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Notes and Queries, Jan. 25, 1902. 


of Cntcitoininuntcatton 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Notes and Queries, Jan. 25, 1902. 








CONTENTS. No. 184. 

NOTES :-Civil List Pensions, 1-Newbury, James's Fow- 
dert, and Goldsmith, 11 - Shakespeariana, 12 -Bishop 
Sherborne, 13- "A bad day and a worse "-"Three acres 
and a cow "-Pall Mall -Japanese Names -Dahlia and 
Fuchsia-Price of Ink in 1288, 14. 

QUERIES " Kentish fire " Goldsmith's Publishers 
Antoine de Lafosse in England "In the days when we 
went gipsying " Redmaynes - Mayors of Newcastle- 
under-Lyme, 15-Cowley's Poems set to Music -Isaac 
Penington the Younger-" Custice "-Lavington in Sussex 
-'King of Spain's Bible' -Breslaw Philpot MSS. 
Mackenzie of Gairloch, 16 Icknield Street, 17. 

REPLIES: St. Clement Danes, 17 "Anyone," "Every- 
one," 18-Sheriff Sir T. Cooke-Neptuoe and Crossing the 
Line' La-di-da, " 19 De Bathe and Holsworthy Families, 
20 Designations of Foreigners in Mexico Gladstone 
Volume Game of Battledore -Funeral Cards -" Rabbat- 
ing " 21 Bell Inscription Scottish University Graduates 
Verbs formed out of Proper Names" Toucan," 22 
Knifeboard St. George and the Dragon, 23 Hogarth s 
House Blue Beard, 24 " Parlour "Glasgow Univer- 
sity 25" Collate "Malt and Hop Substitutes Authors 
Wanted, 26. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Memorials of the Duttons of 
Dutton 'Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


ON the 16th of May, by an Order 
of the House of Commons, a Return was 
printed of "Persons now in receipt of 
Pensions charged on the Civil List of Her 
late Majesty under the Act 1 Viet., c. 2, s. 5." 
On looking over this publication I felt what 
an interesting permanent record it would be 
if we could place it in the pages of " dear olc 
'N. & Q.,'" and with the Editor's cordial 
approval I wrote to the printers, Messrs 
Eyre & Spottiswoode, asking them for per 
mission to reprint it. Their reply was thai 
the copyright did not rest with them, bul 
they courteously suggested that I should place 
my request before the Controller of His 
Majesty's Stationery Office, who has kindly 
acceded to my wish upon the understanding 
that " mention is maae of the fact that the 
permission of the Controller of His Majesty' 
Stationery Office has been obtained," and ' 
am now able to place the Return before th 
readers of 'N&Q.' 

The following references to the subject o 
literary pensions have appeared in thes 
columns : 

On the 21st of October, 1854, INDIGNAN 
calls attention to "the pittance of 1,2002 
distributed among some- thirty or fort; 
individuals, all of whom, by the force an 
splendour of their genius have contr 

uted so greatly to advance the prosperity 
nd renown of their country." 

On the 2nd of December, 1854, LIBERAL 
ives the following quotation from Madame 
e Stael : 

" Quelques pensions accord^es aux gens de lettres 
'exerceront jamais beaucoup d'influence sur les 
rais talens. Le g^nie n'en yeut qu'a la gloire, et 

gloire ne jaillit que de 1'opinion publique." 

On the 31st of July, 1858, J, M. H. notes 
hat in the year 1663 Louis XIV. granted 
>ensions to several literary men, and asks 
or a copy of the list. To this CLERICUS (D.) 
eplies on the 21st of August. 

On the 1st of February, 1862, MR. J. W. 
ARYANS proposes the founding of an Order 
)f Merit, to take the name of the " Order of 
he Albert Cross," in memory of the late 
D rince Consort. 

" We have already the ' Victoria Cross ' for deeds 
done in the field ; might we not have the pendant 
;o it, for exploits no less worthy in the peaceful 
paths of science ? " 

On the 1st of February, 1868, appears a 
note, ' The Literary Pension of the Civil List/ 
dgned J. A. G., who suggests that 5,000. per 
annum should be the very minimum sum 
devoted to literary pensions, and leaves it 

in the hands of the Editor and those of his 
ble contributors for an influential and suc- 
cessful advocacy." 

On the 25th of July, 1885, H. Y. P. asks 
'or records of royal bounty funds. 

I have, as will be seen, not given the pen- 
sions in the order of the printed list, but 
have classified them under their respective 
beads. The name of the Prime Minister 
under whose administration the pension was 
granted has also been added. 

One name dear to all lovers of literature, 
that of Sir Robert Peel, appears but once, 
there being now only one recipient among 
the many who received pensions at his hands. 
This survivor is a daughter of the late Sir 
Hudson Lowe, the pension being granted as 
far back as 1845. Of Sir Robert Peel's sym- 
pathy with literary men full mention was 
made by the Athenceum in the obituary notice 
of him which appeared in the number of the 
6th of July, 1850. The grant of 300Z. a year to 
Southey, with an offer of a baronetcy, a like 
sum to Wordsworth, 200. a year to Tenny- 
son, 1501. a year to James Montgomery, 200. 
a year to Mr. Tytler, the same to Mr. 
M'Culloch, 100. a year to the widow of 
Thomas Hood, proved his appreciation of 
literature, while for the sons of Mrs. Hemans 
he found places under the Crown, and 
the first appointment of his first admini- 
stration was given to Allan Cunningham. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 6, 1901. 

He also bestowed pensions on Mrs. Somerville 
and Faraday, and it is pleasing to record that 
a niece of the great chemist, Miss Jane 
Barnard, still enjoys a pension. 

' N. & Q.' of the 8th of May, 1852, opens 
with a note by the Editor on Sir Robert Peel, 
and his claims to be remembered by the 
literary men of England. Mention is made 
of the many literary pensions granted 
during the time he was Prime Minister, as 
well as of his generosity towards Dr. Maginn, 
and it is proposed that a bust or statue of him 
should be placed in the vestibule of the British 

In 1888 an investigation as to the Victorian 
administration of the Pension List, in refer- 
ence to literature, was conducted for the com- 
mittee of the Incorporated Society of Authors 
by Mr. William Morris Colles, and the result 
published. Mr. Colles proposes that 
"the sum of 1,2002. be yearly voted for the purpose 
of assisting distinguished men and women of letters, 
art, and science by granting pensions when they 
have arrived at the age of fifty-five or are incapaci- 
tated from work by ill health, mental or bodily, 
and their widows or daughters if they are in dis- 
tressed circumstances." 


1851, October 10th (Lord John Russell). 

"In consideration of Dr. Reid's valuable 
contributions to literature, 'and of the dis- 
tressed condition in which his widow and 
children are placed by his decease.' 501." 

Mrs. Reid is the widow of James Seaton 
Reid, D.D. (1798-1851), Church historian, 
author of 'History of the Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland,' the third volume of 
which was completed by Prof. Killen, of 
Belfast (' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
vol. xlvii. p. 429). 

1856, November 10th (Lord Palmerston). 

"In consideration of his literary merits. 

Born at Nottingham, 22nd of April, 1816. 
Author of 'Festus,' published in 1839. He 
was included in the honorary LL.D.s at the 
recent celebration at Glasgow University. 

Mr. Theodore Watts in the Athenaeum for 
April 1st, 1876, writes that 
"there is, in fact, both here and in America, a 
large section of the public, both cultivated and 
uncultivated, which free from the bonds of Cal- 
vinism on the one hand, and from hedonic nescience 
and art-worship on the other feels a warm and 
passionate sympathy with Mr. Bailey's poem and 
the uniyersalism it teaches. And this sympathy 
in religious circles, at least is, as a matter of fact, 
widening. It might almost be said, indeed, that 

Christianity can never even in the highest develop- 
ment possible to it get beyond the loving univer- 
salism of such opposite poets as Bailey and Burns. 

Had not 'Festus' been itself preceded (by 

something like four years) by Mr. Browning's 
'Paracelsus,' and not followed by it, the in- 
fluence of Bailey would, through Dobell, have 
been so great upon our youngest school that 
his place in the history of nineteenth-century 
poetry would have been more important than it 
even is now. Yet, in the study of English poetry, 

and the influence of these upon most subsequent 

1858, February 15th (Lord Palmerston). 

" In consideration of his contributions to 
literature. 501." 
1861, April 19th (Lord Palmerston). Second grant. 

" In consideration of his literary merit. 

A poet of the middle of the century. 

1858, October 4th (Earl of Derby). 

" In consideration of the literary merits of 
her husband, the late William Henry Bart- 
lett. 75Z." 

William Henry Bartlett (1809-54), author 
of ' Walks about Jerusalem,' ' Forty Days in 
the Desert,' 'The Nile Boat,' 'The Pilgrim 
Fathers.' He edited Sharpens London Maga- 
zine from March, 1849, to June, 1852 (' D.N.B.,' 
vol. iii. p. 335). 

1861, April 19th (Lord Palmerston). 

" In consideration of the literary merit of 
her father, the late Mr. Douglas Jerrold. 501" 

Douglas William Jerrold (1803-57). His 
first article in Punch, signed Q., appeared in 
the second number, September 13th, 1841, 
and he was a constant contributor until ten 
days before his death. From 1852 he was 
editor of Lloyd's Newspaper at a salary of 
1,0001. a year. He contributed three columns 
of leaders each week as well as literary 
reviews. He was also an early contributor 
to the Athenaeum. For a list of his works, 
&c., see ' D.N.B.,' vol. xxix. pp. 349-52. 

1863, June 18th (Lord Palmerston). 

"As to a lyric poet, sprung from the 
people. 70/." 
1887, April 1st (Marquis of Salisbury). Second grant. 

"In consideration of his literary merit, 
and of the smallness of his means of sup- 
port. 30Z." 

Born at Gamble Wharf, near Tring, 


May 29th, 1828. His first book was 'Voices 
of Freedom and Lyrics of Love,' 1851, fol- 
lowed by 'The Ballad of Babe Christabel,' 
1855, 'Craigcrook Castle,' 1856, and many 
others. His last work published is ' My 
Lyrical Life,' 1890. 

1866, December 10th (Earl of Derby). 

"In consideration of the services of her 
father, the late Dr. Craik, as Professor of 
History and English Literature in the 
Queen's College, Belfast. 301." 

George Lime Craik (1798-1866), born at 
Kennoway, Fife. He came to London, and 
became connected with Charles Knight, and 
contributed largely to the publications of 
the Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge; also to the Penny Magazine 
and Penny Cyclopaedia. In 1849 he was 
appointed to the above-mentioned professor- 
ship (' D.N.B.,' vol. xiii. p. 1). 

1870, April 12th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of his literary merits as 
a poet. 100J." 

Born August 18th, 1841 ; died June 10th, 
1901. Obituary notice in Athenaeum, June 15th. 
M.A.P. of same date : ' Robert Buchanan's 
Youth.' The Spectator, June 29th, 1901, 
contains a communication signed W. W., 
stating that "lines from the 'Siren' adorn 
the drawing-room of the beautiful chateau- 
observatory of Abbadia, near Hendaye, now 
belonging to the Institute of France. They 
well express the feelings of the late owner 
when he built the chateau." A translation is 
given. The lines commence 

Oh melancholy waters, softly flow ! 

1877, June 1st (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

"The lineal descendant of the author of 
'Robinson Crusoe.' 75J." 

In the Athenaeum of June 1st, 1895, Mr. 
George A. Aitken gives a list of books from 
the catalogue of Defoe's library. The missing 
catalogue nad been lying all these years in 
the British Museum. 

1877, November 28th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

"In consideration of his contributions to 
literature. 100J." 

Born 1824. Was an Independent minister, 
but retired on account of, his health. His 
first book was a poem, published in 1856, 
'Within and Without'; his long series of 

novels commenced in 1862 with 'David 

1878, June 19th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

" In recognition of the literary services of 
her late husband, Sir Edward Creasy. 150Z." 

Edward Shepherd Creasy, born 1812 ; died 
January 27th, 1878. His 'Biographies of 
Eminent Etonians' appeared in 1850, and his 
' Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World,' 1852 
(' D.N.B.,' vol. xiii. p. 64). 

1880, April 28th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

" In consideration of the literary services of 
her late husband, Mr. William Hepworth 
Dixon. 1001." 

William Hepworth Dixon (1821-79). His 
life of Howard (published 1850) went through 
three editions in one year. From 1853 to 
1869 editor of the Athenceum. It was at his 
suggestion greater facilities were given to 
the public to visit the Tower of London, and 
during his first trip to America he arranged 
for the recovery of the Irish State Papers, 
for which he was offered the honour of 
knighthood (' D.N.B.,' vol. xv. pp. 128-9). 

1881, October 31st (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In recognition of his services in connexion 
with Oriental languages and literature. 50/." 

Born 6 September, 1838; special corre- 
spondent of the Daily Telegraph in the 
Schleswig-Holstein War, 1864 ('Who's Who' 

1881, October 31st (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In consideration of his merit as a poet, 
and of his narrow means of subsistence. 501" 

1882, August 16th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In recognition of his valuable contribu- 
tions to the history of England. 1501 " 

Born March 4th, 1829 ('Who 's Who,' 1901). 

1884, February 9th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In recognition of his services to English 
philology and literature. 1501." 

Born February 4th, 1825 ('Who's Who' 

1884, May 1st (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration, and for the promotion, 
of his valuable services to philology, especially 
in connexion with his work as editor of the 
' New English Dictionary.' 2501." 

Born 1837 (' Who 's Who,' 1901). 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 6, 1901. 

1884, December 18th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
to history by her late brother, Mr. Rawdon 

sTwdon Lubbock Brown, 1803-83 (' D.N.B., 
vol. vii. p. 24). 

1885, August 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the valuable services 
rendered by her husband, the late Mr. E. B. 
Eastwick, C.B., M.P., F.R.S., in connexion 
with Oriental literature. 100J." 

Edward Backhouse Eastwick, 1814-83 
(' D.N.B.,' vol. xvi. pp. 334-5). 

1887, January 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the value of his contri- 
butions to biographical and other literature. 

Born November 3rd, 1823. Edited the Sun, 
1845-70 ; Weekly Register, 1874-81 ; presented 
to the British Museum the last letter of 
Charles Dickens and the first of Edward, 
Lord Lytton (' Who 's Who,' 1901). 

1887, September 27th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the literary attain- 
ments of her late husband, Mr. Richard 
Jefferies, and of her destitute condition. 

Richard Jefferies, 1848-87, author of ' The 
Gamekeeper at Home,' 'The Life of the 
Fields,' and 'The Dewy Morn' ('D.N.B.,' 
vol. xxix. pp. 265-6). 

1888, January 4th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of her merits as an 
author, and of her destitute condition. 501" 

See * English Catalogue,' Sampson Low, 
Marston & Co. 

1888, January 4th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the merits of her late 
husband, Mr. J. C. Hughes, as a Welsh poet, 
and in consideration of her destitute con- 
dition. 50." 

John Ceiriog Hughes, 1832-87 ; born Sep- 
tember 25th, 1832. Between twenty-five and 
thirty thousand copies of his first volume of 
poetry, ' Oriau'r Hwyr' ('Evening Hours'), 
were sold. He also wrote fifty songs for 
Brinley Richards's * Songs of Wales ' (London, 
1873). He was the author of the original 
song for which Brinley Richards wrote the 

tune 'God bless the Prince of Wales' 
(' D.N.B.,' vol. xxviii. pp. 182-3). 

1888, January 4th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the merits of her late 
father, the Rev. W. Barnes, as an author and 
linguist, and on account of her destitute 
condition. 50J." 

Rev. W. Barnes, 1820-86 ; author of 'Poems 
of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect.' 

1888, January 4th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the eminence of her 
late husband, Prof. T. S. Baynes, as an author 
and scholar, and of her destitute condition. 

Thomas Spencer Baynes ; born March 24th, 
1823 ; editor of the ninth edition of the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica'; was assistant 
editor of the Daily News, 1857-64; died 
May 30th, 1887 (' Chambers's Encyclopaedia,' 
vol. i. p. 809). 

1890, January 15th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the services of her late 
father, Mr. Martin F. Tupper, to literature, 
and in consideration of her inadequate means 
of support. 75^." 

1810-89. ' Proverbial Philosophy ' was 
first published in 1838 ('D.N.B.,' vol. Ivii. 
pp. 318-20). 

1891, May 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his services to litera- 
ture, and of his inadequate means of support. 

Born May 17th, 1841 ; author of 'Life of 
Gladstone,' ' Life of John Bright,' and other 
works (' Who's Who,' 1901). 

1892, March 8th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the literary merits of 
her father, the late James Hogg (known as 
the Ettrick Shepherd), and of her inadequate 
means of support. 40." 

Author of " Memorials of James Hogg, the 
Ettrick Shepherd; with preface by Prof. 
Veitch" (Alexander Gardner, 1885). 

1892, June 20th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the eminence of her 
late husband, Prof. Edward Augustus Free- 
man, as an historian. 100?." 

Athenaeum obituary notice, March 19th, 

g*s. vm. JULY 6, loci.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

1892, August 15th {Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of her literary merits, and 
of her inadequate means of support. 50/." 

Born 1830 (Johnston). For works see * Eng- 
lish Catalogue,' Sampson Low, Marston & Co. 

1893, June 19th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" To enable him to continue his researches 
in Welsh literature. 2001" 

1893, June 19th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of the literary merits of 
her husband, the late Mr. Thomas Adolphus 
Trollope, and of her narrow means." 

Thomas Adolphus Trollope, eldest son of 
Frances Milton Trollope, author of 'The 
Widow Barnaby' (1838). Her works reached 
115 volumes, although she published nothing 
until she was fifty-two. Her son Thomas 
Adolphus was born 1810 ; between 1840 and 
1890 he published some sixty volumes ; he 
popularized gossip about Italy ; died 1892 
('D.N.B.,'vol. Ivii.). 

1894, June 19th (Earl of Rosebery). 

" In consideration of his merits as an author 
and journalist. 1001." 

Succeeded John Morley as editor of the 
Fortnightly Review; leader-writer for the 
Standard since 1866. For list of publications 
see ' Who 's Who/ 1901. 

1894, June 19th (Earl of Rosebery). 

"In consideration of her literary merits. 

Poet, novelist, and writer on French rural 
life ('Who's Who,' 1901). 

1894, June 19th (Earl of Rosebery). 

"In consideration of her contributions to 
literature. 501" 

For list of works see * Who 's Who,' 1901. 

1894, June 19th (Earl of Rosebery). 

"In consideration of the literary merits of 
their late father, the Rev. Stephen Hawker. 

Rev. Robert Stephen Hawker ; born Decem- 
ber 3rd, 1803 ; died August 15th, 1875 ( l Cham- 
bers's Biographical Dictionary '). 

1895, January 8th (Earl of Rosebery). 

" In consideration of the literary merits of 
their late brother, Mr. Walter Pater. 1001" 

Walter Pater; born August 4th, 1839; 

1 educated at King's School, Canterbury ; first 
wrote for the Westminster fieview, January, 
1857 ; obituary notice in the Athencewn, 
August 4th, 1894. 

1895, January 26th (Earl of Rosebery). 

" In consideration of the literary merits of 
her late husband, Mr. P. G. Hamerton. 1001" 

Philip Gilbert Hamerton ; born September 
10th, 1834; died November 6th, 1894. See 
' Chambers's Biographical Dictionary.' 

1895, February 26th (Earl of Rosebery). 

"In consideration of the merit of his 
poetical works. 1001" 

Born August 2nd, 1858; first verses ap- 
peared in the Liverpool Argus, 1875 ; collected 
poems published 1898 (' Who 's Who,' 1901). 

1895, May 16th (Earl of Rosebery). 

" In consideration of the literary merits of 
her late husband, Mr. Charles Henry Pearson 

Charles Henry Pearson (1830-94), Colonial 
Minister and historian. He prophesied the 
Yellow Peril (' D.N.B.,' vol. xliv.). 

1897, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the literary eminence 
of the late Mr. Charles Dickens, and of the 
straitened circumstances in which she has 
been left by the death of her husband, Mr. 
Charles Dickens, Jun. 1001." 

4 D.N.B.,' vol. xv. 

1897, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the distinguished 
literary merits of her husband, the late Mr. 
Anthony Trollope, and of her straitened 
circumstances. 1001" 

Anthony Trollope, 1815-82 ('D.N.B.,' 
vol. Ivii. ; ' Autobiography,' 2 vols., published 
1883; and 'What I Remember,' by T. A. 
Trollope, 1887). 

1897, December 15th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the literary eminence 
of the late Mrs. Oliphant. 75Z." 

Margaret Oliphant (ne'e Wilson); born 
1828 ; died at Wimbledon, June 25th, 1897. 
Athenceum, July 3rd, 1897, and 'Chambers'a 
Biographical Dictionary.' 

1898, April 29th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of his literary merits, and 
of his inadequate means of support. 225J." 

Born August 23rd, 1849; editor of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9"s.vm. JULYS, 1901. 

National Observer, 1888-93, the New Review, 
1893-98 ('Chambers's Dictionary' and 'Who s 
Who,' 1901). 

1898, June 9th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of his labours on the 
* Welsh Dictionary,' and of his services to 
Welsh literature generally. lOCtf." 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


"In consideration of the services rendered 
to literature by her late father, Dr. John 
Hill Burton, especially in connexion with the 
history of Scotland. 65Z." 

John Hill Burton, 1809-1881. " His begin- 
nings were humble, and most that he wrote 
cannot now be identified." For a time was 
editor of the Scotsman, and committed that 
journal to the support of free trade (' D.N.B.,' 
vol. viii. pp. 10-12). 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the literary services 
of her late husband, Dr. William Kingsford, 
the Canadian historian. 100?." 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the eminence of her late 
husband, Col. George Bruce Malleson, as an 
Indian and military historian. 100." 

Col. George Bruce Malleson ; born May 8th, 
1825 ; edited Calcutta Review, 1864-9 (' Cham- 
bers's Dictionary '). 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of his literary work, espe- 
cially in connexion with Oriental literature 

1899, August 18th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" As Poet Laureate. 200J." 
Born at Headingley, Leeds, May 30th, 
1835 ('Who's Who,' 1901). 

1900, May 25th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his literary work anc 
of his straitened circumstances. 125Z." 

Born 1839 ; editor of Annual Register. 1870- 
1880 (' Who's Who,' 1901). 

1900, May 25th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his historical writing 
and researches. 50." 

* English Catalogue ' (Sampson Low, Mar 
ston & Co.). 

1901, February 13th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the literary merits of 
ler late husband, Mr. Henry Duff Traill. 752." 

Henry Duff Traill, 1842-1900. For the two 
and a half years previous to his death was 
editor of Literature (Athenaeum, February 
24th, 1900). 


1854, January 3rd (Earl of Aberdeen). 
"Daughter of the late Dr. Macgillivray. 
in consideration of her late father's con- 
tributions to the service of natural history, 
and the destitute condition in which she was 
placed at his decease. SOL" 

William Macgillivray 's (1796-1852) first pub- 
ished note was on the occurrence of a walrus 
on the shore of Lewis in December, 1817 
(' D.N.B.,' vol. xxxiv.). 

1858, February 15th (Lord Palmerston). 


" In consideration of the scientific acquire- 
ments of her father, the late Dr. Paris, the 
benefits he conferred by his addition to the 
knowledge of geology, and of her present 
scanty means. 150Z." 

1858, October 4th (Earl of Derby). 

"In consideration of the valuable con- 
tribution of her late father to the science of 
photography. 50." 

Frederick Scott Archer, 1813-57 ; inventor 
of the collodion process ; first account pub- 
lished in the Chemist, March, 1851 ('D.IST.B.,' 
vol. ii.). 

1860, January 16th (Lord Palmerston). 
Miss CLARINDA LARDNER (sister of Dr. 
Dionysius Lardner). 

"In consideration of her late brother's 
labours in the cause of science, and of her 
scanty means. 125/." 

Dionysius Lardner, 1793-1859 ('D.N.B.,' 
vol. xxxii.). 

1861, April 19th (Lord Palmerston). 

" On account of her husband the late Prof. 
Henfrey's contributions to anatomical and 
physiological botany. 50." 

Arthur Henfrey, 1819-59 ('D.N.B.,' vol. 


1862, June 19th (Lord Palmerston). 

"In consideration of the late Dr. Baly's 
long career in the public service, and of the 

9*s. viii. JULY e, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

merit of the scientific medical works of which 
he was the author. 1001" 

William Baly, M.D., 1814-61 ('D.N.B.,' 
vol. iii.). 

1862, June 19th (Lord Palmerston). 

"In consideration of the eminent services 
of the late Prof. George Wilson, of Edin- 
burgh, as a public teacher and a scientific 
man. 1001" 

George Wilson, 1818-59 ('D.N.B.,' vol. 

1868, February 14th (Earl of Derby). 

9 " Niece of the late Prof. Faraday. In con- 
sideration of the services rendered by him to 
chemical science. 1501" 

Michael Faraday, 1791-1867 ('D.N.B./ 
vol. xviii.). 

1868, March 31st (Benjamin Disraeli). 

" In consideration of the eminent services 
rendered to science by her late husband, Sir 
David Brewster. 2001" 

Sir David Brewster, 1781-1868 ('D.N.B.,' 
vol. vi.). 

1869, April 5th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of the scientific attain- 
ments of her late husband, Mr. John Curtis, 
and of the merit of his works on entomology. 

Author of 'British Entomology,' Lovell 
Reeve, 1862; 'British Beetles,' Bell, 1863; 
'Farm Insects,' Van Voorst, 1883 (Sonnen- 
schein's ' Best Books '). 

1870, April 12th (W. E. Gladstone). 

11 In consideration of the valuable services 

o science rendered by her husband during 

the thirty-three years he held the Savilian 

Professorship of Geometry and Astronomy at 

Oxford. 1501." 

1880, June 19th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
to science by her husband, the late Mr. J. A. 
Broun, F.R.S. 75J." 

1881, February 5th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In recognition of his eminence as a 
naturalist. 200." 

Sonnenschein's ' Best Books.' 

1888, June 13th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the services rendered to 

science by her late husband, Prof. Balfour 
Stewart, and of her destitute condition. 501." 
Balfour Stewart, 1828-87 ('D.N.B.,' vol. 
liv. ). 

1888, February llth (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the service rendered 
to the cause of science by her late husband, 
Mr. R. A. Proctor, B.A., and of her inadequate 
means of support. 1001" 

Richard Anthony Proctor, 1837-88 
('D.N.B.,' vol. xlvi.). 

1888, March 3rd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the eminence of her 
late husband, Prof. F. Guthrie, F.R.S., as a 
physicist, and of her inadequate means of 
support. 501 " 

Frederick Guthrie, 1833-86. In 1870 he 
discovered the remarkable phenomenon of 
"approach caused by vibration" ('D.N.B./ 
vol. xxiii.). 

1890, March llth (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of his services to science, 
and in consideration of his inadequate means 
of support 1501." 

Born 1824, K.C.B. 1897, President Royal 
Society 1900-1 ('Who's Who,' 1901). 

1890, May 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the services of her late 
husband, the Rev. J. G. Wood, to natural 
history, and in consideration of her inade- 
quate means of support. 501." 

Sonnenschein's ' The Best Books.' 

1890, May 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 
" In recognition of their late father's (the 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.R.S.) services to 
botany, and in consideration of their in- 
adequate means of support. SOL" 
Sonnenschein's 'The Best Books.' 

1892, January 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
by her late husband, Dr. Philip Herbert 
Carpenter, F.R.S., to science, and of the sad 
circumstances in which she has been left by 
his death. 1001." 

Rev. Philip Herbert Carpenter, born at 
Bristol 1819. Died at Montreal 24th of May, 



1877. Bought a vast collection of fourteen tons 
of shells in Liverpool for 501., 1855. A full 
report on these occupies 209 pages of the 
British Association Report for 1856 ('Modern 
English Biography,' by F. Boase, 1892). 

1892, January 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his services to chemical 
and physical science. 150/." 

Born* 1826 at Bristol ; entirely self-educated 
after the age of twelve ; elected Fellow of 
the Royal Society, 1865 ; LL.D. of Edinburgh, 
1877 ; chief subjects electro-chemistry, electro- 
metallurgy, and chemistry (' Men and Women 
of the Time '). 

1892, June 20th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
to the spread of scientific knowledge by the 
numerous writings of her husband, the late 
Mr. G. T. Bettany, M.A., and of her destitute 
condition. 501" 

Athenceum, December 5th, 1891 ; Sonnen- 
schein's ' The Best Books.' 

1894, June 19th (Earl of Rosebery). 

" In consideration of his philosophical 
writings and researches. 501" 

1898, April 29th (Marquis of Salisbury). 
Second grant. 50/. 
Sonnenschein's * The Best Books.' 

1894, June 19th (Earl of Rosebery). 


"In consideration of his services to elec- 
trical science. 501." 

1896, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 
Second grant. 501. 

1895, June 18th (Earl of Rosebery). 

"In consideration of his services in the 
promotion of mental and moral science 

Born 1818 at Aberdeen; filled Chair of 
Logic there 1860 to 1881 ('Chambers's Bio- 
graphical Dictionary '). 

1895, August 9th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the eminent services 
of her late husband, the Right Hon. Thomas 
Henry Huxley, to science, literature, and 
education. 200/." 

Thomas Henry Huxley; born May 4th, 1825 ; 
died June 29th, 1895 (Athenceum, July 6th, 

1896, February 6th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of his merits as a mathe- 
matician. 1201." 

1896, March 5th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his work in connexion 
with the theory of electricity. 1201" 

1896, June 9th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services of the 
late Dr. John Russell Hind, F.R.S., Super- 
intendent of the Nautical Almanac Office, to 
the science of astronomy. 70." 

John Russell Hind ; born May 12th, 1823 ; 
studied astronomy from the age of six; 
President of Royal Society, 1880 (' Men of the 
Time '). 

1896, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 


" In recognition of the important services 
rendered by their brother, the late Surgeon- 
Major George Edward Dobson, M.A., F.R.S,, 
to zoological science. 75l." 

George Ed ward Dobson ; born September 
4th, 1844 (' Men of the Time '). 

" In consideration of the literary and scien- 
tific work of her husband, the late Rev. 
William Houghton. 50Z." 

Sonnenschein's * The Best Books.' 

1897, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of his labours in the 
field of ethnology. 501." 

1898, June 9th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his labours as a writer 
upon philosophical subjects. 501." 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the eminent services 
rendered to science by her late husband, Dr. 
Alfred A. Kanthack, Professor of Pathology 
in Cambridge University. 60." 

1899, August 18th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of his philosophical 
writings. 501" 

1900, May 25th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of his services in pro- 
moting the study of mathematics. 401" 



1901, February 13th. 

" In recognition of the self-devotion of her 
late husband, Dr. Robert Cory, who ruined 
his health by a medical experiment made in 
the public interest. WOl" 


1852, September 2nd (Earl of Derby). 

"Wife of Welby Pugin, Esq. In con- 
sideration of her husband's eminence as an 
architect, and the distressed situation in 
which his family are placed, from his 
inability, in consequence of illness, to pursue 
his profession. 1001." 

For Pugin biographies see 'D.N.B.,' vol. xlvii. 

1868, November 17th (Benjamin Disraeli). 

"In consideration of the attainments of 
her late husband, Mr. George H. Thomas, as 
an artist. 100Z." 

George Housman Thomas, 1824-68 
(' D.N.B.,' vol. Ivi.). 

1875, June 19th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
to art by her late husband, John Birnie 
Philip, the sculptor. IQOl." 

John Birnie Philip, 1824-75 ('D.N.B.,' 
vol. xlv.). 

1877, March 10th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

"In recognition of the services rendered 
to art by her husband, the late Mr. Matthew 
Noble, sculptor. 1501" 

Matthew Noble, 1818-76 (' D.N.B.,' vol. xli.). 

1877, June 13th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

" In recognition of the services rendered to 
art by her father, the late Mr. Edmund 
Thomas Parris. 1001" 

vol. xliii.). 

1878, June 19th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

" In recognition of the services of her late 
husband, Mr. Ralph Nicholas Wornum, 
Keeper and Secretary of the National Gal- 
lery, author of various works of art. 100J." 

Ralph N. Wornum, 1812-77 ('D.N.B.,' 
vol. Ixiii.). 

1879, June 19th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

"In recognition of the services rendered 

to art by her late husband, Edward Matthew 
Ward, R.A. 10QZ." 

Edward Matthew Ward, 1816-79, historical 
painter ('D.N.B.,' vol. lix.). 

1880, March 16th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
to art by her father, the late Mr. Kenneth 
MacLeay, a life visitor of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. 1001." 

Kenneth MacLeay the younger, 1802-78. 

1884, December 18th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In consideration of the merit of their 
grandfather, Sir Henry Raeburn, as an artist. 

1885, September 16th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the merits of her 
brother, the late Mr. John Leech, as an artist. 
25/ " 

John Leech, 1817-64 ('D.N.B.,' vol. xxxii.). 
1887, November 29th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

Second grant. 101. 

1892, August 23rd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

Third grant. 35Z. 

1888, January 4th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the eminence of her late 
husband as a miniature painter, and of her 
destitute condition. 25Z.' 

1889, March 5th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services of her 
late husband, the Rev. James Graves, to 
archaeology and to the early history of 
Ireland, and of her inadequate means of 
support. 50Z." 

The Rev. James Graves died on the 20th of 
March, 1886. Short notice by Dr. Creighton, 
Athenceum, March 27th, 1886. 

1889, March 5th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the services of their 
late father, Dr. S. Birch, as an archaeologist, 
and of their destitute condition. 100Z." 

Dr. Samuel Birch, 1813-85 (Athenaeum, 
January 2nd, 1886). 

1889, April 16th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" On account of his personal service to the 
Royal Family, and in consideration of his 
services to art, and of his destitute con- 
dition. 501." 



1890, May 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the labours of her late 
husband, Mr. J. T. Wood, at Ephesus, of his 
services to archaeology, and in consideration 
of her inadequate means of support. 

John Turtle Wood (1821-90) published 
1 Discoveries at Ephesus,' 1877 (Athenaeum, 
April 5th, 1890). 

1891, May 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services of her late 
husband, Mr. James Redfern, sculptor, to art, 
and of her inadequate means of support. 

James Frank Redfern, 1838-76 (Red- 
grave's 'Dictionary of Painters' ; 'D.N.B.,' 
vol. xlvii.). 

1891, June 10th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of his merits as an artist, 
and in consideration of his inadequate means 
of support. 100Z." 

Harrison William Weir, born May 5th, 1824 
(' Men of the Time '). 

1892, November 29th (W. E. Gladstone). 
" In consideration of his merits as a student 
of archaeology. 1001." 

'The Unicorn: a Mythological Investiga- 
tion,' Longman, 1882 (Sonnenschein's 'The 
Best Books '). 

1897, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the originality and merit 
of the work of their father, the late Mr. 
George Mason, in painting. 60Z." 

George Heming Mason, 1818-72 ( 'D.N.B ' 
vol. xxxvi.). 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the merits of her late 




Harry Bates, A.R.A., as a 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his services to wood 
engraving and the art of illustration. 100J." 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 
'* In consideration of the services rendered 
husband Mr - Jose P h 

_A catalogue of books from the library of 
Gleeson White, together with a bibliography, 

and a tribute to his memory by Prof. York 
Powell, of Christ Church, Oxford, with por- 
trait, was published by A. Lionel Isaacs, 1899. 

1899, August 18th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


"In consideration of the merits of their 
late father, Mr. John Hogan, as a sculptor, 
and of their inadequate means of support. 

John Hogan, 1800-1858. A portrait of 
him appeared in the Dublin University Maga- 
zine in 1850 (' D.N.B.,' vol. xxvii.). 

1900, March 13th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the merits of her late 
husband, Mr. Hamilton Macallum, as a 
painter, and of her inadequate means of 
support. 1001" 

'English School of Painting,' by Ernest 
Chesneau (Cassell, 1885). 

1901, February 13th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

In consideration of the eminence of her 
late husband, Mr. Robert Alan Mowbray 
Stevenson, as an art critic. IOOL" 

Robert Alan Mowbray Stevenson (1847- 
1900), cousin of Robert Louis Stevenson. 
His great work was a monograph on the art 
of Velasquez (Athenaeum, April 21st, 1900). 


1854, January 3rd (Earl of Aberdeen). 

Daughter of the late James Kenney, Esq. 
In consideration of his literary talent. 40." 
James Kenney (1780-1849), dramatist, was 
born in Ireland. He was a frequent guest 
at Samuel Rogers's breakfasts, and in 1822 
he entertained Charles Lamb and his sister 
at Versailles. He was the author of ' Sweet- 
hearts and Wives.' He married Louisa, 

daughter of Louis Sebastian Mercier, the 

the pension 
the daughter 

French critic, and received 
which is now continued to 
('D.N.B.,' vol. xxxi. p. 8). 

1890, May 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services of her 
late husband, Mr. Edward L. Blanchard, to 
dramatic literature, of her own work with 
regard to colonial emigration, and of her 
inadequate means of support. 501." 

Edward Laman Blanchard, 1820-89 (Athe- 
nceum, September 7th, 1889). 

(To be continued.) 

. viii. JULY 6, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



BKOWSING around the "no man's land "of 
mv library, I have found a curious document 
which should, I think, be deposited in the 
British Museum or in the library of some biblio- 
phile who makes a speciality of the Newbery 
publications or of Goldsmith, but which 
should first be noted in the encyclopaedic 
pages of ' N. & Q.' I seem to have acquired 
it from some bookseller, whose catalogue 
description of it runs as follows : 

"The Original (Autograph MS.) Account-Book of 
F. Newbery, Bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
as Agent for the sale of Dr. R. James's Fever 
Powders and Pills, from Feb., 1768, to July, 1798, 
original MSS. with the signatures of R. and F. 
Newbery to the various accounts. Wood out of 
John Newbery receiving Goldsmith on the Intro- 
duction of Dr. Johnson, and cuttings inserted, 
cr. 8vo." 

The first page is occupied by a florid auto- 
graph of " Francis Newbery, Jun r "; the third 
by the woodcut above mentioned, printed on 
card ; and the fourth by two advertisements, 
cut from contemporary newspapers, of " Dr. 
James's Powder for Fevers, the Small Pox, 
Measles, Pleurisies, Quincies [sic], Acute 
Rheumatisms, Colds, and all Inflammatory 
Disorders," with full descriptions of the 
qualities of this celebrated nostrum. The 
first of these is dated (in MS.) 1751, and the 
second (in print) 14 June, 1763. 

The first entry records the receipt by 
"Rob* Newbery," on 19 February, 1768, of 
"Twelve Gross Powder," of the value of 12. 
The sale appears to have been enormous, the 
first page recording the delivery to Newbery, 
between February and October, of ninety- 
nine gross of powders. The receipts are 
signed by Robert and Francis Newbery and 
various of their clerks, and on 17 March, 
1772, the account is u Settled and Ballanced 
in full to Janry, 1772," and signed by Dr. 
James and " Francis Newbery Junior." These 
"settlements" appear in 1773 and 1774, and 
at this point two sheets of paper are inserted 
bearing the following observations in the 
handwriting of Dr. James : 

Death of Oliver Goldsmith, 
April 4th, 1774. 

On the afternoon of Friday the 25th of March he 
took to his bed, and at eleven o'clock at night a 
burgeon Apothecary named Hawes, whom Gold- 
smith was in the habit of consulting, was sent for. 
He found Goldsmith complaining of voilent [sic] 
pains, extending over all the forepart of his head : 
his tongue moist, his pulse at ninety, and his mina 
made up that he should be cured by Jame's [sic] 
fever-powders. He had derived such benefit from 
this fashionable medicine in previous attacks, that 
it seems to have left him with an [ate] obstinate a 

sense of its universal efficacy, as Horace Walpole 
had, who swore he should take it if the house was 
on fire. Mr. Hawes saw at once that such a remedy 
would be dangerous, and he implored him not to 
think of it. 

For more than half an hour he sat by the bed-side 
urging the probable danger : but unable to prevail 
him [sic] to promise that he would not resort to it. 
Hawes after great difficulty got his permission to 
send for Dr. Fordyce, who, arriving soon after 
Hawes had left, seems to have given Goldsmith a 
warning against the fever-medicine as strong, but 
as unavailing. Hawes sent medicine and leeches, 
and in the nope that Fordyce would succeed, did 
not send the fever-powders. The leeches were 
applied, the medicine reiected, and the lad who 
brought them was sent back for a packet of the 

Such is the narrative of Hawes : which there is 
no ground for disputing. Other facts appeared 
in formal statements subsequently published by 
Francis Newbery, to vindicate the fame of the 

As soon as Goldsmith took the powder sent him 
from the surgery of Hawes, he protested it was the 
wrong powder, was very angry with Hawes, and. 
threatened to pay his bill next day, and dis- 
patched Eyles (his servant) for a fresh packet 
from Newbery's. In the afternoon and night of 
Saturday, two of the fresh powders were adminis- 
tered. The nurse was sent for another apothecary, 
who came, but declined to act as matters stood. 

Such is the substance of the evidence of the 

The statement breaks off here, and the 
powder accounts continue. I have not the 
' D.N.B.' at hand, but this relation curiously 
amplifies that given in the ' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica,' which merely records that by prescrib- 
ing for himself Goldsmith aggravated his 
malady, and died on 3 April, 1774. Chambers 
ascribes his death mainly to his insistence 
upon taking James's powders. The 'Life' 
prefixed to the Aldine edition of his poems 
gives an outline of the above story, referring 
for further details to the Monthly Review^ 
1774, vol. i. p. 404, and a pamphlet by Mr. 
Hawes purporting to set forth the facts. A 
more detailed account appears in the intro- 
duction to Routledge's 'Complete Works of 
Oliver Goldsmith ' (London, 1890), but it is 
extremely interesting to have Dr. James's 
autograph account of the matter. Mr. 
Charles Welsh gives a very interesting ac- 
count of the relations existing between the 
Newberys and Dr. James in his ' Bookseller 
of the Last Century ' (London, 1885), and of 
the death of Goldsmith under the circum- 
stances recorded ; and Mr. Welsh speaks 
ex cathedrd as a member of the firm of " Grif- 
fith, Farran, Okeden & Welsh, successors to 
Newbery & Harris," and consequently in 
command of such documents as may exist 
bearing upon this matter. 

The account-book continues in the same 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. vm. JULY e, iwi. 

form, the " settlements " being carried on in 

the same way until we come to the entry : 
April 4th. 1777. Settled and balanced this 

Account in full to the late Dr. James's Decease, 

viz : to March 23rd, 1776. 

Fleming Pinkstar ^| 
Fras Newbery Jun r j- 
Exors of Dr. JamesJ 
Fras Newbery Jun r . 

An account of this Mr. Pinkstar occurs in 
Mr. Welsh's book (pp. 138-9). The settle- 
ment for 1778 is signed by Francis Newbery 
and "Robert Harcourt James," presumably 
a son or brother of the doctor ; and after 1781 
Francis Newbery drops the "jun r " after his 

My volume ends in January, 1798, when 
the accounts are stated in the writing of 
R H. James to be " Entered in New Book." 

As I have said above, I think this volume 
should be deposited in some national col- 
lection, and I invite suggestions on the 

[Goldsmith died at a quarter to 5 A.M. on Monday, 
4 April, 1774 (Forster's Life,' ii. 422). See also MR. 
WELSH'S query, ' Goldsmith's Publishers,' p. 15.] 


* OTHELLO,' II. i. 60-65 (9 th S. ii. 403 ; vi. 
364). MR. E. M. DEY at the latter reference 
does not do me the honour to make any 
reference to my somewhat elaborate proof 
that " tire " in the passage under review 
means attire^ though this is the meaning of 
the word which he himself adopts. Whether 
this is perfect courtesy on the part of a 
comparatively new recruit to a veteran (at 
least in age) is for others, not for me, to 
judge. I learn from him, as he had learnt 
it and some other things from a variorum 
which I am not privileged to possess, that in 
my quite independent conclusion I had been 
anticipated by Steevens. While I am always 
glad to learn that I am not alone in any 
opinion, I am too old to care for mere names, 
however famous, and like to be told the 
ground of any man's opinion as well as the 
opinion itself. 

Grant that "tire" means attire, which I 
think I fully proved, it is impossible to retain 
either the ingeniuer, or ingeniver, of the folios, 
or the ingener of modern texts. It will not 
do to take this word from one critic, that 
word from another, and so on ; then, piecing 
them together, attire Shakespeare in a Joseph's 
coat of ill-matched colours. 

Though I still think Cassio's language 
inflated, I was not sorry, after my last note 
was written, to come upon "interior" in 
the sense of soul in Carlyle's translation of 

Goethe's 'Wilhelm Meister.' The passage 
in which it occurs is as follows : 

"Among the many things which have been tried 
for giving some repairs to the exterior [the body], 
which often fails far sooner than the interior [the 
soul], there are in fact several invaluable recipes," 
&c. Popular edition, vol. iii. p. 88. 

The question of inflated language apart, 
Cassio made use of a quite legitimate meta- 

Ehor when (as I read and explain the text) 
e spoke of Desdemona attiring her soul in 
ideal excellence. Thus St. Paul writes to the 
Colossians (iii. 12), " Put on [i.e., clothe your- 
selves with (evSvo-acrOe)] kindness, humility, 
meekness, long - suffering," &c. St. Peter 
speaks of women adorning themselves with 
"the incorruptible apparel of a meek and 
quiet spirit " (1 Peter iii. 4, R. V.). Perhaps 
Shakespeare's "essential vesture of creation" 
is St. Peter's a<f>6apTov tfjidrtov. 

Cassio represents Desdemona as realizing 
the Greek ideal of excellence, KaAo/cdyatfos, 
fair as she was good, and good as she was 
fair ; in beauty of form, much more in 
essential excellence, beyond the description 
of the most skilful pens. Though unconscious 
of gross contradiction, some corrupters of the 
text have discovered some wonderful ingener 
who was equal to the task. 

As is well known, in line 65 there is a 
seemingly irreconcilable difference between 
the First Quarto (1622) and the First Folio 
(1623). The difference is wholly irreconcil- 
able if we accept as genuine the line as in the 
Folio it has come down to us. In vain do we 
search for anything having the remotest 
resemblance either in form or in meaning 
between the "Does beare all Excellency" of 
the Quarto and the "Dos tyre the Ingeniuer" 
of the Folio. 

I now ask readers to contrast 11. 64, 65 as 
we find them in the Quarto with my reading 
of the lines in the Folio : 

And in the essential vesture of creation 
Does bear all excellency. 

And in the essential vesture of creation 
Does tire the interior. 

Is there no resemblance in meaning here? 
Most decidedly I think there is ; only the two 
editions have, so to speak, played at cross- 
purposes with the two lines. " The essential 
vesture of creation" in the Quarto is the 
spiritual nature (answering to the " interior " 
in the Folio), which is said to " bear all ex- 
cellency " ; " the essential vesture of creation," 
in which in the Folio " the interior " is said 
to be attired, is the "all excellency" the 
ideal excellence of the Quarto. Otherwise, 
Desdemona, in the essential vesture of creation 
her spiritual nature, her soul bears all 

9*s. vni. JULY 6, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

excellency (Quarto). Desdemona, in the 
essential vesture of creation ideal excellence 
attires the interior, her soul (Folio). 

In conclusion I may be allowed to repeat 
from my former note that my proposed emenda- 
tion, "interiour" (First Folio's way of spelling 
the word) for ingeniuer. necessitates a change 
only of three letters. R. M. SPENCE, D.D. 

'TEMPEST,' II. i. 269-70. 

Ant. And how does your content 

Tender your own good fortune ? 

Antonio has just said, "O that you bore the 
inind that I do ! " that is, an ambitious mind. 
He now asks, paraphrasing 11. 269 and 270, 
In what respect does contentment with your 
position offer advancement of your fortunes 
or show regard for your own interests ? 

' TEMPEST,' IV. i. 2-4. 
Pros. For I 

Have given you here a third of mine own life, 
Or that for which I live. 

In the line " Or that for which I live " Pros- 
pero has given us a key to the meaning of 
"a third of mine own life." Since he lives 
for Miranda, the years of her life are virtually 
those of his own, and the span of her life 
covers a number of years about a third of his 
own age. E. MERTON DEY. 

4 MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING,' V. iii. 19-21. 
Graves yawne and yeelde your dead, 
Till death be uttered, 
Heavenly, heavenly. 

So runs the Folio; the Quarto, which is 
generally followed, had previously given the 
last line as " Heavily, heavily." If it can be 
shown that the Folio variation is an improve- 
ment, there will be a strong presumption 
that it is due to the poet's revision. 

Now the words "Heavily, heavily," have 
just been used in connexion with the groans 
of the living (11. 17-18), and 1 think it will be 
generally conceded that their repetition falls 
somewhat flatly, if we can bring ourselves to 
read the passage as though for the first time. 

What has led to the adoption of the Quarto 
reading, notwithstanding this flatness, has 
probably been the failure to grasp the mean- 
ing of the expression " Till death be uttered," 
which, I submit, furnishes an instance of that 
idiom whereby a verb used as a neuter verb 
is conjugated with "to be" instead of "to 
have" (see Schmidt's 'Lexicon,' sub voce 
Be,' ii. 2 f., and Abbott's 'Shakespearian 
Grammar,' 295). It also seems quite legiti- 
mate to regard " death " as an instance of the 
use of the abstract for the concrete, summing 
up the whole class of the dead by their 

common property. We may then take " Till 
death be uttered " as equivalent to " Till all 
the dead have given utterance," the dead 
being called upon to deliver themselves of 
their share in the universal lamentation. If 
we adopt this line of interpretation, what 
could be more felicitous than the application 
of the description "Heavenly, heavenly," to 
the ghostly threnody of the departed spirits 
as contrasted with the grosser effusions of 
the earthly mourners? And we are thus 
happily rid of the flatness of the Quarto 
reading, which no explanation of the passage 
I have hitherto seen has availed to dispel. 

1508 - 36. In Mr. Kirby's ' Winchester 
Scholars,' p. 77, "Robert Shyrborn," of 
Sherborne, appears as a scholar elected 
in 1465, and the note to his name correctly 
identifies him with this bishop. It is strange, 
therefore, that the * Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. Hi. 
p. 69, refers to Mr. Kirby in support of the 
untenable suggestion that the bishop was 
not educated at Winchester. It would have 
been better to refer to him as overthrowing 
the view, which the ' Dictionary ' tentatively 
adopts, that the bishop was born in 1440. 
This view is based upon the statement in 
Le Neve's 'Fasti' (ed. Hardy, vol. i. p. 248) 
that the bishop died (in 1536) at the age 
of ninety-six. As the bishop went to Win- 
chester in 1465, and to New College, Oxford, 
in 1472, Wood ('Ath. Oxon.,' third edition, 
vol. ii. p. 746) was evidently nearer the mark 
in putting the bishop's age at death at eighty- 
six. In this matter the * Dictionary ' seems 
to have been misled in part by another error 
in Le Neve's ' Fasti ' (vol. ii. p. 411), which 
the ' Dictionary ' adopts in stating that 
Robert Sherborne became prebendary of 
Mora on 17 March, 1468/9. Mr. Hennessy 
gives the date of his appointment to this 
prebend as 17 March, 1496/7 ('Nov. Rep. 
Eccles. Paroch. Londin.,' p. 38). H. C. 

" A FEEDING STORM." Writing from Edin- 
burgh to Morritt of Rokeby, on 21 January, 
L815, Sir Walter Scott says the weather in 
Midlothian " seems setting in for a feeding 
storm," and adds the explanation that the 
name is given " when the snow lies so long 
;hat the sheep must be fed with hay." Sir 
Walter Scott's knowledge of country life was 
so wide and exact that it would be bold to 
differ from him without hesitation. It 
may, perhaps, be permissible to mention an 
individual impression even against a state- 
ment with authoritative credentials of the 



JULY 6,1001. 

highest order. A " feeding storm " is recog- 
nized in Scottish districts that are not 
specially pastoral in character, and the mean- 
ing that seems to be attached to it in such 
places is that of a lingering period of snowy 
weather, when the snow actually on the 
ground is increased or fed by intermittent 
falls. This is, no doubt, the kind of weather 
that necessitates "hand-feeding," as flock- 
masters call the tedious process of giving 
their animals artificial supplies, and so far 
the non- pastoral usage and Sir Walter Scott's 
definition are at one. At the same time the 
former overlaps, and indeed includes, the 
latter, just as it does another, which attri- 
butes the name " feeding storm " to the well- 
known voracious habit of birds in immediate 
anticipation of a prolonged visitation of snow. 


gossips still use hundreds of unrecorded 
sayings. One of them who has been " on the 
soil " nere for seventy years, talking of the 
shortcomings of a friend, a neighbour, said 
of her, " Ah ! she '11 have a bad day and a 
worse," meaning that she would come to grief, 
and worse. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


"THREE ACRES AND A cow." I am not 
aware that this celebrated political catch- 
phrase, used first, I believe, in the House of 
Commons by Mr. Jesse Collings, has been 
traced to its source, or at any rate its pro- 
bable source that is, the following passage 
from Sir John Sinclair's * Code of Agricul- 
ture' (fifth edition, 1832, Appendix 2, 'On 
Cottagers keeping Cows and the Establish- 
ment of Parochial Dairy Farms,' p. 50) : 

" In order to promote so useful a measure, I was 
induced to draw up a plan for enabling a cottager 
to keep a cow on the produce of a small portion 
of arable land. It was there stated that three 
statute acres and a quarter of good arable land, 
worth from 20s. to 30s. per acre, would be sufficient, 
and a course of crops was pointed out for the 
management of this little farm. Such a plan was 
found might answer where the labourer was pecu- 
liarly intelligent and industrious, and pursued what 
may be called the field gardening husbandry of 
inlanders, but could not be adopted as a general 
system. It has never, therefore, been prosecuted 
to any extent." 

Those interested in the subject may like to 
know that the plan referred to was contained 
ma volume of * Miscellaneous Essays,' pub- 
lished by Sir John Sinclair in 1802. 

[See 8* S . xi. 365, 432, 475, 517 ; xii. 57.] 

PALL MALL. The following notice relating 
to Pall Mall is copied from the Order Book 

of General Monck. The volume contains 
a few passes and orders dated after the 
Restoration, appended to the full daily 
record of orders issued by him prior to that 
event. It is in Worcester College library 
(Clarke MS. xlix. fo. 155b) : 

"26 Aprill, 1662. Order, that wheras there are 
divers persons doe presume to come and play in his 
Majesty's Pail-Mall in S. James's Parke without 
the leave or approbation of the keeper of the said 
Pall-Mall, itt is his Majesty's pleasure and com- 
mand, that heerafter noe person or persons what- 
soever shall play in the said Pail-Mall without the 
licence of Lawrence Du-puy Esq. keeper of the 
said Pall Mall, and that noe persons shall after 
play carry their malls out of S. James's Parke 
without leave of the said keeper, butt shall carry 
them to bee kept in the house appointed for that 
purpose. And all officers or souldiers who shall 
command or keepe the guards in S. James's Parke 
are to bee assisting to Mr. Du-puy in the observance 
of this order." 


JAPANESE NAMES. I see the manager of 
the Criterion, in announcing the season of 
Japanese plays, calls the principal actor 
Otojiro Kawakami. This is presumably out 
of deference to our insular prejudices, as the 
Japanese way of writing it would be just the 
reverse, Kawakami Otojiro, surname first and 
" Christian " name second. Japanese " Chris- 
tian " names indicate by their termination 
the order of birth of the children of a family, 
ending in -taw for an eldest son, in -jiro for 
a second son, in -saburo for a third, and so 
on down to -juro for a tenth. Gentaro 
means Gen-ftrst-male, Otojiro means Oto- 
second-male. These terminations are also 
used alone as "Christian" names, without 
prefix. Thus Saburo is equivalent to the 
classical Tertius. Eida Saburo, a name well 
known to collectors of Japanese works of art, 
might be translated Tertius Eida. 


DAHLIA AND FUCHSIA. These names are 
sometimes misspelt and frequently mis- 
pronounced owing to neglect of their origin. 
If we bear in mind that they commemorate 
two botanists, Dahl and Fuchs, we shall 
not give the name-sound to the a in dahlia, 
lor pronounce fuchsia as if the c were absent. 
Flower - names like bougainvillia and poin- 
settia, derived from those of Frenchmen, 
lave suffered less ; and so have deutzia and 
ialmia, though from Germans. 


THE PRICE OF INK, 1288. Historical 
students may remember that the * Dialogus 
de Scaccario' states (book i. chap. iii.)that in 
Michaelmas term two shillings are due for 
ink for either exchequer for the whole year, 



"quos sibi de an iiquo jure vendicat sacrist 
majoris Ecclesie Westmonasterie" (in Stubbs 
* Select Charters,' 1895, p. 175). The price c 
ink a century after the composition of th 
4 Dialogus ' was much higher, and the suppl 
of it was in the hands of another official ; f 
in the Rotulus Memorandorum of Easter term 
16 Edward I. (Issue Roll, Pells, No. 40), is th 
entry, "Precentori Westmonasteriensi pr< 
incausto de dimidio anno xl. d. liberat. eidem 

Q. V. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor 
mation on family matters of only private interes 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that the answers maybe addressed to th 
direct. _ 

"KENTISH FIRE." Will an y readers o 
* N. & Q.' tell us what is meant exactly bj 
this expression] Various and somewha 
contradictory statements have come undei 
our notice, and in newspapers remote from 
Kent it is perhaps often used vaguely for 
any sort of stormy applause. The term is 
usually said to have originated in reference 
to meetings held in Kent in 1828-9 in 
opposition to the Catholic Relief Bill; is 
there evidence of this 1 As the part of the 
' Dictionary ' including this is now in revise, 
early replies are askea. 


[See 2** S. i. 182, 423; viii. 278.] 

of obtaining as much information as possible 
about the various publishers of Goldsmith's 
works : Griffiths, the bookseller, the sign 
of " The Dunciad," in Paternoster Row : J. 
Wilkie, at "The Bible," in St. Paul's Church- 
yard ; Pottinger, the publisher of the Busy- 
body ; Thomas Davis ; Payne, of Paternoster 
Row ; Griffin, of Fetter Lane ; Benjamin 
Collins, of Salisbury ; Kearsley, who published 
' Retaliation.' I am, of course, familiar with 
the Newberys, of whom I published an 
account in my * Bookseller of the Last Cen- 
tury '(1881). If any of your correspondents 
can direct me to sources of information about 
any of the eighteenth -century publishers I 
have named above, I shall be extremely 
obliged. CHAS. WELSH. 

110, Boylston Street, Boston, U.S. 

[A life of Thomas Davies (not Davis) is in the 
* D.N.B.' Consult Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes. 5 ] 

any proof that the French playwright 
Antoine de Lafosse lived in England during 

his early life? Ozell in the preface to 
his translation of ' Manlius Capitolinus ' says 
that Lafosse studied at Oxford, and Reed 
(' Biographia Dramatica,' vol. iii.) repeats the 
statement. G. H. G. 

[No mention of Lafosse appears in Mr. Foster's 
' Alumni Oxonienses,' nor do French dictionaries 
of biography refer to his visit.] 


Will some one kindly send me the words 
of the old song, 

In the days when we went gipsying, 
A long time ago, 

or at least tell me where I can find them 1 In 
case I should receive several copies from one 
and another, will the senders be so good as to 
accept a general acknowledgment in ' Notices 
to Correspondents ' ? Charlotte Bronte's 
readers will remember that the first two lines 
are quoted in * Jane Eyre,' chap. iii. Accord- 
ing to Mr. John Bartlett. the words are by 
Edwin Ransford (query his date). Who is 
the composer of the air ? 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

[Edwin Ransford, vocalist and actor, 1805-76 ; see 
' D.N.B.' The song was cleverly parodied by Planche" 
in lines beginning (we quote from distant memory) : 
Oh, the days when we went tipsying, a long time 

Were certainly the happiest days a man could ever 

We drank champagne from glasses long and hock 

from glasses green, 
And nothing like a cup of tea was ever to be seen 

In the days, &c. 
We recall Ransford as a vocalist.] 

YORKSHIRE. I am anxious to discover the 
connexion of James Redman, the founder 
circa 1450) of this branch of the family of 
iledman (of Levens and Hare wood Castle), 
with the earlier members of the family (Sir 
Matthew Redman, &c.) of Levens, West- 
moreland, of whom he was, I think, a descen- 
[ant. I should also be very grateful for any 
ight on the pedigree of William Redmayne, 
)f Burton-in-Lonsdale (d. 1818), or of Richard 
iledmayne, of Holme Head, who died 1721. 

shall be very glad to exchange notes, of 
which I have a very large quantity, with any 
gentleman interested in the pedigree of the 
Thornton Redmaynes. W. GREENWOOD. 
Croylands, Spring Grove, Isleworth. 

ny of your readers fill in the names of persons 
rho occupied the mayoral chair in Newcastle 
uring the following years? Prior to 1317; 
819-37 inclusive ; 1339-67 inclusive ; 1388, 



1390, 1391, 1394, 1395, 1398, 1399 ; and 1412-90 
inclusive (except 1418, 1424, 1430, 1458, 1466, 
1471, 1477). It is just possible that some of 
your contributors or readers may have come 
across the names of persons who were mayors 
during some of the above years. Should that 
be so, I shall esteem it a great favour if they 
will oblige me with the same, and any other 
items relative thereto that may be useful to 
one who is wishful to obtain not only a full 
list of mayors, but other facts relating to the 
old borough. R. SIMMS. 

Newcastle, Staffs. 

of your readers refer me to a copy of, or give 
any information concerning, a volume men- 
tioned by Dr. Grove in his ' Dictionary of 
Music,' entitled "Poems of Mr. Cowley and 
others. Composed into Songs, &c., by William 
King, Organist of New-Colledge in the Uni- 
versity of Oxon. 1668 "1 I have failed to find 
any mention of the volume in well-known 
bibliographies, and the British Museum does 
not possess a copy. Is the volume rare and 
valuable? E. L. 

in my possession the complete works of 
Isaac Penington the younger, in two parts, 
bound in one volume, and dated 1681, 
dealing with the ground or causes which 
are said to have induced the court at Boston, 
in New England, to make the order or law 
of banishment upon pain of death against the 
Quakers. The book, I may add, is in excel- 
lent preservation. Is it scarce ? 


" CUSTICE." Some forty years ago, when I 
was a little boy at a dame's school in the 
far west of England, two forms of corporal 
punishment were administered to the recal- 
citrant, the one by the cane and the other by 
the custice. ^ As I do not find this latter word 
in ' H.E.D.,' though it was unhappily common 
amongst those of us who were youngsters 
then, I would add the information (none about 
the cane being required even by studious 
readers of ' N. & Q.') that it was a flat black 
ruler, and that the punishment consisted of 
strokes from it upon the open palm. Is the 
word generally known, and is it derived from 
custos, as signifying the wand of authority of 

the keeper, guardian, warden, or custodian"] 


[The ' E.D.D.' assigns the word custice, or custies, 
to Devon and Cornwall, and carries it back to 

LAVINGTON IN SUSSEX.-" Peter Lombard," 
in the Church Times of 7 June, says that 

Mr. Sargent bequeathed the estate of Laving- 
ton to the late Bishop Samuel Wilber- 
force. But is this correct ] I always under- 
stood that Bishop Wilberforce acquired the 
estate in right of his wife, the elder co-heiress 
of the Sargents of Lavington. There were, 
I think, four daughters. Two married two 
brothers Wilberforce Samuel, the bishop, and 
Henry, rector of East Farleigh. One married 
George Dudley Kyder, and the other married 
Henry Edward (afterwards Cardinal) Man- 
ning. I write from memory and under 
correction. It has always been noted as a 
curious fact that Manning, Ryder, and 
Henry Wilberforce all joined the Church of 
Rome. Samuel Wilberforce did not, but his 
only daughter and her husband did. So a 
cynical writer said that the bishop was quite 
right in opposing the Church of Rome, " an 
erroneous system which had seduced all his 
nearest relations." GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

seventeenth-century work called by this name 
in jest or in popular speech 1 


BRESLAW. In 9 th S. vii. 110 there 
appears a quotation from 'Advice to 
Officers/ 1782, from which I repeat the fol- 
lowing : "A good adjutant should be able 
to play as many tricks with a regiment, as 
Breslaw can with a pack of cards." W as 
this Breslaw a Jew? Can any one furnish 
me with biographical details'? If he turns 
out to be some undisclosed ancestor of mine 
I shall regret raising the ghost of the past, 
inasmuch as, in defiance of Talleyrand's 
warning, I have an ingrained detestation of 
card -play ing. Wherefore, if the theories of 
heredity are not entirely valueless, I need 
not fear the sought-for information respect- 
ing my unknown namesake. 


PHILPOT MSS. What is the history of 
these MSS., said to be preserved at the 
College of Arms 1 What do they contain, and 
are they of historical value 1 H. M. T. 

of the family of Mackenzie of Gairloch who 
matriculated arms was Sir Alexander Mac- 
kenzie, the second baronet. The date is not 
officially recorded, but is said to be 1723. 
The blazon is as follows : Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Azure, a hart's head ca bossed, and attired 
with ten tines or; 2 and 3, Azure, three 
frasiers (or cinquefoils) argent. Crest, a 
dexter arm holding a garland of laurel 
proper. Motto, "Virtute et valore." Which 

9* s. vm. JULY e, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


member of the family of Mackenzie of Gair- 
loch recorded arms previous to Sir Alexander, 
the second baronet? What was the date of 
such grant, and the blazon ? What arms did 
Alexander Mackenzie, seventh of Gairloch, 
bear (he was father to Sir Kenneth Mac- 
kenzie, first baronet, and grandfather to Sir 
Alexander who recorded arms in 1723)? He 
was Baron of Gairloch, had in 1681 his rights 
and titles ratified by Act of Parliament, and 
died in 1694 at the age of forty-two, as 
appears from his general retour of sasine. 
He was buried in Gairloch. 

W. G. PENGELLY, F.S.A.(Scot.). 

IOKNIELD STREET. Can any one interpret 
this name ? It is borne by two distinct roads, 
one, clearly Roman, starting out of the Foss 
Road (Bath to Lincoln), three miles south of 
Stow-in-the-Wold, passing through Alcester, 
Birmingham, Lichfield (near), Burton-on- 
Trent, Derby, Alfreton, and Chesterfield, 
where it appears to end. The other, which 
has none of the characteristics of a Roman 
way, commences apparently at Avebury, in 
Wilts, passes by "Way land Smith's Cave" 
(Welandes smidthan=W "eland's Smithy, in a 
charter of 955) and the White Horse, through 
Wallingford (there crossing the Thames), 
Watlington, Dunstable, Royston, and so into 
Norfolk. Both these roads are frequently 
mentioned in Anglo-Saxon and mediaeval 
charters, and, though the spelling varies, the 
prevailing and, I think, correct form may be 
taken as Icenhilde strete or Icenhilde weg 
(way). The latter road, like most British 
trackways, frequently bifurcates, and is 
locally known in Berkshire as the Upper and 
Lower Icknield Street, Ickleton Street, the 
Ridgeway, and the Portway. It was up to 
the advent of railways a great cattle road 
from Wales to London, and it is curious that 
in a charter of 957 relating to Mackney, near 
Wallingford (through which the road passes), 
the Ridgeway (Hrycgwege) is mentioned as 
one of the boundaries, and (continuing) the 
charter says " swa oxa went " (so as the oxen 
go). Of course cattle used all roads, but the 
words point to a road specially frequented 
bv cattle, and I have never met with such a 
phrase in any other Anglo-Saxon charter. 
Can it be possible that in 957 the Welshmen 
were driving their cattle to London as they 
did up to sixty years ago 1 The name Wal- 
lingford (Wealinga-ford), the ford of the 
strangers (foreigners or Welshmen), points 
to the road being used by a strange race. 
Were they Welshmen, or the Iceni who lived 
in Norfolk ? And if Iceni, why did they need 
and frequent such a long and lonely road, 

and what connexion had they with Avebury? 
If the road is named after the Iceni, what 
does hilde mean ? And why was the Roman 
road first mentioned (having no connexion 
with the Iceni) also called Icenhilde Street ? 
This way in some mediaeval charters is 
called Ryknield Street, but the early form 
is Icenhilde, later Ykenhild. I think the R 
is intrusive. W. H. DUIGNAN. 


[The meaning has been much debated, and many 
explanations are offered. See 7 th S. xii. 446.] 

(9 th S. vii. 64, 173, 274, 375.) 

THE following quotation from 'Cham- 
bers's Encyclopaedia,' ed. 1890, vol. v. p. 323, 
'Goths,' may be of interest, as showing the 
existence of a Teutonic race from the shores 
of the Baltic in the Crimea, and therefore in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Kherson, 
the scene of St. Clement's martyrdom, up to 
a very late date : 

"The last portion of the Gothic race to disap- 
pear as a distinct community was that branch 
of the Ostrogoths (known in the sixth century as 
Tetraxitse) who inhabited the Crimea from the 
time of Ermanaric (who in the middle of the fourth 
century had established a powerful Ostrogothic 
empire extending from the Black Sea to the Gulf 
of Bothnia). In the reign of Justinian these Goths 
received a Catholic bishop from Constantinople, 
and in the official language of the Eastern Church 
'Gothia' continued to be the name of the Crimea 
down to the eighteenth century. In 1562 the 
famous traveller Busbecq met at Constantinople 
with two Crimean envoys, and wrote down a long 
list of words of their language, which he recognized 
as having an affinity with his native Flemish. The 
words are for the most part unquestionably Gothic. 
It is possible that in the Crimea the Gothic speech 
may have survived to a far later time ; in 1750 the 
Jesuit Mondorf learned from a native of that 
region, whom he had ransomed from the Turkish 
galleys, that his countrymen spoke a language 
having some resemblance to German." 

When we remember (1) that the Gothic 
language is classed with the Scandinavian 
languages as belonging to the East Germanic 
group of the Teutonic languages ; (2) that it 
is only of comparatively late years that his- 
torians have discovered that the Goths were 
not originally natives of Gothland in the 
Scandinavian peninsula, which took its name 
from the Gautas, the Geats of the * Traveller's 
3ong ' ; (3) that the Scandinavians settled at 
Kieff were christianized from Constantinople, 
and were in constant relation with the 
rimea ; (4) that Adam of Bremen and 
lis contemporaries systematically confused 



Dacia with Dania ; (5) that St. Clement first 
became the " patron of seamen" amongst the 
navigators of the Euxine, who for the most 
part came either from Constantinople or the 
ports of the Crimea it is easy to see how 
St. Clement became identified with those 
Northern races who in England were usually 
known as ; ' Danes," in France as " Normans," 
and thus came to be called "St. Clement 
Danes," an expression in which it is quite 
conceivable that Danes may have originally 
represented an adjective. A priori the neigh- 
bourhood of St. Clement Danes is hardly one 
where one would have expected to find a 
specifically Scandinavian colony, which, 
originally at all events, must have been 
mostly composed of seamen. The other 
churches with Scandinavian dedications in 
London viz., St. Magnus and St. Olave 
are situated in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the Pool, and below the oldest London 
Bridge, whilst the other foreign colony in 
London which dates from before the Con- 
quest namely, the "Men of the Emperor" 
seems to have been settled close to Dowgate, 
the first port of London, near the site of the 
present Cannon Street Station. After the 
experiences of the Danish massacre of 1002, 
no Danish colony of Canute's day would have 
cared to be cut off from the road to the sea 
by London Bridge, which had defeated 
all the efforts of Sweyn to pass it in 1014. 
Clapham and other settlements with Danish 
names near London usually occupy easily 
defensible positions, which were cut off from 
Saxon London and Westminster by the broad 
reaches of the marshes which then filled the 
low grounds of Southwark and Lambeth, 
whilst it would be hard to find the specifically 
Danish termination of -wick in any place- 
name of the Thames Valley above London 
Bridge, though below it we have Greenm'cA, 
"Woolwich, Land Wyck, while on the lower 
river Sheppe?/, Hart?/, Canvey islands cor- 
respond to Battersea on the reaches above 
bridge. H. 

"ANYONE," "EVEEYONE" (9 th S. vii. 205 
294, 358, 432). I have followed with interest 
the controversy arising out of my note at 
the first reference. MR. F. ADAMS, for the 
defence, omits to observe the qualification 
originally stated for the joinder of the words 
composing the compound, and therefore 
some of his instances do not apply. I migh 1 
as well quote the phrase "Every body o 
the solar system," &c., against the use of thi 
form 'everybody," which he admits, as h< 
quotes " Any one of the books would suit me 
against the use of "anyone," which he dis 

ents from. His strongest argument seems- 

lie in the compound instance of " no one," 
vhich we already have in the language con- 
racted to "none." But in similar manner, 
>n account of the vowels, I might object to- 
uch a word as "re-elect," which if un- 
lyphened would be unrecognizable. If " no- 
>ne," thus thrown in, must follow suit to- 

anyone," then the hyphen or diaeresis will 
lave to be employed in it. It, however, may 
>e looked upon simply as a red-herring drawn 
icross the trail because nobody uses it. 
dictionaries are no criterion in a case of this 
dnd. They copy from each other, and are 
proverbially behind the times. As surely 
as night follows day, what they now ignore 

hey will ultimately adopt in two or three 
decades, or maybe half a century later, when 

hey wake up. Lately I have particularly 
noticed the present use of the words in the- 

leading, and in none of the frequent instances 
observed (in book, newspaper, magazine, &c.) 
lave I seen them divided. Nothing weightier 
can be advanced in favour of the form noted 

ban the assistance it gives to the reader in 
gathering the sense, except it be that in 

peaking each compound is pronounced as if 
it were one word. J. S. McTEAR. 

MR. ADAMS says the phrase "any one 
particle" need not be regarded, being pleo- 
nastic for "any particle." If he turns again 
to the ' H.E.D.' he will find that of the seven 
instances of the phrase "any one" there 
cited five are similarly pleonastic. I main- 
tain that in the remaining two instances, 
where the phrase is simply equivalent to- 
"anybody," it would be more convenient to- 
write it as one word. The pleonasm MR. 
ADAMS objects to cannot be disregarded : 
everyone uses it, and it is often necessary 
to make one's meaning clear. 

MR. ADAMS also says that the editors of 
the 'H.E.D.' agree with him. He can only 
mean that they print "any one" as two- 
words, as is admittedly customary. For the 
rest, they simply record past and present 
usage. It is not their province to say how 
words should be written, but how they are- 
written ; and as the original query was why 
this particular phrase is written as two- 
words, MR. ADAMS'S remark is, I think, 
rather pointless. The practice I contend for 
is, however, growing only this morning I 
came across " someone " in the Academy and 

1 venture to say that it will grow, in spite of 
MR. ADAMS'S objections, which are too tech- 
nical for practical people. C. C. B. 

P.S.My note was written without refer- 
ence to authorities, but if these are to be 

9*s.viii.juLY6,i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


cited I may refer to Dr. Morris as on my 
side. He says ('Hist. Eng. Grammar,' p. 126) : 
"Compounds of any are anyone, anybody 
(M.E. any wight, any persone, any man), any- 
thing." And again : " M.E. evric/ion, everilkan 
(cp. each one) survives in everyone." 

1692-3 (9 th S. vii. 429). The account given 
of him and his family in Le Neve's ' Knights ' 
(p. 434, to which, however, no proper refer- 
ence is given in the index) can be supple- 
mented as under. He was lord of the manor 
of Lordshold in Hackney, as also of the manor 
of Barnet. His wife Elizabeth (who sold 
certain plantations she had inherited in 
Antigua) was daughter of William Home, of 
Ead, near Exeter, and of Antigua. A pedi- 
gree of her family is in V. L. Oliver's * An- 
tigua.' Besides being M.P. for Colchester 
1694-5 and 1698-1705, he was High Sheriff 
of Essex in 1693. He died 6 September, 1709, 
"at Ebsham [query Epsom], Surrey," accord- 
ing to Le Neve's * Obituary.' His will, dated 
6 September, was proved 4 November, 1709, 
by his relict Elizabeth (240 Lane). She, who 
lived in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, is 
doubtless the " Dame Elizabeth Cooke" buried 
23 December, 1720, at St. Bride's, Fleet Street. 
Of their children, Elizabeth, the first daughter, 
married firstly, 10 March, 1690/1, at Hackney 

.u-icfci. i ICVA in oi/j v, JLV irieu uii, JLUJJU/JL, au iJ.o>v;KLiic > y, 

Sir Josiah Child, second baronet (1678), o 
Wanstead, co. Essex, who died s.jt?.,20 Janu 
ary, and was buried at Hackney, 4 February 
1703/4. She married secondly "Jo. Chad 
wick, Esq.," who was buried there 8 Decem 

ber, 1713. After a third marriage with 

Osbaldeston, she herself was buried a 
Hackney as "Dame Elizabeth Child, widow,' 
26 January, 1740/1. Her younger brother 
Josiah Cooke, was baptized 31 January 
1691/2, at Hackney, about nine months after 
her marriage with Sir Josiah Child, after 
whom he was doubtless named. 

Sir Charles Cooke, Alderman of Bassishaw, 
Sheriff of London, 1716-17 (mentioned at the 
above reference), was (though also connected 
with Hackney) certainly not a son (as therein 
is suggested) of the above-named sheriff, 
whose widow, Elizabeth, proved his will in 
1709. This Charles died unmarried, and was 
buried 11 January, 1720/1, at Hackney, ad- 
ministration of nis goods being granted 
23 January, 1720/1, to James Cooke, Esq., 
the brother, on the renunciation of Margaret 

will is dated 6 September, and was proved 
by his widow 4 November, 1709, P.C.C. 240 
Lane. He had twelve children. Sir Thomas 
Cooke had a brother John Cooke, who by 
his wife Catherine had issue. Sir Thomas 
Cooke's father-in-law was William Home. 

Sir Charles Cooke was son of Thomas Cooke, 
of Hackney (he died 20 December, 1694), by 
Margaret his wife (she died 16 August, 1723). 
In Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, 
vol. i. pp. 346, 347, 348, I give a pedigree of 
Cooke of Kingsthorpe, Northamptonshire, 
and Sir Charles Cooke appears ; and at vol. iii. 

E. 212 of the same publication I give extracts 
*om his will. 


15, Markham Square, Chelsea. 

vii. 404). In " (Euvres Completes de Jacques- 
Henri-Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, mises en 
ordre et precedees de la Vie de 1'Auteur, par 
L. Aime-Martin (a Paris, chez Mequignon- 
Marvis, Libraire, Rue de 1'Ecole de Me'decine 
No. 3, M.DCCC.XX.)," 'Voyage a 1'Ile de France,' 
tome i. pp. 42-3, is the following : 

" Le 10 [Avril, 1768], on annonca le bapt^me de la 
Ligne, dont nous etions & un degre. Un matelot, 
de"guis en masque, vint demander au capitaine a 

Cooke, widow, the mother. 

G. E. C. 

I have a note in my copy of Le Neve's 
c Knights' (Harl. Soc.) that Sir Thomas 
Cooke was great-grandson of a John Cooke, 
of Creeting, Norfolk. Sir Thomas Cooke's 


faire observer I'usage ancien. Ce sont des fe"tes 
imagine'es pour dissiper la melancolie des Equipages. 
Nos matefots sont fort tristes, le scorbut gagne 
insensibleraent, et nous ne sommes pas au tiers du 
voyage. Le 11, on fit la cer^monie du baptfime. 
On rangea les principaux passagers le long d'un 
cordon, les pouces attaches avec un ruban. On 
leur versa quelques gouttes d'eau sur la tdte. On 
donna ensuite quelque argent aux pilotes. Le 12, 
nous ne passames point encore la Ligne. Les 
courants pprtaient au nord. On cessa de voir 
l'<5toile polaire. Le 13, nous passames la Ligne. La 
mer paraissait, la nuit, remplie de grands phos- 
phores lumineux." 

Tower House, New Hampton. 

Bishop Heber gives a long account of the 
"Neptune" ceremonies on crossing "the 
line,* 26 July, 1823, 'Journal,' 1856, i. 7. 

W. C. B. 

"LA-DI-DA" (9 th S. vii. 425). " Lardy- 
dardy," "L'Ardy d'Hardy," " la-di-da," &c., as 
a name for a " swell " probably the last pre- 
vious to "masher" came out in the early 
sixties ; perhaps earlier, though I scarcely 
think so. It originated most likely in one 
of the "society" plays of the period. The 
earliest printed allusion to the word which I 
lave so far been able to trace occurs in a 
story called 'Such is Life,' by Pierce Egan 
the younger), which appeared in the London 
Journal in 1864. On 12 March of that year 
;he reader is introduced to the swell villain of 

NOTES AND QUERIES. &* s. vm. JULY 6, 1901. 

the drama, the Honourable Fluphery Arde- 

dardee, who possessed "apairof whiskers 

of dimensions such as ought to have made 
Lord Dundreary, if he could have seen them, 
faint away." " Lardydardy " was extensively 
" boomed " at the halls (by George Ley bourne 
in particular) from 1865. I recollect hear- 
ing early in 1873 a lady serio-comic at the old 
Winchester which, by the way, was, I be- 
lieve, the first music-hall, as differing from a 
" sing-song " or " free-and-easy," ever opened 
in London ; during the forties and the early 
fifties, under the name of the Surrey Music 
Hall, it led the way for the modern theatre 
or palace of varieties singing an "up-to- 
date " ditty, the chorus of which ran : 

Riding on the Tram way, easy, gay, and free ; 
Riding on the Tram way, that 's the style for me ; 
Where the noble sum of two pence is all you've 

got to pay ; 
You can do the lardydardy on the new Tram way. 

During 1880 Nelly Power fairly took the 
town by storm : 

He wears a penny flower in his coat, 

La-di-da ! 
And a penny paper collar round his throat, 

La-di-da ! 

In his hand a penny stick, 
In his tooth a penny pick, 
And a penny in his pocket, 

La-di-da! La-di-da! 
And a penny in his pocket, 

La-di-da ! 

Somewhere between 1867 and 1870 (I have 
not got the exact date, so it may have been 
later) a " Bab Ballad " appeared in Fun en- 
titled 'Lorenzo de Lardy ': 
Dalilah de Dardy adored 

The very correctest of cards, 
Lorenzo de Lardy, a lord- 
He was one of Her Majesty's Guards. 

I think it possible, though the suggestion 
may seem far-fetched, that the inventor of 
"lardydardy" derived the word from "Lard !" 
'O Lard! 1 "Lardy!" which, if one may 
judge from old plays and novels, would 
appear to have been rather in use among the 
bon ton during the eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries. But (as another pro- 
posed derivation) may it not come from " A- 
d'ye-do?" ("How do you do?") a way in 
which "swells" (or those who wish to be' con- 
sidered so) often greet one another ? 


rfy, Keulrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane, S.E. 

Oddly enough, when I read the reviewer's 
reference to this it never occurred to me that 
I knew anything about it ; but directly I saw 
the verse quoted by MR. INGLEBY I recol- 
lected that I have known it all my life. I 
heard the song, I should say, about 1865, and 

I think it was sung in a play called 'The 
Widow Hunt' at the Strand Theatre, in 
which the late John Sleeper Clarke was very 
funny. I think Eleanor Bufton was the 
widow.* Why I learnt that verse I cannot 
say, unless it was the chorus. My recollec- 
tion varies slightly : 

I like to la-di-da with the ladies, 
For that is the style that suits 

The noble name and glorious fame 
Of Captain de Wellington Boots. 

Clarke acted the poltroon captain, and as 
the widow objected to some wall-papers he 
exhibited, he said, " Ah ! that is not of my 
choice." RALPH THOMAS. 

(9 th S. vi. 269). As I am preparing a paper 
on 'Neighbours of North Wyke' for the 
Devon Association, and as Bath is an 
adjoining property to the south-eastward of 
that old seat of the Wykes family, I should 
be much interested in learning anything con- 
cerning its owners and residents. Among 
my Record Office gleanings are the following 
notes, which may be of some use to P. 

The "Mark Sladen" said to have owned 
Bath in 1600 must be meant for Mark Slader, 
a regular North Tawton name. 

In 1625 Simon Weekes,t armiger, lord of 
the manor of Brodewode-Kelly, was seized 
also, among other messuages, lands, &c., of a 
messuage, carton, &c., called the Barton of 
Bath in North Tawton, then in the tenure of 
(Mark or Mary ?) Kellands ; also of Gosse's 
tenement and Downhouse al's Dawnehouse 
in North Tawton, in the tenure of Mark 
Cottell, and of a messuage called Thornes- 
Clawton in the tenure of Matthew White. 
In another part of the inquisition (to quote 
without translating) : "Et q'd ten ta et cet'a 
p'missa in N. Tawton ten fc de Joh. Wood 
armiger et Marc. Cottell gen'os. de man'io suo 
de N. Tawton in lib'o soc. et val. p' an' 40* 01 ." 

In the 'Cal. of Fines ' (Divers Com. Hil., 
35 Hen. VIII.) I find Alex. Wood querent, 
et Ric. Eggecombe milit' deforciant, de tercia 
pars man'ii de N. Tawton et de t'cia pars 
ten. et redd, in N. Dunsthedyoke (or Dims- 
chedyoke?), Bath, Newlond, Aysherigge et 
Lamberty's week (anothername for Chawleigh 
Wyke or North Tawton Wyke). 

In 33 Hen. VIII. (Easter Fines) Robert 
Fisher, chaplain, and Martin Slader held 

[* Yes. H. Irving was the Felix Featherley and 
Ada Cavendish Mrs. Featherley. 'The Widow 
Hunt,' a rearrangement by Stirling Coyne of his 
' Everybody's Friend ' (Haymarket, 2 April, 1859), 
was first given at the St. James's 16 October, 1867.] 

t Ch. Inq. post mortem, Car. I. (27, 90). 

9*s. vm. JULY 6, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

tenements, &c., in North Tawton, Monkeoke 
hampton, Bowe, Nymet Tracy, Collump 
ton, &c. 

In 1547 (Fines Divers Com. Pasc., 1 Ed. VI 
Martin Slader and Humf. Colles, ar., held ir 
More, Bearehed, and North wod in the parisl 
of North Tawton. 

In Chancery Pro., Ser. II., B. 93, 50, w 
find Ric. Hey wood of N. Tawton plaintiff 
against Mark Slader of same parish, who wa 
" appointed to be collector for the second pay 

ment of the [torn away] graunted in the 

1st year [of Queen Elizabeth] in the Hundred 
of Blacktoriton, N. Tawton, Winkleigh, anc 
Hertland, Devon." 

A reference to another Chancery Pro. in 
which Mark Slader was plaintiff is Ser. II. 
Eliz. 162, 53. ETHEL LEGA-WEEKES. 

(9 th S. vii. 389, 496). A printer's error in my 
communication under the above heading may 
possibly create perplexity in the minds oi 
some readers. " Green grow the rashes, oh ! ' 
should be " Green grow the rushes, oh ! " 


[There is no printer's error. The alteration made 
was editorial, and on the strength of what seemed 
to us due knowledge and investigation. In the first 
Edinburgh edition. 1787, it is "rashes," not rushes. 
The Centenary Edition of Messrs. Henley and Hen- 
derson (Edinburgh, Jack, 1896), the Clarendon Press 
* Burns ' of the same date, and the ' Concordance ' of 
Mr. J. B. Reid (Glasgow, Kerr & Richardson), have 
the same reading. We ourselves know of no other. 
We do not alter a signed communication without 
what seems to us conclusive authority.] 

GLADSTONE VOLUME (9 th S. vii. 488). Is not 
MR. MACLEOD mistaken when he refers to 
"articles" by Mr. Gladstone in the Daily 
Telegraph on Arthur Henry Hallam? One 
only appeared in that journal, under date 
5 January, 1898, bearing the title ' Personal 
Recollections of Arthur H. Hallam.' It was 
the last lengthy composition that fell from 
the pen of the aged author, and, in my 
judgment, the most beautiful of all his pro- 
ductions. In this respect it bears a close 
analogy to Tennyson's 'Crossing the Bar,' 
and, to quote the words of the leader which 
synchronized with its appearance in the 
columns of the above paper, "by reason of 
its subject, as well as on account of the charm 
of its style and the deep interest of its details, 
cannot fail to be considered a conspicuous 
event in literature." It deserved a less 
ephemeral existence than in a daily paper. 
The Americans have apparently recognized 
this, while we have been content to let it lie 
in unworthy oblivion. J. B.'McGovERN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

A GAME OF BATTLEDORE (9 th S. vii. 469). 
The paragraph from my review of Mr. C. S. 
Roundell's book has been handed to me for 
comment. Unfortunately (by imperious 
necessity) I was taken from school at the 
age of tnirteen and a half ; but I may add to 
the record of my school experiences that I 
was sent for two years to another school in a 
private house where girls were taught, there 
Deing two rooms adjoining. At this school 
the discipline was lax, and as the former 
school had broken up, we boys (transfers) 
were found to be better taught than those 
we joined, and the cane was less used, and 
the battledore was invisible, if there was one. 
I have seen battledore applications, and 
have felt them also. A big, strong man in a 
temper, and a small boy in a terror and a 
torment, were not exhilarating. The place 
was Newark ; the name of the schoolmaster 
was Squires ; the time was in 1830 to 1831. 
I am afraid I am the sole survivor of this 
ancient method of imparting knowledge and 
driving it home. JNO. HAWKINS. 

35, Avenue Road, Grantham. 

FUNERAL CARDS (9 th S. vii. 88, 171, 291,332, 
414). The ancient building at Bury St. 
Edmunds known as Moyses Hall has been 
jonverted into a museum, and lately I noticed 
n it a large funeral card, or rather " ticket," 
on which were printed the following words: 

" You are desired to accompany the Corps of Mr. 
Thomas Moody, from Armourers-hall in Coleman 
Street, to the Burying Ground on Bun Hill, on 
?riday, May the 18th, 1716, by Five of the Clock in 
he Afternoon Precisely. 

And bring this Ticket with you." 

The ticket is about as large as a page of 

N. & Q.,' and is perfectly fresh and clean. 

At the top are the words " Memento mori," 

and at the bottom "Remember to die." A 

r uneral procession is engraved on the ticket, 

and there are figures of the King of Death 

md the Angel of Death, with skulls, cross- 

>ones, and cherubs. Stars are shining in a 

lack sky, as if the funeral were to take place 

>y night. The building is full of interesting 

bjects, and I never saw a better country 

museum. The ticket was lent by G. Milner 

Gibson Cullura, Esq. S. O. ADDY. 

'RABBATING" (9 th S. vii. 407). Your cor- 
espondent is confusing two quite different 
rords. Rabbating has nothing to do with 
abbeting. By rabbating Puttenham means 
bating. His actual words are (Mr. Wynd- 
am appears to quote him loosely) : 
"A Word as he lieth in course of language is 
mny wayes figured and thereby not a little altered 
i sound, which consequently alters the time and 
armonie of a meeter as to the eare. And this 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9*s.vm. JULYS, 1901. 

alteration is sometimes by adding, sometimes by 
rabbating, of a sillable or letter to or from a word 
either in the beginning, middle, or ending. 
He goes on to say that " your figures of addi- 
tion or surpluse be three," and " your figures 
of rabbate be as many " ; and of the latter he 
gives such examples as " 'twixt " for betwixt, 
" sovran " for sovereign, " morn " for morning. 
See Arber's reprint, p. 173. I have chosen 
only such examples as are still in use, and 
have given their modern forms. C. C. B. 

"A Glossary, or Collection of Words, 
Phrases, <fec., by Robert Nares, A.M., &c., a 
new edition, 1888," vol. ii. p. 716, has "Rab- 
bate, to abate or diminish," and enumerates 
various examples, such as "and this altera- 
tion is sometimes by adding, sometimes by 
rabbating of a syllable or letter, or both." 

H. J. B. 

OF DATE 1629 (9 th S. vii. 365). The doubtful 
word in the inscription, as J. T. F. suggests, 
may be a mistake of the bell-founder ; but it 
may also be noted that lather is a very com- 
mon dialectal form of the word "ladder." So 
that, from this point of view, the couplet, 
He that wil pvrchas honor's gayne 
Mvst ancient lathers stil mayntayne, 
is perfectly clear as it stands. 


vii. 388, 454, 493). The list formerly given 
by me of books containing lists of graduates 
of the Scottish universities may be supple- 
mented as follows : 

8. Fasti Academic Mariscallanse Aberdonensis, 
1593-1860. Edited by P. J. Anderson and J. F. 
Kellas Johnstone. 3 vols. Aberdeen, 1889-98. 
Ihe lists are in the second volume. 

9. Officers and Graduates of King's College, Aber- 
deen 1495-1860. Edited by P? J. Anderson. 
Aberdeen, 1893. 

i JS* ifen 1 * A1 umni of King's College, Aberdeen, 
1596-1860. Edited by P. J. Anderson. Aberdeen, 

ioin < lp W- eti j a J Lisfc of Gra duates of Edinburgh, 
1859-88. Edited by Thomas Gilbert. Edinburgh, 

?; ?K H w f T Gradu A a ies of Glasgow, 1727-1897. 
Edited by W. Innes Addisou. Glasgow, 1898. 
ioli ^ alendar of St. Andrews University for 1S50- 
1851. St. Andrews, 1850. This contains a list of 
honorary graduates for the half-century 1800-50, 
which is not reprinted in the new series of Calendars 
beginning in 1865. 

University Library, Aberdeen. 


L V1 \V 18 ' 263 ' 393 > 493 )-~ Ifc seems to me 
that MR. OLIVER'S remark about "guillotin" 

is scarcely relevant to mine. What I in- 
tended to point out was that the English 
verb is (at least, I have never seen it 
otherwise ) not " guillotin," but " guillo- 
tine " ; not formed directly out of the 
proper name (and therefore scarcely coming 
under the category in question), but from 
the instrument. I could not help thinking 
of the story current when I was learning 
French of the patient who was said to have 
swallowed his "medecin" instead of his 
"medecine." W. T. LYNN. 


"TOUCAN" (9 th S. vii. 486). MR. PLATT 
states that " nobody seems to have taken the 
trouble to find out whence Buffon derived his 
information" concerning this bird. If your con- 
tributor will but refer to the article ' Toucan ' 
in the last edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica,' or as it is reprinted, with some 
additions, in the 'Dictionary of Birds,' I 
think he will find that the subject has been 
pretty well gone into. In fact, one has only 
to follow the indications given by Buffon 
himself, who cites Lery among other autho- 
rities, to trace it completely. Not being an 
etymologist, I do not presume to offer any 
opinion as to the derivation or original sig- 
nification of the name. I was content to 
accept PROF. SKEAT'S statement, but I can 
hardy accept that of MR. PLATT to the effect 
of Montoya in 1639 being "nearly contem- 
porary " with Lery, who sailed for Brazil in 
1556, returning in 1558, the year in which 
Thevet, to whom we owe the publication of 
the word, brought out his * Singularitez de la 
France Antarctique.' I wholly agree, how- 
ever, with MR. PLATT in the desirability of 
" going to the fountain-head for facts." 


Magdalene College, Cambridge. 

In * Chambers's Encyclopaedia,' under ' Tou- 
cans,' we read that they were formerly placed 
near the hornbills (Bucerotidse), which offer 
several points of analogical resemblance to 
them, and are often "improperly" termed 
toucans in the East, &c. It is, however, not 
stated by whom the hornbill is improperly 
termed a toucan. I suppose the Malays have 
a right to make use of their own language. 
It appears also that the bird of tropical 
America has now been more correctly classi- 
fied under Rhamphastidse ; but if naturalists 
incorrectly classed the first specimens with 
the Bucerotidse, would they not also call them 
by the same general name i.e., call them 
also toucans? Afterwards, discovering that 
these American birds were not identical with 
the Bucerotidse, the naturalists formed them 

9< s. viii. JULY 6, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

into a different class, i.e., Rhamphastidse ; 
but in so doing did they also cancel the 
every-day name toucan and assign them 
another ? I fancy not. I think that it must 
be the American bird which is " improperly " 
termed a toucan, and that the error arose in 
the way above suggested. It is no use, there- 
fore, to hunt for an explanation of the word 
" toucan " in Brazilian vocabularies. The 
word has been by error appropriated from 
the Malays through European agency. The 
Malays call the hornbill a toucan for the 
following reason. Every workman is a "tou- 
can " in the Malay language e.g., a carpenter 
is a " toucan cayu," or worker in wood ; a 
blacksmith a "toucan brisi," or worker in 
iron ; a goldsmith a " toucan mas," or worker 
in gold ; and so on. Now the hornbill, like 
the woodpecker, may be seen and heard 
hammering the bark of trees with his huge 
beak, and so the Malay, comparing him to a 
workman, calls him a " toucan." 

H. G. K. 

KNIFEBOARD OF AN OMNIBUS (9 th S. vii. 487). 
I believe this word was applied, not to the 
seat itself, nor even to the back of the seat, but 
to the board on each side of the roof, whence 
it came to mean the outside of the omnibus 
as distinct from the inside. The advertise- 
ment board was thus named, it is thought, 
because of a fancied resemblance to the 
domestic knifeboard, the part where the 
conductor stood being known as the monkey- 
board : " Here comes the Paddington omnibus. 

You will not fail to observe that the 

knifeboard has not yet been invented " (W. 
Besant, 4 Fifty Years Ago,' p. 55). Possibly 
some playful allusion to smartness was in- 
tended, for there was a similar phrase once 
current, "You've been in the knife-box," 
meaning " You are very sharp, or clever," ,&c., 
" You will fall and cut yourself." 


My recollection goes back to 1856 or 1857, 
when, as MR. WHITWELL says, there was not 
even an iron ladder up to the roof. Iron 
steps were attached to the end of the omnibus, 
by which one climbed up. As far as I remem- 
ber, the seats were back to back. They con- 
sisted of plain wooden boards like the knife- 
boards then in use hence the name. The 
knifeboard of the present day, with its 
special surface and prepared emery powder, 
was then unknown, and a plain board with 
powdered Bath brick was the domestic imple- 
ment in common use. E. E. STREET. 


The 'Slang Dictionary' describes this to 
be the seat running along the roof of an 

omnibus, and gives the following illustration 
for its use : 

On 'busses' knifeboards stretch'd, 
The City clerks all tongue -protruded lay. 

' A Summer Idyll/ by Arthur Smith. 

The same meaning and quotation have been 
adopted by Annandale in his ' Imperial Dic- 

The first omnibus in London ran from 
Paddington to the Bank on 4 July, 1829, and 
accommodated twenty-two inside passengers, 
who were granted the free use of newspapers 
to beguile the time occupied in their tedious 
journey. No outside passengers were carried, 
and the knifeboard was a thing of very much 
later construction. Soon after the intro- 
duction of the omnibus the Post Office 
started four from St. Martin's-le-Grand. Two 
went through the Strand, and the others 
down Hoi born. These were for the sole use 
of the red-coated " general postmen," with a 
view to the acceleration of the delivery of 
the country letters. If I remember rightly, 
the seat on which the outside passengers sat 
back to back was raised about a foot from 
the roof, with an arrangement underneath 
of perforated zinc netting for ventilation. 
In later years the knifeboard was converted 
into garden-seats. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

466). In reference to CANON TAYLOR'S re- 
marks on this myth, may I, though only a 
learner, suggest that to find the origin of the 
legend we should go to the signs of the zodiac, 
with the nature and characteristics of which 
the Babylonians, like all ancient nations, were 
well acquainted? In the " sun-god of ancient 
Babylon " it is probable we only find the 
shadow, and to grasp the substance we must, 
I think, endeavour to understand the mean- 
ing of the signs and constellations. The 
latter, with which so many of the myths are 
connected, no doubt (as Miss Rolleston has 
shown) shadow forth the mediatorial work of 
the " Sun of Righteousness "; and in the signs 
Scorpio and Sagittarius combined we may, I 
believe, see the origin of St. George and the 
dragon. In Gen. xlix. 17 Jacob pictures the 
Scorpio serpent assaulting the Sagittarian 
rider (the Messiah) ; but in the end the 
dragon's head is bruised and the captive set 
free. In Rev. xix. we see the conqueror on a 
white horse (Pegasus). His name is written 
on His thigh, which, astrologically, again 
connects Him with the Archer. 

Scorpio was anciently represented as an 
eagle bearing aloft an adder in its talons, and 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY e, 1901. 

this dual sign may be said to typify both 
Christ and Satan, good and evil, life and 
death. The late Prof. Max Muller, in point- 
ing out that the serpent occurs in all parts 
of the world as a symbol of many widely 
different ideas and characteristics, says 
(' Chips,' vol. iv.): 

" But who but an evolutionist would dare to say 
that all these conceptions came from one and the 
same original germ, that they are all held together 
by one traditional chain ? " 

May I venture to suggest that the origin of 
all may be found in the sign Scorpio? As 
Satan at the fall of man assumed the form of 
the Scorpio serpent, so it seems probable 
there may be in the double-headed eagle a 
Satanic imitation of the Scorpio eagle. If 
so, we may expect that when the confederacy 
of nations is formed under Antichrist, this 
deformed eagle will be its heraldic emblem. 

Mr. J. Lewis Andre, F.S.A., in his excellent 
paper on St. George which appeared in the 
Journal of the Royal Archaeological Institute 
of September, 1900, says that in 
"art S. George is represented either on foot or 
horseback, and generally in combat with the dragon 
or with the monster dead at his feet. In England 
I do not know of any example in which the dragon 
is absent, but Mrs. Jameson observes that ' when 
he figures as patron saint of Venice the dragon is 
usually omitted,' and this is the case also in a noble 
statue by Donatello at Florence." 

And further adds that 

"in wall paintings S. George appears oftener on 
horseback than he does when seen in sculptures, 
and the steed on which he is seated was, says 
Cahier, such a magnificent animal that the Picards 
have retained the expression Saint George belle 
monture for a fiery steed." 

Attached to the church of St. James, Louth. 
Lincolnshire, there was in 1512-13 a gild 
under the patronage of St. George which had 
an image of him in the church. That the 
saint was on horseback is certain, for in 
1538-9 we find charges for taking down and 
bearing away the image of "Saynct George," 
and a little after comes a payment of xijc?. 
" to the laborers for bearing away the horse 
pertainyng to Sainct George Image." These 
passages are from the manuscript accounts 
of the parish, which have happily been pre- 
served. The same records incidentally speak 
of the saint's bridle and sword. 

The following references to St. George may 
be of service to future inquirers : 

Relic of. Monasticon Anglic., last edition, 
ii. 530. 

On horseback at Wymondham. Archceolooia. 
xliii. 271. 

Patron of cross-bowmen. Felix de Vigne, Gilds 
and Corporations, 17. 

In pageant. D. Rock, Church of our Fathers, 
ii. 425. 

Armour. Ibid., iii. i. 70. 

Wall painting at Stotfold, Bedfordshire. Gentle- 
man's Magazine Library, i. 74. 

Figure, Ruerdean, Gloucestershire. Ibid., iv. 291. 

Picture, on horseback, Dartmouth, Kent. Ibid., 
vi. 89. 

Riding the George. Johnson, Ancient Leicester, 


Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey, 

386). When John Clare, the Northampton- 
shire peasant poet, visited " Dante" Cary at 
Hogarth's House, Chiswick, his host pointed 
out to him as one of " various memorials con- 
nected with the great satirist and moralist the 
window through which Hogarth eloped with 
old Thornhill's only daughter " (' Life of John 
Clare,' by Frederick Martin, 1865, p. 155). 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

In Once a Week, Third Series, i. 167-8, our 
friend the late Mr. E. Walford described 
Hogarth's house, garden, mulberry tree, and 

" occupied by Mr. Cock, a worthy gentleman, in 
whose garden stands Hogarth's portable sundial, 
duly authenticated. The same gentleman owns 
Hogarth's chair, a stout, strong armchair, made of 
cherrywood, and seated with leather. The latter 
is very much decayed, and one of the arms is a 
good deal worm-eaten, but the rest is sound and 
good. This chair, in which Hogarth used to sit 
and smoke his pipe, was given by the painter's 
widow to the grandfather of the present owner, 
who was a martyr to the gout. It moves very 
easily on primitive stone castors, three in number.'" 


BLUE BEARD (9 th S. vii. 224, 355). I take 
the following from ' The Original Blue Beard,' 
Once a Week, Third Series, vol. i. No. 1 (4 Janu- 
ary, 1868), p. 19 : 

"Gilles hung his victims When tired of this 

atrocious amusement, he would plunge a long needle 
into their necks and take delight in beholding them 
in their last convulsions." 

In " Nouvelle Description de la France, par 
M. Piganiol De La Force, seconde ed., a Paris, 
chez Florentin Delaulne, 1722, A.P.D.R.," 
v. 228, is the following : 

" Machecou est une petite Ville qui est le chef 
lieu du pays de Raiz. Elle est situe"e sur la riviere 
de Tenu qui se perd dans la Loire apres avoir recu 
1'^coulement du Lac de Grand-lieu. Le Baron de 
Raiz avait anciennement un droit fort singulier sur 
les Bouchers de Nantes, dont chacun lui devoit 
donner un denier le jour du Mardi gras. II devoit 
le tenir k la main et etre pr6t & le donner aux gens 
du Seigneur de Raiz dans 1'instant qu'ils lui pre"- 
sentoient une aiguille, et s'il ne 1'avoit pas a la 
main dans ce moment, les gens du Seigneur pou- 



voient piquer avec cette aiguille telle piece de 
viande qu'il leur plaisoit, et 1'emporter." 


" PAELOUE " (9 th S. vii. 389). Minsheu (1627) 
has : 

"A Parlour or inner roome to dine or sup in. 
G. Parloir. I. Parldio, a G. Parler, i. locus 
interior vbi sermones committuntur. I. 2. Oendculo. 
L. Co3naculum, a ccenando, in quod prcecipue ex- 
tructum. Triclinium, Biclinium, a tt\ivrj, i. a bed. 
Quid interdum tres, interdum duos in eo inveniebant 
lectos accumbentes, sometimes there were three beds, 
sometimes but two about the table, upon which the 
guests did sit, or rather lie along in old time," &c. 

Littleton (1693) distinguishes between a 
"parlor, or place to sup in," "an inward 
parlor," "a little parlor," and "a summer 
parlor, made of boards," and gives its Latin 
equivalent to each. In my youth (in the 
fifties) parlour denoted the best sitting-room, 
not the one commonly used by the family, 
but the one reserved for "parties" ana 
solemn occasions, such as a funeral or a 
wedding. At other times it was rarely used, 
even on Sundays, unless damp were suspected, 
and the room needed " airing " which means, 
not throwing open to the air, but having a 
fire put in it. Such a parlour was that in 
whicn Wordsworth's suppositive "party" 
"all silent and all d a would assemble. 
There was something in the very air of 
these rooms that would reduce any party to 
silence, and the rest at least until after 
supper. I could picture one of them, but 
pity stays my hand. What I have written 
refers to the better class of farmhouses in the 
Midland counties. C. C. B. 

"Receptions or converse" is suggestive 
rather of regularly appointed entertainments 
than of casual interviews with visitors from 
the outside world on some affair of moment, 
which was the use of the convent parloir. I 
suppose the best-known " parlour is that in 
which Squire and Capt. Shandy sat and 
talked so entertainingly with Dr. Slop and 
Yorick and Trim and Obadiah ; that was a 
"back-parlour." Ordinarily, I think, the 
"parlour" was a small or moderate-sized 
room on the ground floor, nearest the front 
or back door of the house, and preferentially 
on the right as one entered. It is related of 
Charles Lamb that he was so struck by 
certain lines (I forget whose) concluding : 
" Like a party in a parlour, all silent and all 
damned," that he one night clung to an area 
railing, and assailed the revellers within with 
" You damned party in a parlour ! You 
damned party in a parlour ! " 

Tower House, New Hampton. 

GLASGOW UNIVERSITY (9 th S. vii. 484). 
Perhaps, in addition to what N. S. S. has 
written, the address from the University to 
Leo XIII. and the Pope's reply may be 
thought worthy of record and preservation 
in'N. &Q.': 
Pontifici Maximo Viro Sanctissimo Eeverendissimo 

Eruditissimo Leoni XIII. Universitas tola Glasgu- 

ensis Cancellarius Hector Professores Graduati 

Studentes Salutem. 

In multo nostro gaudio quippe mox ferias ssecu- 
lares celebraturi illud potissimum gratis animis 
recordari libet quod aniplam hanc Universitatem, 
copiis omnibus hodie ingenii atque operum instruc- 
tam, ab ipsa sede Apostolica profectam, et cum 
amantissima Pontiticis Maximi commendatione 
institutam, a maioribus accepimus. 

Doctissimus enim ille Pontifex, Nicolaus Quintus, 
anno incarnationis Dominicae millesimo quadringen- 
tesimo quinquagesimo primo, summum suum in 
Scotos atque artes amorem prseferens, luminibus 
ipse omnibus et ingenii et liberalium artium illus- 
trissinms, Studium apud nos Generale institui, et 
doctpres magistros studentesque nostros libertatibus 
omnibus quse in Studio civitatis suse Bononiensis, 
concessse fuerant gaudere atque uti voluit. 

Quod tantum beneficium cum sicut pia filia matri 
carissimse acceptam referamus, illud nos decere 
arbitramur, ut Sanctitatem tuarn participem fore 
nostri gaudii speremus, meritasque Sedi Apostolicae 
grates pro tan to merito proferamus. 

Oramus igitur ut hanc nostram felicitatem aucto- 
ritate tua cumulare digneris ; et si per tempora haec 
iniqua, p^er tot maris et viarum dUficultates non 
poterit neri ut Beatitude tua adsistat feriantibus, 
op tarn us saltern fore ut per alium quemdam bene- 
volum tuum in nos animum significes, et Universi- 
tatem hanc nostram, ab erudito Nicolao erectam, 
a lacobo Scotorum rege fotam, a Gulielmo Episcopo 
Glasguensi curatam atque defensam, a mult is 
denique regibus nostris multis auctam beneficiis, 
eruditissimus ipse litterarumque Latinarum cultor 
elegantissimus pro humanitate tua amplificare velis, 
atque ad nova usque saecula commendare. 

Dabamus Glasguae, Idibus Maiis, MOMI. 

Prsefectus et Vice-Cancellarius. 

F. G. Herberto Story Prcefecto et Vice-Cancellario 
item Rectori atque Auditoribus Universitatis 
Studiorum Glasguensis (Glasgow). 


lucundas scito Nobis communes litteras vestras 
fuisse. Memoriam beneficiorum colere, multoque 
magis ferre prse se palam ac libere, virtus est non 
humilia nee angusta sentientis animi: atque istius- 
modi virtutem libet quidem in vobis agnoscere, 
studiorum optimorum ingeniique decora prseclare 
cumulantem. Quod enim Lyceum magnum, ubi 
vestra omnium desudat industria debet Apostolicse 
Sedi origines suas, idcirco sub solemnia eius sa3cu- 
laria ad Romanum Pontificem vestra provolavit 
cogitatio menior, atque ultro arcessivistis Nosmet- 
ipsos in Isetitise societatem, tamquam desideraturi 
aliquid, si voluntatis Nostrse significatione in hoc 
tempore caruissetis. Equidem gratum habemus 
facimusque plurimi tale officium humanitatis cum 
iudicii sequitate coniunctum. Memoria autem 
vetera repetentes, utique diversamur apud vos 
ammo per hos dies, reique tarn utiliter a Nicolao V. 


. vm. JULY e, 1901. 

Pontifice maximo institutes cogitatione delec- 
tamur. Quo quidem institute certe magnus ille 
decessor Noster de Scotorum genere immortahter 
meruit ; prsetereaque et ipse in aperto posuit, 
Komani Pontificatus virtutem in elegantiam doc- 
trine, in studia ingenuarum artium, quibus 
maxime rebus alitur humanitas gentium, ad incre- 
mentum suapte natura influere. Cetera istud 
maiorum disciplinarum nobile domicilium con- 
stanter florere cupimus salutarium ubertate fruc- 
tuum et gloria nominis: Deumque omnipotentem 
comprecamur, ut doctos labores vestros omnium 
genere ad veritatem dirigere, vpsque universes 
perfecta Nobiscum caritate coniungere benigne 

Datum Romee apud S. Petrum die IX. lunii Anno 

Pontificatus Nostri vicesimo quarto. 


"COLLATE" (9 th S. vii. 5). Under this 
heading F. H., instancing words having a 
similar "back-formation," gives among them 
"the American nast." Why "American"? 
Halliwell gives nast as a word of provincial 
English, but it is doubtful whether it was 
ever used here. It is amusing and exas- 
perating by turns to see so many things con- 
fidently classed as " American " of which 
Americans themselves know nothing. 

M. C. L. 
New York. 

[Dr. Fitzedward Hall was the F. H. in question, 
an American who presumably knew something of 
his own tongue. ] 

150, 215, 296, 454). I remember in my youth 
coming across a distich which at one time 
would appear to have been a familiar axiom, 
running somewhat to the effect, 

Dancing [?] and heresy, hops and beer, 
Came into England all in a year,* 

temp. Reformation, about the middle of the 
sixteenth century, obviously intended as a 
" fling " at the Lollard or Gospeller party in 
religion. After the lapse of three score years, 
however, I cannot, of course, be certain that 
my memory serves me truly. Surely dancing 
was well known and generally practised in 
England centuries before temp. Hen. VIII, 
Ed. VI. ! Was the word " beer >1 then invented 
to describe a malt liquor in which hops were a 
component in contradistinction to the familiar 
term " ale " ? I believe the hop was introduced 
into England at about that date. Do I quote 
correctly 1 Can and will any reader kindly 
furnish me with a reference to the metrical 
saying, or correct or otherwise assist 1 


[* Humorously quoted in 'Ingoldsby' in a mock 
comment on Shakespeare.] 

vii. 330, 398). 

I fancy that what appears at the first reference 
to be a fifth line, sequent to the four preceding 
ones found in Bailey's ' Festus,' was not intended 
as such a continuation by H. J. B. C. , who asked 
after the authorship, but was meant to form a 
separate quotation and inquiry. Taken in that 
way, with a slight yerbal difference as given below, 
it may be found in Ly man's translation of the 
'Maxims of Publius Syrus' as maxim 829: "Ib 
matters not how long you live, but how well." 

M. C. L. 
(9 th S. vii. 330.) 

Thou cam'st not to thy place by accident, 
It is the very place God meant for thee ; 
And should'st thou there small room for action see, 
Do not for this give room to discontent, &c. 

Sonnet by Archbishop Trench. 
(9 th S. vii. 489.) 

Sheepskins, beeswax, putty, pitch, and plaster, 
The more you try to pull them off, they 're sure to 

stick the faster. 

One of the nonsense verses in the convivial song 
' Three Jolly Post-Boys.' 



Memorials of the Duttons of Dutton t in Cheshire. 
With Notes respecting the Sherborne Branch of 
the Family. (Chester, Minshull & Meeson ; Lon- 
don, Sotheran & Co. ) 

No name of writer appears to this interesting and 
important record of the Duttons of Dutton. In 
the place on the title-page ordinarily assigned such 
name is found an "Acclamation," "God bless the 
King and the heir of Dutton," which anciently 
concluded the service in St. John the Baptist's, 
Chester, at the annual licensing of the Cheshire 
minstrels by the lord of Dutton. This matter of 
the licensing of the minstrels one of the most 
interesting things in connexion with the Dutton 
pedigree had not long to wait after the establish- 
ment of 'N. & Q.' before becoming a subject of 
inquiry (see 1 st S. ii. 21, 77 ; x. 244). References to 
the subject are found in Ormerod's ' Cheshire,' 
which supplies a Dutton pedigree from the trust- 
worthy hands of Sir Peter Leycester, and also in 
Lysons's ' Cheshire ' ; while Blount's ' Tenures of 
Lands and Customs of Manors' (ed. Hazlitt, 
pp. 68-70) gives a full account of this presumably 
unique distinction of licensing the minstrels and 
players of Cheshire, with other disorderly characters 
whose condition since the days of Ford and Hey- 
wood is generally indicated by the employment of 
a euphemism. Its origin, briefly indicated, is as fol- 
lows. Randle, third Earl of Chester, being distressed 
by the Welsh, sent to the Constable of Chester, 
Roger Lacy (known for his fierce spirit as " Hell"), 
for immediate assistance. Gathering from the fair 
at Chester a nondescript rabble of fiddlers, players, 
and others of both sexes, Roger marched to the 
earl. The Welsh, seeing the approach of what 
seemed a multitude, raised the siege and dispersed. 

