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THE SACRED BOOKS AND 

EARLY LITERATURE OF 

THE EAST 



WITH HISTORICAL SURVEYS OF THE CHIEF 
WRITINGS OF EACH NATION 

Translations, Bibliographies, etc. , by the following 
Leading Orientalists: 

IN AMERICA: 

MORRIS JASTROW.LL.D.. Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Penn- 
sylvania; JAMES H. BREASTED, LL.D., Professor of Egyptology, University of 
Chicago; CHARLES C. TORREY, D.D.. Professor of Semitic Languages, Yale 
University; A. V. W. JACKSON, LL.D., Professor of Indo- Iranian. Columbia Uni- 
versity; CHARLES R. LANMAN, LL.D., Professor of Sanskrit, Harvard University; 
REV. CHARLES F. AIKEN, S.T.D., Dean of the Faculty of Theology, Catholic 
University; FRIEDRICH HIRTH, LL.D., Professor of Chinese, Columbia Uni- 
versity; REV. WILLIAM E. GRIFFIS, D.D., former Professor at the Imperial 
University, Tokio. 

IN EUROPE: 

E. A. VV. BUDGE, F.S.A., Director of Egyptology in the British Museum; SIR 
GASTON MASPERO, D.C.L.. Member of the Royal Institute of France; REV. A. H. 
SAYCE. LL.D.. Professor of Comparative Philology, Oxford University; W. 
FLINDERS-PETRIE, LL.D., Professor of Egyptology, University College, London; 
STEPHEN LANGDON. Ph.D.. Professor of Assyriology, Oxford University; SIR 
ERNEST SATOW, LL.D., G.C.M.G., British Minister to Japan; H. OLDENBERG, 
LL.D.. Professor of Sanskrit, Kiel University; T. W. RHYS-DAVIDS, LL.D., 
Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society; ARMINIUS VAMBERY, LL.D., Professor 
of Oriental Languages, University of Budapest. 

IN ASIA: 

SIR M. COOMARA SWAMY, Legislative Council of Ceylon; ROMESH CHUNDER 
DUTT, C.I.E., Author of the History of Civilization in Ancient India; DARAB 
D. P. SANJANA. Educational Society of Bombay; * 'SCOUNT KENCHO SUYE- 
MATSU. LL.M., Japanese Minister of the Interior; ^ ' : FAIZ-ULLAH-BHAI. 
Head Master of the Schools of Anjuman-i-Islam; RALPi. ; GRIFFITH, President 
Benare* College. India; JIVANJI JAMSHEDJI MODI, Fellow of Bombay Uni- 
versity, Officier de 1' Academic Francaise. 

Undtr tht tditorthip of a ttaff of gpecialitt* directed by 
PHOF. CHARLES F. HORNE, PH.D. 



\* 

PARKE, AUSTIN, AND LIPSCOMB, INC. 
A' YORK LONDON 



This Volume is one of a complete set of the Sacred Books 
and Early Literature of the East, consisting of fourteen 
volumes. In Volume I of the series will be found a cer- 
tificate as to the limitation of the edition and the registered 
number of this set. 



Copyright, 1917, 
Parke, Austin, and Lipscomb, Inc. 



LITER \TURE 



VOLUME II 

EGYPT 



THE ROCK TEMPLE OF ABU-SIMBEL. 

Showing the secret Holy Place in the rear. 



THE SACRED BOOKS AND EARLY 
LITERATURE OF THE EAST 



VOLUME II 

EGYPT 



In Translations by 

JAMES H. BREASTED, LL.D., Professor of Egyptology in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago; E. A. W. BUDGE, F.S.A., Director of Egyptology 
in the British Museum; SIR GASTON MASPERO, D.C.L., Member of 
the Royal Institute of France; REV. A. H. SAYCE, LL.D., Professor 
of Comparative Philology at Oxford University; ALLAN H. GAR- 
DINER, Litt.D., Editor of the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology; 
W. FLINDERS- PETRIE, LL.D., Professor of Egyptology in University 
College, London; and other leading Egyptologists. 



With a Bri^f Bibliography by 
PROF. JAMES H. BREASTED, LL.D. 



Jl'ith an Historical Surrey and Descriptions by 

PROF. CHARLES F. IIORNE, PH.D. 



PARKE, AUSTIN, AND I.II'smMH, [ire, 
\V YORK LONDON 



Let there be light" GENESIS I, 3. 



" There never was a false god, nor was there ever 
really a false religion, unless you call a child a 
false wan." MAX MULLER. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



EGYPT 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION Man's First Hope of Immortality 

and the Dawning of the Critic Sense ... 3 

THE ANCIENT EMPIRE (3500 B.C.-2475 B.C.) 

I. THE EARLIEST EGYPTIAN REMAINS .... 13 
The Boast of Methen, the First Autobiography 

(3000 B.C.) 15 

The Palermo Stone, Egypt's First Historical 

Record (2750 B.C.) 17 

II. THE SECRET PYRAMID TEXTS (2625 B.C.) ... 23 

III. BIOGRAPHY, TRAVEL, AND ROMANCE .... 35 

The Words of Uni, the King's Friend (2550 B.C.) 37 
Inscriptions of Harkhuf, the First Explorer 

(2525 B.C.) 43 

Tales of the Magicians, Earth's Earliest Stories 

(2000 or 3000 B.C.) 48 

IV. THE PRECEPTS OF PTAH-HOTEP (2700 B.C.?), 

The Oldest Book in the World 62 

THE MIDDLE EMPIRE (2500 B.C.-1600 B.C.) 

V. RELIGIOUS AND SEMI-HISTORIC TEXTS ... 81 

The "Coffin Texts" 84 

A Mother's Charm against Evil Spirits . . 86 

The First Poem of Pessimism 87 

Songs of the Harper 89 

The First Misanthrope 92 

The Tomb Record of Huron Ameni ... 97 

Counsels of Kimi Intef (2100 B.C.?) .... 98 

Counsel of King Amrncmliet (1970 B.C.) . . 108 



vi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

VI. TALES OF ROMANCE AND TRAVEL 113 

The Eloquent Peasant, the First Study of 

Rhetoric 115 

The Shipwrecked Sailor 133 

Memoirs of Sinuhit ' . 138 

Fragments of the Earliest Ghost-Story . . . 149 

VII. THE BOOK OF THE DEAD, Egypt's Holy Scripture. 157 

THE GREAT EMPIRE (1600 B.C.-525 B.C.) 

VIII. HYMNS TO THE ONE UNIVERSAL GOD .... 289 

To Aton, the Creator 291 

The King's Own Hymn 296 

Hymn to Re as Sole God 298 

Hymn to the Nile 300 

IX. THE RELIGION OF THE POOR IN ANCIENT EGYPT 

Prayers for Mercy 309 

X. HISTORY AND LEGEND UNDER THE GREAT EMPIRE. 327 

The Expulsion of the Shepherd Kings ... 330 
Annals of Thutmose III, the Egyptian World- 
Conqueror (1500 B.C.) 332 

Biography of a Soldier Under Thutmose III . 340 
"The Taking of Joppa," Legend of a Stratagem 

Under Thutmose 344 

The Building Record of a Pharaoh .... 350 

XL EGYPT'S CHIEF EPIC POEM (1287 B.C.) ... 359 

The Triumph of Rameses II, by Penta-our. . 361 

XII. TALES OF ROMANCE AND TRAVEL .... 379 

The Two Brothers, Egypt's Best-known Story . 381 

The Doomed Prince 392 

Travels of Unamunu in Syria 400 






CONTENTS vii 
THE AGE OF WEAKNESS (525 B.C. A.D.) 

PAGE 

XIII. THE BOOK OF THE BREATHS OF LIFE, The Secret 

Teaching of the Egyptian Priesthood . . 414 

XIV ROMANCES 425 

The Princess Possessed by a Demon, The Oldest 

Literary Forgery 427 

Prince Satni and the Magic Book .... 431 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 455 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME II 



FACING PAGE 

The Rock Temple of Abu-Simbel .... Frontispiece 

The Creation 32 

Ptah Fashioning the Egg of the World 48 

Osiris, King of the World of Death 64 

Isis, Wife of Osiris 96 

Khepera, the Beetle-god of Resurrection 144 

A Page from the Book of the Dead . 160 

Anubis, the Guide through the Underworld .... 208 

Hathor Emerges from the Mountain of Tombs . . . 240 

Horus, the God-child, Rising from the Lotus .... 272 

Nut, the World Mother 320 

Thoth, the Chief Friend of Man 416 



"Be not arrogant because of that which thou knowest; deal 
with the ignorant as with the learned; for the barriers of art 
are not closed, no artist being in possession of the perfection to 
which he aspires" 

FROM THE EGYPTIAN BOOK OF PTAH-HOTEP, EARTH'S EARLIEST- 
KNOWN TEACHER. 



VOL. II. 1. 



SACRED BOOKS AND EARLY LITERATURE 

OF 

EGYPT 

INTRODUCTION 

MAN'S FIRST HOPE OF IMMORTALITY AND THE DAWNING OF 
THE CRITIC SENSE 

THE stupendous fact which makes Egyptian literature 
most worth our reading is that in Egypt mankind first 
soared to splendid heights of religious thought. There, so far 
as we now know, earnest and able men first faced with pro- 
found intellectual meditation the spiritual problems of this 
world. There the mass of men, for the first time, arranged 
their earthly lives upon a firm-set confidence that there was a 
life beyond. 

The civilization of Egypt may possibly be as ancient as that 
of Babylonia. Eecent scholars incline to regard that of Bab- 
ylonia as the older of the two, and the other as perhaps an off- 
shoot from it; but in that case the younger branch outgrew 
the parent in both wisdom and culture. Perhaps the swifter 
blossoming of Egyptian thought if we may call a progress 
awift when it extended over unknown thousands of years 
was due to the more secluded character of Egypt's situation. 
There and in Babylonia were two great rivers, the Nile and 
the Euphrates, whose vast and fertile valleys were fitted by 
Nature to be the seat of men's easiest development. But the 
Euphrates valley was exposed to warlike attack from every 
side. Again and again the Babylonian civilization was over- 
thrown by hordes of invading barbarians. New kingdoms 
rose only on the ruins of the old ; and war remained ever the 
chief business and chief thought of life. In Egypt, on the 

8 



4 THE SACRED BOOKS 

contrary, the Nile valley was marvelously sheltered from at- 
tack by the spreading deserts on every side. It is true that 
during Egypt's early history we twice find her invaded and 
partly conquered by foreign hosts ; but in each case she finally 
drove out the invaders. Moreover, these invasions occurred 
at intervals of over a thousand years. Thus the Egyptians 
were left, far more than any other nation in the world, to work 
out their own destinies, to build up their own civilizg ion 
in peace. 

The history of Egypt before the days of Rome is divided 
into four clearly marked periods. The chronology of the 
first of these is still a puzzle to our scholars, though very 
recent criticism is establishing an outline of dates which may 
prove fairly accurate. According to this, our oldest definite 
Egyptian date sets Khufu, or Cheops, as building the greatest 
of the pyramids about 3000 B.C. 1 Khufu ruled in what is 
called the Fourth Dynasty of kings ; so King Menes, who is 
regarded as the founder of the First Dynasty ; that is, as the 
first ruler to gather all Egypt into a single Empire, must 
have lived about 3400 B.C. Back of Menes there is an older, 
uncountable age of lesser kingdoms and slowly developing 
civilization. Forward from his day extends the period of 
the first or what we now call the " Ancient " Egyptian Em- 
pire, which he founded. This was ruled by the six earliest 
dynasties of kings, and lasted for almost a thousand years ; far 
longer, that is, than the later and better known world-empire 
of Rome was able to maintain itself. 

The earliest literary remains of Egypt come down to us 
from the closing years of this " Ancient Empire." They are 
the hieroglyphics inscribed on the inner walls of pyramids, 
which were the giant tombs of kings, or sometimes on the 
lesser tombs of high officials. Some rough-carved, barely 
readable names survive on even earlier tombs, dating from 
Menes or from lesser kings before him. But Egyptian litera- 

i The date of Khufu'a reign, and all dates of the Ancient and Middle 
Empire are, by some scholars, set back about fifteen hundred years 
earlier. The evidence is inconclusive, but seems to favor the later 
date. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 5 

tare, in the sense of many connected phrases making a full 
document, bursts upon us, as it were, suddenly and startlingly 
in a completed form within the pyramid tombs of King Unis, 
of the Fifth Dynasty, and his successors of the Sixth. The 
secret rooms within these pyramids preserved the solemnly 
impressive ancient writings, sheltered them through long ages 
from all the ruin elsewhere wrought by Nature and by man. 
The secret of these pyramids was not penetrated, and their 
ancient picture-writing found, until 1880. So that the study 
of these texts, and all they have taught us of the growth of 
religious thought in Egypt, is very recent. They are called 
the " Pyramid Texts " and the most important of them are 
given in our present volume. 

These Pyramid Texts are wholly religious. They con- 
tinue echoing in a thousand different forms one central relig- 
ious thought. The dead king has gone on to a life beyond, 
has become a god among the gods. As yet the inscriptions 
do not follow this thought of immortality beyond the king. 
There is no assertion that other men live beyond death; 
and in the slight remains of this period gathered from sources 
outside the pyramids there is no evidence of such a belief. 

The other literary remnants from the Old Empire are 
chiefly biographical, the boastful account of some high offi- 
cial who, building his own tomb during his lifetime, records 
his proud successes on the pictured walls. Then there is one 
truly remarkable historical fragment, a carven stone now 
preserved in an Italian museum at Palermo, and hence called 
the " Palermo stone." This gives us a list of ancient kings 
and some note of the events occurring during their reigns. It 
is, however, BO worn and broken that the record gleaned from 
it is almost hopelessly fragmentary. 

In our reprinted documents from this ancient and almost 
forgotten kingdom we have included one other ; not this time 
a fragment painted or carved on stone, but a real book or 
manuscript, written on papyrus, the plant which the Egyp- 
tians learned to make into the most ancient sort of paper. 
This genuine, early book is not really of the Old Empire; 
it belongs to the next period. But the writer then recorded 



6 THE SACRED BOOKS 

an ancient tale, or rather a collection called " The Tales of 
the Magicians." The manuscript dates apparently from 
about the year 2000 B.C. ; that is, from the Twelfth Dynasty, 
but the stories it tells are of King Khuf u and his predecessors, 
and so reach back yet another thousand years for the pictures 
that they offer. So crude and simple are the tales, so mani- 
festly dealing with a still childish and uncritical audience, 
that we feel justified in referring their origin to the Ancient 
Empire of which they tell, and so calling them the " oldest 
stories in the world." 

This first " Old Empire " of Egypt seems to have been over- 
thrown by a foreign invasion, and there were centuries of 
disorder, but the Egyptian princes or great lords were never 
wholly overthrown and gradually they reestablished their 
supremacy in a sort of " feudal period," or rule of the barons. 
Over these one king was again set up; and a second period 
of peaceful splendor ensued about the year 200 under the great 
Twelfth Dynasty of emperors, or Pharaohs. 

From this " Middle Empire " or feudal period the sur- 
viving texts are fairly numerous. There is another papyrus 
manuscript, The Precepts of Ptah-hotep, which disputes with 
the Tales of the Magicians the rank of " oldest book " in the 
world. There are other similar studies of wisdom or books 
of good counsel, perhaps the most interesting of them being 
that of King Intef to his son. The surviving manuscript of 
this is of much later date, but King Intef was of the Eleventh 
Dynasty, and the original set of " counsels " must have been 
almost as old. 

Far more interesting than these books of counsel are the 
religious texts surviving from the Middle Empire. Of these, 
commonly called the " Coffin Texts," the most striking are 
given in our volume. We have not from this age any one 
great religious collection like the Pyramid Texts, but the 
Coffin Texts cover a much wider range. They are the hiero- 
glyphs, usually in verse form, carved upon the coffins of the 
dead. They are usually brief, but they speak not merely for 
kings but for all classes of society. They teach us that the 
idea of life beyond life had now become universal. But 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 7 

mingled with it is a growing cynicism. Some of these texts 
assert a confident and even arrogant assurance of the future ; 
others breathe a gentle sadness, a feeling that this life by it- 
self is of little worth, while the promise of the one beyond 
is very doubtful. 

Among the other pieces surviving there is one of peculiar 
interest in that it offers us man's earliest study of rhetoric, 
of the art of words. It is a deliberate invention, not a legend 
or a myth, but a story invented by the rhetorician for the ex- 
press purpose of displaying the beauty and the power of 
speech when handled as an art. We offer to the reader this 
curious beginning of conscious art, and also the earliest 
" travelers' tales." One of these, the narrative of Sinuhit, 
has a special value. It presents to us our earliest picture of 
Palestine, the Holy Land, depicting it at a period long pre- 
ceding Moses, and perhaps as early as the days of Abraham. 

This second or "Middle Empire" of Egypt was over- 
thrown, as the first had been, by foreign invasion. This time 
the invaders were the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings, who came 
from Asia, and under one of whom Joseph the Israelite rose 
to power. When the Hyksos were finally expelled about 1600 
B.C., the Egyptian rulers who conquered them built up the 
third or Great Empire, which flourished for another four 
hundred years or more and then gradually declined in power 
until it was conquered by the Persians in 525 B.C. 

The period of the " Great Empire " constituted the best 
known and probably the most brilliant age of ancient Egypt. 
It was the time of Thutmose III., the famous general of the 
Eighteenth Dynasty, and of Ramses II., the great warrior of 
the Nineteenth Dynasty. In these days Egypt was no longer 
isolated. She came in close touch with Babylonian civiliza- 
tion and extended her conquests over Palestine and Syria 
up to the very borders of the Babylonian realm. 

The literature of this brilliant period is extensive and im- 
portant Most impressive of its writings is the stupendous 
Book of the Dead. This, the best known of all Egyptian 
books, is the great religious ritual. As much of it as possible, 
sometimes a hundred and forty chapters, was enshrined in 



g THE SACRED BOOKS 

every tomb, carved or painted, or written on papyrus. It 
taught the dead man, or reminded him, just how he was to 
meet each incident of the life beyond, how he would be judged 
for his deeds, how each god would demand knowledge of 
some facts of his life, and how he was to answer each. This 
enormous mass of assumed knowledge as to the minute details 
of the hereafter implies that the entire future was now as- 
sumed as a matter of course. We can not call it pretense; 
it was inherited tradition. Perhaps in the first invention the 
details had been frankly fanciful; but the centuries had 
gradually forgotten this, and man had come to accept all 
these instructions for the hereafter with blind faith. 

Beyond the Book of the Dead our volume gives you a few 
other religious writings of the Great Empire, including earth's 
earliest ghost-story, and then turns to the historic inscriptions 
and semi-historic legends of this great age. These include 
what has been called the first Egyptian epic, the poem of 
the poet Penta-our, celebrating a great victory of Ramses II. 
over the Hittites. King Ramses himself so prized this poem 
with its impassioned description of his prowess that he had 
it inscribed upon his buildings again and again. So that 
next to the Book of the Dead it is the most widespread and 
well-known of Egyptian texts. 

There is one interesting account of travel, dating from this 
age ; and then we turn to its fiction, " The Doomed Prince," 
and the best-known story of all Egyptian fiction, " The Two 
Brothers." 

Chiefly, however, the surviving fiction of Egypt belongs to 
a yet later period, the age of submission, the centuries when 
Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans each in turn con- 
quered Egypt, while the intervening years of brief inde 
pendence were still chiefly swayed by foreign monarchs. 

During these long centuries of ever-increasing weakness 
down to the Christian era, Egyptian literature turned mainly 
to story-telling. The old religious confidence was lost be- 
yond recall. There are, however, two interesting religious 
works belonging to these days: the Book of the Breaths of 
Life, which speaks an almost modern philosophy, and the 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 9 

Litany of Re, a priestly chant which shows that the faith of 
the priests themselves had developed along very different lines 
from the outgrown religion still solemnly proffered to the 
mass of the people. 

Beyond these come the stories of the age of weakness. One 
of these offers us the oldest-known case of literary forgery. 
This tale was deliberately misrepresented by the members of 
a local priesthood as coming from a more ancient source, and 
was thus used to secure wealth and honor for the local shrine. 
Rather than close our volume with this instructive but un- 
honored tale, we then give some other of these lighter tales, 
quaint and often attractive, and even with a breath of the 
heroic toward the last. 

To sum up what has been said, we give you here all the most 
notable Egyptian works. These are of value chiefly through 
their revelation of man's growth in religion and in power of 
analytic thought. The religious growth may here be traced 
through the Pyramid Texts of the Old Empire to the Coffin 
Texts, hymns, and books of counsel of the Middle Empire, 
and so to the Book of the Dead and lesser religious works of 
the Great Empire. Still later than these come the moral 
works, such as the Breaths of Life, of the period of weakness. 
Similarly, the historic side of Egypt may be followed from 
the old Palermo stone, through biographies and legends, up to 
the boastful inscription of Thutmose III., and the epic song 
of Ramses IL's victory. The oldest story-telling in the world 
also may be followed from the crude wonders of the Tales of 
the Magicians, through the Middle Empire rhetorical tale, to 
the more skilful romances of the latest age. Or we can fol- 
low, if we will, the enlarging " travelers' tales." Each of 
these lines will be opening to us the fascinating study of this 
earliest recorded development of human thought. We can 
trace the Egyptians' advance, beginning with a narrow view 
of life possible only to savages, childlike, animal-like in its 
unthinking blindness; and we can see this view expand until 
Egyptian thinkers reach a breadth of reasoning power such as 
the average man of to-day will be quick to admit is apparently 
equal to his own. 



THE ANCIENT EMPIRE 
(3500 B.o-2475 B.C.) 



THE EARLIEST EGYPTIAN REMAINS 



THE PALERMO STONE 



" When first the Egyptians appear upon the stage of history 
they are already possessed of a marvelously advanced civiliza- 
tion which presupposes thousands of years of development." 

s. BIRCH. 



There were presented to him the things of his father." 

THE LIFE OP METHEN (Egypt's oldest biogrtphj). 



THE EAELIEST EGYPTIAN KEMAINS 

(INTRODUCTION) 

IF we sweep aside the dust of the many accumulated ages, 
the earliest Egyptian writings that have come down to us 
are the bare names of kings carved on ancient tombs. Later 
on, we find these names inscribed on other monuments and 
accompanied by lists of kingly titles. Thus, for example, 
in the ancient copper mines of Sinai, the desert land wherein 
Moses and his followers in later ages wandered for forty 
years, a land outside of Egypt altogether, there is an inscrip- 
tion carved on the rock, apparently as a record of empire, by 
King Snefru, the ruler who preceded Khufu, the builder of 
the Great Pyramid (3000 B.C.). This carving, like earlier 
similar ones on the rocky wall, shows an Egyptian Pharaoh 
with upraised war-club about to slay a crouching Arab of the 
desert. That is, Egypt holds warlike mastery over Sinai. 
King Snefru's picture, however, is the first to have a long 
added inscription. It reads : 

" King of Upper and Lower Egypt ; Favorite of the Two 
Goddesses ; Lord of Truth ; Golden Sun-god, Snefru. 

" Snefru, great god, who is given power, stability, life, 
health, joy of heart, forever. 

" Subduer of the Barbarians." 

If such an inscription is too elementary to be called litera- 
ture, we find a distinctly literary form soon afterward in the 
tomb biographies. Iligh officials of the kingdom followed the 
lead of their rulers by building splendid tombs; and they 
painted on the inner chambers of these some record of the 
owner's proud career. The earliest such boastful biography 
yet discovered is that of Methen, the " Master of the Hunt " 
under King Snefru. Methen does not seem to have been a 
specially important man. He was methodical, busy, success- 



14 THE SACRED BOOKS 

ful in a small way; but it is the very maddest vagary of 
chance that out of all the millions of early Egyptians he 
should be the one to have his little boast of success survive 
until now, and now through Egyptologists be preserved per- 
chance until the end of time. So Methen's boastful record 
of his life, faded now and difficult to read, obscure of wording 
and interpretation, is given here as Egypt's earliest surviving 
life-scene. 

Then comes the Palermo stone. , This begins for us Egyp- 
tian history, as Methen begins biography. The Palermo 
stone is a broken fragment from a large tablet, which must 
have been set up somewhere as a sort of permanent historical 
record during the Fifth Egyptian Dynasty (2750 B.C.). 
The original stone contained a list of all the preceding kings, 
arranged in chronological order and with brief notes of the 
chief events of each reign, sometimes of each year of each 
reign. The remaining fragment is unreadable in part and 
gives us only vague visions of large events, whose details the 
imagination must fill out as best it may. 

Of Egypt before the close of the Fifth Dynasty we possess 
only such records as these, shadowy hints of life, pictures 
fascinating to pore over and meditate upon with their wistful 
evidence that human hearts yearned then for much the same 
things that they yearn for now: mothers schemed for their 
sons; men prided themselves on building finer houses than 
their neighbors ; foreign regions were harried and their people 
" hacked " and plundered without remorse ; and then the 
conquerors returned in pleasant pride to dream amid their 
" vines " and " fig-trees." 



EAELIEST EGYPTIAN REMAINS 



THE LIFE OF METHEN * 

There were presented to him the things of his father, the 
judge and scribe Amibisemonekh ; there was no grain or any- 
thing of the house, but there were people and small cattle. 2 

He was made chief scribe of the provision magazine, and 
overseer of the things of the provision magazine. He was 
made . . . becoming local governor of Xois (Ox-nome), and 
inferior field-judge of Xois. He was appointed judge, he 
was made overseer of all flax of the King, he was made ruler 
of Southern Perked, and deputy, he was made local governor 
of the people of Dep, palace-ruler of Miper and Persepa, 
and local governor of the Saitic nome, ruler of the Stronghold 
of Sent, deputy of nomes, ruler of Pershesthet, ruler of the 
towns of the palace, of the Southern Lake. Sheret-Methen 
was founded, and the domain which his father Anubisemonekh 
presented to him. 

Administrator, nomarch, and overseer of commissions in 
the Anubis nome, overseer of the Mendesian nome, he received 
4 stat of land, with people and everything. . . . There were 
founded for him the 12 towns of Shet-Methen in the Saitic 
nome, in the Xoite nome, and the Sekhemite nome. . . . 
There were conveyed to him as a reward 200 stat of lands by 
numerous royal grants; a mortuary offering of 100 loaves 
every day from the mortuary temple of the mother of the 
King's children, Nemathap; a house 200 cubits long and 200 
cubits wide, built and equipped; fine trees were set out, a 
very large lake was made therein, figs and vines were set out. 
It was recorded therein according to the King's writings; 

i Thig and a few of the following records are reprinted from Breasted'i 
" Ancient Records," by permission of the University of Chicago Press. 

Me then here records his father's death and his own inheritance, not 
of provisions but of slaves, etc. 

15 



16 THE SACRED BOOKS 

their names were according to the decree of the King's writ- 
ings. Very plentiful trees and vines were set out, a great 
quantity of wine was made therein. A vineyard was made 
for him : 2,000 stat of land within the wall ; trees were set out, 
in Imeres, Sheret-Methen, Yat-Sebek, Shek-Methen. 

Ruler of Southern Perked ; 3 

Ruler of Perwersah; 

Ruler and local governor of the stronghold, Hesen ; in the 
Harpoon nome; 

Palace ruler and local governor in Sekhemu of Xois (Ox- 
nome). 

Palace-ruler and local governor in Dep ; 

Palace-ruler and local governor in Miper, of the Saite 
nome; 

Palace-ruler and local governor in Two Hounds, of the 
Mendesian uome ; 

Palace-ruler in Heswer; ruler of fields in the west of the 
Saitic nome ; 

Palace-ruler of the Cow stronghold; local governor in the 
desert, and master of the hunt ; 

Ruler of fields, deputy and local governor in the Sekhemite 
nome; 

Nomarch, administrator, and deputy in the eastern Fayum ; 

Field-judge, palace-ruler of the west of the Saitic nome, 
leader of ... 

There were conveyed to him, as a reward, 200 stat of land 
by the numerous royal . . . 

There were conveyed to him 50 stat of land by his mother 
Nebsent; she made a will thereof to her children; it was 
placed in their possession by the King's writings in every 
place. 

Ruler of ... of the Sekhemite nome. There were given 
to him 12 stat of land, with his children ; there were people 
and small cattle. 

s This and the following lines are separated from the preceding, and 
give a list of Methen's offices. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 17 



THE PALERMO STONE 

[The first lines of this stone give only glimpses of kings' 
names, first an unknown king, Seka, and so on. Then it 
has vague names of events, " Worship of the God Horus," 
" Union of the Two Lands," " Circuit of the Wall," " Birth 
of the Two Children of the King of Lower Egypt," " Building 
of the House Called ' Mighty-of-the-Gods,' " " Birth of the 
Goddess Yamet," " Smiting of the Cave-People," " Opening 
of the Lake of the House Called ' Thrones-of-the-Gods,' " 
" Shooting of the Hippopotamus," " Voyage to Sahseteni." 
The record first becomes full and fairly readable in the reign 
of the conquering King Snefru of the Third Dynasty (3000 
B.C.). There it runs as follows:] 

KINO SNEFRU 

Year- 

Birth of the two children of the King of Lower Egypt. 
Sixth occurrence of the numbering. 

Year- 

Building of 100-cubit 4 dewatowe-ships of meru wood, and 
of 60 sixteen 5 -barges of the King. 

Hacking up the land of the Negro. 

Bringing of 7,000 living prisoners, and 200,000 large and 
small cattle. 

Building of the wall of the Southland and Northland 
called " Houses^of-Snefru." 

Bringing of 40 ships filled with cedar wood. 6 

2 cubits, 2 fingers. 7 

This refers to the length, which waa thus some 107 feet. 

* This numeral refers to a dimension or to the number of oars in 
each barge, or something similar. 

Thin is an expedition by sea to Lebanon. 

i Throe constantly recurring figures for each year probably are some 
measure of the height of the Nile. 
VOL. II. i. 



18 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Year 

Making of 35 houses. 8 
... of 122 cattle. 

Building of a 100-cubit dewatowe-ship of cedar wood, and 
2 100-cubit ships of meru wood. 

Seventh occurrence of the numbering. 
5 cubits, 1 palm, 1 finger. 

Year 

Erection of: 

"Exalted-is-the-White-Crown-of-Snefru-upon-the-Southern- 
Gate." 9 

" Exalted-is-the-Red-Crown-of - Snef ru-upon-the-Northern- 
Gate." 9 

Making the doors of the King's palace of cedar wood. 

Eighth occurrence of the numbering. 

2 cubits, 2 palms, 2% fingers. 

[Much is lost here, and the record only becomes full again 
under the reign of King Userkaf of the Fifth Dynasty.] 

KINO USERKAF 

Year 5 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Userkaf; he made 
it as his monument for : 

The spirits of Heliopolis : 20 offerings of bread and beer at 
every . . . and every feast; 36 stat of land in the domain 
of Userkaf. 

The gods of the sun-temple called Sepre : 

24 stat of land in the domain of Userkaf ; 

2 oxen, 2 geese every day. 

Re : 44 stat of land in the nomes of the Northland ; 10 

8 Some particular kind of building is meant. 

These are the names of two gates or parts of the palace of Snefru : 
one for the South and one for the North. We have thus the double 
name of a double palace, which, like the organs of the government, was 
double, to correspond with the old kingdoms of South and North. These 
two gates are still preserved in the palace of the Empire, as seen in 
the Amarna tombs. The palace front was always referred to as the 
" double facade " or " double gate." 

10 Re, Hathor, Sepa, etc., are names of goda. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 19 

Hathor : 44 stat of land in the nomes of the Northland. 

The gods of the House of Horus : 54 stat of land ; erection 
of the shrine of his temple in Buto of the nome of Xois ; 

Sepa : 2 stat of land ; building of his temple. 

Nekhbet in the sanctuary of the South: 10 offerings of 
bread and beer every day. 

Buto in Pernu : 10 offerings of bread and beer every day. 

The gods of the sanctuary of the South: 48 offerings of 
bread and beer every day. 

Year of the third occurrence of the numbering of large 
cattle. 

4 cubits, 21/2 fingers. 

Year 6 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Userkaf ; he made 
it as his monument for : 

. . . : 1,700 stat . . . in the North; . . . 

KING SAHURB 

Year 5 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sahure; he made 
it as his monument for : 

... in Heliopolis ; . . . 200 ....... divine bark . . . 

Nekhbet, mistress of Perwer : 800 daily offerings of bread 
and beer ; 

Buto, mistress of Perneser: 4,800 daily offerings of bread 
and beer ; 

Re in the Senut-house: 138 daily offerings of bread and 
beer; 

Re in the Sanctuary of the South: 40 daily offerings of 
bread and beer ; 

Re in Tep-het : 74 daily offerings of bread and beer ; 

Hathor in the sun-temple, Sekhet-Re: 4 daily offerings 
of bread and beer ; 

Re of the sun-temple, Sekhet-Re: 2,000 stat of land in the 
nome of Xois ; 

Mes : 2 stat of land in the nome of Busiris ; 

Sem : 2 stat of land in the nome of Busiris ; 



20 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Khent-yawetef : 2 stat of land in the Memphite nome ; 

Hathor in Ro-she of Sahure : 2 stat of land in the East ; 

Hathor in the temple of the pyramid, " The-Soul-of-Sahure- 
Shines " : 1 stat of land in the Libyan nome ; 

The White Bull: 13 . . . stat of land in the eastern Khent 
nome. 

Third occurrence of the finding of ... 

Year of the second numbering. 

2 cubits, 2 1 /4 fingers. 

Year 6 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sahure ; he made it 
as his monument for : 

The Divine Ennead, . . . 

Year 13 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sahure ; he made it 
as his monument for : 



Re ...:... stat of land in the North and South ; 

Hathor : . . . stat of land in the North and South ; 

... : . . . stat of land in the North and South ; 

... : ... all things. 

There were brought from : 

The Malachite-country, . . . 6,000 . . . 

From Punt, 80,000 measures of myrrh, 6,000 ... of 
electrum, 2,600 staves, . . . 

Year after the seventh numbering. 

[The stone ends with some equally fragmentary records 
from the reign of one more king, Neferirkere.] 



THE ANCIENT EMPIRE 
(3500 B.c-2475 B.C.) 



THE PYRAMID TEXTS 



" These texts form the oldest body of literature surviving from 
the ancient world, and disclose to us the earliest chapter in the 
intellectual history of man as preserved to modern times." 

J. H. BREASTED. 

" King Unis has dawned again in the sky, 
Shining as lord of the horizon." 

PYRAMID TEXTS. 






THE PYKAMID TEXTS 

(INTRODUCTION) 

FROM the feebleness and obscurity of such scattered rec- 
ords as were shown in the preceding section, Egyptian 
literature blossoms suddenly into the large quantity of clear, 
vigorous, and interesting religious verses known as the 
"Pyramid Texts." These are found within the series of 
pyramids still standing at Sakhara on the Nile, pyramids 
erected as tombs by King Unis, the last ruler of the Fifth 
Dynasty (about 2625 B.C.), and by his immediate successors 
of the Sixth Dynasty, Kings Teti, Pepi, and others. 

The spacious walls of the burial-chambers within these 
pyramids are covered with endless variations and repetitions 
-of these chants which iterate in a thousand varied forms the 
idea that the dead king is not dead ; he has only, like his proto- 
type, the sun, " set in the west " that he may " rise in the 
east." In describing these remarkable texts Professor 
Breasted says : " Long successions of such paragraphs crowd 
one behind another like the waves of the sea, as if to over- 
whelm and, in their impetuous rush, to bear away as on a 
flood the insistent fact of death and sweep it to utter anni- 
hilation. It is difficult to convey to the modern reader the 
impression made by these thousands of lines as they roll on 
in victorious disregard of the invincibility of death. In so 
far as they owe their impressiveness to their mere bulk, built 
up like a bulwark against death, we can gain the impression 
only by reading the whole collection through." 

The cry is always that the Pharaoh has gone among the 
gods to take his proper place as the greatest of all of them. 
This idea was not new-born in the tomb of King Unis, where 
we first read it. The phrases of his painted text are obviously 
already old. They had been chanted over the mummies of 

23 



24 THE SACRED BOOKS 

earlier kings for uncountable centuries. The first of these 
chants which we print here has been accepted as belonging to 
a period anterior to the union of Egypt under Menes, the 
founder of the First Dynasty. The spirit of these verses 
proves them the product of a barbaric, probably prehistoric, 
age. They conceive King Unis as going forth to fight the 
older gods, snatch their dwellings from them, slay them, yes 
and even swallow them in baldest cannibal fashion ! 

Doubtless such taunts were intended to terrify the gods of 
death. These texts were charms whose insistent repetition 
would act as a magic spell to hold death afar. Their haughty 
self-assertion and self-confidence are, however, typical of the 
religious attitude of Egypt even in far later days. Never 
has any other religious faith so vociferously claimed the here- 
after as an assured and conquered possession, a land which 
man had wrested from the gods by strength of will and noisy 
vehemence, and which he was determined to retain in defiance 
of their opposition. The later Pyramid Texts do indeed ad- 
dress the gods as friends, but always with the underlying 
haughtiness of King Unis's attack. 



THE PYRAMID TEXTS 



PHARAOH'S VICTORY OVER THE GODS 

Clouds darken the sky, 2 

The stars rain down, 

The Bows (a constellation) stagger, 

The bones of the hell-hounds tremble, 

The porters of the gods are silent, 

When they see King Unis dawning as a soul, 

As a god living on his fathers, 

Feeding on his mothers. 

King Unis is lord of wisdom, 

Whose mother knows not his name. 

The honor of King Unis is in the sky, 

His might is in the horizon, 

Like Atum his father who begat him. 

When he begat him, he was stronger than he. 



King Unis is one who eats men and lives on gods, 

Lord of messengers, who dispatches his messages ; 

It is " Grasper-of-Forelocks " living in Kehew 

Who binds them for King Unis. 

It is the serpent " Splendid-Head " 

Who watches them for him and repels them for him. 

It is " He-who-is-upon-the-Willows " 

Who lassoes them for him. 

It is " Punisher-of-all-Evil-doers " 

Who stabs them for King Unis. 

i The chants in this section are taken from Breasted's " Development 
of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt," by permission of C. Scrib- 
ner's Sons. 

The skies fear the coming attack of the deceased Pharaoh, Unis. 

The passage omitted is an obscure description of the equipment of 
the dead king, which, however, contains an important statement that 
the king " lives on the being of every god, eating their organs who com* 
with their belly filled with charms." 

25 



26 THE SACRED BOOKS 

He takes out for him their entrails, 

He is a messenger whom he (King Unis) sends to punish. 

Shesmu cuts them up for King Unis 

And cooks for him a portion of them 

In his evening kettles (his evening meal). 

King Unis is he who eats their charms, 

And devours their glorious ones (souls). 

Their great ones are for his morning portion, 

Their middle-sized ones are for his evening portion, 

Their little ones are for his night portion. 

Their old men and their old women are for his incense- 
burning. 

It is the " Great-Ones-North-of-the-Sky " 

Who set for him the fire to the kettles containing them, 

With the legs of their oldest ones as fuel. 

The " Dwellers-in-the-Sky " revolve for King Unis (in his 
service). 

The kettles are replenished for him with the legs of their 
women. 

He has encircled all the Two Skies (corresponding to the Two 
Lands), 

He has revolved about the two regions. 

King Unis is the " Great Mighty-One " 

Who overpowers the " Mighty Ones " 



Whom he finds in his way, him he devours. . . . 4 

The protection of King Unis is before all the noble dead 

Who dwell in the horizon. 

King Unis is a god, older than the eldest. 

Thousands revert to him, 

Hundreds are offered to him. 

Appointment as " Great One " is given to him 

By Orion, father of gods. 

King Unis has dawned again in the sky, 

Shining as lord of the horizon. 



* This line is found three times. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 27 

He has taken the hearts of the gods ; 

He has eaten the Red, 

He has swallowed the Green. 

King Unis is nourished on satisfied organs, 

He is satisfied, living on their hearts and their charms. 



Their charms are in his belly. 

The dignities of King Unis are not taken away from him ; 

He hath swallowed the knowledge of every god. 

The lifetime of King Unis is eternity, 

His limit is everlastingness in this his dignity of : 

" If-he-wishes-he-does, 

If-he-wishes-not-he-does-not." 5 

Who dwells in the limits of the horizon forever and ever. 

Lo, their (the gods') soul is in the belly of King Unis, 

Their Glorious Ones are with King Unis. 

The plenty of his portion is more than that of the gods. 



Lo, their soul is with King Unis. 

c Tliia is a name or rank expressed in a couplet. 



28 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE INCENSE CHANT* 

The fire is laid, the fire shines ; 

The incense is laid on the fire, the incense shines. 

Thy fragrance comes to King Unis, O Incense ; 

The fragrance of King Unis comes to thee, O Incense. 

Your fragrance comes to King Unis, O ye gods ; 

The fragrance of King Unis comes to you, O ye gods. 

King Unis is with you, ye gods ; 

Ye are with King Unis, ye gods. 

King Unis lives with you, ye gods ; 

Ye live with King Unis, ye gods. 

King Unis loves you, ye gods ; 

Love ye him, ye gods. 7 

One of the most remarkable passages in the Pyramid Texts employs 
the ceremony and the suggestiveness of incense-burning as a sympathetic 
agency by which, as the odorous vapor arises from earth to the gods, it 
bears aloft the fragrance of the king to mingle with that of the gods, 
and thus to draw them together in fellowship and association. 

i The variant in the last line has: "Ye love this Pepi, ye gods." 
The poem was of course accompanied by the burning of incense; also 
by an offering of bread which immediately followed. A formula of the 
ascension, as frequently with the burning of incense, then follows. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 29 



A CALL TO RE AND THOTH 8 

Take ye this King Unis with you that he may eat of that 

which ye eat, 

And that he may drink of that which ye drink, 
That he may live on that whereon ye live, 
That he may sit in that wherein ye sit, 
That he may be mighty by that whereby ye are mighty, 
That he may sail in that wherein ye sail. 
The booth of King Unis is plaited (erected) in the reeds, 
The pool of King Unis is in the Field of Offerings. 
His offering is among you, ye gods. 
The water of King Unis is wine like that of Re. 
King Unis circles the sky like Re, 
He traverses the sky like Thoth. 

The Sun- and Moon-gods. 



30 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE KING'S IMMORTALITY 

Thy seats among the gods abide; 

Re leans upon thee in the horizon, O King Teti. 

Thy odor is as their odor, 

Thy sweat is as the sweat of the Eighteen Gods. 

Thou dawnest, O King Teti, in the royal hood ; 

Thy hand seizes the scepter, thy fist grasps the mace. 

Stand, O King Teti, in front of the two palaces of the South 

and the North. 

Judge the gods, for thou art of the elders 
Who surround Re, who are before the Morning Star. 
Thou art born at thy New Moons like the moon. 
He leans upon thee in the horizon, O King Teti. 
The Imperishable Stars follow thee, 
The companions of Re serve thee, O King Teti. 
Thou purifiest thyself, thou ascendest to Re ; 
The sky is not empty of thee, O King Teti, forever. 




Men fall, 

Their name is not. 

Seize thou King Teti by his arm, 

Take thou King Teti to the sky, 

That he die not on earth, 

Among men. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 31 






THE ASCENT TO THE SKY 

O King Neferkere ! the mouth of the earth opens to thee, 

Geb (the Earth-god) speaks to thee: 

" Thou art great like a king, mighty like Re." 

Thou purifiest thyself in the Jackal-lake, 

Thou cleansest thyself in the lake of Dewat. 

" Welcome to thee," say the Eighteen Gods. 

The eastern door of the sky is opened to thee by Yemen-kau ; 

Nut has given to thee her arms, O King Neferkere, 

She of the long hair and pendent breasts. 

She guides thee to the sky, 

She does not put King Neferkere down again to the earth. 

She bears thee, O King Neferkere, like Orion ; 

She makes thy abiding-place before the Double Palace. 

King Neferkere descends into the bark like Re, 

On the shores of the Lily-lake. 

King Neferkere is rowed by the Unwearied Stars, 

He commands the Imperishable Stars. 




THE CREATION NU. THE GOD OF CHAOS. UPRAISES THE BOAT 
Of THE GODS INTO THE SKY. AND THE GOO KHEPERA AS A 

BEETLE UPHOLDS THE SUN. WHILE THE Goo OSIRIS 

ENCIRCLES THE UNDERWORLD AND LIFTS INTO 

BEING ON HIS HEAD NUT THE 

MOTHER-GODDESS 



THE ANCIENT EMPIRE 
(3500 B.C.-2475 B.C.) 



BIOGRAPHY, TRAVEL, AND ROMANCE UNDER 
THE ANCIENT EMPIRE 



" The age of the pyramid-builders is the most brilliant before 
the Great Empire." 

STANLEY LANK-POOLE. 

>' thoughts of this people centered strangely on death and 
future life." 

PROP. P. E. NEWBERRY. 
VOL. II.8. 



BIOGRAPHY, TRAVEL, AND ROMANCE UNDER 
THE ANCIENT EMPIRE 

(INTRODUCTION) 

EXCEPT for the Pyramid Texts, the literature of the 
Ancient Empire still remains scanty and woefully in- 
complete. The historical records continue almost blank; 
although biographies of nobles become fairly numerous. The 
best known and most interesting of these, the record of Uni, 
a successful general under King Pepi, and ruler of all Upper 
Egypt under King Mernere, is given here. Uni was born 
under King Teti, founder of the Sixth Dynasty, and worked 
his way upward from a comparatively small office to a career 
of varied and active command. He was, or so he assures us, 
renowned for his probity as a judge and his devotion to his 
various sovereigns. 

There is one of these biographies in which the official was 
a traveler, an explorer of unknown regions. As this bold 
Egyptian lord, Harkhuf by name, is thus the earliest-known 
adventurer in the vast and heroic work of earth's exploration, 
his account of his journeys is well worth our reading. Hark- 
huf s tomb-inscription also includes the full text of a com- 
mendatory letter, which he received from his King. The 
letter itself is almost pathetically childish ; but the tremendous 
honor of receiving it so outweighed all else in the subject's 
mind that the accounts of his own efforts and dangers are 
crowded together in corners of his tomb or omitted entirely, 
so that the main portion of the chamber-wall may blazon forth 
in full the personal letter of his King. 

To these odd old records of the Ancient Empire one text 
has been added which, strictly speaking, does not belong 
among them. This is the celebrated and ancient manuscript 
known as the " Tales of the Magicians." The existing 

35 



36 THE SACRED BOOKS 

papyrus of this tale is of much later date, belonging prob- 
ably to the Middle Empire; but the stories themselves not 
only deal with the Ancient Empire, but speak in such ancient 
fashion that our manuscript is apparently a copy of another 
much more antiquated. The tales bear every sign of being 
almost as old as the empire of which they speak. So while 
we are not to accept the document as strictly contemporaneous 
with King Khufu, who is its central figure, nevertheless it 
preserves some common traditions about that ancient pyramid- 
King. Its childish tales may thus fairly be considered " the 
oldest stories in the world." 



BIOGRAPHY, TRAVEL, AND ROMANCE 



THE INSCRIPTION OF UNI 

Count, governor of the South, chamber-attendant, attached 
to Nekhen, lord of Nekheb, sole companion, revered before 
Osiris, First of the Westerners, Uni. He says : 

I was a child who fastened on the girdle under the Majesty 
of Teti ; my office was that of supervisor of ... and I filled 
the office of inferior custodian of the domain of Pharaoh. 

... I was eldest of the . . . chamber under the Majesty 
of Pepi. His Majesty appointed me to the rank of com- 
panion and inferior prophet of his pyramid-city. While my 
office was . . . his Majesty made me judge attached to 
Nekhen. He loved me l more than any servant of his. I 
" heard," 2 being alone with only the chief judge and vizier, 3 
in every private matter ... in the name of the King, of the 
royal harem and of the six courts of justice; because the King 
loved me more than any official of his, more than any noble 
of his, more than any servant of his. 

Then I besought the Majesty of the King 4 that there be 
brought for me a limestone sarcophagus from Troja. 5 The 
King had the treasurer of the god ferry over, together with a 
troop of sailors under his hand, in order to bring for me this 
sarcophagus from Troja; and he arrived with it, in a large 
ship belonging to the court, together with its lid, the false 
door; the setting, two . . . and one offering-tablet. Never 
was the like done for any servant, for I was excellent to the 
heart of his Majesty, for I was pleasant to the heart of his 
Majesty, for his Majesty loved me. 

i Literally, " hi A l.^art was filled with me." 

Meaning: heard cases in court as judge. 

One person; this vizier, whose name is not mentioned, was perhaps 
Zau. 

* Lit, rally, "the Majesty of the lord." 

Quarries opposite Memphis, five or six miles south of Cairo. 

37 



88 THE SACRED BOOKS 

While I was judge, attached to Nekhen, his Majesty ap- 
pointed me as sole companion and superior custodian of the 
domain of Pharaoh, and ... of the four superior custodians 
of the domain of Pharaoh, who were there. I did so that his 
Majesty praised me, when preparing court, 8 when preparing 
the King's journey, or when making stations. I did through- 
out so that his Majesty praised me for it above everything. 

When legal procedure was instituted in private 7 in the 
harem against the Queen, 8 Imtes, his Majesty caused me to 
enter, in order to hear the case alone. No chief judge and 
vizier at all, no prince at all was there, but only I alone, be- 
cause I was excellent, because I was pleasant to the heart of 
his Majesty ; because his Majesty loved me. I alone was the 
one who put it in writing, together with a single judge at- 
tached to Nekhen ; while my office was only that of superior 
custodian of the domain of Pharaoh. Never before had one 
like me heard the secret of the royal harem, except that the 
King caused me to hear it, because I was more excellent to 
the heart of his Majesty than any official of his, than any 
noble of his, than any servant of his. 

His Majesty made war on the Asiatic Sand-dwellers, and 
his Majesty made an army of many ten thousands: in the 
entire South, southward to Elephantine, and northward to 
Aphroditopolis ; in the Northland on both sides entire in the 
stronghold, 9 and in the midst of the strongholds, among the 
Irthet negroes, the Mazoi negroes, the Yam negroes, among 
the Wawat negroes, among the Kau negroes, and in the land 
of Temeh. 10 

fl There is a contrast here between his duties at the fixed court and 
making preparations for the King's journeys. The third reference is 
perhaps to the duty of assigning court stations to noblemen according 
to rank. 

7 Literally, " When the matter was contested." 

8 Literally, "great king's-wife." 

9 Some particular stronghold is apparently meant ; Erman sug- 
gests " the old fortress in the eastern part of the Delta," but this is a 
conjecture. 

10 This is a list of Nubian lands. The discovery of the Harkhuf in- 
scription has thrown light on the location of Yam, showing that the 
journey thither and return occupied seven months. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 39 

His Majesty sent me at the head of this army while the 
counts, while the wearers of the royal seal, while the sole com- 
panions of the palace, while the nomarchs and commanders 
of strongholds belonging to the South and the Northland ; the 
companions, the caravan-conductors, the superior prophets 
belonging to the South and the Northland, the overseers of 
the crown-possessions, were each at the head of a troop of the 
South or the Northland, of the strongholds and cities which 
they commanded, and of the negroes of these countries. I 
was the one who made for them the plan while my office was 
only that of superior custodian of the domain of Pharaoh of 
. . . Not one thereof . . . with his neighbor ; not one thereof 
plundered dough or sandals from the wayfarer; not one 
thereof took bread from any city; not one thereof took any 
goat from any people. I dispatched them from the Northern 
Isle, the Gate of Ihotep, the bend ll of Horus, Nibmat. 
While I was of this rank . . . everything, I inspected the 
number of these troops, although never had any servant in- 
spected. 

This army returned in safety, after it had hacked up the 
land of the Sand-dwellers ; this army returned in safety, after 
it had destroyed the land of the Sand-dwellers; this army 
returned in safety, after it had overturned its strongholds; 
this army returned in safety, after it had cut down its figs 
and its vines; this army returned in safety, after it had 
thrown fire upon all its foes; this army returned in safety, 
after it had slain troops therein, in many ten thousands ; this 
army returned in safety, after it had carried away therefrom 
a great multitude as living captives. His Majesty praised 
me on account of it above everything. 

His Majesty sent me to lead this army five times, in 
order to traverse the land of the Sand-dwellers at each of 
their rebellions, with these troops. I did so that his Majesty 
praised me on account of it. 

When it was said there were revolters because of a matter 
among these barbarians in the land of Gazelle-nose, I crossed 
over in troop-ships with these troops, and I voyaged to the 

" A river bend, or a district. 



40 THE SACRED BOOKS 

back of the height of the ridge 12 on the north of the Sand- 
dwellers. When this army had been brought in the highway, 
I came and smote them all and every revolter among them 
was slain. 13 

When I was master of the footstool of the palace and 
sandal-bearer, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Mernere, 
my lord, who lives forever, made me count, and governor of 
the South, southward to Elephantine, and northward to 
Aphroditopolis ; 14 for I was excellent to the heart of his 
Majesty, for I was pleasant to the heart of his Majesty, for 
his Majesty loved me. 

When I was master of the footstool and sandal-bearer, his 
Majesty praised me for the watchfulness and vigilance, which 
I showed in the place of audience, above his every official, 
above his every noble, above his every servant. Never before 
was this office conferred upon any servant. I acted as gov- 
ernor of the South to his satisfaction. Not one therein . . . 
with his neighbor. I accomplished all tasks; I numbered 
everything that is counted to the credit of the court in this 
South twice; all the corvee that is counted to the credit of 
the court in this South twice. 15 I performed the ... in 
this South ; never before was the like done in this South. I 
did throughout so that his Majesty praised me for it. 

His Majesty sent me to Ibhet, 16 to bring the sarcophagus 
named : " Chest-of-the-Living," together with its lid and the 

12 The Palestinian highlands. Uni must have landed a little farther 
north and reached the highlands of southern Palestine. 

ia The end of Uni's career under Pepi I. is marked by a line of separa- 
tion on the stone. 

i* The northern and southern limits of Upper Egypt. 

IB The meaning is that Uni twice made a census of all the royal prop- 
erties. 

is This unknown quarry must be in the vicinity of Assuan, where 
black granite is found; the material of the sarcophagus (not given here) 
as discovered in Mernere 's pyramid at Sakhara in January, 1881, by 
Mariette (just a few days before his death), is a fine black granite. The 
lid mentioned in our text is pushed back, but still lying on the sar- 
cophagus, within which Mariette's native assistant, Mustapha, found the 
body of the King Mernere, now in the Cairo Museum. The " pyramid- 
ion," or final capstone of the pyramid, was of finer material than the 
other masonry; it is no longer preserved, but tomb-paintings often 
show this final block colored black by the artist. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 41 

costly, splendid pyramidion for the pyramid called : " Mer- 
nere-Shines-and-is-Beautiful," of the Queen. 17 

His Majesty sent me to Elephantine 18 to bring a false door 
of granite, together with its offering-tablet, doors and settings 
of granite ; to bring doorways and offering-tablets of granite, 
belonging to the upper chamber of the pyramid called: 
" Mernere-Shines-and-is-Beautiful," of the Queen. Then I 
sailed down-stream to the pyramid called: "Mernere- 
Shines-and-is-Beautiful," with 6 cargo-boats, 3 tow-boats and 
3 ... boats to only one war-ship. Never had Ibhet and 
Elephantine been visited in the time of any kings with only 
one war-ship. Whatsoever his Majesty commanded me I 
carried out completely according to all that his Majesty com- 
manded me. 

His Majesty sent me to Hatnub to bring a huge offering- 
table of hard stone of Hatnub. I brought down this offering- 
table for him in only 17 days, it having been quarried in 
Hatnub, and I had it proceed down-stream in this cargo-boat. 
I hewed for him a cargo-boat of acacia wood of 60 cubits in 
its length, and 30 cubits in its breadth, built in only 17 days, 
in the third month of the third season (eleventh month). 
Although there was no water on the ... I landed in safety 
at the pyramid called : " Mernere-Shines-and-is-Beautiful " ; 
and the whole was carried out by my hand, according to the 
mandate which the Majesty of my lord had commanded me. 

His Majesty sent me to dig 5 canals 19 in the South and 
to make 3 cargo-boats and 4 tow-boats of acacia wood of 
\Yawat. Then the negro chiefs of Irthet, Wawat, Yam, and 
Mazoi drew timber therefor, and I did the whole in only one 
year. They were launched and laden with very large granite 
blocks for the pyramid called : " Mernere-Shines-and-is- 
Beautiful." I then ... for the palace in all these 5 canals, 

17 The exact place and meaning of the last three words are uncertain; 
possibly they refer to a burial-place of the Queen in connection with the 
pyramid. 

"This voyage was made in ..nn.,tion with the preceding, as Ibhet 
could not have been far from Elcphantintv 

IB These must be for passing the cataracts; as was the canal of 
Sesostris III. 



43 THE SACRED BOOKS 

because I honored, because I . . ., because I praised the 
fame of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Mernere, who 
lives forever, more than all gods, and because I carried out 
everything according to the mandate which his ka com- 
manded me. 

I was one beloved of his father, and praised of his mother ; 
first-born . . . pleasant to his brothers, the count, the real 
governor, of the South, revered by Osiris, Uni. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 



INSCRIPTIONS OF HARKHUF, THE 
EXPLORER 

Count, 1 governor of the South, 2 wearer of the royal seal, 
sole companion, ritual priest, caravan-conductor, chamber- 
attendant, attached to Nekhen, lord of Nekheb, Harkhuf. 

I came to-day from my city, I descended from my nome, I 
built a house, I set up the doors. I dug a lake, and I planted 
trees. The King praised me. My father made a will for 
me, for I was excellent . . . one beloved of his father, 
praised of his mother, whom all his brothers loved. I gave 
bread to the hungry, clothing to the naked, I ferried him who 
had no boat. 

ye living, who are upon earth, who shall pass by this 
tomb whether going down-stream or going up-stream, who 
shall say : " A thousand loaves, a thousand jars of beer for 
the owner of this tomb " ; I will . . . for their sakes in the 
Netherworld. I am an excellent, equipped spirit, a ritual 
priest, whose mouth knows. 3 

As for any man who shall enter into this tomb as his mor- 
tuary possession, I will seize him like a wild fowl ; he shall 
be judged for it by the great god. 

1 was one saying good things and repeating what was loved. 
Never did I say aught evil, to a powerful one against any 
people, for I desired that it might be well with me in the great 
god's presence. Never did I judge two brothers in such a 
way that a son was deprived of his paternal possession. 

i This list of titles ajid the following statement of Harkhuf 's virtue* 
are inscribed over the door of his tomb. See also the list of titles in- 
troducing the journeys. 

* Harkhuf may have succeeded Uni in this office, who held it under 
Mernere also, dying under this King; but it was now becoming merely a 
rank. 

This is a promise to intercede with the powers of the hereafter on 
behalf of the living who repeat a prayer for the sake of the deceased. 



44 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Count, 4 sole companion, ritual priest, chamber-attendant, 
judge attached to Nekhen, lord of Nekheb, wearer of the royal 
seal, caravan-conductor, privy councilor of all affairs of the 
South, favorite of his lord, Harkhuf, . . . who brings the 
products of all the countries to his lord, who brings the tribute 
of the royal ornaments, governor of all countries of the South, 
who sets the .terror of Horus 5 among the countries, who dees 
that which his lord praises, ... the revered by Ptah-Sokar, 
Harkhuf. 

He says : 

The Majesty of Mernere, my lord, sent me, together with 
my father, the sole companion, and ritual priest, Iri, to Yam, 
in order to explore a road to this country. I did it in only 
seven months, 6 and I brought all kinds of gifts from it. I 
was very greatly praised for it. 

His Majesty sent me a second time alone; I went forth 
upon the Elephantine road, and I descended from Irthet, 
Mekher, Tereres, Irtheth, being an affair of eight months. 
When I descended I brought gifts from this country in very 
great quantity. Never before was the like brought to this 
land. I descended from the dwelling of the chief of Sethu 
and Irthet, after I had explored these countries. Never had 
any companion or caravan-conductor who went forth to Yam 
before this, done it. 7 

His Majesty now sent me a third time to Yam ; I went forth 
from . . . upon the Uhet road, and I found the chief of Yam 
going to the land of Temeh to smite Temeh as far as the west- 
ern corner of heaven. I went forth after him to the land of 
Temeh, and I pacified him, until he praised all the gods for 
the King's sake. 

8 ... Yam, who followed ... in order to inform th< 

* What follows is a separate inscription, at the right of the door in 
fourteen columns on the facade, before the figure of Harkhuf with staff. 

5 The King and his emblem, the god Horus. 

This is the length of the entire journey to and from his destination, 
including his stay there. 

7 The conclusion of this journey describes the unusual road taken 
to reach home, after he has already narrated the journey out, and the 
gifts brought back. 

s What follows is inscribed in horizontal lines from right to left, on 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 45 

Majesty of Mernere, my lord, . . . after the chief of Yam. 
Now when I had pacified that chief of Yam . . . below 9 
Irthet and above Sethu I found the chief of Irthet, Sethu, and 
Wawat . . . 

I descended with 300 asses laden with incense, ebony, 
heknu, grain, panthers, . . . ivory, throw-sticks, and every 
good product. Now when the chief of Irthet, Sethu, and 
Wawat saw how strong and numerous were the troop of Yam, 
which descended with me to the court, and the soldiers who 
had been sent with me, then this chief brought and gave to me 
bulls and small cattle, 10 and conducted me to the roads of the 
highlands of Irthet, because I was more excellent, vigilant, 
and . . . than any count, companion, or caravan-conductor 
who had been sent to Yam before. Now, when the servant u 
there was descending to the court, One 12 sent the . . ., sole 
companion, the master of the bath, Khuni, 13 up-stream with a 
vessel laden with date-wine, cakes, bread, and beer. The 
count, wearer of the royal seal, sole companion, ritual priest, 
treasurer of the god, privy councilor of decrees, the revered, 
Harkhuf. 

(Letter of King Pepi II. to Harlchuf.) 

Royal seal, 14 year 2, third month of the first season (third 
month), day 15. 

Royal decree to the sole companion, the ritual priest and 
caravan-conductor, Harkhuf. 

the left side of the door (on the facade). Below it Harkhuf's son, 
Zemi, offers him incense. Part of the opening is effaced. Harklmf 
< vMmtly sent a messenger to inform the Pharaoh that he had gone 
"after the chief of Yam." 

He is here giving his return route. 
10 Or gazelles; not asses. 

11 Modest for "I." 

12 The King. 

i The first sign is possibly a hole; one is tempted to find our old 
friend I'ni here. 

i Hnrkhuf made a fourth voyage to Yam, and having sent word to 
the Kin^' of liis wife return with many products of tin- south and espe- 
cially a dunning dwarf, tin- KiriL r writes him a letter of thanks, promis- 
ing groat rewards, etc., if the dwarf is saf. ly brought to court. This 
letter Harkhuf had engraved on the facade of his tomb, which waa al- 



46 THE SACRED BOOKS 

I have noted the matter of this thy letter, which thou hast 
sent to the King, to the palace, in order that One 15 might 
know that thou hast descended in safety from Yam with the 
army which was with thee. Thou hast said in this thy letter 
that thou hast brought all great and beautiful gifts, which Ha- 
thor, mistress of Imu, hath given to the lea of the King of Up- 
per and Lower Egypt, Neferkere, who liveth forever and ever. 
Thou hast said in this thy letter that thou hast brought a 
dancing dwarf of the god from the land of spirits, like the 
dwarf which the treasurer of the god Burded brought from 
Punt in the time of Isesi. Thou hast said to my Majesty: 
" Never before has one like him been brought by any other 
who has visited Yam." 

Each year finds thee doing that which thy Lord desires and 
praises; thou spendest day and night with the caravan in 
doing that which thy lord desires, praises, and commands. 
His Majesty will make thy many excellent honors to be an 
ornament for the son of thy son forever, so that all people 
will say when they hear what my Majesty doeth for thee : " Is 
there anything like this which was done for the sole com- 
panion, Harkhuf, when he descended from Yam, because of 
the vigilance which he showed, to do that which his lord 
desired, praised, and commanded ! " 

Come northward to the court immediately ; thou shalt bring 
this dwarf with thee, which thou bringest living, prosperous, 
and healthy from the land of spirits, for the dances of the god, 
to rejoice and gladden the heart of the King of Upper and 
Lower Egypt, Neferkere, who lives forever. When he goes 
down with thee into the vessel, appoint excellent people, who 
shall be beside him on each side of the vessel ; take care lest 
he fall into the water. When he sleeps at night appoint ex 
cellent people, who shall sleep beside him in his tent ; inspect 
ten times a night. My Majesty desires to see this dwarf more 

ready complete, so that a further space for the letter had to be smoothed 
on the extreme right of the facade, where none of the other Assuan 
tombs has any inscriptions at all. Thus was preserved to us the only 
complete royal letter of the Old Kingdom. 
i Circumlocution of " the King." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 47 

than the gifts of Sinai and of Punt. If thou arrivest at court 
this dwarf being with thee alive, prosperous, and healthy, my 
Majesty will do for thee a greater thing than that which was 
done for the treasurer of the god Burded in the time of Isesi, 
according to the heart's desire of my Majesty to see this dwarf. 
Commands have been sent to the chief of the New Towns, 
the companion, and superior prophet, to command that sus- 
tenance be taken from him in every store-city and every tem- 
ple, without stinting therein. 



48 THE SACRED BOOKS 



TALES OF THE MAGICIANS l 

One day, when King Khufu reigned over all the land, he 
said to his chancellor, who stood before him, " Go call me my 
sons and my councilors, that I may ask of them a thing." 
And his sons and his councilors came and stood before him, 
and he said to them, " Know ye a man who can tell me tales 
of the deeds of the magicians ? " 2 

Then the royal son Khafra stood forth and said, " I will 
tell thy Majesty a tale of the days of thy forefather Nebka, 
the blessed ; of what came to pass when he went into the tem- 
ple of Ptah of Ankhtaui. 

" His Majesty was walking unto the temple of Ptah, and 
went unto the house of the chief reciter Uba-aner, with his 
train. Now when the wife of Uba-aner saw a page, among 
those who stood behind the King, her heart longed after him ; 
and she sent her servant unto him, with a present of a box 
full of garments. 

" And he came then with the servant. Now there was a 
lodge in the garden of Uba-aner ; and one day the page said 
to the wife of Uba-aner, ' In the garden of Uba-aner there is 
now a lodge ; behold, let us therein take our pleasure.' So the 
wife of Uba-aner sent to the steward who had charge over the 
garden, saying, ' Let the lodge which is in the garden be made 
ready.' And she remained there, and rested and drank with 
the page until the sun went down. 

" And when the even was now come the page went forth 
to bathe. And the steward said, ' I must go and tell Uba-aner 
of this matter.' Now when this day was past, and anothei 

1 Most of this translation is taken by permission from Prof. Flinders- 
Petrie's " Egyptian Tales." The crumbling old papyrus is now in the 
Berlin Museum and is called from its finder the Westcar papyrus. The 
most 'complete study of it is that made by Erman in his " Marchen des 
Papyrus Westcar" 

2 This paragraph has been inserted by the translator to make the 
connection clear. The original opening has been lost and the papyrus 
begins with a few words which form the close of a similar tale of magic. 







PTAH. THE Goo or THE METAL WORKERS. THE MASTER DESIGNER OF 

ALL THINGS MADE ON EARTH. FASHIONING THE EGG 

OF TH WORLD ON A POTTER-S WHEEL 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 49 

day came, then went the steward to Uba-aner, and told him 
of all these things. 

" Then said Uba-aner, ' Bring me my casket of ebony and 
electrum.' And they brought it; and he fashioned a croco- 
dile of wax, seven fingers long : and he enchanted it, and said, 
' When the page comes and bathes in my lake, seize on him.' 
And he gave it to the steward, and said to him, ' When the 
page shall go down into the lake to bathe, as he is daily wont 
to do, then throw in this crocodile behind him.' And the 
steward went forth bearing the crocodile. 

" And the wife of Uba-aner sent to the steward who had 
charge over the garden, saying, ' Let the lodge which is in 
the garden be made ready, for I come to tarry there.' 

" And the lodge was prepared with all good things ; and she 
came and made merry therein with the page. And when the 
even was now come, the page went forth to bathe as he was 
wont to do. And the steward cast in the wax crocodile after 
him into the water ; and, behold ! it became a great crocodile 
seven cubits in length, and it seized on the page. 

" And Uba-aner abode yet seven days with the King of 
Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebka, the blessed, while the page 
was stifled in the crocodile. And after the seven days were 
passed, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebka, the 
blessed, went forth, and Uba-aner went before him. 

" And Uba-aner said unto his Majesty, ( Will your Majesty 
come and see this wonder that has come to pass in your days 
unto a page ? ' And the King went with Uba-aner. And 
Uba-aner called unto the crocodile and said, ' Bring forth the 
page.' And the crocodile came forth from the lake with the 
page. Uba-aner said unto the King, 'Behold, whatever I 
command this crocodile he will do it' And his Majesty said, 
' I pray you send back this crocodile.' And Uba-aner stooped 
and took up the crocodile, and it became in his hand a croco- 
dile of wax. And then Uba-aner told the King that which 
had passed in his house with the page and his wife. And 
his Majesty said unto the crocodile, ' Take to thee tliy prey. 1 
And the crocodile plunged into the lake with his prey, and no 
man knew whither he went. 

VOL. II. 4. 



50 THE SACRED BOOKS 

" And his Majesty the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
Nebka, the blessed, commanded, and they brought forth the 
wife of Uba-aner to the north side of the harem, and burnt 
her with fire, and cast her ashes in the river. 

" This is a wonder that came to pass in the days of thy 
forefather the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebka, of 
the acts of the chief reciter Uba-aner." 

His Majesty the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Khufu, 
then said, " Let there be presented to the King Nebka, the 
blessed, a thousand loaves, a hundred draughts of beer, an 
ox, two jars of incense; and let there be presented a loaf, a 
jar of beer, a jar of incense, and a piece of meat to the chief 
reciter Uba-aner ; for I have seen the token of his learning." 
And they did all things as his Majesty commanded 

BAUFRA'S TALE 

The royal son Baufra then stood forth and spake. He said, 
" I will tell thy Majesty of a wonder which came to pass in the 
days of thy father Seneferu, the blessed, of the deeds of the 
chief reciter Zazamankh. One day King Seneferu (1. h. s. 3 ) , 
being weary, went throughout his palace seeking for a pleas- 
ure to lighten his heart, but he found none. And he said, 
' Haste, and bring before me the chief reciter and scribe of 
the rolls Zazamankh ' ; and they straightway brought him. 
And the King said, i I have sought in my palace for some de- 
light, but I have found none/ Then said Zazamankh to him, 
' Let thy Majesty go upon the lake of the palace, and let 
there be made ready a boat, with all the fair maidens of the 
harem of thy palace ; and the heart of thy Majesty shall be re- 
freshed with the sight, in seeing their rowing up and down the 
water, and seeing the goodly pools of the birds upon the lake, 
an4 beholding its sweet fields and grassy shores ; thus will thy 
heart be lightened. And I also will go with thee. Bring 
me twenty oars of ebony, inlaid with gold, with blades of light 
wood, inlaid with electrum ; and bring me twenty maideng, 

8 This is a formula often introduced after any mention of royalty. 
It is a sort of prayer meaning " life, health, strength." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 51 

fair in their limbs, their bosoms, and their hair, all virgins ; 
and bring me twenty nets, and give these nets unto the maid- 
ens for their garments/ And they did according to all the 
commands of his Majesty. 

" And they rowed down the stream and up the stream, and 
the heart of his Majesty was glad with the sight of their row- 
ing. But one of them at the steering struck her hair, and her 
jewel of new malachite fell into the water. And she ceased 
her song, and rowed not; and her companions ceased, and 
rowed not. And his Majesty said, ' Row you not farther ? ' 
And they replied, ' Our little steerer here stays and rows not.' 
His Majesty then said to her, ' Wherefore rowest thou not ? ' 
She replied, ' It is for my jewel of new malachite which is 
fallen in the water.' And he said to her, ' Row on, for be- 
hold I will replace it.' And she answered, ' But I want my 
own piece back in its setting.' And his Majesty said, ' Haste, 
bring me the chief reciter Zazamankh,' and they brought him. 
And his Majesty said, i Zazamankh, my brother, I have done 
as thou sayedst, and the heart of his Majesty is refreshed with 
the sight of their rowing. But now a jewel of new malachite 
of one of the little ones is fallen in the water, and she ceases 
and rows not, and she has spoilt the rowing of her side. And 
I said to her, " Wherefore rowest thou not ? " and she an- 
swered to me, " It is for my jewel of new malachite which is 
fallen in the water." I replied to her, " Row on, for behold 
I will replace it " ; and she answered to me, " But I want my 
own piece again back in its setting." Then the chief reciter 
Zazamankh spake his magic speech. And he placed one part 
of the waters of the lake upon the other, and discovered the 
jewel lying upon a shard; and he took it up and gave it 
unto its mistress. And the water, which was twelve cubits 
deep in the middle, reached now to twenty-four cubits 
after he turned it. And he spake, and used his magic 
speech ; and he brought again the water of the lake to its place. 
And his Majesty spent a joyful day with the whole of the 
royal house. Then rewarded he the chief reciter Zazamankh 
with all good things. Behold, this is a wonder that came to 



52 THE SACRED BOOKS 

pass in the days of thy father, the King of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, Seneferu, of the deeds of the chief reciter, the scribe 
of the rolls, Zazamankh." 

