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Notes and Queries, July 26, 1902. 



of Intercommunication 



11 When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Notes and Queries, July 26, K02. 





g* s. ix. JAN. 4, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. No. 210. 

NOTES : Mercian Origins, 1 Jubilee of the 'Leisure 
Hour,' 3 Kipling in America, 5" Rather " -Romney 
and the Royal Academy Jews and Patriotism Black 
Bottles for Wine" Padge," 7. 

QUERIES : Epitaph at Cliff e Toiitine Weeks's Museum 
' Crispe Beau Brummel and B. d'Aurevilly Knocker 
Family, 8 Brandon, Executioner Musicians' Company 
of the City of London Arms of Dutch East India Com- 
panyFourth Duke of Grafton St. Briavel Painted 
Tiles Warlow Family Oldest Borough in England- 
Morgan of Arkstone Rev. J. Taunton Impey Bishops' 
Signatures " Knevel," 9 ' I/Art de Prccher,' 1683 
Lowndes Motto Gee Family Pearls a Cure for Corns, 10. 

REPLIES : Pins in Drinking Vessels, 10 Staunton, Wor- 
cestershire Castor-Oil Plant Horn Dancers Manx 
Gaelic, 11 "God speed you and the beadle " " Shim- 
moz/el " Dickensiana : Mrs. Gamp, 12 Barbara John- 
ston Orchestra or Orchestre Pomeroys of Devon 
Crossing Knives and Forks, 14 Barras Birthplace of 
Beaconsfield Harvest Bell, 15 Surnames derived from 
French Towns "Spatchcock" Fire kept Burning, 16 
Comic Dialogue Sermon Arms of Scotland Beaulieu as 
a Place-name "Outrider," 17 Dissington Family 
Bottled Ale : its Invention, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Wilkins's Caroline the Illustrious ' 
Burke's ' Peerage and Baronetage ' Reviews and 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE following notes, gathered from Bede 
and the * Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,' have been 
put together in the hope of contributing 
something to elucidate the early history of 
Mercia. The Mercian supremacy over the 
greater part of England lasted about 200 years 
(640-820), and although it may have been a 
loose Home-Rule arrangement, leaving great 
liberty to the subordinate or associated 
states, yet it must have had its effect on the 
gradual unification of the English peoples. 
For example, it may turn out that the " large 
hide" is Mercian, and the "small hide" 
Kentish, the squire and the yeoman, to use 
later terms, being the respective ideals of the 
landowning freeman. One of the earliest 
Mercian charters is a grant of a five-hide 
estate by Wulfhere (Birch, ' Cartularium, 
i. 53). One important document has come 
down to us to show how Mercia was composed, 
the 'Tribal Hidage.' It will be assumed 
here that the solution proposed in 9 th S. vii. 
441 is in the main correct, but it may be 
pointed out that Mr. Corbett's solution in 
the Transactions of the Royal Historical 

Society for 1900, which makes the total to 
be 144,000 hides, assigns 100,000 to England 
south of the Humber, for he supposes the 
irst 44,000 to belong to Northumbria, viz., 
Bernicia, 30,000, and Deira, 14,000. 

The first question is, What was the terri- 
tory originally occupied by the Angle tribes 
mown as the Mercians? We have Bede's 
answer that the North Mercians had 7,000 
lides and the South Mercians 5,000, and that 
the Trent divided them (iii. 24). The ' Tribal 
Hidage' gives us the Lindes farona with 
Hseth feld land, 7,000 hides, and Nox gaga, 
5,000 ; and it has been already suggested 
that the latter district is a portion of the 
7,000 hides of the Wocen ssetna, occupying 
'roughly speaking) the present counties of 
Leicester and Northampton. The Lindes 
Earona have their country defined by the 
" parts of Lindsey," and Hseth feld land seems 
to be used for the whole district on the west 
side of the Trent from Hatfield and Hatfield 
Chase to the south of Nottinghamshire. The 
part of Bassetlaw Hundred adjacent to York- 
shire was known as the Hatfield division, 
either because it was originally part of Hat- 
field, or at least bordered upon it ; and in 
the latter alternative the old " Heath field " 
must have stretched down to the borders of 
Derbyshire. On marking on a map the 
North Mercians over the northern half of 
Lincolnshire, the south-east corner of York- 
shire, and Nottinghamshire, and the South 
Mercians over Leicestershire and Northamp- 
tonshire, it will be seen how well the alloca- 
tions fit in with Bede's description. It will 
also become evident that the Mercians entered 
England by the Humber and settled on its 
shores and along its tributaries the Don and 
Trent, the latter giving easy access into the 
centre of the country. 

Another means of fixing the area is afforded 
by considering the districts occupied by fehe 
surrounding states. The Mercians occupied 
the "mark," or district separating the pro- 
vinces of the Northumbrians, East Angles, 
and West (or South) Saxons, and we have 
clues as to the extent of these provinces. The 
Humber, it appears from Asser (a. 867) and 
Geoffrey of Monmouth (ii. 7), was the name, 
not only of the estuary now so called, but 
of the Ouse at least as far as York. Thus 
the limit of Northumbria is fixed not at the 
southern border of Yorkshire, but at the 
Ouse; yet it probably always embraced 
what is called the Ainsty of York, between 
the Ouse, Wharf e, and Nidd, for it was to 
this district that the Northumbrian saint 
Hieu retired (Bede, iv. 23). Westward of 
this, to the south of the Wharf e or the Nidd, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix, JAN. 4, 1902. 

was the kingdom of Elmet, which Bede (I.e.) 
calls British, and which Nennius (app.) says 
became Northumbrian on its seizure by King 
Edwin. Elmet therefore was not Northum- 
brian, and the 'Tribal Hidage' shows it as 
having fallen to Mercia. It was in this dis- 
trict that Penda was killed at the battle ol 
the Winwsed. The site is said to be Wm- 
moor, to the north-east of Leeds, which place 
was reached by Oswy a little after the battle. 
Close by one of the great Roman roads passes 
northward through Aberford. The Northum- 
brians, being comparatively weak in numbers, 
seem to have waited for the attack on then- 
own ground. The Wharfe gives the most 
probable boundary line. It is the boundary 
of the hundreds, one of which is named bkyr- 
ack (division oak?). For the Nidd, it may 
be said that it forms the boundary of the 
archdeaconry of York or the West Riding, 
the civil boundary of this district being still 
further to the north. Possibly the district 
between the Wharfe and the Nidd was a 
"mark" or No-man's-land. Nennius calls 
the district where the battle took place the 
Field of Gai ; Guiseley and Kayley, places 
lying between Cawood and Keighley, may 
preserve this ancient name. Elmet is attached 
usually to Barwick-in-Elmet, and sometimes 
also to Sherburn. 

The Northumbrians, however, made con- 
quests further west, and Ethelfrith's descent 
on Chester in 607 or later, perhaps by way of 

as the position of Spalding and Spaldwick 
shows, and so we may conclude that the inter- 
mediate tribes belonged to the same group. 
The country occupied by the Gyrwas, to give 
them their general name, includes South 
Lincolnshire (Kesteven and Holland), Cam- 
bridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, and the nor- 
thern end of Northamptonshire. Bede (iv. 6) 
tells us that Peterborough was in the country 
of the Gyrwas, and the historians of Ely call 
the people of their district by the same name. 
Further, Bede speaks of the "province" of 
Oundle, just as he speaks of the ''province" 
of the East Angles or of the East Saxons ; 
hence it may be inferred that Oundle was the 
chief city of the South Gyrwas, and so the 
seat of government for the whole group. This 
"province "of Oundle maintained a sort of 
distinction till a later period, being known 
as "The Eight Hundreds" in the time of 
Edgar ('A.-S. Chron.,' 963). The 'Tribal 
Hidage ' assigns only 600 hides to the South 
Gyrwas, so that there had been some enlarge- 
ment, either by addition or by natural growth, 
in the 300 years intervening. That the 
Gyrwas were East Anglian in sympathy and 
doubtless by race is proved by the story of 
their conversion. This was probably effected 
by St. Felix, who is said by tradition to have 
had a church at Soham, on the border of their 
country ; and his successor in the East 
Anglian bishopric was " his deacon Thomas, 
of the province of the Gyrwas " (Bede, iii. 20). 

Sedbergh or of Colne, secured for them most of j Then we have the story of St. Botolpji. It 

the present counties of Lancaster and Chester, | 

which probably remained Northumbrian till I 

the overthrow of Oswald in 641. Oswestry ; 

seems a peculiar site for a battle between the 

kings of Mercia and Northumbria, but if we 

suppose that Oswald was trying to join the 

Wessex forces by way of the Severn Valley, 

it will be seen that Penda attacked him just 

after he had crossed the Northumbrian limit, 

at the southern boundary of Cheshire (now a 

detached portion of Flintshire) as soon, in 

fact, as he became a trespasser on what Penda 

considered his own domains. 
The East Angles occupied Norfolk and 

Suffolk, and their allies or subjects the 

Gyrwas spread themselves over the Fen 

country and its margin. It appears from 

Bede that the South Gyrwas were the domi- 
nant people among the Fenmen he men- 
tions them by name, and their chief was of 

rank to marry a daughter of the East Anglian 

king and the ' Tribal Hidage ' agrees with 

this by giving them the first place in its list, 

thus : South Gyrwa, North Gyrwa, East 

Wixna, West Wixna, (Herstina), and Spalda. 

The last named were certainly Fenmen by race, 

can scarcely be doubted that Siwara, Queen 
of the "Southern English," was the ruler of 
the South Gyrwas in succession to Tonbert. 
Botolph obtained from her an islet in the Fens 
as the site for his hermitage, and the gift was 
ratified by the kings of the East Angles. If 
Boston be the site of Ikanho, the land granted 
him must have been near a Spalda district ; 
and so his story shows that in 654, when 
Penda was in the zenith of his power, the 
Fenland tribes held together under the 
suzerainty of the East Angles. A little later 
St. Etheldreda settled at Ely, " in the pro- 
vince of the East Angles, a country of about 
600 families "probably the Herstina of the 
'Tribal Hidage' which had been assigned 
to her as dowry by her first husband Ton- 
bert, and the people of which, as already 
stated, were Gyrwas (Bede, iv. 19 ; ' Liber 
Eliensis'). It is sometimes supposed that 
they were the South Gyrwas ; but it is so un- 
likely that a chief would give the central 
district of his province as dowry that nothing 
further need be said as to this. Another 
piece of evidence is given incidentally by 
Bede (ii. 12), who, in mentioning the great 

9*8. IX. JAN. 4, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

battle between Redwald of East Anglia and 
Ethelfrith of Northurabria in 617, says it 
took place " on the borders of the kingdom 
of Mercia, on the east side of the river that 
is called Idle," showing that Red vvald's domains 
extended at least as far as the Trent i. e. , they 
included Kesteven and the Fen country of 
South Lincolnshire. 

As on the north and east the Mercians were 
originally shut in by the Northumbrians and 
El met and by the East Anglians and Gyrwas, 
so on the south and west they met the West 
Saxons. It is singular that though the 
'Chronicle' is a West Saxon compilation it 

fives but scanty details of their settlements, 
t would appear that Cerdic in 495 landed on 
the Hampshire coast near Christchurch and 
pushed his way inland ; then (c. 519), leaving 
this district, with the Isle of Wight, con- 
quered later, to his nephews or cousins Stuf 
and Wihtgar (514, 534), sailed away to make 
further conquests. If the names Chard and 
Chardstoke may be relied upon as indications, 
these new settlements were in the western 
part of Dorset. This may have given rise 
to the tradition that to rule the western part 
of the West Saxon country was more digni- 
fied than to rule the eastern (Asser, a. 855). 
About the same time as Cerdic, the mysterious 
Port, with his sons Bieda and Msegla, landed 
near Porchester (501), and, having conquered 
the Britons there, dwelt in the district. 
Nothing is told us of their tribe or ancestry 
or their subsequent history. Port himself 
has a name apparently derived from the 
place he conquered ; but the situation in- 
dicates that they were the Meonwaras, or 
dwellers by the Meon, afterwards conquered 
by Wulfhere of Mercia (661) and given to the 
king of the South Saxons. Stuf and Wihtgar 
and their comrades were Jutes, but the Meon- 
waras may have been Saxons, as nothing is 
said to show that they differed from the great 
body of the settlers on the south coast. Bede, 
relating the story of Wilfrid's missionary 
work among the South Saxons (iv. 13), states 
that Ebba, the queen of Ethelwalch, " had 
been christened in her own island, the pro- 
vince of the Wiccii." If these Wiccii were 
the same as the inhabitants of the Severn 
Valley, the "island" is a difficulty, unless 
they had a settlement in Hampshire, say on 
Hayling Island, in which case Port and his 
sons may have been of this tribe. 

From their settlements on the south coast 
the West Saxons pushed their conquests 
inland in two lines : across the Thames towards 
Bedfordshire (571) and to Cirencester and 
the Severn Valley (552, 577). In the former 
direction they would meet the Angle invaders 

from the north and east, and we may con- 
jecture that in this manner were formed the 
districts of mixed race called the country of 
the Middle English or Middle Saxons (Bede, 
iii. 21 ; ' Chron.,' 653). They became part of 
the Mercian confederation, and seem to be 
those called in the ' Tribal Hidage ' Fserpinga, 
Wigesta, and perhaps Herefinna. In the 
former essay it was suggested that the latter 
occupied Worcestershire, on the ground that 
places called Harvington occur here, and that 
the traditional hidage of the county seems to 
have been 1,200; but there are some objec- 
tions to this, and the Herefinna, with their 
" twice 600 hides," may have been settled in 
Buckinghamshire. In this case Middle Eng- 
land probably means the greater part of the 
g resent counties of Bedford, Hertford, and 
uckingham, with some portion of Oxford- 
shire. Along the Severn the more permanent 
West Saxon conquests are indicated by the 
limits of the old dioceses of Hereford and 
Worcester, the tribes dwelling here being 
called Hecana, Megasseta, and Hwicca. How 
much further they may have been extended 
is unknown, but if the battle of Fethanleah 
(584) really took place at Faddiley,in Cheshire, 
it seems likely that the north of Shropshire 
and most of Cheshire and Staffordshire were, 
for a time at least, West Saxon, for we are 
told that as a consequence of this victory 
"Ceawlin took many towns and spoils in- 
numerable." Another token of this advance 
may be afforded by Cuttlestone, the name of 
a hundred in Staffordshire. The Domesday 
form, Cudulvestone, points to Cuthwulfs 
Stone as the meaning, and Cuthwulf was the 
great West Saxon warrior who penetrated to 
Bedford in 571, and was slain in the same 
year at some place not mentioned. If this 
account of West Saxon advance be correct, 
the Westerna of the 'Tribal Hidage' must 
have been theirs originally, and even Stafford- 
shire and Cheshire, afterwards so distinc- 
tively Mercian. J. B. 
( To be continued. ) 


(Continued from 9 th S. viii. 519.) 
LIKE Chambers^ Journal, which was 
started on the 4th of February, 1832, 
the Leisure Hour used to be published in 
weekly numbers as well as in monthly parts, 
but the sale of the weekly issue gradually 
fell off, while that of the monthly part 
increased, and in 1881 the weekly issue was 
abandoned. In the fresh series music was 
introduced, Sullivan contributing a duet, 
' The Sisters,' based on newly published words, 

NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. 4, 1902. 

for the use of which Tennyson gave special 
permission. In 1900 great changes were 
again made, both in the size and appearance 
of the magazine, bringing it well up to 
modern requirements. My father fre- 
quently advised that advertisements should 
be taken for the monthly parts, and repre- 
sented what an additional source of revenue 
they would prove ; but for many years no 
advertisements except a few from its own 
publisher were inserted, "the commercial 
advantage being held to be subordinate to 
the general aim." 

The Leisure Hour has always been noted 
for its excellent illustrations. Mr. (after- 
wards Sir) John Gilbert was for long its 
principal artist, and as a contrast to later 
times, it is interesting to note that at the 
height of his fame he never charged more 
than five guineas a drawing. 

Through the kindness of Mr. James 
Bowden and the Rev. Richard Lovett, I 
am in a position to give the number of 
publications of all kinds issued by the 
Religious Tract Society during the' year 
ending March 31st, 1901, and the total 
issues from the formation of the Society. 
During that year 682 new publications 
were issued, of which 268 were tracts. 
The Society has already published, or 
helped others to publish, books and tracts 
in 250 languages, dialects, and characters. 
The total circulation in the year from 
the home depot, including books, tracts, 
booklets, handbills, periodicals (reckoned in 
numbers), cards, and miscellaneous issues, 
reached 31,646,560, including 15,227,990 
tracts. The issues from foreign depots, 
so far as can be ascertained, amounted to 
20,000,000, making a total circulation of 
51,646,560, and of 3,438,565,420 since the 
formation of the Society. 

The Jubilee number records the important 
services rendered to the literature of the 
people by the Messrs. Chambers and John 
Cassell. And in addition to these mention 
should also be made of the father of our 
periodical literature, John Limbird, as well 
as Charles Knight. In January, 1822, Lim- 
bird started the Mirror, and it was published 
weekly at the then low price of twopence 
It consisted of a sheet of sixteen dernv 
octavo pages, with one or two woodcuts In 
the Athenaeum for the 22nd of January 1831 
the bound volume for the half vear received 
high praise: "It is just the" humanizm- 
volume that ought to delight the fireside o? 
every cottage in the kingdom." The notice 
was evidently written by Mr. Dilke. John 
Limbird died on the 30th of October 1883 

aged eighty-eight. The Penny Magazine was 
started ten years after the Mirror, being 
commenced in March, 1832, Charles Knight 
undertaking the risk and becoming its editor, 
Alexander Ramsay acting as sub-editor. 
The title was originated by Mr. M. D. Hill, 
then member for Hull. Mr. Bulwer (after- 
wards Lord Lytton) in the House of Com- 
mons described it as "affording a trumpery 
education to the people/' and Dr. Arnold 
described it as "all ramble-scramble." De 
Morgan was amongst its first contributors, 
writing for it a series of mathematical papers. 
Such was its success that at the end of its 
first year it had reached a sale of 200,000. 
The magazine terminated unexpectedly in 

Of the progress made by Chambers's 
Edinburgh Journal when entering on its 
fourteenth year, the number for January 4th, 
1845, contains an interesting account. The 
sale of the monthly part is given as forty 
thousand, while that of ' Chambers's Informa- 
tion for the People ' had been about a hundred 
and thirty thousand ; and the same article 
states that upwards of a quarter of a million 
of printed sheets left the house every week, 
"being as many as the whole newspaper 
press of Scotland issued in a month about 
the year 1833." It is curious that in the same 
article a suggestion should be made that 
books should be sold by general dealers. 

Although Chambers's Journal is still issued 
in weekly numbers, the monthly - part sale 
is far the larger. In 1882 its Jubilee was 
celebrated, and in the number for the 28th of 
January Mr. William Chambers contributes 
'Reminiscences of a Long and Busy Life,' 
and includes a history of the founding of 
the Journal and much interesting informa- 
tion concerning himself and his brother 
Robert. Seven months after the starting of 
the Journal literature had to mourn the 
death of Sir Walter Scott, which occurred on 
the 21st of September, 1832. At the funeral, 
which took place on Wednesday, the 26th, 
the brothers were present, and William 
writes of it : " The spectacle presented at 
the final solemnity the large concourse of 
mourners clustered under the trees near 
the ruins of the Abbey .of Dryburgh, the 
sonorous reading of the funeral service 
amidst the silent crowd, and the gloomy 
atmosphere overhead is one never to be 
obliterated from remembrance." 

(To be continued.) 

9 th S. IX. JAN. 4, 1902.] 


BEFORE giving a complete list of the books, 
poems, &c., written by Mr. Kipling and pub- 
lished in the United States, it may not be 
out of place to append a full list for all of 
which, excepting a few items, I am indebted 
to Mr. W. M. Clemens's 'A Ken of Kipling' 
(New York, New Amsterdam Book Company, 
1899) of every original publication that has 
come from his pen up to the publication of 
'Kim': , 

1. Quartette. Christmas Annual. Lahore, 1885. 
8vo, pp. 125. 

2. On Her Majesty's Service Only. Depart- 
mental Ditties. Lahore, 1886. Oblong 8vo. 

3. Plain Tales from the Hills. Calcutta and 
London, 1888. Cr. 8vo, pp. 283. 

4. Soldiers Three. Allahabad, 1888. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 97. 

5. The Story of the Gadsbys. Allahabad, 1888. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 100. 

6. In Black and White. Allahabad. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 106. 

7. Under the Deodars. Allahabad, 1888. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 106. 

8. The Phantom 'Rickshaw, and other Tales. 
Allahabad, 1888. Cr. 8vo, pp. 104. 

9. Wee Willie Winkie, and other Stories. Alla- 
habad, 1888. Cr. 8vo, pp. 96. 

10. The Courting or Dinah Shadd, and other 
Stories. New York, 1890. Cr. 8vo, pp. 182. 

11. Departmental Ditties, and other Verses. Cal- 
cutta, London, and Bombay, 1891. Cr. 8vo, pp. 121. 

12. The City of Dreadful Night. Allahabad. No 
date, probably 1891. Cr. 8vp, pp. 96. 

13. Life's Handicap : Stories of Mine Own People. 
London and New York, 1891. Cr. 8vo, pp. 351. 

14. Letters of Marque. Allahabad, 1891. 8vo, 
pp. 154. 

15. Barrack-Room Ballads, and other Verses. 
London, 1892. Cr. 8vo, pp. 208. 

16. The Naulahka : a Story of West and East. 
London, 1892. Cr. 8vo, pp. 276. 

17. Ballads and Barrack-Room Ballads. New 
York and London, 1892. Cr. 8vo, pp. 207. 

18. Many Inventions. London and New York, 

1893. Cr. 8vo, pp. 365. 

19. The Jungle Book. London and New York, 

1894. Cr. 8vo, pp. 212. 

20. The Second Jungle Book. London and New 
York, 1895. Cr. 8vo, pp. 238. 

21. Soldier Tales. Macmillan, 1896. (Knowles.) 

22. The Seven Seas. London and New York, 
1896. Cr. 8vo, pp. 246. 

23. Slaves of the Lamp. London and New York, 

24. Captains Courageous. New York and Lon- 
don, 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 387. 

25. The Day's Work. New York and London, 
1898. Cr. 8vo, pp. 388. 

26. A Fleet in Being. London, 1899. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 88. 

27. Stalky & Co. London and New York, 1899. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 282. 

28. From Sea to Sea. New York, 1899 ; London, 
1900. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. 431. 

29. Kim. London and New York, 1901. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 420. 

I have searched the catalogues of American 
publications from 1890, the year in which 
Kipling was first represented in the States, 
right up to 31 October, 1901, for the 
issues of Mr. Kipling's works, &c., which 
have appeared in America. This has not 
been done without some little trouble ; so I 
trust any omissions (I have endeavoured to 
be absolutely accurate) will be pardoned. I 
add also the year of publication and the pub- 
lisher. The list does not include volumes of 


Plain Tales from the Hills. F. F. Lovell. 

Story of the Gadsbys. J. W. Lovell. 

Ditto. Munro. 

Courting of Dinah Shadd, and other Stories. 
With Biographical and Critical Sketch by A. Lang. 

Departmental Ditties, Barrack- Room Ballads, 
and other Verses. United States Book Company. 

Indian Tales. United States Book Company. 

Phantom 'Rickshaw, and other Tales. Munro. 

Ditto. Rand, McNally & Co. 

Plain Tales from the Hills. Macmillan. 

Ditto. Munro. 

Soldiers Three, and other Stories. Munro. 

Life's Handicap. Macmillan. 

Light that Failed. Rand, McNally & Co. 

Ditto. Munro. 

Ditto. United States Book Company. 

Mine Own People. With Introduction by H. 
James. Munro. 

Ditto. Ditto. United States Book Company. 

Story of the Gadsbys, and Under the Deodars. 
United States Book Company. 

Under the Deodars. United States Book Com- 

Wee Willie Winkie, and other Stories. Rand, 
McNally & Co. 


Ballads and Barrack-Room Ballads. Macmillan. 

Barrack-Room Ballads, and other V erses. United 
States Book Company. 

Naulahka: a Story of West and East. Rand, 
McNally & Co. 


Ballads and Barrack-Room Ballads, with Addi- 
tional Poems. Macmillan. 

Many Inventions. Appleton. 


Jungle Book. Century Co. 

Prose Tales. 6 vols. Macmillan. 
The Naulahka : Story of West and East. Mac- 

Out of India : Things I saw and failed to see in 
Certain Days and Nights at Jeypore and Elsewhere. 
The Second Jungle Book. Century Co. 


The Seven Seas. Appleton. 
Soldier Stories. Macmillan. 


The Writings in Prose and Verse of Rudyard 
Kipling. 18 vols. Outward Bound Edition. 
Vols. i.-xi. Scribner. 



ix. JAN. 4, 1902. 

Barrack-Room Ballads. Mansfield. 

Captains Courageous : a Story of the Grand 
Banks. Century Co. 

Departmental Ditties. Mansfield. 

Collectanea: Reprinted Verses. Mansfield. 

Barrack-Room Ballads and Verses. Mansfield. 

Barrack-Room Ballads and Departmental Ditties, 
and other Verses. Mansfield. 

Barrack-Room Ballads, Recessional, &c. Doxey s. 

The Courting of Dinah Shadd. Brentano's. 

Ditto. Marion Press. 

The Day's Work. Doubleday. 

Departmental Ditties, and other Verses. Mans- 

Departmental Ditties: Typographical Facsimile 
of the First Edition. Mansfield. 

The Drums of the Fore and Aft. Brentano's. 

Ditto. Estes. 

The Man who would be King. Brentano's. 

Mandalay. Mansfield. 

Recessional. Critic Company. 

The Vampire. Critic Company. 

Ditto. Mansfield. 

Ditto. Woodward <fe Lothrop. 

Plain Tales from the Hills. Caldwell. 

Soldiers Three. Caldwell. 


Barrack-Room Ballads, and other Verses. Mans- 

Betrothed. Grosset. 

Ditto. Mansfield. 

Departmental Ditties. Mansfield. 

Gunga Din. Grosset. 

Recessional. Grosset. 

The Vampire. Grosset. 

American Notes. Brown. 

City of Dreadful Night ; and other Stories. Ogilvie. 

Ditto. Grosset. 

Danny Deever. Grosset. 

Mandalay. Grosset. 

From Sea to Sea. Doiibleday. 

Works. Swastika Edition. 15 vols., 5 vols., and 
6 vols. Claftin. 

Writings in Prose and Verse. 18 vols. Outward 
Bound Edition. Vols. xii.-xv. Scribner. 

Soldier Stories. Claflin. 

Barrack-Room Ballads, and other Poems. Cro- 

Indian Tales. Caldwell. 

His Majesty the King, also Woo Willie Winkie 

Plain Tales from the Hills. Burt. 

Stalky & Co. Doubleday. 

Mine Own People : The Courting of Dinah Shadd 

The Brushwood Boy. Doubleday. 

Barrack-Room Ballads and The Story of the 
Gadsbys. Burt. 

The Courting of Dinah Shadd. Street. 

Mandalay. Doxey's. 

The Light that Failed. Caldwell. 

Letters of Marque. Caldwell. 

Mine Own People. Caldwell. 

Phantom 'Rickshaw. Caldwell. 

Poems. Caldwell. 

Story of the Gadsbys. Caldwell. 

Under the Deodars. Caldwell. 

Writings in Prose and Verse. 18 vols. Outward 
hound Edition. Vols. xvi.-xviii. Scribner. 

The Absent-Minded Beggar. Brentano's. 
The Absent-Minded Beggar, Recessional, and 
Bobs. Elder & Morgan Shepherd. 
Ditto. Madigan. 
Indian Tales. 2 vols. Burt. 
Recessional. Buckles. 
Recessional and Bobs. Wieners. 
The Vampire, and other Poems. Street. 


Barrack-Room Ballads, Recessional, and other 
Poems. Doxey's. 

Departmental Ditties, The Vampire, and other 
Poems. Doxey's. 

Kim. Doubleday, Page. 

In each case the above titles represent the 
publisher's first issue only for that year. IE 
some instances several editions appeared from 
the same publisher in the same year. 

It will be seen by the following figures 
how the popularity of the writer has in- 
creased or decreased year by year. The small 
number of editions issued in 1900 and 1901 
suggests a falling off of the Kipling mania, 
and is extremely remarkable when compared 
with the previous years' figures : 

1890. Books and editions published 11 

1891. 9 

1892. 3 

1893. 2 

1894. 1 

1895. 9 

1896. . 2 

1897. 14 

1898. 19 

1899. 61 

1900. 10 
1901 (to October 31) , 3 

Thus in twelve years the number of Kipling's 
books published amounts to 144. These 
figures are, of course, influenced considerably 
by the paragraph immediately following the 
issues above in 1901. 

The editions are issued by thirty - one 
publishers, and are distributed among them 
as follows : 

Claflin 27 

Scribner 18 

Mansfield 12 

Macmillan ... 12 

Caldwell 10 

U.S. Book Co. ... 7 

Grosset 7 

Munro 6 

Doubleday 5 

Brentano's ... 4 

Burt 4 

Rand, McNally & Co. 4 

Doxey's 4 

Century Co. ... 3 

Appleton 2 

Street 2 

I may add that several of the above pub- 
lishers are regarded as " pirates." 

13, Marmion Road, Clapham Common, S.W. 

Estes 2 

Critic Co 2 

Lovell, F. F. ... 1 

Lovell, J. W. ... 1 


Marion Press 
Woodward & Lothrop 1 

Brown 1 

Ogilvie 1 

Crowell .. ... 1 
Elder & M. Shepherd 1 

Buckles 1 

Wieners .. ... 1 

Madigan .. ... 1 

9*8. IX. JAN. 4, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

"RATHER." A correspondentofthe.4 cademy 
discussing "rather," on 9 November last says 
the word is unique, implying that it stands 
alone in having a defective comparison. In 
this respect, however, it is hardly more 
remarkable than "good," "bad," "much," 
'erst," and "less." The same writer goes on 
to say that "long ago" the positive of the 
word was " rath," and he cites Bishop Hall 
and May's translation of Virgil in support of 
his statement. This is to overlook " hraSe " 
altogether, which in the form " rathe " recurs 
in Chaucer and later poets. The word, says 
the writer in the A cademy, has no superlative, 
but, as he professes to treat the subject 
historically, he should have discovered that 
" rathest " (" radost "), though obsolete, had 
once a real and active existence. Finally, he 
says the positive degree has been out of use 
for many a day. But Tennyson is not a 
remote writer, and he has " men of rathe and 
riper years " in * In Memoriam,' while he uses 
the word ad verbially in the line 

Till rathe she rose, half cheated in the thought. 


curious to note, in.auctioneers' catalogues and 
elsewhere, how frequently George Romney is 
described as R.A. He never exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, and did not require the ad- 
ventitious aid of the Academy to give him 
" bold advertisement." In looking over some 
old newspapers the other day I came across an 
amusing blunder in the London Evening Post 
of 29 April-2 May, 1780, in which is the 
following sentence, apropos of the opening of 
the Royal Academy of that year : " The por- 
traits of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Dance, West, 
Gainsborough, and Romney gave great satis- 
faction." The writer clearly had not been 
to the Royal Academy. W. ROBERTS. 

JEWS AND PATRIOTISM. Probably the fol- 
lowing extract from the Manchester Courier 
of 9 December, 1901, is worthy of a place in 
' N. & Q.,' especially in view of the last 
column (9 th S. viii. 201) of the interesting 
notes entitled 'Bevis Marks Synagogue 
Bicentenary,' signed N. S. S. : 

" A grand synagogue parade of Jewish troops was 
held in the Central Synagogue, Great Portland 
Street, W., this evening [i.e., 8 December]. The 
pulpit and other portions of the synagogue were 
draped with Union Jacks, and among others there 
were present the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress, 
the Sheriffs, and the .Duke of Bedford. Fully 300 
troops attended, the mingled uniforms of the 
Hebrew Lifeguardsmen, Scots Guards, Dragoons, 
Yeomen, Volunteers, &c., forming a brilliant and 
picturesque scene. The officiating clergy were the 
Chief Rabbi (who, with the Scroll of the Law in 

his hand, read a solemn prayer for the King and 
Queen), the Rev. E. Spero, and the Rev. F. L. 
Cohen, Chaplain to the Jewish members of the 
Forces. Mr. Cohen mentioned that fully 2,000 Jews 
(including 80 officers) had fought in the war. Of 
these 40 had been mentioned in dispatches, while 
two Jewish nursing sisters (one of whom had gone 
through the siege of Lady smith and the other 
through the siege of Kimberley) had also received 
similar mention; 325 Jews had figured in the 
casualty list, nearly 100 of whom had been killed in 
action or had died' of disease. The rev. gentleman 
solemnly read out the names of the fallen, all the 
congregation rising in their places. The service 
was brought to a conclusion by the singing of the 
National Anthem." 

"Patria est, ubicumque est bene" - Cic., 
'Tusc. Disp.,' v. 37 (108). 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 

14 December, 1901 (p. 14, col. 2), says : 

" The familiar black bottle mainly used for wine 
was introduced into this country one hundred and 
fifty years ago by Lord Delaval, who brought over 
from Germany a number of Hanoverian bottle- 
blowers, and started some works adjacent to his 
mansion at Seaton Sluice, Northumberland, for the 
manufacture of black glass bottles, his main idea 
being to utilize some inferior qualities of coal which 
he had mined on his estate. At that time, it may 
be remarked in passing, the black colour of the 
bottles was the natural result of the materials used. 
Since then other materials have been adopted, and 
these by themselves would produce a glass which is 
transparent ; but wine drinkers are so accustomed 
to having their wine in dark bottles that the black 
cokmr has been kept to, and is now produced by 
artificial means." 

R. B. 

" FADGE." An extended application of the 
meaning of this word, as furnished in the 
'E.D.D.,' is worth recording. There one 
finds, sb. 1, that the meanings "a bundle, a 
burden ; a part of a horse's load," are given, 
among others ; and a S. Lan. illustration 
runs " a fadge of potatoes, a fadge of beef." 

In the last fortnight of autumn, when the 
days were approaching their shortest, and the 
weather was tempestuous, I met, struggling 
through the darkness, which was unrelieved 
in consequence of a temporary extinction 
of the street lights, a postman, who said, 
"I could get on better if I weren't ham- 
pered with this fadge o' parcels." He 
explained that fifty years ago a fadge was, 
for example, two hundredweight of coals 
carried in a sack on a donkey's back, and so 
arranged that the load as borne sideways 
was equally distributed on each side of the 
animal. He intimated parenthetically that 
short weight was supplied by the coal 
dealers as a rule. The 'H.E.D.' gives the 
word also. ARTHUR MAYALL. 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix, JAN. 4, 1902. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

the footpath leading through the church- 
yard, and within a few feet of the entrance 
porch on the south side of the grand old 
parish church of Cliffe, near Rochester 
(otherwise of late years incorrectly called 
Cliffe- at -Hoo), co. Kent, is a somewhat 
plain table monument or altar tomb in stone 
of three female members of the family of 
Soinner, which formerly ranked as farmers, 
residing in the parish. On the north, south, 
and west sides of this monument, which was 
apparently erected in 1672 (about which date 
the burial register is unfortunately defective 
for some years), are inscriptions, evidently 
composed by an illiterate person, and dis- 
played and cut in a rude and unworkmanlike 
manner, which, owing to time and weather 
causing decay and a scaling off of the stone, 
have hitherto been deemed illegible, many 
unsuccessful attempts being made to read 
them. _ Having, however, long been collecting 
materials, chiefly from original sources, for 
(inter multa alia) a history of that and the 
adjoining, and also very interesting, parish of 
Cooling, in both of which the county family 
whose head and representative I had then 
recently become have for upwards of 200 
years past been lords and extensive land- 
owners ; and as the inscription on that side 
ot the tomb which faces the church was 
believed to be curious, I, in the summer of 

'00, took much pains and spent considerable 
time in endeavouring to make out the same 
and with the following result-although it 
must be understood that several of the words 
are doubtful : 

" Passengers . weepe . heere . lies . a wife who 

he v r ed i fT a v n or H, x ? pt ?] ni r i J "e? : 

her . lite . one . that . was . all . the . good God I 

Twlthall 'ah ' I h0l V Pe J Ce ' f ' W0 n -jSnd 

the SV ^'f ned u the ' light ' and died I 
the . light . that . mother . to . | one too dear 

' d 

rim W Th 6 f 1S a PP aren % in capitals of one 
hnif/ J W * ther mscri Ptions, which are 
shorter and of no particular interest, I read 
with more ease and certainty. My chief 

W OM 1 ? 8erting f ^ he J>pal onein 
J*. & Q. is to ascertain whether any reader, 

having met with the same in MS., as copied 
long since and when fairly legible, can supply 
a correct transcript. That such inscription 
has appeared anywhere in print I do not 
suppose, although something similar might 
be met with elsewhere. W. I. R. V. 

TONTINE. My grandfather invested in a 
tontine for his five children (1001. each) as 
they were born. My mother was the last of 
the children, and that money should be mine. 
The tontine started about 1817, and would be 
worth something now, as she has been dead 
twenty-four years. The family lived in 
Westmorland. Who would be likely to 
know of this tontine, and where would it 
be registered 1 J. C. C. 

WEEKS'S MUSEUM. I find on a clock of 
some merit in design arid workmanship the 
following inscription : " Weeks' Museum, 
Tichborne Street." Can any reader tell me if 
this was a museum or merely a shop, and who 
Weeks was ? I should like to know the 
period when he flourished. 


[Three clockmakers named Weeks or Weekes 
were admitted members of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany between 1654 and 1713. See Britten's 'Old 
Clocks and Watches,' 1899.] 

HENRY CRISPE, Common Serjeant of 
London, 1678, till his death in October, 1700. 
What is known of his parentage and family 1 
He was a barrister of the Inner Temple, and, 
I believe, M.P. for Lancaster 1685-7. 

W. D. PINK. 

I should be very glad if any reader of 
'N. & Q.' could tell me whether there exists 
any English translation of Barbey d'Aure- 
villy's ' Du Dandysme et de G. Brummel.' I 
find that this book was originally published 
in 1845 at Caen, in an edition of only thirty 
copies. The third edition, publisher! in 1879 
by Lemerre at Paris, contains two portraits, 
one of Brummel and one of Barbey, both at 
the age of twenty. Is there any account in 
English of the reason why the French writer 
produced his extraordinary account of the 
English Beau? I am acquainted with most 
of the English literature dealing with Brum- 
mel, but I should be glad to know anything 
of the history of Barbey's work. 


KNOCKER FAMILY. I should be glad to 
learn anything about Arthur Knocker, gent., 
whose daughter was wife of Francis Thynne, 
ot Kempsford, co. Gloucester, second son of 
Mr John Thynne, of Longleat, temp. Eliza- 
beth. A monument or gravestone in Kemps- 

* s. ix. JAN. 4, i90i] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ford Church, no longer existing, bore his 
arms, 3 text K's impaled with Thynne. He 
is described in the ' Visitation of Gloucester, 
U523,' as of " in com. Suffolk," but else- 
where as of " co. Stafford." There is no 

further information in Mr. Botfield's work. 
This very rare surname exists only in Kent, 
I believe. A. S. ELLIS. 

of ' N. & Q.' inform me if there is in existence 
an authentic portrait of Richard Brandon, 
public executioner, who is supposed to have 
cut off the head of Charles I. ? Richard was 
the son of Gregory Brandon, and died in 
1649. P. SIDNEY. 

LONDON. I am collecting information con- 
cerning this ancient guild, and I should be 
glad if any reader of ' N. & Q.' could tell me 
of any trials to restrain musicians who were 
not free of the Company from practising their 
art within the City precincts. I possess an 
account of the trial of a Mr. Green, organist 
of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, in 1724. I should 
be glad to know of anything else of interest 
relating to the Company, and also if any 
proof exists connecting the present guild, 
whose charter was granted by James I. in 
1604, and the older guild whose charter was 
granted by Edward IV. circa 1461. In the 
records of the Company there is practically 
no information. ARTHUR F. HILL. 

140, New Bond Street, W. 

I should be glad to have a description 
heraldically correct of the arms of the old 
Dutch East India Company. L. L. K. 

OF GRAFTON, 1760-1844. Is it known whether 
the above was ever at Harrow School 1 The 
1 Harrow Register, 1800-1901,' begins too late 
to be of use in this connexion, and the 
'D.N.B.' mentions no place of education 
before Trinity, Cambridge. The fifth, sixth, 
and seventh dukes were all at Harrow. 


St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

ST. BRIAVEL. I should be glad to be 
favoured with any particulars regarding this 
saint or name. MILES. 

PAINTED TILES are set all over the guard- 
chamber floor in the remains of a castle of 
the Dukes of Normandy at Caen, and said to 
have been laid down during the time of 
William the Conqueror, having represented 
on them the arms of some of those who 

attended William in his conquest. In 1786 
these were taken up and presented by the 
Benedictine monks of St. Stephen at Caen 
to Charles Chad wick, Esq., of Healey Hall, 
Lancashire. Some of the tiles bore the arms 
of the Malets, viz., three buckles. I should 
be glad to know where these are now . 

Radnor House, Sandgate. 

WARLOW FAMILY. I should be glad if any 
of your readers could give me any information 
regarding the pedigree of the Warlow family, 
and tell me whether it is of Welsh or English 
origin. G. H. WARLOW. 

or any of your readers tell me which is the 
oldest borough in England ? J. C. 

anxious to discover the parentage and arms 
of Sir Thomas Morgan, of Arkstone, who died 
1595. He married a daughter of Jean, Sieur 
de Merode, and his own daughter Anne was 
the wife of Henry Carey, created Baron 
Hunsdon in 1559. KATHLEEN WARD. 

Castle Ward, Downpatrick. 

REV. JOHN TAUNTON, of Axbridge, Somer- 
set, who died in 1592. Any information 
regarding this clergyman will be gratefully 
received. C. J. T. 

J. IMPEY was admitted to Westminster- 
School on 16 October, 1809. I should be glad 
to obtain any information concerning him. 

G. F. R. B. 

BISHOPS' SIGNATURES. I have derived from 
a visit to Hartlebury the impression that 
Stillingfleet, when Bishop of Worcester, signed 
himself Edw. Vigorn. Am I right? I wish 
I had followed your excellent advice and 
"made a note." There is now an oppor- 
tunity of abandoning the very ugly and 
modern-looking use of "W rces ker" tacked 
on to the initials ; and, if I am right in 
supposing that the ancient style lasted till 
the eighteenth century, there can be no reason 
why a return should not be made to it in the 
twentieth. I wrote to the Guardian and 
Church Times to the same effect; but they 
either regard it as without their sphere or 
think it a matter of little general interest. 
Your readers will, I trust, be otherwise 
minded. W. E. B. 

[See 7 th S. ix. 189; xi. 118 ; 8 th S. iii. 449 ; xii. 84.] 

" KNEVEL." Charles Mackay, in his ' Lost 
Beauties of the English Language,' a work 
which has of course been corrected and super- 
seded by later publications, says "knevel" 
means moustache. He indicates that we got 



s. ix. JAN. 4, 1902. 

the word " moustache " from the Spanish, and 
that we must have had an English word for 
the hair on the upper lip long before the 
Spanish name was introduced. The French, 
Italian, and Greek forms of " moustache" are 
ignored. But Mackay asserts that "knevel 
is pure English. One cannot suppose that 
he would make this statement without some 
ground for so doing. The questions are : 
Where is this alleged English word to be 
found ; and, if found, what is its precise 
meaning 1 See 9 th S. v. 88, 196 ; but these 
references under ' Whiskers,' while throwing 
light on the case generally, do not answer the 
questions. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

'L'ART DE PRECHER,' 1683. Who is the 
author of this didactic poem 1 One Jacques 
Canier makes the requisition for a licence to 
print, which is granted as follows: "Je 
n'empeche pour le Roy la Permission requise. 
A Lyon ce 15 Juillet, 1682. Vaginey." The 
introductory lines are these : 

Enfin tu vas precher, la Liste le public, 
Et fait voir imprime ton nom et ta folie ; 
Mais de tous les metiers, ou Ton peut s'attacher, 
iS^ais tu que le plus rude, Abbe, c'est de precher. 


Portland, Oregon. 

THE LOWNDES MOTTO. The singular motto 
"Ways and Means" (with these inverted 
commas) is used to this day by the family of 
Selby-Lowndes, of Whaddon Hall, co. Bucks. 
Can this be the augmentation of the coat of 
arms mentioned by Burke in his 'Landed 
Gentry,' vol. ii., s.v. 'Lowndes,' as granted 
by Queen Anne to William Losvndes, Secre- 
tary to the Treasury and Chairman of Ways 
and Means ? He is noticed by Macaulay in 
his ' History of England ' (chap, xxi.), and it 
is added in a note that in 1695 he published 
a pamphlet, an * Essay for the Amendment 
of the Silver Coins,' which was refuted by 
John Locke. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

GEE FAMILY. I should be glad if any one 
could inform me when members of this family 
first settled in England, or when the name, 
or any of its variants, is first met with as an 
English surname. JAMES H. GEE. 

58, Park Street, Walsall. 

of folk-lore is by no means reaped. Dissolve 
two pearl buttons in lemon juice until they 
become a paste. Hub on corns three day's 
and three nights running, and the corns 
disappear. An old man's recipe. Is it knowi 
elsewhere? THOS. RATCLIFFE. 



(9 th S. iv. 287, 358, 484.) 

ANSELM'S decree of 1102 appears not 
iterally translated in ' The Acts and Monu- 
ments' of John Foxe. "That priests should 
not resort to taverns or banquets, nor sit 
drinking by the fire-side," stands for " Ut 
presbyteri non eant ad potationes, nee ad 
pinnas bibant " ("Church Historians of Eng- 
land, Reformation Period," 'The Acts and 
Monuments of John Foxe, 1854,' vol. ii. p. 168, 
i.e., book iv. of the ' Acts,' &c.). 

In the Appendix to vol ii. p. 835, is a note in 
which " nee ad pinnas bibant " is rendered 
" nor drink to pins." Reference is made to p. 59, 
where Foxe says that, to check the excessive 
drinking, which was owing to the "multitude 
of Danes dwelling in divers places in Eng- 
land," Edgar 

"ordained certain cups, with pins or nails set in 
them, adding thereto a law, that what person drank 
past the mark at one draught should forfeit a cer- 
tain penny, whereof one half should fall to the 
accuser, and the other half to the ruler of the 
borough or town where the offence was done." 

A note (Appendix, p. 818), saying that the 
actual law has not been found, gives a pas- 
sage from Malmesbury (' Script, post Bedam,' 
p. 56, line 26). The following is the transla- 
tion of it in Sharpe's translation of William 
of Malmesbury's 'History,' London, 1815, 
chap, viii., 'Of King Edgar, son of King 
Edmund ' (p. 171) : 

" Indeed, so extremely anxious was he to preserve 
peace even in trivial matters, that, as his country- 
men used to assemble in taverns, and when a little 
elevated, quarrel as to the proportions of their 
liquor, he ordered gold or silver pegs to be fastened 
in the pots, that, whilst every man knew his just 
measure, shame should compel each, neither to take 
more himself, nor oblige others to drink beyond 
their proportional share." 

The pegs are in the original " clavi." The 
phrase " a little elevated " underrates, I think, 
the meaning of " temulenti." 

The note on p. 835 says : 

" The peg-tankards had in the inside a row of 
eight pins, one above another, from top to bottom. 
The tankards hold two quarts, so that there is a 
gill of ale, i.e., half a pint of Winchester measure, 
between each pin." 

After describing how each person had to 
drink to the next pin, it says the drinkers 
were very liable to get drunk, "especially 
when, if they drank short of a pin, or beyond 
it, they were obliged to drink again." The 
reference given is Si Anonymiana, 125, Gent. 
Mag. xxxviii. 426." 
Further : 

9* s. ix. JAN. 4, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"A very fine specimen of these peg-tankards, oi 
undoubted Anglo-Saxon work, formerly belonging 
to the abbey of Glastonbury, is now in the poss 
sion of Lora Arundel of Wardour. It holds t 
quarts, and formerly had eight pegs inside, dividing 
the liquor into half-pints. On the lid is the Cruci- 
fixion, with the Virgin and John, one on each side 
of the cross. Round the cup are carved the twelve 
Apostles." Fosbrooke's ' Encyclopaedia of Anti 
quities,' vol. i. p. 258, London, 1835. See also Hone's 
' Year-Book. ' 

Ducange in his Glossary, v. 'Potus,' mention 
a canon being passed at a council in France 
which forbade "sequales potus," a canon of 
the same import as that of Anselm's. 

On referring to Hone's ' Year-Book ' I find 
a woodcut of the Glastonbury tankard. The 
letterpress says that the four uppermost peg 
remain, and that the holes from which the 
other four have fallen out are discernible. 
It is made of oak and has been lackered with 
strong varnish, especially inside. It was 
saved from Wardour Castle by Blanch, Lady 
Arundel, who, on surrendering the castle to 
Sir Edward Hungerford and Col. Strode, 
withdrew this cup with certain articles of her 
property, and, retiring to Winchester, re- 
tained it as long as she lived. In one of the 
old inventories of the effects belonging to 
Wardour Castle this cup is mentioned as 
having been brought from the ancient abbey 
of Glastonbury. The above is only a little 
of Hone's account. A woodcut of the tankard 
appears (No. 794) on p. 189 of vol. i. of ' The 
Pictorial Gallery of Arts' (London, Charles 
Knight & Co.). It is mentioned, but there 
is no description of it in the letterpress. 
See also Brand's * Popular Antiquities,' s.v. 
* Drinking Customs : Pledging,' p. 491 of the 
1877 edition of Chatto & Windus. 


St. Austin's, Warrington. 

383, 510). I can clear up this confusion, as 
the parish named by MR. MATTHEWS is in my 
division, and the other is on its edge and 
contains many of my constituents. The 
postal address of " Staunton, Worcestershire," 
is " Staunton, Gloucester." MR. MATTHEWS'S 
parish, "Staunton, Gloucestershire," is a long 
way off, and lies between Coleford and Mon- 
mouth, with a view over the Wye. 


CASTOR-OIL PLANT (9 th S. viii. 224, 511). 
As M. M. L. writes from Costa Rica to suggest 
that eucalyptus trees drive away raosquitos 
and " might drive away flies," may I say that 
no one has ever suggested that the eucalyptus 
will affect flies, and that the opinion that it 
annoys mosquitos is a popular delusion? I 

may add that flies are put to sleep by the 
pungent smoke of a eucalyptus-leaf fire, but 
that mosquitos ply their trade unharmed in 
it as in tobacco smoke. C. O. P. 

HORN DANCERS (9 th S. viii. 444). I have 
just found an earlier reference to the 
Abbot's Bromley dancers, viz., ' Hobby-horse 
Dance,' 6 th S. ii. 368 (6 November, 1880), 
where Dugdale's 'England and Wales,' vol. i. 
p. 7, is quoted. The querist was the late 
MR. EDW. WALFORD. On p. 397 various refer- 
ences are given, but not to Bromley. On 
p. 418 'N. & Q.'s ' old contributor ST. SWITHIN 
quotes from Halliwell an extract from the 
Mirror, xix. 228, ' Bromley Pagets.' It is to 
be found on p. 452 of vol. i. col. 2, of first 
edition of Halliwell. There is also a refer- 
ence to Strutt. I cannot lay my hands on my 
copy, and it is possible only hobby-horses are 
meant, not horn dancers. S. L., PETTY. 


MANX GAELIC (9 th S. viii. 460). In the first 
place, I should like to thank your corre- 
spondent for the interest he shows in the 
preservation of Manx as a living language ; 
and, in the next place, I should like, as pre- 
sident of the Manx Language Society, to 
explain what has been done, and what is 
being done, to keep the language alive. 
We have all felt the need of a satisfactory 

rammar, and now that want is met for 

eginners by 'First Lessons in Manx/ by 
Edmund Goodwin, published by the Celtic 
Association, Dublin, price 6d. A convenient 
reading-book, '^Esop's Fables,' in Manx and 
English, written by an old Manxman of 
Creigneish, and edited by Mr. Roeder, of 
Manchester, is also published at the same 
price at the Examiner office, Douglas. For 
more advanced students the appendices to 
vol. xxxiii. of the Manx Society's Publica- 
tions (pp. 1-183) on Manx phonology, by 
Prof. Rhys, of Oxford, will be found to go 
into the matter very thoroughly. 

During the winter months classes are held 
in the island for teaching Manx, but these 
have to be abandoned while " the season " 
asts. The Manx Language Society is now 
Drying to get Manx placed on the same foot- 
.ng as Welsh in the education code, and so to 
3e officially recognized as an extra subject, 
which may be taught in elementary schools. 
This would be a great step forward, but we 
io not yet know what view those in autho- 
4ty will take. 

There is much enthusiasm among real 

overs of Manx in the island, as distinct 

Torn those mercenary folk who will learn 

and teach only what will pay ; but such are in 

NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. ix. JAN, 4, IMS. 

the minority. If those who take an interest 
in the preservation of Manx will communicate 
with me (Canon Savage, St. Thomas's Vicarage, 
Douglas), I shall be pleased to give all the 
information I can, and to forward a report 
of the annual meeting of the Society held 
last month. In such a case as this outside 
interest would greatly help to strengthen our 
hands ; for we are looked upon by many here 
as unpractical enthusiasts who are simply 
hunting a shadow. It ought to stir up half- 
hearted Manxmen to see the efforts that 
intelligent people elsewhere are making to 
prevent the language from dying out. 

Manx is spoken far more than people know ; 
but not before strangers. When going "after 
the herrings " in some of the Peel luggers not 
a word of English is spoken by the crew from 
the time they leave the harbour to the time 
of their return next morning, every order 
being given in Manx. Dr. Clague, of Castle- 
town, an excellent Manx scholar, has told me 
that in many houses that he visits in the 
south of the island all the directions as to 
the treatment of his patients are given in 
Manx, and frequently no word of English is 
spoken during his visit ; so that it is a living 
language, and more young people are able 
to speak it than is commonly known. We 
have asked to have the ages of those who 
can speak Manx specified in the census 
returns, which will give us accurate figures, 
if they are published. 


St. Thomas's Vicarage, Douglas. 


S. yiii. 422). Considering the frequency with 
which the word "beetle" occurs in pro- 
verbial phrases, like "Deaf as a beetle," 
1 Blind as a beetle," "Between the beetle 
and the block," and the employment of the 
"beetle" or mallet as an implement of in- 
dustry, not only in washing, but in manv 
other occupations, it is highly probable that 
the saying implies merely a wish for pros- 
perity, in the same way that " God speed the 
plough" applied to the pursuit of agricul- 
ture. A large sledge -like implement for 
driving wedges was known as a " beetle," ana 
there is a curious tavern-sign survival of the 
Beetle and Wedge." " To cleave a tree with 
a beetle without a wedge" (Fuller, ' Holv 
War, m. xxiv., 1840, 162). The phrase "Ar 
cleat as a beadle " is sometimes used instea( 
01 As deat as a beetle," meaning, of course 
the implement so called, since nothing coul 
well be more inanimate ; whereas deafness 
an affliction that would at once disqualify 
beadle tor a post where the constant use of 

lealthy sense of hearing is a sine qua non. 
There is no more conceit in him than there 
s in a mallet" (' Hen. IV.,' Part II., Act II. 
c. iv.) ; and Halliwell has " beetle-headed," 
.e., wooden-headed, thick-headed. We meet 
gain with the tendency to mispronounce 
' beetle " in " black-beadle." 


" SHIMMOZZEL" (9 th S. vi. 266, 371 ; vii. 10 ; 
dii. 471). I am glad to see this interesting 
,opic is still to the fore. The opening letter 
)f the correspondence stated that shimmozzel 
lever occurred in print. In reply I quoted a 
modern novel, and I have just met with it in 
mother, viz., 'The Golden Tooth,' by J. 
Maclaren Cobban (" If Will comes out of this 
shemozzle," p. 170). This may reach the eye 
>t* Mr. Farmer, whose address I do not 
mow. Of the terms cited by MR. BRESLAR, 
wff was explained in a letter to the Academy, 
16 February, 1901. A synonym is shickster, 
which will be found in Hotten, and must not 
)e confounded with shicker, which means 
ntoxicated. Moskinner, pledger, is better 
mown in English under the forms moskeneer 
and mosker. The latter was once the subject 
of an article in the Daily Telegraph, 9 July, 

1883 ("The Mosker is, in slang vernacular, 

one who makes a living by taking advantage 
of the business incapacity of persons engaged 
in the pawnbroking trade "). Readers desirous 
of enlarging their acquaintance with Anglo- 
Yiddish should get A. M. Binstead's collection 
of short stories, ' Houndsditch Day by Day ' 
(Sands & Co., 1899). JAS. PLATT, Jun. 


S. viii. 324, 426). Readers are too apt to base 
their comments upon the manners and cus- 
toms of the time in which they themselves live, 
and fail to associate themselves with the 
fashions of the period of which their authors 
are attempting delineation. 

In Mrs. Gamp's time the majority of the 
retail liquor shops in London openly and 
without interference carried on business as 
gambling resorts, nearly every licensed 
victualler announcing at the advent of 
every important sporting contest that a 
sweepstake might be joined on application 
at his bar ; and in the thoroughfares nearly 
every purveyor of penny pies (such as the 
itinerant tradesman cited by Mr. Samuel 
Weller, a decade before Mrs. Gamp's first 
appearance, whose announcement was para- 
phrased by Sam as, " Fruits is in and cats is 
out," and who was credited by his critic with 
ingenuity, by judicious " accommodation " 
of seasoning, in passing off a mutton for a 
kidney, or vice versd, confection) and brandy 

9*8. ix. JAN. *, MOB.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

balls and other sweets and such small dee 
paraded a circular tray furnished as describee 
by the REV. W. D. SWEETING, or with a 

upright pillar rising from the centre, spirall 

hollowed out within, with a capital represen 
ing a Turk's head roughly carved, in th 
hollow turban of which the gambler, o 
payment of a penny, had the privilege o 
depositing a marble which, rolling down th 
spiral, came to its rest in one of the hollows 
and on the inscription in this depended th 
investor's chance of receiving a supply of th 
displayed delicacies or of going empty anc 
copperless away. Those peripatetic vendor 
who were not provided with such gambling 
machinery were equally ready to sell thei 
wares without risk or to gratify the sporting 
instincts of those who preferred tossing to 
buying, and the humble penny or halfpenny 
would then suffice for the chance-deciding 

Experto crede. I well remember the wan 
dering mutton pieman. At this hour his 
familiar chant comes to my ears "like an 
odour of brine from the ocean " might appea 
to another sense more especially as twilight 
deepened into gas-qualified night darkness 
"Pies all hot ! smoking hot ! hot mutton pies !' 
But then in the early fifties a good, grand 
motherly Government came in to take care 
of us and prevent our burying our own deac 
at our own street doors, and interfered with 
our British rights to poison our neighbours 
sure they had the right to poison us in their 
turn with our disdain of elementary sanitary 
mode of living, and swept away the tempta- 
tion to us to "make ducks and drakes" of 
what means we possessed by sending Inspector 
Forester and his merry men to raid the 
recognized gambling hells, and to swoop 
down upon the Bonifaces and their alluring 
sweepstake combinations ; and the men in 
blue at the same time harried the "dollies" 
and deluding pointing arrows out of the 
thoroughfares and shops, and the "coppers " 
sternly " ran in " the pieman and the sweet- 
seller who "skied" the current copper, not 
invariably without suspicion that the prin- 
ciple of " Heads I win, tails you lose," might 
be adroitly applied. And yet the British con- 
stitution has survived ! GNOMON. 


MR. F. G. KITTON would be right in as- 
suming that it was formerly customary for 
boys to toss the hot-pie man for his wares. 
But those itinerant traders, with their steam- 
ing tin "cans," have, through the so-called 
march of civilization and improvement, 
apparently long since disappeared at least 
in London and even the pie-shops once so 

popular are now few and far between. This 
kind of gambling was, as I have always 
understood, done with coin on the palm of 
the hand and guessing whether "heads or 
tails " (otherwise " man or woman ") appeared 
uppermost, and. not with any instrument of 
chance, although I have frequently seen in 
use at pleasure fairs a somewhat similar con- 
trivance to that mentioned at the last refer- 
ence by the REV. W. D. SWEETING the 
"prizes" being of various kinds, and some- 
times pieces of cake, but never, to my know- 
ledge, pies, hot or cold. I well remember 
that about 1856-9, when, as a boy, I was 
home from boarding-school for the holidays, 
an old pieman used to go round the streets 
of Pimlico with small apple and other pies, 
in a basket on his arm, for disposal on the 
toss -or -buy system, the particular terms 
being that the intending purchaser, if win- 
ning the "toss," should have two for the 
price of one. This pieman was, of course, 
unable to cry " toss or buy," as he might have 
done with impunity in days of yore ; but 
the same was unnecessary, as his method of 
doing business was so well known locally. I 
may mention that another noted itinerant 
trader (but on cash terms) in the same neigh- 
bourhood at the time, and I believe until a 
much later date either there or elsewhere, 
was the brandy- ball man a somewhat 
younger individual, and more important, at 
[east in his own estimation who wore a sort 
of smoking cap with tassel and a white 
apron, and carried his commodities in front 
of him on a wooden tray suspended from his 
shoulders. Every now and again he an- 
nounced his approach in a sort of chant, 
ending with " Bran dy ball ! They 're all 
Drandy !" But those were not, as at present, 
the days of cheap sweets and small profits, 
and no'doubt he did well. Tempora mutantur, 
et nos mutamur in illis. W. I. R. V. 

When I was a boy I was a prodigious con- 
sumer of pies, which were perambulated 
round the purlieus of Petticoat Lane by one 
Sam the Pieman, whose " Pie hot ! Pie nice, 
nice pie ! " resounded far and wide, and was 
a clarion call to the hundreds of boys in the 
great public seminary where I received my 
>rimary education. About twelve o'clock 
Sam would reach the great iron gates, 
owards which we all bounded pell-mell, 
houting and raving, and looking like so many 
>risoners behind the grill to any outside 
nlooker, and as fast as he could hand them 
brough the bars his mince and mutton pies 
! ound ready customers. Sam was too honour- 
ble or shrewd ever to tempt any one of us 
o toss him for a pie. He was a merchant, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. ix. JAN. 4, 1902. 

and quite above such low practices. He 
must be dead years now. 


J. Caraden Hotten's 'A Dictionary of 
Modern Slang and Cant Words' has under 
' Spin-em-Rounds ' : 

"A street game consisting of apiece of brass, wood, 
or iron, balanced on a pin, and turned quickly 
around on a board, when the point, arrow shaped, 
stops at a number and decides the bet one way or 
the other. The contrivance very much resembles a 
sea compass, and was formerly the gambling accom- 
paniment of London piemen. The apparatus then 
was erected on the tin lids of their pie cans, and 
the bets were ostensibly for pies, but more fre- 
quently for ' coppers,' when no policeman frowned 
upon the scene, and when two or three apprentices 
or porters happened to meet." 
This supplies the information required. 


BARBARA JOHNSTON (9 th S. viii. 484). Some 
pen-and-ink notes from an old copy of Burke's 
1 Extinct, Dormant, and Suspended Peerages ' 
in my library may interest your correspondent 
MR. JOHNSTON. The copy is of the 1831 
edition, and has the signature of " Jas. Gil- 
bert Johnston, 39, Hyde Park Square," on a 
ily-leaf. The notes are on the page giving 
an account of the Montague family, Barons 
Halifax, Earls of Halifax, &c. George Mon- 
tague, second Baron Halifax, created Earl of 
Halifax in 1715, married secondly Lady Mary 
Lumley, daughter of Richard, Earl of Scar- 
borough, and had issue George, his successor, 
and six daughters : Frances, Anne, Mary, 
Elizabeth, Barbara (died unmarried), and 
Charlotte, married to Col. Johnston. A foot- 
note in the same handwriting as on the fly- 
leaf says, "Col. J. was my g fc grandfather. 
After the death of Lady Charlotte he married 
the widow of the Rt. Revd. -- Twisden 
Bishop of Raphoe, and son of Sir Wm. 
Twisden, Bart." There are also other notes 
on the same page and elsewhere in the same 

The Barbara Johnston of your query may 
have been a daughter of this Col. Johnston. 
Assuming she was, she may have been namec 
after her maternal aunt Barbara, who died a 
spinster. Another note states that Ladv 
Mary Lumley lias a sister Lady Barbara who 
married the Hon. Chas. Leigh. The name 
Barbara " ran " in the Lumley family. The 
Rev. Robert Lloyd, who claimed the' barorn 
of Lumley in 1725, claimed as lineal de 
scendantof Barbara Lumley, sister (daughterl 
of George Lumley, who was attainted. 

It will be odd if this stray marginal note 
from an old book picked up years ago at < 
second-hand stall in a neighbouring city, ana 
recalled by your correspondent's query from 

nemory, where it had been unconsciously 
tacked, supplies the information sought for. 
f it does it will be a remarkable instance of 
he utility of ' N. & Q.,' and an instance also 
f " genealogical luck." 


ORCHESTRA OR ORCHESTRE (9 th S. viii. 424). 

Our attention has been drawn to an editorial 

ote in your issue of 23 Nov., 1901, referring 

the word " orchestra," which reads, " ' Or- 
hestre' is said in the 'Century' to be obso- 
ete, and is unmentioned by Funk & Wag- 
tails." Permit us to point out that in our 
Standard Dictionary,' on p. 1237, column 3, 
welfth line from the foot of the page, the 
wo obsolete forms of the word " orchestra," 

1 orchester " and "orchestra," are given. We 
hall feel greatly obliged if you will do us the 
dndness of correcting this statement. 


24). See ' Visitations of the County of 
)evon,' by the late J. L. Vivian, pp. 605-9. 

W. D. PINK. 

DEVONIAN will find a pedigree of the above 

amily in Vivian's ' Visitations of co. Devon,' 

vhich gives full particulars ; also a short 

account in Archdall's edition of ' Lodge's 

D eerage of Ireland ' under 'Harberton.' 


Various articles respecting this family will 
oe found in 6 th S. ii. 328, 493 ; iii. 58 ; 8 th S. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

325, 433). ROBIN GOODFELLOW is not positive 
as to the religious significance of the Russian 
mode of placing table cutlery. I remember 
only too well the sharp rebukes my father 
was wont to administer to us youngsters if 
we happened to cross our knives and forks 
by way of artistic finish to a well-polished 
plate. My father was of Polish extraction 
and came largely into contact with all classes 
of the best Russian and Polish society of his 
clay, and must frequently have observed this 
cruciforming habit at their tables. 


The sight of accidentally crossed knives 
upon our luncheon table to-day (28 Novem- 
ber) caused a distinct shudder to run through 
my wife and grown - up daughters, all of 
whom first saw the light within a few 
hundred yards of my present residence. The 
nearest one made a grab at the offending 
cutlery and at once carefully placed the 
knives parallel. Further, they almost sirnul- 

9* 8. IX. JAN. 4, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


taneously exclaimed, with evident concern, 
" Crossed knives ! dear me, how very unlucky !' 
This belief is general throughout Devonshire. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

BARRAS (9 th S. viii. 202, 228, 267, 473). The 
definition of this word by MR. NEILSON agrees 
very well with the position of Barras Lane, 
Barras Heath, and Barr's Hill in this town. 
They are all without the ancient walls of 
the city, and were used as outposts against 
attacks upon the gates and walls. It cer- 
tainly seems to be a mutation of the word 
Barre. J. ASTLEY. 


S. viii. 317, 426, 512). I thank MR. RALPH 
THOMAS for courteous mention of my article, 
but nevertheless cannot without another word 
let him throw cold water on my advocacy of 
a memorial to Isaac D'Israeli and Lord 
Beaconsfield on the house 22, Theobalds Road. 
I fancy MR. THOMAS visited it lately during a 
dreary day in November, and viewed it in its 
present uninhabited condition. All houses 
in such circumstances look miserable, and, 
indeed, the favour of the sun's brightening 
rays is always needed to render prepossess- 
ing the aspect of a London house, be it of 
dingy brick or grimy stucco. I have paid it 
another visit, even in the bleak December, 
and standing opposite, under the wall of 
Gray's Inn Gardens, have impartially viewed 
the block, which now consists of five houses, 
occupied chiefly as the offices of solicitors. 
Of these No. 22 only is vacant, and as the 
letting board is gone, I hope it is not to 
remain so. The four occupied houses look 
as cheerful and well cared for as a block of 
offices ever does, and even more cheerful 
than others, on account of the street being 
free of houses on the opposite side, and the 
aspect that of the verdant gardens. No. 22, 
with its pretty old doorway, only wants 
paint, varnish, clean window glass, and a 
bright new knocker and name - plate, to 
render its appearance as imposing as that of 
many houses which have received the decora- 
tion of the tablet, and even more so than 
some. I hope MR. THOMAS will go again, six 
months hence, and give it another chance. 

It must have been but a few years old in 
1802 when Isaac D'Israeli went to live in it, 
and the busy, noisy thoroughfare of to-day 
was at that time perhaps scarcely a thorough- 
fare. But changed as it is, it is not in the 
degraded condition of the purlieus of the 
now partially reformed Seven Dials and 
Drury Lane, and, if I remember rightly, 

tablets are found in that neighbourhood 
where famous people once lived. For even 
when a street has suffered degradation, it is a 
relief to be reminded that it was not always 
as now, that it was not always mean and 
ugly ; and certainly by the erection of a 
tablet the memory of the famous one is not 
besmirched. Also the transformation of 
London, the transmigration of the upper 
class of its habitants from one area to 
another, is a part of its history interesting to 

I hardly think the object of the tablet is so 
much to impress the passing public as to 
give welcome information to those interested 
in the past, to preserve for these a fact in 
the life of the commemorated, and possibly 
to preserve the house itself. Were these 
memorials only to be erected in fashionable 
or respectable quarters the series would be 
indeed incomplete ; so I will hope that the 
London County Council who, as announced, 
are to continue the work happily until now 
conducted by the Society of Arts will soon 
place the tablet on 22, Theobalds Road, 
which will thereby be enhanced in value to 
its future tenant, a worthy Conservative 
lawyer cherishing the memory of Lord 
Beaconsfield in his birthplace. 


HARVEST BELL (9 th S. viii. 201, 308, 427). It 
is part of the sexton's duty here to ring the 
curfew bell in the church tower every night 
at eight o'clock. He also rings the same bell 
at twelve o'clock every day. This latter is 
known as the dinner bell. These bells have 
been so rung from time immemorial. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

MR. BRESLAR is surely mistaken in his 
version of the words painted on the Ripon 
post office (formerly, I believe, the town hall). 
If my memory serves they run thus : " If ye 
Lord keep not ye city, ye Wakeman waketh 
in vain." 

A curfew bell is rung nightly during the 
winter at nine o'clock at Mytton, in York- 
shire, and I fancy also at Whalley, the neigh- 
bouring Lancashire village. 

Seemannsheim, Libau, Russia. 

The church of St. George-in-the-East has, 
since its consecration in 1729, regularly used 
a bell to call to labour at six o'clock each 
morning, and (presumably to discontinue 
work) at eight o'clock each evening. From 
childhood 1 have been familiar with the 
' eight o'clock bell," as it is familiarly spoken 
of in the parish, although very early in my 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. 4, 1902. 

education I learnt to associate it with the 
curfew, a connexion still retained in my 
mind. GNOMON. 


(9 th S. viii. 464). MR. HILL has started an 
interesting subject. Some of our old Norman 
families, deriving their names from places in 
Normandy, are still represented amongst the 
nobility of that province, in which the Due 
de Harcourt holds the foremost position. 
Amongst the lesser nobility, of which branches 
attained to a far higher rank on this side the 
Manche, we still find the families of _Reviers, 
Rivers, or Redvers (which derived its name 
from a seigneury in the neighbourhood of 
Caen*) and of JBailleul, which gave a king to 
Scotland, and of which the original ancestor 
hailed from a village near Hazebrouck, in 
French Flanders, which is passed by every 
tourist travelling between Calais and Brus- 
sels. The great family of St. John which, if 
the descent of Sir Oliver St. John of Bletsho, 
who died in 1437, from the feudal barons of 
that name can be established, can claim 
descent in the male line from a great Domes- 
day tenant-in-chief (Hugh de Port), a very 
rare, if not unique distinction, according to 
Mr. Round derived its origin from St. Jean- 
le-Thomas, overlooking the bay of Mont St. 
Michel, in the extreme west of Normandy. t 
The family of Mohun (De Monteminori) was 
from Moyon, in Normandy, a commune of 
the canton of Tessy, arrondissement of St. Lo 
and department of La Manche (Stapleton, 
introduction to ' Liber de Antiquis Legibus,' 
p. xx). Bethune, from which the Bethunes 
and Beatouns of Scotland were descended, is 
a railway station, canton, and arrondissement 
in the Pas de Calais. The great family of 
De Courcy is from Courcy-sur-Dive, a com- 
mune of the canton of Coulibueuf, arrondisse- 
ment of Falaise, department of Calvados 
(ib., p. xl). Ferrieres, from which the illus- 
trious family of Ferrers (De Ferrariis) de- 
rived its origin, is in Normandy, while Forz 
or Fors, whence the equally historic family 
of De Fortibus descended, is a commune oi 
the canton of Prahecq, arrondissement ol 
Niort, department of Deux Sevres, in Poitou 
($., p. xxxiv). The distinguished family of 
Gurney derives its name from Gournay-en 
Bray, chef-lieu of the canton of that name 
arrondissement of Neufchatel-en-Bray de 
partment of the Seine Infdrieure (ib., p. cxvi) 

* Huet, in his work ' Origines de la Ville de Caen 
derives the name of this seignory (Ripuariai) frori 
its situation on the banks of several rivers 

t I he Genealogist, xvi. 1. 

The baronial family of Tregoz was not Cornish 

>y origin, as might be inferred from the name, 

jut derived from the commune of Troisgots, 

n the canton of Tessy, arrondissement of 

3t. Lo, department of La Manche (it., p. 

xcviii). Numerous other instances might be 

given, and I may further state that a book pub- 

ished several years ago, called ' The Norman 

D eople,' though not to be relied on as abso- 

utely accurate, will afford your correspondent 

ome valuable information regarding the 

irigin of many of our old Norman families. 


The Editor is of course quite right. Camden 

ays ('Remains,' p. 118, J. R. Smith's edition) 

here is no village in Normandy " that gave 

not denomination to some family in England," 

and the names which represent towns else- 

vhere in France, and those reminiscent of 

he provinces of that delightsome land, are 

probably too numerous to be repeated with 

profit in the pages of ' N. & Q.' 


" SPATCHCOCK " (9 th S. viii. 403). Halli well 
dopts this explanation : " A hen just killed 
^nd quickly broiled for any sudden occasion." 
The Rev. A. Smythe Palmer in his 'Folk 
Etymology ' illustrates the same meaning by 
quotations from Kettner's ' Book of the Table,' 
' Memoirs of Thos. Moore,' King on the ' Art 
of Cookery,' Webster's 'Northward Ho,' Cart- 
wright's 'The Ordinary,' T. Brown's ' Works,' 
and Cotton's 'Burlesque upon Burlesque 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Grose's 'Classical Dictionary,' 1796, gives 
u Spatchcock [abbreviation of dispatch cock], 
a hen just killed from the roost or yard, and 
immediately skinned, split, and broiled. An 
Irish dish upon any sudden occasion." 


Mr. A. G. Bradley, in his ' Highways and 
Byways in the Lake District,' p. 62, speaks 
of a man's " being made a spatchcock of," that 
is (as he explains), " of his head being stuck 
in a rabbit hole, and his legs staked to the 
ground." This, I gather, is a Cumberland 
custom. C. C. B. 

S. viii. 204, 412). Sixty years ago, in the 
rural districts of Aberdeenshire, where almost 
the only fuel burnt was peat or turf, the 
kitchen fires were never intentionally allowed 
to go out. The cinders were carefully covered 
with ashes over-night, and when raked out 
in the morning were almost invariably alive. 
When it was the reverse, which did not occur 
more than once in half a dozen years or so, 

s. ix. JAN. 4, i902.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the task of producing a light was often a 
formidable one. We had no matches, the 
tinder-box was not known in our parts, and 
the servantmaid had to enlist the services 
one of the ploughmen with his pocket flint 
and steel. The touch paper was speedily 
ignited, but to produce a flame sufficient to 
light a candle was by no means easy, and 
often took up a considerable amount of time 
The first time I ever saw lucifer matches was, 
if I remember rightly, in 1843 or 1844. 


COMIC DIALOGUE SERMON (9 th S. vii. 248, 
339; viii. 309, 433). In a review of 'Me- 
morials of William Charles Lake, Dean of 
Durham, 1869-1894,' is given a passage from 
(as I suppose) his own pen, which cannot fail 
to be of interest to those involved in the 
present quest : 

" One course at the Church of the Gesu used to 
amuse us much. It was in the form of a dialogue con- 
ducted on a stage between a good man and a sinner, 
and the repartees of the sinner in answer to the 
remonstrances of the good man were often rather 
telling. On the whole, it certainly struck me that 
the Roman Catholic clergy had all the power of 
dealing with the lower classes which our Metho- 
dists have, and in which our own clergy (at that 
time, at least) were very deficient. Another point 
I thought remarkable was the character of the 
tracts which I was fond of collecting in the book- 
shops of the lower parts of Rome, and which almost 
always referred entirely or were addressed to our 
Lord, and seldom either to the Virgin or to the 


ARMS OF SCOTLAND (9 th S. vii. 368, 452). 
MR. EASTON (p. 368), in speaking of the royal 
treasure of Scotland, states that it was " the 
emblem of the ancient league with France, 
from whose kings it was a gift to the kings 
of Scotland." The high authority of the late 
Dr. Woodward was not in favour of this 
origin. His observations upon this point 
(' Heraldry, British and Foreign,' ed. 1896, 
vol. i. p. 187) are, I think, worthy of repro- 
duction here: 

" Popular belief long associated this bearing in 
the arms of Scotland with a supposed alliance 
between one Achaius, King of the Dalriadic Scots, 
and Charlemagne ; and declared that it commemo- 
rated the agreement that the French lilies should 
be for all time coming a defence to the lion of Scot- 
land. . 

_" It is easier to laugh at the transparent absurdity 
ot this fable than to account for the first introduc- 
tion of the fleur-de-lis into the royal coat of Scot- 
land. Historically no alliance between Scotland 
and France can be found earlier than the reign of 
Robert Bruce. 

" On the seal of Alexander II. the lion is the , 
sole charge. On the great seal of Alexander III. | 
(1249-1286) the lion rampant appears alone upon the i 

shield borne by the monarch, but the caparisons 
of this [? his] charger have the lion surrounded by 
a bordure ; this is charged with small crosslets, but 
the inner edge has a border of demi-Jleura-de-lix. 
(Vre"e, 'GenealogiedesComtesdeFlandre,' plate xv.) 
A portion of this seal is engraved in Laing's ' Scot- 
tish Seals,' vol. ii. plate ii. fig. 1, and, I am inclined 
to think, not so accurately given as in Vree's ex- 
ample, where the whole seal is given, and the 
crosslets distinctly shown on the bordure. To this 
bordure I believe we must trace the origin of the 
tressure flory-counter-flory, which had no direct 
connection with any French alliance, connubial or 

From this extract MR. EASTON will see that 
the lion of Scotland was borne alone upon 
the seals of the second and third Alexanders, 
and this certainly at a period long anterior 
to the time given by him (1471), when King 
James III. decided to eliminate the double 
tressure from the royal arms, though long 
subsequent to that pre-heraldic period when 
the supposed alliance with Charlemagne led 
to the popular belief, as Dr. Woodward states, 
that it was the origin of the tressure in the 
Scottish arms. 

Dr. Woodward would seem to have been 
aware of the Act of Parliament in 1471, men- 
tioned by MR. EASTON, by which James III. 
affected to do away with the tressure. He 
gives the enacting words (p. 189) : " In tyme 
to cum thar suld be na double tresor about 
his armys, but that he suld ber hale armys of 
the lyoun without ony mar," and says that it 
is not easy to explain the motive for the 
Act, which, however, was never carried into 
effect. J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

Antigua, W.I. 

BEAULIEU AS A PLACE-NAME (9 th S. vi. 87, 
216 ; viii. 397). The abbot of a monastery 
de Bello Loco is recorded in various docu- 
ments of Honorius III., which SIR E. BEWLEY 
will easily find from the index to Pressuti's 
magnificent edition of that Pope's * Regesta ' 
(Typ. Vat., 1888-95). My diplomatic and 
geographical knowledge does not go far 
enough to say whether the place is in the 
diocese of Chalons-sur-Marne, Troyes, or 
Toul, or identical with any of those already 
nentioned. O. O. H. 

"OUTRIDER" (9 th S. viii. 462). This word, 

; ormerly applied to sheriffs' officers and 

Dostillions, and still used in the latter 

apacity, may have been utilized locally as 

an expansion or variant of "rider"; for in 

he north of England, before steam was 

ipplied to locomotion, commercial travellers, 

riding on horseback from place to place 

soliciting orders, were very widely designated 

"riders." Hence that fine old farce in one 

act (was it not George Column's?) entitled 



ix. JAN. 4, 1902. 

' Ducks and Green Peas ; or, the Newcastle 
Rider/ in \vhich the bagman, waiting for his 
dinner at a Harrogate inn, sings 
'Tis Riders only life enjoy, 

They travel through the land ; 
Variety can never cloy, 
All pleasures they command. 

Tol lol de rol. 

Then who would not a Rider be, 

To lead a life like this ; 
From every care and trouble free, 

Enjoying earthly bliss. 

Tol lol de rol. 

And then soliloquizes in the following 
fashion : 

"There's for you, ye parchment-bound 'prentices, 
ye hen-peck'd husbands, ye gouty-footed drones ! 
Get a horse like me, and travel from place to place, 
live like kings, and' sup upon ducks and green peas, 
as I am going to do ! " 


Upwards of a quarter of a century ago the 
representatives of brewers, grocers, drapers, 
&c., who drove into this village from the 
neighbouring towns of Northampton and 
Rugby, soliciting orders from the local shop- 
keepers, were always spoken of as "out- 
rides." This designation has now fallen 
largely into disuse, the gentlemen in ques- 
tion being invariably alluded to as " travel- 
lers." JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

DISSINGTON FAMILY (9 th S. viii. 365). In 
answer to MR. HERBERT SOUTIIAM'S inquiry I 
may say that I find it stated by Jan Brouwer 
in his pocket encyclopaedia that Elden is a 
village in Gelderland, three-quarters of an 
hour's distance _ N.N.E. from Elst (another 
Dutch village in the same province) for 
that is the quaint way in which Brouwer 
indicates position meaning, I take it, that 
if a man, walking at an ordinary pace, were 
to start from Elst in a N. N.E. direction, he 
would arrive at Elden in three-quarters of an 
hour - H. G. K. 

Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 1., for the year 
1780, p. 494, amongst deaths has "Sept. 27 
Am r. Dishington, esq., aged 66. He was one 
ot the oldest lieutenants in the royal navy " 

H. J. B. 

There is a place named Elden in Gelder 
land, Netherlands, latitude 51 57' N loni 
tude 5 52' E. ; also a village in Suffolk (Eng- 
land) about four miles from Thetford, which 
has also been known under the names of 
Llvedon and Elveden. 


287, 412, 514).-The following extract fron 

Cavalier and Puritan,' on p. 327, is interest- 
ng, in that it shows that English bottled ale 
jould be purchased in Paris in 1699. The 
liary of Sir Richard Newdigate : " Bought 
English bottled Ale at sixteen pence a quart." 


Caroline the Illustrious. By W. H. Wilkins, M.A. 

2 vols. (Longmans & Co.) 

' ILLTJSTRIOUS " is a strong term to apply to the 
]ueen consort of George II. and the four times 
jueen regent of England. In that Hanoverian 
nvasion to which England was subjected after 
,he death of Queen Anne she is, however, 
;he most pleasing and attractive it might almost 
DC said the only pleasing and attractive figure. 
Mr. Wilkins, who holds a brief for her, has 
vritten, from sources many of them now first 
employed, a life which is to some extent a 
continuation of his ' Love of an Uncrowned 
^ueen,' in which he told, practically for the first 
time, the story of Sophia Dorothea, the ill-starred 
consort of C4eorge I. The book thus constituted is 
"nteresting and stimulating, though the picture it 
presents of life in Hanover and subsequently in 
England is necessarily saddening. At no period 
'n English history was the Court more coarse, 
mmoral, corrupt, and depraved than during the 
reigns of the early Georges. No whit more refined 
were the Courts of Saxony and Hanover, and the 
examples set before the young princess were 
:he least edifying that could easily be conceived. 
No breath of scandal attaches to her life ; and 
though she had in England periods of extreme 
unpopularity, and was even burnt in effigy by a 
London mob, she enjoyed general respect and 
admiration, and she certainly was, as Mr. Wilkins 
says, " by far the greatest of our Queens Consort, 
and wielded more authority over political affairs 
than any of our Queens-Regnant, with the excep- 
tion of Elizabeth and, in quite another sense, Vic- 
toria." As woman and as wife she is no less 
remarkable than as monarch, and it is singular 
that she has had to wait so long for her historian. 
Much information concerning her and her environ- 
ment is obtainable from books with which most 
are now familiar. Some of this, however, has but 
recently become accessible, and Mr. Wilkins's book 
brings her almost, if not quite, for the first time 
before the public as a recogni/able being. It is a 
good book in the main, hurried in parts, in need of 
some labor _ lim j , and marred by some sloven- 
linesses or inaccuracies of diction. These are of 
no great significance, and history is seldom more 
picturesque, attractive, and pleasurable than herein 
it appears. In depicting her early life both in Ger- 
many and England Mr. Wilkins has had access to 
documents previously unused. The Hanoverian 
archives have for the first time been consulted with 
regard to the betrothal and marriage of the princess, 
and dispatches not hitherto published of Poley, 
Howe, and D'Alais, English envoys at Hanover 

ljOo-14, have been employed. Less interesting and 

less important than the proceedings when, in con- 
cert with Walpole, Queen Caroline led her brutal 

husband by a silken thread are those of her early 

. ix. JAN. 4, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


clays in Saxony, Prussia, and elsewhere in Germany. 
Without a study of these it is, however, impossible 
to understand her life as queen in England. Her 
early association with Leibniz and the delight she 
conceived in metaphysical and theological discus- 
sion are responsible for the unpopularity with the 
High Church party begotten of her ecclesiastical 
apj >ointments and for the charge of Erastianism 
brought against her in common with her husband 
and Walpole. On these matters Mr. Wilkins dwells 
at some length, and what he says concerning them is 
neither the least interesting nor the least important 
portion of his book. Caroline was "an unorthodox 
Protestant." Her theological inquiries "carried 
her into the shadowy regions of universalism and 
the refined Arianism of her favourite chaplain Dr. 
[Samuel Clarke." In an infallible Bible she had, we 
are told, no more faith than in an infallible Pope, 
and her views, had they been known, would have 
been regarded with horror by the Protestant Dis- 
senters whom she patronized. Ecclesiastical 
patronage was bestowed for purely political reasons. 
The High Church clergy were Jacobites, the Low 
Church were Whigs, and Walpole took care that 
none other than Whigs should obtain advancement. 
A study of her wooing by George II. and of the 
conditions attending the marriage is indispensable 
to a comprehension of her bearing to the king. It 
is difficult to acquit her of a measure of duplicity 
and cunning, but her affection for George must have 
been genuine; and the manner in which she studied 
his requirements, ministered to his prejudices and 
jealousies, and protected his amours is in its way 
unique. Her diplomacy was wonderful. Rarely, 
indeed, did the monarch the suspiciousness and 
meanness of whose nature were remarkable per- 
ceive with how light a hand he was guided ; and 
when once and again the satirists pointed out to 
him the truth, Caroline so effaced herself that his 
mistrust disappeared. In spite of his atrocious 
behaviour to her, George felt for her something as 
near affection as he was capable of experiencing, 
and left directions that on his burial the sides of 
both coffins should be opened so that their joint 
bones should mingle. Caroline's consistent support 
of Walpole is no less remarkable than the other 
features in her character. At heart as much a 
German as her husband, her diplomacy succeeded 
in concealing the fact. There is something pathetic 
in her struggles to retain her empire over the king, 
and her silence concerning the rupture she so 
carefully concealed was probably due to her fear 
of producing physical disgust and so losing her 
influence over him. Mr. Wilkins's book deserves 
to be generally read and studied. We should like 
to have chapter and verse for a few of the stories, 
which are doubtless accurate, but have been 
narrated concerning others. It is difficult to under- 
stand her dislike to her son Frederick, which was 
of course shared by her husband. One of the 
best -known incidents in the relations between 
Caroline and George occurred on her deathbed. 
She advised him to marry again when she was 
dead. At this George burst into sobs and tears, 
and assured her he would not, saying, with a 
strange mixture of naivete and brutality, " Non, 
non ! j'aurai des waitresses." To this the queen 
could only reply, pathetically and wearily, " Mon 
Dieu ! cela n'empOche pas." A great attraction in 
the book consists of the portraits, which are 
numerous and admirable. We could have done 
with an ampler index. 

A Genealogical Dictionary of the Peerage and 
Baronetage, the Privy Council, Knightage, and 
Companionage. By Sir Bernard Burke, C.B. 
Edited by Ash worth P. Burke. (Harrison & 

A NEW edition of 'Burke' the best, the most 
authoritative, the most widely recognized, and the 
longest established of the guides to British titles, 
rank, and precedency leads off the new year's list 
of peerages. Always welcome and indispensable, 
it is this year more welcome and indispensable 
than ever, since it chronicles a change of monarch 
and the re-establishment of some of the oldest 
and most exalted of honours. The accession to 
the throne of His Majesty Edward VII. is, of 
course, the matter of primary importance in its 
pages, but the creation of the Queen the Lady of 
the Most Noble Order of the Garter, the augmenta- 
tion of the royal title, and the creation of the Duke 
of Cornwall, York, and Rothesay, Prince of Wales 
and Earl of Chester, are conspicuous events in royal 
annals. Large accessions to titles of honour have 
come as a natural result of the war. It will strike 
some readers with amazement to learn that close 
upon two thousand distinctions have been awarded 
in the course of the year. In order to supply a 
chronicle of all these this bulkiest of volumes has 
had to be further enlarged, and the 1976 pages of 
last year's peerage have in the present, or sixty- 
fourth edition, expanded into 2058. Mr. Ashworth 
Burke, to whom the preparation and accom- 
plishment of this huge labour are due, owns his 
indebtedness to his brother, Mr. H. Fariiham 
Burke, Somerset Herald, to the three Kings of 
Arms, Garter, Lyon, and Ulster, and to other 
heraldic authorities. The information supplied is 
naturally up to date, and its value to all engaged 
in genealogical pursuits needs no fresh testimony. 
So comfortable are we in the possession of a work 
of so much authority and value that we forget to 
condole with other countries less happily situated. 
If any country possesses a work supplying like 
information in a shape equally serviceable and 
attractive we are unaware of the fact. The con- 
ditions attending the transmission of title in the 
chief European countries render it little probable 
that another such book can be found. Among the 
familiar features to the student are the essays on 
' The Royal Lineage' and the ' Tables of Precedency,' 
which supply full information not elsewhere given. 
Almost .the only suggestion we can make is that 
the time is approaching when the work should 
be issued in two volumes. It is easy to see the 
difficulties in the way of such a division, but the 
task of lifting this peerage from a shelf on to a 
table involves some labour, and every possessor 
and lover of books of reference does not possess 
space enough to enable him to keep them on tables 
or anywhere but on shelves. 

AN article in the Fortnightly by Mr. Arthur 
Symons on Wordsworth is wholly commendable. 
It is, indeed, a specimen of a kind of paper far too 
uncommon in our leading monthlies. We cannot 
sum up Mr. Sympns's argument. Wordsworth's 
limitations and his powers are justly appraised. 
Wordsworth had, it is declared, "a quality of mind 
which was akin to the child's fresh and wondering 
apprehension of things. But he was not content 
with using the faculty like a man ; it dragged him 
into the depths of a second childhood, hardly to be 
distinguished from literal imbecility." And again : 


. ix. JAN. 4, 1902. 

" While other men search among the images of the very instructive. Mr. J. B. Firth writes on ' Public 
mind for that poetry which they would impute to Readings in Ancient Rome ' ; Dr. Strauss depicts 
Nature, Wordsworth" 
and awaiting only a 

impossible, however, ^ _ _ 

idea of the value of the essay. M. Georges Bourdon, Duncombe. ' A Smuggler's Diary,' by W. H. 
late manager of the Odeon, has been commanded Hunt, in Longman's gives some account of the 
by the French Minister of Fine Arts to inquire price of things at the close of the penultimate 
into the organization of foreign theatres. Beginning century, but is not very stirring. ' What we 
with England, he has sent to the Fortnightly a Breathe' deals naturally with microbes. 'Catch- 
summary of his observations on ' Staging in French ing Mullet at the Land's End' is readable. Mr. 
and English Theatres.' He awards a hearty pre- Lang's 'At the Sign of the Ship' remains the most 
ference to the English stage, and has much to say interesting portion of the magazine. In the present 
about the triumphs, mechanical and poetical, instalment he answers Mr. Edward Garnett, who 
obtained at Drury Lane, Her Majesty's, the Hay- had volunteered some criticism, deals with an 
market, Lyceum, Wyndham's, &c. Mr. Tree's antiquarian controversy on some marked and per- 
mounting of ' Le Chemineau ' (' Ragged Robin') and f orated stones found at Dunbuie and Dumbuck, 
Sir Henry Irving's mounting of 'The Bells' are and has something to say concerning advertiae- 
lecially eulogized. M. Ren6 Doumic writes on | ments for books wanted. 
The French Drama in 1901,' which he depicts as in a 
very flourishing condition. It is satisfactory to find 
that he regards M. Hervieu and M. Brieux as the 

leading dramatists, and that the bubble of M. Ed- . 

mond Rostand, whose popularity is one of the most f bringing in the boar's head on Christmas Day at 
whimsical features of the day, seems to have been Queen's College, Oxford, was omitted last year, 
pricked. M. Doumic deals briefly with the present tne cause being the lamented death of the senior 
condition of the Comedie Franchise. Mr. Stobart Fellow of the college, Mr. Henry George Madan, 
writes nn ' TViA " Tr.ihViov Or- "/->? w^^nn T^i^u^^^,j I \f A whinn took place at his residence near 

J5 . He was the eldest son of the Rev. 

Queen of Scots, and the Mystery of the Casket George Madan, for many years rector of St. Mary 

Letters.' His article, giving a good insight into a Redcliffe, Bristol, and the brother of Mr. Falconer 

matter concerning which the general public has Madan, sub-librarian of the Bodleian, Fellow of 

little information, is principally derived from Mr. Brasenose College, an old contributor to our 

Lang s ' Mystery of Mary Stuart,' reviewed in our I columns. 

last volume. It is accompanied by a portrait of 

Mary by Clouet at present in St. Petersburg, and 

by a reproduction of 'La Reine Blanche' of the 

same artist. Not wholly satisfactory is Lady 

Stanley's account of her treatment of her own , . , - 

pets given under the title of 'Tragic Blunders.' 1 

A personage quite so thoughtless should not keep 

pets. ' Tunnelling the Alps ' describes the attempts 

OUR old correspondent the RET. JOHN PICK- 
, M.A., notes that the time-honoured custom 


We must call special attention to the following 

being made to lessen the journey on the Simple 
from Brigue to Domo d'Ossola. 'The Trau-do. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 
To secure insertion of communications corre- 

^ ion 

.,,-., ~~~ Trap-door 

Spider tells a remarkable story of the attempts 

ot spiders to guard themselves against implacable , - - 

enemies. Ihe story of the Portland Vase is told sponderits mus t observe the following rules. Let 
*iji v As( ^ tners see Us ' gives American cartoons e ^ Gn note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
rirTxT st atesmen. Mr. Max Beerbohm writes sli P of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
s Naming of Streets 'very whimsically, but I -? uch address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 

- . ,, , . entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 

.ed. It supplies much interesting corre- Put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
dence with celebrities, English and American, heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
has manv nortraits a.nrl nt.Vioy A^^^ New w kir.h f.V><^r ^ofa*. n 

ic uaimug 01 streets' very whimsically, but 
also very sensibly -In the GornhiU ' Thackeray in 
the United States,' by General James Grant Wilson 

is continued. Ti 

spondence wi 

and has many portraits and other designs". " New I which "they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
A i? WAT be 8 m j>y Anthony Hope and Mr. queries are requested to head the second cora- 
Hnii^-^if^' , b ?J a u r ?. s can be judged, Mr. munication "Duplicate." 

a'nd 1 


N - NEVILLE.-" Upward, of a hundred pounds 

co . - . 

cowardice. ' At the Justice's Window ' bv Mrs i s a P ur P sel y vague way of saying " More than a 

Woods, depicts negro life. Under the title 'The hundred " 



h-Century Place-Hunter ' Mr. Innes Shand I REPLIES on ' The Mitre ' and ' The West Bourne 
KicftardKigby the parasite of the Duke of have been received without signature to identify 

Ihe Great Duchess,' by Mr. Street, is the writer, 
of course, the Duchess of Marlborough. <ALon- NOTICE. 

carTYessSbout it? e i XC ? llent at the outset; we .Editorial communications should be addressed to 
t its closing pages. In ' A For- " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "-Advertise- 
Mutton writes about Shenstone, ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
he at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E. C. 
of We beg leave to state that we decline to return 

from%Th7aSi^^^ communications which, for any reason, we do not 

orary lS not very good nor | print; and to this rule we can make no exception 

9. s. ix. JAN. n, 1902.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 211. 

NOTES Bolton's 'Nero Csesar,' Ifi27, 21 The Devil, 22 
Jubilee of the 'Leisure Hour,' 24 " Macaw " and 
" Macaco " ' Budget of Paradoxes ' : Diderot, 25 Harvey 
and the Circulation of the Blood : Inedited Poem-Kane, 
a Forgotten Actor, 26 Tennis : Origin of Word, 27. 

QUERIES : Carlyle on Symbols, 27 Arms of Married 
Women Supplement to 'Faerie Queene ' Picture of 
New Cross Gate" Fountain-pregnant" Donne's Burial 
"Pen-name," 28 Moat's ' Stenograph? ' Gordon, a 
Place-name Sir T. Smith, of Parson's Green Archange 
de Pembroke 'Little Picture Bible 'Feeding Birds- 
Epitaph at Llanrhidian Lower' Cornhill ' Illustrations 
' Rotuli Scotise,' 29. 

REPLIES : Kinborough as Female Christian Name Des- 
b'>rough Portraits and Relics St. Briavel Adulation 
Extraordinary, 30 Ancient Boats Pech6 Family Acland 
of Chittlehampton Pews annexed to Houses, 31 "All 
Fours," a Kentish Game Regimental Nicknames 
Kirjath-Jearim Survival of Paganism" Racing," 32 
Copperplate Cuts Entries in Parish Registers, 33 Leigh 
Hunt Vancouver Cure by Hand of a Corpse "Pro- 
spicimus modo "Wearing the Hat in the Royal Presence, 
34 "Pillage, Stallage, and Toll " Merchants of Lukes: 
Merchants of Luk Londres, 35 Bibliography of the 
Bicycle William the Conqueror's Half Brothers and 
Sisters Signature of the Duke of Cambridge 'Hymns 
Ancient and Modern,' 36 Rowe of Cornwall" Machine" 
=Coach, 37 Paying Rent at a Tomb in Church, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lord Ronald Gower's 'The Tower of 
London ' Boase's 'Modern English Biography,' Vol. III. 
Slater's ' Art Sales of the Year 1901 'Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE literary value of this very interesting 
hook has long been recognized both by 
Warton in his ' History of English Poetry ' 
and by Hearne in his * Reliquiae Hearnianse ' 
The latter, for example, thus expresses him- 
self regarding it (ed. 1869, vol. i. pp. 292, 298) : 

" He [Bagford] likewise says, that one Mr. Bolton 
was author of ' Nero Csesar,' which is an excellent 

"The book called 'Nero Ceesar,' printed in a 
pretty big character, in a small folio, was written by 

Mr. Bolton The said Life of Nero is very well 

written. There is great variety of learning in it, 
managed with very much judgment." 

Hearne does not exaggerate. 'Nero 
Csesar ' throughout is " an excellent thing " ; 
and notwithstanding a certain inflation of 
style, 1 think I could cite from it not a few 
passages at once picturesque, epigrammatic, 
and suggestive. My object in this note, 
however, is to draw attention to what 
interested me in the perusal of the volume. 

On p. 11 Trajano JBocalini's 'IRaggvagli 
Di Parnasso : or Advertisements from Par- 
nassus,' is referred to in these words : 

" Of this poinct the Italian author of the famous 
Ragvalias of Parnassus makes vnf riendly vse, in th 

magery inauguration of Cornelivs Tacitvs, to the 
'ained kingdome of Lesbos, smally to the honor of 

Tacitvs, whom hee makes throwne out againe for 

"ffectation of tyranie." 

As Bocalini's curious and entertaining work 
las been translated into English by Henry, 
Earl of Monmouth, Bolton's allusion will be 
round on p. 38 of the second edition of 1669. 

George Sandys's 'Travels' are thus com- 
mendably mentioned (p. 50) : 

" That very sepulcher, at this day extant, and 
ailed Agrippina's, is figured on the roofe, and sides 
with sphinxes, and griphons, but greatly sullied 
with the smoake of torches, and lights borne in by 
such as enter. George Sandys, as an eye-witnesse 
testifies it, in his generous trauails." 

The following extract may be taken for 
what it is worth ; but it is sufficiently 
interesting in itself (p. 66) : 

"The riotous youths of these our times vniuersally 
more studious of wittie then discreete, of odde 

conceipts then solid Wittie flashes doe condi- 

mentally well ; but, if that were their best vse, the 
srtiift'of poesie were with little reason styled diuine. 
There are who lay other studies in the bottome to 
balasse the fierie leuities of conceipt, and only they 
doe honor the Muses with their manners. Those 
other while they vnlearnedly, and miserably mis- 
take licence for freedome, are oftentimes pleasant 
companie, but neuer good." 

Bolton tells us he wrote a life of Tiberius 
it was never printed (p. 82) : " In the life 
which I haue diligently written of Tiberivs 
there is more." 

Our author's references to some of his dis- 
tinguished contemporaries are very inter- 
esting. William Camden is " that most 
modest, and antient good friend of mine"; 
" worthie Camden"; "the king of our 
antiquaries and not one of arms onely." Sir 
Henry Saville " was another Tacitvs for 
grauitie and iudgement." Selden, like Cam- 
den, appears to have been personally known 
to Bolton (p. 156) : 

" They who would see more of this, may satisfie 
themselues out of Clavdivs Salmasivs. the Selden of 
Gallia, if without creating enuy to my learned friend, 
John Selden, I may compare them so." 

The illustrious author of 'The Faerie 
Queene ' comes in for honourable mention in 
what follows (p. 161) : 

" Edmund^Spencer, who was in his time, the most 
learned poet of England, layes it [the scene of the 
battle between the Romans and Britons] to haue 
beene further off I than Salisbury Plain]; for he 
names besides Severn. But without praying in aide 
of his poems, Iseeme to my selfe to haue made it 
vehementlie probable, that the field was hereabout, 
by hauing shewed that Pavllinvs wasmarcht hither- 

On p. 87 Bolton acknowledges an obliga- 
tion. Who was the "great and generous 

NOTES' AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. n, 1002. 

"What the left hand of the image held, vn- 
luckely appeares not, in that faire printed come, 
with which it pleased a great, and generous Earle 
to befriend me." 

In the next extract we have an early use 
of the word " boss " (p. 100) : 

"In Dio she [Boadicia] doth not appeare old, or 
decayd, but a strong and perfect woman. Her 
picture hangs vp there in such words as showe the 
person of some martial Bosse, or Amazonian Gian- 

Himself a translator, Bolton appears to 
have the confident assurance of one who feels 
he does not live in a glass house. _ The 
following passage does not lack vigour 
(p. 109) :- 

" The wrongs, and dishonors, which the most 
noble authors 'sustain oftentimes by many transla- 
tours, are infinite and intolerable. Scarce one 
booke among one hundred honestlie done, and not 
one of one hundred exactlie." 

Following up this general accusation, he has 
a word of disparagement, evidently against 
Richard Grenewey although he does not 
mention him by name whose translation of 
the 'Annals ' of Tacitus was first published in 
1598, and between that date and 1612 three 
editions appeared (p. 112) : 

" The Ocean betweene Britain, and Gall, at the 
full tide did ouernowe, of a bloudie colour, and at a 
low water the prints of mens bodies were seene 
vpon the bare, and not the dead bodies themselues, 
which the englished ' Annals of Tacitvs ' inistak- 
ingly say." 

As the edition of 1012 of Grenewey 's 
translation of 'The Annales of Cornelivs 
Tacitvs ' is now before me, I shall quote, for 
the sake of comparison, the passage (p. 210) 
referred to by Bolton : 

" Further the Ocean bloudy in shew and dead mens 
bodies left after an ebbe as they brought hope to 
the Britans, so they droue the old souldiers into a 

Nor does the venerable Philemon Holland 
escape a mild censure from our persistent 
critic (p. 252) : 

"The translatour of Plinies ' Naturall Histories ' 
hath rendred the originall in such words, as if the 
place were not to be meant of treasure conuei^hed 
away for trade, but onely laid out to furnish a 
voiage I<or what reason 1 know not. Cleare it is 
that ilmie speakes of money not expended, but 

And as if this were not enough, William 
Warner, m another way,, is put upon the 

<7u ~7, to use one of Cash's words-forhis 
Albions England ' (p. 160) : 

"But amongst her [Boadicia] strengths at this 
time, wee must not reckon the ilockes of British 
wmes and women, who were brought to sit specta- 
tors of the expected vtter mine of Pavllinvs (the 

to hi, a " A l pe h T ^raey) though the versifier 
m his Albions England,' pleasantly encroaching 

vpon the poet, doth furnish this Queene-Mother, 
and her martiall daughters, with sixe thousand 
armed Ladies, out of his Homericall hearsayes. A 
licence of wit not vnbeseetning the musicke of 
rimes, but incompetent for the grauity of storie, 
which admits no fables." 

The reference in the following extract to 
the Isthmus of Panama is singularly inter- 
esting (p. 270) : 

:< Reasons which preserued those two huge peniles 
of America (naturally combined at the creation of 
the world, by a farre broader necke of earth then 
that which annexed Peloponnesvs to Greece) from 
being sundred by the pickaxe, and spade ; though 
that necke alone is the cause of fetching a circuit 
from Nombre de Dios to Panama, many thousands 
of miles about." 

Appended to the edition of 1627 of 'Nero 
Cixjsar' is a short essay, entitled 'An Histori- 
calParallel,' which Bolton previously privately 
communicated to his friend Endymion Porter, 
extending to only sixteen pages. The con- 
cluding part is so interesting that I cannot 
forbear reproducing it here : 

" That renowned Savile, who gaue vnto vs ; ' The 
end of Nero, and beginning of Galba.' A maister- 
peece, and a great one. His praises, as the praises 
also of that short essay, are- at their high-water 
niarke in the Epigrams of my antient friend, 
Beniamin lonson, not without the equall praises of 
lonsons selfe, though in a diuers kinde. I for my 
part make no vse of the Savilian compositions, 
though they handle a finall part of the Neronian 
argument. His example in ciuill, and noble letters, 
I would gladly commend, vpon this occasion, to all 
the free students of our nation ; many of them 
growne delicate, and fine of wit, and not of life 
alone. Whereas his contrary courses in studie, and 
eloquence, nearest to the common nature of tilings, 
void of phantasticke notions, fluent, manly, graue, 
vnatfected, smooth, yet full of vigour, and sinewes, 
made it easily appeare, that hee had the best of the 
antients in his maine imitations. The generall 
Latin Historic of our countrey a subiect for a iSavile, 
and a cherishment for a King, nor of any rather 
then of our owne most peacefull Prince, King 

A. S. 

\Condivwntcdly t quoted above from p. 66 of ' Nero 
Ca3sar,' does not appear in the 'H.E.D.,' which, 
however, cites Lyly's ' Euphues,' 1579, for boss in 
the sense of a big fat woman. The example of 
penile, from p. 270 of k Nero Csesar,' may be useful 
presently to Dr. Murray.] 

ON reflecting upon religious or poetical 
conceptions, Christian or pagan, ancient, 
mediaeval, or modern, one is struck by the 
confused ideas with regard to the role acted 
by that awful being, the generally accepted 
irreconcilable foe of God and man. If man 
knows not how anthropomorphic he is, as 
little does he foresee where sincere emotion 
will lead him, and what extraordinary con- 

9> s. ix. JAN. 11, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ceptions not all illogical his mind will 
evolve when applied to the lifelong problems 
of good and evil, this world and the next, the 
natural and the supernatural. A Spectator 
essayist remarked not long since that the 
human imagination recoils before the effort 
to depict a four-legged angel. Our fixed 
type is no doubt the traditional angel of art, 
the fair, winged, female figure with flowing 
robe and hair and benignant smile. "Great 
Pan is dead," leaving his horns, hoof, and 
tail for the adornment of Satan, the result 
being the bogey whose objective existence is 
still unquestioned by numbers of pious souls, 
although Luther treated him with supreme 
disdain, and brave Tom Ingoldsby and 
others did their best to reduce the mon- 
strosity to the level of a November Guy 
Fawkes. This is but a minor instance of the 
effects of heathenism upon Christianity, 
strange Aberglauben tenaciously held though 
happily without serious detriment to genuine 
religious knowledge and faith often vividly 
present to the minds of vigorous denouncers 
of "paganism" and "idolatry." Carlyle 
says that Dante had no more doubt of the 
existence of the citta dolente and the Male- 
lolge pool than we have that we should see 
Constantinople if we went there, but it is 

Erobable that the Sage of Chelsea goes 
eyond the Florentine bard. 
The Hebrew and Christian rebel archangel 
and his compeers, whose fall has not deprived 
them of dignity, are paralleled by the 
shadowy Typhon of the Egyptians, and to 
a certain extent by the Titans of Greek 
mythology, though these are mostly tremen- 
dous ogres, with forms and passions of men 
and brutes combined. Milton makes Satan 
naturally grand, nay beautiful, even if for his 
vile ends he assumes for a short time the shape 
of the despised toad or serpent. Ahriman 
is a powerful force wrestling with Ormuzd 
on something like equal terms, though the 
issue of the conflict is predestined. A clergy- 
man once told me in the Sunday schpol that 
the devil should be respected, no doubt on 
account of his superior powers and intelli- 
gence. The quaint ideas of children with 
regard to the evil principle were the subject 
of an article and correspondence in the Spec- 
tator a few years ago. To them he is a vague 
black spectre, perhaps hiding round the 
corner or in the cupboard playing spy ; but 
if they feel that a temptation to petty theft 
or falsehood has been resisted, they are some- 
times known to crow over Satan's discom- 
fiture. I remember mentally chuckling at 
his supposed chagrin, because I decided not 
to touch a tempting dish within reach. 

When at a later date I was discussing with a 
schoolfellow the futility, as it seemed to me, 
of an intelligent being waging obstinate war 
against Omnipotence, with full knowledge of 
ultimate defeat Robbie Burns in a kindly 
mood advises the deil to take a thought and 
mend my companion bluntly assented in 
these words, " Depend upon it, the fellow is a 
fool ! " The character loses something of its 
strength and impressiveness when "some 
paltry, juggling fiend" is described in legend 
or fable as the devil, reducing the arch-enemy 
to the size and influence of a malicious con- 
juror, as Mephistopheles, devoted to the 
pursuit of one man's soul, or to the dimen- 
sions of a Puck or a "Gabriel hound," in 
which form he once disturbed a service at 
Bungay Church. Robinson Crusoe, a man of 
signal courage in an age when superstition 
was rampant, thought it most likely that 
the gleaming eyes of the poor old goat in the 
cave belonged to the devil, who had surely 
more pressing employment than scaring the 
solitary inhabitant of a desert isle. The in- 
explicable footprint in the sand was ascribed 
to the same source. 

Thus much for conflicting conceptions of 
one definite being. The problem which I 
think needs to be faced is the tacitly assumed 
destiny of the prince of darkness to act as an 
infernal bourreau. By what mandate is he 
who causes the ruin of souls to execute 
judgment upon them through the ages, in 
which hateful task he takes characteristic 
delight 1 ? Is he not rather their companion in 
misery 1 As Goethe puts it : 

Audi hier sind jene grossen Scharen, 

Die mit ihm gleiches Lasters waren, 

Doch lange nicht so bos als er. 

Hier liegt die ungezahlte Menge, 

In schwarzem, schrecklichem Gedrange, 

Ira Feuerorkan um ihn her ; 

Er sieht, wie sie den Richter scheuen, 

Er sieht, wie sie der Sturm zerfrisst, 

Er sieht's und kann sich doeh nicht freuen, 

Weil seine Fein noch grosser ist. 

Pluto, the grisly god lately discussed in 
the columns of ' N. <fe Q.,' with his train of 
furies, Cerberus, and other monsters, cannot 
be called a fallen angel, nor can they. He 
is the brother and equal of Jupiter and 
Neptune, and does not appear to share the 
woe which he contemplates in iron majesty. 
Hela, the fearsome Norse goddess of 
Niflheim, was, I understand, a daughter of 
the Allfather Odin, and no rebel. The 
Hindoo Yamen, if I mistake not, is a parallel 
to Pluto. Are Azrael, the Mohammedan 
angel of death, and those grim inquisitors 
Murikar and Nakir, evil beings or ministers 
of Allah's stern justice 1 In Dante's * Inferno ' 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. 11, im 

the arch-rebel is embedded in ice, suffering 
terribly, and incidentally inflicting hideous 
torture on others. Judas Iscariot, Brutus, 
and Cassius are crushed in his triple jaws, 
while the incessant flapping of his wings 
raises the blast which congeals Cocytus, 
where lie the traitors : 

Con sei occhi piangeva, e per tre menti 
Gocciava '1 pianto e sangumosa bava. 

' Inferno, xxxiv. 

Lucifer's mental agony is too profound to 
admit of his rejoicing over those whom he 
has led to their doom (and note that Dante 
punishes the Titans as enemies of Jehovah). 
Singing of the Egyptian plagues, Asaph says 
(Psalm Ixxviii. 49) that Jehovah "sent evil 
angels among them " (immissiones per angelos 
malos). It is not clear to my mind whether 
these are ministers of Divine wrath, as 
St. Michael, or malignant spirits allowed to 
work their pleasure on Pharaoh and his 
subjects. In the Apocalypse commissions of 
dire severity are assigned to celestial beings. 
I do not know whether this point has been 
satisfactorily dealt with, but it seems re- 
pulsive that a being whose set purpose is 
"evil, be thou my good," and who seeks to 
pervert and wreck the lives of men, should 
be regarded as their remorseless tormentor 
hereafter. The assumption is clearly implied 
in the juron of the French king, which has 
its expression in most languages. The 
question of bargaining with Satan for tem- 
porary advantage, as in the case of Marlowe's 
and Goethe's hero, I do not discuss. 


Brixton Hill. 


(Concluded from p. 4-) 
MR. WILLIAM CHAMBERS had formed high 
expectations as to the success of the Journal, 
but these were far exceeded. In a few days 
there was, for Scotland, the unprecedented 
sale of thirty thousand copies. An agency 
was established in London, and the circula- 
tion rose to fifty thousand, which in after 
years increased to eighty thousand. It has 
been the custom of the Journal from time 
to time to take its readers into its confi- 
dence and to give articles on its progress 
Mr. Robert Cochrane has called my atten- 
tion to these. On January 19th, 1895, 'Some 
Notable Beginners mChambers's Journal' men 
tions that on July 7th, 1849, George Meredith'; 
first contribution, ' Chillianwallah,' appeared 
This memorializes the bloody fight which took 
place at the village of that name in the 
Punjab during the second Sikh war, on the 
13th of January, 1849. Mr. Payn also contri- 

buted his first novel, 'The Family Scape- 
grace.' He was editor from 1858 to 1871. 

On November 6th, 1897, another contribu- 
.ion to the history of the Journal was made, 
and again on the 17th of November, 1900. 

