceding clause] ejus curatore." 

T. K. 

jy's sale, 9 March, 1865, of John Kendall's 
ibrary (mostly books interesting to the 
Society of Friends), there was sold to a Mr. 
Marsh an old Dutch Bible (Leyden, 1663), 
having in it a pedigree of the Furly family 

VVA.V/IV y V/A ) IM V.WJLA.I.fc*l*XAWJI V\J VU%? I llCtVJ.11^, J.JLJ. A V <M H^V-t.L^ A ^ V \J*- l/J.iV> J- A.M. *.j J. UiiAj 

Playhouse,' by David Erskine Baker, 2 vols., from 1659 to 1773. If any of your readers 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. JAN. u, m 

know of the existence of this Bible I should 
much like to refer to it, the Furlys being 
ancestors of mine. ARTHUR BRENT. 

ARMORIAL. Can any one tell me what arms 
were borne by the Friars Minor or Grey Friars 
(Franciscans) ? GRIS-NEZ. 

" KINGS ! " What is the origin of this 
expression, used by boys when they wish for 
a while to be excused from a game? It is 
very common ; but I have never seen it 
explained. C. C. B. 

GOVERNMENT OFFICES, 1818. Where can I 
find a list of officials resident in the block of 
buildings that stood on the south side of the 
Horse Guards parade ? A. C. H. 

POPE STREET, ELTHAM. Can any of your 

of the name Pope Street, applied to one of the 
roads in my parish ? There is a local tradition 
that it was a Roman " street," and we are not 
far from the old Roman road to Dover, but 
the origin of the name " Pope " seems quite 
lost. I should be grateful for any suggestion. 

ROBERT SCOTT GODFREY. One of the faces 
of a triangular stone, cut in the form of a 
heart, which was found some years ago among 
the remains of Nini's terra-cotta works, near 
the Chateau de Chaumont, in the neighbour- 
hood of Blois, bore the following inscription : 
"A la Grace de Dieu, L 8 XV., Roi de France 
et de Navare. Cette Pierre est Pose[e] par le 
Noble Mon. Bob* Scott God-Frey de la Nation 
Angloise et Peintre en verre du Roi de France, 
1770." See 'Blois et ses Environs,' par L. de 
la Saussaye, p. 344. Is anything known of 
this artist in his native country 1 


^ TRINITY WINDOWS. Can any reader 
give information as to how many so- 
called " Trinity windows " there are in Eng- 
land, and explain the drawings? There is 
one in the cnurch of Holy Trinity, Good- 
ramgate, York, which is very curious. 

E. B. 

TRETHOWAN. Trethowan, the name of 
an abode situated in Dorsetshire, seems to be 
of Cornish origin, and to designate, in Cornish, 
perhaps, a home near the sandy beach. Being, 
however, uncertain about it, I should be glad 
to be enlightened concerning its meaning. 


SIR GERVASE CLIFFORD. " He was secre- 
tary to the Lord Treasurer Cromwell, and 
custodian of the temporalities of the Arch- 

bishop of Canterbury." Was there such 
a person ; or is it meant for Sir Gervase Clif- 
ton, of Clifton, Notts? If so, probably his 
influence helped John Cromwell to migrate 
from Notts to Wimbledon. A. C. H. 

obliged if some of the readers of ' N. & Q.' can 
give me information respecting the parentage 
of General Gage John Hall, who was honorary 
colonel of the 99th Foot and 70th Foot, and 
at one time Governor of the Mauritius. His 
commission of ensign was dated 1783, and he 
died near Exeter, 18 April, 1854. 


SILVER LADLE. An ancient ladle, pre- 
sumably of silver, has recently come into my 
possession. A coin of George III. (1787) is 
inserted in the bowl, but no hall-mark is 
discoverable. The following legend, in minute 

characters, scarcely discernible, appears on 
the rim of the bowl, " Anno tricesimo tertio 

(3 rd S. i. 397), aprojios of several earlier notes 
on coins inserted in tankards, there is a note 
by R. W. B. concerning ladles with coins 
inserted, but no mention is made of in- 
scriptions or hall-marks. It would interest 
me also to know if these curious articles are 

Willesden, N.W. 


Beautiful feet are those that go 
On kindly ministry to and fro, 
Down lowliest ways if God wills so. 


My ornaments are arms, 
My pastime is war, 

My bed is cold 

Upon the wold, 
My lamp yon star. 


F E L I B R E. 

(9 th S. ii. 368.) 

THE word Felibre was adopted at a 
meeting of seven Provencal poets Theodore 
Aubanel, Jean Bonnet, Anselme Mathieu,, 
Fre'deric Mistral, J. Roumanille, A. Tavan,, 
and Paul Giera at a banquet at Castel 
Fontsegugne, near Chateau Neuf - de - 
Gadagne, Vaucluse, on 21 May, 1854. The 
word is taken from an ancient ProvenQal 
ballad which the now celebrated Felibreen 
poet Frederic Mistral had met with at Mail- 
lane, his native place in Provence. In this 



religious ballad the Virgin Mary is supposed 
to recite her seven troubles to her Son. The 
fourth trouble refers to Marv finding her Son 
in the Temple, sitting in the midst of the 
doctors, hearing, listening to, and asking 
questions, and the doctors are referred to in 
the ballad as follows : 

Em6 li Tirown de la lei, 
Em< li set Felibre de la lei. 

The word Felibre, as little known as 
Tirown, having evidently the signification of 
doctor of law, was unanimously adopted 
by the Provencal poets as their future 
designation. An association was at once 
formed under the title of Felibrige Latin, 
for the revival and perpetuation of all the dia- 
lects derived from the Latin. The success of 
this society of Felibres has been beyond expec- 
tation in Provence, Catalonia, Aquitaine, and 
Languedoc, numbering more than two hun- 
dred poets, bards, troubadours, trouveres, 
and minstrels, who since 1854 have produced 
more than three thousand works, besides the 
outcome of a dictionary of Provengal and 
French, a splendid and valuable work in two 
large volumes, formed from the dialects of 
the Langue d'Oc by the celebrated author of 
* Mireille,' ' Callencfau,' and other poems Pro- 
vengal, Frederic Mistral, under the title of 
'Lou Tresor d'ou Felibrige,' published 
1879-86. In this dictionary various deriva- 
tions of the word Felibre, which has been a 
puzzle to many etymologists, are given. 
Space will not allow me to give all the deriva- 
tions in full. One derivation is said to be from 
felibris orfelebris, a word found in Solinus and 
Isidore de Seville, which Ducange interprets 
as meaning " nourishment," the poets being 
from all time the " nurses of the Muses." 
Again, Felibre is derived from <tA.eo-<aAos, a 
word found in the Hebrew grammar of 
Chevalier, 1561, a name used in very early 
time to designate " doctors of law " in the 
Jewish synagogues. Another derivation is 
from ^Aao-pos, "ami du beau." Felibre is 
also said to be derived from the Irish Celtic 
Jilia, poet, bard. A derivation is also given 
from the German word Filibert, the meaning 
not being supplied. The Felibrige Latin have 
their grand annual meetings called Jeux 
Floraux, similar to the Eisteddvod of Wales, 
at which prizes are awarded to the Felibres' 
compositions. In 1892 a prize was offered to 
the poets of Brittany for the best composition 
in Celtic, the subject being the "Discovery of 
America by Christopher Columbus." At my 
solicitation the privilege was allowed to the 
poets and bards of Wales, the following 
being the courteous reply of the Felibrige 
Latin : 

Felibrige Latin, Montpellier, 25 Avril, 1892. 
vous nousavez f ournis ont vivement interess6 le comite 
du Felibrige Latin. II a done ete d6cid6 par lui : 
(1) Sur le sujet de 'Christoph Colomb' les idiomes. 
du pays de Galles seront admis avec reconnaissance^ 
au meme titre que ceux de Bretagne. (2) Nous 
vous prions de vouloir bien donner & notre concours- 
aussi augment^ une certaine publicity dans le pays 
de Galles s'il y a des journaux ou les moyens quel- 
conques d'expansion. Dans tons les cas nous comp- 
tons sur votre concours et sommes heureux de vous. 
transmettre nos meilleurs sentiments. 

It was a generous favour of the Feli- 
brige Latin towards the Welsh bards which 
should not be forgotten. Although publicity 
was given througn the Border Counties Adver- 
tiser, Y Dydd, and in other ways, and 
although the time for sending in the Welsh 
compositions was extended to 1 December, 
there was no response, probably the time 
being insufficient, and only compositions from 
Brittany were received for the Jeux Floraux 
held at Montpellier on 8 December, 1 892. It 
is well that the friendly feeling of the presi- 
dent and members of the Felibrige Latin 
towards the poets of Wales should be known,, 
nor can we forget our kindly reception at a 
seance of the Felibrige Latin at the Hotel de 
Ville, Montpellier, on 25 May, 1892. 


WOLLASTON ARMS (9 th S. ii. 429). In the- 
' Genealogical Memoirs of the Wollastons of 
Shenton and Finborough,' by R. E. Chester 
Waters, which is a rather scarce book, only 
thirty-five copies having been printed for 
private circulation, there is an account of 
William Wollaston, the author of 'The 
Religion of Nature Revealed.' In it there is 
a passage which may interest MR. HUTTON 
if he does not already know of it : 

" Autobiographical sketches are as interesting for 
what they omit as for what they contain : and 
one of Wollaston's omissions is too curious to be 
left unnoticed. He makes no allusion whatever to 
the most romantic passage of his earlier life the 
death of his first love. Soon after his accession to 
fortune he was engaged to marry Alice Coburne, the 
only child of a rich brewer at Stratford-le-Bow, in 
whom (as it then seemed to him) every charm of 
womanly perfection was united. But she was 
attacked by the smallpox, and died on 9th May, 
1689, the very day which had been fixed for her 
wedding. Her disconsolate lover raised a monu- 
ment to her memory in Stratford Church, with an 
inscription which exhausts the pathos of learning 
and rhetoric in the ecstasy of his grief for the loss 
of ' the half of his soul.' But the surviving half 
was more quickly consoled than he cared after- 
wards to remember : for, at the end of six months, 
before the sculptor had finished engraving the story 
of his inconsolable grief, he married, on Nov. 26th, 
1689, Catherine Charlton, the co-heir of a London 
citizen. It is to be hoped that the mother of his. 


children was jealous of her predecessor in his affec 
tions, for one would rather attribute his silence tc 
consideration for the living than to forgetfulness o: 
the dead." 

In a manuscript note by the former owner 
of my copy it is stated that Catherine 
Wollaston died 21 July, 1720, aged fifty. 

Papworth's ' Ordinary ' gives the arms o: 
Charlton, London, as Az., on a chevron or 
between three swans arg., as many cinque- 
foils gu. And he gives the Wollaston arms, 
Arg., three mullets sa., pierced of the field, as 
quartering Charlton. 

A long epitaph, in somewhat curious Latin, 
to William Wollaston and his wife is on the 
.south wall of the chancel of Finborough 
Church in Suffolk. 

Cuddington Vicarage, Surrey. 

I have not got the portrait of the William 
Wollaston mentioned in the above query, and 
therefore cannot say ME. HUTTON is incor- 
rect ; but I find that the arms of the Charl- 
ton families of London, Sandacre, co. Derby, 
and Chilwell, Notts, are Gu., on a chevron 
or, between three swans arg., as many 
cinquefoils gu. Nicholas Charlton of Chil- 
well (d. 1650) had three sons, Thomas, 
Nicholas, and Michael. Thomas was the 
eldest, and his descendants still reside there 
and use the above arms. Nicholas (the 
second son), of London, had a daughter and 
heiress who married William Wollaston of 
Shenton. According to Sloan Evans's 'Gram- 
mar of British Heraldry,' 1847, p. 171 : 

" If the wife be an heiress or co-heiress (that is, 
become the representative of any branch of her 
family by the absence of male issue) her arms are 
not impaled with her husband's, but placed on a 
small shield, or 'escutcheon of pretence,' on the 
centre of her husband's shield." 
If the arms of the wife (in this case) are not 
duly differenced according to the usual prac- 
tice, they are, I think, incorrect, and have 
no right to be placed there. 


353, 396, 436, 494). At last I think that I have 
arrived at the method by which these clever 
and elaborate silhouettes were produced. It 
is quite obvious that a group representing, 
say, a donkey at full gallop being chased by 
children, or a stag in the back garden busily 
engaged in making a meal of the family wash 
-suspended from poles and ropes, could not 
have been cut, as likenesses were cut, direct 
trom the subject. On closely examining the 
numerous groups, which are all on one plane 
unmounted, and not, as suggested by MR. 
J. J3. MORRIS, separate figures afterwards 

stuck together, one is struck by the entire 
absence of outline marks made by pencil or' 
pointed tool. The cutting is clean at the 
edges, without marks or depressions. I think 
that the subjects were drawn in outline on a 
piece of white paper which was placed on a 
piece of black paper of corresponding size, 
the two being fixed together at the edges to 
prevent displacement while being cut out. 
The upper or white group, which would be 
more or less marked or indented at the edges, 
would be thrown away, and the lower, on 
black paper, would be retained as the 
finished picture. If more than one silhouette 
were required, the number of black pieces of 
paper would be increased, all being cut out 
at the same time. It is probable that the 
draughtsmanship of the collection referred to 
was due to Lady Ppulett, and the cutting 
out to M. A. G., or vice versa. 

MR. MORRIS refers to sheets of figures in 
black relieved with white lines indicating 
the shape of the limbs, dress, &c. These, 
however, of which I have examples, were not 
intended to be cut out in silhouette fashion. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

SIR THOMAS MUNRO, 1761-1827 (9 th S. ii. 
89). The recent publication of Mr. Alex- 
ander Mackenzie's 'History of the Munros' 
enables me to answer my own query regard- 
ing the lineage of this distinguished Governor 
of Madras. Sir Thomas was the sixth in 
descent from John Munro, burgess of Edin- 
burgh, who bought the estate of Culcraggie 
in Alness. This John was the third son of 
Andrew Munro I. of Kincraig, who was him- 
self the second son of Andrew Monro V. 
of Milntown. The latter's ancestor, John 
Monro I. of Milntown and Tutor of Fowlis 
(who in 1454 defeated the Mackintoshes at 
the sanguinary encounter of Clachnaharry, 
where he lost an arm), was the son of Hugh 
Munro, ninth Baron of Fowlis and head of 
the clan, by his second wife Margaret, grand- 
daughter of Kenneth, fourth Earl of Suther- 
land. The Milntown branch spelt their 
name Monro, but some of the families de- 
scended from them have reverted to the 
original form, viz., Munro. 

From the Milntown branch (senior cadet 
of the house of Fowlis) the following families 
of Munros (in addition to that of Culcraggie) 
trace their descent: Kilmorack, Allan, Cul- 
naha, Tarlogie, Pitlundie and Bearcrofts, 
Auchenbowie, Craiglockhart and Cockburn, 
^dmondsham (Dorset), Fearn, Ingsdon, Pit- 
tonachy, Novar, Khives, Findon, Braemore, 
and Poyntzfield. A. K. BAYLEY. 

St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

AN. 14, '99.] 




- -In a copy of 'The Comic Album, or Reciter's 
( 'ompanion ' (undated), London, Orlando 
] Eodgson, 10, Cloth Fair, I note the recitation 

* The Chestnut Horse,' beginning " An Eton 
f tripling," &c. Unfortunately no name is 
j;iven ; but the jest appears to be ancient. In 
ii. compilation by William Tegg, F.K.H.S., 
entitled 'One Hour's Reading' (Lond., 1877), 
on pp. 237-8, under heading 'What's the 
Difference between a Horse-chestnut and a 
Chestnut Horse ? ' is the following explana- 
tion : 

"In the reign of Queen Anne lived two gentle- 
men, both members in the same Parliament ; the 
one was called Montague Matthieu, the other Mat- 
thew Montague ; the Former a tall, handsome man, 
the latter a deformed, ugly one. On one occasion 
in the House an honourable member inadvertently 
attributed something that had been said by Mr. Mat- 
thew Montague to Mr. Montague Matthieu : upon 
which the latter got up and appealed to the Speaker 
and the House in the following manner : ' Sir, an 
honourable member has charged me with haying said 
that which I never gave utterance to, but which came 
from Mr. Matthew Montague. Now, Sir, I must 
appeal to you and this honourable House whether 
there is not as much difference between Mr. Mat- 
thew Montague and Mr. Montague Matthieu as 
there is between a horse-chestnut and a chestnut 
horse?" 5 

The narrator further adds that the House 
was convulsed with laughter, and gives the 
foregoing as the origin of the whimsical 
question. E. WILSON DOBBS. 

Toorak, Victoria, Australia. 

COUNTS OF HOLLAND (9 th S. ii. 468). Ac- 
cording to Betham's 'Genealogical Tables' 
(London, 1795), Table 566, John, Count of 
Hainault, who died in 1304, was a nephew of 
William II., Count of Holland and Emperor 
of the Romans. The said John appears to 
have been the son of Adelheid, sister of 
William II., by her marriage with John of 
Avesnes, Count of Holland. The said Wil- 
liam II. and Adelheid were two of the five 
children of Florence IV., Count of Holland, 
by his marriage with Mechtild, daughter of 
Henry IV., Duke of Brabant. John, Count 
-of Hainault, married Philippa, daughter of 
Henry I., Count of Luxemburg. 


St. Austin's, Warrington. 

Florence IV., Count of Holland, ob. 1235, 
married Mechtild, daughter of Henry IV., 
Duke of Brabant, and had issue three sons 
William II., Count of Holland and Emperor of 
Germany. Richardis, and Florence ; and two 
daughters Margaret, wife of Herman II., 
ount of Henneberg, and Adelheid. Wil- 
liam II., ob. 1256, the eldest son, married 

Elizabeth, daughter of Otto Puer, Duke of 
Brunswick Luneburgh, and had one son, 
Florence V., Count of Holland, ob. 1296, who 
married first Beatrix, daughter of Guido, 
Count of Flanders, and had a son John I., 
Count of Holland, ob. 1299, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward I., King of 
England, and left no issue. Florence V. by 
his second wife, Isabel of Achaia, had Mech- 
tild, wife of Louis of Burgundy, Prince of 
Achaia. The countship devolved upon a 
descendant of the afore-mentioned Adelheid 
(daughter of William IV., Count of Holland), 
who married John of Avesnes, Count of 
Hainault, whose son John II., ob. 1304, 
became Count of Hainault, Holland, Zeeland, 
and West Friesland. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

MR. DALLAS will find particulars of the 
succession of William II., Count of Holland 
and Deutscher Konig, in H. Grote's ' Stamm- 
tafel.' His son Florence V. succeeded in 1256, 
ruling until 1296, and was followed by his 
son John I., 1296-99. There being no nearer 
heirs, John, Count of Hainault, a son of 
Adelaide, own sister to William II., suc- 
ceeded in 1299, and ruled until 1304. Meyer 
in his ' Conversations-Lexicon ' of 1864 gives 
full details. W. S. CHURCHILL. 


William II. of Holland, King of the 
Romans, was succeeded by his son Floris V., 
and grandson John I. ; his sister (i. e., of 
William II.) Alix, who married John 
d'Avesnes, Count of Hainault, had a son 
John, also Count of Hainault, who on the 
death of John I. became Count of Holland, 
Zeeland, &c., as John II. Thus the latter 
was nephew of William II. PUTEANUS. 

RENTS (9 th S. ii. 507). If the exploded dictum 
that " omission is prohibition " held good, the 
only legal ringing would be of one bell for 
daily service. Theoretically it seems incon- 
sistent that church bells should be rung for 
anything besides church services. But as a 
matter of fact they may be, and have been, 
rung for many other things connected with 
the church and the parish. In Worcester- 
shire it is still usual to ring one of the bells 
at the time of a vestry meeting, and until 
the coming in of parish councils the meeting 
might be for business wholly secular. In 
many parishes the clerk from time im- 
memorial received a payment for ringing the 
harvest bell. There was also the curfew bell. 
Church dues and rents were commonly fixed 
to be paid in the church porch or at some 
well-known place (e.g., a tomb) in the church 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. ni. JAN. u, 

itself. Where these rents are numerous and 
payable at a given date the ringing of a bell 
eems reasonable. W. C. B. 

PATRONYMICS (9 th S. ii. 445)." The Irish 
need not detain us long," says ME. PLATT in 
his light-hearted descent upon rather a 
weighty subject. It is quite true that need 
not detain us long in relation to pure patro- 
nymics ; but MR. PLATT'S dismissal of it is 
liable to misconstruction, as if it were, as 
many people suppose it to be, an abbreviation 
of the English "of," indicating " son of." Of 
course it is nothing of the sort ; but it may be 
useful to remind general readers that names 
like O'Donnel, O'Neil, and O'Connell are 
not, strictly speaking, patronymics like Mac- 
donald, Macneil, and McConnel. The prefix 
indicates the Irish ua, the family or sept. 
Innumerable passages from Irish writings 
might be quoted to show the distinction 
between ua and mac. Here are two taken at 
random from the Four Masters. 

Anno 1588 : 

"Ro dail ua Domhnaill Aodh mac Maghnusa i 
ccomhdhail an iarla." 

" Hugh O'Donnell, the son of Manus (Mac Manus), 
came to join the earl." 

Here Mac Manus is a true patronymic, but 
O'Donnell is the name of the sept or clan. 
Anno 1551 : 

" Murchadh mac Toirrdhealbhaigh, mic Taidhcc, 
mic Toirrdhealbhaigh ui Briain, iarla Tuadmuman 
a hucht Gall agxis an righ, o Briain e do ghnath 

"Murrough, the son of Turlough, the son of 
Tigue, the son of Turlough O'Brien, (called) Earl of 
Thomond by the English and the King, but (called) 
O'Brien after the manner of the Gael. 

The tribal ua seems never to have become 
general in Celtic Scotland, although in Gal- 
loway, the part of Scotland nearest to Ireland, 
it used to be represented in certain surnames 
by the prefix A. Thus Hannay, the name of 
one of the few remaining Celtic landowners 
in Galloway, used to be written Ahanna ; and 
the Adairs, who ceased to be landowners 
within the present century, but have left 
their name common in the district, owned a 
cognomen which is written Ua Daighre in 
the Four Masters. HERBERT MAXWELL. 

FOR NESTS (9 th S. ii. 409). Has care been 
taken to ascertain that these are not in any 
instance the putlog holes of the masons? 
Such may often be seen of similar size. 


Though, apparently, too small for pigeons, 
these recesses, considered as architectural 
openings, seem to be identical with the so- 

called columbaria, which in French are known 
as trous de boulin, in German as Rustlocher^. 
and in English architectural language as 
putlog holes, viz., quadrilateral openings 
within the walls of a building, in which the 
putlogs of the scaffold were placed, and which 
are often omitted to be closed. X. 

"LYNX-EYED" (7 th S. xi. 7, 210, 251, 438 ; xii. 
94). Hector Boece says it has passed into a 
proverb that kings' eyes are keener than 
those of the lynx : 

" Verum enim est quod fertur proverbium regum 
oculos vel lynceis acutiores esse omnesque Midse- 
aures circumferre." 'Scotorum Historise' (ed. 1574),, 
lib. xii. fo. 252, verso. 

Possibly when we are at it we might verify 
Hectors citation. GEO. NEILSON. 

SHIRE (9 th S. ii. 367, 492). The idea of money 
represented by "pots of gold" is, I should 
expect, an "old ditty" in most counties. At 
all events, I have met with not a few of the 
old folks here and there who saved in pots,, 
jars, old teapots, " chimbley ornements," and 
other likely handy places about the house. 
One old widow lady I knew, whose husband 
had left her " wi' a bit o' brass," and a regular 
"fortin" (= income) yearly, used to put her 
spending money in one pot on the chimney- 
piece, and her savings in another. The ex- 
pression on the death of a man of some means 
was often "Key's left a pot o' money," or 
" Hey 's saved pots full." Folks often spoke 
of people lending " pots o' money," or losing 
" pots o' money," as the case might be ; all 
this tending to show that in the days of the 
forefathers (mothers too) of some of us saving, 
money in pots was an extremely common 
matter. I also know of cases where persons, 
having saved a "pot o' money," started a 
business with it. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


S. ii. 488). There is, I think, a superstition 
connected with the really odd sort of practice 
mentioned by MR. HEMS. It is that when 
persons are illiterate they do not know how 
to spell. C. 

" MAILLS " (9^8. ii. 469). This is a Scotch 
law term denoting the rents of an estate, 
whether in money or in grain. Hence an 
action for the rents, or for an assignation of 
them, is called an action of M. and D. (Duties) 
(' Oracle Encyclopaedia '). Annandale, in his 
' Dictionary,' explains that " Maille " is a piece 
of money, a term given to several coins of 
different denominations, and that "Maile- 
noble" was the half-noble of the reign of 


s. m. JA*. 



Edward III., a gold coin of the value of forty 
pence sterling. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 
71, Brecknock Road. 

In Jamieson's 'Etymological Diet, of the 
Scottish Language' 'Burrow Mailles" (sic) 
are defined as "duties payable within a 
burgh. Acts James I., 1424, c. 8." A refer- 
ence to the Acts, if possible, will perhaps 
explain the nature and origin of the tribute. 

Llanrwst, North Wales. 

SALISBURY (9 th S. ii. 468, 516). The 'Anti- 
quarian Kepertory,' 1784, vol. iv. p. 169, con- 
tains an excellent portrait of the above-men- 
tioned countess, engraved from the original 
picture in the possession of the Earl of 
Huntingdon. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

Her portrait is in the collection of Lord 
Donington. It was engraved for the illus- 
trated edition of Green's ' History.' 


A CHURCH TRADITION (9 th S. i. 428 ; ii. 58, 
150, 173, 256, 296, 393 474). It seems from 
plates in Planat's 'Encyclopedic' that the 
southern steeple is the taller in St. Remi at 
Rheims, a very early example, partly round- 
arched, and at St. Pol de Leon, in Brittany. 
These are plainly intentional differences, and 
not exceeding two feet, as at Seez. " Seventy 
feet high " must be a misprint, I think, for 
seventy metres. Like all non-Frenchmen, I fail 
to appreciate the beauty of this irregularity. 
At Canterbury the towers are only distin- 
guished by the new one having the putlog 
holes filled up, which in the old were left 
open. E. L. GARBETT. 

BIGGLESWADE (9 th S. ii. 427). According to 
analogy, the s in Biggleswade is the sign of 
the genitive, belonging not to the second, 
but to the first element of the name. This 
also gives better sense, the wade being the 
Northern wath (A.-S. wat\ a " shallow wading 
place." At Biggleswade this was a ford over 
the Ivel, now replaced by a stone bridge. It 
is preceded by a proper name in the genitive, 
as in the case of Ravenswarth, anciently 
Ravenswath (9 th S. ii. 96). Northill and South- 
hill are villages north and south not of the 
river, but of each other. The Domesday 
forms Nortgiyele and Sudgivele prove that ill 
is a contraction of Ivel or Givele, just as the 
II in Ilchester is derived from the name of 
the Ivel in Somerset. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

"To SAVE ONE'S BACON" (9 th S. ii. 407). I 
can remember, many years ago, seeing at 
Belvoir Castle a picture by Teniers called 

' Dutch Proverbs,' the meaning of which the 
housekeeper used to explain. It represented 
" the pig running away from the nouse on 
fire, in order to save his bacon." Another 
picture represented a man with a glass 
globe on his forefinger, saying, " It 's an easy 
world for a rich man to carry before him," 
whilst the poor man, breaking the glass globe, 
says, " It 's a hard world to struggle through." 
I am rather inclined to think that this and 
many other fine pictures were either destroyed 
or much injured by a fire which took place 
at Belvoir Castle some years ago. Charles 
Lamb, it is well known, tells the story of the 
origin of roast pig from the house taking fire. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


ii. 407). In his review of Tytler's ' History of 
Scotland '(' Miscellaneous Works,' v. p. 161,. 
ed. 1881), Sir Walter Scott writes : 

" David founded many religious houses, the en- 
dowments of which were afterwards much grudged 
by his successors, one of whom termed nim, in 
allusion to his canonization, ' a sore saint to the 
crown.' " 

Annotating the couplet in 'Lay of the Last 
Minstrel,' ii. 1, 

Then go but go alone the while 
Then view St. David's ruin'd pile, 

Scott speaks of the description as " the well- 
known observation of his successor." In 
'Tales of a Grandfather,' chap, iv., he says 

" one of his successors, James I., who esteemed 
his liberality to the church rather excessive, said, 
' St. David had proved a sore saint for the crown.' " 

This is in keeping with the following state- 
ment in Hollinshead's ' Chronicle,' p. 366 : 

" Therefore King James the 1st, when he came 
to King David his sepulture at Dunfirmling, he said 
that he was a sore Saint for the crown, meaning 
that he left the church over-rich, and the crown too 
poore. For he tooke from the crown (as John 
Major writeth in his ' Chronicles ') 60,000 pounds 
Scotish of yearlie revenues, wherewith he indowed 
those abbeies." 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

The first reference to this saying of King 
James I. of Scotland occurs in Major, 'De 
Gestis Scotorum,' 1. iii. c. 11 : 

" Jacobus Primus, cum ad ejus sepulturam deve- 
nisset, dixisse fertur, maneas illic, Rex pientissime, 
sed reipublicse Scoticee et regibus inutilis : Volens 
dicere, quod nimus de proventibus regiis diminuebat 
pro opulentissimis coenobiis extruendis." 

Bellenden in his translation of Hector 
Boethius, book xii. fo. 85, referring to King 
David, says : 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. m. JAN. u, m 

"Thairfore y l wise prince King James y e first, 
quhen he com to Dauidis sepulture at Dunferme- 
lyng, said, he was ane soir sanct for the crown, as he 
wald mene y fc Kyng Dauid left ye kirk ouir riche, 
and ye crown ouir pure." 

A. G. KEID. 

JEW'S HARP (8 th S. xii. 322, 410, 495). In 
"The rates of the custome house bothe 

inwarde and outwarde 1545," I find a 

duty noted thus : " lues trounks the grose, 
ins. iiiid." Can these have been Jew's harps ? 

70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

PILLAR DOLLAR (9 th S. ii. 347, 435). This 
interesting series of Spanish dollars was 
issued first at Mexico in 1732, and in 1772 
was given up in favour of a new design 
bearing the head of the sovereign. During 
this period the issues of the pillar dollar 
from the Mexican mint were upwards of ten 
millions annually. The world's use of them 
since 1772 has almost got rid of them, so 
that specimens left in brilliant condition 
would sell for six or seven shillings each. 
Those with date of 1760, and bearing still the 
name of Ferdinand VI, (who died August, 
1759), are scarce, and in America would com- 
mand a higher price. W. S. C. 
. Manchester. 

SHELDON : WRIGHT (9 th S. ii. 468). Consult 
the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' Hi. 23, for the medals 
of Ralph Sheldon, who died in June, 1684. 

W. C. B. 

PAUL JONES (9 th S. ii. 306, 353, 495). Is 
there good authority for the story that Jones 
shot his first lieutenant, Grubb, for striking 
the flag ? I have not read Preble's ' Life of 
Jones,' but only a short biography of fifty or 
sixty pages, and also four accounts of the 
battle ; but in none is there mention of Jones 
shooting any one for striking, though of 
course he was perfectly capable of doing it. 
The first lieutenant of the Bon Homme 
Richard was named Dale, and he lived many 
years after the battle. The story is told 
in Dumas 's novel called 'Paul Jones'; 
but was not the fact furnished by Dumas's 
imagination 1 ? It is true that some of 
Jones's men were so cowed by the fire of 
the Serapis that they called for quarter. 
Capt. Pierson hailed to know if they 
had struck, when Jones is said to have 
.answered, "I have not yet begun to fight." 
The reckless hardihood of the speech is cha- 
racteristic of the notorious adventurer. 

M. N. G. 

ENGLISH TRANSLATION (9 th S. ii. 227, 292). 
'Les Sciences Occultes' of Salverte was 

translated with notes by A. T. Thomson, and 
published under the title ' The Philosophy of 
Magic,' in 2 vols. 8vo., in 1846. I do not 
know the date of the first French edition, 
but the second, which I have, was published 
in 1843. E. E. STREET. 

CECIL (9 th S. ii. 168, 238, 275, 512). Any 
connexion of the Cecils with the Cecilian 
gens of Rome must be given up as mythical 
and impossible. The pedigree at Hatfield 
traces the name to Richard Sitsilt, who pos- 
sessed estates in Monmouthshire and Here- 
fordshire. Sitsilt was an ancient Welsh 
family, and the name is doubtless Welsh, not 
impossibly derived from the female baptismal 
name Cecilia. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

NAME (9 th S. i. 446 ; ii. 51, 217, 276, 535). 
My grandfather, Rev. Isaac Taylor, of Ongar, 
had three sons named Isaac : my father, born 
1787, died 1865, and two others who died in 
infancy. HENRY TAYLOR. 

Birklands, Southport. 

EVELYN'S ' DIARY ' (9 th S. ii. 428, 510). No 
doubt Evelyn had in mind the account given 
in William Harrison's 'Description of Eng- 
land' (1587 edition, book ii. en. xi.) of the 
beheading engine used at Halifax, which was 
manifestly a precursor of the guillotine. 


The " a guillotine " is a marginal note in 
the four- volume edition of 1872. But "in 
Rome " is in the text. 



MARY BOWLES (9 th S. ii. 348, 413). No 
doubt related to Bowles the engraver, who 
was brother to the ancestor of the Bowleses of 
North Aston, being descended from Ralph 
Bowles of Abingdon. They were originally 
descended from the Lincolnshire Bowleses. 
Only one brother married, namely, the 
ancestor of the Bowleses of North Aston, co. 

JACOBITES (9 th S. ii. 508). In Pearson's 
Magazine for February, 1898, R. L. B. will 
find a complete answer to his question. 


GILBERT GLOSSIN (9 th S. ii. 465, 500, 527). 
In response to MR. RANDALL'S appeal to me 
at the last reference, I can only say that 
"Guilbert" is certainly an error, and that 
the usual form " Gilbert " is correct. There 
is no authority, so far as I am aware, for 
writing Glossin's Christian name as "Guil- 
bert." ' The Waverley Dictionary ' is not to 




ye depended on in the matter of spelling Sir 
Walter's proper names, whether Christian or 
mrnames, because, full and accurate as it is 
in other respects, it is marvellously inaccurate 
t n this, and especially so in * Guy Mannering.' 
May I refer our Editor, C. C. B., and MR. 
RANDALL to what I said on this subject in 
7 th S. vi. 462, 8.v. 'Dogs mentioned by Sir 
Walter Scott'? It is so strange that the 
matter of ' The Waverley Dictionary ' should 
be so accurate and that there should at the 
same time be so many misspellings of names, 
both in the body of the work and in the 
index, that I can only suppose that the com- 
piler, owing to some untoward circumstance, 
was unable to revise her proofs. Under the 
head of ' Guy Mannering ' we have, in addi- 
tion to Guilbert Glossin, Vanbest Brown, 
Jock o' Dawson, Paulus Plydell (a scarcely 
recognizable surname), Sir Robert and Charles 
Hazzlewood, Meg Merriles, Mortlock (for 
Mortcloke), Peter Proctocol. All of these 
errors, except Meg Merriles, are repeated 
in the index. 

The name Gilbert occurs apparently five 
times in the Waverley novels. Scott always 
spells it Gilbert, but in ' The Waverley Dic- 
tionary' it is sometimes Gilbert, sometimes 
Guilbert. The Templar's name in ' Ivanhoe ' 
is Bois - Guilbert, of course. Then Caleb 
Balderston appears as Balderson ; Caxon as 
Caxton ; Maulstatute as Maulstatue, thereby 
spoiling the point of the joke ; Orson Pinnit 
as Oscar Pinnit ; Nick Strumpfer as Stump- 
fer; Frank Tunstall as Turnstall ; and in 
one instance, though I think only one, my 
own not very lovely Christian name is spelled 
Johnathan. There are errors other than these, 
but ohe ! jam satis. Notwithstanding these 
nomenclatory slips, 'The Waverley Diction- 
ary ' is decidedly useful to readers of Scott ; 
and one can only regret that a work care- 
fully compiled, and evidently a labour of 
love, should be disfigured by so many errors 
or misprints in names. 

My edition of ' The Waverley Dictionary ' 
is dated 1879. Is there one later than this 1 ? 
Ropley, Hampshire. 

"TRYST" (8 th S. xi. 127, 189 ; 9 th S. ii. 532). 
At the last reference the question is raised 
as to the etymology of tryst. In my ' Etymo- 
logical Dictionary ' I connect it with trust ; 
but this is not my latest note, in the note 
to 'Troilus,' ii. 1534, I refer it to tristre in 
Stratmann. Now the form tristre is obviously 
French ; and Godef roy has it under ' Tristre,' 
with a variant triste, as meaning a place of 
ambush. But three out of four of his examples 
are from Anglo-French, so that the word is 

probably Norman. But, if Norman, it may 
surely be of Norse origin. Hence it is possible 
that the A.-F. tristre or triste may be from 
the Icel. treysta after all. Can any one give 
us further information ? See Ducange, s.v. 
'Trista.' W T ALTER W. SKEAT. 

BOOKS ON GAMING (7 th S. vii. 461, 481 ; viii. 
3, 42, 83, 144, 201, 262, 343, 404, 482 ; ix. 24, 
142 ; xi. 337, 375 ; 9 th S. ii. 436, 468). In reply to 
MR. McTEAR's courteous challenge, I shall be 
happy to look up my neglected notes on this 
subject, and, with the permission of our 
worthy Editor, will offer them to the readers 
of ' N. & Q.' To say truth, I feared that they 
had rather bored the readers above named 
in former days ; and I was not encouraged 
by the single appeal which I then received 
(7 th S. xi. 337) to continue them at that time, 
though, as I must admit, the name of the 
respected correspondent who made that 
appeal should have inspired me with more 
confidence ; and I did make a promise, which 
I have as yet omitted to fulfil. It is, how- 
ever, still not too late to mend, and I shall 
be happy to do my best to repair my fault. 

As regards the second edition of Hoyle, 
of which MR. McTEAR has a copy, I 
believe that I only said / knew of but one 
copy of that rare issue, and not that there 
existed but one. The latter would have been 
far too rash an assertion, for there may be 
others extant, though they are doubtless 
very few. As to priority of issue, I think 
there is no means of deciding whether his 
claim is justified or not. But the question 
is interesting without doubt. I now have a 
copy similar to his. JULIAN MARSHALL. 

An edition of 'Annals of Gaming' was 
published in 1773, and was " to be continued 
annually." The second edition bears no date. 
In 1820 'Annals of Gaming ' was incorporated 
with the ' Gaming Calendar.' A full descrip- 
tion of the book will be found in ' N. & Q.,' 
7 th S. vii. 462, 481. 

When will MR. JULIAN MARSHALL favour 
the readers of ' N. & Q.' with the remainder 
of his interesting notes on 'Gaming,' pro- 
mised in May, 1891, which the Editor said 
would be welcomed ? 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Perhaps the following may be the book 
J. S. M. T. is inquiring about : " Annals of 
Gaming ; or, the Fair Player's Sure Guide ;. 
containing Original Treatises on Whist, 
Hazard, Tennis, Lansquenet, Picquet, Bil- 
liards, Loo, Quadrille,Lottery, Back-Gammon 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9*s.m. jA*.i4,m 

<fec. By a Connoisseur. London, Allen, 1775. 
12mo." Of "Connoisseur" I can find no 
information. JOHN KADCLIFFE. 

SHAKSPEARE AND THE SEA (9 th S. i. 504; ii. 
113, 189, 455). Thanks to the Concordance 
for I do not pretend to have remembered it 
myself I am able to refer MR. YARDLEY to 
one instance in which seaweeds are mentioned 
by Shakspeare : 

As weeds before 

A vessel under sail, so men obeyed 
And fell below his stem. 

'Coriolanus,'!!. ii. 109. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

MRS. WOODHAM (9 th S. ii. 508). The follow- 
ing particulars respecting the death of this 
unfortunate actress are given in 'Londina 
Jllustrata,' by Robert Wilkinson, 1815, under 
the heading of 'Astley's Amphitheatre, West- 
minster Road ': 

" September 2, 1803, about half -past two in the 
morning, the theatre with nearly forty houses were 
consumed by fire ; everything was lost except the 
horses. But the most distressing circumstance was 
the loss of Mrs. Woodham, Mrs. Astley's mother. 
She was seen at the two pair of stairs window of 
the dwelling-house in front, and a ladder was 
raised to extricate her. She appeared to intimate 
she had forgot something ; which, it is conjectured, 
was the receipts of the two previous nights' per- 
formances (left in her care), and retreated for it, 
and almost immediately returned to the window ; 
but the very instant she appeared, the floor fell in, 
and she was lost. This lady was about sixty years 
of age, came out at Covent Garden Theatre, Jan. 17, 
1770, as Rosetta in ' Love in a Village,' in which she 
was very successful, and continued performing at 
that theatre two seasons. She was a pupil of Dr. 
Arne, and being uncommonly elegant in dress and 
person, was generally called Buck Spencer. Miss 
Spencer afterwards sung at Marylebone Gardens, 
then went to Ireland, and was a great favourite 
there for many years. She married a Mr. Smith, 
and afterwards a Mr. Woodham." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"RUMMER" (8 th S. x. 452; xi. 270, 395; xii. 
17, 198). The following extract from a recent 
work, for private circulation only, on the 
Worshipful Company of Glass Sellers of 
London, compiled by Mr. William Ramsey, 
Past Master, appears to confirm the sugges- 
tion I made with regard to the derivation of 
this word : 

" Rummers, as special glasses, were in use at 
least as early as Addison's time, because in May, 
1703, he wrote to Mr. Wyche at Hamburg, protest- 
ing that he had a desperate design in his head to 
have attacked him in verse, but could not find a 
rhyme to ' rummer.' Rum was then, and long con- 
tinued to be, the foundation of punch, and its first 
consumption in its own glasses without the inter- 

mediary bowl was the inauguration of ' hot grog, 5 a 
solitary, sullen, and dismal drink, as distinguished 
from gregarious punch in the social bowl, but 
almost the same thing, though with fewer ingredi- 
ents. The modern and rather tedious Scotch mode 
of operation with the tumbler, toddy ladle, and 
glass is nothing but a surviving version en petit of 
the punch bowl process. The oldest rummers 
proper now met with are of the last years of the 
eighteenth century ; they have a very ugly and 
massive character, and their shape can bear no 
relation to those of the time of Addison. The type 
has lingered almost to the present day, but was long 
ago nearly overwhelmed Dy other forms." 'The 
Worshipful Company of Glass Sellers,' 1878, 
p. 39. 

Canonbury Mansions, N. 

PORTRAIT RINGS (9 th S. ii. 346, 372). Much 
information on this subject will be found in 
' Finger-ring Lore,' by Wm. Jones, 1877. A 
number of specimens to be seen in South 
Kensington Museum are given at pp. 496-7. 

PRIVATE GATES IN LONDON (9 th S. ii. 308). 
To name the gates, bars, posts, &c., removed 
by order of the County Council would occupy 
much space in the columns of 'N. & Q.' 
Sixty-seven are described in the Standard of 
19 November, 1892, and six in the same paper 
of 20 November, 1897. 

Gates and posts still exist in this neigh- 
bourhood at the north end of Huddleston 
Road, to which I directed the attention of 
the County Council in November, 1892, and 
in July, 1897. In the following November I 
was informed that " the Council had decided 
not to take any steps for the removal of the 
obstruction," and referred me to the vestry 
of Islington. Can any explanation be given? 

71, Brecknock Road. 

327, 411). My best thanks are due to the 
correspondents who have kindly answered 
my query on this subject, both in * N. <fe Q.' 
and privately. I am much obliged to them 
for clearing up the matter so far as they have 
done. I now only beg for a few details of the 
history of the " club of that title which was 
started in London a few years ago, but is now 
defunct." I shall be grateful to any corre- 
spondent who will tell me where and when 
that club was started, and when it ceased to 

CEDAR TREES (9 th S. ii. 187, 214, 290, 333). 
John Evelyn states that he had frequently 
raised the cedar from its seeds, and " why 
then it should not thrive in Old England, I 
conceive is from our want of industry" 

* s. in. JAN. 



('Sylva,' second edition, 1670, p. 120). The 
tree appears to have been introduced about 
1683 (' The Forester,' by Brown and Nisbet, 
vol. i. p. 393). V. L. O. 


FIELD-NAMES (9 th S. ii, 86, ]55, 352)." Bull 
Dole" = the bull's allotment of pasture, 
where he fed away from the cows. "In- 
tacks " = the in-takes, the field taken in 
and partitioned off from a larger area. 
" Callum-acre close " = the enclosure, an acre 
in extent, where culm, or peat, was dug. 
" Cocked Hat" and "Shoulder of Mutton" 
are names descriptive of the triangular shape ! 
of those fields. " Candle Rush Car " = the 
field where rushes were cut for burning as 

"CARNAGE is GOD'S DAUGHTER" (9 th S. ii. 
309, 398). The passage referred to reads thus 
in the six-volume edition of Wordsworth's 
'Poems' published in 1837 : 

But thy most awful instrument 
In working out a pure intent, 
Is Man arrayed for mutual slaughter, 
Yea, Carnage is thy daughter ! 
Thou cloth'st the wicked in their dazzling mail, 
And for thy righteous purpose they prevail. . 
' Ode, The Morning of the Day appointed for a j 
General Thanksgiving, Jan. 18, 1816,' xii. 

In the edition referred to (and presumably i 
when first published) this ode contained 
fourteen strophes, or sections, five of which 
(some of them considerably altered) appear 
in later editions under the title ' Ode, 1815.' 
The strophes thus taken, wholly or in part, j 
from the ode of the later to form that of the ! 
earlier date are the ninth, tenth, eleventh, I 
twelfth, and thirteenth. There are only a few ; 
lines I believe not more than three in the 
1815 ode which do not appear also in the 
original edition of the one written for Janu- 
ary, 1816, but I have not compared the two 
very closely, and do not speak positively on 
this point. When and why were these altera- 
tions made ? MR. HOUSDEN thinks the " Car- 
nage" passage was altered because of Byron's 
use of it ; but the eighth canto of 'Don Juan' 
was published in 1823, and the ode re- 
mained unaltered until after 1837, as we have 
seen. C. C. B. 

ST. CLAIRS (9 th S. ii. 465). Green has often been 
regarded as an unlucky colour, and, so far as 
my observation goes, it is not so common 
as the other tinctures in English heraldry, 
though, of course, many examples of it could 
be furnished. What the origin of this super- 
stition may be it would be rash of me to 
venture a guess. It was probably of old 

standing ere the Grahams or the St. Glairs 
are known to have adopted it. Sir Walter 
Scott says that it was reckoned in Caithness 
to be unlucky to wear green or cross the Ord 
on a Monday ('Border Minstrelsy,' ed. 1861, 
vol. iii. p. 395). 

The folk-lore of colours is an interesting 
subject, which we may hope will receive 
attention in due time. A few examples 
may now be given. A woman who was 
resuscitated after being hanged thought she 
had been "in a green meadow," and John 
Hayes, who went through the like ter- 
rible experience in 1782, said, " I thought 
I was in a beautiful green field " (' N. & Q.,' 
5 th S. i. 444). As to the figure of Death, we 
find that sometimes, at least, " his cloak was 
green" (Ballad Society, xxi. 27). A green 
waistcoat was worn by Yorkshire witches 
(' Depositions from York Castle/ Surtees Soc., 
114, 125). Even now a Yorkshire bride 
must not wear green at her wedding (Folk- 
lore, June, 1898, 126). Tim Bobbin ('Works,' 
1894, 332) tells us how in Lancashire 

At boggart well dress'd all in green. 

Scott says, in a note to 'The Lady of 
the Lake ' (book iii.), that " the Daoine 
Shi', or Men of Peace, wore green habits, [and 
that] they were supposed to take offence 
when any mortals ventured to assume their 
favourite colour." He further adds, after 
referring to the antipathy of the Ogilvies and 
Grahams to green, that there was a gentleman 
of the latter race who accounted for his horse 
having fallen when out fox-hunting by 
observing " that the whipcord attached to his 
lash was of the unlucky colour." I believe 
that throughout England the vesture of the 
fairies was green. 

What may be the position of green in the 
folk-lore of France I do not at present know, 
but Miss Louisa Stuart Costello has recorded 
a curious instance of its symbolic use. After 
the murder of Henry III. of France, she says, 

le put 

tpensier, the daughter ot the murdered 
Duke of Guise, distributed green scarf s to all, openly 
rejoicing in the event ; feux de joie were made also 
everywhere. The preacheis called Clement a 
martyr who died to deliver France from a Tyrant." 
'A Summer among the Bocages and the Vines,' 
ii. 132. 

A curious record of the use of green for 
political display is quoted in the Lincoln 
Herald of 29 July, 1831. I transcribe the 

"The Mexmger des Chambres states the occur- 
rence of a Carlist riot at Montpelier on the 15th 
instant, the name-day (St. Henry) of the Duke of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. JAN. u, m 

Bordeaux. High mass was celebrated with much 
ostentation, and a novena for the return of the 
enfant du miracle took place. A ball was an- 
nounced, to which nobody but those who wore 
green and white ribbons should be admitted, and 
the ball-room was to be decorated in these colours. 
The tri-colour was to be trampled under foot ; and 
some young people of the party paraded the streets 
in tri-coloured slippers. The authorities interfered, 
and the ball was prevented." 


(9 th S. ii. 529). The inquirer's tentative 
explanation of an obscure passage in K. Kip- 
ling is ingenious, but incorrect. The following 
extract is from the Allahabad Pioneer of 
3 Jan., 1882. The writer describes a carpet 
on view at the Lahore Exhibition of In- 
dustrial Art. The fabric was copied from a 
Central Asian original : 

"The copyists seem to have misunderstood the 
meaning of the wavy lines in the middle ground ; 
these wavy lines being a variation of what is known 
as the ' Tartar Cloud, a conventional representation 
of clouds in the sky. The Byzantine and other 
clouds are different." 

The inquirer should study the cloud-effects 
in Chinese and Persian landscapes, and Mr. 
Kipling should refrain from obscurities which 
necessitate a reference to ' X. & Q.' 



A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 

Edited by Dr. James A. H. Murray. Heel 

Hod. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
THIS double part of the 'Historical English Die 
tionary ' is one of the most interesting and attractive 
yet published. To the close student of the language 
the "numerous pronominal words derived from 
and connected with the pronoun he " will, we are 
told, specially commend it. We do not dispute 
the fact, but are ourselves most interested in the 
picturesque words and phrases with which the 
section abounds. Such words are represented by 
hey-day, hist, hoar, hobby-horse, hocus-2)ocus, hidalgo, 
and scores of others. As we turn over the pari 
we find every page make more or less direct appea" 
to us, and we mark with gratitude the forms oi 
speech to be generally avoided, as springing fron 
mental confusion on the part of their originators 
A specimen of such is the substitution of high 
day which, of course, has a meaning of its own for 
hey-day, of which in some senses it is a pervertec 
form. Misuse of the kind is sanctioned by Shakspeare 
Smollett, Fletcher, "Tom" Brown, Motteux (in 
his translation of Rabelais), and Merivale (in his 
' Roman Empire '). Hiccough, again, instead o 
hiccup, is a late spelling, due to the erroneou 
impression that the second syllable is cough. 1 
has not affected the received pronunciation, ant 
ought, we are told, to be abandoned as a men 
error. One is interested to find that hickory, " th<_ 
wild walnut or hiquery tree," should, in fact, b 

pohickory, and is first met with in 1653 in that form. 
An excellent article is that on hie, the most familiar 
sage of which in the present century is to hasten. 
oncerning the curious combination higgleay- 
nggledy little is to be learnt. It is described as " a 
iniing compound of obscure origin," and is said to 
e "mainly an example of vocal gesture, the odd 
onformation of the word answering to the thing 
[escribed. " Whether a reference is intended to 
he disorderly fashion in which pigs huddle together 
s not decided. Under high we have the collo- 
luialism "on the high ropes," no instance of the 
use of which is advanced before 1700. Weshouldhaye 
anticipated a more remote antiquity. Attention is. 
drawn in the introductory note to the combinations 
ligh- church and high -churchman. The sense of 
'alutin in high falutin is not clear. The word is not 
leard of before 1848, which does away with the 
onjecture, apt to press upon one, that falutin might 
>e due to a confusion between / and s in saluting. 
The high saluting of a herald is, at least, kindred 
with the high-falutin style. We will not venture 
to press a derivation of the sort in a work such 
as this. What is said concerning the origin of 
High-Street is of historical importance. HigMy- 
tighty is a variant of hoity-toity, which in the pre- 
sent part is not quite reached. Under hind and 
hinder much historical information is supplied. 
Going back a little in the alphabet, we find the word 
henmn, used to indicate the very picturesque head- 
dress, high and conical in shape, with a muslin veil 
attached to it, which was used in France in the 
fifteenth century. This is curious as an instance 
of survival in English of a word denoting a thing. 
French not to be found in Littre, What is in 
France the name of the headgear pretty and 
picturesque, if portentous we are unable to say. 
Questions of interest concerning the silent h are 
naturally abundant. Many words of four syllables- 
are given with the accent on the antepenultimate, 
before which an is substituted for a. In the case 
of heretical and hermetical no instance of the use of 
the word with the indefinite article is advanced. 
Dryden has " a heroical degree," which, of course, is 
wrong. In the case of historical it is other : " An 
historical Arthur " is used by J. S. Stuart-Glennie in. 
the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' and W. Bates speaks 

of "an historical knowledge." Under ' Hist !' we 
would have for our own satisfaction Juliet's " Hist ! 
Romeo, hist!" There are in the present part 
13,768 quotations against 2,021 in the 'Century 
Dictionary.' The whole of the letter H is, it is 
consoling to hear, now ready, and will be issued 
to the world by 1 July. We may urge upon our 
readers that the discussion of words such as hench- 
man, long prosecuted in pur columns, may be aban- 
doned, the latest decisions of exact knowledge 
being now substituted for wild and often futile 

Jerome Cardan : a Biographical Study. By W. G. 

Waters. (Lawrence & Bullen.) 
AMONG those who in autobiographies have sought 
to put themselves before the public in what pretend 
to be, or are, their true colours, Jerome Cardan 
or, to give him his real name, Girolamo Cardano is 
one of the most sincere and outspoken. While the 
revelations of Rousseau to take the most dis- 
tinguished of self - analysts are founded upon 
sentiment rather than conscientiousness, and con- 
cern others as much as himself, and while those of 
Casanova to take the most libertine partake 

^s.m.jAN.14,'99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


lore of braggadocio than of fact, Cardan, however 
nuch he may have been carried away by delusions 
cr perversities, is at least at no pains to hide 
us faults. The description he gives of himself 
n his horoscope in the 'Geniturarum Exempla' 
loes not err in the direction of reticence. In 
Copying this it is, perhaps, as well to keep the 
protection of a dead language, and quote the original 
Latin. Cardan describes himself we quote verbatim 
et literatim -as "nugacem, religionis cpntemptorem, 
injurite illatse memorem, invidum, tristem, insidia- 
torem, proditorem, magum, incantatorem, frequen- 
tibus calamitatibus pbnpxium, suorum osore, turpi 
libidini deditum, splitarium, inamcenum, austerum, 
sponte etiam divinantem, zelotypum, lascivum, 
obsccenum, maledicum, obsequiosum, senum con- 
versatione se delectantem, varium, ancipitem, im- 
puru, et dolis mulierum obnoxium, calumniatorem, 
et omnino incognitum propter naturse, et morum 
repugnantiam, etiam his cum quibus assidue versor." 
Malcolm, in ' Macbeth,' seems not more anxious 
than he to frame a monstrous self-arraignment. 
If a less portion of the public is familiar with these i 
utterances than with those of later and less con- 
scientious self -historians, it must be remembered 
that Cardan's works are in Latin, and have never, 
practically, so far as we are aware, been translated I 
into the vernacular ; that his adventures are curious j 
rather than sympathetic or interesting ; and that 
his habit of ascribing almost everything to sorcery 
and witchcraft, his faith in his own horoscopes 
which scarcely "deviate" into accuracy when 
written subsequently to the events with which they 
deal and his custom of regarding every common- 
place event as an omen or a portent, cast upon his 
book a strong suspicion of insincerity. 

The not too attractive life of Jerome Cardan has 
already been made the subject of a memoir by Prof. 
Henry Morley that stands deservedly high in public 
estimation. The fact that that work is out of print 
and inaccessible has prompted Mr. Waters to his 
new memoir. Prof. Morley s work, moreover, treats 
of the circle in the midst of which Cardan dwelt 
with an elaborateness that is scarcely called for in 
the case of so little-known a man. These things 
have emboldened Mr. Waters to give to the world 
a scholarly work, the materials of which are entirely 
drawn from Cardan's own writings, principally his 
' De Vita Propria,' his ' De Subtilitate,' and his 
' Geniturarum Exempla.' The book is an admirable 

Eiece of workmanship, and will serve to spread a 
nowledge of a Renaissance scholar more talked 
about than read, and not even much talked about. 
Of Cardan's visit to Scotland, and his treatment of 
Archbishop Hamilton, of St. Andrews, an animated 
account is given. Cardan's mendacious claim to 
have found a cure for consumption reads rather 
strangely in the face of recent alleged discoveries. 
In fact, so far as regards medical science Cardan 
accepted all the heresies of his epoch. It is difficult 
to resist the conviction that a patient's chance of 
recovery must have been seriously diminished when 
he called in the physician. The book, which is 
handsomely got up, contains a portrait of Cardan. 

The Mirror of Perfection : St. Francis of Assisi. By 
Brother Leo of Assisi. Translated by Sebastian 
Evans. (Nutt.) 

BY his admiration for the recently published work 
of M. Paul Sabatier upon the ' Legend of St. Francis 
of Assisi ' Dr. Evans has been induced to translate 
for English readers the 'Speculum Perfectionis, 

seu S. Francisci Assisiensi Legenda Antiquissima,' 
of Brother Leo, one of the pupils and early bio- 
graphers of the saint. A wider aim has been to 
transcribe in English " a document which appeals 
directly to the heart of humanity." Brother Leo 
was more than a disciple, companion, and friend of 
St. Francis ; he was, in the saint's later years, his 
sick-nurse, secretary, and confessor. His style is of 
a hempen simplicity, which the translator has done 
his best to retain. The ' Speculum Perfectionis,' 
as we gather, was unknown to scholars and theo- 
logians until now brought to light by M. Sabatier. 
We find, at least, no reference to it in any work, 
bibliographical or hagiographical, to which we have 
access. It is a record of the deeds and sayings of 
the saint, and may be held to supply the very 
quintessence of his teaching. Poverty, chastity, 
and obedience are, naturally, the three things 
taught. Money was with him " of no more account 
than the dung of an ass." " Coarseness and mean- 
ness " were to be observed in the case of outward 
garb, " otherwise, possibly, lukewarmness will so 
far prevail as that the sons of a father that was a 
beggar will not be ashamed even to wear scarlet 
cloth, with only a change of colour." The 
highest obedience, we learn, was, in the eyes of the 
saint, when, '" by divine inspiration, men do go 
among the infidels either for the profit of their 
neighbours or for the desire of martyrdom." Brother 
Leo claims for himself a share in the divine com- 
munications received by his master, and tells how 
the Lord Jesus Christ communicated to him directly 
His grief over the ingratitude and pride of the 
brethren. The booklet it is scarcely more is full 
of things naive, and also interesting and edifying to 
those willing to be interested or edified by such 
themes. In the introduction, which is to us the 
most attractive portion of the book, Dr. Evans 
deals with some of the controversies still 
waged concerning the founder of the Friars 
Minor. We notice that he gives as the day of 
his death the 3rd of October, 1226, and not the 
4th, as has been stated by assumed authorities. 
He holds that St. Francis has " a message for 
others besides the antiquary, the hagiologist, the 
historian, the preacher, the psychologist, and 
the man of letters. Brother Francis is all men's 
brother. The man is an Umbrian 'religious' of the 
thirteenth century. His message is to all men 
of all time." 

Index Bibliographiqiie. Par Pierre Dauze. (Paris, 

Repertoire des Ventes Publiques.) 
IN issuing the third volume of his ' Index Biblio- 
graphique' M. Pierre Dauze has greatly modified 
the shape. In so doing he has made it approximate 
much more nearly to our own ' Book-Prices Current.' 
In the previous volumes the arrangement under 
authors, or, in the case of anonymous works, the 
first important word of the title, was strictly alpha- 
betical. In the case of works of reference this is 
so much the best plan that no other is even to be 
discussed. In that of works such as the present it 
is open to more than one grave exception. The 
gravest consists in the fact that the whole of the 
matter must be in hand before the task of printing 
is begun. This means that the last sale of the 
season must be over before the compiler begins to 
make up. As the labour is huge, great delay in 
publication is inevitable. In the present case, 
accordingly, the volume only ends with September, 
1896, instead of with the same month, 1898. The 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. m. JAN. 14, m 

system now adopted, of arranging the books under 
sales, will greatly facilitate matters, and secure, when 
it is in perfect working order, that the whole shall 
be up to date. To aid in the task of reference, an 
alphabetical index is supplied, with cross-references 
to the numbers in the body of the book. To take 
an instance. No illustrated work is in much greater 
demand in France than the edition of the ' Contes 
of Lafontaine with the rubric Amsterdam, 1762 
(Paris, Barbou), known as the edition of the Farmers- 
General. This appears duly under Lafontaine, with 
references to various numbers. Turning to the first 
of these, 3822, in the sale of the Bibliotheque Justin, 
we finda copy described, in a bindingof Derome, with 
the price for which it was sold, namely, 1,200 fr., or 
48/. Quite simple is the process. The one thing 
in which we in England go in advance is that we 
supply also the name of the purchaser. It is easy 
to fancy that booksellers object to this information 
being given, as it may with very little trouble 
reveal to the bookbuyer the extent of profit that is 
demanded from him. The value of M. Dauze's 
' Index ' is recognized in Paris. English purchasers 
of French books will find it an invaluable guide to 
have by their side. 

King Solomon's Golden Ophir. By Dr. Carl Peters. 

(Leadenhall Press.) 

THIS work, which is translated from the German 
of Dr. Carl Peters by Mr. Frank Karuth, is a learned 
and convincing treatise upon a subject of undying 
interest. It is a fresh attempt to locate the mines 
whence Solomon drew the gold for the Temple. It 
needs more knowledge than we possess to decide as 
to the value of Dr. Peters's theory, which is to the 
effect that the part of Africa to which Solomon's 
gold fleet sailed is to be sought in " the primitive 
Sabseo-Judean gold country beyond Sofala." Many 
points, philological and other, are raised. Espe- 
cially do we commend to the attention of our 
readers the suggested explanation of Ophir as 
Africa. Whether the conclusions arrived at, in 
which the author is to some extent supported by 
Mauch and the late Theodore Bent, are acceptable, 
we will leave others to decide. We can, at least, 
speak of the book as eminently readable and pro- 
foundly interesting. Among its other claims on 
attention is the account of the ancient remains 
still to be traced. As Dr. Peters is on the point of 
leading an expedition to the spot indicated, it is 
likely that we shall hear further on the subject. 

A Cotswold Village. By J. Arthur Gibbs. (Murray.) 
MR. GIBBS has been a traveller, and has seen India, 
South Africa, and we know not how many countries 
more. His heart is, however, in the sweet valleys 
along the banks of the Colne which descend from 
the Cotswold hills. Of these he writes with spirit 
as well as affection, indulging the reader with bits 
of folk-lore and speech, describing country pursuits 
and sports. He is a great admirer, as well he may 
be, of Madden's 'Diary of Master William Slender,' 
his delight in which leads him to what seems almost 
servile imitation. He has, apparently, been an 
assiduous and miscellaneous reader, and quotes, or 
misquotes, with unfailing audacity. One s breath 
is taken away when one finds a portion of a well- 
known poem of Coleridge appear as 

The good knights are dust, 

Their helmets [!] rust, 

Their souls are with the saints, I trust. 

He is guilty also of such a combination as " The I 
Zingari." His volume is, however, prettily illus- 
trated, and inspires one with a longing to visit the 
scenes described. Not very satisfactory are always 
the pictures of rural life presented. It seems to be 
hopeless to attempt to protect the scarce birds 
which every bumpkin who can lay his hand on a 
gun persists in snooting. Some few political ex- 
periences are mixed with records of observation 
and sport. Our author is at his best in dealing 
with fishing. 

WE learn with gratification that Prof. Joseph 
Wright, M.A., Ph.D., the editor of the 'English 
Dialect Dictionary,' to which we have frequently 
drawn attention, has been conceded a pension, 
which, though inadequate to his services, as such 
must necessarily be, is at least honourable alike 
to himself and the granters. 

MB. WILLIAM ABBATT'S 'Crisis of the Revolution : 
being the Story of Arnold and Andre,' will be pro- 
fusely illustrated from original portraits by Mr. 
E. S. Bennett, and will be issued "under the 
auspices of the Empire State Society." 

MR. CHARLES WISE, the author of ' Rockingham 
Castle and the Watsons,' has nearly ready for the 
press the 'Compotus of Kettering for the Year 
1292,' transcribed from a fine roll of the manors 
belonging to the abbey of Burgh at that date found 
in the archives of Rockingham Castle. It will be 
issued with introduction, translation, and notes. 

gtotkes to 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately^ 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

B. DE B. ("Commencement of the Twentieth 
Century "). We are indisposed to open our columns- 
to the discussion of what experts regard as self- 

H. S. (" Very").-A dissyllable. 

J. P. McCLELAND (" The Nine of Diamonds "). 
This has been amply answered. See 'N. Q., ; 4 th 
S. vi. 194, 289 ; 5 th S. iv. 20, 97, 118 ; 8 th S. iii. 367, 
398, 416, 453; iv. 537; v. 11, 113; vi. 185; vii. 274. 

CORRIGENDUM. P. 19, col. 1, 1. 14, for " Presi- 
dent " read Principal. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9<" s. in. JAN. 21, m 




CONTENTS.-No. 56. 

: Dante, 41 Lee's 'Life of Shakespeare,' 42 
Stone," 43 Oxford, 44 The ' Roxburghe Kevels,' 45 
Truphesof Phylosophers' A Chronogram Robert Bur- 
ton " The policy of pin-pricks," 46 Parallel Passages 
" Ask no questions," &c. General Index to Fourth Series, 

QUERIES : De Feritate Wordsworth Edgeworth's 
Parents' Assistant,' 47 " Tres tois d'or" Bingham 
Armorial Device and Motto Godfrey Box Damage to 
Bridge" Dies creta notandus "The Sister Churches- 
Miss Sibley, 48" Pip in the webe" John Bright Fleet 
Prisoners Puzzle Jug Lo Spendore The Captive Stag 
Mrs. Yates, 49 ' Iconography of Don Quixote' 
" Flowerie " Simeon Slingsby Heraldic Authors 
Wanted, 50. 

REPLIES : " Helpmate." 50 Mergate Hall Prime Minis- 
ter' More Hints on Etiquette,' 52-Changes of Name- 
Book Terms Epitaphs " Hullabaloo " " Ceiling," 53 
Sweating-pits W. Prynn Walpole and his Editors, 54 
'The Book of Tephi' Middlesex Nonjurors The Curse 
of St. Withold Carkeet and Andrews Chaussey, 56 
" Interlunar cave" Cure for Consumption Names of the 
Cowslip Myrraecides, 57 Major John Andr< Picture by 
Murillo Theatre Tickets Architectural Niches Mael- 
strom Hebrew Numerals, 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Fox-Davies's ' Armorial Families ' 
Steuart's ' Diary of Thomas Brown ' Frere's ' The Use of 
Sarum ' Paravicini's ' Life of St. Edmund of Abingdon' 
Buckman-Linard's ' My Horse, my Love.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Antiquities to the Italian Government, has 
recently reprinted from La Rivista d? Italia. 
a new literary and artistic review published 
in RtDme, a very interesting contribution to 
the history of the study of Dante in America, 
entitled ' Studi Danteschi in America,' which 
deserves recognition in this country. 

Cav. Boni records with patriotic pride, he 
being himself a Venetian, that the first im- 
pulse towards the study of Italian literature 
in America was given by Lorenzo da Ponte, 
a native of the ancient city of Ceneda, in 
Venetian territory, between Cpnegliano and 
Cadore (the birthplace of Titian), who is 
chiefly known to fame as the author of the 
words of the operas of 'Don Giovanni ' anc 
the ' Marriage of Figaro,' and who, after an ad- 
venturous life in his own country, emigratec 
to London and afterwards to New York, 
whence he removed in 1811 to Sunbury, in 
Pennsylvania. In 1822 Da Ponte translated 
Byron's 'Prophecy of Dante' in terza rima 
and published in 1827 a small volume entitlec 
'Storia della Letteratura ' in New York, in 
which he relates the efforts he had made to 
increase the library of Columbia College 
where he had been appointed Professor o: 

talian Literature. So successful had been 
ds efforts that, to use his own words, " there 
were more than seven hundred volumes 
here on my arrival there was nothing 
>ut an old, ragged, and moth-eaten copy of 

Da Ponte wrote and lectured on Dante, and 
published the results of some of his researches 

the text of the poet, which appeared in the 
New York Review and Athenaeum Magazine 
:or 1825-0, from which Cav. Boni gives some 
extracts. Da Ponte also wrote his memoirs 
n three volumes, which were published in 
[talian in New York, and afterwards trans- 
ated into French and German. Copies of 
these memoirs in Italian and French are to 
be found in the British Museum, but it is 
stated, on the authority of Vittorio Mala- 
mani, that there is no complete copy of the 
work in any Italian library. Da Ponte died 
at New York in 1838, aged ninety, and was 
buried in a Catholic church there (but the 
precise church is not stated), without a stone 
to mark the spot, and Cav. Boni appeals to 
the Dante Society of the United States to 
provide a simple memorial to one who has 
aone so much to diffuse a knowledge of the 
Italian tongue in America. 

Prof. Th. W. Koch, in the Fifteenth Annual 
Report of the Dante Society of Cambridge 
(Mass.), published an elaborate study on 
Dante in America, and recalls that on Da 
Ponte's arrival in America the Italian language 
and literature were completely unknown. 
Ten years after that date George Ticknor 
found it difficult to procure a copy of 
Dante's works in Boston, and absolutely im- 
possible to find any one to assist him in 
reading them. George Ticknor did much to 
stimulate the study of Dante in New Eng- 
land, and inaugurated a course of lectures at 
Harvard on the * Divina Commedia ' and its 
author. The work thus commenced was 
continued by Longfellow, Lowell, and Nor- 
ton, and thanks to them the study of Dante 
has now become one of the most important 
branches of education in the university, 
at the present time ten of the principal 
colleges of America having lectures on the 

Another devoted student of Dante in 
America was Richard Henry Wilde, a native 
of Ireland, where he was born in 1789, who 
was instrumental, with Signor Giovanni 
Aubrey Bezzi, an exiled Piedmontese lawyer 
and Seymour Kirkup, an English artist and 
archaeologist, in discovering in 1840 the por- 
trait of Dante, by Giotto, in the chapel of 
the Palazzo del Podesta, afterwards known as 
the Bargello, at Florence. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. m. JAN. 21, m 

The circumstances attending the discovery 
of the fresco containing the portrait of 
Dante and his contemporaries Brunetto 
Latini, Corso Donati, ana others, are thus 
related by Signor Bezzi in a letter in the 
Spectator of 11 May, 1850: 

"Mr. Wylde [sic], an American gentleman, re- 
spected by all that knew him, was then in Florence, 
engaged in a work on Dante and his times which, un- 
fortunately, he did not live to complete. Among the 
materials he had collected for this purpose, there were 
some papers of the antiquarian Moreni, which he was 
examining when I called one day (I had then been 
three or four months in Florence) to read what he 
had already written, as I was in the habit of doing 
from time to time. It was then that a foot-note 
of Moreni's caught his eye, in which the writer 
lamented that he had spent two years of his life 
in unceasing and unavailing efforts to recover the 
portrait of Dante, and the other portions of the 
fresco of Giotto in the Bargello, mentioned by 
Vasari; that others before him had been equally 
anxious and equally unsuccessful ; and that he 
hoped that better times would come, and that the 
painting, so interesting both in an artistic and his- 
torical point of view, would be again sought for and 
at last recovered. I did not then understand how 
the efforts of Moreni and others could have been 
thus unsuccessful: and I thought that with com- 
mon energy and diligence they might have ascer- 
tained whether the painting so clearly pointed out 
by Vasari was, or was not, in existence; several 
months, however, of wearisome labours in the same 
pursuit taught me to judge more leniently of the 
failures of my predecessors. Mr. Wylde put 
Moreni's note before me, and suggested and urged 
that being an Italian by birth, though not a Floren- 
tine, and having lived many years in England and 
among the English, I had it in my power to bring 
two modes of influence to bear upon the research ; 
and that such being the case I ought to undertake 
it. My thoughts immediately turned to Mr. Kirk- 
up, an artist who had abandoned his art to devote 
himself entirely to antiquarian pursuits, with whom 
I was well acquainted, and who, having lived many 
years in Florence (1 believe, fifteen), would weigh 
the value of Moreni's testimony on this matter, 
and effectually assist me in every way, if I took it 
in hand. So I called upon him either that same day 
or the next ; and I found that he, like most other 
people, had read the passage in Vasari's life of 
Giotto in which it is explicitly said that the por- 
trait of Dante had been painted with others in the 
Palazzo del Podesta, and was to be seen at the time 
the historian was writing ; but that he had not 
read, or had not put any confidence in, the note of 
the Florence edition of Vasari, published in 1832-8, 
in which it is stated that the Palazzo del Podesta 
had now become a prison the Bargello ; that the 
chapel had been turned into a cKttpensa(it was more 
like a coal-hole where the rags and much of the 
tilth of the prison were deposited) ; that the walls of 
this dispensa exhibited nothing but a dirty coating, 
and that Moreni speaks of the painting in some 
published work ; the annotator concluding thus : 
'It is hoped that some day or other we shall be 
able to see what there is under the coating of the 
walls.' " 

It would appear that Signor Bezzi's services 
in the matter were confined to drawing up 

memorials to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
which were of no effect until a subscription 
was raised among the English and American 
residents in Florence with the object of de- 
fraying the expense of searching for the 
fresco, when, his jealousy of foreigners being 
aroused, the Grand Duke appointed a com- 
mission to search for the portrait, and pro- 
vided a sum of money for the purpose which 
proved more than sufficient. 

As an illustration of the manner in which the 
search was conducted, Mr. Kirkup related 
that on visiting the Bargello on one occasion 
he found Signor Marini, the restorer en- 
trusted with the work of removing the white- 
wash, on a scaffold supported on putlogs, the 
ends of which were let into the walls of the 
chapel. If the portrait of Dante had been in 
any portion of the walls in which the holes 
for the putlogs were made, it would have been 
destroyed as completely as it was destroyed 
by the art of the restorer after its discovery. 


2, Canonbury Mansions, N. 


P. 173. "The irascible Irishman, Capt. 
MacMorris, is the only representative of his 
nation who figures in the long list of Shake- 
speare's dramatis personce" - - The Index 
(p. 462) repeats this statement. This popular 
error has frequently appeared in print. Jack 
Cade (' 2 Henry VI.') was also an Irishman. 

P. 197. " Sixpence was the usual price of a 
new quarto." P. 303. " All the quartos were 
issued in Shakespeare's day at sixpence 
each." There is no foundation for these 
statements, which have often been made in 
print. The preface to the 1609 edition of 
'Troilus and Cressida,' usually relied on to 
support them, is not exact enough to lead 
to so wide a conclusion. The "anonymous 
scribe," who uses inexact and "bombastic" 
language throughout this preface, says : 

"Amongst all there is none more witty then 
this ; and had I time I would comment upon it, 
though I know it needs not, for so much as will 
make you thinke your testerne well bestowed, but 
for so much worth as ever poore I know to be stuft 
in it." 

Assuming that a testerne was the price at 
which this particular quarto was issued, and 
that a testerne in 1609 meant sixpence (as to 
which much might be said), it cannot be 
inferred from this preface that sixpence was 
the usual price of any quarto, or that all the 
quartos were issued at sixpence. Halliwell- 
Phillipps (' Outlines,' 1887, vol. ii. pp. 304-5) 
quotes contemporary records showing that 

s. in. JAN. 21, mi NOTES AND QUERIES. 

1 he price of the 1609 quarto edition of the 
' Sonnets ' was fivepence. 

P. 230. "Queen Elizabeth's death, 26 March, 

603." All the authorities, including Dr. 

Jessopp in his article ' Elizabeth ' in the 'Dic- 

ionary of National Biography,' agree that 

^ueen Elizabeth died 24 March, 1603. 

P. 224. "Except 'Antony and Cleopatra,' 
which exceeds it [' Hamlet '] by sixty lines, 
the piece is the longest of Shakespeare's 
plays." The Index (pp. 448, 460) repeats this 
statement. In the "Globe" edition (text 
only) 'Hamlet' contains 3,930 lines, 29,492 
words, and 120,050 letters ; * Antony and 
Cleopatra ' contains 3,067 lines, 23,809 words, 
and 97,125 letters. So far from l Antony and 
Cleopatra' exceeding 'Hamlet' by sixty 
lines, ' Hamlet ' contains 863 more than 
' Antony and Cleopatra.' Other editions may 
differ from the "Globe" as to number of lines, 
but any such variations would not alter the 
position which 'Hamlet' holds of being by 
far the longest of Shakespeare's plays. 

P. 239. It ['Macbeth'] is in its existing 
shape the shortest of Shakespeare's plays." 
The Index (p. 465) repeats this statement. 
This error frequently occurs in print. ' The 
Tempest ' and ' The Comedy of Errors ' are 
both shorter than 'Macbeth.' In the "Globe" 
edition 'Macbeth' contains 2,108 lines, 'The 
Tempest' 2,063 lines, and 'The Comedy of 
Errors ' 1,777. See next note for number of 
words and letters in these plays respectively. 
The number of lines may vary in other 
editions, but any such variations would not 
alter the position which 'The Comedy of 
Errors ' holds of being the shortest of Shake- 
speare's plays. 

1 P. 254. " ' The Tempest ' (which, excepting 
' Macbeth ' and 'The Two Gentlemen,' is the 
shortest of Shakespeare's plays)." 'Macbeth,' 
with 2,108 lines, and 'The Two Gentlemen' 
with 2,293, are both longer plays than ' The 
Tempest,' which has only 2,063* lines. ' The 
Comedy of Errors ' is the shortest play, and 
contains 1,777 lines. The number of lines in 
the text of a play is usually deemed its 
length. The following are the numbers of 
lines, words, and letters in the five shortest 
plays (text only) : 

Lines. Words. Letters. 

'The Comedy of Errors' 1,777 14,438 57,514 
'The Tempest' ... 2,063 16,178 65,144 

'Macbeth' 2,108 16,546 68,144 

' Midsummer Night's 

Dream' 2,175 16,177 65,125 

' Two Gentlemen ' ... 2,293 16,942 67,434 

P. 284. " It [Shakespeare's name] has been 

proved capable of four thousand variations." 

I heave a table, compiled by Mr. H. R. 

Philipps, showing 1,036,800 variations ; Mr. 
Philipps adds, "Many other ways are pos- 
sible, but these are enough." 

P. 285. Shakespeare "is the spelling 
adopted on the title-pages of the majority of 
contemporary editions of his works." In only 
five contemporary editions of works by or 
attributed to Shakespeare is his name spelled 
otherwise than " Shakespeare." 

P. 297. Amongst the Shakespeare memorials 
in sculpture, the monument in Park Lane, 
London, W., is omitted. 

P. 299. The editions of ' Venus and Adonis ' 
dated 1596, 1599, 1600, and the two dated 
1602, are here stated to be in quarto. They 
are in octavo, not in quarto. 

P. 299. There is no ground for supposing 
that the missing edition of ' The Passionate 
Pilgrim' was dated 1600, as here suggested. 
It may be fairly inferred that there was an 
edition between 1599 and 1612, but there is 
nothing to show the date of it. 

P. 302. There is no edition of '1 Henry IV.' 
dated 1615. There is an edition dated 1613, 
which is not mentioned here. 

P. 304. Two editions of " ' Romeo and 
Juliet' published in 1611" are mentioned 
here. Tney are not referred to on pp. 301-2, 
where a complete list of lifetime editions is 
intended to be given. There is no edition of 
'Romeo and Juliet ' dated 1611. 

P. 365. " The Shakespearean entries in the 

British Museum Catalogue comprising 

3,680 titles published in 1897." This cata- 
logue contains 4,079 entries. 

A few typographical errors occur in my 
copy on pp. 34, 55, 120, 286, 366, 411, and 425, 
but neither these nor the other matters re- 
ferred to in this communication detract from 
the value of this book, which is quite the 
ablest 'Life of Shakespeare' ever written, 
and will ultimately supersede all previous 
books on the same subject. 


5, Sussex Place, N.W. 


(See 9 th S. ii. 516.) 

ALTHOUGH Kingston - on - Thames is no 
longer able to claim the glory of deriving its 
name from the venerable coronation stone of 
so many of our Saxon kings, yet the A.-S. word 
stdn, a stone, enters largely into topographic 
nomenclature. First and foremost among 
such names comes Stonehenge, the great 
megalithic monument on Salisbury Plain, 
where the upper stones of the great trili- 
thons overhang (M.E. hengen, to hang). This 
explanation of the name is confirmed by the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< s. m. JAN. 21, 

name Steinhang in Germany, where there is 
a precipice with overhanging stones. Stennis 
in Orkney, a cape with two circles of great 
standing stones, is the "Stone-ness." At 
Stariton Drew in Somerset there is a group 
of stone circles with avenues. It was sup- 
posed by Stukeley to mean "the stone town of 
the Druids," an impossible and absurd ety- 
mology which a year or two ago was gravely 
propounded and defended by an able writer 
in the columns of a leading London daily 
paper. The affix Drew, which is later than 
Domesday, where the name is stan tune, was 
doubtless derived from Drogo or Dreux, a 
former owner. Kirkstone, a pass near Amble- 
side, is so called from a perched glacial erratic 
which is thought to resemble a church. 

In the churchyard of Rudston in the East 
Riding there is an enormous block of mill- 
stone grit, on which a rood or cross must 
have been erected, as is indicated by the 
Domesday name Rudestan or Rodestein, the 
" rood stone." Conspicuous stones, probably 
monoliths of pre-Teutonic date, were natur- 
ally often used for hundred-moots. Thus we 
have the names of the hundred of Stone in 
Bucks (D.B. Stanes), Stone in Somerset 
(Hundred Rolls de la stane), and Stane in 
Cambridgeshire (H.R. Stane}. Whitstone 
hundred, Staffordshire (D.B. Whitstari), was 
the " white stone." The most curious hun- 
dred name is that of Ossulston hundred in 
Middlesex (H.R. Ousolvestan, D.B. Osulvestone, 
"Oswulf's stone"), so called from a Roman 
stone of geometric shape, supposed to have 
been a milestone, which stood at Tyburn 
Gate, now the Marble Arch, Hyde Park. We 
have personal names in the hundreds of 
Cuddlestone in Staffordshire (H.R. Cuthulfe- 
stari), Kin ward stone in Wilts (H.R. Kyne- 
wardestan), Tibbaldstone (H.R. Thebaldestan) 
and Dudstone (H.R. Duddestan), both in Glou- 
cestershire, as well as Bishopstone in Sussex. 

Brighton is a corruption of the A.-S. name 
Brihthelmestan, which means the "stone of 
Brihthelm." There was a South Saxon bishop 
of that name. The word stan may mean a 
stone house or castle, a boundary stone, or a 
stone marking a place for a religious or 
popular assembly. It has been conjectured 
that Brihthelm's stone may have been set up 
on the Old Steyne, to which it gave a name, 
but this is doubtful, as the greater part of 
the old village was swept away by the sea in 
1599. The Old Steyne more probably took 
its name from a brick pavement. 

"Stone" is probably used like the Irish 
clachan or cloghan, " stones," which not only 
means a ford crossed by a row of stepping 
stones, or the stones in a churchyard, but 

also a stone castle. In the Flemish colony in 
South Wales stone or ston as a topographic 
suffix usually denotes a stone castle. The 
analogy of the German Backstein suggests 
that these castles may have been of brick, 
as they often were in Flanders. 



THE name is supposed to make its first 
appearance as Oxnaforda, or Oksnaforda, on 
coins of the time of King Alfred, and the ox 
crossing the ford has hitherto maintained its 
place as the emblem of its origin. 

Among the Anglo-Saxon charters relating 
to Abingdon Abbey is one of King Ed reel, 
A.D. 955. That charter recites the boundaries 
of the land which Cead walla, King of the 
West Saxons, gave to the abbey in A.D. 685-8. 
In a charter of Edwy, A.D. 952, the boundaries 
of the abbey land as then existing are men- 
tioned, but in that of Edred, three years later, 
the ancient boundaries of Cead walla's grant 
are stated, as if to settle some dispute. It is 
not possible to identify all these ancient 
boundary names, but a sufficient number of 
them can be identified to leave no doubt 
about the land the charter describes. The 
name Eoccenforda in this charter has hitherto 
been supposed to be some ford over the Ock 
stream, near Abingdon; but this is a mis- 
take. The original abbey was, according to 
tradition, which appears to be well founded, 
situated at the south-west of Bagley Wood, 
where its site is still marked on the large- 
scale Ordnance maps. Leland says, "The 
abbey was first begun in Bagley Wood," and 
that site is two or three miles north of the 
town of Abingdon. The names Eoccenes and 
Eccenes have hitherto been identified only 
with the river Ock, but they occur in other 
charters relating to land boundaries at Ash- 
bury in Berkshire, Welford near Newbury, 
and elsewhere. 

The word edc is a participle, derived from 
the Anglo-Saxon edcan, to increase, and cen 
or ken is the Old Frisian form of the Anglo- 
Saxon kin, so that e6ccenes denotes the in- 
creased kindred or surplus population. 
Eoccenes is a colonial or new settlement 

In a paper I brought before the Anthro- 
pological Section of the British Association 
at Bristol in September last I showed that 
there are strong proofs arising from the 
ancient place-names and the survival of 
Kentish customs of settlements of early 
Kentish colonists up the Thames Valley, and 

9* s. in. JAN-. 21, mi NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1 articularly near Oxford, near which four 
J [engest place-names are mentioned in the 
Anglo-Saxon charters, such as Hengestesie, 
i ow Hinksey. Hengest was not a Saxon, but 
( ither a Jute or a Frisian, and these very 
c arly place-names could only have been given 
1 )y Jutish or Frisian settlers, such as the early 
s ettlers in Kent. 

The charter of Ceadwalla, in tracing the 
boundaries of the land he gave to Abingdon 
Abbey, starts from Eoccenforda, i. e., a ford 
over one of the branches of the Isis, west of 
Oxford. The boundary runs from that ford 
along Eoccenes (now Oseney) to the Abbey 
ditch ; thence past several marks to Bradan 
mere (now Bradley) ; thence to Brom- 
cumbes heafpd (now Broom Hill) ; thence to 
Abendune, i.e., the down of the original 
abbey ; thence to Bacganleah (now Bagley) ; 
thence to Stanford (now Sandford); thence 
to Msegthford (the ford of the tribe, which 
crossed the stream at Kennington Island to 
a place now called Heyford) ; thence up mid- 
stream of the Thames above the large island " on 
Cearewyllan," i. e., at the mouth of the Cher- 
well; thence along Bacgan broc (the Backer 
lake of Oxford mediaeval records) to Heafods 
oran (the great sandhills of those records); 
thence up the stream past Geafling lace and 
Lang lace (the fork -shaped lake and the 
long lake, now represented by river islands of 
these shapes) ; thence "on by Oecenes grestun 
die," i. e., the ditch bounding Oseney on the 
west, to the Abbey ditch ; and along Eccen, 
i.e., the north boundary of West Oseney, 
again to Eoccenforda. 

Any one who will follow these boundaries 
going up stream from Sandford will see that 
it is not possible the charter can refer to any 
other land than this near Oxford. The name 
Eoccenforda is, therefore, the earliest form of 
the name Oxford, and that name is two cen- 
turies older than has hitherto been supposed. 
The name Osney, or Oseney, appears as 
Oxenea in a charter as late as the thirteenth 
century. The ox is quite out of place in 
connexion with the origin of the name of the 
university city. It is a name derived from 
early colonists or new settlers. 

That the name Oxnaforda was derived from 
a human settlement, and was so understood in 
early Saxon time, appears probable from 
similar names, such as Westerna, Wixna 
Lindesfarona, and Myrcna, which are known 
tribal Saxon names. The names Oxnahealon 
in Gloucestershire, Oxnafeld in Somerset 
Oxnadunes in Worcestershire, and Oxnaforc 
in Wiltshire, also occur in the Saxon charters 
Similarly, there are many old place-names 
partly composed of the word oxen, apparently 

derived from eoccen, such as Oxenford in 
Somerset, Oxenholm in Westmoreland, and 
)ther examples in districts near which Jutish 
or Frisian settlements can be shown to have 
taken place. 

The place-names Oxenvad and Oxby also 
occur in North Schleswig and Jutland, a cir- 
cumstance which points to the Frisian origin 
of similar names in England. 


105, Ritherdoii Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

the 10th inst., Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & 
Hodge sold a curious collection of the ' Rox- 
burghe Revels' extracted from the Athenceum 
of 4, 11, 18, and 25 January, 1834. The MS. 
recording these 'Revels' was purchased by 
Mr. Dilke, " not for the sake of any libellous 
information it might perchance contain, but 
simply to afford our readers a little harmless 
amusement," at the sale of Mr. Joseph Hasle- 
wood's library. The MS., in Haslewood's 
handwriting, had the following title, " Rox- 
burghe Revels ; or, an Account of the Annual 
Display, Culinary and Festivous, interspersed 
incidentally with Matters of Moment or 
Merriment, also Brief Notices of the Press 
Proceedings by a few Lions of Literature, 
combined as the Roxburghe Club, founded 

17 June, 1812." 

The Club claimed its foundation from the 
sale of the library of the late John, Duke 
of Roxburghe, which commenced Monday, 

18 May, 1812, and extended to forty-one days 
following, with a supplementary catalogue of 
three days, beginning Monday, 13 July. On 
Wednesday, 17 June, 'II Decamerone di 
Boccaccio' was to be sold,* and the Rev. T. F. 
Dibdin suggested that a convivial meeting 
should beheld at the "St. Alban's Tavern" 
after the sale of that day, when a resolution 
was passed 

" that the Roxburghe Society should have an anni- 
versary dinner on the 17th June, and the number of 
members be extended and limited to thirty-one. 

"It was proposed and concluded for each member 
of the Club to reprint a scarce piece of antient lore, 
to be given to the members, one copy being on vel- 
lum for the chairman, and only as many copies as 

Among those present at the inaugural dinner 
were Lord Spencer, president, Lord Gower, 
Sir Egerton Brydges, Mr. Haslewood, and Mr. 

The record of the Club includes the very 
interesting letter of Sir Walter Scott, dated 
25 February, 1823, declaring his willingness 

* This was purchased by the Marquis of Bland- 
ford for 2,260A 


to take his seat at the Club " as representa- 
tive of the author of 'Waverley' till the 
author is discovered." He attended only one 
of the dinners that held on 15 May, 1828, 
when Earl Spencer was in the chair, the 
Duke of Devonshire, Lord Althorp, Lord 
Olive, Mr. Phelps, Mr. Markland, and Mr. 
Towneley being among those present. 

The publication of the MS. attracted 
much attention, and it was shown that while 
the members of the Club had spent two 
thousand pounds on their own stomachs, 
they had only found the paltry sum of two 
guineas for a bust of Caxton. 

An account of these ' Roxburghe Revels ' is 
given in the first volume of 'John Francis 
and the Athenaeum*' The collection sold at 
Sotheby's is mounted, and illustrated with 
numerous portraits and autograph letters. 

' Game and Playe of the Chesse ' there is an 
anecdote of Julius Caesar quoted from the 
* Booke of Truphes of Phylosophers ' (bk. ii. 
tr. v.). The English printer translated, as 
is well known, from a French version, but 
on reference to the Latin text of Jacobus de 
Cessoles the title of the work appears as 
' Nugis Philosophorum.' In another passage 
we read : 

"And hereof hit is sayd in the fables of the 
poetes in the first book of the Truphes of the 
Philosophers by figure. That they that entryd in 
to the fontayne of the sirenes or mermaydens were 
corrumpid and they toke them away with hem." 
Bk. iii. tr. v. 

The Latin of Cessoles is : 

" Noverat enim vir industrius, quam voluptas 
animos effeminat et enervat corpus voluptati sub- 
iectum, unde et in fabulis poetarum diciter quod 
fqntem Sirenarum ingredierites eos enervabant et 
viris effeminatis sexum adimebant. Et hoc dictum 
fuit in figura voluptatis, sicut dicitur in libro v. 
de 'Nugis Philosophorum.'" 

The book has not hitherto been identified, 
but I have now traced both passages to the 
' Polycraticus ' of John of Salisbury. This 
work, which is of a very comprehensive and 
very miscellaneous character, has for an 
alternative title 'De Nugis Curialium et 
Vestigiis Philosophorum.' The story of Ccesar 
occurs in Joannes Sareberierisis (bk. iii. 
cap. xiv.). In the second passage " some one 
has blundered," but there can be no doubt 
that the foundation of the statement of 
Cessoles and Caxton is to be found in the 
following words : 

" Unde eleganter fons Salmacis, infamia mol- 
liciei insignis, eidem comparatur. Ut enim in 
fabulis est, unda illius aspectu decora est, gustu 
dulcis, suavis tactu, et omnium sensuum usu 

gratissima, sed tanta. mollicie ingredientes enervat, 
ut viris effeminatis nobiliorem adimat sexum ; nee 
ante quisquam egreditur quam stupeat et doleat se 
nmtatum esse in feminam." Lib. v. cap. x. 

In 1883, when I edited the reprint of Cax- 
ton's 'Game and Playe of the Chesse,' published 
by Mr. Elliot Stock, I had not identified 
these passages. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

Moss Side, Manchester. 

A CHRONOGRAM, 1532. Hake will, in his 
' Apologie,' ed. 1635, p. 24, relates the follow- 
ing story on the authority of Philip Came- 
rarius. A parish priest near "Norinberg," 
being skilled in figures, 

"presumed so farre upon his Calculations and the 
numerall letters of that prediction in the Gospell, 
'Videbunt in quern pupugerunt,' that hee con- 
fidently assured his parishioners, not only cf the 
yeare, but the very day and houre of the worlds 

Portland, Oregon. 


ROBERT BURTON. A play by Robert Burton, 
which was acted at Christ Church in 1617, 
mentioned in a short note to the ' Anatomy ' 
(part i. sect. 2, m. 2, subsect. 15), was printed 
for the first time by the Rev. W. E. Buckley, 
for the Roxburghe Club, of which he was a 
member, in 1862 (with some short poems), 
from a copy belonging formerly to the author, 
of which he was the possessor. The short 
title is ' Philosophaster Comcedia. Poemata 
nunc in unum Collecta,' Hertf., 1862. There 
were only sixty-five copies, one of which he 
gave me. Mr. Buckley mentions (pref., p. xii) 
a remarkable anticipation of a modern pro- 
posal in the soliloquy of Polupistos, one of 
the characters. He speaks of the wonders 
which he will do on becoming rich (Act IV. 
sc. i. p. 68), one of which is that he will build 
two bridges to the amazement of Europe; 
of these : 

Primus erit a Caleto ad Doroberniam. 
Nor is it without anticipation of modern 
enterprise that there is also : 

Mons Atlas frugifer, et arena Lybica 

Producet sumptu meo decuplum, centuplum. 


" THE POLICY or PIN-PRICKS." As it is not 
improbable that inquiries will be made for 
the source of this appellation, may it be 
recorded in ' N. & Q.' that this very expres- 
sive remark is of French origin, its first 
appearance having been in the Matin, 8 No- 
vember, 1898? A writer in the newspaper 
named said that ever since the refusal of 
France to co-operate with England in Egypt, 
the French had inaugurated the policy of 
playing tricks on Great Britain, and that the 

c i s . in. JA*. 21, mj NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Er glish have at last been exasperated by the 
co itinual " pin-pricks " which have been 
gi r en them. HENRY GERALD HOPE. 

Olapham, S.W. 


'Anastasio having heard all this discourse, his 
hair stood upright like porcupines' quills." ' De- 
cameron,' Fifth Day, Nov. 8. 

Thy knotted and combined locks to part, 
And each particular hair to stand au-end, 
Like quills upon the fretful porcupine. 

'Hamlet,'!, v. 

A. G. REID. 


LIES ! "Among gossips, here and elsewhere, 
this may often be heard in reply to what is 
known as "pumping" that is, seeking for 
information on subjects dear to the gossip. 
Another form is " Ask me not questions, and 
I'll tell you no lies." More blunt is "Ax now 
questions, an' yow'll get now lies !" Another 
phrase amongst the gossips is "If yow ex 
novvt, yow '11 get nowt." 


the entry " Johnson," p. 84, 1. 16 from foot, 
for 311 read 301. The same error occurs in 
the Index to 4 th S. iii. Z. Z. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

DE FERITATE. The founder of the Border 
family of Le Brun (or "Broyne" as some of the 
fourteenth-century members spelt the name) 
settled in Cumberland at the end of the 
eleventh century. In the third generation 
the name De Feritate was given to them, on 
account of the number of woods, wastes, and 
morasses in lands owned by them a descrip- 
tive term, which in time became almost a 
surname, and which clung to them for a 
period of 150 years. The first of those to 
whom it was given was the "Had de Feri- 
tate" of the Great Roll of the Pipe, 
Henry I., 1154-8. The next that I read of 
bearing the dismal name was a son of the 
above, William de Ferte or Feritate, who, 
temp. Richard I., released all his rights to 
some waste ground near Kirkbride in Cum- 
berland to the monks of Holme Cultrum. 

The same William de Ferte and Radulf his 
brother signed, with others of their family, 
a charter of release given by Margaret ae 
Whampool, the wife of Robert de Wham- 
pool, of lands in Newby, near Carlisle, to 
the abbey of Holme Cultrum. These are the 
only references to this particular member of 
the family I have met with, unless the William 
de la Ferte of the ' Calendarium Rotulorum 
Patentium,' temp. John, is the same. " Diversse 
terrse concessse Willo Pippard quse fuerunt 
Willmi de la Ferte." Then again : " Rex con- 
cessit Willo de Feritate manorium de Mere- 
den Com. Wilts." Also for the fourteenth 
year of John we find the following entry : 
" Pro Willo de la Ferte de diversis terris in 
manori de Taneocote Karr, Charleton, Analeg, 
Beketon, Waisburn, Bourc et Ansington in 
Comtat. Devon." 

I am anxious to know if any connexion can 
be established between William, the son of 
Raufe of the Wastes in Cumberland, and the 
De Feritate of the above extracts. 

I should also be glad of any information 
re the above-mentioned lands in Devon and 
Wilts, and William de Feritate's connexion 
with the same. The local histories of these 
counties I have consulted have lacked such. 
Is there any record of any other family than 
that of Le Brun bearing this alias between 
the time of John and the close of the reign 
of Edward I. ? J. HIXON IRVING. 

WORDSWORTH. In George Eliot's 'Silas 
Marner' the following lines appear on the 
title-page : 

A child, more than all other gifts 
That earth can offer to declining man, 
Brings hope with it, and forward-looking thoughts. 


The line in italics does not appear in my 
edition of Wordsworth (' Michael'). I should 
be glad to know if it occurs in the early 
editions. LIESE M. SHERRING. 


the preface to my edition of Miss Edge- 
worth's 'Parents' Assistant' (1831), after 
referring to a passage from Dr. Reid's ' Intel- 
lectual Powers of Man,' and speaking of the 
great interest and value which would attach 
to a systematic record of the early develop- 
ment of a child, Miss Edgeworth goes on to 
say : 

"An attempt to keep such a register has actually 
been made ; it was begun in the year 1776, long 
before Dr. Reid's book was published. The design 
has from time to time been pursued to this present 
year, and though much has not been collected, 
every circumstance and conversation that has been 
preserved is faithfully and accurately related. 



[9 th s. m. JAN. 21, m 

These notes have been of great advantage to the 
writer of the following stones, and will probably at 
some future time be laid before the public as a col- 
lection of experiments upon a subject which has 
been hitherto treated theoretically. 