Then said the Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, Khufu, the blessed, " Let there be presented an offer- 
ing of a thousand cakes, one hundred draughts of beer, an ox, 
and two jars of incense to the King of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, Seneferu, the blessed ; and let there be given a loaf, a 
jar of beer, and a jar of incense to the chief reciter, the scribe 
of the rolls, Zazamankh; for I have seen the token of 
his learning." And they did all things as his Majesty 
commanded. 

HORDEDEFS TALE 

The royal son Hordedef then stood forth and spake. He 
said, " Hitherto hast thou only heard tokens of those who 
have gone before, and of which no man knoweth their truth. 
But I will show thy Majesty a man of thine own days." And 
his Majesty said, " Who is he, Hordedef ? " And the royal 
son Hordedef answered : " It is a certain man named Dedi, 
who dwells at Dedsneferu. He is a man of one hundred and 
ten years old ; and he eats five hundred loaves of bread, and 
a side of beef, and drinks one hundred draughts of beer, unto 
this day. He knows how to restore the head that is smitten 
off ; he knows how to cause the lion to follow him trailing his 
halter on the ground ; he knows the designs of the dwelling 
of Tahuti. The Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, Khufu, the blessed, has long sought for the designs of 
the dwelling of Tahuti, that he may make the like of them in 
his pyramid." 

Aid his Majesty said, " Thou, thyself, Hordedef, my son 
bring him to me." Then were the ships made ready for the 
King's son Hordedef, and he went up the stream to Dedsne- 
fem. And when the ships had moored at the haven, he 
landed, and sat him in a litter of ebony, the poles of which 
were of cedar wood overlaid with gold. Now when he drew 
near to Dedi, they set down the litter. And he arose to greet 
Dedi, and found him lying on a palm-stick couch at the door 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 63 

of his house ; one servant held his head and rubbed him, and 
another rubbed his feet. 

And the King's son Hordedef said, " Thy state is that of 
one who lives to good old age; for old age is the end of our 
voyage, the time of embalming, the time of burial. Lie, then, 
in the sun, free of infirmities, without the babble of dotage : 
this is the salutation to worthy age. I come from afar to call 
thee, with a message from my father Khufu, the blessed, for 
thou shalt eat of the best which the King gives, and of the 
food which those have who follow after him; that he may 
bring thee in good estate to thy fathers who are in the tomb." 

And Dedi replied to him, " Peace to thee ! Peace to thee ! 
Hordedef, son of the King, beloved of his father. May thy 
father Khufu, the blessed, praise thee, may he advance thee 
amongst the elders, may thy Tea prevail against the enemy, 
may thy soul know the right road to the gate of him who 
clothes the afflicted ; this is the salutation to the King's son." 
Then the King's son Hordedef stretched forth his hands to 
him, and raised him up, and went with him to the haven, giv- 
ing unto him his arm. Then said Dedi, " Let there be given 
me a boat, to bring me my youths and my books." And they 
made ready for him two boats with their rowers. And Dedi 
went down the river in the barge in which was the King's 
son Hordedef. And when he had reached the palace the 
King's son Hordedef entered in to give account unto his 
Majesty the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Khufu, the 
blessed. Then said the King's son Hordedef: " O King, life, 
wealth, and health ! My lord, I have brought Dedi." His 
Majesty replied, " Bring him to me speedily." And his 
Majesty went into the hall of columns of Pharaoh (life, 
wealth, and health), and Dedi was led before him. And his 
Majesty said, " Wherefore is it, Dedi, that I have not yet 
seen thee ? " And Dedi answered, " He who is called it is 
that comes; the King (life, wealth, and health) calls me, and 
behold I come." And his Majesty said, " Is it true, that 
which men say, that thou canst restore the head which is 
smitten off?" And Dedi replied, "Truly, I know that, O 
King (life, wealth, and health), my lord." And his Majesty 



54. THE SACRED BOOKS 

said, " Let one bring me a prisoner who is in prison, that his 
punishment may be fulfilled." And Dedi said, " Let it not 
be a man, O King, my lord ; behold we do not even thus to 
our cattle." And a duck was brought unto him, and its head 
was cut off. And the duck was laid on the west side of the 
hall, and its head on the east side of the hall. And Dedi 
spake his magic speech. And the duck fluttered along the 
ground, and its head came likewise; and when it had come 
part to part the duck stood and quacked. And they brought 
likewise a goose before him, and he did even so unto it. His 
Majesty caused an ox to be brought, and its head cast on the 
ground. And Dedi spake his magic speech. And the ox 
stood upright behind him, and followed him with his halter 
trailing on the ground. 

And King Khuf u said, " And is it true what is said, that 
thou knowest the number of the designs of the dwelling of Ta- 
huti ? " And Dedi replied, " Pardon me, I know not their 
number, O King (life, wealth, and health), but I know where 
they are." And his Majesty said, " Where is that ? " And 
Dedi replied, " There is a chest of whetstone in a chamber 
named the plan-room, in Heliopolis ; they are in this chest." 
And Dedi said further unto him, " O King (life, wealth, and 
health), my lord, it is no It that is to bring them to thee." 
And his Majesty said, " Who, then, is it that shall bring them 
to me ? " And Dedi answered to him, " It is the eldest of 
the three children who are in the body of Rud-didet who shall 
bring them to thee." And his Majesty said, " Would that it 
may be as thou sayest ! And who is this Rud-didet ? " And 
Dedi replied, " She is the wife of a priest of Re, lord of Sak- 
hebu. And she has conceived these three sons by Re, lord 
of Sakhebu, and the god has promised her that they shal 
fulfil this noble office of reigning over all this land, and that 
the eldest of them shall be high priest in Heliopolis." And 
his Majesty's heart became troubled for this ; but Dedi spake 
unto him, " What is this that thou thinkest, O King (life, 
wealth, health), my lord? Is it because of these three chil- 
dren? I tell thee thy son shall reign, and thy son's son, 
and then one of them." His Majesty said, " And when shall 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 55 

Rud-didet bear these ? " And he replied, " She shall bear 
them on the 25th of the month Tybi." And his Majesty said, 
" When the banks of the canal of Letopolis are cut, I will walk 
there that I may see the temple of Re, lord of Sakhebu." 
And Dedi replied, " Then I will cause that there be four 
cubits of water by the banks of the canal of Letopolis." 
When his Majesty returned to his palace, his Majesty said, 
" Let them place Dedi in the house of the royal son Hordedef, 
that he may dwell with him, and let them give him a daily 
portion of a thousand loaves, a hundred draughts of beer, 
an ox, and a hundred bunches of onions." And they did 
everything as his Majesty commanded. 

And one day it came to pass that Rud-didet felt the pains 
of birth. And the Majesty of Re, lord of Sakhebu, said unto 
Isis, to Nebhat, to Meskhent, to Hakt, and to Khnumu, " Go 
ye, and deliver Rud-didet of these three children that she 
shall bear, who are to fulfil this noble office over all this land ; 
that they may build up your temples, furnish your altars with 
offerings, supply your tables of libation, and increase your 
endowments." Then went these deities; their fashion they 
made as that of dancing-girls, and Khnumu was with them as 
a porter. They drew near unto the house of Ra-user, and 
found him standing, with his girdle fallen. And they played 
before him with their instruments of music. But he said 
unto them, " My ladies, behold, here is a woman who feels 
the pains of birth." They said to him, " Let us see her, for 
we know how to help her." And he replied, " Come, then." 
And they entered in straightway to Rud-didet, and they closed 
the door on her and on themselves. Then Isis stood before 
her, and Nebhat stood behind her, and Hakt helped her. And 
Isis said, " O, child, by thy name of User-ref, do not do vio- 
lence." And the child came upon her hands, as a child of a 
cubit ; its bones were strong, the beauty of its limbs was like 
gold, and its hair was like true lapis lazuli. They washed 
him, and prepared him, and placed him on a carpet on tin* 
brickwork. Then Meskhent approached him and said, 
" This is a king who shall reign over all the land." And 
Khnumu gave strength to his limbs. Then Isis stood before 






56 THE SACRED BOOKS 

her, and Nebhat stood behind her, and Hakt helped her. And 
Isis said, " O child, by thy name of Sah-ra, stay not in her." 
Then the child came upon her hands, a child of a cubit ; its 
bones were strong, the beauty of its limbs was like gold, and its 
hair was like true lapis lazuli. They washed him, and pre- 
pared him, and laid him on a carpet on the brickwork. Then 
Meskhent approached him and said, " This is a king who 
shall reign over all the land." And Khnumu gave strength 
to his limbs. Then Isis stood before her, and Nebhat stood 
behind her, and Hakt helped her. And Isis said, " O child, 
by thy name of Kaku, remain not in darkness in her." And 
the child came upon her hands, a child of a cubit ; its bones 
were strong, the beauty of its limbs was like gold, and its 
hair was like true lapis lazuli. And Meskhent approached 
him and said, " This is a king who shall reign over all the 
land." And Khnumu gave strength to his limbs. And they 
washed him, and prepared him, and laid him on a carpet on 
the brickwork. 

And the deities went out, having delivered Rud-didet of 
the three children. And they said, " Rejoice ! O Ra-user, for 
behold three children are born unto thee." And he said unto 
them, " My ladies, and what shall I give unto ye ? Behold, 
give this bushel of barley here unto your porter, that ye may 
take it as your reward to the brew-house." And Khnumu 
loaded himself with the bushel of barley. And they went 
away toward the place from which they came. And Isis 
spake unto these goddesses, and said, " Wherefore have we 
come without doing a marvel for these children, that we may 
tell it to their father who has sent us ? " Then made they 
the divine diadems of the King (life, wealth, and health), and 
laid them in the bushel of barley. And they caused the clouds 
to come with wind and rain ; and they turned back again unto 
the house. And they said, " Let us put this barley in a 
closed chamber, sealed up, until we return northward, danc-. 
ing." And they placed the barley in a closed chamber. 

And Rud-didet purified herself, with a purification of four- 
teen days. And she said to her handmaid, " Is the house 
made ready ? " And she replied, " All things are made ready, 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 57 

but the brewing barley is not yet brought." And Rud-didet 
said, " Wherefore is the brewing barley not yet brought ? " 
And the servant answered, " It would all of it long since be 
ready if the barley had not been given to the dancing-girls, 
and lay in the chamber under their seal." Rud-didet said, 
" Go down, and bring of it, and Ra-user shall give them in its 
stead when he shall come." And the handmaid went, and 
opened the chamber. And she heard talking and singing, 
music and dancing, quavering, and all things which are per- 
formed for a king in his chamber. And she returned and 
told to Rud-didet all that she had heard. And she went 
through the chamber, but she found not the place where the 
sound was. And she laid her temple to the sack, and found 
that the sounds were in it. She placed it in a chest, and put 
that in another locker, and tied it fast with leather, and laid 
it in the store-room, where the things were, and sealed it. 
And Ra-user came returning from the field ; and Rud-didet 
repeated unto him these things ; and his heart was glad above 
all things ; and they sat down and made a joyful day. 

And after these days it came to pass that Rud-didet was 
wroth with her servant, and beat her with stripes. And the 
servant said unto those that were in the house, " Shall it be 
done thus unto me ? She has borne three kings, and I will go 
and tell this to his Majesty King Khufu, the blessed." And 
she went, and found the eldest brother of her mother, who 
was binding his flax on the floor. And he said to her, 
" Whither goest thou, my little maid?" And she told him 
of all these things. And her brother said to her, " Where- 
fore comest thou thus to me ? Shall I agree to treachery ? " 
And he took a bunch of the flax to her, and laid on her a 
violent blow. And the servant went to fetch a handful of 
water, and a crocodile carried her away. 

Her uncle went therefore to tell of this to Rud-didet ; and 
he found Rud-didet sitting, her head on her knees, and her 
heart sad beyond measure. And he said to her, u My lady, 
why makest thou thy heart thus? " And she answered, " It 
is because of this littlo wretch that was in the house; behold 
he went out saying, ' I will go and tell it.' ' And he bowed 



58 THE SACRED BOOKS 

his head unto the ground, and said, " My lady, she came and 
told me of these things, and made her complaint unto me; 
and I laid on her a violent blow. And she went forth to draw 
water, and a crocodile carried her away." 4 

* The rest of the tale is lost. 



THE OLDEST BOOK IN THE WORLD 



THE PRECEPTS OF PTAH-HOTEP 



"For one early papyrus that has survived, many millions 
must have perished.'' 

PROF. A. H. 8AYCE. 



" The counsels of former days; it is profitable for him who 
hears them, it is a loss to him who shall transgress them." 

PTAH HOTEP. 



THE BOOK OF PTAH-HOTEP 

(INTRODUCTION) 

PERHAPS no other ancient manuscript has ever roused 
wider interest than the Precepts of Ptah-hotep. This 
venerable old teacher is certainly the earliest-known author 
in the world ; and his book has won wide celebrity by being 
called earth's oldest book. This latter phrase needs expla- 
nation. Our existing copy of Ptah-hotep, known as the Prisse 
manuscript, is of uncertain age. It is a copy of an 
older work, which was apparently widely taught in very early 
Egyptian schools. Perhaps it was composed by some other 
than its reputed author and merely ascribed to him as a fa- 
mous ancient sage. On the other hand, we know no reason 
why it may not have been written by Ptah-hotep himself, as he 
says it was, for the instruction of a young prince, the son of 
King Assa of the Fifth Dynasty. That would make it at 
least as old as the surviving Pyramid Texts or as the Palermo 
stone. Moreover, these other old texts are hardly to be called 
" books." Their brevity forbids the name ; and their au- 
thors and origins are alike unknown. This is true also of all 
the early Babylonian texts. Ptah-hotep, on the contrary, is 
a teacher who deliberately sets himself to explaining to the 
world or to his pupil his entire philosophy of life, the sum 
total of his teachings. Ptah-hotep, therefore, is the oldest- 
known author, the oldest-known teacher, and his book is the 
oldest known in the world. 

These facts give a curious interest to the personality of the 
writer himself. Ptah-hotep's book presents him as a vener- 
able sage who has reached the traditional maximum of Egyp- 
tian age, a hundred and ten years. He is a relative, perhaps 
a brother, of King Assa, and is so distinguished for honor 
and wisdom that he has been entrusted with the guardianship 
of the King's SOIL, 

61 



THE OLDEST BOOK IN THE WOELD 



THE PRECEPTS OF PTAH-HOTEP 

Precepts of the prefect the feudal lord Ptah-hotep, under 
the Majesty of the King of the South and North, Assa, living 
eternally forever. 

I 

The prefect, the feudal lord Ptah-hotep, says : O God with 
the two crocodiles, 1 my lord, the progress of age changes into 
senility. Decay falls upon man and decline takes the place 
of youth. A vexation weighs upon him every day ; sight fails, 
the ear becomes deaf; his strength dissolves without ceasing. 
The mouth is silent, speech fails him; the mind decays, re- 
membering not the day before. The whole body suffers. 
That which is good becomes evil ; taste completely disappears. 
Old age makes a man altogether miserable ; the nose is stopped 
up, breathing no more from exhaustion. Standing or sitting 
there is here a condition of ... Who will cause me to have 
authority to speak, that I may declare to him the words of 
those who have heard the counsels of former days ? And the 
counsels heard of the gods, who will give me authority to 
declare them ? Cause that it be so and that evil be removed 
from those that are enlightened ; send the double . . . 

The majesty of this god says : Instruct him in the sayings of 
former days. It is this which constitutes the merit of the 
children of the great. All that which makes the soul equal 

i Honhen or Osiris, as is shown by the 43d invocation of the 142d chap- 
ter of the Book of the Dead: "O Osiris, god with the two crocodiles! " 
But it is Osiris reborn and regaining, after decline and death, rejuven- 
escence and vigor. Chabas ( " Zeitachrift," 1868, p. 101), studying the 
stelae of Horus standing on the crocodiles, and noticing that this god is 
named " the aged who becomes young in his hour, the old man who be- 
comes a child," very justly recalls the passage where Ptah-hotep in- 
vokes the aid of the god with the two crocodiles against the evils of 
old age. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 63 

penetrates him who hears it, and that which it says produces 
no satiety. 



Beginning of the arrangement of the good sayings, 2 spoken 
by the noble lord, the divine father, beloved of God, the son 
of the king, the first-born of his race, the prefect and feudal 
lord Ptah-hotep, so as to instruct the ignorant in the knowl- 
edge of the arguments of the good sayings. It is profitable 
for him who hears them, it is a loss to him who shall trans- 
gress them. 

He says to his son : Be not arrogant because of that which 
thou knowest ; deal with the ignorant as with the learned ; for 
the barriers of art are not closed, no artist being in possession 
of the perfection to which he should aspire. But good words 
are more difficult to find than the emerald, 3 for it is by 
slaves that that is discovered among the rocks of pegmatite. 4 

m 

If thou findest a disputant while he is hot, 5 and if he is 
superior to thee in ability, lower the hands, bend the back, 
do not get into a passion with him. As he will not let thee 
destroy his words, it is utterly wrong to interrupt him ; that 
proclaims that thou art incapable of keeping thyself calm, 
when thou art contradicted. 

If then thou hast to do with a disputant while he is hot, 
imitate one who does not stir. Thou hast the advantage over 
him if thou keepest silence when he is uttering evil words. 
" The better of the two is he who is impassive," say the by- 
standers, and thou art right in the opinion of the great. 

> Ptah-hotep arranges the good sayings of the past in verses in order 
to render them unalterable. 

Literally, " the good word hides itself more than the emerald." 

Literally, " being found by female slaves." The emerald is usually 
found in pegmatite, a compound of feldspath and quartz, o\it of whuh 
it was picked. The " Papyrus Kbfrn " informs us that the powder of 
pegmatite was used in the composition of a drntifrinv 

c Liu-rally , " in his hour." A god is said to be " in hit hour " when 
he it warlike. 



64 THE SACRED BOOKS 

IV 

If thou findest a disputant while he is hot, do not despise 
him because thou art not of the same opinion. Be not angry 
against him when he is wrong ; away with such a thing. He 
fights against himself; require him not further to flatter thy 
feelings. Do not amuse thyself with the spectacle which 
thou hast before thee ; it is odious, it is mean, it is the part 
of a despicable soul so to do. As soon as thou lettest thyself 
be moved by thy feelings, combat this desire as a thing that is 
reproved by the great 



If thou hast, as leader, to decide on the conduct of a great 
number of men, seek the most perfect manner of doing so 
that thy own conduct may be without reproach. Justice is 
great, invariable, and assured ; it has not been disturbed since 
the age of Osiris. To throw obstacles in the way of the laws 
is to open the way before violence. Shall that which is be- 
low gain the upper hand, if the unjust does not attain to the 
place of justice ? even he who says : I take for myself, of my 
own free-will ; but says not : I take by virtue of my author- 
ity. The limitations of justice are invariable; such is the 
instruction which every man receives from his father. 



VI 

Inspire not men with fear, else God will fight against thee 
in the same manner. If any one asserts that he lives by such 
means, God will take away the bread from his mouth ; if any 
one asserts that he enriches himself thereby, God says : I may 
take these riches to myself. If any one asserts that he beats 
others, God will end by reducing him to impotence. Let no 
one inspire men with fear ; this is the will of God. Let one 
provide sustenance for them in the lap of peace ; it will then 
be that they will freely give what has been torn from them 
by terror. 




OSIRIS CHIEF OF THE GOD OF TUAT. THE WORLD OF DEATH KING 
OF THE FUTURE ELYSIAN FIELDS 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 65 

vn 

If thou art among the persons seated at meat in the house 
of a greater man than thyself, take that which he gives thee, 
bowing to the ground. 6 Regard that which is placed before 
thee, but point not at it; regard it not frequently; he is a 
blameworthy person who departs from this rule. Speak not 
to the great man more than he requires, for one knows not 
what may be displeasing to him. 7 Speak when he invites 
thee and thy word will be pleasing. 8 

As for the great man who has plenty of means of existence, 
his conduct is as he himself wishes. He does that which 
pleases him; if he desires to repose, he realizes his inten- 
tion. The great man stretching forth his hand does that to 
which other men do not attain. But as the means of exist- 
ence are under the will of God, one can not rebel against it. 

VIII 

If thou art one of those who bring the messages of one great 
man to another, conform thyself exactly to that wherewith 
he has charged thee; perform for him the commission as he 
hath enjoined thee. Beware of altering in speaking the of- 
fensive words which one great person addresses to another; 
he who perverts the truthfulness of his way, in order to re- 
peat only what produces pleasure in the words of every man, 
great or small, is a detestable person. 



IX 

If thou art an agriculturist, gather the crops in the field 
which the great God has given thee, fill not thy mouth in the 
house of thy neighbors ; 9 it is better to make oneself dreaded 
by the possessor. 10 As for him who, master of his own way 

Literally, "put thyself on thy nose." 
t " That which is bad to the heart." 

" la thy word for IN in- food to the heart." 

That is, do not steal t<> li\> 

o See vi, \\lii-ri- those are condemned who "fleece" men by terrify- 
ing them. It Heem* that theft is here considered more blameworthy 
even than these extortions. 
VOL. II. 5. 



66 THE SACRED BOOKS 

of acting, being all-powerful, 11 seizes the goods of others like a 
crocodile in the midst even of watchmen, his children are an 
object of malediction, of scorn, and of hatred on account of 
it, while his father is grievously distressed, and as for the 
mother who has borne him, happy is another rather than her- 
self. But a man becomes a god when he is chief of a tribe 
which has confidence in following him. 



If thou abasest thyself in obeying a superior, thy conduct 
is entirely good before God. Knowing who ought to obey 
and who ought to command, do not lift up thy heart against 
him. As thou knowest that in him is authority, be respectful 
toward him as belonging to him. Fortune comes only at her 
own good-will, and her caprice only is her law; as for him 
who . . . God, who has created his superiority, turns him- 
self from him and he is overthrown. 



XI 

Be active during the time of thy existence, doing more than 
is commanded. Do not spoil the time of thy activity ; he is 
a blameworthy person who makes a bad use of his moments. 
Do not lose the daily opportunity of increasing that which 
thy house possesses. Activity produces riches, and riches do 
not endure when it slackens. 



XII 

If thou art a wise man, bring up a son who shall be pleas- 
ing to God. If he conforms his conduct to thy way and oc- 
cupies himself with thy affairs as is right, do to him all the 
good thou canst ; he is thy son, a person attached to thee whom 
thine own self hath begotten. Separate not thy heart from 
him. . . . But if he conducts himself ill and transgresses thy 
wish, if he rejects all counsel, if his mouth goes according 

11 Literally, " for the master of the manner of acting as master of 
the things." The author means the powerful man who abuses his power 
in order to plunder openly and to place himself above the laws. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 67 

to the evil word, strike him on the mouth in return. Give 
orders without hesitation to those who do wrong, to him whose 
temper is turbulent ; and he will not deviate from the straight 
path, and there will be no obstacle to interrupt the way. 

xm 

If thou art employed in the larit, stand or sit rather than 
walk about. Lay down rules for thyself from the first : not to 
absent thyself even when weariness overtakes thee. Keep an 
eye on him who enters announcing that what he asks is se- 
cret ; what is entrusted to thee is above appreciation, and all 
contrary argument is a matter to be rejected. He is a god 
who penetrates into a place where no relaxation of the rules 
is made for the privileged. 

XIV 

If thou art with people who display for thee an extreme 
affection, saying : " Aspiration of my heart, aspiration of my 
heart, where there is no remedy ! That which is said in thy 
heart, let it be realized by springing up spontaneously. Sov- 
ereign master, I give myself to thy opinion. Thy name is ap- 
proved without speaking. Thy body is full of vigor, thy 
face is above thy neighbors." If then thou art accustomed to 
this excess of flattery, and there be an obstacle to thee in thy 
desires, then thine impulse is to obey thy passion. But he 
who . . . according to his caprice, his soul is . . . , his body 
is ... While the man who is master of his soul is superior 
to those whom God has loaded with his gifts; the man who 
obeys his passion is under the power of his wife. 

xv 

Declare thy line of conduct without reticence; give thy 
opinion in the council of thy lord ; while there are people who 
turn back upon their own words when they speak, so as not 
to offend him who has put forward a statement, and answer 
not in this fashion : " He is the great man who will recognize 
the error of another ; and when he shall raise his voice to op- 



68 THE SACRED BOOKS 

pose the other about it he will keep silence after what I have 
said." 

XVI 

If thou art a leader, setting forward thy plans according 
to that which thou decidest, perform perfect actions' which 
posterity may remember, without letting the words prevail 
with thee which multiply flattery, which excite pride and 
produce vanity. 

XVII 

If thou art a leader of peace, listen to the discourse of the 
petitioner. Be not abrupt with him ; that would trouble him. 
Say not to him : " Thou hast already recounted this." Indul- 
gence will encourage him to accomplish the object of his com- 
ing. As for being abrupt with the complainant because he 
described what passed when the injury was done, instead of 
complaining of the injury itself let it not be! The way to 
obtain a clear explanation is to listen with kindness. 

XVIII 

If thou desirest to excite respect within the house thou 
enterest, for example the house of a superior, a friend, or any 
person of consideration, in short everywhere where thou 
enterest, keep thyself from making advances to a woman, for 
there is nothing good in so doing. There is no prudence in 
taking part in it, and thousands of men destroy themselves 
in order to enjoy a moment, brief as a dream, while they 
gain death, so as to know it. It is a villainous intention, that 
of a man who thus excites himself; if he goes on to carry it 
out, his mind abandons him. For as for him who is with- 
out repugnance for such an act, there is no good sense at all 
in him. 

XIX 

If thou desirest that thy conduct should be good and pre- 
served from all evil, keep thyself from every attack of bad 
humor. It is a fatal malady which leads to discord, and 
there is no longer any existence for him who gives way to it. 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 69 

For it introduces discord between fathers and mothers, as 
well as between brothers and sisters; it causes the wife and 
the husband to hate each other ; it contains all kinds of wick- 
edness, it embodies all kinds of wrong. When a man has 
established his just equilibrium and walks in this path, there 
where he makes his dwelling, there is no room for bad humor. 

xx 

Be not of an irritable temper as regards that which hap- 
pens beside thee; 12 grumble not over thy own affairs. Be 
not of an irritable temper in regard to thy neighbors ; better 
is a compliment to that which displeases than rudeness. It is 
wrong to get into a passion with one's neighbors, to be no 
longer master of one's words. 13 When there is only a little 
irritation, one creates for oneself an affliction for the time 
when one will again be cool. 14 



XXI 

If thou art wise, look after thy house ; love thy wife with- 
out alloy. Fill her stomach, clothe her back; these are the 
cares to be bestowed on her person. Caress her, 15 fulfil her 
desires during the time of her existence; it is a kindness 
which does honor to its possessor. Be not brutal ; tact will 
influence her better than violence ; her . . . behold to what 
she aspires, at what she aims, what she regards. It is that 
which fixes her in thy house; if thou repellest her, it is an 
abyss. Open thy arms for her, respondent to her arms; call 
her, display to her thy love. 

XXII 

Treat thy dependents well, in so far as it belongs to thee to 
do so ; and it belongs to those whom God has favored. 1 f 

12 "On the subject of things which are in two halves, on two sides, 
right and left, at the side of that." 

"Literally, "deprived of the conduct of one's words." 
1* Literally, "is a little difficulty in that affliction is created in COOl- 
iM." 

" Literally, " anoint her." 



70 THE SACRED BOOKS 

any one fails in treating his dependents well it is said : " He 
is a person ..." As we do not know the events which may 
happen to-morrow, he is a wise person by whom one is well 
treated. When there comes the necessity of showing zeal, 
it will then be the dependents themselves who say : " Come 
on, come on," if good treatment has not quitted the place ; if 
it has quitted it, the dependents are defaulters. 

XXIII 

Do not repeat any extravagance of language ; do not listen 
to it ; it is a thing which has escaped from a hasty mouth. If 
it is repeated, look, without hearing it, toward the earth; 
say nothing in regard to it. Cause him who speaks to thee 
to know what is just, even him who provokes to injustice; 
cause that which is just to be done, cause it to triumph. As 
for that which is hateful according to the law, condemn it by 
unveiling it. 

XXIV 

If thou art a wise man, sitting in the council of thy lord, 
direct thy thought toward that which is wise. Be silent 
rather than scatter thy words. When thou speakest, know 
that which can be brought against thee. To speak in the 
council is an art, and speech is criticized more than any other 
labor ; it is contradiction which puts it to the proof. 

xxv 

If thou art powerful, respect knowledge and calmness of 
language. Command only to direct ; to be absolute is to run 
into evil. Let not thy heart be haughty, neither let it be 
mean. Do not let thy orders remain unsaid and cause thy 
answers to penetrate ; but speak without heat, assume a seri- 
ous countenance. As for the vivacity of an ardent heart, 
temper it ; the gentle man penetrates all obstacles. He who 
agitates himself all the day long has not a good moment ; and 
he who amuses himself all the day long keeps not his fortune. 
Aim at fulness like pilots ; once one is seated another works, 
and seeks to obey one's orders. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 71 

XXVI 

Disturb not a great man; 16 weaken not the attention of 
him who is occupied. 17 His care is to embrace his task, and 
he strips his person through the love which he puts into it. 
That transports men to God, even the love for the work which 
they accomplish. Compose then thy face even in trouble, 
that peace may be with thee, when agitation is with . . . 
These are the people who succeed in what they desire. 18 

XXVII 

Teach others to render homage to a great man. 19 If thou 
gatherest the crop for him among men, 20 cause it to return 
fully to its owner, at whose hands is thy subsistence. But 
the gift of affection is worth more than the provisions 21 with 
which thy back is covered. For that which the great man 
receives from thee will enable thy house to live, without 
speaking of the maintenance thou enjoyest, which thou de- 
sirest to preserve; 22 it is thereby that he extends a beneficent 
hand, and that in thy home good things are added to good 
things. Let thy love pass into the heart of those who love 
thee ; cause those about thee to be loving and obedient. 

XXVIII 

If thou art a son of the guardians deputed to watch over 
the public tranquillity, execute thy commission without know- 
ing its meaning, and speak with firmness. Substitute not for 
that which the instructor has said what thou believest to be 
his intention; the great use words as it suits them. Thy 
part is to transmit rather than to comment upon. 

i " Let not a great man be diverted from his hour." 
IT " Of him who is charged." 
is " Who cause that which is loved to prosper." 

i Literally, " Teach the great man that one may honor him, that one 
may do him honor." 

20 This probably means: " if thou collectest the taxes in the provinces 
for the governor." 

21 The word also signifies " offerings." 

22 " With the consideration, thou lovest that it lives." The taxes 
levied by the government pay for the maintenance of its officers, who 
thereby maintain their position. 



72 THE SACRED BOOKS 

XXIX 

If thou art annoyed at a thing, 28 if thou art tormented by 
some one who is acting within his right, get out of his sight, 
and remember him no more 24 when he has ceased to address 
thee. 

xxx 

If thou hast become great after having been little, if thou 
hast become rich after having been poor, when thou art at 
the head of the city, know 25 how not to take advantage of the 
fact that thou hast reached the first rank, harden not thy 
heart because of thy elevation; thou art become only the 
steward of the good things of God. 26 Put not behind thee 
the neighbor who is like unto thee; be unto him as a 
companion. 

XXXI 

Bend thy back before thy superior. Thou art attached 
to the palace of the king; thy house is established in its for- 
tune, and thy profits are as is fitting. Yet a man is an- 
noyed at having an authority above himself, and passes the 
period of life in being vexed thereat. Although that hurts 
not thy ..." Do not plunder the house of thy neighbors, 
seize not by force the goods which are beside thee." Ex- 
claim not then against that which thou hearest, and do not feel 
humiliated. It is necessary to reflect when one is hindered 
by it that the pressure of authority is felt also by one's 
neighbor. 

XXXII 

Do not make . . . thou knowest that there are obstacles to 
the water which comes to its hinder part, and that there is no 
trickling of that which is in its bosom. Let it not . . . after 
having corrupted his heart. 

23 At a time arrived." 

2* That is, " bear no rancor after being deservedly blamed." 
25 (Translation very doubtful.) 

28 " Thou art become the administrator, the prefect, of the provisions 
which belong to God." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 73 



XXXIII 

If thou aimest at polished manners, call not him whom 
thou accostest. Converse with him especially in such a way 
as not to annoy him. Enter on a discussion with him only 
after having left him time to saturate his mind with the 
subject of the conversation. If he lets his ignorance display 
itself, and if he gives thee an opportunity to disgrace him, 
treat him with courtesy rather ; proceed not to drive him into 
a corner; do not . . . the word to him; answer not in a 
crushing manner; crush him not; worry him not; in order 
that in his turn he may not return to the subject, but depart 
to the profit of thy conversation. 

xxxiv 

Let thy countenance be cheerful during the time of thy 
existence. When we see one departing from the storehouse 
who has entered in order to bring his share of provision, 27 
with his face contracted, it shows 28 that his stomach is empty 
and that authority is offensive to him. Let not that happen 
to thee; it is ... 

XXXV 

Know those who are faithful to thee when thou art in low 
estate. Thy merit then is worth more than those who did 
thee honor. His . . ., behold that which a man possesses 
completely. That is of more importance than his high rank ; 
for this is a matter which passes from one to another. The 
merit of one's son is advantageous to the father, and that 
which he really is is worth more than the remembrance of his 
father's rank. 

xxxn 

Distinguish the superintendent who directs from the work- 
man, for manual labor is little elevated ; the inaction of the 

2* Literally, " the loaves of communion," probably the part which each 
had to contribute from the crops. It is possible, however, that tli<> 
reference ia to distributions of f<>"<l liv tin* authorities; the maleont 
would then be those who find that too litil.- is piven to them instead of 
contributors who think that too much in required from tli 

2" It is the making known the emptiness of his stomach." 



74 THE SACRED BOOKS 

hands is honorable. If a man is not in the evil way, that 
which places him there is the want of subordination to 
authority. 

XXXVII 

If thou takest a wife, do not . . . Let her be more con- 
tented than any of her fellow-citizens. She will be attached 
to thee doubly, if her chain is pleasant. 29 Do not repel her ; 
grant that which pleases her; it is to her contentment that 
she appreciates thy direction. 30 

XXXVIII 

If thou hearest those things which I have said to thee, 31 
thy wisdom will be fully advanced. Although they are the 
means which are suitable for arriving at the Ma* 2 and it is 
that which makes them precious, their memory would recede 
from the mouth of men. But thanks to the beauty of their 
arrangement in rhythm all their words will now be carried 
without alteration over this earth eternally. 33 That will 
create a canvass to be embellished, whereof the great will 
speak, in order to instruct men in its sayings. 34 After hav- 
ing listened to them the pupil will become a master, 36 even 
he who shall have properly listened to the sayings because 
he shall have heard them. Let him win success by placing 

2 " She being in the attachment doubly, aweet to her the bond." 

80 " Being her contentment, she appreciates the work." 

i The author has concluded his exposition of the wisdom of the 
ancients. He now speaks in his own name, and, while eulogizing the 
doctrines he has repeated, notices with satisfaction the perfect form he 
has given to them to prevent them from being effaced from the memory 
of men and to preserve them from alteration. Their rhythmic form al- 
lows neither omissions nor variations. 

82 That is, to cause truth and justice to reign. 

8*1 do not think that a clearer statement can be found of the exis- 
tence of a poetical language, rhythmically arranged, among the ancient 
Egyptians. 

84 "The great will speak above; it is by explaining to a man the 
word." It therefore appears that the Precepts of Ptah-hotep were in- 
tended to be commented on by professors, and that there were schools of 
philosophy. 

85AZwu, "artist," or "master-workman." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 75 

himself in the first rank; that is for him a position perfect 
and durable, and he has nothing further to desire forever. 
By knowledge his path is assured, and he is made happy by 
it on the earth. The wise man is satiated by knowledge; he 
is a great man through his own merits. His tongue is in 
accord with his mind ; 36 just are his lips when he speaks, his 
eyes when he gazes, his ears when he hears. The advantage 
of his son is to do that which is just without deceiving 
himself. 



XXXIX 

To attend therefore profits the son of him who has attended. 
To attend 37 is the result of the fact that one has attended. 
A teachable auditor is formed, because I have attended. 
Good when he has attended, good when he speaks, 38 he who 
has attended has profited, and it is profitable to attend to him 
who has attended. To attend is worth more than anything 
else, for it produces love, the good thing that is twice good. 
The son who accepts the instruction of his father will grow 
old on that account. What God loves is that one should at- 
tend ; if one attends not, it is abhorrent to God. The heart 
makes itself its own master when it attends and when it does 
not attend; but if it attends, then his heart is a beneficent 
master to a man. 39 In attending to instruction, a man loves 
what he attends to, and to do that which is prescribed is 
pleasant. When a son attends to his father, it is a twofold 
joy for both ; when wise things are prescribed to him, the son 
is gentle toward his master. Attending to him who has at- 
tended when such things have been prescribed to him, he 
engraves upon his heart that which is approved by his father ; 
and the recollection of it is preserved in the mouth of the 
living who exist upon this earth. 

"With his mind is his tongue." 

87 Literally, " To listen penetrates by one who has listened." 

""Good, listening; good, speaking." To "listen" includes the idea 
of " obeying." 

Literally, " life-health-strength of some one if his heart when 
listening." 



76 THE SACRED BOOKS 

XL 

When a son receives the instruction of his father there is no 
error in all his plans. Train thy son to be a teachable man 
whose wisdom is agreeable to the great. Let him direct his 
mouth according to that which has been said to him ; in the 
docility of a son is discovered his wisdom. His conduct is 
perfect, while error carries away the unteachable. To-mor- 
row knowledge will support him, while the ignorant will be 
destroyed. 

XLI 

As for the man without experience who listens not, he 
effects nothing whatsoever. He sees knowledge in ignorance, 
profit in loss; he commits all kinds of error, always accord- 
ingly choosing the contrary of what is praiseworthy. He 
lives on that which is mortal, in this fashion. His food is 
evil words, whereat he is filled with astonishment. That 
which the great know to be mortal he lives upon every day, 
flying from that which would be profitable to him, because of 
the multitude of errors which present themselves before him 
every day. 

XLII 

A son who attends is like a follower of Horus; he is happy 
after having attended. He becomes great, he arrives at dig- 
nity, he gives the same lesson to his children. Let none inno- 
vate upon the precepts of his father; let the same precepts 
form his lessons to his children. " Verily," will his children 
say to him, " to accomplish what thou sayest works marvels." 

Cause therefore that to flourish which is just, in order to 
nourish thy children with it. If the teachers allow them- 
selves to be led toward evil principles, verily the people who 
understand them not will speak accordingly, and that being 
said to those who are docile they will act accordingly. Then 
all the world considers them as masters and they inspire con- 
fidence in the public; but their glory endures not so long as 
would please them. Take not away then a word from the 
ancient teaching, and add not one ; put not one thing in place 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 77 

of another ; beware of uncovering the rebellious ideas which 
arise 40 in thee; but teach according to the words of the wise. 
Attend if thou wishest to dwell in the mouth of those who 
shall attend to thy words, when thou hast entered upon the 
office of master, that thy words may be upon our lips . . . 
and that there may be a chair from which to deliver thy 
arguments. 41 

XLIII 

Let thy thoughts be abundant, but let thy mouth be under 
restraint, and thou shalt argue with the great. Put thyself 
in unison with the ways of thy master; cause him to say: 
" He is my son," so that those who shall hear it shall say : 
" Praise be to her who has borne him to him ! " Apply thy- 
self while thou speakest; speak only of perfect things; and 
let the great who shall hear thee say: " Twice good is that 
which issues from his mouth ! " 



XLIV 

Do that which thy master bids thee. Twice good is the 
precept of our 42 father, from whom we have issued, from his 
flesh. What he tells us, let it be fixed in our heart ; to satisfy 
him greatly let us do for him more than he has prescribed. 
Verily a good son is one of the gifts of God, a son who does 
even better than he has been told to do. 43 For his master he 
does what is satisfactory, putting himself with all his heart on 
the part of right. 44 

So 45 I shall bring it about that thy body shall be healthful, 
that the King shall be satisfied with thee in all circumstances, 
and that thou shalt obtain years of life without default. 

It has caused me on earth to obtain one hundred and ten 
years of life, along with the gift of the favor of the King 

40 "That which flows in tli 

41 Literally, " Thy arguments being on their chair." 

* Literally, "The precept of his father, from whom he has issued." 
48" ncrease on that \\hirh i said to him." 

44 " He does the J/a, putting himself with all hia heart on its wmys." 
4 That is, by mean* of these precept*. 



78 THE SACRED BOOKS 

among the first of those whom their works have ennohled, 
satisfying the King in a place of dignity. 

It is finished, from its beginning to its end, according to 
that which is found in writing. 46 

e This is the usual closing of a copied manuscript. The scribe guar- 
antees the correctness of his copy-work. 



THE MIDDLE EMPIEE 
(2500 B.C.-1600 B.O.). 



RELIGIOUS AND SEMI-HISTORIC TEXTS 



" Literature, which must form the basis of any judgment of 
the standard of civilization, now assumes its widest range. It 
reveals a standard of culture and refinement which must rank 
among the highest/' 

PROP. P. K. NEWBERRY. 



" Behold I have spoken to thee the best of my inner thoughts; 
set them stedfastly before thy face." 

COUNSELS OP KINO INTEP. 



RELIGIOUS AND SEMI-HISTORIC TEXTS 

(INTRODUCTION) 

THE literature of the Middle Empire may well be left to 
speak for itself. Its religious texts, while they present 
us no single large accumulation of verse like the older Pyra- 
mid Texts, are yet numerous and keenly interesting. Most 
of them are what are called the " Coffin Texts." Individual 
coffins were now covered, as the chambers of the pyramids had 
formerly been, with chants and charms and funeral songs. 
Tomb-paintings also continued; and a rude form of the 
" Book of the Dead " appeared, though we have thought bet- 
ter to present this celebrated work to the reader in the com- 
plete and polished form which it attained during the later 
empire. Thus more than ever a series of formulae grew up, 
by means of which the dead man was to assert himself and 
maintain his position in the world beyond. Charms for 
lesser occasions also became numerous and vehement, as wit- 
ness the poor, mother's charm, here given, to protect her babe. 

Yet, side by side with the boastful " Coffin Texts " we now 
find funeral songs of another note. Pessimism uplifts its 
earliest voice, a leisurely, meditative pessimism, which doubts 
this splendid and god-defying immortality. The intellect for 
the first time asserts itself, as opposed to the emotions. The 
fact that man desires a hereafter no longer seems to him a 
cause sufficient for furious assertion that the hereafter exists. 
Perhaps this was because the Egyptian of this Middle Empire 
could already see around him the ruins of all the mighty 
structures of the Ancient Empire. A few centuries had 
slipped by, and what had become of the clamorous boast that 
had built the pyramids, the boast that kings at least could 
uprear a physical immortality and conquer the gods ? 

Herodotus tells us how, in a later age, the Egyptians used 

to drag in a skeleton at their feasts, with the warning cry, 
VOL. n.. 81 



82 THE SACRED BOOKS 

" Eat, drink, and be merry ; for to-morrow ye die." The cus- 
tom may well have had its origin in this Middle Empire. 
Here man first began seriously to question life.- He asked 
himself whether existence, or any special part of it, was really 
worth while, and whether a life beyond this would be a hap- 
pier one, and why. The two Harpers 7 Songs here given are 
the most noted examples of this questioning spirit ; and even 
more striking is the misanthrope's review of life. 

With this probing into life's purposes there came a distinct 
awakening of the moral sense. Spiritually aroused now, and 
doubting this easily asserted immortality, man questioned 
himself as to his own worthiness for such an eternity. Com- 
pare with the boastful earlier tomb-record of Uni or Harkhuf 
the similar biographical record of Ameni, a noble of thia 
period. Ameni tells us not of the greatness of his deeds, but 
of their moral worth, their kindliness and self-restraint. 

So, too, this age bequeaths to us a number of " Counsels." 
These were books of moral teaching, but of a different note 
from the general pedagogic dicta of Ptah-hotep. A single 
great man, usually the Pharaoh himself, speaks earnestly to 
his own son to warn him, guide him, and at times to ask for 
the son's love and pity. These brief books must have become 
popular ; for, like that of Ptah-hotep, they were widely copied, 
perhaps even studied in the schools. 

The earliest of these that has come down to us is called the 
" Counsels of King Intel" The Intefs were Pharaohs of the 
Eleventh Dynasty, and the manuscript itself is so old and so 
obscure that it has only been translated within the last three 
years by Mr. A. H. Gardiner. Our reading of the strange 
old text is still very imperfect and must at best be somewhat 
of a puzzle to the reader. Yet the work has a double value ; 
for, in addition to its quaint mingling of moral counsels with 
shrewd worldly advice, it has a genuine historic interest. 
Kings' records of their own reigns are rare among Egyptian 
remains ; and amid his counsels King Intef inserts examples 
and warnings drawn from his own career. 

In similar fashion the " Counsel of Amenemhet " mingles 
with its advice to his son Sesostris some details of King 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 83 

Amenemhet's own life. He is a world-weary old ruler wlio 
has learned to distrust every one, and pathetically cautions his 
son to do the same. " Fill not thy heart with a brother, know 
not a friend." Amenemhet's picture of the palace conspiracy 
against him is the most vivid piece of human and dramatic 
narrative that comes down to us from this far past. 



KELIGIOUS AND SEMI-HISTOEIC TEXTS 



THE COFFIN TEXTS 

THE OPENING CEY x 

" I am Atum, I who was alone ; 
I am Re at his first appearance. 
I am the Great God, self-generator, 
Who fashioned his names, lord of gods, 
Whom none approaches among the gods. 
I was yesterday, I know to-morrow. 
The battle-field of the gods was made when I spake. 
I know the name of that Great God who is therein. 
' Praise-of-Re ' is his name. 
I am that great Phoenix which is in Heliopolis." 



THE GODS PROMISE JOY 

" I come, I am Honis, who opens thy mouth, 

Together with Ptah who glorifies thee, 

Together with Thoth who gives to thee thy heart (understand- 
ing) ; 

. . . that thou mayest remember what thou hadst forgotten. 

I cause that thou eat bread at the desire of thy body. 

I cause that thou remember what thou hast forgotten. 

I cause that thou eat bread . . . more than thou didst on 
earth. 

i The famous seventeenth chapter of the Book of the Dead was al- 
ready a favorite chapter in this age, and begins the texts on a number 
of coffins. It is largely an identification of the deceased with the Sun- 
god, although other gods also appear. The dead man speaks, asserting 
his power and immortality. 

Most of the poems of this section are taken from Breasted's " De- 
velopment of Religion and Thought in Egypt," by permission of C. 
Scribner's Sons. 

84 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 85 

I give to thee thy two feet 

That them mayest make the going and coming of thy two soles 
(or sandals). 

I cause that thou shouldst carry out commissions with the 
south wind 

And shouldst run with the north wind. . . . 

I cause that thou shouldst ferry over Peterui 

And ferry over the lake of thy wandering 

And the sea of thy sandal as thou didst on earth. 

Thou rulest the streams and the Phoenix. . . . 

Thou leviest on the royal domains. 

Thou repulsest the violent who comes in the night, 

The robber of early morning. 2 . . . 

Thou goest around the countries with Re ; 

He lets thee see the pleasant places, 

Thou findest the valleys filled with water for washing thee and 
for cooling thee, 

Thou pluckest marsh-flowers and heni-blossoms, lilies, and 
lotus-flowers. 

The bird-pools come to thee by thousands, lying in thy path. 

When thou hast hurled thy boomerang against them, 

It is a thousand that fall at the sound of the wind thereof. 

They are ro-geese, green-fronts, quails, and kunuset. 3 

I cause that there be brought to thee the young gazelles, bul- 
locks of white bulls ; 

I cause that there be brought to thee males of goats and grain- 
fed males of sheep. 

There is fastened for thee a ladder to the sky. 

Nut gives to thee her two arms. 

Thou sailest in the Lily-lake. 

Thou bearest the wind in an eight-ship. 

These two fathers Re and Atum of the Imperishable Stars 

And of the Unwearable Stars sail thee. 

They command thee, they tow thee through the district with 
their imperishable ropes." 

2 Thus far the j.iolurc is Osirian; it no^ becomes Solar. 
Varieties of wild fowl. 



86 THE SACRED BOOKS 



A MOTHER'S CHARM AGAINST DEMONS 4 

" Run out, thou who comest in darkness, who enterest in 
stealth, his nose behind him, his face turned backward, who 
loses that for which he came. 

" Run out, thou who comest in darkness, who enterest in 
stealth, her nose behind her, her face turned backward, who 
loses that for which she came. 

" Comest thou to kiss this child ? I will not let thee kiss 
him. 

" Comest thou to soothe him ? I will not let thee soothe 
him. 

" Comest thou to harm him ? I will not let thee harm him. 

" Comest thou to take him away ? I will not let thee take 
him away from me. 

" I have made his protection against thee out of Efet-herb, 
it makes pain ; out of onions, which harm thee ; out of honey 
which is sweet to living men and bitter to those who are yon- 
der (the dead) ; out of the evil parts of the Ebdu-fish ; out of 
the jaw of the meret ; out of the backbone of the perch." 

* No Egyptian mother hushed her ailing babe and laid it to rest 
without invoking unseen powers to free the child from the dark forms 
of evil, malice, and disease that lurked in every shadowy corner, or, 
slinking in through the open door as the gloom of night settled over 
the house, entered the tiny form and racked it with fever. Such demons 
might even assume friendly guise and approach under pretext of sooth- 
ing and healing the little sufferer. We can still hear the mother's voice 
as she leans over her babe and casts furtive glances through the open 
door into the darkness where the powers of evil dwell. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 87 



THE FIRST POEM OF PESSIMISM B 

Song which is in the house (tomb-chapel) of King Intef 
the justified, which is in front of the singer with the harp. 

How prosperous is this good prince ! 6 

It is a goodly destiny, that the bodies diminish, 

Passing away while others remain, 

Since the time of the ancestors, 

The gods who were aforetime, 

Who rest in their pyramids, 

Nobles and the glorious departed likewise, 

Entombed in their pyramids. 

Those who built their tomb-temples, 

Their place is no more. 

Behold what is done therein. 

I have heard the words of Imhotep and Hardedef, 7 

Words greatly celebrated as their utterances. 

Behold the places thereof; 

Their walls are dismantled, 

Their places are no more, 

As if they had never been. 

We possess two fragmentary versions of this song, one on papyrus, 
the other on the walls of a Theban tomb. But the papyrus version, the 
one here given, was also copied from a tomb, as the opening declares. 

Meaning the dead king, in this instance one of the Eleventh Dynasty 
Intefs, in whose tomb the song was written. 

* Imhotep was grand vizier, chief architect, and famous wise man 
under King Zoser of the Third Dynasty (thirtieth century B.C.). He 
was the first great architect in stone-masonry construction, the father 
of stone architecture. The futility of the massive building methods 
which he introduced is thus brought out with double effectiveness. He 
has not escaped the fate of all the rest in the Old Kingdom cemetery. 
Hardedef was a royal prince, son of Khufu of Gizeh, and hence con- 
nected with the greatest pyramid. He lived about a century after 
Imhotep. Both of them had thus become proverbial wise men a thou- 
sand years after they had passed away. 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

None cometh from thence 

That he may tell us how they fare ; 

That he may tell us of their fortunes, 

That he may content our heart, 

Until we too depart 

To the place whither they have gona 

Encourage thy heart to forget it, 

Making it pleasant for thee to follow thy desire, 

While thou livest. 

Put myrrh upon thy head, 

And garments on thee of fine linen, 

Imbued with marvelous luxuries, 

The genuine things of the gods. 

Increase yet more thy delights, 

And let not thy heart languish. 

Follow thy desire and thy good, 

Fashion thine affairs on earth 

After the mandates of thine own heart. 

Till that day of lamentation cometh to thee, 

When the silent-hearted hears not their lamentation, 

Nor he that is in the tomb attends the mourning. 

Celebrate the glad day, 

Be not weary therein. 

Lo, no man taketh his goods with him. 

Yea, none returneth again that is gone thither. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 89 



THE SONG OF THE HARPER 8 

Chanted by the singer to the harp who is in the chapel of 
the Osirian, the Patriarch of Amen, the* blessed Nef erhotep. 
He says : 

The great one is truly at rest, 

the good charge is fulfilled. 

Men pass away since the time of Re 9 

and the youths come in their stead. 

Like as Re reappears every morning, 

and Turn 10 sets in the horizon, 

men are begetting, 

and women are conceiving. 

Every nostril inhaleth once the breezes of dawn, 

but all born of women go down to their places. 

Make a good day, O holy father ! 

Let odors and oils stand before thy nostril. 

Wreaths of lotus are on the arms and the bosom of thy sister, 

dwelling in thy heart, sitting beside thee. 

Let song and music be before thy face, 

and leave behind thee all evil cares ! 

Mind thee of joy, till cometh the day of pilgrimage, 

when we draw near the land which loveth silence. 

Not . . . peace of heart ... his loving son. 

s This poem is, like the preceding one, a funeral chant, only this one 
is preserved on the tomb walls themselves. It is supposed to be sung 
by the harper at a feast or anniversary in remembrance of the deceased 
patriarch Neferhotep, who is represented sitting with his sister and 
wife Rennu-m-ast-neh, his son Ptahmes and his daughter Ta-Khat stand- 
ing by their side, while the harper before them is chanting. The poet 
addresses his speech as well to the dead as to the living, assuming in 
bis fiction the former to be yet alive. 

The Sun. 

o A form of the Sun-god of the West, the chief god of Heliopolia. 



90 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Make a good day, O blessed Nef erhotep, 

thou patriarch perfect and pure of hands ! 

He finished his existence . . . (the common fate of men) 

Their ahodes pass away, 

and their place is not ; 

they are as they had never been born 

since the time of Re. 

They in the shades are sitting on the bank of the river, 

thy soul is among them, drinking its sacred water, 

following thy heart, at peace . . . 

Give bread to him whose field is barren, 

thy name will be glorious in posterity for evermore ; 

they will look upon thee . . . 

The priest clad in the skin of a panther ll will pour to the 

ground, 

and bread will be given as offerings ; 
the singing-women . . . 
Their forms are standing before Re, 
their persons are protected . . . 
Rannu 12 will come at her hour, 
and Shu will calculate his day, 
thou shalt awake . . . woe to the bad one ! 
He shall sit miserable in the heat of infernal fires. 

Make a good day, O holy father, 
Nef erhotep, pure of hands ! 
No works of buildings in Egypt could avail, 
his resting-place is all his wealth . . . 
Let me return to know what remaineth of him ! 
Not the least moment could be added to his life, 
when he went to the realm of eternity. 
Those who have magazines full of bread to spend, 
even they shall encounter the hour of a last end. 
The moment of that day will diminish the valor of the 
rich . . . 

11 The panther's skin was the special characteristic of the dress of 
the priest of Khem the Vivifier. 

12 Rannu, a goddess who presided over the harvest. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 91 

Mind thee of the day, when them too shalt start for the land 

to which one goeth to return not thence. 

Good for thee then will have been an honest life, 

therefore be just and hate transgressions, 

for he who loveth justice will be blessed. 

The coward and the bold, neither can fly the grave 

the friendless and proud are alike . . . 

Then let thy bounty give abundantly, as is fit, 

love truth, and Isis shall bless the good, 

and thou shalt attain a happy old age. 



92 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE MISANTHROPE ls 

THE UNJUST ABHORRENCE OF HIS NAME 

Lo, my name is abhorred, 

Lo, more than the odor of birds 

On summer days when the sky is hot. 

Lo, my name is abhorred, 

Lo, more than a fish-receiver 

On the day of the catch when the sky is hot. 

Lo, my name is abhorred, 
Lo, more than the odor of fowl 
On the willow-hill full of geese. 

Lo, my name is abhorred, 

Lo, more than the odor of fishermen 

By the shores of the marshes when they have fished. 

Lo, my name is abhorred, 

Lo, more than the odor of crocodiles, 

More than sitting under the bank full of crocodiles. 

Lo, my name is abhorred, 

Lo, more than a woman, 

Against whom a lie is told her husband. 14 

is This remarkable chant undertakes to demonstrate that life, far 
from being an opportunity for pleasure and unbridled indulgence, is 
more intolerable than death. The demonstration is contained in four 
poems which the unhappy man addresses to his own soul. The first 
poem portrays the unjust abhorrence in which our unfortunate's name 
is held by the world. Each three-line strophe begins with the refrain, 
" My name is abhorred," and then, to enforce this statement, adduces 
for comparison some detestable thing from the daily life of the people, 
especially the notorious stench of fish and fowl so common in the life 
of the Nile-dweller. 

i* Two more strophes follow, but they are too obscure to be rendered. 
They exhibit the same structure, and evidently were similar in content 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 93 

THE CORRUPTION OF MEN 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

Brothers are evil, 

Friends of to-day are not of love. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

Hearts are thievish, 

Every man seizes his neighbor's goods. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

The gentle man perishes, 

The bold-faced goes everywhere. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

He of the peaceful face is wretched, 

The good is disregarded in every place. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

When a man arouses wrath by his evil conduct, 

He stirs all men to mirth, although his iniquity is wicked. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

Robbery is practised, 

Every man seizes his neighbor's goods. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

The pest is faithful, 

But the brother who comes with it becomes an enemy. 

to the others. While this poem is but a reiteration of the fact that 
the unhappy man's name has become a stench in the nostrils of his fel- 
lows, in the second poem he turns from himself to characterize those 
who are responsible for his misery. He looks out over the society of 
his time and finds only corruption, dishonesty, injustice, and unfaithful- 
ness even among his own kin. It is a fearful indictment, and as he 
utters it he asks himself in an ever-recurring refrain which opens each 
strophe, "To whom do I speak today?" His meaning probably is, 
M What manner of men are those to whom I speak ? " and following each 
repetition of this question is a new condemnation. 



94 THE SACRED BOOKS 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 
Yesterday is not remembered, 
Nor is ... in this hour. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 
Brothers are evil, 



To whom do I speak to-day ? 

Faces pass away, 

Every man with face lower than those of his brothers. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

Hearts are thievish, 

The man upon whom one leans has no understanding. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 

There are no righteous, 

The land is left to those who do iniquity. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 
There is dearth of the faithful, 



To whom do I speak to-day ? 

There is none here of contented heart ; 

Go with him (the apparently contented) and he is not here. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 
I am laden with wretchedness, 
Without a faithful one. 

To whom do I speak to-day ? 
Evil smites the land, 
It hath no end. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 95 

DEATH A GLAD EELEASE 15 

Death is before me to-day 

Like the recovery of a sick man, 

Like going forth into a garden after sickness. 

Death is before me to-day 

Like the odor of myrrh, 

Like sitting under the sail on a windy day. 

Death is before me to-day 

Like the odor of lotus-flowers, 

Like sitting on the shore of drunkenness. 

Death is before me to-day 

Like the course of the freshet, 

Like the return of a man from the war-galley to his house. 

Death is before me to-day 

Like the clearing of the sky, 

Like a man fowling therein toward that which he knew not. 

Death is before me to-day 

As a man longs to see his house 

When he has spent years in captivity. 

IB The soul of the sufferer had shrunk back from death, and, like the 
Song of the Harper, proposed a life of pleasure as a way of escape. 
Then moved by the terror of death, and the hopelessness of material 
preparations to meet it, the unhappy man recoiled for a moment and 
turned to contemplate life. The two poems we have just read depict 
what he sees as he thus turns. What follows is the logical rebound from 
any faint hope that life may be possible, to the final conviction that 
death alone is the release from the misery in which he is involved. 
This third poem is a hymn in praise of death. 



6 THE SACRED BOOKS 

THE HIGH PRIVILEGES OF THE SOJOURN YONDER le 

He who is yonder 

Shall seize the culprit as a living god, 

Inflicting punishment of wickedness on the doer of it. 

He who is yonder 
Shall stand in the celestial bark, 

Causing that the choicest of the offerings there be given 
to the temples. 

He who is yonder 

Shall be a wise man who has not been repelled, 

Praying to Re when he speaks. 

i Earlier in the struggle with his soul, the sufferer had expressed 
the conviction that he should be justified hereafter. He now returns to 
this conviction in this fourth poem, with which the remarkable docu- 
ment closes. 




IBIS. WIFE OF OSIRIS AND QUEEN OF THE ELYSIAN FIELDS 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 97 



THE TOMB RECORD OF BARON AMENI 

There was no citizen's daughter whom I misused, there 
was no widow whom I afflicted, there was no peasant whom I 
evicted, there was no herdman whom I repelled, there was no 
overseer of five whose people I took away for unpaid taxes. 
There was none wretched in my community, there was none 
hungry in my time. When years of famine came, I plowed 
all the fields of the Oryx barony (his estate) as far as its 
southern and its northern boundary, preserving its people 
alive, furnishing its food so that there was none hungry there- 
in. I gave to the widow as to her who had a husband. I did 
not exalt the great man above the small man in anything that 
I gave. Then came great Niles (inundations), possessors of 
grain and all things, but I did not collect the arrears of the 
field. 



VOL. II. 7. 



98 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE COUNSELS OF KING INTEE 1T 

. . . mild in a case deserving . . . , but punish . . . them 
in every word. It is the first principle of kingship. 18 

If thou findest a ... like a god, . . . whose neighbors are 
evil, whom the city . . . , whose dependents are many . . . 
whose . . . enters in . . . , and he is pleasant in the sight of 
his serfs ... a man who talks much is a mischief-maker 
suppress him, slay him, wipe out his name, destroy his kins- 
folk, suppress his memory, and his dependents who love him. 

The turbulent man is confusion to a city. He creates two 
factions among the young generation. If then thou findest 
one who belongs to a city, and his doings are passed beyond 
thee, 19 cite him before the nobles, and suppress him. He is 
a rebel moreover. A man who talks much is a mischief-maker 
for a city. Bend the multitude, suppress its ardor. There 
is none who . . . rebellion with the poor man. He is made 
to rebel. 20 

Make thyself innocent before God. Let the people say, in 
spite of thee, that thou punishest in accordance with thy . . . 
A good disposition is a man's heaven ; the blaspheming of the 
passionate man is baneful. 

Be skilful in speech in order that thou mayst prevail. The 
tongue is a ... and a sword to a king. Speech is more 
powerful than any fighting. None can circumvent him who 

IT This is probably the Pharaoh of the Eleventh Dynasty, Intef II., 
who is leaving a sort of will or collection of counsels to his son and 
successor Mentuhotep I. The translation is by Dr. A. H. Gardiner. 

is These opening lines are almost hopelessly effaced. After this first 
passage, the sense only becomes fairly clear with the fifth section or para- 
graph, which here follows. 

i I.e., " if he has got out of hand." 

20 Thus far the counsels proffered have been counsels of political 
wisdom. The old King now goes on to speak of qualifications more 
personal and intimate. There is here another unreadable gap in the 
papyrus. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 99 

is clever. ... A wise king is a school to the nobles ; they do 
not thwart him who knows the measure of his knowledge. No 
falsehood draws nigh to him. Truth comes to him in pure 
essence like the sayings of the Ancestors. 

Copy thy fathers who have gone before thee ... is 
achieved by knowledge. Behold, their words are recorded in 
writing. Open and read and copy him who knows. Thus 
he who is skilled becomes one who is instructed. Be not evil ; 
good is willingness of heart. Make a lasting monument for 
thyself in the love of thee. Multiply . . . show kindness to 
the city. God will praise thee for regard; . . . will give 
thee praises for thy goodness, will wish for thy health 
henceforward. 

Show consideration to the nobles and prosper thy people. 
Make firm thy boundaries and thy borders. Good it is to 
work for the future. Respect a life of energy, for self-con- 
tent will make a wretched man. Let men . . . through thy 
good disposition. Weak it is to bind to oneself the land. . . . 
A fool is he who is greedy when others possess. Life upon 
earth passes ; it is not long. Fortunate is he who is remem- 
bered in it. The possession of a million men availeth not the 
Lord of the Two Lands. The good man shall be living for- 
ever. He who has passed with Osiris departs, even as he who 
was pleasant to himself is dissolved. 

Magnify thy nobles, that they may do thy ordinances. He 
who is wealthy in his house does not deal partially ; he is rich 
and does not want. The poor man does not speak according 
to his truth. He who says " I desire " is not fair. He is 
partial to him whom he loves ; he inclines toward the possessor 
of rewards. Great is the Great one, when his great ones are 
great. Strong is the King who possesses courtiers. Exalted 
is he who is wealthy in nobles. Speak thou Truth in thy 
house, that the nobles who are upon earth may fear thee. 
Uprightness of heart beseems the Sovereign. The inside of a 
house inspires the outside with fear. 21 

Do Justice, that thou mayst endure upon earth. Calm the 

21 Doubtless a proverb. The preceding sentence appears to mean, 
literally, " It is appropriate to a sovereign upright of heart." 



100 THE SACRED BOOKS 

weeper. Oppress not the widow. Expel no man from the 
possessions of his father. Degrade not magistrates from their 
posts. Take heed lest thou punish wrongfully. Slaughter 
not, for it doth not profit thee. 22 But punish with beatings 
and imprisonment, 23 for thus shall this land prosper. Ex- 
cepting only the rebel who has devised his plans, for God 
knoweth the f reward, and God requiteth his sins in blood. It 
is the lenient man who . . . lifetime. Yet slay not a man, 
when thou knowest his good qualities, with whom thou once 
didst rehearse thy letters, 24 and recite . . . God. Advance 
boldly in difficult places. The soul comes to the place that it 
knoweth ; it mistaketh not its paths of yesterday. No magic 
can restrain it, but it hastens toward them who give it water. 

As for the Magistrates who judge sinners, mark thee that 
they will not be lenient on that day of judging miserable men, 
in the hour of performing their function. Woe is him who is 
accused as one conscious of sin. Put not thy faith in length 
of years, for they regard a lifetime as but an hour. A man 
remains over after reaching the haven of Death. His deeds 
are laid beside him for all treasure. Eternal is the existence 
yonder. A fool is he who has made light of it. But he who 
has reached it without wrong-doing shall continue yonder like 
a God, stepping forward boldly like the Lords of Eternity. 

Raise up thy young troops, that the Residence may love 
thee. Multiply thy dependents as henchmen. Behold, thy 
city is full of fresh recruits. Twenty years it is that the 
young generation is happy in following its heart. Afterward, 
henchmen come forth again ; the head of a family 25 enters in 
with children. . . . Thus doth antiquity fight for us, whence 
I raised troops when I arose as King. Exalt thy great ones, 
advance thy warriors. Increase the young generation of thy 

22 It would be grammatically possible, perhaps even preferable, to 
construe this as a restrictive clause, " unless it profit thee." 

23 Literally, " with men beaten and imprisoned." 

2* Literally, " sing writings." Those who have visited a native school 
in Egypt will appreciate the meaning of this phrase. 

25 The meaning must be " one who causes to enter," i.e., " begets chil- 
dren." It is very instructive to note that the length of a generation is 
here put down as twenty years. 



LITERATURE pF THE EAST 101 

followers, that they may be equipped with possessions, 
endowed with fields, rewarded with cattle. 

Distinguish not between the son of a noble and him of lowly 
birth. Take to thyself a man because of his capacity. All 
crafts are done according to ... the Lord of Valor. Pro- 
tect thy boundary, and raise up thy monuments. Profitable 
are gangs of workmen to their lord. Make beautiful monu- 
ments for the God ; that causeth to live the name of him who 
doeth it. A man does what is profitable unto his soul, even 
the monthly service of priest, and wearing the white sandals. 
Frequent the shrine. Be discreet concerning the mysteries, 
enter into the sanctuary. Eat bread in the temple. 

Replenish the table of offerings ; increase the loaves. Add 
to the daily sacrifices, for it is profitable to him who does so. 
Make firm thy monuments according as thou art rich. For a 
single day giveth for eternity, an hour makes beautiful for 
futurity. God knoweth him who worketh for him. Bring 
thy statues from a distant land, nor let them reckon the total 
thereof. For miserable is he that is free from enmity ; never 
is the enemy still 26 in the midst of Egypt. 27 

Troops shall subdue troops, as runs the prophecy of the 
Ancestors concerning it Egypt fights in the Necropolis. 
Injure not the tombs with deeds of injury ; for even so I did 
and even so it did occur, even as should be done to one who 
has transgressed in this way with the god. Deal not evilly 
with the Southern land, for thou knowest the prophecy of the 

* Literally, "cold." It appears to be meant that enemies will fail 
to give the King due recognition, but this is only to be expected. 

Hius far the advice given to Mentuhotep has been of a general 
character, lessons drawn from a knowledge of the world and from the 
teaching of history. From this point onward the counsels of the old 
King contain a more personal note; he recalls the events of his own 
reign, and uses his own successes and failures to point a moral. At the 
same time the language employed becomes more obscure, the textual 
corruptions more numerous. This is all the more tantalizing because it 
is evident that the events alluded to are of very considerable interest. 
The first paragraph deals with occurrences in the neighborhood of Thinis. 
the general drift of the passage can not be elicited without some 
degree of uncertainty, but the rendering is to some extent supported by 
a reference to the same events that occurs later on. 



102 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Eesidence concerning it. That shall happen even as this did 
happen. They did not transgress, according as they said. 
... I speak of Thinis, ... its southern boundary at Taut. 
I captured it like a flood of water. King Mer . . . the 
deceased, did not do it. Be lenient concerning it. ... 
There is no ... which causes itself to lie hid. It is good to 
work for the future. 

Thou 28 standest well with the South ; the bearers of loads 
come to thee with gifts. I did the same as the Ancestors; 
there was none who had corn that he should give it. Be 
indulgent for their weaknesses toward thee. Be satisfied with 
thy bread and thy beer. 29 The red granite comes to thee 
without expeditions. Harm not the monument of another, 
but quarry stone in Royu. 30 Build not thy tomb out of that 
which has been overturned, making what once was made into 
what is yet to make. Behold the King is one full of joy of 
heart. Thou art indolent and sleepest through my strength ; 
thou followest thy heart through what I have done. There is 
no enemy within thy border. 

When any ruler arose in a city, his heart was oppressed by 
reason of the North-land, from Hat-shenu to Sbeka, its south- 
ern boundary to Khawey. 31 I pacified the entire West, as far 
as the stretches of the Fayum. It works for itself, and it 
yields. . . . The East is one rich in foreigners, their produce 

28 In this section the relations of Mentuhotep to his Southern neigh- 
bors are described. For the moment there appears to be a lull in the 
hostilities between the rival houses of Thebes and Heracleopolis. This 
truce seems to have made possible the importation of the red granite of 
Syene; and since the fine limestone quarries of Turah are also accessible 
to Mentuhotep there will be no excuse for him if he demolishes ancient 
tombs in order to construct his own. In the final sentences the old 
King appears to contrast the prosperity of the present with the troubled 
conditions prevailing in his own reign; and to emphasize the fact that 
it is due to him if Mentuhotep can now afford to live in inactivity and 
luxury. 

29 Mentuhotep is bidden to be indulgent and contented with what 
he already possesses, in case at any time the imports from the South 
should be curtailed; he is at all events better off than was his father. 

so /.e., the celebrated limestone-quarries of Troia or Turah, not far 
from Helwan. 

ai The marsh-land of the Heracleopolite nome. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 103 

. . . islands in the midst, every man within it. The estates 
say, " Greatly revered art thou " concerning me. 32 

Behold the land which they destroyed is made into districts. 
Every great city. . . . The principality of one is in the hand 
of ten men. The magistrate . . . with all manner of tax 
which exists. The priest is entrusted with fields. They 
work for thee like a single gang of laborers. How comes it 
that rebels are not made ? Because Nile does not fail thee 
by not coming. Produce is in thy hand from the North-land. 
Behold, I drove in my mooring-post in the region which I 
made on the East, from the boundaries of Hebenu to the 
Horus-Way, equipped with cities, filled with people of the best 
of the entire land, so as to repel their attacks. Let me see a 
brave man who shall copy it, and add to what I have done, 
. . . from a cowardly heir. 33 

Speak thus, moreover, to the barbarian. Behold the 
wretched Aamu, toilsome is the land wherein he is, 
a land troubled with water, made difficult by many trees, 
its ways made toilsome by reason of the mountains. He 
dwells not in a single place, but his legs are ever driven wan- 
dering. He is fighting ever since the time of Horus. He 
conquers not, nor yet is he conquered. He announces not 
a day in fighting, like one who undertakes the suppression of 
conspirators. 

. . . whilst I existed, these barbarians were as a battle- 
axe in a fortress. ... I caused the North-land to smite them, 
I carried captive their inhabitants, I plundered their cattle. 
An abomination is the Aamu unto Egypt. Do not trouble 
thyself concerning him. He is an Aamu ... he ... on 

2 This section and the next are very obscure, but we can at least 
see that the latter deal with the liberation of the Eastern Delta from 
the domination of foreign rulers. The Asiatics are not actually men- 
tioned by name, but there are frequent references to them in the follow- 
ing paragraphs. It is particularly regrettable that lacunae should ren- 
der the sense of the first two sentences somewhat uncertain, for it ap- 
pears to be an Egyptian version of the famous maxim Divide et impera. 

Continuing the topic of the preceding paragraph, we now come 
to what is perhaps the most curious passage in the entire papyrus, a 
characterization of Syria and the Syrians. Such generalizations are 
rare in Egyptian texts. 