Its contributors have included, among 
many other well - known names, Robert 
William Jamieson, the father of " Dr. Jim," 
who contributed 'Who Wrote Shakespeare?' 
August 7th, 1852 ; Mr. Stanley J. Weyman on 
Oxford life ; Thomas Hardy, ' How I built 
myself a House,' March 18th, 1865 ; Dr. A. 
Conan Doyle, whose first short story appeared 
in 1879, 'The Mystery of Sasassa Valley,' a 
South African story ; Mr. D. Christie Murray; 
Sir Wemyss Reid ; and Mr. Leslie Stephen. 

Dr. A. K. H. Boyd was wont to say that 
"the Journal was read in Scotland by 
.very body who read anything at all." There 
can be no doubt that its early success 
was largely due to the fact that at that 
time the price of newspapers was usually 
sevenpence, owing to the heavy stamp and 
advertisement duties ; Chambers s Journal, 
being free from these exactions, sold at three- 
halfpence, and in point of size was nearly 
as large as a newspaper. But while the 
publications of the Chamberses were free from 
the stamp arid advertisement taxes, they had 
to bear a heavy burden in the shape of the 
paper duty ; and when my father founded 
the Press Association for its abolition the three 
brothers William, Robert, and David took an 
active part in the movement until repeal was 
secured. On the occasion of the presentation 
made to my father on the 19th of January, 
1863, to commemorate his services in pro- 
moting the repeal of the taxes upon literature 
and the Press, Mr. David Chambers stated 
that during the twenty years previous to 
the tax being abolished it had cost the firm 
160,0002., while on their "Tracts for the People" 
alone they paid 10,OOOJ. These had to be 
abandoned on account of the heavy duty 7 . 

It is pleasing to know that all the useful 
publications issued by the firm are pro- 
spering. The new edition of 'Chambers's 
Encyclopaedia ' is selling well ; the first large 
impression of 'Chambers's Twentieth Cen- 
tury Dictionary,' edited by the Rev. T. 
Davidson, is almost exhausted ; and the new 
edition of the 'Cyclopedia of Literature,' 
edited by D. Patrick, LL.D., the first volume 
of which has just been published, has met 
with a good reception. The present editor of 
the Journal is Mr. Charles E. S. Chambers, 
grandson to its distinguished founder. 

John Cassell came into the field of cheap 
| literature much later than the Chamberses, 
1 the Working Man's Friend and Family In- 

9<" s. ix. JAN. ii, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


structor not appearing until January, 1850. 
It consisted of thirty-two pages, crown 8vo, 
price one penny, and was published at 
335, Strand. Mr. Pike, in his life of John 
Cassell, gives an extract from the Working 
Man's Friend of November 1st, 1851, as to 
the sale of the ten daily papers then pub- 
lished in London, the total being 64,408. Of 
these the Times absorbed 38,382, the Morning 
Chronicle 2,915, and the Daily News 3,630, the 
united circulation of the seven other papers 
being under 20,000. On the 3rd of April, 
1852, 'The Popular Educator' was started, 
its first editor being Prof. Wallace, of Glasgow 
and in July of the same year Cassell removed 
from the Strand to La Belle Sauvage Yard, 
the home of the present firm. Mr. F. J. Cross 
amusingly relates that when John Cassell came 
there was a public-house at the end of the 
yard, but that gave way to the publishing 
house, and "little by little we have mono- 
polized the square, and also stretch to Fleet 
Lane." Mr. Cross tells me that there are 
now eight monthly magazines and nearly 
fifty serials published by the firm. John 
Cassell was the first editor of the Quiver, 
started in 1861. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Henry Wright, followed by John W. 
Clark, then by Canon Teignmouth Shaw, who 
was followed by the present editor, the Rev. 
Dr. H. G. Bonavia Hunt, who has been 
editor for the last twenty-five years. Its 
Christmas number contains three beautiful 
photogravures ' The Good Samaritan,' from 
the painting by William Small ; ' The Love- 
Letter,' by George A. Storey ; and ' Home,' 
by T. B. Kennington. 

CasselVs Magazine started on the 9th of 
March, 1867. Its first editor was W. 
Moy Thomas. He was among the earty 
contributors to Chambers^ Journal, a poem 
of his entitled ' Autumn ' appearing on the 
27th of November, 1847, when he was only 
nineteen. It is a sweet picture of the country 
in autumn, when 

Sometimes, day by day, the hazel tint 
Grows deeper on the mass of forest trees, 
And not a single breath from heaven is sent 
To cool the ruddy fruits, that by degrees 
Wax ripe and riper in a dreamy ease. 

Till the sharp north wind cometh unaware, 
And half relieves the laden orchard-bough ; 
And like hoar death, that kills the good and fair, 
Lays autumn's loveliest bells and blossoms low, 
And sudden winter falls wherever it doth blow. 

Mr. Moy Thomas was followed in the editor- 
ship by the Rev. H. R. Haweis, John Loyell, 
G. M. Fenn, and Dr. Hunt. The present editor 
is Mr. Max Pemberton. With the Christmas 
number is given a photogravure, beautifully 

executed, of ' The Pirate's Prize,' from the 
painting by B. F. Gribble. The Saturday 
Journal was established on the 6th of October, 
1883. Its first editor was Dr. Hunt, followed 
by Mr. Laird Clowes. Mr. Ernest Foster has 
edited the Journal for the past fifteen years. 
It should not be forgotten that Messrs. Casseli 
also founded the Echo (see 9 th S. ii. 504) 

Of the original partners of the firm in 1859 
Mr. Thomas Dixon Galpin alone survives. 
The number of hands at present employed is 
about twelve hundred. It is curious that John 
Cassell, the originator of this large business, 
had no knowledge of publishing. He died at 
the early age of forty -eight, on the 2nd of 
April, 1865, the same day as Richard Cobden, 
who had shown him much friendship. Cassell 
took an active part in the repeal of the Paper 
Duty, and with my father visited Edinburgh 
and Dublin, where they formed branch asso- 
ciations in connexion with the one in London 
to forward repeal. One cannot close this 
rapid glance at some of the men who have 
rendered such service to our cheap literature 
without an expression of gratitude to them 
for having served their generation so faith- 
fully and so well. JOHN C. FRANCIS. 

" MACAW" AND " MACACO." In his ' Notes 
on English Etymology,' 1901, p. 349, Prof. 
Skeat appears to confuse these two distinct 
terms. He says: "The ' Century Dictionary ' 
derives macaw from Brazilian macao, which I 
fail to find. The 'Hist. Nat. Brasilia* ' has 
nothing like it. The modern Spanish form 
is macaco" Macaco, however, means a 
monkey, not a parrot, and according to the 
' Hist. Nat. Brasilise,' 1648, is a Congo word, 
like chimpanzee and pongo. The only dis- 
sentient from this is Von Martius, ' Beitrage 
zur Ethnographie,' 1867, ii. 461, who describes 
it as " vox a Brasiliensibus recepta, in 
insulis Antillis a primis Eurppseis audita, 
Caraibice mecou" ; but here, again, there seems 
to be confusion between two distinct terms, 
as this should surely rather apply to mico 
than to macaco. As to the origin of macaw, 
the Brazilian, or rather Portuguese, macao, 
according to a statement quoted by Buffon 
from Albin, was applied to these birds 
because they were supposed to come from 
Macao in the East Indies. It is some con- 
firmation of this that the older English ex- 
plorers used it to designate Oriental parrots. 
Thus Dampier, 'Voyages,' 1697, ii. 128, 
ascribes " maccaws " and " parakites " to 
Acheen. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

Morgan, in the 'Budget,' twice relates the 

NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. n, 1902. 

story of the algebraical proof of the existence 
of God which was presented to Diderot at the 
Court of Catherine II. The statement at 
p. 474 is the more detailed : 

"The soorner was informed that an eminent 
mathematician had an algebraical proof of the 
existence of God, which he would communi- 
cate before the whole Court, if agreeable. 
Diderot gladly consented. The mathematician, 
who is not named, was Euler. He came to Diderot 
with the gravest air, and in a tone of perfect con- 

a-\-~b n .p. . 

viction said, ' Monsieur ! - = x, done JJieu 

existe ; repondez ! ' Diderot, to whom algebra was 
Hebrew, though this is expressed in a very round- 
about way by Thiebault, and whom we may sup- 
pose to have expected some verbal argument of 
alleged algebraical closeness, was disconcerted ; 
while peals of laughter sounded on all sides. Next 
day he asked permission to return to France, which 
was granted." 

Now Thiebault (' Mes Souvenirs de Vingt 
Ans de Sejour a Berlin,' Paris, 1804, tome iii. 
pp. 141-2) says 

" que Diderot, voulant prouver la nullite et 1'in- 
eptie de cette pretendue prenve, mais ressentant 
malgre" lui 1'embarras ou Ton est d'abord lorsque on 
clecouvre chez les autres le dessein de nous jouer, 
n'avait pu echapper aux plaisanteries dont on etoit 
pret a 1'assaillir ; que cette a venture lui en faisant 
craindre d'autres encore, il avoit temoigne pen de 
temps apres le desir de retourner en France." 

Here, instead of anything approaching to a 
hint that algebra was Hebrew to Diderot, 
which De Morgan says Thiebault " expressed 
in a very roundabout way," there is a very 
reasonable explanation of Diderot's defeat. 
Besides, it is not true that Diderot was 
ignorant of algebra. His ' Memoires sur 
Difforents Sujets de Mathernatiques ' (Paris, 
1748) are sufficient proof of the contrary. 

I think it must be admitted that, for once, 
De Morgan's "odium theologicum" got the 
better of his accuracy. J. R- N. 

BLOOD : AN INEDITED POEM, c. 1673. On the 
back of the title of a copy of Dr. William 
Harvey's 'Anatomical Exercises concerning 
the Motion of the Heart and Blood,' with 
preface by Zachary Wood, physician of Rot- 
terdam, 1673, 12mo, which was included in 
lot 827 of a book sale at Sotheby's Rooms on 
the 5th ult., is the following curious MS. 
poem, without title or name of author, but 
probably contemporary with the date of the 
book (i.e., some sixteen years after Harvey's 
death), or, if we may judge by the last two 
lines thereof, in reference to the rebuilding 
of St. Paul's Cathedral after the Great Fire 
of 1666, not later than the year 1675. Although 
I have (inter alia) unquestionably given more 
attention to the subject of the great anato- 

mist than any other person during a long 
series of years at an enormous expenditure 
of time and money, and with many remark- 
able results I do not remember to have met 
with this poem elsewhere, either in MS. or 
print ; and 1 should think that its author 
was himself a physician and a former owner 
of the volume in question. As the latter 
contains on its pages some autographs and 
MS. notes, I hoped by such means either to 
ascertain the authorship of the poem or to 
obtain a clue thereto, but in vain, as the same 
are evidently in other and later hands ; and 
the initial fly-leaf, which may have borne the 
writer's name, or afforded some other interest- 
ing information, is wanting, owing possibly to 
the looseness of the covers. The last half of 
the poem no doubt refers to the loss during 
the great Civil War of Harvey's papers, 
which our poet appears to imagine would 
otherwise have been given to the world in 
print, either by the doctor himself in his life- 
time, or by others after his decease. 

Considering the great and world-wide inte- 
rest which is attached to everything of early 
date relating to the "immortal" discoverer of 
the circulation of the blood, I venture to 
think that no apology is needed for seeking 
to enshrine in the columns of 'N. & Q.' this 
curious and apparently hitherto unknown 

Methinks in Arts great Circle others stand 
Lock't vp together hand in hand, 
Ev'ry one leads as he is led, 
The same bare path they tread, 
A dance like Fairies a Fantastick round, 
But neither change their motion, nor their ground : 
Had Harvey to this Road confiri'd his Wit, 
His noble Circle of y e Blood had been vntrodden 

Great Doctor, y e [altered from "in"] Art of 

Curing 's cur'd by thee, 
We now thy Patient Physick see 
From all inveterate diseases free, 

Purg'd of old errors by thy care, 
New dieted, put forth to clearer air, 

It now will strong & healthfull proue, 
It selfe before Lethargick lay, & could not moue. 

These Usefull Secrets to his Pen we owe, 
And thousands more 'twas ready to bestow ; 
Of w ch a Barbarous War's unlearned Rage 

Has robb'd the ruin'd Age ; 
cruell Loss ! as if y e Golden fleece 

With so much cost and labour bought 

[altered from "brought"], 
And from afar by a great Heroe brought, 

Had sunk ev'n in y e Ports of Greece. 
cursed War ! who can forgiue thee this? 

Houses & Townes may rise again 

And ten times easier 'tis 
To rebuild Pauls, than any work of his. 

W. I. R. V. 

always look upon 'N. & Q.' as a medium for 

9* s. ix. JA*. 11, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


preserving from oblivion ("not for an age 
only") the names of bygone heroes and 
heroines who "fought till they fell and died," 
may I quote a few lines from the Era of 
9 Nov., 1901? In 'A Chat with Mr. Arthur 
Willoughby, Acting-Manager of the Buxton 
Pavilion,' that gentlemen said, speaking of 
old times : 

" A very respectable family, the Thornhills, per- 
formed at the old theatre in Spring Gardens ; then 
a more modern theatre was opened at the bottom 
of Hall Bank. The Thornhills are buried in the 
little secluded church of St. Anne's, in Higher 
Buxton, the mother church of Buxton. where also 
lies all that is mortal of John Kane." "Kean?" 
"No, Kane. You were speaking of dear old Toole 
a moment ago. When he opened our present 
theatre, he and his company visited, in the pouring 
rain, the grave of this 'poor Yorick.' Mr. Toole 
paid a handsome sum for it to be reverentlv 
restored/' "We should like to see this grave." 
" You will find it at the east end of the church- 
yard. Close to the fence wall is a headstone placed 
at the foot of the grave, the inscription facing west- 
wards, while every other inscription faces, of course, 
the east. The inscription reads as follows : 

This stone is placed here 

In Memory of 

John Kane, Comedian, 

Who departed this Life Dec. 10th, 1799, 

Aged 58 years. 

A pathetic story is associated with this strolling 
player's grave. John Kane was about to dine off 
roast beef. He went out in the fields for some 
horseradish, to serve as a condiment, but instead of 
horseradish he pulled up the roots of hemlock, or 
monkshood (aconite), and died in dreadful agony 
two hours after he had dined. Mr. Toole, with 
tears in his eyes, bareheaded, before the moulder- 
ing tombstone, said, pointing to the hundreds of 
graves in front of Kane's, 'What an audience he 
will have when the curtain is rung up at the last 
great performance ! ' " 

39, Renfrew Road, Kennington, S.E. 

9 th S. viii. 23fO M. Jusserand, as noted at 
the above reference, confirms Prof. Skeat's 
derivation of the name of the game. " I sup- 
pose," says Prof. Skeat, "it meant 'take 
heed ' or * mark ' as an exclamation ; if so, it 
is precisely the equivalent of the modern 
'play.'" M. Jusserand quotes from 'Lusus 
Puerilis/ Paris, 1555, and deduces that the 
excipe of Cordier and the accipe of Erasmus 
were the Latin version of the French ienez, 
an _ exclamation used on commencing play. 
It is curious to find that at a late period the 
server on beginning a set said, " Y etes-vous ? " 
just as we now say, " Are you there ? " at the 
telephone. JOHN HEBB. 

[Ttnez = " take it," which may still be heard. A 
player at fives is still said to " take " a serve which 
is offered to him.] 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

CARLYLE ON SYMBOLS. The Daily Telegraph 
of 11 December last, in its first leading article, 
refers to "Carlyle's belief in the value of 
traditional symbols." I would ask some kind 
student of the Chelsea Sage to inform me in 
which of his works this is found. For to 
those who confess an affection for symbols it 
cannot but be gratifying to know that they 
had the appreciation of the hard-headed 
philosopher, who certainly did not wear his 
heart upon his sleeve an indiscretion, indeed, 
to which his countrymen are not prone, 

It will be interesting to notice the symbols 
to which the Sage refers, and his testimony 
will add assurance to the conviction that as 
the world grows old, et nos in illo, the use of 
emblems, whether political, religious, or social, 
prevails to-day as through precedent ages it 
ever did. And how, indeed, can it be other- 
wise so long as in living beings the material 
and the immaterial are welded and insepa- 
rable 1 The one must express the other. " An 
outward and visible sign " must represent the 
inward and invisible mind, and so subtle, 
necessary, and universal is the representation 
that it is often made unconsciously. 

Theological symbols have perhaps chief 
observance and notoriety ; they have been 
overturned and smashed when the represented 
doctrines have also suffered subversion, but 
others have replaced them. The Puritan and 
the Covenanter destroyed objects of beauty 
which to them seemed to represent falsehoods ; 
but they gave expression to their own con- 
ceived ideas of truth by the simplicity of 
whitewash, and the self -abasement of cropped 
hair and straight - cut sombre garments. 
The Irish Orangeman also effaced the sacred 
Christian emblem, and, more cheerful-minded 
than the Protestant of England or of Scot- 
land, adopting colours as his symbol, flaunted 
his flag of orange and blue in the face of 
his Roman Catholic brother, who, under his 
banner of green, eagerly accepted the gauge 
of battle, their differences being referred to 
the arbitrament of the shillelagh ! 

The resuscitation and cultivation of art in 
our own time, joined to our more recent 
seizure of the Imperial idea, have refreshed 
our affection for symbols. Then we have 
been blessed in the prolonged reign of a 

treat and good Queen, for so many years the 
ead and symbol of the nation whose best 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. JAN. 11, 1902. 

qualities she represented. So our pride in 
the monarchy, proved to be the best form of 
government under which we can live, is re- 
newed, and we hail the coming coronation of 
the King with all its aforetime stateliness 
and significant symbolism. The pageantry 
may, perhaps, to some appear childish, but 
happier they who have not lost their zest in 
the pleasures of childhood, and can yet enjoy 
the stately show of a great symbolic cere- 
mony. And whatever may be the difference 
in sentiments, it is certain that in the display 
of dignity and patriotism each member of 
the united monarchy will claim its due 
position. " Caledonia stern and wild " will 
be careful that her "ruddy lion ramps in 
gold " in all rightful and accustomed places ; 
and "gallant little Wales," democratic and 
severely religious though she be, will not be 
slack to exhibit "the Dragon of the great 
Pendragoriship," happily of late restored to 
the national heraldry by the gracious sove- 

So let symbols flourish ; and after a long 
digression (which is committed to the for- 
bearance of the Editor) 1 would again ask for 
Carlyle's reference to them. 


woman, who is not herself entitled to arms, 
allowed to bear the arms of her husband (who 
is an armigerous person) on a lozenge ? 

W. G. D. F. 

a memorandum among my papers that there 
is in the Public Library at Cambridge a 
manuscript supplement to the 'FaerieQueene,' 
in three books (Ee. iii. 53). Will some one 
tell me its date, authorship, and whether it 
has ever been printed ? ASTARTE. 

has an old painting most execrably executed, 
but valuable to the local historian if the date 
could be ascertained. It represents a large 
coach outside the public-house called "The 
Five Bells," at New Cross Gate ; on the sign- 
post the landlord's name appears as Dyke 
while the customers are supplied with Cal- 
vert & Co.'s "Intire." The coach has "John 
Court, Greenwich to London," and "I.A.C." 
in a circle on the panel. Under the seat 
behind is what appears to be a spread eagle ; 
on the panel is a representation of St. George 
and the dragon, and on the dickey five belfs. 
There are three passengers abreast shown 
inside; two seats behind, holding five persons 
three and two; and three on top besides the 
driver, one a lady, wearing a hat like that 

worn by Queen Caroline at her trial. Has 
any reader access to records which would 
enable me to arrive at a proximate date 1 ? 


New Cross, S.E. 

"FOUNTAIN -PREGNANT." At the age of 
fourteen Alfred Tennyson wrote : 

The fountain-pregnant mountains riven 

To shapes of wildest anarchy, 
By sacred fire and midnight storms 
That wander round their windy cones. 

I suppose the epithet "fountain -pregnant" 
was of his own imagination, but Dante many 
centuries earlier made Guido del Duca say : 

Ben e che il nome di tal valle pera : 
Clio dal principle suo (dov' e sipregno 
L' alpestro monte, end' e tronco Peloro, 
Che in pochi luoghi passa oltra quel segno) 
In tin la, 've si rende per ristoro 
Di quel che il ciel della marina asciuga. 

' Purg.,' xiv. 30-35. 

Dean Plumptre has a note in which he re- 
marks (' Purgatory,' p. 103; : 

"The word prey no may be a rendering of 

Lucan (ii. 397). .Speaking of a district in the 
Apennines, lie says : 

Nulloque a vert ice tell us 

Altius intumuit propriusque accessit Olympo. 
And in this case it would point simply to height. 
Another rendering refers the word to the character 
of that part of the Apennines as a watershed, the 
sources of the Arno and Tiber, the Lamone, the 
Savio, and two other rivers lying within the coin- 
pass of eighteen miles." 

Did our great English poet owe anything 
at fourteen to Dante, or was the idea born 
of his own genius ? ST. SWITHIN. 

DONNE'S BURIAL. Walton in his life of 
Dr. Donne states that "the next day after 
his burial some unknown friend, some one 
of the many lovers and admirers of his virtue 
and learning, writ this epitaph with a coal 
on the wall over his grave : 

Reader ! I am to let thee know, 

Donne's Body only lies below ; 

For, could the grave his Soul comprise, 

Earth would be richer than the Skies ! " 

Has this friend ever been surmised 1 It 
would appear unlikely he was Dr. Fox. Was 
he Walton himself? He was present at 
Donne's death, and presumably at his funeral 
and in London the day after. 

The Firs, Norton, Worcester. 

" PEN - NAME." I have not read Mrs. 
Elizabeth Wells Gallup's 'Bi-literal Cypher 
of Sir Francis Bacon,' but in a sympathetic 
article in the Publishers' Circular of 14 Decem- 
ber last a statement is quoted which is said 
by Mrs. Gallup to have been found in the 

9* s. ix. JAX. 11, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1595 edition of 'Colin Clout,' and in which 
Bacon claims to be the son of Queen Eliza- 
beth. In this statement Bacon is made to 
say that "Marlovv is also a pen-name em- 
ploi'd ere taking Wm. Shakespeare's as our 
masque or vizard." I have always been 
under the impression that " pen-name " was 

i an Americanism of somewhat recent date 
for pseudonym or nom de guerre, but I may 
be wrong. I should therefore be glad if 
some authority could be shown for the use 

I of the term in the acknowledged writings of 
Bacon or any of his contemporaries. Into 
the general merits of the question raised by 
Mrs. Gallup I do not, of course, propose to 
enter. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

MOAT'S/ * STENOGRAPHY.'- I am in possession 
of a copy of Moat's 'Stenography,' bearing 
date 1833, though, according to a quaintly 
worded preface, completed for publication 
twenty years earlier. It is an octavo with 
some twenty pages of steel-engraved "cha- 
racters." The work seems to me to be of 
unique interest, as very patently most sys- 
tems of a later date are based upon it. 
Could any of your readers inform me of the 
history of the work or its author? 


525, George Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 

[Thomas Moat's ' Shorthand Standard Attempted' 
was published in 8vo by Thomas Tegg, price &*.. 
between 1816 and 1851.] 

GORDON, A PLACE-NAME. What is the 
meaning of the name Gordon? I believe 
it is to be found in many countries, and I 
have heard it described as a hill fort. 


I am in search of the ancestry of Sir Thomas 
Smith, of Parson's Green, who married the 
Hon. Frances Bruges (or Brydges) temp. Eliza- 
beth. Was he identical with the Sir Thomas 
Smith who was Secretary of State to that 

Castle Ward, Downpatrick. 

recent number of the Dublin Review, in a 
paper on Ange'lique Arnauld, incidentally 
refers to " a Franciscan friar, well known in 
the religious circles of the day as Father 
Archange de Pembroke." He was, we are 
told, " an English nobleman " by birth, and 
therefore was probably a member of the race 
of the Earls of Pembroke. Can he be identi- 
fied 1 ASTARTE. 

the date of this excellent little book? My 
copy is written by Isabella Child, and the 

publisher is "London: Charles Tilt, Fleet 
Street." The book is 3 in. by 2j in., and the 
paging runs to 191. It contains "48 pretty 
plates." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

FEEDING BIRDS. In the Sheffield Daily 
Telegraph, 28 December, 1901, is the following 
interesting notice with reference to the feed- 
ing of birds : 

"In old times a sheaf of wheat was sometimes 
hung outside the porch of village churches, and 
renewed at intervals during winter, as food for 
the birds a sermon surely in itself a charming 
reminder that Christian kindness should not end 
with suffering humanity, but should embrace all 
God's creatures." 

I should like to know if this custom is still 
practised. CHARLES GREEN. 

18, Shrewsbury Road, Sheffield. 

the outside of the south wall of the nave 
of the church of Llanrhidian Lower, in the 
"rural district of Gower," Glamorganshire, 
thejr have suspended a tombstone bearing 
the following epitaph : 

" Here lieth the body of Robert Harry who 
deceased the xxi day of September : aged. 65 : anno 
Domini 1646 : who maried two wives and had issve 
by them x children. 

Here lyeth my lifeles corps bereved of liveing breath : 
Not slaine by sinne which is the cavse of death. 
But by decree which God hath said all men shall dy : 
And come to jvdgement to know how they shall 

And now o heavenly God that liveing breath thov 

gavest to mee : 
That mortall life and sovle I yeeld and give againe 

to thee. 

My corps to earth for short time I doe give : 
My sovle vnto my saviovr Christ eternally to live." 

The passive or middle use of "try "is note- 
worthy. Has this inscription been pub- 
lished in any book ? E. S. DODGSON. 

Who was the artist of the initial letter T 
designs, illustrating chaps, iii. and iv. of 'Lovel 
the Widower/ in the March and April num- 
bers, 1860? The former is initialled S., and 
the latter E. S., reversed in a circle. Also, 
Who was the artist of the outline ' Ariadne ; 
in the December number, 1860 ? 

R. D. C. N. 


slip was inserted in vol. i. as follows : 
"With volume second, containing the Reigns of 

King Richard II Edward IV., will be printed 

an Index of Matters and Names of Persons and 
Places, a Glossary, Table of the Contractions, and 
General Preface. 

Were the index of matters, the glossary, and 
the general preface ever published ? They 
are not in the Bodleian copy. Q. V. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. n, 1902. 



(9 th S. viii. 504.) 

KINBOROUGH is not a place-name, but the 
modern form of the Old English ( = Anglo- 
Saxon) female name Cyneburgh or Kyne- 
burh, latinized Cyniburga, well known as 
that of the sainted daughter of King Penda 
of Mercia, the sister of Kings Peada and 
Wulfhere, who was married in 653 to Alcn- 
frid, son of Oswiu, King of Northumbria, 
as recorded by Bsecla, ' Hist. Eccles.,' III. xxi., 
where she appears as " Cyniburgam filiam 
Pendan regis." (One may assume that every 
reader of ' N. & Q.' knows that Latin and Old 
English C was = K.) The Old English Chronicle 
(Laud MS.) contains in the annal of 656 the 
account of the consecration of the Minster of 
Medeshamstede (later Peterborough), built by 
the Kings Peada and Wulfhere, at which the 
latter was present with his two sisters Kyne- 
burg and Kyneswith, written in the later 
annal of 675 Kineburh and Kineswith. And 
the annal of 963 tells how, three centuries 
later, Abbot ./Elfsi took up the bodies of 
St. Kyneburh and St. Kyneswith that lay at 
Castor, and brought them to Peterborough, 
and presented them there to St. Peter. For 
the traditional accounts of the sister saints, 
see Rev. C. Plummer's edition of Breda (III. 
xxi. note). Cyne, "kingly, royal," is the first 
element of a long list of Old English per- 
sonal names, male and female ; the feminine 
lurk, " fort, fortress," is an equally frequent 
second element of names of women, of which 
TEthelburh, Eadburh, and Seaxburh latin- 
ized Ethelburga, Edburga, and Sexburga are 
perhaps the best known ; but more than 
twenty others occur in the Durham ' Liber 
Vitse ' and Breda's ' History.' The Old English 
proper names in Cyne- mostly take Ken- in 
their modern form, as in Cynehelm = Kenelm, 
Cyneric = Kenrick or Kendrick, Cynewulf= 
Kennulph ; but Kin- or Kyn- is the regular 
phonetic representative of Cyne-, Kyne-, 
already, even in Old English times, shorteneo 
to Cyn-, Kyn- : Cyneburh itself appears as 
Cynnburg, Kynnburug (see Sweet, 'Oldest 
English Texts,' 553). It would be of interest 
to know whether the group of related Kin- 
boroughs in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries had had their name handed down 
from Old English times, or whether it was 
introduced at a later date as a baptisma 
name, perhaps for a female child born 01 
baptized on 6 March, St. Cyneburh's or 
Kmborough's day. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

G. D. B. says that this name occurs at 
times spelt Kynburgh, though Kinborough 
is the more usual form. I therefore do not 
think there can be much room for doubt that 
the ladies he mentions were called after the 
Anglo-Saxon saint Kyneburga, whose festi- 
val was observed on 6 March, under which 
date an account of her may be seen in the 
'Acta Sanctorum,' Alban Butler's 'Lives of 
the Saints,' and the late Rev. Richard Stan- 
ton's 'Menology of England and Wales.' 


viii. 497). SIR E. F. Du CANE writes of 
engravings of portraits of General and Mrs. 
Desborough, and wishes for some information 
about them. There is a reproduction of a 
photograph of a family portrait of Major- 
General Disbrowe (Desborough), in posses- 
sion of Miss Desborough, facing p. 172 of my 
'Oliver Cromwell' (Goupil, 189'9), which may 
assist him in determining whether his en- 
graving represents the general or not. 


ST. BRIAVEL (9 th S. ix. 9). The accounts of 
his hundred and parish in various Gloucester- 
shire and Dean Forest books seem to prove 
that he was a Norman St. Brule. D. 

322 ; 9 th S. viii. 473). The following is bad 
to beat. It occurs in a speech addressed to 
Charles I. by Thos. Widdrington, Recorder 
of Berwick, when his Majesty was passing 
through the town in June, 1633, on his way 
to be crowned at Edinburgh (Rushworth, 
ii. 179) : 

" It were unseasonable for us to represent to Your 
Majesties view the Gloomy Cloud of our Pressures 

and Wants : No I need not do it for that Cloud 

is suddenly vanished by the Radiant Beams of Your 
Sun-like Appearance. By whose approach these 
Rusty Ordnances, these Solitary Walls, these Soul- 
diers, this now despicable Town, have all instantly 
received their former Life, Luster, and Vigour; 
and hence we are induced to think, that this Year 
(being the Year of Your Majesties most Royal Pro- 
gress) is likewise the Year dreamed on by Plato, 
wherein all things were to return to their former 

Life, Splendor and Excellency We well know 

(as indeed who knoweth not) that Royal Blood 
running in Your Majesties Veins, to be Extracted 
from the most Renowned Kings of both these 
Kingdoms, and by those Kings (Most Dread Sove- 
reign) especially by Your Royal Father of ever 
Blessed and Happy Memory, hath this Town, 
though in the Skirts of either Kingdom, been richly 
Imbroidered, with many Priviledges, Franchises, 
and Immunities : And therefore we doubt not but 
Your Majesty, in whom each Man may behold the 
Worth of all Your Ancestors, You being no less 
Rightful Inheritor of their Vertues, than of their 
Crowns, will gratiously maintain what they have., IBB.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


most benignly granted Your Majesty is now 

fin to place a Diadem upon Your most Sacred 
eaa, which God and Your own Right have long 

since given into Your Hands And we most 

affectionately wish, That the Throne of King 
Charles, the Great and wise Son of our Brittish 
Solomon, may be like that of King Darid, the 
Father of Solomon, established before the Lord for 

On 30 March, 1639, Widdrington, who had 
been appointed Recorder of York, made 
another speech to the king, in which, among 
other extravagant phrases, he said (Rush- 
worth, ii. 887) : 

"The beams and lightnings of those Eminent 
Vertues, Sublime Gifts and Illuminations where- 
\vith you are endowed, do cast so forcible Reflec- 
tions upon the Eyes of all Men, that you fill, not 
only this City, this Kingdom, but the whole 
Universe with splendor." 

A few years later this royal adulator had 
become "Speaker of the Parliament of the 
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland," and as such installed Cromwell as 
Lord Protector! His address on that memor- 
able occasion was pitched in a milder key, 
but is extolled by Carlyleas "Eloquent melli- 
fluous speech," " Speech still worth reading," 

The following ascription may be worth a 
note : 

Mai. iii, 3. Numb. xxxi. 22. 
Jehovah Chimista Supremus. 
Carolus D.G. Secundus. 

It occurs on the title-page of a work entitled 
"The Laws of Art and Nature in Knowing, 
Judging, Assaying, Fining, Refining, and 
Inlarging the Bodies of confin'd Metals. 
By Sir John Pettus, of Suffolk, K fc . Of the 
Society for the Mines Royal. London : 1683." 
And, that the " merry monarch " may be sure 
to see the point of the reference, the author 
is careful to remark in a dedication that 
" tis hinted in the Title Page Your Majesty 
is (in the Science of Chimistry, as in all 
Sciences of Humanity) Nulli Secundus." 


ANCIENT BOATS (9 th S. viii. 366, 407, 507). 
In 1860 a canoe was found in the turbary of 
Mercurago, near Arona ; there is an account 
of it, with a woodcut of a section, in Prof. 
Gastaldi's ' Lake Habitations of Italy,' 1865, 
p. 102. A canoe found at Giggleswick is now 
in the museum of the Leeds Philosophical 
Society ; for a description and picture see 
'Old Yorkshire,' ed. Smith, N.S., 1890, 
PP- 2, 3. W. C. B. 

PECH FAMILY (9 th S. viii. 232, 392). This 
family were also early settled in Suffolk, 

where the name still abounds. D'Ewes in the 
autobiography printed by Halliwell (i. 326) 
mentions a William Pecca/tum, or Peche, as 
holding land in Wickhambrook, Suffolk, 
20 William I. See also Harl. MS. 537, fo. 105, 
as to lands in Stowlangtoft held by Regi- 
nald and Galfridus Peche. 


464). Lieut.-Col. J. L.Vivian's 'Visitations 
of the County of Devon ' contains the above 
from before 14 Edward II. to 1879. It in- 
cludes the Aclands of Acland, Columbjohn, 
Killerton and Hawkridge, &c. 


See under ' Acland ' in the * Dictionary of 
English and Welsh Surnames.' 


References to families bearing this name 
from the time of Henry VII. will be found in 
3 rd S. iv. 452 ; v. 320 ; 8 th S. i. 106, 159 ; and 
the Western Antiquary, vols. i., iv., v., viii., 

71, Brecknock Road. 

PEWS ANNEXED TO HOUSES (9 th S. vii. 388, 
517 ; viii. 89, 191, 288, 428). Such a pew as 
those to which your correspondents refer was 
until some nine years ago in existence in 
St. Mary's Church, Willesden. It was known 
as the "Faculty" pew, and contained a brass 
plate announcing (I quote from memory) that, 
by a faculty granted by the Consistory Court 
of the diocese, the pew was the private pro- 
perty of the family at Neasden House. The 
huge pew was a very ugly structure, and 
being situated on the south side of the nave, 
against the chancel, quite obstructed the 
view of the chancel from all worshippers 
seated in the south side of the nave and the 
south aisle. The former vicar made several 
attempts to get the structure removed, but 
without success. Shortly after the present 
vicar was inducted, however, the abomination 
was taken down, to the improved appearance 
of that fine old church. F. A. RUSSELL. 

Catford, S.E. 

An interesting addition to this subject will 
be found at vol. ii. pp. 67-119 of 'Reminis- 
cences, chiefly of Towns, Villages, and 
Schools,' by the Rev. T. Mozley (Longmans, 
1885), where is the narrative of the claim by 

he author's father to a pew appurtenant in 
St. Werburgh's Church, Derby. It begins : 
" Early in 1828 my father bought the Friary, and 
with it a gallery pew of five sittings. The pew was 
distinctly described in the deed of conveyance as 
part of the consideration for which the price was 
paid, the market price of such a pew being at that 

ime one hundred guineas." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. JAN. n, 1002 

The final phase of the matter was the appoint- 
ment by the Bishop of Lichfield (Ryder) of 
a lay commission, which, after looking into 
opinions which had been given by Sir 
Herbert Jennerand Dr. Lushington, reported, 
in 1831, " that pews cannot be held to be 
appurtenant to houses." 

The soundness of this view must, however, 
now be judged by the light of the Warmin- 
ster pew case, decided by the House of Lords 
in 1891, and the Sharnbrook pew case, heard 
in 1896 before Sir Arthur Charles, the present 
Dean of Arches, then a judge of the Queen's 
Bench Division. W. B. H. 

From time immemorial it has been the 
custom in South Taw ton, Devonshire, to 
apportion a pew to an owner of property of 
any significance in the parish. During "the 
restoration of the church, some twenty years 
or so ago, I remember that Mr. Arnold, the 
then owner of North Wyke, threatened to go 
to law because he considered his rights in 
this matter had been infringed. 

The following is an extract from a cata- 
logue of deeds, &c., offered for sale by Mr. 
Coleman, of Tottenham : 

"Gloucestershire. The original faculty granted 
to Robert Brown, who in 1733 kept the White 
Hart publichouse in Stroud, in the county of Glou- 
cester, claimed his right to a seat in the Parish 
Church there for the use of himself and family, he 
then being the owener of the tennement called the 
VVhite Hart, in the said town, signed by Edward 
Stephens, registrar, 27 March, 1733." 

Kichmond, Surrey. 

-"x AL un UIls '" A KENTISH GAME (9 th S. viii. 
402). Why not quote from the original book, 
Ootton s Uompleat Gamester ' of 1674 (chap. 
x. p. Ill) I I he passage there is as follows : 

"A A/l ^ UrS is a . Game very much play'd in Kent 
and well it may, since from thence it drew its first 
original ; and although the Game may be lookt 
upon. as trivial and inconsiderable, yet I have known 

fote t) ! U eme ! 1 a ^ d thers f verv considerable 
note who have play'd great sums of money at it, 
yet that adds not much to the worth of the Game 
1>lay away an estate at One and 

ne Io8eacons iderabie -i" 

I.e., three throws of dice. J. S. McTEAR. 

263 377, 438 ; vi. 235). -There is a monument 
dS? cein f. ef y at Trimulgherry (Deccan, 
dia), raised by the officers, non-commissioned 

~,. ,,, w 76th Iveirimerit to thp 

memory of those of their corps who died 
during its time of service in India. On this 

H?nH Uine ? fc ^ re imentis c*Ued the "76th 
Hmdoostan Regiment." The76th-at present 

the 2nd Battalion of the West Riding Regi- 
ment was raised for service in India at the 
time of the war with Hyder Ali. It remained 
in India until peace was proclaimed in the 
Deccan, having been at Seringapatam and 
Assaye. I regret that I have forgotten the 
date of the monument. FRANK PENNY. 

KIRJATH-JEARIM (5 th S. vi. 346 ; vii. 250). 
The question here was, why Sir Walter Scott 
took this place-name for the name of a Jew. 
I would suggest that he borrowed from 
Marlowe's ' The Jew of Malta.' See Dyce's 
edition of Marlowe's plays, 1865, p. 147 : 
There 's Kirriah Jairim, the great Jew of Greece, 
Obed in Bairseth, Nones in Portugal, 
Myself in Malta, some in Italy, 
Many in France, and wealthy every one. 


Portland, Oregon. 

A SURVIVAL OF PAGANISM (9 th S. viii. 463). 
There are still a few people left in this 
village who profess to believe that it is un- 
lucky to kill a pig during the waning moon. 
I cannot, however, say that any one acts up 
to the superstition. 1 have heard the belief 
stated at a pig-killing, prefixed by the usual 
"They say," seems to me that people 
here always kill their pigs at the time most 
convenient to themselves, regardless of con- 
sequences. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

"RACING "/9 th S. viii. 104, 150, 291, 347). 
When the grinder races a grindstone he uses a 
piece of pointed cast steel, called a racing-iron, 
to make the working surface of the stone flat, 
as grindstones have often soft places in them, 
and when the grinder has worked upon them 
it causes the stone to become uneven on the 
surface. Old grindstones when discarded by 
the grinder are often utilized for various 
purposes. I have seen several well-built 
sheds for cattle in the neighbourhood of 
Sheffield with excellent pillars formed of 
grindstones. To support the roof of the shed 
a post has been driven in the ground, and 
the grindstones have been placed one upon 
another, forming in some cases picturesque 
pillars, reminding one of the primitive 
age of the construction of early classic 
columns. Grindstones too were very fre- 
quently used to form stepping-stones over 
the millstreams. Numbers of these stones 
are still to be seen in the river-bottoms near 
Sheffield, where bridges are now constructed. 

have seen some excellent vases turned out 
from grindstones. When the grindstone is 
of no further use to the grinder it becomes 
a useful commodity to the housewife for 
cleansing floors, &c. It is a very common 

s. ix. JAN. n, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


occurrence in Sheffield to-day to see men 
going about with these grindstones on their 
heads, disposing of them for the above pur- 
pose. In my early days I remember these 
stones were broken up and crushed to a fine 
powder for sanding floors, which reminds one 
of the words in Longfellow's poem 'Nurem- 
berg,' in which he refers to it in speaking of 
the house of Hans Sachs, the cobbler poet, 

But his house is now an alehouse, 

With a nicely sanded floor. 

We have in Sheffield parish churchyard a 
grindstone used as a monumental stone, dated 
1818. There is also in the same churchyard, 
to the memory of William Hobson, grinder, a 
flat stone with these lines inscribed on it, 
dated 1815 : 

Beneath this stone a grinder lies 
A sudden death ath closed his eyes 
He lost his life by the breaking of a stone 
We hope his soul to Heaven 's gone. 

In Attercliffe churchyard are two grinder's 
stones used for monumental purposes, the 
earlier dated 1776. Grindstones were used 
as seats in gardens, also for a covering over 
wells, the hole in the centre being enlarged 
to let the bucket pass through. I remember 
in my boyhood frequently seeing them on 
the hearths of cottagers' homes in York- 
shire. It was a common saying, " Sit thee 
down on t' grindlestone, i' t' ingle nook." 
There are several old songs on the grind- 
stone, which would take too much of your 
valuable space to quote. The following is a 
verse from one of the songs, entitled ' The 
Grinder's Hardships,' which was probably 
written during the formation of the Grinders' 
Misfortune Society, established at Crookes, 
Sheffield, 1804 : 

There seldom comes a day but our dairymaid* goes 

And if that does not happen, perhaps we break a 

Which may wound us for life, or give us our final 

For there's few that brave such hardships as we 

poor grinders do. 

18, Shrewsbury Road, Sheffield. 

COPPERPLATE CUTS (9 th S. viii. 444). 
During the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries (probably earlier) copperplate 
engravings used as illustrations to books 
were known, professionally, as "cuts." In 
the British Museum Library are two 
histories of England (which I have already 
mentioned in the pages of * N. & Q.') : Temple 
Sydney's, 1775, and Russel's, 1777, which 
contain many (full-page) copperplate prints, 


excellently engraved. Although on the title- 
page the books are described (respectively) 
as "Illustrated with plates engraved from 
the drawings of Mr. Wale," and "Illustrated 
with up wards of one hundred Copper plates," 
yet in the directions to the binder special 
instructions are given as to the proper- 
placing of the " cuts." According to most 
dictionaries a "cut" is described as (apart 
from its other meanings) " a picture cut or 
carved upon a stamp of wood or copper, 
and impressed from it" (I quote from 
Walker, edition 1809). Originally, I believe, 
" cut " was the trade name for the block, 
stamp, or die upon which the picture had 
been engraved, and not, as subsequently, 
used to denote the impression taken there- 
from. With the revival of wood-engraving 
came a composite (sometimes hyphen) word, 
" woodcut " ; but when, in the early years of 
the last century, "wood-chopping" super- 
seded metal engraving, "cut" was applied 
by the profession almost exclusively to 
drawings engraved on wood. I do not think 
" cut " was ever much favoured by the " man 
in the street, ' but I recollect when a child, 
during the fifties, hearing artists, engravers, 
journalists, printers, &c., usually speak of the 
" large cut in Punch " which we should now 
style the cartoon. Since the introduction 
of "process" the word "cut" as applied to 
illustrative art has, I fancy, become almost 
obsolete. Process blocks could hardly be 
termed " cuts," although the better class of 
" half-tone " pictures are frequently finished 
up by hand with the graver. 

39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane, S.E. 

See 'N.E.D.' under 'Cut,' sb. 2, iv. 21. 
Among the uneducated any picture, even a 
painted glass window, is called a "cut." See 
Peacock's 'Manley and Corringham Glossary.' 
Much in the same way, every figure, whether 
in sculpture, brass, or glass, is called a 
" picture " in k Rites of Durham.' J. T. F. 


464). The "septum," not " septem," was the 
name given to the low marble wall or balus- 
trade which divided the nave of the ancient 
basilican church into three, inside the middle 
one of which were the clergy. 

By 8 & 9 William III., c. 30, it was enacted 
that every person who, after the first day 
of September, 1697, shall be in receipt of 
relief of any parish, and the wife and children 
of any such person, " shall upon the shoulder 
of the Right Sleeve of the uppermost garment 
in an open and visible manner wear such 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. n, 1902. 

Mark or Badge as is herein mentioned, that 
is to say, a large Roman P together with the 
first letter of the name of the Parish, cut 
either in red or blue cloth." H. S. V.-W. 

The "septem" is probably a transept, if 
the church has one. "Septum," a walled 
enclosure, unfurnished building, points that 

Tunbridge Wells. 

The Rev. Frederick George Lee, D.C.L , 
in his ' Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesias- 
tical Terms,' London, 1877, explains that 
"septum " was a term used by certain seven- 
teenth-century Anglican writers for the fixed 
or movable rail, placed on each side of the 
entrance of the sanctuary, to support the 
communicants when they knelt to receive 
the Lord's Body and Blood. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

LEIGH HUNT (9 th S. viii. 64, 130). A news- 
paper cutting in my possession, unfortunately 
without date or recorded origin, states that 
the question of identity had been agitated in 
Chicago, and that the Dial of that city pub- 
lished, as evidence in support of Mr. Froude's 
denial of the reference being to Mrs. Car- 
lyle, a little poem which its editor found in 
the Monthly Chronicle for November, 1838. 
The " little poem " is the same in every re- 
spect as the well-known lines, except 'that 
for Jenny one reads "Nelly" : an important 
difference. This may be evidence per se, or 
it may be evidence of piracy only. 


VANCOUVER (9 th S. viii. 504). On my way 
back from Australia a few months ago, I 
spent a week in the remarkably progressive 
British Columbian city of Vancouver. At the 
entrance _to the Public Library I noticed an 
oil painting of the circumnavigator from 
whom the city derives its name. To the best 
of my recollection the inscription underneath 
this picture contains the information desired 
No doubt a letter to the librarian would 
elicit a copy. J. F. HOGAN. 

viii. 483). The severed human hand was fre- 
quently used in magic. The " hand of glory " 
as it is commonly called, is often mentioned 
in folk-lore books and elsewhere. The late 
Bishop Forbes, quoting the Aberdeen Bre- 
viary, tells how St. Ffllan used one of his 
hands as a source of light : 

"He secretly constructed a cell not far from the 
cloister, m which, on a certain night, while the 

ethren ot the monastery announced by a little 
servant that the supper was ready, the servant, 

kneeling and peeping through a chink in that cell 
to see what was taking place, saw the blessed 
Faelanus writing in the dark, with his left hand 
affording a clear light to his right hand. . The 
servant, wondering at this occurrence, straightway 
returned to the brethren and told it." ' Kalendar 
of Scottish Saints,' p. 342. 

Candles made of the fat of the dead were 
also often used in incantations. 


Wickentree House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

The Rev. R. H. Barham had been reading 
'Secrets Merveilleux dela Magie Naturelle et 
Cabalistique du Petit Albert' (Lyons, 1776) 
when he wrote ' The Nurse's Stor} 7 .' He says 
himself in that poem : 

For another receipt the same charm to prepare 
Consult Mr. Ains worth and Petit Albert. 

The complete "specification " of this charm, 
with an illustration, is to be found on p. 104 
of the ' Secrets Merveilleux.' 


" PROSPICIMUS MODO" (9 th S. viii. 445). 
This ingenious specimen of literary trifling 
in the shape of " retrograde verses," some- 
thing like the palindrome (for which see 
Brewer), is quoted in the Appendix to Dr. 
Morley's edition of 'Gulliver's Travels' 
(Routledge, 1890), p. 417, with the reading 
" nobis " for " patrire " in the second line, 
which, however, does not affect the charac- 
teristic form of the thing. The author is not 
mentioned, but the elegiac couplet is given 
as a specimen of the kind of knowledge that 
Cyrano de Bergerac (born 1020) got from his 
schoolmaster in Perigord, and of the literary 
taste in France about that time. 



SENCE (9 th S. viii. 368, 452). The licence to 
Sir John Pakington is referred to in the 
'Letters and Papers, temp. Henry VIII.,' iv. 
3, No. 5510, 5. The reference there given is 
"S. B." [? Signet Bills], and "Patent Roll 
20 Henry VIII., pars 2, m. 24." The date of 
the licence is 5 April, 20 Henry VIII., 1529. 
In Nash's 'Worcestershire,' i. 352, the refer- 
ence to the Patent Roll is (probably wrongly) 
given as " Patent 28 Henry VIII. , pars 2." 

As this licence apparently differs from the 
others hitherto printed, I venture to ask 
whether some London correspondent would 
kindly search the Patent Rolls arid see whe- 
ther it is in reality different from the ordinary 
form of licence. Was the licence given to 
Sir^John Pakington because of some disease 
or infirmity in his head ? And did it really 
extend beyond the reign of Henry VIII.? 

s. ix. JAN. ii, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The ' D.N.B.' mentions the presence of Henry' 
successors, whilst Nash omits these words. 

" PILLAGE, STALLAGE, AND TOLL " (9 th S. viii 
420). The first word is doubtless a misreading 
oipiccage } which will be found in most English 
dictionaries. In 1376 the Corporation oi 
Calais was reconstituted on the English 
model, and it was enacted (' Rolls of Parlia- 
ment,' vol. ii. p. 359) that the mayor, alder- 
men, and commons should have the assize oi 
wine, bread, and ale, and "la stallage des 
Bouchers, et la stallage des Drapers et Mer- 
cers, et auxint le picage en la Marche." 

The distinction between piccage&nd stallag. 

will be noticed. 

Q. V. 

Bailey's English dictionary (1731) is useful 
for reference when old law terms are in ques- 
tion. " Pillage " is therein explained as in use 
among architects, and as meaning a square 
pillar that usually stands behind columns to 
bear up arches manifestly a support with 
a foundation. " Stallage" is the right to erect 
stalls, which need have no foundation in the 
ground ; it also includes the money paid for 
the right. The right is that of occupying 
the ground without breaking it. Is not " pil- 
lage" the right of occupying and breaking 
for the necessary support of the pillar 1 Some 
market-places have permanent fixed holes for 
this purpose, as at Cambridge. In many 
others the stalls are merely erected on the 
surface of the ground. By inference "pil- 
lage" would mean also the money paid for the 
right of setting up the pillar. 


LUK (9 th S. viii. 481). With regard to the 
above, I am of opinion that the extracts from 
the Hundred Rolls and the Patent Rolls set 
forth below are evidence that the merchants 
of Lukes and the merchants of Luk were 
merchants of Lucca, in Italy. 

From the Hundred Rolls. 

Permission for Lucas de Luk, Thomas of 
Basing, and other Lombards to export wool. 
Temp. Edward I. 

Permission for Luc de Lukes and Deodatus 
and their fellows to export wool to Flandr'. 
Edward I. 

From the Patent Rolls. 

Luke of Lucca and colleagues, merchants 
of Lucca, appointed to collect the new cus- 
tom at Boston. 3 Edward I. 

Receipt to Bauruncinus and Reyner de 
Luk, merchants of Lucca, for 3,000 marks 
paid into the Wardrobe at Chester. 10 Ed- 
ward I. 

Luke de Luk and his fellows are requested 
to lend the king 500 marks for the expenses 
of his household. 3 Edward I. 

Letters for Baruncinus de Lucca and Bur- 
nettus his son nominating Andrew de Flo- 
rentia their attorney. EDWARD J. LUCK. 

LONDRES (9 th S. viii. 443). William de 
Londre (Loundre, Lounder, as the name is 
variously spelt) evidently did not come in 
with the Conqueror, as the first clear evidence 
we have concerning him is contained in the 
Bull of Honorius II., 1128, anathematizing 
him and several others, whose notions 
of meum^ and tuum were equally hazy, 
for "spoiling the Church." He appears to 
have been the founder of the family, and 
erected Ogmore Castle, in the county of 
Glamorgan. He evidently spelt his name 
Londre, if he could spell, and was, I think, 
an illegitimate son of the Conqueror. He 
was in high favour with Henry I., by whom 
this lordship marcher appears to have been 
bestowed upon him. He was the founder of 
Ewenny Priory in intention, although he did 
not live to complete it, and a fragment of his 
tombstone is extant there with grand Lom- 
bardic lettering. As evidence of spelling of 
the name see the seal attached to deed No. 
176, Duchy of Lancaster records: "Vesica 
shaped, horse and rider, cour. to left, round 

exergue Sigillum Will [ jndoniis" ; and 

again, MS. 177. same series, grant by William 
de Londinis to his daughter Sibilla, on the seal 
of which the name is spelt " Lundonis." The 
Denultimate heiress, Haweisia, joined with 
Patric de Carducis in payment of a fine on 
obtaining seisin of the estates of his wife 19 
Henry III. (1235) ; and the penultimate heiress 
of this branch, Blanche, on her marriage to 
John of Gaunt, carried these wide domains 
nto the royal house, where a small part 
vet remain as Duchy of Lancaster lands. 

From various sources I have collected the 
pedigree and descent of the lords and ladies 
if Ogmore. They are not of sufficient 
public interest to give in ' N. & Q.,' as mainly 
lerived from contemporary MSS., lengthy, 
nd opening too many side issues of interest 
>nly to the genealogist and historian, but 
much at the service of those who care for 
uch curious information. G. E. R. 

The Anglo-Norman family inquired about 
must have been so called from some early 
:onnexion with London. The only place in 
STorthern France with a name resembling 
Condon is Londinieres, a canton in the de- 
)artment of Seine Inferieure. I suspect the 
ancestor of this family was a certain " Willel- 
mus nepos Episcopi" of Pomesday Book, a. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. JAN. n, 1902. 

nepos possibly of Maurice, Bishop of London 
whose rather uncommon Christian name w 
find used by William's descendants. Williai 
was called " de Londonia," and gave the tithe 
of Eastgarston to Herley Priory ('Form. Angl 
p. 252). Madox had the original before him 
which was endorsed in an old hand "Cart 
Willelmi de Londoniis." Maurice, his son 
was a witness. It is not improbable : 
was a sister of William who married Hare 
ing fil. Eadnoth (see 6 th S. ii. 11), and wa 
mother of Robert fitz Harding, the founde 
of Bristol Abbey, Maurice, and other sons 
Robert, in conjunction with a William d 
London, gave Blacksworth, in Kingswood, t 
the abbey. It should be further rioted tha 
Robert called his eldest son Maurice, whic 
has continued to be the favourite name of th 
Berkeley family ever since. 

William de London was one of the knight 
who went with Robert fitz Hamon into Gla 
morganshire, founded Ewenny Priory, anc 
was a donor to Neath and Kid welly, &c. 

Thomas de London, a contemporary who 
may have been another son, went into Scot 
land with King David, and had a grant o 
Leased wyn. He left a son Maurice, and it i 
this circumstance that makes me think he 
was one of this family. Of course much more 
about the Londons of Ogmore and Kid well j 
is known, but these notes and suggestions 
may be enough for MR. A. HALL'S purpose. 


304 490, 530). -The following obiter dicta 
might appropriately fall under the head of 

Wrong forecasts by Eminent Men,' but as 
they may not have come under the notice of 
some of your readers who are interested in 
the subject the reference may be worth ad- 
vancing. They are thus related by Bransby 
J. Cooper m the ' Life of Sir Astley Cooper' 
(vol. 11. p. 309) : 

"One morning our visitor was Prof. Vince of 
Cambridge and my uncle almost immediately began 
to talk to him upon the subject of these velocipedes 
The doctor said he had heard of them and admitted 
the ingenuity of the contrivance. This induced 

from the 7 * * 1 ^T aU ^ fe * *ug 
'it wi 1 F Ti Un ;, ve 7 al employment. 'Sir,' said he* 
it will alter the face of the country : no grass wil 
be grown but all farms will become arable] for wh 

r wo 
vl ichd ' m f hme can be substituted 

and the f! ? ?i Or ? than tW r three pounds ' 
^H if fi (8t outlay is the whole expense?' 'Sir' 
said Mr. Vince, 'I misunderstood you; the exie- 

extend of 'a T^f^ I merely JmitU to t'he 
eSif i l Y i' for j lb can ncvcr facilitate or 
trarv n P len t . hene d Journey. It would be con- 

could for Tt y - aX - m ln .^hematics to s PPose it 
nd, tor it is impossible by any mechanism to 

increase your velocity without diminishing your 
power; and as, in this instance, the power emanates 
from the employer, he would soon become too happy 
to be satisfied with the speed of his natural pro- 
gression, and glad to cease exhausting himself by 
sustaining an additional weight to his own body. 
In two months you will hear no more of them.' " 

These opinions were expressed in or about 


AND SISTERS (9 th S. viii. 199, 293, 525). 
Robert, Earl of Mortain, did not found the 
abbey of St. Evroult, where Orderic Vital 
was, also called Ouche. He founded, with 
the Countess Matilda, his wife, in 1082, the 
collegiate church of St. Evroult at Mortain. 
I did not make this clear in my previous com- 
munication. F. S. VADE-WALPOLE. 

fStagbury, Banstead. 

BRIDGE (9 th S. viii. 525). MR. CHARLES 
HIATT says he has the duke's signature 
"Cambridge." This was probably written 
by his equerry, as I have it; certainly not 
by the duke himself. 

The Prince of Wales, if he follows his 
father's precedent, will sign " George, P." 

A. F. T. 

HYMN* ANCIENT AND MODERN ' (9 th S. viii. 

101, 230, 388). It is quite true that W. C. B.'s 

criticism "hardly meets the point" of my 

lote, but much of MR. PHINN'S is equally 

rrelevant. I do riot see why, as regards 

grammar, original hymns and translations 

houlcl not be " measured by the same tests." 

A translator ought no more to retain foreign 

constructions than foreign words. It is 

mfortunately true, as the late Mr. Palgrave 

amented in a note on this subject which I 

md from him many years ago, that translated 

lymns, like all translated verse, are "rarely 

ffective as poetry." Sometimes, indeed, they 

are, for Mr. Palgrave himself, in an essay on 

lymns in Good Words, once named one of 

Miss Winkworth's translations' Christ will 

gather in His own 'as worthy to stand be- 

ide Newman's 'Lead, kindly Light,' but then 

ie had forgotten the fact that it is a trans- 

ation. All this, however, is again away from 

be point, as is also MR. PHINN'S remark that 

n original compositions why not in transla- 

lons too? many phrases such as those of 

vhich he cites examples may be tolerated, 

Ithough they are usually disallowed in 

ublic worship. My point is simply that on 

nich John Wesley laid such stress that 

ymns for general use ought to have not 

nly "the purity, the strength, and the 

9* s. ix. JAN. ii, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


elegance of the English language," but also, 
and above all, "the utmost simplicity and 
plainness, suited to every capacity." That 
this last desideratum is so often lacking in 
' Hymns Ancient and Modern ' is no doubt 
partly owing to the fact that so many of the 
hymns in this collection are translations, but 
this is no excuse. If a translator cannot turn 
a Latin hymn into English, he can at any 
rate let it alone. John Wesley's own trans- 
lations from the German are models in this 
respect ; they are amongst the most cherished 
hymns in his collection, and comparatively 
few of his followers suspect that they are 

I do not think the reading of Mrs. Adams's 
hymn which O. O. H. quotes is much better 
tli an the generally accepted one, and the 
subject of alterations in hymns is too wide 
for these columns. I may say, however, that 
a compiler has surely as much right to 
correct an author's grammar as to tamper 
with his theology. C. C. B. 

The history of that most beautiful hymn 
* Nearer, my God, to Thee,' is given in M. D. 
Con way's 'Centenary History of the South 
Place Society' (London, 1894), where a fac- 
simile of the draft in Sarah Flower Adams's 
handwriting is given. The verse under dis- 
cussion reads : 

Tho like the wanderer 
The sun gone down 
Darkness be over me 

Nearer ray God to thee 
Nearer to thee 

Of the alternative readings here given, the 
first in each case was adopted an instance 
that second thoughts are not always best. 
Dr. Garnett regards her hymn beginning 
"He sendeth sun, He sendeth shower," as 
superior to the more famous ' Nearer, my 
God, to Thee,' but the latter has found its 
way to acceptance by the most diverse of 
creeds and temperaments. Mrs. E. Bridell- 
Fox issued from the Christian Life office in 
1894 a pamphlet of forty-six pages, contain- 
ing a memoir of Sarah Flower Adams, her 
hymns, and 'The Flock at the Fountain,' a 
catechism for children. This is a modest and 
inspiring memorial of a woman who has given 
voice to the spiritual aspirations of millions. 


ROWE OF CORNWALL (9 th S. viii. 305, 349, 
470). I am inclined to think that the tradi- 
tion of an ancestor of the West-Country Rowes 

joining one of the Crusades arose in the 
following manner. An ancient family of 
" a-Rowe," or Rowe, was long seated in Kent. 
A very fine seventeenth-century illuminated 
pedigree of this family in the British Museum 
(Add. 29,797) shows that " Richard Rowe of 
Kent married the da' and heire of Phillipp 
Rurd," and was the father of William Rowe, 
who " married y e Daughter of Viueon " (i.e., 
Vivian, a West-Country name), whose son 
"John Rowe, Sergeant at Lawe in the tyme 
of H. 8," married " Agneta, daug. and heir 
of Will Barnhouse of Kingston in Deuon- 

Turning to the Visitation of Devon, 1620 
(Harl. Soc., p. 247), the above-mentioned 
three generations of Rowes are given as the 
ancestors of "John Rowe de Kingston in 
parochia de Staverton in com. Devon, set. 76 
superstes 1620," who duly enters and signs 
the pedigree. 

This, I think, is strong evidence that the 
Devonshire family of Rowe was a branch of 
the old Kentish stock. 

From what I can gather, the Crusade story 
appears to be based on the fact that the 
West -Country Rowes bear as their arms 
Gules, three holy lambs argent, which are 
said to have had their origin in one of the 
Crusades. Now these were not the ancient 
arms of Rowe, which were Gules, a quatrefoil 
or, and later, Argent, a chevron azure between 
three trefoils slipped per pale gules and vert. 
The arms of the Rurd family, however, whose 
heiress married the Richard Rowe mentioned 
above, were Gules, three holy lambs couchant 
argent, and this coat was at the time of the 
Visitation of 1620 merely quartered by the 
Devonshire Rowes (see pedigree of Rowe of 
Lamerton, Harl. Soc. 248) ; subsequently, 
however, they were borne alone, unsupported 
by the paternal coat, as they are at the 
present day (the lambs becoming passant 
instead of couchant). The ancient paternal 
Rowe coats, having thus been discarded, were 
soon forgotten, while the Crusade tradition, 
which was not improbably imported into the 
West-Country branch of the Rowe family 
along with the holy lambs at the time of the 
Rurd alliance (Edward III.), continued to 
live, being kept in remembrance by the 
exclusive use of the more favoured Rurd 
quartering with which it is associated. 



" MACHINE "^PUBLIC COACH (9 th S. viii. 
462). Beckmann, in his article on 'Coaches' 
('History of Inventions,' 1846), omits any 
mention of the " machine " carriage, or " New 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s, ix. JAN. 11, 1902. 

Post Machine," as it was called, although it 
played an important part in the history of 
long-distance travelling. The vehicle appears 
to have been adopted about the year 1756, 
at least it does riot seem to have been adver- 
tised before that time, which is seven years 
before the date given at the above reference. 
On 25 December, 1756, "Two New Post 
Machines " were advertised to 
" set out every Monday, Wednesday and Friday 
for Bath and London in two days, one from the 
Rose Inn, and the other from the White Swan, 
Holborn Bridge, at 6 A.M. precisely. One pound 
three shillings for each passenger, allowing each 
14 Ib. weight of luggage, and all above to pay Three 
Half-pence per pound." Whitehall Evening Port, 
25 December, 1756. 

The Bristol machine, which left the "Saracen's 
Head " in Friday Street, also took two days 
for the journey, setting out "at five in the 
morning every Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday, and putting up at the White Lion, 
Bristol. Fare, \l. 5s.; each fare allowed 14 Ib. 
weight, all above to pay Three Half pence 
per Pound, by the way of Chippenham, and 
not to go to Bath " ( Whitehall Evening Post, 
6 April, 1756). In the year 1757 a "flying 
machine" on steel springs was established 
by the merchants of Liverpool after the 
manner of the Manchester " Hying coach " 
(Capt. Malet, 'Annals of the Road,' 1876, 


Wimbledon Park Road. 

In a book just published by Chapman 
& Hall, viz., 'The Norwich Road,' by C. G. 
Harper, at pp. 34-5, is a description of the 
" Norwich Machine," that ran three times a 
week to London in March, 1762. I think 
this may be interesting to your corre- 

The Rev. Lewis Davies, in his 'Supple- 
mentary English Glossary,' quotes to the 
above effect from Goldsmith, ' Citizen of the 
World,' letter xlviii. ; Anstey, 'New Bath 
Guide,' letter xiii.; Walpole, 'Letters/ iv 
12 (1775) ; and ' Sketches by Boz ' (Mr. Minns). 
He adds that the only vehicle now so called 
is a bathing-machine. In horse-dealing par- 
lance a "machiner" is a van horse at the 
present day. jj p L_ 

[Cycles are commonly so called.] 

viu. 302, 355,411).-In Scotland the usual place 
tor paying a redemption or mortgage was at 
or on an altar in the parish or other church. 
Atter the Reformation the style of the deed 
frequently ran as where " Sanct James Altar 
the Apostell sumtym was situat" or where 

the hie altar usit to stand." One reversion 

dated 1567 has the unusual locus "in the 
place quhair the hie poulpet is situat " (Home 
Writs, Hist. MSS. Comm.). A favourite 
place was on the tomb of the Regent Murray 
in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh, this altar- 
tomb being probably the most convenient 
counter or table on which to count the coin, 
after the removal of the altars. 



The Tower of London. By Lord Ronald Sutherland 

Gower, F.S.A. Vol. I. ( Bell & Sons.) 
NUMEROUS and important as are existing works on 
the Tower, there is always room for one more, and 
a welcome for it is certain also when, as in this 
case, it conies with such numerous and valuable 
illustrations. Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower's 
opening volume deals with the Tower during 
Norman, Plantagenet, and Tudor times ; that is, 
during the most interesting and picturesque, and 
also the most bloodthirsty period of its annals. He 
is safe in affirming that it would be vain to search 
any other city Rome itself not excepted for 
another such group of buildings, or to endeavour 
to match the historic interest or splendid record 
of the ancient Norman structure. With most 
that is vital in our national life and all that 
is superb in historical pageantry this building is 
associated, and there are no stories " of the 
death of kings " so sad as those which its walls 
could tell. The early records are, as Lord Ronald 
avows, meagre and scanty. With a purpose such 
as that by which he is animated of being accurate 
rather than picturesque, he h'nds the task impossible 
to infuse into them much life, movement, or interest. 
From the period of Edward 111. the case is different. 
Through the Wars of the Roses, and during the 
short reign of Richard III., the action is spirited 
enough, and during almost the entire period of Tudor 
rule the place is a shambles. Englishmen are wont 
to congratulate themselves upon the fact that their 
streets have witnessed few such scenes of ferocity 
and carnage as have polluted the fairest cities of 
France. In order to rival the bloodshed in the 
Tower of London under the five rulers of Tudor 
race for, child though he were, Edward VI. need 
not be exempted we should turn to the Courts of 
Dahomey or other savage countries of Africa. 
Interesting and absorbing enough is the story of 
the Tower at this point, and its cruel record 
which, so far as the present instalment is concerned, 
closes here will be kept up during the reign of 
James L, will be revived with the accession of 
James II., and will not lose all its brutality until 
after the massacres of 1746 and 1747. A history of 
the Tower, so far as it is now carried out, is neces- 
sarily a condensed history of the English monarchy. 
Lord Ronald begins, however, with a picturesque 
and topographical account of the various buildings 
and their environment from the first mention by 
Tacitus of London as a place of importance. This 
description, which occupies some four score pages, 
is accompanied by a series of admirable illustrations, 
taken by Messrs. Colls, most of them photogravure 
plates. The frontispiece consists of a coloured 

9" s. ix. JAK. 11, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


plate, from a MS. in the British Museum, depicting 
the Duke of Orleans a prisoner in the Tower, a 
striking, vivid, and characteristic presentation of 
mediaeval life as it showed itself to the illuminating 
scribe. Following this comes a vivid picture of 
the Tower and the river as both are seen under the 
conditions, atmospheric and other, of to-day. Forty 
photogravures, sixteen blocks, and a couple of plans 
are given in the present volume. Most of them are 
views of the Tower and its appurtenances. The 
portraits include Anne Boleyn, Fisher (Bishop of 
Rochester), Sir Thomas More, his daughter Mar- 
garet Roper (as is supposed) the last three from 
drawings by Holbein Bloody Mary, Lady Jane 
Grey and Lord Guildford Dudley (by Lucas van 
Heere), Lady Jane Grey (from Holbein), Henry 
Grey, Duke of Suffolk (by Joannes Corvus), and 
Robert, Earl of Essex. In addition there are many 
presentations of ancient armour and an accurate 
representation of the block and axe. In their 
fidelity and beauty these designs render the work 
unique in its class, a fine historical monument, and 
a book which all lovers of English annals will be 
bound to possess. Lord Ronald has done his work 
well, his chapters vii. to xi. inclusive, dealing with 
the Tudor monarchs, being especially well written 
and effective. We are not greatly impressed by 
the parallel he institutes between Sir Thomas More 
and Mr. Gladstone, and still less by some further 
comparisons in which he indulges. Should not the 
Sir Henry Ellice whom at p. 144 he couples with 
Froude the historian as an authority on Tudor 
MSS. be Sir Henry Ellis? 1-t seems implied (p. 170) 
that the title of Lord Sudley (Thomas, Lord Sey- 
mour of Sudley, Lord High Admiral of England) 
and that of Lord Sudeley were, iu the days of 
Edward VI., the same. Lord Ronald should be an 
authority on the subject, but we knew not the fact 
he advances. To the charge brought against the 
Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Surrey of quarter- 
ing upon their family shield the arms of Edward 
the Confessor we may advance the assertion (9 th S. 
viii. 495) that Edward the Confessor belongs to a 
time when arms were not borne in England. We 
have more to say concerning Lord Ronald's inter- 
esting and valuable volume, but must wait till his 
second volume, for which we look with anxiety, 
brings the indispensable index. 

Modern English Biography. By Frederick Boase. 
Vol. ill. R Z. (Truro, Netherton & Worth.) 
As we anticipated, Mr. Frederick Boase was not 
able to complete within the nineteenth century 
what is practically a supplement to the biogra- 
phical records of its latter half. One additional 
year has had to be accorded him for the discharge 
of his onerous and responsible task, and the close 
of 1901 saw the completed work in the hands of the 
subscribers. The appearance of each separate part 
has been chronicled (see 8 th S. i. 345 ; xi. 440). MB. 
RALPH THOMAS (8 th S. i. 487) bore also a tribute to 
the importance of the work then begun (and now 
achieved), and gave a half promise, still unredeemed, 
to supply further comment upon it. We are 
glad to see within the period we ourselves judged 
indispensable the completion of a work the utility 
of which to all concerned in historical, political, 
and genealogical pursuits cannot easily be over- 
estimated. Two hundred and fifty copies in all 
have been printed. As there are more than five 
hundred public libraries, the absence from 
which of a book of this kind should count as 

a reproach, we shall be justified in the assumption 
that the book, except to those who have secured a 
copy or are in the neighbourhood of a library on 
the shelves of which it rests, is now inaccessible. 
It is at least to be presumed that it will shortly 
become so, and those who cannot already boast its 
possession are counselled at once to obtain it. 

Turning over incidentally pages naturally in- 
tended for consultation rather than perusal, we 
come on the names of many dear and distinguished 
friends. One of the first is W. R. S. Ralston, the 
famous Russian scholar, found dead in his bed in 
1889. Then follow William Brighty Rands (the 
Matthew Browne of ' Chaucer's England,' an ex- 
quisite and but half-recognized writer), Charles 
Reade. his nephew William Winwood Reade, John 
Edmund Reade, Robert Reece, Alfred German 
Reed (the entertainer), Sir Charles Reed, Henry 
Reeve (editor of the Edinburgh JReview), Henry 
Robert Reynolds (of Cheshunt) and his brother Sir 
John Russell Reynolds, James Rice (collaborator 
with Sir Walter Besant), Col. Alfred Bate Richards 
(of Volunteer fame), Sir Benjamin Ward Richard- 
son, F.R.S., Sir Matthew White Ridley, David 
Roberts, R.A., with his constant friend and asso- 
ciate in life and art Clarkson Stantield, R.A., 
Thomas William Robertson, Thomas Frederick 
Robson (actor), Lord Romilly (Master of the Rolls) 
and Hugh Hastings Romilly (explorer and writer), 
James Anderson Rose (collector), Gabriel Charles 
Dante Rossetti, and Clara Marion Jessie Rousby, 
known as the beautiful Mrs. Rousby. These 
names, taken with a solitary exception from the 
first letter in the volume, and consisting, also with 
a solitary exception, of those with whom we had 
more or less association or intimacy, convey an 
idea of the class with whom the three volumes are 
principally concerned. Some others such, for in- 
stance, as Peter Robinson, draper are well known 
to the public, though without claim to literary, 
artistic, or social recognition. It is, however, in 
connexion with people obscure enough to escape 
inclusion in general biographical dictionaries that 
a work of this class is specially useful. The lives 
run from about a fifth of a column to a column ; in 
one or two cases, as that of George Augustus Sala, 
they are slightly over a column. All accessible 
facts of birth, paternity, descent, occupation, 
works, death, and sepulture are supplied, and for 
immediate reference the work is, in its line, the best 
we possess. Being so nearly up to date, it all but 
serves, so far as England is concerned, the pur- 
poses of a dictionary such as that of Vapereau. 
It at any rate leaves far behind works such as 
'Men of the Time' and 'Men of the Day.' We 
are happy in commending the completed work 
to our readers. Whatever their occupation or 
pursuit, it can scarcely fail to be useful to them. 
An ample index facilitates reference, and indicates 
uses, not always obvious, to which the work may 
be put. 

Art Sales of the Year 1901. Edited by J. Herbert 

Slater. (Virtue & Co.) 

EMBOLDENED by the conspicuous success which has 
attended his 'Book-Prices Current,' a work which, 
in the course of little over a dozen years, has 
developed into one of the most prized of biblio- 
graphical possessions, Mr. Slater has, not unnatur- 
ally, essayed to do for pictures and prints what he 
has previously done for books. The result of his 
efforts is the work before us, the sub-title of which 


NOTES* AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. n, 1902. 

is " Being a record of the prices obtained a 
auctions for pictures and prints sold from January 
1901, to the end of the season." Holding to th 
view that all collecting is good, even if some collect 
ing is better than others, we greet the new volume 
and wish it a career as distinguished as its prede 
cessor. This we dare not, however, presage. A 
collector for over half a century of books, we hav 
found that luxury sufficiently costly to dispens 
with the pursuit of all others ; and while we cai 
meet Mr. Slater as editor of ' Book-Prices Current 
on his own ground, we are mum when he come 
before us as editor of 'Art Sales,' having, indeed 
everything to learn. This much we may say: hi 
goodly volume contains some 550 pages, consider 
ably over 100 of which are occupied with an 
admirably full index with cross - references galore 
The sale is chronicled of 3,118 items, the prices o 
which range from a couple of pounds or less to a 
good many hundreds and thousands. A glanc 
through the volume, which we do not profess ti 
have closely studied, shows us that the topmos 
price paid fora Hobbema was 9,870/., a second work 
from whose brush brought 2,362/. ICk It is to b 
hoped that the soul of the artist received in th 
shades some hint of his modern reputation, sinc< 
he and his wife died in want. The biggest prices 
we detect for English pictures are 14,752/. for a 
Hoppner and 5,800/. for a Ronmey ; Millais's 'No 
brought 1,471/. ; Turner's ' Buckfastleigh Abbey, 
840/. ; a Reynolds went for 1,701/. ; portraits by 
Gainsborough were sold for 1,869/. and 2,237!. A 
Mabuse brought 2,520^ ; a Rubens, 3,360Z. ; a Velas- 
quez, 997/.; a Van der Heist, 1,995/.; a Murillo, 
2,7301. , and so forth. We are attempting to draw 
no inferences from these prices, but are simply 
extracting a few plums from Mr. Slater's book. 
Not less remarkable are the prices paid for engrav- 
ings, especially those of J. R. Smith after Reynolds. 
Of great value are the notes supplied by Mr. Slater 
with regard to the sales and the individual pic- 
tures. Some useful information is interpolated as 
to the prices realized by a few French sales. The 
book is handsomely and even luxuriously got up, 
and is a credit to the publishers. It is to be hoped 
that it will establish itself in public favour and 
become a " hardy annual." That it will rank with 
'Book-Prices Current' we hesitate, as has been 
said, to believe. We shall be glad, however, to see 
our vaticinations falsified, and the book is, at 
least, likely to take its place on shelves of reference 
and to prove equally useful to the amateur and the 

IN the Nineteenth Century, through the medium 
ot which it first reached a general public, the 
cypher "fad" of Mrs. Gallup receives what will 
probably prove to be its quietus. Two articles on 
the subject approach it from different sides. Mr. 
M. Candler shows how unsatisfactory are the his- 
toric assumptions and how far astray Mrs. Gallup 
goes in her philology. Mr. R. B. Marston, expand- 
ng his letter to the Times, proves that if the 
bi-literal cypher is trustworthy and acceptable 
Pope s Homer ' is to be added to the works written 
by Bacon Will no American investigator add to 
the list of Bacon's productions the letters of Junius 
and the quatrains of Omar Khayyam ? Mr. Herbert 

Y W" 8 \ Dld Titian live to be Ninety-nine 
rears Old? and answers his own question in the 
negative. Mr. Cook leans to the view that Titian 
was born about 1489 and died about 1576-7 at the 

age of eighty-seven. The Hon. Hollo Russell holds 
cheery views as to the ultimate extinction of London 
fogs. We can but hope that he is not too sanguine. 
Col. Pedder asks ' Where are the Village Gentry ? ' 
and shows some of the evils that attend the process 
of centralization ever proceeding. Mr. Fuller Mait- 
land has an interesting and valuable paper on 
' Music versus the Opera.' Lady Priestley writes on 
' Sir James Paget and Louis Pasteur,' and Lady 
Hely-Hutchinson on 'Female Emigration to South 
Africa.' It is saddening to hear that three out 
of the four classes of women available consist of 
" Lady Helps. Pretentious, delicate, incapable ; 
Girls. Flighty, self-assertive, purposeless, ignorant, 
lazy, and inefficient; Kaffirs. With the under- 
standing and demeanour of children and the vices 
of men/' In Scribner's appears the first of three 
papers by Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip on ' The Ame- 
rican " Commercial Invasion" of Europe.' In this 
M. de Witte, the Russian Minister of Finance, is 
made to speak with compromising frankness. No 
preacher of pleasant things is he. "France hates 
England, and England hates France ; Germany 
detests France, and France detests Germany ; Russia 
hates Germany, and Germany hates Russia." There 
are illustrations showing American "binders" in 
the Steppes and the Highlands, electric lines by 
the Pyramids, cars in Cairo, coalhauling machines 
in Germany, bridges in Russia, pumps in Bombay, 
and so forth. 'Sub Umbra Liliorutn' is the title 
of some impressions concerning Parma. Mr. H. 
Cabot Lodge writes on ' The Treaty-making Powers 
of the Senate,' and Mr. Macgowan on 'Military 
Parades and Parade Training.' 

We must call special attention to the following 
lotices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
"ication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
3ach note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, \vith the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ng queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
3ut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
leading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication "Duplicate." 

F. M. ("Bogus Degrees"). A few universities 
till supply these. 

H. J. MEIGS ("Taxation in Glasgow "). Your 
riends are wags. 

CORRIGENDUM. 9 th S. viii. 509, col. 2, 1. 20 from 
oot, for "1845 "read 1825. 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 

The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
t the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
ommunications which, for any reason, we do not 
rint ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9th s. ix. JAN. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTRS : Hey ford Free School : Early Rules, 41 Mercian 
Origins, 42-St. Heliers, 45 Source of the "Seven Ages," 
46 "Two blades of grass" Amberley, Sussex "La 
Belle Imperia" The Smallest Church in England Cow- 
per and the 'Times,' 47. 

QUERIES : Anthony Warton, 1657 Line of Browning- 
Edwards of Eglwysilan, 47 T. Maurice, 1754-1824 Con- 
fessionals " Mischief - Night " The Earth Mother 
Robinson Crusoe 'Miniature of Col. Fleetwood, 48 
Old Charm Kittens as Charms Pictorial Grammar 
"Flittings" Herrick: Silver-pence Lee of Stepney, 
1710, 49. 

REPLIES: -Robert Shirley "Kathmath," a Precious 
Stone, 50 Pe^osiris and Ptolemy West Bourne Demon 
Repentant Wesley, Lillo, and Home, 51 Rime on Ed- 
ward VII. St. Clement Danes "Nang Nails": " Nub- 
bocks " Newcastle (Staffs) Families, 52 Chocolate - 
Dorothy Cecil Anthony Fortescue, 53 "Odour of 
sanctity" St. Kilda, 54 -Simile in 'Samson Agonistes ' 
English in the Last Crusade Earliest European Men- 
tion of Vedas "Ycleping" the Church, 55 Motto for 
Door of a House Denham of Wishiels First Christmas 
Card Stone Pulpit Merchants of Lukes " Ullig "= 
Manx Christmas, 56 Thackeray's Early Writings 
Lowndes Motto The Youthful Year" There is a day in 
spring " The Coronation President Adams, 57 " In 
petto," 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-The 'New English Dictionary' 
Marvin's ' Last Words of Distinguished Men and Women ' 
Sherborn's ' History of the Family of Sherborn 'Hall's 
'King Horn' Perkins's 'Cathedral Church of Man- 

Notices to Correspondents. 


BELOW are the "School Orders" of the 
Heyford Free School, as they appear in an 
old folio which was written by Mr. William 
Taylor, circ. 1724. He was (see Baker's 
' Northamptonshire,' p. 1 92) 
"son of the rev. George Taylor, rector of Keston 
in Kent, many years master of the free school here 
[Heyford], was employed by Mr. Bridges ; and sub- 
sequently, during the editorship of Dr. Samuel 
Jebb, entered into a similar engagement with Gib- 
bons the bookseller, to copy monumental inscrip- 
tions and collect local information for the intended 
history of the county. His correspondence on the 
subject from the year 1718 to 1739, in which he bears 
the warmest testimony to the liberal and honorable 
conduct of Mr. Bridges towards him, and bitterly 
complains, apparently with too much reason, of the 
inadequate compensation he received from the 
London bookseller, has lately come into my posses- 
sion ; and a selection of the most interesting letters 
will probably be introduced into a retrospective 
view of the labors of my predecessors, in the intro- 
ductory portion of the present work. He lived to 
an advanced age in a state of abject poverty, and 
was buried here [Heyford, co. Northampton] 1 July, 

His baptism is recorded in the Keston register 
on 11 June, 1695. 

I may add that Mr. William Taylor was a 
most industrious man with the pen. I have 

in my possession three of his MSS. in folio, 
bound in vellum. They are written most 
beautifully, and look more like engrossing 
than ordinary writing. In these volumes 
(and they are the only three extant, although 
he wrote about a dozen or more of them) he 
has copied many notes, deeds, &c., of local 
interest. I have also two volumes of his 
father's sermons copied by him. The two 
volumes embrace about 1,000 pages and con- 
tain about 100 or more sermons. 

The 'Leges Scholasticse ' may interest some 
who have studied the advance of education 
in this country. As master of the Free 
School at Heyford Taylor apparently, from 
letters which are copied into one of these 
folios, fell out with the powers that be, and 
among these letters are some to the then 
Lord Bishop of Peterborough asking his in- 
tervention. These orders are dated 1724. 


School Orders. 

The Laws or Orders of the said Free School were 
engrossed on Parchment & putt into a Frame & 
hung up for the Perusall of Every Boy belonging to 
the s d School. 

Leges Scholastics 

Monita Psedagogica. 


1. Imprimis, Whatsoever Boy comes to School 
past 7 o' th' Clock In the Morning In Summer time, 
and past 8 o' th' Clock In y e Winter time [without 
Shewing good reason] Shall receive 3 Lashes. 

2. Item, Whosoever absents himself from School, 
Either by Truantry, by trying to stay at home, or 
otherwise ; Shall incurr his Master's highest dis- 
pleasure, Suffer the hissing and Scoffing of y e whole 
School, Tarry behind the Rest one hour at Night 
for a week, and besides fas a suitable Reward for 
his ] shall suffer 12 Lashes. 

3. Item, Whatsoever Boy shall at any time 
Curse, Swear, or take the Lord's Name in vain, 
Shall assuredly suffer for such offence 15 Lashes. 

4. Item, What Boy soever addicts himself to 
Obscene Talking or foolish Jesting, shall Suffer for 
each such Transgression. 

5. Item, What Boy soever absents himself from 
the Service of Almighty God on the Sabbath day, 
and spends that Day in a wicked man'er In playing 

6 running about, Shall receive 20 Lashes. 

6. Item, Whosoever steals from or defrauds his 
School-fellow of Ink, Pens, Paper, Quills, or any 
Other Thing Whatsoever, Shall certainly, when 
found out and detected, receive 9 Lashes. 

7. Item, Whosoever tells tales, Or divulves [sic] 
What is transacted in School, On any acco* what- 
ever, shall receive 8 Lashes. 

8. Item, What Boy soever Loiters in the Way, 
Either in Coming to Or Going from School, Shall 
suffer for each Offence 4 Lashes. 

9. Item, What Boy soever is catch'd in telling 
a Lye, Upon any Account whatever, shall receive 

7 Lashes. 

10. Item, Whosoever is found Deficient in point 
of Manners (viz) In not putting off his hatt, and 

NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAK. is, 1002. 

demeaning himself Orderly and Schollar-hke On all 
Occasions, Shall suffer 5 Lashes. 

11 Item, Whosoever strikes, challenges, or quar- 
rells with Any of his Schoolfellows at any time or 
in any place, Shall [after due Exammacon thereof 
had] surely receive 8 Lashes. 

12 Item, Whosoever is found Guilty of a small 
Fault Three Times together, and instead of amend- 
ing Behaves himself stubbornly and contumaciously, 
Shall receive 9 Lashes. 

13. Item, Whatsoever Boy is found Five times 
successively In the Monitor's Bill (tho' but for petty 
faults) Shall suffer 3 Lashes. 

14. Item, Whatsoever Monitor is found Negligent 
and Remiss In the discharge of his Duty and Office, 
Shall receive 10 Lashes. . 

15. Item, What Boy soever omitts the doing of 
his Exercise at Night, without Good reason can be 
given, shall suffer 5 Lashes. 

16. Item, What Boy soever performs not his 
Exercise appointed in the holy-days, Shall on his 
return to School receive 10 Lashes. 

17 Item, What Boy soever in Buying or belling 
In or out of School shall fraudulently cheat or 
impose On his schoolfellows or Any Other, shall on 
due conviccon receive 9 Lashes. 

18. Lastly and to conclude, Whatsoever Boy finds 
or knows his Schoolfellows To be guilty of the 
Breach of any One of These Articles [or any other 
Misdemenour, which is contrary to good discipline 
& the known orders of y e School] and does not give 
the Weekly Observator' timely Information Who is 
presently to acquaint the Master therewith ; But 
connives at the s (l Delinquent, Shall (if found out) 
assuredly suffer for the Other, whom he foolishly 
spar'd, and receive Without y benefitt of Clergy 
15 Lashes. 

Nisi exequantur, pereunt Leges. 

Stowe-Nine-Churches, Weedon. 

(Concluded from p. 3.) 

ONE district remains that of the Pec 
seetna dwelling in our Derbyshire. The 
' Tribal Hidage ' shows that these people were 
distinct from the Mercians proper, just as 
the Gyrwas were. They may have come 
from the north-east through Doncaster anc 
Sheffield, or along the Trent Valley ; or it is 
just possible that they were an offshoot ol 
the West Saxon settlements along the Severn 
The hills provided them with a boundary or. 
the north and west, while on the east the 
great forest of Sherwood (does this mean 
Division Wood ?) would cut them off from 
the people of Nottingham. 

Thus the limits of the states bordering 
Mercia have been roughly traced ; they con 
firm the conclusions derived from Bede': 
statement about the Northern and Southerr 
Mercians, and show how small was the area 
these occupied before the rise of Penda. The 
doubtful districts are Derbyshire and Staf 
fordshire, with parts of Cheshire and Shrop 

hire ; and in the south Surrey. The latter 
eems to have been originally Kentish, but 
arly conquered by the West Saxons (' Chron.,' 
>68), and then practically annexed by the 
Mercians ; while, ecclesiastically, it was at 
irst by turns attached to the South Saxon or 
Winchester diocese, finally adhering to the 
atter, from which it may be concluded that, 
whatever their political fate, the people were 
n the main West Saxon. 

In course of time many of these difficulties 
nay be cleared away by the patient efforts 
of students, each pursuing the portion of the 
nquiry he finds congenial. Dialect and folk- 
-ore, with such customs as borough English, 
the physical peculiarities of the people, place- 
names and the names in the old pedigrees of 
:he kings, and church dedications may all 
contribute. In the last-named branch of the 
nquiry we have St. Chad in Lichfield diocese, 
St. Edmund in East Anglia, and St. Botolph 
in the Fen country. The Fenmen also seem 
to have had a devotion to St. Andrew ; and 
St. Helen is popular within the York sphere 
of influence. Place-names have yet to be 
roperly investigated and classified. It may 
e found that such names as Stoke and Stow 
have a bearing on the settlement of England ; 
for instance, the Stokes appear most numerous 
in the south, and spread north on the lines 
of the West Saxon advance ; yet there do 
not seem to be any in the Isle of Wight or 
in the Jutish district of Hampshire, and 
there is but one in Kent, by the mouth of 
the Medway, where it may represent an 
East Saxon colony. In place-names there is 
a distinction to be made between personal 
or family names and tribal names : the 
former are naturally attached to the home- 
stead or group of homesteads where the person 
or family dwelt, but the latter belong to a 
whole district, and when found attached to 
a single township it is reasonable to assume 
that this township was either just on the 
boundary of the tribal district or quite out- 
side it. For example, a Kentish Town in the 
middle of Kent would be an anomaly, there 
would be no distinctiveness about it ; but in 
London it would be appropriate for a settle- 
ment of Kentish men, though it appears that 
the London district so called has no con- 
nexion with Kent. Similarly a family name 
like English must have been first given to 
Englishmen living outside their country, and 
the Scotts are border families. 

II. The expansion of Mercia begins with 
Penda, who " first separated the kingdom of 
Mercia from that of the Northmen" (Nen- 
nius, Appendix). The 'Chronicle' gives the 
outline of his career thus : 

9* s. ix. JAN. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


626. Penda succeeded to the kingdom and 
reigned thirty years ; and he was fifty years 
old when he succeeded. (This was the year 
in which Edwin chastised the West Saxons 
for their attempted assassination of him.) 

628. This year Cynegils and Cuichelm fought 
against Penda at Cirencester, and then made 
a treaty. 

633. This year King Edwin was slain by 
Cad walla and Penda at Heathfield, 12 October. 

After that went Cad walla and Penda 

and laid waste the whole country of the 
Northumbrians. (Bede, iii. 1, attributes this 
wasting of the North to Cadwallon only, and 
he it was who was defeated and slain by 
Oswald in 635 at Denisesburn or Catscaul. 
Oswald re-established the suzerainty over all 
England which had been acquired by Edwin.) 

(635. Penda conquered East Anglia. Bede, 
iii. 18.) 

642. This year Oswald, King of the North- 
umbrians, was slain by Penda and the 
Southumbrians at Maserfield on 5 August. 
(From this time till his death in 655 Penda 
had no one south of the H umber who could 
resist him.) 

645. This year Kenwalk was driven out of 
his (West Saxon) kingdom by King Penda. 
(He took refuge in East Anglia, where he was 
baptized, and in 648 was restored to his place, 
apparently without war. Bede, iii. 7.) 

654. This year King Anna was slain (by 
Penda. who then ravaged East Anglia for the 
second time. Bede, iii. 18). 

655. This year King Oswy slew King Penda 

at Winwidfield and Peada, the son of 

Penda, succeeded to the kingdom of the 

This last statement proves that Penda was 
by origin King of the Southern Mercians, 
for it was over this part of Mercia that 
Peada was by Oswy allowed to rule (Bede, 
iii. 24). The pedigrees of the kings may 
be cited in confirmation : the men of Lindsey 
had had a line of kings of their own, which 
ceases at the tenth descent from Woden ; the 
Mercian line is quite distinct, and, singularly 
enough, the first who is known to have had 
any kingly rank in England is Creoda, the 
eleventh from Woden, whose remote ancestor 
Offa ruled the Angles before they came over 
to this island. The kingdom therefore to 
which Penda " succeeded " was that of the 
South Mercians, perhaps with the Pec ssetna 
added ; and with these the North Mercians 
(men of Lindsey and Nottingham) associated 
themselves. The " treaty " of Cirencester 
and the peace with Kenwalk, the great 
victories over Edwin and Oswald, and the 
two invasions of East Anglia would have 

results in the expansion of the boundaries 
of Mercia to include districts formerly held by 
the West Saxons, Northumbrians, and East 
Anglians ; and the first part of the * Tribal 
Hidage ' (excepting the 1,500 hides belonging 
to Hampshire and the Isle of Wight) probably 
shows tne extent of the kingdom at Penda's 
death, while the second part shows that his 
overlordship extended over all England south 
of the Humber. In the latter part of his 
reign he allowed his son Peada to rule over 
the Middle English (Bede, iii. 21), and to 
these were probably added the Gyrwas, de- 
tached from the East Angles, for the founda- 
tion of Peterborough is attributed to Peada. 
There is no record that Penda conquered the 
East or South Saxons or Kent ; these king- 
doms probably submitted without resistance 
after the overthrow of Oswald. It seems 
clear that England south of the Humber had 
had some sort of unity for a long period, for 
Bede in his list of Bretwaldas (ii. 5) says that 
the earlier of them Ella, Ceawlin, Ethelbert, 
and Redwald governed this district, Edwin 
being the first to govern north as well as 
south of the Humber; so that Penda's rule 
was really a continuation of the old state of 
affairs the most powerful of the princes 
having the overlordship. 

After Oswy's brief revival for two or 
three years of the wider lordship of Edwin 
and Oswald, the youthful Wulfhere (658-675) 
regained the domains which his father Penda 
had governed, and in 661 added the Jutish 
districts of Wight and Hampshire. He seems 
to have pushed the Mercian boundary south- 
wards to the Thames, and to have designed 
further annexations of the West Saxon lands, 
for in the last year of his reign he was fighting 
with Esc win at Beadenhead (Bed win 1). His 
brother arid successor Ethelred (675-704) 
managed to maintain the Mercian limits as 
extended, and though greater kings, in Ethel- 
bald and Offa, exercised probably a more 
direct and coercive authority, the boundaries 
remained unaltered. One point about Wulf- 
here's reign may be noticed : he seems to have 
moved his chief residence westward as time 
wenton(Beresford's 'Lichfield Diocese,' p. 28); 
and a similar movement is noticeable in the 
life of his daughter St. Werburgh, for while 
her early associations are with Ely and Wee- 
don, she afterwards founded Hanbury and 
Trentham. Lichfield also became the prin- 
cipal see of Mercia, and Leicester and Lindsey 
occupied subordinate positions. 

III. With the growth of Mercia in area 
changes took place in its administration. 
The king associated with himself some ealdor- 
men. These were normally five in number 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. is, 1902. 

(' Chron.,' a. 825), and the arrangement may 
be traced back as far as Wulfhere s time, if 
the abstract of his charter of 664 given in the 
4 Chronicle' is trustworthy. There is nothing 
obviously suspicious either in contents or 
signatures, but it does not profess to be an 
exact copy. Here there are five ealdormen 
named as witnessing the endowment of Peter- 
borough Immine, Edbert, Herefrid, Wilbert, 
and Abon. The first two of these are named 
by Bede(iii. 24) as having, in conjunction with 
a third named Eafa, broken the Northum- 
brian yoke and set Wulfhere on the throne. 
There is an Imingham in Lindsey, so that 
Immine may have been the ealdorman of 
this district, the people of which were so 
jealous of their freedom that they would 
certainly take their share in the overthrow 
of Oswy's rule (see Bede, iii. 11). At that 
time, then, the Mercians had probably the 
three ealdormen named for the districts of 
the North Mercians, the South Mercians 
(King Peada being dead and leaving no suc- 
cessor), and the Middle Angles, the Gyrwas 
being, perhaps, joined with these last. The 
two other ealdormen would govern the 
annexed districts in the west, the Hwiccas 
and Hecanas. 

1. With respect to the North Mercians, it 
has been stated above that the men of 
Lindsey had traditions of a royal line going 
back to Woden. When Paulinus visited the dis- 
trict (c. 628 ; Bede, ii. 16) Blecca was the prin- 
cipal man there. In 702 i( Kenred succeeded to 
the kingdom of the South umbrians," becoming 
King of Mercia in 704. 2. The South Mer- 
cians provided the king for the whole, and 
therefore would have no special ealdorman, 
except in such an interregnum as that 
between Peada's death and Wulfhere's 
successful insurrection. But on the east they 
had the Gyrwas, who, under the old East 
Anglian rule, had an ealdorman (of the South 
Gyrwas), and this ruler may have continued 
for a time until the Gyrwas were thoroughly 
merged in the general body of Mercians. 
Tonbert, the husband of St. Etheldreda, died 
in 653, and was succeeded by the young son 
(Ethel wald) of some unnamed chieftain, 
whose widow Siwara was actually governing 
in 654, when St. Botolph's story mentions 
her. When the King of Mercia became more 
absorbed in the western portion of his 
dominions, an ealdorman would be found 
necessary for the eastern half. 3. The Middle 
Angles were assigned to Peada by his father 
Penda, and Beortwald, son of Wulfhere, may 
have had a similar position under his uncle 
Ethelred. Later Dudda, father of St. Fride- 
swide, occurs as under-king in the Oxford 

district. 4. The Hwiccas had a line of under- 
kings, whose names are preserved in the 
Worcester charters. Often there seem to 
have been two rulers at once, a chief and an 
assistant. Among the names are Osric (676), 
Oshere (680), the brothers Osric and Oswald 
(681), Ethelweard, son of Oshere (706), Ean- 
bert (757), Uhtred and Aid red, his brothers 
(767), Ethelmund (800). 5. The Hecanas had 
Merewald, brother of Wulfhere, as their 
under-king for a time. 

This distribution of authority in the secular 
sphere may be compared with the eccle- 
siastical arrangements sanctioned by arch- 
bishop and king in 679 (Florence of Worcester, 
Appendix) : 

The king Bp. of Lichfield. 

Ealdorman of N. Mercians ,, Lindsey (or 


S.Mercians (Gyrwas) ,, Leicester. 

,, Middle Angles ,, Dorchester. 

,, Hwiccas ,, Worcester. 

,, Hecanas ,, Hereford. 

The bishopric of Dorchester did not continue, 
being merged in Leicester, the three origin- 
ally distinct countries of the South Mercians, 
Gyrwas, and Middle Angles becoming a 
united whole, though they appear to have 
retained the double ealdormanship. 

IV. The Lindsey bishopric. It is well 
known that not only Yorkshire, but Notting- 
hamshire also belonged to the diocese of York, 
and that when it was, after the Conquest, 
proposed to transfer the Midland see of 
Dorchester (representing the older Leicester) 
to Lincoln, the Archbishop of York objected, 
on the ground that Lindsey was in his 
diocese. Thus it might be argued that 
originally Lindsey and Hseth feld land, iden- 
tified above as the country of Bede's Northern 
Mercians, originally belonged to Northum- 
bria, York being certainly within the bounds 
of the latter country. Yet it is quite clear 
not only that the men of Lindsey were not 
Northumbrians politically, but that Notting- 
hamshire was Mercian. Was, then, the diocese 
of York from the beginning a composite one, 
partly Mercian and partly Northumbrian? 
This seems unlikely in itself ; for it would be 
extremely difficult for a bishop to administer 
a district lying in the territories of two 
independent kings who from time to time 
made war on each other. It is better, there- 
fore, to take the only alternative, and define 
the old diocese of Lindsey as comprising the 
Lindsey, Hatfjeld (this extending over all 
Nottinghamshire), and Elmet of the 'Tribal 
Hidage.' Thus it would be entirely Mercian, 
and York entirely Northumbrian. This theory 
seems confirmed by the story of St. Wilfrid. 

s. ix. JAN. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


When exiled from his own sees of York and 
Hexham he found a refuge in Mercia, and 
for a time (692-705) administered the diocese 
of Leicester. Had York been a composite 
diocese he might have continued to govern 
the Mercian portion after being expelled 
from Northumbria, but there is no hint of 
anything of the sort. It may be objected 
that, "in the opinion of Bishop Stubbs," the 
small archdeaconry of Stow, lying between 
the Ancholme and the Trent, represents the 
original diocese of Lindsey (Venables and 
Perry, 'Lincoln Diocese,' p. 7). This, how- 
ever, must have been a mere obiter dictum 
of that great scholar, for it is a singular fact 
that the places Bede mentions as lying in 
Lindsey are outside the limits of this arch- 
deaconry Bardney, Partney, Barrow-on- 
Humber, and Lincoln itself (* H. E.,' ii. 16 ; 
iii. 11 ; iv. 3). Then, as Lindsey had its first 
separate bishop from Northumbria, during a 
brief period of conquest (Bede, iv. 12), so it 
is not difficult to imagine that on the de- 
struction of the bishopric about 860, as a 
result of the Danish invasions, the administra- 
tion of Church affairs, so far as anything of 
the kind was possible, would fall to the arch- 
bishops of York as being close at hand. From 
950 to 1000 the title was revived by the 
bishops of Leicester or Dorchester, but " all 
real episcopal power had ceased long before, 
and the very name was soon to pass away " 
(Venables and Perry, p. 33). From a remark 
in the work cited (p. 51), it may be con- 
jectured that the archdeaconry of Stow is 
really a fragment of the archdeaconry of the 
West Riding, which would in turn indicate 
that its small district had formed part of 
the Hseth feld land of the ' Tribal Hidage,' the 
eastern limit being not the Trent, but the 

The see was at Sidnaceaster. If this be 
Stow, it would be a convenient centre for the 
diocese, as would Retford also. It is curious 
that old Roman stations or chesters should 
have been so commonly adopted as episcopal 
sees Canterbury, Rochester, London, Win- 
chester, Dorchester, Leicester, York, Wor- 
cester, Exeter ; and Lichfield has a Chester- 
field close at hand. Some of these also were 
border cities, as London and York, so that a 
central situation was not a primary requisite. 
J. B. 

ST. HELIERS. In Black's 'Guide to the 
Channel Islands,' eighth edition, 1896, pp. 6-7, 
we find these words : " Royal Square, originally 
the market-place. The market cross used to 
stand where we see now that odd, gilt statue 
of George II., erected in July, 1751." I 

remember that some few years ago, when the 
statue referred to was so begrimed with the 
dirt of generations that doubts were felt as 
to whom it was intended to represent, some 
discussion was raised on the point, but not 
being in a position to refer to your General 
Indexes I cannot call to mind whether the 
discussion was carried on in your columns 
or in the local newspapers published in 
St. Heliers. At all events, the statue about 
that date was thoroughly cleaned, and it was 
then made out to be a statue of George II., 
but I am not able to say what the favour 
was which that king had conferred on the 
islanders in return for which this statue was 

In an account of St. Heliers by M. de la 
Croix, published in Jersey by Richard Gosset 
in 1845, on pp. 11-12 of No. 1, we may read 
(I condense the French) that between the 
west gable of the Royal Court-house and the 
house known under the name of k ' L'Hotel de 
1' Union " there existed in old times a narrow 
passage (ruelle\ which afforded a communica- 
tion from what is now called Hill Street to. 
the market-place. The soil of this passage 
subject to the above public right of way 
belonged to a certain Mr. Gosset. We 
further learn that about the year 1750 the 
Royal Court-house was being rebuilt. I will 
now carry on this story in somewhat fuller 
detail than as here set out by recalling what 
I read of it a few years ago in another work, 
by the same author, I think, and of about 
the same date (1845). Mr. Gosset was some 
sort of a builder or contractor, and when he 
happened to be in Plymouth a few years 
before say in 1745 or thereabouts a priva- 
teer brought in a Spanish ship captured in 
the Mediterranean. Among the miscel- 
laneous goods which made up the cargo of 
this prize was an old statue, supposed to 
date from Roman times, and possibty repre- 
senting an emperor. At the auction of the 
cargo which followed Mr. Gosset, probably 
:or a mere trifle, bought this statue, and, 
carrying it to Jersey, stored it in his builder's 
yard. The States of Jersey, having in 1750 
nearly finished their court-house, seem to have 
thought that some embellishment of the 
ground in front would be desirable, and no 
embellishmentcould be more appropriate than 
:hat of their reigning sovereign. By good 
luck also at about this date Mr. Gosset, 
wishing much to enlarge his own premises, 
which could only be done by stopping up 
ihe narrow passage, applied to the States 
:or their assent, and as a result I condense 
again now from M. de la Croix's pages the 
States gave the required permission in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. JAN. is, IMS. 

exchange for that statue. The statue was 
then gilt, and on 9 July, 1751, having been 
baptized with the title of George II, was 
unveiled and inaugurated with all possible 
ceremonial. A representative company ot 
each division of the island militia and ot the 
garrison, and all the civil authorities in due 
form, were present, and Mr. Charles Marett, 
Deputy Viscount, having mounted the 
pedestal whence public notifications are 
usually made, and which for that occasion 
was dressed with carpets, declared that the 
aforesaid statue had been set up in honour 
of his Majesty King George II. Three 
rounds of cheering followed this declaration, 
and at the signal given by the hoisting of a 
flag on the steeple of the town church the 
garrison of Elizabeth Castle three times 
saluted with seven guns, each round of seven 
guns being followed by a small-arms volley 
on the part of the troops in the Royal 
Square. Then wine was brought to the 
vicinity of the statue, and his Majesty's 
health was drunk by the civil and military 
officials. After these ceremonies the mace, 
the emblem of the authority wielded by the 
States, was taken back in charge of the 
proper officials, and with a very solemn and 
dignified escort, to the place where it was 
usual to keep it ; and refreshments were sup- 
plied to the soldiers, some being detained 
to serve as guard of honour to General Hurst, 
the Governor-in-Chief, who was expected^to 
arrive that day. However, when the tide 
turned, and it was thereby evident that the 
Governor could not make the port till the 
morrow, all the rest of the soldiers were 
allowed to go ; and in the evening there 
were public fireworks. From the foregoing 
history we may conclude that all parties 
concerned were satisfied : the king with the 
honour, Mr. Gosset by having got his wish 
on easy terms, the States and the Jersey 
public because they felt that they had done 
the right thing at the smallest possible 
outlay, and the soldiers and others who 
took part in the ceremony with the extra 
refreshments and drink. One thing only 
was lacking to fill up the cup of joy the 
Governor-in-Chief, General Hurst, had not 
been present. Whether he reached the 
island on the next day I do not know, but it 
seems to me highly probable that he also 
may have been satisfied, for to miss his 
tide on 9 July was a way, without offending 
any one, of getting out of a ceremony in 
which he was reluctant to take part. 

Having concluded the account of this 
incident, I should like to draw the attention 
of those who infer, from the existence of so 

many Vine Streets in this country, that wine 
was formerly made in England from grapes 
grown out of doors, to the following passage 
on p. 38 of M. de la Croix's book. The 
louses in St. Heliers, 

for the most part covered with thatch, were 
tapestried externally with trellis-work, over which 
a vine spread itself. People were so fond of the 
vine, and the habit of cultivating it was so general, 
that the street which starts from ' Royal Square 
and terminates at the ' little Douet' is called Vine 
Street to this day" (1845). 

H. G. K. 

Variorum editor of 'As You Like It' cites 
numerous allusions to the idea that " All the 
world's a stage," &c. ; but, apparently. Dr. 
Furness has overlooked Shakespeare's in- 
debtedness to Lodge, from whom the drama- 
tist appears to have borrowed. Lodge 
attributes the allusion to Plutarch, an 
authority not mentioned heretofore ^ by 
commentators. In ' A Margarite of America,' 
1596 (p. 91), there is this passage : 

' True it is that Plutarch saith (quoth he) that 
life is a stage-play, which even unto the last act 
hath no decorum : life is replenished with al vices, 
and empoverished of all vertue." 

Here is a description of the lodging of 
Protomachus in the fortress of Arsinous : 

'About the walles of the chamber in curious 
imagerie were the seven sages of Greece, set forth 
with their seuerall vertues, eloquently discovered 
in Arabiccke verses : The bed appointed for the 
prince to rest himselfe, was of black Ebonie 
enchased with Rubies, Diamons and Carbuncls, 
made in form of an arch on which by degrees mans 
state from infancie to his olde age was plainly 
depictured, and on the testerne of the bed the 
whole contents of the same most sagelie deciphered 
in these verses : 

wherof boasteth man, or by what reason 
Is filthy clay so much ambitious ? 
Whose thoughts are vaine, and alter euery season. 
Whose deeds are damned, base, and yitious, 
Who in his cradle by his childish crying, 
Presageth his mishaps and sorrowes nying. 

An infant first from nurces teat he sucketh 
With nutriment corruption of his nature : 
And from the roote of endless errour plucketh 
That taste of sinne that waits on every creature, 
And as his sinewes firme his sunne increaseth 
And but till his death his sorrow never ceaseth. 

In riper years when youthly courage raineth, 
A winters blast of fortunes lowring changes, 
A flattering hope wherein no trust remaineth, 
A fleeting love his forward ioy estranges : 
Atchive he wealth, with wasteful wo he bought it, 
Let substance faile, he grieues, and yet he sought 


In staied yeares whenas he seekes the gleaning : 
Of those his times in studious Artes bestowed, 
In sum me, he oft misconstrueth wise-mens mean- 

s. ix. JAN. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Soiling the spring from whence his science flowed, 
In all he gaines by perfect Judgement gained, 
A hate of life that hath so long remained. 

From height of throne to abiect wretchednesse, 
From woonderous skil to seruile ignorance ; 
From court to cart, from rich to recklessnesse 
The ioyes of his life have no continuance : 
The king, the caitife wretch, the lay, the learned, 
Their crowns, woes, wants and wits with griefe 
have erned. 

The Judgement seate hath brawles, honour is hated, 

The soldiers life is a dayly thrall to danger, 

The merchants bag by tempest is abated 

His purse still serves for prey to every stranger, 

The scholler with his knowledge learns repent, 

Thus each estate in life hath discontent. 

And in these trades and choice estates of living, 
Youth steales on manly state, and it on age, 
And age with weakned limmes, and mind misgiving, 
With trembling tongue repenteth youthly rage, 
And ere he full hath learnd his life to governe, 
He dies, and dying doth to dust returne. 

There are four more verses in similar 
vein, but enough have been quoted to show 
the striking similarity of treatment. 


New York. 

" Two BLADES OF GRASS." (See 7 th S. iv. 24.) 
The Week- End of 11 January ascribes to 
either Adam Smith or Bentham the well- 
known observation of the king in ' Gulliver's 
Travels ' that he who makes two blades of 
grass grow where only one grew before is a 
benefactor of his race. This was, in fact, 
"chaff" of the platitudes of our king's 
speeches. T. W. E 

AMBERLEY, SUSSEX. I do not know whether 
the following has ever been communicated to 
'N. & Q.' In the chancel of Amberley 
Church are two memorial tablets : on the 
left, that of John Hanley, vicar of Amberley- 
cum-Houghton for forty-five years, who died 
20 February, 1840, aged eighty-two years ; 
on the right, that of George Arthur Clarkson, 
who was vicar for fifty-seven years, and died 
18 July, 1897, aged eighty-two years. So 
from 1795 until 1897 this parish had only two 
incumbents. DE V. PAYEN-PAYNE. 

" LA BELLE IMPERIA." (See 9 th S. viii. 455.) 
At this reference your reviewer suggests a 
source from which Balzac may have taken 
" La Belle Imperia." It has always seemed 
to me that he may have been indebted to 
'Le Moyen de Parvenir,' section vii. couplet. 

F. R. R. 

see in the daily papers that the Bishop of 
Carlisle said recently that he believed the 
church at Wasthead to be the smallest in 

England. More than twenty years ago, when 
I was there, the incumbent said to me, " Here 
you have the deepest lake Wastwater ; the 
highest hill Scafell ; and the smallest church 
Wasthead in England." 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

[See 6 th S. vi. 514; vii. 392, 434, 472; viii. 74.] 

COWPER AND THE * TIMES.' In turning 
over recently some old numbers of the Times 
I came across, in the issue of 15 June, 1789, 
an apparently original contribution by Wil- 
liam Cowper, ' The Queen's Visit to London 
on the 17th March, 1789,' consisting of nine- 
teen four-line verses. W. ROBERTS. 

47, Lansdowne Gardens, S.W. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
;o affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
m order that the answers maybe addressed to them 

REV. ANTHONY WARTON, 1657. In 1856 a 
query was inserted concerning the above. 
About three years ago you repeated it for 
me. I have found his will in the P.C.C., 1661. 
He died at Breamore, Hants, where he went 
in 1626. How can I prove or disprove his 
identity with Anthony Wharton, at Lincoln 
College, Oxford, 1596, aged thirteen, from 
Lancashire? The Breamore Warton was 
ordained by the Bishop of London in 1607/8, 
and I am trying to trace him between that 
date and 1626. Any clue to the burial- 
place of his descendant Joseph Warton, R.N., 
born 1780, at Tun worth, Hants (in the ' Navy 
List ' up to 1863), will oblige. A. C. H. 

A LINE OF BROWNING. In the second verse 
of the ( Epilogue ' to * Asolando ' there is a 
passage which seems to run entirely out of 
connexion with the general train of thought 
this poem conveys. Will some experienced 
traveller in Browning kindly enlighten me 
as to the relation of this line with the pre- 
ceding ones, and tell me how it fails to 
contradict those which follow ? 
Like the aimless, helpless, hopeless, did I drivel- 
Being who? 

L. K. 

any one give me a complete list of the bridges 
built by this Welsh farmer-builder and hissons? 
The 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' ascribes to William 
Edwards a bridge over the Taff, three over 
the Towy, the Usk bridge, Bettws and Llan* 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. JAN. is, 1002. 

dovery bridges in Carmarthenshire, Aberavon 
bridge in Glamorganshire, and Glasbury 
bridge in Brecknockshire; and to his son 
David Llandilo bridge over the Towy and 
Newport bridge over the Usk. Two other 
sons were also builders. Did any of them 
build or design any bridges not in Wales * 

THOMAS MAUKICE, 1754-1824. Will some 
one who has access to Maurice's ' Memoirs 
very kindly tell me whether the author ol 
'Indian Antiquities' was ever at Harrow 
School 1 He refers apparently to the demo- 
cratic spirit which prevailed thereat under 
Dr. Sumner, and the 'D.N.B.' says he 
devoted himself to classics under the tuition 
of Dr. Samuel Parr at Stanmore. 


St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

CONFESSIONALS. In the Roman Catholic 
Church in Libau I notice that the con- 
fessionals are quite open, there being a seat 
for the priest with a wooden grating on either 
side, but the front is open, and the penitent 
must be in full view of any one in the church. 
A lady informs me that she has seen penitents 
kneeling at the chancel step while the priest 
sat within the rails. Is this at all usual, or 
is it a Polish custom ? I understand that the 
sermon is preached in Polish one Sunday, 
Russian the next, and Lettish the next, but 
that the majority of the congregation are 

Seemansheim, Libau, Russia. 