Can any one inform me whether this register 
was ever published, or whether the original 
is still in existence ? 


" TRES TOIS D'OR." In the Daily News of 
27 December, 1898, the admirable Paris corre- 
spondent of that paper says that u in the 
dock Madame Paulmier," who shot and nearly 
killed a journalist, but was acquitted of the 
crime, " was pronounced * tres tois d'or,' the 
slang word that has replaced ' chic.' " As 
many other readers may, like me, be ignorant 
of the history and origin of this new expres- 
sion, it would be kind of some up-to-date 
Frenchman to explain it in 'N. & Q.' It 
seems that " chic," like " damns," has had its 

BINGHAM ARMORIAL. Was this family 
name derived from the village of Bingham in 
Dorset ? Was the falcon crest anciently asso- 
ciated with that of Butler, which is iden- 
tical ? And had the Bingham shield, viz., 
Azure, a bend or between two bendlets or, a 
common origin with that of Le Grosveneur 
(Grosvenor), Azure, a bend orl The Norman 
Le Bouteilliers bore Azure, six chevronels or. 
The chevron is only another form of the 
bend. T. W. C. 

DEVICE AND MOTTO. Around a cask, 
flaming at the top, the inscription VANGVT NI 
BESSES. This occurs in a carefully engraved 
title-page, Rome, 1568. Can an explanation 
be given ? RICHARD H. THORNTON. 

Portland, Oregon. 

In Howe's 1631 edition of Stow's 'Annals' it 
is stated that 

"the cutting of yron barres in a mill for the 
ready use of smiths to make long rods and all sorts 
of nayles was brought first into England in the year 
1590 by Godfrey Box, of the Province of Liege ; who 
set up the first mill for that purpose neere ]3artforc 
in Kent." 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' furnish me with 
some confirmation of this statement, or with 
any information regarding Godfrey Box ' 
Most of the foreigners who came to Englanc 
in the reign of Elizabeth to establish new 
industries were more or less under Govern 
ment protection, and their names occur fre 
quently in the State Papers, Lansdowne or 
Hatfield MSS. But the only mention of a 

Godfrey Box that I can find is in the 'Arch, 
Cantiana,' vol. xx., in a list of Kentish 
administrations taken from the Act Books of 
the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. From 
this it appears that Godfrey Box, of Dartford, 
died in 1604, leaving two daughters. I may 
say that Bevis Bulmer obtained a patent for 
a slitting mill in 1588. RHYS JENKINS. 

11, Staple Inn. 

DAMAGE TO BRIDGE. The following warn- 
ing is to be seen affixed to the railings of a 
small bridge carrying the high road from 
Whetstone to Totteriage (Herts) over a small 
stream. The punishment seems to be so much 
out of proportion to the offence that I should 
like to Know if there was any special reason 
for its severity : 

Middlesex to wit. 

Any person wilfully injuring any part of this 
county bridge will be guilty of felony, and upon con- 
viction be liable to be kept in penal servitude for 


By the Court. 
24th and 25th Vic. cap. 97. 


"DiES GRETA NOTANDUS." The quotation 
is common, and the signification obvious ; 
but where is the first known instance of its 
use to be found 1 N. M. & A. 

[Persius, v. 108, has the line- 
Ilia prius creta, mox hsec carbone notasti.] 

THE SISTER CHURCHES. Where on the east 
coast were these] I wish to ascertain the 
place where a ship was wrecked in the fif- 
teenth century. The ship belonged to John 
Stamford, of Thornham, in Norfolk, and was 
" bryngyng seacole from Newcastell." At 
the time of the wreck the "ship was aventred 
iii inyle from the lond the Syster Churchis." 


[You know, it is to be supposed, that the Reculvers 
are called the Sisters.] 

Miss SIBLEY. Mrs. Rathborne informs me 
that she is editing some letters written by 
Lady Jane Coke, sister of the Duke of 
Wharton, to an ancestress of hers, about the 
year 1750, and that these contain an account 
of Mr. Rivett's (my great-grandfather's) elec- 
tion for Derby, whilst mention is made of his 
marriage with the " celebrated Miss Sibley." 
My correspondent inquires whether it can be 
explained how Miss Sibley was celebrated, 
and adds that " two authorities mention the 
circumstance without explanation." _ 

My great-grandmother, Anna Maria Sibley 
was, according to Burke, the daughter of the 

o*s.iiLjAN.2i,'99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Rev. Peter Sibley, of Somersetshire. (See also 
the Davy MS., British Museum, which con- 
tains an account of the Kivett and other 
Suffolk families.) My correspondent, how- 
ever, mentions that, according to some 
authorities, the lady was the daughter of the 
Rev. James Sibley, of Derby. She was the 
mother of Elizabeth Rivett, who married 
General Carnac, M.P., Commander-in-Chief 
in India (whose name the Rivetts sub- 
sequently took), and is known by Sir J. 
Reynolds's picture of her as Mrs. Carnac. 
Information on the above points will be of 
interest to my correspondent and to myself. 

Colonel and Aide-de-Camp to the Queen. 
Schloss Wildeck, Aargau, Switzerland. 

" PIP IN THE WEBE." What is the meaning 
of this as it occurs in this sentence? 

" The northern lads be up, and they begin to take 
pip in the webe [sic], and say plainly that they will 
have no more abbeys suppressed in their country." 

From the Calendar for 1539, as in Gasquet's 
one-volume 'Henry VIII. and the English 
Monasteries,' 1899, p. 393. 


enclosed from the Sunday School Chronicle : 

" John Bright once playfully suggested that the 
appointment of a certain gentleman to the Chief 
Secretaryship of Ireland was intended as a punish- 
ment to that country for some of its offences. 
What the politician said half in jest, the sacred 
writer states here in all seriousness: 'That such a 
prince as Zedekiah was raised to the throne was 
itself a token of divine displeasure, for his character 
was such as to hasten the final catastrophe 'that 
which came to pass was ' through the anger of the 

When did John Bright use the expression 
referred to, and where are the words quoted ? 

D. M. R. 

FLEET PRISONERS. Where were the burials 
of prisoners and officials of the Fleet Prison 
registered during the rebuilding of St. Bride's 
Church after the Great Fire 1 


PUZZLE JUG. Can any correspondent sup- 
ply information with regard to a curious jug 
which I have lately seen, and which is, I 
believe, known as a puzzle jug ] The neck is 
perforated so as to prevent any liquid con- 
tained in the jug from being poured out in 
the usual way. At the bottom of the jug a 
small pipe, passing through the handle, which 
is hollow, communicates with a band round 
the top. In this band are three small nozzles, 
and the only way to empty the jug with- 
out spilling its contents is to close two of the 

nozzles and to suck through the third. It 
bears above the perforated portion of the 
neck the date 1705 placed round the jug. 
Are such jugs common ; and are they of 
English make 1 Any information will oblige. 

Hutton Rectory. 

Lo SPENDORE. To a work entitled 'Giuoco 
d'Armi dei Sovrani e Stati d'Europa,' pub- 
lished in Naples by Antonio Bulifon, in 1677, 
there is stated to be appended a letter of 
Alessandro Partenio, in which there is 
mentioned a game played by the Neapolitan 
nobility called Lo Spendpre. I have seen a 
copy of this book, but failed to discover the 
letter in it. However, on a closer inspection 
I found the copy to be defective. The body 
of the work is paged 1-360, having the 
signatures A, B, &c. There is a number of 
preliminary pages, containing the title, &c., 
unpaged, with the signatures a and b, of 
which a seems to be all right, containing 
twelve leaves. But in this copy b has only 
two leaves, and the catchword at the end of 
its second page does not correspond with the 
top word of the next page this second leaf 
of b bearing no signature. Do any of your 
correspondents possess or know of the work, 
and can any of them tell me how many 
pages b should have, and whether the missing 
leaves contain the above-mentioned letter 1 
Is Lo Spendore a card game"? Does Par- 
tenio's letter describe it, or is there a de- 
scription to be found anywhere else 1 

J. S. M. T. 

THE CAPTIVE STAG. There is a child's 
story in verse relating to a captive 
stag, whereto I should be very glad to be 

As a young stag the thicket pass'd 
The branches held his antlers fast ; 
A clown who saw the captive hung, 
Across the horns his halter flung. 

Munches the linen on the lines, 
And on a hood or apron dines. 

Steals my little master's bread, 
Follows the servants to be fed. 

Probable date, end of last century. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.C. 

MRS. YATES, 1728-87, the second wife of 
Richard Yates, comedian, was the daughter 
of William and Mary Graham, of Richmond, 
the former a captain's steward on H.M.S. 
Ariel, buried at Richmond Church, 19 Sept., 
1779. His will, dated 6 Aug., 1777, was proved 
29 Nov., 1779. His wife was buried at Rich- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9*s.m. j A *.2i, 

mond Church 24 Nov., 1777, and her daughter 
joined her parents in the same grave in May, 
1787. She was one of our greatest actresses, 
and sat, it is said, to Romney for Tragedy in 
his ' Tragedy and Comedy.' I seek to know 
her correct maiden name. Most theatrical 
authorities call her Anna Maria, but she was 
spoken of when young as Mary or Moll 
Graham. URBAN. 

tinuation of my 'Iconography of Don Quixote,' 
issued by the Bibliographical Society, I am 
preparing a volume in wnich the other works 
of Cervantes are to be similarly treated. In 
that volume I propose to notice drawings, 
paintings, statues, tapestries in private col- 
lections, the subjects of which shall have been 
derived from one or other of Cer van tea's works, 
'Don Quixote' included. If the fortunate 
possessors would favour me with descriptions 
of their treasures, the value of my work would 
be thereby greatly enhanced. 


Fowlers, Hawkhurst, Kent. 

SPADES. Jamieson gives this word (also in 
form " fleurie ") as a Teviotdale word. Is it 
known elsewhere ? A. L. MAYHEW. 


SIMEON SLINOSBY. Can any reader inform 
me to which branch of the Slingsby family he 
belonged ? He died a few years before 1818, 
and resided at West Cowes, Isle of Wight, 
and before that at Twickenham, Middlesex. 
He was very fond of music, and excelled in 
it. No doubt he is interred at West Cowes, 
or not very far off. His wife Elizabeth died 
in the year 1818, leaving property there, 
which was sold and got into a dilapidated 
condition. Both he and his wife died intes- 
tate, and the administration would be 
registered at Southampton. 


HERALDIC. It is proposed to devise a flag 
(a yacht club burgee) from a coat of arms 
containing a certain ordinary ermine. The 
flag is to contain no departure from the coat 
save, for purposes of simplifying, the omis- 
sion of certain of the charges borne. The 
ordinary ermine is to be retained. Objections 
raised to above: (1) ermine is not suitable for 
a banner, especially in view of the probable 
way in which furs were introduced into 
arms ; (2) as the coat of arms is not to be 
represented in entirety, the flag must be 
regarded as a new device, so it cannot be 
urged in defence of the ermine that the case 
is one of simply transferring a coat of arms 

to a banner. Is (2) valid ; and, if it is, are 
there any precedents guiding to a decision as 
regards (1)? In the flags of at least two 
French yacht clubs ermine is represented ; 
but would the proceeding be permitted by 
English heraldry ? H. H. BRINDLEY. 


For so short is our life, 

Yet with time for all things to forsake us 

A bitter delusion, a dream from which naught cart 

awake us 
Till death's dogging footsteps at morn or at eve 

shall o'ertake us. 

'Tis so to live that when the sun 

Of our existence ends in night, 
Memorials sweet of duties done 

May shrine our names in memories bright, 
And the blest seed we scatter bloom 

A hundredfold in days to come. 



(9 th S. ii. 105, 185, 310, 453, 496.) 
THE discussion on this word has been in- 
conclusive, but MR. BAYNE was quite right 
in pronouncing helpmeet absurd an opinion 
shared by the editor of the ' Century Diction- 
ary ' in the same words, and echoed, so to say, 
by Mr. Fitzedward Hall in the word " inde- 
fensible." It is perhaps the most anomalously 
constructed word in the language. Were it a 
legitimate compound, it should admit replace- 
ment by hdpfit. But the fact is that meet, 
like/^, in such a position is meaningless, the 
only justification of "help meet" in Genesis 
ii. 18 being the complementary words "for 
him." The notion that helpmeet is directly 
formed from the Biblical phrase is incredible. 
The obvious and natural shortening of that 
phrase for every-day use is " meet help "; and 
any of your correspondents who had read Dr. 
Smythe Palmer's article on helpmeet in his 
' Folk Etymology ' would have seen that there 
is old authority for "meet helper" (William 
Strode, 1636) and " meet-help " (Bishop Sprat, 
1692). To these I am enabled to add Milton 
(1643), who uses "meet help" twice on p. 28 
of his pamphlet on ' Divorce ': "This pro- 
mise of God to make a meet help This clause 

of being a meet help would shew it self so 
necessary," &c. (The italics are Milton's.) 
C. C. B.'s supposition (9 th S. ii. 185) that help- 
meet is older than helpmate is not borne out 
by our present knowledge. An example of 
the latter word from 'Robinson Crusoe' is 
given in Latham's Johnson ; and Dr. Palmer 
cites from Fitzedward Hall's 'Modern Eng- 
lish ' several early authorities (including Mrs. 

. m. JAN. 21, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


( 'entlivre, Foote, and Col man) for helpmate, 
vhich he, as well as Mr. Hall, calls "the 
classical word." On the other hand, except- 
i ig the spurious example from Milton to be 
] oticed in the sequel, the earliest authority 
for helpmeet, as a true compound with the 
accent on the first syllable, is perhaps not 
i if ty years old. This would show that Words- 
worth used helpmate* in 1800, the date of his 
' Michael,' while the other word was infuturo; 
;md perhaps it was still awaiting invention 
when Mrs. Browning wrote : 

You want a helpmate, not a mistress, sir ; 

A wife to help your ends, in her no end. 

' Aurora Leigh,' ii. 401. 

Prof. Skeat assumes that "helpmate is a 
coinage due to a mistaken notion of the 
phrase 'an help meet,'" and quotes in illus- 
tration a passage from Archbishop Sharp's 
sermons in which the archbishop says of Eve 
that God " created her that she might be a 
help-mate for the man" ('Works,' vol. iv. 
ser. 12). It is a pity Prof. Skeat does not 
inform us what, according to his view, the 
" mistaken notion " was. For if he imputes 
the coinage to the archbishop, it is hard to 
conceive how a divine of his culturet could 
blunder the meaning of two words so common 
and so accordant with the literary style of 
the period, and still harder to conjecture 
what could prompt him to change meet to 
mate, seeing that he was not a native of the 
Emerald Isle, who would habitually pronounce 
" help meet " as " help mate," and considering 
that even then his pronunciation would not 
prejudice his spelling. Prof. Skeat, of course, 
will not admit confusion, as that would upset 
his hypothesis. But one assumption is as 
good as another, and I assume that the arch- 
bishop, clothing the passage of Scripture in 
his own phraseology, used an expression 
already current. 

There is evidence, too, in support of an 
independent formation of helpmate. It will 
not, I presume, be pretended that helpfellow 
could be due to a " mistaken notion " of a 
Scriptural phrase. I proceed, therefore, to 
add that Nicholas Udall designates Timothy 
" an helpefellowe of our office " (1 Thess. iii. 2), 
where I find in a 1599 Bible "our labour 
fellow in the Gospell of Christ," and in the 
original o-wepyos (rendered " helpmate " in 
Major's translation of Schrevelius's ' Lexicon') 
TOV 0cov 6 v TW uayyeA./w. Now helpmate is 
as intelligible 'as helpfeltow on C. C. B.'s own 

* Wordsworth, like Sir Walter Scott ('Guy 
Mannering,' xliv.), applies the term also to the 
husband ('Excursion, bks. i. and v.). 

t See his life in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy. 3 

showing, for, says he, " a mate is a fellow." 

I contend that helpmate is merely a variant of 
helpfellow, as "bedmate" is of "bedfellow," 
"schoolmate" of "schoolfellow," or "play- 
mate" of "playfellow." But whether help- 
mate owe its origin to the phrase of Genesis 
or not a question we shall have better means 
of deciding when the next H section of the 
' Historical English Dictionary ' appears* I 
hold, with Dr. Palmer, that helpmeet is a cor- 
ruption of helpmate, due to crotchety ideas 
about the phrase of Genesis. Mr. Fitz- 
edward Hall, it is true, notes (' Modern Eng- 
lish,' p. 367) that there is an example of 
"help-meet" with hyphen in the 1738 and 
1753 editions of Milton's 'Prose Works' 
(treatise on ' Divorce,' bk. i. chap, ii.) ; but as 
" help meet " without hyphen is, he adds, the 
reading of the 1698 edition, the hyphen was 
evidently foisted in by the printers in as- 
similation of the phrase to the familiar com- 
pound " help-mate," as then printed, so that 
it does not disturb Dr. Palmer's theory. 

This corruption of Milton's text deserves 
a few words of elucidation. His 'Divorce' 
treatise contains "help meet" only as a 
Scriptural phrase with the complementary 
words " for him " or (as in one place) " for 
man," occurring for the first time at p. 6 of 

the 1643 edition: " I will make him a 

help meet for him." Here and everywhere 
else the 1738 edition prints "help-meet" 
(vol. i. p. 170 et passim) ; and on p. 194 there 
are four instances of "meet help," with a 
quotation, or rather misquotation, of Gen. ii. 
20, "there was not yet found an help-meet for 
Man," sandwiched between the first two. 
These examples of "help-meet "show confusion 
with " help-mate," but those of " helpmeet " in 
the present century are founded on the idea 
that " helpmate " is a blunder. So little was 
Milton under a "mistaken notion" that he 
alternates " fit help " with " meet help " (ibid., 
pp. 171, 173); compare also 'Paradise Lost,' 
viii. 449 : 

What next I bring shall please thee, be assured ; 

Thy likeness, thy fit help. 


Helpmate is rather a favourite word with Sir 
Walter Scott, who fails, however, to restrict 
it to the use to which, in the opinion of your 
valued correspondent C. C. B., it alone 
applies. The following extract from 'The 
Fortunes of Nigel,' chap, viii., in which Ben- 
jamin Suddlechop interrupts his wife while 

* Since the composition of this article the section 
has been published, convicting me of error in my 
observations above on the age of helpmeet, and so 
invalidating any conclusions therefrom. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. JAN. 21, m 

contemplating the preparation of his well- 
earned supper, affords an instance of the 
employment of the word in the sense of 
husband : 

" 'Why, Dame Ursley why, wife, I say why, 
dame why, love, you are wanted more than a strop 
for a dull razor why, dame ' 

'"I would some one would draw the razor across 
thy windpipe, thou bawling ass ! ' said the dame to 
herself, in the first moment of irritation against her 
clamorous helpmate." 

I venture to think, with deference to C. C. B., 
that Scott, Wordsworth, Tennyson, and many 
other standard writers have used this word 
because it is sound English, which " help- 
meet " certainly is not. Newman may have 
used it; but the most illustrious writers 
occasionally trip, and nothing can get over 
the fact that "helpmeet" is based upon a 
misconception of Gen. ii. 18, which distinctly 
places woman, relatively to man, in a position 
not covered entirely by the signification 
which we moderns attach to " helpmate." 

45, Pall Mall, S.W. 

[DR. SPENCE next week.] 

522). MR. HITCHIN-KEMP'S remarks on this 
house and on the family of Kemp are very 
interesting, but I think he must be wrong 
about there being a grant of King John of 
certain lands to the family. No earlier origin 
for the family has ever been suggested than 
one Alan Kemp, of Weston, who is said to 
have married Isabel, daughter and heiress of 
Philip Hastings, who is said to have given 
the manor of Gissing to the family in 1324. 
But even this seems all wrong, and the Kemps 
are apparently riot entitled to quarter the 
arms of Hastings at all, though they have 
done so for many generations ; for they seem 
to have no descent from that family, but to 
have acquired the manor c. 1465 by descent 
from a purchaser from the Hastings family. 

This can be proved up to the hilt thus : 

Gissing manor was held by the Hastings 
family till 1353 ('The Book of Aids' of 
20 Edward III., 1347, gives Ralph de Hastings 
as then lord), when it was sold to a Thomas 
Gardiner, of Gissing, whose daughter Joan, 
dying s.p. in 1400, left it to her brother-in- 
law, Sir Robert Buttevileyn, who had married 
her half-sister. 

It remained in the Buttevileyn family till 
1465, when William Buttevileyn (who in 
1451-2 had been described as " fatuus " in his 
inquisition post mortem, 30 Henry VI., vol. iv. 
p. 150, and as being seized of the manors 
of Gissing and Flordon) died, and the manor 

came through his sister and heir Juliana, who 
is said to have married Robert Duke, of 
Brampton, as shown on the second generation 
of the usually accepted pedigree, though the 
date is utterly wrong, for he did not get 
Gissing till about 1465, and not 1324. His 
daughter, Alice Duke, married John Kemp, 
and so brought Gissing manor for the first 
time into the Kemp family. 

I am unable to trace Isabel Hastings and 
her father Philip. They are, I fear, two of 
the many ghosts who stray through so many 
Elizabethan pedigrees. 

The name of Kemp is a very common one 
in Norfolk, and was borne by all sorts and 
conditions of people, e.g., William Kempe, in 
17 Edward III., was a bondsman (nativus} of 
John de Shelton in Haveringlond (Anct. Ch. 
A. 2754). WALTER RYE. 

Frognal House, Hampstead, N.W. 

PRIME MINISTER (8 th S. x. 357, 438 ; xi. 69, 
151, 510 xii. 55, 431 ; 9 th S. ii. 99 ; iii. 15). 
This form appears to be much older than the 
synonym "Premier." The following, from Mr. 
John Morley's 'Walpole' (pp. 161-2), seems 
to show this clearly : 

" The earliest instance in which I have found the 
head of the government designated as the Premier 
is in a letter to the Duke of Newcastle from 
the Duke of Cumberland in 1746, though in 
Johnson's 'Dictionary,' published nine years later, 

' premier' still only figures as an adjective On 

the other hand, in a debate so late as 1761, George 
Grenville declared that Prime Minister is an odious 
title, and he was sorry that it was now deemed an 
essential part of the constitution. Lord North is 
said never to have allowed himself in his own family 
to be called Prime Minister." 

The Duchess of Marlborough spoke of 
the "Premier Minister," but never of the 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

267). MR. HAMILTON will pardon me, I am 
sure, for saying that I am afraid the data he 
has placed before us for his ascription of this 
book to Thackeray cannot be fully accepted 
as conclusive. In 1837 ' My Book ; or, the 
Anatomy of Conduct,' was published. The 
writer, John H. Shelton, had been a woollen- 
draper in the neighbourhood of Regent Street, 
W. He had become possessed of the fixed 
idea that he was destined to be the instructor 
of mankind in the true art of etiquette. The 
little volume fell in the way of Thackeray, and 
he undertook the task of reviewing it for 
Eraser's Magazine. Thackeray was of the 
opinion that his work would be more pungent 
if he wrote in the character of a footman. 
The review took the- form of a letter 

9 th S. III. JAX. 21, '99.] 



from Charles Yellowplush, Esq., containing 
"Fashionablefax and politeanny goats," dated 
from " No. Grosvenor Square (N.B. Hairy 
Bell)," and addressed to Oliver Yorke, the 
well-known pseudonym of the editor of Fraser. 
The footman who reviewed the fashionable 
world achieved a great success, and Charles 
Yellowplush, Esq., was requested to extend 
his comments upon society and books, and in 
January, 1838, 'The Yellowplush Papers' 
were commenced (vide ' Thackerayana,' first 
edition, p. 133, Chatto & Windus, 1875). 
Under these circumstances I am induced to 
inquire if it is reasonable to assume that 
Thackeray not only wrote ' The Yellowplush 
Papers,' but also, "early in 1838," 'More 
Hints on Etiquette.' I venture to doubt the 
achievement. With reference to MR. HAMIL- 
TON'S other suggestion, that " it is doubtful 
whether at that date [? 1838] Dickens was 
personally acquainted with Cruikshank," I 
request permission to say that ' Sketches by 
Boz' came forth in 1836, and in the preface 
Dickens spoke of the " nervousness he should 
have had in A r enturing alone before the public, 
and of his delight in getting the help of 
Cruikshank" (vide 'Life of Dickens,' by 
J. Forster, vol. i. p. 92). And, moreover, I 
beg to direct the attention of your correspond- 
ent to the fact that even in those early days 
1837-8 Dickens entertained a true regard 
for, and a high opinion of, the original genius 
of George Cruikshank. (In the letter in which 
he suggested to the artist the redesigning 
of the plate of "Kose Maylie and Oliver," 
Dickens wrote, "You know me too well to 
feel hurt by this enquiry, and with equal 

confidence iri you " Vide 'Life,' vol. ii. 

p. 321.) Therefore I am constrained to remark, 
in conclusion, that it is hardly believable that 
there was no friendship between the author 
of and the distinguished artist who so graphic- 
ally illustrated 'Sketches by Boz' in 1836, 
and 'The Adventures of Oliver Twist' in 

Elms Road, S.W. 

MODERN CHANGES OF NAME (9 th S. ii. 225). 
Here we find Hathaway compared to Hollo- 
way. Are we to take this as an etymological 
suggestion or merely a substitution or cor- 
ruption ? Hathaway in many forms is very 
common, and has been freely discussed. Is 
its meaning clearly known ? A. H. 

BOOK TERMS (8 th S. ix. 341 ; x. 400 ; 9 th S. 
ii. 322. 521). I cannot share MR. K. THOMAS'S 
liking for that "nice-sounding word ananym" 
for two reasons, (1) because it is too like 
anonym to be- practically of any use, and 
(2) because it seems to have been invented 

by some person who knew no Greek. If it 
had been correctly formed, so as to repre- 
sent the sense attributed to it by MR. 
THOMAS, it would have been spelt pre- 
cisely as the other word, anonym, to which 
MR. THOMAS prefers it. This accounts pro- 
bably for the non-appearance of ananym in 
dictionaries. Hoyle was "made familiar by 
Eidrah (not Eidrak) Trebor," 1830. 


The Spectator for 10 Dec., 1898, in noticing 
a paper by " Diplomaticus " in the Fortnightly 
Review, says that " it is no slight achievement 
to earn the praise of a pseudonymous maga- 
zine critic." But, supposing the writer of the 
article is a diplomat oy profession, can his 
nom de guerre be strictly styled a pseudonym ? 
I should be glad to know under what category 
MR. THOMAS would be inclined to place such 
signatures as " A Hertfordshire Incumbent," 
and others which, though anonymous so far 
as the writer's name is concealed, denote his 
calling or position in life, and may therefore 
lead to his identification. It seems to me that 
neither anonym, nor pseudonym exactly meets 
these cases, and in the interests of scientific 
bibliography perhaps MR. THOMAS will be 
good enough to favour the readers of 'N.&Q.' 
with his views on the subject. 


45, Pall Mall, S.W. 

EPITAPHS (9 th S. ii. 306, 536). On the tomb- 
stone of one of my forefathers in Hickling 
Churchyard, Notts, are the following lines 
(quoted from memory) : 
Life is a City full of crooked streets, 
Death is y e Market-place where all men meets ; 
If Health were Marchandise y L men could buy, 
Y e rich would mostly live, y e poor men die. 
Do they occur elsewhere? and is it known 
who wrote them ? C. C. B. 

[With slight variations, this epitaph is of frequent 


"HULLABALOO" (9 th S. ii. 267, 395). The 
following is from the diary of Walter Gale, 
schoolmaster, of Mayfield, Sussex, in vol. ix. 
' Sussex Archaeological Collections': 

"1751. March 10. Bein disappointed of my 
Bourn journey, I set out for Laughton, and came to 
Whitesmith's, where was a 'hurley bolloo' about 
Mr. Plummer a having seized a horse loaded with 
three ankers of brandy." 

The Eev. W. D. Parish in his 'Dictionary 
of the Sussex Dialect ' gives " Hurley-bulloo, 
a disturbance." JAS. B. MORRIS. 


"CEILING" OR "CIELING" (9 th S. ii. 284). 
The late Frederick Pepys Cockerell, architect, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [0as.iii.jAK. 21, 

invariably used the spelling "cieling." It 
mav have been handed down from his grand- 
father, an architect, through Prof, Cockerell ; 
but this is purely conjecture on ray part. 


I have noticed in old sixteenth and seven- 
teenth century papers ei is often ie in such 
words B&feild for field. E, E. THOYTS. 

157, 271). Allow me to draw the attention of 
your corresponden ts who have written on this 
subject to the account given in Du Chaillu's 
'Land of the Midnight Sun,' vol. ii. p. 206 
et seq., of a curious custom prevalent at the 
present time in Norway and of a similar 
nature. The whole account is too long for 
quotation, but a few lines from it may interest 
your readers. It is said "travellers see 
strange things ": 

" One of the most characteristic institutions of 
the country is the Sauna (bath-house), called Bad- 
fttuf/a in Swedish. It is a small log-house, built very 
tight, with no windows, having a single aperture 
above to let the smoke out ; in the centre is an 
oven-like structure built of loose stones, under 
which a fire is kept burning till they are very hot ; 
then the fire is extinguished, and the women clean 
the place thoroughly of ashes and soot, the smoke- 
hole having been in the meantime closed. A large 
vessel filled with water is placed within ; a number 
of slender twigs, generally of young birch-trees, are 
put into it, to be used as switches. The bath-house 
stands by itself, and at some distance from the other 
buildings, for safety in case it should take fire. 
Every Saturday evening, summer and winter, all 
over that northern country smoke is seen issuing 
from these structures. It is the invariable custom 
for all the household, on that day, to take a bath, 
for the work of the week is ended, and the beginning 
of Sunday has come. After washing, all put on clean 
linen and their best clothes." Chap. xvii. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I conceive that a reference to the prevalent 
belief in an earth cure for rheumatism and 
the presence of numerous of these excavations 
or structures in Ireland is apparent in the 
last line of the ballad, popular among the 
Hibernian lower class during the last century, 
commencing with the quatrian : 
The night before Larry was stretched [slang for 

The boys they all paid him a visit ; 
A mouthful of grub too they fetched, 
They 'd have sweated [pawned] their duds [clothes] 

Each stanza of eight lines ends, if I remember 
rightly, with an extra line, by no means 
superfluous, since it adds emphasis to the 
preceding verse. 

The company arrive to condole and (more 
Hibernico) to carouse with the convict in the 

condemned cell. Such convivialities were con- 
ceded to the doomed in Ireland in those days. 
They not only bring food with them, but an 
ample supply of the indispensable "craytur." 
The result, as might be foreseen, is that the 
visitors pass from the jovial to the quarrel- 
some stage, and " a row royal," ending in a 
fight, ensues. When peace is at length re- 
stored, they take an affectionate farewell of 
their moribund friend, and, in anticipation 
of the almost immediately impending com- 
mittal of his body to the grave, "earth to 
earth," the final supernumerary line informs 
us (italics mine) that 

they leave him to take a ground sweat. 


WILLIAM PRYNN (9 th S. ii. 288, 336, 496; 
iii. 14). My attention has been called to a 
note in *N. & Q.' in which I am mentioned as 
the President of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, and to a note of correction from 
last reference. I need hardly say that had I 
known of the mistake, I should have at once 
asked you to correct it, and claimed the right 
and honoured title President of the Architec- 
tural Association. MR. WALKER is quite 
right in stating that the R.I.B.A. and A.A. 
are quite different bodies, but he is entirely 
wrong in adding that "the active members 
of the latter body are for the most part pupils 
and junior assistants." 

The Architectural Association, which is the 
chief architectural educating body in the 
country, consists of some thirteen hundred 
members, of whom, as a matter of fact, the 
smaller proportion are assistants and students. 
As regards its " active members " if it is to 
the officers and council that MR. WALKER 
refers nearly all are representative men in 
practice, who give their valued services 
voluntarily in the cause of furthering archi- 
tectural education. As I write this simply 
to correct two mistaken statements, I will 
only add that if MR. WALKER will kindly 
take the trouble to refer to the list of past 
presidents, he will see that there are several 
names that have some claim to be well known 
in the profession, and, I may add, all at the 
time of their election have been men of large 
experience and many years in practice. 

6, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W. 

xi. 346, 492 ; xii. 104, 290, 414, 493 ; 9 th S. i. 91; 
ii. 75, 332, 531). In a letter addressed to Earl 
Harcourt, Walpole writes, according to Cun- 
ningham's edition (vol. viii. p. 405, under date 

9 th S. III. JAN. 21, '( 



30 Aug., 1783) : " Sir Edward [Walpole] says 
I shall be mighty happy with meeting mj 
Lord of Orford, ' who is often at Nuneham 
for Lord Harcourt is very good to him.' " Ii 
is evident that Orford here is a misreading o: 
Cunningham for Oxford. The reference is 
undoubtedly to John Butler, Bishop of Oxforc 
(1777-88), with whom Sir Edward Walpole 
was on friendly terms, as may be seen from 
the following quotation : 

"The Bishop of Oxford, once a writer in patriol 
opposition, wrote t'other clay to his friend anc 
patron, my brother, that Lord Harcourt had invitee 
him to dinner, treated him most benignantly, anc 
not mentioned a word of politics ; ' surely,' added 
the meek apostle, 'if there were a toleration oj 
patriots, Lord Harcourt would be entitled to the 
benefit of it.' "Letter of Horace Walpole to 
Mason, dated 18 Aug., 1779, vol. vii. 242. 

An observation to the same effect, addressed 
by Horace Walpole to Earl Harcourt, will be 
found on p. 256, vol. vii. On the other hand, 
Horace Walpole always refers to his nephew 
as Lord Orford (see, for instance, vol. iv. p. 46 ; 
vol. vi. p. 2), and there is no evidence to show 
that the latter ever visited Nuneham. The 
proximity of Oxford to Nuneham would, of 
course, account for Lord Harcourt showing 
hospitality to the bishop as his neighbour, 
though they held (on the bishop's own show- 
ing) different views on politics. The reference 
to the Bishop of Oxford as my " Lord of 
Oxford " is quite in Horace Walpole's manner ; 
he refers, for instance, to the Archbishop of 
York as " my Lord's grace of York " (vol. vi. 
p. 484) and as " my Lord of York " (vol. vii. 
p. 14), to the Archbishop of Canterbury as 
" my Lord of Canterbury " (vol. vii. p. 478 ; 
vol. viii. p. 229), and to the Bishop of Ely as 
"my Lord of Ely " (vol. vi. p. 316). 

In a letter to Lady Ossory dated 23 Sept., 
1780 (vol. vii. p. 440), Walpole writes : "My 
cousin and namesake is come into Parliament, 
which baptizes me the old If . W" This cousin 
and namesake was Horatio, the eldest son of 
Lord Walpole of Wolterton, Horace Walpole's 
first cousin ; and Cunningham states in a note 
that he was " M.P. for the Walpole constitu- 
ency of King's Lynn." This is a mistake. 
The Mr. Horatio Walpole alluded to did enter 
Parliament in 1780, but it was as member for 
Wigan, which he represented from 1780 till 
1784. In the latter year he became member 
for King's Lynn in succession to his uncle 
Thomas Walpole, who was re-elected for that 
borough in 1780, at the same time that his 
nephew became member for Wigan. 

In a letter to Lady Ossory dated 8 June, 
1784 (vol. viii. p. 481), Horace Walpole writes : 
"They [the newspapers] have been circum- 
stantial about Lady Walsingkam's birthday 

clothes, which to be sure one is glad to know, 
only unluckily there is no such person." 
Wright, in his note on this passage, shares 
Horace Walpole's opinion, and states that 
"Lady Walsingham" was "Mrs. Boyle Wal- 
singham, Charlotte, daughter of Sir Charles 
Hanbury -Williams, Bart., married to the Hon. 
Robert Boyle Walsingham." Both Horace 
Walpole and his editor, however, are mistaken 
as to the non-existence of Lady Walsingham. 
Strangely enough, at that particular date 
there were two Lady Walsinghams alive. 
Thomas de Grey, second Lord Walsingham, 
who succeeded his father in 1781, married in 
1772 Augusta Georgiana Elizabeth Irby, only 
daughter of the first Lord Boston, and this 
lady survived till 1818 (see Collins's and 
Debrett's 'Peerages'). Her mother-in-law, 
Mary Cowper, Dowager Lady Walsingham, 
was also living, and died in 1800. 

The correspondent to whom Letter 1271 
(vol. v. p. 315) is addressed has not yet, ap- 
parently, been identified, as Cunningham 
leaves the title blank. The addressee appears 
pretty clearly, from internal evidence, to be 
Edward Louisa Mann, elder brother of Sir 
Horace Mann. Edward Louisa Mann was 
deputy of Sir Edward and Horace Walpole in 
the Customs Office (see the '.Royal Kalendar' 
of this year, 1771). His occupancy of this 
place is referred to by Horace Walpole in a 
letter (vol. vii. p. 297) of 1775, the year of 

Edward Mann's death : "I might plead 

that Mr. Mann's death detains me, for he held 
our place for Sir Edward and me, and there 
is much to settle." Throughout Letter 1271 
Horace Walpole refers to a place held jointly 
by himself and his only surviving brother 
Sir Edward Walpole. The place in question 
is that of Collector of the Customs, as may be 
gathered from Walpole's 'Account of his 
Conduct ' relative to the places held by him 
under Government (printed by Cunningham 
in vol. i. p. Ixxxiv). The patent of this par- 
ticular office was twice offered to him for his 
ife, and refused by him. To this refusal he 
^wice refers in this letter. 

Towards the end of the letter Walpole 
writes : " I do not forget my obligations to you 
dear Sir, or to your dead brother, whose 
memory will ever be most dear to me." This 
s, no doubt, a reference to Galfridus Mann 
Edward Mann's younger brother, who died in 
1756, and for whom Horace W a ^P^ e na cl a 
f ery real regard (see letter to Sir H. Mann on 
;he death of Galfridus Mann, vol. iii. p. 53). 
There seems very little doubt, therefore, that 
;his letter was addressed to Edward Louisa 

Dorney Wood, Burnham, Bucks. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. in. JAN. 21, m 

' THE BOOK OF TEPHI ' (9 th S. ii. 509). In 
answer to your correspondent D. J., I may 
say that 'The Book of Tephi' is a mere 
romance in verse, and entirely without value 
to any person wishing to arrive at the truth 
as to the High Queen's history. As I found 
that others had been deceived in the matter, 
I published last April a little book entitled 

* The Light of the West,' which will give some 
information as to the Irish manuscript evi- 
dence upon the subject. Hebrew scholars 
may also consult the * Shallum Doim ' and 

* Hamuza,' whilst there is an epitome of the 
inception of the expedition at Bethlehem, 
and its course en route for Ireland, in the 
commentary upon Jezirah by Rabbi Donolo, 
nephew (not brother) of St. Cathal, Arch- 
bishop of Tarentum, written early in the 
seventh century. J. A. G. 

MIDDLESEX (9 th S. ii. 469, 494, 511). It does 
not seem very clear whether either " Middlesex " 
or " county of London " can be called " incor- 
rect." The Act of 1888says that a place, part of 
an administrative county, shall (subject as in 
this Act mentioned) form part of that county 
for all purposes, sheriff, lieutenant, custos, 
justice, militia, coroner, or other ; but among 
the tilings stated not to be affected thereby is 
"land tax." Surely then a resident pro- 
prietor of land at (say) Fulham (or Putney), 
who pays land tax on such land as being in 
the county of Middlesex (or Surrey), is justified 
in describing his residence as in that county, 
though for "sheriff, lieutenant," and other 
purposes, it is the county of London. I 
should be very glad if some legal opinion on 
the subject could be cited or obtained. 

G. E. C. 

NONJURORS (9 th S. ii. 408, 493). French 
Prophets appear deservedly to rank as re- 
ligious impostors. Dr. D. Hughson published 
in 1814 "a complete exposure of their infamous 
practices," in which he states that towards the 
close of the year 1706 three French Cevennois, 
commonly called Camisars, arrived in Eng- 
land, and by their enthusiastic effusions, 
pretences to prophesying, and ecstatic con- 
vulsions raised the curiosity not only of their 
countrymen in London, but also of some 
English people. Their presence and preten- 
sions gave offence to the French congregation 
of the Savoy Chapel, who caused an investiga- 
tion to be made concerning these prophets 
with the result of their being declared im 
posters in an Act dated 2 Jan., 1707, and 
confirmed by Dr. Compton, Bishop of London 
One of their assembling places was in Soho 
with others in different parts of London 
They appear to have been a medley ol 

piritualists, Jumpers, and Shakers, with one 
>r two sharp fellows as principals, who man- 
aged to line their own pockets with the gold 
of some of their credulous followers. Dr. 
ilughson asserts that the ruin of Sir Richard 
^ulkeley, Bart., was due to this fact. 

Three of the Prophets were sentenced to 
stand in the pillory twice, at Charing Cross 
and Royal Exchange, the result of a prosecu- 
tion for disturbing the public peace. Dr. 
lughson concludes his pamphlet by remark- 
ng that the famous William Whiston's Boyle 
Lectures at Bow Church inveigh most forcibly 
igainst the Prophets, and also that at Sion 
College Library are five volumes containing 
papers relating to them. 



[The district near the Cevennes has, of course, 
jeen fruitful of so-called heresies since the time of 
;he Albigenses. Smiles's ' History of the Hugue- 
nots ' and a library of other works may be consulted 
concerning the Camisards and their doings. ] 

THE CURSE OF ST. WITHOLD (9 th S. ii. 509). 
Withold is a corruption of Vitalis^one of 
bhe lieutenants of St. Maurice, who, with the 
whole of their legion, suffered martyrdom. 
St. Withold was invoked in cases of night- 
mare. There is an allusion to this in ' King 
Lear,' III. iv. Gurth probably invokes him 
because he was a well-known mediaeval saint. 
The chronicler Ordericus Vitalis took the 
name of this saint when he received the ton- 
sure on St. Maurice's Day. 


21, Magdalen Terrace, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

ii. 508). Samuel Carkeet was a Dissenting 
minister at Totness, and wrote ' Gospel 
Worthiness stated, in a Sermon preach'd in 
Exon at the Young Men's Lecture, May 7, 
1719,' 'An Essay on the Conversion of 
St. Paul,' &c., 1741. He was ordained on 
19 June, 1710, and died on 17 June, 1746. He 
was buried at Totness. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

CHAUSSEY (9 fch S. ii. 467, 538). At first sight 
it seems likely enough that the Chaussey 
archipelago derives its name from the French 
chaussee, because of its resemblance to a bank, 
but it must not be forgotten that great 
changes have taken place in the configuration 
of the coast in this part of France owing to 
the encroachments of the sea. " Where rolls 
the deep," a forest stood as late as the eighth 
century, and even nowadays the traces of 
submerged villages are sometimes to be seen 
when the tide is low. Again, it must be borne 


s. in. JAN. 21, mi NOTES AND QUEKIES. 

n mind that the termination -ey often stands 
or island. Thus Guernsey appears to mean 
: green island" (Groen-s-ey), and Jersey is 
Derhaps " Caesar's isle," so that it may very 
veil be that the -ey in Chaussey is not a cor- 
uptiori of -ee. In 'Les Travailleurs de la 
Mer,' Victor Hugo, in describing the formid- 
ible rocks off this part of France, calls one of 
:hem Chouzy, a form of the name not men- 
tioned by your correspondent. 


"INTERLUNAR CAVE" (9 th S. ii. 509). Milton 
uses this fanciful expression to depict the 
situation of the moon when she is invisible 
from the earth. She then hides herself, ac- 
cording to Pliny ('Hist. Nat.,' ii. 6), and is 
believed to rest from her work. "Mensis 
exitu latet," is his statement, " quum laborare 
non creditur." Interlunium is Pliny's word 
for the period intervening between the dis- 
appearance of the old moon and the advent of 
the new. The Latin naturalist also antici- 
pates the English poets in applying the 
epithet "silent" to the moon when she is in 
her transition stage. " Quern diem," he says, 
"alii interlunii, alii silentis lume appellant" 
('Hist. Nat.,' xvi. 74). After all, the point 
is one that should cause very little difficulty 
to the readers of Milton and Shelley. 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

The following note may be of service : 

"By an interchange of metaphors not uncommon 
in classical poetry, a word which properly applies 
only to sound is nere applied to sight, and silent 

meaning: the phrase ' silens Luna' was employed 
by the Romans to denote the moon during that 
period which elapses between the disappearance of 
the old moon and the appearance of the new. Cf. 
Pliny, ' Nat. Hist.,' i. xvi. 39, ' Quern diem alii inter- 
lunii, alii silentis Lunce appellant.' ' Interlunar 
cave ' is simply a poetical expression for the moon 
in this eclipsed state, and the epithet ' vacant ' is 
used because the moon is, as it were, useless or emit- 
ting no light, the poet remembering, no doubt, the 
expression of Pliny, xvi. 39, ' Luna ibi vacat apera 
et minister io sup.' ' Samson Agonistes,' edited by 
J. Churton Collins. 

21, Magdalen Terrace, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

CURE FOR CONSUMPTION (9 th S. ii. 466, 515). 
W. C. B. quotes Mrs. Barbauld, who states 
the German doctors sent their patients into 
the cowhouses. It is worth noting that 
Eugene Chavette, in his witty, though not 
over-refined * Lilie, Tutue, Bebeth,' burlesques 
this regimen in relating the discovery of the 

Duchesse de Fouines by her lawyer Crochard 
in the establishment of Tante Tutue. The 
duchess, after being ordered by "un petit 
medecin de campagne " to try existence in 
"la societe des vaches," falls under the in- 
fluence of a somnambulist (Tante Bebeth), 
who orders her to pass her time in an 
"atmosphere saturee d emanations trente fois 
plus bienfaisantes que celles d'une etable," 
with the result that she spends two years as 
deputy dame du comptoir in "un de ces 
etablissements discrets qui par seance de- 
mandent trois sous au consornmateur," with 
complete success. It would be interesting to 
know if Chavette's satire had any originality 
in it. W. H. QUARRELL. 

The delusion prevailed in France also. The 
adventures of a young lady who lodged over 
a cowshed supply the motif of one of Madame 
de Genlis's juvenile stories. Is there not a 
tradition that similar good results were got 
by inhaling the steam from new bread 1 



192, 517). Miss Baker says, in her 'North- 
amptonshire Glossary,' that the word paigle 
is now seldom used in this county, " except in 
the comparison ' as yellow as a paigle.' " In 
this locality the flowers are always spoken of 
as cowslips. I cull the following from Hogg 
and Johnson's 'Wild Flowers of Great 
Britain '(1863) : 

"Cowslip is the name the flower has borne from 
the earliest Anglo-Saxon times, and probably re- 
ferred to the sweetness of its perfume. It seems to 
have been the popular nanie, and payel that adopted 
by the monks and mediciners of the mediaeval age. 
Pagellus in monkish Latin, found in. many old 
charters, signifies a small country district, andpagel, 
its contraction, implied a little rustic, a pet name 
very applicable to the flower, for it is found only in 
very open pastures. It has been called also pa Isy- 
wort, and for the same reason that the French name 
it herbe de la parcdysie, the flowers being considered 
efficacious against nervous disorders." 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

MYRMECIDES (9 th S. iii. 5). The reference is 
to an ancient sculptor and engraver of Athens 
or Miletus, called Mvp/z^Kt'S^s. He was cele- 
brated for the minuteness of his work in 
ivory, some of which was on so small a scale 
that it could hardly be seen unless placed 
upon black hair (vide Smith's 'Diet, of Biog.,' 
s.v.). In the quotation from Bishop King, 
were " is doubtless the singular of the im- 
perfect subjunctive, so that "some Myrme- 
cides" is parallel to "some mute inglorious 
Milton "a use of " some " which, I am told, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. JAN. 21, m 

the authorities of Victoria Embankment 
would probably include in one condemnation 
with such idioms as "a friend of mine" or 
" the committee are sitting." 


The craftsman who bore this nickname is 
by no means so mysterious a person as MR. 
THORNTON seems to imply. The passage from 
Bishop King is a quotation from Cicero, 
' Acad. Prior.,' ii. 120. Myrmecides constructed 
an ivory chariot which a fly could cover with 
its wings, and a ship which bore the same 
relation to a bee. See Pliny, ' Nat. Hist.,' vii. 
21. J. P. GILSON. 

38, Great Ormond Street, W.C. 

S. ii. 528). In 1876 I attended a William 
Joseph Andre. He died of consumption on 
21 August of that year, aged thirty-six. He 
was a nephew, he told me (probably a grand- 
nephew), of Major John Andre'. He had been 
living in College Street, Chelsea. I saw his 
son, who was still living in Chelsea, as late as 
1883. Both father and son were, I believe, 
employed in connexion with some tennis 
club, in what capacity I did not know. 


8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

PICTURE BY MURILLO (9 th S. ii. 128). A 
condensed account of the history of this 
picture 'La Vieja' is given by Curtis in his 
exhaustive work on Velasquez and Murillo, 
under No. 448 of the works by the latter- 
artist. W. ROBERTS. 

Carlton Villa, Klea Avenue, Clapham. 

416). Perhaps MR. A. W. WATERS may like 
to be referred to the Picture Magazine, vol. iii., 
p. 148 (1894), where he will find twenty-six 
illustrations of tickets to public theatres and 
other places of amusement. The following, 
among others, are given : Covent Garden, 
1762 and 1817; New Theatre, Covent Garden, 
1809; Drury Lane, 1776 and 1790; Theatre 
Royal, 1671, 1684, and 1755 ; Queen's Theatre, 
1684 and 1695 ; King's, 1791 ; The Grotto, 
1764 ; Marybone, 1766 ; New Theatre, Good- 
man's Fields ; Italian Opera Pantheon, 1790 ; 
Royal Haymarket, 1778 ; Cromwell's Gardens, 
Brompton ; Royal Circus ; and Ranelagh 
House. If your correspondent is unable to 
see this book, I shall be very happy to lend 
him my copy. C. H. C. 

South Hackney. 

ARCHITECTURAL NICHES (9 th S. ii. 409 ; iii. 
32). My thanks are due to two of your 
correspondents, who, as well as another 

who wrote to me direct, suggest that the 
"niches " described by me might perhaps be 
putlog holes. There are plenty of instances 
of indubitable putlog holes about the place, 
but I think that if your readers could see the 
sketch to which my eyes now turn, they would 
agree that the little cavities in question can 
have served no such purpose, their great 
number, regularity, and proximity to each 
other militating against such a theory. I 
count thirty in the uppermost row close 
under the office line. A course or two of 
stones lower than this comes another row of 
about as many ; and there are seven or eight 
rows, interrupted here and there by small 
windows (apparently later insertions). The 
stones composing the wall are of about the 
size that I nave ascribed to the niches, with 
now and again a large " riser," neat ashlar 
work. I have been asked, Might doves have 
been the intended occupants? these being 
somewhat smaller than pigeons ; but I think 
there would not be room for one to turn round 
in, leave alone for two, Avhen nesting. 


MAELSTROM (9 th S. ii. 285, 451). The book 
in which this word is printed maelstrom, as I 
observed at the latter reference, is Mr. Silva 
White's * From Sphinx to Oracle,' just pub- 
lished. The blunder is at p. 2. 


106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

HEBREW NUMERALS (9 th S. ii. 288, 335, 436). 
I do not know why CANON TAYLOR should 
think my request unreasonable. On such a 
subject his name is undoubtedly of high 
authority ; but how can his statement be 
reconciled with the following, from Prof. 
Driver : " The supposition that letters were 
used for numerals in the sacred [Hebrew] 
autographs is destitute of foundation " ? 


Armorial Families. Compiled and edited by 

Arthur Charles Fox-Davies. (Edinburgh, T. C. 

& E. C. Jack.) 

THOUGH put forward as a third edition, Mr. Fox- 
Davies's 'Armorial Families ' is practically a new 
work. It is thoroughly consonant with his previous 
labours, and it maintains and defends the opinions 
previously enunciated, carrying them to their legiti- 
mate and inevitable conclusions. It is, moreover, 
necessarily no less uncompromising and aggressive 
than previous works, and while wholly defensible in 
view is likely to create in many quarters the maxi- 
mum of annoyan ce and controversy. The unpalatable 
truths Mr. Fox-Davies felt called upon to advance 

v* s. in. JAN. 21, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

\\ )re shown in his treatment of Fairbairn's ' Book 
o Crests,' a book at its first appearance, in 1859, 
p actically valueless, and now, in the later edition, 
j< ited by Mr. Fox-Davies in 1892, of genuine autho- 
:i ,y and value. From this he banished many 
h indred false ascriptions. The delusion still pre- 
v lils that one not entitled to a coat of arms may 
y :t indulge himself in a crest, whereas a crest is 
n icessarily a portion of a complete heraldic achieve- 
n ent. Like supporters in the present day, a crest 
v as, and is, an extra distinction, and though there 
a -e numerous old coats without any crest, there is 
bat a single instance in which the crest is of more 
aicient date than the coat. In this solitary in- 
stance the arms were exhibited at the Visitation of 
the heralds., were not passed, and were subsequently 
rectified, while the crest was passed at the time. 
Emboldoned by his success in his earlier venture, 
Mr. Fox-Davies has published the present work, in 
which he subjects to close scrutiny some two to 
three thousand coats. In his treatment of these he 
has followed in part the system adopted by Joseph 
Edmondson in the 'Alphabet of Arms' included in 
his ' Complete Body of Heraldry,' 1780, a work in 
which he was aided by Sir Joseph Ayloffe. This 
system, which has subsequently been employed in 
other treatises, leads Mr. Fox-Davies to print in 
roman. text the arms which are officially sanctioned, 
and in italics those for which no similar authority 
exists, some of them not seldom boasting no higher 
authority than that of the heraldic stationer. In 
his present volume the editor prints at the foot of 
each alternate page the guarantee " that every 
entry not in italics is that of a genuinely armigerous 
person." Somewhat startling results naturally, 
and even inevitably, attend this process. Not 
seldom the parvenu is more careful to have his 
grant secure than is the cadet of a family long 
noble. We can test only as regards a single county, 
and here we find orthodox arms assigned a man 
who, within our own recollection, kept a small 
ready-made clothes shop, and others of origin no 
less humble, while the arms are given in italics of 
the sons of peers and others belonging for genera- 
tions to county families. We are casting no doubt 
upon the work, but are simply stating facts. In 
the case of people of the utmost distinction, Mr. 
Fox-Davies employs his favourite formula, "Ar- 
morial bearings as used, but for which no autho- 
rity has been established, are," &c. The chief fault 
that has been found with the work is that it is not 
complete. This is a self-evident proposition. It is 
difficult to conjecture in these days in which it 
is popularly, but erroneously, supposed that the 
Excise confers by its receipt of payment a right to 
wear arms how many scores of thousands there 
are by whom they are worn. In the second part of 
his title the compiler describes his book as "a 
directory of -some gentlemen of coat-armour, show- 
ing which arms in use at the moment are borne 
by legal authority." The italics are, of course, ours. 
He does not claim to have included the whole oj 
the families in Shirley, still less to have scrutinized 
every armorial book-plate that owes its existence to 
the Ex-Libris Society. He insists, however, on the 
fact that a large number of the noble and gentle 
families of England have made no proof of descent 
since the Visitations, and he holds the risk of ille- 
gitimacy too great for him to accept any pedigree 
unless it has properly gone through the mill. He 
reiterates his assertion that the work, the effect o: 
which has been sensible, has never put forward a 

laim to completeness. Looking forward as he 
does to seeing the work a periodical perhaps even 
L biennial production, he views with some appre- 
lension the enormous number of new entries which 
will need to be inserted. No less modest is Mr. 
?ox-Davies in claiming for his work no official 
authority. He has been greatly aided by the heralds 
notably by Richmond Herald and by Lyon King 
f Arms and Ulster King of Arms but for all that 
e prints he takes the sole responsibility. The 
lutnority of his work will not disputed, 
jy those, at least, whose arms are given in roman 
text. No similar work to this exists in Britain, 
lor, so far as we know, in any other country. 
During the few years it has been before the public 
it has risen steadily in public favour, and as its 
merits are known it will continue to rise. It is a 
handsome work, bristling with illustrations, and 
must form an indispensable portion of every heraldic 

Diary of Thomas Broivn, Writer in Kirlcwall, 
1675-1697. Edited by A. Francis Steuart, Advo- 
cate. (Kirkwall, Peace & Son.) 
RATHER dry bones are those given us by Mr. 
Steuart in the shape of the diary of Thomas 
Brown, a "writer" in Kirkwall (using the term 
"writer" in a Scottish sense) concerning whom 
next to nothing is known. It is possible for 
imagination, or even for knowledge, to clothe them 
with flesh. Many facts of interest concerning 
Orcadian families and customs may be extracted. 
As a rule the interest of the entries is purely genea- 
logical. There are some matters, however, of 
historical or general importance, as, for instance, 
the record how 250 " Quhiggs [Whigs] taken at 
Bothwal Brige," shipped for " Verginy," " paroched" 
(perished) at or near the " Moull head of Deirnes." 
Ihere are allusions to a "batell" between George, 
" alledged Earle of Caithness, with his men " and 
"Glenorkie and his men." We hear how "Mr. 
Ritchard Reidman, a muntebank phisitiane, came 
to Kirkwall from Walls " ; how offenders against 
morality were " conveined befoir the pulpit, and 
the like. We approach Sir Walter Scott when we 
find the name Halcro, and hear much of Barkies, 
Feas, Moncrieffes, and Traills. The little volume 
has much interest for Scottish genealogists and will 
be welcome to a wider circle. 

The Use of Sarum. By W. H. Frere, M.A. (Cam- 
bridge, University Press.) 

MUCH has been done for liturgiology in this last 
decade. Many of the ancient service-books and 
sacramentaries have been edited by competent 
scholars, and abundant material for forming some 
estimate of their value and importance is now avail- 
able. We confess that to non- liturgical students 
it is difficult to share the enthusiasm which the 
subject seems to inspire in those devoted to it. To 
appreciate the minute niceties of ecclesiastical eti- 
quette one needs an unappeasable appetite for small 
details, which to the exoteric seem absolutely 
trivial and insignificant. The average Englishman 
knows little of the use of Sarum beyond a passing 
reference to it in the preface to his Prayer Book. 
If he wishes to dispel his ignorance this learned 
volume will largely help him. 

Mr. Frere gives the customs of Sarum as they are 
set forth in the Latin Consuetudinary and Custom- 
ary of that ancient foundation. The former of these 
is a code of usages and regulations on which the 



. in. JAN. 21, m 

Sarum use was chiefly founded. The Customary, 
which is supplementary to the Consuetudinary and 
follows it in assigning the various parts of the ser- 
vice to different members of the cathedral body, is 
now printed for the first time. In the judgment of 
the editor, these documents were probably compiled 
and systematized very early in the thirteenth cen- 
tury 'by Bishop Poore, the founder of Salisbury 
Cathedral, out of the liturgical arrangements of his 
famous predecessor Bishop Osmund. 

Mr. Frere has evidently studied the MS. sources 
of his treatises with that extreme accuracy and 
conscientiousness which is the cardinal virtue of a 
liturgiplogist, and one not always exhibited by 
some previous workers in this particular field. 
Some specimens of the old musical settings of the 
versicles are given in an appendix. The Ordinal of 
the same use, which is practically a book of rubrics 
dealing with the method and sequence of the divers 
parts of the service, will be issued in a second 

Life of St. Edmund of Abingdon. By Frances de 

Paravicini. (Burns & Gates.) 

IT is hard to notice a book like this without trench- 
ing on the (to us) forbidden domain of theology. It 
will be deemed an edifying book or otherwise 
according to the mental predisposition of the 
reader. If he can bring to it a mediaeval cast of 
mind, which finds no difficulty in believing that a 
miraculous order of things could and did prevail 
here in England in the thirteenth century which 
cannot and does not prevail in the nineteenth, he 
will think it profitable reading. It is the first step 
which makes the others possible. An able man 
like Cardinal Newman could believe that a peren- 
nial flow of medicinal oil exuded from the relics of a 
St. Walburga ; but it is not given to every one to 
have a faith so robust others might say a credulity 
so sickly. 

As a boy Edmund plighted his troth to the Blessed 
Virgin, and wedded her by proxy by placing a ring 
upon the finger of her statue, which (as is customary 
in such cases) forcibly retained the ring, so that it 
could not be removed, and thus his vow was mani- 
festly accepted. While he was yet a child the 
Saviour appeared to him in the fields as an infant 
with his name written legibly upon his brow, and 
promised him that if he only would write the same 
upon his own forehead every night he would never 
die a sudden death. The "lonesome tree" at 
Abingdon, preserved by Divine guardians to this 
day, still marks the spot of the holy apparition. 
We are rather shocked to hear that " when he read 
in the Schooles he was assisted by an Angell in the 
shape of a beautifull yong man." Was this quite 
fair? He was seen to say his prayers "raised a 
great space from the ground." Moderns, we believe, 
call this " levitation." A dark rain-cloud which 
threatened an open-air service at which St. Edmund 
was preaching, and rather spoiled the congregation, 
was the work of the devil. It was dispersed at 
once by the saint, and not a single drop fell upon 
those who sat out the sermon. His tomb at Pon- 
tigny, as might be expected, became the fruitful 
source of other miracles. 

The prosaic facts of his life seem to be these. 
Edmund Rich, born at Abingdon ab9ut 1185, was 
educated at Oxford ; became lecturer in theology at 
Paris ; was elevated to the throne of Canterbury in 
1234 ; died at Soissy in 1240 ; and was canonized 
four years afterwards by Innocent IV. Apart from 

polemics, there is much that is beautiful and saintly, 
if ascetic, in the devoted life of the good archbishop. 
Miss Paravicini has evidently found her work a 
labour of love, and had no wish to be critical. In 
collecting her materials she has used the four most 
ancient MS. sources which are available. 

My Horse, my Love. By Sara Buckman-Linard. 

(Fisher Unwin.) 

THIS rhapsody concerning the horse reaches us 
from America, and is supposed to be inspired by 
a Polish count who escaped from imprisonment 
in Russia. It has a great deal to say that is sensible 
as well as sentimental concerning the treatment of 
horses, and it teaches the necessary, and now, 
happily, fashionable, lesson of merciful treatment 
to animals. We are sometimes, however, a little 
startled by some of its statements. It supplies 
some capital pictures of animals included in what 
is called the " Crabbet Arabian Stud." 

A Very Seasonable Kalendar for 1899 has been 
compiled by Misses Andrea Jonsson and Louella C. 
Poole, and issued in Boston, U.S., from 457, Shaw- 
mut Avenue, with illustrations by Miss Fannie S. 
Montague. It is wholly Shakspearean and very 
interesting to Shakspeare worshippers. 

WE have received from Prof. Candy, of Fox Hill, 
Norwood, the first and second books of Phonetic 
Writing. We do not possess the type for giving 
his spelling, though we are urged to obtain it. We 
content ourselves by announcing that the opuscules 
can be obtained from Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, and 
have nothing more to say concerning a plan that is 
wholly outside our sympathies. 

THE Guild of Handicraft at Essex House, 401, 
Mile End Road, have purchased the plant and 
presses of the Kelmscott Press, and have made 
arrangements with members of the late William 
Morris's staff with a view to continue the fine 
traditions which Morris revived. New type is 
being designed by Mr. C. R. Ash bee. 

jjiatitw to 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

HAMILTON ("Month"). There is no known rime 
to this word. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9 th S. III. JAN. 




CONTENTS. -No. 57. 

VOTES : Heptonstall, 61 Jew's Walk, Sydenham, 62 
Shakspeariana, 63 Marbles, 65 Letters from Ministers to 
the Sovereign" To Rile "The Willow Leaves on the 
Sun, 66 Omdurman Sir C. Sedley : Voltaire, 67. 

QUERIES :-Oil Painting Henry Alken Edward Marsh- 
Francis Gifford Sewardstone Portraits at Oxford, 67 
Queen Mary Tudor Agam Colours Lewis Carroll Dead 
Fold " Unspeakable Turk" Dr. John King Cure by 
Hand of a Corpse Author of Play Wanted The Village 
of Loggerheads Treacle Bible Younie, 68 " T'esquinte 
pas "Clare Street Mrs. Younger=John Finch Hatton 
Author Wanted Goldsmith's Earth and Animated 
Nature' The Stuart Watch Alaric Benedict Arnold- 
Lady Maynard " Sween " Dallas, 69. 

REPLIES: St. Peter's, Wolverhampton, Charter, 70 
"Helpmate" Minutes and Seconds "Vestigia nulla 
retrorsum," 71 "Ploughing the sands" Ward Miss 
Linwood's Galleries Gulls ' The Whole Duty of Man' 
Black Blotting Paper Acorus calamus, 72 "Piggin" 
English Monkish Chronology The George worn by 
Charles I. Dr. Dee, 73 Cooke Glyndyfrdwy The Real 
JEaesiB, 74 Relic of Napoleon Burns's Prophecy Cam e- 
lian Ring Rounds or Rungs, 75" Felicity "A Descend- 
ant of Swift, 76 Tdte-a-Tete Portraits " Rummer" A 
Child's Caul, 77 Wollaston Arms Hereditary Odour 
Furly, 78. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Verney's ' Memoirs of the Verney 
Family ' Le Dix-huitieme SiScle 'Henderson's ' Scottish 
Vernacular Literature.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


As the traveller wends along the beautiful 
valley of the Calder, he descries, perched like 
a human eyrie on the summit of a high, 
steeply precipitous hill, the village of Hepton- 
stall, the tower of the ancient church modestly 
overtopping the clustering cottages. The 
name Heptonstall, which is the modern ren- 
dering of the Saxon Heaqh-ton-stall, that is, 
the High-town-station, admirably designates 
this interesting quaint spot. As a ton or 
town, though to-day merely a small village, it 
is not improbable that Heptonstall is one of 
the oldest in Yorkshire. It has an antique 
history. Here was a Roman road, leading 
from Cambodunum to Colonia (Colne). Here 
early Saxon settlers, taking ad vantage of this 
highway made ready to their hands, estab- 
lished a stall or station, recognizing, too, the 
natural strong and secure position on the 
mountain height. The nomenclature of the 
district for miles around is unmistakably 
Saxon, traces of the older Celt being exceed- 
ingly rare. 

The glory of Heptonstall is the old church, 
or rather, it is sad to have to write, the ruins 
of the church. This church was dedicated t 
St. Thomas a Becket, one of the many illus- 

trious occupants of the archiepiscopal see of 
Canterbury a name invested with tragic 
renown. The church was probably erected 
about the middle of the thirteenth century. 
As lords of the manor, the Earls Warrenne, 
there is scarcely a doubt, built and endowed 
this edifice. The neighbouring church of 
Ealand is a few years older, and Halifax, of 
course, much older still. 

The architecture of this church is very far 
from common. In its palmiest days this 
ecclesiastical edifice was one of unique beauty. 
It consisted of a tower, two naves, and two 
chancels, which latter were entered by high 
arches, together with north and south aisles. 
The tower was plain and massive, surmounted 
with an embattled parapet, the lower part 
forming the vestry. The north and south 
naves consisted of four bays each. Four crosses 
surmounted the four gables. Dormer win- 
dows added to the quaintness of the structure. 
A very interesting and ancient feature Avas 
the sancte bellcot, the bell of which was rung 
when the celebrant elevated the sacred ele- 
ments of the Holy Eucharist. On the south 
side of the altar there was a piscina, but there 
is no trace of any aumbrie, tnough some anti- 
quaries maintain there are indications of one 
still remaining. The altar was approached 
by steps, being thus raised above the level of 
the floor. There appears to have been an 
organ in this church in the sixteenth century. 
In the eighteenth century additions in the 
way of lofts were made, which did not con- 
tribute to the beauty of the edifice. In the 
reign of Henry VIII. we find there was a 
chantry of the Blessed Virgin Mary, this 
chantry possessing lands in the adjacent 
township of Stansfield. A fine porch still 
remains. The church has unquestionably been 
enlarged and altered at different periods, 
though a portion of the original structure is 
still standing. 

In the latter part of the fifteenth century 
the church was polluted by a violent effusion 
of blood "violentasanguiniseffusionenotoria 
polluta." < The Archbisliop of York in 1482 
issued a licence for twenty-four days, grant- 
ing permission to celebrate Mass beyond the 
precincts of the church in lawfully appointed 
places until such times as the church should 
be reconciled " ad reconciliandam." History- 
has handed down no particulars, and tradi- 
tion is entirely silent. Had this sanguinary 
affair taken place a few years earlier, we 
might have been led to connect it with the 
Wars of the Roses, and conjectured a fierce 
encounter between the partisans of the rival 
houses of York and Lancaster. It was pro- 
bably a local clannish feud. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. ni. JAN. as, m 

Interments took place within the interior 
of the church, and the present writer dis- 
tinctly remembers reading the poetical name 
Christabel carved on one of the gravestones, 
though long since obliterated. The register 
books date back to the year 1593. 

The ecclesiastical history of Heptonstall 
furnishes much that is noteworthy. There 
is a tradition that the great and saintly 
Paulinus, the Apostle of the North, passed 

hrough this town as he iourneyecf from 
Dewsbury to Colne. That he preached at 
Dewsbury we know, as that incident was 
chronicled on an ancient stone cross, remain- 
ing to this day : " Hie Paulinus predicavit et 
celebravit." It is also a matter of history that 
Paulinus baptized great numbers of heathen 
Saxons in the river Brun, near Burnley, to 
reach which place, travelling from Dewsbury, 
he would almost certainly have to pass 
through Heptonstall. Coming, however, to 
the eighteenth century, we find ourselves on 
surer historic ground. John Wesley, as great 
and saintly a man as Paulinus, preached 
several times in the church of Heptonstall, 
as well as at other places, in the open air, in 
the immediate neighbourhood. He also laid 
the foundation stone of a chapel which was 
erected in 1764. The shape is octagonal. The 
woodwork of the roof was made at Kother- 
ham. In the building of this chapel there 
appears to have been displayed almost an 
element of romance : women as well as men 
came even from a distance, and brought their 
daily food with them, and assisted in the 
erection. The opening was celebrated by a 
religious service, Charles Wesley, Whitefield, 
and Grimshaw, it is said, having been present 
on that occasion. Whitefield on one occasion 
in the open air near Heptonstall addressed 
a vast multitude, whom he held spellbound 
under his mighty eloquence, and so musical 
and so deep was his voice, he was heard 
across the narrow valley of Colden by people 
gathered on the opposite hill. It may be 
mentioned that the adjacent country was 
studded with numerous crosses, reminding 
the wayfarer of the loftiest verities of the 
Christian faith. We very widely trace the 
Cross in the nomenclature of the district. 

There is a free grammar school, which has 
now passed into the hands of the Charity 
Commissioners. The founder was the Ilev. 
Charles Greenwood, a native of the parish, 
afterwards fellow of University College, Ox- 
ford. His will bears date 16 July, 1642, in 
which he bequeathed an endowment of 70/. a 
year to the mastership. According to an old 
deed, in the early part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury there was a Cloth Hall, the property of 

John Sunderland of Horshold. There were 
formerly several superior buildings, indicat- 
ing a more prosperous state of things, such 
as Marsland House, the Star Chamber, and 
others of somewhat high-sounding designa- 

In 1631 Heptonstall was visited by a terrible 
disease, then commonly spoken of as the 
plague. The parish registers furnish melan- 
choly particulars of the lamentable extent to 
which this malady spread, whole families hav- 
ing fallen victims to this awful scourge. Some 
of the dead were buried in their own houses. 
The town was well-nigh deserted, so terror- 
stricken were the inhabitants, and the town- 
gate (town-road) was overgrown with grass. 
The distress was great, but the immediate 
wants of the survivors were relieved by pecu- 
niary help from the neighbouring township 
of Sowerby. 

During the Great Rebellion Heptonstall 
held a small garrison of King Charles's troops, 
whilst Halifax, distant eight miles, was the 
headquarters of the Parliamentarian forces. 
There is said to have been a skirmish (scarcely 
a battle) near this town, a sword of the Caro- 
lian period having been dug up a few years 
ago. Guuhill in all likelihood perpetuates the 
memory of this encounter. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Hep- 
tonstall there is some of the most magnificent 
scenery of Yorkshire, little inferior to the 
more widely celebrated Wharf edale. Hard- 
castle Crags and Colden Glen are glorious 
valleys of woodland and river and rock : 

Saxosas inter decurrunt flumina valles. 
The glamour of romance half-hallows these 
beautiful valleys. Mill and ugly building have 
here and there marred the prospect ; never- 
theless the tourist may yet wander through 
many a lovely dene and lonesome dell, regions 
of wild sylvan charm, where nature has 
hitherto escaped the desecrating touch of 
modern Vandalism the glamour of romance 
in old-world grey ruin, in antique quaint- 
ness of place-name, in the far-stretching 
sweep of mountain and moor, in the echo 
of the footsteps of good and famous men, in 
legends poesy has loved to garner into ballad 
and song. F. 

WHENEVER I have had occasion to drive 
through this charming short cut from Lower 
to Upper Sydenham, I have always given 
reins to fancy and sought some explanation 
of the genesis of the name. It is a conun- 
drum to me still. I should, therefore, find 
myself much indebted to COL. PRIDE AUX or 

. m. JAN. 28, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


o any other student of the genius loci who 
ould set niy doubts finally at rest. I will 
lever believe that it took colour from the 
ocation in times past of any considerable 
xxJy of Hebrews in the neighbourhood, as 
uich a body could hardly have existed with- 
)ut a "shool" or place of worship. Much 
ess will I give credence to the impression 
shat some wealthy but eccentric Jew was in 
the habit of frequenting the spot. It was so 
known long before the unhappy daughter of 
Karl Marx discovered its beauties and formed 
a pretty nest there ; while the only Hebrew 
magnate who lived in the district at all, to 
my knowledge, was the late Mr. Bedding- 
ton, an orthodox Jew, who would scarcely 
have strolled so far from his estates near 
Carshalton on the Sabbath day, as in that 
case he must have exceeded the limits of the 
r\2V mnn or "legal Sabbath walk." I have 
an idea that it is a corruption of "Joe's 
Walk." But who was Joe ? Was he a love- 
lorn swain whose " cardiac affection " was 
augmented by some local Lady Vere de 
Vere? Was this thoroughfare in times 
bygone the " private pass " to the main high- 
ways lying at right angles to it, which this 
mysterious Joe kept jealously closed to the 
busy wayfaring public, and thus earned for 
it the opprobrious epithet of "Jew's Walk " ? 
I dare not assign so odious a purpose to 
this spot as that which Ovid in book i. of 
his ' Art of Love ' has assigned to a Eoman 
quarter in order to castigate the Jews. 
Dryden's rendering is to the effect that they 

Not shun the "Jewish Walk," where the foul drove 
On Sabbaths rest from everything but love. 

Such a connexion were well-nigh impossible 
in the days when Sydenham must have been 
the haunt of the Muses, and its groves the 
resort of our cultured ancestors. 

And here let me add a characteristic note 
by Dryden which reproduces his temper 
towards the Jews of his day. He writes : 

"The Jews in Augustus's time had the free use 
and exercise of the rites of their religion, and were 
allowed to frequent their synagogues without re- 
straint. Hither, as now in London [the italics are 
mine], the Roman ladies used to resort out of curio- 
sity, and were mightily taken with the grandeur 
and magnificence of the priests' vestments. But 
Ovid gives us to understand that those devout Jews 
would here make assignations with Roman women 
on the Sabbath day, whence it was called the 
Jewish Walk." 

Now my reading of the lines afore-cited is 
totally different from that, and even Dryden, 
as I shall show, seems to have recognized the 
force of what I now maintain. For I conceive 
the Jewish Walk in Rome was the mart or 

exchange whereto the Hebrew merchants 
and bill - brokers resorted to meet their 
clients, from which it was found impossible 
to divorce the attendance of the vicious and 
the criminal, even as it was found impossible 
to exclude the same classes from infesting the 
aisles and walks of St. Paul's in the sixteenth 
century, or from the porticoes of the Boyal 
Exchange after it was opened by Queen Bess 
in 1571. It would have been monstrous in 
Dryden to have preferred such a charge 
against the merchants of his day, and quite 
as unaccountable as it was in Ovid, yet he 
did not hesitate to add a disfigurement to the 
note I have quoted when he said : 

" It has long been observed that if this version 
[viz., as to the base uses of the Jewish Walk] 
seems to bear a little hard upon the ancient Jews 
[the italics are mine], it does not at all wrong the 

I dare say this was thought very witty in its 
day. Wit even nowadays is preferred in 
some quarters to sober truth. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

'TEMPEST,' II. i. 278-80. 
Ant. Twenty consciences, 

That stand 'twixt me and Milan, candied be they, 

And melt, ere they molest ! 

Antonio means, "There are twenty consciences 
(of those high in state, whom it was necessary 
to win over) that stand 'twixt me and ' ab- 
solute Milan,' but they are reduced to a 
condition of torpor, and must become active 
ere they molest me." In the word " candied " 
there is doubtless a hint as to the method of 
treatment the opposite of acerbity by 
which these consciences were reduced to the 
desired state. EDWARD MERTON DEY. 

* CORIOLANUS,' I. ix. 46. 

Let him be made an overture for the wars. 
If " him " is regarded as the dative, instead of 
the objective case, the difficulty in inter- 
preting this much-discussed line will, I think, 
disappear. What would be then expressed 
would be, u Let an overture for the wars be 
made to him," meaning, " Let a proposal be 
made to the parasite with a view to engaging 
his services for the wars. The bribes and 
flattery you offer will be congenial to him, 
and, when steel has become soft as the silk 
he wears, he will make your best soldier." 
The words are spoken witn infinite scorn, and 
no doubt contain, in addition, a suggestion 
that the Eomans would like to have a general 
who would natter them to their hearts' con- 
tent, as a parasite flatters his patron. The 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. m. JAN. 28, m 

word "overture" is peculiarly appropriate in 
connexion with bribes and flattery. Corio 
lanus has just refused what he regards as a 
bribe to pay his sword, and, in the lines 
which immediately precede, has pictured a 
world whose ruling principle was flattery 
" Overture " (the reading of the First Folio^ 
would thus appear to be far more in keeping 
with the spirit of the context than "coverture,' 
which has generally supplanted it j while 
" armature " owes its introduction merely tc 
the manifest deficiency of "coverture.' 
Besides, when steel has become soft as silk, 
what need of either " coverture " or " arma- 
ture " for the wars 1 


' OTHELLO,' I. ii. 11-14 (9 th S. ii. 402). I do 
not think it at all likely that Shakespeare 
has represented lago as saying anything so 
extravagant as that Brabantio's influence in 
the council was in potency double that of 
the Duke. Is it not much more probable 
that " double " is here used for " doubly," an 
adjective for an adverb, so frequent in Shake- 
speare, and that the meaning is that, com- 
pared with that of any other member of 
council, Brabantio's voice was doubly poten- 
tialequal, in fact, to that of the Duke 1 I 
should read the lines as if written thus : 

Be assured of this, 
That the magnifico is much beloved, 
And hath in his effect a voice potential, 
As doubly [potential], as the Duke's. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

' MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR ' (9 th S. ii. 523). 
It is to me a complete puzzle why Shak- 
spearian critics, historians, and people gener- 
ally will persist in crediting Prince Henry, 
afterwards Henry V., with the folly and wild 
pranks which Shakspeare attributed to him. 
The only tangible ground for his character as 
Madcap Harry, as I believe, was his once 
stopping the royal mails and seizing the 
money that was due to him as Prince of 
Wales, which was absolutely his own pro- 
perty, and which his father refused to yield 
to him. His life was pure, his character a 
noble one, and his idea (a visionary one) was 
to rescue France from its state of utter chaos 
so as to be free to lead a Crusade for the re- 
demption of Palestine from the Moslem. The 
character of Madcap Harry was, as I have 
endeavoured to show before, drawn from life. 
At the very time that Shakspeare was living 
in Southwark, Mr. Popham, barrister, after- 
wards Lord Chief Justice, was, according to 
Lord Campbell, actually performing the very 
pranks and leading the life attributed to the 

prince who lived more than a hundred years 
before. Upon the slender thread of the one 
actually recorded escapade of Prince Henry, 
Shakspeare wove in the stories of the disre- 
putable pranks of Mr. (afterwards Sir John) 
Popham's, which were being enacted in South- 
wark at the very time, his reform and 
farewell to his friends being actual facts. 
It is plain that the character of Falstaff was 
introduced as the name and character of Sir 
John Fastolfe were odious in the records of 
the Borough from various causes. There is 
still less excuse for the libel upon the other 
Prince of Wales, Henry Stuart. "He was 
high-spirited and inclined to be wild," says 
your correspondent. Now Prince Henry was 
notorious for the absolute purity of his life, 
which was strict even to the verge of Puri- 
tanical austerity ; and a libel upon the illus- 
trious dead, who cannot answer it, is to me 
worse than upon the living. 

Chart Sutton. 

' As You LIKE IT ' (9 th S. ii. 204). I offer 
a few remarks on some of MR. DEY'S valuable 

II. iv. 44-58. MR. DEY, as an American, 
may not be aware that there is in England 
a provincial use of " mortal " in the sense 
of "extreme." Touchstone, I think, plays 
with the word thus : " As all is mortal " 
(subject to death) "in nature, so is all nature 
in love mortal" (extreme) "in folly." Rosa- 
lind, as MR. DEY has well observed, glances 
at a third meaning of the word " fatal." 

II. iv. 46-8. I think MR. DEY'S conjecture 
that for " a-night " we should read " a-nigh " 
exceedingly probable. In the dark Touch- 
stone should not have seen to hit the stone. 

II. vii. 38-42. I rather think the meaning 
is that, like stale biscuits, Touchstone's brain 
bred maggots. E. M. SPENCE, D.D. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

' OTHELLO,' I. i. 21 (5 th S. xi. 383 ; 9 th S. i. 
83, 283, 422, 483 ; ii. 203, 402, 524). In an old 
Latin dictionary, under the word ' Damnum,' 
the following from Ovid is quoted, " credu- 
Itas damno solet esse puellis," and the mean- 
*ng given is " to be hurtful or fatal." Under 

Damnare' the following from Statius is 
quoted, "jaculo damnare sagittas," and the 
word damnare is translated " to get the better 
of." These extracts may justify me in giving 
a meaning to damn different from that of 

ondemn or blame. Shakspeare was so proud 
of the little Latin which he knew that he 
pve to words directly or indirectly taken 
; rom the Latin a sense meant to show his 
knowledge of that language. For instance, 

9- S. IIL JAN. 28, '99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in ' Macbeth ' he uses the words " mortified 
man " in the sense of corpse, as I once before 
remarked in * N. & Q.' I do not get any help 
from Johnson's 'Dictionary' in my inter- 
pretation of the word damn. But the word is 
used, and may be used, with the meaning " to 
hurt irreparably." 

On the impossibility of making the ' Merry 
Wives of Windsor' agree with the other 
plays in which Falstaff or his companions 
appear, the following may be said. In 
'2 Henry IV.,' III. ii., Shallow and Bar- 
dolph do not know one another when 
they first meet. Therefore the time of the 
' Merry Wives of Windsor ' is after this scene. 
In the ' Merry Wives of Windsor ' Prince Hal 
has not become Henry V., and Falstaff has 
not fallen into disgrace. This is clear from 
two remarks in the play, besides that on 
which comment has been made lately at 
9 th S. ii. 523. In ' 2 Henry IV.,' V., the prince 
has become king, and Falstaff is disgraced. 
The 'Merry Wives of Windsor' then could 
be placed only between the third and fifth 
acts of ' 2 Henry IV.' But this is impossible 
from the continuity of action in that part of 
the play. It would be also impossible that 
Mistress Quickly should be transformed for 
a short time from a dissolute hostess into a 
respectable housekeeper, and then should 
become a dissolute hostess again. In several 
plays I remember passages in which Shak- 
speare shows forgetfulness of what he has 
previously written. But probably these 
passages have been observed by others. 


May I remind DR. SPENCE that the proof of 
the pudding is in the eating 1 I call his line 
harsh-sounding because my ear tells me it is 
so. If to his ear it is as euphonious as Shake- 
speare's, how can I prove to him that it is not? 
To mine the lengthening of damn by the addi- 
tion of 'd greatly improves the sound of the 
line, making the next accent fall more natur- 
ally on "fair"; and "a fair wife" has a pleasant 
sound, whereas "affairs wise" is a horrible 
sibilation. DR. SPENCE, however, hears dif- 
ferently, and so far as he is concerned there 
is an end of the matter. But the question 
remains, What sort of an ear had Shakespeare 1 ? 
For my part, I cannot think he would invert 
the phrase " wise in affairs " except for some 
strong reason, since the inversion both ob- 
scures the meaning and throws the sibilants 
together at the end of the verse. What reason 
could he have 1 ? DR. SPENCE has not faced 
this question. C. C. B. 

MARBLES. With reference to the remarks 
of MR. THOMAS KATCLIFFE and others under 

the heading of ' Pickwickian Manners and 
Customs ' (see 9 th S. ii. 315, &c.), perhaps the 
"recollections" of an Irish schoolboy about 
marbles and their games (locale and date, 
Belfast, 1854-8) may be worth recording in 

Like tops, kites, &c., marbles had their 
recognized seasons. I forget the exact period 
of the year, but it commenced in the spring, 
somewnere about Easter, after the winter 
cold had disappeared and the ground was 
fairly dry, and lasted until the summer vaca- 
tion, which then began in June. 

There were various kinds of marbles in 
vogue, principally (1) " Stoneys," apparently 
made of a composition like a hard fine 
cement, and painted over with different 
colours, but one colour only to a marble ; 
(2) " Crockeries," of crockery ware, slightly 

glazed, one side being generally of a dark 
rown (the burnt glaze) and the other the 
yellow colour of the material ; (3) "Clayeys," 
made of red brick clay, commonly unpainted ; 

(4) " Marble marbles," out of white marble ; 

(5) "China alleys," of china ware, with a 
white glaze, and painted rings of different 
colours, parallel or at different angles equa- 
torially ; (6) "Glass marbles," of various sizes 
and descriptions. 

The principal games were two : " ring and 
taw " and " hole and taw," both of which are 
so widely known that they do not require 
description here. The former was the greater 
favourite, and was nearly always played 
against a wall,* the ring being placed at a 
sufficient distance from it, and the stand 
accordingly as agreed the better players 
using a "longer stand." The last to play 
usually had the privilege of settling the 
stakes in the ring. One particular spot of 
the playground, where some raised flagging 
formed a "side stand" in addition to the 
"front stand," was the favoured place, and 
there was always a rush after school for 
possession of it. There was a counterpart on 
the opposite side of the flags, but not much 
resorted to as the ground was inferior. The 
other game, "hole and taw," was played on 
an open space, the holes (three in a line) being 
from about six to twelve feet apart. Three 
times up and down concluded the game, which 
was often played with partners. Sometimes 
the " winners " (those who had completed the 
course) became " rovers " (like croquet) with 
killing powers. I observe that this game is 

* Sometimes a large circle was made in an open 
space, the circumference forming the boundary as 
well as the stand, the ring being in the centre. To 
win a stake, the marble had to be driven outside of 
the boundary. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. JAK. s, . 

still a favourite with carmen in Belfast, a 
out-of-the-way car stands, and is usual] 
played by them on a track of "petrifiec 
kidneys," which increases the difficulty. 

One has a long memory for injuries, anc 
from getting the worst of the bargain in m 
earliest attempt at a mercantile transactio 
with the toy-shop man, I am able to reca 
the prices. " Stoneys " and " crockeries," th 
marbles used for "stakes," were sold at 
score for a penny. "Clayeys," being muc 
cheaper, were despised and never recognizec 
" Marble marbles " and " china alleys " wer 
the " taws," the latter four for a penny ; anc 
the former, three for a " blindfold grab " ou 
of a large box in the shop, or a halfpenny 
each with choice the red streaked being th 
more valued. I do not recollect the wort! 
of the " glass marbles "; they were the newes 
inventions, and not so much used. Probably 
there was not much difference in the price 
from the other " taws." 

At "hole and taw" a good well-roundec 
"crockery" was the favourite taw, on accoun 
of its larger size, where weight told in hitting 
At " ring and taw " there was no restriction 
moral or otherwise, as to the size of taw ; but 
a small one, by being less of a mark for an 
opponent, was more patronized. 

The only other game of marbles practisec 
(seldom) was "lab" (? a corruption of lob) 
in which the marbles were "pitched," not 
"bulked," and large "crockeries," quite the 
size of a boy's fist, generally used. These 
large marbles, I fancy, had some particular 
name, but it has escaped me. I believe this 
last game, or rather mode of playing, came 
more into vogue after my time. 

Taws, of course, were more valuable than 
stakes, and when a boy had lost all his 
stakes (" skinned " was the term) and he had 
no means of procuring more, he would "stake 
his taw." By bargain, it was valued at so 
many stakes, and one of his opponents staked 
each time for the owner, after losing, who was 
allowed in the meantime to retain his taw for 
play. When he was unfortunate, and all 
the stakes agreed for had been made, the 
"banker" took possession of the taw, and the 
loser became absolutely beggared. 

I may add, in connexion with the first 
game, that I remember the use of two rather 
peculiar terms, but do not know whether 
they were local only. The player's taw was 
said to be "fat"( = dead) when it failed to 
clear itself out of the ring after knocking 
out a stake. A good and accurate shooter 
was called a "drop," evidently because his 
aim, by reason of the gravelly nature of 
the ground, was by a curve in the air to 

drop or light cleanly upon the objective, 
which method necessitated an increased dex- 
terity, and added greatly to the skill of the 
game. A few boys, out of the three hundred 
in the school, were almost unerring " drops," 
even at a considerable distance ; and a 
"drop" was respected, envied, and feared by 
all inferior players. J. S. M. T. 

these documents is singular, and it would be 
interesting to know when and why it was 

In Lord Ashbourne's 'Pitt,' p. 351, is a letter 
to George III. written by the minister in 
December, 1804, beginning : 

" Mr. Pitt took the liberty of stating to your 
Majesty, when he had last the honour of attending 
your Majesty at Windsor, his anxious wish," &c. 

Presumably that form has been in use ever 
since. It is, at any rate, in use now ; the 
present leader of the House of Commons 
begins his nightly report of the House's pro- 
ceedings to the Queen thus : 

"Mr. Balfour presents his humble duty to yoiir 
Vlajesty and begs leave to say that he," &c. 

It is as if the letters were written, not by 
the ministers, but by third persons who con- 
veyed to the sovereign what the ministers 
wished to say. THORNFIELD. 

"To RILE."- 

" As well might we argue that water is not water, 
Because the mountain torrent sends down mire, and 
riles the crystal stream."' History of the Mor- 
mons,' London, 1852, p. 91, published at the Ittua- 
rated News office. 

f not already noted in ' N. <fe Q.,' it may be 
iseful to record this use of the word rile, to 
lenote the flooding of a clear stream with 
mire and dirt. It occurs in an encyclical 
f the Mormon prophet Joseph Smith to 
he church of Latter -Day Saints. The 
pistle is composed in the prophet's ponder- 
us, elaborate style, and conveys no sugges- 
ion of slang. Richardson does not register 
be word in the 1837 edition. 

Tunbridge Wells. 

[This meaning is familiar. See Stormonth's 'Dic- 
tionary,' Annandale's ' Ogilvie,' the ' Century,' Funk 
Wagnalls's, &c.] 

UN. When a startling idea is put forth 
nder the authority of a name eminent in 
cience, it not unfrequently gets copied into 
)ooks of a line other than the scientific, and 
emains there long after the idea has ceased 
o possess any verisimilitude. Thus it was 

9* s. in. JAN. as, ,] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 


,'ith the "strange fancy," as Proctor justly 
alls it (* Old and New Astronomy,' p. 355, 
tote), of Sir John Herschel that the so-called 
vlllow leaves of Nasmyth overspreading the 
urn's visible surface "are organisms of some 
)eculiar and amazing kind." This is quoted 
;md reflected on by the late Dr. Kay in his 
lote on Isaiah vi. 2 in the * Speaker's Com- 
nentary on the Bible.' We know now that 
10 such objects described as resembling 
willow leaves exist on the general surface of 
the sun. It is only in the immediate vicinity 
of large spots that anything of that shape 
can be perceived, and the granulated or 
mottled appearance over the general surface 
is probably produced by ascending and con- 
densing currents of intensely heated matter, 
the tops of which represent the granules, 
whilst the darker interstices mark the posi- 
tions of descending and cooler currents. (See 
Miss Clerke's ' History of Astronomy,' third 
edition, p. 205.) Proctor remarks (in the 
place previously cited) that " Sir John Her- 
schel was one of the last to abandon the 
belief in Nasmyth's willow leaves." It was 
in 1862 that the latter described the appear- 
ance of the solar surface under that name ; 
the untenability of the idea was shown by 
Dawes about two years afterwards. The 
"strange fancy" that the so-called willow 
leaves were living organisms was put forth 
by Sir John Herschel, not in his ' Outlines of 
Astronomy,' but in an article contributed to 
the first volume of the Quarterly Journal of 
Science, which appeared early in 1864. Dr. 
Kay's commentary on Isaiah was published 
in 1875, four years after Sir John's death. 


W. T. LYNN. 

OMDURMAN. There seems to be widespread 
misapprehension as to the pronunciation of 
this name. In a book called 'Alfred the 
Great,' published by Arrowsmith, it is made 
to rhyme with Hermon. The Literary World 
in October last suggested sermon as a suit- 
able rhyme, and printed some verses from a 
correspondent in which it rhymed with^r- 
man. Truth, about the same time, made a 
similar error in some verses. I venture to 
point out that the accent should be upon the 
final syllable, which is long. The Arabic 
spelling will be found in Major Wingate's 
man in his book * Ten Years' Captivity in the 
Mahdi's Camp.' JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

Grumbler 'of Sir Charles Sedley, 8vo. 1702, 
12mo. 1719, of which imitations were produced 
at Drury Lane, 1754, and Covent Garden, 
1773, is a translation of 'Le Grondeur' of 

Brueys, played at the The'atre Fran9ais in 
1691. This indebtedness has not, I fancy, 
been previously mentioned. Voltaire told a 
friend that his father was a grumbler such as 
Grichard, the hero of ' Le Grondeur.' After 
having scolded and thrashed his gardener, 
Arouet pere said to him, " Va-t-en, coquin ; je 
souhaite que tu trouves un maitre aussi pa- 
tient que moi." Taking his father to see the 
piece, Voltaire induced the actor charged 
with the role of Grichard to insert these 
words. Voltaire added, " Mon bonhomme de 
pere se corrigea." URBAN. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

OIL PAINTING. On the frame of an oil 
painting not unlike General Wolfe in youth 
is an engraved visiting card, " Major-General 
Kenah, 35, Albemarle Street." If I could be 
put into communication with the represen- 
tatives of this officer, the authenticity of the 
portrait might be established. It is claimed 
to be that of the hero of Quebec. 

DAVID Koss McCoRD, M.A., Q.C. 

Temple Grove, Montreal. 

HENRY ALKEN. Could any reader of 
*N. & Q.' tell me where to look for informa- 
tion concerning the birthplace, parentage, 
and family life of the famous painter of 
sporting pictures *? E. D. C. 

[Have you consulted the ' D.N.B.' ?] 

EDWARD MARSH. He was elected from 
Westminster School to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1588. I should be glad to receive 
any particulars concerning him. 

G. F. E. B. 

FRANCIS GIFFORD. He was elected from 
Westminster School to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1585. Any information concerning 
his parentage and career would be of use. 

G. F. K. B. 

SEWARDSTONE. Can any one tell me where 
an estate bearing this name is ? I believe it 
is somewhere in Essex, but in what part of 
that county I have in vain tried to ascertain. 


Ivy House, Clapham, Bedford. 

PORTRAITS AT OXFORD. Where can I find 

ll, if not descriptive, lists of the very many 

portraits in the various colleges at Oxford? 

The average guide-book is not a reliable work 

of reference in such a matter, and the so- 


called "histories" of the various colleges 
usually have nothing to say about the por- 
traits which adorn various halls, &c. 

Carlton Villa, Klea Avenue, Clapham. 

QUEEN MARY TUDOR. Can any reader 
of 'N. & Q.' throw light upon the origin of 
the fine window containing a portrait of 
Queen Mary, which is now exhibited in the 
South Kensington Museum 1 It is the pro- 
perty of Dr. Leonard Guthrie and of Mr. 
W. H. Guthrie. W. H. 

AGAM COLOURS. One of the East India 
Company's factors, writing from India, asks 
on two occasions, in 1614-15, for kerseys, agam 
colours meaning, apparently, light colours. 
Can any one explain the term ? It is not in 
the ' Historical English Dictionary.' 


LEWIS CARROLL. A letter from him ap- 
peared in one of the London newspapers, 
some ten years ago, complaining of the 
annoyance caused to country playgoers by 
the non-appearance of actors when their 
names were announced in the bills for the 
day. A reference would greatly oblige. 



DEAD FOLD. This term, or what sounds 
like it, is used hereabouts of the sheltered 
fold prepared as lambing quarters for the 
ewes. "W hat does " dead " mean in this case ; 
and is this the proper spelling 1 

C. S. WARD. 

Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke. 

"UNSPEAKABLE TURK." I should like to 
know the origin of the term " Unspeakable 

[Was not the term first used by Mr. Gladstone?] 

JOHN KING, D.D. He was master of the 
Charterhouse, and died 1738. Of what 
family was he? Where did his brother, 
Major King, reside, whose daughter Mary 
married Sir F. Dashwood, Bart. ? 

W. L. KING. 


family with which I am acquainted there is 
a young child who is subject to some form oi 
throat disease. Recently it was visited by 
former nurse, who was accompanied by an 
old countrywoman. The latter, on learning 
the nature of the child's complaint, said to the 
mother, "Take her somewhere where there's a 
corpse, and pass the hand of the corpse across 

ler neck, and she '11 be all right after that." 
[s this custom known and practised in any 
part of England ? 

[nformation wanted as to name of author and 
name of piece (played about fifty or more 
years ago) in which the following chorus 
occurs : 

Now by the waving greenwood tree 

We merry, merry archers roam ; 
Careless and jovial, ever free, 
We hail our native home. 

47, Victoria Street, S. W. 

S. C. Hall's ' Pilgrimages to English Shrines ' 
(1850, p. 131) it is stated that " in his youth 
Richard Wilson painted for a rural inn at 
Llanverris [sic] a sign with the motto 'We 
three Loggerheads oe.' The village hence 
received the name of ' Loggerheads ' ; it has 
since been known by no other." It is many 
years since I was in Llanberris, and I do not 
recollect this sign there ; but there is such a 
sign at Tonbridge, in Kent. The picture 
bangs over the street, and shows two grinning 
heads. Of course every passer-by recognizes 
the grey old joke. But is Llanberris known 
as Loggerheads ? JAMES HOOPER. 


TREACLE BIBLE. In our family Bible of 
1568 the word "treacle" is spelt with an t, 
" triacle," Are all treacle Bibles so spelt, or 
is it a mark of a special edition 1 ? In the 
same Bible the ' Prologue of Saint Basill the 
Great' appears before the Psalms. Is this 
also common to Bibles of the date ; or is it an 
interpolation 1 It is in the same print as the 
rest of the Bible, and apparently belongs to 
the same period. KATE ST. LEGER. 

["Treacle" Bibles are of various dates. Treacle, 

58, &c.] 

YOUNIE. Is not this a peculiar surname ? 
Can any of your correspondents give its deri- 
vation ? There is a family of the name in 
this town, Torres, and it is also a surname in 
Inverness. Mr. McBain in his 'Inverness 
Names,' published in 1895, places it among 
names of difficult derivation, and includes 
with it Biscoe, Broderick, Bormick, Comage, 
Couch, Corballes, Darksen, Degles, Fridge, 
Haider, Hourie, Latto, Michan, Phemister, 
Sinnott, Skhan, Tritschler, and Videon. Can 
any of these be explained ? Phemister is 
Phimister in Forres. From the same book I 

9* S. III. JAN. 28, '99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


gather Fraser is the most common surname 
in Inverness, then follow Macdonald and 
Mackenzie, after that Mackintosh. W. B. 

" T'ESQUINTE PAS." In Gil Bias of 9 Sept., 
1898, the following sentence occurs : " Tiens ! 
Maman m'a dit en me quittant, 'Au revoir, 
fifille, surtout t'esquinte pas.'" Will some 
kind reader oblige with an English rendering 
of the above ? I think " t'esquinte pas " must 
be slang, or an expression of modern coinage. 