104 THE SACRED BOOKS 

his coast. He plunders a lonely settlement but he will not 
attack a populous city. 

Dig 34 a dike against half of it, and flood half of it, even 
Kem-wey. Behold it is the navel-string of the desert-people ; 
its walls and its warriors are many, and subjects are in it able 
to . . . , the pure of the region of Dad-esut. It counts ten 
thousand men as citizens, free and without imposts. There 
are magistrates in it since the time of the Residence. Estab- 
lished are its boundaries, strong its garrison, northerners 
many. Inundate them. The North-land gives produce in 
corn in freedom. It is to . . . of him who does it. Behold 
it is the handle of the North-land. They have made a dike 
against Heracleopolis. Suitable is a populous city. Beware 
lest thou be surrounded by subjects of an enemy, for prisoners 
. . . old a year. 

When thy boundary is troubled toward the South, it is the 
barbarians who take the girdle. 35 Build castles in the North- 
land. A man's name is surely not small through that which 
he doeth. A well-provided town is not harmed. Build cas- 
tles . . . , for the enemy loves him who is destructive, whose 
deed is evil. King Akhthoi the deceased foretold in giving 
instruction : " He who is quiet shall be made violent. . . . 
God thwarts the rebel . . . home." 36 

* A very obscure and corrupt passage. 

ss The sense of the word is uncertain, but the phrase must somehow 
mean " gird oneself " for battle. 

ss With these very obscure sentences we reach the end of the para- 
graphs that allude to foreign enemies on the Northeast frontier. It is 
not quite easy to see exactly to what they amount. There is certainly 
no reason for deducing from them a prolonged domination of Syrian in- 
vaders at all analogous to the Hyksos domination. Still the space ac- 
corded to them, and the stress laid upon the fortification of the Eastern 
Delta, suffice to show that they had been a source both of danger and 
actual trouble. The first sentence of the section just translated prob- 
ably defines the situation with accuracy. Neither the Syrians of Pales- 
tine nor the tribes of the Sinaitic peninsula were ever strong enough 
in prosperous times to make a successful invasion of Egypt; but when 
inner disruption gave them their opportunity, they were never slow to 
seize it. Thus while Mentuhotep's predecessors were at variance with 
their Southern neighbors, it may well have happened that the Asiatics 
harried the North, and even made settlements there, until the Pharaoh 
was strong enough to drive them out again. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 105 

There comes one who shall do it. He shall be wise in what 
he has decreed ... on that day of his coming. Enrich the 
tables of offerings. Revere the god, and say not he is weak. 
Let not thine arms be slack, but work joyfully. Satiety is 
the violation of heaven. Death is a monument in the opinion 
of an enemy. He does not diminish it though desire that 
what he hath done may be embellished by one who comes 
after him. There is none without an enemy. Full of knowl- 
edge is the ruler of the two lands. Not ignorant is the King 
who possesses nobles. He is wise at his going forth from the 
womb; the gold exalted him from among a million men. 37 

A goodly office is that of King ; it has no son, nor has it a 
brother who is made to endure upon its monuments. One 
brings honor to another. A man works for him who went 
before him, through the desire that what he has done may be 
embellished by him who comes after him. Behold a calamity 
happened in my time; the regions of Thinis were vio- 
lated. It happened in sooth through that which I had done ; 
I knew it after it was done. Behold my recompense followed 
from what I had done. Nay, but weak is he, and no good 
man, who restores what he has destroyed, and demolishes what 
he has built, and improves what he has made beautiful. 88 
Take heed concerning it. A blow is rewarded with the like 
thereof ; that is the consequence of all that is done. 

A generation of men passes, and God, who discerneth char- 
acters, hath hidden himself. Yet there is none can oppose 
the possessor of a hand ; he is one who thwarts even what is 
seen by the eyes. 39 Reverence must be shown to God upon 
his path. Men work in precious stones, and carve out of 
bronze. The mud-flat is replaced by a flood. There is no 

T It is only with the utmost difficulty that the trend of this and the 
following sections can be conjectured. If guessed rightly, the ambitious 
ideals of a King are here contrasted with the negative and unprogressive 
purposes of his enemies. Herein the King displays his wisdom, a 
thought developed further in the next paragraph. 

The sense seems to be; it is both useless, and weak, to try and repair 
damage done; the consequences of actions must be 1 ionic. 

The general sense is perhaps: though God hide himself, yet his un- 
strength is felt. 



106 THE SACRED BOOKS 

river that suffers itself to be concealed; 40 but it looses the 
dam by which it lay hid. Even so also the soul cometh to the 
place that it knoweth. Make stately thy castle in the West, 
adorn thy place in the Necropolis ; even as one who is just, as 
one who doeth Right. This is that whereon men's hearts 
repose. More acceptable is the nature of one just of heart 
than the ox of him who doeth iniquity. Work unto God, that 
he may work for thee the like ; with offerings to replenish the 
offering-tables, and with carved inscription it is what 
pointeth out thy name. God is cognizant of the man who 
worketh for him. 41 

Command thou men, the flocks of God. He made heaven 
and earth at their desire. He checked the greed of the waters, 
and made the air to give life to their nostrils. They are his 
own images proceeding from his flesh. He arises in heaven at 
their desire. He made for them grass and cattle, fowl and 
fish to nourish them. He slew his enemies and destroyed his 
own children because of their plots in making rebellion. He 
maketh the dawn at their desire. He sails by in order to see 
them. He has raised a shrine behind them. When they 
weep, he heareth. He made for them rulers in the egg, a 
supporter to support the back of the weak. He made for them 
magic as weapons to ward off evil events ; dreams also by night 
and day. How hath he slain the f reward of heart? Even 
as a man smiteth his son for his brother's sake. For God 
knows every name. 42 

4o/.e., even as the inundation recurs annually, or as a soul returns 
to its own place, so God will come back to claim his due. 

41 The conception of God's hiding himself in troubled moments of 
history is familiar from the much-disputed passage in the Leiden " Ad- 
monitions." Though the terms of both passages are vague and elusive, it 
is clear in each case that the Sun-god Re was at the back of the writer's 
mind. Confirmation of this will be found in the next paragraph, which 
eulogizes God as the author of all existence and well-being. 

42 This monotheistic passage is perhaps the earliest, and certainly 
one of the most remarkable of its kind. That the Sun-god is meant is 
plain, not only from the phrase " he arises," but also from the clear 
allusion to the familiar legend of the " Destruction of Men " preserved 
to us in the tomb of Sethos I. A very striking sentence is that in 
which the god is said to have created magic, to be used by men for their 
personal protection against accidents. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 107 

Do not do anything which my mouth . . . when it gives 
any laws concerning the King. Direct thy face straight for- 
ward and ... as a man. Oh that thou mayst reach me, 
without finding thy accuser. Slay not any that is near unto 
thee ; the god who knows him commends him to thee. He who 
is happy upon earth is one of them ; gods are they who serve 
the King. Instil the love of thyself in all the land. A good 
character is for a remembrance. ... It was said concern- 
ing thee, " Perished is the time of the weak " by those at the 
back in the house of Akhthoi, in foretelling its coming to-day. 
Behold I have spoken to thee the best of my inner thoughts ; 
set them stedfastly before thy face. 



108 THE SACRED BOOKS 



COUNSEL OF AMENEMHET I. 43 

Beginning with the teaching, which the Majesty of the 
King of Upper and Lower Egypt; Sehetepibre, son of Re: 
Amenemhet triumphant, composed. 

He saith, while distinguishing truth, 
For his son, the All-Lord ; 
He saith : " Shine as a god ! 
Harken to that which I say to thee, 
That thou mayest be king of the earth, 
That thou mayest be ruler of the lands, 
That thou mayest increase good. 

Harden thyself against all subordinates. 

The people give heed to him who terrorizes them ; 

Approach them not alone. 

Fill not thy heart with a brother, 

Know not a friend, 

Nor make for thyself intimates, 

Wherein there is no end. 

When thou sleepest, guard for thyself thine own heart ; 

For a man has no people, 

In the day of evil. 

The composition is in poetic form. It must have been a favorite 
composition, to judge from the number of manuscripts which have sur- 
vived. They are all, however, so excessively corrupt that much is un- 
intelligible, and has been omitted here. Whether the historical state- 
ments in the document are authentic or not, there is no known reason 
to doubt their truth; on the contrary, all but the attempt upon the 
King's life are corroborated by conclusive external evidence. These 
statements, in the order of their occurrence, are as follows: the attempt 
on the King's life; Sesostris I.'s coregency; the King's reorganization 
of Egypt; the agricultural prosperity; foreign conquests in Nubia and 
among the Bedwin; building of a palace. There seems to be no chrono- 
logical order in this enumeration, for the reorganization of the country 
took place in the first years, long before the coregency. It is fair to 
conclude, however, that the attempt on the King's life was the cause of 
the association of Sesostris on the throne. 



LITERATURE QF THE EAST 109 

I gave to the beggar, I nourished the orphan ; 

I admitted the insignificant as well as him who was great of 

account. 

But he who ate my food made insurrection, 
He, to whom I gave my hand, aroused fear therein ; 
They who put on my fine linen looked upon me as ... 
They who anointed themselves with my myrrh, defiled 

me. . 

It was after the evening meal^ night had come. 

I took an hour of heart's ease. 

Lying upon my couch, I relaxed ; 

My heart began to follow slumber. 

Behold, weapons were flourished, 

Council was held against me, 

While I was like a serpent of the desert 

I awoke to fight, utterly alone. . . . 

As I quickly grasped the weapons in my hand, 

I hurled back the wretches. . . . 

Behold, the abomination occurred, while I was without thee, 
While the court had not yet heard that I had delivered to thee 

the kingdom. 

While I had not yet sat with thee. 
Let me adjust thy administration ; 
For I do not terrify them, I do not think of them, 
My heart does not endure the slackness of servants. . . , 44 

I sent to Elephantine, 
I reached the Delta, 
I stood on the borders of the land, 
I inspected its interior, 

I carried forward the boundaries of valor by my bravery, by 
my deeds. 

I was one who cultivated grain, and loved the harvest-god ; 
The Nile greeted me in every valley ; 

"The general sense is: the conspiracy was formed in the palace. 



110 THE SACRED BOOKS 

2 

None was hungry in my years, none thirsted then ; 
One dwelt in peace through that which I did ; conversing con- 
cerning me. 

All that I commanded was correct. 
I captured lions, I took crocodiles, 
I seized the people of Wawat, 
I captured the people of Mazoi. 
I caused the Bedwin to go like hounds. 
I made a palace decked with gold, 
Whose ceilings were of lazuli, and the walls therein. 
The floors . . . , 
The doors were of copper, 
The bolts were of bronze, 
Made for everlastingness, 
At which eternity fears. 45 

<*' The remainder of every one of our papyri jon this theme has be- 
come BO obscure that the end is untranslatable. 



THE MIDDLE EMPIRE 
(2500 B.C.-1600 B.C.) 



TALES OF ROMANCE AND TRAVEL 



" The stories of the Middle Empire were in choice diction, 
large portions of them being rhetorical or poetical compositions 
attributed to the principal characters/' 

PROF. A. H. SAYCE. 



" Oh, permit me to refresh thy heart with my discourse." 

PROM THE TALE OF "THE ELOQUENT PEASANT." 



THE MIDDLE EMPIEE TALES OF ROMANCE 
AND TRAVEL 

(INTRODUCTION) 

THE surviving fiction of the Middle Empire is not exten- 
sive in amount. Fiction was not preserved in tomb and 
monument inscriptions but only in writings on papyrus ; and, 
strangely long-lived as some of tbe fragile papyri have proved, 
few of them have survived to the brittle age of four thousand 
years, which is roughly the interval which separates us from 
the Middle Empire. " The Eloquent Peasant," the first piece 
here given, is to be regarded less as a story than as a sort of 
ancient rhetoric, our earliest study of eloquence. The elab- 
orate speeches of a peasant form the main theme of the tale ; 
and the whole or portions of the speeches have survived to us 
in so many manuscripts that they were probably studied in the 
schools and set as exercises for students. 

With " The Shipwrecked Sailor " we come to the earliest 
adventure tale. Or shall we call it the earliest of " travelers' 
tales " ? Its impossible picture of the marvels of strange 
countries places it in the shadowy borderland betwixt romance 
or fairyland and actual human ramblings. Egyptologists 
remain in doubt as to how far its first readers may have 
accepted it literally as an historical fact. 

Of the third of our narratives, " The Memoirs of Sinuhit," 
we need make no such question. If not actual biography, it 
so amazingly copies the biographic style that even in its own 
day it must certainly have been read as genuine. And 
though Sinuhit's tomb, on which the account may have been 
first inscribed, no longer exists, yet few readers will doubt 
that the several papyri which now preserve the tale are thus 
recording for us the actual wanderings of an ancient Egyptian 
nobleman through what was then the barbaric land of Pales- 

VOL. II. 8. 113 



114 THE SACRED BOOKS 

tine. The date of Sinuhit's sojourn in what was later to be 
the Holy Land is fixed for us by the tale itself. It refers to 
King Amenemhet L, the same whose counsel is printed in the 
preceding section. Amenemhet was the founder of the great 
Twelfth Dynasty ; and if we accept the most recent figures of 
archeologists, this would set his death date at 1970 B.C. The 
older reckoning carried this date back to about 1500 years 
earlier. Hence Sinuhit's visit far antedated Moses or the 
days of Joseph and his brethren, and may even have ante- 
dated Abraham. 

The date of the last tale given here, our earliest " ghost 
story," is by no means so clear. It has survived only in frag- 
ments on the pieces of a broken pot or tablet of a later period. 
The story tells of a Pharaoh who has been variously identified 
as belonging to the antique age of the great pyramid-builders, 
and more probably as belonging to the close of the Middle 
Empire. The story itself is clearly an old one, and its unique 
ghostly flavor gives a value and interest to even such frag- 
ments of it as our Egyptologists can interpret. 



TALES OF ROMANCE AND TRAVEL 



THE ELOQUENT PEASANT * 

There was once a man, Khunianupu by name, who was a 
fellah (peasant) of the Plain of Salt, 2 and he had a wife 
Nofrit by name. This fellah said to this his wife, " Lo, I go 
down to Egypt to bring back bread 3 from thence for our chil- 
dren. Go, measure me the corn that is in the granary, the 
remainder of this year's corn." Then he measured for her 
eight bushels of corn. This fellah said to this his wife, 
" Behold ! here are these two bushels of corn for thee and thy 
children, but of these six bushels of corn make me bread and 
beer 4 for each day that I shall be on the journey." When 
this fellah went down into Egypt, he loaded his asses with 
reeds, rushes, natron, salt, wood of Uiti, acacia from the Coun- 
try of the Oxen, wolf skins, jackal hides, sage, onyx, maize, 
colocynth, coriander, aniseed, talc, ollite, wild mint, grapes, 
pigeons, partridges, quails, anemones, narcissus, seed of the 

i This translation is from the " Contes Populairea " of Maspero, which 
has been translated into English by Mrs. C. H. Johns. The American 
edition, by Putnam's Sons, is called " Popular Stories of Ancient Egypt," 
and contains practically all of the surviving Egyptian fiction. M. Mas- 
pero's works are now under the editorship of M. Augustin Challamcl, 
who kindly permits their use here. 

*The Plain of Salt is the country of the Wady Natrun, to the west 
of the Delta, and northeast of lines. 

a This must not be taken literally, and we must not imagine that the 
man intended to return with a load of bread. The word aiku was 
used by the ancient Egyptians in the same way that aish is employed 
by modern Egyptians, to express all kinds of provisions required to feed 
a household. 

* This combination explains itself when we understand the Egyptian 
method of making beer. They used the crumb of stale bread in place 
of yeast. Scenes produced in bas-relief, or with wooden figures in the 
tombs of the first Theban Empire and of the Memphite Empire, always 
combine baking and brewing. It is therefore natural that the fellah 
should order his wife to make both bread and beer with the corn he gave 
her. 

115 



116 THE SACRED BOOKS 

sun, hairs of the earth, and allspice, complete with all the 
good products of the Plain of Salt. 6 

When therefore the fellah had gone south to Khininnsuit 6 
and had arrived at the place called Pafifi to the north of the 
town of Madenit, 7 he met a man who was on the bank, 
Thotnakhuiti by name, son of a person Asari by name, both 
of them serfs of Rensi, son of Maru, mayor of the palace. 
This Thotnakhuiti, as soon as he beheld the asses of this fel- 
lah, being astonished at heart, said, " May every god favor me, 
that I may obtain the property of this fellah." Now the 
dwelling of this Thotnakhuiti was close to a riverside path, 
which was narrow, not ample, so much so that it was just the 
breadth of a piece of linen, with the water on one side and 
wheat on the other. This Thotnakhuiti said to his servant, 
" Hasten and bring me a piece of cloth from my house." It 
was brought him, and he spread it on the pathway, so that the 
edge touched the water and the fringe touched the wheat. 8 
When therefore the fellah came on to the road which was for 
every one, this Thotnakhuiti said, " Be so good, 9 fellah, do not 
tread on my linen." This fellah said, " To do as thou shalt 
commend, my ways are good." As he turned toward the 
higher part, Thotnakhuiti said, " Is my corn to serve as thy 
pathway, fellah ? " This fellah said, " My ways are good, 
but the bank is high, the roads have wheat ; thou hast barred 

c The names of these minerals and seeds are somewhat uncertainly 
identified with modern corresponding terms. 

Hakhininnsuit, or Hakhininnsuiti, is the town called by the As- 
syrians Khininsu, by the Hebrews Khanes, and by the Copts Hnes; the 
modern Henassieh or Ahnes el Medineh. 

* The two towns of Pafifi and Madenit are otherwise unknown to us. 
They must be sought for between VVady Natrun and Ahnes, but much 
nearer that town, probably at the entrance to the Fayum. 

The course of the story gives us the reason for these preparations. 
Thotnakhuiti, in barring the path, hoped to force the peasant to take the 
upper side of the way close to the field. In passing, the ass might snatch 
some blades of wheat; Thotnakhuiti could then accuse the delinquent and 
confiscate the animal. At the present day, the proprietor of a field is 
satisfied with cutting off an ear of the donkey; but the case is known 
where, like the man in the story, he seized the animal. 

The words Iri haru, translated " be so good," form a polite phrase by 
which the Egyptians called the attention of their comrades or of passers- 
by to any work they were engaged on, or any matter of general interest. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 117 

the ways with thy linen ; wilt thou not permit me to pass ? " 
While he was speaking these words one of the asses took a 
mouthful of stalks of wheat. This Thotnakhuiti said, 
" Behold thou, since thine ass eats my wheat, I shall put him 
to labor on account of his strength." This fellah said, " My 
ways are good. To avoid trespass I led my ass aside, and now 
thou dost seize him because he has taken a mouthful of stalks 
of wheat. But assuredly I know the owner of this domain, 
who is the High Steward, Rensi, son of Maru ; it is he of a 
certainty who drives away all robbery in this Entire-Land, 10 
and shall I be robbed in his domain ? " This Thotnakhuiti 
said, " Is not that a true proverb that men use, ( The name of 
the poor wretch is quoted on account of his master ' ? It is I 
who speak to thee, and it is of the Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, 
son of Maru, that thou thinkest." ll He thereupon seized a 
green branch of tamarisk and with it he beat all his limbs, and 
he then took away his asses and led them into his domain. 
This fellah wept very loud for grief at that which was done 
to him, and this Thotnakhuiti said, " Do not raise thy voice, 
fellah, or thou shalt go to the city of the god, Lord of Si- 
lence." 12 This fellah said, " Thou hast beaten me, thou hast 
stolen my goods, and now thou wouldst take away lamenta- 
tion from my mouth. Divine lord of silence, grant me my 
goods, in order that I may not call out thy fear." 13 

This fellah passed the whole of four days bewailing himself 
to Thotnakhuiti, but he did not lend him his face. When 
this fellah went to Khininnsuit in order to make complaint to 

10 The Entire-Land is one of the names commonly given to Egypt by 
the Egyptians. 

11 The sentence quoted, translated literally, runs thus, " Is pronounced 
the name of the poor wretch for his master." From the context it seems 
to signify that he who considers he has a grievance against a subordinate 
is not satisfied -with execrating him, but immediately attempts to appeal 
to his chief. 

12 The reply of Thotnakhuiti is an actual threat of death. The Lord of 
Silence is Osiris, god of the other world; his city is the tomb. Osiris, in 
this rule, had as an equivalent in Thebes a goddess who bore the si-niii- 
cant name of Maruitsukro, she who loves silence. 

is So far as I can gee, this expression, too concise for us, seems aa 
though it should be paraphrased, " for fear that I should go every- 
where proclaiming that thou art a man to be feared." 



118 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, he found him 
as he came out of the door of his house to enter the cange 
(Nile boat) of his office. This fellah said, " Oh, permit me 
to refresh thy heart with my discourse. 14 It is an occasion to 
send me thy servant, the intimate one of thy heart, that I 
may send him back to thee instructed in my business." The 
Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, caused his servant 
to go, the intimate of his heart, the one first after himself, 
and this fellah sent him back, instructed in the whole of his 
business, such as it was. The Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, 
son of Maru, informed the burghers 16 who were near to him 
of this Thotnakhuiti, and they said to their lord, "Verily, 
this comes from his peasant to whom another has come, for 
behold what they do to their peasants when others come to 
them, behold, this is just what they do. Is it worth while to 
prosecute this Thotnakhuiti for the matter of a little natron 
and a little salt ? Let him be told to give it back, and he will 
give it back. The Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, 
kept silence; he did not reply to these burghers, he did not 
reply to this fellah. 

When this fellah came to make his complaint for the first 
time before the High Steward, Rensi, son of Maru, he said : 
" Mayor of the Palace, my lord, great of the great, guide of 
that which is, and of that which is not, when thou descendest 
to the Pool of Justice 16 and thou dost sail there with the right 
wind, may the sheet of thy sail not tear away, may thy skiff 
not drift away, may no ill happen to thy mast, may thy 
planks not be cut, mayest thou not be carried off, when thou 
dost arrive at the land ; may the wave not seize thee, mayest 

i* The beginning of the discourse recalls the formula by which a man 
of lower degree begins letters addressed to his superior. 

is Personages of high rank, royal functionaries, or administrators of 
nomes and villages had a certain number of burghers associated with 
them who assisted them in carrying out their functions. 

iThe Pool of Justice is the name of one of the canals of the other 
world, and of the canal of this world that passed Khininnsuit. The 
fellah, playing on the double meaning of the expression, wishes a pros- 
perous voyage for Rensi both on the terrestrial and the celestial waters. 
The remainder of this first appeal is not the logical development of this 
play on words nor of the metaphor on which it was founded. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 119 

them not taste the shriekings of the river, mayest thou not 
behold the Terrible of Face (the crocodile), but may the most 
rebellious fish come to thee and mayest thou procure well- 
fatted birds. As it is thou who art the father of the weak, 
the husband of the widow, the brother of the divorced woman, 
the clothing of the motherless, cause that I may proclaim thy 
name in this country as the head of all good law. Guide 
without caprice, great without pettiness, thou who destroyest 
falsehood, and makest truth to be, come to the voice of my 
mouth. I speak; listen, do justice, praiseworthy, whom the 
most praiseworthy praise, destroy my woes; behold I am 
laden with grief, lo! I am in despair, judge me, for behold 
I am in great need." 

Now this fellah said these words in the time of the King 
of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nabkauriya, true of voice. The 
Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, went before his 
Majesty, and he said, " My lord, I have met one of these fel- 
lahs, who are in truth fine speakers, whose goods have been 
stolen from him by a man who depends on me: behold he 
comes to make his complaint to me." The King said, " Mar- 
uitensi, if you desire to keep me contented, draw him out at 
full length ; answer nothing at all to that he shall say. That 
which he shall please to say to thee, report it to us in writ- 
ing that we may hear* it. See to it that his wife and children 
live, send one of these fellahin to banish want from his 
house, and cause also that this peasant lives in his members, 
but when thou makest him a gift of bread see that he does not 
know it is thou who givest it." Four loaves and two jars 
of beer were served to him each day ; the Mayor of the Palace, 
Rensi, son of Maru, supplied them, but he gave them to one 
of his clients, and it was he who gave them to the other. 
Behold, the Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, sent to 
the castellan of the Oasis of Salt, so that bread was made 
for the wife of the peasant in the proportion of three meas- 
ures each day. 

This fellah came to make his complaint for the second time, 
saying: "Mayor of the Palace, my lord, great of the great, 
rich of the rich, thou who art greater than thy great ones, and 



120 THE SACRED BOOKS 

richer than thy rich ones, rudder of heaven, supporter of the 
earth, cord that bears the heavy weights; rudder do not 
swerve, 17 support do not bend, cord do not break away. For 
the great lord takes of her who has no lord, 18 he despoils him 
who is alone. Thy allowance in thy house is a jug of beer 
and three loaves daily, and what dost thou give to feed thy 
clients? Who dies, does he die with his people? Art thou 
thyself eternal ? In fact it is an evil, a balance that bends, 
a lever balance that loses its steadiness, a just integrity that 
deviates. Oh thou, if the justice that moves beneath thee 
remove from its place, if the burgher commit errors, if he 
who keeps count of the speeches spoken on both sides incline 
to one side, the menials steal. He who is commissioned to 
seize the faithless one who does not keep the word of the 
judge in strictness, himself wanders far from the word; he 
who ought to give the breath of life is without it on earth ; 
he who is calm pants with wrath ; he who divides into just 
portions is only a prepotent; he who represses the oppressor 
commands him to ill-use the city like an inundation ; he who 
repels evil commits faults." 

The Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, said, " Is it 
then so important a matter for thee and so close to thy heart 
that my servant 19 should be seized ? " 

This fellah said : " When the measurer of grain takes by 
violence for himself, he causes another to lose his property. 
He who guides to the observance of the law, if he command 
that one shall rob, who then will repel crime? He who 
should crush error, if he himself wander from equity, has 
another the right to give way? If another is approved for 
misdeeds, how shalt thou find the means to subdue the mis- 
deeds of others ? When the wealthy man comes to the place 

if Literally, " rudder do not go behind." The rudder was a large oar, 
worked from fore to aft. If it were displaced by the current or by a 
mistake of the steersman, so that it turned from aft to fore, it would 
lose control of the ship's course; hence the metaphor in the text. 
" Swerve " is merely a more or less free translation. 

is The widow or the rejected woman who had no man to protect her. 

i The servant of whom Rensi, son of Maru, speaks is Thotnakhuiti, 
whose punishment is demanded by the fellah. 



LITERATURE QF THE EAST 121 

that he occupied yesterday, it is an order to do to others as 
they have caused to be done, to honor others for what they 
have done, it is to administer riches wisely instead of squan- 
dering them, it is to assign property to those who already 
possess wealth. 20 Oh the moment that destroys, when all 
shall be destroyed in thy vineyards, when thy poultry-yard 
shall be destroyed and thy water-fowl shall be decimated, 
when he who sees shall become blind, and he who hears be- 
comes deaf, when he who leads the way shall become him who 
misleads ! . . . Art thou indeed sound ? Act for thyself, for 
thou art very powerful; thine arm is valiant, thy heart is 
bold, indulgence is far from thee, the prayer of the wretched 
is thy destruction, thou seemest the messenger of the crocodile- 
god. Thou art the traveling companion of the Lady of Pesti- 
lence : if thou art not, she is not ; if she is not, thou art not ; 
that which she does not do, thou dost not do. 21 When a rich, 
strong man with lawful revenues is against a beggar, he 
who is firmly in possession of his spoils against one who 
has no possessions; if the beggar is despoiled of his 
property it is an evil business for him who is not de- 
prived of all, he has no means of complaining of it, for 
he has sought it (his fate). But thou, thou art satiated 
with thy bread, thou art drunken with thy beer, thou art 
richer than all the living. When the face of the steersman 
is turned backward 22 the boat wanders where it pleases. 

20 The jingle of words with which this sentence begins merely signifies 
that if a wealthy man is reinstated in the position he had vacated it is 
to encourage him to continue to act as well as he had done during his 
previous period of office. It is hoped, in fact, that being rich already, he 
will have no need to pillage the country to enrich himself, and that he 
will administer the public wealth honestly. Thus he considers that 
Rensi, honest himself, did not know how to insist on honesty in his 
subordinates, and would end by being their victim and coming to ruin, 
as is said in the sentence that follows. 

21 The crocodile-god is either Sovku or Set-Typhon, and the lady of 
pestilence is Sokhit-Sakhmit. It is understood that the fellah points 
out to Rensi that he is powerful and should deal rigorously with those 
who commit injustice under his protection, after the fashion of those 
two divinities. 

Instead of observing the river and the direction of the currents and 
wind. 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

When the king is in the harem, and the rudder of State 
is in thy hand, and there are abuses around thee, lamenta- 
tion is abundant, ruin is heavy. ' What matter ? ' they say. 
Make places of refuge, for thy embankment is sound, and 
behold, thy city is well surrounded with walls ; 23 thou whose 
tongue is right, do not err, for the worm, destroyer of 
man, is but his own members ! 24 Speak not falsehood, 
heed well the burghers, the vassals, and the servants, to 
speak lies is their hay (perquisite) and a tradition that is 
very near their hearts. Thou who knowest the property of 
all people, art thou ignorant of my fortune ? Oh thou who 
reducest to naught all accident by water, I am here where 
there is no landing! Oh thou who leadest back to earth 
whosoever is drowning and who savest the shipwrecked, I am 
oppressed by order of thine." 

This fellah came to make his complaint for the third time, 
saying: " Mayor of the Palace, my lord, thou art Re, lord of 
heaven, with thy court, and it is the interest of all the world. 
Thou art like a wave of inundation, thou art the Nile which 
makes the fields green, that seizes the isles and cultivated 
lands. Repress robbery, protect the wretched, be not as a 
flood to those who complain to thee, but beware that eternity 
approaches, and let it please thee that there be for thee that 
which is spoken, * It is breath to the nose to do justice.' 2S 
Punish him who has punished, and that will not be placed 
to thy account. Does the spring bend, does the balance turn 
to one side, is not Thoth indulgent? If thou dost commit 

23 Rensi, son of Maru, in justice, desired that the poor should have 
an asylum in him against violence; the dike he had metaphorically con- 
structed to oppose the torrent of injustice was in good condition, but 
is it possible that the man of righteous judgments should at last swerve 
and become an oppressor? 

2* The members of a great lord are his vassals and attendants, as the 
members of Re are the lesser gods; the great lord is destroyed by the 
faults of his members rather than by his own. 

25 Transcribed from Egyptian phraseology into modern expressions, 
this sentence signifies that to be just assures life in the presence of the 
king and the gods; to do to the evil-doer the same as he himself has 
done is not recorded as a crime on the part of those who administer 
the punishment. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 123 

errors, thou rnakest thyself equal with those three. 26 If those 
three are indulgent, be thou also indulgent and do not reward 
good as though it were evil, or put the last in the place of the 
first. The word grows more than living herbage, more than 
a smell; do not reply to it, for when the water comes that 
clothes the fields, let it do so. When thou art steering with 
the sail up, work with the current ; in order to do this rightly, 
beware that thou mauoeuvrest well the tiller when thou art fac- 
ing the land. Do not lie, thou art greatness; be not light, 
thou art weightiness; do not lie; thou art the steel-yard, do 
not lose equilibrium; thou art the accurate reckoning; oh 
thou, thou art in accord with the lever, so that if it yields 
thou also dost yield. Do not swerve when thou art steering, 
but manoeuvre well the rope. Take nothing when thou shalt 
go against him who takes, for he is not a great one, that 
great one who is rapacious. Thy tongue is the spring of a 
balance and thy heart is the weight and thy two lips are its 
arms. If thou veilest thy face from him whose countenance 
is hard, 27 who then will subdue evil ? Oh thou, thou art like 
a wicked rapacious launderer who treats a friend with harsh- 
ness and rejects a client who is poor, but who holds as a 
brother him who comes and brings him what is due. Oh 
thou, thou art the ferryman who ferries him only who pos- 
sesses the amount of the toll, and of whom the toll is the ruin 
of others. Oh thou, thou art the chief of the granary, who 
dost not permit him to go free who comes with empty hands. 
Oh thou, thou art for men a bird of prey who lives on the 
miserable little birds. Oh thou, thou art the cook whose joy 
it is to kill and from whom there is no escape. Oh thou, thou 
art the shepherd who troubles himself not at all; thou hast 
not reckoned how many of thy beasts thou dost lose by the 
crocodile, that violator of places of refuge, who attacks the 
district of the Entire-Land. 28 Oh, auditor who hast not 

" Literally, "Thou art placed the second of these three"; in other 
words, " thou dost become a spring badly balanced, a false balance, a 
Thoth indulgent when he should not be." 

27 In other words, " If thou settlest thyself complacently so as not to 
see what the powerful do to the weak." 

" The fellah here alludes to an incident of rural life that is often 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

heard, why wilt thou not hear, since here I have repelled a 
furious one with whom there is a crocodile ? When shall that 
he done ? He who hides the truth is always discovered, and 
the lie is hurled to the ground. Do not rely on the morrow 
which is not yet come; it is not known what ills there 
are in it," 

After the fellah had made this oration to the Mayor of the 
Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, on the esplanade which is before 
the gate, he dispatched two men of his clan to him with 
kurbashes, and they beat all his limbs. 

This fellah said : " The son of Maru, he deviates indeed ; 
his face is blind to that which he sees, he is deaf to that 
which he hears, he passes regardless of that of which he is 
reminded. Oh thou, thou art like a city that has no com- 
mander, like a community that has no chief, like a boat that 
has no captain, like a caravan without a leader. Oh thou, 
thou art like a ghafir who steals, like a sheikh-el-Beled that 
takes, like the chief of a district appointed to punish brigan- 
dage, and who puts himself at the head of those who com- 
mit it." 

When the peasant came to make his complaint for the 
fourth time, he found the Mayor of the Palace as he was 
coming out of the gate of the temple of Harshafi, and he said : 
" Oh, blessed one, mayest thou be the blessed of Harshafi, 
who comes from his temple, when good perishes and there is 
none to boast that he hath destroyed falsehood on the earth. 
And in truth the ferry-boat which you are made to enter and 
on which you cross the river, when the season of low water 
comes, to cross the river on foot, is it not a good way to cross ? 
And who sleeps in full daylight ? He destroys by that means, 
going in safety during the night, and traveling without dan- 
ger by day, and the possibility that the individual may verily 
profit by his good fortune. Oh thou, one must not cease from 
telling thee if indulgence departs from thee, the prayer of 

represented in tombs of the Memphite age the crossing of a ford by 
a herd of cattle menaced by crocodiles; the careless herdsman, instead 
of watching over his animals, lets them go, and on coming out of the 
water does not trouble to find out whether the number of the cattle ia 
still intact or whether the crocodiles have reduced it. 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 125 

the wretched is thy destruction. Thou art like a huntsman, 
light of heart, bold to do that which pleases thee, to harpoon 
the hippopotamus, to transfix wild bulls with arrows, to strike 
fish with the bident, 29 to net birds. Oh thou who hast not 
the ready mouth, and who art without a flow of words, thou 
who hast not a light heart, but whose bosom is heavy with 
projects, apply thou thy heart to know the truth, subdue thy 
evil inclination until the silent one arrives. 30 Be not the 
unskilful inquisitor who destroys perfection, nor a rapid 
heart which fails when truth is brought to it, but cause that 
thy two eyes perceive, that thine heart is satisfied, and trou- 
ble not thyself doubting of thy power 31 or fear that misfor- 
tune overtake thee; he who passes by his fortune without 
seizing it will be always in the second rank. The man who 
eats, tastes ; he who is questioned, replies ; he who is in bed, 
dreams ; but make no opposition to the judge at the gate 32 
when he is at the head of the malefactors ; for thanks to him 
if imbecile, thou dost prosper, if ignorant of everything, thou 
art consulted, if thou art like a flow of water that diverges, 
thou canst enter. Oh helmsman, misdirect not thy boat ; thou 
who grantest life, cause not to die; thou who canst destroy, 
cause not that one should be destroyed. Luminous one, be 
not as a shadow ; place of refuge, permit not the crocodile to 
carry off his victims, on account of thee. These four times I 
have lamented to thee: has not time enough been spent over 
that ? " 

This fellah went to make his complaint the fifth time, say- 
ing : " Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, my lord, the 

* Only the fishermen by profession and the peasants fished with a 
lino, an eel-pot, or a net; as one sees them on the pictures of the Theban 
and Memphite tombs, nobles caught fish with a single- or double- 
pronged harpoon. Fishing carried on thus required considerable 
strength and skill, comparable with hunting the hippopotamus. 

>o Here possibly the silent one is Osiris, god of the dead, or some other 
divinity. 

i Literally, " Do not trouble thyself on account of power." He who 
doubts his power, and fears he is not sufficiently strong, accomplishes 
nothing. 

*2 It must not be forgotten that in Egypt, as in the whole of the 
it East, the prince and notables administered justice at the gate 
of their house or of the city. 



126 THE SACRED BOOKS 

fisherman with the eel-pot cages his fish, the fisherman with 
the knife cuts the throat of the eel, the fisherman with the 
trident harpoons the bayyads, the fishermen with the sweep- 
nets take the dials / 3 in short the fishermen depopulate the 
river. Oh thou, thou art of their kind; do not ravish his 
property from a poor wretch, for thou knowest the weak. 
His goods are the vital air of the poor man, to ravish them 
from him is to stop up his nose. Thou hast been commis- 
sioned to listen to speech, to judge between two parties, to 
repress robbery ; and lo ! the malefactor is with thee, it is a 
heavy burden of robberies, which thou dost bear. One has 
made thee a favorite, 34 and thou art become a criminal ; thou 
hast been given as a dike to the wretched to prevent his 
drowning, and lo ! thou art a man similar to a pool that fills 
rapidly." 35 

This fellah came to make his complaint the sixth time, 
saying : " Mayor of the Palace, Kensi, son of Maru, my lord, 
silent lord, 38 who punishes lies and causes justice to be, makes 
good to be; destroys evil, as satiety that ends hunger, cloth- 
ing that ends nakedness, as the sky clears after the north 
wind and its heat warms all those who were cold, as fire cooks 
what is raw, as water quenches thirst. Oh thou who be- 
holdest, do not turn away thy face ; thou who dost distribute 
equitably, be not rapacious ; 37 thou who consolest, do not cause 
rancor ; thou who healest, do not cause maladies ; for the delin- 
quent diminishes truth; he who well fulfils his duties does 
not injure, does not overpower truth. If thou hast revenues, 

sa The names of fish given here are all uncertain equivalents of the 
Egyptian names, of which we do not know the exact value; the bayyad 
and the chal are two Nile fish that are excellent to eat, especially 
the first. 

34 " One " here means Pharaoh who has Rensi, son of Maru, for his 
mayor of the palace. 

83 The water in consequence washes away the dike, ruining the field 
that the dike was intended to protect. 

so Rensi is called son of Maru, " silent lord," because he does not 
reply to the lamentations of the fellah. 

7 Rensi being: just, divides the goods of his subordinates exactly into 
two halves, and only takes the moiety due to him. The fellah implores 
him not to show himself rapacious and not to keep the whole. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 127 

give of them to thy brother, that he may share them without 
legal proceedings brought against him, for he who has ran- 
cor is a guide to discord, and he who relates his griefs in a 
whisper leads to schisms, without its having been known what 
was in his heart. 38 Therefore be not inactive in proclaiming 
thy intention ; for who restrains the emission of water ? Lo, 
the water-gates are open, the water must flow; if the bark 
enter therein it is seized by the current, its cargo perishes on 
the ground, scattered on all the banks. 39 Thou art instructed, 
thou art well set up, thou art established solidly and not by 
violence ; but while thou dost establish regulations for all men, 
those that are about thee wander from the straight road. 
Equitable at times and culpable toward the Entire-Land, 
gardener of misery, who irrigates his land with villainies that 
his land may become a land of falsehood, to disseminate crimes 
on the soil." 

This fellah went to make his complaint for the seventh time, 
saying : " Mayor of the Palace, my lord, thou art the rudder 
of the Entire-Land, who navigates the world at thy pleasure ; 
thou art the second Thoth, 40 who when he judges inclines 
not to one side. Oh my lord, may it please thee to permit 

8 The comparison here is between gain acquired by illegal means, and 
legitimate gains, those which are brought anu to the owner, or 
which the owner himself procures. The fellah counsels Rensi to give 
" hie brother," that is to say his neighbor, that which he procures from 
his domains, part of his legitimate revenues, because to keep them for 
himself, to eat them uagait as the text says is incorrect, inappro- 
priate, impolitic; the poor man to whom nothing is given becomes ran- 
corous ahu and he " leads to separate," he conduces to discord, and 
he who tells his woes in a whisper, " he who makes known " sarkhi 
causes schisms without his sentiments being suspected. 

The sequence of ideas is not easy to follow; but may be read: After 
having pointed out how dangerous it is for a man in the position of 
Rensi to arouse concealed rancor, the fellah, reverting to his own 
business, implores him to repress injustice. If he wished to do so, who 
would dare to resist him openly? His action would be like that of a 
current of water formed by a breach in a dike, when the inundation 
is at its height; boats caught in the current are wrecked and their 
crews scattered along the banks. 

o Literally, "Thou art the second of Thoth," or perhaps "Thou art 
the brother of Thoth," the god who acts the part of scribe at the judg- 
ment of souls. 



128 THE SACRED BOOKS 

an individual to appeal at the tribunal for the rights to 
which he is entitled. Kestrain not thy heart; it is not in 
thy nature that from greatness of spirit thou shouldst become 
narrow of heart. 4 * Be not preoccupied with that which does 
not yet happen, and rejoice not at that which has not yet 
come. As the impartial man is great in friendship, he re- 
gards as nothing the deed that is done by one who knew not 
what was the intention at the bottom of his heart. 42 He who 
diminishes the law, and destroys the reckoning of human ac- 
tions, he is a miserable wretch who lives when he has robbed, 
and truth no longer answers him. 43 But my bosom is full, 
my heart is charged, and that which issues from my bosom 
in consequence is like the breaking of a dike from which 
water flows ; my mouth opens to speech, I have striven to stop 
up my breach, I have thrown out my current, I have cast 
forth that which was in my bosom, I have washed my rags, 
my speech has come forth, and my misery is complete before 
thee. What is thy final opinion? Thy inertia will injure 
thee, thy rapacity will render thee imbecile, thy avidity will 
make thee enemies. But where wilt thou find another fellah 
such as I? Would he not be an idler who, bringing his 
complaint, should stand at the door of his house ? There will 
be no silent one whom thou hast made to speak, there will be 
no slnmberer whom thou hast awakened, there will be no 
timid one whom thou hast made bold, there will be no dumb 
man whose mouth thou hast opened, there will be no ign'orant 
one whom thou hast changed to a learned one, there will be 
no stupid one whom thou hast instructed. These are destroy- 
ers of evil, the notables who surround thee, these are lords of 
good, these are artizans who produce all that exists, replacers 
of severed heads." 

41 Literally, " It is not to thee that, to become the wide of face, a 
narrow of heart." 

42 Literally, " Being the impartial, he makes himself wide in friend- 
ship, he destroys action which is produced, it not being known that 
which was in the heart." 

43 The virtues we regard as abstractions truth and justice were 
goddesses of the Egyptians; and it is therefore not surprising to find 
that the terms applied to them are those employed for living people. 
We should say here, " Truth is no longer known to him." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 129 

This fellah came to make his complaint for the eighth time, 
saying : " Mayor of the Palace, my lord, since one falls by 
deeds of violence, since rapacity has no fortune or, rather, that 
its fortune is useless, since thou art violent when it is not 
thy nature to be so, and since thou robbest when it is useless 
to thee, leave people in possession of their good fortune. 
Thou hast what is needful for thee in thy house, thy belly is 
full, but the shock of wheat overflows, and that which comes 
out of it perishes on the soil, for the notables pillage, ravish- 
ing by force ; they who are set to repulse crime, and who are 
the protection of the persecuted, the cruel ones who are set 
to repulse falsehood. Fear of thee has prevented me from 
supplicating thee rightly, and thou hadst not understood my 
heart. Oh, silent one, he who turns to make his objurgations 
to thee, he fears not to present them, and it is not his brother 
who brings them to thee in thy private dwelling. Thou hast 
portions of land in the country, thou hast revenues in the 
town, thou hast thy bread at the storehouses, 44 the notables 
bring thee gifts, and thou takest more. Art thou not a robber, 
because when one presents himself with his rent for thee there 
are pillagers with thee to deduct half of the rentage-in-kind of 
the lands ? 45 Do truth to the lord of truth, whose truth is 
the real truth. 46 Thou the calamus, the papyrus roll, the 
palette, the god Thoth, beware of making errors of justice; 
good, be good, truly good, be good ! because truth is for eter- 
nity, it descends into Hades with him who practises it. 
When he has been placed in the coffin and laid in the ground, 
his name has not been effaced from the earth, and he is 

"The word faqau designates the revenues drawn by Rensi from his 
city property, houses, shops, or factories: aqau, literally "loaves," in- 
cludes in itself the emoluments in kind that he received from the 
royal storehouses as a State official. 

* Literally, " for the halves of the rented lands." It seems, accord- 
Ing to the custom of Ancient Egypt, that the State, the towns, or the 
wealthy proprietors rented the lands belonging to .them to the peas- 
ants for a rental of half the products of the soil. 

The lord of truth or of justice is Thoth; the truth of the lord of 
truth is verity and justice, such as Thoth exercises, and " the truth of 
truth " and " the justice of justice " we should call the " quintessence " 
of truth and justice. 
VOL. II. 9. 



130 THE SACRED BOOKS 

remembered for his goodness, in consequence of the word of 
the god. 47 It is in truth that the lever has not bent, the bal- 
ance has not inclined to one side. And yet when I come to 
thee, when another comes, do not answer as if it were a silent 
one whom thou dost answer, do not attack one who does not 
attack thee, for thou hast not been injured, thou hast not suf- 
fered, thou hast not fled, thou hast not suppressed evil, thou 
hast not shown on my behalf the conduct that corresponds 
with that excellent saying that issued from the mouth of Re 
himself: 48 'Speak the truth, do the truth, do that which 
conforms to truth, because truth is powerful, because it is 
great, because it is lasting, and when its parts are found it 
leads to a blessed state of existence.' If the balance bend not, 
if its scales carry objects at the same level, the results of the 
true reckoning will not be felt against me. Shame will not 
come behind me in the city and will not land." 

This fellah came to make his complaint for the ninth time, 
saying, " Mayor of the Palace, my lord, the balance of people 
is their tongue, and it is the balance that verifies reckonings. 49 
When therefore thou dost punish those who have done wrong 
the reckoning is audited in thy favor. 50 On the contrary, he 
who makes a compact with falsehood, his portion henceforth 
is that truth turns away from him, for then his good is false- 
hood, and truth does not concern itself for him. 81 But when 

*7 Literally, " reckoning of the speech of the god." Thoth, scribe 
of the Osirian tribunal, noted down the indications of the balance at 
the weighing of deeds, and proclaimed the result in a speech; accord- 
ing to his report the dead man was either admitted to Paradise or 
excluded, and his name remained either of good or evil savor on earth. 

48 Literally, " Thou hast not given me the equivalents of that saying." 
The peasant wished by this to say that Rensi had not acted toward him 
as he would have done had he taken into consideration the aphorism 
placed by tradition in the mouth of Re. 

4 It is by their tongue that the value of men is judged, and, on the 
other hand, it is by weighing their words that one ascertains whether 
the judgment that has been formed of them is correct. 

BO Literally, " the reckoning is equalized to thee." In other words, 
at the judgment of the dead the punishment inflicted by Rensi on a 
criminal will not be imputed to him as a sin, or rather it will not 
appear in the list of evil actions. 

si The beginning of this sentence translates literally, " Hia portion 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 131 

the lie goes out it loses its way ; it does not cross the water in 
the ferry-boat ; it is not received. 62 If he be wealthy he has 
no children; he has no posterity on earth. 53 If he travels he 
does not reach the land, and his boat does not come into port 
at his city. 64 Therefore do not make thyself heavy, for 
already thou art no small weight; do not rush, for already 
thou art not light in running; do not cry aloud, be not 
an egoist, 65 veil not thy face from that thou knowest, close 
not thine eyes to that thou hast seen, turn not away from him 
who begs of thee. If thou fallest into idleness, use is made 
of thy conduct against thee. 56 Act therefore against him 
who has acted against thee. Harken not to every one, but sen- 
tence a man only for the deed that he has verily committed. 
There is no yesterday for the idle ; there is no friend for him 
who is deaf to the truth ; there is no happiness for the violent. 
On the other hand, he who protests becomes wretched, and the 
wretched man passes into a condition of perpetual plaintiff, 
and the plaintiff is slain. Oh thou, I have made complaint to 
thee, and thou hast not listened to my pleading ; I go to com- 
plain of thee to Anubis." 57 

becomes that truth turns away in front of him." The end of it is 
difficult to read, and, while the general meaning has been given, no 
attempt is made here of supplying an exact translation. 

62 This, it is believed, is an allusion to the ferry-boat which carried 
over the doubles from this world to the domain of Osiris. He who 
does not exercise justice and truth will not be admitted, after death, 
to dwell with the god. 

83 Having no posterity, no one will trouble to perform the funerary 
cult for him; his soul will be consigned to oblivion, and will in conse- 
quence cease to exist. 

B* The term taqdudu, here employed for navigation, is that applied 
to the journey of the Sun round the world during the day and*night; 
the dead man will not be admitted to follow the god, and his boat will 
perish before arriving at the celestial port where he desires to land. 

BO Literally, " do not listen to thy heart." " To listen to the heart " 
both in Coptic and in the ancient language means "to obey"; here we 
must give it a slightly different meaning "to listen to oneself, to 
listen only to oneself, to be egoistic." 

8 Literally, "If thou fallest into idleness, report is made of thy 
concept, of thy conduct." 

BT Ag Vogelsang has truly observed, the fellah in desperation now 
thinks of carrying his appeal into the other world, to the gods of the 
dead. Can this mean that he will kill himself? The word tamamu 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

The Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, sent two men 
of his clan to cause the fellah to return. This fellah there- 
fore feared that the Mayor did thus in order to punish him 
for this speech he had made, and this fellah said : " To repel 
the thirsty from the water, to remove the mouth of the babe 
from the milk, to intercept him who wishes to see him, the 
god, all that causes his death to come to him slowly . . ." 58 
The Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, said : " Fear 
nothing, fellah. I will act toward thee as thou dost act 
toward me." This fellah said : " Oh that I might live, eat- 
ing thy bread and drinking thy beer, eternally ! " The 
Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, said : " Come 
then, that thou mayest hear thy complaints." He then caused 
to be set down on a sheet of new papyrus all the lamentations 
of the fellah unto this day. The Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, 
son of Maru, sent them to his Majesty the King of the two 
Egypts, Nabkauriya, true of voice, and this was agreeable to 
him more than all things that are in this Entire-Land, and his 
Majesty said: "Judge for thyself, son of Maru." The 
Mayor of the Palace, Rensi, son of Maru, forthwith com- 
manded two men of his clan to fetch the clerk of the records, 
and he sent a message to the Natron Oasis, that his people to 
the number of six should be brought to him, over and above 
the slaves he possessed already, with corn of the south, durali. 
asses, witli good things of all sorts. He commanded Thot- 
iinklmiti to restore to this peasant his asses with all his goods 
that he had taken from him. . . . 

employed above applies rather to assassination or execution. The 
fellah evidently fears that Rensi, annoyed and wearied with his appeals, 
\?ill rid himself of him by one or other of these methods. 
58 From here on, the ending of the tale is imp'erfect. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 133 



THE SHIPWRECKED SAILOR 1 

The wise servant said, " Let thy heart be satisfied, O my 
lord, for that we have come back to the country ; after we have 
long been on board, and rowed much, the prow has at last 
touched land. All the people rejoice, and embrace us one 
after another. Moreover, we have come back in good health, 
and not a man is lacking ; although we have been to the ends 
of Wawat, and gone through the land of Senmut, we have 
returned in peace, and our land behold, we have come back 
to it. Hear me, my lord; I have no other refuge. Wash 
thee, and turn the water over thy fingers ; then go and tell the 
tale to the Majesty." 

His lord replied, " Thy heart continues still its wandering 
words ! but although the mouth of a man may save him, his 
words may also cover his face with confusion. Wilt thou do 
then as thy heart moves thee? This that thou wilt say, tell 
quietly." 

The sailor then answered : " Now I shall tell that which 
has happened to me, to my very self. I was going to the 
mines of Pharaoh, and I went down on the sea on a ship of 
one hundred and fifty cubits long and forty cubits wide, with 
one hundred and fifty sailors of the best of Egypt, who had 
seen heaven and earth, and whose hearts were stronger than 
lions. They had said that the wind would not be contrary, 
or that there would be none. But as we approached the land 
the wind arose, and threw up waves eight cubits high. As 
for me, I seized a piece of wood ; but those who were in the 
vessel perished, without one remaining. A wave threw me 
on an island, after that I had been three days alone, without 
a companion beside my own heart. I laid me in a thicket, 
and the shadow covered me. Then stretched I my limbs to 
try to find something for my mouth. I found there figs 

i From the translation of Prof. Flinders-IMrit>. 



134 THE SACRED BOOKS 

and grapes, all manner of good herbs, berries, and grain, 
melons of all kinds, fishes, and birds. Nothing was lacking. 
And I satisfied myself ; and left on the ground that which was 
over, of what my arms had been filled withal. I dug a pit, I 
lighted a fire, and I made a burnt offering unto the gods. 

" Suddenly I heard a noise as of thunder, which I thought 
to be that of a wave of the sea. The trees shook, and the 
earth was moved. I uncovered my face, and I saw that a 
serpent drew near. He was thirty cubits long, and his beard 
greater than two cubits ; his body was as overlaid with gold, 
and his color as that of true lazuli. He coiled himself 
before me. 

" Then he opened his mouth, while that I lay on my face 
before him, and he said to me, ' What has brought thee, what 
has brought thee, little one, what has brought thee ? If thou 
sayest not speedily what has brought thee to this isle, I will 
make thee know thyself; as a flame thou shalt vanish, if thou 
tellest me not something I have not heard, or which I knew 
not, before thee.' 

" Then he took me in his mouth and carried me to his rest- 
ing-place, and laid me down without any hurt. I was whole 
and sound, and nothing was gone from me. Then he opened 
his mouth against me, while that I lay on my face before him, 
and he said, ' What has brought thee, what has brought thee, 
little one, what has brought thee to this isle which is in the 
sea, and of which the shores are in the midst of the waves ? ' 

" Then I replied to him, and holding my arms low before 
him, I said to him, ' I was embarked for the mines by the 
order of the Majesty, in a ship, one hundred and fifty cubits 
was its length and the width of it forty cubits. It had one 
hundred and fifty sailors of the best of Egypt, who had seen 
heaven and earth, and the hearts of whom were stronger than 
lions. They said that the wind would not be contrary, or that 
there would be none. Each of them exceeded his companion 
in the prudence of his heart and the strength of his arm, and 
I was not beneath any of them. A storm came upon us while 
we were on the sea. Hardly could we reach to the shore when 
the wind waxed yet greater, and the waves rose even eight 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 135 

cubits. As for me, I seized a piece of wood, while those who 
were in the boat perished without one being left with me for 
three days. Behold me now before thee, for I was brought to 
this isle by a wave of the sea.' 

" Then said he to me, ' Fear not, fear not, little one, and 
make not thy face sad. If thou hast come to me, it is God 
who has let thee live. For it is he who has brought thee to 
this isle of the blest, where nothing is lacking, and which is 
filled with all good things. See now, thou shalt pass one 
month after another, until thou shalt be four months in this 
isle. Then a ship shall come from thy land with sailors, and 
thou shalt leave with them and go to thy country, and thou 
shalt die in thy town. 

" ' Converse is pleasing, and he who tastes of it passes over 
his misery. I will therefore tell thee of that which is in this 
isle. I am here with my brethren and my children around 
me ; we are seventy-five serpents, children, and kindred ; with- 
out naming a young girl who was brought unto me by chance, 
and on whom the fire of heaven fell, and burnt her to ashes. 

" ' As for thee, if thou art strong, and if thy heart waits 
patiently, thou shalt press thy infants to thy bosom and 
embrace thy wife. Thou shalt return to thy house which is 
full of all good things, thou shalt see thy land, where thou 
shalt dwell in the midst of thy kindred.' 

" Then I bowed, in my obeisance, and I touched the ground 
before him. ' Behold now that which I have told thee before. 
I shall tell of thy presence unto Pharaoh, I shall make him to 
know of thy greatness, and I will bring to thee of the sacred 
oils and perfumes, and of incense of the temples with which 
all gods are honored. I shall tell, moreover, of that which I 
do now see (thanks to him), and there shall be rendered to thee 
praises before the fulness of all the land. I shall slay asses 
for thee in sacrifice, I shall pluck for thee the birds, and I 
shall bring for thee ships full of all kinds of the treasures of 
Egypt, as is comely to do unto a god, a friend of men in a far 
country, of which men know ixi.' 

" Then he smiled at my speech, because of that which was 
in his heart, for he said to me, l Thou art not rich in per- 



136 THE SACRED BOOKS 

fumes, for all that thou hast is but common incense. As for 
me I am prince of the land of Punt, and I have perfumes. 
Only the oil which thou sayedst thou wouldest bring is not 
common in this isle. But, when thou shalt depart from this 
place, thou shalt never more see this isle; it shall be changed 
into waves.' 

"And behold, when the ship drew near, according to all 
that he had told me before, I got me up into a high tree, to 
strive to see those who were within it. Then I came and told 
to him this matter ; but it was already known unto him before. 
Then he said to me. i Farewell, farewell, go to thy house, 
little one, see again thy children, and let thy name be good in 
thy town ; these are my wishes for thee.' 

" Then I bowed myself before him, and held my arms low 
before him, and he, he gave me gifts of precious perfumes, of 
cassia, of sweet woods, of kohl, of cypress, an abundance of 
incense, of ivory tusks, of baboons, of apes, and all kinds of 
precious things. I embarked all in the ship which was come, 
and bowing myself, I prayed God for him. 

" Then he said to me, ' Behold thou shalt come to thy coun- 
try in two months, thou shalt press to thy bosom thy children, 
and thou shalt rest in thy tomb.' After this I went down to 
the shore unto the ship, and I called to the sailors who were 
there. Then on the shore I rendered adoration to the master 
of this isle and to those who dwelt therein. 

" When we shall come, in our return, to the house of 
Pharaoh, in the second month, according to all that the ser- 
pent has said, we shall approach unto the palace. And I shall 
go in before Pharaoh, I shall bring the gifts which I have 
brought from this isle into the country. Then he shall thank 
me before the fulness of all the land. Grant then unto me a 
follower, and lead me to the courtiers of the King. Cast thy 
eye upon me, after that I am come to land again, after that I 
have both seen and proved this. Hear my prayer, for it is 
good to listen to people. It was said unto me, l Become a 
wise man, and thou shalt come to honor,' and behold I have 
become such." 

This is finished from its beginning unto its end, even as it 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 137 

was found in a writing. It is written by the scribe of cun- 
ning fingers Ameni-amen-aa ; may he live in life, wealth, and 
health! 2 

2 This tale is only known in one copy, preserved in the Hermitage 
collection at Petrograd. Two translations of it have appeared by 
M. Golenischeff: from these a modified translation is given by Maspero 
in the " Contes Populates," and the later translation is in M. Golnis- 
cheff's excellent " Inventaire de la collection Egyptienne (Ermitage lm~ 



The tale is that of a returned sailor, speaking to his superior and 
telling his adventures, to induce him to send him on with an introduc- 
tion to the King. At first his master professes to disbelieve him, and 
then the sailor protests that this happened to himself, and gives his 
narrative. The idea of an enchanted island, which has risen from 
the waves and will sink again, is here found to be one of the oldest 
plots for a tale of marvels. But the construction is far more advanced 
than that of the Tales of the Magicians. The family of serpents and 
the manner of the great serpent are well conceived, and there are many 
fine touches of literary quality: such as noise as of thunder, the trees 
shaking, and the earth being moved at the appearance of the great 
serpent the speeches of the serpent and his threat the sailors who 
had seen heaven and earth the contempt of the serpent for his offer- 
ings, " As for me, I am prince of the land of Punt, and I have per- 
fumes" and the scene of departure. All of these points show a firm 
hand and practised taste, although there is still a style of simplicity 
clinging to it which agrees well to its date in the Twelfth Dynasty. 

The great serpent is not of a type usual in Egyptian designs. The 
human-headed uraeus is seldom bearded; and the best example of such 
a monster is on an Ethiopian temple, where a great uraeus has human 
arms and a lion's head. The colors again repeat the favorite combina- 
tion expressive of splendor gold and lazuli. Though lazuli is very 
rare in early times, yet it certainly was known in the Twelfth Dynasty, 
as shown by the forms of some beads of lazuli. 



138 THE SACRED BOOKS 



MEMOIRS OF SIISTUHIT l 

The hereditary prince, royal sealbearer, confidential friend, 
judge, keeper of the gate of the foreigners, true and beloved 
royal acquaintance, the royal follower Sinuhit says : 

I attended my lord as a follower of the King, of the house 
of the hereditary princess, the greatly favored, the royal wife, 
Ankhet-Usertesen, who shares the dwelling of the royal son 
Amenemhet in Kanefer. 

In the thirtieth year, the month Paophi, the seventh day 
the god entered his horizon, the king Sehotepabra 2 flew up to 
heaven and joined the sun's disk, the follower of the god met 
his maker. The palace was silenced, and in mourning, the 
great gates were closed, the courtiers crouching on the 
ground, the people in hushed mourning. 

His Majesty had sent a great army with the nobles to the 
land of the Temehu (Lybia), his son and heir, the good god 
King Sesostris as their leader. Now he was returning, and 
had brought away living captives and all kinds of cattle with- 
out end. The councilors of the palace had sent to the West 
to let the King know the matter that had come to pass in the 
inner hall. The messenger was to meet him on the road, and 
reach him at the time of evening : the matter was urgent. " A 
hawk had soared with his followers." Thus said he, not to 
let the army know of it. Even if the royal sons who com- 
manded in that army send a message, he was not to speak to 
a single one of them. But I was standing near, and heard 
his voice while he was speaking. I fled far away, my heart 
beating, my arms failing; trembling had fallen on all my 
limbs. I turned about in running to seek a place to hide me, 
and I threw myself between two bushes, to wait while they 
should pass by. Then I turned me toward the south, not 
from wishing to come into this palace for I knew not if 

1 From the translation of Prof. Flinders-Petrie. 

2 This is King Amenemhet I. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 139 

war was declared nor even thinking a wish to live after this 
sovereign, I turned my back to the sycamore, I reached Shi- 
Seneferu, and rested on the open field. In the morning I 
went on and overtook a man, who passed by the edge of the 
road. He asked of me mercy, for he feared me. By the 
evening I drew near to Kher-ahau (old Cairo), and I crossed 
the river on a raft without a rudder. Carried over by the 
west wind, I passed over to the east to the quarries of Aku and 
the land of the goddess Herit, mistress of the red mountain 
(Gebel Ahmar). Then I fled on foot, northward, and 
reached the walls of the prince, built to repel the Sati. I 
crouched in a bush for fear of being seen by the guards, 
changed each day, who watch on the top of the fortress. I 
took my way by night, and at the lighting of the day I reached 
Peten, and turned me toward the valley of Kemur. Then 
thirst hastened me on; I dried up, and my throat narrowed, 
and I said, " This is the taste of death." When I lifted up 
my heart and gathered strength, I heard a voice and the low- 
ing of cattle. I saw men of the Sati, and one of them a 
friend unto Egypt knew me. Behold he gave me water 
and boiled me milk, and I went with him to his camp ; they 
did me good, and one tribe passed me on to another. I passed 
on to Sun, and reached the land of Adim (Edom). 

When I had dwelt there half a year Amu-an-shi who is 
the prince of the Upper Tenu sent for me and said: 
" Dwell thou with me that thou mayest hear the speech of 
Egypt." He said thus for that he knew of my excellence, 
and had heard tell of my worth, for men of Egypt who were 
there with him bore witness of me. Behold he said to me: 
" For what cause hast thou come hither ? Has a matter 
come to pass in the palace ? Has the King of the two lands, 
Sehetepabra gone to heaven? That which lias happened 
about this is not known." But I answered with concealment, 
and said : " When I came from the land of the Tamahu, and 
my desires were there changed in me, if I fled away it was 
not by reason of remorse that I took the way of a fugitive ; I 
have not failed in my duty, my mouth has not said any bitter 
words, I have not heard any evil counsel, my name has not 



140 THE SACRED BOOKS 

come into the mouth of a magistrate. I know not by what I 
have been led into this land." And Amu-an-shi said: 
" This is by the will of the god (King of Egypt), for what 
is a land like if it know not that excellent god, of whom the 
dread is upon the lands of strangers, as they dread Sekhet in 
a year of pestilence ? " I spake to him, and replied : " For- 
give me, his son now enters the palace, and has received the 
heritage of his father. He is a god who has none like him, 
and there is none before him. He is a master of wisdom, 
prudent in his designs, excellent in his decrees, with good- 
will to him who goes or who comes ; he subdued the land of 
strangers while his father yet lived in his palace, and he ren- 
dered account of that which his father destined him to per- 
form. He is a brave man, who verily strikes with his sword ; 
a valiant one, who has not his equal ; he springs upon the bar- 
barians, and throws himself on the spoilers; he breaks the 
horns and weakens the hands, and those whom he smites can 
not raise the buckler. He is fearless, and dashes the heads, 
and none can stand before him. He is swift of foot, to 
destroy him who flies; and none who flees from him reaches 
his home. His heart is strong in his time ; he is a lion who 
strikes with the claw, and never has he turned his back. 
His heart is closed to pity ; and when he sees multitudes, he 
leaves none to live behind him. He is a valiant one who 
springs in front when he sees resistance ; he is a warrior who 
rejoices when he flies on the barbarians. He seizes the buck- 
ler, he rushes forward, he never needs to strike again, he 
slays and none can turn his lance; and when he takes the 
bow the barbarians flee from his arms like dogs ; for the great 
goddess has given to him to strike those who know her not; 
and if he reaches forth he spares none, and leaves naught 
behind. He is a friend of great sweetness, who knows how to 
gain love ; his land loves him more than itself, and rejoices in 
him more than in its own god; men and women run to his 
call. A king, he has ruled from his birth ; he, from his birth, 
has increased births, a sole being, a divine essence, by whom 
this land rejoices to be governed. He enlarges the borders 
of the South, but he covets not the lands of the North : he does 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 141 

not smite the Sati, nor crush the Nemau-shau. If he 
descends here, let him know thy name, by the homage which 
thou wilt pay to his Majesty. For he refuses not to bless 
the land which obeys him." 

And he replied to me : " Egypt is indeed happy and well 
settled ; behold thou art far from it, but whilst thou art with 
me I will do good unto thee." And he placed me before his 
children, he married his eldest daughter to me, and gave me 
the choice of all his land, even among the best of that which 
he had on the border of the next land. It is a goodly land : 
laa is its name. There are figs and grapes; there is wine 
commoner than water; abundant is the honey, many are its 
olives ; and all fruits are upon its trees ; there are barley and 
wheat, and cattle of kinds without end. This was truly a 
great thing that he granted me, when the prince came to 
invest me, and establish me as prince of a tribe in the best of 
his land. I had my continual portion of bread and of wine 
each day, of cooked meat, of roasted fowl, as well as the wild 
game which I took, or which was brought to me, besides what 
my dogs captured. They made me much butter, and pre- 
pared milk of all kinds. I passed many years, the children 
that I had became great, each ruling his tribe. When a mes- 
senger went or came to the palace he turned aside from the 
way to come to me ; for I helped every man. I gave water 
to the thirsty, I set on his way him who went astray, and I 
rescued the robbed. The Sati who went far, to strike and 
turn back the princes of other lands, I ordained their goings ; 
for the Prince of the Tenu for many years appointed me to 
be general of his soldiers. In every land which I attacked I 
played the champion, I took the cattle, I led away the vassals, 
I carried off the slaves, I slew the people, by my sword, my 
bow, my marches, and my good devices. I was excellent to 
the heart of my prince ; he loved me when he knew my power, 
and set me over his children when he saw the strength of 
my arms. 

A champion of the Tenu came to defy me in my tent : a 
bold man without equal, for he had vanquished the whole 
country. He said, " Let Sinuhit fight with me " ; for he 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

desired to overthrow me, he thought to take my cattle for his 
tribe. The prince counseled with me. I said : " I know 
him not. I certainly am not of his degree, I hold me far 
from his place. Have I ever opened his door, or leaped his 
fence? It is some envious jealousy from seeing me; does he 
think that I am like some steer among the cows, whom the bull 
overthrows? If this is a wretch who thinks to enrich him- 
self at my cost, not a Bedawi and a Bedawi fit for fight, then 
let us put the matter to judgment. Verily a true bull loves 
battle, but a vainglorious bull turns his back for fear of con- 
test; if he has a heart for combat, let him speak what he 
pleases. Will God forget what he has ordained, and how 
shall that be known ? " I lay down ; and when I had rested 
I strung my bow, I made ready my arrows, I loosened my 
poniard, I furbished my arms. At dawn the land of the 
Tenu came together ; it had gathered its tribes and called all 
the neighboring people, it spake of nothing but the fight. 
Each heart burned for me, men and women crying out ; for 
each heart was troubled for me, and they said : " Is there 
another strong one who would fight with him? Behold the 
adversary has a buckler, a battle-ax, and an armful of jave- 
lins." Then I drew him to the attack; I turned aside his 
arrows, and they struck the ground in vain. One drew near 
to the other, and he fell on me, and then I shot him. My 
arrow fastened in his neck, he cried out, and fell on his face : 
I drove his lance into him, and raised my shout of victory on 
his back. Whilst all the men of the land rejoiced, I, and his 
vassals whom he had oppressed, gave thanks unto Mentu. 
This prince, Amu-an-shi, embraced me. Then I carried off 
his goods and took his cattle, that which he had wished to do 
to me, I did even so unto him ; I seized that which was in his 
tent, I spoiled his dwelling. As time went on I increased 
the richness of my treasures and the number of my cattle. 

PETITION TO THE KING OF EGYPT 

" Now behold what the god has done for me who trusted 
in him. Having once fled away, yet now there is a witness of 
me in the palace. Once having fled away, as a fugitive, now 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 

all in the palace give unto me a good name. After that I had 
been dying of hunger, now I give bread to those around. I 
had left my land naked, and now I am clothed in fine linen. 
After having been a wanderer without followers, now I pos- 
sess many serfs. My house is fine, my land wide, my mem- 
ory is established in the temple of all the gods. And let this 
llii:ht obtain thy forgiveness; that I may be appointed in the 
palace; that I may see the place where my heart dwells. 
How great a thing is it that my body should be embalmed in 
the land where I was born! To return there is happiness. 
I have made offering to God to grant me this thing. His 
heart suffers who has run away unto a strange land. Let him 
hear the prayer of him who is afar off, that he may revisit the 
place of his birth, and the place from which he removed. 

" May the King of Egypt be gracious to me that I may 
live of his favor. And I render my homage to the mistress 
of the land, who is in his palace ; may I hear the news of her 
children. Thus will my limbs grow young again. Now old 
age comes, feebleness seizes me, my eyes are heavy, my arms 
are feeble, my legs will not move, my heart is slow. Death 
draws nigh to me, soon shall they lead me to the city of 
eternity. Let me follow the mistress of all (the Queen, his 
former mistress) ; lo! let her tell me the excellencies of her 
children ; may she bring eternity to me." 

Then the Majesty of King Kheper-ka-re, 3 the blessed, spake 
upon this my desire that I had made to him. His Majesty 
sent unto me with presents from the King, that he might 
enlarge the heart of his servant, like unto the province of any 
strange land ; and the royal sons who are in the palace 
addressed themselves unto me. 

COPY OF THE DECREE WHICH WAS BROUGHT TO ME WHO 

SPEAK TO YOU TO LEAD ME BACK INTO EGYPT 

" The Horus, life of births, lord of the crowns, life of 
births, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Kheper-ka-re, son 
of the Sun, Amenemhet, ever living unto eternity. Order 

The religious name of Sesostris I. 



144 THE SACRED BOOKS 

for the follower Simihit. Behold this order of the King is 
sent to thee to instruct thee of his will. 

" Now, although thou hast gone through strange lands from 
Adim to Tenu, and passed from one country to another at the 
wish of thy heart behold, what hast thou done, or what has 
been done against thee, that is amiss? Moreover, thou 
reviledst not ; but if thy word was denied, 'thou didst not 
speak again in the assembly of the nobles, even if thou wast 
desired. Now, therefore, that thou hast thought on this mat- 
ter which has come to thy mind, let thy heart not change 
again; for this thy Heaven (Queen), who is in the palace, is 
fixed, she is flourishing, she is enjoying the best in the king- 
dom of the land, and her children are in the chambers of the 
palace. 