"MiscHiEF-NiGHT." What is the origin of 
this term for the eve of Gunpowder Plot 1 ? 
After dark on 4 November of last year a 
maid from my house (near Bramley, Leeds) 
was in Kirkstall, when she was set upon by a 
number of small boys armed with sticks. She 
alleges that they struck her pretty sharply, 
and that to her remonstrances they merely 
said : "Oh, it's ahl reight, missis, it's ' mis- 
chief-neight,' doan't you knoa 1 ?" Are such 
forms of assault and battery on the night 
before " the Fifth " purely local 1 


THE EARTH MOTHER. Under St. Walburga 
(25 February), Baring-Gould says : 

"There can be no doubt that S. Walburga has 
inherited the symbols and much of the cultus 
anciently devoted to Walborg, or Walburg the 
Earth Mother." 

Where shall I find particulars of this Walborg 
cultus 1 PRESBYTER. 

[We find nothing directly bearing on this point in 
either Grimm's ' Teutonic Mythology ' or Frazer's 
' Golden Bough.'] 

4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.' I should be much 
pleased to correspond with any one interested 
in the early editions of this work, in which I 
have observed several curious discrepancies 
e.g., in the preface to the first edition it reads 
" because all such things are dispatch'd," 
instead of "disputed," as in later editions 
Also in the fifth edition, 1720 (which I have), 
the frontispiece, though similar, is not exactly 
the same. Will any one haying an early 
edition kindly communicate with 


1, Warnborough Road, Oxford. 

looking through some Fleetwood wills, I 
came across that of John Fleetwood, citizen 
and glass seller, of London (Ludgate Hill 1\ 
proved 17 January, 1760, by John Fleetwood, 
son of his late brother Robert, sole executor. 
There is a bequest to his niece Jane Fenton, 
widow, of 50/., 

" in case she gives my executor hereinafter named 
within one month after my decease the picture for 
a watch of my late grandfather Colonel George 
Fleetwood deceased, otherwise the said legacy of 
to sink into the residuary estate. 

Can any of your readers inform me who the 
Col. Geo. Fleetwood alluded to was 1 I have 
seen the engraving at the British Museum of 
a miniature of the regicide, and also the 
original thereof, painted by Samuel Cooper, 
now in the possession of Mr. Gery Milner- 
Gibson-Cullum, F.S.A., and have had indis- 
putable proof that the miniature named in 
the will is not the one engraved. This one 
was left by the regicide to his daughter Anne, 
in his will, 1651 (this must be the date of the 
will), as follows : 

"I do hereby give and bequeath to my daughter 

Anne and also my Picture set in a gold Box 

enamelled, in lieu whereof I give unto my wife the 
sum of one hundred pounds." 
By her it was left to her aunt, Mrs. Honoria 
Cradock, by her will proved 1676 (made 1674), 
in the following words: "Item to my dear 
aunt Mrs. Honoria Cradock I give my Father's 
little Picture." It remained in the Cradock 
family till, at the death on 22 November, 1772, 
of Thomas Priest, of Gesyngs, Suffolk, who 
married Elizabeth Cradock (she died with- 
out issue), it was sold and purchased by Mrs. 
Ashley Palmer, great - grandaunt of the pre- 
sent possessor. 

The miniature named in the will may be a 
replica, or it may be the portrait of another 
George Fleetwood. If it be still in existence, 
perhaps the present owner would give in- 
formation as to how it came into his posses- 
sion, and a pedigree of the branch of the 

9* 8. IX JAN. 18, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


family. Was the Ludgate Hill family related 
to Robert Fleetwood of Abchurch Lane, will 
proved 6 February, 1790; and was either 
connected with a family of the same name 
settled in Clerkenwell 1 

Is there any record of the regicide's death, 
which is supposed to have occurred in America, 
and is his will printed in any publication ? 
He must not be confused with George (brother 
of Charles, Cromwell's son-in-law), who was 
made a (Swedish baron, and was present at 
the battle of Lutzen. R. W. B. 

AN OLD CHARM. The editor of the Chemist 
and Druggist sends me some slips of parch- 
ment (seven in number), evidently of great 
age, being much worn and disfigured, which 
were found recently in an old hall near 
Bradford, and had been sent to him by a 
firm of chemists in that town as old medical 
prescriptions. Each of the slips bears the 
same inscription, but on none of them is it 
legible throughout, and it is only by com- 
parison of one with another that I have been 
able to read the whole. Possibly, as it is, 
I have misread a letter here and there, but 
my reading is certainly substantially correct. 
The dots represent crosses : 

Aon . hora . Cammall . . . 

Naadgrass . Dyradgrass . . . 

Arassund . yo . Sigrged . . . 

dayniss . Tetragrammaton E 

Inurmed E Soleysicke . . . 

domend . Ame . dias . hora . . M 

That this formula is magical in character 
there can, I suppose, be no doubt. The word 
Tetragrammaton probably gives the key to 
the whole, but it does not enable me to 
unlock the mystery. The writer of the article 
on 'Witchcraft' in 'Chambers's Encyclopaedia ' 
states that when the Earl of Gowrie was 
slain (at Perth in 1600) he was wearing an 
amulet inscribed with this word, which kept 
his body from bleeding "even when dead." 
This is probably as true as the kindred 
superstition that the word Abracadabra 
which is, according to a quotation in the 
'H.E.D.,' of somewhat similar import when 
written in the form of a triangle and worn 
round the neck, is a preventive of ague. The 
Bradford charm, if it is one, is the most 
elaborate that I have seen, and is worthy of 
a place in ' N. & Q.' C. C. B. 

P.S. A friend versed in such matters tells 
me the handwriting on these slips is 
apparently the legal hand of George III.'s 
time, and adds : " It is interesting that a 
whole batch of charms should have been 
made at so late a date." The person who 
found them says they are three hundred 

years old. I should say the formula is a 
good deal older than that. 

is an extract from a letter which I lately 
received. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' throw 
light on the matter? 

" A friend of some friends of mine was an army 
surgeon during the Crimean war. Once, when he 
with others was picking up the wounded after an 
engagement, he stooped over a Cossack who was 
dying, in order to help him, and the wounded man 
put his hand into his coat and brought out a white 
kitten. The doctor brought it to England, and my 
friends used to go to see it and its children. Now 
for the point the Cossacks took kittens into the 
battlefield as charms. Can you explain this ? " 

The story of a dying Cossack giving to an 
Englishman the kitten he had taken into 
battle is familiar to me, but I never before 
heard that the animal was carried as a 
charm. M. P. 

PICTORIAL GRAMMAR. Can any one tell me 
the name of the artist who drew the quaint 
woodcut illustrations to B. Steill's ' Pictorial 
Grammar for Children,' published at 20, 
Paternoster Row, in 1844 1 They are much 
in the style of Cruikshank. OWEN. 

" FLITTINGS." This term, I am informed, is 
applied to gatherings in Ireland at Easter 
for the purpose of hiring farm servants, of a 
similar character to our old " mops." Can 
any one tell me where I can find an account 
of them ? AYEAHR. 

HERRICK : SILVER-PENCE. The following 
lines occur in ' Oberon's Palace ' of Herrick's 
* Hesperides,' and I shall be glad to have 
them explained : 

And these among 

Those silver-pence, that cut the tongue 
Of the red infant, neatly hung. 

The decorations, or curiosities, on the walls 
of a room are referred to. H. P. L. 

1710, entered into a bond (Add. MS. 22,230, 
fo. 63, Brit. Mus.) bearing a seal engraved 
with a fesse between three crescents. Can 
any reader give particulars as to descent, 
dates of birth and marriage, or information 
as to his right to use the above arms 1 He 
is conjectured to have been born c. 1670-80 
near Doncaster, and married a Rebecca Wood- 
fine. Another Edward Lee, a nephew, carried 
on the practice after his uncle's death in 1756. 
A history of the Lee-Jortin family was pub- 
lished. Can any reader tell me where a copy 
can be seen 1 HENRY J. LEE. 

168, Finborough Road, S.W. 



s. ix. JAN. is, 1902. 

(9 th S. viii. 244, 433.) 

IT should be noted that the Wiston branch 
of the Shirley family always spelt the name 
Sherley. The founder of the Wiston family 
was Ralph, the only son of Ralph Shirley, 
of Ettington and Shirley, by Elizabeth his 
second wife, daughter of Sir John Blount 
and sister of Walter, Lord Montjoy. He 
succeeded to the family property in Sussex 
and Buckinghamshire on the death of his 
father in 1466. These estates had been in- 
herited by the Shirleys by their descent from 
the noble house of Braose of Bramber, by 
the marriage of Sir Hugh Shirley, great- 
grandfather of Ralph, with Beatrix, sister 
and sole heir of Sir John de Braose, Knt., of 
the younger branch of the baronial house of 
that name, Lords of Bramber and Knep 
Castles in Sussex, and of Brecknock and 
Gower in Wales. 

This Ralph Sherley, of Wiston, &c., was the 
great-grandfather of Sir Thomas, the father 
of the three celebrated "Sherley brothers," 
of whom Sir Robert was the youngest. The 
late Mr. Evelyn Philip Shirley, of Ettington 
(which was bequeathed by the first Earl 
Ferrers to his eldest son by his second wife 
and his heirs in 1717), wrote a memoir, 'The 
Sherley Brothers, 3 which was published for 
the Roxburghe Club in 1848. On p. 59 he 
writes : 

"The period of R. S.'s marriage is not exactly 
known : it must have taken place previous to 1607, 
as it is recorded in Nixon's pamphlet of that year, 
tho' not without considerable exaggerations and 
inventions. The lady was Teresia, the daughter of 
Ismael Khan, a Circassian of noble birth and Chris- 
tian faith. She was, on the authority of her husband, 
related to one of the Circassian wives of King 
Abbas ...... ; according to Nixon two children were 

the issue of this marriage, born in Persia, to one of 
whom the king stood godfather ; the same veracious 
author informs us that Shah Abbas was half inclined 
by Sherley's arguments to embrace the Christian 
faith To strengthen which hope, 3 he adds, ' Robert 
Sherley hath also erected there a church called after 
his own name, in which he hath divine service as 
duely read, as here it is on this side the seas.' " 

These assertions, Mr. E. P. Shirley adds, 
"are entirely without foundation, and 'more fit ' 
as Cartwright writes in 1611, 'for a stage for the 
common people to wonder at than for any man's 
private studies.' Malcolm, vol. i. p. 559, misunder- 
stands this passage and quotes it as an authority 

* havmg stood 

In the same memoir (pp. 78-9) Mr. E. P 
Shirley states that the firstborn and only son 
was born in the autumn of 1611, and was 

named Henry, after the Prince of Wales, who, 
with the queen, stood sponsor. 

Sir Robert's letter to the prince, asking 
him to be godfather, is preserved in the 
Harleian Collection (MS. 7008, 73). Nothing 
is known as to what became of the son, ex- 
cept that he was alive in 1614. 

Sir Robert himself died at Casbin, in Persia, 
13 July, 1628, and after his death his widow 
retired to Rome, whither she transported his 
bones in the year 1658, as appears from a 
Latin inscription on a large slab of marble 
in the church of Santa Maria della Scala in 
that city. From certain papers preserved in 
the convent of that church it appears that 
Lady (Teresia) Sherley survived till the year 
1668, when she died, and was buried in the 
same tomb as her husband ; it is decorated 
with the coat of Shirley, and round it are 
eleven others connected with the family. 

Facsimile copies of the engraving which 
LADY RUSSELL describes are not uncommon ; 
at any rate, I have purchased some for Is. Qd. 
or 2s. each. Under the Latin inscription are 
the words : "A Facsimile from the Original : 
Penes Th. Brand Hollis Armig. March J. F. 
Sculp 1789." 

For further particulars I would refer 
LOBUC to 'Stemmata Sherleiana' and 'The 
Sherley Brothers,' both by Mr. E. P. Shirley ; 
also vol. xi., Journal Royal Asiatic Society 
(May, 1840), and ' The Three Brothers,' by an 
anonymous author, published by Hurst, 
Robinson & Co., London, 1825 ; also to the 
various State Calendars, Domestic, Venetian, 
East Indian, &c., and Records of theEast India 

If there is any special point on which 
LOBUC desires information, I should be glad 
to communicate with him privately if he will 
address a letter through the Editor, as I have 
copies of various contemporary accounts by 
Parry, Cartwright, and others. 


viii. 464). Perhaps a form of cadimirus, " a 
species of precious stone " (Ducange). This, 
however, takes us no further with the mean- 
ing of the word. Might I suggest that it is 
from katimia for kadimia, the mineral we 
know as cadmium, which the ancients con- 
fused with that which we know as cobalt? 
Cobalt was used to make a blue glass or 
smalt which was used by the ancients for 
enamel. The fine permanent blue pigment 
of the Egyptians is smalt, and doubtless the 
Romans, who were famed enamellers, used the 
same material, and from them the mediaeval 
workers derived it. " Kathmath," therefore, 

9* s. ix. JAN. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


may mean an enamel of preferably a blue 

"Hardillone" is from the French ardillon, 
the tongue of a buckle. The firmaculum was 
probably in two parts, one sewn to each edge 
of the garment. 



I cannot at once send Q. V. the meaning of 
"kathmath," but "hardillo" is ardillon, i.e., 
the iron point which goes through the leather 
strap and holds it in passing through the 
buckle : 

Femme par homme est enceynte, 
Et de une ceynture est ceynte, 
De la ceynture le pendaunt 
Passe par ray le mordaunt 
Queinsy doyt le hardiloun 
Passer par tru de subiloun. 

Gautier de Bibels worth. 

I quote from M. de Laborde's ' Notice des 
Emaux, &c., Musee du Louvre.' 

E. F. S. D. 

L'ardillon is the tongue of a buckle. 


PETOSIRIS AND PTOLEMY (9 th S. viii. 520). 
MR. LYNN, mentioning the connexion between 
the two Egyptian astronomers Petosiris and 
Necepso, writes, following a note in Thomas 
Taylor's translation of ' Firmici Thema 
Mundi,' that " Necepso, to whom Petosiris 
wrote as being coeval with him, is believed 
to have flourished about the year 800 of 
the Attic era, i.e., about the beginning of 
the Olympiads." Taylor has the authority 
of old Fabricius for this thesis. Allow me 
to call the attention of MR. LYNN and of the 
readers of ' N. & Q.' to W. Kroll's * Aus der 
Geschichte der Astrolo^ie,' in the Neue Jahr- 
biicher fur das klassische Alterthum, &c., 
8 Oct., 1901 (Leipzig, Teubner). Prof. Kroll, 
of the University of Greifswald, in Prussia, 
is the greatest authority on the history of 
old astronomy, astrology, and magic. He 
asserts that Petosiris and Necepso must have 
lived between 170 and 100 B.C., and advances 
the thesis that Necepso and Petosiris were 
one and the same person. He asks, " Have, 
indeed, in the year 150 B.C. two good friends, 
one under the mask of Petosiris, the other 
under the mask of Necepso, written astrono- 
mical or astrological works, controlling one 
another so strictly and constantly that no 
contradiction steals in ? I think the presump- 
tion is allowed that Petosiris and Necepso 
are identical, and that the man who is at the 
bottom of the two pseudonyms expected to 
recommend his astrological knowledge better 
by distributing it between two illustrious 

names." Indeed, the astrologer of the second 
century before Christ may quite well have 
borrowed the names of old Egyptian kings. 
(Manetho has a king Necepso in the twenty- 
sixth dynasty.) As to the details, I refer to 
the very clever note of Prof. Kroll in the 
Neue Jahrbucher. DR. MAX MAAS. 

Munich, Bav. 

It is difficult to understand why Dryden 
should have made a change so perversely : 
but he did not do so because the name could 
not be brought readily into his verse. The 
couplet would sound better with the right 
name in it : 

No nourishment receives in her disease 
But what the stars and Petosiris please. 

Dryden takes the same liberty in another 
place. In the third pastoral of Virgil he 

My Phyllis me with pelted apples plies. 
The name is Galatea in the original. 


THE WEST BOURNE (9 fch S. viii. 517). In my 
article on this subject I wrote, by a slip of 
the pen, that in 1258 the manors of West- 
bourne and Knightsbridge were held by the 
" Dean " and Chapter of Westminster. This, 
of course, should have been the Abbot and 

I avail myself of this opportunity to add to 
the list of valuable London articles in the 
Builder one which appeared in the issue of 
4 January, entitled 'Knightsbridge, Ken- 
sington, South Kensington, and Earl's Court, 
1801-1900.' W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

DEMON REPENTANT (9 th S. viii. 242, 494). 
Carlyle remarked upon the last stanza of 
this most weird apostrophe (quoted by 
DOLLAR at the latter reference) : 

" Burns even pities the very de'il, without know- 
ing, I am sure, that my Uncle Toby had been 
beforehand there with him. ' He is the father of 
curses and lies,' said Dr. Slop, ' and is cursed and 
damned already.' ' I am sorry for it,' said my 
Uncle Toby." 

Carlyle adds, while he makes this apt 
quotation from Sterne, " A poet without love 
were a physical and a metaphysical impossi- 
bility " (* Poetical Works of Burns,' London, 
Routledge & Sons, 1885). 


JOHN HOME (9 th S. viii. 402, 492). In a reply 
under the above heading MR. C. LAWRENCE 
FORD cites no doubt appropriately the line 
touching the death of Camilla, * ^Eneid,' xi. 
831 : 

Vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras, 

NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9' s. ix. JAN. is, 1902. 

It may be not out of place to recall the fact 
that the same idea is expressed, and in pre- 
cisely the same words, regarding the death 
of Turnus, in the last line of the '^Eneid '; 
and that the same curious conception is pre- 
sented in the description of the death of 
Lausus, although in somewhat different 
terms, in '^Eneid,' x. 820 : 

Turn vita per auras 
Concessit mtesta ad Manes, corpusque reliquit. 

Furthermore, it is, perhaps, worth while to 
remember that the idea in question was taken 
by Virgil from Homer, since in ' Iliad,' xvi. 
856, in the account of the deatli of Patroclus, 
the following lines occur : 

ov TTOT^OV yoowcra, AITTOUCT' aSpOTrjra 

and the same lines are applied to the death 

of Hector, ' Iliad/ xxii. 362. 

Finally, in the description of the apparition 
of the shade of Patroclus to Achilles, a nearly 
similar sentiment is introduced, although in 
slightly varied terms, 'Iliad,' xxiii. 100 : 





A RIME ON EDWARD VII. (9 th S. viii. 445, 
532). From thirty to thirty-five years ago I 
distinctly remember some of the ecclesiastical 
newspapers alluding to an old rime to the 
effect that 

When Edward the Seventh shall come to reign, 
Edward the Sixth's Prayer Book shall be used 

On several occasions I remember hearing 
these or similar words quoted. 

W. G. D. F. 

ST. CLEMENT DANES (9 th S. vii. 64, 173 274 
375 ; viii. 17, 86, 186, 326, 465). MR. HENRY 
HARRISON unreservedly condemns the deriva- 
tion of the A.-S. wlc from the Latin ulcus. I 
do not profess to have a very deep knowledge 
of Anglo-Saxon etymologies, and in express- 
ing this "old-fashioned idea" I was merely 
following the lead of Prof. Skeat, who is 
generally supposed to know something about 
these matters, and has more than once laid 
down the proposition to which MR. HARRISON 
objects.* Perhaps, however, like Kluge, he 

has not devoted enough attention to the 
archeology of the matter and to the lessons 
taught by place-names." At any rate the 
younger school of German philologists have 
developed new ideas, and it would be in- 
teresting to learn how they connect wlc with 


wdc or ivcec, weak, from which primd facie it 
would seem, both in meaning and in etymo- 
logy, to be pretty far removed. Perhaps the 
Pan-Germanic idea may be as powerful in 
effecting a revolution in vowel-mutation as it 
is in depriving the countries of Europe of all 
ownership in their national anthems. 

MR. HARRISON points out that " vicus has 
left a meagre legacy behind it in France and 
South Germany, where Roman influence was 
strongest." But where do we find traces of 
stratum and castrum in France, Germany, and 
Italy 1 The places compounded with chateau 
and castel in France, and castel or castello in 
Italy, are all of comparatively recent date, 
and do not equal in antiquity the casters and 
Chester s of England. Other Latin words were 
adopted by the Saxons in their local nomen- 
clature, such as port, a town, from portus, 
and camp, a field, from canqws. We know 
that vicus was the usual word in Latin docu- 
ments to express a village or street, and I 
gave some examples in a previous paper 
(9 th S. vii. 65). MR. HARRISON can under- 
stand the Germanic races borrowing a Latin 
word for "a paved road," but to borrow a 
word for " village " is, he thinks, a different 
matter. But there are villages and villages. 
The ham was the first settlement of the family 
or tribe, when huts were " dumped down" with 
no regard to symmetry or order ; the tun was 
a collection of cottages within an enclosure ; 
while the wlc in all probability consisted of 
the rows of houses which lined a road on 
either side, such as we see to be the case with 
many villages situated on high roads at the 
present day, or, in the case of seaside places, 
those which ran parallel to the shore. 


"NANG NAILS": "NUBBOCKS" (9 th S. viii. 
306, 431). The former of these words appears 
in a form I have not met with elsewhere 
in Prof. Henslowe's ' Medical Works of the 
Fourteenth Century,' p. 16: "Pro wrang- 
noylis in pedibus. Take gandres dryt [?dyrt] 
and eysil and het it to-gedre and ley it 
ther-to." C. C. B. 

225, 431). -The family of Colclough or Cole- 
clough seems to have been of considerable 
importance before migrating from Stafford- 
shire to Ireland. As is well known, John 
Colclough was one of the rebel chiefs in 
Ireland in 1798, and, after being apprehended 
with his wife and B. B. Harvey in one of the 
Saltee Islands, was executed with Harvey at 
Wexford. In the south-east angle of the 
south aisle of the old parish church of Brere- 
ton, co. Chester, riot very far from Newcastle- 

9* s. ix. JAN. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


under- Lyme, Staffordshire, is the monument 
of William Smethwicke of Smethwicke, Esq., 
and Frances Coleclough, his wife, who died 
1 May, 1632, surmounted by their half-figures. 
On a tablet underneath her effigy is the fol- 
lowing epitaph : 

Here also lieth the body of 
Frances Smethwicke, daughter 
of Sir Anthony Coleclough, 
Knight, married to William 
Smethwicke aforesaid, and lived 
in wedlocke with him 58 yeares, 
a devout and hospitall matron, 
borne anno Dom. 1557, in the castle 
of Kildare, in Ireland, Novemb. 6, 

and died 1 of May 1632. 
Mors absorpta est in victoria. 

The arms of Smethwicke (a family long 
extinct) were : Or, three crosses patee fitche 
sable ; those of Colclough : Argent, five 
eaglets displayed in cross sable. Smeth- 
wick is a township in the parish of Brereton, 
but the old hall has long since been pulled 
down. There is a pedigree of the family in 
Ormerod's 'History of Cheshire,' showing 
them to have intermarried with good county 
families. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

CHOCOLATE (9 th S. viii. 160, 201, 488). An 
early English book on this subject is that by 
Dr. John Stubbe, scholar, and physician to 
King Charles II., called " The Indian Nectar, 

or a Discourse concerning Chocolata 

Lond., 1662." Its use was widely spread even 
at that time, as the following from p. 2 shows : 

" The Northerly tract thereof [of America] prin- 
cipally seems to use the drink called Chocolata, in 
New Spain, Mexico and the neighbouring Pro- 
vinces And indeed it hath prodigiously spread 

itself not only over the West - Indies ; but over 
Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, high and low Ger- 
many, and England, yea Turkey, and Persia : and 
hath been recommended by sundry learned Phy- 
sicians to the world." 

The author quotes several times from Thomas 
Gage's ' Survey of the West Indies,' the first 
edition of which appeared in 1648. 


In Addit. MS. (British Museum) 10,116, 
being vol. i. of Thomas Rugge's k Mercurius 
Politicus Redivivus, 1659-72,' p. 14, is the 
following interesting note : 

"Nov. 1659. Theere ware also att this time a 
Turkish drink to bee sould, almost in eury street, 
called Coffee and another kind of drink called 
Tee [sic], and also a drink called Chacolate [sic], 
which was a very harty drink." 

This, I presume, refers to the sale in London 
only. The date of the first introduction of 
chocolate into England (probably from Spain) 
could not, I think, have been long prior to 
1659 which is, indeed, earlier than that 

generally ascribed to it, viz., temp. Charles II., 
as dating from the Restoration of 1660. 

W. I. R. V. 

DOROTHY CECIL (9 th S. viii. 362, 386, 490, 529). 
When I made my inquiry as to the church in 
which the curious epitaph appears I assumed 
that it was in Wimbledon Church, but I 
wished for confirmation. I must refer H. to 
Dal ton's ' Life of Sir Edward Cecil, Viscount 
Wimbledon,' vol. ii. p. 363, as authority for 
stating that Dorothy Cecil died unmarried 
in France, and the quotation there from her 
will induced me to ask where she was buried. 
I do not gather from the pedigree of the Earl 
of Ranfurly in Burke's 'Peerage' that any 
member of the family could have a right to 
quarter the arms of Cecil. Jos. PHILLIPS. 

ANTHONY FORTESCUE (9 th S. vii. 327, 435 ; 
viii. 73, 449). Further search enables me 
to answer both the questions asked by MR. 
EVERITT at the last reference, at the end of 
his valuable notes upon the relations between 
the families of Pole and Fortescue. 

1. Proof that Anthony Fortescue, the rector 
of Symondsbury, held that living after Octo- 
ber, 1562, when Anthony Fortescue, the con- 
spirator, was sent to the Tower, is furnished 
by the following entry, dated 3 May, 5 Eliz. 
(1563), in the 'Composition Books' at the 
Record Office : 

' ' Dorset, Sy mondisborough. Antonius Fortescue, 
juris civilis bacchalarius, composuit pro primitiis 
rectprise prsedictse. Extenditur ad xxxvi/i. 3-s. 4d. 
Decima inde Ixxiis. 4cZ. Et remanet clare xxxii^'. 11s. 
(1 Novem. 1563, 1 Maij 1564, 1 Novem. 1564, 
lMaij 1565.) 

" Obligantur Johannes Fortescue, magister magnse 

arderobae dominse reginae, armiger, Nicolaus Payne 
e Wallingforde in com. Buck, [sic], generosus, et 
Adam Wormall de parochise Sti Christopher! apud 
le Stocks, London." 

According to the index to these 'Composi- 
tion Books,' the next entry therein concern- 
ing the rectory of Symondsbury is that which 
is dated 5 Nov., 14 Eliz. (1572), when William 
Hemmerford, " clericus," became rector. Hem- 
merford is not in the list of the rectors of 
Symondsbury given in Hutchius's 'Dorset.' 
Some particulars about him appear in Foster's 
'Alumni Oxon., 1500-1714,' p. 692, No. 7. His 
successor, Edmund Hund, who compounded 
16 Feb., 26 Eliz. (1583/4), is mentioned by 

The style of B.C.L. seems sufficient proof 
that Anthony Fortescue, the rector, was the 
Wykehamist, younger brother of (Sir) John 
Fortescue, Keeper of the Great Wardrobe 
and afterwards Chancellor of the Exchequer 
('D.N.B.,' xx. 45). The records of New 
College, Oxford, show that this Anthony 


NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. is, 1902. 

Fortescue was admitted there as a scholar 
on 9 Nov., 1552, and as a full Fellow two 
years later, and that on 11 May, 1564, Ed- 
ward Capell was admitted scholar in Fortes- 
cue's place, on account of his absenting him- 
self "ultra tempus in statutis limitatum." 
It seems reasonable to infer that his absence 
was caused by his attention to his duties as 
parish priest. The theory that he was iden- 
tical with Anthony Fortescue (the husband 
of Katherine Pole) who was convicted of 
treason in February, 1562/3, must be rejected 
as untenable. By the statutes of the college 
(rubric 38) no married man could hold a 
fellowship ; and this is only one out of several 
fatal objections to the theory. It has been 
already pointed out (at the first reference) 
that the conspirator's marriage with Kathe- 
rine Pole probably took place in 1544. 

2. The style "Sir Anthony Fortescue," 
when applied to the conspirator, indicates 
neither a knight nor a cleric, but a blunder. 
In the special commissions, dated 18 and 
22 Feb., 5 Eliz. (1562/3), for the trial of this 
conspirator and his companions, he is de- 
scribed as "Anthonius Fortescue, nuper de 
Lambehethe, in com. Surr., generosus," and 
it is incredible that he received the honour 
of knighthood after his conviction. The 
proceedings relating to his trial are epito- 
mized in the ' Fourth Pieport of the Deputy 
Keeper of Public Records,' App. II, p. 263, 
and the original documents are at the Record 
Office, in Baga de Secretis, pouch xl. 

In making the conspirator a knight, as 
also in making him brother of Sir John 
Fortescue, Chancellor of the Exchequer 
Lord Clermont merely followed * Biographia 
Britannica,' vol. iii. (1750) p. 2002, where it is 
stated that " the second great misfortune " of 
Sir John's family was " the conviction of his 
brother Sir Anthony Fortescue, Knt., for 
high treason." For this statement 'Bio- 
graphia' cites Camden's 'Annals,' p. 89 ; but 
Camden neither styles the conspirator a 
knight nor suggests that he was related to 
bir John Fortescue. 'Biographia' makes a 
further blunder (p. 2003, in notis\ which 
Lord Clermont detected (p. 12), by identify- 
ing bir Johns younger brother also with the 
Anthony Fortescue who, on the death of Sir 
Usburn Ichmgham, was appointed to the 
otticium marescalli armatus exercitus sol- 
darium et aliorum belligerorum nostrorum in 
re n Hibermse." This appointment, under 
which the new marshal was to have 4s. a day 
for his own pay and Qd. sterling for each of 
his thirty-two "equites," was made by letters 
patent dated 23 Dec., 38 Henry VIII. (1546) 
in the patent the marshal is described simply 

as "armiger"; but in the 'Visitations of 
Worcestershire, 1569,' and the 'Visitations of 
Surrey, 1530, 1572, and 1623 ' (Harl. Soc. Publ., 
xxvii. 56, xliii. 14), he is called " Sir Anthony." 
It is possible, therefore, that he became a 
knight, and that his knighthood has some- 
times been transferred by mistake to the 

In searching for themarshal's patent I found 
another, dated 21 Oct., 38 Henry VIII. (1546), 
whereby " our welbeloved servant Anthony 
Fortescue, one of the gentylmen ushers of 
our chamber," was licensed to sell and export 
200 dickers of tanned leather hides or their 
value in calf-skin. For his "offences and 
demeryts " this gentlemanly leather-seller 
was a prisoner in the Tower on 29 March, 
1547, when, notwithstanding his imprison- 
ment, his licence was continued for the 
benefit of his assignees and of the "poore 
jentyl woman" his wife. See 'Acts of Privy 
Council,' N.S., ii. 462. On the question 
whether or not he was the future conspirator 
it would be unwise to hazard any guess. 

H. C. 

"ODOUR OF SANCTITY" (9 th S. viii. 483). 
This phrase refers to a belief which has pre- 
vailed that the dead bodies of persons who 
were remarkable for the holiness of their lives 
and saintly deaths have emitted a miraculous 
odour of surpassing sweetness whether im- 
mediately after death or on long-subsequent 
uncovering of their remains. The phrase, 
in English as in other languages, must be 
traceable to a remote period. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

In an announcement in Faulkner's Dublin 
Journal of the death on 1 March, 1744/5, of 
the Hon. Rose Mapas, widow of Christopher 
Mapas, of Rochestown, and second daughter 
of William, third Viscount Fitzwilliam, of 
Merrion, it is stated that 

"she was endowed with amiable qualities, being 
an extraordinary wife, mother and family woman, 
most pious, truly charitable, and departed this 
life in the Odour of Sanctity." 


ST. KILDA (9 th S. viii. 324, 487). Here is 
another theory as to the origin of this name. 
There is, or was, in the island a spring of 
water called Kilder. Now as the name Kilda 
is said^ to be given to some springs of cold 
water in Iceland, it is not impossible, accord- 
ing to a writer in the ' Edinburgh Encyclo- 
paedia' (1830), that the appellation St. 
Kilda may have originated from the 
abundance of springs in the island. The 
same writer mentions that the religious 

9- s. ix. JAN. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


woman named Kilda, who may perhaps 
have reached this lonely rock and left her 
name attached to it, is mentioned by Bede 
in his ' Ecclesiastical History ' and also by 
Camden ; but he does not say what editions 
he used, and so I have not been able to verify 
his references. T. P. ARMSTRONG. 

186, 296, 437). The comparison of a woman 
in movement with a full- rigged vessel 

But who is this ? what thing of sea or land ? 

Female of sex it seems, &c., 

may be traced back to Aristophanes. In 
* The Birds,' 1. 1192, when Peisthetairos sees 
Iris coming through the air, he asks whether 
this is a vessel or a petasus. 

'QvofJLa 8e (rot ri lore TrAoiov, 17 Kvvrj 
I am indebted for this note to the edition 
put forth by Prof. Felton of Harvard (the 
triend of Charles Dickens) in 1849. He illus- 
trates the Greek line by the passage from 

Portland, Oregon. 

(9 th S. viii. 343). 'The English Crusaders,' by 
James C. Dansey, gives an account of all the 
English knights who engaged in Crusades 
also their arms. In the seventh (?) Crusade, 
under Prince Edward, Dansey states that the 
under-mentioned persons were his followers : 
Walter de Molesworth, Hugh Kynnardsleye, 
Herbitus Chaworth, Pain Chaworth, Patric 
Chaworth, John St. Lo, Ralph Gorges, Otho 
de Grandeson, William de Latimer, Roger 
Leiburne (?), Sir John Hautville, William de 
Rythie, Brian Fitzalan, Lord of Bedale, John 
de Gay ton (chamber valet to Prince Edward), 
William de Fienes (?). MR. ROWE might find 
some information in Bentley's 'Excerpta, 
Lond., 1831. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

(9 th S. viii. 464). The passage in the book 
'De Tribus Impostoribus' for which MR. 
CROOKE inquires is, no doubt, the following : 

" Et Sectarii istorum, ut et Vedae et Brachman- 
norum ante MCOC retro secula obstant collectanea, 
ut de Sinensibus nil dicam. Tu, qui in angulo Europse 
hie delitescis, ista negligis, negas ; quam bene videas 
ipse. Eadem facilitate enim isti tua negant. Et 
quid non miraculorum superesset ad convincendos 
orbis incolas, si mundum ex Scorpionis pvo conditum 
et progenitum terramque Tauri capiti impositam, el 
rerum prima fundanientis ex prioribus III Vedse 
libris constarent, nisi invidus aliquis Deorum films 
hfiec III prima volumina furatus esset ! " 

I think this is the only specific reference to 
the Vedas, though the Brahmins are namec 
elsewhere. The authorship of the tract ' De 
Tribus Impostoribus ' has excited much 

curiosity and controversy, and its biblio- 
graphy is intricate. Of the original edition, 
iated MDIIC, only some three copies are 
tnown, but there are modern reprints : that 
of Philomneste Junior (i.e., Gustave Brunet), 
printed at Brussels in 1867, is based on the 
>py in the French Bibliotheque Nationale, 
hilst that of Emil Weller, printed at Heil- 
bronn in 1876 (and earlier in 1846), is from 
the exemplar in the Koniglichen Bibliothek 
at Dresden. There are also others. 


MR. CROOKE will find a full bibliographical 
account of the book, or supposed book, ' De 
Tribus Impostoribus ' in the work ' Le Traite* 
des Trois Imposteurs, et precede d'une notice 
philologique et bibliographique par Philom- 
neste Junior' (i.e., Brunet), Paris and Brus- 
sels, 1867. A. COLLINGWOOD LEE. 

Waltham Abbey. 

"YCLEPING"THE CHURCH (9 th S. viii. 420, 
486). The spelling of this word by the news- 
paper writer quoted in the first reference is 
mere priggishness ; he deviates into right 
when he says "or, as it is now put, 'clip- 
ping' the parish church." "Clippan," to 
clasp or embrace, is, of course, a real old 
English word, and is still the word most in 
use here in the West Country. (See ' West 
Somerset Word-Book,' E.D.S.) 

The custom of "clipping the tower "was 
practised within living memory in the 
parishes of Wellington and Langford Bud- 
ville, but there is much uncertainty as to 
the dates on which it was observed. This is 
to be accounted for by the confusion of tradi- 
tion when the purpose of a custom became 
forgotten, and when, from some cause or 
other, the original dedication of the church 
became changed : a change that has happened 
at both the above parishes Wellington, 
originally and down to 1500 St. Mary the 
Virgin, is now St. John Baptist; while at 
Langford St. James has become St. Peter. 

Functions of forgotten origin in connexion 
with churches usually came to be associated 
with the patron saint, and it should be noted 
that the traditional name of this one is not 
"clipping the church," but "clipping the 
tower "; and thus I submit the true meaning 
is preserved. 

So far as I can ascertain, Hone's account 
is correct. Whether at Easter or at Lady 
Day (as we say), it was a spring per- 
formance, and both sexes took part in it, the 
essential point being the clipping, or sur- 
rounding the tower with joined hands. 
Thence the tower represented the same idea 


NOTES' AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. is, 1902. 

as the maypole, whatever that may have 
been a question into which we need not now 
inquire. The whole custom seems to be a 
survival of the ancient worship of the spirit 
of vegetation, whose cult was practised at 
various seasons of the year, but chiefly in 
the spring, when she had to be awakened and 
propitiated to put forth renewed vigour. 

"Clipping the tower" is, then, a vestige of 
old nature worship, and had nothing what- 
ever to do originally with either churches or 
saints. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

Here we undoubtedly have the old English 
word to "clip," meaning to embrace, to 
encircle with the arms. " Clipping and kiss- 
ing " was a phrase often employed to express 
the mutual embracing of a pair of lovers. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

["Clip" in this sense is Shakespearian.] 

443, 469). A very suitable Scottish motto for 
the door of any house is " Better rue sit than 
rue flit" ; and if the arms of a country may 
be said to stand for the experiences of the 
royal bearers thereof, then the motto loses 
none of its aptness in that relation. 


There is a very interesting list of house 
mottoes, with their origins and significations, 
by William Norman Brown, F.R.H.S.. in 
Country Life, 8 April, 1899. Among them 
are several Scotch. 


En reply I suggest the words " Enter ; you 
have been long expected" (Beacorisfield's 
4 Coningsby ') LL. LLOYD. 

484). The first of this family evidently was 
Symon Dennura, who on 16 June, 1506, was 
retoured heir to his grandfather, John 
Liddaill, in the lands of Westschull, in the 
barony of Cam with (in shire of Lanark). 


FIRST CHRISTMAS CARD (9 th S. viii. 504). 
In the absence of a dated Christmas card 
prior to 1845, I believe the evidence is con- 
clusive that "Cuthbert Bede " the Rev 
Edward Bradley-was the designer of the 
nrst printed Christmas card. Mr. Bradley 
entered Durham University in 1845, and at 
the end of his first year sent designs of a 
picture card to Mr. Lambert, belonging to 
the well-known firm of printers and pub- 
lishers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to be printed 
tor private circulation at Christmas and 

New Year among his friends. During the 
following year Messrs. Lambert printed 
several of his designs for him : and for 
three or four years the private Christmas 
design was printed. The printers conceived 
the idea of putting such picture cards into 
the market, and in 1847-8 the first Christmas 
cards were offered for sale by Messrs. Lambert 
to the trade of Newcastle and district. These 
facts were given me by Mr. Thomas Smith, 
who in 1845 was foreman printer for Lam- 
bert, and afterwards began business for him- 
self in 1847, when he did several engravings 
for Mr. Bradley. The date of the first sale of 
Christmas cards by stationers was confirmed 
on the authority of Messrs. Thomas & George 
Allan, the well-known stationers of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, who began business about 
that time, and at the death of the Rev. Mr. 
Bradley ''Cuthbert Bede" informed me in 
the presence of Mr. Smith, then the oldest 
printer in the north of England, that there 
was no doubt about Messrs. Lambert's 
Christmas cards being the first on sale in 
England, and "Cuthbert Bede" being "the 
first to design a picture card for Christmas 
greetings. JOHN ROBINSON. 

Delaval House, Sunderland. 

STONE PULPIT (9 tL S. viii. 325, 394, 489). 
There is an excellent example of a stone 
pulpit, partly sunk in the wall, in the 
old refectory of the abbey at Beaulieu, 
Hants, a structure now used as the parish 
church. Here Margaret of Anjou took sanc- 
tuary after the battle of Barnet, and Perkin 
War beck in the reign of Henry VII. In the 
ruined abbey of Rievaulx, Yorkshire, may be 
seen the marks of the spot where the stone 
pulpit stood from which the monk read 
during meals. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

LUK (9 th S. viii. 338, 481 ; ix. 35). I am 
engaged in an investigation which closely 
involves the history of Lucchese merchants 
in England, and shall be very glad to receive 
references to any books, other than Rymer 
and Record Office Calendars, which your 
readers may kindly send. Those in unofficial 
documents, such as the work cited by MR. 
WEARE, will be especially valuable. 


C.C.C., Oxford. 

" ULLIG " = CHRISTMAS IN MANX (9 th S. viii. 
504). The real Manx for Christmas is 
;' Nolick." See Bishop Phillips's Prayer-Book 
(1610) in Manx Society's Publications, 
vol. xxxii. pp. 17, 51, 55. But it is now often 

9*8. IX. JAN. 18, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


written Laa yn Ullick, the day of Christmas, 
the n of yn having attracted and absorbed 
the N of "" Nolick," very much in the same 
way as "anadder" has become "an adder " 
(see ' H.E.D.'). It will thus be seen that 
the word can certainly be identified with the 
Gaelic, Irish, and Welsh forms, and with the 
Latin origin, that are suggested at the above 
reference (see Manx Society's vol. xxxiii. 
p. 139). ERNEST B. SAVAGE, M.A., F.S.A. 
St. Thomas's, Douglas. 

There can, I think, be little doubt that 
Ullig is the phonetic representation of the 
Gaelic Nollaig. The question is, how came the 
Nto be lost? I would suggest the following 
explanation. When the article y (yn) is 
prefixed (Gaelic an), we get y Nullig= 
the Nativity, and in process of time the 
initial N got transferred, making yn Ullig ; 
just as in English the terms a nadder, a 
napron, with some others, became an adder, 
an apron, &c., by transference of the n to the 
article. C. S. JERRAM. 


383). The sale of ' The Exquisites ' mentioned 
at the above reference was lot 922 in Messrs. 
Sotheby's sale of December 17-20, 1898. See 
* Book-Prices Current,' 1899, No. 2,209. 


THE LOWNDES MOTTO (9 th S. ix. 10). The 
coat of arms exemplified and confirmed in 
the grant of augmentation of arms made to 
William Lowndes, Esq., in 1704, is at the 
present time used by several of the families 
representing the three original lines of 
descent, viz., of Winslow, of Astwood, and of 
Chesham, together with the motto "Ways 
and Means," which was probably adopted by 
Mr. Lowndes in relation to his office of 
Chairman of the Court of Ways and Means. 
I possess a copy of the grant and also a copy 
of the essay referred to. 



THE YOUTHFUL YEAR (9 th S. viii. 484). I 
think the third line should begin " E gia le 
notti." When I was travelling in Italy, in 
1883, I bought in Milan a copy of a very 
small edition of 'La Divina Commedia,' 
published by Sonzogno in that year, at the 
very small price of "una lira." The notes, 
collected by Camerini, are copious and valu- 
able, and I have found the _ handy little 
volume a pleasant and instructive companion 
during many journeys. The note to the 
passage quoted at the above reference is, 
" Giomnetto, di fresco incommciato comin- 

ciando 1' anno dal primo di gennaio, secondo 
lo stile romano." And this note is based on 
Brunone Bianchi's work on Dante, Florence, 
1863. W. S. 

Can this be the explanation of Dante's 
speaking of the sun being in Aquarius when 
the year was young? The year of Julius 
Caesar's calendar, 45 B.C., began with January. 
This would be the civilian's reckoning. The 
Church year began with Advent, a little 
before the winter solstice. Dante was a son 
of the Church and a disciple of Virgil. Was 
he not likely to think of the year as these 
authorities thought of it 1 T. WILSON. 


Dante was perhaps referring to the natural 
new year as perceptible in the sprouting of 
the new vegetation, just commencing by the 
end of January or the beginning of February. 
Or he may have had in mind the ecclesias- 
tical year, which commences at vespers of 
Saturday before the first Sunday in Advent, 
i.e., about the beginning of December. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 
"THERE IS A DAY IN SPRING" (9 th S. viii. 

423, 511). From Miss Smedley's 'Story of 
Queen Isabel.' In 1887 the editor of the 
Fortnightly Review (Mr. Frank Harris) in- 
vited various writers to "name the one passage 
in all poetry which seems the finest " to them. 
The Dean of St. Paul's (Dr. Church) gave the 
ten lines beginning as above as one of the 
quotations "recurring oftenest to his mind 
at the present time." 

H. S. MUIR, Surgeon-General. 

THE COMING CORONATION (9 th S. viii. 485). 
Fortunately it does not require a great 
deal of erudition to be able to answer the 
query of the REV. FATHER ANGUS, but only 
access to a library and some knowledge as to 
where to look the subject up. Lingard says 
in his * History of England ': 

" On the feast of St. George, the king [James II.] 
and queen were crowned by the hands of Arch- 
bishop Bancroft in Westminster Abbey, after the 
usual form, but with the omission of the Communion 
service and a few minor ceremonies, which were 
confessedly of modern origin and had been intro- 
duced since the Reformation." 


PRESIDENT ADAMS (9 th S. viii. 485). John 
Quincy Adams, sixth President of the United 
States of America, was probably of English 
"extraction," but was born 11 July, 1767, in 
that part of Braintree, Mass., which was sub- 
sequently incorporated into a town by the 
name of Quincy. He was son of John 
Adams, and died in the Capitol at Washington 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. is, 1902. 

23 February, 1848. I do not deem it necessary 
to burden the columns of *N. & Q.' with ^fur- 
ther particulars, but would refer A. L. W. r. 
to a pamphlet entitled ' Token of a Nation's 
Sorrow. Addresses in the Congress of the 
United States, and Funeral Solemnities on 
the Death of John Quincy Adams,' second 
edition, Washington, 1848, 8vo, which con- 
tains much information respecting this 
worthy, as well as an engraved portrait of 
him. W. I. R. V. 

There is a pretty full notice of him in ' The 
Penny Cyclopaedia,' which says that he was 
" of a family which had come from England 
at the first settlement of the colony." There 
are lives of him by G. Gibbs, 1848, and C. F. 
Adams, 1851. C. S. WARD. 

"IN PETTO" (9 th S. viii. 413). The error to 
which attention is drawn by H. in construct- 
ing Italian phrases from corresponding French 
ones had once an amusing illustration in my 
experience. When in Italy my sister and I 
were invited to dine at her " pensione " with 
a friend who constantly boasted that, knowing 
French well, she could get on anywhere in 
Italy by converting literally the French 
phrases into Italian. On the day appointed 
my sister was unwell and unable to go with 
me ; and when the " padrone," who had been 
told to expect two extra, saw only one sit 
down, he asked my friend why the other lady 
had not come. " Sua sorella non seporta bene" 
replied my friend, which she thought the equi- 
valent of ne seporte bien. " Oh, never mind !" 
said the kindly padrone, looking compas- 
sionately at me, " let her come, let her come," 
when I, laughing, had to explain to my friend 
that she had told the padrone that my sister 
did not behave herself well enough at table 
to be invited out. K. M. ROBERTS. 



A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 

Edited by Dr. James A. H. Murray. Vol. VI. 

Lap Leisurely. By Henry Bradley. (Oxford, 

Clarendon Press.) 

SOME points of extreme interest are illustrated in 
the last instalment a double section of the great 
Dictionary. Modern editors of Shakespeare, so far 
as we know without exception it is certainly the 
case in all the editions we have consulted, includ- 
ing the ' Cambridge Shakespeare 'have in ' King 
Henry VIII.' altered into legatine the "legative" 
of the First Folio. Dr. Schmidt even, in his 
admirable 'Shakespeare Lexicon,' falls into the 
same error. The Dictionary shows, however, that 
legative was in use from 1537 to 1886. This furnishes 
a further proof how dangerous it is to tamper with 

Shakespeare, and how frequently increasing know- 
ledge vindicates his true text from the conjectures of 
the commentator and the phrase-mender. Lastery, 
which, on the strength of Spenser, appears in most 
dictionaries, is shown to be a ghost-word. The 
passage in which it appears 

Polisht ivory 

Which cunning Craftesmans hand hath overlaid 
With faire Vermilion or pure lastery 
occurs in 'The Faerie Queene,' b9ok ii. canto ix. 
stanza 41. We quote from the edition of 1609. The 
word should, however, be castory, a colour extracted 
from castoreum. It is a misprint which was duly 
corrected in the errata to the first edition. Under 
lavender, the current hypothesis that lavendula, in 
mediaeval Latin, is a corrupt form of lavandula, and is 
connected with lavanda, washing, is not favoured, 
the sense development from washing to a non- 
essential adjunct thereto not seeming plausible. 
The resemblance of lavendula to calendula, mari- 

fjld, is obvious. M. Paul Meyer, the eminent 
rench scholar, suggests livindma for "lividula," 
" livid." Prof. Skeat derives lawn, tine lineu, from 
Laon, in France, where there was a manufactory of 
linen. Lawn& glade in its original form is laund. 
Larder is defined as " a room or closet in which meat 
(? originally bacon) and other provisions are stored." 
Should Corporal Gregory Brewster's constant inter- 
jection in Dr. Conan Doyle's 'A St9ry of Waterloo,' 
" Lardy ! Lardy ! " find a place beside lardy dardy ? 
Larrikin, which is chiefly Australian, is said to be 
of uncertain origin, being first known in Melbourne 
shortly before 1870. Popular suggestions concerning 
its use are not accepted. Lasher the body of water 
that lashes or rushes over a barrier or weir, is said 
to be chiefly local (on the Thames). A well-known 
name for such a spot on the Aire at Bingley, Yorks, 
is "the lasher." A lateen sail which is, of course, 
a Latin sail is not heard of until early in the 
eighteenth century. Under lather we find a 
quaint quotation from Bailey's ' Erasmus's Col- 
loquies ': "Such as by the Lather of Tears, and 
Soap of Repentance have washed away their Pol- 
lutions." The use of lather as a verb=to thrash, is, 
we suppose, dialectal. It used to be familiar. 
That pretty word lattice pretty, at least, in its 
suggestion is derived from "lath." Lay occupies 
the most space of any word in the section. To 
our surprise, since we thought it a modern word, 
to laze^to enjoy oneself lazily, dates back to the 
sixteenth century, being used by Robert Greene. 
That abominable word leaderette first intrudes into 
the language in 1880. "When Little's leadless 
pistol met his eye," from ' English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers,' is naturally the first quotation under 
leadless. In this, as in other parts of the ' Dic- 
tionary,' the supremacy over all rivals is maintained, 
and the work remains a source of undying informa- 
tion and delight. 

The Last Words (Real and Traditional) of Dis- 
tinguished Men and Women. Collected from 
Various Sources by Frederic Rowland Marvin. 
(New York, Fleming H. Revell Company.) 
WITH the limitations conveyed in its title, this 
work is not quite what it professes to be. This is 
of little consequence, since it is an edifying and an 
entertaining work of a kind of which the Anglo- 
Saxon race does not soon tire, and may be read 
with the certainty of interest and the possibility of 
advantage. ' Deathbed Utterances,' though inaccu- 

9*8. IX. JAN. 18,1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


rate so far as those are concerned who died in 
action or on the scaffold, would more clearly indi- 
cate the character of the work. It would be 
interesting to trace, were such a thing possible, 
how many so-called last words are exact. That 
the last word of Charles I. was " Remember ! " may 
probably be accepted. The " Don't let poor Nelly 
starve," though it was possibly said by Charles II., 
appears apocryphal. ' ' I beg pardon, 1 have been an 
unconscionable time dying, is just as defensible ; 
and "Give Monsieur Dairolles a chair " have been 
advanced as the very last words of all. The first 
utterance given is that of Dr. Adams, the author of 
4 Roman Antiquities': "It is growing dark, boys. 
You may go." This is a quite natural sentence of 
a dying schoolmaster, and the words have been put 
in the mouth of Dr. Arnold. " Animula, yagula, 
blandula," &c., will ever be associated with the 
Emperor Adrian, but cannot easily have been his 
last words. Two utterances are said to be assigned 
to Rabelais : " Let down the curtain, the farce is 
over," and " I am going to the great perhaps" (" Je 
vais chercher un grand peut-etre"). He is also said 
to have wrapped himself in a domino and said, 
"Beati sunt qui moriuntur in Domino." A vast 
majority of the sayings are naturally pious. Some 
of the most striking rest on the authority of Foxe 
of the 'Acts and Monuments.' If Leigh Hunt's 
last words were " Deep dream of peace," the self- 
quotation is at least pardonable. Gainsborough's 
'* We are all going to heaven, and Vandyke is of 
the company," is one of the most satisfactory. 
What is the authority for Gambetta's gloomy fore- 
boding, " I am lost, and there is no use to deny it " ? 
and that of George IV. 's almost cheery utterance, 
" Wally [Sir Walthen Waller, his page"), what is 
this ? It is death, my boy ; they have deceived 
me " ? Many utterances of American soldiers are 
new to us. Those who supply columns of edifying 
anecdotes to the newspapers will find the book a 
treasure-house. An admirably apt passage from 
Montaigne constitutes a capital preface. 

The History of the Family of Sherborn. By Charles 

Da vies Sherborn. (Mitchell & Hughes.) 
THOUGH it contributes but two names to the 
'Dictionary of National Biography,' the family 
of Sherborne or Sherburne of Stonyhurst and else- 
where stands fairly conspicuous in English annals. 
Strong Roman Catholics and devoted Loyalists, 
its members swell the lists of recusants and are 
in constant hot water during the period of Common- 
wealth rule and under the early Hanoverian kings. 
Their family history has been traced by Mr. Charles 
Davies Sherborn, the son of the eminent painter- 
etcher C. W. Sherborn, himself a descendant, in a 
book which is in many respects a model of the class 
of work. Records concerning the family have 
appeared in Whitaker's ' Whalley ' and his 
' Craven,' in Gerard's ' History of Stonyhurst 
College/ in various local histories, the Gentleman's 
Magazine, and other books and periodicals. The 
earliest member of the Lancashire - Yorkshire 
family is Robert de Sherborn, according to the 
Stow MS. grandson of Geoffrey I'Arbalastier, 
whose name appears in the Feet of Fines in a 
fine made at Westminster 25 June, 1200. With 
Sir Nicholas Sherborn, died 16 December, 1717, the 
direct line of the Sherborns came to an end. 
Branches of the family settled in various places, 
Wolfhouse, Heysham, Ribbleton, Little Mitton, 
Dighton, Dutton, Odiham, and elsewhere, and some 

of the members are naturally located in the United 
States. The name has been spelt two score 
different ways, including such forms as Schyre- 
Dourne, Churborne, and Cherbron. There is also 
a family of Shernborn of Shernborn. near Hun- 
stanton, in Norfolk, which is said to be traceable 
x> the Conquest. Such researches as Mr. Sherborn 
las made fail to trace any connexion between the 
two. As to the origin of the name Sherborn, the 
author quotes two letters from Prof. Skeat, for 
jhe conclusions in which the reader must turn to 
:he book. Concerning Robert de Sherborne or Sher- 
aurn, Bishop of Chichester, who died in 1536 at the 
reputed age of ninety-six, no successful attempt 
to trace the descent has been made. The ' D.N.B.' 
ives no particulars of birth, and all that Mr. Sher- 
born has discovered about him is that he used 
bhe Sherborn-Bailey arms. Sir Edward Sherburne 
or Sherborn, 1618-1702, the other man mentioned 
in the ' D.N.B.,' is, from the literary standpoint, the 
most eminent of his race. He descended from 
bhe Stonyhurst stock, but is classed under Sher- 
born of London, Essex, and Southants. He suc- 
seeded his father as Clerk of the Ordnance, joined 
the king's standard at Nottingham, was at 
Edgehill and Oxford, and was deprived of his 
place by the House of Lords. His library one 
of the best of the day was seized, and he was 
for a time dependent upon the charity of Thomas 
Stanley, the poet, his kinsman, to whom he 
dedicated his * Salmacis, Lyrian, and Sylvia, 
Lydia, The Rape of Helen,' &c. Shirley, the 
dramatist, was also among his friends. In the 
case of the Sherborns of Stonyhurst a connected 
history is supplied. Sir Richard Sherborn, 1526- 
1594, who held the Stonyhurst and adjacent pro- 
perties for fifty-seven years, was conspicuous in 
Lancashire history, and seerns to have been a high- 
handed and turbulent gentleman with a keen eye 
to the main chance. Retaining the goodwill of 
four successive monarchs, Henry VIII., Edward VI. , 
Mary, and Elizabeth, he must have been a time- 
server, but stuck to his allegiance to the Church of 
Rome. In the ' Calendar of State Papers : Domestic 
Series, 1591,' we are told that he and his family are 
recusants, and do not go to church, or, if they do, 
stop their ears with wool lest they should hear. 
Other enormities are charged against him, and he 
is believed to be a Jesuit. His Roman Catholicism 
was, however, winked at, and he was allowed to 
have a chapel with priest. Among the charges 
against him were that he laid too High taxes for 
soldiers on the inhabitants of Lancashire, that he 
threatened to hang constables by martial law if 
they did not collect taxes, that he was guilty of 
incest and adultery, and that, though worth more 
than 1,000/. a year, he never lent money to Queen 
Elizabeth. Concerning a Charles Sherborn, of 
Bedfont, an engraver of the middle of the 
eighteenth century, information will be found in 
8 th S. iv. 358. All one can do is to dip into the 
book and furnish matter whioh is of family and not 
seldom of historic interest. Mary Winifreda Sher- 
born, born 22 November, 1692, married Thomas, 
eighth Duke of Norfolk. Other distinguished 
marriages are reported. A special feature in an 
excellent book is an index to all the Sherborns 
who have been traced. A frontispiece by Mr. 
Charles W. Sherborn gives from a roll of arms, 
circa 1514, the armorial bearings of Thomas Sher- 
born and those of four other members of the family, 
including the Bishop of Chichester. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. is, im 

Kino Horn: a Middle- English Romance. Edited 
from the Manuscripts by Joseph Hall, M.A. 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

THOUGH presumably the earliest of the English, 'King Horn' is an excellent specimen qt 
the purely narrative kind. The work has been fami- 
liar to scholars from the edition of the Mb. Ug. 4, 
<>? 2, in the Cambridge University Library, edited, 
1866 by Mr. J. Rawson Lumley, with fragments of 
other poems, for the Early English Text Society. 
Under the care of Mr. Joseph Hall, head master of 
the Hulme Grammar School, Manchester, the three 
MSS. known to exist have been printed opposite 
each other, two on one page and the other facing. 
With them are given an introduction, essays 
on grammar and metre, an account of the story, 
notes, glossary, and index of names, together with, 
in an appendix, the romance of ' Horn Child. Not 
easy is it to exaggerate the care or the labour 
involved in the production of the book, the chief 
interest of which is naturally philological. It 
speaks well for our improvement in scholarship 
that works of this class, long left to the Germans, 
are now undertaken by Englishmen, and executed 
at our great university presses. 

The Cathedral Church of Manchester. By the Rev. 

Thomas Perkins, M.A. (Bell & Sons.) 
IF the latest addition to Bell's admirable "Cathe- 
dral Series" is less interesting than some of the 
previous volumes, it is because the edifice with 
which it deals is also less interesting. In spite of 
the additions that have been made to it in recent 
days, it is small in comparison with the great cathe- 
drals, and even with some abbey churches. Neither 
the style of the architecture nor the historical 
associations can be regarded as particularly impres- 
sive. It has neither transept nor central tower, 
no cloister walls with surrounding walks, and its 
environment is poor and unpleasing. So dark, 
moreover, is the interior that in the height of 
summer it cannot be seen without the aid of 
artificial light, and in winter the gas is practically 
always burning. Much work (some of it beautiful) 
is there that will repay a visit, especially in the 
screens. The ancient rood screen is, indeed, a fine 
piece of work. It is long since we saw the church ; 
our recollections of it, even when freshened up by 
the well-executed photographs, are but dim, and 
we have no immediate purpose of revisiting it. In 
the same volume Mr. Perkins includes a short 
history and description of the collegiate building 
known as Chetham's Hospital. 

contribution from his pen. Among many of general 
, interest was one on ' Cervantes and Burns (9 th S. 
! iv. 144), in which he called attention to one of the 
I tales in the ' Exemplary Novels ' of Cervantes, ' The 
| Dialogue between Two Dogs,' and its resemblance 

to ' The Twa Dogs ' of Burns. 

A CORRESPONDENT reminds us that we passed 
without comment the number for 2001 of the 
! Scarborough Post, a supplement to the first 
i number of the new century, and declares that the 
paper was not only a jeu d'esprit, but a carefully 
thought-out forecast, which in a century (a long 
time to wait) will be profoundly interesting. The 
paper was suggested by Sir George Sitwell, who is 
believed to be responsible for many of the articles. 
It was sprung without notice upon the public, and 
arrested much attention. We admit our neglect ; 
but the space we can devote to reviews is so small, 
and the claims upon it are so considerable, we are 
driven to selection, and much matter of interest is 
crowded out. We have not kept the brochure, and 
can only give publicity to what is said about it. 

' NOTES AND QUERIES ' FOR SALE (9 th S. vii. 387, 
520 ; viii. 76). At the present date the thirty- 
one half-yearly volumes issued between July, 1853, 
and December, 1868, viz., I 8t S. viii. to 4 th S. ii., are 
offered for 21. 2*. at Bright's Stores, 22 and 23, 
Town Hall Avenue, Bournemouth. 


AN old and valued contributor, Mr. A. G. Reid, 
of Auchterarder, died on 12 December last, after a 
short illness. He was seventy-seven years of age, 
and one of the oldest and best-known members of 
the legal profession in Perthshire. He was educated 
at Edinburgh University, where he took some of 
the highest honours. He attained his jubilee as a 
procurator in June, 1897, when he was presented 
with an address expressing appreciation of his 
honourable career and of his eminence in literary 
and antiquarian pursuits. He recently published 
* The Annals of Auchterarder ' and ' Memorials of 
Strathearn.' He also edited ' The Diary of Andrew 
Hay of Craignethan, 1659-60,' with introduction 
and notes. This has just been issued by the Scottish 
History Society. For some years past scarcely a 
volume of ' N. & Q.' has appeared without some 

jlaiictt ia 

We must call special attention to the following 
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ON all communications must be written the name 
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WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

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entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

M. S. T. (" Of love which never knew its earthly 
close"). This is the opening line of Tennyson's 
' Love and Duty,' p. 92 of Macmillan's complete 
edition in one volume. 

R. M., Brussels ("Collection of Posters"). This 
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print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9*8. IX. JAN. 25, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : Citizen Baronets, 61 Junius " Barracked "= 
Hooted' The Last of the Dandies,' 63 Donibristle Miners 
"Endorsement " : " Dorso-ventrality ""Bar sinister" 
Madame de Sevigne, 64 " Rout " ' Chronicles of Car- 
lingford 'Farthing on Shorthand Nathaniel Booth, 65 
Marking of Memorable London Houses Ancient Ships 
Still Afloat, 66 Hour of Morning Service, 67. 

QUERIES : Greek Trimeter Iambics East India Badge 
'Life,' by Mrs. Barb auld ' The Gambler Detected 
Henry VIII. Sunflower Ornament on Crucifix, 67" A 
mad world, my masters " Date of Clock Lord Mayors' 
" Pageants "Kelly Clayton Family Oxford Diocesan 
Arms Gower Portraits of Female Fighters Gordon 
Riots " Stream of tendency," 68 Royal Tennis Court 
and Nell Gwyn Early Instructions for Sunday-Schools 
" Foot-cloth nag," &c. St. Anthony Sir Nicholas Bacon 
Sacral," 69. 

REPLIES :' Tern pest' Anagram Brandon, Kxecutioner, 
70 London Coffee-houses and Taverns "Parver alley" 
"Oh, life so short ! " Modest Epitaphs " Pen- 
name "" Alright "=A11 right Lady Mary Tudor, 72 
Peter Lyly Castor-Oil Plant-Zoar Chape', 73 Guinea 
Shelley's Cottage at Lynmouth " Halsh " " Knevel," 
74 Beaulieu Tennis London M.P.s " Sawe," 75 
Verses Wanted A. Bilson Burial Service over a Rail- 
Old Songs 'Cornhill' Illustrations Commission of 
Sewers, 76 -Irish in Pembrokeshire Song Wanted, 77. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Wood-Martin's ' Traces of the Elder 
Faiths of Ireland ' Sorrow's ' Isopel Berners ' Whittall's 
Frederick the Great on Kingcraft ' Arber's 'British 
Anthologies ' The ' Era ' Annual Upper Norwood 
Athenaeum 'Record' Lynn's 'Astronomy for the 

Notices to Correspondents. 



THE number of citizens who have attained 
to the dignity of bearing the "red hand of 
Ulster " is far from insignificant. Yet when 
we remember that this dignity was at its 
institution, or soon afterwards, conferred 

rn any one who was willing to pay down 
comparatively trifling sum of 1,095. the 
cost of supporting thirty foot soldiers in 
Ireland for three years it is remarkable that 
we do not find a single citizen availing him 
self of the opportunity. So far as the citizens 
of London are concerned the coveted title has 
always been conferred spontaneously by the 

It is not pretended that the following list 
is exhaustive of those who attained to this 
dignity through their connexion official or 
otherwise with the City. It will, however, 
probably be accepted as a liberal instalment 
towards the compilation of such a list. The 
names are arranged chronologically, and so 
far as possible the civic connexion, or the 
occasion for the bestowal of the honour, is 

1621, 19 July. Sir John Rivers, of Chafford, 
Kent. He was grandson of Sir John Rivers, 
Knight, who was Lord Mayor in 1573-4. 
This baronetcy became extinct 31 Oct., 1870. 

1621/2, 2 Feb. Sir Paul Gore, of Maghera- 
begg, co. Donegal, Baronet of Ireland. He 
was eighth son of Gerard Gore, Alderman of 
Bridge Out (1594-1607), and brother to Wil- 
liam Gore, who was Sheriff in 1615-16 and 
Alderman of Bridge Out 1615-24; also brother 
to Sir John Gore, Lord Mayor in 1624-5 ; 
Sheriff in 1615-16 ; and Alderman succes- 
sively of Aldersgate (1615-18), Castle Bay- 
nard (1618-21), and Walbrook (1621-36). This 
baronetcy still continues. 

1621/2, 16 Feb. Sir John Garrard, of Lamer, 
Herts, who had been knighted 26 Feb., 
1615/16. He was eldest son and heir apparent 
of Sir John Garrard, Knight (died 7 May, 
1625), who had been Lord Mayor in 1601-2 ; 
Sheriff 1592-3 ; and Alderman successively 
of Aldgate (1592-1606) and Candlewick (1606- 
1625). Baronetcy extinct in 1767. 

1623, 26 June. Sir Edward Barkham, of 
Southacre, Norfolk. Eldest son and heir 
apparent of Sir Edward Barkham, Knight 
(died 15 Jan., 1633/4), who had been Lord 
Mayor in 1621-2 ; Sheriff in 1611-12 ; and 
Alderman successively of Farringdon In 
(1611-21) and Cheap (1621-34). Baronetcy 
extinct in 1695. 

1629, 31 May. Sir William Acton, of Lon- 
don. He was Alderman of Aldersgate 1628- 
1643; Sheriff 1628-9, and was created a baronet 
whilst serving that office, being the first 
person to receive the honour in that position ; 
elected Lord Mayor in Sept., 1640, but dis- 
charged by the House of Commons in the 
following month for his adherence to 
Charles I. Baronetcy extinct at his death in 

1629, 28 Nov. Sir Robert Ducie, of London. 
Alderman successively of Farringdon Out 
(1620-5), Billingsgate (1625-7), and Bassishaw 
(1627-34) ; Sheriff 1620-1 ; Lord Mayor 1630-1. 
Was banker to Charles I., in whose cause he 
is said to have lost 80,000^. Baronetcy extinct 
in 1703. 

1641, 28 June. Sir Thomas Whitmore, of 
Apley, Salop. His father and grandfather 
were merchants of London, and his uncle, Sir 
George Whitmore, Knight, of Hackney, was 
Alderman successively of Farringdon In 
(1621-6) and Langbourn (1626-43) ; Sheriff in 
1621-2 ; and Lord Mayor 1631-2 ; being one 
of the Royalist Aldermen discharged and 
imprisoned in 1643. Baronetcy extinct in 

1641, 14 Dec. Sir Richard Gurney, of Lon- 
don. Alderman successively of Bishopsgate 



. ix. JAN. 25, 1902. 

(1634-7) and Dowgate (1637-42); Sheriff in 
1633-4; Lord Mayor in 1641, until discharged 
by the House of Commons 11 Aug., 1642. He 
was the first Lord Mayor to receive a 
baronetcy during his mayoralty, and was one 
of the Royalist Aldermen who were deprived, 
impeached, and imprisoned for loyalty to 
Charles I. His baronetcy failed with him 
in 1647. 

1660, 7 June. Sir John Langham, of Cottes- 
brooke, co. Northampton. Alderman succes- 
sively of Portsoken (1642-8) and Bishopsgate 
(1648), until discharged by the House of 
Commons in 1649 for refusing to proclaim 
the abolition of monarchy ; Sheriff 1642-3 ; 
restored Alderman Sept., 1660, but discharged 
a few days afterwards at his own request ; 
knighted 26 May, Baronet 7 June, 1660. 
Baronetcy continues. 

1660, 13 June. Sir Thomas Adarns, of 
London. Alderman successively of Port- 
soken (1639-41), Billingsgate (1641-6), Corn- 
hill (1646), till discharged in 1649 for refusing 
to proclaim the abolition of monarchy ; 
Sheriff 1639-40 ; Lord Mayor 1645-6 ; re- 
stored Alderman of Cornhill 1660, till death 
in 1668; knighted at Breda, May, 1660. 
Baronetcy extinct in 1770. 

1660, 14 June. Sir Thomas Allen (or 
Alleyne), of London. Alderman successively 
of Cheap (1653-60), Aldgate (1660-79), Bridge 
Out (1679), till superseded in 1683 ; restored 
1688, till decease in 1690; Sheriff 1654-5; 
Lord Mayor 1659-60, being in office at the 
Restoration ; knighted 29 May, 1660, upon 
delivering the keys of the City to the king 
at St. George's-in-the-Fields ; Baronet a few 
days after. Title extinct in 1730. 

1660, 18 June. Sir Thomas Cullum, of 
Hawsted, Suffolk. Alderman of Cordwainer 
1643, till discharged in 1652; Sheriff 1646 7 
imprisoned in the Tower in 1647 by order of 
the House of Commons ; created Baronet 
for forwarding the Restoration. Baronetcy 
extinct in 1855. 

1^60, 22 June. Sir John Robinson, of 
London. Alderman successively of Dowgate 
(1655-8), Cripplegate(1658-63), Tower (1663) till 
decease in 1680 ; Sheriff 1657-8 ; Lord Mayor 
1662-3; knighted 26 May, 1060; Baronet 
shortly afterwards for zeal in promoting the 
Restoration. Nephew of Archbishop Laud 
and sometime Lieutenant of the Tower His 
baronetcy continues. 

1660, 22 July. Sir Richard Browne, of 
Dibden, Essex. Alderman of Langbourn 
1648, till discharged by Parliament in 1649 
restored 1662-3 ; Bridge Out 1663-4 ; Sheriff 

i 1 Sn" 9 i. Lord M Y or I 660 ;* ; knighted 19 May, 
1660 ; Baronet shortly afterwards, just before 

his elevation to the civic chair. Had been a 
distinguished Parliamentary officer and well 
known in the Civil War as Major-General 
Browne, but had retired from that party at 
the king's death; imprisoned for several years 
by Cromwell ; created Baronet as a reward 
for his zeal in the cause of the Restoration. ; 
Title extinct or dormant about 1727. 

1661, 18 June. Sir Thomas Viner, of London. 
Alderman successively of Billingsgate (1646- 
1651) and Langbourn (1651), till discharged 
in 1660; Sheriff 1648-9; Lord Mayor 1653-4 ; 
knighted by Cromwell when Mayor 8 Feb., 
1653/4 ; reknighted by Charles II. 1 Aug., 
1660. Baronetcy extinct about 1680. 

1661/2, 7 March. Sir Thomas Proby, of 
Elton, co. Hunts. He was grandson of Sir 
Peter Proby, who was Lord Mayor in 1622-3 ; 
Sheriff 1614-5 ; and Alderman successively of 
Queenhi the (161 4-23) and Broad Street (1623), 
till his death in 1625. Sir Thomas Proby 
was M.P. for Amersham 1660-79 and for 
co. Hunts 1679-81. Baronetcy extinct at his 
death in 1689. 

1664, 31 Aug. Sir Thomas Bateman, of 
How Hall, Norfolk. Son of Robert Bateman, 
who was Chamberlain of London 1631-40 and 
M.P. for the City 1621-6. His baronetcy 
became extinct at his death. 

1666, 10 May. Sir Robert Viner, of London. 
Alderman of Broad Street 1666-79 and Lang- 
bourn 1669, till discharged in 1686; Sheriff 
1666-7 ; Lord Mayor 1674-5 ; knighted 24 June, 
1665, and created a Baronet shortly before his 
election as Sheriff. His dignity expired with 
him in 1688. 

1678, 18 July. Sir Josiah Child, of London 
and of Wanstead, Essex. A London merchant 
and Governor of the E.I. Co. Baronetcy 
merged in earldom of Tylney 1731 ; extinct 

1684, 16 Sept. Sir Robert Dash wood, of 
Northbrooke, Oxon. Son of George Dash- 
wood, of Hackney (who had a warrant for a 
baronetcy, but never took out the patent), 
and nephew of Sir Samuel Dashwood, Knight, 
who was Alderman successively of Cheap 
(1683-7) and Aldgate (1688-1705); Sheriff 
1683-4; and Lord Mayor in 1702-3. Baro- 
netcy continues. 

1688, 21 July. Sir Henry Ashhurst, of 
Waterstock, Oxon. Alderman of Vintry 1688- 
1689: son of Henry Ashhurst, merchant of 
London, and brother to Sir William Ash- 
hurst, who was Alderman successively of 
Bread Street (1687-8) and Billingsgate (1688- 
1720); Sheriff 1691-2; and Lord Mayor in 
1693-4. Baronetcy extinct 1732. 

W. D. PINK. 
(To be continued.) 

9* S. IX. JAN. 25, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


JUNIUS. Two portraits of an Under- 
secretary of State in the reign of George III. 
being likely to be sold shortly at Christie's, it 
may be well the public should know somewhat 
more about their original than is generally 
the case. He was Mr. Jackson, Secretary of 
the Admiralty during the whole of the great 
American war, and subsequently Judge- 
Advocate of the Fleet. To him was imputed, 
and not without good reason, the authorship 
of the ' Letters of Junius,' but there are facts 
that must have been quite unknown when 
he was taken for Junius which bring the 
probability of the ascription within reason- 
able belief. Having entered the Civil Service 
about 1743, he afterwards married, when 
twenty-one, the only daughter of his uncle, 
William Ward, by one of the Vincent family 
of Stoke d'Abernon. This connected him 
with the Clanricardes and Osborns of Chick- 
sands, and soon brought him into good 
society. But his intercourse with the Pitts 
of Dorsetshire is the main consideration. 
When he first became acquainted with that 
family is not very certain, but there are two 
electioneering badges, on blue silk, bearing 
in gold and silver letters the words " Pitt and 
Jackson." It does not appear by reference 
to the Parliamentary returns for what con- 
stituency these badges were used. It would 
seem as though it were for the county of 
Dorset ; nevertheless, although the name of 
Pitt occurs frequently in boroughs in that 
county, no name of Jackson appears con- 
jointly with Pitt to satisfy his election on 
that occasion. But Mr. Jackson was returned 
M.P. for Wey mouth at an early date, and sub- 
sequently stood twice for the borough of 
Colchester, the first occasion being a con- 
tested election, of great notoriety at the time, 
which cost him a fabulous sum of money. 
There are several letters between himself and 
the Chatham family extant at Hayes, where 
he was a constant visitor, Lady Chatham 
writing to ask intelligence of her son Henry, 
who was in the navy as to the whereabouts 
of his ship, and so forth. This Henry, by- 
the-by, was brother of the great statesman 
William Pitt, and I have often failed to find 
his name in any peerage. Whether the 
supposed Junius set up by different persons 
as the veritable Junius had all these advan- 
tages of familiar intercourse with the Pitt 
family I do not know, but Mr. Jackson had 
that advantage. 

The handwriting of the * Letters of Junius ' 
is certainly not that of Mr. Jackson, who 
wrote a large, good hand ; but it is not at all 
likely that a man who had been in office 
all his life would have allowed his identity 

to be known by his handwriting. There is 
every reason to believe that a gentleman 
named Aust, who still lived in 1822, might 
have been employed by Mr. Jackson for this 
purpose. Mr. Jackson, who was created a 
baronet in 1791, left three daughters by his 
first wife and one son by his second wife, the 
late Sir George Duckett, who was an original 
member of the Pitt Club. Why the secrecy 
of the authorship of the ' Letters of Junius ' 
should have been so strictly observed, or even 
thought requisite, is now not easy to under- 
stand. But as for controversies and those 
who set up as authorities to solve them, I 
know from experience that the wildest and 
most absurd solutions are put forth to serve 
a purpose, more especially in the present day; 
but the object of this communication is 
simply to put the saddle on a probable horse. 
The secrecy in the matter is quite unex- 
plainable, but " Omnia rnutantur, nos et 
mutamur in illis." G. F. D. 

" BARRACKED " = HOOTED. The Daily News 
of 18 December, 1901, contains the following 
note on the use of the word " barracked " : 

"According to the telegrams, the disappointed 
spectators at Sydney ' barracked ' at the Australian 
cricketers for the feeble stand they were making 
against MacLaren's eleven. This is a comparatively 
new specimen of colonial slang. In the same way 
'barracking' is only an elongated form of * barking.' 
It originated with the rowdy supporters of rival 
football teams, and has now spread to cricket and 
various other forms of sport. It has even forced 
its way into the political arena. People who 
vociferously cheer a particular public man are not 
infrequently referred to in Australian papers as his 
' barrackers.' A colonial reporter would probably 
have remarked that Lord Rosebery had a regiment 
of ' barrackers' at Chesterfield." 

While I am quite willing to admit that all 

.-.ngation into "barracking. . ^ 

word is far more likely to have been formed 
from barreter or barrator, which Bailey 
(edition 1733) defines as "a wrangler, a 
stirrer-up, a rnaintainer of quarrels," and 
gives as a law term derived from the old 
French barratter. 

South Hackney. 

to the brilliant talents of Mr. Tree, there has 
of late been a revival of interest in the career 
of D'Orsay, I should like, trusting once again 
to the kindness of the Editor and the patience 
of the readers of ' N. & O.,' to recall (may I 
say rescue?) from oblivion the name of Thomas 
Henry Nicholson, who was (if I am not mis- 
taken) "foreman artist" at Gore House. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. 25, 1902. 

Although "by trade" a wood-draughtsman 
and engraver, he was at his best as a modeller 
for sculpture. He was also, however, a 
capable black-and-white artist; and although 
his figure drawing was imperfect, he had an 
almost thorough knowledge of the anatomy 
of the horse. After the " break up at Gore 
House he went back to wood-drawing. In 
1848 he contributed sketches to the Illus- 
trated London Neivs in the (almost) record 
" French Revolution " number. In the same 
year, I think, he sketched a two-page 
block for the Pictorial Times (a speculation 
of the Spottiswoodes and Henry Vizetelly) 
l Going to the Derby 'beginning with the 
"swell" in his drag, and finishing with the 
coster whipping up his " moke ' - -" Kim up ! 
D'ye think I stole yerf For a few months 
in 1850 he supplied the place of John Gilbert 
on the London Journal. About 1856 he was 
"leading artist" on Cassell's Illustrated family 
Paper, but after 1860 he was superseded by 
F. J. Skill, Morten, dear old Charles Green, 
and other "more up-to-date" artists, whose 
names are legion. I have always been given 
to understand that Nicholson, as manager of 
the studio at Gore House, was, after D'Orsay 
removed to France, made responsible for the 
hundred or so of debts owing to artist- 
colourmen. But for this I cannot vouch. I 
conclude with a few words from " Redgrave": 
" Of a shy and retiring disposition, he did not 
enjoy the credit which his works deserved. 
He died at Portland, Hants, 1870." 

If T. H. Nicholson had drawn in a more 
"attractive" style, as he undoubtedly pos- 
sessed " genius," he might have been another 
Sir John Gilbert. 


39, Renfrew Road, Kennington, S.E. 

Douglas, Bart., of Springwood Park, Kelso, 
alluding, in a letter to the Scotsman of 25 De- 
cember, 1901, to the touching extracts printed 
in that journal from the time-book of the 
Donibristle miners, calls attention to a 
curious literary reminiscence. '"Oh, wonderful 
is Death, Death and her brother Sleep,' writes 
one of the doomed men. These are prac- 
tically," Sir George remarks, " the first two 
lines of Shelley's 'Queen Mab.' But the 
idea^ is far older, being, in fact, the VTTVOS 
Kaariyvq-ros of Homer's ' Iliad.'" 


The dividend warrants of a commercial 
undertaking having its registered office in 
the north of England bear on their face, 
below the space for the receipt stamp and the 

indication for the place of the signature, 
the singular statement " This cheque requires 
endorsement." In other words, the share- 
holders are asked to back the instrument on 
the front, which is clearly wrong. The point 
would be scarcely worth mentioning if there 
were not a word in the language, "dorso- 
ventrality," which seems to justify the 
peculiar usage, in that it would appear to 
mean " back-frontness." But this scientific 
term is not really self-contradictory. The 
two parts of the compound are not mutually 
self-destructive. The idea is that both back 
and front have to be considered. See 4 H.E.D.,' 
s.v. 'Dorso-.' ARTHUR, MAYALL. 

"BAR SINISTER." This heraldic impossi- 
bility still flourishes, and that, too, among 
those for whom there is no excuse. Speaking 
of King James II., the Daily Chronicle of 
18 September, 1901, said : 

" Macaulay's History may be unduly severe on 
James's character, but Hallam's is little more 
favourable, and one of the mildest of his critics has 
written ' through the greater part of his life he was 
the slave of the immorality then universal in his 
rank, in which he contrived to caricature the 
excesses of his brother.' At any rate, he con- 
tributed a good many bars sinister to the arms of 
the Members of the House of Lords." 

Not long ago the same journal had a head- 
line to a speech by John Morley, "A Bar 
Sinister on the Empire." AYEAHR. 

MADAME DE SEVIGNE. In a review of 
'The Marquis d'Argeuson and Richard II.,' 
by Mr. R. Rankin, which recently appeared 
in 'N. & Q.' (9 th S. viii. 534), it said of 
D'Argenson, " One of the most humane of 
men, he wrote to Voltaire after the battle 
of Fontenoy, the close of which he witnessed, 
a letter such as, said Voltaire, Madame de 
Sevigne might have written had she found 
herself similarly situated." This is question- 
able, for, whatever Voltaire may have said, 
a certain want of humanity was a flaw in the 
character of that admirable woman, and it is 
doubtful if she was ever really touched by 
the sufferings of any one outside the imme- 
diate circle of her family and friends. Sainte- 
Beuve, who is cited in the review, notices 
this failing in the essay on Madame de 
Sevigne, which was originally published in 
the Revue de Paris in 1829, and was after- 
wards prefixed to the ' Lettres Choisfes.' He 
says : 

"II est une seule circonstance on Ton ne peut 
s'empecher de regretter que madanie de Se"vign6 se 
soit abandonne a ses habitudes moqueuseset le"geres ; 
ou Ton se refuse absolument a entrer dans son badi- 
nage, et ou, apres en avoir recherche" toutes les 
raisons attenuantes, on a peine encore a le lui par- 

9" S. IX. JAN. 25, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


donner : c'est lorsqu'elle raconte si gaiement a sa 
fille la revolte des paysans bas-bretons et les hor- 
ribles sprites qui la reprimerent Quand, pour 

chatier Rennes qu'on prend & Vaventure vingt- 

cinq ou trente homines pour les peudre, qu'on chasse 
et qu'on bannit toute une grande rue, femmes ac- 
couchees, vieillards, enfants, avec defense de les 
recueillir, sous peinede rnort; quand on roue, qu'on 
ecartelle, et qu'a force d'avoir ecartele et roue Ton 
se relache, et qu'ou pend : au milieu de ces horreurs 
exercees centre des innocents ou de pauvres egares, 
on souffre devoir madame deSevigne se jouer presque 
com me & 1'ordinaire ; on lui voudroit une indigna- 
tion brulante, amere, genereuse ; surtout on vou- 
droit effacer de ses lettres des lignes com me celles- 
ci : ' Les mutins de Rennes se sont sauves il y a 
longtemps; ainsi les bons patiront pour les me- 
diants ; mais je trouve tout fort bon, pourvu que les 
quatre mille hommes de guerre qui sont k Rennes, 
sous MM. de Forbin et de Vins, ne m'empechent 
point de me promener dans mes bois, qui sont 
d'une hauteur et d'une beaute" merveilleuses'; et 
ailleurs : ' On a pris soixante bourgeois : on com- 
mence demain a pendre. Cette province est un bel 
exemple pour les auties, et surtout de respecter 
les gouverneurs et les gouvernantes, de ne leur 
point dire d'injures et de ne point Jeter des pierres 
dans leur jardin '; et enfin : 'Vousme parlez bien 
plaisamment de nos miseres : nous ne sommes plus 
si roues ; un en huit jours seulement pour entretenir 
la justice: la penderie me paroit mainteuant un 
rafraichissement.' " 

These extracts render it probable that a 
lady who could make a jest of the atrocities 
that were being perpetrated within a few 
miles of her chateau would have borne with 
equanimity any losses that might have oc- 
curred in a distant battle, and one cannot 
but echo the regret expressed by Sainte- 
Beuve that her heart, which among her con- 
temporaries was famed for its "bonte," "ne 
se soit pas eleve au-dessus des prejuges de 
son temps." W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

" ROUT." The late Francis Pulszky in his 
autobiography, writing of the doings of 
Society (with a capital S) in London in 
1848-9, mentions the crowded state of draw- 
ing-rooms " at the so-called * routs ' (which 
word means about the same as soirees)" The 
word is not to be found in my copy of 
Skeat's 'Etymological Dictionary/ but it sur- 
vives in the vocabulary of some West-End 
confectioners and other caterers, who lend 
out on hire " rout-chairs," and advertise the 
fact on their carts and in their shop 
windows. L. L. K. 

[Annandale's four-volume edition of Ogilvie gives 
a quotation from Thackeray, and the ' Encyclo- 
paedic ' one from Wharton's k Ranelagh House,' to 
illustrate this use of rout.] 

Richard Garnett, in his life of Margaret 
Oliphant ( ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' Supplement, vol. iii. p. 231), makes 

very misleading and, indeed, quite incorrect 
statements relative to the publication of the 
' Chronicles of Carlingford.' He says three 
of them "were published anonymously in 
Blackwoods Magazine between 1862 and 1865. 
The earliest was 4 Salem Chapel,' 1863, 2 vols. ; 
and it was followed by * The Rector and the 
Doctor's Family' (1863), 'The Perpetual 
Curate' (1864, new ed. 1865), and ' Miss Mar- 
joribanks ' (1866)." The dates for the appear- 
ance in Blackwood's Magazine are not 
precisely correct, and from the passage taken 
as a whole a reader naturally infers that the 
series opened with 'Salem Chapel.' The 
order of publication in Blackwoods Magazine 
is ' The Rector,' without the general title of 
'Chronicles of Carlingford' (Sept., 1861), 
' The Doctor's Family ' (Oct., 1861-Jan., 1862), 
'Salem Chapel' (Feb., 1862-Jan., 1863), 'The 
Perpetual Curate' (June, 1863-Sept., 1864), 
and 'Miss Mar jori banks ' (Feb., 1865-May, 
1866). It is thus interesting to note that 
Mrs. Oliphant reached 'Salem Chapel' 
through two slight experiments with Car- 
lingford themes. In a similar manner 
Anthony Trollope explored Barsetshire after 
its discovery in " The Warden.' 

Yale University. 

whether anything has been recorded of the 
professional worth of " Mr. Farthing," a 
teacher of the stenographic art in the middle 
of the seventeenth century. The following 
extract from the address "To the Christian 
Reader" in 'The Saints' Treasury,' 1654, by 
Jeremiah Burroughes, may prove interesting 
to some readers of ' N. & Q.' I may mention 
that one of the signatories to that address- 
there are six is the well-known Ralph 

" We shall adde this also for thy encouragement, 
that these Sermons have been very happily taken 
by the pen of a ready writer, Mr. Farthing, now a 
Teacher of Short writing ; one who hath given 
ample testimonie of his great skill and dexteritie 
in writing Short-hand. We think we may say, 
there are not many words delivered by the Author, 
that are left out. However, confident we are that 
there is nothing material! which was by him 
preached, but is here by the care and faithfulnesse 
of the Scribe presented to thy view." 

A. S. 

NATHANIEL BOOTH. Nathaniel Booth, the 
second son of Nathaniel Booth, of Mottram 
St. Andrew, co. Chester, arm., was born about 
1660. He seems to have entered at Brasenose 
College, Oxford, but not to have graduated. 
He was admitted at Gray's Inn 21 May, 1683, 
and was called to the Bar 10 June, 1689. He 
collected a good library of books and manu- 


NOTES * AND QUERIES. co s. ix. JAN. 25, 1002. 

scripts, which were used by William Oldys, 
the herald and antiquary, and afterwards 
bought and catalogued by Thomas Osborne. 
In 1702 he became Supervisor-General of the 
Green- Wax- Monies in the Court of Exchequer, 
and held this office until his death. In 1707 
he was appointed, by patent, Steward of the 
Honour and Castle of Windsor and of the 
Courts of Record there, and Clerk of the Con- 
stable of the said Castle, and Clerk of the 
same, and Keeper of the Seal of the said 
Courts. These places he surrendered in 1721. 
Gray's Inn made him an Ancient 8 July, 1709 ; 
Bencher, 6 July, 1715 ; and Treasurer, 27 June, 
1729. He died, without issue, 9 October, 
1745, aged eighty-five. 

Mr. Booth published the following : 

1. The Rights of His Majesty's Forest Asserted, 
in a Charge given at a Swanimote-Court, held in 
the Castle Court belonging to the Honor and Castle 
of Windsor, before the Verderers of the Forest of 
Windsor, the 27th of Septem. 1717. 8vo, 1719. 

2. The Right of Succession to the Crown of 
England, in the Family of the Stuarts, exclusive of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, asserted against Sir Anthony 
Brown, by Sir Nicholas Bacon. Published from the 
Original Manuscript by Nathaniel Boothe. 8vo, 
It '23. 

3. An edition of ' God and the King ' in defence 
ot the Hanoverian succession. 1727 

4 A Military Discourse whether it be better for 
England to give an invader battle, or to temporize 
and defer the same. By Sir Walter Ralegh. Pub- 

London ' f Gray ' S Inn ' ^ sq ' 8v ' 

Some surnames seem to attract certain 
Christian names. Our Nathaniel was the 
son of a Nathaniel. Contemporary with him 
was a Nathaniel Booth, clothier, of Batley, in 
Yorkshire, Constable of Batley in 1659. He 
hv ed at Stamchffe Hal], became a trustee of the 

hnlT a f r fU Ch , at Batle y in 1664 > an ^ was 
buned at that place 27 September, 1675. In 

of tr ? L P 8 H ' n Nathan Q ie1 ' beca ^e a trustee 
ol the Batley Grammar School ; and his son 

same,' f ^ Daniel, was master of the 
same sch he built a house) 

f r the 


vi 3*4 xi 

W. C. B. 

nouncement that at the London County 
Council meeting of 17 December last the 
Historical Records and Buildings Committee 
reported that they had been in communica- 
tion with the Society of Arts, which society 
had proposed that the Council should con- 
tinue the good work of affixing commemo- 
rative tablets on houses of the metropolis 
once inhabited by distinguished men and 
women, and that, the Committee having 
reported favourably on the proposition, the 
Council accepted their recommendation. 
Therefore we will hope that, with all proper 
discretion, the erection of tablets will sys- 
tematically proceed. 

It was, of course, not to be expected that 
any individual society should undertake to 
carry out this work to its completion ; and, 
indeed, there can be no completion of it, for 
we anticipate a continued progression of 
worthy men and women whom London will 
delight to honour. The Society of Arts have 
well earned our gratitude for what they have 
already accomplished, and also for their pre- 
sent offer to furnish the Council with what- 
ever information they have gathered towards 
the object in view, and generally to give the 
assistance of their advice and experience. 
And as the interests of archaeology, art, and 
literature are very much concerned in the 
project, careful verification being necessary 
both of the houses and the claims of those 
proposed to be commemorated, it seems ad- 
visable that the Society of Arts, if not a body 
composed of members of the various societies 
fostering the above studies, should from time 
to time be consulted by the Historical Records 
Committee of the London County Council. 

We learn that up to the present thirty -four 
tablets have been affixed. May I venture to 
suggest that a record of them would find a 
fitting place in the pages of 'N. & Q.'? 


ing ^ex tract from the Daily Chronicle of 
28 November last seems worthy of permanent 
record in 'N. & Q.' : 

" It is stated that a ship dating from the time of 
Columbus is still trading between Spain and 
America. One wonders how much of the original 
timber remains. The condition of the Anita such 
is said to be her name must resemble that of the 
ancient sloop Lively, wrecked at Bacton, near 
Cromer, described as follows in the Whitby Gazette, 
July; 1888 : 'The Lively was built by Mr. Spence 
in 1/86, and is therefore more than 100 vears old, 

and was the oldest Whitby-built ship afloat We 

believe she had but one of her original planks in her 
having been partially rebuilt once or twice.' Another 
ancient ship was the Liberty, wrecked in 1856. It 
was built in Whitby in 1750, and was employed in 
the coal and Baltic trades. The Russian admiral at 

9* S. IX. JAN. 23, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Crpnstadt inspected her in 1850, and expressed sur- 
prise at her age and build, remarking that he had 
commanded a ship of 100 guns, but never a ship 
100 years old." 

It raay lead to further information on an 
interesting subject. CHARLES HIATT. 

[For other old ships see ' Whittington and his 
Cat,' 9 th S. viii. 485.] 

1688. This would seem to have been not 
later than 9 o'clock. The writer of * A Com- 
plete History of the Late Revolution,' Lon- 
don, 1691, an eighty-page pamphlet, examines 
in curious detail the birth of "James the 
Third," adducing circumstances in support of 
the warming-pan story. He says, inter alia. 
that the lying-in of the queen " was contrived 
to be at Church-time on the Sunday, between 
the hours of nine and ten in the morning, 
that the Business might be over before the 
Protestant Ladies were come from Church." 
I presume that the change of hour to 11 
o'clock came about gradually. 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers maybe addressed to them 

if any of your correspondents can tell me 
who was the author of an anonymous book 
published (in the year 1820 or thereabouts) 
at Oxford under the title 'An Introduction 
to the Metres of the Greek Tragedians.' I 
had never heard of it until a few years ago, 
when I accidentally met with a little pam- 
phlet containing some " Observations " on this 
work, in which it is said that some of Porson's 
well-known metrical canons, as laid down in 
his preface to the 'Hecuba,' are impugned, 
and even condemned, as useless and not 
deserving of attention ; nor should I have 
been disposed to trouble myself much further 
about it had not the author of these " Observa- 
tions" alluded to " the high character of the 
author of the 'Introduction' and the gene- 
rally favourable opinion of it that deservedly 
prevails." As for the " Observations " them- 
selves, I can only say that they seem to have 
been rather hastily put together, and are not 
very easy to follow ; but I should like to 
know a little more about the author of the 
'Introduction' who ventured to attack Por- 
son in one of many strongholds of Greek 
criticism. F. N. 

[It is attributed to Pr, J, Burton.] 

EAST INDIA BADGE. What is the origin of 
the badge used by the East India Company 
on some of its copper coinage a circle sur- 
mounted by the figure 4 reversed standing on 
the diameter 1 I noticed a similar badge on 
a tablet in the cloisters of Basle Cathedral 
some years ago. J. P. LEWIS. 

* LIFE,' BY MRS. BARBAULD. In what col- 
lection of poems may I find that short and 
beautiful poem on ' Life ' by Mrs. Barbauld 1 
Who was Mrs. Barbauld 1 The last two lines 
of this poem run : 

Say not " Good night," but in some brighter clime 
Bid me " Good morning." 


[You will presumably find the poem in question 
in ' Works of A. L. Barbauld,' 1825. We fail to trace 
it in any collection to which we have access. As 
to who Mrs. Barbauld was you must consult the 
' Diet. Nat. Biog.' Our own General Indexes con- 
tain several references to her.] 

small print, about 6^ in. by 4 in., called 'The 
Gambler Detected.' It represents two men 
in the dress of the early part of the eigh- 
teenth century, one of whom has risen from 
his chair, which he has upset, and is pinning 
the left hand of the other to the table with a 
fork ; cards are scattered about, and the 
other end of the table is laid out for a meal. 
The print has evidently been a frontispiece 
or illustration to some book. Can any one 
tell me what book 1 

I venture to add to the many appeals 
which have been made to MR. JULIAN MAR- 
SHALL to continue his very interesting biblio- 
graphy of books on gaming, which ended so 
abruptly at the thirteenth edition of Hoyle. 
In January, 1899 (9 th S. iii. 35), he promised 
some further articles on the subiect. 

F. J. 

HENRY VIII. This crowned Moloch is 
spoken of by one of the late Restoration 
writers, I think Thomas Brown, as "this 
great king who never spared woman in his 
lust or man in his anger." Was this writer 
the first so to class him 1 ? The expression 
seems above his level. H. T. 

a list of second-hand books and other things 
is a description of a crucifix : " This is appa- 
rently of Dutch make, and after the Spanish 
occupation, as is shown by the sunflower 
ornament behind the figure of Christ." Why 
is this 1 Did the Dutch specially cultivate 
sunflowers 1 I suppose it would be the 
Spaniards who might regard the sunflower 
as sacred, from the belief that it always 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. 25, 1902. 

turns towards heaven, and their habit of 
looking for a religious meaning in every 
thing. Are many instances known of sun 
flowers or other flowers being placed on a 
cross behind the head of Christ 1 C. F. Y. 

" A MAD WOULD, MY MASTERS." Does this 

expression occur anywhere in Shakespeare's 
works ? It is quoted in a letter to the Times 
of 10 January as being his, and the editor 
gives it special prominence by using it as a 
headline. I had always understood it was 
Middleton's, as it certainly forms the title of 
one of his plays. I should be glad to know 
whether he borrowed it from Shakespeare 
or not. E. F. BATES. 

Kew Gardens. 

[The phrase is not in Shakespeare. It appears 
to have been proverbial. Nicholas Breton so named 
a pamphlet issued in 1603. Middleton's play was 
acted and printed in 1608.] 

DATE OF OLD CLOCK. I have an old grand- 
father's clock made by " Wm. Lasseter, Jun.," 
of Arundel. Can any one enable me to trace 
its date, and was the maker well known 1 


[William Lasseter was a maker of long-case 
clocks at Arundel about 1770.] 

your readers possibly furnish the title and 
name of author of the printed "Pageant" 
of each of the following Lord Mayors of 
London 1 Mr. G. E. Cokayne, in his interest- 
ing book ' The Lord Mayors and Sheriffs of 
London, 1601-1625,' issued in 1897, appears 
to have omitted these five as being unknown 
to him. I presume they are " very rare." 
Sir Thos. Cambell, 1609 ; Sir Wm. Craven, 
1610; Sir Edw. Barkham, 1621; Sir Peter 
Proby, 1622 ; Sir Martin Lumley, 1623. 

E. C. 

KELLY. Four boys of this name were 
admitted to Westminster School in 1786. 
Their Christian names were (1) Hinton, 
(2) James Francis, (3) John Francis, and 
(4) Montague Henry. If any correspondent 
of N. & Q.' can help me to identify them I 
shall be greatly obliged. G. F. R. B. 

CLAYTON FAMILY. Can any Irish con- 
tributor, or any one having access to suitable 
records, give information respecting a certain 
John Clayton who was an M.D. in Dublin 
(see Cnetham Soc., 'Norris Papers,' p. 51) 
and brother of Wm. Clayton, M.P. for Liver- 
pool, who died 1715? I have reason to believe 
that the individual for whom I inquire was 
father of John Clayton, Dean of Kildare, and 
grandfather of Bishop Robert Clayton of 

Clogher. The 'Nat. Diet, of Biog.' is in- 
correct as to the parentage of the bishop. 

three royal ladies whose heads are charged 
on the shield borne by the diocese of Oxford 1 
The arms of the see are thus blazoned : Sa., 
a fesse arg. ; in chief, three ladies, couped at 
the waist, heads affronte, arrayed and veiled 
of the second, crowned or ; in base, an ox of 
the second, passant over a ford, barry wavy 
arg. and az. In regard to these persons Dr. 
Woodward, in his invaluable work on 'Eccle- 
siastical Heraldry' (London, 1894), writes 
thus : 

"Probably the heads in chief should be rather of 
kings than of queens, and they, like the crowns in 
the University arms, niay refer to the Royal 
Founders of the University." 

Possibly some one may be able to enlighten 
me on this point. H. BASKERVILLE. 

GOWER. W T anted the connexion between 
the Gowers of South Wales and Lord Trent- 
ham of Trentham. (Mrs.) J. COPE. 

13c, Hyde Park Mansions, W. 

be very grateful if any one could tell me if 
they know of any portraits extant of the fol- 
lowing women, as I am anxious to find some 
to illustrate an article on ' Women who 
Fought': Phoebe Hassel (or Hessel), Mary 
Ralphson, Jenny Cameron (Jacobite), Anne 
Oetzliffin, Chevalier d ; Eon (1761), Cathe- 
rine II. of Russia (wife of Peter III.), any of 
"The Furies" during the Reign of Terror, 
" William Roberts," the Manchester heroine, 
Peggy Monro, Susan Frost, Mrs. Dalbiac,Rose 
Lacombe, Marie Adrian, Mary Schlienck (or 
Shellenck), Martha Glar, the Maid of Sara- 
gossa, and Miss Wheeler (of Cawnpore). 


The Eves, Chapel-en-le-Frith, 

GORDON RIOT.S. Can any one inform me 
where I can obtain any precise information 
about the houses which were destroyed in 
the Gordon riots ? Some sort of inquiry must 
have been held on the subject. If so, is the 
evidence now at the Public Record Office? 
One of the houses was that of Marmaduke 
Langdale, a distiller in Holborn. Was he 
related to the Lord Langdale of the period 1 


"STREAM OF TENDENCY." Matthew Arnold 
has the expression " the stream of tendency, 
in which all things seek to fulfil the law of 
their being." Emerson has also the phrase 
'a "or "the stream of tendency," probably 

9". S. IX JAN. 25, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


before Arnold, though I am unable at this 
moment to say in what essay. Hazlitt has 
the expression "a mighty stream of ten- 
dency " in his essay on ' Why Distant Objects 
Please,' and even there he puts it in quota- 
tion marks. May I ask if the phrase can be 
traced to its origin, or, if not, how far back 
can it be traced ? JAS. B. LAURENCE. 


I shall be very much obliged for any infor- 
mation about the royal tennis court which, 
I believe, stood near the Haymarket, and is 
supposed to have been connected with St. 
James's Palace by an underground passage. 
I think there is some record of Nell Gwyn 
visiting the court, but I cannot trace the 
reference, and shall be very glad for help. 


sion is, and previously for many years in that 
of Mr. Thomas Pell Platt, M.A., J.P., was, a 
carefully preserved printed broadside (in 
foolscap folio), which is said to be unique, 
containing the earliest "[Instructions] To 
the Masters and Mistresses of Sunday- 
Schools." It is undated, but, judging by 
the paper and other circumstances, was pro- 
bably printed between 1780 and 1790. These 
instructions are in ten numbered paragraphs, 
the first being : 

"I. ENDEAVOUR to know and practise the best 
Method of Instruction." 

And the last, longest, and most interesting : 

" X. Above all, keep the Religious Ends of the 
Institution always in Sight; and be constantly 
reminding all under your Care, that SUNDAY-SCHOOLS 
are designed 

"To check and reform vicious Habits, and 

all lendencies towards them in the rising Genera- 

, " To inculcate upon them a becoming Regard 

for the Word and Worship of Almighty GOD. 

_ To require their keeping holy the Sabb'ath- 


''......To warn them of the Evil of Sin in general, 

and of youthful Sins in particular, such as Pride, 
.Pilfering, Idleness, Swearing, Lying, Disobedience 
to^Parents, &c. 

" To set before them the Excellency and Im- 
portance of Justice, Diligence, Humility, and a 
conscientious Regard to Truth in all they say, and 
a respectful Subjection to those whom the Pro- 
vidence of GOD has set over them. 

"......Finally, to explain, in a Manner suited to 

their Understandings, all the Truths and Duties 
recommended in the Holy Scriptures ; and promote 
a believing and obedient Regard to them for their 
Happiness both here and hereafter." 

It would be well if this rare broadside were 
reprinted in bold type on cardboard, and a 

copy hung in every Sunday-school in the 
kingdom. My chief object, however, is to 
ascertain whether any of your readers have 
met with a copy of these instructions in any 
printed book, or any reference thereto ; and, 
if so, where. W. I. R. V. 

" FOOT-CLOTH NAG," &c. What was this? 
The expression occurs in a curious book 
entitled " Observations, Rules, and Orders 
Collected out of Divers Journals of the House 
of Commons, entred in the Reigns of Ed- 
ward VI, Q. Mary, Q. Elizabeth, K. James I, 
K. Charles I., and K. Charles II. London : 
Printed for Bernard Lintot between the 
Temple - Gates ; and Sold by Ch. King in 
Westminster-Hall. MDCCXVII." 

" 27 Jan. 23 Eliz. Upon Motion to the House in 
regard of the Infirmity and pains in the Serjeant's 
Feet, he is licensed by the House to ride upon a 

" 8 th Feb. 18 Jac. Leave given to the Serjeant to 
ride before the Speaker." 

Two other extracts are : 

"1 May, 1584 The Speaker's Excuse for his 

Absence, which was occasioned by his taking Phy- 
sick this day." 

" 4 th Junij, 19 Jac. Moore and Lock who arrested 
Sir James Whitlock's Servant, for which they were 
Adjudged to ride on a Horse bare-backed, Back to 
Back, from Westminster to the Exchange, with this 
Inscription on their Breasts : ' For Arresting a Ser- 
vant to a Member of the Common-House of Parlia- 
ment.' " 


[See quotations in ' H.E.D.' a.v. ' Foot-cloth.'] 

ST. ANTHONY. Where may I find a coloured 
print of 'St. Anthony preaching to the 
Fishes'? OWEN. 

traits ' (Bohn's edition, 1849) is an account of 
Sir Nicholas Bacon (vol. ii. pp. 107-14), 
illustrative of a portrait of a man facing to 
the right, " from the collection of His Grace 
the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey." On 
21 June, 1888, the present Viscount Dillon 
told the Society of Antiquaries that the late 
Sir George Scharf had told him that the 
portrait engraved was not that of the Keeper 
of the Great Seal. Can any reader say whose 
portrait it is 1 


" SACRAL." In the new illustrated edition 
of ' Social England ' Prof. Maitland, referring 
to trial by battle, speaks of it as "sacral." 
Is there any warrant for the use of the word 
in this connexion 1 The only meaning given 
by the ordinary dictionaries (* Century,' &c.) 
to the word "sacral" will assuredly not 
express the professor's intention. YGREC. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. 25, 1902. 

(9 th S. viii. 442, 512.) 

ONE need not slay the slain, and Q. V., 
MR. MOUNT, and ME. YAEDLEY have suf- 
ficiently demolished MR. SIBREE'S anagram- 
matical argument ; but it may be amusing to 
follow on his lines by way of illustration. 

A true anagram must run letter by letter 
with its original. It is then entertaining, 
but absolutely useless, reminding me of Dr. 
Johnson's recipe for dressing a cucumber : 
" Open your window towards the west. Peel 
your cucumber, slice it as thin as you can, 
add salt, oil, and vinegar, quant, suf., and 
then throw it out of window." That is what 
one may safely do with the best of anagrams. 

A _ second and less legitimate kind, and if 
possible more worthless, is when you "add 
an a," as MR. SIBREE does, i.e., when you make 
a letter or letters do double or triple duty. 
The anagrams below take this liberty. 

A. third kind more illegitimate still, but 
giving scope for more entertainment is 
when you settle what dogma you wish to 
inculcate or what is the particular lie on 
which you desire to throw a somewhat favour- 
able light, pick out the letters you want from 
any sentence, and discard those which you 
may find unmanageable. 

MR. SIBREE does not do full justice to his 
hero. It is evident, on the lines of his argu- 
ment (if it is an argument, and not a mere 
jeu tf esprit), that Bacon wrote the 'Canter- 
bury rales, commonly attributed to a 
mythical personage of the name of Chaucer. 
Take the ' Prologue,' 11. 623-4 : 

A Somnour was ther with us in that place, 
That had a fyr reed Cherubynnes face, 
words which artfully conceal the fact that 
Francis of Verulam, Bacon hett that Peer, 
Ihys verse dyde write whan Chanse/er. 
^a italicized the letters lR nt by those 
which do double duty ; and there are, Lides 
an a and an h left out-unimportant chips on 
the floor of the workshop. That the 'Pro 
logue ' saw the light about two hundred years 
before Bacon was born will be, I am per 
suaded, no obstacle to any earnest BaconLn 


would be capable of anything Ca ' 

lo come to my next illustration, he would 


commonly attributed to Coyerdall; for t 

saw the light only twenty-two years before 
he was born. 

See Psalm vii. 15, "Behold he travaileth 
with mischief : he hath conceived sorrow, 
and brought forth ungodliness"; in which 
we find : 

Sir Francis Bacon made this translation ; 

With godlie sorowe he brought it fourthe. 

There are a few unconsidered trifles left out : 
five A's, a d, and an e, &c. ; but the passage 
is there not very good sense, indeed, but 
that can disagree with nobody who has been 
able to digest MR. SIBREE'S second line. 

MR. SIBREE has not, I think, gone deep 
enough to discover the hidden meaning of 
the last two lines of the Epilogue to ' The 
Tempest.' A more careful study will disclose 
the following passage contained in it : 
Bacon y e Tempest ! A mere dreawe ! Go to ! 
I ! I ! none else ! Sir Ffrawicis couldn't do it ! W.S. 
An I, an r, a u, and a y have been left out ; 
but each letter has one or more representa- 
tives ; and a, e, i, c, d, o, m, n, s, t, are 
repeated more often than in the original 

Enough of anagrams. As to the main 
question, it has not, I think, been sufficiently 
observed that the whole Baconian craze 
sprang from the letter of Sir Tobie Matthews 
from abroad to Sir Francis Bacon, with whom 
he was in close intimacy. A passage in it 
runs thus: "The most prodigious wit that 
ever I knew of any nation, and of this side of 
the sea, is of your lordship's name, though 
he be known -by another." This has been 
interpreted as if "of your lordship's name" 
meant "your lordship's self." But there is 
little doubt that the person referred to was 
Thomas Bacon, a Jesuit, one of the most 
learned controversialists of his day on the 
Roman side under the name of Southwell. 
Sir Tobie had become a Roman Catholic 
during his stay in Italy, where Father 
Southwell was living, and it is highly pro- 
bable that it was to him that Matthews 
referred. See the 'D.N.B.' under Southwell 
(Nathanael and Thomas). ALDENHAM. 

In conjunction with this, it should be noted 

that the names of Francisco and Antonio 

occur in the list of persons represented in 

The Tempest.' They seem to suggest those 

of Francis and Anthony Bacon. 


BRANDON, EXECUTIONER (9 th S. ix. 9). If 
MR. P. SIDNEY turns to the pamphlet, a mem- 
u J ^ h - e Thomason Tracts in the Library of 
the British Museum, which is entitled 4 A 
Dialogue or, a Dispute betweene the late 

9'" S. IX. JAK. 25, 1902.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hangman and Death' (press-mark 669 f. 
14/51), he will find a woodcut which repre- 
sents Richard Brandon, the executioner, 
immediately after cutting off the head of 
Charles I., with the body of the king kneel- 
ing before the block, &c. If he turns further 
to the tracts named 'The Confession of 
Richard Brandon' (press-mark E. 561/14) and 
* A Great and Bloody Plot ' (press - mark 
E. 1021/8), which are both in the same library 
as 'A Dialogue,' &c., he will see that the 
identical cut was used a second and a third 
time. It was probably, according to the 
practice in such cases, used still more fre- 
quently, and to illustrate very different 
themes. The cuts in question here are, in the 
above order, B.M. Satirical Prints Nos. 762,761, 
and 949. As portraits, MR. SIDNEY must take 
them for what they are worth, and he will 
bear in mind that, whereas King Charles was 
put to death 30 January, 1649, Thomason, who 
was a bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
and to whom ' The Confession,' &c., belonged, 
wrote with a pen and ink upon the copy 
of the tract here in view the date " June 25, 
1649," while the publication line of the work is 
" Printed in the Year of the Hang-mans down- 
fall, 1649." On the title of ' A Dialogue,' &c. 
(which has no publication line), he wrote 
"July 3 d ." It is understood that these holo- 
graph dates refer to the days upon which 
Thomason bought these tracts, which are 
comprised in a prodigious gathering of 
similar publications, numbering nearly 30,000. 
There might have been earlier issues of the 
cut than that which the old bookseller of 
blessed memory dated "June 25 "as above- 
that is, prints of Richard Brandon in the 
performance of that function to which MR. 
SIDNEY refers ; but if such is the case, they 
did not come to my notice while I was ex- 
amining the whole stupendous collection of 
tracts (including Thomason 's) and broadsides 
in the British Museum which Carlyle (more 
suo) actually ventured to call "rubbish heaps " 
At any rate, 25 June, 1649, should be taken 
into account while we are studying the his- 
tory of 30 January in the same year. Accord- 
ing to the text of * The Confession,' Richard 
Brandon "departed this life," with a con- 
science much troubled, 20 June, 1649, i.e., 
five days before Thomason bought the tract 
in question. Richard Brandon was some- 
times called " Gregory," as if, with the office 
of his father Gregory Brand on, he had accepted 
his name. More frequently Richard was de- 
scribed as " Young Gregory," who " claimed 
the gallows as an inheritance." In reading 
about these worthies one has to hold tight to 
cue's chronology. 

In 'The Last Will and Testament of 
Richard Brandon, Esquire' (B.M., press- 
mark E. 501/12 ; see Satirical Print No. 760), 
the testator expresses his wish to benefit 
various distinguished members of the Par- 
liamentary party by bequests from his 
estate, e g., his "Manor of Tyburn to the 
luncto and all Rebels in General," and "a 
parcel of land lying by Mary bone Park, to 
build a Chapell on, and one piece of ground 
lying by the Kings high-way for a burying- 
place for them, and their heirs for ever." 
This may interest those correspondents of 
* N. & Q. ' who have recently been illustrating 
the descent of the " Manor of Tyburn." The 
beneficiaries were to bind themselves to 
"build a Colledge on the same parcell of 
ground known by the name of Doctor Stories 
Cap" I understand that the "Colledge" 
was to be a gallows, i.e., the " triple tree " 
so often mentioned in the literature of Lon- 
don crime, which was a triangle of stout 
timbers mounted high upon tall wooden 
legs, a record of which is preserved in 
Hogarth's delineation of the last scene in the 
career of Mr. Thomas Idle, who came to grief 
by its means at Tyburn. This structure was 
called after Dr. Story, who, temp. Elizabeth, 
1571, preceded Idle from that spot into the 
other world. The doctor's offences were 
alleged to be cursing the queen at meals, 
employing magical devices, and invoking 
foreign enemies against her. He was one of 
those who, vide ' The Purchasers Pound ' 
(B.M., E. 1040/13), were 

English Traytors, that have had their scope, 
To act a part, upon their Sovereign King ; 
for which on Dr. Story's Cap theyl swing. 