CLARE STREET. Can any of your readers 
inform me in what part of tne London of about 
1640 Clare Street was, and what was the 
social status of its inhabitants 1 This seems 
a rather vague inquiry ; but any information 
about Clare Street would be valued. 

J. W. 

Doran, 'Annals of the Stage,' i. 404, ed. Lowe, 
says : " Mrs. Younger, in middle age, married 
John, brother of the seventh Earl of Win- 
chester." Mrs. Younger, born 1699, a sister 
of Mrs. Bicknell, was in her day a well-known 
actress, who retired near 1736. Where can 
particulars of this marriage be found 1 


AUTHOR WANTED. "The Island on the 
Mere. A Cheshire Tale. By the Author of 
'The Legacy of an Etonian.' Cambridge, 
1847." 8vo. C. W. S. 

MATED NATURE.' In Lowndes's ' Biblio- 
grapher's Manual ' mention is made of a 
cancelled page of Goldsmith's 'Earth and 
Animated Nature' (first edition), in which the 
celebrated mathematician Maclaurin was 
represented as being subject to fits of yawn- 
ing. Can any "of your readers give a refer- 
ence ? F. G. 

THE STUART WATCH. This interesting 
Stuart relic was sold at the Hamilton Palace 
sale on 20 July, 1882 (lot 2206), and. was 
bought by the Earl of Moray for 514. 10s. It 
is described as containing portraits of the 
Stuart family. I should be glad of informa- 
tion respecting it, stating whose portraits 
they were, and in what manner. they were 
grouped. Has the watch been engraved in 
any work that can be referred to ? 

A. S. F. 

Has the following striking parallel ever been 
pointed out ? Alaric was buried in the bed 
of the river Busento. Gibbon, quoting Jor- 
nandes, informs us that the grave was adorned 

with the "splendid spoils and trophies of 
Eome," and that the prisoners who did the 
work were put to death, and as we may 
surmise though we are not told this buried 
in companionship with him ('Decline and 
Fall,' chap. xxxi.). 

Commander V. L. Cameron, in ' Across 
Africa,' says that when a chief of the Urua is 

"the first proceeding is to divert the course of a 
stream, and in its bed to dig an enormous pit, the 
bottom of which is then covered with living women. 
At one end a woman is placed on her hands and 
knees, and upon her back the dead chief, covered 
with his beads and other treasures, is seated, being 
supported on either side by one of his wives, while 
his second wife sits at his feet. The earth is then 
shovelled in on them, and all the women are buried 
alive, with the exception of the second wife. To 
her custom is more merciful than to her companions, 
and grants her the privilege of being killed before 
the huge grave is filled in. This being completed, a 
number of male slaves sometimes forty or fifty- 
are slaughtered, and their blood poured over the 
grave ; after which the river is allowed to resume 
its course." Vol. ii. p. 110. 

Of Rustem, a hero of Persian romance, we 
read, "In the bed of the Hilmend his grave 
is shown" (Duncker, 'Hist, of Antiq.,' vol. v. 
p. 262). ASTARTE. 

BENEDICT ARNOLD. Is his burial-place 
known ? He died in London in Gloucester 
Square, I think 14 June, 1 801. Could I find 
his grave I would have it photographed, as a 
companion to my illustration of Andre's 
monument in Westminster Abbey. 


New York. 

LADY MAYNARD. In the will of a Capt. 
Philip Garbett, R.N., who died at Boulogne 
at the end of the last century, is mentioned a 
daughter (daughter-in-law ?), Lady Maynard. 
I shall be very grateful for any information 
as to this lady and her family. 


1, Prince's Mansions, Victoria Street, S.W. 

"SWEEN" OR "SWEAN." I am told by a 
chemist in business near Nottingham that he 
is often asked by women for diachylon to 
" sween " their milk away, and he supposes 
the word to be connected with " sweal " or 
" swale." Is it so; and what is the derivation 
of " sweal'"? A candle "sweals" when it 
gutters, and a girl is said to be "swealing 
away " when in a decline. C. C. B. 

DALLAS FAMILY. I should be glad to 
receive information with regard to the 
descent of any existing members of this 
family, with a view to the elucidation of the 
later portion of the pedigree. PEDIGREE. 

NOtES AND QUERIES. [ft* s. m. JAN. 28, m 


(9 th S. ii. 46, 214.) 

THIS charter formed the subject of a 
monograph ' The Charter of Wulf run to the 
Monastery at Hamtun ' which was published 
in 1888 by Mr. W. H. Duignan, and which con- 
tained a translation contributed by Mr. W. H. 
Stevenson, last year's Sandars Lecturer in 
the University of Cambridge on Old English 
diplomata. Mr. Stevenson believed the docu- 
ment to be genuine, and he assigned its 
original to 994 He said (p. 7, note 1) that its 
annuary datum DCCCCXCUI. was "a mistake 
for 994," and in support of that correction he 
urged that " the seventh indiction [that given 
in the document] fell in that year, and not in 
996." Mr. Stevenson's fixation will not bear 
scrutiny, and in assigning what I believe to 
be the date of the document I shall show that 
he did not treat a single one of the data 
fundamentally, and that he made no fewer 
than five computistical mistakes. 

1. The data "anno a passione DCCCCXCUI." 
and " indictione septima " are not absolutely 
contradictory, and it is not right to assume 
that DCCCCXCUI. is " a mistake of the copyist " 
simply because A.D. 996 fell in the ninth indic- 
tion. This assumption springs from the sup- 
position that 'the person who styled himself 

"notarius Ethelredi regis" began to count 

theyearsinhisowneraofthePassioii from A.D.I. 
This supposition overlooks the fact that, 
according to some chronographers, the Incar- 
nation must be dated three years earlier than 
Dionysius dated it. (Others, it is generally 
known, confused the era of the Passion with 
the era of the Incarnation ; consequently this 
peculiarity in the charter in question need 
not trouble us.) A.D.I. 996 (used a passione} 
therefore equals A.D. 993, and in this year the 
month of October, in which the charter pur- 
ports to have been witnessed, actually fell in 
both the seventh Greek indiction and the 
seventh Bedane indiction. 

2. It is obvious that Mr. Stevenson's 
reason for correcting the year ignores the 
well-known ambiguity of indictionary data. 
Dom Clement, in his 'Dissertation sur 
les Dates des Chartes et des Chroniques, 
especially warned students of chronology 
that the indiction is no safe guide in deter- 
mining the year of our Lord when an 
event or document whose year we may have 
to fix is dated in either September, October 
November, or December. The reason is clear 
Unless we know which class of indiction is 

imployed, all that the numeral of the indie- 
ion can teach us is that the date we are 
seeking fell within a period of about sixteen 
nonths ; that is, between the end of an im- 
perial indiction year on 31 Aug. in one year 
)f grace and the beginning of a Pontifical 
ndiction year on 25 Dec. in the next. These 
considerations show that the original docu- 
ment may have been written in A.D. 993 
= A.D.I. 996) between 31 Aug. and the end of 
;he year. 

3 and 4. MR. C. S. TAYLOR remarks (9 th S. 
i. 214): "A moon which was twenty-two 
days old on 16 Oct. [the calendar dates of the 
document] would have been new on 24 Sept.," 
and from this he argues that the golden 
number was III. and the year of grace in 
which the document was witnessed was 1009, 
and that this discrepancy with DCCCCXCUI. 
ntitles us to regard the document as spurious. 
MR. TAYLOR'S computation is erroneous. If 
moon xxii. had fallen on 16 Oct. the moon 
would have been new on 25 Sept. But no 
new moon ascended on this day in any 
Dionysian lunar year, as may be seen by re- 
ferring to an ancient lunar calendar. Hence, 
when Mr. Stevenson equated 16 Oct., 994, 
with moon xxii. he made two mistakes : (1) 
in 994 16 Oct. actually fell on moon viii., and 
(2) while the Church was using the tables of 
Dionysius 16 Oct. never fell on moon xxii. 
A.D. 993, however, had golden number VI. and 
epact 25 ; consequently, as the lunar regular 
of October is 16, 1 October fell on moon xi. 
( = 25 plus 16 minus 30), and 16 Oct. on moon 
xxvi. As the lunar value does not agree with 
the calendar date, I suggest that " luna xxii." 
is a misreading of " luna xxu.," and, further, 
that we should emend these supposititious 
figures to xxui. 

5. The data in the document run : " in 
mense Octobris, in dominico die, xvii. kal." 
Mr. Stevenson believed that in 994 16 Oct. 
fell on Sunday. In that year, however, it 
fell on Tuesday, and it was in 992 that it fell 
on Sunday, while in 993 it fell on Monday. 
In the seventh Greek indiction, in A.D. 993, 
Sunday, moon xxv., fell on 15 Oct. the Ides. 
It is hardly possible that " xvii. kal." can be a 
scribal error for " Idibus," and it would seem, 
on one hand, that the Julian calendar date 
fits neither the weekday nor the lunation ; 
while, on the other, the year 993 ( = A.D.I. 996, 
used a passione), the indiction seven, the 
weekday Sunday, and the moon xxy., are 
all in harmony. The error or errors in the 
tradition of the datal clause should not, I 
think, invalidate the document, and I believe 
that the ecclesiastical practice of changing 
the Julian and lunar calendar dates at vespers 

. m. JAN. ss, mj NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ies at the root of our difficulties. If we sup- to be supposed. In my edition of Chaucer's 
Jose that the original deed was witnessed after 'Works,' iii. 180 ('Astrolabe,' pt. i. sect. 8), we 
vespers, and admit the emendation that I have read, " thise degrees of signes ben everich of 
just now suggested in the moon's age, all the hem considered of 60 minutes, and every 
data are reduced to harmony. minute of 60 secondes, and so forth into 

For these reasons it would seem that the smale fraccions infinit, as seith Alkabucius." 
charter relating to St. Peter's, Wolverhamp- And in the same volume, p. 353, 1 quote the 
ton, should be assigned to Sunday evening, original passage in ' Abdilazi Alchabitius,' 
15 Oct., A.D. 993, when moon xxvi. and "xvii. from the edition of 1482 : "Et gradus diuidi- 
kal. Novembris" had already commenced and tur in 60 minuta ; et minutumin 60secunda; 
the seventh imperial indiction was current. | et secundum in 60 tertia. Similiter sequuntur 

quarta, scilicet et quinta, ascendendo usque 
ad infinita." We thus see that not only 

4, Temple Road, Hornsey. 


seconds, but even thirds, fourths, and fifths, 

"HELPMATE" (9 th S. ii. 105, 185 310 453 were already known in the tenth century. 
496 ; iii. 50).-C. C. B. (9 th S. ii. 453) says, '" The WALTER W. SKEAT. 

husband is not usually spoken of as the help- Dr. Hutton, F.K.S., in his * Mathematical 
mate of the wife." But why should he not ? Dictionary,' London, 1815, says that in the 
Is not each mated or married to the other? year 1500 George Purbach, a mathematician 
Is not each the mate or equal of the other? of Vienna, employed a watch that pointed to 
In Chambers's 'Etymological Dictionary,' of seconds for astronomical observations, which 
which the well-known etymologist the late was probably a kind of clock. The question 
Dr. Findlater was editor, helpmate is said has been discussed in 'N. & Q.'; see 6 th S. ix. 
to be "formed on a misconception of the 248, 295 ; x. 521. 
. phrase an help meet in Gen. ii. 18." Mate he 
defines " a companion, an equal, the male or 
female of animals that go in pairs," &c. He 
gives as its etymology "A.-S. ge-maca, lit. 
'having make or shape in common with 
another '; Icel. maki, an equal, from the same 

root as make. 

I object to helpmate, as applied to the 
woman alone, that it suggests, what Gen. ii. 18 
never intended to suggest, inferiority and 
servitude on her part. It was no doubt from 
his misreading of that passage that Edmund 
Bull learnt to " pitch the pipe too low ": 

God made the woman for the man, 
And for the good and encrease of the world. 

St. Paul pitches the pipe higher : " Neither is I Nugent's ' Memorials 
the man without the woman, nor the woman I borne on one side of 
without the man " (1 Cor. xi. 11), i. e., they are 
each to the other a co-equal counterpart. 

The note of Tremellius on Gen. ii. 18 is 
excellent. To his rendering, "Faciam ei 


348). Charles, Duke of Bruns wick- Wolf en- 
buttel, 1735-80, had the motto of "Nunquam 
retrorsum " upon many of his silver thalers 
and billon coins. And in the thaler lists of 
Madai or Reimmann there is no mention of 
other Hanoverian or Brunswick prince 

use either of it or the 
inquiry is made. 

This was the motto of the ancient family 
of Hampden of Great Hampden, and accord- 
ing to Macaulay, in his 'Essay' on Lord 
of Hampden/ was 
the standard of the 

Buckinghamshire Greencoats which John 
Hampden had levied for the Parliament. 

I have frequently seen the same motto on 
the hatchments of the Viscounts Hampden in 

auxilium commodum ipsi," he appends the the chancel of Bromham Church, Bedford- 
comment, "i.e., naturali specie et forma shire. Robert, Lord Trevor of Bromham, 
ai/aAoyoi/, juris vocationis que censors, et was created Viscount Hampden in 1776. 
omnium officiorum particeps, quod sit tan- Perhaps the idea originated from the passage 

quam alter ipse. 

in Horace where the cunning fox dreads the 

The Hebrew word pTJJ) rendered " help " treachery of the sick lion : 

in the A.V. has nothing of that sense of in- 
feriority which is usually attached to the 
English term. God Himself is called the "i$ 
of His people. See Psalms xxvii. 9, xxxiii. 20, 
Ixx 5, <fcc. R. M. SPENCE, D.D. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 


The use of seconds i 

Quia me vestigia terrent 
Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retrorsum. 
'Epist.,'1. i. 74,75. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Is your correspondent acquainted with 
what ha 

much older than seems | 71, Brecknock Road. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. 111. JA*. 28, m 

PLOUGHING THE SANDS" (9 th S. iii. 2). 
ME. CURRY has been as unfortunate in his 
search in the indexes to ' N. & Q.' as in that to 
Juvenal. Although under neither ' Ploughing ' 
nor 'Arenas,' there is in the former, under 
' Proverbs and Phrases ' : " Plough the sands," 
and in the latter, under 'Aratro,' a reference 
to 'Sat.' vii. 49, 50, where words may be 
found with something more than a trace 
of the origin of the phrase employed by Mr. 
Asquith : 

Nos tatnen hoc agimus, tenuique in pulvere sulcos 
Ducimus, et littus sterili ver sanms aratro. 
Our familiar friend " scribendi cacoethes " 
lies in close proximity. KILLIGREW. 

The source from which Burton took the 
proverb may fairly be supposed, possibly, to 
be the 'Proverbs of Erasmus'; for he has 
among these "Arare littus''' with reference to 
Ausonius, and " Harense mandas semina " with 
reference to the same lines from Ovid, in the 
epistle of (Enone to Paris, which MR. J. T. 
CURRY quotes. They come under the title 
of " Inanis opera." ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. 

THE SURNAME WARD (9 th S. iii. 8). Just 
as Wright appears in the specialized forms 
Cartwright, Ploughwright, Shipwright, or 
Wheelwright, so we have such specialized 
forms of Ward as Hay ward, the hedge warden, 
or Steward, the sty-ward who looked after 
the domestic animals, as well as Woodward, 
Doorward, Beeward, and Bearward. Warden 
is a doublet of guardian, as guard is of ward : 
it means simply a watchman or guard. The 
form in early documents is le Ward, not de 
Ward as your correspondent states, showing 
that Ward was an official, not a territorial 

Your correspondent under this head asks if 
all the cases of the surname Ward are derived 
from the same source. This may be the case 
in England other readers better qualified 
than myself will perhaps decide this point 
but I can testify that in Ireland the surname 
Ward is a contraction of Mac Ward, or Mac- 
an-Ward, or in the Gaelic spelling Mac-an- 
Bhaird, meaning Son of the Bard. 


Guards and wards were common enough to 
set many men up with a surname indicative 
of occupation. ST. SWITHIN. 

xii. 449, 517 ; 9 th S. i. 314 ; ii. 275, 512). Miss 
Linwood's needlework pictures were all sole 
at Messrs. Christie & Manson's after her death 
and the collection was dispersed. I have seer 
very few of them, but those few were copies 

f pictures by Morland, and were really very 
remarkable works of art. T. V. L. 

GULLS (9 th S. iii. 6). This is not a reply, but 
a further query. For some years past sea- 
gulls have been coming up annually, before and 
during a storm, from Cardiff, along the Taff 
and its tributary the Cynon, to the Aberdare 
Valley, a distance of twenty miles from the 
sea. This year, however, they have been here 
:or some months past. What is the explana- 
tion of this apparent change in the habitat 
of the gull? D. M. K. 

'THE WHOLE DUTY OF MAN' (5 th S. viii- 
389, 515 ; 9 th S. ii. 536). This book, having 
been published in 1657, could not have been 
written by Lord Chesterfield, who was not 
born till 1694. 

George Ballard in his ' Memoirs of British 
Ladies,' published in 1752, argues long and 
ably to prove that Dame Dorothy Packington 
was the author of ' The Whole Duty of Man ' 
and ' The Ladies' Calling.' Ballard says : 

"It has been very surprising to me to hear the 
many shifts and evasions which have been made use 
of on this occasion by several gentlemen to deprive 
the fair sex of the honour of these exalted perform- 
ances. Her learned friends who were concerned in 
those [i.e., Dame D. P.'s books] were too well ac- 
quainted with men and manners not to understand 
what kind of estimate the generality of mankind 
would put upon the production of a woman's pen." 

After considerable research last year at the 
British Museum, I am convinced that to Dame 
Dorothy Packington belongs the honour of 
being the author of that for many years much 
read (and standard) work ' The Whole Duty 

Staverton House, near Cheltenham. 

BLACK BLOTTING PAPER (9 th S. ii. 506, 537). 
During more than forty years' service in the 
Foreign Office I never saw nor heard of black 
blotting paper being used, either there or in 
any of our Chanceries abroad ; but I find 
upon inquiry that the idea is not merely due 
to Mr. Upward's remarkable powers of inven- 
tion. The black blotting paper is (or was) 
used at the India Office, and was supplied by 
the Stationery Office. Lord Kimberley im- 
ported it into the Foreign Office for his own 
use, but soon gave it up. One objection to it 
is that it does not fulfil its purpose, as the ink 
dries grey upon it, and enables the writing to 
be traced. ' T. V. L. 

ACORUS CALAMUS (9 th S. ii. 305, 377, 457, 
476). I have received a well-preserved speci- 
men of this plant from the moat of Harving- 
ton Hall, a fine old fourteenth-century mansion 
near Kidderminster, which I shall be happy 

9 th S. III. JAN. 23, '99.] 



o place at the disposal of any of the readers 
f ' N. & Q.' interested in the subject. 

Canonbury Mansions, N. 

I am obliged to ME. A. B. STEELE for his 
Correction, which, not being a botanist, I 
; uccept with all humility. But I was alluding 
,o a period quite forty years ago, and writing 
:rom memory. I accurately remember a 
'crimped " flag, and also a "sweet" flag, the 
two being (I speak from memory again) not 
dissimilar in general form, size, and appear- 
ance ; and I assumed that they were identical. 

"PIGGIN" (9 th S. ii. 85). Is it really an 
ascertained fact that, as PROF. SKEAT says, 
the Welsh form is borrowed from English? 
The root pig, meaning a peak, a pike, a spike, 
is found in mediaeval Welsh compositions ; 
and in modern Welsh we have pigyn (pro- 
nounced " piggin "), meaning a thorn, stitch, 
the pleurisy. JOHN HOBSON MATTHEWS. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

(8 th S. xi. 387 ; xii. 421, 466 ; 9 th S. i. 10, 92, 
231 ; ii. 29, 292, 473). MR. STEVENSON'S asser- 
tion that he had already cited the passage 
which I have quoted from p. 199 of RuhTs 
'Chronologic' is inaccurate: the passage 
quoted by me runs from line 5 to line 7 ; that 
correctly cited by him runs from line 19 to 
line 22. MR. STEVENSON, when assuring me 
of the strong support which he derived from 
Prof. Riihl, did not mention the important fact 
that that scholar is in exact agreement with 
Kemble and myself as regards the primary 
point on which MR. STEVENSON misguidedly 
attacked Kemble. Kemble arid Ruhl assert 
that St. Augustine introduced the Dionysian 
era into England ; MR. STEVENSON, in his 
attack upon Kemble, said that it is not likely 
that Augustine would introduce the era ; and 
now, instead of confessing his error, he asserts 
that Riihl's statement " in no way contro- 
verts " his own. He also reiterates his belief 
that it was Bede who introduced the Diony- 
sian era, but, as heretofore, he fails to supply 
the requisite proof. 

MR. STEVENSON does not conclude his note 
without falling into error once more. He 
says, "The first historical writer to use the 
era of the Incarnation was undoubtedly Beda, 
who commenced to use it in his 'Chronica 

Minora,' written in 725 " The 'Chronica 

Minora ' (i.e., the ' Liber de Temporibus 
Minor' cf. 9 th S. ii. 31) was not written in 
725, and if we accept MR. STEVENSON'S date, 
we must add that Bede was undoubtedly not 

the first historical writer, even in England, 
to use the era. In the ' Historia Abbatum/ 
a work which Bede abbreviated (vide Mr. 
Plummer's 'Bede,' Introd. p. xlvi), and the 
latest date in which falls in A.D. 716, the 
foundation of the monastery at Wearmputh 
is dated "anno dominicse incarnationis 
DCLXXiv , indictione secunda " (ibid. p. 390). 

4, Temple Road, Hornsey, N. 

ii. 263, 354 : iii. 16). KILLIGREW may be glad 
to know that the fact of the king having 
delivered his George to Juxon with the word 
"Remember" is supported by very early 
evidence in a pamphlet of eight pages, en- 
titled : 

"King Charles | His | Speech | Made upon the | 
Scaffold | at Whitehall Gate, | Immediately before 
his Execution, | On Tuesday the 30 of Jan. 1648. | 
With a Relation of the manner | of his going to Exe- 
cution. | Published by spetiall Authority. | London 
| Printed by Peter Cole, at the Sign of the | Print- 
ing Press in Cornhill, near the 1 Royall Exchange 

The following paragraph is on p. 8 of the 
pamphlet, and comes immediately after 
Juxon's final words of consolation : 

" The King then said to the Executioner, is my 
Hair well. Then the King took off his Cloak and 
his Georg, giving his George to Doctor Juxon, say- 
ing, Remember" 

with a marginal note, " It is thought for to 
give to the Prince." 

After describing the execution, the narra- 
tive ends, " The King's Body now lies in his 
Lodging Chamber in Whitehall," showing 
that it was written, if not printed, in the 
short interval that elapsed before the burial 

ii. 407). A good account of Dr. Dee will be 
found in Kippis's 'Biographia Britannica.' 
The Camden Society in 1842 published the 
' Private Diary of John Dee, and the Cata- 
logue of his Library and MSS.,' edited by 
James O. Halliwell, F.R.S. For Dr. Dee's 
connexion with Edward Kelly see ' N. <fe Q., 
7 th S. iv. 306 ; v. 32. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

W. T. S. will find information respecting 
the above in ' Lives of the Necromancers,' by 
William Goodwin (London, 1834), pp. 373-98; 
'Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delu- 
sions,' by Charles Mackay (London, 1856), 
vol. i. pp. 152-63 ; and ' A Relation of what 
passed for many Years between Dr. John 
Dee and some Spirits, also the Letters of 

NOTES ANC AERIES, t*s,m.jA*.28,m 

sundry Gre&t Men and Princes to the said 
Dr. Dee,' by Meric Causabon (London, 1659), 
This work contains a large amount of in- 
formation, and the preface is curious and 
interesting. JOHN KADCLIFFE. 

[For other authorities to be consulted see Mr. 
'Thompson Cooper's memoir of Dee in 'Diet. Nat. 

COOKE FAMILY (9 th S. ii. 88, 254, 314). 
At 9 th S. ii. 254 it is suggested that per- 
haps Sir Thomas Cooke (ob. 1709) was buried 
at Hackney. I have gone carefully through 
the registers, but find no entry of his burial, 
although there is the following : "llth Jan., 
1720. Sir Chas. Cooke, Knt. and Alderman, in 
Mr. Doling' vault." There is also Susanna 
Cooke, widow, buried 7 April, 1709; and two 
persons of this name, John and Thomas, both 
of Mare Street, Hackney, were buried 31 Jan., 
1694, and 27 Dec., 1694, respectively. There 
are numerous other persons mentioned bear- 
ing the name Cooke, but I cannot say if they 
belong to the same family. 

In the minutes of the select vestry Sir 
Thomas Cooke is twice mentioned, in 1694 
and 1703; and under date 15 January, 1690/1, 
it is stated that a young gentleman (name 
not given) gave 200/. to the churchwardens. 
It was left to be laid out according to the 
discretion of the churchwardens, "either in a 
p'sent Charity for the Poor or in a Stock for 
the future." This amount was afterwards 
lent to Sir Thomas Cooke at 5 per cent, 
interest. I should like to know where I can 
find a pedigree of this family. C. H. C. 

South Hackney. 

Information respecting Sir Thomas Cooke, 
Knt., is meagre. He had two sons 1, John 
Cooke, of London ; 2, Josiah, in the East 
Indies and four daughters 1, Elizabeth, 
had three husbands : (1) Sir Josiah Child, 
Bart., half-brother of Richard, Earl Tylney, 
ext. ; (2) Chad wick, of London, mer- 
chant ; (3) Osbaldeston, of ; 2, Jane, 

died unmarried ; 3, , married to Pett, 

of ; 4, , unmarried. 

Chad wick and Osbaldeston are Lancashire 
families, and in the pedigree of the latter a 
John Osbaldeston of the City of London, circa 
1650, is mentioned. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

GLYNDYFRDWY (9 th S. iii. 6). Bradley in 
the paragraph quoted errs, if he errs at all, 
in fairly good company, for I find that Dr. 
Owen Pughe in his dictionary gives under 
'Dyfrdwy' "the Dee, the divine water." 
There is but little doubt that the word is 
compounded of dyfr and dioy ; dyfr is merely 
the old plural form of dwfr, and is now in 

common use in the double plural form o 
dyfroedd, waters. C. C. B. is in error in 
stating that dwy Usually means water ; I am 
not aware of a single instance of the kind. I 
think he must be confounding it with gwy, 
mutated into wy, which is often met, especially 
in the name of rivers in Wales, e.g., the Wye. 
The usual meaning of d^vy is two, the word 
being the feminine form of dau. As is well 
known, afon, a river, is always feminine in 
Welsh. Is it not possible that Dyfrdwy 
means " the waters of two," afon (river) being 
understood 1 If not (and I should like to hear 
the opinion of some Welsh philologist on this 
suggestion of mine), I am driven to believe 
that dwy is a corruption of duw. the Welsh 
for God. D. M. R. 

THE REAL ^ENEAS (9 th S. ii. 444). What- 
ever may be the character of ^Eneas, it seems 
to misconstrue Virgil's meaning to translate 
the epithet " pius " by the English " pious " in 
its common sense. In the '^Eneid' the 
epithet refers to the filial piety of ^Eneas in 
rescuing Anchises ; so it is in ' JEn.,' i. 378, 379 : 

Sum pius ^Eneas, raptos qui ex urbe Penates 
Classe veho mecum. 

Similarly, Ovid, in 'Epp. Her.,' vii.. has, 
v. 107 : 

Seniorque pater, pia sarcina nati. 
So at v. 80 there is : 

Presserunt humeros sacra paterque tuos. 
It was seen so long since as the Delphin 
edition of Virgil that the meaning was that 
given above. For on " presserunt " there is 
this note : 

"Pius igitur a Virgilio ^Eneas cognominatur, 
quod patrem et deos Penates flam mis erupuerit, et 
humeris bajulaverit." 

So also on " pia sarcina " Facciolati observes : 
"h. e., Anchises humeris sublatus ab JEnea, qui 
idcirco pius passim a Virgilio dicetur." 


Is it not rather late in the day to be told 
that JEneas was not a model of all the virtues ? 
No one can have read the * ./Eneid ' without 
feeling some contempt for Virgil's hero, and 
comparing him unfavourably with his nobler- 
minded rival, Turnus. He was "pious" in 
the same sense as Pope Alexander VI. was 
" holy," ex officio ; being the founder of the 
Roman race, and having duly performed 
certain religious rites. He was also called 
" magnanimous." But " magnanimity," great- 
ness of soul, the power to perform great 
works, was not then inconsistent with a full 
share of vices, any more than it is in the pre- 
sent day. Still, we cannot judge by modern 
ethics those living under an undeveloped 

. in. JAN. 28, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


system. Was it not the author of 'Ecc 
tlomo ' who said that all the heroes of th 
Iliad ' would, in the present day, have bee 
hanged at Newgate? This, at any rate, i 
the impression he gives. Killing a supplian 
was almost the only crime they recognized a 
such, and even this Achilles was guilty o 
when he murdered the unarmed Lycaoi 
(<3>. 34-135). Epic poets are not always happ; 
in their heroes. The hero of ' Paradise Lost 
is undoubtedly Satan, yet a critic might ever 
find certain defects in the ethical aspect o 
this character. J. FOSTER PALMER. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

A KELIC OF NAPOLEON (9 th S. iii. 3). Wa 
not the plaster cast of Bonaparte's face made 
by Dr. Burton, a surgeon in the army stationec 
at St. Helena 1 About fifty years ago I was 
told by a member of Dr. Burton's family tha 
Dr. Antommarchi did not know how to make 
the cast ; that Dr. Burton, after placing th 
plaster on the face, left the room where th 
body was lying before the wet plaster hac 
become firm enough to be taken off; and that 
Dr. Antommarchi carried the cast away ir 
the absence of Dr. Burton. D. R. 

EGBERT BURNS'S PROPHECY (9 th S. ii. 526). 
This so-called "prophecy" may be interesting 
:o some readers, but undoubtedly would have 
Deen much more so to a larger number if the 
greater part of Burns's letter to Johnson had 
jeen given, the "prophecy" being the conclu- 
sion only of the letter which is printed in the 
preface to vol. v. of ' The Scots Musical 
Museum' (not "Scottish"), which volume 
principally owes its birth to Burns. May I 
be permitted to supplement the "prophecy" 
by that portion of Burns's letter which, in 
view of his death and all circumstances con- 
nected therewith, has a pathos of its own 
almost inexpressible 1 

"This protracting, slow, consuming illness which 
hangs over me will, I doubt much, my ever dear 
friend, arrest my sun before he has well reached his 
middle career, and will turn over the poet to far 
other and more important concerns than studying 
the brilliancy of wit or the pathos of sentiment. 
However, hope is the cordial of the human heart, 
and I endeavour to cherish it as well as I can." 

Burns was dead before the volume in question 
saw the light. 


CAMELIAN RING (8 th S. vii. 429). My ques- 
tion as to the nature of a ring of " camelian " 
haw, I think, never been answered. I have 
been wondering if the material were in any 
way akin to the " alchymy or alcamyne, 
occamy, ocany, ockanie, alcamy, or acconie 
a metal composed of pan-brass and arseni- 

cum," of which, Alice Morse Earle tells us, 
many of the spoons owned by the first colo- 
nists of New England were made (' Customs 
and Fashions in Old New England/ p. 135). 
I do not know whether "alcamy" would be 
permitted by present-day philologists to have 
thrown off the al and to have given rise to 
the adjective. Has MR. PEACOCK ever met 
with the word in Lincolnshire ? I have an 
impression that my nurse there used to say, 
" That is not gold ; it is only camelian." 


ROUNDS OR RUNGS (9 th S. ii. 386, 430, 492, 
530). Without examination, I was misled by 
the remarks of PROF. SKEAT, at the second 
reference, to assume that rung, in the sense 
referred to, was the older word, being after- 
wards displaced by round. An investigation 
discloses that round is the original word, and 
rung the corruption. Besides Shakespeare in 
'Julius Csesar,' II. i. (1601), there are More 
(1614-87), in 'The Government of the 
Tongue'; Dryden, in ' The Dialogues of the 
Hind and Panther,' ii. 221 (1687) ; and Norris 
(1657-1711), using round. Here are what 
other authorities say (N.B. Where we find 
both or either omitted from the following 
list, the dictionary does not give the defini- 
tion with reference to a ladder) : 

Minsheu, 1617. "The round of a ladder." 

Bailey, 1727. 

Johnson (last fo.), 1773." Round, rundle, 
step of a ladder." 

Ash, 1775. '"''Round, a rundle, a step of a 
[adder. Rung (a local word), the round or 
step of a ladder." 

Sheridan, 1784. " Round, rundle, step of a 

Todd, 1827. "Round, rundle, step of a 
adder. Rung, a round or step of a ladder ; 
so used in the north of England." 

Walker (by Davis), 1829." Round, rundle, 
tep of a ladder." 

Richardson, 1837. 

Webster and Worcester (new ed.), 1851. 
1 Round, a rundle, step of a ladder. Rung 
a round or step of a ladder, Bp. Andrews). 

Latham, 1855. "Round, rundle, step of a 

Cooley, 1861. "Round, a rundle of a 

Ogilvie's ' Imperial ' (by Annandale), 1884. 
-"Round, the step of a ladder, a rung 
Rung, the round or step of a ladder (local)." 
It will be observed that each of the above 
ho treats of the article gives round as the 
prd. Four mention rung, three character- 
zing it as a localism (= a vulgarism), and the 
ourth places the meaning within parentheses, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. HI. JA*. s, m 

as a doubtful word, particularizing the writer 
using it.* A study of the authorities demon- 
strates that the word rungs came into the 
language from a maritime source, and that 
it is quite a proper word when confined to its 
proper place, as relating to the floor of a ship. 
Extended to the steps, rundles, or rounds of 
a ladder, it becomes a vulgarism just as it 
would be correct for me to call a club a 
cudgel ; but if I apply the term cudgel to a 
walking-stick, I commit a vulgarity. In 
Wright's 'Dictionary of Obsolete and Pro- 
vincial English' (1893), "containing words 
from the English writers previous to the 
nineteenth century which are no longer in 
use, or are not used in the same sense, and 
words which are now used only in the pro- 
vincial dialects," rung^ " the step of a ladder," 
is included. Of the instances from writers 
given by PROF. SKEAT having a bearing upon 
the point, two belong to the Chaucer era, one 
being Chaucer himself. They cannot be 
taken as criteria ; they are too much out of 
date, and the language was unformed then. 
Besides, these references brought forward 
as examples of rungs are not rungs ^at all, 
but the obsolete ranges. There remains the 
solitary instance of Bryce, who may be looked 
upon as the one exception proving the rule. 
Even laying aside the array of authority 
against, would a dozen of such instances 
upon the subject of a refinement weigh in 
the balance against Scott, especially when he 
puts the term into the mouth of a courtier ? 
Another writer of repute using round is 
George Eliot (Mrs. Lewes, ne'e Evans). To the 
foregoing let me add something personal. I 
have found here (over a large district in the 
north of Ireland) that the steps of a ladder 
are invariably called rungs by the labouring 
classes, and rounds by the educated. When 
that fact fitted with Dr. Blain's dictum, in 
the dilemma of Blain v. SKEAT was I not 
justified in assuming for myself that the 
former (who made a study of the question) 
was right, and that the latter (who probably 
never considered the point before beyond the 
etymology) is wrong? Outside of the aca- 
demic discussion, PROF. SKEAT makes two 
mistakes. It is colouring the facts to intro- 
duce the phrase, "nor does a word become 
vulgar merely because it pleases J. S. M. T. to 
call it so." I simply quoted an authority, 
and said that I preferred to follow thai 
authority. In any remarks I made on the 
subject I never had the slightest intention 

* The references is to Bishop Andrewes's 'Ser 
mons,' p. 560 (1631). The author, however, did not 
make use of rungs, but the Chaucerean term. See 

>f sneering either at men or things. I am 
orry to see in the columns of C N. & Q.,' 
vhere everything ought to be discussed in a 
riendly and helpful spirit, that sometimes 
''our correspondents import considerable acri- 
mony. To sneer without justification is 
departing from rules that should prevail, 
and is not only likely to call forth the irrita- 
tion deprecated, but in a leading writer is 
setting a bad example to lesser lights. 

J. S. M. T. 

PROF. SKEAT at the last reference points 
out that rung in the sense of cudgel is twice 
used by Burns. It is also used by Scott in the 
same sense. In * The Abbot,' chap, vii., Ealph 
Fisher says to Roland Graeme : 

" I wot not what hinders me from clearing old 
scores with this hazel rung, and showing you it was 
your Lady's livery-coat which I spared, and not your 
lesh and blood, Master Roland." 

Rung here is equivalent to Cuddie Head- 
rigg's kebbie (* Old Mortality,' chap. xiv.). 


In Northumberland rung is the name 
invariably given. On the contrary, round is 
never used, at least among the workmen. 
Ladders are often made with three or four 
flat bars, longer than the round ones, and 
projecting sufficiently on each side to admit 
a wooden peg, so that the whole may be kept 
compact and firm. These are called flat 
rungs, sometimes " throughs " (thrufs). Bars 
of the above kind are a good deal used in the 
various fittings and furnishings about farm- 
steads, and are almost always called rungs, 
never rounds, at least among the workmen. 
Old-fashioned shepherds on the borders may 
sometimes still call a walking-stick a rung. 
The term is still well understood. To walk 
" twa fald o'er a rung " is to go doubled with 
a stick. JOHN WILSON. 

Leazes Park, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

iii. 3). It is rather a " large order " to assume 
" a hard pronunciation of the c," and I should 
think it far more likely that in the young and 
uninstructed rustic mind the inside of a pig 
stands as inclusive of everything that is mys- 
terious or dimly understood. Hence it was, 
no doubt, that a little boy here asked his 
teacher whether the soul was not "somethink 
out o' the hinside of a pig." J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

ii. 325). I have in ' N. & Q.' called attention 
to the fact that a learned official, when label- 
ling a copy of Aulus Gellius, 1706 (it was 
given by Erasmus Edwards, Lord Orford's 

9 th S. III. JAN. 28, '99.] 



secretary, to the great Dean of St. Patrick's), 
for exhibition in a case in the Forster Room, 
South Kensington Museum, described Mr. 
E. L. Swifte who sold the book to John 
Forster as " a descendant o/ the Dean " / 
now, however, think it only right to mention 
that the authorities at the Museum have 
amended the erroneous statement. There 
has lately been affixed to the work named 
an entirely new label, in lieu of the very 
objectionable one, and the public are now 
informed thereby that Mr. E. L. Swifte was 
" a relative of the Dean." The italics are mine. 

By the way, would not the title of "The 
Victoria and Albert Museum " be much more 
appropriate than the present unmeaning 
appellation 1 HENRY GERALD HOPE. 

Elms Road, 8.W. 

TETE-A-TETE PORTRAITS (9 th S. ii. 448). 
Some queries and many replies containing 
much information on the subject of these 
portraits have already appearea in the pages 
of * N. & Q.' If your correspondent will turn 
to 3 rd S. xi. 87 ; 7 th S. v. 488 ; vi. 10, 136, 175 ; 
vii. 55, he will find that many of the portraits 
have been identified. To the present date 
no complete list has appeared. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"RUMMER" (8 th S. x. 452; xi. 270, 395; xii. 
17, 198; 9 th S. iii. 36). As my remarks on 
this word have been somewhat misunderstood, 
I shall be glad to be allowed to explain. 

The guess that rummer is derived from rum 
is quite modern, and mere popular etymology 
of the obvious but useless sort. When Addi- 
son said in 1703 that he could find no rime to 
rummer, he clearly shows that the pronuncia- 
tion was not that now in use, which so obvi- 
ously rimes to summer. The u was doubtless 
like the oo in foot ; and this is w T hy Bailey, in 
his 'Dictionary,' when taking a shot at the 
etymology, never thinks of run., but only of 
room, and therefore defines it as "a broad- 
mouthed drinking-glass."* In precisely the 
same way our modern rummage was formerly 
roomage, and really is derived from room, as 
Bailey likewise suggests. If, according to 
Bailey's evidence, the u was somewhat long, 
then the difficulty as to finding a rime is real 
enough. Even if it had been as long as the oo 
in roomer, the available rimes are not many. 
Rumour supplies no rime, but only a coinci- 
dent sound ; whilst humour and tumour have 
a, sound like the ew in dew, which does not 
recommend itself to the fastidious ear. A 

* " Rummer (q. d. a roomer, from room), a broad- 
mouthed drinking-glass." 

true rime is supplied by Bloomer, but Addi- 
son could not use a word which was not yet 

Moreover, the usual name of rum at an 
early date was not the curtailed form now so 
familiar, but rumbullion or rumbowling. As 
late as Smollett's time it was still usually 
called rumbo. 

But I long ago quoted the line about 
"Rhenish rummers" from Dryden's poetical 
epistle to Etheredge, the date of which is 
now known to be 1686 (see Etheredge, 'Works/ 
ed. Verity, p. viii). And Dryden's expression 
shows that the word was a foreign one, im- 
ported from the Continent. Indeed, it is 
perfectly well known that rummer is merely 
the Dutch word roemer done into English. 

Hence I never said that the English rummer 
was of any other origin. But I ventured on 
the speculation (not at all my own, but fre- 
quently given elsewhere) that the Dutch, not 
the English word, might have been connected 
with the German Romersaal, carefully using 
the phrase " I have been told so." It seemed 
not unlikely, because the German for rummer 
is Romer. Of course, neither the Du. roemer 
nor the G. Romer can possibly be derived 
from the English rum. 

However, Dr. Franck, in his ' Dutch Ety- 
mological Dictionary,' says that this is pro- 
bably a mistake. He is not quite certain 
about it, but prefers to derive it from Du. 
roem, boasting, glory, praise ; as if it were a 
glass from which to drink toasts, to the glory 
of the person toasted. However this may be, 
there is no doubt about the English word, 
as it is merely borrowed from Dutch. 


The word was in use in 1845, when Disraeli 
wrote : " The delicate rummers of the Mow- 
bray slap-bang for the girls" ('Sybil,' chap. x.). 


A CHILD'S CAUL (9 th S. iii. 26). In ' Merry 
Pictures by the Comic Hands of H. K. 
Browne, Crowquill, Doyle, Leech, Meadows, 
Hine, and others ' (no date, about 1855-60), on 
folio 12, appears a very large sailor on a very 
small expanse of coast, with a few yachts in 
the distance. His exclamation is, "Shiver 
my timbers ! I 'm lost ! Ain't no one seen my 
child's caul 1 " Much about cauls has already 
appeared in ' N. & Q.'; see the Indexes to 1 st , 
2 nd 6 th 7 th an( } 8 th g. . especially 7 th S. ii. 145; 
8 th S. xi. 144. W. C. B. 

This ancient and widely spread superstition 
has been frequently noticed in the pages of 
' N. & Q.' (see 1 st S. v., vii. ; 2 nd S. iii. ; 6 th S. 
x. ; 7 th S. ii., viii.). Brand, in his ' Popular 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. JAN. 28, m 

Antiquities,' calls it " the holy or fortunate 
cap or hood," and gives many instances of 
the belief that children so born will be very 
fortunate. The following paragraph, from a 
current number of the Lancet, shows that the 
superstition has not died out : 

"A letter has been received by a correspondent, a 
medical man, asking him if he feels disposed to buy 
a caul, or, in case the article is of no use to him, if 
he can recommend an establishment where cauls are 
purchased. We believe that there is still some 
market for cauls among sailors, who retain their 
belief in the efficacy of the membranes as a protec- 
tion against shipwreck and drowning, and we 
endorse the notice given by our correspondent to 
try the mercantile marine. Notices of ' Cauls for 
Sale Within' were to be seen recently in windows 
in the vicinity of the docks both of London and 
Liverpool, but it is some time since we have noticed 
an advertisement of a caul for sale in the daily 
press. It may be remarked that the sale of cauls, 
so far from being a very ancient custom, is a com- 
paratively modern innovation. The witchcraft of 
the Middle Ages declared against the caul retaining 
any virtue whatever if parted with by gift or sale to 
any but a member of the child's kindred. Probably 
it was the midwife, as is pointed out in ' Credulities 
Past and Present,' by W. Jones, who discounte- 
nanced this exclusive view of the matter, and pro- 
ceeded to turn the accident of parturition into coin 
of the realm." 


WOLLASTON ARMS (9 th S. ii. 429 ; iii. 29). 
The monument erected by William Wollaston 
to the memory of Alice Coburn is not in 
Stratford Church, as stated in Mr. K. E. 
Chester Waters's book, but in the church of 
St. Mary -le- Bow, Bow Road, Middlesex, 
where she was buried. EITA Fox. 

HEREDITARY ODOUR (9 th S. ii. 505). The 
notion of a distinct odour being associated 
with a family is not exactly new. It is a 
notion that must have got, or been put, in the 
head of Louis XIII., who often said, boast- 
fully, " Je tiens de mon pere, moi, je sens le 
gousset." This is a claim to an hereditary 
odour ; a heritage not at all desirable, though 
the king was proud of it, for Madame de 
Verneuil told Henri IV., in reference to this 
property, " que bien lui prenait d'etre roi, que 
sans cela on ne le pourrait souffrir, et qu'il 
puait comme charogne " (see ' Memoires de 
Tallemant, Henri IV.'). B. D. MOSELEY. 

I am quite certain that if I was blindfolded, 
and had been placed by the side of my late 
father, say, at the dinner table, and not told 
who was sitting by me, I should have known 
at once he was not far off, there was 
such a queer odour, not from the breath, 
always emanating from him. He was a non- 
smoker, but fond of port wine, and I always 
used to put it down to this. I notice it also 

in some of my brothers who neither smoke 
nor drink port. ALFRED J. KING. 

I would cite "a man of your rank and 
smell," vulgar, but expressive. A. W. T. 

FURLY OF COLCHESTER, ESSEX (9 th S. iii. 27). 
I have in my possession several notes of 
births, marriages, and deaths of the above 
family dating from the year 1613 down to the 

E resent time. They refer principally to that 
ranch of the family who were members of 
the Society of Friends. I shall be pleased to 
place these notes at the disposal of your cor- 
respondent MR. ARTHUR BRENT, if he will 
communicate with me. RITA Fox. 

64, Watling Street, B.C. 


Memoirs of the Verney Family from the Restoration 
to the Revolution, 1660-1696. By Margaret M. 
Verney. Vol. IV. (Longmans & Co.) 
THE task begun by Frances Parthenope, Lady 
Verney who died before her work saw the light 
of compiling from documents and pictures at Claydon 
House a history of the Verney family has been 
accomplished by her successor, Margaret Maria, 
Lady Verney, and the complete work, so far as 
concerns the scheme proposed, has now seen the 
light. On this the lover of history is to be con- 
gratulated. Works which, like the present, conduct 
us, so to speak, personally through some of the 
most striking epochs of history, and show us the 
thoughts of active participators in the struggles and 
the influence upon domestic life of the events under 
which the State reeled, are, necessarily, scarce and 
precious. Twice already (see 8 th S. i. 465 ; vii. 179) 
have we drawn attention to the fortunes of the 
family, the first instalment presenting them in 
action, with Sir Edmund Verney in the thick of 
the fight at Edgehill, his hand, cut off at the 
wrist, still grasping the royal standard committed 
to his charge ; the second occupied with the 
difficult, but indispensable task of gathering 
together such scraps of family property as con- 
tributions and exactions and confiscations on both 
sides have left. In this third and concluding por- 
tion times are somewhat easier. The Restoration 
has brought to the land a respite from civil war, 
and the troubles we encounter are those only to 
which humanity is at all times subject. Touching 
references to past vicissitudes or calamities are 
still encountered, and we find the day of the dis- 
astrous fight at Edgehill and the death of the 
standard-bearer still observed. 

If the records of the fourth volume are on the 
whole less stimulating than those of its prede- 
cessors, it is to be remembered that the times were 
more peaceable. Revolutionary influences such 
as drove James II. from the throne pass com- 
paratively lightly over the Buckinghamshire home, 
and though we have pictures of the consternation 
caused by the ravages of the Plague and the Fire of 
London, the rebellion of Monmouth, and the trial 
of the bishops, the main purport of the notes and 
correspondence is domestic. Some very lively entries 
deal with the exploits of highwaymen, and we find, 

9* s. m. JAN. 28, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to our consternation, that the members of the 
eminently respectable and distinguished families 
in whose proceedings we are interested are almost 
more likely to relieve others of their purses 
than to be themselves so relieved. With some- 
thing not far removed from a shock we learn that the 
exercise of the whole family influence is required in 
order to preserve cousin this or that from the gallows, 
and that sometimes this, great as it is, is inadequate. 
Richard Hals and Frederick Turville, both of them 
connexions of the family through the Lady Verney 
who was the mother of the "Standard-bearer," 
earn what is here called "the crowning distinction 
of the gallows." Among the various letters con- 
taining family news sent by Edmund Verney at 
East Claydon to John Verney, the merchant at 
Aleppo, none can have conveyed intelligence much 
more tragical than one undated, but written, pre- 
sumably, about July, 1660: "Cosen Jack Temple, 
Sir R.'s brother, was tryed for having fourteen 
wives at once, and escaped the gallows. I think I 
have sufficiently spoken of marriages. Now for 

hanging, which also goes by destiny My cosen, 

Fredd Turville, was hanged at Hertford for burglary 
and other crimes. But I '11 speak no more of such 
ignominious ends, though these ensuing may be as 
deplorable ; for my cosen Thorn: Danby was basely 
murdered in a tavern in London by one Burrage ; 
Cosen Reade killed in France; cosen A. Temple, 
lieutenant in a ship of war, was slayne before 
Algiers." "Cosen" Frances Hobart speaks with 
much indulgence of the afore - mentioned "poor 
coussin Frederick Turville," and is glad to think 
that he died like a " very good christion" and self- 
proclaimedly " a chatolicke " (sic). A note received 
from this man, who had in his time, as a naval 
officer, done good service, is docketed by Sir Ralph 
Verney as from " Dick Halse, a Highwayman since 
hanged." A sad episode in the narrative is the 
madness with which, soon after her marriage to 
Edmund Verney, Mary Abell is visited. In spite 
of her affliction she survived all her descendants, 
and lived to the age of seventy-four. Her tomb- 
stone registers, witn some tautology, that "not- 
withstanding her lunacy she was a Woman of 
Extraordinary Goodness, Piety, & Devotion." Tom, 
the scapegrace, concerning whom much has been 
heard, died of old age at well over ninety, still 
possessed of 22s. and la. Sir Ralph, the mainstay, 
represents Buckingham in the "Convention" Par- 
liament from January, 1689, to February, 1690. 
Though prayed for by all his connexions and friends, 
That sweet saint who stood by Russell's side, 

he died at midnight between 25 and 26 September, 
1696, leaving instructions, which were not followed, 
to be buried " as privately and with as little pomp 
as may be." 

It will show what sidelights this volume throws 
upon history to state that we read how, on the 
day following the funeral, King William "was 
last Sunday at Whitehal Chapl, tis the first time 
since the Queen dyed, and I was told by one that 
was their he looked full of trouble and concern." 
Reproductions of portraits and illustrations gener- 
ally constitute once more a great attraction. Those 
from Claydon House include Queen Catherine of 
Braganza ; James Butler, first Duke of Ormond, by 
Egmont ; and paintings by Sir P. Lely of Sir Ralph 
Verney ; Anne Lee, Marchioness of Wharton ; 
Elizabeth Palmer, wife of John Verney ; and 

Eleanor Lee, Countess of Abingdon. Six or eight 
further portraits of illustrious Verneys from the 
same and other collections are given. 

Le Dix-huitieme Siede, les Mcnurs, les Arts, le 
Ideas: Recits et Tdmoignagts Contemporains. 
(Paris, Hachette & Cie.) 

DELIGHTED at first to flout its predecessor, this 
nineteenth century, in the expiring years of which 
we live, has ended by yielding it something more 
than mere justice. Poetry in its highest development 
sank to rest in the middle of the seventeenth 
century, arid, though it stirred in its sleep at the 
sound of some melodies of Blake, did not rouse 
itself in earnest till it was stirred by the reveil of 
Burns, Keats, Shelley, Wordsworth, and Byron in 
England, and the heralding of Victor Hugo and the 
Romanticists in France. Then, even, we talked dis- 
paragingly of the eighteenth century, the century 
though it was of Voltaire and Beaumarchais, 
Diderot and the Encyclopaedists, and of Pope and 
Swift, Johnson, Burke, and Reynolds. It is through 
art we have at length reached admiration, or at 
least toleration, for the century of artificiality and 
prettiness, and we have condescended to believe 
that an age such as that of the boudoir and the 
reception room, of Versailles and the Trianon, the 
rapier, the snuff box, and the clouded cane, was a 
necessary portion of that progress which has made 
the nineteenth century what it is, and has left for 
the twentieth nothing of which we dare attempt 
to dream. 

The handsome and superbly illustrated book 
before us a class of work in which the French are 
immeasurably our superiors is a history of the 
eighteenth century, not from its actions so much as 
from its products. The age, so to speak, tells its 
own tale. What are usually considered to be the 
bases of history records and documents properly 
so called are left unconsulted. From pictures and 
engravings, from furniture and decorations generally, 
from the works, the diaries, the conversations of 
writers, philosophers, statesmen, comedians, char- 
latans, chambermaids, a likeness of the age as it 
saw itself is drawn. From the treasures of the 
Louvre and the Bibliotheque Nationale, the Muse 
Carnavalet, Versailles, Cond6, Chantilly, the 
Opera, the Come'die Franchise, and from numerous 
private collections, writers each of them a 
specialist in his line have drawn illustrations 
ol the Court, the salons, Paris, and the pro- 
vinces, beaux-arts and the theatre, philosophers 
and intellectual development, statesmen and men 
of war. Little is told us concerning suppressed 
movements. We scarcely see the life of the tiller 
of the ground, know next to nothing of the grinding 
tyranny to which the labourer and the peasant were 
subjected, pay no more heed than did society itself to 
the grumbling of the coming storm. Life, however, 
in court, camp, forest, and park, in the boudoir, the 
alcove, the ruelle, the atelier, on the stage, is repro- 
duced for us as it is preserved in the pictures of 
Boucher, Watteau, Lancret, Greuze, and the illus- 
trations of Cochin, Eisen, Marillier, Moreau le 
Jeune. The frontispiece reproduces admirably a 
portrait by Madame Lebrun of Marie Antoinette, 
from the collection of the Marquis de Fontanges, 
which is succeeded, on the first page, by a delight- 
ful representation by Nattier of Madame Victoire, 
the daughter of Louis XV., as a nymph. These 
things are indicative of what follows in the open- 
ing section, ' La Cour.' Pictures of the Regent, 



Louis XV. as a child, of his Court, his entry into 
Paris, of Marie Leczinska ; caricatures of the use of 
pannier and plume ; grim views of the questioning 
of Damiens ; charming designs from Moreau's 
'Monument of Costume'; portraits and busts of 
Voltaire, Diderot, Madame Vestris, Turgot, and 
other celebrities : with these and similar things 
the book overflows. To all who tolerate or love 
the eighteenth-century art of France it offers end- 
less attraction. It is in all respects a triumph of 
the Parisian press. 

Scottish Vernacular Literature. By T. F. Hender- 
son. (Nutt.) 

MR. HENDERSON, well known for contributions to 
historical and biographical knowledge, has given us 
what is called "a succinct history" of Scottish 
vernacular literature, principally, but not wholly, 
poetical. It is a well-written, useful, and an emi- 
nently readable book. Discarding the assumption 
of supreme and ineffable wisdom, once supposed to 
be the equipment of every reviewer, and accepting 
the harsh judgment likely to follow the avowal of 
birth south of the Tweed, we confess to having found 
the early Scottish poems more than a little difficult 
of comprehension, and have, in the case of early alli- 
terative romances, abandoned the attempt. We have 
found Mr. Henderson a pleasant guide, we will not 
say to intimacy, but to a bowing acquaintance with 
many interesting works, and have, to our benefit, 
read his work from cover to cover. Under the 
influences of the Reformation the vocation of art and 
literature in Scotland became, "notwithstanding 
the impulse of a true poetic tradition and the 
fostering influence of James VI.," gradually impos- 
sible. "The sudden, full, and immediate contact 
of the rude intelligence of the masses with a book 
every word of which was supposed to have been 
directly dictated by God, upset as it was bound to 
do the nation's mental and moral balance." Under 
this and other influences much of the vernacular 
Scottish literature has perished. It was reserved 
for Burns to recreate the old Scottish world, and to 
breathe into the dry bones of the past the breath of 
life. If we had room to extract from Mr. Hender- 
son's illustrations we would quote the original ver- 
sion, embellished by Boece, of the interview betwixt 
Macbeth and the weird sisters on which Shakspeare 
drew. Wyntoun's 'Chronicle' is credited with a 
certain anecdotical garrulity, and a very interesting 
account is given 01 ' Rauf Coilzear,' ' Colkelbie's 
Sow,' and other Scottish fabliaux. Mr. J. T. T. 
Brown, who disputes the assignment to James I. of 
the authorship of the ' Kingis Quair,' is held not to 
have established a case which cannot be established. 
Most great cities and rivers have their laureates. 
It is curious that the first to praise aright London 
and the Thames should be Dunbar, who says : 
! towne of townes, patrone and not compare : 
London, thou art the floure of Cities all. 
Very quaint and irreverent is the poem of ' Kynd 
Kittpk,' ascribed to the same poet. Mr. Hender- 
son is at some pains to defend Dunbar from the 
aspersions of Lowell and Prof. Courthope, and is 
successful in so doing. We cannot accompany Mr. 
Henderson further, pleasant companion though he 
be. We can but commend a study of his book, a 
task to be discharged with the minimum of labour 
and the maximum of delight. 

Odd Volumes and their Boole-plates, by Walter 
Hamilton, Parodist to the Sette of Odd Volumes, is 

a collection of a series of articles which appeared 
last year in the Journal of the Ex-Libris Society. 
Mr. George Redway has had a small edition printed, 
of which only 150 copies are for sale, in size and 
style to match the well-known opuscula of the Odd 
Volumes. There are numerous reproductions of 
quaint and interesting book-plates, and the articles 
are humorously descriptive of some of the leading 
members of this curious London dining club. 

THE longest articles in the current number of 
Folk-Lore are Mr. Hartland's criticism of Mr. 
Lang's 'Making of Religion,' and an illustrated 
account of the Shrew Ash in Richmond Park. One 
of the questions in the pages devoted to correspond- 
ence demands further information on the debated 
point whether the jus primce noctis was ever in 
reality exercised among the peoples of Western 
Europe after they became christianized. In the 
miscellanea is a description of the immemorial 
custom of "Riding the Black Lad" in Ashton- 

AMONG the various papers published in the later 
numbers of Melusine are further additions to M. 
Tuchmann's immense collection of notes on fascina- 
tion. The superstitions relative to the evil eye 
would appear to be almost inexhaustible. 

THE Intermediaire is, it is needless to say, full of 
valuable information on all kinds of subjects con- 
nected with literature, history, and archaeology. 
Among the curious facts chronicled in its pages are 
several instances of the preservation of corpses by 
the soil in which they were buried. Examples of 
fortified churches are still added to the list of such 
buildings which has already been given in the earlier 
numbers of the magazine, and a record of the non- 
belligerent patriots executed under various pleas by 
the Germans in 1870-71 is being gradually estab- 

THE Publishers' 1 Weekly, though scarcely of interest 
to the outsider, contains information likely to be of 
use to persons concerned with the book trade. 

We must, call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

E. H. COLEMAN ("Index to 'N. & Q.'"). See 
under 'Bunyan.' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E. C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9 th S. III. FEB. 





CONTENTS.-No. 58. 
: TOTES : ' Blackwood's Magazine,' 81 Unwritten History, 
82 London Exhibitions, 83 Poet's Immortality, 84 
Guillotine Ditty Sacrilege Pack Rag Feast " Acre- 
ware ": " Mollond," 85 Maxwell's ' Herodian ' Garrick's 
Jubilee,' 86 Fathometer Tom Brown and Dr. Fell 
Hamlet,' by D. Hayes, 87. 

QUERIES : M. Hoene Wronski : John Pond, 87 Addison's 
' ' Rosamond ' " Flucing " "A flurch of strawberries " 
Author Wanted Muse Plots' The Golden Staircase ' 
Ogilvie : Grant Mustard Motto, 88 Rubens's ' Descent 
from the Cross' St. Clairs " Rodfall" Abham Staple- 
ton's ' Fortress of the Faith 'Portrait of Hugh O'Neill, 89 
Roman Numerals Miniature Surnames in -son 
" John-a-Duck's mare" Clough Entry in Register 
Playing Cards on Church Tower Sir A. Crowley, 90. 

REPLIES : The Roman Ghetto, 90 Surnames in the 
Waverley Novels, 92 French Song West Indian Families 
Counts of Holland The Swallow's Song, 93 The Colour 
Green " Charme " Jews and Bills of Exchange A 
Church Tradition, 94 Peas Major John Andre, 95 
" Foundet " Sir E. Godfrey Cape Town in 1844, 96 
"Sleever" Sir B. Wrench Memoirs of the Princess de 
Lamballe Mr. Warburton's Servant" Taw," 97 Puzzle 
Jugs Heraldic Island of Ichaboe Miss Collier, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Sweet's New English Grammar ' 
Comparetti'8 'Traditional Poetry of the Finns' Aber- 
cromby's ' Pre- and Proto- Historic Finns 'Lang's Scott's 
Peveril of the Peak ' Davis's ' Silchester' Heath's 
'Autumnal Leaves ' Whar ton's 'Whartons of Wharton 
Hall ' ' Whitaker's Titled Persons.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

THE publication on Monday last of the thou- 
sandth number of Blackwood's is an event in 
periodical literature. Founded in April, 1817, 
by William Blackwood, this parent and model 
of the modern magazine, a success from the 
first, has steadily, in spite of all competitors, 
kept on its way, and the birthday num ber, now 
issued from its old home, 45, George Street, 
Edinburgh, shows " Maga " to be full of life 
and vigour. This new number, in the usual 
brown cover, with the thistle and the 
features of old George Buchanan on the 
front page, will find a permanent place in 
libraries. Beautifully printed on good paper, 
it forms in this respect a pleasing contrast to 
the early volumes. 

The contents are so well known that only 
a passing reference need be made. On the 
first page is a poem by Andrew Lang, ' Our 
Fathers,' and tnis is followed by an imitation 
of the ' Noctes Ambrosianse,' No. LXXIL, the 
last of the series in which our old friends the 
Shepherd, North, and Tickler took part being 
No. LXXI. The birthday is also referred to 
by " The Looker-On." With these exceptions 
the number has the usual contents, but 
specially appropriate is the second instal- 
ment of Sir John Mowbray's reminiscences. 

In this addition to the * Noctes ' the sons 
of Scotland who are fighting the battle of life 
far from home are addressed in words by 
Neil Munro never to be forgotten : 
Are you not weary in your distant places, 

Far far from Scotland of the mist and storm, 
In stagnant airs the sun-smite on your faces, 

The days so long and warm ? 
When all around you lie the strange fields sleeping, 

The ghastly woods where no dear memories roam, 
Do not your sad hearts over seas come leaping, 

To the highlands and the lowlands of your Home ? 

Love strength and tempest oh come back and 
share them 1 

Here is the cottage, here the open door ; 
We have the hearts although we do not bare them, 

They 're yours, and you are ours for evermore. 

This anniversary will cause many to turn 
back to the early years. Apart from the con- 
tributions of well - known writers, those 
volumes contain a remarkable record of the 
times. The first six numbers, under the title 
Edinburgh Monthly Magazine, were jointly 
edited by James Cleghorn, the founder of the 
Scottish Provident Institution, and Thomas 
Pringle, author of ' Narrative of a Kesidence 
in South Africa'; but with the seventh num- 
ber Mr. William Blackwood took the entire 
control, changing the title to Blackwood's 
Edinburgh Magazine. It was in this number 
that ' The Chaldee MS.' appeared, falling like 
a thunderbolt on Edinburgh. 

Vol. L, April to September, 1817, opens with 
a memoir of the late Francis Horner ; and 
its literary contents comprise 'RemarKs on 
Greek Tragedy'; a series of articles on 
Scottish gipsies, inspired, if not dictated, by 
Sir Walter Scott ; ' Memorie of the Somer- 
villes '; a review of ' Lalla Rookh,' price 
2J. 2s., and 'Manfred,' published at 5s. 6d; 
* Harrington,' by Maria Edgeworth ; Dr. 
Chalmers's * Discourses '; and * Sacred Songs,' 
by Thomas Moore. 

The original communications are numerous 
and varied. Much space is devoted to the 
'Antiquarian Repertory.' In an article on 
Savings Banks it is curious to find the title 
objected to. In the ' Literary and Scientific 
Intelligence' the important sale of the library 
of Count Macarthy at Paris in May is 
mentioned, when, among other treasures, 
the Psalmorum Codex, Mogunt., 1457, fol., 
fetched 12,000 francs. We also find that the 
Paris booksellers' petition for the repeal 
of the heavy duties on the importation of 
foreign books has been partly successful, and 
the duty reduced to ten francs per fifty 
kilogrammes metriques about two cwt. The 
monthly list of new publications is full of 
interest, and the published prices vary much 
from those of later times. The completion of 



the new edition of Chalmers's * Biographical 
Dictionary ' is announced, 32 vols. 8vo. 

' Morte d' Arthur,' reprinted from Caxton's 
edition of 1485, "with an introduction and 
notes by Robert Southey, Esq., price 81. 8s.," 
is announced in July. The stirring times 
of 1817 are brought to view in the ' Political 
Record.' We have the account of the attack 
on the Prince Regent on his way to open the 
Houses of Parliament; the suspension of 
the Habeas Corpus Act; the trial of Mr. T. J. 
Wooler, of the Black Dwarf, for libelling 
Lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning ; also the 

Thistlewood, Hooper, and Preston should not 
be proceeded with) ; mention is made of the 
coinage of sovereigns in place of the old 
guineas ; the crossing of the Irish Channel 
in a balloon ; the report from St. Helena that 
Bonaparte is in good health and looking well 
"less bloated than ordinary" but com- 
plaining much of Sir Hudson Lowe and of his 
being detained a prisoner, for which he knows 
no law; and that Russia is cultivating 
peace with all her neighbours and making 
extensive reductions of her army, but still 
with an eye to the Dardanelles. We have 
the Pacha of Egypt preparing to dispute the 
sovereignty of that province with the Otto- 
man Porte. We are also informed that the 
Paris census, taken in June, shows that the 
population exceeds 860,000, being 20,000 more 
than that of London ; and it is recorded 
that Dr. Esquirql has read a paper to the 
Academy on a kind of mental derangement 
to which he gives a new term, "hallucina- 
tion." A presentation to the Duke of 
Wellington of plate of the value of 
200,000/. by the Prince Regent of Por- 
tugal is also noticed, as is the first survey 
of the wreck of the R-oyal George by means 
of the diving bell. Even a fire at Bankside 
is reported, at which, the water being low 
in the Thames, a tank of lime water was 
emptied into the engines, and it was remarked 
that the material thus wetted did not again 
take fire. It is also announced that the 
medals of the Royal Society have been pre- 
sented to Sir Humphry Davy, and that a 
Committee of the House of Commons reports 
that steam engines of some construction may 
be applied with perfect safety, even to pas- 
senger vessels. In Germany animal magnet- 
ism is in favour as a remedy for disease. All 
these, and many other things, are recorded in 
the ' Chronicle of Events.' Many of the ages 
among the deaths are indeed startling, six- 
teen during the six months being stated as over 

one hundred years, one being given at 130, 
and another at 117 ; but this was before the 
careful investigations of Mr. Dilke, Mr. 
Thorns, and Sir Cornewall Lewis. Those 
who seek for information as to the founding 
and progress of Blackwoods will find full 
details given in Mrs. Oliphant's ' William 
Blackwood and his Sons'; in the notices of 
William and John Blackwood, ' Dictionary of 
National Biography 5 (vol. y.) ; the memoir 
of Christopher North, by his daughter Mrs. 
Gordon ; the obituary notice of William 
Blackwood, by Lockhart, in the Magazine for 
October, 1834; or in Curwen's 'History of 
Booksellers.' Christopher North, in the 
'Noctes ' (vol. iii. p. 70), said that "my chief, 
if not sole object in writing for 'Maga' is the 
diffusion of knowledge, virtue, and happiness 
all over the world." If a like spirit be main- 
tained, we may expect " Maga " to live to add 
another "M." to its title-page ; and in such a 
hope we may join heartily in the toast " To 
' Maga': her history is a glorious one. Long 
may she flourish, and may she ever be true 
to her old traditions !" 


DOES any one take the modern picture- 
book magazine seriously? The Quarterly 
Review noticed an "article" on the Shake- 
speare-Bacon "controversy" in the Christ- 
mas " extra " of a popular monthly for 
1897. In the 1898 Christmas number of the 
same periodical there is a contribution which 
merits similar treatment. A writer has been 
hunting up the traditions of our fights with 
France, and displays his results, in the latest 
fashion, on a pair of flags. England, we find, 
has won thirty-two battles on land Crecy, 
Poictiers, Agincourt, Crevant, Roverai, 
Namur, Malaga, Blenheim, Ramillies, Ouden- 
arde, Almanza, Malplaquet, Dettingen, Min- 
den, Quebec, Acre, Vimiera, Corunna, Tala- 
vera, Busaco, Barossa, Fuentes d'Onoro, 
Albuera, Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajos, Sala- 
manca, Madrid, Vittoria, Orthes, Toulouse, 
Quatre Bras, and Waterloo ; and twenty on 
sea Daunne, Dover, Channel, Sluys, Har- 
fleur, North Foreland, La Hogue, Lagos, 
Quiberon Bay, Finisterre, Grenada, Ushant, 
L'Orient, St. Vincent, Nile, Alexandria, San 
Domingo, Dominica, Basque Roads, and 
Trafalgar. France has won nine on land 
Bruges, Bou vines, Beauje, Verneuil, Landen 
Steenkirk. Fontenoy, Bergen-op-Zoom, and 
Duquesne ; and six on sea Beachy Head 
St. Dennis, Minorca, Boulogne, La Rochelle 
and Lakes. 

. III. FEB. 4, '99.] 



The Haighas and Hatters of the present 
( ay have certainly been throwing themselves 
i ito Anglo-Saxon attitudes to an extra- 
( rdinary extent. Hence one must be 
prepared for something, but surely not for 
] listorical retrospects of this kind. Take the 
names included : Rouvray ("the Herrings") 
vas little more than a skirmish ; Malaga was 
lot a land fight at all ; Almanza was a com- 
plete defeat ; Madrid, whether 1706, 1710, or 
1812, was no battle at all ; Toulouse was not, 
from a military point of view, a great 
victory ; Harfleur was not a great sea fight ; 
North Foreland was fought against the 
Dutch, not against the French ; Finisterre 
was a defeat in every sense ; Alexandria was 
not a sea fight. On the other hand, Bruges 
is an enigma ; Verneuil was a French defeat, 
second only to Agincourt ; Duquesne was 
not a great event ; and, with the exception of 
Beachy Head, none of the sea fights, except, 
perhaps, Minorca, can be called great. 

From the Anglo-Saxon point of view, 
what can be thought of a writer who 
bills his country's victories on a flag, and, 
while calling little events big, omits such 
items as Tenchebray (1106), Brenneville 
(1119), Fair of Lincoln (1216), Auray (1364), 
Guinegate ("the Spurs," 1513), St. Quentin 
(1557), Gibraltar (1704 and 1782), Ore veld 
(1758), Wandewash (1760), Rodney's great 
victories at Havre (1759), in the West Indies 
(1762), and at St. Vincent (1780), Wellington's 
St. Sebastian, Nivelle, Nive, and the fierce 
battles in the Pyrenees (1813), not to men- 
tion many others, the list of which would 
be too long to quote ? It will' be unneces- 
sary after this to say that France is even 
worse off, particularly in the sea fights. 
The victories of De Grasse, for instance, are 
unmentioned, though it was the French 
fleet that forced the surrender at Yorktown. 
The failure of Caermarthen at Brest, and 
such fiascoes as that of Mathews at Toulon 
and of Keppel off Ushant, are ignored 
entirely. The land fights and the invasions 
of France give rise to humorous reflections. 
According to these results England subdued 
France more than once. We are, therefore, 
led to believe that her monarchs and generals 
withdrew, in a spirit of philanthropy rather 
rare in those black times. How did France 
recover herself after the Black Prince 1 Du 
Guesclin and the sweeping reverses of Eng- 
land are unmentioned. After Agincourt and 
Verneuil, too, we must have been very accom- 
modating. That we were thrown out of 
France by Orleans, Patay, Formigny, Castil- 
lon, by the Maid, and the " Roi de Bourges," 
"qui perdait gaiement son royaume," has 

escaped notice. Earlier events, such as 
Taillebourg and Saintes (1242), fare no better. 
Calais and the Isle of Re are unmentioned. 
Brihuega and Villa Viciosa were even more 
complete defeats than Almanza. Fontenoy 
is credited to France, but Laufeldt, Hasten- 
bach, Klosterseven, and Bergen are gracefully 
passed over. So are Hondschoote, Dunkirk, 
and the disastrous campaign that followed. 
It is indeed unwritten history. 

There may be something to be said for 
"flag-wagging," but at least it should be a 
true flag, and not a huge emblem pasted with 
" victories," some of them never won, others 
never even fought, pitted against a little tri- 
colour only just large enough to display the 
ignorance written on it. 


Sefton Park, Liverpool. 


THE subject of exhibitions in London is of 
great interest, and, so far as I know, is one of 
the few subjects of which no reasonably com- 
prehensive history has been published. The 
subject peculiarly lends itself to "illustrating " ; 
indeed, it is from a " lot " of London illus- 
trations, sold at Puttick & Simpson's on 
26 June, 1858, that the following list is taken. 
The list, of course, does not include any 
exhibitions of a date later than 1858 ; and it 
is not complete even up to that date for 
instance, Graham's Celestial Bed is not in- 
cluded, and probably many others which were 
popular in their day. The list strikes me as 
oeing quite worth reprinting in the pages of 
4 N. & 0.' It is as follows : 

^Egyptiana, Lyceum, 1802. 

^Erial [sic] Ship, 1835. 

Albion Hall, 1837-50. 


Anatomical Models, 1736-1854, 

Apiarian Museum. 

Argyll Rooms, 1828-37. 

Armoury, 1838. 

Automata and Androides, 1775-1829. 

Barlow's Panorama, 1841. 

Bartlett's Diorama, 1851. 

Batchelor's Panorama, 1856. 

Bath's, 1802-39. 

Battles, 1742-1854. 

Bazaars, 1828-42. 

Bologna's Mechanics, 1814. 

Booth's, 1742. 

Bree's Panorama, 1850. 

Broughton's Amphitheatre. 

Cald well's Rooms, 1852. 

Campanari's Antiquities, 1837. 

Carlisle House, 1772. 

Catlin's American Indians, 1851. 


Centrifugal Railway, 1842-8. 

Chinese Collections, 1842-54. 



. ni. FEB. 4, 

Clockwork, 1842. 

Cock Pits, 1742-1827. 

Colosseum, 1829-53. 

Cosmorama, 1822-54. 

Crosby Hall, 1847. 

Dioramas, Regent's Park, &c., 1825-55. 

Du Loutherbourg, 1782. 

Egyptian Hall, 1821-54. 

Egyptian Mummy, 1832. 

Exeter Hall, 1831-53. 

Fieschi, 1836. 

Gallery of Illustration, 1850-3. 

Gallery of Practical Sciences, 1833-57. 

Hatton House, 1776. 

Hickford's Rooms, 1772. 

Italian Fantoccini, 1771. 

King's Concert Rooms, 1776. 

Lefort's Mechanics, 1816. 

Les Ombres Chinoises, 1776. 

Leverian Museum, 1813-42. 

Lever's Museum, 1784-5. 

Liverpool Museum, 1809. 

Lowther Rooms, 1834-54. 

Marshall's Panorama, 1823-40. 

Minerals and Fossils, 1818-53. 

Minute Wonders of Art, 1742-85. 

Model of Guillotine, 1793. 

Models of Various Kinds, 1829-54. 

Museums, 1828-53. 

Nathan's Assembly Rooms, 1836. 

New Rooms, Tottenham Street, 1778-85. 

Palace of Westminster. 


Panoramas, Various, 1811-53. 

Pantheon, 1772-1834. 

Pearson's Stained Glass, 1782-1821. 

Perrott's Amphitheatre, 1742. 

Polytechnic, 1838. 

Prout's Diorama, 1852. 

Puppet Show, 1773. 

Rath, 1827. ' 

Regent Gallery, 1853-7. 

Royal Rooms, Spring Gardens, 1817-23. 

St. Martin's Hall, 1852. 

Saunders's German Exhibition, 1833. 

Savile House, 1828-53. 

Sculpture, 1829-35. 

Smith's Panoramas, 1849-53. 

Somerset Gallery, 1834-41. 

Temple of Concord, 1814. 

Tennis Court, 1742-1848. 

Thames Tunnel, 1843-55. 

Waxworks, Various Collections, 1830-55. 

Week's Mechanics, 1831-54. 

Western Exchange, 1820-40. 

Wewitzer's Pantomime, 1802. 

Wilmhurst's Painted Window, 1830. 

Winstanley's Water Theatre, 1711. 

Wyld's Globe, 1851-5. 

Carlton Villa, Klea Avenue, Clapham, S.W. 

HIMSELF. Every one knows of the difficulty 
experienced by contemporaries in deciding 
the place that one of their number will hold 
in the opinion of posterity. Much more 
difficult, then, should it be for a writer to 
pass judgment in this respect upon him- 
self. Most difficult of all should it be for a 

poet, who is so frequently represented, not 
always without reason, as a person of ill- 
balanced judgment and an exaggerated 
sensibility. Nevertheless it is a familiar fact 
that of poets several, at any rate, have dared 
to predict their own immortality, and that 
after generations have ratified the verdict. 
The following quotations are from the works 
of some of the most celebrated of the world's 
bards ; but it would be interesting to know 
how many writers of inferior rank have 
made about themselves similar predictions 
which have not been verified in the centuries 
to come. 

Thus Ovid on this subject speaks with no 
uncertain voice : 

Ergo etiam, cum me supremus adederit ignis 
Vivam, parsque mei multa superstes erit. 

' Amores,' i. xv. 41, 42. 

And every schoolboy has read Horace's 
lines : 

Exegi monumentum sere perennius, 

Regalique situ pyramidum altius ; 

Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 

Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis 

Annorum series, et fuga temporum. 

Non omn'is mpriar ; multaque pars mei 

Vitabit Libitinam. ' Odes,' iii. 30. 

Less known, perhaps, are the lines of Pro- 
pertius : 

Turn me non humilem mirabere ssepe poetam, 

Tune ego Romanis praeferar ingeniis ; 

Nee poterunt juvenes nostro reticere sepulchro, 

Ardoris nostri magne poeta, jaces. 

Liber i. vii. 21. 

Dante was aware of his own worth, as he 
shows in more than 'one passage. In the 
fourth canto of the ' Inferno,' for instance, he 
meets Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan in 
Limbo, and is welcomed by them in a way 
that suggests that he was destined hereafter 
to as great a fame as theirs : 

Da ch' ebber ragionato insieme alquanto, 
Volsersi a me con salute vol cenno; 
E il mio maestro sorrise di tanto. 
E piu d' onore ancora assai mi fenno ; 
Ch' essi mi fecer della loro schiera, 
SI ch' io f ui sesto tra cotanto senno. 

4 Inferno,' iv. 97. 

Next comes Shakespeare : 
But thy eternal summer shall not fade 
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest ; 
Nor shall death brag thou wanderest in his shade 
When in eternal lines to time thou growest. 
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, 
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. 

Sonnet xviii. 

Dr. Johnson, too, is said to have remarked 
to Goldsmith on one occasion, as they walked 
among the tombs in Westminster Abbey : 
Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis. 

And lastly Heine, who meditated as a reply FEB. 4, '99.] 



to the fair maiden who looked down from her 
window on the passing poet, as if she would 
ask who he might be : 

Ich bin ein deutscher Dichter 
Bekannt im deutschen Land, 
Nennt man die besten Namen 
So wird auch der meine genannt. 

' Die Heimkehre,' 15. 


t Putney. 
GUILLOTINE DITTY. Having had occasion 
N". & Q.,' 9 th S. ii. 510) to quote the conclud- 
g lines of what is apparently the earliest 
ditty on the guillotine, composed at the 
beginning of 1790 by a member of the 
Academie Frangaise, it occurs to me that 
many of your readers would like to have the 
piece in its entirety. It must, however, be 
borne in mind that it appeared while the 
guillotine was "in the air," and that Dr. Guil- 
lotin merely proposed the use, but had no 
part in the invention or fabrication, of the 
deadly instrument, as I have explained at the 
above reference. 


Imagine un beau matin 
Que pendre est inhumain 
Et peu patriotique. 
II lui faut 
Un supplice 

Qui, sans corde ni poteau, 
Supprime de bourreau 

C'est en vain que 1'on public 
Que c'est pure jalousie 

D un suppot 

Du tripot 

Qui d'occire impun&nent 
Meme exclusivement 

Se flatte. 

Le Remain 
Qui s'apprete 
Consulte gens du metier, 
Barnave et Chapelier, 
M6me le coupe-tete, 
Et sa main 
Fait soudain 
La machine 

Qui simplement nous tuera, 
Et que 1'on npmmera 


106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

THE FATE OF SACRILEGE. In 1793 or 1794 
Garnier de Saintes brought about the de- 
struction of much of the ornamentation of 
the cathedral of Sees, regarding it as the out- 
come of vain superstition : 

"Alors les figurines des voussures du portail, la 
statue de la Sainte Vierge, et celles des autres saints, 
qui en decoraient les trumeaux, les par vis laterales 
et la galerie, les bas-reliefs de 1'Assomption et des 
saints Gervais et Protais ; toutes ces richesses d'un 
autre age furent condaimi^es a disparaitre sous le 
marteau des demolisseurs. Les debris en furent 
jete's pele-mele dans la rue Argentan et sur la place 
du Parquet ; puis comme ils encombraient, la vente 
en eut lieu par adjudication. Plusieurs tombereaux 
emporterent ces debris a la campagne, ou 1'on tenta 
vainement de s'en servir pour batir une maison, 
dont les murs ne voulurent jamais tenir : la ma!6- 
diction planait sur ces pierres ainsi profan^es." 
Dumaine's ' La Cath^drale de Sdes, 3 p. 45. 


PACK KAG FEAST. The cutting from a 
weekly called Scraps (ut infra) relating to an 
old agricultural custom is worth preserving. 
I gather the feast referred to therein was held 
in 1898 : 

" The agricultural labourers in some of the North 
Derbyshire villages, among other old customs, retain 
that of having a social gathering on Old Martinmas 
Day (23 November), which is, not over politely, 
designated the Pack Rag Dinner. The name refers 
to the fact that the indoor menservants about the 
farms, who are changing masters at Martinmas, 
gather together their belongings for removal from 
one house to another. The fanciful title of the 
feast goes to show that the wardrobes of hinds have 
not been over-well cared for in the past. Now, 
when the complaint of the neighbourhood is that it 
is not easy to obtain skilled labour on the land, the 
name Rag Pack may be a misnomer. The gathering 
is held in one of the public-houses in the parish, 
where the men and lads pay for tea with substantial 
viands, and afterwards spend the evening in such 
amusements as present themselves, gossip and 
drinking probably forming the principal interests 
of the hour. Bad weather does not often deter 
the men from coming. In spite of an unexpected 
deep fall of snow, the last Pack Rag dinner was 
well attended in the North Derbyshire village of 
Holmesfield, where many old customs survive. On 
1 November, for instance, the children there go 
singing from house to house for what are called 
' caking gifts.' This is a legacy from the old feast 
of ingathering, when, in a neighbourhood where 
the fields are somewhat bleak and unproductive 
in proportion to the amount of labour they de- 
mand, it was once the custom for the labourers to go 
from farm to farm on 1 November, receiving at each 
house a small gift of money and a bread cake baked 
of the new flour of the harvest." 


" ACREWARE ": "MOLLOND." These two land 
terms appear in a court roll (1291) of Green- 
bury Manor in Barley, Herts, then belonging 
to Anglesey Priory, with a description of the 
tenancies in villenage. A tenant will hold a 
messuage and ten or five " acreware of land," 
sometimes with, sometimes without, the same 
quantities of " mollond " the latter by a 
money rent and services. The term "acre- 
ware" occurs again, among other places, in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. FEB. *, m 

a court roll (1507) of another Barley manor, 
that of Minchionbury, belonging to the 
convent of Chatteris. The amount of hold- 
ing varies from one of ten acreware to one 
of five or nine acreware. Suggestions as to 
exact meaning would be helpful. The sug- 
gestion that it may be a land measure (vide 
'Cambridge Antiquarian Communications,' 
vol. vi. No. 1) seems out of the question. 
There is no indication that a "ware acre" 
was larger than the statute acre. 

As to "mollond," it is connected with 
"molman," which I find in Leley's edition 
of Wharton's 'Law Lexicon' as a man 
subject to do service. We have the custo- 
mary services of " two molmen " mentioned 
as part of the valuation of another Barley 
manor. In Blomefield's 'Norfolk' (vol. i. 
pp. 295-6, first ed., 1739) there is given from 
the Ely Register an entry dealing with the 
manor of Bridgham, to the effect that the 
tenants paid "34 days' work, called studework, 
which is done by molmen" and " the molmen, 
in number 70, were obliged to make up 15 
carriages, and attend them, to carry in the 
lord's corn." In 'Cambridge Antiq. Comm.,' 
iv. 97, allusion is made to tenures of lands 
called terrce wara and terras, de bondage from 
the court roll of the manor of Littleport in 
the Isle of Ely (1316-27). Does not this look as 
though " acreware " was to be connected not 
with the Norman-French term " warectum," 
or terra warata, but with A.-S. wara, defence 
(Profs. Maitland and Vinogradoff suggest it), 
as protecting itself against the payment of 
geld, being exempted ; while " mollond," like 
terrce, de bondage, had to bear the customary 
burdens of taxation, as "molmen" had to 
give customary services? I see Vinogradoff 
notices a class of tenants as being "soke- 
manni qui vocantur molmen." 

Barley Rectory, Royston, Herts. 

MAXWELL'S 'HERODIAN.' There is a good 
notice of James Maxwell in the ' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography,' and my 
present desire is merely to indicate some 
points of interest connected with his trans- 
lation of Herodian. At the end of the 
volume (p. 110 of bk. vi.) is this note : 

"Augustam Herodiani Historian! vertebat I.M. 
Facultatis Art. in vtraq, Academia Mr: & Augus- 
tissimi (olim) Regis lacobi (in Provincia Eborum) 

This official employment, whatever it may 
have been, is not mentioned by his bio- 
grapher. The title-page is a masterpiece in 
its way : 

"Herodian of Alexandria His History of twenty 
Roman Caesars and Emperors (of his time). Relating 

the Strange Coniunctures and Accidents of State, 
that hapned in Europe, Asia, and Afrike, in the 
Reuolution of Seuenty Yeeres. Interlaced with 
Speeches, Antiquities, Court-Passages, Prodigies, 
Embassies, Sieges, Surprizes, Battels, Conquests, 
and Triumphs. Wherein is also declared the most 
Solemne Deification of the Roman Emperours and 
Empresses. And the Martiall Honor and Heroicke 
Valor of the ancient Southerne and Northerne 
Britans. Interpreted out of the Greeke Originall. 
(London : printed for Hugh Perry at the Harrow in 
Britaines Burse 1629.)" 

Maxwell's spelling is not always commend- 
able, but it is interesting to note that he has 
anticipated the American fashion of discard- 
ing the u in such words as valor and honor. 
More interesting than the title-page is the 
dedication : 

To the most August, 
most Sacred, and Victorious 


Mother to innumerable braue Mo- 
narks, Princes, Peeres, and Chieffs ; 

Diva Britannia : 
Empresse of all Hands ; 
Queene of France and Ireland ; 
Princesse of *Palestine, Virginia, Guia- 
na, *Cyprus, New-England, &c. 
Soueraigne of the 200. lies of the He- 
brides, Orcades, &c. 
Lady of the Ocean ; 

Regent of the Atlantike Empire : 
I consecrate this 


Impartiall, and Incomparable 

History of that Graue Senator, 

and Noble Statist, 


In the margin is the following note, with 
references preceding the words "Palestine" 
and "Cyprus": 

"* Rich. I. purchased it of Guy the last K. of 
lerusalem. Rich. I. conquered it in his returne 
from Palestine. It contained anciently nine King- 
domes. Vid. Cluverij Introduct. Geograph. li. 5. 
c. 26." 

Could the most modern apostle of Imperialism 
excel this ? WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

Moss Side, Manchester. 

GARRICK'S ' JUBILEE.' At Drury Lane on 
14 October, 1769, was performed for the first 
time 'The Jubilee,' consisting of dialogue 
written by Garrick, songs, and a pageant. 
The songs were printed in 1778, but the dia- 
logue "was never printed the D. L. 

manuscript was burnt with the theatre in 
1809. Elliston borrowed the Bath copy, and 
lost it" (Genest, v. 256). For the perform- 
ance at Covent Garden, 23 April, 1816, "the 
dialogue of the 'Jubilee' is said to have been 
furnished by Kemble from his manuscript 
copy " (Genest, viii. 551). 

Whether Kemble's MS. is still in existence 
I do not know, and Mr, Joseph Knight, in his 

9 th S. III. FEB. 4, '99.] 



Life of Garrick,' p. 253, repeats Genest' 
statement that the dialogue was neve 
printed. There has, however, recently com 
into my possession a little volume containing 
two dramatic pieces bound up together. Thr 
title-page of the second is as follows : 
" The | Jubilee | in Honour of | Shakespeare. | 1 

| Musical Entertainment | as performed at the | 
Theatre in Waterford, | with Additions | [fou 
verses] | Waterford | Printed by Esther Crawlej 
and Son, at | Euclid's head, in Peter's street j 


Among the dramatis personce occur the 
following mentioned by Genest : Ralph 

is laid at Stratford-upon-Avon. I can fine 
no trace of this either at the Bodleian or in 
the Museum Catalogue. H. A. EVANS. 
The Elms, Begbroke, near Oxford. 

word occurs, I believe for the first time in 
" literature," in the Westminster Gazette oJ 
16 January. It is easy to guess what a 
physician would understand it to mean ; not 
so easy, however, to imagine what it is in- 
tended to signify, viz., an instrument for 
recording the distance travelled by a vehicle, 
and also the various directions in which the 
journey has been pursued, and the altitudes 
ascended and descended in its course : 

"The record of directions is obtained by means 
of a compass. The needle is suspended at the top 
of the pathometer, as the instrument has been 
named, directly above the tape on which the records 
are taken." 

It is quite useless to bewail the invention of 
such monstrous terms as this. It is, perhaps, 
well to stick a pin through them, and label 
them in the eternal museum of ' N. & Q.' 

TOM BROWN AND DR. FELL. The balder- 
dash exordium of an article entitled ' Oaths 
and the Law' in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for January commences as follows : 

" The law is like a lady. It has, as she has, the 
right, without any assignment of reason, or with 
all sorts and fashions of wholly incompatible and 
contradictory assignments of reason, to determine. 
Those who are put in grievous plight by its de- 
terminations and caprices must find for themselves, 
as poor rebuffed Dr. Brown was compelled to, such 
consolation as they can : 

I love thee not, I know not why, 
But this I know, I love thee not." 

In his eagerness to thrust in " poor rebuffed 
Dr. Brown" the writer makes a sad hash. 
First, he transfers Dr. Fell's title to Tom 
Brown, who, as is well known, so far from 

being "Doctor," had no degree of any kind, 
having quitted Oxford without graduating. 
Next, ignorant apparently of the occasion of 
Brown's impromptu rendering of Martial's 
epigram, he imagines him " rebuffed " in an 
affaire de coeur and dejected in consequence. 
Fancy a devil-may-care fellow like Brown 
pining for " consolation " in any casualty of 
life ! The verses quoted, too, are not those 
usually attributed to Brown, but may per- 
haps be accounted for, as I have read tha 
there is a variant in the collective edition of 
his works. It is not so well known that Mar- 
tial's lines had been previously parodied by 
Thomas Forde in 1661 : 

I love thee not, Nel ! 

But why, I can't tell, &c. 

See 'D.N.B.,' xviii. 295 b. F. ADAMS. 

' HAMLET,' BY DAN HAYES. In the Cardiff 
Western Mail, No. 9251, for 17 January, p. 7, 
it is mentioned that New Ireland has dis- 
covered an old playbill of the "Kilkenny 
Theatre Koyal " for 14 May, 1793. This play- 
bill is reprinted in the Western Mail, and the 
following is an extract from it : 

"The Tragedy of Hamlet, originally written and 
composed by the celebrated Dan Hayes, of Lime- 
rick, and inserted in Shakespere's Works." 

The playbill concludes with the interesting 
notice that "no person whatsoever will be 
admitted into the boxes without shoes or 
stockings." It is probable that this Irish 
claimant to the honour of the authorship of 
' Hamlet ' is not so well known as his astound- 
ing claim might warrant. D. J. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
;o affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
n order that the answers may be addressed to 
;hem direct. 

NOMER KOYAL. In August last I went to 
Condon for scientific researches concerning 
ny kinsman, the celebrated Polish philoso- 
pher Hoene Wronski, who had sojourned in 

ngland between 1820 and 1823, as I am pre- 
paring a scientific work about his life and 
writings. Notwithstanding careful inquiries 
n all the libraries and institutions of 
jondon, Cambridge, and Oxford, it proves 
mpossible to find the following : 

1. The True Briton (magazine or news- 
paper) from the years 1820 to 1823, containing 
nost important articles by and about Hoene 
rVronski. It is very strange ; I found files of 
his paper before the year 1820, and after 



[9 th S. III. FEB. 4, '99. 

1823, but it was absolutely impossible to find 
these two or three years. 

2. Two pamphlets of Hoene Wronski in 
French, entitled : (1) ' Extrait du Memoire de 
M. Hoene Wronski sur la Theorie Mathema- 
tique de la Terre/published by the Astronomer 
Royal, John Pond, as it seems with the autho- 
rization of the Royal Society, between May 
and July, 1821 (London); (2) 'Nouveaux Ex- 
traits du Memoire de M. Hoene Wronski et 
de son Appendice, principalernent sur la 
Theorie des Fluides (Equilibrium in Fluids),' 
published by the same in November, 1821 

These two pamphlets were printed in 
a limited number of copies, and had been 
sent privately to all the learned men in 
England. My friend Dr. Gait, assistant to 
Lord Kelvin, and Mr. Dyson, of the Royal 
Observatory, advised me to address myself to 
you, asking you to be kind enough to make 
the necessary inquiries in your journal, in 
order to furnish the missing pamphlets and 
papers, or to procure any information where 
they can be found. All the official and public 
sources are exhausted. I rely only upon you, 
hoping you may be able, through your paper, 
to render me this great service, which con- 
cerns a most important scientific question. 

I should be also most grateful if you would 
give me, if possible, any information about 
the eventual heirs of John Pond, Astronomer 
Royal in the years 1820-23, as in the papers 
left by him there is probably to be found 
a lengthy correspondence of great scientific 
value between him and the philosopher 

16, Rue de la Grande Chaumiere, Paris. 

ADDISON'S 'ROSAMOND.' I should be glad 
to know if a song beginning "Was ever 
nymph like Rosamond?" occurs in the above. 

Dorney Wood, Burnham, Bucks. 


" Dick-pot, a brown earthenware pot sometimes 
pierced with holes, filled with bright coal or wood 
embers, used by old women and lace makers to put 
under their petticoats to keep the feet and legs 
warm when seated at work, which is termed 
fluting." Baker, ' Glossary of Northamptonshire 
Words ' (1854), p. 179. 

What is the etymology of fluting ? 




said to be a term for plenty of strawberries. 
It is registered in the Cheshire glossaries, 
and also appears as a North-Country expres- 
sion in Ray, Kennett, Bailey, and Grose. Can 

any of your readers tell me whether the 
expression is still in use in Cheshire or else- 
where? A. L. MAYHEW. 

AUTHOR WANTED. "The Amicable 
Quixote ; or, the Enthusiasm of Friendship. 
In four volumes. London : Printed for J. 
Walter, Charing - Cross. M.DCC.LXXXVIII." 
Small 8vo. H. S. A. 

MUSE PLOTS. A terrier of the parish of 
Westbourne on the extreme western edge of 
West Sussex, of the year 1664, now in the 
Bishop's Registry at Chichester, refers again 
and again to " muse plots," an expression to 
the meaning of which I can find no clue. It 
is manifestly used as a well-understood term, 
and it is suggested that the plots thus desig- 
nated were not of large size. Here are some 
quotations : 

"The tith of wheat, barley, oates, pease, fetches 
or beanes growing in the Muse plotts hereafter 
mentioned belongeth to the Vicar of Westborne." 

"All tithes whatsoever of the Muse Plotts fol- 
lowing and litle Plots of Ground hereafter menconed 
bee they sown with corne or not doe solely belong 
to the said vicar of Westborne, Imprimis the muse 
Plott lying at Quearne haven in Townsend ground 

conteyning neere an acre of ground and enclosed 

by a Hedge." [Then follow the descriptions of half 
a dozen small plots, none exceeding an acre, several 
only a quarter of an acre.] 

"Muse Plotts and other little Plotts at Arme- 

tage, Imprimis one Plott Item, a muse Plott 

conteyning neere half an acre," &c. 

"Muse Plotts and other litle plotts at Innlands," 

"Muse Plotts and other litle Plotts at Woodman- 
cote Imprimis one Muse Plott belonging to Novice 
Land called Novice Paddocke." 

"Item, a Muse Plott belonging to Francis Cam- 
pion's Land which said Plott is called rucle garden 
conteyning about half an acre." 

Holywell House, Oxford. 

me what is the story or legend illustrated in 
Burne- Jones's ' Golden Staircase ' 1 J. T. 

OGILVIE : GRANT. Rev. John Ogilvie, who 
died in New York City, 26 November, 1774, 
in his fifty -first year, was said to have been 
an uncle of the late Rear- Admiral Sir Richard 
Grant, of London, who died in 1859. Can 
any of your readers tell me their ancestry 1 

W. 0.0. 

MUSTARD MOTTO. A story is told in Dr. 
Brewer's 'Phrase and Fable' of Philip the 
Bold, Duke of Burgundy, granting to the 
town of Dijon, noted for its mustard, 
armorial bearings with the motto "Moult 
me tarde " (multum ardeo, I ardently desire). 

9 th S. III. FEB. 4, '99. ] 



Che arms and motto, engraved on the prin- 
cipal gate, were adopted as a trade-mark by 
ihe mustard merchants, and got shortened 
into "Moult - tarde" (to burn much). So 
far Dr. Brewer ; but what is the foundation 
for the story? And has Dijon to-day the 
motto " Moult me tarde " ? If so, does it 
mean "I ardently desire"? What, too, are 
the armorial bearings of Dijon? 


In consequence of a recent pilgrimage to the 
high church of Our Lady, commonly called 
the cathedral, of Antwerp, I request to be 
permitted to inquire in ' N. & Q.' if the fol- 
lowing account of the origin of Rubens's 
splendid work, the great triptych of St. 
Christopher, is really only a romance, or has 
the statement any foundation in fact ? 

" Rubens was very desirous to enlarge his garden 
by adding to it a patch of ground adjoining. It 
chanced, unfortunately, that this piece of land did 
not belong to an individual who could be tempted 
by a large price, but to a society or club called the 
' Arquebussiers,' one of those old Flemish guilds 
which date their origin several centuries back. In- 
sensible to every temptation of money, they resisted 
all the painter's offers, and at length only consented 
to relinquish the land on condition that he would 
paint a picture for them representing their patron 
saint, St. Christopher. 