" Leave all the riches that thoii hast, and that are with 
thee, altogether. When thou shalt come into Egypt behold 
the palace, and when thou shalt enter the palace bow thy face 
to the ground before the Great House; thou shult be chief 
among the companions. And day by day behold thou grow- 
est old; thy vigor is lost, and thou thinkest on the day of 
burial. Thou shalt see thyself come to the blessed state, they 
shall give thee the bandages from the hand of Tait, the night 
of applying the oil of embalming. They shall follow thy 
funeral, and visit the tomb on the day of burial, which shall 
be in a gilded case, the head painted with blue, a canopy of 
cypress wood above thee, and oxen shall draw thee, the singers 
going before thee, and they shall dance the funeral dance. 
The weepers crouching at the door of thy tomb shall cry 
aloud the prayers for offerings: they shall slay victims for 
thee at the door of thy pit ; and thy pyramid shall be carved 
in white stone, in the company of the royal children. Thus 
thou shalt not die in a strange land, nor be buried by the 
Amu; thou shalt not be laid in a sheepskin when thou art 
buried; all people shall beat the earth, and lament on thy 
body when thou goest to the tomb." 

When this order came to me, I was in the midst of my tribe. 
When it was read unto me, I threw me on the dust, I threw 




KHEPERA. THE BEETLE-GOO OF RESURRECTION AND NEW LITE. THE 
SUN-GOD RE WHEN CONCEIVED AS THE CREATOR 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 145 

dust in my hair ; I went around my tent rejoicing, and saying : 
" How may it be that such a thing is done to the servant, who 
with a rebellious heart has fled to strange lands ? Now with 
an excellent deliverance, and mercy delivered me from death, 
thou shalt cause me to end my days in the palace." 

COPY OF THE ANSWER TO THIS ORDER 

" The follower Siuuhit says : In excellent peace above 
everything consider of this flight that he made here in his 
ignorance ; Thou, the Good God, Lord of both Lands, Loved 
of He, Favorite of Mentu, the lord of Thebes, and of Amen, 
lord of thrones of the lands, of Sebek, Re, Horus, Hathor, 
Atmu, and of his fellow-gods, of Sopdu, Neferbiu, Samsetu, 
Horus, lord of the east, and of the royal uraeus which rules on 
thy head, of the chief gods of the waters, of Min, Horus of the 
desert, Urrit, mistress of Punt, Nut, Harnekht, Re, all the 
gods of the land of Egypt and of the isles of the sea. May 
they give life and peace to thy nostril, may they load thee 
with their gifts, may they give to thee eternity without end, 
everlastingness without bound. May the fear of thee be 
doubled in the lands of the deserts. Mayest thou subdue the 
circuit of the sun's disk. This is the prayer to his master of 
the humble servant who is saved from a foreign land. 

" O wise King, the wise words which are pronounced in the 
wisdom of the Majesty of the sovereign, thy humble servant 
fears to tell. It is a great thing to repeat. O great God, like 
unto Re in fulfilling that to which he has set his hand, what 
am I that he should take thought for me ? Am I among those 
whom he regards, and for whom he arranges ? Thy Majesty 
is as Horus, and the strength of thine arms extends to all 
lands. 

" Then let his Majesty bring Maki of Adma, Kenti-au-ush 
of Khonti-keshu, and Tenus from the two lands of the 
Fenkhu ; these are the princes who bear witness of me as to 
all that has passed, out of love for thyself. Does not Trim 
believe that it belongs to thee like thy dogs? Behold this 
flight that I have made: I did not have it in my lirurt ; it was 
like the leading of a dream, as a man of Adrhi (Delta) sees 

VOL. II. 10. 



146 THE SACRED BOOKS 

himself in Abu (Elephantine), as a man of the plain of Egypt 
who sees himself in the deserts. There was no fear, there was 
no hastening after me; I did not listen to an evil plot, my 
name was not heard in the mouth of the magistrate; but my 
limbs went, my feet wandered, my heart drew me; my god 
commanded this flight, and drew me on; but I am not stiff- 
necked. Does a man fear when he sees his own land? Re 
spread thy fear over the land, thy terrors in every strange 
land. Behold me now in the palace, behold me in this place ; 
and lo ! thou art he who is over all the horizon ; the sun rises 
at thy pleasure, the water in the rivers is drunk at thy will, 
the wind in heaven is breathed at thy saying. 

" I who speak to thee shall leave my goods to the gener- 
ations to follow in this land. And as to this messenger who 
is come, even let thy Majesty do as pleaseth him, for one lives 
by the breath that thou givest. O thou who art beloved of 
Re, of Horus, and of Hathor ; Mentu, lord of Thebes, desires 
that thy august nostril should live forever." 

I made a feast in laa, to pass over my goods to my children. 
My eldest son was leading my tribe, all my goods passed to 
him, and I gave him my corn and all my cattle, my fruit, and 
all my pleasant trees. When I had taken my road to the 
south, and arrived at the roads of Horus, the officer who was 
over the garrison sent a messenger to the palace to give notice. 
His Majesty sent the good overseer of the peasants of the 
King's domains, and boats laden with presents from the King 
for the Sati who had come to conduct me to the roads of Horus. 
I spoke to each one by his name, and I gave the presents to 
each as was intended. I received and I returned the saluta- 
tion, and I continued thus until I reached the city of Thetu. 

When the land was brightened, and the new day began, 
four men came with a summons for me; and the four men 
went to lead me to the palace. I saluted with both my hands 
on the ground ; the royal children stood at the courtyard to 
conduct me: the courtiers who were to lead me to the hall 
brought me on the way to the royal chamber. 

I found his Majesty on the great throne in the hall of pale 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 147 

gold. Then I threw myself on my belly ; this god, in whose 
presence I was, knew me not. He questioned me graciously, 
but I was as one seized with blindness, my spirit fainted, 
my limbs failed, my heart was no longer in my bosom, and I 
knew the difference between life and death. His Majesty 
said to one of the companions, " Lift him up, let him speak 
to me." And his Majesty said : " Behold thou hast come, 
thou hast trodden the deserts, thou hast played the wanderer. 
Decay falls on thee, old age has reached thee ; it is no small 
thing that thy body should be embalmed, that the Pedtiu shall 
not bury thee. Do not, do not, be silent and speechless ; tell 
thy name ; is it fear that prevents thee ? " I answered in 
reply : " I fear, what is it that my lord has said that I 
should answer it ? I have not called on me the hand of God, 
but it is terror in my body, like that which brings sudden 
death. Now behold I am before thee ; thou art life ; let thy 
Majesty do what pleaseth him." 

The royal children were brought in, and his Majesty said 
to the Queen, "Behold thou Sinuhit has come as an Amu, 
whom the Sati have produced." 

She cried aloud, and the royal children spake with one 
voice, saying, before his Majesty, " Verily it is not so, O 
King, my lord." Said his Majesty, " It is verily he." Then 
they brought their collars, and their wands, and their sistra 
in their hands, and displayed them before his Majesty; and 
they sang 

" May thy hands prosper, King ; 

May the ornaments of the Lady of Heaven continue. 

May the goddess Nub give life to thy nostril; 

May the mistress of the stars favor thee, when thou sailest south and 

north. 

All wisdom is in the mouth of thy Majesty; 

Thy uraeus is on thy forehead, thou drivest away the miserable. 
Thou art pacified, O Re, lord of the lands; 
They call on thee as on the mistress of all. 

Strong is thy horn, 

Thou lettest fly thine arrow. 
Grant the breath to him who is without it; 
Grant good things to this traveler, Sinuhit the Pedti, born in the land 

~TP* 
Who fled away from fear of thee, 



148 THE SACRED BOOKS 

And fled this land from thy terrors. 

Does not the face grow pale, of him who beholds thy countenance; 

Does not the eye fear, which looks upon thee ? " 

Said his Majesty, " Let him not fear, let him be freed 
from terror. He shall be a Royal Friend among the nobles ; 
he shall be put within the circle of the courtiers. Go ye to 
the chamber of praise to seek wealth for him." 

When I went out from the palace, the royal children offered 
their hands to me ; we walked afterward to the Great Gates. 
I was placed in a house of a King's son, in which were delicate 
things, a place of coolness, fruits of the granary, treasures of 
the White House, clothes of the King's wardrobe, frankin- 
cense, the finest perfumes of the King and the nobles whom 
he loves, in every chamber. All the servitors were there. 

Years were removed from my limbs: I was shaved, and 
polled my locks of hair; the foulness was cast to the desert 
with the garments of the Nemau-sha. I clothed me in fine 
linen, and anointed myself with the fine oil of Egypt ; I laid 
me on a bed. I gave up the sand to those who lie on it; the 
oil of wood to him who would anoint himself therewith. 
There was given to me the mansion of a lord of serfs, which 
had belonged to a royal friend. There many excellent things 
were in its buildings ; all its wood was renewed. There were 
brought to me portions from the palace, thrice and four times 
each day ; besides the gifts of the royal children, always, with- 
out ceasing. There was built for me a pyramid of stone 
amongst the pyramids. The overseer of the architects meas- 
ured its ground; the chief treasurer wrote it; the sacred 
masons cut the well ; the chief of the laborers on the tombs 
brought the bricks ; all things used to make strong a building 
were there used. There were given to me peasants; there 
were made for me a garden, and fields in it before my man- 
sion, as is done for the chief Royal Friend. My statue was 
inlaid with gold, its girdle of pale gold ; his Majesty caused 
it to be made. Such is not done to a man of low degree. 

May I be in the favor of the King till the day of my death. 

This is finished from beginning to end, as was found in the 
writing. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST ( 149 



FRAGMENTS OF THE EARLIEST GHOST-STORY l 

[It is impossible to discover what the leading idea of the 
story may have been. Several personages appear in it: a 
Theban high priest of Amon, named Khonsumhabi, three 
unnamed men, and a ghost who employs very good language 
to tell the story of his former life. One fragment seems to 
have preserved a part of the commencement. The high 
priest, Khonsumhabi, appears to be entirely occupied with 
finding a suitable site for his tomb.] 

He sent one of his subordinates to the place of the tomb of 
the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Rahotpu, 1. h. s., 2 and 
with him the men under the orders of the high-priest of 
Amonra, king of the gods, three men, four men in all ; he 
embarked with them, he steered, he led them to the place indi- 
cated, near the tomb of the King Rahotpu, 1. h. s. They went 
to it with her, and they went inside ; she adored twenty-five 
... in the royal . . . country, then they came to the river- 
bank, and they sailed to Khonsumhabi, the high-priest of 
Amonra, king of the gods, and they found him who sang the 
praises of the god in the temple of the city of Amon. 

He said to them, " Let us rejoice, for I have come, and I 
have found the place favorable for establishing my dwelling 
to perpetuity." The three men said to him with one mouth, 
" It is found, the place favorable for establishing thy dwelling 
to perpetuity," and they seated themselves before her, and 
she passed a happy day, and her heart was given to joy. 

iFrom Sir Gaston Maspero's translation. 

2 The name of Rahotpu was borne by an obscure king of the Sixteenth 
or Seventeenth Dynasty, whose tomb was apparently situated at 
Thebes, in the same quarter of the necropolis as the pyramids of the 
sovereigns of the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth and following 
dynasties, toward Drah-Abu'1-Neggah. He is probably the Rahotpu of 
this text, though the name has also been read Rahapamh, and idemv 
fled as a king of the Fourteenth Dynasty. 



150 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Then he said to them, " Be ready to-morrow morning when 
the solar disk issues from the two horizons." He commanded 
the lieutenant of the temple of Amon to find lodgment for 
those people, he told each of them what he had to do, and he 
caused them to return to sleep in the city in the evening. He 
established . . . 

[In another fragment, the high priest found himself face 
to face chatting with the ghost, and perhaps this was while 
digging out the more ancient tomb, the owners of which 
entered into conversation with him, as the mummies of Neno- 
ferkephtah talked with Prince Satni-Khamois. 3 At the point 
where we take up the text again, one of the mummies seems to 
be relating the story of his earthly life to the first prophet of 
Amon.] 

I grew, and I did not see the rays of the sun, I did not 
breathe the air, but darkness was before me every day, and no 
one came to find me. The spirit said to him, " For me, when 
I was still living on earth, I was the treasurer of King 
Rahotpu, 1. h. s., I was also his infantry lieutenant. Then I 
passed before men and behind the gods, 4 and I died in the 
year XIV, during the months of Shomu, 5 of the King Manha- 
puriya, 6 1. h. s. He gave me my four casings, and my sarco- 
phagus of alabaster ; he caused to be done for me all that is 
done for a man of quality, he gave me offerings. . . ." 

[All that follows is very obscure. The ghost seems to com- 
plain of some accident that has happened to himself or to his 
tomb, but we can not clearly make out what is the subject of 
his dissatisfaction. Perhaps, like Nenoferkephtah in the 
story of Satni-Khamois, he simply wished to have his wife, 

See the later tale of Satni. 

* " To pass in front of men and behind the gods " is to die. The dead 
man preceded to the other world those who remained on earth and went 
to join those who followed Re, Osiris, Sokharis, or some other of the 
funerary gods. 

B The Egyptian year was divided into three seasons of four months 
each ; Shomu was the season of harvest. 

e This king is yet more obscure than Rahotpu. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 151 

his children, or some one whom he had loved, to dwell with 
him. When he has finished his speech, his visitor speaks in 
his turn.] 

The first prophet of Amonra, king of the gods, Khonsum- 
habi said to him, " Oh, give me excellent counsel as to what 
I should do, and I will have it done for thee, or at least grant 
that five men and five slaves may be given me, in all ten per- 
sons, to bring me water, and then I will give corn every day, 
and that will enrich me, and a libation of water shall be 
brought me every day." The spirit, Nuitbusokhnu, 7 said to 
him, " What hast thou done ? If the wood is not left in the 
sun it will not remain dried ; it is not a stone worn with age 
that is brought. . . ." 

[The prophet of Amon appears to ask some favor from the 
ghost ; which, on his part, the ghost does not appear disposed 
to grant him, notwithstanding the promises made by his visi- 
tor. The conversation on this theme lasted a considerable 
time, and I think we find it continued on the next fragment. 
Khonsumhabi inquired to which family one of his inter- 
locutors belonged, and his very natural curiosity was amply 
satisfied.] 

The spirit said to him, " X . . .is the name of my father, 
X ... the name of the father of my father, and X ... the 
name of my mother." The high priest Khonsumhabi said to 
him, " But then I know thee well. This eternal house in 
which thou art, it is I who had it made for thee ; it is I who 
caused thee to be buried, in the day when thou didst return 
to earth ; it is I who had done for thee that which should be 
done for him who is of high rank. But behold, I am in pov- 
erty, an evil wind of winter has breathed famine over the 
country, and I am no longer happy. My heart does not touch 
joy, because the Nile. . . ." Thus said Khonsumhabi, and 

* This name signifies "the dwelling docs not contain it." Perhaps, 
Instead of being the name of the dead man, it is a generic name used to 
denote ghoata. 



152 THE SACRED BOOKS 

after that Khonsumhabi remained there, weeping, for a long 
time, not eating, not drinking, not . . . 

[The text is so interrupted by lacunae that one can not hope 
to have interpreted it correctly throughout. Even had it been 
complete, the difficulty would have been scarcely less great. 
We can not tell whether the fashion among Egyptian ghosts 
was to render their language obscure at pleasure; this one 
does not seem to have attempted to make himself clear. His 
remarks are brusquely broken off in the middle of a phrase.] 



THE GREAT EMPIRE 
(1600 B.C.-525 B.C.) 



THE PER-EM-HRU 

OR 

"DAY OF PUTTING FORTH" 

COMMONLY CALLED 

THE BOOK OF THE DEAD 

Translated by 
E. A. W. BUDGE, F. S. A. 



" To the initiated of the sanctuary, no doubt, was reserved 
the knowledge of the god in the abstract, the god concealed in 
the unfathomable depth of his own essence. But for the less 
refined adoration of the people were presented the endless images 
of deities sculptured on the walls of the temples." 

ALPHONSE MARIETTE. 

" I am the lord of my life." 

THE BOOK OP THE DEAD. 



THE BOOK OF THE DEAD 

(INTRODUCTION) 

THE Book of the Dead was the great religious book of 
Ancient Egypt. A copy of it or of its chief chapters 
was the essential furnishing of every Egyptian tomb. Like 
the sacred books of most ancient peoples, it consists not of a 
single book, but of numerous texts preserved from many for- 
gotten ages and finally all classed together as the ancient, 
venerated, and holy scriptures of the people. 

In the main the Book of the Dead is a series of charms. 
These are to be rehearsed by the dead soul, and will enable 
it to meet triumphantly all the dangers and obstacles of its 
journey in the underworld. This journey was conceived as 
taking the soul through " Amenti," the terrible valley of dark- 
ness and desert, and thence through all the world of " Tuat," 
that is of the dead, until the soul reached the happy " Field 
of Reeds," or land of joy presided over by the god Osiris. 
On this lengthy road the soul would meet many deities, some 
helpful and some harmful. Any one of these might bar the 
passage if not met boldly and wisely with the proper charm. 
Hence came the old Egyptian name of their book: it was 
called the Per-em-Hru, the meaning of which is not wholly 
clear, though perhaps we might paraphrase it as " the day of 
putting forth one's utmost power," or "the day of making 
manifest one's godhood," of perfecting the spirit, of conquer- 
ing eternity. 

Probably this remarkable book, this triumph of man's most 
stupendous self-assertion, only reached its final or fixed form 
under the Great Empire of the Eighteenth and later dynas- 
ties (1400 B.C.). Some of its chapters, however, already 
existed among the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts of the 
earlier empires. One of the most noted chapters, that of 
" Coming Forth by Day in the Underworld," is inscribed on 

155 



156 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the sarcophagus of a queen of the Middle Empire, with an 
added statement that it had been discovered during the First 
Dynasty (some fifteen hundred years earlier) enclosed in the 
foundations of a building of yet earlier date. Certain other 
chapters have after them brief notices of when or where they 
were "found," or rediscovered, in earlier times. Hence 
there are sections of this ritual of charms which seem to fade 
back into the furthest prehistoric ages. 

Among the thousand gods of Egyptian imagination, two or 
three emerge in the Book of the Dead as the chief gods. 
These are Re, the ancient Sun-god, and Osiris, who is also in 
a way a Sun-god but was probably originally the Nile. Then 
there is Isis, the devoted wife of Osiris, and their child, 
Horus, who again becomes a name for the sun. Set, the 
brother of Osiris, is the chief god of evil. Nut, or Naut, is 
the goddess of ancient chaos. She is the Night, dark and vast 
and vague, but not essentially evil. 

Perhaps the most noted of all the many chapters of the 
Book of the Dead is that commonly called " The Negative 
Confession," though it might be better named " The Asser- 
tion of Innocence." This was often written separately, and 
is now sometimes printed by itself. In it the dead soul 
declares that he has not committed any one of a long list of 
sins, covering almost every conceivable fault. A modern 
reader stands lost in amazement before it. Was the dead soul 
really expected to recite it, to assert such monumental inno- 
cence ? And were the gods expected to believe him ? All the 
other chapters were meant to be recited, and this one seems to 
be so. Yet in that case the whole passage of the soul among 
the gods seems a mere trial of cunning, the soul asserting 
what it knows to be untrue ; or is it rather that the Egyptians 
conceived that in the spirit-world there was a creative power 
in words themselves, that on the mere asserting of a thing 
that thing came into spiritual existence ? Thus when a soul 
intensely desiring purity declared itself pure, it became pure ; 
when it declared itself god, it became god. This seems at 
least the most aspiring, and most intelligible, explanation of 
many an astounding passage in the great Per-em-Hru. 



THE BOOK OF THE DEAD 



A HYMN TO THE SETTING SUN 
A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RE WHEN HE RISETH UPON THE 

HORIZON, AND WHEN HE SETTETH IN THE LAND OF LIFE. 

Osiris, the scribe Ani, saith : 

" Homage to tbee, O Re, when thou risest as Tem-Heru- 
khuti (Tem-Harmakhis). Thou art adored by me when thy 
beauties are before mine eyes, and when thy radiance falleth 
upon my body. Thou goest forth to thy setting in the SeMet 
boat with the fair winds, and thy heart is glad ; the heart of 
the Mafet boat rejoiceth. Thou stridest over the heavens in 
peace, and all thy foes are cast down ; the never-resting stars 
sing hymns of praise unto thee, and the stars which rest, and 
the stars which never fail, glorify thee as thou sinkest to rest 
in the horizon of Manu, 1 O thou who art beautiful at morn 
and at eve, O thou lord who livest and art established, O 
my lord ! 

" Homage to thee, O thou who art Re when thou risest, and 
Tern when thou settest in beauty. Thou risest and shinest on 
the back of thy mother Nut, O thou who art crowned king of 
the gods ! Nut doeth homage unto thee, and everlasting and 
never-changing order embraceth thee at morn and at eve. 
Thou stridest over the heaven, being glad of heart, and the 
Lake of Testes is content thereat. The Sebau Fiend hath 
fallen to the ground ; his arms and his hands have been hacked 
off, and the knife hath severed the joints of his body. Re 
hath a fair wind; the Sektet boat goeth forth and, sailing 
along, it cometh into port. The gods of the south and of the 
north, of the west and of the east, praise thee, O thou divine 
substance, from whom all forms of life come into beinu:. 
Thou sendest forth the word, and the earth is flooded with 
silence, O thou only One, who didst dwell in heaven before 

i The mountain of sunset. 

157 



158 THE SACRED BOOKS 

ever the earth and the mountains came into existence. O 
Eunner, O Lord, O only One, thou maker of things which are, 
thou hast fashioned the tongue of the company of the gods, 
thou hast produced whatsoever cometh forth from the waters, 
and thou springest up from them over the flooded land of the 
Lake of Horus. Let me snuff the air which cometh forth 
from thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth 
from thy mother Nut. Oh, make thou to be glorious my shin- 
ing form, O Osiris, make thou to be divine my soul ! Thou 
art worshiped in peace (or in setting), O Lord of the gods, 
thou art exalted by reason of thy wondrous works. Shine thou 
with thy rays of light upon my body day by day, upon me, 
Osiris the scribe, the teller of the divine offerings of all the 
gods, the overseer of the granary of the lords of Abtu (Aby- 
dos), the royal scribe in truth who loveth thee ; Ani, victorious 
in peace." 

HYMN AND LITANY TO OSIRIS 2 

" Praise be unto thee, O Osiris, lord of eternity, Unnefer, 
Heru-khuti (Harmakhis), whose forms are manifold, and 
whose attributes are majestic, Ptah-Seker-Tem in Annu 
(Heliopolis), the lord of the hidden place, and the creator of 
Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis) and of the gods therein, the guide 
of the underworld, whom the gods glorify when thou settest 
in Nut. Isis embraced thee in peace, and she driveth away 
the fiends from the mouth of thy paths. Thou turnest thy 
face upon Amentet, and thou makest the earth to shine as 
with refined copper. Those who have lain down (i.e., the 
dead) rise up to see thee, they breathe the air and they look 
upon thy face when the Disk riseth on its horizon; their 
hearts are at peace inasmuch as they behold thee, O thou who 
art Eternity and Everlastingness ! " 

LITANY 

" Homage to thee, O lord of starry deities in Annu, and of 
heavenly beings in Kher-aba; thou god Unti, who art more 

* From the Papyrus of Ani. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 159 

glorious than the gods who are hidden in Annu ; oh, grant s 
thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am 
just and true ; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I 
done aught with deceit. 

" Homage to thee, O An in Antes, Heru-khuti (Harma- 
khis), with long strides thou stridest over heaven, O Heru- 
khuti. Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass 
in peace, for I am just and true ; I have not spoken lies wit- 
tingly, nor have I done aught with deceit. 

" Homage to thee, O Soul of everlastingness, thou Soul 
who dwellest in Tattu, Unnefer, son of Nut; thou art lord 
of Akert. Oh, grant thou unto me a path wherein I may 
pass in peace, for I am just and true ; I have not spoken lies 
wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit. 

" Homage to thee in thy dominion over Tattu ; the Ureret 
crown is established upon thy head; thou art the One who 
maketh the strength which protecteth himself, and thou dwell- 
est in peace in Tattu. Oh, grant thou unto me a path 
whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true ; I have 
not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit. 

" Homage to thee, O lord of the Acacia tree, the Seker 
boat is set upon its sledge ; thou turnest hack the Fiend, the 
worker of evil, and thou causest the UtcJiat to rest upon its 
seat. Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in 
peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wit- 
tingly, nor have I done aught with deceit. 

" Homage to thee, O thou who art mighty in thine hour, 
thou great and mighty Prince, dweller in An-rut-f, 4 lord of 
eternity and creator of everlastingness, thou art the lord of 
Suten-henen (Heracleopolis Magna). Oh, grant thou unto 

* The following petition, " Oh, grant thou unto me a path," etc., is 
written once only, and at the end of the Litany, but it is clear that it 
was intended to be repeated after each of the nine addresses. This is 
proved by the SaTte Recension, where the words, "Grant thou the 
sweet breath of the north wind to the Osiris Auf-ankh," are written in 
two places and are intended to be said after each of the ten addresses 
above them. 

" The place where nothing groweth," the name of a district in the 
underworld. 



160 THE SACRED BOOKS 

me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and 
true ; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught 
with deceit. 

" Homage to thee, O thou who restest upon Right and 
Truth, thou art the lord of Abtu (Abydos), and thy limbs are 
joined unto Ta-tchesertet ; thou art he to whom fraud and 
guile are hateful. Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon 
I may pass in peace, for I am just and true ; I have not spoken 
lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit. 

"Homage to thee, O thou who art within thy boat, thou 
bringest Hapi (i.e., the Nile) forth from his source; the light 
sliineth upon thy body and thou art the dweller in Nekhen. 5 
Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, 
for I am just and true ; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor 
have I done aught with deceit. 

" Homage to thee, O creator of the gods, thou King of the 
North and of the South, O Osiris, victorious one, ruler of the 
world in thy gracious seasons ; thou art the lord of the celes- 
tial world. 8 Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may 
pass in peace, for I am just and true ; I have not spoken lies 
wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit." 



HYMN TO RE 

A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RE WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EAST- 
ERN PART OF HEAVEN. Those who are in his train rejoice, 
and lo ! Osiris Ani, victorious, saith : 

" Hail thou Disk, thou lord of rays, who risest on the hori- 
zon day by day ! Shine thou with thy beams of light upon 
the face of Osiris Ani, who is victorious ; for he singeth hymns 
of praise unto thee at dawn, and he maketh thee to set at 
eventide with words of adoration. May the soul of Osiris 
Ani, the triumphant one, come forth with thee into heaven, 
may he go forth in the Matet boat. May he come into port 

5 The name of the sanctuary of the goddess Xekhebet in Upper Egypt, 
the Eileithyiapolis of the Greeks. 

I.e., the two lands Atebui, which were situated one on each side of 
*e celestial Nile. 






jm i 




A PAGE FROM THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 

Showing the judgment of the dead by Osiris. 














LITERATURE OF THE EAST 161 

in the Sektet boat, and may he cleave his path among the 
never-resting stars in the heavens." 

Osiris Ani, being in peace and in triumph, adoreth his lord, 
the lord of eternity, saying : " Homage to thee, O Heru- 
khuti (Harmakhis), who art the god Khepera, the self- 
created; when thou risest on the horizon and sheddest thy 
beams of light upon the lands of the North and of the South, 
thou art beautiful, yea beautiful, and all the gods rejoice when 
they behold thee, the King of heaven. The goddess Nebt- 
rnnut is stablished upon thy head ; and her ursei of the South 
and of the North are upon thy brow ; she taketh up her place 
before thee. The god Thoth is stablished in the bows of thy 
boat to destroy utterly all thy foes. Those who are in the 
Tuat (underworld) come forth to meet thee, and they bow 
in homage as they come toward thee, to behold thy beautiful 
Image. And I have come before thee that I may be with thee 
to behold thy Disk every day. May I not be shut up in the 
tomb, may I not be turned back, may the limbs of my body be 
made new again when I view thy beauties, even as are those 
of all thy favored ones, because I am one of those who wor- 
shiped thee whilst I lived upon earth. May I come in unto 
the land of eternity, may I come even unto the everlasting 
land, for behold, O my lord, this hast thou ordained for me." 

And lo, Osiris Ani, triumphant in peace, the triumphant 
one, saith : " Homage to thee, O thou who risest in thy hori- 
zon as Re, thou reposest upon law which changeth not nor can 
be altered. Thou passest over the sky, and every face watch- 
eth thee and thy course, for thou hast been hidden from 
their gaze. Thou dost show thyself at dawn and at eventide 
day by day. The Sektet boat, wherein is thy Majesty, goeth 
forth with might ; thy beams shine upon all faces ; the num- 
ber of thy red and yellow rays can not be known, nor can thy 
briirht beams be told. The lands of the gods, and the eastern 
lands of Punt 7 must be seen, ere that which is hidden in thee 
may be measured. Alone and by thyself thou dost manifest 
thyself when thou comest into being above Nu (i.e., the sky). 
May Ani advance, even as thou dost advance; may he never 

7 I.e., the land on each side of the Red Sea and on the coast of Africa. 
VOL. II. 11. 



162 THE SACRED BOOKS 

cease to go forward, even as thy Majesty ceaseth not to go for- 
ward, even though it be for a moment; for with strides dost 
thou in one little moment pass over the spaces which would 
need hundreds of thousands and millions of years for man to 
pass over; this thou doest, and then dost thou sink to rest. 
Thou puttest an end to the hours of the night, and thou dost 
count them, even thou; thou endest them in thine own 
appointed season, and the earth becometh light. Thou settest 
thyself before thy handiwork in the likeness of Re, thou 
risest in the horizon." 

Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, declareth his praise of 
thee when thou shinest, and when thou risest at dawn he 
crieth in his joy at thy birth : " Thou art crowned with the 
majesty of thy beauties; thou moldest thy limbs as thou dost 
advance, and thou bringest them forth without birth-pangs in 
the form of Re, as thou dost rise up into the upper air. 
Grant thou that I may come unto the heaven which is ever- 
lasting, and unto the mountain where dwell thy favored ones. 
May I be joined unto those shining beings, holy and perfect, 
w4io are in the underworld ; and may I come forth with them 
to behold thy beauties when thou shinest at eventide and goest 
to thy mother Nu. Thou dost place thyself in the west, and 
my two hands are raised in adoration of thee when thou settest 
as a living being. Behold, thou art the maker of eternity, 
and thou art adored when thou settest in the heavens. I have 
given my heart unto thee without wavering, O thou who art 
mightier than the gods." 

Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith : " A hymn of praise to 
thee, O thou who risest like unto gold, and who dost flood the 
world with light on the day of thy birth. Thy mother giveth 
thee birth upon her hand, and thou dost give light unto the 
course of the Disk. O thou great Light, who shinest in the 
heavens, thou dost strengthen the generations of men with the 
Nile-flood, and thou dost cause gladness in all lands, and in all 
cities, and in all the temples. Thou art glorious by reason 
of thy splendors, and thou makest strong thy Jca (i.e., Double) 
with hu and tchefau foods. O thou who art the mighty one 
of victories, thou who art the Power of all powers, who dost 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 163 

make strong thy throne against evil fiends ; who art glorious 
in majesty in the Sektet boat, and who art exceeding mighty 
in the Atet boat, make thou glorious Osiris Ani with victory 
in the underworld ; grant thou that in the netherworld he may 
be without evil. I pray thee to put away his faults behind 
thee: grant thou that he may be one of thy venerable servants 
who are with the shining ones; may he be joined unto the 
souls which are in Ta-tchesertet ; and may he journey into the 
Sekhet-Aaru by a prosperous and happy decree, he the Osiris, 
the scribe, Ani, triumphant." 
And the god saith : 

" Thou shalt come forth into heaven, thou shalt pass over 
the sky, thou shalt be joined into the starry deities. Praises 
shall be offered unto thee in thy boat, thou shalt be hymned 
in the Atet boat, thou shalt behold Re within his shrine, thou 
shalt set together with his Disk day by day, thou shalt see the 
Ant fish when it springeth into being in the waters of tur- 
quoise, and thou shalt see the Abtu fish in his hour. It shall 
come to pass that the Evil One shall fall when he layeth a 
snare to destroy thee, and the joints of his neck and of his 
back shall be hacked asunder. Re saileth with a fair wind, 
and the Seklet boat draweth on and cometh into port. The 
mariners of Re rejoice, and the heart of Nebt-ankh 8 is glad, 
for the enemy of her lord hath fallen to the ground. Thou 
shalt behold Horus on the standing-place of the pilot of the 
boat, and Thoth and Maat shall stand one upon each side of 
him. All the gods shall rejoice when they behold Re coming 
in peace to make the hearts of the shining ones to live, and 
Osiris Ani, victorious, the scribe of the divine offerings of the 
lords of Thebes, shall be along with them ! " 

HYMN TO THE SETTING SUN 9 

ANOTHER CHAPTER OF THE MYSTERY OF THE TUAT 
(UNDERWORLD) AND OF PASSING THROUGH THE UNSEEN 
NETHERWORLD, and of seeing the Disk when he setteth in 

I.e. " Lady of life," a name of lais. 

From the Papyrus of Mut-hetep. 



164. THE SACRED BOOKS 

Amentet, when he is adored by the gods and by the Khus in 
the underworld, and when the Soul which dwelleth in Re is 
made perfect. He is made mighty before Tern; he is made 
great before Osiris ; he setteth his terror before the company 
of the gods who are the guides of the netherworld ; he maketh 
long his steps and he maketh his face to enter with that of 
the great god. Now every Khu, for whom these words shall 
have been said, shall come forth by day in any form which he 
is pleased to take ; he shall gain power among the gods of the 
Tuat (underworld), and they shall recognize him as one of 
themselves; and he shall enter in at the hidden gate with 
power. 

The lady Mut-hetep, victorious, singeth hymns of praise to 
thee saying : " O Re-Tern, in thy splendid progress thou 
risest, and thou settest as a living being in the glories of the 
western horizon; thou settest in thy territory which is in 
Manu. Thy uraeus is behind thee, thy urseus is behind thee. 
Homage to thee, O thou who art in peace, homage to thee, O 
thou who art in peace. Thou art joined unto the Eye of 
Tern, and it chooseth its powers of protection to place behind 
thy members. Thou goest forth through heaven, thou travel- 
est over the earth, and thou journeyest onward. O Lumi- 
nary, the northern and southern halves of heaven come to thee 
and they bow low in adoration, and they pay homage unto 
thee, day by day. The gods of Amentet rejoice in thy beau- 
ties and the unseen places sing hymns of praise unto thee. 
Those who dwell in the Sekiet boat go round about thee, and 
the Souls of the East pay homage to thee, and when they meet 
thy Majesty they cry : ' Come, come in peace ! ' There is a 
shout of welcome to thee, O lord of heaven and governor of 
Amentet ! Thou art acknowledged by Isis who seeth her son 
in thee, the lord of fear, the mighty one of terror. Thou set- 
test as a living being in the hidden place. Thy father Ta- 
tunen raiseth thee up, and he placeth both his hands behind 
thee; thou becomest endowed with divine attributes in thy 
members of earth ; thou wakest in peace and thou settest in 
Manu. Grant thou that I may become a being honored 
before Osiris, and that I may come to thee, O Re-Tern ! I 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 165 

have adored thee, therefore do thou for me that which I wish. 
Grant thou that I may be victorious in the presence of the 
company of the gods. Thou art beautiful, O Re, in thy 
western horizon of Amentet, thou lord of Maat, thou mighty 
one of fear, thou whose attributes are majestic, O thou who 
art greatly beloved by those who dwell in the Tuat (under- 
world) ; thou shinest with thy beams upon the beings that are 
therein perpetually, and thou sendest forth thy light upon the 
path of Re-stau. Thou openest up the path of the double 
Lion-god, thou settest the gods upon their thrones, and the 
Khus in their abiding-places. The heart of Naarerf is glad 
when Re setteth, the heart of Naarerf is glad when Re setteth. 

" Hail, O ye gods of the land of Amentet who make offer- 
ings and oblations unto Re-Tern, ascribe ye glory unto him 
when ye meet him. Grasp ye your weapons and overthrow 
ye the fiend Seba on behalf of Re, and repulse the fiend Nebt 
on behalf of Osiris. The gods of the land of Amentet rejoice 
and lay hold upon the cords of the Sektet boat, and they come 
in peace ; the gods of the hidden place who dwell in Amentet 
triumph. 

" Hail, Thoth, who didst make Osiris to triumph over his 
enemies, make thou Mut-hetep victorious, to triumph over her 
enemies in the presence of the great divine sovereign chiefs 
who live with Osiris, the lord of life. The great god who 
dwelleth in his Disk cometh forth, that is, Horus the avenger 
of his father Unnefer-Re. Osiris setteth, and the Klius who 
are in the Tuat (underworld) say: Homage to thee, O thou 
who comest as Tern, and who comest into being as the creator 
of the gods. Homage to thee, O thou who comest as the holy 
Soul of souls, who dwellest in the horizon. Homage to thee 
who art more glorious than all the gods and who illuminest 
the Tuat with thine Eye. Homage to thee who sailest in thy 
glory and who goest round about it in thy Disk." 

[The following variant of the above hymn is translated 
from the text in the Papyrus of Nekhtu-Amen (Naville, 
" Todtenbuch" r><\. n. p. 23):] 

A^ < ' II AFTER OP THE MYSTERY OF THE TuAT (tJN- 

DERWORLD) AND OP TRAVERSING TIN-: r XSEEN PLACES OP THE 



166 THE SACRED BOOKS 

UNDER WORLD, of seeing the Disk when he setteth in Amentet, 
when he is adored by the gods and by the Khus of the Tuat 
(underworld), and when the divine Khu which dwelleth 
within Re is made perfect. He setteth his might before Re, 
he setteth his power before Tern, he setteth his strength be- 
fore Khenti-Amentet, and he setteth his terror before the 
company of the gods. The Osiris of the gods goeth as leader 
through the Tuat (underworld), he crasheth through moun- 
tains, he bursteth through rocks, he maketh glad the heart 
of every Khu. This composition shall be recited by the de- 
ceased when he cometh forth and when he goeth in with the 
gods, among whom he findeth no opposition; then shall he 
come forth by day in all the manifold and exceedingly numer- 
ous forms which he may be pleased to take. The Osiris 
. . . saith: 

" A hymn of praise to Re at eventide when he setteth as a 
living being in Baakha. 10 The great god who dwelleth in his 
Disk riseth in his two eyes n and all the Khus of the under- 
world receive him in his horizon of Amentet; they shout 
praises unto Heru-khuti (Harmakhis) in his form of Tern, 
and they sing hymns of joy to Re when they have received 
him at the head of his beautiful path of Amentet." 

He (i.e., the deceased) saith: " Praise be unto thee, O Re, 
praise be unto thee, O Tern, in thy splendid progress. Thou 
hast risen and thou hast put on strength, and thou settest like 
a living being amid thy glories in the horizon of Amentet, in 
thy domain which is in Manu. Thy uraus-goddess is behind 
thee; thy uraeus-goddess is behind thee. Hail to thee, in 
peace ; hail to thee, in peace. Thou joinest thyself unto the 
Eye of Horus, and thou hidest thyself within its secret place ; 
it destroyeth for thee all the convulsions of thy face, it maketh 
thee strong with life, and thou livest. It bindeth its protect- 
ing amulets behind thy members. Thou sailest forth over 
heaven, and thou maketh the earth to be stablished ; thou join- 
est thyself unto the upper heaven, O Luminary. The two re- 

*o I.e., the mountain of sunrise, but the scribe appears to have written 
* Baakha" instead of "Manu." 
"The Sun and the Moon. 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 167 

gions of the East and West make adoration unto thee, bowing 
low and paying homage unto thee, and they praise thee day by 
day; the gods of Amentet rejoice in thy splendid beauties. 
The hidden places adore thee, the aged ones make offerings 
unto thee, and they create for thee protecting powers. The 
divine beings who dwell in the eastern and western horizons 
transport thee, and those who are in the Sektet boat convey 
thee round and about. The Souls of Ainentet cry out unto 
thee and say unto thee when they meet thy Majesty (life, 
health, strength!), 'All hail, all hail!' When thou comest 
forth in peace there arise shouts of delight to thee, O thou 
lord of heaven, thou Prince of Amentet. Thy mother Isis 
embraceth thee, and in thee she recognizeth her son, the lord 
of fear, the mighty one of terror. Thou settest as a living 
being within the dark portal. Thy father Tatunen lifteth 
thee up and he stretcheth out his two hands behind thee ; thou 
becomest a divine being in the earth. Thou wakest as thou 
settest, and thy habitation is in Manu. Grant thou that I 
may be venerated before Osiris, and come thou to me, O Re- 
Tern. Since thou hast been adored by me, that which I wish 
thou shalt do for me day by day. Grant thou victory unto 
me before the great company of the gods, O Re who art 
doubly beautiful in thy horizon of Amentet, thou lord of Maat 
who dwellest in the horizon. The fear of thee is great, thy 
forms are majestic, and the love of thee is great among those 
who dwell in the underworld." 



HYMN TO THE SETTING SUN 12 
A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RE-HERU-KHUTI (RE-HARMAKHIS) 

WHEN HE SETTETH IN THE WESTERN PART OF HEAVEN. He 

(i.e., the deceased) saith: 

" Homage to thee, O Re who in thy sitting art Tem-Heru- 
khuti (Tem-Harmakhis), thou divine god, thou self-crentc'l 
being, thou primeval matter from which all things were 
made. When thou appearest in the bows of thy bark men 

From a Papyrus of the Nineteenth Dynasty preserved at Dublin. 



168 THE SACRED BOOKS 

shout for joy at thee, O maker of the gods! Thou didst 
stretch out the heavens wherein thy two eyes might travel, 
thou didst make the earth to be a vast chamber for thy 
Khus, so that every man might know his fellow. The SeJctet 
boat is glad, and the Matet boat rejoiceth; and they greet 
thee with exaltation as thou journeyest along. The god Nu 
is content, and thy mariners are satisfied ; the uraus-goddess 
hath overthrown thine enemies, and thou hast carried off the 
legs of Apep. Thou art beautiful, O Re, each day, and thy 
mother Nut embraceth thee; thou settest in beauty, and thy 
heart is glad in the horizon of Manu, and the holy beings 
therein rejoice. Thou shinest there with thy beams, O thou 
great god, Osiris, the everlasting Prince. The lords of the 
zones of the Tuat in their caverns stretch out their hands in 
adoration before thy Ka (double), and they cry out to thee, 
and they all come forth in the train of thy form shining bril- 
liantly. The hearts of the lords of the Tuat (underworld) 
are glad when thou sendest forth thy glorious light in Amen- 
tet; their two eyes are directed toward thee, and they press 
forward to see thee, and their hearts rejoice when they do 
see thee. Thou harkenest unto the acclamations of those that 
are in the funeral chest, 13 thou doest away with their help- 
lessness and drivest away the evils which are about them. 
Thou givest breath to their nostrils and they take hold of the 
bows of thy bark in the horizon of Manu. Thou art beauti- 
ful each day, O Re, and may thy mother Nut embrace Osiris 
. . . , 14 victorious." 

THE CHAPTER OF THE CHAPLET OF VICTORY 

THE CHAPTER OF THE CHAPLET OF VICTORY. Osiris Auf- 
ankh, victorious, born of Sheret-Amsu, victorious, saith : 

" Thy father Tern hath woven for thee a beautiful chaplet 
of v victory to be placed on thy living brow, O thou who lovest 
the gods, and thou shalt live forever. Osiris-khent-Amentet 15 

is I. e . t the dead. 

i* The name of the deceased is wanting. 

"/.e., Osiris, governor of Amentet. 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 169 

hath made thee to triumph over thine enemies, and thy 
father Seb hath decreed for thee all his inheritance. Come, 
therefore, O Horus, son of Isis, for thou, O son of Osiris, sit- 
test upon the throne of thy father Re to overthrow thine 
enemies, for he hath ordained for thee the two lands to their 
utmost limits. Atem hath also ordained this, and the com- 
pany of the gods hath confirmed the splendid power of the 
victory of Horus the son of Isis and the son of Osiris forever 
and forever. And Osiris Auf-ankh shall be victorious for- 
ever and ever. O Osiris-khent-Amentet, the whole of the 
northern and southern parts of the heavens, and every god 
and every goddess, who are in heaven and who are upon 
earth, will the victory of Horus, the son of Isis and the son of 
Osiris, over his enemies in the presence of Osiris-khent- 
Amentet who will make Osiris Auf-ankh, victorious, to tri- 
umph over his enemies in the presence of Osiris-khent-Amen- 
tet, Un-nefer, the son of Nut, on the day of making him to 
triumph over Set and his fiends in the presence of the great 
sovereign chiefs who are in Annu (Heliopolis) ; on the night 
of the battle and overthrow of the Seba-fiend in the presence 
of the great sovereign princes who are in Abtu ; on the night 
of making Osiris to triumph over his enemies make thou 
Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, to triumph over his enemies 
in the presence of the great sovereign princes, who are in 
the horizon of Amentet ; on the day of the festival of Haker 
in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in 
Tattu ; on the night of the setting up of the Tet in Tattu in 
the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in the 
ways of the damned ; on the night of the judgment of those 
who shall be annihilated in the presence of the great sover- 
eign princes who are in Sekhem (Letopolis) ; on the 
night of the * things of the altars in Sekhem ' in the 
presence of the great sovereign princes who are in Pe and 
Tepu ; on the night of the stablishing of the inheriting by 
Horus of the things of his father Osiris in the presence of 
the great sovereign princes who are at the great festival of 
the plowing and turning up of the earth in Tattu," or (as 
others say), "in Abtu; on the night of the weighing of 



170 THE SACRED BOOKS 

words," or (as others say), "weighing of locks in the pres- 
ence of the great sovereign princes who are in An-rut-f 
on its place; on the night when Horus receiveth the birth- 
chamber of the gods in the presence of the great sovereign 
princes who are in the lands of Rekhti; on the night when 
Isis lieth down to watch and to make lamentation for her 
brother in the presence of the great sovereign princes who 
are in Re-stau; on the night of making Osiris to triumph 
over all his enemies. 

" Horus repeated these words four times, and all his 
enemies fell headlong and were overthrown and were cut to 
pieces; and Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, repeated these 
words four times, therefore let all his enemies fall headlong, 
and be overthrown and cut to pieces. Horus, the son of Isis 
and son of Osiris, celebrated in turn millions of festivals, and 
all his enemies fell headlong, and were overthrown and cut 
to pieces. Their habitation hath gone forth to the block of 
the East, their heads have been cut off ; their necks have been 
destroyed; their thighs have been cut off; they have been 
given over to the Great Destroyer who dwellcst in the valley 
of the grave ; and they shall never come forth from under the 
restraint of the god Seb." 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED OVER THE DIVINE CHAP- 
LET WHICH IS LAID UPON THE FACE OF THE DECEASED, AND 
THOU SHALT CAST INCENSE INTO THE FIRE ON BEHALF OF 
OSIRIS AUF-ANKH, TRIUMPHANT, BORN OF SHERET-AMSU, TRI- 
UMPHANT ; THUS SHALT THOU CAUSE HIM TO TRIUMPH OVER 
HIS ENEMIES, DEAD OR ALIVE, AND HE SHALL BE AMONG THE 
FOLLOWERS OF OSIRIS ; AND A HAND SHALL BE STRETCHED OUT 
TO HIM WITH MEAT AND DRINK IN THE PRESENCE OF THE GOD. 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE SAID BY THEE TWICE AT DAWN NOW 

IT IS A NEVER-FAILING CHARM REGULARLY AND CONTIN- 
UALLY. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 171 



THE CHAPTER OF THE VICTORY OVER 
ENEMIES 16 

" Hail, Thoth, who didst make Osiris to triumph over his 
enemies, snare thou the enemies of Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, 
the lord of piety, in the presence of the great sovereign 
princes of every god and of every goddess; in the presence 
of the great sovereign princes who are in Annu (Heliopolis) 
on the night of the battle and of the overthrow of the Sebau- 
fiend in Tattu ; on the night of making to stand up the double 
Tet in Sekliem (Letopolis) ; on the night of the things of the 
night in Sekhem, in Pe, and in Tepu ; 17 on the night of the 
stablishing of Horus in the heritage of the things of his 
father in the double land of Rekhti ; on the night when Isis 
maketh lamentation at the side of her brother Osiris in Abtu 
(Abydos) ; on the night of the Haker festival of the distin- 
guishing between the dead (i.e., the damned) and the KJius 
on the path of the dead (i.e. t the damned) ; on the night of 
the judgment of those who are to be annihilated at the great 
festival of the plowing and the turning up of the earth in 
Naare-rut-f in Re-stau; and on the night of making Horus 
to triumph over his enemies. Horus is mighty, the northern 
and southern halves of heaven rejoice, Osiris is content 
thereat and his heart is glad. Hail, Thoth, make thou to tri- 
umph Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, over his enemies in the pres- 
ence of the sovereign princes of every god and every goddess, 
and in the presence of you, ye sovereign princes who passed 
judgment on Osiris behind the shrine." 

[In the Sai'te Recension this chapter has no vignette, but it 
has the title " Another Chapter of the Chaplet of Victory," 
and is arranged in tabular form. The words, " Hail, Thoth, 
make Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, to triumph over his ene- 
mies even as thou didst make Osiris to triumph over his en- 
emies," which are written in two horizontal lines, are to be 
repeated before each column of text. The " great sovereign 

From the Papyrus of Nebseni. 

" Pe and Tepu were two famous sanctuaries of northern Egypt. 



172 THE SACRED BOOKS 

princes" invoked are those of: (1) Annu (Heliopolis), (2) 
Tattu, (3) Sekhem (Letopolis), (4) Pe and Tepu, (5) An- 
arut-f, (6) the double land of Rekhti, (7) Re-stau, (8) Abtu, 
(9) the paths of the dead, (10) the plowing festival in Tattu, 
(11) Kher-aba, (12) Osiris, (13) heaven and earth, (14) 
every god and every goddess. The rubric reads :] 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE RECITED REGULARLY AND ALWAYS BY 
A MAN WHO IIATII PURIFIED HIMSELF IN WATER OF NATRON, 
HE SHALL COME FORTH BY DAY AFTER HE HATH COME INTO 

PORT (i.e., is DEAD), AND HE SHALL PERFORM ALL THE TRANS- 
FORMATIONS WHICH HIS HEART SHALL DICTATE, AND HE 
SHALL COME FORTH FROM EVERY FIRE. 

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO THE 
OVERSEER 

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO THE OVERSEER OF 
THE HOUSE, Nu, TRIUMPHANT, IN THE UNDERWORLD. He 
saith : 

" Homage to thee, O thou lord of brightness, thou who art 
at the head of the Great House, prince of the night and of 
thick darkness. I have come unto thee being a pure khu. 
Thy two hands are behind thee, and thou hast thy lot with 
thy ancestors. Oh, grant thou unto me my mouth that I may 
speak therewith ; and guide thou to me my heart at the sea- 
son when there is cloud and darkness." 



THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO 
OSIRIS ANI 18 

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO OSIRIS ANI, THE 
SCRIBE AND TELLER OF THE HOLY OFFERINGS OF ALL THE 

GODS, TRIUMPHANT, IN THE UNDERWORLD. He Saith I 

" I rise out of the egg in the hidden land. May my mouth 
be given unto me that I may speak therewith in the presence 
of the great god, the lord of the Tuat (underworld). May 

is From the Papyrus of Ani. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 173 

my hand and my arm not be forced back in the presence of the 
sovereign princes of any god. I am Osiris, the lord of Re- 
stau ; may I, Osiris the scribe Ani, triumphant, have a por- 
tion with him who is on the top of the steps (i.e., Osiris). 
According to the desire of my heart, I have come from the 
Pool of Fire, and I have quenched the fire." 

OPENING THE MOUTH OF OSIRIS 

THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE MOUTH OF OSIRIS. The 
scribe Ani, triumphant, saith : 

" May the good Ptah open my mouth, and may the god of 
my city loose the swathings, even the swathings which are 
over my mouth. Moreover, may Thoth, being filled and fur- 
nished with charms, come and loose the bandages, even the 
bandages of Set which fetter my mouth ; and may the god Tern 
hurl them at those who would fetter me with them, and drive 
them back. May my mouth be opened, may my mouth be 
unclosed by Shu with his iron knife wherewith he opened the 
mouths of the gods. I am the goddess Sekhet, and I sit upon 
my place in the great wind of heaven. I am the great god- 
dess Sah who dwelleth among the Souls of Annu (Heliopo- 
lis). Now as concerning every charm and all the words 
which may be spoken against me, may the gods resist them, 
and may each and every one of the company of the gods with- 
stand them." 

THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING CHARMS TO 
OSIRIS 

THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING CHARMS UNTO OSIRIS ANI IN 
THE UNDERWORLD. He saith : 

" I am Tem-Khepera, who brought himself into being upon 
the thigh of his divine mother. Those who are in Nu (i.e., 
the sky) are made wolves, and those who are among the 
sovereign princes are become hyenas. Behold, I gather to- 
gether the charm from every place where it is, and from 
every man with whom it is, swifter than greyhounds and 



174 THE SACRED BOOKS 

quicker than light. Hail, thou who towest along the Male- 
hent boat of Re, the stays of thy sails and of thy rudder are 
taut in the wind as thou sailest up the Pool of Fire in the 
underworld. Behold, thou gatherest together the charm from 
every place where it is, and from every man with whom it is, 
swifter than greyhounds and quicker than light, the charm 
which created the forms of being from the . . . mother, and 
which either createth the gods or maketh them silent, and 
which giveth the heat of fire unto the gods. Behold, the 
charm is given unto me, from wherever it is and from him 
with whom it is, swifter than greyhounds and quicker than 
light," or (as others say) " quicker than a shadow." 



THE CHAPTER OF MEMORY 19 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING A MAN TO POSSESS MEMORY IN 
THE UNDERWORLD. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
the overseer of the palace, the son of the chief chancellor 
Amen-hetep, saith: 

" May my name be given to me in the Great House, and 
may I remember my name in the House of Fire on the night 
of counting the years and of telling the number of the months, 
I am with the Divine One, and I sit on the eastern side of 
heaven. If any god whatsoever should advance unto me, let 
me be able to proclaim his name forthwith." 

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A HEART TO OSIRIS *> 

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A HEART TO OSIRIS ANI IN THE 
UNDERWORLD. He saith : 

" May my heart (ab) 21 be with me in the House of 
Hearts! May my heart (hat) be with me in the House of 
Hearts ! May my heart be with me, and may it rest there, 

i From the Papyrus of Nu. 

20 From the Papyrus of Ani. 

21 Ab is undoubtedly the "heart," and hat is the region wherein is 
the heart ; the word may be fairly well rendered by " breast," though 
the pericardium is probably intended. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 175 

or I shall not eat of the cakes of Osiris on the eastern side of 
the Lake of Flowers, neither shall I have a boat wherein to 
go down the Nile, nor another wherein to go up, nor shall I 
be able to sail down the Nile with thee. May my mouth be 
given to me that I may speak therewith, and my two legs to 
walk therewith, and my two hands and arms to overthrow my 
foe. May the doors of heaven be opened unto me ; may Seb, 
the Prince 22 of the gods, open wide his two jaws unto me ; 
may he open my two eyes which are blindfolded; may he 
cause me to stretch apart my two legs which are bound to- 
gether; and may Anpu (Anubis) make my thighs firm so 
that I may stand upon them. May the goddess Sekhet make 
me to rise so that I may ascend unto heaven, and may that 
be done which I command in the House of the Jca (double) 
of Ptah (i.e., Memphis). I understand with my heart. I 
have gained the mastery over my heart, I have gained the 
mastery over my two hands, I have gained the mastery 
over my legs, I have gained the power to do whatsoever 
my ka (double) pleaseth. My soul shall not be fettered 
to my body at the gates of the underworld; but I shall 
enter in peace and I shall come forth in peace." 



THE CHAPTER OF PRESERVING THE HEART 
THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART (Hati) OF A 

MAN BE TAKEN FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. 23 Saith 

Osiris Ani : 

" Hail, ye who carry away hearts ! IJail, ye who steal 
hearts, and who make the heart of a man to go through its 
transformations according to his deeds, let not what he hath 
done harm him before you. 24 Homage to you, O ye lords of 
eternity, ye possessors of everlastingness, take ye not this 
heart of Osiris Ani into your grasp, this heart of Osiris, and 

22 Erpat, i.e., "tribal chief." 

"The Papyrus of Mes-em-neter adds: "His heart goeth forth to 
take up its abode in his body, his heart is renewed before the gods, and 
he hath gained the mastery over it." 

This sentence is taken from the Papyrus of Mes-em-neter. 



176 THE SACRED BOOKS 

cause ye not words of evil to spring up against it; because 
this is the heart of Osiris Ani, triumphant, and it belongeth 
unto him of many names (i.e., Thoth), the mighty one whose 
words are his limbs, who sendeth forth his heart to dwell 
in his body. The heart of Osiris Ani is triumphant, it is 
made new before the gods, he hath gained power over it, he 
hath not been spoken to according to what he hath done. He 
hath got power over his own members. His heart obeyeth 
him, he is the lord thereof, it is in his body, and it shall never 
fall away therefrom. I, Osiris, the scribe Ani, victorious in 
peace, and triumphant in the beautiful Amenta and on the 
mountain of eternity, bid thee to be obedient unto me, in the 
underworld." 

THE CHAPTER OF PRESERVING THE HEART 25 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF THE OVER- 
SEER OF THE PALACE, THE CHANCELLOR-IN-CHIEF, Nu, TRI- 
UMPHANT, BE CARRIED AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. 

He saith : 

"Hail, thou Lion-god! I am the Flower Bush (Unb). 
That which is an abomination unto me is the divine block. 
Let not this my heart (hati) be carried away from me by the 
fighting gods in Annu. Hail, thou who dost wind bandages 
round Osiris and who hast seen Set ! Hail, thou who return- 
est after smiting and destroying him before the mighty ones ! 
This my heart (ab) sitteth and weepeth for itself before 
Osiris ; it hath made supplication for me. I have given unto 
him and I have decreed unto him the thoughts of the heart 
in the House of the god Usekh-hra, 26 and I have brought to 
him sand (sic) at the entry to Khemennu (Hermopolis 
Magna). Let not this my heart (hati) be carried away from 
me! I make thee to dwell upon this throne, O thou who 
joinest together hearts (hatu) in Sekhet-hetep with years of 
strength against all things that are an abomination unto 
thee, and to carry off food from among the things which 

25 From the Papyrus of Nu. 

ze I.e., the god of the " Large Face." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 177 

belong unto thee, and are in thy grasp by reason of thy two- 
fold strength. And this my heart (hati) is devoted to the de- 
crees of the god Tern who leadeth me into the dens of Suti, 
but let not this my heart which hath done its desire before 
the sovereign princes who are in the underworld be given unto 
him. When they find the leg and the swathings they bury 
them." 



THE CHAPTER OF PRESERVING THE HEART 
THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF A MAN BE 

TAKEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Ani, 

triumphant, saith: 

" Turn thou back, O messenger of every god ! Is it that 
thou art come to carry away this my heart which liveth ? 
But my heart which liveth shall not be given unto thee. As 
I advance, the gods barken unto my offerings, and they all 
fall down upon their faces in their own places." 

THE CHAPTER OF PRESERVING THE HEART 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT ALLOWING THE HEART OF AMEN- 
HETEP, TRIUMPHANT, TO BE CARRIED AWAY DEAD IN THE 
UNDERWORLD. The deceased saith: 

" My heart is with me, and it shall never come to pass that 
it shall be carried away. I am the lord of hearts, the slayer 
of the heart. I live in right and truth (Maat) and I have my 
being therein. I am Horus, the dweller in hearts, who is 
within the dweller in the body. I live in my word, and my 
heart hath being. Let not my heart be taken away from me, 
let it not be wounded, and may neither wounds nor gashes 
be dealt upon me because it hath been taken away from me. 
Let me have my being in the body of my father Seb, and in 
the body of my mother Nut. I have not done that which 
is held in abomination by the gods ; let me not suffer defeat 
there, but let me be triumphant." 

*f From the Papyrus of Amen-hetrp. 
VOL. II. 12. 



178 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE HEART OF CARNELIAN 28 

THE CHAPTER OF A HEART OF CARNELIAN. Osiris Ani, 
triumphant, saith: 

" I am the Bennu, the soul of Re, and the guide of the gods 
in the Tuat (underworld). Their divine souls come forth 
upon earth to do the will of their leas; let, therefore, the soul 
of Osiris Ani come forth to do the will of his ka." 

PRESERVING THE HEART 
THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF A MAN BE 

DRIVEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Auf- 

ankh, triumphant, born of Sheret-Amsu, triumphant, saith: 
" My heart, my mother ; my heart, my mother ! My heart 
of my existence upon earth. May naught stand up to op- 
pose me in judgment; may there be no opposition to me in 
the presence of the sovereign princes ; may no evil be wrought 
against me in the presence of the gods ; may there be no part- 
ing of thee from me in the presence of the great god, the 
lord of Amentet. Homage to thee, O thou heart of Osiris- 
khent-Amentet ! Homage to you, O my reins ! Homage to 
you, O ye gods who dwell in the divine clouds, and who are 
exalted (or holy) by reason of your scepters ! Speak ye fair 
words for the Osiris Auf-ankh, and make ye him to prosper 
before Nehebka. And behold, though I be joined unto 
the earth, and am in the mighty innermost part of heaven, 
let me remain on the earth and not die in Amentet, and let me 
be a khu therein forever and ever." 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED OVER A BASALT SCARAB, 
WHICH SHALL BE SET IN A GOLD SETTING, AND IT SHALL BE 
PLACED INSIDE THE HEART OF THE MAN FOR WHOM THE CER- 
EMONIES OF " OPENING THE MOUTH " AND OF ANOINTING WITH 
UNGUENT HAVE BEEN PERFORMED. AND THERE SHALL BE RE- 
CITED BY WAY OF A MAGICAL CHARM THE WORDS I " MY 
HEART, MY MOTHER; MY HEART, MY MOTHER! MY HEART OF 
TRANSFORMATIONS." 

28 From the Papyrus of Ani. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 179 



PRESERVING THE HEART 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF THE OVER- 
SEER OF THE PALACE, THE CHANCELLOR-IN-CHIEF, NU, TRIUM- 
PHANT, BE DRIVEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. 

He saith : 

" O my heart, my mother ; O my heart, my mother ! O 
my heart of my existence upon earth. May naught stand up 
to oppose me in judgment in the presence of the lords of the 
trial ; let it not be said of me and of that which I have done, 
' He hath done deeds against that which is right and true ' ; 
may naught be against me in the presence of the great god, 
the lord of Amentet. Homage to thee, O my heart ! Hom- 
age to thee, O my heart! Homage to you, O my reins! 
Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in the divine clouds, 
and who are exalted (or holy) by reason of your scepters! 
Speak ye for me fair things to Re, and make ye me to prosper 
before Nehebka. And behold me, even though I be joined 
to the earth in the mighty innermost parts thereof, let me 
remain upon the earth and let me not die in Amentet, but 
become a Khu therein." 



PRESERVING THE HEART 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF OSIRIS, THE 
SCRIBE OF THE HOLY OFFERINGS OF ALL THE GODS, ANI, TRI- 
UMPHANT, BE DRIVEN FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. He 

saith: 

" My heart, my mother ; my heart, my mother I My heart 
whereby I came into being ! May naught stand up to oppose 
me at my judgment ; may there be no opposition to me in the 
presence of the sovereign princes (Tchatcha) ; may there be 
no parting of thee from me in the presence of him that keep- 
eth the Balance ! Thou art my lea, the dweller in my body ; 
the god Khnemu who knitteth and strengthened my limbs. 
Mayeat thou come forth into the place of happiness whither 
we go. May the Shenit (i.e., the divine officers of the court 



180 THE SACRED BOOKS 

of Osiris), who form the conditions of the lives of men, not 
cause my name to stink. Let it be satisfactory unto us, and 
let the listening be satisfactory unto us, and let there be joy 
of heart unto us at the weighing of words. Let not that 
which is false be uttered against me before the great god, the 
lord of Amentet. Verily how great shalt thou be when thou 
risest in triumph ! " 

RUBRIC 

THESE WORDS ABE TO BE SAID OVEE A SCARAB OF GREEN 
STONE ENCIRCLED WITH A BAND OF REFINED COPPER AND 
HAVING A RING OF SILVER, WHICH SHALL BE PLACED ON THB 
NECK OF THE EHU. 

THIS CHAPTER WAS FOUND IN THE CITY OF KHEMENNU 
(HERMOPOLIS MAGNA) UNDER THE FEET OF THE STATUE OF 
THIS GOD. IT WAS INSCRIBED UPON A SLAB OF IRON OF THE 
SOUTH, IN THE WRITING OF THE GOD HIMSELF, IN THE TIME 
OF THE MAJESTY OF THE KING OF THE NORTH AND OF THE 
SOUTH, MEN-KAU-RE, 29 TRIUMPHANTLY, BY THE ROYAL SON 
HERU-TA-TA-F, WHO DISCOVERED IT WHILE HE WAS ON HIS 

JOURNEY TO MAKE AN INSPECTION OF THE TEMPLES AND OF 
THEIR ESTATES. 

BEATING BACK THE CROCODILE 

THE CHAPTER OF BEATING BACK THE CROCODILE THAT 
COMETH TO CARRY AWAY THE CHARM FROM N"u, THE OVER- 
SEER OF THE PALACE, THE CHANCELLOR-IN-CHIEF, TRIUM- 
PHANT, THE SON OF THE OVERSEER OF THE PALACE, AMEN- 

HETEP, TRIUMPHANT, IN THE UNDERWORLD. He Saith ! 

" Get thee back, return, get thee back, thou crocodile-fiend 
Sui ; thou shalt not advance to me, for I live by reason of the 
magical words which I have by me. I do not utter that name 
of thine to the great god who will cause thee to come to the 
two divine envoys.; the name of the one is Betti, 30 and the 

2 I.e., Mycerinus, a king of the Fourth Dynasty. 
o/.e., "He of two teeth" (or two horns) ; the Saite Recension reads 
Bent, i.e., " ape." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 181 

name of the other is ' Hra-k-en-Maat.' 31 Heaven hath 
power over its seasons, and the magical word hath power over 
that which is in its possession, let therefore my mouth have 
power over the magical word which is therein. My front 
teeth are like unto flint knives, and my jaw-teeth are like 
unto the Nome of Tutef. 32 Hail thou that sittest with thine 
eyeball upon these my magical words ! Thou shalt not carry 
them away, O thou crocodile that livest by means of magical 
words ! " 

[In the Turin Papyrus (Lepsius, op. cit, Bl. 16) the fol- 
lowing lines are added to this chapter :] 

" I am the Prince in the field. I, even I, am Osiris, who 
hath shut in his father Seb together with his mother Nut on 
the day of the great slaughter. My father is Seb and my 
mother is Nut. I am Horus, the first-born of Re, who is 
crowned. I am Anpu (Anubis) on the day of reckoning. 
I, even I, am Osiris the prince who goeth in and declareth the 
offerings which are written down. I am the guardian of the 
door of Osiris, even I. I have come, I have become glorious 
(or a Khu), I have been reckoned up, I am strong, I have 
come and I avenge mine own self. I have sat in the birth- 
chamber of Osiris, and I was born with him, and I renew 
my youth along with him. I have laid hold upon the Thigh 
which was by Osiris, and I have opened the mouth of the gods 
therewith, I sit upon the place where he sitteth, and I write 
down the number of the things which make strong the heart, 
thousands of loaves of bread, thousands of vases of beer, 
which are upon the altars of his father Osiris, numbers of 
jackals, wolves, oxen, red fowl, geese, and ducks. Horus 
1 1 a th done away with the sacrifices of Thoth. I fill the office 
of priest in the regions above, and I write down there the 
things which make strong the heart. I make offerings (or 
offerings are made to me) at the altars of the Prince of Tattu, 
and I have my being through the oblations made to him. I 
snuff the wind of the East by his head, and I lay hold upon 

J I.e., "Thy face is of ripht and truth." 

" \Ve Rhould probably add the word tep and read Tep tu-f, " He that U 
upon his bill/' i.e., Anubia. 



182 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the breezes of the West thereby. ... I go round about 
heaven in the four quarters thereof, I stretch out my hand 
and grasp the breezes of the south which are upon its hair. 
Grant unto me air among the venerable beings and among 
those who eat bread." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE SHALL 



COME TO AN END, NEVER, NEVER, NEVER. 

BEATING BACK THE CROCODILE 

THE CHAPTER OF BEATING BACK THE CROCODILE THAT 
COMETH TO CARRY AWAY THE MAGICAL WORDS FROM THE KHU 
IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, saith: 

" The Mighty One fell down upon the place where he is," 
or (as others say), "upon his belly, but the company of the 
gods caught him and set him up again. My soul cometh and 
it speaketh with its father, and the Mighty One delivereth it 
from these eight crocodiles. I know them by their names 
and what they live upon, and I am he who hath delivered his 
father from them. 

" Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the West, thou 
that livest upon the stars which never rest, for that which is 
an abomination unto thee is in my belly, O thou that hast 
eaten the forehead of Osiris. I am Set. 

" Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the West, for 
the serpent-fiend Naau is in my belly, and I will give him 
unto thee ; let not thy flame be against me. 

" Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the East, who 
feedest upon those who eat their own filth, for that which is 
an abomination unto thee is in my belly; I advance, I am 
Osiris. 

" Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the East, the 
serpent-fiend Naau is in my belly, and I will give him unto 
thee ; let not thy flame be against me. 

" Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the South, 
who feedest upon filth, and waste, and dirt, for that which is 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 183 

an abomination unto thee is in my belly ; shall not the flame 
be on thy hand ? I am Sept 

" Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the South, 
for I am safe by reason of my charm ; my fist is among the 
flowers and I will not give it unto thee. 

" Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the North, 
who feedest upon what is offered within the hours, for that 
which thou abominatest is in my belly ; let not thy venom be 
upon my head, for I am Tern. 

" Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the North, 
for the goddess Serqet is in my belly and I have not yet 
brought her forth. I am Uatch-Maati (or Merti). 

" The things which are created are in the hollow of my 
hand, and those which have not yet come into being are in 
my body. 

" I am clothed and wholly provided with thy magical words, 
O Re, the which are in heaven above me and in the earth 
beneath me. I have gained power, and exaltation, and a 
full-breathing throat in the abode of my father Ur (i.e., the 
Mighty One), and he hath delivered unto me the beautiful 
Amentet which destroyeth living men and women ; but strong 
is its divine lord, who suffereth from weakness," or (as others 
say) " exhaustion twofold, therein day by day. My face is 
open, my heart is upon its seat, and the crown with the ser- 
pent is upon me day by day. I am Re, who is his own pro- 
tector, and nothing shall ever cast me to the ground." 



REPULSING SERPENTS 

THE CHAPTER OF REPULSING SERPENTS (OR WORMS). Nu, 
the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, 
eaith : 

" Hail, thou serpent Rerek, advance not hither. Behold 
Seb and Shu. Stand still now, and thou shalt eat the rat 
which is an nhfuninahlo thing unto Re, and thou shalt crunch 
the bones of the filthy cat." 



THE SACRED BOOKS 



AGAINST SNAKES 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING OSIRIS Nu, TRIUMPHANT, 

BE BITTEN BY SNAKES (OR WORMS) IN THE UNDERWORLD. 

He saith : 

" O Serpent ! I am the flame which shinest upon the 
Opener of hundreds of thousands of years, and the standard 
of the god Tenpu," or (as others say) " the standard of 
young plants and flowers. Depart ye from me, for I am the 
divine Maftet." 

AGAINST SERPENTS 
THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING Nu, THE CHANCELLOR- 

IN-CHIEF, TRIUMPHANT, BE DEVOURED BY SERPENTS IN THE 

UNDERWORLD. He saith : 

"Hail, thou god Shu! Behold Tattu! Behold Shu! 
Hail Tattu ! Shu hath the headdress of the goddess Hathor. 
They nurse Osiris. Behold the twofold being who is about 
to eat me! Alighting from the boat I depart, and the ser- 
pent-fiend Seksek passeth me by. Behold sam and aaqet 
flowers are kept under guard. This being is Osiris, and he 
maketh entreaty for his tomb. The eyes of the divine prince 
are dropped, and he performeth the reparation which is to be 
done for thee; he giveth unto thee thy portion of right and 
truth according to the decision concerning the states and con- 
ditions of men." 

DRIVING AWAY APSHAIT 

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING AWAY APSHAIT. Osiris Nu, 
the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, saith: 

" Depart from me, O thou that hast lips which gnaw, for I 
am Khnemu, the lord of Peshennu, 33 and I bring the words 
of the gods to Re, and I report my message to the lord 
thereof." 

" Read, " the lord of the city of Shennu," i.e., of Kom Ombos. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 185 



DRIVING BACK THE MERTI 

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK THE TWO MERTI GOD- 
DESSES. Nu, the chancellor-in-chief , triumphant, saith : 

" Homage to you, ye two Rekht goddesses, 34 ye two Sisters, 
ye two Mert goddesses, I bring a message to you concerning 
my magical words. I shine from the SeJctei boat, I am 
Horus the son of Osiris, and I have come to see my father 
Osiris." 