Some of ' N. & Q.'s ' correspondents who, 
not long since, were exercised anent the 
attitude assumed by King Charles at the 
final moment of his life that is to say, 
whether he lay prone with his neck upon a 
very low block, or whether he knelt before a 
block such as that in the Tower may find 
comfort in the woodcut of 'A Dialogue,' 
which distinctly illustrates the latter mode, 
and was actually published in London within 
a few weeks of the event it professes to 

' The Last Will and Testament of Richard 
Brandon ' tells us that, after having flatly 
refused to perform his office upon the " White 
King," he was fetched out of his bed by a troop 
of horse ; paid thirty pounds, all in half- 
crowns, for the deed ; went into Rosemary 
Lane, where he lived, to his wife, gave her 
the money, and then had a drinking bout, 
with effects which look very like those which 
often attend delirium tremens ; finally, the 


. ix. JAN. 25, 1902. 

minister of death died in " a most sad con- 
dition," "apparitions and visions," called 
up by his troubled conscience, terrifying him 
to the last. This event happened 20 June, 
1649 ; the next day his remains were carried 
to Whitechapel Churchyard and there interred 
amid strange and portentous u actions." 


If your correspondent will refer to 5 th S. 
v. 177, he will find the titles of three 
tracts in the British Museum Library, pub- 
lished soon after the execution of Charles I. ; 
also references to many works bearing on 
that event, in some of which he may find the 
required information ; but in no case is a 
portrait mentioned. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

(9 th S yiii. 224, 345, 509). A full and very 
interesting account of Pontack's will be found 
in the 'Dictionary of National Biography,' 
vol. xlvi. pp. 94-5. R, B. 


" PARVER ALLEY" (9 th S. viii. 325, 451, 514). 
To speak of the "middle aisle" of a church 
is a thing so general, and to speak of the 
"middle alley" an expression so compara- 
tively rare, that I am tempted to ask whether 
a word which has been accepted as current 
by the majority of writers on church archi- 
tecture and ecclesiology may not be used to 
mean what we know is meant, without per- 
petual references being made to its original 
signification. Scores of other good nouns 
have been dissociated from their etymologies, 
and are being blamelessly employed in novel 
senses. It would be well if aisle were per- 
mitted to be the name of the main passage 
through the nave of a church as well as of 
the lateral gangs I might say gangways, had 
not way been " unnecessarily added "which 
are means of access to the wings. In common 
speech alley calls up associations which are 
not connected with the inside of a church, 
though it gets there in Lincolnshire and in 
some other delightsome parts of the kingdom 
MR. ARTHUR HUSSEY'S philological know- 
ledge is probably not far inferior to that of 

Neither MR. CHARLES HIATT nor J T F 
appears at all clear as to the word " aisle '' 
Parker, in his 'Glossary of Terms used in 
Grecian Roman. Italian, and Gothic Archi- 

considered as an inward portico. In England there 
are seldom more than two, one on each side of 
ihe nave or choir, and frequently only one ; but 
examples may be found of two aisles on one side 
and one on the other. In foreign churches there 
are many examples of five parallel aisles, or two on 
each side of the nave." 

The same author adds in a foot-note, "Alley, 
allye, used for aisle." 

No one who has the slightest knowledge 
of accepted architectural phraseology could 
possibly speak of the nave of a church, or its 
central approach to the altar, as a " middle 
aisle." HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

" OH, LIFE so SHORT ! " (9 th S. viii. 525.) 
The lines "O world ! so few the years we 
live," &c , will be found in the notes to Long- 
fellow's Spanish translation 'Coplas de Man- 
rique.' They form the opening portion of 
some stanzas " found in the author's pocket 
after his death on the field of battle." 


MODEST EPITAPHS (9 th S. viii. 421). See 
1 st S. viii. 491 for an American anonymous 
epitaph. A tombstone at Agra has simply 
the words " Happy Seaton " upon it. Is 
not " Miserrimus " to be seen at Winchester 1 ? 

H. S. MUIR, Surg.-General. 
[" Miserrimus" is in Worcester Cathedral.] 

" PEN-NAME" (9 th S. ix. 28). I notice that 
COL. PRIDE AUX, in asking a question as to 
when " pen-name" was first used, says it was 
referred to in a " sympathetic article " in the 
Publishers' Circular of 14 December last on 
Mrs. Gallup's ' Bi-literal Cypher.' Kindly 
allow me to say that soon after writing that 
article I found that Mrs. Gallup's "Bacon" 
was really Pope's ' Homer,' and that the less 
said about her claim for " absolute veracity " 
the better. R. B. MARSTON, 

Ed. Publishers' Circular. 

" ALRIGHT "= ALL RIGHT (9 th S. viii. 240, 
312, 413, 493). In the present unsettled state 
of English spelling the poor child has to 
remember a great many things. There being 
no fixed rule, he has to learn by heart all 
words in which the second I is dropped 
before a consonant, as in ivelcome, welfare, 
fulfil, fulfilment, almighty, almost, already, 
&c. Why should not the rule be- carried 
logically through, and why do not we write 
either- welbehaved, iltreatment, alright, ful- 
groiun, fulmoon, &c., or loell-come, full-fill, 
all-mighty, &c. 1 L. L. K. 

LADY MARY TUDOR (9 th S. viii. 484). I 
have a pamphlet, ' The Last of the Derwent- 

9*8. IX. JAN. 25, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


waters,' by the late J. Fisher Crosthwaite, 
Esq., of Keswick, in which it is stated that 
"Edward" (son of Sir Francis Radcliffe) 
** was married to the Lady Mary Tudor, the 
youngest natural daughter of Charles the 
Second, who was at the time of her marriage 
in the fourteenth year of her age. In the 
month following this event (1688) Sir Francis 
was created Earl of Der went water, Baron 
Tynedaleand Viscount Radcliffe and Langley." 
If this be correct, it thus appears Lady Mary 
was born in 1674. MISTLETOE. 

According to Fisher's * Companion and Key 
to the History of England,' p. 312, this lady 
was born 16 October, 1673. E. A. FRY. 

According to Anderson ('Royal Genea- 
logies,' second edit., 1736), she was born 
16 October, 1673, and received the name of 
Tudor, 10 December, 1680. C. S. WARD. 

PETER LYLY (9 th S. viii. 504). Though 
Peter Lily, or Lilly, Archdeacon of Taunton, 
is described in the * Dictionary of National 
Biography ' (vol. xxxiii. p. 263) as the son of 
Peter Lily, Prebendary of Canterbury, the 
only Lily who held a stall in that cathedral 
was George Lily, who was collated to a 
canonry in the first prebend of the church of 
Canterbury 13 March, 1557/8 (Le Neve's 
' Fasti Ecc. Anglic.,' vol. i. p. 47). 

G. F. R. B. 

CASTOR-OIL PLANT (9 th S. viii. 224, 511 ; 
ix. 11). When in Oporto I found, pace 
C. 0. P., that the tincture of eucalyptus gently 
dabbed on face, hands, &c., before going to 
bed, afforded a considerable protection 
from the attacks of mosquitos. I am bound 
to say, however, that the long, vicious, and 
shrill swear-words with which the angry 
insects wheeled away from the (to them) 
obnoxious odour of their prey were some- 
what a deterrent from peaceful slumbers. 


ZOAR CHAPEL, SOUTHWARK (9 th S. viii. 521). 
During the reign of James II. (1685-9) 
one Poulter, a zealous Papist, opened a school 
in Southwark to teach the children of the 
poor gratis. This excited considerable atten- 
tion, and three gentlemen of St. Saviour's 
parish, Messrs. Mallet, Warburton, and 
Holland, all members of the church in St. 
Thomas's Street, used their utmost endeavours 
to frustrate Poulter's designs. They obtained 
the lease of a piece of ground in what was 
called The Park, Southwark, on which they 
erected a building at an expense of 300., for 
the purpose of a school and a meeting-house. 
When the place was no longer used as a 

place of worship, the service was removed to 
the meeting-house in St. Thomas's Street. 
Thus originated the Gravel Lane Charity 
School. In 1740 the meeting-house was re- 
moved to Dead man's Place, the building was 
let for various purposes, and the profits were 
devoted to the support of the school. Shortly 
after 1783 a new meeting-house was erected 
in Union Street, whither the congregation of 
the Protestant Dissenters was removed. 

The place was for some time called John 
Bunyan's Meeting-house. The lease of the 
ground was dated January, 1687, and the 
building must have taken some months 
to erect. Now as John Bunyan died on 
31 May, 1688, at Bedford, and only visited 
London once in a year, he could not have 
preached in it on more than one occasion. 
For further particulars see Wilkinson's 
' Londina Illustrata,' London, 1825, with two 
illustrations. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The building to which MR. HIBGAME refers 
can hardly be the original Zoar Chapel in 
which Bunyan preached, for John Timbs, in 
his * Curiosities of London ' (1855), says, " The 
chapel was used as a wheelwright's shop 
prior to its being pulled down, when the 
pulpit in which Bunyan had preached was 
removed to the Methodist Chapel, Palace 
Yard, Lambeth." Where is this pulpit now ? 
There is an engraving of it in 'Interesting 
and Remarkable Places,' by C. Mackenzie 
(n.d.), and the accompanying letterpress is as 
follows : 

" This treasured relic is in the Methodist Chapel, 
Palace Yard, Lambeth. It appears that the pulpit 
came from the Meeting-house in Zoar Street, where 
Bunyan was allowed to deliver his discourses, by 
favour of his friend Dr. Thomas Barlow, Bishop of 
Lincoln, to whom it belonged. Here Bunyan 
preached whenever he visited London ; and if only 
one day's notice were given, the place would not 
contain half the people who assembled. Three 
thousand had been sometimes gathered together in 
that remote part of the town ; and even on a dark 
winter's morning, at seven o'clock, not less than 
twelve hundred. 

In my copy of 'Old and New London,' 
vi. 40 (n.d.), I observe that the writer was 
apparently uncertain as to whether Zoar 
Chapel did or did not then exist. He, how- 
ever, mentions the existence of two engrav- 
ings, one dated 1812 and the other 1864. 
Probably a comparison of these with the 
present building before it finally disappears 
might throw some valuable light upon the 

While on the subject of Bunyan, I should 
like to ask if it is known where "Mr. 
Gammin's meeting-house, near Whitechapel," 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. JAN. 25, 1902. 

stood. Here ifc was that Bunyan preached 
his last sermon, on Sunday, 19 August, 
1688. This sermon was, I believe, eventu- 
ally printed, but I am at present unaware 
of its title. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

GUINEA (9 th S. viii. 461). -The following 
epigram from 'Elegant Extracts,' 1790, vol. i. 
p. 838, if not taking up too much room 
in your columns, may prove amusing and 
interesting. The name of the author is not 
given : 

As Quin and Foote, one day walk'd out 

To view the country round, 
In merry mood, they 'chatting stood, 

Hard by the village-pound. 
Foote from his poke, a shilling took, 

And said, " I '11 bet a penny, 
In a short space, within this place, 

I '11 make this piece a guinea." 
Upon the ground, within the pound 

The shilling soon was thrown : 
" Behold," says Foote, " the thing 's made out, 
For there is one pound one." 

" I wonder not," says Quin, " that thought, 
Should in your head be found, 

Since that's the way, your debts you pay- 
One shilling in the pound." 

What are called spade-ace guineas are fre- 
quently hung on watch-chains. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

(9 th S. viii. 523). Prof. Edward Dowden, in 
his life of the poet (1886), vol. i. p. 278, says 
in a foot-note : 

"The house occupied by Shelley has been pulled 
down and aiiother is built on the site. The precise 
spot was pointed out by Mary Blackmore, adopted 
daughter of Shelley's landlady, to Miss Blind. ' It 
is,' Miss Blind writes, 'at Lynmouth, not Lynton, 
not touching the river, but some way back on the 
other side of the road.' Mrs. Blackmore had a 
vivid recollection of Shelley." 


" HALSH" (9 th S. viii. 81, 255, 327, 411, 509, 
529). Courtesy seems to require that I should 
acknowledge the communication at the last 
reference of the writer who signs Q. V. 
(If I knew that those letters were his initials 
it would save a seeming circumlocution.) 
1 irstly, then, does not his instance show that 
i? ' 1 D u lcfclonar y ' is incorrect in indicating that 
> halch is obsolete, seeing that he cites it as 
in use 1 I cannot at the moment decide this 
question definitely, because I have not seen 
the paper mentioned. And, secondly, " halch " 
being conceded, "halsh" also should be re- 
corded as a main word. Moreover, " halsh " 
and 'halsh-band" should be given as sub- 
stantives, ARTHUR MAYALL. 

"KNEVEL" (9 th S. ix. 9). This is certainly 
not " pure English." It is Low German and 
Dutch. The corresponding form in High 
German is Knebel, of which Dr. Kluge, in his 
'Etymological German Dictionary,' 1891, re- 
marks that it is still doubtful whether in this 
sense, first recorded in modern High German, 
it is developed out of the O.H.G. knebil, 
"cross-beam, girder, cross-bar, cord, fetter, 
knuckle," or whether it is another word, con- 
nected with Anglo-Saxon cenep, Old Frisian 
kenep, Old Norse kampr, "moustache." Be 
this as it may, the lost English word for the 
hair on the upper lip is not knevel, but rather 
kemp, which is defined by Dr. Murray as now 

meaning "coarse or stout hair occurring 

in wool," but must once have had the force of 
the Anglo-Saxon cenep, from which it appears 
to be derived. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

Mackay's assertion that knevel is pure 
English is utterly erroneous. It is Dutch, 
and is more explicitly written knevelbaard, 
defined as " barba vestiens superius labrum, 
cornua superioris barbse" ('Kilianus Auctus,' 
1642); "the Muschadoes on the upper-lipp " 
(Hexham, 1658). Knevel has other meanings, 
especially, e.g., those of a packer's-stick 
(paksiok) and a " korte dikke knuppel, dien 
men sommige dieren dwars door den bek 
doet " (i.e., a short thick stick put transversely 
through the muzzle of certain animals), 
whence probably the application of the word 
to the moustache. 

The moustache, which we know from 
Julius Caesar was cultivated by the ancient 
Britons ("capilloque sunt promisso atque 
omni parte corporis rasa prseter caput et 
labrum superius," ' De Bello Gall.,' v. 14), was 
also retained by the Anglo-Saxons ("The 
Englysshemen, at those dayes," says Fabyan, 
" vsed the heer of theyr ouer lyppes shadde 
[i.e., parted] and nat shauen "), in whose 
tongue it was called cenep* Whether there 
was another word for it, my acquaintance 
with Old English is not sufficient to enable 
me to say. Cenep, however, appears to have 
no affinity with knevel. 

Our word moustache was taken, not from 
the Spaniards, but from the French, who had 
borrowed it from the Italians, the earliest 
known use of the French word dating from 
the fifteenth century (" Grec portant la 
barbette moustache," Jean Le Maire, quoted 
in Hatzfeld's dictionary). The Old French 

* I find this word in the plural in the ' A.-S. 
Chronicles,' an. 1056, ed. Thorpe, who hazards a 
wrong rendering ; and it is given with the meaning 
of bridle or bridle-bit (lupatum) in Wright- 
Wiilcker's ' Vocabularies ' (31, 4 ; 486, 16; cf. 430, 14), 

9*8. IX. JAN. 25. 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


word (see 9 th S. ii. 389) was grenon, gernon, 
or guernon, which presumably fell into disuse 
when shaving became general in France in 
the fifteenth century ; and the * Dictionnaire 
de Trevoux ' tells us that moustache was 
sometimes employed to denote the side 
whiskers. Mackay is equally at fault in 
asserting that we must have had an English 
word for the hair on the upper lip long before 
"moustache" was introduced. I have never 
met with such a word in Middle English, 
and after our adoption of the French word 
writers made a sad hash of the spelling, as 
may be seen by the examples quoted by 
Fairholt in his * Costume,' a book not 
at my hand, or by those given in Nares's 
'Glossary' under the words 'Monchato,' 
'Mouchato,' * Mutchato,' as well as by 
Hexham's muschado (mentioned above), 
muchato, and mouchato ("een Snot-baerdt, 
ofte Knevel-baerdt, A Snottie-beard, or 
Snottie Muchatoes," and " Mouchatoes. Siet 
Mustaches" a cross-reference not carried 
out). The quotation from Le Maire is curious 
for its allusion to the Greeks. For whereas 
there is no word in classical Latin for 
"moustache," the ancient Greeks denoted 
it by fjiva-ra^ (see the fourteenth idyl of 
Theocritus), which, passing into mediaeval 
Latin in the form mystax, gave origin to the 
Komance words. 

The Dutch knevel, it may be observed in 
conclusion, is identical with the German 
Knebel. F. ADAMS. 

115, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

BEAULIEU AS A PLACE-NAME (9 th S. vi. 87, 
216; viii. 397 ; ix. 17). Beaulieu-en-Argonne 
is a beautiful village of 237 inhabitants in 
the diocese of Verdun (Meuse). The Abbey 
of Beaulieu, which was founded in the year 
642 bv St. Rouin, a native of Scotland, re- 
ceived in 1610 the reform from the Bene- 
dictine Abbey of St. Vannes, and is now a 
ruin. Please to read ' Recherches Historiques 
sur 1'Abbaye de Beaulieu,' by Aug. Lemaire, 
in-8 (Bar-le-Duc, 1873). ABBE BENOIT. 

27). The difficulty about accepting the origin 
proposed here is twofold : (1) the word tenez, in 
French, does not, and never did, mean kl take 
it," as suggested ; and (2) there is no iota of 
evidence that the exclamation was ever 
habitual in French tennis-courts with any- 
thing like that meaning. Prof. Skeat, of 
course, suggests nothing of the sort. He 
knows well enough that the exclamations 
u tiens ! " and " tenez ! " are mere expressions 
of surprise. I suppose, I may have played in 
French tennis-courts more frequently, per- 

mps, than any other contributor to * N. & Q.,' 
and I have certainly heard those exclamations 
many hundreds or times, but never from a 
server who was delivering or had just 
delivered a service, and only from a player 
surprised by the unlooked-for bound of a 
sail in one direction when he had expected it 
:o bound in another. As to the first difficulty, 
tenir means, in its primary sense, to hold, 
not to take. A very rudimentary knowledge 
of French should be sufficient to settle that. 
As to the Latin words excipe and accipe : I 
do not think they are enough to establish 
the peculiar use of a French exclamation, 
which rests on no other foundation what- 

LONDON M.P.s (9 th S. viii. 524). I have 
much pleasure in affording the following 
information, extracted by me from the parish 
register of St. Andrew Undershaft, London, 
relating to William Love (citizen and draper), 
Alderman and Sheriff of London, and M.P. 
'or same 1661-81, and in 1689 until his death, 
which must, I think, have taken place in 
April (rather than "in May," as stated by 
MR. W. D. PINK) of the latter year, consider- 
ing the date of his burial. He appears also 
x> have resided at Clapham, in Surrey, where 
ie died, and where probably some of his 
hildren were born and baptized. In any 
history of that parish further particulars 
respecting the family will no doubt be met 
with, but I have not had time to make the 


1651, Dec. 20. William, s. of Wra. and Ellisa- 
beth [sic] Loue. 

1660, April 17. Sammuell [sic], s. of Mr. Wm. 
Loue, Alderman. 


1654, Sep. 30. A d. of Mr. Wm. Loue. 

1664, March 25. Edwd., s. of Wm. Loue, Esq'. 

1664, April 3. Joseph, s. of Wm. Loue, Esq r . 

1677/8, Feb. 23. Sarah Ward, died in Aid. Loues 
ho. bur. at Bethlehem. 

1689, May 1. Win. Loue, Essq. [sic], died at Clap- 
ham in Surry. 

1694. Aug. 3. Mrs. Elizabeth, relict Wm. Love, 
Esq., from Clapham. 

The same parish register contains other (and 
later) burial entries relating to the family. 

"SAWE" (9 th S. viii. 424, 448). May I 
trouble F. P. to construe the rest of the 
phrase in which this word occurs 1 "William 

carpenter and top-sawyer who is to be 

made in Calais," strikes one as an odd ex- 
pression. Did saw -pits and the relative 
top-sawyers exist at all in 1369 1 Q. V. 

Your correspondent gets the meaning of 
top-sawyer (which sounds smart) out of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. 25, 1902. 

"maistre de la sawe" by disregarding the 
adjected phrase "qu'est a fiaire" an easy, 
but far from commendable mode of interpre- 
tation. One may wonder why an English 
word should be used when a French one was 
handy, sie or sigue (see Scheler, s.v. ' Scier '). 
But fancy the post of maitre of a saw in 
course of manufacture ! F. ADAMS. 

VERSES WANTED (9 th S. viii. 144). The 
verses referred to are probably those begin- 

Comes, at times, a stillness as of even, 

and forming hymn No. 641 in the 'Office 
Hymnbook' (Pickering & Chatto, 1890). 
They are there said to be the property of the 
Rev. I. Gregory Smith. 


ANNE BILSON (9 th S. viii. 464). Anne, the 
wife of Thomas Bilson, Bishop of Winchester, 
was one of the five daughters of Thomas Mill, 
Esq., of Grove Place, Nursling, co. Hants, 
by his wife Jane, daughter of Richard Button, 
of Sarum (see addenda to 'Vis. Dorset, 1623,' 
Colby and Ry lands, p. 17). 

Thomas Mill (younger son of John Mill, a 
wealthy merchant of Southampton, d. 1551) 
was Recorder of Southampton, and repre- 
sented that borough in Parliament in 1553 ; 
he died in 1560. His only son, Sir Richard 
Mill, Knt. (born 1556-7), was Sheriff of Hants 
in 1593-4 ; M.P. for Hants 1597 ; died, s.p., 
20 Oct., 1613. The remains of a handsome 
monument erected to his memory may still 
be seen in Nursling Church. 

The bishop had two children by his wife 
Anne : a daughter Amy, the wife of Sir 
Richard Norton, Bart., of Rotherfield, co. 
Hants, and a son, Sir Thomas Bilson, Knt. 
(born 1591 ; married Susanna, daughter of 
Sir William Uvedale, Knt., of Wickham, co. 
Hants, on 6 August, 1612; knighted at 
Royston 25 Oct., 1613 ; M.P. for Winchester 
1614; died 1649), of Mapledurham, near 
Petersfield, co. Hants, where his descendants 
resided until the death, without issue, of his 
great-grandson Leonard Bilson, M.P. for 
Petersfield, on 6 Oct., 1715. 

There is a record in the Petersfield parish 
registers of the burial of "Anne Bilson 
widow," on 6 Nov., 1643, which doubtless 
refers to the bishop's widow. 

High Street, Portsmouth. 

ym. 524). I find this paragraph unsatisfac- 
tory. It is not yet possible for a man to fall 
into a furnace of molten metal," nor is iron 
now "run into rails"; while the article 

usually described as "a rail " would be some 
yards in length. If your correspondent had 
addressed the two unanswerable inquiries 
direct to the " brother of his friend," he would 
probably have been informed that no such 
occurrences took place. If the statement 
can have had its origin from reports of an 
accurrence at one of the blast furnaces at 
Middlesbrough some years ago, the actual 
ircumstances were widely different. 


OLD SONGS (9 th S. viii. 104, 212, 351, 472). 
The author of the * Beggar's Petition,' begin- 
ning " Pity the sorrows of a poor old man," 
was the Rev. Thomas Moss, B.A., who died 
in 1808. There is a notice of him in 
the 'Dictionary of National Biography' 
(vol. xxxix. p. 184). 



ix. 29). Mrs. Richmond Ritchie says : 

"My father drew the designs [of the initial letter 
T], and an employe at Smith & Elder's copied them 
on to the wood. But it wasn't satisfactory alto- 
gether. Then came Mr. Walker's drawings." 

96, Philbeach Gardens, S.W. 

COMMISSION or SEWERS (9 th S. viii. 485). 
The Commissioners of Sewers were in early 
reigns appointed at the pleasure of the 
Crown, in all parts of the realm wherever 
needful, by commission under the Great Seal, 
granted pro re nata, such commissions to 
endure for five and sometimes for ten or 
fifteen years. 

By statute 23 Henry VIII. it was enacted 
that the commissions were to be at the dis- 
cretion and nomination of the Lord Chan- 
cellor, Lord Treasurer, and Chief Justices, 
and to continue ten years unless repealed by 
a new commission. The duties of the Com- 
missioners of Sewers were to overlook the 
repairs of sea-banks and sea-walls, the cleans- 
ing of rivers, public streams, and ditches, &c., 
for the carrying off of water, and were 
limited to the county for which they were 
specially appointed. They were empowered 
to make laws and ordinances for the carrying 
out of such repairs, and to assess and levy 
such rates as they deemed necessary for that 
purpose. They might decree the sale of 
lands in default of payment of such rate, 
but their decrees were to be certified into 
Chancery and to have the royal assent ; and 
the Commissioners were subject to the juris- 
diction of the Court of King's Bench. 

9'" S. IX. JAN. 25, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The Commissions of Sewers are enrolled 
on the dorse of the Patent Rolls. 

Proceedings before the Commissioners of 
Sewers range from Ed ward II. to Henry VI. 

Laws and ordinances of the Commissioners 
range from 42 Elizabeth to 1831, and include 
decrees relating to the Bedford Level made 
in Charles II.'s reign. 

The above information is taken from Mr. 
Scargill-Bird's ' Guide to the Public Records,' 
and the documents themselves are to be found 
in the Public Record Office. E. A. FRY. 


G. A. M. will find some information as to 
the existing law on this subject (from stat. 
23 Henry VIII. c. 5 onward) in the current 
edition of the 'Index to the Statutes in 
Force,' under 'Drainage and Improvement 
of Land,' heading 1. He will also find a Com- 
mission of Sewers ordered as early as 1314-5 
for the Yorkshire Dove (' Rolls of Parliament,' 
vol. i. p. 319, col. 1). O. O. H. 

Your correspondent G. A. M. will find 
much information on this subject in Robert 
Callis's 'Reading upon the Statutes of Sewers,' 
the first edition of which was issued in 1647. 
The late Serjeant Woolrych wrote a useful 
book on the law of sewers, but I cannot give 
the title. Dugdale's ' History of Embanking 
and Draining' may also be consulted with 
advantage. EDWARD PEACOCK, 

A Commissioner of Sewers. 

For a brief history of the formation and 
doings of the above see article on ' Drainage 
of the Great Level' in Fenland Notes and 
Queries for April, July, and October, 1901. 

J. H. S. 

A query at this reference still, I believe, 
remains unanswered. MR. R. LINN, of 
Christchurch, New Zealand, quoting a 
review in the Edinburgh Review of April, 
1886, of Bagwell's ' Ireland under the Tudors,' 
wants to know whether the settlement of 
Irish in Pembrokeshire was made in the time 
of Henry VIII., and whether their descendants 
can be recognized at the present time in any 
way. The following is an extract from 'The 
Welsh People,' by Principal J. Rhys and D. 
Brynmor Jones, a work published in 1900, 
referring to this settlement : 

" We read in the history of Pembrokeshire by 
George Owen, who lived in the time of Elizabeth, 
that the Anglo - Flemish portion of his native 
county was so overrun by Irishmen, that in some 
parishes the clergyman was found to be the only 
inhabitant who was not Irish. This it is true was 
an exceptional time, as it was at the end of the war 
known as Tyrone's Rebellion, but many of the 

exiles must have settled in Pembrokeshire. In fact 
Mr. Henry Owen, the learned editor of George 
Owen's works, remarks that the descendants of 
these Irishmen can still be traced." 

I am informed that this colony is still in 
evidence. The east end of the town of Pem- 
broke is largely composed of Irish folk, whose 
ancestors probably settled there at the time 
of the colonization above referred to. 


SONG WANTED (9 th S. viii. 364, 510). I 
cannot give GNOMON any information as to 
the 'National Song -Book' about which he 
inquires, but I can give him the song which 
he wants. It is in 'The Banquet of Thalia ; 
or, the Fashionable Songster's Pocket Memo- 
rial,' p. 94 : 


Words by G. A. Stevens. 

Once the gods of the Greeks, at ambrosial feast, 

Large bowls of rich nectar were quaffing ; 
Merry Mom us amongst them was sat as a guest : 

(Homer says the celestials love laughing.) 
On each in the synod the humourist droll'd, 

So none could his jokes disapprove ; 
He sung, reparteed, and some smart stories told, 

And at length he began upon Jove : 

" Sire ! Atlas, who long has the universe bore, 

Grows grievously tired of late ; 
He says that mankind are much worse than before, 

So he begs to be eas'd of his weight." 
Jove knowing the earth on poor Atlas was hurl'd, 

From his shoulders commanded the ball ; 
Gave his daughter ATTRACTION the charge of the 

And she hung it high up in his hall. 

Miss, pleas'd with the present, review'd the globe 


To see what each climate was worth ; 
Like a diamond the whole with an atmosphere 


And she variously planted the earth : 
With silver, gold, jewels, she India endow'd 

France and Spain she taught vineyards to rear ; 
What suited each clime, on each clime she bestow'd, 
And FREEDOM she found flourish'd here. 


Four Cardinal Virtues she left in this isle, 

As guardians to cherish the root ; 
The blossoms of LIBERTY then 'gan to smile, 

And Englishmen fed on the fruit. 
Thus fed and thus bred, from a bounty so rare, 

preserve it as free as 'twas given ! 
We will whilst we 've breath ! nay, we '11 grasp it in 
death ! 

Then return it untainted to heav'n. 

The prefatory address " to the public " in 
* The Banquet of Thalia ' is signed " F. Atkin- 
son," and is dated " York, Nov. 19, 1792." At 
the end of the book is " From the Herald- 
Office, York, by Wilson, Spence, and Maw- 
man, anno M,DCC,XC." 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. JAN. 25, 1902. 

These dates disagree, but they take the 
song back to the eighteenth century. 

According to Allibone's dictionary, George 
Alexander Stevens, a strolling player, dra- 
matic author, vocalist, and lecturer, died 
6 Sept., 1784. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 


Traces of the Elder Faiths of Ireland. By W. G. 
Wood-Martin, M.R.I. A. 2 vols. (Longmans & 

A ZEALOUS worker in the fields of archaeological 
research, Col. Wood-Martin is known as the his- 
torian of Sligo and the author of ' Pagan Ireland : 
a Handbook of Irish Pre-Christian Antiquities, and, 
other works. His present book is to some extent an 
expansion of the Handbook previously mentioned. 
It is almost too comprehensive in scheme, and, 
though primarily intended for the folk-lorist, 
aims also at being, among other things, a sum- 
mary of geological conditions. While maintaining 
generally that investigations into and speculations 
concerning the great glacial epoch have an im- 
portant bearing upon the development of the 
human race, the author holds that, as almost all 
parts of the world except "these Islands" have been 
regarded as the cradle of the human race, " man 
must necessarily have been some time in existence, 
and must have acquired some faint religious ideas 
before he found a home on these, at that time, 
icebound shores." He begins, accordingly, with an 
account of the period when Ireland, as well as 
Britain, was united to the Continent, and furnishes 
maps showing the area of volcanic action in Great 
Britain and Ireland during part of the Tertiary 
period. The illustrations, it may be said, which 
are very numerous, constitute a striking and 
important feature in the volumes. The first of 
these, the frontispiece to the first volume, 
shows an ideal landscape of the north of Ireland 
in the Tertiary period, with two huge volcanoes, 
each throwing forth a pall of smoke. Similar 
designs and maps follow, presenting the aspects of 
the land and its occupants, concerning which our 
knowledge is of the scantiest. Quitting this domain, 
where all is practically conjecture, Col. Wood- 
Martin conies to first proofs of human action 
in the shape of flint weapons, quoting from 
the 1881 edition of Sir John Evans's 'Ancient 
Stone Implements' (the latest edition is 1897). We 
are here on more familiar ground, though even 
here the imagination is afforded some play, and we 
have a characteristic, if fanciful, picture of two 
fair-skinned warriors combating the grizzly bear 
with a rude lance and a hatchet of stone. Repre 
sentations of the mamnioth, the gigantic Irish deer, 
and other extinct animals follow, and there is a 
design, by which the collector may well profit, ol 
the manufacture of sham Irish antiquities, which 
seems now to be a fairly prosperous occupation 
At this early stage, even, we come upon an illustra 
turn of the paganism which, as students know, still 
exists beneath the veneer of Christianity. To use 
a happy phrase of Col. Wood-Martin, Christianity 

has smoothed over and swallowed paganism, and 
' the contour of its prey, as is the case ot the 
boa constrictor, can be distinctly traced under the 
glistening colours of its beautiful skin. The pagan 
llustration of which we speak is that of kindling 
the " need fire," which was practised in the last 
century. When cattle were affected with a disease 
called "big-head" every fire in the townland in 
which it had broken out was extinguished, and 
the inhabitants, assembling at the infected farm, 
produced fresh fire by the well-known and primitive 
process of friction. When the sticks were ignited 
a great smoke was produced from " scraws (sods 
covered with soot), and the animals were compelled 
to inhale this till water ran plentifully from 
mouth and nostrils. This curious survival is more 
pleasant to contemplate than the barbarous per- 
secutions for witchcraft which have been practised 
at a period still later in date. Flint arrow and spear 
heads are supposed to possess the power of healing 
cattle, and instances are known of farmers finding 
it more profitable to keep them for such purpose 
than to sell them to collectors. Cave remains are 
familiar in Ireland, though no very startling dis- 
covery of such has been made. Fairy doctors, as 
they are called, still regard flint instruments as 
elf bolts, and sometimes use them as a cure for 
human ailments as well as those of cattle. So 
late as 1480 we hear of an Ulster chief O Kane, 
whose house, when he received a visit from a 
Bohemian nobleman, lodged sixteen women, all 
naked except for a loose mantle. The chief him- 
self had only the same scanty garb and shoes, and 
took off both on entering the house, inviting the 
guest to follow his example. Some interesting par- 
ticulars are given concerning bonefires. The views 
of the Colonel on Irish literature and Irish MSS. 
will be far from acceptable to the younger school 
of Irish students. The former is said to be mere 
protoplasm, and with certain reservations it is alleged 
to be difficult to discover an Irish MS. which to 
the ordinary nineteenth-century reader does not 
appear " extremely childish " " We possess," says 
the Colonel, "in Irish no work of genius comparable 
to the ' Nibelungen Lied ' or the ' Song of Roland.' 
To speak of the ' Tain-B6-Cuailnge Y as a Gaelic 
'Iliad' seems, to say the least, an imprudent com- 
parison." Again he says : "There is nothing, either 
in material or literary remains, to support the asser- 
tion of the monastic chroniclers as to the glories of 
the Green Isle of the West at the time when the 
first missionaries began their attempt to convert 
the people to Christianity." 

In the second volume we are more strictly in the 
land of folk-lore. The opening chapter of this, con- 
cerning fairies, is the most interesting in the work. 
Those which follow on marriage lore, well worship, 
tree worship, stone worship, and similar subjects 
are of signal value. Some of the information given 
is from our own columns, and much of it is familiar 
to the general student. Enough that is character- 
istically Irish remains to render the book indispens- 
able to the scholar. So well has Col. Wood-Martin 
done his work, and so valuable is the information 
he has collected, that we feel disposed to be lenient 
to some proofs of carelessness, such, for instance, as 
talking of the ' Urn Burial' of Sir John (sic) Browne, 
and to a rather aggravating habit of calling anti- 
quaries "antiquarians." He displays much zeal 
and much erudition, and his work, from which, did 
space permit, we should like largely to quote, is a 
fine contribution to a study of unending interest. 

9* S. IX. JAN. 25, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Besides being pleasant reading, it fulfils his aim, and 
is " the romance of religion in Ireland." 

Isopel Berners. By George Borrow. Edited by 

Thomas Seccombe. (Hodder & Stoughton.) 
IN printing as a consecutive and integral story the 
chapters in 'Lavengro' and ' Romany Rye' which 
deal with Borrow's life in "the dingle and his 
association with Isopel Berners, Mr. Seccombe 
renders a genuine and an almost ideal service to 
the lovers of romantic fiction. It would be easy to 
assert that the words employed are inappropriate. 
Let them stand, however. To us the story of Isopel 
Berners belongs to romantic fiction of the most 
enchanting class. Isopel is in some respects to be 
numbered with the heroines who will never leave 
us, with much, as the author would say, of Bryn- 
hild and something of Tess of the Durbervilles. 
She is best, however, taken as herself, and as such 
she is far too good for her lover, who lets her go, 
and pules unavailingly over her loss. We thank 
Mr. ^Seccombe for reintroducing us to her. We 
were young when we made her acquaintance, 
and failed to estimate her aright. Now we serve 
her and are of her train. We thank Mr. Seccombe, 
too, for a delightful introduction, worthy of the 
story, though we disagree with every word of it. 
With regard to Borrow, we dissent from received 
opinion. As was said by a Frenchman of a woman, 
" She is not pretty, she is worse," we say of 
Borrow's descriptions they are not true, they are 
more alluring than truth. We have no niore idea 
as to what "the dingle" is like than if it were 
in fairyland, and we are not sure that it is 
not. It has no more reality than that scene in 
an Irish schoolroom where the master is shown us 
poring over a "huge Elzevir Flaccus"! or than 
Borrow's linguistic acquirements, whether obtained 
from the " emigr< of the ancien[ne] cour" or from 
whispered conferences with Ursula behind the 
hedge. Borrow has, however, a truth beyond truth, 
and is always to be prized and loved, though for 
reasons precisely different from those often advanced 
in his favour. As for Isopel Berners, she dwells 
with Di Vernon, with whom she has this in common 
that her creator got afraid of her, as Shakespeare is 
said to have done of Mercutio. Her leavetaking 
is not her own, however. That is all Borrow. It 
is a wonderful composition, but from Borrow we 
expect no less. 

Frederick the Great on Kingcraft. From the Original 
MS. By Sir J. William Whittall. (Longmans & 

THE story of the MS. " Les Matinees du Rpi de 
Prusse, crites par Lui-meme, A.D. 1764," which is 
here printed in its integrity for the first time, reads 
like a page out of one of Haggard's or Stevenson's 
romances. Marshal Savary, JDuke of Rovigo, the 
Buonapartist general, arrives at Smyrna as a desti- 
tute refugie in the year 1816. He and his companion 
General Lallimand had been picked up at sea in an 
open boat, with "only the clothes they were in." 
Happily these clothes had a pocket, and the pocket 
contained as his inseparable vade-mecum this re- 
markable MS. Having been hospitably sheltered 
and entertained by Mr. Charles Whittall, who was 
a resident factor at Smyrna, Savary, on his de- 
parture, presented his host with a copy of the 
r Matinees' as a small souvenir of his gratitude. 
The original MS., he said, he had surreptitiously 

appropriated when visiting the palace of Sans 
Souci in company with the Emperor Napoleon. 
This autograph exemplar has disappeared, so that 
we have to accept the copy on the authority of 
Sir J. Whittall's grandfather, which, he assures us, 
is unimpeachable. Carlyle, however, utterly dis- 
credited the authenticity of the document. 

These instructions of Frederick the Great, written 
for the benefit of his nephew and heir, in their 
cynical revelation of his private thoughts and the 
naivete of their non-morality, often remind us of 
the similarly ingenuous counsels of Chesterfield to 
his son. His ideas on religion, politics, and military 
affairs are set down with startling sincerity, naked 
and unashamed. " When I arrive at a place I 
always have a fatigued air, and I show myself to 
my people with a bad overcoat and a badly combed 
wig. These are but trifles, but they often make a 
singular impression." One poor fellow pitied him 
on seeing his bad overcoat: "He did not know 
that I had a good coat underneath." When about 
to review his troops he gets up beforehand the 
names of three or four of the lieutenants and ser- 
geants, which he produces as he passes along the 
ranks : " This gives me a singular reputation for 
memory and reflection." He eats and drinks 
sparingly in public at a dinner prepared by a 
German cook, but "when I am in my private 
apartments my French cook does all he can to 
satisfy me, and 1 confess that I am somewhat 
fastidious. I am near my bed, and that is what 
removes any anxiety as to how much I drink." 
Religion is a very good thing for one's subjects, 
" but a king is not wise to have any himself. " I 
understand by the word 'polities' that we must 
always seek to make dupes of others." If the 
picture here revealed of a libertine in morals, a 
sceptic in religion, a posture-monger in matters of 
state and government, was really drawn by his 
own hand, this Machiavellian monarch had little 
claim to be entitled " Great." 

The remaining and larger portion of Sir J. Whit- 
tail's book has nothing to dp with Frederick. It 
consists partly of family reminiscences of a gossip- 
ing anecdotal character and partly of a collection 
of Turkish folk-tales and parables picked up in 
Asia Minor. The best of these are attributed to 
Nasreddin Hoja, the Eulenspiegel or Joe Miller of 
the Turks in the fifteenth century. The likeness 
of the author and his family referred to on p. 140 
as forming the frontispiece of the volume non est 
in the copy before us. 

Selections from the English Poets. The Dunbar 
Anthology, 1401-1508. The Surrey and Wyatt 
Anthology, 1509-1547. Edited by Prof. Edward 
Arber, F.S.A. (Frowde.) 

PROF. ARBER'S admirable 'Anthology,' the best 
and most comprehensive we possess, has already 
received full recognition at our hands. It is now 
being reissued in a form even more attractive than 
that it formerly assumed, and with the agreeable 
addition of portraits of the most eminent poets. 
As the series is now complete, it is appearing in 
consecutive volumes, each of which maybe obtained 
separately. In the first volume the portraits con- 
sist of Geoffrey Chaucer, John Lydgate presenting 
a work to the Earl of Salisbury, and Earl Rivers 
doing the like to King Edward IV. ; in the 
second the frontispiece is a medallion portrait of 
Wyatt, other likenesses being the Earl of 
Surrey, Sir Thomas More, Lord Vaux, and Andrew 



Boorde. Prof. Arber's services to literature merit, 
and, indeed, obtain the highest recognition. No 
previous or contemporary compiler has done so much 
to spread a knowledge of the best poetry. In his 
short introductory notes he might with advantage 
supply beside the praise of poetry of Coleridge that 
even more inspired of George Wither Prof. Arber 
justly claims that the collection is the most diver- 
sified and representative in the language. . 
that and more. 

The Era Annual for 1902. (Era Office. ) 
DURING more than thirty years the ' Era Almanack ' 
has constituted a trustworthy and useful theatrical 
record, supplying in its later numbers the dates 
of first performances of plays in London and the 
country, in Paris, and in Berlin, a stage obituary, 
and similar matters. At the outset, when E. L. 
Blanchard, with his unrivalled stage knowledge, 
furnished an account of the principal London 
theatres, it had even stronger claims. The latest 
volume gives portraits of the theatrical celebrities 
who have died during the past year. 

THE Upper Norwood Athenseum again sends us 
its Record of Winter Meetings and Summer Ex- 
cursions, 1900-1901. This little society, established 
a quarter of a century ago, still nourishes, and is 
doing good work. During the year many places were 
visited for the first time, and the papers read are 
full of interest. Considerable pains have evidently 
been taken in collecting the various facts. It is plea- 
sant to find the help so cordially given by clergymen 
and owners of property in the different districts. 
Among the papers read was one by Mr. Truslove on 
Crowhurst Place and church, in which mention is 
made of the slab in the church to the memory of 
John Angell, who died in 1670, in his seventy-eighth 
year, and who " bequeathed his soul to God, his 
body to the earth, his faith to the Carlists, and his 
example to his children." There is also a tablet to 
Justinian Angell, who married Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of John Scaldwell, of Brixton, and it 
would seem that the present Angell Road, Brixton, 
is named after her ; also that Crowhurst Road 
derives its title from the fact of the lady's residence 
at Crowhurst. Mr. Potter read a paper, ' Bexley 
and Crayford,' when the tomb in Bexley Church- 
yard of Francis Moore the elder, the founder of 
' Old Moore's Almanac,' who died March 31st, 1684, 
was visited. In this district the custom used to 
prevail of selling beer by the yard, some of the 
measures being still in existence. Mr. Thomas 
Stock also read a paper on Hertford, and mentions 
the kind way in which the ramblers were received 
at the church of St. Andrew by the Rev. Evan 
Killan Roberts, who produced the old registers, 
and showed the Pre-Reformation altar, which is 
one of the few remaining that contain the slot for 
the Holy Relics. The 'Record' is well illustrated, 
some of the illustrations being original, while many 
are due to the kindness of the proprietors of the 
Illustrated London News and Sketch and the Lady's 
Pictorial, and the Sporting and Dramatic Publishing 
Company. Nothing but praise can be said of the 
careful editing of Mr. J. Stanley and Mr. W. F. 

THE excellent Astronomy for the Young of Mr 
William Thynne Lynn, B.A., F.R.A.S., the best 
existing work of its class, has reached a second 
edition. Prefixed to this is a view of the Royal 

NOTES * AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. JAN. 25, 1002. 

Observatory, Greenwich. Mr. G. Stoneman is the 

THE Playgoer, edited by Fred Dangerfield (Daw- 
barn & Ward), has reached its fourth number. It 
is not enough of a chronicle. Its value would be 
increased were a resumd, with casts, supplied of 
the month's theatrical novelties. 

THE 'English Dialect Dictionary' is now suffi- 
ciently advanced to enable the editor to state 
definitely the date of its completion. The whole 
of the Dictionary, consisting of about 4,700 pages, 
contained in six volumes, will be completed before 
the end of 1905. Four of these six volumes are 
already printed, viz., Vol. I. (A to C, 855 pages). 
Vol. II. (D to G, 772 pages). Vol. III. (H .to L, 

sist of the letters T to Z, the supplement, the 
bibliography of the many thousands of books 
specially exceppted for the Dictionary, and a com- 
prehensive comparative grammar of all the dialects 
treated historically. Great advantages are offered 
to subscribers willing to compound for the remain- 
ing portion of the work. Such should communicate 
with Mr. Henry Frowde at the Clarendon Press. 

MR. FRED HJTCHIN-KEMP'S ' History of the Kemp 
and Kempe Families' is now all but ready for 
delivery to subscribers by the Leadenhall Press, 
and the author is already contemplating further 
genealogical labour. 

js to 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

BRANDON HILL. 1. 'Jacqueline: a Tale' (1814) 
is by Samuel Rogers, the banker-poet. It origin- 
ally appeared in the same volume with Lord Byron's 
' Lara.' 2 ' The Garden of Florence,' by John 
Hamilton (1821), is by John Hamilton Reynolds, 
the friend of Keats. 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of * Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9- s. ix. FEB. i, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 214. 

NOTES :-Sarpi's 'Letters,' 1693, 81 Birthplace of Mar- 
garet, Countess of Richmond, 82' Burial of Sir John 
Moore,' 83 " Sitting on the fence " " Groat "Aero- 
nautics " Yard of ale "The Court of St. James's, 84-Sir 
Thomas Browne's Skull The Feast and the Reckoning, 
85 " Late "Earl of Cardigan Christmas Decorations 
and Shrove Tuesday Death of an Aged Chartist Dis- 
traint on Wearing Apparel, 1790-4" Ludi magister," 86. 

QUERIES: Drawing-knife, 86 "Say not that he did 
we ll_Method of testing Cloth Moore's 'History of 
Dunstable' Window Glass Psalmorum Codex Latinus 
Dalrymple on the Fur Trade "With affection beam- 
ing "Mummers Markoe or Marcou Family, 87 Corbyn 
Family Author of Poems Wanted CLIII. Fireplaces 
in Cathedral Churches Beranger : ' Le Roi d' Yvetot ' 
Wimpole Street Eighty-five Years Ago, 88 Chalices of 
Wood Royal Personages, 89. 

REPLIES : Kipling in America, 89 Baron de Grivegnee 
and Power, 91 Staunton, Worcestershire The West 
Bourne, 92 Crispe Chaplains, 93 Sarten Duels, 94 
Waterproof Clothing ' Leisure Hour ' Jubilee Bruce 
and Burns, 95 St. Teilo "Frail "Fourth Duke of 
Graf ton Birthday Cake and Candles Beau Brummel 
and B. d'Aurevilly Burial of a Suicide " Hep ! Hep!" 
96 Dissington Family " Mine host of the Tabard" 
Weeks's Museum Carlyle on Symbols, 97 Seven Stowe 
Missal " As mad as a tup," 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Furness's Variorum ' Twelfth 
Night 'Wale's 'What Great Men have said of Great 
Men ' Zimmern's 'The Babylonian and the Hebrew 

Obituary Dr. F. G. Lee. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


I CAN learn nothing of "Edward Brown, 
Rector of Sund ridge in Kent," the translator 
of these 'Letters, 5 except what he tells us 
in his dedication to the Earl of Notting- 
ham. The late Mr. Henry Huth issued 
in 1874 for private circulation a volume 
entitled * Prefaces, Dedications, and Epistles. 
I never had the pleasure of seeing that book 
but I am free to say that if Edward Brown's 
preface to Father Paul's 'Letters' has not bee 
included, the volume is infinitely, the poorer 
for it. But probably it might be found to 
be too long and too polemical for such a col- 
lection. A more truly unconventional preface 
could scarcely be Brown writes as if he hac 
his readers seated round his parlour table 
and in the intervals, so to speak, of dispensing 
the social amenities, pours fortfy all he knows 
about these ' Letters,' not in the forma 
language of the schools, but in the free 
ana-easy colloquialism of the market am 
the street. The very opening at once arrest 
attention : 

" Courteous Reader ; It may be, upon the grea 
Credit and Repute that Father Paul has mos 
deservedly with religious, wise and learned Men 
that know how to value his Worth and Excellence 
you will be so eager to know what there is in thes 
Letters of his, which I have made ready for you 

'erusal, that you will skip over Prefaces, and every 
hing else that stands in your way, between this and 
hem. And truly upon that Account, I could have 
een as well contented to say what I have to say 
bout these things, at the further End of the Book, 
nd to wait upon you there, but that a Preface 
must be what it is called, and cannot change its 
^lace without changing its Name ; though a very 
xcellent Person [Dr. Donne], and a very good 
Mend of Father Paul's, was once of the Mind, 
hat a Man could not well be called a Reader, till 
e had read a Book over ; and did therefore design, 
e says, to have met his Reader at the End of his 
took, and there tell him what he had to say about 
b. And if you should really do thus, you are 
r elcome to begin where you please ; only be so 
sind, as to call in here as you come back, and let me 
ell you a few things about this excellent Person 
jtnd these Letters, and others, which you ought to 
enow, sooner or later, for your better Acquaintance 
vith them. But if this Conceit of mine should 
ihance to stop you a little here, and tempt you to 
tay till you come fairly to the Letters; I hope 
hat besides the Conquest of your Impatience, you 
trill find somewhat that may help you to read them 
with better Judgment, and a more settled and 
>ois'd Expectation." 

The "Courteous Reader," it is to be pre- 
sumed, is paying due heed to all that is being 
said, but on the eighteenth page the author 
Dreaks the even flow of his discourse in this 
somewhat unceremonious fashion : 

'Whilst I have been thus tediously talking of 
Letters in general, for ought I know, you have 
;iven me the slip, and are got somewhere else ; but 
tis all one if you have, you will read this some 
bime or other. But to come a little nearer to our 
Business ; let me only tell you that this part of the 
Age has been happy (how miserable soever in other 
Respects) in the Publick Knowledg of many great 
Mens Letters." 

Then he goes on again in his usual breezy 

I may here say Father Paul's ' Letters ' are, 
in themselves, singularly interesting ; and I 
am sure it is a matter for regret that Brown 
did not carry out his intention (as stated in 
the advertisement on p. cxviii) of issuing a 
second volume, which was meant to include a 
translation of Fulgentio's 'Life' of Father 
Paul (that of 1651, " by a Person of Quality," is 
a very disappointing production, and justly 
comes under pur author's censure) as well as 
other interesting pieces. The purpose of this 
note, however, is not with the ' Letters,' but 
simply to register a number of familiar phrases 
scattered throughout the volume : 

Riff-raff stuff; no better than it should be? 
which has been a Bone for them to pick ever since; 
they call it a Nose of Wax, and the old Canary- 
bird Melchior Canus has a pretty Note to the same 
Tune ; Fardel of Lies ; addle-headed Greeks ; for 
ought I know, you have given me the slip ; the 
same Game they were playing ; 'tis not a farthing 
matter who sees it : finely japann'd and varnish'd 
over ; 'tis a thousand to one ; piddling Work ; 'tis 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

Teeth ; like a Cock upon his own Dunghil ; ; what 
is Sawce for a Goose, we say is Sawce for f Gander 
the more's the Pity; the Words and the Sense 
jump together; knowing Men to have an Eye .to, 
to see the World turn'd topsy-turvy ; his Disciple 
in all his Whimseys; a slippery ^ sort of Man ; 
was hugely put to it; rants and hectors, one 
Eye in their freads; Bug-bear sort ; betwixt sixes 
and sevens; another bout there ; the Searchers 
are as sly as can be ; as it is possible for such Sharks 
to be; sleep in a whole skin; let the future shift 
for itself; wheedled by them ; we shall take a good 
nap ; catch us napping ; made use of tor a stalking 
Horse ; though they do not yet play above-board ; 
buy a Cat in a Sack or a Pig in a Poke ; dance 
Attendance ; down in the Mouth ; I do not value it 
a farthing ; in spight of my own Teeth ; shall be 
defended Tooth and Nail ; meer hotch-potch ; by 
hook or by crook ; this rare Gim-crack ; pinning 
Mens Faith upon other Mens Sleeves ; from the 
Teeth outward; laugh on the wrong side of their 
Mouths ; his Friend may go whistle to understand 
it ; away they slip through his Fingers ; in spight 
of his Teeth ; no body would give a farthing for all 
the Wit and Craft they have ; scared out of their 
seven Senses ; set them together by the Ears ; slink 
behind the Curtain ; end in Smoak and nothing ; 
have got the whipping Hand of us ; but ten to one ; 
no Army will budg a foot ; they never boggle at any 
Promise ; lay all their Heads together ; not yet 
been as good as their word ; Matter fit to hammer 
it out of ; they have cock'd their Caps ; it must 
needs be the Ace of Trumps ; like a Turn-coat as 
he was ; fit to leap out of their Skins ; at the fag- 
end of all ; still in his Swadling Clouts ; There is 
something here upon the Anvil ; trip up a Man's 
Heels that stands ; go point-blank against it ; They 
are buzzing their Pates about it ; accept the Will 
for the Deed ; the same hurly - burly ; dive over 
Head and Ears ; to stand in a Quondary ; have been 
fain to let go the Fish ; a sudden Occasion that 
call'd me out of Town ; bestir his Stumps ; his 
Empire handsell'd with more Work ; ill will cannot 
forbear to shew its Teeth ; takes into his Army Tag 
Rag and Bobtail ; so they can but feather their own 
Nest ; there are some that can swallow it as glibly 
as they do here ; he trusts him no further than he 
can fling him ; they do it bare-fac'd. 

On the first fly-leaf of my copy of these 
' Letters,' 1693, there is to be found the name 
of "Stuart Bickerstaffe," written in a round, 
bold, and legible hand. Immediately under 
this name there is written, apparently in 
a different hand and in a less decided colour 
of ink, "Donum Authoris." Then on the 
second fly-leaf there is written, " Mr. Brown 
Rector Sundridge and Editor of this book 
gave it me." But as this was not exactly 
what the writer meant to express, the whoU 
is obliterated by the pen, and these words arc 
substituted underneath : "The Authour gav< 
me this book." The writing of these last t\v( 
I take to be in character the same as that o 
" Stuart Bickerstaffe." 

I should be much obliged if some kinc 
reader of 'N. & Q.' could tell me anything 

egarding both " Stuart Bickerstaffe " and 
Edward Brown, Rector of Sundridge in 
Kent." A. S. 


SOME seven miles from Bedford, on the 
road between that town and Higham Ferrers, 
.he birthplace of Archbishop Chicheley, and 
>n the banks of the slow-flowing Ouse, is 
iituated the quiet village of Bletsoe, with 
ts church grey with antiquity, not far from 
;he Midland Railway. Bletsoe was once the 
-esidence of one of the greatest families in 
_ngland, the Beauforts, and now has for some 
! our hundred years been the property of the 

oble family of St. John, styled Barons St. 
John of Bletsoe. Here was born that most 
Denevolent of ladies Margaret Beaufort, the 
'oundress of St. John's and Christ Colleges 
at Cambridge and the Lady Margaret Pro- 
'essorship of Divinity at Oxford. She is 
inown by the names of Lady Margaret Beau- 
tort, Margaret of Lancaster, and the Countess 
of Richmond, but usually by the simple title 
of Lady Margaret. 

The old castle where this benevolent lady 
first saw the light in 1441 has been razed to 
the ground, but a considerable portion of the 
great mansion where the St. Johns lived is 
still in existence, a venerable structure 
covered with ivy, and the church continues 
to this day to be their burial-place. The 
vault is in the northern arm of the transept, 
and on the wall is a curious monument of Sir 
John St. John, who was brought up by Lady 
Margaret with her grandson Henry VIII. , 
who made him guardian of his daughters the 
Princesses Mary and Elizabeth. There are 
one or two monuments of modern date to 
members of this ancient family, but of no 
great interest. From a common ancestor) 
descended Henry St. John, Viscount Boling- 
broke, in the days of Queen Anne, the great 
statesman, the friend of Harley and Atter- 
bury, to whom Pope dedicated his fine poemj 
'An Essay on Man,' which has this [altered]] 
address : 

Awake, my St. John ! leave all meaner things 
To low ambition, and the pride of kings. 
Let us (since life can little more supply 
Than just to look about us and to die) 
Expatiate free o'er all this scene of Man ; 
A mighty maze ! but not without a plan. 

Rplingbroke died childless in 1751, and 
buried in Battersea Church. It is probabl< 
that on the death of Queen Anne in 171< 
had prompt measures been taken, her brotht 
would have ascended the throne of Engb 
and the story goes that Atterbury offered 

9 th S. IX. Fun. 1, 1902.1 



put on his lawn sleeves and proclaim King 
James III. Thackeray, in ' Esmond,' has given 
a remarkable and graphic description of the 
state of parties at that era, when certainly 
at least one-half of the people of England 
were on the side of the exiled family of 

There are many portraits in existence of 
Lady Margaret. One at Knowsley, the seat 
of the Earl of Derby, is engraved in Lodge's 
' Portraits.' The artist does riot seem to 
be known, but was probably Holbein, as he 
painted the portrait of her third husband, 
Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby, who pre- 
deceased her in 1504 Another very fine por- 
trait, probably a replica of this, is in the hall 
of St. John's College, Cambridge ; and there 
is a third at Melchbourne Park, the seat of 
Lord St. John. There are many smaller 
portraits in oils in existence of her, all de- 
picting a nunlike figure with the hands 
clasped in prayer, bearing out the idea of 
her devotional character; and her effigy in 
Henry VIT.'s Chapel in Westminster Abbey 
exactly corresponds. Her munificence was 
directed towards abodes of learning, and not 
to monastic foundations, though the object 
of both was much the same. 

The first husband of this noble lady is 
buried in the presbytery of St. David's Cathe- 
dral, under a sumptuous tomb, on which it is 
said that Edmund Tudor was "father and 
brother of kings." He died in 1456, leaving 
an infant son only fifteen weeks old, after- 
wards Henry VI. This tomb was beauti- 
fully restored at the expense of the late 
Rev. John Lucy, of the ancient line of the 
Lucys of Charlecote, and rector of Hampton 
Lucy, co. Warwick. He also inserted at 
his own expense the beautiful mosaics and 
stained glass in the east window of the cathe- 
dral, which now needs a similar kindly and 
liberal hand for the restoration of the Lady 
Chapel at the eastern end. The well-known 
arms of Lucy, the three pikes or luces hauriant, 
may be seen on the encaustic tiles on the pave- 
ment of the presbytery. Her second husband 
was Sir Henry Stafford, second son of the 
great Duke of Buckingham, who probably 
fell in battle, and by him she had no issue. 
Her third husband was Thomas Stanley, the 
first Earl of Derby, who turned the scale 
in favour of her son at Bos worth Field in 
1485, and proclaimed him king by the title 
of Henry VII. after the victory. He died in 
1504, and was buried in the priory church 
of Burscough, in Lancashire, and by him she 
had rio issue. 

Lady Margaret just witnessed the accession 
of her grandson Henry VIII. in 1509, then 

a youth of great promise. She had seen 
many changes in her long life the fierce 
struggles in the Wars of the Hoses, the 
fatal battles of Towton, Mortimer's Cross, 
and Barnet, the accession of Richard III. 
and his final overthrow ; but she seems to 
have held aloof from strife as much as 
one in her prominent position possibly 
could. Her great and wise counsellor was 
John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, " a man," 
as Macaulay says, " worthy of a better age 
and a better cause." In her funeral sermon, 
preached by that prelate, it is said : 

" She was bounteous and lyberal to every person 
of her knowledge or acquaintance. Avarice and 
covetyse she most especially hated, and sorrowed it 
full moche in all persons, but specially in ony that 
belonged unto her." 

The Ouse still flows by Bletsoe, and, 
although sluggish, it is rather picturesque, 
and the water-lilies are very beautiful. Cow- 
per, who dwelt at Olney, some few miles 
higher up the river than Bletsoe, thus wrote 
of it and the lilies in some of his best-known 
lines : 

The moon was shady, and soft airs 

Swept Ouse's silent tide, 
When, 'scaped from literary cares, 

I wandered on his side. 
It was the time when Ouse displayed 

His lilies newly blown : 
Their beauties I, intent, surveyed, 
And one I wished my own. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

several articles have appeared in early 
volumes of ' N. & Q.' on the authorship of 
Wolfe's ode on the burial of Sir John Moore, 
I do not think there is any reference therein 
to the famous mistake that it was done 

By the struggling moonbeams' misty light. 
My attention was again directed to the 
subject recently by reading a "leader" in 
the Daily News in which the writer, com- 
menting on mistakes made by popular 
writers on astronomical matters, shows a not 
very profound acquaintance with them him- 
self, for he tells us that Sir Robert Ball 
(now Plumian Professor of Astronomy at 
Cambridge) took the trouble to make the 
calculation, and found that the moon was 
not visible at the date of the battle of 
Corunna. Now whether Sir Robert was the 
first person to point out the mistake in 
question I do not remember, but it is quite 
certain that he did not take the trouble to 
calculate what he could find at once in the 
' Nautical Almanac ' or any similar ephemeris. 
The moon was new at about I o'clock, 


NOTES' AND QUERIES. [9 th B. ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

Greenwich; time, on the afternoon of 16 Jan 
1809, the very day of the battle, so tha 
"moonbeams" were quite out of the question 
In the [First Series of ' N. & Q.' (vol. v 
p. 274) is a letter from the clergyman, H. J 
Symons (then at Hereford), who officiatec 
at the interment, which did not take plac 
until the morning after the general's death 
when the principal part of the troops hac 
embarked. Perhaps it may be permissibli 
to mention that I feel a special interest, ir 
addition to that which all my countrymen 
feel, in the circumstances connected wit! 
Moore's retreat, victory, and death, arising 
from the fact that the first service in which 
my father was employed as an army surgeon 
was as one of those who attended to th< 
wounded brought back from Corunna. 

W. T. LYNN. 
[For summary of early references see 9 th S. vii. 463. 

" SITTING ON THE FENCE." We are familiar 
with this phrase in politics. MR. DELEVINGNE 
in 7 th S. i. 6 notes a classical illustration ol 
what he describes as the Transatlantic phrase 
"Sitting on both sides of the fence." As 
regards the simpler phrase, we may note a 
passage written to Newman by 
" a gifted and deeply earnest lady, who in a para- 
bolical account of that time [18431 has described 
both my conduct as she felt it and her own feelings 
upon it. In a singularly graphic, amusing vision 
of pilgrims, who were making their way across a 
bleak common in great discomfort, and who were 
ever warned against, yet C9ntinually nearing, ' the 
King's highway' on the right, she says, 'All my 
fears and disquiets were speedily renewed by seeing 

the most daring of our leaders suddenly stop 

short, and declare that he would go no further. He 
did not, however, take the leap at once, but quietly 
sat down on the top of the fence with his feet 
hanging towards the road, as if he meant to take 
his time about it, and let himself down easily.'" 
'Apologia pro Vita Sua,' 1882 ed., pp. 218-9. 
When one remembers the very wide circula- 
tion of Newman's 'Apologia,' and the close 
attention with which it has been read, it is 
not difficult to think that the memory of this 
passage has unconsciously made the " Trans- 
atlantic phrase" more familiar to our lips 
than it might otherwise have become. 

Kamoyle, Dowanhill Gardens, Glasgow. 

. "GROAT."-An "Order in Council approv- 
ing i reclamation declaring certain silver 
G /m at - s ?!' Four Pences current in the Colonv 
of Trinidad and Tobago" ('Statutory Rules 
and Orders of 1901,' No. 985) is mentioned in 
the current ' Monthly List of Official Publica- 
tions Miss G. B. Rawlings ('Story of the 
British Coinage,' 1898, p. 209) states that "in 

1888 the coinage of the silver groat or four- 
penny piece was resumed for " British Guiana. 

It would be interesting to know whether 
the name groat is now used in either of the 
colonies named, or whether the proclamation 
archaizes merely fancifully. The ' H.E.D.' 
mentions the reissue of 1888, with the note, 
" The name was neither officially recognized 
nor commonly used." 

May I invite MR. UDAL, as nearest to the 
spot, to investigate this point 1 Q. V. 

AERONAUTICS. In view of the recent suc- 
cessful experiments in Paris of M. Santos 
Dumont with regard to aerial navigation, the 
following extract is interesting. It is taken 
from Thomas Wright's introduction to his 
'Biographia Britannica Literaria' (Anglo- 
Saxon Period), p. 68, in which he refers to 

"a learned and ingenious monk of Malmesbury, 
named Ailmer, who not many years afterwards 
made wings to fly, an extraordinary advance in the 
march of mechanical invention, if we reflect that 
little more than a century before Asser the 
historian thought the invention of lanterns a thing 
sufficiently wonderful to confer an honour upon 
his patron King Alfred. But Ailmer, in the pre- 
sent instance, allowed his zeal to get the better of 
his judgment. Instead of cautiously making his 
first experiment from a low wall, he took flight 
From the top of the church steeple, and, after 
guttering for a short time helplessly in the air, he 
: ell to the ground and broke his legs. Undismayed 
3y this accident, the crippled monk found comfort 
and encouragement in the reflection that his inven- 
tion would certainly have succeeded had he not 
"orgotten to put a tail behind." 


"YARD OF ALE." The following extract 
i-om the Tatler of 8 January (No. 28, p. 52) 
seems worth preservation in ' N. & Q.' : 

"The extraordinary-looking glass which is illus- 
rated on this page belongs to Dr. Ernest Fincham, 
vho bought it four years ago at Shrewsbury. It 
s believed to be the only genuine specimen of a 
yard of ale ' glass to be found in the United King- 
lorn. A hundred years ago these glasses were com- 
mratively common, and were to be found in most 
mis suspended from the wall by a coloured ribbon." 
Underneath the illustration it is stated that 
he glass is 38 in. high and contains two pints 
>f ale. It would be interesting to know if 
he specimen referred to is entitled to the 
unique honour claimed for it. URLLAD. 
[See ante, p. 80, Record of the Upper Norwood 
Uhenseum ; also 6 th S. v., vi., vii., x., passim.] 

rord 'Court,' 8, the 'H.E.D.' prints the 
hrase "accredited as ambassador to the 
"ourt of St. James's," but I look in vain for 
ny syllable to show what is meant by " the 
^ourt of St. James's." Nothing appears under 
he words 'Accredited' or 'Court' or 

9 s. ix. F. i.iwa) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


'James.' What I had long ago found want- 
ing in the treatment of ' Accredited ' and 
'Court' I was confident I should find sup- 
plied in the article 'James.' There was 
reason for my expectation, for both the 
Apostles of that name are mentioned, and 
the sacred day of one of them. The name 
James is brought forward in connexion with 
a crowbar, a coin, and a sheep's head. We 
are told what St. James's wort and St. James's 
powder signify, but regarding St. James's 
Palace there is utter silence. 

It is to be hoped that this omission did not 
escape the eye of the lamented Fitzedward 
Hall, and that it will be made up in the 
supplementary volume which will crown the 
lifelong labours of a lexicographical legion. 

Readers who despair of seeing this far-off 
consummation will not refuse to read a note 
concerning the most noteworthy phrase, in 
the eyes of English speakers, in which the 
Apostolic names have entered. At some 
point in the present London park of 
St. James a hospital bearing his name had 
been built before the Conquest as a home for 
fourteen leprous maidens by the Londoners 
a tradition which Maitland says cannot be 
questioned, for he saw in the Cotton Library 
a MS. stating that Gisbert, Abbot of West- 
minster, visited it anno 1100, &c. 

In 1532 Henry VIII. bought the hospital 
and eighty acres of marsh ground around it to 
form a deer park, and therein erected a goodly 
palace, but never made it his own home, 
though it still exists in part, and bears the 
name of St. James. 

Soon after William came over, at the Revo- 
lution, Whitehall was burnt, and he made 
St. James's the royal residence. During the 
Stuart dynasty it had been a Stuart nursery, 
and was the site of the royal Court during 
the whole era of George III., and perhaps 
long before. 

The phrase "Court of St. James," in the 
sense of the British Royal Government, may 
be as old as the Revolution, or may not be 
older than the accession of George III. ; or 
may it not have been coeval with the second 
or first King James 1 It is used in the latest 
'Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 

How early a use of the words in the sense 
desiderated can be found, who first used 
them, and in what connexion, are facts 
which some among the multitudinous readers 
ought to have early ascertained for Dr. 
Murray. In America the locution "Am- 
bassador to the Court of St. James" has 
been long common in the mouths of people 
too ignorant to supply the ellipsis of " palace," 
and at a loss for a reason why James was 

preferred as a patron saint to George. Eng- 
lish antipathy to Spaniards would have for- 
bidden, one would think, the bestowal of such 
a high honour on one who, as Dr. Murray tells 
us, was chosen as the patron saint of Spain 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

[Our correspondent in his last paragraph settles 
his own difficulty. The ellipsis in " Court of 
St. James's" is merely of the word " Palace."] 

folk Chronicle of 18 January has an account 
of the casket for Sir Thomas Browne's skull 
presented to the Norfolk and Norwich Hos- 

In July last Dr. Osier expressed to Mr. 
Chas. Williams, surgeon, of Norwich, a wish 
to present a silver casket for the skull. The 
Museum Committee of the hospital were 
pleased to accept so generous an offer, but 
suggested that the casket should be formed 
not of silver, but of plate-glass. 

Early in December it was presented by 
Mr. Williams in the name of Prof. Osier to 
the Committee, who directed that an appro- 
priate pedestal should be made for it. 

The casket is of oblong shape, about 13 in. 
in length by 11 in. in width, and 11 in. in 
height. The four sides and top consist of 
crystal glass with silver-gilt mountings, and 
set on a stand of ebony. On the stand are 
placed four gilt plates, on one of which is 
engraved the name of the donor, &c., and on 
the other three quotations selected by Prof. 
Osier from the 'Religio Medici.' The in- 
scription runs : 

"This casket was presented to the Norfolk and 
Norwich Hospital by William Osier, M.D., F.R.S., 
Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, 1901." 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

ing over the pages of a reprint of the debates 
on the Education Bill of 1870, 1 have come 
across a speech delivered by Col. Barttelot on 
7 July of the year mentioned, in which the 
then gallant member for West Sussex quotes 
with excellent effect " the old saying," as he 
terms it, 

We laugh and revel till the feast is o'er ; 
Then comes the reckoning, and we laugh no more. 

I take it that the feeling expressed in the 
two verses is as old as civilization, for we 
should scarcely expect to find it existing at 
the time 

When wild in woods the noble savage ran. 
But it may be otherwise ; if so, I trust that 
the distinguished artist E. T. Reed, who is 


NOTES * AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

so steeped in " prehistoric " lore, will give us 
in black and white a " peep" of how it was 
done in those dim and distant days. I cannot 
ask the speaker who was the author of the 
couplet, for he and Gladstone, Disraeli, 
Forster, Lowe, Northcote, Fawcett, Hors- 
man, with others that might be named, 
All, all are gone, the old familiar faces. 
I should like to know if the lines can be 
traced to any particular writer. Perhaps 
they are only a translation of the old proverb 
expressed in the macaronic distich, quoted 
in his ' Compitum ' (book i. chap. xi. p. 403) 
by K. H. Digby, who excels even Robert 
Burton in power of quotation : 

A boire et manger exultamus, 
Mais au debourser suspiramus. 


[MR. GRANGER HUTT stated in 5 th S. xii. 39 that 
" So comes a reck'ning" is from Gay's ' What d ye 
Call It,' Act II. sc. ix.] 

" LATE." I notice that Mr. Bradley writes 
in the 'H.E.D.': " Late, a. 1 . ..5. Of a person : 
That was alive not long ago, but is not now : 
recently deceased." The charter of the Royal 
Historical Society (dated 30 July, 1889) 
recites that 

"the said Society did also in the year 1886 

appoint a committee for the due celebration of the 
eight hundredth anniversary of the completion of 
the Domesday Book of His late Majesty William 
the First." 

I carefully sent a quotation from this to Mr. 
Bradley ; but I presume he judged that 
though a ninth-century royal charter, if not 
in Latin, was in English, the same reasoning 
did not apply to a nineteenth-century royal 
charter. I have no doubt that he was right ; 
but the painful super-accuracy of the drafts- 
man should be recorded in ' N. & Q.,' even it 
it be not worthv of note in the ' H.E.D.' 

Q. V. 

EARL OF CARDIGAN. The ' Dictionary of 
National Biography' states that James 
Thomas Brudenell, seventh Earl of Car- 
digan, was born at Hambledon, in Hamp- 
shire, 16 October, 1797. He was, in fact, born 
at Hambleden, Bucks, where his baptism is 
entered in the parish register as follows : 
" 1797. Nov. 5. James Thomas, son of Robert 
Brudenell, Esq., and Penelope Ann." 

J. C. F. 

TUESDAY. It is proper to take down Christ 
mas decorations at Candlemas, but thej 
ought to be kept till Shrove Tuesday, and 
then burnt in the fire over which the 
pancakes are fried. I have this from a Welst 
cousin. C. C. B. 

litherto been assumed that George Julian 
larney, who died at Richmond, in Surrey, on 
) December, 1897, was the oldest survivor of 
;hose connected with this famous movement. 
Sut it would now appear that Samuel 
Bartlett, who has recently passed away at 
the great age of ninety -three, was con- 
siderably his senior. Apart from the 
notoriety gained in the ranks of Chartism, 
VIr. Bartlett was noteworthy as affording 
another instance of the long life so often 
granted those who practise total abstinence, 
of which creed he was always a staunch 
advocate and disciple. CECIL CLARKE. 

Authors' Club, S.W. 

In a case tried before Lord Kenyon the 
plaintiff had rented furnished rooms from 
the defendant. When eight weeks' rent was 
in arrear, the latter distrained on clothing, a 
part of which was in the wash. His lordship 
sustained the proceeding. A note says that 
a few years previously a landlord distrained 
the clothes of his tenant's wife and children 
while they were in bed ; and this was held 
good, on the ground that the things were not 
in actual use ! See Baynes v. Smith, Isaac 
Espinasse's Reports, p. 206 (Dublin ed., 

Portland, Oregon. 

"LuDi MAGISTER." (See 9 th S. viii. 516.) 
In your review of the Northern Genealogist, 
edited by A. Gibbons, F.S.A., the writer 
asks, " What is the exact significance of ludi 
magister used at this period [1588] 1 Qy. 
schoolmaster 1 " To which I reply, Yes, cer- 
tainly schoolmaster. W. I. R. V. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers maybe addressed to them 

DRAWING-KNIFE. In a journal written in 
1781 I have an account of a schooner that 
had come to great grief in a squall, and was 
lying nearly water - logged. Her crew of 
fifteen men were on deck, where " with the 
utmost difficulty they prevented themselves 
from being washed overboard." After some 
eighteen or twenty hours of this " the mate 
accidentally got hold of an old drawing-knife 
with his foot, which was in the cabin ; with 
this they cut away the mainmast of 16 or 17 
inches, and the vessel came upon her legs," 

9* s. ix. FEH. i, loos.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Can any one tell me what is meant by a 
" drawing-knife "1 The passage, in its litera 
sense, means that with it they cut through a 
mast some sixteen inches in diameter ; but il 
may probably be merely a careless way of 
saying that they cut the shrouds, and the 
mast broke off by its own weight. But at 
any rate what was a "drawing-knife"? 

[There is a full explanation in the * H.E.D.'] 

tell me the author of the following quotation ? 
Say not that he did well or ill, 
But say he did his best. 


me of any means by which one can ascertain 
if flannel or cloth of any kind is really 
made of wool or not ? A. J. E. 

[If a small fragment of cloth is cut off the piece, 
you may by a simple process of unravelling dis- 
tinguish if the warp is of cotton. Supposing the 
material to be made of what is called wool, the 
presence of what is technically known as " shoddy" 
is revealed when the fragment on being stretched 
by the thumbs with the leverage of the forefingers 
is inelastic, soft, and spongy, yields easily, and 
having yielded does not return to its original firm- 

formation as to date, author, price, &c., 
earnestly requested. . F. C. BEAZLEY. 

Fern Hill, Oxton, Birkenhead. 

[We fail to trace any such work.] 

WINDOW GLASS. Was any kind of "win- 
,dow glass" (apart from coloured mosaic) used 
by the Romans, or any other ancient people ? 
My impression is that such was not employed 
at all until the eleventh or twelfth century, 
and that any statements to the contrary are 
mistakes of historians or translators. 


beautiful copy of a Latin edition of the 
Psalms, with a commentary by Bishop 
Bruno. The book is a folio of 276 printed 
leaves, measuring lljin. by 8 Jin., and is in 
three sizes of type. There are two columns to 
a page, the large type of the Psalms having 
twenty-five lines to a full column, and the 
commentary fifty lines. The book is without 
colophon, or numerals, or signatures, or 
catchwords, and has no printer's name, 
place, or date, and therefore was, in all pro- 
bability, issued while printing was in its 
infancy, and the art was a secret, and printed 
copies were sold as MSS. It is one of the 
earliest books printed in two colours, red 
and black. My object in giving these par- 

ticulars is that the edition may be identified. 
It has an introduction of fourteen pages, 
which cannot have been written by Bishop 
Bruno, seeing that it records his death in 
1045. Can any of the readers of * N. & Q.' 
tell me who is supposed to have written it? 
Internal evidence points to its having been 
written about two hundred years after the 
commentator's death, for the introduction 
speaks of the testimony of Origen as dating 
back one thousand years ; and as Origen 
died in 253 or 254, that brings the date of the 
introduction to about 1253. The Psalms are 
from the Vulgate. 

21, Hove Park Villas, Hove, Sussex. 

anxious to learn the correct title and date 
of Dalrymple's ** admirable pamphlet on the 
Fur Trade," thus described in the preface to 
Meares's * Voyages,' London, 1791. Lowndes 
states that several of this writer's minor 
works are in the British Museum. An answer 
direct will oblige. C. KING. 

101, Union Street, Torquay. 

dentify this description : " With affection 
Deaming in one eye and calculation in the 
ther"? R. LUCAS. 

MUMMERS. I shall be greatly obliged if 
you or some of your correspondents will 
dndly state where full and trustworthy in- 
formation may be found with reference to 
mummers and their quaint dialogues or plays 
and their origin. H. W. 

[Consult 2 nd S. x. 466 ; xi. 271. See also Brand's 
Popular Antiquities,' ed. Hazlitt, 1870, vol. i. 
>p. 245 et seq., and Gomme's ' Dictionary of British 
folk-lore,' part i. vol. ii.] 

The Markoe or Marcou family, from Salins 
and Montbeliard in the Franche-Comte of 
Trance, were, with a Count Crequi, early 
.ettlers in the above islands, and some 
systematic search is now being made to 
Hscover genealogical data as to the family 
.nd the . existence of any records of the 
slands in England, as a consequence of naval 
perations or military successes in the West 
Indies. Careful inquiry in the islands dis- 
poses the not unexpected fact that not a 
ingle public record antedating 1780 is in the 
:ustody of the local authorities. The church 
Accords and gravestones which I am about 
X) examine personally are reported as few 
and fragmentary. Recitals in legal docu- 
ments as to St. Eustatius show that one 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

Pieter Markoe was the commandant of that 
island towards the close of the eighteenth 
century, and presumably under English rule. 
Family tradition as to Nevis says that a 
Markoe was a member of the island council. 
In Santa Cruz the family were among the 
leading planters, and thence a branch came 
to Philadelphia and founded a noted American 
family. Were any records removed from the 
above islands by the naval or military autho- 
rities, and are any such to be found in any 
repositories of records in England ? Any 
information will be gratefully acknowledged. 

121, West 90th Street, New York. 

CORBYN FAMILY. Can any correspondent 
give information about the family of William 
Charles Corbyn ( ? of Manchester), who by 
Elizabeth his wife had a son Frederick, born 
in Manchester 11 May, 1791, and baptized at 
St. Giles's-in-the-Fields 24 April, 1807 1 He 
had other sons distinguished in the navy and 
elsewhere. SIGMA. 

pleased if any reader could give me the 
author of two poems entitled 'Lord Byron's 
Pilgrimage to the Holy Land,' to which is 
added 'The Tempest,' Lond., 1817; and 
'Childe Harold's Pilgrimage to the Dead 
Sea,' Lond., 1818. S. J. KIRK. 

e CLIIL I should be glad to obtain addi- 
tional instances of the ecclesiastical number 
153, at which Dean Colet fixed the free scholars 
of St. Paul's School. The traditional (and no 
doubt correct) reference is to the number of 
fishes in the miraculous draught, as typical 
of all the various kinds of fishes, arid there- 
fore of "all nations and countries," to which 
Dean Colet expressly threw his school open . 
But I also find that St. Augustine tells us 
that the martyrs of Utica numbered 153 
those martyrs who were thrown into a lime- 
kiln, and whose remains are consequently 
styled the "white mass." Are there any 
other instances of this particular number 
that might have more particularly appealed 
to Dean Colet? R. j. WALKER. 

At Lincoln, Hereford, and Durham fireplaces 
have been inserted in the west walls of the 
south transepts. They have been supposed 
to be for heating obley-irons, and for .supply- 
ing the thuribles with burning charcoal. 
But is anything really known about their 
former use, and are there other examples of 
^replaces in the same situation ? That at 
Lincoln is not in the great transept, but in 

the eastern south transept, in the place with 
a lavatory known as "Ancient Choristers' 
Vestry." See Murray's 'Cathedrals: Lincoln,' 
p. 311, and No. 26 on the plan, p. 263. 

J. T. F. 


BERANGER : ' LE Eoi D'YVETOT. ' In * Cham- 
bers's Concise Gazetteer,' 1895, it is stated, 
s.v. 'Yvetot,' that Beranger's well-known 
song was a satire on Napoleon. Was this 
really the case 1 A satire, however charge, 
must have some sort of resemblance to the 
person satirized, or it would be unrecog- 
nizable ; but what resemblance is there 
between the King of Yvetot, " dormant fort 
bien sans gloire," who 

Sur un ane, pas a pas, 

Parcourait son royaume, 

and him who, like a thunderbolt, 
Scoppio da Scilla al Tanai, 
DalP uno all' altro mar ? 

It is true that Beranger's song, in my edition, 
is dated " Mai, 1813," shortly after the Russian 
debacle, which might, by a very far-fetched 
u gloss," account for the " sans gloire " and 
" peu connu dans 1'histoire." But had Beranger 
any thought at all of Napoleon when writing 
his song 1 Besides, was not Beranger a great 
admirer of Napoleon ? One would naturally 
think so, judging from his touching song 
' Les Souvenirs du Peuple.' If 'Le Roi 
d'Yvetot' is really a satire on the great 
captain, what is the evidence on the point? 
Ropley, Hampshire. 

Can any one say what was the maximum 
rent of a house in Wimpole Street about 
the year 1816, when Miss Austen wrote 
' Mansfield Park '? We know that it was then 
a fashionable quarter, but it is difficult to 
suppose the rents so high in those days as 
the novel suggests in a passage in a letter 
from Miss Crawford to Fanny Price : 

"Mrs. Rushworth will open one of the best 

houses in Wimpole Street Henry [Crawford] 

could not have afforded her such a house. I hope 
she will recollect it, and be satisfied, as well she 
may, with moving the queen of a palace, though the 
king may appear best in the background." 
Yet Henry Crawford, we are told, had 
4,0001. a year. My recollections of Wimpole 
Street go back more than fifty years. In 
1849 my father became tenant of a comfort- 
able house in it at 120/. a year, and some 
seven years later of another (I should think 
nearly as spacious as any in the street) at 
160., taking over an old lease. When did 
the value of houses in Wimpole Street decline 


so greatly as they must have done if Mr 
Rush worth's house was beyond Crawford' 
means when ' Mansfield Park ' was written ? 

C. C. M. 

CHALICES OF WOOD. At what date were 
chalices of wood forbidden? Du rand us say* 
by Pope Urban and the Council of Rheims 
in^874, but De Caumont writes: " Le pape 
Leon IV. (IX e siecle) defendit de se servir de 
calices de bois ou de verre. Cette defense 
fut renouvelee par le Concile de Tibur, tenu 
en 895" (' Abecedaire d'Archeologie,' 1886, 
p. 116). The Rev. John O'Brien, in his 
'History of the Mass,' fifteenth edition, n.d., 
but circa 1879, says, " Sometimes, too, in diffi- 
cult circumstances chalices of wood were 
used The canons of King Edgar of Eng- 
land (tenth century) wholly interdicted 
chalices of wood " (p. 71). His authority is 
Bona, 'Rev. Liturg.,' to which I have not 
access. Mr. Walter Lowrie, whose ' Christian 
Art and Archaeology,' 1901, is the most recent 
handbook and one of the best, puts it thus : 
" Vessels of glass, of the baser metals, or even 
of wood were, in fact, used by poor churches 
till late in the Middle Ages" (p. 343). A 
chalice (more properly a mazer) bearing date 
1567, with a wood cup and silver stem, 
belonging to St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, 
was exhibited at the Glasgow Exhibition last 
year ; it is figured in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1882-3, 
p. 141, but it is not quite in point, and I only 
mention it in case some reader should kindly 
refer me to it. I have read the communica- 
tions in 8 th S. ii. 

Ramoyle, Dowanhill Gardens, Glasgow. 

ROYAL PERSONAGES. (See 9 th S. viii. 184, 
252, 349.) Some of my former queries remain 
unanswered, and I shall be much obliged for 

I have found it necessary to affix dates in 
order to avoid confusion. 

1 desire to know the places of birth and 
death of the brothers and sisters of George III., 
and the dates of funerals of the first two 
princesses only : 

Louisa Anne, b. 8 March, 1749 ; d. 13 May, 

Elizabeth Caroline, b. 10 Jan., 1740; d. 
4 Sept., 1759. 

Frederic William, b. 24 May, 1750. 

Wrn. Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edin- 

Henry Frederic, Duke of Cumberland. 

Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfen- 

Where were the Dukes of Gloucester 

and Cumberland married, respectively on 
6 September, 1766, and 2 October, 1771, to 
Maria, Countess Dowager Waldegrave, and 
the Hon. Mrs. Anne Horton 1 

With regard to the children of George II., 
can any reader supply the precise dates and 
places of birth and death of the following, 
also places and dates of funerals 1 

Anne, Princess Royal, b. 1709 ; died 
(where?) 12 Jan., 1759. 

Mary, Princess of Hesse Cassel, b. 1723 
(married at Cassel 8 May, 1740?). 

Louisa, .Queen of Denmark, b. 1724 
(married where ?). 

I wish to know the place of death of the 
following : 

Amelia Sophia, d. 31 Oct., 1786. 
Caroline Elizabeth, d. 28 Dec., 1757. 
George William, d. 6 Feb., 1718. 
I shall be glad to obtain also the following 
information : 

Dates of burial of George III.'s youngest 
sons, Octavius and Alfred ; place of death 
of latter (on 26 Aug., 1782), and date of 
removal to Windsor. 

Elizabeth, his daughter, date of burial arid 
place of death (d. 10 Jan., 1840). 

Augustus Frederic, son of the Duke of 
Sussex ; places of birth and death, and date 
of funeral. 

Ellen or Emma Augusta, his sister ; place 
of death and burial, and date of latter. 
Married to Lord Truro : where 1 

Birthplace of H.R.H. the present Duke of 
Cumberland and his sisters, and his two 
eldest children, Marie Louise and George 
William. Did his father, George Frederick 
Alexander Charles Ernest, die in Paris, 
2 June, 1878? Where was he married, 
8 Feb., 1843? A. W. B. 

(9 th S. ix. 5.) 

MR. CRIPPS deserves credit for his industry 
n compiling the list of American issues of 
Vtr. Kipling's works ; but if he had travelled 
urther through the thorny jungle of biblio- 
;raphy he would have hesitated before apply - 
ng the epithet "complete" or even "full" 
o any essay in that science. The " full list " 
f original publications, for which MR. CRIPPS 
s indebted to Mr. W. M. Clemens's 'A 

en of Kipling,' has many lacunce, which I 
vill endeavour to supply ; but before doing so 

may observe that instead of relying on Mr. 
Clemens, MR. CRIPPS would have acted more 
wisely in consulting the bibliography of Mr. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

Kipling's books which forms a supplement 
to Mr. Le Gallienne's * Rudyard Kipling,' 
1900. Further information he would also have 
found in G. F. Monkshood's book on ' Rud- 
yard Kipling,' 1899 ; in Mr. F. L. Knowles's 
'A Kipling Primer,' 1900; and in 'The 
Kipling Guide-Book,' by W. Roberton, 1899. 
But the finest book hitherto published on 
Kipling bibliography has just reached me 
from America. It is entitled : 

The Works | of | Rudyard Kipling | The 
Description of a Set | of the First Editions of | 
his Books, in the Library | of a New York Collector 
| with Facsimiles | [Monogram] New York | Dodd, 
Mead & Company | 1901. Royal 8vo, pp. viii-92. 

This beautiful volume, of which only seventy- 
seven copies have been printed, including 
twelve on Japan paper, contains a large 
number of facsimiles of title - pages and 
wrappers, the latter being printed in the 
colours of the originals, and as far as 
possible on the same paper, and, in the 
slang of the day, is thedernier cri of scientific 
American bibliography. 

I will now enumerate some of the original 
works omitted by ME. CRIPPS in his first 
list : 

Schoolboy Lyrics. Lahore, 1881. Fcap. 8vo, 
pp. iv-46. 

All these poems have been reprinted, with 
one exception, in the volume entitled 'Early 
Verse ' in Scribner's "Outward Bound " edition 
of Kipling's ' Works.' 

Echoes. By Two Writers [Rudyard and Beatrice 
Kipling]. Lahore, n.d. [1384]. 16mo, pp. iv-7'2. 

The thirty-two poems by Mr. Kipling in this 
volume have also been reprinted in 'Early 

The Seven Nights of Creation. 8vo, pp. vi. 
This is a privately printed issue of a poem in 
bchoolboy Lyrics,' and is probably the rarest 
( MAC T^ e exce P tion of the two that follow) of 
all Mr. Kiphng's works. It bears neither date 
nor imprint. 

Night - and other Sketch - 

Of this edition only three copies were pre- 

n rVe A i AT? lume contained 'The City of 

Dreadful Night,' as reprinted in 1891, with 

le addition of eleven stories not reprinted 

Allahabad > !" 

Of this book also only three copies were pre- 
WaS reprinted in l From Sea to 



This story, with a different ending, first 
appeared m Lippwcotfs Magazine (see below). 

Cleared. Edinburgh, n.d. [1891]. 
A private reprint by the Scots Observer of a 
poem that first appeared in that journal, and 
was afterwards published in 4 Barrack-Room 

Good Hunting. London, 1895. 8vo, pp. 16. 
A reprint by the Pall Mall Gazette. 

An Almanac of Twelve Sports for 1 898. Illustrated 
by William Nicholson. London, 1897. 4to, pp. 32. 

White Horses. London, 1897. 12mo, pp. 10. 
A private reprint of a poem that appeared in 
Literature for 23 October, 1897. 

The Absent-Minded Beggar. A folio leaflet. 
Reprinted from the Daily Mail of 31 October, 

The Science of Rebellion. London, n.d. [1901]. 
8vo, pp. 10. 

The Sin of Witchcraft. London, 1901. 8vo, 
pp. ii-8. 
Reprinted from the Times of 15 March, 1900. 

MR. CRIPPS mentions only the first and 
sixth editions of ' Departmental Ditties.' It 
may, therefore, be useful to give a list of the 
various editions of these poems until they 
assumed their final form : 

First edition, Lahore, 1886, contains twenty- 
six poems. 

Second edition, Calcutta, 1886, contains 
thirty-two poems. 

Third edition, Calcutta and London, 1888, 
contains forty-two poems, one of which, 
'Diana of Ephesus,' has never been repub- 

Fourth edition, Calcutta, London, and 
Bombay, 1890, contains fifty poems. This 
was the first edition printed in England. 

Fifth edition, Calcutta, London, and Bom- 
bay, 1890. A reprint of the fourth edition 
with a new title-page. 

Sixth edition, Calcutta, London, and Bom- 
bay, 1891. Contains the glossary for the 
first time. 

Alterations were made in many of the 
poems in the various editions. 

MR. CRIPPS includes in his first list two 
items which should not properly find a place 
there. One of these is the collection called 
' Ballads and Barrack-Room Ballads,' which is 
not an original work and was only published 
in America, and the other is ' Slaves of the 
Lamp,' which was originally published in 
Cosmopolis, and made its first appearance in 
England in book form in 'Stalky and Co.' 

Turning now to the American list of Mr. 
Kipling's books, I notice that MR. CRIPPS 
omits the first original work of that writer 
which was issued in the United States. This 
is ' The Record of Badalia Herodsfoot,' which 
made its first appearance in Harper's Weekly 

9* s. ix. FK.. i, low.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


for 15 and 22 November, 1890, and was re- 
printed in the Christmas number of the 
Detroit Free Press for that year. Next came 
' The Light that Failed 'also omitted by MR. 
CRIPPS which was published in Lippincott's 
Magazine for January, 1891, and had such a 
large sale that separate title-pages were 
printed for it by Messrs. Lippincott and by 
the English publishers as under : 

The | Light that Failed. | By | Rudyard Kipling, 
I Author of Plain Tales from the Hills,' ' Soldiers 
Three,' 'The Story | of the Gadsbys,' 'Depart- 
mental Ditties,' etc. | Ward, Lock, Bowden, & Co., 
| London, New York and Melbourne. 

Another American book which is unnoticed 
by MR. CRIPPS is of some importance, as it 
contains the first issues in this form of pro- 
ductions by R. L. Stevenson and Rudyard 
Kipling. This is : 

American Series. I American Notes, | by Rudyard 
Kipling, | Author of ' Soldiers Three,' ' Plain Tales 
from the Hills,' | 'The Story of the Gadsbys,' 
'The Phantom 'Rickshaw,' | 'The Courting of 
Dinah Shadd,' etc., etc. | and | The Bottle Imp, I 
by | Robert Louis Stevenson. | New York : | M. J. 
Ivers & Co., Publishers, | 86 Nassau Street. 16mo, 
pp. 160. 

Shortly after printing the first edition 
Messrs. Ivers removed to 379, Pearl Street, 
New York, and this address appears on the 
title - page of most copies. An immense 
number were printed, and the later issues 
are extremely common. The first impression 
was issued on 14 February, 1891. 

Under the year 1898 MR. CRIPPS has 

The Courting of Dinah Shadd. Brentano's. 
Ditto. Marion Press. 

It may be noted that the second item is not 
a reprint of the story, but * A Contribution 
to a Bibliography of the Writings of Rudyard 
Kipling,' of which one hundred and twenty 
copies were privately printed for subscribers 
in March, 1898. It is really "a reprint, with 
notes by Mr. Paul Lemperly, of the corre- 
spondence between Messrs. Harper & 
Brothers and Mr. Kipling, relative to copy- 
right on the stories included in ' The Court- 
.ing of Dinah Shadd ' " (see MR. CRIPPS'S list 
under 1890), as printed in the Athenaeum, 
with Kipling's poem 'The Rhyme of the 
Three Captains' ('The Works of Rudyard 
Kipling,' p. 81). 

I may add, in conclusion, that the American 
work from which I have just quoted gives 
lists of Kipling's contributions to the 
United Services College Chronicle, to the 
Week's News of Allahabad, and to 'Turnovers 
from the Civil and Military Gazette,' Lahore. 
In addition to the facsimiles it is adorned 
with a beautiful etching on Japan paper, by 

Mr. T. Johnson, of the well-known portrait 
by the Hon. John Collier. 

1, West Cliff Terrace, Ramsgate. 

vii. 409, 476 ; viii. 170). The following pedi- 
gree of the Kirkpatricks, from whom the 
Empress Eugenie is descended, though 
meagre, I believe to be accurate : 

Thomas Kirkpatrick had issue James and 
Robert ; the latter had two sons. Thomas, and 
William of Conheath, co. Dumfries. William 
had (1) John, (2) William. 

(1) John of Conheath had issue : 

a. William Escott. Descendants living. 

b. Thomas James, who married Carlota 
Catalina, daughter of his uncle William. 
Descendants living. 

c. Robert. 

d. Maria Isabella, who married Joseph 
Kirkpatrick. See below. 

(2) William had issue : 

a. Maria Manuela, who married the Count 
de Teba and Monti jo (died 1823), and became 
mother of the Empress Eugenie. 

b. Carlota Catalina, who married Thomas 
James Kirkpatrick. 

c. Henraquita, , who married Count Cabarrus. 
Descendants living. 

The pedigree of the family from which 
Thomas James Kirkpatrick, who married 
Carlota Catalina, sprang is as follows : 

James Kirkpatrick, born in 1668, left Scot- 
land in 1686, and married Anne Hoar, of 
Romney. Had a son James, who was the 
father of 

(1) James, living in 1815. 

(2) John, living in 1815. 

(3) Joseph, sometime of the parish of Caris- 
brooke, in the county of Southampton, who 
married secondly, at St. Mary's, Woolwich, 
21 April, 1796, Henrietta, daughter of Lieut- 
General Geo. Fead (see 'D.N.B.'). 

Joseph had a son Joseph, who married 
Maria Isabella, daughter of John Kirkpatrick 
Conheath, and they had issue : 

(1) Isabella, who married Roger, son of 
Roger, and grandson of Sir James Kirk- 
patrick, fourth baronet. Descendants of 
Isabella living. 

(2) John Everett, now living in Canada. 

Traditionally connected with the Kirk- 
patricks of Conheath was Wm. Kirkpatrick, 
Bailie of Dumfries in the eighteenth century, 
who had issue : 

(1) Henrietta, who married Capt. John 
Johnstone, of the Royal Marines, and was 
served heir to her father and her brother 
Roger 29 March, 1794. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

(2) Roger. 

(3) Agnes, who married Thomas Gordon ot 
Dumfries, and was served heir to her father 
and her brother Roger 29 March, 1794. 

(4) Elizabeth, who married Lieut.-General 
Geo. Fead, of the Royal Artillery. Mrs. Fead 
died on 17 January, 1836, in her eighty-sixth 
year, and was buried in St. Mary's Church- 
yard, Woolwich. J. SCOTT. 

383, 510 ; ix. 11). MR. MATTHEWS may find 
some information in a book published in 1883 
at Bristol, by the late Sir John Maclean, 
entitled 'History of the Manor and Advow- 
son of Staunton in the Forest of Dean.' I 
cannot trace the paper to which MR. JOHN 
HOBSON MATTHEWS refers in the volumes of 
the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society during the last ten years. 



Permit me to amplify my reply. Sir Wil- 
liam Whittington, of Pauntley, Gloucester- 
shire, married the heiress of Staunton in 
the same county. Sir Richard Whittington, 
Mayor of London, is believed to have been 
their fifth son. The society to whose Trans- 
actions I referred MR. HAWKINS is the Glou- 
cester Field Club. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

THE WEST BOURNE (9 th S. viii. 517 ; ix. 51). 
I cannot follow COL. PRIDEAUX to his con- 
clusion about this name. He doubts whether 
" in early times the stream had any specific 
name." Very possibly it had not, but the 
absence of any such name from early maps 
seems to me insufficient proof thereof. Here 
is a case which seems to be in point. Some 
years ago I was fishing in the river running 
through Cassiobury Park. After a good 
morning's sport I asked the keeper what was 
the name of the river. "Well, sir," said he, 
"it's got a name right enough, but dang me 
if I can remember un. We just calls it ' the 
River.' " Presently, a respectably dressed man 
coming by, the keeper stopped him and asked 
whether he could remember the name. He, 
too, was sure the stream had a name, but he 
could not call it to mind. An hour or two 
later the same person returned and said to 
me, 1 found what you wanted to know, sir. 
ihere is an old fellow in the village tells me 
that this is the river Gade ; and 1 remember 
now hearing that name when 1 was a boy" 
Ihmks I to myself, Here is a case of Avon 
and fcsk over again ; the specific is for- 
gotten, the generic remains. When English 

peech shall have passed away this stream 
will perhaps retain its name as " the River." 

Well, on reading COL. PRIDEAUX'S interest- 
ing note I turned up the only map of Hert- 
fordshire which happened to be at hand- 
hat in vol. xi. of the 'Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica.' I find the river in Cassiobury Park 
without any name given, although Gaddesden 
and Gadesbridge are marked on its course, 
and although the nearest stream on the east 
is duly marked the Ver and the nearest on 
the west is marked the Chess, neither of them 
of greater volume than the Gade. 

Assuming, then, that the suffix of West- 
bourne is " bourn, burn," a stream, A.-S. 
burne, and not "bourn," a boundary, French 
borne, is it not the case that this term for a 
stream has entirely dropped out of the 
Southern English vernacular, although it is 
retained in common use in Northern English 
and Scots'? Before it so dropped out of use, 
the West Bourn may have given its name to 
the manor of Westbourne, where it remained 
fixed, although the stream the eponymus 
of the manor lost its title through the 
meaning thereof having become hidden from 
the people on its banks. 

I will offer another illustration from my 
own name. In the twelfth century Maccus, 
the son of Undewyn, obtained a grant of land 
near Kelso, now called Springwood, from 
David I. of Scotland. Included in this grant 
was a salmon pool in the Tweed, which thence- 
forward was known as Maccus' Wiel, the pool 
of Maccus. From this pool the neighbouring 
land got the name of Maccuswel or Maxwell 
(Maxwellheugh is just above Springwood 
Park) ; then the family became known 
feudally as De Maxwell, and conferred their 
name on other and distant places Maxwell- 
ton, &c. To this day the salmon pool is 
known as Maxwheel (it is the first below 
Kelso Bridge). Its etymology very likely has 
been forgotten, but the important industry 
of salmon fishing has preserved the name in 
constant use for eight hundred years ; whereas 
the Westbourne, it seems, has been diverted 
to the purpose, and received the inglorious 
name, of the Ranelagh Sewer. 

Instances of the disappearance of a river 
name, coupled with its retention in the ad- 
jacent topography, might be given in num- 
bers far exceeding the dimensions of a "note"; 
but I may be permitted to adduce one from 
the remote end of the kingdom, in a district 
very well known to me. The river running 
parallel with the north-eastern boundary of 
the county of Sutherland was known of old 
in Gaelic speech as Amhuinn Ullidh, the 
river Ullie, and its valley as Strath Ullie ; 

9* is, ix. FEB. i, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


but when the Norsemen occupied that lane 
in the eighth or ninth century they renamec 
many of the local features in their ow 
speech, and Strath Ullie . became Helmsdale 
At the present day no native of that strat 
would understand an inquiry about the rive 
Ullie ; it has become the Helmsdale River 
Yet still the brae along which the high roac 
runs from Helmsdale to Kildonan, about 
mile north of the town of Helmsdale, is callec 
and appears on the Ordnance maps as, Creag 
bun-Ullidh that is, the crag at the foot (o 
estuary) of the Ullie. 

Again, COL. PRIDEATJX is probably familia 
with the pier and hotel of Inversnaid, on Loci 
Lomond, where a fine burn falls in a cascad 
into the lake. Now Inversnaid means " the 
mouth of the Snaid," but the burn no longe 
bears that name. It is called on the Ordnance 
map the Arklet Water, from the lake out o 
which it flows. And note, the smaller the 
stream, the more likely it is to change its 
name. Great rivers Thames, Tay, Tweed 
&c. make their names in history and become 
fixed ; but I have a couple of trout streams 
running through my property, the longer of 
which has but a course of ten miles, yet the 
names of each vary between source and mouth 
according to the farms through which they 

I am surprised at one sentence in COL 
PRIDEAUX'S interesting note : "It seems 
reasonable to suppose that Westbourne re- 
ceived its name from its situation on the 
west bank of the rivulet." Is there any 
analogy for this ? Does it explain the name 
Eastbourne in Sussex, a little inland from 
South Bourne on the coast 1 Or of Norborn, 
near Deal, in Kent 1 All analogy from the 
numerous Nortonsand Suttons, Westminster, 
ifec., seems the other way, and to show that 
West Bourne should mean the burn or brook 
west of some other brook. T. WILSON. 

In regarding the word bourne (burn, burne, 
&c. ) only in the sense of stream (rivulet), is 
there not the danger of forgetting another 
meaning of the word viz., limit, boundary 
(Fr. borne, Webster)? It is true that very 
often the limit or boundary would be founcl 
to consist of a stream or rivulet, but not 
necessarily so. When the poet wrote of 
"that bourne from whence no traveller 
returns," one does not imagine ho was think- 
ing of a rivulet. W. H. B. 

HENRY CRISPE (9 fcl > S. ix. 8). -Apparently 
only one Henry Crispe whom it would be 
reasonable to identify with Henry Crispe, 

the Common Serjeant 1678-1700, was ad- 
mitted member of the Inner Temple viz., 
" Henricus Crispe de Universitate de Cam- 
brige generosus," who was admitted on 
21 Nov., 1666 (Register of Admissions). He 
seems to have been called to the Bar on 
26 Nov., 1676, and to the bench of his Inn on 
9 Feb., 1696/7 ('Calendar of Inner Temple 
Records,' vol. iii.). In the 'Masters of the 
Bench of the Inner Temple, 1450-1883' 
(privately printed, 1883), the parentage, &c., 
of the Common Serjeant is noted thus, but, I 
would suggest, erroneously : 

"Henry Crispe, of the Custom House, London. 
Eldest son of Henry Crispe, rector of Catton, York- 
shire, and grandson of Henry Crispe, of Monkton, 

in the Isle of Thanet, Kent, a member of the Inn 

Died 1700." 

The source of this note is probably the 

gsdigree in Berry's ' Kent Genealogies/ p. 491. 
ut there is nothing in that pedigree to 
suggest that the Common Serjeant was 
identical with the Henry Crispe there men- 
tioned as being of the Custom House, London, 
and a son of Henry Crispe, rector of Catton ; 
and the identification seems erroneous, 
because : 

1. The ' Liber Institutionum ' at the Record 
Office records the following institutions to 
Catton Rectory : Henry Carvile, 1630 ; 
Thomas Cary, 1677/8 ; Henry Crispe, 1685 ; 
Richard Spwray, 1737. Apparently the only 
Henry Crispe instituted to Catton Rectory 
was instituted on 1 Dec., 1685. 

2. Musgrave's 'Obituary' (Harl. Soc.) 
states, with a reference to "Carter's Camb., 
152," that "Henry Crisp, rector of Catton, 
Yorks, Fell. King's Coll.," died on 23 Feb., 
1736 (? 1736/7), set. 80. This rector was pro- 
)ably the Henry Crispe who is mentioned in 
Graduati Cantab., 1659-1823,' as Fellow of 

King's, B.A. 1680, M.A. 1684. 

3. A man who was aged circa eighty in 
736 must have been born circa 1656, and 
ould not have had a son who became Common 

Serjeant in 1678. 

This note does not supply the particulars 
ought for by MR. PINK, but seems to dispose 
f the parentage assigned to Henry Crispe, 
he Common Serjeant, in a book liable to be 
onsulted and cited. H. C. 

CHAPLAINS (9 th S. viii. 463). Among the 
arliest records and writs of Scotland occur 
tie names of ecclesiastics who evidently held 
ffices corresponding to what we know nowa- 
ays as domestic and institution chaplains. 
Vtany deeds and charters have among the 
arnes of the witnesses men designated 
laplain in contradistinction to others who 
re designated rectors or vicars. 


ix. FEB. i, 1002. 

The priors or masters of the nuns that 
appear in writs of various nunneries of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries are evi- 
dently the chaplains of these institutions. 

We have various licences to landowners 
from bishops permitting founding of chapels 
at their castles, with provisions that the 
mother or parish church shall not be injured 
from withholding the usual offerings of the 
parishioners. Thus at Congilton, in parish of 
Gullane, in this county, the following was 
arranged in 1224: No services were to take 
place at the chapel there on St. Andrew's 
Day, Christmas Day, nor at Easter; and 
there were to be no baptisms at the chapel, 
but only at the parish church at Gullane. 

Froissart in his 'Chronicles' narrates the 
"valyaunt" deeds of "achapelayne of his" 
(the Earl of Douglas) at Otterburne, 
19 August, 1388, which prove him in verity 
a member of the church militant in a double 
sense. Towards the end of the fifteenth 
century (1471) we have mention of Isabella, 
relict of Sinclair of Hirdmanston, and " her 
chaplain," Sir Wm. Stevenson. 

The Papal letters give many instances of 
licence granted to people to choose a con- 
fessor and to have a portable altar. 



The record, register, or statutes under which 
the appointments have been made have often 
been asked for in the pages of ' N. & Q.' 

From the replies given, it appears that the 
statute m which chaplains to noblemen are 
first named is 21 Henry VIII., c. 13 (1529) in 
which by section ii. every archbishop and 
duke may have six chaplains ; every marquis 
and earl, five chaplains ; viscount and bishop, 
four chaplains ; the Chancellor of England 
for the time being, and every baron or 
Knight of the Garter, three chaplains ; the 
Master of the Rolls, two ; and the Chief 
Justice of the King's Bench one. 

25 f H f e , nr y Yin., c. 16 (1533-4), every 

th nt e K i? gS Bench and Common 
the Chancellor and Chief Baron of the 

^ ^ Att T ey and Solici ^ 
may have one chaplain each 

Fnonff a J 3 K? int . me " t are registered in the 
faculty Office in Doctors' Commons 

71, Brecknock R^T ARD H ME 
SARTEN (9<"S. viii. 345, 410, 

The grammar is by Z. A. Aleksyeev 

(Tashkend, 1884), and is very short. It con- 
tains no exercises, readings, or vocabularies. 
The other book, however, by V. P. Nalivkin 
(Samarcand, 1898), which MR. ACKERLEY calls 
a " reading book," is a grammar of a much 
superior class, with exercises, readings, and 
two vocabularies, Russian-Sart and Sart- 
Russian. Unfortunately, neither of these 
works gives any information on the subject 
of what the difference is between Sart and 
ordinary Eastern Turkish. That Sart is 
closely allied to Turkish is clear from every 
page. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

The Sarts are fully described in 'Samarkand 
la Bien Gardee/ by A. Durrieux and R. 
Fauvelle (Paris, Librairie Plon, 1901). They 
are a caste rather than a race ; they are the 
working class of Samarkand, as opposed to 
the nomads of the Steppes. The nomads 
despise the Sarts ; but the Sarts seem to be 
continually finding recruits among those 
nomads who prefer the delights of settled 
life to a life of roaming. The authors quoted 
consider the Sarts to have been originally 

University College, Liverpool. 

DUELS (9 th S. viii. 364, 491). There is a 
long and an interesting history of 'Duels 
and Ordeals' in 'Memoirs of Extraordinary 
Popular Delusions, and the Madness of 
Crowds,' by Chas. Mackay, LL.D. (London, 
Routledge & Sons, 1869) ; but as there is no 
mention therein of the duels between English 
and French officers in Paris immediately 
after Waterloo, perhaps I may be permitted 
to relate that when the Allies were in the 
occupation of the capital of France the 
French officers, boiling with rage and indig- 
nation at their recent defeat, sought out, by 
every means in their power, opportunities 
of insult, but always so artfully contrived 
as to render the opposite party the challenger, 
thus reserving to themselves the choice of 
weapons. When, therefore, it is borne in 
mind that the French are the most expert 
swordsmen in Europe, little doubt can exist 
as to the issue of the combats ; and, in fact, 
scarcely a morning passed without three or 
four English or Prussian officers being carried 
through the Barriere de 1'Etoile, if not dead, 
at least seriously wounded and condemned 
to carry with them through life the inflic- 
tions of a sanguinary and savage spirit of 

My authority for this statement will be 
found in Charles Lever's 'Confessions of 
Harry Lorrequer,' in which work is also 
recorded how an English officer, Capt. 
Trevanion, punished an insulting remark 

9' h S. IX. FEB. 1, 1902.] 



uttered by Capitaine Augustin Gendemar. 
the president of a duelling club associated 
for the express and avowed object of pro- 
voking to insult, and certainly dooming to 
death, every English officer upon whom they 
could fasten a quarrel. 

Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

'The Origin and History of Ordeals, &c., 
with a Chronological Register of the Prin- 
cipal Duels,' by James P. Gilchrist (London, 
1821), contains information respecting duels 
which were fought during the period 1762 to 
1821, the number mentioned being 172. In 
some cases the correspondence and the results 
of the trials are given. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

WATERPROOF CLOTHING (7 th S. xii. 67 ; 9 th S. 
v. 229, 294. See also ' Mackintoshes,' 7 th S. 
iii. 227 ; 8 th S. i. 127, 215 ; ii. 58, 92). On 
13 Dec., 1634, John Eyres, Charles Mowat, 
and John Walles had granted to them by 
Privy Seal the 

"Privilege for fourteen years to put in practice in 
England and Ireland ways by them newly invented, 
for making woollen cloth impenetrable of wet and 
serviceable for coaches and wagons." Forty-eighth 
Report of Deputy-Keeper of P.R., App. iii.' 521. 

O. O. H. 

(9 th S. viii. 518 ; ix. 3, 24). To the deeply in- 
teresting papers contributed by MR. JOHN C. 
FRANCIS at the above references may I be 
allowed to append a small postscript 1 

The great pioneer of cheap literature, John 
Cassell, is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. 
His grave, No. 19,094, in Square 16, nearly 
opposite the main entrance, is covered by a 
coped recumbent slab of granite, and bears 
the following inscriptions : 

In loving Memory. 
John Cassell, 


Born January 23rd, 1817. Died April 2nd, 1865. 

Mary Hannah Cassell, 

Daughter of the above, 

Born June 29th, 1844. Died June 13th, 1848. 

Mary Cassell, 

Born April 9th, 1811. Died July 6th, 1885. 
Interred at Hove Cemetery, Brighton. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

MICHAEL BRUCE AND BURNS (9 th S. vii. 466 ; 
viii. 70, 148, 312, 388, 527). This controversy, 
as I have already pointed out, has made no 
progress in thirty years, and it is surely futile 
to continue it unless something new can be 
offered. I am now asked to study the defunct 
Scots Magazine on the subject, but the speci- 
men of evidence quoted from that periodical 

does not encourage further investigation of 
its contents. MS. copies of the k Ode to the 
Cuckoo/ according to this authority, are 
"said to have been circulating in East Lothian 
in or about 1767, before the Bruce MSS. came into 
Logan's possession, which was not till the succeed- 
ing summer, or probably as late as 1769." 