9" s. vm. JULY e, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Jn his gratitude for this relief, the earl gave Roger 
the control of the fiddlers and rabble generally 
of Chester a not too desirable privilege, which 
Roger transferred to Hugh de Button and his heirs. 
This custom became one of licensing the musicians 
of the county. We cannot go further into the sub- 
ject, but will only say that the last court was held 
so late as 1756, and that the right is supposed to be 
vested in the heir-general of the Buttons, though 
Thomas Button, the last of the male-line owners 
of Button, under Puritan influence refused a 
licence for "piping and dancing " on Sundays. It is 
a curious fact that the Buttons in the time of Eliza- 
beth had a special exemption from the penalties, 
including whipping, pronounced against their clients 
as " rogues and vagabonds." Had Scott known of 
the bestowal of this privilege, he would probably 
have used it in 'The Betrothed,' the period of 
which it might be made to fit. At the time of the 
Domesday Survey a follower of the Conqueror, from 
whom a direct descent can be traced, was established 
at Button, then Buntune, in Cheshire. The family 
is described by Leycester as "of great worth and 
antiquity." Sir Thomas de Button, the first knight 
of the family, was Sheriff of Cheshire in 1268. In 
the fourteenth century the family branched to 
Hatton, near Chester, a property then considerable, 
which had been acquired by marriage. Apropos 
of this the writer says that "Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton, Queen Elizabeth's dancing Lord Chancellor, 
' claimed kindred there and had his claims allowed.' " 
Others of the Buttons had previously fought in the 
Crusades, with Hotspur, at Agincourt, or on one or 
other side in the Wars of the Roses. Sherborne, 
whence comes the title of Lord Sherborne the 
book is dedicated to Lady Sherborne was pur- 
chased in 1551 by Thomas Button. Branches of the 
family settled in Yorkshire, Staffordshire, and 
Benbighshire, and individuals of the name are 
heard of in various posts of danger or authority. 
Sir Piers Button assisted zealously in the suppres- 
sion of the monasteries under Henry VIII. In 
Little Gaddesden Church, Herts, is a striking 
monument, erected by Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, 
her grandfather, to Elizabeth Button, who died " a 
wife, a widow, and a maid in the year 1611, aged 
sixteen." She was formally betrothed to John 
Button when eleven years old. Her husband is 
supposed to have been accidentally killed on the 
day fixed for the consummation of the wedding. 
Thomas Button, the last of the direct male line, 
and twentieth in descent from Odard, the founder 
of the family, died on 28 Becember, 1614, his son 
John having predeceased him in 1609. High interest 
attends the bloodthirsty duel fought on Calais sands 
in Becember, 1610, between Sir Thomas Button 
and Sir Hatton Cheke (grandson of the famous Sir 
John Cheke), in which the latter combatant was 
slain. The fight is characteristically described by 
Carlyle in the fourth volume of his 'Miscellanies.' 
This duel was followed in 1712 by another perhaps 
the most celebrated in English history between 
the first Lord Button, better known as the Buke 
of Hamilton, and Lord Mohun, in which both com- 
batants met their death. Among those who have 
dealt with this fight are Swift and Thackeray. 
Sir Ralph Button, of Standish, raised a regiment 
for King Charles eight hundred strong, which with 
flying colours joined the royal standard at Notting- 
ham, being the second regiment raised. 

We cannot follow the further fortunes of this 
noble family, of which Lord Sherborne, a welcome 

contributor to our columns, is a present repre- 
sentative. Lord Sherborne has, indeed, printed for 
private circulation the records of the Sherborne 
branch, a work which we have not seen, and one, 
as we have proved, difficult of access. The author 
of the present volume writes like a scholar and a 
gentleman, and supplies, in addition to a spirited 
chronicle, notes of historical and literary value. His 
book is enriched with an excellent index, useful 
appendices, pedigrees, facsimiles, and illustrations, 
including portraits, admirably reproduced, of Lord 
Chancellor Ellesmere, the fourth Buke of Hamilton, 
and Lord Mohun. The frontispiece presents what 
remains of Button Hall, in Cheshire, erected in 
1539-42 by Sir Piers Button and Bame Julian (sic) 
his wife. Other views of the Hall, of achievements 
of Button arms, &c., also appear. Many letters and 
documents previously unprinted are given, and the 
work is a model of what a family history ought to 
be. It is admirably printed, and is bound in cream- 
coloured canvas with a coat of arms of the Buttons 
in gold and colours upon the side, and is in all 
respects de luxe. 

JANE AUSTEN" has become a constant figure in 
current literature, and each successive month brings 
with it some new criticism or tribute. In the 
Fortnightly Mr. Rowland Grey writes on the bores 
in her novels. These are numerous, and may well 
indeed be so when " courteous, gentlemanly Mr. 
Woodhouse" is numbered among such. Mr. Grey 
does not, however, confine himself to bores, but 
has something to say on other types in Miss 
Austen's well-filled galleries. Under the title 'A 
Sportsman on Cruelty to Animals' Mr. Aflalo 
defends himself from the attacks of the " humani- 
tarians." It is not necessary, however, to be one 
of those who forbid the slaughter of animals for 
food in order to condemn their destruction for 
sport. Lady Jeune writes amusingly on ' Bridge.' 
Mr. W. S. Lilly devotes much space to 'Le 
Fantome ' of M. Paul Bourget, whom ne regards as 
"the greatest novelist that France has produced 
since the days of Balzac." The subject of the book 
on which Mr. Lilly comments is dreadfully un- 
pleasant, but so, for the matter of that, are the sub- 
jects of many of the fictions of Balzac. While over- 
praising, as we fancy, for we have not read the book, 
the merits of a story " worthy of the pens of the old 
tragedians of Hellas," Mr. Lilly takes the oppor- 
tunity to express his own views as to the value of 
religious sanctions in the enforcement of the moral 
law. Mr. William Laird Clowes advocates 'The 
Cheapening of Useful Books.' He comments, as 
well he may, upon the manner in which people of 
all classes have been coaxed into buying by instal- 
ments "an imperfect and partially antiquated 
book," and he holds that " we are not yet a great 
reading nation, but we are on the point of becoming 
one." Mr. Stephen Gwynn dwells on ' Some Recent 
Books,' among which is M. Maeterlinck's ' Life of 
the Bee.' Mr. Karl Blind supplies to the Nineteenth 
Century some facts not generally known concerning 
the origin of the 'Marseillaise.' If we may accept 
the statements now made, Rouget de I'lsle has 
enjoyed honours to which he was not entitled. The 
* Marseillaise' was, we are told, made in Germany, 
being part of a mass composed in 1776 by Holtz- 
mann, the Kapellmeister of the Elector of the 
Palatinate. Rouget de I'lsle, we are further told, 
narrowly escaped the guillotine, was saved by the 
overthrow of Robespierre, and lived until 1836. 

NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY e, 1901. 

Louis Philippe offered him a pension, which was 
declined. Mr. John Fyyie gives an account of 
* The Marriage of Mrs. Fitzherbert and George the 
Fourth,' and calls for the publication of papers on 
the subject which are supposed still to exist. Lord 
Albemarle records that the king was buried with a 
portrait round his neck of the woman he had so long 
abandoned. The story is more interesting as well 
as more edifying than are most of the narratives of 
royal conquest, Mr. Herbert Paul's recollections 
of the late Bishop of London are entertaining. 
They contain, however, one nai've and rather 
embarrassing statement. "No bishop on the 
bench," says Mr. Paul, "was fonder of French 
novels." Are we then to accept, what seems implied, 
that French novels constitute an agreeable or 
ordinary pabulum of bishops? There are many 
good articles in the number, but most of them are 
political or otherwise controversial. The Poll Mall 
has as frontispiece a reproduction of Mr. Sargent's 
picture of the Misses Wertheimer which arrests 
attention in the year's Academy. The opening 
article consists of an account of ' Glasgow " the 
Second City," ' with numerous illustrations. Glas- 
gow has, says the writer, " the attributes of a great 
American city." This remark was made to us 
nearly half a century ago by an American who 
accompanied us there and preferred it to London. 
'A Woman's Shopping' throws a light not wholly 
captivating or satisfactory upon some of " pretty 
Fanny's ways." A good account is given of James 
Stephens, the Fenian head-centre, who, it appears, 
barely escaped being shot by his own followers as 
" a rogue, an impostor, and a traitor." An excellent 
account of Stowe, once the seat of the Dukes of 
Buckingham, follows with many illustrations. Mr. 
Archer's ' Real Conversations ' are diminishing in 
interest. In the latest with Mr. George Moore 
Mr. Archer seems unable to keep his tongue out of 
his cheek. Like a song in ' Twelfth Night ' the 
conversation "is silly sooth." A readable paper 
is supplied on ' Opera in Germany and in England.' 
In the Cornhill the article of most interest is the 
' Notes of an Octogenarian,' by Miss Louisa Cour- 
tenay. They deal with many people in whom the 
world still maintains a lively interest Lady 
Morgan, Madame d'Arblay, the Miss Berrys, 
Rogers, Sydney Smith, the Duke of Welling- 
ton, &c. Prof. Beeching is, we are positively 
told, though we doubted it not before, the author 
of 'Provincial Letters,' the latest of which deals 
with Lincoln. He is a writer it is always pleasant 
to meet, though we shall always see either obtuse- 
ness or want of invention in taking and maintain- 
ing a title such as Urbanus Sylvan. What is said 
about Hugh of Lincoln (the little Christian we 
mean) still "gives" us "pause." Mr. Fitchett's 
' Tale of the Great Mutiny ' remains as stirring 
as ever. Its pictures are particularly lifelike. 
Mr. Ernest Myers writes 9n 'Alfred of England.' 
'A Londoner's Log-book' is agreeably continued. 
-' A Surrey Pepys ' in the Gentleman's is a certain 
Thomas Turner, a diarist who, more than a hundred 
years later than Pepys, left a candid avowal of his 
misdeeds. Mr. Philip Kent, who writes on ' Some 
Vulgar Errors,' falls himself into one or two very 
uncommon errors, as when he substitutes floating 
"on her watery hearse "for Milton's "float upon 
her watery bier." It may be doubted whether 
many of the errors to which this later Sir Thomas 
Browne refers are still maintained. Does anybody 
now think that the young bear has to be licked 

into shape by its mother ? Miss Georgiana Hill gives 
another of her historical studies. Mr. Almy depicts 
* The Coleridge Country.' Mr. Lang is still at his 
best in Longman's, and in his ' At the Sign of the 
Ship ' has a lively disputation with Prof. Beeching. 
What Mr. Lang has to say on the substitution of 
philology for literature is painfully true, and has 
an application wider than he cares to make. On 
crystal-gazing and other subjects he is no less 
excellent. ' The Disappearance of Plants ' opens 
out a sad question. The woman who goes 
with a trowel and a basket to spots of natural 
beauty in order to uproot rare ferns and flowers is 
almost as much of a pirate as the ordinary naturalist 
who, in order to classify or possess specimens of 
birds and butterflies, compasses their extinction; 
and this brings us to bewail the appearance in 
Longman's of an article such as 'The Amateur 
Poacher.' Mr. Walter Pollock's ghost story is very 
striking. In addition to many lighter articles the 
Idler has ' Walks and Talks with Tolstoy,' which 
are very interesting, a good description of * Beauty 
Spots in the Tyrol,' and an account, of ' Great 
Achievements in Bridge Building.' Scribner's, 
which arrives top late for full notice, has a read- 
able ' Tour in Sicily,' ' Passages from a Diary in 
the Pacific,' 'The Delta Country of Alaska' (all 
admirably illustrated), and an account of Matthew 

THE cheap summer guides are beginning to come 
in. One of the first in the field is Mr. Percy 
Lindley's ' Holidays in Eastern Counties,' which is 
agreeably written and illustrated, and leads the 
traveller to many unfamiliar spots. Milgate's 
interesting guide to Reculver, giving much useful 
information at a very cheap price, reaches us from 
Herne Bay. 


We, must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

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eading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
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9* s. viii. JULY is, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 185. 

NOTES : Civil List Pensions, 29 Dibdin Bibliography, 39 
" Wicken "=Wykes " Went " Dowsing, 40 Vanish- 
ing London Charles Cotton Letters of Junius Stage- 
Coach Drivers Spelling of Proper Names, 41 Mercy to 
Animals Lime-tree Trysting Oak Riding the Stang 
William Fitz Aldeline, 42 American Slang, 43. 

QUERIES : Sir H. D'Wyvill Storming of Lincoln 
Badges Pictures of Taverns, 43 Droits de 1'Homme 
"Of whom" for " Whose "Recorder of Nottingham 
Dr. Gentianus Harvet The Synagogue ' Cundy Family 
The King of Calicut Alba Pottery De Clare Oldest 
Licensed House "Corne bote," 44 'Travels of Peter 
Teixeira 'Alum Thomas Glasse Count Thoss Dunnet 
James II. Cudworth " Vsesac Mihm ""Co-ruff," 45 
Mackesy, 46. 

REPLIES : -Prisoners of War The Halberts, 46 Allusion 
in Wordsworth" Fair" and making " Fair " B. Walker 
' The Troth of Gilbert a Beckett 'Portrait of Lady 
Harley Orientation, 47 Ernest Bussy Scott Query 
"Between the devil and the deep sea" "Shoehorned," 
48 "Lake, "a Precious Stone Unmarried Lord Mayors 
English Oratory Rungs of a Ladder Louis XVI., 49 
Iveagh Book of Common Prayer in Latin Crosier and 
Pastoral Staff, 50 " Then "=Than ' ' Fire-fanged " 
Troubadour and Daisy " Porte-man teau," 51 Haydon 
Family " Snicket " Hull Saying, 52 " Hedge " 
Cromwelliana Manor of TV burn Peter Thellusson, 53 
" Capt. Rock " " Bull and Last," 54. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: -'A New English Dictionary'- 
Miss Graham's ' S. Gilbert of Sempringham ' Anderson's 
4 Roll of Alumni in the University of Aberdeen ' 
Prideaux's ' Bibliography of Coleridge.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(Continued from p. 10.) 


1880, June 19th (W. E. Gladstone). 


"In consideration of the services of their 
father, the late Sir John Goss. 60. jointly." 
Sir John Goss (1800-80) succeeded Attwood 
as organist of St. Paul's in 1838 retired in 
1872 with the honour of knighthood ; com- 
posed "If we believe" for the funeral of the 
Duke of Wellington, and "The Lord is my 
strength" for the Thanksgiving service in 
1872 on the recovery of the Prince of Wales 
( 4 Cassell's Biographical Dictionary '). 
1895, May 16th (Earl of Rosebery). 

"In consideration of the services of her 
late husband, Sir Robert Stewart, in the 
cultivation of music in Ireland. 501" 

Sir Robert Stewart (1825-94), conductor 
of the University of Dublin Choral Society 
and also of the Dublin Philharmonic. He 
did much for the cause of good music. Sir 
Robert obtained many prjzes for glees, in 
which branch of his art he displayed marked 

1896, March 31st (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of her eminence as a 
singer and of her services to English opera. 

Born 1832; pupil of Sir George Smart: 
first appearance 1842 ('Men and Women of 
the Time '). 

1896, March 31st (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the services of her late 
husband, Sir Joseph Barnby, as a choral 
conductor and composer of choral music. 

"The most gifted member of a musical 
family" (Athenaeum, February 1st, 1896). 
1897, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the merits of her hus- 
band, the late Dr. George Garrett, as a com- 
poser of Church music. 50/." 

Dr. George Garrett (1834-97), organist and 
composer of an oratorio 'The Shunammite,' 
various cantatas, and much Church music, 
to which branch of music he specially devoted 
himself. Organist of Madras Cathedral 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
to music in Ireland by her late husband, Mr. 
Joseph Robinson, and of her inadequate 
means of support. 40." 

Joseph Robinson, born 1816. In 1834 he 
founded the Antient Society at Dublin, of 
which he was conductor for twenty-nine 
years. Mendelssohn's ' Elijah ' was performed 
there the year after its production at Bir- 
mingham. It was for Robinson that Mendels- 
sohn scored his ' Hear my Prayer/ which 
originally had only organ accompaniment. 
From 1837 to 1847 he was conductor of the 
University Choral Society. He wrote songs 
and anthems, and arranged Irish melodies. 


1854, January 3rd (Earl of Aberdeen). 

" Daughter of the late Mr. James Simpson. 
In consideration of his eminent services in 
the cause of education and the distressed 
circumstances in which, owing to the ex- 
penditure of his own means in furtherance 
of this object, his family are left at his 
decease. 100." 

James Simpson, 1781-1853, knew Sir Walter 
Scott, and criticized 'Waverley' before its 
publication ('D.N.B.,' vol. lii.). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY is, 1901. 

1880, January 26th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

"In consideration of the services rendered 
by her father, the late Very Kev. Sydney 
Turner, as Inspector of Reformatories and 
Industrial Schools. 75?." 

1881, February 5th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In consideration of the services of her 
late husband, the Rev. John Rodgers, in the 
cause of public elementary education. 75?." 

1882, August 16th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In recognition of the services of her 
husband, the late Canon Robinson, in the 
cause of public education. 80?." 

1892, January 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services he has 
rendered to education and philosophy and 
mental science, of his blindness, and of his 
inadequate means of support. 50?." 

Examiner and teacher of Moral Science at 
Cambridge ; ' Six Lectures on Cicero,' Cam- 
bridge, Deighton (Sonnenschein's 'Best 

1892, June 20th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the services rendered 
by the late Sir Henry Cole to the cause of 
artistic and scientific education. 30?. each." 

Sir Henry Cole, 1808-82 (Athenceum, 
April 22nd, 1882; 'Fifty Years of Public 
Work,' 2 vols., 1884 ; 'D.N.B.,' vol. xi.). 

1897, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of his services in the cause 
of secondary education in Scotland. 50?." 

1898, June 9th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


" In consideration of the services of their 
late father, Dr. Leonhard Schmitz, to classical 
education and learning, and of their in- 
adequate means of support. 25?. each." 

Dr. Leonhard Schmitz, 1807-90 (' Cham- 
bers's Biographical Dictionary'; Athencevm, 
June 7th, 1890). 

1898, June 9th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the services of their 
late father, Mr. George Wallis, to artistic 

education, and of their inadequate means of 
support. 25?. each." 

1847, October 4th (Lord John Russell). 

" Daughter of the late Rev. Dr. Chalmers. 
In consideration of his piety, eloquence, and 
learning. 25?." 

Thomas Chalmers, D.D., 1780-1847, was 
the sixth of fourteen children. At the parish 
school was "one of the idlest, strongest, 
merriest, and most generous-hearted boys." 
Pure geometry had a strong attraction for 
him from childhood ; desired to be a minister 
of the Gospel ; wrote the article on ' Chris- 
tianity' for the ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.' 
He preached in London with as great an 
effect as in Glasgow. Wilberforce wrote in 
his diary : " All the world wild about 
Chalmers " (' D.N.B.,' vol. ix.). 

1868, February 14th (Earl of Derby). 
(now PER AY). 

" In consideration of the services of their 
father, the late John Kitto, D.D., as a critical 
and theological writer. 100?." 

Kitto's ' Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature/ 
3 vols. (Sonnenschein's ' The Best Books '). 

1892, January 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the eminence of their 
father, the late Rev. Frederick Henry Am- 
brose Scrivener, as a Biblical scholar, and of 
their inadequate means of support. 25?. each." 

Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener, 
1813-91 (' D.N.B.,' li.). 

1895, January 8th (Earl of Rosebery). 

"In recognition of the value of his re- 
searches into Biblical and Hebrew literature. 

Born at Warsaw, 1830 ; Rabbinical scholar; 
came early to England (' Chambers's Bio- 
graphical Dictionary'; Sonnenschein's 'The 
Best Books '). 

1897, April 10th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services of their 
father, the late Rev. Edwin Hatch, in con- 
nexion with ecclesiastical history. 30?. each." 
Edwin Hatch (1855-89); at Oxford he 

os. vm. JULY is, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


moved in a stimulating society of which 
Edward Burne- Jones, the artist, an old 
schoolfellow, William Morris and Mr. Swin- 
burne, the poets, were prominent members 
( c D.N.B.,'vol. xxv.). 

1898, June 9th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


" In recognition of his services to theological 
literature. 501. " 

* The English Reformation : How it came 
About,' 1883 ; * Entering on Life : a Book for 
Young Men,' 1884 ; 'The Holy Land,' Cassell, 
1887-8 ; * Life of Christ,' &c. (Sonnenschein's 
* The Best Books'). 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


"In consideration of the merits of their 
late father, Dr. Alfred Edersheim, as a 
theologian and Biblical critic. 25. each." 

Sonnenschein's * The Best Books.' 


1853, March 23rd (Earl of Aberdeen). 

"In consideration of Prof. Dunbar's ser- 
vices as Professor of Greek Literature for 
many years in the University of Edinburgh, 
and the destitute condition to which his 
family have been reduced by his death. 752." 

George Dunbar (1774-1851), employed in 
youth as a gardener, assistant of Andrew 
Dalziel, the Professor of Greek at the Edin- 
burgh University. On Dalziel's death, 1806, 
Dunbar was appointed his successor, and 
filled the chair until his death on Decem- 
ber 6th, 1851 ('D.N.B.,' vol. xvi. p. 153). 

1865, June 19th (Lord Palmeraton). 

"Widow of the late Professor of Mathe- 
matics in Queen's College, Cork. In con- 
sideration of her late husband's distinguished 
attainments as an original mathematician of 
the highest order, and of his remarkable 
labours towards the extension of the bound- 
aries of science. 100Z." 

George Boole (1815-64), mathematician and 
togician; engaged in teaching from the age of 
sixteen, at twenty opened a school on his own 
account ; 1849, appointed to the mathematical 
chair in the newly formed Queen's College at 
Cork. His principal productions were in the 
province of pure mathematics. "It is, how- 
ever, to his 'Laws of Thought' (1854), a 
work of astonishing originality and power, 

that his most durable fame will attach" 
('D.N.B.,'vol. v.). 

1867, June 19th (Earl of Derby). 

" In consideration of the eminent services 
rendered by her late father, Dr. Petrie, to 
archaeological science, both as an author and 
as a public servant. IQQl." 

George Petrie (1789-1866) was attached to 
the Ordnance Survey of Ireland ; author of 
'Essay on Round Towers' ('Chambers's Dic- 
tionary '). 

1868, February 14th (Earl of Derby). 



"In consideration of the services of their 
father, the late Edward Hincks, D.D., as an 
Oriental scholar. 1002." 

Edward Hincks, D.D. (1792-1866), born at 
Cork, August 19th ; obtained Dublin Gold 
Medal, 1811. Dr. Brugsch has placed on 
record his opinion that Hincks was the first 
to employ the true method of deciphering 
Egyptian hieroglyphics ('D.N.B.,' vol. xxvi. 
pp. 438-9). 

1877, June 13th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

"In recognition of the literary services of 
her late husband, Dr. Bleek, Keeper of the 
Grey Library at Cape Town, a distinguished 
linguist and African scholar. 1002." 

Wilhelm Heinrich Bleek born at Berlin 
March 8th, 1827 ; died August 17th, 1875. 
In 1855 he joined Bishop Colenso in Natal, 
and devoted himself to the study of the 
language and habits of the Kaffirs. Bleek'g 
books remain the first sources on the subject 
of African philology ('D.N.B.,' vol. v. p. 209); 

1880, October 13th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In recognition of the eminent mathemati- 
cal attainments of her late husband, Prof. 
Clifford. 801." 

William Kingdon Clifford (1845-79). In 
1870 he joined the English eclipse expedition, 
and was wrecked in the Psyche off Catania ; 
Professor of Applied Mathematics, University 
College, 1871; 1874, Fellow of the Royal 
Society. "As a mathematician," Prof. Aarl 
Pearson says, " Clifford may be regarded as 
marking an epoch in the history of this 
science in England " (' D.N.B.,' vol. xi.). 

1883, January 29th (W. E. Gladstone). 


" In recognition of the position of her late 
husband, Dr. Haas, as an Oriental scholar, 


s. vm. JULY 13, 1901. 

and of his important services in the British 
Museum. 80Z." ... 

Ernst Haas (1835-82). Athenaeum obituary 
notice July 15th, 1882, signed R. Host. 

1887, September 27th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the distinguished ser- 
vices of their late father, the Very Reverend 

25Z. each." i i 

John Tulloch, 1823-86 ( l D.N.B.,' vol. Ivu. 

p. 307). 

1889, March 5th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


14 In consideration of the services rendered 
by her late husband, Prof. Shairp, to litera- 
ture, and of her inadequate means of support, 

1 D.N.B.,' vol. li. 

1889, March 5th (Marquis of Salisbury). 
DR. 0. A. M. FENNELL. 

"In consideration of his eminence as a 
classical and philological scholar, of his ser- 
vices to literature, and of his inadequate 
means of support. 50/." 

1889, May 29th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of his services to philo- 
sophy and literature, and in consideration of 
his inadequate means of support. 502." 

1890, April 30th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the eminence of her 
late father, the Rev. R. Shilleto, as a classical 
scholar and teacher, and of her inadequate 
means of support. 50." 

Richard Shilleto (1809-76). Both he and 
his son Arthur (1848-94) were frequent con- 
tributors to 'N. & Q.' ('D.N.B.,' vol. lii.). 

1890, May 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the eminence of their 
late brother, Dr. Thomas Maguire, of Trinity 
College, Dublin, as a classical scholar, and in 
consideration of their inadequate means of 
support. 25/. each." 

Thomas Maguire (1831-89), first Roman 
Catholic Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Although no active politician, he took some 
part in the transfer to the Times newspaper 
of the " Pigott " letters, which were published 
in that paper in a series of articles called 

' Parnellism and Crime,' in 1887. He was a 
thorough idealist in philosophy, Plato and 
Berkeley being his chosen masters ( 4 D.N.B.,' 
vol. xxxv.). 

1891, January 6th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the services of her late 
husband, Prof. James F. Davies. M.A., to 
classical literature, and in consideration of 
tier inadequate means of support. 100/." 

1891, April 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 
Miss KATE SULLIVAN (now SCOTT) and Miss 

" In recognition of the services of their late 
father, Dr. Sullivan, President of Queen's 
College, Cork, to literature, and of his labours 
In developing the industrial resources of Ire- 
land, and in consideration also of their in- 
adequate means of support. 25/. each." 

1891, May 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of his services to literature, 
his merits as a scholar, and in consideration 
of his inadequate means of support. 100Z." 

Author of * Devon Words ' in Philological 
Society's Transactions, 1854; 'On Early Eng- 
lish Pronunciation,' 1874 (Sonnenschein s ' The 
Best Books'). 

1892, June 20th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his labours as a writer 
upon economical subjects. lOOL" 

Author of ' Elements of Banking,' ' Lectures 
on Credit and Banking,' 'The Theory and 
Practice of Banking ' (Sonnenschein's ' The 
Best Books '). 

1892, June 20th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of his labours in con- 
nexion with the 'New English Dictionary.' 


Joint editor of the 'Oxford English Dic- 
tionary' since 1889. Born 1845 ('Who's 
Who,' 1901). 

1892, November 29th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In recognition of her literary merits, and 
to enable her to prosecute her researches in 
Oriental folk-lore. 1001." 

Author of 'Women of Turkey and their 
Folk-lore ' (Nutt). 

1893, June 19th (W. E. Gladstone). 


" In consideration of the merits of her hus- 
band, the late Rev. Joseph Wolstenholme, as 

9- s. viii. JULY is, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a mathematician, and of her straitened cir- 
cumstances. 501" 

Author of ' Mathematical Problems ' (Mac- 

1891, January 16th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In recognition of his merits as a student 
of Oriental literature. 200." 

Born 1843 ; Secretary Royal Asiatic Society; 
Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, 
University College, London, 1882; Hibbert 
Lectures, 1881 ; American Lectures, 1896 
(' Who 's Who,' 1901). 

1894, January 16th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In recognition of the literary merits of 
her late husband, the Rev. Thomas Mozlev. 

Thomas Mozley, 1806-93 ('D.N.B.,' vol. 

1894, January 16th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of his researches into the 
language, literature, and archaeology of the 
Basques. 1501" 

'Basque Legends' (Sonnenschein's 'The 
Best Books'). 

1895, May 16th (Earl of Rosebery). 

" In consideration of the literary merits of 
her late husband, Sir J. R. Seeley, K.C.M.G., 
Regius Professor of Modern History in the 
University of Cambridge. 1001." 

Sir John Robert Seeley (1834-95), third son 
of Robert Benton Seeley, publisher. Among 
his contemporaries at Christ's were Calverley, 
Walter Besant, Skeat, Peile. In 1859 he 
published, under the pseudonym of John 
Kobertson, his first book, a volume of poems ; 
in 1865, ' Ecce Homo ' (' D.N.B.,' vol. li.). 

1895, June 18th (Earl of Rosebery). 

44 In consideration of his merits as an 
Oriental scholar. 75J." 

* Who 's Who,' 1901. 

1896, May 18th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


"In consideration of his labours in con- 
nexion with early history and historical 
theory. IQQl." 

Author of * Essay on Arthurian Localities ' 
in Wheatley's edition of Merlin (Early Eng- 
lish Text Society, Triibner, 1869); ' Classifica- 
tion of Folk-lore,' reprinted in Garnett's 
'Greek Folk-Songs' (Sonnenschein's 'The 
Best Books '). 

1896, May 18th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


" In consideration of his services to classical 
and historical learning, especially in con- 
nexion with the history of Greece. 120Z." 

Born 1827. 'Tales of Ancient Greece,' 
1868; 'Aryan Mythology,' 1870; 'History 
of Greece,' 1874-7 ; 'Comparative Mythology 
and Folk-lore,' &c. ('Who's Who,' 1901). 

1896, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the merits of their 
father, the late Rev. Richard Morris, as a 
student of early English literature and philo- 

logy. 25Z. each." 

Richard Morris. 'Alliterative Poems 
in West Midland Dialect of Fourteenth 
Century,' about 1360 (Sonnenschein's 'The 
Best Books '). 

1897, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his services to Oriental 
scholarship in England. 501" 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In addition to the pension of 501. granted 
to him in 1897. in consideration of his services 
to Oriental scholarship in England. 25." 

' Student's Arabic - English Dictionary ' 
(Sonnenschein's ' The Best Books '). 

1897, June 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the philosophical labours 
of her husband, the late Whyte's Professor of 
Moral Philosophy in the University of Oxford. 

William Wallace (1844-97), son of a house- 
builder. As a professor he had great influence 
upon many generations of students of philo- 
sophy at Oxford. In his lectures, which were 
without notes, he aimed not so much at the 
detailed exposition of philosophical systems 
as at exciting thought in his hearers. Killed 
by a bicycle accident (' D.N.B.,' vol. lix.). 

1898, April 29th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


" In consideration of the services to classical 
scholarship of her late husband, Prof. Arthur 
Palmer, and of her inadequate means of sup- 
port. 100Z." 

1898, July 26th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration and for the promotion of 
his services to philology, especially, in con- 


nexion with his services as editor of the 
4 English Dialect Dictionary.' 200/." 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" Jointly and to the survivor of them. In 
consideration of the labours of their late father, 
Dr. Robert Archibald Armstrong, the Gaelic 
lexicographer, and of their destitute con- 
dition. 25Z." 

Gaelic scholar. 

1899, August 18th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his researches on the 
subject of prehistoric flint implements. 26 

1900, March 21st (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his services to classical 
scholarship and of the failure of his sight. 

Teacher at Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
well known on the Continent as well as in 
England for his work on Aristotle. 


1858, February 15th (Lord Palmerston). 

"In consideration of the eminent services 
of her father, the late Mr. John Lander, who 
died from the effects of the climate whilst 
exploring the River Niger, and of the 
straitened circumstances in which she was 
placed at his decease. 501." 

John Lander (1807-39), African traveller; 
was by trade a printer : died at thirty-two 
from a malady contracted in Africa (' D.N.B.,' 
vol. xxxii.). 

1872, December 20th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" Widow of the late General Chesney. In 
consideration of the services of her late 
husband in connexion with the Euphrates 
Expedition in 1835. 100 J." 

Francis Rawdon Chesney, 1789-1872, the 
explorer of the Euphrates and founder of 
the overland route to India. It was on the 
strength of Chesney's report that De Lesseps, 
by his own frank admission, was first led to 
attempt the great enterprise of the Suez 
Canal ('D.N.B.,' vol. x.). 

1873, December 26th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In consideration of the services of her 
late husband, Vice- Admiral Sir Robert J. L. 
M'Clure, in the exploration of the Arctic 
regions, &c. 1001." 

Sir Robert John Le Mesurier M'Clure 
1807-73 ('D.N.B.,' vol. xxxv.). 

1874, March 17th (Benjamin Disraeli). 
(now MRS. BRUCE). 

" In recognition of the value of their father's 
geographical discoveries in Central Africa. 
501. each." 

David Livingstone, 1813-73 (' D.N.B.,' vol. 

1890, March 4th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
by her late father-in law, Dr. David Living- 
stone, the African explorer, and of her inade- 
quate means of support. 501" 

1894, June 19th (Earl of Rosebery). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
to geographical science by her late husband, 
Capt. Verney Lovett Cameron, R.N., C.B. 

Verney Lovett Cameron (1844-94) took part 
in the Abyssinian Expedition. In 1872 
appointed to an expedition to relieve Living- 
stone ; met Livingstone's followers bearing 
his remains to the coast (' Chambers's Bio- 
graphical Dictionary '). 

1900, May 25th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the services rendered 
bo Antarctic exploration by her late father, 
Capt. John Biscoe, and of her inadequate 
means of support. 301." 

The Southern Continent was discovered by 
! apt. John Biscoe on the 27th of February, 
L831, and named by him Enderby Land, after 
the gentleman who had equipped him for the 
voyage. He also discovered Graham's Land 
on February 15th, 1832 ('Haydn's Dictionary 
of Dates'). 

1856, March 4th (Lord Palmerston). 

"Daughter of the late Admiral Sir William 
loste. In consideration of the naval services 
)f her father, and her own destitute and 
nfirm condition. 501." 

Sir William Hoste, 1780-1828 ('D.N.B.,' 
rol. xxvii.). 

1873, March 1st (W. E. Gladstone). 


" In consideration of the heroic conduct of 
ler late husband, Capt. Knowles, on the 
occasion of the loss of the Northfleet. 501" 
The Northfleet lost off Dungeness on the 

. viii. JULY is, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


22nd of January, 1873, with three hundred 

1887, July 28th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the death of her hus- 
band, Major Neild, KM., from the effects of 
a wound received while on duty at Charles- 
town, and of her destitute condition. lOQl" 

1888, October 25th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


and Miss JANE HEWETT (now LAING). 

"In consideration of the distinguished 
naval services of their late father, Admiral 
Sir W. N. W. Hewett, K.C.B., K.C.S.I., and 
of their destitute condition. 75. each." 

William Nathan Wrighte Hewett (1834-88), 
son of Dr. Hewett, physician to William IV., 
was in command of a Lancaster gun before 
Sebastopol (' D.N.B.,' vol. xxvi.). 


1856, March 4th (Lord Palmerston). 



"The two eldest daughters of the late 
Lieut. - General Sir George Cathcart. In 
consideration of the distinguished services 
of their father, and his death on the field of 
battle when in command of a division of Her 
Majesty's forces. 1001. each." 

1857, January 8th (Lord Palmerston). 


"In consideration of the eminent military 
services of her father, the late Lieut.-General 
Sir George Cathcart, K.C.B., who was killed 
at the battle of Inkerman, and of the narrow 
pecuniary means in which his family have 
been left. 100J." 

Sir George Cathcart (1794-1854). Crimean 
war; killed at Inkerman. Tablet to his 
memory in St. Paul's ('D.N.B.,' vol. ix.). 

1858, December 6th (Earl of Derby). 

" In consideration of the military and lite- 
rary services of her husband, the late Capt. 
Simmons, and also of the eminent military 
services of her sons, two of whom lost their 
lives in action, and two of whom died from 
illness contracted in the execution of their 
duties. 75J." 

1864, June 18th (Lord Palmerston). 

"As an acknowledgment of the brilliant 
services of the late Sir J. Inglis during the 
Indian Mutiny, especially the gallant defence 

of Lucknow, services to which may partly be 
attributed his early death. 500/." 

Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis, 1814-62 
(' D.N.B.,' vol. xxix.). 

1872, March 18th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" Widow of Major George Montagu Stop- 
ford, of the Royal Engineers. In considera- 
tion of the distinguished military services of 
her father, Field-Marshal Sir J. Burgoyne. 

John Fox Burgoyne, 1782-1871 ('D.N.B./ 
vol. vii.). 

1872, March 18th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In consideration of the distinguished 
military services of her father, Field -Marshal 
Sir J. Burgoyne. 75Z." 

1877, June 13th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 
Second grant. 

"In addition to the pension of 75. a year 
granted in consideration of the distinguished 
military services of her late father, Field- 
Marshal Sir John Burgoyne. 75." 

1878, June 19th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

" In recognition of the gallant, long, and 
meritorious services of her late husband, Col. 
Thomas Laurence Smith, C.B., brother of 
General Sir Harry Smith, G.C.B. 100J." 

* D.N.B.,' vol. liii. 

1879, June 19th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

"In recognition of the heroic conduct of 
her late husband, Lieut, and Adjutant Mel- 
vill, in saving the colours of the 24th Regi- 
ment on the field of Isandlana. 1001." 

British camp surprised and attacked by 
15,000 Zulus. Lieuts. Melvill and Coghill 
perished while preserving the colours 
(' Haydn's Dictionary '). 

1880, October 13th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of the military services 
of her late husband, Lieut.-General James 
Wells Armstrong, C.B. 80J." 

1883, June 20th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In recognition of the valuable services of 
her late husband, Sir William Palliser, in the 
improvement of the manufacture of pro- 
jectiles and rifled ordnance. 1601" 

1887, May 21st (Marquis of Salisbury). 

Second grant. 1501. 

Sir William Palliser, 1830-82, inventor of 
Palliser shot ('D.N.B.,' vol. xliii.). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p s. vin. JULY is, woi. 

1885, April 8th ( W. E. Gladstone). 

"In recognition of the valuable services 
rendered by her son, the late Col. Hamill 
Stewart, in the defence of Khartoum. 200Z." 

1885, April 8th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In recognition of the valuable services 
rendered by their brother, the late Col. 
Hamill Stewart, in the defence of Khartoum. 
100Z. each." 

1885, June 16th (W. E. Gladstone). 
"In consideration of the services of their 
brother, the late Mr. Frank Power, in con- 
nexion with the defence of Khartoum. 50J. 

1890, January 15th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the distinguished 
services of her late father, Major-General Sir 
H. W. Barnard, K.C.B., and of her inadequate 
means of support. 7bl." 

Sir Henry William Barnard (1799-1857). 
Crimea, 1854 ; Indian Mutiny, 1857 ; died of 
cholera on the 5th of July, eleven weeks be- 
fore the fall of Delhi (' D.N.B.,' vol. iii.). 

1891, April 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the army services of 
her late brother, Lieut.-Col. A. J. Macdonald, 
of her old age, and of her inadequate means 
of support. 50J." 


1845, June llth (Sir Robert Peel). 

" Daughter of the late General Sir Hudson 
Lowe. In consideration of the services of her 
father, and her own destitute condition. 5QL" 

Sir Hudson Lowe (1760-1844), Governor of 
St. Helena from 1815 to 1821. One of his first 
acts upon his arrival was, upon his own re- 
sponsibility, to raise the amount allowed by 
the Government for Napoleon's establishment 
at Long wood from 8,000. to 12,000. per 
annum. The Lowe papers are now in the 
British Museum ('D.N.B.,' vol. xxxiv.). 
1873, August 7th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of the long and excellent 
service of her husband, G. W. Keate, Esq., 

who died at Cape Coast Castle when Governor 
in Chief of the West African Settlements. 

1882, June 28th (W. E. Gladstone). 


"In recognition of the excellent public 
service of her late husband, Mr. J. F. Calla- 
ghan, C.M.G., Governor of the Bahamas, and 
of her narrow circumstances. 50." 

Governor 1879-81. 

1885, December 5th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the long and meri- 
torious services rendered by her husband, 
the late Sir John Hawley Glover, G.C.M.G. 

Sir John Hawley Glover, 1829-85 ('D.N.B.,' 
vol. xxii.). English colonial statesman ; 
Governor of Lagos in 1862; Special Com- 
missioner to the Gold Coast, 1873 ; Governor 
of Newfoundland. 

1888, January 4th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the services of her late 
husband as Crown Solicitor, Chief Justice, 
and Acting Governor of Sierra Leone, and of 
her destitute condition. 501" 

1890, November 25th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of her late husband's ser- 
vices as Governor of Heligoland, and in con- 
sideration of her inadequate means of support. 

A. C. S. Barkly, Governor, November, 1888. 
Heligoland ceded to Germany June 18th, 1890; 
given up by Mr. Barkly to the new governor 
August 9th (' Haydn's Dictionary of Dates '). 

1897, February llth (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the public services of 
her late husband, Sir F. N. Broome, K.C.M.G., 
especially as Governor of Western Australia, 
and of her own literary merits. 100Z." 

Sir Frederick Napier Broome, Governor 

1897, April 10th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the distinguished ser- 
vices of her husband, the late Sir John Bates 
Thurston, K.C.M.G., as Governor of Fiji and 
High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. 

Sir John Bates Thurston (1836-97). In 
addition to this pension the Government of 
Fiji granted a pension of 501. a year to each 
of his five children during their minority 
C D.N.B.,' vol. Ivi.). 

9*" s. viii. JULY is, 190L] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1898, April 29th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the public services of 
their late father, Sir W. Brandford Griffith, 
formerly Governor of the Gold Coast Colon y, 
and of their straitened circumstances. 251. 

Governor from 1886 to end of 1894. 

1898, April 29th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the distinguished ser- 
vices of her husband the late Sir William E. 
Maxwell, as Governor of the Gold Coast 
Colony. 100Z." 

Governor 1895; died at sea, December, 
1897 (* Haydn's Dictionary of Dates '). 

1900, May 25th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the public services of 
her late husband, Sir Henry Barkly 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B , as Governor of five British 
colonies in succession. 75/." 

Sir Henry Barkly; 1855, M.R for Leominster; 
"firm supporter of Sir R. Peel's commercial 
policy"; in 1849 Governor of British Guiana; 
Governor of Jamaica, 1853-6 ; then Governor 
of Victoria, 1863 ; Mauritius, 1870 ; Cape of 
Good Hope till December, 1876 (' Men of the 
Time '). 



1875, December 30th (Benjamin Disraeli). 

"In recognition of the services of their 
father, the late Mr. J. W. W. Birch, British 
Resident at the Court of Perak, and in con- 
sideration of the sad circumstances in which 
they are placed by his untimely death. 
75J. each." 

Mr. J. W. W. Birch issued a proclamation 
November 1st, 1875, and was suddenly 
attacked and killed on the following day 
Haydn's Dictionary of Dates '). 


1880, October 13th (W. E. Gladstone). 
benefit of survivorship. 
"In consideration of the long and most 
distinguished public service of the late Lord 
btratford de KedclifFe. 5001." 
Lord Stratford de Redcliffe was born in 

Clement's Lane on November 4th, 1786; he 
was first cousin of George Canning, the 
minister. While ambassador at Constanti- 
nople he obtained the firman which autho- 
rized him to send Layard to Nineveh at his 
own personal expense, and he presented 
the fruits of the famous excavations to the 
British Museum. He opened the way to the 
explorations at Budrum in 1846, and presented 
the frieze to the British Museum. When 
Turkey was in sore straits, he observed the 
foundations being laid of a new summer 
palace, and ordered the boatman to row 
straight to the Sultan, where a few minutes' 
conversation ended in stopping the works. 
When Mohammed Aly Pasha, the minister 
for the navy and brother-in-law of the Sultan, 
had wantonly murdered a Greek concubine, 
he refused to receive the ruffian, with the 
message, "Tell the Sultan that an English 
ambassador can never admit to his presence 
a cruel assassin," and the minister had to be 
dismissed ('D.N.B.,' vol. viii.). 


1884, January 30th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In consideration of the narrow circum- 
stances in which she has been left on the 
death of her husband, Commander L. N. 
Moncrieff, R.N., who was killed in the dis- 
charge of his duties as Her Majesty's Consul 
at Suakim. 1001." 

1885, August 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

Second grant. 30. 

1887, September 27th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services of her 
late husband, Mr. Thomas J. Hutchinson, 
M.D., of Her Majesty's Consular Service, and 
of his literary attainments. 201." 

Thomas Joseph Hutchinson, 1820-85 ( 4 Cas- 
sell's Biographical Dictionary'), Consul in 
South America; wrote on the Niger, Peru, 
and Brittany (Sonnenschein's 'The Best 
Books '). 

1889, January 23rd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the literary services 
of her late husband, of his long service in 
trying climates, and of her inadequate means 
of support. 50/." 

William Gifford Palgrave, 1826-88, Arabic 
scholar, was employed by the Government 
n Abyssinia. His chief work is ' Narrative 
of a Year's Journey through Central and 
Eastern Arabia.' In 1880 Consul-General in 
Siam. He was a brother of Sir Eeginald Pal- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 13, 1901. 

grave, author of ' Cromwell' and other works 
('Cassell's Biographical Dictionary '). 

1895, May 16th (Earl of Rosebery). 

11 In consideration of the public services of 
her late husband, Sir R. G. C. Hamilton, 
K C B 150/ " 

Sir Robert Hamilton (1802-87) ; ten years 
resident with Holkar at Indore; 1854, Go- 
vernor-General's Agent for Central India 
(' Cassell's Biographical Dictionary '). 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the public services of 
her late husband, Sir Chaloner Alabaster, 
K.C.M.G., formerly Consul-General at Canton. 

1899, June 14th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services of her late 
husband, Mr. Edward Henry Rawson- Walker, 
Consul at Manila, and in view of the special 
circumstances which led to his decease. 1001" 

1900, February 13th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the murder of her late 
husband, Mr. Joseph Edward McMaster, while 
in discharge of his duties as Her Majesty's 
Consul at Beira. IQQl" 


1856, November 15th (Lord Palmerston). 



" In consideration of the distressed circum- 
stances in which she has been left at the 
death of her husband, Mr. George Canning 
Backhouse, who was murdered while dis- 
charging the duties of Her late Majesty's 
Commissary Judge at Havannah. 100Z." 

1856, November 29th (Lord Palmerston). 

" In consideration of the long and faithful 
services of her father in the Admiralty de- 
partments, and of the straitened circum- 
stances in which she is now placed. 501." 

1866, July 9th (Earl Russell). 

"In consideration of the long and dis- 
tinguished services of their late father, Mr. 
George Arbuthnot, as an officer of the 
Treasury. 100/." 
George Arbuthnot (1802-65) ; served in the 

Treasury from the 18th of July, 1820, until 
his death, 28th of July, 1865. In February, 
1843, he was Sir Robert Peel's private secre- 
tary ('D.N.B.,' vol. ii.). 

1868, June 19th (Benjamin Disraeli). 

"In consideration of her services to the 
public in promoting, by emigration and 
otherwise, the amelioration of the condition 
of working women. 70/." 

Hon. secretary for twenty-seven years for 
the Society for Promoting Emigration of 
Children to Canada. 

1869, April 5th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" In consideration of the legal services of 
her late husband, Mr. Jeremiah McKenna. 

1870, February 19th (W. E. Gladstone). 

"In consideration of the labours of her late 
husband, Mr. Thurston Thompson, as Official 
Photographer to the Science and Art Depart- 
ment, and of his personal services to the late 
Prince Consort. 401" 

1870, June 18th (W. E. Gladstone). 

wife of Capt. Thomas Carlisle, jointly, 
and to the survivors or survivor of them. 
"In recognition of the labours of their 

father in connexion with the salmon fisheries 

of the United Kingdom. 301" 

Same date. 
Second grant. 101. each. 

1871, April 24th (W. E. Gladstone). 

41 In consideration of the diplomatic services 
of her uncle, Sir Thomas Wyse, and of her 
own limited circumstances. 1001" 

Sir Thomas Wyse (1791-1862), politician 
and diplomatist. After nine years at Stony- 
hurst entered Trinity College, Dublin. With 
Richard Lalor Sheil, Wyse stood for co. 
Waterford, but resigned in favour of O'Con- 
nell. Voted for the 1832 Reform Bill, aboli- 
tion of slavery, repeal of the Corn Laws, and 
an extension of popular education. Married, 
March, 1821, Lsetitia, daughter of Lucien 
Bonaparte ('D.N.B.,' vol. Ixiii.). 


(To be continued.) 

9*s. vm. JULY is, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



As part of the necessary preparation for an 
account (now near completion) of the life of 
my great-grandfather, Charles Dibdin, I have 
constructed a bibliography relating to his 
productions and those of other members of 
the family. It is by no means exhaustive, 
but yet is, I believe, very much better than 
could be easily produced by any one else. 
The publication in these columns of so much 
of it as relates to Charles Dibdin will there- 
fore have a twofold usefulness. For those 
who are interested in such, matters it will 
be a helpful contribution to the study of a 
voluminous author and composer hitherto 
all but ignored by the bibliographer ; for 
myself it will probably be the means of 
attracting from the well-informed readers of 
*N. <fe Q. J some valuable additional matter, 
and perhaps some corrections. All such 
benefactions will be thankfully accepted, and 
in due season acknowledged. I may perhaps 
be permitted to add here that, although near 
the end of my labours, I am still able to 
incorporate any new matter of value that 
may come to me, either direct or through 
these columns ; and I shall be most grateful 
for assistance in the effort to produce a life 
of Charles Dibdin which shall be a satis- 
factory and final account of that remarkable 
man. I am especially anxious to hear of 
letters and other MS. matter by or concerning 
him ; doubtless there are many things of this 
kind unknown to me, and they are almost 
invariably of great value. If our Editor will 
permit, I shall append to the bibliography a 
number of queries : they will relate to matters 
that have, as yet, baffled my attempts at 
investigation, and will therefore be peculiarly 
suitable for the columns of * N. & Q.' Trans- 
atlantic readers may be able to tell me of 
American editions about which I know 

All entries which I have not been able to 
authenticate by personal scrutiny will be 
marked with an asterisk. Most of the items 
described are in my own collection or that of 
Mr. Julian Marshall, who has for years been 
a most zealous and friendly helper. But for 
him, I think I should scarcely have persevered 
in a task whose great difficulty has often dis- 
concerted me; certainly without his help and 
counsel it would not have been half so well 
done. I have used the British Museum 
largely, but inability to spend much time in 
London, and the great counter-attractions 
(when I have been there) of Mr. Marshall's 
valuable library, have prevented me from 

exhausting the endless, but in such matters 
rather unwieldy, resources of our great 
national treasure-house. 


1760. *Six ballads mentioned by Charles Dibdin 
in his ' Professional Life,' 1803 (vol. i. p. 18), pub- 
lished by Thompson, of St. Paul's Churchyard, after 
Dibdin had "procured them to be performed by 
the notorious Mr. Kear, of stentorian memory, at 
Finch's Grotto." 

These were retailed at three-halfpence apiece. 
I have not identified them. 

1763 [British Museum date]. A Collection of 
English Songs and Cantatas. Compos'd by Mr. 
Chas. Dibdin. Opera Primo [sic]. Printed for the 
Author, & sold at his lodgings, the Shoe and 
Saddle Warehouse, Catherine Street, in the Strand. 
Upright folio, n.d. List of 96 subscribers for 136 
copies. 10 leaves, of which 14 pp. contain music. 

1765. The Shepherd's Artifice, a dramatic pas- 
toral. Written and composed by Mr. Dibdin. 
London : T. Becket and P. A. De Hondt. Two acts. 
Libretto, 32 pp. small 8vo. 

Except two songs in collections, I do not 
find that the music was published. First 
performed 1764. 

1767. Love in the City (written by Isaac Bicker- 
staff), afterwards revived (in 1778) as ' The Romp.' 

Dibdin wrote some of the music, which, 
however, on the title-page of the libretto is 
said to be " compiled by the author." I have 
not seen a score. 

1768. Lionel and Clarissa; or, a School for Fathers, 
comic opera, three acts (written by I. Bickerstaff), 
"the music composed by eminent masters." Lon- 
don : Printed for the Author, and sold by J. John- 
ston, the corner of York Street, Covent Garden. 
Ornate engraved title, oblong folio, 77 pp., n.d. 
Another issue, probably printed from the 
same plates, was published London, Broderip 
& Wilkinson. A later issue (by J. Johnston), 
with type-printed title, has only 'A School 
for Fathers' as title. This piece was first 
given at Covent Garden, and after at Rich- 
mond and Drury Lane, in 1768, as * Lionel and 
Clarissa'; subsequently there was added 'A 
School for Fathers' in 1770. At the fifth 
representation the earlier title was dropped, 
but it was eventually reverted to. The piece 
was acted for many years. Dibdin composed 
the greater part of tne music. 

1768. Lionel & Clarissa, a comic opera, adapted 
for the German flute, violin, hautboy, and guittar. 
London : John Johnston. Oblong 8vo, 32 pp., n.d. 

Songs in ' Lionel and Clarissa ' issued as sepa- 
rate sheets : 

Hope and Fear, Immortal Pow'rs, When a man 
of Fashion. Dublin : Rhames, n.d. 

1768. The Padlock, comic opera, two acts (written 
by Isaac Bickerstaff), "the music by Mr. Dibdin." 
London : J. Johnston, at the music shop near 
Northumberland House. Oblong folio, 41 pp., 
ornate engraved title. Ded. to Mrs. Garrick, n.d. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 13, 1901. 

This is probably the first of a good many 
editions. Charles Dibdin says nearly three 
sets of plates were worn out in thirteen 
years. On the title of one edition (upright 
folio, 43 pp., no dedication, price 6s.) is : 

"The former edition being very incorrectly 
engraved, it has been Revised, Corrected, and 
Engraved again, and the Songs and Overture may 
be had in single numbers." 

This is published at No. 15, Holborn, by F : . 

The name is obliterated in the two copies I 
have seen. Mr. Marshall suggests F. Linley. 

1768. The Songs in the Comic Opera of ' The Pad- 
lock ' adapted for the German Flute. Price Is. M. 
London : John Johnston and Longman, Lukey & 

1768. Damon & Phillida, comic opera, in two acts, 
altered from Cibber, "with the addition of new 
aongs and chorusses." Drury Lane. " The music 
entirely new composed by Mr. Dibdin." London : 
W. Griffin, 1768, 8vo, 27 pp., price Is. 
This is ' Love in a Riddle ' with the dialogue 
reduced to prose, and five new lyrical pieces. 

1768. Damon & Phillida, for the voice and harpsi- 
chord or violin. Composed by Mr. Dibdin. Lon- 
don : C. & S. Thompson, n.d. Oblong folio, 30 pp. 

1769. *The Maid the Mistress, produced at 
Ranelagh, 1769. 

I have been unable to trace this publication. 
1769. *The Captive, comic opera, two acts. Hav- 
market. Written by I. Bickerstaff, music partly 
by Dibdin. 

The libretto was printed "for W. Griffin," but 
I have not seen the music. 

1769. The Recruiting Sergeant, a new musical 

entertainment compos'd by Charles Dibdin. 

London : C. & S. Thompson, n.d. Upright folio, 
pp. 46, price 6,9. 

A later edition published by Longman & 
Broderip, price 6s. Written by Bickerstaff, 
performed at Ranelagh and Drury Lane. 

1769. In the Universal Museum for April, 1769, 
is "a new song set by Mr. Dibdin " (in some issues 
Bibdin), which begins "There was a fair maiden, 
her name it was Gillian." 

The air is that of ' The Jolly Young Water- 

1769. The Ephesian Matron, or the Widow's 
Tears, a comic serenata (by Bickerstaff). The 
music by Charles Dibdin. Performed at Ranelagh, 
price 6s. London : John Johnston, n.d. Oblong 
folio, 43 and 4 pp. 

Morningside, Sudworth Road, New Brighton. 
(To be continued.) 

" WICKEN " = WYKES. The Wicken, in 
South Northamptonshire, mentioned byJ. B. 
(9 th S. vii. 442), is an interesting instance of 
a place-name being altered so as to disguise 
the original name. The parish of Wicken was 
formerly two parishes, named from former lords 

of the manors Wyke Dy ve and Wyke Hamon. 
The parishes became united, and the name 
popularly given to them the Wykes, or, as 
the people called them, the Wyken (-en, sign 
of the plural) became the name of the new 
parish and of the village. I remember that 
a gentleman hunting up the Washington 
pedigree told me that he was nonplussed 
for months in trying to find Wyke Hamon. 
He never suspected Wicken. K. 

" WENT." I have lately examined in the 
museum at Bury St. Edmunds a vellum 
manuscript written in a hand of the fifteenth 
century. It contains copies of three or four 
wills of persons who had made charitable 
bequests to the town, and terriers of the 
land bequeathed. One of these is entitled 
in a later hand * Rentall of Jankin Smyth's 
lands.' I read it, and made the following 
extracts : 

" Half [an] acre of lond lyeth in the same went 
betwene the lond perteyning to the tenement of 
Wegerys on the west side and the lond of the 
maner of Berton on the est aide and butteth upon 
the lond of the tenement of Wegerys northword 
and southword upon the lond of the maner of 

"ij acres lye in the same feld in Nedirfurlong 
betwene the lond of the maner of Berton on the 
west side," &c. 

Further on I found : 

" And ix acres & j halfe rode sumtyme of Johne 

Elys of lyeth att Nettyl mere went and Grene- 


The word " went " occurs four or five times 
in the terrier, and in all cases it appears to 
be equivalent to " feld," though in Halliwell 
the meaning given is "furlong." The word 
strikes me as being of considerable value, 
on account of its possible occurrence in 
place-names. One thinks of Wentworth, 
Derwent, Venta Belgarum (Winchester), 
Venta Icenorum, Venta Silurum, &c. I 
express no opinion, however, as to the 
origin of these names. S. O. ADDY. 

DOWSING. Mr. James Mansergh, the Presi- 
dent of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
touched upon this subject last November in 
his address, which has appeared in print. To 
most men of science the reported achieve- 
ments of the "dowser" are on a par with the 
rogueries of Sir Walter Scott's Douster- 
swivel, but both men of science and folk- 
lorists will be interested in what Mr. 
Mansergh has to say about "divining by 
rod." It is perhaps not so well known as 
it ought to be that Mr. W. F. Barrett, 
Professor of Experimental Physics in the 
Royal College of Science for Ireland, has 
presented two papers on the subject to the 

viii. JULY is, loci.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Society for Psychical Research, which cover 
442 pages of the Society's Proceedings. 

L. L. K. 

COUNTY COUNCIL. The following notice to 
the workmen employed in demolishing the 
houses required for the great "improve- 
ments " in Central London affords a good 
illustration of "how to do it," and seems 
well worthy of preservation in the pages of 
* N. & Q.' as setting a good example to other 
corporations : 


Strand Improvements and New Street from 

Holborn to the Strand. 


If any workman comes across any out-of-the-way 
object or substance imbedded in the soil in which 
he is working, he is required to at once hand the 
same over to the foreman or clerk of works. Any 
find which is of geological or antiquarian value may 
prove to be the property of the London County 
Council, and a reward will be given to the finder, 
and will be paid at once on application to 

The Clerk of the Council, 
County House, Spring Gardens, Charing Cross. 


have recently obtained a folio of Cotton's 
translation of the ' Life of the Duke of Esper- 
non,' printed in 1670. Inside the volume 
(formerly in the Tixall library) was an old 
letter without name or date, but which, by 
comparison, is evidently in the handwriting 
of Chas. Cotton himself, in which case it is of 
great interest, as it appears to elucidate an 
obscure portion of his life which is referred 
to in the memoir prefixed to his portion of 
Walton and Cotton's 'Complete Angler.' The 
passage is, " In which undertaking [i.e., this 
translation] he was interrupted by an appoint- 
ment to some place or post, which he hints at 
in the preface, but did not hold long." 

The letter is as follows, and is copied ver- 
batim : 

"S r When I was last w th y u I aquanted y u how 
S p Thomas Ingram had aquanted me how he was 
by his magestyes order to send downe a comytyon 
to me & others to exammyne dyvers wasts offenses 
& losses his Magesty suffered in Needwood & y e 
Honor of Tutbury. I am through his Magestyes 
gratyouse Favor his lieutennant off y e Forrest & his 
high Steward off y e Honor of Tutbury. I then like- 
wise tould y u I conceaved I had reason to beelieve 
iff y e commytyon weare Full itt would tuch some 
persons y* would endevor to avoyd itt & I have 
some assurance now it is so For y e commytyon 
a coppy off w ch y e Chauncelor sent mee to peruse is 
I conceave defective in w fc I Feared itt would For 
itt gives us Full power to fynd out all trespases in 
y e woods & game but y e greatest prejudice his 
Magesty suffers in is his grants of offyces ; in grants 

off Lands concealements off Lands & incrochments. 
I have given S r Tho: Ingram an answer by a letter 
For hee writt to mee to know my opynyon off y 

It does not appear to whom the letter was 
written, but it was probably sent from Beres- 
ford Hall, Derbyshire, about 1667. 

H. T. WAKE. 
Fritchley, Derby. 

there is evidently a disposition to revive 
this controversy, it may be in place to 
note the following letter addressed to the 
Standard on 1 April : 

SIB, It is well known that Dr. Parr used to 
boast that he knew who was the author of "Junius." 
The late Dr. Whorwood, rector of Willoughby, 
near Daventry who was for many years a resident 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford once told me 
that, when speaking on the subject of Junius's 
letters to Dr. Routh, the latter said : " Dr. Parr 
told me, Sir, that a Mr. York, in the Foreign Office, 
a brother of the then Dean of Norwich, was the 
author of * Junius.' " H. ALGAB. 

W. B. H. 

graph of July 4th contains the following : 

"By the death of Mr. Stephen Philpott, of Dover, 
in his eighty-ninth year, the last of the mail stage- 
coach drivers between London and the Kent coast 
has passed away, to the regret of many friends. He 
regularly drove the mail-coach between the capital 
and the Kentish seaport for many years, and when 
the railway superseded that method of conveyance 
for the mails he drove the mail-coach between 
London and Herne Bay. Naturally, he had many 
interesting reminiscences of old times, and was fond 
of telling how, when driving from London to Dover, 
he met Prince Albert proceeding to the metropolis 
for his marriage with Queen Victoria. Mr. Philpott 
drove the first coach in the funeral procession of the 
Duke of Wellington from Walmer Castle." 

N. S. S. 

of old names, classical or otherwise, is often 
really absurd, owing to the purely arbitrary 
and senseless way in which letters are altered, 
dropped, or added, sometimes to such an 
extent that one has to look twice before 
recognizing the word under its strange garb. 
Slight alteration is occasionally necessary to 
fit a name for English lips, but for the per- 
nicious habit of latinizing every Greek name 
there is no excuse a habit so deeply rooted 
that we may well despair of ever changing 
it. But it is Northern names that have 
received the hardest and most meaningless 
treatment : it is rare to find two books that 
spell the name, for instance, of a Scandinavian 
in the same way. English histories are the 
chief offenders here. I have seen Hakon 
spelt Hacon, Hako, Haco, and Hacho; for 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 13, 1901. 

some reason Ragnar has been altered to 
Regnar ; Thorir to Thori and Thore ; while, 
as a last instance, Olaf Tryggvi's son (Icel. 
O'lafr Tryggvason) has seen many strange 
phases. Besides Olaf and Olave (the former 
of which is quite legitimate, to adapt 
the name to our language), we find Trygg- 
vason, Tryggveson, Tryggvison, and worst 
of all Trygveson. Many other instances 
might be quoted. The marvel is what 
induces people to adopt these wonderful 
transformations. One would imagine that 
a man professing to write on a subject 
would at least make himself acquainted 
with the correct forms of his proper names, 
and, on being acquainted with them, would 
not so carefully avoid communicating his 
knowledge to others. E. R. E. 

MERCY TO ANIMALS. A writer in the 
Athenaeum for 25 May, alluding to Hogarth, 

"He was the first of English painters (we might, 
indeed, write European artists) who frequently and 
urgently pleaded for mercy to animals in the service 
of man/' P. 669. 

To this it may be well to append the following 
passage from the Quarterly Review of last 
October. The writer, referring to Leonardo 
da Vinci, says : 

" He could tame the most fiery horses, and would 
never allow any living creature to be hurt or ill- 
treated." P. 398. 


LIME-TREE. Prof. Skeat remarks in his 

* Etymological Dictionary ' that the word 
lime as applied to the tree now generally 
so called (formerly it was always united 
as one word with tree, often, e.g. in ' Rees's 
Cyclopaedia,' without hyphen) is the result 
of two successive corruptions, lind becoming 
line, and line afterwards becoming lime. He 
says, "The change from line to lime does 
not seem to be older than about A.D. 1700." 
Apparently, however, he forgot to consult 
Evelyn's 'Sylva,' for in that work, the first 
edition of which is dated 1 664, chap. xiii. is 

* Of the Lime-tree,' which is so spelt through- 
out. W. T. LYNN. 


following recent cutting is deserving of pre- 
servation in ' N. & Q.' : 

"In a short time, remarks the Leeds Mercury, a 
unique ceremony of interest to readers of Sir Walter 
Scott will take place on the confines of the West 
Riding and Derbyshire. Some time ago the old 
Trysting Oak in Harthill Walk, so frequently men- 
tioned in 'Ivanhoe,' was felled to the ground in 
order to preserve the trunk. The tree was one of 
the oldest in England, and is described by Scott as 

being venerable when siege was laid to the Castle 
of Torquilstone. The tree stood on the estate of 
the Duke of Leeds, whose agent, Mr. Mozey, is 
devoted to Scott. By his instructions the tree was 
taken down, and the trunk will be preserved on the 
lawn in front of Mr. Mozey's house. A young oak 
tree is to be planted by the Duchess of Leeds on 
the site of the Trysting Tree. At the ceremony 
some interesting information will be given regard- 
ing Scott's connexion with the neighbourhood, 
which he so vividly describes in the pages of 
' Ivanhoe ' ; and the sites of Torquilstone Castle, 
Rotherwood, and Copmanhurst will be located. 
Several places lay claim to the honour of having 
suggested Torquilstone notably the castle of the 
Salvins, at Thorpe-Salvin in Yorkshire, and Castle 
Hill Farm, an old farmhouse in Whitwell, Derby- 
shire, and the old Manor House at Todwick, in 
Yorkshire. Thorpe-Salvin Castle is mentioned in 
the novel most probably under the pseudonym of 
Rotherwood, whilst Copmanhurst is believed by 
many to be identical with St. John's Church, 
Throapham. However, these and other questions 
will be settled when the ceremony above alluded to 
takes place." 

J. B. McGovERN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

RIDING THE STANG. The Craven Herald 
of 31 May records the observing of an 
ancient custom that appears to be less 
frequent (happily) than in former days : 

"This queer custom, to mark disapproval of the 
breaking of the marriage contract, was observed [at 
Redmire] on the evenings of the 20th, 21st, and 
22nd inst. Rumour had been rife for some time past, 
and the inhabitants, though quiet and passive in the 
ordinary way, showed their feelings in an unusual 
manner. In accordance with the ancient custom a 
man of straw was made, then a cart was obtained, 
and the young bloods of the village, in all the glory 
of war paint, and with grim determination stamped 
on every feature, proceeded to parade the streets 
with the usual war cry : 'It's neither for your part 
nor my part that I ride the stang.' This was 
renewed on three successive nights, and then, after 
he had tried to commit suicide by taking 'gun- 
powder pills ' or a ' paraffin bath,' the man of straw 
was burnt amidst the cheers and groans of some 
hundreds of onlookers, many from the surrounding 
villages. One of the 'protectors of the peace' was 
present, but this did not act as a deterrent. The 
proceedings closed somewhere about midnight. 
Older inhabitants say it is about twenty-five years 
since a similar scene was witnessed in a case of 


Bibury, Glos. 

[See 2 nd S. x. 477, 519 ; xii. 411, 483 ; 3 rd S. iv. 371 
4 th S. iv. 160 ; 5 th S. v. 109, 253 ; xi. 66 ; 6 th S. vi. 425 ; 
7* s. iii. 367 ; 8 th S. iv. 267.] 

historic personage, in my note at 9 th S. vii. 
123 I stated that though it was quite certain 
that he was a son of Aldeline. of Thorpe, near 
Pontef ract, and had a brother named Ralph, 
I had seen nothing actually to prove that he 
was the brother William of Ralph itz Aide- 

9* s. viii. JULY is, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


line, of Aldfield, near Ripon. That they were 
identical was the very probable suggestion 
first made by the author of 'The Norman 
People': but neither he nor Mr. Round 
('Feudal England,' p. 518) could have known 
anything beyond the fact that two brothers 
of these names, sons of an Aldeline, occurred 
in different parts of Yorkshire about the same 
date. The author of 'The Norman People' 
made further speculations about the descent 
of William Fitz Aldeline which are ground- 

The following note by Mr. W. Paley Bail- 
don in 'Yorkshire Inquisitions,' vol. i. p. 283, 
now clearly indicates that Aldeline was the 
holder of Thorpe as well as Aldfield : 

"Assize Roll, York, 1245-6. John de Curtenay 
was summoned to warrant to Alexander de Ledeg 
one third of a knight's fee in Kirkby which Alan de 
Aldfeud had claimed against him in the court of 
Roger de Mubray." 

That John de Courtenay was a son of 
William Fitz Aldeline is a new fact made 
known by my note. Alan was the grandson 

graphing on 22 June a summary of Capt. 
Slocum's report on his observations while 
United States military attache with the 
British forces in South Africa, includes the 
sentence, " Caution the British have not ; but 
they just bunt ahead, and take the conse- 
quences." " Bunt ahead" sounds like English 
dialect, but "jug-handled" appears distinc- 
tively American. -POLITICIAN. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

tell me what authority Sir Bernard Burke 
has for the statement in his ' Landed Gentry ' 
that " Sir Humphery D'Wyvill was knight of 
Slingsby Castle, and appears on the Roll of 
Battle Abbey as one of the companions in arms 

of Ralph. Outside the chartulary of Foun- f the Conqueror"? No such name appears 

j. _ 1 i -ri i .\ .-, _ T^v 1 _ il Oil -I 

tains Abbey I have only met with Aldeline 
de Aldfeld himself once, witnessing the 
charter (1135-40) of Earl Alan granting 
Masham to Roger de Mowbray. The history 
of Thorpe, however, reveals a previous genera- 
tion or two. 

in Domesday in connexion with Slingsby, 
and in the Duchess of Cleveland's edition of 
the Battle Abbey Roll, under the head of 
' Viville,' we have " Hugh de Guidville came 
to England 1066, and 1086 held in Northants 
and Leicester (D.B.)." The 'Dictionary of 
Radulph was the name of the Domesday I National Biography ' repeats the statement of 

tenant of this Thorpe, who held this manor Sir B - Burke, but gives no authority for it. 

of Ilbert de Laci and was, it seems, his butler, 

for so styled (Pincerna) Radulph gave two 

fho. ^V.,, l e en. /YI P . m Hi ? r f I aiJ .X uuc *-"*ui^ J-uiinsii me uumus oi WIG 

the chapel of St. Clement in Pontefract twenty captains (Cavaliers) taken prisoners 
Tr^ .^ e , 8&m f. e&T} y^ G ^ & ^^^^\})yihe Earl of Manchester on 2 May, 1644, 
records this donation states that Radulphus O r give a reference to a work containing full 

SL i? J?2r gav r *?? S& 8 Stubb l details of the affair? JOSEPH F. CARTER. 
Hensall ( Mon. AngL,' i. 660). We seem here Kimbolton, Huntingdonshire. 
to have an earlier Ralph Fitz Aldeline, but 
named from his mother in this case. Aide- BADGES. In the Retrospective Review, 1827- 
line was one of those Christian names with a 1828, occurs the A, B, of an alphabet of badges, 
Latin suffix the Normans gave to daughters probably written by Harris, afterwards Sir 
as well as sons. A. S. ELLIS. Harris Nicolas. Any information which 

Westminster. I would lead to the discovery of the remainder 



any one kindly furnish the names of the 

merits of American slang, but two u ^v,,i*^ uo 
recently given in our newspapers in con- 
nexion with various phases of public affairs 
deserve to be noted. The New York corre- 
spondent of the Standard, in a communica- 
tion which appeared on 1 June, recorded that 
Mr. Moore, jpresident of the American Pro- 
tective Tariff League, had observed, "Pre- 
dent McKinley remains opposed to jug- 
tumdled or one - sided reciprocity " ; and 
Keuter'a Washington correspondent, tele- 

PICTTJRES OF TAVERNS. Can any of your 
correspondents tell me where I can find 
pictures of "The Cheshire Cheese"; "The 
Crown," in Islington Lower Road ; "High- 
bury Barn"; "The White Conduit House"; 
"The Grecian Coffee House"; "The Temple 
Exchange Coffee House": "The Globe Tavern," 
in Fleet Street ; "The Chapter Coffee House," 
in Paternoster Row ; all representing them 
as they were during the last half of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. JULY 13, 1901. 

eighteenth century ? I also want to find the 
European Magazine for January, 1803, which 
contains a contemporary print of Green 
Arbor Court when Goldsmith was living 
there. ^HAS. WELSH. 

110, Boylston Street, Boston, U.S. 

obliged to any one who will tell me where 
there is an accessible copy of the print, by 
Duncan after Huggins, of the destruction of 
this ship by Sir Edward Pellew in 1797. 
There does not seem to be one in the British 
Museum. J. K. LAUGHTON. 

"OF WHOM" FOR "WHOSE." Is the use of 
" of whom " in any way objectionable in " the 
man to the care of whom the child was left '"? 
Would an English boy be allowed to write 
this in a piece of composition 1 If the use is 
a correct one, would it be more likely to be 
found in quite modern authors or in those of 
an earlier date 1 ? E. SCHULENBURG. 

glad of any information as to the history, 
family, or descent of William Fletcher (query, 
of Makeney, co. Derby), who was Recorder 
of Nottingham about the middle of the six- 
teenth century. 


Moorside, Far Headingley, Leeds. 

DR. GENTIANUS HARVET. Where can in- 
formation be found about Dr. Gentianus 
Harvet, a theologian who wrote an * Epistle ' 
in or about 1598 1 C. A. J. SKEEL. 

Westfield College, Hampstead. 

4 THE SYNAGOGUE.' At the end of the sixth 
edition of George Herbert's ' Temple,' which 
I recently picked up, I find a set of poems, 
the title-page of which runs as follows : 

"The Synagogue ; or, the Shadow of the Temple. 
Sacred poems, and private ejaculations. In imita- 
tion of Mr. George Herbert. The Second Edition, 
corrected and enlarged. London, Printed by J. L. 
for Philemon Stephens, at the Gilded Lion in Paul's 
Churchyard. 1647." 

Will some reader of 'N. & Q.' kindly give 
information respecting this book of poems ? 


Fir Vale, Sheffield. 

[It is by Christopher Harvey, M.A., vicar o 
Clifton. For full information consult ' D.N.B.'J 

GUNDY FAMILY, KENT. References wan tec 
to sources of information of this family 
most probably from Lincolnshire, who hole 
(probably gave their name to) Gundy or 
Cundies Hall in the parish of Whitstable 
held from the manor of Wickhambreux, Kent 
Agnes, daughter of Roger de Gundy, marriec 

Walter de Clifford (ob. 1221). The male line 
of the Gundies ended in a William Gundy 
,bout the end of the fourteenth or beginning 
of the fifteenth century, exact date not 
ascertainable. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent. 

THE KING OF CALICUT. In an article in 
_ast February's Fortnightly upon ' The Golden 
Bough '(see 9 th S. vii pp'. 79, 119) Mr. Lang 
says : 

'I am not convinced that the ghastly priest 
represented vegetation and endured the duel ordeal 
as a commutation of the yearly sacrifice, though 
;here is a kind of parallel in the case of the King of 

What is "the case of the King of Calicut "1 

M. C. L. 

["The King of Calicut, on the Malabar coast, 
used to cut his throat in public after a twelve years* 
reign " (Lang, * Magic and Religion,' p. 98).] 

ALBA POTTERY. I am anxious to know 
who were the makers of pottery marked 
" Alba," and if such pottery is now scarce. I 
have searched Ghaffers's ' Marks and Mono- 
grams,' out do not find it mentioned. Perhaps 
some of your readers can inform me. 


DE CLARE. Can any reader of * N. <fe Q.' 
oblige me with information regarding Alex- 
ander or Reimund de Clare, who flourished 
about the end of the twelfth century ? 


In a descriptive article on 'A Cycle Ride 
on the Holyhead Road to Hockliflfe,' in the 
Daily News of 22 September last, the writer 
described how, at or near St. Albans, 
"down in a hollow there stands to be seen, if we 
had time to turn aside for it, a bowed and bent old 
inn ' The Fighting Cocks ' which claims to be the 
oldest licensed house in England. However that 
may be, it is at least wonderfully picturesque." 

I presume there is no means of proving what 
tavern in England holds the oldest licence. 
When did the licensing system in any form 


[For articles on early licensing see 6 th S. vii. 8, 
296. The "Fighting Cocks" at St. Albans and 
other old inns are discussed 8 th S. vii. 225, 273.] 

" CORNE BOTE." In * Morte Arthure ' 
(E.E.T.S.), 11. 1786, 1837, when Sir Cador 
threatens that his foeman shall have " corne 
bote," he seems to mean that he shall have 
such requital (" bote ") as he by his deeds has 
chosen ( corne "). The irony of this applica- 
tion of the word suits the mood of the speaker. 
The terseness of expression and the archaic 

vm. JULY is, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


form of the participle (contrast "chosene,' 
1. 2731) suggest that the formula is one of 

long standing, 

Does it occur in any earlier 
E. B. 

these (translated by Capt. John Stevens) were 
published in London as part of a monthly (?) 
series of voyages and travels, which in 1711 
were reissued in two volumes with the general 
title of 'A New Collection of Voyages and 
Travels.' While some of the travels in this 
collection have separate title-pages, the 
account of Teixeira's (in the copies I know 
of) has none. As the narrative begins on 
signature B, there should apparently be a 
title-page. Does any reader of 'N. & Q.' 
know of one ? DONALD FERGUSON. 


ALUM. In Dean Spence's * History of the 
Church of England' is a facsimile of the 
Tetzel indulgence, in which one of the 
''reserved cases" is thus given: "Senten- 
tiarum et censurarum occasion e aluminu' 
tulfe apli'ce ex partibus infidelium ad fideles 
contra prohibitionem apli'cam delatorum 
incursarum." The date is A.D. 1517. Now 
it seems that alum, used in dyeing processes, 
came principally from near Constantinople 
until the discovery of a mine at Tolfa, near 
Rome, in the fifteenth century, and that at 
the date of this indulgence it is reasonable 
to suppose that the introduction of foreign 
alum was absolutely prohibited. It has been 
suggested that " alumen " may be a " sword- 
blade," as we find "alumella"; and that 
"tulfa" may be a misprint or alternative 
form for "tolta," a tax; so that it would 
refer to an inland taxed article. Can any 
of your readers refer to other notices of the 
same character which would decide the 
matter? J. R. M. 

known of this engraver and his work ? He 
lived for some years in Craven Street, Strand, 
and died in 1812. T. ALLAN GLASSE. 

28, Arlington Road, West Baling. 

COUNT THOSS. Writing about an extra- 
ordinary literary imposture to the Athenceum 
in February, 1853, a correspondent states 
that "hundreds of Captains Johnson and 
Counts Thoss and other impostors are every 
year arrested." I should like to know more 
about the Count's achievements in literature. 

, L. L. K. 

DUNNET. In the north of Scotland there 
is a district called Dunnet (parish, village, 
bay, and headland), where many families 

bear the same name. In East Anglia the 
name Dunnet or Dunnett is very prevalent, 
but I cannot trace any connexion between 
the two branches. The Scottish Dunnets I 
trace to the sixteenth century ; the English 
Dunnets or Dunnetts I cannot trace back 
further than the early years of the eighteenth 
century. Are they the same family ? Perhaps 
one of your readers could give me the miss- 
ing link, if one exists. R. W. D. 

JAMES II. In an old journal of a visit to 
Paris in 1776 there is an entry : 

"To a church [in Paris] of Benedictine friars on 

purpose to see the corps of James II who lies 

unburied on a stand, about 6 foot from the ground, 

with his daughter Louise, who lies by his side 

He is there ready to be shipped off to be buried in 
Westminster Abbey when any one of his family 
shall mount the English throne." 

What became of the corpse afterwards ? In 
Wade's ' British History ' it is said that the 
body of James II. was discovered in a leaden 
box on digging the foundation of a new 
church at St. Germain, Paris. How came it 
there, and where was he finally buried ? 

L. J. C. 

CUDWORTH FAMILY. The article on Dr. 
Ralph Cud worth in the 'Dictionary of National 
Biography' states, "He had several sons, 
who probably died young, and a daughter 
Damaris." The present Master of Christ's 
has kindly informed me that at least one son 
did not die young. John Cud worth was 
admitted to Christ's, became Fellow and 
Senior Dean, and finally was presented to a 
living. Can any of your readers give me 
further information concerning him or other 
of the sons of Dr. Cud worth? I know of 
them practically nothing, and little of the 
early life of Dr. Cudworth's grandson Wil- 
liam. J. C. WHITEBROOK. 


"The late Duchess of Cleveland, while Lady 
Dalmeny, was (says a correspondent) very much 
interested by the inscription, which has never been 
satisfactorily explained, which in letters of lead is 
on the stone of the belfry of the ruined ancient 
church of Temple, just outside the boundary of the 
Rosebery property in Midlothian. It reads thus: 
' Vsesac Mihm.' " Daily News, 20 May. 

Can any one suggest an explanation ? 

C. C. B. 

" Co- RUFF." What is the meaning of this 
word ? It occurs in MS. on the back of the 
title of a book printed by R. Whitworth, 
bookseller, at " The Three Bibles," opposite the 
Exchange, Manchester, in 1738, ana entitled 
* A Compleat History of the Bible, contained 
in the Old and New Testament, et cetera.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. JULY 13, 1901. 

The family to whom it belonged were many 
of them hand-loom weavers, and most likely 
the James Mills referred to was of that occu- 
pation. The phrase in which the word occurs 
runs, " Ja 8 Mills co-ruff : says all Maps and 
Cuts are here." The writing is that of one 
accustomed to penmanship, and the word is 
clearly written. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

MACKESY. I am anxious to trace the 
history of the Irish family of Mackesy, 
formerly of Ballymackesy, co. Wexford, and 
latterly of Waterford. Dr. T. L. Mackesy, 
President of the Royal College of Surgeons in 
Ireland in 1845, was a grandson of Michael 
Mackesy, who is said by Burke to be descended 
from the old sept of the O'Maolmackessy. Can 
any of your readers help me with information 
likely to throw light upon earlier members 
of this family? Ballymackesy seems to 
have belonged to Lord Carew's family since 
about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Is anything known of its previous connexion 
with the Mackesy family ? 


Stanley Cottage, Alperton, Wembley. 



(9 th S. vii. 469.) 

As there is no published list of this 
nature, perhaps I may be allowed to men- 
tion that one of the characters in the 
late James Grant's best work is first intro- 
duced to us when a prisoner of war in Edin- 
burgh Castle. The hero of ' The Romance of 
War,' Ronald Stuart, 92nd Highlanders, on 
the eve of his departure to become a " Penin- 
sular hero," noticed among the French cap- 
tives a young officer in deep dejection, and 
ventured to say to him : 

' ' I regret much to see an officer placed among 
the common rank and file. Can I assist you in any 
way ? ' ' Monsieur, I thank you, you are very good, 
but it is not possible,' stammered the Frenchman 

in confusion 'Yours are the first words of true 

kindness that I have heard since I left my own 
home in our pleasant France. Oh, monsieur, I 
could almost weep ! I am degraded among my 
fellow-soldiers, my freres d'armes. I have broken 
ray parole of honour, and am placed among the 
private men. I have been placed here in conse- 
quence of a desperate attempt I made to escape 
trom the depot. I perceive you pity me, monsieur ; 
indeed I am very miserable.'" 

Stuart having pressed the captive to accept 
his purse, 

" By Heaven and St. Louis ! Victor d'Estouville 
will requite your kindness. If by fortune, or 

rather misfortune, of war you ever become a 
prisoner in my native country, you will find that 
the memory of La Garde Ecossaise and your brave 
nation, which our old kings loved so long and well, 
and the sufferings of the fair Marie are not yet 
forgotten in la Belle France." 

Until nearly the days of Waterloo, it is 
stated in Old and New Edinburgh ' (Cassell 
& Co.), the castle vaults were invariably 
used in every war as a receptacle for French 
prisoners. They are deep, dark, and horrible 
dungeons. So many as forty men were 
confined in one vault. The origin of these 
vaults is lost in antiquity. 

There is a very interesting account in 
Lever's 'Tom Burke of Ours' of the sad 
career of Charles Gustave de Meudon, an 
ex-lieutenant of the 3 me Cuirassiers of the 
French army, who took part in the Irish 
Rebellion. Shortly before his death in Wick- 
low, he spoke much to Burke about Italy and 
Egypt, the Tuileries, La Vende'e, and Ireland. 
His last words were : 

"Perhaps it may be your fortune to speak to" 
General Buonaparte; if so, I beg you to say to 
him that when Charles de Meudon was dying in 
exile, he held his portrait to his lips, and with his 
last breath he kissed it." 

The door of the little room in which this 
scene occurred opened, and a sergeant entered. 
"Sorry to disturb you, sir. I have a warrant for 
the arrest of Capt. de Meudon, a French officer 
concealed here." 

Burke pointed to the bed. The sergeant 
looked, but started back in horror. Charles 
de Meudon lay dead ! 

119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

The hero of Robert Louis Stevenson's 
posthumously published novel 'St. Ives' 
is a French prisoner of war who escapes 
from Edinburgh Castle. C. C. B. 

THE HALBERTS (9 th S. vi. 181 ; vii. 473). 
It would be a relief to myself, and I hope to 
all readers of * N. & Q.,' if IBAGUE\ without 
departing from the truth, could in any way 
modify his very painful note at the las"t 
reference, which has " got into my constitu- 
tion " more deeply than I like to think of. 
IBAGUE, as I understand him, speaks of the 
horrible punishment he describes, not as 
obsolete, but as in use at this very time. It 
is almost incredible that such atrocious 
barbarity should exist in any part of the 
world at the beginning of the twentieth 
century, and yet IBAGUB whose word of 
course I do not doubt says that he not only 
heard of, but actually saw it, so lately as 
1876-7; and he also speaks of it in the 

viii. JULY is, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


present tense "are [not were] performed,' 
&c. Surely such shocking brutality was 
never surpassed, if equalled, in England or 
Russia in the worst days of the cat and the 
knout. Macaulay says that under Frederick 
the Great " military offences were punished 
with 'such barbarous scourging that to be 
shot was considered by the Prussian soldier 
as a secondary punishment." Although I 
am, on principle, opposed to capital punish- 
ment, I am almost inclined to say the same 
thing of the unhappy Colombian soldiers. 
It would seem to be more merciful to shoot 
a man out of hand than to flog him in the 
dreadful manner that IBAGUE describes, 
which is one of the most distressing instances 
of " man's inhumanity to man " that I have 
ever heard or read of. 

Why has the Colombian Republic a special 
patent amongst the kingdoms of the earth, 
as it apparently has, for merciless military 
severity? " Blessed are the merciful." "This 
ilke text " the Colombian military authorities 
(and by implication the civil authorities also) 
evidently " hold not worth an oistre." 

I shall wait with anxious interest to see if 
IBAGUE has any balm in Gilead for us in this 

ALLUSION IN WORDSWORTH (9 th S. vii. 188, 
232, 338, 438). It may be well to state that 
my letter was written before the appear- 
ance of MR. HUTCHINSON'S first reply, but too 
late to be published along with it. It 
subsequently stood alone at the third refer- 
ence, occupying thus the position of a reply 
to all that had gone before. It was merely 
a tentative explanation, prompted by the 
original query, and not in any sense a retort 
to the genealogical statement submitted by 

"FAIR" AND MAKING "FAIR" (9 fch S. Vli. 

446). I have known many instances of girls, 
in their foolish desire for a " genteel " pale- 
ness, eating dry rice and chalk, and refusing 
as much as possible a flesh diet. Chalk 
certainly, and probably rice eaten in excess 
in this way, would tend indirectly to induce 
pallor by deranging the digestive organs 
and obstructing the natural secretions of 
the body. Habitual constipation alone is a 
frequent cause of anaemia. C. C. B. 

Half a century ago the plump and rosy- 
cheeked damsels of a Buckinghamshire 
village found that they, with their robust 
charms, were neglected by local swains, who 
favoured pale and languishing maidens from 
the metropolis. To counteract this deplorable 
tendency some of the girls endeavoured to 

modify their rotundity and make themselves 

Sale or fair by eating ginger. Others in- 
ulged in chalk and scraped slate-pencil, and 
a few tried all three. They succeeded more 
or less in producing pallor and sickliness of 
appearance, but the young men were not 
attracted ; and after one of the " ginger 
chewers," as they were called, died, the 
practice happily declined. 


BENJAMIN WALKER (9 th S. vii. 368). I am 
unable to answer MR. W. H. WINDLE'S 
question ; but as he refers to the Stackhouse 
family, I may say that there is a stone in 
this churchyard to the memory of "Ann, 
the wife of John Stackhouse, of Birmingham, 
and daughter of Bartholomew and Ann 
Goodman, who departed this life July 5th, 
1868, in the 67th year of her age." 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

vii. 349, 437). A poem with this name, by 
the late Robert Buchanan, appeared in Once 
a Week, vol. x. (1863), p. 573. 


64, Rue des Martyrs, Paris. 

PORTRAIT OF LADY HARLEY (9 th S. vii. 508). 
'The Letters of the Lady Brilliana Harley ' 
were published by the Camden Society in 
1854. The editor, the Rev. T. T. Lewis, 
mentions in his introduction, p. xxix, that 
there was then a portrait of her " in the pos- 
session of her descendant Lord Rodney, and 
now at his seat at Berrington, in the county 
of Hereford." C. E. D. 


A portrait of this lady is, or was, in the 
possession of the Right Hon. the Lord Rod- 
ney, Berrington, near Leominster, and I have 
no doubt a letter of inquiry addressed to 
R. W. Dacre Harley, Esq., Brampton Brian, 
Eerefordshire, would elicit definite informa- 
tion as to its exact location at the present 


TROVERSY (9 th S. vii. 503). At present ] 
am out of the reach of books, and also of 
N. & Q., 1 but I am nearly certain MR. 
ARNOTT did use the term " Roman Mission," 
and I understood him to found an argument 
as to the Roman Church in England being 
an exotic on the fact that English churches 
were invariably placed east and west, whilst 
the Roman Catholic Church in England took 
no notice of this rule. 



I have read his latest article very carefully, 
but cannot see that the omission of the words 
" whereas " and " as I said " about which he 
complains so bitterly makes any difference 
to tne sense of the paragraph ; nor does 
any context which he himselt quotes do so 

FATHER ANGUS, who "knows very well 
what he is writing about," is left without 
an attempt at a reply, doubtless for this very 
reason that reply would be too difficult, also 
his name is welt known. Now with me it is 
altogether different. I never pretended to 
know any more on this matter than what I 
had seen with my own eyes walking about 
London. (Is ME. ARNOTT quite sure, by the 
way, that Christ Church, Lancaster Gate, 
St. James's, Paddington, and St. Mark's, 
Marylebone Road, were all built "in the 
years preceding the Oxford movement " ? I 
am not.) 

As to my " nom de plume," that is hardly 
a crime in * N. & Q.' ; if so, I should have 
blushed for it thirty years back when I used 
one first in these pages unrebuked. MR. 
ARNOTT should be grateful for this, since he 
has found it so much easier to attack an 
unknown individual than to reply to a 
known one. IBAGTJ& 

ERNEST BUSSY (9 th S. vii. 449). This 
promising young poet died in 1887, at the 
very early age of twenty-three. His poems, 
with a short biographical sketch, were pub- 
lished at Lausanne (his birthplace) in 1888, 
in one volume. A small collection of fugitive 
pieces, entitled ' A mi-voix,' appeared during 
the author's lifetime (Lausanne, 1885). 


64, Rue des Martyrs, Paris. 

SCOTT QUERY (9 th S. vii. 510). - In the 
"Dry burgh Edition" of the Waverley novels, 
vol. xiv. (1893), the meaning of "on the 
viretot" is given in the glossary as "on the 
trudge, on the tramp a phrase used in 
Chaucer's 'Miller's Tale.'" 

A. & C. BLACK. 

(9 th b. vii. 449). It is a curious fact that three 
of the nve quotations given in the 'H.E.D.' 
under 'Devil' are from Scottish authors. 
Ine earliest, from Col. Kobert 'Monro, his 
Expedition and Observations' (1637), part ii. 
p. 55, 1 give at greater length : 

" At the Leaguer of Werben on the Elve against 

General Tilhe his Army I was ordained with my 

Musketiers to remain on our former Poste, his 
Majestie and the rest of the partie being retired 
within the Leaguer. Incontinent from our Batteries, 
our Lannon did play againe within the Leaguer, 

which continued the whole day, doing great hurt 
on both sides, where the whole time, I, with my 
partie, did lie on our Poste, as betwixt the Devill 
and the deepe Sea, for sometimes our owne Cannon 
would light short, and grase over us, and so did 
the enemies also." 

Q. V. 

This seems to be a free rendering of the 
Greek v E/i7rpoo-0ev KP^/XVOS, oirurOev XVKOI 
("A fronte preecipitium, a tergo lupi"), a 
proverb whose origin Erasmus (' Adag., ch. iii. 
cent. iv. proy. 94) leaves unexplained. The 
devil is again substituted for the wolf in 
the familiar English adaptation " Talk of the 
devil," &c., of the classical " Lupus in fabula " 
(Plaut., 'Stich.,' iv. 1, 71; Cic., 'Att.,' xiii. 
33, 4, &c.). J. M. C. 

It has been suggested to me by Mr. H. S. 
Cuming that this phrase was adopted, if not 
originated, by the Koyalists in allusion to 
Cromwell, " tne deep C.," the relationship of 
the devil to the deep " C." being implied in a 
book or pamphlet of the time entitled "A 
True and Faithful Narrative of Oliver Crom- 
well's Compact with the Devil for Seven 
Years on the day on which he gained the 
Battle of Worcester. Printed and Sold by 
W. Boreham at the Angel in Paternoster 
Row, 6d." This modern sense of "deep," 
meaning profound in craft and subtlety, was 
certainly prevalent in Cromwell's time (see 
'H.E.D.,' s.v. 'Deep,' 17). The earliest in- 
stance of the saying given under ' Devil ' is 
1637 : Monro, 'Exped.,' ii. 55 (Jam.), "I, with 
my partie, did lie on our poste, as betwixt the 
devill and the deep sea." It was also formerly 
" Between the devil and the Dead Sea " (ibid.). 


Hazlitt, 'English Proverbs,' 1882, has "Be- 
twixt the devil and the Dead Sea," and refers 
to Clarke's ' Parcemiologia,' 1639. 

A. C. LEE. 

Waltham Abbey. 

See 7 th S. i. 320, 453. At the first of these 
references the Editor remarks that " the origin 
of this is unknown to us." At the second 
reference illustrative quotations are given 
dated 1637 and 1697. G. L. APPERSON. 
[Other replies acknowledged.] 

" SHOEHORNED " (9 th S. vii. 289, 395). None 
of your correspondents has mentioned the 
word " shoehorning," a term used (privately) 
in auction-rooms in Furness and Cumberland. 
It is not uncommon, after a sale by auction, to 
hear such remarks as " There 's been a lot of 
shoehorning to-night " when any article has 
been bid up falsely above what is considered 
its value. "Shoehorning" therefore means 
lifting up the price, in the same way as the 

9ts.vm. JULY is, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


shoehorn lifts up the heel of the shoe on 
to the foot. 

In Low Furness the phrase " Let 's have a 
shoehorn " is similar in intention to that of 
Bishop Still quoted by MR. MACMICHAEL 
but in this district the ale itself is the " shoe- 
horn," a glass of ale being drunk by a person 
while out for a ramble as a " put on " until a 
substantial meal can be had. 

In Cleveland, North Yorkshire, at sales by 
auction, instead of " shoehorn " the term usec 
is a " pricker," and it refers to the person who 
(privately) bids without any intention pi 
buying, and thus "goads" others on to bic 



" LAKE," A PRECIOUS STONE (9 th S. vii. 506). 
Since writing the note on this subject I hare 
found that Garcia de Orta says, in his * Col- 
loquio XLIV.' (' Das Pedras Preciozas,' &c.) : 

"The alaqueca, so called by us (which in Arabic 
is called quequi), is worth a Castilian real for a 
pound [arratel] of this stone cut in small pieces ; 
and this stone possesses a stronger virtue than all 
others ; for it stanches blood much quicker." 

Linschoten also, in the eighty-sixth chapter 
of his first book (I quote from the old English 
translation as reprinted by the Hakluyt 
Society), speaks of " the stone called Alakecca, 
[which] is also called Bloodstone, because 
it quickly stancheth blood." As is noted 
in the index to the Hakluyt Society's Lin- 
schoten, alakecca, alaqueca, &c., represent 
Arab. al-'akik = cornelian. Capt. Stevens's 
attempt to naturalize the word in English 
as lake does not seem to have found favour 
with any other writer ; and, as I have already 
mentioned, even he himself appears to have 
subsequently repented of his boldness. 



The stone referred to appears to be the 
"Mocha stone" or "moss agate," which is 
found in large numbers, and of a very fine 
quality, in some of the old lava rocks in 
Cambav or its vicinity. There are in 
these fibrous - looking crystals of oxide of 
manganese or an oxide of iron brown if the 
former, and red or yellow if the latter ; 
the remainder of the lava steam-hole having 
been, according to the laws of the formation 
of agates, filled up with either pure or nearly 
pure chalcedony, or with cacholong (chal- 
cedony rendered opaque or milk-white, com- 
monly from an admixture with milk opal), 
or with both. 

These " Mocha stones " or " moss agates " 
when cut and polished show the crystallized 

oxide of manganese orironlikedendritic mark- 
ings in the chalcedony or cacholong giving 
a varied, curious, and often very beautiful 
appearance in the sometimes almost opaline- 
looking surrounding and thus are largely 
used for jewellery. ALEXANDER THOMS. 
St. Andrews, N.B. 

UNMARRIED LORD MAYORS (9 th S. vii. 428, 
513). Thomas Kelly (1772-1855), Lord Mayor 
1836-7, was a bachelor. See * Passages from 
the Private and Official Life of the Late 
Alderman Kelly,' by the Rev. R. C. Fell, 
1856, p. 101. Kelly was a very enterprising 
bookseller and publisher, and the forerunner 
of John Cassell in the issue of various useful 
and interesting works in parts. Was not 
Alderman Allen, head of W. H. Allen & Co., 
publishers, Waterloo Place, Lord Mayor 
between 1860 and 1870, also a bachelor ? 


ENGLISH ORATORY (9 th S. vii. 427). Refer 
to Cornhill Magazine, vol. ii., 1860; 'Irish 
School of Oratory,' vol. ii., new series, 1897 ; 
Macmillaris Magazine, vol. xxxv., 1876-7. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

386, 430, 492, 530 ; iii. 75, 116, 158, 231, 295). 
Rung in speaking of the steps of a ladder has 
been familiar to me, but I nave never heard 
round as its equivalent. In "An English 

Dictionary by E. Coles," London, 1696 

(which edition is not mentioned in the Cata- 
logue of the British Museum nor in the list 
of this author's works in the * Dictionary of 
National Biography,' whence arises the ques- 
tion, Is its date a misprint of 1676 ?), one finds 
"Roundel, a ball (in heraldry)"; " Runge, 
Northumberland dialect, a flasket"; and 
" Rungs, the ground-timbers which gives [sic] 
the floor of the ship"; and also " Ronges 
'query ranges), old word for the sides of a 
[adder." Probably Coles was wrong in say- 
ing sides. His suggestion of ranges to explain 
the word is interesting. His book gives some 
words which are not recorded in the * H.E.D.' 
The latter leaves the origin of haberdasher an 
open question. Coles suggested German 
Habtithredas (sic), probably meaning habt 
'hr cfos?="have you that?" (as he himself 
renders it.) This recalls vasistas in French, 

common word for window, made up of three 
German words = " What is it?" 



S. vii. 448). A short, but very interesting 

account of the death of Louis XVI. is given 

n the 'Memoirs of the Sansons,' edited by 


NOTES AJtfD QUEEIES. [9* s. vm. JULY 13, 1901. 

Henry Sanson, late executioner of the Court 
of Justice of Paris, who was a grandson of 
Charles Henri Sanson, the executioner of the 
king. This book was translated, and an 
edition (two volumes in one) was published 
by Messrs. Chatto & Windus in 1876. The 
account of the execution is given exactly as 
written by Charles Henri Sanson in his 
diary, and forms chap. xxvi. of vol. i. pp. 272- 
285. The extracts given below refer to the 
subjects mentioned by ME. LINDSAY, and I 
take it that the letter sold at Sotheby's was 
the original or a copy of the one sent to the 
Thermometre du Jour. When Martin Sanson, 
a Brother, told the king that he must take 
his coat off, 

''There is no necessity,' answered he; 'despatch 
me as I am now. 3 My brother insisted, and added 
that it was indispensably necessary to bind his 
hands. This last observation moved him greatly. 
He reddened, and exclaimed, ' What ! would you 
dare to touch me? Here is my coat, but do not 
lay a finger on me ! ' After saying this he took off 
his coat. 

According to these memoirs, it does not 
appear that the king was prevented by those 
on the scaffold from speaking to the people. 
The noise made by the drums, on purpose to 
prevent any speech being heard, evidently 
troubled him, for he asked when he ascended 
the steps of the scaffold, "Are these drums 
going to sound for ever 1 " 

"On reaching the platform, he advanced to the 
side where the crowd was the thickest, and made 
such an imperative sign that the drummers stopped 
for a moment. 'Frenchmen!' he exclaimed, in a 
strong voice, ' you see your king ready to die for 
you. May my blood cement your happiness ! I die 
innocent of what I am charged with ! ' He was 
about to continue when Santerre, who was at the 
head of his staff, ordered the drummers to beat, and 
nothing more could be heard." 

It is probable that the executioner and his 
brothers were quite prepared to help any 
plan of rescue; they were all well armed 
under their coats, and had their pockets ful 
of bullets. 

Thus died the unfortunate prince, who might 
have been saved by a thousand well-armed men 
and really I am at a loss to understand the notice 
which I received the day before the execution 
that some attempt at rescue was to be made 
Ihe slightest signal would have been sufficient to 
cause a diversion in his favour ; for if when Gros 
my assistant, showed the king's head to the multi 
tude some cries of triumph were uttered, the greater 
part of the crowd turned away with profound 
horror, buch is the account which my grandfathe" 
left us of the death of Louis XVI. It is in con 
formity with the letter which he had the coura^ 
to write to the Thermometre du Jour, to correc 
some erroneous allegations contained in that paper 
Ihenarratiye I have just given essentially differ 
irom that of M. de Lamartine in his 'Histoire de 

Jirondins '; but, however great may be the authority 
f the eminent historian, his account cannot, for 
ccuracy, be compared with my grandfather's." 



IVEAGH, co. DOWN (9 th S. vii. 428). The 
)arony of Iveagh in the county of Down is 
)ronounced similarly to the word ivy, with 
he latter syllable not quite so short. Per- 
laps the form i-vay would best convey the 
proper sound. J. S. McTEAR. 

I have heard this place-name pronounced 
v'-g, iv'-e, and Iv'-e-agh, the third syllable 
pronounced very softly. The last is, I believe, 
}he most correct. The present written form 
s evidently an attempt at writing Uibh- 
Eachach as pronounced. ALBERT GOUGH. 

Glandore Gardens, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

8 th S. xi. 101, 289 ; 9 th S. vii. 474). The Latin 
tines on the Prayer Book at the last reference 
were written about 1850 by the Rev. Francis 
Kilvert, of Bath, and were published in a 
small volume of poems issued after his death. 
They were translated by his friend the Rev. 
W. L. Nichols, and the two were printed 
together and given to friends. The transla- 
tion is as follows : 

Blest Book ! My Fathers' safeguard and their pride, 
In joy and grief alike a cherished guide ; 
My careless childhood's monitor ; the stay 
That marked to froward youth the better way ; 
Still may thy dear consolatory page 
Prove the best manual in declining age : 
With old familiar prayers my voice command, 
The hallowed volume trembling in my hand ; 
Soothe my last pang, receive my dying kiss, 
And my last tears, Faith's antepast of bliss. 


The graceful Latin lines on the Book of 
Common Prayer were composed, with an 
English translation appended, by the Rev. 
W. L. Nichols, of Woodlands, near Nether 
Stowey, author of ' The Quantocks and their 
Associations.' The first line appeared origin- 
ally as MR. DEEDES quotes it, but some one 
having questioned the quantity of Pdtrum 
improperly, since Virgil in one place makes 
it long Mr. Nichols altered it to 

Qui fueras nostrum decus et tutela Parentum. 

W. T. 

387, 495). I have shown again and again by 
historical evidence that to call an arch- 
bishop's cross-staff a "crosier" is a nineteenth- 
century blunder which all at once acquired 
an extraordinary vitality, as indeed is shown 



by the quotations adduced by H. B. and by 
many more collected by myself. May I once 
more refer to the * New English Dictionary,' 
Prof. Skeat, and to Archceologia, vol. Hi. 
709-32? I do not ask any one to attach 
the least importance to my opinion, but I 
do beg to call attention to the evidence. 

J. T. F. 

As Dr. F. G. Lee, F.S.A., has been men- 
tioned, may I be allowed to refer the querist 
to an article by this learned authority which 
appeared in the Builder of 18 July, 1885 ? It 
bears the title * Crooks and Croziers,' and is 
brimful of valuable notes and references on 
this interesting subject. At the end of his 
article Dr. Lee points out the mistakes made 
in the design of the cross or crozier then 
recently presented to the see of Canterbury. 
Instead of rightly providing both a cross and 
a pastoral staff, those in authority produced 
a novelty strangely combining the two. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

"The pastoral staff of the early Archbishops 
of Santiago de Galicia in Spain, as may 
be seen on some of their tombs in the 
Romanesque church of Sar, outside the 
walls of that Spanish Oxford, was very like 
a croquet mallet, or a certain agricultural 
hammer used by the Spanish Basks for 
breaking the clods in their fields, or an old 
man's crutch ; that is to say, it is like unto 
a cross without the upper member. Presum- 
ably it would be called a crosse in French, 
though it has no resemblance to a shepherd's 
crook like that of an ordinary bishop in the 
Catholic Church. E. S. DODGSON. 

" THEN " = THAN (9 th S. vii. 447).-Spenser 
uses " then " for " than ": 
A lovely ladie rode him faire beside, 
Upon 9, lowly asse more white then snow. 

' Faerie Queene,' Book I. c. i. s. 4. 
But he also uses " than ": 
But they did seeme more foule and hideous 
Than woman's shape man would beleeve to be. 
Book I. c. ii. s. 41. 

Chaucer uses " than " for " then ": 
First I pronounce whennes that I come ; 
And than my bulles shew I all arid some. 

'Canterbury Tales,' 11. 12,269-70. 

"FiRE-FANGED" (9 th S. vii. 350). I find this 
word in HalliwelPs * Dictionary of Provincial 
Words,' also in Brockett's ' Glossary of North- 
Country Words' (1846), both with the 
planation of "fire-bitten." Annandale in 
e 'Imperial Dictionary' (1882) explains 



this term to mean " Dried up as by fire ; 
specifically applied to manure which has 
assumed a bated appearance from the heat 
evolved during decomposition." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I used to hear this word some twenty- 
five or thirty years ago, when a hotbed was 
annually made for a cucumber frame. I 
understood it to apply to manure which had 
lain so long as to have lost its heat and 
become matted into mouldy flakes. 


TROUBADOUR AND DAISY (9 th S. vii. 389, 
456). The troubadours certainly did not 
disdain the violet, for at the floral games 
said to have been instituted at Toulouse in 
1323 a golden violet was the prize awarded 
to the author of the best poem produced. 
Among other flowers offered as prizes at 
different times were the pansy, the lily, the 
rose, but in no book of reference can I find 
the daisy mentioned in this connexion. This 
flower, however, has never been without 
honour in France, any more than in England. 
Philip the Bold of Burgundy instituted an 
Order of the Daisy in honour of his bride 
Margaret of Flanders : the daisy was assumed 
as a cognizance by St. Louis of France in 
honour of his wife Margaret ; and it was also 
borne by Margaret of Valois and Margaret 
of Anjpu. (See Canon Ellacombe's essay on 
the daisy.) May I quote Mr. Lang's version 
of the passage from ' Aucassin and Nicolete,' 
as more graceful though less literal than 
Mr. Bourdillon's ? 

" And the daisy flowers that brake beneath her 
as she went tip-toe, and that bent above her 
instep, seemed black against her feet, so white was 
the maiden." 

C. C. B. 

" PORTE-MANTEAU " (9 th S. iv. 536 ; vii. 478). 
King Charles I. had strong views in 
favour of a liturgy and the episcopal form 
of Church government, which the Scottish 
people, as a rule, did not share. In 1637-8 
they subscribed the National Covenant 
abjuring episcopacy, and armed themselves 
against the measures adopted by the king. 
The clergy preached much at the king, whose 
father, James VI., in 1596, Andrew Melville 
had pulled by the sleeve and called "God's 
silly vassal " when his Majesty essayed to use 
" his authoritie in maist crabbit and colerik 
maner " towards a deputation from the Com- 
missioners of the General Assembly who 
waited upon him at Falkland. These remarks 
in themselves have no bearing whatever on 
the word at the head of this reply ; but I 

NOTES .AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. JULY 13, 1901. 

make them as a prelude to the understanding 
of a quotation which has a bearing on the 
meaning of it, and which you may allow me 
to make from a sermon preached in St. Giles's 
Church, Edinburgh, in April, 1638, by the 
Rev. James Row, of Monzievaird, grandson of 
John Row, the coadjutor of John Knox. I 
take it from 'Memorials of the Family of 
Row,' Edinburgh, 1828, a volume limited to 
forty copies. The parallel is between Balaam 
and his ass, which he drove till it spake back, 
and the bishops and the Church, which they 
drove till it rebelled : 

"So the Bishops (being as blind as Balaam) have 
ridden and beaten our Kirke so long, and taken us 
at such a strait, as wee were even ready to be des- 
troied. But God hath heard our cry, and wee pray 
him also open the eyes of our adversaries, who 
were even as blind as Balaam, and were going as 
unlucky a way as hee, for they were posting to 
Rome with a Poakmantie behind them ; and what 
was in their Poakmantie (trow ye?) Marry, even 
the book of Common praier, the book of Canons, 
and orders of the High Commission. Now, as sone 
as the Asse saw the Angell, shee falls to flinging and 
over goes the Poakmantie, and it hung on the one 
side or the Asse by one string, and the Bishops hang 
by the hamme on the other side, so as they hang 
crosse the Asse (like a paire of paniers) stuft full of 
Popish trash and trinkets. Fame would the blind 
Carle have beene on the saddle againe, but hee 
could not ; nay, so he might be set to ride again, he 
would be content to leave his Poakmanty amongst 
us. But let me exhort yee (deare Brethren) not to 
let such a swinger ride any more on your Religion, 
for, if he do, he will be sure one time or other to 
get the Poakmantie behind him againe." 

There is no doubt there as to what the 
preacher meant by a portemanteau or 
"poakmantie," as he calls it after the manner 
of the times, and as it was still called in my 
youth and the illustration must have greatly 
impressed the people, for he came to be after- 
wards known among them as Poakmantie 
Mr. James. J. L. ANDERSON. 


HAYDON FAMILY (9 th S. vii. 469). The old 
English families seem to have spelt the 
name Heydon, while the American branches 
have usually spelt it Hayden. There are 
twenty-four different printed pedigrees to be 
found in various American books. The book 
which I believe would prove most useful to 
your correspondent is ' Records of the Con- 
necticut Line of the Hayden Family '('The 
Hayden Genealogy'), by Jabez Haskell 
Hayden, of Windsor Locks, Conn., 1888. 
Genealogical sketches are given of the old 
English families The author appears to have 
made very careful researches in the different 
parts of England where the Heydons have 
resided. The book is tastefully produced, and 
illustrated with photographs. As no doubt it 

was published by subscription (and only a 
few hundred printed), I hardly think it 
would be possible to buy a copy in open 
market ; but it is pretty certain that many 
of the public libraries in the U.S. possess 
copies. Another book which contains useful 
information upon the subject is 'Virginia 
Genealogies,' by the Rev. Horace Edwin Hay- 
den, M.A., Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, 1891. 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

Four very long and interesting articles 
respecting this family, from the pen of FRANK 
SCOTT HAYDON, the son of the famous histori- 
cal painter Benjamin Robert Haydon, have 
already appeared in ' N. & Q.,' for which see 
4 th S. vii. 143 ; viii. 149 ; 5 th S. x. 370 ; xi. 111. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"SNICKET" (9 th S. vii. 348, 512). One day 
last autumn I travelled on the Great Nortn 
of Scotland Railway between Aberdeen and 
Inverness. When we reached Elgin station 
a gentleman in the compartment handed out 
to a friend on the platform what appeared 
to be a small covered cage with a bird in it. 
Sitting as I was at the platform window of 
the carriage, I could not help overhearing 
the conversation which passed between the 
two, to .which I paid not the slightest atten- 
tion. But as the train was about to start 
I was interested to hear my travelling com- 
panion, in the best Nortn-Country Doric, 
evidently referring to the little prisoner 
within the cage, make this parting remark : 
" Gin its tail grows owre lang, just snick a 
bit aft." A. S. 

"Snicket" and "snigit" are words with 
the same meanings generally as used in 
Derbyshire. In cricket a ball is "snicked," 
that is " cut " to an unexpected quarter. 
Boys "snick" and "snig" things with their 
knives, and they " snick " or " snig " along in 
certain games where to be half hidden is 
necessary. Taking a short cut or doing 
things rapidly so as to cause surprise is 
" snicking it " or " sniging it." 