LIVING BY AIR 

THE CHAPTER OF LIVING BY AIR IN THE UNDERWORLD. 
The scribe Nebseni, the lord to whom veneration is paid, 
saith : 

" I am the god Tern, who cometh forth out of Nu into the 
watery abyss. I have received my habitation of Amentet, 
and have given commands with my words to the Khus whose 
abiding-places are hidden, to the Khus and to the double 
Lion-god. I have made journeys round about and I have 
sung hymns of joy in the boat of Khepera. I have eaten 
therein, I have gained power therein, and I live therein 
through the breezes which are there. I am the guide in the 
boat of Re, and he openeth out for me a path ; he maketh a 
passage for me through the gates of the god Seb. I have 
seized and carried away those who live in the embrace of the 
god Ur (i.e.. Mighty One) ; I am the guide of those who live 
in their shrines, the two brother-gods Horus and Set ; and I 
bring the noble ones with me. I enter in and I come forth, 
and my throat is not slit ; I go into the boat of Maat, and I 
pass in among those who live in the Atet boat, and who are in 
the following of Re, and are nigh unto him in his horizon. 
I live after my death day by day, and I am strong even as is 
the double Lion-god. I live, and I am delivered after my 
death, I, the scribe Nebseni, the lord of piety, who fill the 
earth and come forth like the lily of mother-of -emerald, of 
the god Hetep of the two lands." 

The two opponent goddesses, or Isis and Nephthys. 



186 THE SACRED BOOKS 

LIVING BY AIE 35 

THE CHAPTER OF LIVING BY AIR IN THE UNDERWORLD. 
Nuj the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, trium- 
phant, the son of the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in- 
chief, Amen-hetep, triumphant, saith : 

" I am the double Lion-god, the first born of Re and Tern 
of Ha-khebti, the gods who dwell in their divine chambers. 
Those who dwell in their divine abodes have become my 
guides, and they make paths for me as they revolve in the 
watery abyss of the sky by the side of the path of .the boat of 
Tern. I stand upon the timbers of the boat of Re, and I 
recite his ordinances to the beings who have knowledge, and 
I am the herald of his words to him whose throat stinketh. I 
set free my divine fathers at eventide. I close the lips of my 
mouth, and I eat like unto a living being. I have life in 
Tattu, and I live again after death like Re day by day." 

DRIVING BACK REREK 

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK THE SERPENT REREK IN 
THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Mes-em-neter saith : 

" Get thee back, depart, retreat from me, O Aapef, with- 
draw, or thou shalt be drowned at the Pool of Nu, at the 
place where thy father hath ordered that thy slaughter shall 
be performed. Depart thou from the divine place of birth 
of Re wherein is thy terror. I am Re who dwelleth in his 
terror. Get thee back, Fiend, before the darts of his beams. 
Re hath overthrown thy words, the gods have turned thy face 
backward, the Lynx hath torn open thy breast, the Scorpion 
hath cast fetters upon thee; and Maat hath sent forth thy 
destruction. Those who are in the ways have overthrown 
thee ; fall down and depart, O Apep, thou Enemy of Re ! O 
thou that passest over the region in the eastern part of heaven 
with the sound of the roaring thunder-cloud, O Re who 

This is apparently another version of the preceding chapter. But 
it is taken from the Papyrus of Nil, which gives a wholly different form 
from the preceding. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 187 

openest the gates of the horizon straightway on thy appear- 
ance, Apep hath sunk helpless under thy gashings. I have 
performed thy will, O Re, I have performed thy will ; I have 
done that which is fair, I have done that which is fair, I have 
labored for the peace of Re. I have made to advance thy fet- 
ters, O Re, and Apep hath fallen through thy drawing them 
tight. The gods of the south and of the north, of the west 
and of the east have fastened chains upon him, and they 
have fettered him with fetters; the god Rekes hath over- 
thrown him and the god Hertit hath put him in chains. Re 
setteth, Re setteth; Re is strong at his setting. Apep hath 
fallen, Apep, the enemy of Re, departeth. Greater is the 
punishment which hath been inflicted on thee than the sting 
which is in the Scorpion goddess, and mightily hath she, 
whose course is everlasting, worked it upon thee and with 
deadly effect. Thou shalt never enjoy the delights of love, 
thou shalt never fulfil thy desire, O Apep, thou Enemy of 
Re ! He maketh thee to go back, O thou who are hateful to 
Re; he looketh upon thee, get thee back! He pierceth thy 
head, he cutteth through thy face, he divideth thy head at the 
two sides of the ways, and it is crushed in his land ; thy bones 
are smashed in pieces, thy members are hacked off thee and 
the god Aker hath condemned thee, O Apep, thou enemy of 
Re! Thy mariners are those who keep the reckoning for 
thee, O Re, as thou advancest, and thou restest there wherein 
are the offerings made to thee. As thou advancest, as thou 
advancest toward the House the advance which thou hast 
made toward the House is a prosperous advance ; let not any 
baleful obstacle proceed from thy mouth against me when 
thou workest on my behalf. I am Set who let loose the storm- 
clouds and the thunder in the horizon of heaven even as doth 
the god Netcheb-ab-f. 

" t Hail,' saith the god Tern, * make strong your faces, O 
soldiers of Re, for I have driven back the god Nentcha in the 
presence of the divine sovereign princes.' ' Hail,' saith the 
god Seb, ' make ye firm those who are upon their seats which 
are in the boat of Khepera, take ye your WHYS, L r nis|>inir your 
weapons of war in your hands.' ' Hail,' saith Hathor, ' take 



188 THE SACRED BOOKS 

ye your armor.' ' Hail/ saith Nut, ' come and repulse the 
god Tcha who pursueth him that dwelleth in his shrine and 
who setteth out on his way alone, namely, Neb-er-tcher, who 
can not be repulsed.' 'Hail/ say those gods who dwell in 
their companies and who go round about the Turquoise Pool, 
'come, O mighty One, we praise and we will deliver the 
Mighty One who dwelleth in the divine Shrine, from whom 
proceeds the company of the gods, let commemorations be 
made for him, let praise be given to him, let words of praise 
be recited before him by you and by me.' ' Hail,' saith Nut 
to thy Sweet One. ' Hail,' say those who dwell among the 
gods, ' he cometh forth, he findeth his way, he maketh cap- 
tives among the gods, he hath taken possession of the goddess 
Nut, and Seb standeth up.' Hail, thou terrible one, the com- 
pany of the gods is on the march. Hathor quaketh with ter- 
ror, and Re hath triumphed over Apep." 

REPULSING THE EATER OF THE ASS 

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK THE EATER OF THE Ass. 
Osiris Re, triumphant, saith : 

I. " Get thee back, Hai, thou impure one, thou abomina- 
tion of Osiris ! Thoth hath cut off thy head, and I have per- 
formed upon thee all the things which the company of the 
gods ordered concerning thee in the matter of the work of thy 
slaughter. Get thee back, thou abomination of Osiris, from 
the Neshmet boat . . . which advanceth with a fair wind. 
Ye are holy, O all ye gods, and ye have cast down headlong 
the enemies of Osiris ; the gods of Ta-ur shout for joy. Get 
thee back, O thou Eater of the Ass, thou abomination of the 
god Haas who dwelleth in the underworld. I know thee, I 
know thee, I know thee, I know thee. Who art thou? I 
am ... 

II. " On thy face, O fiend, and devour me not, for I am 
pure, and I am with the time which cometh of itself. Thou 
shalt not come to me, O thou that comest without being 
invoked, and whose time of coming is unknown. I am the 
lord of thy mouth, get thee back, thou and thy desires. Hail, 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 189 

Haas, with his stone knife Horus hath cut asunder thy mem- 
bers, and thou art destroyed within thy company, and thy 
bend (or dwelling-place) is destroyed for thee by the company 
of thy gods who dwell in the cities of Pe and Tep. He that 
slayeth thee, there is in the form of the Eye of Horus, and I 
have driven thee away as thou wast advancing, and I have 
vanquished thee by the winds of my mouth. O thou Eater 
of those who commit sins, who dost plunder and spoil, I have 
committed no sin ; therefore, let my palette and the writings 
with hostile charges against me upon them be given unto me. 
I have done no wrong in the presence of the sovereign princes, 
therefore shoot not thy venom at me. I give, do thou take 
according to what I order ; snatch me not away, and eat me 
not, for I am the lord of life,, the Prince (life, health, 
strength!) of the horizon." 

ABOLISHING THE SLAUGHTERINGS 
THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING AWAY THE SLAUGHTERINGS 

WHICH ARE PERFORMED IN THE UNDERWORLD. Nebseni, the 

scribe and designer in the Temples of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, he to whom fair veneration is paid, the son of the 
scribe and artist Thena, triumphant, saith: 

"Hail, Tern, I have become glorious (or a Khu) in the 
presence of the double Lion-god, the great god, therefore open 
thou unto me the gate of the god Seb. I smell the earth (i.e., 
I bow down so that my note toucheth the ground) of the great 
god who dwelleth in the underworld, and I advance into the 
presence of the company of the gods who dwell with the 
beings who are in the underworld. Hail, thou guardian of 
the divine door of the city of Beta, thou god Neti, who 
dwellest in Amentet, I eat food, and I have life through the 
air, and the god Atch-ur leadeth me with him to the mighty 
boat of Khepera. I hold converse with the divine mariners 
at eventide, I enter in, I go forth, and I see the being who is 
there; I lift him up, and I say that which I have to say unto 
him, whose throat stinketh for lack of air. I have life, and 
I am delivered, having lain down in death. Hail, thou that 



190 THE SACRED BOOKS 

br ingest offerings and oblations, bring forward thy mouth 
and make to draw nigh the writings (or lists) of offerings 
and oblations. Set thou Right and Truth firmly upon their 
throne, make thou the writings to draw nigh, and set thou 
up the goddesses in the presence of Osiris, the mighty god, 
the Prince of everlastingness, who counteth his years, who 
harkeneth unto those who are in the islands (or pools), who 
raiseth his right shoulder, who judgeth the divine princes, 
and who sendeth Osiris into the presence of the great sover- 
eign princes who live in the underworld." 

ABOLISHING THE SLAUGHTERINGS 
THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK THE SLAUGHTERINGS 

WHICH ARE PERFORMED IN SuTEN-HENEN. Osiris Nu, 

triumphant, saith : 

"O thou land of the scepter! (literally, wood). O thou 
white crown of the divine form ! O thou resting-place of the 
boat ! I am the Child, I am the Child, I am the Child, I am 
the Child. Hail, Abu-ur, thou sayest day by day : ' The 
slaughter-block is made ready as thou knowest, and thou hast 
come to decay.' I am Re, the stablisher of those who praise 
him. I am the knot of the god within the Aser tree, the 
doubly beautiful one, who is more splendid than yesterday 
(say four times). I am Re, the stablisher of those who 
praise him. I am the knot of the god within the Aser tree, 
and my going forth is the going forth of Re on this day. 

" My hair is the hair of Nu. My face is the face of the 
Disk. My eyes are the eyes of Hathor. My ears are the 
ears of Ap-uat. My nose is the nose of Khenti-khas. My 
lips are the lips of Anpu. My teeth are the teeth of Serqet. 
My neck is the neck of the divine goddess Isis. My hands 
are the hands of Ba-neb-Tattu. My forearms are the fore- 
arms of Neith, the Lady of Sais. My backbone is the back- 
bone of Suti. My phallus is the phallus of Osiris. My reins 
are the reins of the Lords of Kher-aba. My chest is the chest 
of the Mighty one of Terror. My belly and back are the 
belly and back of Sekhet. My buttocks are the buttocks of 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 191 

the Eye of Horus. My hips and legs are the hips and legs of 
Nut. My feet are the feet of Ptah. My fingers and my leg- 
bones are the fingers and leg-bones of the living Gods. There 
is no member of my body which is not the member of some 
god. The god Thoth shieldeth my body altogether, and I am 
Re day by day. I shall not be dragged back by my arms, and 
none shall lay violent hold upon my hands. And shall do 
me hurt neither men, nor gods, nor the sainted dead, nor 
those who have perished, nor any one of those of ancient 
times, nor any mortal, nor any human being. I am he who 
cometh forth, advancing, whose name is unknown. I am 
Yesterday, and Seer of millions of years is my name. I pass 
along, I pass along the paths of the divine celestial judges. 
I am the lord of eternity, and I decree and I judge like the 
god Khepera. I am the lord of the Ureret crown. I am he 
who dwelleth in the Utchat and in the Egg, in the Utchat 
and in the Egg, and it is given unto me to live with them. 
I am he that dwelleth in the Utchat when it closeth, and I 
exist by the strength thereof. I come forth and I shine; I 
enter in and I come to life. I am in the Utchat, my seat 
is upon my throne, and I sit in the abode of splendor before 
it. I am Horus and I traverse millions of years. I have 
given the decree for the stablishing of my throne and I am 
the ruler thereof; and in very truth my mouth keepeth an 
even balance both in speech and in silence. In very truth, 
my forms are inverted. I am Un-nefer, from one season even 
unto another, and what I have is within me ; I am the only 
One, who proceedeth from an only One who goeth round 
about in his course. I am he who dwelleth in the Utchat; 
no evil thing of any form or kind shall spring up against me, 
and no baleful object, and no harmful thing, and no disas- 
trous thing shall happen unto me. I open the door in heaven, 
I govern my throne, and I open up the way for the births 
which take place on this day. I am the child who marcheth 
along the road of Yesterday. I am To-day for untold nations 
and peoples. I am he who protecteth you for millions of 
years, and whether ye be denizens of the heavens, or of the 
earth, or of the south, or of the north, or of the east, or of the 



192 THE SACRED BOOKS 

west, the fear of me is in your bodies. I am he whose being 
has been molded in his eye, and I shall not die again. My 
movement is in your bodies, but my arms are in my place of 
habitation. I am he who can not be known, but the Red 
Ones have their faces directed toward me. I am the unveiled 
one. The season wherein the god created the heavens for me 
and enlarged the bounds of the earth and made great the 
progeny thereof can not be found out ; but they fail and are 
not united again. My name setteth itself apart from all 
things and from the great evil which is in the mouths of men 
by reason of the speech which I address unto you. I am he 
who riseth and shineth, the walls which cometh out of a wall, 
an only One who proceedeth from an only One. There is 
never a day that passeth without the things which appertain 
unto him being therein; passing, passing, passing, passing. 
Verily I say unto thee, I am the Sprout which cometh forth 
from Nu ; and my Mother is Nut. Hail, O my Creator, I am 
he who hath no power to walk, the great Knot who is within 
yesterday. The might of my strength is within my hand. I 
myself am not known, but I am he who knoweth thee. I can 
not be held with the hand, but I am he who can hold thee in 
his hand. Hail, O Egg! Hail, O Egg! I am Horus who 
liveth for millions of years, whose flame shineth upon you and 
bringeth your hearts to me. I have the command of my 
throne and I advance at this season, I have opened a path, 
and I have delivered myself from all evil things. I am the 
dog-headed ape of gold three palms and two fingers high, 
which hath neither arms nor legs and dwelleth in Het-ka- 
Ptah (Memphis), and I go forth as goeth forth the dog- 
headed ape that dwelleth in Het-ka-Ptah." 

AIR AND WATER 36 

THE CHAPTER OF SNUFFING THE AIR AND OF HAVING THE 
MASTERY OVER THE WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. The OVCr- 
seer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
saith : 

SB From the Papyrus of Nu. 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 193 

" Hail, Hap-ur, god of heaven, in thy name of ' Divider of 
heaven/ grant thou unto me that I may have dominion over 
the water, even as the goddess Sekhet had power over Osiris 
on the night of the storms and floods. Grant thou that I may 
have power over the divine princes who have their habitations 
in the place of the god of the inundation, even as they have 
power over their own holy god of whose name they are igno- 
rant ; and may they let me have power even as he hath let them 
have power. 

"My nostrils are opened in Tattu," or (as others say), 
" My mouth and my nostrils are opened in Tatau, and I have 
my place of peace in Annu, which is my house ; it was built 
for me by the goddess Sesheta, and the god Khnemu set it 
up for me upon its walls. If to this heaven it cometh by 
the north, I sit at the south; if to this heaven it cometh 
by the south, I sit at the north; if to this heaven it com- 
eth by the west, I sit at the east; and if to this heaven it 
cometh by the east, I sit at the west. I draw the hair of my 
nostrils, and I make my way into every place in which I wish 
to sit." 

[In the Papyrus of Nefer-uben-f this chapter ends quite 
differently, and reads:] 

" I am strong in my mouth and in my nostrils, for behold 
Tern has stablished them ; behold, O ye gods and Khus. Rest 
thou, then, O Tern. Behold the staff which blossometh, and 
which cometh forth when a man crieth out in your names. 
Behold, I am Tern, the tree of the gods in their visible forms. 
Let me not be turned back ... I am the Am-Jchent f Nefer- 
uben-f, triumphant. Let neither my flesh nor my members 
be gashed with knives, let me not be wounded by knives 
by you. 

" I have come, I have been judged, I have come forth 
tli-roin, I have power with my father, the Old man, Nu. He 
hath granted that I may live, he hath given strength unto me, 
and he hath provided me with the inheritance of my father 
therein," 

VOL. II. 13. 



194 THE SACRED BOOKS 



DOMINION OVER ELEMENTS 8T 
THE CHAPTER OF BREATHING THE AIR AND OF HAVING 

DOMINION OVER THE WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris 

Ani saith: 

"Open to me." Who art thou? Whither goest thou? 
What is thy name ? "I am one of you." Who are those 
with thee ? " The two serpent goddesses Merti. Separate 
thou from him, head from head, when thou goest into the 
divine Mesqen chamber. He letteth me set out for the temple 
of the gods who have found their faces. ' Assembler of 
Souls ' is the name of my boat ; ' Making the hair to stand 
on end ' is the name of the oars ; ' Goad ' is the name of the 
hold ; ' Making straight for the middle ' is the name of the 
rudder ; likewise the boat is a type of my being borne onward 
in the pool. Let there be given unto me vessels of milk, 
together with cakes, and loaves of bread, and cups of drink, 
and flesh in the Temple of Anpu." 

IF HE (i.e., THE DECEASED) KNOWETH THIS CHAPTER, HE 

SHALL GO INTO, AFTER COMING FORTH FROM, THE UNDER- 
WORLD OF THE BEAUTIFUL AMENTET. 



DOMINION OVER ELEMENTS 88 
THE CHAPTER OF SNUFFING THE AIR, AND OF HAVING 

DOMINION OVER THE WATERS IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris 

Ani saith: 

"Hail, thou sycamore-tree of the goddess Nut! Grant 
thou to me of the water and of the air which dwell in thee. I 
embrace the throne which is in Unnu (Hermopolis), and I 
watch and guard the egg of Nekek-ur (i.e., the Great Cack- 
ler). It groweth, I grow; it liveth, I live; it snuff eth the 
air, I snuff the air, I the Osiris Ani, in triumph." 

* From the Papyrus of Ani. 
From the Papyrus of Ani. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 195 



DOMINION OVEK ELEMENTS 39 

ANOTHER CHAPTER. Osiris Auf-ankk, triumphant, saith : 
" Let the gates of heaven be opened for me by the god 
Thoth and by Hapi, and let me pass through the doors of Ta- 
qeb& 40 into the great heaven," or (as others say), "at the 
time," or (as others say), "with the strength of Re. Grant 
ye, O Thoth and Hapi, that I may have power over the water, 
even as Set had power over his enemies on the day when there 
were storms and rain upon the earth. Let me have power 
over the divine beings who have mighty arms in their shoul- 
ders, even as the god who is appareled in splendor and whose 
name is unknown had power over them; and may I have 
power over the beings whose arms are mighty." 

PRESERVATION OF THE SOUL 
THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE SOUL OF A MAN BE 

TAKEN FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris, the Scribe 

Ani, saith : 

" I, even I, am he who came forth from the water-flood 
which I make to overflow, and which becometh mighty as the 
river Nile." 

OF DRINKING WATER 41 

THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. 
The scribe Nebseni . . . saith : 

" May be opened to me the mighty flood by Osiris, and 
may the abyss of water be opened to me by Tehuti-Hapi, the 
lord of the horizon, in my name of ' Opener.' May there 
be granted to me mastery over the watercourses as over the 
members of Set. I go forth into heaven. I am the Lion- 

" From Lepsius, " Todtenluch." 

o I.e., the " land of cold and refreshing water." 

" The last three chapters, with a single vignette, are grouped in one 
in the Papyrus of Nefer-uben-f ; but the order of them as there given is 
different. In the Turin Papyrus the vignette of each is the same, i.e., 
the deceased holding a sail in his left hand. 



196 THE SACRED BOOKS 

god Re. I am the Bull. I have eaten the Thigh, and I have 
divided the carcass. I have gone round about among the 
islands (or lakes) of Sekhet-Aaru. Indefinite time, without 
beginning and without end, hath been given to me ; I inherit 
eternity, and everlastingness hath been bestowed upon me." 

OF DRINKING WATER 
THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER AND OF NOT BEING 

BURNT BY FIRE IN THE UNDERWORLD. The OVCrSCCr of the 

palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" Hail, Bull of Amentet ! I am brought unto thee, I am 
the oar of Re wherewith he ferried over the divine aged 
ones ; let me neither be burnt up nor destroyed by fire. I am 
Bet, the first-born son of Osiris, who doth meet every god 
within his Eye in Annu. I am the divine Heir, the exalted 
one, the Mighty One, the Resting One. I have made my 
name to germinate, I have delivered it, and thou shalt live 
through me day by day." 

PRESERVATION FROM SCALDING 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT BEING SCALDED WITH WATER. The 
overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, trium- 
phant, saith: 

" I am the oar made ready for rowing, wherewith Re trans- 
ported the boat containing the divine ancestors, and lifted up 
the moist emanations of Osiris from the Lake of Fire, and 
he was not burned. I lie down like a divine Kliu, and like 
Khnemu who dwelleth among lions. Come, break away the 
restraints from him that passeth by the side of this path, and 
let me come forth by it." 

ON COMING FORTH BY DAY IN THE UNDER- 
WORLD 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY IN THE UNDER- 
WORLD. Nebseni, the lord of reverence, saith : 

" I am Yesterday, To-day, and To-morrow, and I have the 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 197 

power to be born a second time ; I am the divine hidden Soul 
who createth the gods, and who giveth sepulchral meals unto 
the denizens of the Tuat (underworld), Amentet, and 
heaven. I am the rudder of the east, the possessor of two 
divine faces wherein his beams are seen. I am the lord of 
the men who are raised up ; the lord who cometh forth from 
out of the darkness, and whose forms of existence are of the 
house wherein are the dead. Hail, ye two hawks who are 
perched upon your resting-places, who harken unto the things 
which are said by him, who guide the bier to the hidden 
place, who lead along Re, and who follow him into the upper- 
most place of the shrine which is in the celestial heights! 
Hail, lord of the shrine which standeth in the middle of the 
earth. He is I, and I am he, and Ptah hath covered his sky 
with crystal. Hail, Re, thou who art content, thy heart is 
glad by reason of thy beautiful law of the day ; thou enterest 
in by Khemennu and comest forth at the east, and the divine 
first-born beings who are in thy presence cry out with glad- 
ness unto thee. Make thou thy roads glad for me, and make 
broad for me thy paths when I shall set out from earth for 
the life in the celestial regions. Send forth thy light upon 
me, O Soul unknown, for I am one of those who are about 
to enter in, and the divine speech is in my ears in the Tuat 
(underworld), and let no defects of my mother be imputed 
unto me; let me be delivered and let me be safe from him 
whose divine eyes sleep at eventide, when he gathereth 
together and finisheth the day in night. I flood the land 
with water, and ' Qem-ur ' is my name, and the garment 
wherewith I am clothed is complete. Hail, thou divine 
prince Ati-she-f, cry out unto those divine beings who dwell 
in their hair at the season when the god is lifted upon the 
shoulder, saying : * Come thou who dwellest above thy divine 
abyss of water, for verily the thigh of the sacrifice is tied to 
the neck, and the buttocks are laid upon the head of Amentet. 1 
" May the Ur-urti goddesses (i.e., Isis and Nephthys) grant 
such gifts unto me when my tears start from me as I see 
myself journeying with the divine Tena in Abydos, and the 
wooden fastenings which fasten Jthe four doors above thee are 



198 THE SACRED BOOKS 

in thy power within thy garment. Thy face is like that of a 
greyhound which scenteth with his nose the place whither I 
go on my feet. The god Akau transporteth me to the cham- 
ber, and my nurse is the divine double Lion-god himself. I 
am made strong and I come forth like him that forceth a 
way through the gate, and the radiance which my heart hath 
made is enduring ; * I know the abysses ' is thy name. I 
work for you, O ye Khus 4,000,000, 600,000, 1,000, and 
200 are they concerning the things which are there. I am 
over their affairs working for hours and days in setting 
straight the shoulders of the twelve Sah gods, and joining the 
hands of their company, each to each ; the sixth who is at the 
head of the abyss is the hour of the defeat of the Fiends. I 
have come there in triumph, and I am he who is in the halls 
(or courtyards) of the underworld, and I am he who is laid 
under tribute to Shu. I rise as the Lord of Life through the 
beautiful law of this day, and it is their blood and the cool 
water of their slaughter which make the union of the earth to 
blossom. I make a way among the horns of all those who 
make themselves strong against me, and among those who in 
secret make themselves adversaries unto me, and who are 
upon their bellies. I have come as the envoy of my Lord of 
lords to give counsel concerning Osiris; the eye shall not 
absorb its tears. I am the divine envoy of the house of him 
that dwelleth in his possessions, and I have come from Sek- 
hem to Annu to make known to the Bennu bird therein con- 
cerning the events of the Tuat (underworld). Hail, thou 
Aukert (i.e., underworld) which hidest thy companion who is 
in thee, thou creator of forms of existence like the god 
Khepera, grant thou that Nebseni, the scribe and designer to 
the temples of the South and of the North, may come forth to 
see the Disk, and that his journeyings forth may be in the 
presence of the great god, that is to say Shu, who dwelleth in 
everlastingness. Let me journey on in peace; let me pass 
over the sky ; let me adore the radiance of the splendor which 
is in my sight ; let me soar like a bird to see the companies of 
the Khus in the presence of Re day by day, who vivifieth 
every human being that walketh upon the regions which are 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 199 

upon the earth. Hail, Hemti (i.e., Runner) ; Hail, Hemti ; 
who carriest away the shades of the dead and the Khus from 
earth, grant thou unto me a prosperous way to the Tuat 
(underworld), such as is made for the favored ones of the 
god, because I am helpless to gather together the emanations 
which come from me. Who art thou, then, who consumest 
in its hidden place ? I am the Chief in Re-stau, and ' He 
that goeth in in his own name and cometh forth in that of 
Hehi, the lord of millions of years, and of the earth/ is 
my name. 

" The pregnant goddess hath deposited upon the earth 
her load, and hath given birth to Hit straightway ; the closed 
door which is by the wall is overthrown, it is turned upside 
down and I rejoice thereat. To the Mighty One hath his 
eye been given, and it sendeth forth light from his face when 
the earth becometh light (or at daybreak). I shall not 
become corrupt, but I shall come into being in the form of the 
Lion-god and like the blossoms of Shu ; I am the being who 
is never overwhelmed in the waters. Happy, yea happy is 
he that looked upon the funeral couch which hath come to its 
place of rest, upon the happy day of the god whose heart 
resteth, who maketh his place of alighting thereon. I am he 
who cometh forth by day; the lord of the bier which giveth 
life in the presence of Osiris. In very truth the things which 
are thine are stable each day, O scribe, artist, child of the 
Seshet chamber, Nebseni, lord of veneration. I clasp the 
sycamore-tree, I myself am joined unto the sycamore-tree, 
and its arms are opened unto me graciously. I have come 
and I have clasped the Utchat, and I have caused it to be 
seated in peace upon its throne. I have come to see Re when 
he setteth, and I absorb into myself the winds which arise 
when he cometh forth, and both my hands are clean to adore 
him. I have gathered together all my members, I have 
gathered together all my members. I soar like a bird and I 
descend upon the earth, and mine eyes maketh me to walk 
thereon in my footsteps. I am the child of yesterday, and 
the Akeru gods of the earth have made me to como into bointr, 
and they have made me strong for my moment of coming 



200 THE SACRED BOOKS 

forth. I hide with the god Aba-aaiu who will walk behind 
me, and my members shall germinate, and my Tchu shall be 
as an amulet for my body and as one who watcheth to protect 
my soul and to defend it and to converse therewith ; and the 
company of the gods shall barken unto my words." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE SHALL 
BE VICTORIOUS BOTH UPON EARTH AND IN THE UNDERWORLD. 
HE SHALL DO WHATSOEVER A MAN DOETH WHO IS UPON THE 
EARTH, AND HE SHALL PERFORM ALL THE DEEDS WHICH THOSE 
DO WHO ARE ALIVE. NOW IT IS A GREAT PROTECTION GIVEN 
BY THE GOD. THIS CHAPTER WAS FOUND IN THE CITY OF KIIE- 
MENNU INSCRIBED UPON THE BLOCK OF IRON IN LETTERS OF 
LAPIS LAZULI WHICH WAS UNDER THE FEET OF THIS GOD. 42 



CHAPTER OF KNOWLEDGE 
THE CHAPTER OF KNOWING THE " CHAPTERS OF COMING 

FORTH BY DAY " IN A SINGLE CHAPTER. The OVCrSCCr of the 

palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Osiris Nu, triumphant, begot- 
ten of the overseer of the palace, Amen-betep, triumphant, 
saith : 

" I am Yesterday and To-morrow ; and I have the power 
to be born a second time. I am the divine hidden Soul, who 
createth the gods and who giveth sepulchral meals to the 
divine hidden beings in the Tuat (underworld), in Amenti, 
and in heaven. I am the rudder of the east, the possessor of 
two divine faces wherein his beams are seen. I am the 
lord of those who are raised up, the lord who cometh forth 
from out of the darkness. Hail, ye two divine Hawks who 
are perched upon your resting-places, and who barken unto 
the things which are said by him, the thigh of the sacrifice is 
tied to the neck, and the buttocks are laid upon the head of 
Amentet. May the Ur-urti goddesses (i.e., Isis and Neph- 

In the rubric to this chapter as found in the Papyrus of Mes-em- 
neter. the chapter is said to have been " discovered in the foundations of 
the shrine of the divine Hennu boat by the chief mason in the time of 
the King of the North and of the South, Hesepti, triumphant." Hesepti 
was a king of the First Dynasty. 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 201 

thys) grant such gifts unto me when my tears start from me 
as I look on. ' I know the abysses ' is thy name. I work 
for you, O ye Klius, who are in number four millions, six 
hundred, and 1,000, and 200, and they are in height twelve 
cubits. We travel on joining the hands, each to each, but 
the sixth hour, which belongeth at the head of the Tuat 
(underworld), is the hour of the overthrow of the Fiend. I 
have come there in triumph, and I am he who is in the 
hall (or courtyards) of the Tuat ; and the seven come in his 
manifestations. 

" The strength which protecteth me is that which hath 
my Ka under its protection, that is the blood, and the cool 
water, and the slaughterings which abound. I open a way 
among the horns of all those who would do harm unto me, 
who keep themselves hidden, who make themselves adver- 
saries unto me, and those who are upon their bellies. The 
Eye shall not eat (or absorb) the tears of the goddess Aukert. 
Hail, goddess Aukert, open thou unto me the enclosed place, 
and grant thou unto me pleasant roads whereupon I may 
travel. Who art thou, then, who consumest in the hidden 
places ? I am the Chief in Re-stau, and I go in and come 
forth in my name of * Hehi, the lord of millions of years and 
of the earth ' ; I am the maker of my name. The pregnant 
one hath deposited upon the earth her load. The door by 
the wall is shut fast, and the things of terror are overturned 
and thrown down upon the backbone of the Bennu bird by the 
two Samait goddesses. To the Mighty One hath his Eye 
been given, and his face emitteth light when he illumineth 
the earth ; my name is his name. I shall not become corrupt, 
but I shall come into being in the form of the Lion-god ; the 
blossoms of Shu shall be in me. I am he who is never over- 
whelmed in the waters. Happy, yea happy, is the funeral 
couch of the Still-heart; he maketh himself to alight upon 
the pool, and verily he cometh forth therefrom. I am the 
lord of my life. I have come to this place, and I have come 
forth from Re-aa-urt, the city of Osiris. Verily the things 
which are thine are with the Sariu deities. I have clasped 
the sycamore-tree and I have divided it ; I have opened a way 



202 THE SACRED BOOKS 

for myself among the SeJchiu gods of the Tuat. I have come 
to see him that dwelleth in his divine uraBus, face to face and 
eye to eye, and I draw to myself the winds which rise when 
he cometh forth. My two eyes are weak in my face, O Lion- 
god, Babe, who dwellest in Utent. Thou art in me and I am 
in thee ; and thy attributes are my attributes. I am the god of 
the Inundation (Bah), and i Qem-ur-she' is my name. My 
forms are the forms of the god Khepera, the hair of the earth 
of Tern, the hair of the earth of Tern. I have entered in as 
a man of no understanding, and I shall come forth in the 
form of a strong lea, and I shall look upon my form which 
shall be that of men and women forever and forever." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY A MAN HE SHALL COMB 
FORTH BY DAY, AND HE SHALL NOT BE REPULSED AT ANY GATE 
OF THE TUAT (UNDERWORLD), EITHER IN GOING IN OR IN 
COMING OUT. HE SHALL PERFORM ALL THE TRANSFORMA- 
TIONS WHICH HIS HEART SHALL DESIRE FOR HIM AND HE 
SHALL NOT DIE; BEHOLD, THE SOUL OF THIS MAN SHALL 
FLOURISH. AND MOREOVER, IF HE KNOW THIS CHAPTER HE 
SHALL BE VICTORIOUS UPON EARTH AND IN THE UNDERWORLD, 
AND HE SHALL PERFORM EVERY ACT OF A LIVING HUMAN BEING. 
NOW IT IS A GREAT PROTECTION WHICH HATH BEEN GIVEN BY 
THE GOD. THIS CHAPTER WAS FOUND IN THE FOUNDATIONS 
OF THE SHRINE OF HENNU BY THE CHIEF MASON DURING THE 
REIGN OF HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE NORTH AND OF 
THE SOUTH, HESEPTI, TRIUMPHANT, WHO CARRIED IT AWAY 
AS A MYSTERIOUS OBJECT WHICH HAD NEVER BEFORE BEEN 
SEEN OR LOOKED UPON. THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED 
BY A MAN WHO IS CEREMONIALLY CLEAN AND PURE, WHO 
HATH NOT EATEN THE FLESH OF ANIMALS OR FISH, AND WHO 
HATH NOT HAD INTERCOURSE WITH WOMEN. 

43 IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE SHALL 
BE VICTORIOUS BOTH UPON EARTH AND IN THE UNDERWORLD, 
AND HE SHALL PERFORM EVERY ACT OF A LIVING HUMAN 
BEING. NOW IT IS A GREAT PROTECTION WHICH HATH BEEN 
GIVEN BY THE GOD. 

THIS CHAPTER WAS FOUND IN THE CITY OF KHEMENNU, 
From Papyrus of Nu, sheet 21. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 203 

UPON A BLOCK OF IKON OF THE SOUTH, WHICH HAD BEEN IN- 
LAID WITH LETTERS OF REAL LAPIS LAZULI, UNDEK THE FEET 
OF THE GOD DURING THE REIGN OF HIS MAJESTY, THE KING 
OF THE NORTH AND OF THE SOUTH, MEN-KAU-RA (MYCERINUs), 
TRIUMPHANT, BY THE ROYAL SON HERU-TA-TA-F, 44 TRIUM- 
PHANT; HE FOUND IT WHEN HE WAS JOURNEYING ABOUT TO 
MAKE AN INSPECTION OF THE TEMPLES. ONE NEKHT WAS 
WITH HIM WHO WAS DILIGENT IN MAKING HIM TO UNDER- 
STAND IT, AND HE BROUGHT IT TO THE KING AS A WONDERFUL 
OBJECT WHEN HE SAW THAT IT WAS A THING OF GREAT MYS- 
TERY, WHICH HAD NEVER BEFORE BEEN SEEN OR LOOKED 
UPON. 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED BY A MAN WHO IS CERE- 
MONIALLY CLEAN AND PURE, WHO HATH NOT EATEN THE 
FLESH OF ANIMALS OR FISH, AND WHO HATH NOT HAD INTER- 
COURSE WITH WOMEN. AND BEHOLD, THOU SHALT MAKE A 
SCARAB OF GREEN STONE, WITH A RIM PLATED WITH GOLD, 
WHICH SHALL BE PLACED IN THE HEART OF A MAN, AND IT 
SHALL PERFORM FOR HIM THE " OPENING OF THE MOUTH." 
AND THOU SHALT ANOINT IT WITH A.NTI UNGENT, AND THOU 
SHALT RECITE OVER IT THESE ENCHANTMENTS: 45 



OF GAINING MASTEEY OVER ENEMIES 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY AND OF GAINING 
THE MASTERY OVER ENEMIES. The chancellor-iu-chief, Nu, 
saith : 

" Re sitteth in his habitation of millions of years, and he 
hath gathered together the company of the gods, with those 
divine beings, whose faces are hidden, who dwell in the Tem- 
ple of Khepera, who eat the god Bah, and who drink the 
dri iik-offcrings which are brought into the celestial regions of 
light; and conversely. Grant that I may take possession of 

< He was the son of Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid at 
Gizeh. 

Here follows the text of the earlier Chapter of " Preserving the 

:t." 



204 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the captives of Osiris, and never let me have my being among 
the fiends of Suti ! Hail, let me sit upon his folds in the 
habitation of the god User-ba (i.e., he of the strong Soul) ! 
Grant thou that I may sit upon the throne of Re, and let me 
have possession of my body before the god Seb. Grant thou 
that Osiris may come forth triumphant over Suti and over 
the night-watchers of Suti, and over the night-watchers of 
the Crocodile, yea, the night-watchers of the Crocodile, whose 
faces are hidden and who dwell in the divine Temple of the 
King of the North in the apparel of the gods on the sixth day 
of the festival, whose snares are like unto everlastingness and 
whose cords are like unto eternity. I have seen the god 
Abet-ka placing the cord ; the child is laid in fetters, and the 
rope of the god Ab-ka is drawn tight. . . . Behold me. I 
am born, and I come forth in the form of a living Khu f and 
the human beings who are upon the earth ascribe praise 
unto me. 

" Hail, Mer, who doest these things for me, and who art 
put an end to by the vigor of Re, grant thou that I may see 
Re ; grant thou that I may come forth against my enemies ; 
and grant thou that I may be victorious over them in the 
presence of the sovereign princes of the great god who are 
in the presence of the great god. If, repulsing me, thou dost 
not allow me to come forth against my Enemy and to be vic- 
torious over him before the sovereign princes, then may Hapi 
who liveth upon law and order not come forth into 
heaven now he liveth by Maat and may Re who 
f eedeth upon fish not descend into the waters ! And then, 
verily shall Re who feedeth upon right and order come 
forth into heaven, and then, verily, shall Hapi who feedeth 
upon fish descend into the waters; and then, verily, the 
great day upon earth shall not be in its season. I have come 
against my Enemy, he hath been given unto me, he hath come 
to an end, and I have gotten possession of him before the 
sovereign princes." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 205 



VICTORY OVER ENEMIES 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY AND OF GAINING 
THE MASTERY OVER ENEMIES. 

" Hail, thou who shinest from the Moon and who sendest 
forth light therefrom, thou comest forth among thy multi- 
tudes, and thou goes round about, let me rise," or (as others 
say), "let me be brought in among the Kbus, and let the 
underworld be opened unto me. Behold, I have come forth 
on this day, and I have become a Khu (or a shining being) ; 
therefore shall the Klius let me live, and they shall cause my 
enemies to be brought to me in a state of misery in the pres- 
ence of the divine sovereign princes. The divine Tea (double) 
of my mother shall rest in peace because of this, and I shall 
stand upon my feet and have a staff of gold," or (as others 
say), "a rod of gold in my hand, wherewith I shall inflict 
cuts on the limbs of mine enemy and shall live. The legs of 
Sothis are stablished and I am born in their state of rest." 

COMING FORTH BY DAY 4G 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY. The scribe 
Mahu saith : 

" I have knowledge. I was conceived by the goddess Sek- 
het, and the goddess Neith gave birth to me ; I am Horus, and 
I have come forth from the Eye of Horus. I am Uatchit 
who came forth from Horns. I am Horns and I fly up and 
perch myself upon the forehead of Re in the bows of his boat 
which is in heaven." 

OPENING THE UNDERWORLD 

THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE UNDERWORLD. The over- 
seer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
saitli : 

" The chamber of those who dwell in Nu is opened, and the 

From the Papyrus of Araen-em ln-!> 



206 THE SACRED BOOKS 

footsteps of those who dwell with the god of Light are set free. 
The chamber of Shu is opened, and he cometh forth ; and I 
shall come forth outside, and I shall advance from my terri- 
tory, I shall receive . . . and I shall lay firm hold upon the 
tribute in the House of the Chief of his dead. I shall 
advance to my throne which is in the boat of Re. I shall not 
be molested, and I shall not suffer shipwreck from my throne 
which is in the boat of Re, the mighty one. Hail thou that 
shinest and givest light from Hent-she ! " 

COMING FORTH BY DAY 47 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY. The overseer 
of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
saith : 

" The doors of heaven are opened for me, the doors of 
earth are opened for me, the bars and bolts of Seb are opened 
for me, and the first temple hath been unfastened for me by 
the god Petra. Behold, I was guarded and watched, but 
now I am released ; behold, his hand had tied cords round me 
and his hand had darted upon me in the earth. Re-hent hath 
been opened for me and Re-hent hath been unfastened before 
me, Re-hent hath been given unto me, and I shall come forth 
by day into whatsoever place I please. I have gained the 
mastery over my heart ; I have gained the mastery over my 
breast ; I have gained the mastery over my two hands ; I have 
gained the mastery over my two feet ; I have gained the mas- 
tery over my mouth; I have gained the mastery over my 
whole body ; I have gained the mastery over sepulchral offer- 
ings; I have gained the mastery over the waters; I have 
gained the mastery over the air ; I have gained the mastery 
over the canal ; I have gained the mastery over the river and 
over the land; I have gained the mastery over the furrows; 
I have gained the mastery over the male workers for me; I 
have gained the mastery over the female workers for me in 
the underworld ; I have gained the mastery over all the things 
which were ordered to be done for me upon the earth, accord- 
47 From the Papyrus of Nu. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 207 

ing to the entreaty which ye spake for me saying, ' Behold, 
let him live upon the bread of Seb.' That which is an 
abomination unto me, I shall not eat ; nay, I shall live upon 
cakes made of white grain, and my ale shall be made of the 
red grain of Hapi (i.e., the Nile). In a clean place shall 
I sit on the ground beneath the foliage of the date-palm of 
the goddess Hathor, who dwelleth in the spacious Disk as 
it advanceth to Annu (Heliopolis), having the books of the 
divine words of the writings of the god Thoth. I have 
gained the mastery over my heart; I have gained the 
mastery over my heart's place (or breast) ; I have 
gained the mastery over my mouth; I have gained the 
mastery over my two hands ; I have gained the mastery over 
the waters ; I have gained the mastery over the canal ; I have 
gained the mastery over the river ; I have gained the mastery 
over the furrows; I have gained the mastery over the men 
who work for me ; I have gained the mastery over the women 
who work for me in the underworld ; I have gained the mas- 
tery over all the things which were ordered to be done for 
me upon earth and in the underworld. I shall lift myself 
up on my left side, and I shall place myself on my right 
side; I shall lift myself up on my right side, and I shall 
place myself on my left side. I shall sit down, I shall 
stand up, and I shall place myself in the path of the wind like 
a guide who is well prepared." 

IF THIS COMPOSITION BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE 
SHALL COME FORTH BY DAY, AND HE SHALL BE IN A POSITION 
TO JOURNEY ABOUT OVER THE EARTH AMONG THE LIVING, AND 
IIE SHALL NEVER SUFFER DIMINUTION, NEVER, NEVER. 



COMING FORTH BY DAY 48 

ANOTHER CHAPTER. 

" I am the Firo -<><!, the divine brother of the Fire-god, and 
I am Osiris the brother of Isis. My divine son, together 
with his mother Isis, hath avenged me on mine enemies. My 
"From the Papyrus of Mes-em-nH.r 



208 THE SACRED BOOKS 

enemies have wrought every kind of evil, therefore their 
arms, and hands, and feet have been fettered by reason of 
their wickedness which they have wrought upon me. I am 
Osiris, the first-born of the divine womb, the first-born of the 
gods, and the heir of my father Osiris-Seb. I am Osiris, the 
lord of the heads that live, mighty of breast and powerful of 
back, with a phallus which goeth to the remotest limits where 
men and women live. I am Sah (Orion) who traveleth over 
his domain and who journey eth along before the stars of 
heaven, which is the belly of my mother Nut ; she conceived 
me through her love, and she gave birth to me because it was 
her will so to do. I am Anpu (Anubis) on the day of the 
god Sepa. I am the Bull at the head of the meadow. I, 
even I, am Osiris who imprisoned his father together with his 
mother on the day of making the great slaughter; now, his 
father is Seb, and his mother is Nut. I am Horus, the first- 
born of Re of the risings. I am Anpu (Anubis) on the day 
of the god Sepa. I, even I, am the lord Tern. I am Osiris. 
Hail, thou divine first-born, who dost enter and dost speak 
before the divine Scribe and Doorkeeper of Osiris, grant that 
I may come. I have become a Win, I have been judged, I 
have become a divine being, I have come, and I have avenged 
mine own body. I have taken up my seat by the divine 
birth-chamber of Osiris, and I have destroyed the sickness 
and suffering which were there. I have become mighty, and 
I have become a divine being by the side of the birth-chamber 
of Osiris, I am brought forth with him, I renew my 
youth. 

" I renew my youth, I take possession of my two thighs 
which are in the place where is Osiris, and I open the mouth 
of the gods therewith, I take my seat by his side, and Thoth 
cometh forth, and I am strengthened in heart with thousands 
of cakes upon the altars of my divine father, and with my 
beasts, and with my cattle, and with my red-feathered fowl, 
and with my oxen, and with my geese, and with my ducks, for 
Horus my Chieftain, and with the offerings which I make 
to Thoth; and with the sacrifices which I offer up to An-heri- 
ertaitsa." 




ANUBIS THE JACKAL-HEADED GOO OF THE DEAD. AT FIRST THE EATER 
OF BODIES BUT LATER THE GUIDE THROUGH THE UNDERWORLD 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 209 

COMING FORTH BY DAY 

ANOTHER CHAPTER. 

" I have sacrificed unto An-heri-ertaitsa, and I am decreed 
to be strengthened in heart, for I have made offerings at the 
altars of my divine father Osiris ; I rule in Tattu and I lift 
myself up over his land. I sniff the wind of the east by its 
hair; I lay hold upon the north wind by its hair, I seize 
and hold fast to the west wind by its body, and I go round 
about heaven on its four sides; I lay hold upon the south 
wind by its eye, and I bestow air upon the venerable beings 
who are in the underworld along with the eating of cakes." 

IF THIS COMPOSITION BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED UPON 
EARTH HE SHALL COME FORTH BY DAY, AND HE SHALL HAVE 
THE FACULTY OF TRAVELING ABOUT AMONG THE LIVING, AND 
HIS NAME SHALL NEVER PERISH. 

COMING FORTH BY DAY 49 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY. The libationer, 
the lord of reverence, Nebseni, saith : 

" Hail thou hawk who riseth in heaven, thou lord of the 
goddess Meh-urt! Strengthen thou me according as thou 
hast strengthened thyself, and show thyself upon the earth, 
O thou that returnest and withdrawest thyself, and let thy 
will be done. 

" Behold the god of One Face is with me. I am the hawk 
which is within the shrine ; and I open that which is upon the 
hangings thereof. Behold Horus, the son of Isis. 

" Behold Horus, the son of Isis ! Strengthen thou mo, 
according as thou hast strengthened thyself, and show thyself 
upon earth, O thou that returnest and withdrawest thyself, 
and let thy will be done. 

" Behold, the god of One Face is with me. I am the hawk 
in the southern heaven, and I am Thoth in the northern 
heaven ; I make peace with the raging fire and I bring Maat 
to him that loveth her. 

From the Papyrus of Nebseni. 
VOL. II. 14. 



210 THE SACRED BOOKS 

" Behold Thoth, even Thoth ! Strengthen thou me accord- 
ing as thou hast strengthened thyself, and show thyself upon 
earth, O thou that returnest and withdrawest thyself, and let 
thy will be done. 

" Behold the god of One Face is with me. I am the Plant 
of the region where nothing sprouteth, and the Blossom of 
the hidden horizon. 

" Behold Osiris, yea Osiris ! Strengthen thou me accord- 
ing as thou hast strengthened thyself, and show thyself upon 
earth, O thou that returnest and withdrawest thyself, and 
let thy will be done. 

"Behold, the god of One Face is with me. Hail, thou 
who standest upon thy legs, in thine hour," or (as others say), 
" Hail, thou who art victorious upon thy legs in thine hour, 
thou lord of the two divine Tchafi, who livest in the two 
divine Tchafi, strengthen thou me according as thou hast 
strengthened thyself, and show thyself upon earth, O thou 
that returnest and withdrawest thyself, and let thy will be 
done. 

" Behold, the god of One Face is with me. Hail, thou 
Nekhen who art in thine egg, thou lord of the goddess Meh- 
urt, strengthen thou me according as thou hast strengthened 
thyself, and show thyself upon earth, O thou that returnest 
and withdrawest thyself, and let thy will be done. 

" Behold, the god of One Face is with me. The god Sebek 
hath stood up within his ground, and the goddess ISTeith hath 
stood up within her plantation, O thou that returnest and 
withdrawest thyself, show thyself upon earth and let thy will 
be done. 

" Behold, the god of One Face is with me. Hail, ye seven 
beings who make decrees, who support the Scales on the night 
of the judgment of the Utchat, who cut off heads, who hack 
necks in pieces, who take possession of hearts by violence and 
rend the places where hearts are fixed, who make slaughter- 
ings in the Lake of Fire, I know you and I know your names, 
therefore know ye me even as I know your names. I come 
forth to you, therefore come ye forth to me, for ye live in me 

BO I.e., the souls of Horus and Re. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 211 

and I would live in you. Make ye me to be vigorous by 
means of that which is in your hands, that is to say, by the 
rod of power which is in your hands. Decree ye for me life 
by your speech year by year; give me multitudes of years 
over and above my years of life, and multitudes of months 
over and above my months of life, and multitudes of days 
over and above my days of life, and multitudes of nights over 
and above my nights of life ; and grant that I may come forth 
and shine upon my statue ; and grant me air for my nose, and 
let my eyes have the power to see among those divine beings 
who dwell in the horizon on the day when evil-doing and 
wrong are justly assessed." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE RECITED FOR THE DECEASED HE SHALL 
BE STRONG UPON EARTH BEFORE RE AND HE SHALL HAVE A 
COMFORTABLE BURIAL (OR TOMB) WITH OSIRIS, AND IT SHALL 
BE OF GREAT BENEFIT TO A MAN IN THE UNDERWORLD. 
SEPULCHRAL BREAD SHALL BE GIVEN UNTO HIM, AND HE SHALL 

AND 



COMING FORTH BY DAY 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY AND OF OPENING 
UP A WAY THROUGH THE AMMEiiET. Behold the scribe Neb- 
seni, triumphant, who saith: 

" Homage to you, O ye lords of Kas f ye who are without 
sin and who live for the limitless and infinite a3ons of time 
which make up eternity, I have opened up a way for myself 
to you ! I have become a khu in my forms, I have gained the 
mastery over my enchantments, and I am decreed to be a Win; 
therefore deliver ye me from the crocodile which liveth in 
this country of right and truth. Grant ye to me my mouth 
that I may speak therewith, and cause that my sepulchral 
meals be placed in my hands in your presence, for I know you, 
and I know your names, and I know also the name of the 
mighty god, before whose nose ye set your tchefau food ; and 
his name is ' Tekem.' When he openeth up his path in the 
eastern horizon of heaven, and when he fluttereth down in 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

the western horizon of heaven, may he carry me along with 
him and may I be safe and sound ! Let not the Mesqet make 
an end of me, let not the Fiend gain the mastery over me, let 
me not be turned back at your portals, and let not your doors 
be shut in my face, because my cakes are in the city of Pe and 
my ale is in the city of Tepu. And there, in the celestial 
mansions of heaven which my divine father Tern hath stab- 
lished, let my hands lay hold upon the wheat and the barley 
which shall be given unto me therein in abundant measure, 
and may the son of mine own body make ready for me my 
food therein. And grant ye unto me therein sepulchral 
meals, and incense, and wax, and all the beautiful and pure 
things whereon the god liveth, in very deed forever in all the 
transformations which it pleaseth me to perform; and grant 
me the power to float down and to sail up the stream in Sek- 
het-Aarru and may I reach Sekhet-hetep ! I am the double 
Lion-god." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED UPON 
EARTH, OR IF IT BE DONE IN WRITING UPON HIS COFFIN, HE 
SHALL COME FORTH BY DAY IN ALL THE FORMS WHICH HE IS 
PLEASED TO TAKE, AND HE SHALL ENTER INTO HIS PLACE 
AND SHALL NOT BE DRIVEN BACK. AND CAKES, AND ALE, AND 
JOINTS OF MEAT UPON THE ALTAR OF OSIRIS SHALL BE GIVEN 
T X TO HIM; AND HE SHALL ENTER IN PEACE INTO SEKHET- 
AARRU TO KNOW THE DECREE OF HIM WHO DWELLETH IN 
TATTU; THERE SHALL WHEAT AND BARLEY BE GIVEN UNTO 
HIM ; THERE SHALL HE FLOURISH AS HE DID UPON EARTH J AND 
HE SHALL DO WHATSOEVER IT PLEASETH HIM TO DO, EVEN AS 
THE COMPANY OF THE GODS WHICH IS IN THE UNDERWORLD, 
CONTINUALLY, AND REGULARLY, FOR MILLIONS OF TIMES. 

OF LIFTING UP THE FEET 

THE CHAPTER OF LIFTING UP THE FEET AND OF COMING 
FORTH UPON THE EARTH. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, tri- 
umphant, saith: 

" Perform thy work, O Seker, perform thy work, O Seker, 
O thou who dwellest in thy house, and who standest on thy 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 213 

feet in the underworld! I am the god who sendeth forth 
rays of light over the Thigh of heaven, and I come forth to 
heaven and I sit myself down by the God of Light (Khu). 
Hail, I have become helpless ! Hail, I have become helpless ! 
but I go forward. I have become helpless, I have become 
helpless in the regions of those who plunder in the under- 
world." 

OF JOURNEYING TO ANNU 
THE CHAPTER OF JOURNEYING TO ANNU (HELIOPOLIS) 

AND OF RECEIVING A THRONE THEREIN. The cliancelloi'-in- 

chief , Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" I have come forth from the uttermost parts of the earth, 
and I have received my apparel at the will of the Ape. I 
penetrate into the holy habitations of those who are in their 
shrines (or coffins), I force my way through the habitations 
of the god Remren, and I arrive in the habitations of the god 
Akhsesef, I travel on through the holy chambers, and I pass 
into the Temple of the god Kemken. The Buckle hath been 
given unto me, it hath placed its hands upon me, it hath 
decreed to my service its sister Khebent, and its mother Keh- 
kehet. It placeth me in the eastern part of heaven wherein 
Re riseth and is exalted every day; and I rise therein and 
travel onward, and I become a spiritual body (sah) like the 
god, and they set me on that holy way on which Thoth jour- 
neyeth when he goeth to make peace between the two Fight- 
ing-gods (i.e., Horus and Set). He journeyeth, he jour- 
neyeth to the city of Pe, and he cometh to the city of Tepu." 

OF TRANSFORMATION 

THE CHAPTER OP A MAN TRANSFORMING HIMSELF INTO 
WHATEVER FORM HE PLEASE. The chancellor-in-chief, 
Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" I have come into the House of the King by means of the 
mantis (abit) which led me hither. Homage to thee, O thou 
who fliest into heaven, and dost shine upon the son of the 
white crown, and dost protect the white crown, let me have 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

my existence with thee ! I have gathered together the great 
gods, I am mighty, I have made my way and I have trav- 
eled along thereon." 

OF PERFORMING TRANSFORMATIONS 

THE CHAPTER OF PERFORMING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO 
A HAWK OF GOLD. The cliancellor-m-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
saith : 

" I have risen, I have risen like the mighty hawk of gold 
that cometh forth from his egg; I fly and I alight like the 
hawk which hath a back four cubits wide, and the wings of 
which are like unto the mother-of-emerald of the south. I 
have come forth from the interior of the Sekiet boat, and my 
heart hath been brought unto me from the mountain of the 
east. I have alighted upon the Atet boat, and those who were 
dwelling in their companies have been brought unto me, and 
they bowed low in paying homage unto me and in saluting 
me with cries of joy. I have risen, and I have gathered my- 
self together like the beautiful hawk of gold, which hath the 
head of a Bennu, bird, and Re entereth in day by day to 
barken unto my words; I have taken my seat among those 
first-born gods of Nut. I am stablished, and the divine Sek- 
het-hetep is before me, I have eaten therein, I have become 
a Jehu therein, I have an abundance therein as much as I 
desire the god Nepra hath given to me my throat, and I 
have gained the mastery over that which guardeth (or be- 
longeth to) my head." 

OF TRANSFORMATION INTO A HAWK 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A 
DIVINE HAWK. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
saith : 

"Hail, Great God, come now to Tattu! Make thou 
smooth for me the ways and let me go round about to visit my 
thrones; I have renewed myself, and I have raised myself 
up. O grant thou that I may be feared, and make thou me 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 215 

to be a terror. Let the gods of the underworld be afraid of 
me, and may they fight for me in their habitations which are 
therein. Let not him that would do me harm draw nigh unto 
me, or injure me, in the House of Darkness, that is, he that 
clotheth and covereth the feeble one, and whose name is 
hidden ; and let not the gods act likewise toward me. Hail, 
ye gods, who harken unto my speech ! Hail, ye rulers, who 
are among the followers of Osiris! Be ye therefore silent, 

ye gods, when one god speaketh unto another, for he 
harkeneth unto right and truth ; and what I speak unto him 
do thou also speak for me then, O Osiris. Grant thou that 

1 may journey round about according to that which cometh 
forth from thy mouth concerning me, and grant that I may 
see thine own Form (or forms), and the dispositions of thy 
Souls. Grant thou that I may come forth, and that I may 
have power over my legs, and that I may have my existence 
there like unto that of Neb-er-tcher who is over all. May 
the gods of the underworld fear me, and may they fight for 
me in their habitations. Grant thou that I may move along 
therein together with the divine beings who journey onward, 
and may I be stablished upon my resting-place like the Lord 
of Life. May I be joined unto Isis the divine lady, and may 
she protect me from him that would do an injury unto me; 
and let not any one come to see the divine one naked and help- 
less. May I journey on, may I come into the uttermost parts 
of heaven. I exchange speech with the god Seb, I make sup- 
plication for divine food from Neb-er-tcher ; the gods of the 
underworld have fear of me, and they fight for me in their 
habitations when they see that thou hast provided me with 
food, both of the fowl of the air and of the fish of the sea. I 
am one of those Khus who dwell with the divine Khu, and I 
have made my form like unto his divine Form, when he com- 
eth forth and maketh himself manifest in Tattu. I am a 
spiritual body (sah) and possess my soul, and will speak unto 
thee the things which concern me. Oh grant thou that I may 
be feared, and make thou me to be a terror ; let the gods of the 
underworld be afraid of me, and may they fight for me in 
their habitations. I, even I, am the Khu who dwelleth with 



216 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the divine Khu f whom the god Tern himself hath created, and 
who hath come into being from the blossom (i.e., the eye- 
lashes) of his eye; he hath made to have existence, and he 
hath made to be glorious (i.e. f to be Khus), and he hath made 
mighty thereby those who have their existence along with 
him. Behold, he is the only One in Nu, and they sing praises 
(or do homage) unto him when he cometh forth from the 
horizon, and the gods and the Khus who have come into 
being along with him ascribe the lordship of terror unto him. 
" I am one of those worms which the eye of the Lord, the 
only One, hath created. And behold, when as yet Isis had 
not given birth to Horus, I had germinated, and had flour- 
ished, and I had become aged, and I had become greater 
than those who dwelt with the divine Ehu, and who had come 
into being along with him. And I had risen up like the di- 
vine hawk, and Horus made for me a spiritual body contain- 
ing his own soul, so that I might take possession of all that 
belonged unto Osiris in the underworld. The double Lion- 
god, the governor of the things which belong to the Temple 
of the nemmes crown, who dwelleth in his secret abode, saith 
unto me : ' Get thee back to the uttermost parts of heaven, for 
behold, inasmuch as through thy form of Horus thou hast be- 
come a spiritual body (sa/i), the nemmes crown is not for 
thee; and behold, thou hast the power of speech even to the 
uttermost parts of heaven.' And I, the guardian, took pos- 
session of the things of Horus which belonged unto Osiris in 
the underworld, and Horus told aloud unto me the things 
which his divine father Osiris spake unto him in years gone 
by on the day of his own burial. I have given unto thee the 
nemmes crown through the double Lion-god that thou mayest 
pass onward and mayest come to the heavenly path, and that 
those who dwell in the uttermost parts of the horizon may see 
thee, and that the gods of the underworld may see thee and 
may fight for thee in their habitation. And of them is the 
Auhet. 51 The gods, each and all of them, who are the ward- 
ers of the shrine of the Lord, the only One, have fallen before 

BI The variants are Aahet At, Aahet Ateh, and one papyrus gives the 
words, " I am the great god." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 217 

my words. Hail! He that is exalted upon his tomb is on 
my side, and he hath bound upon my head the nemmes 
crown, by the decree of the double Lion-god on my behalf, 
and the god Auhet hath prepared a way for me. I, even I, 
am exalted in my tomb, and the double Lion-god hath bound 
the nemmes crown upon my head, and he hath also given 
unto me the double hairy covering of my head. He hath 
stablished my heart through his own backbone, he hath stab- 
lished my heart through his own great and exceeding 
strength, and I shall not fall through Shu. I make my 
peace with the beautiful divine Brother, the lord of the two 
ura?i, adored be he ! I, even I, am he who knoweth the roads 
through the sky, and the wind thereof is in my body. The 
bull which striketh terror into men shall not drive me back, 
and I shall pass on to the place where lieth the shipwrecked 
mariner on the border of the Sekhet-neheh (i.e., Field of 
illimitable time), and I shall journey on to the night and 
sorrow of the regions of Amenti. O Osiris, I shall come 
each day into the House of the double Lion-god, and I shall 
come forth therefrom into the House of Isis, the divine 
lady. 

" I shall behold sacred things which are hidden, and I 
shall be led on to the secret and holy things, even as they 
have granted unto me to see the birth of the Great God. 
Horus hath made me to be a spiritual body through his soul, 
and I see what is therein. If I speak near the mighty ones 
of Shu they repulse my opportunity. I am the guardian and 
I take possession of the things which Horus had from Osiris 
in the underworld. I, even I, am Horus who dwelleth in 
the divine Kliu. I have gained power over his crown, I 
have gained power over his "radiance, and I have traveled 
over the remote, illimitable parts of heaven. Horus is upon 
his throne, Horus is upon his royal seat. My face is like 
unto that of the divine hawk, my strength is like unto that 
of the divine hawk, and I am one who hath been fully 
equipped by his divine Lord. I shall come forth to Tattu, I 
shall see Osiris, I shall pay homage to him on the right hand 
and on the left, I shall pay homage unto Nut, and she shall 



218 THE SACRED BOOKS 

look upon me, and the gods shall look upon me, together with 
the Eye of Horus who is without sight. They (i.e. f the 
gods) shall make their arms to come forth unto me. I rise 
up as a divine Power, and I repulse him that would subject 
me to restraint. They open unto me the holy paths, they see 
my form, and they hear that which I speak. Down upon 
your faces, ye gods of the Tuat (underworld), who would 
resist me with your faces and oppose me with your powers, 
who lead along the stars which never rest, and who make 
the holy paths unto the Hemati abode where is the Lord of 
the exceedingly mighty and terrible Soul. Horus hath com- 
manded that ye lift up your faces so that I may look upon 
you. I have risen up like the divine hawk, and Horus hath 
made for me a spiritual body, through his own soul, to take 
possession of that which belongeth to Osiris in the Tuat. 

" I have bound up the gods with divine tresses, and I 
have traveled on to those who ward their Chambers, and 
who were on both sides of me. I have made my roads 
and I have journeyed on and have reached those divine be- 
ings who inhabit their secret dwellings, and who are warders 
of the Temple of Osiris. I have spoken unto them with 
strength, and have made them to know the most mighty 
power of him that is provided with two horns to fight against 
Suti ; and I make them to know concerning him that hath 
taken possession of the divine food, and who is provided with 
the Might of Tern. May the gods of the underworld order a 
prosperous journey for me! O ye gods who inhabit your 
secret dwellings, and who are warders of the Temple of 
Osiris, and whose numbers are great and multitudinous, 
grant ye that I may come unto you. I have bound up and I 
have gathered together the powers of Kesemu-enenet," or (as 
others say), " Kesemiu-enenet ; and I have made holy the 
Powers of the paths of those who watch and ward the roads 
of the horizon, and who are the guardians of the horizon of 
Hemati which is in heaven. I have stablished habitations 
for Osiris, I have made the ways holy for him, I have done 
that which hath been commanded, I have come forth to Tattu, 
I have seen Osiris, I have spoken unto him concerning the 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 219 

matters of his first-born son whom he loveth and concerning 
the wounding of the heart of Suti, and I have seen the divine 
one who is without life. Yea, I have made them to know 
concerning the councils of the gods which Horus carried out 
while his father Osiris was not with him. Hail, Lord, thou 
most mighty and terrible Soul ! Verily, I, even I, have come ; 
look thou upon me, and do thou make me to be exalted. I 
have made my way through thy Tuat (underworld), and I 
have opened up the paths which belong to heaven and also 
those which belong to earth, and I have suffered no opposi- 
tion therein. Exalted be thou upon thy throne, O Osiris! 
Thou hast heard fair things, O Osiris ! Thy strength is vig- 
orous, O Osiris. Thy head is fastened unto thee, O Osiris. 
Thy brow is stablished, O Osiris. Thy heart is glad, O 
Osiris. Thy speech is stablished, O Osiris, and thy princes 
rejoice. Thou art stablished like the Bull of Amentet. Thy 
son Horus hath risen like the sun upon thy throne, and all 
life is with him. Millions of years minister unto him, and 
millions of years hold him in fear; the company of the gods 
are his servants, and the company of the gods hold him in 
fear. The god Tern, the Governor and only One of the gods, 
hath spoken these things, and his word passeth not away. 
Horus is both the divine food and the sacrifice. He hath 
passed on to gather together the members of his divine father ; 
Horus is his deliverer, Horus is his deliverer. Horus hath 
sprung from the water of his divine father and from his de- 
cay. He hath become the Governor of Egypt. The gods 
labor for him, and they toil for him for millions of years; 
and he hath made to live millions of years through his Eye, 
the only One of its Lord (or Neb-s), Nebt-er-tcher." 

OF TRANSFORMATION INTO A GOVERNOR 

THE CHAPTER OF BEING TRANSFORMED INTO THE GOVER- 
NOR OF THE SOVEREIGN PRINCES. The chancellor-in-chief, 
Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" I am the god Tern, the maker of heaven, the creator of 
things which are, who cometh forth from the earth, who 



220 THE SACRED BOOKS 

maketh to come into being the seed which is sown, the lord 
of things which shall be, who gave birth to the gods; I am 
the great god who made himself, the lord of life, who maketh 
to flourish the company of the gods. Homage to you, O ye 
lords of divine things (or of creation), ye pure beings whose 
abodes are hidden ! Homage to you, O ye everlasting lords, 
whose forms are hidden and whose shrines are hidden in 
places which are unknown ! Homage to you, O ye gods, who 
dwell in the Tenait ! Homage to you, O ye gods of the cir- 
cuit of the flooded lands of Qebhu! Homage to you, O ye 
gods who live in Amentet ! Homage to you, O ye company 
of the gods who dwell in Nut! Grant ye that I may come 
unto you, for I am pure, I am divine, I am a Icliu, I am 
strong, I am endowed with a soul (or I am mighty), and I 
have brought unto you incense, and sweet-smelling gums, and 
natron ; I have made an end of the spittle which floweth from 
your mouth upon me. I have come, and I have made an end 
of the evil things which are in your hearts, and I have re- 
moved the faults which ye kept laid up against me. I have 
brought to you the things which are good, and I make to come 
into your presence Right and Truth. I, even I, know you, 
and I know your names, and I know your forms, which are 
unknown, and I come into being along with you. My com- 
ing is like unto that of the god who eateth men and who liveth 
upon the gods. I am mighty with you like the god who is 
exalted upon his resting-place ; the gods come to me in glad- 
ness, and goddesses make supplication unto me when they 
see me. I have come unto you, and I have risen like your 
two divine daughters. I have taken my seat in the horizon, 
and I receive my offerings upon my tables, and I drink drink- 
offerings at eventide. My coming is received with shouts of 
joy, and the divine beings who dwell in the horizon ascribe 
praises unto me, the divine spiritual body (Sah), the lord of 
divine beings. I am exalted like the holy god who dwelleth 
in the Great Temple, and the gods rejoice when they see me 
in my beautiful coming forth from the body of Nut, when my 
mother Nut giveth birth unto me." 



LITERATURE 0F THE EAST 



OF TRANSFORMATION INTO A GOD 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO THE 

GOD WHO GIVETH LIGHT IN THE DARKNESS. Saith Osiris, the 

scribe Ani, triumphant : 

" I am the girdle of the robe of the god Nu, which shineth 
and sheddeth light upon that which belongeth to his breast, 
which sendeth forth light into the darkness, which uniteth the 
two fighting deities who dwell in my body through the mighty 
spell of the words of my mouth, which raiseth up him that 
hath fallen for he who was with him in the valley of Abtu 
(Abydos) hath fallen and I rest. I have remembered 
him. I have taken possession of the god Hu in my city, for 
I found him therein, and I have led away captive the darkness 
by my might. I have rescued the Eye of the Sun when it 
waned at the coming of the festival of the fifteenth day, and I 
have weighed Sut in the celestial houses against the Aged one 
who is with him. I have endowed Thoth with what is need- 
ful in the Temple of the Moon-god for the coming of the 
fifteenth day of the festival. I have taken possession of the 
Ureret crown; Maat (i.e., right and truth) is in my body; 
its mouths are of turquoise and rock-crystal. My homestead 
is among the furrows which are of the color of lapis lazuli. 
I am Hem-Nu who sheddeth light in the darkness. I have 
come to give light in the darkness, which is made light and 
bright by me. I have given light in the darkness, and I have 
overthrown the destroying crocodiles. I have sung praises 
unto those who dwell in the darkness, I have raised up those 
who wept, and who had hidden their faces and had sunk 
down in wretchedness; and they did not look then 
upon me. 

" Hail, then, ye beings, I am Hem-Nu, and I will not let 
you hear concerning the matter. I have opened the way, I 
am I loin- \u, I have made light the darkness, I have come, 
having made an end of the darkness, which hath become light 
indeed." 



222 THE SACRED BOOKS 



TRANSFORMATION INTO A LOTUS 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A 
LOTUS. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, 
Nu, saith: 

" I am the pure lotus which springeth up from the divine 
splendor that belongeth to the nostrils of Re. I have made 
my way, and I follow on seeking for him who is Horus. I 
am the pure one who cometh forth out of the Field." 

TRANSFORMATION INTO A LOTUS 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A 
LOTUS. Saith Osiris Paqrer: 

" Hail, thou lotus, thou type of the god Nefer-Teinu ! I 
am the man that knoweth you, and I know your names among 
those of the gods, the lords of the underworld, and I am one 
of you. Grant ye that I may see the gods who are the divine 
guides in the Tuat (underworld), and grant ye unto me a 
place in the underworld near unto the lords of Amentet. 
Let me arrive at a habitation in the land of Tchesert, and re- 
ceive me, O all ye gods, in the presence of the lords of eter- 
nity. Grant that my soul may come forth whithersoever it 
pleaseth, and let it not be driven away from the presence of 
the great company of the gods." 

TRANSFORMATION INTO PTAH 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO 
PTAH, OF EATING CAKES, AND OF DRINKING ALE, AND OF UN- 
FETTERING THE STEPS, AND OF BECOMING A LIVING BEING IN 

ANNTT (Heliopolis). The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, trium- 
phant, saith : 

" I fly like a hawk, I cackle like the smen goose, and I 
perch upon that abode of the underworld (aat) on the festi- 
val of the great Being. That which is an abomination unto 
me, that which is an abomination unto me, I have not eaten ; 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 

filth is an abomination unto me and I have not eaten thereof, 
and that which is an abomination unto my ka hath not entered 
into my belly. Let me, then, live upon that which the gods 
and the KJius decree for me; let me live and let me have 
power over cakes; let me eat them before the gods and the 
Klius who have a favor unto me ; let me have power over these 
cakes and let me eat of them under the shade of the leaves of 
the palm-tree of the goddess Hathor, who is my divine Lady. 
Let the offering of the sacrifice, and the offering of cakes, 
and vessels of libations bo made in Annu ; let me clothe my- 
self in the iaau garment which I shall receive from the hand 
of the goddess Tait; let me stand up and let me sit down 
wheresoever I please. My head is like unto that of Re, and 
when my members are gathered together I am like unto Tern ; 
the four sides of the domain of Re and the width of the 
earth four times. I come forth. My tongue is like unto 
that of Ptah and my throne is like unto that of the goddess 
Hathor, and I make mention of the words of Tern, my father, 
with my mouth. He it is who constraineth the handmaid, the 
wife of Seb, and before him are bowed all heads, and there 
is fear of him. Hymns of praise are repeated for me by rea- 
son of my mighty acts, and I am decreed to be the divine Heir 
of Seb, the lord of the earth and to be the protector therein. 
The god Seb refresheth me, and he maketh his risings to be 
mine. Those who dwell in Annu bow down their heads unto 
me, for I am their lord and I am their bull. I am more pow- 
erful than the lord of time, and I shall enjoy the pleasures of 
love, and shall gain the mastery over millions of years." 