"To this Rubens readily acceded, his only diffi- 
culty being to find put some incident in the good 
saint's life which might serve as a subject. What 
St. Christopher had to do with crossbows or sharp- 
shooters no one could tell him. At last, in despair, 
the etymology of the word suggested a plan ; and 
Christopheros, or cross-bearer, afforded the hint on 
which he began his great picture of ' The Descent.' 
For inonths long he worked industriously at the 
painting, taking an interest in its details such as he 
confesses never to have felt in any of his previous 
works. He knew it to be his chef-d'oeuvre, and 
looked forward to the moment when he should dis- 
play it before its future possessors. The day came ; 
the 'Arquebuss' men assembled and repaired in a 
body to Rubens's house, and the triumph of the 
painter's genius was displayed before them. But 
not a word was spoken ; no exclamation of admira- 
tion or wonder broke from the assembled throng, 
not a murmur of pleasure or even surprise was there. 
On the contrary, the artist beheld nothing but faces 
expressive of disappointment and dissatisfaction ; 
and at length, after a considerable pause, one ques- 
tion burst from every lip, ' Where is St. Christo- 
pher?' It was to no purpose that he explained 
the object of his work. They stood obdurate and 
motionless. It was St. Christopher they wished for ; 
it was for him they bargained, and him they would 
have. Matters remained for some months thus, 
when the Burgomaster happened to hear of the 
entire transaction, and, waiting on the painter, 
'Why not,' said he, ' make a St. Christopher on the 
outside of the shutter ? ' The artist caught at the 
proposal, seized his chalk, and in a few minutes 
sketched out a gigantic saint, which the Burgo- 
master at once pronounced suited to the occasion. 

"The 'Arquebuss' men were again introduced, 
and, immediately on beholding their patron, pro- 
fessed themselves perfectly satisfied. The bargain 
was concluded, the land ceded, and the picture 
hung up in the great cathedral of Antwerp, where, 
with the exception of the short period that the 
French spoliation carried it to the Louvre, it has 
remained ever since, a monument of the artist's 
genius, the greatest and most finished of his 
works." Vide Lever's ' Adventures of Arthur 


Clapham, S.W. 

of your readers tell me where I can find the 
best and fullest account and pedigree of the 
family of St. Clair of Herdmanstoun from 
the beginning of the seventeenth century ? 

O. M. 

" RODFALL." Can any of your readers tell 
me what a "rodfall" means, and what are the 
causes of its having been made ? I have a 
place in Essex which at the distance of half 
a mile all round the house is surrounded by a 
broad steep bank. This in local phraseology 
is called the "rodfall." There are certain 
privileges in connexion with this "rodfall" 
which I need not trouble you with. It looks 
in places like a fortification, it is so broad and 
substantial. OLD SUBSCRIBER. 

ABHAM, DEVONSHIRE. I venture to inquire 
if any of your readers can tell me anything 
about Abham in Devonshire, an estate for- 
merly in the possession of the Gaunter family. 
I cannot find it mentioned in the county his- 
tories I have seen. CONDOR. 

1, Clarendon Place, Leamington. 

When did Stapleton's ' Fortress of the Faith ' 
first appear ? I refer to the translation from 
the Latin of the ' Propugnaculum Fid. Prim.' 
by Thomas Stapleton, the Roman controver- 
sialist of the age of Elizabeth. Stapleton 
was the author of 'The Three Thomases.' He 
is often quoted in Whitaker's 'Disputation 
on Scripture ' (Parker Soc.). S. ARNOTT. 


[1565. See ' Diet. Nat. Biog.'] 

TYRONE. Atkinson in his 'Ireland exhibited 
to England ' (1823), at p. 309, says that in " a 
portrait of the famous Earl of Tyrone, drawn 
after his banishment, now in possession of an 
English nobleman, one of his galloglasses is 
represented as attending on him." As no 
portrait of Hugh O'Neill is known to exist, 
it would be a matter of some interest if this 
portrait could be discovered. The fact that 
the earl is represented as being attended by 



[9* S. III. FEB. 4, '99. 

one of his galloglasses might help to its 
identification. RICHARD LINN. 

229, Hereford Street, Christchurch, N.Z. 

ROMAN NUMERALS. Next year we shall 
change the figures 1899 to 1900. How are the 
Roman numerals to be written? Are we to 
add another c to the three now used, or write 
MCM., following the example of xix. 1 I sug- 
gest that MCM. is not only more correct than 
MDCCCC., but will save the use of three letters 
for the entire century. H. B. HYDE. 

Baling, W. 

[The Alduses used MUD. for 1498 in the first 
edition of Aristophanes, now before us.] 

any chance of identifying this miniature 1 A 
man about thirty-five, black hair, moustache, 
and thin close-cut beard, black eyes and pale 
complexion, rather a foreign appearance, 
possibly a Spaniard or Frenchman, dressed 
in a grey doublet embroidered with black, 
falling ruff, and wearing the wide pink or 
light red ribbon of an order (the jewel is not 
visible) round his neck. The miniature is a 
very beautiful one, and signed. In the back- 
ground is inscribed in gold letters "ter & 
amplius." The t might perhaps be some 
other letter. C. L. LINDSAY. 

97, Cadogan Gardens, S.W. 

SURNAMES IN -SON. Can any expert in 
names give information as to the earliest 
occurrence of th ese patronymics 1 References 
would be particularly valuable if the same per- 
son could be shown to occur as, e.g., both filius 
Johannis and Johnson or Jackson. In regard 
to my own name, I believe the majority of 
those who spell it with one I pronounce the G 
hard those who spell it with two, soft. Are 
both or either of these traceable to the 
common mediaeval filius Gillse ? Is the Ice- 
landic form Gilsson a patronymic or metro- 
nymic? J. R GILSON. 

38, Great Ormond Street, W.C. 

"JOHN- A -DUCK'S MARE." In 'Ivanhoe, 
chap, xxvi., Wamba says to Cedric and Athel- 
stane in Front-de-Boeuf's castle : " I am like 
John-a-Duck's mare that will let no man 
mount her but John-a-Duck." Does this refer 
to some old story, or is the saying a passing 
invention of Scott's own ? 


this well-known word be pronounced ? Near 
Keighley it is Cliff e ; near Clitheroe I founc 
two pronunciations (with the one spelling 
Clough\ Kloo and Kluff. What is the reason 
of this? Are there any well-defined bound 

aries between districts where the various 
Denunciations prevail ? If my memory 
erves me, the sound Kloo is used on the 
north-west side of the Ribble valley, and 
Kluff on the south-east side ; but this may 
not be invariable. Cliffe gives place to 
Plough on the west side of Keighley before 
rou reach Skipton. FRED G. ACKERLEY. 
Keighley Rectory. 

ENTRY IN REGISTER. "1578. Secundo die 
mensis Junii 'the cutted owen' de Brocton 
:git suprema et sepultus fuit." Can any one 
suggest the meaning of this strange entry, 
which occurs in the parish register of Ship- 
;on in this county ? 

The Rectory, Wem, Salop. 

shall be glad to have particulars of the repre- 
sentation of playing cards carved on the 
bower of Little Wittenham Church. I pre- 
sume some legends are told respecting the 

Hull Press, Hull. 

SIR AMBROSE CROWLEY. I should be glad 
if some one would furnish me with details of 
the pedigree of the above named, who is 
described as " Knight of Greenwich." I can- 
not find any. Will some one also tell me 
whether there is any property existing now 
under the name of " Axford Manor," and to 
whom it belongs. T. A. J. PILE. 

Fletching, Sussex. 


(9 th S. ii. 463.) 

IF the Ghetto moved PROF. BUTLER "to 
wide-eyed wonder" in 1843, it should do so 
even more effectually to-day. The body of it is 
clean swept away, and the site still unbuilt 
upon, except that the riverine boundary is 
now embanked and planted with trees. The 
Cenci palace, with its Medusa head over the 
entrance, yet remains, newly restored and 
resided in, and a fringe of Hebrew slum ex- 
tends from it round to the Porticus of Octavia, 
wherein stands S. Angelo in Pescheria, one 
of the churches wherein Gregory XIII. and 
later Popes compelled Jews to listen to a 
sermon. It is the same church also whence 
Rienzi issued with his colleagues in 1347 in 
order to upset the aristocratic tyranny in 
Rome and rashly make himself "Dictator." 
Thence the ragged fringe continues for a couple 
of hundred yards towards the Ponte Quattro 
Capi, leading to the Tiber island. Just at this 

9 th S. III. FEB. 4, '99.] 



point still stands the little church referrec 
bo by PROF. BUTLER, bearing the fresco o 
the Crucifixion upon its front, facing th 
Ghetto that was, and displaying the words o 
Isaiah quoted, both in Hebrew and Latin 
This miserable building was erected nomin 
ally by a converted Jew ; but the peop 
and religion it insulted so long are free anc 
flourishing, while it moulders neglected, filth j 
and generally closed. A Christian endea 
voured once to pick my pocket near it, so 
have reason to remember the spot. 

With regard to the question which MR 
BUTLER says he has answered, i.e., "Wh 
were Jews at Rome obliged to wear 
national badge, especially a large letter O 
of a yellow colour on the breast ? " I am 
unable to endorse his attempted explana 
tion. The custom of wearing a rounc 
yellow badge prevailed only during th 
thirteenth century, having been decreed by 
Innocent III. in 1215 ; but it was not to b 
the peculiar distinguishment of Jews. Sara 
cens and heretics were likewise included in 
the enactment.* They were to wear a large 
round of yellow stuff sewn on their breast 
covering; but it was not a letter of the 
alphabet. The first complaint we hear 
of it occurs in 1269, when Beniamin ben 
Abraham bewails the degrading badge, the 
confiscation of the holy books, the destruc 
tion of gravestones, and the desecration o: 
Hebrew graves (cf . ' Hebr. Literatur-Vereins, 
1888). Nevertheless, under the phenomena 
number of Pontiffs whose reigns cumber 
the last half of the thirteenth century 
although Jews in Rome suffered, they are 
believed to have enjoyed relatively consider- 
able tranquillity. Tribute and homage were 
exacted from them by Popes and princes, 
and "the thirty pieces" of silver were 
made obvious in tne figures of the sums 
paid. They had to provide also a Syrian 
mantle for the "Senator Urbis" and a capari- 
son for his horse. Among other and more 
galling exactions, they were compelled to con- 
tribute largely to cover the cost of the Passion 
Play on Monte Testaccio and the games in 
the Circus Agonalis (Piazza Navona). This 
first appears clearly in an edict of Robert, 
King of Naples, as " Senator Urbis," 2 March, 
1334. By this time (if not many years before), 
however, the Senators had changed the badge 
worn by the Jews from the odious yellow 
round" into a reddish cloak.t This pro- 

* The special intention of this seems to have been 
to warn Christians against forbidden carnal inter- 
course with heretics. 

t Yellow in those days was the most prized colour 
after blue. It was the prevailing colour of Angevin 

bably took place after Charles of Anjou was 
Senator, A.D. 1270, and it may (as is thought 
by certain writers) have signified the purple 
robe which had been mockingly put upon 
Jesus (?). Physicians, however, were able to 
obtain exemption from wearing this. 

At that later terrible period for Roman 
Jews when the Dominican Paul IV. (1555), 
imitating the Venetian Ghetto,* formed an- 
other having five gates t in Rome, and issued 
his bull " Cum nimis absurdum," he compelled 
male Jews to wear a yellow " berretta " and 
their womankind to wear a yellow veil or 
"reticella." He did not revive the former 
badge, however, and the colour, which was of 
the orange tint, may or may not have been 
selected in memory of traditional Judas 
colour. It may, more probably, have been 
suggested by the San Benito worn by con- 
demned heretics, which in turn represents 
the colours of fire and flames. 

When Paul IV. died, in 1559, great was the 
rejoicing among all classes in Rome, especially 
among the Jews, who similarly rejoiced at the 
death of Pius IX., and with good reason. We 
read how the magistrates and bystanders 
witnessed the breaking up of the Pope's 
statue, and how they laughed derisively when 
a Jewish youth went up and placed his yellow 
'berretta" upon the pontifical head, which 
remained a target for stone practice through- 
out the day, until some one out of pity hurled 
it into the Tiber. 

But I must not dwell at greater length on 
;his interesting subject, which would fill, and 
has filled, volumes. { ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

Robert Browning's poem ' Holy-Cross Day, 
on which the Jews were forced to attend an 
annual Christian Sermon in Rome,' is an 
attempt to describe Jewish feeling on the 

ubject. The poet notes that Gregory XVI. 

1833-46) abolished the sermon. W. C. B. 

It is more than "local tradition," it is an 
listorical fact, that by a Papal bull issued in 
584 Jews were compelled to hear a sermon 
n " Holy Cross Day " (14 Sept.) at the church 
f S. Angelo in Pescheria, adjoining the 
jhetto. Browning gives a graphic descrip- 
ion of the unwilling congregation and the 

lair, as well as of Angevin lilies. One has merely to 
xamine the fourteenth-century frescoes and litera- 
<ure to remark the universal fashion for "biondi 
rini " ; probably a survival from classic times. 

* The "Shut-in"; corrupted from a Hebrew 

t Leo XII. added three more gates. 

t Cf. 'Geschichte der Juden in Rom,' A. Berliner, 

!93 ; ' Die Juden im Mittelalter,' G. B. De| ' 
834; 'C. Re. Statuti della Citta di ~ 
11 Ghetto di Roma,' F. Natale, 1887. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. in. FEB. 4, m 

pseudo-converts in his poem 'Holy -Cross 
Day' in 'Dramatic Romances. ' It is pleasant 
to be informed by him in a note at the end of 
the poem that "Pope Gregory XVI. abolished 
this bad business of the sermon." 


In 1736-7 "the Jews at Avignon and all 
over the Pope's dominions were obliged to 
wear yellow hats" (Athenceum, 16 April, 1898, 
p. 493). 

Yellow as mourning is mentioned in Haz- 
litt's edition of Brand's ' Antiquities,' ii. 205. 
It was, and I think still is, the mourning 
colour in Sweden (Marryat's ' Year in Sweden,' 
i. 361). In 1606 certain debtors in Scotland 
were required to wear hats or bonnets of a 
yellow colour, and this, it seems, continued 
to be the custom until after the middle of 
the last century (Burton, 'Scot Abroad,' 
i. 241). 

The late Prof. Rogers, under the year 1698, 
quotes from the Harting accounts " a leap of 
Yellow Jack" ('History of Agriculture and 
Prices,' vi. 609). What does this mean 1 "Leap" 
is, perhaps, a basket, and "yellow jack" some 
sort of fish. 

Sou they, referring to Echard's ' History of 
England,' points out that the colours of the 
Earl of Essex in the Caroline civil war were 
deep yellow ('Commonplace Book,' iii. 60). 
This seems to show that at that time yellow 
was not regarded in this country as indicative 
of shame or misfortune. 


NOVELS (9 th S. ii. 379, 464). Although I sent 
a list (imperfect) of these names to ' N. & Q.' 
more than twenty-three years ago (5 th S. iv. 
305), nevertheless, as my friend C. C. B. has 
made a special appeal to me, I have no ob- 
jection to return to the subject. I fear, how- 
ever, that I must necessarily repeat some of 
my former remarks in 1875. My list contained 
upwards of thirty of these droll names, but, 
as will be seen from C. C. B.'s note, there are 
many more than this number. For my part, 
I should be very sorry to " want " these de- 
lightful nomenclatures. I do not mean that 
they are all equally delightful; but who, 
with a sense of humour, could come upon 
some, at all events, of them without " chort- 
ling in his joy " ? The following, if not the 
very best, are, I think, amongst the best. 
Mr. Twigtythe, the Ullswater clergyman, in 
' Waverley '; Mr. Graneangowl (i. e., groan 
and howl), a Covenanting preacher, in ' The 
Legend of Montrose'; Boanerges Storm- 
heaven, David Deaiis's favourite preacher 

(I think Stormheaven without Boanerges 
would have been better); Clippurse and 
Hookem, lawyers, in ' Waverley '; Mungo 
Mangleman, a surgeon, in ' The Heart of Mid- 
lothian '; Dr. Quackleben, " the Man of Medi- 
cine," in ' St. Ronan's Well '; Raredrench, an 
apothecary, in ' The Fortunes of Nigel '; Mr. 
Mortcloke, an undertaker, in 'Guy Man- 
nering '; Sir Peter Pepperbrand, a fire-eating 
knight or baronet, in ' The Antiquary '; 
Master Maulstatute, a Justice of the Peace, 
in ' Peveril of the Peak.' Without making a 
close examination, I fancy that 'The For- 
tunes of Nigel ' contains nearly as many of 
these descriptive names as any of the series. 
In my list above mentioned there are ten 
from this romance alone, the best of which 
are perhaps Raredrench (above), and Pin- 
divide, a bankrupt. C. C. B. includes 
Yellowley amongst Scott's characteristic 
names. I do not quite see why, unless he 
means that Yellowley is descriptive of the 
jaundiced eye with which Triptolemus re- 
garded Shetland and all things connected 
therewith. C. C. B., writing no doubt from 
memory, has included Driver and Miss 
Martha Buskbody in 'The Heart of Mid- 
lotnian.' Driver is in ' Guy Mannering,' and, 
although Miss Buskbody may possibly be 
alluded to in 'The Heart of Midlothian,' 
she belongs to ' Old Mortality.' See the con- 
cluding dialogue between her and Peter 
Pattieson. By Dick Ostler I do not imagine 
that the author intends us to understand 
that his name was actually Ostler. Does it 
not mean Dick the Ostler ? 

Compare Jack Hostler, in ' Kenil worth .'; 
Tom Tailor, in ' The Monastery '; Robin 
Ostler, in ' 1 Henry IV.'; Dick surgeon, in 
'Twelfth Night'; and Jack priest, in 'The 
Merry Wives of Windsor.' 

The reviewer (9 th S. ii. 380) speaks of Scott 
"burdening himself" with these descriptive 
names. I feel pretty sure that Scott, so far 
from regarding them as a burden, wrote 
them with a twinkle in his eye, and enjoyed 
them nearly as much as his readers do. As I 
said in my former note, I do not think that 
Scott in any of his characteristic names has 
quite equalled Mrs. Leo Hunter. This was 
an exceedingly " happy thought " on the part 
of Dickens, as it is exactly descriptive of the 
good lady's " lion-hunting " propensities, and 
yet it looks like an actual name. 

I ought to add that Malvoisin in ' Ivanhoe,' 
although not so droll as Leo Hunter indeed, 
it is not intended to be droll at all is nearly 
as good in its own way, as it, of course, means 
bad neighbour, and yet it looks very like a 
real Norman name. 

9 th S. III. FEB. 4, '99.] 



Another of Scott's favourite habits is that 
c : making foreigners, or uneducated people, 
E .angle actual names in a very comic way. 
1 1 Dousterswivel's mouth poor Mr. Blatter- 
g:>wl becomes Dr. Bladderhowl and Dr. 
1 otherhowl, whilst, en revanche, Douster- 
s .vivel's own name is gloriously mangled by 
1 die Ochiltree Dustandsriivel, Dusterdeevil, 
1 'ousterdeevil, Dunkerswivel, Dustersnivel, 
and, best of all, DustanshoveJ. Botherhowl 
and Dustanshovel "Quis talia fando tem- 
peret a risu?" Then look at the delicious 
way in which Mrs. Blower muddles Dr. 
Quackleben's name Dr. Cocklehen, Dr. 
Cacklehen, Dr. Kickalpin, Dr. Kittleben, 
Dr. Kittlepin, Dr. Kittlehen, Dr. Kickherben. 
Here is an " air with variations " indeed ! 

C. C. B. has noticed the reviewer's remark 
at p. 380 that there are more of these de- 
scriptive names in ' Kenilworth ' than in the 
Scottish romances. * The Fortunes of Nigel ' 
(really a Scottish story, although the scene is 
laid in London) arid, as C. C. B. points out, 
' The Heart of Midlothian ' would seem to 
contradict this. 

I am sorry that the reviewer should speak 
somewhat coldly of 'Kenilworth.' He says, "It 
is, after all, a fine romance." I should rather 
think it is ! Edward FitzGerald, who appears 
to have much preferred Sir Walter's Scotch 
to his English romances, in writing to Fanny 
Kemble on 6 June, 1872, says, " I believe I 
should not care for the Ivanhoes, Kenil worths, 
&c., any more. But Jeanie Deans, the Anti- 
quary, &c. I shall be theirs as long as I am 
yours sincerely E. F. G." Yet in less than a 
year from this time he writes again : " Kenil- 
worth, which very place which very name 
of a place makes the English world akin." 

For my part, I ask, Is ' Guy Mannering ' 
better than 'Ivanhoe,' is 'Old Mortality' 
better than ' Quentin Durward,' and is ' The 
Bride of Lammermoor' better than 'Kenil- 
worth ' 1 May we not say, " Les uns valent 
bien les autres," and be thankful for the Black 
Knight as well as for Dandie, for Louis XL 
(from a literary point of view, I mean) as well 
as for Claverhouse and Burley, and for poor 
murdered Amy as well as for poor equally 
(by her mother and brother) murdered Lucy? 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

I think for characteristic surnames in this 
series Richie Moniplies (' Fortunes of Nigel ') 
will be hard to beat. J/cw?/ = many (ply, 1, a 
fold, a plait, a twist [of string, worsted, &c.] ; 
2, bent, turn, direction, bias, Ogilvie) ; plies = 
shifts, turns, evasions. NEMO. 


FRENCH SONG (9 th S. ii. 529). This song is 
printed in the "Students' Tauchnitz Edition" 
of ' Tom Brown's School Days/ published by 
Tauchnitz, Leipzig, 1888 (part i. 29, 266). No 
author's name is stated. The commentator, 
Dr. Immanuel Schmidt, gives the name of the 
song as ' Le Bohemien Parisien,' and says that 
M. Ducre, of Geneva, states that the song was 
composed about forty years before that time, 
i. e., before 1888. It is, however, not clear 
whether the verses printed in this edition of 
* Tom Brown ' are the whole or only part of 
the song. B. 

WEST INDIAN FAMILIES (9 th S. ii. 508). 
W. A. Feurtado's 'Official and other Personages 
of Jamaica froin 1655 to 1790,' issued by Feur- 
tado's Sons, Kingston, Jamaica, 1896, will be 
found extremely useful so far as families in 
that colony are concerned, although, as a 
matter of fact, it does not contain any refer- 
ences to either of the two names, Barrif and 
Ewins, mentioned by the REV. A. T. MICHELL. 


Carlton Villa, Klea Avenue, Clapham. 

COUNTS OF HOLLAND (9 th S, ii. 468; iii. 31). 
Your correspondents describe William, Count 
of Holland, by various titles : (a) Emperor of 
the Romans; (b) Emperor of Germany; (c) 
Deutscher Konig ; (d) King of the Romans. 
May I venture to inquire whether he was ever 
entitled to more than the last two ? Further 
I may remark that I did not expect to find a 
correspondent of ' N. & Q.' indulging in such 
an inaccurate description as that of "Em- 
peror of Germany," a title never assumed by 
the head of the Holy Roman Empire. MR. 
CHURCHILL appears to be the most scholarly 
in his description. The German king might 
or might not become Roman emperor. 

H. R. J. 

THE SWALLOW'S SONG (9 th S. ii. 143, 471). 
Liddell and Scott, in their dictionary, say 
that Philomela was changed into anightingale, 
and, in support of what they say, refer to the 
passage of Apollodorus which I- have quoted ; 
but in that passage quite the contrary is 
said. It is there said that Procne became 
a nightingale, and Philomela a swallow. 
Liddell and Scott say that the name Philo- 
mela may mean lover of song ; but the lady 
had her name before she was changed into a 
bird. As she had lost her tongue, it seems 
more probable that she should be changed 
into a swallow, which generally is supposed 
incapable of singing and only able to twitter. 
I know that the more common form of the 
legend makes her the nightingale ; but the 
other form is well known. Francklin in one 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. FEB. 4, 

of his notes to his translation of Sophocles, 
the Abbe Banier in a note to Ovid's * Meta- 
morphoses,' and the poet Gray in his prose 
refer to it. E. YARDLEY. 

Two of our living poets have sung of the 
song of the swallow Prof. Dowden and Mr. 
Swinburne. Both speak of its wild, irre- 
pressible joyousness. The lark is its only 
rival for "clear, keen joyance." Dowden's 
verses (beginning "Wide fields of air left 
luminous ") I have not at hand ; they speak 
of the bird as singing chiefly in the evening 
and when on the wing which is, I believe, 
true to the facts. Swinburne contrasts the 
joyousness of the swallow with the melancholy 
of the nightingale : 

sweet stray sister, shifting swallow, 
The heart's division divideth us. 

Thy heart is light as a leaf of a tree ; 
But mine goes forth among sea-gulfs hollow 
To the place of the slaying of Itylus, 
The feast of Daulis, the Thracian sea. 

But this lovely poem is well known. 

C. C. B. 

AND ST. GLAIRS (9 th S. ii. 465 ; iii. 37). MR. 
PEACOCK may like to add to his notes on the 
use of green the fact that ribbons of a vivid 
myrtle green are much used about shrines, 
and thence for cure of croup and probably 
other evils, at Poitiers. It is considered the 
special colour of St. Radegonde. The grille 
before an altar in the north aisle of Notre 
Dame la Grande is profusely entwined with 
it. Above is a window in which St. Rade- 
gonde and St. Hilary attend the Blessed 
Virgin, who has in keeping the keys of the 
city, which a traitor would fain have given 
up to the English in 1202. At St. Radegonde's 
more green ribbons are to be found, and the 
croup necklaces may be purchased. 


May I be permitted to mention, in con- 
nexion with this subject, that Charles 
Stewart Parnell entertained the greatest 
possible aversion to this colour ] His know- 
ledge of literature, not excepting the history 
of nis native land, it neea hardly be re- 
marked, was sparse in the extreme. Never- 
theless Parnell sometimes indulged in the 
luxury of quoting poetry ; but his quotation 
was invariably the sixth line of Moore's 
well-known melody 'Remember Me': 
Wert thou all that I wish thee, great, glorious, and 


First flower of the earth, first gem of the sea, 
I might hail thee with prouder, with happier brow, 
But oh ! could I love thee more deeply than now ? 

Yet, though it is considered lucky to wear 
green, such as emeralds, on a Friday, "the 

uncrowned king," I believe, was never known 
to wear the slightest sign of a shamrock on 
St. Patrick's day, not even to please his com- 
Clapham, S.W. 

"CHARME " (9 th S. i. 287 ; ii. 173). 
"As fuel, the wood of the hornbeam should be 
placed in the highest rank. In France it is pre- 
ferred to every other for apartments, as it lights 
easily and makes a bright flame, which burns 
equally, continues a long time, and gives out abund- 
ance of heat ; but though its value in this respect 
surpasses that of the beech in the proportion of 
1655 to 1540, yet the shape of the logs of hornbeam 
is so irregular that a cord of it, measured as they 
measure willows (see p. 1470), is not worth more in 
Paris in proportion to a cord of beech than 1486 to 
1540. In England the hornbeam is considered to 
make lasting firewood ; and, according to Boutcher, 
it burns as clear as a candle ('Treat.,' &c., p. 58). 
Evelyn also says : ' It makes good firewood, where 
it burns like a candle ; and was of old so employed : 
" Carpinus tsedas fissa facesque dabit." ' And Miller 
speaks of it as excellent fuel. Its charcoal is highly 
esteemed, and in France and Switzerland it is pre- 
ferred to most others, not only for forges and for 
cooking by, but for making gunpowder, the work- 
men at the great gunpowder manufactory at Berne 
rarely using any other (see ' Diet, des Eaux et 
Fore"ts,' art. 'Charme')." Loudon, 'Arboretum et. 
Fruticetum Britannicum,' p. 2009. 


466). The following passage from Cicero's 
letters 'Ad Fam.' (lib. ii. 5) seems to show 
there was a sort of foreign exchange under 
the name of " permutatio " : 

" Prope Gal. Sextiles puto me Laodicese fore : ibi 
perpaucos dies, dum pecunia accipitur, quse mihi 
ex publica permutatione debetur, commorabor." 

The passage from Ovid will be found 'Art. 
Am.' (lib. i. 421) : 
Institor ad dominam veniet discinctus emacem, 

Expediet merces teque sedente suas. 
Quas ilia inspicias, sapere ut videare, rogabit. 

Oscula deinde dabit : deinde rogabit, emas. 
Hoc fore contentam multos jurabit in annos. 

Nunc opus esse sibi, nunc bene dicet emi. 
Si non esse domi, quos des, causabere nummos ; 

Liter a poscetur ; ne didicisse juvet. 

I should say " litera " means an acknowledg- 
ment of the debt, as the lover pleads want of 
the " ready." The whole passage is thoroughly 
O vidian. " Oscula deinde dabit " is very fine. 
No doubt Corinna got her finery ; whether 
"hoc fore contentam," &c., is by no means so 
certain. GEO. T. SHERBORN. 


A CHURCH TRADITION (9 th S. i. 428 ; ii. 58, 
150, 173, 256, 296, 393, 474 ; iii. 33). Although 
I was at Sees last October, and have a photo- 
graph of the cathedral before me now, I dare 
I not venture to say anything as to the relative 

*> s. in. FEB. *, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1 eights of its spires as they at present staiu 
] ew churches have undergone more perils o 
c estruction and of restoration, and we ma 
1 e thankful for the piety and perseveranc 
A 'Inch have preserved a beautiful monumen 
t hrpugh all the chances and changes of cen 
furies. L'Abbe' L. V. Dumaine in ' La Cathe 
( rale de Sees, Coup d'CEil sur son Histoire e 
ses Beautes,' speaks, I think, as if the tw 
spires now existing were of equal height : 

"Deux clochers tres sveltes et tres gracieu 
ach&vent de donner a la facade son coup d'cei 
monumental. Primitivement, les deux fleche 
ii'elaient pas completement semblables: celle d 
nord, seule a jour, e"tait plus elevee que celle d 
midi ; disposition d'ailleurs assez ordinaire au 
travaux de cet age, ou 1'on semble eviter pa 
svsteme la symetrie et le parallelisme des lignes/'- 
JT . 58. 

Possibly, though I hardly like to suggest sue! 
a thing, this irregularity at the west end of ; 
church may have been intended, like th 
unfinished fa9ades of Spanish cathedrals, tc 
avert the "evil eye." It is, however, quite 
reasonable to believe that, as at Rouen anc 
Chartres, the clochers were often due tc 
different architects, and to more than one 
century, at a stage of culture when originality 
rather than careful imitation was expected o: 
an artist. ST. SWITHIN. 

PEAS, PEASE, AND PEASEN (9 th S. iii. 25). 
Please let me correct the etymology of this 
word. I give the derivation from A.-S. pisa 

El. pisan ; not a true E. word, but borrowec 
;om Lt&t.pisum. This etymology (which has 
been copied by others) is obviously impos- 
sible. Even if the A.-S. i had become I, it 
would not have given pease, but pise. And 
it is obviously not from the O.Fr. pois ; then 
whence is it ? 

The answer is that A.F. always has ei for 
O.F. oi ; whence convey for convoy. The A.F. 
word was peis orpeys, riming to mod. E. raise ; 
whence M.E. pese, pi. peses and pesen ; see the 
examples in my ' Dictionary.' This became 
pease or peas in the sixteenth century, quite 
regularly; and the rest of the story is known. 
Still, I dare say the A.-S. pi. pisan suggested 
the pi. in -en. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Is not this heading an instance of the cart 
before the horse ? I do not know when the 
form peas first appears in English, but I fancy 
pease preceded it, and was originally the 
singular form, peason (not peasen) being the 
plural. Spenser has " nought worth a pease " 
(' Shepheard's Calendar,' Oct.), and Lyly, in 
the 'Epistle Dedicatory' to 'Euphues and his 
England,' "as lyke as one pease is to an other." 
Lyte uses pease andpeasan indifferently, head- 

ing his chapter on them "Of Pease or Peason"; 
but he also occasionally seems to use pease in 
the singular, as in this of ciches : " The ciche- 
ling, or flat pease, hath flat and crested 
stalkes." In the 'Sinonoma Bartholomei 
(fourteenth century), s. v. ' Orobus,' I find 
" sive orobum et pisa agrestis, s. muspese." 
Gerard, like Lyte, uses pease and peason in- 
differently, but ne also has pease in the 
singular. Neither in Lyte nor in Gerard can 
I find either pea or peas. C. C. B. 

Am I not right in supposing that a distinc- 
tion probably of recent origin is now made 
between the single seeds (peas) and the crop 
or plant in the abstract (pease)? A York- 
shireman, writing about 1700, gives pease 
( Yorksh. Arch. Jour., vii. 62) ; the same form 
occurs in the ' Trial of Christopher Atkinson,' 
1783 (p. 66); see Earle's 'Philology of the 
English Tongue ' (third edition, p. 

' N. & Q.,' 4^ s> vi> 71| 138j 262> 

356) : 
> C. B. 

ii. 528; iii. 58). Noticing in your issue of 
31 December, 1898, the query of MR. ABBATT 
concerning the Andre family, I beg to say 
in reply to it that several members are 
living in this country who belong to the same 
branch of the family as the Major's. The 
father of Major Andre had a younger brother 
'John Lewis), and, like him, settled in Eng- 
'and. He had two sons John Lewis, the 

Ider, arid James Peter. Both had families, 
Dut I can say nothing with respect to that of 
John Lewis, except that I believe members of 
t are living. James Peter had two sons the 
elder also named James Peter, and William. 
The last named had no sons, but the former 
md one, James Lewis, the present writer, 
who has two sons, James Edward Felix and 
Vlichael Wilfrid. Considering that my father 
and grandfather were the executors of the 
ast surviving sister of Major Andre, and her 
-esiduary legatees, it is remarkable how few 
elics of my unfortunate relative have come 
nto my possession. J. LEWIS ANDRE. 


I distinctly remember the Andre mentioned 
t the second reference. He was the billiard- 
marker at Prince's Rackets and Tennis Club, 
lans Place, Chelsea; and a very decent 
ellow. Many a game he marked for me in 
ormer days. 

I remember also his illness perfectly, and 
e trouble which some of us took in the 
ttempt to persuade him to go into a hospital. 
/[y impression is that we succeeded, for a 
ery brief time ; but I am not sure. Of 
ourse, it js quite possible that a grancl- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9*s.iiLFEB.4,'99. 

nephew of Major John Andre may have fallen 
into that sort of position. His knowing Major 
Andre's name is in favour of the truth of his 
statement ; for it is hardly likely that any 
other billiard-marker in London had ever 
heard of that unfortunate man. 


" FOUNDET " (9 th S. ii. 507). In the north- 
east corner of Ulster this word is used, not 
alone in the expression quoted, but also in 
every case where a person wishes in an em- 
phatic manner to signify " nothing." I have 
heard the query, "Would that field grow 
anything 1 ?" and the reply thereto, "Not a 
founded"; but I am inclined to think the 
idiom is really a shortened form of "con- 
founded thing." Americans say "a blamed 
thing," an Englishman " a confounded thing "; 
and, as Ulstermen are very prone to clipping 
words, the use of " thing " was discarded ; 
then gradually the expression was curtailed 
to " not a founded " or " not a foundet." 

"Kunnion" is a synonymous idiom, current 
hereabouts ; for instance, " The field won't 
grow a runnion of grass," meaning "not a 
single blade." It may interest your querist 
to know of the following idioms, common in 
this district : " Give him a sevendable beat- 
ing," i. e., a severe one. " He is a cruel kind 
man," indicating that the person referred to 
is very kind, or, as is said here, "overly kind." 
"I unbethought myself"; by this the speaker 
wishes it to be understood that an after- 
thought had occurred to him. " He is quite 
a young grail of a fellow," signifying a raw 
youth. These might be greatly multiplied ; 
but there are two I must mention " ortings," 
used to denote offal or remnants, and "con- 
stering," applied to describe the action of 
persons dallying along a road and engaged in 
a dispute or argument. Do these two words 
bear any relation to similar words referred to 
in the notes to the Clarendon Press edition of 
* Julius Csesar ' ? B. A. SCANDRETT. 

Kilwarlin, Hillsboro', Down. 

SIR "EDMONDBURY" GODFREY (9 th S. ii. 367, 
414; iii. 16). The original querist, MR. T. 
CANN HUGHES, need not be severely censured 
for using this erroneous spelling. Unfortu- 
nately it has been too prevalent, and that 
among authors from whom accuracy is most 
expected. Thus the 1850 edition of Cunning- 
ham's ' Hand-book of London ' indexes the 
name as Sir Edmundsbury Godfrey, giving 
seven references with that spelling and one 
with " Edmondsbury." Again, in 'Old and 
New London' it is indexed as "Edmundbury," 
and so spelt at four places in vol. iii. ; but in 
vol v. (p. 287) the correct spelling is given, 

and conclusively demonstrated, accompanied 
by the observation that " Macaulay, in com- 
mon with many others, calls him Edmunds- 
bury Godfrey." Is it, then, matter at which 
"' to be shocked beyond the power of expres- 
sion " if even now we occasionally meet with 
the erroneous spelling ? F. G. S. will doubt- 
less admit that old impressions are not easily 
obliterated. F. ADAMS. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

Two medals commemorative of Sir Edmund 
Berry Godfrey being mentioned at the last 
reference, it may be well to record another. 
It is of pewter, with Godfrey's bust on ob- 
verse. The act of strangling appears to be in 
process, but the placid face suggests that the 
worthy man is tying his cravat rather than 
that^the hands of others are engaged in com- 
passing his death. The inscription around is 
"Moriendo restituit rem E. Godfrey." On 
the reverse is a double head one of the Pope, 
the other of the devil : " Ecclesia perversa 
tenet faciern Diaboli." I. C. GOULD. 

The dagger asked for certainly exists ; but 
though I was once informed that twenty had 
been made, I have never met other than that 
in my possession. The blade is 7 inches 
long, and lj wide at the upper end ; the 
handle, 4j inches long, of iron, bound round 
with corded silver wire, finished at each end 
with a braided plait of the same, and capped 
with an iron ball deeply cut with spirals. 
The upper inch and three-eighths of the blade 
is thickly gilt and deeply engraven : on one 
side with a skull, followed by MEMENTO | 
GODFREY j CLESUS | OCTO : 12, and on the other, 


also surmounted by a skull, with ornaments 
on each side of it. One side of the blade is 
bevelled. The sheath is of stamped leather, 
of no interest. The dagger has been in the 
possession of our family for certainly seventy 
years ; but I do not know its previous history. 

540, King's Road, S.W. 

The inscription on the first medal forms a 
verse : 

Godfrey walks up hill, 

After he is dead : 
Denys walks down hill, 

Carrying his head. 
Ergo, pares sumus. 


CAPE TOWN IN 1844 (9 th S. ii. 489). In the 
excellent library of the Legislative Council, 
in their handsome Corinthian -fac. ad ed build- 
ings at Pietermaritzburg, in Natal, South 
Africa, is a large, very valuable, and rare old 

9 th S. III. FEB. 4, '99.] 



'olume, of about this date, dealing in ex- 
laustive detail with Cape Town and Soutl 
Africa generally. It is embellished by a large 
lumber of excellent plates, all particularly 
)icturesque in their drawing, and realistically 
:oloured. I had the pleasure of spending a 
lappy hour with the book in question when 
dsiting this library at Pietermaritzburg last 
VI ay. The courteous librarian a Devonshire 
nan, by the way (Mr. George Hanniford) 
o particularly drew my attention to the 
work said he was not aware of the existence 
jf a duplicate copy. It is in splendid con- 
dition. HARRY HEMS. 
Fair Park, Exeter. 

Probably the under-mentioned volume may 
answer your correspondent's purpose : * The 
Journal of a Residence at the Cape of Good 
rlope, with Excursions into the Interior, and 
tes on the Natural History and Native 
Tribes,' by Charles J. F. Bunbury (Murra 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"SLEEVER" (9 th S. iii. 8). A parallel ex- 
Dression is the (disused and probably illegal) 
' yard " of ale. This is a measure a yard long, 
lolding, I should fancy, more than a pint, 
;hough of course everything would depend 
on the breadth of the vessel. Measures of 
he kind recall compulsory drinking on 
admission to mock corporations and other 
convivial fellowships. The annals of the 
jancashire corporation of Sefton show that 
;he mace-head was used for this purpose. 
Some strange "measures of capacity" exist 
to-day. Who can explain the "Jeroboam" 
(three bottles) and the "Kehoboam" (six 
bottles) of champagne 1 ? They seem to be 
misnomers. " Benoboam " was certainly the 
weaker vessel. The nearest approach to a 
" long " measure is the valincher, or valinch, 
used in sampling "from the bung." It is 
used everywhere every day, and yet the word 
does not even appear in some English dic- 
tionaries of recent date. 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

[There is yet another wine measure known as a 
"tappit hen." What is the exact capacity we 
forget ; but we have seen it on the table.] 

SIR BENJAMIN WRENCH, M.D. (5 th S. v. 48). 
A query asking particulars concerning his 
family connexions, c., has remained until 
now unanswered. It seems worth while even 
thus late to state that through a son who was 
in the Exchequer, and died about 1785, he was 
grandfather of Benjamin Wrench, 1778-1843, 
a well-known comedian at Drury Lane, the 
Haymarket, Adelphi, &c. In memory of Sir 

Benjamin a living in the gift of the Bishop of 
Norwich was offered to the father of the 
comedian. See Oxberry's 'Dramatic Bio- 
graphy,' iv. 145 et seq. URBAN. 


are certainly not unduly severe in describing 
as "an impudent fabrication." I am ac- 
quainted with the book, and I do riot hesitate 
to describe it as 110 less untrustworthy than 
it is indecent. The ' Diary,' which purports 
to be by a lady of rank, is manifestly a 
prurient invention. It is surprising to me 
that a respectable firm should publish such a 
work but it is intolerable that the author- 
ship snould continue to be credited (falsely) 
on the title-page and in publishers' lists to a 
clergyman. How can any decent publisher 
justify to his conscience such a proceeding? 


MR. WARBURTON'S SERVANT (9 th S. iii. 27). 
See the 'Introductory Epistle' to 'The 
Fortunes of Nigel' for a characteristic and 
humorous reference to " that unhappy Eliza- 
beth or Betty Barnes, long cook-maid to Mr. 
Warburton, the painful collector." 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

John Warburton, F.R.S., F.S.A., was the 
culprit no bishop he, but Somerset Herald ; 
born 1682, appointed 1720, died 1759, much 
disliked. A list of his plays is given in full 
detail, Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxxv. 
. 217, Sept., 1815 ; signed " Fredk. Thorn- 
ill." A. HALL. 

THE ORIGIN OF " TAW " (9 th S. ii. 385). As 
boys we used to play a game of marbles here 
known as " dob in the ring," which consisted 
of starting from a certain point known as 
" taw," and endeavouring to knock out with 
a big " dob " as many marbles as possible 
from a ring in which they had been placed. 
Play was resumed from the spot where the 
' dob " rested after it had been thrown, but 
under certain circumstances the player was 
ordered " back to taw." The word " taw " in 
;his sense may therefore be said to be col- 
oquial in the Midland Counties of England 
as well as in the United States. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

The only game at marbles I know called 
' taw " is " chuck-taw " one which we called 
a " goo ter skowl gam," because it was played 
as we went along, and got us over the ground 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* B. in. FEB. 4, m 

quickly. One lad " chucked " his " taw " two 
or three yards in front, and the next chucked 
at the first taw with his taw, and so on. 
When one taw was hit, the owner followed 
on, getting two " chucks " in succession. 
When played with boulders it was called 
" chuck-bowder." Big rocks we called 
" torrs," the difference being that instead of 
" taw " to rhyme with " caw," we rolled the 
V in tor. thus " The High Tor" at Matlock 
Bath was "T' Heigh Torr," not "Heigh Taw," 
a fine, but clear distinction. This is not a 
contribution to the origin of " taw," but may 
be of some use. THOS. RATOLIFFE. 


PUZZLE JUG (9 th S. iii. 49). I have had in 
my possession several of the puzzle jugs 
referred to by your correspondent. They are 
often to be met with in Yorkshire. The jugs 
I had were brown glazed earthenware. I 
have never seen one of so early a date as 
1705. I know that some of these jugs and 
similar puzzle teapots were made as early 
as 1815 in Chesterfield, and probably were 
manufactured there at a much earlier date. 
I have one of these teapots in my possession. 
It has no lid ; the water is poured in at the 
bottom ; when full, turn it round and the 
water will pour from the spout. Various 
other puzzle earthenware articles of early 
manufacture are to be met with as tobacco- 
boxes, snuff-boxes, candlesticks, &c. which 
are ingeniously contrived. I am under the 
impression that the jug your correspondent 
refers to will be of Holland manufacture. 

18, Shrewsbury Road, Sheffield. 

Such are kept for sale at a shop on the 
Pantiles, Tunbridge Wells. 


HERALDIC (9 th S. iii. 50). I believe the two 
objections to be well founded, though I con- 
fess myself unable to refer to an authority 
I should be sceptical as to the correctness oi 
ermine on a banner ; and the arms proposed 
to be worked on the yacht flag would be a 
new coat, if any charges from the shield were 
omitted. I can, however, imagine a case in 
which this latter consideration might ex 
cusably be set aside. Did not the Dukes oj 
Brittany substitute another device on their 
banner for the hermines pleine of their shield 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

Ermine, without any charge, is the coat o 
Brittany, and appears, as a quartering, in the 
arras of several ancient English families. 


ISLAND OF ICHABOE (9 th S. ii. 527). In the 
port of the proceedings of the Hamburg 
Geographical Society for 1891-2 some account 
s given by a recent visitor of Ichaboe and 
:he other islands that lie off the coast of the 
)ay of Angra Pequena. Bare and unat- 
tractive, they are the home of countless sea- 
jirds, and a few white men are in perpetual 
occupation there, engaged in moving the 
;uano. Nature supplies little in the way of 
! ood but fish, and the men are dependent on 
;he vessels that carry the guano for most of 
:he necessaries of existence. It would be hard 
to imagine a more unenviable life. The one 
diversion seems to occur in the breeding 
season of the seals, when hundreds of these 
reatures are knocked over with cudgels, and 
silled for the sake of their skins. 


Miss COLLIER (9 th S. ii. 528). Miss Jane 
(? Margaret) Collier assisted Miss Sarah 
Fielding to write * The Cry,' a new dramatic 
fable, London, 1750. She wrote 'An Essay 
on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting, with 
Proper Rules for the Exercise of that Pleasant 
Art,' &c., London, 1753 ; second edition, 1804. 


A New English Grammar, Logical and Historical. 

By Henry Sweet, LL.D. Part II. (Oxford, 

Clarendon Press.) 

IT is only now, after an interval of six years due to 
other and perhaps more important avocations in 
the cause of Anglo-Saxon that Dr. Sweet's ela- 
borate grammar finds its completion. The former 
part, published in 1892, embraced the phonology 
and accidence ; this second part deals solely with 
the syntax. The points that at once strike us are 
the prominence he assigns to the spoken or collo- 
quial English as distinct from the literary or 
bookish speech, which, after all, is but a small part 
of the tongue, and the attention he gives to the 
subject of the order and stress of words in their 
bearing on syntax. 

If Dr. Sweet has a fault, it is perhaps a tendency 
to an over-subtle analysis and excess of differen- 
tiation, as in his remarks on the use of the pluper- 
fect. He has a predilection, too, for a nomen- 
clature of his own, resulting in such uncouth (if 
convenient) nonce-words as "tag-order," "end- 
verb," and " front-adverb." In some of his pro- 
nouncements on colloquial proprieties we venture 
to hold a different opinion from the author. We 
cannot, for instance, see that "to keep fowl" and 
" written in blank verse " are less correct locutions 
than "fowls" and " verses " respectively. Nor do 
we think that " bid him come in," and " well- 
spoken " in the sense of plausible, are to be ranked 
as obsolete phrases, though Dr. Sweet says they 
are. It seems a pity, moreover, to set aside the 

9* S. HI. FEB. 4, '99.] 



generally accepted Aryan in favour of " Arian," a 
word already pre-engaged for ecclesiastical pur- 

The Traditional Poetry of the Finns. By Domenico 
Comparetti. Translated by Isabella M. Ander- 
ton. (Longmans & Co.) 

THIS work places a critical account of the popular 
songs of Finland in the hands of English readers. 
The volume ought to be favourably received by all 
folk-lorists, for, in the first place, it explains the 
origin and development of the brief lyrics from 
which Lonnrot pieced together the composition 
known as the ' Kalevala.' Secondly it sets forth 
the practical impossibility of any great epic ever 
being formed out of a mosaic of folk rimes, even 
w r hen the rimes all run in the same metre and 
have a certain uncultivated poetry of their own. 
The ' Kalevala ' is so deftly fashioned that no critic 
ignorant of the songs from which it was made can 
separate it into its component parts by inductive 
analysis ; yet, skilfully as the work has been done, 
the result is futile. The whole is, after all, no 
heroic narrative ; it is merely a mechanical collection 
of episodes lacking coherent connexion with each 
other. The true epic may be founded on popular 
tradition, but it is nevertheless the offspring of one 
brain. Whatever modifications it may subsequently 
undergo at the hands of foster-parents, its life, its 
corporate unity, was bestowed on it by the gestation 
of one mind. In songs of the people such unity 
is necessarily lacking. Its want is detected im- 
mediately we ask ourselves what is the subject 
of the 'Kalevala.' "If we put such a question 
with regard to the ' Iliad,' the ' Odyssey,' the 
' Niebelungen,' the 'Chanson de Roland,' urges 
Prof. Comparetti, "we have an immediate, positive, 
single answer ready. For the 'Kalevala' the 
answer is not so easy, and it is given differently by 

various authors A long poem created by the 

people does not exist, cannot exist ; epic popular 
songs, such as could be put together into a true 
poem, have never been seen, and are not likely to be 
seen, among any people. Every long poem, without 
exception, anonymous or not, is the work of an 
individual, is a work of art. The art may be lofty, 
noble, and perfect, like that of the Homeric poems ; 
it may be pedestrian and lowly, like that of the 
poems of the Middle Ages ; but art it always is." 
On the contrary, such a poem as Lonnrot manufac- 
tured is a shapeless medley. It has no framework 
or skeleton to support it. Although formed of 
verses which have not infrequently a wild-wood 
suggestiveness of their own, it is a failure. A troop 
of the ablest dwarfs in the world could never be 
drilled into wielding the sword of a giant, and the 
finest folk-songs ever imagined will never have the 
force and unity of an epic. 

The Pre- and Proto- Historic Finns. By the Hon. 

John Abercromby. 2 vols. (Nutt.) 
MB. ABERCROMBY'S work ought to have a place on 
the same shelf with Prof. Comparetti's book, giving 
as it does a careful description of the gradual 
social evolution of the Fimio-Ugrian races, with 
translations of the magic-songs of the Western 
Finns. The dog seems to have been the first animaJ 
domesticated by these Northern nations, who 
would apparently have remained in the condition 
of poverty-stricken savages had not traders from 
lands of less rigorous climate than their own sup- 
plied them with the means of self -improvement in 

xchange for the furs to be procured by trapping 
nd snaring. Considering what the general con- 
dition of Europe must have been some three 
housand years ago, it is astonishing how readily 
the nations within its borders have adapted them- 
selves to change of circumstances. The capacity of 
:he average man has been educated by the pressure 
of " things as they are" in a manner which borders 
on the marvellous. From the physiological point 
of view, how few generations link the peoples of 
to-day with a set of ancestors whose knowledge and 
whose ideals appear almost childlike ! These an- 
cestors had, however, great aptitude for taking 
opportunity by the forelock. They made the most 
ot every occasion to seize on new means and new 
methods ; and if the more cautious and conservative 
among them argued that it was safer to follow the 
trusty old ways hallowed by past experience, there 
were always bolder spirits ready to welcome inno- 
vation. The second volume of Mr. Abercromby's 
book is filled with English versions of charms, magic- 
songs, spells of healing, prayers, and chants de- 
scribing the origins of animals, plants, diseases, 
and so on. Though obscured by its foreign dress, 
the poetic sensitiveness which occasionally manifests 
itself in the original is to be detected. The Finns, 
like some other races which have fared badly in the 
struggle for national pre-eminence, have retained a 
susceptibility which shows but rarely in the verse 
of nations given over to material prosperity. Reason 
with them has not yet attempted to overmaster 
feeling. They sing their impressions of wind and 
woodland, water and waste, because the thoughts 
and the words come to them, and with no other 
motive. Hence the charm which clings to their 
unstudied lays. 

Peveril of the Peak. By Walter Scott. Edited by 

Andrew Lang. (Nimmo.) 

' PEVERIL OF THE PEAK,' now added to the reissue 
of the "Border" edition of the Waverley novels, 
is the thickest volume of the series, and includes 
fifteen illustrations. It stands in little need of the 
apologies with which it has been the fashion to 
usher in a fresh edition. We first read it as a boy 
in the 1847 and 1849 reissues of the first collected 
edition, with the author's notes, and it was then, as 
it now is, one of our favourites. How many times 
we had reread it before the present perusal, which 
must needs be the last, we are afraid to say, but 
we never found it too long. Now even, though we 
admit having skipped here and there a page, we 
sighed when we came to the last, and could have 
been content to have had more. Quite ready are 
we to take Fenella as in the main a failure ; her 
mysterious appearances do not very greatly interest 
us, nor do we care much for her until she gives 
herself away, and screams on hearing that her 
father has slain Julian Peveril. We will not admit, 
however, that Julian Peveril is one of Scott's worst 
heroes. He is, on the contrary, one of the best, 
worth a score Tressilians, Levels, Nigels, Waver- 
leys, or Mortons. Scott himself is, through his 
heroes, a little too worthy and law-abiding, and lie 
makes his young men too wise and too sweetly 
reasonable. But Julian is none of these. He is 
a man of action. Alice Bridgenorth is, moreover, 
a great favourite, and she is not too "bright and 
good," considering her Puritan extraction. Sir 
Geoffrey has a good many ail-but doubles, but he 
has a character of his own ; and if we did not cotton 
to him, Lady Peveril would reconcile him to cis 


NOTES AND QUERIES. IB* s. in. FEB. 4, ra 

For once we find ourselves at issue with Mr. Lang. 
' Peveril of the Peak ' overflows with romance. It 
casts, moreover, a bright light upon Scott's method 
of workmanship ; and if we could spare space to deal 
at length with a reissue of a well-known work, we 
could find much to say concerning it. 

The Romano- British City of Silchester. By Fre- 
derick Davis, F.S.A. (Andrews & Co.) 
THE Silchester excavations are described year by 
year in the volumes of the Archceologia, but that 
work is costly and in the hands of but few people 
except Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries. It is 
true that now and then magazines and newspapers 
tell their readers what is taking place in that inter- 
esting spot, but such ephemeral publications have a 
habit of getting lost, or becoming forgotten ; we are 
therefore very grateful to Mr. Davis for preparing 
an account of the recent excavations which is at 
once lucid, compact, and accurate. His work is 
short perhaps too short but its author is learned 
in things Roman as well as in many other directions, 
so that his statements and suggestions may almost 
always be received with confidence. We have 
found nothing whatever in his book that we are 
inclined to call in question, except the statement 
that, so far as England is concerned, " not a single 
Roman place-name has survived." This is surely 
going much too far. The subject is so involved and 
intricate that it cannot be discussed here ; but we 
may remark that our knowledge of the origin of the 
names of places is only just emerging from the pre- 
scientific stage, if, indeed, it has as yet attained to 
that great deliverance, and that it is rash to make 
up our minds confidently at present one way or the 
other, though, of course, every competent investi- 
gator will admit that the surviving names of this 
class, if there be any in England, are far less 
numerous than in many other parts of what was 
once the Roman world. 

One of the most important parts of Mr. Davis's 
book is his account of the way in which earthworms 
have helped to preserve the remains of ancient 
buildings. We need not mention that much of what he 
says has been derived from the researches of Charles 
Darwin this he has been careful to point out but 
he has also made independent investigations of his 
own, which are not only interesting as explaining 
the present state of Silchester, but are of inde- 
pendent value as illustrating the habits of the 
curious annelid creatures of which they treat. 

Mr. Davis gives a good account of the remains of 
a building discovered in 1892, which is usually 
regarded as a Romano-Christian church. That such 
it is he entertains no doubt, and thinks it not 
improbable that the excavations yet to be under- 
taken may disclose the foundations of other build- 
ings of the same character. 

Autumnal Leaves. By Francis George Heath. 

Fourth Edition. (Imperial Press.) 
ON its first appearance Mr. Heath's delightful 
volume, in which he drew attention to the beauty 
of autumnal leaves, won a -warm and well-merited 
reception. He has now been induced to include 
it in the attractive series of works issued in most 
tempting guise by the Imperial Press, and, with 
the aid of skilled artists, has succeeded in pro- 
ducing at half the price a volume that vies in ex- 
cellence with the previous issue. Quite beautiful 
are the reproductions in colours of the various 
leaves, and the vignettes of the New Forest and 

the illustrations generally have also much grace. 
The volume, moreover, is well and pleasingly 
written, and will commend itself warmly to the 
lover of nature. We know few books likely to 
contribute more largely to the delight of the 
cultivated lover of nature, or better calculated to 
spread a taste for natural beauty among those as 
yet unversed in her mysteries. The volume should 
be in an easily accessible spot in the library of 
every country house. 

The Whartons of Wharton Hall. By Edward Ross 

Wharton. (Oxford, University Press.) 
THE publication of this little work, left in MS. by 
its author, has been a labour of love and piety on 
the part of his widow. The volume contains a 
memoir of Wharton reprinted from the Academy, 
a bibliography of his writings, chiefly philological, 
and an account of his famous ancestors, "a distin- 
guished, albeit a turbulent race." A portrait which 
is a speaking likeness, and other illustrations by 
Mrs. Wharton, add to the value of a work interest- 
ing in many respects and entitled to a place in 
genealogical libraries. 

Whitaker's Titled Persons. (Whitaker & Sons.) 
THE second issue of this useful handbook is a great 
advance upon its predecessors, having undergone 
complete revision and been greatly enlarged. It 
has many features of special interest, and is an 
almost indispensable supplement to Whitaker's 
quite indispensable ' Almanack.' 

MR. GEORGE RICKWARD has reprinted from 
vol. vii. of the Archaeological Society's Transactions 
an important article on ' Colchester in the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Centuries.' The interest of this 
extends beyond local antiquaries, and the contents, 
with some additions, might well appear in a shape 
even more permanent. 

fjfoikea ixr 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

REGENT'S PARK. Your note has been forwarded 

CORRIGENDA. P. 70, col. 2, 1.4, for "imperial" 
read Greek. P. 71, col. 1, 1. 38, for " encrease" read 
increase ; 1. 47, for "censors" read censors. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E. C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9* s. m. FEB. 11, mi NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 59. 

N )TES : The Sibyls in Scotland, 101 Cataloguing, 102 
Bast Window at Bolton Percy The Author of ' II Don 
Giovanni,' 103 Historical Parallel Error in the ' Spec- 
tator 'Prices of some Rare Books Kime to " Month " 
Cromwell and Christmas, 104 Place-names Grey Stone 
Shakspeare's ' Julius Csesar,' 105 Parish Registers : Put- 
nam Family" Are we better ? " 106. 

QUERIES .A Christmas Carol Atkinson = D'Arbon 
J. Calcot Charles Young Roger Williams Sir A. Iruin 
"Furlybirs" "Junames" Walton, 107 ' fflores Cortox' 
Rolling Day Col. Starck Book of Verses " Kylon " 
St. Michael's, Crooked Lane Thomas Shakspeare " Cam- 
buscan bold" White Money Rev. W. More "Chal" 

The Three Sergeants,' 108-Scot Abroad Spelling of Sur- 
namesMr. Sainthill Isaac Johnson W. Boyle Authors 
Wanted, 109. 

REPLIES : Prime Minister, 109-Silchester Church, 110 
Peter Schlemihl Eating of Seals Lost Register Ar- 
thurian Puzzles, 111 Alfrey Mickefer Columbaria 
Wanstead House, 113 Names: Saxon and Norman 
" Randan "Wordsworth and Scott Execution of Anne 
Boleyn " Kings !" 114 Callings of Persons Trethowan 
The Captive Stag Royal Naval Club H. Alken " Pip 
in the webe " The Sister Churches " The policy of pin- 
pricks," 115 Theatre Tickets Carkeet and Andrews- 
Houses without Staircases Saying of Bright Oriel=Hall 
Royal Rounds or Rungs, 116 "So-ho" ' Blackwood's 
Magazine '" On the carpet," 117 ' Eclectic Review' 

Whole Duty of Man 'Lee's Life of Shakespeare,' 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Cust's Records of the Gust Family ' 
Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See 3 rd S. x. 467; xi. 144.) 
AT the first reference the late ME. J. MAID- 
MENT contributed an account of pictures oJ 
the Sibyls, then discovered in the house oi 
Western Livilands, Stirling. At that time 
the pictures were partly covered, and MR 
MAIDMENT supposed they were ten in number 
They have now been taken out of their con- 
cealment, and it is found that they are six in 
number, each painted on a separate panel o: 
wood. Each Sibyl holds her prophetic book 
with her message in verse printed below in a 
semi-Gothic lettering, and the name of each 
is painted alongside. These are as follows: 

Sib. Persica. 
The Mother of th 5 eternal Father and Sonne 

de hathe His Birth Saluation 

Shall bring the World and life, yet farre from pride 
Though King of all. He on an Asse did ride 
Into Hierosalem, where with wrongful wrath 
Condemn'd by wicked. He shall suffer death. 

Sib. Libica. 

A King of lews shall the Redeemer be 
just gentle guiltlesse, for the guiltie, He 
Shall suffer much : the Scribes with scornefull brow 
Shall him forbid his father to avow 
Within their Synagogue yet shall he preach 
The Way of peace and it the people teach. 

Sib. Delphica. 
After long years due revolution past, 
jlod, of a Virgin borne, to man dis-Grac't 
Shall make the Hope of Sinnes Remission shine 
And, though Almighty (and his throne devirie 
laue bin for Ay in Heauen) yet, His to saue 
Trom Death, will He both suffer Death & Graue. 

Sib. Cumaa. 
\.n age shall shortly bring about the Day 
When the great king of kings shall lodge in clay 
Three kings conducted by a glorious Starre 
Visit his cradle, shal from Eastward farre 
}ome to adore Him and right humble sould 
To Him shal offer Incence Myrh and Gold. 

[ see the Sonne of God (corn's downe from Heaven 
Held in an Hebrew Virgins Armes ; and euen 
Sucking the milke of her pure mayden brests 
He, in his Man-age manifold distrests 
Shal beare for those whome His he...d r...d 
Shewing to them, a Fathers 

Heavens er ordin Ite is ar, u at...l... 

Of brightest s gi... 

With good R... 

Di lall 

His e... 


The last verse and the name of the Sibyl are 
almost obliterated. 

MR. MAIDMENT was of opinion that these 
were the only examples of such paintings 
" in the North "; but so far as I have been able 
to ascertain, there are no examples in the 
South, as in a 'List of Buildings having 
Mural Decorations,' by C. E. Keyser, pub- 
lished by the Science and Art Department, 
only two places are referred to as haying 
paintings of the Sibyls, viz., Bradninch 
Church arid Ugborough Church, both in 
Devonshire. But on inquiry I find that this 
is probably incorrect, and that the figures 
may not be Sibyls at all. At Ugborough 
there are twelve female figures on the screen 
bearing the emblems of the Crucifixion, and 
the Bradninch examples seem doubtful. MR. 
MAIDMENT further states that a German 
volume of extreme rarity printed in small 
quarto at Frankfurt, MDXXXL, contains por- 
traits which exactly correspond to the 
portraits at Livilands. He also refers to a 
Spanish book (which he evidently had not 
seen) containing the verses. Do any of your 
readers know of the existence of these books 
or can any one give information as to the 
source of the verses ? 

It will be very remarkable if there are no 
paintings of the Sibyls in England. Mr. 
Keyser refers to the Exeter Diocesan Archi. 
Soc., Second Series, ii. 96, and the Ecclesiologist, 
xxviii. (xxv. New Series) 308; but both of 
these are difficult to come at here. If any 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. ni. JT*B. 11, 

reader having access to them will communi- 
cate with me I shall be glad. 

I may mention that the pictures probably 
date from about the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury or from the beginning of the seven- 
teenth. T. Koss. 

65, Frederick Street, Edinburgh. 


IN my last note on ' Book Terms ' (9 th S. ii. 
521) I made an observation about the Cata- 
logue of the British Museum, and began the 
following as a foot-note to explain my obser- 
vations. On finding it exceeded the original 
note in length I left it out entirely. 

It is as well to give credit, when one can, 
to rules which have produced such a biblio- 
graphic fiasco as those of the Catalogue of the 
British Museum. I do not understand how 
the librarians who have had to work them 
out kept their tempers perhaps they did 
not. They have had to disregard the rules 
in numerous instances before printing, but 
have retained some with which I observe Mr. 
Bernard Quaritch is unacquainted. I see by 
his Catalogue No. 138, p. 33, that he likes 
these rules. He has a copy of the 1847 Cata- 
logue, letter A (far more to my taste in the 
style of printing than the present B.M. 
Catalogue), arid he says, "Prefixed are ninety- 
one admirable rules for cataloguing." I 
should agree with him if he had written 
another not unpopular, though very naughty 
word of opposite meaning, and yet had 
concluded with the "able." Mr. Quaritch 
appeals for orders, as his " rough lists " are 
expensive ; so I am still considering which 
of the two books he begins his rough list 
with will suit me best. No. 1 is priced at 
5,000/., No. 2 at 5,250/. 

Although he admires these rules, he does 
not, as I have remarked, compile his catalogue 
in accordance with them ; for if he did, he 
would not put the B.M. Catalogue under 
British Museum. That would be far too un- 
scientific ; the proverbial schoolboy could do 
that. No ; he should start something in this 
manner : The World : America, Asia, Africa, 
Europe, Great Britain and Ireland ; Acade- 
mies : London. Then under this last heading 
in alphabetical order he should put British 
Museum. But if the book has an author's 
name, it must be referred from that name to 
the World, &c., Academies, &c. 

He must not catalogue British Association 
in the same way. That, instead of coming 
under the sub-heading London, should be 
put (of course after going round the world) 
under Europe, Great Britain and Ireland. 

People who have the conceit of thinking they 
can find books easily in a catalogue had 
better have a try at the British Museum and 
look for such a book as " Rome, Pagan and 
Papal. By an English resident in that city. 
London, 1846." If you want instances of the 
perverse, the wrong-headed, the monstrous 
in cataloguing, you can find them all in the 
B.M. Catalogue, without the least difficulty 
or at all events I can. 

Mr. Quaritch's customers would probably 
not understand what he meant, but they 
would perhaps think what a wonderfully 
scientific man he was, and bear with it as 
readers have had to put up with the farrago 
of scientific nonsense in the Catalogue of the 
National Library for half a century. 

A librarian is an autocrat ; and so much 
the worse for students if he gets a crank. It 
is hopeless to object. You are snubbed, told 
to mind your own business, or else that you are 
not a " sensible person." The hatred of autho- 
rities, official or self-constituted, to any out- 
side interference has lately been shown in 
the case of the Manacles lighthouse (on the 
wreck of the Mohegan), and the very same 
week in the case of the extra lifeboat at 
Yarmouth, a self-constituted society adver- 
tising against it as unnecessary, as it was not 

Some time ago, because I objected to dark 
churches being made darker with stained- 
glass windows, I was absurdly accused of 
objecting to stained glass. Now in order to 
protect myself against being accused of not 
appreciating the great Catalogue of the 
British Museum, let me say I think I under- 
stand its good points, the vast labour, 
erudition, and care that have been bestowed 
upon it, as much as it is possible for the 
average man to do. 

I depreciate it by criticizing it only in the 
same way as we do the 'Hist. Eng. Diet.' 
One day talking about this dictionary, I said 
to one of the librarians at the Boclleian I 
thought it was the greatest work ever done 
in England. At the moment we were both 
consulting the printed Catalogue of the 
British Museum. "Oh," he said, "don't you 
think this is a greater work 1 " 

I must reserve my other ninety objections 
to the B.M. Catalogue until I have a little 
more leisure ; but I should like to tell an anec- 
dote of one of the officers, for all of whom 
that I have known I have had the greatest 
respect. I think after the very mild remarks 
I have made about the defects of the Cata- 
logue I must say this. 

In 1866 I was from time to time working 
on my bibliography of swimming, 2nd hap- 

9* s. m. FEB. 11, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


pening to be talking with Mr. Thomas Watts, 
then Keeper of the Printed Books in the 
British Museum, I mentioned to him what I 
was doing. He asked me if I knew the early 
books, and without the slightest hesitation 
he at once named Digby (1587), Percy (1658), 
Thevenot (1696), and several others. This 
seemed to me a most astonishing feat of 
memory that he should know the chief old 
books on such an out-of-the-way subject out 
of the million or so under his care. 

I have in later years had a little light 
thrown on it in a curious way. In my 
'Handbook ' I give an initialism of Mr. Watts's, 
"P.P.C.R.," which he promised he would some 
day interpret for me, but never did. After 
his death in 1869 I heard that his father was 
custodian of the Peerless Pool at Islington, 
and therefrom I imagine that the initials are 
those of the Peerless Pool, City Koad. Hence 
his interest in swimming ; but I believe he 
would have given me the principal books in 
the same way on any other subject. 

I have another instance still more remark- 
able. While admiring the work Dr. J. A. H. 
Murray was doing I had collected a number 
of unusual words to take to him. One of 
these I had come across in a seventeenth-cen- 
tury pamphlet. Two ladies plotting, one 
says to the other, We must be discreet or "our 
husbands will smoak us," that is, find them 
out. Dr. Murray kindly explained that it 
might take a long time to find out if this was 
in the MS. of the 'Hist. English Diction- 
ary,' as, although it had been alphabetically 
arranged some years previously, the subse- 
quent accumulations had not been. He 
admitted that the word was unusual, but he 
thought he had seen it before. He thereupon 
went to his bookshelves, took down 'The 
Vicar of Wakefield,' turned over a few leaves, 
and there presented me with the very word. 
That he should recollect this one at the end 
of the alphabet, he being engaged on the 
beginning, appeared to me to be astonishing. 

Clifford's Inn. 

FAMILY. (See 9 th S. ii. 522.) The church of 
Bolton Percy, near York, is a fine Perpen- 
dicular structure, built probably between 
1411 and 1415, and the great east window is 
of remarkable size and beauty, measuring 
twenty-three feet in height by fourteen feet 
in breadth, unbroken by a transom. In the 
lower part of it are five full-length figures of 
Scrope, Bowet, Kemp, Boothe, and Neville, 
Archbishops of York, of the size of life, in 
their gorgeous robes, all of them having the 

right hand raised in the act of benediction, 
and in the left holding a crosier. 

The central figure is that of John Kemp, 
Archbishop of York (1426-52), thence trans- 
lated to Canterbury, a see he held from 1452 
to 1454, and underneath is the coat : See of 
Canterbury, an episcopal staff surmounted by 
a pallium, impaling Kemp, Gu., three garbs 
or within a bordure engrailed arg. Under- 
neath the other figures are the arms of the 
See of York : Gu., two keys in saltire arg., 
in chief a royal crown or, as borne at the 
present day, impaling their respective coats. 

A friend has recently sent me a photograph 
of the fine window, which is far from doing 
it justice, as all the colours have come out in 
the same hue. This must be inevitable, as 
the window is protected on the outside by a 
strong and close wire guarding, considerably 
obstructing the light, and in addition there 
is so much leadwork and so many iron 
bars in the window ; besides, the camera was 
used on rather a gloomy day. One wonders 
whether there is any way of tinting the 
photograph. On holding it against a strong 
light the figures come out far more distinctly, 
which could not be the case if it was mounted 
on thick cardboard. 

Archbishop John Kemp was also Bishop of 
London from 1422 to 1426, and his nephew 
Thomas Kemp presided over the same see from 
1450 to 1489. In the upper part of the same 
fine window at Bolton Percy are life-sized 
figures of St. Peter, St. Anna, the Virgin 
Mary, St. Elizabeth, and St. John the Evan- 
gelist. The window contains some of the 
finest fifteenth-century glass in England, as 
fine as any in York Minster, or King's Col- 
lege Chapel, Cambridge. The window was 
judiciously restored some thirty years ago by 
Messrs. Warrington, of London, at the ex- 
pense of Archdeacon Creyke, the rector, as 
portions of the vestments and the faces of 
the archbishops had been destroyed. The 
impaled arms are Scrope (Az., a bend or), 
Bowet (Arg., three stags' heads cabossed sable), 
Kemp (Gu., three garbs or), Boothe (Arg., 
three boars' heads erected sa.), Neville (Gu., 
a saltier arg.). JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Larousse's ' Diction nai re des Operas ' attri- 
butes the book of the words of Mozart's 
opera 'II Don Giovanni' to the Abbe da 
Ponte. This is an error. The author was 
Lorenzo da Ponte, a Venetian, of Hebrew 
origin it is supposed, who was, it is true, as we 
learn from his memoirs, originally intended 
for the Church, though he never attained 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< h s. in. FEB. n, m 

that dignity, preferring the precarious career 
of a literary man. The same error occurs in 
a metrical translation in German entitled 
" Don Juan. Uebersetzung nach den Original- 
Text des Abate da Ponte von C. H. Bitter, 
1871." It seems to have arisen from the 
circumstance that the Bishop of Ceneda, 
young Da Ponte's patron, who does not appear 
to have been related to the dramatist, bore 
the same name. JOHN HEBB. 

Canonbury Mansions, N. 

people have noticed a slight historical 
parallel between the reception by Boling- 
broke (Henry IV.) of the news of his rival's 
death in the last scene of Shakespeare's 
'King Richard II.' and David's attitude 
towards the slayer of King Saul in the first 
chapter of the second book of Samuel. 
David, however, laments the death of Saul in 
the loveliest of elegies ; while Henry acknow- 
ledges his complicity in Eichard's death : 
They love not poison that do poison need, 
Nor do I thee : though I did wish him dead, 
I hate the murderer, love him murdered. 

But a more than chilling reception and no 
" good word nor princely favour " awaits the 
officious worshipper of the rising sun in 
either case. David, indeed, commands one 
of his followers to fall upon and slay the 
Amalekite : 

"Thy blood be upon thy head: for thy mouth 
hath testified against thee, saying, I have slain the 
Lord's anointed." 

And though Henry bids the unhappy Sir 
Piers of Exton depart with his life, the latter 
is dismissed with no comfortable words : 
The guilt of conscience take thou for thy labour. 

With Cain go wander through the shades of night, 
And never show thy head by day nor light. 
Henry has ocular demonstration of Richard's 
death, for Exton brings the coffin with him. 
David needs none ; he had asked the Ama- 
lekite, on the conclusion of his story, the 
unanswerable question, " How wast thou not 
afraid to stretch forth thine hand to destroy 
the Lord's anointed 1 " And Richard, when 
Exton strikes him down, exclaims : 
That hand shall burn in never-quenching fire 
That staggers thus my person. Exton, thy fierce 

Hath with the king's blood stain'd the king's own 



motto to No. 183 (Addison's) in Henry 
Morley's one-volume edition, no date, is cor- 
rectly ascribed to Hesiod, but in the trans- 
lations of the mottoes at the end of the 

volume it is said to be from Homer. This 
error is repeated in the handsome three- 
volume edition, 1891, which, except in form, 
is a duplicate, or nearly a duplicate, of the 
one-volume edition. The two lines are from 
Hesiod's 9eoyoi/ta, 27, 28. Readers who 
possess this edition may like to correct this 
error if they have not already done so. 


AGO. Taking from its shelf by chance and 
glancing through the pages of a priced cata- 
logue of the books of the Rt. Hon. Denis Daly, 
sold at Dublin, 1 May, 1792, I was so struck 
by some of the figures that I jot them down 
for the whetting of the appetite of book- 
lovers of this generation, just as they come, 
without any regard to classification, but 
merely according to priority in the volume : 

' Romance of Palmerin d'Oliva, 1637, 15-*. 

Shakspeare's Works. A very fine copy of the 
first folio edition, with the portrait by Droeshout, 
elegantly bound in red morocco, 1623, 30/. 14s. 3d. 

'Confessio Amantis,' Caxton, 1493, fine copy, 
15J. 7. Ud. 

' The Book of Fame,' made by Gefferey Chaucer. 
Emprynted by Wylliam Caxton, very 'fine copy, 
red morocco, \1l. 10s. 3d. [whilst Rapin's History 
with Tindal's continuation brought 111. 12s. Id. !]. 

' Policronicon,' Wynken de Worde, 1495, 
18Z. 15s. ^d. 

' Polycronycon,' Treveris, 1525, Ql. 16s. Qd. 

Froissart's ' Chronycles,' by Pynson, 1525, 
17J. 12s. Id. 

Boccaccio, 'IlDecamerone,' Giunta, 1527, 21. 5s. 6d. 
[the Venetian piracy of this ed. brought II. 2s. 9d.]. 

The editiones principes and incunabula 
brought high prices for the time. The 1,441 
lots realized 4,152/. 4s. ll^d 


RIME TO " MONTH." Ante, p. 60, you say 
there is no known rime to "month." Has 
'N. & Q.' never published the two rimes attri- 
buted in my time at Cambridge to Dr. 
Whewell 1 

And there he lived in lodgings for a month, 
Raising binomials to the (n + l)th ; 


Conning now and then his Grunth. 

[Thackeray has " The fighting onety-oneth."] 

Under the head of 'New Year's Readings' 
in the Carlisle Patriot of 30 December, 1898, 
it is stated that 

"it was Oliver Cromwell who ordered that through- 
out the principal towns in the country Christmas 
should not be observed, 'it being an hurtful custom.' 
In order to make people forget Christmas, he en- 

9ths.iiLF E B.ii,m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


icted that all the markets should be held on the 
25th December. This was touching the people, 
especially the country folks, on their most sensitive 
point. It was hardly to be expected that they 
would quietly submit to so extraordinary a rule, 
nor did they. 

It seems extremely improbable that Crom- 
well, who was not at all . of an ungenial 
nature, though liable to hypochondria, and 
who was fond of music, and even, according 
to a contemporary writer, Capt. Hodgson, 
quoted by Carlyle, "loved an innocent jest," 
issued so unkind an order as the foregoing^ 
Did he not, at a time during his Protectorate 
when the theatres were closed, allow Sir 
William Davenant to give dramatic represen- 
tations of some kind in a little theatre near 
Lincoln's Inn Fields ? This does not look as 
if Cromwell was deeply infected with Puri- 
tanical verjuice. If, as an old writer quoted 
by Washington Irving says, " Old, old, good 
old Christmas were gone. Nothing but the 
air [sic : hair ?] of his good, grey old head 
and beard left," I think we may take it for 
granted that it was not Cromwell who gave 
him his conge, though it is possible that 
fanatical local magistrates may nave congedie", 
or attempted to congedier, the good old gentle- 
man within their own jurisdictions. Some 
folks appear to be under the impression 
that Oliver Cromwell was personally respon- 
sible for everything sour and unpleasant that 
occurred during the Commonwealth. 

May I appeal to Dr. S. R. Gardiner, or, 
failing the learned historian of Common- 
wealth times, to any other well-informed 
correspondent, to tell us the truth of this 
matter? In the name of justice, let us have 
no more stones thrown at " the king without 
a sceptre, the prince without a throne," within 
a few months of the tercentenary of his birth. 

Ropley, Hampshire. 

PLACE-NAMES. Headers of *N. & Q.' who 
take an interest in the subject of place-names 
may like to add the following rather singular 
examples to their lists : Grenesty, Grene- 
waye, Wetewong, Goteres, Meresfurlong, 
Haverlondsclad, Kydesholm, Kyningholm, 
Hare ward wellesike. These occur, amongst 
others of a more modern type, in a Compotus 
of Kettering for the year 1292, about to be 
published. I have hitherto been unable to dis- 
cover in what part of the manor the lands 
were situated ; all traces of their names are 
lost. CHAS. WISE. 

Weekley, Kettering. 

GREY STONE. The following extract from 
the charming papers ' In Bad Company ' of 
Vladimir Korolenko may be of interest to 

folk-lorists. The hero, the son of a Eussian 
district magistrate, has made friends with 
two vagabond children, Valek and Marussia. 
He wants the little girl to run a race with 
him, but she looks like a frightened bird and 
begins to cry loudly : 

"'You see,' said Valek, 'she does not like 

" He sat her on the grass, plucked some flowers, 
and threw them to her; she ceased crying, and 
quietly sorted the plants, said some words, turning 
to the golden buttercups, and put the bluebells to 
her lips. I calmed myself, and threw myself beside 
Valek, near the little girl. 

' ' Why is she so -- ?' I asked at length, indicat- 
ing Marussia with my eyes. 

"Unhappy?' Valek answered,"with a question, 
and then said, in the tone of a man perfectly con- 
vinced, ' That, you see, comes from the grey stone.' 

"Ye es,' repeated the little girl, as a feeble 
echo, ' it comes from the grey stone.' 

1 ' From what grey stone ? ' I inquired, not under- 

" ' The grey stone has sucked life out of her,' 
explained Valek thereupon, gazing on the sky as 
before. 'So says Tiburtsi ...... Tiburtsi knows 

' ' Ye es,' repeated the little girl, in a faint echo, 
' Tiburtsi knows everything.'" 

The italics are mine. Tiburtsi, a leading 
member of the "bad company," had been 
sent in his youth as attendant on a young 
nobleman at a Jesuit school, and had there 
absorbed the learning intended for his youth- 
ful master. He was wont to harangue his 
fellow-outlaws as patres conscript^ and be- 
wilder them with lengthy extracts from 
Cicero and Xenophon. 

Brixton Hill, S.W. 

The date of the production of 'Julius Caesar' 
can be fixed within narrow limits. Meres, 
in his 'Wit's Treasury' (entered on the 
Stationers' Registers, 7 Sept., 1598), does 
not mention it. On the other hand, a very 
definite allusion to the play (first pointed 
out by Halliwell-Phillipps) occurs in John 
Weever's "The Mirror of Martyrs, Or The 
life and death of that thrice valiant Capi- 
taine, and most godly Martyre Sir lohn Old 
castle Knight Lord Cobham. Printed by 
V. S. for William Wood. 1601." On sig. A 3 
verso is the following passage : 
The many-headed multitude were drawne 
By Brutus speach, that Caesar was ambitious, 
When eloquent Mark Antonie had showne 
His vertues, who but Brutus then was vicious ? 
Mans memorie, with new, forgets the old, 
One tale is good, vntill another 's told. 

The work is not entered on the Registers 
of the Stationers' Company, so it is impossible 
to say whether it appeared early or late in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. FEB. n, m 

1601. But in the dedication to William Covell 
an important passage, overlooked by editors, 
fixes tne date of composition : 

"This Poem (Right Wor:) which I present to 
vour learned view, some two yeares agoe was made 
fit for the Print ; that so long keeping the corner 
of my studie, wherein I vse to put waste paper : 
This first trew Oldcastle, thought himselfe iniurde, 
because he might not bee suffered to sustaine the 
second Martyrdome of the Presse." 

" This first trew Oldcastle " alludes to the 
stage caricatures. Shakespeare's 'Henry IVV 
Part I., is entered on the Stationers' Re- 
gisters, 25 Feb., 1598 ; Part II., 23 Aug., 1600. 
The evidence that the Falstaff part was 
originally Oldcastle is convincing. Two 

Blays on 'Sir John Oldcastle,' written by 
rayton, Munday, Hathway, and Wilson, 
and acted in October, 1599, are registered on 
11 Aug., 1600. The first, which has survived, 
is written to vindicate Oldcastle, and the pro- 
logue to it is an attack on Shakespeare. With 
the tone of this play Weever would be in com- 
plete sympathy, and the point of his remark 
in the dedication to ' The Mirror of Martyrs ' 
therefore is : "My poem was written in 1599, 
and as a sketch of the real Oldcastle precedes 
the play." It follows that ' Julius Csesar ' was 
written and acted in 1599. 

Some confirmation of this may be gained 
from the unhistorical " Et tu, Brute ! " which 
Shakespeare borrowed from ' The True Traged y 
of Richard, Duke of York,' 1595. The words 
occur, in a mocking context, in Jonson's 
'Every Man out of his Humour,' acted in 
1599. In Act V. sc. iv. Sir Puntarvolo 
beats Carlo Buffbne, calls for candle and 
sealing-wax, and seals up his lips ; Macilente, 
Carlo's supposed friend, instead of helping 
him, holds the candle for Puntarvolo. Carlo's 
last words before his mouth is closed are 
" Et tu, Brute ! " addressed to Macilente. The 
jest would have great point if ' Julius Csesar ' 
had immediately preceded, or was then on the 
stage. Jonson, who knew his Suetonius, 
would be aware that what the dying Csesar 
said was something different, and he may have 
been girding at the error. 

A less certain reference to ' Julius Csesar ' 
may be found in the same play (Act III. sc. i.) 
where Clove, who talks fustian, begins a speech, 
" Then coming to the pretty animal, as Reason 

long since is fled to animals, you know " 

The blank-verse line may be an echo of 
O judgment, thou art fled to brutish beasts, 
And men have lost their reason 

misquoted at a time when the play was not 
accessible in print. PERCY SIMPSON. 

following extract from the North Bucks Herald 

of 23 April, 1898, may interest some of your 
readers and may perhaps induce the vicars 
of other parishes to imitate the example of 
the vicar of Stewkley : 

"Age has had such a disastrous effect on some of 
the ancient parish registers that lovers of the his- 
tory of bygone days must rejoice at the efforts which 
are being made in many quarters and in many ways 
to preserve these interesting documents. The re- 
gisters of the parish of Stewkley, from 1545 to 1653, 
have recently been ' repaired ' and bound in vellum 
by the binder employed by Her Majesty's Public 
Record Office. When the Rev. R. Bruce Dickson 
became vicar of the parish, in 1890, the old registers 
were a mass of loose sheets, becoming more and 
more illegible from damp and decay. A young 
friend, while on a visit at the vicarage, carefully 
arranged them in order. Later on Mr. Charles 
Putnam, of Boston, U.S.A., called and asked to see 
' the records of the parish,' stating that the records 
in America bore witness that some of his ancestors 
had left Aston Abbotts not later than 1640, and 
that the family had enjoyed property in Stewkley 
as well as in that place, and that Nicholas, the 
father of the emigrant, John Putnam, had lived 
some time in Stewkley. After a diligent search the 
baptisms of Richard Putnam in 1590, and of William 
Putnam in 1592, were found. These were descended 
from William Puttenham, of Puttenham, near 
Tring, Herts, and of Penn, Bucks, who lived in the 
latter part of the fourteenth century, and belonged 
to a family of considerable importance, which was 
connected with the Hampdens, vVarbletons, Pigotts, 
and other old Buckinghamshire families. Though 
the family has almost died out in England, it has 
increased and multiplied in America, and is now 
one of the most numerous and best-known families 
there. In many professions and callings it has had 
many celebrated sons ; one of these is Mr. Eben 
Putnam, of Salem, Mass., U.S., the well-known 
compiler of genealogical records. On hearing about 
the entries in the Stewkley register, he applied to 
the vicar for a copy of the whole of the old registers. 
As these could only be read and copied by an ex- 
pert, the vicar, oil the recommendation of the 
Record Office, obtained the services of Mr. A. F. 
Heintz, of Clifford's Inn. As the expense of repair- 
ing, binding, and copying the register was between 
101 and 2QL , Mr. Putnam undertook to furnish some 

Srinted copies, the sale of which should help to de- 
ray the cost. Thus an ancient register of an im- 

tor future generations." 
Canonbury Mansions, N. 


"ARE WE BETTER?" (ROM. in. 9.) This is 
a rather remarkable instance in which the 
American Committee have preferred the old 
translation of the Authorized Version to that 
adopted by our Revisers, " Are we in worse 
case than they?" The latter rendering, in 
fact, takes the Trpoexo^Oa as passive, whereas 
both Alford and Wordsworth take it as 
middle, "Have we [the Jews] any preference?" 
or, "Are we in a better position [than the 
Gentiles] ? " which is far more in accordance 
with the scope of the argument than the 

>*s.iii. FEB. ii, mi NOTES AND QUERIES. 


o her. The Greek word occurs nowhere else 
ii the New Testament nor in the Septuagint. 
T ic Rheims version translates " Do we excel 
tl em ? " and it would certainly seem that the 
K evisers were ill advised in not leaving the 
t( xt of the Authorized Version as it stood, 
\\ hich is the same as that of Tyndale. There 
is no question here of Greek reading. 

W. T. LYNN. 
Blackheath. _ 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. _ 

A CHRISTMAS CAROL. Can any one men- 
tion analogous poems to the following 1 ? 
It occurs in a fifteenth-century hand in the 
margin of a Royal MS. (7 A. VIII.), and so far 
as I know is un printed : 

/"barn )>at is kyng born | to saue vs 
with Juwes }>at where forlorn ? 

Where ys J,at 

I god and man | )>at al hys reward wel 
V. can | in hys heuenly kyngdan ? 
Gret hope with pitee mornyng : ubi est and J>is was 

for nede. 
Certayn fayth hot and cler shynyng : qui natus est 

and >is was to spede. 

WorJ>y reuerence seruyce and worshypyng : Hex 
and J>is was for mede. 

The last half is similar in form to some Latin 
verses appended to the sermons contained in 
the (fourteenth-century) body of the MS., the 
texts of the sermons being similarly amplified 
or moralized on. J. P. GILSON. 

British Museum. 

ATKINSON = D'ARBON. I am anxious to 
find out the register of the marriage of 
Samuel Atkinson, gent., and Mary D'Arbon. 
She came from Richmond, Surrey. Can any 
one help me 1 E. A. S. 

Windermere Bank, Bowness. 

JOHN CALCOT was elected from Westminster 
School to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1592. I should be greatly obliged by any 
particulars concerning him. G. F. R. B. 

Norwich, England, and from the Boston 
Theatre, appeared at New York early in 
1806 as Octavian and Agnes in ' The Moun- 
taineers,' and played a few parts. Could 
these have been Charles Mayne Young 
and his wife 1 Mrs. Young Miss Grimani 
of the Haymarket who died at Manchester 
in July, 1806, most probably played Agnes 

during her engagements at Bath, the Hay- 
market, and Liverpool. Charles Mayne Young 
was certainly seen in London as Octavian. 
The Charles Young in America was also seen 
as Romeo, Charles Surface, &c. Known dates 
would just permit of C. M. Young and his 
wife being in America at the time stated. 
His visit is unmentioned by his son and 
biographer, who, however, knows little of 
Young's theatrical career. No reference to 
it is found in any theatrical work to which 
I have access. Could there have been in 
1805-6 two Charles Youngs, actors in England, 
playing the same line of parts, both married 
to young and pretty actresses 1 URBAN. 

ROGER WILLIAMS. Can any of your readers 
give me the name and publisher of the best 
and latest account of the life of Mr. Roger 
Williams, of Providence in New England ? 


old controversial pamphlet I have come across 
the folio wing : "The irrational proo-ceedings of 
the Presbytery of Aberdeen, against Sir Alex- 
ander Iruin (Irvine 1) of Drum, together with 
his just appeal from their tyrannical juris- 
diction to Col. Overton, the then only com- 
petent judge that was there." The date of 
the pamphlet is 1652. Can any of your readers 
furnish me with information that explains the 
above allusion ? JOHN WILLCOCK. 


"FURLYBIRS." On Don-side in Aberdeen- 
shire " Furlybirs " is a well-known name for 
the knave of trumps. A player will often be 
heard to say, " Furlybirs is latchin," when the 
knave of trumps is slow in coming out. Is 
the word used elsewhere than on Don-side 1 


" JUNAMES." In Coles's ' Latin Dictionary ' 
(1679) I find the following : " Junames, solum 
epdem semine hoc anno quo proximo con- 
situm." Cp. Kersey (1715): "Junames, land 
sown with the same Grain it was sown 
with the foregoing year." Where did Coles 
find the word junames ? Query, etymology ? 


WALTON. Can any one tell me the mean 
ing of this place-name 1 ? There are over 
fifty Waltons in England. Domesday records 
twenty-three Waletones, fourteen Waltones, 
nine Waltunes or Waltuns, thirteen Wale- 
cotes, three Wales, seven Walesbi, and one 
Walestun. The Anglo-Saxon forms of the 



name (very few) are Wealtun, Waltune, and 
Waltun. Wealh means a stranger, a foreigner, 
and some of its declensions are walk, walsch, 
^vale, wales, all of which were Anglo-Saxon 
personal names, and also prefixes to com- 
pound names. Anglo-Saxon weall (of which 
wall and wal are forms) means a wall, ram- 
part, or bank of earth or stone. Must we 
read Walton as " the town of the stranger," 
"the town of Wale," or "the walled (en- 
closed) town"? W. H. DUIGNAN. 

' FFLORES CORTOX.' In the will of Thomas 
Francke, who was my predecessor as vicar of 
Claines, dated A.D. 1598, I find the legacy to 
his friend Humphrey Cratford of " one book 
called mores Cortox." The last word is in- 
distinct, and I may possibly have read it 
wrongly. I shall be thankful to any of your 
readers who can tell me if they know of such 
a book and what is its subject. 


HOLLING DAY. Why is 5 January so 
called? I find it in the 'Purse Almanack' 
for 1898 (London, H. W. Crane & Co., 63, 
Goswell Road). The entry is wanting in the 
same almanac for 1899 ; but perhaps that 
may be because the last quarter of the moon 
at 3.22 A.M. needed a line of record. 


COL. STARCK. Who was Col. Starck, who 
commanded at the attack on Guadaloupe ? 

BOOK OF VERSES. Can any one give me 
the name of a little book of Cambridge 
verses, published ten or twelve years ago, con- 
taining, among other things, some parodies 
by A. C. Hilton, originally written, I think, 
for a university magazine called The Light 
Green? F. M. D. 

"KYLON." Can any correspondent en- 
lighten me about the origin of the white 
china dogs called " kylon "? I have been told 
that some were found amongst the debris of 
the round towers in Ireland. J. D. 

date was the church of St. Michael, Crooked 
Lane, E.G., demolished, and where were the 
bodies reinterred ? HALIFAX. 

THOMAS SHAKSPEARE. I have found in 
the register of marriages of the parish of 
Mere the following entry, which should be 
recorded : "A.D. 1625. Thomas Shakspeare 
and Jane Toupe y e ij of Maie." Can this be 
a member of the Warwickshire family ? No 
other entry of the name occurs. The family 

of Topp was resident in the neighbourhood, 
and I find the name spelt in various ways, viz., 
Top, Topp, and Toupe. THOS. H. BAKER. 

"CAMBUSCAN BOLD." In a pamphlet by 
the late William Morris, entitled ' Concerning 
Westminster Abbey,' issued by the Society 
for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, is the 
following passage : 

"Rewrite the lost trilogies of ^Eschylus, put a 
beginning and an end to the fight at Finsbury, 
finish the Squire's Tale for Chaucer, even if you 

Bring back him who left untold 
The story of Cambuscan bold, 

and if you can succeed in that, you may then 
' restore ' Westminster Abbey." 

What was the fight at Finsbury, and who was 
Cambuscan bom ? JOHN HEBB. 

Canonbury Mansions, N. 

[At Sarray in the land of Tartarye, 
Ther dwelt a king, that werreyed Russye, 
Thurgh which ther deyde many a doughty man. 
This noble king was cleped Cambinskan. 
These lines are the beginning of ' The Squieres Tale ' 
of Chaucer, into which Algarsyf, Cambalo, and 
Canacee are also introduced. See Chaucer, ed. 
Skeat, vol. iv. pp. 461 et seq. For further informa- 
tion consult Prof. Skeat's notes, vol. v. pp. 370 

WHITE MONEY. What was the disadvan- 
tage of silver money in Elizabethan times ? 

"I hope he had so much grace before he died to 
turn his white money into gold, a great ease to his 
executor. "Middleton's 'Phoenix, I. vi. 

"She's coming, sir, behind, will take white 
money." Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Philaster,' 
II. ii. 

M. C. L. 

New York. 

REV. WILLIAM MORE, M.A. He was rector 
of St. Thomas the Martyr, in the Cliffe, at 
Lewes, in Sussex, until in 1595 he exchanged 
with Robert Brinkloe to Preston-next- Wing- 
ham, 1595-1608. He was also a minor canon 
of Rochester. On 11 May, 1608, he exchanged 
to St. Laurence Pountney, London, with 
William Symonds. Any further information 
as to these three clerics would be very accept- 

Wingham, Kent. 

"CHAL": "ROMANY CHAL." How many 
meanings are there to the word chal in the 
Romany language ? Would a correct render- 
ing of Romany chal be Romany or gipsy lass 1 
Will some one learned in the English gipsy 
dialect kindly inform me ? S. J. A. I . 

'THE THREE SERGEANTS.' I believe that 
a military narrative was published some 
thirty years ago under the above title. I 
think that it covered a period from about 

9* s. in. FEB. 11, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


828 to 1857. I am anxious to discover the 
orrect title of the work, the names of 
tuthor and publisher, and the date of pub- 
ication. GUALTERULUS. 

SCOT ABROAD. Can any of your readers 
nform me where the proverb "Scotus est, 
piper in naso," is to be found, and also what 
.s the exact wording of it 1 The proverb is 
supposed to describe the readiness of " the 
Scot abroad " to resent any slight or suspected 
slight on himself or his country. I think I 
have come across it in one of Scott's novels, 
but cannot find the passage. 



SPELLING OF SURNAMES. Is there any rule 
as to which is the correct spelling of sur- 
names such as Marshall, Thurnall, &c.? I 
have sometimes seen them spelt Marshal, 
Thurnal, and have an idea that the doubling 
of the final I is a comparatively modern 
innovation, though it is seldom the one I 
spelling is met with now. W. B. H. 

Dr. R. Garnet, of the British Museum, sent 
me on 7 January the following query, which 
I venture to submit to the readers of 

" Did you ever hear of a Mr. Sainthill, who lived 
about 1660, and may have been the first Englishman 
to study Basque philologically ? There is a letter 
from him in the Sloane MSiS. in the British Museum, 
by which it would seem that he had compiled a 
Basque grammar, which apparently has not been 

I should be glad to learn any details about 
the life of this Mr. Sainthill, more especially 
such as would show that he visited Basque- 
land (Heuskal-herria), or what Basque books 
he used. Has his grammar survived any- 
where ? PALAMEDES. 

ISAAC JOHNSON. I should be greatly obliged 
to any reader of * N. & Q.' who would give 
me information relative to the place of 
birth and parentage of Isaac Johnson, an 
eminent Suffolk antiquarian artist. He was 
born about 1753 and died at Aid borough ^ in 
1835, after fifty years' residence and practice 
as a land surveyor at Woodbridge. His works 
were at one time eagerly sought after by 
such eminent antiquaries as Nichols, Gough, 
and Jermyn, who prized them for their 
fidelity. PERCY C. RUSHEN. 

12, Fentiman Road, S.W. 

WILLIAM BOYLE was elected from West- 
minster School to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1590. Any information relating to him 

which correspondents of ' N. & Q.' can give 
me will be useful. G. F. R. B. 


The gin within the juniper 
Began to make him merry. 

Hark ! Hark ! Hark ! 
'Tis a message of mercy free. 

E. W. D. 

Like Libya with all its lions up. 
Who is the author of the verse added to the 
National Anthem at the Queen's Jubilee ? 
Lord, let war's tempest cease, 
Fold the whole world in peace 
Under Thy wing, &c. 




(8 th S. x. 357, 438; xi. 69, 151, 510; xii. 55, 431; 
9 th S. ii. 99 ; iii. 15, 52.) 

MR. GEORGE MARSHALL'S extract from Mr. 
John Morley's ' Walpole,' at the last reference, 
to show that the form " Prime Minister " was 
much older than the synonym " Premier," had 
already been given by me (8 th S. xi. 69) in an 
examination of the evidence bearing upon 
the history of the term ; and Mr. Morley, I 
may note, expressed himself personally as 
much interested in the fresn light then 
thrown on the subject. Every additional 
investigation confirms the opinion that, while 
both " Prime Minister " and " Premier Minis- 
ter " were earliest applied to Harley, and 
were expressly drawn from French usage, 
"Prime Minister" was first generally given 
as an official title to Walpole and " Premier " 
to the younger Pitt. It is of special interest 
in this connexion to note that Sir John Van- 
brugh, architect and dramatist, whose use of 
"First Minister" in comedies of 1697 and 
1705 I have mentioned (ante, p. 15), wrote 
on 26 Nov., 1723, to Lord Carlisle, upon the 
death of the French Regent : 

" The Duke of Bourbon was designed by the late 
L>uke of Orleans to be prime minister in his room 
very soon, the fatigue being too much for him; so 
he was immediately declared upon this account." 
' Historical MSS. Commission Fifteenth Report,' 
Appendix, pt. vi. p. 46. 