The writer of this ought to have shown 
reason for disbelieving the statements of 
Bruce's biographers that Logan got the MSS. 
in 1767. The story of the "circulating" copies, 
however, is more than a century old, and is 
thus disposed of by Dr. Grosart : 

" Here is the cautious language of his eulogist, 
Dr. Robertson, in his ' Life ' of Logan prefixed to 
his * Sermons ': ' The only pieces which Logan him- 
self ever acknowledged, in his conversations with 
the compiler of this biographical sketch, were the 
story of "Levina," the " Ode to Paoli," and "The 
Cuckoo." The last was handed about and extolled 
among his literary acquaintances in East Lothian 
long before its publication, probably (though not 
certainly) in 1767, as he did not reside there at all 
in 1768, and very little in 1769. This fact, and his 
inserting it as his own in a small volume eleven 
years afterwards, seem pretty decisive of his claim.' 
Credent Judtuus! Only first seen in 1767, and yet 
1767 was the year of his reception of Bruce's MSS. ; 
not to say that, as a correspondent of the Poet, he 
might even have received and ' shown ' it earlier, 
though it is nowhere attempted to be proved that 
he did this. The claim on such a miserable chance 
probability' not certainly ' is monstrous ; and, 
as the strength of a chain is measured, not by 
its strongest but by its weakest part, this link 
failing, the after publication shares its worthless- 

nocta Worts nf Mu'1-ia.ftl TJrnnn ' TV R4. fid ISfifv 

Works of Michael Bruce,' p. 64, ed. 1865. 
Dr. Grosart further deals in a note (p. 65) 
with the letter from Robertson of which Dr. 
Rae appears to be enamoured. This is how 
he disposes of its claim to consideration : 

" David Laing, Esq., LL.D., of the Signet Library, 
Edinburgh, has kindly favoured me with a copy of 
the first edition of Bruce's ' Poems ' (1770), in which 
some anonymous former possessor of the volume 
has marked the pieces usually claimed for Logan as 
his ; and, of course, the ' Ode to the Cuckoo ' is one 
of them. But this is of no value whatever, seeing 
it only shows that the writer, whoever he may have 
been, accepted Logan's own statement. Dr. Laing 
has also sent me a copy of a letter by Dr. Robertson, 
of Dalmeny, containing nearly the same list ; but 
we have seen all that he had to adduce (supra). In 
short, wherever I have come upon any attempt at 
evidence in favour of Logan, an examination has 
invariably resolved it into his own publication and 

It seems almost necessary to apologize for 
using the columns of * N. & Q.' in the repro- 
duction of this ancient controversial matter. 
I crave indulgence, however, in defence 
of my statement that nothing new on the 
problem has come to light since Dr. Grosart 
advanced his damaging indictment of Logan 
n his edition of Michael Bruce's poems. He 
may have been wrong, but his error is still to 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

be proved. The method of the late Scots 
Magazine (if we may judge from the illustra- 
tive extract presented for consideration) does 
not seem likely to affect his position. Nor is 
it of any avail to advance against him the 
opinion of Robertson of Dalmeny, whom he 
himself disposed of as a very insignificant 
factor in the discussion. There will always 
be room for regret that Dr. Grosart did not 
live to issue, as he thought of doing, a new 
edition of his 'Works of Michael Bruce.' 
Possibly he- might not have been able to add 
much to his original memoir, but I have the 
best reasons for saying that he would have 
emphasized his contention that Bruce was 
the author of the ' Ode to the Cuckoo.' 


ST. TEILO (7 th S. viii. 9, 194 ; 9 th S. viii. 511). 
Any of your readers who are interested in 
this subject may be glad to be referred to a 
booklet published at Preston, Lancashire, in 
1893, entitled 'The Life and Memorials of 
Saint Teilo, Patron of Llandaf and Cardiff,' 
by J. H. M. ; printed for Saint Teilo's Catholic 
Historical Society of South Wales. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

"FRAIL" (9 th S. iv. 436, 507; v. 51, 158; 
vi. 378 ; vii. 33, 177 ; viii. 531). At the present 
time this name for a rush basket is seldom 
used in Shropshire. I do not remember hear- 
ing it for many years, except about two months 
ago when in Bridgnorth I was asked if I 
would like a parcel put in a " frail," as I could 
then carry it easily. HERBERT SOUTHAM. 


GRAFTON, 1760-1844 (9 th S. ix. 9). According 
to G. E. C.'s ' Complete Peerage ' (vol. x. p. 68) 
the fourth duke was educated at Harrow 
School and Trinity College, Cambridge. His 
father, who filled the offices of Secretary of 
State and First Lord of the Treasury in the 
first decade of George Ill's reign, was edu- 
cated at Westminster School and Peterhouse 

G. F. B. B. 

CUSTOM (9 th S. viii. 344, 486).-DE. KRUEGER 
says : Ihe Noras sit at Nornagest's cradle 
and proclaim that his life will last only 
as long as the candle burning there lasts. 
I his reminds me of one of the folk-tales col 
lected by Bechstein. Death introduces a 
man into a cavern, and shows him a number 
of candles burning, some nearly burnt to the 
end and others not so. These candles repre- 
t the lives of men; and, when they are 
burnt or blown out, the lives come to an end 

Macbeth, speaking of life, says : " Out, out, 
3rief candle ! " It may be that Shakspeare 
lad heard the tale. In one folk-story, at 
east, Death is represented as hewing down 
;rees, which signify the lives of men. An 
dea somewhat similar to that of these folk- 
itories is expressed in Washington Irving's 
;ale of ' The Devil and Tom Walker.' Althaea's 
urand, which finished the life of Meleager, 
las some connexion with the foregoing. 


Two years ago I was staying at a hotel in 
he Highlands, and amongst the guests was 
an American family. When the birthday of 
one of the party came round a young lady 
some seventeen or eighteen years old at 
dinner there was a sugared birthday cake 
placed in the centre of the table, with seven- 
teen or eighteen lighted candles round it, 
one for each year of the young lady's life. 
They told us it was a common American 
ustom to do this on a birthday. 

W. G. D. F. 

The phrase mentioned by DR. G. KRUEGER 
occurs in the Walpurgisnacht scene in Goethe's 
Faust.' Mephistopheles threatens the apolo- 
jetic will-o'-the-wisp, who cannot keep a 
straight course to guide Faust and himself 
up to the Brocken 

Ki, ei ! Er denkt's den Menschen nachzuahmen. 
(leh er nur grad', ins Teufels Namen ! 
st bias' ich ihm sein Flackerleben 



(9 th S. ix. 8). Has MR. HIATT seen Mr. Charles 
Whibley's book ' The Pageantry of Life '? If 
my memory serves me, the article on Brum- 
mel contained in it will give him the in- 
formation he asks for. C. C. B. 

BURIAL OF A SUICIDE (9 th S. viii. 502). 
Mention has been made, under this heading, 
that the body of a certain unfortunate wretch 
in Lincolnshire who had committed suicide 
was buried in a standing position. A French- 
man was interred near the top of a hill in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Reigate, 
early last century, perpendicularly and head 
downwards. This was at his own request. 
He declared that, when at the last day every- 
thing was turned topsy-turvy, he was anxious 
to rise right side up. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

JEWS (7 th S. xi. 420; 9 th S. viii. 471). K. G. 
Andresen, in his 'Ueber Deutsche Volks- 
etymologie' (pp. 19, 20), says : 

" The cry ' Hep ! Hep !' directed against the Jews 
is said to owe its origin to the three letters H. E. P. 

9". s. ix. FRB. i, 1902.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


written on the colours of the gangs pursuing them 
at the time of the first Crusade, signifying, it is 
pretended, Hierosolyma est perdita. This, interest- 
ing as it may be, is deserving of no credit. It can 
) proved that the cry in question was applied at 
first to animals, especially goats the goat has the 
dialectal names of Hippe, also Heppe and as a 
long Jew's beard was also dubbed goat's beard, the 
extension of the sense can be easily conceived. 
That ' hep ' is the imperative of k heben ' heb den 
Fuss is possible, as far as form goes, but impro 

" The common people," he adds, " tried to account 
for their war-cry by the explanation that the Jews, 
when the Saviour was drawn up on the Cross, 
called out, Heb ! Heb ! (Lift ! Lift !)." 

Of course, this cannot be taken seriously 
the Jews of those times spoke as little German 
as the German mob used Latin. The deriva- 
tion from the goat's beard sounds more 
plausible ; but is it not more natural to 
assume that " Hep " is only the shortened 
** Hebraer," Hebrew ? In my boyhood, when 
catching sight of a Jew we saluted and 
pursued him naughty boys as we were 
with " Jude, Jude ! " or " Jude, hep ! " 


DISSINGTON FAMILY (9 th S. viii. 365 ; ix. 18). 
Is it too fanciful to connect this family 
with the place-name Tissington, in Derby- 
shire, where the far-famed well-dressing still 
survives 1 


"MINE HOST OF THE TABARD" (9 th S. viii. 
505). It is more than probable that Harry 
Bailly, of the Cook's Prologue in Chaucer's 
' Canterbury Tales,' was identified more than 
forty-four years ago. See 2 nd S. iii. 228. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

WEEKS'S MUSEUM (9 th S. ix. 8). The sale of 
the automatic figures and other pieces of 
mechanism f rom Weeks's Museum took place 
at Messrs. Christie's rooms on 26 May, 1864. 
Many of the articles offered for sale are de- 
scribed in 3 rd S. vi. 46. The museum was 
established about 1810 at 3, Tichborne 
Street, Hay market. The grand room was 
117ft. long and 30ft. high. It was covered 
entirely with blue satin, and contained a 
variety of mechanical curiosities. The archi- 
tecture was by Wyatt, and the ceiling was 
painted by Rebecca and Singleton. There 
were two temples nearly 7 ft. high, supported 
by sixteen elephants, and embellished with 
1,700 pieces of jewellery. Among the automata 
were the tarantula spider and the bird of ! 
paradise, the surprising efforts in a minute 
compass of the proprietor's ingenuity. The 
price of admission to the temple was 2s. 6d, 

one shilling extra being charged for the 
tarantula or the bird. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The following description appears in Leigh's 
' New Picture of London,' 1824-5, under * Ex- 
hibitions of Works of Art,' &c., p. 384 : 

"Weeks's Museum, Tichborne Street, is an 
exhibition of some curious and surprising mechan- 
ism. A tarantula spider, made of steel, comes in- 
dependently out of a box, and runs backward and 
forward on the table, stretches out and draws in 
its paws, as if at will ; moves its horns and claws, 
and opens them with ease. This singular automaton, 
that has no other power of action than that con- 
tained in its body, is composed of 115 pieces ! Here 
also are shown two magnificent clocks in the form 
of temples, supported by sixteen elephants, and 
embellished with upwards of seventeen hundred 
pieces of jewellery, in the first style of elegance. 
Admission, 2s. Qd." 


South Hackney. 

John Timbs, in his ' Curiosities of London,' 
first edition, 1855, says that this museum was 
established at 3, Tichborne Street about 1810, 
and was famed for its mechanical curiosities. 
The grand room, by Wyatt, had a ceiling 
painted by Rebecca and Singleton. In it were 
two temples, 7 ft. high, supported by sixteen 
elephants, and embellished with 1,700 pieces 
of jewellery. Among the automata were the 
tarantula spider and bird of paradise. He 
adds : 

:t Weeks's Museum has long been dispersed ; the 
premises were subsequently the show-rooms of the 
Rockingham Works, where, in 1837, was exhibited 
a splendid porcelain dessert-service made for 
William IV. ; 200 pieces, painted with 760 subjects, 
occupied five years and cost 3,OOOZ. In 1851 the 
place was refitted by Robin (?Houdin), the con juror." 

'The Picture of London for 1820,' a con- 
temporary account, says : 



This Museum, on the plan of the celebrated Mr. 
_ox, forms an interesting object to the curious. 
The grand room, which is 107 ft. long, and 30 ft. 
tiigh, is covered entirely with blue satin, and 
contains a variety of figures, which exhibit the 
powers of mechanism. Admittance Is. Qcl. from one 
:ill four ; and 2s. from seven till ten. The price of 
admission to the temple is 2,9. 6d. from twelve till 
: our, and from six till nine. A curious tarantula 
and bird are shewn at Is. each." 

I believe I have seen at least one engraving 
of this museum. E. E. NEWTON. 

7, Achilles Road, West Hampstead, N.W. 

CARLYLE ON SYMBOLS (9 th S. ix. 27). In 
'Sartor Resartus,' book iii. chap, iii., my 
friend MR. W. L. RUTTON will find the refer- 
ence he asks for under the above heading. 


NOTES ' AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

The paragraph relating to the coming Coro- 
nation in MR. BUTTON'S interesting note is 
probably due to an unconscious reminiscence 
of the time when he read ' Symbols ' himself, 
the last paragraph of which will to-day bear 
amendment. It reads as follows : 

" When, as the last English Coronation [that of 
George IV. Ed.l was preparing, concludes this 
wonderful Professor, I read in their Newspapers 
that the ' Champion of England,' he who must offer 
battle to the Universe for his new King, had brought 
it so far that he could now mount his horse with 
little assistance, I said to myself: Here also we 
have a Symbol well nigh superannuated. Alas, 
move whithersoever you may, are not the tatters 
and rags of superannuated worn out Symbols (in 
this Ragfair of a World) dropping off' everywhere, 
to hoodwink, to halter, to tether you ; nay, if you 
shake them not aside, threatening to accumulate, 
and perhaps produce suffocation." 

Fortunately, to-day circumstances are dif- 
ferent, as are the principal personages in the 
ceremony referred to. W. S. S. 

SEVEN (9 th S. viii. 525). The " Seven 
Sisters" was the name of an old inn at 
Tottenham, in front of which was a cluster 
of seven elms in a circle, with a walnut tree 
in the middle. An engraving showing the 
trees as they appeared in 1830 will be founc 
in ' Old and New London,' v. 373. The Seven 
Sisters Road leads from Holloway to Totten- 
ham. Elms and other trees seem to have 
been often planted in clumps of seven. 

I do not think the origin of Seven Kings 
at Ilford has ever been satisfactorily deter 

There is a farm called Seven Score near 
Ramsgate. The local etymologist derives the 
name from " Sea- vent-score, to which the sea 
scored, or marked up, close up, on the south 
in the olden time." The word score, however 
is merely equivalent to share. 

The number seven is more favoured than 
any other digit, for which various reason 
have been assigned. Bed well, who wrote a 
history of Tottenham about 270 years ago 
describes Page Green, near that village, a 
having a group of seven elms in a circle, each 
planted by a sister, and a walnut tree in th 
centre by the eighth. He says : 

V This tree hath this many years stod there, an 

t is observed yearely to live and beare leavs an 

yet to stand at a stay, that is, to grow neithe 

greater nor higher. This people do commonfy te 

the reason to bee, for that there was one bu 

i that place for the profession of the Gospel. 

The tree planted by the most diminutiv 

! 1 V 1St ?u S WaS alwa y s low in its growth 

RTlfl Wncn f.ha /rJ^-Ui-U ..'.i_ T i , , f , 

he walnu 

In Ireland there is the legend of the seven 
sters at Bally bunion, situated a few miles 
rom Kerry Head, co. Cork, fully given in 
8t S. ix. 465; x. 112. 

The favouritism of this number is remark - 
ble. Nine places in England have this 
)refix, six in our colonies, and seven in other 
jarts of the world. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I have always understood that Seven Sisters 
load was named after seven elm trees which 

bood outside an old public-house in the 
ocality bearing the sign of the ** Seven 
Sisters." In ' Old and New London,' v. 373, 
s an engraving showing the seven trees as 

hey appeared in 1830, and the letterpress, 
x 380, states: "They were upwards of five 
lundred years old, and the tradition ran that 

martyr had been burnt on the spot where 

hey stood." 

As to Seven Kings, near Ilford, the name 
appears to have originally belonged to a large 
: arm in the locality. The legend is that the 
Seven Kings of the Saxon Heptarchy once 
watered their horses at the neighbouring 

tream, which here crosses the main road. It 
was anciently known as Seven Kings Water- 

ng. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

STOWE MISSAL (9 th S. viii. 484). The Stowe 
\Iissal has not occurred in any of the Ash- 
Durnham sales by public auction. But surely 
it would have been included among the Stowe 
MSS. which the late Earl of Ashburnham 
3urchased en bloc, and which his successor, 
:he present earl, sold to the British Govern- 
ment. This collection is divided between the 
British Museum and the Dublin Library. 
1 have no means at hand for making a more 
definite reply, but this may put H. A. W. on 
the right track. W. ROBERTS. 

"As MAD AS A TUP "(9 th S. viii. 501). In 
Scotland it is said of a young woman who 
incontinently seeks the society of men that 
she "rins like a blind tup-in-the-wind." "As 
mad as the baiting bull of Stamford " is a 
similar phrase which had its origin in a 
custom that took place annually in that town, 
derived from a traditional incident recorded 
in histories of Lincolnshire. In the proverb 
"As mad as a March hare," which occurs in 
Hey wood's ' Epigrams,' 1567, the allusion is 
said to be to the fact that hares are unusually 
shy and wild in that month, their rutting 
time; but Erasmus in his 'Aphorisms '(p. 266, 
1542) says that " hares are wilder in marshes 
from the absence of hedge and cover." The 

9 th S. IX. FEB. 1, 190'2. ] 



question, therefore, is, Do hares exhibit any corresponding as closely as. it well can to As You 

pxopntional symptoms of wildness at their Like It.' Before the play is begun .Dr. Furness has 

V A A if * Q if nf Qiioh fl to deal with the reference in Manmngham's 'Diary' 

rutting time? And, if so, is it of such i, K the formance of fche piece | t the Middle 

remarkable character as to be likely to have Temple on 2 February, 1601, the conjectures con- 

cerning the date of production on the strength of in- 
inaccurate. On this subject Dr. Furness makes 
merry, and in this the reader will probably follow 
him. We have only glanced over, not studied, the 
diary in question, but are curious to know whether 
the date should not be 1601/2, which would, of 
course, make it 1602, according to modern com- 
putation. Another question to be carefully settled 
is whether the original MS., which Collier was the 

given rise to the proverb 1 



Twelfth Night; or, What You Will. Edited by 
Horace Howard Furness. (Philadelphia, Lippin- 

ONE more volume the thirteenth has been added 

first to use, has undergone any of the customary 

Vi processes of that prince of falsifiers. With a view 

by Dr. Horace Howard Furness to that Variorum to settling this it should be closely inspected with 

edition of Shakespeare which is the crowning the aid of a powerful lens. In this diary the Italian 

achievement, as regards Shakespearian literature, origin of the story is first indicated. A full history 

of American scholarship, and puts to the blush all o f this constitutes an attractive portion of the 

rival English effort. The thirteen volumes already W0 rk. The well-known difficulties of the play, the 

issued include twelve plays, * Hamlet,' as our " Lady of the Strachy," the " Equinoctial of 

readers presumably know, with the immense Queubus," and other delightful puzzles, which we, 

amount of criticism and exegesis to which it has as W ell as Dr. Furness, are glad to leave as 

given rise, occupying two volumes. Of the works mysteries, are treated at length. A full account of 

now published, seven are comedies and five tra- the music sung by the topers or by the clown is 

gedies. With the historical plays Dr. Furness, it given, and the book is in all respects equal to the 

is understood, does not propose to concern him- best of its predecessors. Dr. Furness is, indeed, 

self, leaving that portion of his task to other and the best of editors, and has learnt better than any 

younger hands. other the all-important lesson that he edits best 

It is with delight that we watch on the shelves w hn meddles least. The reasonableness and sanity 

the augmenting row of volumes, and express a hope O f Tiis comments are in striking contrast with the 

that the full series contemplated_by the editor will | rage for misunderstanding and meddling with which 

appear under his supervision. Enough for fame, 
and enough also to constitute a proud lifetime's 
accomplishment, will be such productiveness. 

In its present shape 'Twelfth Night' makes 
direct and strong appeal to the public. Facts of 
extreme value conspire to make the initial matter 
of keen interest. So far as regards the text, which 
is wholly based upon the First Folio, and of which 
no copy published in Shakespeare's lifetime exists, 
little difficulty is experienced. The principal errors 
are held to be typographical ; and though there are 

most men who approach Shakespeare seem afflicted. 
We sincerely hope that the whole of the comedies 
will be issued under his conscientious and intelli- 
gent supervision. Once more we note with pro- 
found sympathy the pious dedication, which, to 
those who know all, conveys so much which has 
passed into the region of sanctities. 

What Great Men have said of Great Men : a 
Dictionary of Quotations. By William Wale. 
(Sonnenschein & Co.) 

some diverting cruces that seem now all but in- THTS volume is the latest addition to the useful 
capable of explanation, the text, by comparison "Dictionaries of Quotations" series, but scarcely 

with those of other works, is of exemplary purity, 
From the outset, however, what commentators 
persist in regarding as obscure faces the student, 
Whence comes the name, it is asked, and what is 

rises to the high level of its predecessors. Fami- 
liarity with its contents is likely to make a man 
glib rather than well informed. The second name 
in the book, the arrangement of which is alpha- 

, , , - 

the significance of the second portion of the title ? betical, is Addison, the first being Abelard. Of 

So well known are the revels attendant on Twelfth 
Night salutations, and so well remembered are the 
Saturnalia, that it requires more than the average 
denseness of the, commentator to boggle over the 
words " what you will," while the orgies of the 
two knights, Feste, and Maria, and the sour- 

the twenty - three passages given concerning the 
English writer many are quite superfluous. 
Tickell is not "a great man," and so does not 
come within the scope of the book. No one is 
the better for reading his assertion that *' every 
Muse was fond of Addison." Lytton's eulogy is 

faced disapproval of Malvolio, who, according to extravagant and James Ferguson's fantastic. By 
the assertion of Maria, is sometimes "a kinde of 

a Puritane," are enough to satisfy us from what , , 

observations of current proceedings Shakespeare Harte, Elijah Fenton, William Hayley, and others- 
drew his notions. It is, of course, true that Sir I with no claim to greatness, and who are, indeed, 
Thomas Herbert, the Master of the Revels, in a already forgotten, the congested volume might be 

copy of the Second Folio presented to him by 
King Charles I. altered the title to * Malvolio,' 
this being one of five plays he treated after a 
similar fashion. To the man who gave us 'As You 
Like It,' ' Much Ado about Nothing,' * The 

greatly relieved. If with them went some modern 
writers, altogether incapable of giving critical 

have a 
ever, no wise disposed to censure the manner in 

writers, altogether incapable of giving cr 
opinions of the slightest value, none would h 
right or a disposition to complain. We are, 

Winter's Tale,' and 'A Midsummer Night's Dream,' I which Mr. Wales task has been accomplished. 
what title so likely to commend itself as * Twelfth I His volume is not complete ; it is undesirable, and 
Night; or, What You Will'? the "what you will" I almost impossible, that it should be so. It shows, 



. ix. FEB. i, 1902. 

none the less, omnivorous reading and wide re- 
search, and may be taken up at any time, ransacked 
with satisfaction, and laid aside. For this class of 
book we have, however, a dislike. Your purveyor 
of matter for magazine and periodical may turn 
to it and obtain a cheap and spurious reputation 
for knowledge. No genuine scholar will often em- 
ploy in his work information he has not himself 
quarried, and the experienced critic mistrusts the 
assertion that A calls B such and such a thing, 
with no hint where this is done. Such assertions 
are, as a rule, misleading when not inexact. No 
great harm is perhaps done, since work constructed 
on facile principles is like jerry-built houses that 
collapse of themselves. We could suggest to Mr. 
Wale one or two extracts that might with advan- 
tage have appeared, but refrain, since his book is 
large enough. Apropos of the Georges I., II., III., 
IV., he might with advantage supply in his next 
edition the well-known lines beginning 

George the First was always reckoned 
Vile, and viler George the Second. 

The Babylonian and the Hebrew Genesis. By H. 

Zimmern, Ph.D. (Nutt.) 

THE value of a book like this the third issue of 
" The Ancient East " series is not to be estimated 
by its size, which is small, or by its price, which is 
only one shilling. It gives us the mature and 
reasoned judgment of a great scholar on a problem 
of the most far-reaching interest no less than the 
origin and development of those early beliefs which 
are recorded in the opening pages of the HeUrew 
Scriptures. No sincere and earnest student of the 
Old Testament should fail to possess himself of this 
concise but authoritative statement of the most 
recent results of Babylonian discovery in their 
bearing on the Book of Genesis. If the large num- 
ber of people who profess to be readers of the 
Bible, and also lovers of truth, ignore this valuable 
series of manuals which Mr. Nutt is placing within 
their reach, we can only say that it is one more 
instance of the cant and obscurantism which are 
often characteristic of the popular religionism of 
the day. Our fathers, such people argue, did not, 
because they could not, know of these discoveries 
and therefore we will not. " This they willingly 
are ignorant of. 

AMOXU the many subjects of historical interest 
in the later numbers of the Intermediaire may be 
mentioned the faith -cures of Prince Alexander 
Leopold ot Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingfurst 
uncle of the late German Chancellor. The notes on 
the conduct of Rossel, immediately before his 
execution after the fall of the Commune, are also 
worthy of attention. Antiquaries who make a 
study of Christian relics will find, in a communica- 
tion relating to the so-called nails of the PasskS, 
that there used to be " une dent de Jesus-Christ" 
at Noyon. Unfortunately, however, the authority 
tor this curious fact is not quoted. 

ne still C9ntinues to add to the hoard of 
ancient customs, rites, and beliefs which M. Gaidoz 
Sg tog S eth e e l r? W - WOrker ' S ^ ind ^gablo in bring- 

THE library Journal gives all kinds of i n f. 
turn on the methods used in developing the public 

TraTH f f . Americ *- . V the average man oT the 
I ransatlantic communities does not speedilv become 
a model of erudition it will be becWe ^inherent 

tendency still leads him to expend whatever energies 
he may possess in personal action on his own en- 
vironment rather than to the acquirement of book- 

DR. F. G. LEE, F.S.A., who has just died at the 
age of seventy, after the announcement of his con- 
version to the Church of Rome, was a well-known 
antiquary, and was long recognized as an authority 
on all matters pertaining to ecclesiological lore. As 
an author he will be best remembered for his large 
and learned volume on the ' History and Antiquities 
of the Prebendal Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
of Thame,' published in 1883. This was a work of 
singular interest and value, and one of which the 
late Bishop of Oxford (Dr. Stubbs) had the highest 
opinion as a learned historical work. He edited 
three editions of that well-known volume the 
'Directorium Anglicanum,' which was originally 
brought out by his friend Mr. Purchas in 1858. 
He likewise compiled a * Glossary of Liturgical and 
Ecclesiastical Terms,' containing many illustrations 
from his own pen and that of Mr. Pugin, and a 
'Manuale Clericorum,' both dealing with many 
interesting liturgical questions. He contributed 
numerous papers on antiquarian subjects to the 
pages of Arcnceplogia, the Herald and Genealogist, 
the Ecclesiologist, the Ecclesiastic, the Records 
of Buckinghamshire, and many similar serials. He 
was a contributor also to ' N. & Q.' He was a 
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, as 
well as of Scotland, and an honorary member of the 
Archaeological Societies of Normandy and Rome, 
and of many bodies of a like nature. Dr. Lee, who 
was educated at Oxford, where he won the Newdi- 
gate in 1854, received the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
from the University of Salamanca in 1864, and that 
of D.D. from the Washington and Lee University, 
in Virginia, in 1879. H. B. 


We must call special attention fc> the following 

notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let | 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication "Duplicate." 

M. L. R. B. ("The Essenes "). Shall appear 
next week. 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 
' The Editor of ' Notes and Queries" 5 Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return- 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9*s.ix.F E R.8,i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 215. 

NOTES : The Earl of Oxford and Thomas Watson, 101 
The Essenes, 103 Rollo on North Wyke, 104 Early 
Hotels of Rome" Pattle "Letter of 1673, 105 Discovery 
at Malvern Priory Gentleman of Colour Knighted 
"Gun" Gourou Nut, 106. 

QUERIES : " Pour oil upon the waves " Thackeray 
Quotation Milton : a Tract on Logic Earl of Cromartie 
Royal Descendants Sir G. Fenton Waterloo En- 
gravings F. B. Irving Dakin Family, 107" Roof-tree" 
Funeral Folk-lore Stoning the Wren " Skirret " 
Burke's Visits to Monmouthshire " Saulies " Kingsman 
Antinomian Sect Gazlay Family, 108 Tib's Eve 
Denn or Denne Uncovering at the National Anthem 
Gwyneth W. G. Hamilton, 1729-96 Silver Ornaments 
"Wyrall," 109. 

EPLIES : Obelisk at St. Peters, 109-Staunton, Worces- 
tershire Brummel and B. d'Aurevilly Gates of Caroline 
Park, Edinburgh, 110 -Heuskarian Rarity William the 
Conqueror's Half Brothers and Sisters " Alright "=A11 
right Breadcrumbs and the Devil- Cossen " God speed 
you and the bt-adle," 111 Mortara : Arro Earl of Chester 
"Two blades of grass "' Vindex Anglicus,' 112 Ad- 
jectival Change Tontine "Gentle shepherd, tell me 
where" Arms of Married Women Sorrow's 'Zincali,' 
113 -Oldest Borough in England "Eve stood at the 
Garden gate " " Mischief-Night,";il4 Hognel Money 
'Outrider" Freaks of Nature, 115 Majolican Bacini 
Machine "=Coach " Fadge "Flower Games, 116-Fire 
kept. Burning Horn Dancers "Johnian Pigs" Biblio- 
aphy of the Bicycle Adulation Extraordinary, 117 
rms of Dutch East India Company Locomotive and 
Gas Bishops' Signatures Keys to Novels, 118. 
NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Lancaster Pleadings and Depo- 
sitions'' Who's Who ' ' Whitaker's Peerage 'Reviews 
and Magazines. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



WHILST looking through the ' Shakespeare 

Anthology,' edited by Prof. Arber, I recently 

came across a sonnet which, on the strength 

of a manuscript in the Bodleian Library, is 

attributed to the above noble poet. But the 

words seemed so familiar that I felt certain I 

md read them elsewhere and that they were 

w a different writer. The same indefatigable 

editor furnished me with the means of show- 

ng that I was not mistaken, for, on turning 

x> his reprint of Thomas Watson's poems, I 

iound that the lines form the sixtieth and 

ast sonnet of * The Tears of Fancie ; or, Love 

Disdained,' published in 1593. The discovery 

is so curious and interesting that I hope to 

be excused for quoting both pieces. De 

Vere's, printed for the first time in 1899, is as 

follows : 

Who taught thee first to sigh, ' Alas !' my heart? 


Who taught thy tongue the woeful words of plaint' 

Who filled your eyes with tears of bitter smart? 


Who gave thee grief, and made thy joys so faint? 


Vho first did paint with colours pale thy face ? 


Who first did break thy sleeps of quiet rest ? Love. 

Above the rest in Court, who gave thee grace ? Love. 

Who made thee strive in honour to be best ? Love. 

n constant troth, to bide so firm and pure ? Love. 

To scorn the World, regarding but thy friends ? 


Vith patient mind, each Passion to endure? Love. 

In one desire to settle to the end ? Love. 

Love then thy choice ! wherein such choice thou 

As nought but death may ever change thy mind. * 

I will now give the sonnet as it was printed 
more than three hundred years ago, when 
;he last of the Tudors sat on the throne of 
England : 
Who taught thee first to sigh Alasse sweet heart? 

Who taught thy tongue to marshall words of plaint? 


Who fild thine eies with teares of bitter smart ? love. 
Who gave thee griefe and made thy ioyes so faint? 


Who first did paint with coullers pale thy face ? love. 
Who first did breake thy sleepes of quiet rest ? love. 
Who forst thee unto wanton love give place ? love. 
Who thrald thy thoughts in fancie so distrest ? love. 
Who made thee bide both constant firme and sure ? 

Who made thee scorne the world and love thy friend ? 

Who made thy mind with patience paines indure? 


Who made thee settle stedfast to the end ? love. 
Then love thy choice though love be never gained, 
Still live in love, dispaire not though disdained.! 

Now, as they stand, it is manifestly im- 
possible that these poems could have been 
written by two separate persons, for the one 
is almost a copy of the other, as the reader 
may see for himself. It is, however, very 
strange that the imitator should have ascribed 
the verses to De Vere, Earl of Oxford, as I 
shall show. Thomas Watson's life was short ; 
he was about forty-five years old, or there- 
abouts, when he died in 1592. De Vere, born 
in 1545, ended his career, about which there 
was no " odour of sanctity," in 1604, so there 
could not have been much difference between 
the ages of the poets. But now conies in 
the curious fact that Watson's poem 'The 
c EKaTo//,7ra06a, or Passionate Centurie of 
Love,' published in 1582, is dedicated "To 
the Right Honorable my very good Lord 
Edward de Vere, Earle of Oxenford, Vicount 
Bulbecke, Lord of Escales, and Badlesmere, 
and Lord High Chamberlaine of England," 

* ' The Shakespeare Anthology,' p. 48. The words 
your in the third line, and friends at the end of the 
tenth, are enough of themselves to prove that the 
MS. is valueless. See the corresponding lines in 
the next poem. 

f Thomas Watson's ' Poems,' p. 208. Arber's 
reprint, 1870. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. s, 1902. 

who had, we are told, "at convenient leisures 
favourablie perused it, being as yet in written 
hand." It has been suggested that the earl 
may have written the introductory notices 
which precede the poems in this work. But 
that supposition is altogether untenable, for, 
although they are mostly put in the third 
person, they are of such a character and so 
fully describe the sources whence the poet 
drew his inspiration, that we are forced to 
the conclusion that no other hand than hi 
could have composed them. 

However, that is a matter which needs no 
further argument on this occasion. We are 
now only concerned with the above-quoted 
sonnet and its authorship, which must be 
unhesitatingly ascribed to Thomas Watson. 
That it was printed in 1593 is indisputable. 
Furthermore, one might call it an echo of 
another poem in the ' Passionate Centurie of 
Love ' (Ixxxix.), the first twelve lines of which 
begin with the word "love," just as the 
corresponding number end with it in the 
one under discussion. And what is still more 
remarkable is the fact that the " annotation " 
prefixed to this piece is written in the first 
person, so that all doubt is removed.* I do 
not claim any great merit for the lines, but 
they are peculiar in their way, and should be 
assigned to their rightful author, who was 
Thomas Watson, despite their attribution to 
the Earl of Oxford on the authority of "MS. 
Rawl. Poet. 85, in Bodleian Library," by Prof. 
Arber in his excellent volume. 

De Vere's fame as a poet is for the most 
part legendary. We have scarcely anything 
left that we may regard as the genuine 
offspring of his muse. There can be no doubt 
that he once enjoyed a considerable reputa- 
tion. Puttenham, in his 'Arte of English 
loesie, published in 1589, writes as follows : 

"And in her Maiesties time that now is are 
sprong up an other crew of Courtly makers Noble 
men and Gentlemen of her Maiesties owne ser- 
vauntes, who have written excellently well as it 
would appeare if their doings could be found out 


and mad 

nvfnf| t th fi n ' ble G ? nfcl eman Edward Earle 
Uxtord. Arber's reprint, p. 75. f 

This testimony is emphatic, but indefinite, 
and savours of adulation, in which the writer- 
was an adept. We get something more 
' v ? P '/A' y here he bestows praise on 
i Earle of Oxford and Maister Ed wardes 
v \ ^ la , iestie Chappell for Comedy and 
Enterlude." In fchi, IL kst cha e p a fc y er an d f 

book i., we have a very interesting criticism 
of English poets, dead and living, from 
Chaucer and Gower to "Sir Philip Sydney 
and Maister Challenner, and that other 
Gentleman who wrate the late shepheardes 
Callender," which proves he did not know 
Spenser's name ; but no mention is made of 
Thomas Watson, though his chief poem had 
been in print for seven years. But the 
greatest genius of all, according to Putten- 
ham, was Elizabeth herself ! Here are his 
own words : 

"But last in recitall and first in degree is the 
Queene our soveraigne Lady, whose learned, deli- 
cate, noble Muse, easily surmounteth all the rest 
that have written before her time or since, for 
sence, sweetnesse and subtillitie, be it in Ode, Elegie, 
Epigram, or any other kinde of poeme Heroick or 
Lyricke, wherein it shall please her Maiestie to 
employ her penne, even by as much oddes as her 
owne excellent estate and degree exceedeth all the 
rest of her most humble vassals." 

I have quoted this amazing piece of flattery 
to show that the praise was as ill bestowed 
in the case of the queen as of the earl. What 
has the latter left to justify Puttenham's 
eulogium 1 A few pieces, among which the 
best is the one entitled ' The Judgment of 
Desire,' that has held a place in almost every 
anthology since the publication of Percy's 
' Reliques.' Percy tells us that he found it 
entire in the ' Garland of Good-will,' printed 
about the close of the sixteenth century. Of 
this poem Ellis says it is the " only one of 
his productions which can be said to rise a 
little above mediocrity," which opinion con- 
firms Percy's, where we read (vol. ii. book ii.): 
"Perhaps it is no injury to his reputation 
that few of his compositions are preserved for 
the inspection of impartial posterity." This 
well-known piece is not given in the 'Golden 
Treasury,' nor in Prof. Arber's 'Shakespeare 
Anthology,' but it is quoted in full by Prof. 
Saintsbury in his 'History of Elizabethan 
Literature,' pp. 127-8, to prove that Lord 
Oxford was "a charming writer of verse." 
But are the lines really his, though, so to 
speak, guaranteed by Puttenham himself, 
who quotes a portion of them 1 At the third 
reference to the ' Arte of English Poesie ' we 
find the following passage, which I beg to 
transcribe in its entirety, as so much depends 
on it : 

"Edward Earle of Oxford a most noble and 
learned Gentleman made in this figure of responce 
an emble of desire otherwise called Cupide which 
from his excellencie and wit, I set downe some part 
of the verses, for example. 

When wert thou borne desire ? 

In pompe and pryme of May, 

By whom sweete boy wert thou begot ? 

By good conceit men say, 

9'* s. ix. FEB. s, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Tell me who was thy nurse ? 

Fresh youth in sugred ioy. 

What was thy meate and dayly f oode ? 

Sad sighes with great annoy. 

What hadst thou then to drinke ? 

Unfayned lovers teares. 

What cradle wert thou roeked [sic] in ? 

In hope devoyde of feares. Pp. 215-6. 

Puttenham's volume, as I have said, was 
published in 1589 ; Watson's ' Passionate 
Centurie of Love' in 1582, with a dedication 
to De Vere ; and it is beyond doubt that the 
latter was indebted to the twenty-second 
poem in that book for his subject and much 
of his language. Watson's inspiration was 
derived from the Italian, as he himself 
informs us. I cannot quote the whole piece, 
but the following lines will show that the 
earl's verses are only an adaptation and can 
claim no originality : 

When werte thou borne sweet Love ? who was thy 


When Flora first adorn'd Dame Tellus lap, 
Then sprung I forth from Wanton hote desire : 
Who was thy nurse to feede thee first with pap? 
Youth first with tender hand bound up my heade, 
Then saide, with Lookes alone I should be fed ; 
What maides had she attendant on her side, 
To playe, to singe, to rock thee fast a sleepe ? 

Though this is not such a glaring case as the 
other, it may perhaps be assumed that De 
Vere could never have written the lines 
attributed to him had he been unacquainted 
with those of Thomas Watson. There I leave 
the matter. JOHN T. CURRY. 


FEW problems have vexed the souls of 
historians more intensely than the product 
called Essenism, which apparently sprang 
into being during the tempestuous reigns of 
the Hasmonean princes in the second century 
B.C. At any rate, nothing seems to be de- 
finitely known of their existence prior to this 
date, unless the Beisussim mentioned in the 
Talmud, who were in open contest with the 
Sopherim or Scribes, may be the party sub- 
sequently designated the Essenes. Their 
political influence on their brethren was 
practically nil, and it is even questionable 
whether their impress on literature and 
morals was much more. One or two famous 
dicta in the Gemara seem directly traceable 
to them, such as " Heaven can control all 
things except reverence," " Work is preferable 
to worship," " Work not for personal gain, but 
for its own sake," "Communism or death." 
In these relics there may lurk much indirect 
material by which we can reconstruct the 
popular attitude towards these Jewish 

Socialists, and also gauge the ethical value 
of their services to posterity. 

It might prove interesting to sketch what 
seem to be the "converging lines" of the 
ethnic developments that made the Mac- 
cabean era a fitting nidus for the reception 
of Essenic germs in the Hebraic organism. 
Essenism is briefly a compound of Judaism, 
Parseeism, and Hellenism. Now Judaism, 
much as it is a sensuous religion, partakes 
also of the nature of asceticism, which it 
derives in the first instance from the Egyptian 
hierarchy. The question of " clean and un- 
clean," the Sabbath dogmas, the Expiation 
regulations, and so forth, all indicate a con- 
siderable degree of self-repression and mon- 
astic reserve which came to Jewry via Egypt. 
The Nazarite and Rechabite groups, also the 
Cohaniui (priestly caste), show strong ten- 
dencies towards groupings or classifications 
even in pre-exile times. So that a disposi- 
tion towards a principle which apparently 
wars with the major forces of Mosaism lay 
latent in its bosom, needing merely the con- 
fluence of generating stimuli to excite it into 
a living entity in any given era of the Jewish 
state. Unfavourable conditions alone must 
be alleged for its non-arrival or birth sooner 
than later, among which the most favourable 
was the spread of Hellenism in Judsea through 
the domination of the Seleucidee on the one 
side, and of the Lagidse in Alexandria on the 
other. Parseeism, to which a short reference 
is necessary, made its appearance in the lite- 
rature and dogmas of the Jews in the fourth 
century B.C., during which period it is sur- 
mised that the ' Jobeid ' and many of the 
Psalms were composed. Angelology, which 
is a striking feature of Essenism and of the 
Zohar, chisels its features deeply into the 
tenets of this strange sect. The Hebrews 
themselves derived many practices from their 
Persian rulers, one of which (introduced by 
Ezra i.e., of reading portionsof the Scriptures 
on Sabbaths) has survived to this day. More- 
over, there are not wanting thinkers who 
hold, from the similarity of many of the rites 
of the ancient Parsees and the Jews, that 
they both sprang from some common ances- 
tor. In any case, Persian dualism is un- 
mistakably imbedded in many of the later 
writings of the Jews. How far this Parsee 
element was powerful to colour the cere- 
monies of the Greek world before and after 
Persia was conquered by Alexander, 331 B.C., 
has always remained an unsettled point ; but 
that the early settlers in Greece (who came 
f rom Asia Minor, and brought with them the 
Lydians, whose Semitic origin has been 
clearly ascertained) imported many Persian 


NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. s, 1902. 

rites seems quite feasible, and may help to 
explain the existence of Orphism m Homer 
and elsewhere, albeit some contend that 
these passages are spurious. Many of these 
early settlers in the plains of Attica wor- 
shipped the Pelasgian Zeus, whose temple is 
the sky, the unseen father dwelling alone, 
whose resemblance to the Hebraic Jahveh is, 
to say the least, noteworthy. These immi- 
grants built a temple in which they hung a 
perpetual lamp," and from certain remains it 
is conjectured they lived on rocks, resembling 
the " rock-dwellers " of the Scriptures. There 
are many other citable facts, all pointing 
more or less directly to Semitic strands in 
the rites and ceremonies of the Greeks. Nor 
can the relation of the Pythagoreans to the 
question be overlooked. Herodotus records 
that Pythagoras brought back from Egypt 
a complete insight into the arcana of 
Egyptian priestcraft, among which was the 
theory of metempsychosis, of the immortality 
of the soul, and of " clean and unclean." The 
Pythagoreans possessed many traits in com- 
mon with the Essenes. 

All this heterogeneous evidence shows that 
the barriers between Hellenism and Judaism 
were never so wide but a day would come 
when the two systems could merge and 
flourish in one camp. That camp was to be 
Essenism. In fact, the Rabbis, whose toler- 
ance is constantly receiving signal demon- 
stration, favoured Hellenism, and even dis- 
covered in Gen. ix. 27 a prophetic sanction 
to harmonious intercourse between Aryan 
and Semite. Reference to Alexander has 
already been made supra. Now when that 
emperor founded Alexandria, 332 B.C., he 
little dreamt that the decaying forces of 
Hellenism were to spring into renewed 
activity in less than a century from his 
death. About 260 B.C. the Alexandrian Jews 
translated the Scriptures into Greek, and so 
enabled the Therapeutte a similar sect to 
the Essenes to obtain an insight into 
Mosaism.^ Regarding the existence of this 
band of Socialists there raged a battle royal 
between Graetz and Zeller. But if Zeller is 
correct, it follows that the Alexandrian 
Jews must have had an object-lesson in 
communistic living ready made. Now 
intercourse between Judaea and Alex- 
andria was continuous, despite the fact of 
the building of the Onian temple near 
Heliopolis. Regular pilgrimages were made 
to Jerusalem, and tribute and offerings were 
religiously dispatched. Moreover, when Philo 
wrote his 'De Vita Contemplativa' it may 
reasonably be assumed that there were com- 

trinal controversies of the learned Alexandrine 
Jews, some of whom, bolder than the rest, 
may have returned to Judaea to put into a 
practical form what they had learnt from the 
Therapeutse in Egypt Hence, in all likeli- 
hood, arose the Essenes. 

A sect that discouraged marriage was not 
destined to grow into a multitudinous race ; 
and, apart from this destructive factor, the 
religious tenets of the Essenes were lacking 
in the warmth arid colour of the parent faith, 
and thus could hardly compete with Judaism, 
even if the "selective" conditions of mem- 
bership did not oppose an impassable barrier 
to successful development. 


Percy House, South Hackney. 

WYKE. I should be glad if through your 
columns I could communicate with one 
Rollo, who, in 1899, wrote to the owner of 
North Wyke, in South Tawton, Devon, sug- 
gesting the identity of that estate with the 
Wica that in Edward the Confessor's day 
was held by Ordulf, and at the time of the 
Domesday survey by Robert, Earl of More- 
tain. Premising' that in the opinion of the 
Rev. O. G. Reichel (based, he believes, prin- 
cipally on the sequence in the Exeter Book) 
this Wica is represented by Wick in Sho- 
brook, and certainly not by Teignweek ah. 
Highweek, as sometimes conjectured, Rollo 
maintains that there are many grounds for 
passing over these claims in favour of North 
Wyke, in South Tawton. Accepting Worthy's 
statement that this North Wyke* was, in or 
about the reign of Henry II., held by William 
cle Wigornia, "a grandson of Waleran de 
Bellomonte, Earl of Mellant, created in 1144 
first Earl of Worcester " (Comes Wigornise), 
and noting that in the Visitation of 1564 the 
name of the house appears as Moreton Wyke, 
Rollo advances the theory that it must 
have been included in those Devonshire 
estates of the Earl of Moretain which were 
bestowed by Henry I. on Reginald FitzHenry, 
Earl of Cornwall, and which upon Reginald's 
death were resumed by the king, with the 
exception of such estates as Reginald had 
given to his daughters.t One of these 
daughters being Maude, wife of Robert Bello- 
monte, Earl of Mellant and Worcester, there 
would be no difficulty in supposing her to 

* The topographers seem to have fallen into some 
confusion between North Wyke in South Tawton, 
North Wyke in North Tawton, and Chawleigh 
Wyke als. Flambert's Wyke, near Chulmleigh. 

t What historic evidence is there for the gift of 
Devonshire estates to Reginald's daughters ? 

9* s. ix. FEB. s, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


have handed down a part of her share to 
William de Wigornia (whom Rollo, pro- 
bably following Worthy, describes as "one 
of her own younger sons ") ; while that the 
Earls of Moretain did hold land in the parish 
of South Tawton is testified by the grant 
(recorded in Oliver's * Monasticon,' p. 228) by 
King John, when Earl of Moretain ("dum 
essemus Comes Moritonensis "), of certain 
rents in Allingeston (now Allison), within 
the manor of South Tawton, to the priory of 
Canonsleigh. I may add that, from com- 
parison of ancient records, I should judge 
Allingeston to have been the lordship -house 
of the manor later known as Ytton, and 
comprising Collibeare, Serslande, &c., in 
which case part of it was contiguous to the 
lands of North Wyke proper (which, as 
Rollo points out, very nearly correspond in 
acreage with the Wica of Domesday). The 
Rev. Wm. Wykes-Finch informs me that 
Itton, Powlesland, Youldens, Collibeare, Sess- 
land, &c., were long held by the North Wyke 
family. As to Worthy's assertion that Wil- 
liam de Wigornia was possessed of North 
Wyke and of divers other lands in the parish 
(in particular the manor of East Ash), besides 
Wray in Moreton Hampstead and Cheverston 
in Kenton (the last three " by royal grant "), 
I have yet to learn and should be very 
pleased to know his authority. Certain it 
is that Bellomontes were at that time lords 
of the manor of South Tawton. 

My own paper in the Transactions of the 
Devon Association for 1901 contains some 
early local matter that in an expert's hands 
might throw further light upon the case. 

EARLY HOTELS OF ROME. In 1469, close to 
St. Peter's, was an inn bearing the sign of 
"The Ass" (Asino), managed by Giorgio 
Britanno.* This reminds one that here was 
that ancient Anglo-Saxon quarter, dating 
from the days of Ina and Cead walla, the 
quarter of S. Spirito, where doubtless Raher, 
of St. Bartholomew the Great, and certainly 
Thomas A'Beckett, a little later, lodged when 
in Rome. In the commencement of the six- 
teenth century we find a Pietro de Leone 
keeping a hotel there " in casa dell' Ospedale 
de 1' inglesi. 7 ' The Piazza di Spagna already 
had "1'osteria del Cavalletto" in 1701, as 
Valesio records in his diary, where he like- 

* "Georgio de Brectania hospiti hospitii Asini 
apud S. Petrura Fl(or) ij b(on) liiij pro expensis 
factis iiij equis cursorum Imperatoris." * Arch, 
di^ Stato di^Roma,' Mandati Camerali, vol. 1468-9, 


fol. 180. Cf. 'Ricerche Storiche intorno Agli 
Alberghi di Roma,' F. Cerasoli. The emperor here 
referred to was Frederick III. 

wise refers to a robbery at another " locanda " 
there, called Monte d' Orp, at the mouth of 
the street leading to Trinita di Monti, called 
S. Sebastianello. ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

" PATTLE." (See ' Brattle,' 9 th S. viii. 500.)- 
In the ' Durham Account Rolls' (Surtees Soc.), 
the third volume of which, containing the 
Glossary, &c., is just about to be issued, we 
find the terms patele, patil, and plogh pattyl, 
used of " a ploughpaddle or spud, to clear off 
adherent soil or weeds, or for breaking large 
clods." The Glossary gives a reference to 
Deut. xxiii. 13, A.V. " J. T. F. 

collections is the following original autograph 
letter, dated 18 August, 1673, from a Capt. S. 
Forster, at Fleet (near Holbeach), in Lincoln- 
shire, to Mr. Nathan Tilson, who appears to 
have resid.ed opposite to the " Red Hart " Inn, 
in Fetter Lane, London. The writer, who 
was evidently a wag or, as some would 
say, "a jolly fellow "humorously refers to 
matters and things of historical interest, and 
his letter is therefore, I think, worthy of 
publication in 'N. & Q.' Moreover, many of 
your readers would, like myself, no doubt be 
glad to know more of these correspondents, 
as well as of the Mr. Lawrence (Tilson's 
neighbour) and Mr. Peter referred to therein. 
The explanatory foot-notes, it must be under- 
stood, are mine. 

ffleet. 18. Aug. 1673. 

Deare S r , I am here safe, (God be thanked,) I 
left my bagg and baggage att Lyn,* drinkeing helter 
Skelter in King John's cupp,f but I hope the washes 
wilbe more kinde to my neice, J 1 'le venture it how- 
euer. I intreat yo u doe me thekindnesse to deliuer 
the inclosed w h the french Edict, Decree, I know 
not what yo u call it to my Lord priuy Seale, if it be 
knowne 1 shalbe hangd, but the right I thinke 
ought to take place, especially belonging to the late 
Kings sonne and our Kings-brother, wee say here 
that the french wud not fight the last Engagement, 
marry hang them for cowardly traytorly whorelily 
rogues.H My most humble service to Amorous 

* Lynn Regis (or King's Lynn), co. Norfolk. 

t The Corporation of Lynn boasts of having been 
presented by King John with a very rich double-gilt 
cup and cover, weighing 73 oz., which is still pre- 
served and used on public occasions ; and at the 
same time a large s\yord with a silver mounting 
from his own side, as is engraven on the inscription 
on the hilt. 

t Referring to King John crossing the washes of 

James, Duke of York, brother to Charles II., 
and afterwards King James II. He resigned his 
place of Admiral of the Fleet 9 April previously 
(1673), and was succeeded by Prince Rupert. 

|| Alluding to Prince Rupert's engagement with 
the Dutch fleet, llth of same month (August, 1673), 
in which, owing to the French squadron (our allies) 


NOTES' AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 8, 1902. 

Mary, and incomparable Ann, if their husband and 
gallant M r Peter be amongst the liueing, tell him I 
am not dead and so forth. I am 

yo rs euer 


pray seale this, pray faile not the speedy deliuery. 
pray tell my Lord* That yo u must call for it w h in a 
week's tyme. 

y rs W u ut date I receaued yesterday, and am 
heartily sorry for m rs Tilson's sickriesse, I wish w h 
my heart that Peter had hers and his owne too, I 
returne my vnfeigned thanks for yo r care of my 
Tally, methinkes the king and I should not differ 
for the interest of 3o/. for 2 or 3 yeares,f present 
my humble Seruice to yo r good neighbour m r Law- 
rence, and tell him what I say. 

Addressed : 

To M r Nathan Tilson 
over ag* the red-hart InriiJ: 
in ffetter lane 


Endorsed : 

18 August- 1673 
Capt n fforster. 

W. I. R. V. 

VERN PRIORY. Some excavations made for 
drainage purposes in the churchyard of 
Malvern Priory early this year have led to 
a discovery which is, I think, of sufficient 
interest to deserve record here. Although 
lately on a brief visit to Great Malvern, I 
was unfortunately away on the day on which 
the kiln described below was brought to 
light. I therefore quote the remarks of a 
writer in the Malvern Gazette of Friday, 
10 January. All antiquaries are aware that 
the monks of " Moche Malverne " carried 
on the manufacture of so-called "encaustic " 
tiles on a large scale. The fine old priory 
church still retains many examples of them. 
According to the writer in the Gazette : 

"The discovery of the old kiln in which the 
encaustic tiles were baked was a very interesting 
one, and it was a wonder local archreologists did not 
more carefully investigate it when the opportunity 
was afforded, which may never occur again, as it is 
now covered in with several feet of earth The 
kiln was apparently a facsimile of those discovered 
in the Hendon grounds, and which are pictured and 
described at pge 71 of Mr. Nott's book, 'Malvern 
Priory Church.' The kiln was semicircular in 
plan, with an upper and lower chamber, the former 
being for the tiles and the latter for the heat 
source, which was probably derived from charcoal 
supplies of which would be abundant and suitable.' 

standing neuter the latter part of the dav his 

as il might have 


The tiles found this week were in almost every 
case imperfect, and were apparently the failures 
which had been utilised in the building or repair of 
the kiln. Doubtless all the perfect ones would be 
removed from the kiln before it was abandoned by 
the monks. Those unearthed were either over- 
burnt or imperfect in design or shape, and very few 
of them were of ecclesiastical character, the reli- 
gious symbols being practically absent. But in the 
interests of archaeology, it seems a pity that, as they 
were found in the churchyard itself, they were not 
retained for inspection and report by some one 
qualified to do so. As it was, they became the 
possession of any one who cared to carry them off, 
and are now dispersed beyond recovery. 

One cannot help sharing the regret ex- 
pressed in the above paragraph. Malvern 
teems with clergy and retired professional 
men. It is, therefore, the more remarkable 
that the ancient kiln, while exposed, was not 
accurately measured and delineated. The 
tiles, which are described as apparently 
failures, might have shed light on the process 
by ^ which the monks achieved interesting 
artistic results. CHARLES HIATT. 

RECEIVE KNIGHTHOOD. The Daily Telegraph 
of February 1st records the death of Sir 
William Conrad Reeves, who was the ^first 
gentleman of colour to receive the distinction 
of knighthood and to occupy the position of 
a British Chief Justice. He was, according 
to * Whitaker's Peerage,' born in 1841, and 
married, in 1868, Margaret, nee Rudder. In 
early life he came from the Barbados to Eng- 
land, entered the Middle Temple, was called 
in 1863, and after returning to the West 
Indies practised for some time at the Bar. 
He became Attorney-General in St. Vincent 
in 1867, was appointed Q.C. in 1883, in 1886 
was made Chief Justice of Barbados, and in 
1889 received the honour of knighthood. 

N. S. S. 

" GUN."- 

Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, 
And Norwich was built with Caistor stone. 
This is still the vulgar pronunciation of 
" stone" and "bone." We know the pronun- 
ciation "bun," witness Bunhill Fields; done 
is still called " dun," and none " nun." Now 
have a new etymology for the word 
" gun. "^ Any ordinary dictionary will tell 
you it is probably derived from "engine." 
This is absurd. It is evidently " gone," gone 
off, old pronunciation, neither "gawn" nor 
"gone." BRUTUS. 

[The origin suggested in the ' H.E.D.' seems much 
more probable. Your conjecture is not likely to 
nnd favour with philologists.] 

THE GOUROU NUT. This is a synonym 
for the kola nut, highly prized by cyclists for 

9 th S. IX. FEB. 8, 1902.] 



its stimulating and sustaining properties, 
which are analogous to those of the South 
American coca. The term is included, of 
course, in the ' N.E.D.,' but without etymo- 
logy, unless we count as such the vague 
remark, "Presumed to belong to some African 
language." In view of its importance, it may 
be worth while to place on record here the 
actual forms which I have found in some 
African tongues. In the Wolof of Senegambia 
it is called gourou, in the wide-spread Hausa 
it is goro, in the Son gay of Timbuctoo it is 
gouro, in the Fulah it is garru. This last may 
account for a third orthography sometimes 
met with in English namely, karoo nut. In 
the Mandingo, spoken in the French Soudan, 
it changes its initial, and becomes wourou or 
woro, according to J. B. Kambaud's ' Diction- 
naire,' 1896. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 


want for the Dictionary examples of this, 
in the figurative sense, before 1847. As the 
practice itself was discussed before the Royal 
Society and in the press in 1774, the figura- 
tive use might arise at any time after that 
date, and ought to be found long before 1847. 
J. A. H. MURE AY. 


[Perhaps first from some translation of Plutarch, 
who discussed the question before the Royal Society 

ray's works shall I find the following on 
Washington Irving: "The first ambassador 
of the New World to the Old " ? 



published 'Artis Logicse Plenior Institutio 
ad Petri Rami Methodum Concinnata,' by 
John Milton. Has this ever been reprinted, 
either separately or as part of a collected 
edition of Milton's works ? 


EARL OF CROMARTIE. In l Links with 
the Past,' by Mrs. Charles Bagot, is the 
following extract from the diary of Miss 
Mary Bagot : 

" 1823, Aug. 4. Miss Hay and Mrs. Bowdler, who 
are both with us, mentioned the following circum- 

stance, which both had seen [sic]. Lady Augusta 
Murray, who was born three months after the 
execution of her father, the Earl of Cromarty, came 
into the world with the mark of an axe and three 
drops of blood upon her throat, which she bore to 
her dying day." 

How is this to be reconciled with the follow- 
ing entry in the ' Annual Register' ? 

"Sept. 29, 1766, died the Earl of Cromartie, in 
Poland Street. He received his late Majesty's 
pardon for being concerned in the rebellion in 

H. S. V.-W. 

ROYAL DESCENDANTS. Will any of your 
correspondents kindly inform me when 
replies appeared concerning descendants (?) 
of Princess Cicely, Viscountess Wells, 
daughter of Edward IV. 1 Also a reply 
relative to the family of Wellesbourne, said 
to descend from Princess Eleanor, daughter 
of King John? C. H. 

SIR GEOFFREY FENTON. Is anything known 
of the parentage of Sir Geoffrey Fenton, 
Secretary of State for Ireland, temp. 
Elizabeth 1 He married Alice W" es ^ on ) an ^ 
his daughter Catherine was the wife of " the 
great Earl " of Cork. KATHLEEN WARD. 

Castle Ward, Downpatrick. 

WATERLOO ENGRAVINGS. A friend of mine 
has a set of coloured prints representing the 
scenes of Waterloo. Some of these are both 
drawn and engraved by Rouse, others by 
Rouse and Hamilton ; while portraits of the 
leading characters at the famous battle are 
by G. Cruikshank. Evidently they were 
originally bound up with letterpress. 
Perhaps one of your readers could tell me 
what value they possess at the present time. 
Their artistic merit does not appear to be 
great, but otherwise they seem to possess a 
considerable interest. 


Heacham Hall, Norfolk. 

FRANCES B. IRVING. Can any reader 
kindly furnish me with any particulars of a 
lady named Frances B. Irving, who was 
living about 1850 ? CORONATION. 

[Fannie B. Irving published in 1888, through 
Fisher Unwin, ' Six Girls : a Home Story,' illus- 

DAKIN FAMILY. I am collecting material 
for a history of the Dakin family in America, 
and should greatly appreciate any information 
of or clue to the birthplace and parentage of 
Thomas Dakin, who was born, according to 
his will, in 1624, and who was at Concord, 
Massachusetts, about 1654. 

A. H. DAKIN. Jun, 

Tenafly, New Jersey, U.S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. s, 1902. 

" ROOF-TREE." What is the origin of this ? 

[" Two pairs of bent trees, in form resembling the 
lancet-shaped arches of a Gothic church, were set 
up on the ground, and united at their apexes by a 
ridge-tree" (Addy's 'Evolution of the English 
House,' p. 27). We recommend the purchase of this 
book, which appeared in 1898, as a volume of the 
"Social England Series" of Messrs. Swan Sonnen- 
schein & Co., price 4s. Qd. It is full of information 
on such subjects.] 

FUNERAL FOLK-LORE. What is the origin 
of the notion that a path or road along which 
a corpse is carried on its way to burial 
becomes thereby a public highway, if it was 
not one before 1 This doctrine seems to be 
widely held. D. C. I. 

[See 4"' S. xi. 213, 285, 374, 433 ; xii. 96, 158 ; 5 th S. 
x. 49, 197.] 

STONING THE WREN. I should be glad if 
any of your readers could tell me in what 
parts of England the custom of stoning wrens 
to death is carried on on 26 December, also if 
any one would give me a full account of this 
ceremony. N. W. OSBORNE. 

[See 6 th S. x. 492 ; xi. 58, 177, 297. Consult also 
Croker's ' Researches in the South of Ireland ' and 
Dyer's 'British Popular Customs,' and you will 
find what you seek.] 

" SKIRRET." Is this word associated with 
the craft of Freemasonry ? I am informed 
that in gardening it is applied to a reel with 
cord for aligning paths, beds, &c. V. 

John Morley, on p. 10 of his 'Burke' (''English 
Men of Letters," 1882 edit.), says of Burke's 
early years, " At the date of which we are 
speaking, he used to seek a milder air at 
Bristol, or in Monmouthshire or Wiltshire." 
Can any of your readers give me any in- 
formation as to Burke's visits to Monmouth- 
shire ? The local histories I have consulted 
do not mention any visits made by him to 
the neighbourhood, nor have I been able to 
glean any details from the works of Burke 
to which I have access. A. G. 

14 SAULIES." What is the derivation of this 
old Scottish word, which was in use at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century and 
meant hired mourners at funerals'? The 
only suggested derivations which I have seen 
are the Anglo-Saxon sal, black ; the Gaelic 
sou, mockery ; and the Latin salve regmam 
It has occurred to mo that the appearance 
these men, dressed in black cloaks with 
hoods, and carrying drooping black flags or 
banners (" deule weedes "), may have sug- 
gested a resemblance to weeping willows, 
and that the name was derived from the 

French word saule "un saule pleureur, un 
saule qui pleure" (Littre). Many Scottish 
words in use at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century had French parentage. Sir! 
Walter Scott, in his 'Antiquary,' describes 
common "saulies" as miserable-looking old 
men clad with threadbare black coats, and 
tottering as if on the edge of that grave to 
which they were marshalling another ; but 
at funerals of the great there were sometimes 
as many as fifty " saulies," and these were of 
a better class. The Rev. Robert Blair, of 
Athelstaneford, in his poem * The Grave,' 
thus alludes to the hired mourners (I quote 
from my copy of the first edition, 1743) : 
But see ! the well-plum'd Herxe comes nodding on 
Stately and slow ; and properly attended 
By the whole Sable Tribe, that painful watch 
The sick Man's Door, and live upon the Dead, 
By letting out their Persons by the Hour 
To mimick Sorrow, when the Heart's not sad. 

W. S. 

KINGSMAN. George William Kingsman and 
Thomas Kingsman were admitted respectively 
to Westminster School in 1771 and 1775. Any 
information which would lead to their 
identification is desired. G. F. R. B. 

ANTINOMIAN SECT. Mr. Havelock Ellis, in 
his useful work on 'The Criminal,' pp 125, 
126 (Walter Scott, 1895), says : 

" On the whole, we may conclude that the practice 
of the instinctive and habitual criminal corresponds 
very closely with the faith of that religious sect 
who in Commonwealth days held ' that heaven and 
all happiness consists in the acting of those things 
which are sin and wickedness,' and ' that such men 
and women are most perfect and like to God or 
eternity, which do commit the greatest sins with 
least remorse.' " 

Can this peculiar sect be identified ? 


Portland, Oregon. 

GAZLAY FAMILY. Search is now being 
made for the birthplace of John Gazlay, an 
Englishman, who emigrated to America in 
1717, and settled at Goshen, Orange County, 
New York. Family tradition, possibly erro- 
neous, attributes to him a Welsh origin. 
Major -General Sir Alfred Gaselee is of 
opinion that there is no possibility of 
relationship with his family, which deduces 
a descent from a Gaselee, possibly a con- 
tinental emigrant, who is found at Ports- 
mouth in 1G50. There is, of course, the village 
of Gasely, in Suffolk, to supply a place-name, 
and Sir Alfred Gaselee is so kind as to inform 
me of a family of Gazeley in England. I 
shall be very grateful for names and addresses 
of members of this family, or for extracts 
from church registers, or instances of the 

. ix. FK,, s, 1902.] 



occurrence of the name, for an account of 
the family which I am now printing. 

Chamber of Commerce Building, Cincinnati. 

TIB'S EVE. The other day I was conversing 
with a man about a prospective event. 
"Yes," said he, "it will be on Tib's Eve, 
neither before nor after Christmas," express- 
ing thus his incredulity as to the function 
ever coming off. I see that Miss Baker records 
the saying, but makes no comment as to its 
origin. Is it known in other counties ? 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 
[See 8 th S. iv. 507 ; v. 58, 132, 193, 298, 438 ; vi. 213.] 

reader of *N. & Q.' supply the maiden name 
and parentage of Mrs. James Demi or Denne 
(mother of the first Countess Beauchamp), 
whose portrait by Reynolds is at Madresfield ? 
It is said that her name was Hippisley, but 
it is not known upon what evidence. Infor- 
mation concerning her husband, James Denne, 
is also desired. ST. GEORGE. 

It would be interesting to know when this 
practice first became a recognized custom. 
Can any of your correspondents decide this 
question 1 I have an impression that it was 
unknown before the accession of the late 
Queen, and that it became a common 
observance especially to denote public sym- 
pathy after the death of the Prince Consort. 
In country places it has not yet taken root, 
for many of the most enthusiastically loyal 
people will neither stand nor uncover at the 
welt-known sounds. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

GWYNETH. This is an old Welsh Christian 
name. What is the proper form Gwyneth 
or Gweneth 1 On a tombstone in Monkton 
Priory Church, Pembroke, it is spelt Geneth. 
Gwynedd, pronounced Gwyneth, was the old 
name for a portion of North Wales, but I 
presume this is a different word. 


In M. E. Cumming Bruce's 'Family Records 
of the Bruces and the Cumyns ' (1870), p. 366, 
it is stated that James Bruce of Kinnaird 
(the African traveller) entered Harrow School 
on 21 January, 1742, together with the above 
and other kinsmen. The * D.N.B.' says that 
"Single-Speech Hamilton" was educated at 
Winchester and Oriel, where he matriculated, 
in 1745, at the age of sixteen. Was he also 
at Harrow under Dr. Cox 1 A. R. BAYLEY. 

St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

SILVER ORNAMENTS. I nave an old silver 
necklet (in two parts as bracelets) in ten 
small plates, with representations of the 
Annunciation, &c., on them, some worn so 
that the subject is difficult to distinguish. 
The plates are three, four, and five sided, 
and slightly open-worked at the top of each. 
No hall-mark. Can any one tell me of a 
work on silver ornaments, or any way in 
which I could find the probable date and 
history ? C. F. Y. 

" WYRALL."-In Harl. MS. 1419a (a list of 
the effects of Henry VIII. in 1547) the follow- 
ing is said (on folio 169) to be "at West- 
minster " : 

" Item three staves, every of theym having a 
picke with two graynes at the nether end and a 
ivyrall of Iron tynned." 

There are several references to " a virall of 
golde " in other parts of the same MS. What 
is the meaning of this word? There is no 
trace of it in my edition of Halliwell's 
' Archaic and Provincial Words ' (1855). 



(9 th S. viii. 405, 505.) 

MR. PIERPOINT has copied his inscrip- 
tions well, albeit I note the absence of DE 
before TRIBV IVDA in his first one. The 
inscription which he cites from Gorringe is 
not so illegible as he imagines ; nor is its 
comparative illegibility due so much to three 
centuries of rain and dust (called in to account 
for it by Gorringe) as to its great altitude 
above the spectator. It is also on the west 
side, and just at the summit. I was able to 
make out nearly half of it without the aid of 
glasses. It may be of interest to remind him 
that Poggio Bracciolini, who visited and noted 
well what he saw of the ancient monuments 
in the Eternal City at the close of the Pon- 
tificate of Martin V. (1445), refers to the 
obelisk "qui est in Vaticano a C. Csesare 
Caligula positus Divo Augusto et Divo 
Tiberio sacer." It is also mentioned by the 
Pilgrim of Einsiedeln circa A.D. 800. It was 
probably the first imported to Rome of the 
non-Egyptian obelisks, that is to say, of the 
imitation ones. As Pliny says, "factus in 
imitatione eius quern fecerat Sesostridis films 
Nuncoreus" ('H.N.,' lib. xxxvi. c. xi.). The 
lunacy of Caius, as we know from other evi- 
dences, was conspicuously megalomaniac. It 
has been attempted by Middleton, Lanciani, 
and others to make out that his bridge (pons) 



[9 th 8. IX. FEB. 8, 1902. 

from the Palatine to the Capitoline Temple 
of Jove must have been of wood. Closer 
study of Caligula's works and life should 
convince the intelligent that such a man was 
not to be put off by a piece of merely dexter- 
ous carpentry. As, however, the present 
excavations at that site have revealed con- 
clusively that the Augusteum, over the roof 
of which the said bridge passed to that of the 
Basilica Julia, was reconstructed efundamentis 
by Hadrian, it is unlikely that any traces of 
that earlier, and maniacal, experiment will 
be found, such, for instance, as bases of its 
piers, &c. The bringing over of the gigantic 
obelisk, however, was grandly on the side of 
sanity, as well as the construction of the 
magnificent ship that brought it. Later on, 
however, Caius must needs construct a mole 
and two colossal barges on the tiny lake of 
Nemi, _ beneath whose placid waters they 
must lie probably for ever. 

Absence from England has prevented my 
correcting in due time an error which appears 
in one of the inscriptions in my reply at the 
last reference. TRIBV IVDA should read DE 

510; ix. 11, 92). The heading is again inap- 
propriate to the contribution of MR. CANN 
HUGHES regarding the history of " Staunton 
in the Forest of Dean," inasmuch as that 
htaunton is Staunton, Gloucestershire, not 

Staunton, Worcestershire." 

With regard to the other contribution 
winch appears with it from MR. JOHN 
HORSON MATTHEWS, I should be inclined to 
doubt if the gentleman of " Pauntley, 
Gloucestershire," who "married the heiress 
of Staunton," found his bride "in the same 
Pauntley, Gloucestershire, adjoins 
Staunton, Worcestershire, but is a long way 
from Staunton, Gloucestershire. 


(9"' S V Tx B 8 U Q^ 1EL w>? BARBEY ' AU ^VILLY 
(9 b. ix 8, 96).- With regard to this query 

I have p easure in replying that a translation 

lished y hv T?P ^. Douglas Ainslie was pub- 
lished by Dent & Co. in 1897. 1 was esne 
cially interested in this, for ten or twefve 

his translation, I had the pleasure of trans- 
ferring to him the rights granted to me. 

If MR. HIATT will refer to a short paper 
on 'Dandyism' in Temple Ear (January, 
1891 or 1892, I think), it may partly answer 
his question ?.s to how and why D'Aurevilly 
and other French writers interested them- 
selves in the " Dux dandiorum." Barbey 
d'Aurevilly was a native of Caen, and when 
a youth had seen Brummell in his decadence 
and consulship there, before Palmerston, on 
the dandy's own representation of its useless- 
ness, had abolished the office. At Caen 
Brummell lies under a modest stone in the 
Protestant cemetery. But D'Aurevilly (as is 
patent in all his writings) had dandyism in 
the blood and marrow, and he was " suckled " 
upon its not then " outworn creed." He was 
the first to show its inner meaning and philo- 
sophy (before Baudelaire) as the quint- 
essence of character, and, moreover, he 
perused Jesse's proof - sheets before the 
"Magpie's" book on Brummell was pub- 
lished. The ordinarily accepted cock-nosed 
portrait of Brummell is most unsatisfactory, 
and I possess what I believe to be a far more 
authentic likeness of him after his fall from 
the hand of Wilkie. This was exhibited at 
the Eton Exhibition, when Sir George Scharf 
(the editor of the catalogue) declined to give 
the attribution his sanction on the ground 
that it differed too greatly from the accepted 
portrait ; but it far more closely resembles 
that by Dighton (exhibited in the Victorian 
Exhibition) and the little figure published 
in Gronow's book. A. FORBES SIEVEKING. 

[D'Aurevilly's tract is one of a few opuscules he 
printed in Caen in very limited editions, some dozen 
or so copies. Before the production of Mr. Tree's 
'Last of the Dandies' we purchased a copy of the 
book in question for twenty-five francs.] 

(9 th S. vii. 288). With reference to a ques- 
tion about the disappearance of the fine old 
wrought-iron gates from the lodge at Gogar 
House, Midlothian, I have to say that they 
have been removed for the purpose of their 
being repaired. When so repaired they are 
to be erected at Sauchieburn, in Stirlingshire, 
the property of Mrs. Steel-Maitland, who 
also owns Gogar House. The gates were 
designed to guard the north or seaward 
entrance of Caroline Park House (near 
Granton, Edinburgh), built by George, first 
Earl of Cromartie. At the time he built the 
house (1685) he was Viscount Tarbat, by 
which title he was long known in Scottish 
affairs. He was all for the Union, and along 
with his peers received English gold for his 
services towards that end. He thus sat in 

9 th S. IX. Fi-n. 8, 1902.] 



the last Scots Parliament, that which dis 
solved itself in 1707 on the consummation of 
the Union. Throughout the filigree ironwork 
in Caroline Park in the balustrades for the 
staircases and in the railing of a balcony over 
the south entrance, as well as in the above- 
mentioned gates the rose and thistle are 
conspicuously worked , symbols of the union 
of England with Scotland, which the builder 
of Caroline Park had so much at heart. 
Tarbat's character is excellently drawn in 
1 The Union of England and Scotland/ by my 
colleague Dr. Mackinnon, Lecturer on His- 
tory in this university. 

University, St. Andrews, N.B. 

LIBRARY (9 th S. viii. 378). MR. E. S. DODGSON 
states that " the late Mr. Llewelyn Thomas, 

Vice-Principal of Jesus College marked 

(illegally) in pencil upon the margin of the 
Bodleian copy of M. Vinson's ' Bibliography ' 
some useful corrections," &c. The corrections 
were not written by Mr. Thomas, but by a 
member of the staff of the library, and I do 
not understand why MR. DODGSON, who knew 
Mr. Thomas's handwriting, should charge 
him after his death with an "-illegal" act. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. 

AND SISTERS (9 th S. viii. 199, 293, 525 ; ix. 36). 
Following up MRS. VADE-WALPOLE'S inter- 
esting investigations as to the relations of 
the Conqueror, perhaps some reader could 
inform me if there be any truth in a state- 
ment which I have heard that a sister (perhaps 
own sister) was married to a certain noble- 
man named Le Nez, who was killed at the 
battle of Hastings, and whose name appears 
on the roll of Battle Abbey. I should be 
glad to know if the story has any foundation. 

P. L. N. F. 

" ALRIGHT "= ALL RIGHT (9 th S. viii. 240, 312, 
413, 493 ; ix. 72). None of the compounds 
cited by L. L. K. is quite on all fours with 
alright. To speak only of those of which all 
forms a part. In these the first element (al-) 
either entirely alters the meaning, as in 
already, almost, or gives it force and exten- 
sion, as in almighty. These words, in short, 
are needed, and it is merely a question of 
convenience whether we write all-mighty or 
almighty. We cannot, however, say "all 
most hysterical" when we mean "almost 
hysterical." Look, now, at all right. This 
phrase, in nine cases out of ten in which it is 
used, is pleonastic ; the all is not needed, and 
adds nothing to the force of the phrase. In 

such cases, then, nothing can be said in favour 
of alright ; it does but tend to perpetuate a 
vicious form of expression. But when all 
right is needed as when we predicate right- 
ness of a number of things or of one thing 
in its totality alright would still be objec- 
tionable, being ambiguous. It is true that 
all right may be used ambiguously too, but 
that is beside the mark. C. C. B. 

Is it quite certain that the phrase "all 
right " has had " such a long lease of collo- 
quial importance " as MR. BAYNE supposes ? 
In a letter bearing date 28 April, 1824, from 
Mr. Robert Hamond, a well-known sporting 
character, to Selby, the naturalist, and printed 
in the Transactions of the Norfolk and 
Norwich Naturalists' Society (vol. ii. p. 400), 
it is used apparently as a neologism : "I am 
happy in being able to say I am now in the 
fashionable term 'all right.'" It would be 
well to know what earlier instances could be 
cited. I have not succeeded in finding one 
in Dr. Murray's 'Dictionary,' and I cannot 
help thinking that the expression originated 
in coaching days, when it was certainly the 
common exclamation of guard or ostler as a 
signal for the coachman to drive off. 

A. N. 

383). When we children were careless with 
our bread our mother used to admonish us 
very seriously to be more careful of it, and 
never to throw away "das liebeGut" (the 
precious thing), always adding, "Perhaps 
you will one day eat sharp stones." That 
was in Anhalt. In Berlin it is regarded as a 
sin to throw the remnants of bread into the 
dust-bin ; they should be put on the fire. 



COSSEN OR COSEN (9 th S. viii. 523). A family 
named Cossens resided at St. Ives, Cornwall, 
in the seventeenth century. Many refer- 
ences to them will be found in my ' History 
of St. Ives,' &c. (Elliot Stock, 1892). One or 
two families of the same name were resident 
in Gloucestershire from the fourteenth to the 
eighteenth century. As to these I have many 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 


viii. 422; ix. 12). MR. MAcMiCHAEL has 
made an attempt to explain this saying 
which demands no criticism ^beyond a re- 
minder that a different meaning is possible 
if we construe the phrase with both substan- 
tives in the same grammatical case; the 
interpretation then is "God and the beadle 


NOTES- AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. s, 1902, 

save you." There is no need to dwell on the 
characteristics of the human representative 
of authority, which are sufficiently embodied 
in the word " beadledom." 

Your correspondent's assertion that "beetle'' 
in the phrase "as deaf as a beetle" means the 
implement so named does not accord with the 
popular interpretation, which connects the 
word with the insect. It may be supported by 
citing the phrase "as deaf as a post"; but 
" as deaf as a beetle " may with equal likeli- 
hood be an offshoot of "as blind as a beetle," 
where identity with the coleopter need hardly 
be questioned. Popular ideas of animal life, 
as expressed in similar phrases, are not always 
correct. Compare " as deaf as an adder," " as 
blind as a bat," &c. F. ADAMS. 

MORTARA: ARRO (9 th S. viii. 443). The 
following work, which may be of assistance 
to your correspondent, will be found in the 
library of the South Kensington Museum : 

" Parmigiano (Francesco Mazzola, called) : Delia 
Vita e del Lavori di Francesco Mazzola detto II 
Parmigianino ; Memoria di Anton Enrico Mortara. 
8vo, Casalmaggiore, 1846." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SNOW-FEATHERS (9 th S. viii. 403, 494). The 
idea that snowflakes are the feathers of 
geese seems general in Europe. In Thorpe's 
* Northern Mythology,' vol. iii. p. 98, we read : 

"The German traditions relating to Holda are 
current chiefly in Hesse and Thuringia. She is 
believed to influence the atmospheric phenomena. 
When the sun shines Holda is said to be combing 
her hair; when it snows, she is making her bed." 

See _also Grimm's 'Teutonic Mythology,' 
vol. iii. p. 1088. A common German nursery 
rime begins : 

The angels have made their beds on hi-h 
And down to the earth the feathers fly! ' 
And according to Kohler the children in 
Voigtland have a game in which they sing : 

Ring, a ring of roses, 

Who sits within ? 

The old emperor. 

What does he do ? 

He strips feathers, 

And bites quills : 

which seems to imply that the Barbarossa of 
legend spends his enchanted hours in manu- 
facturing snowstorms. It is in Voigtland 
the sa In * W ^ personified as a g os e in 

The white goose in February 

Broods blessing for the whole year. 

And the same conception is to be met with 

elsewhere for, according to an article on 

Kussian children in the Ural mountains, pub- 

lished in St. Nicholas, November, 1891, the 
[ittle ones have a song beginning : 

Daddy, daddy Winter, 

Let your white geese fly ; 
Send the wind to drive them 

All across the sky. 

In Poitou when snow falls it is said that 
the Holy Virgin is plucking her geese and 
shaking the down (Leon Pineau, 'Le Folk- 
lore du Poitou,' p. 520, ed. 1892). G. W. 

The following old rime is still popular in 
Sheffield, and sung by the children when 
snow begins to fall. There are various ver- 
sions of it, but this is the one I remember in 
my early days : 

Snow, snow faster, 

Old Sallv Baster, 

She 's killing geese in Scotland 

And sending feathers here. 


18, Shrewsbury Road, Sheffield. 

404). Ormerod's ' History of Cheshire,' 1882, 
vol. i. p. 53, gives a charter of Handle the 
third, surnamed Blundevill, to his barons of 
Cheshire (in Latin, also an English transla- 
tion), made about the year 1218, granting 
them many privileges. The above liberties 
were confirmed by Prince Edward, son of 
Henry III., in 1265, which confirmation is 
given in Latin. The prince when king (1300) 
again confirmed it. It contains other deeds 
of grants by the Earls of Chester. 


"TWO BLADES OF GRASS " (9 th S. ix. 47). 

T. W. E. says that "the well-known observation 

of the king in ' Gulliver's Travels ' was, in 

fact, 'chaff' of the platitudes of our king's 
speeches." Surely the whole passage might 
be more accurately described as a biting 
criticism of politicians who placed personal 
and party interests above those of their 
country. W. H. HELM. 

' VINDEX ANGLICUS ' (9 th S. viii. 457). It 
seems doubtful whether many of the words 
vilipended by Vindex had, when he wrote, 
got into circulation. John Cockeram's 
'English Dictionarie' of 1623 seems to be 
responsible for the bulk of them. The Oxford 
University Press have cut down Cockeram's 
bubulcitate ("to cry like a cowboy") to 
bulbitate. I notice that the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography ' states (vol. ix. 62) that 
Carew's ' Epistle ' " appeared in the second 
edition of Camden's 'Remains,' 1605." 

Were there really two editions of 1605 ; 
and, if so, in what points do they differ? 

9* 8. IX. FKB. 8, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


There is, as MR. CURRY says, an edition of 
1614 in which the 'Epistle' appears ; and 
the edition of 1623 is called " the third im- 
pression reviewed, corrected and encreased." 
A fourth edition appeared in 1629 ; and the 
1636 edition is described on the title as "The 
fift impression, by the industry and care of 
John Philipot." 

Are we to assume an error in both the 
title-pages quoted ? O. O. H. 

ADJECTIVAL CHANGE (9 th S. viii. 462). The 
form "a large-size bowl" is, I think, a revival 
of that which poets of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries not seldom employed. I 
instance Spenser's " light- foote Faeries" 
('Teares of Muses,' 31); Chapman's "the 
curl'd-head Greeks" ('Iliad,' ii. 380); Her- 
rick's "sweet-breath nimphs " (' Hesper.,' 355, 

ed. Aid.), "every smooth-skin tree" (522, 

1. 41), and in a prose title 599" a sowre- 
breath Lady." CHAS. P. PHINN. 


TONTINE (9 th S. ix. 8). Your correspondent 
will find much interesting information on 
this subject in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for January, 1791, and several long com- 
munications in 3 rd S. ii. ; 4 th S. ix , x. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

S. viii. 423, 530). The glee entitled 'The 
Wreath,' to which Dickens refers in 'Edwin 
Drood,' and of which MR. EBSWORTH supplies 
the words, was composed by J. Mazzinghi. 
and forms No. 2634 of the ' Musical Bouquet.' 
I am not aware exactly when this piece of 
music was published, but it has certainly 
been in my possession for thirty-five years. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

ARMS OF MARRIED WOMEN (9 th S. ix. 28). 
Nisbet gives the following : 

" By the custom of nations wives may use the 
arms of their husbands : for being in their families 
they have a right to the honour and privileges of 
the same : as Hoppingius de lure Insignium, 
par. 8, ' Ratio qui transit in alterius familiam is 
ejus origine, nomine et privelegiis gaudet, nobilita- 
tisque et dignitatis sit particeps, adeo ut insignia 
deferendi jus transeunti denegari non possit, atque 
omnis uxor transit in familiam mariti ; ergo uxori 
jus deferendi insignia mariti recte denegari non 
poterit.' Though the wife be ignoble and a bastard, 
she has the right to make use of the arms of her 
husband ; as our author, 'Non impedit quod uxor 
ignobilis et plebeia, mar it us vero nobilis ex tat, 
similiter non refert, quod mulier spuria ; nam nulla 
major unio quam conjugalis, nee negamus quin 
oleum non consecratum consecrate possit oleo com- 
misceri.' But it is not so with the ignoble husband 

who has a noble wife ; by her he is not nobilitate, 
nor can properly carry her arms, because wives 
receive honour from their husbands, but do not 
give it; as our author, 'Vir ignobilis ducendo 
uxorem nobilem, non nobilitetur per earn cum 
accipiant non adferunt nubentes mulieres digni- 
tatem.' After the husband's decease the widow 
may continue to have the arms of her husband upon 
all her utensils, but if she proves vicious or un- 
chaste she loses the honours of her husband, says 
our author ; and if she marry again, she must follow 
the condition of her second husband, and cannot 
use the arms of her first husband, whose honour she 
loses, which holds with us and in England," &c. 

Guillim does not agree with the above. After 
iving various examples of the arms of 
widows impaled with the arms of their hus- 
bands in a lozenge, he says : 

" Thus much for the bearing of widows, who may 
on no pretence whatsoever bear either their Paternal 
Coat or their Husbands single; for if in an Escutcheon 
or Shield then it will be taken for the .bearing of a 
man, and if in a Lozenge, then the proper bearing 
for a Maiden Gentlewoman." 


SORROW'S 'ZINCALI' (9 th S. viii. 523). The 
original MS. of Sorrow's collection of Tran- 
sylvanian gipsy words is in the British 
Museum. It consists of about 25 pages, not 
overcrowded with writing, and, to the best of 
my belief, it has not yet appeared in print. 
The late Mr. Groome once stated that the 
compiler had not collected the vocabulary in 
Transylvania, but had simply extracted the 
words from Bright's 'Travels in Hungary' 
(1818), and Borrow never refuted the accu- 
sation (cf. Academy, 13 June, 1874). The 
collection is poor compared with that pub- 
lished by the Archduke Joseph, who has 
written also a grammar of the tongue spoken 
by the Hungarian gipsies (under the title of 
' Romano Csibakero Sziklariben,' 1889). The 
Lord's Prayer printed by Borrow in his 
' Romano Lavo-lil ' differs considerably from 
the text given by the archduke, though both 
versions are professedly derived from the 
same source. L. L. K. 

0, I am not of gentle clan, 
I am sprung from Gypsy tree ; 

And I will be no gentleman, 
But an Egyptian free. 

I may perhaps mention that I have in 
my copy of 'The Zincali,' published by John 
Murray, London, 1872, not only a charming 
portrait of the author of that delightful book, 
containing pictures of life, high, middle, and 
low, in the by ways of the land of Gil Bias, 
entitled ' The Bible in Spain,' but also a long 
chapter on 'The Language of the Gitanos,' 
and one on * Specimens of Gypsy Dialects,' 
from which the following is quoted : " Llundun 
baro foro, bishwar mai baro sar Cosvaro" 


NOTES -AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. s, 1002. 

("London [is] a big city, twenty times more 
big than Colosvar "). 

119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W. 

i x . 9)._ I believe Ripori claims this privilege, 
and alleges that it began in 886, and in this 
belief held a most gorgeous "Millenary 
Celebration" in August, 1886, which is beauti- 
fully and fully rendered in a volume published 
by Mr. William Harrison, of Ripon, in 1892. 
The earliest wakeman was James Percival in 
1400, and the first charter is dated 26 June, 
1604, under which Hugh Ripley, the last wake- 
man, was made first ma} 7 or. 

Lancaster claims, and with justice, I think, 
to be the oldest town in the North, and 
possibly in England. There is in my custody 
as Town Clerk the earliest existing charter, 
that granted by the Earl of Moreton (after- 
wards King John) in 1193. A detailed account 
of this and our other charters, written by my 
predecessor and friend Mr. W. O. Roper, 
F.S.A., will be found in Archaeological 
Journal, Iv. 359-66, and in the Transactions 
of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire (vol. xxxv., O.S., 1-14). There 
are seventeen charters of Lancaster, many 
in beautiful condition and with rare seals. 
The town also possesses a fine seal, believed 
to be of the time of Henry III. 

Your correspondent will, I hope, draw 
much information as to the charters of towns 
which may be older than Lancaster e.g., 
Winchester, York, Southampton but as its 
Town Clerk I shall require very strong 
proof before I admit any evidence more con- 
clusive than the grand old Moreton charter 
of the Burgh of the Camp on the Loyne 



Lostwithiel in Cornwall may or may not 
be the oldest borough in England, but it 
certainly ranks as one of the oldest. 

There is in possession of the Corporation a 
charter by Robert de Cardinan, Ric. I., 1190- 

"Quod ego Rob(ertus) de Cardinan dedi et con- 
cessi et hac present* carta eonfirmavi omnibus 
-burgensibus nieis et hominibus de Lostuuidiel," &c. 

The report made by the Hist. MSS. Com' 
on the muniments of the borough (but not 
yet published) states that 

"the wording and provisions of this deed are alike 
extremely interesting; they illustrate the first 
growth of a borough out of a village and manor by 
the grant of liberties by the private owner and lord 
which afterwards are confirmed and enlarged by the 
authority of the king." 

There is also an Inspeximus by Edw. II. of a 
charter granted by Richard, Earl of Cornwall 
and King of the Romans, to the burgesses of 
Lostwythiel and Pen kneke, dated at Watling- 
ton, 13 July, 12th of his reign (1268). 




viii. 463). I believe that the author is 
Rudyard Kipling and that the lines are not 
to be found in any "collection of poems." 
They occur as a pseudo-quotation in one of 
his short stories, called ' Mrs. Hauksbee Sits 
Out,' originally published, I think, as the 
Christmas number of one of the illustrated 
papers, and republished in 'Under the 

The verses as they appear in the story are 
not consecutive, as conversation breaks in at 
intervals, but the poem as it stands is as 
follows : 

Fair Eve knelt close to the guarded gate in the hush 

of an Eastern spring, 
She saw the flash of the Angel's sword, the gleam of 

the Angel's wing. 

And because she was so beautiful, and because she 

could not see 
How fair were the pure white cyclamens crushed 

dying at her knee 

He plucked a Rose from the Eden Tree where the 
four great rivers met. 

And though for many a Cycle past that Rose in the 

dust hath lain 
With her who bore it upon her breast when she 

passed from grief and pain, 
There was never a daughter of Eve but once, ere the 

tale of her years be done, 
Shall know the scent of the Eden Rose but once 

beneath the sun ! 
Though the years may bring her joy or pain, fame, 

sorrow or sacrifice, 
The hour that brought her the scent of the Rose, 

she lived it in Paradise. 

I should add that all editions of ' Under 
the Deodars' do not contain this story. I 
quote from the edition de luxe, vi. 68, 69. 

E. R. 

" MISCHIEF-NIGHT " (9 th S. ix. 48). The 
date for the mischievous practices is Hallow- 
e'en, 31 October, but at Leeds the celebrations 
of 5 November have evidently attracted 
without absorbing the mischief and the 
bonfires of the earlier date. The following 
tricks have been perpetrated to my know- 
ledge on "mischief-night." One custom is 
to ask at a cottage for a drink of water, 
and while the water is being fetched to 
stuff the hinge side of the door with mussel 
shells. Then when the water has been drunk, 

9 th S. IX. FEB. 8, 1902.] 



and an attempt is made by the cottager to 
shut the door, there is a considerable 
crunching of the shells and some annoyance. 
A worse trick is to select two houses with 
doors exactly opposite to one another, in a 
quiet street, and tie the handles together 
with a strong rope, allowing just so much 
slackness on the rope that one of the doors 
may be opened a short distance. It is the 
custom then to arrange that both doors shall 
be knocked at simultaneously. The fun 
begins with seeing the different occupiers 
pulling against one another in the attempts 
to open their doors. The usual result is that 
the door with the stronger individual behind 
it is opened a little, and the other not at all. 
The cabbage stump, which also plays a part 
in Hallowe'en divination, is sometimes flung 
at a door and left there. There are many 
other mischievous practices for the occasion, 
but it is remarkable that 4 November, as 
stated by the querist, has been selected as 
the date at Leeds. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

J. O. Halli well, in his ' Dictionary of Archaic 
and Provincial Words,' 1878, says that in 
Yorkshire it is held on May eve ; and the Rev. 
Thomas Wright, M.A., in his * Dictionary of 
Obsolete and Provincial English,' adds that 
the evening of 30 April in Yorkshire was 
so called because many pranks are played by 
youths of both sexes. 

71, Brecknock Road. 


275; 9*^8. v. 287, 459; vi. 56*). To the 
information already collected I add a refer- 
ence to the facts given in the Sussex 
Archaeological Collections, vol. xli. pp. 37, 47, 
and note, and to Archoeologia, vol. xxxv. 
p. 413, where hogling money is stated not to 
nave been paid in Minchinhampton after the 
year 1595. I hope that some one interested in 
the matter will investigate all these instances 
and the others noted in 'H.E.D.' (where 
hogler also should be looked up) and ' E.D.D.,' 
and ascertain, if possible, the time of pay men tt 
and the geographical distribution of the 
words.^ Thereafter will arise the question of 
the origin of the name and its relation, if any, 
to the French aguillauneuf (see the many 

* See also ' Hoglinge Money ' (3 rJ S. iii. 423) and 

Hogenstore,' ' Hoe^nor Bread. ' ' TTn<rminr'a Mrm*v' 

(9 th S. iii. 265). 

t I believe I am correct in stating that the church- 
Tdens' accounts presented at Easter do not 
tain payments and receipts of the Easter festival, 
t only those since the preceding Michaelmas, 
ihe Easter offerings would fall into the Michaelmas 

variants of this word in Godefroy) and the 
Scottish hogmanay. Q. V. 

" OUTRIDER " (9 th S. viii. 462; ix. 17). My 
mother (who was born in 1821) well remembers 
in her young days, near Drewsteignton in 
Devon, hearing what we now call " travellers" 
spoken of as " outriders " when they came to 
visit the country districts. 



This word, as applied to travellers from 
the neighbouring towns who drive round the 
villages for orders, principally beer and 
grocery, is still used daily by the cottagers of 
the Down country. GEORGE 0. PEACHEY. 

FREAKS OF NATURE (9 th S. viii. 482). The 
issue for December, 1901, of the Stone Trades 
Journal contains a paragraph headed 'Curious 
Markings on Marble.' It has evidently been 
culled from a U.S. contemporary, and (some- 
what shortened) runs : 

" Many persons look for pictures in the graining 
and markings of stone, and frequently some very 
beautiful effects are traced in marble slabs. Perhaps 
some of the most curious of these lusi [sic] naturce 
are to be found in the Illinois State House, where 
presentments ranging from a portrait of Commodore 
Vanderbilt to a donkey are to be found. On one 
panel is to be seen a convalescent boy reclining in a 
chair, a white covering drawn diagonally across 
his bodv. The sad smile, wan face, lines made by 
recent suffering, are all clearly shown. Another 
panel presents a mountain crag and a bird's nest. 
The mother bird sits on a scraggy tree, and her 
open mouth shows her screaming a protest against 
the intrusion of a boy bent on despoiling her home. 
Across the corridor is a mountain scene. A huge 
leopard and a human giant are face to face, with a 
narrow chasm dividing the ledges on which they 
stand. The leopard is in a crouching attitude, 
indicative of a determination to leap the barrier of 
space and have it out with his adversary. The 
most striking representations are likenesses of 
Napoleon and Josephine. Oddly enough, the panels 
on which they appear are close together, and so 
placed that Josephine is looking across at the man 
who made her love a football. Each picture is full 
length. There is something regal in the bearing of 
Josephine as she holds her fan in one hand and with 
the other draws about her the ermine robe she 
wears. The once mighty conqueror is gazing sorrow- 
fully over the waters from the shore of the Island 
of St. Helena. The Napoleonic hat and features 
are finely depicted, and there is something in the 
pose that suggests the memory of great power, while 
on the face of Josephine may be traced something 
of pity and forgiveness." 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

A remarkable instance of this lusus naturce 
occurred a few days after the death of the 
late Dean Vaughan, of Llandaff. There sud- 
denly appeared on the wall of Llandaff 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. FEB. s, 1902. 

Cathedral a large blotch of dampness or 
some minute fungus, forming a lifelike outline 
of the dean's head and face. It was photo- 
graphically reproduced in one or both of the 
Cardiff daily papers at the time. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

PISA AND ELSEWHERE (9 th S. viii. 503). See 
an article by Mr. C. D. Fortnum in Archcso- 
logia, vol. xlii. (1869), at pp. 379-86. The 
bacini at S. Pietro in Grado, S. Andrea, 
S. Sisto, and S. Francesco, at Pisa, seem to 
be considered by Fortnum to be in general 
Italian. At S. Cecilia, among many Italian 
bacini, he found one which he describes as 
ancient Persian or Damascus faience. After 
describing the bacini in churches at Rome 
and elsewhere, he sums up thus : 

"From the foregoing facts it may be inferred 
that very few of the bacini now found in the 
churches of Italy are other than of Italian manu- 
facture. The adoption of such a method of decora- 
tion may or may not have had its origin at Pisa, 
and was manifestly in great favour there ; but I 
am inclined to think that the story of the Majorcan 
dishes, captured and built in as trophies in the 
church walls, is apocryphal." 


" MACHINE " = PUBLIC COACH (9 th S. viii. 
462 ; ix. 37). The " machine" was known in 
Bristol in 1754, two years earlier than the 
date quoted by MR. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL 
at the last reference. In an advertisement 
in Felix Farley's Journal, issued at Bristol, 
the " Bristol Flying Machine " was announc 
to start for London on 24 February, 1754, at 
2 A.M. The journey was performed in two 
days. My collection of broadsheets, news- 
paper cuttings, &c., relating to Bristol con- 
tains woodcuts of two of the " machines '" 
that went from Bristol to London in 1756, 
viz., " The Bristol Machine," which startec 
from the " White Lion," Broad Street, Bristol, 
and arrived at the " Saracen's Head," Friday 
Street, London ; and " The Old London 
Machine," which started from the "White 
Hart," Broad Street, Bristol, and on the 
return journey took up passengers at the 
" One Bell," in the Strand, the " Bell Savage,' 
on Ludgate Hill, and the "Three Cups," in 
Bread Street. These two machines were buil 
on steel springs : one has the appearance o 
a miniature state carriage, the other looking 
unmistakably like a sedan chair on a large 
scale elevated on a frame. They were drawr 
by six horses, a man riding on one o. 
the leaders, the coachman or "whip" being 
seated on the front of the machine, on a 
platform detached from the body or coach 

In the year 1763 and probably before the 
ourney was performed in one day by the 
nachines which started from the " Rummer 
Tavern," High Street, Bristol, and arrived at 
the "Three Cups," Bread Street, London, 
incidentally, I may mention that an original 
3oard, with particulars of the fares of the 
caches to London, is still preserved at the 
; Rummer Hotel." It is somewhat curious 
that some of my newspaper cuttings relating 
to the light post coaches and machines which 
Derformed the journey from Bristol to 
London, via Bath, in the year 1784, contain 
among the names of the persons by whom 
:.he journeys were performed the name of 
Pickwick, who probably resided in or near 
Bath. The earlier advertisements contain 
:he words "performed if God permit," or 
' God permitting," in much the same form as 
the old bills of lading relating to the cargo 
of a ship. Long before 1754 there were 
coaches running between Bristol and London 
which were called "Flyers," and advertise- 
ments of other coaches announced that they 
would "fly" hence, probably, the term 

fly," which even now is frequently used as a 
description of the ordinary cab. It is, I 
think, not very difficult to imagine how the 
" machine " came to be described as a " flying 
machine." G. E. WEARE. 


When I lived in Scotland the name 
"machine" was almost the only one used for 
a carriage in country places, especially, if I 
remember rightly, one with a single horse. 
No doubt the name is so used there still. 



"FADGE" (9 th S. ix. I). Apropos of "a 
fadge of potatoes " in this note, I remember 
that fifty years ago and it probably is so 
still in the north of Ireland the ordinary 
potato bannock was spoken of as fadge. It 
was a circular unleavened cake, made of 
potatoes and flour and done on a griddle, 
like a very thick Indian chapatti. It was 
thick enough to be split and buttered, to be 
eaten hot. MICHAEL FERRAR. 

Little Gidding, in Ealing. 

ix. FEB. s, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


children from all parts of the empire. At 
the same school it was believed the " milky 
juice" was capable of removing warts. 
Emmet = ant in Devon ; indeed, some people 
would not recognize the word "ant." 

Richmond, Surrey. 

(9 th S. viii. 204, 412 ; ix. 16). It was the custom 
as I have heard my mother say to keep 
the house-place fires in all the year round in 
farmhouses and cottages in Derbyshire. And 
in the early fifties fires were regularly 
" raked " each night when the household 
retired. To "rake" the fire meant to pull 
the cinders from the fire-back on to a raking 
coal, then place on top a shovelful of slack. 
This ensured a slow fire during the night, and 
all the first riser had to do was to rake out 
the ashes at bottom, and break up the lump 
of partly burnt raking coal, with the result 
that a good fire and a boiling kettle were 
ready for those who had to turn out for early 
farm work. I may add that "it isn't every 
one that can rake a fire " that is, do it so 
that it will neither go out nor burn out. 
There is " an art " in the doing of common 
every-day things. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


HORN DANCERS (9 th S. viii. 444; ix. 11). 
MR. ELWORTHY will find a very interesting 
illustrated paper by Miss C. S. Burne on this 
subject, entitled ' The Folk-lore of Stafford- 
shire,' in vol. ii. of the new series of the 
Journal of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion (pp. 24-35). It was contributed to the 
Stoke-on-Trent Congress on 13 August, 1895. 


"JOHNIAN PIGS " (6 th S. xi. 328, 414; xii. 36). 
James Johnson's " Book of Epigrams in 
Latine. Printed at London by John Beale, 
1615," is described in the British Museum 
Catalogue as ' Epigrammatum Libellus, sive, 
Schediasmata Poetica,' &c., and bears the 
press-mark 1213, g. 15 (1). Perhaps one of 
your readers will find out whether the epi- 
gram in question happens , as suggested at 
the last reference, to be in English, spite of 
the Latin title. O. O. H. 

304, 490, 530; ix. 36). My impression is that 
whether there be an angel with a wheel or 
not in a window at Stoke Ppges, there is a 
representation of some toy with a wheel for 
a child to ride on, and also one of a toy to 
be spun round by means of a long string. 
The window was made up of fragments when 

I saw it some years ago, and I hope it has not 
been destroyed in order to make room for 
modern glass. When the " hobby-horse " was 
mentioned I wrote to the vicar to ask if my 
memory served me rightly, but a day or two 
after I saw a notice of his cleath in the papers, 
and I have had no reply. I should be very 
glad to learn something about it. J. T. F. 

322 ; 9 th S. viii. 473 ; ix. 30). The address 
of Recorder Widdrington, of Berwick, to 
Charles I. is well supplemented by the fol- 
lowing address of Recorder Thorpe, of Hull, 
to the same monarch on his visit to that 
town in April or May, 1639 (Symonds, 
Hullinia,' p. 69) : 

"Most Gracious Sovereign ! If the approaches to 
the thrones of heaven and earth had been by the 
same way of access, we had done [?]. Since learning 
by our daily prayers unto the ' King of Kings,' to 
speak as might become us, unto your sacred Majesty, 
whom God has now blessed and honoured us with 
the presence of. But since these are different, and 
we not so much conversant in the latter as in the 
former, we most heartily crave your sacred pardon 
and grace for our rudeness, which is or may be 
committed, opining, your Majesty, that they 'pro- 
ceeded from nothing but want of knowledge and 
skill how to receive and to express ourselves upon 
the happy reception of so much glory. 

"Our full hearts make us almost unable to 
undergo what we most thankfully undertake, and 
would stop all passages of speech and make us dumb 
with the awful majesty that happy we behold and 

"This town was always faithful and true, in 
respect of the zealous and loyal affections of the 
people of the same, to your Majesty's honour and 
service. It may be said, as it is of the city of 
Saville in Spain, 'not only to bewailed, but also 
to be garrisoned by fire,' not dead nor asleep, nor 
absconded in senseless flints, but continually 
vivacious, waking, ardent, apparent, and sensible 
in their courageous and boiling heat for your 
Majesty's long life, welfare ana happiness. So 
that the town is not only yours by name, but also 
by nature so shall it ever remain to be. 

" Your Majesty hath not only here a magazine of 
all military provisions of your own loyaj collecting, 
ordering and appointment, but also a richer store, 
a more noble and safe prize, even a magazine of 
faithful and true hearts all the town over, which 
renders it stronger for your Majesty's service, than 
if it had walls of brass or iron. 

" Your Majesty's most noble predecessors built, 
encouraged, and honoured it. The pious and good 
King Eaward VI. committed the castle and block- 
houses of it to the perpetual keeping of the corpora- 
tion. May your Majesty live for ever and ever, and 
may all the thorns in your travels grow up into 
crowns ; may your battles be always crowned with 
laurels, and may good success always attend your 
actions and desires ; ruay your years be added unto 
your days, and length of time, till time shall be no 

But alas for consistency ! three years after- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. s, 1902. 

wards, in April, 1642, when Charles I. 
accompanied by Prince Rupert, the Duke 
of Kingston, the Marquis of Winchester, 
the Marquis of Northampton (killed at 
Hopton Heath), the Earls of Lindsey (killed 
at Edgehill), Derby (executed at Bolton), 
Montrose (executed in 1650), Worcester, 
Chesterfield, and Lichfield, Viscount Fau- 
conberg, Thomas, Lord Arundellof Wardour 
(killed at the battle of Lansdown, 5 July, 
1643), Lord Wentworth, and others appeared 
before the gates of Hull, the governor, Sir 
John Hotham, declined to admit them, on 
the ground that he had orders from Parlia- 
ment to that effect. It was this action of 
the governor of Hull that began the civil 
war between the king and the Parliament. 
Recorder Thorpe, of Hull, seems to have 
acted on all fours with Recorder Widd ring- 
ton, of Berwick, for he afterwards became a 
judge and a great enemy of the king. 

RONALD Dixox. 
46, Marlborouffh Avenue, Hull. 

(9 th S. ix. 9). I do not think that this com- 
pany had any arms, but it used a monogram 
V. O. C., standing for " Vereenigde Oost- 
Indische Compagnie" (United East India 
Company). By resolution of 28 February, 
1603, it was decided that the monogram 
should take the form of a large V transfixing 
an O and a C of less than half its size, and 
that the letters should be azure on a silver 
field. Accordingly we find this monogram 
every where that the Company went, in India, 
Ceylon, Malacca, the Cape of Good Hope, 
&c., cut on stone or wood, cast in metal on 
cannon, swords, bayonets, and coins, graven 
on the glass, and painted on the Delft ware 
used by the officials of the Company. 


THE LOCOMOTIVE AND GAS (9 th S. vi. 227, 
358). William Murdock's name was origin- 
ally spelt Murdoch, but lie is said to have 
changed the spelling to Murdock because of 
the inability of Englishmen to pronounce 
the final ch of his name (see the ' Diet, of 
Nat. Biog.,' vol. xxxix. pp. 324-8). When I was 
a boy I used sometimes to stay with William 
Murdock's son (Mr. John Murdock) at hi- 
residence in Hands worth called The Syca- 
mores or Sycamore Hill. This was in the 
early sixties. I remember Mr. John Murdock 
showing me a gold snuff-box with an inscrip- 
tion, and his telling me that that snuff-box 
was the only reward his father ever received 
for his invention of gas. He also had some 
models of steam locomotives which his father 
designed, I believe before Watt's discoveries 

Probably these models and the snuff-box may 
3e still in the possession of his relatives, the 
Waltons. W. G. D. F. 

BISHOPS' SIGNATURES (9 th S. ix. 9). My 
; ather informs me that in a vicarage library 
n Worcestershire there is a volume of 
Stillingfleet's charges, with preface by him- 
self, dated Hartlebury Castle, 23 April, 
1698, and signed " Edw. Wigorn." So my 
recollection was not unfounded. I am much 
obliged to you for allowing me to call atten- 
:ion to the subject. Before this appears 
in print the point will have been decided 
one way or the other let us hope in the 
right way by the person most nearly con- 
cerned. W. E. B. 

I find on reference to a volume of Stilling- 
fleet's ' Discourses ' that the preface, which is 
iated 24 April, 1696, is initialled "E. W." 
This would almost point to the fact that 
Stillingfleet's signature would be "Edward 
Worcester." A very handy addition to 
'Mowbray's Churchman's Kalendar ' for this 
year is a list of the signatures of the present 
archbishops and bishops. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

KEYS TO NOVELS (9 th S. viii. 505). See 
L'Intermediaire (xxxviii. ; xxxix. ; xliv. 480, 
819, 956), under the heading of ' Les Romans 
a Clef de Balzac ' ; also (xliv. 945) under that 
of ' La Clef des Maritimes.' 

I have somewhere seen that in Lord 
Lytton's 'Paul Clifford' the highwaymen 
"Old Bags," "Fighting Attie," and "Gentle- 
man George" represent respectively Lord 
Eldon, the Duke of Wellington, and 
George III. 


Castle Pollard, Westmeath. 


Pleadings and Depositions in the Duchy Court of 
Lancaster, Time of Edward VI. and Philip and 
Mary. Edited by Lieut. -Col. Henry Fish wick. 
(Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society.) 
THIS volume relates to one of the most unsettled 
times in our history. The violent changes which 
had recently occurred and were still in progress 
had so disturbed the minds of men that no one 
could calculate what would happen next, so there 
was a widespread feeling that it behoved every one 
to look out for himself. The greater part of the 
book relates to disputes, often attended with 
violence, as to real and personal property, in which 
Stanleys, Gerrards, Townleys, Leighs, and Traffords 
figure conspicuously. Such documents are of un- 
questionable value to the local historian and the 

9* s. ix. FKB. s, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


genealogist, but do not throw much light on the 
manners and feelings of the people, and still less 
on general history. There is, however, another 
class of papers which are very important, as illus- 
trating social life. We gather from some of them 
that, although there was no organized uprising 
against authority on the suppression of the 
chantries, the change was viewed with great dis- 
favour, and that means, of course very ineffectual, 
were frequently adopted for evading it. The pil- 
lage of the churches of their cherished ornaments 
was also resented by a large portion of the in- 
habitants. Of this we find here several instances. 
For example, the churchwardens of Farnworth 
were rash people. Whether they were merely 
covetous persons, inflamed with the desire of 
making all they could for themselves out of the 
things in their charge, or whether they were moved 
to what they did by strong sympathy with the 
reformed faith, we cannot tell. They were informed 
against in the reign of Mary for having destroyed 
a "rancke" of iron, curiously wrought and 
decorated with floral ornaments, " whereupon 
divers and many lights used to stand before the 
Holy Sacrament." This "rancke" or " hersse," 
as it is also called was, we conclude, a suniptuous 
piece of ironwork. It is spoken of as thirty feet 
long. There were also three other " ranckes," of a 
smaller size, which we think, though there is no 
evidence in proof thereof, were placed around 
tombs. These churchwardens had received an 
order from Sir. William Norres, a man in autho- 
rity, to restore the damage they had done ; but as 
they refused to do as they were bidden, they were 
commanded to appear in the Duchy Chamber to 
answer for their evil deeds. Hearses, as they were 
commonly called, of this kind are now of extreme 
rarity. There is one in the Warwick Chapel; 
another at Tanfield, near Ripon ; and a third, pro- 
bably one side only, in the South Kensington 
Museum. They were not uncommon before the 

Another curious example of the lawlessness of 
the time occurred in the same reign at Billinge, in 
the parish of Wigan, where the people of all ranks 
and conditions had built for themselves a chapel. 
For permission to have service therein they had 
obtained authority from the rector of the parish. 
They furthermore paid out of their own pockets 
the stipend of a priest, who said mass and admi- 
nistered the sacraments, " to the great ease of all 
the said people, and to the increase of godliness 
and virtuous living in those parts." This, how- 
ever, displeased James Winstanley, of Winstanley, 
Gent., for on 6 August the year is unfortunately 
not given he assembled twenty unknown persons, 
and with their help pillaged the chapel of all 
its ornaments, including even the bell, which 
was worth three pounds. We wonder whether 
anything further is known of Winstanley. That 
he was a turbulent person is evident ; but it by no 
means follows that this audacious act was inspired 
by motives of greed. 

We meet here with more than one instance of 
child marriage and divorce, which throw unfavour- 
able light on the manners of the time. 

Who's Who, 1902: an Annual Biographical Dic- 
tionary. (A. & C. Black.) 

'WHO'S WHO' has now reached its fifty-fourth 
annual issue. It goes on improving in interest and 
value, the present volume including two hundred 

pages more than its predecessor. Three or four 
years ago it made a great spurt, and it is now the 
most frequently consulted book of reference on our 
shelves. Its arrangement and the information it 
supplies are such that it enables us to dispense 
with all rival publications 'Men of the Time,' 
4 Men of the Reign,' and other works of the class. 
It is in part a peerage and in part a Red or Blue 
Book, since it supplies the addresses of most of the 
people with whom a man of letters is likely to have 
to associate or correspond. The biographical por- 
tion is of supreme excellence, and the facts con- 
cerning men of eminence are quite trustworthy, 
being as a rule supplied by the subjects them- 
selves. As proof of the utility of the work our 
readers may refer to the Right Hon. Joseph 
Chamberlain, Lord Milner, William Marconi, 
Lord Charles Beresford, the Rev. Sabine Baring- 
Gould, the Rev. Prof. Skeat, and innumerable 
others. This excellent work is the nearest ap- 
proach to an English Vapereau we possess, and 
has an advantage over that book, seeing that, 
being an annual, it is always up to date. 

Whitaker's Peerage for the Year 1902. (Whitaker 

& Sons.) 

' WHITAKER'S PEERAGE,' now in the sixth year of 
its appearance, has vindicated its utility, and has 
obviously come to stay. It is a cheap and trust- 
worthy guide to titled persons, and contains this 
fear nearly a hundred pages more than last year, 
ts very title-page is serviceable. In the prefatory 
matter there is a rather mordant article on claimant- 
baronets and others. In the case of recent changes 
in the peerage, such as the Earldom of Arran, the 
information is up to date. The work is a useful 
companion to the indispensable ' Whitaker's Alma- 

No doubt was ever felt that the inaccuracy and 
absurdity of the alleged bi-literal cipher of Bacon 
would be shown before long by some duly qualified 
historian. Mr. Andrew Lang was the first to point 
out the discrepancy in date between the allegations 
of Mrs. Gallup and the known facts of history. 
The subject is treated at greater length by Mr. 
R. S. Rait in the Fortnightly. Mr. Rait shows 
that if the marriage of Elizabeth and Leicester took 
place, as is alleged in the cipher, while both were 
imprisoned in the Tower, Bacon's birth was illegiti- 
mate. It is once more shown that Bacon had not 
acquired rudimentary knowledge concerning his 
own times, and is made to use forms of speech 
which were not in employment at that date, nor 
for long after. A strange error assigned Bacon 
by Mrs. Gallup is that of employing " curricula" in 
a sense it only acquired in quite modern times. A 
proportion much smaller than usual of the number 
is occupied by politics, home and foreign, and there 
are many valuable essays on literary subjects. Mr. 
Havelock Ellis writes on Victor Hugo, a propos of 
the coming centenary, and holds rightly that Hugo's 
permanent position cannot as yet be definitely 
fixed. Mr. Arthur Symons gives an interesting 
foretaste of his shortly to be expected translation 
of the 'Francesca da Rimini' of Signer Gabriele 
d'Annunzio. Dr. Todhunter has some valuable 
comments on 'Blank Verse on the Stage.' Mr. Gosse 
writes on ' Aubrey de Vere,' Miss Hannah Lynch 
on ' A. Mary F. Robinson,' and Mr. T. H. S. Escott 
on 'The Analysis of Jingo.' The most important 
paper in the Nineteenth Century consists of Mr. 