TRANSFORMATION INTO A BENNU BIRD 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A 
BENNU r.n:i>. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
saith : 

" I came 52 into beinir fnun unformed matter. I came into 
existence like the god Khcpera, I have germinated like the 
things \vliifh germinate (i.e., plants), and I have dressed my- 

t Literally, " I flew." 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

self like the Tortoise. I am of the germs of every god. I am 
Yesterday of the four quarters of the world and of those 
seven ursei which came into existence in Amentet, that is to 
say, Horus, who emitteth light from his divine body. He is 
the god who fought against Suti, but the god Thoth cometh 
between them through the judgment of him that dwelleth in 
Sekhem, and of the Souls who are in Annu, and there is a 
stream between them. I have come by day, and I have risen 
in the footsteps of the gods. I am the god Khensu, who 
driveth back all that oppose him." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE SHALL 
COME FORTH PURE BY DAY AFTER HIS DEATH, AND HE SHALL 
PERFORM WHATSOEVER TRANSFORMATIONS HIS HEART DE- 
SIRETII. HE SHALL BE IN THE FOLLOWING OF UN-NEFER, AND 
HE SHALL BE SATISFIED WITH THE FOOD OF OSIRIS AND WITH 
SEPULCHRAL MEALS. HE SHALL SEE THE DISK, HE SHALL BE 
IN GOOD CASE UPON EARTH BEFORE RE, AND HE SHALL BE 
TRIUMPHANT BEFORE OSIRIS, AND NO EVIL THING WHATSOEVER 
SHALL HAVE DOMINION OVER HIM FOREVER AND EVER. 

TRANSFORMATION INTO A HERON 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A 
HERON. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" I have gotten dominion over the beasts that are brought 
for sacrifice, with the knives which are held at their heads, and 
at their hair, and at their. . . . Hail, Aged ones; hail, 
Khus, who are provided with the opportunity, the chancellor- 
in-chief, the overseer of the palace, Nu, triumphant, is upon 
the earth, and what he hath slaughtered is in heaven; and 
what he hath slaughtered is in heaven and he is upon the earth. 
Behold, I am strong, and I work mighty deeds to the very 
heights of heaven. I have made myself pure, and I make 
the breadth of heaven a place for my footsteps as I go into the 
cities of Aukert; I advance, and I go forward into the city 
of Unnu (Hermopolis). I have set the gods upon their paths, 
and I have roused up the exalted ones who dwell in their 
shrines. Do I not know Nu ? Do I not know Tatunen ? Do 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 

I not know the beings of the color of fire who thrust forward 
their horns ? Do I not know every being having incantations 
unto whose words I listen ? I am the Smam bull for slaugh- 
ter, which is written down in the books. The gods, crying 
out, say : ' Let your faces be gracious to him that cometh on- 
ward.' The light is beyond your knowledge, and ye can not 
fetter it ; and times and seasons are in my body. I do not 
utter words to the god Hu, I do not utter words of wickedness 
instead of words of right and truth, and each day right and 
truth come upon my eyebrows. At night taketh place the fes- 
tival of him that is dead, the Aged One, who is in ward in 
the earth." 

OF THE LIVING SOUL 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A 
LIVING SOUL, AND OF NOT ENTERING INTO THE CHAMBER OF 
TORTURE; whosoever knoweth it shall not see corruption. 
The chancellor-in-chief , NU, triumphant, saith : 

" I am the divine Soul of Re proceeding from the god ]STu ; 
that divine soul which is God, I am the creator of the divine 
food, and that which is an abomination unto me is sin 
whereon I look not. I proclaim right and truth, and I live 
therein. I am the divine food, which is not corrupted in my 
name of Soul : I gave birth unto myself together with Nu in 
my name of Khepera in whom I come into being day by day. 
I am the lord of light, and that which is an abomination unto 
me is death ; let me not go into the chamber of torture which 
is in the Tuat (underworld). I ascribe honor unto Osiris, 
and I make to be at peace the hearts of those beings who 
dwell among the divine things which I love. They cause 
the fear of me to abound, and they create awe of me in those 
beings who dwell in their divine territories. Behold, I am 
exalted upon my standard, and upon my seat, and upon the 
throne which is adjudged to me. I am the god Nu, and 
the workers of iniquity shall not destroy me. I am the first- 
born god of primeval matter, that is to say, the divine Soul, 
the Souls of the gods of everlastingness, and my body is 
eternity. My Form is everlastingness, and is the lord of 

VOL. II. 15. 



226 THE SACRED BOOKS 

years and the prince of eternity. I am the creator of the 
darkness who maketh his habitation in the uttermost parts of 
the sky, which I love, and I arrive at the confines thereof. I 
advance upon my feet, I become master of my vine, I sail 
over the sky which formeth the division betwixt heaven and 
earth, I destroy the hidden worms that travel nigh unto my 
footsteps which are toward the lord of the two hands and 
arms. My soul is the Souls of the souls of everlastingness, 
and my body is eternity. I am the divine exalted being who 
is the lord of the land of Tebu. ' I am the Boy in the city 
and the Young man in the plain ' is my name ; l he that never 
suffereth corruption ' is my name. I am the Soul, the crea- 
tor of the god Nu who maketh his habitation in the under- 
world: my place of incubation is unseen and my egg is not 
cracked. I have done away with all my iniquity, and I shall 
see my divine Father, the lord of eventide, whose body 
dwelleth in Annu. I travel to the god of night, who dwelli-th 
with the god of light, by the western region of the Ibis (i.e., 
Thoth)." 

OF THE SWALLOW 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING TILE TRANSFORMATION INTO A 
SWALLOW. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" I am a swallow, I am a swallow. I am the Scorpion, the 
daughter of Re. Hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet ; hail, ye 
gods, whose scent is sweet! Hail, Flame, which cometh 
forth from the horizon! Hail, thou who art in the city, I 
have brought the Warden of his Bight therein. Oh, stretch 
out unto me thy hand so that I may be able to pass my days 
in the Pool of Double Fire, and let me advance with my mes- 
sage, for I have come with words to tell. Oh, open thou the 
doors to me and I will declare the things which have been 
seen by me. Horus hath become the divine prince of the 
Boat of the Sun, and unto him hath been given the throne of 
his divine father Osiris, and Set, that son of Nut, lieth under 
the fetters which he had made for me. I have made a com- 
putation of what is in the city of Sekhem, I have stretched 
out both my hands and arms at the word of Osiris. I have 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 227 

passed on to judgment, and I have come that I may speak; 
grant that I may pass on and declare my tidings. I enter in, 
I am judged, and I come forth worthy at the gate of Neb-er- 
tcher. I am pure at the great place of the passage of souls, 
I have done away with my sins, I have put away mine 
offenses, and I have destroyed the evil which appertained 
unto my members upon earth. Hail, ye divine beings who 
guard the doors, make ye for me a way, for, behold, I am like 
unto you. I have come forth by day, I have journeyed on on 
my legs, I have gained the mastery over my footsteps before 
the God of Light, I know the hidden ways and doors of the 
Sekhet-Aaru, verily I, even I, have come, I have overthrown 
mine enemies upon earth, and yet my perishable body is in 
the grave ! " 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE SHALL 
COME FORTH BY DAY, HE SHALL NOT BE TURNED BACK AT ANY 
GATE IN THE UNDERWORLD, AND HE SHALL MAKE HIS TRANS- 
FORMATION INTO A SWALLOW REGULARLY AND CONTINUALLY. 

THE SERPENT SATA 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO THE 
SERPENT SATA. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
saith : 

" I am the serpent Sata whose years are many. I die and 
I am born again each day. I am the serpent Sata which 
dwelleth in the uttermost parts of the earth. I die, and I 
am born again, and I renew myself, and I grow young 
each day." 

OF THE CROCODILE 

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A 
CROCODILE. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" I am the divine crocodile which dwelleth in his terror, I 
am the divine crocodile, and I seize my prey like a 
ravening beast. I am the great and Mighty Fish which is in 
the city of Qem-ur. I am the lord to whom bowing and 
prostrations are made in the city of Sekhem." 



228 THE SACRED BOOKS 



SOUL AND BODY 

THE CHAPTER OF CAUSING THE SOUL TO BE UNITED TO ITS 
BODY IN THE UNDERWORLD. The Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith : 

" Hail thou god Anniu (i.e., Bringer) ! Hail, thou god 
Pehrer (i.e., Eunner), who dwellest -in thy hall! Hail, 
great God! Grant thou that my soul may come unto me 
from wheresoever it may be. If it would tarry, then let my 
soul be brought unto me from wheresoever it may be, for thou 
shalt find the Eye of Horus standing by thee like unto those 
beings who are like unto Osiris, and who never lie down in 
death. Let not the Osiris Ani, triumphant, lie down in 
death among those who lie down in Annu, the land wherein 
souls are joined unto their bodies even in thousands. Let 
me have possession of my ba (soul), and of my Tcliu f and let 
me triumph therewith in every place wheresoever it may be. 
Observe these things which I speak, for it hath staves with 
it ; observe then, O ye divine guardians of heaven, my soul, 
wheresoever it may be. If it would tarry, do thou make my 
soul to look upon my body, for thou shalt find the Eye of 
Horus standing by thee like those beings who are like unto 
Osiris. 

" Hail ye gods, who tow along the boat of the lord of 
millions of years, who bring it above the underworld and 
who make it to travel over Nut, who make souls to enter into 
their spiritual bodies, whose hands are filled with your ropes 
and who clutch your weapons tight, destroy ye the Enemy; 
thus shall the boat of the sun be glad and the great God shall 
set out on his journey in peace. And behold, grant yet that 
the soul of Osiris Ani, triumphant, may come forth before the 
god and that it may be triumphant along with you in the 
eastern part of the sky to follow unto the place where it was 
yesterday; and that it may have peace, peace in Amentet. 
May it look upon its material body, may it rest upon its 
spiritual body; and may its body neither perish nor suffer 
corruption forever." 

THESE WORDS ARE TO BE SAID OVER A SOUL OF GOLD INLAID 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 229 

WITH PRECIOUS STONES AND PLACED ON THE BREAST OF 
OSIKIS. 

OF EVIL RECOLLECTIONS 

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING EVIL RECOLLECTIONS FROM THE 
MOUTH. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-iu-chief, 
Nu, triumphant, the sou of the overseer of the palace, the 
chancellor-iu-chief, Ameu-hetep, triumphant, saith: 

" Hail, thou that cuttest off heads, aud slittest brows, thou 
being who puttest away the memory of evil things from the 
mouth of the Khus by means of the incantations which they 
have within them, look not upon me with the same eyes with 
which thou lookest upon them. Go thou round about on thy 
legs, and let thy face be turned behind thee so that thou 
mayest be able to see the divine slaughterers of the god Shu 
who are coming up behind thee to cut oft 7 thy head, and to 
slit thy brow by reason of the message of violence sent by thy 
lord, and to see that which thou sayest. Work thou for me 
so that the memory of evil things shall dart from my 
mouth. 

" Let not my head be cut off ; let not my brow be slit ; and 
let not my mouth be shut fast by reason of the incantations 
which thou hast within thee, according to that which thou 
doest for the Khus through the incantations which they have 
within themselves. Get thee back and depart at the sound of 
the two speeches which the goddess Isis uttered when thou 
didst come to cast the recollection of evil things into the 
mouth of Osiris by the will of Suti his enemy, saying, ' Let 
thy face be toward the privy parts, and look upon that face 
which cometh forth from the flame of the Eye of Horus 
against thee from within the Eye of Tern/ and the calamity 
of that night which shall consume thee. And Osiris went 
back, for the abomination of thee was in him ; and thou didst 
go back, for the abomination of him is in thee. I have gone 
back, for the abomination of thee is in me ; and thou shalt go 
back, for the abomination of me is in thee. Thou wouldst 
come unto me, but I say that thou shalt not advance to me so 



230 THE SACRED BOOKS 

that I come to an end, and I say then to the divine slaugh- 
terers of the god Shu, ' Depart.' ' 

OF RESCUE 

THE CHAPTEE OF NOT LETTING THE SOUL OF Nu, TRIUM- 
PHANT, BE CAPTIVE IN THE UNDERWORLD. He Saith I 

" Hail, thou who art exalted ! Hail, thou who art adored ! 
O thou mighty one of Souls, thou divine Soul, thou possessor 
of terrible power, who dost put the fear of thyself into the 
gods, thou who art crowned upon thy throne of majesty, I 
pray thee to make a way for the ba (soul), and for the Kliu, 
and for the Mail it (shade ) of the overseer of the palace, the 
chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, and let him be provided 
therewith. I am a perfect Khu, and I have made my way 
unto the place wherein dwell Re and Hathor." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE SHALL 
BE ABLE TO TRANSFORM HIMSELF INTO A KHU PROVIDED WITH 
HIS SOUL AND WITH Ills SHADE IN THE UNDERWORLD, AND HE 
SHALL NEVER BE HELD CAPTIVE AT ANY DOOR IN AMENTET, 
IN ENTERING IN OR IN COMING OUT. 

OF OPENING THE TOMB 

THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE TOMB TO THE SOUL AND TO 
THE SHADE OF OSIRIS the scribe Nebseni, the lord of rever- 
ence, born of the lady of the house Mut-restha, triumphant, so 

THAT HE MAY COME FORTH BY DAY AND HAVE DOMINION OVER 

HIS FLEET. He saith : 

" That which was shut fast hath been opened, that is to say, 
he that lay down in death hath been opened. That whicl 
was opened hath been shut to my soul through the command 
of the Eye of Horus, which hath strengthened me and which 
maketh to stand fast the beauties which are upon the fore- 
head of Re, whose strides are long as he lifteth up his legs in 
journeying. I have made for myself a way, my members are 
mighty and are strong. I am Horus, the avenger of his 
divine father. I am he who bringeth along his divine father, 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 231 

and who bringeth along his mother by means of his scepter. 
And the way shall be opened unto him who hath gotten 
dominion over his feet, and he shall see the Great God in the 
Boat of Re, when souls are counted therein at the bows, and 
when the years also are counted up. Grant that the Eye of 
Horus, which maketh the adornments of light to be firm upon 
the forehead of Re, may deliver my soul for me, and let there 
be darkness upon your faces, O ye who would hold fast Osiris. 
Oh, keep not captive my soul, Oh, keep not ward over my 
shade, but let a way be opened for my soul and for my shade, 
and let them see the Great God in the shrine on the day of 
the judgment of souls, and let them recite the utterances of 
Osiris, whose habitations are hidden, to those who guard the 
members of Osiris, and who keep ward over the Kims, and 
who hold captive the shades of the dead who would work evil 
against me, so that they shall not work evil against me. May 
a way for thy double (lea) along with thee and along with 
thy soul be prepared by those who keep ward over the mem- 
bers of Osiris, and who hold captive the shades of the dead. 
Heaven shall not keep thee, the earth shall not hold thee cap- 
tive, thou shalt not have thy being with the divine beings who 
make slaughter, but thou shalt have dominion over thy legs, 
and thou shalt advance to thy body straightway in the earth 
and to those who belong to the shrine and guard the members 
of Osiris." 

OF NOT SAILING TO THE EAST 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT SAILING TO THE EAST IN THE UNDER- 
WORLD. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" Hail, phallus of Re, who departest from thy calamity 
which ariseth through opposition, the cycles have been with- 
out movement for millions of years. I am stronger than the 
strong, I am mightier than the mighty. If I sail away or if 
I be snatched away to the east through the two horns," or 
(as others say), " if any evil and abominable thing be done 
unto me at the feast of the devils, the plwlliis of K<> shall !< 
swallowed up, along with the head of Osiris. And behold 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

me, for I journey along over the fields wherein the gods mow 
down those who make reply unto their words ; now verily the 
two horns of the god Khepera shall be thrust aside; and 
verily pus shall spring into being in the eye of Tern along 
with corruption if I be kept in restraint, or if I have gone 
toward the east, or if the feast of devils be made in my pres- 
ence, or if any malignant wound be inflicted upon me." 

OF THE INK-POT AND PALETTE 

THE CHAPTER OF PRAYING FOR AN INK-POT AND FOR A 
PALETTE. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" Hail, aged god, who dost behold thy divine father and 
who art the guardian of the book of Thoth, behold I have 
come ; I am endowed with glory, I am endowed with strength, 
I am filled with might, and I am supplied with the books of 
Thoth, and I have brought them to enable me to pass through 
the god Aker who dwelleth in Set. I have brought the ink- 
pot and the palette as being the objects which are in the hands 
of Thoth ; hidden is that which is in them. Behold me in the 
character of a scribe ! I have brought the offal of Osiris, and 
I have written thereon. I have made (i.e., copied) the 
words of the great and beautiful god each day fairly. O 
Heru-khuti, thou didst order me and I have made (i.e. f 
copied) what is right and true, and I do bring it unto thee 
each day." 

OF BEING NIGH UNTO THOTH 

THE CHAPTER OF BEING NIGH UNTO THOTH. The chan- 
cellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" I am he who sendeth forth terror into the powers of rain 
and thunder, and I ward off from the great divine lady the 
attacks of violence. I have smitten like the god Shat (i.e., 
the god of slaughter), and I have poured out libations of cool 
water like the god Ashu, and I have worked for the great 
divine lady to ward off the attacks of violence, I have made 
to flourish my knife along with the knife which is in the 
hand of Thoth in the powers of rain and thunder." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 233 



OF BEING NIGH UNTO THOTH 
THE CHAPTER OF BEING NIGH UNTO THOTH AND OF GIVING 

GLORY UNTO A MAN IN THE UNDERWORLD. The chancellor- 

in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" I am the god Her-ab-maat-f (i.e., ' he that is within his 
eye '), and I have come to give right and truth to Re; I have 
made Suti to be at peace with me by means of offerings made 
to the god Aker and to the Tesheru deities, and by making 
reverence unto Seb." 

The following words are to be recited in the Sektet boat : 

" Hail, scepter of Anubis, I have made the four Klius who 
are in the train of the lord of the universe to be at peace 
with me, and I am the lord of the fields through their 
decree. 

" I am the divine father Bah (i.e., the god of the water- 
flood), and I do away with the thirst of him that keepeth ward 
over the Lakes. Behold ye me, then, O great gods of majesty 
who dwell among the Souls of Annu, for I am lifted up 
over you. 

" I am the god Menkh (i.e., Gracious one) who dwelleth 
among you. Verily I have cleansed my soul, O great god of 
majesty ; set not before me the evil obstacles which issue from 
thy mouth, and let not destruction come round about me, or 
upon me. I have made myself clean in the Lake of making 
to be at peace, and in the Lake of weighing in the balance, 
and I have bathed myself in Netert-utchat, which is under the 
holy sycamore-tree of heaven. Behold I am bathed, and I 
have triumphed over all mine enemies straightway who come 
forth and rise up against right and truth. I am right and 
true in the earth. I, even I, have spoken with my mouth 
which is the power of the Lord, the Only one, Re the mighty, 
who liveth upon right and truth. Let not injury be inflicted 
upon me, but let me be clothed on the day of those who go 
forward to every good thing." 



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OF BRINGING A BOAT ALONG IN HEAVEN 

THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING ALONG A BOAT IN HEAVEN. 
The chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, saith: 

" Hail to thee, O thou Thigh which dwellest in the north- 
ern heaven in the Great Lake, which art seen and which diest 
not. I have stood up over thee when thou didst rise like a 
god. I have seen thee, and I have not lain down in death; 
I have stood over thee, and I have risen like a god. I have 
cackled like a goose, and I have alighted like the hawk by 
the divine clouds and by the great dew. I have journeyed 
from the earth to heaven. The god Shu hath made me to 
stand up, the god of Light hath made me to be vigorous by 
the two sides of the ladder, and the stars \vhich never rest set 
me on my way and bring me away from slaughter. I bring 
along with me the things which drive back calamities as I 
advance over the passage of the god Pen ; thou comest, how 
great art thou, O god Pen ! I have come from the Pool of 
Flame which is in the Sekhet-Sasa (i.e., the Field of Fire). 
Thou livest in the Pool of Flame in Sekhet-Sasa, and I live 
upon the staff of the holy god. Hail, thou god Kaa, who 
dost bring those things which are in the boats by the . . . 
I stand up in the boat and I guide myself over the water; 
I have stood up in the boat and the god hath guided me. I 
have stood up. I have spoken. I am master of the crops. 
I sail round about as I go forward, and the gates which are 
in Sekhem (Letopolis) are opened unto me, and fields are 
awarded unto me in the city of Unnu (Hermopolis), and 
laborers are given unto me together with those of my own 
flesh and bone." 



OF BRINGING THE MAKHENT BOAT 

THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING ALONG A BOAT IN THE UNDER- 
WORLD. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" Hail, ye who bring along the boat over the evil back of 
Apepi, grant that I may bring the boat along, and coil up its 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 235 

ropes in peace, in peace. Come, come, hasten, hasten, for I 
have come to see my father Osiris, the lord of the ansi gar- 
ment, who hath gained the mastery with joy of heart. Hail, 
lord of the rain-storm, thou Male, thou jSailor! Hail, thou 
who dost sail over the evil back of Apep! Hail, thou that 
dost bind up heads and dost stablish the bones of the neck 
when thou comest forth from the knives. Hail, thou who art 
in charge of the hidden boat, who dost fetter Apep, grant that 
I may bring along the boat, and that I may coil up the ropes 
and that I may sail forth therein. This land is baleful, and 
the stars have overbalanced themselves and have fallen upon 
their faces therein, and they have not found anything which 
will help them to ascend again : their path is blocked by the 
tongue of Re. Antebu is the guide of the two lands. Seb 
is stablished through their rudders. The power which 
openeth the Disk. The prince of the red beings. I am 
brought along like him that hath suffered shipwreck; grant 
that my Khu f my brother, may come to me, and that I may 
set out for the place whereof thou knowest." 

" Tell me my name," saith the wood whereat I would 
anchor ; " Lord of the two lands who dwellest in the Shrine " 
is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Rudder ; " Leg of Hapiu " 
is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Rope ; " Hair with which 
Anpu (Anubis) fmisheth the work of my embalmment " is 
thy name. 

" Tell us our name," say the Oar-rests ; " Pillars of the 
underworld " is your name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Hold ; " Akar " is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Mast ; " He who bringeth 
back the great lady after she hath gone away " is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Lower deck ; " Standard of 
Ap-uat " is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Upper post ; " Throat of 
Mestha " is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Sail ; " Nut " is thy name. 

" Tell us our name," say the Pieces of leather ; " Ye who 



236 THE SACRED. BOOKS 

are made from the hide of the Mnevis Bull, which was burned 
by Suti," is your name. 

" Tell us our name," say the Paddles ; " Fingers of Horus 
the first-born " is your name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Maichabet; " The hand of 
Isis, which wipeth away the blood from the Eye of Horus," 
is thy name. 

" Tell us our names," say the Planks which are in its hulk ; 
"Mesthi, Hapi, Tuamautef, Qebh-sennuf, Haqau (i.e., he 
who leadeth away captive), Thet-em-aua (i.e., he who seizeth 
by violence), Maa-an-tef (i.e., he who seeth what the father 
bringeth), and Ari-nef-tchesef (i.e., he who made himself)," 
are your names. 

" Tell us our name," say the Bows ; " He who is at the 
head of his nomes " is your name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Hull ; " Mert " is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Rudder ; " Aqa " (i.e., true 
one) is thy name, O thou who shinest from the water, hidden 
beam is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Keel ; " Thigh (or Leg) of 
Tsis, which Re cut off with the knife to bring blood into the 
SeTctet boat," is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Sailor ; " Traveler " is thy 
name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the "Wind by which thou art 
borne along ; " The North Wind which cometh from Tern to 
the nostrils of Khenti-Amenti " 3 is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the River, " if thou wouldst 
travel upon me " ; " Those which can be seen " is thy name. 

" Tell us our name," say the River-Banks ; " Destroyer of 
the god Au-a (i.e., he of the specious hand) in the water- 
house " is thy name. 

" Tell me my name," saith the Ground, " if thou wouldst 
walk upon me " ; " The Nose of heaven which proceedeth 
from the god Utu, who dwelleth in the Sekhet-Aaru, and who 
cometh forth with rejoicing therefrom," is thy name. 

53 I.e., the " Governor of Amenti," or Osiris. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 237 

THEN SHALL BE RECITED BEFORE THEM THESE WORDS : 
" Hail to you, O ye divine beings with splendid Kas, ye 
divine lords of things, who exist and who live forever, and 
whose double period of an illimitable number of years is 
eternity, I have made a way unto you, grant ye me food and 
sepulchral meals for my mouth, and grant that I may speak 
therewith, and that the goddess Isis may give me loaves 
and cakes in the presence of the great god. I know the great 
god before whose nostrils ye place tchefau food, and his name 
is Thekem ; both when he maketh his way from the eastern 
horizon of heaven and when he journey eth into the western 
horizon of heaven may his journey be my journey, and his 
going forth my going forth. Let me not be destroyed at the 
Mesqet chamber, and let not the devils gain dominion over 
my members. I have my cakes in the city of Pe, and I have 
my ale in the city of Tepu, and let the offerings which are 
given unto you be given unto me this day. Let my offerings 
be wheat and barley; let my offerings be anli unguent and 
linen garments; let my offerings be for life, strength, and 
health : let my offerings be a coming forth by day in any form 
whatsoever in which it may please me to appear in Sekhet- 
Aarru." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE SHALL 
COME FORTH INTO SEKHET-AARRU, AND BREAD AND WINE AND 
CAKES SHALL BE GIVEN UNTO HIM AT THE ALTAR OF THE 
GREAT GOD, AND FIELDS, AND AN ESTATE SOWN WITH WHEAT 
AND BARLEY, WHICH THE FOLLOWERS OF HORUS SHALL REAP 
FOR HIM. AND HE SHALL EAT OF THAT WHEAT AND BARLEY, 
AND HIS LIMBS SHALL BE NOURISHED THEREWITH, AND HIS 
BODY SHALL BE LIKE UNTO THE BODIES OF THE GODS, AND 
HE SHALL COME FORTH INTO SEKHET-AARRU IN ANY FORM 
WHATSOEVER HE PLEASETH, AND HE SHALL APPEAR THEREIN 
REGULARLY AND CONTINUALLY. 



238 THE SACRED BOOKS 

OF ENTERING THE BOAT OF RE 
THE BOOK OF MAKING PERFECT THE KHU AND OF CAUSING 

HIM TO GO FORTH INTO THE BOAT OF RE ALONG WITH THOSE 

WHO ARE IN HIS FOLLOWING. The overseer of the palace, 
the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" I have brought the divine Bennu to the east, and Osiris to 
the city of Tattu. I have opened the treasure-houses of the 
god Hap, I have made clean the roads of the Disk, and I have 
drawn the god Sekeri along upon his sledge. The mighty 
and divine Lady hath made me strong at her hour. I have 
praised and glorified the Disk, and I have united myself unto 
the divine apes who sing at the dawn, and I am a divine Being 
among them. I have made myself a counterpart of the god- 
dess Isis, and her power (Khu) hath made me strong. I 
have tied up the rope, I have driven back Apep, I have made 
him to walk backward. Re hath stretched out to me both his 
hands, and his mariners have not repulsed me ; my strength 
is the strength of the Uichat, and the strength of the Utchat 
is my strength. If the overseer of the house, the chancellor- 
in-chief, Nu, triumphant, be separated from the boat of Re, 
then shall he (i.e., Re) be separated from the Egg and from 
the Abtu fish." 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED OVER THE DESIGN WHICH 
HATH BEEN DRAWN ABOVE, AND IT SHALL BE WRITTEN UPON 
PAPYRUS WHICH HATH NOT BEEN WRITTEN UPON, WITH INK 
MADE OF GRAINS OF GREEN ABUT MIXED WITH ANTI WATER, 
A XI) THE PAPYRUS SHALL BE PLACED ON THE BREAST OF THE 
DECEASED; IT SHALL NOT ENTER IN TO (I.E., TOUCH) HIS 
MEMBERS. IF THIS BE DONE FOR ANY DECEASED PERSON HE 

SHALL GO FORTH INTO THE BOAT OF RE IN THE COURSE OF 
THE DAY EVERY DAY, AND THE GOD THOTH SHALL TAKE AC- 
COUNT OF HIM AS HE COMETH FORTH FROM AND GOETH IN 
THE COURSE OF THE DAY EVERY DAY, REGULARLY AND CON- 
TINUALLY, UNTO THE BOAT OF RE, AS A PERFECT KHU. AND 
HE SHALL SET UP THE TET AND SHALL STABLISH THE BUCKLE, 
AND SHALL SAIL ABOUT WITH RE INTO ANY PLACE HE 
WISHETH. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 239 

OF PROTECTING THE BOAT OF RE 

THE CHAPTER OF PROTECTING THE BOAT OF RE. 

" O thou that cleavest the water as thou comest forth from 
the stream and dost sit upon thy place in thy boat, sit thou 
upon thy place in thy boat as thou goest forth to thy station 
of yesterday, and do thou join the Osiris, the overseer of the 
palace, the chancellor-iu-chief, Nu, triumphant, the perfect 
Khu, unto thy mariners, and let thy strength be his strength. 
Hail, Re, in thy name of Re, if thou dost pass by the eye of 
seven cubits, which hath a pupil of three cubits, then verily 
do thou strengthen the Osiris, Nu, triumphant, the perfect 
KJiu, and let him be among thy mariners, and let thy strength 
be his strength. Hail, Re, in thy name of Re, if thou dost 
pass by those who are overturned in death then verily do thou 
make the Osiris, Xu, triumphant, the perfect soul, to stand 
up upon his feet, and may thy strength be his strength. Hail, 
Re, in thy name of Re, if the hidden things of the under- 
world are opened unto thee and thou dost gratify the heart of 
the cycle of thy gods, then verily do thou grant joy of heart 
unto the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, and let thy 
strength be his strength. Thy members, O Re, are estab- 
lished by this Chapter." 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED OVER A BANDLET OF THE 
FINE LINEN OF KINGS UPON WHICH IT HATH BEEN WRITTEN 
WITH ANTI, WHICH SHALL BE LAID UPON THE NECK OF THE 
PERFECT EUU ON THE DAY OF THE BURIAL. IF THIS AMULET 
BE LAID UPON HIS NECK HE SHALL DO EVERYTHING WHICH 
HE DESIRETH TO DO EVEN LIKE THE GODS; AND HE SHALL 
JOIN HIMSELF UNTO THE FOLLOWERS OF HORUS ; AND HE 
SHALL BE STABLISHED AS A STAR FACE TO FACE WITH SEPTET 
(SOTHIS) ; AND HIS CORRUPTIBLE BODY SHALL BE AS A GOD 
ALONG WITH HIS KINSFOLK FOREVER ; AND THE GODDESS MEN- 
QET SHALL MAKE PLANTS TO GERMINATE UPON HIS BODY; AND 
TIIK MAJESTY OF THE GOD TIIOTII LOVINGLY SHALL MAKE THE 
LIGHT TO REST UPON HIS CORRUPTIBLE BODY AT WILL, EVEN 
AS HE DID FOR THE MAJESTY OF THE KING OF THE NORTH 
AND OF THE SOUTH, THE GOD OSIRIS, TRIUMPHANT. 



240 THE SACRED BOOKS 



OF GOING INTO THE BOAT OF RE 

THE CHAPTER OF GOING INTO THE BOAT OF RE. The 
chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" Hail, thou Great God who art in thy boat, bring thou me 
into thy boat. I have come forward to thy steps, let me be 
the director of thy journeyings and let me be among those 
who belong to thee and who are among the stars which never 
rest. The things which are an abomination unto thee and 
the things which are an abomination unto me I will not eat, 
that which is an abomination unto me, that which is an 
abomination unto me is filth and I will not eat thereof; but 
sepulchral offerings and holy food will I eat, and I shall 
not be overthrown thereby. I will not draw nigh unto filth 
with my hands, and I will not walk thereon with my sandals, 
because my bread is made of white barley, and my ale is made 
of red barley; and behold, the Selctet boat and the Atet 
boat have brought these things and have laid the gifts of the 
lands upon the altar of the Souls of Annu. Hymns of praise 
be to thee, O Ur-arit-s, as thou travelest through heaven! 
Let there be food for thee, O dweller in the city of Teni 
(This), and when the dogs gather together let me not suffer 
harm. I myself have come, and I have delivered the god 
from the things which have been inflicted upon him, and from 
the grievous sickness of the body of the arm, and of the leg. 
I have come and I have spit upon the body, I have bound up 
the arm, and I have made the leg to walk. I have entered the 
boat and I sail round about by the command of Re." 



OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF THE EAST 

THE CHAPTER OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF THE EAST. 
The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" I, even I, know the eastern gate of heaven now its 
southern part is at the Lake of Kharu and its northern part 
is at the canal of the geese whereout Re cometh with winds 
which make him to advance. I am he who is concerned with 















HATHOR PROBABLY THE PRIMEVAL GODDESS OF EGYPT. THE Cow GOD 

DESS AND QUEEN OF THE UNDERWORLD ADORNED WITH 

EMBLEMS OF PLEASURE. COMES OUT OF THE 

MOUNTAIN OF TOMBS 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 

the tackle which is in the divine bark, I am the sailor who 
ceaseth not in the boat of Re, I, even I, know the two syca- 
mores of turquoise between which Re showeth himself when 
he strideth forward over the supports of Shu 54 toward the 
gate of the lord of the East through which Re conieth forth. 
I, even I, know the Sektet-Aarru of Re, the walls of which are 
of iron. The height of the wheat therein is five cubits, of 
the ears thereof two cubits, and of the stalks thereof three 
cubits. The barley therein is in height seven cubits, the ears 
thereof are three cubits, and the stalks thereof are four 
cubits. And behold, the Klius, each one of whom therein is 
nine cubits in height, reap it near the divine Souls of the 
East. I, even I, know the divine Souls of the East, that is to 
say, Heru-khuti (Harmakhis), and the Calf of the goddess 
Khera, and the Morning Star BB daily. A divine city hath 
been built for me, I know it, and I know the name thereof; 
' Sekhet-Aarru ' is its name." 



OF SEKHET-HETEPET 

HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS OF SEKHET-HETEPET, AND TUB 
CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY ; OF GOING INTO AND OF 
COMING OUT FROM THE UNDERWORLD ; OF COMING TO SEKHET- 
AARU; OF BEING IN SEKHET-HETEPET, THE MIGHTY LAND, 
THE LADY OF WINDS J OF HAVING POWER THERE J OF BECOMING 
A KHU THERE; OF PLOWING THERE; OF REAPING THERE; OF 
EATING THERE ; OF DRINKING THERE ; OF MAKING LOVE 
THERE; AND OF DOING EVERYTHING EVEN AS A MAN DOETH 
UPON EARTH. Behold the scribe and artist of the Temple of 
Ptah, Nebseni, who saith : 

" Set hath taken possession of Horus, who looked with the 
two eyes upon the building round Sekhet-hetep, but I have 
unfettered Horus and taken him from Set, and Set hath 
opened the ways of the two eyes which are in heaven. Set 

e* I.e., the four pillars at the south, north, west, and east of heaven 
upon which the heavens were believed to rest. 

" In the SaTte Recension this chapter is about twice as long as it is 
in the Theban Recension, 
VOL. II. 16. 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

hath cast his moisture to the winds upon the soul that hath 
his day (or his eye) and who dwelleth in the city of Mert, 
and he hath delivered the interior of the body of Horus from 
the gods of Akert. Behold me now, for I make this mighty 
boat to travel over the Lake of Hetep, and I brought it away 
with might from the palace of Shu ; the domain of his stars 
groweth young and reneweth its former strength. I have 
brought the boat into the lakes thereof so that I may come 
forth into the cities thereof, and I have sailed into their divine 
city Hetep. And behold, it is because I, even I, am at peace 
with his seasons, and with his guidance, and with his terri- 
tory, and with the company of the gods who are his first- 
born. 

"He maketh the two divine fighters (i.e., Horus and 
Set) to be at peace with those who watch over the living ones 
whom he hath created in fair form, and he bringeth peace 
with him; he maketh the two divine fighters to be at peace 
with those who watch over them. He cutteth off the hair 
from the divine fighters, he driveth away storm from the help- 
less, and he keepeth away harm from the Klius. Let me gain 
dominion within that Field, for I know it, and I have sailed 
among its lakes so that I might come into its cities. My 
mouth is strong; and I am equipped with weapons to use 
against the Klius ; let them not have dominion over me. Let 
me be rewarded with thy fields, O thou god Hetep ; that which 
is thy wish, shalt thou do, O lord of the winds. May I be- 
come a Jehu therein, may I eat therein, may I drink therein, 
may I plow therein, may I reap therein, may I fight therein, 
may I make love therein, may my words be mighty therein, 
may I never be in a state of servitude therein, but may I be 
in authority therein. Thou hast made strong the mouth and 
the throat of the god Hetep; Qetetbu is its name. He is 
stablished upon the watery supports of the god Shu, and is 
linked unto the pleasant things of Re. He is the divider of 
years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which 
he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh posses- 
sion of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord 
Hetep. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 243 

" The god Horns maketh himself to be strong like unto the 
Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thou- 
sand cubits in width in life; he hath equipments with him, 
and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his heart 
wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof. He 
was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he 
hath offerings made unto him of the food of the god of the 
city, he performeth that which it is meet to do therein, and 
the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth- 
chamber of the divine city. When he setteth in life like crys- 
tal he performeth everything therein, and these things are 
like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, 
wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein is all 
manner of evil things. The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh 
out, and goeth backward in that Field which gathereth to- 
gether all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god 
of the city. When he setteth in life like crystal he perform- 
eth all manner of things therein which are like unto the 
things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein 
there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are no evil things 
whatsoever. 

" Let me live with the god Hetep, clothed and not 
despoiled by the lords of the north, and may the lords of di- 
vine things bring food unto me ; may he make me to go for- 
ward and may I come forth, and may he bring my power to 
me there, and may I receive it, and may my equipment be 
from the god Hetep. May I gain the mastery over the great 
and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and 
by it I will remember and I will forget. Let me go forward 
on my journey, and let me plow. I am at peace in the divine 
city, 56 and I know the waters, cities, nomes, and lakes which 
are in Sekher-hetep. I exist therein, I .am strong therein, I 
become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow seed therein, I reap 
the harvest therein, I plow therein, I make love therein, I am 
at peace witli the god Hetep therein. Behold I scatter seed 
therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to 
the cities thereof, O divine Hctep. Behold, my mouth is 
Or, " I am at peace with the god of the city." 



244 THE SACRED BOOKS 

equipped with my horns for teeth, grant me an overflowing 
supply of the food whereon the kas and khus live. I have 
passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so 
that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about 
among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep ; and 
behold, Re is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its 
double offering. I have come onward to its land, I have put 
on my girdle, I have come forth so that the gifts which are 
about to be given unto me may be given, I have made glad- 
ness for myself. I have laid hold upon my strength which 
the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me. O Unen-em- 
hetep, 57 I have entered in to thee and my soul followeth after 
me, and my divine food is upon both my hands, O Lady of the 
two lands, 68 who stablishest my word whereby I remember 
and forget ; I would live without injury, without any injury 
being done unto me, oh, grant to me, oh, do thou grant to me, 
joy of heart. 

"Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my sinews 
and muscles, and make me to receive the air. O Un- 
en-em-hetep, thou Lady of the winds, I have entered in to 
thee and I have opened (i.e., shown) my head. Re falleth 
asleep, but I am awake, and there is the goddess Hast at the 
gate of heaven by night. Obstacles have been set before me, 
but I have gathered together what he hath emitted. I am 
in my city. O Nut-urt, 59 I have entered into thee and I have 
counted my harvest, and I go forward to Uakh. 60 I am the 
Bull enveloped in turquoise, the lord of the Field of the Bull, 
the lord of the divine speech of the goddess Septet (Sothis.) 
at her hours. O Uakh, I have entered into thee, I have eaten 
my bread, I have gotten the mastery over choice pieces of the 
flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have 
been given unto me ; I follow after the gods and I come after 
the divine leas. O Tchefet, 61 I have entered in to thee. I 

57 /.e., " Existence in Peace," the name of the first large section of the 
Elysian Fields. 

68 The name of a pool in the second section of the Elysian Fields. 
5 The name of a pool in the first section of the Elysian Fields, 
eo The name of a pool in the second section of the Elysian Fields. 
i The name of a district in the third section of the Elysian Fields. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 245 

array myself in apparel, and I gird myself with the sa gar- 
ment of Re ; now behold, he is in heaven, and those who dwell 
therein follow Re, and I follow Re in heaven. O Unen-en- 
hetep, lord of the two lands, I have entered in to thee, and 
I have plunged into the lakes of Tchesert ; behold me, for all 
filth hath departed from me. The Great God groweth 
therein, and behold, I have found food therein ; I have snared 
feathered fowl and I feed upon the finest of them. O Qen- 
qentet, 02 I have entered into thee, and I have seen the Osiris 
my father, and I have gazed upon my mother, and I have 
made love. I have caught the worms and serpents, and I 
am delivered. And I know the name of the god who is op- 
posite to the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair 
and is equipped with two horns ; he reapeth, and I both plow 
and reap. 

" O Hast, I have entered in to thee, I have driven 
back those who would come to the turquoise sky, and I have 
followed the winds of the company of the gods. The Great 
God hath given my head unto me, and he who hath bound on 
me my head is the Mighty one who hath turquoise eyes, 
namely, Ari-en-ab-f (i.e., he doeth as he pleaseth). O Usert, 03 
I have come into thee at the head of the house wherein divine 
food is brought for me. O Smam, 63 I have come into thee. 
My heart watcheth, my head is equipped with the white crown, 
I am led into celestial regions, and I make to flourish ter- 
restrial objects, and there is joy of heart for the Bull, and for 
celestial beings, and for the company of the gods. I am the 
god who is the Bull, the lord of the gods, as he goeth forth 
from the turquoise sky. O divine nome of wheat and barley, 
I have come unto thee, I have come forward to thee and I 
have taken up that which followeth me, namely, the best of the 
libations of the company of the gods. I have tied up my 
boat in the celestial lakes, I have lifted up the post at which 
to anchor. I have recited the prescribed words with my 
voice, and I have ascribed praises unto the gods who dwell 
in Sekhet-hetep." 

The name of a pool in the first section of the Elysian Fields. 
The name of a pool in the third section of the Elysian Fields. 



046 THE SACRED BOOKS 

OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF PE 

ANOTHER CIIAPTEE OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF PE. The 
overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, trium- 
phant, saith: 

" Hail, Khat, who dwellest in Khat, in Anpet, 64 and in the 
nome of Khat ! Hail, ye goddesses of the chase who dwell in 
the city of Pe, ye celestial lands, ye stars, and ye divine be- 
ings, who give cakes and ale, do ye know for what reason the 
city of Pe hath heen given unto Horus? I, even I, know 
though ye know it not. Behold, Re gave the city unto him in 
return for the injury in his eye, for which cause Re said to 
Horus, ' Let me see what is coming to pass in thine eye/ and 
forthwith he looked thereat. Then Re said to Horus, ' Look 
at that hlack pig/ and he looked, and straightway an injury 
was done unto his eye, namely, a mighty storm took place. 
Then said Horus unto Re, ' Verily, my eye seems as if it were 
an eye upon which Suti had inflicted a blow ' ; and thus say- 
ing he ate his heart. 68 Then said Re to those gods, ' Place 
ye him in his chamber, and he shall do well.' Now the black 
pig was Suti who had transformed himself into a black pig, 
and he it was who had aimed the blow of fire which was in the 
eye of Horus. Then said Re unto those gods, e The pig is an 
abominable thing unto Horus; oh, but he shall do well al- 
though the pig is an abomination unto him.' Then the com- 
pany of the gods, who were among the divine followers of 
Horus when he existed in the form of his own child, said, 
' Let sacrifices be made to the gods of his bulls, and of his 
goats, and of his pigs.' Now the father of Mesthi, Hapi, 
Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf is Horus, and their mother is 
Isis. Then said Horus to Re, ' Give me two divine brethren 
in the city of Pe and two divine brethren in the city of Nek- 
hen, who have sprung from my body and who shall be with 
me in the guise of everlasting judges, then shall the earth 
blossom and thunder-clouds and rain be blotted out.' And 

e* A name of the city of Mendea, the metropolis of the sixteenth nome 
of Lower Egypt. 

65 I.e., he lost his temper and raged. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 247 

the name of Horus became * Her-uatch-f ' (i.e., Prince of his 
emerald stone). I, even I, know the Souls of Pe, namely, 
Horus, Mesthi, and Hapi." 



OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF NEKHEN 

THE CHAPTER OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF NEKHEN. The 
overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, trium- 
phant, saith: 

" I know the hidden things of the city of Nekhen, that is to 
say, the things which the mother of Horus did for him, and 
how she made her voice to go forth over the waters, saying, 
' Speak ye unto me concerning the judgment which is upon 
me, and show me the path behind you, and let me discover 
it ' ; and how Re said, ' This son of Isis hath perished ' ; and 
what the mother of Horus did for him when she cried out, 
saying, ' Sebek, the lord of the papyrus-swamp, shall be 
brought to us/ And Sebek fished for them and he found 
them, and the mother of Horus made them to grow in the 
places to which they belonged. Then Sebek, the lord of his 
papyrus-swamp, said, ' I went and I found the place where 
they had passed with my fingers on the edge of the waters, and 
I enclosed them in my net : and strong was that net.' And 
Re said, ' So then, there are fish with the god Sebek, and he 
hath found the hands and arms of Horus for him in the land 
of fish ' ; and that land became the land of the city of Remu 
(i.e., Fish). And Re said, ' A land of the pool, a land of 
the pool to this net/ Then were the hands of Horus brought 
to him at the uncovering of his face at the festivals of the 
month and half month in the Land of Remu. And Re said, 
' I give the city of Nekhen to Horus for the habitation of his 
two arms and hands, and his face shall be uncovered before 
his two hands and arms in the city of Nekhen ; and I give into 
his power the slaughtered beings who are in them at the festi- 
vals of the month and half month/ Then Horus said, 'Let 
me carry off Tiiainsmtof and Qcbhsennuf, and let them watch 
over my body ; and if they are allowed to be there, then shall 



248 THE SACRED BOOKS 

they be subservient to tbe god of the city of Nekhen.' And 
Re said, i It shall be granted unto thee there and in the city 
of Senket (i.e., Sati), and there shall be done for them what 
hath been done for those who dwell in the city of Nekhen, 
and verily they shall be with thee.' And Horus said, ' They 
have been with thee and now they shall be with me, and 
shall harken unto the god Suti when he calleth upon the Souls 
of Nekhen.' Grant to me that I, even I, may pass on to the 
Souls of Nekhen, and that I may unloose the bonds of Horus. 
I, even I, know the Souls of Nekhen, namely, Horus, Tuam- 
autef, and Qebhsennuf." 



OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF KHEMENNU 

THE CHAPTER OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF KHEMENNU 
(Hermopolis). 

" The goddess Maat is carried by the arm at the shining 
of the goddess Neith in the city of Mentchat, and at the shin- 
ing of the Eye when it is weighed. I am carried over by it 
and I know what it bringeth from the city of Kesi, 66 and I 
will neither declare it unto men nor tell it unto the gods. 
I have come, being the envoy of Re, to stablish Maat upon the 
arm at the shining of Neith in the city of Mentchat and to 
adjudge the eye to him that shall scrutinize it. I have come 
as a power through the knowledge of the Souls of Khemennu 
(Hermopolis) who love to know what ye love. I know Maat, 
which hath germinated, and hath become strong, and hath 
been judged, and I have joy in passing judgment upon the 
things which are to be judged. Homage to you, O ye Souls 
of Khemennu, I, even I, know the things which are unknown 
on the festivals of the month and half month. Re knoweth 
the hidden things of the night, and know ye that it is Thoth 
who hath made me to have knowledge. 

" Homage to you, O ye Souls of Khemennu, since I know 
you each day." 

I.e., Cusa, the metropolis of the fourteenth nome of Upper Egypt. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 249 



OF COMING FORTH FROM HEAVEN 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH FROM REAVEN, AND OF 
MAKING A WAY THROUGH THE AMMEHET, AND OF KNOWING 
THE SOULS OF ANNU (HELIOPOLIS). The chancellor-in- 
chief, Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" I have passed the day since yesterday among the great 
divine beings, and I have come into being along with the god 
Khepera. My face is uncovered before the Eye, the only 
One, and the orbit of the night hath been opened. I am a 
divine being among you. I know the Souls of Annu. Shall 
not the god Urma pass over it as he journeyeth forward with 
vigor ? Have I not overcome, and have I not spoken to the 
gods? Behold, he that is the heir of Annu hath been de- 
stroyed. I, even I, know for what reason was made the lock 
of hair of the Man. Re spake unto the god Ami-haf, and an 
injury was done unto his mouth, that is to say, he was 
wounded in that mouth. And Re spake unto the god Ami- 
haf, saying, ' O heir of men, receive thy harpoon ' ; and the 
harpoon-house came into being. Behold, O god Ami-haf, two 
divine brethren have come into being, that is to say, Senti- 
Re came into being, and Sentem-ansi-f came into being. And 
his hand stayed not, and he made his form into that of a 
woman with a lock of hair which became the divine lock of 
Annu, and which became the strong and mighty one in this 
temple ; and it became the strong one of Annu, and it became 
the heir of the heir of Ur-maat-f (i.e., the mighty one of the 
two eyes), and it became before him the god Urma of Annu. 
I know the Souls of Annu, namely, Re, Shu, and Tefnut." 

OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF KHEMENNU 

ANOTHER CHAPTER OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF KHE- 
MENNU (HERMOPOLIS). The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, tri- 
umphant, saith : 

" The goddess Neith shinoth in Matchat, and the goddess 
Maat is carried by the arm of him who eateth the Eye, and 



250 THE SACRED BOOKS 

who is its divine judge, and the Sem priest carrieth me over 
upon it. I will not declare it unto men, and I will not tell it 
unto the gods ; I will not declare it unto men, and I will not 
tell it unto the gods. I have entered in being an ignorant 
man, and I have seen the hidden things. Homage to you, O 
ye gods who dwell in Khemennu, ye know me even as I know 
the goddess Neith, and ye give to the Eye the growth which 
endureth. There is joy to me at the judgment of the things 
which are to be judged. I, even I, know the Souls of Annu ; 
they are great at the festival of the month, and are little at 
the festival of the half month. They are Thoth the Hidden 
one, and Sa, and Tern." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED OFFAL 
SHALL BE AN ABOMINATION UNTO HIM, AND HE SHALL NOT 
DRINK FILTHY WATER. 



OF RECEIVING PATHS 

THE CHAPTER OF RECEIVING PATHS WHEREON TO WALK 
IN RE-STAU. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, 
saith : 

" The paths which are above me lead to Re-stau. I am 
he who is girt about with his girdle and who cometh forth 
from the goddess of the Ureret crown. I have come, and I 
have stablished things in Abtu (Abydos), and I have opened 
out paths in Re-stau. The god Osiris hath eased my pains. 
I am he who maketh the waters to come into being, and who 
setteth his throne thereon, and who maketh his path through 
the funeral valley and through the Great Lake. I have made 
my path, and indeed I am Osiris. 

" Osiris was victorious over his enemies, and the Osiris 
Nebqet is victorious over his enemies. He hath become as 
one of yourselves, O ye gods, his protector is the Lord of 
eternity, he walketh even as ye walk, he standeth even 
as ye stand, he sitteth even as ye sit, and he talketh even 
as ye talk in the presence of the Great God, the Lord of 
Amentet." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 251 



OF COMING FORTH FROM RE-STAU 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH FROM RE-STAU. The 
chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" I was born in Re-stau, and splendor hath been given unto 
me by those who dwell in their spiritual bodies (sahu ) in the 
habitation where libations are made unto Osiris. The divine 
ministers who are in Re-stau shall receive me when Osiris 
is led into the twofold funeral region of Osiris ; oh, let me be 
a divine being whom they shall lead into the twofold funeral 
region of Osiris." 



OF COMING FORTH FROM RE-STAU 

THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH FROM RE-STAU. 07 The 
chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" I am the Great God who maketh his light. I have come 
to thee, O Osiris, and I offer praise unto thee. I am pure 
from the issues which are carried away from thee. Thy 
name is made in Re-stau, and thy power is in Abtu (Abydos). 
Thou art raised up, then, O Osiris, and thou goest round 
about through heaven with Re, and thou lookest upon the 
generations of men, O thou One who circlest, thou Re. Be- 
hold, verily, I have said unto thee, O Osiris, ' I am the spir- 
itual body of the God/ and I say, ' Let it come to pass that I 
shall never be repulsed before thee, O Osiris. 7 ' 

[The following is the chapter in a fuller form :] 

THE CHAPTER OF KNOWING THE NAME OF OSIRIS AND OF 
ENTERING INTO AND OF GOING OUT FROM Rfi-STAU IN ALL THE 

FORMS WHEREIN HE WILLETH TO COME FORTH. The SCribe 

Mes-em-neter, triumphant, saith: 

" I am the Great Name who maketh his light. I have 
come to thee, O Osiris, and I offer praise unto thee. I am 

* A fuller title of this chapter is, " The Chapter of knowing the 
name of Osiris, and of going into and of coming forth from Re-stau." 



252 THE SACRED BOOKS 

pure from the issues which are carried away from thee. Thy 
name hath heen made in Re-stau when it hath fallen therein. 
Homage to thee, O Osiris, in thy strength and in thy power, 
thou hast obtained the mastery in Re-stau. Thou art raised 
up, O Osiris, in thy might and in thy power, thou art raised 
up, O Osiris, and thy might is in Re-stau, and thy power is in 
Abtu (Ahydos). Thou goest round about through heaven, 
and thou sailest before Re, and thou lookest upon the genera- 
tions of men, O thou Being who circlest, thou Re. Behold, 
verily, I have said unto thee, O Osiris, ' I am the spiritual 
body of the God,' and I say, ' Let it come to pass that I shall 
never be repulsed before thee, O Osiris/ '' 



OF GOING ABOUT IN THE UNDERWORLD 

THE CHAPTER OF GOING IN AFTER COMING FORTH FROM 
THE UNDERWORLD. The overseer of the palace, the chancel- 
lor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" Open unto me ? Who then art thou ? Whither goest 
thou ? What is thy name ? I am one of you, ' Assembler of 
Souls ' is the name of my boat ; ' Making the hair to stand on 
end ' is the name of the oars ; ' Watchful one ' is the name of 
its bows; ' Evil is it' is the name of the rudder; ' Steering 
straight for the middle' is the name of the Matchabet; so 
likewise the boat is a type of my sailing onward to the 
pool. 

" Let there be given unto me vessels of milk, together with 
cakes, and loaves of bread, and cups of drink, and pieces of 
meat in the Temple of Anpu," or (as others say), " Grant 
thou me these things wholly. Let it be so done unto me 
that I may enter in like a hawk, and that I may come forth 
like the Bennu bird, and like the Morning Star. Let me 
make my path so that I may go in peace into the beauti- 
ful Amentet, and let the Lake of Osiris be mine. Let me 
make my path, and let me enter in, and let me adore Osiris, 
the Lord of life." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 253 



OF ENTERING INTO THE GREAT HOUSE 

THE CHAPTER OF ENTERING INTO THE GREAT HOUSE. 
The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, tri- 
umphant, saith : 

"Homage to thee, O Thoth. I am Thoth, who have 
weighed the two divine Fighters (i.e., Horus and Set), I 
have destroyed their warfare and I have diminished their 
wailings. I have delivered the Atu fish in his turning back, 
and I have performed that which thou didst order concern- 
ing him, and afterward I lay down within my eye. I am he 
who hath been without opposition. I have come; do thou 
look upon me in the Temple of Nem-hra (or Uhem-hra). I 
give commands in the words of the divine aged ones, and, 
moreover, I guide for thee the lesser deities." 

OF ENTERING THE PRESENCE 

THE CHAPTER OF GOING INTO THE PRESENCE OF THE 
DIVINE SOVEREIGN PRINCES OF OSIRIS. The overseer of the 
palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith: 

" My soul hath built for me a habitation in the city of 
Tattu ; I sow seed in the city of Pe, and I plow my field with 
my laborers, and for this reason my palm-tree is like Amsu. 
That which is an abomination unto me, that which is an 
abomination unto me I shall not eat. That which is an abom- 
ination unto me, that which is an abomination unto me is 
filth. I shall not eat thereof ; by sepulchral meals and food I 
shall not be destrpyed. The abominable thing I shall not 
take into my hands, I shall not walk upon it in my sandals, 
because my cakes are made of white grain, and my ale is 
made of red grain, and behold, the SeMet boat and the Matet 
boat bring them to me, and I eat thereof under the branches 
of the trees, the beautiful arms of which I know. Oh, let 
splendor be prepared for me with the white crown which is 
lifted up upon me by the ursei-goddesses. Hail, thou guar- 
dian of the divine doors of the god Sehetep-taui (t.t., 'he 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

who maketh the world to be at peace'), bring thou to me 
that of which they make sepulchral meals ; grant thou that I 
may lift up the branches. May the god of light open to me 
his arms, and may the company of the gods keep silence while 
the denizens of heaven talk with the chancellor-iii-chief, !N"u, 
triumphant. I am the leader of the hearts of the gods which 
strengthen me, and I am a mighty one among the divine 
beings. 

"If any god, or any goddess, shall come forth against 
me he shall be judged by the ancestors of the year who live 
upon hearts and who make cakes for me, and Osiris shall de- 
vour him at his coming forth from Abtu (Abydos). He shall 
be judged by the ancestors of Re, and he shall be judged by 
the God of Light who clotheth heaven among the divine 
princes. I shall have bread in my mouth at stated seasons, 
and I shall enter in before the gods Ahiu. He shall speak 
with me, and I shall speak with the followers of the gods. I 
shall speak with the Disk and I shall speak with the denizens 
of heaven. I shall put the terror of myself into the blackness 
of night which is in the goddess Meh-urt, who is near him 
that dwelleth in might. And behold, I shall be there with 
Osiris. My condition of completeness shall be his condition 
of completeness among the divine princes. I shall speak unto 
him with the words of men, and he shall repeat unto me 
the words of the gods. A Jehu who is equipped with power 
shall come. 68 I am a Tcliu who is equipped with power ; I am 
equipped with the power of all the Jehus, being the form of 
the Saliu (i.e., spiritual bodies) of Annu, Tattu, Suten- 
henen, Abtu, Apu, and Sennu. 69 The Osiris Auf-ankh is vic- 
torious over every god and every goddess who are hidden in 
Neter-khertet." 

es The Papyrus of Mes-em-neter adds, "bringing right unto thee the 
divine being who loveth her." 

/.<?., Heliopolis, Mendes or Busiris, Heracleopolis, Abydos, Panopo- 
lis, and Rennu (a city near Panopolis). 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 255 



THE INTRODUCTION TO MAATI 

THE CHAPTER OF ENTERING INTO THE HALL OF DOUBLE 
MAATI; A HYMN OF PRAISE TO OSIRIS, THE GOVERNOR OF 
AMENTET. Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, saith : 

" I have come, and I have drawn nigh to see thy beauties ; 
my hands are raised in adoration of thy name ' Right and 
Truth.' I came and I drew nigh unto the place where the 
acacia- tree groweth not, where the tree thick with leaves exist- 
eth not, and where the ground yieldeth neither herb nor 
grass. Then I entered into the hidden place, and I spake 
with the god Set, and my protector advanced to me, and his 
face was clothed (or covered), and he fell upon the hidden 
things. He entered into the Temple of Osiris, and he looked 
upon the hidden things which were therein ; and the sovereign 
chiefs of the pylons were in the form of Iclius. And the god 
Anpu spake to those who were on both sides of him with the 
speech of a man as he came from Ta-mera ; 70 he knoweth our 
paths and our cities. I make offerings, and I smell the odor 
of him as if he were one among you, and I say unto him, I am 
Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant in peace, triumphant ! I 
have come, and I have drawn nigh to see the great gods, and 
I feed upon the offerings which are among their food. I have 
been to the borders of the territory of Ba-neb-Tettet (i.e. f the 
'Soul, the lord of Tattu/ or Osiris), and he hath caused 
me to come forth like a Bennu bird, and to utter words. I 
have been in the water of the stream, and I have made offer- 
ings of incense. I have guided myself to the Shentet tree 
of the divine children. I have been in Abu (i.e., Elephan- 
tine) in the Temple of the goddess Satet. I have sub- 
merged the boat of mine enemies while I myself have sailed 
over the Lake in the Neshmet boat. I have seen the Sahu 
(i.e., the spiritual bodies) in the city of Qem-ur. I have 
been in the city of Tattu, and I have brought myself to 
silence therein. I have caused the god to have the mastery 
over his two feet. I have been in the Temple of Tep-tu-f 

T O I.e., the " Land of the inundation," a name of Egypt. 



256 THE SACRED BOOKS 

(i.e., ' he that is on his hill, or Anubis), and I have seen him 
that is lord of the divine temple. I have entered into the 
Temple of Osiris, and I have arrayed myself in the apparel 
of him that is therein. I have entered into Re-stall, and I 
have seen the hidden things which are therein. I was 
shrouded therein, but I found a way for myself. I have 
gone into the city of An-aarret-f (i.e., the place where nothing 
groweth), and I covered my nakedness with the garments 
which were therein. There was given unto me the anti 
unguent such as women use, along with the powder of human 
beings. Verily Sut hath spoken unto me the things which 
concern himself, and I said, ' Let thy weighing be in us.' 

" The Majesty of the god Anpu saith, ' Knowest thou the 
name of this door so as to declare it unto me ? ' And Osiris, 
the scribe Ani, triumphant in peace, triumphant! saith, 
' Destroyer of the god Shu y is the name of this door. The 
Majesty of the god Anpu saith, * Knowest thou the name of 
the upper leaf and of the lower leaf ? ' ' Lord of Maat upon 
his two feet ' is the name of the upper leaf, and ' Lord of two- 
fold strength, the subduer of cattle/ is the name of the lower 
leaf. The Majesty of the god Anpu saith, ' Since thou 
knowest pass on, O Osiris, the scribe, the teller of the divine 
offerings of all the gods of Thebes, Ani, triumphant, the lord 
of reverence.' " 



THE INTRODUCTION TO MAATI 

THE FOLLOWING SHALL BE SAID WHEN THE OVERSEER OP 



THE PALACE, THE CHANCELLOR-IN-CHIEF, u, TRIUMPHANT, 
COMETH FORTH INTO THE HALL OF DOUBLE MAATI 71 SO THAT 
HE MAY BE SEPARATED FROM EVERY SIN WHICH HE HATH 
DONE AND MAY BEHOLD THE FACES OF THE GODS. The Osirifl 

Nu, triumphant, saith : 

" Homage to thee, O Great God, thou Lord of Double 

TI In other papyri this chapter is called : ( 1 ) " The Chapter of going 
into the Hall of double Maati"; (2) "The Chapter of the Hall of 
double Maati and of knowing what is therein"; and (3) "The Book 
of entering into the Hall of double Maati." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 257 

Maati, I have come to thee, O my Lord, and I have brought 
myself hither that I may behold thy beauties. I know thee, 
and I know thy name, and I know the names of the two and 
forty gods who exist with thee in this Hall of double Maati, 
who live as warders of sinners and who feed upon their blood 
on the day when the lives of men are taken into account in 
the presence of the god Un-nef er ; in truth ' Rekhti-merti-neb- 
Maati ' (i.e., ' twin-sisters with two eyes, ladies of double 
Maati ') is thy name. In truth I have come to thee, and I 
have brought Maat (i.e., right and truth) to thee, and I have 
destroyed wickedness for thee. I have not done evil to 
mankind. I have not oppressed the members of my family, I 
have not wrought evil in the place of right and truth. I have 
had no knowledge of worthless men. I have not wrought 
evil. I have not made to be the first consideration of each 
day that excessive labor should be performed for me. I have 
not brought forward my name for exaltation to honors. I 
have not ill-treated servants. I have not thought scorn of 
God. I have not defrauded the oppressed one of his prop- 
erty. 72 I have not done that which is an abomination unto 
the gods. I have not caused harm to be done to the servant 
by his chief. I have not caused pain. I have made no man 
to suffer hunger. I have made no one to weep. I have done 
no murder. I have not given the order for murder to be done 
for me. I have not inflicted pain upon mankind. I have 
not defrauded the temples of their oblations. I have not 
purloined the cakes of the gods. I have not carried off the 
cakes offered to the khus. I have not committed fornication. 
I have not polluted myself in the holy places of the god of my 
city, nor diminished from the bushel. I have neither added 
to nor filched away land. I have not encroached upon the 
fields of others. I have not added to the weights of the scales 
to cheat the seller. I have not misread the pointer of the 
scales to cheat the buyer. I have not carried away the milk 
from the mouths of children. I have not driven away the 
cattle which were upon their pastures. I have not snared 
the feathered fowl of the preserves of the gods. I have not 
" Variant, " I have not caused misery, I have not caused affliction. 

V'L. II. 17. 



258 THE SACRED BOOKS 

caught fish with bait made of fish of their kind. I have not 
turned back the water at the time when it should flow. I 
have not cut a cutting in a canal of running water. I have 
not extinguished a fire (or light) when it should burn. I 
have not violated the times 73 of offering the chosen meat- 
offerings. I have not driven off the cattle from the prop- 
erty of the gods. I have not repulsed God in his manifes- 
tations. I am pure. I am pure. I am pure. I am pure. 
My purity is the purity of that great Bennu which is in the 
city of Suten-henen (Heracleopolis), for, behold, I am the 
nose of the God of the winds, who maketh all mankind to 
live on the day when the Eye (TJtchat) of Re is full in Annu 
(Heliopolis) at the end of the second month 74 of the season 
Pert (i.e., the season of growing) in the presence of the 
divine lord of this earth. I have seen the Eye of Re when 
it was full in Annu, therefore let not evil befall me in this 
land and in this Hall of double Maati, because I, even I, 
know the names of these gods who are therein and who are 
the followers of the great god." 

THE NEGATIVE CONFESSION 

The scribe Nebseni, triumphant, saith : 

1. " Hail, thou whose strides are long, who comest forth 
from Annu (Heliopolis), I have not done iniquity. 

2. " Hail, thou who art embraced by flame, who comest 
forth from Kher-aba, 75 I have not robbed with violence. 

3. "Hail, thou divine Nose (Fenti), who comest forth 
from Khemennu (Hermopolis), I have not done violence to 
any man. 

4. " Hail, thou who eatest shades, who comest forth from 
the place where the Nile riseth, 76 I have not committed theft. 

Variant, " I have not defrauded the gods of their chosen meat- 
offerings." 

T4 I.e., the month called by the Copts Mekhir, the sixth month of the 
Egyptian year. 

" A city near Memphis. 

T The " Qerti," or caverns out of which flowed the Nile, were thought 
to be situated between Aswan and Philae. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 259 

5. " Hail, Neha-hau, 77 who comest forth from Re-stau, I 
have not slain man or woman. 

6. " Hail, thou double Lion-god, who comest forth from 
heaven, I have not made light the bushel. 

7. " Hail, thou whose two eyes are like flint, 78 who comest 
forth from Sekhem (Letopolis), I have not acted deceitfully. 

8. " Hail, thou Flame, who comest forth as thou goest back, 
I have not purloined the things which belong unto God. 

9. " Hail, thou Crusher of bones, who comest forth from 
Suten-henen (Heracleopolis), I have not uttered falsehood. 

10. " Hail, thou who makest the flame to wax strong, who 
comest forth from Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis), I have not car- 
ried away food. 

11. " Hail, Qerti, (i.e., the two sources of the Nile), who 
come forth from Amentet, I have not uttered evil 
words. 

12. " Hail, thou whose teeth shine, w T ho comest forth from 
Ta-she (i.e., the Fayyum), I have attacked no man. 

13. " Hail, thou who dost consume blood, who comest forth 
from the house of slaughter, I have not killed the beasts, 
which are the property of God. 

14. " Hail, thou who dost consume the entrails, who comest 
forth from the mabet chamber, I have not acted deceitfully. 

15. " Hail, thou god of Right and Truth, who comest forth 
from the city of double Maati, I have not laid waste the lands 
which have been plowed. 

16. "Hail, thou who goest backward, who comest forth 
from the city of Bast (Bubastis), I have never pried into mat- 
ters to make mischief. 

17. " Hail, Aati, who cornest forth from Annu (Heliopo- 
lis), I have not set my mouth in motion against any man. 

18. " Hail, 'thou who art double evil, who comest forth 
from the nome of Ati, 79 I have not given way to wrath con- 
cerning myself without a cause. 

" Variant, Neha-hra. 
*8 Variant, " like fire." 

I.e., the ninth nome of Lower Egypt, the capital of which was Per- 
Autar or Buairis. 



260 THE SACRED BOOKS 

19. " Hail, them serpent Uamemti, who comest forth 
from the house of slaughter, I have not defiled the wife of 
a man. 

20. " Hail, thou who lookest upon what is brought to him, 
who comest forth from the Temple of Amsu, I have not com- 
mitted any sin against purity. 

21. " Hail, Chief of the divine Princes, who comest forth 
from the city of Nehatu, 80 I have not struck fear into any 
man. 

22. "Hail, Khemiu (i.e., Destroyer), who comest forth 
from the Lake of Kaui, I have not encroached upon sacred 
times and seasons. 

23. "Hail, thou who orderest speech, who comest forth 
from Urit, I have not been a man of anger. 

24. " Hail, thou Child, who comest forth from the Lake of 
Heq-at, 81 I have not made myself deaf to the words of right 
and truth. 

25. " Hail, thou disposer of speech, who comest forth from 
the city of lines, 82 I have not stirred up strife. 

26. " Hail, Basti, who comest forth from the Secret city, I 
have made no man to weep. 

27. " Hail, thou whose face is turned backward, who 
comest forth from the Dwelling, I have not committed acts of 
impurity, neither have I lain with men. 

28. " Hail, Leg of fire, who comest forth from Akhekhu, I 
have not eaten my heart. 83 

29. " Hail, Kenemti, who comest forth from the city of 
Kenemet, I have abused no man. 

30. " Hail, thou who bringest thine offering, who comest 
forth from the city of Sau (Sais) I have not acted with vio- 
lence. 

31. " Hail, thou god of faces, who comest forth from the 
city of Tchefet, I have not judged hastily. 

32. " Hail, thou who givest knowledge, who comest forth 

so The " City of the Sycamore," a name of a city of Upper Egypt, 
si The thirteenth nome of Lower Egypt. 

82 The metropolis of the nineteenth nome of Upper Egypt. 

83 I.e., " lost my temper and become angry." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 261 

from Unth, I have not ... and I have not taken vengeance 
upon the god. 

33. " Hail, thou lord of two horns, who comest forth from 
Satiu, I have not multiplied my speech overmuch. 

34. " Hail, Nefer-Tem, who comest forth from Het-ka- 
Ptah (Memphis), I have not acted with deceit, and I have not 
worked wickedness. 

35. " Hail, Tem-Sep, who comest forth from Tattu, I have 
not uttered curses on the King. 

36. " Hail, thou whose heart doth labor, who comest forth 
from the city of Tebti, I have not fouled water. 

37. " Hail, Ahi of the water, who comest forth from Nu, I 
have not made haughty my voice. 

38. " Hail, thou who givest commands to mankind, who 
comest forth from Sau, I have not cursed the god. 

39. " Hail, Neheb-nefert, who comest forth from the Lake 
of Nefer, I have not behaved with insolence. 

40. " Hail, Neheb-kau, who comest forth from thy city, I 
have not sought for distinctions. 

41. " Hail, thou whose head is holy, who comest forth from 
thy habitations, I have not increased my wealth, except with 
such things as are justly mine own possessions. 

42. " Hail, thou who bringest thine own arm, who comest 
forth from Aukert (underworld), I have not thought scorn of 
the god who is in my city." 

ADDRESS TO THE GODS OF THE UNDERWORLD 

THEN SHALL THE HEART WHICH is RIGHTEOUS AND SIN- 
LESS SAY: 84 

The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, 
triumphant, saith: 

" Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in the Hall of 

8 These words are added from Papyrus No. 9905 in the British Mu- 
seum. Other papyri introduce the address with the words: (1) "To 
be said when the deceased cometh forth victorious from the Hall of 
double Maati"; (2) " To be said when he cometh forth to the gods of 
the underworld"; (3) "The words which are to be said after the Hall 
of double Maati." 