A HULL SAYING (9 th S. vii. 445). MR. 
ANDREWS'S communication produces for a 
native of Hull, who long ago left his first 
home, the kind of experience which one has 
in hearing again once familiar tones. I can 
remember very little of the Yorkshire ver- 
nacular, but one phrase, that has clung to me 
from childhood's days, is comparable with 
" Ah '11 travis tha " as to the severity of its 

9* s. vm. JULY 13, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


signification. The phrase "Ah '11 skin tha 
wick," heard through the open window of a 
seaside lodging-house, puzzled me in those 
days. It was when I came to associate 
"wick" with "quick" that I understood 
what a terrible infliction would be raised by 
his mother's words for the contemplation of 
some errant bairn, who, as a dweller in a 
fishing village, would not be unaccustomed 
to see the utterer of the threat flay living 
eels. F. JARRATT. 

(9 th 8. vii. 489). If J. F. R. will refer to 
Crispin de Pas's 'Hortus Floridus,' I think 
he will see the meaning of an " arched hedge " 
with a hedge above. H. N. ELLACOMBE. 

CROMWELLIANA (9 th S. vii. 481). William 
Hetley, of Broughton, co. Hunts, married 
Carina Cromwell, daughter of Henry Crom- 
well, and granddaughter of Sir Oliver Crom- 
well, of Hinchinbrook. 


THE MANOR OF TYBURN (9 fch S. vii. 381, 402, 
489). I have read with much interest the 
paper by MR. RUTTON, in which he not only 
elucidates a neglected passage in Stow, but 
vindicates the accuracy of the old chronicler 
in a very convincing manner. I have always 
contended that whatever may be thought of 
Stow's etymologies, his topography may 
generally be depended on. With reference 
to ST. SWITHIN'S remarks, I think that your 
valued correspondent has perhaps hardly 
grasped my point when I declared that I 
could not "accept the argument that the 
name 'Tyburn' was a movable one, which 
was bestowed on whatever site the gallows 
occupied." I did not refer to provincial 
"imitations," but to the London Tyburn, 
which, in the opinion of some antiquaries, 
was gradually shifted from the borders of 
St. Giles's to those of Paddington. It is of 
course a common thing for London names to 
be reproduced in the provinces. Bridewells 
abound in all parts of the country, and in 
the town near which I am writing at the 
present moment the sheep and cattle market 
has been known as Smithfield for several 
centuries. It is therefore quite in accord- 
ance with practice that the place of execution 
at York should have received the name of 
Tyburn. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

PETER THELLUSSON (8 th S. xii. 183, 253, 489 ; 
9 th S. i. 17, 97). As the above references do 
not bring out clearly all the important facts 
of this famous will case, and as ooth * Cham- 
bers's Book of Days ' (ii. 96, 97) and ' Haydn's 

Dictionary of Dates ' (p. 824) are inaccurate, 
it may be well to supplement them. 

Thellusson left property in land worth 
600,000^., to be held in trust during the lives 
of all his male descendants living at the 
time of his death or en ventre sa mere. The 
income of the property was to be continually 
invested in land. On the death of the last of 
the said male descendants the whole property 
was to be given in three equal portions to the 
eldest male descendant of each of his three 
sons, with cross - remainders to the three 

Alarm was felt at the possible danger to 
the nation from so vast a landed estate being 
held by one family. Computations of the 
ultimate value varied from about eighteen to 
thirty -five millions (see Hargrave, 'Juridical 
Arguments,' ii., App. ; this volume contains 
the arguments in tne suit of 1798-9). Appa- 
rently, when divided, it had not increased at 
all, and Chambers states as the causes legal 
expenses and accidents of management. No 
doubt the latter were the chief. 

Thellusson's family may be put in tabular 
form thus, omitting females (see Clark's 
*H. L. Cases,' vii.) :- 

A B C 


a,6,c,rf,e[/, g-\\ 

R. A. T. 

| no 

C. T. 

d and e were twins en venire at the time of 
his death ; /, g, y, z were born later. Thus 
there were nine lives to expire before the 
division. A was first Baron Rendlesham ; 
a, d, e were second, third, and fourth ; and R. 
(b. 1840) was fifth ; / died unmarried 1818 ; 
<7's son A. T. was born 1826 ; x died 1856, last 
of the nine ; his son C. T. was born 1822 : 
y died unmarried 1800 ; z was born 1801, and 
was alive at the death of x. 

Thus the property had to be divided into 
two parts, and for each half there were two 
claimants. Did "eldest male descendant" 
mean the heir by direct male descent, or the 
oldest in age ? The two cases were argued as 
one, A. T. v. R. and T. T. v. C. T., and the 
decision was given in 1859 in favour of the 
lineal heir by male descent. 

There are thus several inaccuracies in 
Chambers and Haydn. Both put the death 
of the last grandson for the death of the last 
of the nine, and Chambers, while ignoring 
the existence of two suits, names the success- 
ful party in the second suit only, C. S. A. T. ; 
also in quoting the statute of 1800 (39 & 40 
George III., 98) it gives the period of twenty 
years instead of twenty -one. 

MR. HIPWELL also, at the first reference, 
ignores the existence of two suits and two 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* JULY 13, 1901. 

heirs. Strange to say, even Clark s report 
is inaccurate, as on p. 429 he has " grandson 
twice for "son," and consequential errors 
afterwards. (For the report of the appeal 
case of 1805 see Vesey, jun., 'Cases in 
Chancery,' xi.) E. H. BROMBY. 

University, Melbourne. 

"CAPT. ROCK" (9 th S. vii. 227, 353). If 
your contributor is interested in "Capt. 
Rock," he will find 'Letters to His Majesty 
King George IV.,' by "Capt. Rock" (B. Steill, 
London, 1828), worth perusal. The book can 
be obtained for a small sum from the second- 
hand shops. ALBERT GOUGH. 

Glandore Gardens, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

"BULL AND LAST" (9 th S. vii. 128, 254, 331, 
411). In the case of the "Bull and Gate" in 
Holborn there is, according to Peter Cun- 
ningham's 'London' (s.v. 'Bull and Gate'), 
a reference by the presumably accurate 
George Steevens in his edition of Shake- 
speare, which, considered in connexion with 
the fact that the " Gate " is often met with 
as an old English sign, is somewhat puzzling. 
He says : 

"The Bull and Gate was originally (as I learn 

from the title-page of an old play) the Bullogne 
Gate, i.e., one of the Gates of Bullogne, designed, 
perhaps, as a compliment to Henry VlIL, who took 
that place in 1544." 

Both Dr. Brewer ('Diet, of Phrase') and Mr. 
Hotten (' Hist, of Signboards ') seem to have 
rested their statements on this evidence, and 
if Steevens can be shown to be correct in his 
surmise, we may rest content with this ex- 
planation ; but the ' ' Gate," both alone and 
in combination with other signs, was not 
uncommon, and doubtless arose when "iron 
gates " came to be used more generally, the 
novelty of such an architectural appendage 
being remarkable enough by itself to form 
a landmark. There is still a "George and 
Gate " in Gracechurch Street ; a " Red Gate " 
is mentioned in the ' Vade Mecum for Malt- 
worms '; and there were formerly signs of 
the "Iron Gate," the "Golden Field Gate," 
and a curious one of the " Pesfield Gate." As 
a landmark for direction in old advertise- 
ments it is of frequent occurrence. For in- 
stance, horses are advertised for in 1725 to be 
taken in to grass in Chelsea Park at 2s. Qd. 
per week till Candlemas, and inquiries were 
to be made of Anthony Clarke, at the " Great 
Gates " in Chelsea Park, near Little Chelsea. 
With regard to the "Bull and Mouth," 
according to the 'History of Signboards,' 
the tavern known latterly by that sign, and 
still later as the " Queen's Hotel," in St. Mar- 
tin's-le-Grand, was in Taylor the Water-Poet's 

time known as the "Mouth" only, though 
Mr. Hotten does not mention this in con- 
nexion with the "Bull and Mouth"; while, 
again, in Wood's 'Athense Oxonienses' the 
house is spoken of as the "Mouth," near 
Aldersgate Street, and a meeting - place- 
though perhaps the "Silent Woman" would 
have been a more appropriate rendezvous 
of the Quakers. There was another " Mouth " 
in Bishopsgate Street Without, and in both 
cases their proximity to two of the most im- 
portant of the City gates suggests the ques- 
tion whether the sign was not exhibited by 
way of indicating to travellers the most im- 
portant hostelry near the gate or mouth of 
the City. Or, considering how customary it 
has always been for the servants of the great 
to set up, on retirement from service, in the 
hotel or tavern kind of business, the sign 
might have been adopted to indicate eating 
as well as drinking entertainment by a retired 
Yeoman of the Mouth. Mrs. Centlivre's hus- 
band, for instance, was Yeoman of the Mouth 
to Queen Anne. Again, it would have been 
a peculiarly appropriate sign for a place of 
public assembly, such as many taverns were 
in the early newspaper days, when not more 
than one in a hundred could read when 
vivd voce news and gossip were eagerly sought 
from fresh arrivals from the country, or con- 
trariwise by country folk from citizens. 
"Every coffee-house," says Addison, "has 
some particular statesman belonging to it 
who is the mouth of the street where he 
lives." There is said to be a sign of the 
" Merry Mouth " at Fifield, Chipping Norton, 
in Oxfordshire. I put forward the above 
suggestions in hope that they are not too 
fantastic to lead to something more definite. 
There is, of course, conjecture and conjec- 
ture ; but as experiment is the golden key of 
knowledge, so conjecture, I take it, is often 
the handmaid of fact. 



A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 
Edited by Dr. J. A. H. Murray. Vol. V. Jew- 
Kairine. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
THE present part of the great dictionary brings 
within measurable reach the completion of the fifth 
volume, the appearance of which may be expected 
during the present year. Contrasting as it does 
with the slowness of progress at first observed, the 
rate of speed and the punctuality of appearance 
now maintained is of happiest promise, and the 
possession of the entire work is no longer, for moat 
of us, beyond the range of possibility. The most 
interesting page in a deeply interesting number is 
that dealing with the letter K, concerning which 

viii. JULY is, loci.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


much information equally curious and valuable is 
supplied. Special attention is rewarded by what 
is said concerning the manner in which after the 
Norman Conquest k, till then a supplemental 
symbol, occasionally used instead of c for the 
guttural sound, was substituted for c before e, i, 
and y, and later before n words, such as knight, 
knave, &c. It is curious to note that while the 
unstressed suffix ick in words such as traffick, 
musick, is now changed to ic, when a swffix 
in e or i follows, as in trafficker, the deleted k 
reappears. It is obviously impossible to condense 
into a space capable of being given in our columns 
information that has already been compressed as 
closely as was reconcilable with the preservation of 
lucidity. It is with the.?' words, however, that the 
part is principally concerned. Very many of these 
belong, as is pointed out, to the colloquial rather 
than to the literary stratum of the language. Such 
words are jig, job, jog, jolt, jiffy, jigger, jumble, and 
the like, many of which are onomatopoeic. Jewel, 
in its various senses, is the first word treated 
wholly in the part. Many quotations from Shake- 
speare are given. We should like to have seen the 
lines of Helena in ' A Midsummer Night's Dream ' 
(IV. i.), 

And I haue found Demetrius, like a iewell, 

Mine owne, and not mine owne, 

since some dispute has been raised as to its exact 
meaning. The matter has, however, more concern 
for commentators than for philologists. Whence 
Jew's harps, first called Jew's trumps, got their 
name is doubtful. Reference is, however, made to 
the article in * N. & Q.' by the REV. C. B. MOUNT, 
8 th S. xii. 322. Jib as a verb when applied to a 
horse is said to be of recent date and uncertain 
derivation. Jig, a dance, is much earlier, but 
not less uncertain in origin. Jig supplies us with 
some of the senses of jigger, others of which are 
obscure. It is, of course, natural that in words of 
this stamp, known principally in popular speech, 
no certain derivation should be obtainable. Jim- 
iam, among the slang meanings of which in 
the plural is delirium tremens, is described as 
"a reduplicated term of which the elements are 
unexplained; perhaps only whimsical." Jimp= 
slender reached our literature from Scotland in 
the last century. Of jingle it is said that there 
does not seem to be any original association with 
jangle. The connexion seems nearer with tinkle. 
Jobation=3i lecture is earlier than we should have 
supposed, an instance of use in 1689 being furnished. 
A very interesting account appears of jockey. It is 
naturally a diminutive, kindred to Jacky. Jucund, 
from jucundus, is the etymological form of jocund, 
which is said now to be exclusively a literary word. 
A Celtic origin for jog=to shake up has been put 
forward, but is said to be not tenable, the origin 
remaining unascertained. The modern use of Johnny 
is mentioned as "chiefly denoting a fashionable 
young man of idle habits." This description seems 
due to the Daily News, which among the morning 
papers enjoys a practical supremacy or mono- 
poly of quotation, to some extent shared by the 
Westminster Gazette among evening papers. We 
should not personally assume idleness, as being 
indispensably involved in a term which we have 
heard applied to an assemblage including one o: 
the editors of one of the periodicals in questior 
as well as other hardworking men. No instance o: 
ioke is given earlier than 1670. Under jolly we find 

Coverdale in 1549 using what seems a quite modern 
brm of expression, "I thought my selfe a iolye 
brtunate man." Jolly-boat is of uncertain origin. 
Extracts illustrative of journalese are given from.the 
AthencKum and the Pall Mall Gazette. Journalist 
n the form jurnalist is found in 1693 ; journalism 
does not appear before 1833. Carlyle is responsible 
'or journalistic. The origin of juggins==a, simpleton 
cannot be settled. It is first traced in Disraeli in 
L845. Of junket the history is said to be " somewhat 
obscure in respect both of form and sense." Under 
this word we do not trace Milton's 

How faery Mab the junkets eat. 
Another word the origin of which is said to be 
unknown is jury-mast. Just, in its many senses 
and with its numerous derivatives, occupies many 
'nteresting columns. Kaffir is the word of most 
nterest under K we have so far reached. 

S. Gilbert of Sempringham and the Gilbertines. A 
History of the only English Monastic Order. By 
Rose Graham. (Stock.) 

ST. GILBERT of Sempringham was born about 
twenty- three years after the Norman Conquest, 
and is said to have lived t9 attain his hundredth 
year. Sempringham is a Lincolnshire village near 
Bourne. It is now a fertile place, but it must have 
been a lonely and depressing spot when he knew 
it, as it was on the edge of that great stretch of 
fenland which extended to the Wash. St. Gilbert 
came of the race of the invaders, and the time 
had not arrived when the conquerors and the 
conquered blended into one people. His father 
Jocelin was a Norman knight, holding his lands 
under Gilbert de Gant, of Falkingham, a mighty 
potentate in Lincolnshire, whose father Baldwin 
of Flanders was brother of Matilda, wife of King 
William. It is possible, though we know no evi- 
dence whatever for our surmise, that this Gilbert 
may have been the godfather of the future saint, and 
that the latter was, according to a custom prevalent 
in those days, named after him. Gilbert's father 
married a lady of Saxon lineage, and this may have 
been a reason why their son, apart from his own 
virtues, became popular with the servile classes, 
with whom in after days he was in such intimate 
relation. He grew up a pious and innocent lad, 
but won the contempt of the retainers from a 
physical defect from which he suffered. He could 
not engage in knightly exercises on account of his 
infirmity; his father therefore determined to give 
him a clerkly education ; but this also seemed out 
of the poor boy's reach, for he was considered to be 
dull of intellect. For this offence, as it was regarded 
it was, we may assume, a sign of slow develop- 
ment rather than of idleness he fell into dis- 
grace with his parents. This the tender-hearted 
lad felt so hard to bear that he fled to France. 
Perhaps he may there have met with kinder treat- 
ment than at nome, or it may be that change of 
environment awoke his slumbering faculties, for he 
seems to have at once turned his attention to 
scholarship. When he returned home he was found 
to be a well-educated and refined young man, 
according to the standards of that rough time. 
His mind had widened, and he had become bent 
upon doing good to those around him, though at 
first it does not appear that he had any fixed idea 
as to the direction which his energies should take. 
He began by what we may in a loose manner call 
keeping a school ; that is, instructing the young of 
both sexes. We have reason to believe he did this 

NOTES. AND QUERIES. [9- s. vm. JULV is, 1901. 

and what is of far more importance in ]u 
man and his time, we have little or nothing beyond 
peculation to help us in determining how it was 
tmtt if occurred to him to form a mixed order of 

stitutions of this 

ESffiRfez"^ ^Uer, # 

rSetL E W abnepos," whose appearance so far 


men and women. In the East institutions or this 
kind had been well known, and similar houses had 
flourished in this country in earlier days, but they 
had all been swept away by the Danes. Ihe his- 
tory of th? order of Sempringham has an especial 
ffirest on account of this recurrence to a custom 
BO venerable; one, too, concerning which we may 
assume, the founder had but slight knowledge even 
if he were aware that such double houses had ever 
existed before his own time. It is also noteworthy 
as being the only religious order founded in this 
country. It never spread elsewhere, not even into 
Scotland, and as a consequence, when the order fell 
here, it, unlike the others, having no branches m 
foreign countries to carry on the tradition, became 

Miss Rose Graham has done well the work she 
has undertaken. She has, it is plain, an accurate 
as well as a full knowledge of her subject, bne 
understands, too, many of those conditions of 
mediaeval life without a due knowledge of which 
any rational appreciation of the monastic orders is 
impossible. The details of the life of^ St. Gilbert 
are unhappily very scanty. Miss Graham has 
avoided the error, into which many well-intentioned 
writers have fallen, of eking out by pietistic verbiage 
the deficiencies of her authorities. 

The accounts of the various Gilbertine houses 
are good. That they are scanty is no fault of the 
writer. She seems to have consulted every source 
of information that was open to her, and we fear 
that there is not much reason to hope that new 
facts will come to light, though we still cling fondly 
to the hope that a MS. of Capgrave's English ' Life of 
St. Gilbert' may be found. There was one in the 
Cotton Library, but it perished in the disastrous 
fire of 1731. 

The Poll of Alumni in Arts of the University and 
King's College of Aberdeen, 1596-1860. Edited by 
Peter J. Anderson. (Aberdeen, printed for the 

THE subject of Scotch graduates is familiar to 
4 N. & Q,,' and of great interest. Aberdeen has 
justly a very high reputation as a nursing-mother 
of men, and the work of the University Librarian 
which in many points corrects less careful sources, 
is invaluable. Mr. Anderson's lists are admirably 
produced in every way, the index in particular 
being most excellent. It shows the persistency o 
certain families: Andersons, Barclays, Camerons 
Campbells, Clarks, Cummings, and Gordons, to men 
tion no other names, are very plentiful, while Forbe 
and Fraser are each good for a whole page of th' 
index. On the other hand, there is only a solitar 
instance of Con, Don, Duke, Hart, and Fisher, th 
last two being very common names in England 
The lists are so beautifully printed that they are 
pleasure to the eye. Looking over them, one come 

t TuaUfications ot'herways? Aberdeen may 

ay Quee regio in terris nostri non plena laboris ? 
and many students will thank the University 
Librarian for his painstaking work. 

ht to have noticed before the Biblio- 


form is uue L*J DUG \vi.v> *.*** ~ -- - . , 
Prideaux. We say " taste because it is just the 
literary quality, the judgment of the scholar and 
the writing of the man who reads as well as collects 
or chronicles which are often wanting m biblio- 
graphers; but yet it needs such qualities to .make 
their work of interest to a wider circle than that of 
the mere seekers after " first states " and ' rarities. 
Col. Prideaux shows his capabilities m the notes 
e has added, for instance, to such a masterpiece 
s ' Christabel,' and the thoroughness of his research 
s evident everywhere. Briefly, we may say that 
is bibliography is what a good performance of the 
.ind should be, something like a literary history 
f its subject in skeleton form. 
THE Oxford University Press will issue ' An 
^nglish Commentary on Dante's "Divina Uom- 
nedia,'" by the Rev. H. F. To/er. Mr. Tozer has 
ollowed the new Oxford text of the 'Divine 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
ication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

IGNORAMUS. Unsuitable. 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Ad vertise- 

F _. e , , ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher 

across many notable persons, though the frequency I at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 
of the same names may be a trap to the unwary We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
may make one think for a moment, for instance, ' communications which, for any reason, we do not 
that the economist Adam Smith was an Aberdeen print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9s. vni. JOLT , i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 186. 

NOTES : Civil List Pensions, 57 Charles Lamb as a Jour- 
nalist, 60 The ' Marseillaise ' " Jenkins's ear ' 
"Sare"=Dry General Viney, 61 - Land Tax-Family 
Likeness -Jeroboam -Parasols, 62 -Solar or Nature Myths 
Origin of "Jingo " in Politics, 63. 

QUERIES : Lost Town in Suffolk" Lambsuckle "Coro- 
nation Stone, 63 Crawford Family Arms of European 
Countries "Tall Leicestershire women " Hesketh 
Family Lord Donore Leigh Hunt John Martin 
Rural Deaneries, 64 Cosens Royal Borough Massacre 
at Sligo J. S. Mill's Birthplace Jones, Lord Mayor of 
London ' Coronation Anecdotes ' Tasborough Chesel- 
den, Radcliffe, and Pridmore, 65. 

REPLIES : Civil List Pensions American Heraldry 
Japanese Names, 66 Button and Seaman Families- 
National Flag "Toucan " Sir H. Goodyere G. Saunders 
Cowley's Poems set to Music Thompsons of York, 67 
Napoleon and a Coat of Mail" Sawney "Sir R. Verney 
Goldsmith's Publishers Rev. J. Chartres " Sub " : 
"Subsist Money " Mortimer, 68 Moline Family 
" Juggins " Jowett's Little Garden Fillingham Family 
Poem attributed to Milton Flower Game' Takmi ' 
Acervation Michael Bruce and Burns, 70' ' Bible, Crown, 
and Constitution "Dendritic Markings Ecclesiastical 
"Peculiars," 71 Nathaniel Hawthorne Painted and 
Engraved Portraits Malt and Hop Substitutes ' Burial 
of Sir John Moore ' Phillippo, 72 Title of Dowager 
Peeress Icknield Street A. Fortescue Funeral Cards, 
73 Col. Cooper Greek Pronunciation, 74" Qui vive?" 
Valia as Female Name, 75. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Jaggard's ' Index to Book-Prices 
Current ' Coleridge's 'Byron ' Shaw's ' Calendar of 
Treasury Papers.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(Concluded from p. 38. ) 

1873, August 7th (W. E. Gladstone). 

" Widow of Mr. Holmes Coote. In con- 
sideration of her husband's medical services, 
especially during the Crimean War, and of 
her own labour as Lady Superintendent of 
the Smyrna Hospital. 50/." 

Holmes Coote, 1817-72 (' D.N.B.,' vol. xii.). 

1874, April 29th (Benjamin Disraeli). 

" Widow of James Palladio Basevi, late 
Captain of the Royal Engineers. In con- 
sideration of the services of her husband in 
connexion with the advancement of science 
and the Trigonometrical Survey of India 


The great Trigonometrical Survey of India 
was initiated by Major Lambton in 1800 with 
the support of Col. Wellesley, afterwards 
Duke of Wellington (' Encyclopaedia Britan- 

1875, June 19th (Benjamin Disraeli). 
"In consideration of the long and able 
services, extending over a period of forty 
fears, of her late husband, John Holmes 
Dwelly, Chief Clerk in the Department of 
;he Solicitor to the Commissioners of Inland 
Revenue. 50/." 

1878, June 19th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

In recognition of the services rendered 
JQ the Crown by her late husband, Mr. 
William Menzies, Deputy - Surveyor of 
Windsor Park, especially with reference to 
the 'separate system of drainage' and other 
sanitary improvements. 501." 

1878, June 19th (Earl of Beaconsfield). 

In recognition of the services rendered 
by her mother, Mrs. Caroline Chisholm, * the 
Emigrants' Friend. ' 50/." 

Caroline Chisholm, "the Emigrants' Friend," 
born at Wootton, May, 1808, daughter of 
William Jones, yeoman and philanthropist. 
Married Capt. Chisholm, of the East India 
Company's service. Died at Fulham, 
March 25th, 1877; buried at Northampton 
(' D.N.B.,' vol. x.; 'The Emigrant's Guide 
to Australia,' with memoir and portrait, 
1853 ; Michelet's ' La Femme,' 1860). 
1882, June 10th (W. E. Gladstone). 


"In consideration of the high character 
and distinguished services of her brother, 
Mr. T. H. Burke, and in view of all the 
circumstances of the case. 4001" 

Thomas Henry Burke (1829-82), Under- 
secretary of Ireland. He acted as private 
secretary to the Chief Secretaries Edward 
Card well, Sir Robert Peel, and Chichester P. 
Fortescue. In May, 1869, appointed Under- 
secretary, and filled the post until his death, 
May 6th, 1882. Early in the evening of that 
day Lord Frederick Cavendish and Mr. Burke, 
while walking in the Phoenix Park, near 
Dublin, were assassinated by the members 
of a secret society calling themselves the 
Invincibles ('D.N.B.,' vol. vii.). 

1883, February 2nd ( W. E. Gladstone). 

" In recognition of the services of her late 
husband, Prof. Palmer, and in view of all 
the circumstances of the case. 2001" 

Ed ward Henry Palmer (1840-82), Orientalist. 
In 1860 he made the acquaintance of Seyyid 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 20, 1901. 

'Abdallah, teacher of Hindustani at Cam- 
bridge, and this led Palmer to the study of 
Oriental languages, to which the rest of his 
life was devoted. He as early as 1862 pre- 
sented " elegant and idiomatic Arabic verses 
to the Lord Almoner's professor, Thomas 
Preston. Elected to a Fellowship at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, 1867, after an 
examination by Prof. Cowell, who expressed 
his delight at his " masterly translations and 
exhaustless vocabulary." He was sent by 
Mr. Gladstone on a secret expedition to 
Egypt on the 30th of June, 1882, and on 
the night of the 10th of August he, Capt. 
William John Gill, R.E., and Flag-Lieutenant 
Harold Charrington were taken prisoners by 
the Arabs, and the following morning were 
shot. Their remains were brought home and 
buried in the crypt of St. Paul's, April 6th, 
1883 ('D.N.B.,' vol. xliii.). 

1885, August 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of his labours to improve 
the condition of the poor. 151" 

1885, August 24th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the valuable services 
rendered to sanitary science by her husband, 
the late Mr. John Netten Radcliffe. 100J." 

Contributor to the Lancet; employed by 
the Government to inquire into the question 
of Asiatic cholera during the Crimean War. 
In 1867 he drew up the now famous report on 
cholera in the East-End of London (obituary 
notice, Lancet, Sept. 20th, 1884). 

1888, January 4th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the long and valuable 
services of her late brother, Sir Henry Parkes, 
and of her destitute condition. 75/." 

Sir H. Parkes (1828-85), diplomatist 
('D.N.B.,' vol. xliii.). 

1888, April 18th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the services of her late 
husband, Mr. Samuel Seldon, Principal of the 
Statistical Department of Her Majesty's 
Customs, and of her destitute condition. 

1889, May 10th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the services rendered 
by her late husband, Mr. C. H. B. Patey in 
the improvement of the telegraph services of 

this country, and of her inadequate means of 
support. 200J." 

1889, August 30th (Marquis of Salisbury). 


"In consideration of the services of her 
late husband, Major-General Henry Scott, 
C.B., R.E., to science and art, and of her in- 
adequate means of support. 100." 

Henry Young Darracott Scott (1822-83), 
second lieutenant Royal Engineers, 1840. At 
Chatham he had charge of the chemical 
laboratory. There he perfected the selenitic 
lime which goes by his name. His system of 
representing ground by horizontal hachures 
and a scale of shade was adopted for the 
army as the basis of military sketching. He 
was employed under the commission of the 
Exhibition of 1851, arid on Sir Henry Cole's 
retirement was appointed secretary. He also 
rendered service to many subsequent exhibi- 
tions (' D.N.B.,' vol. li). 

1891, June 10th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the long and valuable 
services of her late father, Sir Thomas Duffus 
Hardy, and in consideration of her inade- 
quate means of support. IQOl." 

Thomas Duffus Hardy (1804-78), archivist, 
entered the Government service, 1819, in the 
branch Record Office at the Tower of London. 
On Petrie's retirement the compilation of the 
'Monumenta Historica,' published in 1848, 
was entrusted to him. He succeeded Pal- 
grave as Deputy - Keeper of the Records, 
July 15th, 1861 (' D.N.B.,' vol. xxiv.). 

1891, June 10th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of the long services of her 
husband, the late Mr. H. W. Bristow, on the 
Geological Survey, and in consideration of 
her inadequate means of support. 45." 

H. W. Bristow, F.R.S.; died June 14th, 
1889 (Athencewn obituary notice, June 22nd, 

1892, January 2nd (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In recognition of the long and valuable 
services of her late husband, Sir William 
Kirby Green, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary at Tangiers, and in 
consideration of her inadequate means of 
support. 1201." 

Sir William Kirby Green, a distinguished 
savant of the Foreign Office. Consul- General 
m Tunis when the French went there, and 
afterwards in Albania. 

9* s. viii. JULY 20, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1894, March 12th (W. E. Gladstone). 

*' In recognition of the distinguished ser- 
vices of her late husband, Sir Gerald Herbert 
Portal, K.C.M.G., C.B. 150J." 

Gerald Herbert Portal (1858-94), diplo- 
matist. June, 1882, he was attached to the 
Consulate-General at Cairo, and was present 
at the bombardment of Alexandria. In the 
summers of 1886 and 1887, during Lord 
Cromer's absence, he took charge of the Resi- 
dency. On October 17th, 1887, he was ordered 
to attempt a reconciliation between the 
King of Abyssinia and the Italian Govern- 
ment (' D.N.B.,' vol. xliii.). 

1894, June 19th (Earl of Rosebery). 

"In consideration of the services of her 
late husband, Dr. Arthur Hill Hassall. 50Z." 

Dr. Hassall, born at Teddington, 1817, died 
April 10th, 1894 (Lancet, April 14th, 1894). 
Most eminent chemist of his time, he" became 
associated with the Lancet Analytical Sani- 
tary Commission, 1851-4, which led to the 
framing of the Adulteration Act of 1860, and 
finally to the adoption of the Foods and 
Drugs Act, 1875. 

1900, March 13th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In recognition of his services in connexion 
with the introduction of submarine tele- 
graphy. 100Z." 

1900, March 21st (Marquis of Salisbury). 

" In consideration of the public services, in 
West Africa, of her late husband, Lieut.-Col. 
A. B. Ellis, C.B., and of her inadequate means 
of support. 30Z." 

1900, May 25th (Marquis of Salisbury). 

"In consideration of the labours of her 
late husband, Dr. John Thomas Arlidge, in 
the cause of industrial hygiene, arid of her 
straitened circumstances. 50/." 

Born at Chatham, 1822; died October 27th, 
1899. Author of 'State of Lunacy in the 
Legal Provision for the Insane,' 1859, and of 
the best treatise on the diseases of occupa- 
tions 'Pluinbism,' 4 Phosphorism v '&c. (Lancet 
obituary notice, November 4th, 1899). 

1901, February 13th (Marquis of Salisbury). 
"In recognition of the services rendered 

by her late husband, Mr. William Cutlack 
Little, in the investigation of rural and agri- 
cultural problems. 501." 

1872, June 18th (W. E. Gladstone). 


u In consideration of the personal services 
of her late father, Sir Richard Mayne, K.C.B., 
to the Crown, and of the faithful performance 
of his duties to the public. 90J." 

Sir Richard Mayne (1796-1868), Police Com- 
missioner. Educated at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, graduated B.A. ; then at Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
1822. On the institution of the Metropolitan 
Police, 29th of September, 1829, Col. (after- 
wards Sir) Charles Rowan and Mayne were 
appointed joint commissioners, and on the 
resignation of the former in 1850 the latter 
became Chief Commissioner, the number of 
police under his command reaching about 
seven thousand men. For his services, in- 
cluding those on the day of the Chartist 
meeting on Kennington Common on the 10th 
of April, 1848, he was on the 29th created a 
C.B., and on the close of the 1851 Exhibition 
was made K.C.B. He was injured in the 
Hyde Park riots in July, 1866. There is a 
monument to him at Kensal Green ( l D.N.B.,' 
vol. xxxvii.). 


1880, January 26th (Earl of Beacon sfield). 

" In consideration of the long and merito- 
rious services of their father, the late Mr. 
Peter Vargas, Superintendent of the Parlia- 
mentary Messengers under the Secretary to 
the Treasury. 25. each." 

This Civil List forms an extremely inter- 
esting record of many of the most important 
events of the nineteenth century. We get a 
glimpse of Napoleon and Sir Hudson Lowe at 
St. Helena, of the Crimean War, the Indian 
Mutiny, the bombardment of Alexandria, the 
Phoenix Park assassinations, the institution 
of our Metropolitan Police, and, in the more 
peaceful portion of the record, the 1851 
Exhibition, submarine telegraphy, the forma- 
tion of the Suez Canal, and the discovery of 
the sources of the Nile ; while under Litera- 
ture, Science, and the Fine Arts we find 
many of the illustrious names of the past 
sixty years,. 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 20, 1901. 

The following gives the total amount of 
grants under their respective heads : 

Literature 4,885 

Science 3,575 

Fine Arts 2,144 

Drama 90 

Music 340 

Education 620 

Biblical Scholars 630 

Scholars 3,081 

Explorers 480 

Naval 300 

Military 2,420 

Governors 875 

British Resident 225 

Ambassador 500 

Consuls 650 

Civil 2,885 

Police 90 


Total 23,840 

I regret to find that, owing to a similarity 
in the initials, I have given particulars (ante, 
p. 38) in reference to Sir R. N. C. Hamilton 
instead of Sir R. G. 0. Hamilton, who was 
born 1830, died 1895. He succeeded Mr. 
Burke in Ireland as Under-Secretary. 


[The amount granted to Mrs. Frances E. Trollope? 
ante, p. 5, should have been stated to be 50A] 

MORE light on Lamb's connexion with the 
Albion and, indeed, upon his journalistic 
career in 1800-3 generally- is badly needed. 
The Albion presents peculiar difficulties, 
since there is no copy of the paper, in Fen- 
wick's and Lamb's time, in the British 

Lamb's own references to the Albion and 
his share therein are contained in his Elia 
essay 'Newspapers Thirty-five Years Ago,' 
and in his letters to Manning dated, in Canon 
Amger's edition, August, 1801, and 31 August 
l R 1 -' , In the f( >rmer letter he tells of the 
Albion s death: "The poor Albion died last 
Saturday of the world's neglect, and with it 
the fountain of my puns choked up for ever." 
He then auotes his epigram on Mackintosh- 
one of the last I did for the Albion ": 
Though thou 'rt like Judas, an apostate black, 
In the resemblance one thing thou dost lack : 
When he had gotten his ill-purchased pelf 
He went away and wisely hang'd himself! 

If thm h U may \ d ^ laat ; Y et much r doub t. 
thou hast any bowels to gush out ! 

Mackintosh, as Lamb says in his essay on 

'Newspapers Thirty -five Years Ago,' was 
"on the eve of departing to India to reap the 
fruits of his apostasy." If we then take the 
date of this letter to be accurate, the Albion 
died in 1801. But in the essay on News- 
papers Thirty -five Years Ago' we find a 
different story as to date. There Lamb says 
that when the Morning Post was sold he left 
it for the Albion. In this case it must have 
been 1803, for it certainly was in 1803 that 
Daniel Stuart sold the Morning Post. Another 
argument in favour of 1803 is that it was in 
that year that Mackintosh was offered and 
accepted the Recordership of Bombay by 
Addington, although the charge of apostasy, 
I take it, had reference to his renunciation of 
the views expressed in his * Vindicise Gallicse.' 
In this case the letters both of August, 1801, 
and 31 August, 1801, in Canon Ainger's 
edition, are two yearg out of their true date. 

In the absence of the file of the Albion a 
reference to the life of John Fenwick, its 
owner and editor, might put things right; 
but unfortunately of Fenwick we know very 
little. He is not in the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' 
Daniel Lovell, from whom he bought the 
paper, is there, but without reference to his 
connexion with the Albion or to the libel on 
the Prince of Wales for which, Lamb says, he 
stood in the pillory. Fenwick, who is the 
Bigod of Lamb's essay 'The Two Races of 
Men,' was always in difficulties. In the letter 
to Manning dated in Canon Ainger's edition 
24 September, 1802, he is described as a 
ruined man hiding from his creditors. This 
date there is no questioning. It must have 
been a very little while after that, if my 
surmise as to the date of Lamb's epigram is 
correct, that he came into possession of the 
Albion. It would be interesting to know 
more of this anticipatory Micawber. 

The chronology of Lamb's connexion with 
the Morning Post is also complicated. On 
17 March, 1800 (I give Canon Ainger's revised 
dates throughout), he is "on the brink of 
engaging to a newspaper "the Morning Post 
and is preparing an imitation of Burton. 
On 6 August, 1800, he has written something 
in verse to follow the prose imitation of Bur- 
ton, but Stuart declines it. On 5 October, 
1800, Stuart has two imitations of Burton, 
with an introductory letter, but gives no 
reply, and Lamb is asking "to-day" for a 
final answer. (Then come the two letters to 
Manning mentioned above August, 1801, 
and 31 August, 1801 wherein the Albion's 
death is recorded, and Lamb is meditating 
trying Mr. Perry of the Morning Chronicle.) 
On 15 February, 1802, Lamb transcribes for 
Manning his essay 'The Londoner, which, 

vm. JULY 20, loci.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


although he does not say so, was printed in 
the Morning Post, 1 February, 1802, and not, 
as Canon Ainger says, in the Reflector. In a 
letter dated merely February, 1802, he tells 
Manning that he has given up two guineas 
a week at the Post. " I grew sick and Stuart 
unsatisfied." This is probably right, for the 
late Mr. Dykes Campbell, in a communication 
to the Athenaeum, 4 August, 1888, stated, on 
the evidence of an unprinted letter of Lamb's, 
that Lamb gave up his two guineas at the 
Post early in February, 1802, chiefly because 
Stuart wanted his dramatic criticisms written 
on the same night, and Lamb could not 
manage this. On 11 October, 1802, Lamb is 
negotiating to supply Coleridge with light 
things for the Morning Post, which Stuart is 
to believe are by Coleridge. On 23 October, 
1802, he refers to the matter again ; and that 
is the end. 

These Morning Post difficulties are to a 
certain extent soluble by a study of a file of 
the period. But in the absence of a file of 
the Albion the student is necessarily per- 
plexed. Perhaps some reader of *N. & Q.' 
knows of a file of the Albion in Fenwiok's 
day. E. V. LUCAS. 

THE ' MARSEILLAISE.' Mr. Karl Blind in 
the Nineteenth Century, among " some facts 
not generally known concerning the origin 
of the * Marseillaise,' " tells us, as the reviewer 
(ante, p. 27) says, that it was "made in 
Germany, being part of a mass composed in 
1776 by Holtzmann, the Kapellmeister of the 
Elector of the Palatinate." This is an old 
false story (see the Gartenlaube, 1861, p. 256), 
which more recent inquiry (August, 1879) on 
the spot from the curate of Meersburg, where 
the mass is preserved, has proved to be entirely 
unfounded. It is a pity that any one with a 
character for honesty to lose should go on 
repeating such ill-natured fiction as this. 
See Grove's ' Dictionary of Music and Musi- 
cians,' vol. ii. p. 220, for evidence, where the 
writer states that Rouget did receive a 
pension, which he did not decline, from Louis 

" JENKINS'S EAR." It may interest some of 
your readers to know that, having occasion 
to go somewhat minutely into the corre- 
spondence between the Duke of Newcastle, 
as Secretary of State, and Benjamin Keene, 
the British envoy at Madrid, for the year 
1731, I came on the original affidavit on 
which the famous story of " Jenkins's ear," 
one of the main factors in bringing about the 
downfall of Sir Robert Walpole, is based. It 
will be found, in State Papers, Foreign, Spain 

199, at the Record Office, under date 18 June, 
1731, and does not contain the famous 
exclamation " I recommend my soul to God 
and my cause to my country." The name of 
the Spanish officer by whom the ear was slit 
is given as De Freeze, of the guarda costa 
San Antonio of Havana, and the incident 
is alleged to have taken place off Havana on 
9 April, 1731. 

The affidavit was sworn to by Jenkins 
shortly after his arrival in the Thames, before 
an official of the Admiralty, and appears 
to have excited but little attention at the 
time, as it is not even alluded to either by 
Keene himself or the Commissaries then at 
Seville, who were endeavouring to come to an 
agreement with Spain as to damages due to 
merchants under the Treaty of Seville. 

On the whole, I am inclined to think that 
Jenkins's story was true in its main particu- 
lars, as the reports of the consuls at Alicante 
and Malaga at that moment are full of com- 
plaints of the insults offered to British mer- 
chantmen in the Mediterranean by Spanish 
war vessels, whilst, on the other hand, a formal 
complaint was laid by inhabitants of Malaga 
against a captain of one of his Britannic 
Majesty's vessels for kidnapping five of their 
slaves and conveying them to Gibraltar. 


" SARE "= DRY. The other day I was talk- 
ing to a porter in the station at Bury St. 
Edmunds about a large wooden rake of 
which a prong had been broken . He touched 
the broken wood and said, " It 's very sare 
dry." He was conscious of having used a 
word which he thought I might not under- 
stand, and so he immediately corrected 
himself, and translated sare into "dry." See 
" sear, sere," in Skeat's ' Etym. Diet.' 

S. O. ADDY. 


is stated in biographical sketches of Lord 
Beaconsfield that his wife, Lady Beaconsfield, 
was the niece and heiress of the above 
General Sir James Viney, K.C.H. He owned 
an estate at Tainton, near Gloucester. It 
would appear that Lady Beaconsfield came 
into possession of that estate, for it was sold 
by auction at the " Bell " Hotel, Gloucester, 
by Mr. Knowles, the auctioneer. Benjamin 
Disraeli was present at the sale. It was sold 
to Mr. Laslett, a barrister, and M.P. for 
Worcester or one of the divisions of the 
county. I am certain he was the purchaser, 
for he many years ago lent me the title-deeds 
and papers connected with the estate. Mr. 
Laslett caused some astonishment by coming 

NOTES* AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL JULY 20, 1901. 

to the sale fully determined to be purchaser, 
for he paid the amount of his bid in 
specie. Poor Disraeli was bewildered at 
the idea of being encumbered with such a 
large sum of money at an hour when all the 
banks were closed. His local solicitor, Mr. 
Joseph Lovegrove, had to convey the money 
to his residence. He put it under his bed, 
and paid it to the Gloucestershire Banking 
Company, Gloucester, as soon as the bank 
opened on the following morning, to the credit 
of his client, Benjamin Disraeli. There is a 
prejudicial story current which I wish to 
refute, and I should be obliged to any one 
who could tell me when General Sir James 
Viney died. H. Y. J. TAYLOR. 

13, Falkner Street, Gloucester. 

LAND TAX. May I be allowed to point out 
that the 'N.E.D.' ascribes to this word an 
antiquity to which it is not entitled? The 
context* of Mr. Bradley's first quotation 
shows that the distinction was between fish- 
ing tacks (or leases) and leases of land. In 
1689 Bishop George Hooper printed a tract 
entitled ' The Parson's Case under the Present 
Land Tax,' referring to the sums collected 
under statute 22 and 23 Car. II., c. 3, as "the 
present Land Tax." In the absence of fur- 
ther evidence, it would therefore seem that 
this the immediate precursor of the still 
existing land tax was the first impost called 
by that name. Q. V. 

FAMILY LIKENESS. K. J. J. has related 
at 9 th S. vii. 472 a very striking case of 

* 24 Apr., 1533. The Defence Committee of 
the corporation of Aberdeen " hes concludit and 
ordinit that thir takis vnder writtin pay. ..the 
sowmes vnderwrittin, and ordinis the said sowmes 
to be allocat in thair nixt first grissumes. And 
gif thair be ony takkismen of the tovne that 
dissentis to the paiment of thir settis, that thai 
salbe dischargit of thair takkis, and neuer haue tak 
of this guid towne in tyme to cum. 
That is to say, euery half nettis tisching of 
the raik 

Euery half net of the midschingfle] 

Kuery half net of the pott 

Euery half nett of the furdis 

Euery half of Done ... 

Euery eaxt part of the cruffis 

Euery auchtand part of the cruifis xiij.s. 

Rubislaw ... 

xx s. 



Henry Irvein, for 

the tane half of 




xxxiii.s. iiijrf. 
xxvis. viijd. 


&c., &c. 
(' Extracts from Aberdeen Council Registers 

Spalding Club, 1844, p. 148.) 
U. also the ordinance of 15 Dec., 1533, on p. 149. 

" throwing back " to a remote ancestor. May 
I be allowed to cite another remarkable 
instance of this? I have an oil portrait, 
painted in 1780, of my paternal great-great- 
great-aunt, Jane Petherick (nee Mathews), of 
Truro, who was childless. So far as I am 
aware, no relative of mine bears any par- 
ticular resemblance to this portrait, with 
one exception a female second cousin on my 
father's side. This lady so exactly resembles 
the old portrait that if she were to dress in 
mob cap, plum-coloured bodice, and white 
stomacher, it would be quite as exact a like- 
ness of herself as any artist could paint. 
Yet her relationship to the original lies only 
in the fact that Jane Petherick's father was 
their common ancestor. In other words, the 
only cause of my second cousin's close re- 
semblance to the old portrait is that she 
descends from a brother of the original. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

JEROBOAM. The name of this recalcitrant 
king of Israel has apparently passed into 
that extraordinary farrago of language, 
Parisian argot, judging from this extract 
from the Figaro (1 July) : 

"Voulez-vous savoir qui boit le mieux, c'est-a- 
dire davantage, de tous les peuples du monde qui 
passent chez Maxim ? Ce sont les Russes. Un 
jour, un Russe a bu h, lui seul un double jdroboam, 
c'est-a-dire urie de ces immenses bouteilles qui con- 
tiennent huit bouteilles ordinaires de champagne." 

It is notorious that some Russians consume 
vodka by the pailful, a liquid far stronger 
than champagne. FRANCIS P. MARCHANT. 
Brixton Hill. 

["Jeroboam " for a large bottle of wine is familiar 
in English. See ' H.E.D.'] 

PARASOLS. The account of the introduc- 
tion of umbrellas into Sheffield, which ap- 
peared in the Athenaeum of 15 June in a 
review of Mr. R. E. Leader's * Sheffield in the 
Eighteenth Century,' has brought to mind 
an occurrence worth recording as to the 
umbrella's sister, the parasol. 

About fifty years ago there lived in a vil- 
lage in the Eastern counties a doctor who had 
several daughters. He and his children were 
refined and cultivated people. One day he 
had occasion to visit a large town at a con- 
siderable distance from his home, and there 
he bought for each of his girls a parasol ; 
with these they appeared in church on the 
next Sunday. The owner of a great part of 
the village and of much adjoining property 
was a baronet whose wife held very decided 
opinions as to the desirability of keeping in 
their proper position those whom she regarded 

9*8. viii. JULY 20, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


as beneath her. The groat lady's feeling 
were so much outraged by seeing these 
young women going to say their prayers 
with these freshly introduced articles 01 
luxury in their hands that she took the first 
opportunity of expressing to the family her 
strong disapproval. Whether this had the 
desired effect I do not remember, but I think 
the parasols were laid aside. This story is 
certainly true. I knew both the titled lady 
and her victims, and have often heard the 
latter speak of it. ASTARTE. 

SOLAR OR NATURE MYTHS. It is not gener- 
ally known that the practice of explaining 
anything as a solar or nature myth is very 
old. Gibbon, referring to the Emperor 
Julian the Apostate, and others who treated 
the Greek myths as allegories, writes as 
follows : 

"As the traditions of pagan mythology were 
variously related, the sacred interpreters were at 
liberty to select the most convenient circumstances ; 
and, as they translated an arbitrary cypher, they 
could extract from any fable any sense which was 
adapted to their favourite system of religion and 
philosophy. The lascivious form of a naked Venus 
was tortured into the discovery of some moral 
precept, or some physical truth ; and the castration 
of Atys explained the revolution of the sun between 
the tropics, or the separation of the human soul 
from vice and error." 'Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire,' chap, xxiii. 


POLITICAL EPITHET. One of the many 
advantages of * N. & Q.' is that in its 
pages historic truth is authenticated, which 
would otherwise sink into vague tradition. 
A minor instance is the now oft-recurring 
word "Jingo." The term was first used as 
a political designation in a letter which I 
addressed to the Daily News, and which 
appeared 13 March, 1878, entitled 'Jingoes in 
the Park,' under circumstances mentioned in 
' N. & Q.,' 9 th S. yii. 386. On Prof. Minto's 
' Life ' being published a year or two ago, the 
public learnt that he claimed to have " popu- 
larized" the term which was true. Since, 
?uany persons who have not stopped to notice 
that to " popularize " is not to originate have 
imputed the origin of the term "Jingo" 
as a political epithet to Mr. Minto. His 
biographer gives the date in 1879 when Mr. 
Minto first began to use the word in leading 
articles in the Daily News, nearly twelve 
months after the term was first used in the 
same journal to designate the bombastic, 
hilarious, and rowdy patriots of the music- 
halls whom we know so well to-day. 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers maybe addressed to them 

A LOST TOWN IN SUFFOLK. In the list of 
ships and men furnished by various towns 
for the siege of Calais under Edward III. 
(MS. Harl.3968, printed in Hakluyt, 'Voyages,' 
i., and in Sir Harris Nicolas's 'History of 
the Royal Navy ') the name of " Gofforde "- 
printed by Hakluyt as " Goford "appears 
among the contributors to the South Fleet, 
between the towns of Orford and Harwich. 
It furnished thirteen ships. The other names 
in the list are approximately in geographical 
order ; but where, in modern Suffolk, is 
" Gofforde " ? A well-known authority has 
suggested to me that Robert de Ufford, Earl 
of Suffolk, took his surname from his manor 
of Offord or Ufford on the Deben ; and it is 
therefore possible that the contribution of 
his district to the fleet (which would have 
included the contingents of Eye and Fram- 
lingham) may have been grouped under that 
name, as the contingents of Winchelsea and 
Rye are grouped with that of Hastings by 
T enry III.'s ordinance of 1229. The reading 
Gofforde" is quite clear in the MS. On 
the above hypothesis it would be a scribe's 
blunder. Or can " Gofforde " have been sub- 
merged since the fourteenth century, like the 
Did part of Dunwich and Ravenspur in 
Yorkshire? J. S. M. 

"LAMBSUCKLE." What is this plant? 
Thomas Robinson, rector of Ousby, in his 
Vindication of the Philosophical and Theo- 
ogical Exposition of the Mosaick System of 
;he Creation,' London, 1709, writes (p. 91) of 
>ees which 

' bring home Honey in their Bellies, which they 
uck out of the Honey-Flowers, as the Honey- 
Suckle, Lamb-Suckle, the Clover Flowers, &c." 

These he distinguishes from those which 

' gather Thyme, and bring it home upon their 

^highs, of which they make their Combs. 


nough to indicate at 9 th S. vii. 309 several 
nteresting references in 'N. & Q.' to the 
Coronation Stone. The information related 
hiefly to the legendary origin of the stone. 
Jan you or your readers assist towards a 
lescription of the markings, if any, on it? 
On the portion now exposed in West- 
minster Abbey is to be seen what looks 
like a cup-mark or shallow circular indenta- 


NOTES' AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 20, 1901. 

tion. There may be other marks on the 
portion covered up by the chair. By the 
courtesy of the Dean, I hope to have an 
opportunity of examining the whole surface, 
and I should be grateful for references to 
such marks. J. H. RIVETT-CARNAC. 

40, Green Street, Park Lane. 

CRAWFORD FAMILY. On p. 278 of the 
'Landed Gentry,' 1846, I find it stated that 
" the extreme ancestor of the family of Craw- 
ford in Scotland was Reginald, apparently 
fourth and youngest son of Alan, fourth Earl 
of Richmond, who died in 1146." The argu- 
ments in support of this opinion are set forth 
in the 'Commoners of Great Britain and 
I,' 16 

tions.' The facts chiefly relied on are (1) that 

Ireland,' 1834, vide vol. ii. pp. xiv, xv, and 
vol. iii. pp. xiv-xvi, 'Alterations and Addi- 

the arms of the old Earls of Richmond and of 
the Crawfords are practically identical, and 
(2) that the names Reginald and Galfrid 
recur constantly in both pedigrees ; but as 
the notes I refer to were published sixty- 
seven years ago, I shall be glad to learn if 
any consideration is given to them nowadays, 
or whether, as the result of more recent- 
inquiries, a different origin is assigned to the 
Crawfords. ERMINE. 

inexpensive books give a description of the 
arms, itc., borne by different countries of 
Europe, showing whence they are derived? 
1 have cards, with the arms in colours, 
bought in London and on the Continent for 
\d. each. R. B. B. 

writing to West from Florence, under date 
21 April, 1741, says : "First to Bologna for a 
few days, to hear the Viscontina sing ; next 
to Reggio, where is a Fair. Now, you must 
know, a Fair here is not a place where one 
eats ginger-bread or rides upon hobby-horses 
here are no musical clocks, nor tall Leicester 
shire women ; one has nothing but masquing, 
gaming^and singing." Why " Leicestershire 
women ' ? Are they supposed to be " more 
than common tall "1 I am almost a native o 
the county but I do not remember to have 
heard this before. C. c. B. 

HESKETH FAMILY. Much gratitude will be 
shown if any reader of ' N. & Q.' can kindly 
give needed information respecting the family 
of Robert Hesketh, a descendant of the Hes- 
keths of Lancashire, connected also with the 
families of the Sykes and Swaines of Bradford. 
The said Robert Hesketh, gentleman, was a 
resident of Manningham, Bradford, in 1763 

and probably until 1773 or later He married 
Jane; daughter of Richard and Isobel Foun- 
;aine (nee Weare), at the parish church ot 
Linton-in-Craven, 21 August, 1764 He was 
some time Constable of Manningham, and 
ived in later years in Birmingham and 
Warwickshire. He died 1 December, 1811, 
and was interred in St. Mary's Churchyard. 
Issue : Anne (married Thomas Cpoke, of 
Birmingham and Oakfields, Edgbaston, 
St. Martin's, 24 September, 1788), Robert, 
Richard, Edward (married Harriett, daughter 
of Edward and Sarah Kenwrick, of West 
Bromwich, Staffs), and Samuel. The certifi- 
cate of the birth or baptism of Anne, only 
daughter of the above Robert and Jane 
Hesketh, is urgently sought, in order to fill up 
the only missing link in the family pedigree. 
Notes in hand state that the baptism took 
place at Fair weather Green, Manningham, 
in 1765 or 1767, by the Rev. John Dawson, 
of Boyd's Hall, predecessor of the Rev. John 
Deane, minister of the Presbyterian Church, 
Bradford, who, in 1772, baptized Edward 
Hesketh ; but efforts to verify from registers 
in Bradford and vicinity and at Somerset 
House, have as yet been unsuccessful. The 
will of the said Robert Hesketh does not 
appear to have been proved at Somerset 

Herringswell, Mildenhall, Suffolk. 

LORD DONORE. In the list of names of the 
Lords spiritual and temporal of the Irish 
Parliament which sat in Dublin 14 July, 
1634 (Lynch's 'Feudal Dignities/ p. 355), 
there appears (placed between Lord Caulfield 
and Lord Aungier, Baron of Longford) Lord 
Donore. As no such title appears in the 
omniscient G. E. C.'s * Complete Peerage,' or 
elsewhere, so far as I can discover, I should 
be glad if some of your correspondents could 
throw some light on it. . SIGMA TAU. 

LEIGH HUNT. Is it the case that "Jenny," 

of Leigh Hunt's little rondeau beginning 

" Jenny kissed me when we met," is Jane 

Welsh Carlyle, the wife of the great author ? 


JOHN MARTIN. I have a large octavo por- 
trait bearing the following : 

"John Martin [facsimile autograph] (taken from 
the Life). Derby pinxt. Thomson sculp. London, 
Published for the European Magazine by Lupton 
Relefe, 13, Cornhill, Ocf 1 st , 1822." 

! What John Martin is this 1 CLIO. 


RURAL DEANERIES. I desire information 

as to the history or first formation of rural 

| deaneries in England, or reference to any 

*s. vm. JULY 20, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


books or papers that have been printed on 
this subject. Did the parish which gave its 
name to a rural deanery contain any special 
residence known as the Deanery ; and if so, did 
the rural dean live there ? Was the parish that 
gave its name to an ancient rural deanery 
the chief or most important parish when the 
deanery was formed ? Many rural deaneries 
take their name from what is to-day a small 
and insignificant parish. 

Tankerton -on-Sea, Kent. 

REV. WILLIAM COSENS. This cleric became 
rector of Monk Farleigh, Wilts. Can any 
Wiltshire antiquary kindly tell me his dates 
as such and send me a copy of his epitaph ? 

Town Hall, Lancaster. 

ROYAL BOROUGH. We are asked if Salford 
is a Royal Borough. We are unable to answer 
because we do not know the test. Windsor 
is called a Royal Borough and Kensington a 
Royal Parish because of Royal residences 
within the borough, as at Windsor, or sup- 
posed to be, though not really, within the 
parish, as at Kensington. But why is Lea- 
mington called a Royal Borough ? 


MASSACRE AT SLIGO. In John Wesley's 
4 Journal ' (19 May, 1778) is the following : 

" I now received an intelligible account of the 
famous massacre at Sligo. A little before the 
Revolution, one Mr. Morris, a Popish gentleman, 
invited all the chief Protestants to an entertain- 
ment ; at the close of which, on a signal given, the 
men he had prepared fell upon them, and left not 
one of them alive. As soon as King William pre- 
vailed, he quitted Sligo. But venturing thither 
about twenty years after, supposing no one then 
knew him, he was discovered, and used according 
to his deserts." 

Where can be found any other account of 
these matters ? FRANCIS M. JACKSON. 


was John Stuart Mill born ? It is stated in 
the * Diet. Nat. Biog.' that his father 

" in 1804 became engaged to Harriet Burrow, 
daughter of a widow who managed a lunatic 
asylum, started by her husband in Hoxton. They 
were married on 5 June, 1805, and settled in Rodney 
Terrace, Pentonville, in a house bought by his 
mother-in-law, for which he paid 501. a year." 

In the same publication it is affirmed that 
" John Stuart Mill, eldest son of James Mill, 
was born 20 May, 1806, at No. 13, Rodney 
Street, Pentonville." The street has been 
renumbered, and presumably the subsidiary 
names have been abolished, but I cannot find 

a row of twelve or more houses which would 
correspond with Rodney Terrace, which was 
probably the original name of the place where 
Mill was born. JOHN HEBB. 

DON, 1620-21. Mr. Cokayne, in 'The Lord 
Mayors and Sheriffs of London, 1601 -25, 'states 
that this Mayor married (1) about 1595 Ellen, 
who was buried 11 Nov., 1606, and (2) Jane, 
who survived him. Can any of your corre- 
spondents furnish further particulars respect- 
ing these wives? I have always understood 
that the surviving one bore a different Chris- 
tian name. E. C. 

picked up a little book entitled * Coronation 
Anecdotes ; or, Select and Interesting Frag- 
ments of English Coronation Ceremonies.' 
The author is " Giles Gossip, Esq." ; the im- 
print and date, " London, printed for Robert 
Jennings, in the Poultry, 1823." Who is 
" Giles Gossip " ? Is the account of the corona- 
tion of George IV. accurate? It fills more 
than one-third of the book, which contains 
334 pages. CHARLES HIATT. 

pedigree of this family, showing the marriage 
(seventeenth century) of Paul Cope with one 
of the family. What was the coat of arms ? 

E. E. COPE. 

Sulhamstead, Berks. 

William Cheselden, born at Sornerby. Leices- 
tershire, 19 October, 1688, became a celebrated 
surgeon ; died at Bath, April, 1752, and lies 
in the burial-ground at Chelsea Hospital ; 
will proved 27 April, 1752 (P.C.C. 90 Bettes- 
worth). He married Deborah Knight, who 
died June, 1754, given in error as 1764 in 
* Diet. Nat. Biog.' ; will with one codicil 

g*oved 12 June, 1754 (P.C.C. 162 Pinfold), 
er only child, Wilhelmina Deborah, died 
December, 1763, as the widow of Charles 
Cotes, M.P. for Tarn worth, who died 21 March, 
1748. Ann, born 1764, who is said to have 

married Radcliffe, is stated to have been 

of the branch of the family of Cheselden of 
Somerby, and I am told that the family of 
Pridmore was also allied. A Jane Pridmore 
married; 23 June, 1814, John Ellington Jones, 
surgeon, of Oakham, one of the coroners for 
the county of Rutland ; he died 2 November, 
1854, aged eighty-one years. Who now 
represents the family of Cheselden of 
Somerby 1 Can any one give the link with 
the family of Pridmore? I have before me 
the pedigrees of Cheselden in the visitations 


of the counties of Rutland, Leicester, and 
Northampton. In Nichols's ' History of the 
County of Leicester,' vol. iv. (London, 1807), 
at p. 408, Richard Cheselden, of Melton 
Mowbray, is given. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Nedham, of Gaddesby, 
Leicestershire. George Cheselden, of Ridling- 
ton, Rutlandshire, in his will, proved 27 Sep- 
tember. 1766 (P.C.C. 335 Tyndall), names 
Cheseldens of Somerby, of Leicester, and of 
Melton Mowbray. 


15, Markham Square, Chelsea. 


(9 th S. viii. 38.) 

LADY HAMILTON is widow of Sir Robert 
George Cruickshank Hamilton, K.C.B., who 
was selected by Mr. Gladstone for the office 
of Under-Secretary in Ireland after the 
Phoenix Park murders in 1882. He died in 
1895. W. S. 

[W. S. is right. The distinguished services ren- 
dered in India by Sir R[obert] N[orth] C[ollie] 
Hamilton are, through a similarity of initials, 
ascribed, ante, p. 38, to Sir Robert George Cruick- 
shank Hamilton. The son and successor of the 
first-named baronet, Sir Frederick Harding Anson 
Hamilton, is alive, and no one belonging to his 
family is in receipt of a civil pension, though his 
father the sixth baronet, among many well-merited 
honours, received the thanks of Parliament for his 
services during the Indian Mutiny.] 

yi. 170; vii. 117, 429). I have been much 
interested in the various articles on American 
heraldry, although not one of them has given 
the facts as they are. 

In the first place, arms are indiscriminately 
used in this country. In fact, it is the ex- 
ception to find any one, no matter of what 
pngin, who does not display armorial bear- 
ingsthat is, if his present standing warrants 
it. When I say standing I mean in a financial 
way. Ninety-nine hundred ths of the people 
who display coats of arms have no claim what- 
ever to them so far as descent is concerned 
Nearly all is obtained at the stationers' or the 
nearest library. All they need is a general 
armoury of the country from which their 
ancestor is supposed to have come. In most 
cases the fact that the surname resembles 
that of an armigerous family is sufficient 
excuse to warrant the assumption of the arms 
Ihe only trouble arises when the surname in 
question is more or less numerous, when 
they, the hunters," have to decide which is 

the prettiest before adopting arms and rela- 
tionship. I have frequently been in the 
Astor Library when such a search was in 
progress, and watched with amusement the 
selection in a few moments of the arms of 
some ancient family by one of the nouveaux 

In some cases I know of arms which have 
simply sprung from the fertile mind of the 
bearer. In one instance 1 have heard the 
following boast from the mother of one of 
my college chums : " that it was so satis- 
factory to feel that the family arms descended 
direct from Charlemagne." Another class 
of Americans are those who calmly assume 
the arms borne by one of their female an- 
cestors (not an heiress), no matter how many 
generations removed, and calmly flaunt them 
in the faces of self-respecting fellow-country- 

American genealogy is similarly tainted 
I mean with the desire to connect the family 
with a parent stem in Europe. Similarity 
of surname is all that is necessary, and in 
some of the so-called genealogies even this 
proof is found wanting. Of course, there are 
many families in this country who are en- 
titled by descent to bear arms, but their 
proportion is very small possibly less than 
one per cent, of the people who are proud of 
their "ancestral arms." 

I have been a student of American genea- 
logy and heraldry for the last fifteen years, 
and could give many examples of the "ar- 
morial " habit if it were necessary. 


New York. 

JAPANESE NAMES (9 th S. viii. 14). The 
note on these by MR. JAS. PLATT, Jun., 
though in the main perfectly correct, is 
somewhat misleading. ** Christian " names 
with the terminations -taro, -jiro, &C M are 
not, as he seems to imply, by any means 
universal. In fact, only one person in three 
or four has a name of this sort, as MR. PLATT 
can easily see by looking through any avail- 
able list of Japanese. 

Taro, by the way, means big-male, uotjirst- 
male ; the latter is the translation of ichiro, 
another termination for the name of an 
eldest son. 

Mr. B. H. Chamberlain, in his 'Introduc- 
tion to the Study of Japanese Writing,' 
p. 234, remarks that the higher numbers are 
not used with much exactness ; thus a -juro 
would not necessarily be a tenth son, nor a 
-hachiro an eighth. 

The same author's 'Things Japanese' has 
a short, but admirably lucid article on Japa- 

9s. vm. JULY 2o, 1901.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


nese names, to which any one desirous o: 
further information on this rather intricate 
subject should refer. 11. B. McKERROW. 

408, 513). If H. C. is in possession of further 
information regarding the Seaman family 
will he be good enough to declare if these 
Button Seamans belong to the same family 
as John Seaman, B.C L., Chancellor of the 
Biocese of Gloucester, who died at the Court 
House, Painswick (which he built in 1605), 
in the year 1623, and is buried in the chancel 
of Painswick Church ? His will (proved in 
1623) shows that he possessed a property at 
Pan field, in Essex. His grandchildren lived 
in his house at Painswick as late as 1680. 
He, however, had no son named Button, 
albeit Button property at Standish almost 
adjoined certain lands and tenements of his 
own. It is usually said that this Court House 
at Painswick owes its designation to the fact 
of Charles I. having stayed in it on his way 
both to and from the siege of Gloucester in 
1644 ; but no doubt it served Br. Seaman 
before that date for his diocesan court. 

Castle Hale, Painswick. 

THE NATIONAL FLAG (9 th S. v. 414, 440, 457, 
478 ; Supplement, 30 June, 1900 ; vi. 17, 31, 
351, 451, 519 ; vii. 193). There appears to be 
a very glaring error in MR. ST. JOHN HOPE'S 
proposed new blazon for the union flag, to 
which none of your correspondents have 
hitherto drawn attention. MR. ST. JOHN 
HOPE in his interesting and valuable note 
suggested that the saltires of St. Andrew 
and St. Patrick should be described as 
"dimidiated per saltire." Surely this would 
be a contradiction in terms, and a feat as 
difficult to perform as to halve into quarters ! 
MR. ST. JOHN HOPE could dimidiate per pale, 
per bend, or per fess, but surely not per saltire 
nor per quarter. 

I pointed out this error (which should not 
be allowed to pass unchallenged as an ex- 
ample of co-temporary heraldry) at the time, 
but owing to the great number of letters on 
the subject my note was not inserted. 


"TOUCAN" (9 th S. vii. 486 ; vm. 22). PROF. 
NEWTON does me a double injustice. First 
he misinterprets me, and then adversely 
criticizes me upon his misinterpretation. 
Nobody seems to have taken the trouble, I 
said, to find out whence Buffon derived his 
information that toucan means " feather." 
PROF. NEWTON, on the principle that the less 

includes the greater, expands this into a 
statement that nobody has found out whence 
Buffon derived any of his information con- 
cerning this bird, and naturally has little 
difficulty in showing that parts of it (not the 
part in* which I am interested) have been 
" traced completely." I never said they had 
not. What I said (and say) is that the above 
etymology of toucan is cited by Littre as 
"d'apres Buffon" (not "d'apres Lery "), and 
by Prof. Whitney as "according to Buffon," 
not "according" to Lery." PROF. NEWTON 
cannot deny that I am the first writer to 
draw attention to the facts. By the way, he 
alludes to Thevet's ' Singularitez de la France 
Antarctique.' It is perhaps worth adding 
that in the translation of this, 1568, p. 73, 
" a birde named toucan " appears for the first 
time in English. A fragment of Lery was 
translated by E. Aston for his * Manners and 
Customes,' 1611, p 488, where the name ap- 
pears for the second time in English. 


SIR HENRY GOODYERE (9 fch S. vii. 447). I 
have recently given this information to 
another inquirer, 9 th S. vii. 151. The date 
of Sir H. Goodyere's death is 18 March, 1628. 


vii. 307). There is a short reference to the 
above in Redgrave's 'Bictionary of Artists of 
the English School ' (1874). H. B. 

COWLEY'S POEMS SET TO Music (9 th S. viii. 
16). This book, I think, must be very rare. 
[ have a copy, without title, and I have 
never seen another, with or without a title. 
E. L. may find one in the library of the Royal 
College of Music, and, failing that, will be 
most welcome to inspect my copy by ap- 
pointing a time. JULIAN MARSHALL. 
13, Belsize Avenue, N. W. 

THOMPSONS OF YORK (9 th S. vii. 468). A 
ufficient account of Edward Thompson, who 

during twenty years, from 1722 to 1742, sat 
? or York in four successive Parliaments, will 
>e found in % Parliamentary Representation 
f Yorkshire,' compiled by G. R. Park (1886). 

On Thompson's election his vote became 

worth purchasing, and, according to the cor- 
upt practice of the time, he was placed on 
he Irish establishment as Commissioner of 
he Revenue in Ireland, an appointment 

which he held for seventeen years till his 
leath on 25 July, 1742; and he was honoured 

:>y a seat in the Privy Council. Sir Henry 
^hompson sat for York from 1674 till his 

"eatli in 1683 ; and his son Henry Thompson, 

who was returned in 1689, was Lord Mayor 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL JULY 20, 1901. 

of York, and built the mansion at Escrick. 
Eel ward Thompson was also Lord Mayor and 
member in the Parliaments of 1688, 1695, and 

1 Pedigrees of the County Families of York- 
shire,' compiled by John Foster, 1874, vol. iii., 
contains : 

" Right Hon. Edward Thompson, of Marston ; 
baptized 26 Feb 1696/7; M.P. for the city of York 
from 1722 to 1742 ; died 25 July, 1742 ; buried at 
Oswaldkirk. First wife, Arabella, daughter and 
coheiress of Edmund Dunch, Esq., of Little Wit- 
tenham ; married 1724, buried there 18 October, 
1734. She was divorced, and supposed to have 
been murdered by Lord Ligonier. Issue, Arabella 
Thompson, only child ; buried at Wittenham, 
28 February, 1735." 

Also see ' Familise Minorum Gentium dili- 
gentia Josephi Hunter' (Harleian Society's 
publications, 1895), vol. ii. p. 535 ; and for list 
of Thompsons members of Parliament for 
York, see the index at the end of 'Parlia- 
mentary Representation of Yorkshire,' com- 
piled by Godfrey Richard Park, gent., 1886. 

H. J. B. 

The following were M.P.s for York : 

Sir Henrv Thompson, 1673-78, 1678-9, 
1679-81, and 1681. Lord Mayor, 1663 and 
1672. Died 1683. 

Edward Thompson, 1689, 1690(till unseated), 
1695-98, and 1700. Brother to Sir Henry. 
Lord Mayor in 1683. 

Henry Thompson, 1690-95, son of Sir 
Henry. Lord Mayor in 1699. Died 6 July 

Edward Thompson, 1722-7, 1727-34, 1734- 
1741, and 1741 till death in 1742. Son of Ed- 
ward, who was eldest son of Sir Henry. Was 
appointed Commissioner of the Revenue in 
Ireland in May, 1725, and a Lord of the 
Admiralty in April, 1741. W. D. PINK. 

vn. 467).-Your correspondent will find the 
story in N & Q ' (yd S. xii. 108, 275), in an 
article entitled ' Bullet-proof Armour ' 


71| Brecknock Road. 

"SAWNEY" <9 S. vii. 447).-The Rev. T 
Lewis Davies,m his 'Supplementary English 
Glossary,' explains sawneying as "idling 
lounging, and gives quotations of that and 
of sawney from Southey. Perhaps "dawd- 
ling" would meet the sense. In my young 
days a sawney was not uncommonly used for 

a "softy. 1 

H. P. L. 

Sawtuy was used in Derbyshire when I was 
a lad. A mwney man was one foolish, "a softy " 
also "easy-going." The "sawney ways" of 

any one comprised suaveness, artfulness 
the ability to lead any one on the downward 
grade. Girls used the word of young men 
whose "sawney ways" they could not 
"abide." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


The meaning of this word as used by Lord 
Beaconsfield in ' Tancred ' was discussed in 
'N. & Q/ seven years ago. See 8 th S. v. 229, 
356, 496 ; vi. 334. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

SIR RICHARD VERNEY (9 th S. vii. 468). He 
died 7 Aug., 1630, aged sixty-seven, and was 
buried at Compton. He was M.P. for War- 
wickshire, 1588-9 ; West Looe, 1601 ; War- 
wickshire again in 1604-11 and 1614. Sheriff 
of Warwickshire in 1590-1 and 1604-5. 
Knighted 11 May, 1603. W. D. PINK. 

'Dictionary of National Biography,' vol. 
Iviii. pp. 266-7, has : 

"Sir Richard Verney (1563-1630). There is a 
monument to him and his wife in Compton Murdac 
church. ' Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire,' 
ed. Thomas, pp. 565-72, gives the Verney pedigrees, 
and plates of the family tomb at Compton." 

H. J. B. 

GOLDSMITH'S PUBLISHERS (9 th S. viii. 15). 
Ralph Griffiths died 28 September, 1803. See 
European Magazine, January, 1804, for 
biographical notice and portrait. I give this 
reference on the authority (p. 161) of * Three 
Hundred and Fifty Years' Retrospection of an 
Old Bookseller,' by William West (Cork, 
1835). Charles Knight in his 'Shadows of 
the Old Booksellers,' p. 187, refers to Miss 
Meteyard's 'Life of Wedgwood,' p. 186, for 
some details as to Ralph Griffiths. 


REV. JAMES CHARTRES (9 th S. vii. 447). 
This gentleman graduated in Arts at King's 
College, Cambridge : B.A. 1778, M.A. 1781. 


"SuB" : ^'SUBSIST MONEY" (9 th S. vi. 246, 
354, 435 ; vii. 356). Referring to my previous 
communications on this subject, I would state 
that I am now clearly of opinion that the 
workman's expression " a sub " is an abbre- 
viation of " a subsidy," which metaphorically 
money aid is called. " To sub " is therefore 
" to subsidize." W.I. E. V. 

MORTIMER (9 th S. vii. 408). Robert Morti- 
mer, of Richard's Castle, is considered to be 
either the son of Ralph de Mortimer, of 
Wigmore, or the son of his eldest son Hugh. 
Margery, daughter and heir of Hugh de Say, 
married first Hugh, son of Walcheline de 

9*8. vm. JULY 2o, 1901.] NOTES AND , QUERIES. 


Ferrers; secondly, Robert de Mortimer, oi 
Richard's Castle; thirdly, William de Stute- 

MOLINE FAMILY (9 th S. vii. 448). A long 
communication respecting the Molines of 
Stoke Poges, extending from A.D. 1331 to 
1429, appears in ' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. x. 444, and 
references to works bearing thereon are found 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"JUGGINS" (9 th S. vii. 247, 392). The 
Cheltenham * Annuaire' for 1901 gives three 
persons bearing this name. A Miss Juggins, 
now Mrs. W. Organ, was a short time ago 
schoolmistress at Shurdington, near Chelten- 
ham. P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

JOWETT'S LITTLE GARDEN (9 th S. vii. 405, 
512). My version of the epigram has two 
more lines : 

A little garden little Jowett made, 

And fenced it with a little palisade ; 

But when this little garden made a little talk, 

He changed it to a little gravel walk ; 

If you would know the mind of little Jowett, 

This little garden don't a little show it. 

A Latin rendering runs as follows : 

Exiguum hunc hortum fecit Jowettulus iste 
Exiguus, vallo et muniit exiguo : 
Exiguo hoc horto forsan Jowettulus iste 
Exiguus mentem prodidit exiguam. 

Francis Wrangham (1769-1842), who had 
migrated to Trinity Hall from Magdalene 
at the suggestion of Jowett, was refused a 
Fellowship at the former house in 1794, and 
the "probable explanation of this rejection 
lay in the suspicion that he was the author " 
of the above epigram. 

Dr. Jowett, with some assistance, appa- 
rently, from Dr. Crotch, circa 1790, composed 
the famous chimes of the University church, 
Great St. Mary's. A. R. BAYLEY. 

St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

FILLINGHAM FAMILY (9 th S. vii. 448). In 
the year 1885 I purchased, for eighteen pence, 
at a little general shop in the village of 
Alfreton, Derbyshire, a " Breeches " Bible in 
fairly good condition. It had belonged for 
generations to the Fillingham family of 
Lincolnshire, and contained a number of 
their genealogical memoranda. Knowing 
how highly I should have valued such a find 
if it had related to my own family, I wrote 
to the only person of the above name that 
I knew of, namely, a Rev. Mr. Fillingham, an 
Anglican clergyman. I gave him particulars 
of the Bible, and offered it to him for some 
very small sum though more than I gave 
for it. I never received any reply from Mr. 

Fillingham ; and, some years later, I sold 
the book with many others when I removed 
to another part of the country. I think it 
was bought by a Nottingham bookseller. 
The above family doubtless derived their 
name from the village and parish of Filling- 
ham, in the north-west or the county of 
Lincoln. MR. G. FILLINGHAM would be sure 
to find them in the Subsidy Rolls for the 
parts of Lindsey, especially in the wapen- 
takes of Lawress, Aslacoe, Manley, and Well, 
at the Record Office. He should also consult 
there the printed calendar of Court Rolls of 
the Duchy of Lancaster, under the same 
wapentakes. Meantime, if your correspond- 
ent will communicate with me, I will tell 
him all I can remember about the entries. 
I myself have suffered much from the genea- 
logical apathy of friends and relations. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

I should advise your correspondent to con- 
sult the previous articles which have ap- 
peared in 'N. & Q.' under this head. For a 
long query and equally lengthy reply by the 
Editor, see 2 nd S. i. and 3 rd S. xi. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

182, 238, 292 ; vii. 90, 235). We know nothing 
of prehistoric Greece, for what is early and 
authentic has been well threshed out, and all 
antecedents point to foreign influences. Poets 
combine to treat Helicon as a river, and rightly 
so, because we have Hylica, a lake-name in 
Bo3otia. It has been shown that Chaucer 
wrote "Helicon the dear wel"; Dante also 
has "Helicon must needs pour forth for 
me." How can this apply to a mountain? It 
is from Longfellow's version. Gary varies to 
"Now through my heart let Helicon his stream 
pour copious" ('Purg.,' xxix. 40); and this 

ily echoes Virgil's * JEneid,' books vii. and x., 

Now, ye goddesses, open wide your Helicon 
and stir up the powers of song," varied to 
" Now open Helicon, ye goddesses, and inspire 
me while I sing." We are impelled to liken 
poetical inspiration to the action of a welling 
spring or powerful stream. 

Ovid, ' Met.,' v. 4, is more diffuse, describing 
;he Muses as leaving Helicon to worship at 
Parnassus, which is certainly the older 
: oundation ; and a study of the map in 
Leake's 'North Greece' shows that both 
form sections of one lengthy range, the south 
section in Bceotia obtaining local celebrity 
as a later rival. And while Helicon is a 
Greek water-name, Parnassus has no etymon 
n Hellenic; we trace it from Skt. purna, 


NOTES AlSTD QUERIES, p* s. vm. JULY 20, woi. 

* full "; Hebrew parnas, " ruler, governor "; 
so Pharnaces, a personal name. To trace it 
in Greek myth, the hill is their Ararat, 
named from \dpva, an ark ; so Larnassus, 
nt Parnassus ! A. HALL. 

FLOWER GAME (9 th S. vii. 329, 397, 474, 511). 
I am keenly sorry to learn that in my 
somewhat brusque challenge to K. I should 
have appeared to him to assume an "aggres- 
sive tone." I can assure him that nothing 
was further from my intention, and that I 
always desire to be ranked amongst the 
" mildly disposed " contributors to ' N. & Q.' 

May I now proceed to enlarge upon the 
subject at issue ? I was born in the village 
from which I am now writing not quite half 
a century ago. Harking back to my child- 
hood's days, I well recollect my nurse instruct- 
ing me in the art of linking dandelion chains. 
Later on I played with children of my own 
age, and we again and again took part in this 
simple amusement. I am aware that occa- 
sionally some of the more knowing ones would 
hint at the ' undesirable consequences " to 
which K. alludes, but I do not think that 
any very great impression was created thereby. 
Years have passed since then, and still I ob- 
serve, as I have mentioned, children engaged 
in the same artless pastime hereabouts. West 
Haddon is, strictly speaking, exactly eleven 
miles from Northampton, but we are in close 
touch with our county town, and I certainly 
felt no hesitation in appropriating the term 
"around Northampton." I regret that I am 
considered outside the radius. I also would 
plead guiltv to having been for many years a 
collector of local customs, children's games, folk- 
lore, <fcc., as various contributions to ' N. & Q.' 
will testify. I may therefore, perhaps, be 
allowed to say that not only in this village, 
but in adjacent villages, and also in War- 
wickshire, I have observed children engaged 
in the amusement of making dandelion chains. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

It is a pity the first note was headed 
Flower Game.' This child's pastime was 
probably practised bv the first children on 
these islands, and children still pass the time 
in this pleasing way. We made chains of 
daisies buttercups, "dandies," daffadown- 
dillies, haws, cankers, oak-apples, crab-apples, 
slaws, cob-nuts, and many other things. 
We decorated pet lambs and each other with 
these chains, which often were combinations 
of flowers, stalks, and berries. Buttercups and 
daisies were first favourites, dandelions being 
shunned somewhat, because, as K. says, the 
handling them was supposed to induce " un- 

desirable consequences at night." In fact, we 
ailed dandelions in Derbyshire " pisabeds." 

' (9 th S. vii. 507). I was living in 
Malta in the late seventies when the Indian 
troops were quartered there, and often heard 
this air played by an Indian band. I have 
a perfect recollection of the tune, in a minor 
key, with a very pretty melody. The Maltese 
street-boys, who made clever songs, in their 
vernacular, to fit the best -known military 
tunes, used to sing to * Takmi ' the following 
Maltese words, which I am pretty sure have 
never been printed before : 

La Regina tikbi, tikbi, 
Ghash titlift is-sarbun ; 
It-tromba it-trombeta, 
U it-tambur it-tambur. 

Literally translated this means : 
The Queen is crying, is crying, 
Because she has lost her shoe ; 
Let the trumpet trump, 
And let the drum drum. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

ACERVATION (9 th S. vii. 485). In the account 
of the laws of Hy wel Dda in Virtue's ' History 
of Wales,' the enactment W. C. B. apparently 
refers to is thus given : 

" The law of a cat. I. Whoever shall kill a cat 
that guards a house and a barn of the king, or shall 
steal it, it is to be held with its head to the ground, 
and its tail up, the ground being swept, and then 
clean wheat is to be poured about it, until the tip 
of its tail is hidden ; and that is its worth. If corn 
cannot be had, a milch sheep, with her lamb and 
her wool, is its value. 2. Another cat is four legal 
pence in value. 3. The teithi [qualities or proper- 
ties, to be warranted] of a cat are, that it be perfect 
of ear, perfect of eye, perfect of teeth, perfect of 
tail, perfect of claw, and without marks of fire ; and 
that it kill mice well ; and that it shall not devour 
its kittens ; and that it be not caterwauling every 

There are other enactments against the kill- 
ing of other sorts of cats, but neither in 
these, nor in any of those referring to the 
destruction or stealing of other animals, is 
this curious measure of compensation en- 
forced, but the value of each is given in money 
or other animals. Thus a stag is reckoned to 
be worth an ox, a hind worth a cow, and so 
forth. C. C. B. 

MICHAEL BRUCE AND BURNS (9 th S. vii. 466). 
MR. A. G. REID credits Michael Bruce with 
the authorship of the * Ode to the Cuckoo ' 
and the ' Elegy written in Spring,' which he 
says are two of the finest lyrics in the English 
language. Considerable controversy has 

9*8. viii. JULY 20, 1901.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


arisen regarding the 'Ode,' which is not 
uniformly attributed to Bruce. For instance, 
the ' Oxford Book of Poetry,' edited by Mr. 
Quiller-Couch, and the 'Anthology' of Prof. 
Arber, both recently issued, give Logan as 
the author. In Robert Louis Stevenson's 
* Letters/ 1900, edited by Mr. Sidney Colvin, 
the following reference occurs in a note pre- 
fixed to a letter of Robert Louis Stevenson's 
to Mrs. Sitwell. The editor remarks : 

" On the question of the authorship of the ' Ode 
to the Cuckoo,' which Burke thought the most 
beautiful lyric in our language, the debate is 
between the claims of John Logan, minister of 
South Leith, 1745-85 [this should be 1748-88], and 
his friend and fellow- worker, Michael Bruce. Those 
of Logan have, I believe, been now vindicated past 

The letter is dated (Edinburgh) Saturday, 
4 October, 1873. Stevenson says : 

" I want to let you see these verses from an ' Ode 
to the Cuckoo,' written by one of the ministers of 
Leith in the middle of last century the palmy days 
of Edinburgh who was a friend of Hume and 
Adam Smith and the whole constellation. The 
authorship of these beautiful verses has been most 
truculently fought about, but whoever wrote them 
(and it seems as if this Logan had) they are lovely." 

Three verses are quoted (five, six, and seven 
as usually printed). Considerable discussion 
took place in the Glasgow Herald and other 
Scottish newspapers and magazines in 1897, 
in which the present writer advocated the 
claims of Logan. I am anxious to obtain a 
sight of any MSS. in the handwriting of 
Bruce and Logan. The late Mr. Douglas J. 
Maclagan, in his exhaustive monograph 'The 
Scottish Paraphrases ' (Edinburgh, Andrew 
Elliot, 1889), was a strong supporter of Logan. 
He mentions, pp. 186 et seq., two MSS. of the 
Paraphrases, and says that "our efforts to 
trace them have proved fruitless." Can any 
of your readers supply information regarding 
them or any other documents bearing on this 
subject? ADAM SMAIL. 

13, Cornwall Street, Edinburgh. 

We are told in the note referred to that 
Michael Bruce was the author of the * Ode to 
the Cuckoo.' Is it proved that he was? 
Archbishop Trench, who at first attributed it 
to Logan, afterwards changed his mind and 
gave it to Bruce (see note on the poem in * A 
Household Book of English Poetry,' 1870) , 
but I understand that a good defence of 
Logan's claim has since been made, and Mr. 
Quiller-Couch attributes the poem to him in 
his 'Oxford Book of English Verse.' 

C. C. B. 

(9 th S. vii. 469). Nothing remains of either 
the house or sign of James Asperne, publisher, 

at the "Bible, Crown, and Constitution," 
which was No. 32, Cornhill, and had a shop 
front, judging from a small engraving in my 
possession, like that still standing of Messrs. 
Ring & Brymer, No. 15, Cornhill, with the 
number 32 on the doorpost, while the sign 
over the centre of the shop- window consisted 
of an open Bible supporting another book, 
presumably containing the laws of the realm 
and signifying the constitution, while upon 
this rested a royal crown. The sign was also 
adopted by Cobbett when publishing in Pall 
Mall, presumably when he started his Weekly 
Register as an aid originally to the Tory 
party, and before it began to change its views 
in 1803. The " Constitution " alone, without 
the " Bible and Crown," was not an uncommon 
sign, of which four instances, according to the 
' London Directory' for 1901, survive. Until 
1879, perhaps later, a popular tavern called 
the " Constitution " was still standing at 
No. 32, Bedford Street, and was renowned for 
its "peerless punch." Its sign was painted 
symbolically, and represented Westminster 
Abbey and Westminster Hall, signifying 
Church and State (see ' Epicure's Almanack,' 
1815). Neither the "Constitution" nor the 
particular sign in question is mentioned in 
Larwood and Hotten's 'History of Sign- 
boards.' J. HOLDEN MAcMlCHAEL. 

William Cobbett, M.P. for Oldham, the 
celebrated political writer, and for forty 
years connected with the periodical press of 
England, chose, at the beginning of the last 
century, for the sign of his publishing office 

The Bible, Crown, and Constitution." 
J. Asperne issued his broadsheets (of which I 
possess many) from No. 32, Cornhill, but the 
sign no longer exists. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

389, 477). I possess a copy of the 'Mathe- 
matical and Philosophical Works of Bishop 
John Wilkins ' (2 vols. 8vo, 1802). The book- 
sellers' catalogue (Messrs. J. W. Jarvis & Son) 
states that " this copy is one of a few printed 
on paper made from wood "; and the appear- 
ance of the book leaves little doubt that the 
experiment of manufacturing paper from 
wood pulp was tried at the very beginning 
of the nineteenth century. C. E. D. 


421, 463). The custom by which the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury reserved to himself all 
episcopal jurisdiction in places where he had 
property did not originate with Lanfranc, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 20, 1901. 

See St. Anselm's * Letters,' iii. 19 and iv. 3 
(Migne, 'Patr. Lat.,'clix. 44 seq. and 202 9eq.\ 
where, the right, which he believed to go back 
to St. Danstan, being questioned by the 
Bishop of London, Anselm consults Wulstan, 
Bishop of Worcester, who had been appointed 
to his see four years before the Conquest. 
Wulstan in his answer attests the exercise of 
the privilege in the diocese of Worcester by 
Archbishop Stigand. C. C. J. W. 

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE (9 th S. vii. 510). 
"The founder of the family in America, 
William Hathorne (so spelt, but pronounced 
nearly as afterwards written), emigrated from 
Wiltshire in 1630. (Arms: Azure, a lion's head 
erased between three fleurs-de-lis.)" Vide Dr. 
Moncure D. Conway's 'Life of Nathaniel 
Hawthorne ' in " Great Writers Series." 

" Hawthorne was by race of the clearest Puritan 
strain. His earliest American ancestor (who wrote 
the name 'Hathorne' the shape in which it was 
transmitted to Nathaniel, who inserted the io~) was 
the younger son of a Wiltshire family, whose resi- 
dence, according to a note of our author's, was 
4 Wigcastle, Wigton.' Hawthorne in the note in 
question mentions the gentleman who was at that 
time the head of the family ; but it does not appear 
that he at any period renewed the acquaintance of 
his English kinsfolk. Major William Hathorne 
came out to Massachusetts in the early years of the 
Puritan settlement ; in 1635 or 1636, according to 
the note to which I have just alluded ; in 1630, ac- 
cording to information presumably more accurate." 

Vide ' Hawthorne,' by Henry James, " Eng- 
lish Men of Letters Series." 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

The ancestors of this author must be 
assigned to Berkshire. The Rev. Canon 
Savory, rector of Binfield, Berks, has kindly 
sent me, in connexion with my family pedi- 
gree, copies of old wills and observations 
thereon, whereby it appears that Philip Lee, 
of Binfield (will dated August, 1654), married 
Joan Hathorne, daughter of Wm. Hathorne, 
of Binfield, yeoman. This Wm. Hathorne 
had sons Major William Hathorne, of Massa 
chusette (the first American ancestor of 
Nathaniel Hawthorne), also Nathaniel, Robert 
arid Edmund Hathorne. More about the 
Hathornes or Hawthornes can be seen in the 
1 History of Bray.' H. P. L. 

vii. 341, 438, 470, 512).-First I will say t( 
ME. MASON, m modern fashion, " Sorry," thei 

Glad for he gives me the opportunity 

'? u fo !^ d 'iV f 8ayin B thafc fche ' Uatalogu 
of the Hope Collection ' is about half done- 
in classes (nobility, statesmen, lawyers, <kc ) 
It will, however, at present rate, take severa 

ears to complete the manuscript ; but if 
ome multi-millionaire will give a small sum 
say 5,000.), the catalogue could soon be 
inished. The place, like most of the great 
oundations at Oxford, is starved no money 
o renew bindings or for upkeep, though 
ortunately the service is most efficient. 


50, 215, 296, 554; viii. 26). My recollection 
if the distich which GNOMON essays to quote 
s that it ran 

Turkeys, hops, carp, pickerel, and beer 

All came to England in one year. 

dancing and heresy were probably indige- 
nous. However, Mr. Northall quotes 

Hops, reformation, baize, and beer 

Came into England all in a year. 

And if we take hops to designate dancing, 
ind reformation as being equivalent to heresy \ 
JNOMON'S memory is justified. Mr. Northall 
has also (' English Folk-Rhymes,' p. 95) 

Turkeys, carps, hops, pikarel, and beer, &c. 

Hops and turkeys, carps and beer, &c. 
ETe gives as sources ' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. vii. 550 ; 
ETazlitt's 'English Proverbs,' p. 460; and 
N. & Q.,' 5 th S. ii. 1 05. There the version last 
cited is attributed to Baker's ' Chronicle.' 


[ndexes to Series First, Second, Fourth, 
and Sixth to Eighth ; 9 th S. iv. ; vii. 461). 
Will not some one settle at any rate the 
question of date by referring to Currick's 
Morning Post for 1815, and giving your 
readers the exact number, day of month, 
>age, and column in which DR. FITZPATRICK 
! ound the poem ? An hour should be ample 
for the purpose. When this is done the 
discussion will have a definite foundation. 

O. O. H. 

PHILLIPPO (9 th S. vii. 468). This was a 
Walloon family, members of which migrated 
to Kent, and thence to Norfolk, early in the 
reign of Elizabeth. The proper spelling of 
the name is Phelipeau, from an earlier 
Phelipel, a diminutive of Philipe. I suppose 
the original Greek meant " friend of a horse." 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

During the student days of James Mursell 
and James Phillippo at Chipping Norton 
the young men interchanged names. The 
one, James Phillippo Mursell, eventually 
succeeded Robert Hall at Leicester, and 
became widely known as an eloquent 
preacher; and the other, James MurseU 

9* s. vm. JULY ao, MM.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Philippo, entered the mission field, and wa 
one of the pioneers in the emancipation o 
the West Indian slaves. JOHN T. PAGE. 
West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

DOWAGER PEERESS (9 th S. vii. 468, 510) 
-In the case of Cowley v. Cowley ('Law 
Reports,' 1900, Probate Division, pp. 118 
305) counsel stated in argument (p. 308) thai 
ever since the Duchess of Suffolk's case, 1564 
(Leon., part iv. p. 196; Dyer, fol. 79), "the 
widow of a peer, on marrying a commoner, 
continues, by the etiquette of society, though 
not by legal right, to retain her title and 
precedence " ; and he referred to Burke's 
'Peerage,' 1899, p. 1762 ; 1900, p. 1642. No 
customary exceptions are mentioned. This 
case is under appeal to the House of Lords. 


Anne, sister of King Edward IV., is called 
Duchess of Exeter, though her second 
husband was a knight (Sir Thomas St. Leger). 
She died 1495 (tomb at Windsor). Katherine, 
Duchess of Suffolk (died 1580), retained her 
title to the end of her life, her second 
husband being Richard Bertie (see Foxe). 
Alice, widow of Ferdinando, Earl of Derby 
(died 1594), married Lord Keeper Egerton, 
but retained her title of Countess of Derby, 
and in 1631 signed as " Al. Derby " (Redford's 
4 Uxbridge,' p. 21). The widow of Sir John 
Cheke was called Dame Cheke down to her 
death, though in Elizabeth's reign she 
married Henry Mackwilliams (epitaph in 
Strype's ' Stow '). J. B. 

ICKNIELD STREET (9 th S. viii. 17). MR* 
DUIGNAN should consult the late Dr. Edwin 
Guest's tract ' The Four Roman Ways,' which 
was first printed in the Archaeological Journal, 
No. 54, and secondly, with Dr. Guest's other 
historical and topographical papers, in the 
second volume of 'Origines Celticse' (1883), 
pp. 218-41 : 

"Hilde-weg, a way fitted for military expeditions, 
a highway ; Icen hilde-weg, the highway of the Icen 
or Iceni, the people into whose country this track- 
way directly led. 

As to the course of the way Dr. Guest is very 
explicit. C. DEEDES. 


ANTHONY FORTESCUE (9 th S. vii. 327, 435). 
I am much indebted to MR. EVERITT for his 
reply to my query. May I add the following 
notes ? 

1. Lord Clermont (' Hist. Fain. Fortescue,' 
p. 177) found reasons for his doubting whether 
Sir Adrian Fortescue's second wife had been 
married previously to Sir Giles Greville. Is 
there good evidence of this marriage? Sir 

Thomas Parry, the ambassador, her son by 
her last marriage, was evidently a Wyke- 
hamist, though not recognized as such in 
Mr. Kirby's ' Winchester Scholars.' An old 
marginal note to his name in the college 
register (1558) is " legatus in Gallia." 

2. Lord Clermont (pp. 318-20) set out the 
will, dated 1608 and proved 1611, of Thomas 
Fortescue, of "Donington " (i.e., Donnington, 
near Newbury, and not Dinnington), Berks. 
The passage to which MR. EVERITT refers 
runs thus : 

"Item, my will and mynde is that all such plate, 
household stnffe and books as are belonging unto 
Anthony Fortescue my brother be safely kept and 
delyvered to the use o! my said brother/' 

This passage was thought by Lord Cler- 
mont (p. 310) to favour the supposition that 
the brother was an exile from England for 
life. Sed qucere de hoc. 

3. Lord Clermont (p. 310) assigned to this 
brother (Sir Adrian's youngest son) the fol- 
lowing children : 

' Anthony, married to a daughter of Overton, 

brother to the then Bishop of Coventry ; John, mar- 
ried to Ellen, daughter of Ralf Henslow of Barrald, 
in Hampshire ; and George, of whose marriage no 
mention is made." 

It seems from MR. EVERITT'S statements that 
these were really the sons of Anthony Fortes- 
cue, the conspirator. Does he intend us to 
nfer that the above John Fortescue married 
his mother's stepdaughter ? 

4. Anthony Fortescue, the conspirator, was 
almost certainly not the Winchester scholar. 
How was his wife Katherine Pole related to 
:he following scholars there : " Jeffery Poole" 
(adm. 1558), of Lordington, Sussex ; Stephen 
Henslow (adm. 1552) and Henry Henslow 
adm. 1563), both of Boarhunt, Hants? 

H. C. 

* The Genealogist's Guide,' edited by G. W. 
Marshall, LL.D. (London, 1885), gives on 
pp. 249, 250, a long list of pedigrees and 

>apers relating to the family of Fortescue. 

This exhaustive list may possibly be of some 
service to those of your correspondents who 
are specially interested in that ancient and 

listinguished race. They should likewise 
*efer to another compilation of some import- 
ance, entitled 'Notitise and Pedigrees con- 

erning the Family of the Fortescues ' (Brit. 
Mus., Add. MS. 15,629, f. 63). The Lambeth 
Review for March, 1872, contains on pp. 65-77 
most interesting article on * Sir John For- 
,escue and his Descendants.' H. B. 

FUNERAL CARDS (9 th S. vii. 88, 171, 291, 332, 
14 ; viii. 21). The funeral card, resembling 
n many particulars the one described by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9*s.vm. JULY 20,1901. 

MR. S. O. ADDY, still survives on the Con- 
tinent. One recently sent me from France 
not only announces the death of the person, 
but states the exact hour of the decease and 
gives a general invitation to the burial. Sur- 
mounting it is a little scene of a churchyard 
and an open grave surrounded by mourners. 

Similar funeral cards may often be seen in 
the entrances of Roman Catholic churches 
amongst the ordinary mortuary cards. They 
are usually printed on a quarto sheet of 
black-edged paper, with a cross or some other 
Christian symbol at the heading, and differ 
from the mortuary card in that they give 
particulars of the death and state the time 
and place of the interment. 

I am told that at the funerals of celebrated 
personages on the Continent these funeral 
cards serve also as tickets of admission to the 
church where the funeral requiem is to be 
celebrated. Some of the religious orders in 
England follow the continental custom of 
sending to other religious houses funeral 
cards announcing the death and interment 
of one of their members ; and this is also done 
at the deaths of bishops and other high 
ecclesiastical dignitaries. 


COL. THOMAS COOPER (9 th S. vii. 168, 353, 
438). May I suggest that it is not possible to 
identify Thomas Copper, alderman of Oxford, 
with the Cromwellian colonel of the same 
~ame? Thomas Cooper, draper, was Mayor 
.f Oxford in 1630, and M.P. for Oxford in 
the Short Parliament of 1640. The registers 
of St. Martin's Church, Oxford, have the 
entry : 

" Aug. 13, 1640. Mr. Thomas Cooper, sometimes 
the maior of this citie, the alderman, and late 
burgess for the Parliament for the citie, was buried." 
Andrew Clark's edition of Wood's 'City of 
Oxford,' iii. 36. 

C. E. D. 

GREEK PRONUNCIATION (9 th S. vii. 146, 351, 
449). LORD SHERBORNE asks how we can be 
sure what was the " Roman fashion " of pro- 
nouncing Latin. Of course, we cannot be 
sure. We can only suppose that the modern 
Roman fashion is at least as near to the 
ancient as that of any other place. Again 
we can be quite sure that the English Pro- 
testant pronunciation is as far from the 
original as we could possibly go. The general 
insularity imposed upon us at the Reforma- 
tion is doubtless the main cause of our 
anomalous national pronunciation of Latin 
At the same time, it must be rememberer 
that our English change of the first vowel 
sound, from a to e t has been gradual, to wit 
a, a, e. The first vowel in "Father," as pro 

tounced in the west of England, has the 
ound of a, while in other parts of the 
:ountry the sound is purely e ("feyther"). 
Here at Cardiff one may hear Catholic 
etving-boys at Mass respond thus: "Sed 
ibera nos a malo." In Welsh, too, this un- 
;ertairity of the first vowel prevails in 
he dialects of Monmouthshire and East 
jlamorgan, tad being pronounced tad, or 
edd, and so in other instances. The transi- 
ion from i to ai, by way of e'i, might be 
imilarly illustrated. The Irish tinn is tein 
tane) in West Cork. The Anglican pro- 
nunciation of Latin is after all an evolution 
)n natural lines, though insular religious 
prejudices may have fostered it and given 
t official sanction. It is certainly time we 
dropped it, and put ourselves more into line 
with the rest of Christendom. Frenchmen 
might well "dress up" in this respect too. 
Town Hall, Cardiff. 

LORD SHERBORNE'S communication on Rieti, 
the modern Italian equivalent of Reate, an 
ancient town forty-eight miles north-east of 
Rome, is interesting. It seems to show that 
the tendency of vowel slide a to e, e to i, is 
not wholly confined to English. But LORD 
SHERBORNE would not assert that the Italians 
say Mileyno for Milano, though he may see 
the same tendency to change e to i in the 
first syllable of that word, which is from the 
Latin Mediolanum. T. WILSON. 


In the extract quoted at 9 th S. vii. 351 from 
Burton's life it is stated that " we have an o 
and an a which belong peculiarly to English." 
I fail, however, to see in what the normal 
English pronunciation of o (as in " note" and 
"not ") differs from that of other languages ; 
indeed, o seems to be the only vowel which 
we do sound in accordance with the pro- 
nunciation of other nations. The real mischief 
lies in the other vowels : the long a in 
" make," the i in " like," the e in " see," and 
the u in "tune "are all peculiar to our lan- 
guage. It is these four, with the soft sound 
of c and g, and the mispronunciation of ce 
and ce, that make the English pronunciation 
of Latin so far from that both of the ancients 
and of other modern countries. The o, how- 
ever, keeps its sound practically unaltered 
in all the principal European tongues ; as in 
French (chose, donner), Icelandic (dom, koma\ 
and German (7/o/, Gott). I believe it is pro- 
nounced in the same way also in Spanish, 
Italian, &c. ; and it certainly is in the ac- 
cepted " Roman " pronunciation of Latin. 

E. B. E. 

a*s. vm. JULY 20, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"Qui VIVE?" (9 th S. vii. 245, 336, 438.) 
Prof. Deschanel's book is anything but useful, 
and every person not well versed in French 
philology must be earnestly warned against 
it. Prof. Adolf Tobler, the famous repre- 
sentative of the Romance languages in the 
University of Berlin, has dealt with it severely 
in Herrig's Archiv fiir das Studium der 
neueren Sjwachen und Litteraturen, vol. ci. 
pp. 222-4, telling him that "he lacks the 
most elementary knowledge of the history 
of his own language." 

How can Qui vive? be a transcription of 
a Latin Quis vivus? Did French sentries 
originally challenge in Latin 1 Had the 
French any need to go back to Latin in 
order to have a phraso for challenging 1 And 
where is this pretended Latin to be found ? 
How childish is the question, "Quel est le 
vivant 1 " The Italians challenge, as do now 
the French, Chi va la ? And vif would have 
never become vive. All this is mere twaddle ; 
and for it we are expected to give up an 
explanation equally satisfactory from the 
standpoint of reason and language. Let me 
repeat that the sense of Qui vive ? was " Pour 
qui etes-vous 1 " and that the person chal- 
lenged was to reply, "Vive la France, la 
Republique, 1'Empereur," &c. 



VALIA AS A FEMALE NAME (9 th S. vii. 447). 
I have a Russian friend whose name is 
Valerie. She is called by members of her 
family Vally (pronounced Valya). 


There are nineteen "Val" forms in the 
'History of Christian Names,' all meaning 
" healthy." The nearest in spelling to that 
required is Valerij as a name for a male. It 
is given as a Russian name of Latin origin. 

Miss Yonge, in her work on Christian 
names, gives Vallia of Spanish usage and 
Valheri of the Franks, both of Teutonic origin 
and masculine, meaning slaughter. From 
val, of choice or slaughter. 



Index to the First Ten Volumes of Book-Price* 

Current, 1887-1896. (Stock.) 

THE long-promised ' Index to Book-Prices Current 
has now been issued, and proves to be an invaluabl 
and indeed indispensable supplement to a work 
the claims of which upon book lovers and dealers 
we were among the first to recognize. It is the pro 

duction of Mr. William Jaggard, and is a work in- 
olving a large amount of labour. No fewer than 
thirty thousand distinct titles and "considerably 
)ver half a million numerals" have, as we are told 
n the introduction, been marshalled into order in 
/he course of what must necessarily have been a 
abour of love, seeing that no conceivable remu- 
neration could be adequate to the labour involved. 
That the task set before Mr. Jaggard has been 
diligently accomplished may safely be said. How 
"ar the work discharges the functions for which it 
uired, and how great is the benefit to be 
by the bibliophile, it is too early as yet to 
leclare. Constant reference, which we have already 
jegun to make, and in which we hope to persist, 
can alone enable us to pronounce definitely upon 
its merits. Not easy is it, indeed, to demonstrate 
the system on which the whole is worked. A 
point or two in this may, however, be indicated. 
Take, as is but natural, 'Shakespeare,' which 
occupies some ten columns. First comes the 
1623 folio, of which twenty-five copies appear to 
have been sold. These are given, with the 
numbers they bear in the volumes of ' Book- 
Prices Current,' under the successive dates of 
those volumes, 1887, 1888, &c. Then follows a list 
of the sales of the reprints in the order of their 
reproduction. Next come the other folios of 1632. 
1664, and 1685. The quartos appear in the order of 
date, the poems being included with them. The 
question suggests itself whether the poems might 
not occupy by themselves a separate section. Under 
the respective editors, Ashbee, Bell, Boydell, &c.. 
appear the recognized editions, what are callea 
miscellaneous editions being given under the year 
of their production. These are succeeded by 
Shakespeariana. Under ' Notes and Queries ' we find 
between fifty and sixty entries, no fewer than 
eighteen sales having taken place in the year 1887. 
To those who seek to turn ' Book-Prices Current ' 
to practical use and such, we conceive, constitute 
the vast majority of subscribers the work needs 
no commendation, its utility being immediately 
apparent. Suppose a student desires to know 
about a Caxton Chaucer's ' Canterbury Tales,' no 
date, but presumably 1478, he finds from the ' Index ' 
that none has been sold except in the year 1896, 
opposite which stand the numbers 2084, 4541. Turn- 
ing to these numbers in the volume for that year, 
he traces the sale to Mr. Quaritch of two copies, 
both more or less imperfect, for 1,02$. and 1,880/. 
respectively, with collation and other important 
accounts of the books. Before the next 'Index' 
appears (and such will inevitably be called for) we 
shall probably possess a knowledge of the ' Index ' 
which will enable us to pronounce definitely upon 
it. As it is, we welcome it as a part of the most 
important contribution to bibliographical know- 
ledge that England has known in recent years or 
seems likely to know in the immediate future. 

The Works of Lord Byron. Edited by Ernest Hart- 
ley Coleridge, M. A. Poetry. Vol. IV. (Murray.) 
To the merits of Mr. Coleridge's definitive and 
exhaustive edition of the works of Byron, now being 
issued in most tasteful form by Mr. Murray, we 
drew attention in a notice of the three opening 
volumes (see 9 th S. v. 506). A fourth volume of 
six, presumably now appears, and is in all respects 
up to the high level previously established. It 
consists of poems written between 1816 and 1823, 
and includes, in addition to less important or less 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 s. vm. JULY 20, 1901. 

sustained works, 'The Prisoner of Chillon, Man- 
fred' 'The Lament of Tasso,' 'Beppo,' 'Ode on 
Vn OP ' ' Ma7.nna ' ' The ProDfiecy of Dante. The 

Its illustrations comprise a frontispiece (which is a 
portrait of Byron after Harlowe), a view of the 
prison of Bonivard, a portrait after Reynolds of 
Sheridan, and others of John Hopkham Frere and 
Robert Southey. The introductions still supply 
much useful information, and constitute one of the 
most agreeable features. In that to ' The Vision 
of Judgment' Mr. Coleridge holds the scales with 
complete impartiality, supplying at the same time 
a full account of the conditions that led to Byron s 
outburst. The introduction to ' Mazeppa ' furnishes 
many curious and interesting particulars not easily 
obtainable elsewhere. In the case of ' Manfred, a 
sublime work, the publication of which is deeply 
to be regretted, much judgment is displayed, both 
in what is said and what is left unsaid. It is little 
likely that the true Byron will be set before the 
present generation, borne of the poems in the 
volume are given for the first time. They do not 
constitute a perceptible addition to the value of 
the volume. Of the edition we can only repeat 
that it may well be final. 

Calendar of Treasury Books and Papers. 1735-1738. 
Prepared by William A. Shaw. (Stationery 

THIS volume has been compiled with great care. 
The introduction is so good that we cannot help 
wishing that Mr. Shaw had been somewhat more 
diffuse, for there are several matters in the body of 
the work which for most of us require interpreta- 
tion. It will certainly be very useful to every 
one who takes an interest in the revenue and 
expenditure of the country in the earlier half of 
the eighteenth century. We need hardly, how- 
ever, say that there is little or nothing which illus- 
trates the manners of our forefathers, or is in any 
degree picturesque. Sir Walter Scott himself could 
not have founa in its pages suggestions for a 
romance. There is among the Treasury papers a 
series of books named " Lowther's Accounts," which 
have been regarded as a record of payments for 
secret service. This seems to be a tradition of long 
standing. We ourselves at one time gave credit to 
it ; but Mr. Shaw, by printing a portion thereof, 
has disproved what was from the first a mere 
conjecture. It is, in fact, merely " a petty bounty 
list," not a record of payments for services which 
there was urgent necessity for keeping secret. 
Lowther's Christian name was Thomas, and that 
is about all we know concerning him. It is not 
improbable that he was a member of the great 
Northern family of which Henry, Viscount Lons- 
<lale, was then the head; but we are not aware 
that evidence exists to place this beyond the 
region of unsupported conjecture. Newspapers 
were of little account during the Stuart time our 
rulers could well afford to despise them but during 
the reigns of the early Georges they had become 
influential as guiding opinion, and the Ministers of 
the day thought it expedient to have them well in 
hand. Ihe press laws in this country could not be 
applied on the rigorous continental systems so 
when necessity arose bribery, feeing, or purchase 
had to supply the place of the cheaper methods of 
fine and imprisonment. In 1735 we find one man, 
John Walthoe, receiving for several papers which 

are named over 3,760?. The whole of the newspaper 
payments which are recorded under this head 
during the year amounted to the large sum of 
6,797. 18s. 4a. We had hoped to find a good deal 
of incidental information concerning the Jacobites, 
but have been disappointed. The reason probably 
is that the rewards given for the services of those 
who acted as spies have not been recorded, or the 
accounts were kept in private hands. The reports 
of the emissaries, if preserved, which is doubtful, 
must occur elsewhere. A petition has, however, 
come to light of Margaret, the wife of Matthew 
Buchanan, a prebendary of the diocese of Clogher, 
who prays for the relief of her seven children, on 
the ground that her husband had been an army 
chaplain, had "written a book against Popery 
which had made many converts," had discovered the 
invasion of Scotland in 1715, and also had appre- 
hended one of the Earl of Mar's agents who had 
been sent over to Ireland. We have failed to trace 
this lady's husband either in his literary capacity 
or in the more dangerous service of apprehending 
Jacobite plotters. 

* NOTES AND QUERIES ' FOR SALE (9 th S. vii. 387, 
520). I am told that Messrs. Taylor & Son, of 
Northampton, have for sale the Index to the First 
Series of ' N. & Q.,' in the original cloth, price 
II. 5s. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

^WM. SMITH ("Spectator, Guardian, Sharpe's 
Editions"). In large paper, and with plates, these 
editions have some mercantile value. You must 
ask a respectable bookseller. 

MR. J. BOUCHIER begs to thank MRS. F. W. 
for copies of, and information concerning, "The 
days when we went gipsying." 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9*8. VIII. JULY 27, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 187. 

NOTES : Dibdin Bibliography, 77 Shakespeare Books, 78 
Church of St. Sophia, 79 Burnt Sacrifice: Mound 
Burial " Anaconda " - - " Humph "Mahomet's Coffin, 

go Charles Dartiquenave ' Pseudodoxia Kpidemica ' 

" Halsh "Transfer of Land by "Church Gift "Wear- 
ing Hats in Church " Stinger," 81 Vails Mummy 
Wheat, 82. 

QUERIES : Lamb Questions Royal Borough of Kensing- 
ton 'The Moss Rose' Coventry Corpus Christi Guild, 
82 Manx Words Barbican Watch Tower " Humping " 
"Alehouse Lettice": "Admire" Chaplain to Wil- 
liam III. Portraits in Dulwich Gallery Calcraft Family 
Capt. Kirkus Sanderson Wm. Alexander, Earl of Stir- 
ling, 83 Pass-tickets in Shakespeare's Time Printing in 
China Ringdoves Quotation in Jonson Agnes Mus- 
grave Lordship of Crawford, 84 Authors Wanted, 85. 

REPLIES : " Toucan "Charles Lamb, 85 Shakespeare 
Queries St. Clement Danes " Chevaux orynges " 
Stow's Portrait, 86 Suffolk Name for Ladybird Anglo- 
Hebrew Slang Defender t>f the Faith West-Country- 
men's Tails, 87 Arbuthnot Music Publishers' Signs 
Orientation in Interments "The Old Curiosity Shop," 
88 Motto on Sundial Source of Quotation Pews 
annexed to Houses Animals in People's Insides, 89 
Crosier and Pastoral Staff, 90 Ugo Foscolo in London- 
James II., 91 Towns which have changed their Sites 
Civil War : Storming of Lincoln, 93 A Ladle" Custice" 
Taverns in Seven Dials, 94. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lang's ' Magic and Religion ' Fea's 
' Secret Chambers and Hiding Places. ' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(Continued from p. 40.) 

1769. Shakespear's Garland, or the Warwickshire 
Jubilee. Being a Collection of Ballads, &c., as per- 
form'd in the Great Booth at Stratford upon Avon, 
composed by Mr. Dibdin. London : John John- 
ston, n.d. Upright folio, two parts, each of 5 leaves ; 
7 and 8 pp. of music. 