But on 30 Dec., 1727, Lady E. Lechmere wrote 
to the same peer from " Twitneham " that 
"our Premier, who is now hunting a hind in the 
neighbourhood, is in as great favour with the King 
as with the Queen, and in all appearance will con- 
tinue so." Ibid., p. 53. 

While almost exactly two years later Lady 
Mary Howard told her father of the quarrel 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. FEB. 11/99. 

between Lord Townshend and Sir Rober 
Walpole, with the comment : 

"John Malcoat's place in my opinion is a much 
happier situation in life than a first Minister's." 
Ibid., p. 62. 

We thus have it established that, although 
the usage of any such special term was 
tentative and varying, "Premier" was ap 
plied to Walpole, and as early as 1727 ; but it 
took far longer than "Prime Minister" to 
come into common use. Before, however, 
Burns had spoken of Pitt as " yon Premier 
Youth," George Selwyn had written, on 
25 November, 1775, to another Lord Carlisle 
than the one previously mentioned, a note 
saying : 

"There is certainly no immediate prospect of a 

change at home I think that there is more reason 

to apprehend a disunion at home from the Premier 
and the new Secretary [Lord North and Viscount 
Weymouth] than from any other circumstances 
whatsoever." Ibid., p. 749. 

And on 13 March, 1782, Selwyn further wrote 
to the peer during the keen political crisis 
which ended in the fall of Lord North : 

" Young Pitt will not be subordinate ; he is not 
so in his own society. He is at the head of a dozen 
young people, and it is a corps separate from that of 
Charles's [Fox] ; so there is another premier at the 
starting post, who, as yet, has never been shaved." 
Ibid., p. 593. 

This forecast was remarkably fulfilled ; but 
what is even more interesting is that its 
fulfilment ultimately secured a definition of 
the position of Prime Minister, assented to by 
two of the leading statesmen of the day, and 
worthy of being placed upon special record. 
After the bitter dispute between Pitt as 
Premier and Lord Fitzwilliam as Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, there was drawn up in 
March, 1795, an "explanation settled between 
Mr. Grattan and Mr. Burke, coming from 
Lord F[itz william] and the Chancellor " (Lord 
Loughborough) ; and this document thus 
commenced : 

"They stated that Lord F.'s view was: 'To 
support in Ireland the English Government, con- 
sidering Mr. Pitt as the Prime Minister, without 
whom no material measure as to things or persons is 
to be concerted or done not setting up a Govern- 
ment of Departments, but that each department 
acting under him should meet with its due and 
honourable support from him." Ibid., p. 722. 

This definition of the supreme position of 
what Lord Carlisle, with the memorandum 
then in his possession, described as "the 
King's Prime Minister" (ibid., p. 725), is of 
constitutional value; and its spirit has cer- 
tainly been accepted by most Premiers since 

101, 158, 277, 429; iii. 11). In his first com- 
munication on this question MR. BADDELEY 
considers that " the most natural conclusion " 
as to the use of the little building at Silchester 
is " that it was simply the Court of Justice." 
I have pointed out in reply that the Courts of 
Justice already existed in the great basilica 
hard by, with its apsidal tribunes at either 
end, and probably in the adjoining apsidal 
chambers in the forum. I have also asked 
MR. BADDELEY to cite an example of a court 
of justice on as small a scale as the building 
under notice ; but this he admits he cannot 

MR. BADDELEY now comes to a different 
conclusion from the former "most natural" 
one as to the use of the building at Calleva, 
and says, " It may have been a sort of * secre- 
tarium senatus,' a municipal residence of some 
kind, a little guild-hall, a * schola,' or a mili- 
tary tribunal, or possibly a pagan temple 
dedicated to some popular deity." 

This choice of buildings is such a wide 
departure from " the Court of Justice " that I 
must ask MR. BADDELEY to be so good as to 
refer me to any plan of a residence or of a 
pagan temple similar to that of the Silchester 
building, and on the same small scale. 

MR. BADDELEY says, "There were many 
temples in Calleva." I know of but three. 
He also speaks of the city having had "a 
large pagan population." This is begging 
the question. So far as our excavations have 
proceeded, they have not yielded traces of a 
iarge population, whether pagan or Christian. 

We have as yet found only one building 
which we think is a church, but it is possible 
:hat the circular temple in Insula VII. may 
lave been converted into a church. Who can 

Concerning the building under discussion, 
t may be well to recall its size and plan. It 
stood east and west, and consisted of a nave 
with western apse 29 J feet long and 10 feet 
wide, north and south aisles only 5 feet wide, 
terminating westwards in somewhat wider 
quasi-transepts, and an external narthex or 
porch, 24| feet long and 6| feet deep, covering 
;he east end. 

MR. BADDELEY now admits " it is not that 

t fails to conform to the ground plan of a 

ihurch of the fourth or fifth century," but he 

igain proceeds to beg the question, on the 

plea that the church plan and that of "a 

mgan basilica-formed building" are often 

undistinguishable. Here, again, I fear I must 

ask him to enlighten me by citing plans for 


As to the search for Christian emblems 

. m. FEB. ii, 



FR. BADDELEY may be interested to know thai 
ot only was the whole of the superincumbenl 
arth carefully removed from the entire sur 
ice of the church and its surroundings, on 
he chance of finding such, but the catchpil 
f the labrum and the well to the west oi 
he building were cleared out with the same 
bject. The absence, however, of such em- 
Jems and of architectural remains is not 
urprising, owing to the extensive and some- 
imes complete clearance of building material 
hich is characteristic of the place. 
With regard to the possible occurrence of 
>ricks stamped with crosses or anchors, doe 
V!R. BADDELEY wish us to believe that the 
Ionian brickmakers supplied a specially 
stamped article for the erection of sacred 
>uildings ; and does he think that Christian 
mblems used in the decoration of a church 
were so numerous as to be easily findable 1 

Did MR. BADDELEY realize the smallness of 
;he building, I doubt if he would bid me look 
; or a crypt. W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE. 

_ PETER SCHLEMIHL (9 th S. ii. 346). I ques- 
tion whether Webster's definition of this 
mysterious word as " a poor, silly, and unfor- 
tunate fellow" covers the whole ground. At 
least, such are not the exclusive usages to 
which it is put in Jewish households. A man 
may possess more than ordinary ability, have 
talents beyond the common run, yet, in spite 
of these, be a "Schlemeel" in the eyes of 
all his intimates. In fact, this is a common 
expression in daily use : " Isaac or Jacob 
is a very clever fellow, no doubt, but he 
is a great Schlemeel." Whenever a Jew is 
more or less of an eccentric character- 
perhaps bashful in company, or not a ladies' 
man, or something of a bookworm or a recluse 
his friends vote him a "Schlemeel." It 
is mostly assigned to men who want tact 
and the art of savoir-faire rattling good 
fellows, albeit incapable of bringing any 
enterprise, whether of commerce or of 
gallantry, to a successful issue. In short, any 
man of parts who disappoints his friends' 
expectations and his own is roundly dubbed, 
half jestingly, half contemptuously, a " Schle- 

I can only timidly submit a fantastic 
explanation of the genesis of "Schlemeel." 
To an orthodox Jew of the old school any 
question involving doubt of the existence 
of God would be repulsive; the questioner 
a declasse, hw when expanded becomes 

?!? HP ?%&, " one who inquires about the 
nature of God" in a carping spirit, and in 
a community of Deists worthy of hatred and 

contempt. Time would, of course, give a 
broader significance to the special usage I 
have ventured to suggest, and likewise soften 
its original asperity. M. L. BRESLAR. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

EATING OF SEALS (9 th S. i. 305 ; ii. 313, 397, 
533). W. B. H., writing of the * Merry Wives 
of Windsor,' quotes as follows : 

" This part of Falstaff is said to have been written 
originally under the name of Oldcastle ; some of 
that family then remaining, the queen was pleased 
to command him (Shakespear) to alter it ; upon 
which he made use of Falstaff." 

There is not a scrap of evidence to support 
this idle tale of N. Rowe, published in 1709. 
On thecontrary, the folio wing facts sufficiently 
reveal its utter improbability. In 1598 ap- 
peared (without author's name) the first part 
of ' Henry IV.' at a time when that grand old 
Puritan Sir John Oldcastle was unpopular 
with the gilded butterflies of Elizabeth's 
Court, who professed in the character of 
Falstaff to recognize a satire on Oldcastle. 
In the second edition (published with Shake- 
speare's name), in the preface, he corrects 
this libellous report in these words : " Old- 
castle died a martyr, and this is not the man." 
Not till 1602 appeared the comedy, and 
Elizabeth died 24 March, 1603. Is it con- 
ceivable that Shakespeare, having gone out 
of his way to correct a false report in 1598, 
would, four years afterwards, have eaten his 
own words, and published in ridicule the 
name of a man he regarded as a hero and 
martyr? J. H. MITCHINER, F.R.A.S. 

LOST REGISTER (9 th S. ii. 529). Two portions 
of the church registers of Aldeburgh, Suffolk, 
have been missing for many years. By the 
'Parish Register Abstract,' 1831, the then 
existing registers commenced with marriages 
in 1691 (in lieu of 1538) and ended in 1782. 
The baptisms and burials dated from 1691 
and terminated in 1786, after which time no 
register could be found. By this official 
report it would appear that the registers for 
nearly two hundred years are missing, out of 
wo hundred and ninety- three. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The book had been lost at some unspecified 
ime before the Parliamentary Return of 
1830-3. O. W. TANCOCK. 

Little Waltham. 

293). The word written by myself (from 
memory) in this query "Quenhyvar" should, 
[ find from subsequent reference to the ' My- 
:rian Archaeology,' have been written " Gwen- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. m. FEB. n, 

hwyfar." The triad as given by that invalu- 
able historical collection is as follows : 

"Tair Gwragedd Arthur, sef oeddent, ei Dair 
Prif Riain, nid amgen Gwenhwyfar ferch Gwythyr 
fab Greidiawl ; a Gwenhwyfar ferch Gawrwyd Ceint ; 
a Gwenhwyfar ferch Ogyfran Gawr." Triad 109 of 
' Trioedd Ynys Prydain 3 (p. 410). 

I may venture (subject to correction from 
your learned Welsh readers) to translate this 
triad as follows : 

"Arthur had to wife (in succession) these three 
ladies, and none other ; that is to say, the Empress 
or Supreme Queen (Gwenhwyfar) daughter of Gwy- 
thyr fab Greidiawl ; the Empress or Supreme Queen 
(Gwenhwyfar) daughter of Gawrwyd Ceint (gwent) ; 
and the Empress or Supreme Queen (Gwenhwyfar) 
daughter of Ogyfran the Great." 
It will be noticed that I have in each case 
translated the word "Gwenhwyfar" as "Em- 
press or Supreme Queen." My reasons for 
doing so are : 

1. Arthur was Emperor or Supreme King 
of the British confederation of sovereign 
states ; and it is unreasonable to suppose 
that the wife of the Emperor would not have 
a distinctive title or would have the same 
title as the wife of a petty provincial king. 

2. The first syllable, "Gwen," is, I take it, 
from the Greek yw-rj or the Sanskrit jana, 
from which also come the High German and 
Gothic Quena, Queins, Quens, Quon, Quen. The 
second syllable, "hwyfar," I might (subject to 
the correction of your Welsh readers) write in 
English "hooffer," the w in Welsh being a 
vowel and having the power of oo in " soon," 
the y in some words being pronounced like i 
in "third," in others like o in "honey," and 
again in others as the u in "mud," "must." 
"Hwyfar" would, I think, come from the 
same root and derivation as our English 
" upper," the German ober and hober, and, I 
would submit, in the triad is used in a similar 
manner to the word Beher in Beherrscherin, 
which (from beherrscken, " to rule ") is a Ger- 
man word for "Empress," Kaiserin, the 
feminine form of Kaiser or Caesar, being also 
used in that meaning, although improperly, 
for it really means the female Caesar, and is 
not, I think, properly a term of honour, for I 
am sure that no one who has an intimate 
knowledge of the old Caesars would be over- 
anxious to be called by their name. 

One of these three empresses or "gwen- 
hwyfars" was buried with Arthur in the 
most sacred place of Britain the churchyard 
of Glastonbury Abbey. From this grave her 
remains, with those of Arthur, were in medi- 
aeval times removed to a magnificent shrine 
in the principal church (that of St. Mary) in 
Glastonbury Abbey. Here they remained 
undisturbed until the time of the so-called 

Reformation. But where are these relics now 1 
Possibly some of the readers of ' N. & O.' may 
be able to answer this query. I can hardly 
think that King Henry VIII., whatever his 
feeling may have been towards what I, Pro- 
testant as I am, may be excused for regard- 
ing as the truly precious relics of our saints 
and martyrs, could have wished the remains 
of Arthur and of one of his empresses to have 
been treated with neglect or disrespect. 

King Henry VIII. was a Tudor, and proud 
of his British ancestry. The Order of the 
Garter, of which he was the head, was based 
upon the Institutions of the Round Table of 
Arthur. The Honourable Artillery Company 
had a similar origin. We know also (from 
the Rolls series) that a parchment roll con- 
taining what purported to be a copy of the 
inscription upon the coffin of Arthur was 
produced in King Henry VIII.'s time, by 
King Henry's order, to the ambassador of the 
Emperor Charles V., who, referring to the 
imperial titles of Arthur therein contained, 
which included Russia and Dacia, mockingly 
said : " I wonder ' Asise Imperator ' was not 
added "a somewhat prophetic jest when we 
consider that Arthur's successor on the throne 
of Britain, her present Majesty, now happily 
reigning, bears the proud title of Empress 
of India, whilst her granddaughter is Em- 
press of Russia and her grandson German 

It is known that some of the relics even of 
our greater saints and martyrs were saved 
from the spoiler's hand by the loving and 
courageous care of their monastic guardians. 
The relics of our proto-martyr, St. Alban, 
were thus removed, in time, to Rome, and 
thence to their present resting-place in the 
stately tomb of the martyr at Cologne. 


23, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. 

MR. HALLETT should examine the account 
of Arthur, King of Britain, in Enderbie's 
' Cambria Triumphans'(Lond., 1661, rep. 1810). 
Of Lucius he says : " Also he overcame the 
Romans in the country about Paris, with 
their captain Lucius," &c. The dates given 
seem to be authentic, and it was evidently 
the intention of the author to ignore the 
mythical accounts related of King Arthur, 
and only give information from (what he 
considers) reliable writers. 


As a strong believer in the historical exist- 
ence of Arthur, Pendragon or Over-king of 
Britain, I am glad to find ME. HALLETT sup- 
porting my views. I think, however, that he 
will find it very difficult to identify the Lucius 

s. m. FEB. 11, 



Tiberius of Geoffrey of Monmouth except with 
the " Mrs. Harris " of another writer. The 
date of his death (circa 540) is too late for 
Olovis and too early for Clothaire I., neither 
of whom died in battle. The fifteen kings 
who followed in his train had certainly no 
3xistence except in the imagination of Geof- 
frey, and their leader may, with great pro- 
bility, be traced to the same source. 

Royal Avenue, S.W. 

ALFREY MICKEFER (9 th S. ii. 249, 318). Those 
Avho subscribed to the publishing of 'The 
Registers of Wandsworth' received a very 
interesting paper, entitled 'Descendants of 
Russian Czars in Wandsworth,' being an 
article reprinted from the South- Western Star 
of 23 Nov., 1889. Quoting from the ' Biographia 
Britannica' and Craik's 'Pursuit of Know- 
ledge ' (Bohn's ed., p. 283), the writer of that 
article states that soon after 1598 Mikepher 
or Nicephorus Alphery and his two brothers, 
of the ancient royal family of Russia, were 
sent to England and placed with Mr. Joseph 
Bidell, a merchant, by whom they were sent 
to Oxford University, where the two brothers 
died of small-pox. Nicephorus, the survivor, 
took orders, and was appointed in 1618 to the 
living of Wooley in Huntingdonshire. He 
twice refused an invitation to return to Russia 
as a claimant to the throne, was deprived 
during the Commonwealth, but regained his 
living at the Restoration. At the age of eighty 
he resigned, and died shortly after at his eldest 
son's house at Hammersmith. In his will, 
dated 15 April and proved P.C.C. 10 Nov., 
1668 (134 Hene), he names his son James, son 
Steven's wife, and son Mickepher. At Wooley 
are recorded the baptisms of six of his chil- 
dren, viz. : 1619, 7 Oct., Mickepher ; 1622, 
21 July, Joanna ; 1625, 6 Jan., Maria ; 1628, 
27 Dec., John ; 1630, a son ; 1635, a son ; also 
the marriage of a son (Mickepher) with Anna, 
daughter of Thomas Poulton, 27 Feb., 1639 ; 
the burial of Joanna, 23 Jan., 1640 ; and the 
baptism of Robert, son of Robert, 1 Aug., 
1641. In the Registry of the Vicar-General 
of the Archbishop of Canterbury is an allega- 
tion for a marriage licence : 

They were accordingly married there on 5 

At Wandsworth Steven Alfery was married 
to Anne Childe 12 Feb., 1656/7, and their 
children were : Anna, baptized ult. Feb., 
1657/8; Francis, baptized 8 Jan., 1659/60, 

buried 13 Aug., 1660 ; Mitchafer, baptized 18 
Aug., 1661 ; Stephen, baptized 27 Dec., 1663, 
buried 4 April, 1665 ; Mary, baptized 20 Dec., 
1665, buried 29 July, 1667. 

1665/6. Jan. 14. Steven Alfrey, a smith, buried. 

1668. May 3. Thomas Barren and Anne Allfrey. 

1675. May 2. Rob*, s. of Rich d Alfery, buried. 

In Foster's ' Alumni Oxonienses ' there is 
no mention of an Alphery. It would be inter- 
esting to see the proofs of this romantic story, 
which reminds one of that concerning the 
Palseologus family of Constantinople. 

V. L. O. 

Sunninghill. ' 

COLUMBARIA : DOVECOTES (9 th S. ii. 348). 
XYLOGRAPHER will find a considerable amount 
of information in a paper by Chancellor Fer- 
guson in the Transactions of the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeo- 
logical Society, vol. ix. pp. 412-34. 


70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

WANSTEAD HOUSE (9 th S. ii. 489). Lysons 
mentions a very small print, published by 
Stent in 1649, of the old manor house at 
Wanstead, where Leicester entertained Queen 
Elizabeth in May, 1578. It is stated in 'The 
Beauties of England and Wales,' 1813, that 
in the Duchess of Portland's dressing-room at 
Welbeck there was a full-length portrait of 
Queen Elizabeth on horseback, by Lucas de 
Heere, in the background a view of the old 
mansion at Wanstead. Another mansion 
one of the most magnificent in England was 
built near the site of the old one in 1715, and 
demolished in 1823. Of both it may be said 
" Perierunt etiam ruinse." 


Belle Vue, Bengeo. 

This once magnificent house was taken 
down and the materials sold by auction in 
1822. See Walford's ' Greater London,' vol. ii., 
where an engraving (p. 475) and account of it 
are given. Its sad end came about through 
the extravagance of the Hon. Wm. Pole- 
Wellesley (nephew of the Duke of Welling- 
ton), afterwards Earl of Mornington, who 
became possessor of the property by his 

w. T. r 



In May, 1578, the Earl of Leicester enter- 
tained Queen Elizabeth for several days at 
Wanstead House, on her " progress " through 
Essex and Suffolk to Norwich. The old 
house was pulled down, and a new one 
erected in 1715 which again was demolished 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. FEB. n, '99 

in 1822. The estate, after lying waste for 
many years, was purchased by the Cor- 
poration of London, and conveyed to the 
Epping Forest Committee in trust for the 
public. The grounds have been since laid out 
as a park, which was publicly inaugurated 
in August, 1882. For a detailed account of 
the place, and an illustration, see 'Greater 
London,' by Edward Walford. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

NAMES : SAXON AND NORMAN (9 th S. iii. 1). 
CANON TAYLOR'S paper on this subject is both 
important and interesting. The history of 
the growth and decay of Christian names in 
this country has not, as yet, received the 
attention it deserves. I may remark that 
Sarah, or rather the Vulgate form Sara, was 
not unknown in pre-Reformation days. It 
occurs three times in Mr. J. H. Jeayes's 
'Catalogue of Charters at Berkeley Castle.' 
We have Sara, wife of Gilbert fil Radulfi 
de Baggepath, circa 1250. In the reign of 
Henry III. Ralph Jowas granted to Sara de 
Blokessam half a virgate of land in Niuneton, 
that is South Newington, in Oxfordshire ; and 
in a deed dated 11 Richard II. the names 
occur of a William Palmer, of Oxford, and 
Sara his wife (pp. 102, 120, 179). I know of 
but two instances of the name Sarai being 
used. A remote cousin of my own was bap- 
tized thus at Scotter in 1577. The following 
is the entry in the register : " Sarai Peacock, 
the daughter of Richard, thethirde of Marche." 
A woman of Lincolnshire birth and of peasant 
family, who, if she be now alive, is about fifty 
years of age. bears, I am told, the Christian 
name Sarai. 

Agnes, it seems, has become an unpopular 
name. Here we have a prejudice against it, 
because it is believed that those who bear it 
will go mad. Whether this is a merely local 
belief, or whether it be a widely spread super- 
stition, I have no means of knowing ; if the 
latter, it accounts for the name being rejected ; 
but then how did the belief arise ? It would 
seem to be of comparatively modern date. 

Mr. Jeayes's 'Catalogue' contains a few 
other names of which it may be well to make 
a note : Albert (twice), Anketil (three times), 
Anselm, Canutus, Elias and Helias (many 
times), Harketil, Ignacius, Joseph, Moyses, 
Sabina, Walkelin. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

"RANDAN" (9 th S. ii. 507). It is worth 
noting that this was the name of a "boon 
companion " much earlier than the Madame 
de Randan in Monvel's comedy. Randan 
appears more than once in Brantdme's 'Dames 

Galantes,' and always in connexion with 
some adventure for which "spree" would be 
a mild ter^n. Thus, in Discours II., "J'ay 
ouy faire ce conte a feu M. de Randan, qu'une 
fois estants de bon compagnons a la Cour 
ensemble, comme M. de Nemours, M. le vidame 
de Chartres," &c. It is comforting to think 
that De Bourdeille "heard" most of his 
scandal. It may have been untrue. 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

&nile Souvestre, 'Les Derniers Bretons,' 
vol. i. part i. chap. iii. 1, p. 69, has : 

" J'e"tais entre" an Chateau de la Roche, et j'avais 
cherche' la place ou le seigneur de Rh6 trouva lebon 
constable du Guescliu depe$ant un verrat et 
faisant portions pour les voisins." 

At Chateauneuf, Pouilly-en-Auxois, Cote 
d'Or, I, as a child, in the early fifties, partook 
of such neighbourly " portions," consisting 
of grillades = le3,n broiling- pieces, cut, I think, 
from the chine ; and of rich home-made 
black-puddings. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

WORDSWORTH AND SCOTT (9 th S. ii. 489). 
" A hillock of moss, such as the poet of Gras- 
mere has described " (' Heart of Midlothian,' 
chap. xxx.). The allusion is apparently to 
the fourth verse of Wordsworth's poem ' The 
Thorn,' which runs thus : 

And close beside this aged thorn 

There is a fresh and lovely sight, 
A beauteous heap, a hill of moss, 

Just half a foot in height. 
All lovely colours there you see, 

All colours that were ever seen ; 
And mossy network too is there, 
As if by hand of lady fair 

The work had woven been ; 
And cups, the darlings of the eye, 
So deep is their vermilion dye. 


ii. 468 ; iii. 17). I have always understood, 
with MR. PICKFORD, that the sword of Mon- 
sieur of Calais decapitated Anne Boleyn. On 
the other hand, Ainsworth, in his ' Tower of 
London,' represents the executioner singing, 
while grinding his axe : 

Queen Anne Boleyn laid her head on the block, 

Quietly waiting the fatal shock ; 

The axe, it severed it right in twain 

So quick and so true that she felt no pain. 

I quote from memory. GEORGE ANGUS. 
St. Andrews, N.B. 

"KINGS!" (9 th S. iii. 28.) This word is 
used here in a protective sense, and absolves 
a boy from pains and penalties in a game 
until such time as he shouts " No kings ! " It 

5. in. FEB. 11, '99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


given by both Miss Baker and Stern berg 
ithout any explanation as to its meaning, 
always imagined that it indicated kings' 
rivileges, and that its use might have 
riginated at the time of the great Civil War. 
,ike C. C. B., I have never seen it explained, 
nd shall look forward with interest to its 
iucidation. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

This has been mentioned in ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd 
S. v. 456. A king is not subject to the usual 
aws ; so the " kings " in chess and draughts. 
Vhen a schoolboy cries " Kings ! " the rules of 
he game are temporarily suspended with 
espect to him. W. C. B. 

24). In the parish registers of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne the following occupations occur : 
Singing-man, 1578 ; sword slipper, 1579 ; 
vaite, 1581 ; grate maker, 1582 ; the towne's 
looll, 1589; armorer, 1592; parchment maker, 
595 ; swordbearer, 1596 ; sergeante at the 
mace, 1597; one of the Customers, 1606; 
a poore old beagell, 1607; gracewife, 1627; 
tobacco seller, 1633 ; pursuivant, 1634 ; ower- 
man, 1636 ; auricient, 1644 ; seller of hot 
waters, 1644 ; osteman, 1647; musitioner, 
1654 ; broad glass maker, 1656 ; water 
sargint, 1664 ; translator, 1667 ; limner, 1670 ; 
smoaker, 1671 ; boddies maker, 1683. 


TRETHOWAN (9 th S. iii. 28). Cornish and 
Welsh place-names which commence with 
" Tre," a homestead, nine times out of ten 
join to that particle the name of a person, 
and not a common noun or an adjective. I 
do not think that "thowan" can be satis- 
factorily explained except as a personal name. 
" Trethowan " is certainly Cornish, if genuine. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

THE CAPTIVE STAG (9 th S. iii. 49). I ought 
to have remembered that 'The Tame [not 
Captive] Stag' is an adaptation of one of 
Gay's fables, and appears in * The First Book 
of Poetry for the Use of Schools,' by W. F. 
Mylius, a book famous in connexion with 
Charles and Mary Lamb. When I wrote, the 
origin had slipped from my memory. I apo- 
logize to the Editor of 'N. & Q.' and its readers. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

ROYAL NAVAL CLUB (9 th S. ii. 327, 411 ; iii. 
36). Since writing to MR. JULIAN MARSHALL 
on this subject I have looked up the where- 
abouts of the house formerly used by this 
club, and find that, as I thought, it was 

4, Grafton Street, which had previously 
belonged to the Empire Club. The Royal 
Naval Club was started in 1886, and was 
closed in the early part of 1891. 


HENRY ALKEN (9 th S. iii. 67). In addition 
to the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' suggested by the 
Editor, E. D. C. might refer to 'N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. 
xi. 516 ; xii. 155. I possess the titles of five 
works on sporting subjects published between 
1824 and 1849, illustrated either by Henry 
Alken, sen., or his eldest son, who bore the 
same name. They are at the service of your 
correspondent should he require them. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

" PIP IN THE WEBE " (9 th S. iii. 49). There 
was an affection of the eye known as " the 
pin and the web," for which see Halliwell, 
under ' Pin.' There is much about it in 
Thomas de Gray's ' Compleat Horseman,' 
1639, pp. 168-72. W. C. B. 

THE SISTER CHURCHES (9 th S. iii. 48). A 
ship sailing from Newcastle to the coast of 
Norfolk would hardly get to Reculver. The 
most likely place is Withernsea, in Holder- 
ness, a little above Spurn, where wrecks are 
still, alas ! not unusual. The two churches of 
Withernsea and Owthorne were known as 
the "sister churches," but by the encroach- 
ment of the sea the latter was swallowed up 
long ago (see Poulson's ' Holderness.') At 
several places on this coast the picture drawn 
by Swinburne in his poem on 'Dunwich ' was 
literally true : corpse and coffin, 
Spurned and scourged of wind and sea like slaves, 

Shrink and sink into the waste of waves. 

Tombs, with bare white piteous bones protruded, 
Shroudless, down the loose collapsing banks, 

Crumble, from their constant place detruded, 
That the sea devours and gives not thanks. 

Graves where hope and prayer and sorrow brooded 
Gape and slide and perish, ranks on ranks. 

Rows on rows and line by line they crumble. 

Here, where Time brings pasture to the sea. 

W. C. B. 

The church at Reculvers forms the subject 
of more than one article in * N. & Q.' See 
4 th S. ii. ; 7 th S. iii., iv. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

" THE POLICY OF PIN-PRICKS " (9 th S. iii. 46). 
This English form seems poor and weak, 
losing all the charm of its original. The 
expression and its application, however, seem 


NOTES AND QUERIES. o* s. in. FEB. n, '99. 

to have been fairly common in France before 
November, 1898, the date given by MR. 
HOPE. I have before me a , book of very 
"sketchy" essays, 'Coups d'Epingle' (Paris, 
1886), the airy, mocking character of which 
exactly answers to their title. When England 
is mentioned, the tone, always at concert 
pitch, becomes needlessly " screamy," though 
here and there in ' Chaste Albion,' for in- 
stance ' the main point is well put, and, it 
might be added, well deserved. 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

348, 416 ; iii. 58). Eight representations of 
tickets of admission to the Koyal Gardens of 
Vauxhall will be found in Robert Wilkinson's 
'Londina Illustrata,' vol. i., 1819. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

ii. 508 ; iii. 56). In reference to the above 
note, which I had overlooked, Car is the Cor- 
nish caer, castle, and keet Cornish for cat. 
The Carlyons have a castle as part of their 
arms, and the Keets three cats. Neither the 
castle nor the cat, however, has any place in 
the arms granted to Carkike in 1530. 
Nathaniel Carkeet, of Truro, married Edith 
Andrew (not Andrews) on 25 August, 1760. I 
have several notes of the ancestors of this 
Nathaniel, which I shall be pleased to place 
at the disposal of the KEY. DR. GIBBINS if he 
will communicate with me. RITA Fox. 

64, Watling Street, E.G. 

210, 356, 418 ; ii. 89). I am told that in the 
new buildings at King's College, Cambridge, 
some rooms that ought to have been served 
by one staircase were, by an oversight, 
planned without any, until the neglectful 
architect pierced an outer wall and con- 
structed a covered ascent to supply the 
omission. The story looks to me like an 
invention to account for what is, in this 
country, an unusual excrescence on the 
exterior of a house. ST. SWITHIN. 

A SAYING OF JOHN BRIGHT (9 th S. iii. 49). 
Speech delivered at Rochdale for the purpose 
of passing a resolution of thanks to the mer- 
chants of New York for their generous con- 
tributions to the relief of the suffering 
population of the cotton districts, 3 Feb., 
1863. The following is the passage : 

"The other day a member of the present 

Government he is not a statesman, he is the son 
of a great statesman, and occupies the position of 
Secretary for Ireland he dared to say to an English 

audience that he wished the Republic to be divided 
and that the South should become an independent 
State. If that island which I suppose in punish- 
ment for some of its offences has been committed 
to his care, if that island were to attempt to secede, 
not to set up a slave kingdom, but a kingdom more 
free than it has ever yet been, the Government of 
which he is a member would sack its cities and 
drench its soil with blood before they would allow 
such a kingdom to be established." 

The allusion is to Sir Robert Peel, who was 
then Irish Secretary. 


ORIEL = HALL ROYAL (9 th S. i. 288, 436). 
In a review of Mr. T. F. Henderson's ' Scotch 
Vernacular Literature,' by Mr. Andrew Lang, 
in the Daily News of 4 January, I find the 
following passage, which appears to relate to 
this reference : 

" Even very old Scots is easy to handle, as 

Leavte to luff is gretumly 

in Barbour's 'Bruce.' 'The reader will gradually 
become reconciled by practice,' as Mr. Henderson 
says, and will luff old Scottish literature gretumly. 
Alas ! the reader is apt to shy away from it ; he is not 
' curyws in his style,' as Wyntoun says of Huchown 
of the Awle Ryale, whatever the Awle Ryale may 
have been, a point in which uncertainty clouds the 
inquirer's view." 

Who was Huchown of the Awle Ryale ? 

Canonbury Mansions, N. 

ROUNDS OR RUNGS (9 th S. ii. 386, 430, 492, 
530; iii. 75). I do not think my remarks 
have been misleading, or that they have 
misled any one but your correspondent 
who complains. I repeat that rung as com- 
pared with round is the older word.* English 
did not begin in A.D. 1600 ; neither is rung in 
any sense a "corruption," seeing that the 
cognate form occurs in Gothic. There were 
rounds to ladders before 1600, and the whole 
question turns upon the inquiry as to what 
they were called in the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries. To speak of the word 
ronges as being obsolete is obviously absurd. 
The spelling with on corresponds to the 
modern un, as I have often explained. The 
use of on for un is common enough still, as 
in son, money, monk, monkey, honey, &c. ; so 
that the M.E. rong, so far from being obso- 
lete, is admittedly in common use still by 
extremely vulgar persons, such as myself. 
The notion that in Chaucer's day English was 
" unformed " is new to me. At any rate, the 
spelling was phonetic and intelligible, which 
is more than can be said of the modern 
" formed " language. 

The statement that I had "never considered 

* In fact round is merely borrowed from French. 

9 th S. III. FEB. 11, 3 99.] 



he point before beyond the etymology" i 
lot, as a matter of fact, true. Perhaps I maj 
>e allowed to say that I have studied English 
iterature as well as the English language fo: 
prty years, and am quite as observant o: 
iterary usage as of spellings. Everything 
hat is English is a perpetual delight to me 
t is just such uncalled-for assertions that are 
-uperfluous and displeasing. 

Of course it is very difficult to collecl 
results for the Middle-English period. We 
cannot then resort to the help of dictionaries 
jind other such helps. I know of only two, 
viz., the ' Promptorium Parvulorum ' (1440] 
and the ' Catholicon Anglicum ' (1483). Botli 
are so imperfect that the absence of the word 
from them might be expected. Nevertheless 
it occurs in the latter, ed. Herrtage, p. 311 : 
" A ronge of a carte, epiridium, limo." Also, 
" A ronge of a stee, of a tre, or ledder, sca- 
lare" The editor adds the usual references 
to Langland and Chaucer. The author was 
evidently unaware that the use of ronge 
became a vulgarism as soon as it was applied 
to a ladder. 

In Wright's 'Volume of Vocabularies, 
p. 168, we have the curious treatise by Walter 
de Bibbes worth (misspelt Bibles worth) of the 
thirteenth century, wherein it is explained 
that the Anglo-French redele, a rail of a cart, 
is called ronge in English. 

I now beg leave to retire from the discussion 
It is a thankless task to explain things to one 
who admits only modern authorities. But 
I am still curious to know what was the 
literary English name for the round of a 
ladder before the year 1600. 


To the long array of witnesses brought 
forward by J. S. M. T. at the last reference to 
prove that round, not rung, is the original 
term, may be added Elisha Coles, who, in his 
' English - Latin Dictionary,' ed. 1749, has 
"The round of a ladder, climacter" and does 
not mention rungs in connexion with a 
ladder, but with the floor of a ship, " tigna 
quse fundum navis constituunt." 

W. R. TATE. 
Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

"So-Ho" (7 th S. xii. 144, 198, 253, 296 ; 8 th S. 
vi. 365, 455 ; vii. 195 ; viii. 136). In these 
word-hunts PROF. SKEAT is, if not always in 
at the death, at any rate seldom far away ; 
and he seems very close to the capture here. 
When he hangs up the brush in his hall with 
his countless kindred trophies, he might fix 
along with it a label still older than any yet 
cited. My friend Mr. Joseph Bain, whose 
Scottish calendars are without rival the 

noblest contribution of this century to our 
Northern history, has the following descrip- 
tion of a seal understood to belong to a period 
not later than 1307, "A hare in her form 
SOHOU SOHOU" (Bain's 'Calendar,' vol. ii. 
p. 539). It is from the Chapter House collec- 
tion (A) 34, and is photo-mechanically repro- 
duced in the ' Calendar,' plate in., No. 18. 


4 BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE ' (9 th S. iii. 81). 
"Maga" was dear to me from my earliest 
years, when it was only five years old and my 
father's favourite, so that I heard familiarly 
discussed among his friends laudation of its 
rollicking sprightliness, which found a crisis 
in the " Culdee " (alias " Chaldee ") MS. Those 
were bright times, when Auld Reekie was a 
power in literature, thanks to Black wood 
(with whose family my father was closely 
intimate). I used to meet Prof. Aytoun, 
Sheriff Gordon, and Ferrier of St. Andrews, 
as well as the great and genial " Kit North," 
Prof. Wilson himself. "He looked like a 
lion with a hat on." It was indeed a delight 
to hear Aytoun sing inimitably his own 'Mas- 
sacre of ta MacPhairson ' (with sham bagpipe 
accompaniment), rollicking, but always gentle- 
manly and courteous. Of his 'Lays of the 
Scottish Cavaliers' he remained entirely 
devoid of conceit, yet afterwards scarifying 
the small urchins of the " Spasmodic School " 
in his delectable travesty " Firmilian ; or, the 
Student of Badajoz : a Spasmodic Tragedy, 
by T. Percy Jones " ; but the culmination of 
tun came from his supreme Blackwoodian 
:ale, 'How We got up the Glenmutchkin 
Railway,' in 1845. Ebony "Maga" was to 
me always the best of magazines, and right 
;lad am I to welcome my friend FRANCIS'S 
tribute alike so genial and enthusiastic- 
lly appreciative to its thousandth number. 

" ON THE CARPET " (9 th S. i. 26, 95). PROF. 
IENRY ATTWELL'S tap is very hard on the 

carpet. The expression may well have 

entered the language through other channels 
:han the French tapis, which, by-the-by, is 
still the name given in France to the cloth 
;over of a card-table, for instance. I heard 
t so used a few days ago in the Cafe Farnie 

at Bayonne. In that interesting book 'A 
dictionary, Spanish and English,' by H. S. 

Joseph Giral Delpino (London, 1763), you will 
ead, " Carpeta, s.f., a leather, cloth, or silk 
over for a table ; also a kind of blanket at the 
loor of taverns in Spain." To show that the 

word is still recognized in this sense as a table 
rnament by Academicians, it is enough to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th B. in. FEB. n, 

quote this sentence, which occurs on p. 304 of 
'Mendizabal,' by Don B. Perez Gald6s (Madrid, 
1898) : " Piisole delante Lopresti el tintero de 
cobre con polvorera, y la negra carpeta sebosa 
donde la seiiora escribia "; that is to say, 
" Lopresti put the copper inkstand with 
sand-box before her, and the black greasy 
carpet [= writing-pad] on which the lady 
used to write." The Walter Scott of Spanish 
literature, whose novels are becoming more 
and more on the carpet, is here referring to 
events of the third decade of our century. 


'ECLECTIC KEVIEW' (9 th S. iii. 27). Some 
of the writings of Isaac Taylor may be found 
in 'Ancient Christianity,' referring to the 
'Tracts for the Times,' published 1839. I do 
not know whether this will help MR. H. 

'THE WHOLE DUTY OF MAN ' (5 th S. viii. 389, 
515 9 th S. ii. 536 ; iii. 72). I notice that in 
the Bodleian catalogue this book is ascribed 
to Richard Allestree (1619-81), but appa- 
rently on insufficient grounds. See ' D.N.B .,' 
i. 325. Q. V. 

(9 th S. iii. 42). In connexion with MR. E. B. 
HARRIS'S remarks respecting the testerne, 
Shakespeare himself may be quoted in cor- 
roboration of the view that a testerne was 
equal in value to sixpence : 

Sir Toby. Come on ; there is sixpence for you ; 
let 's have a song, 
Sir Andrew. There 's a testril of me too. 

'Twelfth Night,' II. iii. 32-4. 

Testril and testoon are variants of testerne. 


Records of the Oust Family of Pinchbeck, Stamford, 
and Helton, in Lincolnshire, 1479-1700. Compiled 
by Lady Elizabeth Cust. (Mitchell & Hughes.) 
THIS is a carefully compiled, well-arranged, and 
beautiful book. We have examined by far the 
greater part of the histories of English families 
which have been printed during the last quarter of 
a century, and can honestly say that no one of them 
surpasses the volume before us in width of research 
and general literary merit. It is entirely wanting 
in that tendency to exaggeration which is the be- 
setting sin of so many of those who discourse on the 
history of the families with which they are con- 
nected. Here facts for which proof can be given 
such as would be accepted in the law courts are 
told as certainties, and things which are in them- 
selves probable, though still doubtful, are given as 
such. For instance, there is a tradition, which 
extends backwards more than two centuries and a 

half, that the Gusts who were settled at Pinchbeck 
in 1479 came of a Yorkshire race. This, which we 
regard as probable, has not hitherto been demon- 
strated, and will, we imagine, ever remain doubt- 
ful ; it is given here as a surmise only, though in 
certain popular genealogical compilations it appears 
as an unquestioned fact. Though the pedigree only 
begins in 1479, there were persons bearing the name 
of Cust, or Coste, in various parts of Lincolnshire 
at an earlier date. As the name is a very uncommon 
one it is not rash to assume that some of these were 
cousins, near or remote, of the family settled at 
Pinchbeck. These Gusts, who are represented by 
Earl Brownlow, were evidently substantial people, 
farming their own land, or some of it, and marrying 
well in their own rank of life. In their wills 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries they 
describe themselves as yeomen ; they were, however, 
rising in the world, and in the seventeenth century 
we find them among the armorial families. Their 
arms do not appear, however, among those of the 
Lincolnshire gentry figured by James Yorke in 
' The Union of Honour,' which was published in 
1640. Like some other old races which we could 
mention, the Gusts have two different coats of arms ; 
and as is usually the case when this occurs, the 
older one is by far the more interesting, though we 
believe it is now disused. 

As the Gusts took the popular side in the war 
between Charles I. and his Parliament, they did 
not suffer from fines or confiscations, as was the fate 
of those who threw in their lot with the king. The 
period of the Restoration must have been a nervous 
time for those who had served in any capacity the 
Parliament or the Lord Protector, but the head 
of the Gust family does not seem to have suffered 
anything beyond temporary irritation. Knighthood 
and a baronetcy followed, to be succeeded as time 
went on by higher honours, which we may hope 
Lady Elizabeth Cust will expound to us when she 
deals with the lives of the more recent members of 
the house. 

Much of the pleasure and no small part of the 
profit to be derived from family history depend on 
lucidity of arrangement. Here the authoress has 
not mixed up original documents with the text, as 
many of her misguided predecessors have done. Each 
chapter forms a complete picture in itself, followed 
by an appendix giving (nearly always in full^ the 
documentary evidence on which it is based. Some 
of these, the wills especially, are of wide interest 
and will appeal to many persons who care little for 
genealogy. In these wills of the sixteenth century 
we find the names of five mares. They were called 
respectively Bloume, Mop, Dund, Knepp, and 
Cade. The last had probably been brought up by 
hand. Blossom is in Lincolnshire at the present 
time a very common name for a cart-mare ; Bloume 
was probably its Tudor equivalent. Cherrie was 
at the same time the name of a red cow. There 
are also two or three bequests of swan-marks, which 
show that they were not regarded as having a 
strictly hereditary character. Lady Elizabeth has 
also given some highly interesting extracts from the 
diary of Sir Pury Cust during his travels on the 
Continent in the reign of Charles II. It seems that 
this journal is too long to be reproduced here in its 
entirety. Surely the whole might be issued in 
another form. It would have great interest for 
students alike at home and over-sea. It is pleasant 
to know that, notwithstanding the changes and 
chances of hard upon five hundred years, Lord 



rqwnlow still possesses the lands at Pinchbeck 
hich were tilled by his yeoman forefathers. 

THE article on ' Slavery in Modern Scotland ' in 
ie Edinburgh Review for January will come as a 
relation to many persons. That slavery existed 
i Scotland until about a century ago is, we need 
3t say, a familiar fact to legal antiquaries and to 
lose who have made the condition of the working 
asses of our island a special object of study; but 
lough it has been mentioned over and over again 
i works easy of access, it has made little impres- 
ixm on the popular mind, and we believe that the 
orange and revolting facts which this article dis- 
loses will come as a revelation to many. How 
lavery could have continued to exist so long in the 
ister kingdom has been a puzzle to almost every 
ne who has speculated on the subject. It has 
ommonly been explained as a late survival from 
he Middle Ages ; but this is certainly not the case, 
or there were no slaves, properly so called, in 
Scotland after very early times, and to Scotland 
>elongs the credit (and a great honour it is) of 
laving got rid of bond-services at an earlier period 
han the other countries of Europe. Though a 
olitary vestige or two may be found at a later date, 
nfree labour had become virtually extinct in the 
xmrteenth century. We do not hear of much 
overty existing in Scotland previous to the 
>olitical changes of the sixteenth century. In 
earlier times the population was small and thinly 
scattered, and the people lived rudely, but, except 
in times of famine, rarely, if ever, fell into abject 
poverty. The fall of the monasteries with the trans- 
ference of their large estates, whatever good may 
have resulted from it in other respects, was a great 
immediate evil f9r the poor. The monks did not 
understand political economy, and many of the 
doles they gave would now be condemned by all 
thoughtful humanitarians. But they kept the 
people quiet ; perhaps we should not be going too 
far if we said they rendered their lives in a great 
degree happy. When, however, the religious houses 
fell and their charities suddenly came to an end, a 
change was effected with which the landowners 
and the official class did not know how to cope. 
The country was overrun by wandering beggars, 
sturdy men and women, often accompanied by 
young children, who must have been a terror to 
quiet folk who did not live in a fortified house or 
under the shadow of the walls of a castle. Scottish 
slavery was an endeavour to meet this evil by 
drastic legislation. Nothing can be said in defence 
of the means adopted, but we must not think too 
hardly of the legislators. They were at their wits' 
end, and no means occurred to them of pro- 
tecting the community except the one they adopted. 
It must be remembered that the repugnance to 
slavery is a plant of very modern growth. A Low- 
land laird or a Highland chieftain of the sixteenth 
or seventeenth century ought not to be severely 
blamed because he did not feel the same sympathy 
for the working man as is now professed by mem- 
bers of Parliament. That, as the writer says, 
"the serfdom of the Scotch colliers was really the 
creation of the social legislation of the period 
immediately succeeding the Reformation " does not 
admit of doubt, but the evil grew. When the poison 
had once entered the system of the body politic, 
laws progressively more and more severe were 
enacted until late in the seventeenth century. The 
paper on "Stonewall" Jackson is a review of Col. 

Henderson s new book relating to the great Con- 
federate soldier. It is a very picturesque account 
ot one we must admire for his virtues and military 
genius, whatever we may hold to have been the 
rights or the wrongs of the cause for which he 
fought. The paper on ' Plunket and Catholic 
Emancipation is on the borderland of those sub- 
jects with which 'N. & Q.' abstains from dealing. 
It is a subject on which it is not easy to be bright 
but we think the writer might have put more life 
into his pages. The papers on the writings of 
Wagner and on Burne - Jones as an artist are 

ject of a paper by Mr. Frederick S. Boas which is 
likely to arrest much attention in the Fortniahtly. 
It is concerned with the charge of atheism freely 
brought against Marlowe by certain of his contem- 
poraries. The initial discovery on which the whole 
rests is that of Mr. Gordon Goodwin concern- 
ing Kyd's parentage, which saw the light in 
'N. & Q ' 8&S. v. 305. The documents tie di" 
covery of which are announced are in Harl. MS. 
6848, and consist of papers seized when Kyd in 
1593 was arrested, ascribed to Marlowe, and giving 
the views then regarded as atheistical, but now 
likely to be simply classed as Unitarian. We 
cannot dwell upon the nature of the affirmations 
made. To all interested in the "Dead Shepherd " 
who was one of the first, if not the first, to tune the 
language to perfect lyrical utterance, the paper 
must necessarily commend itself. The first part of 
' France since 1814,' by Baron Pierre de Coubertin 
is a thoughtful and philosophical paper, which may 
do something to simplify to English minds modern 
Irench history. Mr. Richard Davey has discovered 
in M. Albert du Bois ' A New Novelist.' M. du 
Bois seems to owe to Flaubert a portion of his 
inspiration. He is, we are told, an attache to the 
Belgian Legation in London. His work is welcome 
if only as a change from the pictures of moral 
disease and leprosy which have been set before us 
of late. Major Arthur Griffiths reviews Butler's 
'Life of Sir G. Pomeroy-Colley.' Mr. Walter 
Frewen Lord, in the Nineteenth Century, attempts 
an apology for or shall we say a vindication of? 
-'Lord Beaconsneld's Novels.' He is eloquent in 
their defence, though we doubt whether his advo- 
cacy will bring them again into favour. In our 
early youth we read them all, and were disposed to 
rank ' Henrietta Temple ' as what would then have 
been called a "ripping" love story. We should 
hesitate before attempting a reperusal. Mr. 
Lord holds, however, that ' Tancred' "should take 
rank immediately after ' Esmond,' if not side by 
side with that masterpiece." That Disraeli's novels 
have wonderful spirit, vivacity, and cleverness 
must be conceded. That they are likely to interest 
the coming generation, or that which has already 
arrived, we doubt. The Hon. Emily Lawless give's 
a very Bright account of 'Florentine Gardens in 
March. One curious innovation in this amuses us. 
She speaks of the familiar single scarlet anemone in 
the masculine, and calls it a " fellow." We had 
always held that flowers were all feminine. Shak- 
speare, at least, speaks of marigolds and pale prim- 
roses as, by implication, brides of the sun. Mr. 
J. P. Wallis has some rather saddening reflections 
on ' Liberty of the Press in France.' Mr. C. D. E. 
Fortnum writes on ' The Maiolica of Faenza,' Mr 
A. S. Kurd pleads earnestly for 'An All-British Cable 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. in. FEB. n, m 

System.' Scribner's remains national and patriotic. 
An account by Mr. Theodore Roosevelt of ' The 
Rough Riders ' takes them to Cuba. It constitutes 
sufficiently stimulating reading, and is freely illus- 
trated. ' Four National Conventions ' is by Senator 
George F. Hoar, whose portrait appears as a frontis- 
piece to the number. The conventions in question 
to which Mr. Hoar went as deputy were held in 
1876, 1880, 1884, and 1888, and were for the nomina- 
tion of the President and Vice-President of the 
United States. Englishmen can with difficulty 
interest themselves in the questions of purely 
domestic policy which are raised, but the portraits 
of vigorous and assertive personalities have an 
attraction of their own. Mr. Sidney Colvin's 
* Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson 'are continued. 
The letters are, of necessity, interesting. We own, 
however, to some feeling of disappointment in them. 
The fiction is as a rule excellent. In a capital 
number of the Pall Mall the most interesting con- 
tents are continuations. ' Suppressed Plates ' deals, 
in the present instalment, with Dickens, and repro- 
duces the much discussed Buss etchings. The sup- 
pressed portrait of Dickens is a far from satisfactory 
likeness; the comic pictures are as a rule good. 
The originals, formerly in the possession of Miss 
Buss, of the North London Collegiate School, were 
sold after her death, and are, it is said, undiscover- 
able. There should surely be little difficulty in 
finding them. Part IV. of 'The Ship: her Story' 
is equal in value to preceding portions, and is finely 
illustrated. Mr. E. T. Murray Smith continues his 
' Naval Heroes in Westminster Abbey,' and Sir 
Hugh Gough his ' Old Memories.' A charming 
frontispiece of a 'River Scene, Hildesheim,' is a 
capital etching. ' The Pipes of Pan ' is beautifully 
illustrated. 'From a Cornish Window' is always 
readable and good. A description in the Cornhill 
of ' Little Holland House ' is written obviously by 
one who had the run of that pleasant mansion, and 
gives some most interesting details concerning its 
inmates. 'A West-Country Wit,' by Sir Robert 
Edgcumbe, supplies some stories which are both 
good and new. The same may be said of 'The 
Humours of School Inspection,' and, to some 
extent, of 'Sentiment and Feelin',' though in the 
last named a well - known chestnut is brought 
forth, and assigned a new parentage. In a more 
serious vein is 'Western Precursors of Dante,' 
a noticeable study of mediaeval views held by 
Irish Christian dreamers. Mrs. Archibald Little 
describes 'A Summer Trip to Chinese Thibet.' 
The latest instalment of the ' Etchingham Letters ' 
is specially happy. Temple Bar gives a very 
interesting account of Desiree Clary, a young lady 
of Marseilles, whose curious destiny it was to be 
betrothed to Napoleon, and married to the King of 
Sweden. ' A Study in the Past ' deals with Gold- 
smith, Miss Burney, and Miss Austen. ' A Chap- 
ter from " Kenilworth " ' depicts the splendid and 
shameful career of Leicester. 'Happy Hits in 
Oratory ' is amusing. A good account is given of 
Cologne, which is called " the Rome of the Rhine." 
In the new Century Mr. C. Walters writes on the 
'Mystery of Shakespeare's Sonnets.' Mr. Percy 
Fitzgerald supplies No. 1 of ' Pickwickian Studies,' 
and Mr. Schiitz Wilson writes on ' Zola's " Nana."' 
Mr. C. Trollope contributes to the Gentleman's a 
very pleasing paper ' Of Birds' Songs.' Under the 
title ' The First Printed Book and its Printer' Mr. 
Percy Fitzgerald writes on the Mazarin Bible and 
John Gutenberg. * A Soldier Historian ' is Josephus. 

* British Fire-Festivals ' is a paper which to many 
of our readers will have keen interest. The special 
feature of the Enylish Illustrated continues to be 
the coloured designs, which are marvels in their 
way. The contents are largely fiction. ' How They 
Survive ' shows the methods adopted by Nature to 
protect animals from their foes. ' A Famous Fratri- 
cide,' by Major Martin A. S. Hume, tells very 
dramatically the story of the once famous Goodeve 
murder. ' From the Cape to Cairo ' is excellent in 
letterpress and illustrations. In Longman's Mr. 
Lang is, as usual, amusing and edifying. 'A Farmer's 
Year,' by Mr. H. Rider Haggard, is continued, as 
is Mr. Tallentyre's 'Great Letter- Writers.' Miss 
Humphreys gives a good account of Sir Thomas 

has issued in a separate form a few copies of his 
paper on The Early Life and Work of Shafapeare, 
read before the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 
At a time prodigal of sincere, earnest, and com- 
petent work concerning Shakspeare little has been 
published more worthy of attention than this 

IN addition to the quarto form, the Hairless 
Paper Pad of the Leadenhall Press is now issued in 
octavo;. The new form does not disturb our fidelity 
to the old, which we have employed with complete 
satisfaction since its first introduction. One dis- 
tinct advantage the new pad possesses. When 
making entries away from home say at the British 
Museum or the Record Office one hnds the octavo 
pad just the thing to slip into the topcoat pocket a 
purpose for which the quarto pad is too large. ta 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

NEMO (" Sources of Quotation"). 

Tout passe, tout casse, tout lasse. 
This has been asked twice before without eliciting 
any reply. 

Though lost to sight to memory dear. 
The author of this was George Linley. See 
'N. &Q.,'5 th S. x. 106,134,417. 

JANE PORTER SHEPPARD (" Shepherd Family "). 
We have no means of reproducing the coat of arms. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

)th s . m. FEB. 




CONTENTS. -No. 60. 

N )TBS : Founders of Colleges, 121 "True Blue Club," 
122 Customs of Brasenose College, 123 Decollation of 
Charles I. Hickory Aylwin,' 124 'A Lover's Com- 
plaint' Miss Frances Moore Marriage of Landor Wm. 
Hall Duke of Albany, 125 The Siege of Troy and the 
Siege of Belgrade " JEregraphans " All Souls' Day Ditty 
Trousers, 126 Syntax of Relative Pronouns, 127. 

Q CJBRIES : Key to ' Aylwin' C. Dalton D. Andre"-' The 
Butterfly's Ball' M. Floyd Barton Princes Arthur and 
Henry at South Tawton Anglo-Saxon : Scotch : Scotch- 
man, 127 Name and Composer of Song Trotter Letters 
of Dr. Young Cipher Bast India Company Ida Barony 
Books with Curious Titles Bnstone Key to Picture, 
128 "And which" A. O'Shaughnessy : 'Zuleika' 
Prison Reform Sanderson Family Lieut. C. T. Metcalfe 
McDowell Authors Wanted, 129. 

REPLIES : Relics of Charles I., 130 Horace Walpole, 131 
The Real JEneas Remembrance of Past Joy, 132 Gibbet 
Irons Consonantal Combination "st" "Hear, Hear!" 
133-Cardinal Rossi Beetle and Wedge Mrs. Yates. 134 
Damage to Bridge Simeon Slingsby Dr. John King 
The Six Clerks in Chancery The Domesday " Mansio," 
135 The Imperfect Subjunctive Blotting Paper Pilla- 
tery Minutes and Seconds Withycombe Church, 136 
" Rummer " Silver Ladle, 137 Lewes and Locke 
" Xmas "Names of the Cowslip" Snipers," 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Trevelyan's 'American Revolution' 
Lawrence and Wicksteed's Witte's ' Essays on Dante ' 
Aitken's ' The Tatler,' Vols. III. and IV. Thiselton Dyer's 
Old English Social Life ' ' The Saga-Book of the Viking 
Club,' Vol. II. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE following classified list of the founders 
of the existing colleges at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge will. I trust, be of interest to readers 
of <N. &Q.':- 

Kings and Queens Regnant. 

Edward IL, 1326. Co-founder Oriel. He 
supported scholars at Cambridge as early as 

Henry VI. : 1437, co-founder All Souls'; 
1440, King's and Eton. 

Henry VIII., 1546. Christ Church, Oxon, 
and Trinity, Cantab. 

Elizabeth, 1571. Co-founder Jesus, Oxon. 

James I., 1624. Pembroke, Oxon. 

Queens Consort. 

Philippa of Hainault, 1340. Co-founder 
Queen's, Oxon. 

Margaret of Anjou, 1448. Co-founder 
Queens', Cantab. 

Elizabeth Wydvile, 1465. Second founder 
Queens', Cantab. 

Ladies of the Blood Royal. 
Devorguilla de Balliol, 1282. Co-founder 
Balliol College. Grand-niece to King Wil- 
liam the Lion, and mother of that John 

to whom King Edward I. of England ad- 
judged the Scottish crown in 1292. 

Elizabeth de Burg, 1338. Clare Hall. 
Daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Glou- 
cester, and granddaughter of King Edward I. 

Margaret de Beaufort: 1505, Christ's; 1511, 
St. John Evangelist College, Cantab. 
Countess of Kichmond and Derby, great- 
granddaughter of John of Gaunt, and mother 
of King Henry VII. 


Marie de St. Paul. 1347. Hall of Valence- 
Marie, now Pembroke, Cantab. Daughter of 
Guv, Count of Chatillon and St. Paul, and 
widow of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pem- 
broke, and cousin to King Edward I., the 
" Joseph the Jew " who destroyed Nigel 
Bruce, Piers Gaveston, and Thomas, Earl of 

Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex, 1589. 
Her bequest founded Sidney Sussex College. 
Aunt of Sir Philip Sidney and widow of 
second Earl of Sussex. 

Untitled Lady. 

Dorothy Wadham, 1610. Co-founder Wad- 
ham College. Daughter of Sir William Petre, 
statesman and benefactor to Exeter College, 
and widow of Nicholas Wadham. 


John de Balliol, 1260. Co-founder Balliol 
College. Of Bernard Castle, co. Durham, 
and, by right of his wife, Earl of Huntingdon 
and Baron of Galloway. 

Thomas, Lord Audley of Walden, 1542. 
Magdalene, Cantab. Lord High Chancellor. 


Walter de Merton, Bishop of Eochester, 
1274. Merton College. Lord High Chan- 

Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely, 1284. 

Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, 
1314. Exeter College. Lord High Treasurer 
and Gustos of City of London. 

William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, 1350. 
Trinity Hall. Ambassador to the Pope at 

Williamde Wykeham, Bishopof Winchester : 
1379, New College j 1387, Winchester College. 
Lord High Chancellor. 

Eichard Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, 1427. 
Co-founder Lincoln College. Pope Martin V. 
advanced him to Archbishopric of York, but 
King Henry VI. refused to sanction the 

Thomas de Eotheram, Bishop of Lincoln, 
1478. Co-founder Lincoln College. Lord High 
Chancellor and Archbishop of York. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. IIL FEB. is, 'w. 

Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
1437. Co-founder All Souls'. 

William de Waynflete, Bishop of Win- 
chester, 1458. Magdalen, Oxon. Lord High 

John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, 1497. Jesus, 

William Smyth, Bishop of Lincoln, 1509. 
Co-founder Brasenose. President of Wales, 
and Chancellor of Oxford University. 

Kichard Foxe, Bishop of Winchester, 1516. 
Corpus Christi, Oxon. Lord Privy Seal. 

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Bishop of Lin- 
coln, Archbishop of York, 1524. Cardinal 
College, now Christ Church. 

Sir Thomas Cookes, 1714. His bequest 
founded Worcester College. Of Bentley 
Pauncefort, co. Worcester. 

Sir George Downing, 1800. His bequest 
founded Downing College. Of Gamlingay 
Park, co. Cambridge. 


Sir Richard Sutton, 1509. Co-founder Brase- 

Sir Thomas Pope, 1555. Trinity, Oxon. 
Treasurer of Court of Augmentations. 

Sir Thomas Whyte, 1555. St. John Baptist, 
Oxon. Twice Lord Mayor of London. 

Sir Walter Mildmay, 1584. Emmanuel- 
Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Nicholas Wadham, 1610. Co-founder Wad - 
ham College. Of Merifield, co. Somerset. 

Thomas Charles Baring, M.P., 1874. Re- 
founded Hertford College, at cost of 
100,000^. Sometime scholar of Wadham 
and Fellow of B.N.C., M.P. for South Essex 
1874-85, for City of London 1887-92, author 
of 'Pindar in English Rhyme,' &c., son of 
Charles Baring, Bishop of Durham, and a 
benefactor to Harrow School. 

William of Durham, Rector of Weremouth, 
1249. His bequest eventually founded Uni- 
versity College, Oxon. 

Adam de Brome, Rector of St. Mary's, 
Oxford, 1324. Co-founder Oriel. 

Robert de Eglesfield, the Queen's chaplain, 
1340. Co-founder Queen's, Oxon. 

Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington and 
Rushworth, co. Norfolk, 1347. Gonville Hall. 

Andrew Doket, Rector of St. Botolph's, 
Cambridge, 1446. St. Bernard's, now Queens' 
College, Cantab. 

Dr. Robert Wodelarke, third Provost of 
King's, 1475. St. Catherine's, 

Dr. Hugo Price, Treasurer of St. David's, 
571. Co-founder Jesus, Oxon. 

Richard Wightwick, Rector of East Ilsley, 
Berks, 1624. Co-founder Pembroke, Oxon. 

Doctor of Medicine. 

John Caius, President of College of Physi- 
cians, 1557. Refounded Gonville Hall as 
Gonville and Caius College. 

Wealthy Citizen. 

Thomas Tesdale (clothier to Queen Eliza- 
beth's army), 1610. His bequest eventually 
helped to found Pembroke, Oxon. 

( To be continued. ) 

ALTHOUGH party colours have not their old 
vogue, those interested in the subject should 
note the continued existence, and in an 
apparently flourishing state, of the True Blue 
Club at Gloucester. This was founded in 
1790, to celebrate in perpetuity a party 
victory won in the previous year, and thus 
recorded in a Gloucester newspaper of 9 Feb., 
1789 : 

" On Wednesday last, the long contested Election 
of a Representative for this City was terminated by 
the expiration of the fifteen days, appointed by Act 
of Parliament^ for the return of the writ. At the 
casting up or the poll, the Sheriff" declared the 
numbers : 

For John Pitt 837 

H. Howard 836 

Majority for Pitt ... 1" 

Pitt was the " True Blue " and Howard the 
" Yellow " candidate ; and since 1790 the True 
Blue Club has annually held a dinner on 
4 February (when that date has not fallen on 
a Sunday, the preceding or succeeding day 
being then chosen), and the toast of " True 
Blue " is always drunk out of a silver loving- 
cup which has some historical associations. 
The institution was reorganized in the course 
of last year, and one of the rules then passed 
ran as follows : 

" That this Club shall be called the True Blue 
Club, and its objects shall be to promote the inter- 
ests of the Conservative cause generally, and to 
keep alive the 'glorious 4th of February,' and 
annually on that day celebrate the victory of John 

There is the more interest in this record 
because the "True Blues " of Gloucester are 
first to be found associated with George Sel- 
wyn. When that singular politician stood 
for re-election for the city at the dissolution 
of 1780, with "Sir Andr. H." as a colleague, 
he wrote to Lord Carlisle from Matson, his 
seat : 

"Sept. 11, Monday morning, 7 o'clock There 

is a party here called the True Blues, who lead Sir 

in. FEB. 



/ . H. and I about, as if they had purchased us, to 
p low in a fair. They cost me, some years ago, twice 
t vp thousand pounds, by opposing me, and now are 
( oing all they can to make me pay four for be- 
f lending me ; and these people have given Adminis- 
t -ation such an idea of their own omnipotence that 
] should never have been forgiven, if I had not 
A ielded to this importunity. I am assured that it 
^ -ill succeed, and that both Sir A. and myself shall 
I e returned, but my credulity does not extend to 
that point. It is very probable, indeed, that by 
this effort |I may retain my own seat, which I did 
not care for." 'Historical M8S. Commission, 
3?ifteenth Report, 5 Appendix, part vi. p. 442. 

In point of fact, neither Selwyn nor " Sir 
A. H." was elected though no record of the 
poll is to be found either in Smith's ' Parlia- 
ments of England ' or the Gloucester list given 
in *N. & Q.,' 8 th S. iii. 64 and, despite his 
finding a seat for the pocket borough of 
Ludgershall, his affected carelessness as to 
whether he was rechosen for Gloucester was 
shown to be hollow when he wrote to the 
same correspondent at the opening of Parlia- 
ment in the following January : 

"It is now a doubt if Barrow [one of the suc- 
cessful candidates, and previously for twenty-six 
years his colleague in the representation of (Glou- 
cester] is dead, which the whole town believed 
when I was last out ; not one syllable of it in any 
letter which I have had from Gloucester. I shall 
be very glad never more to hear his name or any 
other relative to that infernal place while I live. It 
has been truly a citta dolente to me." Ibid., p. 448. 
In this connexion one might hope for an 
attempt to trace the history of "True Blue" 
as a party colour in English politics. It has 
usually been associated with the Tories, but 
it would seem originally to have been Whig, 
for Swift, in a ballad of Queen Anne's times, 
wrote, in attacking Lord Wharton : 

That viceroy is best, 

That would take off the test, 
And made a sham speech to attempt it ; 

But being true blue, 

When he found 'twould not do, 
Swore, damn him, if ever he meant it. 
But its later use was coupled with the Tory 
party, just as buff and blue with the Whigs, 
and that was why Walter Scott, in his 
'Health to Lord Melville,' in 1806, could sing : 

Come, boys, never fear, 

Drink the Blue grenadier- 
Here 's to old Harry, and long may he live ! 

And it is to be recalled that Disraeli in his 
early political satire ' Popanilla ' referred to 
England as "Vraibleusia." 




ONE of the latest of many gifts made to me 
by an old and dear friend is a copy of ' The 

Admirable Virtues, and Wonderful Effects of 
the ...... Tincture of Coral,' by Theophilus 

Garencieres, 12mo., London, 1676. Concern- 
ing the author the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' may be 
consulted. On the fly-leaves of this copy are 
written, in a seventeenth-century hand", the 
following memoranda, without any note of 
name, date, or place : 


1. 1 st Sunday in Lent. 

2. Easter-day. 

3. Whitsunday. 

4. 1 st Sund. after Act Sunday. 

5. 1 st Sund? after Michaelmas. 

6. y e Sund. after All S' 9 or Saints day. 

7. Christmas-day. 

, Commemorations. 

January 3 d . Will. Smith Founder. 

1 st Sund. after Epiphany. Humphrey Ogle. 

Jan. 26 th . Eliz. Morley. 

Feb. 6 th . Mathew Smith. 

Feb. 13. Alex. Nowell. 

Feb. 17. Sarah, Dutch 88 of Somerset. 

Feb. 19. Tho. Church. 

April 19 th . Joh. L ri Mordant. 

May y e 4 th . Ed. Darby. 

June 6 th . Joh. Port. 

June 26. Sam. Radcliffe, Joh. Cart wright Ursula 

Sept. 5 th . Joyce Frankland. 

1 st Sunday after Michaelmas. S r Rich. Sutton 

Oct. 30 th . Joh. Cox. 

Novemb. 5 th . Will. Porter, Rob. Jones. 

Novemb. 30 th . Rich. Harpur. 

Decemb. 21 Bt . Tho. Yates. 


Note y l if same p r son ought to preach both y* sermons. 

The Chaplains courses throughout y* year. 

At p r sent as follows. 

M r Hyde reads from y e I 8t of January till May y e 
[l] Bt for himself. 

M r Hyde reads for M r Beconsel from May y e I 8t 
till y e l Bt of Septemb. 

M 1 Smith reads from y e first of September till y e 
I 8t of January. 


Note y* all Masters when a year regent do collate 
if they have a name in y e book. 

Masters Disputations. 

All Masters dispute on Saturdays when two years 
standing if they keep their name in y e book. 

Note y* The Principal allways reads Prayers on 
Easter-day, Whitsunday, & Christmas-day. 

The V: Principal all y e holy day mornings in y e 

Note y* Wednsday in ~EmbQT-iveU [sic] is allways 
Fast. Night, 

Morning Prayer. 

All Michaelmas term ring at six in y e morning. 
All Lent at six in y e morn. 
Easter & Act at five in y e morn. 
Evening Prayer. 

At S* Giles's Feast we go to prayers at five till 
term comes in. Then at half hour past five till 
Ashwednsday from Ashwednsday at five till wedns. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. HI. FEB. is, m 

day in Easter-week then at half hour past five til 
S fc Giles's feast. 

When y e Masters term & exercise ends. Act 
term they collate thursdays & dispute Saturdays, 
as soon as it is full term : till tis asked off for y e 
vacation [the thursday & Saturday after y e vac. 
begins & lasts till y e thursday before y e under],* 
then ends. Michaelmas term begins y e thursday 
after full term, & continues till y e thursday before 
term goes out. Batchelors term all ways ends y 
very last fryday before y e term ends in y University, 
it begins y e same day in lent & lasts till egg 

Egg Saturday has been noticed in ' N. & Q 
8 th S. ix. 247, 431 ; and in Brand's ' Popular 
Antiquities,' Bohn, 1849, i. 172. See 'H.E.D., 
iii. 58. 

John Hyde, of Brasenose, was M.A. 1694, 
B.D. 1705 ; Thomas Smith, of Brasenose, was 
M.A. 1679, B.D. 1697. 

Thomas Beconsall, Fellow of Brasenose, was 
M.A. 1686, B.D. 1697. His Easter sermon, 
from St. John v. 28, 29, asserting the resur- 
rection of the same body, was printed in 4to., 
Oxori, 1697. This point of identity was one 
much debated at that time> against Locke; 
see, e.g., ' N. & Q.,' 8 th S. i. 310 ; iv. 385 ; vii. 

Mr. Beconsall was also the author of these 

1. The Christian Belief, wherein is asserted and 
proved, that as there is nothing in the Gospel con- 
trary to reason, yet there are some doctrines in it 
above reason ; and these being necessarily enjoyn'd 
us to believe, are properly called Mysteries, in 
answer to a Book intituled, 'Christianity not 
Mysterious' [by John Toland, 1696]. The second 
edition. Price 2s. 

2. The Ground and Foundation of Natural Re- 
ligion, discovered in the principal branches of it, in 
opposition to the prevailing notions of the modern 
Scepticks, and Latitudinarians. With an Intro- 
duction concerning the necessity of Reveal'd 

Both these were printed for A. Bosvile, at 
the Dial against St. Dunstan's Church, in 
Fleet Street, between 1696 and 1700. 

W. C. B. 

years since it was settled to the general satis- 
faction of readers of 'N. & Q.' that the block, 
if block it can be called, used for this purpose 
was the billet of wood over which the pros- 
trate victim just stretched his neck for the 
convenience of the headsman. The bigger 
pattern, better adapted for flogging, looks as 
if it had been invented after the phrase about 
bringing people to the block, in order that 
there might be a visible block to which to 
bring them. The belief in this pattern is 
likely to have been spread recently by its 

* Struck out. 

appearance twice over in Sir John Skelton's 
sumptuous 'Life of Charles I.,' though no 
opinion is expressed of the correctness of the 
detail in the engravings in which it appears. 
The first is from the well-known print at 
p. 185 of the 'Tragicum Theatrum,' published 
at Amsterdam in 1649, the second from the 
painting by Weesop in the collection of the 
Earl of Rosebery at Dalmeny. The first print 
has been reproduced elsewhere. In the version 
given in Mr. Fellowes's ' Historical Sketches 
of Charles I.,' &c., 1828, the king's head has 
got the beard with which the illustrator of 
the Amsterdam book failed to provide him. 
There are slight alterations in the disposal of 
the figures. Weesop's picture has a different 
arrangement, but the number of the figures 
is the same. Weesop left England in 1649, 
saying that he would never live in a country 
where they cut off their king's head and were 
not ashamed of the action. His selection of 
the subiect is therefore matter for surprise. 
It is to be regretted that Sir John Skelton, in 
giving two illustrations, did not select one of 
them with the low block. It does not get a 
fair chance. Mr. Crofts's Academy picture 
of nine years ago must have left an impression 
of a high block on thousands of eyes of the 
present generation. KILLIGREW. 

HICKORY. Under this name in the ' H.E.D.' 
there is a note : " Shortened from pohickery, 
recorded as the native Virginian name in 
seventeenth century." The native name ap- 
pears in another form, and with a different 
signification, in Smith's 'Map of Virginia,' 
&c. (1612), and again in his 'General His- 
torie.' The passage referred to in the former 
work runs tnus : 

"Of these naturall fruites they Hue a great part 
of the yeare, which they vse in this manner. The 
Walnuts, Chesmits, Acornes, and Chechinquamens 
are dryed to keepe. When they need them, they 
breake them between e two stones, yet some part 
of the walnut shels will cleaue to the fruit. Then 
doe they dry them againe vpon a mat ouer a 
hurdle. After, they put it into a morter of wood, 
and beat it very small : that done they mix it with 
water, that the shels may sinke to the bottome. 
This water will be coloured as milke ; which they 
cal Paiccohiscora, and keepe it for their vse." 

The passage in the later work is virtually 
a reprint of the above, but there the name of 
the drink is spelt Pawcohiccora. See Arbor's 
reprint, pp. 57 and 353. C. C. B. 

AYLWIN.' The title of Mr. Watts-Dunton's 
powerful work is so uncommon that one might 
pardonably hold it likely to be sui generis. 
Yet within the range of our literature there 
is a predecessor which it closely resembles, 
and with which it might be quite readily con- 

^s.m.FEB.i8,'99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


fc anded by such a mechanical artist as he 
v so catalogued together * Mill on the Human 
]\ ind ' and ' Ditto on the Floss.' The writer 
\\ ho nearly anticipated Mr. Watts-Dunton's 
t: tie is Mr. James C. Moffat, a Scotsman who 
o icupied (and may still occupy) the chair of 
C hurch History at Princeton, New Jersey, 
ft.r. Moffat published in 1876 a poem entitled 
' A.lwyn : a Komance of Study.' In ' Poets 
a ad Poetry of Scotland,' vol. ii. p. 532, Mr. 
Grant Wilson introduces an extract from this 
\vork as follows : 

" The poem describes the progress of the mind of 
a Scottish shepherd boy from its earliest unf oldings ; 
its searchings after truth ; the dawning of the true 
light, and at length its satisfaction and peaceful 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

Love's arms are peace, 'gainst rule, 'gainst sense, 

'gainst shame ; 

And sweetens, in the suffering pangs it bears, 
The aloes of all forces, shocks and fears. 

A foot-note reference to 'A Lover's Com- 
plaint ' led to my reading the whole poem, 
the first time, I suppose, for about fifty years. 
On the confessedly corrupt 271st line I ven- 
ture to offer an emendation, reading " Love 
arms apace" for "Love's arms are peace." 
The grammatical connexion, I think, makes 
it almost certain that " Love arms " should be 

read for " Love's arms": "Love arms and 

sweetens." "Apace," a favourite word with 
Shakespeare, makes good sense and does not 
depart so widely from the ductus literarum 
as do some other proposed emendations, e. g., 
" proof," the conjecture of Malone. 

Manse, of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

Miss FRANCES MOORE. As the authorship 
of the 'Life of Joanna, Queen of Naples,' 1824, 
does not seem to be known to the latest 
authorities about that lady (see ' N. & Q.,' 8 th 
S. y. 263, 431), it may be stated that it was 
written by Miss Frances Moore, who was 
probably a daughter of Peter Moore, M.P. 
(' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. iv. 128), concerning whom 
see ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' s.n. Miss Moore, under 
the name of "Madame Panache," wrote several 
lighter works, of which I know one only, * A 
Year and a Day,' 2 vols., 1818. She died at 
Exeter, 6 June, 1881, aged ninety-two. 

W. C. B. 

MARRIAGE OF LANDOR. In the article on 
Landor in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
January it is said that "in 1811 the poet 
married the daughter of Baron de Nieuve- 
vffle, a court official to Charles VIII." As 

Nieuveville seems an impossible name, and as 
I cannot discover any European monarch en- 
titled Charles VIII. in 1811 or proximate 
years, I seek enlightenment in the ' Diction- 
ary of National Biography,' and there I read 
that Landor married in 1811 a lady whom he 
had met casually in a ballroom at Bath, 
named Julia Thuillier, daughter of a banker 
of Swiss descent, who had been unsuccessful 
in business at Banbury and gone to Spain, 
leaving his family at Bath. I am unable to 
do more than direct attention to the discre- 
pancy in the two accounts. F. ADAMS. 

"W. H." of Shakespeare's 'Sonnets' was a 
son of the Rev. William Hall, of Lilliesield 
("? Lilleshall), Salop. He was apprenticed to 
John Aldee (sic) on 28 June, 1577, and became 
free of the Stationers' Company on 3 Feb- 
ruary, 1584, and a master printer of London. 
In 1606 Robert Southwell's ' Fourfold Medi- 
tations ' appeared with a dedication inscribed 
to Mathew Saunders, Esq., to whom " W. H." 
" wisheth long life, &c." (see Edmunds's Isham 
reprints). In 1609 the 'Sonnets' came out 
similarly inscribed to "W. H." by T. T. 

William Hall's publications were chiefly 
religious and legal ; but in 1612 he produced 
Bacon's 'Essays' jointly with John Beale, 
who in 1614 bought out his entire stock, after 
which he disappears, aged about fifty. It 
seems, therefore, that this proposed identifi- 
cation was started by Charles Edmunds, but it 
is difficult to understand how any "stranger" 
could have had the unique opportunity 
of collecting all these scattered poems, ad- 
dressed during ten or twelve years to several 
different persons of rank or fame. 


13, Paternoster Row. 

DUKE OF ALBANY. (See 9 th S. ii. 489.) The 
heraldic representation of the first duke, as 
MR. CALDER mentions, passed to his grand- 
daughter Lady Isabella Stewart, who married 
Sir Walter Buchanan, of Buchanan, Stirling- 
shire, and was ancestress of all the leading 
families of the name. The Earls of Castle- 
Stewart, in the peerage of Ireland, claim to 
be lawfully descended from Lady Isabella's 
second brother, Sir Walter, and a member of 
the family, the Hon. Andrew Godfrey Stuart, 
wrote a book in 1854 in support of the claim ; 
but the weight of evidence is against him in 
that it is documentarily proved Sir Walter 
left no legitimate issue, but issue that was 
legitimated. He had a younger brother, Sir 
James, styled of Albany, who had a natural 
son James, of Balindoran, Stirlingshire, an- 


NOTES AND QUEEIES. [9< s. in. FEB. is, m 

cestor of the Stewarts of Ardvorlich, in Bal- 
quhidder, which James married his cousin 
Annabella Buchanan, and thus brought back 
to his line the legitimate blood of the Stewarts 
of Albany and Menteith, so that practically, 
if not quite legally, Ardvorlich may be said to 
represent the house of Albany in the male line. 
MR. CALDER asks who the Sir John Graham 
was who became Earl of Menteith, and was 
father-in-law of the first Duke of Albany. 
Duncan Stewart, in his 'Genealogy of the 
Stewarts,' supposes him to have been of the 
Abercorn branch or rather Abercorn was 
the stem of the family, but it is more pro- 
bable he was the younger son of Sir Patrick 
Graham, of Kincardine, Perthshire that 
" goodly knight, all dressed in harness meet," 
who fell gloriously at the battle of Dunbar in 
1296, " lamented and applauded even by his 
enemies." He was a worthy sire for the Earl 
of Menteith, the hero of Durham, who, falling 
into the hands of Edward III., was beheaded 
and quartered. His representative of line, and 
accordingly of the two Dukes of Albany who 
were Earls of Menteith, and of the original 
Earls of Menteith, is Mr. John Buchanan - 
Hamilton, of Spittal of Catter, Leny, and 
Bardowie, heir male of the above Sir Walter 
of that ilk. WALTER M. GRAHAM EASTON. 

BELGRADE. It is interesting to observe how 
men have the same habits in different ages. 
In Boswell's 'Life of Johnson' the following 
story concerning General Oglethorpe and 
Dr. Johnson is told : 

"Dr. Johnson said: 'Pray, General, give us an 
account of the siege of Belgrade.' Upon which the 
General, pouring a little wine upon the table, de- 
scribed everything with a wet finger. ' Here we were. 
Here were the Turks,' et cetera. Johnson listened 
with close attention." 

In Ovid's * Heroides ' Penelope, in her letter 

to Ulysses, mentions the action of some one 

who, spilling wine on the table, describes the 

position at Troy : 

Atque aliquis posita monstrat fera prselia mensa : 

Pingit et exiguo Pergama tota mero. 

Hac ibat Simo'is : haec est Sigei'a tellus. 

Hie steterat Priami regia celsa senis. 

The last two lines, as readers will remember, 
are quoted in the 'Taming of the Shrew.' 
What I have remarked above is not in such 
notes to Boswell's ' Life ' as I have seen. But 
so much has been written about the book 
that I cannot be sure of the newness of my 
observation. E. YARDLEY. 


never seen attention called to this very 
curious hybrid word, It obviously means 

" one who writes with brass," in allusion, I 
presume, to the cut brass types as distin- 
guished from cast metal types, the invention 
of which was attributed, I think, to Peter 
Schoeffer. The word occurs in the colophon 
of a book entitled 'Thomas Murner de 
Poetarum,' which runs thus : 

"Impressum Argentine anno Salutis M.D.IX. Of- 
fendes piissime lector passim seregraphantis negli- 
gentia incastigatiores mendas : tuum erit & 
auctorem & corrigentem excusatos habere : quippe 
qui prseter suos aliena fucati sunt ignauia Sed 
emenda si quid reperies." 

Childwall, Weybridge. 

ALL SOULS' DAY DITTY. The following is 
a cutting from Peter Lombard's notes in 
the Church Times for 28 Oct., 1898 : 

Day, going from house to house. At the close of the 
day the children are regaled by the Lady Bountiful 
of the place at her house with cakes and coin. 1 
wonder whether such a custom is to be found else- 
where. The words are surely a burlesque of some- 
thing else more serious sung in days gone by : 


Soul Day ! Soul ! 
The roads are very dirty, 

Our shoes are very thin : 
Pray, good missis and master, 

Pop a penny in ! 

An apple, a pear, a plum, or a cherry, 
Or any good thing to make us merry : 
If you haven't an apple, a pear will do ; 
If you haven't a pear, good money will do. 
One for Peter, two for Paul, 
Three for Them as made us all. 

Soul Day ! Soul ! 
The cock sat up in the yew-tree, 

The hen came cackling by ; 
We wish you a merry Christmas, 
And a fat pig in the stye ! 
Soul Day ! Soul ! 


I was driving one day from Harrogate to 
Ripley, and at a village en route some boys 
ran beside the carriage, repeating : 
The roads is very dirty, 
My boots is very thin, 
I 've got a pretty pocket 
To put a penny in. 
Please, sir, give me a penny, sir : 
If you haven't got copper, I'll take silver ; 
If you haven't got silver, I 'Jl take gold. 


TROUSERS. No date is even approximately 
given in the 'Century Dictionary' for the 
introduction of trousers as a commonly used 
word in our language. When the compilers 
of the ' H.E.D.' get as far as T, they may 
appreciate this reference from a letter written 

9* s. in. jto. is, mi NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ST Lord Carlisle to his wife : ." 1778, June 21, 
i board the Trident, River Delaware : to 

aly 7 ": 

"The gnats in this part of the river are as large 
sparrows ; I have armed myself against them by 
earing trousers, which is the constant dress of this 
untry." ' Historical MSS. Commission, Fifteenth 
eport,' Appendix, part vi. p. 345. 


f "and " or "but" before a relative pronoun 
,ot already expressed is a solecism that is 
nnoyingly frequent. Often, however, a 
eeming regard for rule begets a ridiculous 
jlunder, as in the following, from M. A. P. 
f 11 January, p. 22, col. 1 : 

"Edward Osborne, the founder of the dukedom 
f Leeds, was an apprentice to William Hewet, a 
ich old clothworker on London Bridge, whose only 
aughter he courageously rescued from drowning 
>y leaping into the Thames after her, and whom he 
ventually married." 

The omission of the relative pronoun in 
>he following is a bit of slipshod for which 
;he Duke of Argyll is responsible (Nineteenth 
Century, xli. 387) : 

"The method. one for which I have myself 

great predilection, and have continually used in 
il difficult subjects of inquiry." 

There is a bit of his Grace's English far 
worse than this at p. 396 of the same volume ; 
but as it does not touch my present subject I 
leave the curious reader to find it for himself. 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

DuNTON.--Can any of your readers furnish 
a key to this ? N. S. S. 

0. DALTON, BLACK ROD, 1747. Who, and 
of which family, was he 1 C. MASON. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

DAVID ANDRE. He was admitted to West- 
minster School, 21 March, 1766. I should be 
glad to have any particulars relating to him. 
In all probability he was a first cousin of 
Major Andre, but there is no record of his 
parentage in the school admission book. 

G. F. R. B. 

your readers give me further details concern- 
ing the authorship of a perennially popular 
nursery rhyme ? I find in the Lady's Maga- 

zine for March, 1807, 'The Butterfly's Ball and 
the Grasshopper's Feast ' among the poetical 
effusions. It is there stated that it was 
believed to have been written by Mr. Roscoe, 
M.P. for Liverpool, for the pleasure of his 
children, and set to music by their Royal 
Highnesses for the young princess. 

[See 5 th S. ii. 373, 458, &c.] 

MICHAEL FLOYD. He was elected to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, from Westmin- 
ster School in 1593. Any information con- 
cerning him would be gratefully received. 

G. F. R. B. 

BARTON. In the Barebones Parliament 
Col. Henry Barton was M.P. for London, and 
Col. Nathaniel Barton was M.P. for Derby- 
shire. The latter also sat for the same county 
in the first Parliament of the Protectorate, 
1654-5, and was for a few months in 1653 a 
member of the Council of State. I should be 
obliged by any information respecting these 
two colonels. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

TAWTON, DEVON. (See 'Horseshoe Monu- 
ments,' 8 th S. vii. 392.) At this reference there 
is a quaint account of an adventure that 
befell the young princes Arthur and Henry, 
sons of Henry VII., while riding in the neigh- 
bourhood of a tenement held by Thos. 
Bruteton, said to be at South Tawton, Devon. 
Being particularly interested in that locality, 
I should feel greatly obliged if the contributor 
of your readers could inform me of the class 
ana whereabouts of the " old record " from 
which this story is drawn, and assist me to 
identify the scene of action on an Ordnance 
Survey sheet. In John Gidley's ' History of 
Royal Visits to Exeter ' I see that Henry VII. 
stayed for several weeks (from 7 Oct., 1497) 
in that city. Were the young princes with 
him on that occasion ; or did they, in 1501, 
meet Princess Katherine of Aragon on her 
landing at Plymouth 1 


When was the term Anglo-Saxon first used 
by literary men, and by whom ? What is the 
first instance of the use of the names Scotch 
and Scotchman by historical or other writers 1 
I have traced the use of the terms to a docu- 
ment of James I. after the union of the 
crowns in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century ; and the adjective Scotch is fre- 
quently used in Camden's ' Britannia,' trans- 
lated from the Latin, and published in 1695. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. in. FEB. is, m 

Did this nomenclature originate in England 
or Scotland ? T. N. 

please give me the name of the following 
song and that of the composer of the same ? 

When I am dead, my dearest, 

Sing no sad songs for me, 

Plant no roses at my head, 

Nor shady cypress tree. 

I haply may remember, 

And haply may forget. 


TROTTER, CLOCKMAKER. Can any one give 
me information about a maker of clocks at 
Jedburgh named Trotter? I have lately 
come into possession of a clock made by him, 
and should like to know its approximate 
date. G. P. B. 

Ithaca, New York. 

Works of Alexander Pope,' with introduction 
and notes by Kev. Whitwell Elwin and Wm. 
John Courthope (Murray, 1889), vol. iii. 
p. 137, note 2, reference is made to a letter 
of 20 February, 1726/7, from Dr. Edward 
Young, the poet, to Tickell ; and in vol. vii. 
p. 401, note 1, to letters of 17 November, 1727, 
and 21 February, 1727, from Dr. Edward 
Young to the same. Can any one give me a 
clue as to where these letters (if they still 
exist in any form) are to be found 1 


CIPHER. At the close of one of Sir Thos. 
Urquhart's tracts the following "Cyphral 
Distich " is found. Can any of your readers 
give me the solution of it ? 

5. 3. 27. 38. 32. 14. 21. 8. 66. 8. 70. 39. 5. 9. 12. 18. 

2. 3. 56. 

5. 1. 7. 3. 2. 13. 19. 3. 25. 9. 3. 16. 6. 
25. 15. 13. 6. 11. 20. 5. 1. 2. 12. 1. 20. 20. 49. 20. 20. 


4. 6. 8. 35. 5. 38. 5. 5. 18. 10. 3. 11. 32. 42. 
Of carping Zoil and despightful Momus, 
Let th innate baseness be exiled from us, 
Who worthily would hear or read this book ; 
For if upon this Cyphral Distich look 

An honest skilful man, he '11 therein finde 
His own heart's wishes, and the Author's minde. 

J. W. 


EAST INDIA COMPANY. Are lists of officers 
published between 1770 and 1820 ? 

Sulhamstead, Berks. 

find a list of settlers in time of Cromwell ? 

A. C. H. 

logical department of my library has been 

enriched (?) by two pamphlets bearing the 
following titles : 

A Sure | Guide | to | Hell | In Seven Sections | 
Containing | Directions | I. To Parents in the | 
Education of their Chil | dren. | II. To Youth. | 
III. To those whose Minds | are possessed with 
Envy | Malice &c. | IV. To the K . | V. To first 
Ministers | of State. | VI. To the Clergy. | VII. To 
Young La | dies. | "Out of the Eater came forth 
Meat. | By Belzebub. | The Second Edition. | Lon- 
don: | Printed for Peter Imp, near St. Pauls. No 
date. Demy 8vo., viii-96 pp. 

Die | and be | Damned. | Or an Antidote against 
every Species of | Methodism ; and Enthusiasm. | 
Infaeliciter aegrotat, cui plus periculi a | medico 
quam morbo. | Seneca, j The Second Edition, | Re- 
vised and enlarged by the Author. | London : | 
Printed for S. Hooper, and A. Morley, at | Gay's- 
Head, near Beaufort's-Buildings, in the | Strand. 
MDCCLVIII. | [Price One Shilling.] Demy 8vo., 
4-viii-52 pp. 

It seems desirable that the authorship of 
these piquant polemical pamphlets should be 
known. RICH. WELFORD. 

[The second of these pamphlets is by T. Mortimer. 
A copy is in the Bodleian.] 

ENSTONE, OXON. What is the origin of the 
name ? It is Henestan in Domesday ; Eriestan, 
1309, Pat. Ed. II.; Ennestane, 1272, 'Cal. 
Inq. ad quod damnum,' p. 220 ; Ennestan, 
1291, 'Taxatio P. Nich. IV.'; Ennestane, 1240, 
'Inq. Non.,' p. 139 ; Enstane, 1603 ; Einstone, 
1676; Ennestone, 1176, Bull of Alex. III.; 
Enston, 1535, 'Val. Eccl.' of Henry VIII.; 
Enneston' and Ennestan' in the Rolls of 
Hundreds, temp. Hen. III.-Ed. I. Attention 
has lately been given to the name in the last 
'Report of the Oxfordshire Archaeological 
Society,' Banbury, 1899, p. 47, where it is : 

"The origin of the name [Enstone] is uncertain, 
both as to the first and second syllables. Some 
suppose the first syllable to be a Saxon surname, 
Ena, and the second ton, a town. Others take the 
second syllable to be stan, a stone. Mr. Jordan iu 
the ' History of Enstone' states that the name was 
Ennestan or Enstan in the fourteenth century, and 
this he derives from the Saxon Enta, of the giants, 

and stan, a stone giants' stone There are several 

questionable statements in this book." 

Enstone is on the Glyme, of which the former 
name was the Enis (Plot's map). This sug- 
gests another origin for the name. 


KEY TO PICTURE. In the Painted Hall at 
Greenwich there is a picture by Briggs of 
the presentation, on the quarterdeck of 
H.M.S. Queen Charlotte, by King George III., 
of a sword to Lord Howe, after the battle of 
1 June, 1794. Can any reader tell me whether 
a key to the persons represented exists ; and, 
if so, where it is to be found ? 


. in. FEB. is, '99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"AND WHICH." When did the use of "and 
vhich " in a clause where no previous "which" 
s found first begin to be proscribed? The 
'ollowing are a few examples of the usage, 
ncluding some that have " and that " in place 
)f "and which": 

Wycliffe and Purvey, 1 Peter i. 4. "Into eritage 
incorruptible and undefoulid, and that schal not 

Authorized Version. "To an inheritance incor- 
ruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away." 

bir Thomas More, ' Utopia,' ii. 6. " Usque adeo 
ut plumbeus quispiam, et cui non plus ingenii sit 
quam stipiti." 

Ralph Robynson's translation. " In so muche 
that a lumpyshe blokehedded churle, and whyche 
hathe no more wytte then an asse " 

Sir Thomas North, 'Plutarch: Julius Csesar.' 

An army invincible and which they could not 
possibly with-stand." 

Dryden, ' Essay of Dramatic Poesy.'" We have 
many plays of ours as regular as any of theirs, and 
lohich oesides have " 

Dr. Johnson, 'Life of Addison.' "Two books 
yet celebrated in Italy for purity and elegance, and 
which, if they are now less read, are neglected only 

De Quincey, \ Life of Bentley.' "Of feuds so 
deadly, so enduring, and tohich continue to interest 
at a distance of a hundred and fifty years " 

Lord Beaconsfield, ' Letter to the Duke of Marl- 
borough.' "A danger in its ultimate results 
scarcely less disastrous than pestilence and famine, 
and which now engages your Excellency's anxious 
attention, distracts Ireland." 

The following translation (Paul Stapfer) 
of a familiar passage in ' Macbeth ' seems to 
show that the usage is legitimate in French : 

"C'est une histoire dite par un idiot, pleine de 
fracas et de furie, et qui ne signifie rien." 

C. J. I. 

What is " the flower that blooms by night," 
in the last line of this beautiful and romantic 
poem ? Does the poet mean the " marvel of 
Peru," called in French "belle de nuit"; or 
is it, more probably, an imaginary flower, 
that blooms only in the land of romance? 
Although Zuleika is an Eastern damsel, her 
minstrel lover is apparently European, so far 
as we can localize him at all. The marvel of 
Peru appears to bloom in the open air in 
Europe. See the charming description of 
the Austrian priory garden in * Consuelp,' 
chap. Ixxvi. Consuelo says to Beppo, that is, 
young Joseph Haydn : 

"Regarde, te dis-je, et ne ris pas, ce paquet de 
grosses etoiles blanches, la, au beau milieu du gazon. 
Je ne sais comment on les appelle ; des belles de 
nuit, je crois. Oh ! elles sont bien nommees ! Elles 
sont belles et pures comme les 6toiles du ciel. Elles 
se penchent et se relevent toutes ensemble au souffle 
de^la brise 16gere, et elles ont 1'air de rire et de 
fo^atrer comme une troupe de petites filles vetues 
de blanc Et puis les voila qui s'arretent dans 

1'air immobile, et qui regardent toutes du cot6 de la 
lune. On dirait maintenant qu'elles la contemplent 
et qu'elles 1'admirent. La lune aussi semble les 
regarder, les couver et planer sur elles comme un 
grand oiseau de nuit." 

'Zuleika' is in 'Music and Moonlight'; 
also in the ' Golden Treasury,' Second Series, 
1897, p. 49. JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

PRISON REFORM. The following extract is 
from Bacon's ' Sylva Sylvarum,' p. 201 of the 
edition published in 1670. It is strange that 
the propriety of keeping prisons in a healthy 
condition throughout the year did not occur 
to him. Who was the first person to advocate 
a reform of the traditional methods of 
management in this respect? 

"The most pernicious Infection, next the Plague, 
is the smell of the Gaol, when Prisoners have been 
long, and close, and nastily kept ; whereof we have 
had in our time, experience twice or thrice, when 
both the judges that sat upon the Gaol, and num- 
bers of those that attended the business, or were 
present, sickened upon it, and died. Therefore it 
were good wisdom, that in such cases the gaol were 
aired before they be brought forth." 

M. P. 

CUMBERLAND. I should esteem it a favour 
if any reader would let me have par- 
ticulars of this family. I understand there 
is a monument in Sebergham Church to 
a member of it. I should like to know 
from what family John. Sanderson of Seberg- 
ham, born 1723, ob. 1776, was descended. 
Thomas Sanderson, the poet, was a son of the 
before-mentioned John. If any correspond- 
ent could tell me where I can find a copy of 
the above inscription I should be thankful. 

C. H. C. 

[You will find under ' Sanderson, Thomas,' a little 
information in 'Diet. Nat. Biog.'] 

I am anxious to place myself in communica- 
tion with any surviving relatives of Lieut. 
Charles Theophilus Metcalfe McDowell, who 
was second in command of Hodson's Horse 
from June, 1857, until his death, which 
occurred in January, 1858, when he was killed 
in action near Lucknow. I shall be much 
obliged if you can help me to obtain any in- 
formation of the whereabouts of near relatives 
of the above officer. 

F. G. CARDEW, Capt. 

Think truly, and thy thoughts shall the world's 

famine feed ; 
Speak truly, and each word of thine shall be a 

fruitful seed ; 
Live truly, and thy life shall be a great and noble 

deed. E. L. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< s. in. FEB. is, m 

(8 th S. vi. 226, 315 ; 9 th S. ii. 513.) 
THOUGH the entries in 'N. & Q. ; refer 
ring to the foregoing heading would tak( 
many lines to enumerate, the garment men 
tioned at the last reference does not seem 
to have received notice. Nor does it seem 
to have been exhibited in the Stuart Ex 
hibition of 1889. The extract from the Man- 
chester paper given by MR. TAVAR does not 
even show that it has been mentioned in any 
published record. The auctioneer who hac 
to sell it was able to support his opinion that 
it had. According to London papers of the 
day following the sale : 

" The auctioneer said that, by the courtesy of Col. 
Hammond, of the Royal United Service Institution, 
he had recently seen a copy of the ' Secret History 
of Whitehall,' which stated on p. 302 (second edition] 
that Bishop Juxon unclothed the king at the exe- 
cution to his sky-coloured vest." 

This statement, for which the auctioneer 
had justification, must have been most useful 
in establishing the value of the garment, as 
confirming its pedigree from an independent 
source strikingly associated with its history. 
Where could one hope to find a better account 
of the great Whitehall tragedy than in the 
' Secret History of Whitehall "I How could 
one help attaching some value to the fact 
that the book came from the very spot on 
which the tragedy had been enacted ? But, 
in fact, the first part of the confirmation was 
as unsubstantial as the second. The 'Secret 
History of Whitehall ' is neither particularly 
rare nor eminently trustworthy. Whatever 
its merits, it contains no mention of the 
garment in question. But, bound up and 
paged with the second part of the 'Secret 
History,' a work making pretensions, well or 
ill founded, to special information, is another 
work with no such pretensions, bearing its 
own title 'The Tragical History of the Stuarts,' 
from 1086. In this work occurs the passage : 
" The bishop put on his Night cap, and un- 
clothed him to his Sky-colour'd Sattin Wast- 
coat" (not sky-coloured vest). There is no 
more claim to personal experience of the 
event than of any event from 1086 downwards, 
and there is nothing to show that David 
Jones, the author, was born at the time of 
King Charles's beheading. Such as the 
evidence is, it does not inform us at what 
stage in the undressing the " wastcoat " was 
arrived at ; but the delivery of the George 
into the bishop's hands is mentioned later. The 
garment mentioned by David Jones might 

come into competition with the rich red- 
striped silk, brocaded with silver and yellow 
silk, mentioned in other accounts. 