NOTES .AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. FEB. s, 1902. 

Sidney Lee's * Shakespeare in Oral Tradition,' which 
constitutes a valuable addition to his monumental 
life of Shakespeare. In their anxiety to preserve a 
balance between Shakespeare's moral rectitude 
and his literary and dramatic supremacy, Shake- 
spearean biographers have regarded as things not 
to be mentioned the rumours which among the 
unregenerate find readiest acceptance the report 
that he killed the king's deer, or the record 
of the practical jokes he played upon his con- 
temporaries. Almost for the first time Mr. Lee 
mentions without a shudder Shakespeare's reputed 
paternity towards D'Avenant, and shows the 
things that tell to some extent in its favour. If 
we study closely the epoch, we shall wonder, Mr. 
Lee holds, "not why we know so little, but why 
we know so much." Lady Paget supplies some 
deeply interesting information concerning ' The 
Empress Frederick in Youth.' A curious article is 
that of Miss Hannah Lynch on ' The Young French 
Girl Interviewed.' Unfortunately, the utterances 
of these ingenues cannot be implicitly trusted. ' Art 
and Eccentricity,' by Mr. Herbert Paul, deals 
with modern Tyrtseusea, which is not precisely 
what we expected from its title. ' Metternich and 
Princess Lieven ' is a long paper derived from 
Metternich's autobiographical memoirs. To the 
Pall Mall Mr. Frederick Wedmore sends an 
interesting contribution on ' The Great Queen's 
Monument,' with illustrations no less pleasantly 
suggestive by Mr. Hedley Fitton. Following this 
comes a capital reproduction of the pleasing por- 
trait of Marie Antoinette by Madame Vigee 
Lebrun, a coloured reproduction of which serves 
for the cover. Sir Harry Johnston writes on ' The 
Pygmies and Ape-like Men of the Uganda Border- 
land,' and Mr. Archer on ' Paolo and Francesca,' 
Both letterpress and illustrations are of high in- 
terest. ' A Great Cavalry Leader ' gives a record of 
the career of Major-General Sir John French, on 
whom all eyes are now fixed. It is accompanied by 
a portrait. 'Brighton Revisited and a Contrast' 
has a certain amount of interest. It is, some may 
be glad to know, a eulogy of a place with few 
defenders. What is the place chosen as a contrast 
we know not. Mr. George Stronach defends the 
Baconian origin of Shakespeare's plays, gives a his- 
tory of the growth of the delusion, and marshals 
together what facts seem to him to support it. Major 
Hoenig deals with the question 'Is an Invasion 
of England Possible?' Mr. Max Beerbohm supplies 
some further reproductions of his wonderful 
caricatures. Very interesting in the CornMl is 
a lady's account of ' Browning in Venice,' which is 
ushered in by a prefatory note by Mr. Henrv 
James. Mr. J. B. Atlay tells afresh the story 
ot Governor Eyre and Jamaica. Mr. Godley is 
amusing in describing ' The Consolation of Medio- 
crity, and Mr. Stephen Gwynn thoughtful in 
dealing with ' The Luxury of Doing Good.' Prof 
SS? ch i ng has an interesting and valuable article on 

The Sonnets of Shakespeare.' ' A Londoner's Log- 
Book is capitally continued. ' La Doctoresse 
malgr< BJle gives a graphic account of the con- 
dl U ons 5? P easant lif e in the district of the Cevennes 
Mrs. Creighton's ' Reminiscences of J. R. Green' 
m Longman's we both readable and valuable 

Parson and Parishioner in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, by Mr. W. H. Legge, has archaeological 
interest. A Friend of Nelson' is continued. 
Mr. Lang deals with customary outspokenness with 
the Bacon ciphers, and is, after his wont, both 

witty and wise. In the Gentleman's are articles on 
' Shakespeare as History,' ' Scent in Dogs,' ' The 
Scot Abroad,' and 'On Senlac Hill.' Mr. Percy 
Fitzgerald sends what he calls some 'Bozzyana.' 
' Washington, a City of Pictures,' by Francis E. 
Leupp, with illustrations by Jules Guerin, in 
Scribner's, is interesting and instructive. Its title 
would perhaps be more explanatory if it were ' A 
City of Sites and Vistas,' since it consists of designs 
of edifices and avenues, and not, as we expected, of 
paintings. Some of the views are very effective : 
not less so are those of the proposed Isthmian 
Ship-Canal. ' Paul Troubetzkoy, Sculptor,' intro- 
duces to us an artist concerning whom little is 
known in this country, except to the esoteric. 
Among the illustrations is one of the sculptor at 
work on a bust of Count Tolstoy. Other contents 
which may be read with pleasure or advantage are 
' The American "Commercial Invasion " of Europe' 
and ' In Oklahoma.' 

MR. BERTRAM DOBELL'S catalogues, issued from 
Charing Cross Road, are well known to book-lovers. 
That now issued is the hundredth, and is inferior 
in interest to none of its predecessors. With it 
Mr. Dobell issues a literary supplement, dealing 
with the gallant fight he is making against the 
Westminster City Council in the matter of book- 
stalls. We have not space to deal with the sub- 
ject, but we shall bitterly deplore the removal of 
the bookstalls from a road in which they are the 
least possible of an obstruction. It needs a Charles 
Lamb to express in proper terms the resentment 
the book-lover feels against the Council's high- 
handed and superfluous action. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

E. B. MATTHEW. Your query shall very shortly 

CORRIGENDA. P. 59, col. 1, 1. 13, for "Adams" 
read Adam; p. 60, col. 1, 1. 9, for " Lumley" read 


Editorial communications should be addressed to 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E. C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

v* s. ix. FEB. is, i9o] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 216. 

NOTES : Pontefract-on-Thames, 121 Tobacco : New Items 
123 Heraldry before the Conquest, 124 Filbert " Verify 
your quotations," 125 Last Words of Gambetta Sobiesk 
Stuarts Archaeological Discoveries Bibliomania 
Bishop's Title, 126. 

QUERIES : " Oliver " " Omniety " Chronograms 
Italian Sundial " All Cooper's ducks with me," 127 
De la Pole or Pole Family Isle of Roseneath " In 
earthly races" Lady Nottingham Keith Keating 
G. L. Way, 128 Battle of Navarino Numidian Coins- 
Rebecca Cromwell W. E. Phillips Le Neve Family- 
Louis Philippe at the "Star and Garter " Stutevile 
Portraits of Joanna Baillie Holme of Wearmouth 
" Twopence for manners," 129. 

REPLIES : Duchy of Berwick, 130 " Wyrall " Gee 
Family Bowyer Wills Quotations Greek Pronuncia- 
tion, 131 Vancouver Smith, of Parson's Green, 132 
Gordon, a Place - name Architect's Name Wanted 
Barras Irish Badges, 133 'Life,' by Mrs. Barbauld 
Gloucestershire Origin of Chaucer "Wage "= Wages 
Ranulph, Earl of Chester Order of Buffaloes, 134 
Lectern in Durham Cathedral Anagrams, 135 Pins in 
Drinking Vessels Royal Tennis Court and Nell Gwyn 
Movable Stocks St. Clement Danes, 136 " Rather," 
137 Byrom's Epigram St. Heliers Pronunciation of 
Nietzsche, 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'Nova Legenda Anglie ' ' The Use 
of Sarum ' Moorsom's ' Renderings of Church Hymns ' 
Morison's 'Time Table of Modern History ' ' Patent 
Rolls of the Reign of Henry III.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See 1 st S. ii. 56, 205 ; 2 nd S. ix. 343, 395 ; 7 th S. v. 69, 

136, 293, 512.) 

A POINT which has puzzled the corre- 
spondents of ' N. & Q.' for the last fifty years 
has been the exact situation of Pontefract- 
on-Thames. The question was first raised 
in the second volume of the First Series in 
connexion with certain writs which were 
issued from that place in the reign of King 
Edward II. I quote below some of the 
attestations to these writs which will be 
found in Rymer's 'Fcedera,' vol. ii. pt. i. 
p. 461 : 

"Teste Rege, apud Pountefreit super Thamis' 
xxviii die Nov b 1321. 

"Ditto, apud Pountfreyt super Thamis' xxx die 
Nov b L321. 

"Ditto, apud Pontem Fractum super Thamis' 
xxx die Nov bris 132L 

"Ditto, apud Pontem Fractum, xxx die Nov bris 
1321 (15 Edw. II.)." 

The context rendered it clear that when 
these writs were issued the king was staying 
at some place on the Thames between Wind- 
sor and the mouth of the river, and various 
guesses were accordingly hazarded. One 

correspondent thought the probabilities 
pointed to Kingston Bridge, another to 
Staines, and a third to Shepperton Ashford. 
In more recent times a much-lamented corre- 
spondent, who wrote under the pseudonym 
of HERMENTRUDE, suggested that the locality 
might be Woolwich or Erith, basing her view 
on the Wardrobe Accounts (31/17) showing 
the " expenses of John of Eltham, son of the 
King (Edward II.), in wardship of Lady 
Alianora Le Despenser, from 30 April to 
13 June, 1326." From these accounts it ap- 
peared that on 30 May this lady and her 
royal charge dined at Shene and supped at 
Pontfreit, where they spent the following 
day. On 1 June they travelled on to 
Rochester, where they arrived in time for 
dinner. As Woolwich or Erith was further 
from Shene than Kingston or the other places 
which were previously equated with Pont- 
freit, HERMENTRUDE concluded that this 
unknown locality might be identical with 
one of those she had mentioned, although 
she furnished further evidence tending to 
show that Broken Wharf, near Queenhithe, 
might be an alternative place. 

It seems odd that none of the corre- 
spondents who dealt with this question should 
have referred to any standard work on 
London topography, as such a course would 
have at once removed their difficulties. 
Mention is made of Pontefract-on-Thames in 
Strype's 'Stow,' in Maitland's 'History of 
London,' in Lysons's 'Environs of London, 
and in Cowper's ' History of Mill wall/ From 
these authorities it is clear that it was 
situated in Stepney Marsh, otherwise known 
as Poplar Marsh, and for some hundreds of 
years as the Isle of Dogs. The manor seems 
to have been a sub-infeudation of the great 
manor of Stepney, under which heading it is 
dealt with by Lysons. The following quota- 
tion from Maitland's 'History of London,' 
d. 1739, p. 753, embodies Strype's views on 
the subject : 

' The Chapel House in the Isle of Dogs, or Poplar 
Vtarsh ; is the Ruins of a Stone Chapel, but when, 
or by whom built, is unknown. However, I am of 
opinion, that it either belong'd to the Manor of 
Pountfret (or to his Majesty's Servants who attended 
he Royal Kennels, whilst the King's Hounds were 
cept here), which anciently lay in this Marsh ; the 
capital Mansion whereof, by the Discovery of large 
foundations and Gatehooks, may not only be pre- 
umed to have stood here, but likewise divers other 
louses, which probably were inhabited till the 
great Inundation toward the Close of the Fifteenth 
Jentury, occasion'd by a Breach in the Bank of the 
iiver Thames near the Great Shipyard at Lime 

There is no historical reason for believing 
hat the king's hounds were ever kept in the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 15, 1902. 

Isle of Dogs, and the story was probably 
invented in order to account for the name of 
the locality. This name does not occur earlier 
than the time of Elizabeth. The Chapel 
House was converted into a farmhouse some 
time in the sixteenth century, and it figures 
in Norden's map of Middlesex, 1593, as the 
" Isle of Doges Ferme." When Lysons wrote, 
the old chapel was the only dwelling-place 
upon the marsh. It exhibited no remains of 
antiquity, except in the lower parts of the 
walls, which were full of small stones and 
flints. A Gothic window was removed about 
1792. When Mr. Cowper wrote in 1853 the 
condition of the Chapel House was much the 
same as when Lysons's description was writ- 
ten. Two or three additional tenements had 
been erected on the west side of the farm- 
house, but they were mean and inconvenient. 
The trees had been nearly all removed. The 
ground in the vicinity showed traces in every 
direction of having, at some remote period, 
been occupied with buildings, &c., but more 
especially to the south-west, from the Chapel 
House to the river. On the formation of the 
Mill wall Dock, in 1867-8, all traces of the 
Chapel House were swept away, its site being 
absorbed in the new docks (Walford's 'Greater 
London,' i. 537). 

This chapel, which was dedicated to St. 
Mary, was thought by Mr. Cowper to have 
been connected with, or dependent on, the 
Abbey of St. Mary of Graces, near the Tower 
of London. I venture to think that it was 
originally attached to the manor house of 
Pontefract, of which the foundations are 
mentioned by Strype and Maitland, and of 
which traces were visible up to fifty years ago. 
The Abbey of St. Mary does not seem to 
have been possessed of any property in 
Stepney Marsh till the end of the fifteenth 
century, when the manor of Pontefract appa- 
rently lapsed to the Crown. On this point, 
however, the evidence is not satisfactory. 

The first owner of the manor of whom we 
have any knowledge was a certain John de 
Castello, otherwise known as John Attecastle. 
In the year 1302, 31 Edward I., the manor 
was purchased from John de Castello and 
Joan his wife by John Abel and Margery his 
wife.* John Abel, although he has not 
obtained the honour of a niche in Messrs. 
Stephen and Lee's Valhalla, was a personage 
of considerable importance in his time. He 
was a trusted official of King Edward I, and 
during the reign of that monarch and of his 
successor his name repeatedly occurs in the 
Patent Rolls as a Commissioner of Oyer and 

AiV J 9 alen< ? ar of Feet of Fines f r London and 
Middlesex,' ed. Hardy and Page, i. 72. 

Ter miner. He was also an escheator south of 
Trent, and steward to Queen Margaret. On 
8 March, 1311/12, 5 Edward II., on the promo- 
tion of Walter de Norwych to be Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer, John Abel was appointed a 
Baron of that Court in his place. In 1317 he 
was appointed envoy to the King of France 
('Cal. Close Rolls, Edward II., 1313-18,' pp.553, 
622). He had a son named Walter ($., p. 98), 
who seems to have died in the lifetime of his 
father, as on John Abel's death in 1323 it 
appears from his Inquisition post mortem that 
he left only three daughters, coheirs. The 
manor of " Ponf ray t super Thamis'," of which 
he died seised, consisted of eighty acres of 
arable, a windmill, &c. (Escheat. 16 Ed- 
ward II., No. 41). He was also in possession 
of other manors, including West Tilbury, in 
Essex. The manor of Pontefract was divided 
into three portions, one of which was in- 
herited by each daughter. Of these daughters, 
Joan married Sir William Vaughan, Margaret 
married Walter Heryng, and of the third I 
have no record, unless it were Katherine, 
the wife of John Chicche, who in 1333, 

7 Edward III., levied a fine with William 
Vaughan and his wife for a third part of 
this manor.* Sir William Vaughan seems to 
have been succeeded by his son Sir Thomas 
Vaughan, who died seised of ** Pomfreyth 
maner' ut de maner' de Storteford " in 1362 
(Escheat. 36 Edward III., part 2, No. 64). Sir 
Thomas Vaughan left a son Hamon, who died 
without issue, and after his death and that 
of Margaret Heryng, who died in 1369, 
seised of a third part of the manor (Escheat. 
43 Edward III., part 1, No. 53), the property 
seems to have split up into severalties, which 
were divided among the families of Strange, 
Molyneux, Mitton, Bokilton, and Falk. We 
find from the inquisitions that "Ricardus 
Mutton, chivaler," and Margaret his wife were 
seised of " sexta pars duarum partium manerii 
Pountfreit" (Escheat. 8 Henry V., No. 8), 
and that " Philip' Bokilton, ar'," was seised 
of exactly the same amount (Escheat. 

8 Henry V., No. 48). Katherine, the daughter 
and heir of Philip Bokilton, married John 
Falk. Margery, the widow of Sir Baldwin 
Strange, held at her death, in 1432, a third 
part of the manor of "Pountfreit in Ste- 
pheneth Marsh," and was succeeded by her 
daughter and heir Elizabeth, who at the age 
of fourteen was already the wife of Robert 
Molyneux (Escheat. 10 Henry VI., No. 10). 
From the Feet of Fines it seems that half 
the manor came into the possession of John 
Harpur, as in 1422, 1 Henry VI., John Falk 

* ibid., p. 111. 

gth s. ix. FEB. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and Katherine his wife levied a fine with him 
and others for a moiety of the third part ; 
while in 1435 William Mitton, son and heir 
of Sir Richard and Margaret Mitton, levied 
another fine with John Harpur and others 
for another moiety of the third part. Having 
thus acquired a moiety of the manor, "John 
Harpur of Ruysshale, esquire, and Alianora 
his wife," parted with it in 1458, 36 Henry VI., 
to Thomas Hethe.* Of the further fortunes 
of the manor I have no information. 

To end with the point from which we 
started, I think we have in the descent of the 
manor a clear explanation of the reason why 
the king's writs were attested at Pontefract- 
on-Thames. King Edward II., in travelling 
from Surrey or Essex into Kent, stayed a dav 
or two with his trusty counsellor John A bel, 
in the manor house of which the last vestiges 
have been absorbed in Millwall Dock, and 
there transacted his official business. Although 
John Abel was dead in 1326, when the king's 
little son passed the night at Pontef ract with 
his gouvernante, the hospitable traditions of 
the house survived, and Joan Abel, with her 
husband Sir William Vaughan, doubtless did 
their best to entertain the party. In con- 
clusion, I may say that while I am gratified 
at being able to throw some light on one of 
the obscurer points connected with the his- 
tory of mediaeval London, I should be glad 
to receive some further information on the 
later history of the manor, which seems to 
have been closely connected with the Essex 
manor of West Tilbury.t 



1 . IN * Travels of Evliya Effendi ' (2 nd S. v. 
453) it is stated that, in converting a 
building about one thousand years old at 
Constantinople into a monument of Sultan 
Mustafa, a tobacco pipe was found among 
the stones which smelt of smoke. 

Here is a coincidence taken from the 
Evening News, 20 Sept., 1901 : 

" Whilst digging up the soil in the garden con- 
nected with the Egerton (Manor) House at Wine- 
wall, near Colne, the gardener came upon a clay 
smoking-pipe in fairly good condition, having a 
short stem. The date is 1450, the initials are 

P. W. With the exception of being of a smaller 
concentration, the style is somewhat similar to the 
current make. A strong tobacco odour is emitted 
from the pipe. St. James's Gazette" 

2. In the Athenaeum for 1 August, 1857, is a 
long article on tobacco. There it is stated 

* 'Calendar of Feet of Fines,' ed. Hardy and 
i age, i. Jx)~8. 
t Cf. the Genealogist, xviii. 183. 

that the Chinese say that they had a know- 
ledge of tobacco long, long ago. In Hone's 
4 Every-Day Book ' is a short article, in which 
it is stated that 

" Mr. Crocker describes a pipe which was found at 
Bannockstown, County Kildare, sticking between 
the teeth of a human skull, and it is accompanied 
by a paper, which on the authority of Herodotus : 
Strabo : Pomponius Mela : and Solinus : goes to 
prove that the Northern Nations of Europe were 
acquainted with tobacco, or an herb of similar pro- 
perties, and that they smoked it throifgh small 
tubes of course, long before the existence of 
America was known." 

3. Although 'N. & Q.' records James I.'s 
hatred of tobacco and Charles I.'s and 
Charles II.'s dislike for it, yet it does not 
mention, I think, that 

" the Tobacco pipe Makers' Company were Incor- 
porated by Charter, their privileges existing 
through the City of London and Westminster, the 
Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales ; they 
have a Master, four Wardens, and about twenty 
Assistants. They were first Incorporated by King 
James I. in his seventeenth year. Confirmed again 
by Charles I. ; and lastly, the 29th April in the 
fifteenth year of King Charles II. in all the privi- 
leges of their aforesaid Charter. Their Coat of 
Arms is a tobacco plant in full blossom, and the 
device is said to be given by this Company on all 
their Publick Occasions." Stow. 

4. No contributor has yet referred to ' Par- 
ticulars concerning Tobacco, digested in a 
Chronological Order from Prof. Beck man n's 
"Introduction to Technology."' It is much 
too lengthy to send you. 1 extract the last 
paragraph only : 

' He remarks that even before the discovery of 
the fourth Quarter of the Globe, a sort of tobacco 
was smoked in Asia. This conjecture being made 
to the celebrated traveller, M. Pallas, he gave the 
following answer : * That in Asia, and especially in 
China, the use of tobacco for smoking is more 
ancient than the discovery of the New World.' I, 
too, scarcely entertain a doubt. Among the Chinese, 
and among the Mogul tribes who had the most 
intercourse with them, the custom of smoking is so 
general, so frequent, and become so indispensable 
a luxury ; the tobacco purse affixed to their belt so 
necessary an article of dress ; the form of the pipes, 
from which the Dutch seem to have taken the 
model of theirs, so original ; and lastly the pre- 
paration of the yellow leaves, which are merely 
rubbed to pieces and then put into a pipe, so 
peculiar ; that we cannot possibly derive all this 
Erom America by way of Europe ; especially as 
India, where the habit of smoking tobacco is not 
so general, intervenes between Persia and China. 
May we not expect to find traces of this custom in 
the first account of the Voyages of the Portuguese 

and Dutch to China? Ulloa says it is not 

Drobable that the Europeans learned the use of 

Tobacco from America, tor, as it is very ancient in 

he Eastern Countries, it is natural to suppose that 

he knowledge of it came to Europe from those 

regions, by means of the intercourse carried on 

with them by the commercial States on the Mediter- 


[9 th S. IX. FEB. 15, 1902. 

ranean Sea. No where, not even in those parts of 
America where the tobacco plant grows wild, is 
the use of it, and that only for smoking, either 
general, or frequent." 

It seems that there is yet something more 
to be learnt about tobacco. Perhaps the 
knowledge is coming, as witness my final 
extract from the Daily Mail of 11 Oct., 
1901 : 


"Ottawa, Sept. 27. 

" Intelligence was received here to-day from the 
Yukon of a strange discovery that the language of 
the Nulato Indians who live within the Arctic 
Circle and that of the Apaches of New Mexico and 
Arizona are the same. 

"The facts have come to light through the return 
to Dawson City of Father John Rene, Prefect 
Apostolic of the Roman Catholic Church in Alaska, 
from a journey to the fathers working among the 
aboriginal tribes of the Lower Yukon. 

"The reverend father says: 'It is one of the 
most peculiar facts ascertained in connexion with 
the inhabitants and their origin that has ever been 
discovered, and one for deep study and research. 
It indicates, if anything, that the theory that the 
people of New Mexico and Arizona must have 
travelled southward from the Arctic regions is 
correct, and lends colour to the belief that the 
inhabitants of America came from Asia by the way 
of Behring Straits." 

G. J. S. 


WHEN referring to early Saxon and other 
coats of arms I have more than once been 
pulled up by friends who are heraldic 
enthusiasts by being told that heraldry 
did not exist prior to 1066. Let me premise 
all that follows by stating I do not pro- 
fess any knowledge of the subject, being 
led to make these few observations from 
unskilled reading. If gentlemen versed, in 
matters heraldic, when making the assertion 
named, qualified it by some such remark as 
that the present system of heraldry was not 
in existence before William's time, a novice 
might be better able to understand what is 
meant ; but the bald statement that heraldry 
did not exist before 1066 has so worried me 
that I am obliged to unburden myself in these 
columns, feeling sure that I shall, by their 
aid, find solid ground upon which I can in 
future stand when heraldic authorities may 
perchance fling at me a similar retort. 

I do not feel competent, nor is there any 
reason, to enter upon the subject " What is 
or was heraldry ? " except in the sense these 
observations clearly convey. I suppose it is 
called a science (which personally I demur 
to) of recording genealogies and blazoning 
coats of arms. Well, then, did heraldry exist 
prior to 1066 ? I venture to think it did, in 

that genealogies are recorded and coats of 
arms were in use, for argument' sake, say, 
seven hundred years before William I.'s time. 
We have genealogies recorded in the .Bible, 
and for coats of arms I will not go further 
back than 3928 A.M. 

Was there any system observed ? buppose 
we have not any trace of a system which 
existed in the early days, so far as written 
rules and regulations go, with respect to 
heraldry. If it can be demonstrated that 
the arms of any one family or person were 
promiscuously used by another and totally 
distinct family or person, it would clearly 
prove to a certain extent that there was not 
any recognized system. If, on the other 
hand, we can show that the arms of one par- 
ticular family were handed down or carried 
by succeeding generations, this^ would surely 
prove the existence of " system." 

That there were in the early days un- 
written laws of habit and custom, use and 
wont, as now, which were quite as binding 
as any by law established, may be accepted 
without any great pleading. Did arms pass 
through families? From Caesar I., 3928, to 
A.D. 304, the coat of arms of each emperor 
was the same, and from Claudius, 43, to Con- 
stantinus III., 401 (with one slight difference 
in Constantinus Mag. in 308). 

Take Egbert, first King of England, 800 ; 
his arms were Quarterly azure and or, a 
cross patonce counterchanged of the same. 
Ethelwolph and Ethelbald had Azure, a cross 
potent fitched or, as their arms. Ethel bert 
succeeded in 858, and we find his coat of 
arms was the same as his grandfather's, while 
the former's brother Ethelred carried the 

If we turn to Edward the Elder, in the 
year 900, and trace the kings' arms to the 
year 1016, we find very certain evidence of 
a continuity which cannot be mistaken for 
chance, or put down to a lack of " system." 
This Edward's arms were Azure, a cross 
patonce between four martlets or. Edgar's 
in 959 were the same ; Edward the Martyr, 
son of Edgar, had the arms of his father, but 
four crowns take the place of the martlets. 
Ethelred succeeded to the throne, and his 
coat of arms in 978 was the same as Edward's 
in 900. That of Edmund Ironside in 1016 
was Egbert's in 800. 

Glancing at the Danish monarchs' arms, 
we find Eric III. in 950 had the same as 
Eric in 905 ; that Anlaff III. in 980 carried 
the same arms as his namesake in 946 ; that 
Hardicanute in 1041 had, I think, the same 
coat of arms as Knute in 1017. Edward the 
Confessor, 1042, had the same coat of arms as 

9* s. ix. FEB. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Edward the Elder in 900, with the addition 
of one martlet. 

What shall we say as to the " science " so 
called 1 Edmund's coat of arms in 940 was 
Azure, three crowns, each transfixed with two 
arrows saltirewise, or. Keeping in mind that 
a doubt exists as to there being any such 
thing as invention, I ask, in all humility, Is 
there no " science " in this coat of arms ; was 
it by chance that such a coat of arms was 
chosen ; does it exhibit the art of a herald ; 
and does it not point to the "science" of 
conventional distinctions ? 

Again, Uther Pendragon's arms : Vert, a 
cross argent, on the first quarter our Lady, 
with her Son in her arms. Will any one say 
this has no more meaning or significance than 
a simple coat of arms chosen or fixed upon 
for self, being evolved simply from the con- 
sciousness of Pendragori 1 Does it speak 
anything for even the superior heraldic order 
of things from 1066 to 1442 when we find 
that the coat of arms of John Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, was Teudar Mawr's in 1073? 
Was this an appropriation ; or does it mean 

In connexion with this subject I may be 
allowed to refer to Shakspere. Horatio, 
speaking of Fortinbras of Norway, uses the 
words " who, by a seal'd compact, well 
ratified by law and heraldry." More to the 
point, perhaps, is the first player's speech, 
which begins, " The rugged Pyrrhus, he 
whose sable arms, black as his purpose, did 

the night resemble With heraldry more 

dismal ; head to foot now is he total gules : 
horridly trick d" (the italics are my own). 
There are other references to heraldry in Shak- 
spere, to which I need not now call attention. 

May I hazard the opinion that heraldry 
existed long before William's time ; that it 
was a " science " as much then as now ; that 
it was equally an art; that there was a 
system which regulated it ; that heraldry 
pointed then, as now, to conventional distinc- 
tions of caste ; and that any difference exist- 
ing between the heraldry prior to William 
and the present day is simply a development 
or extension of what existed on the Continent, 
if not in our own country, long before heraldry 
was introduced by William, if its introduction 
is due to him? I may mention that I have 
before me * Divi Britannici,' 1660, Dr. Heylyn's 
'Help to English History,' 1773, and 'A 
Synopsis of Heraldry,' 1682. 


FILBERT. Prof. Skeat expresses a decided 
opinion that this word is clearly taken from 
a proper name, but adds, "We have no 

sufficient evidence to show from whom the 
nut was named. A common story is that it was 
so named after Philibert, King of France, but 
there was no such king." In Syme's ' English 
Botany ' the derivation from a supposed 
King Philibert is mentioned, but preference 
is given to that proposed by Wedgwood, 
" quasi fill-beard" because the nut " just fills 
the cup made by the beards of the calyx." 
This is rejected by Prof. Skeat, because " the 
spelling fylberde is a mere corruption of 
the earlier trisyllabic form in Gower." (That 
poet's suggestion of a derivation from Phillis 
is not worth notice, as it takes no account of 
the last syllable.) There is no historical 
record of any King Philibert ; but it was the 
name of two dukes of Savoy, the earlier of 
whom (called "the hunter") died of excess 
at Lyons in 1482, when only eighteen years 
of age, while on a visit to the King of France 
(Louis XL). Prof. Skeat contends strongly 
for a derivation from St. Philibert of 
Jumieges, similar to the German word for 
the nut, Lambertsnuss, from St. Lambert of 
Maestricht. The day of the former is 
20 August, that of the latter 17 September. 
But is it not rather remarkable that the 
English name of the nut should be derived 
from that of a French saint not recognized 
in any Anglican calendar ? The two saints, 
it may be mentioned, were nearly contem- 
porary, the date usually assigned for the 
death of St. Philibert being A.D. 684, and that 
of the martyrdom of St. Lambert A.D. 708. 
The days given for the deaths would corre- 
spond in the Gregorian style of the calendar 
to 23 August and 20 September, and it is 
supposed that the connexion with the filberts 
is that they become ripe about that season. 

W. T. LYNN. 

[The 'H.E.D.' says probably from the nut ripen- 
ing near St. Philibert's day.] 

is always needful, for one is constantly coming 
across a citation that either is not in verbal 
agreement with the original or is attributed 
to a wrong source. An instance illustrating 
both points has just come under my notice. 
Canon Hicks, of Manchester, in addressing 
the Manchester and Salford Equitable Co- 
operative Society at Ardwick on Saturday, 
25 January, concluded his remarks by begging 
his hearers to "take as their motto the 
words of a great poet and reformer, William 
Morris " : 

I will not cease from mental strife [fight], 
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand, 

Till I [we] have built Jerusalem 
In England's green and pleasant land. 

The poet of the * EarthJy Paradise ' was cer- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 15, 1902. 

tainly a reformer, and was in sympathy with 
the co-operative movement, but Canon Hicks 
should have known that William Blake was 
the author of the lines he attributed to 
Morris, and at the same time misquoted. 


p. 58.) In your review of Marvin's 'Last 
Words' you ask what is the authority for 
Gambetta's foreboding, "lam lost, and there 
is no use to deny it." I have a cutting from 
the Pall Mall Gazette of 1 January, 1883, the 
words of which are given as taken from the 
Times of the same day, the day after Gam- 
betta's death. They are as follows : 

" M. Gambetta died without recovering his senses, 
but in the afternoon he exclaimed, ' Je suis perdu, 
il est inutile de dissimuler. Mais j'ai tant souffert 
que ce sera une delivrance.'" 


MYSTERY." The following is from the Times, 
11 January : 

" Hay-Allen. On the 1st Jan., 1902, at East 
Finchley, Gilbert Hay- Allen, aged 72, son of Lieut. 
Thos. Allen by Ann Salmon (his second wife), grand- 
son of Admiral Carter Allen, and half-brother of 
John Sobieski and Charles Edward Stuart, Count 
d'Albanie. Buried in Old Finchley Churchyard. 
4 Per Enses ad Astra.' " 

This inspired paragraph leaves the mystery 
no nearer solution. ROBERT RAYNER. 

Herne Hill, S.E. 

Graphic of 8 June, 1901, and in Black and 
White of 29 June, 1901, appeared notices 
and illustrations of discoveries at Jerusalem 
and Rome. At the former place a mosaic 
of Orpheus was found. Compare with the 
Orpheus at the back of the Delhi Peacock 
throne, now at the India Museum, South 
Kensington. Also at Rome was discovered 
a Christian churoh with a carving of figures 
and garlands, which compares with a carving 
of figures and garlands found on the Afghan 
border, for information concerning which 
consult the authorities at the Kensington 
Museum, as this latter is in a plate pub- 
lished by the Government of India, Simla 
Branch Press, before 1884, in an official report 
on the monuments. H. H COLE 

Virginia Water. 

BiBLioMANiA.-The following extract from 
the Daily Telegraph of 14 November last 
seems worthy of a note in l N. & Q.' : 

"At the meeting of the Yarmouth Board of 
Guardians, on Tuesday, it was reported that a 

5S3T TiT? St keS ' ^ h Hved alon *' had recently 
lied, and that on searching his cottage the relieving 

officer found hundreds of books, some of great 
rarity, the collection being valued by a bookseller 
at some hundreds of pounds. Over 150 prints, 
framed and unframed, were also discovered, and 
receipts were found for considerable sums sent to 
Paris for books. Some of the works in French- 
were ordered to be sent to the retort house at the 
gas works to be destroyed, while the remainder are 
to be valued and disposed of. The deceased pauper, 
who had received out-relief for years, had paid 
considerable sums for bookbinding, as was shown 
by receipts ; and one guardian said he had pur- 
chased over 501. worth of books from him, not 
knowing that he was a pauper. The only money 
found in the house was \\d. on a key-ring." 


AND "VERY REVEREND "When a bishop 
retires he still retains the title of "Right 
Reverend," and is spoken of as " The Right 
Rev. Bishop X." But when, as in the case of 
Bishops Johnson and Welldpn, the see is metro- 
politan, does he in his retirement retain his 
title of " Most Reverend," or does he go down 
a step and become " Right Reverend " 1 What 
are the corresponding Latin honorifics of 
which these are translations, and within 
what period have they become stereotyped 
in English use? That they were not fixed 
for some time after the Reformation is shown 
by the inscription on a monument in Monk- 
ton Priory Church, Pembroke, which runs : 

"Here Lyeth intombed the body of S r Francis 
Meyricke, Knight, who departed this life upon 
Friday the xxix Day of July Ano Dni 1603, Beinge 
the son of the Reverend Father Rowland Meyricke, 
late Bishop of Bangor and Katherine Meyricke 
His Wife Hee Married Anne Laugharne the 
Daughter of Francis Laugharne of S*. Bride Esquire 
and Geneth Phillips His Wife and had issue Gelly 
Meyricke Francis Meyricke, Henry Meyricke and 
John Meyricke, Frances Meyricke and Jane Mey- 

It is curious that in Ireland within the last 
thirty years or so the Roman Catholic Church 
has advanced its dignitaries a step as it were 
apparently in order to "go one better" 
than the disestablished Church in this re- 
spectso it seems at least to the uninitiated. 
All its bishops are now " Most Reverend " 
and its canons " Very Reverend " (its deans 
and archdeacons seem to be almost extinct). 
This course, however, has not been taken in 
England or the colonies, with regard to the 
bishops at least, who still remain "Right 
Reverend," though canons, I think, are "Very 

While on this subject I may note that in 
t\\z Daily Mail of. Christmas Day last I saw the 
Moderator-Elect of the "Presbyterian Church 
of England" described as the "Very Rev. 
So-and-So." It is, I think, a new departure 
on the part of that body to give its Moderator 

9- 8. IX. FEB. 15, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


an honorific of this kind ; and if it has been 
taken, why was the Scottish practice not 
followed viz., of making him a Right 
Reverend for a year, instead of assimilating 
him to the principals of the Scotch univer- 
sities for that period ? 

These questions, [ should add, are not asked 
in any spirit of controversy. The first has, 
in fact, become unnecessary, for I have since 
recollected that Bishop Barry, who was a 
metropolitan, is always styled "The Right 
Reverend." A retired archbishop, however, 
would remain the "Most Reverend." The 
only instance in the Anglican Church that I 
can recall is that of the late Archbishop Lewis, 
of Canada. But if so, why should not a 
metropolitan, though he did not bear the 
title of archbishop ? The difference is one of 
name only. 

An archdeacon who, like Archdeacon 
Diggle, resigns his office and removes to 
another diocese, would not, I presume, retain 
the title of the '* Venerable Archdeacon " or 
the honorific of " The Venerable," as the office 
is entirely a local one. It is not usually 
done in the case of colonial archdeacons 
returning to England. But the same argu- 
ment might be applied to the case of a retired 
archbishop, as it is, in fact, to the case of a 
retired metropolitan who had not borne the 
title of archbishop. J. P. L. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

" OLIVER." This is the name of a small lift- 
hammer (of from four or five to fifty or sixty 
pounds weight) worked by the foot by means 
of a treadle and spring-pole. It is used by 
nailmakers, chainmakers, and others. Why 
is it so called 1 The name looks like a 
surname perhaps of the inventor. The 
earliest reference to it we have found is only of 
1858, but it was then in ordinary use, and 
apparently had been for some time. I shall 
be glad of any information as to its origin. 
Readers who have friends in the nailmaking 
districts might help by making inquiries there. 

" OMNEITY " : " OMNIETY." This word was 
used by Archbishop Usher and by Sir Thomas 
Browne, in the sense of " allness," ** allhood," 
and has been used by later metaphysicians. 
I should like to know whether it is an 
English formation, or whether it occurs in 

any mediaeval or modern Latin writer, as 
omneitas, or omnietas, or (correctly) omnitas. 

CHRONOGRAMS. Who was the originator 
of this form of wit 1 I lately saw a golden 
key, with an ecclesiastical device, which bore 
the following inscription : 
En fIDel nostrse testls plaCet aVrea CLaVIs 
PrlnCeps nVnC serVos faC frIDerlCe tVos. 

This would give the date of the key as 1732. 
Perhaps some of your readers could throw 
more light on its history. Addison remarks 
that this form of wit was very popular in 
Germany, and quotes a medal struck in 
honour of Gustavus Adolphus. As the pri- 
mary object was to include the numeral 
letters which gave the key to the date, we 
have not much to look for in the form of the 


[The word "chronogram" is said to have been 
first used in verses addressed, in 1575, to the King 
of Poland. See ' Chronograms : Five Thousand and 
more in Number,' &c., by James Hilton, F.S.A. 
(Stock, 1882). Many references to chronograms 
occur in our General Indexes.] 

front wall of the Albergo Rossazza, the 
solitary old inn upon the top of Mont Cenis, 
is a sundial, whereupon is a half-obliterated 
inscription. It reads 


I carefully copied the characters during a 
leisurable tramp across the mountain last 
summer, and the (apparently) two words are 
displayed precisely as now given. Ombra, of 
course, is " a shadow," but what of the rest. 
Is it patois? The tumbledown posada in 
question is in Italy, but within a mile or two 
of the French frontier. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

time ago I heard a respectable young master- 
butcher in London use the following curious 
saying, viz., "It would soon have been all 
Cooper's ducks with me," meaning that death 
would have resulted had he not quickly 
recovered from a recent attack of influenza. 
This person was born and bred in Kent ; 
but, although myself a Kentish man, I have 
not previously heard the same either there or 
elsewhere ; nor is any reference to it to be 
met with in Hotten's ' Slang Dictionary '- 
unless it have anything to do with a "duck " 
(otherwise better known as a "faggot"), which 
that book describes, somewhat incorrectly, as 
" a bundle of bits of the ' s tickings ' of beef 
sold for food to the London poor." Can any 



s. ix. FEB. 15, 1002. 

of your readers throw light on the origin of 
the saying? W. I. K. V. 

this surname fought at Agincourt (Walsing- 
ham, 'Hist. Angl., 5 ii. 169; Nicolas, 'Agin- 
court,' pp. 128, 354 ; Archce-ologia, iii. 18). He 
is supposed to have been the grandson of Sir 
William de la Pole (died 1366), the father of 
Michael, first Earl of Suffolk. Is anything 
known of the father of this Edmund and of 
his marriage and descendants (if any) 1 

Sir William de la Pole (died 1366) had four 
sons and two daughters Michael (first Earl 
of Suffolk), Sir Walter, Sir Thomas, Sir Ed- 
mund (Captain of Calais), Blanche (who 
married Richard, first Lord Scrope of Bolton), 
and Margaret (who married Richard Neville, 
of Hornby, Lancashire). Is anything known 
of the marriages and descendants of Sir 
Walter, Sir Thomas, Sir Edmund, and the 
descendants of the two daughters? Sir 
Thomas, I believe, had an only daughter and 
heiress, named Catherine, who died in 1362. 
Who was Richard Neville, of Hornby 1 

Michael de la Pole, first Earl of Suffolk 
(died 1389), had three sons and one daughter 
Michael (second earl), Thomas, Richard 
(Foss, ii. 76), and Anne, who married Gerald 
de lisle. Is anything known of the de- 
scendants of Thomas, Richard, and Anne 1 

Michael de la Pole (died 1415), second Earl 
of buffolk, had eight children Michael 
(third earl), William (fourth earl and first 
duke), bir John (died in captivity), Alex- 
ander (slain at Jargeau, 1429). Thomas (died 
1433 in captivity), and three daughters. 
Is anything known of the marriages and 
descendants of Sir John, Alexander, Thomas, 
and the three daughters ? 

/A?A?A& \ p ^ second ^uke of Suffolk 
(died 1491), who married Elizabeth, sister of 
Edward IV. and Richard III., had 'ten chil- 

?I?r m ' E 5 rl Lmcoln (killed afc Stoke, 
487 , Edmund, Earl of Suffolk (executed 
1513 Humphrey, Edward, Richard (killed 
at lavia, 1525), Sir William, and four 
daughters Is anything known of the mar- 
:iages and descendants of Humphrey, Ed 


The 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' under the heading 

very much obliged if he will let me have a 
copy of the article in question. 


46, Maryborough Avenue, Hull. 

ISLE OF ROSENEATH. The error of Sir 
Walter Scott in describing the peninsula of 
Roseneath as an island in his * Heart of Mid- 
lothian ' has often been commented on. But 
I see that the Marquess of Argyll speaks of 
"his isle and county" of Roseneath (State 
Trials, 13 Charles II., 1661). Probably Scott 
had this designation in his mind. But how 
came it that Roseneath was called an island ? 



" IN EARTHLY RACES." Who wrote the fol- 
lowing 1 It was a favourite quotation with 
the late Sir William Gull : 

In earthly races 

To victors only do the heralds call ; 
But oh ! in yonder high and heavenly places 
Success is nothing and the work is all. 

J. F. P. 

LADY NOTTINGHAM. In the life of ' Caro- 
line the Illustrious ' is a reference to Lady 
Nottingham, who is said to have had thirty 
children. Is this a substantial fact ? One 
would like to know how many came at a 
time and at what intervals. If true, is not 
this a record in maternity ? E. F. D. C. 

ALEXANDER KEITH was admitted to West- 
minster School on 27 January, 1812. Can any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' give me any particulars 
of his parentage and career ? G. F. R. B. 

KEATING. James and Alfred Keating were 
admitted to Westminster School in 1825 and 
1828. I should be glad to obtain any informa- 
tion concerning them. G. F. R. B. 

GREGORY LEWIS WAY. Is anything known 
of the writer of this name who in the 
eighteenth century translated a selection 
from the twelfth and thirteenth century 
' Fabliaux ' of Legrand d'Aussy 1 I find no 
mention of him in the ' D.N.B.,' although the 
names suggest a connexion with the Way 
family which counted Albert the antiquary 
and Sir Gregory the soldier among its mem- 
bers. Both of these men were sons of Lewis 
Way, of Stanstead Park, Sussex. It seems 
just possible that Gregory Lewis Way may 
be the full names of Lewis Way, but scarcely 
probable, as the latter was born in 1772, and 
in 1796 George Ellis edited G. L. Way's trans- 
lations. In an old bookstall find (Homer's 
' Battle of the Frogs and Mice,' 1717) I have a 
steel book-plate, showing a knight in full 
armour seated on the shore of a moonlit sea ; 



the name on the plate is "Gregorius Ludovicus 


allege in his defence a remark of George IV., 
" II me faut une bataille a tout prix " 1 


NUMIDIAN COINS. (See the * Hawson Oak,' 
9 th S. viii. 522.) MR. THORPE refers to u the 
finding of Numidian coins of B.C. 200 on 
Carnbrea." Where are these coins, and 
where were they found 1 I was unaware of 
any such find, except of one coin of Micipsa 
of Numidia, described in vol. xiii. of the 
Journal of the Royal Inst. of Cornwall, 
p. 103. YGREC. 

REBECCA CROMWELL. Are any portraits 
known of this lady ? (Mrs.) J. COPE. 

13c, Hyde Park Mansions, W. 

W. E. PHILLIPS. This gentleman was 
Governor of Penang from 1820 to 1826. Can 
any of your readers supply me with data 
relating to parentage, place of birth, and 
descendants f Was he related to that 
" builder of Greater Britain," Admiral Arthur 
Phillips, the founder of the settlement of New 
South Wales? V. 

[The founder of New South Wales was named 

LE NEVE FAMILY. I should be glad to 
have some information respecting the Le 
Neve family, who appear to have settled in 
Norfolk before the fifteenth century. The 
first of whom I have any record is Robert 
Le Neve, of Tivetshall, who lived in the reign 
of Henry IV. Sir William Le Neve, of 
Aslacton, Clarenceux King of Arms, was 
herald at Edgehill. Francis Le Neve, born 
1573, died 1652, was Master of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company in 1629. A very fine 
portrait of him by Cornelius Jan sen can be 
seen in the hall of that company. Peter 
Le Neve, of Great Witchingham, Norfolk, 
born 1662, died 1729, was Norroy King of 
Arms. I believe that there are monumental 
tablets to several members of the family in 
Great Witchingham Church, and I should be 
glad to know if others can be found in 
any other part of the country. As many of 
the family appear to have settled in London, 
probably some traces exist in London 
churches. Can any reader furnish par- 
ticulars 1 P. L N. F. 

AND GARTER," RICHMOND. I am wishful to 
know how long they stayed at the "Star 

and Garter" before going to Claremont 
in 1848 ; more especially whether they were 
there till the Christmas Day of that year. 
They came over from France in February. 
One day during the year, being inquisitive 
about celebrities, I went to Richmond and 
saw the king and queen and three sons 
going out, I think to Cardinal Wiseman's 
cathedral. The old people bowed politely to 
the spectators, as they drove in a closed 
carriage. The sons walked, and seemed very 
cheerful. E. M. JONES. 

SIR MARTIN STUTEVILE. I shall be glad to 
be referred to sources of information touching 
Sir Martin Stutevile, of Dalham Tower, 
Herts, the correspondent of Joseph Mede. 
He married one of the Ishams of Lamport, 
Northants. LOBUC. 

be obliged if any reader of ' N. & Q.' could 
inform me of the present location of original 
portraits of Joanna Baillie (1762-1851). 

J. L. C. 

HOLME OP WEARMOUTH. It appears from 
Harleian MS. 1540 (45) that Robert Holme, 
of Wearmouth, son of John Holme, of 
Holme Hall, in Lancashire, married Anne, 
one of the Middletons of Silksworth, and that 
Raffe Holme, the grandson of Robert Holme, 
married Margaret, one of the Greys of Horton 
Grange. Can any reader enable me to find 
out the precise parentage of these ladies ? 

E. J. Hardy, in an article * Talk to Young 
People,' gives the origin of this saying : 

"Formerly in Ireland twopence, or a penny, or 
a few pieces of turf were brought to the school- 
master each week by every scholar in payment for 
tuition in manners. Accordingly it would be said 
of an uncourteous boy, * Oh ! he never paid his 
twopence.' 1 am afraid in some Board schools two- 
pennyworth of manners is not imparted in the 
year. You will hear them [children], as they rush 
out of school, calling passers-by nicknames, and 
making remarks about their personal appearance 



rude as were those of the young people 
id to Elisha, ' Go up, thou bald head !*" 
I am reminded by this remark that in the 
year 1699 more attention must have been 
paid to manners than in the present day. 
In that year there was published an octavo 
volume entitled * An Account of the Societies 
for the Reformation of Manners in London 
and Westminster.' Are those societies still 
in operation ; if not, when and why did they 
cease to exist ? 

[For much information see 6 th S. xii. 454 and the 
references to ' N. & Q.' there quoted.] 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 15, 1902. 

(9 th S. viii. 439, 534.) 

Is MR. CURWEN correct in saying that 
St. Dominic was not the founder of the In- 
quisition? He certainly instigated the "in- 
quisitorial missions " sent out by Pope Inno- 
cent III. in 1210-15 against the Albigenses 
in the south of France, and every Spanish 
account of the institution which I have ever 
seen claims St. Dominic as its founder. It 
was in consequence of St. Dominic's con- 
nexion with these Inquisitorial Commissions 
that the Inquisition, when regularly organized 
by Gregory IX. in 1233, was placed in the 
hands of the Dominicans. 

As regards the Duchy of Berwick, which, 
of course, was created as a. peerage of Eng- 
land in 1687, what I meant to say was that 
the first holder who, in consequence of the 
Revolution of 1688, never took his seat in 
the House of Lords previous to his attainder 
in 1695 had his English duchy bestowed on 
him as a Spanish grandeeship by Philip V. of 
Spain, and hence the present holder very 
legitimately describes himself as "Duke of 
Berwick," and not " Duque de Berwick," in 
the ' Almanach de Gotha,' and is so addressed 
by all English officials. Curiously enough, 
William III. did much the same thing when he 
created Marshal Schomberg an English duke 
by the title of Duke of Schomberg. I confess 
I quite forgot that Lord Bridport holds the 
Duchy of Bronte. Admiral the Earl of Dun- 
donald held the Brazilian title of Maranhao 
for life. Lords Rothschild and Pirbright 
hold Austrian baronies, just as Sir William 
Walrond, M.P., holds the old Spanish Mar- 
quisate of Vallado. I find I also omitted 
from my list the Austrian honours held by 
Viscount Taaffe, and the Papal principality 
held by the Earl of Newburgh (Prince Gius- 
tiniani Bandmi). Lord Perth, as Due de 
Meltort in France, is another instance in 
which a title originally bestowed by James II 
was reconferred on the holder during his 
exile by a foreign sovereign ; and, as Thave 
already said it is a very open question 
whether or not the English Duchy of Whar- 
ton and James Ill's Duchy in partibus of 
Northumberland were not recognized as 
bpanish grandeeships by Philip V. 

Fitz-James as a royal surname mav of 
course, be paralleled by Fitz-Charles, which 
was bestowed by Charles II. upon his son by 
the Viscountess Shannon, whom he created 
Earl of Plymouth ; but I should be surprised 
to learn that Fitz is necessarily or always a 

sign of illegitimacy. How about Fitz-Gerald 
and Fitz-William ? The present Earls of 
Pembroke are Herberts, not Fitzherberts, 
although they are undoubtedly illegitimate 
descendants of the old Earls of Pembroke, 
whilst the Fitzherberts of Tissington have no 
bend sinister. Is MR. EASTON certain that 
there is no documentary proof older than 
Scott for the assumption that James V., when 
on frolic bent, used to call himself Fitz- 
James ? Moreover, if Fitz is a proof of 
illegitimacy, why is Henry II. so constantly 
described as Henry Fitz Empress ? Was 
there any earlier instance of its use in Eng- 
land to denote illegitimate descent from 
royalty than that of Henry Fitzroy, Duke 
of Richmond, illegitimate son of Henry VIII. 
by Elizabeth Blount? The illegitimate de- 
scendants of John of Gaunt took the name 
of Somerset, not Fitzjohn. Fitzroy, Duke 
of Grafton, was not the eldest child of 
Charles II., who went back to history for 
the surnames of his children in the instance 
of Lady Mary Tudor, his daughter by Moll 

Your readers may be interested in one title 
which, according to G. E. C. in his * Complete 
Peerage,' vol. i. p. 60, is possessed by the 
Duke of Berwick. The Marquisate of 
Jamaica in the English peerage was conferred 
upon his ancestor the Duke of Liria by 
James III. in 1720, and, according to G. E. C., 
is still borne by the family. It is curious 
that James III. should have chosen for his 
cousin a grandee of Spain a title derived 
from a former possession of the Spanish 
Crown. Readers of Beckford's ' Letters from 
Spain and Portugal' may recollect his fre- 
quent mention of a Marquis of Jamaica, 
presumably the then heir of the Berwick 
family. He evidently had not a notion that 
the title was English, but a Jacobite creation. 
I recollect some years ago taking part in a 
controversy in the Globe as to whether or 
not the Marquisate of Jamaica was one of 
the titles borne by the descendants of Colum- 
bus. Other titles in partibus conferred by 
James III. upon foreigners seem to have 
included an English Duchy of Castelbranco, 
granted by him to the Spanish Count 
of Castelbranco, and a Scotch Earldom of 
Almond given to Sig. Dayia, senator of 
Bologna. With the exception of two or 
three baronetcies given by Charles II. to 
friends in Holland these are, probably, the 
only instances since the time of the Plan- 
tagenets in which English honours have been 
conferred upon non- naturalized foreigners. 
Are any instances known in which the Garter 
has been granted to foreign subjects ? H. 

,9^ 8. IX. FEB. 15, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"WYRALL" (9 th S. ix. 109). Cotgrave has 
French virole, "an iron ring put about tht 
end of a staffe, &c., to strengthen it, anc 
keep it from riving." Just because it was 
often made of iron, the corresponding E. wore 
was "derived" from Latin ferrum, and is 
now spelt ferrule. See * Ferrule ' in H.E.D., 
or in any dictionary that is at hand. 


GEE FAMILY (9 th S. ix. 10). William Gee 
was Mayor of Hull in 1573. He left money 
to build almshouses in that city, and in 1575 
at his own expense he replaced the great 
east window of Holy Trinity Church, which 
had been damaged by a mob. A half life- 
size portrait of him on wood is or was in the 
Hull Grammar School, and on this appears 
his coat of arms. His will is reprinted in 
' Hullinia,' a work written by Alderman John 
Symonds, and published in 1872. It begins : 

" Whereas, in the Scriptures, the great God has 
willed, by the Prophet, to say to Hezekiah, to make 
his will and put things in order, for that he must 
die, so I do now pray, and humbly beseech the 
great God, to confound and destroy all those men, 
lawyers, and others whosoever, to the Devil, in the 
Pit of Hell, which do, or shall do, or take upon 
them to alter this my will. Amen. Good Lord, 
Amen!" &c. 

This will gives "to my son William Gee, 
2,000/. ; my son Walter, 200," &c. 

William Gee the younger seems to have 
lived at Bishop Burton in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire, and to have had a wife named 
Mary, but possibly this was his mother's 
name. By deed these two agreed to fulfil the 
wishes of the elder William Gee. 

The Gees appear to have been connected 
with Hull for generations, and one of the 
nine divisions of the west window of Holy 
Trinity Church is a memorial to Joseph Gee, 
"of Hull, merchant, who died in I860. 


46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

An early instance of this farnity name 
occurs in the charter of the Company of 
Stationers, dated 4 May, 1556, Thomas Gee 
being one of the ninety-four members whose 
signatures were attached thereto. The name 
appears frequently in the City of London. 
The registers of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, 
commenced in 1558. During the next century 
there were eleven baptisms, fifteen marriages, 
and nine deaths, of which I will furnish 
MR. GEE with details should he require them. 
See also 6 th S. ii. 71. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

BOWYER WILLS (9 th S. viii. 444). William 
Bowyer, senior, died in 1737, and William, 

his son, in 1777, both at Low Leyton, Essex, 
where a monument was erected to their 
memory. Would not their wills be probably 
proved at the District Registry, Ipswich 1 
A copy of the will of the latter is given in 
'Nichols's Literary Anecdotes' with a bio- 
graphical memoir, vol. viii. p. 270. This 
work may be consulted in the Corporation 
Library, Guildhall. Extracts therefrom may 
be found in Timperley's * Dictionary of 
Printers and Printing,' and 2 nd S. iv. 209. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

QUOTATIONS (9 th S. vi. 489 ; vii. 74, 170, 497; 
viii. 113). "Cum rerum natura nusquam 
magis, quam in minimis, tota sit" (Plin., 
' Nat. Hist.,' xi. i. (2). 

" Veuve d'un peuple-roi, mais reine encore 
du monde." According to Ramage's 'Beautiful 
Thoughts from French and Italian Authors/ 
second edition, this saying is by Gabriel 
Gilbert, who flourished about 1650. The 
heading is 'Papal Rome.' No more par- 
ticular reference is given. 


GREEK PRONUNCIATION (9 th S. vii. 146, 351, 
449 ; viii. 74, 192, 372, 513). While noting 
M. HAULTMONT'S interesting comments upon 
certain remarks of mine in the above con- 
nexion, I cannot own to being as much 
convinced by the arguments brought forward 
as that writer will probably expect me to be, 
for I conceive that the Italian would not be 
more likely than the French to have retained 
the old Latin sound of sal, but less so. 
Words received by the French language 
from the Latin would more naturally remain 
unaltered and unaltering in sound in the 
and of their adoption than they would in 
the land of their origin, where they would be 
Dart of a living and always moving tongue, 
and open to all the changes of such a tongue, 
and it is in the vowel-sounds more particu- 
arly that changes in such a tongue would be 
! ound to occur. 

In modern times, English, as talked in 

rural America, is more likely to retain the 

owel-sounds of English speech two hundred 

ears ago than to-day's island English, and 

specially to-day's London English, is. Many 

.vords of old French origin, embedded in our 

>wn tongue, are surely more likely to retain 

he old French vowel-sounds than the same 

>r similar words in their modern form in 

,he French of to-day. It was an ancient 

dictionary that gave the derivation of salt 

is from the Latin sal. I need not defend 

t. If salt is rather from the A.-S. sealt 

cf. N.H.Ger. Salz\ we only see more clearly 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 15, 1902. 

still how strangely a word in our own 
living tongue can alter, when in a few 
hundred years the letters sealt can now by 
many be represented by the sound sorlt. 
Evidently, then, the Italians may just as 
easily have altered the sound vas (or vazz) 
into varze ; though possibly few of them will 
have as yet Romanced the word into vorze, as 
some of us have done. The modern Italian 
sound, then, for the commodity salt does not 
attract my attention nearly so much as the 
uncommon French sound, and that sound 
seems to the present writer to require some 
explanation. As to the A.-S. word sealt, if 
that is indeed our root-word, it and the 
French sel seem apparently very similar in 
the vowel - sounds, which is noteworthy. 
We are told that all living languages are 
ever moving ; thus we might expect that 
the word sel, if it were not a Latin fossil, 
preserved, as fossils are apt to be, in a foreign 
tongue, would have drifted to sal in sound, 
and possibly into sol, just as our sealt has 
drifted into sorlt. I submit, then, that the 
sel sound is one not to be expected, and 
requires accounting for. That the word vas 
has also the form vasum does not seem to me 
altogether conclusive against what I had sub- 
mitted. The lack of absolute knowledge of 
what the old sounds were was the point I 
was more particularly endeavouring to urge, 
and I note that M. HAULTMONT only contends 
for what, to that writer, seem the pro- 
babilities. W. H. B. 

VANCOUVER (9 th S. viii. 504; ix. 34). 
George Vancouver was born about 1750. He 
was a midshipman in the Royal Navy, and 
served under Capt. James Cook. He was 
appointed ^to the command of an expedition 
to ascertain whether there was any com- 
munication between the North Pacific and 
North Atlantic oceans. The island which 
now bears his name was originally called 
Nootka, discovered in 1774, but was first 
circumnavigated by Capt. George Vancouver 
m 1792. He compiled an account of this 
voyage under the title of Voyage of Dis- 

?r e $ *? N 2^t Pacific Ocean and round 
the World in which the Coast of North-West 

America has been carefully examined and 
accurately surveyed, principally with a view 
to ascertain the existence of any navigable 
Communication between the North Pacific 
and -North Atlantic Oceans, 1790-95,' 3 vols., 
1/98. Ihis work was ready for publication 
when the author died on 10 May, 1798. 


George Vancouver was born at King' 
Lynn, 22 June, 1757. Which after the pLc 

of my nativity, the town of Lynn in Norfolk, 
obtained the name of Lynn Canal": so writes 
Vancouver in vol. iii. p. 249 of his book ' A 
Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific 
Ocean and round the World.' St. Margaret's 
register contains the following : " Mar., 1761, 
George s. of Mr. John Gaspar Vancouver, 
and Bridget his wife (born 22 June, 1757)." 

Stonegate House, King's Lynn. 

,9 th S. ix. 29). He was son of Thomas Smith, 
Mayor of Abingdon in 1584, by Joan, daughter 
of Thomas Jennings He was born 1556 ; 
matric. at Christ Church, Oxon, in 1573 

ee Foster's 'Alumni Oxon.'); M.P. for 
^ricklade, 1588-9; Tamworth, 1593; Ayles- 
bury, 1597-8 ; secretary to the Earl of Essex ; 

lerk of the Privy Council, 1587 ; Clerk of 
the Parliament, 1597 ; Latin Secretary to 
James I., 1603 ; knighted at Greenwich, 
20 May, 1603; and appointed one of the 
Masters of Requests in 1608. He died at 
Fulham, 27 Nov., 1609, and was buried there 
7 December following. Will dated 12 Sept., 
1609; proved in P.C.C., 21 Dec., 1609. He 
married Frances, eldest daughter of William 
Brydges, fourth Lord Chandos, and she after- 
wards, about 1610, became the second wife 
of Thomas Cecil, first Earl of Exeter, whom 
she survived forty years, dying in 1663 at 
the age of eighty-three, and was buried in 
Winchester Cathedral. Her will, dated 
20 Jan., 1662, was proved 17 July, 1663. By 
Sir Thomas Smith she had an only son, Robert 
Smith, who died s.p. in 1626, and a daughter 
Margaret, who became the wife successively 
of Sir Edward Herbert, Attorney-General to 
Charles I., and of Thomas Carey, second son 
of Robert, Earl of Monmouth. Sir Thomas 
Smith, the Secretary of State to Queen Eliza- 
beth, died in 1577, so before Frances Brydges 
was born. Sir Thomas of Parson's Green 
must also be distinguished from Sir Thomas 
Smith, the well-known Treasurer of the 
Virginia Company and ambassador to Mus- 
covy. He was knighted in the same month 
as his namesake, but died in 1625. 

W. D. PINK. 
Lowton, Newton-le- Willows. 

Sir Thomas Smith was son of Thomas 
Smith, of Abingdon, by Jone, daughter of 
Thomas Jenings (Harl. MS. 1551, Visitation of 
Middlesex). Born at Abingdon about the 
year 1556. In 1573 a student of Christ 
Church, Oxford ; B.A. 1574, M.A. 1578. He 
became Public Orator and Proctor in 1584 ; 
1587, Clerk of Privy Council ; M.P. for Crick- 
lade, 1588-9 j Tamworth, 1593 ; 1597, Clerk of 

9- 8. IX. FEB. 15, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Parliament ; knighted at Greenwich, by 
James I., 1603 ; 1608, Master of the Court 
of Requests. In 1606 he purchased Parson's 
Green of Sir William Billesbie, and died 
at Brightwells 28 November, 1609. His 
Inq. p.m., the inscription on his tomb in 
Fulham Church, and extracts from his will 
are given in Feret's ' Fulham Old and New.' 
He left, by the Hon. Frances Brydges, a son 
Robert, who was educated at Christ Church, 
and d. s.p., in his mother's lifetime, 1626 
(Harl. MS. 1551). His daughter Margaret 
married first Hon. Thomas Carey, and 
secondly Sir Edward Herbert. 

H. S. V.-W. 

Frances, eldest daughter of William 
Brydges, fourth Baron Chandos of Sudeley, 
was married first to Sir Thomas Smith, of 
Parson's Green, co. Middlesex (died 1609), 
Master of Requests and Latin Secretary to 
King James I. ; secondly to Thomas Cecil, 
Earl of Exeter, -who died 1623. She was 
thirty-eight years younger than her husband, 
and survived him more than forty years, 
dying in 1663, aged eighty-three years. She 
was buried under a flat stone in the cathedral 
of Winchester. A painting of her by Vandyke 
was at Strawberry Hill, and a print from it 
was engraved by Faithorne. The above Sir 
Thomas is not identical with the Secretary 
of State temp. Elizabeth. 


GORDON, A PLACE-NAME (9 th S. ix. 29). 
The following, taken from the * Minute Book 
kept by the War Committee of the Cove- 
nanters in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright 
(1640-1),' may be of interest. Speaking of 
the Gordons of Kenmure and Lochinvar, the 
writer says (p. 183) : 

" Whence^ the origin of the Gordons, who were 
one of the most ancient and powerful families in 
Scotland, there are now no means of accurately 
ascertaining. Some historians, reasoning from the 
similarity or names, have alleged that the first of the 
name came from Gordonia, a city in Macedon, whilst 
others trace them to Normandy, where there was 
once a manor called Gordon, ana conclude them to 
be sprung from the same family as Bertrand de 
Gordoun, the archer who shot Richard I. at the 
siege of Chalos in Aquitaine. The traditionary 
account of the origin of the name is that in the 
reign of Malcolm III. there was in the south of 
Scotland a wild boar of tremendous strength and 
ferocity, which had killed many knights and gentle- 
men who had attempted to destroy it, and nad at 
length become such a terror to the whole country 
that none dared to encounter it, whereupon the 
king offered a great reward' to whoever should kill 
it and bring its head to the Court. This being done 
by a brave yeoman called Adam, the king inquired 
of him how he slew the monster. He replied that 
having wrapped his plaid about his arm, he thrust 

it into the mouth of the boar and yored him doivn 
with his dagger. Malcolm, pleased with the in- 
trepidity of the action, conferred upon him the 
honour of knighthood, and commanded him to 
assume the surname of Goredoun in commemora- 
tion of the circumstance. By some the boar is said 
to have been killed in the forest of the Glenkens 
(Kirkcudbrightshire), whilst others lay the scene 
of the exploit in the parish of Gordon, in Berwick- 


ARCHITECT'S NAME WANTED (9 th S. viii. 384, 
487). Apropos of churches at Colombo, may 
I recall my impression of an old native 
Catholic church I saw there in 1876 ? It was 
built by the labour of Singhalese or Tamils, 
and the interior adornments were most 
curious and interesting. The "sanctuary" 
was carved in the Indian manner, resplendent 
with gold and colours, but somewhat 
tarnished with age. I should much like to 
have some information as to this church, 
which stands, or stood, near the large 
Portuguese church, between the lake and the 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

BARRAS (9 th S. viii. 202, 228, 267, 473 ; ix. 
15). I note that in vol. vii. of the Transac- 
tions of the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Antiquarian and Archaeological Society there 
is a paper by the late Chancellor Ferguson, 
F.S.A., on * Barras Gate, Dalston.' There is 
a locality in Chester, now known as "The 
Bars," some distance along Foregate Street, 
in front of the east gate of the city, and 
along the Roman road, where the Bars gate 
formerly was believed to have stood. This 
may quite easily have been "Barras Gate" 
on the derivation given by MR. NEILSON. 


IRISH BADGES (9 th S. viii. 484). I think 
D. B. is under a false impression, for neither 
Cicely Nevil nor her husband, the Duke of 
York, used the greyhound for a badge. 
Thomas de Lancaster, Duke of Clarence, son 
of King Henry IV., who was lieutenant in 
Ireland 1401-13, had a greyhound gorged 
with a plain collar for that purpose. Robert 
de Vere, Earl of Oxford, did not take the 
three crowns to Ireland ; just the reverse. 
King Richard II. created him Duke of 
Ireland 13 October, 1386, and granted him 
the ancient arms of that country, Azure, 
three crowns or, with a bordure argent, as 
an augmentation to his arms. The tower 
triple-towered or, from the portal a hart 
springing argent, attired and unguled,also or, 
has been the crest since 1801 ; and, as Wille- 
nient says, " it is rather curious that the badge 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 15, 1902. 

given for Ireland assimilates very closely to 
that of King Richard (II.), being a white hart 
issuing from the portal of a golden castle." 
King Richard made two visits to Ireland 
during his short reign ; whether he left the 
above badge as a legacy to the Irish to gain 
their favour I am unable to find out. Accord- 
ing to MS. Harleian No. 304 the following 
are the arms of Ireland : Gules, a castell 
argent, a hart issuing out of the gat in his 
prop, colour, horned gold. The oval seal of 
Queen Eleanor, wife of King Edward I, has 
upon it a figure representing herself, with a 
castle (with the hart) and lion on each side, 
which refer to the arms of the kingdom of 
Castile. The war-cry of " Farrah ! Farrah ! " 
was probably a general one amongst the 
Irish chiefs in battle, as I cannot find that 
it appertained to any special family or sept. 

* LIFE,' BY MRS. BARBAULD (9 th S. ix. 67). 
MR. G. SHELDON will find this poem in 
Palgrave's 'Golden Treasury,' Crawford's 
'Lyrical Verse' (1896), Mowbray Morris's 
'Poet's Walk,' and 'The Oxford Book of 
English Verse.' G. A. M. 

Respecting the query concerning Mrs. Bar- 
bauld's poem on ' Life,' it may not be without 
interest to some readers of ' N. & Q.' to know 
that in the ' Golden Treasury ' F. T. Palgrave 
gives the first four and the last eight lines 
of the poem, without any title or headline ; 
that Dr. Charles Mackay, in 'A Thousand 
and One Gems,' gives under the heading 
'Life' only the last eight; and that Mr. 
Quiller-Couch, in ' The pxford Book of Eng- 
lish Verse,' published in the beginning of 
last year, gives the entire poem, headed 
' Life,' which contains altogether thirty lines. 


Your correspondent will find these lines by 

Mrs. Barbauld at p. 215 of 'Lyra Elegan- 

tiarum ' (Moxon, 1867) [p. 211 of the modern 

edition in Ward & Lock's " Minerva Library "]. 


GEOFFREY CHAUCER (8 th S. xii. 341, 449). Sir 
Patricius de Chaurse, or Chaworth, is the 
subject of three Wiltshire Inquisitiones post 
mortem of 42 Henry III. (1258), as owning 
land, &c., in the vill of Stepillavinthon the 
manor of Berewik, and half a knight's fee 
both in Standene and Hokhull. The great- 
grandfather of Chaucer's two patronesses 
blanche, Duchess of Lancaster, and Elizabeth 
Duchess of Clarence is styled indifferently 
throughout the above Patricius de Cadurcis, 
Patricius de Chawrtes, and Patricius de 

Jhawrces. In the manor of Berewik one 
Agnes de Chawrces holds half a virgate of 
.and freely for term of her life, and pays 
therefor per annum 4s. A. R. BAYLEY. 

" WAGE "= WAGES (9 th S. viii. 404, 508). 
It is safe to say that this word was never 
used in the singular number by operatives ; 
and the old dramatists, if my memory does 
not deceive me, always adopted the plural 
form. In the comic opera of * The Maid of 
the Mill,' Ralph, in throwing up his service, 
sings to the miller : 

Henceforward take care of your matters who will ; 
They are welcome to slave for your wages who 

need 'em. 

Fol lol de rol lol, I have purchas'd my freedom, 
And never hereafter shall work at the mill. 

The chorus of the ' Servants' Medley ' in 
' Love in a Village ' is : 
My masters and mistresses, hither repair ; 
What servants you want you '11 find in our fair ; 
Men and maids fit for all sorts of stations there be ; 
And as for the wages we shan't disagree. 

I cannot locate the following couplet : 
Ten pounds a year my standing wages, 
With beans and bacon and cabbages. 

It occurs in one of the old classical dramas. 


404; ix. 112). The date of the document 
referred to by O. O. H. is c. A.D. 1218. It 
was confirmed by Prince Edward 27 August 
(1265), 49 Hen. III., and was again confirmed 
by him (Edward I.) 30 March, 1300, in the 
twenty-eighth year of his reign. The charter 
is set forth at large by Leycester, 'Antiq. 
Ches.,' p. 107, from which it has been repro- 
duced in a ' Pedigree of Lord Massy from 
876 to 1782,' printed in Dublin in 1890 "for 
private circulation only." Peter Leicester's 
'Historical Antiquities' was published in 
London in 1673. GEO. S. GARY. 

Laurel Lodge, Terenure, co. Dublin. 

(9 th S. viii. 524). Many books have been 
recently published descriptive of the rules, 
rites, and ceremonies of this good old society. 
In the Catalogue of the British Museum 
Library may be found the names of seven 
works upon this subject. As the earliest of 
these publications is dated 1893, there would 
hardly, I should say, be much difficulty in 
procuring a copy of a text-book relative to 
"initiation," &c. However, I would like, if 
the Editor of ' N. & Q.' could spare enough 
"elbow-room," to draw attention to what 
is probably the earliest printed record of 

gths.ix.FKB.i5.i902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the "Buffs." It occurs in the 'Finish of 
Tom and Jerry,' by Pierce Egan. Joe Lisle, 
the founder of the society though now, alas ! 
forgotten by all save print collectors was in 
his day regarded as almost the equal of 
Seymour. His clever caricature sketches 
(printed from stone, coloured by hand, pub- 
lished, I believe, at one shilling each, by, I 
think, Tregear of Cheapside) are now very 
scarce. As they were mostly purchased for 
screens or scrap-books, the few surviving 
prints would probably be "cut down," and 
therefore, according to trade usage, of little 
value at the present day. The complete 
extract from Pierce Egan would, I fear, be 
far too long for insertion in the pages of 
4 N. & Q.' ; but I will venture upon the chance 
offer of a few lines from the 'Finish.' I 
might add, before concluding, that when 
"Buffalo Bill" visited London in 1887 Mr. 
J. W. Rowley utilized the chorus, hereafter 
mentioned, in a topical-burlesque sort of way, 
as applied to the snow at Earl's Court : 

Now we mash the ladies, a shilling for the show ; 
In the Wild West of Kensington we chase the 

"The initiated Buffaloes are waiting outside the 
door; the orator being decorated with a wig for the 
occasion. On a given signal they all enter the room 
with what they term the kangaroo leap, and jump 
round the chair of the ' degraded wretch ' (as the 
victim is termed). 

Come, all you young fellows who's a mind for to 

Unto some foreign country, your station for to 


Your station for to change, away from here to go, 
Through the wide woods we '11 wander to chase the 

We '11 lay down on the banks of the pleasant shady 

Through the wide woods we '11 wander to chase the 


" This is succeeded by a solemn march and the fol- 
lowing chant, the Buffaloes carrying brooms, shovels, 
mops, and a large kettle by way of a kettle-drum 
Bloody head and raw bones ! 
Bloody head and raw bones ! 
Be not perplexed, 
This is the text, 
Bloody head and raw bones ! 

" The charge is then given to the ' victim ' by the 
Primo Buffo, accompanied by the most extravagant 
and ridiculous gestures. 

" At the ' Harp,' in Great Russell Street, opposite 
Drury Lane Theatre, the Buffalo Society was first 
established, in August, 1822, by an eccentric young 
man of the name of Joseph Lisle, an artist, in con- 
junction with Mr. W. Sinnett, a comedian, to per- 
petuate, according to their ideas upon the subject, 
'that hitherto neglected ballad of "We'll chase 
the Buffalo."'" 


39, Renfrew Road, Lower Kennington Lane. 

If your correspondent will refer to 4 th S. 
iii. 106, 267 ; iv. 124, 372, he will find all the 
information respecting this society which he 

71, Brecknock Road. 

yiii. 483). If the inquiry is not strictly 
limited to lecterns, it may be useful to draw 
attention to this extract from Parker's ' Con- 
cise Glossary ' (1869, p. 185) : 

" The representation of this bird [pelican! vulning 
herself occurs not unfrequently as a sacred emblem 
among the ornaments of churches. A beautiful 
specimen is preserved at Ufford, Suffolk, at the 
summit of the elaborately carved spire of wood 
which forms the cover of the font; and another 
occurs over the font at North Walsham, Norfolk." 

Tyack's 'Lore and Legend,' &c. (p. 152), 
states that at Wimborne, and formerly at 
Waterford, were lecterns such as the Durham 


The late Frederick George Lee, D.C.L., in 
his ' Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical 
Terms,' London, 1877, describes the pelican 
in her piety as a mediaeval symbol or Chris- 
tian emblem, representing a pelican feeding 
her young from the blood of her own breast 
a symbol of our Blessed Saviour giving 
Himself for the ransom and redemption of 
the whole world. This symbol is frequently 
found represented both in sculpture and 
painting in ancient churches, and is now very 
commonly used in chapels dedicated in 
honour of the Blessed Sacrament in the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

The subject has been discussed in ' N. &Q.' 
on more than one occasion. See 1 st S. v., vi. ; 
4 th S. iv. ; 7 th S. vii., viii. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

The pelican in her piety, with "wings 
addorsed and feeding her young with her 
own blood," forms the lectern from which the 
lessons are read in St. Mary's Cathedral, in 
Edinburgh. So far as I remember, it was 
made of latten. In St. Peter's Church, Con- 
gleton, above the reredos, is a representation 
of the pelican in her piety, excellently carved 
in oak, the probable date of which may be 
1740 The coat of Richard Fox, Bishop of 
Winchester (1501-1529), founder of Corpus 
Christ! College, Oxford, is a pelican in her 
piety. Bishops usually impale the arms of 
the see with their own paternal coat. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

ANAGRAMS (9 th S. viii. 521). C. E. D. says 
of the anagram given, "It is difficult to ima- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. FEB. is, 1902. 

gine one much worse than this." It has been 
said that the next best thing to a very, good 
pun is a very bad one ; and, conversely, the 
next best thing to a very bad anagram may 
perhaps be admitted to be a very good one. 
I hope, therefore, that I may be allowed in 
this connexion to revive the memory of what 
seems to me to be a first- rate anagram, if not 
at once so striking as the briefer ones, such as 
"Horatio Nelson honor est a Nilo," yet re- 
markable for its very length as well as for its 
appositeness. I transcribed it from some 
public print in the early time of the Crimean 
War, and, if I remember rightly, before the 
death of the Czar Nicholas. 

I may say beforehand (1) that the form 
" Tsar " is recognized in French dictionaries ; 
(2) that the two O's have been inserted by 
myself to make the anagram complete ; but 
it is just possible that there may have been a 
slight inaccuracy in my transcription. 

" A sa Majeste imperiale, le Tsar Nicolas, 
souverain et autocrate de toutes les Russies." 
This, transposed, will be found exactly to 
make the following : " O, ta vanite sera ta 
perte ; O, elle isole la Russie ; tes successeurs 
te maudiront a jamais." 

Another example of a very good anagram 
is the following : ' Confessions of an Opium 
Eater ' : "If so, man, refuse poison at once. " 
This, like the other, is perfect. The source 
of it I have quite forgotten. 



358, 484; ix. 10). Lord Arundell of Wardour 
kindly informs me that the earliest and fullest 
account of the Glastonbury Cup was written 
by the Right Rev. Dr. Milman, and appeared 
in the eleventh volume of Archceologia. 
Strangely enough, MR. PIERPOINT, while 
writing so fully about this tankard, ante, 
p. 10, omits reference to this account by the 
author of the ' History of Winchester.' 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

(9 th S. ix. 69). There never was a Royal 
tennis court in the Haymarket, or near it 
Ihere was a tennis court in James Street 
Haymarket, which was called "Royal" by its 
lessee in the last century, but without any 
authority for so doing. There was a tennis 
court in St. James's Palace, just north of the 
stable-yard and south of Cleveland Row 

Offi * w i here A a g rou nd- P l a n in the 
Office of Woods and Forests, a copy of which 
I possess, by the kindness of an old friend. 
&. will nnd what is known about those two 

old courts in my * Annals of Tennis,' of which 
a copy is in the British Museum ; or I should 
be happy to show it to him. The book is out 
of print. There is no trace of an under- 

f round passage in either of these courts ; and 
should think that the " record " of Nell 
Gwyn visiting the court, if it exist, must be 
only to be found in some work of fiction. At 
Windsor, indeed, there was a court near her 
house, St. Alban's Lodge, close under the 
walls of the Castle ; but no subterranean 
approach was needed there, for the court 
stood in her garden, or at its boundary. 


The Royal Tennis Court was situated on 
the south side of James Street, Haymarket, 
and originally formed part of the celebrated 
gaming-house which was known as Shavers' 
Hall, from its proprietor, Simon Austbiston, 
having been barber to the Lord Chamberlain, 
Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. 
The building was converted in 1866 into 'a 
storehouse for military clothing ; but an old 
tablet, inscribed "James Street, 1673," was 
preserved in the wall, and is, I believe, still 
in existence. The Tennis Court was a favourite 
resort of Charles II., and may very probably 
have been visited by Nell Gwyn, though I 
can find no record of the fact. 


MOVABLE STOCKS (9 th S. vi. 405 ; vii. 14, 
118, 214). The Western Daily Mercury for 
22 January is responsible for the following : 

"Earl Brownlow, speaking at the Lincolnshire 
Police Court Mission at Lincoln, remarked that 
although the punishment of the stocks was done 
away with legally so many years ago, he had him- 
self seen a man in the stocks. He was staying 
once in a small town in Shropshire, and in the 
middle of the market-place saw a man in the 
stocks. The stocks were on wheels, and were kept 
in one of the archways of the market, and when 
any of the market people were caught using light 
weights or selling bad meat or fish, or in any way 
cheating, the stocks were run out into the middle 
of the market and the person was placed in them 
and kept there until the market was over. Lord 
Brownlow added that he did not know but that, with 
proper organization and proper arrangements, it 
would be a good thing if the stocks could be used 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

ST. CLEMENT DANES (9 th S. vii. 64, 173, 274, 
375 ; viii. 17, 86, 186, 326, 465 ; ix. 52). In a 
genealogy of the family of Clapham, of Clap- 
ham and elsewhere, co. York, deduced from 
Pharamund, King of the Franks, as contained 
in one of the original note-books (1720) of 
the Rev. John Lambe, M.A., rector of Ridley, 
co. Kent, now in my possession, it is stated 

9"- s. ix. FF.B. is, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that William (who was apparently son o: 
Arthur) Clapham, Lord of Dente (or Denton 
"called so from y c River Dent") and Sud 
brough (Sedbroughe or Sedbrough, a baronj 
given him by William the Conqueror), in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, had by gift of th< 
same king " certain hydes of Land juxta Cam 
berwell besides Lambithe where he buildec 
the Clappsham or Clapsam near London in 
the year of our Lord 1066." The MS. con 
tains also extracts in Latin from 'Floria- 
censis Wigorn : his Chronicle,' with other 
references to Osgod Clapa (or "Clapham"; 
and the death of Hardicanute in June, 1042, 
of drunkenness at the marriage feast oi 
Osgod's daughter and a noble Dane at "Lam- 
beth, near Clapham." 

As the above bears upon the subject of 
some of your correspondent's statements 
herein, but is not in accord with the same, 
I give it for what it is worth, without 
expressing any opinion in the matter. 

W. I. R. V. 

COL. PRIDEAUX, in his most interesting 
defence of the traditional derivation of wick 
from vicus, has pointed out the comparative 
absence of compounds of "street"- and 
"castle" in the nomenclature of Southern 
Europe. Is not the explanation simple? 
In Southern Europe the great roads were 
very numerous and were built to con- 
nect pre-existing centres of habitation. 
In Northern Europe the Roman roads, like 
the railways in North America, created 
centres of population along their course, to 
which names like "Ad Decimum," " Stone- 
street," &c., might be applied, just as " Rail- 
head " figures on colonial maps to-day. 

As for "castle," few centres of population 
in Italy (although some did in Spain and 
Portugal) sprang up on the site of Roman 
camps. When castro is used in an Italian 
name it usually marks the site of a post- 
Roman military settlement, whether Lombard, 
Saracenic, or German, intended to overawe 
the native population. Of course, turris is 
found in Southern Europe, as fortified towers 
became numerous in the periods of disturb- 
ance after the fall of the Roman empire. 
May I ask COL. PRIDE AUX, in view of his 
last remark as to vicus being used for villages 
built along the seashore, whether he would 
derive names like Harwich, Ipswich, Dun- 
wich, Wick (Caithness), from vicus. or vik= 
bay ? H. 

If homonyms of different origins can dwell 
together in unity by the score in the pages 
of our dictionaries, why cannot the -wichs 
and -wicks in England of Norse and Saxon 

and Latin origin be allowed to run their 
course 1 ? Attempts to assign one origin to 
them appear to be irrational. I italicize 
England, because the amount or intensity of 
Roman influence at a certain time per unit 
of area was probably greater there than in 
Germany. The littoral and estuaries of 
England and North-West Europe lent them- 
selves to the Norse influence ; inland of 
that sphere may very well have predomi- 
nated the Saxon and Latin influence, in 
England especially. H. P. L. 

"RATHER" (9 th S. ix. 7). The use of this 
word by Tennyson proves that it is notobsolete 
in literature, while in the dialects the great 
repository of old English it is not even 
obsolescent. Here in Somerset rathe or rave 
is the common form by which early maturity 
or forwardness in growth is expressed, when 
speaking of either young persons, cattle, or 
fruits. " A rave spring " (early) is the usual 
phrase. ' ' Your children be rave, sure 'nough," 
" A rave piece of wheat," may be heard con- 
stantly (see also 'West Som. W. Book,' 
E.D.S., p. 616). As an adverb, such as 
Tennyson's use, I have never heard it spoken. 
The pronunciation is invariably with long a, 
as in pave, and the old th has mostly become 
v, though we preserve the former in the name 
of a well-known early apple, " the rathe-ripe." 

In the comparative the word is equally 
common, though confined to the same limita- 
tions of use respecting time or season. This 
shows the true conservatism of the dialect, 
for in Mid. Eng. rathe and soon were alterna- 
tive terms (see * Promp. Parv.'). The country 
folk never by any chance use rather, as in 
modern English, to express preference. We 
should always say "I'd so soon," or "I'd 
sooner have one o' they " ; never " I should 
prefer." So the broad a in the modern rathw 
is as unknown as the common slang affirma- 
tive " Rather ! " in reply to any ordinary 
question ; e.g., "Were you there last night ? " 
" Rather ! " As a superlative, ravest would 
be well understood, and, if needed, constantly 
used. "They be the ravest sort ever I'd 

a-got," "Mr. 's young stock be always 

the ravest in the market." It is unsafe to 
pronounce any old English word obsolete. 

The "positive degree" of this adjective 
still lingers in the west of England. You 
may hear of a " rathe piece of oats." There 
s also an early apple, the "rathe-ripe," now 
;rown somewhat scarce. This adjective 
lupplies a noteworthy instance of the stead- 
astness with which poorer folk adhere to 
ancient pronunciation, while the more edu- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th B. ix. FEB. 15, 1902. 

cated classes make changes. Poor folk still 
say rayther, as their forefathers did, but the 
higher ranks are accustomed to pronounce 
this rarther. Similarly in such words as 
ask, wasp, hasp, the educated folk agree to 
transpose the two consonants, while humbler 
people adhere steadfastly to the A.-S. akse, 
wops, apse. Nor is this conservatism confined 
to Anglo-Saxon words. Witness, for instance, 
theatre, which the humbler of the_ lieges 
steadfastly continue to pronounce theater. 


MR. BAYNE should follow up his com- 
parison of this interesting word. Here are 
some instances of its use. 1. As adjective : 
"The rathe primrose" ('Lycidas'), "Rathe 
and riper years" ('In Memoriam,' which he 
quotes), "The rather lambs" ('Shepherd's 
Calendar,' ii. 83). Rathest as an adjective I 
cannot find. 2. Adverb: "All too rathe" 
('Shepherd's Calendar,' xii. 98), "Why rise 
ye so rathe? " (Chaucer, ' Cant. Tales,' 1. 3768) 
"Beginning ever rathest " (King James L, 
'Basilicon Doron,' p. 162, fol., 1616). Morris, 
p. 93, gives " rathest-riping " from Palladius, 
which I cannot verify. W. T. 

[Lydgate, in his ' Chronicle of Troy ' not the full 
title has rathest (book i. c. 5). We find this in a 
note taken very many years ago, but have not the 
book for reference.] 

JOHN BYROM'S EPIGRAM (9 th S. viii. 445, 
533). The true reading is asked for. ] 
transcribe from Byrom's 'Poems' (1814, 
Leeds), vol. i. p. 241. It is there headed 
u To the same [i.e., to an officer in the army" 
extempore, intended to allay the Violence 
of Party- Spirit." 

God bless the king, I mean the faith's defender ; 
God bless (no harm in blessing) the pretender ; 
But who pretender is, or who is king, 
God bless us all that 's quite another thing. 
In that very interesting pamphlet by the 
Rev. Dr. Hoole entitled 'Byrom and the 
Wesleys' (Lond., Nichols, 1864), where or 
p. 5 the epigram forms a foot-note, the firsl 
line reads : 

God bless the King, and btess the Faith's Defender 

ST. HELIERS (9 th S. ix. 45). This statuu 
seems to have exercised the minds of writen 
on Jersey a good deal. ' The Picturesque anc 
Historical Guide to the Island of Jerse 
ky Rev Edward Dure11 ' A ' M -' Published u.y 
Philip John Ouless, artist, 50, Paradise Row, 
Jersey, 1852, says (chap, vi.) : 

ro" T n e o e is a statue afc the upper end of the 
[Royal] Square which passes for one of George II 
though doubts are entertained on the matter It 
was given in exchange for permission to build 
against one of the ends of the Court House, by one 

Gosset, a Frenchman, in 1749. It was inaugurated 
with a good deal of ceremony by all the local 
authorities, civil and military. The statue is gilt, 
and in a Roman dress, but is said to be of lead, 
with a new head which was fitted to its bust, when 

t was allowed to assume the name of George II. 

["hat head is not unlike those on the coins of that 

The statue is thus referred to in * The Com- 

plete Guide to Jersey ' (London, Elliot Stock, 

1896) : 

' The gilt statue in the middle of the Square 

represents, as will be seen by the monogram on 
;he pedestal, George II. Critics say that the cast- 
ng was meant for some Roman emperor, taken 
:rom a Spanish vessel, and pressed, nolens volens, 
nto the honour of the king." 

W. B. H. 

362). It sounds like neeche, the last vowel 
being short and unaccented, as in " finger." 
Very likely the name is derived from the 
dement J\ T id= envy; compare the compounds 
Nid-hart, Nied-mar, Nit-perht ; Nid+el= 
Niedel, Neidel ; Nid + k=Niedke ; Nid + z= 
Nizs, Nietze, Nizze, Nitz, Nitzsch(e), with 
lengthened i. Nietzsche. G. KRUEGER. 



Nova Legenda Anglie. Edited by Carl Horstman, 

Ph.D. 2 vols. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
DR. HORSTMAN is already well known as an inde- 
fatigable student of English hagiology. His accurate 
editions in German of the ' Alt-englischen Legenden,' 
and in English of the works of Richard Rolle of Ham- 
pole, are held in high esteem by all who are interested 
in the religious life and literature of England. Few 
of our native writers have such a grasp of the sub- 
ject as he. In the two handsome volumes here 
noticed he devotes himself to re-editing, with fresh 
material from MS. and printed sources, the Latin 
lives of the saints which long passed current under 
the name of John Capgrave. This text, which was 
printed under that ascription, with sundry addi- 
tions, by Wynkyn de Worde in 1516, Dr. Horstman 
has carefully collated with the fourteenth-century 
original among the Cottonian MSS. of the British 
Museum, and has further supplemented with some 
additional lives from the Bodleian and Dublin 
libraries which have not hitherto been printed. He 
demonstrates that the honour of compiling this 
ample collection of legends is really due to John of 
Tynemouth, who in his ' Sanctilogium Angliae' 
brought together from the most varied sources all 
the material he could glean concerning the pious 
worthies whom his country had produced. He 
intended it to be essentially and exclusively a 
national work, not admitting any saint except those 
belonging to England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. 
He relaxed this rule, however, in favour of a few, 
like Joseph of Arimathea and Augustine, who were 
intimately identified with the history of the English 
Church. Accordingly, we look in vain for such 
popular, but foreign, saints as St. Nicholas, 

9- s. ix. FEB. 15, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


St. Catherine, or St. George. For these we must 
have recourse to a kindred work the famous 
' Legenda Aurea ' of Jacobus de Voragine. John of 
Tynemouth was a monk of St. Albans in the early 
part of the fourteenth century, and it is one of Dr. 
Horstman's discoveries that the mediaeval chronicle 
which was published by Hearne under the name of 
Walter Hemingford is only a part of the * Historia 
Aurea,' written by him when annalist of that re- 
nowned foundation. The good monk was, indeed, 
nothing more than a compiler, but a very faithful 
and conscientious one, of what he found ready to 
his hand in the archives of the abbeys and monas- 
teries which he visited for the purpose, making 
excerpts as he went, with all the bibliographical 
zeal of a Dibdin. To the lives proper he appends 
what he calls a " narratio," i.e., a brief story or 
amusing anecdote, with often but little bearing 
on the foregoing life, but useful to enliven the 
flagging attention of the brotherhood or gain the 
ear of the ignorant folk. What makes this col- 
lection particularly valuable, as the editor notes, is 
the fact that the original MSS. upon which John of 
Tynemouth drew for his material have in many 
instances perished, with the result that this re- 
mains the only authority for certain Anglo-Saxon 
and Celtic saints. Like most mediaeval chroniclers, 
he has an unbounded appetite for prodigies and 
visions. He delights in retailing those curious 
stories of the apparitions of demons and visits to 
the Inferno which were so rife in the Middle Ages. 
Among the more remarkable of these are the descent 
of the Roman knight Owen into St. Patrick's Purga- 
tory and the strange experiences of Tundal (vol. ii. 
p. 303). In his introduction, which displays a really 
marvellous knowledge of the contemporary sources 
of information, Dr. Horstman deals with the per- 
sonality and milieu of his author. We wish that 
he could have found time to supply out of his trea- 
sures a commentary or illustrative notes on the 
subject-matter of his text. The latter is very accu- 
rately printed, but we notice "Cloufert" (vol. i. 
p. 153, note), a misprint for Clonfert. 

The Use of Sarum. Edited by the Rev. W. H. 

Frere, M.A. (Cambridge, University Press.) 
OSMUND, Bishop of Salisbury, one of the Conqueror's 
prelates, arranged and systematized the services and 
ritual of his cathedral with such judgment and 
learning that his service-book became the recog- 
nized standard of liturgical propriety, so that in 
ecclesiastical matters " according to the use of 
Sarum " was a phrase almost tantamount to "accord- 
ing to Cocker" in business affairs at a later day. 
How predominating was its influence may be in- 
ferred from the fact that it was adopted so far north 
as Elgin in 1242, when it was decreed that " in the 
divine offices, in psalm-singing, reading, chanting, 
and other things pertaining to divine service, the 
order be observed which is known to have been 
adopted in the church of Salisbury." In 1542 the 
Convocation of Canterbury ordered all the clergy of 
the province to follow this use in their churches. 
Mr. Frere has sedulously devoted himself to the 
editing of this important document of the Anglican 
Church, which he evidently finds a congenial task. 
In a previous volume he gave us the 'Consue- 
tudinary' and 'Customary,' which dealt with the 
Sarum ceremonies and ceremoniarii. In the pre- 
sent issue he edits the * Ordinal ' and ' Tonal,' the 
former of which regulated the order and conduct of 
the various offices, and was held to be so essential 

an adjunct for the correct rendering of divine ser- 
vice that every parish church was required to pos- 
sess a copy of it. The ' Tonal ' was a directory for 
the musical part of the services, to ensure a sys- 
tematic classification of the antiphons and of the 
tones and endings to which they were to be sung. 
A number of these latter are printed in score in an 
appendix extending to eighty pages. Mr. Frere is 
inclined to believe that this part of the ' Use ' may 
be ascribed to Bishop Richard Poore, and thus date 
from the beginning of the thirteenth century. The 
actual text, however, seems hardly earlier than 
about 1270. Just a century later we find Wiclif 
raising a loud protest against the amount of time 
and attention that was given and, as he main- 
tained, misspent by the clergy in conning the 
elaborate rules of this mediaeval manual when they 
might be better occupied. "A Lord," he cries, 
"gif alle the studie & traueile that men ban now 

abowte Salisbury uss weren turned in- to makynge 

of biblis & in studiynge & techynge ther-of, hou 
moche schulde goddis Tawe be forthered & knowen 
& kept" ('Unprinted Eng. Works,' E.E.T.S., 194). 
We are reminded of the later outcry against the 
crabbed and complex "Rules called the Pie," 
which were felt to be a sore burden from their 
" number and hardness." The volume, as might be 
anticipated, abounds in minute technicalities which 
appeal only to the liturgical antiquary, but to him 
it will be invaluable. 

Renderings of Church Hymns. By the Rev. R. M. 

Moorsom. (Clay & Sons.) 

IN a preface, in which emphasis is weakened by 
reiteration, Mr. Moorsom strongly urges the 
Church's need of a book of common praise, which 
is to embrace the best hymns of every branch of 
the Church Catholic, and in especial those of the 
Greek, Syrian, and other Oriental Churches. As a 
contribution to this desirable object he offers this 
little volume the solace of his hours of blindness 
of translations or free renderings of hymns from 
foreign sources Italian, Celtic, German, as well 
as Eastern. We cannot say that we are much 
impressed with the freshness or originality of these 
specimen versions. The fact is, that the language 
and ideas of praise, thanksgiving, and petition are 
common to all Churches and everywhere very 
similar ; when reduced to English they do not differ 
greatly from our native efforts in this kind. We 
are surprised to find that Mr. Moorsom includes in 
his selection one hymn which he admits is unortho- 
dox from an Anglican standpoint, and two at least 
which are sacred poems, and in no sense hymns. 
He also labours under the erroneous impression 
that there was a time when " Ye Euglishe Chyrche " 
was good vernacular. Tunes to twenty of the 
hymns have been composed by the Rev. G. W. 
Griffith, and one by Mr. W. S. de Winton, which 
are here given. 

Time Table of Modem History, A. p. 400-1870. 
Compiled and arranged by M. Morison. (Con- 
stable & Co.) 

THIS is a work which serious students of modern 
history ought to have at hand. The labour of com- 
piling it must have been great, for, so far as we have 
been able to test it, the ordeal has been gone through 
very fairly. Of course it would have been possible 
to make corrections, and it must be borne in mind 
that there are some dates which cannot be fixed 
with precision. Contemporary authorities, even, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. is, 1902. 

not infrequently contradict each other, for not only 
were the mediseval chroniclers sometimes almost as 
regardless of chronological accuracy as we moderns, 
but there were various ways of recording time in 
common use, so that without that minute know- 
ledge which so very few of us possess it is otten 
impossible to tell what system the writer had taken 
for his guide. We are pleased to find that as to 
names o! persons Mr. Morison has been content to 
use those which are commonly accepted, though he 
must have been aware that it would lay him open 
to adverse criticism. We need not say that this is, 
strictly speaking, an error which on certain occa- 
sions ought to be sternly condemned; but the 
great point in a work of reference such as this is 
that it should be handy, so that we can find our 
way about in it, and be spared the pains of racking 
our brains to remember how the name of some 
obscure potentate was spelt by his contemporaries. 
The pedigrees near the end of the volume will be 
found useful, but they might have been made fuller 
than they are with advantage. That of the house 
of Bonaparte is miserably thin. Surely all the 
descendants of Charles, the father of Napoleon I., 
should have been given. It is true that to-day no 
member of the race is among the sovereigns of 
Europe; but it is mere pedantry not to regard 
them as scions of a royal house with chances in the 
future. We think, too, that it might have been 
well to give a list of the illegitimate children of 
Charles II. and James II,, with their marriages. 
Readers of the history of the Stuart time do not, 
we have observed, always carry the needful infor- 
mation in their minds. The compiler has given 
more than he promised. The title-page leads us to 
anticipate that the end would be reached in 1870, 
but the entries are carried on for ten further years. 

Patent Rolls of the Reign of Henry III., 1216-1225. 

(Stationery Office.) 

THIS, the earliest volume of the Patent Rolls of 
King Henry III., has not the name of the editor on 
its title-page, but the preface is signed by Sir 
H. C. Maxwell Lyte, and we learn that the text 
has been prepared by Mr. J. G. Black. We believe 
that there are no omissions or condensations. The 
text is given as it stands in its original Latin. 
From the second to the ninth year of the reign the 
rolls are in duplicate, or one is a transcript of the 
other. The latter is the more probable, as words 
or passages cancelled in the original are almost 
always left out in the duplicate. 

The volume must be of great interest not only to 
historical students, but to all persons engaged in 
topographical inquiries or on the history and growth 
of surnames. Members of the great families are 
mentioned over and over again, and we encounter 
a very fair share of the common folk. Surnames, 
though coming into use, were not by any means 
stable as yet. Men changed them at will, or had 
them altered for them when they moved from one 
place to another. In a list of certain persons, all of 
whom, we may presume, lived in the neighbourhood 
of Tavistock, we find a Robertum Cocum, an Adam 
Fabrum, and an Adam Longum. These people 
were no doubt called by their friends Cook, Smith, 
and Long. Did the last one, we wonder, acquire 
his name because he was abnormally tall ? or was it 
given him on account of his occupying a long strip 
of ploughland or meadow ? The latter is, we think, 
the more probable suggestion. A man called Hum- 
phrey de la Slowe lived in Buckinghamshire in 

1225. There is a possibility that he may have 
acquired his name from some town or village, but 
we strongly incline to the belief that it originated 
from some boggy place or large puddle near to 
which he lived. The number of safe-conducts on 
returning to the king's peace is very large. Any 
one might be able to make a most interesting list 
of those who had been adherents of Louis of France 
and the barons from the documents here registered. 
We trust if this be ever done the names will be, so 
far as is possible, arranged under counties. We 
shall then in some degree be able to estimate to 
what extent the manifold injustices of the previous 
reign had moved men to fight for their liberties. 
We believe the tyranny had been far more crushing 
in some parts of the country than in others. 

There is not so much regarding the action of the 
Pope in this country as we should have expected. 
We have, however, in 1217 a notice of the Papal 
absolution of the lords who had been in rebellion, 
conveyed through the hands of the Bishop of 
Chichester, and we also find a letter from Henry, 
dated 16 October, 1220, thanking the Pope for good 
offices in his behalf. 

In the index, under ' Castles,' there is a long list 
of fortresses in the king's hands or fortified by him, 
which will be of frequent use to those studying the 
disturbed time to which this volume relates. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

E. H. Y. The lines you send 

A cottage he saw, with a double coach-house, 

Full of ton, full of taste, and gentility : 

And the Devil he smiled, for his favourite vice 

Is the pride that apes humility 
are a sad hash of a quatrain in ' The Devil's Drive,' 
by Coleridge and Southey, to be found in most 
editions of the works of these poets. 

S. H. ("Mit Dummheit," &c.). From Schiller, 
' Jungfrau von Orleans,' III. vi., though not quite 
correctly quoted. 


Editorial communications should be addressed to I 
" The Editor of ' Notes and Queries '"Advertise- ] 
ments and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9 th S. IX. FEB. 22, 1902.1 




CONTENTS. No. 217. 

NOTES: The Bacon - Shakspeare Question, 141 Where 
dwells Truth? 142-Additions to the 'N.E.D.,' 143 Dis- 
appearing Chart isls, I 1 1 Jack Knave " Hakatist " 
Coronation Incident Side - Whiskers Ben Jon son's 
Repetitions, 145 Compound Words Broad Street and 
Bishopsgate Street in 1677, 146. 

QUERIES : Tower : St. IVter in the Chains-Portuguese 
Naval Supremacy, 146 Lady Carrington's Portrait 
Arms Bible: Authorized Version Greek Epigram 
Galley Hall Estate " Weald " in Essex " O saw ye my 
father" Week J. Clifton Price of Eggs, 147 Somerset 
thp Protector's Widow at Hanworth" The moss-covered 
bucket" Irish Names in MS. Book French Novel 
Gordon as Russian Surname Molyneux " Bristol look" 
Wind Folk-lore, 148 Jacksons'of Durham Smallness of 
the Child Jesus U. Barbieri Fountain Family Quota- 
tion Redemption of Captives, 1659. 149. 

REPLIES :' Gambler Detected,' 149 Window Glass 
Stowe Missal, 150 Gower " Sauiies " " In petto" 
" Pen-name " Rev. J. Taunton Londres Brandon, 
Executioner, 151 "Bar sinister " "Bore" and other 
Slang -Crolly Family Charles V. on European Tongues, 
152 " Fi'z " Warburton^=Werburh's Town Tennis : 
Origin of Name Confessionals Strawberry Leaves. 153 
Knocker Family Surnames from French Towns Fleet- 
wood Miniature Earliest Rules of Sunday Schools, 154- 
Hour of Sunday Morning Service Clayton Family 
Cuckland Warlow Family East India Badge, 155 -Por- 
traits of Female Fighters Denbam of Wishiels Kin- 
borough as Female Name Ball's Pond Road, 156 ' Les 
Lauriers de Nassau' Lady Louisa Stuart Compulsory 
Costume for Jews and Christians " Owl in ivy bush " 
Stone Pulpit, 157 Pearls a Cure for Corns RPV. A 
Warton The Youthful Year Old Charm Burial of a 
Suicide Sir T. Morgan, of Arkstone, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Rose's Life of Napoleon I ' 
Morris's ' Vowel-Sounds of East Yorkshire Folk- Speech ' 
" Chiswick Shakespeare." 

As considerable attention has been paid of 
late to the question as to whether or not 
Francis Bacon wrote the Shakespeare plays 
and poems, and as no scholar of repute deems 
it worth his while fully to refute the theory 
of the Baconians, it has occurred to me that 
readers of ' N. & Q.' may not be indisposed to 
listen to what I can say concerning the matter. 
I gave five or six years' close attention to the 
subject, and carefully examined the state- 
ments of those who deny the claims of 
Shakespeare. I will not waste many words, 
as to use a Baconian phrase I wish to 
"come to the matter"; but this I will say, 
that it seems to me that scholars are making 
a big mistake in allowing this question to 
assume such serious proportions. The lie 
ought to have been caught up years ago, and 
nailed to the counter ; and it is such an easy 
thing to show that it is a lie, that I often 
wonder somebody has not proved it to be 
such long ere this. I am going to demonstrate 
that it is easy not only to refute the 
Baconians, but to show that they are lament- 
ably wrong in many of their strongest 

assertions, which, moreover, prove them to be 
very badly versed in Elizabethan literature, 
[ndeed, I shall have to prove that they are 
not only ill acquainted with contemporary 
writings, but that they do not even know the 
work of their own master Bacon. In the 
course of my argument I shall show that if 
Bacon wrote anything for the stage at all, in 
addition to masques, inquirers who are eager 
to add to his honours are making a great 
mistake in troubling themselves about the 
work of Shakespeare they ought to try Ben 
Jonson. There is a really wonderful field 
open for Baconian speculation in the work 
or, for the sake of the argument, the supposed 
work of Ben Jonson, and if what I have to 
say concerning it has the effect of absorbing 
some of the superabundant energy of Bacon's 
eager followers, I shall consider that the time 
I have devoted to this matter has not been 
spent quite in vain. 

Ciphers, anagrams, and cryptograms are, 
I regret to say, things with which I am not 
competent to deal 

Quae supra nos nihil ad nos. 
Things above us are not for us ; such lofty 
matter I shall leave severely alone ; but if after 
what I allege it can be clearly proved that 
Bacon used his ciphers in Shakespeare's 
work, then nothing will be proved except that 
Bacon was a greater rogue than his con- 
temporaries took him to be. I hope that 
warning will be taken to heart, for I do not 
say Bacon was a rogue far from it ; but it 
would be a pitiful thing if the followers 
proved the master to be such. 

Now to the matter. Bacon, needless to 
say, was an omnivorous reader who was 
perpetually taking notes. Like all other 
men, he took notes for the purpose of lighten- 
ing his labour and of refreshing his thoughts. 
He not only did so, but he was extremely 
methodical in arranging them. We are able 
to say so much of him, because a portion- 
perhaps a very small portion of these notes 
has escaped the ravages of time, and is now 
safely deposited in the British Museum. 
These notes play a very considerable part in 
the discussion of the Bacon-Shakespeare 
question ; they are, in point of fact, the sheet- 
anchor of the advocates of the Bacon author- 
ship of the Shakespeare plays. He used 
them, say they, in the plays and poems 
ascribed to Shakespeare, but he did not, they 
further say, use them in his acknowledged 
works. Moreover, it is alleged that allusions 
to these notes cannot be found in any work 
prior to the appearance of the Shakespeare 
plays, or but very sparingly ; and in order to 
prove that this is the case, it is said that 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

contemporary literature has been carefully 
examined, but with negative results! Not 
only so, it is asserted that the notes are of 
such an exclusive character, so uncommon in 
phrase and suggestion, that all English 
literature will be vainly searched to find them 
as we find them in the pages of Shakespeare. 

It is a very pretty theory ; but pity 'tis, 'tis 
not true. Bacon does use his notes in his 
acknowledged works; they are not used in the 
same way in Shakespeare ; they are, contrary 
to the Baconian assertion, mostly common- 
places in all English literature up to the end 
of the seventeenth century ; and they are 
more frequently alluded to in Ben Jonson 
than in Shakespeare. 

Before I enter into a minute examination 
of the Bacon notes, I wish to draw special 
attention to the assertion that Bacon used the 
notes in the plays, but not in his acknow- 
ledged works. Does any reasonable being 
think that a man could so order his thoughts 
as to divide himself, as it were, in that way 
to scatter through the plays, as one writer 
has it, allusions to his notes "as thick as 
grains of wheat through the surface of a 
fresh - sown field," and to ignore them so 
completely in his acknowledged work as to 
defy discovery of allusions to them 1 ? It will 
be my business to show that the Baconians 
have tried to prove too much, and that a 
further course of their master is a matter of 
urgent necessity. CHAELES CKAWFOKD. 

53, Hampden Road, Hornsey, N. 
(To be continued.) 

A DOZEN years ago my friend Prof. J. E. B. 
Mayor introduced me to the writings of 
August Schwarzkopff, in whose book 'Aus 
Natur und Welt ' (Leipzig, 1888, S. 5), among 
other striking verses, the following is to be 
found : 


(Nach einer alien Sage.) 
Feuer, du wildes, wo finden wir dich ? 
" Sucht euch einen Stein im Thai, 
Schlagt daran mit hartem Stahl, 
Augenblicks spring ich heraus ; 
Denn das ist mein Belt und Haus 
Und da schlaf und wohne ich ! " 

Luft, du leichte, wo finden wir dich ? 
" Wo ein Blilttlein bebt am Baum, 
Oder fliegt ein zarter Flaum, 
Oder ringelt grauer Rauch, 
Weht von meinem Mund ein Hauch 
Allda leb und atme ich ! " 

Wasser, du feuchtes, wo finden wir dich ? 

Wo die schwanke Binse steht, 
Grabt, bis ihr die Wurzel seht, 

Da blitzt euch mein Auge an, 
Weil kein Berg mich bergen kann ; 
Horcht, da ries'le, da hause ich ! " 

Wahrheit, du heil'ge, wo findeu wir dich ? 

" Ach, ich hab kein Haus, noch Zelt, 

Niemand will mich auf der Welt ; 

Klopf ich, auf geht keine Thiir, 

Ruf ich, keiner folget mir, 

Lug und Hass yerjagen mich : 

Drum zum Himmel fliicht ich mich ! " 

Of this little poem an English version ap- 
peared in the Academy, and was reprinted in 
my * Ancoats Skylark,' but is now, in Lamb's 
phrase, "as good as manuscript": 

Fire, so wild, where shall we find thee ? 
" In the valley seek a rock : 
Strike with steel, and at the shock 
In a moment outspring I : 
There the bed wherein I lie, 
There seek and ye shall find me." 

Air, light air, where shall we find thee ? 
" Where leaflets tremble on the tree, 
Where the curling smoke you see, 
Where the down floats north or south, 
'Tis the breathing of my mouth, 
There seek and ye shall find me." 

Water bright, where shall we find thee? 
" Mighty mountains cannot hide 
Flow of spring and force of tide ; 
Where the roots of rushes grow 
You will find me, dig below, 
There seek and ye shall find me." 

Holy Truth, where shall we find thee ? 
" Through the weary world 1 roam, 
No house have I, no place, no home. 
1 knock, I call, but no reply, 
Therefore heavenward I must fly, 
There seek and ye shall find me." 

The story is to be found in * A Hundred 
Mery Talys,' where it takes this shape : 

"In the old world when all thyng could speke 
the iiii elementys mette to geder for many thynges 
whych they had to do, because they must meddell 
always one wyth a nother: arid had communication 
to gyder of dyvers maters, and by cause they could 
not conclude all theyr maters at that season they 
appoynted to breke comunicacion for that tyme, 
therefore ech one of them shewed to other where 
theyr most abydyng was and where their felows 
shoulde fynde them yf nede shuld requyre and fyrste 
the erthe sayde bretherne ye know well as for me 
I am permanent alway and not remouable : there- 
fore ye may be sure to haue me alway whan ye 
lyste. The wather sayde yf ye lyst to seke me ye 
shal be sure to haue me under a toft of grene 
rushes or under a woman's eye. The wynde sayde 
yf ye lyst to speke wyth me ye shal be sure to haue 
me among aspyn leuys or els in a womans tong. 
Then quod the fyre yf any of you lyst to seke me 
ye shal ever be sure to fynd me in a flynt stone 
or els in a w 7 omans harte. 

"By thys tale ye may lerne as well the properte 
ot the iiii elementys as the properteis of a woman." 

This forms number nineteen of Dr. Herman 
Oesterley 's edition, and he mentions that Hans 
bachs wrote 'Ein Gesprech der vier Element 

9* S. IX. FEB. 22, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


mit Fraw Warheit,' and that the story appears 
in a Danish translation of Pauli's ' Schimpf 
und Ernst.' In that curious and interesting 
book is the earliest example of the story 
which I have so far found : 

" Es kameu einmal vier Jungfrauen zusammen 
und scherzten mit einander und waren guter Dinge. 
Die eine sprach zu den anderen dreien : Ach, nun 
1st uns doch wohl bei einander ! Aber wenn wir 
einander gern wiederum hatten, wo finden wir 
einander? Und die eine hiess Ignis (Feuer), die 
andere Aqua (Wasser), die dritte Ae'r (Luft), und 
die vierte Veritas (Wahrheit). Ach sprach die 
eine, Feuer, wo findeu wir dich ? Sie sprach : In 
einem harten Stein ; da schlaget mit einem Stahl 
daran, so findet Ihr mich ! Da sprach sie : Luft, 
wo finden wir dich ? Wo bist du daheim ? Sie sprach : 
Ihr miisset lugen, wo ein Blattlein an einem Bautn 
zittert uud sich bewegt, da findet Ihr mich, da bin 
ich daheim ! Da sprach sie : Wasser, wo finden wir 
dich, wo bist du daheim? Sie sprach: Wo Ihr 
Binsen findet da grabet zu den Wurzeln ; da findet 
Ihr mich, da bin ich daheim ! Da sprach sie : 
edle Wahrheit, wo finden wir dich ? Die Wahrheit 
antwortete ihnen alien dreien : ihr lieben Sch wes- 
tern, ihr habt alle cure Orte genannt, da man euch 
weiss zu finden ; aber ich habe leider kein eigen 
Haus ; Niemand will mich beherbergen ; ich bin von 
Jedermann gehasst !"' Schimpf und Ernst,' yon 
Bruder Johannes Pauli. Ausgewahlt und sprachlich 
erneuert von H. A. Junghaus, Leipzig o. J. S. 9. 

Thepreface to Brother Johannes Pauli's book 
is dated 1519. The manner in which the names 
are given suggests that the good Franciscan 
had before him a Latin version of the story. 
Some reader of *N. & Q.' may perhaps be 
able to point out the source which I have 
failed to identify. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 



Abdomenistic(notin). 1891, Roy Tellet, 'Draught 
of Lethe,' iii. 5, "1 am everything the other way, 
realistic, materialistic, abdomenistic." 