There are several states of this. The earliest 
I have seen has no title (perhaps lost), but there 
is " London : Printed by John Johnston, at 
No. 11, York Street, Co vent Garden," at foot 
of p. 1. The next has " Prise 1 sh " (sic) on 
title, and the note on p. 1 is erased, J. J. 
being substituted. A third has on the title 
" as perform'd at the Theatre-Royal, Drury 
Lane Publish'd according to act of Par- 
liament, August 30th, 1769." 

Separate sheet song : 

Sweet Willy O ! Dublin : Rhames, n.d. 
The advertisement on title of the ' Garland ' 
mentions * Queen Mab ' and " Jubilee Minuets, 
Cotillions, and Country Dances; also the 
airs in the Jubilee and Pageant for the 
German Flute." 

1769. Queen Mab, or the Fairies' Jubilee, a can- 
tata, composed for "the Jubilee," the words and 

musick'by the author and composer of ' The Pad- 
lock.' London : J. Johnston, upright folio, n.d. 

1769. XII. Minuets ; compos'd for Shakespear's 
Jubilee, by Charles Dibdin. London : John John- 
ston, price 6d., n.d. 

This was in the Birmingham Library (since 
burnt). I omitted to note the size and 

The following is a later collected edition : 
The Overture, Songs, Airs, and Chorusses in the 
Jubilee, or Shakespear's Garland, as performed at 
Stratford upon Avon, and the Theatre - Royal, 
Drury Lane. To which is added a Cantata called 
Queen Mab, or the Fairies' Jubilee, composed by 
Charles Dibdin. Price 6s. n.d. London : John 
Johnston and Longman, Lukey & Broderip. Orna- 
mental title, oblong folio, pp. 39. 

Adaptations for guitar and German flute are 
advertised on the title. A later edition pub- 
lished by Longman & Broderip. 

1769. The Songs, Airs, and Dances in the Jubilee 
and Pageant as perform'd at the Theatre Royal, 
Drury Lane, for the Guittar. Price 2s. London : 
John Johnston. Oblong 8vo, 28 pp. and title. 

1770. *The Ballads sung by Mr. Dibdin this 
evening at Ranelagh, and a conclusion Piece. 
Composed by Mr. Dibdin. 4to. 

1770. Six favourite Songs and a Cantata, sung at 
Ranelagh House, the words by Shenstone and other 
celebrated authors. The music composed by 
Charles Dibdin. Published, according to Act of 
Parliament, July the 17th, 1770. Price 3 sh. Upright 
folio. Title and pp. 2 to 21. London : John Johnston. 

1771. He wou'd if he cou'd ; or, an Old Fool 
worse than Any. A burletta, as it is performed at 
the Theatre-Royal in Drury Lane. The music by 
Mr. Dibdin. London : Printed for W. Griffin, in 
Catherine -Street, Strand, 1771. 8vo. Price Is. 
[By Isaac Bickerstaff.] In two acts. 

I know nothing about the music. 

1771. *The Overture, Songs, Duets, Trios, Choruses, 
Marches, &c., with the additional Songs in 'The 
Institution of the Garter, or Arthur's Round Table 
Restored.' London. Oblong folio. Price 4s. 6d. 

1771. The Overture, Songs, Duets, Trios, Choruses, 
Marches, &c., with the additional Songs in 'The 
Institution of the Garter, or Arthur's Round Table 
Restored,' as performed at the Theatre Royal in 
Drury Lane, adapted with the words for the Guitar ; 
composed by C. Dibdin. Price Is. 6d. London,' 
printed for Longman, Lukey & Co., No. 26, Cheap- 
side, where may be had, the whole Institution of 
the Garter, with the Overture adapted for the 
Harpsichord, &c. Price 4*. Sd. Overture to ditto 
in all its parts, 2s. 6rf., &c. Oblong 8vo, pp. ii, 24. 

1772. The Palace of Mirth, a musical Introduction 
to the Entertainment at Sadler's Wells, 1772 ; com- 
posed by C. Dibdin. Adapted for the Harpsichord, 
Voice, Violin, German Flute and Guittar. 2s. 
London : Printed and sold by John Johnston, York 
Street, Covent Garden. Upright folio, 10 leaves ; 
16 pp. of music. 

1772. The Comic Tunes, Songs and Dances in the 
Pantomime of ' The Pigmy Revels,' as perform'd at 
the Theatre-Royal, Drury Lane, composed by C. 
Dibden {sic}. Price 2s. 6d. London: Printed and 
sold by Longman, Lukey & Co., No. 26, Cheapside 


NOTES' AND QUERIES. [9 th B. vni. JULY 27, 1901. 

and by J. Johnston, near Exeter Change in the 
Strand. Upright folio, 20 pp. 
Piece produced 26 December, 1772, but music 
probably published 1773. 

1772. "A Collection of Catches and Glees for two, 
three, or four voices, with accompanyments for 
guittars and flutes. London. Oblong folio. 

1772 (?) [British Museum date]. Six Lessons for 
the Harpsichord, or Pianoforte. Composed by 
Charles Dibdin. London : Longman, Lukey & Co., 
No. 26, Cheapside. Oblong folio, 21 leaves ; 37 pp. 
of music. Price 7s. Qd. Dedicated to Miss Louisa 
Chauvet. N.d. 

1773. The Wedding Ring, a comic opera, in two 
acts, as it is performed at the Theatre Royal in 
Drury-Lane. London : Printed for T. Becket, in 
the Strand. Price one shilling. 8vo, preface and 
61 pp. (Written and composed by Dibdin.) 

1773. The Songs, &c., in 'The Wedding Ring,' a 
new comic opera, perform'd at the Theatre Royal 
in Drury Lane : compos'd by Charles Dibdin. 
London : Printed for J. Johnston in the Strand, 
and Messrs. Longman, Lukey & Co., No. 26 in 
Cheapside. Ornamental border to title, dedicated 
to the Rt. Honble. the Countess of Berkeley. 
Oblong folio, 58 pp. 

1773. The Mischance, a musical dialogue per- 
form'd at Sadler's Wells, composed by Charles 
Dibdin. Price 2*. London : Printed and sold by 
John Johnston, near Exeter Change, Strand ; and 
Longman, Lukey & Co., No. 26, Cheapside. of whom 
may be had the following Interludes performed at 
Sadler's Wells, viz. The Brickdustmau, The Coun- 
try Courtship, The Palace of Mirth, The Grenadier, 
The Ladle, and the Pantomime of The Vineyard 
Revels. Also the operas of The Christmas Tale, 
Golden Pippin, Elfrida, and Deserter. Upright 
folio, 18 pp. 

1773. "The Brickdustman. Sadler's Wells. 

1773. * Vineyard Revels; or, Harlequin Bac- 
chanal. Music by Dibdin. Sadler's Wells. 

1773. *The Whim-wham ; or, Harlequin Captive, 
an entertainment of music and dancing, the music 
by Mr. Dibdin. 

Produced 26 July, 1773. I do not know who 
wrote it or if it was published. 

1773. *The Pilgrim, musical piece by Dibdin and 
others, produced at Sadler's Wells, 23 August, 1773. 
I know nothing more about it. 

1773. The Grenadier, set to music by Mr. Dibdin. 
Ihe second edition. London: Price twopence 
8vo, 8 pp. Sadler's Wells, 1773. 
1 have not seen the first edition. 

1773. "The Grenadier, a musical dialogue. Lon- 
don. Folio. 

I know nothing of 'The Country Court- 
ship, mentioned under 'The Mischance'- it 
may or may not have been by Dibdin. 

* Th Widow of Abin sdon. Sadler's 

1773. The Ladle, a musical dialogue, perform'd 
at Sadler's Wells, compos d by Charles Dibdin. 
Ince2.s. London: Printed for Longman, Lukey & 
Uo., No. 26, Cheapside, and John Johnston, near 
Lxeter Change, Strand. Upright folio, 14 pp. and 

1773. *England against Italy. Sadler's Wells. 
Hogarth places this in 1773. See 1787. 

1773. *None so blind as those who won't see. 
Sadler's Wells. 
Hogarth dates this 1773. 

1773. Vauxhall Songs for 1773, sung by Mr. Vernon 
and Miss Wewitzer. Composed by Charles Dibdin. 
Price 3s. London : Printed and sold by John 
Johnston, near Exeter Change, and Longman, 
Lukey & Co., No. 26, Cheapside. Upright folio, 
11 leaves ; 18 pp. of music. 

1773. The Trip to Portsmouth, a comic sketch of 
one act, with songs. London : Printed for T. Waller, 
in Fleet Street; T. Becket, in the Strand; and 
G. Robinson, in Pater-noster - Row. Price one 
shilling. 8vo, n.d. 

Probably written by G. A. Stevens. C. Dib- 
din wrote the music, of which 1 have seen no 
complete publication. Hogarth and Kitch- 
ener give the music of several of the songs. 
The former attributes the words to Dibdin. 

1773. "The Trip to Portsmouth. Songs by C, 
Dibdin. Oblong folio. 

1773. The Deserter, a new musical drama, as it 
is performed at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. 
A new edition. London : Printed for T. Becket, 
the corner of the Adelphi, in the Strand. 1774. 
Price one shilling. 8vo, pp. viii-36. 

Adapted by Dibdin from the French. I have 
not seen the first edition. Another edition 

1773. The Songs, &c., in ' The Deserter,' a musical 
drama, as perform'd with universal applause, at 
the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, composed by 
Messrs. Motisigny, Philidor, and C. Dibdin. Price 
6s. London : Printed for John Johnston, near 
Exeter Change, Strand; and Longman, Lukey & 
Co., No. 26, Cheapside. Oblong folio, title, 1 p. 
blank, and pp. 1 to 42, but p. 6 is blank. 

A second edition has this addition on the 
title : " With the Additional Songs of ' The 
Miller's Daughter,'" price 7s.; and the address 
is altered to " London : Printed by Longman 
& Broderip, No. 26, Cheapside, and No. 13, 
Haymarket." The plates of the overture are 
new. The additional songs (two) are paged 
2 to 7. Another issue from the same plates 
has " London : Printed by Broderip & Wil- 
kinson, No. 13, Haymarket." The additional 
songs are mentioned on title, but not included 
in the copy I have seen. 

Morningside, Sudworth Road, New Brighton. 
(To be continued.) 

(Continued from 9 th S. vii. 424.) 
Helena. Is all the counsel that we two have shared, 
Ihe sisters' vows, the hours that we have spent 
When we have chid the hasty-footed time 
For parting us. 0, is it all forgot ? 
All schooldays 5 friendship, childhood innocence? 
We, Hermia, like two artificial gods, 

9-s.vm.joLY27,i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Have with our neelds created both one flower, 
Both on one sampler, sitting on one cushion, 
Both warbling of one song, both in one key ; 
As if our hands, our sides, voices, and minds, 
Had been incorporate. So we grew together, 
Like to a double cherry, seeming parted, 
But yet an union in partition ; 
Two lovely berries moulded on one stem ; 
So, with two seeming bodies, but one heart 
Two of the first, like coats in heraldry, 
Due but to one, and crowned with one crest. 

' Midsummer Night's Dream,' III. ii. 

"I mistrusted least my tongue, impatient of a 
case so important, should discover it to the very 
walles of my private chamber, witnesse thereof is 
Amese my nephewe, my chiefest friende and coun- 
sellor at that time, and the faithful companion of 
my travels, and some few besides him, whose faith- 
full and froward assistance and diligence did us 
good service in the execution of this action. For 
albeit we lived together and familiarly (as it were) 
in one and the same course of life : though we eate 
at one and the same table, and though wee did in a 
manner (as it were) breathe jointly with one and the 
same soule : neverthelesse neither they nor any man 
alive did ever heare me mindefull of my countrie, 
but only in the warre of Hungarie : neither was 
there ever anie man that heard me use any speech, 
or to utter any one word at any time, which might 
argue me to bee a Christian or free man, till such 
time as I sawe, and perceived that I might freely 
do it, and without all feare of danger." ' The Life 
of Scanderbeg.' 

Scanderbeg's account of the familiar manner 
in which he lived with his nephew Amese re- 
sembles Helena's description of her schoolday 
friendship with Hermia. They were all closely 
intimate. Helena and Hermia both created 
one flower, both on one sampler, sitting on one 
cushion, both warbling of one song in one key, 
as if their hands, sides, voices, and minds had 
been incorporate; and Scanderbeg and Amese 
lived together familiarly in one and the same 
course of life, did eat at one and the same 
table, and did breathe jointly with one and 
the same soul ; and it is worthy of notice 
that the word one is used by Scanderbeg and 
Helena to describe the unity of close and 
familiar friendship. Moreover, Helena speaks 
of the counsel she had shared with Hermia 
and Scanderbeg calls Amese his counsellor. 

Chorus. O England 1 model to thy inward great 

Like little body with a mighty heart. 

' Henry V.,' II. 

This comparison may have been suggestec 
by the following passage in the 'Life o: 
Scanderbeg,' which is descriptive of Ballaban 
Badera : , 

"Touching the stature of his bodie, he was no 
very tall, but of a middle size : but he was of a 
notable quicke and ready wit, his minde was ex 
tremely great and haughtie, besides that he wa 
very resolute and couragious, fearing nothing. S 
it may be said of him as Homer wrote of Tydeus, 

A little man of body, and but small of stature, 
Yet great in deedes of armes, arid a mightie 

According to this quotation from Homer, 
Ballaban Badera was a little man of body, 

yet a mighty warrior, and Shakespeare com- 
>ares England to a little body with a mighty 

Pistol. He hears with ears. 

Evans. The tevil and his tarn ! What phrase is 
his, "He hears with ear"? Why, it is affec- 
ations. * Merry Wives,' I. i. 

Biron. Taffeta phrases, silken terms precise, 
Three-piled hyperboles, spruce affectation, 
figures pedantical. ' Love's Labour Lost,' V. ii. 

Hamlet. I remember, one said there were no 
wallets in the lines to make the matter savoury, 
nor no matter in the phrase that might indict 
the author of affectation. ' Hamlet,' II. ii. 

I think that Shakespeare in these passages 
refers to cacozelia or " fonde " affectation, thus 
described by Puttenham : 

" Ye have another intolerable ill maner of speach, 
which by the Greekes originall we may call fonde 
affectation, and is when we affect new words and 
phrases other than the good speakers and writers 
in any language hath allowed, and is the common 
fault of young schollers not halfe so well studied 
before they come from the Universitie or Schooles, 
and when they come to their friends, or happen to 
get some benefice or other promotion in their 
countreys, will seeme to coigne fine wordes out of 
the Latin, and to use new fangled speaches, thereby 
to shew themselves among the ignorant the better 
learned."' The Arte of Poesie.' 

Evans seems to think that Pistol affects 
a new phrase other than custom or the 
;ood speakers and writers in any language 
iave allowed, and that he makes use of the 
intolerable manner of speech which Putten- 
ham calls fond affectation. In the speech 
which Hamlet heard the First Player speak 
once, there was in the phrase no matter that 
might indict the author of affectation. 

(To be continued.) 

TINOPLE. M. Antoniadi, who has been for 
some years past chiefly engaged on astro- 
nomical work at the Flammarion Observatory, 
Juvisy, made whilst at Constantinople some 
interesting studies of Justinian's great church 
(now, as we all know, a mosque) there, the 
results of which he hopes to publish in an 
English archaeological journal. But in the 
meantine he has called my attention to an 
error in the great work of Lethaby and 
Swainson (1894), entitled 'The Church of 
Sancta Sophia, Constantinople : a Study of 
Byzantine Building.' The church was de- 
scribed shortly after its completion in a 


P* B. vm. 

poem by Paul the Silentiary, in which a 
fine (76) appears to have been misunderstood. 
It is this : 
Sravpov VTrcp Kopv^f}* cpvo-iirroXw eypa^c 

Lethaby and Swainson say in a note (p. 42), 
4 ' Iypo0 leaves no doubt that a mosaic cross 
on the interior is intended, and not as 
Salzenberg suggests, a cross on the outside. 
But M. Antoniadi remarks that the expres- 
sion VTTCP Kopv<r)s means " above the top or 
summit," and could never apply to a cross 
drawn on the interior. The drawing, he 
thinks, applies, like the French word esqmsse, 
to the preliminary sketch before the actual 
erection of the cross. 

M. Antoniadi also points out how some 
broken verses of the Silentiary, referring to 
the mosaic decoration of the dome, have been 
overlooked. W. T. LYNN. 


examples of folk-lore are given in Mr. W. 
Boyd Dawkins's * Early Man in Britain ' (1880) 
on which it would be interesting to have 
further information. 

1. We are told that in the Isle of Man 
barrows are protected from destruction by 
the fear of the spirits of those whose ashes 
they contain, and 
" that the dread of their occupants is still so strong, 
that about the year 1859 a farmer offered a heifer 
as a burnt sacrifice that he might avert their anger, 
excited by the exploration of a chambered tomb 
near the Tynwald Mount by Messrs. Oliver and 

Mr. Dawkins further adds that "this is 
probably the last example of a burnt sacrifice 
in civilized Europe " (p. 338). If this really 
occurred it is important to have a full account 
of it. There is in 'The Denham Tracts 
(Folk-lore Society), vol. ii. p. 327, an account 
of a calf being burnt alive in 1824 at Sowerby, 
near Halifax. Reference is made to the 
Newcastle Magazine of that year, p. 4. I have 
read somewhere, but neglected to make a 
note of it, that a deed of this kind was per 
petrated in Devonshire in what we may cal 
recent days. 

2. In 1832 there was found in a large burial 
hill near Mould, in North Wales, a skeleton 
wearing a corselet of gold, 3 ft. 7 in. long. " The 
place was supposed to be haunted, and before 
the discovery was made a spectre was sak 
to have been seen to enter the cairn clad in 
golden armour" (p. 433). I am anxious t( 
know what evidence we have that this gold 
clad spectre was reported to have been seen 
before the barrow was destroyed. It is ver 

ifficult to believe that an accurate tradition 
f the vesture in which this prehistoric corpse 
vas buried can have been handed down 
hrough the many generations which must 
ave intervened between the day on which 
he funeral rites were performed and that of 
ts discovery ; yet no other explanation seems 
possible except that such a spectre was seen 
n very truth, which latter interpretation 
would, of course, seem to almost every reader 
f 'N & Q.' as crudely unscientific as the 
nines one reads in the ' Magnum Speculum 
-fcemplorum.' A FOLK-LORIST. 

xii. 123 : 9 th S. i. 184.) I am sorry to see 
hat Prof. Skeat, in the new edition of his 
Concise Etymological Dictionary, has re- 
ained Sir Henry Yule's ingenious, but utterly 
untenable suggestion as to the origin ot 
anaconda, viz., "Tamil dnai-kondra [we] 
which killed an elephant." As I showed in 
N. & Q.' at the first of the pages cited above, 
anaconda = Sinhalese henakandaya, the name 
of the graceful whip-snake, Passerita (Dryo- 
vhis) mycterizans, and by an extraordinary 
Blunder (probably a change of labels on 
specimens in the Leyden Museum) was trans- 
ferred to the Python molurus. 



" HUMPH." The following extract from 
;he Pall Mall Gazette of 26 April seems of 
interest : 

" The meaning of the word ' humph ' was re- 
cently the subject of judicial decision in the Irish 
Court of Appeal. Mr. Justice Madden and Mr. 
Justice Boyd held that ' humph,' as used by Sir 
Walter Scott and Miss Austen in their novels, was 
an expression of dissent, while the Lord Chief 
Justice and Mr. Justice Burton inclined to the 
conclusion that ' humph ' only meant a ' dissatisfied 
condition of the mind.' The Court of Appeal has 
now decided that the word is 'an expression of 
doubt or dissatisfaction,' or, as Lord Justice Walker 
put it, in the words of the ' Century Dictionary,' ' a 
grunt of dissatisfaction.' " 

A. F. R 

MAHOMET'S COFFIN. There is a well-known 
story about the coffin of Mahomet hanging 
equidistant between heaven and earth. This 
was often attributed to the power of mag- 
netism, the last couch of the prophet being 
E laced between two loadstones. The possi- 
ility of such a method of suspension is an 
article of belief in Kashmir. Of Lalitaditya L. 
king of the country about A.D. 697, we are tola 
that he " set up an image of Nri singha, un- 
supported by anything, but placed in the air 
between two loadstones, one above and one 
below" (' Kings of Kashmir,' a translation of 

9* s. via JULY 27, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Sanskrit work * Rajataranggini ' of Kah- 
lana Pandita, by Joghesh Chunder Dutt, 
Calcutta, 1879, p. 71). 


With regard to the parentage of this "epi- 
cure and humourist," which is discussed in 
the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. xiv. p. 69, it seems 
worth noticing that in Nichols's 'Hist, and 
Antiq. of Leicestershire,' vol. iii. part ii. 
p. 1041, Charles Dartiquenave appears in a 
pedigree of Gery of Bedfordshire as son of 
John James Dartiquenave by his marriage 
with Ann, third daughter of William Gery, 
of Bush mead Priory. H. C. 

ago I came across the fifth edition of Sir 
Thomas Brown's entertaining work, hidden 
away on the dark shelves of an old country- 
house library. I copied the title-page thus : 

Pseudodoxia Epidemica 



Into very many Received Tenents 
And commonly presumed 

By Thomas Brown D r of Physick 

5 th Edition 
London Printed for the Assigns of Edward Dod. 

I mention this for two reasons only : first, 
that the ingenious author of the 'Religio 
Medici' spelt his name in 1669 "Brown," 
not "Browne"; and, secondly, because its 
title varies somewhat from that given in the 
* Encyclopaedia Britannica ' and other works 
of reference. RICHARD EDGCUMBE. 

" HALSH." This word is in every-day use 
in various ways. So far as the cotton trade 
goes it refers to the band of coloured "tie 
yarn " that encircles the "knot," in addition 
to the ordinary tie yarn that holds each lea 
in the knot separately. This is called the 
' halsh-band," and when the band is tied the 
knot is said to be " halshed." The expression 
"halshed figure 8" is used with regard to 
another method of knotting. The " halsh " 
is also in the case of a necktie in the form 
of a bow, for example that part in the 
centre that runs in a vertical or slightly 
oblique direction, embracing the whole bow. 
A milliner in giving directions for looping 
this portion will say, "Put a halsh over it." 
Saddlers also use the word, and possibly it is 
known in the woollen and worsted industries. 
The derivation is from haisen, meaning " to 
embrace." The form used in the heading is 
that adopted by Halliwell. It is also that in 

common use. It is not correct to speak of 
" halsh " as a provincial word. It is technical 
and general. One wonders why the ' H.E.D.,' 
which gives "halse," did not also record 
" halsh," s. and v., as a main word. In German 
one finds " Hals=the neck," and at the meet- 
ing of Jacob and Esau one reads that Esau 
" ran to meet him and embraced him und fiel 
ihm um den Hals" ARTHUR MAYALL. 

The following paragraph from the Standard 
of 12 July explains this custom : 

"In the Probate Court yesterday Sir Richard 
Nicholas Howard, solicitor, of Weymouth, was 
called on behalf of the defendant^ in an action in 
which revocation was sought of the will of a farmer 
and contractor of Portland. Witness was asked about 
the extent of his dealings with the testator, and 
whether they had been all of a business character. 
'Oh, no,' he said, 'they do so much by "church 
gift" in Portland.' Sir Richard Howard was re- 
quested to explain, and he said that people who 
wished to buy or sell land got a schoolmaster and 
went into the church, where a sheet of foolscap was 
drawn up, and that was quite legal. In former 
days, he said, they used to go to the church and de- 
clare they had given the land, and that held good, 
but afterwards, when the Act of Parliament required 
a deed, they went to the church and put it in 
writing, as he had stated, and called it a ' church 
gift.' Mr. Priestley observed that that might be a 
limit to the conveyances." 



57, 314, 455 ; iii. 26, 236, 437, 498 ; iv. 316 ; 
7 th S. i. 189, 251, 373, 458 ; ii. 272, 355, 375 ; 
iii. 31, 134, 258, 375 ; iv. 258.)! do not think 
it has been pointed out that, at any rate in 
Ireland, this question was regulated by law. 
In an Order of Council of 28 November, 1633 
(calendared in the appendix to the Twentieth 
Report of the Deputy -Keeper of Public Re- 
cords in Ireland, 1888, at p. 121), is a provision 
as regards Christ Church, Dublin : 

" No person to put on his hat until the preacher 
have read his text ; none but the Lord Deputy and 
his lady to use curtains before their seats," &c. 

O. O. H. 

" STINGER." The following extract will in- 
terest Anglo-Indians. It is from Bonsai's 
* Plague Ship,' in Scribner, January, p. 106 : 

" Two ' stingers ' were brought. Now a * stinger,' 
it should be known (it certainly is known to all 
who have lived in that land of great thirst which 
stretches from Shantung to Sumatra), is a noggin of 
Scotch whiskey, enlivened by much or little, accord- 
ing to individual taste, of the local buzz- water." 

The word, I may add, is probably quite un- 
connected with the English verb " to sting." 
I prefer to look upon it as the Malayan 


NOTES - AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL JULY 27, 1901. 

sa-tenga, colloquially pronounced s'tenga, "a 
half,"'" half-and-half." JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

VAILS. The following protest against 
" tipping " waiters may be of interest. It is 
extracted from the Stamford Mercury (a pro- 
vincial weekly) of 14 June, 1764: 

"We hear that the Nobility and Gentry, who 
have left off giving vails to servants in private 
families, are come to a resolution not to give to the 
waiters of taverns or coffee-houses they frequent, 
as their masters can amply afford to give sufficient 
wages for the genteelest attendance." 

J. H. S. 

MUMMY WHEAT. The following appears in 
the Times of Monday, 22 July : 

"'J. S. ' writes: 'Your sympathetic obituary 
notice of Miss Ormerod has told the world of the 
loss it has suffered by her death. All her life was 
spent in the improvement of agriculture and the 
suppression of all insect life injurious to vegetable 
growth. But she was equally interested in other 
questions of a kindred kind. I remember when I 
first had the honour to make her acquaintance I 
brought her from Egypt some mummy corn that 
is, corn found with a mummy of an absolutely 
authentic kind, and I asked her if she believed in 
the popular tradition that the vital principle of the 
corn some 4,000 years old was only suspended and 
not dead. She shook her head, but said, " I will 
give this corn the very best chance of the right soil, 
the right amount of moisture and sunshine, and 
then I will tell you what I think." I saw her some 
time afterwards, and said, "Well, Miss Ormerod, 
how about the mummy corn ?" Her reply was, " It 
is all nonsense the corn was dead thousands of 
years ago.'" 

W. H. P. 
[See the Sixth and Eighth Series, passim.] 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

article in 9 th S. vi. 442 on 'Lamb and the 
Champion,' quoted the following epigram : 
On a Late Empiric of 11 Balmy" Memory. 
His namesake, born of Jewish breeder, 
Knew "from the Hyssop to the Cedar"; 
But he, unlike the Jewish leader, 
Scarce knew the Hyssop from the Cedar. 
The date is about 1820. Can any one explain 
the reference ? 

In the Popular Fallacy that a bully is a 
coward Lamb speaks of one Hickman : "Hick- 
man wanted modesty we do not mean him 
of * Clarissa ' but who ever doubted his 
courage 1 " Who was Hickman 1 

In the Fallacy that handsome is as hand- 
some does Lamb describes the ugliness of 
Mrs. Conrady. Was she a real person ? 

In the essay on the * Melancholy of Tailors ' 
there is a reference to " Eliot's famous troop " 
charging upon the Spaniards as a proof that 
tailors do not lack spirit. What was Eliot's 
famous troop? If the Eliot was George 
Augustus Eliott, Lord Heathfield, the 
Governor of Gibraltar, the troop was pro- 
bably the body of horse commanded by him 
in Cuba in 1762-3, and afterwards called the 
15th, or King's Own Koyal Light Dragoons 
(now the 15th Hussars) ; but if so, what con- 
nexion is there between them and tailors ? 

K. M. 

(The epigram on Solomon, the quack doctor, was 
explained 9 th S. vii. 12. See also 1 Kings iv. 33. 
" Eliott's famous troop " was raised by the defender 
of Gibraltar. See 8 th S. v. 328, 413, 478 ; vi. 18, 74.] 

states that the late Queen was born in Ken- 
sington. Is this so 1 Surely Kensington 
Palace is in Westminster. R. B. T. 

' THE Moss ROSE.' I herewith enclose what 
I remember of a piece of poetry on ' The Moss 
Rose ' which my father taught me when I was 
a child. Can any of your correspondents give 
me the name of the author, or tell me where 
I can find it ? 

The Angel of the Flowers one day 

Beneath a rose-tree sleeping lay, 

That Spirit to whom charge is given 

To bathe young buds in dews from heaven. 

Awakening from his light repose, 

The Angel whispered to the Rose, 

"Ask what thou wilt, 'tis granted thee." 

Then said the Rose with deepen'd glow, 
" On me another grace bestow." 
The Spirit paused, in silent thought. 
What grace was there that flower had not? 
'Twas but a moment o'er the Rose 
A veil of moss the Angel throws ; 
And robed in Nature's simplest weed, 
Could there a flower that Rose exceed ? 


accounts of the guild's receipts and expendi- 
ture from 1488 to 1553 are referred to (and 
one or two extracts given) at p. 101 of the 
First Report of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission, and again (without any further 
information, save of rebinding) at pp. 103-4 

[* O fondest object of my care, 

Still fairest found where all are fair, 
For the sweet shade thou giv'st to me,. 
These lines originally appeared in Blackwood's 
Magazine, whence they were transferred to 'The 
Naturalist's Poetical Companion,' selected by the 
Rev. Edward Wilson, M.A., F.L.S., second edition, 
Leeds, 1846 a compilation of much merit. The 
authorship of the poem has not been ascertained.;] 

th s . VIIL JULY 27, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the tenth appendix to the Commission's 
Fifteenth Report. Have any further extracts 
been published ? O. O. H. 

MANX WORDS. Without the aid of a 
glossary an obvious want the reader of 
Mr. Hall Caine's Manx stories is occasionally 
at a loss to understand the full force of what 
are apparently interesting dialect forms. In 
' The Deemster,' for example, there are such 
expressions as " five maze of fish " and " the 
mar-fire is rising." What is the meaning of 
maze and of mar-Jire, and what is their 
etymology? W. B. 

to know if there is existing a picture of the 
old Barbican watch tower, and shall be 
grateful for any help your readers may be 
able to render. The Gardner and Grace col- 
lections of prints have been examined. There 
is a good description of the watch house in 
Stow, but no illustration. In Knight's 'Lon- 
don ' there is a small drawing of the Barbican, 
showing a portion of the watch house, but I 
can find no authority for it. 


19, Northfield Road, Stoke Newington, N. 

" RUMPING." " Taking that kind of notice 
of the king's principal servants which at Court 
is called rumping" ('Memoirs,' by James, 
Earl Waldegrave, E.G., 1821, p. 62). Is this 
word still in use at Court ? J. J. F. 


lines addressed by Lord Herbert (Earl of 
Pembroke) "to his mistress on his friends' 
opinion of her," said to have been preserved 
in MS. and published by the Countess of 
Devonshire in 1660, begin as follows : 
0'iie with admiration told me 
He did wonder much and marvel 
(As by chance he did behold ye) 
How I could become so servile 
To thy Beauty, which he swears 
Every die-house lettice wears, &c. 
Was a maid of an alehouse generically called 
"Lettice," as a kitchen-maid, spoken of as 
one of a class, used sometimes to be called 
Bridget ; or is it implied merely that just as 
fair a beauty as the one addressed could be 
found behind the red lattice of every ale- 
house ? 

"Admiration" in the first line is evidently 
used in the old sense of "astonishment." This 
leads me to note that I recently observed a 
quotation wrongly placed in the 'H.E.D.' 
Under definition 1, subdivision d, of "ad- 
mire," where that word, in the sense of "to 
wonder," "to marvel," &c., is used with the 

infinitive in obsolete or dialect phrases, there 
is quoted from Miss Alcott's 'Little Women,' 
"I admire to do it." But the New England 
dialect use of "admire" in similar phrases is 
not at all expressive of wonder or astonish- 
ment, but of pleasure. Miss Alcott's character 
meant to say, " I delight to do it." 

There lingers, however, in New England, 
or did linger until recently, a colloquial use 
of the word expressive of astonishment. In 
former days I have often heard in country 
districts, following some surprising statement, 
the expression " I admire to know," equiva- 
lent to " I am amazed to hear it." 

M. C. L. 

New York. 

greatly obliged to any one who can give me 
the Christian name and surname of the chap- 
lain who accompanied William III. to Ireland 
in 1689, vouched for by reference to some 
absolutely authentic document. 


be obliged for particulars concerning the 
portraits of two Mrs. Cartwrights in the 
Dulwich Gallery who they were, and whence 
the portraits came. L. J. C. 

CALCRAFT FAMILY. Can any one give me 
the maiden name of the wife of John Cal- 
craft (the elder) 1 She is utterly ignored in 
Calcraf t's memoir in the ' D.N.B.' Her death 
is recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1794. THOS. U. SADLEIR. 

Trin. Coll., Dublin. 

dition has it that he was taken captive by 
the Dutch, and died as one of their prisoners" 
of war, circa 1660. I believe he belonged to 
the Lincolnshire Sandersons. Any particu- 
lars as to his parentage, marriage, death, 
descendants, or the regiment to which he 
belonged, would be most acceptable to me. 

Nightingale Lane, Wanstead. 

STIRLING. Can any of your readers put 
me in the way of obtaining authentic in- 
formation about this poet and statesman ? 
The points on which I specially wish to be 
enlightened are his connexion with the 
Argyll family and his travels in France, 
Spain, and Italy. It is of no use to refer me 
to Rogers's ' Memorials of the Earl of Stirling ' 
or to the 'D.N.B.,' for both are incorrect. 
In the 'Argyll Papers' it is said that he 
travelled with the Earl of Argyll, Gillespie 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s.vm. JULY 27,1901. 

Grumach, i.e., the eighth Earl and after 
wards first Marquess of Argyll. Roger 
quotes this passage, but by some extra 
ordinary blunder understands it as referring 
to the seventh earl, the father of the eighth 
earl. His error is carefully reproduced ii 
the 'D.N.B.' and in the ordinary works o 
reference that are in popular use. If one 
could discover the year or years occupied in 
foreign travel, some light might be cast upon 
the matter. It is surely possible to discover 
this much about such a prominent man a^ 
the Earl of Stirling was, and to ascertair 
definitely which Earl of Argyll trayellec 
under his tutelage. Of course, the origina 
statement in the 'Argyll Papers,' which is 
based on Wod row's compilations, may be 
incorrect. If, however, it be correct, there 
can be no doubt that a very gross blunder 
has been made in the above-mentioned at- 
tempts at a biography of the Earl of Stirling 
I hope that some of your readers will be able 
to assist me in this matter. 

Lerwick, N.B. 

SHAKESPEARE'S TIME. Can you inform me 
whether at the London theatres that is, "the 
Theatre," the Curtain at Shoreditch, the 
Globe on Bankside, and at the other house 
at Newington Butts or at any of the theatres 
in the time of Shakespeare and his partner 
Burbadge, pass-tickets or checks were issued ? 


PRINTING IN CHINA. Where is the earliest 
mention of the printing of books in China 
before the art was invented in or introduced 
into Europe to be found ? On p. Ill of " The 
.Interchangeable Covrse, or variety of things 
in the whole world ; and the Concvrrence of 
Armes and Learning, &c. : written in French 
by Loys le Roy called Regius : and Trans- 
lated into English by R. A. [i.e., Robert 
Ashley]. At London, 1594," it is stated : 

"The inuention thereof [the art of printing] is 
attributed to the Germaiues, and began at Mentz. 

. . .Notwithstanding the Portugues trancking about 
the farthest of the East and of the North, into 
China, & Catay, haue brought therehence bookes 
written in the language, and writing of that coun- 
tne : saying, that they have vsed it there a long 
time. Which hath made some to thinke that the 
muention therof was brought therhence thorough 
lartana, and Moscouia into Germany." 


RINGDOVES. There is at the present time 
within a few miles of me a ringdove which 
once belonged to myself. He is dove-coloured 
( isabelle"), with a black ring. To the best 
of my remembrance he was hatched in May 

1883, which makes him eighteen in May 
last. Is this a very unusual age for a 
dove? Have any of your readers known 
other instances of doves, ring or other, attain- 
ing this age 1 I often hear of him, and occa- 
sionally see him. He is quite well and " spry," 
notwithstanding his weight of years ; at least, 

I presume eighteen is a great age for a dove. 


judgment, which, as one truly saith,is gotten 
by four means : God, nature, diligence, and 
conversation" ('Discoveries'). Who said 

AGNES MUSGRAVE. Can any one say to 
what part of the country Agnes Musgrave 
belonged 1 She wrote at least five books : 
' Cicely ; or, the Rose of Raby,' ' The Solemn 
Injunction,' 'The Confession,' 'William de 
Montfort,' and ' Edmund Forrest.' Not one is 
dated from any particular place, nor is there 
any clue as to where she belonged in any of 
the authorities usually giving such details. 


logical account of the Lindsay family (see the 
' Peerage and Baronetage for 1900,' * Earl of 
Crawford ') Burke states that Sir William de 
Lindsay, who sat in Parliament in 1164 as 
Baron of Luffness, was the first " proprietor 
of Crawford "; and again, further on, that 
William de Lindsay, third Lord of Ercildun, 
" acquired the lordship of Crawford in Clydes- 
iale before 1200." I shall be glad to learn 
what is intended to be conveyed by these 
statements. Did the latter of these per- 
sonages acquire the lordship of Crawford 
.n the ordinary course of succession, by a 
fresh grant of the sovereign, or how 1 And 
what is the significance of the term "lord- 
ship " as used by Burke ? I find it stated in 
Sir Robert Douglas's * Peerage of Scotland ' 
revised by Wood) that a William de Lindsay 
uade a donation to the monastery of New- 
bottle of part of his lands of Crawford before 
1195, but it is carefully explained that those 
ands were held by the Lindsays merely as 
vassals of S wane, son of Thor, reputed ancestor 
)f the Ruthvens (vide pp. 372 and 658 of 
TQ\. i.); and as it is elsewhere mentioned that 
jir John de Crawford, last Baron of Crawford, 
iid not die till the year 1248, according to 
he Melrose ' Chronicle,' I conclude that Burke 
uses the term "lordship" strictly with refer- 
nce to proprietorship, though it appears in 

II old edition of the 'Peerage and Baronetage ' 
of 1866) as practically equivalent to "barony," 
nd by at least one other author (George 
lobertson) is so employed. Sir John Craw- 

9" s. viii. JULY 27, 1901.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


furd (son of Sir Reginald de (Jrawfurd of 
Loudoun, and ancestor of the Craufurds of 
Kilbirnie) is said by Burke to have " acquired 
part of the lordship and barony of Crawfurd." 
The explanation, I suppose, is that a major 
barony, such as the barony of Crawford 
apparently was, contained several lesser 
baronies, to any one of which the term 
"lordship" could with equal propriety be 
applied, though the holder of the entire- 
barony alone was actually a peer. A. B. 

The hearts of men, which fondly here admire 
Fair-seeming shows, may lift themselves up higher, 
And learn to love with zealous, humble duty 
The eternal fountain of that heavenly beauty. 
These lines are inscribed round the central hall of 
the rooms of the Royal Academy of Arts. 

R. B. B. 

[From the third stanza of Spenser's ' Hymne of 
Heavenly Beautie.'] 

Have communion with few, 

Be familiar with one, 
Deal justly with all, 
And speak evil of none. 

H. J. B. 
So nigh to glory is our dust, 

So near to God is man, 
When Duty whispers low, " Thou must," 
The man replies, " I can." 

He is oft the wisest man 
Who is not wise at all. 


(9 th S. vii. 486 ; viii. 22, 67.) 

I SHOULD have been content to let pass MR. 
PLATT'S search into the native languages of 
Brazil for the root of the word, making due 
note of it, but H. G. K. has started another 
derivation which requires reply. His claim 
of a Malay origin for the word may be best 
met by the following passage from Yule and 
Burnell's ' Anglo-Indian Glossary,' which lay 
ready levelled at it : 

"We have here, in fact, a remarkable instance 
of the coincidences which often justly perplex ety- 
mologists, or would perplex them if it were not so 
much their habit to seize on one solution and de- 
spise the others. Not only is tukanff in Malay ' an 
artificer,' but, as Willoughby tells us, the Spaniards 
called the real S. American toucan ' carpintero,' 
from the noise he makes. And yet there seems no 
room for doubt that Toucan is a Brazilian name for 
a Brazilian bird. See the quotations, and especially 
Thevet's, with its date." 

Here follows the quotation from The vet, 1558 : 

"Sur la coste de la marine, la plus frequente 

marchandise est le plumage d'un oyseau, qu'ils 

appellent en leur langue Toucan, lequel descrivons 

sommairement puis qu'il vient k propos Au reste 

cest oyseau est merveilleusement difforme et mon- 
strueux, ayant le bee plus gros et plus long quasi 
que le reste du corps." 

And it is also noted that Aldrovandi (1599) 
gives the word as " Toucham." I have not 
access to this naturalist's work, but it may 
be noteworthy that while Ambroise Pare in 
Littre's quotation calls the bird " Toucan," in 
the Latin edition by Jacques Guillemeau 
(1582) it becomes " avem Toucain dictam," 
and in Thos. Johnson's translation (1634) it 
"is called Touca." Probably "Toucam" 
came to be considered as the accusative 
case of "Touca." It may be worth while 
reproducing Johnson's translation of the 
passage from Pare : 

"Wee have read in Thevet's Cosmographie that 
hee saw a bird in America which in that countrie 
speech is called Touca, in this verie monstrous and 
deformed, for that the beak in length and thickness 
exceed's the bigness of the rest of the bodie." 

I may mention that the figure given in the 
Latin edition of Pare is very fair : the bird's 
foot is given correctly only two toes in front. 
It need scarcely be said that the hornbill has 
not the scansorial foot. I believe that the 
name toucan was given to this bird by the 
English in India from its enormous beak recall- 
ing pictures of the wonderful South Ameri- 
can bird, and that the error was maintained 
by certain British characteristics, of which 
the 'Anglo-Indian Glossary' contains many 
examples. It was when I first saw a hornbill, 
shot on the barrack hill at Calicut, and heard 
it called a toucan, that I became inspired 
with a few sparks of the zeal which impelled 
my lamented friend Arthur C. Burnell, then 
Assistant to the Collector of Malabar, to 
devote much of his literary work to the cor- 
rection of errors in Anglo-Indian natural 

1, Huskisson Street, Liverpool. 

Whether I misinterpreted MR. PLATT or 
made the less include the greater your 
readers will decide. I intended him no 
injustice, though he, in my opinion, was 
unjust to others. With the shortcomings, if 
any, of Littre and Prof. Whitney I am not 
concerned ; and what the facts may be to 
which MR. PLATT states that he is " the first 
writer to draw attention " are to me not clear. 
I only wished to draw attention to a fact 
which he had overlooked, and had no desire 
to provoke any controversy. 


viii. 60). MR. LUCAS says, quite correctly, 
that in my edition of * Lamb's Letters ' I 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. JULY 27, 1901. 

printed Lamb's letter to Manning of 15 Feb- 
ruary, 1802, in which he transcribes 'The 
Londoner,' with Talfourd's parenthesis to the 
effect that it was published some years after- 
wards in Leigh Hunt's Reflector; but in my 
note to this letter I was careful to add that 
in point of fact 'The Londoner 'was never 
published in the Reflector. It would seem to 
nave been sent to Leigh Hunt for republica- 
tion there after so many years, but to have 
been "crowded out." In his own collected 
edition of his works in 1818 Lamb includes 
'The Londoner,' and heads it "To the editor 
of the Reflector" which seems to have misled 
Talfourd as to its actual appearance there. 

SHAKESPEARE QUERIES (9 th S. vii. 388). In 
reply to the second of MR. REGINALD RAINES'S 
queries, the authority wanted is Camden, in 
the translation of whose ' History of Queen 
Elizabeth 'occurs the following (p. 365) : "His 
hearse [was] attended by poets, and mourn- 
ful elegies and poems with the pens that 
wrote them thrown into his tomb." In 
1894 I addressed successively letters of 
inquiry to the respective editors of 'N. &Q.,' 
the New York Critic, and the Book Buyer, 
asking if attempts had ever been made to 
recover any of these poems, I considering it 
possible that an autographic composition of 
Shakespeare might thus be brought to light. 
My query never appeared. 

New York. 

ST. CLEMENT DANES (9 th S. vii. 64, 173, 274, 
375 ; yiii. 17). There are one or two points 
in H.'s ^ interesting communication that are 
not quite clear. No one doubts that the 
terms "Dani" and "Daci" were often con- 
fused by mediaeval writers, but the exact 
bearing of the quotation given from ' Cham- 
bers's Encyclopaedia ' is not apparent. There 
seems to have been a settlement of some 
Germanic people in the Crimea, but whether 
they came from the shores of the Baltic has 
not been satisfactorily established. So far 
as can be judged from the list of words given 
by Busbecq, the language spoken by the 
Crimean envoys was of a High-German type, 
borne of the words, such as bruder, brother 
schwester, sister, alt, old, stern, star, tag day' 
&c., are identical with the German o'f the 
present day. Busbecq himself said he could 
not decide whether the men were Goths or 
Saxons ('The Life and Letters of Busbecq' 
1881. ed. Forster and Daniell, i. 355-9). Who- 
ever the "Goths" of the Crimea may have 
been, it seems pretty certain that they were 
not Scandinavians. At the same time, it is 

quite possible that by Western historians they 
may have been classed as " Daci," and thence 
confounded with "Dani." 

In the next place, we know of no church 
dedicated to St. Clement, except that in the 
Strand, which received the appellation of 
"Dacorum." While admitting that H. is 
probably correct in attributing a Scandinavian 
foundation to churches with this dedication, 
I think that the Strand church must have 
received its special designation from being 
the centre of a Danish colony. Foreigners 
usually congregated together in London : the 
Frenchmen in Petty France, the Welshmen 
in Petty Wales, the Scots in " Scotland," and 
the Hanseatic merchants at the Steelyard 
in Dowgate. Englishmen as a race are in- 
tolerant of aliens, and this practice pro- 
bably originated with the foreign element 
for the sake of mutual protection. But, 
as I have before remarked, I do not think 
this settlement took place until the Danes 
were in a position to visit England as 
peaceful traders. Finally, with regard to 
H.'s argument which he draws from the 
absence of the specifically Danish termination 
of -wich in any place-name in the Thames 
valley above London Bridge, I would point 
out that the village which lay between St. 
Clement's Church and St. Giles's was known 
as early as the time of Henry III. as " Alde- 
wich." This name was presumably given by 
the Danes to the ancient village in which 
they took up their quarters. It survived to 
the time of Charles II. under the name of 
Oldwich, and the second syllable is supposed 
by many topographers to be responsible for 
Wych Street. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

LATTIER" (9 th S. vii. 488). Liddell and 
Scott's ' Greek Lexicon ' gives " wpvyyes, a sort 
of pied horse." This meaning appears to meet 
the case. Hatzfeld and Darmesteter's new 
' French Dictionary ' gives neither orynges 
uorlattier. G. V/R. 

Sidcup, Kent. 

Probably M. Flaubert was thinking of the 
oryx, some kind of wild goat spoken of by 
Pliny, ' N. H.,' xi. 255, as (animal) " unicorne 
et bisulcum." It is referred to by Juvenal 
as a delicacy. ^ H. A. STRONG. 

University College, Liverpool. 

JOHN STOW'S PORTRAIT, 1603 (9 th S. vii. 401, 
513). I apprehend it is impossible, after the 
lapse of sixty years since Dr. Dalton sent 
the book with Stow's portrait to J. S. Nichols, 
to go behind the record on the lines sug- 
gested by COL, PRJDEAUX. As a matter of 

9*8. VIII. JULY 27, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


probability I do not think it likely, even if 
Dr. Dalton had confused the 'Chronicle' 
with the 'Survey,' that J. S. Nichols would 
not have discovered it and noted it in the 
papers which he put together on the subject, 
and which were all given in my former com- 
munication. We must always bear in mind 
that in the seventeenth century (and doubt- 
less later on) publishers often resorted to 
the expedient, for getting rid of a stock of 
remainders on their shelves, of printing a 
title-page with a fresh and later date, so as 
to give the fancied appearance of a new 
edition to the balance of copies, sometimes 
small, remaining as dead weight on their 
profits. This would make the issue of a 
particular year easily unknown to biblio- 
graphers like Lowndes, who after all is full 
of omissions and mistakes. Of course many 
of them are such as we are all prone to, even 
when we describe what we see. Thus, as 
regards Stow's monumental effigy, I may add 
that before I wrote my note as to his 
engraved portrait I went to see his effigy 
in St. Andrew's Undershaft Church, which 
I had found Nichols, Cunningham (in his 
' Handbook of London '), and Mr. Sidney Lee 
(in the ' D.N.B.') all describing as of " terra- 
cotta." But the monumental effigy really 
seems to be partly of marble, white and 
veined with red, and the bust and doublet of 
an alabaster-like marble. 


48, 154, 274 ; vi. 255, 417 ; vii. 95, 396). The 
local childish name for the ladybird given on 
the authority of John Clare by Miss Baker is 
" clock-a-clay," not " clock-a-day." I do not 
think this designation is very common now. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

In Norfolk the May-bird is called burnie- 
bee, by contraction from burnie-beetle or 
fiery-beetle. The following address to that 
insect is in the mouths of children there : 

Bless you, bless you, burnie-bee, 
Tell me where my true-love be ; 
Be she east, or be she west, 
Seek the path she loveth best ; 
Go and whisper in her ear 
That I ever think of her ; 
Tell her all I have to say 
Is about our wedding-day. 
Burnie-bee, no longer stay ; 
Take your wings and fly away. 
The Monthly Magazine or British Register, 
Part II. for 1814, p. 148. 


vii. 188, 276, 416). I am almost certain I 

remember seeing this word kybosh, as it 
occurred in a case reported from the police 
courts some few years ago, in which the 
kybosh was understood to have been a sort 
of knuckle-duster used by footpads to impart 
a knock-down blow from behind, and I think 
the word is widely known among the Hooligan 
criminal class to mean silencing a person by 
this means. As to its origin, the following, 
from the Jewish World of 10 May, ap- 
pears to have escaped the notice of corre- 
spondents : 

" What is kybpsh ? At a glance the word seems 
to suggest an Irish or Celtic origin. But no son of 
Erin, we make bold to say, would recognize it. 
That it is slang is indisputable. Surprising though 
it seem, the word is a compound, and is of pure 
Hebrew origin. Ky stands for chai, which means 
' the life of.' The second component is a corruption 
of has, which means ' a daughter.' The complete 
expression is used to denote the sum of eighteen- 
pence, the life of a girl in her father's house being 
supposed to terminate at eighteen. Kybosh is evi- 
dently a cockney corruption, and preserves the 
original meaning. The Hebrew term is used in 
announcing offerings when one is called to the 

From silencing a person by wheedling talk 
or "blarney," it is easy to understand its 
application to the quieting properties of a 
weapon like a knuckle-duster but the transi- 
tion from the meaning imputed to it by the 
above Hebrew etymology to the "blarney" 
sense is not so apparent. Then there is 
another unexplained form, as " The correct 
kibosh," meaning the proper form, manner, 
style, or fashion of something ; " the thing," 
e.g., " Full dress is the correct kibosh." 


The " ticket-of -leave man" is singing of 
his gaol comforts, and explains : 
Oh, dear, I can't help a-thinking 
They '11 knock our profession all to smash 
If they bring in the kybosh like winking 
That is, would introduce the lash. 


DEFENDER OF THE FAITH (1 st S. ii. 442, 481 ; 
iii. 9, 28, 94, 157 ; 9 th S. vii. 416). See also 
for this subject 5 th S. ii. 206, 254, 318, 435. 


WEST-COUNTRYMEN'S TAILS (9 th S. vii. 286, 
410). In Once a Week, 2 January, 1869, 
Third Series, No. 53, vol. ii. p. 553, ' Notes on 
Tails' is an article inspired by the then 
recent course of lectures of M. de Quatre- 
fages, delivered at the Museum of Natural 
History at Paris, on 'The Tail in Man 
and Animals.' I do not know if it 
would be this same savant who some 
time in the forties convulsed my mother by 
absent-mindedly handling the tail of his 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 27, iwi. 

coat in illustration of his reference to "la 
partie caudale." My father was fond of 
telling me of the jocular characterization by 
the soldiers of Napoleon's Egyptian expedi 
tion of the scientific experts attached 
thereto, and the donkeys they rode, as 
" savants" and " demi-savants." 


Hone, in 'The Every-Day Book,' refers to 
this subject, and quotes from 'The Golden 
Legend ' and Porter's ' Flowers ' the follow- 
ing : 

" St. Augustine coming [sic] to a certain town, 
inhabited by wicked people, who 'refused hys 
doctryne and prechyng uterly, and drof hym out 
of the towne, castyng on hym the tayles of Thorn- 
back, or lyke fysshes ; wherefore he besought 
Alrayghty God to shewe hys jugement on them ; 
and God sent to them a shamefull token ; for the 
chyldren that were born after in the place, had 
tayles, as it is sayd, tyll they had repented them. 
It is said comynly that this fyll at Strode in Kente ; 
but blyssed be Gode, at this daye is no such 
deformyte.'* It is said, however, that they were 
the natives of a village in Dorsetshire who were 
thus tail-pieced. "f 

B. B. 

ARBUTHNOTT (9 th S. yii. 368, 458). The 
spelling of this name is as uncertain as 
its pronunciation. The village where Dr. 
Arbuthnot was born in 1667 was then, as it 
is now, spelt "Arbuthnott," and that was the 
spelling used by all his ancestors (see ' Life 
and Works of Arbuthnot,' 1892, pp. 1-7, 171). 
Dr. Arbuthnot himself always used the 
spelling "Arbuthnott" in his letters, but, 
curiously enough, his name is always given 
as "Arbuthnot" on the title-pages of the 
books which he published. In the records 
of Marischal College, Aberdeen, the name 
is spelt "Arbuthnot," "Arbuthnott," and 
" Arbuthnet" indifferently. 


Music PUBLISHERS' SIGNS (9 th S. vii. 507). 
MR. MAcMlCHAEL should refer to Mr. Frank 
Kidson's recent work, published by subscrip- 
tion for the author by W. E. Hill & Sons in 
1900. It is called 

"British Musical Publishers, Printers, and 
Engravers : London, Provincial, Scottish, and Irish. 
From Queen Elizabeth's Reign to George the 
fourths, with select Bibliographical Lists of 
Perio<f" Panted and published within that 



276, 335 : vii 195, 338, 431).-There can be no 

rJoubt that having a good frontage has had 

much to do with the situation of modern 

* '"Golden Legend7"~ 
t "Porter's 'Flowers.'" 

churches, and that there are many built so as 
X) face the road, disregarding orientation. 
This is the case with the modern edifice of 
Trinity Church at Bedford, which is built 
north and south, but the graves lie east and 

The choir of the beautiful Abbey of 
Rievaulx, near Helmsley in Yorkshire, 
: ounded by Walter d'Espec in 1131, is built 
nearly from north to south, a position ren- 
dered necessary by the site, hemmed in by a 
steep bank on one side and by the little river 
Rye on the other. 

It, however, does not follow that in- 
terments are made in the usual manner 
in other correctly built churches, for Dean 
Stanley, on opening the vaults in Henry VII.'s 
Chapel at Westminster Abbey, found coffins 
placed in all sorts of positions, as the room 
was confined. IBAGUE at the last reference 
speaks of " the vault of the Earls of Beyerley " 
at Marylebone Church, but certainly a 
Countess of Beverley was buried in the Percy 
vault in St. Nicholas's Chapel in Westminster 
Abbey, for a plain monumental tablet com- 
memorates "Isabella Susannah, wife of 
Algernon Percy, Earl of Beverley, who died 
in 1812." The removal of monuments from 
their original position often renders the 
inscriptions upon them misleading. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

509). In December, 1883, the Daily Telegraph 
informed its readers that the house in Ports- 
mouth Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, "long 
popularly identified with ' The Old Curiosity 
Shop,' " was in danger of demolition. For 
some days afterwards the place was besieged 
by a crowd of eager sightseers, and many 
references to the subject appeared in the 
press. I have before me a notable article 
thereon from the JZcho of 31 December, 1883, 
which conclusively disposes of the legend 
that Dickens had this shop in his mind when 
he created " Little Nell." Introduced into 
the text of the article is the following letter, 
written to the editor by Mr. Charles Tessey- 
man : 

"My brother, who occupied No. 14, Portsmouth 
Street, between 1868 and 1877, the year of his decease, 
had the words ' The Old Curiosity Shop ' placed over 
the front for purely business purposes, as likely to 
attract custom to his shop, he being a dealer in 
books, paintings, old china, &c. Before 1868 that 
is before my brother had the words put up no 
suggestion had ever been made that the place was 
the veritable ' Old Curiosity Shop ' immortalized by 
Dickens. After my brother's death in 1877 the 
present tenant had my brother's name painted out, 
but left standing the words * The Old Curiosity 

9- s. via JOLT 27, HOI.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Shop,' doubtless with a shrewd idea to business. 
An American writer visiting the old house, I think 
in 1881, and seeing the inscription, had his imagina- 
tion fired with thoughts of Little Nell and Kit and 
Dick Swiveller and Quilp, and straightway wrote 
an article f or Scribner's Monthly, in which he assured 
his readers that this was the old original ' Old 
Curiosity Shop' of Dickens. These are the only 
foundations for the statement the Daily Telegraph 

This letter will afford the best answer to 
MR. ANDREW OLIVER'S question. The exact 
site of "The Old Curiosity Shop" was left 
by Dickens in " the great world of uncer- 
tainty." Even Kit himself forgot the posi- 
tion of his old master's house when he grew 
up to manhood, for we read that he some- 
times took his children to the street where 
Nell had lived, 

*' but new improvements had altered it so much it 
was not like the same. The old house had long ago 
been pulled down, and a fine broad road was in its 
place. At first he would draw with his stick a 
square upon the ground where it used to stand. 
But he soon became uncertain of the spot, and 
could only say it was thereabouts, he thought, and 
that these alterations were confusing." 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

MOTTO ON SUNDIAL (9 th S. vii. 467). It is 
hazardous to make a suggestion here without 
seeing the dial, so the following is offered 
with diffidence ; but it seems not improbable 
that the writer of the epigraph had in mind 
the Vulgate version of St. Matt. xxiv. 36 and 

41 : "De die autem ilia, et hora nemo scit 

Nescitis qua hora Dominus vester venturus 
sit." The pith of these two sayings might 
be expressed in the brief sentence applicable 
to the purpose NESCIENT AVTEM HORAM 
ILLAM (" But they shall not know that hour)." 
The penultimate "et," however, is a difficulty. 
MR. BUBB is doubtful about the last word. 
May it be diem ? CECIL DEEDES. 


AUTHORS WANTED (9 th s - vii - 388). Quo- 
tation No. 4 is from Wordsworth, 'To my 
Sister,' v. 2 : 

There is a blessing in the air, 
Which seems a sense of joy to yield 
To the bare trees and mountains bare, 
And grass in the green field. 

The first line of the poem is 

It is the first mild day of March. 


PEWS ANNEXED TO HOUSES (9 th S. vii. 388, 
517). I live in the house named by your 
correspondent MR. T. J. JEAKES, but it has 
not a pew annexed to it, it has not a river- 

side lawn nor a Napoleon willow, nor has it 
ever been occupied by one of the Rutter 
family. My friend and neighbour Mr. Edward 
Rutter has a riverside garden, but he has not 
a pew annexed to his house, and I never heard 
that he had a Napoleon willow. On the other 
hand, Shepperton has a faculty pew forming 
a gallery to itself, and approached by a 
separate staircase, but it has not a Napoleon 
willow. I shall be greatly obliged if MR. 
JEAKES will let me know in which of the 
three houses his grandfather lived. 


Halliford House, Shepperton. 

222, 332, 390). About forty years ago I lived 
at Alfreton, Derbyshire, and knew very well 
a youth, the son of a baker from whom my 
mother bought bread. Like my own family, 
he came from Nottinghamshire, so I had a 
special interest in him. For a long time the 
youth was ill ; the local doctors were not 
able to do him any good, and it was felt his 
life was doomed. One Friday he was seen 
by a quack doctor such men were not 
uncommon in my boyhood in the market- 
place of Alfreton. After looking at the 
youth the quack pronounced that he was 
troubled with worms, and gave him a mixture 
which made him sick ; and, to the surprise of 
the quack and the members of the youth's 
family, he vomited a live frog ! I cannot 
enter into any discussion as to the truth of 
this statement, but the circumstance was 
generally believed in the district at the 
time. I merely record the particulars as 
then related. One fact I can truthfully 
state, that the youth was restored to health 
and strength. WILLIAM ANDREWS. 

Royal Institution, Hull. 

On 10 February, 1854, Mr. Kinahan read 
before the Dublin Natural History Society a 
paper ' On the Reproduction and Distribution 
of the Smooth Newt, and a Notice of the 
Popular Superstitions relating to It.' It was 
printed in the Zoologist at the time (Series I. 
vol. xii. p. 4355), and the portion which deals 
with superstition was reprinted by me in 
Folk-Lore (June, 1899, p. 251). From this it 
appears that persons who go to sleep with 
their mouths open in the fields, or drink of 
the streams in which these creatures live, 
frequently suffer from their going down their 
throats and making a permanent residence 
of the interior. Cattle, too, are subject to a 
similar infliction. When they have made a 
lodgment there is, however, an infallible 
means of getting rid of them. The sufferer 
must abstain from every sort of drink for 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 27, 1001. 

four-and-twenty hours, and eat only salt 
meat. Then, being very thirsty, he must he 
with his mouth open over a running stream. 
If it be a noisy brook so much the better ; the 
newts, too, will have become very thirsty, 
" and hearing the music of the water, cannot 
resist the temptation, but come forth to 
drink," and then the human sufferer will be 
careful not to let them get back again. 


The following is from the StocJcport Adver- 
tiser for 1846, though I have no means of 
ascertaining the exact date : 

" On the 7th inst. Joseph Bailey, a youth about 
sixteen years of age, son of Henry Bailey, of Shadow 
Moss, in Northern Etchells, vomited a living reptile 
of the lizard tribe, the body of which was seven 
inches long. It was the consequence of drinking at 
a brook in a field in which he was at work as a 
plough -driver about eighteen months ago. He was 
aware at the time that whilst hastily drinking he 
swallowed some object which made him sick, but 
had no idea that it was anything like what it has 
ultimately proved to be. From that time his health 
has gradually retrograded, and he has been subject 
to fits of vomiting almost constantly, and growing 
worse and worse. About two months ago he 
became unable to follow his employment, and was 
compelled to quit service and return home. He 
rapidly got worse, upon which his parents called in 
two surgeons from Wilmslow. While taking the 
prescribed medicines he appeared daily to get 
weaker, his sickness increasing, and at this time he 
was scarcely able to walk across the room. Upon 
being seized with a fit of vomiting, he threw up 
three times successively a thick, glutinous matter, 
and at the fourth time of his straining the reptile 
made its appearance in his mouth, making a des- 
perate attempt to return down the throat, but 
applying his finger he laid hold of it and threw it 
on the floor, and it then ran into the grid-hole. In 
the hurry of the moment his sister so much crushed 
and mangled it that further inspection was almost 
impossible. Since this he has gradually recovered, 
and there appears no doubt of his ultimate restora- 
tion to health." 



Calderwood, in his * Historic of the Kirk of 
Scotland,' under date 1612, has the following: 

" In the moneth of Marche and Aprile fell furth 

prodigious works and rare accidents One of the 

Erie of Argyle's servants being sicke, vomited two 
toades and a serpent, and so convalesced ; but 
vomited after a number of litle toades." 


A most extraordinary work, which does not 
appear to have met tne observation of your 
correspondents upon this subject, is 

" A Natural and Medicinal History of Worms 
Bred in the Bodies of Men and other Animals ; 
Taken from the Authorities, and Observations of all 
Authors who have Treated thereof, from Hippo- 
crates to this Time; Together with an Enquiry 

into the Original of Worms and the Remedies 
which destroy them, with a particular Formula of 
Medecines adapted to the Use of Families and 
Illustrated with several Copper Cuts. Done from 
the Latin of D* n Le Clerc, M.D. By Joseph Browne, 
L.L. M.D. Compiler of," Ac. London, 1721. 
This book is most exhaustive and frankly 

A fascinating biography published this 
year in Paris, 4 Fouche, 1759-1820,' by Louis 
Madelin, has the following allusion at p. 105 : 

"Apres une diatribe furieuse centre les riches, 
' reste de limon deja vomi par la Republique,' il 
arrete que tous les riches proprietaires ou fermiers 
ayant des bles demeurent personnellement respon- 
sables du defaut d'approvisionnement du marcheV' 

The phrase above quoted by M. Madelin 
seems to imply the existence of a phrase in 
French " to vomit a slug "meaning to un- 
willingly divest oneself of a cherished but 
pernicious possession. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

[Limon surely means " slime."] 

387, 495 ; viii. 50). H. B., in his letter under 
this head, quotes several authorities since the 
days of Pugin who use "crosier" in the sense 
of 'cross, these authorities most of them 
following one another, and none of them 
giving any authority before Pugin. I think 
you may consider it worth while to repro- 
duce a letter which I wrote to the Guardian 
eleven years ago, and in which I gathered 
together all the authorities that I could dis- 
cover. They do not at all uphold H. B.'s 
opinion, and do greatly strengthen the con- 
trary opinion. There may be other autho- 
rities ; and if H. B. will find them, and answer 
Mr. J. T. Fowler's letter which follows mine 
in the Guardian, it will be very interesting. 
Also if he will explain how Du Cange comes 
to distinguish crocifer from crucifer. 

[We reproduce the letter, omitting only a few 
introductory words.] 

Crook is no doubt a different word from crosier, 
though they are probably referable to the same 
root. All crooks are not crosiers, but the thing 
called a crosier is a crook for all that. Nor is this 
confuted by a mere statement that ' a crosier is a 
cross mounted on a staff' any more than it would 
be proved by my unsupported denial of that state- 
ment. The question is purely historical, and I pro- 
pose to show that till the days of Pugin, crosier, 
either in the ancient or modern form of the word, 
was the accepted term for a pastoral staff. I am 
old enough to remember the prae-Pugin days, and I 
am sure that then the words mitre and crosier 
would have conveyed to most men's minds the idea 
of the bishop's distinctive head-gear and pastoral 

Then Pugin, writing in 1844, alleged in print 

g* s . viii. JULY 27, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


what he, misled by the identity of the first four 
letters, had no doubt often stated before, that a 
crosier was an archiepiscopal cross, and many good 
men accepted his authority without question. 
Hook, in his 'Church Dictionary,' Webb writing 
in 1848,* Parker (1850) and Shipley (1872), t Mrs. 
Jamieson (1850), Boutell (1864), Smith and Cheet- 
ham (1880), and Lee (1889), all use crosier for an 
archbishop's cross, giving no authority for such 
use. Rock, writing in 1849, never, I think, uses 
the word, certainly not in his chapter on crosses. 

F. G. L., indeed, writing in your paper, says that 
croyser was anciently used for a cross, but he 
produces no evidence at all of this, giving only an 
instance of Caxton's use of the word to signify quite 
another thing viz., a cross-bearer, Lat. crocer. 
See Du Cange, s.v. Gambucarius, and 'Piers Plow- 
man,' yi. 13. 

A bishop's staff of office is no doubt fully and 
properly described by the phrase pastoral staff 
(baculus pastoralis and episcopates, also virga pastor- 
oft*), but it had also other names /erw/a, pedum, 
capuita, cambuca, or cambuta, and their variants ; 
and yet another name, which Pugin himself quotes, 
and which might have led him to doubt the correct- 
ness of his views. That name is crocia, which 
Du Cange renders by pedum, baculits pastoralis, 
baculus episcopates, and which may very well have 
helped the corruption of croce or croos, the older 
English name for the pastoral staff, into crosier. 
Crossa is a variant of it, and marks the immediate 
derivation from the French crosse. This, as we 
can see in Cotgrave, as well as in every modern 
French dictionary, means a staff crooked at the 
head. Thus Cotgrave (1611) has " Crosse : a crosier, 
or Bishop's staffe also the crooked staffe where- 
with boyes play at cricket. Evesque d'or crosse de 
bois, crosse d'or Evesque de bois " ; and Spiers 
(1850), " Crosse (of Bishops) : crosier." Your readers 
do not need to be told that croix, and not crosse, is 
the French for cross. 

Du Cange interprets crossa, above mentioned, as 
"Lituus Pontificalia, Pedum, Baculus pastoralis," 
and crossare as "baculo recurvo pileum propellere" 
i.e., to play cricket or hockey or golf with the 
curved stick then used. 

Crucia, a variant of crocia, points to crux, and 
to an original kinship between croix and crosse, 
between cross and crosier; and croca ("baculus 
incurvus" D.) with its variant croca ("Gallice 
crosse," D.) brings crook into the same family ; but 
they are only distant relations. 

uroceus also and crossulus are both rendered by 
Du Cange, " Fulcrum subalare in modum crucis 
superne effictum "; but the former is glossed " vulgo 
potence," the latter " vulgo crosse." 

Thus the cross, crook, and crosier are all crooked 
in the head, all akin, but not to be identified one 
with the other. Croos (pronounced cros : it is spelt 
croce in 1380) came unquestionably not from the 
French croix, but from the French crosse, and was 
perhaps varied into crosier by assimilation to the 
Latin crocia. 

The distinction between cross and crosier (or 
croos) is clearly shown in Du Cange's rendering of 

* This was in his early years. Mr. Webb was 
'probably better informed afterwards, as I have 
letters from him about archiepiscopal crosses, and 
in them he certainly does not use the word crosier. 

t Parker and Shipley use the word for a pastoral 
staff as well as for a cross, 

crucifer and crocifer. Crucifer is " Qui crucem ante 
Papam," but crocifer is " Qui pedum seu crociam 
ante episcopum vel abbatem defert." 

Also in the ' Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Man- 
hode ' (c. 1430), Book I. ch. xcv., " He was tormented 
for sinneres, and on the crosse doon," answering to 
the French version of about the same date, en la 
croix mis ; and Book III. ch. vi., " Of bishopes croos 
he made his howwe [hoe] and his pikoyse. Pikoise 
was the sharpe ende, and howwe the krookede ende," 
corresponding to " Ola croce dun evesque dont il 
faisoit beche et houueste ; beche en estoit le bout 
aigu, et houueste le bout crossu " [houel (= mattock) 
and crochu, in the original poem, c. 1330]. 

I add a few instances of the use of the word and 
its like in the last five centuries : 

1380. ' Piers Plowman.'" Dobest bere sholde the 
Bisshopes croce, and halye with the croked ende 
ille men to goode." 

1440. ' Promptorium Parvulorum.' " Croce of a 
bysshope : Pedum." 

1460. Capgrave, 'Chronicle.' "Came prelatis with 
here crosses and erases." 

1525. Tyndale. " That shepherds hook the 
bishops croce." 

1563. Bp. Pilkington." Because they have not 
the cruche and mitre as the old Bisshops had." 

1576. Lambarde, ' Perambulation,' 223. "Not for 
the crosse (for that is the Archbishop's warre), but 
for the crosier of the Bishop of Rochester." 

1593. ' Rites of Durham.' " A crosier or pastorall 
staffe in his lefte hande." 

1660. Roger Coke, 'Elements.' "Bishopricks 

were originally donative per traditionem baculi 

(viz., the crosier) et annuli." 

1704. Cocker calls both the archbishop's and the 
bishop's pastoral staff crosier, and so also in 1819 
does Rees (' Cyclopaedia'). 

1789. Minute Book Soc. Antiq. " Holding his 
Pontifical cross in his left hand, the crosier only 
being appropriate to Bishops and Abbots." 

1854. Ecclesiologist. "A crosier for the Bishop of 

So that I find but one instance in all that time 
(from 1380 to 1819), and that one not from the pen 
of an expert, of the use of the word crosier to denote 
a cross ; and therefore, until some proof is adduced 
to the contrary, I must maintain that the only 
proper meaning of the word is a pastoral staff, and 
that when it has been otherwise employed it has 
been through lack of examination and consideration. 


Aldenham, October 21, 1890. 

P.S. F. G. L. has been misinformed as to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury's cross. I saw it at 
Truro, and remember well that it was a well-pro- 
portioned cross, having no crook nor any indication 
3f one. Fearing that my memory might be in fault, 
I wrote to his Grace's chaplain to inquire, and he 
ully confirms what I say. 

Sm, Will Dr. F. G. Lee either (1) produce any 
one quotation earlier than 1840 in which an arch- 
bishop's cross is called a "crosier," or (2) admit that 
tie is advocating a modern nomenclature solely on 
its own merits ? J. T. FOWLER. 

Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

May I add a postscript to my long letter 
on this subject? It is called for by MR. 
PAGE'S acceptance of J)r. F. G- Lee's mistake. 


NOTES- AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. JULY 27, 1901. 

about the archbishop's cross. I have before 
me two excellent photographs of the cross, 
made just before it was presented to the 
archbishop. There is no semblance of a 
crook in any part of it. 

Mr. Lee must have seen some design 
(happily rejected and forgotten) for some 
other cross. If it was ever carried out in 
metal it should be easy to say where it is. 
It is certainly not at Lambeth. 


St. Dunstan's. 

UGO FOSCOLO IN LONDON (9 th S. vi. 326; 
vii. 150, 318, 476). There are no doubt many 
false accounts of human bodies after long 
periods of burial being found in a state well- 
nigh perfect. There have, however, been 
instances which do not seem to admit of 
doubt. One such is chronicled in your pages 
(' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. ii. 219), where it is stated 
that when the body of Dr. John Milner, the 
Roman Catholic bishop, was discovered at 
Wolverhampton after forty-eight years' inter- 
ment, it was so little altered that many of 
the old inhabitants who had known him in 
life recognized the features. K. P. D. E. 

THE HALBERTS (9 th S. vi. 181 ; vii. 473 ; 
viii. 46). What I described I certainly saw 
with my own eyes, and I made inquiries at 
the time as to rods and thorns. I noted the 
result down then, and it was from these 
notes, and not from mere recollection, that 
I sent my communication to ' N. & Q.' To 
have been absolutely correct I should have 
said, " Saw once and heard often " ; for one 
does not care to watch such a performance 
twice. But it should be remembered that 
this was in time of war that the men were 
caught and forced to serve as soldiers, very 
often against their own religious and political 
convictions (there is always a clerical and 
anti-clerical side to politics in these countries), 
and severity is necessary to keep troops in 
the field on the side which first captures 
them. Doubtless in the small standing army, 
and in time of peace, such punishments are 
not customary perhaps unknown. As to 
this I cannot speak, but only of what I saw 
and heard. 

But I have no reason to suppose things are 
different in war time now, for during the pre- 
sent bloody revolution in Colombo (now, I hope, 
drawing to a close, if not actually ended, but 
which has been raging since last October 
year, more than 25,000 men having been 
killed, the country devastated, and all 
industry and business at a standstill) a good 
deal of barbarity has undoubtedly gone on, 
as all those connected with the country know 

very well. Only three weeks ago, discussing 
news brought by that mail of what was 
actually taking place, a Colombian of known 
integrity told me of occurrences which he 
justly described as "tortures purely medi- 
aeval." But the Colombians are a brave 
nation born fighters ; and if I have men- 
tioned circumstances not to their credit, let 
me record what I also saw at the battle of 
Garapalta (1876). 

This fight lasted all day. Twelve thousand 
men were engaged ; 2,000 of them were killed 
and wounded before night. I saw it from the 
Alto de San Juan, in company with three 
other British subjects. One side was strongly 
entrenched behind bamboo stockades, the 
front of these being swept from either end by 
a mitrailleuse and a Gatling gun. Both 
parties were armed with breech-loading and 
repeating rifles. The battalion " Popa " 
attempted to take these trenches. When 
they attacked they were 500 strong; they 
retired at last not in confusion, but in per- 
fect order stopping and firing as they went, 
having finally only thirty men left. One 
officer actually reached the trenches, sprang 
on them, and planted within the colour he 
carried. General Camargo himself had two 
horses shot under him that day. These men 
are the bravest of the brave ; out there were 
no ambulances nor arrangements of that kind 
for the wounded. 

It is useless to judge other nations by our 
standards, or war, as we hear of it through 
press censorship, by what it is in reality in 
a more or less primitive country at all events. 
This particular revolution (1876) was osten- 
sibly about the question of religion in the 
schools. We settle these matters differently. 
But in Colombia they have no football, 
cricket, nor golf ; war is their game, and they 
play it pretty roughly and thoroughly. 


JAMES II. (9 th S. viii. 45). James II. died 
in the palace at St. Germain-en-Laye, which 
was lent to him by Louis XIV., and where he 
spent his twelve years of exile. On his 
deathbed he desired to be simply interred in 
the parish church of St. Germain, opposite 
the palace, but in his will were found direc- 
tions for burying him with his ancestors in 
Westminster Abbey. Consequently, Marie 
Beatrice, his queen, decided that his body 
should remain unburied until the restoration 
of their son which she firmly believed would 
come to pass and she had it placed in one 
of the chapels of the church of the Bene- 
dictines in the Faubourg St. Jacques, Paris, 
where it remained for a hundred and twelve 

9* s. vm. JULY 27, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


During the Revolution the church was 
desecrated and the coffin opened, when the 
corpse was found in an extraordinary state 
of preservation ; and, by order, it is said, of 
Robespierre, it was carefully preserved. 

When the allies came to Paris in 1813 the 
body still remained above ground, and 
the Regent ordered it to be carried in funeral 
procession to St. Germain and interred in 
the church, where most of the English in 
Paris attended in the deepest mourning ; and 
afterwards he had a white marble monument 
placed there to the memory of King James. 


For a detailed account of the disposal of 
the king's remains, see 1 st S. ii. 243, 281, 427 ; 
iv. 498. See also Times of 8 and 26 January, 
1887, and ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' 



Your correspondent should consult Petti- 
grew's * Collection of Epitaphs,' 1857 (Bohn), 
in which appear quotations from *N. & Q.' 
and ' Collect. Top. et Gen.' 



(9 th S. vii. 206, 273, 359, 417, 492). MR. T. P. 
ARMSTRONG, in reply to the above query, 
quotes from Hunter's 'Guide to Perthshire' 

"there are charters extant more than a century 
older than 1210 [that is, earlier than 1110] which 
describe streets and tenements which make it 
almost certain that Perth stood then where it 
stands to-day." 

I am afraid that Hunter magnifies the anti- 
quity of his charters, as there are but few 
Scottish charters extant older than the reign 
of David I. (1124-53). 


Will MR. T. P. ARMSTRONG tell me where I 
can see 

" charters extant more than a century older than 
1210 which describe streets and tenements which 
make it almost certain that Perth stood then where 
it stands to-day " ? 

Before 1110 is very early for Scottish writings. 

G. S. C. S. 

CORNISH PLACE-NAMES (9 th S. vii. 488). 
Bolitho (pronounced with stress upon the i) 
is the name of a hamlet in Crowan parish, 
also used as a surname. According to Pol- 
whele ('Cornish-English Vocabulary,' 1808) 
it means " the great belly," from the words 
bol, belly, and itho t great. Perhaps some one 
better acquainted than I am with Cornish 
will explain the second elements in the names 

Bosanko and Bosistow. The prefix I take to 
be the familiar bos, dwelling, which is almost 
as common in Cornwall as tre, pol, or pen. 
It is sometimes contracted to bo, as in the 
name Bonython, "the furzy dwelling," from 
bo, dwelling ; an, the ; ithen, furze. 


Though unable to translate the names cited 
by YGREC, I can say that the prefix bo- or 
bos- signifies an abode (Welsh bod). The 
affix -o, -oe, -a is the common plural termina- 
tion (Welsh -au). Bo- and bos- are followed 
by common nouns, while tre- nearly always 
precedes a personal name. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

The Rev. John Bannister, in his * Glossary 
of Cornish Names,' gives the following deri- 
vations and meanings : 

"Bolitho, ? great (itho), or most distant (eithaw, 
W.) hill (bol), or pit or pool (pol), or i.q. Boleit or 
Beloitha, the dairy or milk (lait) cottage (bod) ; 
the place of slaughter (ladh) ; ? house of the clan 

" Vingoe (family name), wine taster ; wine (gwin) 
man (gwr)." 

"Bosanko, house (bos) of death (ancow)." 

*' Bosistow, Bossustow, ? the advocate's (sistwr, 
W.) house ; or i.q. Bosustick, the house of Usteg (a 
Welsh saint)." 



viii. 43). There is a long and, I believe, 
fairly complete list of the prisoners taken at 
the storming of Lincoln on 2 May, 1644, in 
a rare relation by William Goode, an old 
Puritan who was in Cromwell's camp before 
Lincoln, entitled 

"A Particular Relation of the severall Removes, 
Services, and Successes of the Right Honorable 
the Earle of Manchester's Army (drawn forth of 
the Associated Counties of Norfolke, Suffolke, 
Essex, Cambridge, &c.) since he went from Bedford, 
April 20, to the com pleating of the great Victory at 
Lincolne, May the 6th, 1644. Sent by William 
Goode from the Earles Quarters at Lincolne to Mr. 
Simeon Ash (of the Assembly of Divines), both 
Chapleines to the said Noble Earle. Published to 
draw forth thankfulnesse to the Lord of Hoasts 
from all, chiefly those who have prayed for that 
Armies good successe. Allowed of by Authoritie, 
and entered according to Order. London, Printed 
for Thomas Underbill, at the Bible in Woodstreet, 

Four leaves. There is not, I believe, a copy 
of this important tract in the British Museum, 
nor is there one in the extensive collection 
of Lincolnshire literature in the Lincoln 
Public Library, but I understand that Mr. 
Ernest L. Grange, M.A., LL.M., a former 
editor of Lincolnshire Notes and Queries and 



VIII. JULY 27, 1901. 

the compiler of a useful 'List of Civil War 
Tracts relating to the County of Lincoln, is 
the fortunate possessor of a copy. 

The under-mentioned tract may also be or 
assistance to MR. CARTER : 

"A True Relation of the Taking of the City, 
Minster, and Castle of Lincoln, with all their 
Ordnance, Ammunition, and Horse, by the karl ot 
Manchester and Col. Cromwell, with a List of the 
Commanders, and the number of Common bouldiers, 
that was there taken. 1644." 
Four leaves. A. R. CORNS. 

City Library, Lincoln. 

A LADLE (9 th S. vii. 467). Wooden boxes 
attached to long fishing-rod sticks, used for 
the purpose of collecting the alms of the 
faithful, are by no means so obsolete as 
W. S. may assume. They are common enough 
in Italy, as well as upon this island. During 
the past month, for instance, I have attended 
services for several successive Sundays at 
Carrara Cathedral. There these wooden 
boxes are attached to sticks, each fully eight 
feet long, and during the service lay col- 
lectors, arrayed in somewhat dilapidated 
scarlet cassocks, pass them over the heads 
of worshippers, shaking the boxes the while 
in the faces of likely givers, just as decrepit 
blind men in the streets are apt to rattle 
halfpence in tin boxes in the ears of chance 
passers-by. Ffty years ago some of us were 
wont to sing 

Old John Wesley had a coat 

All buttoned down before. 

These servers, however, do not button their 
cassocks in front, but wear them quite loose 
dressing-gown fashion with just a fastened 
band around the waist. This has an untidy 
look about it. H. HEMS. 

Bastia, Corsica. 

I saw the method of collecting the offertory 
in a wooden ladle employed in the church at 
Gairnshiel, near Ballater, Deeside, in 1898. 

C. C. ELEY. 

Last time I was at a service in St. John's 
(Episcopal Church), Edinburgh, about a yeai 
ago. the collection was taken up in a ladle 
said ladle being in this case a bag with a 
circular mouth at the end of a long stick 
rather the kind of thing with which one 
might clean out an aquarium. But I have 
seen the wooden box W. S. describes quite 
lately in the Church of Scotland. Perhap 
it is worth noting that in this Church tru 
congregation when not paying as they g< 
in sit in solemn silence during that time 
instead of trying to sing hymns. This paus 
after the sermon is effective and striking 
to a stranger. IBAGUE. 

--CUSTICE" (9 th S. viii. 16).-I have never 
een one of these instruments of torture, but 
well remember a person describing it as 
naving been in use at a school in this county 
ome forty years ago. I understood it to be 
much more elaborate than " a flat black ruler.' 
My informant (who had felt its infliction) 
aid it was about a foot long and ot the 
jonsistency of an ordinary ruler. At one 
jnd it finished off with a flat disc about the 
ize of a child's hand. This disc had a round 
icle in the centre, covered on the upper side 
with a hard leather flap. To administer 
punishment the open palm was struck 
,martly with the instrument, which caused 
an unpleasant pinch in the centre of the 
hand. A Cornish man has since told me that 
;he custice was quite a familiar object to him 
n the school in which he received his ele- 
mentary education. JOHN T. PAGE. 
West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

From the glossary annexed to the 'Dia- 
logue in the Devonshire Dialect' (see 8 th S. 
viii. 369, 431) I extract the following : 

" Custick or Custis, s. The schoolmaster's ferule. 
Perhaps from Kussen, Dutch, a pad : that is, 
metonymically, the cushion of the hand ; or corrup- 
tion of ' Cut, stick ! ' i. e., ' Stick, do your duty.' " 

Self-respect impels me to add that I regard 
the foregoing derivations merely as curiosities 
of etymology. GUALTERULUS. 

vii. 487). If little is known of the taverns 
named, it is that probably from the point of 
view of the local historian they are not worth 
knowing, except in so far as some of them, 
like the neighbouring "Noah's Ark," the 
"Hare and Hounds," the "Witch's Head," 
the " Black Horse " in Dyott Street, &c., tes- 
tified to the degraded social life of the quarter 
and the time in which they first flourished. 
But a further reason for the absence of note- 
worthy associations, either historical or lite- 
rary, would be that the neighbourhood was 
studded with the rival attractions of the 
coffee-houses at the time when this quarter 
of London was inhabited by people of fashion 
and distinction. But by 1740 to 1760 fashion, 
if not distinction, had begun to migrate 
Berkeley Square way and Hyde Park- wards. 
The *' Carlisle Arms " is no doubt a relic of 
this period, since the neighbouring Carlisle 
House, belonging to the Earls of Carlisle, one 
of whom was living there as late as 1756, was 
on the east side of Soho Square at the corner 
of Sutton Street, and afterwards D'Almaine's 
music shop. The raison d'etre of such a sign 
is further suggested by the fact that Carlisle 
House was where the notorious Mrs. Cornelys, 

9* s. vm. JULY 27, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


from 1763 to 1772, gave a series of balls, con- 
certs, and masquerades, " unparalleled in the 
annals of public fashion." The " Angel, still 
standing next to St. Giles's Church, can, per- 
haps, claim some greater respectability in 
point of antiquity. Of this inn there is a 
chalk drawing in the Grace Collection, port- 
folio xxviii. 99 (B.Mus. Print Department). 



Magic and Religion. By Andrew Lang. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

IN producing a book which is in part a continuation 
of such earlier works as ' Myth, Ritual, and Reli- 
gion ' and ' Custom and Myth,' and in part a con- 
futation of the views of recent exponents of 
Simitive culture such as Mr. Tylor and Mr. Frazer, 
r. Lang displays equal courage, energy, and 
erudition. His investigations extend over almost 
the entire field covered by Mr. Frazer, and at 
every point he confronts his adversary armed and 
prepared to do battle. The strife is between 
heroes, and those less admirably equipped than 
the antagonists will do well to keep out of the fray. 
We are ourselves unable to decide when " doctors 
disagree," and can but indicate some aspects of the 
matters in dispute. In common with all scholars, 
Mr. Lang was struck with the remarkable amount 
of erudition Mr. Frazer displayed in the first 
edition of ' The Golden Bough,' in which, treading 
in the footsteps of Mannhardt, Robertson Smith, 
Mr. Tylor, and others, he set himself the 
task of explaining some of the most interesting 
problems of primitive worship. In the second 
edition of that remarkable book Mr. Frazer went 
further than Mr. Lang can follow him. That 
dissent from many of the conclusions of 'The 
Golden Bough ' had been previously felt is certain. 
The appearance of the second edition has provoked 
a reply or replies, in which, while expressing his 
admiration for Mr. Frazer's industry, zeal, and 
knowledge, Mr. Lang challenges his conclusions at 
all points. What is most strongly opposed is the 
connexion between the Sacaean festival (in which, 
after a period of saturnalia, a mock-king was 
deposed, flogged, and executed), the Jewish feast 
of Purim with the death of Hainan, and the 
tragedy of Calvary. Of the various hypotheses 
shaped and put learnedly forward by Mr. Frazer 
none is warranted by the evidence as Mr. Lang 
boldly enunciates, " No, not one." In limine 
Mr. Lang disputes that there is conclusive evi- 
dence that " magic is older than religion ; that 
general belief [as distinguished from local legend] 
in any age regards gods as mortal"; that a 
man "has ever been sacrificed for the benefit of 
a god whom he incarnates " ; that a real king, at 
Babylon or elsewhere, was sacrificed annually to 
benefit a god. " The idea is incredible " that the 
date of the death of the Sacsean mock-king can be 
made to tit in with Purim or Easter. These and 
other points are strongly combated by Mr. Lang. 
In the instance of the last no more remains to be 
said. In the few words which Atheneeus, Book XIV. 
c. xliv., cites from the 'History of Babylon' of 

Berosus, there is no mention of the death of the 
mock* king. We quote the words themselves in 
WLr. Yonge's translation of the ' Deipnosophists,' 
p. 1021. Berosus says that " on the sixteenth day 
)f the month Lous there is a great festival cele- 
Drated in Babylon, which is called Sakeas ; and it 
.asts five days ; and during those days it is the 
custom for the masters to be under the orders of 
:heir slaves ; and one of the slaves puts on a robe 
ike the king's, which is called a zoganes, and is 
master of the house. And Ctesias also mentions 
this festival in the second book of his ' History of 
Persia.' " This is all that is said. For the death 
of the mock-king we have to depend on Dio Chry- 
sostom, to whom we are unable to refer. The date 
of the sacrifice which we may assume to have 
baken place, since evidence from without supports 
it is fixed, and there is, as Mr. Lang shows, no 
possibility of making the festival fit with the 
Hebrew Purim, the date of which was some months 
earlier. The mock-king, moreover, as is once more 
shown, was a criminal, who was not sacrificed, but 
degraded first and then executed. Apart from the 
context what we are saying has little significance 
and perhaps little intelligibility. It is, however, 
impossible to follow the argument at any length. 

Mr. Lang disputes also what is said as to the 
origin of the "ghastly priest" beneath Arician 
trees, the rex nemorum, and other matters involved 
in the very inception of Mr. Frazer's theory. Ser- 
vius, some four hundred years after the date of 
Virgil, placed the habitat of Virgil's golden bough 
in the grove near Aricia haunted by the ghastly 
priest. Reasons for doubting this are advanced. 
That Virgil's branch of gold was mistletoe, that 
the haunted tree at Aricia was an oak, and other 
assumptions, are disposed of; and Mr. Lang dis- 
courages strongly the modern theory that all gods 
are gods of vegetation, and draws attention to the 
fact that "mythology has been of late emancipated 
from the universal dominion of the sun, but only to 
fall under that of gods of vegetation, whether of 
vegetable life at large, or of the corn-spirit and the 
oak-spirit in particular." As regards the significance 
of the " ghastly priest," Mr. Lang has a theory of his 
own, with which we will leave Mr. Frazer to deal. 
Supplementary chapters on ' Cup and Ring ' and 
on ' Walking through Fire ' have great interest. 
From Mr. Tyler's ascription to missionary influence 
of the savage conception of a great spirit Mr. Lang 
dissents. His latest work will receive and repay 
the closest study of all interested in the great 
problems with which he deals. 

Annuaire de la Noblesse de Russie, 1900. Troisieme 
Annee. (St. Petersburg, Imprimerie de 1'Aca- 
d&nie Imperiale des Sciences.) 
THAT the word Annuaire is not to be taken in the 
full sense ordinarily assigned it is shown by the 
fact that the Annuaire first appeared in 1889, and 
has but now reached the third issue. It is edited by 
our correspondent Dr. Ermerin, of the Bibliotheque 
Imperiale of St. Petersburg; is written partly in 
French, partly in Russian ; is enriched with coats 
of arms (some of them coloured) and pedigrees ; 
and constitutes, as we suppose, a full guide to the 
Russian nobility. Portraits of members of the 
imperial family are given, and there is much inter- 
esting information, in the value and accuracy of 
which we are glad to believe, though we have to 
take both on trust. The only Russian family of 
princely rank with any member of which we can 


NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9* s. vra. JOLT 27, 1901. 

claim acquaintance we fail to trace. In the intro- 
duction, however, we are told that many families 
of princely rank are not even inscribed in the Livre 
de Noblesse, and we also read of the rigorous 
censorship exercised a I'e'tranger over genealogical 

Secret Chambers and Hiding Places. By Allan 

Fea. (Bousfield & Co.) 

THE subject of Mr. Fea's latest volume has, it may 
be supposed, commended itself to him in the course 
of the investigations he had to make in preparing 
his ' Flight of the King' (see 8 th S. xi. 398). Much 
of the ground he then traversed has at least had to 
be revisited. The subject he takes up is pleasantly 
antiquarian, and much of the information he sup- 
plies is new. It is true that legend and tradition 
are more frequently invoked than history, and that 
little personal interest clings to most of these places 
of refuge. What is the date of the earliest cannot 
be ascertained, and we are not absolutely sure, 
though the matter is of little importance, that a 
place of detention may not have been mistaken for 
an asylum. What we do know is that priests' holes 
and similar recesses or cavities sprang into use 
during the Elizabethan persecutions ; that they 
are naturally most frequent in the houses of the 
Roman Catholic gentry, with whom the protection 
of a seminary priest was a matter of religious 
loyalty and duty ; and that as the Roman Catholics 
were as a rule adherents of the Stuarts, the apart- 
ment, or preferably hole, that held a priest under 
Elizabeth might shelter a Royalist under Cromwell 
or a fugitive from Culloden under Hanoverian rule. 
Mr. Fea is at some pains to bring again before us 
the famous Jesuit Nicholas Owen, presumably a 
builder, known from his small stature as Little 
John, whose remarkable talents were exercised in 
stocking Roman Catholic mansions with secret 
chambers, in some of which he unavailingly sought 
shelter, and who was said by the authorities, in order 
to save them from the opprobrium of a death the result 
of their tortures, to have committed suicide. This 
hero, a servant to Garnet and Campion, and others 
of his order, had a genius for constructing these 
places and hiding them so skilfully as almost to 
defy detection. He was thus the means of saving the 
lives of very many priests and " recusants." Hind- 
lip Hall, a building which has now long disappeared, 
erected in 1572 by John Abington, or Habington, 
was the greatest triumph of Little John's ingenuity, 
and was a place of general shelter for priests. In the 
intricacies of its masonry and in its long corridors 
was a secret labyrinth, communicating with the 
open country by numerous ports of issue. To use 
words of which Mr. Fea is fond, its walls "were 
literally riddled with secret chambers and pas- 
sages. These did not serve to protect the inventor 
since, after a species of investment and siege, poor 
Owen and others were starved into surrender and 
carried off to London to meet their fate. Attempts 
here and elsewhere to feed the refugees through 
quills or tubes proved unavailing. Some two or three 
hundred places are dealt with by Mr. Fea, and of 
eighty of these excellent illustrations are supplied 
by the author. Priests' holes and secret chambers 
are naturally most abundant in the great centres of 
Roman Catholicism, but a few are found in Scot- 
la . n <J Aberdeenshire alone has six Wales, the Isle 
of Wight, and Guernsey. In one part of his book 
Mr. Fea traces the flight of the Young Pretender 
as he previously treated that of Charles II., though 

at less length. He deals also with caverns and 
chambers occupied for the purpose of smuggling, 
with which at one time the Southern coast 
abounded. It has been maintained that there 
was scarcely a house of any importance in Deal 
that could not hide some portion of a cargo that 
had been " run." A special chapter is devoted to 
' Mysterious Rooms, Deadly Pits, &c.' With some 
of these personal legends are concerned, but they 
are generally vague. It is, in fact, evident enough 
that secret chambers lose their raison d'etre when 
they are no longer secret, and the " great families" 
are no more inclined to disclose the mysteries of 
their houses, even when they know them, than 
they are to reveal the misdeeds or infamies of their 
ancestors. Mr. Fea has produced an interesting 
and readable book. The information he supplies 
is generally satisfactory, though he is sometimes 
vague, as when he says of a butt which, while 
apparently full of water, served as a shelter, "We 
understand such a butt is still in existence some- 
where in Yorkshire." 

The Evangelists, Apostles, and Prophets connected 
with the Signs of the Zodiac, by J. M. Lawrence, is 
a booklet which shows considerable ingenuity, 
though we cannot be responsible for the author's 

THE REV. W. C. BOULTER, Norton Vicarage, 
Evesham, has spare copies of the following papers, 
and will give them to the earliest applicants who 
send name, address, and stamp : 

History of Scoreby and the Blake Family. By 
Canon James Raine. Nine copies. 

Extracts from the Parish Registers of Holy 
Trinity, Hull. By John Sykes, M.D. Nineteen 

Extracts from the Parish Registers of Arksey, 
near Doncaster. By John Sykes, M.D. Twelve 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

A. S. Notice of Scottish tract duly received. 

mu it ?, r l? 1 communications should be addressed to 

The Editor of Notes and Queries ' " Advertise- 
"KS.* 8 *? Bu > sines s Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E C 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9s. viii. ADO. 3, mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. No. 188. 

NOTES Authorship of ' The British Apollo,' 97 'Anson's 
Voyage round the World '-'The Tribal Hidage,' 99-Site 
of Brunanhurh, 100-Gei>eral Cope' Hymns Ancient and 
Modern' Chicha John Thorpe, Architect, 101 Helicon 
"Queen's Head and Artichoke "Definition of Duel- 
Scottish Song, 102 Bible Hating St. Edmund, 103. 

QUERIES : " Rex Britarmiarum " Merlin Peers and 
Felony, 103 "Penny in the forehead " Hacket Old 
Songs Lamb and the Royal Academy Crest and Motto 
-Broseley Pipes - Plessy College, Essex- "Racing "- 
Quotations in ' Policratirus,' 104-Folk-lore of Sailors and 
Fishermen Source of Maxim Needle Pedlars Pees for 
K.C.B. and G.C.B. Old Scotch Psalm Book "Davies, 
Esquire " Burial of Alaric " Lanspisadoes," 105 
"Chancery," 106. 

REPLIES: Campbells of Ardkinglass, 106-Royal Borough 
of Kensington Whitgift's Hospital, 107 "Parlour " 
Neptune and crossing th* Line Dr. Barry, 108 Susanna 
Hopton Dowsing, 109 Trials of Animals Hand- 
ruling in Old Title-pages -"Fall below par," 110-St. Bar- 
nabas' Day Letters of Junius Gladstone Volume 
American Slang, 111 National Flag "Hill me up" 
Gun Reports, 112 Alum Surname Kemp Parson's 
Nose Quotations, 113 Lotus Flowers and Lotahs Lord 
Donore _ Rawlins-Whit* " Godling " " Gentlier " 
"Grand Tour," 114 -Rural Deaneries -'The Synagogue,' 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Tozer's ' English Commentary on 
Dante ' Bell's "Cathedral Series "and " Great Churches" 
Sendall's 'Works of C. S. Calverley ' Dauze's 'Index 
Bibliographique 'Temple Scott's ' Works of Swift.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



THE authorship of this early forerunner of 

' N. & Q.' does not appear to be known, noi 

to have yet received critical examination. 

It was conducted on the lines of the Athenian 

Mercury (afterwards reprinted in volume 

form as ' The Athenian Oracle '), and was 

commenced on 15 February, 1708, and issuec 

on Wednesdays and Fridays, with occasiona 

supplements, till 22 March, 1711. It was 

published for the authors by J. Mayo, anc 

was entitled " The British Apollo ; or, Curious 

Amusement for the Ingenious : to which is 

added the Most Material Occurrences, Foreign 

and Domestick. Performed by a Society o: 

Gentlemen." The second edition appearec 

in 1711, the third edition in 1726, and th 

fourth edition in three volumes in 1740. The 

last is entitled 

"The British Apollo: In Three Volumes, Contain 

ing Two Thousand Answers to Curious Question 

In Most Arts and Sciences, Serious, Comical, an< 

Humorous: Approved of by many of the mos 

Learned and Ingenious of both Universities, an< 

of the Royal Society. Performed by a Society o 

Gentlemen. London, Printed by James Bettenhan 

for Charles Hitch, at the Red Lion in Pater- Noster 

Row, 1740." 

It is difficult to find many contemporar^ 
references to this interesting periodica 

ohn Gay, writing 3 May, 1711, on 'The 
resent State of Wit, in a Letter to a Friend 
n the Country,' in which he refers to the 
eriodicals of, the day, almost omitted to 
nention the British Apollo. He adds : 

P.S. Upon a review of my letter I find that I 
ave quite forgotten the British Apollo, which 
light possibly have happened from its having of 
ate retreated out of this end of the town into the 
ountry ; where I am informed, however, that it 
till recommends itself by deciding wagers at cards, 
nd giving good advice to shopkeepers and their 

his information does not appear to be alto- 
gether correct. It is true that some corre- 
pondents in propounding their queries stated 
hat the reply would decide a wager, but the 
British Apollo in replying as to matters of 
act or opinion cannot be said to decide 

wagers at cards " in the sense implied by 

The statement that the British Apollo was 
conducted or " Performed by a Society of 
Gentlemen" may require to be taken cum 
yrano salis. The Athenian Mercury was per- 
sistently advertised by John Dunton as the 
3roduct of the Athenian Society. In one 
>f his publications, 'The Young Student's 
Library, 'published in 1692, there is a frontis- 
Diece representing a dozen bewigged and 
Downed gentlemen seated at a long table, 
with writing materials before them, gravely 
cogitating upon the queries submitted for 
elucidation, while the astronomer of the 
society in the foreground is seen making 
an observation by means of a cross-staff 
This engraving, we are expected to believe, 

ontains the portraits of the members of the 
Athenian Society, but the facts are very 
different. Although associated at first witn 
Samuel Wesley, Dr. Sault, and Dr. Norris, 
Dunton was soon forced to rely on ordinary 
booksellers' hacks such as Bradshaw and 

There is, however, more appearance that 
the statement of the British Apollo can be 
substantiated than in the case of its proto- 
type. It made some pretence to a knowledge 
of medicine, and many extracts might be 
given in proof of the assertion, although 
some allowance must be made for the state 
of scientific and medical knowledge at the 

The motto chosen, which appears on the 
title-page of the first volume, is from Ovid : 

Per me quod eritque, fuitque, 
Estque, patet : per me concordant carmina nervis. 
Inventum medicina meum est ; opiferque per 

Dicor ; et herbarum subjecta potentia nobis. 

Ovid, 'Metam.,'lib. i. 517. 

NOTES ' AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 3, 1901. 

Such a motto was well chosen for a periodical 
undertaking to reply to a rariety of ques- 
tionsthat it would cultivate the Muses, and 
that its author was qualified to practise the 
healing art. There is, indeed, unmistakable 
evidence that the society whose members 
answered the queries addressed to the British 
Apollo must have included one or more mem- 
bers of the medical faculty. 

There were several leading physicians at 
this period : Radcliffe, Sloane, Mead, Arbuth- 
not, and Garth. The last is quoted in one 
of the medical replies. He is best known as 
the author of 4 The Dispensary,' a poem in 
six cantos ; and he also published a transla- 
tion, by himself and others, including Addison, 
of Ovid's ' Metamorphoses.' Observing the 
quadruple nature of his accomplishments as 
a physician, a poet, a classical scholar, and a 
wit, it is difficult to resist the suspicion that 
he may have been one of the authors of the 
British Apollo. 

Of the physicians named, Dr. John 
Arbuthnot is one to attract attention. He was 
one of the greatest wits of the period, and the 
most learned man of the galaxy of Queen 
Anne's reign. He was a Fellow of the Royal 
Society, physician to Queen Anne and Prince 
George of Denmark, and one of the members 
of the Scriblerus Club, which included Pope, 
Gay, Swift, and others. An earlv work was 
a translation, with additions, or Huygens's 
'Treatise on the Laws of Chance,' which 
describes a method of calculating the chances 
in games of hazard. He was also author of 
' An Essay on the Usefulness of Mathematical 
Learning.' In 1704 he read a paper before 
the Royal Society on the equality in the 
numbers of the sexes, from which he deduced 
that the practice of polygamy was contrary 
to nature. Those details only of his career 
are quoted that appear to have a bearing on 
the present subject. 

The British Apollo discussed the evils of 
gaming with a correspondent, and also 
answered many arithmetical and mathemati- 
cal questions. As already stated, numerous 
medical questions are answered according 
to the scientific knowledge of the times. 
Perhaps, of those marking a physician's 
technical knowledge, may be mentioned one 
recommending " the works of Dr. Sydenham, 
Monsieur Blegny, the last edition, and Mon- 
sieur Blankard " (vol. iii. p. 862, 1740), for the 
special reference of a practitioner inquiring 
for information on a certain disease. No 
ordinary bookseller's hack could have given 
the reply to the query on superfcetation to be 
found in vol. iii. p. 565, 
The replies concerning the Hungarian 

Twins* are also marked by professional 
knowledge. These twins, named Helen and 
Judith, are referred to by Steele in the Tatler 
of 10 January, 1709. They were born in 1701, 
and were exhibited at Charing Cross and 
elsewhere in London when seven years of 
age, and during the publication of the British 
Apollo. They resembled the Siamese Twins 
and the Two-Headed Nightingale of modern 
times. In the course of their description the 
British Apollo quotes an extract by Schenkius 
from Munster's 'Cosmography' of a similar 
birth at Worms, and also notes that Pareus 
in his medical works describes many stranger 
monstrosities than that referred to. Apollo is 
also called upon to give his opinion whether 
each has a soul of her own, or there is one 
common to both. Must they die together? 
Should one commit a crime worthy of death, 
how should it be punished 1 Is it lawful for 
them to marry 1 Could a man marry the 
twins and not be guilty of bigamy 1 Should 
they live to be women, is it possible for them 
to bear children ? and other questions. 

Whether suggested by these queries and 
their answers in the British Apollo, or other- 
wise, some of the complications likely to arise 
from the marriage of the twins were worked 
out in an amusing manner by Dr. Arbuthnot 
in the * Memoirs of the Extraordinary Life, 
Works, and Discoveries of Martinus Scri- 
blerus' (Pope's Works, Dodsley's edition, 
1742). This formed part of a scheme for a 

* The Hungarian Twins attained the age of 
twenty-two years, and died in a convent at 
St. Petersburg. The Scots Twins (both males), 
who lived in the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
and are mentioned by Buchanan, Lindsay of Pit- 
scottie, and James Howell (' Epistolae Ho-Elianse,' 
1647), attained twenty-eight years. The Siamese 
Twins died at the ripe age of sixty-three years. 
Chang and Eng were married to an American 
clergyman's two daughters, but family jars being 
of too frequent occurrence, the wives were accom- 
modated with separate houses, in which the hus- 
bands spent a w r eek alternately. This curious com- 
bination of something suspiciously like polygamy 
and polyandry would no doubt have provoked the 
satirical wit of Dr. Arbuthnot. The Sardinian 
Twins, Rita-Christina, born in 1829, lived only 
about eight months. William Lithgow, the famous 
Scots traveller, when visiting the Isle of Lesina in 
the Adriatic in 1609, was shown a child with one 
pair of legs, but two bodies above the thighs, the 
one being behind the other. They lived for only a 
little more than a month. The Turkish Spy (1684- 
1693) describes twins of similar anatomy born at 
Weerteed, near Ardenburg, in the Low Countries. 
Chrissy-Milly, the negress twins, or Two-Headed 
Nightingale, were bridesmaids at the marriage of 
the gigantic couple Capt. Bates and Miss Swan 
in London in 1871, arid are still alive. The latest 
specimens of such curiosities are the Chinese Twins 
lately appearing among Barnum & Bailey's freaks. 

^s.vra.Aua.3,i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


series of memoirs like that of Don Quixote, 
in which the abuse of learning in every 
department was to be ridiculed. "Polite 
letters," says Warburtou, "never lost more 
than in the defeat of this scheme." Dr. John- 
son held an opposite view. " The follies," he 
says, " which the writer ridicules are so little 
practised that they are not known ; nor can 
the satire be understood but by the learned." 
This latter verdict may be true to a certain 
extent, but the account of the 'Process at 
Law upon the Marriage of Scriblerus and the 
Pleadings of the Advocates' is as good a 
satire upon legal debates and decisions as it 
is possible to imagine. G. W. NIVEN. 

23, Newton Street, Greenock. 

(To be continued.] 

A FEW days ago, being wishful to obtain 
a copy of Walter's famous account of Lord 
Anson's voyage round the world, I inquired 
for the work in a well-known bookseller's 
shop where old books are dealt in as well as 
new ones. Two copies, both in good con- 
dition, were produced. One of these was a 
copy of the eighth edition, printed at Dublin 
for G. & A. Ewing, and dated 1754. This 
copy I bought. The second copy, which was 
half the price of the first one, is called "a 
new edition," dated 1845, and was printed in 
London for the Society for Promoting Chris- 
tian Knowledge. I had only a few minutes to 
spare, so could not attempt any elaborate 
comparison of these two volumes ; still, being 
anxious to make sure as far as possible that 
both books were complete, I did place the 
title-pages alongside each other, and there- 
upon found that in the 1845 edition there 
have been added, following on "George 
Anson, Esq.," the words "afterwards Lord 
Anson"; following on "South Seas," before 
" compiled," the words " with a map, showing 
the Track of the Centurion round the world." 
Also after " compiled," instead of the words 
"From Papers and other Materials of the 
Right Honorable George Lord Anson, and 
published under his Direction," we read 
"from his Papers and Materials." In the 
older volume, after "expedition," the con- 
cluding words are, "The Eighth Edition. 
Illustrated with charts, views, &c. Dublin : 
Printed for G. and A. Ewing, at the Angel 
and Bible in Dame-Street, MDCCLIV."; whereas 
in the later issue, following on "expedi- 
tion," we read instead, "A New Edition. 
London : printed for the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge ; sold at the 
Depository, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's 

Inn Fields, and by all Booksellers, 1845." 
The dedication to John, Duke of Bedford, 
signed by Richard Walter, is omitted 
altogether from the 1845 edition. I next 
compared the opening sentence of the in- 
troduction in the older volume with the 
same sentence as reproduced in the more 
modern edition. That opening sentence has 
been garbled, and for no reason that is apparent 
to me. Thus the words which originally 
ran "an enterprize of a very singular nature j 
and the Public have never failed to be 
extremely inquisitive about the various 
accidents and turns of fortune, with which 
this uncommon attempt is generally attended : 
And," &c., appear in the new edition of 
1845 as "an enterprize of so very singular 
a nature, that the public have never failed to 
be extremely inquisitive about the various 
accidents, with which this uncommon attempt 
is generally attended. And," &c. So also, 
on the last page of the narrative, "the 
blows of adverse fortune" has been altered 
into " accidents and adverse circumstances " ; 
"to its power" after "superior" has been 
omitted ; and after " successful," the last word 
in Mr. Walter's narrative, the words " through 
the blessing of Divine Providence " have been 

I did not carry my examination into any 
other parts of the book, though it would 
perhaps be interesting to ascertain, if some 
one had the time to spare for the under- 
taking, the full sum of the alterations which 
were introduced into the book before it was 
reprinted by the Society answerable for the 
edition of 1845. I confess that I should 
much like to know the authority under which 
these changes were made ; and also whether 
tampering with the language in which the 
heroes of the past thought fit to clothe the 
accounts of their exploits, when transmitting 
them to posterity for an inheritance, is a 
practice morally justifiable. H. G. K. 

(Continued from 9 th S. vii. 444-) 

IT is impossible to study a document like 
'The Tribal Hidage' without forming some 
opinion as to its purpose and date, and the 
following suggestions are offered for criticism : 

1. Its purpose. Probably military. The 
King of the Mercians wished to know how 
many men he could summon from his own 
dominions and from the subordinate king- 
doms in case of need. The hidages of the 
smaller tribes are multiples of 300, as if 300 
hides corresponded to the smallest military 
unit. There is an obvious connexion between 


NOTES ' AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL AUG. 3, 1001. 

the "30 legions" of Penda's great army a 
Winwaed and the 30,000 hides attributed to 
Mercia. A combined expedition is mentionec 
in the * Chronicle ' under the year 743, when 
"Ethelbald, King of the Mercians, and Cuth- 
red, King of the West Saxons, fought against 
the Welsh." 

2 Its date. While the notion that there 
were 100,000 hides in England south of the 
Humber, of which the Mercians and East 
Anglians had 30,000 each, and the Saxon 
and men of Kent the rest, may be older, it 
seems impossible to date the table previously 
given earlier than 661, when Wulf here overran 
the Isle of Wight and took possession of it. 
This then gives the earlier limit ; the later 
is more difficult to fix, but the date 673-86. 
already suggested by the delimitations of 
the dioceses and the removal of St. Birin's 
remains to Winchester, is supported by a 
statement in Florence of Worcester. This is 
that Ethelred of Mercia (675-704) consulted 
with Archbishop Theodore (669-90) about a 
division of the great Mercian diocese, and 
that the archbishop in 679 made five dio- 
ceses out of it Lichfield, Leicester, Lindsey, 
Worcester, and Dorchester (for South Anglia). 
In the last-named see he placed "Eata, a 
man of singular worth and sanctity, from the 
monastery of the Abbess Hilda." Bede also 
(iy. 23) mentions Eda as appointed to the 
bishopric of Dorchester. If the statement of 
Florence can be relied upon, Dorchester must 
have been within the Mercian boundaries 
before 679, and therefore probably within 
Wulfhere's lifetime, for Ethelred, though 
quite able to resist invasion, does not appear- 
to have been aggressive, and finally became a 
monk. There is a controversy as to whether 
this Eda (otherwise TEtla) or Eata should be 
identified with Heddi or Headdi, Bishop of 
Winchester (676 703), who translated St. Birin 
to Winchester and is said to have obtained 
the sanction of Pope Agatho (678-82) for the 
transference of the see from Dorchester to 
Winchester. But he may well be the same 
as Hedda or Headdi, Bishop of Lichfield 
(691-721), mentioned in the 'Life of St. Guth- 
lac.' The whole story seems to indicate that 
the West Saxon bishop (henceforward the 
Bishop of Winchester) had ceased to have 
any authority beyond the Thames, so that 
Oxfordshire had become Mercian both civilly 
and ecclesiastically. Hence 'The Tribal 
Hidage,' which places Widerigga, fec., among 
the West Saxon lands, must have been com- 
piled before 679. The ''synod of his own 
nation" at which St. Aldhelm was com- 
missioned to write against the British Easter 
is said to have been held in 685 at Burford in 

Oxfordshire, with the Mercian kings Ethelred 
and Berthwald present. This is somewhat 
ambiguous, for Aldhelm was a West Saxon. 