262 THE SACRED BOOKS 

double Maati, I, even I, know you, and I know your names. 
Let me not fall under your knives of slaughter, and bring ye 
not forward my wickedness unto the god in whose train ye 
are ; and let not evil hap come upon me by your means. Oh, 
declare ye me right and true in the presence of Neb-er-tcher, 
because I have done that which is right and true in Ta-mera 
(Egypt). I have not cursed God, and let not evil hap come 
upon me through the king who dwelleth in my day. Homage 
to you, O ye gods, who dwell in the Hall of double Maati, 
who are without evil in your bodies, and who live upon right 
and truth, and who feed yourselves upon right and truth in 
the presence of the god Horus, who dwelleth in his divine 
Disk : deliver ye me from the god Baba who feedeth upon the 
entrails of the mighty ones upon the day of the great judg- 
ment. Oh, grant ye that I may come to you, for I have not 
committed faults, I have not sinned, I have not done evil, I 
have not borne false witness ; therefore let nothing evil be done 
unto me. I live upon right and truth, and I feed upon right 
and truth. I have performed the commandments of men as 
well as the things whereat are gratified the gods, I have 
made the gods to be at peace with me by doing that which 
is their will. I have given bread to the hungry man, and 
water to the thirsty man, and apparel to the naked man, and a 
boat to the shipwrecked mariner. I have made holy offerings 
to the gods, and sepulchral meals to the Khus. Be ye then my 
deliverers, be ye then my protectors, and make ye not accusa- 
tion against me in the presence of the Great God. I am clean 
of mouth and clean of hands ; therefore let it be said unto me 
by those who shall behold me, ' Come in peace ; come in peace/ 
for I have heard that mighty word which the spiritual bodies 
(sahu} 8 * spake unto the Cat in the House of Hapt-re. I have 
been made to give evidence before the god Hra-f-ha-f (i.e., he 
whose face is behind me), and he hath given a decision con- 
cerning me. I have seen the things over which the persea- 
tree spreadeth its branches within Re-stau. I am he who 
hath offered up prayers to the gods and who knoweth their 

85 The ordinary reading is, " For I have heard the word which was 
spoken by the Ass with the Cat." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 263 

persons. I have come and I have advanced to make the 
declaration of right and truth, and to set the balance upon 
what supporteth it within the region of Aukert. Hail, thou 
who art exalted upon thy standard, thou lord of the Atefu 
crown, whose name is proclaimed as ' Lord of the winds/ 
deliver thou me from thy divine messengers who cause dire 
deeds to happen, and who cause calamities to come into being, 
and who are without coverings for their faces, for I have done 
that which is right and true for the Lord of right and truth. 
I have purified myself and my breast with libations, and my 
hinder parts with the things which make clean, and my inner 
parts have been in the Pool of Eight and Truth. There is 
no single member of mine which lacketh right and truth. I 
have been purified in the Pool of the South, and I have rested 
in the northern city which is in the Field of the Grasshoppers, 
wherein the divine sailors of Re bathe at the second hour of 
the night and at the third hour of the day. And the hearts 
of the gods are gratified after they have passed through it, 
whether it be by night or whether it be by day, and they say 
unto me, ' Let thyself come forward. 7 And they say unto me, 
i Who, then, art thou ? ' And they say unto me, * What is 
thy name ? ' ' I am he who is equipped under the flowers and 
I am the dweller in his olive-tree/ is my name. And they 
say unto me straightway, ' Pass thou on ' ; and I passed on 
by thy city to the north of the olive-tree. What then, didst 
thou see there? The leg and the thigh. What, then, didst 
thou say unto them ? Let me see rejoicings in those lands of 
the Tenkhu. 86 And what did they give unto thee ? A flame 
of fire and a tablet (or scepter) of crystal. What, then, didst 
thou do therewith ? I buried them by the furrow of Manaat 
as ' things for the night.' What, then, didst thou find by the 
furrow of Manaat ? A scepter of flint, the name of which is 
' Giver of winds/ What, then, didst thou do to the flame 
of fire and the tablet (or scepter) of crystal after thou hadst 
buried them ? I uttered words over them in the furrow, and 
I dug them out therefrom ; I extinguished the fire, and I broke 

A people who dwelt, probably, on tbo northeast frontier of Egypt, 
and who have been by some identified with the Pheniciana. 



264 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the tablet (or scepter), and I created a pool of water. 
' Come, then, 7 they say, ' and enter in through the door of this 
Hall of double Maati, for thou knowest us.' 

" ' We will not let thee enter in through us,' say the bolts 
of the door, i unless thou tellest us our names ' ; ' Tongue of 
the Balance of the place of right and truth ' is your name. 
1 1 will not let thee enter in by me/ saith the right lintel of 
the door, ' unless thou tellest me my name ' ; ' Balance of the 
support of right and truth ' is thy name. ' I will not let thee 
enter in by me,' saith the left lintel of the door, * unless thou 
tellest me my name ' ; * Balance of wine ' is thy name. ' I 
will not let thee pass over me,' saith the threshold of this 
door, l unless thou tellest me my name ' ; ' Ox of the god 
Seb ' is thy name. ' I will not open unto thee,' saith the fas- 
tening of this door, ' unless thou tellest me my name ' ; 
' Flesh of his mother ' is thy name. ' I will not open unto 
thee,' saith the socket of the fastening of the door, ' unless 
thou tellest me my name ' ; ' Living eye of the god Sebek, 
the lord of Bakhau,' is thy name. ' I will not open unto thee 
and I will not let thee enter in by me,' saith the guardian of 
the leaf of this door, 'unless thou tellest me my name'; 
' Elbow of the god Shu when he placeth himself to protect 
Osiris ' is thy name. ' We will not let thee enter in by us,' 
say the posts of this door, ' unless thou tellest us our names ' ; 
' Children of the uraei-goddesses ' is your name. 87 ' Thou 
knowest us,' they say, ' pass on, therefore, by us.' 

" ' I will not let thee tread upon me,' saith the floor of the 
Hall of double Maati, * because I am silent and I am holy, 
and because I do not know the names of thy two feet where- 
with thou wouldst walk upon me ; therefore tell them to me.' 
' Traveler of the god Khas ' is the name of my right foot, 
and ' Staff of the goddess Hathor ' is the name of my left 
foot. ' Thou knowest me,' it saith, l pass on therefore 
over me.' 

" ' I will not make mention of thee,' saith the guardian of 

S T The Papyrus of Nu continues : " ' I will not open unto thee and 
I will not let thee pass by me,' saith the Guardian of this door, ' unless 
thou tellest me thy name ' ; ' Ox of Seb ' is thy name." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 265 

the door of this Hall of double Maati, unless thou tellest me 
my name ' ; ' Discerner of hearts and searcher of the reins ' is 
thy name. ' Now will I make mention of thee to the god. 
But who is the god that dwelleth in his hour? Speak thou 
it ' (i.e., his name). Maau-Taui (i.e., he who keepeth the 
record of the two lands) is his name. ' Who then is Maau- 
Taui V He is Thoth. * Come/ saith Thoth. 'But why 
hast thou come ? ' I have come, and I press forward that I 
may be mentioned. What now is thy condition? I, even 
I, am purified from evil things, and I am protected from 
the baleful deeds of those who live in their days ; and I am 
not among them. ' Now will I make mention of thee to the 
god.' 88 ' Tell me now, who is he whose heaven is of fire, 
whose walls are surmounted by living ursei, and the floor of 
whose house is a stream of water? Who is he? I say.' It 
is Osiris. ' Come forward, then : verily thou shalt be men- 
tioned to him. Thy cakes shall come from the Eye of Re, 
and thine ale shall come from the Eye of Re, and the sepul- 
chral meals which shall be brought to thee upon earth shall 
come from the Eye of Re. This hath been decreed for the 
Osiris the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief Nu, 
triumphant.' ' 

(THE MAKING OF THE REPRESENTATION OF WHAT SHALL 
HAPPEN IN THIS HALL OF DOUBLE MAATI.) THIS CHAPTER 
SHALL BE SAID BY THE DECEASED AFTER HE HATH BEEN 



EYES HAVE BEEN PAINTED WITH ANTIMONY, AND HIS BODY 
HATH BEEN ANOINTED WITH UNGUENT OF ANTI , AND WHEN 
HE OFFERETH OXEN, AND FEATHERED FOWL, AND INCENSE, 
AND CAKES, AND ALE, AND GARDEN HERBS. AND BEHOLD, 
THOU SHALT DR\W A REPRESENTATION OF THIS IN COLOR UPON 
A NEW TILE MOLDED FROM EARTH UPON WHICH NEITHER A 
PIG NOR OTHER ANIMALS HAVE TRODDEN. AND IF THOU 
DOEST THIS BOOK UPON IT IN WRITING, THE DECEASED SHALL 
FLOURISH, AND HIS CHILDREN SHALL FLOURISH, AND HIS NAM K 
SHALL NEVER FALL INTO OBLIVION, AM> II K SHALL BE AS ONE 
Here the papyrus repeats a passage given above. 



266 THE SACRED BOOKS 

WHO FILLETH ( I.E., SATISFIETH) THE HEART OF THE KING 
AND OF HIS PRINCES, AND BREAD, AND CAKES, AND SWEET- 
MEATS, AND WINE, AND PIECES OF FLESH SHALL BE GIVEN 
UNTO HIM UPON THE ALTAR OF THE GREAT GOD; AND HE 
SHALL NOT BE TURNED BACK AT ANY DOOR IN AMENTET, AND 
HE SHALL BE BROUGHT IN ALONG WITH THE KINGS OF UPPER 
AND LOWER EGYPT, AND HE SHALL BE IN THE TRAIN OF 
OSIRIS 89 CONTINUALLY AND REGULARLY FOREVER. 

OF THE FOUR APES 

The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, 
triumphant, the son of the overseer of the palace, the chan- 
cellor-in-chief, Amen-hetep, triumphant, saith : 

" Hail, ye four apes who sit in the bows of the boat of Re, 
who convey right and truth to Neb-er-tcher, who sit in judg- 
ment on my misery and on my strength, who make the gods 
to rest contented by means of the flame of your mouths, who 
offer holy offerings to the gods and sepulchral meals to the 
khus, who live upon right and truth, and who feed upon right 
and truth of heart, who are without deceit and fraud, and to 
whom wickedness is an abomination, do ye away with my 
evil deeds, and put ye away my sin which deserved stripes 
upon earth, and destroy ye any evil whatsoever that belongeth 
unto me, and let there be no obstacle whatsoever on my part 
toward you. Oh grant ye that I may make my way through 
the underworld (ammehet), let me enter into Re-stau, let me 
pass through the hidden pylons of Amentet. Oh, grant that 
there may be given to me cakes, and ale, and sweetmeats, even 
as they are given, to the living Ichus, and grant that I may 
enter in and come forth from Re-stau. 

" The four apes make answer, saying, * Come, then, for 
we have done away with thy wickedness, and we have put 
away thy sin, along with the sin deserving of stripes which 

8 After "Osiris" a Paris papyrus adds, "He shall come forth in 
whatsoever form he is pleased to appear as a living soul forever and 
ever." 

oThis chapter has no title either in the Theban or in the Saite 
Recension. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 267 

thou didst commit upon earth, and we have destroyed all 
the evil which belonged to thee upon the earth. Enter, there- 
fore, into Re-stau, and pass thou through the hidden pylons 
of Amentet, and there shall be given unto thee cakes, and ale, 
and sweetmeats, and thou shalt come forth and thou shalt 
enter in at thy desire, even as do those klius who are favored 
of the god, and thou shalt be proclaimed (or called) each day 
in the horizon." 

OF THE PRAISE OF THE GQDS 
THE BOOK OF THE PRAISE OF THE GODS OF THE QERTI 91 

WHICH A MAN SHALL RECITE WHEN HE COMETH FORTH BE- 
FORE THEM TO ENTER IN TO SEE GOD IN THE GREAT TEMPLE 

OF THE UNDERWORLD. And he shall say: 

" Homage to you, O ye gods of the Qerti, ye divine dwellers 
in Amentet! Homage to you, O ye guardians of the doors 
of the underworld, who keep ward over the god, who bear 
and proclaim the names of those who come into the presence 
of the god Osiris, and who hold yourselves ready, and who 
praise him, and who destroy the Enemies of Re. Oh send 
ye forth your light and scatter ye the darkness which is about 
you, and behold ye the holy and divine Mighty One, O ye 
who live even as he liveth, and call ye upon him that dwelleth 
within his divine Disk. Lead ye the King of the North 
and of the South (Usr-Maat-Re-setep-en-Amen), the son of 
the Sun (Ra-meses-meri-Amen-Re-heq-Maat), through your 
doors, may his divine soul enter into your hidden places, 
for he is one among you, and he hath shot forth calamities 
upon the serpent fiend Apep, and he hath beaten down the 
obstacles which Apep set up in Amentet. Thy word hath 
prevailed mightily over thine enemies, O great God, who 
livest in thy divine Disk; thy word hath prevailed mightily 
over thine enemies, O Osiris, Governor of Amentet; thy 
word hath prevailed mightily over thine enemies in heaven 
and in f:irth, O thou King of the North and of the South 
v (Usr-Maat-Re-setep-en-Amen), the son of the Sun (Ra- 

i I.e., districts or divisions of the underworld. 



268 THE SACRED BOOKS 

meses-meri-Amen-Re-heq-Maat), and over the sovereign 
princes of every god and of every goddess, O Osiris, Governor 
of Amentet ; he hath uttered words in the presence of the god 
in the valley of the dead, and he hath gained the mastery 
over the mighty sovereign princes. Hail, ye doorkeepers, 
hail, ye doorkeepers, who guard your gates, who punish souls, 
who devour the bodies of the dead, who advance over them 
at their examination in the places of destruction, who give 
right and truth to the soul and to the divine Jehu, the benefi- 
cent one, the mighty one, whose throne is holy in Akert, who 
is endowed with soul like Re, and who is praised like Osiris, 
lead ye along the King of the North and of the South (Usr- 
Maat-Re-setep-en-Amen), the son of the Sun (Ra-meses- 
meri-Amen-Re-heq-Maat), unbolt ye for him the doors, and 
open ye the place of his Qerti for him. Behold, make ye his 
word to triumph over his enemies, and indeed let meat-offer- 
ings and drink-offerings be made unto him by the god of the 
double door, and let him put on the nemmes crown of him 
that dwelleth in the great and hidden shrine. Behold the 
image of Heru-khuti (Harmachis), who is doubly true, and 
who is the divine Soul and the divine and perfect Khu; he 
hath prevailed with his hands. The two great and mighty 
gods cry out to the King of the North and South (Usr-Maat- 
Re-setep-en-Amen), the son of the Sun (Ra-meses-meri- 
Amen-Re-heq-Maat), they rejoice with him, they sing praises 
to him and clap their hands, they accord him their protec- 
tion, and he liveth. The King of the North and South (Usr- 
Maat-Re-setep-en-Amen), the son of the Sun (Ra-meses- 
meri-Amen-Re-heq-Maat), riseth like a living soul in heaven. 
He hath been commanded to make his transformations, he 
hath made himself victorious before the divine sovereign 
chiefs, and he hath made his way through the gates of heaven, 
and of earth, and of the underworld, even as hath Re. The 
King of the North and South (Usr-Maat-Re-setep-en- 
Amen), the son of the Sun (Ra-meses-meri-Amen-Re-heq- 
Maat), saith, ' Open unto me the gates of heaven, and of 
earth, and of the underworld, for I am the divine soul of 
Osiris and I rest in him, and let me pass through their halls. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 

Let the gods sing praises unto me when they see me ; let me 
enter and let favor be shown unto me ; let me come forth and 
let me be beloved; and let me go forward, for no defect or 
failure hath been found clinging unto me.' ' 

ADORATION OF THE GODS OF THE QERTI 
A CHAPTER TO BE RECITED ON COMING BEFORE THE DIVINE 

SOVEREIGN CHIEFS OF OsiRIS TO OFFER PRAISE UNTO THE GODS 
WHO ARE THE GUIDES OF THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris, the 

chief scribe and draughtsman, Ptah-mes, triumphant, saith: 
"Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in the Qerti, ye 
gods who dwell in Amentet, who keep ward over the gates of 
the underworld and are the guardians thereof, who bear and 
proclaim the names of those who come into the presence of 
Osiris, who praise him and who destroy the enemies of Re. 
Oh, send forth your light and scatter ye the darkness which 
is about you, and look upon the face of Osiris, O ye who live 
even as he liveth, and praise ye him that dwelleth in his Disk, 
and lead ye me away from your calamities. Let me come 
forth and let me enter in through your secret places, for I 
am a mighty prince among you, for I have done away with 
evil there, and I have beaten down the obstacles which have 
been set up in Amentet. Thou hast been victorious over 
thine enemies, O thou that dwellest in thy Disk; thou hast 
been victorious over thine enemies, O Thoth, who producest 
statutes; thou hast been victorious over thine enemies, O 
Osiris, the chief scribe and draughtsman, Ptah-mes, trium- 
phant; thou has been triumphant over thine enemies, O 
Osiris, thou Governor of Amentet, in heaven and upon earth 
and in the presence of the divine sovereign chiefs of every 
god and of every goddess ; and the food of Osiris, the Gover- 
nor of Amentet, is in the presence of the god whose name is 
hidden before the great divine sovereign chiefs. Hail ye 
guardians of the doors, ye gods who keep ward over their 
habitations, who keep the reckoning and who commit souls to 
destruction, who grant right and truth to the divine soul 
which is stablished, who are without evil in the abode of 



270 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Akert, who are endowed with soul even as is Re, and who are 
... as is Osiris, guide ye Osiris the chief scribe, the 
draughtsman, Ptah-mes, triumphant, open ye unto him the 
gates of the underworld, and the uppermost part of his estate 
and his Qert. Behold, make ye him to be victorious over his 
enemies, provide ye him with the offerings of the god of the 
underworld, make noble the divine being who dwelleth in the 
nemmes crown, the lord of the knowledge of Akert. Behold, 
stablish . . . this soul in right and truth, and let it become a 
perfect soul that hath gained the mastery with its two hands. 
The great and mighty gods cry out, ' He hath gotten the 
victory/ and they rejoice in him, and they ascribe praise unto 
him with their hands, and they turn unto him their faces. 
The living one is triumphant, and is even like a living soul 
dwelling in heaven, and he hath been ordered to perform his 
transformations. Osiris triumphed over his enemies, and 
Osiris, the chief scribe and draughtsman, Ptah-mes, trium- 
phant, hath gained the victory over his enemies in the pres- 
ence of the great divine sovereign chiefs who dwell in heaven, 
and in the presence of the great divine sovereign chiefs who 
dwell upon the earth." 

HYMN" OF PRAISE TO OSIRIS 

A HYMN OF PRAISE TO OSIRIS. The Osiris Auf-ankh, tri- 
umphant, saith: 

"Homage to thee, O Osiris Un-nefer, triumphant, thou 
son of Nut, thou first-born son of Seb, thou mighty one who 
cometh forth from Nut, thou King in the city of Nifu-ur, 92 
thou Governor of Amentet, thou lord of Abtu (Abydos), thou 
lord of souls, thou mighty one of strength, thou lord of the 
atef crown in Suten-henen, thou lord of the divine form in the 
city of Nifu-ur, thou lord of the tomb, thou mighty one of 
souls in Tattu, thou lord of sepulchral offerings, thou whose 
festivals are many in Tattu. The god Horus exalteth his 
father in every place (or shrine), and he uniteth himself unto 
the goddess Isis and unto the goddess Nephthys ; and the god 

z A name of the city of Abydos. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 271 

Thoth reciteth for him the mighty glorifyings which are 
within him, aiid which come forth from his mouth, and the 
heart of Horus is stronger than that of all the gods. Rise up, 
then, O Horus, thou son of Isis, and avenge thy father Osiris. 
Hail, O Osiris, I have come unto thee ; I am Horus and I have 
avenged thee, and I feed this day upon the sepulchral meals 
of oxen, and feathered fowl, and upon all the beautiful things 
offered unto Osiris. Rise up, then, O Osiris, for I have 
struck down for thee all thine enemies, and I have taken ven- 
geance upon them for thee. I am Horus upon this beautiful 
day of thy fair rising in thy Soul which exalteth thee along 
with itself on this day before thy divine sovereign princes. 
Hail, O Osiris, thy Tea hath come unto thee and is with thee, 
and thou resteth therein in thy name of Ka-Hetep. I mak- 
eth thee glorious in thy name of Kliu, and it maketh thee like 
unto the Morning Star in thy name of Pehu, and it openeth 
for thee the ways in thy name of Ap-uat. Hail, O Osiris, I 
have come unto thee and I have set thine enemies under thy 
feet in every place, and thou art triumphant in the presence 
of the company of the gods and of the divine sovereign chiefs. 
Hail, O Osiris, thou hast received thy scepter and the place 
whereon thou art to rest, and thy steps are under thee. Thou 
bringest food to the gods, and thou bringest sepulchral meals 
unto those who dwell in their tombs. Thou hast given thy 
might unto the gods and thou hast created the Great God; 
thou hast thy existence with them in their spiritual bodies, 
thou gatherest thyself unto all the gods, and thou hearest the 
word of right and truth on the day when offerings to this god 
are ordered on the festivals of Uka." 



OF MAKING PERFECT THE KHU 

ANOTHER CHAPTER OF MAKING PERFECT THE KHU, WHICH 
18 TO BE RECITED ON THE BIRTHDAY OF OsiRIS, AND OF MAK- 
ING TO LIVE THE SOUL FOREVER. 98 The chanccllor-in-chicf, 
Nu, triumphant, saith: 

Variant, "The Book of making the soul to live forever. To be 



272 THE SACRED BOOKS 

" The heavens are opened, the earth is opened, the West is 
opened, the East is opened, the southern half of heaven is 
opened, the northern half of heaven is opened, the doors are 
opened, and the gates are thrown wide open to Re as he 
cometh forth from the horizon. The Sektet boat openeth for 
him the double doors and the Matet boat bursteth open for 
him the gates; he breatheth, and the god Shu cometh into 
being, and he createth the goddess Tefnut. Those who are in 
the following of Osiris follow in his train, and the overseer 
of the palace, the chancellor-iu-chief, Xu, triumphant, fol- 
loweth on in the train of Re. He taketh his iron weapon 
and he forceth open the shrine even as doth Horus, and press- 
ing onward he advanceth unto the hidden things of his habi- 
tation with the libations of his divine shrine ; the messenger 
of the god that loveth him. The Osiris Nu, the overseer of 
the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, bringeth forth 
the right and the truth, and he maketh to advance the going 
forward of Osiris. The Osiris Nu, the overseer, of the pal- 
ace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, taketh in his hands 
the cordage and he bindeth fast the shrine. Storms are the 
things which he abominateth. Let no water-flood be nigh 
unto him, let not the Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, 
the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, be repulsed before Re, 
and let him not be made to turn back ; for, behold, the Eye 
is in his two hands. Let not the Osiris Nu, the overseer of 
the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, walk in the 
valley of darkness, let him not enter into the Lake of those 
who are evil, and let him have no existence among the damned, 
even for a moment. Let not the Osiris Nu fall headlong 
among those who would lead him captive, and let not his soul 
go in among them. Let his divine face take possession of the 
place behind the block, the block of the god Septu. 

" Hymns of praise be unto you, O ye divine beings of the 
Thigh, the knives of God work in secret, and the two arms 
and hands of God cause the light to shine ; it is doubly pleas- 
ant unto him to lead the old unto him along with the young 

recited on the day of embarking in the boat of Re to pass over the 
chiefs of flame." 




HORUS. THE HAWK-GOO or RIGHTEOUSNESS. SON OF Isis AND OSIRM 

AS THE GOD-CHILD HE RISES FROM A LOTUS. WITH THE 

EMBLEMS OF SOVEREIGNTY. AND WITH FINGER ON 

LIPS DENOTING HIS DlVINE WISDOM 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 273 

at his season. Now, behold, the god Thoth dwelleth within 
his hidden places, and he performeth the ceremonies of liba- 
tion unto the god who reckoneth millions of years, and he 
maketh a way through the firmament, and he doeth away 
with storms and whirlwinds from his stronghold, and the 
Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, 
triumphant, arriveth in the places of his habitations. O ye 
divine beings of the Thigh, do ye away with his sorrow, and 
his suffering, and his pain, and may the sorrow of the Osiris 
Nu be altogether put away. Let the Osiris Nu, the overseer 
of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, gratify Re, 
let him make a way into the horizon of Re, let his boat be 
made ready for him, let him sail on happily, and let Thoth 
put light into his heart ; then shall the Osiris Nu, triumphant, 
praise and glorify Re, and Re shall barken unto his words, 
and he shall beat down the obstacles which come from his 
enemies. I have not been shipwrecked, I have not been 
turned back to the horizon, for I am Re-Osiris, and the Osiris 
Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, shall 
not be shipwrecked in the Great Boat. Behold him whose 
face is in the god of the Thigh, because the name of Re is in 
the body of the Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the 
chancellor-in-chief, and his honor is in his mouth; he shall 
speak unto Re and Re shall barken unto his words. 

" Hymns of praise unto thee, O Re, in the horizon, and 
homage unto thee, O thou that purifiest with light the deni- 
zens of heaven, O thou who hast sovereign power over heaven 
at that supreme moment when the paddles of thine enemies 
move with thee ! The Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, 
the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, cometh with the ordering 
of right and truth, for there is an iron firmament in Amentet 
which the fiend Apep hath broken through with his storms 
before the double Lion-god, and this will the Osiris Nu set in 
order ; O harken ye, ye who dwell upon the top of the throne 
of majesty. The Osiris Nu shall come in among thy divine 
sovereign chiefs, and Re shall deliver him from Apep each 
day so that he may not come nigh unto him, and he shall 
make himself vigilant. The Osiris Nu shall have power over 

VOL. II.-18. 



274 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the things which are written, he shall receive sepulchral 
meals, and the god Thoth shall provide him with the things 
which should be prepared for him. The Osiris Nu maketh 
right and truth to go round about the bows in the Great Boat, 
and hath triumph among the divine sovereign chiefs, and he 
establisheth it for millions of years. The divine chiefs guide 
him and give unto him a passage in the boat with joy and 
gladness ; the first ones among the company of the sailors of 
Re are behind him, and he is happy. Right and truth are 
exalted, and they have come unto their divine lord, and 
praises have been ascribed unto the god Neb-er-tcher. The 
Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, 
triumphant, hath taken in his hands the weapon and he hath 
made his way through heaven therewith ; the denizens thereof 
have ascribed praises unto him as unto a divine being who 
standeth up and never sinketh to rest. The god Re exalteth 
him by reason of what he hath done, and he causeth him to 
make of none effect the whirlwind and the storm ; he looketh 
upon his splendors, and he stablisheth his oars, and the boat 
saileth round about in heaven, rising like the sun in the 
darkness. Thoth, the mighty one, leadeth the Osiris Nu 
within his eye, and he sitteth upon his thighs in the mighty 
boat of Khepera ; he cometh into being, and the things which 
he saith come to pass. The Osiris Nu advanceth, and he 
journeyeth round about heaven unto Amentet, the fiery dei- 
ties stand up before him, and the god Shu rejoiceth exceed- 
ingly, and they take in their hands the bows of the boat of 
Re along with his divine mariners. Re goeth round about 
and he looketh upon Osiris. The Osiris Nu is at peace, the 
Osiris Nu is at peace. He hath not been driven back, the 
flame of thy moment hath not been taken away from him, O 
Re, the whirlwind and storm of thy mouth have not come 
forth against him, he hath not journeyed upon the path of the 
crocodile for he abominateth the crocodile and it hath 
not drawn nigh unto him. The Osiris Nu embarked in thy 
boat, O Re, he is furnished with thy throne, and he receiveth 
thy spiritual form. The Osiris Nu traveleth over the paths 
of Re at daybreak to drive back the fiend Nebt; he cometh 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 275 

upon the flame of thy boat, O Re, upon that mighty Thigh. 
The Osiris Nu knoweth it, and he attaineth unto thy boat, 
and behold he sitteth therein; and he maketh sepulchral 
offerings." 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED OVER A BOAT OF THE 
GOD RE WHICH HATH BEEN PAINTED IN COLORS IN A PURE 
PLACE, AND BEHOLD THOU SHALT PLACE A FIGURE OF THE DE- 
CEASED IN THE BOWS THEREOF, AND THOU SHALT PAINT A 
SEKTET BOAT UPON THE RIGHT SIDE THEREOF, AND AN A.TET 
BOAT UPON THE LEFT SIDE THEREOF, AND THERE SHALL BE 
MADE UNTO THEM OFFERINGS OF BREAD, AND CAKES, AND 
WINE, AND OIL, AND EVERY KIND OF FAIR OFFERING UPON THE 
BIRTHDAY OF OSIRIS. IF THESE CEREMONIES BE PERFORMED 
HIS SOUL SHALL HAVE EXISTENCE, AND SHALL LIVE FOREVER, 
AND SHALL NOT DIE A SECOND TIME. 94 



OF LIVING NIGH UNTO RE 

THE CHAPTER OF HAVING EXISTENCE NIGH UNTO RE. 98 
The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, tri- 
umphant, saith: 

" I am that god Re who shineth in the night. Every being 
who followeth in his train shall have life in the following of 
the god Thoth, and he shall give unto him the risings of 

* The following is from the rubric to this chapter in the Saite 
Recension : 

" He shall know the hidden things of the underworld, he shall pene- 
trate the hidden things in Neter-khertet (the underworld). 

" This chapter was found in the large hall of the Temple under the 
reign of his Majesty Hesepti, triumphant, and it was found in the 
cavern of the mountain which Horus made for his father Osiris Un- 
nefer, triumphant. Now since Re looketh upon this deceased in his 
own flesh, he shall look upon him as the company of the gods. The 
fear of him shall be great, and the awe of him shall be mighty in the 
heart of men, and gods, and Khus, and the damned. He shall be with 
his soul and shall live forever; he shall not die a second time in the 
underworld; and on the day of weighing of words no evil hap shall 
befall him. He shall }w triumphant over his enemies, and his sepul- 
chral meals shall be upon the altar of Re in the course of each day, day 
by day." 

5 Or, " The Chapter of making the way into heaven nigh unto Re." 



276 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Horus in the darkness. The heart of Osiris Nu, the overseer 
of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, is glad be- 
cause he is one of those beings, and his enemies have been de- 
stroyed by the divine princes. I am a follower of Re, and I 
have received his iron weapon. I have come unto thee, O my 
father Re, and I have advanced to the god Shu. I have cried 
unto the mighty goddess, I have equipped the god Hu, and I 
alone have removed the Nebt god from the path of Re. I am 
a Khu f and I have come to the divine prince at the bounds of 
the horizon. I have met and I have received the mighty 
goddess. I have raised up thy soul in the following of thy 
strength, and my soul liveth through thy victory and thy 
mighty power; it is I who give commands in speech to Re, 
in heaven. Homage to thee, O great god in the east of 
heaven, let me embark in thy boat, O Re, let me open myself 
out in the form of a divine hawk, let me give my commands 
in words, let me do battle in my Sekhem, let me be master 
under my vine. Let me embark in thy boat, O Re, in peace, 
and let me sail in peace to the beautiful Amentet. Let the 
god Tern speak unto me, saying, ' Wouldst thou enter 
therein ? ' The lady, the goddess Mehen, is a million of 
years, yea, two million years in extent, and dwelleth in the 
House of Urt and Nif-urt and in the Lake of a million years ; 
the whole company of the gods move about among those who 
are at the side of him who is the lord of divisions of places. 
And I say, ' On every road and among these millions of years 
is Re the lord, and his path is in the fire, and they go round 
about behind him, and they go round about behind him.' ' 

OF BRINGING MEN BACK TO EARTH 

THE CHAPTER OF CAUSING A MAN TO COME BACK TO SEE 
HIS HOUSE UPON EARTH. The Osiris Ani saith : 

" I am the Lion-god coming forth with extended strides. 
I have shot arrows and I have wounded the prey ; I have shot 
arrows and I have wounded the prey. I am the Eye of 
Horus, and I pass through the Eye of Horus at this season. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 277 

I have arrived at the furrows ; let the Osiris Ani advance in 
peace." 96 



OF MAKING PERFECT THE KHU 
THE BOOK OF MAKING PERFECT THE EHU, WHICH is TO BE 

RECITED ON THE DAY OF THE MONTH. The Osiris Nu, the 

overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, 
saith : 

" Re riseth in his horizon, and his company of the gods 
follow after him. The god cometh forth out of his hidden 
habitations, and food f alleth out of' the eastern horizon of 
heaven at the word of the goddess Nut who maketh plain the 
paths of Re, whereupon straightway the Prince goeth round 
about. Lift up then thyself, O thou Re, who dwellest in thy 
divine shrine, draw thou into thyself the winds, inhale the 
north wind, swallow thou the skin of thy net on the day 
wherein thou brcathest right and truth. Thou separatest the 
divine followers, and thou sailest in thy boat to Nut; the 
divine princes march onward at thy word. Thou takcst 
count of thy bones, thou gatherest together thy members, thou 
settest thy face toward the beautiful Amentet, and thou com- 
est, being renewed each day. Behold, thou art that Image of 
gold, and thou dost possess the splendors of the disks of 
heaven, and art terrible; thou comest, being renewed each 
day. Hail, the horizon rejoiceth, and there are shouts of 
joy in the rigging of thy boat ; when the gods who dwell in 
the heavens see the Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the 
chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, they ascribe unto him as his 
due praises which are like unto those ascribed unto Re. The 
Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, 
triumphant, is a divine prince and he seeketh the ureret 
crown of Re, and he, the only one, is strong in good fortune 
in that supreme body which is of those divine beings who are 
in the presence of Re. The Osiris Nu is strong both upon 

Aunt!.. T |.npyniB adds the words, "I have advanced, and behold, I 
have not been found light, and the Balance is empty of my affair." 



278 THE SACRED BOOKS 

earth and in the underworld ; and the Osiris Nu is strong like 
unto Ee every day. The Osiris Nu shall not tarry, and he 
shall not lie without motion in this land forever. Being 
doubly beautiful he shall see with his two eyes, and he shall 
hear with his two ears ; rightly and truly, rightly and truly. 
The Osiris Nu is like unto Re, and he setteth in order the 
oars of his boat among those who are in the train of Nu. 
He doth not tell that which he hath seen, and he doth not 
repeat that which he hath heard in the secret places. Hail, 
let there be shouts of joy to the Osiris Nu, who is of the divine 
body of Re, as he journeyeth over Nu, and who propitiateth 
the Ka of the god with that which he loveth. The Osiris 
Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, is a 
hawk, the transformations of which are mighty (or mani- 
fold)." 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED OVER A BOAT FOUR CUBITS 
IN ITS LENGTH AND MADE OF GREEN PORCELAIN ON WHICH 
HAVE BEEN PAINTED THE DIVINE SOVEREIGN CHIEFS OF THE 
CITIES ; AND A HEAVEN WITH ITS STARS SHALL ALSO BE MADE, 
AND THIS THOU SHALT HAVE MADE CEREMONIALLY PURE BY 
MEANS OF NATRON AND INCENSE. AND, BEHOLD, THOU SHALT 
MAKE AN IMAGE OF RE IN YELLOW COLOR UPON A NEW PLAQUE 
AND SET IT AT THE BOWS OF THE BOAT, AND BEHOLD, THOU 
SHALT PLACE AN IMAGE OF THE EUV WHICH THOU DOST WISH 
TO MAKE PERFECT AND PLACE IT IN THIS BOAT, AND THOU 
SHALT MAKE IT TO TRAVEL ABOUT IN THE BOAT WHICH SHALL 
BE MADE IN THE FORM OF THE BOATS OF RE ; AND HE SHALL 
SEE THE GOD RE HIMSELF THEREIN. LET NOT THE EYE OF 
ANY MAN WHATSOEVER LOOK UPON IT WITH THE EXCEPTION 
OF THINE OWN SELF, OF THY FATHER, OR THY SON, AND GUARD 
THIS WITH GREAT CARE. NOW THESE THINGS SHALL MAKE 
THE EHU PERFECT IN THE HEART OF RE, AND IT SHALL GIVE 
UNTO HIM POWER WITH THE COMPANY OF THE GODS; AND 
THE GODS SHALL LOOK UPON HIM AS A DIVINE BEING LIKE 
UNTO THEMSELVES ; AND MANKIND AND THE DEAD SHALL LOOK 
UPON HIM AND SHALL FALL DOWN UPON THEIR FACES, AND HE 
SHALL BE SEEN IN THE UNDERWORLD IN THE FORM OF THE 
RADIANCE OF RE. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 279 

OF MAKING PERFECT THE KHU 

ANOTHER CHAPTER OF MAKING PERFECT THE EHU. QI 
The Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in- 
chief, triumphant, saith : 

" Homage to thee, O thou who art within thy divine shrine, 
who shinest with rays of light and sendest forth radiance 
from thyself, who decreest joy for millions of years unto those 
who love him, who givest their hearts' desire unto mankind, 
thou god Khepera within thy boat who hast overthrown Apep. 
O ye children of the god Seb, overthrow ye the enemies of 
Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, 
triumphant, and destroy ye them from the boat of Re; and 
the god Horus shall cut off their heads in heaven where they 
are in the form of feathered fowl, and their hind parts shall 
be on the earth in the form of animals and in the Lake in the 
form of fishes. Every male fiend and every female fiend 
shall the Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor- 
in-chief, destroy, whether he descendest from the heaven, 
or whether he cometh forth from the earth, or whether they 
come upon the waters, or whether they advance toward the 
stars, the god Thoth, the son of Aner, coming forth from 
the Anerti, shall hack in pieces. The Osiris Nu is silent and 
dumb; cause ye this god, the mighty one of slaughter, the 
being greatly to be feared, to make himself clean in your 
blood and to bathe himself in your gore, and ye shall cer- 
tainly be destroyed by him from the boat of his father Re. 
The Osiris Nu is the god Horus to whom his mother the 
goddess Isis hath given birth, and whom the goddess Neph- 
thys hath nursed and dandled, even like Horus when he re- 
pulsed the fiends of the god Suti; and when they see the 
ureret crown stablished upon his head they fall down upon 
their faces and they glorify him. Behold, when men, and 
gods, and Khus, and the dead see the Osiris Nu in the form 
of Homs with the ureret crown stablished upon his head, 

7 In the Papyrus of Nebseni the title of this chapter roads: "The 
Chapter of embarking in the boat of Re and of being with those who 
are in his following." 



280 THE SACRED BOOKS 

they fall down upon their faces. And the Osiris Nu, the 
overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, is 
victorious over his enemies in the heights of heaven, and in 
the depths thereof, and before the divine sovereign chiefs of 
every god and of every goddess." 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED OVER A HAWK STANDING 
AND HAVING THE WHITE CROWN UPON HIS HEAD, AND OVER 
FIGURES OF TEM, SHU, TEFNUT, SEE, NUT, OSIRIS, ISIS, SUTI, 
AND NEPHTHYS PAINTED IN YELLOW COLOR UPON A NEW 
PLAQUE, WHICH SHALL BE PLACED IN A MODEL OF THE BOAT 
OF THE SUN, ALONG WITH A FIGURE OF THE DECEASED WHOM 
THOU WOULDST MAKE PERFECT. THESE SHALT THOU ANOINT 
WITH CEDAR-OIL, AND INCENSE SHALL BE OFFERED UP TO 
THEM ON THE FIRE, AND FEATHERED FOWL SHALL BE ROASTED. 
IT IS AN ACT OF PRAISE TO RE AS HE JOURNEYETH, AND IT 
SHALL CAUSE A MAN TO HAVE HIS BEING ALONG WITH RE DAY 
BY DAY, WHITHERSOEVER THE GOD VOYAGETH ; AND IT SHALL 
DESTROY THE ENEMIES OF RE IN VERY TRUTH REGULARLY AND 
CONTINUALLY. 

FOR THE NEW MOON 

ANOTHER CHAPTER TO BE RECITED WHEN THE MOON RE- 

NEWETH ITSELF ON THE DAY OF THE MONTH. The Osiris 

Auf-ankh, triumphant, saith: 

" Osiris unfettereth," or, (as others say,) " openeth the 
storm cloud in the body of heaven, and is unfettered himself ; 
Horns is made strong happily each day. He whose trans- 
formations are great (or many) hath offerings made unto him 
at the moment, and he hath made an end of the storm which is 
in the face of the Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant. Verily he 
cometh, and he is Re in his journeying, and he is the four 
celestial gods in the heavens above. The Osiris Auf-ankh, 
triumphant, cometh forth in his day, and he embarketh 
among the tackle of the boat." 

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY THE DECEASED HE SHALL 
BECOME A PERFECT EHU IN THE UNDERWORLD, AND HE SHALL 
NOT DIE THEREIN A SECOND TIME, AND HE SHALL EAT HIS 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 281 

FOOD SIDE BY SIDE WITH OSIRIS. IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN 
BY HIM UPON EARTH HE SHALL BE LIKE UNTO THOTH, AND HE 
SHALL BE ADORED BY THE LIVING ONES J HE SHALL NOT FALL 
HEADLONG AT THE MOMENT OF ROYAL FLAME OF THE GOD- 
DESS BAST, AND THE MIGHTY PRINCESS SHALL MAKE HIM TO 
ADVANCE HAPPILY. 

OF TRAVELING IN THE BOAT OF RE 

ANOTHER CHAPTER OF TRAVELING IN THE GREAT BOAT OF 
RE. The Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancel- 
lor-in-chief, triumphant, saith: 

" Behold now, O ye luminaries in Annu, ye people in 
Kher-aba, the god Kha hath been born ; his cordage hath been 
completed, and the instrument wherewith he maketh his way 
hath he grasped firmly. I have protected the implements of 
the gods, and I have delivered the boat Kha for him. I have 
come forth into heaven, and I have traveled therein with Re 
in the form of an ape, and have turned back the paths of Nut 
at the staircase of the god Sebek." 

OF MAKING PERFECT THE KHU 

ANOTHER CHAPTER OF MAKING PERFECT THE EHU; it shall 
be recited on the festival of Six. The Osiris Nu, the over- 
seer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, saith : 

"Behold now, O ye luminaries in Annu (Heliopolis), ye 
people in Kher-aba, the god hath been born; his cordage hath 
been completed, and the instrument wherewith he maketh 
his way he hath grasped firmly; and the Osiris Nu is strong 
with them to direct the implement of the gods. The Osiris 
Nu hath delivered the boat of the sun therewith . . . and he 
cometh forth into heaven. The Osiris Nu sailed round about 
in heaven, he traveleth therein unto Nut, he journeveth 
along with Re, and IIP vovau-eth therein in the form of apes; 
he turneth back the water-flood which is over the Thigh of 
the goddess Nut at the staircase of the god Scbaku. The 
hearts of Seb and Nut are glad and repeat the name which is 



282 THE SACRED BOOKS 

new. Un-nefeni reneweth his youth, Re is in his splendors 
of light, Unti hath his speech, and lo, the god of the Inunda- 
tion is Prince among the gods. The taste of sweetness hath 
forced a way into the heart of the destitute one, and the lord 
of thy outcries hath been done away with, and the oars 
of the company of the gods are .in vigorous motion. 
Adored be thou, O divine Soul, who art endowed more than 
the gods of the South and North in their splendors ! Behold, 
grant thou that the Osiris Nu may be great in heaven even 
as thou art great among the gods; deliver thou him from 
every evil and murderous thing which may be wrought upon 
him by the Fiend, and fortify thou his heart. Grant thou, 
moreover, that the Osiris Nu may be stronger than all the 
gods, all the Khus, and all the dead. The Osiris Nu is 
strong and is the lord of powers. The Osiris Nu is the lord 
or right and truth which the goddess Uatchit worketh. The 
strength which protects the Osiris Nu is the strength which 
protects the god Re in heaven. O god Re, grant thou that 
the Osiris Nu may travel on in thy boat in peace, and do thou 
prepare a road whereon thy boat may journey onward; for 
the force which protecteth Osiris is the force which pro- 
tecteth thee. The Osiris Nu driveth back the Crocodile from 
Re day by day. The Osiris Nu cometh even as doth Horus in 
the splendors of the horizon of heaven, and he directeth Re 
through the mansions of the sky ; the gods rejoice greatly when 
the Osiris Nu repulseth the Crocodile. The Osiris Nu hath 
the amulet of the god, and the cloud of Nebt shall not come 
nigh unto him, and the divine guardians of the mansions of the 
sky shall not destroy him. The Osiris Nu is a divine being 
whose face is hidden, and he dwelleth within the Great House 
as the chief of the Shrine of the god. The Osiris Nu carrieth 
the words of the gods, to Re, and he cometh and maketh suppli- 
cation unto the divine lord with the words of his message. The 
Osiris Nu is strong of heart, and he maketh his offering 
at the moment among those who perform the ceremonies of 
sacrifice." 

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE SAID OVER A FIGURE OF THE DE- 
CEASED WHICH SHALL BE PLACED IN A MODEL OF THE BOAT 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 283 

OF THE SUN, AND BEHOLD, HE THAT BECITETH IT SHALL BE 
WASHED, AND SHALL BE CEREMONIALLY PURE, AND HE SHALL 
HAVE BURNT INCENSE BEFORE RE, AND SHALL HAVE OFFERED 
WIXE, AND CAKES, AND ROASTED FOWL FOR THE JOURNEY OF 
THE DECEASED IN THE BOAT OF RE. NOW, EVERY EHU FOR 
WHOM SUCH THINGS ARE DONE SHALL HAVE AN EXISTENCE 
AMONG THE LIVING ONES, AND HE SHALL NEVER PERISH, AND 
HE SHALL HAVE A BEING LIKE UNTO THAT OF THE HOLY GOD ; 
NO EVIL THING WHATSOEVER SHALL ATTACK HIM. AND HE 
SHALL BE LIKE UNTO A HAPPY KHU IN AMENTET, AND HE 
SHALL NOT DIE A SECOND TIME. HE SHALL EAT AND HE 
SHALL DRINK IN THE PRESENCE OF OSIRIS EACH DAY; HE 
SHALL BE BORNE ALONG WITH THE KINGS OF THE NORTH AND 
OF THE SOUTH EACH AND EVERY DAY; HE SHALL QUAFF WA- 
TER AT THE FOUNTAIN-HEAD ; HE SHALL COME FORTH BY DAY 
EVEN AS DOTH IIORUS J HE SHALL LIVE AND SHALL BECOME 
LIKE UNTO GOD; AND HE SHALL BE HYMNED BY THE LIVING 
ONES, EVEN AS IS RE EACH AND EVERY DAY CONTINUALLY AND 
REGULARLY FOREVER. 

SAILING IN THE GREAT BOAT 
THE CHAPTER OF SAILING IN THE GREAT BOAT OF RE TO 

PASS OVER THE CIRCLE OF BRIGHT FLAME. The Osiris Nu, 

the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, 
saith: 

" Hail, ye bright and shining flames that keep your place 
behind Re, and which slay behind him, the boat of Re is in 
fear of the whirlwind and the storm; shine ye forth, then, 
and make ye yourselves visible. I have come daily along 
with the god Sek-hra from the bight of his holy lake, and I 
have seen the Maat goddesses pass along, and the lion-gods 
who belong unto them. Hail, thou that dwellest in the coffer 
who hast multitudes of plants, I have seen what is there. 
We rejoice, and their princes rejoice greatly, and their lesser 
gods are glad. 

" I have made a way in front of the boat of Re, I have 
lifted myself up into his divine Disk, I shine brightly 



284 THE SACRED BOOKS 

through his splendors; he hath furnished himself with the 
things which are his, taking possession thereof as the 
lord of right and truth. And behold, O ye company of the 
gods, and thou ancestor of the goddess Isis, grant ye that he 
may bear testimony to his father, the lord of those who are 
therein. I have weighed the ... in him as chief, and I 
have brought to him the goddess Tefnut and he liveth. Be- 
hold, come, come, and declare before him the testimony of 
right and truth of the lord Tern. I cry out at eventide and 
at his hour, saying, Grant ye unto me that I may come. I 
have brought unto him the jaws of the passages of the tomb ; 
I have brought unto him the bones which are in Annu (Heli- 
opolis) ; I have gathered together for him his manifold parts ; 
I have driven back for him the serpent fiend Apep; I have 
spit upon his gashes for him; I have made my road and I 
have passed in among you. I am he who dwelleth among 
the gods, come, let me pass onward in the boat, the boat of 
the lord Sa. Behold, O Heru-ur, there is a flame, but the fire 
hath been extinguished. I have made my road, O ye divine 
fathers and your divine apes ! I have entered upon the hori- 
zon, and I have passed on to the side of the divine princes, 
and I have borne testimony unto him that dwelleth in his 
divine boat. I have gone forward over the circle of bright 
flame which is behind the lord of the lock of hair which mov- 
eth round about. Behold, ye who cry out over yourselves, 
ye worms in your hidden places, grant ye that I may pass 
onward, for I am the mighty one, the lord of divine strength, 
and I am the spiritual body (sah) of the lord of divine right 
and truth made by the goddess Uatchit. His strength which 
protecteth is my strength which protecteth, which is the 
strength which protecteth Re. Grant ye that I may be in the 
following of Re, and grant ye that I may go round about with 
him in Sekhet-hetep and in the two lands. 

" I am a great god, and I have been judged by the com- 
pany of his gods ; grant that divine, sepulchral meals may be 
given unto me." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 285 

OF THE FOUR FLAMES 

THE CHAPTER OF THE FOUR BLAZING FLAMES WHICH ARE 
MADE FOR THE REV. Behold, thou shalt make four square 
troughs of clay; whereon thou shalt scatter incense, and thou 
shalt fill them with the milk of a white cow, and by means of 
these thou shalt extinguish the flame. The Osiris Nu, the over- 
seer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, saith : 

" The fire cometh to thy Ka, O Osiris, governor of Amenti ; 
the fire cometh to thy Ka, O Osiris Nu, the overseer of the 
palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant. He that order- 
eth the night cometh after the day. The flame cometh to 
thy Ka, O Osiris, governor of those in Amenti, and the two 
sisters of Re come likewise. Behold, the flame riseth in 
Abtu ( Abydos) and it cometh ; and I cause it to come to the 
Eve of Horus. It is set .in order upon thy brow, O Osiris, 
governor of Amenti, and it is fixed within thy shrine and ris- 
eth upon thy brow; it is set in order upon thy breast, O 
Osiris Nu, and it is fixed upon thy brow. The Eye of Horus 
is protecting thee, O Osiris, governor of Amenti, and it keep- 
eth thee in safety ; it casteth down headlong all thine enemies 
for thee and all thine enemies have fallen headlong before 
thee. O Osiris Nu, the Eye of Horus protecteth thee, it 
keepeth thee in safety, and it casteth down headlong all thine 
enemies. Thine enemies have fallen down headlong before 
thy Ka, O Osiris, governor of Amenti, the Eye of Horus pro- 
tecteth thee, it keepeth thee in safety, and it hath cast down 
headlong all thine enemies. Thine enemies have fallen down 
headlong before thy Ka, O Osiris Nu, the overseer of the pal- 
ace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, the Eye of Horus 
protecteth thee, it keepeth thee in safety, it hath cast down 
headlong for thee all thine enemies, and thine enemies have 
fallen down headlong before thee. The Eye of Horus com- 
eth, it is sound and well, and it sendeth forth rays like unto 
Re in the horizon; it covereth over with darkness the pow- 
ers of Suti, it taketh possession thereof 'and it bringcth its 
flame against him upon its feet. The Eye of Horus is sound 
and well, thou eatest the flesh of thy body by means thereof, 



286 THE SACRED BOOKS 

and thou givest praise thereto. The four flames enter into 
thy Ka, O Osiris, governor of Amenti, the four flames enter 
into thy Tea, O Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, the 
chancellor-in-chief, triumphant. Hail, ye children of Horus, 
Mesthi, Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf, ye have given 
your protection unto your divine Father Osiris, the governor 
of Amenti, grant ye your protection to the Osiris Nu, tri- 
umphant. Now, therefore, inasmuch as ye have destroyed 
the opponents of Osiris, the governor of Amenti, he liveth 
with the gods, and he hath smitten Suti, with his hand and 
arm since light dawned upon the earth, and Horus hath got- 
ten power, and he hath avenged his divine Father Osiris 
himself ; and inasmuch as your divine father hath been made 
vigorous through the union which ye have effected for him 
with the Ka of Osiris, the governor of Amenti now the Eye 
of Horus hath avenged him, and it hath protected him, and it 
hath cast down headlong for him all his enemies, and all his 
enemies have fallen down before him even so do ye destroy 
the opponents of the Osiris Nu, the overseer of the palace, 
the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant. Let him live with the 
gods, let him smite down his enemy, let him destroy him when 
light dawneth upon the earth, let Horus gain power and 
avenge the Osiris Nu, let the Osiris Nu have vigor through 
the union which ye have effected for him with his Tea. O 
Osiris Nu, the Eye of Horus hath avenged thee, it hath cast 
down headlong all thine enemies for thee, and all thine 
enemies have fallen down headlong before thee. Hail, Osiris, 
governor of Amenti, grant thou light and fire to the happy 
soul which is in Suten-henen (Heracleopolis) ; and O ye chil- 
dren of Horus, grant ye power unto the living soul of the 
Osiris Nu within his flame. Let him not be repulsed and 
let him not be driven back at the doors of Amentet; oh let 
his offerings of bread and of linen garments be brought unto 
him among those of the lords of funeral oblations, oh, offer 
ye praises to the Osiris Nu, destroyer of his opponents in 
his form and in his attributes of a god of right and truth." 

END OF THE BOOK OF THE DEAD 



THE GREAT EMPIRE 
(1600 B.C.-525 B.C.) 



HYMNS TO THE ONE UNIVERSAL GOD 






"How manifold are thy works! 

They are hidden from before us! 
sole God, whose power no other possesseth f 
Thou didst create the earth according to thy heart, 
While thou wast alone." 

HYMN OP THE PHARAOH IKHN-ATON. 



HYMNS TO THE ONE UNIVERSAL GOD 

(INTRODUCTION) 

IF the chief interest of the literature of Egypt lies in the 
study of the growth of man's intellectual keenness, this 
is because man evolved in Egypt two great religious ideas, 
evolved them without the slightest evidence of the aid of any 
supernal power, or what we commonly call Revelation. 
These two remarkable ideas thus humanly developed were: 
first, the faith in immortality, the development of which we 
have already traced; and, secondly, the wholly separate con- 
ception of a single, universal, omnipotent deity. 

This second idea hurst upon Egypt in full splendor during 
the period of the Great Empire. We can trace the slow 
growth of the belief from earlier times, and apparently it 
was the natural outcome of the nation's experience. In the 
old days, when Egypt had been divided among many little 
States, each people had its own particular god or gods, and 
each recognized the existence of the rival deities of its 
neighbors. When one sovereign, with a court of carefully 
graded officials, reigned over all the Nile valley, a sort of 
similar hierarchy was gradually evolved as existing among 
the many gods. None was rejected; but they were loosely 
arranged in various ranks and duties, with Re and Osiris as 
the chief gods. There was even a glimmering sense that 
these two were really one, the source of life, the Sun-god. 

All through the Middle Empire, however, these gods re- 
mained, even when they were conceived most broadly, merely 
Egyptian gods. The seafarers and desert-wanderers who 
visited Egypt from afar had other sovereigns than Pharaoh, 
and their gods were accepted as being different from those of 
Pharaoh. 

When, however, the Great Empire began, and Thutmose 
III. Miicl ntlir-r cnnrpierors extended their power far beyond 
Egypt's natural borders, there sprang up the idea of world- 

VOL. II. 19. 289 



290 THE SACRED BOOKS 

dominion. Following upon this came the stupendous idea 
of a world-god, a Pharaoh among gods, an omnipotent deity 
who swayed the universe. Followed then the further logical 
deduction : to be omnipotent, he must also be eternal ; and if 
he had existed before all things, then he must have created 
them. Hence he was the creator, alone in power. Other 
gods, if they existed, were as much his creations as were 
the beings of the visible world. This splendid view of the 
deity we find nobly expressed in the following hymns. There 
is no evidence, however, that Egyptian thought ever took the 
next great advance and saw that, if this sole Deity were 
omnipotent, he must also be omniscient and omnipresent. 

Even the view of the one and omnipotent god did not find 
ready acceptance throughout Egypt. Probably the mass of 
the people never grasped it ; and the priesthood was slow in 
granting it approval. The last sovereign of the mighty Eight- 
eenth Dynasty, Amen-hotep IV., was the great kingly advo- 
cate of the new idea. He attempted violently to establish 
the worship of the " one god," whom he called Aton and 
identified anew as the sun. In his reforming enthusiasm 
Amen-hotep even changed his own name, which meant " wor- 
shiper of the god Amen," to Ikhn-aton, or " worshiper of 
Aton." The opening hymns in this section are his, or at 
least .the voices of his period. 

Stupendous as was the dominating power of an Egyptian 
monarch, Amen-hotep's utmost effort could not dethrone the 
long-established older gods. Both he and his dynasty per- 
ished in the religious struggle that followed, and the "one 
god, Aton," was forcibly rejected by the nation. Yet the 
monarch's great spiritual idea did not perish with its em- 
bodiment. The solemn realization of its vastness gradually 
permeated the Egyptian priesthood. More and more it 
thought of all its thousand deities as mere outward manifes- 
tations of the One. The later hymns in this section show 
this. Whether addressed to one god or another, to Re or 
Osiris or the Nile, it hails the divinity as universal and all- 
powerful. These hymns mark the highest development, both 
of religion and poetry, that Egypt ever reached. 



HYMNS TO THE ONE UNIVERSAL GOD 



HYMN TO ATON, THE CREATOR 1 

SPLENDOR AND POWER OF ATON 2 

Thy dawning is beautiful in the horizon of the sky, 

O living Aton, Beginning of life! 

When thou risest in the eastern horizon 

Thou fillest every land with thy beauty. 

Thou art beautiful, great, glittering, high above every land, 

Thy rays, they encompass the lands, even all that thou hast 

made. 

Thou art Re, and thou carriest them all away captive; 3 
Thou bindest them by thy love. 
Though thou art far away, thy rays are upon earth ; 
Though thou art on high, thy footprints are the day. 

NIGHT 

When thou settest in the western horizon of the sky, 

The earth is in darkness like the dead; 

They sleep in their chambers, 

Their heads are wrapped up, 

Their nostrils are stopped, 

And none seeth the other, 

While all their things are stolen 

Which are under their heads, 

And they know it not. 

Kvpry lion cometh forth from his den, 

All serpents, they sting. 

Darkness . . . 

* Most of the translations in this section are by Prof. Breasted, taken 
by permission from his " Development of Religion and Thought in 
Egypt-" The Hymn to the Nile is translated by M. Paul Guieysse. 

2 The division into strophes is not in the original, but is indicated 
li TO for the sake of clearness. The titles of the strophes are inserted 
to aid tli- ?nod-rn render. 

There in a pun here on the word Re, which is the same as the word 
used for " all." 

291 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

The world is in silence, 

He that made them resteth in his horizon. 

DAY AND MAN 

Bright is the earth when thou risest in the horizon. 

When thou shinest as Aton by day 

Thou drivest away the darkness. 

When thou sendest forth thy rays, 

The Two Lands (Egypt) are in daily festivity, 

Awake and standing upon their feet 

When thou hast raised them up. 

Their limbs bathed, they take their clothing, 

Their arms uplifted in adoration to thy dawning. 

Then in all the world they do their work. 

DAY AND THE ANIMALS AND PLANTS 

All cattle rest upon their pasturage, 

The trees and the plants nourish, 

The birds nutter in their marshes, 

Their wings uplifted in adoration to thee. 

All the sheep dance upon their feet, 

All winged things fly, 

They live when thou hast shone upon them. 

DAY AND THE WATERS 

The barks sail up-stream and down-stream alike. 
Every highway is open because thou dawnest. 
The fish in the river leap up before thee. 
Thy rays are in the midst of the great green sea. 

CREATION OF MAN 

Creator of the germ in woman, 

Maker of seed in man, 

Giving life to the son in the body of his mother, 

Soothing him that he may not weep, 

Nurse even in the womb, 

Giver of breath to animate every one that he maketh ! 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 293 

When he cometh forth from the body ... on the day of his 

birth, 

Thou openest his mouth in speech, 
Thou suppliest his necessities. 

CBEATION OF ANIMALS 

When the fledgling in the egg chirps in the shell, 
Thou givest him breath therein to preserve him alive. 
When thou hast brought him together, 
To the point of bursting it in the egg, 
He cometh forth from the egg 
To chirp with all his might. 
He goeth about upon his two feet 
When he hath come forth therefrom. 

THE WHOLE CREATION 

How manifold are thy works ! J 

They are hidden from before us, 

O sole God, whose powers no other possesseth. 4 

Thou didst create the earth according to thy heart 5 

While thou wast alone: 

Men, all cattle large and small, 

All that are upon the earth, 

That go about upon their feet; 

All that are on high, 

That fly with their wings. 

The foreign countries, Syria and Kush, 

The land of Egypt ; 

Thou settest every man into his place, 

Thou suppliest his necessities. 

Every one has his possessions, 

And his days are reckoned. 

The tongues are divers in speech, 

Their forms likewise and their skins are distinguished. 

For thou makest different the strangers. 

* The shorter hymns follow the phrase " sole God," with the addition, 
" beside whom there is no other." 

The word "heart" may mean either "pleasure" or "understand- 
ing " here. 



294 THE SACRED BOOKS 



WATEKING THE EAKTH IN EGYPT AND ABBOAD 

Thou makest the Nile in the Netherworld, 

Thou bringest it as thou desirest, 

To preserve alive the people. 6 

For thou hast made them for thyself, 

The lord of them all, resting among them ; 

Thou lord of every land, who risest for them. 

Thou Sun of day, great in majesty. 

All the distant countries, 

Thou makest also their life, 

Thou hast set a Nile in the sky ; 

When it f alleth for them, 

It maketh waves upon the mountains, 

Like the great green sea, 

Watering their fields in their town. 

How excellent are thy designs, O lord of eternity ! 
There is a Nile in the sky for the strangers 
And for the cattle of every country that go upon their feet. 
But the Nile, it cometh from the Netherworld for Egypt. 

THE SEASONS 

Thy rays nourish 7 every garden ; 

When thou risest they live, 

They grow by thee. 

Thou makest the seasons 

In order to create all thy work : 

Winter to bring them coolness, 

And heat that they may taste thee. 

Thou didst make the distant sky to rise therein, 

In order to behold all that thou hast made, 

Thou alone, shining in thy form as living Aton, 

Dawning, glittering, going afar and returning. 

Thou makest millions of forms 

Through thyself alone ; 

The word is one used only of the people of Egypt. 

i The word used implies the nourishment of a mother at the breast. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 295 

Cities, towns, and tribes, highways and rivers. 

All eyes see thee before them, 

For thou art Aton of the day over the earth. 



REVELATION TO TUB KING 

Thou art in my heart, 

There is no other that knoweth thee 

Save thy son Ikhn-aton. 8 

Thou hast made him wise 

In thy designs and in thy might. 

The world is in thy hand, 

Even as thou hast made them. 

When thou hast risen they live, 

When thou settest they die ; 

For thou art length of life of thyself, 

Men live through thee, 

While their eyes are upon thy beauty 

Until thou settest. 

All labor is put away 

When thou settest in the west. 



Thou didst establish the world, 

And raise them up for thy son, 

Who came forth from thy limbs, 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 

Living in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands, 

Nefer-khepru-Re, Wan-Re (Ikhn-aton), 

Son of Re, living in Truth, lord of diadems, 

Ikhn-aton, whose life is long ; 

And for the chief royal wife, his beloved, 

Mistress of the Two Lands, Nefer-nefru-Aton, Nofretete, 

Living and flourishing forever and ever. 

This is the name assumed by the King. As the worshiper of Aton 
he is Ikhn-aton. 



296 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE KING'S OWN HYMN 

Thy rising is beautiful, O living Aton, lord of Eternity ; 

Thou art shining, beautiful, strong ; 

Thy love is great and mighty, 

Thy rays are cast into every face. 

Thy glowing hue brings life to hearts, 

When thou hast filled the Two Lands with thy love. 

O God who himself fashioned himself, 
Maker of every land, 

Creator of that which is upon it : 

Men, all cattle large and small, 

All trees that grow in the soil. 

They live when thou dawnest for them, 

Thou art the mother and the father of all that thou hast made. 

As for their eyes, when thou dawnest, 

They see by means of thee. 

Thy rays illuminate the whole earth, 

And every heart rejoices because of seeing thee, 

When thou dawnest as their lord. 

When thou settest in the western horizon of the sky, 

They sleep after the manner of the dead, 

Their heads are wrapped up, 

Their nostrils are stopped, 

Until thy rising comes in the morning, 

In the eastern horizon of the sky. 

Their arms are uplifted in adoration of thee, 

Thou makest hearts to live by thy beauty, 

And men live when thou sendest forth thy rays, 

Every land is in festivity : 

Singing, music, and shoutings of joy 

Are in the hall of the Benben-house, 

Thy temple in Akhet-Aton, the seat of Truth, 

Wherewith thou art satisfied. 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 297 

Food and provision are offered therein ; 

Thy pure son performs thy pleasing ceremonies, 

O living Aton, at his festal processions. 

All that thou hast made dances before thee, 

Thy august son rejoices, his heart is joyous, 

O living Aton, born in the sky every day. 

He begets his august son Wanre (Ikhn-aton) 

Like himself without ceasing, 

Son of Re, wearing his beauty, !N"efer-khepru-Re, Wanre 

(Ikhn-aton), 

Even me, thy son, in whom thou art satisfied, 
Who bears thy name. 

Thy strength and thy might abide in my heart, 
Thou art Aton, living forever. . . . 
Thou hast made the distant sky to rise therein, 
In order to behold all that thou hast made, 
While thou wast alona 
Millions of life are in thee to make them live, 
It is the breath of life in the nostrils to behold thy rays. 9 
All flowers live and what grows in the soil 
Is made to grow because thou dawnest. 
They are drunken before thee. 
All cattle skip upon their feet ; 
The birds in the marsh fly with joy, 
Their wings that were folded are spread, 
Uplifted in adoration to the living Aton, 
The maker . . . 10 

Variant: "Breath, it enters the nostrils when thou showeit thy- 
eelf to them." 

10 The remainder of the line is lost. Only one of the five texts which 
exist from the beginning goes as far as this point. It also stopped at 
this place, BO that only part of a line has been lost. 



298 THE SACRED BOOKS 



HYMNS TO RE AS SOLE GOD 



Hail to thee ! Re, lord of Truth, 

Whose sanctuary is hidden, lord of gods, 

Khepri in the midst of his bark, 

Who commanded and the gods became ; 

Atum, who made the people, 

Who determined the fashion of them, 

Maker of their sustenance, 

Who distinguished one color (race) from another; 

Who hears the prayer of him who is in captivity, 

Who is kindly of heart when one calls upon him, 

Who saves the timid from the haughty, 

Who separates the weak from the strong, 

Lord of Knowledge, in whose mouth is Taste ; 

For love of whom the Nile comes, 

Lord of sweetness, great in love, 

At whose coming the people live. 

ii 

Sole likeness, maker of what is, 

Sole and only one, maker of what exists. 

From whose eyes men issued, 

From whose mouth the gods came forth, 

Maker of herbs for the cattle, 

And the tree of life for mankind, 

Who maketh the sustenance of the fish in the stream, 

And the birds that traverse the sky, 

Who giveth breath to that which is in the egg, 

And maketh to live the son of the worm, 

Who maketh that on which the gnats live, 

The worms and the insects likewise, 

Who supplieth the needs of the mice in their holes, 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 299 

Who sustaineth alive the birds in every tree. 

Hail to thee, who hast made all these, 

Thou sole and only one, with many arms, 

Thou sleeper waking while all men sleep, 

Seeking good things for his cattle. 

Amon, enduring in all things, 

Atum-Harakhte, 

Praise to thee in all that they say, 

Jubilation to thee, for thy tarrying with us, 

Obeisance to thee, who didst create us, 

" Hail to thee," say all cattle ; 

" Jubilation to thee," says every country, 

To the height of heaven, to the breadth of earth, 

To the depths of the sea. 






300 THE SACRED BOOKS 



HYMN TO THE NILE 



Adoration to the Nile ! 

Hail to thee, O Nile ! 

who manifesteth thyself over this land, 

and comest to give life to Egypt ! 

Mysterious is thy issuing forth from the darkness, 

on this day whereon it is celebrated ! 

Watering the orchards created by Ke n 

to cause all the cattle to live, 

thou givest the earth to drink, inexhaustible one ! 

Path that descendeth from the sky, 12 

loving the bread of Seb and the first-fruits of Nepera, 

thou causest the workshops of Ptah 13 to prosper ! 

ii 

Lord of the fish, during the inundation, 

no bird alights on the crops. 

Thou Greatest the corn, thou bringest forth the barley, 

assuring perpetuity to the temples. 14 

If thou ceasest thy toil and thy work, 

then all that exists is in anguish. 

If the gods suffer in heaven 18 

then the faces of men waste away. 

11 The orchards of Re are mentioned in the Book of the Dead. 

12 This belief in the celestial origin of the Nile survived in Egypt, at 
all events as late as the time of Joinville (" Histoire de Saint-Louis" ch. 
xl.). 

is Ptah is associated with the Nile in a list of divinities represented on 

a wall of the age of Ramses II. at Karnak. 

i* In the Anastasi text : " Causing the temples to keep holiday." 

is The Nile is not only the dispenser of life to mankind, but also to 

the gods (see verses 4, 10, 13). In the Hymn it absorbs as it were all 

the gods, and even takes the place of Re in verse 14. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 301 

in 

Then he torments the flocks of Egypt, 

and great and small are in agony. 

But all is changed for mankind when he comes ; 

he is endowed with the qualities of Num. 18 

If he shines, the earth is joyous, 

every stomach is full of rejoicing, 

every spine is happy, 

every jaw-bone crushes its food. 

IV 

He brings the offerings, 17 as chief of provisioning ; 

he is the creator of all good things, 

as master of energy, full of sweetness in his choice. 

If offerings are made it is thanks to him. 

He brings forth the herbage for the flocks, 

and sees that each god receives his sacrifices. 

All that depends on him is a precious incense. 

He spreads himself over Egypt, 

filling the granaries, renewing the marts, 

watching over the goods of the unhappy. 



He is prosperous to the height of all desires, 

without fatiguing himself therefor. 

He brings again his lordly bark ; 

he is not sculptured in stone, in the statues crowned with the 

urseus serpent, 
he can not be contemplated. 
No servitors has he, no bearers of offerings ! 
He is not enticed by incantations I 
None knows the place where he dwells, 
None discovers his retreat by the power of a written spell. 18 

iNum, the divine creator, like Ptah, is similar to Ptah in his rela- 
tion to the Nile. The two verses point out that all life is dependent on 
the Nile, an idea which is developed to excess in the verses following. 

i* Funerary offerings made to the ka, or " double." 

i The gods had to submit to the power of incantations and magic 



302 THE SACRED BOOKS 

VI 

No dwelling is there, which may contain thee ! 

None penetrates within thy heart ! 

Thy young men, thy children applaud thee 

and render unto thee royal homage. 

Stable are thy decrees for Egypt 19 

before thy servants of the North ! 20 

He stanches the water from all eyes 

and watches over the increase of his good things. 

VII 

Where misery existed, joy manifests itself; 

all beasts rejoice. 

The children of Sebek, the sons of Neit, 21 

the cycle of the gods which dwells in him, are prosperous. 

No more reservoirs for watering the fields ! 

He makes mankind valiant, 

enriching some, bestowing his love on others. 

None commands at the same time as himself. 

He creates the offerings without the aid of Neit, 22 

making mankind for himself with multiform care. 



VIII 

He shines when he issues forth from the darkness, 

to cause his flocks to prosper. 

It is his force that gives existence to all things ; 

formulae. The Nile alone was excepted from this law; it remained 
enshrouded in mystery in its retreat near the two whirlpools often 
mentioned in the text and even alluded to by Herodotus. 

i So in the Anastasi text. The fixity of the periodic return of the 
Nile is probably referred to. 

20 Verse 5 has, however, stated that the Nile had no servants ; per- 
haps the secondary gods are meant here who directed the spread of the 
waters over Egypt, that is to the north of the whirlpools from whence 
the Nile rose. 

21 Neit is often represented with two crocodiles on the breast ; her 
relation to Sebek, the crocodile-god, is difficult to define. 

22 Neit appears here as the goddess of production ; the Nile has no 
need of Neit (or perhaps the rain) in order to generate the crops; it 
makes its way throughout the country by means of canals and trenches. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 303 

nothing remains hidden for him. 

Let men clothe themselves to fill his gardens. 

He watches over his works, 

producing the inundation during the night 

It is a god Ptah . . . 

He causes all his servants to exist, 

all writings and divine words, 23 

and that which he needs in the North. 



It is with the words that he penetrates into his dwelling ; 
he issues forth at his pleasure through the magic spells. 24 
Thy unkindness brings destruction to the fish ; 
it is then that prayer is made for the (annual) water of the 

season ; 

Southern Egypt is seen in the same state as the North. 
Each one is with his instruments of labor, 
none remains behind his companions. 
None clothes himself with garments, 
the children of the noble put aside their ornaments. 
The night remains silent, 
but all is changed by the inundation ; 
it is a healing-balm for all mankind. 



Establisher of justice ! mankind desires thee, 

supplicating thee to answer their prayers ; 

thou answerest them by the inundation I 

Men offer the first-fruits of corn ; 

all the gods adore thee! 

The birds descend not on the soil. 