Aberrometer (not in). 1895, G. E. Davis, 'Prac- 
tical Microscopy' (third ed.j, p. 183, "Like the 
aberrometer of Dr. Piggott." 

Achromat (not in). 1901, Brit. Journ. Photog., 
1 November, p. 694, col. 2, "The apochromatic 
microscope objectives first introduced by Abbe 
proved to be much more efficient in their correction 
for the secondary spectrum than the usual achro- 

Aerometer (not in). 1844, M. Hennell, 'Social 
Systems and Communities,' p. 212. 

Adopter (cf. def. in Diet.). 1758, tr. Macquer, 
'Elem. of Chym.,'i. 177, "These ballons with two 
necks are called Adopters." 

Aerotonometer (not in). 1894, Times, 15 Aug., 
p. 11, col. 5, "Prof. Fredericq read a paper on the 
Aerotonometer and Gas-pipette." 

Afghan (not in). 1887, F. R. Stockton, 'Hundredth 
Man,' xxii., " Miss Burns was crocheting an afghan. 

She got the wools at cost price from the store 

in which she was employed, and could therefore 
afford to make a tine large afghan." 

Afternoony (not m). 1900, Huxley, ' Life,' ii. 96, 

I here is something idle and afternoony about the 
air which whittles away one's resolution." 

Agronomic. 1891, Times, 28 Sept., p. 13, col. 5, 
"Agronomic stations have been created for the 
purpose of enlightening agriculturists." 

Agrostical (not in). 180J, Gent. Mag., i. 151 (rev. 
of Sonnini, 'Trav. Upper and Lower Egypt'). 
" Agrostical, p. 63, must be sought for in a botanical 

Agrypnotic. 1849, Pereira, ' Mat. Medica,' third 
ed., i. 214. 


. 1747, Gent. Mag., 172. 

Algometer (not in). 1897, E. W. Scripture, ' New 
Psychology,' p. 303, "Experiments have been made 
on pains produced by pressure. The pressure 
algometer consists essentially of a strong spring, by 
means of which a rubber disc or point is pressed 
against the surface to be tested." 

Alkalizate, v. (prob. only as 1758, Reid, 
tr. Macquer, ' Chym.,' i. 320, " The Phlogiston 
tained in this quantity of Tartar is more 
sufficient to alkalizate the Nitre." 

Allemand (verb, not in). 1890, Baring - Gould, 
' Arminell,' xlviii. 

Alliole (chem., not in). 1865, Gesner, * Pract. 
Treat, on Coal, Petroleum, &c.,' second ed.. p. 94. 

Alternativeness (no quot.). 1844, M. Hennell, 
' Social Systems and Communities,' p. 194. 

Ambergris=3imbev (not in). 1575-91, Horsey, 
'Trav.' (Hakluyt Soc.), p. 248, "A paire of per- 
fumed gloves and a chaine of ambergrsece, which 
the chauncelor receaved thanckfully." 

Amberous (not in). 1890, Century Mag., Aug., 
p. 500, " Its chambers paved with amberous lights." 

Amidol (not in). 1894, Brit. Journ. Photog. Aim., 
p. 830, " Diamidophenol or amidol, both as the 
chlorhydrate and the sulphate, was originally pre- 
pared by T. Gauche in 1869." Also, 1894, Amer. 
Ann. Photog., p. 182, " Solutions of amidol must be 
made with neutral sulphites." Ibid., p. 132, "The 
density of an amidol developed plate." 

Amorphism. P. M. Roget claims the coinage of 
this word, 'Thesaurus,' 1852 (ed. 1875, introd., 

Ampaline (not in). Gesner, ut supra, p. 94. 

Amphimixis (not in). 1901, Nature, p. 482, col. 2, 
" The origin of a variation is equally independent 
of selection and amphimixis (Weismanu, 'The 
Germ-plasm,' p. 431)." 

Anabolic (not in). 1889, Geddes and Thomson, 
'Evolution of Sex,' p. 88, "The ascending, syn- 
thetic, constructive series of changes are termed 

Anabolism (not in). Geddes, ut supra, p. 122, 
" The upbuilding, constructive, synthetic processes 
are summed up in the phrase anabolism." 

Anastate (not in). Geddes, ut supra, p. 88, " The 
various special lines of anabolism and katabolism 
respectively, and the definite component substances 
('anastates' and ' katastates ') which it is the task 
of the chemical physiologist to isolate." 

Anastigmat (not in). 1894, Amer. Ann. Photog., 

p. 10U, "The Anastigmat is the most rapid lens 

I have tried." Also, 1901, Brit. Journ. Photog., 
1 November, p. 694, col. 2, "The new glasses, called 
barium silicate glasses, without which the modern 
anastigmat could not be constructed." 

Anastigmatic (not in). 1901, Brit. Journ. Photog., 
22 November, p. 744, col. 1, "The anastigmatic 
flatness of field. * 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

Androdicecism (not in). - 1888, Henslow, Orig. 
Flor Struct.,' p. 227, " Androdioecism signifies the 
same species has both male and hermaphrodit 

P A> idromoncedwn (not in). -Henslow, ut supra, 
p. 227, " Andromoncecism signifies that the same 
plant bears both male and hermaphrodite flowers. 

AnemopUly (not in). - 1883, Miiller, Fert. 
Flowers' (tr. Thompson), p. 591, "In a few cases 
reversion to anemophily has taken place. 

Anthophihus (not in). 1883, Mfiller, tf awpm, 
p. 25, " Anthophilous insects "; ibid., p. 33, Beetles 
which are anthophilous." 

Aplanat (not in). 1901, Brit. Journ. Photog., 
1 November, p. 695, col. 1, "The selection of the 
glasses for his aplanats. These aplanats consist ot 
strong refracting flint glasses, whose quotient and 
colour dispersion do not much differ." 

Apochromat (not in). 1901, Brit. Journ. Ph-tog., 
1 November, p. 693, col. 2, "Remarkably perfect 
objectives the Abbe apochromats are available. 

Apochromatic (not in). 1895, G. K. Davis, ' Prac- 
tical Microscopy,' third ed., p. 201, "These lenses 
have been called by Prof. Abbe apochromatic." 

Apolamticism (not in). 1894, X. L., ' Aut Diabolus 
aut Nihil,' p. 6, "He was indeed only fervent in 
his apolausticism. ; ' 

Apospory (not in). 1889, Geddes and Thomson, 
'Evolution of Sex,' p. 206, "The production of 

spores may be suppressed This exceptional 

occurrence is technically called apospory.' : 

Apotheme (chem., no quot.). 1853, C. Morfit, 
'Art of Tanning,' p. 55, "Apotheme is also an 
accompanying product of the slow conversion of 
tannin and tanning solutions by exposure to air. 
It is a dark brown substance, soluble in water, and 
is the source of the objectionable colour of several 
kinds of leather." 

Apprenticeage (obs.). 1797, Monthly ^ Mag., in. 
303, " An apprentissage of three months is sufficient 
to learn the nature of this trade." 

Apriorist (not in). G. B. Shaw, 'Fabian Esscays 
in Socialism,' 1890, p. 177, "The apriorist notion 
that among free competitors wealth must go to the 

Apron (shipbuilding, earlier). 1711, Sutherland, 
' Shipbuilder's Assistant,' p. 25, " Raising the stem 
and false stem (or apron) together." 

Archivsthetism (not in). 1901, Nature, p. 482, 
col. 2, "By a mixture of 'use-inheritance' (Kineto- 
genesis) and Lamarck's neck-stretching theory 

Archoplasm (not in). Geddes, ut supra, p. 98, 
" Within the last year Boveri has drawn attention 
to a special element in the protoplasm, which he 
calls archoplasm." 

Argon (not in). 1895, Times, 1 February, P- 6, 
col. 4, "Argon, a new constituent of the atmo- 

Ante (not in?). 1848, G. Biddlecombe, 'Art of 
Rigging,' p. 73, "A heart, or dead-eye, is seized in 
the bight, with a splice at the arse of the heart." 
Ibid., p. 89, "The standing-part of the fall makes 
fast to the becket in the arse of the single-block.'" 

Artisticism (not in). 1891, H. Herman, 'His 
Angel,' p. 40, " Our present-day, lackadaisical, sham 

Aryanisation (not in). 1890, I. Taylor, 'Origin 
of Aryans,' p. 212, " The Aryanisation of Europe 
doubtless resembled that of India." 

4stay (cf. Astays). 1607, Topsell, ' Hist. Four- 
footed Beasts' (ed. Rowland, 1673), p. 125, "The 

inhabitants of Caramair and Carib do drive astay 
the dogs." 

Auntship (earlier). 1813, ' Sketches of Character,' 
i. 109, "Won't your auntship take cold without 
your usual number of petticoats?" 

Automobile, Automobilist (not in). 1902, Munsetfs 
Mag., February, p. 699, "They purchase their 
automobile without an idea as to its manner of con- 
struction. This is alike unfair to the manufacturer 
and to the aspiring automobilist." 

Avalanchy (not in). 1894, G. M. Fenn, 'In Alpine 
Valley,' i. 117, " Rather an avalanchy place." 

Axes (obs.). 1893, Crommelin, 'Bay Ronald,' 

i. 283, " Amos wagged his head slowly, grumbling 

that his boy had got the axey." 

Azoxy (not in). 1894, Times, 15 August, p. 12, 
col. 1, " Very interesting in point of fastness to 
light were the azoxy colours." 


Redmorion, Woodside Green, S.E. 
( To be continued. ) 

lett, whom MR. CECIL CLARKE mentions in 
an interesting note (ante, p. 86), was not much 
known as a Chartist outside Chelsea. I do 
not remember his name in early Chartist 
days. The Charter was drawn up by Place in 
1838. I was a few months older than Harney, 
and we were both young men in the Chartist 
movement at the time it took the field. We 
first met at Birmingham at the Bull Ring 
Riot in 1839. I was living in the town then. 
It does not seem long ago. There must be 
some yet living who, if not prominent, may 
have been in the ranks ; but in a few years 
more all the pioneer Chartists will disappear, 
as the Waterloo veterans have. W. H. Chad- 
wick is counted the oldest living Chartist in 
Manchester. He is seventy-five or seventy- 
six and still appears on the platform. I 
had not only knowledge but friendship 
with Julian Harney, Feargus O'Connor, 
Thomas Cooper, Rev. Joseph Rayner 
Stephens, Bronterre O'Brien, Joshua Hobson, 
James Watson, Henry Hetherington, John 
Cleve, Henry Vincent, Linton, Gam mage, 
George White, William Lovett, John Collins, 
and many others. Collins and I were Sunday- 
school teachers. He was much older than 
I. In 1848 I was appointed to address 
the delegates at the Convention, who the 
next day were going to Kennington Common 
with a great petition. I was a member of 
the last Chartist Executive with Feargus 
O'Connor, who would ask me to walk round 
Covent Garden with him and talk things 
over on nights when he was earlier than 
other members. In Brighton we lately 
buried William Woodward, who was in his 
ninetieth year. He was a real old Chartist, 
who came from prison to Brighton seventy 
years ago. Like Harney, he was one of the 



unstamped-newspaper prisoners. I delivered 
the oration at his grave, as I did at the grave 
of Hetherington fifty-one years before ; but 
though I was in the Chartist agitation from 
beginning to end, I am not generally counted 
as one of the survivors, being better known to 
this generation in other agitations than that. 

Eastern Lodge, Brighton. 

JACK = KNAVE The interesting review (9 th 
S. viii. 474) of the fifth volume of the ' New 
English Dictionary ' led me to refer to the 
work to see what it said on the above subject 
in its relation to playing-cards. I found 
therein the following definition and quotation 
(s.v. * Jack ') : 

"5. Cards. Name for the knave of trumps in the 
game of all-fours ; hence gen. any one of the 

"1674-80. Cotton, 'Compl. Gamester,' ix., This 

game is called All Fours, from highest, lowest, 

jack, and game, which is the set as some play it. 
Ibid., He turns up a Card, which is Trump : if Jack 
(and that is any knave) it is one to the dealer." 

The conclusion come to that the term Jack 
was applied to a knave generally, through its 
use in the old game of all-fours, is the natural 
one, and without doubt correct ; but that 
Cotton employed it in the general sense, 
which is the inference meant to be taken 
from the form and position of the quotation, 
is quite a misapprehension. The record, 
therefore, from the historical or chronological 
point of view is misleading. The mistake is 
a natural and easy one to any one not 
thoroughly acquainted with the subject ; and, 
unfortunately, if there is any ordinary matter 
that savants show want of knowledge of in 
their writings, it is of games. Cotton's 
diction in the * Gamester ' is generally loose, 
and it is often unsafe to take him literally, 
without going below the surface to find out 
his meaning. When he applies the term Jack 
to knave in the above quotation, he means 
that any knave turned up will be Jack (as 
the turned-up card is trump, and Jack is the 
knave of trumps), and not that Jack is any 
or every knave two very different things. 
To Cotton, Jack is simply the term for the 
trump-knave in the game of all-fours, as 
Tom is the term for the trump -knave in 
the game of gleek. If his description of all- 
fours is carefully read with this knowledge, 
it will be found that in none of the several 
instances in which the word Jack is used 
does Cotton apply it to anything else than 
the knave of trumps. When he speaks of 
another knave, he calls it a knave. To term 
every knave Jack, where there is only the 
one Jack, would make the description a 

jumble of nonsense. Nowhere, outside of 
all-fours, does Cotgrave, Cotton, or Seymour 
(our early describers of card -games) write 
Jack for knave. Nor have I met with it 
in any of the early writers. Accordingly, 
by the 'Dictionary' corrected, Benjamin 
Martin (1749) is the first recorder of the use 
of the term in the general sense. Do any of 
your readers know of an earlier ? 

J. S. McTEAR. 

" HAKATIST." This word deserves to be 
added to the list of those which, like cabal, 
are of political coinage. We have heard 
lately of weighty Prussian measures against 
the Poles in Posen, among the supporters 
of severity being three gentlemen named 
Hannemarin, Kinnemann, and Tidemann. 
From their initials this adjective is derived, 
and it is a curious accident that the termina- 
tions are identical. 


Brixton Hill. 

extract from the 'Memoir of Richard Red- 
grave, R.A. ; (Cassell & Co., 1891), p. 299, may 
be of interest. The writer refers to a visit to 
the late Marquis of Salisbury at Hatfield in 
January, 1868 : 

" In the course of an after-dinner conversation on 
the rather curious subject of the advantages of per- 
spiration, Lord Salisbury remarked that he was 
one of the train-bearers at the coronation of 
George IV., and that the weight of the robes gave 
each of the bearers a Turkish bath of some hours' 
duration. I added that the king seemed equally 
to suffer on that occasion (1 was in the Abbey and 
close to him). ' Ah,' said my lord, ' the king had 
an hour's rest and freedom from his robes ; for after 
the coronation he retired for a time before he left 

the Abbey, and Lord , going into the room 

which had been fitted up as a dressing-room, found 
the king walking up and down in a state of nudity, 
but with the crown on his head.' " 

SIDE- WHISKERS. May I object to the word 
" side- whiskers " for whiskers'? I last met 
with it in the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' article * Ruskin.' R. S. 

cates of the Baconian theory of the origin 
of Shakespeare's plays seem to be par- 
ticularly struck with the fact that Ben 
Jonson employed the same phrase in writing 
of both Shakespeare and Bacon. In both 
cases he compares their works to anything 
produced by "insolent Greece or haughty 
Rome," and every one who has read the 
arguments of the Baconians knows the 
inference they draw from this fact. I should 
like to point out that this is not the only 


NOTES AND QUERIES. r0* s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

instance in which Jonson repeats himself. 
He uses the same phrase both of Bacfln and 
of no less august personages than their 
majesties King Charles I. and his queen. 
.Readers of Jonson's works will remember his 
poem addressed to Bacon on his birthday, 
which appeared in the collected edition 
of Jonson's miscellaneous poems, entitled 
' Underwoods.' In it occur the lines : 

Whose even thread the Fates spin round and full 
Out of their choicest and their whitest wool. 

This phrase is repeated this time in prose* 
but without any considerable alteration in 
his 'Love's Welcome : the King and Queen's 
Entertainment at Bolsover, at the Earl of 
Newcastle's, the 30th of July, 1634' One of 
the characters in this entertainment, named 
Philalethes, speaking of the king and queen, 
who were present, is made to say of them, 
amongst other things : "The Fates spinning 
them round and even threads, and of their 
whitest wool, without brack or purl." This 
statement may not give the Baconian theorists 
their quietus, but it is, at least, an interesting 
instance of Jonson's employment of the same 
expression with respect to different indi- 
viduals on different occasions. 

Kew Gardens. 

COMPOUND WORDS. It is not always easy 
to say when a term should be expressed in 
two words, when the words should be linked 
with a hyphen, and when they should be 
arranged in a single undivided form. This 
difficulty gives variety of usage according to 
the divergent tastes and inclinations of dif- 
ferent writers. It would be well, however, if 
the same writer were uniform in his practice, 
and consistent with himself. In one espe- 
cially who affects authoritative deliverance 
a want of precision is readily noticeable, and 
looseness of method inevitably challenges 
comment. ^What might have been easily 
overlooked in another provokes wonder and 
inquiry when presented by the uncom- 
promising critic. Thus the attention is 
arrested in the first essay of Mr. Churton 
Collins's ' Ephemera Critica' by three phrases 
in which the same expression is given in 
three different forms. On p 34 the writer 
protests against "the puffers of bookmakers" ; 
on p. 35 he exposes "the creed of the modern 
book-maker " ; and on p. 40 he decries " the 
study of such Epitomes, Manuals, and 
Histories as are the work of mere irre- 
sponsible book makers." Mr. Collins mio-ht 
surely have selected one arrangement of the 
term and given it authoritative value by his 
imprimatur. THOMAS BAYNE, " 

BISHOPSGATE STREET IN 1677. In the Intro- 
duction (written, I believe, by John Camden 
Hotten, the bookseller, of Piccadilly) to the 
reprint of the first 'London Directory of 
Merchants,' 1677, it is stated that "compara- 
tively few merchants then [1677] resided in 
Broad Street, or in Bishopsgate Street. Eents 
were therefore low in that quarter." May 
we infer from this that these neighbourhoods 
were then also " low " ? I believe the state- 
ments to be quite unfounded, and should like 
to know what evidence (if any) there is to 
support the same. I have also grave doubts 
whether the writer had any information as 
to the annual value of house property either 
in those or any other parts of the City at the 
period in question information which he 
should have possessed before making the last 
of such statements except as a quotation. After 
giving him the credit of certain knowledge, 
which he was not at all likely to have had, 
one can only imagine that he based his 
conclusions on a comparison of the modern 
rentals of the houses in such streets with 
those of some two hundred years previously, 
without regard to the altered value of money, 
ifec. 1 have always looked upon Broad 
Street and Bishopsgate Street as fashionable 
residential neighbourhoods in former times ; 
but as they escaped the great fire of 1666, 
while most, if not all, of the destroyed portion 
of the City had in 1677 been recently rebuilt, 
it is probable that rents were lower for the 
old than the new buildings, to which latter 
the majority of the merchants and others 
may have flocked in preference, on account 
of the better accommodation and access. 

E. C. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers maybe addressed to them 

What was the ceremony that was alluded to 
in the papers recently in connexion with 
the erection of tablets and the transfer of 
bones at the chapel of the Tower? I ask as 
representing a lady who was buried there in 
the time of Elizabeth. D. 

be grateful for information as to the chief 
works in English which tell one briefly how, 
why, and when the Portuguese lost their 
former military and mercantile supremacy 



over the world's seas. I am anxious to 
supplement the scattered information about 
the Portuguese former power, as too briefly 
described in Capt. Mahan's magnificent 
monograph upon 'The Influence of Sea 
Power upon History, 1660-1783.' 

30, Sussex Square, Brighton. 

RENCE. Some of your readers probably 
noticed in Messrs. Goupil's Gallery the 
beautiful engraving published by them in 
the early part of last year of Sir Thomas 
Lawrence's portrait of Lady Carrington, nde 
Paulina Belli. The original portrait was 
bequeathed by Miss Laura Carrington to the 
South Kensington Museum. The object of 
the present communication is to inquire if 
any of your readers can tell me in what year 
the Belli family went to England, and from 
what part of Italy the family sprang. 

Lady Carrington's father, John Belli, sec- 
retary to Warren Hastings, was, I believe, 
born in England ; but I am not sure of this. 
His wife was a Miss Cockerell. His three 
daughters married Dr. Howley, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, Mr. Horsley Palmer, and Sir 
C. E. Carrington, Chief Justice of Ceylon 
(whose sister was the mother of Lord Napier 
of Magdala). John Belli's youngest son, the 
Rev. Charles Almeric Belli, vicar of South 
Weald, died only a few years ago at a great 
age. Lady Carrington's extraordinary beauty 
was not quite equalled by her sisters, but 
they also were handsome. 


Palazzo Martinengo, Sal6, Lago di Garda. 

ARMS. Can any reader identify this bear- 
ing? Vair, on a canton a buck's head 

cabossed impaling Argent, two bendlets 

wavy gules. The plate with these arms bears 
the date-mark of the reign of Charles II. and 
the initials A. B. H. 

the previous versions differs least from the 
Authorized Version of the Bible? In other 
words, which version did the translators of 
1611 revise or take as the basis of their 
version ? FRANCIS J. PAYNE. 

[It is founded on the work of Tyndale and Cover- 

GREEK EPIGRAM. Can you give me the 
full text of a Greek epigram or perhaps, 
more precisely, an epigram in Greek, as I 
fancy it may have been the composition of 
a modern scholar beginning Teo-o-apcs al 
Xa/HTs,..,,.K(u Slfca MoCqrcu, and of its ren- 

dering in English, " Four are the Graces and 
the Muses ten "? CHARLES F. T. FURRAN. 

Sydney, N.S.W. 

GALLEY HALL ESTATE. This is situated in 
the parish of Great Baddow, in the county of 
Essex. In the year 1831 William Policy, 'the 
occupier, died, and letters of administration 
were granted to his son, William Policy. He 
died in_ 1848. The history of this Galley 
Hall viz., the occupiers or owners from time 
to time, from the beginning of its existence 
down to the present is wanted. 


In old maps of Essex this is printed North 
and South Weald, also in old records. I find 
several Essex names now being spelt as Weal 
and Wheal. How has this change come about ? 
On searching an old church register at North 
Benfleet recently I found the name written in 
a baptismal register of 1830 Weald. 

T. A. 

"O SAW YE MY FATHER." I shall be glad 
if some one will tell me the title of, and in 
what collection I can see, a song beginning : 

saw ye my father, saw ye my mither, 
Or saw ye my true love John ? 

1 saw na your father, I saw na your mither, 
But I saw your true love John. 

He's met with some delay 
That has caused him to stay, 
And he will be here ere long. 


WEEK. The week is distinctly a Jewish 
and Christian institution. How is it that 
the names of the days are Latin and 
Teutonic invariably pagan ; and to what 
period may these names be traced back ? 


[Christianity adapted to its use existing mytho- 
logy and pagan elements and customs which survive 
in various names. The word "week," German 
Woche, is probably true Teutonic, like the names 
of the days. References for their English forms 
will be found in Prof. Skeat's 'Etymological 

JEREMIAH CLIFTON. When did this London 
clockmaker flourish ? PRESTER. 

[The only Cliftons traceable in Britten's 'Old 
Clocks and Watches and their Makers' are Thomas 
Clifton, a Brother of the Clockmakers' Company 
in 1651, and another Thomas admitted in 1687.] 

PRICE OF EGGS. In the eighth volume 
of the ' Calendar of the Cecil Papers ' (Hist. 
MSS. Com., 1899) is a letter dated 23 July, 
1598, from Paul Delahay, who (under the 
impression that he was " marrying money ") 
had become the son-in-law of William Cecil 
of Alt-yr-ynys, and had undertaken certain 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

financial responsibilities in connexion with 
the estate of his father-in-law, then deceased. 
"Being subject," he complains, "to my 
father-in-law's debts, the widow's dowries, 
Winston's copyhold, the present heriots, and 
the continued clog of service issuing out of 
the lands, and harbouring and relieving of 
many of my father-in-law's children and 
kindred, I shall have as good a bargain as 
an egg for a penny" (op. cit., 272). Ho\v 
many eggs could then be purchased for a 
penny in the ordinary course 1 ? O. O. H. 


HANWORTH, MIDDLESEX. I find mention in a 
seventeenth-century MS. of the Protector's 
widow as having lived at Han worth, Middle- 
sex. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' identify 
this place or house ? LOBUC. 

[Hanworth is two miles south-west of Twicken- 
ham. The ' D.N.B.' states that the Duchess sub- 
sequently married Francis Newdigate, the Duke's 
steward, and died 16 April, 1587, being buried in 
Westminster Abbey.] 

ago I read a poem in which the writer stated 
his conviction that the world could not offer a 
more acceptable draught than that which he 
used to obtain at home "from the moss- 
covered bucket that hangs in the well." 
Can any reader furnish me with a copy of 
the words of this poem ? I believe it comes 
from an American source. JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Hacldon, Northamptonshire. 

appears to be copied from another list, and 
made about a century ago. It contains over 
2,000 entries, giving the name, abode, and 
date of admission ; there is also a column 
headed "Number," but not filled in. The 
dates of admission appear at irregular inter- 
vals and range from 1736 to 1791, whilst some 
one has marked as "dead " nearly 400 entries. 
Most of the names are those of people of 
standing, but various trades are represented, 
as well as several clergy and military men. 
In one case nine Shearmans, the sons of 
Robert Shearman, Esq., were admitted on 
the same day, and the same applies to other- 
families in a lesser degree. Several different 
counties are included ; but the list was pro- 
bably kept ^ in Dublin, " Dawson " and 
" George's " Streets being the only placos of 
abode in two cases. The names include \Vm. 
Beresford, Bishop of Ossory ; Lords Sudley, 
Mountgarret, and Mountmorris; several 
baronets or knights ; Peter Metge, a Baron of 
the Exchequer; and John, Duke of Rutland, 
admitted at the age of ten. I have been told 
the names are those of Protestants, probably 

willing to render assistance in case of any 
rising among the Irish against the Govern- 
ment. Can any readers kindly enlighten me 
on this point 1 T. D. BUTTON. 

17, Keyes Road, Cricklewood, N.W. 

FRENCH NOVEL. Can any one tell me the 
title (possibly 'Les Inconsolables'), the author, 
and the publisher of a French novel (read 
by me not later than 1891) in which, at a 
woman's grave, her two husbands meet, and 
express a warm appreciation of her, and ? 
striking up a close friendship, resolve to live 
together, mourning her constantly ? They vie 
with each other as to the outward signs of 
bereavement, one of them using a pocket- 
handkerchief with a black border so deep 
that the white centre is "no larger than a 
postage stamp." Gradually a reaction sets 
in, and each one tries to hide from the 
other that he is growing cheerful and im- 
patient of the restrictions of "le deuil." 


Russian Jews bear the surname of Gordon. 
Is thore anything in the theory that it is a 
transposition of " Grodno," which is said to 
be an impossible combination of letters in 
Hebrew ] J. M. BULLOCH. 

118, Tall Mall. 

MOLYNEUX. I should be glad of informa- 
tion about a preacher named Molyneux, who 
was living in the middle of the last century. 
Can any one tell me if his memoirs have been 
published ? M. G. SELLON. 

"BRISTOL LOOK." In the 'Life of Lord 
Houghton ' (Reid, vol. i. p. 57) the following 
passage from a letter is given : " It is really 
very hard that Boulogne should have so bad 
a name, I hardly dare mention it. Harvey 
gave me such a Bristol look when I said 
where I had been." Can some reader kindly 
describe a Bristol look 1 



WIND FOLK - LORE. Can any reader of 
'N. & Q.' furnish further examples of the 
following superstition? -'To-morrow is 
Equinox Day, when if the wind should 
return to north-east, north-east will it blow 
till June 21, as we all believe down here" 
('Letters of Edward FitzGerald to Fanny 
Kemble,' 1871-83, No. xc.). I also find in Bye- 
Gones, vol. iii. p. 479, that if the wind is 
in the east on the eve of All Saints', i.e., 
31 October, it will be the prevailing wind for 
the next three months, and the weather will 
be fair and open but the locality in 
which this superstition is held is not men- 

9* S. IX. FEB. 22, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tioned. In the Vosges, according to Laisnel 
de la Salle's 'Croyances et Legendes du Centre 
de la France,' vol. ii. p. 280, it is believed 
that the wind which blows during the mid- 
night mass on Christmas Eve will be the 
predominant wind during the approaching 
year. G. W. 

be much obliged if any of your readers 
would tell me the descent of Philip Jack- 
son, of West Rainton Hall, co. Durham. 
West Rainton Hall was conveyed to him in 
or soon after 1760, and he married Penelope, 
daughter of John Goodchild, Esq., of Pallion, 
in the same county. G. B. 

a translation of 'A Prayer of the Blessed 
Francis to obtain Holy Poverty,' appended to 
Mr. Montgomery Carmichael's rendering of 
'Sacrum Commercium Beati Francisci cum 
Domina Paupertate,' occurs the following 

"She [Poverty] clung to Thee with such Fidelity, 
that even within Thy Mother's womb she paid Thee 
homage, for Thy Infant Body was, it is thought, 
the smallest of all."-P. 186. ' 

This tradition is new to me. 
first notice of it appear 1 

Where does the 

ULISSE BARBIERI. Edmondo de Amicis, in 
his very interesting ' Memorie,' has the fol- 
lowing in his article on the above : 

"Coslegli gira il mondo da quindici aniii e 

sar& tale e quale fra trent' anni, salvo qualche pelo 
bianco di piu sulla testa e qualche ceiitinaio di 
drammi di piii sulla coscienza." 
The article is dated Torino, 1878. Is this 
prolific and erratic author still inter vivos ? 
J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

FOUNTAIN FAMILY. After the Revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes a branch of my family 
settled in England, Scotland, or Ireland. 
They formerly resided at Roy an, near 
Bordeaux, and in the sixteenth century in 
Touraine. I should much like to hear from 
any member of this family. 


Chateau de Serigny, Foussais, Vende"e. 

American correspondent wants to know 
where the following line occurs : 

The raucous clamouring of crows and choughs. 


curious tract published in 1660, entitled ' The 
Mystery of the Good Old Cause Briefly Un 
folded, &c.,' giving details of "such Aldermen 

and Common-Councilmen as made profit by 
the Continuance of the War, Excise, Taxes, 
and oppressive proceedings of the Long Par- 
iament," mention is made of Alderman 
Richard Hill, who died in 1659, as " a receiver 
of one per cent, of merchants' goods for re- 
demption of captives." 

I should be glad to know what this refers 
X). It could not have been anything to do 
with briefs for collections for redemption of 
captives, as apparently none was issued be- 
tween 1624 and 1668. Was the receivership 
i permanent post created by the Parliament, 
or only a temporary one by the City ? I may 
mention that I have found frequent refer- 
ences to Hill in the State Papers as com- 
nissioner for sale of goods taken in the Dutch 
war, but nothing to throw light on this one. 

(9 th S. ix. 67.) 

THE engraving with this inscription about 
which F. J. inquires is British Museum 
Satirical Print No. 4836, and it came from 
the Covent Garden Magazine, March, 1773, 
where impressions face p. 82. The impression 
in the Print Room, British Museum, is accom- 
panied (vide the entry under No. 4836 in the 
Trustees' ' Catalogue of Satirical Prints ') by a 
utting from that periodical to the following 
_ffect: "This design represents a circum- 
stance in the career of ' Baron Neuman,' who 
is called Crooked-finger Jack." He is stated 
to have been a German of doubtful origin, 
educated by charity, apprenticed to a grocer, 
and of vicious habits. He became a gambler, 
assumed the character of a gentleman, but 
was detected or suspected of unfair play, and 
driven in succession from various resorts. 
He then came to England, assumed the title 
of baron (Neuman), was very successful, and 
set up a handsome establishment. His usual 
game was piquet : 

"An unlucky discovery, however, occurred at 
Scarborough, where our hero repaired to improve 
his finances. Being at play with a gentleman one 
day at all fours, whilst dinner was getting ready, 
and the cloth laid, with knives and forks at one 
end of the table, the gentleman was astonished how 
Jack always became possessed of the knave of 
trumps, and having watched him with great 
accuracy and attention, at. length perceived a 
corner of a card in his hand while he was dealing ; 
upon which the gentleman, immediately seizing a 
fork that lay by him [forks were twi-prongs m 
those days], pinned his hand down to the table, 
saying, ' By G-d, I've got you now.' There was the 
knave sure enough, and so the party ended. 



ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

It is said that the gentleman " gave him a 
cant" from the first floor into the streef, and 
that Foote, passing by, reminded him of the 
advice he had often given 

"not to play so high as the danger was imminent. 
' Jack ' still continued to play, but wears his card 
curtains, which are the largest ruffles ever seen, 
that hang over his fingers' ends and conceal the 
long shuffle and the slip." 

They concealed his manoeuvres, and hid the 
lameness of his fingers, from which he derived 
his nickname : 

" The print is likewise accompanied by a cutting 
from a book, or newspaper, containing ' The Little 
Baron Newman : a Sketch,' being an obituary notice 
of the man in question," 

the little baron, of crook-fingered memory, 
which states that some had said that it was 
Lord Chesterfield who detected the cheat, 
and avers that it was not he, but a brother 
sharper, who achieved this act. Lord Chester- 
field often played at piquet at Bath with 
the " Baron." The paper gives a miserable 
account of the sharper's killing his last and 
only friend, a little spaniel, and final hang- 
ing of himself at his lodgings in Duke Street, 
Bath. No. 4651 in the national collection 
above named is "Baron Forchetta, after a 
Bett of Fifty (Baron Neuman) (Bath). By 
an Officer in the Guards." This is a coloured 
etching, published by Mathew Darly, 
"Jan. 24, 1774, Strand," and represents a 
dwarfish old man holding a pinch of snuff j 
and a snuff box. The text of the Catalogue I 
in view here states this is a portrait of 
Neuman, who, having been suspected of foul 
play, was watched, and a gentleman, seizing 
a fork, dashed it through the baron's hand, 
with the apology, "Sir, if such a card is 
not under your hand, I must beg your 
pardon." F. G. STEPHENS. 

This print, I venture to suggest, depicts an 
incident in the career of that well-known 
eighteenth - century gambler " Savage " 
Roche or Rock, who actually "pinned" to 
the table with a steel fork or knife the hand 
of a fellow-gambler who, he had occasion to 
think was playing unfairly. The subject 
would have been easier of solution had F J 
given name of engraver, &c. 


This print occurs as the frontispiece to a 
book on games called " Annals of Gaming 
By a Connoisseur. London : Printed fo'p'o! 
Allen, No. 59, Paternoster -Row, 1775 " The 
operator with the fork is "Capt. Roche, alias 
iyger, ahas Savage Roche, who stuck his 
gaming companion's hand to the table with 
2u f? r e ? nce ^ in S a card under his hand " 
( ihe Gaming Calendar,' 1820, 8vo, p 63) 

The name of the " gaming companion " has 
nob come down to us, so far as I know. 

In reply to F. J.'s flattering appeal, I must 
offer a sincere apology to those who have 
done me the honour to ask me to continue 
my bibliography of books on gaming, together 
with a promise that I will do so as soon as 
possible. The well-known result of under- 
taking too many things is that one never 
finishes anything, or but rarely. At least, 
that has been rather constantly my fate. 


WINDOW GLASS (9 th S. ix. 87). The use 
of glass in windows was practised by the 
Romans certainly in the first century A.D., 
if not before. Three years ago I had what 
I considered unusual luck in drawing a 
small pane from the remains of a great villa 
near Porto d'Anzio (Antium), a considerable 
portion of which is in my possession now. 
The edges are thickened and rounded, pro- 
bably for the grip of the metal or wooden 
frame. It lay about three feet below the 
present grassy level, among a quantity of 
broken pottery, &c. Similar panes, and also 
portions of bronze framing, were found in 
another first-century villa, known to me, near 
Marino, on the Alban Hill. At Pompeii, in 
the tepidarium of the bath in the villa of 
Diomedes, four panes of glass ten and a half 
inches square and portions of their frame 
(wooden) were taken. Others were found in 
the baths near the Forum. 


I believe that MR. G. C. WARDEN is right in 
his impression that window glass was not 
used until the eleventh century. The 
windows of Saxon and Anglo-Norman 
buildings were frequently filled in with oiled 
canvas, which kept out the wind and rain 
and admitted a certain quantity of light. 
According to Sir Gilbert Scott, canvas was 
bought so late as 1253 to close the windows 
of the Chapter-house of Westminster Abbey. 
In books dealing with ancient churches one 
reads of stained glass of the eleventh century, 
but though I have examined many churches 
with supposed eleventh-century glass, I am 
persuaded that the glass is much more recent 
than the writers profess. CHARLES HIATT. 

Window glass is found in all the Roman 
camps in the north of England. There can 
be no doubt that it was in use in the time of 
the Romans. If I knew MR. WARDEN'S address 
I would send him a fragment. R. B R. 
[Further replies to come.] 

STOWE MISSAL (9 th S. viii. 484 ; ix. 98). 
MR. ROBERTS is correct in stating that the 

9>s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Stowe Missal was among the Stowe MSS. 
bought by Government in 1883 from Lord 
Ashburnham. One hundred and forty-eight 
volumes connected with Ireland from this 
purchase were deposited in the library of 
the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin, the 
Stowe Missal being among them. The 
remaining and larger portion of the MSS. 
was similarly deposited in the British 
Museum. The Stowe Missal is thus at 
present preserved in the Academy's care in 

GOWER (9 th S. ix. 68). There is no con- 
nexion. Gower is a land barony in Gla- 
morganshire. It is the name of a man in 
Yorkshire. H. R. GRENFELL. 

"SAULIES" (9 th S. ix. 108). It is Jamieson 
who gives an " A.-S. sal." There is no such 
word. He means salu, which is Mod. E. 
sallow. Saule, a willow tree, would have 
given a monosyllabic word saule, without 
-ie. In order to obtain a dissyllabic saul-ie, 
we must go back to a dissyllabic French 
form ; and if we are to guess (which is still 
yearned after), we might as well go back to 
the O. Fr. saoule, glutted, which was fre- 
quently used to mean simply drunk, or a 
drunken fellow. But let us hope that the 
hired mourners knew better. CELER. 

" IN PETTO " (9 th S. viii. 443 ; ix. 58). I notice 
that Mr. Kipling, in ' Kim,' p. 341, makes his 
Russian say, with reference to Hurree Babu, 
"He represents in petto India in transition 
the monstrous hybridism of East and West." 
The meaning of in petto in this passage seems 
to be "in miniature" not "in the recesses of 
his breast." The first reference is misprinted 
"413" in the heading to Miss ROBERTS'S 
reply. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

" PEN-NAME " (9 th S. ix. 28, 151). Dr. Annan- 
dale's ' Imperial Dictionary ' (1882) attributes 
this expression to Bayard Taylor. Now if 
this statement be correct, Bacon could not 
have used the word, for his Excellency the 
United States Minister at Berlin was born 
on 11 January, 1825, and died on 19 December, 
1878. I fail to find the word in any dictionary 
of an earlier date than the above named, 
though I have searched in many. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

REV. JOHN TAUNTON (9 th S. ix. 9). The 
Composition Books for First Fruits show 
no trace of him as vicar of Axb ridge. A John 
Taunton, clerk (index gives Tainton), com- 
pounded for first fruits of Castle Carey, 
7 February, 1592, and had for bondsmen 

George Yonge, of Compton Dando, co. Somer- 
set, and James Kyrton, of Almisforde, co. 
Somerset, gent. Bondsmen, being very often 
relatives of the compounder, help in identifi- 

LONDRES (9 th S. viii. 443 ; ix. 35). I ven- 
ture to think that G. E. R. is in error when 
he states that the first mention of William 
de Londres is found in 1128. William de 
Londres, or London, was one of the twelve 
knights who accompanied Robert Fitzhamon, 
who was persuaded by Eineon to come to 
Wales to help Jestyn. This was about the 
year 1090. I think it will be found that 
William de Londres, or Londinensis, was born 
in London, and that Fitzhamon gave him the 
castle and manor of Ogmore, and William 
thus became Lord Ogmore. This William de 
Londres had a son Maurice ; the former soon 
after the conquest of Glamorgan founded a 
priory at Ewenny for the Benedictines, the 
latter in 1141 made a cell there to St. Peter's 
Abbey of Gloucester. 

Maurice left a son named, after his grand- 
father, William de Londres. The ruins of 
Ewenny Abbey are among the most interest- 
ing architectural studies in this country. 
There is, or was, a sepulchral stone to the 
memory of Maurice de Londres, an orna- 
mental cross in relief, extending the whole 
length, with the inscription 

Ici gist Morice de Londres le fondeur, 
Dieu lui rend son labour. 

The flat, coffin-shape stone, with its Norman- 
French inscription, is of considerable value, 
assisting as it does the tracing of the history 
of other monuments of the class. 


BRANDON, EXECUTIONER (9 th S. ix. 9, 70). 
I am deeply indebted to MR. STEPHENS for 
his able account of the various original 
papers relating to Richard Brandon. I had, 
however, previously read all these papers, 
but MR. STEPHENS'S review of them will, lam 
sure, prove of much aid to others interested 
in the subject. The print, which represents 
the headsman cutting off the head of the 
" kneeling " king, must, as MR. STEPHENS 
points out, be admitted as some evidence in 
favour of the theory of the " high " block, 
but I consider, nevertheless, that the evidence 
adduced in support of the "low" block, or 
slab, is far stronger. Nearly all the best 
contemporary records describing the execu- 
tion state that Charles " lay down," that he 
asked why the block was not higher, and that 
he was told it was high enough. Moreover, 
a Spanish contemporary manuscript mentions 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

its size, which was only one foot high and 
one foot and a half long. I think it may 
now be taken for granted that no portrait of 
Brandon exists beyond those on the headings 
to the papers referred to by ME. STEPHENS. 

"BAR SINISTER "(9 th S. ix. 64). The Daily 
Chronicle errs in good company. Lord Rose- 
bery, speaking of the " unreliability of Las 
Cases" in his 'Napoleon,' pp. 20, 21, says : 

" We think we have said enough to show that these 
various fabrications lie like a bar sinister athwart 
the veracity of his massive volumes, and make it 
impossible to accept any of his statements, when he 
has any object in making them." 

His lordship may have thought that the 
literary poise of this passage would suffer if, 
with pedantic accuracy, he had used the 
correct term, " baton sinister." 

A more important error in the Daily 
Chronicle article is the statement that 
James II. " contributed a good many bars 
sinister to the arms of the members of the 
House of Lords." James II. created his 
mistress Catherine Sedley Countess of 
Dorchester in January, 1685/6, but she died 
childless in 1692, and the honour died with 
her. He also created his illegitimate son 
James Fitz-James Duke of Berwick in 1687, 
but the duke was attainted in 1695, and 
his English honours became forfeited. Xo 
descendant of James II. sits, or has sat for 
over two hundred years, in the House of 
Lords. W. F. PRIDE AUX. 


ABLE SLANG (9 th S. viii. 481). The word is 
said to have originated in the eighteenth 
century with the Macaroni Club, whose 
members used the word boar, not bore, of 
any one opposed to dandyism or macaroni 
manners (see Cassell's Magazine, 'London 
Legends'). J. H. MAcMiCHAEL. 

11. B.'s interesting quotation would have 
been doubly valuable if he had given the 

date at which it was written, and the page 
' Q. V. 

ot the ' Life ' on which it occurs. 

CROLLY FAMILY (9 th S. viii. 484). Stanis- 
M U f " Leszczynski, King of Poland and 
LJuke ot Lorrain, was the son of Frederick 
Augustus L, Elector of Saxony and King of 
Poland, and Christina Eberhardine, daughter 
ot Christian Ernest, Margrave of Bayreuth 
and Erdmuth Sophia, daughter of John 
Ueorge II., Elector of Saxony, his wife. Born 
November, 1677, and married Catherine of 
Almskaia, daughter of Henry Opalinski, 
Castellan of Posen. Succeeded to the throne 
12 July, 1704; deposed 2 Oct., 1709; re- 

turned 12 Sept., 1725 ; redeposed June, 1736, 
and 21 March, 1737. Died 23 Feb., 1736 [?]. 
Lady Anne, the eldest daughter of Lewis, 
the third Marquis of Huntly, married the 
Comte de Crolly, of whom I can find no in- 
formation ; probably he was connected with 
one of the Irish families of Crolly. A Captaine 
Aide Major Croly [sic] was in the Regiment de 
Rothe in 1746-52, that being one of the Irish 
brigades in the service of France. There is 
a pedigree of the Crolly family in O'Hart's 
'Irish Pedigrees,' but it will not help MR. 

TONGUES (9 th S. viii. 523). In Ravizzotti's 
'Italian Grammar,' fifth edition, Lond., n.d. 
(dedicated to Lord Palmerston), on p. 402, 
and towards the close of a section headed 
' Costumi delle Nazioni,' 1 find the following : 
Diceva Carlo-Quinto che parlerebbe 
In lingua Francese ad un amico, 
,, Tedesco al suo cavallo, 
,, Italiano alia sua signora, 
,, Spagnuolo a Dio, 
,, Inglese agli uccelli. 

Here the first four parts correspond very 
nearly to MR. NORTH'S quotations, but the 
last is different. He says, "I fancy he de- 
scribed English as the language of birds," 
but the Italian given above evidently means 
that birds should be spoken to in English. 

Brewer's 'Dictionary of Phrase and Fable,' 
ed. 1895, p. 728, has : "L'ltalien se parle aux 
dames ; le Frangais aux hommes ; 1'Anglais 
aux oiseaux ; 1'Allemand aux chevaux ; 
1'Espagnol a Dieu " (misprinted " Dieux," see 
his 'Reader's Handbook,' 1898, p. 591). This 
is followed by a note : " Charles Quint used 
to say, ' 1 speak German to my horses, 
Spanish to my God, French to rny friends, 
and Italian to my mistresses.' " 

Preceding this is another note which may 
serve to explain "English to birds": "Eng- 
lish, according to the French notion, is 


Apropos, of this one naturally recalls another 
well-known saying of this emperor, or at 
least generally attributed to him : " For 
every new language one acquires, one becomes 
a new man." But, if really uttered by him, 
was it original? Vambery, in his 'Travels 
in Central Asia,' 1864, p. 219, quotes, as a 
Latin proverb, "Quot linguas cales, tot 
homines vales," where "cales" seems to be 
either a misprint for "calles," or to be so 
spelt for the sake of the rhyme. 

In Donaldson's 'New Cratylus,' 1839, p. 10, 
we read : 

" It was a great mistake of Ennius to say that he 
had three hearts because he understood three Ian- 



(Aulus Gellius, ' Noctes Atticse,' xvii. 17) ; 
the heart of a people is its mother tongue only 
(Jean Paul, xlvii. p. 179). The Emperor Charles V. 
was nearer the truth when he said, ' Autant de 
langues que 1'homme sgait parler, autant de fois 
est-il homme ' for every language that a man learns 
he multiplies his individual nature, and brings him- 
self one step nearer to the general collective mind 
of Man." 


"FiTz" (8 th S. vi. 443; vii. 31, 77, 136). 
At 9 th S. viii. 534 MR. GRAHAM EASTON 
makes the astounding statement : " ' Fitz ' 
denotes illegitimacy." The phrase he uses 
can only mean that this is a general rule, 
not confined to the FitzJameses. Has he 
any evidence in support, or even positive 
proof in this particular instance 1 

O. O. H. 

460). In this connexion it may be worth 
mentioning that in a will, undated, but of 
about 1525, the testator, residing at Hoo 
St. Werburgh, in Kent, describes himself as 
"of Saint Wartown." 


TENNIS : ORIGIN OF THE NAME (9 th S. ix. 27, 
75). Surely the most likely derivation of 
" tennis" is from O.G. tenni, modern German 
Tenne, threshing-floor. The word " area " in 
the Reichenau glosses is explained by danea. 
See Diez, ' Recueil de Travaux Origiiiaux ou 
Traduits,' &c., s.v. ' Area.' H. A. STRONG. 

CONFESSIONALS (9 th S. ix. 48). It does not 
appear that what MR. ACKERLEY saw at 
Libau was anything very remarkable. No 
doubt it would strike an Englishman or a 
person who has been brought up in Pro- 
testant surroundings, but on the Continent 
such sights, if not familiar, are, at any rate, 
not unusual. 

In a church frequented almost entirely by 
Poles I have seen one of the boxes mentioned. 
It may best be described as a cross between 
a chair and a confessional. The precautions 
for secrecy were of a minimum description. 
Nor was it very wonderful. In the same 
church, very undermanned with priests in 
proportion to the numbers of the congrega- 
tion, at &ny time on a Sunday, when low 
Mass is being said, or when the church is 
open, the people may be seen tailing off, three 
deep at first, then two, then one, on either 
side of a confessional, while in front of it some 
half-dozen individuals are standing in the 
hope that their turn may come some time. 
In the same church the sermon is preached 
in Polish, but is submitted, I am told, bofore- 

land to the Government censor. If eccle- 
siastical doings and regulations in Poland are 
somewhat defective and I do not wish to 
mply that they are so to any considerable 
extent it must be remembered that the 
hurch in Russia labours under many dis- 
advantages. T. P. ARMSTRONG. 

The form of confessional described by MR. 
ACKERLEY, in which both priest and penitent 
are visible to any one who is in front of the 
" box," is the only form to be found in the 
very numerous churches of Malta. This kind 
of confessional, moreover, if I am not inis- 
baken, is general throughout Italy. The con- 
fessions of men are in no country restricted 
bo the " confessional-box " (to use an English 
term), being heard frequently in any part of 
the church, in the sacristy, or even in the 
priest's private apartment. I believe that 
ecclesiastical regulations require that the 
confession of a female (except, of course, in 
case of sickness or other emergency) shall be 
heard in a confessional. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

The Rev. Frederick George Lee, in his 
'Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical 
Terms,' London, 1877, states that in England 
anciently the priest sat in the chancel to 
receive confessions. Veiy few of the old 
constructional confessionals exist. At Tan- 
field, near Ripqn, Yorkshire, there is an 
ancient confessional or shriving-pew sup- 
posed to be unique, the front of which is 
open, and the penitent must have been in 
full view of any one in the church. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

STRAWBERRY LEAVES (9 th S. viii. 463, 513). 
The reason and the meaning of the orna- 
mental leaves, commonly known as straw- 
berry leaves, which are placed upon the 
coronet of a duke, &c., is a question which 
has puzzled the writers on honour and 
heraldry. Selden, a learned man on the 
subject, mentions " the rose (or as some would 
have oak leaves or some other leaves)," but 
gives no definite explanation. Nisbet says, 
" they [coronets] are brightened with leaves 
like those of the oak, smallage or great 
parsley." Randle Holme, in his usual loqua- 
cious style, gives the following: 

"An Earl's crown, Crownett or Coronet. The 
circle of this is raised into spires like sun-beams, 
with buttons between; each spire having a pearl 
fixed on the point thereof ; some describe the Crown 
to have small Roses between the spires, but that is 
only the fancy of the workman as a further flourish 
or garnish to the Crown when the largeness of it will 
admit of such curiosities, but the old way was 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

Pearls, for the Earl, being a degree higher Man a 
Viscount and lower than a Marquess, hath the 
Crown composed of both theirs." 

In former times the commander of the armj 
was called a Duke, the word meaning leader, 
as long as he held the office, and when he 
kept the districts he conquered he often re- 
tained the title. The oak leaf was considered 
a symbol of victory, and the probability is 
that this leaf was originally intended to be 
represented by the leaves on the coronets. 

As A. N. wishes to know why this leaf is 
used, I will give the only reason I can find, 
which is in the article on heraldry in the 
' Encyclopedia Londinensis,' the name of the 
writer being unknown. He says : 

" The decoration by the strawberry-leaves is very 
ancient, and we do not doubt but the honour of 
adorning the brows of majesty was reserved to this 
humble plant in order to remind sovereigns that 
though elevated to so high a station in society, they 
never ought to forget that they are but men, and 
but a single leaf in the great scale of nature and in 
the dispensation of Divine Providence." 


KNOCKER FAMILY (9 th S. ix. 8). This name 
exists in other counties than Kent, for the 
two sons of the late Mr. Dibb, of Hull, are 
Col. Arthur Knocker Dibb and Mr. Oscar 
Knocker Dibb. No doubt their use of the 
name is derived from a near relative who 
bore it as a surname. RONALD DIXON. 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

(9 th S. viii. 464; ix. 16). As your querist 
seems to be interested in these, when next 
he is in Normandy he should take an oppor- 
tunity of examining the list of " Compagnons 
de Guillaume t a la conquete de 1'Angleterre 
en MLXVL," which he will find graven over the 
main doorway (inside) of the old church at 
Dives. He can there feast his eyes on famous 
Anglo-Norman names galore Du rand, Gif- 
fard, Talbot, Malet. de Venables, Tirel, de 
Colleville, Archer, Gibard, Gilbert, de Malle- 
ville, Basset, Lovvet, de Perci, de Manneville, 
de Vernon, de Laci, de Maci, de Chandos, 
Corbet, de Harcourt, de Mortemer, de Glan- 
ville^Maltravers, de Tilly, Bertran, &c. 
that is to say, unless he choose the more com- 
fortable and fashionable occupation of loun-- 
ing in the gateway of the old "Hostellerie 
de Guillaume le Conquerant " in the Rue 
d Hastings. 

The monument in the church was erected 
by the Societe Franaise d'Archeologie in 
August, 1862, just about a year after Arcisse 
deCaumont set up his celebrated "Colonne 
Commemorative" on the hill overlooking the 
mouth of the D - s, whence the Bastard 

started on his eventful voyage. This column, 
by the way, is now getting as hard to reach 
as the Bayeux Tapestry is on cattle-market 

But, after all, your querist will probably 
prefer to consult the various printed lists of 
the names he wants. HY. HARRISON. 

In 1874 Henry S. King & Co., of London, 
published an anonymous volume entitled 
'The Norman People,' the larger portion of 
which is devoted to an " Alphabetical Series 
of Norman Names and Families from the 
'London Post Office Directory.'" I think this 
book will amply answer the above query, as 
its author states that one-third or more of the 
English population is of Norman origin, and 
substantiates his statements by testimony 
from the 'Rotuli Hundredorum,' 'Testa de 
Neville,' 'Proceedings of the Curia Regis,' 
' Pipe Rolls, temp. Henry I. and II.,' ' Rotuli 
de Libertate of King John,' and other works 
of authority. 

It seems to me a pity that such a work 
should be anonymous, for the learning and 
labour requisite to its production would lend 
dignity to a name already honoured. 


Boston, U.S. 

S. ix. 48). Has not R. W. B. confused the 
two George Fleetwoods 1 As I make it out, 
the regicide George, who died in America, 
was the brother of the well-known Charles 
Fleetwood, Cromwell's son-in-law. Sir George 
Fleetwood, his cousin, knighted in 1632, was 
the Swedish baron, and died in Sweden in 
1667 (see Noble's 'Lives of the Regicides'). 
So much interest, and at the same time 
obscurity, attaches to the later generations 
of the Fleetwood descent that any little 
item of addition is most welcome. Possibly 
R. W. B. may be able to note something 
further from the wills he has examined. 

W. D. PINK. 

DAY-SCHOOL TEACHERS (9 th S. ix. 69). I have 
a great collection of Sunday-school material. 
[fc has been freely consulted by Mr. Leslie 
Stephen and other biographers of Raikes. 
[t is my impression that the broadsheet in 
the possession of W. I. R. V. was compiled or 
written by the brother of Robert Raikes, who 
eally took a more active part in the manage- 
ment of Sunday schools than his brother, 
:he reputed founder of the institution. The 
:lev. Richard Raikes was a most exemplary, 
oious, and energetic clergyman, and he wrote 
hings for the guidance and promotion of 

9 th S. IX. FKR. 22. 1902.] 



Sunday schools. His brother Robert was th 
proprietor, printer, and editor of the venerable 
Gloucester Journal ; and if I could see the 
broadsheet I could no doubt readily recognize 
the type of Robert's printing office. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury and other in 
fluential men and representatives of in 
fluential bodies have memorialized the Glou- 
cester municipal authorities to repair anc 
restore the Raikes and other Sunday-school 
monuments. The Rev. Richard Raikes was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Mary de 
Lode. His tomb is rapidly decaying, and ii 
it be not speedily repaired it will disappear. 
This is to be deplored, especially when so 
many persons visit Gloucester as the shrine 
of Sunday schools. H. Y. J. TAYLOR. 

3, Falkner Street, Gloucester. 

S. ix. 67). Much collateral evidence may be 
seen at 8 th S. xii. 269. Thomas Scott, the 
commentator, had a sermon and a celebration 
on alternate Sundays at 6 A M. at St. Mar- 
garet's, Lothbury, 1785-8 ('Life,' ninth edition, 
1836, pp. 149-51). See Ration's ' New View of 
London,' 1708, vol. i. p. xxxvii. W. C. B. 

In North Lincolnshire sixty years ago the 
Sunday morning services in the churches 
usually began at ten o'clock, but I have 
heard that in some few places an older 
custom was followed and nine continued to 
be the hour. COM. LING. 

CLAYTON FAMILY (9 th S. ix. 68). In Came- 
ron's ' History of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons in Ireland' John Clayton is named, at 
p. 72, as one of the original brothers of the 
Gild of Barber- Chirurgeons under the charter 
of James II. of 10 February, 1687. In the 
lists of the members of the Gild in the original 
records now in the library of Trinity College, 
Dublin, the name of John Clayton does not 
appear, but in tho first list after the charter 
of James IT., dated 22 July, 1688, one of the 
brothers is given as "John Creighton," with 
"gone away" written after his name. No 
will of any medical man named John Clayton, 
nor grant of letters of administration of his 
effects, is to be found in the Public Record 
Office, Dublin, amongst the records of the 
Prerogative Court, or the Consistorial Court 
of the Diocese of Dublin. 

The ' D.N.B.' is in error in describing the 
father of Robert Clayton, Bishop of Clogher, 
as "Dr. Robert Clayton, minister of St. 
Michael's, Dublin." He was the Rev. John 
Clayton, M.A., rector of St. Michan's, a 
totally different parish from St. Michael's, mentioned in the Act 9 Will. III. c. 16 

(Ir.), by which the old parish of St. Michan's 
was divided into three distinct parishes. As 
the Rev. John Clayton does not appear to 
have been a graduate of the University of 
Dublin, he is possibly the John Clayton, son 
of Richard Clayton, of Preston, co. Lancaster, 
who obtained the degree of M.A. at Oxford 
in 1682 (see Foster's ' Alumni Oxonienses '). 

E. T. B. 

CUCKLAND (9 th S. viii. 384, 510). Because 
Cuckhamsley Hill, in Berkshire, seems to be 
the A.-S. Cwickelmes-hlce'tv, it certainly does 
not follow that all our cucJc names are from 
Cwichelm. Cuck is normally a variant of 
cock: cf. Chaucer's cokkoiv = cuckoo, and 
cokewold= cuckold. HY. HARRISON. 

WARLOW FAMILY (9 th S. ix. 9). The name 
of Warlow is an old Pembrokeshire name, 
yet it is not of Welsh origin. Neither is it 
Flemish nor Norman, but most probably of 
Danish or Norse origin. It is found as a 
surname in Pembrokeshire about the time of 
Henry III., and occurs several times in the 
Bronwydd MS. in connexion with the district 
of Kemeys, a district which was conquered 
by a Norman knight, Martin of Tours. 

There was a Thomas Warlaugh who died 
in 1274, and there is extant an agreement 
between him and Robert de Valle respecting 
lands at Morvill and Redwalles ('Arch. 
Cambren.,' 1862, p. 27, supp .). Then there 
were David and Philip Warlagh or Warla, 
whose names occur on several Latin docu- 
ments in connexion with Newport, Pern. 
'Fenton, p. 72, appen. ; 'Arch. Cambren., 1 
1862, p. 60; Owen's 'Pern.,' p. 189, part ii.). 
There does not appear to be a pedigree of 
the family published, but the name appears 
several times in ' Dwynn's Visitations ' (vol. i. 
pp. 74, 116, 168, 175, 244). It is also found in 
Law's ' Little England beyond Wales,' p. 432. 
There is a river and town of the name of 
Warnow in Mecklenburg, indicating a Norse 
origin. H. A. R. 

A similar question appeared in ' N. & Q.' 
upwards of forty-four years ago (2 nd S. iv. 69), 
to which no reply has been given. The 
querist then suggested that the name was 

Flemish, and that it might be connected with 
Warlock, through the softening of the final 

etters of that word. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

EAST INDIA BADGE (9 th S. ix. 67). The 
[ndexes of * N. & Q.,' under ' Merchants' 
Marks,' will reveal many references which 
Furnish several ingenious explanations of this 
figure 4. W. C. B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

68). A portrait of the well-known warrior 
Hannah JSnell, who fought and was wounded 
twelve times at Pondicherry, and was 
pensioned by the Duke of Cumberland, will 
be found in the Victoria Gallery of the 
Chelsea Public Library. It may be added 
that Mrs. Spragg, "who, long declining 
wedlock and aspiring above her sex and age, 
fought under her brother, with arms and 
manly attire, in a fire-ship against the French 
for six hours on the 30th June, 1690," is 
buried in Old Chelsea Church. The sentence 
quoted above is part of the inscription on 
her monument there. CHARLES HIATT. 

Your correspondent includes, under the 
above heading the Chevalier d'Eon, who at 
his death was proved to have been a male. 
His portrait will be found in Kirby's 
' Wonderful and Eccentric Museum,' 1820, 
vol. iv., and Wilson's ' Wonderful Characters/ 
1821, vol. iii. There is a biographical sketch 
in Granger's ' Wonderful Museum,' 1807, 
vol. v., but no portrait. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

There is a portrait of "Phebe Hassel, 
aged 106," in Hone's ' Year-Book,' p. 105. In 
the account of this redoubtable woman which 
accompanies it is the following note : 

"In looking over the drawings of Mr. Chatfield, 
the artist (No. 66, Judd Street, Brunswick Square), 
I found a line full-sized portrait of Phebe Hassel, 
which that gentleman sketched at Brighton in 
her lifetime, and has obligingly copied for the 
engraving before the reader." 

Several notes concerning Phebe or Phoebe 
Hessel, or Hassel, have appeared during the 
last year or so in the Antiquities column of 
the East London Advertiser. A drawing of 
her gravestone in Brighton Churchyard is to 
be found in 'Curious Epitaphs,' by William 
Andrews, F.R.H.S. (1899). 

Some twenty years ago I remember seeing 
a biography of the Chevalier d'Eon which 
contained a number of portraits taken at 
various periods of his life. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

484 ; ix. 56).- A pedigree of the Denholms or 
Denhams of Westshield, deduced from Andrew 
Denham of Braidstain, who married Marion 
Liddell, heiress of Westshield, will be found 
prefixed to the memoir of Sir James Steuart 
Denham, Bart., of Colt-ness and Westshield 
which forms part iii. of the ' Coltness Collec- 
tions, printed for the Maitland Club 1842 

In the churchyard of the parish of Dunlop 

co. Ayr, stands a monument which includes 
effigies of the Janet Denharn mentioned at 
the first reference, and the Kev. John, alias 
Hans Hamilton, her spouse, with an inscrip- 
tion. It was erected in 1642 by the first 
Lord Clanboyes. An outline engraving of it 
faces p. 24, part i. vol. i. of ' Selections from 
the Family Papers preserved at Caldwell/ 
printed at Glasgow, also for the Maitland 
Club, in 1854. R. E. B. 


NAME (9 th S. viii. 504 ; ix. 30).- Kinborough 
is not unlike Cyneburgh, but Kimmerjum 
seems far removed from " Cyneburgh's home." 
And still a place so pronounced (but spelt 
Kimmerghame) has perhaps from this begin- 
ning derived its very curious name. It lies 
(mansion-house, mains, and mill all called 
alike) in the centre of the Merse in Berwick- 
shire. On the north it is bounded for two 
miles by the river Blackadder. On the south 
it runs to within a mile of the old Saxpri 
village of Swinton. In the later centuries 
the name has altered little. In Bleau's 'Atlas,' 
c. 1648, it is spelt Kymmerjemm ; but when 
we get back to the early Coldingham char- 
ters in Raine's 'North Durham,' it assumes 
quite a different character. In charter dxliii., 
date c. 1240, we find it as Kymbringeham and 
Kinebriggeham ; in charter cxvii., datec. 1200. 
it is Kyneb'gham ; in charters ccccxxxv. and 
ccccxxxvi., date c. 1100, it is Cynebrihtha and 
Cynebritha ; and in charter vii., also c. 1100, 
it is Chynbrygh a m. Now DR. MURRAY quotes 
Bseda to the effect that in 653 Cyneburgh, 
daughter of King Penda of Mercia, was 
married to Alchfrid, son of Oswiu, King of 
Northumbria. Perhaps he will tell me if he 
agrees with my idea that Kimmerghame was 
this lady's Northumbrian home. 

I ought to add that Kimmerghame is under 
fifty miles from Bewcastle. There stands the 
celebrated cross erected in memory of Alch- 
frid's victory, and on it, according to the newly 
published history of Cumberland, the name 
of Cyneburgh is clearly decipherable. 


The Wed more parish registers record the 
baptism of Kimboroe, daughter of James 
Montague, on 11 September, 1584. In Feb- 
ruary, 1609, she (Kinbora) is married to 
Richard Reriion. In December, 1661, she 
(Kinborough) is buried. S. H. A. H. 

S. viii. 461). The paragraph preserved by 
MR. HIBGAME, giving the origin of this name, 
does not contain any mention of the fact 
that the " pond " was a famous ducking-pond 

9. g. ix. FKB. 22, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


attached to Ball's tavern. Cunningham had 
seen a token of this tavern, with that name 
upon it, of the reign of Charles II., and 
quotes the following from D'Avenant, 'The 
Long Vacation in London' ('Works,' 1673, 
p. 289) : 

But Husband gray now comes so stall, 
For Prentice notch'd he strait does call : 
Where 's Dame, quoth he, quoth son of shop, 
She's gone her cake in milk to sop : 
Ho, ho ! to Islington ; enough ! 
Fetch Job my son and our dog Ruffe ! 
For there in Pond, through mire and muck, 
We '11 cry hay Duck, there Ruffe, hay Duck. 

Thomas Cromwell, in his 'Walks through 
Islington,' 1835, p. 198, says that the tavern 
was the " Salutation," and that the token 
alluded to represented two male figures in 
the costume of the day, each bowing, hat in 
hand, while an inscription surrounds them 
and covers the reverse, containing the words 
"John . Ball . at . the . Boarded . House . 
neere , Newington . Greene . his . penny." 

1612 (9 th S. viii. 464). * Lea Lauriers de 
Nassau ; ou, Description des Victoires gagnees 
par les Etats du Pays-bas sous la Conduite 
du Prince Maurice de Nassau,' fol., Leyden, 
1615. It is considered only a translation of 
the last piece of the Dutch work ' Nassaure 
Laurekrans,' by Jo. Jans Orlers ende Hen- 
rich van Haustens, fol., Leyden, 1616. 


LADY LOUISA STUAET (9 th S. viii. 505). 
Although I am unable to answer MR. LEVI'S 
inquiry, it may interest him to know that 
some long and interesting communications 
relating to this lady appeared in 5 th S. iv. 
484, 524 ; v. 110, 177, 193, 256, 313. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

CHRISTIANS (9 th S. viii. 521). It is stated 
that the Jews so late as 1736 were at Avignon 
and other parts of the Pope's dominions 
compelled to wear hats of a yellow colour 
(Atkenceum, 16 April, 1898, p. 493). 

Southey, quoting from Kennett's ' Paro- 
chial Antiquities,' says that Henry III. 
ordered that the Jews, when they went 
abroad, should bear on their upper garments 
a badge of two white tablets on the breast, 
made of linen, cloth, or parchment, so as to 
distinguish them from Christians ('Com- 
mon-Place Book,' First Series, p. 460). 

N. M. & A. 

" OWL IN IVY BUSH " (9 th S. vi. 328, 396 ; 
vii. 16, 116). The last reference gives 1678 as 

an early instance of the above proverb. The 
following quotation from Miss Ciuwys- 
Sharland's recently printed (from MSS. in 
the British Museum) ' Story Books of Little 
Gidding, 1631-2,' p. 221, goes still further 
back. The Guardian is relating to his little 
community in the great hall of the manor 
house a story of Sir Thomas More's about 
the disagreement of a jury in the Pypouder 
Court at Sturbridge Fair : 

"Nay, stay, I pray, Mr. Dickinson (that was his 
name\ sayde the Southerne [the other jurors were 
North-Country men] Jurer ; meethinks both reason 
and law are on the defendants part. With that 
they all fell upon him, as an Oule in an ivie bush. 
With what doe your two eies see more than our two 
and twenty ? " 

The "Pypouder Court" was a temporary 
court held at the principal fairs to dispose of 
petty cases on the spot : 

" From Fr. pied and poudre because the litigants 
are commonly country people with dusty feet : or 
from the Dispatch in determining the Causes even 
before the Dust goes off from their Feet." Bailey, 


Little Gidding. 

STONE PULPIT (9 th S. viii. 325, 394, 489 ; 
ix. 56). Another famous stone pulpit is that 
in the ancient refectory of the Abbey of 
St. Werburgh (now Chester Cathedral) ; the 
room was used for many years for the 
grammar school. I was at school there from 
August, 1875, to the spring of 1877, when the 
school was transferred to the new building 
between the cathedral and the Town Hall 
Square. A fine plate (by J. H. Le Keux) of 
the pulpit and its details will be found in 
Mr. J. H. Parker's ' Mediaeval Architecture of 
Chester ' (1858). Mr. Parker says : 

"The eastern part of the refectory, now the 
King's Grammar School, is a very fine Early English 
vaulted chamber, with a beautiful stone pulpit and 
staircase to it, one of the finest examples vre have 
remaining. The windows at the back of this 
beautiful pulpit and of the passage leading to it 
have unfortunately been walled up ; it would be a 
great and easy improvement to have them reopened 
and glazed." 

This has never been done. The room is now 
used only as a practice-room for the 
cathedral choir. The good Churchmen of 
the Chester diocese could not more fitly 
celebrate the coronation of King Edward VII. 
than by opening out this fine room to the 
original length, and filling its windows with 
really good stained glass. 


A choice little engraving of the stone 
pulpit standing south-east of the Abbey 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

Church at Shrewsbury appeared in the 
Mirror of 30 March, 1833. JOHN T. PAGE. 
West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

PEARLS A CURE FOR CORNS (9 th S. ix. 10). 
Two or three years ago I was told by the 
shampooer at the Doncaster Turkish Baths 
that pearl buttons dissolved in lemon juice 
would cure corns. It never occurred to me 
that this was " folk-lore " based on ^ the 
doctrine of " signatures," but I dare say it is. 
I thought it quite possible that the citrate_of 
lime might penetrate and bring about pain- 
less extinction and exfoliation of the corn, 
tried it, and persevered for perhaps three 
weeks running, but could not tell that it 
did the slightest good. I should now have 
more faith in the solution with excess of 
lemon juice, which may have answered in 
some cases, or still more in lemon juice 
alone. J. T. F. 

In response to a query from MR. RATCLIFFE, 
I write to say that the recipe for corn-curing 
which he gives is not new. I have ssen it 
elsewhere, but believe vinegar was to be used 
in it, not )emon juice. There seems to be 
some misunderstanding about the material 
of which "pearl buttons" are made this is 
"mother-of-pearl," not the marine gem itself. 

B. B. 

I should like to say that, to my personal 
knowledge, this quaint remedy has been used 
for many years in Yorkshire. In Driffield, in 
the East Riding, also in Whitby thirty years 
ago, I knew several people who used it. As 
to_its efficacy I can speak favourably, having 
tried it with advantage to myself. 


REV. ANTHONY WARTON, 1657 (9 th S. ix. 47). 
This is the second occasion on which 
A. C. H. has made inquiries respecting this 
divine, the author of ' Refinement of Zion,' 
London, 1657. I now refer him to 1 st S. ii. 
56, an interesting communication of MAGDA- 
LENSIS, to which no reply ever appeared. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

THE YOUTHFUL YEAR (9 th S. viii. 484; 
ix. 57). I am obliged to W. S. for amending 
my Citation. I have now come to the con- 
clusion that Dante did not count the age of 
the year in the Tuscan mode, but that he 
followed the prescription of Boniface VIII 
who, according to Sir Harris Nicolas's 
Chronology of History,' p. 191, began "the 
year at Christmas, which custom was fol- 
lowed by nearly all his successors in the 

centur y" J do not quite follow 
T. WILSON'S argument. The sun enters 

Aquarius on 20 January, and if the poet's 
year began on the 1st of that month, he had 
more right to call it " youthful " than if it 
had been born with Advent, though in 
either case the epithet would be appropriate. 


AN OLD CHARM (9 th S. ix. 49)." Naadgrass 
Dyradgrass " seems to be Welsh. If I am 
correct in this surmise, the proper spelling 
would be " Na ad gras, Dyro dy ras," and the 
meaning " Prevent not grace, Give Thy 
grace." Unless C. C. B. is quite sure of his 
reading, I would suggest as more probable, 
" Naad dy rass, Dyw dy rass," for "Na ad dy 
ras, Duw dy ras" (Prevent not Thy grace; 
God, Thy grace). Both these supplications^ 
but especially the latter, are well known as 
bardic mottoes. Mediaeval charms of this 
kind, made up of phrases from Latin and Greek 
liturgies, interspersed with Welsh words, 
were common in the Principality right down 
to the early part of the nineteenth century. 
The most usual form had its origin in an 
ancient prayer attributed to St. Augustine 
of Hippo, which appears in a MS. French 
Book of Hours of the early fifteenth century, 
in my possession. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

BURIAL OF A SUICIDE (9 th S. viii. 502 ; ix. 
96). It is possible that the story mentioned 
by MR. HARRY HEMS, of a Frenchman being 
buried near Reigate head downwards, may 
have had its origin in the following facts. 
Mr. Richard Hull built a tower on Leith Hill, 
in the parish of Wotton, in the year 1766, 
and, dying in 1772, was buried in the base- 
ment. Old folks in the neighbourhood told 
me, some twenty years since, the same story ; 
but there is no foundation for it. He was, 
no doubt, buried in the tower, but my inquiries 
resulted in my being assured that he was 
buried in the usual way ; all the rest of the 
story is fiction. Leith Hill tower was 
repaired by Mr. J. P. Perrin, who purchased 
the property after Mr. Hull's death. It is 
now in the possession of Mr. J. Evelyn, of 
Wotton, who repaired and heightened the 
tower. The hill is 993 feet above the level of 
the sea, and on a fine day parts of some ten 
counties can be seen from it. 



ix. 9). -The Morgans of Arkstone, in the 
county of Hereford, were a junior branch of 
the widely distributed Herbert clan, whose 
chief is Col. Ivor John Caradoc Herbert, 

9* S. IX. FEB. 22, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of Llanarth, C B., C.M.G., D.S.O. Col. 
Herbert is alone entitled to bear the un- 
differenced arms of Herbert, to wit, Per 
pale azure and gules, three lioncels rampant 
argent. Like some other offshoots of this 
male stock, Morgan of Arkstone bore 
different arras, viz., Argent, a lion rampant 
sable, ducally crowned or. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 


The Life of Napoleon I. By John Holland Rose, 

M.A. 2 vols. (Bell & Sons.) 

NUMEROUS and important as are the books con- 
cerning Napoleon, no historical collection can afford 
to dispense with this latest addition. Mr. Rose 
has scarcely had canvas enough for the picture he 
has sought to paint. Many details have had to be 
hurried over, and the design in places is blurred. 
The necessity for compression renders the language, 
and sometimes the idea, obscure, and the passages 
in which occur explanations of the impossibility of 
carrying further a portion of the argument are 
numerous. These things are inherent in the scheme, 
and we are compelled to accept the book as it is 
planned and executed by the author. The work might 
have been better had double the amount of time been 
spent on its composition and double the amount of 
space been awarded to the exposition. It is excel- 
lent, however, as it is, and we are only justified 
in going behind the author's purpose and aim so far 
as to say that there are times when we should be 
thankful for more. Mr. Rose's book is a specimen 
of the rewritten histories which must in time 
replace in almost all cases the half -informed and 
often prejudiced compilations of earlier days. The 
influence of the opening of the archives of Simancas 
to English research, and the careful investigation 
of those of Venice, have, for instance, rendered 
necessary a recasting of the history of Tudor times. 
In history, as in other things, there is no finality, 
and further research opportunities for which 
multiply as international jealousies, so far as access 
to literary documents is concerned, diminish 
leads to a constant reshaping of facts and recasting 
of judgments. It is curious that close investigation 
into those portions of our archives embracing the 
period covered by the Napoleonic wars should have 
been long deferred. This has, however, been the 
case, and Mr. Rose is practically the first to bring 
to bear upon the career of the great French emperor 
the information contained in our national archives. 
This constitutes the chief value of his important 
and profoundly interesting volumes. Not wholly 
consoling is it to read of the ineptitude of the 
British Government after the death of Pitt, of the 
disastrous consequences of aristocratic jobbery, of 
widespread corruption, and of disloyalty on the 
part of a political opposition which the author 
denounces as lack of patriotism. To the study of 
these things the merest tiro in history is accus- 
tomed, and he is a sanguine man who expects to 
find more gratifying reading in the records of 
present or future campaigns. 

Little in the present work is more striking than 
the contempt Napoleon displayed for English diplo- 
macy a contempt so justified that the student 
accepts it as inevitable, and shrugs his shoulders 
over it as part of the appanage shall we say 
as the curse? of our race. It is natural that, 
though the work deals with the entire career 
of Napoleon, the most interesting portion should 
be to English readers the descriptions of the 
sustained struggle against England, the most 
resolute and, thanks to her insular position, the 
most triumphant of Napoleon's opponents. Of the 
men arrayed against Napoleon three only can come 
into any sort of comparison with him, and these 
were all Englishmen Pitt, Nelson, and Welling- 
ton. Anything approaching to an adequate review 
of Mr. Rose's work is not to be expected. Every 
episode in the career of Napoleon is of highest 
interest, and we turn as ^reluctantly from the man 
of Toulon and of Vendemiaire as from the con- 
queror of Marengo, of Austerlitz, and of Jena, the 
fugitive from Moscow, the defeated of Waterloo, 
and the prisoner of St. Helena. We can but take 
a few distinct and distinguishing assertions or 
opinions of the author. Of the French Revolution 
he says that discontent and faith were the ultimate 
motive power: "Faith prepared the Revolution, 
and discontent accomplished it." The three writers 
whose influence on revolutionary politics was to be 
definite and practical were Montesquieu, Voltaire, 
and Rousseau. With purely speculative writers 
he concerns himself no more than with such half- 
unconscious agents as Beaumarchais. As his is a 
history of Napoleon, and not of the Revolution, 
such omissions are excusable. In his short and 
valuable preface Mr. Rose quotes the words em- 
ployed by Napoleon to Gallois: "Je n'aime pas 
beaucoup leu femmes, ni le jeu, enfin rien : je suis 
tout cl fait un etre politiqiie." This shows the point 
of view from which the book is written. Mr. Rose 
avowedly treats with special brevity the years 
1809-11, which he considers to represent the con- 
stans cetas of the emperor's career, and has dedi- 
cated proportionately more space to showing how 
Napoleon's "continental system was setting at 
work mighty economic forces that made for his 
overthrow, so that after the debacle of 1812 it came 
to be a struggle of Napoleon and France contra 
mundum" It is pleasant to find from the same 
preface that British policy comes out the better 
the more fully it is known. Beginning in feeble- 
ness and ineptitude, it attained to firmness and 
dignity, and "Ministers closed the cycle of war 
with acts of magnanimity towards the French 
people which are studiously ignored by those who 
bid us shed tears over the martyrdom of St. Helena." 

Of Napoleon's passion for Josephine in the days 
of the Italian campaign an interesting account is 

iven, Marlborough's letters to his peevish duchess 
uring the Blenheim campaign being " not more 
crowded with maudlin curiosities than those of the 
fierce scourge of Austria to his heartless fair." The 
"facile fondnesses" of Josephine welled forth far 
too widely "to carve out a single channel of love 
and mingle with the deep torrent of Bonaparte's 
early passion." With these passages will naturally 
be compared those when the position was changed, 
it may almost be said reversed. Nelson's career 
in Naples" the worst Court in Europe" is un- 
sy mpathetically treated, and that hero is said to have 
tarnished his fame on the Syren (sic) coast. Napo- 
leon's behaviour at Jaffa is held to compare favour- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. FEB. 22, 1902. 

ably with that of Cromwell at Drogheda. Specia 
attention is merited by the passages descriptive o 
the events of Brumaire, when Napoleon, Sieves 
and others ran imminent risk of the guillotine. T 
the disaster of Marengo British dilatoriness i 
shown to have contributed. At vol. i. p. 335 i 
quoted a valuable document showing the contemp 
felt, at the period of the Peace of Amiens, in the 
Parisian salons for the conduct of the British 
Government. After this it is pleasant to read o 
the behaviour of Wellesley, "our great proconsu 
at Calcutta, by whose foresight our Indian Empire 
was preserved and strengthened." Not half waj 
are we through the passages we marked for com 
ment in the first volume, and those in the seconc 
have not yet been approached, yet we must stop 
So limited is the space that we can, under the 
most favourable conditions, award to reviews tha 
in the case of a work of this kind, which we hav< 
diligently perused, we can deal with no more than 
an occasional point. The book is pleasantly written 
though the epithets used in describing battles are 
perhaps necessarily, sometimes conventional. Peru 
sal is, however, a pleasure rather than a task, anc 
once begun is quitted with difficulty. Many an 
hour has in our case been stolen from sleep in order 
to continue the study. The illustrations are 
numerous and well selected, and the maps are 
useful. Nothing is wanting to the book so far as 
regards enjoyment, and as a work of reference it if 

The Vowel-Sounds of the Ea*t Yorkshire Folk-Speech 
By the Rev. M. 0. F. Morris, B.C.L. (Frowde.) 
MR. MORRIS has in a previous volume proved his 
intimate acquaintance with the folk-speech of East 
Yorkshire, and in the present brochure he endea- 
vours to make plain to outsiders how its vowel- 
sounds are pronounced. He essays to do this, not 
by any scientific method of phonetics, such as the 
glossic of Mr. Alexander Ellis, bub in a popular 
and untechmcal way, by the rule of thumb, which 
is in this case the rule of rime. On the whole, he 
succeeds better than might be expected in giving 
us a fair idea of the pronunciation. Many of its 
peculiarities may be traced to Scandinavian in- 
fiuences, and in particular to the dialect of West 
Jutland. It is rather amusing to find Mr. Morris 
m the very sentence in which he reprobates " new- 
tangled Americanisms" himself expressing a pre- 

W rdS Whlch have " a 

VI Part I., Part //., and Part III. 
3 vols. \\ ith an Introduction and Notes by 
(Ben & SonsV lllustrations b y B Yam Shaw. 
THE latest additions to the lovely " Chiswick 
Shakespeare comprise the three parts of ' Kin" 
Henry VI ' edited and illustrated in the sane 
admirable fashion as the previous volumes. On 
the question of the authorship of the three plays 
Mr Dennis has little to add to the current op?S 
that, though Shakspeare took them and stain jed 
portions of them with the seal of his genius thev 
are not wholly his. The subject, which ha! '4 en 
rise to endless controversy, and will continues to 
do, is not to be opened out afresh. Each volume 
has its separate glossary and notes. In none of th^ 
plays yet given to the world are Mr. Byam Shaw's 

Croivns and Coronations : a History of Regalia. By 

William Jones, F.S.A. (Chatto & Windus.) 
A REISSUE of the excellent account of ' Crowns and 
Coronations' by the erudite author of 'Finger- 
Ring Lore ' is a natural outcome of the approach- 
ing ceremonial. In the volume, which extends to 
six hundred pages, and swarms with illustrations, 
a summary the first, so far as we remember 
of coronations in all ages of the world's history is 
given. Nearly nineteen years have passed since 
the first edition saw the light, and so thoroughly 
was the work done that neither change nor addition 
has been found necessary. During this period it 
has been in constant use on our shelves as a work 
of reference. Under present conditions it deserves 
to be restudied, and is sure to be frequently con- 

MR. HERBERT CHITTY has reprinted from the 
Wykehamist of December a few copies, for private 
circulation, of An Index of Names of Winchester 
Scholars in the 'Dictionary of National Biography.' 
The list, which is large and brilliant, extends from 
1401 to 1854. Mr. Chitty was himself a commoner 
of the college, and is a contributor to our columns. 
Corrections which he has made therein reappear in 
his pages. 

MR. E. H. W. DUNKIX, of The Heath, Fairlight, 
Hastings, writes : " May I draw the attention of 
your readers to a society lately formed for printing 
records relating to the county of Sussex ? if those 
interested in such matters would become members 
of the society, and forward their subscription (one 
guinea) to Mr. Turner, The Castle, Lewes, the 
important work promoted by the society would be 
greatly encouraged. The first volume, now in the 
press, will be ' Sussex Marriage Licences (1586- 
1642) for the Archdeaconry of Lewes.'." This 
volume is sure to interest American genealogists. 

We must call special attention to the following 

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CONTENTS. No. 218. 

NOTES : "Famous Scots," 161" Brod," 162' Dictionary 
of National Biography': Notes and Corrections, 163 
Holts at, Winchester Georges I .-IV. "Double Joes," 
14 " Shinnanickin' " : " Hannicrochemens," 15 Por- 
trait of Erasmus "Le premier pas "-Isle of Dogs- 
Amazon, 165 "Opodeldoc" " Penile" Sir H. Crom- 
well, 166. 

QUERIES : London Library Catalogue Brook and Brookes 
Families Household of George III. Shakespeare's Voca- 
bulary Gurbs or De Gurbs Barony, 167 Huxley as 
Reviewer Hymn of St. Peter Damiani "Cissura Roba- 
rnm Wallensium " Arms of Le Neve Foster Titian's 
1 Sacred and Profane Love ' ' Sweet Richard ' * La 
Blanche Fee ' Parish Registers, 168 J. D. Acland 
Descent of the Tsar Sir W. Damsell Apple-tree Folk- 
lore, 169. 

REPLIES : Henry VIII., 169 'Palatine's Daughter' 
Sarpi's 'Letters Staun ton, Worcestershire, 170-SirG. 
Fenton Black Armlet Bristow Bibliography of Bicycle 
Earl of Cromartie. -171 Split Infinitive " Stream of 
tendency" Dickensiana, 172 Portraits of Early Lord 
Mayors Line of Browning James the Deacon, 173 The 
Mitre, 174 Fleetwood Miniature Crispe Desborough 
Portraits Duels -Heyford School Rules " With affection 
beaming "Black Bottles for Wine Musicians' Company 
The Feast and the Reckoning, 175" High-faluting "- 
Parentage of Caesar Borgia Moat's ' Stenography ' The 
Earth Mother, 176 " Single-Speech" Hamilton Filbert 
English in the Last Crusade Aeronautics, 177 Milton : 
Tract on Logic Herrick : Silver-pence, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Coleridge's 'Poetry of Byron,' 
Vol. V Lord Ronald Gower's 'Tower of London' 
Shaw's ' Essays and Papers of Richard Copley Christie ' 
Lamb's 'King and Queen of Hearts ' Keane's 'Gold of 

Dr. S. R. Gardiner. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


IN the December number of the Pall Mall 
Magazine Mr. W. E. Henley somewhat rudely 
dispels cherished illusions regarding the late 
Mr. R. L. Stevenson. Apparently there are 
two main points in Mr. Henley's contention : 
(1) Stevenson was in large measure the crea- 
tion of Mr. Henley ; and (2) the designer is 
dissatisfied with the admiration now lavished 
on what he calls "this faultless, or very 
nearly faultless, monster." In the fashioning 
process there was no aiming at monstrous 
results at all, but now, apparently, we have 
a vivid illustration of the tendency in ill- 
considered transactions to come home to 
roost. Mr. Henley will not recognize the 
Stevenson that never returned from America, 
because that is not the finished product which, 
in his own words, " I knew, and loved, and 
laboured with and for, with all my heart and 
strength and understanding." One recalls 
the supreme agony of Frankenstein, simi- 
larly wrestling with the tortures supervening 
on the untoward development of his strange 
creation. He, too, was cruelly exercised by 
the unexpected wonders that sprang up in 

the wake of his "very nearly faultless mon- 
ster " after that agent had fairly struck out on 
his own account. He fled afar, and made every 
effort to avoid him, but his sin was prone to 
find him out even in the uttermost parts of the 
earth. He exhausted his ingenuity in dis- 
covering every possible contiguity of shade 
that would hide him, and every vast wilder- 
ness in which he might roam in lonely 
misery ; but the creature of his heart and 
strength and understanding was ubiquitous, 
hopelessly present, even as mocking Care that 
sits behind the horseman. Mr. Henley, too, 
struggles to get free from Stevenson, but 
finds him in constantly recurring biographies, 
monographs, estimates, and what not. He 
avoids his books those painful products of 
the hard toil by which he nourished their 
author into strength and he seeks the 
pleasant shades of Lamb and Hazlitt, the 
romantic retreats of Scott and Thackeray and 
Dickens, nay even the universe of Shake- 
speare itself, only to find that his efforts are 
all in vain. R. L. S. is with him, and will 
not be denied, and the world is now asked to 
sympathize with his mourning. 

Meanwhile trustful souls have accepted 
Mr. Henley and certain journalistic henchmen 
as impeccable prophets on their own showing, 
and have duly completed the solemn apo- 
theosis of Mr. R. L. Stevenson. Mr. Henley's 
abortion has been formally and triumphantly 
exalted into high places. Not only have 
cousins and others written his biography, as 
one of those whose burial-place Pericles 
declared to be the world, but his school- 
fellows have been allowed to blossom into 
purring authorship on the strength of 
intimate acquaintance, and writers of lite- 
rary text- books have solemnly recognized 
him as one of the potent forces of letters in 
these decadent days. If he is not a shepherd 
of the seals he is at least a triton of the 
minnows, and there is infinite pother over 
his inherent greatness. The publishers of a 
series of books under the general title of 
" Famous Scots " distribute a prospectus of 
their monographs with ornamental covering, 
prominent on which are prints representing 
the most distinguished Scotsmen of all time. 
To simplify identification they considerately 
print the names under the respective portraits, 
which (taken chronologically) are found to be 
John Knox, Robert Burns, Walter Scott, and 
R. L. Stevenson. Thus do we find what Mr. 
Henley has to answer for ! It is not as a 
man of letters only that this " nearly faultless 
monster " wins distinction here, but it is as 
a representative Scotsman. The series, of 
which he and his compeers are taken to be 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

outstanding ornaments, includes books on 
patriots like Wallace and Bruce, on phy- 
sicians, statesmen, poets, historians, and yet 
Stevenson is the only one among them whose 
genius the publishers and their advisers have 
deemed worthy of being associated with the 
three about whom there is no possibility ot 
doubt. This concrete presentment is a 
striking illustration of the work accomplished 
by Mr. Henley and his coadjutors. They 
persisted in comparing Stevenson with Scott ; 
he was not, they admitted, his equal in 
invention and breadth of work, but he had 
that charm of style which Mr. Henley now 
says palls upon his taste ; and, at any rate, 
it was safe to assert that he was the foremost 
of Scott's successors. The general result is 
that, apparently, no one of the Scottish 
" makers " is so great as Stevenson in the pre- 
sent estimate of his influential fellow-country- 
men ; that Knox is the only man between 
them and Burns that can be considered on 
the same page with him ; and that he and 
Sir Walter Scott represent the nineteenth 
century together and alone. Allan Ramsay, 
Hume, Smollett, Robertson, Christopher 
North, Sir William Hamilton, Thomas 
Carlyle to mention only a few men of 
letters, and to exclude statesmen and 
warriors altogether are of a lower order of 
greatness, according to the prevalent method 
of estimate. If due effect is to follow the 
pathetic expression of Mr. Henley's sorrows 
there will need to be a revision of view. But 
perhaps the mischief has already reached too 
far, and time alone may be expected to adjust 
the perspective. THOMAS BAYNE. 


AMONG the Scottish proverbs given by Ray 
in the second edition of his 'Collection of 
Proverbs,' 1678. is this one, " It is hard to 
fling at the brod (a stick that children use 
when they play at penny-prick) or kick at 
the prick." In the sense in which it is there 
used, brod meant a goad, such as was used 
for driving oxen, a straight and pointed 
weapon. Hence another Scottish saying, or 
a variation of the same one, " He was never 
a good aver that flung at the brod," mean- 
ing a draught ox that resented the use of 
the goad, kicked at the prick. 

Another meaning of the word was a flat 
piece of wood, such as the top of a table, 
from which it came to signify the small table 
or stool placed at church doors in Scotland 
to receive the contributions of the congrega- 
tion for the poor. In some churches these 
collection stools had no plate or basin, but 

merely the top scooped or hollowed put for 
the reception of coin. On all occasions an ; 
elder stood by to watch and guard and be 
responsible for the safe custody of the amount 

Robert Burns makes no mention of lifting 
the collection by ladles, nor does he use the 
word brod, but he writes : 

When by the plate we set our nose, 
Weel heaped up wi' ha'pence, 

A greedy glow'r Black Bonnet throws, 
An' we maun draw our tippence. 

In Mr. Colville's admirable little book, 
'Byways of History,' the following mention 
is made of one of the items in a Glasgow 
merchant's ledger about the year 1621 : 

" Here occurs the interesting item of half a dozen 
kirk stools. For long after this period pews were 
unknown, the worshippers carrying their folding 

creepies to church with them Often the stools 

remained in the charge of the beadle, from whom a, 
stranger might obtain the use of one fora considera- 

I think these six stools must have been for 
church door collections. Half a dozen would 
have been a very small number to supply as 
seats for worshippers at even one church on 
ordinary occasions, and there were often over- 
flow congregations in a tent in the church- 
yard at Communion times. Folding or clasp 
stools, and chairs too, were used in great 
numbers. In the records of the kirk session 
of Kilmarnock, under date 1676, mention is 
made of 

" the great oppression that is in the church floore 

through a multitude of chaires whereby many 

old deserving women cannot win neir to heir 

sermon The session doe unanimouslie conclude 

that ther be only five score chaires in the kirk 

And in the records of the kirk session of the 
West Church (St. Cuthbert's), Edinburgh, 
there is an entry as to a " Visitation of Pres- 
bytery"^ 1711, when among other "utten- 
cills " found in possession were " six pouther 
basons " and " six wanscot stools for the 
collections." I remember that in some of the 
larger churches in Edinburgh in the early 
fifties of last century it was customary to 
have two plates at each of the entrances in 
St. Stephen's Church, for instance, which 
had three entrances. 

Gait, in his 'Ayrshire Legatees' (Slack- 
wood's Magazine, July, 1820), makes more 
than one allusion to church-door collections ; 
but his spelling of brod is peculiar : 

" We had taken a gold guinea in our hand, but 

there was no broad at the door I asked at him 

for the plate No wonder that there is no broad 

at the door to receive the collection for the poor." 

In the story of the eccentric elder at 



Mu thill, as told by Dean Ramsay, brod is 
used in the double sense of a goad and an 
instrument for taking a collection : 

" As he went round with the ladle, he reminded 
such members of the congregation as seemed back- 
ward in their duty, by giving them a poke with 
the brod, and making in an audible whisper such 
remarks as these, ' Wife at the braid mailin, mind 
the puir'; 'Lass wi' the braw plaid, mind the 
puir.' " 

By about the year 1715 it had become 
customary in many Scottish churches to 
have a large black board on which were in- 
scribed the names of benefactors, and this 
was known as the legacy brod. 

A board for the game of draughts used to 
be known in Scotland as a dambrod hence 
the common name, still in use, of the dambrod 
pattern in articles of napery. 

The boards of a book were often called 
brods, as, for example, in the following quota- 
tion from a kirk session's records in 1 703 : 
"For a calf's skinn to be a cover to ye Kirke 
bible. For dressing ye skinn bought to cover 
ye Kirke bible, and alm'd leither to fasten ye 
cover to ye brods." 

We read, too, of painted brods paintings 
on wood. W. S. 



(Continued /row 9 th S. vi. 325.) 

Supplement, Vol. I. 

P. 83 a, 1. 2. For " afterwards " read noiu. 

P. 160 b, "Tangiers"; 161 a, " Tangier." 

Pp. 169-71. W. J. E. Bennett also published 
a pamphlet on the Mackonochie case 
4 Obedience to the Lesser ; Disobedience to 
the Greater.' 

P. 194. Edward Bickersteth, Dean of Lich- 
field, took a Licence in Theology at Durham ; 
see more in the Durham University Journal, 
x. 80-1. 

P. 204 a, 1. 14. For "John Edward" read 
Edward John. 

P. 212. Blagdon's ed. of Dr. Johnson's 

* Poems ' was published by Suttaby & Crosb} 1 
in 1806. 

P. 228 b, 1. 17. For " afterwards " read noiu . 

P. 229 a. " Washington " ? probably What- 

P. 230. Boehm's Jubilee coins were not 

P. 251 b, 1. 38. For " and February " read 
February and March. 

P. 256 a, "Wilshere"; 257 b, "Wilshire." 

P. 260 b. " Brantirigham, near Barnart 
Castle, Durham." Brantingharn is near 
Brough, on the Humber, in the East Riding 
of Yorkshire. 

P. 284 b, 1. 5. "Parental legislation." 
'erhaps paternal may be intended. 

P. 321 b, 1. 27 from foot. Correct press. 

P. 344. George Burnett. The controversies 
>etween him and Joseph Foster should be 
nentioned. See also the Genealogist, N.S., 
vi. 213-5. 

P. 358 b. George Butler, "admitted ad 
eundem " what 1 

Pp. 359-60. Dean Butler printed his West- 
minster School Commemoration Sermon, and 
also one in memory of Canon Liddon, in 
Lincoln Cathedral, 1890. 

P. 381 b. Sir Alex. Campbell. For " vil- 
age of Heydon " read town of Hedon. His 
'ather, James Campbell, described as of 
Hedon, surgeon, a bachelor, married at 
Hedon, 31 July, 1811, Lavinia Scatcherd 
Roberts, of that place, spinster. For Thomas 
Sandwith, father of Sir Alexander's wife, see 

D.N.B.,' vol. 1. 281 b. 

P. 396 b. W. L. R. Gates. " Articled clerk " 
must be an error ; he could not attempt " to 
establish a practice" before he had been 

P. 418. Mrs. Charles's first publication was 
' Light in the Dark Places ; or, Memorials of 
Christian Life in the Middle Ages,' translated 
from Neander, 1850, without her name. 

P. 421 b, 1. 29. Correct press. 

Vol. II. 

P. 7, 1. 11 from foot. Correct press. 

P. 9 b, 1. 7. For " Paschal " read Pascal. 

P. 58 b. " Returned to Gainsborough." 
Nothing has been mentioned of her having 
been there before. 

P. 59 a, 1. 4 from foot. For u Bason's " read 

P. 123 b. For "afterwards " read now. 

P. 124 a, 1. 8 from foot. " Pseudepigraphia"? 

P. 128. Archd. Denison also printed ' The 
Present Persecution. A Letter to the Lord 
Bishop of Rochester' (on the Tooth case), 
1876, and 'Some Outlines of the History of 
Philosophy. A Paper read at Hull,' 1879. 

Pp. 130-1. William Denton. See more of 
him in Church Times, 6 January, 1888 ; Church 
Quarterly Review, ii. 260 ; Spurgeon, * Com- 
mentaries ' ; he also printed a sermon, 
' Christianity, True Manliness,' preached at 
Forest School, Walthamstow, 1875. He was 
a contributor to ' N. & Q.' He married Jane, 
youngest daughter of William Hurst Ash- 
pitel ; she died at St. Leonards - on - Sea, 
9 September, 1901. 

P. 175 b. Edersheim was not Grinfield 
Lecturer in 1890, for he died in March, 1889. 

P. 232 a. For " Sedburgh " read Sedberyh. 

P. 255 b, 1. 3. For " Mary's " read Mary. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

P. 268 b. The Durham degree was p.C.L., 

n Pp. 330-2. Sir Henry Goodyer. There are 
three epigrams in John Owen's collections, 
one being on the death of his wife. 

P. 445. "Present." In other places after- 
wards " has been used. 

Vol. III. 

P. 1. Bishop W. How. See Durham Univer- 
sity Journal, xii. 414, 428. 

Pp. 62-3. Samuel Kettlewell. See Durham 
University Journal, x. 197-8. 

P. 78, Dean Lake. See more of him m 
Durham University Journal, xii. 464 ; xiii. 
48, and elsewhere. 

P. 78 a, 1. 2 from foot. For ' court s read 

P. 78 b, 1. 17. For " Katherine " read Katha- 

P. 91. Mr. Lenihan was a contributor to 
< N. & Q.' See 8 th S. ix. 40. 

P. 215 b, Vergil ; 216 b, Virgil. 

P. 216 b, 1. 10 from foot. Correct press. 

Pp 221-3. F. W. Newman. See Athenceum, 
9 October, 1897 ; ' N. & Q.,' 9 th S. i. 251. 

P. 293. Sims Reeves. The Illustrated London 
Neivs, 11 December, 1847, p. 388, has a por- 
trait of him as Edgardo. 

P. 374. Sir Arthur Sullivan. See Illus- 
trated London Neivs, 12 April, 1862, p. 365. 

P. 397 a, last line. For " Bishopsthorpe " 
read Bishopthorpe. 

P. 507 b. Mary Ward's inscription at 
Osoaldwick is as follows : " Toloue the poore 
perseuer in the same liue dy and Rise with 
them was all the ayme of Mary Ward who 
Hauing Lived 60 years and 8 days dyed the 
20 of Jan. 1645." 

Throughout the ' Dictionary ' the exact 
dates and places of the consecration of 
bishops, and the names of the conse- 
crators, might well have been added. In 
many of the biographies it is not stated 
where the person spent the bulk of his life. 
"University College" is often mentioned 
without the needful addition of " London," a 
tiresome and pretentious way of writing, not 
a little ridiculous in the eyes of Oxford men. 
The stupid phrase "ill-health" occurs time.' 
out of count. W. C. B. 

HOLTS AT WINCHESTER. In the life in the 
'D.N.B.,' vol. xxvii. p. 202, of Sir John Holt 
(1642-1710), the famous Chief Justice of the 
King's Bench, it is stated that he was 
"educated at Abingdon Grammar School, 
Winchester College, and Oriel College! 
Oxford"; but, so far as Winchester is con- 
cerned, this statement is not supported by 

the authority cited for it, Wood's 'Athense 
3xon.,' iv. 505. I cannot find any record that 
Sir John Holt was a Wykehamist, and sus- 
pect that the statement in the * Dictionary ' 
.s erroneous. Can any reader throw light 
upon this matter ? 

The statement is possibly due to confusion 
between Sir John Holt and the Mr. Holt, 
M.P., who on 18 June, 1689, upon the question 
whether Sir Edward Herbert should be 
excepted from the Bill of Indemnity, informed 
the House that he had his education at 
Winchester College with Herbert, and pleaded 
in vain for his old schoolfellow (Cobbett's 
Parl. Hist.,' v. 336). Mr. Cotton Minchin, 
in 'Our Public Schools.' identifies this 
member with Henry Holt, Winchester scholar 
1660 (Kirby). But according to the * Return 
of Members,' the only Holt then in the House 
was Richard Holt, M.P. for Lymington, 
Hants. I should be grateful for particulars 
of this Richard Holt. He is not mentioned 
in Mr. Kirby 's ' Scholars,' and I therefore 
suppose that he was a commoner at 

The above Henry Holt was a soldier who, 
after acting as adjutant of the Holland 
Regiment, became colonel of the Duke of 
Bolton's Regiment on service in the West 
Indies. He was afterwards colonel of a regi- 
ment of marines, and rose to be lieutenant- 
general (see Dalton's 'English Army Lists'). 
He died in Cecil Street, Strand, on 19 Decem- 
ber, 1714 (Le Neve's 'Monuments,' 293). In 
1699 he married Lucy Hare, of Docking, 
Norfolk (Harl. Soc. Publ., xxiv. 234), who 
proved his will (P.C.C , 25 Fagg). The 
probate shows that Mr. Kirby's statement 
that Henry Holt was knighted is incorrect. 
Who were his parents 1 H. C. 

GEORGES I.-IV. (See ante, p. 100.)-There 
is a version of the lines which opens more 
crisply than the one here cited : 

Vile as George the First was reckoned, 
Viler still was George the Second. 


"DOUBLE JOES." It has been stated in 
some of the daily papers that an enterprising 
American, immediately on the issue of King 
Edward VII. 's stamp, addressed 10,000 letters 
to himself with Queen Victoria's stamp and 
Edward VII.'s stamp, under one post-mark, 
dated 1 January, 1902. These treasures he 
is retailing at a dollar each, and the trade 
name is " Double Joes," a name that was 
formerly given to gold coins of Ferdinand 
and Isabella with the heads of both sove- 
reigns on the face. " Double Joes " can still 
be manufactured, but they can no longer be 



given the historic post-mark of 1 January, 
1902. As the name is likely to survive, it 
may be as well to note its origin. 


Most words among the major parts of 
speech carry with them their own pictures, 
so to speak ; and it would appear that these 
two words have companion pictures that may 
be described as of the bizarre order. The 
first is frequently used as a Lanes dialect 
word, and perhaps most often in the Liver- 
pool district, but it is not to be found in the 
three glossaries of the vernacular that I have 
consulted. In a mild sense it means "sham- 
mocking," "shaffling," or, as polite speech 
has it, " shuffling." But there is a spirit of 
contention, and a putting forth of methodical 
effort, suggested by shinnanickin* that these 
meanings do not naturally convey. It may 
be an Irish slang word. If due allowance 
is made for the plurals, Cotgrave's mean- 
ings for the word hannicrochemens pro- 
vide the best synonyms. He gives for the 
O.F. word "subtilties, entanglements, cavils, 
troublesome vexations." M.F. uses and spells 
the word differently ; and indeed in the six- 
teenth century it took the form '* anicroche- 
ments," as when a certain M. le connetable 
was instructed to make "quelques petits 
anicrochements " (see Littre, Supplement, 
s.v. ' Anicroche ') This, too, was shinnanickin'. 

titled ' Plantz, Povrtraitz et Descriptions de 
Plvsievrs Villes et Forteresses,' by Antoine 
du Pinet (fol., Lyon, 1564), occurs on p. 78 a 
woodcut portrait of Erasmus, said to be taken 
from the life. It is three-quarter face, and 
looks to the right. On his head he wears a 
cap, and round his neck a fur collar. The 
size of the woodcut is 4 in. by 3j in. The 
author speaks thus of it : 

"Apres la description de Germanic, ie ne veux 
oublyer de mettre le pourtraict du Grand Erasme, 
lequel i'ay recouure d'vn mien amy Alleman, qui 
1 auoit fait au vif. Car encores fait-il bon voir la 
physionomie de ces grans personnages, qui ont eu 
vn esprit diuin & celeste : yeu que ceste representa- 
tion induyt encores les homes a les admirer Et 

par-ainsi veu que nostre Erasme (ie le diz nostre, 
car il nous a bien seruy) a tant illustr^ nostre Siecle 
par ses oeuures diuines, ie ne me suis contente vous 
taire entendre qu'il estoit de Roterdam, ville mari- 
time de Hollande : ains ay bien voulu monstrer 
par son pourtrait, fait au vif, que ce petit corps 
(car il estoit bas de stature) a seruy d'organe k vn 
esprit autant diuin, & autant excellent qui ayt este 
depuis Cicero." 

It is not mentioned in Larousse, * Grand Die. 
Univ. du XIX. JSiecle,' where there is a fairly 

full account of the portraits of Erasmus, but 
doubtless some reader of * N. & Q.' will be 
able to name the artist. 


I should be glad to learn what is the 
authentic story of the origin of this saying. 
I dimly remember its being attributed to 
Voltaire (or some other wit), who was asked 
by a lady, "Can it be really true that 
St. Denis walked all the way from Mont- 
martre to Paris with his head in his hand ? " 
to which query came the answer, "Ah, 
madame, ce u'est que," &c. In a review in 
the Times Literary {Supplement of 14 February 
I find the following sentence : 

" It was this Cardinal [the ' gifted but indolent ' 
Cardinal Polignac] who, when remonstrating with 
a sceptical lady, related that St. Denis carried his 
head in his hand for a distance of seven leagues, 
and received for a reply, ' C'est le premier pas qui 
coute.' " 


31, Kensington Square, W. 

["II n'y a que le premier pas qui coute." 
Madame Deffand, Lettre k d'Alembert, 7 Juillet, 

"II n'y a que le premier obstacle qui coute a 
vaincre, la pudeur." Bossuet, * Pensees Chretiennes 
et Morales,' ix. 

Le premier pas, mon fils, que Ton fait dans le monde, 
Est celui dont depend le reste de nos jours. 

Voltaire, ' L'Indiscret,' I. i.] 

ISLE OF DOGS. The meaning of this name 
now given to Poplar Marsh has often been 
discussed, or rather guessed at, with the aid 
of fiction, instead of looking to its origin, 
which it seems to me at once explains it. 
Elizabethan maps notably the one repro- 
duced in Bruce's report on the defences of 
1588 show that the name belonged then to 
a small islet a mud bank off the south- 
west corner of the marsh, which, from its 
situation, must have been a trap for every 
dead dog or cat that came down the river. 
The channel between the islet and the main 
has long ago been silted up ; perhaps the 
islet itself has been washed away ; and dead 
bodies of all kinds, no longer trapped there, 
are now stranded on the opposite shore, 
where the burying of those of one class is a 
regular charge on the rates. But the name 
Isle of Dogs has been extended to the whole 
marsh, and a mythical kennel invented to 
account for it. J. K. LAUGHTON. 

AMAZON. The ordinary derivation of this 
word (a- and /*aos, from a supposed mutila- 
tion, probably invented to account for it) is 
said by Prof. Skeat, in his 'Etymological 
Dictionary,' to be " perhaps fabulous," which 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

expression is repeated in the errata and 
addenda to his third edition, with the addi- 
tion, "and the story an invention intended 
to satisfy a popular craving for an ety- 
mology." But Prof. Eidgeway, in 'The Early 
Age of Greece,' vol. i. p. 651, puts before us 
the much more probable theory that the 
word means that that people were very far 
from being vegetarians, the true etymology 
being from a- and /xafa. This is suggested 
by a passage in J^schylus ('Suppl.,' 283), ra<s 
avavSpo^s Kpeo/Bopovs 'A//,a^oi^a5, the husband- 
less, flesh-eating Amazons. This may be new 
to some of your readers, and worth a corner 
in 'N. &Q.' W. T. LYNN. 


[The 'H.E.D.' in its first part, issued in 1884, 
stated that the Greeks explained the word as from 
a and /iao, but Dr. Murray added that this was 
probably a popular etymology to explain a foreign 

"OPODELDOC." (See 7 th S. vi. 167, 316.) 
Dr. Murray will soon arrive at this word, 
and he may be glad to know that a discussion 
has recently taken place in one of the organs 
of the drug trade as to what opodeldoc really 
is. In one or two cases that I have noticed 
the definitions of popular names of drugs: 
given in the ' H.E.D.' have not been quite 
correct. In the Lap Leisurely section, for 
instance, lapis infernalis is said to signifj 7 
lunar caustic. It is true that under 'Infernal ' 
quotations are given which seem to justify 
this definition, and it is also true that lunar 
caustic has this name assigned to it in some 
continental pharmacopoeias ; but I believe I 
am correct in saying that in England it is 
almost invariably given to caustic potash. 
I rely partly on my own experience, which is 
fairly wide, and partly on what I find in our 
dispensatories. These, without exception, so 
far as my own collection goes, give the name 
to caustic potash if they mention it at all. 
My collection of these books is not a large 
one, but it begins with Culpeper (1654) and 
ends with Phillips (1851). 

The opodeldoc of Paracelsus was undoubt- 
edly a plaster, but he gives several different 
formulas for it. The first occurrence of the 
word in English (so far as I know) is in a 
version of the ' Chirurg. Min.' of Paracelsus, 
published in 1656 under the title ' Paracelsus 
his Dispensatory and Chirurgery,' in which 
the translator invariably uses the form oppo- 
deltoch, and applies it to a plaster. How it 
afterwards came to be transferred to a lini- 
ment composed mainly of soap I do not know 
but from the notes of different correspond- 
ents of _ the Chemist and Druggist, and an 
article in that journal, under date 1 Feb., 

I gather that the first saponaceous prepara- 
tion to which it was given was the Unguen- 
tuin opodeldoch of the Edinburgh Pharma- 
copoeia, 1722. The name, however, continued 
in use for a time in the old sense, for an 
Emplastrum opodeldoc, founded on that of 
Paracelsus, appears in Alleyne's 'Dispen- 
satory,' 1733. In 1744 the Edinburgh Un- ' 
guentum took the name Balsamum sapona- 
ceum, vulgo opppdeldoch ; and in 1745 it 
appeared, in a simplified form, in the Lon- 
don Pharmacopoeia, under the name Lini- 
mentum saponaceum. Of this preparation the 
Linimentum saponis of the present British 
Pharmacopoeia is the lineal descendant, and 
to this, in England at any rate, the name 
opodeldoc is generally applied. In the 
Merchant Shipping Acts (1867), however, for 
some unknown reason, opodeldoc is described 
as liniment of opium, which is really com- 
posed of equal parts of soap liniment and 
tincture of opium ; and on the Continent 
the name is given to a preparation based on 
Steers's Opodeldoc, a famous nostrum of the 
eighteenth century, which was, I believe, an 
imitation of the old Edinburgh Unguentum 
opodeldoch, with the addition of ammonia. 
In Scotland, I understand, liniment of opium 
is frequently sold as opodeldoc, in accordance 
with the Acts of Parliament just mentioned. 
It is to be hoped that in the 'H.E.D.' the 
word will be properly defined. C. C. B. 

"PENILE" IN 'NERO CAESAR.' (See ante, 
p. 22.) The Ptev. L. Davies, in his ' Supple- 
mentary English Glossary,' gives an earlier 
quotation for penile, from Speed's ' Hist. 
Great Britain ' (1611), bk. ix. chap. xii. 

H. P. L. 

SIR HENRY CROMWELL. I am not aware 
whether the following reference has been 
noticed by writers on the Cromwell family : 

"Also Igiveandbequeathetoeitherof Sir Henry 
Cromwell Knighte and to the ladye his wife and to 
every one of theire children a black gowne apiece." 

I have extracted it from a copy (which 
lately came into my possession by the death 
of a near relative) of the will of Sir Thomas 
White, Knt., citizen and alderman of Lon- 
don and merchant tailor, the will being 
in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. It 
is dated 8 Elizabeth, being the 8 November, 
1566, and the year of his death. This Sir 
Thomas is the well-known founder of St. 
John's College, Oxford. 

The grandfather of the great Oliver was 
Sir Henry Cromwell, Knt., and as Oliver 
was born in 1599 the dates and name would 
agree with the conclusion that the friend of 
the founder of St. John's was the grand- 



father of the Protector, whose father, there- 
fore, would have received one of Sir Thomas's 
black gowns. D. J. 

$ turns, 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

following is the final list of queries 
which have arisen during the preparation 
of the new catalogue now in the press. All 
ordinary books of reference and catalogues 
have been consulted, and if there is a query 
about an apparently well-known person it is 
because there is disagreement between two 
or more authorities. Will persons who are 
kind enough to answer these queries give the 
exact source of their information, without 
which no statement can be accepted 1 

(1) Wanted full Christian names and par- 
ticulars of : 

Levy (le President de). Journal Histor. ou Fastes de 

Louis XV. 2 vols. 1766. 
St. Marie (Count). Algeria in 1845. 1846. 
Scott (Col. ), K.S.F., K.C. Journal in the 

Esmailla of Abd-el-Kader, &c. 1842. 
Smith (Edgar). Letter to the Chancellor of the 

Exchequer proposing that Public Stocks should 

be rendered Transferable, &c. 1852. 
Stewarton ( ). Revolutionary Plutarch. Fourth 

edition, 1805. The Female Revolutionary 

Plutarch. 1806. Memoirs of Talleyrand. 1805. 

Secret History of the Court and Cabinet of St. 