The statement that Dr. Hobbs, the king's 
physician, was with him at the time gives us 
another candidate for scaffold honours. I 
thought that they had been cut down to Juxon, 
Thornlinson, Hacker, Brandon, and presum- 
ably Hulett ; Herbert, who might have been 
there, having shrunk from the sight. 


What is known historically of this sky-blue 
silk vest " which Charles I. wore at his exe- 
cution " 1 It was sold on 8 Nov., 1898. I have 
seen it, and upon that part of the front about 
the waist are some large brown stains. If of 
the blood of the king, as stated, how could 
they have got there, while there are no stains 
of any sort now visible about the neck, where, 
if anywhere, blood stains should most as- 
suredly be found 1 Another relic of Charles I., 
in the shape of the frills worn by his Majesty 
on the scaffold, was sold by auction on 13 Dec., 
1898, by Mr. J. C. Stevens, at 38, King Street, 
Covent Garden, who so describes them in 
lot 234 of that sale. I ask similarly, What is 
known historically of these frills? Were 
these relics exhibited, or offered for exhibition, 
at the Stuart Exhibition ? C. MASON. 

Villa Byron, Monte Carlo. 

It may interest others of your readers to 
know that the Sketch of 16 Nov., 1898, con- 
tains a photograph of the vest described at 
the last reference ; the letterpress accom- 
panying it is by the writer of these lines. An 
interesting letter a propos of the vest appeared 
in the Standard a few days after the sale 
from Mr. Harry Hems. On Tuesday, 28 June, 
1853, Messrs. Puttick & Simpson sold (lot 556) 
the quilted satin cap \vorn by Charles I. at 
his execution, and this was accompanied by 
several documents with reference to the pedi- 
gree of "this interesting lot," which, according 
bo the catalogue, " appears to have formerly 
been in the possession of Lord Crewe, who paid 
70. for it." The buyer in 1853 is entered as 
Broker, and the price bl. 15s. tid. 


I imagine that most of the relics connected 
with the beheading of Charles I. were on 
dew at the Stuart Exhibition in 1889. I 
cannot, however, find that the " sky-coloured 
vest" sold by Mr. Stevens last November was 
ncluded in the catalogue. Both the shirts 
worn by the king on the fatal morning, as 
eferred to at 8 tft S. vi. 226, 315, were ex- 
libited, and I have compiled the following 
ist of these and other relics relating to the 
execution from the official catalogue : 



No. 370. Shirt, drawers, and garters worn by 
Charles I. at his beheading, and sheet used to 
cover his body. Lent by the Earl of Ashburnham. 

No. 373. One of the two shirts worn by King 
Charles I. at his beheading. Lent by Bewicke 
Blackburn, Esq. 

No. 374. Glove of Charles I. worn by the king on 
the scaffold. Lent by V. F. Bennet-Stanford, Esq. 

No. 374*. Lace collar worn by Charles I. on the 
scaffold. Lent by George Somes, Esq. 

No. 375. Silver alarum clock given by Charles I. 
to Thomas Herbert. Lent by W. Towneley Mit- 
ford, Esq. 

Illustrations of this " clock " or watch appear 
in Chambers's 'Book of Days'; Illustrated 
London News of 31 Jan., 1852 ; and Graphic 
of 23 Feb., 1889. 

No. 376. A skull cap embroidered with gold on 
crimson silk, constantly worn by King Charles I. 
Lent by Lord Bagot. 

This cap was sent by Charles just before 
his death to Col. William Salusbury, "as 
the only token and remembrance he could 

No. 376*. Cap of Charles I. worn at the time of 
his execution. Lent by George Somes, Esq. 

No. 377. Piece of the ribbon of the Garter worn 
by Charles I. at his beheading. Lent by Sir Win. 
Stephenson, K.C.B. 

No. 378. Piece of the velvet pall that covered the 
coffin of Charles I. Lent by Sir Wm. Stephenson, 

Sir Wm. Stephenson also lent a lock of 
Charles's hair and a portion of his beard. 

No. 381. Gold ring with portrait of Charles I., 
given by Charles I. to Bishop Juxon just before his 
death. Lent by the Duke of St. Albans. 

No. 384. Prayer Book used by Charles I. on the 
scaffold. Lent by W. J. Evelyn, Esq., of Wotton. 

No. 405. Communion cup with which Charles I. 
received the sacrament on the day of his death. 
Lent by the Duke of Portland. 

No. 406. A pearl earring worn by Charles I. on 
the same day. Lent by the Duke of Portland. 

No. 444. Pattern gold five-broad piece with head of 

Charles I. " The original presented by Charles I. 

to Bishop Juxon on the scaffold just before his 
execution." Lent by H. Montagu, Esq. 

No. 453. Ebony dressing-case, containing, amongst 
other things, "a piece of ribbon worn on the 
scaffold." Lent by Capt. Still. 

No. 1127. Garter star from mantle of Charles I. 
worn by the king on the scaffold. Lent by Basil 
Woodd, Esq. 

I shall be glad to learn if other relics con- 
nected with the execution of King Charles I. 
are known to exist. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

xi. 346, 492 ; xii. 104, 290, 414, 493 ; 9 th S. i. 
91 ; ii. 75, 332, 531 ; iii. 54). A letter dated 
"Woolterton [Aug.] 5, 1745," and addressed to 
Dr. Birch, is attributed to Horace Walpole 
not only in the 4to. edition of * Letters to the 

Kev. William Cole and Others (London, 1818), 
but also in the 'Private Correspondence of 
Horace Walpole' (4 vols., London, 1820), in 
the six-volume edition of 1840, and finally in 
Cunningham's edition (vol. i. p. 384). That 
the writer of this letter was not Horace 
Walpole, however, appears obvious from in- 
ternal evidence. The writer states that he 
has never written anything " in a historical 
way, have now and tnen suggested hints to 
others as they were writingfand never pub- 
lished but two pamphlets, one was to justify 
the taking and keeping in our pay the 12,000 
Hessians, of which I have forgot the title, and 
have it not in the country ; the other was 
published about two years since, entitled 
' The Interests of Great Britain steadily pur- 
sued,' in answer to the pamphlets about the 
Hanover forces," &c. 

The actual writer of this letter was un- 
doubtedly Horace Walpole's uncle and name- 
sake, Horatio Walpole (born 1678, died 1757), 
who was created in 1756 Baron Walpole of 
Wolterton. In his ' Royal and Noble Authors ' 
Horace Walpole gives a short account of the 
literary productions of his uncle : 

" Horatio, Lord Walpole, wrote many political 
pieces, among which were the following : ' The 
case of the Hessian Troops in the Pay of Great 
Britain,' 'The Interest of Great Britain steadily 
pursued (part i.), in answer to a pamphlet intituled 
*' The Case of the Hanover Forces, 1743." ' 

It seems strange that this mistaken attribu- 
tion should have escaped four successive 
editors of the ' Letters.' 

Lord Walpole was also the writer of a letter 
to the Rev. Henry Etough, dated " Woolter- 
ton, Sept. 10, 1755," published, like the other, 
in the 4to. vol. (1818) containing the 'Letters 
to the Rev. W. Cole and Others ' (p. 2). The 
references in the first part of the letter to 
foreign affairs " I have from the beginning 
told my friends, when they asked, both in 
town and country, that I was not at all 
apprehensive that Spain would join with 
France against us," &c. point to Lord Wal- 
pole as the writer. The acquaintance with 
foreign affairs gained during his embassies at 
Paris and at the Hague (1724-40) makes it 
probable that he would be consulted on such 
points. Further on the writer adds : " Mr. 
Fowle has made me a visit for a few days, 
and communicated to me your two pieces 
relating to my brother and Lord Bolingbroke, 
and I think you do justice to them both in 
their very different and opposite characters ; 
but you will give me leave to add with respect 
to Lord Orford, there are several mistakes 
and misinformations," &c. The " two pieces " 
mentioned above probably formed part of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. FEB. is, m 

history of his own time, which, together with 
characters of prominent contemporary per- 
sons, was compiled by Etough (see Nichols's 
' Literary Anecdotes,' vol. ix. p. 807). Amongst 
the character sketches his memoir of Lord 
Bolingbroke is expressly referred to. The 
Lord Orford referred to as " my brother " is, 
therefore, Sir Kobert Walpole, the great 
minister, and not the second Earl of Orford, 
whose career would not afford very edifying 
or interesting matter for the historian. This 
letter is also included in the 'Private Cor- 
respondence' (1820) and in the six- volume 
edition of 1840, but is very properly omitted 
by Cunningham. 

A letter dated 30 November, 1746, and 
addressed to the Lord President Forbes, is 
attributed (in Nichols's 'Illustrations of Lite- 
rary History,' vol. iii. p. 545) to the Hon. 
Horace Walpole. This letter appears rather 
to be written by his uncle, afterwards Lord 
Walpole, as aforesaid. It runs as follows : 

MY DEAR LORD, Hearing that you are to set out 
immediately for Scotland, I send you this, to wish 
you a good journey, and good success in your under- 
takings, although I much doubt whether you will 
have the luck, if you proceed upon the principles 
and motives you seemed to have in our last conver- 
sation. Your own good-nature, and a concern for 
that part of the country where you was bred and 
born, makes you inclined to think things and people 
to be what they are inclined to be, rather than 
what they are in reality, and therefore you will 
endeavour to reconcile what by its nature is irre- 
concileable. The consequence of all, I am afraid, 
will be, that you will, in your Bill to call it in, do 
nothing that will redound to the interest of the 
United Kingdom, or to your own honour or credit. 
You will pardon this freedom from a good citizen, 
and from your most affectionate friend, 


The Lord President Forbes (Duncan Forbes 
of Culloden) was well known for his loyalty 
to the house of Hanover, and for his efforts 
for the good of his fellow-countrymen. From 
the contents of the above letter it may be 
gathered that Forbes had embodied some of 
his schemes in a Bill, of which, and of the 
Scotch nation in general, the writer of the 
letter speaks slightingly. Forbes was at this 
date a man of sixty years of age, while Horace 
Walpole, the nephew, was only twenty-nine. 
The latter was hardly likely, therefore, to 
adopt such a tone in addressing his senior by 
thirty-one years, even supposing him to have 
been acquainted with the Lord President, of 
which there is no evidence in his letters. His 
uncle, on the other hand, was at this time 
sixty-eight, and therefore the President's 
senior by several years. HELEN TOYNBEE. 

THE REAL ^ENEAS (9 th S. ii. 444 ; iii. 74). 
All classical scholars must, presumably, admit 

the justness of the remark of MR. ED. MAR- 
SHALL, but, at the same time, the translation 
of pius as "pious" (as also that of virtus as 
" virtue ") is so engrained in the English mind 
that the following verses, which deal so ably 
with this (non-classical) rendering, are perhaps 
worthy of insertion. They were written, I 
believe, by James Smith (died 24 Dec., 1839, 
aged sixty-four), one of the two authors of 
the well-known 'Rejected Addresses': 

Pius ^Eneas. 
Virgil, whose epic song enthrals, 

And who in song is greater ? 
Throughout the Trojan Hero calls 

Now "pius" and now " pater." 

But when, intent the worst to brave, 
(With sentiments that pain us) 

Queen Dido meets him in the cave, 
He dubs him " Dux Trojanus." 

And well he alters there the word, 

For, in that station, sure, 
"Pius ^Eneas" were absurd 

And "Pater" premature. 

G. E. C. 

The Greeks in the 'Iliad' did not think 
that it was a crime to kill a suppliant. 
Besides the case of Lycaon, there is that of 
Adrastus in the sixth book. Menelaiis is 
about to spare the life of the suppliant Ad- 
rastus, not from the motive of mercy, but 
because Adrastus has promised him ransom. 
Then Agamemnon, shocked at the weakness 
of his brother, runs up, and himself kills Ad- 
rastus. Nestor, who is standing near, applauds 
the action, and exhorts the brothers to spare 
none of their enemies. The Trojans were as 
savage as the Greeks. I do not, however, 
remember that there is anything against 
Sarpedon, who is the noblest character in the 
' Iliad.' Other leaders of the allies, Glaucus 
and Asteropseus, are very fine fellows. 


SORROW (9 th S. i. 123, 251, 414, 493 ; ii. 252). 
It has not, I think, been pointed out that the 
thought contained in Dante's well-known 
lines also occurs in Matthew Paris. Poor 
John had just signed Magna Carta when 
certain " sons of Belial," as the author calls 
them, came to jeer at him in his misery, and 
said : 

"Ecce rex sine regno, dominus sine dominio: 
ecce alh'cus nauci et angularis, rota quinta in 
plaustro, regum ultimus, et popuji abjectio. Heu ! 
miser et seryus ultimse conditionis, ad quam servi- 
tutis miseriam devolutus. Fuisti rex, nunc fex ; 
fuisti maximus, nunc minimus. Nihil infdicius 
quam fuisse felicem." 

Apparently this reasoning had much effect 
upon John, for the entertaining old chronicler 
goes on to tell us how he rolled upon the floor 

* S. III. FEB. 18, '99.] 





and with his teeth tore sticks and straws in 
his rage. T. P. ARMSTRONG. 


GIBBET IRONS (9 th S. ii. 448). I saw last 
summer a set in the yard of a curio dealer 
at Teddington. They were said to have come 
from Boston Gaol. A few months later I read 
in an account of an auction at Mr. Stevens's, 
Covent Garden, that a set (presumably the 
same), said also to be from Boston, were sold 
for a few pounds. These may have some con- 
nexion with the Lincolnshire set referred to. 


S. ii. 424, 515). It might be inferred from 
MR. YARDLEY'S instances that Milton habitu- 
ally used amidst, amongst, and betwixt. This 
is only decidedly the case with amidst, of 
which there are nineteen instances (including 
one of midst) to four of amid, and less so with 
betivixt, of which there are eleven instances 
(including four of 'twixt) to seventeen of be- 
tween (thirteen as preposition and four as 
adverb). There are but five instances of 
amongst (including two of Amongst) to sixty- 
four of among, and five instances of whilst 
(ignored by MR. YARDLEY) to thirty-two of 
while. A few instances of the several forms 
without st may have eluded my notice. Your 
correspondent, however, misapprehends my 
remark about the " barbarous ear," which was 
levelled only at anybody who might maintain 
that "amongst these," for example, is more 
pleasing to his ear than "among these." It 
cannot be proved that Milton's frequent use 
of amidst and betwixt was dictated by any 
such liking. His sense with respect to these 
words was blunted, but probably he had never 
considered the matter, and the failing is ex- 
cusable in a writer of two hundred and fifty 
years ago. We cannot look for the same pitch 
of melodiousness in him as in Tennyson, who 
abhorred, with Wordsworth, amidst, amongst, 
and whilst, though, unlike Wordsworth, he 
failed to perceive that betwixt, ending in three 
consonantal sounds, cst, is as ill-sounding as 
the other three words, and therefore to 
be banished from the poetical vocabulary. 
Whether he, too, would have eschewed this 
word had its discordance with his rule been 
pointed out by his critics must remain in the 
region of speculation. F. ADAMS. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

It is certain that Milton preferred amidst 
to amid, for I find it ten times in his poetry. 
He has used amid only three times. He has 
betwixt eight times, and between only three 
times. He prefers among to amongst, for he 
has used it at least twenty-nine times. But I 

have found amongst four times. He generally 
uses while, but has whilst in the song of 
Sabrina in 'Comus,' also in 'L' Allegro.' In 
my search for these words I may have missed 
a few of them ; but I am nearly right. I have 
not looked into the least important of Milton's 
poems. What I have written above is enough 
to show that Milton had no dislike to the 
consonantal combination st, which is exceed- 
ingly harmonious, as may be seen in such 
words as Astracan, Astarte, Bubastis, Istakhar. 
I will add that I have found both amongst and 
whilst in Shakspeare's 'Tempest' ; and I know 
no language more euphonious than what is 
in this play. There is amongst in 'Timon 
of Athens,' betwixt in 'Midsummer Night's 
Dream,' whilst in ' Hamlet,' and the ivhilst in 
' Cymbeline.' Betwixt and whiht are common 
in the plays of Shakspeare ; but the other 
words about which I nave written are not 
so frequent in his poetry as they are in that 
of Milton. Finally for it is unnecessary to 
carry the matter much further I have met 
with amidst and whilst in the poetry of 
Shelley, with amongst in the ' Faerie Queen ' 
of Spenser, with amidst in * Gertrude of Wyo- 
ming ' and in another poem by Campbell, with 
betivixt in ' The Princess ' and in several other 
poems of Tennyson ; and I have concluded 
that they are m all good English poetry. 
Though the poets are not always allowed as 
authorities in questions of grammar, undoubt- 
edly they are judges of euphony. 


To my "barbarous ear" the condemned 
forms are more adhesively penetrative and 
pungent, the others more loosely and dis- 
tributively locative : I confess a weakness for 
barbarous forms. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

" HEAR, HEAR ! " (4 th S. ix. 200, 229, 285 ; 
6 th S. xii. 346 ; 8 th S. iv. 447 ; v. 34 ; vi. 518 ; 
xi. 31, 95 9 th S. i. 216.) In the ' H.E.D.' no 
reference is given to the use of any variant 
of this form of applause between 1689, when 
obviously it was very uncommon, and 1762, 
when it is quoted only from Foote's 'Orators.' 
At the earlier date it was used in Parliament, 
but it was not in Parliamentary use ; and it 
would seem to have come into general vogue 
in the acute struggle between Walpole and 
the Opposition in the reign of George II. 
"Sir Will. Lowther," wrote Col. the Hon. 
Charles Howard, on 30 March, 1733, to his 
father, Lord Carlisle, describing a debate in 
the House of Commons, "spoke short, but 
close to the purpose, and had very loud 
heerum's from the Ministerial Bench"; and 
on 30 January, 1734/5, Sir Thomas Kobinson 
informed the same nobleman that during the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. in. FEB. is, '99. 

discusgion of the Address " the Master of the 
Rolls [Sir Joseph Jekyll] got up, and before 
he sat down, cnanged nis opinion seven times, 
and as often the party which thought they 
had got him roared out the Hear Aim" ('His- 
torical MSS. Commission, Fifteenth Report,' 
Appendix part vi. pp. 105, 147). It is of 
significance, however, that, although the 
earliest "Hear, hear," supplied in the'H.E.D.' 
is from the lips of George Grenville in 1769, 
the Speaker rebuked its use in the next year, 
when that statesman himself was accorded the 
same meed of applause : " I beg the House 
will be silent ; I am sure that it is disorderly "; 
and it is interesting to add the illustrative 
quotation of 1832 from Carlyle's article in 
the Edinburgh Review upon ' Corn Law 
Rhymes': "Farewell, a long farewell to all 
his greatness : the spirit-stirring Vote, ear- 
piercing Hear ; Balaam's occupation gone." 


CARDINAL Rossi (9 th S. ii. 129, 175). If MR. 
J. H. MITCHINER will refer to the two latest 
works on this subject, D'Anvers or Quatrieme 
de Ouincy, he will find that the lost works of 
Raphael are the following : 

The Birth of Christ (painting). 

The Coronation of the Virgin (tapestry). 

Cupids at Play, &c. (five tapestries). 

Portrait of Raphael (engraved). 

Portrait of Guilderbaldo, Duke of Urbino. 

Portrait of Ant. Tebalden. 

The Annunciation. 

Small painting in his paternal home. 

The Funeral of the Virgin. 

The Last Judgment. 

St. Jerome. 

Mary Magdalene. 

Portrait of Lorenzo di Medici. 

The Stoning of Stephen (cartoon). 

Conversion of St. Paul (cartoon). 

St. Paul in the Dungeon at Philippi (cartoon). 
. The Adoration of the Kings (cartoon). 

Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus (cartoon). 

Massacre of the Innocents (cartoon). 

The Ascension (cartoon). 

Twenty-four in all. YDOLTOREC. 

BEETLE AND WEDGE (9 th S. ii. 506). Once a 
Week, 25 Aug., 1865, vol. xiii. 254 : 

" He stepped back and looked up. There was 
no mistake ; the sign of the Beetle and Wedge 
stood out as heretofore large in conception, vigor- 
ous in colour and execution. This symbol of the 
Beetle and Wedge had its origin in the old days, 
when the silvery Thames rolled its unpolluted and 
capacious waters between banks shrouded in woods, 
and when the mallet, the wedge, and sturdy Saxon 
arms were required to clear the forest solitudes. In 
the present instance the sign was the work of the 
modern village artist, who, instead of a mallet, 
which the old word beetle was intended to express, 
had thought fit to paint an enormous black insect 
standing on a wedge. It was a wonderful piece of 
pre-Raphaelite execution the very cast of the 

creature's countenance was conscientiously ren- 
dered. A fancy wreath of lesser beetles and wedges 
enclosed an inscription." 

This sign is not amongst those in the ' His- 
tory ' but the bear and ragged staff is attri- 
buted indifferently to the Warwick and to 
the Dudley family. The "three-man beetle" 
was probably such an extra-large one as was 
called a "commander," and used by steve- 
dores in stowing cargo. 


MRS. YATES (9 th S. iii. 49). I cannot settle 
URBAN'S inquiry as to this actress's Christian 
name, but I can throw some light on one or 
two other points. By Romney's picture of 
'Tragedy and Comedy' I presume URBAN 
means the well-known one of 'Shakespeare 
nursed by Comedy and Tragedy.' The face 
of "Comedy" is undoubtedly taken from Lady 
Hamilton. I have never before met with the 
suggestion that Mrs. Yates sat for " Tragedy," 
and doubt very much whether it could be 
substantiated. It is not known when Rom- 
ney painted this very fine picture, but its 
date is certainly not much earlier than 1787. 
Mrs. Yates died in 1787. "Tragedy" in Rorn- 
ney's picture is quite a young woman. This 
picture was engraved in 1803 by Benjamin 
Smith, and again, six years later, by Caroline 
Watson for Hayley's 'Life of Romney.' 
Romney, however, did paint a character 
portrait of Mrs. Yates as ' The Tragic Muse 
(Melpomene).' This picture, a whole-length, 
was exhibited in 1771 at the Society of 
Artists, Spring Gardens, and is No. 139 in 
the catalogue. It passed into the possession 
of Boydell, to whom it became a "white 
elephant." Three attempts were made to sell 
it at Christie's from 1810 to 1822, but in 1824 
it was knocked down for 101. to "Johnson." 
On 1 April, 1897, it was sold at Robinson & 
Fisher's, Willis's Rooms, for 405 guineas to 
Mr. Martin Colnaghi. A mezzotint of this 
picture was engraved by Valentine Green 
and published 18 May, 1772, and one of the 
publishers was J. Boydell. 

There is another Yates -Romney point 
which requires elucidating. In 1770 Rom- 
ney exhibited at the Society of Artists, 
Spring Gardens, two pictures named 'Mirth' 
and ' Melancholy.' These were engraved on 
separate plates as ' L' Allegro ' and ' II Penseroso,' 
by Robert Dunkarton, and published 1 Oct., 
1771. The former is "said" to be a portrait 
of Mrs. Jordan and the latter of Mrs. Yates. 
This statement is probably correct. Towards 
the end of his career Romney painted on one 
canvas 'II Penseroso and L' Allegro,' which 
are also " said " to be portraits of Mrs. Yates 
and Mrs. Jordan respectively ; this was en- 



graved in stipple by John Jones, and pub 
lished 4 Jan., 1799. It is certainly wrong t 
state that the portraits are of these two ladies 
The catalogue of the Romney sale at Christie' 
in 1807 distinctly states that in this "mucl 
admired picture " of ' Mirth and Melancholy 
both portraits are from Miss Wallis, an< 
" were designed to shew the equal degree o 
excellence of that late accomplished actres 
in either walk of the drama." The saL 
catalogue was prepared under the direction 
of Romney's only son and biographer, who 
had for several years assisted his father in 
his accounts. The picture was not sold, bu 
was bought at auction in 1834 by the Earl o 
Egremont. As that title is extinct, I do no 
know where this fine work of Roraney's is a 
the present time. W. ROBERTS. 

Carlton Villa, Klea Avenue, Clapham. 

Mrs. Yates in her letter to Garrick signec 
herself "M. A. Yates" (see ' Garrick's Private 
Correspondence'). In Garrick's instructions 
for drawing up articles of agreement for Mrs 
Yates's engagement at Drury Lane she is 
described as Mary Ann Yates ; and the 
slab to her memory near the altar-rails in 
Richmond Church bears, I believe, a lik 
inscription. ROBERT WALTERS. 

Ware Priory. 

DAMAGE TO BRIDGE (9 th S. iii. 48). The 
notice which has attracted MR. PEET'S atten- 
tion is but a brief extract from an Act passed 
on 6 August, 1861, entitled "An Act to con- 
solidate and amend the Statute Law of 
England and Ireland relating to Malicious 
Injuries to Property." Section 33 reads that 

"whosoever shall unlawfully and maliciously pull 
or throw down, or in any wise destroy, any bridge, 
whether over any stream of water or not, or " do 
any injury with intent, and so render such bridge 
dangerous and impassable, shall be guilty of felony, 
and, being convicted thereof, shall be liable, at the 
discretion of the court, to be kept in penal servitude 
for life, or for any term not less than three years." 

Possibly from the way the notice is put the 
impression is given that the warning, with 
its pains and penalties, is applicable only to 
that particular bridge, whereas, as the statute 
cites, "any bridge" is included. 



The portentous inscription referred to by 
MR. PEET is not very uncommon in parts. 
Stanford's 'Tourist's Guide to Dorsetshire' 
'1882) mentions a similar one in the Char- 
Valley, near B rid port ; and I myself, in 1887, 
loticed the like on a bridge between Ware- 
lam railway station and town. The Char 
Valley inscription speaks of " transportation 

for life," which refers to a state of things 
before the Malicious Injuries to Property 
Act, 1861, under which penal servitude to the 
same extent is incurred. W. B. H. 

SIMEON SLINGSBY (9 th S. iii. 50). This 
would appear to be the same person as Simon 
Slingsby, the celebrated dancer (above all 
those of his day, according to Lee Lewes) of 
the Opera-House, Drury Lane, and Dublin 
theatres, who died at West Cowes in 1811. 
From 1774 to 1777 he was joint manager with 
Jefferson of the Richmond Green Theatre. 

125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 

JOHN KING, D.D. (9 th S. iii. 68). John 
King, Master of the Charterhouse, is de- 
scribed in ' Alumni Oxonierises ' as the son 
of Thomas King, " of Harwich, Essex, gent." 
According to Mr. Foster, King died on 
4 August, 1737, aged eighty-two. His niece 
Mary King, who died in December, 1719, aged 
thirty -four, is described on a memorial tablet 
in West Wycombe Church as " daughter of 
Major King, of the kingdom of Ireland, and 
third wife to Sir Francis Dashwood, Bart." 
(Lipscomb's 'Hist, and Antiq. of the County 
of Buckingham/ 1847, iii. 657). 

G. F. R. B. 

THE Six CLERKS IN CHANCERY (9 th S. ii. 69, 
233). From an article in the Home Counties 
Magazine I learn that a list of the Six Clerks 
since 1545 is given in Sir Thomas Duffus 
Hardy's ' Catalogue of the Lord Chancellors ' 
(Butterworth, 1843). The City Press of 
30 August, 1879, contains a long, interesting, 
and instructive notice on the " Six Clerks in 
'hancery," their successors in office, and the 
houses" they lived in. It is condensed 
Tom a pamphlet by Mr. T. W. Braithwaite, 
Messrs. Stevens & Haynes publishers. 

It may not be generally known that when 
the office, which was built in 1778, was dis- 
mantled, the fine old oak found a resting- 
place in the Royal Courts of Justice. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

THE DOMESDAY "MANSIO" (9 th S. ii. 326, 
35). The Mr. Hioll or Hall was probably 
^homas Hall, a commissioner for granting aids 
o Henry VII. in 1496, who is described as the 
rst that did bear " a chevron between three 
albots' heads," a coat that has since accom- 
>anied the name into every county (I may 
ay every hundred and city) in England. His 
on or grandson, named Francis, died in 1552, 
seised of 95 houses held of the Queen, worth 
2. 6s. 8d. p. an." Now, seeing that the entire 
manor belonged to Queen Editha, it is pretty 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. FEB. is, m 

certain that the "95 houses" included the 
original "mansio," not retained as a royal 
residence ; for in 1503 the king's daughter, 
Margaret of Scotland, "put up" at the house 
of this Mr. Hall. This family. I understand, 
farmed the salt dues for that district, and 
they owned a considerable residence, "The 
Grange" an external parish described as 
the Manor of Earlsfields ; it was, and is, an 
estate comprising several acres of land. This 
land was sold in 1588 under pressure, when 
its then owner was confined in the Marshalsea 
Prison for one of his many misdemeanours. 

A. H. 

(9 th S. ii. 408). To the example given, " He 
should take care that she affirmed," i.e., "that 
she should affirm," many others might be 
added from Browning's poetry ; e.g., in 
I would hate that death bandaged my eyes and 

bade me creep past. 

Maetzner in his ' English Grammar,' vol. i. 
p. 325, Grece's translation, says : 

" The forms of the conjunctive, except in the 
present of verbs, have become almost totally un- 
recognizable, or those of the indicative have taken 
their place, so that even the existence of a conjunc- 
tive is denied." 

In the verb paradigm, however, on p. 328, 
"bound" is given as the preterite conjunc- 
tive. A familiar instance is the journalistic 
notice : " It is time that this correspondence 
closed" C. LAWRENCE FORD, B.A. 


BLOTTING PAPER (1 st S. viii. 104, 185 ; 2 nd S. 
xii. 454 ; 3 rd S. iv. 497). The ' H.E.D.' gives 
references to Herman's ' Vulgaria' (1519) and 
Brinsley's ' Ludus Literarius' (1612). As 
early allusions to blotting paper are uncom- 
mon, I would add an instance in Otes on 
Jude ; date of utterance, about 1602 ; of pub- 
lication in print, 1633 : " Our shields and 
swords are of blotting paper, not of steele." 

Portland, Oregon. 

PiLLATERY (9 th S. ii. 427). Pellitory-of-the- 
wall (Parietaria officinalis) must not be con- 
founded with pellitory - of - Spain (Anacyclus 
pyrethrum}. Both had formerly a good repute 
in medicine, and the latter still has a place in 
our pharmacopoeia. It is a powerful stimulant 
to the salivary glands, and is sometimes 
used in cases of paralysis of the tongue, and ! 
more frequently as a mouthwash and cure 
for toothache. Folkard ('Plant-Lore') very 
unjustly classes it with plants used only for 
charms and spells. 

Pellitory-of-the-wall, too, though no longer 
official, is really an excellent diuretic, owing 
;o the nitre it contains ; but, in spite of MR. 
EIATCLIFFE'S informant, it is not (like the 
Dackwoods doctor) "a stunner on fits." Even 
Lyte and Gerard do not recommend it for 
these, though they give a ^goodly list of ail- 
ments against which it is useful. It had 
iormerly many names, most of which explain 
themselves, as perdicalis, perniciades, vitreola, 
nitrago, herba muralis, &c. C. C. B. 

MR. RATCLIFFE has evidently nearly got 
the old style of spelling pellitory. William 
Turner in his 'Herbal,' 1561, bk. ii.fol. 13, gives 
parietori or pillitore of the wall, also pellitore 
ind parietariam. Gerard supplies the fol- 
lowing additional names : " Vrceolarus and 
ritraria, because it was used to secure glasses, 
pipkins, and such like. Perdicium of par- 
tridges, which sometimes feed thereon." 


MINUTES AND SECONDS (9 th S. ii. 509 ; iii. 16, 
71). The use of seconds is much older than 
seems to be supposed by PROF. SKEAT. At 
least twenty-five centuries B.C. the Baby- 
lonians used a sexagesimal system of nota- 
tion, consisting of sari and sossi, of which we 
have vestiges when we reckon sixty minutes 
to the hour and sixty seconds to the minute, or 
3,600 seconds that is, a saros of sossi to the 
hour. That we count twelve pence to the 
shilling and twenty shillings to the pound, 
twelve inches to the foot, twenty-four hours 
to the day, three hundred and sixty degrees 
of longitude round the equator, ninety degrees 
of latitude from the equator to the poles, and 
sixty miles to a degree, may also be traced to 
the same duodecimal Babylonian system of 
numeration, which originally reckoned sixty 
shekels to the mina and sixty minas to the 
talent. All these numbers are factors or 
multiples of the saros or sixty. Our measures 
of time, money, of linear and angular space, 
are all derived from the Greeks, who obtained 
them from the Babylonians, probably through, 
the Phoenicians. ISAAC TAYLOR. 


NING (9 th S. iii. 26). Richard Baxter's " Withi- 
comb in Devonshire" is Widecombe-in-the- 
Moor (pronounced Widdicombe), not Withy- 
combe Raleigh. If MR. LYNN will turn up the 
place in any Devonshire guide-book he will 
find a notice of the catastrophe, a terrible 
one. In ' An Exploration of Dartmoor,' by J. 
LI. Warden Page (London, 1889), full particu- 
lars are given from contemporary authorities. 
Baxterseems to have had before him the narra- 
tive reproduced by Prince in his 'Worthies of 

9 th S. III. FEB. 18, '99.] 



Devon,' which Mr. Page quotes at length 
The date of the occurrence was Sunday, 2" 
October, 1638, during afternoon service ; s< 
bhat Baxter, whose 'Saints' Everlasting Best 
was first published in 1649-50, was alluding to 
in event well known to many of his readers. 

0. S. WARD. 
Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke. 

The parish church was struck by lightning 
on Sunday, 21 October, 1638, during the time 
of service. MR. LYNN will find an account of it 
both in verse and prose, in Lysons's 'Magna 
Britannia ' (vol. vi. part ii. pp. 557-9). There 
is a reprint of "A Second and most exact 
Relation of those sad and lamentable Acci- 
dents, which happened about the Church o1 
Wydecombe, near the Dartmoors in Devon- 
shire, on Sunday the 21st of October last, 
1638," &c., in the third volume of ' The Har- 
leian Miscellany ' (pp. 220-8). 

G. F. R. B. 

"RUMMER" (8 th S. x. 452 ; xi. 270, 395 ; xii 
17, 198; 9 th S. iii. 36, 77). In Gerspach's 
* L'Art de la Verrerie ' the principal kinds of 
German glasses are named, and we find among 
them, " Romer : verre de la forme classique 
des verres a vin du Rhin " (p. 274) ; and 
that the word may mean " Roman glass." He 
says I expand his abbreviations "Rb'mer, 
'grimes bauchiges Weinglas,' erst neuhoch- 
deutsch ; entsprechend niederlandisch roemer, 
English rummer, ' romisches Glas ' ? " 

There is a German ballad entitled 'Das 
romische Glas.' It tells of a young knight 
drinking with his comrades in a barge upon 
the Rhine, and holding up his "romisches 
Glas " to pledge a maiden whom he sees upon 
a hill. That night the youth had troubled 
dreams about her 

Als ob sein herzallerliebster Schatz 

Ins Kloster gangen war ; 

and he takes horse, rides to the convent door, 
and summons his love, who comes in white 
attire, with close-cropped hair, and bids him 
farewell for evermore. 

Er vor dem Kloster niedersass, 
Und sah in's tiefe tiefe Thai : 
Versprang ihm wohl sein romisch Glas, 
Versprang ihm wohl sein Herz. 

Evidently there was something uncannily 
sympathetic about this particular rummer. 
One is strongly tempted to make a vulgar pun, 
unworthy of ' N. & Q.' ! 

A year or two ago I came on some lines 
(in what I think was an eighteenth-century 
hand) in a book of scraps and "elegant ex- 
tracts " belonging to the library of the Dean 
and Chapter of York, which I will try to 

remember for the sake of their humour and 
because they have the rhyme rummer and 
summer referred to by PROF. SKEAT. They 
ran something like this : 

He complained that he was cold, 
And drank rummer after rummer, 
Until swallow after swallow 
Made him think that it was summer. 


SILVER LADLE (9 th S. iii. 28). It is, I think, 
not uncommon to find coins inserted at the 
bottom of silver ladles of the last century, 
sometimes of gold, sometimes of the same 
metal as the ladle itself. I think also that on 
crown pieces of the older description the year 
of the reign and the motto " Decus et tuta- 
men" are always to be found. If the coin 
referred to by MR. SHERRING bears the date 
1787, " tricesimo" must surely be a mistake. 

H. R. J. 

I am the possessor of one answering the 
description, with a George III. guinea at the 
bottom (date 1787), which has no inscription 
on the edge. D. R. DOSSETOR. 

My "brother has a silver ladle which be- 
longed to our grandfather. It is two inches 
and a quarter in diameter and one inch deep, 
ornamented all round with roses and other 
flowers in repousse work. The bottom is 
formed by a Spanish silver coin a trifle larger 
than a shilling " Carolus . III. Dei . Gratia . 
1773 " " Hispan. et . Ind. Rex. M. 2 R. F.M." 
There is no hall-mark. W. C. B. 

These punch ladles are frequently to be met 
with, many of them being, like this specimen 
inquired about by MR. SHERRING, beaten 
out of crown pieces, on the milling edge of 
which appears this motto. 


These articles are hardly rare, for an ex- 
ample may easily be obtained from a dealer 
in old silver ; but a good specimen is always 
pretty and interesting. A punch ladle which 
belonged to my great-great-great-grandfather 
is in the possession of a relative. In it is 
nserted a shilling of 1742, and there are the 
lall-mark and the initials T. W. M. Half 
of the original twisted ebony handle, with 
silver joints, is attached to the ladle. I believe 
this is a rather early example. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

The coin referred to is a crown piece of 
Greorge III., and the inscription round the 
rim of the bowl is the usual inscription around 
:he rim of crown pieces. Irom the descrip- 
tion of the ladle it does not appear where the 
join was placed, most probably at the bottom ; 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. FEB. is, 

and, if so, the outer rim may have been cut 
off around the coin, and placed so as to form 
the rim of the bowl. Of course the date of 
the coin is the thirty-third year of George III. 
I do not suppose that ladles with coins inserted 
are rare. A. G. REID. 


G. H. LEWES AND LOCKE (9 th S. iii. 25). MR. 
BRESLAR asks when the pineapple was first 
introduced into England. The answer is, in 
1690, the year in which Locke's 'Essay 'was 
published ; but it had been cultivated in 
Holland before then, and it was William's 
friend Bentinck who first cultivated it here. 
The name was originally given, both in Hol- 
land and in England, to the fir-cone, and what 
we now call pineapples Gerard calls pine- 
thistles. C. G. B. 

The pineapple " was first cultivated in hot- 
houses in Holland and England at the end of 
the seventeenth century" (Pavy's 'Food and 
Dietetics,' p. 319). 


["Kin Kina," after the meaning of which MR. 
BRESLAR inquires, is quinine.] 

" XMAS " (9 th S. iii. 27). The Greek letters 
X and P formed so ancient and well known a 
monogram of our Lord's name that one does 
not see why Xmas should be offensive. Our 
forefathers commonly wrote Xpofer for 
Christopher. W. C. B. 

" Xmas " = Christmas formed the subject of 
a communication to ' N. & Q.' (see 7 th S. ix. 
447, 513), when a correspondent pointed out 
that X had nothing to do with the " cross," 
but was the Greek equivalent to Ch, and so 
the initial letter of the Greek name Christos. 
I am not able to trace when the contraction 
was first used, but think it must have been of 
a more recent date than fifty years ago. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

192, 517; iii. 57). Such a book as Hogg and 
Johnson's 'Wild Flowers' should never be 
consulted for etymology. Considering that 
the slip in cowslip refers to cow-dung (see 
'H.E.D.'), the reference to "the sweetness of 
its perfume" is somewhat unhappy. And 
considering that the g in paigle is hard (like 
the g in go), it cannot possibly be referred to 
late Latin pagdlus. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

"SNIPERS" (8 th S. xii. 128, 150, 237, 438). 
Mr. Chamberlain's description of Sir William 
Harcourt as a "sniper," noted at the lasl 
reference, was not the first political use oi 
the idea embodied in the word, George 

Selwyn, writing to Lord Carlisle on 1 April, 
.782, during a keen political crisis, observed : 

"Now people have been shot by platoons and in 
3orps, the individual will be popped at^ or sniped, 
is they call it, from time to time, as Lord Sh[elburne] 
jr Lord R[ockingham] sees occasion, or as it suits 
;heir present humour." 'Historical MSS. Com- 
mission, Fifteenth Report,' Appendix, pt, vi. p. 621. 

This carries the use of the word back much 
! urther than our recent " little wars." 


The American Revolution. Parti. 1766-1776. By 

the Right Hon. Sir George Otto Trevelyan, Bart. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

THE circumstances under which the first instalment 
of Sir George Trevelyan's history of the American 
Revolution sees the light were immediately and 
exhaustively explained by the daily papers, which 
are able to devote an ample space to reviews, 
and, in the case of a work of importance, indulge in 
a competition as to which shall be first in the field. 
When the armada has sailed past little is left to 
the swarm of smaller vessels except to pick up the 
ddbris which has been regarded as not likely to 
repay the trouble of collection. A few points on 
which it is possible to insist remain, however, to 
reward attention. What from the point of view 
of American readers may seem least satisfactory 
may perhaps be regarded by Englishmen as its 
chief attraction. To Englishmen it comes rather 
as a history of England than of America. The 
point of view is as American as it can well be, 
and the arraignment of an obstinate monarch, a 
servile Court, and a corrupt Parliament is more 
vigorous than it would probably have been in the 
hands of an American writer under the conditions 
that now happily prevail. Still, the picture pre- 
sented of English stupidity and unreasonableness is 
more stirring and more vivid than that of the suffer- 
ing and oppression that drove the pick of our own 
race into revolt. The book is, in fact, as the author 
indicates in his preface, practically a continuation 
of his ' Early History of Charles James Fox.' The 
story of Fox between 1774 and 1782 is, Sir George 
states, "inextricably interwoven with the story of 
the American Revolution. That immense event 
filled his mind and consumed his activities, while 
every circumstance about him worth relating may 
find a natural place in the course of the narrative 
which bears upon it." After or at the outbreak of 
war the scene is naturally transferred to Boston. 
The pictures of the oppression that drove into 
rebellion the most peaceful and loyal of peoples 
are not painted with special skill, and those of 
Lexington and Bunker's Hill are not very stimu- 
lating. On the other hand, the account of the con- 
dition of affairs in England is very striking, and the 
story of pigheadedness, rapacity, and mismanage- 
ment is told in admirably effective style. Nowhere, 
not even in the records of life in France at the same 
period, do we meet with blindness and incapacity 
such as were then apparent. For those whose occu- 
pation it was to defraud the Government and rob 
the people the good times were never going to end, 

9* s. m. FEB. 18/99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Vhen the war was in full swing, and the beleaguer- 
ng army of Howe was itself beleaguered and com- 
piled, not without a species of connivance on the 
>art of Washington, to withdraw from Boston, the 
nuch-needed reinforcements, instead of being sent 
>y men-of-war, were kept tossing about on wretched 
mlks ; financiers and people in high places would 
not surrender their commission on the hire of 
trading vessels. A farmer-general of finances in 
3 "ranee could scarcely have done better. Some day, 
perhaps, the world will learn how many battles 
have been lost and how many thousands of lives 
have been sacrificed to the greed of such. We 
know few books that supply pictures of life in 
England in the latter half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury more animated than Sir George presents. 
There are books enough in which the drunken, 
rakehelly proceedings of the time are depicted. 
The selection, however, is in this case the best that 
could easily have been made. It is positively 
saddening to hear how Fox, who read hard at 
Hertford College, where he would gladly have 
remained, was drawn back by his father " into the 
vortex of idleness and dissipation." The most 
sinister figure in Sir George's pages is the king 
himself. The first volume closes with what is 
cynically regarded as the triumph of the king : 
" George the Third had at length accomplished his 
purpose. He had rooted out frankness, courage, and 
independence from the councils of the State; but 
he had pulled up along with them other qualities 
which his policy, when brought to a head, could 
not afford to dispense with. His Cabinet was now 
exclusively composed of men willing to pursue ends 
which he dictated, but incapable of discerning, or 
rightly directing, the means by which alone these 
ends could be attained." At the close of the his- 
tory, so far as it is given, Boston is abandoned, the 
royal fleet has gone for good, and the American 
cruisers pick up at their leisure the transports 
bringing out the tardy reinforcements. Upwards 
of two hundred Highlanders reach Boston not as 
conquerors, but as prisoners of war. For the 
beginning of the next volume Sir George reserves 
the repulse of the British fleet off Charleston, 
Carolina, and the Declaration of Independence. 
His first volume will be closely studied in two 
continents. Americans, at least, will not charge it 
with blindness to their interests or injustice to their 



Essays on Dante. By Dr. Karl Witte. Selected, 
translated, and edited by C. Mabel Lawrence, 
B.A., and Philip H. Wicksteed, M.A. (Duck- 
worth & Co.) 

'o the student of Dante and who is not now a 
student of Dante ? this selection from the ' Dante- 
Forschungen ' of Karl Witte is a boon. When as a 
youth Witte issued his ' Ueber das Missverstandniss 
Dantes ' the study of Dante north of the Alps was 
just beginning. The date of the article, which first 
appeared in Hermes, was 1824, just ten years after 
/he appearance in England of Gary's translation. 
For more than half a century he continued to pour 
forth criticisms, reviews, and studies, until he 
became the principal figure in the Dante revival 
which is one of the most marked features of the 
atter half of the nineteenth century. It is satis- 
'actory to have in a compact and handy volume a 
selection of what is of permanent value in Witte's 
writings on Dante. In a modest and sensible pre- 
; ace Mr. Wicksteed confesses his doubts as to 

whether his selection will be accepted as the best 
that could have been made. He may console him- 
self with the reflection that it is adequate. Much 
that Witte says, as his editor owns, is contro- 
vertible, and recent study of Dante has been so 
close as to leave Witte in some respects belated. 
Most of what is here given has value, and is wel- 
come. Neither the appearance of the book nor its 
handiness would have been improved, nor would 
the English reader have profited, had Mr. Wick- 
steed included reviews of German translations of 
Dante and other like matters which are of transitory 
and ephemeral interest. It would be worse than 
useless to give a list of the contents, which, how- 
ever, naturally include the ' Essays on Dante's 
Trilogy,' the interesting popular lecture on ' Dante's 
Cosmography,' the article on ' Dante and the Conti 
Guidi,' that on the then recently discovered letters of 
Dante, and the rather controversial study of ' Dante 
and United Italy.' The share of the two translators 
in the book is explained in a note. C. Mabel 
Lawrence is responsible for the translations from 
the German, and Mr. Wicksteed for those from 
the Italian and for the revision and editing of the 
whole. His are the excellent introduction, and 
the notes and appendices, which are eminently 

The Tatler. Edited by George A. Aitken. Vols. 

III. and IV. (Duckworth & Co.) 
THE concluding volumes of Mr. Aitken's edition 
of the Tatler are naturally no less carefully anno- 
tated and edited than the two earlier volumes, 
for which see 9 th S. ii. 460. The notes are numer- 
ous and helpful, if occasionally rather timid, as 
when, in vol. iv., 'The Rivals,' 1668, a play, is 
said to be attributed to Sir William Davenant. 
It would have been better to say it is by Sir 
William Davenant, or preferably D'Avenant. 
' The Rivals ' is an adaptation of the ' Two Noble 
Kinsmen.' The information that the singing by 
Mary Davis of "My lodging is on the cold ground/' 
introduced into the performance of this piece, 
caused Charles II. to take her off' the stage rests on 
the authority of Downes's ' Roscius Anglicanus,' but 
is, in fact, inaccurate. This edition of the Tatler is 
the best in all respects we possess, and, so far as 
can be judged, may well be final. The third 
volume has a portrait of Swift, the fourth a fancy 
sketch of Bickerstaff. The index is commendably 
full. It is a pleasure to read our old essayists in so 
attractive and scholarly an edition. 

Old English Social Life as told ly the Parish 

Registers. By T. F. Thiselton Dyer. (Stock.) 
MB. THISELTON DYER'S name as a worker in the 
field of antiquarian research is already known to 
us. In the volume he has just issued he tells the 
world at large how and in what manner parish 
registers illustrate the social life of our long-dead 
ancestors. If the author can make the general 
public regard parish registers from any other point 
of view than that of pedigree tracing, he will 
indeed have accomplished a great work. The view 
usually taken of these important documents is that 
for tracing the descent of titles and property they 
are necessary; but few people realize their great 
use in showing us one side of the life led in this 
country during the later Middle Ages. Mr. 
Thiselton Dyer has succeeded in compiling a very 
useful book, which by giving extracts from the 
documents themselves will show to those who could 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th B. m. FEB. is, m 

not read the originals what an immense amount of 
useful information is contained in our old registers. 
The register of St. Peter's, Cornhill, has under the 
year 1593 the following written in the margin : 
" Thear dyed in London in all, 25,886. 
" Of them of the plague in all, 15,003. 
" Within the walls and liberties, 8,598. 
" Without, in and out of liberties, 17,288.' 
Then follow these two entries : 
Innumeros quamius consumpsit morbida p'estis 
Seruait dominus rueq' domumq' mean). 
In a thousand five hundred ninety and three 
The Lord preserved my house and mee, 
When of the pestilence there died 
Full maine a thousand els beeside. 
Many people have no conception of the havoc 
wrought by the plague in England during the Middle 
Ages and' down till 1666. The great outburst of 
this pestilence in that year so stamped itself on 
men's minds that all previous ravages are forgotten. 
We can only say in conclusion that this book is 
brightly written, and ought to prove useful and 
entertaining to whoever reads it. 

The Saga-Book of the Viking Club. Vol. II. Part I. 


THE papers in the present issue are of various 
degrees of interest, but all are well worth attention. 
We do not know how continental Scandinavians 
may class them, but to us who are of mixed blood, 
with a copious blend of Norwegian, as we believe, 
mixed with that of Angle, Saxon, Celt, and the 
nameless races beyond, it appears that Miss A. 
Goodrich-Freer's essay on 'The Norsemen in the 
Hebrides' is by far the most important. Though 
tourists visit the islands, very few of them remain 
long enough to understand the place or the people, 
and as a consequence they bring but a scant supply 
of knowledge away with them when they turn their 
faces southward. Miss Goodrich-Freer knows the 
Hebrides well, and her linguistic attainments 
render what she says of far more value than any 
number of those clever guesses with which incom- 
petent people are often so inordinately self- 

The reports of the meetings are too much con- 
densed, but contain several things worthy of 
attention. For instance, we may mention that Mr. 
W. G. Collingwood has dwelt on a truth which 
many of us forget, namely, that "it was Gray who 
first roused the interest of people in this country in 
Northern literature." Few people in these days 
know much of Gray beyond the ' Elegy,' but his 
Norse translations, which he called 'The Fatal 
Sisters' and 'The Descent of Odin,' though bearing 
the impress of the time at which they were written, 
are not only noble English verse, but have retained 
some of the spirit of their originals. 

We agree with Mr. F. T. N orris when he enters 
a protest against the notion that the Norse place- 
names in Wales were due to the Normans, for the 
simple reason that our forefathers ere they left 
Normandy had lost their old speech and acquired 
the language of those among whom they dwelt ; but 
we cannot follow him as to some of the equivalents 
he finds for the names of certain places in Wales 
and others in the valley of the Thames. 

CASHIRE,' from the able pen of Col. Fishwick, F.S. A., 
will shortly be issued by subscription. Full infor- 

mation concerning many local families, with pedi- 
grees in some cases, will be given in what cannot 
fail to be a well-executed and an important book. 
Intending subscribers should apply to Col. Fish- 
wick, The Heights, Rochdale. 

MR. THOMAS ELLISTON, of Sudbury, Suffolk, has 
contributed to the Church Times an important 
letter upon the restoration of ancient churches. 

WE heard too late for record last week the 
news of the death of Mr. Walter Hamilton, a not 
infrequent contributor to our columns. Mr. Hamil- 
ton, who was born in London in 1844 and educated 
in France, was specially interested in parodies, a 
collection of which, in six volumes, he published. 
He was a member of several societies, and a vice- 
president of the Ex-Libris Society, in the proceed- 
ings of which he took much interest. His ' Dated 
Book-plates ' and his ' French Book-plates ' are held 
in much estimation. Their appearance was duly 
noted in our columns. Mr. Hamilton also wrote 
' The Poets Laureate of England.' That he was ill 
had been known to his friends. His death, how- 
ever, which took place on the 1st inst., was not 

WE hear with much regret of the death, on the 
7th inst., at Diss Rectory, Norfolk, of the Rev. 
Charles Robertson Manning, M.A., F.S.A., Honor- 
ary Canon of Norwich, Rural Dean of Redenhall, 
and for forty-two years rector of Diss. Mr. Man- 
ning, who was seventy-three years of age, had been 
a frequent contributor to our columns, though of 
late his communications had been fewer than they 
were some years ago. Mr. Manning was a well- 
known antiquary, wrote a book on monumental 
brasses, and contributed papers to many learned 

^txrtir^s i0 Ctfrmjnjwfrewis. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

T. L. HEELIS ("The Origin of Visiting Cards"). 
See 'N. & Q.,' 1 st S. iv. 133, 195, 243; 2 nd S. ii. 514; 
8 th S. iv. 486; vi. 67, 116, 196, 272, 332; viii. 158; 
ix. 172, 475 ; x. 243. 

OLD SUBSCRIBER (ante, p. 89). Please send full 
name and address. We have a letter for you. 

CORRIGENDUM. P. 71, col. 1, 1. 35, for " Edmund 
Bull" read Edward Bull. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9 th S. III. FEB. 25, '99.] 




CONTENTS. -No. 61. 

)TES : Pickwick as a Teetotaler, 141 Literary Parallels, 
L42 Military Cemetery at Eve Leary, 143 The ' Gentle- 
nan's Magazine ' Montaigne and East Anglia, 144" Sir " 
is a Prefix Hay ward Prices in 1734 Proverb concerning 
Dogs " Parley's Penny Library," 145 ' Tom Tit Tot' 
Lord Bllenborough on India and Egypt Name-System on 
he Gold Coast " Huchown of the Awle Ryale" Holy 
Trinity, Minories, 146 ' Shakspeare and the Faust 
Legend,' 147. 

QBRIES : Broadside Heylin Wellington and GrassinS, 
147 Ewer and Thurloe Nag's Head Trevis Family 
Lavinia "To kiss the hare's toot" Maginus Bedfont 
Taking the Pledge Illegal, 148 North- Country Verse 
Wanted W. Cornwallis R. Dewhurst Sundials J. Wat- 
kins Parliament Cakes Bedell Easter "The Rabbi 
Lion of Prague" Authors Wanted, 149. 
BPLIBS : St. Peter's, Wolverhampton, 149 Wordsworth 
Tolling Church Bells Reference to Quotation Sir T. 
More's Ancestry, 151 Hands without Hair Maxwell's 
Herodian ' " An ice " ' ' T'esquinte pas "Cryptography 
R. S. Godfrey Genealogy of Lord Curzon Benedict 
Arnold. 152 Dead Fold Papal Bull Mrs. Younger=John 
Finch, 153 Cecil Unwritten History The Roman 
Ghetto, 154 Sir A. Crowley London Exhibitions, 155 
"Tres tois d'or" Ministers' Letters to the Sovereign- 
Charles Young and Mrs. Young Scandal concerning 
Walpole Sewardstone Glyndyfrdwy, 156 "Ask no 
questions," &c. " Cambuscan bold" Omdurman " Pig- 
gin," 157 Rounds or Rungs Authors Wanted, 158. 
OTBS ON BOOKS : Cust's ' The Master E. S. and the 
Ars Moriendi " ' Derechef's Brunetidre's ' Manual of 
French Literature 'Piper's ' Church Towers of Somerset- 
shire ' Watson's ' Orientation and Dedications of Ancient 
Churches ' Leader's ' Records of the Burgery of Sheffield' 
Whitaker's Naval and Military Directory.' 
Notices to Correspondents. 

THE notice of Mr. George William Mac- 
Arthur Reynolds in the 'Dictionary of 
National Biography ' omits all reference to 
a curious episode in the career of one who, 
both as politician and novelist, had a very 
strong hold on the " masses," however much 
the " classes " might be inclined to put aside 
his claims. Mr. Reynolds was one of the 
many Chartist leaders, and was the author 
of the ' Mysteries of London,' the ' Mysteries 
of the Court of London,' and many novels 
and romances, which were published in 
penny numbers, and had an immense sale. 
Some of these stories still circulate in six- 
penny editions. Mr. Reynolds passed some 
time in continental travel, and imbibed a 
great admiration for French literature and 
French republicanism. One of his early 
books was a continuation of ' Don Juan,' 
another was a collection of essays on the 
' Modern Literature of France ' ; he made 
some excellent versions of Victor Hugo, and 
translated one or more of Paul de Kock's 
novels. The popularity of ' Pickwick ' led to 
many imitations, and one of these was * Pick- 
wick Abroad,' in which Mr. Reynolds carries 
the members of the famous club through 

various continental adventures. Another, 
and less -known, continuation of Dickens's 
famous story came from the fluent pen of 
Reynolds. This is * Pickwick Married,' which 
appeared in a periodical entitled the Tee- 

On 13 May, 1840, Mr. Reynolds, after 
dining with some friends at an Aldersgate 
hotel, chanced to enter the chapel in that 
street, where a temperance lecture was being 
delivered by Mr. J. H. Donaldson. After 
listening for a time he challenged the lecturer 
to a public debate. As the result of the 
discussion Mr. Reynolds signed the pledge of 
total abstinence on 13 June, and on 27 June 
there appeared under his editorship the first 
number of the Teetotaler, a folio of eight pages, 
which was issued weekly and sold for two- 
pence. It continued until 11 September, 
1841, when there appeared under the same 
editorship the Anti-Teetotaler, which claimed 
to be the organ of the United Kingdom Anti- 
Teetotal Society, and soon died (see Dawson 
Burns's ' Temperance History,' vol. i. pp. 183 
and 203). The Anti-Teetotaler I have never 
seen, but have recently had an opportu- 
nity of examining an imperfect set of the 
Teetotaler, ending with 22 May, 1841, and 
lacking the pictorial supplements which 
formed part of Mr. Reynolds's method of 
propaganda. The periodical was conducted 
with much spirit and literary skill. The 
first number contains the beginning of a 
romance entitled ' The Drunkard's Progress,' 
by the editor. The same hand contributes 
'Koctes Pickwickianse,' of which there were 
five numbers. The chief part in the conversa- 
tion is taken by Pickwick and Sam, whose 
"Wellerisms" are oftener tedious than 
amusing. 'Pickwick Married,' the more 
elaborate attempt to trade on the reputation 
of Dickens, begins in the number for 23 Jan- 
uary, 1840. Mr. Pickwick interferes on behalf 
of a lady who is falsely accused of being 
drunk in the street by a member of the "new 
police force," then in all the unpopularity of 
an innovation. Mr. Pickwick is arrested, but, 
after a night's imprisonment, convinces the 
magistrate of his innocence, and makes the 
acquaintance of the young lady's family, 
proposes to her in a ball-room, and is duly 
accepted. There is very little apparent effort 
to imitate the style of Dickens, and though 
the old familiar names of Weller, Snodgrass, 
and Tupman reappear, these characters 
are seen through a distinctly Reynoldsian 

This treatment of a great author is a 
literary outrage, and would now be promptly 
suppressed. A notice of ' Master Humphrey's 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< s. m. FEB. 25, 

Clock' appears in the Teetotaler of 4 July, 
1840. " So long as Charles Dickens devoted 
himself to the description of characters 
solely humorous and laughable," observes the 

"he was unequalled; but the moment he took up 
his pen to compose pathos or sentimentality, he 
experienced a most signal failure. His ' Sketches ' 
are masterpieces of graphic delineation in the 
humorous strain ; they evince a depth of observa- 
tion which few of the many thousands who daily 
circulate through the myriads of veins of this 
mighty Babylon dare even pretend to possess, and 
his ' Pickwick Papers,' although replete with con- 
tradictions and errors of all kinds, would alone 
confer the honours of immortality upon him. 
* Nicholas Nickleby ' was a sad, disjointed, uneven, 
badly strung together kind of a book ; but ' Oliver 
Twist,' again, is a most decided failure at least in 
a literary point of view, for, as far as it regards a 
commercial one, it is sufficient to observe, that the 
great popularity of the name of ' Boz ' would procure 
a sale for a new edition of ' Jack the Giant Killer.' 
The plan upon which ' Master Humphrey's Clock ' 
is built is bad, and the mere fact of introducing 
Mr. Pickwick and the Wellers once more into a 
tale manifests a barrenness of imagination, or else 
a claptrap view, which really surprises us. ' Boz ' is 
decidedly capable of better things than the samples 
we have now before us ; for it is impossible that a 
mind which seemed but a year or two ago to be 
literally overflowing with imaginative powers and 
humorous conceptions, should have suddenly 
become impoverished to the extent which is 
indicated by the hebdomadal contents of ' Master 
Humphrey's Clock.'" 

The humour of this adverse criticism does 
not become fully evident until we remember 
that it was written by a man who traded on 
the popularity of Dickens in order to sell his 
own inferior wares by the author not only 
of 'Pickwick Abroad,' but of 'Master 
Timothy's Bookcase,' an imitation of the 
work here so severely handled by "Boz's" 
servile follower. But " truth must come out 
some day or another, vich wos the remark 
made by the pieman when he wos detected 
in having cut up his domestic cat to make 
pork sassages of," as (Reynolds's) Sam Weller 
observes, and Dickens himself recognized that 
the machinery of ' Master Humphrey's Clock ' 
did not work well, and it soon stopped. 

Thackeray, in his speech at the opening of 
the Manchester Free Library, poked good- 
natured fun at Reynolds's 'Mysteries.' 
Some of his writings certainly lend them- 
selves to ridicule ; but it is a mistake to 
underrate his ability. His plots, which are 
often elaborate, are very cleverly constructed, 
and if there is no great distinction in the 
style, the reader's interest is maintained by 
a constant succession of striking incidents. 
Reynolds was far from being a genius, but he 
was certainly a man of ready and inexhaus- 

tible talent. But even genius, to which much 
can be forgiven, would not excuse the 
manner in which Reynolds traded on the 
reputation of Charles Dickens. 

Moss Side, Manchester. 


1. "Now, my dear, if I may not have the blessing 
of kissing your sweet lips, I beg I may have the 
happiness of kissing your fair hand, with a few 
lines from your dear self, presented by whom you 
please or think fit." From James Hirst's letter to 
his sweetheart Betty, in the Spectator, No. 71 

w/zoi, 6V OVK Ire/eel/ jji d /xciTr;p /Jpay^c' e'^oi/ra, 
tos KareSvv irori TIV, KOI TO.V ^epa revs 

a.1 firj TO (TTOfJia \f)<s. 

Polyphemus to Galatea : Theocritus, 

Idyll xi. 54-6. 

If the above-quoted letter bad been writteL 
by Steele himself there would be nothing 
extraordinary in this parallel ; but the letter, 
I understand, was bond fide written by James 
Hirst, who was servant to the Hon. Edward 
Wortley. That a footman in the reign of 
Queen Anne (or indeed in the reign of 
Queen Victoria) should unconsciously have 
quoted Theocritus almost word for word, is 
both very remarkable and very interesting. 

2. Another interesting parallel is found in 
the same Idyll : compare lines 34-42 with 
Durnbiedikes's earnest but vain endeavours 
to "come over" Jeanie Deans by showing her 
his gold, jewels, &c. : " O Jeanie woman, 
ye haena lookit ye haena seen the half o' 
the gear," &c. ('The Heart of Midlothian,' 
chap. xxvi.). 

Before leaving this beautiful Idyll I may 

eighth Eclogue, the ' Pharmaceutria,' which 
are adapted from lines 25 et seqq. of Theocritus's 
eleventh Idyll, are " the finest in the Latin 
language." Truly the imitations of a poet 
like Virgil are better than the originalities of 
many poets ! 

3. And then had taken me some mountain girl, 
Beaten with winds, chaste as the hardened rocks 
Whereon she dwells ; that might have strewed my 

With leaves, and reeds, and with the skins of 


Our neighbours ; and have borne at her big breasts 
My large coarse issue ! 

Beaumont and Fletcher, ' Philaster,' IV. ii. 
There the passions cramped no longer shall have 

scope and breathing-space ; 
I will take some savage woman, she shall rear my 

dusky race. Tennyson, 'Locksley Hall.' 


s. in. FEB. 25, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


4. But they [the gods] smile, they find a music 

centred in a doleful song 
teaming up, a lamentation and an ancient tale of 

Ake a tale of little meaning tho' the words are 

strong. Tennyson, ' The Lotos- Eaters.' 

Dans I'Olympe, ou le cri du monde arrive chant, 
Ou 1'etourdissement conseille Tincl^mence, 
On rit. 

Victor Hugo, ' La Le'gende des Siecles,' 
' Le Titan,' iii. 

5. Thy ditties will she freely praise, 

And pay thy pains with courtly phrase ; 
In a rough path will oft command- 
Accept at least thy friendly hand ; 
I His she avoids, or, urged and prayed, 
Unwilling takes his proffered aid, 
While conscious passion plainly speaks 
In downcast look and blushing cheeks. 
Scott, ' Rokeby,' canto ii. stanza xxx. 
The girl 

Seemed kinder unto Philip than to him ; 
But she loved Enoch. 

Tennyson, 'Enoch Arden.' 

Compare also Fadette and the "bessons," 
Landry and Sylvinet : 

" Elle etait sans gene avec lui [Sylvinet], et quel- 
qu'un qui ne s'y connaitrait pas aurait juge" que 
c'etait celui des bessons qu'elle preferait." George 
Sand, ' La Petite Fadette,' chap. xi. 

6. " De temps en temps une note triste passe et 
roule dans le ciel comme un ronflement de conque 
marine. C'est le butor qui plonge au fond de 1'eau 
son bee immense d'oiseau-pecheur et souffle." 
Alphonse Daudet, 'Lettres de mon Moulin,' 'En 

Does not this remind us of Scott's beauti- 
ful lines in ' The Lady of the Lake,' canto i. 
stanza xxxi. (Ellen's Song) 1 

Yet the lark's shrill fife may come 
At the daybreak from the fallow, 
And the bittern sound his drum, 
Booming from the sedgy shallow. 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

the first half of the present century British 
Guiana was garrisoned by British troops. 
Detachments were stationed at Georgetown, 
New Amsterdam, Fort Wellington, and Aber- 
deen in Essequibo. After the abolition of 
slavery in 1838 all the detachments were 
Avithdrawn, except the one at Eve Leary 
barracks in Georgetown. The mortality 
amongst these troops, crowded together in 
insanitary quarters, was very great, until a 
peculiarly fatal outbreak of yellow fever in 
1856 compelled the War Office to withdraw 
all white troops from the colony, which was 
afterwards garrisoned by West Indian 

There are several soldiers' burial-grounds 

dotted about the colony, but neglect and 
climatic influences have almost obliterated 
all mementoes of the dead. The old military 
cemetery at Eve Leary had long been 
abandoned and its site almost forgotten, 
until it was discovered by Mr. Kirke, Sheriff 
of Demerara, who represented its shameful 
condition to Lord Gormanston, Governor of 
the colony, himself an old soldier, who at 
once ordered it to be enclosed with a decent 
paling, and placed it in charge of the 
Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens, who 
levelled the ground and planted it with 
ornamental trees and shrubs. 

Most of the graves are undistinguished by 
any tablet or headstone. These, being mostly 
made of wood, have long ago succumbed to 
the damp tropical heat and the attacks of 
ants, or have been carried away for firewood. 

The following inscriptions are the decipher- 
able ones left, and as they will soon disappear 
it is as well that they should be enshrined in 
*N. &Q.' 

The officers had a separate burial-place, 
which has been kept in better order. 

L* Colonel 


XIX Regiment 

Died 5 th Nov r 1827 

Aged 46 years 

To the Memory 



Serg* 49 th Regiment 

Who departed this life 

On the 9 th of April 1859 

Aged 32 years 

Requies Cat + in pace 

Who is sincerely regretted by the 

Non-Comd. Officers and Pts 

of the Reg* 


Sacred to the Memory of 


Late of the XIX Reg* 

Who departed this life 

On the 10 th of Augst 1846 

Aged 27 years 
This board was erected by his 

Affectionate Comrades as a 
token of respect to his memory. 



To the Memory of 


Who departed this life on 

the 17 th of July 1844 

Aged 40 Years 

She was lamented by all that 
Knew her, she was charitable 
And a mother to the motherless, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9- s. in. FEB. 25, '99. 

To the memory of 


late acting Colynnel of the 

69 th Regiment who departed this 

life April 1835. Aged 27 years 


To the memory of 


Relict of the late Corporal JOHN 

MADDEN, 86 th Regiment 

who departed this life 18 th 

August 1831. Aged 32 years 

Erected by Corprl PATRICK MADDEN 

To the memory of JOSEPH JONES 

of the 47 th Regiment 
who departed this life on the 30 th 

May Anno Domini 1842 
As man throughout for shelter sought 
In vain from place to place did roam 
Until from heaven he was taught 
To plan to build to fix his home. 


have been the laudatory comments on the 
thousandth number of Blackwood's, but I 
have been sorry to observe that there was no 
reference whatever to an older friend, viz., 
the Gentleman's Magazine. What was the 
reason for the neglect? Perhaps a few 
remarks about the magazine will not now be 

Edward Cave, to whom the literary world 
is much indebted, was born at Newton, 
Warwickshire, on 27 February, 1691. 
Educated at Kugby School, he came to 
London, and apprenticed himself to a 
printer. Having contrived by multifarious 
work to save money sufficient to start a 
small printing office in the hall over 
St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, he realized the 
project he had long entertained by establish- 
ing the Gentleman's Magazine. The first 
number appeared in January, 1731, and it 
immediately attracted the attention of the 
public. As the magazine became a great 
success it is not unreasonable to state that 
to Edward Cave (under the pseudonym oi 
Sylvanus Urban) alone must be concedec 
the honour of having been the originator oi 
this form of literature. Consideration for 
the space of 'N. & Q.' precludes me from 
enumerating the names of the persons whc 
wrote and toiled for Sylvanus Urban, bui 
it is only right to direct attention to the fact 
that the illustrious Samuel Johnson was for 
some time editor of the Gentleman's Maga 
zine, to which his essays added dignity anc 
lustre. It may not be out of place t 
mention that a woodcut of St. John's Gate 
has appeared on the cover of each number 

rom No. 1 to No. 2018 (issued for February, 
899). January, 1731, to February, 1899, or 
or the long period of 168 years. Johnson, 
ixcited no doubt by his remembrance of 
lie once magnificent priory of the heroic 
mights of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
uppressed at the Dissolution, remarked when 
le first saw St. John's Gate that he " beheld 
t with reverence." Cave died at the old gate- 
louse on 17 January, 1754 ; and one of his 
ast acts was to press fondly the hand of his 
great friend, the main prop and stay of the 
Gentleman's Magazine Dr. Samuel Johnson. 
Johnson always spoke of Cave with affection, 
and wrote his life, in 1754, in complimentary 

Urban, whom neither toil profound 
Fatigues, nor calumnies o'erthrow ; 
The wreath thy learned brows around 
Still grows, and will for ever grow. 

Clapham, S.W. 

' Pantagruel,' book iii. cap. 24, Rabelais 
wrote (Sir Thomas Urquhart's translation) : 

"I have seen the experience of it in a very 
curious gentleman of the country of Estangourre." 
And in a foot-note Estangourre is explained 
as being put 

"corruptly for East- Angle (East England), one of 
the kingdoms in the heptarchy of England, under 
the Saxon kings." 

The notes give no suggestion as to who this 
gentleman of East Anglia may have been, 
and it occurs to me that it may have been 
the father of Michael, Lord of Montaigne. 

Rabelais died in 1553, cet. seventy, arid 
Montaigne's father died about 1569. The 
two men, therefore, were contemporaries, and 
in the comparatively small world of the 
Paris of that time they can hardly have 
failed to be more or less acquainted with 
each other. 

Montaigne (the younger) was about twenty 
years of age when Rabelais died, and about 
thirty-six years of age when his father died. 
And not long after his father's death he 
wrote thus (Florio's translation) in book ii. 
cap. 16 of the ' Essays ' : 

"And my ancestors have here-to-fore been sur- 
named Higham or Eyquem, a surname which also 
belongs to a house well known in England." 
And a connexion between the family of 
Higham or Hygham and East Anglia is 
established by the following references to 
the name in the Paston Letters : 

Letter from Sir John Fastolfe, 15 Oct., 
1450 : 

"And as for Hygham Place to be sold, as ye 
avysen me to bye it ", 


s. m. FEB. 25, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Letter from an agent of Fastolfe's, circa 
] 156 : 

yff a lettre were devysed yn my maister 

i ame or youres to Thomas Hygham, one of the 
j istices of pease in Suffolk " 

Montaigne's knowledge of his English 
ncestry would naturally have been obtained 
from his father, who, as he knew the 
"'English form of the name and the family 
ihat bore it in England, would probably 
know also the part of the country (Suffolk in 
!3ast Anglia) where the family was located. 
And if he told these things^ to his son, he 
may, like other people with genealogical 
tastes, have been in the habit of speaking 
of them to friends and acquaintances, and 
among these (according to my hypothesis) to 
his friend Rabelais. 

And hence Rabelais, when introducing his 
friend into his book, and casting about for 
an appropriate designation for him, may 
have been led to describe his " gentleman " 
as being "of the country of East Anglia." 
That the elder Montaigne was emphatically 
a "curious" gentleman may be concluded 
from the curious (one is tempted to say the 
Pantagruelian) system that he devised for 
the education of his son. C. J. I. 

"SiR" AS A PREFIX. The prefix of "Sir" 
was formerly given to graduates of Oxford 
or Cambridge who had taken the degree of 
B.A., while that of "Mr." (Magister) was 
applied to those of higher degree a fact 
which, though somewhat startling, is never- 
theless fairly well known. It is, however, 
so well illustrated by the following extracts 
from the parish register of St. Mary the Less, 
Cambridge, that I venture to submit them 
for insertion. 


ia34, 7 Feb. Margaret, d. M r D r Cozantz. 

1585, 25 Sep. M r Thomas Dixie, B.D. 

1590/1, 14 March. M r Hobbes, Fellow Commoner 
of Pembroke Hall. 

1595, 20 May. S r Graye, B.A., Scholar of Pem- 
broke Hall. 

1595, 14 Aug. M r Wattes, M.A. & Scholar of 
Pembroke Hall. 

1617, 18 Oct. M r Thomas Turner, D.D. 

1618, 17 July. M rs Lynne, ux. M r D r Lynne. 
1627, 23 May. S r Cutherne, Scholar of Trinity 


1642. 9 Dec. S'Milse, B.A. ; South side of chancel. 

G. E. C. 

HAYWARD. (See ante, p. 72.) That Hay- 
ward, a hedge warden, should be such a 
common name is accounted for by the fact 
that formerly hedges were not, as" now, per- 
manent or quick-set, but were temporary, 
renewed every two years, protecting from the 

cattle that part of the common field which was 
in tillage. When the field was restored to fal- 
low, the hedge, composed of loose-cut thorns 
like a zareba, was removed, or rather the 
thorns were shifted to protect the next arable 
land. These hedges were not private pro- 
perty, but belonged to the community, and 
the Hay ward was, therefore, a village official, 
usually remunerated by an allotment in the 
common field, or by a garth called the Hay- 
ward's Hamm. ISAAC TAYLOR. 


' ' This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen and others, 
That they may have good Druggets, Sagathie, and 
Duroy Suits made well and fashionable, for the 
first size Men at, 3^. 10s. a suit, and the larger size at 
4:1. Cloth Serge, commonly called by the Name of 
German Serge, suits for 4:1. and 4.1. 10s. Livery 
suits for 4.1. and 4.1. 10s. Coloured and black 
Cloth suits for 51. and 51. 10s. At the Two 
Golden-balls in great Hart-street, the tipper end 
of Bow-street, Covent-Garden. Also Horsemen's 
great Coats to be sold ready made at 20s. each, 
Morning Gowns, Callimanco both sides, at 30s. a 
piece, blue Cloak-bags ready made at 16s. each, 
blue Rocklers ready made. Superfine black Cloth 
at 15s. per Yard." Fog's Weekly Journal, 21 Sep- 

tember, 1734. 

H. H. S. 

the 'Sacred History of Animals,' by Wolf- 
gang Franzius of Wittenberg, 1612, I find 
the following passage : 

"[CanisJ quidem longe fidelius [animal] est servis, 
excubat prse foribus, custodit lares, noctu dieque 
est sedituus hominis, & yel furem, yel bestiam, vel 
peregrinum adesse vociferatione indesinente tes- 
tatur, unde factum est proverbium, quod habeat 
novem animas." 

Presumably this means that the dog, like the 
harmless, necessary cat, has nine lives. 

Portland, Oregon. 

boy, circa 1842, 1 well remember the issue of 
this publication, which appeared in 12mo., 
either from the shop of John Cleave, 1, Shoe 
Lane, or that of W. M. Clark, Warwick Lane, 
well-known vendors of cheap publications. 
It ran a career of several years, and gave 
abridged issues of ' Master Humphrey's 
Clock,' 'Ten Thousand a Year,' 'Valentine 
Vox,' and other popular works of fiction. It 
was profusely illustrated by very indifferent 
woodcuts. The price in monthly parts 
was fourpence, and three parts formed a 
volume. The type was exceedingly small, 
and even to young eyes very trying. I 
can remember that it was often supposed 
that an injunction against the "Penny 
Library" would be issued by the Court of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. m. FEB. 25, m 

Chancery for pirating many expensive works 
and violating the law of copyright. 

The other day I was reminded of it from 
seeing in a bookseller's catalogue a copy of 
vol. i. priced at Is. 6d. It was headed 
" Dickensiana. Curious and scarce (11841)." 
This shows that it has gone up in price. It 
was one of the many publications floated 
under the pseudonym of Peter Parley. The 
little periodical extended over at least six 
volumes. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

' TOM TIT TOT.' Mr. Clodd, in his recently 
published work on this folk-tale, cites many 
facts pointing to the widespread survival 
of the old superstitions which led people to 
conceal their names, " often from their friends 
and always from their foes." I must leave it 
to others to determine whether a habit very 
common in this neighbourhood points in the 
same direction. If you ask a person his 
name, the answer usually is, " Well, they call 
me so-and-so." Before I became accustomed 
to this formula I was often at a loss when it 
was necessary for me to get a person's name. 
If I replied, " But is that your name ?" the 
answer would still be, "Well, that's what 
they call me." 

Mr. Clodd, by the way, quotes an old rhyme 
in a slightly different form from the one I 
am familiar with : 

What is your name ? 

Pudding and tame. 

If you ask me again I '11 tell you the same. 

We used to say, " Pudding and dame" 

C. C. B. 

["What do they call you?" was, half a century 
ago, a more familiar query than "What is your 

EGYPT. In an article in the Standard on 
Mr. Parker's life of Sir Kobert Peel occurs a 
part of a letter from Lord Ellenborough to 
Sir Henry Hardinge, in April, 1844, which 
shows such wonderful foresight as to be 
actually prophetic ; and I think it is worthy 
of being put on record in 'N. & Q.' : 

" Speaking of what he could do with forty thou- 
sand men and a good general, he says : ' Does not 
this excite your ambition ? It would be an operation 
of two years, which would require the most dex- 
terous political management, as well as military, 
but which, well managed, should give us the Punjab, 
Cashmere, and Peshawur that is, everything 
within the mountains ; and it should be terminated, 
in order to secure the whole, by the assumption of 
the Imperial title by the Queen. Without that 
there is nothing secure. We must give a national 
position to the Chiefs of India, who will all be 
ennobled in their own opinion by becoming the 

feudatories of the Empire. There would then be 
something intelligible in our position here. As it 
is all is confusion. I think that you will at once 
see that, supposing this operation of two years to 
be successfully completed, we have under our foot, 
whenever the state of Europe may permit us to 
take it, that country which has ever been the 
ultimate object of my desires, but of which I 
hardly dare to whisper the name Egypt. I dread 
mutiny more than war I dread nothing but mutiny 
in India.'" 

No wonder that the Standard says : " Lord 
Ellenborough's references to Egypt, the title 
of Empress, and the danger of mutiny are 
very remarkable." In a subsequent letter 
to Sir Henry Hardinge he writes : 

" It is impossible for any statesman who carries 
his views forward a few years not to see that there 
must be eventually a contest among the European 
Powers for the possession of Egypt." 

Perhaps as remarkable as anything is the 
fact that it was Lord Beaconsfield who 
recommended to the Queen the taking the 
title of Empress, and who secured for Britain 
the greater part of the shares in the Suez 

Chart Sutton. 

It is usual among the Ashantis for a boy to 
receive two names, the first of which 
generally indicates the day of the week on 
which he was born, while the second shows 
the order of his birth and his position in the 
family. Thus Quasshi is given to boys born 
on a Sunday ; Koffi to a boy born on a 
Friday ; and if he is the ninth child Akon 
is appended. Quasshi Annan is the fourth 
child and born on a Sunday. If there are 
two children in the same family born on 
Friday, the younger will be called Kpffi 
Kuma, which means Koffi Junior. Twins 
have the word dta prefixed. Thus Ata Kuma 
is the younger of twins. ISAAC TAYLOR. 


ante, p. 116.) MR. HEBB asks, "Who was 
Huchown of the Awle Eyale 1 " If he will 
consult Henderson's 'Scottish Vernacular 
Literature,' recently reviewed in your 
columns, pp. 31 et seq., he will find full 
information. A. N. 

56, 135.) Holy Trinity, Minories, is now 
definitely closed, and will, in all probability, 
be used as a parish room or Sunday school 
for the united parishes of St. Botolph, 
Aldgate, and Holy Trinity. On 31 January, 
Dr. Kinns gave a most interesting account 
of the church, from its foundation to the 
present day, to a small party of friends. 
Those who were not fortunate enough to be 




esent, and are interested in the church, 
i,ve now the opportunity of reading Dr. 
inris's book, ' Six Hundred Years,' which is 
ie result of years of careful research, and is 
11 of interest. MATILDA POLLARD. 

Belle Vue, Bengeo. 

;1 ie Review of Reviews for December (p. 563 b) 
have just read the following : 
" ' Shakespeare and the Faust Legend ' is the title 
. a very fine study by Mr. R. A. Redford in Gentle- 
an' s for December. He asks : ' Is not the key to 
ie whole problem of the " Tempest," that Shake- 
icare was under the influence of the Faust legend,' 
hich Marlowe had used in his play of 1604? " 
Vith regard to this, I beg to observe that in 
Sovember, 1890,1 wrote an article on 'Goethe's 
Faust" and Shakespeare's "Tempest,"' 
i which I tried to show that the two 
nmortal poets founded their great dramas 
n the ' Faustbuch,' which Shakespeare may 
or may not have known, but which is de- 
cidedly at the bottom of Marlowe's tragedy, 
which Shakespeare did know. I even went 
.so far as to prove that the underlying idea of 
Goethe's 'Faust' and Shakespeare's 'Tempest' 
is practically the same, at which we need not 
wonder if we compare the times in which 
these two poets lived. A revival or renascence 
went on in the latter end both of the six- 
teenth and the eighteenth century, and both 
poets gave their views of life in striking 
harmony with each other, showing by this 
that they were kindred geniuses. I sent a 
copy of this article to * N. & Q.' at the time, 
and the paper was duly acknowledged in 
your columns. K. TEN BRUGGENCATE. 

Leeuwarden, Holland. 

[See 7 th S. xi. 120.] 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

if any correspondent could give me informa- 
tion about a broadside which I came across 
the other day. I should like to know 
whether it is of any value or rarity. At the 
top of the sheet is a portrait of Napoleon I., 
and below is the following statement : 

"Napoleon, the First, and Last, by the Wrath of 
Heaven, Emperor of the Jacobins. Protector of the 
Confederation of Rogues, Mediator of the Hellish 
League, Grand Cross of the Legion of Horror, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Legions of Skeletons 
left at Moscow, Smolensk, Leipsig, &c. Head 

Runner of Runaways, Mock High -Priest of the 
Sanhedrim, Mock Prophet of Mussulmen, Mock 
Pillar of the Christian Faith, Inventor of the 
Syrian Method of disposing of his own Sick by 
sleeping Draughts, or of captured Enemies by the 
Bayonet ; First Grave - Digger for burying alive ; 
Chief Gaoler of the Holy Father and of the King 
of Spain, Destroyer of Crowns, and Manufacturer 
of Counts, Dukes, Princes, and Kings ; Chief Dou- 
anier of the Continental System, Head Butcher of 
the Parisian and Toulonese Massacres, Murderer of 
Hoffer, Palm, Wright, nay, of his own Prince the 
noble and virtuous Duke of Enghien, and of a thou- 
sand others ; Kidnapper of Ambassadors, High- 
Admiral of the Invasion Praams, Cup-Bearer of 
the Jaffa Poison, Arch-Chancellor of Waste-Paper 
Treaties, Arch-Treasurer of the Plunder of the 
World, the sanguinary Coxcomb, Assassin, and 

Incendiary to 

Make Peace With ! ! ! 

" This Hieroglyphic Portrait of the Destroyer is 
faithfully copied from a German Print, with the 
Parody of his assumed Titles. The Hat of the 
Destroyer represents a discomfited French Eagle, 
maimed and crouching, after his conflict with the 
Eagles of the North. His Visage is composed of 
the Carcases of the Victims of his Folly and Ambi- 
tion who perished on the Plains of Russia and 
Saxony. His Throat is encircled with the Red Sea, 
in allusion to his drowned Hosts. His Epaulette 
is a Hand, leading the Rhenish Confederation, under 
the flimsy Symbol of a Cobweb. The Spider is an 
Emblem of the Vigilance of the Allies, who have 
inflicted upon that Hand a deadly Sting ! 

"Published at R. Ackermann's, 101, Strand, 


Great Ay ton, R.S.O., Yorks. 

HEYLIN. Who is the author alluded to in 
the following : " Heylin, in his Geography on 
Ysland, declares," &c. 1 Full title, date of the 
work, dates of author's birth and death, with 
any other particulars, are desired. 



[Consult Wood's ' Athen. Oxon.' and 'Diet. Nat. 
Biog.' Peter Heylin, or Heylyn, lived 1600-62. We 
could not within reasonable space give the par- 
ticulars you ask.] 

permitted to inquire in ' N. & Q.' if there is 
in reality any corroborative evidence of the 
following assertion culled from ' Napoleon 
and the Fair Sex,' by Frederic Massoii 
(London, Heinemann, 1894). _ Keferring to 
the beautiful singer Grassini, it is stated at 
p. 109 that 

"all the Emperor's favours failed to compel her 
gratitude. After the fall of the Empire she con- 
sented to sing for Wellington, and her complaisance 
did not end there. She was addicted to gambling, 
and may have been in want of money. Or it may 
be that she was moved in her passion for attracting 
the notice of famous men, and attaching herself to 
them. The Duke had a curious fancy for Napoleon's 
leavings [the italics are mine]. He wished to have 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9" s. m. FEB. iz, m 

his portrait painted by David, who declined, on 

Sounds that he painted only historical pictures, 
e had better luck with Grassini, who, at forty- 
two, became his diva and his mistress. But the 
cricket is a proverbially irresponsible creature." 

The poet's estimation of the reputation of 
the conqueror of the great Napoleon and the 
best of u les Marechaux et les Generaux de 
la France " may be quoted in connexion with 
the subject in question : 
Oh, Wellington 1 (or Villainton for Fame 

Sounds the heroic syllables both ways ; 
France could not even conquer your great name, 

But punn'd it down to this facetious phrase 
Beating or beaten she will laugh the same), 

You have obtain'd great pensions and much praise : 
Glory like yours should any dare gainsay, 
Humanity would rise, and thunder, " Nay ! " 

It need hardly be remarked that Father 
Prout's beloved songster of France, Jean 
Pierre Beranger, also made use of the word 
Villainton : 

Faut qu' lord Villainton ait tout pris, 
N'y a plus d'argent dans c' gueux de Paris. 

Clapham, S.W. 

EWER : THURLOE. In his will proved at 
London, 25 February, 1651, Col. Ewer, of the 
Parliamentary army, styles John Thurloe, to 
whom he left the care of his two children, 
" my brother." How was he thus related to 
John Thurloe 1 F. H. E. 

NAG'S HEAD. Of what noble or illustrious 
family, if any, was this not uncommon inn 
sign the badge or crest 1 A. R. BAYLEY. 

TREVIS FAMILY. Can any reader oblige 
with information respecting the origin of 
this family ? The name is spelt in various 
ways. I think the name came in with the 
Normans, and was at one time Travers, 
Trevers, and Trivers. In the seventeenth 
century there was a family of Trevis in 
Cheshire, who ranked as.geritry ; and in a will 
proved in Ireland in the same century the 
testatrix is described as Trevers, Trevis, and 
Treves. At Christchurch, Hants, is a branch 
known as Trevis, one of whose earlier mem- 
bers claimed an estate at Ringwood, but died 
in poverty. Can any reader inform me 
whence and at what time this branch went 
to Christchurch, as I do not find any records 
of the name there prior to, say, 1748 1 The 
family is doubtless noble, and one of those 
who " went under " after 1688. 


been for a long time trying to discover the 
origin of the rather uncommon name of 
Lavinia, which I find in a Somerset family of 

ancestors. James Smith, M.P. for Taunton, 
who lived at St. Audries, in the Quantocks, 
Somerset, married, in 1729, Grace, daughter 
of Edward Dyke, of Dulverton, and Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Richard Blackford, of 
Dunster and Selworthy, Master in Chancery, 
who died in 1689. Two of James Smith's 
daughters were named Lavinia : the first died 
in infancy, the second married a Mr. Fel- 
lowes, ancestor of Lord Ramsay. I believe 
that this pretty name came from either the 
Dyke or the Blackford family. If I could 
discover who bore the name in Somersetshire 
in the seventeenth century it might lead me 
to some intermarriages of my ancestors. I 
may add that the name Lavinia is still kept 
up by some of my relations ; Bingham, Earl 
of Lucan ; Earl Spencer ; Porter of Fer- 
managh, and perhaps others. If any person 
acquainted with Somerset family history 
would communicate with me about the 
origin of this name I should feel obliged. 

Christchurch, New Zealand. 

"To KISS THE HARE'S FOOT." In Delpino's 
'Spanish-English Dictionary,' under the word 
mesa, you may read, "Llamar a lino debaxo 
de la mesa, to call a man under the table, 
signifies to kiss the hare's foot, as we term it." 
In what English books can one find the 
expression which I have italicized 1 


[The phrase, as equivalent to being too late for 
anything, is given in Wright and Halliwell's 

MAGINUS. Can any of your readers inform 
me who this author was, and what descrip- 
tion he gave of the Orcadians ? The passage 
runs : " [They are] barbarissimi, &c., as 
Maginus characterizeth the Orcades." 



[Probably Giovanni Antonio Magini, 1555-1617, 
an Italian mathematician and geographer, friend 
and correspondent of Kepler. See ' Nouvelle Bio- 
graphie G6nerale' (Firmin Didot).] 

BEDFONT, MIDDLESEX. Parish registers for 
1641-1668-1695 are no longer in. existence 
there. Can any one give me information 
as to their whereabouts 1 


540, King's Road, S.W. 

Christian World I came recently across the 
following paragraph. Is there any truth in 
it, and, if so, what is the law ? 

"There is an old law still existing which declared 
that a society of total abstainers which makes 

9 th S. III. FE 



taking the pledge ' a condition of admission is an 

legal confederacy, and its members are liable to 

3ven years' penal servitude, unless it be either 

i egistered as a friendly society or the pledge be 

1 aken on a form approved by justices of the peace," 

D. M. R. 


A dree neet, a dree neet, for th' squire te pass away, 
. i dree neet, a dree neet, but a ganning sowl can't 

Where can I obtain the remainder of the 
;ibove North-Country rhyme 1 ? W. C. 

WILLIAM CORNWALLIS was elected to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, from Westminster School, 
in 1597. I should be glad to receive any 
particulars relating to him. G. F. R. B. 

KOBERT DEWHURST was elected to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, from Westminster School, 
in 1595. Any information concerning his 
parentage and career would be of assistance. 

G. F. R. B. 

SUNDIALS. I should be grateful for any 
information regarding sundials in Great 
Britain or Ireland dated before 1580. I have 
searched through the latest edition of Mrs. 
Gatty's book on the subject and in various 
other places, and I can only discover six ; but 
I think that there must be more. I want to 
know all details regarding them. 


Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

JOHN WATKINS. I should be very glad to 
learn the date of the death of John Watkins, 
author of the ' Universal Biographical and 
Historical Dictionary.' His latest preface is 
dated 30 May, 1831, and I cannot trace him 
farther. He was born in Devonshire; his 
earliest publication, an 'Essay towards the 
History of Bideford,' appeared in 1792 ; and 
his later life was apparently spent in London. 

PARLIAMENT CAKES. It appears to have 
been at one time customary for members of 
Parliament, when attending the House, to 
take in their pockets a particular cake or 
gingerbread of a very attractive kind, no 
refreshments being obtainable within the 
precincts. I have heard elderly people speak 
with regret of the superiority of these cakes 
to the ordinary gingerbread of commerce, 
and I know one who is anxious to renew this 
pleasant acquaintance of youth. Are these 
cakes still to be purchased, and where ? 

[See 8 th S. x. 455; xi. 93, 211.] 

"BEDELL FAMILY. Arthur Bedell, gent, 
M.P. Lichfield, 1572-83. Richard Bedell, M.P. 
for Eye 1571, and for Weymouth 1572 until 

death. William Bedell, M.P. Hythe, 1547-52. 
Any information respecting these M.P.s will 
oblige. The last was probably " of Writtle, 
Essex " (see * Vis. Essex,' Harl vol., p. 25). 

W. D. PINK. 

EASTER. Can you or any of the readers 
of ' N. & Q.' inform me when, and by what 
authority, the celebration of Easter was 
moved back from Sunday night nox Domi- 
nicato Sunday morning at St. Peter's at 

Melrose, Alameda, Cal. 

February magazines contains an account of 
the legends which have accumulated round 
this historic character of the seventeenth 
century. Can any reader inform me where 
I may obtain further particulars about him, 
and also whether he has ever been made the 
subject of fiction in the shape of story, play, 
or poem, in English or otherwise ? 



Coelo tegitur qui non habet urnam. T. 

[Lucan, 'Pharsalia,' vii. 819.] 

Give what Thou wilt, without Thee we are poor ; 
And with Thee rich, take what Thou wilt away. 

W. E. L 

Where does the following occur ? Who was the 
author ? 

Tales are delectable 

Although they be nought but fable. 

K. P. D. E. 



(9 th S. ii. 46, 214 ; iii. 70.) 
AT the last reference MR. ANSCOMBE claims 
that he has shown that I, in supplying 
a translation of this charter to my friend 
Mr. Duignan, "did not treat a single one 
of the [chronological] data fundamentally, 
and that [I] made no fewer than five compu- 
tistical mistakes." The latter charge is some- 
what surprising, for the only chronological 
note given in Mr. Duignan 's brochure is that 
the date 996 "is a mistake of the copyist 
for 994 ; the seventh indiction (subsequently 
thrice given) falling in that year, and not in 
996." The reason for this note was that the 
only text known, that in the ' Monasticon,' 
reads, "anno...D.cccc.xcvi. (ita autograph., 
rescribe tamen xcvi.)." I assumed that the 
latter was a mistake, possibly typographical, 
for xciv., because Archbishop Sigeric, who is 
an important person in the text, died in 995, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. FEB. 25, m 

according to the * Chronicle,' and because 994 
was the seventh indiction. On this slender 
basis MR. ANSCOMBE founds the sweeping 
charges specified above. I have nowhere 
"equated 16 October, 994, with moon xxii., 
and made two other mistakes in doing so," 
and I have nowhere expressed the belief 
"that in 994 16 October fell on Sunday," as 
MR. ANSCOMBE so definitely charges me with 
doing. For one thing, I was not sure as to 
the date intended by the clause "in mense 
Octobris, in Dominico die, xvii. kal., luna 
xxii." MR. ANSCOMBE has no doubt that it 
means 16 October (17 kal. Nov.). It may, 
however, possibly mean 17 kal. Oct. (15 Sep- 
tember). As I was unable to reconcile the 
figures with either of these dates, I left them 
alone, thinking that there might be some 
errors in the carelessly printed text. 

MR. ANSCOMBE is the victim of his own 
ingenuity. It is highly improbable that any 
critical student will be able to accept con- 
clusions that have been reached by such 
processes as the following. 

1. MR. ANSCOMBE assumes that the chancery 
official who is stated to have written this 
charter reckoned the era of the Incarnation, 
which he calls the Passion,* from an epoch 
three years older than the usual one, that of 
Dionysius Exiguus, the one exclusively used 
in English diplomas of this period. There is 
nothing to support this extraordinary assump- 
tion beyond "the fact that, according to some 
chronographers, the Incarnation must be 
dated three years earlier than Dionysius 
dated it." No evidence is vouchsafed that 
the uncertainty as to the date of the Saviour's 
birth ever affected the reckoning of the era of 
the Incarnation, t It is quite certain that 
it did not influence the chancery of ^Ethelred. 
By this bold flight MR. ANSCOMBE is able to 
reduce the date from 996 to 993. But this 
does not solve the difficulties, so he resorts to 
another assumption. 

2. According to this, the erratic scribe, in 

* If this is so, it is evident that "Passion "has 
been written, copied, or printed for " Incarnation " 
by mistake. This explanation is much too prosaic 
for MB. ANSCOMBE. So he tells us that "others, 
it is generally known, confused the era of the 
Passion with the era of the Incarnation ; conse- 
quently this peculiarity in the charter need not 
detain us." It does not trouble MR. ANSCOMBE that 
there is no evidence of this confusion in England, 
and that only two instances of it in foreign diplomas 
are known to the handbooks. Even if these are not 
mere clerical errors, the confusion is, as Ideler 
remarked, exceedingly unusual. 

t Prof. Riihl (p. 198) has truly remarked that the 
question whether or not the calculation of the Dio- 
nysian epoch agrees with the real date of the Incar- 
nation is immaterial for technical chronology. 

addition to using an era specially invented 
and used exclusively on tnis occasion, em- 
ployed a special and unusual method of calcu- 
lating the indiction. That is, instead of using 
the ordinary so-called Pontifical indiction he 
employed tne Greek or the Bedaii indictions 
which necessitate a change of the indiction 
number in September in each year, whereas 
by the Pontifical indiction the number re- 
mained unchanged throughout the year. MR. 
ANSCOMBE does not give any proof that either 
of the former indictions was ever used in 
the English chancery of the tenth century. 
Kemble believed that after the eighth century, 
and probably during and before it, the only 
indiction used in England was the Pontifical 
one (' Codex Diplomaticus,' i. Ixxx). It is a 
bold thing to assume the use of either of the 
other systems merely because it suits MR. 
ANSCOMBE'S convenience. It is bolder still to 
hold, as he does when he says that my calcu- 
lation based upon the Pontifical indiction is 
"a mistake that will not bear scrutiny," that 
this hypothetical use of the other indictions 
absolutely precludes the possibility of the 
ordinary one being used in the present 

3. MR. ANSCOMBE next tampers with the 
figures. He suggests that "luna xxii. is a 
misreading of xxu." He is fond of this notion 
that the use of u for the numeral five may be 
misread as ii. ; but he is straining the possi- 
bility beyond breaking point when he applies 
it to an English royal charter of this date, 
for at that time the scribes no longer used u 
for the numeral. It is still more out of place 
when dealing with a MS. that is later in 
date than the Norman Conquest, as the lost 
original of this Wolverhampton charter must 
have been. 