3. Editions. But if the first edition, as 
given in the table in the former article, 
belongs to the period 661-79, it would appear 
from the manuscript copies extant that a 
second edition must have been made soon 
afterwards, the source of the table as it has 
come down to us. The changes are two : 
(1) Instead of the three tribes East Wixna, 
West Wixna, and Herstina, the English 
text gives only the first two, while two 
Latin texts give the first and the first and 
third ; (2) Fserpinga is found in the second 
column. The former of these changes rnay 
be due to the growth of great monasteries in 
the Fen district Peterborough, Orowland, 
Ely " free from all secular service," so that 
600 hides had to be erased, and the tribal 
name was erased with them. The second is no 
doubt owing to the transference of the Aro 
ssetna and following tribes from Wessex to 
Mercia ; a new administrative district was 
formed, with the Fserpinga added to give it 
an Anglian tone and perhaps an Anglian 
ealdorman. It would have been more exact 
to transfer the four tribes to the first (or 
Mercian) column, but practically it would be 
more convenient to transfer Fserpinga to the 
second column. By these changes the arith- 
metical perfection of the table was destroyed. 

4. A difficulty. In the identifications of 
the various tribes given in the former paper 
a meaning for the names was several times 
found by changing a c in the middle of a 
word into t. One of the Latin copies 
'written about JL250) sanctions the t, but in 




and i is common enough in Jater manuscripts, 
yet the ordinary "specimens" of Anglo- 
baxon writing show a clear distinction 
between them. Hence the difficulty. Can 
any one skilled in palaeography point to any 
kind of writing used in the eighth century 
say) which would give such forms to these 
etters in the middle of words that a scribe of 
:he eleventh century would be liable to trans- 
pose them, and write c for t ? J. B. 

SITE OF BRUNANBURH. Sir James Ramsay, 
n the preface to his 'The Foundations of 
England, claims to have discovered the long- 
ost site of the battle of Brunanburh, which 
he gives reasons (vol. i. p. 285) for con- 
sidering to have been Bourne in Lincolnshire. 
Although many writers (including the author 
of the life of King Athelstan in the 'Die- 

vm. AUG. 3, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tionary of National Biography ') place it in 
Northumbria, and Skene and others in York- 
shire (Hume as far north as Northumberland), 
Sir James contends that it must have been 
south of the Humber ; and he tells us an Ame- 
rican writer (Mr. C. T. Wyckoff, in his ' Feudal 
Relations of England and Scotland,' 1897) 
pronounces in favour of the same locality. I 
should like to call attention to the fact that 
in the * Pictorial History of England ' (com- 
iijoiily called Knight's, 1846) Lincolnshire is 
also suggested in the following note: "Sup- 
posed by some to be Burn in the south of 
Lincolnshire, and others Brugh in the north 
of the same county ; ' (vol. i. p. 168). By 
" Burn " no doubt Bourne is intended, which 
is in the south-west of the county, not far 
from Stamford ; and by " Brugh " the writer 
probably means to indicate the place com- 
monly called "Burgh-in-the- Marsh," which 
is in the eastern part of the county, only a 
few miles west of Skegness on the coast, now 
become a watering-place. Sir James Ramsay's 
identification of the exact spot near Bourne 
seems very probable. W. T. LYNN. 


[For the site of Brunanburh see 1 st S. iv. 249, 327 ; 
2 nd S. ii. 229, 277, 295; 3 rd S. vi. 342; 4 th S. viii. 179; 
8 th S. ix. 162, 226.] 

entry, corresponding with the presumed date 
of his birth, has kindly been sent me by Mr. 
F. A. Crisp from the register of St. Peter's, 
Ipswich : " 1687. John ye son of John Cope 
& Marey his wife, baptized Nov. 20." 

E. E. COPE. 


know whether the licence allowed to poets 
extends to grammar, but it is certainly 
desirable that writers of hymns for popular 
use should as much as possible avoid all 
faulty, and indeed all unusual, constructions. 
We must not expect every hymn to be good 
poetry, but good English we have a right to 
demand. There are, I venture to think, 
some hymns in the collection indicated above 
in which we do not get even this, and the 
result in one or two cases is an ambiguity 
that has puzzled many simple folk. One of 
the worst of these is the last verse of the 
very beautiful hymn, " Oh, what the joy and 
the glory must be " (235), which runs thus : 
Low before Him with our praises we fall, 
Of Whom, and in Whom, and through Whom are 


Of Whom, the Father ; and in Whom, the Son ; 
Through Whom, the Spirit, with Them ever One. 

Of course the meaning is plain enough to 

the instructed mind, but it is not correctly 
expressed, and the question "Of whom is 
the Father 1 " (which I have reason to know 
has been asked) is not altogether unnatural. 

Another case, not so bad, may be cited 
from hymn No. 179, "To the Name of our 
Salvation." It is in the fifth verse : 

Jesus is the Name exalted 

Over every other name ; 
In this Name, whene'er assaulted, 

We can put our foes to shame ; 
Strength to them who else had halted, 

Eyes to blind, and feet to lame, 

The separation of the last two lines from 
their verb makes it difficult to follow the 
sense, and " Eyes to blind, and feet to lame," 
is not English. 

The translator of the hymn which appears 
as No. 97 cannot be congratulated upon his 

Marked e'en then this Tree the ruin 
Of the first tree to dispel 

does not say what is meant, which is, I 
suppose, that the Cross was designed to 
repair the ruin wrought by the tree of 
knowledge. I do not quite see, either, how 
tk ruin " can be " dispelled." 

There is an ugly error in that very 
beautiful hymn " Nearer, my God, to Thee" 
(277), and a similar one in " O day of rest 
and gladness " (36). 

Though, like the wanderer, 
The sun gone down, 

Darkness comes over me, 

leaves us in doubt who the wanderer is that, 
like the darkness, comes over us ; and 
From thee, like Pisgah's mountain, 
We view our promised land, 

seems to ascribe prophetic vision to the 
mountain as well as to ourselves. 

I trust these remarks will not be thought 
hypercritical. C. C. B. 

have often heard that this drink was best 
when stirred up occasionally with the thigh- 
bone of a man, but I find an even worse 
receipt in Acosta ('Nat. Hist, of Indies,' 
translated by E. G., Hakluyt Soc., p. 231) : 

" Indians holde opinion that to make good leven 
[for chicha] it must bee chewed by old withered 
women, which makes a man sicke to hear, and yet 
they do drink it." 


Wyatt Papworth, a most painstaking anti- 
quary, had grave doubts as to Thorpe 
having been the architect of the buildings 
generally attributed to him, and is said to 
have demonstrated that, beyond the fact that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 3, 1901. 

there was such a person, and that he was the 
owner of a book of architectural drawings 
formerly belonging to Horace Walpole, and 
now preserved in the Soane Museum, nothing 
further is known about him. 

I do not know whether attention has been 
drawn to the following warrant, belonging to 
Mr. E. Beresford Chancellor, which seems 
to show that Thorpe was employed as a 
surveyor for the Duchy of Cornwall : 

"Whereas there is present occasion to employ 
the bearer hereof, John Thorpe, Esq r , about the 
surveying of the manor of Olave and the manors 
of Wymondham, Aylesham, and East Deereham, 
in the county of Norfolk, and the manor of Walton 
[en] Trymley and Hecham, in the county of Suffolk, 
for his Highness's [ ], We pray you to pay 

and deliver unto him, by way of [interest?], the 
sum of fifty pounds, taking his acquisence for 
receipt thereof. And in so doing this shall be your 
warrant, from his Highness's Council Chamber in 
Fleet Street, the last day of April, 1621. 

Your ever loving friends, 



To our ever loving friend Sr Adam Newton, Gent. 
and Baronet, his Highness's Treasurer or Receiver 
General." * Life of Charles I.,' by E. Beresford 
Chancellor, p. 54. 


Canonbury Mansions, N. 

HELICON. I pointed out a short while 
ago in 'N. & Q.' (9 th S. vii. 235) a passage 
in which Chaucer confounds Helicon with 
the Hippocrene, and places it on Parnassus. 
But I did not observe then that Spenser has 
transferred Chaucer's lines, with their double 
mistake, to his own poetry. Perhaps the 
two great poets have done much towards 
spreading the common error that Helicon is 
the same as the Hippocrene : 

That in Parnassus dwel 
Besyde Helicon the clere wel. 

Chaucer, ' The House of Fame.' 
And eke you virgins that on Parnasse dwell 
Whence floweth Helicon, the learned well. 

Spenser, ' Shepheard's Calender, April.' 

(See 9 th S. vii. 331.)-The "Artichoke" pro- 
bably owes its origin as a sign, like the "Pine 
Apple, the "Orange Tree," the "Lemon 
Tree, and the " Olive Tree," all London trade 
signs, to the fact of that vegetable not being 
indigenous, and to its adoption as a trade 
cognizance when first introduced as a food 
into this country. Judging from the fact of 
Vertues engraving exhibiting Mary of Eng- 
land holding an artichoke in her hand it 
may have been so introduced from France bv 
that royal lady, who, after being widowed by 

Louis XII. of France, became Duchess of 
Suffolk in 1515, for it is significant that the 
" archicokk," as it was called, i.e., the globe 
artichoke, was an item of frequent occurrence 
in the Privy Purse expenses of Henry VIII. 
from November, 1529, to December, 1532. 
And considering that it was deemed a dish 
fit for a king, it is not surprising to find that 
it was paid dearly for in proportion to the 
value of the then current coin. One item 
runs : " Paied to a servant of maister Tresorer 
in rewarde for bringing Archicokks to the 
King's grace to York Place iiijs. iiijd." (see 
Rhind's 'Hist, of the Vegetable Kingdom'). 
The sign of the "Artichoke" was not 
confined to one kind of trade. It was a 
bookseller's sign near Ludgate in 1693, and 
in Old Bedlam in 1686 (see * Booksellers' and 
Printers' Signs,' the Bibliographer, part x.) ; 
and a milliner's one Susannah Fordham "att 
the Hartichoke in y e Royal Exchange sold 
all sorts of fine poynts, laces, and linnens, 
and all sorts of gloves and ribbons, and all 
other sorts of millinery wares" (Bagford 
Bills, Harl. Misc.). The "globe" species 
of the vegetable is represented on a card as 
the sign of a shop evidently identical with 
the foregoing in the Royal Exchange, in 
1791, where laces and linens were sold 
(Banks Coll. Shop-bills). It was also the 
sign of a " Looking-glass shop " near the New 
Exchange, Strand (Bagford, Harl. Coll. 5996, 
No. 156), and of a tavern "past the eastern 
entrance to the West India Docks, famous for 
its whitebait." According to the Postboy of 
5 August, 1710, this sign distinguished 
Nos. 24 and 25, Lombard Street, now occupied 
by Messrs. Alexander & Co. (see further 
F. G. H. Price's 'Signs of Lombard Street'). 

Wimbledon Park Road. 

[MR. HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS gave at 6 th S. ix. 85 
a quotation from Oldys's ' Life of Dr. Moffet ' (1746) 
containing the extract relating to the artichokes 
brought to Henry VIIL in the twenty-second year 
of his reign. This is the earliest instance quoted 
under ' Artichoke ' in the ' H.E.D.'] 

DEFINITION OF DUEL. As need hardly be 
said, the 'H.E.D.' contains some excellent 
definitions of " duel," but in the present 
decadent condition of the duello in France 
one may surely be added from the Paris cor- 
respondent of the Times, who recorded 
recently that "a performance with swords 
took place this afternoon between M. Max 
Regis and M. Gerault-Richard." 


i ^ SCOTTISH SONG. In the 'Songs of Scot- 
land Chronologically Arranged,' third edition 
(Alexander Gardner), a song entitled " Here 

9* s. viii. AUG. s, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


awa', there awa'," is given on p. 58 as " from 
Herd's Collection." What is substantially 
the same song, also described as " from Herd's 
Collection," reappears at p. 160 of the volume 
with the title * Wandering Willie.' The dif- 
ferences in the two are almost infinitesimal, 
occurring only in the first two lines of the 
opening stanza and the closing line of the 
third and last. In the former the song opens 
thus : 

Here awa', there awa', here awa', Willie, 
Here awa', there awa', baud awa' hame ; 

whereas in the latter the reading is 

Here awa', there awa', wandering Willie, 
Here awa', there awa', here awa' hame. 

The last line in " Here awa', there awa'," has 
this reading, 

Ilka thing pleases, when Willie 's at hame, 
the * Wandering Willie ' version giving 
"while" for when, but otherwise being iden- 
tical. The amusing thing is that in neither 
of the two settings is the opening in agree- 
ment with that of Herd, which reads, 

Here awa', there awa', here awa', Willie, 
Here awa', there awa', here awa' hame. 

The confusion is no doubt due to the inter- 
position of the strong hand of Burns, whose 
admiration of the song in Herd prompted his 
'Wandering Willie,' which opened with a 
still further variation, thus : 

Here awa', there awa', wandering Willie, 
Here awa', there awa', haud awa' hame. 

With customary freedom of treatment, Burns 
here accepts a stimulating text from Herd, 
modifies it slightly, but with characteristic 
ease and finality of expressive beauty, and 
then goes his own victorious way. Summing 
up, we find there are two songs altogether, 
one in Herd's ' Scottish Songs ' and the other 
in Burns. The latter, with the fascinating 
ring of his "wandering Willie" and "haud 
awa' hame," is responsible for the confusion 
in the reproduction of the old lyric ; and it 
were well in this case, as in others, to let 
Herd's reading stand as he gives it, and 
steadfastly to resist the spell of Burns's 
melodious inventiveness. Of the divergent 
reading in the last line of the original song 
it is difficult to give an explanation. Herd 
reads in unbroken fashion thus : 

Ilka thing pleases while Willie's at hame. 


STITION. I am told by a lady resident that 
in the Hampshire parish in which I am 
writing there is living at the present time a 
good woman who once ate a New Testament, 
day by day and leaf by leaf, between two 

slices of bread and butter, as a remedy for 
fits. This was treating the Bible as a fetish 
with a vengeance ! This use of printed paper 
would have astonished Addison (see the 
Spectator, No. 367). One would suppose that 
even Mause Headrigg would hardly have 
pushed Bibliolatry to this extreme. 


ST. EDMUND. The bones of St. Edmund 
arrived on Thursday, July 25th, at Arundel 
from Rome, where they will remain in the 
castle chapel until their removal to the new 
Roman Catholic Cathedral at Westminster. 
It is stated that the Pope has personally 
intervened in order that the remains may 
rest in the new cathedral. N. S. S. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

" REX BRITANNIARUM." Lord Rosebery's 
speech of last Monday on the Royal Titles 
Bill, suggesting the title "King of the 
Bri tains," makes it worth while to inves- 
tigate the history of that title in Latin as it 
appears on our coins. What exactly does 
it mean historically ? HIPPOCLIDES. 

[George I. and II. were both styled " King of 
Great Britain, France, and Ireland." George III. 
was styled the same till 1 Jan., 1801, when France 
was dropped, separate mention of Ireland dropped, 
and the regal title was declared to be in Latin 
"Dei Gratia Britanniarum Rex"; in English, "Of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
King." England and part of Scotland were divided 
into Britannia Prima, Seeunda, &c., by the Romans, 
so that " Britannise " for Britain occurs in Latin 
before the birth of Christ, and does not necessarily 
imply territory beyond the main island of Britain.] 

MERLIN. I shall be much obliged to any 
of your readers who can tell me where I 
can find * Merlin's Prophecies ' or ' Merlin's 
Centuries,' said to have been published by 
Hawkins in the reign of Henry VlIL, or any 
printed copy of the same. 


St. Dunstan's House, Fetter Lane, E.G. 

[Several editions of Merlin are mentioned 3 rd S. 
viii. 401, 521.] 

convicted of felony lose their right to sit and 
vote in the House of Lords ? 1 should also 
like to know if a commoner so convicted can, 
after his term of servitude, become a member 
of the House of Commons ; also if a bank- 
rupt can take his seat unless his bankruptcy 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 3, 1901. 

has been cancelled by his payment of twenty 
shillings in the pound. Y. 

' Diary,' 9 March, 1658/9, it is said : 

"Sir A. Haslerigge turned from the chair, and 
they called him to speak to the chair. He said, ' 1 
am not bound always to look you in the face, like 
children, to see if you have a penny in your fore- 

The phrase, apparently proverbial, is also 
used by Roger North, ' Examen,' II. v., "to 
be wheedled as children with a penny in the 
forehead." What is the meaning ? It seems 
to have wholly died out of remembrance, for 
I find no reference to it in the indexes of 
1 N. & Q.' C. B. MOUNT. 

KOGER RACKET, D.D., 1559-1621. Is the 
'Diet. Nat. Biog.' (vol. xxiii. p. 421) correct 
in saying that this " eminent preacher," who 
was rector of North Crawley, Bucks, from 
1590 until his death in 1621, was "son of !Sir 
Cuthbert Racket, Lord Mayor of London " ? 
Sir Cuthbert Racket, of the Drapers' Com- 
pany, was Lord Mayor in 1626-7, and, accord- 
ing to the Racket pedigree taken at the 
Visitation of London, 1634 (Harl. Soc. Pub., 
vol. xv. p. 339), his second son was named 
Roger ; but the dates make one hesitate to 
believe that this Roger was the rector of 
North Crawley. H. C. 

OLD SONGS. What is the old song 'The 
Lamentations of a Sinner "I Where can I 
find the text of ' The Beggar's Petition ' 1 In 
what song do the days call the sun their 
"dad"? A. F. T. 

MALABARIAN HYMN. A hymn written at 
the end of the seventeenth century by Johann 
Jakob Schiitz, beginning "Sei Lob und Ehr 
dem hochsten Gut," is now found in most 
German collections as a "Hymn of Thanks- 
giving." A translation, beginning "All glory 
to the Sov'reign Good," was made by John 
Christian Jacobi, the keeper of the Royal 
German Chapel, St. James's Palace, London, 
from 1708 to 1750, for his ' Psalmodia Ger- 
manica,' and there entitled 'The Malabarian 
Hymn.' Why was this title chosen? 

M. C. L. 


"It would be no incurious inquiry to ascertain 
what the minimum of the faculty of imagination, 
ever supposed essential to painters along with poets, 
is that, in these days of complaints of want of 
patronage towards the tine arts, sulHces to dub a 
man an R.A." 

This is Charles Lamb's remark a propos of 
G. D., painter of portraits of the Empress 
of Russia, buried in St. Paul's Cathedral 

(Englishman s Magazine, September, 1831). 
Who was G. D. ? Was he an R.A. ? 


CREST AND MOTTO. I recently purchased 
a fine copy of Collinson's ' History of 
Somerset' (3 vols.), bound in leather, with 
a bull's head erased pierced by an arrow, 
within a garter on which is stamped the 
motto, "Prodesse quam conspici." To what 
family do the crest and motto belong ? 


BROSELEY PIPES. The late Richard Thurs- 
field, Esq., of Bridgnorth, possessed a fine 
collection of Broseley pipes, of which the 
owner and the late Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., 
wrote excellent descriptions in the Reliquary 
of October, 1862. It has been said that this 
collection was sold to Mr. Mayer, of Liver- 
pool, or to Mr. Blagg, of Sheffield, soon after 
those descriptions were printed. The curator 
of the Liverpool Museum informs me it is not 
there ; neither can I find it at the Sheffield 
Museum or at South Kensington. Can any of 
your numerous readers kindly inform me of 
its present possessor 1 T. H. T. 

PLESSY COLLEGE, ESSEX. Has any history 
or information about this college been pub- 
lished since the ' History of Plessy ' by Gough 
(which has been consulted) 1 This college had 
given to it in 1394, by Thomas of Woodstock, 
the rectory of Whitstable, in Kent; and Plessy 
College was patron of Whitstable Church 
until 1535. Any information as to Plessy 
College and Whitstable would be most 
acceptable. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent. 

" RACING." The Sheffield Independent dated 
Saturday, 22 June, contains an account 
of an inquest concerning the death of a 
grinder who sustained fatal injuries by the 
breaking of a grindstone, and the report 
says : 

' ' Deceased was racing a grindstone which had been 

hung a short time previously arid the stone was 

only revolving at half the usual working speed 

Whilst deceased was racing it, it suddenly broke in 
two, and the back part of it hit deceased on the 
head, and knocked the tool with which he was 
working against his chest." 

This word is in continual use by grinders, 
and by them is understood to mean to get 
the grindstone to run true round. The pro- 
cess is similar to turning at a lathe. Does 
the word " racing " with this meaning appear 
in any dictionary or glossary 1 H. J. B. 

reader of * N. & Q.' help me to the sources of 
the following quotations and proverbs, which 

9* s. viii. Aim. 3, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


all occur in John of Salisbury's * Policraticus,' 
books i. and ii.? Even references to later 
works might be useful in tracing them : 

1. " Voluptas [or Prosperitas, both occur] noverca 

2. "Qui lepores agitat, verba consumit." 

3. " Serpentem toxicare." 

4. "Cometa apparente, creduntur im miner e 

C. C. J. W. 

Can you kindly help me to obtain informa- 
tion concerning the superstitions of English 
sailors and fishermen 1 Can you refer me to 
works on the subject ? C. A. B. 

(See 1 st S. v., xi. ; 4 th S. iii. ; 6 th S. i., ii., x. ; 7 th S. 
v., xii.] 

SOURCE OF MAXIM. "Sow an action, reap 
a habit ; sow a habit, reap a character ; sow 
a character, reap a destiny." CANTAB. 

NEEDLE PEDLARS. A lady is living at 
Nuneaton, Warwickshire, who remembers a 
needle pedlar of her girlhood in the thirties. 
He used to carry a piece of flannel on his 
left arm stuck all over with his wares, of 
various sorts and sizes, which he sold for 
three a penny. As he ranged through the 
streets he used to chant or sing a ditty, even 
as did Autolycus, and the housewives (as they 
were then still called) came from their doors 
to him to choose what they required. These 
were his words : 

Bodging needles, 

Codging needles, 

Darning needles, 

Muslin needles, 
All sorts of needles, oh ! 

Bodging may be supposed to be a variant 
of botching. Was codging similarly represen- 
tative of the stitches required for codge ware 
(spelt by Nathan Bailey cog ware), a coarse 
linen used in the Northern counties? 

The chant or song was from the low soh to 
the doh, to speak in the terms of tonic sol-fa. 
Are other pedlars' ditties recollected 1 


What are the fees now payable by gentlemen 
on being made K.C.B. or G.C.B. ; or are they 
abolished 1 R. B. B. 

copy of "The Psalmes of Dauid in metre, 
vsed in the Kirk of Scotland, with diuers 
notes and tunes agrnerited to them. Middel- 
bvrg. Printed by Richard Schilders, Printer 
to the States of Zeeland. 1596." Is it rare 1 
In the * Memorial for the Bible Societies 
in Scotland,' 1824, by the late Very Rev. 
Principal Lee, then minister of the Canon- 

gate Church in Edinburgh, the following 
note is to be found at p. 49 : 

" Many editions of the Psalms and Catechisms of 
the Church of Scotland were printed on the con- 
tinent The writer of this paper possesses three 

copies of different editions two printed at 

Middleburgh, one in 1594, and another in 1597, also 
a third at Dort, 1603." 

Principal Lee, who was in early life assistant 
to the celebrated Carlyle of Inveresk, is dis- 
guised as an archdeacon in Hill Burton's 
chapter on ' Mighty Book-hunters,' where 
it is related of him that on his return to 
Edinburgh from a short visit to London he 
was followed by a waggon containing 372 
copies of rare editions of the Bible which he 
had purchased. He may have become pos- 
sessed of a copy of this 1596 Psalm Book in 
the interval between 1824 and 1859, the year 
of his death ; but in Cotton's ' Editions of 
the Bible,' second edition, 1852, p. 156, Mr. 
Lea Wilson is the only person named as 
possessing a copy. I have not met with any 
other mention of this 1596 edition. W. S. 

" DAVIES, ESQUIRE." According toBetham's 
'Baronetage,' Hester, daughter of Sir Francis 
Edwards, of Shrewsbury, second baronet, who 

died in Ireland 1690, married "Da vies, 

Esq.," of Stanton Lacy (and Marsh?), co. 
Salop. I wish to ascertain the Christian 
name of this Davies or Davis, and the names 
of his children ; and if he was identical with 

the Davis, of Cork, whose daughter Hester 

married Richard Heacock by Cloyne dio- 
cesan marriage licence bond dated 1728. 
Will any correspondent of ' N. & Q.' kindly 

Dundrum, co. Down. 

BURIAL OF ALARIC. Alaric was buried 
with the treasures of Rome around him in the 
bed of the river Busentinus, or, as it is now 
called, Busento. Gibbon tells the story, and 
gives Jornandes as his authority. In Smith's 
* Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography ' 
Orosius is also referred to. Do any other 
historians who were not mere copyists of 
one or both of the above mention the terrible 
circumstances which attended this funeral ? 
It may be well to add that Cameron, in his 
'Across Africa/ ii. 110, speaks of burial 
beneath the bed of a river. 

[See 5 th S. ix. 248, 331, 372 ; x. 39, 218.] 

" LANSPISADOES." This word is in a note 
to Southey's ' Poet's Pilgrimage to Waterloo,' 
taken from Grimestone's 'History of the 
Netherlands,' relating to the siege of Ostend. 
As it is sandwiched in a death-roll by ranks 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 3, 1901. 

between "corporals" and " soldiers," it should 
mean lance-corporals ; but what is the word ? 

H. P. L. 

" CHANCERY." At 9 th S. vii. 487 a Scottish 
correspondent uses "chancery platform," as 
meaning the elders' platform in a church. 
Is this a widely known phrase ? Neither the 
* H.E.D.' nor the ' E.D.D.' records it. 

Q. V. 

(9 th S. vii. 187, 293, 353.) 

1. COLIN CAMPBELL, first of Ardkinglass, 
second son of Sir Colin Campbell, thirteenth 
Knight of Lochow (Wood's 'Douglas's Pee rage,' 
vol. i. p. 87), was father of (1) John, who suc- 
ceeded him ; (2) Sir Duncan, ancestor of the 
Campbells of Arden tinny (Burke's 'Landed 
Gentry '). 

2. John Campbell, second of Ardkinglass, 
"Iain Riabhaich" (freckled John), had a 
charter from Duncan Campbell, Lord of 
Lochow (first Lord Campbell), 6 May, 1428, 
in which he is designated " dilecto nepote suo 
Joanni Campbel filio et hseredi Fratris sui 
Colini Campbel de Ardkinglass' (Crawfurd's 
' Peerage,' p. 16). Described as " Joh. Cam- 
bell de Ardchinglass," he is mentioned as 
witness to a charter, 4 August, 1442 ('Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 1424-1513,' No. 346). 

3. [Colin] Campbell [of Ardkinglass, 1448] 
was probably father of (1) John, afterwards 
of Ardkinglass ; (2) Gillespie; and (3) Duncan 
('Hist. MSS. Com., Third Report,' App., 
p. 390). Mary Campbell, who married Duncan 
(" Ladasach ") McGregor of that ilk (Douglas's 
'Baronage,' p. 502), and Margaret Campbell, 
who married Alexander, sixth Earl of Craw- 
ford (Wood's ' Douglas's Peerage,' vol. ii. 
p. 378), were probably daughters. Burke's 
' Peerage' (' Campbell of Blythswood ') is the 
authority for the name Colin and the date 
1448, but confuses him with the first laird. 
As John, Gillospie, and Duncan were appa- 
rently still under age in 1486, it seems most 
probable that they were not children of John 
Campbell, the second laird, but of a successor. 

^ 4. John Campbell of Ardkinglass is men- 
tioned in a destination of the lands of the 
barony of Knapdale, 26 February, 1480/1, and 
another destination of the lands of Dollar, 
31 January, 1493/4 in both immediately after 
Campbell of Ormidale ('Reg. Mag Sig 
1424-1513,' Nos. 1464, 2354). He is mentioned 
as a witness to a charter, 30 July, 1511 (ibid., 
No. 3622). He married a daughter of Walter, 
fifteenth Laird of Buchanan gift by Colin 

Earl of Argyll, Chancellor of Scotland, to 
Walter Buchquhannan of that ilk, ot the 
marriage of John Campbell of Ardfinglace 
with a daughter of the said Walter, 22 June, 
1486 ('Hist. MSS. Com., Third Report,' App., 
p. 390). He seems to have had at least three 
sons : (1) Colin, who succeeded ; (2) Dougall, 
married Janet, daughter of Patrick Graham 
of Inchbrakie, by whom (who married 
secondly Robert Buchanan, seventh of Leny) 
he had James, who succeeded to Ardkinglass 
('Strathendrick,' p. 293); (3) Patrick, men- 
tioned 12 December, 1531 ('Reg. Mag. Sig., 
1513-46,' No. 1099); and probably a daughter, 
who married Archibald Campbell of Auchen- 
breck (Douglas's 'Baronage,' p. 61). 

5. Colin Campbell of Ardkinglass, men- 
tioned 22 January, 1527/8 ('Reg. Mag. Sig., 
1513-46,' No. 556), married first Matilda, 
daughter of Hugh, first Earl of Eglinton 
(Wood's 'Douglas's Peerage,' vol. i. p. 498); 
secondly Beatrix Colquhoun, who survived 
him, and is mentioned 26 September, 1566, as 
then wife of William Stirling (' The Lennox,' 
vol. ii. p. 270). He died between 31 May, 
1562, and 26 May, 1564 ('Reg. Mag. Sig., 
1546-80,' No. 1592), without male issue ; but 
it is probable he was the Campbell of Ard- 
kinglass whose daughter married first Mac- 
naughton of Dunderave, and secondly Alas- 
tair McGregor of Glenstrae (' Black Book of 
Taymouth,' p. 64). 

6. Sir James Campbell of Ardkinglass suc- 
ceeded his uncle about 1564. He married 
Elizabeth Campbell, mentioned 31 March, 
1568 ('Reg. Mag. Sig., 1546-80,' No. 2132), 
and was father of (1) John, who succeeded ; 
(2) Alexander, born probably about 1555, 
appointed Bishop of Brechin 1566, while 
still a boy ; married first Margaret Beatoun, 
secondly, Helen Clephane, died February, 
1608 (Scott's 'Fasti,' vol. vi. p. 889); (3) 
Mr. Dougall ('Reg. Mag. Sig., 1593-1608,' 
No. 440), probably identical with the 
minister of Farnell and Dean of Brechin, 
born about 1557, married Katherine Makcure, 
daughter of John Makcure, burgess of Edin- 
burgh, died before 8 July, 1633 (Scott's 
'Fasti,' vol. vi. p. 827). In the 'Fasti' the 
Bishop of Brechin is called son of John 
Campbell of Ardkinglass, but it is evident 
that this must be an error for James. Sir 
James Campbell died between 9 February, 
1590 ('R.P.C. Scot.,' vol. iv. p. 457), and 
2 August, 1591 ('Reg. Mag. Sig., 1580-93,' 
No. 1901). 

7. Sir John Campbell of Ardkinglass is 
described as son and heir of the late Sir 
James Campbell of Ardkinglass, 2 August, 
1591, On 17 September, 1596, he was 

vm. A. 3,1901.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"dilaited of airt and pairt of the crewall 
murthour and slauchteris of vmql. Sir 
Johnne Campbell of Calder, Knycht, com- 
mittit in Februar, 1591," but the diet was 
deserted (Pitcairn's 'Criminal Trials,' vol. i. 
part ii. p. 391). He married first, probably 
about 1583, Annas (Agnes), daughter of Sir 
Colin Campbell, sixth of Glenurchy, her 
" tocher " being 5,000 merks (' Black Book of 
Taymouth, 3 pp. 25, 29). He married secondly 
Jeane Hamiltoun, natural daughter of John, 
first Marquis of Hamilton, and widow of Sir 
Humphrey Colquhoun of Luss ('House of 
Hamilton,' p. 131 ; ' Chiefs of Colquhoun,' 
vol. i. p. 163), described 18 March, 1617, as 
"Lady Lus, relict of Sir John Campbell of 
Ardkinglass " (' R.P.C. Scot./ vol. xi. p. 69). 
He was father of (1) Colin, who succeeded ; 
(2) Mr. Dougall, mentioned 14 June, 1605 (ibid., 
vol. vii. p. 604) ; (3) James (probably a son), 
married, 1628, Anne, daughter of John Bris- 
bane of Bishopton (Robertson's 'Ayrshire 
Families,' vol. i. p. 142) ; (4) Robert, first of 
Rachane (* Book of Dumbartonshire,' vol. ii. 
p. 280). He died about 1616 

8. Sir Colin Campbell of Ardkinglass 
married, probably about 1616, Mary, daughter 
of Sir James Sempill of Beltrees (Hamilton 
of Wishaw's 'Sheriffdoms of Lanark and 
Renfrew,' p. 123; 'Reg. Mag. Sig., 1634- 
1650,' No. 479), by whom he had (1) James, 
who succeeded ; (2) Margaret, eldest daughter, 
married (contract dated 2 May, 1634) James 
Lamond of Inveryne (ibid.) ; and (3) probably 
the wife of Alexander Macnaughton of that 
ilk, though Douglas (* Baronage,' p. 419) calls 
her a daughter of Sir James Campbell of 

9. James Campbell of Ardkinglass matricu- 
lated at Glasgow College March, 1633, as 
eldest son of the Laird of Ardkinglass 
(' Munimenta,' vol. iii. p. 86), married, pro- 
bably about 1640, Isobel Campbell, daughter 
of Sir Robert Campbell, ninth of Glenurchy, 
with whom he had a "tocher" of 10,000 
merks (' Black Book of Taymouth,' p. 91). 
He was father of Colin, who succeeded, and 
had probably also a daughter, who married 
Francis Sempill of Beltrees (Wood's 'Douglas's 
Peerage,' vol. i. p. 494). 

10. Sir Colin Campbell of Ardkinglass was 
created a baronet 23 March, 1679, with remain- 
der to the heirs male of his body (Foster's 
\ M.P.s, Scotland,' p. 49). He was imprisoned 
in 1684 on a charge of high treason, but 
nothing seems to have been proved against 
him (Wodrow's ' History '). After the Revo- 
lution he represented Argyllshire for several 
years in the Scots Parliament. He married 
Helen, daughter of Sir Patrick Maxwell of 

Newark (Foster's ' M.P.s, Scot.,' p. 49), and 
died in April, 1 709 (' Services of Heirs '). 

11. Sir James Campbell, second baronet of 
Ardkinglass, born aoout 1666, was served 
heir to his father Sir Colin Campbell 2 Feb- 
ruary, 1711. He married Margaret, daughter 
of Adam Campbell of Gargunnock, by whom 
he had one son and eight daughters. He 
married secondly (marriage contract dated 
23 August, 1731) Anne, daughter of John 
Callander of Craigforth, and widow of Col. 
John Blackader, without issue. He died 
5 July, 1752, when the baronetcy became 
extinct (Foster's 'M.P.s, Scot.,' p. 55), his 
only son having been drowned while a young 
man. The eldest daughter Jane married 
John Macnaughton of Dunderave, and had 
one son drowned while a boy ('Records of 
Argyll,' pp. 47, 499). A younger daughter 
Helen married Sir James Livingstone of 
Glentirran, Bart., by whom she had, with 
other issue, a son James, afterwards Sir James 
Campbell of Ardkinglass, Bart, (whose son 
Sir Alexander Campbell of Ardkinglass, Bart., 
died s.p. 1810), and a daughter Mary, married 
John Callander of Craigforth, and was great- 
great-grandmother of the present owner of 
Ardkinglass and heir of line of the family, 
George Frederick William Callander of Craig- 
forth. (See Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' editions 
1851 and 1898, and 'Extinct and Dormant 
Baronetcies.') A. W. G. B. 

viii. 82). The Daily Telegraph states, no 
doubt correctly, that Kensington Palace was 
taken out of Westminster and put into Ken- 
sington by the recent revision of boundaries 
under the London Government Act of 1899. 


341, 383, 402, 423, 479, 513 ; vii. 178, 256, 358, 
450). Belonging as I do to the college founded 
in Cambridge by Sir Walter Mildmay, I have 
naturally taken an interest in the Eliza- 
bethan Puritans, particularly such as were 
educated at Cambridge ; I refer to Mildmay 
of Christ's, his friend Laurence Chaderton 
(Fellow of Christ's), Lever, Cartwright, Fulke, 
and others. Having noticed that MR. JONAS, 
in the course of his interesting account of 
Whitgift's Hospital at Croydon, had fallen 
into the old error into which others had 
fallen before him, and had represented Cart- 
wright as the author of the ' Admonition to 
Parliament,' I naturally thought there would 
be no harm in explaining that Cartwright 
was not really the author of the celebrated 
'Admonition,' though several writers had 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 3, 1901. 

stated that he was. This explanation I sup- 
posed MR. JONAS would readily receive. He 
preferred to adhere to the old mistake, and 
wrote two or three articles in ' N. & Q.' in 
defence of it. 

I now send for publication an extract from 
Brook's 'Life of Cartwright,' which might 
have been sent before, but it escaped my 
notice at the time. But before doing so I 
should like to state that when Cartwright 
gave the names of the authors of the ' Ad- 
monition to Parliament' he expressed himself 
doubtfully of set purpose as to the real authors, 
Field and Wilcox, and said " it is thought " 
they wrote it, because they were then in 
prison for the offence, and he did not wish to 
compromise them by stating positively that 
they were the authors At the same time he 
writes in such a way as to make it clear that 
they, and not himself, were answerable for 
the address to Parliament called, in the terms 
of the day, "The Admonition to the Parlia- 
ment.' I subjoin the extract from Brook's 
4 Life of Cartwright ' to which I have referred 
above (chap, iii., ed. London, 1845) : 

"Numerous mistaken writers, both of former and 
later times, have fathered the ' Admonition ' on Mr. 
Cartwright, one of whom affirms not only that 
Mr. Cartwright was chief of the party who sought 
to obtain the Geneva Church government, but also 
to attain this object that he exposed himself to 
many dangers, both of liberty and life, appearing to 
justify himself and his party in many remonstrants, 
especially the 'Admonition to the Parliament.' 
This author adds that Mr. Cartwright was the 
author and publisher of the ' Admonition ' printed 
in 1572, which came out with the approbation of 
the whole party.* Authors have been unsparing 
in almost every kind of abuse against Mr. Cart- 
wright for this publication ; whereas he was not 
the author, but Mr. John Field and Mr. Thomas 
Wilcocks, for which they were committed to 
Newgate, where they suffered a long and severe 
confinement. An author already cited, who has 
very little regard to correctness, having styled Mr. 
Cartwright ' the great English puritan,' gravely, 
but erroneously, states that he often composed 
admonitions, 'in flight and in exile,' and that they 
were published in the year 1574 ! f The extreme 
sufferings of the two authors awakened the sym- 
pathy and affection of their brethren, who kindly 
visited them in prison, among whom were Drs. 
Fulke, Humphrey, and Wyburn, and Messrs. Lever, 
Crowley, Deering, and Cartwright.":}: 



"PARLOUR" (9 th S. vii. 389; viii. 25). The 
best sitting- room in small cottages of the 
better class is still generally known here as 
the " parlour." The advent of the pianoforte 

* Walton's * Lives,' pp. 250, 295. 

t D'Israeli's 'Charles I.,' vol. iii. p. 266. 

J Strype's 'Parker,' p. 413 (anno 1572). 

has, however, brought with it in not a few 
cases the more high-sounding title of draw- 
ing-room." For many reasons I have a 
decided objection to either parlours or best 
bedrooms ; their purlieus generally impart a 
creepy, uncanny sensation, such as C. C. B. 
perhaps did well to refrain from describing. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

vii. 404; viii. 19). My father entered the 
Honourable East India Company's maritime 
service in 1803. I always heard him describe 
the ceremony as taking place when crossing 
the equator, simply called the line. 

A poem called 'The Nautilus/ by "A 
Sailor," was published in London in 1829, in 
which I find 

The latitude then in, 

Was one degree north of th' imagined line, 
That cuts the globe in twain. 
" A Sailor " then gives the following humorous 
description of the ceremony : 
Now soon across the line we swiftly steer'd, 
When at the bows old Neptune brisk appear'd 
And all his crew, in tar and soot besmear'd. 
The scaffold then was rigg'd, the lather mix'd, 
The razors notch'd, and dropboard loosely fix'd. 
Then he rose first who drew the longest lot, 
Consign'd his visage to the lath'ring pot ; 
They tied a bandage o'er his downcast eyes. 
By Neptune order'd, Triton swift applies 
The well-dipp'd brush, the stuff around him flies 
(And if, perchance, his mouth the patient oped, 
By Neptune question'd, in the brush was poked) ; 
Then with a saw-like razor scrapes amain, 
Plasters the lather on, and scrapes again ; 
Three times this operation is perform'd, 
The god then orders, and the dropboard 's turn'd ; 
He falls back prostrate in the slimy tub, 
Bawls, kicks, and flounces in the briny flood ; 
They loose his hands, he too unbinds his eyes, 
Leaps forth from out the tub, and from them flies. 
Another patient mounts and takes his place. 
With brush and lather Triton daubs his face, 
And scrapes till Neptune gives the dreadful sign, 
Then back he tumbles in the slimy brine. 
The whole were served the same, some more, some 

With brush and razor Triton did caress. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

DR. BARRY (9 th S. vii. 448, 516). I am 
somewhat surprised to hear that during the 
life of Dr. Barry any doubt existed as to his 
being a man. I am aware of the mystery 
surrounding him, but this was only as to his 
origin. It was, indeed, more than' whispered 
that the irascible little doctor was of noble, 
if not of royal birth. My father was 
acquainted with Mr. Guthrie, the well- 
known army surgeon, who told him that it 
was he (Guthrie) who, after Dr. Barry's 



death, made the astounding discovery of the 
sex of his patient. 

About the year 1858, I as a girl and my 
mother were staying with some old friends in 
the country, and our hostess begged us to 
regard leniently the waspish, caustic temper 
of Dr. Barry, her only other visitor. She evi- 
dently had some misgiving as to the view the 
doctor might take of his fellow-guests, and, 
after many years, I recall with pleasure that 
both my mother and I, to the relief of our 
kind hostess, made a not unfavourable im- 
pression on the crotchety gentleman. How 
well I remember him ! a small, irritable man. 
I can still see his tiny hands. He had a pale, 
almost ashen, countenance, with aquiline 
features, pinched and wizened, and crowned 
with an unmistakable flaxen wig. There was 
a daguerreotype portrait of him I forget if 
it much resembled the original, but it is 
probably still in existence. He spoke in a 
squeaky, querulous voice, both well and 
wittily ; and his constant companion was a 
small white dog, almost as cross as its master. 
He had a black servant, arrayed in European 

There is a story told of a son of the ducal 
house of Beaufort, governor or military com- 
mander in some West Indian station, who, 
seeing fit to disagree with Dr. Barry, and 
the argument waxing hot, was seized by the 
doctor and flung out of the window. Humour 
charged the doctor with other scrapes and 
escapades, but whatever predicament he 
found himself in, he was always befriended 
by some powerful unknown hand, and he 
never lacked money. 

About twenty years ago a German news- 
paper contained many details of Dr. Barry's 
life, and most of us know Mark Twain's 
graphic notice of him in 'New Tramps 
Abroad.' R. A. 

1627-1709 (9 th S. vii. 509). This lady was a 
daughter of Sir Simon Harvey, of Whitton, 
and of St. Martin's-in-the Fields, co. Middle- 
sex, Knt., by Ursula his wife, second daughter 
of Richard Wiseman, citizen and merchant 
and goldsmith of London (who died 12 De- 
cember, 1618), and Mary his wife, daughter 
of Robert Browne, of London, Esq. She was 
baptized in the parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, 27 October, 1627, and was married 
25 June, 1655 (after three publications), by 
Tobias Leslie, Esq., at St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
co. Middlesex, to Richard Hopton, son of Sir 
Richard Hopton, of Canon Froome, co. Here- 
ford, the father of each of the parties being 
then deceased. She died at Hereford 12 July, 

and was buried at Bishop's Froome, same 
county, 14 July, 1709. Her husband, who 
appears to have been born circa 1610, was of 
the Inner Temple, barrister-at-law, and a 
Welsh judge 1682 -P He died s.p. 28 Novem- 
ber, arid was buried in Bishop's Froome 
Church 11 December, 1696 (M.I.). Mr. 
Williams, in the work to which E. C. alludes, 
deals with Hopton at some length, and I do 
not deem it necessary for j~our correspondent's 
purpose to state more respecting him. The 
family of Wiseman (as above) was of Terrell's 
Hall, co. Essex. I am unaware of any satis- 
factory evidence in support of the statement 
that Susanna Hopton's father was "of an 
ancient Staffordshire family," although myself 
the present head of a branch of the family of 
Harvey of that county temp. Elizabeth (then 
represented by William, father of Sir James 
Harvey, Lord Mayor of London) and the 
historian of the several important families of 
the name. Sir Simon Harvey was knighted 
by James I. at Theobalds, 3 October, 1623, 
and buried at Isleworth, co. Middlesex, 
4 December, 1628, his nuncupative will of the 
15th of the previous month Deing proved on 
the 9th (P.C.C. Barrington 109). He appears 
to have been brother to Sir John Harvey, of 
London, knighted by Charles I. at Southwick 
16 August, 1628, whose will, dated 15 Sep- 
tember, 1646, was proved 16 July, 1650 
(P.C.C. Pembroke 113). His relict must have 
married again, and died before 5 April, 1671, 
when administration of her effects as "Ursula 
Leighton al's Dame Ursula Harvey, of 
Gattertop, in parish of Hope -under -Din- 
more, co. Hereford," was granted by P.C.C. 
to her said daughter Susanna Hopton (Act 
Book, 1671, fo. 49 b). W. 1. R, V. 

DOWSING (9 th S. viii. 40). Has any one 
ever been prosecuted for using the divining 
rod 1 I am led to ask this question because 
a writer in the Literary World (28 December, 
1900), in reviewing part xxxviii. vol. xv. of 
the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical 
Research, says, "Some of the best known of 
them [the " dowsers "] have been threatened 
with prosecution under the Vagrant Act." 
In December, 1897, the Rev. Dr. Cox gave a 
"talk" at the Town Hall, Northampton, on 
' Water Divining and Water Diviners.' From 
a report of the " talk " which appeared in the 
Northampton Mercurj/ of 17 December, 1897, 
it appears that Dr Cox criticized the then 
recently issued report on the subject by the 
Society for Psychical Research : 

" He asserted, on the authority of his friend Prof. 
Boyd Dawkins, that there was not an ounce of 
scientific evidence in the report from beginning to 
end. It was a collection of newspaper cuttings and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. C"- s. vin. AUG. 3, 1901. 

opinions of believers, among whom was a North- 
amptonshire clergyman, who, like many other re- 
spectable folk, had almost deluded himself into the 
belief that he had * the mystic art.'" 

Water divining was, according to Dr. Cox, 
a sham and a delusion, and "nine-tenths 
of it was more or less humbug." However 
this may be, the subject is certainly 
most interesting, and I have carefully col- 
lected cuttings relating thereto for some 
years. I well remember the correspondence 
in the Fifth and Sixth Series (et seq.) of 
4 N. & Q.,' to which valuable notes were sent 
by several well - known contributors, now, 
alas ! departed from our ranks. I shall be 
glad of additions to the following list of 
novels in which "dowsing" in some form or 
other is introduced : ' The Antiquary,' Sir W. 
Scott; 'This Son of Vulcan,' Sir W. Besant ; 
'A Strange Story,' Lord Lytton ; 'Arminell.' 
S. Baring-Gould ; 'The Water Finder,' Lucas 
Cleeve : ' The Birthright,' Joseph Hocking ; 
'The Dagger and the Sword,' Joseph Hatton. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

TRIALS OF ANIMALS (8 th S. xii. 48, 115, 174, 
334). Most of these appear to have occurred 
in the Middle Ages, so that the following 
story of a Russian lady of high rank who 
lived not so many years ago might seem to 
be illustrative only of some individual eccen- 
tricity. There are people, however, who are 
fond of pointing out that Russia is now only 
where England was in mediaeval times, in 
which case the anecdote would perhaps serve 
as a proof of their theory : 

" Elle possedait un petit King-Charles qu'elle 
traitait comme un prince. Elle le couchait dans 
une niche aux rideaux de sole, sur un coussin brod6 
et armorfe", et il etait de"fendu aux domestiques de 
le tutoyer. Un jour, un chat sauta sur le petit 
tresor et 1'egratigna. La vieille demoiselle fit appeler 
son cousin, le marechal de la noblesse, pour juger 
le chat audacieux, qu'elle avait fait emprisonner dans 
une cage. On decida qu'il serait pendu. L'execu- 
tion eut lieu solennellement au fond du jardin, et 
Ton apporta la peau du coupable a la comtesse." 
Victor lissot, ' La Russie et les Russes,' chap. xiii. 
p. 201. 


vii. 169, 331, 396, 515). I have a most remark- 
able specimen of this in a two-volume Bible 
"Printed by Charles Bill and the Executrix 
of Thomas Newcomb, deceas'd, Printers to 
the Queen's most Excel 1 Majesty," 1707. In 
the first volume (Old Testament) the archi- 
tectural title-page is elaborately ruled in red, 
all the lines of the columns, capitals, and 
pediments being thus decorated. The back 
of the title-page, though blank, is also ruled. 

The volume is ruled throughout. The second 
volume contains the New Testament (same 
printers and date) and the metrical Psalms 
of Sternhold and Hopkins, "Printed by 
William Pearson for the Company of 
Stationers," 1707. Both the Testament and 
the Psalrns are ruled throughout, the title- 
pages most elaborately so with double, triple, 
and quadruple lines. An interesting feature 
of the volumes lies in the mounts (corners, 
panels, and clasps), of which there are four- 
teen on each volume, all of the Queen Anne 
period and engraved with the outlined 
arabesques of the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century. EDWARD HERON-ALLEN. 

I have a curious old family Bible ot 1671, 
copiously illustrated with full-page copper- 
plates, and including Sternhold and Hop- 
kins's metrical version of the Psalms, in 
which the recto and verso of every page, 
including illustrations, are ruled and double- 
ruled by a pen in red ink, some 1,500 pages. 
The book was probably in Little Gidding 
after Nicholas's time, and was also for a time 
in possession of descendants of Nicholas's 
friend the great Dr. Donne, of St. Paul's. 

I have also another red-lined religious book, 
the Communion Service, or Office, used in 
St. Lawrence Jewry by its rector, Dr. John 
Mapletoft, Nicholas's grand-nephew and god- 
son a curious little book, consisting of the 
office (removed from a Prayer Book) and a 
large number of prayers, about 120 pages. 
The office is in 16 pages, in the middle of the 
prayers, these being all in the rector's own 
handwriting. He was born in 1630, seven 
years before the death of Nicholas, and he 
died in 1720, still rector. The pages are, like 
the Bible, hand-ruled throughout, excepting 
the 16 printed pages, with red ink. Both books 
are bound in the Little Gidding manner, and 
are quaint links in an invisible chain connect- 
ing a City church with the remote religious 
community in Huntingdonshire. 


Little Gidding, in Baling. 

One of the best examples of hand -ruling is 
the register or roll of the gild of Knowle 
This book is in the Birmingham Free Library, 
and the bold, bright red lines throughout 
some not written on are as clear as the day 
on which they were ruled. 



"FALL BELOW PAR" (9 th S. yii. 488). I 
cannot vouch for the authenticity of the 
story. How wary one must be in this matter 
of sayings is, for instance, shown by the fact 
that neither the famous " Ich habe keine Zeit, 

9". s. viii. AUG. 3, 1901.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


miide zu sein," attributed to old William, nor 
the equally famous " Lerne zu leiden ohne zu 
klagen," with which the Emperor Frederick 
is credited, was ever spoken by them, as has 
been certified to the editors of the newest 
edition of Biichmann's ' Gefliigelte Worte ' by 
the highest authority of course, not directly. 
I can only say that a similar anecdote was, 
on the occasion of the ninetieth birthday of 
our old Emperor, generally circulated in our 
daily papers. But it was not a Rothschild 
who was related to have said, " Majestat, ich 
nehme Sie nicht unter Pari" there is no 
Rothschild who was on familiar terms with 
the sovereign but Baron von Kohn, a resi- 
dent of Dessau, who, having had an oppor- 
tunity in the critical year of 1848 of rendering 
a great service to him, had since become his 
Court banker. DR. G. RRUEGER. 


ST. BARNABAS'S DAY, 11 JUNE (9 th S. vii. 
445). The old saying, 

Barnaby bright, Barnaby bright, 

The longest day and the shortest night, 

must have been written at any rate prior to 
1752, when the Old Style was changed for the 
New and an alteration of several days made 
in the calendar. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

THE LETTERS OF JUNIUS (9 th S. viii. 41). 
Is it possible that Dr. Routh for once forgot 
to "verify his quotations"? The Dean of 
Norwich from 1765 to 1790 was Dr. Philip 
Lloyd, according to Le Neve's 'Fasti' (ed. 
Hardy, ii. 477). I do not find any further 
information as to " a Mr. York, in the Foreign 
Office," in the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' but the clue 
is worth following up. C. E. D. 

[Our correspondent is right and Dr. Routh is 
wrong : Dr. Parr's candidate for Junius was 
Charles Lloyd, brother to the Dean above mentioned 
and private secretary to Grenville. See Parr's 
Works, ed. Johnston (1828), vol. vii. p. 677.] 

GLADSTONE VOLUME (9 th S. vii. 488 ; viii. 21). 
-Whilst agreeing with MR. J. B. McGovERN 
in his general estimate of the article that 
appeared in the Daily Telegraph of 5 January, 
1898, I cannot think he has employed the 
right epithet in calling it "lengthy." It was 
long, but not lengthy, and when I read it I 
wished it had been as long again. The reasons 
for letting this composition " lie in unworthy 
oblivion " are probably comprised in the one 
word "Copyright" which heads the article. 
A note records the fact that it was also 
'copyright in the United States and Canada 
by the Youth's Companion" in which publica- 
tion I believe it simultaneously appeared. 
It is to be regretted that the owners of the 

English copyright have not permitted its 
republication in this country in a suitable 

Mr. Gladstone mentioned in this article 
the small volume of verse, printed in 1830, of 
which he still possessed a copy presented to 
him by the author. Of this rare volume 
only five or six copies seem to be in existence. 
He referred particularly to a poem standing 
as No. 1 of * Meditative Fragments,'* and 
addressed to "My bosom friend." Mr. Glad- 
stone added that while no name was given, 
internal evidence admitted of an identifica- 
tion beyond all reasonable doubt, and he 
quoted the lines : 

Like a bright, singular dream 

Is parted from me, the strong sense of love 

Which, as one indivisible glory, lay 

On both our souls, and dwelt in us, so far 

As we did dwell in it. 

This friend was with Hallam during the 
latter's visit to Italy in 1827-8, for he says : 
Thine eyes look cheerful, even as when we stood 
By Arno, talking of the maid we loved. 

Who was he 1 Mr. Gladstone described him 
as a person 

"possessed of intellectual powers above the vulgar 
strain, yet by no means remarkable ; and endowed 
with a capacity of tenacious, loyal, and warm- 
hearted friendship such as is rarely met with." 

I may conclude by venturing the opinion 
that Mr. Gladstone was the author of the 
brief but eloquent "appreciation " of Arthur 
Hallam which was printed towards the end 
of the preface of Mr. Hallam's edition of his 
son's 'Remains.' W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

These addresses were published by the 
Youth's Companion of Boston in its issue 
of 6 Jan., 1898. They were afterwards issued 
as one of its "Companion Classics" by the 
Perry Mason Publishing Company, of Boston. 

Brookline, Mass. 

AMERICAN SLANG (9 th S. viii. 43). As bear- 
ing upon the point noticed at this reference, 
a " bunt," according to an authority cited by 
the 'H.E.D.,' means "a push with a knock in 
it, or a knock with a pusn in it "; and a " bunt 
ahead" would mean a "push ahead." The 
'E.D.D.' gives meanings peculiar to dialect 
usage, but it does not give all the meanings. 
The weaver is mentioned in connexion with 
the word, but the reeler is omitted. When 
a cotton-yarn reeler delivers in her work she 
is said to " bunt.*' In the cases both of the 
cloth made by the weavers and the knots or 
skeins made by the reelers the work is de- 

* Misprinted in the Daily Telegraph ' Meditation 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. AUG. s, 1901. 

livered in the form of bundles. The expres- 
sion, however, in the case of the cloth is 
applied to that which used to be made on 
the handlooms at home, and does not apply 
to that now made in the weaving sheds. 
With regard to the yarn, each knot also is in 
the form of a bundle, and one may surmise 
that the reeler makes the bundles of ,yarn in 
a similar sense to that in which she " bunts" 
or coils her hair at the back of her head. 
Also the man who carries the knots forward 
to the next stage of manipulation is said to 
" bunt for t' reelers." For the different mean- 
ings cf. also butt, bunch, and bounce. 


" Bunt "=to butt can hardly be considered 
slang; the 'H.E.D.' takes note of it, and it 
is still in familiar use, at any rate here in 
Warwickshire. BENJ. WALKER. 

Gravelly Hill, Erdington. 

THE NATIONAL FLAG (9 th S. v. 414, 440, 457, 
478; Supplement, 30 June, 1900; vi. 17, 31, 
351, 451, 519 ; vii. 193 ; viii. 67). I do not 
know why MR. ROWE should apply so strong 
an expression as " very glaring error " to a 
perfectly simple matter, but perhaps the 
extreme heat is to blame. 

I am quite unable to see where my " very 
glaring error " comes in. If MR. ROWE will 
(1) draw two saltires of equal width, one 
white, the other white surcharged with 
St. Patrick's red cross, (2) then halve them 
throughout, and (3) rearrange half the halves 
of the one with the opposite pieces of the 
other, he will surely find himself looking on 
the saltires of St. Andrew and St. Patrick 
"dimidiated per saltire." I think he will 
also see on consideration that the expression 
"per saltire" renders unnecessary the addi- 
tion of "quarterly" or any other word. 

Is not MR. ROWE committing the "very 
glaring error" of mistaking dimidiation for 
ordinary division per pale, per bend, &c. ? 

Some of your readers may like to know 
that Mr. Barlow Cumberland, the chairman 
of the Marine Section of the Board of Trade, 
Toronto, has just published a second edition 
of his l History of the Union Jack : How it 
Grew and what it Is' (8vo, pp. i-xii, 13-324). 
The preface is dated 1 October, 1900. The 
title-page, sad to say, is dateless. There is 
much interesting information as to the vicis- 
situdes of the "Jack" in the. North American 
colonies. Q_ y 

"HlLL ME UP" (9 th S. iii. 285, 435, 496; iv. 
' Hilling " and " happing," that now in 
different localities mean the whole of the uppe 

bedclothes, must have stood in the sixteenth 
century for that article only which was 
usually uppermost. In 1509 Dame Alice 
Soothill, of Dewsbury, left to a daughter-in- 
law her " best feder bed, a pair of my best 
shets, a pair of my best blankets, 3 of my 
best pillows, 2 of my best couerlets, a hyllyng 
of a bed of white and blue," &c. ; also to a 
daughter "an hillyng of a bede, light greene 
and sade " (' Records of Batley ') These must 
have been the smart things with which a best 
bed would be covered. 

"Happing," so often mentioned in such 
wills and inventories as those printed by the 
Surtees Society, means the outermost article : 
it seems to be home made, perhaps netted 
or fancy worked not a "covering," nor a 
"coverlet," nor a "quilt." In 1559 Francys 
Wandysforde left " one hapen and coverlate." 
In 1570 Gerard Salveyn left "ij happings, 
iij cov'letts," &c. ; and Gawyne Swinburne 
left " 14 cou'lets " worth 34s. 4d and twelve 
"happings" worth 20s., the coverlets being 
valued at about 2s. 6d. each, and the " hap- 
pings " at only Is. 8d. These are sometimes 
worth 2s., but often only a few pence. In 
1574 John Cornefurth left "vij happings and 
a coverlet, x s ." When a single bed is in 
question there is commonly one coverlet and 
one "happing," rarely a " twylt," which 
might be worth 4s., and was probably wadded 
for winter use. 

In 1570 William Dagg, of Gateshead, left 
"9 pounds of happin yarne" (probably for 
knitting or netting), worth 3s. Robert 
Richardson, of Durham, left " one thrummed 
happen," which might be simply knitted or 
might be adorned with the "thrums" that 
had their name from the tufted ends of a 
weaver's warp beyond the line to which the 
shuttle could work; also "a list happinge," 
evidently a home-made article. In Holder- 
ness I once heard a child, that in a full house 
had to share his bed with two others, mysti- 
fied with the information that he would sleep 
"in the cold middle where there is neither 
room nor happing." THOS. BLASHILL. 

GUN REPORTS (9 th S. vii. 207, 258, 493). 
The following is taken from 4 The Pytchley 
Hunt, Past and Present,' by the late H. O. 
Nethercote, Esq. (1888), p. 9 : 

"A remarkable instance of the far-reaching 

power of sound is given in the interesting Diary, 
written in Latin in the seventeenth century 
(admirably translated by the Rev. Robert Isham), 
of Mr. Thomas Isham of Lamport Hall. It is there 
stated that during the naval engagement between 
the English and French combined fleets on the one 
hand and the Dutch on the other, in 1672, the 
report of the guns was distinctly heard at Brixworth 
[Northamptonshire]. It was in this action that 

9* s. vm. AUG. 3, i9oi.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Lord Sandwich, the admiral, was blown up in his 
ship with eight hundred of his men, though the 
Dutch were defeated and were pursued to the coast 
of Holland by the English fleet. If this story be 
correct and some may be tempted to say ' Credat 
Judieus ' the voice of the cannon must have 
travelled a distance of over 120 miles, Southwold 
[where the battle took place] being at the mouth 
of the Blythe, twenty-eight miles north-east of 
Ipswich. In 1827, during the battle of Navarino, 
Mr. John Vere Isham, then quartered at Corfu, 
distinctly heard the firing at a distance of at least 
200 miles ; and on the naval reception of the Sultan 
by the Queen at Portsmouth, the sound of guns 
discharged on the Welsh coast was plainly dis- 
tinguished at Portsmouth." 


ALUM (9 th S. viii. 45). Alum stone is said 
to have been found at Tolfa by John di 
Castro about A.D. 1460. After John di 
Castro's discovery the manufacture and sale 
were carried on for a considerable period by 
the Holy See, importation from Turkey and 
elsewhere being prohibited by Pius II. and 
several of his successors. Christians who 
did not purchase direct from Rome were 
threatened with excommunication, and the 
same procedure was adopted against those 
engaged in the manufacture of alum outside 
the Pope's temporal jurisdiction, in order to 
compel them to close their works. At the 
same time great care seems to have been 
taken to prevent foreigners from acquiring a 
knowledge of the process of boiling alum. 

This monopoly caused such an injury to 
trade, owing to the high prices charged, that 
the Council of Inquiry held at Bruges in 
1504 by Philip the Fair opened up negotia- 
tions with the intention of obtaining supplies 
from Turkey (from which country alum had 
been obtained in large quantities previous to 
1460) ; but Julius II., who then occupied the 
Pontifical chair, threatened the Council with 
excommunication, consequently the negotia- 
tions fell through. 

For a full description of the means taken 
to obtain and preserve this monopoly, see 
Beckmann's 'History of Inventions,' vol. i. 
(London, H. G. Bohn, 1846). 


Glandore Gardens, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

THE SURNAME KEMP (9 th S. vii. 427). 
The Latin campus has passed with its original 
meaning of "field" into French (as champ}, 
as well as into Old English, Frisian, and 
Low German. Here it formerly denoted an 
enclosed piece of land not belonging to the 
community, but to a single owner, but in 
Westphalia at least it signifies nowadays 
simply a field. "Hei is op en Kamp" = he 
is working in his field. There are still place- 

names extant formed with camp, Kamp, also 
with change into High German Kampf(en\ 
Kampf(en\ e.g., Heidekamp in Holstein, the 
town of Kampen in Holland ; but especially 
numerous are the Westphalian surnames 
compounded with it, so much so that such 
a name gives you a clue as to the origin of 
the family. Such are Kamp, Kamp, Kemp, 
Kempf, Te Kampe (comp. the English Atte 
Camp), Kampe, Von dern Kampe, Van Kampen, 
latinized a Kempis (Thomas a Kempis) ; from 
what grows on it, Has(s)elkamp, Berken-, 
Wede-, Distel- kamp; from animals, Hasen-, 
Kreien-, Uhlen- kamp; from what is built 
thereon or connected with it, Briiggen-, 
Kotten-, Miihlen-, Pohl-, Wasser- kamp; from 
size and situation, Hof-, Ho-, Korten-, 
Langen-, Ost-, West- kamp. Derivatives 
are Kamper, Kemper, i.e., one who lives in 
a "Kamp"; there are Holt-, Lehm-, Roggen-, 
Kies-, Strot- (=strasse), Slid- kemper. Com- 
pounds with Kamp are Kampmann, Kamp(f)- 
meyer, Kamineyer, Kampf- miiller, -schulte, 
-wirt, -franz. These and the forms "De 
Campo," " De Cainpis," " Atte Camp," abund- 
antly show that the surname under con- 
sideration has reference to the place of abode 
only, not to the other meaning of " campus," 
as the place where battles and fights took 
place (see Albert Heintze, 'Die deutschen 
Familien-Namen,' &c., Halle a. S., 1882). 


THE CARSON'S NOSE (8 th S. x. 496; xi. 33, 
92 ; xii. 58). Remembering the query about 
the above term, it occurred to me that the 
following verse of a comic song which was 
lately brought to my notice might prove of 
interest to your readers : 

They all had a 'tater 

Out of my dish for luck ; 

They upset all my gravy, 

Somebody collared the duck, 

And back the pudding they threw at me 

And ruined my Sunday clothes, 

And all they left was a lump of the dish 

And a bit 01 the parson's nose. 

Selwood, Churchfields, Weybridge. 

QUOTATIONS (9 th S. vi. 489 ; vii. 74, 170, 
497).' Classical and Foreign Quotations ' 
attributes "Les amis, ces parents que Ton 
se fait soi-meme," to Emile Deschamps. The 
authorship is, however, considered doubtful. 
Two other quotations containing similar 
ideas are also given. " Un livre est un 
ami qui ne trompe jamais " is attributed 
in 'The New Dictionary of Foreign Ph rases,' 
published last year, to Guilbert de Pixere- 
court. ' Classical and Foreign Quotations ' 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL AUG. 3, 1901. 

says of it, u a line that Pixerecourt had 
stamped on each volume in his library. 
Possibly the inquirer's, attribution to Desbar- 
reaux Bernard refers to an earlier date. 
"Veuve d'un peuple-roi, mais reine encore 
du monde," is attributed by the first-men- 
tioned authority to Gilbert [ate]. A dictionary 
of quotations with exact references in every 
case is one of the publications that students 

LOTUS FLOWERS AND LOTAHS (9 th S. vii. 346, 
472). In Kipling's story of 'The Daughter 
of the Regiment/ Mulvaney tells how, when 
the men were stricken with cholera, " Quid 
Pummeloe " 

"turns up her sleeves and steps out for a well 
behind the rest-camp little Jhansi trotting behind 
wid' a lotah an' string, an' the other women folio win 
like lambs, wid' horse-buckets an' cookin'-pots. 
In Mr. J. L. Kipling's illustration little 
Jhansi leans against the well where her 
mother is drawing water, and holds by a 
string a tiny globular, narrow-necked pot, 
similar in shape to the larger one upon the 
ground beside her. The familiarity of author 
and illustrator with East Indian matters 
makes this authoritative. It agrees also 
with the ' Century Dictionary's ' definition of 
"lotah " as "a globular or melon-shaped pot, 
usually of polished brass, used in the East 
Indies for drawing water, drinking, and 
ablutions," and also with its illustrative 
quotation from J. W. Palmer's ' The New and 
the Old,' to the effect that a "dismayed 
sirdar found the head of a fourth [kitten] 
jammed in the neck of his sacred lotah," used 
for " his pious ablutions." 

New York. 

LORD DONORE (9 th S. viii. 64). Sir Henry 
Docwra was created Lord Docwra of Cool- 
more in 1620, and in a list of Irish peers 
given in Beatson's ' Political Index' for 1786 
his name appears next to that of Lord Caul- 
field, Baron Charlemont (1620), and above 
the names of Viscount Valentia (1621), Lore 
Blayney (1621), and Lord Aungier (1621). L 
it riot possible that "Donore" should hav( 
been written " Docwra" in the list mentionec 

In the sixth edition of Sir John Temple't 
'Irish Rebellion,' published in 1724, there i; 
a list of the king's army in Ireland in 1641 
before the rebellion began. Lord Docwn 
commanded one of the foot companies, whicl 
consisted of six officers, viz., captain, lieu 
tenant, ensign, "chyrurgeon," sergeant, and 
drum, and forty-four soldiers. The title wa 
evidently extinct before the year 1682, as i 
is not mentioned in my copy of Sir William 

Dugdale's 'Catalogue of Irish Nobility' 
second edition, 1682). 



Taking into consideration that the next 

reation to that of the "Lord Caulfield " 

among the Irish baronies was the barony of 

)ockwra of Culmore, created in May, 1621, 

and ranking before Aungier, Blayney, and 

Esmond, it seems probable that "Donore" 

s meant for Culmore, which barony would 

otherwise be omitted in the list of the 1634 

Darons. On the death of Theodore, second 

3aron Dockwra of Culmore (L), 19 April, 

650, the title became extinct. G. E. C. 

RAWLINS- WHITE (9 th S. vii. 428, 513). I am 
obliged to MR. J. H. MATTHEWS for his infor- 
mation about Rawlins-White, but confess to 
i feeling of disappointment at his humble 

M. C. L. 

rigin, for I had hoped he might have been 
i,t least a "fisher of men," mayhap a bishop, 
ittle dreaming that a poor Welsh fisherman 

could excite the malice of Queen Mary. 
When was the name of White dropped by 
descendants 1 F. RAWLINS. 

GODLING " (9 th S. vii. 506). A very much 
earlier instance of the use of this word than 
1826 may be found. In the under-mentioned 
dictionaries it is described as meaning "a 
little divinity, a diminutive god " ; John Ash, 
D.D., 1775 ; Samuel Johnson, 1814 ; also of a 
more recent date James Knowles, 1855, and 
Annandale in the 'Imperial Dictionary,' 

Dryden (1631-1700) wrote : 
We puny godlings of inferior race 
Whose humble statues are content with brass. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

" GENTLIER " (9 th S. vii. 468). MR. HUTCHIN- 
SON asks whether there is any precedent for 
the use of the form gentlier as a comparative 
adverb. Shakspeare uses freelier ; and the 
passage in which he so uses it, in ' Corio- 
lanus,' I. iii., is quoted by Johnson in his 
dictionary without comment. So it seems 
clear that Johnson did not think the word 
wrong. The couplet of Tennyson that is 
quoted by MR. HUTCHINSON contains a very 
pretty thought ; but, though not wanting in 
euphony, it does not seem to me remarkably 
euphonious. E. YARDLEY. 

"GRAND TOUR" (9 th S. vii. 509). If MR. 
WHALE has an English instance of the phrase 
"Grand Tour" in 1692, Dr. Murray will 
doubtless be glad to have it for the ' Supple- 
ment' to the 'H.E.D.,' to the fourth volume 

9. s. vm. AUG. s, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of which work MR. WHALE may be referred 
for a use of the phrase, as French, earlier 
than the date he names. Is it worth while 
noting, for the same ' Supplement,' that in 
1856 a book was published entitled ' Gleanings 
after "Grand Tour "-ists,' by R. 1 

O. O. H. 

An earlier reference to the " Grand Tour " 
may be found in the preface to Richard 
Lassel's 'Voyage of Italy, 1670, where he 
says : 

" No man understands Livy and Caesar, Guiccar- 
din and Montluc, like him who hath made exactly 
the Grand Tour of France and the Giro of Italy." 

J. F. FEY. 

RURAL DEANERIES (9 th S. viii. 64). MR. 
HUSSEY appears to have overlooked the pre- 
vious communications to * N. & Q.' on this 
matter. In 2 nd S. ii. 89 he will find a some- 
what similar question, and a reply at p. 120, 
stating that a report was issued by the Com- 
missioners appointed to inquire into the 
Ecclesiastical Revenues of England and 
Wales, which was presented to both Houses 
of Parliament on 16 June, 1835. References 
to other works bearing on the subject in 
5 th S. i. 269, 392, give much valuable informa- 
tion, and iii. 44, 94, the arms of the deaneries. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

'THE SYNAGOGUE' (9 th S. viii. 44). MR. D. 
SMITH may be interested to know that there 
is an illustrated article on Christopher Harvey, 
vicar of Clif ton-on-Dunsmore, Warwickshire, 
author of 'The Synagogue,' in the Rugby 
Magazine for January. In 'The Complete 
Angler' (ch. v.) Walton alludes to Harvey as 
" a reverend and learned Divine " and as " a 
friend of mine," and quotes one of his poems, 
to which he appends the author's name. In 
all subsequent editions of ' The Synagogue ' 
Harvey's name appears on the title-page. 
It is to be regretted that no memorial stone 
marks Harvey's grave at Clifton. According 
to the register he was buried there on 4 April, 
1663. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 


An English Commentary on Dante's Divine Comedy. 
By the Rev. H. F. Tozer, M.A. (Oxford, Claren- 
don Press.) 

IF no royal road to the knowledge of Dante is 
provided the English scholar, it is not for want 
of effort on the part of critics. Apart from the 
voluminous commentaries of Lombardi, Landino, 

Figino, Velutello, and others of the ancients, in 
whose editions "a neat rivulet of text" meanders 
" through a meadow of " explanation, modern 
writers English, Italian, and German have 
rendered important service in supplying a trust- 
worthy text and helpful illustration. Oxford 
scholars have been exemplarily diligent in the 
matter of textual criticism, and the writings of 
Dr. E. Moore and the * Dictionary ' of Mr. Paget 
Toynbee have received merited recognition at our 
hands. The publication by the Clarendon Press 
in a convenient volume of all the works of Dante 
was a boon to scholarship, and its appearance has 
greatly facilitated the task Mr. Tozer has accom- 
plished. The work, as we have proven, is eminently 
helpful. An "argument" is prefixed to each canto, 
and a prefatory note to each of the three main 
divisions and to other portions of the work ; the 
significance of difficult words is explained from 
the poet's own works, and much pains have been 
spent on investigating the authorities on whom 
Dante, who had no Greek, relied. This is a 
specially important feature, since writers such 
as Orosius to whom Dante, in common with 
mediaeval thinkers, turned have now lost all 
authority. The commentary is the same size as the 
edition of ' Tutte le Opere,' and the two volumes 
will stand side by side on the shelves of all lovers 
of Dante. Where passages offering some difficulty 
are reached Mr. Tozer is generally in accord with 
Mr. Toynbee and Dr. Moore. This is but natural, 
the three men working in close association. An 
example of how closely they agree is furnished in a 
note on ' Inferno,' xxviii. 1. 135, on " Re giovane," 
which reading is adopted instead of "Re Gio- 
vanni," in favour of which MS. authority is very 

The Cathedral Church of Ely. By the Rev. W. D 
Sweeting, M. A. The Cathedral Church of Bristol 
By H. J. L. Masse, M.A. The Abbey Churches of 
Bath and Malmesbury and the Church of Saint 
Lawrence, Bradford -on -Avon. Bv the Rev T 
Perkins, M.A. (Bell & Sons.) 

To Bell's admirable "Cathedral Series" and the 
supplementary series of "Great Churches" three 
important additions have been made. First and 
most important is Mr. Sweeting's excellent account 
of Ely, which contests with Wells and Lichfield 
supremacy in loveliness, and is held by its latest 
historian to be, in regard to situation, surpassed 
"only, if at all, in England by Durham and 
Lincoln." Ely can be quite well seen, Mr. Sweet- 
ing tells us, from the tower of Peterborough 
which as the crow flies is about thirty-five miles 
distant. It can, however, be best seen close at 
hand ; and a glorious and an inspiriting object 
when thus seen it is. The view from the south 
which supplies the frontispiece, is exquisite, and 
both the octagon and the lady chapel may rank 
as dreams. Scarcely less impressive is the view 
from the east of the choir. Mr. Sweeting's his- 
torical account of the church, the monastery and 
the see is excellent in all respects. 

An impression of massiveness is conveyed bv 
Bristol Cathedral, the exterior appearance of which 
however, does not assign it a prominent place 
among English cathedrals. Much of the edifice is 
new. Mr. Masse, who is also responsible for the 
account of Gloucester Cathedral, furnishes a full 
description of the edifice and its history. Two of 
the bells in the tower are of pre-Restoration date 


NOTEB AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. AUG. 3, 1901. 

third bell bears the motto "Clara vocor, et clarior 

It is claimed for the Bath Abbey Church that it 
is the last complete ecclesiastical building erected 
before the dissolution of the monasteries. It is 
accordingly treated by Mr. Perkins as the last 
expression of Gothic, then "rapidly approaching 
the hour of its death." In its favour it is also 
advanced that the fine west front is "a genuine 
termination of the building behind it, not a mere 
screen for the display of statuary." Of the Abbey 
Church of Malmesbury but a fragment remains. 
Its towers and transepts have disappeared, and it 
is ruinous at both ends. Its superb south porch 
constitutes its chief glory, and, though now 
crumbling rapidly away, repays a visit to the 
place. The Church of St. Lawrence at Bradford- 
on-Avon is the earliest complete church of which 
we have documentary evidence fixing its dates 
within the limits of a few years. 

The Complete Works of G. 8. Calverley. With a 
Biographical Notice by Sir Walter J. Sendall, 
G.C.M.G. (Bell & Sons.) 

A COMPLETE edition of the works of Calverley can 
scarcely be said to supply a popular want, but it is 
sure of a welcome. Calverley's fame is almost 
confined to academic circles, and his writings may 
never reach the masses. They will never even be 
so well known as the ' Bon Gaultier ' of Aytoun 
and Martin, and will not approach the popu- 
larity of the ' Ingoldsby Legends.' To educated 
men, however, Calverley makes irresistible appeal, 
and such constitute a world large enough to dis- 
pose of successive editions of the work. His 
muse is not strong on the wing, and there is no 
poem in the present volume equalling in mock 
intensity Aytoun's 'Dirge of the Drinker.' His 
poems have, however, grace and delicacy as well as 
humour and lightness of touch, and they will 
always delight the man of taste. We remember to 
have heard ' Gemini and Virgo ' recited by Sir Henry 
Irving, and are never likely to forget either poem 
or recitation. Many of the translations are admir- 
able. We know no translation from Horace quite 
so good as that of the 'Ode to Lyce,' Book IV. 
Ode 13. The renderings from English into Latin 
are beyond praise. It is too late now to attempt a 
fresh eulogy of Calverley, and Sir Walter SendalPs 
bi9graphical notice is adequate. The volume con- 
tains also a capital portrait. 

Index Biblioyraphique. Par Pierre Dauze. (Paris, 

Repertoire des Ventes Publiques Cataloguees.) 
THK new ^volume of the excellent ' Index Biblio- 
graphique' of M. Dauze covers the period from 
1 October, 1897, to 30 September, 1898. It will 
thus be seen that some headway has yet to be made 
before the author and editor comes up to date. It 
represents an immense labour for one man to execute 
the work, which occupies between nine hundred 
and a thousand pages, chronicling the sale of nearly 
thirty thousand items. A table of statistics that 
would enable us to compare the sales in Paris with 
those in London recorded in 'Book -Prices Cur- 
rent' would be of interest. This we are, of course 
unable personally to supply. To the merits of the 
work we have borne frequent testimony, it is 
practically indispensable to the collector, the book- 
buyer, and the bookseller. The only fault we can 
find with it cannot easily be remedied. It is so 
heavy and cumbrous that it is very apt in use to 

become torn. At the same time, useful as it is, it 
is scarcely the book to put in a good binding. If it 
could be issued in a stiff and strong canvas cover, 
at an enhanced price, it would be welcome, and 
would then be one of the works most frequently 
taken off the shelves for the purpose of consulta- 
tion. The price of the lots is much less than in 
sales in England. We have come upon several 
lots sold for 2 fr. each. We hope that the pub- 
lication will be continued, and that it will in time 
get more nearly up to date. 

The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift. Edited by 
Temple Scott. Vol. V. Historical and Politico. 
Tracts. (Bell & Sons.) 

THE fifth volume of Swift's works, now added to 
" Bohn's Standard Library," comprises twenty-two 
tracts, beginning with the very trenchant 'Short 
Character of Thomas, Earl of Wharton.' Though 
constituting an indispensable portion of Swift's 
literary baggage, and thoroughly characteristic of 
the author, these things commend themselves rather 
to the student of history and politics than to the 
general reader. They are, however, all worth study 
for the sake of the style, and are necessary to a 
comprehension of Swift's personality. Mr. Temple 
Scott's introductions and notes are excellent in all 
respects, and this edition of Swift is likely to be 
one most acceptable to scholars. 

Problems and Exercises in English History 
Book B, 1399-1603, by J. S. Lindsey (Cambridge, 
Heffer & Sons), is a mere cram-book, so we canno' 
notice it at length ; but it is well suited for it 
purpose. The hints at the beginning for candidates 
are good. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

W. H. B. H. We must really ask you to add 
the references to your replies, as the rules direct. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 92, col. 1, 1. 8 from bottom, for 
" Colombo" read Colombia; col. 2, 1. 10, for "Gara- 
palta " read Garapata. 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 
The Editor of ' Notes and Queries '"Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 
We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print; and to this rule we can make no exception. 




CONTENTS. No. 189. 

NOTES: King Alfred "the Truth -teller," 117 Rare 
Scotch Tract,, 118 The Miller of Sans Souci : an Oriental 
Analogue Record Voyage across the Atlantic, 119 
Smallest Book Published " Veirium "Leaden Roofs 
"Wicked" Prayer Book, 120 Green Unlucky Stone 
Stocks Epitaph " Fault " in Tennis "Turn," 121 
" Waitress "Butler of Edmonton, 122. 

QUERIES : Consett Somerset, the Protector Curious 
Bad/?e Lockt<ms, of Leicestershire, 122 Lancashire 
Families "Cultivation" Reliquary at Orvieto Hollings- 
worth Portraits of Officers Earl of Kinnoul, 123 Isaac 
Family of Kent Motto of the Ordnance Office Crosdill 
Fisher Family De Morgan and Books Little John's 
Remains, 124 Deputy-Governors of Counties, 125. 

REPLIES : Lamb as Journalist, 125 The ' Marseillaise,' 
126-Knileboard, 127" Three acres and a cow " " Vzesac 
Mihm "Isabel of Portugal Ashwood Family Ships of 
War on Land, 128 Royal Borough of Kensington Hone. 
129 Leigh Hunt Hull Saying Designation of Foreigners 
in Mexico ' Bouzingot "Scott Query, 130 Sweeny 
Todd Chain-mail in the British Army Phillippo Royal 
Borough, 131 -First Earl of Stirling Living in Three 
Centuries, 132 Civil List Pensions John Martin 
Mackesy, 133 Portraits in Dulwich Gallery Transfer of 
Land by "Church Gift" 'Nomenclator Navalis' 
St. Edmund, 134 Lamb Questions "Pint umbit," 135. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Maynadier's 'The Wife of Bath's 
Tale : its Sources and Analogues 'Reviews and Maga- 

Notices to Correspondents. 


IT seems to be Tennyson in his * Ode on the 
Death of the Duke of Wellington ' who has 
made " the Truth-teller " so well known as an 
epithet of King Alfred ; and it seems equally 
certain that Tennyson derived that epithet 
from ' The History of the Anglo-Saxons,' by 
Sharon Turner. This work had considerable 
vogue in the first half of the last century. It 
was first published in 1799-1805, and ran 
through several editions. The sixth, dated 
1836, now lies before me. 

At the end of chap. v. bk. v. vol. ii., Sharon 
Turner writes : 

" We will close our account of Alfred's moral 
character by one remarkable trait. An author who 
lived at the period of the Norman Conquest, in 
mentioning some of the preceding kings with short 
appropriate epithets, names Alfred with the simple 
but expressive addition of ' the truth-teller,' as if 
it had been his traditional character." 

And in a note he refers to ' Hermanni Mira- 
cula Edmundi,' written about 1070 (Cotton 
MS. Tiberius, bk. ii.), which contains the 
phrase " Elueredi Veridici." 

Turner's suggestion that the character was 
traditional is confirmed by the fact that that 
same adjective veridicus is applied to the 

king in the 'Annales Asserii' the Chroni- 
con falsely assigned to Asser. I quote from 
Wise's edition of Asser, 1722, p. 72, at the 
end of the e De Rebus Gestis ^Elfredi,' where 
he informs us " Clausula hsec verbatim pro- 
pemodum ex Pseudo-Asserii Annalibus trans- 
fertur pag. 172, 173," the "Clausula" being as 
follows : 

"Anno Domini 900, ^Elfredus veridicus, vir in 
bello per omnia strenuissimus, rex Occidentalium 
Saxonum nobilissimus, prudens vero et religiosus 
atque sapientissimus, hoc anno, postquam regnasset 
viginti et novem annis et dimidio super totam 
Angliam praeter illas partes quse subditae erant 
Dacis, cum magno suorum dolore viam universitatis 
adiit, die septimo Kalend. Novemb. anno regni sui 
vigesimo nono et dimidio, anno vero eetatis suse 
quinquagesimo primo, indictione quarta. Qui apud 
Wintoniam Civitatem regalem decenter et regali 
honore est sepultus in ecclesia Sancti Petri, Apos- 
tolorum principis. Mausoleum quoque ipsius con- 
stat factum de marmore porphyrio pretiosissimo." 
And then Wise proceeds to cite Henry of 
Huntingdon's well-known lines beginning 
Nobilitas innata tibi probitatis honorem, 
Armipotens ^Elfrede, dedit, probitasque laborem 
Perpetuumque labor nomen, &c., 

iii which, by the way, probitas does not mean 
veracity, as one translator would have it 
mean, rendering the first two verses in this 
wise : 

Thine own greatness inborn, O Alfred mighty in 

Made thee a teller of truth and truth-telling made 

thee a doer. 

Probitas is certainly rightly glossed by T. 
Arnold in his edition of Henry of Huntingdon 
as answering to the French prouesse. So 
Maigne D'Arnis gives as equivalents " gene- 
rositas, animi magnitude, preeclarum facinus, 
factum, prouesse" and for probus he gives 
"miles animo valens preux, brave." What 
is meant is shown clearly enough by 
Geoffrey of Monmouth's use of the word. 
Geoffrey, dedicating his famous work to 
Robert, Duke of Gloucester, speaks of him 
as one "quern innata probitas in militia 
militibus prsefecit," i.e. t " whom his military 
genius has placed in command," literally 
"whom his inborn valorousness or prowess 
in warfare has placed at the head of troops." 
Similarly, when Alfred is described by 
Matthew of Westminster, anno 868, as 
"juvenis admirandse probitatis," what is 
praised is his vigorous soldiership. 

Wise quotes from the pseudo- Asser a 

second passage in which the epithet of 

"truth-teller" occurs (see his 'Prafatio,' 

. xxix): "Quod a domino meo Alfredo 

Anglo-Saxonum rege veridico etia,m ssepemihi 

referente audivi." 

Thus there are at least three instances in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 10, 1001. 

writings certainly of not later date than the 
twelfth century in which King Alfred is 
styled veridicus. Have any more been noted ? 

THERE has recently come into my posses- 
sion a poetical tract, which, if it be not 
absolutely unique, is of the greatest rarity. 
It is not mentioned by Mr. J. P. Edmonds in 
his 'Aberdeen Printers,' 1886, as one of the 
issues of Edward Raban's press ; nor, after 
diligent inquiry, can I trace the existence of 
any other copy than the one now before me. 
I quote the title-page exactly as it stands : 

Converts-Cordiall : 

The Penitents Pass-tyme. 


Varietie of Spirituall Meditations ; 

Serving for the Soulls Solace. 

By M. D. Lynd : 

[Floral ornament.] 

Imprinted by Edward Raban, 

Laird of Letters : 

And are to bee sold at his Shop, 

in th' end of the Broad-gate, 1644. 

It will be observed from this title-page that 
Raban quaintly designates himself " Laird of 
Letters." In this same year and the year 
following two other books were issued from 
his press, each bearing the same fanciful 
designation. These are all the known in- 
stances, as far as I can make out, of his 
having done so. 

I have no hesitation whatever in assigning 
the authorship of * The Converts Cordiall ' to 
Mr. David Lyndesay, minister of the parish 
of Belhelvie, Aberdeenshire. We know that 
he was the author of a work printed by 
Raban in 1642, and as no copy is now known 
to exist, the following entry is "a conjec- 
tural restoration of the title-page" from 
particulars preserved by John Spalding in 
his 'Memorialls' ('Aberdeen Printers,' 1886, 
p. 72) :- 

"1642. Lyndsay David. Scotlandis Halleluiah, 
by Mr. Dauid Lyndsay, Persone of Balhelvie. 
Aberdene, Printed by Edward Raban, 1642." 

From its title there can be no doubt that this 
last production was in verse ; but Lyndesay's 
'A Dolorous Expression' and 'An Eclog,' 
which he contributed to ' Funerals of a Right 
Reverend Father in God, Patrick Forbes, of 
Corse, Bishop of Aberdene,' printed by Raban 
in 1635, will be found in the republication of 
that work by the Spottiswoode Society in 
1845 (pp. 11-17). The following brief refer- 
ence to Lyndesay is taken from Maidment's 

'Catalogues of Scotish Writers' (1833, 
p. 124) : 

"Mr. David Lindesay, parson of Bohelvie, in the 
province of Finmartine. He was a piouse and 
zealouse preacher. He wrote severall Poems. He 
was of the antient noble familie of the Lindesays 

of ." 

Lyndesay died on 23 November, 1667, aged 
about eighty-four years. 

On the verso of the title-page reproduced 
above there is an address in prose " To the 
Christianly disposed Reader," subscribed 
simply D. L. ; and from the opening para- 
graph it would appear that there was an 
earlier impression of what the author is 
pleased to call " this little Treatise " : 

" This little Treatise did (not long ago) adven- 
ture the worlds Theater, vnder the Patrpcinie of a 
then militant; but now triumphant Ladie. And it 
beeing much worn out of Press, hath showed it 
self now the second tynie, with enlargement ; and 
that vnder the shelter of the present matrimoniall 
consort, and comfort of my Noole Patron, I. E. K. 
[John, Earl of Kinghorn]." 

On the page immediately following this 
address there is a metrical dedication, which 
I shall quote in full. The " Lady Elizabeth, 
Now Countes of Kingorn," was Lady Eliza- 
beth Maule, only daughter of Patrick, first 
Earl of Panmure. She married John, second 
Earl of Kinghorn (the title was afterwards 
merged in that of Strathmore), as his second 
wife. The earl died in 1647. On 30 July, 
1650, " Lady Elizabeth " married again ; her 
second husband was George, Earl of Linlith- 
gow. She died at Castle Huntly in 1659, and 
had the uncommon experience of being 
mother to no fewer than three earls Strath- 
more, Linlithgow, and Callendar : 

Vertues Paragon, 


Truelie-Noble Lady, 
The Lady Elizabeth, 
Now Countes of Kingorn. 
When thyne endowments admirablie rare, 
Were first divulgate, by celebrious fame ; 
I stood amazed, with a doubting ear : 
Till I should take some notice of the same. 
Then (Saba-lyke) when I approch'd to thee, 
I found thy worth, exceed fames herauldrie. 

I saw thy statelie port, voyd of disdayn : 
I heard thy words, both ponderous and sage. 
I saw the Symptoms, of thy prudent brayn, 
Rare for a woman, wondrous for thyne age. 
Besyde all those (which beautifyes the rest,) 
Grace hath a shryne, within thy sacred brest. 

Go on (graue Ladie) treade the wayes of Grace ; 
Harbour the Vertues, Morall, and Divine : 
Bee Hymens glorie, dignifie thy Race, 
And to true Honour, let thy heart encline. 
So shalt thou bee, for Vertue, and Renown : 
Thy Makers Darling, and thy Husbands Crown. 

9*8. viii. AUG. 10,1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


I haue (Madame) in Honour of your Worth, 
Sent you this Poem, speaking Divine Songs ; 
First, daign to own it ; Then conduct it forth, 
And giue it shelter, from Sarcastick wrongs : 
So shall my Muse (most Noble Patroness,) 
Remayn the Herauld of Your Worthiness. 
To your La : service, duelie & truelie devoted, 

M. Da : Lyndesay. 

It may be noted that the prevailing senti- 
ment of the tract throughout is of a religious 
character, oftentimes quaintly expressed, 
and the metrical form similar to what has 
just been quoted. One of the principal 
poems is entitled ' Of Mordecai, Cousin 
German, to Esther.' The following are two 
additional specimens of our author's muse : 


Envyous Carper, if this Work were thyne ; 
(As it stands guarded, by this statelie Dame,) 
Thou shouldst commend it; But because it's myne, 
With high disdayn, thou wilt maligne the same. 
Spew out thy Malice, in thy furious fit ; 
My Shelter shall bee Antidote for it. 


I wish not Nestor's years, nor Galen's Health : 

I famish not for Humane Dignitie : 

I thirst not for Revenge ; I craue no Wealth ; 

Nor Flesh-delighting Sensualitie. 
I onlie wish, That God would look on mee, 
Through Christ's deserving, with a smyling Eye. 

One glance whereof shall breed my soull more 

Than Croesus had of all his earthlie Treasure. 

The tract consists of twelve leaves small 
quarto (A to F, two leaves to a signature,' 
the last being blank), and considering the 
ephemeral form in which it must originally 
have been issued it is in excellent preser- 
vation. A. S. 


THERE is a well-known incident in the life 
of Frederick the Great which is often cited 
as an illustration alike of the independence 
of the subject and the justice of the king. 
Carlyle has told us how popular the incident 
of the Miller of Sans Souci became, especially 
in France, where it was made the subject of 
a poem by Andrieux, which found its way 
into the anthologies, and of a comedy by 
Dieulafoi. The Miller can be matched from 
Oriental history. Among the kings of Kash- 
mira we read of Chandrapida, who reigned 
A.D. 684. We are told that he equally pos- 
sessed power and forgiveness, and similar 
opposite qualifications. He was rich without 
the concomitant vices ; he equally favoured 
all, and did nothing that frightened his 
people; and was so modest that he felt 
ashamed when any one praised him for his 
good works. 

" When building the temple to Tribhuvanas-vamf 
the house of a tanner fell within the boundary 
marked for the temple ; but that man would not 
give up his house, though compensation money was 
offered to him. At last the matter was reported to 
the king. The men in charge of the building, and 
not the tanner, were held guilty, and they were 
censured for want of forethought in having com- 
menced the building without obtaining the consent 
of the tanner in the first instance. They were told 
either to reduce the plan of the temple, or to build 
it elsewhere, for he (the king) would not commit 
the sin of forcibly taking another's land. ' For it is 
our duty,' said he, ' to administer justice, and if we 
act unjustly who will act rightly?' At this time 
there arrived a man from the shoemaker, and was 
sent to the king by the ministers. This man said 
that the shoemaker wished to see the king, and if 
he was not held fit to enter the court, he requested 
that he might see the king when at leisure and out 
of his court. Accordingly on a subsequent day 
the king gave audience to the shoemaker when out 
of his court, and asked him if he was the obstacle 
in the execution of a pious object, namely, the 
erection of the temple, and added that if he thought 
his house beautiful, he might have another house 
still more beautiful, or a large sum of money. Then 
the shoemaker replied, '.Be not proud, king, of 
your learning and experience, but listen to my 
words according to my judgment. I am meaner 
than a dog, and you are a great king of the line of 
Kakutstha. The courtiers will therefore be vexed 
to see us talking together. The body of the living 
is brittle, but is strengthened with pride and affec- 
tion. As you love your body, which is adorned 
with the ornaments kangkana, hdra, and anaada, 
even so we love ours though unadorned. What 
this handsome palace is to you that is my hut to 
me, though through it the sun penetrates. This 
hut, like a mother, is the witness of my joys and 
sorrows from my birth, and I cannot bear to see it 
taken away to-day. The grief which a man feels 
when his house is taken away from him can only be 
known to the god who is ousted from heaven, or to 
a king who has lost his kingdom. Even after all 
this, if you come to my house and ask for it, then 
out of civility I shall give it up to thee.' The king 
went to the shoemaker's house and bought it. The 
good are not vain though possessed of wealth. The 
shoemaker clasped his hands together, and said that 
the condescension of the king and the pains he had 
taken for the performance of a just act were well 
befitting him ; and as Virtue had tested Yudhish- 
thira, so he had tested him. He then wished the 
king a prosperous and long life, doing such holy 
deeds and living admired by the pious." * 

If we accept this testimony Chandrapida 
may take his place beside Frederick. 


As ' N. & Q.' is considered the repository for 
gathering together interesting records, and 
its pages contain controversies in connexion 

* ' Kings of Kashmira,' being a translation of the 
Sanskrit work ' Rajataraugginf of Kahlana Pan- 
dita,' by Joghesh Chunder Dutt (Calcutta, 1879), 
pp. 64, 65. 


NOTES- AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 10, ioi. 

with Atlantic greyhounds, locomotive steam 
engines, and first steam ships to cross the 
Atlantic, the following account of the record 
voyage of an Atlantic " flyer," which appeared 
in the Daily Telegraph, dated Thursday, 
18 July, may be given : 

" Yesterday the Hamburg- American line steamer 
Deutschland arrived at Plymouth, after having 
excelled all previous best performances, and again 
lowered the Atlantic record for the eastward pas- 
sage. Her present voyage from New York has been 
accomplished in five days eleven hours five minutes, 
an average speed of 23'51 knots having been main- 
tained. Sandy Hook was passed at 2.16 P.M. 
(7.16 P.M. Greenwich time) on the llth inst,, and by 
noon the next day 479 miles had been logged. The 
following twenty-four hours saw 557 miles covered, 
the greatest distance ever run in one day on the 
eastward voyage. On the 14th there was a fresh 
westerly wind, and the Deutschland ran 551 miles. 
In a light south-westerly wind 544 miles was done 
the next day, whilst on the 16th the log showed 
550 miles. The remaining distance to Plymouth 
was 401 miles, making a total of 3,082 miles. The 
Deutschland, which brought 676 passengers, 765 
bags of mails and specie, value 820,195 dollars, has 
done the voyage from New York to Plymouth in 
five days seven hours thirty-eight minutes, but that 
was when running on the northern route, which 
is exactly a hundred miles shorter than the trip 
which ended yesterday. On that occasion, how- 
ever, the average speed was 23 '32 knots. This has 
several times been exceeded by the Deutschland, 
which on her last passage crossed the Atlantic at 
23'38 knots." 

H. J. B. 

The publication of this curiosity of literature 
ought not to pass unnoticed in the pages of 
1 N. & Q.' It is a version of the * Ruba'iyat ' 
of Omar Khayyam, consisting of the fourth 
FitzGerald edition, with an introduction 
specially written for it by Mr. Nathan Has- 
kell Dole, editor of the Boston Variorum 
edition. It was issued by Mr. Charles Hardy 
Meigs, of Cleveland, Ohio, in a limited edition 
of fifty - seven copies, printed upon Japan 
paper and bound in paper boards. Each 
copy is numbered and signed by Mr. Meigs, 
and the plates from which it was printed 
have been destroyed. The volume consists 
of forty-eight pages, and the title-page 
reads : 

" Rubaiyat | of | Omar Khayyam | of Naishapur. 
I Rendered into English Verse by | Edward Fitz- 
Gerald. | With an Introduction by | Nathan Has- 
kellDole. | Cleveland, Ohio,U.S.A. | Charles Hardy 
Meigs. | M.C.M." 

On the back of the title is the usual copy- 
right notice, and "Printed by the Burrows 
Brothers Co. at the Imperial Press, Cleveland, 
Ohio, 1900," and opposite is the dedication, 
"To the Honorable John Hay, Poet and 
Statesman, Lover of Omar and beloved of 

Omarians, this book is gratefully dedicated. 
Mr. Dole's " Foreword " occupies eight pages, 
after which comes the poem, without Fitz- 
Gerald's- introduction or notes. The dimen- 
sions of this volume are phenomenal. The 
bound volume measures 3 / 8 in high by 5 /ie in. 
broad ; the pages measure u /32 in. by 9 /32 in. 
The full dimensions of the print, measured 
on a full page of the introduction, are 3 /i 6 in. 
by 3 /ie in. (square). The text has evidently 
been set up in type and photographed down 
on to a steel or copper plate, but it is difficult 
to imagine how the printing off was done. 
The book is quite legible under the micro- 
scope with a 1 in. or iVz in. objective and "A" 
eyepieces, the paper having taken the ink 
with great clearness, and it is seldom one has 
to go to the context to make out any indi- 
vidual word. There are, 1 understand, in 
existence seven copies of the original type- 
printed edition taken before reduction, 


" VEIRIUM." By writ dated at Kennington, 
9 Oct., 1243, the guardians of the bishopric 
of Winchester received orders : 

" Quod in castro nostro Wintonie summitatem 
veirii de camera Rosamunde plumbo cooperiri 
faciatis." 'Roles Gascons ' (1885), No. 1992. 

I do not find the word in Du Cange, nor in 
Mr. Trice Martin's small glossary. 

O. O. H. 

LEADEN ROOFS. The enclosed cutting from 
the Coventry Standard of 5 July is interesting 
as showing the ages of leaden roofs. The 
great thickness of some of the lead formerly 
used may be noticed by the depth of the 
workmen's marks occasionally found on 
roofs, which would penetrate the sheets 
used in modern times : 

" In making preliminary arrangements for the 
restoration of the roof of Holy Trinity Church, 
Coventry, Mr. H. W. Chattaway, the architect, 
found several ancient inscriptions, which are inter- 
esting as denoting the age of the lead used on the 
roof. The following are the inscriptions : Arch- 
deacon's chapel. 'These two roofes were repay red 
in the year 1658. P., T. B.' North chancel aisle. 
' This roof was repayred Anno Salvtis, 1666. 
Thomas Bewle, plumber.' Marler's Chapel. A 
similar inscription to above, but the, plumber's 
name is here spelt 'Bewley.' South aisle. 'This 
roof was rebuilt Anno Domini 1728. Dr. Kimberley, 
vicar ; Thomas Lowke, Wm. Bosworth, John Hill, 
Simon Villers, churchwardens ; Thos. P.ewley, 


several varieties of the 'Wicked Bible." It 
may not be without interest to note a 
remarkable misprint in an edition of the 
Anglican Prayer Book. The issue, it should 

9- s. vm. AUG. M.1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


be said, however, was not one sent forth by 
authority. Mr. E. Tunstall, of Manchester, 
has shown me his copy of 

" The Book of Common Prayer and Administra- 
tion of the Sacrament according to the use of the 
Church of England, with the Psalms of David, 
paraphras'd : together with the Lives of the 
Apostles, and an Account of the Original of the 
Fasts and Feasts of the Church, with several of 
the Kubricks occasionally explain'd. By William 
Nicholls, D.D. London : Printed for J. Holland, 
at the Bible and Ball, and W. Taylor, at the Ship, 
both in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1709. 8vo." 

On p. 213 there is this passage : 

VI. Thou shalt do Murder. 

People. Lord have Mercy upon us, and incline 
our Hearts to keep this Law. 

There is no table of errata at all events in 
this copy so that it must be supposed this 
murderous misprint passed undetected. This 
edition is not mentioned in the interesting 
account of Nicholls which appears in the 
'Dictionary of National Biography.' The 
"Paraphrase on the Psalms" is dated 1707. 
The Prayer Book is dedicated to the Marquess 
and Marchioness of Mount Harmer (" being 
bound by the Duty and Gratitude which I 
owe to my most Noble Lord, your Father"), 
and the Psalter to " Charles, Lord Hallifax." 

This edition of the Prayer Book may take 
its place among the curiosities of literature. 


[Another " Wicked" Prayer Book is described in 
8 th S. vii. 187. It is an octavo, printed in 1686 by 
Charles Bill, Henry Hills, and Thomas Newcomb. 
The Epistle for the Fourteenth Sunday after Trinity 
reads in some copies of this edition (not in all),: 
" They who do such things shall inherit the king- 
dom of God," not being omitted. The edition of 
1688 also omits the not.~\ 

day I heard a well-educated Hull lady say 
she had only had three green dresses during 
her lifetime, and in each instance she had had 
to put them aside to wear mourning for those 
dear to her. Never again, she said, would 
she appear in green, which she linked so 
closely with death. WILLIAM ANDREWS. 

Royal Institution, Hull. 

[That the wearing of a green gown will be followed 
by a death in the familv is related from Staines in 


STONE STOCKS. A local paper says that 
some stone stocks, affording accommodation 
for two offenders, which have lain buried for 
nearly a century in the centre of the colliery 
village of Little Lever, near Bolton, have 
just been unearthed. The account mentions 

that culprits were attached thereto by wrist- 
lets and circlets, and the actual stocks which 
the District Council have promised carefully 
to preserve weigh nearly two tons. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

EPITAPH ON MARY GOLD. The following 
epitaph is from a well-executed, neat monu- 
ment by a Puritan "unlettered" mason in 
Berrynarbor Church chancel, as yet unre- 
stored. I think it quaint enough to be 
worth notice. 

Marigold flower at each corner at top. 


To the pretious memorie of 
Mary y e deare and only davgher of 

George Westcott, Pastor of this 

Church) and of Frances his wife, who 

Leaving this vale of miserie for a mansion 

In felicitie was neer enterred lanvar 31 th 

Anno Dni 1648 setat 

suse 70. 

This Mary-gold, lo ! here doth show, 
Marie, worth Gold lies neer below, 
Cut dpwne by death, the fair'st gilt flow'r 
Flourish, and fade doth in an howr. 
The Marygold in sun-shine spread, 
(When cloudie) clos'd doth bow the head 
This orient plant retains its guise, 
With splendent Sol to set and rise : 
Eun so, this virgin MARIE-ROSE 
In life soon nipt, in death fresh growes ; 
With Christ, her light, she set in paine ; 
By Christ, her Lord shee '11 rise again : 
When she shall shine more bright by farr, 
Then any twinckling radiant starre : 
For bee assur'd, that by death's dart 
Mary enioyes the better part. 

A /Maria Westcott G. W. P.P. 

Anagr j Morg e yicta tuta R w 


" FAULT " IN TENNIS. On 26 October, 
1526, John Hacket wrote from Brussels to 
Wolsey : 

" For al that I can perceive in these partiis, yf it 
micht happen that the Emperor coud find the 
mennis wyt his honnour to make pece wyt France 
oncnowen to us, they schould tink here that they 
schould have XLV and a fault at tennis game 
agens us."-' Lett, and Pap. Hen. VIII.,' IV. ii. 1148. 

The earliest instance in 'N.E.D.' is of 1599. 

O. O. H. 

"TURN." The technical "variety stage" 
use of this word I do not find in the * Cen- 
tury Dictionary.' Mr. R. P. Watson, in his 
'Memoirs' (1899, p. 156), says a performer 
was " waiting for her * turn ' at the far 
side of the stage." It is, of course, quite 
apparent that the performer is waiting to go 
on to perform ; but supposing instead he had 
said extra turn ? These two words have also 
a technical meaning, which no doubt some 
one will be able to describe more accurately 


NOTES. AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 10, 1901. 

than I can. When a new performer is going 
to appear, his (or her) name does not appear 
in the programme, but instead of a number 
being put up "extra turn" is put on the 

" WAITRESS." The introduction of this 
word is noted by De Quincey in his 'Literary 
Reminiscences' (' Coleridge ') Speaking of 
a cottage inn at Buttermere, he says : The 
daughter of the house, a fine young woman 
of eighteen, acted as waiter." Then, in a 
note written about 1852 : 

" Waiter. Since this was first written, social 
changes in London, by introducing females very 
extensively in to the office (once monopolized by men) 
of attending the visitors at the tables of eating- 
houses, have introduced a corresponding new word, 
viz., waitress, which word, twenty-five years back, 
would have been simply ludicrous, but now has 
become as indispensable to precision of language as 
the words traitress, heiress, inheritrix, c. 


Portland, Oregon. 

KNIGHT. In Le Neve's 'Knights' (Harl. 
Soc.) his death is given as on 8 June, 1706. 
He was buried at Edmonton. See 'Parish 
Registers/ 13 June, 1700. I give extracts 
from his will in Miscellanea Genealogica et 
Heraldica, vol. ii., Second Series, p. 100. 


15, Markham Square, Chelsea. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

CONSETT. In 1689 the Society of Baptists, 
under Hanserd Knollys, drew up a ' Confes- 
sion of Faith,' which was printed at the time. 
It was reprinted about 1799, and in an 
appendix was given a letter from the Baptist 
brethren in Ireland, dated from Waterford 
in 1653. Herein they state some recent 
experiences of God's providence, 
"particularly in his sore snatching and removing 
from us, not only useful members in Sion, but even 
our eyes, our hands, and our hearts ; the never-to- 
be-forgotten young Draper, dear Consett, precious 
Pocke, useful Saffery, and that in the midst of their 
days, and the beginning of wondrous works." 
I shall be glad to know anything about 
"dear Consett." W. C. B. 

I be likely to find correspondence of the first 
Earl of Hertford, afterwards the Protector 

Duke of Somerset, for the years 1544-8, 
which is not in either the Record Office or the 
British Museum ? Can any of your readers 
inform me how some of his official letter- 
books come to be amongst the MSS. sold by 
the late Duke of Hamilton to the British 
Museum about 1872? Would any of his 
papers be in the charter rooms of the Dukes 
of Northumberland and Somerset or of the 
present Lord Hertford 1 I cannot trace any 
blood relationship between the Protector 
Somerset and the Duke of Hamilton's family. 
Were these Hertford MSS. in Mr. Beckford's 
collection; and, if so, how did he acquire 
them ? H. 

A CURIOUS BADGE. I should be glad if 
any reader of * N. & Q.' could throw light on 
a badge of which the following is a descrip- 
tion : A gold pendant, consisting of two 
parts connected by a hinge. At the top a 
death's head, with ruby eyes, and cross-bones, 
supported on a base slightly chased, the 
design resembling two thistles. The lower 
and larger part consists of three triangle- 
shaped sections, with centres of red, white, 
and blue enamel, respectively ; on the white 
is the head of an arrow and a pair of scales, 
on the blue a serpent and rod, and on the red a 
gold chasing somewhat resembling a butterfly. 
The whole three are pierced diagonally with 
two daggers and straight up through the 
centre with an arrow. On the centre of the 
front is a small gold book, raised, whose open 
leaves are crossed by a chain of three links. 
At the back is a raised eye with blue enamel 
centre and black pupil, surrounded by star- 
like rays. It is said to be the badge of an 
American secret society, but there is no 
authority for the statement. 


Llanrwst, N. Wales. 

of your readers give me any information 
about the Locktons of Leicestershire? The 
name appears on the registers of Long Claw- 
son Church towards the end of the sixteenth 
century. They have also had considerable 
connexion with Old Dalby, where a number 
are buried. Has this family any connexion 
with the Locktons, or Loctons, of Swinstead, 
Lincolnshire? At the beginning of the 
seventeenth century this family seems to 
disappear from Swinstead, but to re- 
appear at Swineshead. The Swinstead 
family are traced back to about 1400 at 
Sawston, near Cambridge, in the 1562 Visita- 
tion of Lincolnshire. In 1384 there was a 
John de Lokton, king's serjeant, who took his 
name from Lockton in Yorkshire, and who 

s. viii. AUG. 10, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


held land at Malton in that county. A 
number of wills of the De Locktons of the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are in the 
registry at York, and a Ralph de Loketon 
lived at Lockton in 1249. I should be glad 
of any information which would connect any 
of the above. WM. LOCKTON. 

Jesus College, Cambridge. 

respecting the under-mentioned families, not 
contained in the publications of the various 
archaeological and antiquarian societies of 
Lancashire, would be acceptable for inclusion 
in a series of parochial histories relating to 
the hundred of West Derby: North Meols 
parish Coudray, Aughton, and Hesketh ; 
Aughton parish Walleys, or Walsh, of Walsh 
Hall ; Litherland, of Poulton in Wallesley, 
co. Chester ; Bradshagh, of Litherland ; 
Starky of Aughton Hall ; Atherton and 
Stanley of Moor Hall ; Gerrard of Gerrard 
Hall ; and Bickersteth, of Middle wood. 


Martin House, Skipton. 

"CULTIVATION." The eleventh volume of 
the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica' was issued in 
1880, and since that time, unless I am grossly 
mistaken, the word " cultivation " has become 
obsolete in the precise sense that we to-day 
imply by the word " culture." At any rate, 
on reading Sir R. C. Jebb's article on Greece 
I seemed to feel a strong distaste for the 
word, as being somewhat inappropriate con- 
textually, and shall be glad if those readers 
of 'N. & Q.' who possess the 'H.E.D. 1 will 
tell me whether my surmise is well or ill 
founded respecting the change in the applica- 
tion of these words. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

South Hackney. 

[The portion of the ' H.E.D.' including cultivation 
was issued in 1893. The only quotation given in 
which cultivation is equivalent to culture is from 
Lecky in 1869.1 

refer me to an illustrated account of the 
famous reliquary at Orvieto Cathedral, in 
connexion with which in 1338 an in- 
credulous priest, when consecrating the 
host at the Church of St. Christina at 
Bolsena, saw drops of blood issue from the 
wafer ? References to details of this miracle 
(which led to the institution of Corpus 
Christi Day in the Roman calendar) will 
oblige. T. CANN HUGHES, M.A., F.S.A. 
' Town Hall, Lancaster. 

is known of this author? He is not in the 
' D.N.B.' 1 remember, somewhat dimly, read- 

ing of his death, perhaps twenty-five years 
ago, and that he was engaged to a lady who 
refused him when she knew he was illegiti- 
mate. The following, on 'Love and Time,' 
are the only extracts I have from his poems : 

Ah ! what can still in me this anxious fear, 

This tedious longing after all so dear ? 

Ah ! all so nigh in musing, ever seen, 

Yet far as though wide oceans roll'd between ! 

These fetters grieve ; but hope and fear at strife 

This pining, yearning love wears out my life ! 

Lost gold is found : lost hours are lost for aye. 
Let time, young man, be deem'd thy dearest store. 
Life is an inn where thou wilt dwell a day, 
Go soon the long old road, and come no more. 


me any information as to where I could get 
likenesses of old officers mentioned in the 
following list 1 W, means Waterloo. 

Specially appointed Commissioners. 
General Sir Charles Green, Bart., G.C.B., 1805. 
General Sir H. Burrard, Bart, 1809. 
Lieut. -General W. Wynyard, 1812. 
Major-General John Brown, 1812. 
General Sir R. Darling, G.C.H., 1813. 
General Earl of Rosslyn, G.C.B., 1816. 
General Sir John Macdonald, K.C.B., 1818. 
General Sir A. Hope, G.C.B., 1819. 
General Sir W. Clinton, G.C.B., 1826. 
Lieut. -General Sir H. Taylor, G.C.B.,G.C.H., 1831. 
Lieut. -General Sir J. Gardiner, 1831. 
General Lord Fitzclarence, G.C.H., 1834. 
Lieut. -General Sir R. Jackson, K.C.B., 1836. 
(W.) Field-Marshal Sir H. D. Ross, G.C.B., 1845. 
The Right Hon. Sidney Herbert, 1848. 
General Sir G. A. Wetherall, G.C.B , K.H., 1851. 
The Right Hon. L. Sulivan, 1852. 
(W.) General the Hon. Sir H. Murray, K.C.B., 1855. 
(W.) General Sir James Simpson, G.C.B., 1855. 
General W. F. Foster, K.H., 1855. 
General Sir James Freeth, K.H., K.C.B., 1856. 
(W.) General Sir George Scovell, G.C.B., 1856. 
Lieut. -General the Right Hon. Sir P. Herbert, 

K.C.B., 1861. 
Brevet-Col. Sir E. R. Wetherall, C.B., K.C.S.I., 

(V.C.) General the Hon. Sir H. H. Clifford, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., 1869. 
Lieut. -General J. W. Armstrong, C.B., 1873. 