Cloud. 1806. 
Walker (Mrs.)- Eastern Life and Scenery, with 

Excursions in Asia Minor, &c. 2 vols. 1886. 
Warren (le Comte Edouard de). L'Inde Anglaise en 

1843. 3 tomes. 1844. 
Wickham (J. A.). Synopsis of Doctrine of Baptism. 

Williams (D. E .). Life and Correspondence of Sir 

T. Lawrence. 2 vols. 1831. 
Williamson (A.). British Industries and Foreign 

Competition. 1894. 

Wilson (Mrs. R. F.). The Christian Brothers. 1883. 
Wood (C. F.). Yachting Cruise in the South Seas. 

Wylde (A. B.). '83 to '87 in the Soudan. 1888. 

(2) Who are the authors of the following ? 

Commonplace Arguments against Administration, 

with Answers. 1780. (? Richard Tickell.) 
Scenes and Adventures in Spain. 1835-40. By 

Poco Map. 2 vols. 1845. 

State of the Nation. 1765. (? D. Hartley, M.P.) 
Viking, The. By M. R. 1879. 
Volunteer. The True History of the Origin of our 

Volunteer Army. 1867. 
Vonved the Dane. 1861. 
Warm Corners in Egypt. By " One who was in 

Them." 1886. 
White Witch, The. 1884. 

Whitecross and the Bench. By author of 'Five 

Years' Penal Servitude.' 1879. 
Wild Flowers from the Glens. By E. L. L. 1840. 

(? Eliza Lynn Linton.) 

(3) Are these the same person ? 
Douglas (J. W.). World of Insects. 1856. 
Douglas (John William). British Heuiiptera. Vol. I. 

Rutherford (John). Fenian Conspiracy. 1877. 
Rutherford (John). The Troubadours. 1873. 
Stead (Alfred). How to grow Peaches. 1886. 
Stead (Alfred) and Mackenzie (W. D.). South 

Africa. 1900. 
Stuart (J. M.). Ancient Goldfields of Africa. 1891. 
Stuart (J. Maitland;. How No. 1 became li in 

Norway. 1890. 
Taylor (Augustus). Poems. 1874. 
Taylor (John William Augustus). Translator of 

Vinet (A. R.), Solitude Recommended.' 1841. 
Westoby (W. A. S.) Adhesive Postage Stamps of 

Europe. 1898-1900. 
Westoby (W. A. S ). Legal Guide for Residents in 

France. 1858. 

(4) Is the following a pen-name 1 
Search (Simon). Spirit of the Times. 1790. 


Secretary and Librarian. 
[Perhaps R. B. may be willing to supplement the 
information with regard to " Poco Mas" which he 
gave 9 th S. i. 413.] 

glad if any persons interested in genealogical 
and historical facts concerning these families 
will kindly communicate with me, in view of 
publishing a general history of the Brook, 
Brooke, and Brookes families of Great Britain 
and her empire. FRED. HITCHIN-KEMP. 

6, Beechfield Road, Catford, S.E. 

your correspondents inform me where it 
would be possible to find the names of the 
tutors of Prince Adolphus, son of George III.? 
I should be greatly obliged for help, as this 
is the only clue possessed of a relative whom 
it is desired to trace. CLIFTON. 

that some ingenious person once took the 
trouble to produce a list of the words that 
he believed to occur in Shakespeare's plays 
for the first time in English literature, and 
that such list contains some 2,000 words. As 
an instance of misdirected ignorance this 
must be interesting ; and I shall be very 
grateful to any of your readers who will send 
me a post-card to say where that list may be 
consulted. ROBT. J. WHITWELL.. 

70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

Gurbs, Surrey, matriculated at King's Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, in 1823, and took the degree 
of M.A. there in 1829 as Button Prizeman 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

i.e., the most distinguished graduate of the 
year. He appears to have been known in 
later life as the Baron de Gurbs. Informa- 
tion is desired as to this barony. Q. K. B. 

HUXLEY AS REVIEWEE. In Darwin's 'Life 
and Letters,' vol. ii. p. 189, Huxley wrote : 
"The only review I ever had qualms of 
conscience about, on the ground of needless 
savagery, is one I wrote on the ' Vestiges. 
I believe Mr. Huxley's review of the 'Vestiges 
of Creation ' was written about 1853. Can 
any of your readers tell me where it was 
published? FRANCIS DARWIN. 

Botanical Laboratory, Cambridge. 

or any of your correspondents inform me in 
what work (easily procurable) I can find the 
Latin version of St. Peter Damiani's hymn 
"Ad perennis vitse fontem rneus sitivit 

1, Higher Brimley Terrace, Teignmouth. 

[This hymn of Cardinal Damiani is given in 
Loftie's ' Latin Year, 3 p. 124, ' Dominica Quarta a 
Trinitate,' Pickering, 1873. This is not a common 
book, but some one may possibly be able to copy 
the poem for you at the British Museum or else- 
where. But for its length we would ourselves have 
quoted it. The 'Latin Year' is a book to be 
secured when it is found. Daniel's ' Thesaurus 
Hymnologicus,' Mone's 'Hymni Latini Medii ^-Evi,' 
and Trench's ' Sacred Latin Poetry ' will probably 
contain it ; but these we do not possess.] 


the account of Robert de, 
Cofferer of the Wardrobe, 1330-32, in MS. 
Tanner 197, fp. 54 b, are two entries, marked 
in the margin " Cissura robarum Wallen- 
sium " : 

" Audoeno ap yeuan & viij. sociis suis sagittariis 
Wallensibus de dono Regis pro cissura robarum 
suarum, cuilibet xijd. per manus dicti Audoeni 
ibidem [so. apud Bere Wicum super Twedam] xxiij 
die Aprilis, ix,s." 

"Johanni le Waleys & Ade Gough sagittariis 
Walensibus de dono Regis pro cissura robarum 
suarum vtrique \ijd. per manus dicti Johannis 
ibidem secundo die Maij, ij,s\" 

Are there any contemporary pictures showing 
in what way the Welsh dress had to be 
modified to suit that of English archers ? 

O. O. H. 

this family, I believe, are Argent, on cross 
sable five fleurs-de-lys. The crest is a lily 
springing from ducal coronet. I should like 
to know the family motto. P. L. N. F. 

One or two years ago appeared in an English 
review or weekly paper a very interesting 
note on the so-called 'Amore Profano e 

Sacro,' the famous picture of Titian in the 
Galeria Borghese. It was said that in a 
Paris edition of the * Argonautica ' of Valerius 
Flaccus, printed in the middle of the six- 
teenth century, a copy of the 'Amore Divino 
e Profano ' figured as a frontispiece, and that 
the tenor of the masterwork would be Venus 
persuading Medea to fly with Jason. I shall 
feel obliged for the name of the publisher. 


' SWEET RICHARD.' In Miss Strickland's 
' Lives of the Queens of England,' vol. i., in 
the account of the life of Isabella of France, 
second wife of Richard II., occurs a reference 
to a ballad composed by Owen Glendower 
entitled 'Sweet Richard.' Can any one 
furnish information as to where the words 
of this ballad may be found ? E. A. M. 
[See 8 th S. ix. 388.] 

'LA BLANCHE FEE.' Can any of your 
readers tell me the name of the author and 
publisher of a French song called 'La 
Blanche Fee,' which I used to hear some 
forty years ago in Paris and Versailles 1 


Castle Pollard, Westmeath. 

TECTION. I should like an expression of 
opinion from some of your readers more 
experienced than I am in such matters on 
the following state of affairs, which through 
a search made recently in the marriage 
registers of a certain parish (the parish shall 
be nameless in order to wound no suscep- 
tibilities) was disclosed to me by the corre- 
spondent who had undertaken the search on 
my behalf. 

I was not seeking the date of the marriage 
that I knew already but I wanted to 
prove the existence at that date of a certain 
person, who was, I believe, one of the 
witnesses signing the record of that marriage, 
and accordingly I asked for a complete copy 
of that certificate of marriage. The reply 
comes back that the original registers, up to 
a certain date late in the eighteenth century, 
have been recopied and then destroyed. The 
copies omit the names of the witnesses and 
other matter not judged material, the object 
seemingly having been to reduce the number 
of volumes to be stored. The destroyed 
registers have therefore been replaced by a 
record taken from them, or purporting so to 
have been, which contains at the head of each 
page a note of the year, and then, in two 
columns, the precise date of the particular 
marriage in one column, and the names of 



the couple who were married on the corre- 
sponding line in the adjoining column. Each 
page of this list is signed by the curate and 
the two churchwardens at foot, as having 
been examined and found correct. 

I confess that the whole proceeding seems 
to me monstrous, and possibly, if a title or 
inheritance were at stake, the courts might 
hold that this copy of a portion only of a 
missing register could not be accepted as 
evidence. As to the suppression of the 
witnesses' names, apart from other objections, 
the whole picturesqueness of an entry is 
gone when the materials for reconstructing 
that family party have been taken away. 

H. G. K. 

JOHN DYKE ACLAND, DIED 1778 Is it known 
whether this soldier and politician was ever 
at Harrow School? "J. D. Acland " is 
apparently cut upon one of the panels in the 
fourth-form room ; but the first letter may 
be only a clerical error for "T.," and the 
tenth and eleventh baronets (Sir Thomas D. 
Acland) were undoubtedly at the school. 


St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

DESCENT OF THE TSAR, At the time of the 
Crimean war it was stated in various news- 
papers that the Tsar of Russia was a lineal 
descendant of Jingis Khan. Can this be 
proved, or was it a mere guess or fable 1 

N. M. & A. 

one of the knights made at the coronation of 
Queen Mary in 1553. M.P. for Arundel in 
1555, and for Hastings 1563-7. His will 
proved in 1582 in P.C.C., wherein he is 
described as " of London." Any informa- 
tion as to his parentage, &c., will oblige. I 
believe that at one period he was on the 
Council of the Welsh Marches. 

W. D. PINK. 

APPLE-TREE FOLK-LORE. Why is the apple- 
tree specially connected with Christmas ? 
That it is so the ancient rites of our cider 
counties bear witness. Moreover, con- 
tinental customs show that the same belief 
is held abroad. 

To begin with, in Courland apple-trees are 
struck with a stick on the first day of Christ- 
mas, so that there may be a good crop of 
fruit (W. Mannhardt, * Der Baumkultus der 
Germanen/ p. 276). And in Swabia a violent 
wind at Christmas foreshows a fruitful year 
(Birlinger, ' Volksthumliches aus Schwabeu,' 
vol. i. p. 466), while in Voigtland they say : 
" If the wind shakes the trees well at Christ- 
mas there will be much fruit." Also : " If 

much * Rauchf rost ' is on the trees there will 
be much fruit" (Kohler, 'Volksbrauch im 
Voigtlande,' pp. 341, 342). The wind is also 
imagined to be potent in Berry, where it is 
said : 

Plus les avents sont venteux 
Plus les vergers sont plantureux. 
For the peasant asserts that high winds 
blowing during " les avents de Noel " render 
the trees fruitful (Laisnel de la Salle, ' Croy- 
ances et Legendes du Centre de la France,' 
vol. ii. p. 279). 

The Montenegrins place the remains of the 
Christmas log between the boughs of young 
fruit-trees to promote their growth ('Der 
Baumkultus,' p. 225). 

According to Baader (' Volkssagen aus dem 
Lande Baden,' p. 47), apple- trees bloom, cast 
their flower, and bear fruit during the 
Christmas matins ; and from Gerard's ' Land 
beyond the Forest' (vol. ii. p. 44) we learn 
that on Sylvester Night that is, New Year's 
Eve bright moonlight means full granaries 
among the Transylvanian Saxons, which 
seems an allied belief, as does the German 
notion which teaches "so many stars to be 
seen in the heavens on Christmas night, so 
many 'Mandeln' of corn at harvest" ('Der 
Baumkultus,' p. 234. See also ' Volksthum- 
liches aus Schwaben,'i. 465). The Normans, 
it may be remarked, will tell you, " If the 
sun shines on St. Eulalia's day there will be 
more than enough apples and cider" (F. 
Pluquet, ' Contes Populaires de FArrondisse- 
ment de Bayeux,' deuxieme edition, p. 130), 
the Voigtlanders being of opinion, according 
to Kohler (p. 341), that when Michaelmas 
falls in a waxing moon much fodder will 
grow in the following year. M. P. 


(9 th S, ix. 67.) 

IN the first canto of 'England's Reforma- 
tion,' a Hudibrastic poem, generally known 
by the title of ' Ward's Cantos,' the following 
lines occur : 

A blessed race ! 

Race like its parent, whom we find 
A man to every vice inclined, 
Revengeful, cruel, bloody, proud, 
Unjust, unmerciful, and lewd; 
For in his wrath he spared no man, 
Nor in his lust spared any woman. 

The writer (Thomas Ward, 1652-1708) in a 
note refers us to Dr. P. Heylin as his autho- 
rity for the saying. But on consulting the 
atter's principal work, the 'Ecclesia Re- 
staurata; or, the History of the Reformation of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

the Church of England,' this is all that I find : 
"Which brings into my mind a sharp, but 
shrewd character of the king, occurring in the 
writings of some, but more common in the 
mouths of many, that is to say, that he 
* never spared woman in his lust, nor man in 
his anger'" (vol. i. p. 30, Cambridge, 1849). 
It is, therefore, a quotation, but Heylin 
supplies no reference, and, from his indefinite 
language, was apparently ignorant of the 
author's name. The book fust quoted was 
published in 1661, but the phrase is to be 
found in a volume printed exactly twenty 
years before that date. In Sir Robert Naun- 
ton's 'Fragmenta Regalia 'we find it given 
thus: "The atrocity of the father's nature 
was rebated in her [Elizabeth], by the 
mother's sweeter inclinations ; for (to take, 
and that no more than the character out of 
his own mouth) ' he never spared man in his 
anger, nor woman in his lust.'" I quote from 
the reprint in the fifth volume of the ' Har- 
leian Miscellany,' p. 122. But it will take 
much stronger evidence than this to make 
one believe that Henry himself was the 
originator of so cynical a phrase. Until such 
be forthcoming, we may well believe that the 
" character " is, so to speak, a crystallization 
of the sayings of several writers, among 
whom the first is the one cited by Robert 
Burton in his 'Anatomy' (part iii. sec. ii. 
mem. ii. subs, i.) : " Nicholas Sanders relates 
of Henry VIII. (I know not how truly), Quod 
paucas vidit pulchriores quas non concupierit, 
et paucissimas concupierit quas non violarit. 
He saw very few maids that he did not desire, 
and desired fewer whom he did not enjoy." 
Burton's reference is simply "Vita ejus," but 
this must mean the celebrated work ' De 
Schismate Anglicano' (to give the short title 
used by Fuller and Heylin), which was pub- 
lished long before the close of the sixteenth 
century. This is surely authority enough 
for the first part of the saying ; 'if .any be 
wanted for the second, we find it in the words 
of Sir Walter Raleigh in the preface to his 
' History of the World,' p. 8. London, 1614 : 
" If all the pictures and patterns of a merci- 
less prince were lost in the world, they might 
all again be painted to the life, out of the 
story of this king." And yet Peter Heylin 
(who quotes these words), Thomas Fuller, and 
Gilbert Burnet would have us believe that 
this " Moloch's " vices were redeemed by his 
virtues, and that he was a chosen instrument 
of the Almighty to do great things. 


_ In Thomas Ward's 'England's Reforma- 
tion, from the Time of King Henry VIII to 
the End of Oates's Plot, a Poem in Four 

Cantos,' 1716, Henry is described as one 

In his hate spared no man, 

Nor in his lust spared any woman ; 

Who ne'er was rul'd by any law, 

Nor gospel valued he a straw. 

I quote from memory, so may not be 
verbally accurate. K. P. D. E. 

This terrible epigram has been long familiar 
to me as occurring in Naunton's 'Fragmenta 
Regalia.' I quote from the first edition 
(1641), p. 3. Naunton is writing of Queen 
Elizabeth : 

" The atrocitie of the Fathers nature was rebated 
in her, by the Mothers sweeter inclinations for to 
take, and that no more then the Character out of 
his owne mouth, he never spared man in his Anger, 
wor woman in his Lu*t." 

Is it possible that this attribution of the 
words to King Henry VIII. rests on any 
earlier authority than Naunton's ? 

C. E. D. 

' THE PALATINE'S DAUGHTER ' (9 th S. viii. 
505). The bilingual verses quoted may be 
compared with those (A.-S. and Lat.) in the 
' Oratio Poetica,' published in * Be Domes 
Drege' (E.E.T.S.), the reading of which is, as 
will be seen, continuous. I append four 
lines : 

& se soSf testa . sum mi films . 

fo on fultuni . factor cosmi . 

Se of reSelre wres . virginis partu . 

Cl?ne acenned . Christus in orbem . 

The alliteration of luces and virginis may be 
noted, though well known. H. P. L. 

(9 th S. ix. 81). Edward Browne, who was 
collated to the rectory of Sund ridge, Kent, 
on 29 January, 1688/9, was described in the 
certificate of his collation as "clericus, artium 
magister." His degree may possibly provide 
a clue to further particulars of him. Edward' 
Tenison, his successor in the rectory, was 
collated on 12 October, 1698. H. C. 

383, 510; ix. 11, 92, 110). If SIR CHARLES 
DILKE is able to say that there was a family 
of Staunton which derived its surname from 
Staunton in Worcestershire, cadet qucestio. 
The Staunton near Coleford, in Gloucester- 
shire, certainly gave its name to a baronial 
house. Johannes de Staunton and Alicia 
relicta Philippi de Staunton are rated to the 
Subsidy of 1327, under the heading " Libertas 
de S'c'o Briauell', Villa de Staunton," i.e., 
Staunton juxta Coleford. The county his- 
tories seem to imply that it was a Staunton 
of this house who was married to Sir William 1,1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


de Whittington of Pauntley. I should like 
to see the point cleared up. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

SIR GEOFFREY FENTON (9 th S. ix. 107). 
The 'Dictionary of National Biography,' 
vol. xviii., gives a life both of Sir Geoffrey 
(1539 ?-1608) and of his elder brother Edward, 
who commanded the Mary Rose in the fleet 
for opposing the Invincible Armada. They 
were sons of Henry Fenton, of Fenton, 
in the parish of Sturton (formerly Strettpn- 
le-Steeple), Nottinghamshire, and of Cecily, 
daughter of John Beaumont, of Coleorton, in 
Leicestershire. A. R. BAYLEY. 

Sir Geoffrey Fenton was a son of Henry 
Fenton, of Fenton, in Nottinghamshire, and 
of Cecily, daughter of John Beaumont, of 
Coleorton, in Leicestershire (' Diet. Nat. Bio- 
graphy,' vol. xviii. p. 323). A pedigree of the 
Fenton family, comprising sixteen genera- 
tions, from Sir Richard Fenton, Knt., Lord 
of Fenton, to the children of Sir Geoffrey 
Fenton, will be found in 'The Visitations of 
the County of Nottingham in the Years 1569 
and 1614,' edited by George W. Marshall, 
Harl. Soc., vol. iv. p. 33. E. T. B. 

Sir Geoffrey Fenton was the son of Henry 
Fenton by Cecily, daughter of John Beau- 
mont, of Coleorton. Henry Fenton was son 
of Thomas Fenton by a daughter of Thomas 
Burgh, of Burgh, in Yorkshire. His father 
was Ralph Fenton, who married Dorothy, 
daughter of Robert Staunton ; and his father 
Thomas Fenton married Eleanor, daughter 
of Ralph Nevill, of Li versed ge. Alice Weston 
was daughter of Robert Weston by Alice 
Jenyns. H. S. V.-W. 

(9 th S. viii. 520).-The 'H. E. D.,' s.v. 'Knot,' 
sb. 2, and under the date 1708, gives the 
quotation, "The Officers to wear a mourn- 
ing Knot on their left Arm." This badge 
differs from the armlet, but may well be its 
immediate forerunner. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

BRISTOW FAMILY (9 th S. viii. 404). John 
Bristow, of Quidenham Hall, co. Norfolk, 
M.P., Sub-Governor of the South Sea Com- 
pany, was the son of Robert, of London, and 
Catherine, daughter of Robert Woolley, of 
London. He married Anne Judith, daughter 
of Paul Foisin, an East India merchant in 
Paris. He had issue three sons and eight 
daughters : 1. Henry, of Dover Street, Picca- 
dilly, captain in the Coldstream Guards, 
whose four grandsons were in the H.E.I.Co.'s 
military service ; 2. John, President of the 

Board of Trade at Calcutta, represented by 
Bristows of Ensemere Hill, Ulleswater ; 
3. William, who had two sons ; 1. Ann 
Margaret, married the Hon. H. Hobart ; 
2. Catherine, married Lieut-Gen. Hon. Simon 
Frazer ; 3. Louisa, married Tillieux Girardot, 
of Putney ; 4. Frances, married Sir Richard 
Neave, Bart.; 5. Caroline, married William 
Henry, Lord Lyttelton ; 6. Mary, d. umd.; 
7. Harriet, married General Slessor, Governor 
of Oporto ; 8. Sophia, d. umd. 


304, 490, 530; ix. 36, 117). I have received 
an obliging letter from the new vicar of 
Stoke Poges, the Rev. J. F. Hoyle, confirming 
my recollections in every particular. He 
writes as follows : 

" The two figures you ask about have no relation 
to eah other. The child with the ' whirligig ' is 
an infant (? our Lord) on his mother's lap, the latter 
figure some three or four feet in height. The de- 
bated ' bicycle ' is ridden by a very much smaller 
figure, and the treatment of design and colour of 
glass is altogether different from the former. The 
design is something like the enclosed (I draw from 
memory), and the action (in the glass) is not unlike 
that or one pushing or ' paddling ' a hobbyhorse. 
He holds a trumpet as shown (? a primitive bicycle 
bell), and has nothing to indicate an angel." 

Mr. Hoyle's sketch indicates a wooden 
hobbyhorse with a front and back wheel, not 
much more rude in construction than the 
hobbyhorse that immediately preceded the 
"bone-shaker" bicycle, but there is no in- 
dication of any steering apparatus. If there 
was none the machine must have been 
steered as well as driven by the feet, which 
are on the ground. The rider holds a long 
trumpet to his mouth with his left hand, 
while his right appears to be at liberty. 
Perhaps the trumpet was not blown so much 
to give a warning note as to express simple 
joyousness of heart, as the modern " Harry " 
sometimes blows a long paper trumpet now. 

Mr. Hoyle describes the window as made 
up of fragments, thought to be chiefly brought 
from the old Elizabethan manor house, which 
was half pulled down in 1760. 

I think that the Stoke Poges hobbyhorse 
and its rider ought certainly to be repro- 
duced in any work on the evolution of the 
bicycle. J. T. F. 


EARL OF CROMARTIE (9^ S. ix. 107). With 
reference to this inquiry, the Earl of 
Oromartie was not executed, being reprieved 
by the king. It is believed that he owed his 
ife mainly to his wife's intercession. At all 
events, the circumstances of his forfeiture 
and condemnation made so great an irn- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH i, im 

pression on the mind of his wife that on the 
birth of her daughter Augusta (who after- 
wards married Sir William Murray, Bart., 
of Ochtertyre) she was found to have on one 
side of her neck the mark of an axe with 
three drops of blood. J. B P. 

Miss Mary Bagot made a slight slip, as 
George Mackenzie, Earl of Cromartie, was 
not executed, but, at the earnest intercession 
of his wife, received a respite, and in 1749 
was pardoned and allowed five hundred 
pounds a year out of his forfeited estates. 
His attainder was not removed. The story 
of his daughter, Lady Augusta Mackenzie, 
who subsequently became the wife of Sir 
William Murray, of Ochtertyre, is well 
known. Lady Cromartie was enceinte when 
sentence was pronounced upon her husband, 
and in the words of Jesse in his ' Memoirs of 
the Pretenders and their Adherents,' the little 
girl, who was born shortly afterwards, was 
" said to have borne on her neck the evident 
mark of an axe, which had been impressed 
there by the imagination of her mother, 
while labouring under the terrors of suspense 
on account of her unhappy lord." 

Lord Cromartie was captured by a body of 
Lord Sutherland's militia in the dining-room 
of Dunrobin Castle on the eve of the battle 
of Culloden. In 1849 the title of Countess of 
Cromartie was revived in favour of Anne 
Mackenzie, wife of the third Duke of Suther- 
land, and is now borne by her granddaughter. 
In consequence of the Act of Union it 
was necessary to make it a peerage of the 
United Kingdom. W. F. PEIDEAUX. 

THE SPLIT INFINITIVE (8 th S. xii. 205, 375, 
491). In the bedrooms of the Charing Cross 
Hotel may be found one of the most striking 
" splits " in the following : 

"Notice. This Room is protected by Pearson's 
Automatic Fire Alarm Indicator, which upon an 
undue rise of temperature causes the fire bells 
situated throughout the Hotel to instantaneously 
and continuously ring until attended to by the 
fireman on duty." 

The splitting has in this case a distinct 
rhetorical effect, as it seems to me. 

O. O. H. 

"STREAM OF TENDENCY" (9 th S. ix. 68). 
This now common phrase may be traced 
further back than Matthew Arnold, Emerson 
or Hazlitt. In Wordsworth's 'Excursion,' 
ix. 87-90, we find what is, perhaps, its true 
source : 

And hear the mighty stream of tendency 
Uttering, for elevation of our thought, 
A clear sonorous voice, inaudible 
To the vast multitude. 

Here Dr. W. Knight has this note: "A 
phrase familiarized to English ears by Mr. 
Arnold's use of it." Does the word "Eng- 
lish " suggest in any way a possible foreign 
origin ? It is for others to say whether the 
phrase was original with Wordsworth. An 
instance of its use without marks of quota- 
tionone, no doubt, among very many may 
be found in Dr. W. B. Pope's 'Higher 
Catechism of Theology ' (1883), p. 269. 'The 
Excursion' was published in 1814. Hazlitt 
is obviously quoting Wordsworth. 



(9 th S. viii. 324, 426 ; ix. 12). I am not nearly 
so old as Mrs. Gamp would be were she alive 
now, but I remember very well a sort of 
"gambling machine" that was one of the 
chief attractions of the "stalls" that used 
to visit our village on the occasion of the 
annual feast. It consisted of a round board 
divided into compartments, with a revolving 
pillar and index finger in the centre. Each 
of the compartments held an article of 
greater or less value as a packet of sweets, 
a small toy, a bootlace, or what-not some of 
them being very fair pennyworths and others 
very bad ones. We used to pay a penny for 
a spin, and I dare say the excitement round 
the tables at Monte Carlo is not greater than 
ours was while the finger was revolving. I 
do not know whether those machines are still 
allowed. C. C. B. 

In ' London Labour and the London Poor,' 
by Henry May hew, vol. i. p. 204, is a whole- 
page engraving called ' The Coster Boy and 
Girl tossing the Pieman,' from a daguerreo- 
type by Beard. At p. 196 is a description of 
the process, indulged in chiefly, it is said, by 
boys, though the pieman observes, " Gentle- 
men out on the spree at the late public- 
houses will frequently toss when they don't 
want the pies ; and when they win they 
will amuse themselves by throwing the pies 
at one another, or at me." There is a descrip- 
tion given of the not very appetizing materials 
of which the pies were made. The date of 
my copy is 1861 ; but I fancy there is a much 
earlier edition of the work. Times have in- 
deed altered since its issue. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I remember, as a small boy in the early 
sixties, seeing an apparatus on a dial with a 
pointer, where you paid your penny and took 

four chance of getting any article (not a pie, 
think) opposite which the pointer rested, 
in the booths which came in those days to the 



racecourse on the Roodee at Chester, for the 
four days of the Chester May meeting. The 
races were then in the afternoons, and the 
shows were sought after by the children in 
the mornings. 


viii. 485). On 26 April, 1840, Mr. William 
Smith sold at his great rooms, 73, New Bond 
Street, the following lot No. 650, to Mr. 
Molton, Printseller, Pall Mall. It was de- 
scribed as 

" Lord Mayors A View of all the Right Honour- 
able the Lord Mayors of this Honourable City of 
London, &c., beginning at the first year (1558) of 
Her Majesty's Happy Raigne and continued unto 
this present Yeare 1601. Printed at London for 
William Jaggard and Thomas Pauyer, and are to 
be sold at his House in Cornhill, at the Signe of the 
Cat and two Parots, 1601. Portraits in \Vood, of 
all the Lord Mayors during the Reign of Elizabeth, 
with Historical Accounts under each. A highly 
interesting series of prints, in fine Condition and 
presumed to be Unique. From the Gulston Col- 

It would be very fortunate if the name of 
the present possessor could be ascertained. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Thereare numerous portraits of Lord Mayors 
belonging to the City companies and other 
owners. Many of them have been engraved, 
and I have about sixty in my collection, 
starting from Fitz-Alwine, first Lord Mayor, 
1199, down to recent times. J. D. FRY. 

Hadley Hurst, Barnet. 

A LINE OF BROWNING (9 th S. ix. 47). In 
reply to the query as to the meaning of the 

Like the aimless, helpless, hopeless, did I drivel- 
Being who ? 

I would suggest, to begin with, that the 

Eunctuation is bad. The comma after " hope- 
)ss " is unnecessary, as is also the dash after 
" Being." Even the dash before ' Being " is 
not grammatically necessary, but is doubt- 
less inserted to show that there is a pause 
for deliberation before asking the two final 
words of the question. It seems to me that 
the passage would be best printed thus : 
Like the aimless, helpless, hopeless did I drivel? 
Being who ? 

Thus punctuated it may be freely para- 
phrased : "Did I drivel like the aimless, 
helpless, and hopeless 1 And this, too, when 
I was such a man as what shall I say?" 
The passage is very concise, and is only one 
of many instances of how the lack of mental 
discipline in early life induced in Browning a 

habit of putting into words that cannot be 
clearly understood by his readers thoughts 
that were quite clear to himself. So far as 
my experience of him goes, I find the diffi- 
culty of interpretation is frequently enhanced 
by bad punctuation. If from such passages 
one eliminates the stops and proceeds to 
translate into Latin or Greek, one finds the 
connexion between the words becomes much 
clearer. In the above passage " who " is used 
as equivalent to the Latin " qualis," not 
" quis " ; and the present participle " being " 
agrees with "I." The third stanza is an 
answer to the query contained in the last 
two words of the second. In effect, he asks 
of himself : ' ' What sort of man am I really ? " 
and then replies : 

One who never turned his back but marched breast 


The poet confesses that he drivelled like 
the aimless, helpless, and hopeless, and was, 
all the while, he cannot, or will not, at once 
say who. He leaves the answer to the reader. 
After a little pause, we learn from verse 3 
that he is 

One who never turned his back but marched breast 

und so weiter, as the Germans say. 


viii. 359, 488). I was, of course, aware of the 
supposed connexion of James the Deacon 
with Aikbar, but it is not clear that 
Ayksbarghe of the 'Monasticon' is Aikbar. 
Aikbar is now in the parish of Fingal, in 
which parish, as in Patrick Brompton, 
Hawkswell, and most of the neighbouring 
parishes, Jervaulx Abbey owned property ; 
but there is an entry in the 'Valor Eccle- 
siasticus' of the payment by the abbey, 
"Rector' de Patrik Brompton p' pens' sua 
exeunt' de decim' de Ayksbarghe ll. 13s. 4d " 
This would seem to connect Ayksbarghe 
rather with Patrick Brompton. But even 
supposing Ayksbarghe to be Aikbar, and not 
Aysgarth, there remain the Domesday form 
Echescard, the Patent Roll of 1397 Ayksgarth, 
the ' Valor Ecclesiasticus,' 1536, Aykscarth 
and Ayscarth, and Spelman's 'Villare Angli- 
cum,' 1655, Ayskarth, all of which refer without 
a doubt to Aysgarth ; and if Ayksbarghe is 
to be Jakesbargh, then very well also may 
Ayksgarth be Jakesgarth, as I believe it is. 
I was aware also that Canon Isaac Taylor de- 
rived Aysgarth from Asgard : " Asgardby and 
Aysgarth, however, probably refer to Asgard, 
the home of the gods" (' Words and Places/ 
222, od. 1896). And on p. Ill he refers to the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

district between Tattershall, New Boling- 
broke, Horncastle, and Spilsby as being _ the 
most exclusively Danish district in the king- 
dom. Here under Bolingbroke we find 
Asgardby in Domesday (f. 351) ; but it 
appears as Asgerebi, a very different form 
from the Echescard which represents Ays- 
garth. It certainly seems that Canon 
Taylor cannot have compared the Domesday 
forms of the two place-names, for they are 
entirely different. So in the ' Monasticon ' 
(vi. 1275) it appears as Asgherbie in a con- 
firmation of the prebend to Lincoln Cathe- 
dral by Henry I. The resemblance between 
the two names is clearly only superficial. It 
is likely enough that Hauxwell, Aikbar, 
Aysgarth, and even Aikton, near Carlisle, 
bear the deacon's name, but it would have 
been at Aysgarth by the Cataract that he 
most of all baptized. C. S. TAYLOE. 

THE MITEE (9 th S. viii. 324, 493, 531). I 
venture to think that practically all the 
queries of your correspondents on this sub- 
ject could easily be answered by themselves, 
if they would refer to the following, for the 
most part, easily attainable books. I have 
verified each quotation, and found these 
references after about fifteen minutes' search. 
I fancy many other references might be 
found in books of the same kind if a little 
time was given to the quest. I have made 
the references as short as is consistent with 
their usefulness. 

Pugin's ' Glossary,' p. 157 (Bohn, 1844). 

'Church of our Fathers,' Rock, pp. 91 to 122 
(Dolman, 1849). 

' Diet, des Antiquites Chretiennes,' Martignv, 
p. 258 (1865). 

' Early Drawings and Illuminations,' Birch and 
Jenner, pp. 113, 116 (Bagster, 1869). 

'Glossary,' F. G. Lee, p. 217 (Q.uaritch, 1877). 

' Polity of the Christian Church,' Pelliccia, Bel- 
lett's trans., p. 83 (Masters, 1883). 

' A Catholic Dictionary,' Addis and Arnold, fifth 
edition, pp. 644, 645 (Kegan Paul, &c., 1897). 

' Ecclesiastical Heraldry,' Woodward, pp. 53, 67, 
122, &c. (Johnston, 1894). 

May 1 add a mild protest against the use 
of the term " ecclesiastical millinery " to 
describe what many of your readers regard 
as the sacred vestments of the Church of God ? 
This term is so used 9 th S. viii. 532 

H. W. M. 

There is in the 'Assize Roll of Northumber- 
land, 7 Edw. I.' (printed by the Surtees 
oociety) : 

"Etdicunt [juratores] quod Wapentak de Sad- 
berg fuit in manibus Regum, praedecessorum domini 
Kegis nunc, de corpore comitatus Northumbrian 
quousque dominus Rex Ricardus vendidit illud 
-liugom de Pusat, Episcopo Dunelmense," 

From this it appears that the Wapentake 
of Sadberge was formerly parcel of the county 
of Northumberland, and that is probably the 
reason why Bishop Pudsey acquired it with 
the earldom of Northumberland. The latter 
was only held for life, but Sadberge was 
annexed in perpetuity to the County Pala- 
tine. The Wapentake of Sadberge appears 
to have comprised a large strip of land, 
bounded on the south by the river Tees. I 
believe that until recently writs were ad- 
dressed to the sheriff of the "County Pala- 
tine of Durham and Sadberge," and it is 
possible they are still so addressed. 



In the DEAN OF YORK'S paper at the last 
reference, col. 2, near the middle, I suspect 
a misprint after the words "Westminster 
Abbey"; in the phrase, "But the coronet 
never appears round the mitre or the epis- 
copal seal," qy. for " or " read on ? I am not 
sure whether the Dean intends a distinction 
between " the mitre, surrounded by a 
coronet," and "the coronet never appears 
round the mitre." T. WILSON. 


Your correspondent F. DE H. L. will find 
all about the pagan origin of the mitre, as 
well as of '' various articles of ecclesiastical 
millinery," in Hyslop's ' Two Babylons,' 
price 5s., from any bookseller. 



In my possession is a case of silver-handled 
knives and forks which belonged to my 
ancestor Thos. Lamplugh, Archbishop of 
York (1688-91). The knives bear the arms 
of the see saltire keys, and in chief what 
Boutell calls an imperial crown, but the DEAN 
OF YORK a coroneted cap it looks most like 
a crown here impaling his own arms (Or, 
a cross floury sa.). This shield the mitre 
surmounts, coming from a plain circlet 

Is the Harsnett brass really " the latest 
representation of an Anglican bishop clad in 
the ancient vestments " ? 

My recollection I may be mistaken, it is 
some years since I saw it is that the above- 
named Archbishop Lamplugh is represented 
in a mitre with pastoral staff in his hand 
attending coloured statue in the south-choir 
aisle of York Minster. 

I have before me the Earl Marshal's 
summons to the archbishop to attend at 
the coronation of William and Mary, "fur- 
nished and appointed as to yo r Degree and 

s. ix. MARCH i, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


order appertaineth." Unluckily, no par- 
ticulars are given as to the dress required. 


S. ix. 48, 154). Peter Wentworth, M.P., the 
Puritan leader, had a son in -law called by 
him "ray sonne Fleetwoode atWygan." Can 
MR. PINK find him in the family of the 
regicide or of Cromwell's son-in-law 1 D. 

HENRY CRISPE (9 th S. ix. 8, 93). I am 
obliged to H. C. for his note. Henry Crispe, 
the Common Serjeant, who died in office in 
1700, was clearly not the son of the rector of 

The will of Henry Crispe, of the Custom, 
London, dated 27 July, 1745, with codicil 
17 June, 1746, was proved 4 November, 1747. 
Names his wife Mary, mother Ann Crispe, 
sister Ann, brother Thomas and his daughter, 
niece Susan, cousin Ann Smith, cousin 
Richard Wiatt of Boxley. To be buried in 
the ancient burying-place in Birchington. 
Had property in Kent and London, and land 
at Cambridge. His father, Henry Crispe, 
rector of Catton, is stated in Carter's ' Cam- 
bridge' to have been allied to the family 
of the Duke of Somerset by marriage with 
Anne, daughter of Francis Percey, of Haverill, 
in Suffolk. 

There was a Henry Crispe, citizen and 
blacksmith of London, of St. Mary's, White- 
chapel, whose will, dated 9 July, 1701, was 
proved 27 October, 1701, leaving his son 
Henry residuary legatee. W. D. PINK. 

viii. 497 ; ix. 30). Referring to my notes and 

?ueries on the Desborough portraits, which 
believe to represent Cornelius van den 
Anker and his wife Sarah Norden, widow of 
Andrew Sane, of Dort, I should be glad of 
any information about C. van den Anker, 
who was a merchant in London in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. 

E. F. Du CANE. 

DUELS (9 th S. viii. 3G4, 491 ; ix. 94). Infor- 
mation about duels is to be found in 
Douglas's 'Duelling Days in the Army.' 
Some duels which took place between French 
and English officers in France soon after 
Waterloo are mentioned in Gronow's 'Re 
collections.' W. S. 

(9 th S. ix. 41). The rules at this ancient 
school, and the usual penalty of so many 
"lashes" for non- attention to any one of 
them, recall the fact that my late father went 
to a boarding-school at Cheshunt (Essex), in 

the early years of last century. Whipping 
there was so much in evidence that I have 
heard him frequently say scarcely an hour 
passed without the dominie, or his ushers, 
administering severe corporal punishment. 
On such occasions they would cry sternly 
to the offender the all-too-often heard and 
dreaded command : 

Down with your breeches, and up with your shirt ; 
Twenty-four lashes will do you no hurt ! 

With ultimate disastrous consequences to 
the poor little victim better imagined than 
described. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

" WITH AFFECTION BEAMING" (9 th S. ix. 87). 
The description occurs in the eighth chapter 
of ' Martin Chuzzlewit ' : 

" Mrs. Todgers stood for some moments gazing 
at the sisters [the Miss Pecksniffs] with affection 
beaming in one eye and calculation shining out of 
the other." 

[Replies also from W. T. and others.] 

BLACK BOTTLES FOR WINE (9 th S. ix. 7). 
I have a black bottle eight inches in height, 
half of which appertains to the neck, and 
eleven inches in circumference. When filled 
to the top it holds fifteen fluid ounces. It is 
very strongly but rudely made, and has a 
curious warped appearance. Upon a raised 
circle on the side are stamped the letters and 
date G : C 1744, the date being beneath the 

This bottle was dug up, some years ago 
near the shore of a large lake in this neigh- 
bourhood ; along with it was found a cannon- 
ball of cast-iron, which now weighs almost 
eleven and a half pounds, but has, no doubt, 
lost weight by rust. 

Can any of your readers enable me to trace 
the source of this bottle 1 

S. A. D'ARCY. 

Rosslea, Clones, co. Fermanagh. 

LONDON (9 th S. ix. 9). Is MR. HILL acquainted 
with what has already appeared in ' N. & Q.' 
respecting this company ? See 8 th S. xii. 407, 


ix. 85). I think this runs : 
Men laugh and riot till the feast is o'er, 
Then comes the reckoning, and they laugh no more. 

I have seen these words so printed on an 
engraving called ' A Day's Pleasure ' (painted 
by E. Prentis, engraved by James Scott, 
published 18 April, 1843, by Tilt & Bogue, 
Fleet Street, London). The engraving repre- 
sents a room at the " Star and Garter Hotel," 


NOTES AND QUERIES, p* s. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

Richmond, and depicts the presentation o 
the bill to a party of gentlemen after thej 
have dined. I believe the waiter is " from 
life," and I have heard that he afterward 
became the proprietor of the hotel. 


"HlGH-FALUTING" (9 th S. viii. 505). If 

as D. K. T. says, this is by J. R. Lowe! 
deemed an "odious word," Lowell himsel 
nevertheless employs it in his 'Rebellion 
(' Political Essays '), when he says, speaking 
of ' The Southern History of the War/ by E. A 
Pollard, that " in point of style it is acuripu 
jumble of American sense and Southern high 
fainting" The word, meaning " tall talk," i 
thought by Dr. Brewer, in his 'Dictionary 
of Phrase and Fable/ to be from the Dutc" 
verlooten, high-flown, stilted. 


viii. 524). Your correspondent MR. DAWE 
mispresents my treatment of this subject in 
' Chronicles of the House of Borgia/ whicl 
obvious satura he, deluded by its preten 
tious form, has mistaken for an attemp 
at serious history. The narration of Varilla 
is cited there as "an extraordinary story, 
"an extremely probable tale," "in the 
absence of anything more authoritative 
......the most probable solution," a narra 

tion which "deserves consideration as a con 
tribution to the solving of the mysterie: 
of the unquenchable hatred of Dellarover< 
for Borgia, and of Duke Cesare's relation: 
with the Lord Alexander P.P. VI." If MR 
DAWES had studied my gallimaufry he woulc 
have failed to find terms more absolute than 
these. Varillas is offered for what he i; 
worth. He may be a slipshod historian 
m proverbially discredited "(Hallam); but he 
is not esteemed a deliberately malignant liar 
like Infessura or Guicciardini, for example. 
At all events, I myself am not solicitous 
to compurge him, if MR. DAWES can give me 
cause for incredulity in the present in- 
stance : otherwise Varillas's tale will remain 
for me "humanly probable." I wrote the 
'Chronicles' "vnder correction of benyuo- 
lence " certainly but I deem it inconvenient 
that a member of my tribe (corvus monedula) 
imperfectly informed of my writings, should 
intend himself as cavillator. Nihilcumjidibus 

MOAT'S ' STENOGRAPHY ' (9 th S. ix. 29) 

Moat's system of stenography, as developed 

m his ' Shorthand Standard ' of 1833, has 

long been virtually obsolete, though copies 

>r the work are by no means rare. Any col- 

lector may procure one without much effort 
for a few shillings. It is an able and 
scholarly work, but as a shorthand treatise is 
much too elaborate ever to have been widely 
popular. MR. JESSON is mistaken in his 
assumption that most modern systems are 
based upon it. It is constructed upon what 
is known as the stave or bar principle, intro- 
duced by Samuel Richardson in 1800, 
specially ruled books having to be provided 
for the reporter who desires to turn it to the 
best possible account. Without the lines it 
can only be used at an immense disadvan- 
tage in the matter of speed. Of the nearly 
two hundred systems and modifications of 
systems that had been published prior to 
1833, not more than five were then used to 
any extent, the authors of these being 
Gurney (in reality Mason), Byrom, Mavor, 
Taylor, and Lewis. Since then three hun- 
dred odd additional systems have been given 
to the world, and only some two or three of 
these have borne any resemblance to Moat's. 
One Eneas Mackenzie, who published a cheap 
treatise on the stenographic art about 1838, 
adopted Moat's alphabet without the staves, 
but probably only few ever succeeded in 
mastering the art as he presented it. The 
basis of Pitman's, with most of the other 
modern systems, is phonetic, and that most 
certainly Moat's was not. Of his career no- 
thing seems to be known. His name finds no 
place in the 'Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy/ and the shorthand historians know 
nothing of him beyond what may be gleaned 
from his work. It is dated from 59, Fleet 
Street, London, 8 August, 1833. There were 
two writers of the Moat system in the Parlia- 
mentary " Gallery " in 1882, to nearly a hun- 
dred of the Pitman, and nearly half that 
number of the Taylor system, with Gurney 
men and others. ALEXANDER PATERSON. 

THE EARTH MOTHER (9 th S. ix. 48). In- 
quiries were made for St. Walburge in 1 st S. 
x. 186, to which the Editor gave a long 
reply. He stated that she was daughter of 
St. Richard, and cousin to St. Boniface, was 
abbess of a nunnery at Heidenhaim, and died 
there on 24 February, 779. Reference is also 
made to 'Britannia Sancta ; or, Lives of the 
Celebrated British Saints/ 1745, and Butler's 
Lives of the Saints ' (25 February), 1812. A 
copy of the latter in 12 vols. may be seen in 
the Corporation Library, Guildhall, E.C. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

PRESBYTER will find some interesting in- 
ormation bearing on the subject of his query 



in Mr. Conway's 'Demonology arid Devil- 
Lore,' vol. ii. chap. xxvi. Mr. Con way, relying 
apparently on Dr. Wuttke (with whose work 
I am not acquainted), takes it for granted 
that St. Walpurga, the original May Queen 
is really one with the Bertha or Mother Rose 
of Teutonic mythology. C. C. B. 

It is probable that the information 
PRESBYTER is seeking may be found in 
E. L. Rochholz's 'Drei Gaugottinnen, Wai- 
burg, Verena, und Gertrua, als deutsche 
Kirchenheiligen.' M. P. 

109). " Single-Speech " Hamilton was un- 
doubtedly a Wykehamist. He was a pupil 
at Winchester of Dr. Burton, and his name 
appears as a Commoner on the annual school 
lists (or " Long Rolls," as they are called) of 
the college for September, 1740-4, as will 
be seen some day, I hope, in a second series 
of these documents from 1723 onwards, 
which I have in preparation for the press. 
He matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford, 
4 March, 1744/5, then aged sixteen ; con- 
sequently, if he was also at Harrow it 
must have been before September, 1740. In 
after years Hamilton identified himself 
with Winchester by attending the gather- 
ings of the " Wykehamist Society," founded 
in 1758, whose meetings were held at the 
" Crown and Anchor Tavern " in the Strand. 
A letter of his to Dr. Joseph Warton, then 
head master of Winchester, dated 16 April, 
1765, printed in Wooll's ' Memoirs of Warton,' 
1806, p. 306, gives further proof of his associa- 
tion with some distinguished members of his 
old school. C. W. H. 

FILBERT (9 th S. ix. 125) May I be allowed 
to make a personal observation with respect 
to this matter, as my name is cited in the 
article at the above reference ? 

I wish to say, in particular, that philology, 
especially as regards English, is a progres- 
sive science, and that the rate of progress is 
very fast. New facts turn up literally every 
week, even within my own knowledge. And 
this is why the last edition of my ' Concise 
English Etymological Dictionary ' had to be 
almost rewritten. 

As to this very word filbert, I found two 
new facts myself. Of these, the former was 
printed in 1891, eleven years ago, and is 
obviously material. It is, that the word is 
not English at all, but Anglo-French so that 
the remark upon the strangeness of deriving 
" the English name of the nut from a French 
saint" has, obviously, no point at all. I 
gave the reference in 1891 (as said above), 

and it is now reprinted in my ' Notes on 
English Etymology ' at p. 97. Perhaps it is 
worth while to quote the passage in full. 

In Britton, ed. Nichols, vol. i. p. 371, we 
have the following sentence : ** Et ausi est 
pasture un noun commun a herbage, et a 
glan, et a pesson, et as noiz " ; and a foot-note 
tells us that another MS. adds at the end 
"e a philbers." The translation is: "Pas- 
ture likewise is a general name for herbage, 
acorns, mast, and nuts, and philberts." Of 
course, the A.-F. philbert loses its * (as usual) 
before the plural suffix -s, in accordance with 
grammar, though the earlier form would 
have been philberz, with z for ts. 

The allusion is unmistakable, and this 
shows that the A.-F. name for " filbert " was 
certainly philbert in the thirteenth century. 

My second find was that the word is still 
known in France. In Moisy's dictionary of 
the Normandy patois we are told that the 
actual name of the nut is still noix de filbert. 
This note was printed in 1888, and is given 
in the last (rewritten) edition of my 'Concise 
Dictionary,' and in no previous one. 

I need not point out to an expert in 
chronology the improbability that a name 
already current before 1300 should be derived 
from that of a duke who was alive in 1482. 

The statement that the "nut of Philbert " 
is connected with St. Philibert's Day is only 
a guess ; but I shall be much obliged to any 
one who will make an obviously better one. 

(9 th S. viii. 343 ; ix. 55). The Patrick 
Cha worth mentioned by MR. JOHN RADCLIFFE 
seems to have done as did the younger De 
Montforts after the Crusade, and taken office 
under Charles I. of Anjou-Naples. His 
name appears as Chevalier de I'Hdtel in 
the 'Reg. Angev.,' 25, fo. 211 ; 26, fo. 292 b ; 
44, fo. 89. He became Justice de la Terre 
d'Otrantoin 1280, and so remained until 1282, 
when, I think, his death took place. His 
heiress, if I mistake not, was Maud de 
Cadurcis, Chaurs, otherwise Chaworth, who 
became ward to the king, and eventually 
ancestress to the Dukes of Lancaster, which 
royal duchy still owns some of her 
Gloucestershire estates. 


AERONAUTICS (9 th S. ix. 84). Bishop Lesley, 
in his ' History of Scotland,' gives the follow- 
ing account of the attempt of Damian, the 
abbot of Tungland, to fly. The story forms 
;he subject of Dunbar's satirical poem of 
'The Fenyeit Frier of Tungland.' The in- 
genious explanation of the failure was uot 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

the want of a tail, which seems to have 
crippled Ailmer, the monk of Malmestfury, 
in his earlier attempt, but the grovelling 
propensities of the domestic fowl, whose 
feathers he had thoughtlessly used to fashion 
his wings. 

An ambassador was sent to France by 
King James in September, 1507, when the 
abbot of Tungland 

"tuik in hand to flie with wingis, and to be in 
Fraunce befoir the saidis ambassadouris. And to 
that effect he causet mak ane pair of wingis with 
fedderis, quhilkis beand fessinit apoun him, he flew 
of the Castell wall of Strivelling [Stirling], hot 
shortlie he fell to the ground, and brak his thee 
[thigh] bane; hot the wyt [blame] thairof he 
ascryvit to that thair was sum hen fedderis in the 
wingis quhilk yarnit and covet the mydding [dung- 
heap] and not the skyis." 


MILTON : A TRACT ON LOGIC (9 th S. ix. 107). 
Milton's 'Artis Logicae,' &c., is reprinted 
in the sixth volume of the edition of Milton's 
prose works by Symmons, London, 1806. 


HERRICK : SILVER-PENCE (9 th S. ix. 49). I 
think this may refer to the custom of cutting 
a membrane under the tongue of an infant 
to ensure the freedom of its " little member." 
If so, a silver penny must have been a popular 
instrument for the operation. In France 
matrons and sages-femmes make use of the 
nail of the little finger when they do not 
venture to employ scissors. ST. SAVITHIN. 

The reference is to tongue-tied children. 
The "tie" is cut by the sharp edge of a 
much-worn silver coin. The note to the line 
in Grosart's ' Herrick ' confirms this. By the 
same means the tongues of starlings are 
loosened. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

The allusion seems to be to the practice of 
using a silver coin for cutting the superfluous 
ligament in the mouth of a tongue-tied infant. 
This practice was probably due to a primitive 
prejudice against the employment of a metal 
instrument, and so allied to the survival 
among the Jews of the use of a sharp flint 
tor performing the rite of circumcision. 



The Works of Lord Byron. Poetry. Vol V Edited 

by Ernest Hartley Coleridge, M.A. (Murray ) 
1KB penultimate volume of Mr. Ernest Hartley 
Coleridge s authoritative edition of Byron's poetry 
now sees the light, and will, according to the rate of 
progress hitherto maintained, be succeeded during 
the present year by the concluding volume. It com" 

S rises works belonging to the last two years of 
yron's life as a poet, and constitutes in itself a 
remarkable accomplishment. When it is considered 
that cantos vi. to xv. of ' Don Juan,' ' The Vision 
of Judgment,' ' The Blues,' ' The Irish Avatar,' and 
other poems were written during the same period 
one marvels at such industry and productiveness. 
The principal portion of the volume is occupied 
by the dramas, six of which appear ' Sardanapalus,' 
'The Two Foscari,' 'Cain,' 'Heaven and Earth,' 
' Werner,' and ' The Deformed Transformed.' It 
is to be feared that, as Mr. Coleridge says, the 
greater part of the contents of this volume has 
been "passed over and left unread by at least two 
generations of readers." None the less, he holds, 
"these forgotten works of the imagination are full 
of hidden treasures." We ourselves read them 
all duly something less than two generations ago. 
Feeling the justice of his observations, and moved, 
mayhap, by some implication of rebuke, we have 
reread a considerable portion of the volume, a task 
facilitated by the type in which the whole is printed 
and the companionship of Mr. Coleridge's intro- 
ductions and notes. Not wholly pleasurable was 
the exertion. In l The Island,' the weakest of 
Byron's tales and the last sustained flight his muse 
was to make, positive resolution was requisite to 
get through it. " On the other hand, by ' The 
Deformed Transformed,' all of which except 
the opening lines, full of Byron's moody intro- 
spection, had faded from memory, we were 
stimulated, feeling a distinct regret that the 
work was left incomplete. Unlike * Manfred,' it 
trenches on nothing uncomfortable in domestic 
relations, and the obligation to 'Faust,' though 
real, is far from being so great as has been assumed. 
It does not seem likely that any of these plays will 
be seen again on the stage. ' Werner ' has been 
given under the Irving management at the Lyceum, 
and 'Manfred,' which belongs to an earlier epoch, 
was more than once revived in the latter half 
of the century. 'Sardanapalus' was produced by 
Charles Kean at the Princess's in 1853, the tempta- 
tion to mount it being found in the then recent 
discoveries in Nineveh. The performance of either 
' Cain ' or ' Heaven and Earth ' is not conceivable 
under existing conditions ; and the Venetian play 
has, so far as we recall, slept since its per- 
formance in the year of its production. That 
Byron was careful in his investigation of autho- 
rities is to his credit, but scarcely atones for lack 
of interest in his dramas. The frontispiece con- 
sists of a portrait of Byron by W. E. West. Other 
portraits are of Goethe, from a drawing by Maclise ; 
of Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, after Sir 
Joshua Reynolds; and Mary Wollstonecraft, by 
R. Bothwell. Assur-Bani-Pal, from a slab in the 
British Museum, illustrates ' Sardanapalus,' and the 
Lion of St. Mark's 'The Two Foscari.' Mr. Cole- 
ridge's labours remain interesting and illuminative. 

The Tower of London. By Lord Ronald Sutherland 

Gower, F.S.A. Vol. II. (Bell & Sons.) 
NOT long have the readers of Lord Ronald Suther- 
land Gower's history of the Tower had to wait for 
the second and concluding volume. The first volume 
(see an(<', p. 38) carried the story through Norman, 
Plantagenet, and Tudor times ; the second prolongs 
the tale from the accession of the Stuarts until the 
present day. Though less pathetic than the early 
record, since we have now 110 innocent female 
victims of a king's unbridled licentiousness or a 

s. ix. MAECH i, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


father's vaulting ambition, no execution upon an 
Anne Boleyn or a Jane Grey, the later is wanting 
in no tragic or heroic respect. Pathetic cases there 
are witness the service of 

That sweet saint who sate by Russell's side 

and not all end unhappily, as is seen by the escape 
of Lord Nithsdale on the eve of his execution, 
through the heroism and resourcefulness of his 
wife. Full particulars of an incident that angered 
greatly George I. are supplied by Lord Ronald. 
The most illustrious victim of royal malignity, 
cowardice, and spite with whom the second volume 
deals is, of course, Sir Walter Raleigh, though the 
fate in the following reign of Lord Strafford caused 
greater consternation. Raleigh had been so long in 
prison, and experienced so many unkind visitations 
of fortune, that his death when brought about created 
less sensation than might have been anticipated. 
Says Lord Ronald, "Sir Walter Raleigh died a 
martyr to the cause of a Greater Britain ; his life 
thrown as a sop to the Spanish Cerberus by the 
most debased and ignoble of our kings." This is 
true, though hardly well said. Who is the " Spanish 
Cerberus"? He adds: "The onus of the guilt of 
his death a judicial murder, if ever there was 
one must be borne by the base councillors who 

James belong the death of Lady Arabella Sey- 
mour, which took place in the Tower, and, without 
being sanguinary, was due to her long and hopeless 
confinement, and that of Sir Thomas Overbury, 
which James might have been powerless to prevent, 
but which, at least, he basely condoned. Among 
those subject to detention in the Tower were Bacon 
and Coke. 

The victims in the days of Charles I. and the 
Commonwealth were numerous and renowned. The 
deaths of Strafford and Laud are perhaps the most 
picturesque and touching. Concerning Laud's addi- 
tions to St. John's College, Lord Ronald says that 
in the library of that college his spectre is said to 
be seen " occasionally gliding on moonlight nights 
between the old bookshelves." Is not the tradition 
rather that he and his royal master indulge with 
their heads in a nocturnal game of bowls ? Many 
noble heads were lopped during the following 
reigns before we come to the death of Monmouth, 
perhaps the handsomest victim of all. In the 
reigns of the Georges the executions were fewer, 
being chiefly confined to participants in the revolts 
of 1715 and 1745. During the late reigns we 
hear only of the fire of 1841 and the attempt to 
blow up the White Tower in 1885, the executant of 
which crime issued from imprisonment a year or two 
ago. Most of the stories which Lord Ronald tells are 
necessarily familiar. Some are, however, less known 
than others. The tale of Blood's attempt to carry 
off the regalia is told afresh, and the supposition 
that Charles II. connived at it is not very strongly 
reproved. An idea that Charles II. and his brother 
had a private cognizance of, or participation in, 
the death of Arthur Cecil, Earl of Essex, is not 
favoured. It may safely be consigned to the same 
limbo in which now rests the once famous story 
in the following reign of the child and the warming- 
pan. The illustrations are, as in the previous 
volume, numerous and excellent. In addition to 
portraits of the principal victims they include 
views of the Tower from all aspects and in various 

times. The work is indeed one of the best illus- 
trated of modern days, and will be warmly prized 
by all students of history and antiquity and col- 
lectors of what are now called Londoniana. 

Selected Essays and Papers of Richard Copley 
Christie. Edited, with a Memoir, by William A. 
Shaw, Litt.D. (Longmans & Co.) 
FEW works of the same class deserve a warmer 
welcome than this. Richard Copley Christie, a 
firm friend and supporter of 'N. & Q.,' was 
primarily a man of action, discharging many im- 
portant and responsible functions. What these 
were, and how they were discharged, was told in 
various periodicals on his lamented demise little 
more than a year ago (see, inter alia t 9 th S. vii. 60). 
In the intervals of his various avocations he became 
a scholar all but, if not quite, unequalled in his 
line. A man of fine tastes and wide sympathies, he 
wrote one work, his life of Etienne Dolet, which is 
accepted as a masterpiece, and remains the prin- 
cipal and, in a sense, unique tribute to one of 
the most interesting and tragic figures of the French 
Renaissance. To that life in its English dress, 
and in the subsequent French translation, we have 
more than once drawn attention, and other writings 
of his have been noticed in our columns. Of few men 
can it be said that their work was equally varied, 
trustworthy, erudite, and scholarly, or animated 
by so fine a taste ; of still fewer that they were so 
complete masters of their subject. Possessor of a 
fine library, ever at the disposition of his friends, 
and of what most scholars would regard as affluence, 
he pursued his studies in a fashion that recalls 
Gibbon. The articles, accordingly, he contributed 
to the quarterlies and other periodicals are so 
careful and elaborate as to DC of permanent 
value, and a collection of them is a boon 
alike to the student and the bibliophile. So fresh 
is his memory with us, and so many were the 
services he rendered, we can scarcely even now 
persuade ourselves to think of him as dead. His 
brief memoir is adequate and sympathetic ; the 
portraits present faithfully his refined, clear-cut 
face ; and the illustrations of his haunts, and espe- 
cially his library, add greatly to the value of the 
volume. The chief attraction of this will, how- 
ever, be found in the collected essays and sketches, 
which will always be the delight of the scholar, 
and abound in information on out-of-the-way sub- 
jects. Had Christie been less occupied he might well 
have given us a history of the literary renaissance, 
and what he leaves behind constitutes no unim- 
portant contribution to the subject. Knowing 
well both the man and his work, we have nothing 
but praise for this tribute to his memory and his 

The King and Queen of Hearts. Written by Charles 
Lamb, illustrated by William Mulreadv. Re- 
issued in facsimile by E. V. Lucas. (Methuen 

IN the course of his Lamb studies Mr. E. V. Lucas 
came upon a letter from Lamb to Wordsworth, 
dated 1 February, 1806, claiming the authorship of 
' The King and Queen of Hearts,' issued in 1805. 
He was also fortunate enough to find a copy of a 
little work of extreme rarity, and to obtain per- 
mission from the proprietor to issue it in facsimile. 
The task has been executed with so much skill that 
any owner of the book without its modern environ- 
ment, which is separated, would believe himself 


NOTES AND QUERIES, p* B. ix. MARCH i, 1902. 

possessed of a genuine curiosity. From the, date 
1805, this is the earliest of Lamb's books written 
for children. Such details must be sought in tho 
introduction, in which Mr. Lucas justly says tha 
the fact that it is by Lamb is vindication enougl 
for its reappearance. Mulready's illustrations 
executed when he was a youth, are very quain 
and characteristic. Concerning these the reade 
may consult, if he can, the facsimile of 'Th< 
Looking-Glass ' issued by Mr. F. G. Stephens ir 
1885. Lovers of Lamb and collectors of curiositie 
will at once secure this delightful little volume. 

The Gold of Ophir. By A. H. Keane, F.R.G.S 


WHERE the auriferous Ophir, the Eldorado of the 
ancients, was situated is a problem that has been 
waiting its solution for many a century. At las 
the hour and the man have come the man of insigh 
capacitated by the arrival of the hour of increasec 
knowledge and discovery. If it were not, indeed 
for the latter the best scholar might theorize in 
vain. But in Prof. Keane we find one standing on 
the firm foundation of modern research, and able 
consequently, to draw a conclusion which, strange 
and unexpected as it is, as bringing the most ancient 
and most modern of interests into close connexion, 
yet demands our assent. It makes Mr. Rhodes 
shake hands across the ages with King Solomon, 
and finds the earliest outpost of prehistoric colo- 
nization in a country so actuel as the Transvaal. 
Working on the discoveries by Mr. Theodore Bent 
of the Zimbabwe monuments in the present Rho- 
desia, and bringing these into connexion with the 
researches of Dr. Glaser and others in Southern 
Arabia, Prof. Keane makes out a strong case for 
identifying the Biblical Ophir with Ptolemy's 
Sapphar, Arrian's Portus Nobilis, i.e., Moscha, 
the harbour par excellence on the south coast 
of Arabia, to the east of Hadhramout. Ophir 
itself seems to be the same word as Aphar, which 
is only a variant of Saphar or Sapphar, the metro- 
polis, of which the port was Moscha. But his 
chief point is that Ophir itself was not a gold- 
bearing district, but merely the emporium or mart 
where gold was imported and distributed to other 
countries, and that the actual seat of the gold 
mines which yielded the supply must be sought 
in Rhodesia; and, further, that Rhodesia was 
really the Havilah of Genesis ii. 11, the gold of 
which land is good. Thence it was conveyed to 
Moscha in the trading vessels of the Himyarites, 
Sabpeans, and Phoenicians. All this is very cleverly 
worked out in Prof. Keane's ingenious and learned 
essay, which also identifies Sheba with Yemen, and 
Tarshish with Sofala, in Rhodesia. Another inter- 
esting surprise is provided for us in his proof that 
the Himyarites, on their way to South Africa, to 
some extent colonized and occupied Madagascar 
and that undoubted remains of this prehistoric 
occupation may still be traced in the language and 
calendar of the Malagasy. " It is certainly a reve- 
lation, as the author remarks, " to find the Sabreo- 
isabyloman astronomic nomenclature still surviving 
amongst the unlettered and semi-barbarous Oceanic 
populations of Madagascar." 

THE current number of Folk-Lore begins with an 
excellent paper on the difficult subject of totemism 
which is followed by a minute description of the 
festival known as Garland Day at Castleton, in 
Debyshire, while a third article relates to the 

silver bough in Irish legends. The collectanea and 
correspondence of this useful journal embody many 
notes which must in the future prove of great value 
to students of ancient custom and belief. 

THE Antiquary for February contains a brief 
account of the old hall at Mickleover, Derbyshire, 
and a notice of some Essex brasses which illustrate 
Elizabethan costume. It also gives a description 
of mediaeval library fittings. 

THE Intermediaire for 10 February is quite as 
good as any of the numbers preceding it. Among 
the subjects with which it deals are the nails of the 
Passion, Louis XVI. and the Swiss Guard, and 
churches used by both Catholics and Protestants. 

GREATLY to our regret, we find that with the con- 
clusion of the tenth volume our lively and erudite 
friend and rival Melmine comes to a temporary 
stop. Whether M. Gaidoz will be able in any shape 
or at any time to reissue it we know not. We are 
at least sure that many readers, French and Eng- 
lish, will regret the interruption, temporary even 
though it be, to its appearance. 

WE hear with much regret of the death of Dr. 
Samuel Rawson Gardiner, one of the most capable 
and distinguished of English historians. On the 
subject of England under the first two Stuart kings, 
the Civil War, and the Protectorate he was our 
greatest authority. Born on 4 March, 1829, at 
Alresford, he was on the point of reaching his 
seventy-fourth year. Dr. Gardiner was educated at 
Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1884 
he was made Fellow of All Soul's, in 1892 Fellow of 
Merton. He held the Professorship of Modern 
History at King's College, London, and was Ex- 
aminer in History at Oxford. A frequent con- 
tributor to our columns, his name appears from the 
Fourth Series up to p. 30 of our present volume. 


We must call special attention to the following 

lotices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
"ication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

W 7 E cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
pondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
lip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
uch address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ng queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
ntries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
>ut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
leading, the series, volume, and page or pages to 
yhich they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
[ueries are requested to head the second com- 
tmnication " Duplicate." 

0. E. Not suitable for our columns. 

Editorial communications should be addressed to 
; The Editor of * Notes and Queries'" Ad vertise- 
lents and Business Letters to " The Publisher" 
t the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
ommunications which, for any reason, we do not 
rint ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 




CONTENTS. No. '219. 

NOTES: St. Margaret's, Westminster, 181 Leather for 
Bookbinding, 182 Marlborough Family Burns and 
James Cririe, 18,'5 Egtnontaud the ' Bncyclo ptedia Brltan- 
nica' " Keep your hair on " " And your petitioner shall 
ever pray, &c." Picture Restoring under Napoleon, 184 
' Lurden "Children's Affirmations In P- aise of Burns- 
Moses Mendelssohn, 185-" Vicuna" Pope Leo Political 
Nicknames-Swift in England and the "Four Crosses" 
Inn, 186. 

QUERIES : Metempsychosis among the Swedes King 
Charles I. at the New Gallery Chapman Family "I doe 
love these auncyent abbayes "Warren and Clegg, 187 
Steevens's 'Shakespeare' Author of Books Wanted 
W. and R. Bent Ashtead, Surrey Minas and Empeci- 
nados " Cadaver " R. Edwards " Limerick " Bull- 
baiting Comic Annual, 188 'Spirit of the Wye'- 
Cleburne : Bowes : Ward Hambley Arms Biddulphs of 
Biddulph-Queen Cunegunda FitzGerald Quotation 
Bishop Pole" Hop the twig " Seasalter, 189. 

REPLIES : The West Bourne, 190 First Gentleman of 
Colour Knighted, 191 Tower : St. Peter in the Chains- 
Ben Jonson's Repetitions Oxford Diocesan Arms 
"Gun," 192 'Les Lauriers de Nassau' Sir Nicholas 
Smith St. Briavel, 193 -Ancient Boats Tintagel- Lady 
Mary Tudor " Omneity "" Oliver," 194-Peter Pett 
Louis Philippe at the "Star and Garter" G. L. Way 
Early Hotels of Rome Arms of Married Women, 195- 
Royal Personages -CLIII. "Barracked "Bricks, 196 
Whips in the Commons " Utilitarian " Cheselden, 
Radcliffe, and Pridmore Source of the Seven Ages 
Gazetteer, 197 " Rout" "Frail " Markoe Family, 198. 

NOTES ON BOOKS -.-Canon Dixon's 'History of the 
Church of England' ' Arundel Hymns 'Reviews and 

Mr. Charles Kent. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


ST. MARGARET'S CHURCH is one of many 
memories, and among them all there are 
none that cling closer than those relating to 
the benefactors of the poor of this city. 
Until about one short year ago the city of 
Westminster was virtually comprised in the 
two parishes of St. Margaret and St. John 
the Evangelist, for then the " Greater West- 
minster " had not been called into existence. 
St. Margaret's Church, again, is rich in 
monuments, and among them are at least half 
a dozen commemorating local worthies who, 
with hearts to feel for the woes of the poorer 
parish folk, devoted a portion of their substance 
to aid in the alleviation of the troubles of 
those who fell upon evil times in old age, and 
in attempting to make the paths of the young 
brighter and better than they would have been 
without their aid. In those days almshouses 
were often the admirable manner in which 
charitable impulses found an outlet, and 
their foundation has given comfort to the 
poor of these parishes for some centuries, and 
bids fair to ao so for many more to come, 

and many are the cheerful and pious souls 
who hourly bless the names of their ancient 
benefactors. The monuments of the worthies 
in the church are, as they should be, among 
the handsomest and most interesting and 
elaborate specimens of the mason's work 
and were formerly before Father Time had 
dimmed their lustre rich in colour and 
gilding ; but, if somewhat dull and dingy, 
they still retain enough to make them 
pleasant to look upon arid stir the emotions 
of the true citizen of what is certainly no 
mean city. 

It is but reasonable to suppose that some 
charitable bequests may get diverted in 
the course of time, and even be lost alto- 
gether, which is the case of the first benefac- 
tress whose monument adorns the walls of 
our old parish church. At the west end of 
the church, over the churchwardens' pew, 
is the monument of this lady, which for our 
edification records : 

"Hereunder is intombed Blanche Parrye 
daughter | of Henry Parry, of New Courte in the 
County of Heref d , | Esq ier Gentlewoman of Queene 
Elizabethes most honor | able bedchamber and 
Keper of her Maties iuells | whome she faithfullie 
served from her Highnes | birth. Beneficiall to her 
Kinsfolke and Countrye | men charitable to the 
poore insomuch that | she gave to the poore of 
Bacton and Newton | in Herefordshire seaven 
score bushells of | wheate and rye yearlie for ever 
w h divers somes of money to 'Westminster and 
other places for good uses she died a maide | in the 
eighte two yeers of her age the twelfe of Febrvarye 

A report published by the late vestry in 
1890 states that this inscription " is the only 
record traceable of the gifts above referred 
to." There is at Bacton a most interesting 
monument to her memory, as, although buried 
here, her heart was deposited there. The 
monument there has a quaint inscription of 
twenty-eight lines, setting forth her long life 
and good work. My old friend the late Mr. 
Henry Poole has put it on record that she 
seems to have served as a "go-between with 
the queen and her ministers, her courtiers 
and her suppliants." Altogether we may, I 
think, take it for granted that she was really 
a person of considerable importance in her 
day, and at various times subsequently we 
meet with members of the family, some of 
whom were not in quite such saintly odour as 
this lady ; but our chief concern is that her 
benefaction has been lost to us. Not so the 
others, for which Westminster is profoundly 

On the north wall of the church is another 
monument, exceedingly quaint, and much 
the worse for its over 300 years of existence, 
that to the memory of Cornelius Vandon, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH s, 1902. 

who also thought of the poor who are always 
with us. The inscription records that 

"Cornelius Vandon lieth here borne at Breda | in 
Brabant a soldiour with K. Henry at Turney } 
yeoman of the gard and usher to K. Henry. Ji. I 
Edward. Q. Mary, and Q. Elizabeth of honest and 
vertuous lyfe a careful man to poor folke | who at 
the end of this toune did buyld for | poor widowes 
20 howses of his owne cost." 
The monument has a half - length figure of 
Vandon in the dress of a Yeoman of the 
Guard, curiously but effectively carved. 
Round the effigy are inscribed the words, 
"Obiit Anno Domini 1577. Buried y e 
4 th Sep 1 ' Aetatis suae 94." Upon reference to 
the ' Will Book of St. Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster,' for the year 1577 we find this entry : 

"Cornelius Vandon, born at Breda, in Brabant, 
yeoman of the guard, and usher to their Ma ties 
K. Hen. K. Edw d the 6 th Queen Marie, and Q. 
Elizabeth, he did give eight almshouses in Pettie 
France, next to the end of St. James-street, for the 
use of Eight poor women of the parish and did 
also give eight other almshouses near S' Ermin's- 
hill, by Tuttle side, for the use of eight poor widows 
of this parish." 

Again quoting from the vestry report of 
1890, we are told that the 

"'Charity Book of St. Margaret's' refers to the 
Petty France houses as having been founded ' for 
relief, succouring, and harbouring eight poor 
women, who in time of sickness, as need should 
require, might help to keep and attend such as 
should be diseased within the parish of S' Margaret, 
Westminster,' the intention being, according to 
some, to provide nurses in the time of 'plague' or 
other visitations, when few would undertake the 
office of nurse, to the increased distress and 
suffering of poor people." 

The ground and almshouses at Petty France 
were bought by the vestry, under the powers 
given by the Westminster Improvement Act, 
in 1850, for 2,992/., and in 1852 land was 
bought in Carlisle Street, Lambeth, for 450^., 
and the following year two new almshouses, 
each containing eight rooms, were built, at a 
cost of 950^., for four poor women, and the 
balance invested. There was a continual 
buying, selling, and reinvesting of the funds 
in order to increase the usefulness of the 
charity. The almshouses were at last let "at 
a fair occupation rent," for the support of 
visiting nurses among the poor. In 1879-83 
SOL was the average rent derived, but three 
years later it had dwindled down to 371., and 
next year the London and South-Western 
Kail way paid 2,000/. to the trustees for the 
purchase of the site and the almshouses, 
and they ultimately demolished them for the 
widening of the line, the funds being now 
administered by the Westminster Nursing 
Committee. W. E. HARLAND-()XLEY. 

71, Turner Buildings, Millbank, S.W. 
(To be continued.) 


HAVING perused with much pleasure the 
report of the committee on this subject, I 
feel that the moral to be drawn therefrom is 
still an open one, as it was in 1859, when I 
read a paper upon the subject of the ' Library : 
Books and Bindings,' with regard to their 
preservation and restoration, in our great 
room at the Adelphi, the discussion on which 
was adjourned and gave rise to much corre- 

Things have not greatly changed since that 
period, for the adage that there is " nothing 
like leather" still exists, and for highly 
ornate bindings, decorated by the use of hot 
metal tcwls, no other material is so beautiful, 
though its endurance can be measured by 

All leathers seem to be equally good if used 
in their primitive state and not tampered 
with by the dyer or by the bookbinder ; but 
then we should lose the glorious hues of the 
dyes and the beautiful forms of the marbles, 
and this particular! j r applies to calf, which is 
the most used and the most tampered with, 
though it takes time to develope the cause of 
this. Calf is often washed with oxalic acid, 
or polished by hot irons, when shellac varnish 
might have been used ; but even then the 
joints at the back of the books may become 
brittle, and they alone rely upon the hempen 
cords on which the book is sewn, and which 
are drawn into the boards. 

With regard to hogskin, that is a material 
which is to be commended in its undyed 
state, and though it cannot be worked upon 
in gold, it seems to be less affected by worms, 
and, if undyed, to continue to be fairly 
sound at the joints. 

To illustrate this, I would note that I have 
two saddles that have been most enduring, 
one of which is at least fifty years old. 
Noting its great durability, and hearing that 
it took dye well, I ordered a set of dining- 
room chairs to be covered therewith, with, 
alas ! the result that in five years these covers 
perished, and became as tinder. I send you 
a sample of this material that has been kept 
free from light, air, and gas fumes. If you 
will put this in an ordinary room, and under 
the same conditions, doubtless it will become 
the same. 

As a further evidence of the effect of time 
upon russia, I send you a writing-case that 
is seventy years old, from which may be seen 
how light, air, and heat have affected the 
same externally, whilst internally it is per- 
fect. I forward also a thin green russia 

9>"s.iX.MA B cn8,i902.} NOTES AND QUERIES. 


pocket-book that has been in use since 1861, 
and is still serviceable. 

This now brings us to the subject of a sub- 
stitute for leather ; and that is not difficult to 
find in the very great improvement in book- 
binders' cloth, much of which has endured 
since its introduction in 1836, and has out- 
lived the library bindings affected since then. 
I have now before me a copy of 'Sketches 
by Bpz ' which is as perfect, as regards 
durability, as if done yesterday, though the 
back is faded, the decoration on the sides, 
marking the transition period, being em- 
bossed in imitation of a " blind " pattern 
suggested by single-line gouges. 

1 send you also a specimen of durable 
binding in buckram, a binding that is devoid 
of animal or mineral aid, being a vegetable 
product, save and except the size that may 
have been used in binding. 

As a test of durability the great thing is 
the hinge, and to test materials stuffs should 
be subject to a perpetual hinge motion to see 
which endures the test for the longer period. 

Of course, if a high class of decoration 
with exquisite finish be desired, leather must 
be used ; and if the tooling is to be very fine, 
then the leather must be as thin as paper, 
that the heated metal may reveal the sharp- 
est form. 

As a destroyer the bookbinder is quite as 
great a culprit as the currier, his beautiful 
tree marbles and inlays being greatly detri- 
mentalindeed, many of the books bound 
within the last thirty years are only held 
together by their vegetable sewing and the 
bands that are " drawn in " at the hinge. 

This brings us to the lasting quality of 
flax, and the importance of binding in buck- 
ram, which is most enduring, samples having 
been found in the Egyptian tombs, where all 
leather has perished. 

I would note that the samples of hogskin 
have had imparted to them a morocco grain, 
and I am told that all leathers suffer soon in 
warm and hot climates, ants being very 
destructive to leather and paper, though 
colocynth or bitter aloes, if used in the paste 
employed, deters them. 

Finally, as to sewing, I say 'ware wire, as 
damp rusts it. Vellum is an excellent 
material, and, indeed, books sewn upon 
vellum bands, with flaxen thread in lieu of 
sunken saw cuts, have proved most excellent. 
Nearly every kind of material has been used 
as a covering for books, including even the 
peau humaine, which somewhat, in colour, 
resembles vellum, probably the most durable 
of all. JOHN LEIGHTON, F.S.A. 

Ormonde, Regent's Park. 

loguing the library of the Catholic Cathedral, 
Northampton, I came upon a Book of Common 
Prayer, London, 1678, which, from the internal 
evidence, had plainly been the property of 
the Marlborough family. It bore the auto- 
graph of the haughty duchess, "S. Marl- 
borough," dashed off in a bold imperious 
hand very characteristic of the writer. 
Above it, at the top of the page, was a note 
in another hand : " This Bible [sic] was my 

dear mother's, and was the 27 day of 

July, 1693." The binder has cut away two 
or three words, which we may, however, 
assume were "given me." To judge from the 
context, the recipient must have been the 
Lady Anne Churchill, second daughter of 
the Duke and Duchess of Marborough, who 
was married in January, 1700, to Charles 
Spencer, third Earl of Sunderland, and by 
whom she had three sons. One of these now 
became possessor of the book, for just below 
his grandmother's autograph he records the 
untimely deaths of both his parents as 
follows : " My dear Mama Sunderland Died 
April the 15, 1716"; "My dear papa Died 
April the 18, 1722." It was popularly 
supposed at the time that his death was 
attributable to poison, but the doctors 
failed to detect any evidence to sup- 
port it. At the end of the book, still in 
the same handwriting, is the following in- 
teresting note recording the death and burial 
of the greatest of our military leaders, the 
only one of whom it can be said that he 
never fought a battle without winning it, or 
sat down before a fortress without taking it : 
"June the 16, 1722, about four a clock in 
the morning, The Duke of Marlborough 
Died, my dear Grandpapa, and he was in- 
terred the 9 of August at Westminster 

It is most probable that the writer and 
possessor of the book was the Hon. John 
Spencer, the third son of the Earl of Suuder- 
land, and the ancestor of the present Earl 
Spencer, as there is a book-plate with the 
Spencer crest with " Wimbledon " written on 
the scrollwork. The great duchess bought 
Wimbledon Manor, after the South Sea 
collapse, from Sir Theodore Jansen, and built 
a house which became her favourite resi- 
dence. The manor afterwards descended to 
the Spencer family, but the mansion was 
burnt down in 1785. J. S. S. 

letters to Peter Hill, the bookseller, Robert 
Burns criticizes and somewhat extravagantly 
praises James Cririe's 4 Address to Locn 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH s, 1902. 

Lomond.' As a copy of the original edition 
of the 'Address' (1788) has been searched 
for in vain by Mr. Wallace, the new editor of 
Robert Chamber's 'Burns' (vol. ii. p. 382, 
note), I venture to draw attention to the 
fact that I found a copy in the British 
Museum Library (press-mark 11602. h. 14 ; 
not in the Catalogue s.v. 'Cririe'). [ may 
add that the first three lines quoted bj' Mr. 
Wallace from the version given in Cririe 8 
'Scottish Scenery' (1803) are not contained 
in the original edition. The "compliment" 
referred to by Burns "one of the most 
elegant compliments I have ever seen "- 
reads thus : 

Along thy banks, 

In playful youth, unconscious of their powers, 
They sportive rov'd ; where, sacred to each name, 
A tribute due, the monumental stone, 
With sculpture deck'd, with praise well-earn'd 

The grateful pride of kindred souls proclaims. 


NICA.' One of the most atrocious judicial 
murders recorded in history is that of Count 
Egmont by the Duke of Alva, who had got 
the former into his hands by treachery. That 
in ordering his execution and that of Hoorn 
he was carrying out the intentions of the 
marble-hearted Philip there is no doubt ; but 
it may be worth while to point out an odd 
mistake of that generally accurate authority 
the * Encyclopaedia Britannica,' in its life of 
Egmont (ninth edition, vol. vii. p. 699), where 
we read : 

"It was in vain that the most earnest inter- 
cessions had been made in his behalf by the emperor 
Charles V., the order of the Golden Fleece, the 
states of Brabant, the electors of the empire, and 
the regent herself." 

The date of Egmont's execution was 5 June, 
1568; that of the death of Charles V. 
( some time after his abdication ) was 
21 September, 1558, nearly ten years before. 
Prescott discredits the report of a brutal jest 
sent to the countess by Alva the day before 
her husband's execution, but says there is 
more reason to believe that the emperor (then 
Maximilian II., son of Ferdinand I. and 
nephew of Charles V.) sent her a letter 
during the trial assuring her that she had 
nothing to fear. The cruelties of Philip 
through the agency of Alva had, as is well 
known, far-reaching consequences which they 
little- anticipated. W. T. LYNN 


" KEEP YOUR HAIR ON." The ' N.E.D.' does 
not take this phrase further back than 1883 ; 

but it must be much older. In 1799 Thomas 
Holcroft sailed from the Thames to the Elbe. 
During the voyage he was told by the sailors 
that "the waves in the western ocean are 
sometimes so oily, from dead whales, that 
they are not much disturbed by a brisk gale." 
Another described to him " a stiff breeze": 
he " swore that it shaved him, that he could 
not keep his hair safe on his head, and that 
it made the ship sneeze" ('Memoirs of 
Thomas Holcroft,' 1816, iii. 228-9). 

W. C. B. 

[Is not the slang sense illustrated in the ' N.E.D.' 
distinct from the literal meaning in the above 
quotation from Holcroft ?] 


ifec." An inquiry was recently made as to the 
meaning of " &c." in this common ending to 
a petition. West's ' Symboleography,' pub- 
lished in the reign of Elizabeth, gives many 
forms, some of which I have copied below : 

"And your said almoner shall pray unto 
almighty god for the prosperous estate of your 
Majestic according to his most bounden dutie in 
most high honour and felicitie long to reign over 

"And your said suppliant shall daily pray unto 
God for your highnes prosperous estate in royaltie 
long to reign." 

" And your said subject shall daily pray to God 
r the prosperous estate of your majesties Raigne." 
"And your said humble subject shall daily pray 

to God for the preservation of your highnesse in all 

felicitie most happily long to reigne." 

"And your said supplyant shall daily pray for 

your honor." 

"And your supplyant as nevertheless by duetie 

bounden shall daily pray to God for the increase of 

your Honour." 

It is evident that the " &c." may be filled 
up according to individual fancy. 


[Numerous endings of petitions are supplied in 
8 th S. ix. 377, with references to 1 st S. i. 43, 75; vii. 
596 ; 3 r(l S. ii. 113, 148, 178.] 

NAPOLEON I. 'A Visit to Paris in 1814,' by 
John Scott (editor of the Champion), second 
edition, 1815, at pp. 162-3, contains the 
following : 

" M. Hacquin could not be content only to clean 
Titian's picture of Pietro Martire, but he must lay 
it on its face, and plane away the board till he came 
to the actual colour. He then put down pasted 
and glued canvas, that stuck to the colour, and 
thus transferred the picture from wood to canvas. 
The members of the Institute were in an agitation 
of delight as this curious trick was in progress : 
' Sacre Dieu ! What an undertaking ! ' An eye or 
a toe, a white cloud, a speck of colour, on which 
much of the effect of this inestimable performance 
of the Venetian depended, was as nothing to the 
dexterity of the French remover. M. Hacquin was 
made member of the Legion of Honour, arid the 

s. ix. MARCH s, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


whole body of artists and literati ran with wonder 
not to study the picture of Titian but to chat- 
ter, to shrug, to take snuff, and to express admira- 
tion of the talents of M. Hacquin. The whole 
%stem of this cleansing and restoring is hateful 
n English artist told me that he was within the 
Louvre, studying the cartoon of the ' School of 
Athens,' when from a private door came forth an 
old Frenchman, who regularly set his palette and 
began to work on a large picture, the back of which 
was towards the Englishman. The latter thought it 
must be the performance of the person who was so 
busily employed on it, and from curiosity went 
over to examine it. To his horror he found the 
Frenchman engaged in regularly painting over an 
early and curious specimen of Italian art, touch by 
touch. He had painted the drapery of the Virgin 
entirely over, a fine staring blue. ' Good God ! ' 
said the startled Englishman, ' who is this picture 
by ? ' ' Je ne sais pas, Monsieur,' was the reply. 
' Je ne suis pas peintre Je suis Restorateur ! ' 
It afterwards turned put that this painting, so 
honoured by the attention of Monsieur le Restora- 
teur, was by Cimabue, and a most rare and singular 

Ramoyle, Dowanhill Gardens, Glasgow. 

"LuRDEN." The following account of the 
origin of this word, as it is too lengthy for 
Dr. Murray, may yet be worth putting 
within ready reference by * N. & Q.' : 

"And besydes this, the common people were so 
of them oppressed, that for feare and dreade, 
they called them in every such house as they had 
rule of, Lord Dane : But in processe of tyme, after 
the Danes were yoyded the lande, this worde Lord 
Dane, was in dirision and despite of the Danes 
turned by Englishe men into a name of opprobry 

called Lurdane, for if one Englishe man will 

rebuke another, he will for the most part say, thou 
art but a Lurdane." Graf ton, 1568, 'Chron.,' i. 163. 

This is given in connexion with the massacre 
of the Danes, about 1002, or as a result after 

Halliwell gives also "lordeyn fever "= 
idleness, and "lurdy "=lazy, with references, 
but suggests no origin, and this may not be a 
sound derivation, and yet be worth noting. 

learn to distinguish nicely between various 
degrees of affirmation. The bare word they 
rarely consider binding. One of the most 
curious forms of oath (for such it really is) 
that I have met with among them is the wet 
ringer. The child holds up a wet finger, and 
asks, "Is this finger wet? " then dries it, and 
holds it up again, with the question, " Is this 
finger dry?" and adds, "Cut my throat 
before I'd lie." Only the most depraved will 
tell an untruth with this formula. An ap- 
proved way of getting at the truth is to ask, 
" Are you sure 1 " " Yes." " Are you certain ? " 
" Yes." " Are you shot down dead 1 " " Yes." 

" Are you sure and certain, shot down dead ? " 
" Yes. This, I believe, is, or was in my own 
young days, the most binding form of all. 

C. C. B. 

IN PRAISE OF BURNS. Mrs. Annie Vincent 
Burns Scott (great-granddaughter of Robert 
Burns), of Ortunga, Largs, South Australia, 
made application recently to the secretary of 
the Burns Federation for assistance to dis- 
cover the author of some verses on Burns, 
"deciphered in manuscript on a very old 
hand-painted memorial card." The " poem," 
consisting of six stanzas, the first two of six 
and the remainder of four lines, appeared in 
the Glasgow Evening News, and evoked a 
reply, in which the writer ascribed most of 
the verses to John Nicholson, of Airdrie, 
who penned them in 1826. Nicholson's 
poem, I think, will interest some readers of 

Learning hath many a rhymer made 
To flatter near the throne, 

But Scotia's genius hath displayed 
A poet of her own. 

His lyre he took to hill and glen, 

To mountain and to shade ; 
Centuries may pass away, but when 

Will such a harp be played ? 

His native strain each bird may try, 

But who has got his fire ? 
Why, none ! For Nature saw him die, 

And took away his lyre. 

And for that lyre the aspiring youth 
The world may search in vain ; 

She vowed she ne'er would lend it more 
To sound on earth again. 

Then call'd on Fame to hang it by ; 

Fame took it, with a tear, 
And broke the strings to bind the wreath 
Which Burns shall ever wear. 

105, Choumert Road, Peckham. 

MOSES MENDELSSOHN. The witty distich 
quoted in your 'Notes on Books' (ante, 
p. 100), 

George the First was always reckoned 
Vile, and viler George the Second, 
recalls an anecdote told of Moses Mendels- 
sohn. With more refinement of wit than 
Heliogabalus, Frederick II. was wont to play 
practical jokes on his intimates. These 
invariably took the form of sportive sallies 
when men like Voltaire, Lessing, and Men- 
delssohn were his guests. One night Fre- 
derick had the tables turned upon himself 
most adroitly by the little humpbacked 
scholar. As soon as Mendelssohn took his 
customary seat at the festive board there 
was a universal titter. Frederick, pretending 
nnocence, inquired why he was making such 


NOTES AND QUERIES. o>* s. ix. MARCH s, 1002. 

a wry face. Holding the paper close to his 
nose (for the philosopher was, in addition, 
very near-sighted), Mendelssohn blurted out, 
"Some fellow has been very rude to your 
Highness. He has written 'Mendelssohn 
is one ass Frederick the Second. 3 " The 
original was : " Mendelssohn is an ass 
Frederick II." M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

"VICUNA." This has been badly treated 
by our lexicographers. Firstly, the * Century 
Dictionary 'derives it from "Peruvian vicuna, 
Mexican vicugne" which is half right and 
half wrong, since it has about as much to do 
with Mexican as with the fabled "Lingua 
Angelorum." Secondly, Prof. Skeat, in his 
'Notes on English Etymology,' 1901, p. 345, 
says : " I do not find this word in the Peruvian 
dictionary, arid suspect it to be a corruption." 
It may not be in all Peruvian dictionaries, 
but it is to be found in several of them. 
Thus Domingo de S. Thomas, the earliest 
writer who applied the now familiar name 
Quichua to the Peruvian, has in his 'Lexicon 
de la Lengua General del Peru,' 1560, " Ore/a, 
llama, 6 paco, 6 guaca, 6 guanaco, 6 vicuiia." 
Similarly Juan Martinez, in his ' Vocabulario 
en la Lengua General del Peru,' 1604, has 
" Oveja silvestre, vicuna, huanacu." These 
references may be of use to the editors of the 
' N.E.D.' The term occurs in English in 
Acosta's 'Natural! Historic,' 1604, iv. xl. : 
"There is another kiride of beasts, which 
they call Tarugne, which likewise are wilde 
and more nimble than the Vicugne." I men- 
tion this because it contains a curious mis- 
print. By the change of a letter two termi- 
nations are levelled under one. Tarugne 
should be tarugue, representing Spanish 
taruga, which in Martinez is spelt taruca 
and glossed "ciervo 6 venado." 

J. PLATT, Jim. 

^POPE LEO. Pope Leo, who completed his 
ninety-second year on Sunday last, March 2nd, 
is, the Daily Neius reminds us, the only Pope 
who has strolled along Piccadilly and occu- 
pied a seat in the Distinguished Strangers' 
Gallery at the House of Commons, where he 
had the pleasure of hearing a speech by 
Daniel O'Connell, the Irish leader of the 
period. The Pope, then Archbishop Pecci, 
spent the whole of February, 1846, in London. 
C^ueen Victoria, whom he had previously met 
when Papal Nuncio at Brussels, invited him 
to a State reception at Court, and he was 
also present at "a great ceremonial in which 
the Queen took part." N. S. S. 

Political nicknames are often amus- 

ing, but it is sometimes difficult to trace their 
history. Let 'N. & Q. 3 register two. 'A 
Bismarck en Pantoufles ' is the title of a 
searching article in the February number 
of the Fortnightly Review on the political 
career of Chancellor of the Empire Biilow. 
The other nickname I take from another 
article in the same number, 'The Man of 
Emergency 3 : "The Vowvcirts, the Socialist 
organ in Berlin, had the good fortune to coin 
the wittiest thing yet said of the Chesterfield 
speech, 'Lord Rosebery is Mr. Chamberlain 
Edition de htxe'" (p. 193). 

Ramoyle, Dowanhill Gardens, Glasgow. 

CROSSES " INN. In collecting material 
for a work on the Holyhead Road I have 
come upon traces of Dean Swift here and 
there, and particularly at Willoughby, a 
wayside village four and a half miles from 
Daventry, where the old " Four Crosses " Inn 
stood until 1898, when it was demolished, 
owing, perhaps, to the alterations in the 
neighbourhood incident upon the completion 
of the Great Central Railway, crossing over 
the road near by, and with the station for 
Willoughby within sight. Many years ago 
the late Mr. Cropper, an auctioneer of Rugby, 
who was born at Willoughby, purchased from 
an old woman in the village a pane of glass 
credibly said to have once been in a window 
of the "Four Crosses," and bearing the 
inscription, apparently scratched with the 
diamond of his ring : 

There are three 

Crosses at your door : 

Hang up your Wife 

and you '1 count Four. 

Swift D. 1730. 

This pane an old diamond-shaped piece 
of green glass, that bears its antiquity plain 
to see is now in the possession of Mrs. 
Cropper at Rugby. I have seen it on two 
occasions, and carefully copied the inscription 
as above. The story told is that the dean, 
staying at the inn, then called the " Three 
Crosses" (presumably from roads that even 
nosv run in three directions from the spot), 
was annoyed by the landlady, who would not 
put herself to any extra trouble for him, and 
that, on leaving, he scratched this uncom- 
plimentary suggestion. It seems that, if the 
landlord did not suspend his wife, he at least 
altered his sign. When the pane was re- 
moved does not appear, but evidently a great 
many years ago. Perhaps the landlady her- 
self saw to it ! 

But, strange to say, another inn called the 
" Four Crosses " claims this distinction, and 

9" s. ix. MAR s.1902.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


has often been accorded it in print. This 
house is the mucli older and greatly superior 
"Four Crosses" at Hatherton, on the old 
Chester road, near Cannock a road Swift 
certainly would also have travelled on his 
journeys between London, Chester, and Holy- 
head, on his way to or from Dublin. He also 
probably stayed there. (There are, by the 
way, four cross-roads at that point.) The 
inn at Willoughby was always a very 
humble one, and were it not that Swift is 
known to have enjoyed visiting the pot- 
houses on the way to listen to the talk of 
the waggoners and others, we might think 
it too mean a place for that dignitary of the 
Church to have honoured. 

The lines have almost always been egre- 
giously misquoted, probably by writers fol- 
lowing the incorrect version given in the 
Gentleman's Magazine in 1819. It would be 
of the greatest interest if any light could be 
thrown upon the circumstances that led to 
Swift writing this ; and, moreover, if it can 
be reconciled with the apparently irrecon- 
cilable, i.e., the invariable statements of all 
Swift's biographers that his last visit to Eng- 
land was in 1727. And while we are about 
it, what has become of the epigram he simi- 
larly scratched on a window-pane at Chester : 
something to the effect that the churches and 
the clergy of that city were alike unfurnished 

Petersham, Surrey. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to them 

The Illuminati, who were influential in 
Swedish society during the reign of Gusta- 
yus III. and subsequently, held, I have been 
informed, among other tenets, that the souls 
of certain great men passed into the 
bodies of other persons endowed with similar 
great qualities of genius or courage. I shall 
be glad to know where references to this 
belief of theirs can be found. SEARCHER. 

One of the most interesting pictures in the 
Winter Exhibition at the New Gallery is that 
marked No. 104, although, by a curious over- 
sight, the compilers of the catalogue have 
omitted to record the point that makes it 
famous. It is a seated figure of King 
Charles I., and portrays him as he sat at 

his trial in the High Court of Justice 
the latter fact unnoticed in the catalogue. 
His beard is worn full and quite grey ; in his 
right hand he holds the historic ebony cane, 
whose silver top fell off during one of the 
sittings ; and his head is covered by a high- 
crowned black hat, a royal prerogative which 
the king resolutely maintained during the 
memorable scene. The picture must have 
been painted from memory after the trial, 
but it makes Charles I. look considerably 
older than in his usual and better-known 
portraits, while the grizzled beard, less care- 
fully trimmed than of yore, imparts a touch- 
ing and lifelike aspect to the whole. 

The chair, with its covering of red velvet, 
is still extant, preserved in a cottage hospital 
at Moreton - in - the - Marsh, Gloucestershire. 
It was on view in the Stuart Exhibition 
some years ago. What a pity it cannot be 
acquired for the nation, and placed either in 
Westminster or Whitehall ! Similar pictures, 
of various sizes, may yet be found in 
the possession of old Jacobite families, 
and some rough copies on glass, with an 
inscription below, can occasionally be pur- 
chased in curiosity shops ; but all Stuart relics 

att Temple Bar, 1648." PERCY CLARK. 

[For Bower see Bryan's 'Diet.,' 1885, under his 

CHAPMAN FAMILY. Information is desired 
as to the parentage and descendants of John 
Chapman, who lived at Checkley Hall in the 
first half of the nineteenth century. Where 
is Checkley Hall ? In Yorkshire 1 The person 
in question was of the Chapmans of Whitby. 

Moorside, Far Headingley, Leeds. 


Who is the author of the following lines 1 
I doe love these auncyeiit abbayes ; 
We never tread within them but we set 
Our foote upon some reverend historic. 

128, Alexandra Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 
[" Abbayes " is a mistake. The lines run : 
I do love these ancient ruins ; 
We never tread upon them but we set 
Our foot upon some reverend history. 
They occur in 'The Duchess of Malfi,' V. iii. 
(Webster's 'Works,' ed. Hazlitt, 1857, vol. ii. 
p. 270).] 

WARREN AND CLEGG. Can you tell me if 
Esther Clegg, who was born 15 September, 
1693, and who married Jonathan Warren, of 
Limehurst, at Ashtou-under-Lyne, on 2 April, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. ix. MARCH s, 1902. 

1716, was a descendant of Bernulf de Clegg 
the founder of Clegg Hall, near Rochdale, in 
the reign of Stephen ; also the Christian 
name of Esther Clegg's father, and where sh 
was baptized ; also the Christian name o 
Jonathan Warren's father 1 Jonathan Warrer 
was born 8 December, 1694. Where ? am 
where baptized ? G. J. WATTS. 

kindly inform me the value of a set o 
Steevens's 'Shakespeare,' Boydell, 1802? 
copy is in 9 vols., and belonged to Mr 
Martin, who inserted many illustrations. 

Norfolk, Va. 

[No man except an expert can give you the value 
of an exceptional copy. The only plan is to sell i 
by auction, and buy it in if you want to keep it 
Consult the successive volumes of 'Book-Price! 

author of ' Experiences of a Gaol Chaplain, 
' Notes from the Diary of a Coroner's Clerk 
(published in Bentlei/s Miscellany, but, ] 
believe, never published separately). ' Straj 
Leaves from a Freemason's Note -book' 
and what are the names of any other work? 
of his ? WILLIAM ELAM. 

one give me biographic data of William Bent, 
the compiler and publisher of English cata- 
logues, and the founder of Kents Literary 
Advertiser, established in 1802 ; also of Robert 
bent, his successor 1 A. G. 

New York. 

ASHTEAD, SURREY. The parishioners are 
anxious to trace, and if possible recover, the 
registers of baptisms, marriages, and burials 
prior to 1660; also the accounts of the 
churchwardens and overseers from the end 
ot the eighteenth century as far backwards 
as possible. Suggestions "or information will 
be welcomed, (Rev.) F. G. L. LUCAS. 

Ihe Rectory, Ashtead. 

his essay on 'Lord Mahon's War of the Suc- 
cession in Spain/ writes, "The Earl [of Peter- 
borough] therefore made war after the fashion 
ot tne^Mmas and Empecinados of our own 
times. Ignorance, sheer ignorance, induces 
me to ask some reader to enlighten me as to 
Minas and Empecinados, and in what fashion 
they made war. J AMES WATSON. 

[The Minas, uncle and nephew, and Kmpecinado 
were celebrated leaders in the Spanish guerilla war 
against the Napoleonic invaders.] 

''CADAVER."-In Coke's 'Institutes,' vol.iii. 
p. 203, appears the following : " The burial of 

the cadaver (that is caro data vermibus) is," 
&c. ; and the passage is quoted verbatim, 
without comment, by Mr. Justice Holroyd 
in Rex v. Coleridge, 2 Barnewall and 
Alderson's Reports, p. 809. Did the learned 
author intend his readers to consider that he 
believed cadaver to be derived from the union 
of the first three syllables of the other three 
following Latin words ; or is it a little ghastly 
pleasantry 1 Is the joke his own ? Lexico- 
graphers are unanimous in tracing the deri- 
vation a cadendoc&d&ver being that which 
no longer stands, but has fallen. Cf. 
and TTiTTTtiv. G. B. F. 

RICHARD EDWARDS was admitted to West- 
minster School in 1770. Can any corre- 
spondent of ' N. & Q.' tell me whether this 
was Richard Edwards of Nanhoron, Carnar- 
vonshire ? G. F. R. B. 

" LIMERICK." Why is a certain form of 
nonsense verse known by this name ; and by 
whom was the name first given ? The ques- 
tion has already been asked (9 th S. ii. 470), 
but has not, I believe, been satisfactorily 
answered. HENRY BRADLEY. 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

BULL-BAITING. I have seen reference to a 
statute ordering bulls to be baited as a con- 
dition precedent to their flesh being exposed 
in the shambles for sale. In 'Records of the 
Borough of Leicester,' vol. ii. p. 289, there is 
notice of a borougli enactment that "no 
bocher kylle no bull to selle within this town 
put yf hit be bay ted before in payne of for- 
:eture thereoff." The order has its counter- 
part in a Cambridge ordinance of 1376 
Cooper's 'Annals,' i. 114), where "baiting" 
s explained as being fed with grass in a stall. 
Was there a statute such as that mentioned 
above, arid did it enjoin baiting by bulldogs 
n 1 baiting as contemplated by the Cam- 
bridge ordinance ? G. T. 

COMIC ANNUAL. Wanted the title and 
names of author, artist, and publisher of a 
ornic annual (?) which appeared about sixty 
'ears ago. On p. 53, under the heading 
Rhetoric and Elocution for the Million,' are 
wo illustrations, a large face on a small body, 
nd a sulking boy leaning against a wall. 
)n p. 54 (dealing with teeth) is represented 
ri old nurse offering pap to an infant in its 
hair. On p. 55 is a clown shooting a 
igantic tooth out of the mouth of a panta- 
3011. On p. 56 is a carpenter seated over 

signboard ("The Queen's Head"), and 
ivving it away from its post. These are all 
be pages that I possess, but on one there 
, I recollect, an illustrated description of 

9* s. ix. MARCH s, 1902.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a boy teasing his mother for an apple. He 
says, "All apples are not put into puddings 
and pies, are they, mamma? I should so 
like an apple." I think he threatens to go 
and catch some illness if he does not get the 
apple, and it ends with " Pretty dear ! he has 
got the apple ! " POMANDER. 

' THE SPIRIT OF THE WYE.' I can remember 
to have read many years ago, when a boy, 
in a book entitled ' The Romance of History,' 
by Henry Neale, a story called ' The Spirit of 
the Wye.' It narrated how a shadowy form 
was occasionally seen sailing in a boat on the 
river Wye, near Hereford. Is this tradition 
lost or forgotten ? for I have mentioned it to 
several people resident at Hereford, and they 
have never heard of the legend. 


the descendants of Elizabeth Bowes, daughter 
of Sir George Bowes, of Streathlam, co. 
York, and goddaughter of Queen Elizabeth 1 
Her daughter Elizabeth Hutton married 
Edward or Edmund Cleburne, of Killerby, 
co. York (the eldest son of Thomas Cleburne, 
of Cleburne Hall, co. Westmoreland), whose 
eldest son William, of St. John's Manor, co. 
Wexford, married Bridgetta, sister or niece 
of Michael Ward, Bishop of Ossory, ob. 1643. 
Any information or printed pedigrees of 
these families will oblige and be of assistance. 

HAMBLEY ARMS. The arms of Hambley 
of Cornwall are Sa, on a pale or three 
torteaux ; the crest, a dolphin haurient azure 
<9 th S. v. 92). Harl. MSS. 5871, 2129, 1538, 
1091, give for the Harnbly or Hamley arms 
Arg., three talbots passant az. Harl. MS. 3288 
says Hamley has for coat of arms (quartered 
by Trevylyan) Arg., a chevron between three 
talbots passant sa. Harl. MS. 1080 describes 
this family's coat of arms as Arg., three talbots 
sa. What reasons might there be for these 
differences in the arms? Will some one 
learned in heraldic lore explain the remark- 
able connexion between these coats of arms 
and that of Sir Wm. Hollys (presumably of 
Devon), which is Sa., on a bend, between a 
talbot courant in chief and a dolphin naiant 
embowed in base arg., three torteaux ? 


early pedigree of this old Staffordshire 
family ever been worked out in a scientific 
manner 1 There are, of course, various 
pedigrees in Burke's 'Commoners' and 
* Landed Gentry,' in Sleigh's ' Leek,' in the 
'Visitations of Staffordshire,' published by 

the Wm. Salt Arch. Soc., and elsewhere, but 
none of these are complete or convincing, 
and various discrepancies occur. I am 
especially desirous of discovering the con- 
nexion with the main line (which I naturally 
assume) of Thomas Bedulf, of Horton, co. 
Staffs, who by his will dated 9 June, 1535, 
and proved at Lichfield 1 December, 1535, 
nominates as one of his overseers " Richard 
Bedulf of Bedulf gent.," the then head of the 
family. Horton and Biddulph are adjoining 

Park Corner, Blundell sands. 

Chunradi Salici' (p. 442 of the Frankfort 
edition, 1654), tells us that the body of Queen 
Cunegunda (who died in 1038) "in prae- 
positura Lutburg sepultum est." I should be 
glad to know where this burial-place wavS. 

Edward FitzGerald's works shall I find the 
following lines ? 

For like a child, sent with a fluttering light 
To feel his way along a gusty night, 
Man walks the world. Again, and yet again, 
The lamp shall be by fits of passion slain ; 
But shall not He who sent him from the door 
Relight the lamp once more, and yet once more ? 

They were quoted by Mr. Asquith in an 
article in last December's Contemporary 
Review. C. L. S. 

BOROUGH, DIED 1568. This Churchman is 
said to have been a relation of Reginald 
Pole, the cardinal. Is it known whether 
any relationship did really exist between 
these two ? RONALD DIXON. 

46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

"Hop THE TWIG." I have it in my mind 
that this expression has at some period been 
in vogue to indicate decease in persons or 
animals. Can any reader put me in the way 
of tracing the origin of the term, and say if 
it is still used in metropolitan or county 
areas ? 1 have searched many likely shelves 
in vain. CECIL CLARKE. 

SEAS ALTER. What is the origin of the 
name of this parish, west of Whitstable in 
Kent, and on the Swayle, which separates 
the Isle of Sheppey from the mainland in 
Kent ? At the Domesday Survey it is men- 
tioned as "a small burgh called Seseltre." A 
popular idea is that the place received its 
name from the open salt-pans, for the produc- 
tion of salt by evaporation of the sea-water. 

Tankertou-on-iSea, Kent. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. ix. MARCH s, 1902. 

(9 th S. viii. 517 ; ix. 51, 92.) 

IN my former note I produced evidence to 
show that the stream which we convention 
ally call the Westbourne passed under severa 
other names, and I asked for evidence to 
prove that it was ever called the " West 
Bourne " previous to the nineteenth century. 
The weapons of deduction, inference, and 
analogy nave been employed to assail my 
position, but the irrefragable arm of evidence 
has not yet been produced. 

My note has, however, been fortunate in 
eliciting the valuable and suggestive article 
of SIR HERBERT MAXWELL. I quite agree 
with SIR HERBERT that the absence of the 
name of West Bourne as the designation of a 
stream in early maps is no proof that the 
stream had no specific name. To my mind 
it affords a probability, but certainly no 
proof. On the other hand, the illustrations 
given by SIR H. MAXWELL seem to show 
that, to his mind, the absence of a name at 
the present time affords a probability that in 
early times the stream had a specific name. 
Where there is room for such varying 
opinions the safest course to pursue is to 
accept nothing except on the clearest evi- 

SIR H. MAXWELL alludes to the case of 
Avon and Esk, and adds. " The specific is for- 
gotten, the generic remains." In the case of 
the Gade in Hertfordshire, he is doubtless 
right ;t and if the Thames were not so big its 
name might be forgotten too, for no one talks 
of rowing on the "Thames"; one has an 
afternoon on " the river." But the numerous 
Avons and Usks, Ouses and Axes, certainly 

* By a curious coincidence, I had written thus 
far (1 February) when the Morning Post was 
brought into my room, and on opening' it I found a 
most admirable article by Mr. Andrew Lang 
entitled 'Belief and Disbelief,' which should be 
read and inwardly digested like all Mr. Lang's 
writings it contains its own pepsin by every 
correspondent of 'N. & Q.' 

t Norden has some quaint remarks on this river 
tie says : ' Caishoo should import a water, called 
Lais or Goep the name, it may bee, of the riuer 
that passeth through this hundred, called Caishoo 
orGaegeshoo hundred, called of Hollmshed Gades 
and giues name to the Gadesdens, where the riuer 
Sm ?f ' n-i ^ y ^"Ption of pronunciation they 
? a] l ^ Caishoo for Gadeshoo, Gades river, or else 
is Gades mistaken for Cais or Caegs, and so for 
Cbfefen or Caegsden pronounced Gadesden, for 
doubtless, the riuer giueth name to Caishoo or 
Caegshoc > or ^Woo-berye" ('Speculum Britan- 

p< ] * very conclusive > 

afford a probability that in early times specific 
names were not so commonly used as generic 
ones. People did not travel much put of 
their own districts, and it was not until com- 
munications were developed that any neces- 
sity was felt for a specific name. No one 
made any mistake as to what was meant by 
the " stream " or the " river." 

As I have just shown in the case of the 
Thames, this habit is not entirely lost at the 
present day. I may perhaps be allowed to 
give a further illustration from my own 
personal experience. On iny occasional 
visits to London or " town," as it is called 
by an analogous process I usually occupy 
rooms in a house on the east side of Welbeck 
Street, One morning, in the course of a 
talk with the landlord a very intelligent 
man, who has lived many years in the dis- 
trict on the geology of that part of London, 
he said that from excavations made when 
old houses were pulled down, as was just 
then happening in Bentinck Street, he 
observed that the gravel practically ended 
in the middle of Welbeck Street, and that 
onwards to the " river " the soil consisted of 
gravel mixed largely with mud. I said, " The 
'river'? What river?" "Oh !" he replied, 
" the bourne." " Ah," I rejoined, " I suppose 
you mean the Tyburn." " Well, sir," he said, 
"I suppose you would call it the Tyburn." 
Now, I may observe en passant, I never would 
call it the Tyburn, except in a conventional 
way, for, with the exception of a doubtful 
passage in a charter of uncertain date, there 
is as little evidence to show that the King's 
Scholars' Pond Sewer was ever known as the 
Tyburn as there is that the Ranelagh Sewer 
was ever known as the Westbourne. But 
this, of course, is another question. 

The term " bourne " applied by my land- 
lord to this stream shows that this word has 
not entirely dropped out of the Southern 
English vernacular, and if SIR H. MAXWELL 
will turn to Dr. Murray's dictionary, s.v. 
* Bourne,' he will find stronger evidence on 
this point in the shape of a quotation from 
Richard Jefferies's 'Wild Life in a Southern 
County,' 1879, p. 22 : 

' The villages on the downs are generally on a 

bourne, or winter water-course In summer it is 

a broad winding trench along whose bed you 

nay stroll dryshod In winter the bourne often 

ms the appearance of a broad brook." 

The same invaluable dictionary will also 
show SIR H. MAXWELL and W. H. B. that 
he second constituent of Westbourne can- 
not be "bourn," a boundary, French borne, 
as the word in that sense was first employed 
"n English by Lord J3erners in Jris transja- 



tion of Froissart, 1523 ; then seven times by 
Shakespeare, including the world-wide quo- 
tation from ' Hamlet * cited by W. H. B. ; 
and then apparently not till the eighteenth 
century, the modern use, according to Dr. 
Murray, being probably due to Shakespeare.* 

MR. T. WILSON questions my supposition, 
which I made on the authority of Bos worth, 
that Westbourne received its name from its 
situation on the west bank of the rivulet. 
"Bourne" is a common termination in East 
Kent, especially round Canterbury, where 
we have Littlebourne, Bekesbourne, Patrix- 
bourne, and Bishopsbourne. There is also 
Northbqurne (not Norburn), near Deal, 
which gives its name to a peerage. This is 
a small hamlet, not a stream, though it is 
seated near one. Unfortunately I do not 
know Eastbourne or South Bourne, and 
cannot say whether they are situated on 
streams bearing those names, or whether 
they owe their names to streams called re- 
spectively the East Bourne and the South 
Bourne. Further inquiry into the origin of 
all these names might throw light on the 

The earliest mention of the so-called West 
Bourne occurs in a charter of King yEthel red, 
A.D. 986, on which Prof. Hales has partly 
founded an interesting paper in the Transac- 
tions of the London and Middlesex Archaeo- 
logical Society, vi. 560. In this charter the 
stream is called " mser-burne," or boundary- 
brook, and rightly so, as it marked the bound- 
ary of the parish of Harnpstead. Thence it 
meandered down to Kilburn, a very ancient 
name which is evidently derived from the 
stream, though I have never met with any 
indication that the stream itself was so called. 
And thence to Westbourne, where we will 
leave it, while awaiting the evidence for 
which I asked. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

With regard to the word bourne, otherwise 
burn, brun, in the sense of limit, boundary, 
may one suggest some further considerations ? 
Bourne has come to mean in our time pretty 
generally in England, and (as burn) even 
still more in Scotland, simply a stream or