4. Even this does not suffice to explain the 
data, so MR. ANSCOMBE suggests that "we 
should emend these supposititious figures to 
xxui." By this process 22 is transmuted 
into 26! 

5. Yet another hypothesis, equally impro- 
bable, is required, that the document was 
witnessed after Vespers, in order to reconcile 
the age of the moon with the calendar day. 

The intrinsic improbability of assumption. 
No. 1 is alone sufficient to bring down this 
imposing edifice of guesswork. Apart from 
this, it is evident that the structure will 
collapse if it can be shown that 993 is an 
impossible date. This can be done. There is 
evidence tending to prove that the date of 
996, which MR. ANSCOMBE thus twists into 
993, did not exist in the "autographum," and 
that the mistake in the 'Monasticon' text was 
not, as I assumed a transposition of I and v, 


s. m. FEB. 25, 



but the intrusion of a c into the date xvi 
the original date thus being 916 a Passione 
not 996.* Even more decisive than this i 
the fact, already pointed out by MR. C. S 
TAYLOR, that a charter of 993 could no 
possibly be witnessed, as this is, by God wine 
Bishop of Rochester. We may, therefore 
dismiss MR. ANSCOMBE'S fanciful calculations 
even if the charter is, as he holds, genuine. 

It is true that MR. ANSCOMBE states that I 
" believed the document to be genuine." A> 
I have never said so, I am at a loss to account 
for this assertion, unless MR. ANSCOMBE has 
deduced it from the fact that Mr. DuignanV 
book contains no statement that the chartei 
is spurious. But to refrain from condemning a 
text as a forgery is logically not the same thing 
as to maintain its authenticity. It must be 
evident to any one that the 'Monasticon 
text is manifestly corrupt, unintelligible, and 
nonsensical in places. It leaves the impres- 
sion that the transcriber has occasionally 
overlooked words and clauses. It is also ob- 
viously a mixture of two or more documents, 
including even a fragment of the Canon of 
the Mass. I had, therefore, doubts about the 
text at the time when I endeavoured to make 
an intelligible English version of it. At that 
time my knowledge of diplomatics was very 
slender, and I had not access to the materials 
necessary for its prosecution. I therefore 
refrained from expressing an opinion upon 
the charter. Now I know that it is a clumsy 
forgery, made up principally of an ancient 
Papal formulary of confirmation for a monas- 
tery.t The "notarius et scriniarius" of the 
bull before the forger has been converted into 
an impossible official of King ^Ethelred. The 
English portion shows by its phonology that 
it was written down in the latter part of the 
eleventh or beginning of the twelfth century. 
The spurious nature of the charter is, as has 
been perceived by so clear-sighted a scholar 
as MR. C. S. TAYLOR, the explanation of the 
irreconcilable chronological data. That MR. 
ANSCOMBE is able to explain away the diffi- 
culties about these bogus data is a proof of 

See the transcript of Sir Henry Spelman's in 
'Hist. MSS. Com., Twelfth Report,' Appendix ix. 
p. 159, which seems to be the source of the ' Monas- 
ticon ' text. 

t.The whole of the text from Desiderio (for 
dexidemum] to scriniarii is derived, with modifica- 
tions, from "this formula, which may be found in 
Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum ' (ed. Sickel, 
Vienna, 1889), p. 133, the oldest Papal formulary 
extant. An example of the use of the formula with 
the scriptum clause as in this charter may be found 
m an eleventh-century Florentine bull in Pflugk- 
Harttung's ' Acta Pontificum Romanorum Inedita ' 
(Stuttgart, 1884), ii. 104. 

the untrustworthy nature of his methods of 
dealing with questions of chronology. 


WORDSWORTH (9 th S. iii. 47). The line in- 
quired for by LIESE M. SHERRING (whether 
Mr., Mrs., or Miss I do not know) 

That earth can offer to declining man, 

' Michael,' 147, 

is in both my editions of Wordsworth's 
'Poems,' namely, the six- volume pocket edi- 
tion, 1858, and the edition, complete in one 
volume, 1888. Its omission from your corre- 
spondent's edition would accordingly seem to 
be accidental., JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

The line italicized, 

That earth can offer to declining man, 
may be seen in the edition of Wordsworth's 
' Poems ' published by Moxon, 1847, p. 97. 
In the pocket edition of 'Selections,' pub- 
lished by Kent & Co., 1880, it is omitted. 
See vol. i. p. 120. 


The line 

That earth can offer to declining man 
appears in the edition of 1836. C. C. B. 

TOLLING CHURCH BELLS (9 th S. ii. 507 ; iii. 
31). The bells of Totnes Parish Church are 
rung for the council meetings, magistrates' 
meetings, and on Saturdays for the market 
as well as the curfew and day bells. 

A. J. DAVY. 


ii. 8). 

Their breath is agitation, and their life 
A storm whereon they ride. 
'Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, 'canto iii. st. xliv. 

M. C. H. 

:88). More or Moore is a topographical name 
ound in every county, and it is not likely 
hat the Chancellor, with a most penetrating 
ntellect, would have been satisfied with a 
utative female descent, even from De Ley- 
ester, if he could have done better. The John 
More, mercer, of 1397, also of Gobions, where 
he Chancellor was born, would have been 
ufficiently known to Sir John, the justice, 
rhom we find at Gobions in 1510, to prevent 
bscu ration if really connected. This com- 
dnation of names is therefore a mere coinci- 
ence. Further, it is probable that the 
nercer's line ended in females, because a 
Irs. Plomer quartered a coat for More 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. in. FEB. 25, m 

accredited by Burke to Hertfordshire. The 
further probability is that Sir John, the 
justice, assumed a coat when he emerged 
from obscurity, and that his son, the more 
eminent Chancellor, had to explain matters 
to the officials of Heralds' College, who then 
granted a fresh coat ; and that Sir Thomas 
retained them both (see ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. iv. 
61). This, I think, is a natural instinct in 
any one so circumstanced, A, HALL, 

13, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

HANDS WITHOUT HAIR (9 th S. i. 328 ; ii. 35). 
I am obliged to your correspondents for 
their letters ; but they have not answered 
my question. I asked myself if the expression 
might refer to the case of Jacob and Esau, 
but concluded negatively, because there it 
was the deceiver who had the " hands without 
hair," and fled with a conscience that was 
good only, as all consciences are, in accusing 
truly. In any case, the first book of Moses is 
not the literary source of the words in ques- 
tion, even if those who first used them had 
Jacob, inappropriately, in their minds. The 
words do not occur in Genesis xxvii. 


MAXWELL'S 'HERODIAN' (9 th S. iii. 86). 
MR. AXON will find that part of his com- 
munication has been anticipated in 'N. & Q ' 
8 th S. v. 284. W. C. B. 

"AN ICE" (9 th S. iii. 26). Disraeli's 'Young 
Duke' supplies an instance, of the date 1831 : 
> " The pasties, and the venison, and the game, the 
pines, and the peaches, and the grapes, the cakes, 
and the confectionary [(tic], and the ices, which 
proved that the still-room at Hauteville was not an 
empty name, were all most popular." Chap. xiii. 
p. 104, ed. 1853. 



"T'ESQUiNTE PAS" (9 th S. iii. 69). The 
meaning seems to be " Don't knock yourself 
up." M. Gasc, in his very useful 'Diet, of 
the Fr. and Engl. Languages,' gives esquinter 
as a " popular " alternative of ereinter. Both 
mean properly to rupture or sprain the loins, 
esquinter being formed from esquine, the loins 
of a horse, as ereinter from reins, the loins 
without such restriction of meaning. The 
word is also in the dictionnaires d'argot, e.g., 
Loredan Larchey : " Esquintement, ' fatigue 
extreme ; esquinter, harasser, epuiser." 


M. Gasc, in his excellent dictionaries, ed. 
1889 and 1897, gives this word as a "popular" 
form of s 1 ereinter, to tire oneself out, to knock 
oneself up ; lit., to break or sprain one's back. 
Spiers (1869) and Roubaud do not give the 

word. It is, however, in Wessely's 'Pocket 
Dictionary ' in an active sense, " to knock up." 
It is also in M. Gasc's ' Pocket Dictionary,' 
1889, in the same sense. 


[Other replies to the same effect are acknow- 

CRYPTOGRAPHY (9 th S. ii. 52S). Chambers 
Journal for 1 Sept., 1855, and 15 March, 1856; 
Macmillaris Magazine for February, 1871; 
and Rees's ' Cyclopsedia,' contain instructive 
and interesting articles on this subject. 
' N. & Q,,' 2 nd S. v. 397, furnishes a long list 
of English works; and 5 th S. viii. 169, 312, 
the titles of many foreign books relating 
thereto. I may also refer your correspond- 
ent to 4 th S. vii., viii.; 5 th S. i.; 6 th S. ix., for 
additional information. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

There is a long article on 'Ciphers and 
Cipher - writing ' in Macmillaris Magazine, 
February, 1871, pp. 328-38. This contains a 
reference to "the fifties," because it ^ begins, 
" When the late Lord Clarendon was in Paris 
in 1856," after which there is an anecdote of 
an intercepted, but deciphered despatch from 
the Foreign Office, written in cryptography. 

ROBERT SCOTT GODFREY (9 th S. iii. 28). He 
is unknown to the ' D.N.B.,' but there is the 
barest mention of him without dates in 
Redgrave's ' Dictionary.' 



ii. 467, 531). T. W. says that William Penn, 
the founder of Pennsylvania, was the fifth 
in descent from " a younger son of the family 
[of Penn] living at Penn." If T. W. has 
documentary evidence for this statement, he 
will greatly oblige me, and all other persons 
interested in the history of the Penns, by 
giving it, or, at least, by definitely referring 
to it. P. S. P. CONNER. 


BENEDICT ARNOLD (9 th S. iii. 69). The 
Gentleman's Magazine for July, 1801, records 
the death of Brigadier-General Arnold at his 
house in Gloucester Place, on 14 June, 1801 ; 
also that his remains were interfed on the 
21st at Brompton. Seven mourning coaches 
and four state carriages formed the cavalcade. 
During the latter part of last year I was in 
correspondence with a lady in Massachusetts 
and another (a relative) in England, on the 
subject of Arnold's place of burial. I am not 


9th S. III. FEB. 25, '99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


fusing any confidences when I state that 
his descendants are still desirous of ascertain- 
ing his burial-place. Hidden at first for fear 
of American insults, it is now lost to Ame- 
rican friendliness. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The following extract from the obituary 
notices for 14 June in the Gent. Mag., part i. 
p. 580, will be of interest to MR. ABBATT : 

( "At his house in Gloucester Place, Brigadier- 
General Arnold. His remains were interred on the 
21st at Brompton. Seven mourning coaches and 

ur state carriages formed the cavalcade." 

G. F. B, B. 

DEAD FOLD (9 th S. iii. 68). MR. WARD'S 
own explanation of the thing signified by this 
term, viz., "the sheltered fold prepared as 
lambing quarters for the ewes," seems to give 
clearly enough the meaning of the term a 
fence impervious to the cold wind, at which 

it is stopped, its keenness deadened inside the 
1. This is often the meaning of "dead " in 


composition, as "dead-heat," a race where 
two horses pass the winning-post exactly 
abreast of one another, not an inch between 
their two heads, not enough to let a breath of 
wind through. W. II. TATE. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

A wall built without mortar is in some 
parts of England called a " dead wall." If the 
sheltered folds prepared for lambing quarters 
for ewes are built in this way it might give 
rise to the expression. JAMES PEACOCK. 


[Ye fall like small birds beaten by a storm 
Against a dead wall, dead. 

Bailey, 'Festus,' p. 129, ed. 1864.] 

iv. 437. 523 ; v. 213 ; 9 th S. ii. 477, 517). I have 
hunted through the 'Bullarium'at the British 
Museum without success in the search for the 
bull said to have been launched against a 
comet by Calixtus III. The ' Bullarium,' how- 
ever, only professes to contain most of the 
Papal bulls, so that some such bull may 
exist ; but it is remarkable that even in those 
bulls where the Pope refers to the Turks (and 
on this subject he expatiates with much ful- 
ness) no reference is made to the comet whose 
appearance was supposed to be connected in 
some mysterious way with their advance. 

It is noteworthy that all the authors cited 
some years ago in 'N. & Q.' in proof of this 
incident were scientific men, who presumably 
did not go, as an historian might have done, 
to the original authorities. To these second- 
hand quotations I can add a passage from 

'The Intellectual Development of Europe 
(ii. 245) by one Draper, an American : 

"From his seat, invisible to it in Italy, the 
sovereign pontiff, Calixtus III., issued his ecclesi- 
astical i'ulminations, but the comet in the heavens, 
like the Sultan on the earth, pursued its course 
undeterred. In vain were all the bells in Europe 
ordered to be rung to scare it away ; in vain was it 
anathematized ; in vain were prayers put up in all 

lesson for the meditations of every religious man." 
It is only necessary to read the above pas- 
sage to understand the eagerness with which 
the author would seize upon an incident of 
this sort, the delight that it would cause him, 
and the diligence with which he would em- 
bellish it, regardless of accuracy. And of 
this embellishment we have a proof in the 
statement that " the comet in the heavens, like 
the Sultan on the earth, pursued its course 
undeterred." What happened to the comet I 
do not profess to know, but the Pope was able 
to assure the faithful that on St. Mary 
Magdalene's Day the Sultan was defeated 
with a loss of 40,000 men. 

The incident is picturesque, and it is not 
desirable that it should be disproved out 
of existence. Let us hope that some future 
contributor will help us to assign to it its exact 
dimensions by pointing out the source from 
which it comes. T. P. ARMSTRONG. 


MRS. YOUNGER = JOHN FINCH (9 th S. iii. 69). 
I cannot give URBAN the information he 
seeks as regards the marriage of "Mrs." 
Younger with John Finch, brother of the 
seventh Earl of Winchilsea, having myself 
sought for years in vain for the same. I can, 
however, give him a good many particulars 
concerning the lady if he care to put himself 
into communication with me. Does he know 
that she and her sister, Mrs. Bicknell, were 
the daughters of James Younger and Mar- 
garet Keith, married 1693-4; that James 
Younger had served under King William in 
Flanders, and that his wife was a near rela- 
tion of Keith, Earl Marshal of Scotland 1 

19, Mecklenburgh Square, W.C. 

The Hon. John Finch, fourth son (not third, 
as Collins says) of Daniel, second Earl of 
Nottingham and sixth Earl of Winchilsea, 
died on 12 February, 1763. By "his wife 

Elizabeth, daughter of Younger, who died 

24 November, 1762, he had a daughter Eliza- 
beth, wedded on 2 June, 1757, to John Mason, 
Esq., of Greenwich" (Collins's 'Peerage,' 
1812, vol. iii. 403). G. F. R. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. FEB. 25, '99. 

CECIL (9 th S. ii. 168, 238, 275, 512 ; iii. 34). 
Ihe suggestion of ' The Norman People ' de- 
rives the family and name from Cicelle, Seys- 
sel, or Cassel, east of Bruges. The author 
sjives Maurice de Cassel, mentioned (mar- 
ried ?) on 1 August, 1008, two sons : (1) Hugh 
de Alest, from whom came the Counts of 
Kessel, and (2) Richard de Kessel, or Ciselle, 
who accompanied Robert Fitzhamon to the 
conquest of Glamorgan. In 1165 Walter de 
Alterinnis is in the 'Liber Niger.' This place 
in Herefordshire became thus early the seat 
of the Sitsillts of a junior branch of the 
Beaupre Sitsillts. The first of the again 
junior Cecils, Marquises of Salisbury, &c., is, I 
think, David of Stamford (died about 1541 
at least, his will was proved in that year). 
He wrote himself Cyssel, and calls "Richard 
Cyssel my eldest son." It was Sir John 
Sitsill of Alterinnis who in 1333 had a great 
suit with Sir Will. Fakenham as to his right 
to the arms he bore. Sir John proved that 
his ancestor Sir James, Baron of Beaupre, 
bore them when he was killed at Wallingford 
in 4 Steph. Philip of Alterinnis, died 1551, 
calls himself Sicelt. 

The arras still borne by the elder branch in 
Flanders, says 'Norman People,' seem clearly 
taken from the Counts of Flanders, i.e., the 
six inescutcheons sa., lion ramp. arg. There- 
is no doubt of Seisillt being the name of the 
father of King Lly welyn (d. 1021), but there is 
nothing to show that the Sitsillt family had 
anything to do with him, despite of Welsh 
bardic legend. The Sitsillts of Beaupre 
were a Welsh family, so far as living in Gla- 
morganshire goes, but they were not of Celtic 
blood, as far as I can see. The Sitsillts of 
Alterinnis were in all probability an offshoot, 
perhaps settled in Herefordshire on marriage 
with a daughter of Robert of Ewyers such 
a marriage is handed down. 

There is a possibility of the bearing of the 
inescutcheons being borrowed from Gwaeth- 
foed, of whose stock a strong clan was seated 
in Glamorganshire, but the 'Norman People's' 
suggestion seems more probable. 

The Monmouthshire branch of the name 
(for one branch there bore the name of Baker) 
held some of their property there until quite 
recently. I believe the representative of the 
main line was a law stationer in London in 

Aston Clinton. 

Having passed many a summer in Cecil 
county, Maryland, I cannot remember ever 
hearing that fair land's name pronounced 
except in rhyme to whistle. The county was 
formed in or about the year 1672, its name 

certainly, and also its pronunciation, I fancy 
coming from the second Lord Baltimore. 


UNWRITTEN HISTORY (9 th S. iii. 82). MR. 
GEORGE MARSHALL writes that "Finisterre 
was a defeat in every sense." As a sea officer 
I cannot agree with him. The action to which 
this name is usually given is that won by 
Anson, which gave us " Bosca wen's bulldogs " 
in St. James's Square, and the witticism of 
De Jonquiere, " Vous avez vaincu L'ln vincible, 
et La Gloire vous suit." Two other actions 
frequently referred to by the same title, 
namely, Hawke's and Calder's, were certainly 
not defeats. Even in the case of the last 
named, with fifteen ships opposed to twenty 
of the enemy, two of the latter were captured. 

THE ROMAN GHETTO (9 th S. ii. 463 ; iii. 90). 
M. Ulysse Robert, author of 'Les Signes 
d'Infamie au Moyen Age,' makes the follow- 
ing suggestion as to the meaning of the Jewish 

" Je terminerai cette etude sur la signe des Juifs 
en exprimant mais bien timidement, je 1'avoue 
1'opinion que la roue peut etre consideree comme 
la representation d'une piece de nionnaie, allusion 
& 1'aprete des Juifs pour le gain pu au prix de trente 
deniers que Judas recut pour livrer le Christ. On 
pourrait peut-etre y voir une representation de 
rhostie, embleme de la religion chretienne qu'ils 
niaient, et qu'on les condamnait a porter sur les 
vetements, puisqu'ils ne le voulaient porter dans 
leur coeur." Pp. 112-3. 

Timidity becomes me even better than it 
did M. Robert, but I venture to put forth the 
theory that a circular patch was as appro- 
priate to mark the children of " the concision" 
as it was to indicate 1 January, the festival 
of the CVrcwmcision, on a clog almanac 
figured in 'The Calendar of the Prayer Book 
Illustrated ' (James Parker & Co.), pp. xiv and 
xvii, from a specimen preserved in the Bod- 
leian Library. It was not unnatural that a 
badge worn by an outcast race should be also 
prescribed for Saracens, heretics, and other 
infamous persons. In England, in 1222 or 
1223, the "badge of sufferance" was a tabula 
of stuff, two fingers wide by four long, of a 
different colour from the garment on the 
breast of which it was displayed. Ere long 
yellow became the regulation hue, and then 
again two bands contrasting with their back- 
ground were accepted as a sufficient stigma. 
What is MR. ST. CLAIR BADDELEY'S authority 
for saying that "the custom of wearing a 
round yellow badge prevailed only during 
the thirteenth century"? The beauty of 
yellow was too great for it to be wholly given 

9* s. HI. FEB. 25, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


( /er to contumely, but it was certainly ofte 
i sed to indicate disgrace. There was a tim 
i i France when traitors' houses were painte 
c i that tincture. ST. SWITHIN. 

Referring to ME. ST. CLAIR BADDELEY'S ver 
interesting communication on this subject, . 
r 'quest that I may be permitted to direct hi 
a Dtention to a statement by Augustus J. C 
I tare at p. 253, vol. i. of ' Walks in Rome 
(London, W. Isbister & Co., 1874), to th 
effect that when the Jews were first shu 
up within the walls of the Ghetto or Vicu 
J udieorura, as it was called by the fanatica 
Dominican Pope Paul IV., "they were com 
manded never to appear outside it, unless th 
men were in yellow hats, or the women wer 
in yellow veils." If this statement, I beg t 
remark, has foundation in fact, it therefor 
may be assumed that the wearing of yellow 
hats and veils was not compulsory inside th 

Clapham, S.W. 

SIB AMBROSE CROWLEY (9 th S. iii. 90). You 
correspondents who want information abou 
knights who lived temj). Car. II. to Queen 
Anne would do well to ascertain whether 
what they seek is not already printed in Le 
Neve's ' Knights ' (Had. Soc., vol. viii.). ^ In 
that work is a good pedigree of the knigh 
above named. In the Genealogist (First Series 
vol. i. p. 148) are additions thereto and various 
references to other works relating to him 
and to these may be added Page's ' Suffolk 
(1847), p. 370, under 'Barking.' Some de- 
scription of his property at Greenwich is in 
'N. & Q.' (6 th S. xii. 191), under 'Queen's 
House, Greenwich,' as also in Drake's 
'Hasted's Kent' (Hundred of Blackheath), 
where he is called " the great, ironmaster of 
Newcastle." He himself entered his pedigree 
in 1707 (at the College of Arms), which, how- 
ever, I have not consulted. G. E. C. 

Crowley House, which stood on the banks 
of the Thames, near Greenwich, was pulled 
down in 1855. The house formed the subject 
of a query in 2 nd S. iii. 48. References to Sir 
Ambrose Crowley in the Spectator, Tatler, the 
East Anglian, and three volumes of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, will be found at 4 th S. ii. 159, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

There is a farm at Axford, in the parish of 
Ramsbury, Wilts, which is evidently the one 
MR. PILE is looking for. It was in the pos- 
session of the Pile family for many years, but 
now (I believe) belongs to Sir Francis Burdett. 
The house is of considerable interest, and con- 
tains a chapel, the windows and roof of which 

are in good preservation; a full account of 
this chapel, with drawings, can be seen in 
Doran Webb's ' Hundred of Ramsbury,' part i. 
If MR. PILE is collecting information about 
the Pile family I have one or two notes which 
are at his service, and I should be glad to hear 
what he has found about the Berkshire 
branch Sir Gabriel Pile, who held the manor 
of Oakash, in the parish of Chaddleworth, in 
the seventeenth century. H. MESSENGER. 
21, Pretoria Avenue, Walthamstow. 

Crowley was ironmonger by trade and lived 
in Thames Street, London, and at Greenwich, 
in Kent. He served as one of the sheriffs of 
London 1706-7, and was knighted 1 Jan., 
1706/7. For his pedigree see Le Neve's 
'Pedigrees of Knights' (Harl. Soc. pub., 
vol. viii.), p. 495. G. F. R, B. 

LONDON EXHIBITIONS (9 th S. iii. 83). MR. 
W. ROBERTS may add to his very interesting 
list three London exhibitions the names of 
which occur to me, and doubtless scores of 
others could be mentioned. The three I refer 
to are : 

Don Saltern's Museum, Chelsea. 

Rackstrow's Museum, 1787. 

Rotunda, circa 1850 (?). 

Of the first of these I need say nothing here, 
as its history has, if I mistake not, already 
; ormed the subject of communications in 

N. & Q.' The second, Rackstrow's Museum, 
seems to have been rather popular in its day. 
The title of its lengthy catalogue reads as 
x>llows : 

"A Descriptive Catalogue (giving a full explana- 
,ion) of Rackstrow's Museum : consisting of a large 
and very valuable Collection of most curious Anato- 
mical Figures, with real Preparations : also Figures 
esembling Life ; with a great variety of Natural 
and Artificial Curiosities. To be seen at No. 197, 
Tleet-Street, between Chancery-Lane, and Temple- 
Jar, London. 1797." 

n one portion of its contents Rackstrow's 
Museum seems to have somewhat resembled 
)on Saltero's, but it had also (what the latter 
was, I think, commendably free from) a pro- 
nounced erotic flavour. The gaping citizen 
f 1787 was shown at 197, Fleet Street, a few 
rare" minerals, some models, a few birds' 
ggs and the birds themselves, some auto- 
matic figures, and so on ; but these were 
nly designed to whet his appetite for the 
ieces de resistance in the shape of ela- 
orate models of the female pelvic organs 
nd so on. The proprietor, by the way, 
aimed to have made such arrangements 
lat ladies could visit his museum without 
Tence. I think, from some newspaper cut- 
ings in my copy of the catalogue, that the 
museum lasted till about 1808. The third 



exhibition mentioned above, the Kotunda in 
the Blackfriars Road, I remember very well, 
and often visited it as a youth. The building 
stood on the west side of the road, near the 
bridge, and I should not be surprised to find 
that it still stands, but divided into tene- 
ments. It had been, if I remember correctly, 
the house where a famous collection of 
curiosities (1 the Leverian) had been pre- 
viously lodged. It was in its glory about the 
middle of the century, but degenerated into a 
"penny gaff" of the lowest sort, the delight 
of the lambs of Lambeth and the over- sharp 
costers of the New Cut, and finally expired 
" suffocated by its own filth." It is well some- 
times, perhaps, to be laudator temporis acti, 
but in nothing has there been such an im- 
provement as in the character of London 
popular entertainments. Such places as the 
Rotunda would now be summarily suppressed. 


"TRES TOIS D'OR" (9 th S. iii. 48). II faut 
lire, "Tres Toison d'or." Apres que Felix 
Faure eut reu de la reine re'gente d'Espagne 
les insignes de FOrdre de la Toison d'Or, 
certains imbeciles de son entourage affecterent 
de dire, " Cette femme est tres Toison d'or ; 
cette voiture est tres Toison d'or," &c., pour 
exprimer leur admiration. C'est tout simple- 
ment aussi idiot que le mot anglais smart 
que les imbeciles des Folies - Bergeres et du 
Casino de Paris ont vainement essaye de 
mettre a la mode. N. L. H. 


(9 th S. iii. 66). A correspondent asks, regard- 
ing the form adopted by ministers in writing 
to the sovereign, when and why it was 
adopted. He refers, of course, to tne writer 
in the third person addressing the sovereign 
in the second. The " when " of the question 
is exemplified by the address of the Roman 
gladiators, " Ave, Csesar Imperator ! Morituri 
te salutant." A. J. P. 

iii. 107). These could not have been Charles 
Mayne Young and his wife, for they were at 
Boston as early as the autumn of 1805, and 
remained in America. The lady, whose 
maiden name was Foster, died in New York 
in 1831. See Dunlop's 'History of the Ameri- 
can Theatre,' vol. ii. WM. DOUGLAS. 

125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 

529). As the " Historical MSS. Commission's 
Reports and Appendices [sic] " now consist 
of at least seventy-two volumes most with 

separate indexes perhaps MR. LEADAM will 
'condescend to particulars," as I believe 
they say in Scots law, and give a more exact 
reference. Q. V. 

SEWARDSTONE (9 th S. iii. 67). Waltham 
Abbey, in the days before the dissolution 
of the monasteries, held three wards, 
Sewardstone being one, the manor being the 
property of the prior and monks. It was 
situated in the forest, but has long been 
disforested, and is now known as Sewardstone 
Street (sometimes as Road) ; it was, when I 
saw it some thirty-five years ago, one long 
street or way, with fields in front and at the 
back. It was then well known to anglers, 
many of whom had here a house of call, the 
name of which has slipped my memory. It 
is two and a half miles from Waltham on the 
road to Chingford, and three and a half miles 
from the station at that place. Gil well Park, 
an old hunting seat, standing in a park of 
seventy acres, was the property of Sir 
Anthony Denny in the reign of Edward VI., 
and he erected the hall there at that period. 
Sir Herewald Wake, of Courteen Hall, North- 
amptonshire, is now the lord of the manor of 
Waltham Holy Cross, and has lands there ; 

Eroperty is also held there by the Buxton 
imily. The so-called Queen Elizabeth's 
hunting lodge is not far from there, and was 
surrounded by woods years ago, but is now 
mainly used for picnic parties ; the traveller, 
however, may call and be shown a portion of 
the interior. Sewardstone at the time I 
speak of was a thriving hamlet, and may 
possibly be so still, as well as more developed 
by building. The acreage of the manor is 
over three thousand acres. W. H. BROWN. 
Chesterton, Cambs. 

There is a place in Essex called Seward- 
stone. It is three miles south of Waltham 
Abbey and a little north of High Beech. 


GLYNDYFRDWY (9 th S. iii. 6, 74). I, too, 
should like to have the opinion of a competent 
Welsh scholar. Meanwhile, I do not think 
D. M. R.'s suggestion a likely one. I have 
only a bowing acquaintance with Welsh, but 
I think I may say that, whether in combina- 
tion or otherwise, the numeral always pre- 
cedes the substantive. As for the termination 
dwy, I must confess that I took it as equivalent 
to wy, and I find it so explained in Canon 
Taylor's ' Words and Places ' (ed. 1882, p. 137). 
I do not think dwy can be the feminine of 
dau in such river-names as Dwyfawr and 
Dwyfach, for in that case they would be 
meaningless. In the 'Gossiping Guide to 

S. III. FEB. 25, '99.] 



/"ales ' (p. 93) we are told, on the authority 
of the late Canon Williams, that dwy in th< 
name under discussion du, black, the ful 
Welsh name of the Dee meaning simply 
Blackwater. Jenkinson's guide, on the other 
hand, explains the name as, probably, slowly 
moving water, from the verb dyfian, to move 
slowly, and wy, water. May I take this 
opportunity of asking whether there is any 
trustworthy work on Welsh place-names, a 
subject in which I am deeply interested ? 

0. C. B. 


LIES !" (9 th S. iii. 47.) This phrase is old, and 
is not confined to one part of the country. A 
century and a quarter ago Goldsmith, in ' She 
Stoops to Conquer ' (III. i.), put into Tony 
Lumpkin's mouth, when he was questioned 
as to the casket he had stolen, " Ask me no 
questions, and I'll tell you no fibs!" A 
variant which I have heard in my household 
is, ''Ask no questions, and you'll hear no 
stories ! " story being a nursery euphemism 
for the coarser word. F. ADAMS. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

MR. KATCLIFFE'S note discloses a saying 
familiar to my ears. He has evoked old 
memories, for I can well remember the 
occasionally administered rebuke in my 
younger days, when too persistent in in- 
quiries, "Ask no questions, and you'll hear 
no stories ! " a milder form of the expression, 
as will be seen from MR. RATCLIFFE'S 
examples. It was very good advice, too, as 
I have long since found. There was some- 
times added a further admonition to the 
effect that " Little boys should be seen, and 
not heard." I suppose that almost everybody 
must have an acquaintance with these two 
expressions. Occasionally one hears the 
former remark made to those of maturer 
years who are prone to inquisitiveness, or 
who have a tendency to mind other people's 
business instead of their own. This "poking 
one's nose " into others' affairs will sometimes 
be met with such an expression as MR. 
RATCLIFFE shows. I notice a proverb in 
Andrew Henderson's 'Scottish Proverbs' 
that has some resemblance, but with a more 
proverbial expression : " He that speaks the 
thing he shouldna will hear the thing he 
wouldna." C. P. HALE. 

"CAMBUSCAN BOLD" (9 th S. iii. 108). In 
speaking of " the fight at Finsbury," Morris, 
no doubt, had in his mind the existing frag- 
ment of the Saga of Finn in the ' Battle of 
Finnsburg.' It is uncertain whether this 
precedes or follows another portion of the 

same saga as given in ' Beowulf,' and therefore 
it may be said (as in the quotation from 
Morris's pamphlet) to want both beginning 
and end. Mr. Stopford Brooke's account of 
it in ' English Literature from the Beginning 
to the Norman Conquest,' p. 51, should suffice 
for the modern reader. "Cambuscan bold" 
is Milton's phrase. Morris seems to have 
quoted from memory the couplet in 'II 
Penseroso ' which gives the expression. The 
correct reading is : 

Or call up him that left half told 
The story of Cambuscan bold. 

' II Penseroso,' 1. 110. 

It is interesting to know that Chaucer, while 
naming Cambynskan, really refers to Kublai 
Khan, his grandson, the famous "Grand 
Khan "of Marco Polo (Prof. Skeat's 'Prior- 
esses Tale,' &c., Clarendon Press). Thus 
the mighty potentate who " did a stately 
pleasure dome decree" has in English verse 
a threefold immortality, through the high 
attention given him by Chaucer, Milton, and 
Coleridge. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

OMDURMAN (9 th S. iii. 67). The proper 
orthography of this word is Umm-Darmdn. 
It cannot, of course, rime with Hermon or 
sermon, but I do not see why it should not 
rime with firman, which is properly spelt far- 
man, as the vocalization of both words is 
identical. Farmdn, like darwesh (dervish), is 
a Persian word which has been introduced into 
the language of the Turkish rulers of Egypt. 
The form of the name Omdurman indicates 
that it has some kind of a history, of which I 
am ignorant. I am inconveniently away from 
books just now. W. F. PRIDE AUX. 

45, Pall Mall, S.W. 

At a military lecture lately attended by the 
writer this word was pronounced with the 
accent on the third syllable, the a being as in 
uther. The lecturer was an officer in the 
Guards. E. G. CLAYTON. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

" PIGGIN " (9 th S. ii. 85 ; iii. 73)? I beg leave 
}o refer your correspondent to Prof. Rhys's 

Lectures on Welsh Philology.' It is there 
shown that the initial p was always lost in 

eltic, and that no Welsh word beginning 
with p is original, except when the p repre- 
sents an original qu, as in pump, Lat. quinque; 
jedwar, Lat. qiiatuor, <fec. The word pig, a 
Deak, was doubtless borrowed from English 
>r Latin. The Anglo-Saxon piic, a pike, 
>ccurs as early as in the eighth century, but 
s probably of Latin origin. It is a long story, 
tnd must be studied in the philological works 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. FEB. 25, m 

by Rhys, Stokes, Brugmann, Windisch, and 
others. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

ROUNDS on RUNGS (9 th S. ii. 386, 430, 492, 
530 ; iii. 75, 116). This argument appears 
likely to drift from its true course. It is not 
a question of convincing me, nor of finding 
the term in Chaucer (who, like Burns, may 
have used vulgar words) and in contemporary 
and previous writers, nor even, it may be, 
of tracing rung (to the entire exclusion of 
round) up to the year "one," and into the 
mouth of the most learned and highest 
functionary of the land in those days.* The 
sole question is, at the end of the nineteenth 
century, Which word is a writer or speaker to 
use, to avoid the risk of being considered 
either ignorant or vulgar ? If the controversy 
is to be decided in these pages, the only 
evidence to produce of real weight is present- 
day authority. Fortunately for those still 
in doubt, the dictionaries supply an alterna- 
tive the rather uncommon word rundle. 

J. S. M. T. 

69, 258, 458). 

Said Day to Night, &c. 

The poem by Emerson, with the title 'A Fable,' is 
in 'Nightingale Valley,' a collection by Giraldus 
(London, Bell & Daldy, 1860), p. 89. In this the line 
quoted as 

If I cannot carry forests on my shoulders 

If I cannot carry forests on my back. 


(9 th S. ii. 228.) 

The present is the life of man. 
This is expressed in Latin in these lines : 
Non est, crede mini, sapientis dicere, Vivam. 
Sera nimis vita est crastina, vive hodie. 

Mart. I. xvi. 11, 12. 

(9 th S. ii. 339.) 
'Aei yap tv TrtTrrova-iv 01 Atos Kvftoi. 

Sophocles, Fragm. 762, Dindorf. 
(9 th S. iii. 8.) 

My dead love came to me and said. 
This is the first verse of Mr. Stephen Phillips's 
very striking poem ' The Apparition.' 

You who never turned your back. 
A curiously unhappy misquotation from Brown- 
ing's ' Epilogue ' (' Asolando ). It should run : 

* The fact stated, that round is taken from the 
French, rather adds strength to my contention. So 
long back as there has been a competition between 
round and rung it makes it all the more probable 
that the former has been the polite term. 

One who never turned his back but marched breast 


Never doubted clouds would break, 
Never dreamed, though right were worsted, wrong 

would triumph, 
Held we fall to rise, are baffled to fight better, 

Sleep to wake. C. C. B. 

(9*8. iii. 28.) 
My ornaments are arms. 

See Lockhart's 'Spanish Ballads': 'The Wander- 
ing Knight's Song.' W. H. PATTERSON, 


The Master E. S. and the ' Ars Moriendi \- a 
Chapter in ''the History of Engraving during the 
Fifteenth Century. By Lionel Gust, M.A. (Ox- 
ford, Clarendon Press.) 

EQUALLY interesting from the points of view of 
xylography and bibliography, and not less valuable 
from that of art, is the series of designs issued, 
with an introduction by Mr. Lionel Gust, from the 
Clarendon Press. Three sets of illustrations to the 
' Ars Moriendi,' that quaint and authoritative ex- 
pression of ecclesiastical views and opinions in the 
Middle Ages, are herein for the first time rendered 
generally accessible in accurate facsimile, the exact 
size of the originals. Two of these sets are in 
copperplate, the third in wood engraving. Not 
easy is it to convey an idea of the nature of the 
task accomplished. At the Weigel sale in Leipzig 
in 1872 the British Museum acquired, for the large 
sum of 1,072^. 10s., exclusive of commission, a block- 
book (of twenty-four pages) of extreme rarity, which 
has been described as the 'Ars Moriendi' (editio 
princeps, circa 1440). Concerning the illustrations 
to this erroneous views have prevailed. Not until 
days quite recent has the fact been established by 
the researches of Dr. Max Lehrs, the Director of 
the Cabinet of Prints and Drawings in the Royal 
Museums at Dresden, that these are practically 
enlarged copies from the set of copperplate engrav- 
ings by the Master E. S. in the Douce Collection, 
now in the University Galleries in Oxford. The 
present volume, then, consists of the reproduction 
by collotype of the unique set of copperplate illus- 
trations to the ' Ars Moriendi ' in question ; the 
all but unique set of eleven copperplate engravings 
from the originals of the Master E. S., executed by 
the Master of St. Erasmus, now in the Print-Room 
of the British Museum ; and the woodcut illustra- 
tions executed for the supposed first edition of the 
'Ars Moriendi,' which have "hitherto only been 
reproduced by inferior processes." A treatise might 
be written on the light cast by these beautifully 
executed designs upon mediaeval views and upon 
primitive culture generally. To those familiar with 
the Douce Collection designs the task of explana- 
tion and comment is unnecessary ; to those pos- 
sessed of no such knowledge it is, without the 
reproduction of the illustrations, impossible. In a 
short and eminently serviceable introduction Mr. 
Gust supplies all information concerning matters 
of detail, variations, &c., which the student can 
require. He does more, however. He accepts 
plenarily the conclusions of Dr. Lehrs that what 
we will call the Oxford collection is the editio 
princeps of the ' Ars Moriendi,' and that the illus- 

9* S. III. FEB. 25, '99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


.rations to the block-book are little more than 
enlarged copies of designs belonging to the earlier 
,vork of the Master E. S. A history of copperplate 
jngraving becomes now for the first time possible. 
[t is suggested that many engravings on wood or 
netal, which, "from their rude method of execution, 
lave been attributed to the infancy of the art, are 
merely unskilful copies of better engravings," and 
i question is raised whether wood engraving is to a 
jertainty anterior in date to copper, as has been 
generally assumed. Expert knowledge such as we 
}o not claim, and investigations for which we have 
not leisure, are necessary in order to pronounce an 
opinion upon the subject, and the view has to 
be put forth on the authority of Dr. Lehrs and 
Mr. Gust. Our own task is accomplished in in- 
troducing the work to our readers, and praising 
the beauty of the execution, worthy in all respects 
of the noble Clarendon Press, of which scholars and 
book-lovers are alike proud. 

Manual of the Hi-story of French Literature. By 
Ferdinand Brunetiere. Translated by Ralph 
Derechef. (Fisher Unwin.) 

A TRANSLATION of this brilliant and paradoxical 
work of M. Ferdinand Brunetiere, whose theatrical 
criticisms a decade ago repaid attention in the Revue 
des Deux Mondes, and who has since been elected 
to the Academic, cannot be otherwise than attrac- 
tive and remunerative to English readers. That it 
is impossible within the limits of a few hundred 
pages, however closely printed, to give a complete 
and satisfactory account of a literature beginning 
with chansons de geste, fabliaux, and romans de la 
Table-Ronde, and ending with the works of " him 
that did but yesterday suspire," is obvious. Quite 
ample is the space for the purpose of sustain- 
ing a theory of evolution such as every new 
historian of a literature is bound to regard as a 
portion of his equipment. This M. Brunetiere has 
done with characteristic brightness^ in a work now, 
we believe, first introduced to English readers. 
The work itself, it is but justice to say, is put 
forward as the "programme" of a more exhaustive 
and detailed ' History,' which, if thoroughly carried 
out, may well occupy a lifetime and assume ency- 
clopaedic proportions. Its form is novel, and not 
wholly commendable. While about half the page 
is occupied with a running comment upon the 
literature of a given epoch or "literary period," 
the under portion, in smaller type, supplies infor- 
mation, ample and unmistakably useful, on matters 
such as editions and authorities. Why we pro- 
nounce this scheme as carried out not wholly com- 
mendable is because the upper and lower portions 
do not always synchronize, if one may so speak ; 
and while reading the text we have to turn back- 
ward or forward to seek such information as is 
supplied in the form of comment. There is, more- 
over, no index, such being held, apparently, need- 
less in a work written under these conditions. 
M. Brunetiere must necessarily be justified in 
substituting literary periods for centuries. Yet 
centuries are convenient, and, what is more im- 
portant, familiar ; and we like, when possible, to 
conform to recognized systems, and not to suppose 
that at our bidding the world will forget other 
books in favour of ours, and adopt new sequences 
or systems. After all, too, centuries have a phy- 
siognomy of their own. It was not for nothing 
that the period of Erasmus and Rabelais was that 
practically of Martin Luther. With us the seven- 

teenth century is as distinguishable from the six- 
teenth as it is from the eighteenth, and the 
eighteenth century, dismissing its lurid close, is 
recognizable all the world over. The nineteenth 
century has, moreover, in England at least, a 
physiognomy which, while not yet outside it, we 
are able to recognize. M. Brunetiere would date 
his periods from literary events, the appearance 
of the ' Lettres Provinciates ' and that of the ' Genie 
duChristianisme.' The division is like another. How 
many people in France will that satisfy ? It will 
satisfy none here. We suppose that he would in 
England take the ' Faust ' of Marlowe as marking 
the beginning of a literary period ; and in that case 
we should not quarrel with him. Most people would, 
however, substitute a play of Shakspeare for one of 
Marlowe. Many of M. Brunetiere's utterances are 
wise as well as epigrammatic. We think him at 
his best in dealing with the period from the ' Lettres 
Persanes ' to the publication of the ' Encyclopedic.' 
What he says concerning Marivaux is good, and 
concerning Montesquieu excellent. Here is a note- 
worthy phrase about Beranger and others : " While 
Beranger, for example, was laboriously rhyming 
such songs as ' La Bonne Vieille ' or ' Le Dieu des 
Bonnes Gens 'masterpieces, it may be, but master- 
pieces in what would be the lowest branch of 
writing if the vaudeville did not exist," &c. Our 
author is very fond, moreover, of asking questions : 
"Is not this the place to recall?" &c. He is more 
strongly concerned with the message, ethical or 
theological, of literature than are most French- 
men ot the day. His work extorts our admira- 
tion by its brilliancy. We are not prepared to 
accept its judgments en masse or its conclusions. 
The task of translation seems well accomplished, so 
far as giving the meaning of the writer. Inaccurate 
English forms of speech are, however, too fre- 
quently employed. 

The Church Towers of Somersetshire. By E. Piper, 
R.P.E. With Introduction, &c., by John Lloyd 
Warden Page. Parts VIII. and IX. (Bristol, 
Frost & Reed.) 

GOOD progress is being made with this handsome 
and important work on ' The Church Towers of 
Somersetshire,' which worthily maintains its repu- 
tation as one of the best and handsomest books of 
its class. Mr. Piper's two etchings in Part VIII. 
consist of the two neighbouring towers of St. 
Michael's, Dundry, and St. Andrew's, Chew Magna. 
The former tower is at once, from its height, its 
strength, and its elegance, one of the most con- 
spicuous in the county. Standing on a hill 768 feet 
high Mr. Page says 790 its appearance is most 
commanding, while from the summit of the tower, 
itself a hundred feet high, as the visitor knows, 
the look-out, seaward and landward, is very 
wide, extending from the Malverns to the Wilt- 
shire Hills, and from the Quantocks to the coast 
of South Wales, with the Severn river and the 
Channel, Bath and Bristol, all in sight. The tower 
itself, erected by the Merchant Venturers of 
Bristol, is exquisite in grace, and the lacework 

of the parapet and the clustering pinnacles sug- 
gest to the traveller memories of Milan. While 
less impressive than its neighbour, and much less 
prominent, the tower of Chew Magna Church has 
beauties of its own, which the design admirably 
reproduces. Both churches have undergone rather 
elaborate restoration, which, though in the main 
carefully carried out, is not always satisfactory. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. FEB. 25, m 

In strong contrast with these Perpendicular towers 
is the tower of Christon Church, with its sturdy 
Norman physiognomy and its absence of ornament. 
This is short of thirty feet in height. The building 
itself, the dedication of which is unknown, has 
abundant interest, and its situation among the 
Mendips is beautiful. Close at hand, and not less 
happily situated, is St. Andrew's, Banwell, the 
nave and aisles of which Mr. Freeman has pro- 
nounced absolutely perfect in their proportions. 
Scarcely less perfect, surely, is the richly decorated 
tower, the dignity and stateliness of which are not 
easily surpassed. 

The Orientation and Dedications of Ancient Churches 
in England and Wales. By George Watson. 
(Peiirith, R. Scott.) 

THE object of this pamphlet is to demonstrate that 
it is an error to hold that when our mediaeval 
churches were built they were so planned that the 
ecclesiastical east was assumed to be the point 
where the sun seemed to rise on the festival of the 
saint to whom the church was dedicated. That 
this cannot have been so has long been known by 
those who have carefully studied the subject. But 
they are few. and those who credulously follow 
common report are many. Therefore Mr. Watson's 
tract was not uncalled for. We do not think this 
saint's-day belief is very old. Mr. Watson quotes 
Aubrey, who in his turn quotes his acquaintance 
Sylas Taylor for this opinion. Taylor may have 
had mediaeval authority for what he said, but if he 
had we have overlooked it. 

The Records of the Surgery of Sheffield, commonly 
called the Town Trust. With Introduction and 
Notes by John Daniel Leader. (Stock.) 
THESE Sheffield Burgery records are very interest- 
ing, and Mr. Leader has edited them, with great 
care. The volume is a very welcome addition to 
the historical literature of Yorkshire. As well as 
the Burgery accounts, it contains a facsimile of 
Furnival's charter to the town, with an extended 
text, accompanied by a translation. The Sheffield 
Burgery came into being in the Middle Ages at 
what time it is impossible to say. We gather from 
the editor's preface that it was in great danger of 
extinction in the reign of Edward VI., when so 
many other local organizations for the public good 
were swept away. It happily survived all the 
storms of the Tudor time, although some of its 
property was lost, and it passed through a period 
of something like poverty. The earlier accounts, 
if there ever were any, which is almost certain, 
are not to be found. Those now extant begin in 
1566, from which time there is a continuous series. 
The good works which the Town Trust has accom- 

flished have been of a very miscellaneous nature, 
t exerted itself to maintain highways and 
bridges ; the town armour was under its care, and 
it maintained pipers to discourse to the people 
sweet music. When kings were crowned, and 
when great battles were won, it contributed to the 
festivities. Through the natural increase in the 
value of land in a great centre of industry and 
the munificent bequest of Mr. Samuel Bailey, one 
of the trustees, it has now an income of upwards 
of six thousand a year, which is entirely devoted 
to schemes of public utility. 

The local words which occur in the earlier part 
of the volume are not so many as we should have 
anticipated, but they should certainly be noted for 

the ' Dialect Dictionary ' now in progress. We 
meet more than once with "feying," that is, 
cleansing a pool : a word intelligible enough in 
Yorkshire or Lincolnshire, but perhaps not known 
in the Southern or Midland counties. " Yate," too, 
appears for gate, and " steele" for stile. A " co\vle 
rake" was bought in 1693 for the Ladies Bridge. 
This is explained to mean a " coal rake : a rake for 
raking the ashes of a fire or oven." It is almost 
certain that a cowl-rake has no connexion with 
coal. The word is known all over the north of 
England. It indicates a scraper used for gathering 
together mud and manure. There is a verb also, 
cowl, to scrape. 

Whitaker's Naval and Military Directory and 

Indian Army List, 1899. ( Whitaker & Sons. ) 
MESSRS. WHITAKER seem to have a special faculty 
for the arrangement of useful and trustworthy 
information in the most condensed form. This 
handy little volume is indispensable as a book of 
reference, and especially useful to every public 
library or reading-room. It appeals directly to 
families who have an interest in or connexion with 
the Army and Navy. 

MESSRS. HENRY SOTHERAN & Co. issue a cata- 
logue of a very fine collection of autographs, English 
and foreign, and engraved portraits, some of them 
unpublished, and many of extreme rarity. Among 
those whose signatures appear to letters or pro- 
ductions of highest interest are Burke, Burns, 
Congreve, Cowley, Prior, Dryden, Racine, Fenelon, 
Goethe, Schiller, and innumerable others. The 
collection is very rich in histrionic celebrities, 
including autographs of Garrick, Spranger Barry, 
Miss Farren, Miss Bellamy, Mrs. Jordan, Rachel, 
Talma, and others. 

jotitM lor 

We must call special attention to the following 
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9"' S. III. MAR. 4, ; 99.] 




CONTENTS. -No. 62. 

; ,'OTES : The Provinces, 161 Westminster Changes, 162 
Roger Bacon and the Telescope, 163 Ancient Wharf- 
Sirdar John Gerard Maidservants throwing Dice, 164 
"Fretished" Extreme Unction Lord Lytton and Ibn 
Ezra Drydeniana Waller, 165 Epitaph at Whitby Fal- 
staff, 166 Parish Registrar, 167. 

UUERIES : Capt. F. Abney-Hastings Missing Portrait 
"Writer of sorts" Rev. W. Da vies Mayors. 1726 
Cetinje, 167 " Paragon " Campbell's Wallace' - 
William III. " A wig of bread" Elias Martin, A.R.A. 
Velton Abbey-M. A. Bowes Christopher Lister, 168 
Merlin's Mechanical Museum Scrimanski " No great 
shakes " Impressions of Seals Miss Bessie Rayner Parkes 
"The white faunch hind "Slough Hallingee Clau- 
molinespick, 169. 

KEPLIES : Heysham Antiquities, 169- Agam Colours. 170 
The Swallow's Song Village of Loggerheads John 
Vilett Brass at St. Albans Portrait ot Hugh O'Neill- 
Church Tradition, 171 Popladies Sir A. Iruin Book 
Terms Cure by the Hand of a Corpse Armorial- 
Beamish, 172 Dallas Holling Day Shakspeare and the 
Sea Sister Churches French Proverb ' Descent from 
the Cross' Holy Wells Lewes and Locke Royal Navy 
Club, 173 'Aylwin' Cromwell and Christmas Hepton- 
stall Montaigne Perth Charles I. Rings, 174 Clare 
Street Kylon A Child's Caul Relic of Napoleon, 175- 
Surnames'in -son Muse Plots Walton, 176 Silchester 
Place-names " Unspeakable Turk" Alaric, 177 Author 
Wanted Gordon Family Nonjurors "Aerial Tour" 
Instrumental Choir, 178. 

NOTES on BOOKS : Henslow's Medical Works of the 
Fourteenth Century ' Lang's Scott's ' Quentin Durward ' 
Clutton- Brock's ' Cathedral Church of York ' ' Palmer's 
Index to the Times 'Warner's 'Landmarks in English 
Industrial History 'Wade's 'Symbolisms of Heraldry' 
Wallace-James's ' Charters of Haddington.' 


THE expression "the provinces" has not 
the obvious meaning in England which it has 
in Ireland or France, where provincial divi- 
sions are recognized. Of course there are 
the two ecclesiastical provinces of Canterbury 
and York. It seems as if provincial divisions 
were coming again into use. Not long ago it 
was stated in the newspapers that there was 
a meeting of East Anglian bishops. There 
was also considerable stir amongst East 
Anglians when Lord Kitchener claimed to 
belong to that district. Mercia, Wessex, and 
Northumbria are often mentioned in this way 
as provincial divisions. It is well to note 
this desire to maintain these local divisions, 
and also to determine their number and 
limits. Those already mentioned take us 
back to the Heptarchy. So, starting from 
that division, we have the following : Kent, 
the East Saxons, West Saxons, South Saxons, 
East Anglia, Mercia, and Northumbria as the 
Anglo-Saxon provinces. Then there are the 
districts inhabited by the Celts: Wales, 
Cumbria, and Damnonia or West Wales. 
This would give ten provincial divisions in 
England, and, if we reckon London and the 
Isle of Man separately, twelve. 

As to the limits of these divisions there is 
much confusion, and little is known as to the 
exact boundaries of each. Two small books 
give a great deal of information on this sub- 
ject : ' Celtic Britain,' by Principal Rhys, and 
' Saxon Britain,' by Mr. Grant Allen. 

Kent is represented by the modern shire. 

East Saxonia comprises Essex, Middlesex, 
and Hertford. In ancient times part of Bed- 
ford was included. 

South Saxonia includes Surrey and Sussex. 

West Saxonia has recently been the subject 
of an interesting discussion in the English 
Historical Review. It would appear that it 
included Wilts, Hants, and Berks. Is Ox- 
fordshire to be included? It lies north of 
the Thames. Somerset and Dorset seem to 
belong to the Celtic Damnonia, as being 
principally occupied by Welsh kin. 

East Anglia contains Norfolk, Suffolk, 
Cambridge, and Huntingdon. But Lincoln 
is counted amongst the East Anglian bishops. 
It is geographically East Anglian, but in old 
times was connected with Mercia and the 
Mid Angles. Modern usage seems to make 
it part of East Anglia. 

Northumbria has in it Yorkshire, Durham, 
and Northumberland, but it formerly stretched 
to the Firth of Forth. 

Mercia would include Staffordshire, Derby, 
Nottingham, Leicester, Northampton, Rut- 
land, Warwick, Gloucester, and Worcester ; 
also Bedford, Buckingham, and Oxfordshire 
possibly. For a long time the Severn was 
the western boundary, and until a compara- 
tively late period Shropshire and Hereford 
were the Welsh Marches, and, so far as race 
is concerned, to some extent Welsh. 

Cumbria comprised Cumberland, West- 
moreland, Lancashire, and also Cheshire, 
which goes with the northern ecclesiastical 
province. This province formerly stretched 
into Yorkshire as far as Leeds. 

Wales, the modern principality. The Severn 
was the old boundary. 

Damnonia, Devonshire and Cornwall, with 
Somerset and Dorset, at an early period over- 
run by the West Saxons, but still mainly 
Welsh kin. 

In Scotland the usual division is into the 
Highlands and Lowlands, but this obscures 
race and history. It, strictly speaking, con- 
tains four provinces, differing in race and 

Dalriada, or the West Highland, is by race 
Scotic or Irish Gaedhelic. It is the land of the 
invers, as distinguished from the north-east, 
the land of the abers. Argyll, Inverness, and 
Elgin, and all west of these are contained 
in it. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. m. MAR. 4, -99. 

Pictland, including Perth, Fife, Banff, Aber- 
deen, Kincardine, Forfar that is, the whole 
district extending from Aberfoyle to Aber- 
deen. The Irish Scots pressed into Perthshire, 
but it is Pictish land. Pictavia had its own 
race, history, and local characteristics. 

Lodonia, or the Lothian province, was a 
well-known division in former times. It is 
North Anglian, and has the Anglo-Saxon 
mark in its local names, the hams and hames. 
With it would go Stirling and Berwick. 

Strathclyde was in Celtic times part of 
Cumbria, and included the country of the 
Strathclyde Britons and Galloway, originally 
the country of the Southern Picts, afterwards 
overrun by the Irish Gael, from whom it 
derives its name. It is the province of 
almost all the romance, heroism, and poetry 
of Scotland, of the Arthurian romance, the 
country of Wallace and Bruce, of the Cove- 
nanters, of the Borders, of Scott, Burns, and 
Carlyle. It is still, after many changes, mainly 
Celtic. It may be described as the country 
lying between Dumbarton (Dunbriton) and 

/L -.V i 


In Ireland the provinces, Ulster, Munster, 
Leinster, and Connaught, are much the 
same now as they were at the beginning 
of the Christian era, except that County 
Cavan was inhabited by a Connaught tribe, 
and Louth belonged to Ulster. Meath for a 
time was recognized as a distinct province. 
The only trace that remains of its provincial 
character is the fact that its bishop is styled 
Most Reverend, and takes precedence of all 
the other bishops. 

Of the races of these great divisions, Lein- 
ster, Northumbria, and Mercia are mixed or 
Anglo-Celtic. Three in Ireland, three in 
Scotland, and three in England are Celtic, 
three are Saxon, one purely Anglian, and one 
Jute. Nine in the United Kingdom are 
Celtic, three Anglo-Celtic, and six are Anglo- 
Saxon. C. S. 


AT 8 th S. viii. 61, and again at 9 th S. i. 502, 
I gave some particulars as to ' Westminster 
Demolishments ' and ' Westminster Changes.' 
A walk round this neighbourhood, taken 
recently, has revealed the fact that during 
the last few months many alterations have 
taken place, and it seems desirable that the 
approximate date should be placed on record 
in the pages of ' N. & Q.,' so that the infor- 
mation may be ready to hand if and when 
required, in order to spare future writers 
some trouble in their researches. 

In Rochester Row the small houses and 
shops numbered from 55 to 63 inclusive have 

been pulled down, the land being required for 
the enlargement of the police-station and its 
belongings, the accommodation being very 
inadequate. In Vauxhall Bridge Road the 
demolition of the houses between 124 and 
142 has been effected. Upon the portion of 
the land so cleared, from 124 to the corner of 
Bloomburg Street, is the new building for 
the Gordon Fistula Hospital, now approach- 
ing completion, the other portion being still 

In Vincent Square, hard by, has been 
erected the Grosvenor Hospital for Women, 
replacing some private houses which had 
previously been used for the purpose. In 
Moreton Street a few houses have been re- 
moved to provide a new and better approach 
to the church of St. James the Less, erected 
as a memorial to Dr. Monk, a former Canon 
of Westminster, arid subsequently Bishop of 
Gloucester. Some houses will be removed 
in Earl Street and Winchester Terrace in 
order to give access to the County Council 
buildings on the Millbank site when the 
L.C.C. and Office of Works really set about 
it. A plot of ground at the corner of Chapter 
arid Frederick Streets has been cleared, but 
at present the purpose for this is not 
apparent. It has opened up two clusters of 
very small house property known as Ridley 
Place and Griffiths Buildings, not of a sanitary 
character, I fear, but fully occupied by some 
of Westminster's poor, and destined to go,, 
as Douglas Gardens went a short time ago, 
the people having to shift as best they 

Another vast clearance has taken place close 
by, all the houses from 52, Regency Street, 
adjoining the Westminster Radical Club, to 
the corner of Vincent Street, the whole of 
one side of Vincent Street to Hide Place, and 
Nos. 1 to 5 in the latter thoroughfare having 
gone, the report being that the land so cleared 
has been purchased by the Army and Navy 
Co-operative Society with a view of erecting 
thereon stables and other buildings for the 
purposes of their business; but this needs 
confirmation, as rumour says that Messrs. 
Wightman & Co., the well-known printers 
and stationers, have a portion of the Regency 
Street front for their new premises. Nos. 47, 
48, 49, and 50, Hide Place are coming down, 
and on their site a parish room or mission 
hall for St. Mary's, Tothill Fields, will be put 
up, which erection will probably take in the 
ground occupied by 105 and 107, Vincent 
Street, now empty, and the house at the 
corner. A little court of insanitary houses 
rejoicing in the name of Paradise Place, was 
cleared of its residents and the houses 

9* s. m. MAR. 4, mi NOTES AND QUERIES. 


demolished some time ago, the land being 
still vacant. 

A little removed from this spot, but still in 
the locality, is a thoroughfare known as Old 
Rochester Row, extending from Rochester 
Row to Artillery Eow. The improvement of 
this has been the bete noire of the Westminster 
Vestry for a score of years. Now the houses 
are down, and although not all that can be 
desired is being done, the road will be widened, 
an improvement greatly needed, toward 
which the Army and Navy Stores have 
contributed liberally, thereby lessening the 
cost to the ratepayers. Here some further 
demolishing will probably take place, as the 
Stores have purchased all the houses on the 
east side of Artillery Row, Artillery Buildings, 
Grey Coat Place, Brunswick Place, Bond 
Court, and Mill's Buildings, the last named 
and some of the other houses being already 

A large portion of Great Smith Street 
has been pulled down in order that the road- 
way might be widened, as the principal way 
to the Church House and the St. Margaret's 
and St. John's Free Public Library, a number 
of shops and small private houses being 
removed for this purpose. Orchard Street 
has been widened, some very miserable tene- 
ments having given place to a somewhat 
ornate structure, to be known as Orchard 
House, and occupied by Messrs. P. S. King & 
Co., the well-known Parliamentary book- 
sellers, a part being reserved for St. Ann's 
Restaurant. A wholesale clearance has been 
effected in Tufton (formerly Bowling) Street, 
Nos. 3 to 13 having been cleared away, and 
upon a portion of the site are now being 
erected the headquarters and drill-hall of the 
2nd Volunteer Battalion of the Royal Fusi- 
liers ; the other portion being destined, 
according to rumour, for a parish hall for St. 
John's, Westminster. At 21, Great College 
Street, where there was a fire some time ago, 
a good style of building has been erected, 
used for offices. Here formerly stood the 
house occupied by Ginger, the old West- 
minster School bookseller, a name well re- 
membered and universally respected by old 
scholars. King Street is rapidly progressing 
to total effacement: Nos. 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 
were sold on 17 January, and are cleared 
away ; the police-station is to be evacuated 
in March, when that will follow ; and most 
likely Nos. 1, 3, and 5 (No. 3 being the " Old 
Blue Boar's Head ") will go before long, 
arid the material portion of this old-world 
thoroughfare will finally vanish for good. 
Messrs. Grindlay & Co., the bankers, have 
removed from the world-renowned 55, Parlia- 

ment Street into a building erected next 
door, and numbered 54. This occupies the 
site of two small shops, one of which, 
while in the occupation of a jeweller and 
watchmaker, was the scene of the murder of 
one of the assistants, for which crime the 
murderer was duly done to death at the Old 

I fear the records of my morning walk 
have extended to a greater length than I 
intended at starting ; but perhaps the result 
may be useful to some one at some time. 


14, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

often been claimed on behalf of Roger Bacon 
that he invented the telescope more than three 
centuries before it was applied to making 
astronomical discoveries early in the seven- 
teenth century. That he had such a concep- 
tion of the nature of the refraction of light 
(derived, apparently, principally from the work 
of the Arabic writer Alhazen, as the latter 
was to a great extent from the ' Optics ' of 
Ptolemy, only known to us through a Latin 
translation of an Arabic translation) as to 
conceive such a thing possible seems clear 
from several passages in his 'Opus Majus.' 
But, as is remarked by Mr. J. B. Bridges in 
the interesting introduction to his recent 
edition of that work (p. Ixxiii): 

"No evidence is forthcoming for his having 
effected the simple combination of two convex 
lenses, or of a convex with a concave lens, on which 
the power of telescopic vision depends. All that 
can be claimed for him is that he was the first de- 
finitely and explicitly to bring the problem forward, 
leaving it for after generations to solve." 

We may also refer to a note by the same 
writer on part v. cap. i. of the ' Opus Majus ' 
itself (vol. ii. p. 159), where, after quoting 
Whewell's remark, that we may find in Roger 
Bacon a tolerably distinctive explanation of 
the effect of a convex glass, he adds : 

" But of the combination of two lenses necessary 
for the construction of the telescope there is no 
evidence whatever." 

In the excellent ' Short History of Astro- 
nomy' which has lately been published by 
Mr. A. Berry, of King's College, Cambridge, 
it is pointed out how little the claim made 
for Bacon is helped by his statement that 
wonderful telescopic magnification had been 
produced so far back as the time of Julius 
Caesar, who had surveyed by this means from 
the coast of Gaul the positions held by the 
Britons. It may be of interest to quote his 
exact words (part v. cap. iii. in vol, ii. p. 165 
of the edition by Mr. Bridges) ;--- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. in. MAK. 4, 

" Sic enini Julius Caesar, quando voluit Angliam 
expugnare refertur maxima specula erexisse, ut a 
Gallicano littore dispositionem civitatum et castro- 
rum Anglian praevideret." 

How Bacon got hold of this strange report, 
which would, if true, have made the despatch 
of Volusenus quite unnecessary, it is impos- 
sible even to conjecture ; but it would almost 
seem that, entranced by the thought of what 
magnification by refraction through lenses 
might produce, he set no bounds to its prac- 
tical possibilities, and accepted some strange 
stories as to the accomplishment of this by 
the ancients. Nearly three hundred years 
after his time, Thomas Digges (died 1594) 
states that his father Leonard Digges (author 
of the ' Pantometria ') had succeeded in view- 
ing distant objects by perspective glasses, 
and that his success was founded on reading 
a manuscript work by Roger Bacon ; but the 
telescope was certainly not brought into 
practical scientific use until some years later, 
when the first would seem to have been made 
by Hans Lippersheim at Middelburg in 1608. 
It is well known how soon afterwards the 
instrument was applied to astronomical dis- 
coveries by Galileo and others. 

With regard to Roger Bacon, I may fitly 
close by quoting Mr. Bridges again in a note 
on part v. cap. iv. of the ' Opus Majus,' where 
he says (vol. ii. p. 166) : 

" The exaggerated claims set up for Bacon as 
an inventor must not blind us to the thoroughly 
scientific spirit which inspired these forecasts. It 
is enough for his fame that he conceived the pos- 
sibility of the telescope, and gave solid grounds for 
his belief, more than three centuries before the 
conception was realized." 

W. T. LYNN. 


Daily Telegraph for 4 February contained an 
article on the new building which has been 
erected for the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers at Storey's Gate, St. James's Park, 
from which I have extracted the follosving 
cutting : 

" A curious fact worth mentioning in connexion 
with the building is that it stands on the site of 
an ancient wharf. When the workmen dug down 
for the foundations, they came upon the piles and 
brickwork of an extensive quay. The structure 
was wonderfully well preserved, and had been most 
substantially constructed. Conjecture places the 
erection of the wharf away back in the days when 
Thorney Island was still an eyot in the Thames, and 
Westminster was a city to which the fishermen of the 
neighbouring waterside hamlet of London brought 
their wares for sale. At all events, the unearthing 
of a wharf in St. James's Park, so far from the 
river, is a very curious and interesting discovery, 
and carries one to the remote past, when the site of 
Buckingham Palace, Belgrave Square, and much of 

the surrounding district was a wildfowl-haunted 

I trust that some further light may be 
thrown on this interesting discovery, and 
that it may not be difficult approximately to 
fix the date and character of the brickwork. 
I presume the writer of the paragraph con- 
siders the position of the quay as a datum 
point in tracing the course of the stream 
which is supposed to have surrounded 
Thorney Island. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

45, Pall Mall, S.W. 

SIRDAR. --The following cutting from the 
January number of the Boy's Own Paper may 
be worth preserving in these columns. I 
should like to preface it by remarking that 
the pronunciation ascribed to Lord Kitchener 
is at best an Anglicized one, the word being 
of Persian origin, and invariably accented by 
Persians, Turks, and Orientals generally upon 
the last syllable : 

"Sirdar or Sirdar, which is correct? The nation 
is divided on the point at present. The man in the 
street says Sirdar ; in the clubs and elsewhere you 
more often hear Sirdar the notion being, doubtless, 
that the less obvious is likely to be the more cor- 
rect. It may be of interest, therefore, to state, for 
the benefit of all whom it may concern, that the 
pronunciation adopted by Lord Kitchener himself 
is Sirdar the accent, that is, on the first syllable." 

strange that he should be cited as "Gerarde" 
in the 'H.E.D.' See the notice of him in the 
' D.N.B.' for proof that his name ought not to 
have the final e. C. C. B. 

lowing paragraph from the South Wales 
Daily News, Cardiff, for 28 Jan., I thought 
worthy of being recorded in your columns, 
if it has not already appeared : 

" A curious old custom was observed on Thursday 
at Guildford. By a gift made in the seventeenth 
century it was stipulated that a sum of money 
should be invested in Consols, calculated to pro- 
duce 121. 12s. net for a maidservant who should 
have lived for two years or upwards in one service 
in the old borough of Guildford, and who ' should 
throw the highest number with two dice, or cast 
lots with another maidservant.' The unsuccessful 


that no maid who was a servant in a licensed inn 
or alehouse should be selected as a candidate. The 
proceedings on Thursday took place in the Council 
Chamber. Ten names were submitted for selection. 
The successful two were Louisa Remnant, in the 
employ of Mr. Matthew Kleiser, of North Street, 
for the past ten and a half years, and Sarah Ann 
Frogley, in the service of Mr. Richard Sparkes for 
fifteen years. As soon as the trustees had taken 

9 th S. III. MAR. 4, '99.] 



their seats the candidates were sent for to compete 
for the gift. A cup and two dice were handed to 
them, and they threw the latter on the table. Frog 
ley succeeded in scoring eight, while her rival scorec 
five. The gift was thereupon handed to Frogley 
Later on the award of the Parson gift ' was made 
This was a present of 131. 7s. 10c/. to a male ap 
prentice who must serve a freeman of the borough 
for a term of seven years. The recipient was George 
Townsend, who is in the employ of Mr. Williamson, 
a cabinet-maker. Last year there was no applicant 
for this gift, and it was decided to hand the money 
to the unsuccessful maid, who thereby received 
more than the winning competitor." 

D. M. K. 

" FRETISHED." This is a common Northum- 
berland word, meaning starved with cold, 
thoroughly chilled. ' H.E.D.' has a quotation 
for the word from the State Papers of 
Henry VIII., year 1523. The editor derives 
"fretish" from O.Fr. freidir (froidir), hut the 
t in the English form makes a difficulty. 
The etymology is as follows : A.Fr. *freitiss-, 
pres. part, stem of *freitir y to shiver with 
cold, the equivalent of M.Lat. frigutlre, " soy 
demener ou traveller pour le froid, friller ou 
frissonner " (Ducange). A. L. MAYHEW. 

EXTREME UNCTION. In the English Illus- 
trated Magazine for .January there appears a 
story of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 
' entitled ' Reprisals,' the details of which are 
vouched for by the writer as correct. On one 
point there is, I think, a mistake. Three men 
are about to be shot by the Prussians, and pre- 
vious to their execution " the funereal cere- 
mony of extreme unction " takes place. This 
is inconsistent with Catholic practice. The 
anointing is administered to those who are 
in danger of death from disease ; hence the 
oil is termed " oleum infirmorum." It cannot 
be administered to soldiers about to fight, 
or to persons undertaking a perilous voyage 
or journey, or to criminals about to be exe- 
cuted. There must be an ailment affecting 
the body. In ' Reprisals ' the men about to 
be shot make their confessions and receive 
communion, which is quite correct. But the 
anointing, as related, cannot, I think, be 
founded on fact. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. " 

ago I had occasion to read the lighter poems 
of the famous Hebrew scholar, mathematician, 
and traveller Ibn Ezra (it is recorded, I 
believe, that he lectured on mathematics in 
Oxford). In one of these poems he tells us, 
in ^ species of humour characteristically 
Jewish in essence i.e., in a Heine-like vein 
of melancholy poking of fun at his own 
expense that " if he were a lampmaker the 
sun would always shine, and if he were an 

undertaker people would never die." I was 
very young then, and thought that conceit 
the acme of brilliant wit and a master-stroke 
of originality. In the simplicity of youth I 
nourisned this appalling delusion, till one day 
I read Lord Lytton's clever comedy 'Money ' 
(rarely acted in these days), in which one 
of the characters as I think, Graves 
records in an identical strain his grievance 
against Fortune's capriciousness. The editor 
of Lytton's plays, strangely enough, in a 
foot-note, at once destroyed the dramatist's 
chances of claiming any merit of originality 
by quoting from an Italian poet, who, pre- 
sumably, was the inventor of this pretty, 
albeit commonplace witticism. It is years, 
too, since I. read that comedy, and I cannot 
remember whether the name of the Italian 
poet was given. In all probability some one 
of your readers will be able to furnish me 
with the iiame, date, and source of the 
Italian quotation, in order that palmam qui 
meruit ferat^ and that one more delusion of 
mine may be carted to Lethe. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

DRYDENIANA. 'Indian Emperor,' Saints- 
bury's edition, 1882, vol. ii. p. 409 : 
Enter Guyomar and Alibech bound, with Soldiers. 
Cort. Prince Guyomar in bonds ! friendship's 

- shame ! 
[t makes me blush to own a victor's name. 

[Unbinds him, Cydaria, Alibech. 

The editorial note on the stage direction, 
' Unbinds him, Cydaria, Alibech," is as 
'ollows : 

" It has not been said that Cydaria was bound, 
[f it be not a mistaken direction, the binding must 
lave been implied in Almeria's 'overpowering' her." 
-P. 404. 

y we not understand by this stage direc- 
tion, however, that Cortez should unbind 
Guyomar and Cydaria unbind Alibech ? 


St. Louis, U.S. 

WALLER. We must not allow our judgment 
)f poets as men to interfere with our judg- 
ment of them as poets. The conduct of 

Waller cannot be defended. He sacrificed 
lis friends in the most cowardly way in order 
save his own life. If, however, he had 

been magnanimous, and had perished on the 
,caffold, we should have lost the greater part, 

and perhaps the better part, of his poems. A 
3oem of just twenty lines has placed Waller 

amongst the eternals. He has written much 
hat is excellent ; but if he had not written 
his beautiful song, it is possible that, with 
ither once celebrated poets, he might have 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. m. MAR. 4, m 

;ibi diva parens, generis nee Dardanus auctor, 
ie ; sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens 
asus. ' ^Eneid,' book iv. 11. 365-7. 

been very well known to posterity by name, 
and very little known by his works. It is 
strange that Dr. Johnson, who writes much 
about his poetry, should never have men- 
tioned this song, " Go, lovely rose ! " which 
has ensured Waller's fame. Waller is a 
genuine worker in poetry. There is not much 
verbiage in him. He is almost always labour- 
ing to bring out a thought. Often he pro- 
duces a thought of his own, more or less 
beautiful. Sometimes the thought is a mere 
conceit. Now and then it is very obviously 
not his own : 

1. To no human stock 

We owe this fierce unkindness, but the rock, 
That cloven rock produced thee. 

' At Penshurst.' 

Here he is following Homer and Virgil : 

Nee tibi 
Perfide : 

2. Like jewels to advantage set, 
Her beauty by the shade doth get. 

'The Night Piece.' 

Here he may have had Shakspeare in mind, 
although the idea does not appear to be quite 
the same : 

It seems she hangs upon the cheek of Night, 
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiop's ear. 

' Romeo and Juliet.' 

3. Hearts sure of brass they had who tempted first 
Rude seas. ' Battle of the Summer Isles.' 

For this he is indebted to Horace : 
Illi robur et ses triplex 
Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci 
Commisit pelago ratem 
Primus. Book i. Ode 3. 

i. As lilies overcharged with rain, they bend 
Their beauteous heads. 

' To my Lord Admiral.' 

Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Tickell, Byron, Shelley, 
Lady A. Lindsay, and, I dare say, many 
others have the same thought. 

5. But 'tis sure some power above 
Which controls our wills in love. 

' To Amoret.' 

He seems to have got this thought from 
Marlowe. I do not know whether Marlowe's 
translation is literal or not : 

It lies not in our power to love or hate, 
For will in us is overruled by fate. 

' Hero and Leander.' 

Dryden also has this line : 

Love is not in our choice, but in our fate. 

' Palamon and Arcite.' 

And Byron says much the same thing : 
Is human love the growth of human will ? 

' Lara.' 

6. Give us enough, but with a sparing hand. 

' Reflections.' 
This belongs to Horace : 

Bene est cui Deus obtulit 
Parca quod satis est manu. 

Book iii. Ode 16. 

7. So sweet the air, so moderate the clime, 
None sickly lives, or dies before his time. 
Heaven sure has kept this spot of earth uncurst 
To show how all things were created first. 

'Battle of the Summer Isles.' 

Horace, in his sixteenth epode, speaks of 
slands which remain as they were in the 
Golden Age. But Waller's thought is different 
Tom that of Horace. 

8. Others may use the ocean as their road ; 
Only the English make it their abode. 

' On a War with Spain.' 

This couplet seems to be the original of the 
Allowing : 

Britannia needs no bulwarks, no towers along her 
steep : 

Her march is o'er the mountain waves ; her home is 
on the deep. Campbell. 

Love made the lovely Venus burn 
In vain, and for the cold youth mourn, 
Who the pursuit of churlish beasts 
Preferred to sleeping on her breasts. 

'To Phyllis.' 

I suppose that Waller is following Shak- 
speare, who knew little of the classics. Cer- 
tainly the classical Adonis did not disdain 
Venus. But Marlowe also, who was a scholar, 
makes Adonis show this astonishing coldness 
to Venus. E. YARDLEY. 

EPITAPH AT WHITBY. I copied the follow- 
ing from a slab affixed to the east wall of 
St. Mary's Parish Church, Whitby : 

"Here lies the bodies of Francis Huntrodds and 
Mary his wife who were both born on the same 
day of the week month and year (viz.) Sept r ye 
19 th 1600 marry'd on the day of their birth and 
after having had 12 children born to them died 
aged 80 years on the same day of the year they 
were born September ye 19 th 1680 the one not above 
five hours before ye other. 

Husband and wife that did twelve children bear, 
Dy'd the same day ; alike both aged were 
Bout eighty years they liv'd, five hours did part 
(Ev'n on the marriage day) each tender heart 
So fit a match, surely could never be, 
Both in their lives, and in their deaths agree." 

The coincidences are very remarkable. 

9, Newton Road, Oxford. 

There have been two incidental references in 
your columns recently to the identity of 
Falstaff and Oldcastle, which deserve to be 
quoted together : " The evidence that the 
Falstaff part was originally Oldcastle is con- 
vincing " (ante, p. 106), and " There is not a 
scrap of evidence to support this idle tale of 
K Rowe, published in 1709" (ante, p. 111). 
The former is from a note of mine on ' Julius 



* s. in. MAR. 4, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


:sar,' the latter from a note on ' Eating of 
Seals' by MR. J. H. MITCHINER, who evi- 
dently considers that he has disposed of the 
question. He would be better equipped for 
the task of criticism if he had succeeded in 
discovering the evidence. It is stated and 
accepted by the following authorities : 

Fleay, ' Life of Shakespeare,' 1886, pp. 198- 

Boas, 'Shakspere and his Predecessors,' 
1896, p. 260. 

Wyndham, 'The Poems of Shakespeare,' 
1898, pp. xlix-lii. 

Lee, article on Shakespeare in the 'Dic- 
tionary of National Biography.' 

It is a waste of space to quote extracts ; 
such works should be in the library of every 
student of Shakespeare. If MR. MITCHINER, 
after mastering the evidence, is in a position 
to refute it, readers of ' N. & Q.' may look 
forward to an interesting contribution. 


PARISH REGISTRAR. Note deserves to be 
taken of the fact that there has just retired 
from official work a registrar of births and 
deaths who commenced his work when Wil- 
liam IV. was king. This is Mr. William 
Philp, of Launceston, for many years pro- 
prietor and editor of the East Cornwall Times, 
who was first appointed registrar of the 
Launceston sub-district upon the passing of 
the Registration Act of 1836. Another Cornish 
registrar of very long standing is Dr. Arthur 
Wade, of Boscastle, who was appointed in 
1846. DUNHEVED. 

WK must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

any of your readers give me the date of 
the birth of Capt. Francis Abney-Hastings 
the Philhellene, with any particulars of his 
parentage 1 ? Capt. Hastings died on 25 May 
1828, being mortally wounded in an attack 
at Anatolikon. He was buried first in 
Algeria, and his body was removed thence 
in 1861 to Paris, where a monument without 
an inscription is erected in his memory. 


British Legation, Athens. 

A MISSING PICTURE. I am anxious to 
trace the whereabouts of a portrait in oils 
which has been missing for many years. The 
painting represents the famous general (temp. 

Charles II.) Charles, third Earl of Peter- 
borough, eldest son of John, Viscount Mor- 
daunt, of Avalon, and Elizabeth Carey, his 
wife. Lord Peterborough married Carey 
Fraser. The portrait is three-quarter length ; 
I am ignorant of the artist's name. Does 
any one know of such a picture having been 
bought at any of the sales in the course of 
the last thirty -five years ? 


Bangor Lodge, Ascot. 

[The picture is probably one of the two painted 
by Sir Godfrey Kneller. See Smith's ' Catalogue of 
Engraved Portraits,' i. 76, Sotheran's ed., 1884.] 

"WRITER OF SORTS." A literary friend of 
mine considers himself aggrieved at having 
been recently included in this category. 
Could any reader of ' N. & Q.' put me right 
as to the precise meaning of the term 1 Does 
it necessarily cast a reflection upon a writer's 
capabilities in his particular line 1 I have 
hunted through shelves of likely authorities, 
without, oddly enough, discovering the ex- 
pression. CECIL CLARKE. 

Authors' Club, S.W. 

he was Head Master of Preston Grammar 
School, but shortly afterwards he had a 
Church living given to him somewhere in the 
county of Hertford. I shall be glad to receive 
the name of the church. H. FISHWICK. 

The Heights, Rochdale. 

MAYORS, 1726. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me where it is likely that 
I could find a list of the mayors during 
1726 ? I have a fine painting by J. Richard- 
son of a mayor of that date. The name of 
his worship is written on a scroll which he 
holds in one of his hands, and reads, so far as 
I can make out, "Jonas E. Drink... th, Mayor, 
A.C. 1726." The surname would read almost 
Drinkworth or perhaps Drinkwater. The 
person represented wears a judge's wig, 
purple coat with loose, baggy sleeves, with 
gold work, a fancy gold waistcoat, lace 
(white) front and cuffs, and carries sword 
and stick. CHRISTY W. SARGEANT. 

reader inform me what is known about the 
origin of this name? Is it tribal? Do the 
Montenegrins treat it as singular or plural ? 
It seems to be susceptible of more variations 
in spelling than any other place-name. With 
that fondness for foreign orthographies which 
betrays the sources of their information, our 
journalists use indifferently Cettigno (Italian), 
Cettigne (French), Zetinje (German). Better 
linguists either adhere to the original Cetin je 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< h s. m. MA*. 4, m 

or anglicize it more or less completely. Thus 
the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica' employs in 
one place Cettinye and in another Tsettinye. 
Mr. Bourchier, in the December Fortnightly, 
has Tzetinye ; another variant I have met 
with is Tsetinie. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

" PARAGON." Could any of your readers 
tell me what in London street-nomenclature 
is meant by a " paragon," as used by Lord 
Lytton in ' What Will He do with It?' bk. ii. 
chap. v. ? 

" And I found that so rapid in a few years has 
been the prosperity of this great commercial 
country, that if one did buy them [the relics of 
the property] back, one would buy twelve villas, 
several streets, two squares, and & paragon!" 

Can Lord Lytton have meant what is more 
usually, I think, called a "crescent" 1 ? I am 
aware that in the New Kent Koad, not far 
from the Elephant and Castle, there is " The 
Paragon." C. STOFFEL. 

this not included in the Aldine edition of 
Campbell's 'Poems,' 1875? One would ex- 
pect an Aldine edition to be complete. Is it 
in the later editions, or in editions other than 
the Aldine ? It is in ' The Songs of Scotland 
Chronologically Arranged,' 1893, p. 463. It 
contains the fine stanza quoted in ' N. & Q.,' 
2 nd S. iv. 420 : 

Oh ! it was not thus when his oaken spear, &c. 
In this stanza, as it is quoted in 'N. & Q.,' 
the seventh line reads 

For his lance was not shivered on helmet or shield ; 
but in ' The Songs of Scotland ' above men- 
tioned it is : 
For his lance was not shivered, or helmet, or shield. 

Which is correct 1 According to the writer 
in 'N. & Q.' the full title of the poem is ' The 
Dirge of Wallace.' JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

[The poem is not in Moxon's edition, with Tur- 
ner's plates, 1837.] 

WILLIAM III. Have any writers, other 
than Bishop Burnet and Charles Blount, 
maintained that the Prince of Orange ac- 
quired by conquest a right to the English 
throne? WM. UNDERBILL. 

"A WIG OF BREAD." In Delpino's ' Spanish- 
English Dictionary' one finds "A wig of 
bread, bollico" In Seoane's edition of Neu- 
mann and Baretti the second meaning of 
wig is given as " Especie de torta." From the 
other part of Delpino bollico is omitted, but 
Seoane's book defines it as a " small loaf of 
flour, sugar, milk, and eggs." Seoane, how- 
ever, does not put ivig among the meanings 
of torta. It is a common defect in dictionaries 

that they use a word in defining others 
without giving any definition of that word 

What is the history of the word wig on parch- 
ment or paper ? Is it still used in any part 
of the English-speaking world ? 


["Cotgrave gives ivig-si small cake" (Wright). 
We have not been able to trace this. Under 
'Eschaude",' however, Cotgrave has, "A kind of 
wig, or Symnel, fashioned something like a Hart, 
a three-cornered Symnel"; and M. Gasc gives us 
the meaning of echaudd, cracknel, bird-cake.] 

RICH MARTIN, Swedish artists, circa 1739-1818, 
mentioned in Eedgrave, Graves, and other 
English, German, and Swedish biographical 
dictionaries. Information is sought with 
respect to their lives, their brother Charles, 
arid the present homes of their pictures and 
engravings. Amongst the paintings were 
views from the Duke of Montagu's at Rich- 
mond ; Paine's Hill, Cobham ; the seat of the 
Earl of Upper Ossory, Woburn Abbey, &c. 

St. Stythyans, Kingston Hill, Surrey. 

[Consult ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' We have too often 
to give such advice. Many of our correspondents 
seem to ignore the existence of such a work.] 

VELTON ABBEY. I seek information as to 
the whereabouts of Velton Abbey (I cannot 
find it in Dugdale or Tanner). I have seen 
a process print from a photo, and it appears 
to be a very important ruin as to size and 
remains, and is a beautiful specimen of thir- 
teenth-century work, with parts very like 
Net-ley transept. What is the best work in 
which to find the history of Velton Abbey 1 
Replies may be sent direct to me. 


2, Halsey Street, Cadogan Square, S. W. 

Does any portrait or book illustration 
exist of the beautiful and unfortunate 
Countess Mary Eleanor Bowes, Lady Strath- 
more, who " was buried among poets on 
account of her wit and extraordinary mental 
accomplishments " ? She died 28 April, 1799. 
Has she any living descendants ? 

M. B. W. 

Cambridge, U.S. 

CHRISTOPHER LISTER. Being interested in 
the pedigree of the Listers of Gisburn (same 
stock as the Barons Ribblesdale), I should be 
glad if any reader could give me information 
about one Christopher Lister, born in 1757 
in the Clitheroe (Lanes) and Gisburn district. 
He is said to have belonged to a junior branch 
of this family, and had property in Colne 

9 th S. III. MAR. 4, '90.] 



(Lanes). Any information as to his parents 
and grandparents will be welcomed. 

(Dr.) H. DE B. GIBBINS; 
6, Newsham Drive, Liverpool. 

was this museum established ; where was it 
situated ; and what was exhibited ? Amongst 
other things it is said there was a harpsichord 
with a trumpet stop. CHAS. A. DALTON. 

SCRIMANSKL In canto ii. of 'Hudibras' 
we read : 

Scrimansky was his cousin-germ an, 
With whom he served and fed on vermin. 

Who was Scrimanski ; and why is he intro- 
duced in an account of the bear's pedigree 1 


"No GREAT SHAKES." What was the origin 
of this colloquialism, which was more fre- 
quently heard some years ago than it is at 
present? W. J. B. R. 

IMPRESSIONS OF SEALS. I shall be obliged 
to any one who will inform me of the best 
method of obtaining good impressions in 
wax of seals and similar objects without 
leaving any wax adhering to the seal ; and 
also the best means of getting small particles 
of wax off the seal. What I wish to do is to 
obtain impressions of a number of Wedgwood 
intaglios, and also, without damaging the 
articles, to get out some minute particles 
which have been left from previous trials. 
Any information will be much esteemed. 


of your readers give me details concern- 
ing this authoress? What works did she 
publish besides ' Ballads and Songs,' issued 
by Bell & Daldy, 1863 1 


Birkdale, Lanes. 

" THE WHITE PAUNCH HIND." Can you tell 
me what is the meaning of Whyte-Melville's 
expression "the white faunch [or Faunch] 
hind"? It occurs in one of his poems, but 
I cannot at present give the exact refer- 
ence. I can only say it is there, and it has 
puzzled many besides myself. It sounds 
like a term of veriery ; but in no other author 
could we locate a similar term, and this by 
many in many works Shakspeare anol 
Shelley, and encyclopaedias of sport, &c. I 
think three years have elapsed since some 
one first started the inquiry. 


SLOUGH. In 'Merry Wives of Windsor,' 
I v . v., occurs the passage : " For as soon as I 

came beyond Eton, they threw me off, from 
behind one of them, in a slough of mire." 
Did Slough exist as a village at that date ; or 
was it merely what its name denotes? It is 
probable there were many sloughs about ; 
but it is curious that the above exactly 
describes the bearings of the present Slough 
to Windsor and Eton. 


HALLINGEE, co. CHESTER. That a place so 
called was known in the parish of Mobberley, 
said shire, during the seventeenth century I 
have evidence. What was it a district or a 
house ? If the latter, whose 1 



CLANMOLINESPICK. In one of his works 
Sir Thomas Urquhart speaks of two Irish 
clans Clanmolinespick and Clanrurie. Can 
any of your readers give me information 
about these ; or are they mere inventions of 
Sir Thomas ? J. WILLCOCK. 



(9 th S. ii. 222, 281, 409, 469.) 

1. SIR HENRY HOWORTH is of opinion 
that " in these days it is no use quoting 
second-hand authorities and the opinion 
of nineteenth -century writers upon events 
which took place in the sixth or seventh 
century." This decision strikes me as 
destructive of all argument and history, 
in the shadow of which Freeman, Carlyle, 
Macaulay, Gibbon, &c., are simply of no 
account. His contention, moreover, appears 
to me not too logical. If Lord Dunraven 
and Miss Stokes are to have a hearing, surely 
Newell and Healy merit similar treatment. 

2. What I meant by the statement that 
" the building can hardly be Romano-British 
unless erected before A.D. 449 " was that the 
Heysham chapel could scarcely be called 
"Roman," since it neither bears traces of 
Roman style nor (if built after A.D. 449 or 
410, to be accurate) was raised in Roman 
days, and would consequently be either 
Saxon, or Patrician, or Columban. Moreover, 
according to Bede, Gildas, and the 'Saxon 
Chronicle' (Mr. Green's authorities), the dura- 
tion and savagery of the Saxon invasion left 
the Britons but scant leisure for two centuries 
for the building of churches. " The conquest 
of Britain," says Mr. Green, " was, indeed, only 
partly wrought out after two centuries of 
bitter warfare. But it was just through the 
long and merciless nature of the struggle 



m. MAP, 4, m 

that of all the German conquests this proved 
the most thorough and complete. So far as the 
English sword in these earlier days reached, 
Britain became England a land, that is, not 
of Britons, but of Englishmen." 

3. "What connexion has Patrick with lona?" 
asks SIR HENRY further. That, I venture 
to submit, existing between grandsire and 
grandchild. lona was of Columba, and 
Columba of Patrick. "The Columban 
Church," writes Skene ('Celtic Scotland,' 
p. 93), "must be viewed as in reality a 
mission from the Irish Church, and as 
forming an integral part of that Church, of 
which it was an offshoot This Northum- 
brian Church was an exact counterpart of 
the monastic church of which lona was the 
head " (Bede, ' Hist, Eccl.,' lib. iv. c. 3). 

4. Again, SIR HENRY asks for "a single 
shred of evidence" that the Goidels, as I 
stated, clustered round Morecambe Bay from 
the earliest times. Prof. Rhys was my 
authority (' Celtic Britain,' pp. 230-42) : 

"About the time of the coming of the Romans, 
a non-Brythonic people still possessed the shores of 
the Solway so far south as the river Derwent. Nay, 
possibly most of the lake district down to More- 
cambe Bay and Kendal, or still further south, was 
peopled by a mixed race of Goidels and non-Celtic 

aborigines Later, when the Selgovse had been 

disposed of, the remains of the Goidelic people on 
the Solway were enclosed by a rampart from the 
end of that firth to Loch Ryan. It is in their 
country the Irish invaders probably organized their 
expeditions southwards all the time they continued 
to come over." 

5. As to the suggested likeness between the 
Manx Treen and Columban chapels, Canon 
Bonney ('Cathedrals, &c., of England,' iv. 
484) writes : 

" The ruined chapel of Heysham on the wind- 
swept headland reminds me of those cells for they 
are little more which are still dotted about the 
shores of Britain, especially in the north, such, for 
nstance, as that at Peel Castle in the Isle of Man." 

''There is only one at Peel," the Rev. J. 
Quine, vicar of Lonan and a noted local 
antiquary, informs me, " of the kind referred 
to but many throughout the island, and a 
very good one at Maughold." Lonan old 
church also much resembles the Heysham 
ruin both in shape and material, being of 
rubble and 18 ft. by 54 ft. in measurement. 

6. Touching the suggested Columban origin 
of the Manx Church, Mr. Quine has very 
kindly furnished me with copious notes, from 
which I gather that the prevalence of 
Columban names, which could only have 
been either imported by Columban mission- 
aries or perpetuated by those whose traditions 
were derived from the Columban Church, 
goes far to support the theory. Thus the 

church of Arbory was dedicated to St. 
Columba; Rushen Abbey (Ballasalla = Bally 
St. Lua) to St. Lua, a member of the family 
of lona; Maronn Church (Ma-ronan=St. 
Ronan) to St. Ronan, a Columban whose 
name survives at Port Ronan, in lona, and 
in Teampull Ronaig, the parish church of 
lona ; Lonan (Kil-onan = St. Adamnan) to St. 
Adamnan, ninth Abbot of lona and bio- 
grapher of Columba. "With the exception of 
Kirk Christ Rushen," adds Mr. Quine, "all 
the principal old dedications of the east side 
of Man point to Columban times." 

7. A last word as to the rock-hewn coffins. 
I claim no finality for my theory, but the 
simple right to hold it in peace. Neither 
mine nor any other can ever be raised on a 
more stable basis than conjecture. Canon 
Bonney says (ut supra) : 

" Nothing is known of the history of these curious 
places of sepulture. Rock-cut graves are common 
enough in some countries, but as a rule they are 
either connected with sepulchral chambers or are 
much more deeply sunk into the rock ; these are 
practically stone coffins, of which the lower part 
has not been detached from the parent rock. I 
know of no other instance of such places of sepul- 
ture in England." 

Here closes, so far as I am concerned, what 
has been to me, at least, an interesting dis- 
cussion, leaving SIR HENRY HOWORTH 
and myself, I trust, amicably agreeing to 
differ. One step further alone remains in 
deference to his suggestion and that of others. 
J. B. S. is herewith interred in the last 
twenty-nine volumes of ' N. & Q.,' and, casting 
his cerecloths, begs henceforth to subscribe 
himself J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-ori-M., Manchester. 

AGAM COLOURS (9 th S. iii. 68). Would MR. 
FOSTER kindly give an exact reference to the 
passages where this word occurs? It may 
put one of your readers in a position to help 
him ; and (in any case) will be valuable when 
the supplement to the ' Hist. English Diction- 
ary ' is prepared. ROBT. J. WHITWELL. 

This may be a clue to the meaning of 
agam : 

11 Agami, in ornithology, a name applied to the 
gold-breasted trumpeter of Latham, the specific 
character of which is, that its head and breast are 
smooth, green, and shining. The bird is about 
twenty-two inches long." 

So that these kerseys may have been wanted 
of a green, gold, or yellow colour. 


101, Sandmere Road, Clapham, S.W. 

In Craven's 'Hindustani Dictionary' is 
"Agam, n., futurity. Agam, a., impassable, 

9 th S. III. M 



unfathomable, bottomless." But what have 
these words to do with colours 1 


THE SWALLOW'S SONG (9 th S. ii. 143, 471 ; iii. 
93). Horace, who makes Procne the swallow, 
speaks of her as the mourner for the slaying 
of Itys ; and, as she was both his mother 
and his murderess, she had reason to mourn. 
If she sings a cheerful song, she must 
be keeping her spirits up in somewhat 
difficult circumstances. Philomela, in giving 
way to her grief, is more natural ; for both 
sisters were actresses in a very horrible 
tragedy, and the one had as much cause for 
grief as the other : 

Nidum ponit Ityn flebiliter gemens, 
Infelix avis. Book iv. Ode 12. 

Horace evidently is referring to the better- 
known form of the legend, and means the 
swallow in this place. I have read nothing 
of the poem to which C. C. B. refers except 
the lines quoted. But those lines remind me 
of the twelfth fable of Babrius. There the 
nightingale is mourning in the woods the 
fate of Itys, and is invited by the swallow to 
come amongst men. But the fable does not 
seem to tell us whether the nightingale is 
Philomela or Procne. Babrius says that the 
two birds recognized one another by their 
song. So perhaps he himself knew of the 
swallow's song. E. YARDLEY. 

68). I never heard of " the village of Logger- 
heads," but I knew the inn referred to. It is 
at the entrance to Colomendy Park (near 
Mold), where Wilson lived for some time, and 
died. He painted the sign at the inn. One 
of the faces is now very indistinct. Llan- 
ferras (to give the word as Archdeacon Thomas 
gives it in his ' History of St. Asaph') quite 
a different place from Llanberis is a neigh- 
bouring village, and, doubtless, the parish in 
which the " Loggerheads Inn " is situated. 

E. W. 

In this connexion note 'Baron Munchausen,' 
c. xxxiii., the kingdom of Loggerheads, "wilder 
than any part of Siberia," where occurred one 
of the most famous of the Baron's many 
combats. F. E. MANLEY. 

Stoke Newington. 

The " Loggerheads Inn " is not at Llanberis, 
but between Mold and the top of Moel Fam- 
mau, close to Colomendy, the picturesque 
residence of B. G. Davies Cooke, Esq., where 
Wilson lived for some time, and died. Cf. 
'Gossiping Guide to Wales,' p. 171. 


JOHN VILETT (9 th S. ii. 468). He probably 
belongs to the family of Vilett of Swindon, 
GO. Wilts, Nicholas being the first mentioned, 
circa 1560-70. Henry Villett, alias Violet, is 
given in the 'Visitation of London,' 1568, but 
it states " now of Kent." A portion of the 
above seem to have migrated to Lynn, in 
Norfolk. The arms, crest, and Christian 
names are similar in the three families. 


BRASS AT ST. ALBANS (9 th S. ii. 468, 535). In 
' Gibbs's Handbook to St. Albans,' by F. B. 
Mason (1884), it is said that Sir Bertin 
Entwysel was buried, according to Leland, 
" under the plase of the Lectorium in the 
quyre, whereas a memorial of him ther yet 
remeyneth."' Mr. Mason speaks of this 
memorial in the past tense, as "the brass 
figure of a knight in armour." 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

TYRONE (9 th S. iii. 89). There were two por- 
traits of this worthy at the Exhibition of 
National Portraits, South Kensington, 1866, 
Nos. 375 and 378, both exhibited by Mr. C. de 
Gernon. The former was a half-length, and 
the other a bust done in his old age, and when 
blind, at Rome. W. ROBERTS. 