Royal Military School, Chelsea, S. W. 

EARL OF KINNOUL. Prof. Gardiner, in his 
' History of the Commonwealth,' vol. i., de- 
finitely asserts the death of an Earl of 
Kinnoul in the Orkneys in November, 1649, 
and of another earl, a brother, on Strath 
Oykell, when escaping with Montrose after 
his defeat at Carbisdale, 28 April, 1650. Prof. 
Gardiner thus boldly vouches for two new 
Earls of Kinnoul whose names and existence 
are unknown to genealogists. His authority 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 10, 1901. 

for the death of the first of the two is th 
following passage in John Gwyn's ' Memoirs, 

&88: "About two months after [i.e., u 
ovember, 1649] the Earl of Kynoole fel 
sick at Bursey, the Earl of Morton's house 
[in Orkney], and there died of a pleurisy " 
and in a letter to the Athenaeum of 11 Novem 
her, 1893, Prof. Gardiner says that a lettei 
of Ogilvy of Powrie, 3 March, 1650 "and 
indeed, if this Lord Kinnoul had not come 
timeously over with that last recruit " shows 
that Gwyn did not blunder in alleging the 
death. I have not seen Ogilvy's letter, but 
the extract given does not, to my mind, prove 
anything. Prof. Gardiner also refers to Bal- 
four's * Annals,' iii. 433, but all that can be 
established therefrom is the fact that an 
Earl of Kinnoul was in the Orkneys at or 
about the time of his uncle the Earl of 
Morton's death there, 12 November, 1649. 
The authority for the death of the next ear] 
in 1650 is a statement by Gordon that Lord 
Kinnoul "being faint for lack of meat, and 
not able to travel any further, was left there 
among the mountains, and is supposed to have 

Frankly speaking, though with all re- 
spect to the eminent historian, I cannot 
believe in either of these earls ; and it seems 
to me far simpler to consider that Gwyn's 
specific statement and Gordon's supposition 
are wrong as to the fact of death than that 
an earl, or earls, should have grown to man's 
estate and been active lieutenants of Mont- 
rose in the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, yet should leave no discoverable trace 
in peerages, records, or registers. I feel 
little doubt that all these references are to 
William, third Earl of Kinnoul (see G. E. C.'s 
1 Complete Peerage,' sub 'III. E. Kinnoul'); 
that he went to the Orkneys in November, 
1649, to raise the islanders for the king ; very 
likely fell ill of pleurisy there, and was 
rumoured to have died ; recovered, fought by 
Montrose's side at Carbisdale, escaped with 
him, and was left in an exhausted state in 
the hills ; again recovered, married twice, and 
died in his bed in 1677. VICARY GIBBS. 

wanted about this family (Sable, a bend, in 
the sinister point a leopard's head or), who 
owned Condies (or Cundy) Hall in Whitstable, 
Hoth in parish of Patricksbourne (in which 
church some of them were buried), and other- 
property in Kent. John Isaac was Sheriff of 
Kent in 1461. James Isaac was Marshal of 
Dover Castle and keeper of the artillery 
there in 1487, and two years later Bailiff of 
bandwich. Edward Isaac, who seems to 

have been the last male of the family, left 
three daughters : by first wife (daughter of 
Jerningham) a daughter Jane, who married 
(1) Martin Sidley, (2) Sir Henry Palmer ; by 
second wife Margaret (daughter of Sir 
Richard Wheatwill) two, Mary, married 
Thomas Appleton of Suffolk, and Mar- 
garet, married John (second son of Sir 
John) Jermye of Suffolk. Books on Kent 
have been consulted. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 
Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent. 

Az., three field-pieces on their carriages in 
pale or ; on a chief arg. as many cannon balls 
sa. Motto, " Sua tela tonanti." What is the 
meaning of this motto, and where is it taken 
from 1 It seems to mean " To the thunderer 
his own weapons "- meeting Jove with 
weapons (thunder) as good as his. J. H. 

CROSDILL. I wish to find the exact date of 
death of John Crosdill, a celebrated English 
'cellist, who died at Escrick, Yorks, in October, 
1825. As this is not recorded in the parish 
register, he was probably buried elsewhere. 
The date is not given in any book known to 
me. A. F. H. 

FISHER FAMILY. I am trying to trace the 
pedigree of a certain Daniel Fisher, a wire- 
drawer of Stepney, a widower aged thirty- 
five, who had licence, dated 6 April, 1687, to 
marry Anne Busine, a widow. They had a 
son James, born 20 August, 1688, who married 
Anne, daughter of Alexander Garrett, of 
Stepney. James Fisher, in his will, proved 
9 September, 1737 (P.C.C., Wake, 205), desires 
to be buried by his parents at Whitechapel, 
and mentions his son Alexander. Any in- 
formation re above will be thankfully re- 

Ightham Mote, near Sevenoaks. 

above is the title given by the * Encyclopaedic 
Dictionary ' in giving a quotation illustrating 
* Colophon.' There was no book published 
with that title, so far as I can ascertain, but 
it is most probably an essay in one of De 
Morgan's many books. The correct reference 
would much oblige. WM. H. PEET. 

Hall's ' Rambles in the Country surrounding 
the Forest of Sherwood ' mention is made of 
'a party of great folk from Yorkshire having 
lad it re-exhumed and taken it with them to 
Janon Hall, near Barnsley." The "it" was 
;he thigh-bone, thirty-two inches in length, 
>f Little John, Robin Hood's famous fidus 
Achates^ whose grave, according to imme- 

9-s. via AUG. io, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


morial tradition is (or was) in Hathersage 
churchyard. Has this thigh-bone ever been 
replaced in its original resting-place 1 If not, 
where is it now? I need the information 
for literary purposes, as I am old-fashioned 
enough to believe in the non-mythological 
personality of Robin Hood and the " merrie 
men " of Sherwood Forest. 

J. B. McGovERN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

many were appointed for each county ? 
From the commission of Thomas Stoney, 
of Arran Hill, co. Tipperary (see ' Stoney, of 
Portland,' in Burke's ' Landed Gentry '), it 
appears that they were provided by the 
terms of the Militia Act of 1792. T. U. S. 

(9 th S. viii. 60, 85.) 

MR. LUCAS may take it for certain that 
Lamb's connexion with the Albion began and 
ended in 1801. But why does not MR. LUCAS 
examine the contents, and thus ascertain for 
himself the dates and true chronological 
sequence of the letters'? The task of re- 
arranging the letters would be easy and 
pleasant for one acquainted, as he pre- 
sumably is, with the lives of Elia's chief 
correspondents. Moreover, it is an indis- 
pensable propcedeusis for the intending bio- 
grapher of Charles Lamb. 

MR. LUCAS is perplexed about the date of 
the two letters numbered Ixxxiii. and Ixxxiv. 
in Canon Ainger's 1888 edition, and xcvi. and 
xcvii. in the recent Edition de luxe. These 
are dated " [August] 1801 " and " August 31, 
1801," respectively by all the later editors. 
MR. LUCAS thinks they may possibly belong 
to 1803 ; but a glance at the contents of the 
second letter decides the question at once in 
favour of 1801. This second letter is a reply 
to one from Manning announcing (1) his 
arrival in the near future for a stay in town, 
and (2) his resolve to explore China later on. 
Lamb replies that of the intended visit to 
China he had already heard, but that the 
news of Manning's impending visit to London 
is a joyful and well-timed surprise. "You 
could not come in a better time for my 

purposes; for I have just lost Rick man 

He has gone to Ireland for a year or two." 
Now (as MR. LUCAS is doubtless aware) 
Rickman went over to Dublin as private 
secretary to Charles Abbot, Chief Secretary 
for Ireland in the Addington Administra- 

tion, in the month of July, 1801. In January, 
1802, Abbot was recalled to fill the Speaker's 
chair, and with him Rickman returned to 
London, where he remained at first as 
private secretary to the Speaker, and later 
on (1814) as Clerk to the House. All which 
corroborates the commonly received date 
(31 Aug., 1801) of letter Ixxxiv. (Ainger, 1888). 
Again, from a letter addressed by Lamb to 
Robert Lloyd, undated, but proved by the 
contents to be later than 15 November, 1801 
(which letter, by the way, is printed by MR. 
LUCAS out of its proper place in 'Charles 
Lamb and the Lloyds,' p. 136), we learn that 
Manning was in town in November on his 
way, as we know, to Paris, whither he went 
before the year was out. Manning may have 
come up in October, or earlier still ; anyhow, 
the friends cannot well have foregathered 
until after Lamb's return from Margate, 
where we find him sojourning 9-17 Sep- 
tember, 1801. 

In letter Ixxxiii. (1888) Lamb transcribes 
for Manning his "epigram on Mackintosh 
the Vindicioe Gallicce man who has got a 
place at last," &c. The reference here is not 
to the Bombay recordership, which was not 
bestowed until 1803. But already in 1800 
Mackintosh had thought of accepting a 
judgeship in Trinidad, and later he had 
become a candidate for the office of Advocate- 
General in Bengal a post ultimately be- 
stowed on Bobus Smith -(1803). A rumour 
in connexion with this latter or some other 
place may have reached Lamb, and inspired 
the unlucky epigram. 

In dealing with the dates of letters Ixxxiii. 
and Ixxxiv. MR. LUCAS is needlessly sceptical ; 
when he comes to deal with letter Ixiv. (1888), 
on the other hand, his mood changes ; he 
becomes, like Boswell, " full of belief." Never- 
theless, letter Ixiv., which all the editors 
agree in dating "October 5, 1800," belongs, 
in point of fact, to the spring of that year. 
As in the case of Ixxxiv., a glance at the 
contents suffices to ascertain the true date. 
Lamb writes : " Dr. Manning, Coleridge has 
left us to go into the North on a visit to 
Wordsworth." Coleridge took his departure 
from the Lambs' 36, Chapel Street, Penton- 
ville on the first day pf April, 1800. 
Again, Lamb writes : " rriscilla [Lloyd] 
meditates going to see ' Pizarro ' at Drury 
Lane to - night (from her uncle's) under 

cover of coming to dine with me heu 

tempora ! heu mores ! " But during the month 
of October, 1800, there was no performance 
of ' Pizarro.' The play was on four times in 
March, six times in April, and thrice in May, 
1800. On 20 May it was performed for the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th B. vm, AUG. 10, 1901. 

sixty-seventh time, and for the last time that 
season. It was acted on 4 and 5 April, also 
on the nights of 19, 22, 24, and 26 April. The 
probable date of Lamb's letter Ixiv. is 5 April, 
1800 though it may belong to one of the 
four later days in April above named 

See how this clears up the confusion about 
the Burton imitations. On 17 March, 1800, 
Lamb is preparing a prose imitation of 
Burton which no doubt was finished and 
submitted to Coleridge before his departure 
for Grasmere on 1 April. This we may 
assume was Extract I. of the 'Curious 
Fragments from the Common-place Book of 
Robert Burton,' printed in the John Woodvil 
volume of 1802. On or about 5 April two 
imitations (Extracts I. and II. of 1802) have 
been struck off and submitted to Stuart, the 
editor of the Morning Post, who has not yet 
finally accepted them. At the same time " a 
few lines in the name of Burton, being ' A 
Conceipt of Diabolic Possession ' " (Extract 
III , 1802), have also been hit off. Lastly, on 
6 August, 1800, Lamb writes to Coleridge 
that he has "hit off" a ballad somewhat 
resembling the ' Old arid Young Courtier,' 
viz., the "crude, incomposite, hirsute verses, 
noting the difference of rich and poor," &c., 
which stand at the close of Extract IV., 
1802. This ballad, adds Lamb to S. T. C., 
"was to follow an imitation of Burton in 
prose [Extract IV. aforesaid] which you 
have not seen. But fate and ' wisest Stuart ' 
say No." Thus by simply recalling to its 
proper place the letter commonly but 
erroneously dated "October 5, 1800," we 
gain a coherent account both of the circum- 
stances and of the order in which the Burton 
imitations were penned. 

Lamb's first engagement on "the Morning 
Post undoubtedly closed in February, 1802. 
In an unpublished portion of a letter to 
Coleridge, dated 8 September, 1802 (Ixxxix., 
ed. 1888), Lamb writes that he does not want 
to see Stuart ; their parting had been rather 
ambiguous, and he is not sure that Stuart is 
not displeased. He adds that he dislikes 
meeting Stuart's impudent office - clerk. 
MR. LUCAS says that with the letter of 
23 October, 1802, Lamb's references to his 
connexion with the Post come to an end 
Not so see letter of 28 September, 1605. In 
March, 1804 Mary Lamb writes to Sarah 
btoddart : Charles has lost the newspaper 

it is not well to be very poor, which we 

certainly are at this present writing." And 
again, in June, 1804, referring to a recent 
misunderstanding about postage between 
Charles and Mrs. Stoddart, she writes to the 
same ; " The fact was, just at that time we 

were very poor, having lost the Morning 
Post." At what date the engagement began, 
of which the close in the early spring of 1804 
is here recorded by Mary, we have no means 
of knowing, save such as the files of the 
Morning Post may afford. 

A word as to the editing of the letters in 
the recent edition de luxe (Macmillan, 1900). 
Meagre, perfunctory, and obsolete as in great 
part are the editor's notes, they may be said to 
shine beside his chronology and arrangement 
of the letters. In his new preface the editor 
pays a graceful tribute to the late James Dykes 
Campbell. It had been more to the purpose 
to have embodied in these costly volumes the 
many corrections and improvements in the 
order of the letters effected in the course of 
his labours on Coleridge by that honest and 
painstaking worker. But this has not been 
done; nor is there anything in these four 
volumes to indicate that the internal evi- 
dence in which Lamb's letters abound has 
been turned to adequate account for the 
rectification of the old faulty arrangement 
and dating. In a subsequent note some of 
the graver editorial shortcomings in this and 
other respects will, with the kind permission 
of the Editor of * N. & Q.,' be pointed out. 


THE 'MARSEILLAISE' (9 th S. viii. 61). If 
MR. JULIAN MARSHALL had read the exten- 
sive letter 1 wrote to the Daily News of 
13 July, he would, perhaps, have seen fit to 
moderate his language. 

There are a number of French writers who 
have shown that Rouget de 1'Isle can scarcely 
be called the composer of the tune of the 
' Marseillaise ' such as we know it, and that 
not all the words are from him either. 
As to the latter point, Gudbrand Vigfusson, 
the late Icelandic scholar, pointed out corre- 
sponding words between the oratorio 'Esther,' 
which Grisons, the musical director of the 
church at Samt-Omer, composed before the 
French Revolution, Racine's 'Athalie,' and 
the ' Marseillaise.' Barbet, Seinguerlet, and 
other French writers have proved similar 
coincidences from other sources. 

It is to Grisons's early composition that the 
tune of the ' Marseillaise ' has been ascribed 
by various French writers. When Fetis, 
sen., the Director of the Conservatoire at 
Brussels, who had written against Rouge t's 
authorship, was threatened with a lawsuit 
by Amedee Rouget de 1'Isle, who said he was 
a nephew of the author of the ' Marseillaise,' 
he (Fetis, sen.), then a man of eighty, and 
living as a foreigner at Paris, made a re- 
tractation, so as to avoid unpleasantness at his. 

9* s. viii. AUG. 10, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


great age. His son, ]6douard Fetis, however, 
at once took up the matter again. He de- 
clared that he was in possession of Orison s's 
oratorio, and could prove the case. There- 
upon Araedee Kouget de 1'Isle forthwith 
withdrew from the lawsuit. 

M. Albert Legranrl, president of the Com- 
mission of the Archives at Saint-Omer, con- 
firmed the statement in question in these 
words : "J'en ai la preuve authentique dans 
les mains." 

It will be seen from this that the assertion 
made in the Gartenlaube of 1861 by the 
organist Hamma, as to the Meersburg oratorio 
he said he had discovered in the musical 
library of the Town's Church there a state- 
ment which was many years afterwards dis- 
puted by Chouquet by no means covers 
the whole case. New inquiries, however, are 
now being made in Meersburg. The personal 
recollection of the distinguished historian 
Johannes Scherr as to a Christmas cantata 
composed by his own. father, an organist in 
Swabia, from an old German mass which 
latter may possibly have been the basis of 
the oratorio of Saint-Omer, as suggested by 
the French musical writer Castil - Blaze 
remains fully standing as before. That 
refurbished old German mass in Swabia 
was recognized by a soldier who had fought 
in the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars 
as being in the main the tune of the ' Mar- 

Chouquet's article in Sir G. Grove's 'Dic- 
tionary ' is in no wise decisive. Six years 
after it the French writer Arthur Loth pub- 
lished "Le Chant de la Marseillaise: son 
Veritable Auteur, avec Facsimile du Manu- 
scrit" (Paris, 1886). In that work the 
oratorio of Saint-Omer is reproduced, and 
clear evidence given. It may not be amiss 
to mention that the first Strasburg edition 
of the * Battle Song of the Rhine Army,' as 
it was originally called the music of which 
is " a mere skeleton," as Loquin says, of what 
we now know to be the * Marseillaise ' does 
not bear Rouget's name, " just as if he had 
not been sure himself of being the author of 
his music," to quote M. Arthur Loth. 
^ No one who has not gone through all this 
literature, as I have done, can give a com- 
petent opinion on this complicated subject, 
and certainly cannot speak of "a character 
for honesty to lose." Being personally- as I 
said in the Daily Newssm admirer of the 
grand strains of a revolutionary hymn which 
[ have often joined in singing, even though 
it be originally a war-song against Germany, 
I dealt with the matter simply from the 
point of view of historical truth, 

As to the political character of Rouget, 
it was, unfortunately, a very shifty one : 
first revolutionist ; then reactionary ; then a 
flatterer of Bonaparte ; then of the Bourbons. 
So it is stated by Gaudot from * Memoires 
sur Carnot.' KARL BLIND. 

P.S. My first inquiry at Meersburg has 
just brought me the following statement 
from an authoritative source : 

"Mr. Schreiber, the organist of many years' 
standing, declares to me that such a mass [as Mr. 
Hamma said had been composed by Holtzmann, and 
found by him] may at one time have been there, but 
that it was possibly ptit out of the library with com- 
positions which are in a defective state and no longer 

This letter, which I have before me, is written 
by the musical professor of the Seminary at 
Meersburg, enclosed in a letter from a high 
administrative official, who instituted the 
inquiry for me. I am, however, continuing 
the investigation still further. 

KNIFEBOARD OF AN OMNIBUS (9 th S. vii. 487; 
viii. 23). I have to-day seen two specimens 
of omnibuses actually on the road thirty- 
three years ago, and still running in a private 
capacity. They are the exact type of the 
omnibus of my memory of forty-five years 
since. Two passengers sat alongside the 
driver and five on a seat behind access by 
box of wheel, leather strap, and iron step. 
Under the driver's seat was a large "boot." 

The roof was sharply curved, so that the 
back-to-back knifeboard seats rested on three 
or four shaped cleats. Apropos, Harper's 
' Bath Coach Road ' shows an engraving, of 
date 1837, wherein gentlemen are depicted 
sitting simply on this curved roof. Access 
to the roof was only on the off-side by two 
iron steps and a guide iron ; to get to or 
from the near-side knifeboard you had to 
put your leg across the low back. The " cad " 
stood on a round perch on the near side, 
where he clung by a leather strap, and 
whence he was able to reach the handle of 
the omnibus door. The curved roof allowed, 
by a projection, a through ventilation the 
whole length of the inside, which the present 
flat roofs deny. Without the slightest doubt 
" knifeboard " applied to the seat. 

H. P. L. 

This subject having been already so ably 
discussed in the columns of 'N. & Q.,' it may 
appear superfluous, if not impertinent, to 
add anything further ; but even small items 
regarding " vanishing London " may prove 
of some interest if not to present readers 
of the paper, yet perhaps to future genera- 
tions. One piece of evidence, seemingly 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vni. AUG. 10, 1901. 

overlooked by others, I would like to bring 
forward to settle, if need there be, the 
sense in which the phrase has always been 
understood. I allude to George Leybourne's 
song (1866), * The Knifeboard of an Omnibus ': 
Oh, the knifeboard, the knifeboard ! I scorn inside; 
The knifeboard of an omnibus is the proper place 

to ride. 

If nay memory does not play me false, the 
music title of the above song (drawn by the 
late Alfred Concannon) depicted the '' Lion 
Comique," with half a dozen other young 
swells, "making" (as the Daily Telegraph a 
few years previously had humorously re- 
marked) " Aunt Sallies of themselves." 

In the old days when there was a box- 
seat, it was, I fancy, considered rather '* play- 
ing second fiddle" to take a seat on the 
knifeboard ; somewhat like Copperfield 
when he had " his first fall in life." 


39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

I cannot say more about this than that 
MR. WHITWELL can see old knifeboard tram- 
cars at Oxford. But I am reminded of the 
knifeboards of the Parisian omnibuses. When 
the Empire fell, as is well known, all the 
streets, &c., called "rue Imperial" were 
altered to " rue de la Republique " and every- 
thing else too. The only thing imperial left 
was the knifeboard, which is still called the 
" imperial " of the omnibus. I suppose it got 
the name from being highest of all. 


Referring to this subject, I beg to call the 
attention of your correspondents to the fact 
that in 'The Comic Almanac,' by George 
Cruikshank, there is an illustration entitled 
' November St. Cecilia's Day' (1837), in 
which an omnibus is depicted. It is quite 
flat of roof, but with no seats thereon. And 
in the illustration k Overpopulation ' (1851) 
there are two omnibuses, on which two rows 
of passengers are seated respectively. The 
" boards " referred to by MR. MAcMiCHAEL 
are conspicuous by their absence. 


119, Elms Road, Clapham. 

" THREE ACRES AND A cow " (9 th S. viii. 14). 
This phrase is much older than 1802, or a 
date assigned by any one of your previous 

Daniel De Foe (1661-1731), in his descrip- 
tion of 'A Tour through the whole Islands 
of Great Britain,' the sixth edition of which 
(1761-2) was published long after his death, 
suggested that certain refugees from the 
Palatinate should be transferred to the New 
Forest in Hampshire. There the Govern- 

ment were to provide every man with three 
acres of ground," and a certain quantity of 
common land, where they could have a tew 
sheep or cows. The volume is in the Cor- 
poration Library, Guildhall, E.C. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

14 V^SAC MIHM" (9 th S. viii. 45). -I believe 
that the inscription leaded into one of the 
corner stones in the east gable below the 
belfry of the old church at Temple reads 



There is a somewhat similar inscription, 
with a date, on a stone in the gable of the 
very old stone-roofed portion of the church 
of Abercorn in Linlithgowshire, thus : 

M.H.I.M. 1612. 



ISABEL OF PORTUGAL (9 tb S. vii. 428). 
Isabel, daughter of John L, King of Portugal, 
and Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster, his wife, was born 1397. 
Married to Philip Bonus, Duke of Burgundy, 
10 January, 1429-30, died 14 December, 1473. 

ASHWOOD FAMILY (9 th S. vii. 429). Mus- 
grave's obituary (Harl. Soc. Pub., 1899) gives 
seventeenth and eighteenth century refer- 
ences. 'Dictionary of National Biography' 
has "Bartholomew Ashwood (1622-1680)"; 
also " John Ashwood (1657-1706)." " The Pub- 
lications of the Thoresby Society," Leeds, 1897, 
vol. vii. p. 107, has " 26 May 1641 Adam Ash- 
wood and Mary Holy day, of Beiston, mar: at 
chap:" H. J. B. 

SHIPS OF WAR ON LAND (9 th S. vii. 147, 235, 
296, 354,431). I quote the following from the 
chapter on 'Scotland under the Roundheads' 
in Colville's 'By-ways of History,' p. 222 : 

" In an interesting letter we read the story of 
the building of a citadel, and particularly of the 
great feat of dragging a forty-ton pinnace across 
six miles of dry land for service on Loch Ness, ' to 
the admiration of the spectators.' The men broke 
three cables with hawling of her. The west end of 
the Lough is near unto the Irish Sea, it wanting 
not above six mile of ground to be cut to make the 
shires north of it an entire island of itself.'" 

w. s. 

Passing record may be made of the full- 
sized model battleship Illinois at the 
World's Fair, Chicago, in 1893 without 
a doubt the most expensive model that 
has ever been produced. It was built up 
from the bottom of Lake Michagan, and 
stood as if at anchor, close against the pier 

9*s. vm. AUG. 10, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


upon the Chicago side of the World's Fair 
grounds. Upon heavy wood piles was a 
superstructure of brick brought up to within 
five feet of the water-line. Above, in every 
respect, it was practically, and to all appear- 
ance, an actual ironclad. This costly model 
was an exact replica of a 10,300 ton coast 
liner battleship, complete in every depart- 
ment, from sleeping quarters to gun-deck, 
and was steel armour-plated below the berth 
deck, whilst above decks were steel turrets 
and redoubts, through whose portals pro- 
jected 8 in. and 13 in. guns. She also carried 
an imposing armament of usual heavy 
ordnance. Her total length was 248 ft., ana 
her beam 65 ft. 3 in. Throughout the whole 
period of the exhibition (six months) she was 
manned and officered with a crew of two 
hundred men, who went through daily drills, 
and in many respects performed the actual 
duties required when at service on the high 
seas. During the time of the exhibition I 
visited her many times, and the illusion was 
simply perfect. 

The reverse side of the picture of ships of 
war on land is that of the Dutch fleet frozen 
up on the river Y before Amsterdam nearly 
one hundred years ago, charged over the ice 
and captured by invading French troopers. 
It is difficult to realize the Dutch admiral, 
anchored half a mile or so from shore, flying 
the signal " Prepare to receive cavalry." 



viii. 82, 107). Kensington Palace was 
formerly situated in the parish of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, but under the scheme 
made for the revision of boundaries under 
the London Government Act, 1899, the palace 
and grounds have been included within the 
borough of Kensington. Kensington was a 
district which was situated partly in the 
parish of St. Mary Abbots, partly in that of 
St. Margaret, and partly in that of Pad- 
dington. The King seems to have accurately 
described the place of Queen Victoria's birth 
as Kensington, if it is regarded in its ordinary 
signification of a district. It may be worth 
while to record in these columns the letter 
which the Home Secretary addressed to the 
Mayor of Kensington, Sir Henry Seymour 
King, K.C.I.E., M.P., communicating the 
conferment on the borough of Kensington of 
the title of "Royal " : 

Home Office, Whitehall, July 13. 

SIR, In reply to your letter of the 26th ult., with 

regard to the address forwarded by the council of 

the borough of Kensington in December last, for 

presentation to her late Majesty, praying that she 

night be graciously pleased to confer upon the 
jorough the title of the " Royal Borough of Ken- 
sington," I have to inform you that I have had the 
ic-nour to lay the request of the council before the 
King, and I am commanded by His Majesty to 
inform you that, in accordance with the expressed 
wish of her late Majesty that her birth at Kensing- 
ton Palace should be so commemorated, His Majesty 
las been graciously pleased to command that the 
aorough should in future be designated "The Royal 
Borough of Kensington." I am, Sir, your obedient 


WILLIAM HONE (9 th S. vii. 408, 498). I have 
already sent to MR. ANDREWS direct a copy 
of the inscription on Hone's gravestone ; but 
in view of MR. CLARK'S failure to find the 
spot in Abney Park cemetery where he lies 
interred, perhaps I may be allowed to say a 
few words in ' N. & Q.' I am somewhat sur- 
prised that MR. CLARK should fail to find the 
grave if (as I suppose) he possesses a copy of 
the Rev. James Bran white French's 'Walks 
in Abney Park.' On the plan which accom- 
panies this valuable little book its exact 
position is marked. I should roughly describe 
it as being on the left-hand side of the way, 
a few paces down the outermost path branch- 
ing north from the main road leading from 
the entrance gates to the church The head- 
stone bears the following inscription : 

The family grave 


William Hone, 

who was born at Bath 

the 3rd of June, A.D. 1780, 


died at Tottenham 
the 6th of November, 

A.D. 1842. 
And of his wife 

Sarah Hone, 

who was born in Southwark 
the 30th of November, 1781, 


died at Stoke-Newington 

the 26th of September, 1864. 

Here lie also two infant grandchildren, 

Alice Romola Lovati, aged 3 years and 8 mos. 

Arthur Frankly n Hemsley, aged 1 year and 10 mos. 


third daughter of the above, 

born on the 26th of July, 1805, 

died on the 10th of September, 1884. 

With respect to the Dickens episode at 
Hone's funeral, may I be allowed to ask a 
question 1 ? I have an article dealing fully 
with this subject, which was published in 
the Evangelical Magazine for January, 1873. 
It appears under the heading ' Short Essays 
by J. S. E.,' and the writer states that he was 
one of those present in the room whenBinney 
denounced the writer of a recently published 


NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 10, 1901. 

paragraph concerning Hone before he com- 
menced the funeral service. Will some one 
kindly identify J. S. EJ 

I may say I am sorry to learn Mr. French s 
1 Walks in Abney Park ' is out of print. I 
obtained my copy direct from the author in 
1891. The articles which make up the book 
appeared in the Evangelical Magazine during 
1882. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

LEIGH HUNT (9 th S. viii. 64). Is not the 
question dealt with at some length in the 
late Mrs. Alexander Ireland's 'The Life of 
Jane Welsh Carlyle"? The librarian of the 
Manchester Free Library would settle this 
point in answer to a letter. Carlyle's ' Memo- 
randa' upon Leigh Hunt appeared in Mac- 
millan's Magazine, July, 1862. Hunt was near 
to the Carlyles when they settled at Chelsea 
in 1834. See ' D.N.B.,' s.v. ' Carlyle.' 


Mr. Thomas Archer, in his notice of Hunt 
in Mr. Miles's ' Poets and Poetry of the Cen- 
tury,' vol. ii., says that Jane Welsh Carlyle 
was the Jenny of the rondeau, and that the 
incident occurred after she had heard Hunt 
read his sonnet 'On a Lock of Milton's 

It lies before me there, and my own breath 

Stirs its thin outer threads. 

C. C. B. 

A HULL SAYING (9 th S. vii. 445, viii. 52). 
The use of the late Mr. Travis's name in this 
saying was not due, I think, to any excessive 
severity on his part. He was the first stipen- 
diary magistrate of the town ; novelty and 
convenience soon suggested the emphatic 
neologism. But to complete the account, it 
should be added that those who, under Mr. 
Travis, were said to have been "travised," 
under his successor, Mr. Twiss, were 
"twisted." A HULL ATTORNEY OF 1870. 

(9 th S. vii. 389, 496 ; viii. 21). Gringo figura- 
tively and familiarly means Greek in Spanish. 
In Spanish America this word is used to 
designate foreigners, especially Englishmen, 
on account of their language being unintel- 
ligible to the natives i.e., it is Greek to them. 
The first definition of the word is accepted 
by the Royal Spanish Academy, the second 
is an Americanism. 

Gabacho (not Guabacho) is derived from 
Gabas, the name of a river in the Pyrenees, 
familiarly a Frenchman. The word is used in 
this sense not only in Spanish America, but 
also in Spain, and accepted by the Royal 
Spanish Academy. 

Cachupino, from Portuguese Cachopo, a 
child. It is used in Spain to designate a 
Spaniard who settles in America, and hence 
its use in Mexico. This is also accepted by 
the Royal Spanish Academy. M. M. H. 

Costa Rica. 

" BOUZINGOT" (9 th S. iv. 266). George Sand, 
in her admirable study of Parisian student 
life ' Horace,' has the following description 
of the bousingot, or revolutionary student 
e'tudiant emeutier as he was called in the time 
of Charles X. : 

"II y avait une classe d'etudiants, que nous 
autres (etudiants un peu aristocratiques, je 1'avoue) 
nous appelions, sans dedain toutefois, Etudiants 
d'estaminet. Elle se composa inyariablement de la 
plupart des etudiants de premiere annee, enfants 
fraichement arrives de province, a qui Paris faisait 
tourner la tete, et qui croyaient tout d'un coup se 
faire hommes en fumant a se rendre malades, et en 
battant le pave du matin au soir, la casquette sur 
1'oreille ; car 1'etudiant de premiere annee a rare- 
ment un chapeau. Des la seconde ann^e, 1'^tudiant 
en general devient plus grave "et plus naturel. II 
est tout a fait retire" de ce genre de vie, a la trois- 
ieme. C'est alors qu'il va au parterre des Italiens, 
et qu'il commence k s'habiller commetout le monde. 
Mais un certain nombre de jeunes gens reste attache* 
a ces habitudes de flanerie, de billard, d'intermin- 
ables fumeries a I'estaminet, ou de promenades par 
ban des bruyantes au jardin de Luxembourg. En 
un mot, ceux-lk font, de la recreation que les autres 
se permettent sobrement, le fond et 1'habitude de 
la vie. II est tout naturel que leurs manieres, leurs 
idees, et jusqu'a leurs traits, au lieu de se former, 
restent dans une sorte d'enfance vagabonde et de- 
braillee, dans laquelle il faut se garder de les 
encourager, quoiqu'elle a certainement ses dou- 
ceurs et meme sa poesie. Ceux-la se trouvent 
toujours naturellement tout porte"s aux 6meutes. 
Les plus jeunes y vont pour voir, d'autres y vont 
pour agir ; et dans ce temps-la, presque toujours 
tous s'y jetaient un instant et s'en retiraient vite 
apres avoir donne et reQU quelques bons coups. 
Cela ne changeait pas la face des affaires, et la 
seule modification que ces tentatives aient apport^e, 
c'est un redoublement de frayeur chez les bouti- 
quiers, et de cruaut6 brutale chez les agents de 

The term bousingot was applied to these 
students, and Leon Gozlan in the Constitu- 
tionnel adopted it in derision as a generic 
name for the romantic school of which Victor 
Hugo and Gerard de Nerval were then the 
principal exponents. The word bousingot 
means literally the flat cap worn by sailors. 


SCOTT QUERY (9 th S. vii. 510 ; viii. 48). In 
' The Milleres^ Tale,' 1. 582, Aldine edition, 
the word is given as " very trot." This Dr. 
Morris explained in the glossary as u quick 
trot"; an idea more in keeping with both 
circumstances related than the explanation 
at the last reference. ARTHUR MAYALL. 
[See 9 th S. vii. 83, 257,1 

9"> s. viii. AUG. 10, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


SWEENY TODD (9 th S. vii. 508). I well 
recollect the issue of this penny dreadful in 
numbers, and the low-class illustrations of 
the ' Charley Wag ' style 1 referred to in 
' N. & Q.,' 9 th S. v. 346. 

I should hardly have expected to find it in 
our national library ; nevertheless I do find 
something about it, and, though at Oxford, 
it may possibly be some gratification to the 
Trustees of the British Museum to have some 
testimony, however unimportant, to the great 
use of their printed Catalogue in public 
libraries. The copies here accessible to readers 
at Bpdley and the Radcliffe Camera are of 
inestimable service, being constantly con- 
sulted, and often in fact, generally with 
some success, as in the present case. In the 
volume entitled "British Museum: Catalogue 
of Printed Books. London : W. Clowes, 
1897," fol., in column 144 I find this entry : 

" Sweeney Todd, the barber of Fleet street a 

drama (founded on the work of the same 

title) by F. Hazelton. See Lacy (T. H.) Lacy's 
Acting edition of plays, etc., vol. 102 [1850, etc.], 12." 

My recollection of the book is that the title 
read "demon barber," and the date 1870. 
With regard to the latter part of the refer- 
ence, with the date [1850] I will say nothing, 
being too pleased to have the Catalogue here 
at all to grumble at any of the late Sir 
Anthony Panizzi's peculiarities in scientific 
bibliography. RALPH THOMAS. 

' Sweeny Todd, the Demon Barber of Fleet 
Street,' was published in parts during the 
year 1840. A copy of it is now on sale at 
Mr. W. Smith's, No. 1, Marsham Street, West- 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I am under the impression that * Sweeny 
Todd ' was written by G. A. Sala, and was one 
of the penny dreadfuls referred to by him in 
his so-called ' Life and Adventures,' written 
by him for Dicks the publisher. I think I 
remember Sala acknowledged the authorship 
in a paragraph in the weekly notes he contri- 
buted for some time to the Illustrated London 
News before he was superseded by Mr. James 
Pay ii. Selections from these notes were pub- 
lished in book form, and the question might 
be set at rest by anybody who thought it 
worth while making a search for the para- 
graph. The subject was not referred to, 
tcept by implication, by Sala in his 'Life 
id Adventures.' JOHN HEBB. 

BRITISH ARMY (9 th S. vi. 488). The query 
>s to " this iron chain armour " raises a smile 
in a soldier reader. These "burnisher" 
jhoulder-straps, as they are called, were 

ordered to be worn about three years ago by 
the cavalry and R.H. Artillery. They save 
the fraying of the cloth shoulder-strap with 
the sloped sword ; they have a smart appear- 
ance, and, in a degree, they are useful. 

H. P. L. 

PHILLIPPO (9 th S. vii. 468 ; viii. 72). The 
name Phillippo or Phelipeau seems familiar 
to me in connexion with Burgundian history. 
I fancy it may have been that of one of the 
Lords of Chateauneuf who was poisoned by 
his lady. The lady was buried alive at a 
spot which my mother used to point out to 
me, an earthen pot having been placed over 
her head that her agonies might be pro- 
longed. Now that my mother is dead, i 
could point out the spot to succeeding 
generations. Such is tradition, and I have 
no reason to doubt its accuracy ; but I should, 
of course, prefer to excavate in search of 
positive proof. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

ROYAL BOROUGH (9 th S. viii. 65). A royal 
burgh in Scotland is a corporate body or 
person erected by a charter from the Crown, 
and holding its rights, lands, and privileges 
direct from the Crown. The charter may be 
either an actual express existing writ, or its 
existence is sometimes assumed from other 
facts and circumstances, on a presumption 
that the original has perished by accident. 
The charter does not require, or even admit, 
of sasine. By the Act of 1663 the provosts 
and bailies of royal burghs have power to 
value and sell all ruinous houses when pro- 
prietors refuse to repair or rebuild them. 
Many other privileges conferred are to be 
found in the Acts of the Scots Parliaments, 
as well as enactments regulating the trade, 
and special favours enjoyed by the magis- 
trates and burgesses of such royal burghs, 
most of which have, however, fallen into 
desuetude. There are sixty-six royal burghs 
in Scotland. FRANCIS C. BUCHANAN. 

The reasons for the use of the distinction 
are diverse. Leamington received the name 
Royal Leamington Spa in 1838 because the 
Duchess of Kent and the Princess Victoria 
visited it in 1830 (' Chambers's Concise 
Gazetteer of the World'). In another way 
Salford is "royal" because it had been held 
by the king so far back as Saxon times. 
According to the Domesday Survey : 

"King Edward [the Confessor] held Salford. 
There are three hides and twelve carucates of 
waste land, a forest three miles long and the same 
broad, and there are many haias, and an aerie for 

In the thirty-sixth year of his reign Henry 
III. granted to William de Ferrers, Earl of 


NOTES* AND QUERIES. [9* s. VHL AUG. 10,1901. 

Derby, free warren in the demesne lands of 
Salford, among other places ; thus showing 
that Salford at that time was a royal 
demesne. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

There are many reasons for the adoption of 
the title " royal " by towns in England ; but 
one town, to my own knowledge, has a clear 
claimthe little Warwickshire place char- 
tered by Henry VIII. as the "King's Town, 
Manor, and Lordship of Button Coldfield." 
(Other replies received.] 

STIRLING (9 th S. viii. 83). An examination of 
dates ought to have shown the biographers 
to whom MR. WILCOCK alludes that it was 
impossible William Alexander should have 
been tutor to the seventh Earl of Argyll. 
William Alexander was born in 1580. Allow- 
ing for the precocity of genius, he could 
scarcely have been a tutor or travelling com- 
panion before he was eighteen. This brings 
us to 1598, when Archibald, seventh Earl of 
Argyll, was twenty- two years of age, and 
had been married four years to Lady Anne 
Douglas, to whom Alexander in 1604 in- 
scribed his * Aurora.' CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

86, 314). For the last tan years I have fol- 
lowed with ever - increasing surprise the 
number of instances of centenarianism re- 
corded in the newspapers. In spite of all 
that Mr. W. J. Thorns, in his ' Human Lon- 
gevity,' may say with regard to the "fabulous" 
accounts of Old Parr's 152 vears, and the 
author's hope that they will be " eliminated 
from all serious inquiries concerning human 
longevity," there is apparently nothing to 
prove tnat this 152 years was not actually 
reached. The celebrated " discoverer " of the 
circulation of the blood believed in him, and 
when he opened him he found the cartilages 
of his ribs, instead of being ossified as they 
generally are in elderly persons, soft and 
flexible, while his brain was sound. It was 
remarked, in connexion with a census of cen- 
tenarians taken in France and published in 
1895, that in almost every instance the cen- 
tenarian was a person in the humblest rank 
of life. One venerable dame died peacefully 
in a hamlet in the Haute Garonne aged 150 
years, subsisting during the last decade of 
her life on goat's milk and cheese, and pre- 
serving all her mental faculties to the last. 
Sir Benjamin Ward Richardson thought the 
normal period of human life, even to-day, to 
be about 110 years, and that seven out of ten 
people ought to live to that age if they took 
proper care of themselves. Whether we 

should all see the necessity of such longevity 
is another matter. Some of us might be 
liable to the stricture passed ^by a villager 
upon a century recorder: "So that's the 
oldest inhabitant ! One hundred and four 

ght o' time to do tnat." it may 

be granted to MR. THOMAS AULD that it is 
remarkable how the records of centenarian- 
ism decrease, as regards the number of years 
attained, with the enervating influences of 
civilization, or rather with the adoption of 
its artificialities. One seldom now hears of 
instances of more than from one hundred 
to a hundred and five or so years ; but it 
will require something more than MR. AULD'S 
ipse dixit (9 th S. vii. 314) to discredit the 
numerous cases that recur so frequently. A 
hundred and fifty and two hundred years 
ago it was not uncommon to meet with 
what would now be extraordinary records. 
For instance : 

" We hear from Mullingar that a man dy'd lately 
there in the 123 rd Year of his Age." Weekly Journal, 
28 August, 1725. 

" We are credibly informed that there is now 
living near Ribchester in Lancashire William 
Walker, aged 122 Years, who was at the Battle of 
Edge Hill wounded in the Arm, and had two 
Horses shot under him. He is now perfect in 
all his Senses, and capable of travelling on Horse 
back." Craftsman, 22 November, 1735. 

"James Redmond has just died in County Wex- 
ford at the patriarchal age of 110. He had been a 
moderate smoker and drinker all his life." News- 
paper, March, 1896. 

"Mr. William Salmon, of Pennline Court, and 
a Deputy - Lieutenant for Glamorganshire, who 
recently attained the age of 107 years, is still alive 
and well." Newspaper, April, 189(5 or 6). 

" The oldest man in the world," Noah Roby, 
was still living in 1900, an inmate of the 
poor-house at Piscataway township, New 
Jersey. He was born at Eatontown, North 
Carolina, and declared that he was 128 years 
of age on 1 April. Born of an Indian father 
and a white mother, his skin betrays no 
evidence of Indian blood (Daily Telegraph, 
15 November, 1900). I should observe that 
during the eighteenth century it was not 
uncommon to find reported in the leading 
journals the attainment of 110 years. 

Capt. Edward Hoare, of the Cork Militia, 
once told Mr. H. Syer Cuming, vice-president 
of the British Archaeological Association, that 
lie had an uncle who was born in December, 
1699, and died January, 1801, thus embracing 
five reigns, from William III. to George III., 
Desides "living in three centuries." 


vm. AUG. 10, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CIVIL LIST PENSIONS (9 th S. viii. 1, 29, 57, 
66). Besides the wrong ascription in the 
case of Lady Hamilton (p. 38), whose hus- 
band's last appointment was the Governorship 
of Tasmania, and who should therefore more 
properly have been entered under the head 
of " Public Service (Governors)," I have 
noticed another slight slip. Mrs. Blanchard 
(p. 10) is the widow, not of Edward Laman 
Hlanchard, but of Edward Litt Leman Blan- 
chard, who was no relation whatever of the 
miscellaneous writer Lamau Blanchard. 

It is stated (p. 37), apparently on the 
authority of 'Cassell's Biographical Dic- 
tionary/ that the late William Gifford Pal- 
grave was employed by the Government in 
Abyssinia. I do not think Mr. Palgrave 
ever actually visited Abyssinia. In the 
autumn of 1865, when the mission deputed 
to the Court of King Theodore, consisting of 
Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, Dr. (now Sir Henri) 
Blanc, and myself, could obtain no reply to 
their application for admission to the country, 
the Government, thinking a change of envoys 
might be more successful, commissioned Mr. 
Palgrave to proceed to Gondar. But in the 
meantime a letter was received from the 
king inviting us to his Court, and on the 
mission proceeding to Cairo for further in- 
structions, we found Mr. Palgrave at Shep- 
herd's Hotel, making his preparations for a 
start. The result was that the original 
mission was directed to proceed to its destina- 
tion, and Mr. Palgrave returned to England. 
I saw a good deal of him at Cairo, and met 
him occasionally in after years, and was 
always astonished at his wonderful command 
of colloquial Arabic. Not only could he 
converse in that language with extraordinary 
fluency, but his memory was stored with the 
numberless proverbial sayings which the 
Arabs are fond of introducing into their 
ordinary conversation. I do not think I 
ever met a man of higher intellectual powers, 
and had he served under any other govern- 
ment than our own he would undoubtedly 
have risen to very high distinction. 


Referring to these interesting notes, it is 
certainly a mistake (p. 10) for the name of 
my old friend the late James Frank Redfern 
to occur in Redgrave's 'Dictionary of 
Painters.' Redfern lived and died an archi- 
tectural sculptor pure and simple. He never 
ventured into the realms of fine arts at all, 
but devoted his talents to the decoration, by 
sculpture, of buildings, mainly those of an 
ecclesiastical character. Amongst his prin- 
cipal works may be mentioned the statues 

upon the west front of Salisbury Cathedral 
and the reredos in the cathedral at Gloucester. 
He also did the 'Four Doctors' at Bristol 
Cathedral, that were afterwards removed 
upon the score of "idolatry," and are now, 
I believe, to be seen upon a church in York- 
shire. HARRY HEMS. 

JOHN MARTIN (9 th S. viii. 64). The portrait 
about which CLIO inquires is that of John 
Martin, the painter of the ' Plains of Heaven,' 
'The Great Day of Wrath,' 'The Fall of 
Babylon,' &c. In Evans's catalogue it figures 
as "Martin, John, R.A., modern artist, with 
autograph, Derby Thomson." His life and 
work will be found in any good book of bio- 
graphy. In my 'Men of Mark 'twixt Tyne 
and Tweed ' (for John Martin was a thorough 
Tynesider) are some particulars respecting 
his family, which may not appear elsewhere, 
as follows : 

" Six of a family of eight children survived him. 
Isabella, the eldest, was for some time his secretary, 
but subsequently became joint manager, with 
Joseph Bonomi, her brother-in-law, of Sir John 
Soane's Museum, and died in 1879. Alfred, the 
eldest son, General Superintendent of Income 
Tax in Ireland, died in 1872. Jessie married 
Joseph Bonomi. Charles became an artist in New 
York. Zenobia, educated at a boarding school in 
Newcastle [upon Tyne], where she was named by 
her schoolfellows the ' Queen of Palmyra,' married 
Peter Cunningham, chief clerk in the Audit Office 
at Somerset House, London, and author of the 
' Handbook of London,' ' Life of Inigo Jones,' ' The 
Story of Nell Gwynn,'and other well-known books. 
Leopold Charles (so named after Leopold, King of 
the Belgians, his godfather), author of 'Illustra- 
tions of British Costume,' ' Gold and Silver Coins 
of all Nations,' ' The Literature of the Civil Ser- 
vice,' &c., and of a series of recollections of his 
father, which appeared in the Newcastle Weekly 
Chronicle, married a sister of [Sir] JohnTenniel, the 
artist of Punch, and died in London on the 5th of 
January, 1889." 



The John Martin referred to was the well- 
known historical and landscape painter 
(1789-1854). Of his many sensational pic- 
tures ' Belshazzar's Feast' is perhaps best 
remembered. The octavo portrait, with 
facsimile autograph, to which your corre- 
spondent alludes, heads the September 
number of the European Magazine, 1822, 
which gives a brief memoir of the painter. 

Ware Priory. 

MACKESY (9 th S. viii. 46). -This surname is 
apparently one of the modern forms of 
O'Macasa. O'Heerin, the historian, who died 
A.D. 1420, in the continuation of O'Dugan's 
topographical poem, gives an account of the 



vm. AUG. 10, iu. 

principal families inhabiting Leinster and 
Munster at the time of the Anglo-Norman 
invasion ; he mentions O'Macasa as inhabit- 
ing Corca Oiche, a district in the ancient 
Thomond (the present counties of Clare and 
Limerick). The exact situation of Corca 
Oiche has not been ascertained. Dr. 
McDermott includes O'Mackesey of Limerick 
in a list of the principal families in Ireland 
from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries 
(see 'Topographical and Historical Map of 
Ancient Ireland '). Two anglicized forms 
(Macassey and Maxey) are given by O'Hart 
in his work on Irish pedigrees. The sur- 
names M'Asey, Mackessy, Macasey, M'Assie, 
and M 'Casey, given by R. E. Matheson in 
* Varieties and Synonyms of Surnames and 
Christian Names in Ireland,' are evidently 
modern forms of O'Macasa. 

I have not been able to find any record of 
this sept inhabiting the county of Wexford. At 
the present day the anglicized forms of the 
name are said to be more frequently met 
with in co. Tipperary than elsewhere. 


Antrim Road, Belfast. 

yiii. 83). Your correspondent will find the 
information required in * A Catalogue of the 
Manuscripts and Muniments of Alleyn's Col- 
lege of God's Gift at Dulwich,' by Mr. Geo. F. 
Warner, 1881. The collection was bequeathed 
by will to the College about December, 1686 
or 1687, by William Cartwright, actor and 
bookseller. The two Mrs. Cartwrights were 
wives of William Cartwright, the actor. 
They are thus described in a catalogue 
apparently in William Cartwright's own 
handwriting : 

" (78) My first wife's picture like a shepherdess, 
on 3 quarters cloth ; in a gilt frame. 31." 

"(116) My last wife's picture, with a black veil 
on her head ; in a gilt frame, 3 quarters cloth. 3J." 

Many interesting particulars relating to 
the Cartwrights are given in the above- 
mentioned work, which has, I may add, a 
very complete index. CHAS. H. CROUCH. 

Nightingale Lane, Wanstead. 

There is a collection of books, &c., in 
Dulwich College formerly belonging to Wil- 
liam Cartwright, one of Killigrew's company 
of Drury Lane Theatre. Cartwright was 
bred a bookseller in Great Turnstile, Holborn 
and then turned player. By his will, dated 
1686, he bequeathed his books, pictures 
(several of which are no longer to be found) 
and furniture to Dulwich College, where his 
own portrait still remains. A ' Catalogue of 
the Cartwright Collection/ by John C L 

Sparkes, has been issued. This I do not 
possess, but it is not improbable that the 
portraits of the two Mrs. Cartwrights are 
those of the mother and wife of the donor. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

(9 th S. viii. 81). One would like to hear more 
of this interesting matter. The custom re- 
ferred to has evidently come down from a 
remote age. On the Sunday before Candle- 
mas, 1318, the execution of a deed relating to 
land was witnessed in Felkirk Church, near 
Barnsley, by all the parishioners (Yorks. Arch. 
Journal, xii. 257). There is much evidence 
that conveyances of land and other docu- 
ments were anciently executed in church, 
and the forms of attestation usually give not 
only the names of a number of witnesses, 
but tell us that the document was executed 
in the presence of many others (" cum multis 
aliis "). It is difficult to see who these " many 
others " were if not the persons assembled in 
church. Perhaps Sir Richard Howard, or 
some Dorsetshire antiquary, could tell us 
more about " church gifts" in that county. 

S. O. ADDY. 

' NOMENCLATOR NAVALis ' (8 th S. iii. 429). 
This dictionary of English naval terms in 
the British Museum, if identical (as suggested 
by K. P. D. E.) with the MSS. mentioned at 
p. 45 of the Second Report of the Historical 
MSS. Commission, would be of great import- 
ance, not only to the 'E.D.D.,' but also to 
the 'N.E.D.' A. J. Hoi-wood's report on 
Lord Calthorpe's papers says : 

" Vols. clxix. and clxxvii. Nomenclator Navalis, 
or an exact collection and exposition of all terms 
of art, &c., 1633. Copious descriptions arranged 
alphabetically. The contents of both volumes are 
the same ; the first has 130 pages folio." 
Perhaps Prof. Laugh ton may be able to say 
whether the Museum MS. is identical in 
date and otherwise with those in Grosvenor 
Square, and what relation (if any) these 
books have with Capt. John Smith's nautical 
handbooks of a rather later period. 


ST. EDMUND (9 th S. viii. 103). It may be 
noted that St. Edmund's Feast is observed 
(in England) on 20 November, and must not 
be confused with that of Edmund Rich, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who is commemorated 
on 16 November. The collects for both feasts 
(English Supplement to Roman Breviary 
and Missal) are from the Sarum Service 

B oks / , GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 



LAMB QUESTIONS (9 th S. viii. 82). Hickman 
must have been Tom Hickman, better known 
as "The Gaslight Man," a most determined 
fighter, whose portrait is given and whose 
battles are recorded in ' Boxiana,' vol. iii. 
p. 287. J. J- F. 

"PiNT UMBIT" (9 th S. vii. 489). Evidently, 
I should think, " post obit," " gone dead." The 
context should show. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

The Wife of Bath's Tale : its Sources and Analogues. 

By G. H. Maynadier. (Nutt.) 
THE thirteenth volume of Mr. Nutt's "Grimm 
Library " consists of an investigation by Mr. May- 
nadier, an instructor in English at the Harvard 
University, into the history and development of 
1 The Wife of Bath's Tale.' Studies of the kind are 
in fashion, and much sound erudition has been 
exhibited in tracing myths to their sources and 
showing how widely disseminated are most of them. 
In the same series has previously appeared Mr. 
Edwin Sidney Hartland's study of ' The Legend of 
Perseus,' a model of research and critical acumen. 
Mr. Maynadier's task has been satisfactorily accom- 
plished, and his work is a valuable contribution to 
our knowledge of the diffusion of legend. The 
story, as all are supposed to know, is that of a 
knight of Arthur's Court who in brutal fashion 
violates a maiden, and is condemned to death 
unless he can within a year's space answer the 
question what women love loest. Thanks to a loathly 
old hag, he is able to say that it is sovereignty 
over husband and lover. His life is saved, but he 
is compelled to marry the hag. This he reluctantly 
does ; and resigning to her the sovereignty she 
covets, he finds her transformed into a bride 
lovely, graceful, and high-born. Gower in the 
4 Confessio Amantis ' has a story that is substan- 
tially the same. Whence did the two authors, 
who were contemporaries, obtain the tale? No 
direct answer to this query can be given. Mr. 
Maynadier's task is to show the various forms 
that portions of the legend assume in different 
countries. He establishes, accordingly, parallels 
English, Scotch, Irish, Norse, French, and German. 
Little is definitely determined. The loathly hag of 
Chaucer's story is first found in Ireland, and this 
favours the theory, which commends itself to Mr. 
Maynadier, that English popular stories of the 
Middle Ages borrowed probably "material from 
Ireland, either directly or through the medium of 
some of the Celtic inhabitants of Great Britain." 
The presence of a kindred story in the various 
parts of Scandinavia, and indeed throughout North- 
western Europe, seems established. The book 
cannot fail to commend itself to all interested in 
the subject, and the treatment proves that American 
students are no less earnest and well informed than 
their English rivals. 

THE August magazines are principally occupied 
wilh subjects outside our treatment, among which 
the Navy naturally holds a prominent place. We 
echo the protest made by Miss E. L. Banks (does 
the second initial stand for Linnaeus ?) in the Fort- 
nightly against the publication of the love-letters of 

Bismarck and Victor Hugo. They were written to 
be seen only by those to whom they were addressed, 
and there is distinct profanation m giving them to 
the world. Miss Banks congratulates the world 
that Anne Hathaway kept to herself the love-letters 
of William Shakespeare, and that in this case at 
least the odious vulgarity of public taste has nothing 
on which to feed. Of some of the paroxysms of 
Hugo's calf-love Miss Banks says that they are 
nauseating; and she holds that if young French- 
men express their feelings after the fashion of 
Hugo the surveillance exercised over French girls 
is praiseworthy. The title of her article is ' Love 
that was Blind.' In the Count du Bois Mr. Richard 
Davey introduces us to ' A New French Poet,' and 
one with a pleasing message. Curiously enough, 
the Count likes England, even Kilburn and " Mary- 
le-bonne," and writes of 

Le brouillard dore qui met au front de Londre[s] 
Un voile harmonieux. 

' My First Morning at a Persian Court,' by Mr. 
Wilfrid Sparroy, gives an animated account of his 
reception. Mr. Maurice Hewlett, in ' The Scrivener's 
Tale,' gives from Froissart an account of the heroic 
Countess of Salisbury. In the Nineteenth Century 
Mr. Charles Welkins writes on ' Beau Nash,' and 
finds something to praise in his vulgar and ostenta- 
tious career. In favour of Nash's knowledge and 
taste nothing can be said. His good heart is praised, 
however, and an account is given of the strangely 
unconventional practices in which he participated. 
Many familiar stories are told concerning the Beau. 
Some of these are hard of acceptance, even if in- 
capable of disproof. Mr. Samuel E. Moffett, of the 
New York Journal, has an article on * How America 
really feels towards England,' which strikes us as 
at once moderate and truthful. It is not wholly 
satisfactory reading for Englishmen, but it does not 
greatly disturb either our faith or our composure. 
S. Staples writes on ' The Emigration of Gentle- 
women,' and shows the gifts that are requisite in 
intending emigrants. % A Remnant of Buddha's 
Body,' by Mr. Perceval Landon, deals less with 
primitive religion than with questions of political 
expediency. Mr. Henniker Heaton inveighs against 
'Postal Pettifogging,' and Mr. W. Roberts writes 
with knowledge on ' The Present Rage for Mezzo- 
tints.' The Pall Mall has for frontispiece a repro- 
duction of Vandyke's admirable picture of Henri- 
etta, daughter of Charles I. Two illustrated articles, 
bearing some resemblance to each other, are ' The 
Fight for the Atlantic,' showing the marvellous 
growth of the Transatlantic liners, and 'Over a 
Hundred Miles an Hour,' which deals with new 
developments of railway enterprise. ' Napoleon 
at Play ' depicts his existence with Josephine at the 
barrack-like palace of Malmaison. ' The Game of 
Bridge' deals with a subject of occasional and 
exceptional interest. 'Studies under the Sea' 
gives some blood-curdling pictures of devil-fish 
crushing and almost devouring sea-going ships. 
' The Cost of a Scotch Moor ' will be studied by 
some. ' The New Switzerland ' describes the Cana- 
dian Rockies as a resort for Alpine climbers. In 
honour of the holiday season Scribner's is, according 
to precedent, a fiction number, consisting almost 
entirely of short stories. With these we need 
not concern ourselves. It may, however, be 
said that the coloured illustrations to ' Phoebus 
on Halzaphron' are very remarkable, and that 
the narrative by Mr. Quiller - Couch is striking 


NOTE3 AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL AUG. 10, 1901. 

and original. An account of 'Rural New 
York City' supplies interesting pictures of a 
district little known to English travellers, but 
full of character. 'A Little Savage Gentleman' 
gives an account of a young Samoan, a son oi 
a chief and a friend of Robert Louis Stevenson. 
The cover of the magazine is beautiful and the 
illustrations throughout are excellent. In the 
CornhUl Mr. Thomas Seccombe, under the title 

* Smelfungus goes South,' deals with Smollett's 
' Travels through France and Italy,' which he pro- 
nounces " well written and instructive." Of Smol- 
lett himself we obtain a capital account, and the 
article is in its line a model. Mr. Fitchett's 
revival of the great Mutiny still stirs the soul 
like the blast of a trumpet. Mrs. Woods has an 
amusing account of ' In a Mangrove Swamp,' and 
Mrs. Archibald Lewis some stimulating pages 
on 'Peking Revisited.' In No. 8 of "Family 
Budgets " Lady Agnew tells ' How to Live on Ten 
Thousand a Year,' a task, it appears, less easy than 
it seems to most of us. An account of the French 
press shows that a notable improvement has been 
made of late in the obtaining of news. It presents, 
we fear, a rather too sanguine view of French feel- 
ing towards England, but is well worthy of study. 

* The Cup and the Lip ' is occupied with Alpine 
climbing. Mr. Austin Dobson has a short poem in 
his best vein on the ' Five-Hundredth Number of 
the Cornhill Magazine.' In the Gentleman's Dr. 
Alexander H. Japp has a readable and interesting 
4 Study of Nightjars,' Miss Georgiana Hill an essay 
on 'Napoleon and Prince Metternich,' and Mr. 
H. F. Hills an account of the fight at Bow, near 
London, in 1648. Sylvan us Urban, at second hand, 
advocates the establishment of a society for the 
preservation of the English language, the existence 
of which is imperilled by journalists and so-styled 
literary men. The scheme merits attention. To 
Longman's the Rev. H. C. Beeching, himself an 
examiner, sends ' Some Notes on an Examination.' 
It furnishes some wonderful revelations of crass 
ignorance. It is written in part as an answer to a 
previous paper in the same magazine by Mr. Andrew 
Lang. Mr. Lang himself is in his best vein in 
'At the Sign of the Ship,' dealing with ghost 
stories, early discoverers of America, and other 
matters. A delightful story is told of Robert 
Maccullock, a hero of the " '45." We wish we could 
afford space to extract it. 'Recollections of a 
Tenderfoot' and 'Autumn by the Sea' will repay 
perusal. Amidst much spirited fiction the Idler 
has an historical article, well illustrated, on ' The 
Fall of Quebec.' 

THE two principal articles in the current number 
of Folk-lore relate to the games of the red men of 
Guiana, and to the superstitions and popular belief s 
of Lincolnshire. In the former paper Mr. im Thurn 
furnishes a valuable record of the sports of the 
Macusis and other tribes. " The simplest and 
earliest form of game, whether we regard the life 
of the individual or of the race, is the imitation by 
children of their elders." Hence, since human 
nature is conservative, the traditional amusements 
of the young often throw light on the ancient con- 
dition of their ancestors. " It is curious," says 
Mr. im Thurn, "and I think characteristic, that 
one of the simplest of games, which has developed 
again and again among many different peoples, and 
has taken on an infinity of elaborate forms I mean 
ball-play is almost unrepresented among'lithese 

utilitarian savages." Probably, in many instances 
at least, ball-play has been evolved from peculiar 
rites connected with nature-worship; and where 
these rites were unknown it might have no spon- 
taneous development, but owe its final appearance 
to adoption from some other people. In the account 
of Lincolnshire folk-lore Miss Peacock speaks of 
the beliefs of the county as being prosaic and want- 
ing in distinct originality. Each parish possesses 
its own variants of popular European superstitions, 
but the picturesque individuality to be detected in 
the conceptions of people in whom the Celtic and 
pre-Celtic blood predominates is absent. A mingling 
of English and Danish ancestry does not apparently 
tend to the production of a poetic and imaginative 

THE * Notes of the Month ' in the Antiquary for 
July are of unusual interest, commencing as they 
do with extracts from Mr. A. J. Evans's letters to 
the Times on the late archaeological discoveries in 
Crete. Following on these notes comes an article 
on the probable site of the battlefield of Ethandune, 
and a description of 'The Souldier's Catechisme' 

The recent numbers of the Interme'diaire are quite 
up to the accustomed standard. In the issue for 
10 July antiquaries concerned in the accurate inter- 
pretation of the jus primes, noctis are referred to 
Count Ame'dee de Foras's ' Droit du Seigneur au 
Moyen-age ' and to Schmidt's 'Jus Primse Noctis' 
for information. 

THE REV. W. C. BOULTER (Norton Vicarage, 
Evesham) begs to say that all the papers mentioned 
ante p. 96 are disposed of. 


We must call special attention to the following 

notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
mg queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
out in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication "Duplicate." 

J. BoucHiBR.-In 1776 your reference will be 
found : Johnson s present appearance put me in 
mind of my uncle Dr. BoswelPs description of him 
A robust genius, born to grapple with whole 
ibranes.' " 


S? it ?, r }? 11 com , muni cations should be addressed to 
The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 
We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9s.vm.Auo.i7,i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 190. 

NOTES John Dee's Library, 137-Bevis Marks Synagogue, 
138 Jubilee of Exhibition, 139 Nobility, 140-" To beat a 
bank" Floyd v. Lloyd, 141 Railway from Russia to India 
Poem by Joseph Beaumont "As warm as a bat," 142 
" Garage" Cigarette-holder, 143. 

QUERIES : -Translator's Name Wanted" 'Tis a very good 
world," &c. Sir Charles Graham, 143" Pack" Richard 
Wellsborn Portrait of Robson Powney Family Rev. F. 
Barlow Longbow Verses Wanted Marengo Heraldic, 
144 Gore Family Verses in Borrow London M.P.stemp. 
Edward IV. Song Wanted Stedman Family Napoleon's 
Library Sir James Jay Alexander Speering Eye- 
glasses, 145 Authors Wanted, 146. 

REPLIES : John Stow's Portrait, 146 Peers convicted of 
Felony Fathers of the House of Commons Isaac Pening- 
ton the Younger" A feeding storm," 147 Shakespeare 
Queries Civil War : Storming of Lincoln James II. 
Michael Bruce and Burns 'The Moss Rose 'Smoking 
a Cobbler, 148 Armorial Sir Thomas Cooke Blue 
Beard, 149-Anglo-Hebrew Slang : " Kybosh " " Snicket " 
Lamb and the Royal Academy Site of Brunanburh 
"Racing" High and Low, 150 Alba Pottery Pass 
Tickets in Shakespeare's Time Crosier and Pastoral Staff 
Taverns in Seven Dials and Soho Lost Town in Suffolk 
Burnt Sacrifice, 151 Manx Words Try sting Oak in 
' Ivanhoe,' 152 Bell Inscription Prisoners of War in 
our Literature Unmarried Lord Mayors Foscolo in 
London, 153 Coronation Stone Barbican Watch Tower 
"Zareba" Chaplain to William III. Authors Wanted, 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Skeat's 'Notes on English Etymo- 
logy ' Roberts's ' Dionysius of Halicarnassus ' ' Edin- 
burgh Review ' ' English Historical Review.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE following is a list of books now in the 
College of Physicians from the library of the 
famous John Dee. They were originally in 
the possession of one Nicholas Saunder, 
whose signature occurs in many of them. In 
two it is dated, namely, in No. 15, 1584, and 
in No. 13, 1586. As the latest of these books 
(No. 4) is dated 1575, it seems evident that 
they were obtained shortly after the sack of 
Dee's house at Mortlake in 1583. 

1. Albohali | Arabia Astro- | logi antiquissimi, | 
ac clarissimi de iudi- | cijs Natiuitatum liber unus, 

| antehac non editus. 4to, Noribergae, 1546. 

A few marginal notes by John Dee. At the 
end are bound in some sheets of MS. astro- 
nomical observations. They were taken at 
Lou vain in August and November, 1548. 

2. Alexander (Andreas) Ratisbonensis. Mathema- 
logiu' pri- | me ptis Andree Alex | andri | Ratisbo- 
ne\is | mathematici sup no | uam et veterem ley- | 
cam Aristotelis. Black-letter, folio [Leipzig], 1504. 

Signature on title-page, "Joannes Deeus, 
1551, Londini." Numerous marginal notes. 
At the end is written, "Perlegi anno 1555, 
inter 18 m et 24 m Septebris fullhamiae in 
sedibus singularis amici mei, Reuered : in 
Chro' patris Edmu'd Bonar Londinensis epis- 

copi. J. d " From this it seems that he 

was on good terms with Bishop Bonner, in 
whose custody he had been up till 29 August, 
1555. This also renders it improbable that 
he was the "Master Dee" present at the 
examination of John Philpot. 

3. Archimedis | opera non nvlla. Folio, Venice 
(Paulus Manutius, Aldi f.), 1558. 

Signature on title-page, "Joannes Dee, 1559." 

4. Beroaldus. Math. | Beroaldi \ Chronicum,scri- 
ptvrae sacrseavto- | ritate consti- | tutum. Folio, 

s.l. 1575. 

Signature of Nich. Saunder. Marginal notes 

in handwriting similar to that in the other 


5. Cardanus. Hieronymi | Cardani Medici Medio 
lanensis, Libelli Quinqz. 4to, Norimbergae, 1547. 

Numerous marginal notes. He seems at this 
time to have been busily engaged in drawing 
up horoscopes, as there are many notes of 
birthdays, &c., in this book ; e.g., on the back 
of the title-page occurs among others the 
following : 

"29mo dec'mbris nocte inter 9 et 12 at Marburgh 
or Mgb nata puella anno 1552. She hath a great chap 
toth on the left side of her mouth and on her upper 

On the last page of the text is the following: 
"Anne Cumpton, nata anno 1523 18 martii mane 
valde | ascendit illi finis [?] X 28. uxor secunda 
W. H." 

This Anne Cumpton was the sixth daughter 
of George Talbot, fourth Earl of Shrewsbury, 
and the widow of Peter Compton. She was 
the second wife of Sir William Herbert, Earl 
of Pembroke. In this case there can be no 
doubt as to who the W. H. is, as the next 
entry, on the page containing the list of 
errata, runs, "Veni in servitiu' comitis 
W Pembrok, 1552, fine februarii die 28" 
The ' D.N.B.' does not give the fact that he 
actually entered the service of the Earl of 
Pembroke, though it mentions that the latter, 
with Lord Robert Dudley, introduced him to 
Queen Elizabeth on her accession. On the 
back of this leaf (which unfortunately had 
been pasted down, and had to be raised with 
some injury to the writing) are more notices 
of births. The following curious entry may 
be given : 

" Anno 1519 die natalis d'ni natus mane hor. 4 in 
north wales both his feet crooked and rond as they 

war broken, he hong[?]a , and creping on hande 

and foote, big headed and chested [?] wyth a prety 
berd : semyng to be of a nature almost sanguine 
and " 

Another entry is, "Anno 1548, vel 49, Sep- 

tembris 15 hora 9 circa Londinium filia 

comitis De P. at chelsey." This probably 
refers to Anne, the only daughter of the Earl 


NOTES AND QUERIES, ff* s. vm. AUG. 17, MOI. 

of Pembroke. A more personal note occurs 
lower down: "Anno 1509 vel 1508 on cnstmas 
day 21 October [sic] my mother was born : to 

whome I am very like in having my 

And she was married 1524 " All the rest on 

this subject is illegible. I will give one more 

scrap: " Wilton herbart obsesus [1] 

My lord of C her sonne wife to comes 

etc. of pe'brok anno 1544." The reference 
here is to him and his wife receiving from 
Henry VIII. the estates of the dissolved 
Abbey of Wilton in Wiltshire. 

6. Hangest (Hieronymus) Liber proportip | nu' 
magistri hie | ronimi de han- | gest. Black letter, 
folio, Parisiis (Jehan Petit), s.a. 

Signature on title-page, " Joannes Dee 1557. 
4 Maij, Londini." 

7. Hispalensis (Joannes) Epitome | totius astro- 
lo | gicae. 4to, Noribergae, 1548. 

Signature on title-page, "Joannes Deeus 
1548, Decembre, Antwerpise, xij d ij s ." A few 
marginal notes. 

8. Lombardus (Bonus) Introductio | in divinam | 
chemiae artem. 8vo, Basileae, 1572. 
Signature on title-page and on pp. 88 and 
116. Numerous marginal notes. On p. 122 
is the following quotation : 

Bathon and Raymund w th many Authors mo 
Write under covert, and Aristotle allso 
For what haveoc they wrath with theyr penne 
Theyr clowdy clauses, dulled many men. 

Norton in the proheme of his Ordinall. 

9. Lully (Raimundus) [title-page missing] Libel- 
lus de Kabbalistico avditvi in via Raimundi Lvlli. 
Black-letter, 12mo, Venetiis, 1518. 

On first leaf signature with date 1564. On 
last leaf, " Aspice domine de sede sa'cta tua. 
Joannes Dee, Lond. Recepi a Roma 29 Aprili 
A 1564 Antwerpiae." A few notes at the end. 

10. Matthaeus Westmonasteriensis. Flores | His- 
toriarum. Folio, Lond., 1570. 

Notes in handwriting similar to that in the 
other books. 

11. Mizaldus (Antonius) Planetologia, re- | bus 
astronomicis, medicis, et philo- | sophicis ervdite 
referata. 4to, Lugduni, 1551. 

Signature on title-page with date "1553, 
Londini 17. Sep." 

12. Munsterus (Sebastianus) Canones super | 
novvm instrvmentvm luminarium. 4to, Basileae, 

13. Pastellus (Gulielmus) De Vniversitate liber 
[seu de cosmographia compendium 1 . Second edi- 
tion, 4to, Paris, 1563. 

Marginal notes. 

14. Ptolomaeus. Quadriparti. Ptolo. Black- 
letter, folio, Venice, 1519. 

Long note on fly-leaf headed : 

" Hora et minuta nativitatis et considerari de- 
bent : et inde de f utura corpora' dispositione, atq' 

adeo animoru' facultatibus praescriri posse 1551. 

Meloni [?] 14 Septembris." 
Numerous marginal notes. 

15. Riffinus(G. H.) In Caii Plinii | i. etii. cap. 

libri xxx. Com- | mentarius una cum | Joannis 

Tritemii Abbatis Span- | cheymensis in Libros 

suos Stegnographie, Epistola | apologetica, &c. 4to, 
Wurzburg, 1548. 

The reason which Trithemius gives here for 
not publishing his ' Steganographia ' (of 
which Dee must have possessed a MS. copy) 
is its power of evil should it fall into bad 
hands. See 5 th S. xi. 401, 422. 

To one page of this book was pinned a 
piece of paper containing on one side notes 
in Dee's handwriting on the other, in a set 
book-hand, the following exorcism : 

What manner of evell y* ever thow be 

on goddys behalfe I co'iure the 

I co'iure the with the blessyd crosse + 

that JhC was done one with fforse 

I co'iure the with the nayls thre 

rJhC was done apon the tre 
co'iure the with the crowne of thorne 

y fc on JhC heyd was done ffor scorne 

I co'iure the with the blessyd bloode 

that JhC bleyd on the rode 

I co'iure the with the wounds ffyve 

y* JhC suffurt in his live 

I co'iure the with the wholye spere 

y* longins tyll his hart can bere 

yet I co'iure the never the lasse 

with all the vertues of the masse 
in honore ble. marie et bli. batolphi et scte apolonie 

et sancte Petro et et unu' credo hie 

faithe hie sanctune wed n helfe cryste helpe 

Quforbiu' pelitorie of speane stavyeatur [?J. 

Royal College of Physicians. 


AN eventful day in the annals of the 
Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community 
in this country was Wednesday, the 26th of 
June, when was celebrated the completion 
of two hundred years since the inauguration 
of the synagogue "Saas Asamaim" (Gate of 
Heaven), situate in Bevis Marks, the oldest 
existing Jewish place of worship in England. 
The Jewish World of the following Saturday 
gave a concise record from 1701 to 1901. 

The first synagogue in this country was in 
King Street, Aldgate. It was established in 
1656, and Thomas Greerihalgh found there 
in 1662 a hundred male worshippers, men of 
apparent affluence, besides ladies in very rich 
attire The lease of the cemetery in the Mile 
End Road is dated 1657 ; it was for 999 years. 
The Spanish and Portuguese "Beth-Holim" 
Hospital now occupies its site. 

Once the Aldgate synagogue was estab- 
lished, the attention of the community was 



turned to a kindred matter. The subject 
of religious education was considered, and 
in 1664 " The Tree of Life," a society for the 
study of the Law, was established. The same 
year the "Gates of Hope "School commenced its 
operations, and this institution, after having 
been reorganized in 1882, still serves the 
useful purpose for which it was originally 
intended. In 1703 another institution was 
founded, " The Gates of Life and the Father of 
the Fatherless." Its object is fourfold, viz., to 
educate, maintain, clothe, and apprentice 
orphan boys, the boys being admitted by 
the votes of the subscribers. In 1724 a society 
for providing fatherless girls with dowries 
was established. In 1730 the Villareal School 
was founded by Isaac da Costa Villareal for the 
benefit of the poorer girls of the congregation. 
Disraeli in the memoir of his father speaks 
thus of the charitable founder : 

" There might be found among other Jewish 
families flourishing in this country the Villareals, 
who brought wealth to these shores almost as great 
as their names, though that is the second in 
Portugal, and who have twice allied themselves 
to the English aristocracy." 

In 1747 the Beth-Holim was instituted. 
This charity combined the offices of a hos- 
pital, lying-in hospital, and home for aged 
poor, and two years later another charitable 
society came into existence, the Mahasim 
Tobim, "Good Works." In 1757 Moses 
Lamego endowed the synagogue with 
5,000/., the interest of 4,000/. being devoted 
to the orphan school and of 1,000. to the 
salary of an English tutor at the Ngetz 
Chaim Schools. Benjamin D'Israeli, the 
grandfather of the statesman, was in after 
years appointed inspector of the Ngetz 
Chaim. A lease of the land in Bevis Marks 
was obtained for ninety -nine years at an 
annual rental of 120/., and the present build- 
ing was consecrated in 1702. Many of the 
benches were brought from the old synagogue, 
and some of the candlesticks from Holland. 

The celebration service on the 26th of June 
was observed with due ceremonial, the 
Lord Mayor and Sheriffs being present. The 
Jewish World reminds us that 

"the Jewish people do not erect personal monu- 
ments, and the Sephardic section of the community 
mark the resting-place of their people by less 
obtrusive memorials than their Ashkenazi brethren ; 
in their ' House of Life ' the stones lie flat. If we 
want memorials to martyrs and heroes, we have no 
need to fashion them of stone or marble. We have 
only to turn the pages of history and the finest 

models are before us the record of the Sephar- 

dim in England tells the story which we can all 
read with profit. The outward, the visible, the 
tangible sign of the record of the Sephardim is the 
ancient synagogue in Bevis Marks." 

The Hahain, the Rev. Dr. Moses Gaster, one 
of the most eloquent men that the Jews can 
boast of, in the course of his sermon paid the 
following tribute to the English people : 

" This synagogue now represents not only the 
old form of Jewish worship, but it represents 
also the noblest form of religious liberty and 
political emancipation. It is perhaps the only 
synagogue in existence which, since the days when 
the foundation stone was laid, has never been 
exposed to the attack of a misguided populace. No 
harsh sound has ever disturbed the peace of the 
worshipper, no fanatical hand has been raised 
against its walls, no stone has been thrown against 
its windows. This synagogue is a monument of 
the great liberal spirit of the English nation, whose 
progress is a steady one which knows no going 
backwards. Once a barrier had been broken down, 
it had never been raised anymore ; once an illiberal 
measure repealed, no re-enactment would ever be 
contemplated. In perfect security the people lived 
under the righteous laws of England." 

At the close the choir sang 'Yitgadal,' an 
ancient melody, harmonized by C. G. Verrin- 
der. This was followed by 'Adon Olam' 
(solo by Mr. Rittenberg) and Psalm CL., com- 
posed by the late Dr. Artom. Lastly came 
the first verse of the National Anthem in 
Hebrew, arranged by Dr. Verrinder. 

The rulers of the Manchester Synagogue 
for Spanish and Portuguese Jews, anxious to 
have a part in the celebration, sent a massive 
ornament, consisting of a handsome silver 
crown for a '"Sepher Torah." This weighs 
fifty ounces and is of the " Imperial " 
order, or shaped in Gothic style in the 
Decorative period. Upon the front are two 
tablets containing the Ten Commandments 
beneath an oblong shield bearing the follow- 
ing inscription : ** Presented to the Bevis 
Marks Synagogue, London, by the Manchester 
Congregation of the Spanish and Portuguese 
Jews, in commemoration of its bicentenary. 
Tamuz 9, 5661." The whole is topped by a 
smaller crown, whilst its base is surmounted 
in repoussJ with ovals, diamonds, and discs 
in gilt with frosted silver background relieved 
by ornamental rope bordering. 

In addition to this, the poorer members, 
desiring to share in the commemoration, had 
been for three years contributing their mite, 
and brought as their offering and tribute two 
silver crowns and a rich velvet covering for 
the scrolls of the Law. N. S. S. 

(To be continued.) 


As I am perhaps the sole survivor of the 
executive staff of the first international 
display, and one who has collected certain 


NOTES- AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 17, iwi. 

pictures for the Jubilee Exhibition at Syden 
ham, I venture to forward a note. 

It should be remembered that at the middl< 
of the last century we had but two journals 
that were ornate of xylography one was the 
Illustrated London News and the other Punch 
or the London Charivari. The News was a 
journal that at this period bore a penny 
stamp, and was printed upon taxed paper 
Punch was a demy quarto of a serio-comic 
tone, touching upon politics. Both are in- 
valuable to the historian of the time, as 
portraying by the pencil what the pen could 
not convey. 

With regard to Punch, the early cuts I find 
were small ones, the first depicting a shed 
crowned with the kepi that the Prince Consort 
designed to serve for the infantry. This was 
of the pre-Paxton period, when the Palace 
question was a sore difficulty. The second 
was the site, and this Richard Doyle depicted 
by representing the vagabonds who took 
siestas thereon ; the third was idle boys 
peeping through the crevices of the hoarding ; 
and the fourth John Bull walking over rub- 
bish heaps and broken ground. Then came 
the lodgment and the difficulties of housing 
all nations, who, preparatory to the opening, 
had to resort to bivouacking in Hyde Park. 
The first double-page cut or cartoon by John 
Leech was depictive of the delay the picture 
representing Britannia cleaning plates and 
knives in preparation for a big party, whilst 
the Prince President dons with difficulty his 
livery. Now commence the big cartoons by 
Leech the opening, the Queen, the Prince 
Consort, the Prince and Princess, the spec- 
tators being ladies ; this was entitled 'Royalty 
surrounded by Conspirators and Assassins.' 
The next was the shilling day, all sorts and 
conditions taking dinner beneath a statue. 
Now we arrive at the ddbut of Sir John 
Tenniel, whose jubilee has been duly honoured. 
It was called 'The Cinderella of 1851,' and 
exhibits the crystal fountain that John Leech 
travestied by designing a fountain of beer, 
showing that the malt beverage was not 
forgotten. Next we have Hyde Park, and 
the Queen receiving the haut ton, bereft of 
their beloved park promenade, which they 
had come to regard as their own exclusive 
property. A double page of a Derby race 
shows all the 'animals of the Ark headed by 
Paxton, a Yankee bringing up the rear. The 
next, by John Leech, shows stalwart navvies, 
working men, and others confronted by the 
Mite, who exclaim, "Who would have thought 
of seeing you here ! " 

From Richard Doyle Punch at this period 
had few pictures, though there was one show- 

ing congested London ; whilst Leech deals 
with irrepressible ladies who refuse to obey 
policemen in tall hats, swallow-tail coats, 
and white trousers. Tenniel we find taking 
Doyle's place, and in a full -page block 
showing the Prince pointing out * The 
Happy Family in Hyde Park.' Tenniel now 
headed the twentieth volume of Punch, and 
Leech proposed that the Admiralty should 
show a tub in full sail and glass cases with 
distressed needlewomen and stonebreakers. 
Of cartoons we have Lord Brougham, the 
modern Atlas bearing the world and Palace 
on his head, on that obsolete aid a porter's 
knot, and as a wind-up Lord John Russell 
and Paxton before the footlights bowing to 
the cries of " Author ! " In another we have 
'Praise and Pudding' Prince Albert giving 
Paxton 20,000/. in the shape of a huge slice. 

Leech showed the Ministers as shipwrecked, 
saved by the Exhibition vessel, and the revo- 
lutionary element in France that broke out 
with the close of the World's Fair. As a 
superlative ending Leech gives us 'The 
Amazon' of Kiss, who puts on her bonnet 
and shawl whilst the Greek Slave, habited 
as a Bloomer, bids adieu. Then appears the 
dawn of Sydenham, and we see with the 
dying year John Bull enjoying a botanical 
work in his winter garden. 

So whiles the world away. Three years 
later, Tenniel, in 1854, gives us a 'Reverie 
in the Crystal Palace,' by depicting, on a 
full-page upright, the two Egyptian figures 
that graced the end of the long vista of 
glass and iron at Sydenham (Egypt and 
Assyria both suffered by flame), which 
remains unique. We have seen exhibitions 
without number, but no palaces wholly con- 
structed of glass and iron. 
^ Sir Joseph Paxton's original design for the 
Crystal Palace was made upon a blotting- 
pad that may be seen, with other jubilee 
relics, in the south transept at Sydenham. 
Ormonde, Regent's Park. 

NOBILITY. Having often been puzzled as 
bo the way m which the subject of nobility is 
treated in England, I shall esteem it a favour 
t any one will kindly enlighten me as to the 
time when the idea prevailing in England 
vith regard to nobility took its present 
orm. On the Continent all the descendants 
legitimate) of a noble are counted as nobles 
respective of wealth or position, whereas 
n England it seems that a man must be 
possessed of wealth to be generally regarded 
as noble, and even sons of peers are spoken 
it as commoners. This seems to me very 

9* s. vni. AUG. 17, IDOL] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


strange ; in fact, I fail to understand how, 
when, and why English ideas became so dis- 
sociated from continental ideas on the subject. 
At one time England assuredly had & noblesse 
like that abroad, nobility, of course, originally 
being something that could neither be given 
nor acquired, but must be by blood and 
descent. Surely this is the most rational 
view to take of nobility. In England there 
seem to be a number of families who are 
regarded as " gentle," but who appear to have 
sprung from traders, &c. ; while frequently 
the descendants of the really ancient families 
are poor and occupy obscure positions, and 
are unaware of their noble origin, and even 
if they are aware of it will coolly say that 
they are not noble because of their poverty. 
But a true noblesse, of course, includes poor 
and honoured members as well as rich ones. 
Then, again, many people seem to delight in 
trying to prove that this, that, or the other 
family is not noble, in a way that strongly 
reminds one of the fox and the grapes 
Many people either do not know or wilfully 
shut their eyes to the fact that Time brings 
many changes to families as well as things, 
and that the powerful family of centuries 
ago, even if it has equally powerful repre- 
sentatives at the present day, is likely to 
have also very poor representatives descended 
either direct from that family or from col- 
lateral branches. Contrast a modern French 
history with one of England. The former, in 
speaking of the nobles of ancient times, refers 
to all men of noble race ; whereas the English 
history more often than not refers to the 
nobility of, say, the eleventh century, as 
though it merely included rich and powerful 
people, and all the remainder were com- 
moners. Contrast the description given by 
Thierry of the Norman nobles with that 
given by a modern English writer. I am 
seeking for information, as I haye not yet 
come across any book that explains why 
English nobility possesses the peculiar 
features of the present day. I am as one 

f roping in darkness, trying to find the light, 
requently have I met with men in the 
position of tillers of the soil, &c., who are 
undoubted descendants of noble families, 
which, passing through various vicissitudes, 
now number amongst their members those 
who are quite ignorant of the stock from 
which they spring. FEENCHMAN. 

" To BEAT A BANK." The following is to be 
found in Rae's * History of the Late Rebellion,' 
Dumfries, 1718, chap. v. p. 251 : 

"About Eleven at Night, a Bank was beat thro' 
the Town, arid Intimation was made to all Towns- 
men and Strangers, who were provided with Horses, 

to appear in the Streets with their best Horses and 
Arms by the next Beat of the Drum." 

I have known the word " bank " in the 
above-quoted passage to be taken as a mis- 
print for " ban," which according to old 
military dictionaries meant a proclamation, 
at the head of a body of troops or in quarters, 
by beat of drum. Rae, however, was a Scots- 
man he was minister of Kirkconnell in 
Upper Nithsdale and he here uses an old 
Scotch phrase which meant sounding a ruff 
or ruffle on the drum, such as is sometimes 
called a roll. In the ' Gentleman's Dic- 
tionary,' 1705, we are told that to beat a 
call is to advertise the soldiers to stand 
to their arms when a general officer is 
passing by ; and in Watson's * Military Dic- 
tionary ' we read : " Ruffle, a beat on the 
drum ; lieutenant-generals have three ruffles, 
major-generals two, brigadiers one, as they 
pass by the regiment," &c. ; also that to 
beat a ruff is to warn officers to their posts. 
Eland's 'Military Discipline,' fourth edition, 
1740, pp. 14, 15, speaks of the major directing 
"the orderly drummer to beat a ruff, to give 
the officers notice," and of "a ruff of a drum 
to warn them." 

The phrase " to beat a bank " is to be found 
in its old Scotch form in 'Monro his Ex- 
pedition with the Worthy Scots Regiment,' 
1637, part ii. p. 33: "The drummer-major, 
accompanied with the rest of the drummers 
of the regiment, being commanded, beate a 
ban eke in head of the regiment." 

McDowall in his 'History of Dumfries,' 
1873, p 484, thus alludes to the incident 
related by Rae : 

" The town crier proceeded through the principal 
streets at eleven o^clock that night, and in the 
usual way warned such burgesses and residents as 
possessed horses to appear mounted and with their 
best arms at next beat of drum." 

FLOYD v. LLOYD. There are many names 
which have undergone fashionable change 
to suit the aristocratic pretensions or aspira- 
tions of their owners, especially the name 
Smith, converted into Smyth, &c. There are 
twenty ways, perhaps, of spelling the name 
Johnston and endless other common names, 
but neither Floyd nor Lloyd is so common or 
even aristocratic as to require any ameliora- 
tion at the hands of etymologists. To one 
who has been to much trouble to seek the 
why and the wherefore of the convertible 
peculiarity in which these names are involved 
it is unexplainable upon any grounds known 
at the present time. Floyd is a name as 
distinct from Lloyd as possible, and never 
conjoined with any alias ; in fact, up to 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 17, 1901. 

the reign of James II. the name of Floyd 
stands immutably upon its own ground. 
The adoption of this name as interchange- 
able with Lloyd appears to have grown into 
fashion at the very end of the eighteenth 
century. Thus, for instance, Charnock in 
his naval biography, Dal ton in his army lists, 
and Meyrick in his history of Cardiganshire 
in 1810, all call families and men named 
Floyd by the name Lloyd. The main writers 
invariably speak of Floyd, so named in the 
Stuart Papers one hundred years before, 
as Lloyd. The Stuart Papers, which lay 
buried for the last two hundred years at 
Windsor Castle, give the lie in the plainest 
way to that free-and-easy interchange of the 
two names. Neither, as observed already, 
can one understand any ground for such 

The Roxburghe Papers deal with the name 
of Floyd in the same way, and there are 
some who now seem to hold the same views. 
It may be possible through your columns 
to get to the bottom of this matter. One 
name is quite as good as the other, but such 
is the force of custom that it is very doubtful 
whether the present Lloyds of Mabus of 
Cardigan would allow that their surname had 
ever been Floyd. 

The Stuart Papers, by-the-by, now being 
edited by the Historical MSS. Commission, 
will prove the force of what is said more 
than any other sets of MSS. It would have 
been better if they had been made public 
before, but the house of Hanover kept them 
under lock and key. The writer knows of 
only one instance in which Floyd is converted 
into Fludd, and that in the person of Sir 
Thomas Fludd, paymaster of Queen Eliza- 
beth's army. G. D. 

place on record a curious instance of anticipa- 
tion of an event which, when it does happen, 
will be of far-reaching importance ? 

In the atlas issued by the Times last year, 
and published at their office, is shown in 
map 81 as actually existing the much-debated 
extension of the Merv-Khushk railway to 
Herat, and thence, vid Farah, Girishk,'and 
Kandahar, to our frontier at Chaman. 

I wrote to the manager of the Times on 
the subject, and he replied acknowledging 
the error, which had already been brought 
to his notice, and stated that it would not be 
allowed to appear in future editions 


Bertram Dobell bookseller, of 54, Charing 
Cross Road, m his catalogue of books for 

July has printed what he asserts to be a 
hitherto unpublished poem by Dr. Beaumont, 
the author of ' Psyche ; or, Love's Mystery,' 
from a manuscript volume of 325 quarto 
pages in his possession. The poem, in Mr. 
Dobell's opinion, is worthy to be set beside 
the best religious verse in the English lan- 
guage. Without endorsing Mr. Dobell's 
opinion, I think the poem, if unpublished, 
is worthy of a more extensive appreciation 
than it is likely to obtain through a book- 
seller's catalogue, and with a view to ascer- 
taining whether it has been printed before, 
I venture to ask its insertion in your pages. 
The poem is entitled 

(For a Basse and two Trebles. ) 
The bright inamoured youth above 
I asked, What kind of thing is Love ? 
I ask'd the Saints, They could not tell, 
Though in their bosoms it doth dwell. 
I ask'd the lower Angels : They 
Lived in its flames but could not say. 
I ask'd the Seraphs : These at last confes'd 
We cannot tell how God should be expres'd. 

Can you not tell, whose amorous eyes 

Flanie in Love's sweetest ecstasies ? 

Can you not tell whose pure thoughts move 

On wings all feathered with Love ? 

Can you not tell who breathe and live 

No life but what great Love doth give ? 

Grant Love a God : Sweet Seraphs who should 

The nature of this Dei tie but you ? 

And who, bold Mortall, more than wee 
Should know that Love 's a Mysterie ? 
Hid under his owne flaming wing 
Lies Love, a secret open thing, 
And there lie wee, all hid in light 
Which gives us, and denies all sight. 
We see what dazells and inflames our eyes, 
And makes them mighty Love's Burnt Sacrifice. 

Dr. Beaumont (1616 - 99) was Master of 
Peterhouse, and perpetrated an inordinate 
quantity of verse in youth, his ' Psyche,' even 
when abridged, containing 30,000 lines. The 
'Diet. Nat. Biog' states that the complete 
poems of Beaumont, in English and Latin, 
were first edited in two quarto volumes, 
privately printed by the Rev. A. B. Grosart, 
with a memoir ; and if this is the case Mr. 
Dobell may be mistaken in supposing that 
the poem printed by him is printed for the 
first time. JOHN HEBB. 

"As WARM AS A BAT." While talking with 
a Lancashire man sixty -five years old I heard 
him use this expression. He said when he was 
young his feet were "as warm as a bat," but 
now, if he warmed them at the fire before he 
went to bed, they were "as cold as a dog's 
nose" when he got upstairs. He did not know 
why " bat" was used to express the idea, but he 

s. viii. AUG. 17, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


had heard "old folks" employ it. The 
'E.D.D.' gives three possible explanations. 
" Bat," the thin, crusty oven-cake, may be 
meant, or the turf used for burning that is 
called a " bat "; but most likely the reference 
is to coal that contains pieces of shale or 
slate. This gives the requisite idea of 
warmth without consumption. And of course 
the substance is common in Lancashire. 
"Bath " is an equivalent word, but the usual 
term is "bass." The ' H.E.D.' confirms the 
surmise. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

"CARAGE." In 'H.E.D.' the only mention 
of carage is as " obsolete form of carriage " ; 
but a building close to the Westminster 
Aquarium has over its door a prominently 
painted sign, "Automobile Club Carage," 
which suggests that the word is to be used 
for a store for motor-cars. A. F. R. 

CIGARETTE-HOLDER. I was recently offered 
a cigarette by a Parliamentary counsel, M.A. 
Oxon. (B.N.C.), and accepted it, proceeding 
to fit it into my holder. He expressed dislike 
to holders, and remarked that the following 
saying was current at Oxford in his time : 
"Smoking a cigarette through a holder is 
like kissing a young lady through a respi- 
rator." This bonmot may be worth recording. 

Brixton Hill. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

quarto volume entitled * Pamphlets,' which I 
bought some two or three years ago. Among 
the papers, seven in number, there is a trans- 
lation of a famous poem which Caesar Scali- 
ger is said to have preferred to the works of 
Homer. Its full title is " Hero and Leander. 
A Poem. Translated from the Greek of Musseus." 
It was "printed by Andrew Foulis"at Glasgow 
in 1783 in his very best manner, and is there- 
fore a typographical gem, so to speak. The 
work of Musaeus contains 341 hexameter 
lines, which the translator has expanded 
into 451, written in rimed heroic verse. But 
it is no paraphrase like Kit Marlowe's* poem, 

* "Let me see," says T. Nash in his * Lenten 
Stuff,' "hath anybody in Yarmouth heard of 
Leander and Hero, of whom divine Musseus sung, 
and a diviner muse than him, Kit Marlowe ?" The 
sixteenth century was no less lavish of its praise of 
the poet than the nineteenth. 

" that divinest dithyramb in praise of sensual 
beauty," as J. A. Symonds calls it ('Shak- 
speare's Predecessors,' p. 614). I consider it 
a faithful and not inelegant version, so far as 
I have compared it with the original. The 
writer begs for indulgence on account of his 
youth, " as it is a first essay." Who he was 
I have been unable to ascertain. Lowndes 
gives no assistance. The translator's auto- 
graph is on the back of the title-page in these 
words : "Dr. Reid from the Author." Now I 
take it this is no other than the well-known 
philosopher, whose signature, " Tho. Reid," is 
on the first page of the volume, which begins 
with Newton's * De Mundi Systemate Liber.' 
Perhaps these facts will furnish a clue to the 
authorship of the poem. JOHN T. CURRY. 

"'TlS A VERY GOOD WORLD," &C. It has 

been hitherto generally decided that the 
authorship of the lines commencing thus 
is unknown. In a small weekly paper I 
recently found them attributed to Butler. 
Is there any warrant for this 1 If so, which 
Butler is meant? Presumably Samuel, of 
'Hudibras' fame. I may add that the first 
line quoted differed from the accepted ver- 
sion, for it ran, " This world is the best that 
we live in." Is that or the more familiar 
beginning correct ? CECIL CLARKE. 

Authors' Club, S.W. 

[Found in 'A Collection of Epigrams,' London, 
printed for J. Walthoe, 1737, vol. ii. No. 437, with 
the first line, " This is the best world that we live 
in." ' Familiar Quotations,' eighth edition, Rout- 
ledge, p. 235, ascribes to Rochester. See 1 st , 3 rd , 4 th , 
6 th , 7 th , and 8 th S. * N. & Q.' passim, where not much 
is said definitely, but the use of the lines on a board 
by an eccentric character near Gadshill is noted.] 

ining Graham wills at Somerset House, I 
met with the following one, and am in search 
of information concerning the parties named 
therein. Translated out of Dutch, its essence 
is : 

" Charles Graham, knight and baronet, Till- 
borough, Brabant ; late wife Joanna van Ryle ; 
brother William Ludovick Graham and wife Sara 
van Couvenhoven ; brother Henry, deceased ; sister 
Anne Graham, widow of Philip Adolph Bayart ; 
sister Leonora Graham, her two children ; brother 
Peter Graham, and little daughter; Philip and 
Ambrose, sons to brother Henry." 

It is of date 1700. I have thought that 
readers of * N. & Q.' in the Netherlands 
may be able to throw some light on the 
subject. Who, for instance, were the 
Ryles, Couvenhovens, and Bayarts ; and 
have they representatives at the present 
day] I shall be thankful for any informa- 
tion whatsoever. 



NOTES. AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 17, 1901. 

"PACK." In the 'Standard Dictionary 
(Funk & Wagnalls) the meaning of this word 
is given as "a lewd or low person." 

In 1572, at a visitation of the Archdeacon 
of Canterbury, a presentment was made at 
Preston next Favershara concerning William 
Russell, the vicar (1562-72), 
" that he keepeth in his house one Mary Cryndall 
a naughty pack, such a one as hath ridden in a carl 
in Shorediche by London, who robbed him the 
said Russell of gold, silver, napery, and other house 
hold stuff. 

"Further he is presented to be a common cow 
keep and one that useth commonly to drive beasts 
through the town of Faversham, being a town oi 
worship, and in other places, in a jerkyn with a 
bill on his neck, not like a prelate, but rather like s 
common rogue, who hath oft times been warned 
thereof, and he will not be reformed." 

Several other complaints were made about thi 
vicar, who resigned (or was removed) in 1572. 
What is the meaning of " such a one as hath 
ridden in a cart in Shorediche by London " 1 
Was it some form of punishment 1 

Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent. 

RICHARD WELLSBORN. I shall be glad of 
particulars of above, who was fifth son of 
Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, by 
Eleanor, daughter of King John. A de- 
scendant of his married John Latten, High 
Sheriff of Berks temp. Elizabeth, who also 
wrote an account of the Wellsborn family. 
Where can this family history be seen, and 
what is its title 1 ALEX. P. HAIG. 

PORTRAIT OF ROBSON. Sala's essay on 
Robson, reprinted from an American journal 
by John Camden Hotten in 1864, has on the 
mauve paper cover a sketch of the actor, 
presumably as Jem Baggs in 'The Wandering 
Minstrel.' By whom was this drawing made ? 
Has Sala's essay been republished in any of 
his books ? CHARLES HIATT. 

POWNEY FAMILY. Penyston Powney, Esq., 
of Ives Place, Berkshire, was born about 
1744, died 1794 ; M.P. for Windsor, 1780 until 
his death. I should be glad to have further 
particulars about him and the family to which 
he belonged. He was trustee under a will 
proved 1783 (P.C.C. Rockingham, 49) for the 
three daughters of William Long Kingsman. 
Was he any connexion or relative of this 

Moorside, Far Headingley, Leeds. 

REV. F. BARLOW, or BURTON. I have 
searched your columns for any mention of 
two most amusing volumes to which my 
attention was directed by an article in an 
early volume of the Bookworm, about 1889 

'The Complete English Peerage,' by the 
Rev. Frederic Barlow, M.A. There appears 
to be more than one edition, from 1772 to 
1775, and a more thoroughgoing chronique 
scandaleuse, under the guise of moral plati- 
tude, it would be hard to find. I am not 
personally acquainted with the ' Biographical 
Peerage/ in four vols., from 1808 to 1817, 
generally attributed to Sir Egerton Brydges, 
but should suppose the two works have a 
good deal in common. The Rev. Mr. Barlow 
is described on his title-page as "Vicar of 
Burton, and Author of the Complete English 
Dictionary." Can any of your readers locate 
his particular Burton ? I have tried in vain 
to find any record or notice of this somewhat 
singular author except in the article men- 
tioned. W. B. H. 

THE LONGBOW. Can any reader give me 
information on the following points regard- 
ing the longbow of Crecy and Agincourt ? 

1. Was St. Christopher the patron saint of 
archers ? If not, why did the archer wear 
the silver " Christopher " ] If St. Christopher 
was not their patron saint, who was 1 

2. As the sheaf consisted of twenty-four 
arrows, and as a bowman could discharge 
fifteen or more shots a minute, is there any 
authority for supposing that an extra supply 
of arrows was carried ; or did the archer 
depend on renewing his supply during a 
battle by gleanings from the field between 
the enemy's charges 1 

3. While I presume there is little doubt 
that the length of the longbow was the 
distance between the archer's outstretched 
finger tips, or about his height, several 
authorities make it longer, and by more 
than one law six-and-a-half-feet bow-staves 
are expressly admitted free of duty. Can 
the length of the longbow be substantially 
settled? C. E. D. 

VERSES WANTED. I shall be very much 
Dbliged if you or any of your readers can 
give me the name of the poem or hymn in 
which the following line occurs : 

Comes then at length a stillness as of even. 

J. A. S. 

e fate of Marengo, the celebrated horse of 
Napoleon I. ? J. F. 

HERALDIC. I should be very much obliged 

f any of your correspondents could give me 

he origin of the three couped hands, argent 

and or, that are borne on the shields of several 

'amilies ; and tell me why these have mostly 

stags' heads for crest. T. P. I. 

9<"s. VIIL AUG. 17, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


GORE FAMILY. I shall be much obliged if 
any one can give me information as to the 
family of Gore who settled in Weimar in 
1788. Emily Gore is buried there. 


VERSES IN BORROW. In which of the 
works of George Borrow are the following 
lines to be found ? 

Give me a haunch of buck to eat : 

To drink, Madeira old : 

A gentle wife to rest beside, 

And in my arms enfold : 

An Arabic book to study : 

A Norfolk cob to ride : 

A house to live in shaded by trees, 

And near a riverside. 

F. W. 

George Ireland, grocer ; alderman of Aldgate, 
January to March, 1461 ; Cordwainer, March, 
1461, till 1474 ; sheriff in 1461-2 ; knighted, 
20 May, 1471 ; M.P. in 1469 and 1472. Is 
anything known of his parentage and family 1 
Stephen Fabyan, draper, M.P. in 1469 and 
1492. From Baddeley's ' Aldermen of Cripple- 
gate Ward ' we learn that he was elected 
alderman of Bridge Ward on 30 July, 1468, 
and, declining to serve, was committed to 
Newgate, but released the next day, " being 
found insufficient/' In July, 1469, he was 
elected for the ward of Bishopsgate, and 
again committed until discharged a few days 
later upon taking oath that he was not worth 
1,0001. In what way was this M.P. akin to 
Alderman Robert Fabyan, the chronicler 1 

W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newton-le- Willows. 

SONG WANTED. Will you kindly inform 
me where I can obtain a copy of the old song 
which begins as follows ? 

Oh, funny and free are the bachelor's revelries, 
Cheerily, merrily passing his life; 
Nothing he knows of connubial devilries, 
Troublesome children, or clamorous wife. 
Free from satiety, care, and anxiety, 
Charms and variety fall to his share. 
Bacchus's blisses and Venus's kisses 
This, boys, oh this is the bachelor's fare. 


STEDMAN FAMILY. Did James Stedman, 
the youngest son of the last James Stedman 
of Strata Florida Abbey, co. Cardigan, and 
his wife Margaret, daughter of Richard Owen, 
of Rhiwsaison, co. Montgomery, marry ? If 
so, did he have issue ? What were the names 
of such issue and their descendants? The 
last James Stedman and his wife Margaret 
Owen were married circa 1657. 

Where were the Stedmans of Strata Florida 
Abbey buried ? 

Was there issue of the marriage of Edward 
Stedman, of Kerry, co. Montgomery, and 
Elizabeth (born 2 April, 1676), daughter of 
Richard Lyster, of Rowton Castle, cp. Salop? 
If so, what were the names of such issue and 
their descendants? 

The arms borne by John Stedman, of the 
Razees, now called Bosbury House, near Led- 
bury, co. Hereford, were an impalement, viz., 
on the dexter side of the shield, Vert, a cross 
moline or fleury or (for Stedman) ; and on the 
sinister side (field unknown) three roses (two 
over one), a chief cheeky sable and argent. 
Whose arms were those on the sinister side ? 
The said John Stedman, who had been High 
Sheriff, died in 1808. 

The arms borne by the Rev. Thomas Sted- 
man, of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, who died in 
1825, were Quarterly, 1 and 4, Arg., on a 
chevron gules, between three boars' heads 
couped sa., a cross arg. (for Stedman) ; 2 and 
3, Arg., on a chief or a bird sa. Whose are 
the arms shown in the second and third 
quarterings? R. J. M. STEDMAN. 

309, High Street, Rochester. 

NAPOLEON'S LIBRARY. In his last will and 
testament, dated 15 April, 1821, Napoleon 
(according to the document given by Dumas) 
willed a portion of his library at St. Helena 
thus : 

" Quatre cents volumes, choisis dans ma biblio- 
theque parmi ceux qui ont leplus servi a mon usage. 
Je charge Saint-Denis de les garder, et de les 
remettre a mon fils quand il aura seize ans." 

Two questions : Did his son ever come into 
possession of those four hundred volumes? 
and what became of the remainder? Also, 
has a complete list of Napoleon's library ever 
been published, and where ? 

J. B. McGovERN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

SIR JAMES JAY. Who was Sir James Jay, 
who appears to have been in London in 1765 
and 1766 ? Was he a knight or a baronet ; 
and was he of the same family as John Jay, 
Congressman, who took a prominent part in 
during the American War of Inde- 

pendence ? 

E. T. B. 

ALEXANDER SPEERING. This person seems 
to have been popular or notorious in London 
in 1622. I snail be glad of information or 
clue concerning him. LOBUC. 

stated in 'Chambers's Encyclopaedia,' vol. iv., 
s.v. 'Emerald,' that "Nero, who was near- 
sighted, looked at the combats of gladiators 
th rough an eyeglass of emerald." Is it possible 
that this is the meaning of the passage in Pliny 


NOTE8 AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 17, 1901. 

(' H. N.,' xxxvii. 64) where Nero is said to 
have used an emerald to help his weak sight 1 ? 
Surely Pliny means his readers to under- 
stand that the emperor used a mirror of 
smaragdus. If the use of lenses as aids to 
vision was known so far back as the first 
century of our era, it is incredible that the 
invention of glass spectacles should have 
been so comparatively recent. I should like 
to elicit the opinions of scholars upon this 
point. KOM OMBO. 


If you your life would keep from strife, 

These things observe with care : 
Of whom you speak, to whom you speak, 

And how, and when, and where. 

H. S. MITIR, Surgeon-General. 

Three cups of wine a man may safely take : 
One for his stomach, one for his love's sake, &c. 

M. G. D. 

Go not halfe way to mete a cumming sorrow, 
But thankfulle bee for blessinges of to-daye ; 
And pray that thou mayst blessed bee to-morrow ; 
80 shalt thou goe with joie upon thy waye. 


(9 th S. vii. 401, 513 ; viii. 86.) 

I AM afraid MR. HENDRIKS'S arguments 
are not very convincing. The late Mr. J. G. 
Nichols was a distinguished antiquary and 
genealogist, but MR. HENDRIKS has himself 
convicted him of error in the latter part of 
his note, and the fact that he failed to detect 
a slip of Dr. Dalton, of whose qualifications 
as a bibliographer I must confess my ignor- 
ance, does not count for much. It is all 
very well to depreciate poor Lowndes, who is 
not here to defend himself, but it would be 
more to the point if MR. HENDRIKS would 
indicate the whereabouts of a copy of the sup- 
posed 1603 edition of the book loosely called 
by Dr. Dalton 'Stow's Chronicle' whether 
be a copy of the 'Annals' or of 'The 
Summary of Chronicles.' In default of this 
evidence I must decline to acknowledge the 
existence of such an edition, and I feel no 
doubt that Mr. Sidney Lee, whose acquaint- 
ance with Elizabethan literature does not 
admit of dispute, was perfectly correct in 
the statement quoted by MR. HENDRIKS from 
the Diet. Nat. Biog.' But as regards Stow's 
monumental effigy, MR. HENDRIKS is un- 
doubtedly right. The material of which the 
monument is composed is stated, in the words 
ot an unimpeachable authority, Mr. H. W 
Prewer, to be for the most part 

" veined English alabaster, with black marble intro- 
duced in the freize, and a white marble plinth. 
The use of English alabaster seems to prove it to be 
native workmanship, and it bears such a strong 
resemblance in the treatment of the heraldic design 
of the upper portion of the composition to the 
tomb of Humble in St. Saviour's, Southwark, that 
we are inclined to think that both monuments were 
the work of the same architect or sculptor." 

But on this point I think a valued corre- 
spondent of ' N. & Q./ MR. JOHN T. PAGE, is 
in a position to give further information.* 


I am glad to see that MR. FREDERICK HEN- 
DRIKS has at the last reference raised the 
question as to the material of which John 
Stow's monument in the church of St. 
Andrew Undershaft is composed. I am 
already aware that nearly every writer on 
the subject states that its composition is 
terra-cotta. This shows that they must copy 
each other most religiously, for I can hardly 
imagine any man in his senses who has seen 
the original setting down such a statement 
as his deliberate belief. I have several times 
examined the monument, and I unhesitatingly 
affirm that it is for the most part composed 
of veined alabaster. The terra-cotta theory 
finds due place on p. 193, vol. ii., of ' Old and 
New London,' and on the previous page is 
an engraving of Stow's monument incorrectly 
showing on the frieze the legends 


Substitute AVT for STAT in each case, as on 
the original, and we have sense at once. It 
is a thousand pities that such glaring errors 
should be propagated ad libitum by writers 
when a little trouble on their part would ensure 
accuracy. May I add that a series of letters on 
John Stow's memorial, mainly relating to 
the material of which it is composed, appeared 
in the City Press in September, 1891, and 
April, 1892 ? Reference is there made to the 
statement in 'Old and New London 3 that 
the effigy of Stow was formerly painted to 
represent life. Is there any authentic in- 
formation concerning this theory extant? 
My own belief, gained from a personal ex- 
amination of the statue, is that there is no 
more foundation in this statement than in 
the one to which I have previously referred. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

* It is too true that, as MR. HENDRIKS says, we 
are all prone to mistakes even the usually im- 
maculate printers of ' N. & Q.' The name of J. G. 
Nichols is twice printed in MR, HENDRIKS'S note as 
J. S. Nichojs, 

vm. AUG. 17,1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


PEERS CONVICTED OF FELONY (9 th S. viii. 103). 
The first part of Y.'s query is answered by 
the Forfeiture Act, 1870 (33 & 34 Viet., cap. 23, 
second part of sec. 2). The following passage 
also settles the point : 

"A Peer, however, convicted of treason or felony 
and sentenced, would be disqualified for sitting or 
voting in the House of Lords until he had suffered 
his punishment or received a pardon." Pike's 'Con- 
stitutional History of the House of Lords,' p. 274. 
A commoner so convicted can, after his term 
of servitude, become a member of the House 
of Commons. 

" In former times insolvency or bankruptcy did 
not cause any disability, but since the year 1871 a 
Peer has been disqualified for sitting and voting in 
the House of Lords during bankruptcy, and no writ 
of summons to him will issue." Ibid., p. 275. 

The same law applies to a member of the 
House of Commons. 

The words of the Bankruptcy Act, 1883 
(46 & 47 Viet., cap. 52, sec. 32), are as follows : 

" Where a debtor is adjudged bankrupt he shall, 
subject to the provisions of this Act, be disqualified 
for (a) Sitting or voting in the House of Lords, 
or on any committee thereof, &c., (6) Being elected 
to, or sitting or voting in, the House of Commons, 
or on any committee thereof." 

A bankruptcy may be annulled when the 
debts of the bankrupt have been "paid in 
full " (see sec. 35). As to the mode in which 
the seat of a member is vacated on bank- 
ruptcy, see sec. 33. The disqualifications to 
which a bankrupt is subject shall be removed 
and cease if and when 

" he obtains from the Court his discharge, with a 
certificate to the effect that his bankruptcy was 
caused by misfortune without any misconduct on 
his part." 

Moreover, the disqualification of a bankrupt 
does not exceed a period of five years from 
the date of the discharge. H. B P. 

ii. 327; iii. 34; iv. 249, 418; vi. 74).- Since 
my latest contribution on this subject, which 
was given at the last reference, three "Fathers 
of the House of Commons" Mr. Charles Vil- 
liers, Sir John Mowbray, and Mr. Bramston 
Beach have died, and Mr. Samuel Whitbread 
(who, if he had not withdrawn from public 
life, would have succeeded Mr. Villiers in the 
position) is now in retirement. The following 
extract from the ' Political Notes ' of the 
Times for 5 August may therefore be added, 
in order to bring up to date the information 
previously given on the matter : 

" The following is a complete list of the ' Fathers 
of the House of Commons since the passing of the 
Reform Act of 1832 : 

"George Byng, 1832-46; Charles Watkin Williams 
Wynn, 1846-50 ; Sir Charles Merrik Burrell, 1850-62 ; 

Henry Cecil Lowther, 1862-7; Henry Thomas Lowry 
Corry, 1867-73 ; George Cecil Weld Forester, 1873-4 ; 
Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot, 1874-90 ; Charles 
Pelham Villiers, 1890-8 ; Sir John Robert Mowbray, 
1898-9; William Wither Bramston Beach, 1899-1901 ; 
Sir Michael Edward Hicks Beach, 1901. 

"Of the earlier members who have attained to 
this dignity no exhaustive record has been kept. 
John Maynard, who was returned for Totnes in 
1640, and who, after the expiration of the Long 
Parliament, sat for Plymouth, with the customary 
vicissitudes of that period, until his death in 1690, 
is sometimes referred to by contemporary chroniclers 
as Father of the House ; and in an explanatory foot- 
note to a picture of the popular Chamber painted 
by Hogarth and Sir James Thornhill, with Arthur 
Onslow (Speaker, 1726-61) in the Chair, Sidney 
Godolphin, who was first elected for Helston in 
1698, and who successively represented, with a 
break of two years (1713-15), Helston, St. Mawes, 
and St. German's, until his death in 1733, is similarly 
described. Other members to whom the title has 
been applied are Whitshed Keene, who sat continu- 
ously from 1768 to 1818, first for Wareham and 
afterwards for Ludgershall and Montgomery 
Borough ; John Blackburn, who was one of the 
representatives of the undivided county of Lan- 
caster from 1784 to 1830; and Thomas William 
Coke (afterwards first Viscount Coke and Earl of 
Leicester), who sat for Norfolk from 1776 (except 
during the Parliament of 1784-90) until 1832." 


viii. 16). His works, folio, first edition, 1681, 
are scarce and worth about 15s. 


"A FEEDING STORM" (9 th S. viii. 13). MR. 
BAYNE is inclined to be rash when he differs 
from Scott That a *' feeding storm " is 
recognized in Scottish non-pastoral districts 
is not a strong argument against Scott's 
explanation of the term. Similar sayings of 
the shepherd fathers have been transmitted 
to their bourgeois descendants. It seems 
unintelligible to attach such a meaning as 
that of "a lingering period of snowy weather, 
when the snow actually on the ground is 
increased or fed by intermittent falls." " Fed " 
in this sense loses its original meaning, but 
even in this sense no lingering period of 
rainy weather is ever called a "feeding storm." 
Lengthened periods of rain would never cause 
the idea of a " feeding storm " to form in one's 
mind. Let, however, the rain take the form 
of frogs or sawdust, and it would deprive the 
snow of its monopoly of the term. The cor- 
rectness of Scott's derivation is after all 
almost admitted by MR. BAYNE when he says 
that the non-pastoral usage includes Sir 
Walter's explanation as well as that which 
attributes the name " feeding storm " to the 
habit of birds gorging themselves on the 
approach of a snowstorm. The term " feed- 
ing storm " as explained by Scott was cer- 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [9* s. viii. AUG. 17, 1901. 

tainly in use ages before man discovered this 
peculiarity of birds. A. B. S. 

SHAKESPEARE QUERIES (9 th S. vii. 388, 454 ; 
viii. 86). I cannot discover whether at Spen- 
ser's funeral Shakespeare and others wrote 
epitaphs and threw them into his grave. It is 
lilcely enough they did, or more probably they 
pinned them to the pall, since it would be in 
conformity with the custom of the times to 
do one or the other on the occasion of the 
death of an illustrious person. It may be 
worth noting that in 1789, when the poet 
Wordsworth was an undergraduate at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, he got into trouble 
with the authorities on account of his re- 
fusing to write elegiac verses to the memory 
of the Master, John Chevallier, who died that 
year. There is an amusing story recorded in 
the Cambridge University College Histories, 
St. John's, as to a Trinity man snatching 
from the pall at the funeral several of the 
papers attached to it, and as to his motive 
for doing so. The custom seems to have died 
out soon after that time. I have been told 
that at the funeral of Henry White, the much- 
loved chaplain of the Savoy Chapel, about 
ten years ago, some of the choirboys or 
school children threw various compositions 
expressive of their grief into his grave at 
Brompton Cemetery. 

The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

viii. 43, 93). Does a fairly complete list of 
prisoners taken from the King's army at 
Naseby on 14 June, 1645, exist ; and, if so, 
where is it to be found ? LAC. 

JAMES II. (9 th S. viii. 45, 92). I was in 
hopes of having disposed of the legend of the 
preservation of James II.'s body, but legends 
die hard. I may be allowed, therefore, to 
refer your readers to the Nineteenth Century 
vol. xxv. p. 120. J. G. ALGER. 


466 ; viii. 70). It is rash to attach import- 
ance to the discovery that the 'Ode to the 
Cuckoo is assigned to Logan in English 
anthologies. Such an attribution has been 
perfectly common for the last hundred years 
one compiler simply following another, and 
quietly ignoring authoritative statements 
X? e i >_ ^ined specialists like Dr. 
M Kelvie, Dr. Grosart, and Principal Shairp 
Some editors-as, e.cj Prof. Palgrave and 
^ffi' ,? UI ?P hl 7 Ward-have obviated the 
difficulty by simply ignoring the existence 

of the poem. But Mr. Arber and Mr. Quiller- 
Couch have predecessors, so that there may 
after all be nothing exceptional in what they 
have done. Mr. Sidney Colvin, again, simply 
speaks from hearsay, which is not sufficiently 
definite for exact evidence. What is wanted 
is direct, irresistible proof, for the subject is 
already encompassed with sand -heaps of in- 
effectual polemics. Perhaps Mr. Colvin will 
kindly indicate where precise information is 
to be had. This will be more to the purpose 
than a quest after impossible MSS. 


'THE Moss ROSE' (9 th S.^viii. 82). This 
poetical rendering of the original prose in 
Krummacher's 'Parabeln,' by J. F., was pub- 
lished in Blackwood's Magazine for June, 1817. 

' The Moss Rose ' is in an old book called 
' Christian Melodies/ 1833. It is there stated 
that the poem is from the German. 


The original poem on the moss rose was by 
Uhland. I did know the name of the trans- 
lator, but unfortunately have forgotten it, 
not having made a note of it. 


Hawthorn, Black Rock. 

SMOKING A COBBLER (9 th S. vii. 509). The 
cobbler used to sit in his open stall exposed 
to the public gaze. One may, even nowadays, 
sometimes see a survival of this custom in 
xtra- urban parts. Hence roysterers and 
"very merry fellows" may easily have 
become possessed of a whim to chaff a 
cobbler as he sat at his work, just as they 
might take it into their heads to bait a 
watchman by night, for this seems to be 

vtrViQ'f- TO Vtdr*o T v\ ^-/^yirl tirl VVTT ** r> w%./~*.l->--i t- -* " *- ** ^*1 

meaning: "Thou'rt very smart, my dear; 
but see, smoke the doctor " ; and Congreve, 
in the sense of to ridicule to the face, 
" Smoke the fellow there." It was, no doubt, 
a pastime indulged in by such " merry 
fellows," as the Spectator says, "as were 
seldom merry but had occasion to be valiant 
at the same time." However, there appears 
to have been a good deal less valour in 
' smoking a cobbler " than there was in the 
isk of sustaining " several wounds in the 
lead by watch-poles, and being twice run 
through the body to carry on a good jest." 
How "smoking" obtained this meaning is 
another matter ; but perhaps the transition 
was from "to smoke "=to punish, e.g., "At 
every stroke their jackets did smoke" 

s. vm. AUG. 17, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


('Robin Hood and the Ranger,' Child's 
' Ballads,' v. 209) ; and Shakespeare, " I '11 
smoke your skin-coat an I catch you right " 
(' King John,' II. i. 139). Then another sense 
of the verb implying punishment is thought 
to have originated with the fact that, at the 
stake, the smoke kills the victim or deadens 
his senses before his limbs become sensible to 
the flames; e.g., " Some of you shall smoke for 
it in Rome "('Titus Andron.,'IV. ii. 111). As 
to a cobbler being selected as a victim, not 
only his exposure to such opportunities, as 
he sat at work, would account for it, but also 
the contempt, for some reason or other, pro- 
bably his poverty, in which the calling was 
generally held. "Cobbler's pork," for instance, 
was bread ; " cobbler's punch," gin and water 
with a little treacle and vinegar ; "cobbler's 
lobster," co wheel ; while a " cobbler's curse " 
according to the ' Dialect Dictionary ' is the 
extreme of valuelessness. But while a smoked 
cobbler would, for pecuniary reasons, with- 
hold his curse from his festive tormentors, he 
would not fail to enforce "cobbler's law 
he that takes money must pay the shot," for 
" cobblers and tinkers are the best ale- 
drinkers," which is perhaps why the former's 
wife goes the worst shod. 


In 'The Club,' by James Puckle, reissued 
last year with an introduction by Mr. Austin 
Dobson, at p. 112 one reads of "earthing, 
digging, and smoaking a badger." The 
meaning of " smoaking " here is " smoking 
out," and the transference of the practice to 
the case of the cobbler in his stall is easy. 
One has heard of such pranks as ascending 
the roofs of houses, where they were low 
enough to afford easy access, and causing the 
interiors to be smoked by stopping the chim- 
neys with grass-sods or other substances. 
For reasons probably connected with the 
desire to keep their leather in good con- 
dition, cobblers more than other tradesmen 
have affected low-roofed and sometimes even 
cellar dwellings, and by so doing in the time 
of Steele they lent themselves to the attacks 
of the " very merry fellows " mentioned. 


ARMORIAL (9 th S. v. 355). I do not 
think that there is any known connexion 
between the De la Brokes of Leigh ton in 
Cheshire arid the Leighton family, who were 
of Leighton in Shropshire, and resident there 
very shortly after the Norman Conquest, if 
not before. 

Sir Thomas Leighton, Knt., Governor of 
Jersey and Guernsey, Constable of the Tower 
of London, was the second son of John 

Leighton, of Watlesborough in Salop, by his 
second wife Joyce Sutton. He was knighted 
May, 1579, and was M.P. for Beverley 1571 ; 
M.P. for Northumberland 1572-83; M.P. for 
Worcestershire in 1601 ; member of the 
Court of the Marches of Wales ; obtained 
the manor of Feckenham by grant from 
Queen Elizabeth, also a lease of the fisheries 
in Norhamshire ; buried in the church of 
St. Peter's Port, Thursday, 1 Feb., 1609 (inq. 
p.m., 2 Oct., 1611). He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, Knt., of 
Rotherfield Greys, co. Oxford, and had two 
daughters Elizabeth, wife of Sherringtpn 
Talbot, of Lacock, co. Wilts, and Anne, wife 
of Sir John St. John, Bart., of Lydiard- 
Tregoz and a son Thomas, of whose descend- 
ants an account is given in Nichols's * His- 
tory of Leicester,' vol. iii. part ii. p. 1146. 

East Boldon, R.S.O., co. Durham. 

1692-3 (9 th S. vii. 429; viii. 19). G. E. C. 
mentions one Wini am Home, of Ead, near 
Exeter. The village in question is now 
known as Ide. Home is still a common 
surname in Devonshire. HARRY HEMS. 


BLUE BEARD (9 th S. vii. 224, 355 ; viii. 24). 
The following items, recorded by M. De la 
Force, may have afforded additional ground- 
work for the Blue Beard fable : 

VII. 37-8. "J'ai deja insinue qu'une de ces 
portes [de Tours] s'appelle la porte Hugon, que le 
peuple par corruption nomme la porte Fourgon, 
pour dire la porte de feu Hugon. Hugon selon 
Eginhard dans la vie de Charlemagne, et selon 
quelques autres Historiens, etoit Comte de Tours. 
11 y a apparence que s'etant rendu redoutable par 
sa mechancete et par la ferocite" de ses moeurs, on en 
a fait apres sa raort 1'epouventail des enfans et des 
femmelletes, et le canevas de beaucoup de fables. 
M. deThou, malgr6 sa gravit6, n'apas dedaigned'en 
parler dans son Histoire (Livre 24). Ccesaroduni, 
dit ce celebre Historien, Hugo Rex celebratur, qui 
noctu pomceria civitatis obequitare, et obvios homines 
pulsare, et rapere dicitur. Ainsi on menace a Tours 
du Roi Hugon, comme a Paris du Moine Bouru, a 
Orleans du Mulct Odet, et a Blois du Loupgarou. 
D'Avila et quelques autres Historiens ont cru que 
les Calvinistes ont ete appellez Huguenots, parce 
que ceux qui furent les premiers infectez de cette 
heresie dans la ville de Tours, s'assembloient la 
nuit dans des caves qui 6toient aupres de la Porte 
Hugon" [P. 51, s.v. Amboise : "C'est dans cette 
ville que commencerent les guerres civiles du 
Royaume 1'an 1561, et que le uom de Huguenots fut 
donn aux Calvinistes pour la premiere fois."] 

VII. 142." Le Seigneur de Pac a aussi droit de 
mener ou faire mener le jour de la Trinit, par ses gens 
etOfficiers, a la Dame toutes les femmes jolies [N.B. 
Jolie se prend ici pour prude et sage] qu'ils 
trouveront a Saumur et es Fauxbpurgs tout ledti 
jour. Chacune de ces femmes jolies est tenue de 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. viii. AUG. 17, 1901, 

dormer & cea Officiers quatre deniers et un chapeau 
de roses ; et au cas qu'elles ne veuillent pas aller 
danser avec les Officiers sur ce ordonnez, ils peuvent 
piquer d'un baton marqu6 aux armes du Seigneur, 
et ferr6 au bout en maniere d'aiguillpn, ladite Femme 
jolie qui refusera d'aller danser, trois fois aux fesses. 
Le meme Seigneur a droit ce jour-l& de contraindre 
par lui meme ou ces Officiers toutes les femmes qui 
ne seront pas jolies, de Bourdeau, qui seront 
notoirement diffam6es de ribaudie, de venir ladite 
Dame de Pac6 avec lesdites femmes jolies ; ou de 
payer cinq sols au Seigneur." 

Tower House, New Hampton. 

vii. 188, 276, 416 ; viii. 87). I have long been 
familiar with this word, but only in a sense 
which I do not think any of your contributors 
have yet assigned to it : to " put the kybpsh 
on " a project, to give to a scheme or agita- 
tion its quietus. A and B devised a clever 
plan, but it failed of accomplishment, because 
C put the kybosh on it i.e., nipped the pro- 
ject in the bud, or " squelched " the scheme 
on the eve of its fulfilment. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

"SNICKET" (9 th S. vii. 348, 512; viii. 52). 
When cotton or string has got tangled I have 
heard it spoken of hereabouts as being "all 
snick-snarles." Miss Baker gives snarl as 
"an old word for entangle." 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

(9 th S. viii. 104). The G. D. referred to by 
Charles Lamb is George Dawe. He is buried 
between Landseer and Fuseli in the Artists' 
Corner of the Crypt, St. Paul's Cathedral. 
The following inscription is carved on the 
slab which covers his grave : 

are deposited the Remains of 

George Dawe, Esq ro , 

Historical & Portrait Painter, 

Royal Academician, 

Principal Painter 

to His Imperial Majesty 

Nicholas l Mt , Emperor of Russia, 

Member of the Imperial Academy 

of Arts at St. Petersburgh 

and of the Academies 
of Stockholm, Florence, &c., &c. 
He was born February 6 th , 1781. 

Died October 15 th , 1829. 

Dawe visited Russia in 1819, and is said to 
have painted four hundred portraits there. 
He was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1809, and became an R.A. in 
1814. Two of his portraits are in the National 
Portrait Gallery. They represent the Princess 
Charlotte of Wales and the Rev. Samuel Parr, 

LL.D., and were purchased by the trustees 
from Mr. Wright, the nephew of the artist. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

G. D. is George Dawe, a portrait painter, 
born in London in 1781. In 1819 he went to 
Russia. He became an A.R.A. in 1809 and 
an R.A. in 1814. He died in 1829, and was 
buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. MR. HEBB 
will find a short account of George Dawe in 
Bryan's * Dictionary of Painters,' vol. i. p. 356, 
and a full account of him in the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography.' 



The G D. Lamb sneered at, who painted 
the Empress of Russia, and was buried in 
St. Paul's, was George Dawe. Many of his 
works were engraved, including portraits and 
subject-pictures. He did not deserve Lamb's 
sneers. O. 

SITE OF BRUNANBURH (9 th S. viii. 100). 
It will not be without interest to place on 
record that when the late Prof. Freeman was 
lecturing at the Royal Institution, Hull, he 
was asked to name the site of this battle. In 
reply he said that it was impossible to state 
the place with certainty, but the best evidenc e 
pointed to Bamborough, Northumberland. 

Royal Institution, Hull. 

"RACING" (9 th S. viii. 104). This particular 
meaning is not given in either Webster or 
' The Imperial Dictionary.' The derivation, 
from the O.H.G. reiza, a line, is obvious. In 
the Black Country also the word is used pre- 
cisely as indicated by the querist. It is note- 
worthy that the " racing " of a steam engine, 
a term applied to events arising from the 
sudden removing of the load, is not given 
by the second authority named. W. Clark 
Russell, in his * Sailors' Language,' says : 

" The engines of a steamer ' race ' when they work 
with great rapidity from the loss of resisting power, 
caused, for instance, by the breaking of the shaft, or 
the dropping off of the propeller, or the raising of 
the stern of the ship, thereby lifting the screw out 
of the water." 

It is from causes similar to that first named 
that "racing" occurs in stationary engines. 
The word in this second meaning is derived 
from the A.-S. roes, a rush. 


LIBERAL (9 th S. vii. 128, 238). Your North- 
amptonshire correspondent will be glad to 
know that in 1748, at the election for that 
county, Mr. Knightley was the candidate 

v* s. VIIL AUG. 17, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the "High" and Mr. W. Hanbury of the 
" Low " party. See Doddridge's ' Works,' 1804, 
vol. v. p. 579, n. W. C. B. 

ALBA POTTERY (9 th S. viii. 44). Will MR. 
DRURY pardon me if I suggest that the above 
name is perhaps a misprint for ** Alloa'"? I 
cannot trace out any reference to "Alba" 
ware, but it may not be too far-fetched to 
imagine that a mark or monogram which 
has " flushed " might possibly be misread as 
regards a difference of but one letter. 
Respecting the "Alloa Pottery," I venture 
to quote a few words from * The Ceramic Art 
of Great Britain,' by Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A. 
(new edition, 1883), p. 625 : 

"Alloa Pottery. These works were established 
in 1790 by James Anderson, and were afterwards 
carried on by William Gardner, and in 1855 passed 
by purchase into the hands of W. & J. Bailey. At 
first the works, under Mr. Anderson, produced 
common brownware pans and crocks, ana by Mr. 
Gardner the addition was made of Rockingham 
ware teapots ; and later this branch of manufacture 
has been considerably improved, and so greatly 
extended that, at the time I write (1883), 1 am 
informed no less than twenty-six thousand teapots 
can be produced by them per week. Majolica and 
jet ware goods are also largely made, and a speci- 
ality of the firm is its artistic engraving of ferns 
and other decorations of the finer qualities of 
teapots, jugs, &c. The excellent qualities of the 
Alloa goods ' arise from the nature of the clay got 
in the neighbourhood,' and the density of colour and 
softness of the glaze are highly commendable." 


39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

SHAKESPEARE'S TIME (9 th S. viii. 84). If your 
correspondent will turn to Wilkinson's * Lon- 
dina Illustrata' (London, 1819), he will find 
twenty-four illustrations of the checks and 
tickets of admission to the public theatres 
and other places of amusement, among 
others the "Red Bull Theatre," which 
flourished from about the middle of the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth until some time after 
the Restoration a check for the "Upper 
Gallery." For Drury Lane Theatre there is 
one "For the First Gallerie, 1671," on the 
obverse the head of Charles II., and another 
with the bust of James II. and Maria d'Este, 
his queen, dated 1684. There is also another 
"For the First Gallerie" of the Queen's 
Theatre, bearing the same date. The re- 
mainder are modern, and comparatively of 
recent dates. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

387, 495 ; viii. 50, 90). The following extract 
from the tenth edition of that rather scarce 
little book, Dr. John Bulloker's 'English 

Expositor Improv'd,' edited by R. Browne, 
1707, may be of interest to your readers : 

" Crosier. An Arch-Bishop's (not a Bishop's) Staff, 
that, with the Pall, being Badges peculiar to an 
Arch-Bishop, whilst the Bishop's is called a Pastoral- 
Staff, and hooked, or crooked at the Top, like unto 
a Shepherd's, whereas the Crosier is fashioned like 
a Cross at the Upper end, and thence became so 

W. I. R. V. 

In the fine east window of Bolton Percy 
Church, co. York, which contains some of the 
most beautiful fifteenth - century glass in 
England, are the life-sized figures of five 
Archbishops of York, Scrope, Bowet, Kempe, 
Booth, and Neville, each having in his left 
hand his pastoral staff surmounted with a 
Latin cross, whilst the right hand is raised 
in the act of benediction. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

S. vii. 487 ; viii. 94). The " Witch's Head " 
at the last reference should be the "Welch 
Head," a sign commemorative of Saunders 
Welch, one of the justices of the peace for 
Westminster, who kept a regular office for 
the police in the district, in which he was 
succeeded by Fielding, brother of the novelist. 
Here a certain " Mendicants' Club " was held 
in 1710, the origin of which dated back to 
1660, when its meetings were held at the 
"Three Crowns" in the Poultry ('N. & Q.,' 
1 st S. i. 229). The "Welch Head," like the 
" Black Horse," was in Dyott Street. 


A LOST TOWN IN SUFFOLK (9 th S. viii. 63). 
The estuary of the river Deben, which 
estuary is within a few miles of the town of 
Woodbridge, lies within or touches the bounds 
of the manor of Walton with Trirnley, and is 
in the court rolls of that manor frequently 
called by the name of Gosford Haven. But 
the same estuary is in the rolls of the same 
manor also sometimes called Woodbridge 
Haven. Where, then, is there any evidence 
that a town has been lost at all 1 



viii. 80). A parallel case to that recorded by 
Prof. Boyd Dawkins will be found in Robert 
Chambers's * Popular Rhymes of Scotland.' 
In the first edition of that work (1826) 
Chambers recorded a tradition, which he had 
taken down the preceding year, to the effect 
that it was supposed by the people who lived 
in the neighbourhood of Largo Law, in Fife, 
that there was a very rich mine of gold under 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 17, IDOL 

and near the mountain, and they were so specified by A FOLK-LORIST. At any rate, 
convinced of the truth' of this story, that tradition in both these cases seems to have 
whenever they saw the wool of a sheep's side rested on a solid substratum of fact and it 
Tinged with yellow, they thought it had would be interesting . to hear of other in- 
acquired that colour from having lain above stances of similar survivals. 
the gold of the mine. A great many years W. *. TRID 

ago a ghost made its appearance on the spot, 
supposed to be laden with the secret of the 
mine, and Chambers proceeds to tell the 
story of a shepherd who plucked up courage 
to accost it, and received the following reply 
to his demand to learn the reason of the 
spectre's presence : 

If Auchindownie cock disna craw, 

And Balmain horn disna blaw, 

I'll tell ye where the gowd mine is in Largo Law. 
Not a cock was left alive at the farm of 
Auchindownie, but man was more difficult to 
control, for just as the ghost appeared, ready 
to divulge the secret, Tammie Norrie, the 
cow-herd of Balmain, heedless of all injunc- 
tions to the contrary, "blew a blast both loud 
and dread," on which the ghost immediately 
vanished, after exclaiming : 

Woe to the man who blew the horn, 
For out of the spot he shall ne'er be borne 
In fulfilment of this denunciation the un- 

Authentic particulars of burnt sacrifices in 
an and elsewhere will be found in Principal 
Rhys's recently published 'Celtic Folk-lore, 
Welsh and Manx.' If your correspondent 
will refer to the index volume of Archceo-^ 
logia Cambrensis, under the heading ' Mold,' 
he will find a full account of the giant who 
was buried in " golden armour "; and he will, 
I think, be satisfied that the case furnishes 
an example of a genuine ancient tradition 
verified by archaeological research. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

MANX WORDS (9 th S. viii. 83). According 
to Jamieson's ' Scottish Dictionary ' " maze " 
is a term applied to herrings, denoting the 
number of five hundred. Under "mese of 
herring," ibid., several derivations are given. 
Skene is quoted as of the opinion that, as 
herrings are so numerous that they are com- 

fortunate horn-blower was struck dead upon monly numbered by thousands, the " mese 
the spot, and it being found impossible to is the /*eo-oi/, medium, or half thousand. In 
remove his body, which seemed, as it were, 
pinned to the earth, a cairri of stones was 
raised over it, which, grown into a green 
hillock, was denominated Nome's Law (A.-S. 
hlceiv, a tumulus or barrow), and for long 
was regarded as uncanny by the common 
people. But it appears that in 1819 a man 
digging sand at Nome's Law found a cist or 
stone coffin containing a suit of scale-armour, 
with shield, sword-handle, and scabbard, all 
of silver. This discovery was recorded by 
Chambers in later editions of his work, in 
which it is further stated that the finder 
kept the secret until nearly the whole of the 
pieces had been disposed of to a silversmith 
at Cupar ; but on one of the few that remain 
it is remarkable to find the " spectacle orna- 
ment," crossed by the so-called "broken 

sceptre," thus indicating a great though un- 
certain antiquity. Further details will be 
found in Dr. John Stuart's book on 'The 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland.' 
In this case, as in the Bryn-yr-Ellyllon one, 

the abridged edition of 1818 Jamieson had 
been satisfied with but one derivation, and 
that from the Icelandic " meis, a bag in which 
fish are carried." "Mar- fire" may mean 
phosphorescence of the sea, or marsh -fire = 
ignis fatuus, according to the context. The 
latter is on the lines of a more exact ety- 

viii. 42). Concerning the identity of the 
"trysting tree" in 'Ivanhoe' there is in 
this district a great difference of opinion, and 
this has existed for many years. There were 
two large oaks in Harthill Walk, one in the 
vicarage garden at Tod wick, the other at 
some distance from it the one, in fact, which 
Mr. Mosey, the present agent of the Duke of 
Leeds, claims as Scott's trysting oak. As far 
as I know, the oldest inhabitants have for 
years considered the tree at Tod wick to be 
the one mentioned in 'Ivanhoe,' and they 
have ever looked upon it with pride. The 

we have not only a long-standing tradition of portion of Harthill Walk at Tod wick is now 
the burial of one of the precious metals, for the a private road, and the tree is a very fine 
conversion of silver into gold would offer no one, worthy of the belief with which it is in- 
difficulties to the popular imagination, but | vested. Mr. Mosey has long been engaged 
also of a spectre which apparently filled the 
office of guardian of the treasure ; and the 

3uestion would seem to present the same 
ifficulties of solution as those that are 


in seeking information, and he pins his faith 
to the trunk which he has had taken down 
and transferred to the grounds of his re- 
sidence; but it will require some strong 

9*s. vm. AUG. i7,i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


proofs to shake the local belief that the real 
" trysting tree " is still standing at Todwick. 

There is also a considerable difference of 
opinion as to the position of the castle which 
Scott calls "Torquilstone," and many stoutly 
claim that the site of the old castle at Whit- 
well, in Derbyshire, best of all meets the 
description which Scott gives of "Torquil- 


(9 th S. vii. 365 ; viii. 22). This inscription 
has been a puzzle to bell-hunters for the 
last forty years. With regard to the solution 
propounded by MR. HESLOP, "lather "is not 
a Dorset equivalent for " ladder," nor (were 
that otherwise) does there seem much veri- 
similitude in this reading. Beneath the 
distich are the date 1629 and the initials 
" R. N ," which latter are probably those of 
Robert Napper. LOBUC. 

(9 th S. vii. 469 ; viii. 46). The following ex- 
tract from the 'Annual Register' for 1812, 
though not exactly coming within the scope 
of the topic immediately to hand, may yet 
prove of interest, the rather that at the 
present moment the treatment (and be- 
haviour) of " prisoners of war " has assumed 
the aspect of a " burning question ": 

" Jan. 2. Six French prisoners, who lately escaped 
from the castle of Edinburgh, have been retaken 
to their old place of confinement. On Friday last 
information was given to the Commandant of 
Linlithgow Local Militia, that a number of 
foreigners had been seen skulking among Lord 
Hopetoun's plantations: a party was immediately 
sent out, which descried them at some distance in 
the fields. On seeing the party they all separated, 
taking different directions ; six of them, however, 
were taken, after considerable fatigue, four of them 
hid among the whins, and two of them in the hollow 
of a stack in a barn yard. On their escape they 

had made for the sea finding a boat they sailed 

up the Firth, till opposite Hopetoun house, where 

they landed They had subsisted for three days 

on raw turnips. On being taken they were carried 
to Linlithgow jail, fed and clothed, and conducted 
to Edinburgh on Saturday last." 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

Borrow's reference to them has already 
been quoted. At pp. 53-8, 88-94, vol. iii. of 
Household Words a most interesting article, 
commencing with a reference to them, and 
dealing with the expected landing of " Bony," 
is buried under the (for our purpose) un- 
meaning title of ' The Marsh Fog and the Sea 
Breeze.' It purports to be written by a 
quondam fisher-girl child, who, with her 
brother and mother, supplies the prisoners 

with fish, and who marvels at their resource- 
fulness in cooking it, which she longs to 
imitate, but is prevented. Deliverance comes 
with the arrival of the military and the 
burning of the cottage. 


If a rather little-known second (or third) 
rate novel is reckoned as literature, there 
will be found in 'Queen of the Moor,' by 
Frederick Adye (Macmillan & Co., 1897), very 
pleasantly written studies of a French general 
on parole, also of officer and soldier servant, 
prisoners in Princetown, Dartmoor, at the 
beginning of last century. F. J. O. 

UNMARRIED LORD MAYORS (9 th S. vii. 428, 
513 ; viii. 49). Both the late Sir William 
Lawrence and the late Sir James Clarke 
Lawrence, who filled the office of Lord Mayor 
in 1863-4 and 1868-9 respectively, were un- 
married ; and their only sister, Miss Jane 
Lawrence, acted as Lady Mayoress to each, 
this being probably the only instance of a 
maiden lady being twice Lady Mayoress and 
each time with a different Lord Mayor. 


UGO FOSCOLO IN LONDON (9 th S. vi. 326; 
vii. 150, 318, 476; viii. 92). Let me quote an 
instance which does not admit of doubt of 
the preservation of a human body after a 
long inhumation. It is that of Napoleon I., 
whose coffin was exhumed in 1840 after a 
nineteen years' burial at St. Helena, and was 
thence transferred to the Invalides at Paris. 
The body was found perfect, though the 
epaulettes were a little tarnished, and mould 
lay on the boots; upon them the heart in a 
leaden case had been deposited. It was ex- 
posed to view only for a few moments for 
necessary identification, and General Ber- 
trand, who had been with Napoleon in his 
exile up to his death in 1821, gazed on the 
features of his great commander. Unless my 
memory is at fault, there was an engraving 
of the scene in the Pictorial Times some years 
later, perhaps in 1843. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

When Ugo Foscolo's remains were removed 
from Chiswick Churchyard by the Italian 
Government, and were transferred to the 
church of Santa Croce, the Westminster 
Abbey of Florence, where the illustrious 
poet reposes with Leonardo Bruni of Arezzo 
and other scholars who enjoyed the sunshine 
of favour in the palace of Cosmo de' Medici, 
the modest tomb placed over the grave of 
the poet by Hudson Turner, M.P., one of his 
admirers, was removed, and a pretentious 


NOTES .AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 17, 1901. 

polished - granite cenotaph with a long in- 
scription substituted. This inscription is 
now nearly illegible, the iron railing round 
the tomb is rusted, and the whole structure 
is becoming dilapidated. It is a curious fact 
that granite, which is practically imperish- 
able in the rainless climate of Egypt, rapidly 
deteriorates in our humid atmosphere, and 
the huge mass of stone which marks Foscolo's 
grave will probably gradually become a 
formless mass unless something is done to 
arrest the disintegrating effect of the London 

I have called the attention of the Italian 
ambassador to the condition of the cenotaph, 
but without avail. JNO. HEBB. 

THE CORONATION STONE (9 th S. viii. 63). 
COL. RIVETT-CARNAC will find an account of 
the above stone in ' Crowns and Coronations, 
by William Jones. It gives not only the 
legendary origin, but a geological description 
and the dimensions. As to the marks, it says 
there is a rectangular groove or indent on the 
upper surface into which a metal plate, in- 
scribed with a legend, might have been fixed ; 
and at one corner of the groove is a small 
cross slightly cut. It also refers the reader 
to an article in the Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, by Dr. W. F. 
Skene and Dr. John Stuart, and 'The Corona- 
tion Stone,' by the former, published by 
Edmonstone & Douglas. 


BARBICAN WATCH TOWER (9 th S. viii. 83). It 
does not seem quite clear from MR. WRIGHT'S 
note whether hois referring to the old Roman 
watch tower, or to the watch house, which 
was at a later period erected on or near to 
the site of the watch tower. 

Stow himself, in the last edition of his 
'Survey' published in his lifetime, viz., in 
1603, does not mention this later watch house. 
He only tells us that the old Roman watch 
tower was destroyed by Henry III. in 1267, 
when he reoccupied the City of London after 
his struggle with the barons, and that its 
site was subsequently given by Edward III 
to Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, in 1336 
(Stow's 'Survey,' ed. 1603, p. 71). If this 
statement is correct, it is improbable that 
there would have come down to us any trust- 
worthy representation of the old Roman 
watch tower. Such a remark, however, does 
not apply to the later watch house, of which 
we find a description in Strype's edition of 
Stows 'Survey' published in 1720, vol. i, 
book in., p. 93. This watch house, Strype 
tells us, was erected on the site of -the old 
watch tower, fronting Red Cross Street, and 

it is so marked on Roque's large map of 
London, 1763. Jesse, writing in 1871, in his 
'London : its Celebrated Characters,' vol. iii. 
p. 20, says that the remains of this watch 
house, which stood on the site of the old 
Roman specula, " were visible in the latter- 
half of the last century." I have not, how- 
ever, been able to find any print or drawing 
of the watch house, which is represented in 
Roque's map as standing alone in the middle 
of the street at the north end of Red Cross 
Street, at its junction with the Barbican, and 
not in a line with the other houses, as shown 
in the engraving in Knight's ' London.' 

J. G. 

"ZAREBA" (9 th S. vii. 224). It may be 
noted that the use of this word is being 
revived in a curious fashion, Capt. Robert 
Marshall having brought it into two of his 
comedies, ' The Noble Lord ' and ' The Second 
in Command,' both produced in London in 
1900. Its employment in the former, indeed, 
was considered by some of the "first- 
nighters" to furnish internal evidence that 
the piece had been written some years before, 
when, because of the long struggle against 
the Mahdi, " zareba " was as frequently to be 
seen in the newspapers as "laager" is now. 

CHAPLAIN TO WILLIAM III. (9 th S. viii. 83). 
Rowland Davies, of the Hereford family, 
was appointed chaplain to one of the regi- 
ments that accompanied King William III. 
to Ireland, and arrived there 11 May, 1690. 
See his journal in the volume of the Camden 
Society for 1857. F. R. DAVIES. 

Hawthorn, Black Rock. 

viii. 85). 

So nigh is grandeur to our dust, 

So near is God to man, 
When Duty whispers low, " Thou must," 

The youth replies, " I can !" 
' Voluntaries,' Ralph Wa 

Waldo Emerson. 

He is oft the wisest man 
Who is not wise at all. 

' The Oak and the Broom,' Wordsworth. 

Is not " Have communion with few," &c., merely 
an amplification of the proverb " Have but few 
friends, though many acquaintances," in Spanish 
"Conocidos muchos, amigos pocos"? But a modern 
Doulton "specimen" jug in my possession has this 
house motto in a slightly different form, namely : 
Have communion with all, 

Be familiar with one, 
Deal justly with all, 
Speak evil of none. 


9-s.viiLAuG.i7.i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Notes on English Etymology. By the Rev. W. W. 

Skeat, Litt.D. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
PROF. SKEAT has judged rightly in believing that a 
collection of his papers on etymological subjects, 
which are scattered through various publications, 
would be welcome to all who are interested in the 
study of English. Most of the ' Notes ' included in 
the present volume have appeared in the Transactions 
of the Philological Society during the last twenty 
years, and a few in the more recent numbers of 
' N. & Q.' The papers on words imported from 
South America and the West Indies are complete 
monographs on the subjects with which they deal, 
and a copious hand -list of early Anglo-French words 
will be found convenient and useful for reference. 
The chief value, however, of the book lies in the 
series of detached notes in which points of un- 
settled etymology are submitted to a fuller and 
more complete discussion than was possible even in 
the author's large dictionary. These, as embody- 
ing the final conclusions, retractations, and amend- 
ments of a scholar in a field where he is facile 
princeps, carry the utmost weight and importance. 
Indeed, to our thinking, no fairy tale can compare 
in interest with these fossilized histories, as they 
yield up their secret meaning and origin under 
the magic wand of the analytical etymologist. In 
many instances stubborn vocables now reveal them- 
selves for the first time in their true colours, and 
with surprising results e.g., calf, crease, darn, 
gallop, &c. In other instances Prof. Skeat's dis- 
coveries have been more or less anticipated by other 
investigators. A very similar account of bronze, 
e.g., will be found in Schrader's 'Prehistoric Anti- 
quities of the Aryan Peoples,' p. 200, the English 
translation of which appeared in 1890. We notice 
also some cases where etymologies advanced in 
Dr. Palmer's ' Folk - Etymology,' 1883, are now 
adopted. The account of scour, to traverse hastily, 
there given (p. 648), separating it from scour, to 
cleanse, and deriving it through the Old French 
from Lat. excurrere, is thus accepted by Prof. Skeat. 
His note on ' Glory, Hand of,' agrees closely with 
Palmer's 'Hand of Glory' (p. 161). Unconscious 
cerebration will no doubt often reproduce in this 
way what one has formerly read and forgotten. 
Similarly the explanation of the Shakespearian 
crux, " We may deliver our supplications in the 
quill" ('2 Hen. VI.,' I. iii. 4), as meaning "col- 
lectedly," "all together" (=Fr. en cueill-ette), had 
already been given in the ' Folk-Etymology,' p. 310, 
though spoilt there by an alternative suggestion 
nihil ad rem. 

The origin of blot is not a little curious, coming 
as it does from p'lpt, pelote (O.F. blote)=a, pellet or 
ball of earth or dirt. The similar contraction in 
platoon from peloton might have been referred to. 
A parallel is afforded also by the surname Pratt 
(formerly Prott), which, if we mistake not, is a 
contraction of Perrot. 

The explanation of the word Esquimaux, which 
Prof. Skeat takes from Tylor (given also in Taylor's 
' Names and Places '), has been discredited by more 
recent writers. Our most learned authority on res 
Americana*, Mr. E. J. Payne, shows that the name 
is taken from the Algonquin askik-amo, which 

means "seal-eater" (' History of the New World.' 
ii. 350). 

An excellent reproduction of the presentation 
portrait of the author which belongs to Christ's 
College, Cambridge, forms a pleasing frontispiece 
to the volume. We learn with satisfaction that he 
has material in hand which will furnish forth a 
similar issue, and can assure him that all lovers of 
their mother tongue will be prepared to give it a 
hearty reception. There is no writer of the day to 
whom they are under deeper obligations. 

Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Edited by W. Rhys 

Roberts. (Cambridge, University Press.) 
PROF. ROBERTS has edited the Greek text of the 
three critical letters of Dionysius, and provided an 
English translation of them, a glossary of rhetorical 
terms, and ample introductory matter. The book is 
a companion volume to his edition of ' Longinus on 
the Sublime ' in 1899, and is one which deserves a 
warm meed of praise. We are always glad to see 
such thorough, well -equipped editions as this pro- 
ceeding from the University Presses : they do not 
come too often, and the outside world is apt to be 
scornful about the amount of work in the shape of 
solid contributions to thought and the literature 
of learning which has been given to us of late by 
our greater universities. There is perhaps some 
reason for these complaints, crude as they are. 
Dionysius as a literary critic cannot compare in 
ability or originality with the author of the treatise 
on the sublime, be he Longinus or another, but his 
remarks are always worth reading. He belongs to 
the careful rather than the original type of scholar, 
and the merits of the first class are apt to be under- 
estimated to-day. He is happiest in his estimates 
of authors who show elaboration of style, though 
he appreciates Lysias, a model of lucidity whom 
Thucydidean students do not read sufficiently. 
Vexing to the modern reader is his depreciation of 
the style of Plato, the divine master of grace and 
ease in language. This same ease is more the gift 
of Oxford than Cambridge, but it is pleasant to 
find that Prof. Roberts's translation is not lacking 
in so essential a quality, and not shackled by the 
claims of those who want a mere "crib." Some- 
times we differ from him as to the best rendering 
of a word, but always he seems to have thought 
over the solution of the difficulty and found a 
way out of it. Thus tvvoia of a patriot is better 
rendered, we think, by "partiality" than "enthu- 
siasm," and tieivbe of Thucydides is more Qofiipbq 
than "clever." We do not hold with such a 
phrase as " when he elects to write." It is surely 
recent, Transatlantic, undesirable English. Despite 
his pedantry, Dionysius has some or the supreme 
Greek talent for seeing the right thing. A criticism 
of his on Thucydides we saw echoed the other day 
by the latest of critics on the newest of Greek 
histories. " Of all literary virtues, the most impor- 
tant is propriety." We fancy moderns without the 
Greek will imagine that this refers to what is called 
" unexceptionable morality," whereas " propriety " 
is only TO rrpkirov. The whole discussion on Thucy- 
dides is interesting, more arresting than we had 
thought it ; but we still lack an adequate reason 
for his extraordinary style a better reason than 
that he invented it to give Greek grammarians a 
living. There is something pleasing in the serene 
spectacle of Dionysius criticizing his Plato and 
Demosthenes in letters to a friend in an age when 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL AUG. 17, uoi. 

everything was being shaken by the decadence of 
imperial Rome, and the greatest change the world 
of thought has ever seen was close at hand. 

THREE articles in the Edinburgh Review will 
remain of permanent value as an index of the state 
of knowledge and feeling at the beginning of the 
century. In ' Greece and Asia ' are gathered in 
narrow compass the prominent facts relating to the 
early Hellenic civilization. It is a difficult sub- 
ject whereon to write one, indeed, on which few 
persons think clearly. We have been so accustomed 
to believe, in spite of the evidence that has always 
existed to the contrary, that our progress has been 
solely due to the influences of Semitic and Greek 
thought, that it will come as something like a shock 
to many good people to learn how much Hellas was 
in its beginnings indebted to races regarded as in 
every way inferior to the Aryans. We do not feel 
called upon to question this self-satisfying piece of 
optimism, but must draw attention to the facts that 
the alphabet itself has probably come from Hittite 
rather than Phoenician sources, and that true 
alphabets, as distinguished from cuneiform and 
hieratic, were the work of busy merchantmen and 
traders rather than of grave and thoughtful students 
struggling after logical simplicity. The sum of the 
matter is here said to be "that Greek civilization 
was mainly derived from the non-Aryan population 
of Asia Minor, and thus indirectly from the Mongol 
race in Babylonia, which first established art and a 
written character in Cappadocia." ' Temporary 
Stars ' has gathered up all that is at present known, 
or which rests on a wide basis of probability, regard- 
ing those strange suns which burst upon the sight 
for a short time, and then, so far as human vision is 
concerned, sink into nothingness or become mere 
points of light. Until the spectroscope came into 
use nothing was known regarding these phenomena 
beyond their mere presence and that almost all of 
them had been seen among the great nebulae of the 
Milky Way. Now their chemical nature is to a 
great degree ascertained, and an important step 
has been taken towards solving the mystery of planet 
formation. We imagine that ' The Time-Spirit of 
the Nineteenth Century' will furnish many texts 
for controversy. With its main outlines we are in 
full sympathy, but on such a subject no two persons 
capable of abstract thought can be found who are 
in absolute agreement. The estimates of the sur- 
vivors from the eighteenth century, several of 
whom continued to our own time, are especially 
good, as are also the remarks on the revived scho- 
lasticism which has been a distinctive character- 
istic of these latter days. The review of Mr. 
Corbett's books on Drake furnishes pleasant and 
instructive reading. The hero has been so long the 
victim of romance that it is delightful to have the 
truth, or what is a very near approach thereto, set 
before us in a form which will attract readers. 
The notice of Tolstoi is written with feeling by 
one who understands his subject. It is at present, 
however, far too early to come to definite con- 

PROF. MAITLAND has contributed to the English 
Historical Review an excellent memoir of the late 
Bishop of Oxford. It must give pleasure to every 
one who has a genuine love of knowledge, as dis- 
tinguished from the vague generalizations which 
pass current among those who feel aggrieved if 
they do not find in the histories they read the 
excitement which a novel gives them. We have 

heard such misguided people say that the late 
bishop's writings are dull, a statement indicating 
that they are not only devoid of the historical 
instinct, but also are deficient in power of 
appreciating a style remarkable for excellence. 
' Europe and the Ottoman Power before the Nine- 
teenth Century,' by Mr. W. Miller, is an instructive 
paper, as it contains information not elsewhere to 
be found in English. It is not easy to account for 
the decay of a great military power which was for 
so long a terror to the Christian West. The writer 
does not endeavour to do this, but he furnishes 
some details which may be helpful to any one who 
ventures upon this intricate subject. Mr. F. Baring 
writes on the New Forest, and shows, as we believe 
conclusively, that the cruelty of William the Norman 
in clearing that region for the purpose of making it 
a great game preserve has been exaggerated. We 
think, indeed, he might have gone further in the 
way of extenuation. The removal of rural popula- 
tions from one site to another was not in the 
Middle Ages a great hardship, certainly not so 
cruel as the clearances in the Scottish High- 
lands which have in recent days met with ardent 
defenders. We wish Mr. Baring would devote his 
attention to William's devastations in the north 
of England. Have they also been exaggerated by 
chroniclers and historians ? Mr. C. Bonnier gives 
from a Douce MS. a list of English towns with what 
he calls their attributes, which he regards as more 
complete than the others which are known to have 
come down to us. We believe it to be identical 
with a similar catalogue which appeared in our 
pages some years ago (6 th S. viii. 223). 

those readers of ' N. & Q.' who happen to have on 
loan any books belonging to the late Dr. Sykes 
kindly communicate with the Rev. W. C. Boulter, 
Norton Vicarage, Evesham ? 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

H. H. E. Many thanks. 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9* s. viii. AUG. 24, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 191. 

NOTES Sedlev's Escapade, 157 Authorship of British 
Apollo,' 158 Bevis Marks Synagogue, 159 " Pitcher," 

J^Q Stuart Relic Thomas Newcomb John Potenger 

Shakespeariana Shakespearian Relic, 161 'N. & Q ' = a 
Motto " Week end " " Providing "=Provided Glare 
and Heine-Marquess of Bute Chalice as Race Cup, 162- 
" Meeting," 163. 

QUERIES -Portrait by Dighton Richardson Arms of 
Richmond Pope and Arbuthnot Scott Quotation 
Eros' and ' Anteros 'Mural Paintings, 163 Wilhelmine 

Glorious uncertainty of the game " Marshalsea and 

King's Bench Prisoners Ornamented Lace Sticks 
Shifting Pronunciation, 164" Jack among the maidens " 
Robert Southam Jacobite Letter Huguenot Russells 
of Aylesbury Fox Family-Painter's Name C. S. Pul- 
teney, 165. 

REPLIES : Lamb as a Journalist, 166 Sweeny Todd 
Kipling Stories, 168 Family Likeness " Galloglass" 
Crest and Motto' Burial of Sir John Moore,' 169 Rural 
Selfode" " Sawney " Kyrie Eleison Pall 

Wheat" Stinger" ' Coronation Anecdotes,' 170 Malt 
and Hop Substitutes Artists' Mistakes " Toucan " 
Neptune and crossing the Line, 171 "Gentlier" ' The 

A Ladle, 174. 
NOTES ON BOOKS -.Singer's 'Jewish 

Vol. I. Macaulay's 'Works of John Grower,' Vols. II. and 

III.' Quarterly Review.' 
Notices to Correspondents. 



READERS of Samuel Pepys will 
the virtuous horror which overtook that good 
man when he first became acquainted with 
the misdoings of Sir Charles Sedley, a youn 
Kentish baronet, then in the twenty-fift 

become him to have been at his prayers begging 
God's forgiveness, than now running into such 
courses again." 

Johnson, in his ' Life of Dorset,' tells the 
story, on the authority of Anthony a Wood, 
in rather a different way : 

Sackville, who was then Lord Buckhurst, with 
Sir Charles Sedley and Sir Thomas Ogle, got drunk 
at the Cock, in Bow Street, by Covent Garden, and, 
going into the balcony, exposed themselves to the 
populace in very indecent postures. At last, as 
they grew warmer, Sedley stood forth naked, and 
harangued the populace in such profane language, 
that the public indignation was awakened ; the 
crowd attempted to force the door, and, being 
repulsed, drove in the performers with stones, and 
broke the windows of the house. For this mis- 
demeanour they were indicted, and Sedley was 
fined five hundred pounds : what was the sentence 
of the others is not known. Sedley employed Killi- 
rew and another to procure a remission from the 
_Ling ; but (mark the friendship of the dissolute !) 
they begged the fine for themselves, and exacted it 
to the last groat." 

For many years this escapade of Sir Charles 
Sedley served as an "awful example " U evil- 
doers, and in June, 1749, Henry Fielding, 
when charging the grand jury of West- 
minster, drew special attention to it, and 
quoted as his authority Siderfin's 'Reports.' 
As none of Sedley's biographers appears ever 
to have consulted this official record of his 
offence and punishment, it may be interest- 
ing to quote it in full. The reference is 
1 Sid. 168, Mich. 15 Car. II. B.R. : 

"Le Roy versus Sr. Charles Sidney.* 
Sr. Ch. S. fuit indict al common Ley pur several 
Misdemeanors encounter le Peace del Roy et que 
fueront al grand Scandal de Christianity, Et le cause 
fuit quia il monstre son nude Corps in un Balcony 
in Covent Garden al grand Multitude de people et 
tiel choses et parle tiel parolls &c. (monstrant 

11 of a late triall of Sir Charles Sydly the other day, 
before my Lord Chief Justice Foster and the whole 
bench, for his debauchery a little while since at 
Oxford Kate's, coming in open day into the Balcone 

and abusing of Scripture and as it were from 

thence preaching a mountebank sermon from the 

Sulpit, saying that there he had to sell such a pow- 
er as should make all the women in town run after 
him, 1000 people standing underneath to see and 
hear him, and that being done he took a glass of 
wine, and then drank it off, and then took another 
and drank the King's health. It seems my Lord 
and the rest of the Judges did all of them round 
give him a most high reproof ; my Lord Chief Justice 
saying that it was for him, and such wicked wretches 
as he was, that God's anger and judgments hung 
over us, calling him sirrah many times. It 's said 
they have bound him to his good behaviour (there 
being no law against him for it) in 5,000. It being 
told that my Lord Buckhurst was there, my Lord 
asked whether it was that Buckhurst that was 
lately tried for robbery ; and when answered Yes, 
he asked whether he had so soon forgot his deliver- 
ance at that time, and that it would have more 

Iuy per les Justices que coment la ne fuit a eel temps 
ascun Star-Chamber uncore ils voil fair Iuy de 
scaver que cest Court Est Gustos Morum de touts 
les Subjects [sic] le Roy, Et est ore haut temps de 
Punnier tiels profane Actions fait encounter tout 
modesty queux sont cy frequent sicome nient sole 
ment Christianity. Mes auxy morality ad estre 
derelinquy, Et apres que il ad e6 continue in Court 

' recogn' del Terme de Trin. al Fine del Terme de 
t. Mich. Le Court Iuy demand daver son Triall 
pur eel al Barr, Mes il aiant advise submit Iuy 
mesme al Court, et confesse L'indictment. Pur que 
le Court consider quel Judgment a doner, Et pur 
ceo q' il fuit Gent'home de trope aunc' Family (ore 
del pays de Kent) et son Estate incumber (nient 
intendant son Ruine mes pur Iuy reforme) ils fine 
Iuy forsque 2000 Marks et que serra imprison pur 
un Weeke sans Baile et del bone port pur 3 ans."f 

* So spelt in the report, but in the index 
" Sidley." 

f The original report is, of course, in black Jetter, 
except a few words in 
transcribed in italics. 

roman type, which I have 


NOTES .AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. AUG. 24, 1901. 

It does not appear that any proceedings 
were taken against Lord Buckhurst and Sir 
Thomas Ogle. This trial was almost the 
last held before Sir Robert Foster, who 
died 4 October, 1663, and was succeeded as 
Chief Justice of the King's Bench by Sir 
Robert Hyde. The "Cock Tavern" in Bow 
Street, where the orgie took place, rivalled 
its near neighbour, the "Rose" in Russell 
Street, as the headquarters of riot and dissi- 
pation among the young bloods of the Resto- 

I have always felt that Sedley was a much 
misunderstood man. He has been regarded 
as the typical rake of the days of Charles II., 
whereas he was no worse than the majority 
of his friends and contemporaries. His fate, 
compared with that of Buckhurst, exemplifies 
the common saying that one man may steal 
a horse while another is hanged for looking 
over the hedge. Johnson, in his 'Life of 
Dorset,' quotes Rochester's remark, "I know 
not how it is, but Lord Buckhurst may do 
what he will, yet is never in the wrong." 
Poor Sedley, on the other hand, was never in 
the right. So far as I know, no charge can 
be laid against his conduct in his later years. 
He became a steady Parliament man, and his 
speeches display ripe judgment and sound 
common sense. Many of the principles laid 
down by him are of more than temporary 
application. Politics have rightly no place in 
these columns, but there can be no great 
harm in quoting from a speech which was 
delivered more than two hundred years ago: 

" We must save the King Money wherever we 
can ; for I am afraid the War is too great for our 
Purses, if things be not managed with all imagin- 
able Thrift: When the People of England see that 
all things are saved that can be saved ; That there 
are no exorbitant Pensions nor unnecessary Salaries: 
and all this applied to the Use to which they are 
given, we shall Give, and they shall cheerfully Pay, 
whatever his Majesty can want to secure the Pro- 
testant Religion, and to keep out the King of 

It will be seen from this extract that Sedley 
knew his countrymen, though it may be that 
he did not thoroughly know his Parliament. 



(Concluded from p. 09.) 

AT chap. xiv. the account of Martin's philo- 
sophical researches is interrupted by a love 
episode. There is no chap. xiii. in the first 
edition of the ' Memoirs.' Chap, xiv., * The 
Double Mistress,' and chap, xv., 4 Of the 
Strange Process at Law and the 

Pleadings of the Advocates,' have been 
omitted by all editors since Warburton, 
except Bowles, for no more apparent reason 
than to make an already incomplete work 
still more fragmentary. The original chap, 
xvi. appears in the castrated editions as 

chap, xiii., 'Of Martinus, and some Hint 

of his Travels.' 

Happening to stroll into a show where the 
Bohemian Twins Lindamira and Indamora 
were being exhibited, he became enamoured 
of the former. After a series of adventures 
he succeeded in effecting her escape, and they 
were married by a Fleet parson. The show- 
man then seized on the Bohemian ladies by 
a warrant, and being determined to have 
revenge on Martin whom he looked upon 
merely as a rival showman anxious to secure 
an attractive exhibit commenced a suit 
against him for bigamy and incest. He even 
contrived to alienate Indamora's affection 
from him, and enticed her into an intrigue 
with a negro "prince," another of his 
exhibits, to whom she was married while her 
sister Lindamira was asleep. Martin now 
required to turn plaintiff, and commenced a 
suit in the Spiritual Court against the black 
prince for cohabitation with his wife. He 
was advised to insist on the point "that 
Lindamira and Indamora together made but 
one lawful wife." Randal, the showman, 
then forced Lindamira to petition for aliment, 
which was no sooner allowed her by the 
Court than he obliged her to allege that "it 
was not sufficient to maintain both herself 
and her sister, and if her sister perished she 
could not live with a dead body about her." 
Martin was now ordered by the Court to allow 
aliment to both, the black prince appearing 
insolvent. The Court then proceeded to try 
the main issue. Dr. Pennyfeather appeared 
for the plaintiff Martin. He made a long 
speech in which he maintained the proposi- 
tions (1) that Lindamira and Indamora made 
but one individual person ; (2) that if they 
made two individual persons, yet they consti- 
tuted but one wife. He also maintained there 
were anatomical disabilities for the accept- 
ance of two husbands. Finally the judge 
was besought not to "let a few heads, legs, 
or arms extraordinary " bias his judgment. 
Dr. Leatherhead replied at some length also, 
and insisted that Lindamira and Indamora 
were not anatomically debarred from having 
a duality of husbands, and craved that a jury 
of matrons be asked to determine the point. 
The matrons having made their report, which 
was in support of Dr. Leatherhead's conten- 
tion, the judge took time to deliberate, and 
next day delivered the following verdict : 

9* s. viii. AUG. 24, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" I am of opinion that Lindamira and Indamora 
are distinct persons, and that both the marriages 
are good and valid. Therefore I order you, Mar- 
tinus Scriblerus, Batchelor in Physick, and you, 
Ebn - Hai - Paw - Waw, Prince of Monomotapa, to 
cohabit with your wives, and to lie in bed each on 
the side of his own wife. I hope, Gentlemen, you 

will seriously consider that being, as it were, 

joint Proprietors of one common Tenement, you will 
so behave as good fellow-lodgers ought to do." 

This sentence pleased neither party, and 
Martin appealed from the Consistory to the 
Court of Arches, but the verdict was con- 
firmed. It was next brought before a Com- 
mission of Delegates, who reversed the verdict 
of the inferior courts and disannulled both 

While there is some probability that an 
author who had visited and written about 
the Twins in the British Apollo might feel 
inclined to write further on the subject, it 
must be admitted that it cannot be conclu- 
sively asserted that the writer of the Apollo 
articles and the writer of the satire were the 
same individual. 

One of the authors of the British Apollo 
is more directly indicated in the following 
answer to a correspondent; but otherwise 
he does not show his personality in any other 
part of the volume. Asked, " Who was the 
best author that ever treated of painting ? " 
he replied : 

" Signior Paulinus, an Italian, writ the best 
treatise on that art which hath come to our know- 
ledge, but 'tis a very scarce book. In English a 
gentleman of our Society writ one some years since. 
All we shall say of it is that had he seen one before 
it in English, which discovered that the author so 
well understood the art, he had not writ his." 

In discussing what was then the vexed 
question whether cochineal were a fungus, 
the berry of a plant, or an insect, it is stated 
that a member of Apollo's Society believed it 
to be a berry (in which he was wrong), as he 
found it growing on a shrub on the Isle of 
Tenedos in the ^Egean Sea. It was the same 
gentleman presumably who visited the Dead 
Sea, and corrected the popular error that 

" any bird is immediately struck dead if it attempts 

to flyover the Dead Sea Which is so far from 

the truth that it has been proved by the ocular 
demonstration of a Gentleman of our Society, that 
birds do not only fly in great numbers over, but will 
often perch on such parts of the lake as can afford 
'em reeds, timber, sea weed, or any other float 
enough to stand upon " (vol. ii. p. 452). 

It is hoped these few hints may have 
the effect of eliciting more definite informa- 
tion concerning the authorship of the British 
Apollo than the writer has been able to 
obtain. G. W. NIVEN. 

23, Newton Street, Greenock. 


(Continued from p. 139.) 

THE'EricyclopaediaBritannica'in its article 
on the Jews mentions that the archives of 
the synagogue contain a curious printed 
invitation from the King of Sweden, sent in 
the year 1746, in which wealthy Jews are 
invited to Sweden, while the poor are warned 
that their residence will be unwelcome. 

A most impressive feature of the recent 
celebration was that all parties among the 
Jews united in it. No similar assembly 
had been seen since the installation of Dr. 
Adler as Chief Rabbi. The Jewish World 
states that "it was an occasion to prove 
how much we all have in common, not how 
we may best magnify points of difference." 
The members of the West London Synagogue, 
partly an offspring of the Spanish and Portu- 
guese congregation, joined heartily in their 
congratulations. In reference to this the Rev. 
Moses Joseph in his sermon on the event said, 
"The animosities which attended its birth 
were dead and buried, and the child un- 
welcomed and unloved, as it was at its birth, 
had in its manhood clasped hands with its 
parent in mutual esteem and goodwill." It 
was in 1692 that the German and Polish 
settlers increased so much in numbers that 
they decided to have a separate place of 
worship, and the first Ashkenazim Synagogue 
was commenced. It was situated in Broad 
Street, Duke's Place, and the entire expense 
of the building was borne by Mr. Moses Hart. 

The synagogue was consecrated with great 
solemnity in 1722. In 1767 it was repaired, 
enlarged, and again consecrated with im- 
posing ceremonies ; and about this time the 
Jews became possessed of two Hebrew print- 
ing presses, one under the auspices of the 
German congregation, and the other under 
that of the Spanish and Portuguese. In 
point of numbers the Ashkenazim now far 
exceeds the Sephardim ; it has more attrac- 
tive services, and there is a difference in 
its liturgy ; but owing to the greater freedom 
of speech and action allowed to its mem- 
bers it has suffered more from internal 
quarrels than its parent has done. To one 
of these quarrels, a question ot a divorce, we 
owe the first Hebrew book published in this 
country, 'Urim and Thummim,' 1706. The 
second Hebrew book was by the learned 
Rabbi David Nieto, ' Mathai Dan,' or * Rod of 
Judgment,' its object being a vindication of 
the oral law. His next work was 'Aish 
Dath,' or 'The Fire of the Law '; and in the 
same year, 1715, Rabbi Joseph Irgas pub- 



lished * Touchachath Megoolah : an Open 

In 1771 Prof. Levysohn, who had been 
studying under the celebrated surgeon John 
Hunter, published his philosophical work 
'Maamar Hatourah W'hachochmar,' 'An 
Essay on the Law and Science,' his object 
being to inculcate that theology and science 
must go hand in hand. This work gave so 
much offence to his co-religionists that he 
left London and went to reside in Hamburg. 
It was he who discovered the use of 

In 1802, after several years had been passed 
without a Chief Rabbi, the German com- 
munities appointed Solomon Herschell. He 
occupied the position for forty years, and 
his influence was so great that during that 
period the Ashkenazim made rapid pro- 
gress, twenty-five charitable societies and 
institutions were formed, and in addition 
to these a new synagogue was founded 
in Brewer Street. At his death at the 
age of eighty - one a medal was struck 
in his honour. He was succeeded by Dr. 
Nathan Marcus Adler, who was appointed 
on the 12th of December, 1844; and on his 
death in 1890 he was succeeded by his 
son, the present Chief Rabbi. I am in- 
debted for many of the facts I have given 
to the Rev. Moses Margoliouth's interesting 
book 'The History of the Jews in Great 
Britain,' published by Bentley in 1851. Mr. 
Margoliouth's first work was, as is well 
known, 'A Pilgrimage to the Land of my 
Fathers ' I am glad to learn that a copy 
of the former book in the hands of his 
nephew, the Rev. G. W. Margoliouth, of 
the British Museum, contains many original 
notes by the author, so perhaps we may see 
a revised edition brought up to the present 
time. One has only to look over the pages of 
the ' London Catalogue ' and at the shelves of 
the London Library to see how few have been 
the books published on the Jews. The 
Whitechapel Free Public Library contains 
one of the most complete collections of 
books relating to the Jews, a separate 
catalogue being devoted to it. The most 
complete little manual of the Jewish religion 
is that by Friedlander, published by Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., 1891. In its 
pages can be found every particular con- 
cerning the Jewish faith. He is also the 
author of a small ' Text-Book ' adapted for 

* Jewish Portraits,' by Lady Magnus, pub- 
lished by Fisher Unwin, contains a beautiful 
sketch of that sweet singer " who solved the 
pathetic puzzle of how to sing the Lord's 

song in a strange land " Jehudah Halevi, 
physician and poet. 

"He 'entered the courts with gladness.' 'For 
Thy songs, God ! ' he cries, ' my heart is a harp ; 
and truly enough in some of these ancient Hebrew 
hymns... ..we seem to hearclearly the human strings 

The truest faith, the most living hope, the 

widest charity, are breathed forth in them ; 

and they have naturally been enshrined by 

his fellow-believers in the most sacred parts 

of their liturgy. The following three lines 

from the Atonement service Lady Magnus 

quotes as indicating the sentiment of Judaism: 

When I remove from Thee, O God, 

I die whilst I live ; but when 

I cleave to Thee, I live in death. 

The poet questions, 

Lord, where art Thou to be found ? 

Hidden and high is Thy home. 

And where shall we find Thee not ? 

Thy glory fills the world. 

Thou art found in my heart, 

And at the uttermost ends of the earth. 
A refuge for the near, 
For the far, a trust. 

The Jewish Historical Society is rendering 
useful work, arid thanks are due to it for the 
very interesting monograph just published 
by Macmillan on 'MenasSeh Ben Israel's 
Mission to Oliver Cromwell/ edited by 
Lucien Wolf. 

It has been left to America to gather into 
the compass of one work all that concerns 
the Hebrew people. The Funk & Wag- 
nails Company of New York have just pub- 
lished the first volume there are to be twelve 
in all of the 'Jewish Encyclopaedia,' edited 
by Isidore Singer, Ph.D. The work will be 
a complete history of the Hebrews from 
legendary times down to the present; each 
of the volumes will contain between seven 
and eight hundred pages. It is gratifying 
to know that six thousand subscribers have 
already been obtained. N. S. S. 

(To be continued.} 

"PITCHER." This is referred to by Prof. 
Skeat in both his dictionaries as a Languedoc 
word, yet the only forms he adduces are 
Northern French. I presume he has not yet 
met with the Southern forms, and he may 
therefore be interested in the following note 
from the third volume of the complete works 
of Dr.. Mila y Fontanals, Barcelona, 1890. 
The author is explaining a Provencal poem, 
dating from about 1419, in which is men- 
tioned a certain " pixer de fin argent," and 
he gives the cognate terms known to him as 
follows: "El pixer encuentrase tambien en 
valenciano (pitxer), en Catalan (pitxell\ en 

9* s. viii. A. 24, 19010 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


patois (pitcherro), tarnbien en ingles (pitcher) 
The nearness of these to the English will b 
better appreciated if I add that in Valencia 
and Catalan tx is pronounced as ch i 
"church." JAS. PLATT Jun. 

STUART RELIC. I have a pincushion whici 
was originally white satin. On this ar 
printed in blue letters, in circles on eithe 
side, the names of those executed in 1746. In 
the centre is a Tudor rose in outline, an<~ 
round this the words "MART. FOR: K: & cou 
1746:" I have never seen one like it, no 
have those persons to whom I have shown 
it; but I think such pincushions cannot be 
uncommon, since the words seem printed, anc 
if so, there must have been many others made 
The size is 3 in. by 2| in. IBAGUE. 

THOMAS NEWCOMB. The allusion to Thomas 
Newcomb, under * Hand-ruling in Old Title 
pages' (ante, p. 110), prompts me to say thai 
this worthy man is buried at Dunchurch 
Warwickshire. There is a monument to his 
memory on the north chancel wall, fittec 
with two marble doors for the better pre 
servation of the inscription, which runs as 
follows : 

" Here lieth Interr'd the body of Thomas New 
comb, Esq., a worthy Citizen of London and Servanl 
to his late Ma*' King Charles y e Second in his 
printing office, who departed this life y e 26 day o^ 
December, 1681, and in y e 55 year of his age. 

" In memory of whom his son Thomas Newcomb, 
Esq., Servant likewise to his late Ma** and to his 
present Majesty K. James y e 2 in y e same office 
erected this monument. 

" He likewise departed this life March 27, 1691, 
being Good Friday. '* 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 


The 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. xlvi. p. 206, 
seems to be hardly accurate in stating that 
this author and translator was "admitted to 
the Inner Temple in 1675." No one of his 
name was admitted there in that year ; but 
the books of the Inn show that a John 
Pottinger, of Inckpen, Berks, was admitted 
on 31 October, 1668, and that a John Potenger 
was called to the Bar on 28 November, 1675, 
and these entries doubtless refer to the 
subject of this note. Potenger was appointed 
Comptroller of the Pipe in the Exchequer 
Office on 7 February, 1676/7, and continued 
to hold that post until his death, his suc- 
cessor, Henry Fane, being appointed on 
8 February, 1733/4. The statements in the 
' Dictionary ' as to Potenger being a Master 
in Chancery seem to require further in- 
vestigation, for his name does not occur in 

the list of masters given by Duffus Hardy in 

his 'Catalogue of Lord Chancellors and 

Principal Officers of the High Court of 
Chancery' (1843). According to the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, vol. iv. p. 50, Potenger died 
on 13 January, 1733/4 ; but it seems that his 
death was certified to the Treasury as hap- 
pening on 18-19 December, 1733 (see 'Cal. 
of Treasury Books, 1731-4,' p. 659). His 
father, John Pottenger, D.D., who married 
Anne, daughter of William Wither, of Many- 
down, Hants, is apparently mentioned in the 
pedigree of Pottenger of Burghfield in the 
4 Visitation of Berkshire, 1664-6 ' (Metcalfe's 
edition, 1882, p. 77). The ' Dictionary ' might 
have referred at the foot of the life to 
Hutchins's 'Hist, of Dorset,' third edition, 
iv. 372; Fowler's 'Hist, of Corpus Christi 
College' (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1893), pp. 234-5; 
' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. viii. 53 ; Burke's ' Commoners ' 
(1838), iii. 621 ; iv. 352. See also Harl. Soc. 
Pub., viii. 200 ; xxiii. 280. H. C. 

(See 9 th S. ii. 403; vi. 364; viii. 12.) I have 
received a very kind letter from ME. MERTON 
DEY, in which he assures me there was no 
intentional discourtesy in his want of refer- 
ence to my note. I at once accept this dis- 
claimer, and ask MR. DEY'S forgiveness for 
having misjudged him. 


Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

'hange and Mart, dated Monday, 15 July, 
p. 153, contained the following : 

' Anything relating to or in any way connected 
with Shakespeare is of such universal interest that 
t is almost necessary to state that Mr. William 
Faggard, the compiler of the ten years' index to 
Book-Prices Current,' and a well-known Liverpool 
)ookseller, is a direct descendant of Isaac Jaggard, 
Shakespeare's printer. Isaac printed the first folio 
>f 1623 at his house in Fleet Street, subsequently a 
:offee-house, where the poet Cowper had a fit of 
nsanity possibly at the sight of his bill and in 
>ur time, indeed until quite recently, a restaurant, 
n a letter to the Glasgow Herald Mr. Jaggard says 
hat his ancestor was Shakespeare's first printer ; 
ut this seems to be a mistake. We do not know 
ow many of the quartos Jaggard printed, if indeed 
e printed any at all, and it is too hot to make 
nquiries ; but the first of them ' Titus Androni- 
us 'was printed by ' I. R. for Edward White,' in 
594, while ' Venus and Adonis,' which appeared 
tie year before, had one William Leake for its 
ponsor. But the folio of 1623 is Shakespeare's great 
nemorial in the matter of paper and print, and that 
VIr. Jaggard's family were associated with it is be- 
ond all question. Indeed, we regard that gentle- 
lan as possessing a transmitted antiquarian in- 
erest of the highest order. He is, in fact, a living 
hakespearean relic. And relics of Shakespeare 
re extremely scarce. Not a fragment of any one 


NOTES . AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL AUG. 24, 1901. 

of his manuscripts has come down to us, and it is 
remarkable that, with the exception of a few signa- 
tures and a line in the poet's will, not a single word 
in Shakespeare's handwriting is known to exist. 
Lady Barnard, his granddaughter, and the last of 
his lineal descendants, is said to have carried off a 
number of papers from Stratford, and possibly the 
tire at the Globe Theatre, in 1613, and the Great 
Fire of 1666, account for the loss of many more. 
The only real and authentic relics of Shakespeare 
that we know of consist of his jug and cane, which 
were sold at Christie's in June, 1893, for 155 guineas 
the two." 

It would be interesting to have further in- 
formation when it is not " too hot to make 
inquiries." H. J. B. 

' N. & Q.' : A MOTTO. While unwilling to 
displace the excellent motto already associated 
with * N. & Q.,' I think the following, which 
I chanced on in the almost obsolete pleasure 
of reading Ovid, apt enough to be worth a 
passing record : 

Srepe aliquod quaero verbum nomenque locum que : 
Nee quisquam est, a quo certior esse queam, 
' Tristia,' iii. 14, 43-4, 

which, with hope of a better version, I have 

the impertinence to render : 

I often want a word, a place, a name, 
And no one 's by to help me to the same. 


"WEEK END." The following paragraph, 
which appeared in the Athenaeum of 10 August, 
deserves a corner in ' N. & Q.' : 

"Our new contemporary the Week End and our 
biggest English dictionary may be interested to 
know that this brief holiday has got into serious 
history. No less an authority than Dr. S. R. Gar- 
diner notes in his ' Oliver Cromwell' that 'Oliver 
if he invented nothing else may be regarded as the 
inventor of that modified form of enjoyment to 
which hard-worked citizens have in our day given 
the name of the "week end."' He escaped from 
London to Hampton Court from Saturday to Mon- 

71, Brecknock Road. 

" PROVIDING " = PROVIDED. Of late years I 
have noticed a distinct increase in the above 
usage. In the Outlook for 4 May (for instance) 
it may be found in at least three places : 
"Providing always, as I have said before, 
That you paid the price " (p. 427, 'Ode to Mr. 
Pierpont Morgan ') ; " Cody agreed, providing 

that two gentlemen of his own kidney 

could be induced to act as 'pards' in 
the enterprise" (p. 440, 'Buffalo Bill'): 

Omniscience is a useful thing, providing 
always you do not go too far with it " (p. 442 
' Literary Gossip '). Speaking offhand, with- 
out referring to any book, I should say that 
the usage is a sign of illiteracy. Of course 

the old-fashioned " beholding " for "beholden" 
is not parallel. J. P. OWEN. 

nature-poets of the Victorian era, John Clare 
(1793-1864) is the most obscure and the least 
read to-day, yet it would seem that Heine 
was indebted to him for a gem-like thought. 
I have no access to the Jewish poet myself, 
but am relying upon the authority of Dr. 
Furness, who embodies Heine's words in a 
fine critical passage regarding the " origin- 
ality" of 'King Lear.' John Clare in his 
poem ' Insects ' sings : 
One almost fancies that such happy things, 
With coloured hoods and richly burnished wings, 
Are airy folk in splendid masquerade 
Disguised, as if of mortal folk afraid ; 
Keeping their joyous pranks a mystery still, 
Lest glaring day should do their secrets ill. 

It is too much to presume that the rustic 
poet can have borrowed from the author of 
the * Reisebilder.' Perhaps some lover of 
Heine will favour us with the exact wording, 
to enable us to compare at first hand. 


Bute died in October, 1900, it was found that 
he had expressed in his will a desire that his 
heart should be buried on the Mount of Olives, 
which was done, and the following inscrip- 
tion is now placed in the " Dominus flevit " 
chapel near the spot : 

Pax . esto . seterna 

AriimaB pientissimse 

Joannis . Patricii . Crichton . Stuart 

Marchionis III. de Bute 

In Scotia 

VII . Idus . Octobres 

Anno . Dni. MDCCCC 

Mortem in Christo Obeuntis 

Cujus Cor 

In Terram Sanctam 

Suprema Testament! Cautione 

Guendolina Conjux 

In Horto 
Huic Dominus Flevit JSdiculae 


Quatuor Adsistentibus Filiis 

Idibus Npvembris eodem anno 

Propriis religiose manibus 


The inscription was composed by Dom 
Oswald Hunter Blair, O.S.B. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

CHALICE AS RACE CUP. Perhaps the follow- 
ing from the Globe of 2 August may be worth 
recording in ' N. & Q.' : 

" That a chalice should, in the course of a che- 
quered career, figure as a prize in a horse race is a 
strange fate indeed; but such has been the ex- 

9*s. vni. AUG. 24, HOI.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


perience of a chalice of solid silver, which has once 
more returned to its place in Clontarf Church. The 
cup, a very handsome one, richly embossed and 
believed to be of Dutch or Hanoverian workman- 
ship, was given to the church in 1721. It dis- 
appeared in the early part of last century, and 
quite recently it was found in the possession of a 
gentleman, in whose family it had oeen for many 
years. From an inscription on the bottom of the 
chalice, it is evident it was presented as a prize at 
the Cheltenham Races in 1833." 


" MEETING." This word has been for some 
time acclimatized on the Continent, and we 
find it in newspapers where we should have 
expected assemblee, Versammlung, or riunione. 
It is usually written as in English, but I 
observe that the Heraldo de Madrid adopts 
the defective transliteration mitin. 


Brixton Hill. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

PORTRAIT BY DIGHTON. Can any of your 
readers help me to identify the subject of 
a water-colour portrait signed R. Dighton, 
Charing Cross, 1805? It represents a tall, 
elderly man standing, leaning slightly on a 
cane ; he wears a scarlet tunic, with blue 
collar and cuffs, silver epaulettes, silver lace 
" frogs " on the tunic, and silver lace on collar 
and cuffs, a silver lace sash round his waist, 
white leather breeches, jack boots, silver 
spurs, large black cocked hat with a red 
and white ornament like a shaving brush, 
and curved sword. Might this be the "Wind- 
sor uniform " or a colonel of militia's of that 
date? H. 

SAMUEL RICHARDSON. Any information 
relating to the exact date of birth and name 
of place (in Derbyshire) in which the famous 
printer-novelist was born will be gratefully 
received. R. N. WHITE. 

your correspondents tell me whence are 
derived the arms of Richmond, Surrey, Per 
fesse azure and gules, a fesse ermine charged 
with three roses gules (or Tudor roses ; I am 
not certain which) ? The town was restored 
and renamed in 1499 by Henry VII., styled 
Earl of Richmond prior to his accession 
to the throne. I therefore presume that 
its arms were intended to commemorate 
( its royal benefactor, and that, since the 

Dearing of the Earls of Richmond, Gules, an 
orle argent, over all a bend ermine, had pre- 
viously been adopted by the older town of 
Richmond in Yorkshire, it was considered 
necessary to difference the arms of the Surrey 
bown by the tincture azure and the substitu- 
tion of the ermine in fesse for the ermine in 
bend. B. C. 

POPE AND ARBUTHNOT. I have a little calf- 
covered volume entitled 'The Works of Mr. 
Alexander Pope,' dated London, 1720, with 
an excellent portrait by Coster of the poet, 
in long flowing wig, presumably as he ap- 
peared at the time, in his thirty-second 
year. Inside the cover has been written : 
"John Arbuthnot 
B'atRott 2/5." 

I should much like to know if there is any 
means of finding out whether this is the 
autograph of Pope's friend, the celebrated 
wit and physician. There are also auto- 
graphs of later owners, " Rob fc Arbuthnot " 
and "Rob fc Arbuthnot, Jun r ," showing that 
the volume was valued by the family. 


SCOTT QUOTATION. Where is to be found 
" the old song " quoted by Hob Happer, the 
miller, in chap. xiii. of ' The Monastery ' ? 
I live by my mill, God bless her ! 
She 's parent, child, and wife. 

Hob says : " The poor old slut [that is, the 
mill], I am beholden to her for my living, and 
bound to stand by her, as I say to my mill- 
knaves, in right and in wrong." Would not the 
miller have sympathized with Maitre Cornille 
in his touching devotion to his mill in 
Alphonse Daudet's story in his charming 
* Lettres de mon Moulin ' 1 


* EROS ' AND ' ANTEROS.' I should be glad if 
one of your readers could kindly tell me 
the title and author of a book of which I 
possess only a few pages. It appears to be 
divided into two sections, entitled * Eros ' and 
'Anteros.' It is a tale of the time of the 
Roman emperors. The principal characters 
appear to be Esca, a British slave ; Valeria, a 
noble Roman lady ; and Mariamne, a young 
girl with whom Esca is in love. F. G. R. 

:On 6 November, 1879, the Rev. R. Bellis 
read a paper before the Royal Archaeological 
Institute on the mural paintings at St. 
Clement's Church, Jersey. I cannot find 
that the paper was printed in their Journal. 
Was it printed separately, or in the Trans- 
actions of any Channel Islands society? 


NOTES. AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 24, 1001. 

Where can I find any illustrated account of 
these paintings 1 . 


one kindly tell me whether the W in 
Wilhelmine should be pronounced as V 
believe it is so in Wilhelm. GERMAN. 

Tunbridge Wells. 

[English and German pronunciations are distinct, 
and one has as much claim to recognition as the 

What is the origin of this phrase, which 
regularly turns up in the cricket reports 1 
Is it classic? It is not alliterative, as in 
"glorious Goodwood"; and why is uncer- 
tainty "glorious"? Attractive certainly, 
but "glorious" seems to be transferred by 
a confusion of thought from the winning of 
an unexpected victory to the "uncertainty" 
which it implies. V. R- 

In looking through a burial register at 
St. George's in the Borough, South wark, I 
noticed after some of the names abbreviations 
which I should be glad to have interpreted. 
I give a few examples : 

1668, April. John Fox, M.S. 

1668, August 29th. Wm. Hatter, F.M.A. 

1668/9, February 3rd. John Lambert, P. M.S. 

1668/9, February loth. Matt. Draper, M.S. P., 

1669/70, February 17th. John Loyd, M.S.P. at y e 
Lock, m.w. (?). 

1670, September 6th. Sarah Jackson, K.B. at y e 

1670, September 9th. Sarah Whiteing, widd. 

1670/71, February 2nd. Thos. Cade, K.B. 
1670/71, March 12th. Joyce Whiteing, from the 

1670/71, March 27th. Wm. Harris, P. K.B. 

1671, May llth. Wm. Humphries, D.A.H. 

No doubt prisoners of the King's Bench and 
Marshalsea were referred to in most of these 

1670/71. John Roades, a prisoner of Capt. Saunders. 
Was the latter an official connected with 
either of the afore-mentioned prisons ? The 
letter C after some names I guessed to mean 
that they were interred in the church or 
crypt, and not in the yard. Several persons, 
men and women, were described as " Pen- 
sioner." Would these be recipients of some 
local charity 1 

The parish clerk, Miss E. C. Cross, was 
unable to throw light on these points, 
though she entertained me with some inter- 
esting parochial reminiscences, having been 

born opposite the Marshalsea Prison "a 
nice building with a forecourt "and hard by 
the King's Bench, over whose high wall, to 
her delight as a child, small white leather- 
covered balls would sometimes be thrown by 
the prisoners at their " merry play." Indeed, 
she had penetrated its inner mysteries, as a 
visitor, and had submitted to the regulation 

a precaution against exchange of dress 

with prisoners of having her veil lifted and 
her features exposed to a strong light with 

In conclusion, may I ask whether there are 
extant any lists of inmates and officials of 
the King's Bench Prison at about the period 
covered by my extracts 1 


making county of Devon the manufacture of 
hand-made lace was, I suppose, more com- 
monly the custom before machinery was so 
much used. I have now before me some of 
the little sticks used in making the lace, of a 
rather curious appearance. I believe it was 
the custom to give them as presents. They 
vary a little in thickness, but otherwise are 
much alike in form. What renders them 
curious is that they are most elaborately orna- 
mented. On the surface there is a series 
of extremely minute carvings, and the inter- 
stices are apparently closed by being filled 
up with sealing-wax, black and red. Some 
have trees or flowers upon them ; one, a fish ; 
one, "Pride is the downfall of thousands"; 
one, " When this you see remember me." 
And this sort of ornamentation would appear 
to have existed for at least two hundred 
years, for the date of one is 1702 ; others are 
1801, 1816, and 1823. Can you or your 
readers say whether this ornamental work 
was the practice in other places ? It must 
have cost much time and labour. The sticks 
1 have were found in a house at Lympstone 
near here, in a drawer where they had 
reposed for many years. 


Southtown House, Kenton, near Exeter. 

ago educated people (the late Prof. Buskin 
for one) used to speak of Marlborough House 
and the Duke of Marlborough with the first 
syllable so uttered as to rime with our 
present pronunciation of parl in the word 
Parliament. I now hear fine people pro- 
nouncing it J/0rborough, almost exactly, as 
to the first syllable, riming with hall, tall, 
&c. Which is right, and why? When the 
French sang of Malbrouck, we may feel 
pretty sure that their word, so spelt, copied 

9* s. vm. AUG. 24, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


pretty faithfully the sound of the name of 
the British commander as they then heard it. 
Malbrouck then is an English fossil found in 
France. If the French, even in these later 
days, sound Mai to rime with our Christian 
name Sal (short for Sally), we may opine 
that they did not give any deeper sound to 
the syllable in the older times, and thus Mal- 
brouck seems to prove that the Morlborough 
sound of to-day is not right, but wrong. 


"JACK AMONG THE MAIDENS." In chap. xvi. 
of ever-delightful 'Eothen' Kinglake de- 
scribes how Dthemetri, his servant, was 
distracted by the temptations of an unoccu- 
pied shrine : " There were so many stones 
absolutely requiring to be kissed, that he 
rushed about happily puzzled and sweetly 
teased, like ' Jack among the maidens.' " I 
presume this refers to some game like kiss- 
in-the-ring ; but is the name local in the 
West Country, and still in use 1 


the burning of this man, with others, at 
Smithfield in July, 1558. I shall be glad to 
know if the notes of the trials of these people 
are in existence. I have searched various 
records in London. Perhaps some one will 
suggest likely papers and places. 



JACOBITE LETTER. I should be very glad 
of any information as to the writer, addressee, 
circumstances, &c., of the following Jaco- 
bite letter (original among Southwell MSS., 
R.I.A., Dublin) : 

D r S r , I have not neglected any thing as you 
see by the Inclosed, as alsoe Expect a great Relief 
from the Army for there is 1500 Coming from loghrea 
under the comd. of my Ld Dunsany & 9000 more 
longbarrow rode under the comd. of O'Donnell the 
treu [?] Earl of Tyrconnell. S r [or L d ] Anthony was 
heere just now. I have this day sent to Majr. Genl. 
Sarsfield as I promisd. This is all from v ra . 

Augst. ye 7 & 90 [or 91]. 

For Cap n Redmond [illeg.] ye these. 


Hampden Club, Phoenix Street, N.W. 

HUGUENOT. In a recent issue I notice one 
of your correspondents says he has found 
Huguenot and Huguenotte were diminutives 
in fifteenth-century French for Hugues, and 
he proposes to derive the name of Huguenot 
from some leader Hugues, otherwise unknown. 
Is it impossible that Hugues may simply be a 
corruption of John Huss, and that Huguenot 
may after all be nothing but a corruption of 

Hussite? Littre, of course, gives Pascal 
Huguenot, of Saint Julien, in Limousin, as a 
Doctor of Canon Law in 1387, in support of 
Mahn's conjecture that Huguenot is a qiminu- 
tive of Hugues, "a heretic otherwise un- 
known " ; but is not Hugues very near Huss 
in date and sound? Hence the German 
associations clinging to the word. R. H. 

tell me of what family were the Russells 
whose names appear so constantly in the 
parish registers or Aylesbury from 1577, when 
a Humphrey Russell was married, till 1652, 
when Michael Russell was buried? The 
name continues to appear there occasionally 
till 1661, when it ceases altogether. In 1619, 
1621, and 1622 the name Swingfeld and 
Swinkefill Russell appears, which, I take it, 
should be Wingfield. In the Civil War these 
Russells evidently sided with the Parliament, 
as in 1651 Richard and Michael Russell are 
amongst the names of the inhabitants of 
Aylesbury who signed the petition to Par- 
liament for a reward to Thomas Scot and 
Richard Salwey for having brought the par- 
ticulars of the victory at Worcester. Francis 
Russell, of Aylesbury, was justice of the 
peace in 1655. CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 


Fox FAMILY OF BRISTOL." Anthony Fox, 
of this par., bach., and Mary Rice, of 
St. James, Bristol, spin.," were married 
2 October, 1770, at the Abbey Church of 
Bath. I know their subsequent history, but 
want particulars of their parentage, &c. He, 
who is said to have come from Bristol, died 
in July, 1822, aged seventy-five, and his wife 
in November, 1820, aged seventy-two. 


Park Corner, Blundellsands, Liverpool. 

PAINTER'S NAME WANTED. Can any reader 
name the painter who (in 1728 A.D.) signed 
his works with the initials P. C. F. A. ? One 
familiar with the Brescia branch of the 
Venetian School might know if Peter Avo- 
gardi used those letters. A reply would 
greatly oblige. L. E. DAVIES. 

43, St. George's Avenue, Tufnell Park, N. 

reader of 'N. & Q.' give me information as 
to when and where Charles Speke Pulteney 
died ? He was a doctor of Sherborne, Dorset. 
He married in 1772 at Yeovil, and one child 
was born of the marriage. His brother, 
Daniel Pulteney, by his will (proved P.C.C., 
20 August, 1811) described himself as Fellow 
and Vice-Provost of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, and referred to " having never heard 


NOTES . AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 24, MOI. 

any account of or from a brother whose name 
was Charles Speke Pulteney since the year 
1780 or thereabouts." Application has been 
made to the College of Surgeons, but they 
cannot trace anything relative to Charles 
Speke Pulteney, and I have no knowledge as 
to where he went abroad. 

17, Middle Lane, Crouch End. 

(9 th S. viii. 60, 85, 125.) 

I PROCEED to examine the " revised " 
chronology of the letters in what the Quarterly 
critic of October, 1900 good, easy man ! is 
pleased to term " Canon Ainger's really satis- 
factory and practically final edition of Lamb." 
Canon Ainger's design, both in 1888 and 1900, 
has been, he tells us, to print the letters, so 
far as their dates are discoverable, in chrono- 
logical order an undertaking of no great 
difficulty, provided one possesses an average 
intelligence, a habit of attention, and some 
little knowledge of the history of Lamb's 
chief correspondents. But just here in this 
last qualification it is that Canon Ainger 
appears to be wanting. He seems, in fact, to 
have no exact knowledge of the " doings and 
done-untos" even of Coleridge, Southey, or 
Wordsworth, his references to whom are 
vague and not seldom inaccurate. Hence he is 
unable fitly to utilize the internal evidence of 
date, in which so many of these letters abound. 

1. Take, for instance, the letter to Coleridge 
which Canon Ainger, following all former 
editors, marks "No date end of 1800." Now, 
in the first place, this description is untrue ; 
the letter is fully dated, though the date is 
cryptic. Rallying Coleridge on his lofty 
dismissal of his literary worshippers as "mere 
shadows,"* Lamb concludes his letter thus, 
" Farewell, dear Substance. Take no umbrage 
at anything I have written. C. LAMB, 
Umbra " Then comes the date, " Land of 
Shadows. Shadow Month the 16th or 17th, 
1800." The contents of the letter prove that 
by " Shadow Month " here we are to under- 
stand April. The date of the letter then is 

* Coleridge was apt to repeat himself some- 
times after a long interval. On 25 January, 1808 
e ' wr , lte ? * Ma , r y Morgan and Charlotte Brent : 

Of the lady and her poetical daughter I had never 
before heard even the name. Oh these are shadows ! 
and all my literary admirers and flatterers pass 
over my heart as the images of clouds over [a] dull 
sea. bo far from being retained, they are scarcely 
made visible there. "-'Letters of S. T. C.,' 1895 
p. 526. 

16 or 17 April, 1800, and its proper place in 
the series is on p. 178, vol. i. just before 
No. Ivii. instead of at the end of the letters 
of 1800, on p. 12, vol. ii., ed. 1900, where it 
stands at present. 

How do we know this 1 ? The letter was 
addressed to Grasmere (see the reference to 
it in letter Ixix., vol. i. p. 206, ed. 1900) along 
with a MS. copy of Lamb's play, which, writes 
Lamb to Coleridge, " I beg you to present in 
my name, with my respect and love, to 
Wordsworth and his sister." Presently he 
adds, " Our loves and respects to your host 
and hostess. Our dearest love to Coleridge." 
There are no loves to Mrs. Coleridge or Hart- 
ley, but lower down Lamb writes, "Pray 
send us word of Mrs. C. and little David Hart- 
ley, your little reality." Coleridge then was 
staying, without wife or child, in the Words- 
worths' cottage at Grasmere. This circum- 
stance alone suffices to identify the visit as 
that which Coleridge, having first dispatched 
Mrs. Coleridge and Hartley to the Roskillys', 
Kempsford Rectory, in Gloucestershire to 
remain there a month and then proceed to 
Bristol himself started from London on 
1 April to pay his friends at Dove Cottage. 
If corroboration be wanted we find it in 
abundance. Lamb writes : 

" Take no thought about your proof-sheets. They 

shall be done as if Woodfall himself did them 

Write your German as plain as sunshine, for that 
must correct itself. You know I am homo unius 
linguae, : in English illiterate, a dunce, a ninny." 

(A little sample, this last, of Robert Burton, 
on whom, in April, 1800, Lamb's thoughts 
were running.) The reference here is to the 
translation of Schiller's * Wallenstein,' on 
which Coleridge was engaged during his visit 
to the Wordsworths, which was printed by 
G. Woodfall, 22, Paternoster Row, and pub- 
lished by Longmans (two parts in one) on 
7 June, 1800. Fragments of German are 
cited in several of the notes (see part i. 
pp. 24, 74, 88, 96, &c.). On 21 April Coleridge 
writes from Grasmere to Josiah Wedgwood : 
" To-morrow I send off the last sheet of my 

translation of Schiller." On 4 May he 

left Grasmere to rejoin his wife and son at 
Bristol. All which proves conclusively that 
the letter before us must have been written 
in April, 1800. The copy of ' John Woodvil ' 
which accompanied it as a gift to the Words- 
worths (see the reference in Dorothy's 
Journal under 4 October, 1800) was, I repeat, 
a MS. copy. The play was not published 
until January, 1802, though Canon Ainger, 
with persistent error, still gives the date of 
publication as 1801 (note on Burton frag- 
ments, 'Poems, Plays,' &c,, ed. 1900, vol. iii). 

9* s. vm. AUG. 24, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


2. Again, take the long but incomplete 
letter to Manning numbered xcviii. and dated 
" February, 1803," in ed. 1888, as in all former 
editions. This belongs, in fact, to February, 
1802, and one is glad to find it correctly dated 
and placed (ci.) in the edition de luxe, 1900. 
Here, however, the editor has failed to discern 
that ci. and the preceding fragment dated 
15 February, 1802 (Nos. xcviii. and Ixxxvii. 
of ed. 1888), are in truth parts of one and 
the same letter ci. being the earlier and c. 
the latter portion. In ci. Lamb writes, " In 
all this time" i.e., since Manning's departure 
to Paris at the close of 1801 "I have done 
but one thing which I reckon tolerable, and 

that I will transcribe You will find it on 

my last page. It absurdly is a first Number 
of a series thus" viz., through Lamb's retire- 
ment from the Morning Post, already com- 
municated to Manning in this letter 
"strangled in embryo." Some chat follows 
about "the Professor's Rib" (Mrs. Godwin) 
and here No. c. begins about Lamb's play ; 
then Lamb proceeds, " I will now transcribe 
the Londoner (No. I.), and wind up all with 
affection and humble servant at the end." 
There can be no doubt whatsoever that what 
is described in ci. as the " first Number of a 
series strangled in embryo " is no other than 
"the Londoner (No. I.)" of letter c. The 
essay which appeared under this heading in 
the Morning Post of 1 February, 1802, was 
never followed up, the series being abruptly 
broken off owing to the fact that Lamb just 
at this date threw up his engagement with 
Dan Stuart, the editor of that journal. 

3. Oddly enough, while he has detected the 
year's error in the received date of ci., Canon 
Ainger has failed to perceive a precisely 
similar error in the dating of cxv., ed. 1900 
(cii., ed. 1888). This letter, which was written 
on St. George's Day, Canon Ainger in com- 
mon with all the editors assigns to the year 
1803 ; it belongs in truth to 1802, as the fol- 
lowing extracts from the contents serve to 
show. "I find nothing new," i.e., no news 
to tell. "Something [however] I will say 
about people that you and I know. Southey 
is Secretary to the Chancellor of the Irish 
Exchequer." Now Southey was appointed 
in the summer of 1801, and by July, 1802, he 
had resigned. "Stoddart is turned Doctor 
of Civil Law, and dwells in Doctors' Com- 
mons." John Stoddart became D.C.L. and 
was admitted to the College of Advocates late 
in 1801. To Manning at Paris this intelli- 
gence might be fresh in April, 1802, but the 
news would be stale indeed by April, 1803. 

The Professor has not done making love to 
his new spouse." Now the " Bad Baby " (Mrs. 

Godwin No. 2) was but a four months' bride 
in April, 1802, but she could not be fitly de- 
scribed as a "new spouse" a twelvemonth 

later. "I send you an epitaph I scribbled 

upon a poor girl [Mary Druitt] who died 

at nineteen being the only piece of poetry I 

have done since the Muses all went with T. M. 
[Thomas Manning] to Paris " (i.e., since the 
end of December, 1801). Now, in an unpub- 
lished letter to Rickman Lamb encloses an 
alternative epitaph on Mary Druitt. So Canon 
Ainger himself informs us in a note on No. 
cxv. ; and he adds that the date of the letter 
to Rickman was 1 February, 1802. Yet he 
assigns the letter to Manning (cxv.) to April, 
1803! Well, well! no doubt the Quarterly 
critic will murmur " Credo quia impossible, 
and bow the head in meek assent. 

4. The critic of Canon Ainger's chronology 
is embarrassed with the wealth of material 
at his hand. The foregoing examples have 
been taken at random out of a large number 
of misdated letters in his recent "revised" 
Edition de luxe. One more shall be added, as 
it furnishes an amusing illustration of the 
editor's inveterate wrongheadedness in the 
matter of dates. Canon Ainger and Mr. 
W. C. Hazlitt have for years past been bog- 
gling and bickering over the dates of the 
three letters to Cottle, numbered respectively 
cxcvii., cxcviii., and cxcix. in ed. 1900, and 
clxxvii., clxxviii., and clxxix. in ed. 1888. 
(See 'The Lambs: their Lives,' &c., by W. C. 
Hazlitt, 1897, pp. 102-105.) In 1888 Canon 
Ainger originated the comical blunder of 
affixing to the third of these letters the date 
5 November, 1819 which appears in the 
autograph MS. of the first. This blunder 
has been corrected in the Edition de luxe ; but 
in setting it to rights the indefatigable 
editor has ingeniously evolved yet another 
bungle : he has dated the third letter ' close 
of the year 1819." Now it happens that of 
the three letters this alone contains internal 
evidence of date ; and that evidence proves 
letter cxcix. to have been written in May or 
early June, 1820 Lamb writes, "Southey is 
in town, whom I have seen slightly ; Words- 
worth expected, whom I hope to see much 
of." Southey, who had stayed at home in 
Keswick during November and December, 
1819, arrived in town on May Day, 1820. In 
May, too, Wordsworth left home for London 
on his way abroad. He came up by Oxford, 
where he composed the two well-known sonnets 
Ye Sacred Nurseries ' and ' Shame on this 
Faithless Heart ! ' on 30 May, and arrived in 
town early in June to attend the wedding of 
bis wife's cousin Thomas Monkhouse. Thus 
Lamb's letter cannot have been written 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. AUG. 24, 1901. 

before 1 May, or later than the very beginning 
of June, 1820. Let Canon Ainger " cudgel 
his brains no more about it," &c., but take 
his pen and mark these three letters to Cottle 
"Nov. 5, 1819," "1819, later," and "Mayor 
early June, 1820," respectively. 

That the reader may form some notion how 
far the editorial blunderings in the ' Letters ' 
of 1900 extend, I now append a list of the 
documents in their true order, dated as 
exactly as possible, from October, 1798, to 
the close of 1800. The asterisks mean wrong 
dates in the " revised " edition of 1900. 
Edition de Luxe Edition of 

(1900). 1888. Date. 

- Oct., 1798 










xlviii. * 





































Oct., 1798 
xxxv. 29 Oct., 1798 

xxxvi. 3 Nov., 1798 

xxxvii. 8 Nov., 1798 

13 Nov., 1798 

20 Nov., 1798 

xliii. c. 20 Nov., 1798 

xxxviii. 28 Nov., 1798 

xxxix. 27 Dec., 1798 

xl. 21 Jan., 1799 

xliv. c. 31 Jan., 1799 

xli. 15 March, 1799 

xlii. 20 March, 1799 

After 13 April, 1799 

Sept., 1799 

xlv. 31 Oct., 1799 

xlvii. Dec., 1799 

xlvi. 28 Dec., 1799 

xlviii. 23 Jan., 1800 

liii. 13 Feb., 1800 

xlix. 1 March, 1800 

1- 17 March, 1800 

Jxiv. c . 5 April, 1800 

Ixxvi. 16 or 17 April, 1800 

li. 12 May, 1800 

17 May, 1800 
hi. End of May, 1800 

2 July, 1800 

*?" July (early), 1800 
Jiv". Prob. 22 July, 1800 
l v - 6 Aug., 1800 

Jviii. c. 7 Aug., 1800 
J 1X - 11 Aug., 1800 
} x : 14 Aug., 1800 
lvi - c. 14 Aug., 1800 
J vn - c. 16 Aug., 1800 
Ixi. 22 Aug., 1800 

Prob. autumn, 1800 
26 Aug., 1800 

9 Oct., 1800 
13 Oct., 1800 
16 Oct., 1800 

3 Nov., 1800 
28 Nov., 1800 

4 Dec., 1800 

10 Dec., 1800 

13 Dec., 1800 

14 Dec., 1800 
16 Dec., 1800 

(postscript) Dec. 19, 1800 
27 Dec., 1800 


SWEENY TODD (9 th S. vii. 508 ; viii. 131). 
As there seems some interest in " the demon 
barber," I will just mention that in the year 
1859 I well remember going with my old 
college friend Walter Besant, who was to 
become so famous, to a performance called 
' The String of Pearls ; or, the Barber Fiend 
of Fleet Street.' I forget whether the theatre 
at which it was played was the Standard in 
Shoreditch or the Britannia, Hoxton ; but I 
think, it was the Britannia. Certainly our 
blood was curdled, steteruntque comce. 


The hideous story has been frequently 
revived. I have known it since 1840, and 
once saw it acted as a drama at a " penny 
gaff" at Hoxton. Its latest appearance in 
print was in the new series of the London 
Journal, 1899, vols. xxxi. xxxii., one of the 
special ' Tales of Mystery,' and entitled * The 
String of Pearls,' the second name of the 
dramatic version. It ended in No. 826, 
14 October, 1899. J. W. EBSWORTH. 

The Priory, Ashford, Kent. 

Besides the ' Sweeney Todd ' drama by F. 
Hazel ton of 1850 there was one by George 
Dibdin Pitt, produced at the Britannia Theatre 
in 1842, called 'Sweeney Todd, the Barber of 
Fleet-Street ; or, the String of Pearls, a Legend- 
ary Drama in Two Acts.' I do not think G. A. 
Sala wrote the story. I fancy it was from 
the pen of a man named Savage, who was 
responsible for ' Charley Wag,' * The Woman 
with the Yellow Hair,' and other abomina- 
tions of the same class. I do not think George 
Augustus Sala ever " prostituted " his abilities 
at any time. He wrote for Bow Bells and 
Dicks, but Dicks did not publish anything 
of such a low class as the works I have 
mentioned. S. J. A. F. 

KIPLING STORIES (9 th S. vii. 488). I gladly 
answer MR. ELLIOT STOCK in regard to two 
of the five stories. The silly illustrated trifle 
entitled ' The Legs of Sister Ursula ' appeared 
in the earlier sixpenny series of the Idler. 
(I have mislaid my copy, but it was before 
August, 1895, when the new series began, 
edited by Jerome K. Jerome.) In another 
number, at nearly the same time, was pub- 
lished the railway story of 'A Sunday Holiday,' 
which is perhaps the worst that Kipling ever 
wrote, quite unworthy of its reappearance in 
in ' The Day's Work ' volume. ' The Lament- 
able Comedy of Willow Wood ' has not been 
republished. It fills twelve large octavo pages 
of the Fortnightly Review, pp. 670-81, May, 
1890. There are many other of Kipling's stories 
that well deserve to reappear, such as ' The 

9'" s. vm. AUG. 24, i9oi.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Enlightenment of Pagett, M.P.,' from the Con- 
temporary Review, September, 1890, a worthy 
successor in prose to the spirited poem of 
'Pagett, M.P.,' of 'Departmental Ditties,' 
p. 60, fourth edition, Calcutta, 1890 ; also 
' Mrs. Hauksbee Sits Out,' which adorned the 
Christmas number of the Illustrated London 

The Priory, Ashford, Kent. 

FAMILY LIKENESS (9 th S. viii. 62). That 
family likeness endures for centuries is 
indisputable. It was well known to visitors 
at Powderham Castle that the likeness of 
one of the Courtenay family to the portrait 
of Edward Courtenay (who preferred the 
Princess Elizabeth to Queen Mary, her sister, 
and died at Padua) was so strong that, but 
for its age, it, the portrait, might be of either 
man, and I can testify to the fact. 

JULIA R. BOCKETT explains (1 st S. i. 102) how 
John Northcote won the manor of Kenner- 
leigh from his cousin german Thomas 
Dowrish, and H. H. Drake (editor of the 
* Hundred of Blackheath '), who by descent 
represents Dowrish (Sir J. Maclean, 'Deanery 
of Trigg'), relates that, in travelling to Exeter, 
he fell in with a gentleman farmer (living 
near Kennerleigh and knowing the story) 
who noticed his likeness to Sir Stafford 
Northcote, afterwards Lord Iddesleigh, the 
owner of Kennerleigh. 

On handing a receipt for money, a shop- 
keeper in Tottenham Court Road said to 
Mr. Drake: "Excuse me, sir, but all the 
time you have been in the shop I was struck 
by your likeness to Lord Iddesleigh, and 
the more 1 looked at you the stronger the 
impression grew." 

Soon after Lord Iddesleigh's death Mr. 
Drake, on returning some books at the 
British Museum Reading-Room, was thus 
accosted by Mr. Grote (attached to the MS. 
department) : "You gave me such a shock 
this morning that I have hardly got over it," 
and he explained : "On entering the room you 
stood motionless inside the door for a minute, 
and my blood curdled, for I thought 1 saw 
the ghost of Lord Iddesleigh." 

To account for it, in the first place a 
Dowrish and a Northcote married sisters, 
coheiresses, descended from Helion the 
Norman, who held in Devon, and Upton 
Helion came to Dowrish in purparty (Risdon) 
The gamblers aforesaid were cousins, John 
Northcote being the son of Elizabeth (aunt 
of Thomas) Dowrish. Again, Lewis, the son 
of Thomas Dowrish, married Anne Davey, 
daughter of Katherine, the sister of John 

It would be in the interest of science if your 
readers would note such peculiarities. Mr. 
Drake himself detects a very slight resem- 
blance, but all do not see alike. He remarks, 
n his introduction to 'Blackheath,' that the 
countenance being the index of the mind, in 
transmitting the one we transmit the other. 


King Louis I. of Bavaria was an extremely 
ugly old man at seventy-six, and, according 

his portraits taken in early life, had never 

n even passably well looking. His son 
and successor Maximilian had not the re- 
motest resemblance to him, but his grandson 
Louis II., while being a very handsome man 
at twenty-five, had the most wonderful like- 
ness to his ugly grandfather and no resem- 
blance whatever to his own father, and at 
the time of his death he was, like the Emperor 
Frederick, one of the finest-looking men in 

Showing a miniature of his great-grand- 
mother to a cousin, I said to him, " Did you 
ever see any one like that?" "Why," he 
replied, " the face is absolutely that of Cecil " 
(his fourth son). K. J. J. 

" GALLOGLASS" (9 th S. vii. 506). Is there any 
suggestion as to the origin of this word, and 
of the connotation of Scottici, in the following 
quotation from p. 137 of 'The Chronicles 
of the Picts and Scots,' published by H.M. 
Treasury in 1867 1 Tract 17, anno 1165 (MS. 
Coll. Bib. Imp., Paris, 4126), there given, 
describing the seven kingdoms of Alban, 
states, " Septuum regnum erat Arregaithil 
(Argyle). Arregathel dicitur quasi margo 
Scottorum generaliter Gattheli dicuntur a 
quodam eorum primevo duce Gsethelglas 
vocato." This same Dux Gsethelglas or 
Gaedhel Glass, which is elsewhere given 
as his name (and of which Galloglass is no 
untoward rendering, the dh being silent), is 
said by Skene, in his ' Celtic Scotland,' vol. i. 
p. 179, to have been the eponymus of the 
Gaelic race. J. L. ANDERSON. 


CREST AND MOTTO (9 th S. viii. 104). The 
motto is that of Lord Somers. See ' Classical 
and Foreign Quotations.' The present baron, 
who is a minor, is connected with the Somer- 
sets in that Lady Henry Somerset, the 
temperance advocate, is the eldest daughter 
of the last Earl Somers (' Who 's Who '). 


461 ; viii. 72). A very beautiful translation of 
this into Latin appeared in the Church of 
Ireland Gazette recently, published by Messrs. 


NOTES. AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 24, 1901. 

Charles, Middle Abbey Street, Dublin. The 
original poem in a letter by Mr. Wolfe to a 
friend is framed and glazed in the library of 
the Royal Irish Academy, Dawson Street, 
Dublin. F. R. DAVIES, M.R.I.A. 

Hawthorn, Black Rock. 

RURAL DEANERIES (9 th S. viii. 64, 115). 
MR. HUSSEY will probably find a portion of 
what he seeks in William Dansey's ' Horse 
Decant Rurales,' 2 vols. 4to, 1835. A second 
edition was issued in 1844. 


" SELFODE " (9 th S. vii. 89). The latter part 
of the word is O.H.G. uodil, Icel. 6dhal, allo- 
dial, or udal property, explained by Jamie- 
son s.v. 'Udal,' practically freehold. Cf. 
late Lat. allodium, Fr. allieu. H. P. L. 

" SAWNEY " (9 th S. vii. 447 ; viii. 68). There 
is a transferred meaning of this word that is 
worth recording. If a minder in a cotton 
mill have four or five hundred "ends" or 
threads broken through the chance interven- 
tion of an obstacle when the carriage is on 
the outward run, or through the sudden 
breaking of a band, he is said to "have a 
sawney." Incompetence is suggested in the 
use of the expression ; but this feature is 
also noticeable, that when a " sawney " occurs 
the lineality of the carriage has been sud- 
denly lost. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

KYRIE ELEISON (9 th S. vii. 505). The in- 
teresting topic of survival of Greek words in 
Latin offices was dealt with by Bishop Forbes, 
of Brechin, in an essay 'On Greek Rites in 
the West.' See 'The Church and the World,' 
Longmans, 1867. RICHARD H. THORNTON. 

Portland, Oregon. 

PALL MALL (9 th S. viii. 14). 

" Le Mail [de Tours, 1722] passe pour etre le plus 
beau du Royaurae. II a plus de mille pas de longueur, 
et est orne" de deux allies d'ormes de chaque cote. 
La ville de Tours est si jalouse de cet ornement, 
que les Magistrates ont defendu d'y jouer et de s'y 
promener lorsqu'il a plii, jusqu'4 ce qu'il soit sec, 
sous peine de dix livres d'amende. P. De la 
Force, ' Nouvelle Description de la France,' vii. 401. 


BROSELEY PIPES (9 th S. viii. 104). The col- 
lection referred to was probably sold to Mr. 
Wm. Bragge (not "Blagg"), of Sheffield, and 

Eurchased by Messrs. Cope, of Bristol, after 
is death. A similar purchase was referred 
to not long since in ' N. & Q.' ; but I am at 
the moment unable to give the quotation 

H. P. L. 

vii. 409, 476). From a copy of the 'Chro- 

nicles of the Kirkpatrick Family ' which has 
been lent me, I learn that the Christian name 
of Mrs. William Kirkpatrick, one of the 
daughters of the Baron de Grivegnee (given 
by me in error as Grivignce), was Fanny. 
May I hope for further information as to the 
Baron de Grivegnee and for some particulars 
as to Power ? 

15, Markham Square, Chelsea. 

MUMMY WHEAT (9 th S. viii. 82). I believe 
that the limits of life of seeds have been 
scientifically ascertained (either for the Lin- 
nean Society or at Kew) and found to be very 
b r i e f_ on ly a year or two in fact. Mr. Sutton, 
of Reading, would doubtless confirm this (of 
other species of seeds) from his wide experi- 
ence. It would be curious, however, to know 
if all vitality disappeared, i.e., the wheat 
seed itself perishing beyond question, if its 
decayed remains gave birth on damping to 
a fresh life, of fungus, lichen, &c. This (to 
avoid " modern life germs " in the air itself) 
would have to be tested under sterilized glass 
covers. R. B. 

The late Canon Baggott, of Fontstown, co. 
Kildare, was one of the most famous agri- 
culturists in the United Kingdom. At one 
of the scientific meetings of the Royal Dublin 
Society he showed some mummy wheat that 
he had himself obtained, and promised to sow 
it carefully and mark the result. He did so. 
The wheat grew. He had the produce ground 
into flour and made into bread, which he 
exhibited in due time at another meeting of 
the Royal Dublin Society, and I ate some of 
that bread. F. R. DAVIES. 

Hawthorn, Black Rock. 

[We record this, but cannot discuss the question 
further, as it has already been amply ventilated in 
our columns.] 

"STINGER" (9 th S. viii. 81). There are 
various " stingers." Old strong ale is known 
as "stinger ale," and a thirsty soul after 
disposing of a " tot " of satisfactory liquor of 
any kind says, " Ah ! that 's a stinger ! " A 
knock-down blow, an alarming flash of 
lightning anything, in fact, violently abrupt 
is a " stinger," and it is applied also in argu- 
ment when an opponent delivers a crushing 
statement. Strong drinkables go by the 
general name of " stingo." 



'CORONATION ANECDOTES' (9 th S. viii. 65). 
The information given in the above little 
work is fairly correct, and on examination 
one would conclude the first part was derived 

viii. AUG. 24, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


from Taylor's ' Glory of Regality.' Pp. 194- 
210 are verbatim from the ' Ceremonies to be 
observed at the Royal Coronation of King 
George the Fourth' (S. & R. Bentley the 
authorized printers), the rest an abbreviation 
of a portion of Huish's * Coronation of 
George IV..' 1821. The name assigned to the 
author is treated by bibliographers as an 
assumed one, and I cannot find any clue 
respecting it. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

MALT AND HOP SUBSTITUTES (9 th S. vii. 150, 
215, 296, 454 ; viii. 26, 72). GNOMON will find 
the correct rendering of the couplet which 
he quotes ante, p. 26, in the Cam. Soc. pub- 
lications for 1839 (p. 126, No. ccix.). This, in 
turn, is quoted from ' The Compleat Angler,' 
chap. ix. : 

" Sir Richard Baker, in whose chronicle you 

may find these verses : 

Hops and Turkies, Carps and Beer, 
Came into England all in a year." 