In ' N. & Q.,' 8 th S. iv. 207, a query appears 
with the above heading. Inquiry then fol- 
lows for a biography of Hugh, published in 
the seventeenth century, entitled ' La Spada 
d'Orione, Stellata nel Campodi Marte,' written 
by Primo Daraaschino, in which work I pre- 
sume the portrait may be found. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

A CHURCH TRADITION (9 th S. i. 428 ; ii. 58, 
150, 173, 256, 296, 393, 474 ; iii. 33, 94). The 
cathedral of Seez, begun and finished in the 
thirteenth century, was peculiarly unlucky 
in want of sufficient buttresses, and has had 
to be nearly rebuilt/.with plaster imitative 
vaults. Planat says of its present state, "Les 
deux tours de la fagade etaient egalement com- 
promises. Des restaurations ont ete habilement 
faites depuis par M. Ruprich-Robert." But 
no repairs to these steeples could affect their 
height, they being entirely of stone, and the 
plans identical, but each story of the northern 
exceeding the southern an inch or two. At 
the cathedrals of Tours and Angers there is 
about the same difference, but further south 
I know not of any. It seems a North French 
fancy only. The oldest example I take to be 
St. Remi, at Reims, earlier than 1200, and the 
latest St. Sulpice, at Paris, about 1650. As 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 10* s. m. MAR. 4, m 

for the towers of Amiens, they were plainly 
designed to be both like the southern, but 
the builder of the northern improved and 
heightened it. At Rouen and Chartres a 
new architect, centuries later, gave a totally 
new design. E. L. GARBETT. 

POPLADIES (9 th S. i. 448 ; ii. 18). According 
to an aged inhabitant of Staines, Middlesex, 
these cakes have been made and sold there 
from time immemorial on New Year's Day. 
I first heard of them in 1897, and some that 
I obtained in January of that year are now 
before me. They are about six inches long, 
three inches broad in the widest part, and 
one inch in thickness, and are roughly 
fashioned so as to represent a female, without 
arms or legs, but with a deep indentation on 
either side to indicate the waist, and a flat 
head, in which two currants are inserted for 
eyes. They, seem to me to be made of the 
same ingredients as ordinary penny buns. I 
have not been able to hear of any tradition 
relating to their origin. Further references 
to these cakes, as made at St. Albans, may be 
found in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1820, pt. i. 
p. 15, and in 'N. & Q.,' 4 th S. xi. 341, 412. 



107). The incident is thus alluded to in 
Gardiner's 'Commonwealth and Protectorate,' 
vol. ii. p. 66 : 

" Strange to say, it was mainly to the Royalist 
gentry that the Commissioners could at present look 
for support. Dislike of the severe discipline of the 
Kirk formed a common bond between them. Sir 
Alexander Irvine of Drum, himself a Roman 
Catholic, not only refused to appear before the 
Presbytery of Aberdeen, but appealed to Monk on 
the ground that he was unable to acknowledge the 
judicature of the Church courts ' as not being estab- 
lished by the Commonwealth of England.' " 

Monk was one of the Commissioners as- 
sembled at Dalkeith in January, 1652. Col. 
Robert Overton commanded a brigade at the 
battle of Dunbar in September, 1650, and was 
afterwards employed in the north of Scotland. 
He is frequently mentioned in Carlyle's 
' Cromwell's Letters and Speeches.' W. S. 

For Sir Alexander Irvine's appeal to Col. 
Robert Overton see 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' xlii. 
388 a. W. C. B. 

BOOK TERMS (8 th S. ix. 341 ; x. 400 ; 9 th S. 
ii. 322, 521 ; iii. 53). MR. JULIAN MARSHALL'S 
objection to anam/m has already been taken, 
in a way, by Dr. Murray. I can only say, if 
we are to discard words for this reason and 
because only one letter differs, there will be 

plenty of work on hand. MR. MARSHALL can 
start with natation, notation^ nutation. 

In answer to COL. PRIDEAUX, I should cer- 
tainly call "A Hertfordshire Incumbent " a 
pseudonym, and have done so for over thirty 
years, as can be seen by a reference to the 
' Handbook of Fictitious Names,' p. 7, where 
it is further designated a geo-demonym, other- 
wise a geographical denomination pseudonym. 
I do not think, if I had to do this over again, 
I should trouble myself to give a thing so 
obvious a designation. RALPH THOMAS. 

68). The custom to which B. H. L. alludes 
seemed to be familiar to me, although for the 
moment I could not think where I had seen 
or heard of it. But on referring to the chapter 
on ' Charms ' in Dyer's ' English Folk-lore,' 
I found the following, which must have been 
the source of my knowledge: 

"In Surrey, a sovereign cure for the goitre was 
to form the sign of a cross on the neck with the 
hand of a corpse." 

Probably this will account for the old 
countrywoman's belief. C. P. HALE. 

For some of the learning upon this subject 
see Brand's ' Popular Antiquities,' iii. 276-7. 

ARMORIAL (9 th S. iii. 28). The heraldic 
device of the Franciscans is as follows, but I 
must write from memory: Argent, chape 
ploye sable ; two dexter arms and hands, 
with palms extended, proper, issuant from 
dexter and sinister in saltire, the hands in 
chief ; the first arm naked, the other habited 
tenney ; each palm displaying a wound proper. 
The allusion is to the stigmata of St. Francis. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

The arms of the Franciscan Order are thus 
blazoned in Dr. Woodward's 'Ecclesiastical 
Heraldry,' p. 418: 

"Argent, a cross of Calvary traversed by two 
human arm in saltire (sometimes issuant from 
clouds in base), one in bend naked, representing the 
arm of our Saviour, the other in bend sinister 
habited in the dress of St. Francis, both bearing the 
stigmata. (The Franciscan Cordeliere is sometimes 
knotted round the shield.)" 
Substantial representations of these crossed 
arms are to be seen on the pulpits of churches 
served by Franciscans. ST. SWITHIN. 

BEAMISH (9 th S. iii. 6). Lower says the name 
may be derived from the German Bohmisch, a 
Bohemian, or from Beamish, a township in 
Durham. The arms of the Beamishes of co. 
Cork (who have been settled there nearly three 



centuries) are different from those of the 
Belmiz or Beimels of co. Salop, which are 
Gules, ten bezants, four, three, two, and one, 
a chief. See * Sheriffs of Shropshire/ by the 
Rev. John B. Blakeway, 1831, p. 31, for in- 
formation about the family. 


DALLAS FAMILY (9 th S. iii. 59). If refer- 
ences to the Dallas family of Cantray are 
required, your correspondent should turn to 
' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. vii., xi. ; 7 th S. ii., v., xii. ; 

71, Brecknock Road. 

HOLLING DAY (9 th S. iii. 108). Hone's 
' Table Book ' (pp. 13, 14) gives a full account 
of "Holly Night" at Brough, in Westmoreland, 
with a pictorial representation of the pro- 
cession in celebration thereof. The distinctive 
name is an old spelling of " holly " (A.-S. 
holen, holegn ; Northern dialect holliri), a 
holly tree having been formerly used for the 
occasion, for which ash, being abundant, has 
been substituted. Halliwell's brief description 
will suffice to answer your correspondent's 

" Holling. The eve of the Epiphany, so called at 
Brough, in Westmoreland, where there is an annual 
procession of an ash tree, lighted on the tops of its 
branches, to which combustible matter has been 
tied. This custom is in commemoration of the star 
of the wise men of the East." 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

Halliwell, in his ' Dictionary of Archaic 
and Provincial Words,' and Wright, in his 
' Obsolete and Provincial English,' state it is 
a name given to the eve of the Epiphany at 
Brough, in Westmoreland, where there is an 
annual procession of an ash tree, lighted at 
the top of its branches. The custom is in 
commemoration of the star of the wise men 
in the East. Hone also notices this custom 
in his 'Table Book.' 


71, Brecknock Road. 

SHAKSPEARE AND THE SEA (9 th S. i. 504 ; 
ii. 113, 189, 455 ; iii. 36). I knew the passage 
to which DR. SPENCE refers, but in all 
the three editions of Shakspeare to which I 
have access the reading is waves, not weeds. I 
perceive now for the first time that weeds is 
mentioned in a note. It is the reading of 
the first folio. Waves is the reading of the 
second folio. E. YARDLEY. 

THE SISTER CHURCHES (9 th S. iii. 48, 115). 
St. Nicholas's, Withernsea, and St. Peter's, 
Owthorne, are known throughout Holderness 
(East Riding of Yorkshire) as the Sister 

Churches ; the origin of the term is not known 
with any accuracy. If MR. MALDEN would 
like to read a somewhat discursive account of 
the origin of the town, and if he has not access 
to Poulson's * History of Holderness,' I shall 
be glad to lend him my copy. For his pur- 
pose (to locate the shipwreck) I may state 
that these two churches were (Owthorne has 
gone into the sea, and, indeed, Withernsea 
too, since the fifteenth century) not more than 
half a mile apart, and about ten miles north 
of Spurn Point. CLIFFORD DUNN. 

FRENCH PROVERB (9 th S. ii. 344, 436, 513). 
In this locality the proverb is : 
Sing before breakfast, 
Cry before night, 

so ST. SWITHIN certainly " knows his North- 
amptonshire" in this instance (see 9* h S..ii. 
512). The variant given by C. C. B. is used 
by us in a totally different sense. We say : 
Rain before seven, 
Fine before eleven, 

an assertion which is invariably proved to 
come true. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

iii. 89). Whether the account of the origin of 
the picture is true or fictitious may be doubt- 
ful, but an article to the same purport 
appeared in ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. iii. 131. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

HOLY WELLS (9 th S. ii. 469, 535). For an 
exhaustive account of the worship of water 
with special reference to early and mediaeval 
Scotland, mention ought to be made of ' Folk- 
lore of Scottish Lochs and Springs,' by James 
M. MacKinlay, F.S.A., 1893, and also of ' Holy 
Wells, their Legends and Traditions,' by 
R. C. Hope. The latter treats of the subject 
with reference to England. J. EDWARDS. 


G. H. LEWES AND LOCKE (9 th S. iii. 25, 138). 
By " Kin Kina " Locke cannot have meant 
quinine, for this alkaloid was not discovered 
until 1820. Probably he meant the bark 
from which quinine is obtained, viz., cinchona, 
which in our older dispensatories appears as 
China, Chinee, and Quinquina, names due to 
the Peruvian name of the tree yielding the 
bark, which is kina. C. C. B. 

ROYAL NAVY CLUB (9 th S. ii. 327, 411 ; iii. 
36, 115). The club with this name about 
which MR. JULIAN MARSHALL inquires was 
originally called the Royal Navy and Marine 
Club. The first list of candidates and rules 
was issued on 4 August, 1886. The revised 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< h s. in. MAR. 4, '99. 

rules and by-laws, under the name of Royal 
Navy Club, with list of members, were issued 
in November, 1886. His Royal Highness the 
Duke of Edinburgh was president. There 
were fifty -four vice-presidents, and an execu- 
tive committee of twenty members. The 
honorary members numbered twenty-seven, 
and there were five hundred and ninety 
members. The club was proprietary, and 

4, Graf ton Street, Piccadilly, was the club- 
house. Commissioned officers in the Royal 
Navy and Royal Marines, officers of the late 
Indian Navy, of colonial navies and of the 
Indian Marine, of the Royal Naval Reserve 
and Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers, and 
Elder Brethren of the Trinity House were 
eligible as members. The name of the club 
was again changed in 1887 to the Royal 
Navy and Army Club. 


' AYLWIN ' (9 th S. iii. 124). The Old English 
Christian name Ay 1 win, Alwyn, Ailwyne, or 
Alwine, has never, I suppose, become at all a 
common patronymic. With so many sur- 
names to choose from, one may perhaps be 
permitted to regret the fact that writers 
seem fond of using such names as Mr. Watts- 
Dunton's Henry Aylwin or Tennyson's Mr. 
Philip Edgar (afterwards Mr. Harold), "a 
surface man of theories, true to none," in 
'The Promise of May.' A. R. BAYLEY. 

St. Margaret's, Malvern. 


5. iii. 104). If Cromwell himself did not 
attempt to abolish Christmas, the Parliament 
that he controlled did. A mass of evidence 
has been accumulated in ' N. & Q.' and else- 
where : see 3 rd S. i. 246, 458 ; 6 th S. vi. 506, 513 ; 
viii. 491 ; x. 490 ; 7 th S. ii. 503, 504 ; iv. 503 ; 
vi. 483 ; xii. 126 ; 8 th S. vi. 483. W. C. B. 

HEPTONSTALL (9 th S. iii. 61). Will the 
author of the interesting article on 'Hepton- 
stall ' at the above reference kindly give me, 
either personally or through your journal, 
the names of the numerous crosses with 
which he states the neighbourhood was 
studded 1 

On the Long Causeway, which is a portion 
of a great highway from Clitheroe Castle, by 
Whalley Abbey, Burnley, Heptonstall, and 
Halifax, to Wakefield, and perhaps beyond, 
numerous crosses were placed on the hill- 
tops as guides to travellers over the moors, 
or in memory of those who perished in the 
snow or were murdered by robbers. Crosses 
existed at Burnley, and east of it on the 
Long Causeway we find Stump Cross (950 ft. 
above the sea), Robin Cross, Maiden Cross, 

Duke's Cross, Stiperden Cross, Reaps Cross^ 
Abel Cross, and others. This road was used 
for regal, ecclesiastical, and mercantile pur- 
poses from an early period. The woollen 
manufacture, CANON ISAAC TAYLOR has 
recently told us in 'N. & Q.,' was in full 
force in the West Riding in the fourteenth 
century, and doubtless there was much 
traffic between East Lancashire and West 
Yorkshire. HENRY TAYLOR. 

Birklands, Southport. 

MONTAIGNE (9 th S. ii. 468). It is Montaigrae 
himself who passes this depreciatory judg- 
ment, as he does repeatedly, on his own 
writings : " Si philosopher c'est doubter, a 
plus forte raison niaiser et fantastiquer, 
comme je foys (fais), doibt estre doubter." 
This quotation, for which I am indebted to 
the courtesy of a friend, is found in Littre 
under the word ' Fantastiquer,' with reference 
to book ii. ch. 23, which, however, does not 
agree with my copy (Paris, 1844, edition of 
Le Clerc). Either there is an error somewhere, 
or the edition referred to by Littre must 
have been differently divided. The verb 
fantastiquer seems to be a word of rare 
occurrence. It is not, as I am informed by 
the same friend, in the Academy's diction- 
ary. I have found it in Bescherelle, Trevoux, 
Laveaux, Mole (French-German), Villeneuve 
(French-Italian), and Von Aphelen (French- 
Danish). C. LAWRENCE FORD, B.A. 


PERTH (8 th S. xii. 508 ; 9 th S. i. 173). At a 
recent meeting of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland it was stated that the origin of 
the Roman's exclamation is to be found not 
in any classical author, but in 'The Muses' 
Threnodie,' by Henry Adamson (a native of 
Perth), printed at Edinburgh in 1638, a small 
quarto of rhyming dialogue. Here, it was 
said, the famous " Ecce Tiber ! Ecce Campus 
Martius ! " attributed to Agricola's soldiers, 
first appeared ; and although in a second 
edition, published in 1774, the story was 
called a poetical fable, it had already won its 
way into books professedly historical, and 
was too fondly regarded in the popular- 
imagination to be discarded as mere fiction. 

W. S. 

CHARLES I. RINGS (9 th S. ii. 448). There 
were at least a dozen Charles I. memorial 
rings on view at the Stuart Exhibition in 
1889. As the names were in each case given 
in the catalogue, the owners could pro- 
bably be still communicated with. I may 
say that amongst the rings exhibited was the 
one "given by Charles I. to Bishop Juxon 
just before his death." Two others were 

9 th S. III. MAR. 4, '99.] 



given by Charles II. respectively to Si 
William Murray of Stanhope and Sir William 
Dugdale. A deep interest attaches to a rin 
lent by Lieut. A. D. Douglas-Hamilton, II.N 
from the fact that it was " given to Charles I 
by Henrietta Maria in memory of his fathei 
and won from the king in a gambling trans 
action by Admiral Hill, maternal ancestor o 
owner." If MR. CANN HUGHES does no 
possess a catalogue, I will copy out and senc 
him full particulars with pleasure. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 


pages of 'N. & Q.' have container 
many articles on the relics, or supposed relics 
of this unfortunate monarch. For reference 
to his rings (only) see 1 st S. vi. 578 ; vii. 184 
xi. 73 ; 6 th S. viii. 348, 373. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

CLARE STREET (9 th S. iii. 69). Clare Street 
Clare Market, is in the parish of St. Clement 
Danes, and connects Stanhope Street with 
Vere Street. In Howel's ' Londinopolis 
(1657), p. 344, we read : 

"Then is there towards Drewry Lane, a new 
Market, called Clare Market; then is there a 
street, and Palace of the same name, built by the 
Earl of Clare, who lives there in a princely manner 
having a House, a street, and a Market, both for 
flesh and fish, all bearing his name." 

John Holies, first Baron Haughton, was 
created Earl of Clare in 1624, and died in 
1637. He was succeeded by his son John, 
who died in 1655, and is the one alluded to 
by Howel. 

On the other hand, Allen's 'History of 
London ' (1839), vol. iv. p. 350, states : 

" Charles I. issued another licence in 1642, per- 
mitting Gervase Hollis, esq. to erect fifteen houses, 
a chapel, and to make several streets of the width 
of thirty, thirty-four, and forty feet. These streets 
still retain the names and titles of their founders 
in Clare-Street, Denzel-Street, Holies-Street, &c." 
This statement seems hardly consistent with 
that of Howel. 

The earliest map in which I have been 
able to see the name of Clare Street marked 
is in the map of St. Clement Danes parish 
in Strype's Stow, first edition (1720), vol. ii. 
The text says (book iv. p. 118), "A good open 
place fronting the Market, here is White 
Horse Inn." 

The name of Clare Street is not marked in 
Newcourt's map of 1658 (Stanford's repro- 
duction), but the street can be clearly iden- 

In Diprose's 'Account of the Parish of 
St. Clement Danes ' (1876), vol. ii. p. 21, it ig 
stated tha_t John Edwin, the celebrated 

comedian, was born in this street, 10 August, 
1749, and died 1 November, 1790. 

Besides Clare Street, Denzel Street, and 
Holies Street, several streets in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood take their names 
from members of the Clare family, as New- 
castle Street, Gilbert Street, Stanhope Street, 
Vere Street, <fec. H. A. HARBEN. 

This street, in the parish of St. Clement 
Danes, is described in Strype's edition of 
Stow's ' Survey ' (1720) as "a good open place 
fronting the Market" (vol. ii. book iv. p. 118). 

G. F. R. B. 
The first mention of the street I can find 
is in ' London and its Environs,' Dodsley, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"KYLON" (9 th S. iii. 108). I suspect this is a 
misprint for Kylin. This is the name of a 
mythical Chinese monster well known to 
collectors of pottery and porcelain. Dr. 
Wells Williams, in his ' Chinese Dictionary,' 
p. 344, defines it as a fabulous auspicious 
animal, which appears when sages are born 
;he male of the Chinese unicorn. It is drawn 
ike a piebald scaly horse, with one horn and 
a cow's tail. If I am right in my conjecture, 
querist will find that the "white china 
Jog," as he calls it, will have a single horn, 
laving a fleshy tip, proceeding out of the 
; orehead. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

A CHILD'S CAUL (9 th S. iii. 26, 77). Some 
old nurses I know possess these things. By 
ome they are called " baby's veil," a prettier 
and more appropriate name than "child's 
aul." I was shown one not long ago stretched 
n a sheet of paper. In this instance the 
nurse said that the first wearer of it had 
gone back " and that was why she possessed 
t. She said she had never known any but 
x>ys wearing "baby's veil" at birth. Girls 
night, but she had never known of it. The 
oy who kept his veil would never be 
rowned. Wnen he was ill, the veil became 
amp and flabby. While he was well it was 
ry, and " snerept up ! " Further, the ship 
which there was a sailor who carried 
lis veil would never sink. I have seen "a 
hild's caul " advertised for sale on many 
ccasions. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


A RELIC OF NAPOLEON (9 th S. iii. 3, 75). 
No record of a cast taken after death 
is remembered upon the Isle of St. Helena 
at the present day. I spent some little 
time there last summer, as the guest 
of M, and Madame Jj, P. C, Morilleau, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [*- s. in. MAR. *, m 

the French consul and his wife, who, with 
their seven charming daughters, reside on 
the spot, and never remember hearing the cir- 
cumstance mentioned. A very fine marble 
bust of the emperor stands upon the spot 
where he died, *'. e., in an ante-room a 
rather draughty apartment with two doors 
leading from the entrance hall to his bed- 
room, which latter was on the right (the 
residence is only one story high). 

That the house was at one time allowed 
to fall into a very woeful state of decay may 
be gleaned from a 'Guide to St. Helena,' 
written by Mr. Joseph Lockwood in 1851. 
He says : _. 

" Passing through the gate, there "before us stand 
the empty and deserted halls where Napoleon 
lingered out his last years. The front entrance...... 

is ascended by one or two dilapidated steps. Passing 
the door, we enter a room of moderate size...... fast 

crumbling into irretrievable ruin, ceiling, floors, and 
walls all alike time-shattered and miserably decayed ; 
huge cobwebs hang in thick and heavy festoons in 
every corner, and dirt and dust obscure the light 
that struggles to glimmer in through the windows. 
From the dreary billiard-room we pass into a small 
and miserably dark room, in a state of utter and hope- 
less ruin Part of the roof has fallen in indeed, 

that portion over the very spot where Napoleon 
breathed his last for this wretched den is the room 
in which he died. In this half-roofless room, amidst 
the wild contentions of the elements, the ' spoilt 
child of destiny' lay stretched in mortal agony 

upon the bed of death We next entered a little 

lobby, as dark and ruinous as are all the rooms 
around. On the left is a little cabinet now occupied 
by one or two farm-servants like the rest sadly 
dilapidated. Turning suddenly again to the right, 
we enter what was once the bedroom of Napoleon, 
now a stable strewed with litter, racks and mangers. 

The gardens are all gone, but a lawn of parched 

and stunted grass is all around." 

It is only fair to add that, probably due 
to M. Morilleau's care and energy, Long- 
wood House is now, internally and externally, 
in an excellent state of repair. It is certainly 
as well kept as is our own Hampton Court. 
Of course a death mask, although useful to 
sculptors for giving the proportions generally, 
is never absolutely followed in modelling for 
the bronze or marble. An exact replica, in 
either or any material, from a post-mortem 
casting would be a very distressing pro- 
duction indeed. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

SURNAMES IN -SON (9 th S. iii. 90). Sur- 
names in -son were undoubtedly introduced 
by the Danes, and this will mark the period 
of their origin. Surnames in -son (and MR. 
GILSON'S is no exception) are as certain a sign 
of Scandinavian descent as towns and villages 
in -by are of Danish occupation. The here- 
ditary love of the sea which we attribute to 

our Danish ancestors appears to be most 
prevalent where the Danish occupation was 
most extensive. It would be interesting to 
note the proportion of names ending in -son 
in the navy as compared with those in the 
army and other professions. The greatest 
naval commander of the century showed the 
traces of Danish blood in his name and his 
birthplace as well as in his seamanship. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

MUSE PLOTS (9 fch S. iii. 88). Can "muse 
plots" be the same as "marsh plots," now 
existing in the parish of Preston Candover, 
Hants J I had a query concerning them in 
' N. & Q.' many years ago, but received no 
answer. In 1711 there were sixty-two, for 
which the churchwardens received one penny 
the marsh plot, while the vicar received the 
great and small tithes still paid to him. The 
fact that " muse " and " marsh " plots in two 
adjacent counties have the same arrangement 
connected with the tithes is an inference that 
the two words originally were identical. 
Which is nearer in present spelling to the 
name as used in earlier days ? " Marsh " here 
suggests low-lying pastures in a valley, not, 
as now, drained by the provision of a large 
lake in the lower part of the Candover valley. 
These plots are found in the centre of the 
village mostly, where cottages probably were 
first put up by copyhold tenure, under the 
several manors existing in the village. Has 
"muse" any connexion with water? The 
river Meuse, in France, is a case in point, 
the etymology of which is doubtful, I suppose. 
I should still be glad to know of any other 
parishes where " muse " or " marsh " plots are 
still in existence under similar circumstances. 


WALTON (9 th S. iii. 107). MR. DUIGNAN asks 
if any one can tell him the meaning of this 
place-name, and then proceeds to give the 
three possible answers. MR. DUIGNAN'S 
authority on place-names is so great that it re- 
quires more courage than I possess to question 
his opinions. I would only point out that his 
precise views have already been propounded 
on pp. 291, 373 of * Names and their Histories,' 
a book which I believe he will discover on 
his shelves. A few illustrations of his prin- 
ciples may, however, be useful. Walton, 
Surrey, was a tun on the defensive dyke or 
wall which stretched from the Thames to the 
camp on St. George's Hill. Wallscombe, near 
Wells, was on the dyke or wall which guarded 
Somerset against the Welsh. Walton-on-the- 
Naze, Essex, is believed to take its name from 
a sea-wall. The reclaimed land between Wis- 

9 th S. III. M 



beach and King's Lynn, in Norfolk, lies beyond 
the ancient sea-wall from which the landward 
villages of Walton, Walsoken, and Walpole 
take their names. Walworth, Surrey, called 
in a charter Wealawyrth, was an estate be- 
longing to Welshmen or Britons (weala, 
gen. pi. of wealh). In some cases, as in Suffolk 
and Northants, Walton may be the tun 
enclosed by a wall. Wallasea, Essex, is an 
island surrounded by a sea-wall or embank- 
ment ; and at Wallbury, Essex, there is a 
great earthwork enclosing thirty acres. 


Walton, generally from Latin vallum, "a 
wall," sometimes associated with Roman re- 
mains ; otherwise oil the coast, as a sea-wall. 
Each case should be studied on its own merits ; 
for instance, Walsall has a subdivision known 
as Walsall "foreign." Can MR. DUIGNAN 
define a Walsall colt ? A. HALL. 

(9 th S. iii. 100), In your review of Mr. Davis's 
book on Silchester you remark that the 
author's statement that " not a single Roman 
place-name has survived" is "surely going 
much top far." I think most antiquaries will 
agree with you. I am not skilled in place- 
names, but does not Billericay, in Essex, six 
miles beyond Brentwood, still preserve, with 
the addition of the final y, the name that the 
Romans gave it ? R. CLARK. 


In answer to the quotation that "not a 
singular Roman place-name survives," there 
are two in Kent only, Deal and Reculver, 
from Dola and Regulbium. Again, Gloucester 
is held to be Claudius's camp or castrum. 

PLACE-NAMES (9 th S. iii. 105). Will MR. 
CHARLES WISE be so kind as to tell the sub- 
named whether he has found the place 
Wetewong, as it becomes a family name in 
Oxford mediaeval history ? A day or two ago 
the name Kysseblancpayn was rnet with in 
the Godstowe cartulary, English version, a 
resident in St. Edward parish. The name 
William - beyond - Nightingale - hall - lane is 
even more surprising, and probably has a bit 
of history attached to it ; the lane, in St. 
Peter's parish, Oxford, abutted at its east end 
upon a bit of the royal way under the walls, 
and this William had probably squatted there, 
and really lived in no street at all. In the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries these 
dwellers under the wall bore the title " Sub- 
muro"; their descendants the Underwalls 
either diminished in numbers or dropped a 
surname which was perhaps not very dignified. 

An Alegood or Alegod family was of some re- 
pute here in early days. From the discovery 
of Haliwell, Hale well, and Ale well, used for 
the present Holywell, and of Halegod and 
Aligod as the surname, I suspect Holy-god 
(to match Bigod) was the original form, so 
that he was a swearer of oaths rather than a 
brewer of good ale. H. HURST. 


"UNSPEAKABLE TURK "(9 th S. iii. 68). Mr. 
W. S. Walsh, in his ' Handy Book of Literary 
Curiosities,' attributes the origin of this now 
frequently used phrase to Carlyle. He tells 
us that the expression came into general use 
at the time of the Bulgarian agitation of 
1876, on its appearance in a published letter 
of Carlyle's to George Howard, M.P., dated 
24 November : "The unspeakable Turk should 
be immediately struck out of the question, 
and the country left to European guidance." 
But this was not the first use by: Carlyle of 
the term. Nearly fifty years before to be 
exact, in 1831, in an article on the * Nibelungen 
Lied,' in the Westminster Review, No. 29, and 
now to be found among his * Miscellanies ' 
he makes mention of "that unspeakable 
Turk, King Machabol." C. P. HALE. 

The phrase occurs first, I think, in Carlyle's 
essay on the 'Nibelungen Lied,' published in 
1831. I quote from the Library Edition, 
vol. viii. p. 154, "How they [i.e. Kaisir 
Ottnitt and little King Elberich] sailed with 
Messina ships into Paynim lands ; fought 
with that unspeakable Turk, King Machobol." 
Mr. Gladstone quoted the phrase, but applied 
it to the Turkish nation, not to an individual 
as in the original. E. R. 

The expression was used by Carlyle in a 
letter to the Daily News of 28 Nov., 1876. I 
am not aware that he borrowed it from Mr. 
Gladstone. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

(9 th S. iii. 69). This story, of burial under 
the bed of a stream, occurs also in the 
'Toldoth Jeshu,' or Hebrew account of our 
Lord. When He has been stoned to death, 
and afterwards hanged on a tree, Judas, the 
hero of the tale, turns aside a brook in his 
garden, and buries Jeshua under it, then 
restoring the brook to its old bed. The 
queen Alexandra (or rather, as the Hebrew 
spells it, Helena), when she hears that nobody 
knows where Jeshua is buried, exclaims, 
"Then He was the Son of God, and has 
ascended to His heavenly Father, as He 
predicted ! " The Synhedrion assures her 
there is no ground for any such belief. She 
insists on having His body produced, and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. MAK. *, 

threatens, if it is not brought by a certain 
day, to attack Jerusalem with an army, and 
destroy the whole Synhedrion. They pro- 
claim a fast ; but while they are fasting two 
of them discover Judas feasting in his garden. 
They explain the whole distress to him, when 
he has the brook again diverted, and the body 
found. It is then dragged by horses before 
the queen, who is ashamed and pardons them. 
In thus dragging the corpse the hair is 
pulled off, which is the reason that monks 
are now shaven, "in memory of what hap- 
pened to Jeshua." E. L. GARBETT. 

AUTHOR WANTED (9 th S. iii. 69). I find in 
the ' London Catalogue, 1816-1851,' "Legacy 
of an Etonian, Poems, edited by R. Nolands, 
8vo., published at 10s. by G. Bell." The 
question is whether R. Nolands was the 
author. I should doubt it, inasmuch as you, 
sir, are the editor of ' N. & Q.,' but, I submit, 
not the author. ALFD. J. KING. 

101, Sandmere Road, Clapham, S.W. 

GORDON FAMILY (9 th S. ii. 128, 174, 235, 412). 
The information was taken from the ' Peer- 
age of Scotland,' 1813, by Douglas, vol. i. 
p. 262 ; vol. ii. p. 557. In the last volume he 
says, " Malise, E. of Strathern, is said to have 
married Lady Egidie Cumyng," &c. Not 
having the peerage by G. E. C., I cannot say 
how he decides who are the various wives ; 
but I find in the Genealogist, vol. v. p. 105 
(N.S.), an article on the Earls of Strathern 
by Joseph Bain, in which he says the account 
given by Douglas of these earls is " a jumble 
of confusion." Well, it may be so (and probably 
ever will be), yet my dull intellect does not per- 
ceive that his article has made thematter any 
clearer. It is, if anything, more complicated. 
MR. C ALDER surely does not reject a statement 
because another writer has left it out. Of 
course it would be more satisfactory if 
authorities could be given ; but if such had 
to be the hard-and-fast line, the pedigrees in 
the peerages would show a large number of 
missing links. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

NoNJURORs(9 th S.ii. 408, 493; in. 56). Under 
this heading MR. A. J. KING asks for infor- 
mation about the French Prophets. He will 
find an account of this sect in Malcolm's 
'Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of 
London during the Eighteenth Century,' 
illustrated with a plate depicting one of the 
meetings of the Prophets. Malcolm's account 
of the pious orgies of these fanatics is very 
diverting. R. CLARK. 

"AERIAL TOUR" (9 th S. ii. 423). I have 
examined ten editions, in my library, of 
Beattie's 'Minstrel,' and in nine of these, 

which I subjoin, the word is "tour": Edin- 
burgh, Creech, 1776 ; London, Dilly, 1799 ; 
Edinburgh, Creech, &c., 1807 ; Alnwick, 1810 ; 
London, Sharpe, 1816; London, Bum pus, 
1821 ; London, Sharpe, 1823 ; London, Sharpe, 
1827; London, Pickering, 1831. It will be 
observed that the first two of these editions 
were printed in the lifetime of the poet, who 
died in 1803. The tenth of the editions I 
possess is that of Routledge, London, 1858 
and it has " tower." A. T. GRANT. 

The Rectory, Leven, Fife. 

INSTRUMENTAL CHOIR (7 th S. xii. 347, 416, 
469 ; 8 th S. i. 195, 336, 498 ; ii. 15 ; 9 th S. ii. 
513). A mile from here is the little village of 
Win wick, comprising, probably, some hundred 
and fifty souls. The church contains an old 
barrel organ, which, as a boy, I well remember 
to have heard " played " by a man who still 
resides in the village. It has for many years 
now remained silent, having been superseded 
by a harmonium. It is, however, by no 
means an eyesore to the church, its outward 
appearance closely resembling that of an 
ordinary church organ. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 


Medical Works of the Fourteenth Century. By the 
Rev. Prof. G. Henslow, M.A. (Chapman & Hall.) 
THIS quaint and curious volume, ushered in by a 
valuable introduction by Prof. Skeat and accom- 
panied by notes from the same indefatigable and 
erudite writer, consists of a great portion of the 
contents of a MS. volume, concerning the history of 
which nothing is known except that it was in the 
collection of Mr. Johnstone, proprietor of the 
Standard newspaper, by whom it was presented to 
Prof. Henslow. The whole of the English portion 
of the volume, consisting principally of medical 
recipes, has been transcribed and printed. With it 
are given transcripts of selected portions from 
MSS. similar in nature in the British Museum, 
viz., Harl. 2378, Sloane 2584, and Sloane 521. There 
is also given a list of plants and vegetable products 
used in the drugs mentioned in the MSS. or in con- 
temporary vocabularies, with their identifications 
so far as these can be obtained. This portion of the 
work constitutes, accordingly, a guide to the plant- 
names of the fourteenth century. Those familiar 
with early medical literature know how gruesome 
and repulsive were most of the remedies in vogue. 
Not a few of them are practically unquotable. Yet 
of these even some, in altered forms, are in pre- 
sent, or were in recent use. How nearly associated 
with magic and other secret arts or reputed mys- 
teries was medicine is also known. Some of the 
receipts are avowedly charms, as when, to deliver a 
woman of a dead child, you are told, when you come 
to the house in which the woman is, to sit aright 
upon the " thraschfolde," make a sign of the cross, 
and say, " In nomine Patris," &c. For a cure for 
the bite of a " woud hund" (a mad dog) you are 


s. iii. MA*. *, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


seriously recommended "a hair of the dog that bit 
you " to be applied to the wound. An owl baked 
and mixed with horse grease constitutes a remedy 
for the gout. To make a man (or a woman) sleep 
three days, all you have to do is to give him in his 
pottage the gall of a hare, and he shall not wake 
until his face is washed with vinegar. In these few 
extracts we have not used the old spelling or the 
signs for th, &c. The forms of orthography adopted 
have, however, special interest, and the work is a 
valuable gift to students of Middle English. The 
spelling is more than eccentric, and among the 
explanatory notes of Prof. Skeat are many which 
point out errors, such as "motfelon" for matfelon, 
"lomke" for lemke, i.e., brooklime, &c. Many of 
the forms employed are unfamiliar, and without 
the assistance rendered by the Professor a portion 
of the volume would be not easily intelligible. 
Prof. Skeat puts the date of the opening MS. before 
1400, and holds it from internal evidence to have 
been written in the south of England, most likely 
in Sussex, Surrey, or Hampshire, but not in Kent. 
The scribe responsible for the English portion was 
of English birth, and was equally conversant with 
Anglo-French and English, though he never quite 
succeeded in mastering the correct pronunciation 
of the latter. On p. 125, in one of the L)ouce MSS., 
appears a curious preface in rimed verse. 

Quentin Durward. By Sir Walter Scott. Edited 

by Andrew Lang. (Nimmo.) 

' QUENTIN DURWARD,' now added to Mr. Nimmo's 
reissue of the "Border Edition" of the Waverley 
novels, is in general estimate one of the best of the 
series. It is at least one of the most romantic. 
Scott showed a little timidity in winning vicari- 
ously for his hero the lovely Countess of Croye. 
From the first to the latest perusal of the volume 
we felt how impossible it was to suppose Quentin 
hearing the voice of Gertrude Pavilion or of turning 
for a moment his head from his fierce and dangerous 
adversary. It is, however, a part of Scott's cha- 
racteristic moderation to substitute Le Balafre" for 
the youth who has already had so many oppor- 
tunities of distinguishing himself. Had Scott intro- 
duced a further scene, in which the Duke of Bur- 
gundy communicated to Isabelle de Croye the result 
of the combat for her hand, he would have gratified 
a good many readers whose love of poetic justice 
is greater than their regard for art. The book is, 
however, noble in all respects, and is in this 
edition admirably illustrated. 

The, Cathedral Church of York. By A. Clutton- 

Brock. (Bell & Sons.) 

A HISTORY of the magnificent Minster of York is 
the latest addition to Bell's admirable " Cathedral 
Series," which, in spite of the death of one of its 
editors, still advances towards completion. In his 
account of this noble pile Mr. Glutton-Brock owns 
to having followed Prof. Wallis, a safe guide in all 
respects. A whole literature is, however, available 
for York Minster, and the only or, at least, the 
chief difficulty of the latest historian has con- 
sisted in the task of selection and compression. 
This he has successfully accomplished, and his book 
is worthy to stand beside its predecessors. A good 
deal of attention is bestowed upon the city, the 
most ancient, and in some respects the most inter- 
esting, in England. Little attention is paid to the 
mythical origin of York, narrated by Geoffrey 
of Monmouth and favoured in Francis Drake's 

Eboracum, and no credit is given the origin of the 
name from the Ure, a comparatively insignificant 
tributary of the Ouse. The views of the city and 
of its picturesque gates are well selected. Little 
is, however, said of the minor ecclesiastical edifices 
with which York overflows. Of the building itself 
Mr. Uutton-Brock holds that it seems rather to 
express the secular magnificence and temporal power 
ot a church conspicuous in history than the spiritual 
aspirations of a. people. Be this as it may, the 
Minster wants only to be placed on an elevation 
such as is seen at Lincoln or at Durham to stand 
easily foremost of English cathedrals. Without 
that advantage, even, we are not sure that it does 
not so stand. The illustrations of the exterior 
and the interior are alike excellent. They are 
chiefly photographic. 

(l nde ? to the Times. Oct. 1st to Dec. 31st, 
.-0ct, 1st to Dec. 31st, 1824. (Shepperton- 
on-Thames, Palmer.) 

WITH the index to the Times for the three con- 
cluding months of last year Mr. Palmer sends us 
the index to the autumnal quarter for 1824, part 
of a series he is reprinting for subscribers. The 
appearance of the two works is similar, but the 
little quarto of twenty-seven pages has now swelled 
out into ninety-two. The editor and publisher 
takes justifiable pride in the fact that all attempt 
at competition has proved a failure, and that the 
i work remains authoritative as well as indispensable. 
He quotes the declaration of the late Mowbray 
I Morns, the leading spirit of the Times when the 
I J imes was at its best, that the work was from the 
I outset perfect. It has, indeed, fulfilled its promise, 
and is a work of transparent utility. Of some 
things it is the only existing register, and 
it is a book that should be in every library and 
institution in the kingdom. Attention is drawn to 
the fact that when a file of the Times is inaccessible 
it will serve for other newspapers. The index has 
now been in existence seventy-four years. 

Landmarks in English Industrial History. Bv 
George Townsend Warner, M.A. (Blackie & 

MODEST as are the pretensions of this book and 
ts author is careful, so far as the matter is con- 
cerned, to make no claim to originality it is a work 
displaying much insight and acumen, and likely to 
be very serviceable to those seeking to grasp the 
significance and development of England's com- 
mercial and industrial progress. Choosing subjects 
such as the manorial system, the mercantile system 
the rise of banking, the agrarian revolution, &c., 
Mr. Warner groups around each the causes from 
which it sprang and the developments to which it 
gave rise. The information is in every case accurate 
and condensed, and there are few except close 
students of economics and social progress who will 
riot rise from the perusal with ideas enlarged or 
amended. If the reader wishes to take one chapter 
as representative of all, let him take that on the 
Black Death of 1348-50, and study its influence upon 
the lord and the labourer, together with the col- 
lisions between the two classes to which it gave 
nse ' et , - lim then com P ar> e with this the chapter 
on Machinery and Power" and that on "The 
Agrarian Revolution." Very well has the task of 
selection of subjects been discharged by Mr. War- 
ner, and the book, though necessarily a com- 
pendium, is so pleasant to read that no one who 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< s. in. MAR. 4, 

begins its perusal is likely to suspend it until the 
end is reached. 

The Symbolism* of Heraldry; or, a Treatise on the 
Meanings and Derivation* of Armorial Bearings. 
By W. Cecil Wade. (Red way.) 
WE are always glad to welcome any book which is 
calculated to place the science of heraldry in its 
proper light before those who are ignorant of the 
subject. In the work before us Mr. Wade has 
attempted to make people see that heraldry was 
once an important factor in the lives of our an- 
cestors ; and he tries to explain the why and where- 
fore of the colours, signs, and symbols used in 
heraldic language in such a manner as to make 
them intelligible to those who know little or nothing 
of the subject. A great heraldic work this book is 
not, and we are quite sure that Mr. Wade would be 
the last person to claim such a position for it; but as 
a text-book we can give it our sincerest approbation. 
We are exceedingly glad to see that the popular 
error as regards the bend sinister is pointed out ; 
but while novelists continue to speak of it as the 
mark of illegitimacy, we suppose that no amount of 
evidence to the contrary will convince the un- 
lettered public. Mr. Wade says, and correctly, that 
the Catherine-wheel is rarely to be met with in 
heraldry. It occurs as an inn sign in Cambridge- 
shire, and some people have thought that it might 
have been taken from a coat of arms ; but there is 
no proof of this. With reference to the " maunch," 
we are told that it is a very ancient bearing in the 
families of De Mohun, De Mauley, and Hastings. 
To these might be added the Nortons, who rose in 
rebellion with Percy and Neville in the celebrated 
"rising in the North." A curious heraldic incident 
is connected with this event. The banner of Norton 
did not display the bearings of that house, but was 
apparently one invented for the occasion, and in- 
tended to show that the war was a religious one. 
The ballad tells us that 

The Percy then his ancient raised, 
The half moon shining all so fair, 
But the Nortons' ensign was the cross, 

And the five wounds our Lord did bare. 
Amid all the curious bearings given we cannot find 
any mention of that of Newton of Beverley, who 
bore, according to Surtees, "a spectre passant, 
shrouded sable." We are astonished to find no 
reference to Randle Holme ; his ' Academy of 
Armory ' is one of the most valuable works upon 
the subject that we know. As a book of reference 
for those who do not possess or have not access to 
the great heraldic works and text-books, we can 
highly recommend this unpretending little volume. 

Charters and Writs concerning the Burgh of Had- 
dington. Transcribed and translated by J. G. 
Wallace- James. (Haddington, Croal.) 
ANTIQUARIES not only Scottish, but those of the 
whole empire ought to be grateful to Mr. Wallace- 
James for printing the text of the Haddington 
charters and accompanying them with a lucid 
translation. His preface is of the shortest, but he 
has packed away a considerable quantity of in- 
formation in a very small space. He is evidently 
one who regards even a few useless words as an 
impertinence. The Haddington records have suf- 
fered loss, not so much from the carelessness of 
their keepers as the incidents attendant on Border 
warfare. The "auld ynemies of England" knew 

well the store which the burghers set by their 
charters, and were wont to make off with them 
when occasion offered. In a sixteenth-century 
account-book there is an entry of a life pension of 
eight marks to be paid to Robert Maitland for 
" agayne gettin of ye haill evidentis pertaening to ye 
towne furcht of ye Inglismannis handis." Much pre- 
cious matter has, however, been lost from over-care- 
fulness. Three iron chests of records were after the 
battle of Dunbar hidden for safety underground in 
the courtyard of Balcarres Castle. W T hen peaceful 
times again returned, and the boxes were dug up, it 
was found that their contents were entirely spoilt 
by water. 

The earliest charter now remaining was granted 
by Robert the Bruce. It is a confirmation of all 
rights previously enjoyed by the burgesses. Had 
there been a previous charter ; or may we assume 
that Haddington had been a burgh by repute in 
times previous to incorporation by charter? The 
latter was, we think, more probably the case. It is 
worthy of note that in these charters, from the time 
of King Robert the Bruce (1318) to James V. (1542), 
the kings always style themselves " Rex Scottorum," 
that is, kings of the people, not of the country. A 
single example, and that not a royal one, points in 
the opposite direction. John, Earl of Carrick, in 
his capacity of Steward of the Kingdom, in 1383 
issued a confirmation of a charter of his father 
Robert II., and he therein describes himself " Regis 
Scotie primogenitus." It must be noted, however, 
that when, further on, the king has to be named, he 
is described as "Dei Gracia Rex Scottorum Illus- 
tris." Some may regard these facts as too trivial 
for notice ; but it is not so, for in those days the 
forms of law were wont to reflect ideas. We see, 
therefore, that the monarchy had not become 
territorial in the narrow, modern sense. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

C. D. W. ("Co-operation"). Politics are for- 
bidden ground in ' NT & Q.' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher "- 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 


. d. 

For Twelve Months 106 

For Six Months 10 3 


in. MA*, n, 




CONTENTS. -No. 63. 
NOTES : U.B.L. Sir Henry Wotton, 181 The Founders of 
Colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, 183 Button Games, 
184 The Two Watsons, 185 London Water Supply 
Archbishop Simon Theobald ' Old St. Paul's' Mural 
Tablet Rutabaga A Centenarian at Bversden, 186. 

QUERIES : " Gancanagh" " Gambaleery " Strong's Bluff 
Trinity Windows" Galingall" Charade A. Hamilton 
"Maiden speech" Burden Family Duke of North- 
umberland, 187 Innes=de Insula Sharpe Supplications 
in the Litany Scott's 'Guy Mannering' Driving Cus- 
tom " What all "Red Cassocks' The Chant of Achilles ' 
MassSna Major-General Ware Nicholson, 188 Missing 
Poem, 189. 

REPLIES : Cooke Family. 189 " Acreware": "Mollond" 
"Mutus dedit," &c. Black Images of the Madonna 
Peas, Pease, and Peasen, 190 Rime to " Month "Lend- 
ing Money by Measure Clough Epitaphs, 191 Stonard : 
Vincent: Newcombe De Feritate Oxford Portraits- 
Hereditary Odour Addison's ' Rosamond,' 192 Tom 
Brown and Dr. Fell" Ductus litterarum" Keltic Words 
Caron House Camelian Ring, 193 " Dies creta 
notandus " The Sibyls in Scotland " Ceiling," 194 
Unwritten History "Copper-tailed" R. Graham, 195 
"Helpmate" Cape Town Thackeray's Latin, 196 
Landor Wilkie's Epigoniad' Papal Bull "Writer of 
sorts," 197 Scott's 4 Antiquary 'Slough, 198. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Heron-Allen's 'Fitzgerald's Ruba'iyat 
of Omar Khayyam 'Salisbury's Dandliker's ' History of 
Switzerland 'Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE United Empire Loyalists' Associa- 
tion, which was incorporated under the 
laws of Ontario in 1897, nas for its object to 
unite, irrespective of creed and party, the 
descendants of those families who, during 
the American Revolutionary War of 1775 to 
1783, sacrificed their homes in order to reside 
under the flag to which they desired that 
they and their children should remain for ever 
loyal. Anxious to perpetuate this spirit of 
loyalty to the empire, this association desires 
to rescue from oblivion the history and tradi- 
tions of loyalist families before it is too late. 
It has, very properly, its headquarters in On- 
tario, for the Empire Loyalists who settled in 
Canada preserved the country to the British 
crown in the war of 1812-14, and their descend- 
ants are even now building up new provinces 
in the north-west. There are, however, on 
this side of the water the descendants of 
loyalist families who fled to England, and 
their co-operation in the work of the associa- 
tion is warmly invited. We understand that 
the executive committee intend to publish 
regularly an historical and genealogical 
journal, and we gladly offer to those inter- 
ested in this subject the hospitaHty of our 
columns for the prosecution of their inquiries. 



IT is far from my intention to take any 
part in this silly discussion. It has had its 
little day, and it is improbable that we shall 
hear much, if anything, more about it. My 
sole object in writing this note is to add 
some further information to the following 
passage in Mr. Lee's admirable 'Life of 
Shakespeare,' p. 371 : 

"Tobie Matthew wrote to Bacon (as Viscount 
St. Albans) at an uncertain date after January, 
1621 : ' The most prodigious wit that ever I knew of 
my nation and of this side of the sea is of your 
Lordship's name, though he be known by another.' 
This unpretending sentence is distorted into con- 
clusive evidence that Bacon wrote works of com- 
manding excellence under another's name, and 
among them Shakespeare's plays.* According to 
the only sane interpretation of Matthew's words, 
his 'most prodigious wit' was some Englishman 
named Bacon whom he met abroad probably a 
pseudonymous Jesuit like most of Matthew's 
friends. The real surname of Father Thomas 
Southwell, who was a learned Jesuit domiciled 
chiefly in the Low Countries, was Bacon. He was 
born in 1592 at Sculthorpe, near Walsingham, 
Norfolk, being son of Thomas Bacon of that place, 
and he died at Watten in 1637." 

This is what Mr. Sidney Lee says, founding 
his remarks on "Birch's Letters of Bacon, 
1763, p. 392." I find from Lowndes's ' Manual ' 
(London, W. Pickering, 1834) that Dr. Birch 
published, in 1754, a book entitled * Memoirs 
of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth,' which is 
thus characterized : 

" Dr. Birch has formed his narrative of the most 
striking facts in the numerous letters of the Bacon 
family, though, as might be expected, the letters 
are much abbreviated. 

The full title of the work referred to by Mr. 
Lee is, according to the same authority, 
"Letters, Speeches, Charges, Advices, &c., 
now first published by Thomas Birch, D.D., 
with a supplement, London, 1763-4." There 
is no doubt that the Bacon family wrote 
many letters, especially the most famous 
member of it ; and it is also true that many 
letters were written to them, of which the 
majority would be addressed to its most dis- 
tinguished representative. Sir Henry Wotton 
ives in his ' Reliquiae ' (fourth edition, Lon- 

on, 1685, p. 297) an interesting note, dated 
20 Oct., 1620, signed "Fr. Verulam Cane.," in 

hich he says : 

* The writer to whom Mr. Lee doubtless refers 
Furthermore attributes the authorship of Mon- 
taigne's ' Essays ' and Robert Burton's ' Anatomy 
of Melancholy' to the great Chancellor! 'The 
Great Cryptogram,' by Ignatius Donnelly (London, 
Sampson Low & Co., 1888). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. MA*, n, '99. 

"I shall be glad to entertain a correspondence 
with you in both kinds, which you writ of : for the 
latter whereof I am now ready for you, having sent 
you some Ure of that mine." 
Sir Henry replies in a long letter to the 
" Right Honourable and my very good Lord," 
in which he describes a visit to Kepler, who, 
from the account given, would appear to have 
been the discoverer of the principle of photo- 
graphy. It is clear from the tenor of the 
letters that the two kept up an occasional 
correspondence. Besides their relationship, 
there was a certain community of taste 
between them, or "congeniality with your 
Lordship's studies," as the worthy knight 
expresses it. Furthermore, Sir Henry was 
on intimate terms with the other members 
of the Bacon family, to one of whom, Sir 
Edmund Bacon, he poured out his heart for 
very many years, as may be seen from the 
numerous letters printed in the 'Reliquiae,' 
pp. 399-482. It must also be remembered 
that Sir Henry Wotton in his early days 
travelled much in France, Germany, and 
Italy, first as a matter of taste, and then from 
absolute necessity, as he was afraid, being a 
follower of Essex, of sharing the fate of liis 
partisans. Izaac Walton, in the charming 
life of his friend prefixed to the ' Reliquiae ' 
(p. 17), says : 

" Therefore did he, so soon as the Earl was appre- 
hended, very quickly, and as privately, glide 
through Kent to Dover, without so much as looTting 
toward his native and beloved Bocton ; and was by 
the help of favourable winds, and liberal payment 
of the mariners, within sixteen hours after his 
departure from London, set upon the French shore ; 
where he heard shortly after, that the Earl was 
arraigned, condemned, and beheaded ; and that his 
friend Mr. Cuffe was hanged, and divers other 
persons of eminent quality executed." 

In point of fact, young Wotton ran, so to 
speak, for his life, and was lucky enough to 
escape from the wrath of the angry and 
merciless queen. It was after these startling 
events that he once more betook himself to 
Italy, towards which country he ever bore a 
singular affection, whence he did not return 
to England until after Elizabeth's death. 
After fulfilling, under her successor, the 
office of ambassador thrice to the republic of 
Venice, " beside several other foreign employ- 
ments," with credit to himself and satisfaction 
to his sovereign, he came home in the year 
before James I. died, i.e., 1624. I have given 
these particulars for the purpose of showing 
that Sir Henry Wotton enjoyed unrivalled 
opportunities of becoming acquainted with 
the character and abilities of Englishmen, 
Jesuits or otherwise, domiciled or even tra- 
velling on the Continent. In fact, it was a 
part of his duty to report on all such persons, 

by express command of King James, contained 
in a letter 

"given under our signet at Newmarket, the 
seventh day of December, in the fourteenth year of 
our reign of England, France, and Ireland, and of 
Scotland the fiftieth, 1616."' Reliquiae,' pp. 483-4. 

I should like to quote the whole of the letter, 
for it is of absorbing interest, and especially 
shows the difficulties our forefathers were 
forced to undergo when travelling in Italy. 
They might "remain in Lombardy or Tus- 
cany, to gain the language there," but they 

"do daily flock to Rome, out of vanity and curio- 
sity, to see the Antiquities of that City ; where 
falling into the Company of Priests and Jesuites, or 
other ill disposed persons, they are not only cor- 
rupted with their Doctrine, but poisoned with their 
positions, and so return again into their countries, 
both averse to Religion, and ill-affected to Our State 
and Government." 

Then King James I., whom the sycophantic 
Bishop Hall calls "that glorious Saint, our 
dear Master" ('The Works of Joseph Hall, 
Bishop of Norwich,' 1647, p. 424), proceeds : 

" These are therefore to require you, to take 
notice with diligence of all such, as by the way of 
Venice shall bend their courses thither, and to 
admonish them, as from Us, that they should not 
presume to go beyond the bounds of the Dukedom 
of Florence, upon any occasion whatsoever." 

I will only add that a continental tour must 
have been no easy matter in those days ; and 
that fact will perhaps explain why Shake- 
speare is supposed never to have passed 
beyond the English shores, and why Robert 
Burton says he never did. 

Now it is a very curious fact that Sir 
Henry Wotton mentions what appears to be 
the same story told by Tobie Matthew "at 
an uncertain date " to Viscount St. Albans, in 
a letter written to his and the late Chancellor's 
nephew, Sir Edmund Bacon, on 5 December, 
1638. He says : 

"And first I send you your immortal uncle's 
Confession of his Faith, which I did promise you at 
Canterbury, solidly and excellently couched, as 
whatever else had the happiness to fall under his 
meditation and pen. Next ; you receive a letter 
freshly written me from Cambridge, with mention 
(God bless us) of a Jesuit of your name : who seems 
(as all that conies from any of you is piercing) to 
have sent over lately some pretty insinuative book 
in matter of Theological controversy, perchanc 
better dressed than any before, and with moi 
relish commended to the vulgar taste, but I believe 
it will be the same to the stomach : for well they 
may change their form, but it is long since we 
have heard their substance over and over, still the 
same ad fastidium usque. I shall languish to know 
how he toucheth upon your name and stirp." 
' Reliquiae,' p. 471. 

In a postscript to the same letter the 
gossiping Provost of Eton adds : 

9* S. III. M; 

s. in. MAR. 11, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"Since I concluded this, Mr. Hales (our Biblio- 
>heca ambiilans, as I use to call him) came to me by 
chance, and told me that the Book of Controversies 
issued under the name of Baconus, hath this addi- 
tion to the said name, alias Southwell ; as those of 
that Society change their names as often as their 
shirts: And he says it is a very poor thing, only 
graced with a little method." 

It is very amusing to read the worthy 
knight's sneer at the Jesuits, for he could 
not surely have forgotten that twice, at 
least, did he himself change his name, to say 
nothing of his shirt : first, when he fled from 
his country, and secondly, when he came 
from Italy by way of Norway to Scotland 
under the pseudonym of Octavio Baldi, 
having been sent by the Duke of Florence 
to warn the king against " a design to take 
away his life by poison," and to supply him 
with "such Italian antidotes against poison 
as the Scots till then had been strangers to." 
No doubt he often spoke of these doings to 
his friend Izaac Walton from whom I have 
learnt them when they were out angling 
("his innate pleasure of angling, which he 
would usually call his idle time, not idly 
spent; saying often, he would rather live 
five May months than forty Decembers"); 
or perhaps in the evening after dinner, 
in his study, whilst taking tobacco, which, 
his amiable biographer says, "as many 
thoughtful men do, he also had taken im- 

After all, it seems difficult to understand 
why a Jesuit, when his life was exposed to 
certain destruction if discovered, should not 
be as much justified in concealing his identity 
as any one else in those fierce and troublous 
times. However that may be, we may, I 
think, conclude that the story told by 
Tobie Matthew to Bacon and the one men- 
tioned by Sir Henry Wotton manifestly 
refer to one and the same person, i.e., Father 
Thomas Southwell ; though it strikes one as 
something strange that the Provost of Eton 
should not have heard of him until 1638, 
especially if he had become famous many 
years before under the name of Baconus. 




(Concluded from p. 122.) 

Corporate Bodies. 

Mediaeval Gild. Gild of Corpus Christi 
(with assistance of the Gild of St. Mary), 1352, 
founded Corpus Christi, Cantab. 

Two Memorial Colleges erected by Public 
Subscription. 1870. Keble College, in memory 
of the Kev. John Keble, Professor of Poetry 

in University of Oxford, founded on strict 
Church of England principles. 

1882. Selwyn College (similar college at 
Cambridge), in memory of George Augustus 
Selwyn, sometime Bishop of New Zealand. 

Of the thirty-nine colleges the thirty-six 
founded by forty-seven persons fall, for the 
most part, into other obvious groups as 
follows : 

Ten Colleges founded, or partly founded, by 
Women. Balliol (Devorguilla practically sole 
founder), Clare, Pembroke (Cantab), Queen's 
(Oxon), Queens' (Cantab), Christ's, St. John's 
(Cantab), Jesus (Oxon), Sidney Sussex, Wad- 
ham (Dorothy Wadham practically sole 
founder). Thus four colleges were founded 
at Oxford by women, although of these only 
two (Balliol and Wadham) can be said to owe 
their successful establishment chiefly to 
women ; while, on the other hand, of six so 
founded at Cambridge each may be said to 
owe its existence to a woman, or in the case 
of Queens' College to two women. Cambridge 
is pre-eminently the women's university, 
having led the way in erecting colleges solely 
for the use of women students, although she 
still denies them a degree. 

Colleges founded by more than one Founder. 
Balliol, Oriel, Queen's (Oxon), Brasenose, 
Jesus (Oxon), Wadham, Pembroke (Oxon). 

Sir Richard Sutton (co-founder B.N.C.) was 
the first voluntary lay founder in Oxford ; 
and his college was the first to absorb and 
continue the life of an old hall. This latter 
novelty was reproduced at Jesus, Pembroke, 
Worcester, and Hertford. 

Queen Elizabeth and James I. became royal 
founders at Oxford on very easy terms, the 
queen giving little beside letters patent and 
her portrait to Jesus, and the king content- 
ing himself with granting a charter to Pem- 
broke, where he is commemorated chiefly by 
the presence of the rose and thistle in the 
college coat of arms. 

Colleges practically refounded. Clare, Gon- 
ville and Caius, Lincoln, Queens' (Cantab), 
Christ's, Christ Church, Hertford. 

Clare arose out of University Hall, which, 
founded in 1326 by the University under its 
Chancellor Richard do Badew, was unsuc- 
cessful. At Oxford the University founded 
University Hall (now College) chiefly out of 
William of Durham's bequest. 

In 1447 Andrew Doket founded St. Ber- 
nard's College at Cambridge. This he 
eventually put under the protection of Queen 
Margaret, when it became the Queen's Col- 
lege. Finally, it was refounded by Queen 
Elizabeth Wydvile as Queens' College. 

Christ's (the only one of her two colleges 



Lady Margaret lived to see fully established) 
absorbed the struggling little foundation 
called God's House, due to the beneficence of 
William Bingham, rector of St. John Zachary 
in the City of London, in 1436. 

Hertford. The present college of this name 
is the second on the same site, Dr. Newton's 
last-century Hertford College having perished 
from lack of sufficient endowments. 

Colleges founded by bequest after death of 
Founder. University, Sidney Sussex, Wor- 
cester, Downing. 

School founded in connexion with a College. 
Wykeham initiated this system with New 
College and Winchester College ; he was fol- 
lowed by King Henry VI. with Eton College 
and King's at Cambridge ; and at Oxford by 
Waynflete with Magdalen College and Mag- 
dalen College School. Wolsey's School at 
Ipswich, in connexion with Cardinal College, 
fell with him. 

Pious founders may be further specialized 
as follows : 

Founder of a College in both Universities. 
King Henry VIII. with Christ Church (Oxon) 
and Trinity (Cantab). 

But in both cases " the majestic lord who 
broke the bonds of Home" entered into the 
labours of others. He refounded Wolsey's 
magnificent Cardinal College in a maimed 
and shrunken condition as King Henry VIII.'s 
College ; this he suppressed, but finally re- 
erected for a third time, joining it to his 
new see of Oxford, as Christ Church. In the 
same year he founded Trinity College in Cam- 
bridge by a process of absorption ; for the 
present college has taken the place of King's 
Hall, the splendid foundation of Henry's 
ancestor King Edward III., "Tertius Ed- 
wardus fama super aethera notus " ; of a 
still earlier foundation, the Michael House 
(1323) of Hervey de Stanton, Canon of York 
and Wells, and Chancellor of the Exchequer ; 
of Physwick's Hostel, belonging to Gonville 
Hall ; and of six other hostels. Christ Church, 
indeed, now bears as its coat the arms of 
Wolsey, the original founder, together with 
the cardinal's hat ; but in both these great 
foundations the name of the most learned, if 
most unscrupulous, of English kings is rightly 

Founders of Two Colleges in One University. 
Lady Margaret with Christ's and St. John's 
at Cambridge. Archbishop Chichele, indeed, 
in addition to his great college of All Souls, 
founded the monastic college of St. Bernard 
in Oxford. This house, which ceased at the 
dissolution of the monasteries, now, so far as 
the buildings are concerned, forms practically 
the front quadrangle of St. John Baptist. 

King Henry VI. can only be called co-founder 
of All Souls' by courtesy. Of his two famous 
foundations, the colleges of Eton and King's, 
the chapel of the latter has been irreverently 
likened to an inverted billiard-table by Mr. 
Buskin ; but had the wonderful design 
which the king drew up for his college in his 
will been carried out, the legs of the billiard - 
table would have harmonized with the other 
buildings, being but four amid a symmetrical 
forest of turrets. Bishop Bateman, founder 
of Trinity Hall, may almost be called a co- 
founder of Gonville Hall, having removed 
the latter to its present site in 1351. 

Three Archbishops as Founders. Chichele 
of Canterbury (Laud was almost the second 
founder of St. John's, Oxon), Rotheram and 
Cardinal Wolsey of York. 

Three Bishops of Winchester. Wykeham, 
Waynflete, and Foxe. Winchester was the 
richest see before the Reformation. 

Four Bishops of Lincoln. Fleming, Rothe- 
ram, Smyth, and Wolsey. Until the Re- 
formation Oxford lay in the vast diocese of 

Two Bishops of Ely. Balsham and Alcock. 
Cambridge lies in the diocese of Ely. Out of 
thirteen episcopal founders only three founded 
colleges in Cambridge. 

Five Lords High Chancellor. Merton, 
Wykeham, Rotheram, Waynflete, and Lord 
Audley of Walden. 

Two Chancellors of the Exchequer. Hervey 
de Stanton, Mildmay. 

Priests placing their Colleges under Royal 
Protection. Adam de Brome initiated this 
practice by commending his foundation of 
Oriel to the care of King Edward II. The 
wisdom of this policy was acknowledged in 
the cases of Queen's (Oxon), Queens' (Cantab), 
and Jesus (Oxon). A. R. BAYLEY. 


THE initial note on " alley tors," under 
the heading of 'Pickwickian Manners and 
Customs,' has been productive of some inter- 
esting notes on the boyish games connected 
with marbles. Among schoolboy games is a 
class of games which I do not remember j 
having seen dealt with at any time in 
'N. & Q.' I refer to games played with 
buttons. I do not know whether button 
games obtain very widely, but I can remem- 
ber a period, twenty years ago, when they 
were immensely popular with the boys of 

Having observed with what interest the 
discussion of marbles has been taken up, 
I have thought that perhaps a few notes 

9 th S. III. M; 



)n buttons may not be amiss. It is 
scarcely necessary to explain that the buttons 
ised in these games are principally of brass ; 
sometimes nickel buttons may be seen. There 
vvere many games played, but three were 
particularly favoured. These were a game 
Imown in the vernacular as "bangers" or 
'hangings," another as "on the line," and 
i third a sort of ring game played with the 
assistance of peg-tops. Of these, I think 
' bangers " was the most popular ; sometimes 
this went by the name of "scannings," for 
a reason which will soon be apparent. 
A player would hold a button between the 
thumb and first finger of the right hand, 
so that the cup or back part of the button 
was turned to a wall, arid then "bang" it, 
in the boyish phrase, against the latter, 
or whatever might be convenient for the 
time being. The force of the contact natur- 
ally caused the button to rebound and finally 
lie at a little distance from the point 
struck. Now the object of the game was 
for the second player to follow suit and 
endeavour to lay riis button as close to his 
opponent's as possible, so that he could span 
the distance by the fingers of the hand. If 
he succeeded in doing this, and spanned 
accordingly, the button of the first player 
became his. Thus the game would continue 
until one of them had been relieved of his 
store of buttons. It required some skill and 
dexterity to place a button in a " spanable " 
position, and when three or more players 
joined in a game, it occasionally proved 
exciting. For supposing the first two players 
had banged in turn, and their buttons' lay 
near to each other, but not so close as to 
be easily spanned, the third player might, 
with a little care, contrive so to lay his 
button near both of them as to permit his 
spanning from his own to both of their 
buttons. And thus he would capture the 
two of them. Then there was " nicking," 
when one player's button touched another 
after rebounding from the wall when 
" banged." There was an exaction for this. 

" On the line " almost explains itself. As in 
a similar game with marbles, the buttons were 
ranged on a line, which was drawn by the 
players, if the junction lines of paving stones 
were not used. The number of buttons ven- 
tured in the game was variable, depending 
chiefly on the players' speculativeness or 
store. The object of the game was to stand 
some four or five feet away from the row and 
endeavour to knock as many off the line as 
possible at a throw. The casting piece was 
usually a large button; the buttons of the 
coachman type, with the shank battered 

down, made a good "nicker," or "knicker," 
for this purpose. Most boys had their own 
special "nicker," on which they set great 
store. Sometimes they would make one 
themselves out of lead, disc shaped ; such a 
one, thrown " sneakingly " along the ground 
towards the line of buttons, would work sad 
havoc on the ranged line. Leaden " nickers" 
were terrors in the hands of a good player. 

The ring game was a combination of 
buttons and peg- tops. ^ A circle was drawn 
on the ground, and in this was placed a 
number of buttons. The players, as many as 
convenient, would then, in turn, string their 
tops, and endeavour to spin them right into 
the ring. If in accomplishing this any 
buttons were ejected, they were claimed by 
the spinner. If the top was still spinning the 
player had the option of picking it up in 
the palm of the hand, again and again, so 
long as it kept spinning, and at the same 
time " pegging " out as many buttons from the 
ring as possible. Hence the game often went 
by the name of " peg-in-the-ring." Here, 
again, some players evinced no small amount 
of skill, especially in the spinning of the top 
in the ring. 

" Shank or blank " was another game at 
times a substitute for the time-honoured 
" heads or tails." 

The value of the buttons varied. There 
was the average unit, then " twoers," as well 
as others of increased value. Coachmen's 
buttons, and others of the ornamental kind, 
especially such as bore a device, were worth 
several of the humble units. There was one 
of the small brace - button kind that was 
much sought after as a "banger." It was 
much like the saucer-shaped trouser buttons 
now in vogue, and had two eyes ; among 

flayers it went by the name of " cat's eye." 
b had a great reputation as a "banger," 
it being customary to have a favourite button 
for this purpose. C. P. HALE. 

THE Two WATSONS. The note on Black- 
wood's Magazine (ante, p. 81) teems with facts 
of historical interest. Very few are aware 
that there were two James Watsons im- 
prisoned at different periods for political dis- 
content. Any such offender was liable to 
be charged with "high treason," according 
to the caprice of the committing magis- 
trates or the Attorney - General of the day. 
I myself was committed on a charge of 
"felony" in 1842, my offence being an answer 
given to a question put to me at a public 
meeting on a point of theology. James Wat- 
son of 1817 was quite a different person from 
the James Watson who did not arrive in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. MAR. n, m 

London until some ten years later. His trials 
are recounted in his life by^W. J. Linton. 
The later James Watson's imprisonments were 
mainly due to his selling unstamped news- 
papers and his public non-compliance with the 
observance of a fast day. He and his friends 
were of opinion that it was the Government 
who ought to fast, and not the people, who 
had not half enough to eat. 


in its report of the sitting of the Water 
Commission in the Guildhall, Westminster, on 
27 February, well calls the following " ancient 
history ": 

" Mr. Clayton stated that in 1722 the Chelsea 
Water Company took water from the Thames 
near Chelsea Hospital. They had one reservoir in 
the Green Park, opposite the house since occupied 
by Lord Palmerston, and another in Hyde Park, 
opposite the house since occupied by Lord Beacons- 
field. In 1739-40 their plant and works were broken 
up by frost. They were the first company to intro- 
duce filtering, and in 1829 they had filtering beds at 
Thames Bank. During the early part of the cen- 
tury they were under no obligation to supply water, 
and had no restriction as to charge." 

N. S. S. 

BURY. At St. Gregory's Church, Sudbury, 
Suffolk, in a nook in the wall of the vestry, 
is preserved the reputed skull of Simon Theo- 
bald, Archbishop of Canterbury. It is said 
that the headless body is buried at Canter- 
bury, and tradition states that upon examina- 
tion of the remains, a cannon-ball was found 
in place of the head. Beneath the skull at 
St. Gregory's, upon the door of the cupboard 
containing it, is nailed a parchment (now 
becoming rather ragged) having the following 
inscription in old English characters : 

" The head of Simon Theobald, who was born at 
Sudbury, and thence called Simon of Sudbury. He 
was sent when but a youth into foreign parts to 
study the Civil Law. Whereof he was made Doctor. 
He visited most of the Universities of France, and 
was made Chaplain to Pope Innocent, and Auditor 
Rota or Judge of the Roman Court. By the interest 
of this Pope he was made Chancellor of Salisbury. 
In the year 1361 he was consecrated Bishop of 
London, and in the year 1375 was translated to the 
see of Canterbury, and made Chancellor of England. 
While he was Bishop of London he built the upper 
part of St. Gregory's in Sudbury; and where his 
lather's house stood he erected a College of Secular 
Priests, and endowed it with the yearly Revenue 
of One Hundred Twenty-two Pounds Eighteen 
Shillings. And was at length barbarously be- 
headed upon Tower Hill in London, by the Rabble 
in Wat Tyler's Rebellion in the Reign of Richard II., 

The gateway of the college referred to still 
exists in good preservation. St. Gregory's 

Church also possesses a magnificent specimen 
of tabernacle work in its font cover, about 
twelve feet in height. THOMAS ELLISTON. 

' OLD ST. PAUL'S.' I have heard that this 
romance by W. Harrison Ainsworth was 
originally issued weekly in the columns of 
the Sunday Times about 1841, and that for it 
the author received 1,000/. Are these facts ? 
Soon afterwards it was published in book 
form, i. e., three volumes, and illustrated by 
Franklin with some most weird engrav- 
ings in a kind of chiaroscuro style. They 
certainly add very considerably to the horrors 
of the story. Ainsworth, who had been edu- 
cated at the Manchester Grammar School, 
presented a complete set of his novels, twenty- 
seven in number, to the Chetham College 
Library, and in the librarian's room is a fine 
full-length portrait of him in oils, when in 
the prime of manhood. My friend the late 
Mr. James Crossley, an old contributor to the 
columns of * N. & Q.,' told me that the novelist 
was at one time " the handsomest man in 
London next to Count D'Orsay," and the 
portrait quite bears out his remark. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

MURAL TABLET. In the church dedicated 
to St. Martin, just outside the village of 
Cheriton, near Sandgate, there is a mural 
tablet to the memory of one Joan Brodnax 
who died in 1592, aged thirty-nine, leaving a 
family of eightsons and sixdaughters ending 
with these curious lines : 

Lyve well and dye never, 

Dyee well and ly ve ever. 


RUTABAGA. This is the name (put into that 
form, I believe, by De Candolle) of the Swedish 
turnip, usually considered to be a variety of 
Brassica campeslris. The 'Encyclopaedic 
Dictionary' says that its etymology is un- 
certain ; but I presume there is no room for 
doubt that (as stated in the * American Cyclo- 
paedia') the word is derived from Swedish 
rota, a root, and bagge, a ram, so that it means 
ram-root. W. T. LYNN. 


loyalty to the memory of our first Editor, the 
late Mr. Thorns, plead for the insertion of 
this note. Andrew Willet, in his 'Hexapla 
in Genesin,' Cambridge, 1605, p. 66, writes : 

" I haue seene my selfe an old man of 124 years of 

je, at Euersden in the countie of Bedford, who 

died about ann. 1600. or, 1601. he could remember 

Bosworth field at the comming in of Henrie the 7. 

beeing then as he affirmed some 15. yearea old." 

9 th S. III. MAH 



One Ivan Yorath was buried at Llanmaes, 
( rlamorgan, 14 July, 1621, who was reputed 
t ) be "circa 180," and claimed to have fought 
at Bosworth ('N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. iv. 370). How 
strange that so many centenarians connect 
t icmselves with battles ! This note from 
an out-of-the-way source may interest some 
Cambridge reader, who may perhaps tell us 
more about this ancient Eversden worthy. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

" GANCANAGH." This is said to be the name 
of a kind of fairy appearing in lonesome 
valleys and making love to milkmaids. The 
word is said to represent Irish gean-cdnadh, 
love-singing. Is this the true derivation 1 Is 
the word known to be in use in any part of 
Ireland among English-speaking people ? 


" GAMBALEERY." In Robert Anderson's 
'Cumberland Ballads' (ed. 1808), p. 132, 1 find 
the following : 

I 'd wear neyce wheyte cottinet stockins, 
And new gambaleery clean shoes. 

Can any one tell me what is the meaning of 
"gambaleery" in this passage ? Does it mean 
a peculiar kind of leather 1 


STRONG'S BLUFF. A headland above 
Savannah bears that name. Is it called 
after the family of Strong who were settled 
in Massachusetts, some of the members of 
which suffered severely as Loyalists during 
the American war of liberation? Do any 
descendants or representatives of this family 
| survive, arid where are they now settled 1 
Information will greatly oblige. H. T. S. 

TRINITY WINDOWS. I asked recently (ante, 
p. 28) how many of these there are known to 
be in England, and have received no answer. 
As I have special reason for wishing to know, 
I shall be greatly obliged if any corre- 
spondent can tell me or put me in the way 
of obtaining information. E. B. 

" GALINGALL."- In that repertory of quaint 
things, ' A Dictionary, Spanish and English,' 
by H. S. Joseph Giral Delpino, London, 1763, 
you will find " Acoro, the plant we call 


English galingall." What is the history of 
the name galingall? In Seoane's 'Spanish- 
English Dictionary,' based on Neuman and 
Baretti, there is " Ac6ro, sm. (bot.), sweet- 
smelling flag, sweet cane, sweet grass. 
Acorus calamus, L." About this some of your 
correspondents have been writing lately. 


[A full history of this word, too long to be quoted, 
is given in the ' H.E.D.'] 

CHARADE. The following charade by 
C. S. O. appeared in the Academy, 31 Decem- 
ber, 1898. I should like to know the answer: 
My first is followed by a bird, 
My second 's met by plasters, 
My whole's more shunned, but less absurd 

Than prigs or poetasters ; 
'Tis also a symbolic word 
For architects' disasters. 

2, Canonbury Mansions, N. 

ton, of Manor Elieston (will dated 1 May, 
1662), had issue by his second wife, Lady (?) 
Beatrix Campbell, two sons Claud, ancestor 
of the Hamiltons of Woodbrook, baronets ; 
and Archibald, for particulars concerning 
whom I shall be greatly obliged. 


Dundrum, co. Down. 

"MAIDEN SPEECH." When was this term 
first applied to the earliest oratorical effort of 
a member of Parliament 1 I find a suggestion 
of it in a letter of 4 January, 1705/6, from Sir 
Gilbert Dolben to Governor Pitt, then in 
India : 

"I am glad to observe Mr. [Robert] Pitt's dili- 
gence and integrity in Parliament He already 

attempts to speak where it is proper, and will 
succeed very well as soon as he shall have overcome 
the maiden modesty of a new member." ' The 
Grenville MSS.,' vol. i. p. 17. 


FAMILY OF BURDEN. Can any one give 
me details about the family of Burden, as to 
place of origin 1 I wish particularly to form 
a pedigree (from 1650 to 1750) of a part of the 
family settled in or near Wilts, I believe, about 
the dates mentioned. T. A. J. PILE. 

Fletching, Sussex. 

so I am informed, living on the Durham side 
of the Tyne, used (some fifty years ago or 
less) to recite, in perfect seriousness, the fol- 
lowing grace before meat : " For what we are 
about to receive the Duke of Northumber- 
land's nowt to do wi' it." My informant 
suggests that, living in Durham, he would be 
without the jurisdiction of the duke of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 s. m. MA*, n, m 

neighbouring county. Can your correspond- 
ents throw any further light on this curious 
saying? FRED. G. ACKERLEY. 

Mayfield Road, Eccles. 

INNES = DE INSULA. When at the British 
Museum the other day, I noticed the thir- 
teenth-century seal inscribed "S'. Gvill'i. Dili. 
Gregorii d'I'sula," which was described on 
the label as that of William, son of Lord 
Gregory de Insula, or Innes. One of the 
Museum assistants chancing to be at the 
case, I asked him on what ground de Insula 
Avas interpreted into Innes, and was informed 
that the two words were synonymous, or, in 
other words, Innes was the Scottish for an 
island. There is, I suppose, a relation between 
Innes, Inches, and Ings ; but I should like to 
know more of the etymology and topography 
of Innes. JAMES DALLAS. 

SHARPE FAMILY. I should be very glad if 
any of your readers could furnish me with 
information on certain points relative to 
the family of Sharpe. In the * Dictionary of 
National Biography ' Dr. Samuel Sharpe, the 
celebrated physician of last century, is de- 
scribed as the son of Henry Sharpe, of 
Jamaica. I should be pleased to learn, in con- 
nexion with the latter, (1) what was his occu- 
pation or profession in America ; (2) whether 
ne was connected with a William Sharpe, 
Governor of Barbados in 1706 ; (3) at what 
period his family migrated to the West Indies, 
and to what branch of the Sharpe family at 
present existing it belonged. 


1 La Liturgie ' of Theoph. Abauzit, the aver- 
tissement of which is dated 1811 (the edition 
under consideration, however, being that of 
1834), places the supplication for forgiveness 
for "our enemies, persecutors, and slan- 
derers " before that for _ " mercy upon all 
men." The English version in use at the 
present day reverses this order. Does the 
French version follow the form of an old 
English version ; and, if so, what was the date 
of the change ; or is this sequence peculiar to 
the French version 1 There are many verbal 
quaintnesses in the volume, one of which is 
the petition for the preservation of Adelaide, 
" notre Seine debonnaire." 


There is a curious error in chap, iii., which has 
apparently never been corrected until the 
appearance of the "Border Edition," edited 
by Mr. Andrew Lang. The author, in speak- 
ing of Dominie Sampson's voice, says that 

Mannering "was a good deal diverted with 
the harsh timber tones which issued from 
him." So it stands in the forty-eight-volume 
edition of the Waverley Novels, 1860, and in 
the "Handy-Volume Edition," published by 
Messrs. Bradbury, Agnew & Co. Mr. Lang's 
edition reads " the harsh timbre tones," &c., 
which would seem to be correct. What are 
" timber tones " 1 We know of a wooden leg, 
and figuratively of a wooden head, and 
perhaps of a wooden manner ; but what is 
a wooden voice 1 ? " Harsh - timbre," with a 
hyphen, as Mr. Lang prints it, makes the 
passage quite clear. Is it " harsh- timbre " in 
any edition other than the " Border " 1 


DRIVING CUSTOM. What is the origin of 
the custom among coaching men (amateur 
and professional), when driving four-in-hand 
or tandem, of lifting their hat to a chimney- 
sweep if they happen to meet one on the 
road 1 JEHU. 

" WHAT ALL."" There were people to be 
bought, mules to be hired, and I don't know 
what all " (' Across the World for a Wife,' by 
Guy Boothby, 1898, p. 211). Can the use of 
" all " for else be defended 1 


RED CASSOCKS. Can any reader inform me | 
what authority there is for stating that 
choirs of churches in the gift of the Crown 
should wear scarlet cassocks 1 Is there any ? 


your readers inform me in what publication 
this appeared 1 B. H. WHITELOCKE. 


MASS^NA. In the celebrated roll of honour 
of Jews given in Disraeli's 'Coningsby' 
the name of Marshal Massena ^is included. 
Nothing is said concerning Massena's Jewish 
origin in his 'Memoires,' edited by Koch, i 
in Marbot's 'Memoires,' nor in Tosseli's 
'Notice Biographique,' these being the only 
original biographical sources I found in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale. Can any reader give 
an authority for the statement of Disraeli 1 


MAJOR-GENERAL WARE. I should be grate- 
ful for information regarding Major-General 
Ware, who was killed at the battle of Laswari 
(1803). Beyond the statements contained in 
Thorn's narrative I find no record of this 
officer's services. HUGH PEARSE, Major. 

Inkerman Barracks, Woking. 

Rev. Isaac Nicholson, of Lady Huntingdon's 

iii.MAK.ii,'99.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Connexion and Mulberry Gardens Chapel 
Eatcliffe Highway, London, published 
number of theological works ^between 179"J 
and 1832, was accorded a public funeral, and 
buried in Bunhill Fields Chapel close to John 
Bunyan. A portion, at any rate, of the funds 
constituting the Nicholson Charity* accrued 
through this branch of the family, and full 
particulars of its origination are very desir- 
able in the interests of all poor Nicholsons, 
as it would seem to have been started under 
a scheme of the Court of Chancery for dealing 
with certain unclaimed moneys in the family, 
pending discovery of the rightful owners. 
The Rev. Mr. Nicholson was probably of the 
Cumberland stock, and he or his descendants 
were connected with the Brocklebanks of 
Liverpool inter alia. 

An English newspaper t paragraph, pub- 
lished in 1895, gives an account of one Peter 
Nicholson who settled himself on the centre 
of an island in Georgia, U.S.A., and while 
reputedly wealthy was of most miserly habits. 
One day a friend surprised him in the act 
of bending over a heap of gold which filled 
Nicholson's rude table, and consisted of 10 
and 20 dollar pieces, besides many "slugs," 
or octagonal pieces of Californian gold, at 
one time in circulation on the coast, and 
valued at fifty dollars each. After this 
Nicholson kept his cabin under lock and key, 
fortified his door with a spring-gun, and closed 
his window with a heavy shutter. One day 
he died suddenly, and although every foot of 
ground on his small estate was subsequently 
turned over times without number, the trea- 
sure had not been found. A professor of geo- 
logy searched foritin March, 1895, and another 
subsequently prepared to do so. 


Adelaide, South Australia. 

haps some of your readers can inform me as 
to the whereabouts of an exceedingly scarce, 
if not unique poem written in English by 
the German poet Georg Rudolph Weckherlin 
in 1619. The title runs as follows : 

"A Panegyricke to the most honourable and 
renowned Lord, The Lord Hay : Vicount of Don- 
caster, His Maiesties of Great-Brittaine Ambassa- 
dour in Germanie. Sung by the Rhine, Interpreted 
by George Rodolfe Weckherlin, Secy to his High, of 
Wirtemberg. Printed at Stutgart by John Wyrich 
Rosslin. Anno 1619." 4to. 4 leaves. 
A copy of this work, the only one known to 
exist, was bought by Thorpe the bookseller, 
probably on commission, for 51. 12s. 6d at the 

* Vide <N. & Q.,'5 th S. x. 87; xi. 155; 8 th S. x. 
256, 324. 
t Sheffield Weekly Telegraph, 16 Nov., 1895. 

Bright sale in 1845. It was unknown to 
Conz, who published an elaborate memoir of 
Weckherlin in 1803 : and Prof. Hermann 
Fischer, of Tubingen, has recently edited the 
poems of this celebrated man without this 
desideratum, notwithstanding his many en- 
deavours and researches to discover it. 

W. B. RYE, Jun. 

(9 th S. ii. 88, 254, 314 ; iii. 74.) 
THE information given in Le Neve's 
'Knights' (Harl. Soc. vol. viiL), and re- 
produced therefrom (without stating its 
source), is indeed (as stated) "meagre," 
being, in fact, but a continuation of a by 
no means meagre pedigree of the family 
recorded, 8 Sept., 1692, in the Visitation of 
London, 1687-92. At that date both Sir 
Thomas and his elder brother, John Cooke 
(six of whose children by Catherine, his 
wife, are there set out), were living at 
Hackney. This pedigree gives the names of 
their parents and grandparents in full (with 
numerous descendants), as also that of their 
great-grandfather, John Cooke, of Greeting, 
co. Norfolk. In it Sir Thomas sets forth 
twelve children of his own, viz. (1) Thomas, 
dead (2) Elizabeth, married Josiah Child ; 
(3) Tnomas, dead ; (4) Ann, dead ; (5) John, 
first surviving son ; (6) Mary, dead ; (7) Jane ; 
(8) Ann; (9) Katherine ; (10) Mary, dead; 
(11) Thomas, dead ; (12) Josiah, second son 
living. The Hackney registers give the 
baptisms of Mary, 3 Aug., 1682 ; of Jane, 
2 May, 16*84 ; of Anne, 11 June, 1685 ; of 
Katherine, 23 Aug., 1686; of Mary (the 
second), 3 Nov., 1687 ; of Thomas, 1 Jan., 
1690/1 ; of Josiah (doubtless so named after 
tiis brother-in-law, Josiah Child), 31 Jan., 
1691/2, as also of Hannah (who, of course, is 
not in the pedigree of 1692), 6 Nov., 1695 ; 
also the burials of " Mrs. Mary Cooke, a 
child," 22 March, 1685/6; of "Mrs. Mary 

boke, an infant," 21 Nov., 1687, and of 

Mr. Thomas Cooke, an infant," 21 Jan., 
1690/1 ; also the marriage above mentioned 
of "Josiah Child, of Wansted, co. Essex, 
Esq.," with Elizabeth Cooke, 10 March, 1690/1 ; 
the burial of the said Josiah, as " Sir Josia 

hild," 4 Feb., 1703/4, that of "Jo. Chad wick, 
Esq., in the chancel" (probably the second 
lusband of the said Elizabeth), 8 Dec., 1713, 
and, finally, that of "Dame Elizabeth Child, 
widow," 26 Jan., 1740/1. It should be 
mentioned that Sir Thomas was an alderman 

f London (Queenhithe), and Sheriff, 1692-3, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. in. MAR. n, m 

the year in which he is stated (9 th S. ii. 88) to 
have been High Sheriff of Essex. In the list of 
these sheriffs given in Berry's 'Essex ' his name 
does not appear, though in (1691) 3 Will. III. 
that of "John Cooke, Esq.," is given. Sir 
Thomas was lord of the manor of Lordshold, 
the principal manor in Hackney, as also of 
that of East Barnet, Herts. The Hackney 
property he sold, in 1697, to Francis Tyssen. 
According to Le Neve's obituary he died at 
" Ebsham " (qy. Epsom or possibly Egham 1 ), 
in Surrey, 6 or 7 Sept., 1709. His will, dated 
6 Sept., and proved 4 Nov., 1709, by his widow 
Elizabeth, in the C.P.C. (240 Lane), would 
throw light on the then state of his family, 
and would (or at all events the probate act 
thereto would) show his residence at the 
time of his death. Perhaps some of your 
readers will kindly give an abstract thereof 
in your columns. The pedigree of his wife, 
a daughter of William Horne, of Eide, co. 
Devon, is given in V. L. Oliver's 'Antigua.' 
Sir Thomas Cooke's son and heir John Cooke 
was living 1720, when he sold the manor of 
East Barnet to the Duke of Chandos. 

G. E. C. 

" ACREWARE ": " MOLLOND " (9 th S. iii. 85). 
There is no A.-S. wara. The word meant is 
warn, which means "protection" of others, 
in the active sense, and cannot possibly have 
the extraordinarily comprehensive sense of 
" self-protection against payment." 

We want more examples. In 1292 the final 
-e might mean the French -ef, and the word 
might really be ware, which is a true Norman 
form, pp. of warer, O.F. garer, to till, also to lay 
fallow. Cotgrave has " terre gare'e, old fallow 

Mollond may be for mold-land, from A.-S. 
molde, earth ; mod. E. mould. Perhaps it 
meant arable land. 

Molmen may be for mold-men, lit. " tillers 
of the soil." 

Stude-work is " stud-work," work done with 
a set of horses ; from A.-S. stod, a stud. 

Warectum is Latinized from O.F. waret, 
garet, gueret in Cotgrave, explained by him 
as meaning "fallow ground, land well 
manured, tilled ; fitted and prepared for 
seed." Godefroy explains garet simply as 
"labour." Hence the verb wareter, gareter, 
guereter, "to lay fallow, manure, till"; whence 
Late L. warectare. I suppose it once meant 
land well cared for, from A.-S. warn, pro- 
tection, care, heed. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

"MUTUS DEBIT NOMEN COCIS" (9 th S. ii. 388). 

Vide 'Mathematical Kecreations and Pro- 
blems,' by W. W. Rouse Ball, Trinity College, 

Cambridge, third edition, Macmillan, 1896. 
Mr. Rouse Ball refers (p. 120) to Bachet's 
'Problemes Plaisans et Delectables,' second 
edition, 1624. On reference to Bachet, 
however, I find that he does the trick by 
means of numbers, and not by a form of 
words. Mr. Rouse Ball also gives the for- 
mula "Lanata levete livini novoto" for 
twenty-four cards arranged in eight trios. 
The ' Testament de Jerdme Sharp,' Paris, 1793, 
gives in vol. iii. chap. ii. sec. 14 ("Deviner 
la Pensee d'autrui, par un ancien moyen 
nouvellement perfectionne "), the following 
formula for thirty cards in fifteen couples, 
"Misai tatlo hemoh vesul," with the figures 
1-5 (repeated twice). C. S. HARRIS. 

367,397,449,475,537). M. Piganiol clela Force, 
' Nouvelle Description de la France,' second 
edition (Paris, Delaulne), 1722, tome iv. vol. v. 
p. 495: 

" Sur la montagne qui couvre a POccident la ville 
de Bar [Bar-sur-Seine], et a un quart de lieue de ses 
murs, il y a un bois appell^ la Garenne des Comtes, 
dans lequel on mpntre un vieux chdne, ou la tradi- 
tion veut qu'on ait trouv6 une image de la Vierge 
que Ton y reveVe, et qui y attire un grand concours 
de peuple des environs. On y a bati depuis quarante- 
cinq ans une Chapelle des offrandes des pelerins et 
des habitans de Bar. Cette image est de la hauteur 
de la main, d'un bois inconnu, et represente une 
Notre Dame de Pitie." 

There is a Notre Dame du Chene, with a 
similar history, on the altar of the Lady 
Chapel in the church of my native village, 
Chateauneuf, Pouilly-en-Auxpis, Cote d'Or. 
She is reputed as a rain-bririger, and was 
described to me as black, but I found her to 
be a mere putty-faced, dressed-up doll, in a 
glass-fronted case, like some stuffed canary or 
puppy-dog. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

Tower House, New Hampton. 

The much venerated image of Our Lady of 
Loreto should not be forgotten. The natural 
tendency of timber is to darken with age, and 
the smoke of many tapers facilitates the 
process. ST. SWITHIN. 

PEAS, PEASE, AND PEASEN (9 th S. iii. 25, 95). 
There is no difficulty about the precise 
etymology of pease. It represents O.E. piose, 
which was a direct borrowing from Lat. 
pisum. The plural form " peasen " is repre- 
sentative of the O.E. piosan (a plural of the 
weak declension). The phonology is perfectly 
regular. The O.E. diphthong io is regularly 
represented by modern English ea. For 
example, compare O.E. hlionian and lean 
(vb.), cliofian and cleave (vb.), cliopian and 
clepe (also cleap). On the other hand, it is 

g* s. in. MAR. n, 



i npossible that " pease " can represent Anglo- 
^ 'rench peis. For A.F. peis would have given 
? n English form rhyming with " plaice." For 
( xample, compare A.F. fei and " fay," A.F 
'jreie and "prey," A.F. veile and "veil." I 
< an find no instance of A.F. ei being repre- 
sented by ea in modern English. Again, 
.L.F. peis could not become pease in English 
en account of the z sound. French final s 
i etains the s sound in English ; compare Fr. 
tas and "case," Fr. pas and " pace." 


RIME TO "MONTH" (9 th S. iii. 104). All 
three instances have been given in ' N. & Q.' 
many years ago, in a set of communications 
(begun by myself) which will be found in 
3 rd S. viii., ix., under the head of ' Rhymes, 
uncommon.' W. C. B. 

SHIRE (9 th S. ii. 367, 492 ; iii. 32). Anent the 
above, the Exeter Evening Post (17 February) 
records the following recent instance of 
giving money by measure in Gloucester- 
shire : 

"A novel offertory towards the restoratkni of the 
parish church of Bishops Cleeve, near Cheltenham, 
has been handed to the vicar by Mr. Griffiths, one 
of the churchwardens. It consisted of a soda-water 
bottle filled with threepenny-bits, which had been 
collected by a Chepstow lady. There were alto- 
gether 638 pieces of silver or 11. 10s. Qd. in the 

Probably few readers have seen so many 
threepenny-bits as these together at one 
time. But when in the Transvaal last 
summer, where threepence (" a tickey ") is the 
smallest current coin, I handled more three- 
penny pieces in an ordinary day's experience 
than it has fallen to my lot to see in a year 
at home. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

Perhaps this idea may have originated 
from the 'Arabian Nights.' We read in the 
well-known story of ' Ali Baba ; or, the Forty 
Thieves,' how Ali Baba measured the gold 
looted from the robbers' den in a peck 
measure lent by his brother Cassim. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

CLOUGH, CLEUGH, OR CLIFFE (9 th S. iii. 90). 
-The pronunciation of ough, as Mr. Pickwick 
said of the word politic, comprises in itself a 
study of no inconsiderable magnitude. I 
know several families named Clough, and 
they all pronounce the name Cluff. Planche's 
verses on the name Houghton are well 
known. Houghton - on - the - Hill is known 
locally as ZToton ; the Houghton from which 

Lord Houghton took his title is Howton ; 
and I know two families named Houghton, in 
a small town in Derbyshire, who call them- 
selves respectively Hooion and Huff ton. 
The word enough, again, usually pronounced 
enuff, becomes in our dialects enew and eniff, 
the latter being, I think, peculiar to the 
North. C. C. B. 


On the north side of Manchester are two 
valleys which, in spite of the smoky foliage of 
the trees and the inky blackness of the mal- 
odorous streams, bear some traces of the time 
when they were beautiful. They are known 
around, among the well-to-do classes at any 
rate, as Prestwich and Mere Kluff to spell 
the last name as it is pronounced. 


EPITAPHS (9 th S. ii. 306, 536; iii. 53). In 'A 
Collection of Epitaphs,' &c. (1806, ii. 225), the 
following is given as from the "parish of White 
Ladies, near Southampton, and at Stoke, 
near Guildford " : 

This world is full of crooked streets ; 
Death is a place where all men meets : 
If life were sold, that men could buy, 
The rich would live, the poor must die. 

Mr. E. R. Suffling, at p. 95 of his 'History 
and Legends of the Broad District,' prints 
similar verses on Sarah Bayfield, who died 
in 1719, from St. Peter's Mancroft Church, 
Norwich, "remarkably like some," says he, 
" in John Gay's ' Beggar's Opera.' As, how- 
ever, the monumental lines were written 
before Gay was born, they could not have 
been cribbed from him, but he may have 
appropriated them" But I find nothing 
resembling them in the ' Beggar's Opera,' and 
the writer is wofully ignorant about Gay, 
who was thirty-four years old in 1719. 

The above-cited collection (ii. 186) contains 
m epitaph " composed by a gentleman for 
limself," almost literally identical with that 
quoted by J. T. F. at the first reference, and 
laving the following addition (which itself is 
;iven, i. 83, as the entire epitaph, " in Barton- 
Stacey Churchyard. Hants, on Mr. John 

Where'er I liv'd or dy'd, it matters not, 
To whom related, or by whom begot : 
I was, now am not ; ask no more of me, 
'Tis all I am, and all that you shall be. 

A curious variant, dated 1755, of this valedic- 
tory epitaph, Mr. Suffling tells us (I.e. p. 94) is 
'n Cromer Churchyard : 

Farewell, vain world, 

I 've seen enough of thee, 
And careless I am what you 

Can say or do to me. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. m. MAR. i v 


I fear no threats from 

An infernal crew. 
My day is past, and I bid 

The world adieu. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

Two variants of this epitaph appear in 
Mr. Briscoe's 'Gleanings from God's Acre.' 
One is from Kensington from the grave of 
Mr. Thomas Wright, who died 12 March, 1776, 
aged sixty-seven : 

Farewell, vain world ! I 've had enough of thee, 

I value not what thou can'st say of me ; 

Thy smiles I value not, nor frowns don't fear, 

All 's one to me, my head is quiet here ; 

What faults you Ve seen in me, take care to shun, 

Go home, and see there 's something to be done. 

Another version is from Hewelsfield, near 
St. Briavels : 

Farewell, vain world, I know enough of thee, 
I value not what thou can'st say of me ; 
Thy smiles I court not, nor thy frowns I fear ; 
All 's one to me, my head lies quiet here : 
What thou see'st amiss in me take care to shun ; 
Look well at home, there 's something to be done. 
Jonna Edwards, 
of Harthill Court. 
Died November 14 th , 1838. 

Other variants appear at Preston, in 
Lancashire, and Kinoulton, Notts. 

S. J. KIRK. 
Reference Library, Nottingham. 

The following lines occur in the ' Two Noble 
Kinsmen,' at the end of Act I. sc. v. : 

This world 's a city, full of straying streets, 

And death's the market-place where each one meets. 


507). William Newcombe was married by 
licence to Mary Stonnard at St. Botolph 
Bishopsgate, on 14 April, 1722. Francis 
Stonnard, aged sixty-six, was buried in the 
churchyard of St. Botolph on 13 July, 1726 
George Vincent was married by licence to 
Ann Stonnard, at the same church, on 
26 March, 1717. These particulars, and many 
more relating to the above-named families 
are given in the ' Registers of St. Botolph, 
Bishopsgate,' issued in three volumes to sub- 
scribers only, 1889-93. 


DE FERITATE (9 th S. iii. 47). MR. IRVING 
will find some further information i