The " year" is generally supposed to refer to 
1524. 1 think the verses will be found in the 
'Chronicle' circa p. 297. 

Sir Richard Baker, of course (cf. ' D.N.B.'), 
is scarcely to be trusted in all his assertions. 
In Apuleius's ' Herbarium ' (circa 1050) hops 
are said already to have been introduced into 
English drinks, -although it is evident that 
they were riot in general use until the six- 
teenth century. "Carps," if not native to 
British waters, were certainly known long 
before 1500. Beer may have been distin- 
guished from other liquors on account of the 
quantity of hops used, though not because 
hops formed one of the elements of its com- 
position (cf. Apuleius). 


Colonial Club, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S. 

ARTISTS' MISTAKES (9 th S. iv. 107, 164, 237, 
293 ; v. 32, 317, 400; vi. 44). In my com- 
munication on this subject (9 th S. v. 317) I 
ventured to hint that a possible source of 
these errors was the neglect of artists to 
familiarize themselves with the text of the 
"copy" they essayed to illustrate. A con- 
spicuous instance of this is afforded by the 
current number of the Strand Magazine in 
the resuscitation of our old favourite the 
inimitable Sherlock Holmes. The date of the 
incident supplying the motif of. 'The Hound 
of the Baskervilles ' is given with sufficient 
explicitness in the last two lines (second 
column) of p. 127, "Know then that in the 
time of the Great Rebellion (the history of 
which by the learned Lord Clarendon... ),"&c. 
We cannot therefore go far wrong in placing 
the period in the forties of the seventeenth 
century. The frontispiece and the engraving 

on p. 129 purport to illustrate two of the 
scenes of the legend. How is it, then, that 
the actors are represented as attired in the 
costume of the fifties or sixties, or somewhat 
later, of the eighteenth century an ana- 
chronism of over a hundred years 1 It is 
obvious, though, how the mistake arose ; the 
date of the old MS. recording the tradition is 
1742 (p. 126, last paragraph of the second 
column), and we are expressly informed in 
the text of the record that three generations 
have passed since the transmitted incident 
occurred three generations between the 
occurrence of the tragedy and the composi- 
tion of its narrative. The artist then, it is 
clear, goes no further back than the date of 
the MS., and clothes the actors in the grim 
scenes of 1642-50 in the habits of 1750-70, or, 
as he imagined, the costumes near enough 
to. those worn in 1742. GNOMON. 


"TOUCAN" (9 th S. vii. 486; viii. 22, 67, 85). 
I am quite willing to withdraw from so 
much of this discussion as relates to the bird 
of tropical America, to Brazil, and to the 
Brazilian language. My original intention 
was to assist in clearing matters up by 
directing attention to the statement in 
'Chambers's Encyclopaedia' as affording a 
possible clue to the puzzle as to whence the 
bird of South America got the name of 
"toucan." I am, however, by no means in- 
clined to believe that the Malays borrowed 
their name for the hornbill from any foreign 
language or people. The bird must have 
been familiar to the Malays ages before 
Europeans discovered America. The Malays 
called it a " toucan " for the reason which I 
before explained, and, so far as the hornbill 
of the Far East is concerned, its local name 
(toucan) is Malay. H. G. K. 

vii. 404 ; viii. 19, 108). Similar customs seem 
to have been observed formerly by the 
French and Dutch sailors elsewhere than at 
the equator. 

According to Esquerneling* the custom was 
observed by sailors of the former nation off 
the coast of France in latitude 48 10' (where 
navigation was apparently attended with 
some risk), in the tropic of Cancer, and in the 
tropic of Capricorn. 

* "The Buccaneers of America : a true account 
of the most remarkable assaults committed of late 

Ssars upon the coasts of the West Indies by the 
uccaneers of Jamaica and Tortuga (both English 
and French), &c. By John Esquemeling, one of the 
Buccaneers who was present at those tragedies. 
London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1898.". 


NOTES' AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 24, 1901. 

This writer, who was in the service of the 
West India Company of France, gives an 
account of the " baptism " at sea as witnessed 
by himself during a voyage from Havre de 
Grace to the island of Tortuga in the year 
1666. He says that when off the coast of 
France, in latitude 48 10', the master's mate, 
whose face had been blackened with soot, 
having donned a long garment reaching to 
his feet, a cap of a burlesque fashion, and a 
collar made of small pieces of wood, com- 
manded all who had not sailed those seas 
before to be brought into his presence. This 
being done, he ordered them to kneel, and, 
after making the sign of the cross upon their 
foreheads with ink from a pot which he held 
in his left hand, he gave each one a blow 
on the shoulder with a wooden sword ; the 
fortunate few or many, as the case might be, 
who had sailed that way before, amused 
themselves by throwing bucketfuls of water 
over those who had just gone through the 
ordeal of inkpot and wooden sword. An 
offering of a bottle of brandy, to be placed 
near the mainmast without speaking, was 
expected from each of the newly baptized. 
If the ship had not passed that way before, 
the captain was expected to distribute wine 
among the passengers and crew. 

A similar custom was observed by the 
Dutch in the same latitude, and also off the 
coast of Portugal in latitude 39 40', but 
the ordeal seems to have been more trying, 
as the unfortunate individual was hoisted up 
at the mainyard's end and dipped into the 
ocean three times ; a passenger of distinction 
was dipped a fourth time in the name of the 
Prince of Orange or the captain of the ship. 
The first dipped had the honour of being 
saluted with a gun. Those who were not 
willing to undergo this somewhat rough form 
of baptism could compound by paying a sum 
of money one of the crew paying twelve 
pence, an officer of the ship two shillings, 
and a passenger according to his means or 
pleasure. The money so obtained was handed 
to the master's mate, and on reaching port 
was spent in wine for the seamen. As in the 
French service, if the ship had not sailed 
that way before, the captain was bound to 
distribute wine ; failing this, the seamen had 
the right of cutting off the stem of the ship. 

Glandore Gardens, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

Your readers may be interested in the 
following extract from my diary of 1862 : 

"Nov. 19th. This evening Neptune's avant-courier 
hailed the ship from over the bows and informed 
us that His Highness would come on board to- 

' 20th. Crossed the Line under sail [the ship was 
an auxiliary - screw three-master]. There was a 
grand * masque ' : Neptune, Amphitrite, Tritons, 
and attendants came on board in character, N. and 
A. drawn on a gun-carriage. The orthodox shaving 
was carried out on all of the ship's company who 
had not crossed the Line before. We passengers 
escaped by paying up. After being shaved the 
'shavee' was tumbled back into a large sail 
stretched amidships and half full of water ; emerg- 
ing with difficulty from which, owing to its wet 
slanting sides, he was dried with a sooty towel 
brought from the funnel, which had been lowered, 
as we were under sail in a light wind." 

The Line" was the equator. Neptune had 
a long white beard and hair, with a tin 
crown, and held a trident. Amphitrite was 
a sailor boy, who made a very good-looking 
young woman. MICHAEL FERRAR, 

Little Gidding, Baling. 

An interesting and amusing account of this 
ceremony may be found in a book very easy 
of access, Chambers's 'Book of Days,' vol. ii. 
pp. 653, 654, to which let me refer your corre- 
spondents. It is accompanied by an engrav- 
ing 'Marine Ceremonies at "Crossing the 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

"GENTLIER" (9 th S. vii. 468; viii. 114). 
Shakspeare has kindlier as a comparative 
adverb in the fifth act of the 'Tempest.' 
Parolles, in ' All 's Well that Ends Well,' says : 
" Man will be quicklier blown up." Milton 
has wiselier : 

Doubt not but God 

Hath wiselier armed his vengeful ire than so 
To be forestalled. 

' Paradise Lost,' book x. lines 1022-4. 

Shakspeare, in the ' Tempest,' has the same 
word : "You have taken it wiselier than I 
meant you should." Milton has rightlier ; 
and, without inquiring further, we can see 
that Tennyson was quite right in using the 
form gentlier as a comparative adverb. For 
a superlative adverb formed in the same 
way see ' Cymbeline,' IV. ii.: 

To show what coast thy sluggish crare 
Might easiliest harbour in. 

The verses of Tennyson remind me of some 
by Ben Jonson : 

And fall like sleep upon the eyes, 
Like music on the ear. 

But I do not say that the thought expressed 
by one poet is identical with that of the other. 
I should say that in quoting the lines of Ben 
Jonson I am relying on my memory. 


'THE TRIBAL HID AGE' (9 th S. vii. 441; 
viii. 99). It is stated by J. B. that the 
Wocen scetna, with a hidage of 7,000, have 

9* s. vin. AUG. 24, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


been identified with the people of Woking. 
Considering the corrupt form in which 
the document known as 'The Tribal 
Hidage' has come down to us, a likelier 
supposition is that Wocen is a mistake 
for Wrocen. The question has been care- 
fully worked out by Mr. W. H. Duignan in 
the Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeo- 
logical Society, Second Series, vi. 16-18. Mr. 
Duignan shows that a charter of Burgred, 
King of the Mercians (855), is tested " in loco 
qui vocatur Oswaldesdun,* quando fuerunt 
pagani in Wreocensetun " ; and in a charter of 
Edgar (963) the king grants lands at Plash, 
near Cardington, and Aston, near Lilleshall, 
" in provincia Wrocensetna" As Cardington 
and Lilleshall are twenty miles apart, the 
province of the Wrocensetna must have 
covered a large district. In another charter 
of Edgar (975) the king grants lands at 
Aston, the bounds of which travel along 
"Wrocene" to Watling Street. From the 
Wrocen we get the modern Wrekin, Wroxeter, 
and Wrockwardine. The Wrocensetna pro- 
bably occupied the greater part of the county 
of Salop, or at all events that portion of the 
county which lies 'to the eastward of the 
Severn. I think on the whole that this 
identification would fit in better with J. B.'s 
general theory than the very dubious attri- 
bution to Woking. W. F. PKIDEAUX. 

Under heading "18. Hicca" J. B. writes, 
"Wickham on the river Titchfield." Is this 
not a slight mistake on his part? I never 
heard of a river in Hampshire called the 
"Titchfield." I was born at Wickham, 
Hants, and the river that runs through it, 
and also through Titchfield, emptying itself 
into Southampton Water at Hillhead, I 
have always heard called the river Meon, 
which rises close to East and West Meons, 
running through Warnford Park (in which 
are several additional springs), and thence 
through Exton and Meon-Stoke on to Wick- 
ham arid Titchfield. There is a small stream 
or river (of the name of which I am ignorant) 
rising on or near Titchfield Common and 
running near to Titchfield House, Post- 
brook, falling into Southampton Water 
higher up than the Meon does. Perhaps 
J. B. has confused this stream Titch or 
Ditch with the river Meon. Residing at the 
present time in what I have come to consider 
about the heart of the ancient Mercian terri- 
tory (i.e., near Grantham), I follow J. B.'s 

Oswaldesdun does not seem to have been 
dentified. Mr. Duignan says "probably Oswes- 
try. and it may have been the down or hill on 
which Oswald's tree was situated. 

deductions, which appear to me satisfactory 
and clear as well as highly interesting. 


THE NATIONAL FLAG (9 th S. v. 414, 440, 457, 
478 ; Supplement, 30 June, 1900 ; vi. 17, 31, 
351, 451, 519; vii. 193; viii. 67, 112). MR. 
ST. JOHN HOPE cannot see that any contra- 
diction is involved in the expression 
" dimidiated per sal tire." Does not the very 
etymology of the word "dimidiate" show to 
him that the objects to be dimidiated, before 
being brought together in the process known 
as dimidiation, must first be halved ? This 
halving can only be done by a single bisecting 
line drawn per pale, per bend, &c., whereas 
two lines drawn per sal tire must necessarily 
divide the objects to be dimidiated into four 
parts ; and to call such a process " dimidia- 
tion " is, I submit, etymologically and 
heraldically incorrect. In order to test MR. 
ST. JOHN HOPE'S view of the matter, I invite 
him to cite a single authentic instance in 
British or foreign heraldry of "dimidiation 
per saltire." 

I have taken penknife and paper and tried 
to work out MR. ST. JOHN HOPE'S picture 
puzzle, but it will not do, unless indeed the 
saltires are divided quarterly as well as per 
saltire, in which case the fragments can, of 
course, be arranged according to the key- 
picture by any one accjuainted with the design 
of the Union flag. But, as I have already 
shown, this is not dimidiation ; neither is it 
free from ambiguity in the other respect I 
have mentioned, inasmuch as the word 
" quarterly" does not appear in the proposed 
new blazon. 

I am sorry MR. ST. JOHN HOPE thinks my 
criticism unduly strong. By way of repara- 
tion, and in the hope of drawing down the 
fire of his criticism on my own head, I suggest 
an alternative blazon for the flag, viz., Azure, 
a saltire quarterly and per saltire counter- 
changed argent (for St. Andrew) and gules, 
fimbriated of the second (for St. Patrick), 
debruised by the cross of St. George fim- 
briated as the saltire. 

The matter is one of great difficulty, and I 
do not wish to dogmatize as to the value 
or otherwise of my suggestion. P9es MR. 
ST. JOHN HOPE doubt the possibility of 
dimidiation per bend ? If so, I would refer 
him to Woodward and Burnet's 'English and 
Foreign Heraldry,' p. 477, where he will find 
an example of such dimidiation. 



viii. 72).- Major William Hathorne, the first 


NOTES "AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 24, 1901. 

American ancestor of Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
the American author, was the eldest son of 
William Hathorne, of Binfield, in the north- 
eastern part of Berkshire (Waters's 'Genea- 
logical Gleanings in England,' Boston, 1901, 
vol. i. pp. 43-5). M. H. WALL. 

Boston, U.S. 

A LADLE (9 th S. vii. 467 ; viii. 94). In 
country churches and chapels in Derby- 
shire when I was a lad the collections 
were always taken by ladle a square 
wooden box at the end of a joiner-made 
stick, 3ft. to 5ft. long. I used to listen 
with much pleasure to the rattle of the 
coppers in the box as it was passed along 
pew by pew. The operation of collecting 
was also a matter of particular interest to 
the congregation generally, and when at 
some of the pews no "copper droppings" 
were heard there were significant nucfges and 
digs in the ribs amongst the occupants of 
the "tubs," whose heads could be seen 
strained above the tops of the pews. But 
there were very old-fashioned doings at the 
three churches I best remember Duffield, 
Horsley, and Holbrook. 

Ladles of this kind did double duty on the 
occasion of "love-feasts," which were then 
very common among the Wesleyans, Method- 
ist New Connexion, and Primitive Methodists, 
and at the many "camp meetings" held in 
the summer time. There may be contributors 
and readers of 'N. & Q.' who know better 
than I do what these "love-feasts" were. 
They were exciting occasions, when men 
women, and children, " moved by the Spirit,' 
related their experiences and " testified." At 
the appointed time "broken bread" was 
handea about in the collecting "ladles," anc 
all including the children took a little 
square of bread. Water was next handec 
round in mugs, some of them two-handled 
While the bread and water were thus dis 
buted "John Wesley " favourite hymns were 
aung. Before the close collections were madi 
in tne boxes which had been used in th 
ceremony of bread distribution. Thes 
"camp meetings " and "love-feasts" were im 
pressive and of a deeply interesting nature. 

I have in my possession two copper enure 
collecting ladles (having given to friend 
two from the set of four). They are sai< 
to have been used in Wem Church, co. Salop 
These ladles are in good preservation, an 
in shape are somewhat like a warming-pa 
with half of the lid cut away and the othe 
half fastened down, the total length bein 

2* in. The copper part is 6 in. long, 7 Jin. 
nd 72 in. wide, and nearly an inch deep inside. 
hey appear to have had thick paper pasted 

side to prevent noise during collection. 


Shrewsbury. _ _____ 



Tie Jewish Encyclopedia. Isidore Singer, Ph.D., 
Projector and Managing Editor. Vol. I. (Funk 
& Wagnalls Company.) 

,VE have here the first volume of a very ambitious 
ind wholly commendable undertaking. This is 
lothing less than an encyclopaedia devoted to 
' the history, religion, literature, and customs of 
he Jewish people from the earliest times to the 
present day." It is being carried out by the Funk 
fe Wagnalls Company, to which we owe the best 
ind most convenient of accessible English dic- 
ionaries and many other important works, and is 
he product of more than four hundred scholars 
aid specialists, including many scholars whose 
lames are known over two continents. Were we 
not assured by the management that the whole 
will be comprised within twelve volumes, we 
should be led from the book before us to expect an 
almost interminable series, the first volume, which 
comprises over seven hundred pages, ending with 
Apocalyptic literature, or little more than half 
way through the first letter of the alphabet. It 
will give some idea of the probable cost of the 
undertaking when we say that the production of the 
first volume has involved an outlay of no less than 
20,000/., and that five times that amount will have 
to be expended before the completed work is in the 
hands of the subscribers. This brings the ' Encyclo- 
paedia' into the same class with the ' New English 
Dictionary ' and the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' the two undertakings of which, though 
the general reader remains lamentably ignorant, 
the cultivated Englishman is most proud. Promises 
of support sufficient to constitute a guarantee of 
success have been received from the United States. 
A much larger public remains behind. A cursory 
glance over the names reveals not a single English, or 
indeed European, subscriber, and only a sprinkling 
of names from Canada. 

It need not be supposed that the constituency 
consists only of Jews. Such are in themselves very 
numerous, and as a rule they are also spirited and 
enlightened. The appeal extends to Christians. 
Our religion is rooted in that of the Jews, and 
more of our views and customs than is generally 
admitted is Hebrew in origin. Quite impossible 
is all knowledge of the mysteries of our faith to 
one wholly unversed in Hebrew studies. By far 
the larger portion of the Bible is the Divine Book 
of the Hebrew as well as our own. No source of 
folk-lore and legend more important than the 
Talmud exists, and it is greatly to be desired that 
an English translation of this were generally acces- 
sible. One such began, and was warmly welcomed 
by us. Its publication was apparently suspended, 
not more than a single volume having reached us 
(see a review of ' A New Edition of the Baby- 
lonian Talmud,' by Michael L. Rodkinson, 8 th S. 
x. 367). In all that regards the origin of creed and 
development of every kind the Jew is the most 

9- s. vm. A. 24, 1901.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


interesting and important of beings, and his history, 
it may be said with little fear of exaggeration, is 
more important than that of any people. In favour 
of the literature which gave us the Old Testament, 
with all its unparalleled glories, what is to be said ? 
What is there that should be said? We are not 
advancing as important statements which are neces- 
sarily commonplace. We are but affirming that the 
interest of this noble work extends to non-Jewish 
readers, and that no student of the problems lite- 
rary, social, .philological, or theological by which 
the world is most stirred can help profiting by 
its possession, or can fail to find himself under 
grievous disqualification if he be denied oppor- 
tunities of access. In every public library of 
importance it is bound to find a place. One branch 
of study wholly non-political will appeal directly 
to a large number of our readers. Or the explora- 
tions in Palestine and in the matters of Assyriplogy, 
Egyptology, and the like, which are in highest 
favour, the 'Encyclopaedia' gives the latest and 
most interesting results. The connexion between 
Hellenistic and Hebrew literature, the texts of the 
Septuagint of Aquila and Theodotion, the works 
of Philo Judseus, and other matters are dealt with 
in critical studies which English scholarship will 
not dream of neglecting. Some of these are, indeed, 
matters in which English compilations supposed to 
be authoritative are most behindhand. The Tal- 
mud and Rabbinical literature constitute a world 
in themselves. The important histories of Jewish 
literature, but little known in England, of German 
writers from Zunz to Winter and W^iinsche, the 
authors (or compilers, rather) of ' Jiidische Litera- 
tur,' have been carefully studied. The Jewish reli- 
gious philosophy of mediaeval times and the ethical 
teaching of Raobinical Judaism are for the first 
time dealt with consistently and thoroughly. Illus- 
trations have been abundantly employed, the 
frontispiece consisting of a beautifully coloured 
design of the Ark of the Law. A coloured plate 
of the animals of the Bible is also given, as are 
many views from photographs and reproductions 
of engravings from works of established authority, 
facsimiles, and the like. 

The first article of primary importance is ' Aaron,' 
among bearers of the name who are dealt with 
being Aaron of Lincoln, whose well-known house 
in Lincoln, supposed to be the oldest stone resi- 
dence in England the date of which can be fixed, is 
depicted. Curious proof of the minute provisions 
of the Talmudic law may be found under ' Abduc- 
tion,' 'Abetment,' 'Ablution,' and other headings. 
An important essay on ' Abraham ' is by Prof. Toy, 
of Harvard University ; and one on ' Accent ' by 
Dr. Margolis, who declares the accents in the 
ordinary editions of the Bible " to be too frequently 
'unreliable,'" a base word which, coming from an 
American, may be passed. Accompanying ' Adam ' 
we find a fine design (or perhaps designs) 01 our first 
parents from the ' Sarajevo Haggadah ' of the four- 
teenth century. The various papers on Adam 
constitute a mine of curious information. Under 
' Adam Kadmon ' is explained Philo's mystical 
conception of the original man. Under ' Adonai ' 
interesting information is furnished. Mr. Joseph 
Jacobs writes on ' ^sop's Fables.' Rabbi S. Ivahii 
deals with 'African Jews,' a subject concerning 
which little is known. 'Agriculture' and 'Agri- 
cultural Colonies' are among the most important 
>nd edifying contents of the volume. The matter 
connected with Ahasuerus, otherwise Xerxes, will 

probably be more fully treated under Esther or 
Ishtar and Mordecai. The present article seems 
reticent. Much more ample is the treatment of 
the Ahikar legend and of Ahriman. References to 
anti-Semitism are frequent. They occur under 
'Apion'(the MO^OOQ of Suidas), the Greek gram- 
marian and bitter enemy of Josephus, under 
'Alsace (the Persecution in),' and under 'Anti- 
Semitism.' A full history of recent demonstrations 
is supplied. Anti-Semitism, it is stated, does not 
exist in either England or the United States, 
though a feeling against the Jews is said to mani- 
fest itself in " social discriminations." Some excel- 
lent illustrations of ' Altars ' are supplied. The 
articles on ' Apocalypse ' and ' Apocalyptic Litera- 
ture' repay close study. Concerning Apella in 
Horace's satire " Credat Judaeus Apella," it is stated 
that Apella, as this very credulous person is called, 
does not seem to be a Jewish name at all. It may be 
worth while to give the names of those who, signing 
the preface, are presumably responsible for this 
laudable and magnificent undertaking. They are, 
in addition to Isidore Singer, Cyrus Adler, Gott- 
hard Deutsch, Louis Ginzberg, Richard Gottheil, 
Joseph Jacobs, Marcus J astro w, Morris Jastrow, 
Jun., Kaufmann Kohler, Frederick de Sola Mendes. 
and Crawford H. Toy. It is not to be doubted 
that the response will be adequate to the merits of 
the undertaking. 

The Complete Works of John Gower. Edited by 
G. C. Maoaulay. Vols. II. and III. The English 
Works. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
UPON the appearance of the first volume of ' The 
Complete W orks of John Gower ' we drew attention 
to the character and aims of the edition and the 
circumstances attendant upon its publication (see 
9 th S. v. 58). The second and third volumes con- 
tain ' Confessio Amantis,' the best-known and most 
important of Gower's works, and a short poem, ' To 
King Henry the Fourth in Praise of Peace,' together 
with an historical preface, notes, and a glossary 
and index of proper names. A fourth volume, com- 
pleting the work, will consist presumably of the 
' Vox Clamantis,' to the character of which we 
have previously referred, with probably its con- 
tinuation, the ' Chronica Tripartite' By' the ' Con- 
fessio Amantis ' Gower has been and will continue 
to be known. It has won a recognition in advance 
of its poetical merits, but it will stand comparison 
with similar collections of stories in verse or prose 
of its own or a subsequent date. Gower indeed, 
although Lowell says that he raised "tediousness 
to the precision of a science," was a good story-teller, 
and versifies with some spirit in his eight books 
narratives from the Bible, 'Gesta Romanorum,' 
Josephus, Ovid, and the classical writers popular 
in mediaeval times. We cannot, of course, occupy 
our space with analysis or criticism of a work 
which, however few its readers may now be, is in a 
sense a classic. " Moral Gower" is a phrase due to 
Chaucer, his whilom friend, and was probably given 
in allusion to the mpralizings with which Gower 
accompanied his stories, sometimes passably licen- 
tious. According to English ideas of to-day, and to 
the signification now attached to the word, the term 
"moral" applied to Gower is not much more 
appropriate than it is in the 'Contes Moraux' of 
Marmontel. Edifying are no doubt the reflections 
with which the confessor sent by Venus con- 
soles the hero lover, but the stories themselves, 
those especially of the eighth book, deal tenderly 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. AUG. 24, 1901. 

latecl into a foreign tongue, a Spanish translat 
dating apparently from the very beginning of 
fifteenth century, being accessible, and a Portugi 
version, not now to be found, having been execul 

with records of incest, Biblical, classical, o 
romantic. A useful feature of the present edition 
suggested by Dr. Furnivall, consists of a shor 
summary of such of the one hundred and fourtee 
stories as are not too familiar to need any form 
of analysis or explanation. What is known as th 
Fairfax MS. has been used by Mr. Macaulay, wh 
in the course of his labours has become increasing! 
convinced of the value and authenticity of the text 
From the introduction we learn that the ' Confessi 
Amantis' was the first English book to be trans 
lated into a foreign tongue, a Spanish translation 

inning of th 
'. a Portugues 
been executed 

A critical estimate of the poetic merits of the poen 
is good, and the passages quoted are the best to b 
selected. The circumstances under which the poen 
was written at the command of King Richard II. 
and those under which the dedications were alteret 
and the complimentary allusions to Chaucer wer 
omitted, are told. Chaucer seems, indeed, to hav 
changed his views as to the " morality," using the 
term in its conventional sense, of the ' Confessi 
Amantis,' and even to have reflected upon th. 
author. The orthography, phonology, arid inflexion 
are treated separately ; a treatise on the metre 
follows, and the differences (in some cases suffi 
ciently great) of the forty or so MSS. are explained. 
Other particulars, including an account of the 
Spanish translation, are given. The notes are few 
and useful, and the glossary is ample and satis- 
factory. Readers are to be congratulated on the 
approaching completion of an important and a well- 
executed task. Occleve, whose literary baggage is 
not extensive, and Lydgate, whose ' Fall of Princes ' 
and ' Troy Book ' have strong philological interest 
and are not without other claims on attention, may 
be commended to the consideration of the Claren- 
don Press. Lydgate especially uses characteristic 
words to be found in no other writer. 

THE first article in the present issue of the Quar- 
terly Review relates to Eastern North Africa. ' Negro 
Nileland and Uganda,' as the article is called, is 
an eminently picturesque description of those vast 
regions the greater part of which is under English 
influence. There is hardly anything therein directly 
relating to politics, but it sets before the reader, in 
a manner we have never met with before, the great 
possibilities of the country and its extreme interest 
for those who study nature in any of her various 
forms. To the anthropologist the account of the 
dwarf races of the south-western limits of the Nile 
watershed will be of much interest. When the 
blood has remained unmixed the race appears to 
represent a very ancient type. It would be rash to 
affirm that these little men are the most archaic 
examples of the human race now known to be in 
existence, but there is not a little to be said in favour 
of those who hold this opinion. The classical writers 
had evidently heard in some way or other of these 
small people, and the tradition of them did not die 
out, for we find them in medieval romance. Hang- 
ings adorned with pigmies are mentioned some- 
times in inventories, and there was in Lincoln 
Cathedral, before the pillage, a box, silver covered 
on which were represented "a man and a woman 
called pigmies." The endeavour to ascertain the 
exact aate of Dante's pilgrimage to that world 
which is not ours is by no means light reading, but 
it is of a high degree of interest. Appearing where 

it does, we do not think it was needful to imply 
that the subject might be regarded as "trivial and 
unimportant." The question in debate is, Was the 
year selected by Dante 1300 or 1301 ? The latter is, 
to our thinking, the more probable, but certainty 
has not yet been arrived at. The paper contains 
much curious learning, and the account of the 
various dates on which the year has been reckoned 
to begin in Christian times will be of service to 
some who take little interest in the great Floren- 
tine. There are but few matters in which people 
have shown a greater capacity for blundering. The 
result has been a large crop of chronological mis- 
takes. 'The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell' is 
well-intentioned, and is written by one excellently 
posted up in the annals of the time. It must do 
good, as helping to mitigate that excessive hero- 
worship which in all cases tends to produce an 
equally imbecile reaction. The writer goes cer- 
tainly too far when he says that " the story of the 
major-generals is an unsolved riddle." Whether 
their creation was a blunder or a necessity we will 
not discuss. Those, however, who hold the former 
opinion do not for the most part realize the extreme 
danger in which the country was involved and the 
necessity for prompt action. ' Society Croakers' is 
one of those light and entertaining papers for which 
the Quarterly has for some time been famous. It 
gives a picture, in some ways not too favourable, 
of the world of seventy years ago. For 'New 
Lights on Milton ' we have little but praise, 
but we are compelled to say that we regard both 
the influence and the intrinsic merit of Milton's 
prose works as much undervalued. Novel-readers, 
and still more novel-writers, should ponder seriously 
3ver ' The Popular Novel.' It is unwontedly severe ; 
3ut on such a subject, if any good is to be done, 
there must be hard hitting. 

We must call special attention to the following 
wtices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 

and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 

'ication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 

pondents must observe the following rules. Let 

each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 

lip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 

uch address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 

ng queries, or making notes with regard to previous 

ntnes in the paper, contributors are requested to 

>ut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 

eading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 

finch they refer. Correspondents who repeat 

ueries are requested to head the second com- 

mnication " Duplicate." 

G. K. A. BELL (" The hand that rocks the cradle 
ules the world ").- William Ross Wallace, an 
L .merican. See 9 th S. ii. 358, 458. 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 
Ine Editor of ' Notes and Queries '"Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
w e ? ffice ,' Bream ' s Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 
We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
ommunications which, for any reason, we do not 
rmt ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9* s. viii. AUG. si, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 192 

NOTES : Land Tenures in Crowland, 177 Bevis Marks 
Synagogue, 179 Shakespeare's Books, 180 Mistakes of 
Authors, 181 Battle of Copenhagen Schnebbelie New 
Testament Translation, 182 American Words, 183. 

QUERIES :-MS. Plays by William Percy-Gold Ring, 183 
Royal Personages "Looks wise, the pretty fool"- 
Francis, Duke of Guise Chalking under a Pot Etonian 
Woodwork Prince of Wales Sovereign " Doorman " 
Corlett of Douglas Dublin Booksellers, 184 Cartwright 
Ospringe Domus Dei Poem Wanted Mr. George F 
Brangwit John Peachi Rev. W. Mosse ' Pastoral in 
Pink' Bonaparte Queries Nineveh, 185 -" Ghetto "- 
' Bolten " " There were giants in the land, " 186 

REPLIES : St. Clement Danes, 186 The 'Marseillaise,' 
187 'Burial of Sir John Moore,' 188 " Veirium " 
Napoleon's Library " Penny in the forehead" Source 
of Quotation, 189 -Civil List Pensions Sir Francis Jones, 
190' Pseudodoxia Epidemica 'Pews annexed to Houses, 
191 " Collate" Greek Pronunciation "Hill me up" 
West-Countrymen's Tails Green Unlucky, 192 Craw- 
ford " Mere man "St. Edmund, 193 Catherine Street 
Theatre Spider Folk-lore, 194. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Chadwyck Healey's ' History of Part 
of West Somerset ' Bardsley's 'Dictionary of English 
and Welsh Surnames' Cunningham's 'Essay on Western 
Civilization in its Economic Aspects ' Skeat's ' Place- 
Names of Cambridgeshire.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


DURING a short visit to Crowland in South 
Lincolnshire in June, 1900, I took notice of 
some customs relating to the tenure of land 
in that place. 

The Postland estate, forming the east por- 
tion of Crowland, formerly belonged to the 
Marquis of Exeter, who was also lord of the 
manor of Crowland. This is a large " fine 
arbitrary" manor, including about a hundred 
houses and cottages and over 2,000 acres of 
land. The Postland estate and the manor 
were sold some years ago to Lord Normanton, 
and he in 1885 sold the manorial rights to 
Messrs. Paine & Brettell, of Chertsey, in the 
county of Surrey, solicitors, who called on 
most of the copyholders to enfranchise under 
the Copyhold Acts. A large number of copy- 
holders did so, the lord and tenant agreeing 
as to the terms, though in some cases the 
lord's compensation was fixed by the Land 
Commissioners, and a rent charge imposed. 

Before the enfranchisement there were 
various persons whose holdings were known 
as " whole copyholds " and " half copyholds." 
A * whole copyhold " consisted of a house 
and garden with four acres of arable land in 
a place just outside the village called the 

Alderlands, together with land known as a 
" whole right " in the great adjoining fen or 
plain called the Wash, and also common 
appurtenant. A "half copyhold" consisted 
of a house and garden with two acres of 
arable land in the Alderlands, with land in 
the Wash called a "half right," and also 
common appurtenant. These plots of arable 
land are not intermixed with other plots. 
They are rectangular or nearly square in 
form, and are separated from each other not 
by balks or hedges, but by small ditches. I 
was informed that originally there were no 
"half copyholds," but I doubt the accuracy 
of this. These "whole" and "half" copy- 
holds are locally known as " lots." 

In North Street I examined two adjoining 
plots consisting of two long strips containing 
a rood of land each. A thatched cottage, with 
its gable towards the street, stands upon each 
plot, and upon it are sheds and outbuildings 
called "hovels." The cottages are set back, 
at a rough estimate, about 50 ft. from the 
street, and each cottage adjoins one of the 
long boundary lines of the strips, so that 
there is room for a cart to pass along the 
"drove" or road between each cottage and 
the opposite hedge. I was told that each of 
these roods of land has two acres of arable 
land in the Alderlands and a "half right" in 
the Wash, the entire holding forming a " half 
copyhold." The occupant of one of these two 
cottages said that before the enfranchise- 
ment copyhold cottages and arable land 
could not be sold separate!} 7 , but must go 
together I was also told by the same occu- 
pant that if a copyholder built on a portion 
of his copyhold land, an increased fine was 
payable to the lord on death or alienation, 
for the new building increased the annual 
value of the property. The land in the Wash 
could be dealt with separately, as the copy- 
holder desired. 

In parts of the town as, for instance, in 
South Street there were formerly houses 
on one side of the street only, and the owners 
of these claimed the strip of land on the 
opposite side of the road, and in time built 
upon that strip. Th cottages built on these 
strips previous to enfranchisement could not 
be alienated from the " whole copyhold " or 
"half copyhold," as the case might be, to 
which they severally belonged. 

I had a good deal of talk with the occupant 
and owner of one of the above-named cottages 
in North Street. Noticing at that end of his 
cottage which was nearest to the street a small, 
low building, which was rounded off like the 
apse of an old church, I laid my hand on the 
thatch and said, "What do you call this?" 

. AUG. 31, 1901. 

What I wanted to know was the local name 
of the projecting building, but the owner 
though? I 3 meant the ^tch-pegs which 
held the thatch down, so he said, bpeets. 
In Yorkshire the generic name of sue 
building is " an outshot." Here I only learnt 
the specific name: it was the pantry. ihe 
thatch on the pantry was old, but the walls 
seemed comparatively new so I said, 
pantry is new, I suppose?" But the owner 
assured me that it was not, and took me 
inside to show me traces of the original 
woodwork. The copyholder had erected a 
brick wall outside the original stud and 
mud " of which the pantry, like the rest ot the 
cottage, was built, leaving some of the old 
posts within. The same thing is done from 
one side of England to another. As the 
framework of "stud and mud decays, 
panels of brickwork now usually take the 
place of the wattles and mud. and as the 
main beams perish new beams are inserted, 
or, when the decay is great, the entire wall is 
rebuilt or faced with brick or stone. And so 
it often happens that one finds ''stud and 
mud" on one side of a cottage wall, and 
brick or stone on the other. 

Having photographed the last-named cot- 
tage, I took outside measurements, and found 
the length to be 28ft. and the breadth 16ft., 
so that the site contained nearly two bays of 
240 sq. ft. each. The pantry or " outshot" is 
6ft. in length by 13 ft. in breadth. I did not 
measure the other cottage. It had no "out- 
shot," but its size appeared to be about the 
same as the other. The lower rooms of the 
two cottages were about 6 ft. high, and eacl 
had small bedrooms beneath the thatch. To 
get to the bedrooms you open a door in one 
corner and enter a little closet or box con 
taining a movable ladder, with its upper em 
hooked to the bedroom floor. 

Not far from the houses in the village are 
some arable lands known as the Six Scores 
I was told that they were laid out in plots o 
six to twelve acres each, the long score being 
as I was told, twenty-four.t These lands 
where not enfranchised, are copyhold, and i 
is said that no house has ever been attachec 
to them. 

In one part of the village I saw a long row 
of cottages known as ''key-hole property. 
I was told that they belong to their severa 
occupants. No arable land is attached tc 
this property, and its owners are possessec 

* O.N. spt/ta, a stick, wooden ]>in. 

t In A.D. 1258 Eadmund de Lacy held "a certaii 
culture containing 7 score and '20 acres of land " ii 
the soke of Snayt by Pontefraot. ' Yorks Inq. 
i. 52 (Yorkshire Arch. Association, Record Series). 

nlv of the ground on which the houses stand, 
n front they touch the street; behind they 
ave no land. The consequence is that the 
ccupants have to hire small plots behind 
heir cottages for gardens and out-offices, 
found that the breadth of the long strip on 
VnVh t.hft oottaees stand is only 36 tt. 1 

isked a man if he could tell me what key- 
l roert " meant. He said, If you hold 

ole property 

he key you hold the property. 


man, in reply to the same question, said, 
'You can get a man out of copyhold pro- 
perty, but not out of key-hole property, 
vas amused to find that "key-hole property 
vas regarded as a better thing than copy- 

In reply to a query from me about this 
'key-hole property," Mr. Wade, of Market 
Deeping, solicitor, who also practises at 
Jrowland, kindly wrote to me thus : 
" 1 believe the land on which these houses stand 
v/as formerly waste land, and got gradually built 
upon by people at will, and when the owner ot a 
cottage sold it he took the money and handed over 
the key to the purchaser, and this was considered 
sufficient for many years ; but during the last fifteen 
or twenty years these cottages in several instances 
have been sold by deed. The steward of the manor 
contends that these cottages were built on land 
appurtenant to the manor, and I have heard ot 
owners being admitted to and enfranchising the 
property at a nominal cost. Two years annual 
value on death is not an uncommon tine in many 
Lincolnshire manors. In Crowiand the custom is 
one and a half years'." 

As the nature and quality of the soil may 
have some bearing on the subject, it may be 
well to say a word or two on that point. 
Crowiand lies in the fens, about nine miles 
from Peterborough. Previous to the existing 
system of drainage agriculture must have 
been precarious. On the Wash the "cow 
flag " and other reeds grow so high in summer- 
that men standing among them cannot see 
the abbey. From three to four feet below 
the surface of the ground enormous oak-trees 
are found some 100 ft. long. They are black, 
and when exposed to the weather crumble 
away. They all lie to the east, showing that 
they have been blown down by the west 
wind. The soil in Crowiand is rich, and lets 
at good rents. 

Certain land in the parish belonging to the 
poor is let by auction to the highest bidder 
every three years. My informant described 
the rent arising from this land as "theffee 
money," meaning probably " feoffee money." 
It appears that 

" the Copyhold Act, 1841, after recognizing that by 
the custom of some manors the lords thereof could 
not grant licences to their copyholders to alienate 
their tenements otherwise than by entireties, 

9< s. viii. AUG. 31, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


enabled such lords to grant licences for the aliena- 
tion, by devise, sale, exchange, or mortgage, of any 
portion or parcel of the copyhold tenement, and to 
apportion the rents accordingly ; and the Copyhold 
Act, 1894, continues these provisions."* 
It would seem from what has been said that 
at Crowland such licences were not generally 
granted. To grant them would probably 
have been only a temporary measure, the 
best thing both for lord and tenant being 

These " whole copyholders " and a half 
copyholders" at Crowland will remind us 
of the " yardlings " and " half-yardlings "t of 
old English records, and of the plenarii 
villani arid dimidii villani of the ' Black 
Book of Peterborough' (A.D. 1125-28) and 
other early documents. We must, however, 
remember that the " full villein " was a vir- 
gater whose normal holding was thirty acres 
of arable land, besides a messuage and 
common rights. It is interesting to notice 
that at Crowland copyhold house and arable 
land could not be severed at all before the 
year 1841. 1 do not know the extent of the 
rights which the copyhold tenants had in 
the Wash. 

It will be seen that I have merely given a 
cursory and imperfect sketch of a subject 
which might have been expanded into a more 
complete and useful monograph. It was my 
intention to pay at least one more visit to 
Crowland, and also to apply for leave to 
examine the court rolls, which are in the 
custody of the stewards .of the manor, Messrs. 
Beaumont & Son, of Coggeshall, in Essex, 
solicitors, but I have found this impossible 
at present. S. O. ADDY. 


(Continued from p. 160.) 

THE Jews and their history have hitherto 
occupied but a small place in our general 
literature, and the Jew, with three notable 
exceptions, has found little place in fiction. 
Sir Walter Scott makes Rebecca, the beautiful 
daughter of Isaac of York, one of the most 
important figures in 'Ivanhpe,' and repre- 
sents her as singing that glorious hymn 
When Israel, of the Lord beloved, 
Out of the land of bondage came. 

George Eliot's 'Daniel Deronda' was, how- 
ever, as Lady Magnus states, the first serious 
attempt by a great writer to make Jews and 

* Scriven's ' Law of Copyholds,' p. 241. 
,t Vinogradoff 's 'Villainage in England,'p. 148. The 
vtllanus dimidius occurs in Hamilton's ' Inquisitio 
Comitatus Cantab.' (eleventh century), p. 52. 

Judaism the central interest of a great work, 
and it was not until after a long interval 
that this was followed by Mr. Israel Zang- 
will's ' Children of the Ghetto : a Study of a 
Peculiar People.' This last treats mostly on 
the Jewish poor, and, in fact, puts into 
romance the revelation first made by the 
commissioners of the Morning Chronicle so 
far back as 1849. 

At the recent celebration Dr. Gaster ren- 
dered a graceful tribute to England, and 
Englishmen may also cordially render their 
tribute to their Jewish fellow-subjects. A 
notable characteristic of the Jew has always 
been his faithfulness and affection for the 
land of his adoption. 

The Jews of Holland were full of gratitude 
to William of Orange for the freedom he had 
given them, and, when he was in need of funds 
to fit out his expedition to England, one of 
their community placed at his disposal two 
millions of guilders, saying, " If you succeed, 
you will no doubt repay the loan; if you fail, 
I am content to lose it in the cause of religious 
freedom " Prof. Marks, in a lecture delivered 
at South Place Institute, 'The Jews in 
Modern Times' ('Religious Systems of the 
World,' Sonnenschein, 1890), referring to 
France as being the first Christian state of 
Europe that fully carried into effect the 
principle of liberty of conscience, when in 
1789 it proclaimed complete emancipation to 
all its Jewish subjects, states that " they 
have repaid the debt by a passionate devotion 
to all its national interests." France contains 
upwards of a hundred thousand Jews, and 
they are remarkable for their staunch 
patriotism. They differ from their ancestors 
of a bygone age, in so far as they have lost 
all feeling for the land of the Patriarchs, and 
exult in the exclamation, "Notre Zion c'est 
la France." 

The Great Powers at the Congress of 
Vienna in 1814, in return for the patriotic 
efforts made by the Jews during the war, 
caused to be inserted a special article in 
the treaty pledging themselves to secure 
for the Jews a perfect equality of rights 
in all the Allied States. It was long, how- 
ever, before the pledge was redeemed by 
Germany and Austria, while in Russia it still 
remains unfulfilled, and a recent ministerial 
edict limits the number of Jewish students 
in the Russian universities to three per cent, 
of the total number of the alumni. This 
applies to all the Imperial universities, except 
that of Moscow, to which no Jew is admitted. 

The affection of the Jews for England is 
proverbial. They gave a notable instance of 
this so far back as the '45 troubles. The 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th B. vm. AUG. 31, 1901, 

success of the Pretender seemed to be assured, 
and when statesmen, merchants, and all 
classes were seized with panic, the Jews 
stood firm, and the poorer classes among them, 
notwithstanding their custom of not bearing 
arms except in cases of great emergency, 
enlisted in the militia, while the wealthy 
rendered valuable financial support. John 
Francis, in his 'Chronicles and Characters of 
the Stock Exchange '(Longmans, 1855), relates 
how Sampson Gideon, the great Jew broker 
and founaer of the house of Eardley, profited 
by the panic of the Gentile merchants, bought 
all the stock in the market, advanced every 
guinea he possessed, and pledged his name 
and reputation for more. When the Pre- 
tender retreated, and stocks rose, the Jew 
experienced the advantage of his foresight. 
In the course of his transactions he obtained 
an advance from Mr. Snow, the banker, of 
20,000/. Mr. Snow, Francis relates, got 
alarmed, and wrote a piteous appeal to 
Gideon, who went to the bank, procured 
twenty notes, and, rolling them round a phial 
containing hartshorn, sent it to Mr. Snow. 

Gay, the poet, celebrates Thomas Snow for 
his sagacity during the South Sea Bubble 
panic. It is worthy of note that the Jews 
remained aloof from the scheme. No Jewish 
name occurs among the bankrupts of the 
time. Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, in 'A Hand- 
book of London Bankers ' (Chatto & Windus, 
1876), states that in 1798 the firm of Snow 
admitted Mr. J. D. Paul into partnership, 
and that after 1843 it was styled Strahan, 
Paul & Bates. 

It was fitting that the Lord Mayor should 
take part in the Bevis Marks celebration, for 
from the time of the Royal Assent being given 
to the Sheriffs' Declaration Bill in 1835 the 
City has been foremost in advocating for the 
Jews the rights of equal citizenship. The 
first Jew to hold the office of sheriff was 
David Salomons (1835), and in 1855 he became 
Lord Mayor being the first Jew to attain 
that distinction. He was created a baronet 
in October, 18(59. One of the earliest acts of 
Victoria's reign was to confer the honour of 
knighthood on Moses Montefiore, elected 
sheriff in 1837, and five years afterwards, by 
Royal licence, permission was granted to him 
to bear supporters to his family arms. It 
took twenty-three years from 1835 to secure 
entire freedom, the final triumph dating from 
the 26th of July, 1858, when Baron Rothschild 
took his seat as member for the City. The 
Jews, to show their gratitude to Lord John 
Russell, caused a medal to be struck in his 
honour. The inscription contains these 
words : 

Have we not one Father ? 
Hath not one God created us ? 

Thus one by one the barriers have fallen ; 
while under the Factories Act the Jews are 
specially favoured, as it grants them the 
right to work on Sunday, provided they rest 
on their own Sabbath. 

The establishment of the "Gates of Hope " 
in 1664 showed how anxious the Jews were 
in the matter of education ; in later years 
their schools have rapidly increased both in 
size and efficiency. The passing of the Act 
in 1846 enabling Jewish charities to hold land 
was a great boon. The school in Bell Lane 
now instructs more than three thousand five 
hundred children, at an annual cost con- 
siderably above 12,000^. There are over fifty 
class-rooms for boys, and nearly as many for 
girls. A few years ago the Rothschild wing 
was added (specially devoted to technical in- 
struction) and the school generally enlarged. 
Free clothes, provided by the Rothschilds, 
are distributed to each scholar. Among other 
important schools is the Westminster Jews' 
Free School, where about three hundred 
boys and over three hundred girls attend. 
The head mistress, Miss Hannah Hertzon, 
has just completed twenty -five years of 
service. There are a swimming class and a 
good library, and in the winter the children 
are provided, when necessary, with dinner. 
There is also a clothing and a boot fund. 

The Government Inspectors report most 
favourably of the Jewish schools, and state 
that of all religious denominations the Jews 
have proportionately the smallest number of 
scholars destitute of the knowledge of reading 
and writing. N. S. S. 

( To be concluded. ) 


( Continued from p. 79.) 

MANY years ago, in Archiv. f. n. Sprachen 
in Germany, and subsequently in 'Shake- 
speare illustrated by Old Authors' in England, 
I called attention to Shakespeare's pro- 
found knowledge of Puttenham's 'Arte of 
Poesie,' and although I have made many 
illustrations of obscure passages from this 
source, I have not yet finished the work I 
ventured to begin. I have found it easier to 
make my illustrations from old authors as 
the passages to which Shakespeare refers 
came to my memory than to attempt to have 
done with one old author before making use 
of another. Following this method, I leave 
the ' Life of Scanderbeg ' for a time. 

Shakespeare often uses anaphora, or the 

9"- s. vm. AUG. si, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


figure of report, thus described by Putten- 
ham in * The Arte of Poesie ' : 

"Repetition in the first degree we call the figure 
of Report according to the Greeke origin all, and is 
when we make one word begin, and as they are 
wont to say, lead the daunce to many verses in 
sute, as thus. 

To think on death it is a miserie, 

To think on life it is a vanitie : 

To think on the world verily it is, 

To think that heare man hath no perfit blisse. 
" And this written by Sir Walter Raleigh of his 
great mistresse in most excellent verses. 
In vayne mine eyes in vaine you waste your teares, 
In vayne my sighs the smokes of my despaires : 
In vayne you search th' earth and heauens aboue, 
In vayne ye seeke, for fortune keeps my love." 

Examples of Shakespeare's use of this 
figure abound in his works. I will quote two 
passages and refer to others : 
Some glory in their birth, some in their skill, 
Some in their wealth, some in their bodies' force, 
Some in their garments, though new fangled ill, 
Some in their hawks and hounds, some in their 

horse. Sonnet XCI. 

God ! methiriks it were a happy life, 
To be no better than a homely swain ; 
To sit upon a hill, as I do now, 
To carve out dials quaintly, point by point, 
Thereby to see the minutes how they run, 
How many make the hour full complete ; 
How many hours bring about the day ; 
How many days will finish up the year ; 
How many years a mortal man may live. 

'3 Henry VI., 'II. v. 

In these passages Shakespeare uses the 
figure of report, making one word begin and 
lead the dance "to many verses in sute"; 
and in the passage from ' Henry VI.' he also 
uses climax, or the marching figure, for he 
makes one word proceed double to the first 
that was spoken : thus minute proceeds 
double to minutes, hour to hours, day to 
days, and year to years. In Archiv. f. n. 
Sprachen and in 'Shakespeare illustrated 
by Old Authors ' I have given examples of 
Shakespeare's use of climax or the marching 
figure, but I do not think that I have before 
given examples of Shakespeare's putting two 
of the figures into one. 

There is another sort of repetition called 
antistrophe, or the counter turn, which 
Puttenham thus describes : 

" Ye have another sort of repetition quite con- 
trary to the former when ye make one word finish 
many verses in sute, and that which is harder, to 
finish many clauses in the middest of your verses 
or dittie (for to make them finish the verse in our 
vulgar it should hinder the rime) and because I 
do finde few of our English makers use this figure, 
1 have set you down two little ditties which our 
selves in our ypnger yeares played upon the Anti- 
strophe, for so is the figures name in Greeke : one 
upon the mutable love of a Lady, another upon the 
meritorius love of Christ our Saviour, thus. 

Her lowly lookes, that gave life to my love, 
With spitefull speach, curstnesse and crueltie : 
She kild my love, let her rigour remove, 
Her cheerfull lights and speaches of pitie 
Revive my love : anone with great disdaine, 
She shuniies my love, and after by a traine 
She seeks my love, and faith she loves me most, 
But seing her love, so lightly wonne and lost : 
I longd not for her love, for well I thought, 
Firme is the love, if it be as it ought. 
The seconde upon the merites of Christes passion 
toward mankind, thus, 

He that redeemed man : and by his instance wan 
Grace in the sight of God, his onely father deare, 
And reconciled man : and to make man his peere 
Made himselfe very man : brief to conclude the case, 
This Christ both God and man, he all and onely is : 
The man brings man to God and to all heavenly 


The Greekes call this figure Antistrophe, the 
Latines, conversio, I following the originall call 
him the counterturne, because he turnes counter in 
the middest of every meetre." 

Shakespeare sometimes makes one word 
finish many clauses in the midst of his verses. 
I give two examples : 
Let him have time to tear his curled hair, 
Let him have time against himself to rave, 
Let him have time of Time's help to despair, 
Let him have time to live a loathed slave, 
Let him have time a beggar's orts to crave, 
And time to see one that by alms doth live 
Disdain to him disdained scraps to give. 

* Lucrece. 

She burn'd with love, as straw with fire flameth ; 
She burn'd out love, as soon as straw out-burneth ; 
She fram'd the love, and yet she foiled the framing ; 
She bade love last, and yet she fell a-turning. 

* The Passionate Pilgrim. 

Shakespeare in these passages puts the figure 
of report (anaphora) and the counterturn 
(antistrophe) into one, for he not only makes 
one word begin and lead the dance to many 
verses " in sute," but he also makes one word 
finish many clauses in the midst of his verses 
time, love ; and it may be considered worthy 
of notice that in the passage I have quoted 
from ' The Passionate Pilgrim ' Shakespeare 
finishes several clauses in the midst of the 
verses with the word love, which Puttenham 
uses in one of the little ditties he gives in 
illustration of this, figure, the counterturn. 
For examples of anaphora or the figure of re- 
port in Shakespeare's works seeSonnetLXVL, 
where " and " leads the dance to many verses 
" in sute " ; and also ' Lucrece,' lines 883 and 
894, 918 to 921 ; arid, in fact, see the whole of 
Shakespeare's works passim. 

(To be continued.) 

MISTAKES OF AUTHORS. That capital book 
' The Cloister and the Hearth ' was highly 
praised by the late Sir Walter Besant, who 


NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 31, 1901. 

went so far as to call it "the greatest histori- 
cal novel in the language," and " a picture of 
the past more faithful than anything in the 
works of Scott." The scene is laid just past 
the middle of the fifteenth century. I he 
accuracy of antiquarian knowledge can only 
be tested by the examination of prominent 
details. With all respect, then, for the author 
and for his panegyrist, I propose to point out 
one or two curious faults which the fortifier 
seems to me to have committed, but which 
may easily be forgiven by his multitude of 
readers out of their gratitude and admiration 
for the rest of the work, in spite of its style, 
which is to me frequently a matter of abhor- 
rence. Indeed, the author makes his hero 
speak, p. 122 (Chatto & Windus's edition, 1899), 
of "the garlic, that men and women folk 
affect, but cowen abhor from [sicV* This is 
strange English in a book so modern other- 
wise in its diction as to have "cheek" for 
impudence, and " What the Dickens " for an 

A more serious blunder, as I believe, occurs 
on p. 166, where he makes his "monastic 
leech" speak of "the little four-footed creature 
that kills the poisonous snake." Was the 
mongoose known in Holland in or about 
1455 { I am, of course, open to correction, 
and should be glad to know that our authoi 
was right here ; but I very much doubt it. 
Another case is that (p. 516) in which "the 

child cried a good deal ; and Margaret 

suspected a pin." 

Now it is not likely that a poor Dutch- 
woman or her baby at that date should be 
suffering from a superfluity of stray pins 
We know that brass pins were brought from 
France in 1540, and were first used in Eng 
land, it is said, by Catherine Howard, queei 
of Henry VIII. Pins were made in EnglaiK 
in 1543 (Stow). Our author, therefore, wouk 
certainly appear to have anticipated theii 
use in Holland by a century or more. 

There may be many other such errors in 
this excellent book ; but to hunt them up 
were an ungrateful task. Those few which 
have mentioned struck me casually in read 
ing the delightful pages of Charles Reade' 
greatest novel. There are many misprints in 
this edition, but for these neither he nor hi 
ghost can be held responsible. 


Hotels taken from 'Scraps from a Journal 
by F. S., printed for private circulation i 
1836. The author was Sir Francis Syke 
Bart. : 

" I visited the dockyard; they were repairing th 
fleet, and the ships apparently were beautiful 

uilt ; they are good sailors, as well as fast. You 
ee also here the remnants of balls sticking in a 
ouse, near this dockyard. Underneath is this m- 
cription ' Anglishman's frendskaft English- 
man's friendship.'" P. 41. W C B 

The discussion with regard to what is known 
n France as the Schncebele incident, revived 

the publication in the Figaro newspaper 
i the late Felix Faure's comments on his 
on temporaries, recalls the names of two topo- 
raphical draughtsmen named Schnebbehe, 
ather and son, whose names are now well- 
io-h forgotten. Jacob Schnebbelie (1760-92), 
raughtsman to the Society of Antiquaries, 
lade the drawings for the second and third 
olumes of 'Vetusta Monumenta.' He com-- 
nenced the publication of the ' Antiquaries' 
luseum ' in 1791, but only lived to complete 
hree parts. Schnebbelie the elder died 21 Feb- 
uary, 1792, in Poland Street, leaving a widow 
nd three children in poor circumstances. 
His son, Robert Bremmel Schnebbelie, made 
drawings for Wilkinson's l Londina Illus- 
rata,' and died in 1849, but the precise date 
s unknown (Gent. Mag., 1792, i. 189 ; Nichols's 
Anec. ,' vol. vi. passim ; Redgrave's ' Diet.'). 

There is a good memoir of the elder Schneb- 
belie prefixed to the * Antiquaries' Museum.' 
?\vo sons and a daughter were born during 
the last years of their father's life, and a son 
was born five days after his death in 1792, 
>ut I ain not sure if this was Robert. Schneb- 
>elie the elder was buried in St. James's 
DU rial-ground, Hampstead Road, which has 
3een converted into a recreation ground. 

There is a plan of Elvetham House, an 
Elizabethan house one and a half miles from 
Hartford Bridge, Hants, drawn by J. Schneb- 
belie, in the ' Antiquaries' Museum.' Many of 
the Schnebbelies' drawings are in the Crace 
Collection, among others Elias Ashmole's 
house, Ship Yard, Temple Bar, published by 
Wilkinson in 1815, and No. 17, Fleet Street, 
1807 (portfolio xix. 29). JOHN HEBB. 

in continuation of a note I sent you some 
months ago on the R.V. of the Lord's Prayer, 
to bring before readers the 'Twentieth Cen- 
tury New Testament,' part i., the Gospels 
and Acts, 1898 ; part ii., St. Paul's Epistles, 
1900. This is the work of an anonymous 
company, who may be corresponded with 
through their treasurer at 10, Gordon Road, 
Clifton, Bristol. They specially invite criti- 
cisms and suggestions for a new edition. 
The aim is different from that of a national 
translation, where ambiguities of the original 
are sometimes retained to the greater ob- 

9* s. viii. AUG. si, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


scurity of the rendering. This book attempts 
to give the sense, the one preferred sense, in 
current English. It thus fulfils in part the 
work of a commentary, e.g., John xv. 16, 
iva o TI av aiTi]O"r]T. TOV Trarepa ei/ TO> ovo/xart 
/*ou, So? vfjiiv, is rendered " So that the Father 
might' grant you whatever you ask as my 
followers." A high authority kindly showed 
me that this rendering, " as my followers," is 
inadequate, the corresponding Greek words 
here and the h Xptcrrw so frequent in St. 
Paul including a far greater depth of signi- 
ficance. Yet I venture to think this new 
translation is useful, the words in nomine 
Domini nostri J.C. being, I fear, too often 
repeated psittacistically. 

I disagree with the new translators in 
using the plural you for the singular thou; 
this conforms to modern colloquial usage, but 
to dispense with thou is a damage to our 
grammar, and sometimes leads to obscurity, 
as Matt. xxvi. 32, 34, " I will go before you 

into Galilee Believe me this very night, 

before the cock crow, you will disown me 
three times." In John xvii., sometimes called 
the high-priestly prayer, the Twentieth-Cen- 
tury translators retain thou throughout. 

Again, their way of interjecting " he said," 
" he exclaimed," &c., in the middle of a re- 
ported speech reminds me of the fashion of 
the eighteenth - century novels. The Greek 
order is simpler, familiar, and every way 

It is in the rendering of St. Paul's epistles 
that the clarification of the meaning is most 
apparent. Take this as an example, Rom. xi. 
28-31 : 

" Regarded from the standpoint of the Good News, 
the Jews are God's enemies on your account. Yet 
from the standpoint of God's choice, they are dear 
to him on account of their ancestors. God never 
regrets his gifts or his Call. Just as you at one time 
were disobedient to him, but have now found mercy 
in the day of their disobedience ; so, too, they have 
now become disobedient in your day of mercy, in 
order that they also may find mercy and find it 

The last three words are the rendering of 
vvv, not found in the A.V. or in the T.R., but 
inserted by Westcott and Hort, whose text 
this new company follows throughout. 


AMERICAN WORDS. A trio of words that 
have escaped all dictionaries, so far as I 
know, may be worth anchoring here before 
they are wholly lost to memory. One of 
them is still in use in the farming sections 
of New England : it is snibel, meaning the 
pin that fastens the tongue of a cart to the 
body. This is obviously the Dutch snavel, 
German Schnabel, beak, point, hook. Proba- 

bly the snibel was originally a hook. The 
word, of course, came through the Dutch. 

Skipple, a three -peck measure. This is 
another Dutch importation, schejfel, bushel. 
The reduction of the meaning to three pecks 
indicates that the Dutch bushel was short 

Linkumfiddle, a visionary fool. I have 
heard my New England grandparents use 
this repeatedly ; but that it was not exclu- 
sively New England in use there is a curious 
proof. Washington Irving in his * Salma- 
gundi ' calls the imaginary pedant on whom 
he fathers absurdities "Linkum Fidelius," 
obviously a jocular Latinization of the fore- 
going. The word at first sight looks like a 
pure nonsensical coinage ; but the genesis 
seems to me very simple. There was a variant 
form ninkumfiddle, which is pretty clearly 
the original one, and carries us at once to 
nincompoop ; in truth it is the same word, 
with the unsavoury-sounding final syllable 
(dropped because it means in popular use 
merely "break- wind," and so was considered 
gross) replaced by a humorous verbal flourish. 
That flourish itself was no doubt chosen for 
its general significance of anything trifling, 
as in "fiddle-faddle," "fiddle-de-dee," or the 
common exclamation "Oh fiddle," for " fudge." 

F. M. 

Hartford, Conn. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

his 'History of English Dramatic Poetry' 
(1831, vol. ii. p. 351, foot-note) Mr. J. Payne 
Collier deals briefly with a folio volume of 
six unprinted plays by William Percy, the 
author of * Sonnets to the Fairest Cselia,' 
published in 1594. It was then in the pos- 
session of Mr. Haslewood, of the Chapter 
House. I should be greatly obliged if any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' could inform me of its 
present whereabouts. 


Comber, County Down. 

Gough's edition of Camden's * Britannia ' there 
is an engraving and description of a gold 
ring -found in 1736 at Dorchester, Oxon, and 
bearing the date DCXXXVL, which suggested 
a connexion with St. Berin, who became 
bishop there in 635. It is set with (appa- 
rently) a Roman gem engraved with a meta, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. VIIL AUG. 31, 1901. 

The date may be supposed to be MDXXXVI. 
It is mentioned in Brewer's * Oxfordshire, 
1813, as being then in the possession of Mr. 
Philips, a carpenter, of Wallingford. It is 
not in the British Museum nor in the Ash- 
moleari at Oxford. I am anxious to ascertain 
what has become of it, with a view to col- 
lecting all the facts which bear upon the 
history of St. Berin. J. E. FIELD. 

Benson Vicarage, Wallingford. 

ROYAL PERSONAGES. Can any of y9ur 
courteous readers oblige me by furnishing 
me with the burial-places and dates of 
funerals of the following ? 

Duke of Kent, son of George III. (1 married 
11 or 13 July, 1818). 

Charlotte, Queen of Wiirtemberg. 

Elizabeth, third daughter of George III. 
(? died at Homburg Castle). 

Duke of Cumberland (and son, the late 
duke), place of death and funeral and date. 

Duke of Sussex ; also date and place of 
his second marriage with Lady Cecilia 
Underwood. Further, place of birth and 
death and date of funeral of his son Augustus 
Freak d'Este, and the same as regards his 
daughter Ellen Augusta (1 where married to 
Lord Truro, 13 Aug., 1845). 

The infant Princes Octavius and Alfred, 
and date of removal to Windsor (? died at 
Buckingham House). 

Louisa Anne, sister of George III. ; place 
of birth and death, and date and place of 

Elizabeth Caroline, sister ; date of birth 
and place of death and funeral, and date. 

103, Tredegar Road, Bow, E. 


Australian friend writes to ask if I can dis- 
cover the authorship of a line, 

Looks wise, the pretty fool, and thinks she's 

He has tried so long and vainly to discover it 
that he begins to think he must have dreamed 
it. Can any reader help him ? 


date of his marriage with Anne of Este? 
'L'Art de Verifier' says 19 January, 1548; 
Dyer's 'Modern Europe '(by Hassall, 1901) 
gives December, 1549. May I ask that any 
reply to my question may mention the autho- 
rity upon which it is based ? C. S. WARD 

Wootton St. Lawrence. 

meaning of the following passage, which is 

quoted from the Sporting Magazine (1797), 
vol. x. p. 102 ? 

"A poor man named Lake of Bale, who went to 
the above fair [Holt] to buy a cow, was cheated out 
of five guineas by the stale trick of chalking a letter 
under a pot." 

I fear 1 am showing my ignorance by asking 
this question, but as Coleridge would have 

s , 

said, I am " unalphabeted in the lite ^and 
truth of things " as they used to flourish in 
the eighteenth century at country fairs. 

K. Jr. D. 1^. 

ETONIAN WOODWORK. Can any of your 
readers inform me who is now in possession 
of the old woodwork which was removed from 
Eton College Chapel in 1840] 


up a few days ago an imitation sovereign, 
showing on the obverse the head of our 
late Queen between the words "Victoria 
Regina," and on the reverse the Prince of 
Wales's plume within a circle compony, sur- 
mounted by the Queen's crown, the legend 
being "The Prince of Wales Model Sov rn . 
There is no date or mark of any mint or 
artist. Was such a coin actually ever struck ; 
and if so, with what object ? 


Little Gidding, in Baling. 

"DOORMAN." I have recently noticed the 
following advertisement in more than one 
provincial paper : " Wanted, doorman, able 
to nail well." I have made some inquiry, and 
find that shoeingsmiths call the men who 
nail on the shoe, in contradistinction to those 
who make the shoe, doormen. Whence 
comes the term? Is it local, or general to 
the trade 1 D. M. K 


any Manx reader of 4 N. & Q.' tell me if the 
above family were well-to-do people in the 
island 1 I should like particulars of a man 
named Corlett who, in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, married Frances, widow of Andrew 
Jones, of Gwern y Marie, in Caervalluch, in 
the parish of Northop, Flints. 

W. J. W. J. 

DUBLIN BOOKSELLERS. I shall be much 
obliged by a correspondent of *N. & Q.' 
informing me if there has been anything 
published on this subject. Scant, indeed, is 
the reference thereto (only one name, that of 
Duffy, is mentioned) in 'A History of Book- 
sellers, the Old and the New,' by Henry 
Curwen (London, Chatto & Windus, 1874). 
I need hardly add that numerous are the 
names of the booksellers and publishers re- 

9*8. vm. AUG. 31, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ferred to in 'A History of the City of Dub- 
lin,' by J. T. Gilbert, honorary secretary of 
the Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society, 
three volumes (Dublin, James McGlashan, 

119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

CARTWRIGHT. Can any one give me 
information concerning a family of Cart- 
wright, of Sandbach, Cheshire, whose arms 
were a fess with cart-wheels, with motto 
" In coelo martyris corona," of which I have 
a book-plate, but without date ? I believe a 
family bearing these arms was existing in the 
seventeenth century. L. J. C. 

references to any works giving information 
about this Domus Dei or Maison Dieu at 
Ospringe, founded in 1235, and in the reign 
of Henry VIII. given to St. John's College, 
Cambridge. Amongst the possessions of this 
Domus Dei was the manor of Tangerton 
(now Tankerton), in the parish of Whits table. 

Tankerton-on-Sea, Kent. 

POEM WANTED. Where can I find a poem 
which begins somewhat as follows 1 

I looked far back into other years, and, lo, in bright 

1 saw, as in a dream, the form of ages pass'd away. 

It was in a stately convent with its hoar and lofty 

And gardens with their broad green walks where 
soft the footstep falls ; 

And there five noble maidens sat beneath the haw- 
thorn trees, 

In that first budding spring of youth when all its 
prospects please. 

[' Mary, Queen of Scots,' by H. G. Bell.] 

MR. GEORGE F . In John Wesley's 

'Journal' (13 July, 1789) is the following : 

" I read over the Life of the famous Mr. George 

F , one of the most extraordinary men (if we 

may call him a man) that has lived for many cen- 
turies. I never heard before of so cool, deliberate, 
relentless a murderer ! And yet from the breaking 
of the rope at his execution, which gave him two 
hours of vehement prayer, there is room to hope he 
found mercy at last." 

Where can be found an account of Mr. George 

BRANGWIT. What is the explanation of 
" Brangwit, i.e , the White Crow Act " 1 It 
is mentioned in Gardiner's 'Constitutional 
Documents' in Berkeley's speech on the 
ship-money case. C. A. J. SKEEL. 

Caen, and was admitted an extra-licentiate 

of the College of Physicians in 1683. He is 
said to have practised his profession in 
Gloucestershire. I shall be grateful for any 
information about him, and especially as to 
the exact locality in which he lived and died. 

man of this name is said to have accompanied 
William III. to Ireland, as chaplain, in 1689. 
Can any of your correspondents refer me to 
documentary proof that this is true ? I 
should be greatly obliged for any authentic 
information regarding the above named. In 
1689 there were two clergymen (uncle and 
nephew) having the same name, one aged 
fifty-nine years, the other nineteen years, 
and I am anxious to ascertain which of 
them accompanied King William to Ireland. 

10, Little Stanhope Street, Mayfair. 

kind reader inform me how it is that the 
lower part of certain piers of the above 
seems to be built of Roman brick ? An old 
resident will have it that it is really Roman 
work, but surely this cannot be true. W" as 
the brick taken from some Roman remains 
in the neighbourhood ; or is what we take to 
be brick simply common tile of a much more 
recent date? Is this interesting fact referred 
to in any work 1 I asked this question some 
time ago, but unfortunately received no 
reply. F. SEARCH. 


' A PASTORAL IN PINK.' Can you tell me the 
author or publisher of ' A Pastoral in Pink ' 1 
I have been unable to find this in any 
bookseller's list, so suspect it appeared in a 
magazine or collection. P. C. W. 

BONAPARTE QUERIES. Whom did Caroline 
Murat (nee Bonaparte) marry after her hus- 
band's decease 1 Was there any offspring ? 
Are there living descendants of Marie Louise, 
ex-Empress of the French, and of her second 
husband Count Neipperg 1 


Mr. C. G. Harper's entertaining book 'The 
Great North Road ' (vol. ii.) mention is made 
and a picture given of that "strange mound 
with the stranger name," Nineveh, opposite 
Allerton Park, near Walshford Bridge. There 
is a farmhouse four miles from Epworth, 
on the Yorkshire border, which bears the same 
name. Some twenty years since a letter 
addressed to the occupant of this farm, and 
bearing the superscription " Mr. Earl, Nine- 


NOTES. AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 31, 1001. 

veh " (neither more nor less), was posted in 
Chicago, and duly delivered ! I write, how- 
ever, to ask if any one can suggest a reason 
why this name should have been given to these 
places. C. C. B. 

" GHETTO.'-The 'H.E.D.' says, " Of the 
many guesses as to the ultimate etymology, 
perhaps the most plausible is that it is an 
abbreviation of borghetto^ diminutive of borgo, 
borough " ; but MR. ST. GLAIR BADDELEY, in 
a learned contribution on the Roman ghetto 
(9 th S. iii. 91), states in a note that ghetto 
means the "shut-in," corrupted from a 
Hebrew term. What is the Hebrew term? 
There is no explanation of the word in 
Graetz's great work on the Jews. 


" BOLTEN." The Ruc/ly Advertiser of 
27 April uses the word " bolten " to describe 
a truss of straw. Should it not be bolt=ti'U.8S 
(a rounded bundle), plural lolt-en ? K. 

A. H. Clough, in the days of his boyhood at 
Rugby, wrote a poem with this refrain, of 
which I recall two stanzas, recited to me 
some fifty years ago : 

When juniors on the pump were set, 
To pelt at and to sing, 

And sent to buy 

A pennyworth of string : 

When we walked about the playground 

With our breakfast in our hand, 
Ere the days of tea and coffee, 

There were giants in the land ! 
Can any old Rugby man supply what is 
incomplete in the former stanza ? 

14, Norham Road, Oxford. 

(9 th S. vii. 64, 173, 274, 375 ; vm. 17, 86.) 

IN reference to COL. PRIDEAUX'S inter- 
esting note he may like to know 

1. The place-termination wick. Bacon's 
Popular Atlas of the British Isles ' does not 
show one single instance of the termination 
-wich in the main valley of the Thames about 
London Bridge, except " Wych Street," 
quoted by COL. PRIDEAUX. Of Wick or 
Wyck I have found five instances, viz. (1) 
Hannington Wick, near Cricklade, Wilts 
Here for the -ey termination we have Elsev 
Meysev, though near Water Eaton. (2) Hard- 
wick House, near Goring, Oxfordshire, possibly 
modern. The -ey termination is found in Chazey 

Farm, Sonning Eye, Boulney Court, and 
Cholsey. (3) Eton Wick, near Windsor, 
Bucks, near Boveney. (4) Hampton Wick, 
Surrey, near Molesey ; and (5) Chiswick, near 
Putne"y. I cannot trace a single instance in 
the Rennet, Cherwell, Ock, or Colne valley. 
In that of the Lea we find Eastwick, Herts, 
near Harlow, although on the Essex coast, 
starting from Shoebury Ness, we find Great 
Wakering Wick, Land Wick, Wick, East 
Wick, Bridge Wick, Ray wick, Lower West 
Wick, Steeple Wick ; but between the Black- 
water and Stour only Jay Wick, till we come 
to Harwich on the Orwell, followed by Dun- 
wick and Walberswick, with Bawdsey Ferry. 
AsislandswehaveCanvey Island, with Knight's 
Wick, Wallasea, Northey, Osea, and Mersea 
(contrast Meysey, Gloucestershire), all three in 
the Blackwater estuary, followed by Horsey, 
inside the Naze. In Surrey there appears to 
be no Wyck, Wick (except Hampton Wick), 
or Wich, but we have Chertsey, Molesey, and 
Putney as contrasted with Battersea, above 
London Bridge, whilst following the river 
and Kentish coast below London Bridge we 
find Greenwich, Woolwich, Burntwick Marsh, 
Chitney Marsh, Sheppey Island, Harty 
Island, Elmley Island, and round the North 
Foreland Sandwich, Fordwich, with Romney 
and Scotney in Romney Marsh ; but no 
instance of any of these terminations occurs 
in the valley of the Medway. Clearly, then, 
the presence of some barrier like London 
Bridge had an important influence in deter- 
mining the nomenclature of the Thames 
Valley, though, of course, if COL. PRIDEAUX 
can prove his case that the name of Wych 
Street was derived f rom Aldewych, this would 
be an important proof of the presence of a 
Danish colony near St. Clement Danes ; but 
I still cannot understand why a colony of 
traders should have been placed in such a 
position, when all the other foreign colonies 
in London were established so much nearer 
to the trading centres at Cheapside and 
Dowgate. If the Danes were to be lodged 
on the west side of the Fleet at all, I should 
have thought they would have naturally 
have been placed nearer Ludgate Circus. 
However, the cathedral at Roeskilde is placed 
in a somewhat similar position to that of 
St. Clement Danes with reference to the 
town landing-place on Lsa Fjord, and those 
who know that lovely town may, perhaps, 
see in the narrow tree-shaded lanes which 
lead down from the cathedral to the water- 
side, with their elms and very Highland-look- 
ing cottages, the prototypes of the earliest 
Fleet Street. 
2. My quotation with reference to Gothia 

s. vin. AUG. si, 1901.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in the Crimea was merely intended to show 
the presence of Teutonic-speaking peoples 
whether of Low German or Scandinavian 
stock, in the neighbourhood of Cherson, jus 
where the Varangians on their way by 
Novgorod and Kiev to Constantinople woulc 
first strike the coast. We see by all th< 
instances of missionary enterprise in Scan 
dinavia in the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
centuries that Low German missionaries 
were the most successful in making them 
selves understood in Scandinavian countries 
whilst it is well known that Frisians, anc 
even Low Saxons, were to be found amongsl 
the Vikings. For instance, amongst the dis 
coverers of " Vinland the Good " was a German 
who had lived on the Rhine and seen grapes 
Consequently, if we may reason from the 
very similar instance of the mission oJ 
St. Augustine of Canterbury, we may readily 
imagine that the Varangians found their 
earliest interpreters for their intercourse 
with the Greek empire amongst these Goths 
of the Crimea. These people were naturally 
familiar with the name of St. Clement, patron 
of seamen, and, like modern Italian and 
Greek seamen in a storm, would invoke their 
patron in every part of the Euxine. Hence 
his name became very familiar to those 
Northmen who kept up an intercourse with 
Constantinople, as it did also to those North- 
men who established themselves in Lower 
Italy, and were well acquainted with 
San Clemente, the Northman's church 
at Rome. But St. Clement, who was not 
a seaman himself, had only become the 
"patron of seamen" because he was drowned 
with an anchor round his neck at Cherson in 
Dacia, an anchor being his symbol in all the 
Clog almanacs so much used in the North. 
Hence Dacia became inseparably con- 
nected with his name, and, as we have seen, 
a confusion with Dania was not long in 

I am not aware if St. Peter or Our Lady 
was ever looked upon as the special " patron 
of seamen " amongst Scandinavian nations, 
nor can I recall any instance in England or 
the North where a church to either occupies 
the same position, as the fisherman's church 
par excellence, at the entrance to a harbour, 
which is held by Notre Dame de la Garde at 
Marseilles or St. Pierre at Dieppe. On the 
other hand, it is at least curious that the 
finest churches in the Danish fishing towns 
of Sandwich and Hastings, which in the 
eleventh century ranked as amongst the first 
ports of England, should be dedicated to 
St. Clement, who, however, had first gained 
his position as the "patron of seamen" amid 

the storms of the Black Sea amongst people 
who inhabited the ancient Dacia, and some 
of whom, at least, as descendants of the 
ancient Goths, spoke a Teutonic tongue.. 

3. COL. PRIDEAUX will, however, doubtless 
allow that " Aid wych " may be simply a trans- 
lation of " Vetus Vicus" a British settlement 
on the road from Thorney (I forgot this -ey) 
to London, anterior to the Roman town, just 
as Old Street, St. Luke's, Clerkenwell, is said 
to have been a British trackway older than 
the Roman road. The position between the 
Fleet and the stream which entered the 
Thames at Ivy Bridge would be a very 
natural one for a British stockade, and 
Vicus is a term peculiarly applicable to a 
detached group of houses lying along a high- 
way outside the radius of a Roman city and 
its suburbs. Hackney Wick is undoubtedly 
"Vicus," not "Wych"; and Vico, Vicovaro, 
Vico Equense, are instances which will occur 
to every Italian traveller. The derivation of 
F^'pont from "De Veteri Ponte"=0/dbridge 
(there is an Old Bridge of Urr in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, an Oxbridge in Waterford, and 
an Old Ford in Essex) would be an analogy, 
whilst we have four Old Towns in Ireland, and 
one O^stead (Yorks), three Aldw&rkes or 
Aldw&rks (Yorks and Derby), and one Aid- 
worth (Berks) in England. Hence Aldwych 
as a name for a hamlet is not necessarily a 
proof of its Danish origin. H. 

P.S. May I add that the modern in- 
habitants of Dacia, the Roumanians, speak 
a language of Latin not of Greek origin, so 
ihat to the inhabitants of Gothia the neigh- 
Douring continent would always have been 
Dacia, as it was also to the Mseso-Goths of 
Ulfilas ] The Genoese called the coast from 
Kertch to Balaklava "Gothia." 

Perhaps your correspondent H. would be 
good enough to explain the following two 
extraordinary statements which he makes at 
the last reference but one : 1. "Clapham and 
other settlements with Danish names near 
London "; 2. "The specifically Danish termi- 
nation of -wich." His explanation would, I 
venture to think, be very interesting, and 
" am sure that it would be very informing. 


THE ' MARSEILLAISE ' (9 th S. viii. 61, 126). 
_ am sorry if I have written a word which 
las offended MR. KARL BLIND ; I had no 
wish to do so. But one is apt to be carried 
away sometimes, even after the " mezzo del 
camin di nostra vita," by indignation at the 
Measure which some envious spirits seem to 
;ake in plucking the laurels from one brow 


NOTES. AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. AUG. 31, 1901. 

in order to graft them on another, which, in 
nine cases out of ten, has no possible claim 
to them. This has been seen in the cases of 
* God save the King,' Handel's (so-called ' Har- 
monious Blacksmith ') air in the Fifth Suite, &c. 
In the present case the evidence on the 
plaintiffs side, poor Rouget de 1'Isle being 
the defendant, seems most unsatisfactory. 

I assume that the old masses, from which 
the defendant is said to have stolen, were 
never printed at the time of their supposed 
composition. The plaintiff therefore must 
produce them, or prove satisfactorily their 
existence and contents. When I say prove, I 
mean prove in the technical sense, so as to 
bear examination of the evidence. He ought 
further to prove that Rouget had ever seen 
or heard these alleged compositions, or one 
of them. The evidence of Fetis cannot be 
held to be convincing, prejudiced as he was 
against all things French. If his son had 
evidence in his possession, it is a pity he did 
not produce it. The same may be said of 
M. Albert Legrand. Mr. Schreiber's state- 
ment is unfortunate for the plaintiff. "Such 
a mass," he says, "may at one time have been 

there [at Meersburg], but it was possibly 

put out of the library with compositions which 
are in a defective state and no longer used." 
Could anything be more unlucky for the 
plaintiff, who relied on this as one of his chief 
pieces of evidence 1 

As to Castil-Blaze, I do not think he needs 
an answer. When, however, we are told that 
" that refurbished old German mass in Swabia 
was recognized by a soldier who had fought in 
the revolutionary and Napoleonic warsas being 
in the main the tune of the ' Marseillaise,' " I 
am amazed indeed. How a mass could be 
mainly " the tune of the ' Marseillaise,' " or 
of any other song, I fail to perceive ; and we 
know that " you should not tell us what the 
soldier or any other man said ; it 's not evi- 
dence," as the little judge observed in 'Pick- 
wick.' Evidence of less cogency it is, indeed, 
almost impossible to imagine. The skeleton 
appearance of the first copies of the real 
song is easily accounted for, to those who 
know its history, by the manner of its print- 
ing, by a travelling hand-press following the 
troops on march. This is evidence for the 
defendant, I think, again, rather than on the 
other side. When better evidence on the side 
of the plaintiff comes to light, I shall be 
ready to receive it with respect, and to bow 
to the decision of competent musicians. 


MR. KARL BLIND says he has been through 
a mass of manuscripts dealing with the origin 
and supposed origin of this song. Before I 

issued my work 'Stories of Famous Songs' 
to the public, 1 worked at the subject of the 
origin and history of songs for fifteen years 
at home and abroad. If MR. KARL BLIND will 
consult my book he will find that there is no 
need for him to investigate the matter any 
further. I have considered and weighed all 
claims. I have given honour where it is due. 
Grisons's claim is absurd. The melody was 
composed and published a year at least before 
his (Grisons's) oratorio was written. As a 
matter of fact Grisons "borrowed" the melody 
in 1793 for his ' Esther.' Rouget de 1'Isle's 
' Marseillaise ' was sung and published in 
1792. Has MR. BLIND consulted 4 La Verite 
sur la Paternite de la Marseillaise,' by A. 
Rouget de 1'Isle, published in 1865 ? The first 
title of the "hymn" was, of course, the 
'Chant de Guerre pour FArmee du Rhin.' 
The Meersburg legend is a legend arid nothing 
more. Has MR. BLIND seen the first Strasburg 
edition of the song 1 If he has not, I think 
upon investigation he will find himself wrong 
in the assertion that it "does not bear 
Rouget's name." May I again suggest that 
MR. BLIND should just give a glance at p. 40 
in my work 1 S. J. AD AIR FITZGERALD. 

P.S. In the first edition of 'Stories of 
Famous Songs' the foreign languages are 
more of the printer's imagination than of my 
quotation. But such is the compositor's 

vii. 461 ; viii. 72, 169). In a paper of mine 
on the above subject, at the first reference, 
an unfortunate error crept in, which I had 
fully intended to correct on receipt of the 
proof. When this arrived, however, I was 
abroad, and, being unable to have my corre- 
spondence properly attended to, it got set on 
one side, so that until my return home on 
13 August I never knew it had been sent, 
much less that the article had appeared a 
fact communicated by a friend. 

The mistake is as follows : the article states 
that Perrin's letter appeared in the Dublin 
Daily Express, Friday, 22 August, 1879. In- 
stead of this read, " Perrin's letter appeared 
in a daily Express, most probably an Irish 
one, Friday, 22 August, 1879." The letter 
referred to was quoted from a newspaper 
cutting in the possession of E. Lytton Falki- 
ner, Esq., of Dublin, who very kindly lent it 
me to copy. The owner had surmised that it 
formed part of the Dublin Daily Express for 
Friday, 22 August, 1877. This surmise, though 
extremely natural, proved to be incorrect on 
researches instituted by the present writer. 
The description of the slip is as follows : in 

s. vm. AUG. si, ion.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


large type, "Express, Friday, August 22, 
18 "; whilst in small type on the device stands 
the word " Daily" At the top of the letter 
the editor referred to its having been written 
shortly before Mr. Perrin's death in March, 
1877, the year in which Mr. Perrin himself 
dates it. On the back of the column con- 
taining the letter are a number of Irish and 
other scholastic advertisements, one of which 
mentions 1880 as a future date; this refers 
the appearance of the letter to 1877, 1878, 
or 1879. Now, as the calendar shows that 
22 August fell on a Friday in 1879, the 
only question remaining regards the exact 
title of the newspaper. With a view to 
ascertaining this the librarian of the Dublin 
National Library kindly searched the Dublin 
Daily Express for the date 22 August in the 
.years mentioned, but without success. 

All that can be said, therefore, is that the 
letter appeared on Friday, 22 August, 1879, 
in a daily newspaper, part of the title of 
which was Express. Thus far certainty. The 
strong probability is that the Express in ques- 
tion was published in Ireland. Can any of 
your learned correspondents suggest its full 
designation? 0. C. DOVE. 


"VEIRIUM" (9 th S. viii. 120). The passage 
quoted from the French edition of the Gascon 
Rolls by O. O. H. is incorrectly printed by 
the French editor. In the original roll the 
word is veicii, not "veirii." I have never 
seen either word, but it is possible that 
" veicium " is connected with " vehere," and 
may mean a conduit or pipe. 0. T. M. 

NAPOLEON'S LIBRARY (9 th S. viii. 145). See 
* La Bibliotheque de Napoleon a Sainte- 
Helene,' by Victor Advielle (Paris, 1894, 
16mo, Lechevalier editeur). Napoleon II. 
never came into possession of those four 
hundred volumes. 


Frascati, Italy. 

" PENNY IN THE FOREHEAD " (9 th S. viii. 
104). The phrase "wheedled as children 
with a penny in the forehead " recalls a prac- 
tical joke of old standing which 1 have seen 
played in the following manner. The per- 
petrator selected an unsophisticated youth 
from several present, and induced him to 
allow a coin to be placed on his forehead 
When this was firmly pressed it adhered to 
the brow, and the company were invited to 
look intently at the experiment. Under 
pretence of adjusting it more firmly the 
operator then deftly removed the coin. Bui 
trie sensation produced by the pressure ol 

he piece remained after the coin was gone, 
and the youth imagined that he still carried 
/he coin itself in his forehead. He was then 
/old to show the spectators the tenacity of 
.he supposed adhesion by wrinkling his brow, 
ihaking his head, &c. The grimaces made 
n doing this provoked much merriment, and 
t was not until the laughter of the audience 
)ecame immoderate that the nature of the 
oke revealed itself to its dupe. Has the 
proverbial phrase originated in an allusion 
:o this old and well-worn trick? Many 
variations in the method of the performance 
lave been current, and a coin may have been 
stuck on the forehead without any suggestion 
of making a butt of its exhibitor. This might 
)e inferred in the citation from Burton's 
Diary,' which suggests the enactment of this 
ittle by-play to the family group as the 
ocular friend appears: "Look me in the 
; ace, children, to see if I have a penny in my 
lorehead." An old silver penny is the most 
suitable coin to use for the purpose. 


With regard to the circumstances of a coin, 
the forehead, and the eyes, there is such a 
coincidence that one may cite the practice 
known as " shaking the shilling " as supplying 
bhe information wanted. The incident occurs 
in this way. The statement having been 
made that a coin can be pressed on to an 
individual's forehead in such a way that he 
cannot shake it off, a cold coin is applied 
thereto by a second party, with the request 
that the victim of the practical joke shall 
look the operator straight in the eyes. With 
the attention so fixed it is easy to withdraw 
the coin surreptitiously when removing the 
hand ; and the victim being asked to try to 
shake off the coin will attempt to dp so, mis- 
taking the cold feeling still remaining for 
the coin itself. The phrase "shaking the 
shilling" has come to be used loosely as 
descriptive of any piece of folly ; for example, 
undue enthusiasm for football is said to be 
"as bad as shaking the shilling." 


SOURCE OF QUOTATION (9 th S. vii. 8, 292, 

He, dying, bequeathed to his son a good name. 

This line begins the third stanza of Farmer 
Blackberry's song in John O'Keefe's opera 
'The Farmer,' Act I., with music by Wm. 
Shield, performed at Covent Garden Theatre 
in 1787. Sung by Mr. Darley, it was deservedly 
popular. It is a sound -hearted lyric, of a 
class far superior to the rubbish which a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. vm. AUG. 31, MOL 

century later found favour at music-halls. 
It has rung in my ears since childhood. 


Ere around the huge oak, that o'ershadows yon mill, 

The fond ivy had dared to entwine ; 
Ere the church was a ruin that nods on the hill, 

Or a rook built his nest on the pine ; 
Could I trace back the time, a far distant date, 

Since my forefathers toiPd in this field, 
And the farm I now hold on your honour's estate 

Is the same that my grandfather till'd. 
He, dying, bequeath'd to his son a good name, 

Which unsullied descended to me ; 
For my child I've preserv'd it, unblemish'd with 

And it still from a spot shall be free. 

The words alone are given in O'Keefe's 
* Dramatic Works,' vol. iv. p. 274, and ' Uni- 
versal Songster,' 1825, vol. i. p. 317 ; the 
Lyre, i. 108 ; and, with the music, in Tegg's 
'Skylark,' p. 142; 'Edinburgh Musical Mis- 
cellany,' in 1792, vol. i. 


The Priory, Ashford, Kent. 

CIVIL LIST PENSIONS (9 th S. viii. 1, 29, 57, 
66, 133). I think there is an error in the 
note made by MR. FRANCIS (ante, p. 58) rela- 
tive to the pension awarded to Lady Green 
in 1892. Her husband, Sir William Kirby 
Green, was not "Consul-General in Tunis 
when the French went there," or at any other 
time, though he was in the consulate there 
for three years, 1869-71, and was Acting 
Agent and Consul-General from 19 May till 
5 September, 1870. Lady Green's father, 
however, Col. Sir Thomas Reade, C.B., was 
British Agent and Consul-General at Tunis 
for twenty-five years, from 1824 to 1849, and 
her brother Thomas Fellowes Reade held 
the same position from 1879 until shortly 
before his death in 1885, and had the morti- 
fication of seeing Tunis pass into the hands 
of the French. 

It is interesting to note, as bearing on the 
fact that Sir Hudson Lowe's daughter is still 
in receipt of her pension (ante, p. 36), that 
Lady Green's father was his chief of staff at 
St. Helena. It may also be worth recording 
here that Sir Thomas Reade, who from his 
position should have been of all men the best 
qualified to judge, does not seem to have 
snared the popular opinion of Sir Hudson 
Lowe that opinion reflected in a modified 
form in Lord Rosebery's ' Last Phase,' a book 
in which the author's assumed air of im- 
partiality scarcely conceals the depth of his 
prejudices, and in which that calm sanity of 
judgment which makes him a power among 
modern men seems to have rather forsaken 

In a pamphlet privately printed by him 
at Gibraltar in 1876 Mr. Thomas Fellowes 
Reade, in reference to the unfavourable 
opinions expressed by Sir Walter Scott, 
Sir Archibald Alison, and Lord Campbell on 
Sir Hudson Lowe's character and conduct, 
says in a foot-note : 

" In direct opposition to the dictum of the three 
eminent writers referred to, and confirming the 
more reliable conclusions of Mr. Forsyth, is the 
united and unvarying testimony of brother officers 
and others, whose relations with the late Sir 
Hudson Lowe were of a nature to render them in 
an especial degree qualified to form an estimate of 
his character." 

He also gives a letter written to him in the 
same year by Admiral Rous, who had com- 
manded H.M.S. Podargus at St. Helena, 
1817-19. The admiral says, with convincing 
directness : 

" I state upon honour that I do not believe either 
Sir Hudson Lowe or Sir Thomas Reade was capable 
of performing any act derogatory to the character 
of a gentleman. To the best of my knowledge all 
reports of ill treatment to Napoleon were systematic 
falsehoods, fabricated with a view of keeping alive 
a sympathy in Europe to enable his friends to 
succeed in obtaining a more agreeable exile." 

Miss Frances Reade, of Tangier, who, 
except Lady Green, is the only one of Sir 
Thomas's children now living, on my men- 
tioning Lord Rosebery's book to her, expressed 
surprise that people should still think ill of 
Sir Hudson Lowe, and her opinion evidently 
is that Sir Hudson was liked by his staff 

Sir Thomas Reade was a man of the highest 
character and conspicuous tact, and as such 
his opinions must carry some weight, espe- 
cially when we compare him with the various 
unscrupulous " diarists " who flourished at 
St. Helena. In a previously unpublished 
extract from the diary of Lieut. Clifford, R.N., 
in the Cornhill Magazine for November, 1899 
(p. 665), the writer, who visited St. Helena 
in 1817, pays a very warm tribute to Sir 
Thomas's courtesy and personal charm, and 
quotes him to the effect that Napoleon was a 
sulky fellow, who was never grateful for any 
kindness that was shown to him. 


Park Corner, Blundellsands, Liverpool. 

LONDON, 1620-21 (9 th S. viii. 65). Infor- 
mation respecting this mayor whose ex- 
tremely common patronymic is variously 
written Johns, Johnes, Jhones, Joanes, and 
Jones is somewhat meagre and difficult to 
obtain, which would account for Mr. Cokayne 
not having dealt with him so fully as he 
could have wished, and would, I feel sure, 

9* s. viii. AUG. si, low.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


otherwise have done, in his ' Lord Mayors and 
Sheriffs of the City of London.' I, however, 
gather from the MS. notes which I have added 
to ray copy of that work the following : 

*' My lady Joanes Elizabeth D. of Henry Rolfe of 
Suffolk he was free of the lether Sellers of london 
hir first Hesband was W m Pettos of Norwich the 
son of Thomas Pettos Alderman and maior of Nor- 
wich hir 2 husband was S r Francis Joanes K lord 
maior of london She died on twesday the 29 of aprill 
1634 at hir howse in S* martins lane in london." 

This note was taken from a valuable MS., 
the Funeral Work - Book and Genealogical 
Collections of John Taylor, Herald Painter, 
of Fleet Street, London (1633-49), which 
at one time belonged to Peter Le Neve, 
Norroy, being then known as "Taylor 
Vol. 2," and was subsequently in my posses- 
sion. The will of this Dame Elizabeth Jones 
(of St. Martin's Lane, in the parish of St. Mar- 
tin Orgar : left blank in the registered copy 
Seager, 28 but supplied by the probate act), 
London, is dated 27 April, 1634, and was 
proved in P.C.C., 29th of same month, by her 
sons Roffe and William Pettus ; Robert Nut- 
ting of Gray's Inn, Esq. ; and her daughter 
Susanna Jones, the executors. She therein 
desires to be buried in the parish church of 
St. Martin's "aforesaid." She mentions also 
her son John Pettus and his children, and 
leaves 20s. to the " poore people " of the parish 
of "Keldon" ( = Kelvedon) in Essex. In 
Stpwe MS. (Brit. Mus.) 624, pencil fo. 196, 
this Sir Francis "Johns," whose motto appears 
to have been "Fides justi fiat," is shown as 
son of John " Jones," who was son of " John 
Jones of lueston in the p'ish of Claverley in 
Com' Sallop " Administration of his effects 
(he being described as "of Welford, co. 
Berks ") was granted by P.C.C., 29 January, 
1622/3, to Abraham Jones, the son, Dame 
** Jane " Jones, the relict, having renounced ; 
and further administration of his goods 
13 May, 1630. I am not, however, aware of 
his having at any time a wife so named ; but 
if he had, it is quite clear from the above that 
she was not the surviving one, and that the 
administration act must be in error in such 
respect. W. I. R. V. 

Inasmuch as "Dame Jane Jones," his relict, 
renounced taking out administration of his 
goods, 29 January, 1622/3, the name of his 
surviving wife was undoubtedly Jane, as is 
stated in Cokayne's 'Lord Mayors.' Her 
burial and other particulars of his family 
may very probably be found in the parish 
registers of Welford, Berks. G. E. C. 

'PSEUDODOXIA EPIDEMICA' (9 th S. viii. 81). 
AH the editions of this work, from the first 

to the seventh, have title-pages very similar 
to that given by your correspondent. In the 
first edition the name is spelt Browne, not 
Brown. It was " Printed by T. H. for Edward 
Dod, and are to be sold in Ivie Lane. 1646." 
In Simon Wilkin's edition of Sir Thomas 
Browne's 'Works' (published in 4 vols. in 
1835) the title-page runs as follows : 

"Pseudodoxia Epidemica, or, Enquiries into very 
many received Tenets and commonly presumed 
Truths, which examined prove but Vulgar and 
Common Errors. Eighth Edition." 

This differs from the other in the addition of 

the words "which Errors." The reason 

is that Simon Wilkin has simply incorporated 
the headlines which occur in the earlier edi- 
tions, " Enquiries into Vulgar and Common 

Errors," by the connecting words " which 

but." With regard to the spelling of the 
name, it is sufficient to say that in his will 
(a facsimile of which is given in vol. i. of the 
edition referred to above) he signs himself 
Browne, and so also in his letters. In Arch- 
bishop Tenison's edition of the * Works ' (folio, 
Lond., 1686) the name is Brown. 

Royal College of Physicians. 

I have a copy of this work, dated 1669, 
fifth edition, "with Marginal Observations 
and a Table Alphabetical." Whereunto are 
added "Two Discourses, The one of Urn 
Burial, or Sepulchral Urns, lately found in 
Norfolk," the other "of the Garden of Cyrus, 
or Network Plantations of the Ancients." 
There is a portrait "Effigies viri Doctissimi 
Tho. Browne Med. Doctoris." The ' Urn 
Burial ' has a separate title-page and contains 
seventy pages, and the name is spelt Browne 
again, and is " printed for Henry Brome at 
the Star in Little Britain, 1669." In the " To 
the Reader " he signs "Thomas Brown " in the 
* Pseudodoxia ' ; but in the epistle dedicatory 
to the ' Urn Burial ' he signs " Thomas 
Browne." It would seem to have been a 
matter of indifference, and I incline to think 
that the portrait belongs to the latter. 


PEWS ANNEXED TO HOUSES (9 th S. vii. 388, 
517 ; viii. 89). The house (supposing it to bem 
statu quo) stands close to the north side of the 
main road, and at or near to the south-east 
corner of that leading to Sheppertori station. 
It is distinguished by a bay window project- 
ing from the first floor front, affording views 
up the river towards Shepperton and down 
towards Walton. The lawn is over the road. 
The particulars I gave concerning it includ- 
ing the name I had from my father, who 
sold the house to its then tenant, the late 


NOTES. AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 31, 1901. 

Mr. James (?) Henderson, in about 1876. My 
grandfather died 8 April, 1837, exactly thir- 
teen years and ten days before I was born ; 
and I was never in the house but once, when 
I went (c. 24 June, 1868) to recover a cheque 
for the half-year's rent, which Mr. Henderson 
had inadvertently taken away together with 
the receipt. The house was purchased in 
1829, and in the course of seventy-two years 
many changes may have taken place. I 
think I remember being told that the pew 
was an ordinary and not a square one ; also 
that it had become very much dilapidated. 
Perhaps ownership may have in some way 
lapsed through neglect of maintenance. The 
house was long empty after my grandfather's 
death. The " abstract of title '" dates back to 
26 September, 1662, and I am curious to know 
what the lane at the corner of which the 
house stands is now called Station Road, 
perhaps. It is first referred to as " the way 
going in at Many gates," or " Manigates " ; 
afterwards as "Many," "Manny," and 
"Mannigates Lane." I gather that a pew 
annexed to a house is a "faculty pew," 
possession in which may in some way lapse. 
But is there any property in a house or 
place name ? THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

Tower House, New Hampton. 

In my reply (ante, p. 89) the words " the 
Manor House " should appear before " Shep- 
perton." J. J. FREEMAN. 

" COLLATE " (9 th S. vii. 5 ; viii. 26). May I say, 
on the subject of nast, that in many years of 
miscellaneous American residence, travel, and 
reading (the last not small) I never heard 
or saw the word, and did not know it existed 
till your correspondent cited it? It is un- 
fortunate that Dr. Hall did not say what 
part of America it is used in, or what publica- 
tion has ever included it. It seems to me 
most probable that if he heard it in America 
(as I do not doubt), it was from the mouths of 
recent English immigrants, who had brought 
it from home. It certainly has never been 
naturalized here. F. M. 

Hartford, Conn. 

GREEK PRONUNCIATION (9 th S. vii. 146, 351, 
449; viii. 74). LORD SHERBORNE asks "how 
we can be sure what was the ' Roman fashion ' 
of pronouncing Latin." "Of course, we 
cannot be sure," says MR. JOHN HOBSON 
MATTHEWS. Good. Now, why can we not 
be sure? Is it not mainly because the 
"fashion "of Romanists that are long dead can 
be but a matter of conjecture ? In that case 
does not the same argument apply pretty 
fitly when any one asks, What was the 

British fashion of pronouncing English, say 
in 1701 ? If in reply to LORD SHERBORNE, MR. 
MATTHEWS says, "Of course, we cannot be 
sure," how can he, prudently, proceed to an- 
nounce that we can, of course, be sure ("quite" 
sure) that the " English Protestant pronuncia- 
tion " of Latin is " as far from the original as 
we could possibly go"? Has sectarianism 
anything, in any measure, to do with that 
statement? If he cannot be sure of the 
original, how can he possibly be sure, and 
quite sure, how far the pronunciation of 
English Protestants differs from it? 

W. H. B. 

[In English we have (1) rime, (2) spelling, to guide 
us. No wise man is sure, but it seems unlikely that 
the a as in hay is anything but English, as that 
vowel is not so pronounced in any of the existing 
languages which are derived from Latin.] 

"HiLL ME UP" (9 th S. iii. 285, 435, 496 ; iv. 
234; viii. 112). With respect to the old 
coverlet called a "happing," it was not 
necessarily the outer covering of a bed. I 
have one in my possession, and it is woven of 
very coarse wool in a diaper design in checks, 
brown and white, both warp and weft being 
equally thick. The yarn would be homespun. 
It is a very warm covering, and has been 
used for the beds of menservants in farm- 
houses in winter since I can remember. It 
is less easily soiled than a blanket, heavier 
and larger, and therefore in request for cold 
weather ; and, I think, would be used when- 
ever a rug was required. M. N. 

It is rather interesting to find MR. BLAS- 
HILL quoting under this heading from an old 
will the word " twylt" for quilt, as the word 
is still in use in this town. R. B R. 

South Shields. 

WEST-COUNTRYMEN'S TAILS (9 th S. vii. 286, 
410 ; viii. 87). Devonshire children were 
brought up in the simple belief that Cornish- 
men had tails. This bit of folk-lore is 
referred to, if I am not mistaken, in Tre- 
genna's 'Autobiography of a Cornish Rector ' 
and Hunt's ' Drolls and Stories of the West 
of England.' As a youngster and half a Cor- 
nishmari I was more than once chaffed on my 
supposed possession of a tail, most unjustly, 
as I assured my accusers and now beg your 
readers to believe. Perhaps an ancient race 
feud survives in this superstition. 


121). A belief of this kind prevails strongly 
with regard to a certain sept of one of the 
greater Highland clans. A lady who married 
the chieftain some years ago, resolved to up- 

9* s. viii. AUG. 31, i9oi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


root what she called a foolish superstition, 
furnished (or induced her husband to furnish) 
in different shades of green an entire wing 
just added to the family mansion. Within 
six months the lady deserted her husband 
and home, and died abroad soon afterwards 
under very tragic circumstances. Needless 
to say, the popular belief as to the unlucki- 
ness of green survives unshaken. 


A nursery governess who tended my 
remote youth was wont to chant over her 
ribbons : 

Oh ! green is forsaken, and yellow forsworn, 
But blue is the prettiest colour that 's worn. 


CRAWFORD FAMILY (9 th S. viii. 64). The 
Norman origin of the above family pro- 
pounded by Burke is the accepted theory, 
and the conjecture of their descent from an 
Anglo-Danish chief is considered erroneous. 
For a clear and interesting account see 
Anderson's ' Scottish Nation.' 


" MERE MAN " (9 th S. vii. 506). Surely the 
circumstance of an Irishman coming to the 
help of an Englishman in search of a joke 
alleged by a Scotsman is sufficiently unique 
to be worthy of an apotheosis in ' N. & Q.' 


ST. EDMUND (9 th S. viii. 103, 134). The 
news freely advertised that the relics of 
St. Edmund, king, virgin, and martyr, had 
been taken to Arundel appears to have 
caused considerable surprise to some of the 
gentlemen of the press who are called upon, 
on very short notice, to write on subjects 
which they can approach with that complete 
openness of mind which is begotten only of 
ignorance. In this particular instance it 
may be urged by way of excuse for those to 
whom the history of St. Edmund is new, that, 
beyond his own kingdom of East Anglia, he 
was not generally held in great esteem, and 
few churches beyond the boundary of his 
former realm were dedicated to his protection. 
In the west of England he was practically 
unknown. One church in London bears his 
name. In East Anglia the case is quite 
different, and few educated East Anglians 
are ignorant of the principal legends asso- 
ciated with the life of the saint, of his fights 
with the Danes, his tragic death, and of the 
shrine at Bury which was for so long the 
chief object of pilgrimage in the east of 

A few years ago a member of the Italian 
mission in England wrote a book on St. Ed- 
mund, which dealt very fully, not only with 
the events of his life, but also with the 
" translations of his incorrupt body." * The 
book is a curious and interesting one, but it 
was not apparent to every reader with what 
object it was written. "You may depend 
upon it there is some little game up," said 
a well-known Anglican antiquary, "and we 
shall not have long to wait to see what it is." 
The prophecy has come true. The news we 
now have is that the relics of St. Edmund 
have been brought from Rome, and that the 
supporters of the Italian mission in England 
wish to have them conveyed to the large 
new edifice which they have erected in 
Westminster. This project must have been 
under consideration for some time, and the 
secret has been well kept. 

Mr. Mackinlay, the author of the book pre- 
viously referred to, gives a picturesque 
account of the alleged stealing of the relics 
of St. Edmund from Bury, and states that 
they were presented to the church of 
St. Servin at Toulouse. The story as related 
is by no means convincing to the ordinary 
mind ; but possibly those of the faith who 
believe that St. Edmund was capable of the 
crime of assassination after his deaththat 
is to say, those who believe the story recorded 
by Mr. Mackinlay that St. Edmund returned 
to earth to commit a murder may be con- 
vinced by evidence which might not appeal 
to Lord Salisbury's friend " the man in the 

However this may be, the matter of the 
supposed relics of St. Edmund has a serious 
side. If the relics are, as stated, the mortal 
remains of a king of East Anglia, and if, as 
alleged, they were stolen from Bury, they 
should be returned for decent interment to 
the place whence they came. If, on the other 
hand, the mortal remains are not those of 
St. Edmund, it is not seemly that such things 
should be deposited in this way at West- 
minster. R. S. 

If the casket now reposing at Arundel 
really contains the bones of St. Edmund it 
should be one of the most cherished relics of 
the early history of Christianity in this 
country. Since reading about its arrival in 
the newspapers I have been searching in my 

* " Saint Edmund, King and Martyr. A History 
of his Life and Times, with an Account of the 
Translations of his Incorrupt Body, &c. From 
original MSS. By the Rev. J. B. Mackinlay, O.S.B. 
London and Leamington Art and Book Company. 
1893." y 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. vm. AUG. 31, 1001. 

library for data concerning the forced re- 
moval of the remains from England to France, 
but have failed to gain much information 
beyond the bare statement that such was the 
case. By some writers this assertion is 
evidently doubted, for under Bury St. Ed- 
munds in 'Our Own Country' (v. 277) I find 
the following sentence : 

"The monastery was subsequently plundered by 
Prince Lewis of France, who is even asserted by a 
French chronicler to have carried off the body of 
the saint ; but this calumny was afterwards duly 
refuted by the abbot." sa > 7S : ~ 

If the abbot's denial was correct the remains 
of St. Edmund are presumably still reposing 
at Bury St. Edmunds. But what is the 
evidence ? Is the present casket their original 
receptacle ; and, if so, does it contain an 
inscription ? Any information concerning 
this absorbing subject would be very welcome. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

[Our first correspondent also suggests the pro- 
priety of an inquest ; but such a process, if legal, 
would be of little avail for identification xmless 
some peculiar physical conformation in the bones, 
adequately vouched for in history, could be dis- 
covered. It seems best to clear up first the story 
of the removal and the authority for the genuineness 
of the relic, as MR. PAGE suggests.] 

268). The following extract from Mr. F. Kid- 
son's 'British Music Publishers' (pp. 141-2) 
appears to confirm my view (9 th S. vii. 286) 
of the modern character of the front of 
No. 22 (formerly 13), Catherine Street, Strand, 
recently demolished by the London County 
Council for the Hoi born to the Strand im- 

"The premises in Catherine Street were not 
numbered during their occupation by the Walsh 
family, but, as shown by several of Randall's 
imprints, they were afterwards numbered 13 in the 
street, and probably this number would hold good 
to-day for their site. It has been stated that the 
Echo office which is No. 22 is Walsh's old shop, 
but this opinion I do not share. No definite proof 
is offered except the fact that the frontage of the 
building shows certain musical emblems, which a 
vivid imagination has turned into a harp and a haut- 
boy. I think an impartial examination will show 
that these ornaments are of a more recent date than 
Walsh's time. They consist of a bas-relief, formec 
either of plasterer terra-cptta, repeated in duplicate 
over two windows. Their design is plainly a con 
ventional lyre, backed by Apollo's rays, and with f 
wreath or foliage of bay leaves at the foot of the 
lyre. The two lower windows are ornamented witl 
trophies of helmets, flags, &c. The whole frontage 
is Victorian stucco, and it is acknowledged that the 

From the same work we learn that the elder 
Walsh's imprint was 

"John Welch [sic], musical instrument maker to 
his Majesty, at the Golden Harp and Hautboy, in 
Catherine Street, against Somerset House Water 


Gate, in the Strand, 1697." 
Canoubury Mansions, N. 

SPIDER FOLK-LORE (8 th S. ix. 7, 195, 256, 437, 
494; xi. 30). 'Vulgar Superstition,' Asiatic 
Journal, Aug., 1825, vol. xx. p. 170, art. 14, 

" 14. It is related by most Mussulman women 
that one of the sons of Ulee, either Hussun or 
Hasyen, having lost a battle with Eezeed, in his 
flight hid himself in a jar, which a spider imme- 
diately covered with a very strong web. The 
enemy coming up soon after had well-nigh been 
balked in their pursuit ; but a lizard near the jar 
immediately made a noise, intimating thereby that 
the game was there, and a rat set about gnawing 
the spider's web which concealed the refugee ; the 
consequence of which was that he was discovered 
and slain. Since this transaction the Mussulmans 
venerate the spider, and will not suffer it to be 
injured, but denounce with implacable hatred the 
race of rats and lizards." 
The fact is that all these stories are invented 

o account for a veneration which has sur- 
T ived the prehistoric sun-cord cultus. (See 

Folk-lore of Filatures,' 8 th S. ix. 324 ) 


Tower House, New Hampton. 

building was first a dancin 
1842 and later a theatre 

and abou 

here is every reasoi 
to suppose that the designs are of this period, am 
they would be just the ones considered appropriat 
for such an edifice." 


The History of the Part of West Somerset comprising 
the Parishes of Luccombe, Selworthy, Stoke Pero, 
Porlock, Culbone, and Oare. By Charles E. H. 
Chadwyck Healey, K.C., F.S.A. (Sotheran & Co.) 
Ix the preface to his admirably executed book Mr. 
Healey advances as an apology for the amount of 
space he has devoted to his subject a few lines from 
Sir Francis Palgrave's introduction to the second 
volume of his ' Parliamentary Writs.' These are as 
follows : " The general history of a state can never 
be -well understood without a complete and search- 
ing analysis of the component parts of the com- 
munity as well as of the country. Genealogical 
inquiries and local topography, so far from being 
unworthy of the attention of the philosophical 
inquirer, are amongst the best material he can use ; 
and the fortunes and changes of one family, or the 
events of one upland township, may explain the 
darkest and most dubious portions of the annals of 
a realm." This well-chosen extract explains exactly 
what Mr. Healey has attempted and accomplished. 
In supplying a history of a cantle of West Somerset 
he has cast a flood of light upon general and local 
affairs ; upon the conditions of the individual and 
the community ; upon genealogy, topography, folk 
superstitions, and all things, in short, in which the 
antiquary most delights. With the patient fidelity 
of a herald and the accurate observation of an 



archaeologist he has traced the district with which 
he deals mile by mile we had almost said foot by 
foot and has left nothing unrecorded in which it 
is possible to feel an interest. When we read 
his proffered appeal to our indulgence for the 
extent of his labours we can only wish that 
antiquaries and historians as competent and as 
zealous would treat other parts of the United 
Kingdom with the same thoroughness. The chief 
difficulty in dealing with this book springs from 
the magnitude of its claim. There is scarcely a 
department of archaeology that does not demand 
attention. After a glance at the district in late 
Saxon times, when most of the conceptions we form 
are guesswork, our author proceeds to condense 
the information concerning the manors supplied in 
Domesday Book, which, however, does not enable 
him to prepare rough or approximately true plans. 
No ancient rolls of the manors are known to 
exist. Of the growth of the population but 
rough ideas can be formed until the period is 
reached of the census returns, and even the ravages 
wrought by the Black Death, from which Somerset- 
shire was naturally not exempt, can scarcely be 
traced. The first accurate information as to popula- 
tion is obtained from the return of those who adopted 
the Protestation of 1641, according to which the 
male population of the district over eighteen years 
of age was 488. The highest point the population 
reached, according to the census, was in 1841, 
when it was 2,154 ; in 1891 it had declined to 1,719. 
Valuable information as to mediaeval farming is 
given, and many interesting particulars are fur- 
nished concerning smuggling, which was prevalent 
in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth cen- 
turies. Smuggling was, indeed, in the penultimate 
century a " huge business." Old customs are fast 
fading. The " neck " or " knack," a harvest custom 
described by Brand, is dead, though