It is believed that with thy hand of gold 

thou makest bricks of silver ! 

But we are not nourished on lapis lazuli ; 

com alone gives vigor. 

The Nile inspires Thoth, the scribe of the divine utterances. 
**The Nile is unaffected by incantations, but serves himself with 
them at his pleasure in order to manifest himself. 



304 THE SACRED BOOKS 



A festal song is raised for thee on the harp, 
with the accompaniment of the hand. 
Thy young men and thy children acclaim thee 
and prepare their long exercises. 
Thou art the august ornament of the earth, 
letting thy bark advance before men, 
lifting up the heart of women in labor, 
and loving the multitude of the flocks. 

XII 

When thou shinest in the royal city, 25 

the rich man is sated with good things, 

the poor man even disdains the lotus ; 

all that is produced is of the choicest ; 

all the plants exist for thy children. 

If thou hast refused to grant nourishment, 

the dwelling is silent, devoid of all that is good 

the country falls exhausted. 

XIII 

O inundation of the Nile, 

offerings are made unto thee, 

oxen are immolated to thee, 

great festivals are instituted for thee. 

Birds are sacrificed to thee, 

gazelles are taken for thee in the mountain, 

pure flames are prepared for thee. 28 

Sacrifice is made to every god as it is made to the Nile. 

The Nile has made its retreats in Southern Egypt, 

its name is not known beyond the Tuat. 27 

The god manifests not his forms, 

he baffles all conception. 

25 Probably Thebes, the residence of the Pharaohs at the time when 
the Hymn was composed. No other city can be meant, as otherwise the 
mythological text would have mentioned it. Thebes, moreover, is near 
Silsilis, where the height of the Nile was measured. 

2 These offerings are mentioned in the decrees of Silsilis. 

27 The other world. 




NUT. THE WORLD MOTHER. WHO BROUGHT FORTH ALL EXISTING THINGS 

ASiT8 THE DECEASED AND HIS SOUL ON THEIR JOURNEY 

THROUGH THE UNDERWORLD BY GIVING FOOD 
AND WATER TO THEM BOTH 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 305 

XIV 

Men exalt him like the cycle of the gods, 

they dread him who creates the heat, 

even him who has made his son 28 the universal master 

in order to give prosperity to Egypt. 

Come and prosper ! come and prosper ! 

O Nile, come and prosper ! 

O thou who makest men to live through his flocks 29 

and his flocks through his orchards ! 

Come and prosper, come, 

O Nile, come and prosper! 

This work has been successfully finished and dedicated to 
the scribe of the treasury Qaqabu by the scribe Ennana. 

za The Pharaoh. 

20 From the Auastasi Papyrus. 



VOL. II. 20. 



THE GREAT EMPIRE 
(1600 B.C.-525 B.C.) 



THE RELIGION OF THE POOR 

BY BATTISCOMBE GUNN 



I was an ignorant man and foolish 
Who knew neither good nor evil" 

HYMN OP NEPER'ABU. 



RELIGION OF THE POOR IN ANCIENT EGYPT 

BY BATTISCOMBE GUNN 
(INTRODUCTION) 

IF any religion be regarded rather in its emotional than in 
its intellectual aspect, that is to say, more particularly as 
an outcome of man's hopes and fears for himself in regard 
to the Unknown than as a theory of the universal economy, 
the most essential consideration is undoubtedly the personal 
relation which its adherents feel to subsist between themselves 
and their god or gods. For in this, its most intimate depth, 
lies the real value of the religion as a comforter to men in 
their conflict with stronger powers within and without them, 
and as an enlargement of the life of the heart. Moreover, it 
will throw the strongest light on the moral qualities of its 
members, and the extent to which they feel themselves to be 
in harmony with their environment. 

Now, the impression obtained by a general view of Egyp- 
tian religion in its classic and official documents is that this 
relation was, on the worshiper's side, one of extraordinary 
complacency and self-sufficiency. We may leave out of 
account the royal intercourse with the gods, since the king was 
considered to be one of these himself and the son of them, and 
therefore in the position of ultimus inter pares, to say the 
least. But if we turn to the remainder of the great mass of 
writings expressing religious or moral sentiment which have 
been preserved to us, whether the funerary inscriptions, or 
the sacred books, or manuscript copies of uncanonical hymns 
and prayers, we find almost everywhere the same feeling. 
The Egyptian, as reflected in these texts, was little disposed 
to humble himself before deity. A careful respect, with 
strict observance of the commerce of sacrifice and ceremony 

against accordant benefits, was at all times necessary to be 

309 



310 THE SACRED BOOKS 

maintained: but the attitude of the "miserable sinner," 
so characteristic of the Christian and other Semitic religions, 
is unknown to these writings. Consider the Declaration of 
Innocence, 1 in which every candidate for the joys of the 
next world proclaims his freedom from every human frailty ; 
the self-identification with this or that god, so essential a 
feature of Egyptian magic; the nobles' many descriptions 
of themselves as miracles of human perfection in their 
dealings with men and gods, and their claim to conse- 
quent admiration from both. These people, one would say, 
never took God into their confidence, nor would permit them- 
selves to plead guilty at any divine tribunal, or to sue for 
mercy. Whether this attitude arose from the intense spir- 
itual and material pride (probably unequaled elsewhere in 
the world) of the Egyptian aristocracy, which would not suf- 
fer them to admit the least fault the middle classes imitat- 
ing their betters in this ; or whether it was a consequence of 
the profound belief in the creative power of the spoken word, 
the solemnly uttered affirmation magically translating itself 
into a colorable reality ; or whether again much of it was plain 
lying with intent to " bluff " gods or posterity, is a problem 
more easily posed than solved. 2 

But a notable contrast to the tone of this, the main current 
of traditional Egyptian religious feeling, is afforded by a 
small and far less-known group of hymns and prayers, all of 
which fall within the limits of the century and a half occupied 
by the Nineteenth Dynasty (about 1350-1200 B.C.) and 
which stand quite in a class by themselves. In these the 
change of orientation of the worshipers, the revolution in that 
personal relation to deity upon which I have laid stress, is 

i Usually called the " Negative Confession," a term which might well 
be abandoned as being, in so far as it means anything, misleading: it is 
no " confession " to persist through forty-two clauses that one has com- 
mitted no conceivable sin. 

* In the case of the self-adulation put so often into the mouth of the 
deceased in tomb-inscriptions, it is possible that the composition of 
these is as a rule to be attributed not to their seeming authors but to 
the piety of surviving relatives, who would naturally, under the con- 
ventions of Egyptian style, cast them in the first rather than in the 
third person singular. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 311 

truly remarkable. All the (in the popular sense of the word) 
Pharisaic complacency of the priestly and official texts, the 
boasting " in which there is no boasting," the facile formali- 
ties of veneration, cold descriptions of the qualities and ener- 
gies of the gods, sanctioned by the use of ages, with which 
these works were so easily put together, are absent. In their 
place, we find the very spirit of that self-abasing and sor- 
rowful appeal, conscious of unworthiness, which Matthew 
Arnold, dealing with a similar contrast in its most eminent 
examples, called the Hebraic attitude as opposed to the Hel- 
lenic. Those who wrote these psalms (as we may fairly call 
some of them), or for whom they were written, were men con- 
scious, as they confess, of their " many sins " ; who approach 
the gods not as creditors who have fulfilled their side of a con- 
tract and calmly await their recompense, but as " humble 
men " and " helpless ones," hoping for mercy ; who proclaim, 
not that they are perfect, unspotted even by contact with the 
erring, but " ignorant " and " foolish," " not knowing good 
from bad," deserving of punishment but saved by the grace of 
a god who prefers the silent before the eloquent, the dis- 
tressed before the mighty, who can not be bargained with, is 
a surer help than man, whose wrath is soon past, and who 
sends no earnest suppliant empty away. 

Several of these documents, so significant in the history of 
religion, are in manuscript (many at the British Museum) ; 
almost all the rest are a group of memorial stones which were 
found nearly a century since at Der-el-Medineh, in the The- 
ban Necropolis, where they were set up in small temples by 
the humble draughtsmen, scribes, and " attendants " of that 
part of the great cemetery. It is to these memorials that 
I invite the attention of my readers. Scattered long ago 
among the museums of Turin (where lie by far the greatest 
number), London, and Berlin, many of them were published 
by M. Maspero many years ago : the same savant dealt after- 
ward with some of them in an essay on popular beliefs of tho 
Egyptians. They have been touched upon in the standard 
manual of Egyptian religion, the author of which, Prof. 
Erman, not very long ago republished the essential part of 



312 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the texts in corrected form, with translations and brief 
commentary. 

The main purpose of this article is to present this body 
of texts to English readers: my translation of the Egyptian 
naturally follows very closely that of Prof. Erman, except at 
a few points where I have ventured to differ from him. 



[The most interesting of these stones is a stela now in the 
Berlin Museum, found in one of a group of small brick tem- 
ples of Amun, which were doubtless built for the sole use of 
the workers on the Theban Necropolis, and from which, pos- 
sibly, most of the other monuments of this group originally 
came. The stela is dedicated to Amun by the draughtsman 
Nebre and his son Kha'y in gratitude for the recovery from 
sickness of Nekhtamun, another son of Nebre. 

At the top sits Amun enthroned before a high pylon, with 
the superscription :] 

Amen-Re, Lord of Karnak ; 

The great God within Thebes ; 

The august God who hears prayer ; 

Who comes at the voice of the distressed humble one ; 

Who gives breath to him that is wretched. 

[Before Amun, and in front of a small altar, kneels Nebre 
in adoration ; over him is written :] 

Giving praise to Amun, Lord of Karnak, 
Him that is within Thebes : 
Homage to Amun of the City, the great God, 
The Lord of this Sanctuary, great and fair ; 
That he may let mine eyes see his beauty. 
For the Ka of the draughtsman of Amun, 
Nebre, justified. 

[Below is the following text, at the end of which are 
depicted the four sons of Nebre kneeling in worship :] 8 

The following members of Nebre'e family are known from this and 
other monuments: Father, Pay: mother unknown: brother, Pra'- 
Hotpe: wife, Peshed: sons, Nekhtamun, Kha'y, Khuamun, Amenemopet. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 313 

Praisegiving to Amun. 

I will make him hymns in his name. 

I will give him praise up to the height of heaven : 

And over the breadth of the earth. 

I will declare his might to him who fares down-steam : 

And to him who fares up-stream. 

Be ye ware of him ! 

Herald him to son and daughter : 

To the great and little. 

Declare ye him to generations and generations, 

To those that exist not yet. 

Declare him to the fishes in the stream : 

To the birds in the heaven. 

Herald him to him that knows him not and him that 

knows him : 
Be ye ware of him ! 

Thou art Amun, the Lord of him that is silent : 

Who comest at the voice of the humble man. 

I call upon thee when I am in distress : 

And thou comest that thou mayest save me ; 

That thou mayest give breath to him that is wretched ; 

That thou mayest save me that am in bondage. 

Thou art Amun, Lord of Thebes, 

That savest even him who is in the Netherworld. 

For it is thou who art merciful 

If one call upon thee, 

And it is thou that comest from afar. 

Made by the draughtsman of Amun in the Place-of-Truth, 
Nebre, justified, son of the draughtsman in the Place-of- 
Truth, 4 Pay, justified, in the name of his Lord Amun, 
Lord of Thebes, who comes at the voice of the humble 
one. 

" Place-of -Truth " is apparently the name of a distinct part of the 
Thehan Necropolis, not of the whole, as was formerly believed by 
Brugsch and others. 



314 THE SACRED BOOKS 

He made hymns to his name, 

Because of the greatness of his power : 

He made humble entreaties before him, 

In the presence of the whole land, 

For the draughtsman Nekhtamun, 5 justified, 

Who lay sick unto death, 

Who was under the might of Amun, through his sin. 

I found that the Lord of the Gods came as the North-wind, 
sweet airs before him, that he might save the draughts- 
man of Amun, Nekhtamun, justified, son of the draughts- 
man of Amun in the Place-of-Truth, Nebre, justified, 
and born of the Lady Peshed, justified. 

He 8 said: 

Though the servant was disposed to do evil, 

Yet is the Lord disposed to be merciful. 

The Lord of Thebes passes not a whole day wroth : 

His wrath is finished in a moment, and naught is left. 

The wind is turned again to us in mercy : 

Amun turns with his air. 

As thy A'a endureth, mayest thou be merciful ! 

May that which has been turned away not be repeated ! 

Thus the draughtsman in the Place-of-Truth, Nebre, justified. 

He said : 

" I will make this memorial in thy name : 
And establish for thce this hymn in writing upon it. 
For thou didst save me the draughtsman Nekhtamun " : 
Thus said I, and thou didst harken to me. 

Now mark, I do that which I have said. 
Thou art a Lord to him that calls upon thee, 
Contented in truth, O Lord of Thebes ! 

Dedicated by the draughtsman Nebre and his son the scribe 

Kha'y. 
8 Nebre's son. Still Nebre. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 315 

ii 

[To the same Nebre belong half-a-dozen other monuments 
now at Turin, Paris, and London, of which must be men- 
tioned in passing, as a striking example of the popular cults of 
the Empire, the stone at Turin in which Nebre is shown wor- 
shiping " the beautiful dove which endures, endures ever- 
more," while his sons Nekhtamun and Kha'y adore " the beau- 
tiful cat which endures." Only one of these, however, has an 
inscription of any importance to our present purpose, namely 
a stela in the British Museum, dedicated by Nebre, son of 
Pay, to " Haroeris, Lord of Heaven, Ruler of the Nine." 
The text runs as follows:] 

Giving praise to Haroeris, 

Homage to him that hears prayer, 

That he may let mine eyes behold my way to go. 7 
For the Ka, of the draughtsman in the Place-of-Truth, Nebre, 
justified, son of the draughtsman Pay, justified. 

in 

[We come now to three stones dedicated to one of the 
strangest of Theban divinities, Dehnet-Amentet, "the Peak 
of the West," who was identified with Isis, but was more 
generally regarded as the home of the Necropolis serpent-god- 
dess Meretseger. The Peak of the West is said by M. Mas- 
pero to be the spur of mountain which faces Luxor in the hill 
of Sheikh 'Abed-el-Gurneh. 

We will deal first with the Turin stela of Nefer'abu, the 

best known of these monuments. Before an altar of offerings 

is the three-headed serpent-goddess, with the superscription :] 

Meretseger, Lady of Heaven, 

Mistress of the two Lands, whose good name is Peak 

of the West. 
[The following text accompanies the scene:] 

Giving praise to the Peak of the West : 

* Whether the reference to sight is to be taken literally, as desiring 
a cure for blindness, or in the sense of a prayer fur enlightenment, it 
does not Boom easy to say. I incline to think that in this case the latter 
is more probable. 



316 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Homage to her Ea. 

I give praise: hear my call. 

I was a just man upon earth. 

Dedicated by the attendant in the Place-of-Truth, Nefer'abu, 
justified. 

I was an ignorant man and foolish, 

Who knew neither good nor evil. 

I wrought the transgression against the Peak, 

And she chastised me. 

I was in her hand by night as by day : 

I sat like the woman in travail upon the bearing-stool. 

I called upon the wind, and it came to me not. 

I was tormented by the Peak of the West, the Mighty 

One: 
And by every god and every goddess. 

Mark, I will say to great and little 

That are among the workmen : 

Be ye ware of the Peak ! 

For that a lion is within the Peak, 

She smites with the smiting of a savage lion : 

She pursues him that transgresses against her. 

I called upon my Mistress : 

I found that she came to me with sweet airs ; 

She was merciful to me, 

After she had made me behold her hand. 

She turned again to me in mercy : 

She caused me to forget the sickness that had been 

upon me. 

Lo, the Peak of the West is merciful, 
If one call upon her. 

Spoken by 'Nei er'abu, justified, who says : 
Mark, and let every ear barken, 
That lives upon earth : 
Beware the Peak of the West ! 8 

" The transgression against the Peak " seems to point to some well- 
known offense; but what it was we have no means of knowing. Erman 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 317 

IV 

[The other two inscriptions to the Peak are both short. On 
a British Museum stela the " Scribe of the Necropolis Nekh- 
tamun " (not necessarily identical with either the subject of 
the next poem or with the son of Nebre ; the name is a very 
common one at this period) addresses " Meretseger, Mistress 
of the West," as follows :] 

Praised be thou in peace, O Lady of the West, 
The Mistress that turns herself toward mercy ! 
Thou causest me to see darkness by day. 9 
I will declare thy might to all people. 
Be merciful to me in thy mercy ! 



[The Turin stela of Nekhtamun, son of Didi, bears, ac- 
cording to Maspero, a representation of the Peak, which he de- 
scribes as " two slopes of a hill, depicted in accordance with 
the usual conventions of Egyptian draughtsmanship, running 
down from right and left and enclosing near the summit a 
sort of parallelogram, in which four coiled serpents forming 
a cornice stand out in relief." Erman, however, mentions it 
only as " a gorge." A goddess with horns and disk stands on 
one of the slopes, and is celebrated as :] 

Great Isis, Mother of a God ; 

Lady of Heaven, Mistress of all the Gods ; 

Lady of children, of many forms. 

[And again as:] 

The great Peak of the West, 

Who gives her hand to him that she loves, 

And gives protection to him that sets her in his heart. 

and Maspero both take the reference to the wind as probably indicating 
a disease in which the subject suffers from lack of breath. It may, 
however, be only a poetic figure. 

There can be little doubt that this man was blind. We shall meet 
again with the phrase " darkness by day." 



318 THE SACRED BOOKS 

vi 

[In the first and third inscriptions given above it will be 
noticed that we are not informed as to the nature of the 
offenses which called down upon Nekhtamun and Nefer'abu 
the wrath of the gods. The next two examples show that 
swearing falsely by the name of a deity was thought to be a 
fruitful source of misfortune. 

The same Nefer'abu who " wrought the transgression 
against the Peak " dedicated a stone, now in the British Mu- 
seum, to Ptah. On one side of the stela he is depicted ador- 
ing the god in these terms:] 

Praisegiving to Ptah, Lord of Truth, King of the two 

banks : 

Fair of face, who is on his great throne. 
The one God among the Nine 
Beloved as King of the Two Lands. 
May he give life, prosperity, and health, 
Keenness, favor, and love. 

And that mine eyes may behold Amun every day 
As is done for a righteous man 
That sets Amun in his heart. 

Thus the attendant in the Place-of-Truth, Nefer'abu, justified. 
[On the reverse side of the stela is the following inscription :} 

Here begins the declaration of the might of Ptah, South- 
of-his-Wall, by the attendant in the Place-of-Truth, 
to the West of Thebes, Nefer'abu, justified, who 



I am a man who swore falsely by Ptah, Lord of Truth ; 

And he caused me to behold darkness by day. 

I will declare his might to him that knows him not, 

and to him that knows him : 
To little and great. 
Be ye ware of Ptah, Lord of Truth ! 
Lo, he will not leave aside the deed of any man. 
Refrain you from uttering the name of Ptah falsely : 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 319 

Lo, he that uttereth it falsely, 
Lo, he tumbles down. 

He caused me to be as the dogs of the street, 

I being in his hand: 

He caused men and Gods to mark me, 

I being as a man that has wrought abomination against 

his Lord. 

Righteous was Ptah, Lord of Truth, toward me, 
When he chastised me. 
Be merciful to me ; look upon me that thou mayest be 

merciful ! 

Thus the attendant in the Place-of-Truth to the west of 
Thebes, Nefer'abu, justified. 10 

VII 

[A stela at Turin depicts in its upper part a bark bearing 
the moon's disk between horns, with the superscription 
" Luna-Thoth, the Great God, the merciful " ; and below the 
worshiper Hey carrying a portable shrine on his shoulder; 
and the following text :] 

The servant of the Moon, Hey, he says : 

I am that man who uttereth an oath falsely by the 

Moon concerning the . . . : 
And he caused me to see the greatness of his power 

before the whole land. 

10 Two expressions for blindness are used in these texts: "to see 
darkness by day," and " to see a darkness of thy making." In the con- 
texts in which they stand it is natural to take them as referring to 
physical blindness; but if this interpretation be correct it is very strange 
that this affliction should occur proportionately so often, and be at the 
same time the only one specified by the victims of divine retribution. 
Are we to infer that the decoration of the dark tomb-chambers of the 
Necropolis (for that was, of course, the work of the draughtsmen, 
sculptors, and perhaps of " attendants " of the Place-of-Truth ) was 
specially detrimental to tin- eyesight, or that blindness was believed to 
be almost always a direct punishment for impiety? Blindness has, of 
course, been at all times very common among the poorer classes of thu 
Egyptian people. 



320 THE SACRED BOOKS 

I will declare thy might to the fishes in the river : 

To the birds in the heaven. 

They shall say to their children's children : 

Be ye ware of the Moon ! 

O merciful one, that art able to turn this away! n 



VIII 

[On another stela at Turin the triple divinity Khonsu- 
Thoth-Horus is thus conjured :] 

Take good cheer, O Lord of the Gods. . . . 
Be merciful, be merciful, thou fair one : 
Be merciful, do thou love mercy. 

Thus the draughtsman of Amun, Pay, justified. 

[Below this Pay's mother is shown upon her knees, and in 
front of her is this inscription:] 

Praisegiving to Khonsu in Thebes, Neferhotep : 
Horus, Lord of gladness. 

I give him praise : 

I propitiate his Ka f 

That he be merciful to me every day. 

Lo, thou causest me to see a darkness of thy making, 
If thou be merciful to me I will declare it. 
How sweet is thy mercy, O Khonsu, 
To the helpless one of thy city ! 

For the Ka of the lady Wazet-ronpet, justified. Her 
son made this memorial in the name of his Lord 
Khonsu, the draughtsman Pay, justified, who said : 

Turn thy face, do mercy : 
Harken to me. . . . 

""This," in the last line, is, of course, the affliction which Hey 
desires that the god will take from him. 




AMEN - Re. THE HioocN OR ETERNAL Goo LATER CONNECTED WITH 
THE SUN-COD RE AND REGARDED AS CHIEF OF ALL 

THE GODS OF THE PRESENT LIFE 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 321 

IX 

[The Turin stela No. 48 is the most difficult of all these 
texts, largely because of the errors of writing with which it is 
crowded. The Priest of Amenophis L, Nekhatum, son of 
Neferemhotep, makes sacrifice to Amenophis, whom he thus 
celebrates :] 

Praisegiving to the Lord of the Two Lands, 
Amenophis, to whom is given life, 
In the temple " Meryme'et " of Menkheprure, 12 
The good living God. 

He (Amenophis) saves him that is in the Nether- 
world : 
He gives air to him that he loves. 

Whoso enters to thee, with troubled heart, 

He comes forth rejoicing and exulting. 

Great and little come to thee because of thy name, 

When it is heard that thy name is mighty. 

Whoso fills his heart with thee is glad : 

Woe to whomso attacks thee ! 

Ye shall contend with a crocodile out of the land of 

Nubia : 

And charm a lion. 

Do I not stretch forth my hand to a hole, 
Wherein is a great serpent ? 
Behold ye the authority of Amenophis, to whom life is 

given, 
When he works a miracle for his city! 13 

Thutmose IV. The oldest of the group of small brick temples 
from which many of these steles probably came was built under this 
King, and the cult of his ancestor may appropriately have found a 
place there. 

The first three lines of the last strophe are exceedingly obscure, and 
such translation as I offer is mainly conjecture. This is unfortunate as 
the purpose of the whole monument may be contained in the reference 
to the serpent in its lair. This may be interpreted in three ways, 
according as one understands the sense of the vague temporal form of 
the verb. (1) As given above: this is Erman's translation, and 
makes of the stela a thank-offering for a special gift of immunity from 
VOL. II. 21. 



THE SACRED BOOKS 



[A Turin stela for Pay represents him worshiping the solar 
bark, described as " The setting Sun, the Great God," with 
the following short hymn :] 

Giving praise to the Sun : 
Homage to Haroeris. 

I give thee praise when I see thy beauty : 

I hymn Ke when he sets ; 

O august, beloved, merciful God, 

Who hearest him that prays, 

Who hearest the entreaties of him that calls upon thee, 

Who comest at the voice of him that utters thy name ! 

Thus the draughtsman Pay, justified. 

XI 

[A small wooden shrine at Turin, perhaps made to contain 
a serpent, dedicated by " the attendant in the Place-of-Truth, 
Kes, renewing life," for himself and several others, bears in- 
scriptions of an entirely conventional character in honor of 
Khnum, Satis, and Anukis of Elephantine. In a general 
address to this triad is however introduced, with an abrupt 
change of style, the following reference to the Theban god:] 

Mine eyes behold Amun at his every feast, 

That beloved God, who barkens to humble entreaties, 

Who stretches forth his hand to the humble, 

Who saves the wearied. 

XII 

[On a Turin stela Luna-Thoth in his boat is worshiped by 
a dog-headed ape, " Lord for all time," and by " the sculptor 

snake-bite for which Nekhatum believes he has Amenophis to thank. 
If this is the right rendering it makes the inscription of particular 
interest, as containing one of the very few references to snake-charmers 
from Pharaonic times. (2) "Did I not stretch . . . ," in which case 
we have a thank-offering for a danger averted by the intercession of the 
God-King. (3) "Shall not stretch . . . ," merely a figure by which is 
extolled the protective influence of Amenophis, potent in death for the 
welfare of the citizens of Thebes. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 323 

in the Place-of-Truth, Neferronpet," and his wife (or sister) 
and daughter:] 

Giving praise to Luna-Thoth : 

Homage to the Merciful One. 

I give him praise to the height of heaven : 

I adore thy beauty. 

Be thou merciful to me, 

That I may see that thou art merciful : 

That I may observe thy might. 

Thou causest me to see a darkness of thy making ; 

Lighten me, that I may see thee. 

For that health and life are in thine hand : 

One liveth by thy gift of them. 

XIII 

[On yet another Turin stela, dedicated by " the attendant 
in the Place-of-Truth, Onnofre, justified," Onnofre's wife 
Nebtnuhet thus adores Thoth :] 

Giving praise to Thoth : 

Homage to the Lord of Hermopolis. 

What is this that thou givest me, thou fair one ? 

Be merciful ; lo, great is thy power ; 

Thou causest me to see a darkness of thy making. 

Be merciful to me that I may see thee. 



THE GKEAT EMPIRE 
(1600 B.C.-525 B.C.) 



HISTOEY AND LEGEND UNDER THE GREAT 

EMPIRE 



Behold, his Majesty goeth forth with his victorious army" 

ANNALS OF THUTMOSE III. 



HISTORY AND LEGEND UNDER THE GREAT 
EMPIRE 

(INTRODUCTION) 

THE historical records of Egypt are by no means so com- 
plete as the religious records. Egyptian thought was 
always directed to eternal life rather than to earthly fame. 
Doubtless also, destruction, as directed by foreign conquerors, 
was far more active against boastful monuments of former 
Egyptian victories than against religious texts. Hence even 
of the Great Empire we have comparatively few surviving 
historic monuments. 

The most notable of these among recent discoveries has been 
the Carnarvon Tablet, published to the world by the Earl of 
Carnarvon in 1912. This tablet, though in many places 
badly worn and illegible, has aroused wide interest by sup- 
plying us with our first contemporary account of the founding 
of the Great Empire. We have long known from later tradi- 
tion that this chief period of Egyptian splendor followed 
upon the overthrow and expulsion of the Asiatic invaders 
called by the Egyptians the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings. 
These Hyksos were the Pharaohs who welcomed their kins- 
men, the wandering Israelites, into Egypt in the time of Jo- 
seph and his brethren. The Hyksos were finally expelled by 
an Egyptian warrior whom tradition has called Amosis. 

Now appears this seemingly contemporary tablet which tells 
of a Pharaoh Kamose as winning a great victory over the 
last Hyksos ruler, Apophis. Perhaps this Kamose was the 
champion whom tradition has preserved as Amosis, though 
at present Egyptologists are more inclined to accept him as 
a predecessor of Amosis, an earlier victor whose success drove 
the Asiatics back to their last stronghold, where the later 
champion achieved their final overthrow. In either case the 

327 



328 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Carnarvon Tablet affords us our closest insight into the spirit 
in which the Egyptians went forth to battle. The inscrip- 
tion gives at first the council and discussion of the leaders ; 
then it leaves the quoting of speeches, and plunges suddenly 
into Kamose's own words, narrating his campaign. 

The next record given in this section is a still more boastful 
one of the conquering Pharaoh, Thutmose III. All these 
kingly inscriptions use naturally the tone of extremest boast- 
fulness. The monarch means to awe and to impress his sub- 
jects; and the scribes who actually compose the inscriptions 
are eager to go even beyond their master in laudation of his 
prowess. There is thus a pompous sameness about all these 
royal Egyptian monuments, and the reader may gather their 
general spirit from this one of Thutmose III. It is the most 
important of them all, since the conquests of this Pharaoh 
show us Egypt at the widest extent of its foreign dominion. 
Thutmose III. has been called the Egyptian Alexander the 
Great. 

From the inscriptions of Thutmose we learn how carefully 
and elaborately he arranged for the recording of his cam- 
paigns. He even carried with him a scribe, named Thaneni 
our first known historian who took notes of each day's 
doings. From these was compiled the first temple-record, 
of which we give here the first and most fully narrated 
campaign. 

Following this official account we give the tomb-record of 
one of the officers of the conquering Thutmose. It tells of 
his capturing prisoners with his own sword, fighting a dozen 
at a time. It also narrates his quaint combat with an ele- 
phant Several similar biographies survive and form a 
striking commentary, a side-light from the human standpoint, 
upon the Thutmose court history. 

Sharply different from such stilted official monuments must 
have been the legendary accounts of these long wars, the peo- 
ple's tales of fight and stratagem, as here illustrated by the 
story of " The Capture of Joppa." This legend asserts that it 
deals with a campaign of Thutmose III. More than that, 
the name of its hero, Tutiyi, has been preserved as an actual 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 329 

general under Thutmose. So that the tale has some historical 
support. Doubtless a thousand similar stories sprang up and 
attached themselves to the heroes who fought under the cele- 
brated " world-conqueror." But of all the cycle of such 
legends, only this one has survived. 

Lastly, as a contrast to all this warlike history, we give a 
record of peace. Some, at least, of the mighty Eighteenth 
Dynasty Pharaohs preferred peace, and sought to record and 
to preserve their fame as builders, rather than as destroyers. 
Of this type was Amenhotep III., whose mighty temples are 
still the wonder of Karnak, one of Egypt's most celebrated 
shrines. He tells with much pride, though unfortunately 
with some architectural vagueness, of the size and of the cost 
of his enormous constructions. 



HISTORY AND LEGEND 



EXPULSION OF THE SHEPHERD KINGS * 

Year 3, Horns " Appearing-upon-his-Throne," Two God- 
desses " Repeating-Monuments," Horus of Gold " Making- 
content-the-Two-Lands," King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
Wazkheperre, Son of Re Kamose, granted life, beloved of 
Amen-re, lord of Thrones-of-the-Two-Lands (Kamak), like 
Re forever and ever. 2 

The victorious king within Thebes Kamose, who was 
granted life eternally, was a beneficent king; and Re made 
him into a veritable king, and prepared for him victory in 
very truth. Thereupon his Majesty spoke in his palace to the 
council of officers which was with him : 

" I should like to know what purpose serves my strength, 
when one prince is in Avaris and another is in Kush, and I 
sit united with an 'A'am and a Negro each man holding 
his slice of the Black Land who share the land with me. 
I do not pass him as far as Memphis, the water of Egypt. 
Behold, he holds Shmun, and no man rests, being wasted 
through servitude of the Setyu. I will grapple with him, that 
I may cleave open his belly. My desire is to deliver Egypt, 
and to smite the *A'amu." 3 

Then spoke the great men of his council: "Behold, the 
'A'amu have withdrawn as far as Cusae, they have pulled 
out their tongues all together. We are secure in the posses- 
sion of our Black Land. Elephantine is strong, and the mid- 
dle part is with us as far as Cusae. The finest of their fields 

1 Translated by Alan H. Gardiner. 

2 This first paragraph is the usual form of opening a kingly inscrip- 
tion with the year of the monarch's reign, the names of his gods, and 
his titles. 

8 A'am and 'A'amu are the names commonly given to the Hyksos, or 
Shepherd Kings, and their people. Setyu is a name referring to them 
or to Asiatics generally. The Black Land is Egypt. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 331 

are plowed for us. Our cattle are in the papyrus-marshes. 
The spelt is sent to our swine. Our cattle are not taken away 
... on account of it. He holds the land of the 'A'amu, and 
we hold the Black Land. Then whoever comes and lands and 
acts against us, then do we act against him." 

Now they were displeasing in the heart of his Majesty: 
" As for your counsels . . . these 'A'amu, who . . . Behold, 
I will fight with the 'A'amu, until good fortune comes. If 
. . . with weeping. The entire land shall acclaim me the 
victorious ruler within Thebes, Karnose, who protects Egypt." 

I sailed down as a champion to overthrow the 'A'amu by 
the command of Amun, just of counsels, my army being 
valiant in front of me like a fiery blast ; troops of Mazoi on 
the top of our strongholds to spy out the Setyu and to destroy 
their places; East and West bringing their fat, and my army 
abounding in supplies everywhere. I sent forth a strong 
troop of Mazoi, and spent a while in order to coop up ... 
Teti the son of Apophis in Nefrusi. I suffered him not to 
escape. I turned back the Asiatics, I ... Egypt . . ., and 
he made as one who ... the power of the Asiatics. I 
spent the night in my ship, my heart being glad. 

When day dawned I was on him, as it were a hawk. When 
the time of performing the mouth arrived, I overthrew him, 
I destroyed his wall, I slew his folk, I caused his wife to go 
down to the river-bank. My soldiers were like lions with 
their prey, carrying off slaves, cattle, fat, and honey, and 
dividing up their possessions, their hearts rejoicing. The re- 
gion of Nefrusi came down, it was no great thing for us to 
confine its soul. The ... of Per-Shaq was lacking when I 
came to it. Their horses fled inside. The garrison . . . 



332 THE SACRED BOOKS 



ANNALS OF THUTMOSE III. 1 

THE FIRST CAMPAIGN 2 

Year 22, fourth month of the second season (eighth month), 
on the twenty-fifth day his Majesty was in Tham on the first 
victorious expedition to extend the boundaries of Egypt with 
might . . . 

Now at that period the Asiatics had fallen into disagree- 
ment, each man fighting against his neighbor. . . . Now, it 
happened that the tribes . . . the people, who were there in 
in the city of Sharuhen ; behold, from Yeraza to the marshes 
of the earth, 3 they had begun to revolt against his Majesty. 

Year 23, first month of the third season (ninth month), on 
the fourth day, the day of the feast of the King's coronation, 
he arrived at the city, the possession of the ruler, Gaza. 4 

Year 23, first month of the third season (ninth month), on 
the fifth day; departure from this place in might, ... in 
power, and in triumph, to overthrow that wretched foe, 8 to 
extend the boundaries of Egypt, according as his father, 
Amon-Re, had commanded . . . that he seize. 

Year 23, first month of the third season (ninth month), on 
the sixteenth day, he arrived at the city of Yehem. 

His Majesty ordered a consultation with his valiant troops, 
saying as follows : " That wretched enemy, the chief of Ka- 
desh, has come and entered into Megiddo ; he is there at this 
moment. He has gathered to himself the chiefs of all the 

i Translated by Prof. Breasted. 

2Thutmose fought some eighteen campaigns in Asia, extending his 
domain to the borders of Assyria and Babylon and even receiving tribute 
from those lands, so that he might loosely claim to have conquered 
them also. His chief victory, the battle of Megiddo, or Armageddon, 
occurred in this first campaign, which is also the most fully recorded. 

s That is, from northwestern Judea to beyond the Euphrates. 

* About 125 miles from the starting-point in nine days. 

s The King of Kadesh. This campaign is fought mainly against the 
Hittites, or Khati, who are here only known as " the wretched foe." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 333 

countries which are on the water of Egypt, 6 and as far as 
Naharin, consisting of the countries of the Kharu, the Kode, 
their horses, their troops, . . . thus he speaks, ' I have arisen 
to fight against his Majesty in Megiddo.' Tell ye me . . ." 7 
They spoke in the presence of his Majesty, " How is it, that 
we should go upon this road, which threatens to be narrow ? 
While they come and say that the enemy is there waiting, hold- 
ing the way against a multitude. Will not horse come behind, 
horse and man behind, man likewise? Shall our advance- 
guard be fighting while our rear-guard is yet standing yonder 
in Aruna, not having fought ? There are yet two other roads : 
one road, behold, it will ... us, for it comes forth at Taan- 
ach, the other, behold, it will bring us upon the way north of 
Zefti, so that we shall come out to the north of Megiddo. Let 
our victorious lord proceed upon the road he desires ; but cause 
us not to go by a difficult 8 road." 

Then . . . messengers concerning this design which they 
had uttered, in view of what had been said by the Majesty of 
the Court (life, health, strength) : " I swear, as Re loves me, 
as my father Amon favors me, as my nostrils are rejuvenated 
with satisfying life, my Majesty will proceed upon this road 
of Aruna. Let him who will among you go upon those roads 
ye have mentioned, and let him who will among you, come in 
the following of my Majesty. Shall they think among those 
enemies whom Re detests : ' Does his Majesty proceed upon 
another road ? He begins to be fearful of us/ so will they 
think." 

They spoke before his Majesty : " May thy father Amon, 
lord of Thebes, presider over Karnak, grant thee life. Be- 
hold, we are the following of thy Majesty in every place, 
whither thy Majesty proceedeth ; as the servant is behind his 
master." 

An idiom for " dependent upon " or " subject to." 

t The King's demand upon his officers is for information concerning 
the road, as the subsequent developments show. 

*The same word (if) is applied to the road upon which the great 
block for the el-Bershch colossus was brought. It means " inacces- 
iible " or "difficult"; it is also used by Thutmose III. of the celestial 
road of the sun. 



334 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Then his Majesty commanded the entire army to march 
. . . upon that road which threatened to be narrow. His 
Majesty swore, saying: " None shall go forth in the way be- 
fore my Majesty, in . . ." He went forth at the head of his 
army himself, showing the way by his own footsteps ; 9 horse 
behind 10 horse, his Majesty n being at the head of his army. 

Year 23, first month of the third season (ninth month), on 
the nineteenth day ; the watch in safety 12 in the royal tent 
was at the city of Aruna. 13 " My Majesty proceeded north- 
ward under the protection of my father, Amon-Re, lord of 
Thebes, who went before me, while Harakhte strengthened my 
arms . . . my father, Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, victorious 
of the sword . . . over my Majesty." 

The enemy went forth ... in numerous battle array. . . . 
The southern wing was in Taanach, the northern wing was on 
the ground south of ... His Majesty cried out to them be- 
fore . . . they fell ; behold, that wretched foe u ... of the 
city of 10 Aruna. 

Now, the rear of the victorious army of his Majesty was at 
the city of Aruna, the front was going forth to the valley 
of . . ., 16 they filled the opening of this valley. Then 
they said in the presence of his Majesty, (1. h. s.) : "Be- 
hold, his Majesty goeth forth with his victorious army, 
and it has filled the hollow of the valley; let our victorious 
lord harken to us this time and let our lord protect for us the 
rear of his army and his people. Let the rear of this army 

Literally, " steps of marching." 

10 The army here enters the mountain pass. 

11 Or possibly : " the vanguard, being of the best of his army." 

12 Perhaps we should supply : " life, health, strength," as in Ramses 
II. 's march to Kadesh ; but above, the said phrase is used after " tent," 
to express the adjective " royal," and would hardly appear twice in 
the same phrase. 

is Three days after the arrival at Yehem, Aruna, lying in the midst 
of the mountains, is reached. Here they spent the night of the nine- 
teenth and marched on the twentieth. 

i* There was some encounter with the enemy here in the mountains, 
and this moves the officers to urge calling in the straggling rear as soon 
as possible. 

is There is a loss of five lines here. 

i Proper name ending in n. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 335 

come forth to us behind; then shall they also fight against 
these barbarians; then we shall not need to take thought for 
the rear of our army." His Majesty halted outside and 
waited there, protecting the rear of his victorious army. 

Behold, when the front had reached the exit upon this road, 
the shadow had turned, and when his Majesty arrived at the 
south of Megiddo on 17 the bank of the brook of Kina, the 
seventh hour 18 was turning, measured by the sun. 

Then was set up the camp of his Majesty, and command 
was given to the whole army, saying : " Equip yourselves ! 
Prepare your weapons ! for we 19 shall advance to fight with 
that wretched foe in the morning." Therefore the King 
rested in the royal tent, the affairs of the chiefs were ar- 
ranged, and the provisions of the attendants. The watch of 
the army went about, saying, " Steady of heart ! Steady 
of heart! Watchful ! Watchful ! 20 Watch for life at the 
tent of the King." One came to say to his Majesty, " The 
land is well, and the infantry of the South and Xorth like- 
wise." 

Year 23, first month of the third season (ninth month) on 
the twenty-first day, the day of the feast of the new moon, 
corresponding to the royal coronation, early in the morning, 
behold, command was given to the entire army to move. . . . 
His Majesty went forth in a chariot of electrum, arrayed in 
his weapons of war, like Horus, the Smiter, lord of power; 
like Montu of Thebes, while his father, Amon, strengthened 
his arms. The southern wing of this army of his Majesty 
was on a hill south of the brook of Kina, the northern wing 
was at the northwest of Megiddo, 21 while his Majesty was in 

IT The army here emerges in safety upon the plain in the afternoon 
of the twentieth, and camps unmolested that night, to go forth to battle 
in the morning of the twenty-first. 

18 About one o'clock P. M. 

i The text has the impersonal " one." 

*o Literally, " Watchful of head," meaning " to be vigilant." 

21 This shows that Thutmose has gone around Megiddo toward the 
west and, having his army partially on the north of the city, has inter- 
cepted the enemy's northern lino of retreat; at the same time probably 
securing his own line of retreat along the Zefti road. This position cor- 
roborates the position of the Asiatics with their southern wing at 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

their center, with Amon as the protection of his members, 
. . . the valor ... of his limbs. Then his Majesty pre- 
vailed against them at the head of his army, and when they 
saw his Majesty prevailing against them they fled headlong 
to Megiddo in fear, 22 abandoning their horses and their char- 
iots of gold and silver. The people hauled them up, pull- 
ing them by their clothing, into this city ; the people of this 
city having closed it against them and lowered clothing to 
pull them up into this city. Now, if only the army of his 
Majesty had not given their heart to plundering the things 
of the enemy, they would have captured Megiddo at this 
moment, when the wretched foe of Kadesh and the wretched 
foe of this city 23 were hauled up in haste to bring them into 
this city. The fear of his Majesty had entered their hearts, 
their arms were powerless, his serpent diadem was victorious 
among them. 

Then were captured their horses, their chariots of gold and 
silver were made spoil ; their champions lay stretched out like 
fishes on the ground. The victorious army of his Majesty 
went around counting their portions. Behold, there was cap- 
tured the tent of that wretched foe in which was his son. . . . 
The whole army made jubilee, giving praise to Amon for the 
victory which he had granted to his son on this day, giving 
praise to his Majesty, exalting his victories. They brought 
up the booty which they had taken, consisting of hands, 24 
of living prisoners, of horses, chariots of gold and silver, 
of ... 

Then spake his Majesty on hearing the words of his army, 
saying : " Had ye captured this city afterward, behold, I 
would have given . . , 26 Re this day ; because every chief of 
every country that has revolted is within it ; and because it is 

Taanach on the day before the battle. This move must have been 
made by Thutmose in the afternoon or during the night before the 
battle. 

22 Literally, " with or in the faces of fear." 

Megiddo. The two kings of Kadesh and Megiddo are meant. 

24 Cut off from the slain. 

25 Three or four words are lacking, probably: "very many offerings 
to Re this day," or something similar. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 337 

the capture of a thousand cities, this capture of Megiddo. 
Capture ye mightily, mightily . . ." 2G 

His Majesty commanded the officers of the troops to go 
. . ., assigning to each his place. They measured this city, 
surrounding it with an enclosure, walled about with green 
timber of all their pleasant trees. 27 His Majesty himself was 
upon the fortification east of this city, inspecting . . . 

It was walled about with a thick wall . . . with its thick 
wall. 28 Its name was made : " Menkheperre (Thutmose II I. ). 
is-the-Surrounder-of-the-Asiatics." People were stationed to 
watch over the tent of his Majesty; to whom it was said: 
" Steady of heart ! Watch. . . ." His Majesty commanded, 
saying : " Let not one among them come forth outside, be- 
yond this wall, except to come out in order to knock at 
the door of their fortification." 29 

Now, all that his Majesty did to this city, to that wretched 
foe 30 and his wretched army, was recorded on each day by 
its (the day's) name, under the title of: ". . ." 31 Then it 
was recorded upon a roll of leather in the temple of Amon 
this day. 32 

Behold, the chiefs of this country came to render their por- 
tions, to do obeisance 33 to the fame of his Majesty, to crave 
breath for their nostrils, because of the greatness of his power, 
because of the might of the fame of his Majesty . . . the 
country . . . came to his fame, bearing their gifts, consisting 

28 The lacuna doubtless contained the exhortation to begin the siege. 

** Thutmose III. describes the trees in his own garden of Amon, in the 
same way. Possibly fruit-trees are meant, as the word rendered 
"pleasant" (bnr) literally means " sweet." 

28 The same thick wall is also referred to in the building inscription 
of the Ptah-temple and the fragment on this campaign. 

2 Probably meaning to offer themselves as prisoners. 

o The King of Kadesh. 

i The first word without the following connection seems doubtful ; it 
means " to sail, travel," and possibly refers to the fact that the King 
tailed each year to Syria in the later campaigns; hence the title may 
have been: "Voyages," etc. The whole reminds one of the statement 
concluding the reign of each king in the Book of Kings. 

"The royal secretary Thaneni was apparently the one who kept this 
record. 

Literally, " to emell the earth." 
VOL. II. 22. 






338 THE SACRED BOOKS 

of silver, gold, lapis lazuli, malachite ; bringing clean grain, 
wine, large cattle, and small cattle for the army of his Maj- 
esty. Each of the Kode 34 among them bore the tribute south- 
ward. Behold, his Majesty appointed the chiefs anew 
for ... 

. . , 85 340 living prisoners ; 83 hands; 2,041 mares; 36 191 
foals ; 6 stallions ; young . . . ; a chariot, wrought with gold, 
its pole of gold, belonging to that foe ; 87 a beautiful chariot, 
wrought with gold, belonging to the chief of Megiddo ; 38 . . . 
892 chariots of his wretched army ; total, 924 39 chariots ; a 
beautiful suit of bronze armor, belonging to that foe; 40 a 
beautiful suit of bronze armor, belonging to the chief of Me- 
giddo; . . . 41 200 suits of armor, belonging to his wretched 
army; 502 bows; 7 poles of wood, wrought with silver, be- 
longing to the tent of that foe. Behold, the army of his 
Majesty took . . ., 297 . . ., 1,929 large cattle, 2,000 small 
cattle, 42 20,500 white small cattle. 43 

List of that which was afterward taken by the King, of the 
household goods of that foe who was in the city of Yenoam, 
in Nuges, and in Herenkeru, 44 together with all the goods of 

* The sentence is uncertain in the original, both as to text and 
meaning. As the Kode are coast-people, it may possibly refer to their 
shipping the spoil to Egypt for the soldiers. 

The determinative sign of a foreign country is the first sign at the 
end of the lacuna before the list. 

86 This word (ssrmo't) I have elsewhere translated "horses," for what 
seem to me sufficient reasons, but in this context we have a clear dis- 
tinction between mares and stallions. 

37 The King of Kadesh. 

as Restored from the list of armor following. 

39 There must be thirty chariots therefore, mentioned in the lacuna, 
which would probably be those of the officers or other chiefs. 

40 The King of Kadesh. 

41 Here followed the armor of the officers, as in the case of the chariots 
above. 

Sheep? 

43 Goats? 

44 These three cities lay close together at the southern end of Lebanon. 
That Thutmose III. marched to Lebanon after the fall of Megiddo is 
shown by the fact that he built a fortress there just before returning 
to Thebes. The three cities formed a political whole under a single 
ruler ("that foe"), and were given as a whole to Amon by Thut- 
mose III. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 

those cities which submitted themselves, which were brought 
to his Majesty: 474 . . . ; 38 lords of theirs, 87 children of 
that foe and of the chiefs who were with him, 5 lords of theirs, 
1,796 male and female slaves with their children, noncom- 
batants who surrendered because of famine with that foe, 
103 men; total, 2,503. 45 Besides flat dishes of costly stone 
and gold, various vessels, ... a large two-handled vase of 
the work of Kharu, . . . vases, flat dishes, . . . dishes, vari- 
ous drinking-vessels, 3 large kettles, 87 knives, amounting to 
784 deben. 46 Gold in rings found in the hands of the artific- 
ers, and silver and many rings, 966 deben and one kidet. 47 
A silver statue in beaten work . . . the head of gold, the staff 
with human faces ; 6 chairs 48 of that foe, of ivory, ebony and 
carob wood, wrought with gold; 6 footstools belonging to 
them ; 6 large tables of ivory and carob wood, a staff of carob 
wood, wrought with gold and all costly stones in the fashion 
of a scepter, belonging to that foe, all of it wrought with gold ; 
a statue of that foe, of ebony wrought with gold, the head of 
which was inlaid with lapis lazuli . . ., vessels of bronze, 
much clothing of that foe. 

Behold, the cultivable land was divided into fields, which 
the inspectors of the royal house, 1. p. h., calculated, in order 
to reap their harvest. Statement of the harvest which was 
brought to his Majesty from the fields of Megiddo : 208,200 49 
fourfold heket of grain, besides that which was cut as forage 
by the army of his Majesty. 50 

The prisoners enumerated foot up to 2,029 ; hence 474 must have 
been mentioned in the lacuna. These must have included " that foe and 
the chiefs who were with him," and probably others whom we can not 
identify. 

191.1 pounds, total of gold in the preceding list of articles. 

* 235.46 pounds. 

s In Egyptian the word (kny) often means a kimd of open sedan 
chair. 

This makes about 112,632 imperial bushels (of 2,218.19 cubic 
inches). It is impossible to say how much an acre would yield at this 
time, but at twenty bushels to the acre this harvest covered a territory 
of nearly nine square mile*. 

"o What follows is a mere record of the gifts given various temples, 
gods, etc. 



340 THE SACRED BOOKS 



BIOGRAPHY OF AMENEMHAB l 

(AN OFFICER OF THUTMOSE III.) 

The officer, Amenemhab ; he says : 

I was the very faithful one of the sovereign (1. p. h.), the 
wise-hearted of the King of Upper Egypt, the excellent- 
hearted of the King of Lower Egypt. I followed my lord on 
his expeditions in the northern and the southern country. He 
desired that I should be the companion of his feet, while he 
was upon the battle-field of his victories, while his valor forti- 
fied the heart. 

I fought hand to hand in the land of Negeb. 2 I brought 
off three men, Asiatics, as living prisoners. 

When his Majesty came to Naharin 3 I brought off three 
men from the fight there; I set them before thy Majesty as 
living prisoners. 

Again I fought hand to hand on that expedition in the land 
of " The-Height-of-Wan " 4 on the west of Aleppo. I brought 

i Besides this biography, Amenemhab's tomb contained a series of 
scenes showing him in the exercise of certain of his functions as a 
deputy of the army, especially introducing the officers of the commis- 
sariat to the King to report on the maintenance of the army. His 
tomb also contains other references to his career, like those inserted 
among his titles: "Attendant of his lord on his expeditions in the 
countries of the south and north, not separated from the Lord of the 
Two Lands on the battle-field in the hour of repelling millions of men." 
He was evidently a favorite of Thutmose III., and may have owed his 
favor to his wife, who was the royal nurse, possibly of Thutmose III. 
himself. 

2 This is clearly the Hebrew Negeb, i.e., "south country"; the four- 
teenth campaign of the Annals of Thutmose III. was against the Bedwin 
(Shasu) of this region. 

s The following three battles all took place on a campaign in the 
Naharin, probably that of year 33 of Thutmose III., as he later mentions 
another in Naharin, which would correspond with that of year 35. 

* Evidently some height not far from Aleppo is meant, for which 
Gebel Siman (2,700 feet high) answers admirably. It is but slightly 
north of west of Aleppo, but the Egyptian did not carry a compass, 
and any traveler of to-day would speak of it as west of Aleppo, and refer 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 841 

off 13 Asiatics as living prisoners, 13 men ; 70 living asses ; 13 
bronze spears ; the bronze was wrought with gold . . . 

Again I fought on that expedition in the land of Carche- 
mish. I brought off ... as living prisoners. I crossed 
over the water of Naharin, while they were in my hand, to 
. . .; I set them before my lord. He rewarded me with a 
great reward ; list thereof : . . . 

I beheld the royal victories of the King Menkheperre 
(Thutmose III.)> given life, in the country of Senzar, 5 when 
he made a great slaughter among them. I fought hand to 
hand before the King, I brought off a hand there. He gave to 
me the gold of honor ; list thereof : . . . two silver rings. 

Again I beheld his bravery, while I was among his follow- 
ers. He captured the city of Kadesh ; 6 I was not absent from 
the place where he was; I brought off two men, lords, as 
living prisoners ; I set them before the King, the Lord of the 
Two Lands, Thutmose, living forever. He gave to me gold 
because of bravery, before the whole people . . . ; list thereof : 
of the finest gold : a lion ; 2 necklaces, 2 flies, 4 arm rings. 

I saw my lord in ... in all his forms in the country of 
the ends 7 of the earth. . . . Ha. . . . Then I was raised to 
be the ... of the army, like . . . 

Again I beheld his victory in the country of Tikhsi the 
wretched, in the city of Mero. ... I fought hand to hand 
therein before the King. I brought off Asiatics, 3 men, as 
living prisoners. Then my lord gave to me the gold of honor ; 
list thereof: 2 golden necklaces, 4 arm rings, 2 flies, a lion, 
a female slave, and a male slave. 

Again I beheld another excellent deed which the Lord of 
the Two Lands did in Niy. He hunted 120 elephants, for 

to his table of bearings for the exact direction. But there is a ruin by 
Dana directly west of Aleppo, on a height of nearly 1,100 feet, which 
will do equally well. 

Zinzar of the " Amarna Letters," it is the modern Kal at Seidjar 
on the Orontes below Hamath. It was taken in the year 33, in the 
Naharin campaign. 

This occurred in the year 30. 

t In Annals, year 35, and " Hymn of Victory." This was probably on 
the march from the coast to Naharin, in the second campaign against 
that country. 



342 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the sake of their tusks and ... I engaged the largest which 
was among them, which fought against his Majesty ; I cut off 
his hand 8 while he was alive before his Majesty, while I stood 
in the water between two rocks. 9 Then my lord rewarded me 
with gold ; he gave . . . and 3 changes of clothing. 

The prince of Kadesh 10 sent forth a mare n before the 
army; in order to ... them, she entered among the army. 
I pursued after her on foot, with my sword, and I ripped open 
her belly ; I cut off her tail, I set it before the King ; while 
there was thanksgiving to God for it ! 12 He gave me joy, it 
filled my body, with rejoicing, he endued my limbs. 

His Majesty sent forth every valiant man of his army, in 
order to pierce the wall for the first time, which Kadesh had 
made. I was the one who pierced it, being the first of all the 
valiant ; no other before me did it. I went forth, I brought 
off 2 men, lords, as living prisoners. Again my lord rewarded 
me because of it, with every good thing for satisfying the 
heart, of the King's-presence. 

I made this capture while I was an officer of the navy. . . . 
I was the commander of ... his vessel. I was the chief of 
his associates on the voyage ... at his beautiful Feast 13 of 
Opet, when all the land was in acclamation. 

Lo, the King completed his lifetime of many years, splen- 
did in valor, in might, and in triumph ; from year 1 to year 
54, third month of the second season, the last day of the month 
under the Majesty of King Menkheperre (Thutmose III.)> 

s Doubtless the trunk is meant. 

He was perhaps pursued by the wounded elephant, and took refuge 
between the rocks. 

10 During the last campaign of Thutmose III., in year 42, and the last 
mentioned by Amenemhab. 

11 For the purpose of exciting the stallions of the Egyptian chariotry 
and thus confusing their line of battle; but Amenemhab leaps down 
from his chariot, and, pursuing her " on foot," slays her. 

12 The phrase occurs not infrequently, denoting the thanks of a king 
for the faithfulness of a servant. The impersonal form merely indi- 
cates that it was the king who gave thanks. 

is This is perhaps the celebration of the Feast of Southern Opet on 
the fourteenth of Paophi, after the return from the first campaign, 
which Amenemhab here relates after the campaigns exactly as the in- 
scription of Feasts and Offerings continues the Annals. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 343 

triumphant. He mounted to heaven, he joined the sun ; the 
divine limbs mingling with him who begat him. 14 

When the morning brightened, the sun arose, and the heav- 
ens shone, King Okheprure, Son of Re, Amenhotep (II.), 
given life, was established upon the throne of his father, he 
assumed the royal titulary. He mingled with, . . . the Red 
Land; he cut off the heads of their chiefs. 15 Diademed as 
Horus, son of Isis, he took . . . the Kenemetyew, every land, 
bowed down because of his fame ; with their tribute upon their 
backs, that he might grant to them the breath of life. 

His Majesty noticed me rowing wonderfully with him in 
his vessel ; " Khammat " was its name. I was rowing with 
both hands at his beautiful feast of Luxor, likewise to the 
splendors. ... I was brought to the midst of the palace, one 
caused that I should stand before the King, Okheprure 
(Amenhotep II.). I bowed down immediately before his 
Majesty ; he said to me, " I know thy character ; I was abid- 
ing in the nest, while thou wert in the following of my father. 
I commission thee with office that thou shalt be deputy of 
the army as I have said, watch thou the elite troops of the 
King." The deputy, Mahu, executed all that his lord said. 16 

n Amenemhab here records the death of his patron King. In the 
next section he tells of the new King and of campaigns under that King 
in which Amenemhab was not specially honored. Then comes an inci- 
dent by which he again wins notice. 

is Amenemhab doubtless refers to the sacrifice of the seven kings of 
Tikhfli. 

i Here our only copy of this text ends abruptly. 



344 THE SACRED BOOKS 



LEGEND OF THE TAKING OF JOPPA l 

There was once in the land of Egypt a general of infantry, 
Thutiyi was his name. 2 He followed the King Mauakhpir- 
riya, 3 1. h. s., on all his marches to the lands of the South and 
the North, 4 he fought at the head of his soldiers, he knew all 
the stratagems that are employed in war, and he received 
every day the gold of valor, 5 for he was an excellent general 
of infantry, and he had not his equal in the Entire-Land; 
this is what he did. 

And many days after that a messenger came from the 
country of Kharu, 6 and he was conducted into the presence 
of his Majesty, 1. h. s., and his Majesty said to him, " Who 
hath sent thee to my Majesty? wherefore hast thou jour- 
neyed ? " The messenger replied to his Majesty, 1. h. s., " It 
is the Governor of the land of the North who sent me to thee, 
saying, the vanquished of Joppa 7 has revolted against his 
Majesty, 1. h. s., and he has massacred the foot-soldiers of 

* Translated by Sir Gaston Maspero. 

2 The opening paragraphs are here restored, partly by guesswork, in 
the manner of similar tales. Our only papyrus of this tale is defective. 

3 Manakhpirriya is the royal prenomen of the Pharaoh Thutmose III. 
of the Eighteenth Dynasty; "1. h. s." is the formula already noted as 
meaning " life, health, strength," and as being commonly used when 
referring casually to a Pharaoh. 

* This is a frequent formula on Egyptian monuments of the time, " he 
who followed his lord in all his expeditions," to which the variants add, 
" in all his expeditions to the South and to the North." 

8 The autobiographies of Ahmasi-si-Abna and of Amenemhab tell of 
the rewards given by the Egyptian kings to those of their generals who 
had distinguished themselves in warfare. Slaves, male and female, were 
given them, objects taken as booty, or gold in rings, which was called 
" gold of valor." 

The land of Kharu corresponds to Palestine, or at least to that part 
of Palestine which is situated between Jordan and the sea. 

i In the official language of Egypt all strangers received the title of 
Pa khiri, the "falling," the "overthrown"; Pa khiri ni Khati, "the 
overthrown of Khati ; Pa khiri ni Jopu, " the overthrown of Joppa," or 
" the vanquished of Joppa." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 345 

his Majesty, 1. h. s., also his charioteers, and no one can 
stand against him." 

When the King Manakhpirriya, 1. h. s., heard all the 
words that the messenger had said to him, he fell into a rage 
like a cheetah of the south. 8 " By my life, by the favor of 
Re, by the love borne for me by my father Amon, I will 
destroy the city of the vanquished of Joppa, I will make him 
feel the weight of my arm." 

He called his nobles, his captains of war, also his magi- 
cian-scribes, and repeated to them the message that the Gov- 
ernor of the land of the North had sent him. Lo! they 
were all silent with one mouth, they knew not what to reply, 
either good or evil. But Thutiyi said to his Majesty, 1. h. s. : 
" Oh thou to whom the Entire-Land pays homage, command 
that there be given me the great staff of the King Manakhpir- 
riya, 1. h. s., the name of which is ... tiut-nofrit. 9 Com- 
mand also that there be given me foot-soldiers of his Majesty, 
1. h. s., also charioteers of the flower of the brave ones of the 
land of Egypt, and I will slay the vanquished of Joppa, I 
will take his city." His Majesty, 1. h. s., said, " It is excel- 
lent, excellent, that which thou hast spoken." And the great 
staff of the King Manakhpirriya, 1. h. s., was given to him, 
and foot-soldiers were given to him and the charioteers which 
he had asked for. 

And many days after that, Thutiyi was in the country of 
Kharu with his men. He caused a great sack of skin to be 
made which would hold a man, he had iron shackles forged 
for feet and hands, he had a great pair of shackles with four 
rings, and many wooden fetters and collars, and five hundred 
large jars. When all was ready he sent word to the van- 

8 This is one of the formulae used to denote the impression produced 
on the King by some disastrous event. 

The first words that formed the name of this staff are destroyed. 
Not only the King's walking-stick, but also those of ordinary folk had 
each its special name. This is shown by the inscriptions borne by 
various staffs found in the tombs and preserved in our museums. It 
appears that the Egyptians accorded a real personality, and a kind of 
" double," to the natural and manufactured objects by which they were 
surrounded; at any rate a proper name was assigned to each of them. 



346 THE SACRED BOOKS 

quished of Joppa : " I am Thutiyi, the general of infantry 
of the land of Egypt, and I have followed his Majesty, 1. h. 
s., in all his marches to the lands of the North and the lands 
of the South. But lo! now, the King Manakhpirriya, 1. h. 
s., has been jealous of me because I am a hero, and wished 
to kill me, but I fled before him, and I have brought the great 
staff of the King Manakhpirriya, 1. h. s., and I have hidden 
it in the baskets of forage for my horses, and if thou wilt I 
will give it thee, and I will be with thee, I and the people 
who are with me of the flower of the brave ones of the army 
of Egypt." When the vanquished of Joppa heard this he 
rejoiced greatly, greatly, for the words that Thutiyi had 
spoken, for he knew that Thutiyi was a hero who had not his 
equal in the Entire-Land. He sent to Thutiyi, saying, 
" Come with me, and I will be to thee as a brother, and I will 
give thee a piece of land chosen from what is the best of the 
country of Joppa." 

The vanquished of Joppa came out of his city with his 
equerry, and with the women and children of the city, and he 
came before Thutiyi. He took him by the hand and 
embraced him and caused him to come into his camp, but 
he did not cause the companions of Thutiyi and their horses 
to enter with him. He gave him bread, he ate, he drank 
with him, and he said to him in the way of conversation, 
" The great staff of the King Manakhpirriya, 10 what is it ? " 
Now Thutiyi, before entering the camp of the city of Joppa, 
had taken the great staff of the King Manakhpirriya, 1. h. s. ; 
he had hidden it in the forage which he had placed in the 
baskets, and he had arranged them as the baskets of forage 
are arranged for the chariotry of Egypt. Now while the 
vanquished of Joppa drank with Thutiyi, the people who 
were with him were amusing themselves with the foot-sol- 
diers of Pharaoh, 1. h. s., and were drinking with them. 
And after they had passed their hour of drinking, Thutiyi 
said to the vanquished of Joppa, " If it please thee, while I 

10 It is probable that the staff had some magic virtue. That would 
explain the desire shown by the prince to possess it, no doubt in the 
hope that it would render him invincible. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 347 

remain here with the women and children of thy city, allow 
my companions to enter with their horses to give them proven- 
der, or that an Apuriu n may hasten to the place where they 
are." They were made to enter, the horses were hobbled, 
their provender was given them, and the great staff of King 
Manakhpirriya, 1. h. s., was found, and one went to tell 
Thutiyi. 

And after that the vanquished of Joppa said to Thutiyi: 
" My desire is to behold the great staff of the King Manakh- 
pirriya, 1. h. s., the name of which is ... tiut-nofrit. By 
the double 12 of the King Manakhpirriya, 1. h. s., since it is 
with thee this day, that great excellent staff, bring it to me." 
Thutiyi did as he said, he brought the staff of the King 
Manakhpirriya, 1. h. s., he seized the vanquished of Joppa by 
his raiment and flung him down, saying, " Behold, oh van- 
quished of Joppa, the great staff of the King Manakhpirriya, 
1. h. s., the redoubtable lion, the son of Sokhit, 13 to whom 
Amon his father gives strength and power. He raised his 
hand, he struck the temple of the vanquished of Joppa, who 
fell unconscious before him. He put him in the great sack 
he had prepared with the skins; he seized the men who were 
with him, he had the pair of iron shackles brought that he 
had prepared, with them he fastened the hands of the van- 
quished of Joppa, and on his feet were placed the pair of iron 
shackles of four rings. 14 He had the five hundred jars 

11 M. Chabas believed that he recognized in this name that of the 
Hebrews. Various circumstances prevent our accepting this hypothesis. 

12 The " double " of the King is represented as an emblem formed of 
two upraised arms, between which are placed the titles that compose 
" the name of the double " of the King. This is inaccurately called 
" the royal banner." It is placed upright on a flagstaff, and figures in 
the bas-reliefs behind the person of Pharaoh himself. 

Sokhit is represented under the form or with the head of a lioness, 
and this peculiarity explains why King Thutmose III., regarded as her 
son, is called in this text a " redoubtable lion." 

iIt appears to me that the stratagem consisted, after having killed 
the prime of Joppa, of passing him off as Thutiyi himself. The body 
was placed in a sack prepared beforehand, so that no one could recog- 
ni/e his features or limbs and detect the deception, and the corpse \\li.-u 
tli us ! was loaded with chains, as was done with the bodies of 

the vanquished. It is this corpse that the equerry of the prince shows 



348 THE SACRED BOOKS 

brought that he had caused to be made, he put two hundred 
soldiers into them ; he then filled the belly of the other three 
hundred with cords and wooden fetters. They sealed them 
with a seal, they covered them with their covering and the 
cordage necessary to carry them, and placed them on as many 
strong soldiers, five hundred men in all, and one said to them, 
" When you shall enter the city, you shall open the jars of 
your companions, you shall seize all the inhabitants who are 
in the town, and you shall put the fetters on them imme- 
diately." One went on to say to the equerry of the van- 
quished of Joppa, " Thy master has fallen ! Go, say to thy 
sovereign lady, 15 ' Rejoice, for Sutekhu 10 has delivered 
Thutiyi to us, with his wife and his children.' Behold, under 
the name of booty taken from them two hundred jars are 
disguised, which are full of men, wooden collars, and 
fetters!" 17 

The equerry went at the head of these people to rejoice 
the heart of his sovereign lady by saying, " We are masters 
of Thutiyi ! " The fastenings of the city were opened to 
give passage to the porters; they entered into the city, they 
opened the jars of their companions, they took possession of 
the whole city, small and great ; they placed fetters and col- 
lars at once on the people who lived there. When the army 
of Pharaoh, 1. h. s., had taken possession of the city, Thutiyi 
reposed himself, and sent a message to Egypt to the King 
Manakhpirriya, 1. h. s., his lord, to say, " Rejoice thou ! 
Amon, thy father, has given thee the vanquished of Joppa 
with all his subjects, and also the city. Let men come to 

later to the inhabitants of the city, saying to them, " We are masters 
of Thutiyi." 

IB The wife of the prince, who was not in camp with her husband, but 
had remained in Joppa. 

is Sutekhu, Sutekh, was the name given by the Egyptians to the prin- 
cipal gods of the Asiatic and Libyan peoples. This appellation goes 
back to the time of the Hyksos. 

if The number " two hundred " appears to be contradictory with that 
of " five hundred " which is indicated previously. We must suppose 
that the scribe had the two hundred jars that contained the men in his 
mind, and gave this partial number without remembering the total num- 
ber of five hundred. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 349 

take them into captivity, that thou mayest fill the house of 
thy father, Amonra, king of the gods, with slaves and maid- 
servants, who shall be beneath thy two feet forever and 
ever." Is happily finished this narration, by the office of 
the scribe instructed in narrations, the scribe . . . 



350 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE BUILDING LABOES OF AMENHOTEP III. l 

Live . . , 2 Amenhotep III., Ruler of Thebes; beloved 
of Amon, lord of Thebes, presider over Karnak; given life, 
joy of his heart, that he may rule the Two Lands like Re, 
forever ; the Good God, possessor of joy, who is very vigilant 
for him that begat him, Amon, king of gods ; who hath made 
great his (Amon's) house, who hath satisfied his beauty by 
doing that which his lea desires. 

Behold, the heart of his Majesty was satisfied with making 
a very great monument; never has happened the like since 
the beginning. 3 He made it as his monument for his father, 
Amon, lord of Thebes, making for him an august temple 4 on 
the west of Thebes, an eternal, everlasting fortress 5 of fine 
white sandstone, wrought with gold throughout; its floor is 
adorned with silver, all its portals with electrum ; 8 it is made 
very wide and large, and established forever; and adorned 
with this very great monument. 7 It is numerous in royal 
statues, of Elephantine granite, of costly gritstone, of every 
splendid costly stone, established as everlasting works. 8 

a This is a stela or great stone set up by King Amenhotep III. in one 
of his temples and giving an enthusiastic though vague account of his 
labors as a builder. It is the most complete record of its kind. The 
translation is from Prof. Breasted's " Ancient Records." 

2 A full five-name titulary must have followed here. 

3 The colossi known as the Memnon colossi still stand, but the temple, 
the entrance of which they flanked, has disappeared. It was the mor- 
tuary temple of Amenhotep III., of which there is a further account 
inscribed on a huge stela now lying in the scanty ruins behind the 
colossi. 

* Called " House-of-Amon-on-the-West-of -Thebes " in the inscription 
on a black granite statue of Amenhotep III. at Erment. 

5 The temple regarded as a stronghold. 

8 Just how the metals were used on floor, walls, and doorways is not 
clear from these vague data, but they materially augment our ideas of 
the splendor of the Egyptian temple. 

7 Probably the stela on which this text is cut. 

8 Spiegelberg calls attention to the fact that the French expedition 
found eighteen of these statues on the west shore still in situ, some of 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 351 

Their stature shines more than the heavens; their rays are 
in the faces (of men) like the sun, when he shines early in 
the morning. It is supplied with a " Station of the King," 9 
wrought with gold and many costly stones. Flagstaves are 
set up before it, wrought with electrum; its resembles the 
horizon in heaven when Re rises therein. Its lake is filled 
with the great Nile, lord of fish and fowl, pure in ... 

Its storehouse is filled with male and female slaves, with 
children of the princes of all the countries of the captivity of 
his [Majesty. Its storehouses contain all good things, whose 
number is not known. It is surrounded with settlements of 
Syrians colonized with children of princes, its cattle are like 
the sand of the shore, they make up millions. 

The bow-rope of the Southland in it and the stern-rope of 
the Northland, even his Majesty revealed himself like Ptah, 
was skilful-minded like Him-South-of-His-Wall (Ptah), 
searching out excellent things for his father, Amon-Re, King 
of Gods, making for him a very great pylon 10 over against 
Amon. Its beautiful name which his Majesty made was: 
" Amon-Has-Received-His-Divine-Bark," n a place of rest 
for the lord of the gods at his " Feast of the Valley " on the 
western voyage of Amon to behold the western gods, in order 
that he may endow his Majesty with satisfying life. 12 

which are now in the museums: in the British Museum one of black 
granite; two heads; also a black granite statue at Erment. Spiegolberg 
thinks it strange that the two Memnon colossi are not given separate 
mention, but they are clearly mentioned in the reference to " costly 
gritstone," which is the material of the colossi. Moreover, they are dis- 
tinct ly mentioned in the Dedication Inscription. 

9 The enormous stela lying overthrown behind the Memnon colossi. 
The word " station " is here determined with a stela, showing that as at 
Amada, the " station of the king " was marked by the stela against the 
back wall of the holy of holies. 

10 This is probably the pylon which flanked the Memnon colossi, but is 
now entirely gone. 

11 The literal meaning of the phrase used for the bark is: "Bearer 
of his beauty"; it was a portable shrine. 

12 This finishes (lie description of the first temple, and another is de- 

'I in the folio OH, the Wel1-kHOWB tempta at modern I.uxor, 

of which the font hern portion Amonhotcp III. The architrave 

inscriptior ..nut of the l.uihlin-_r: " He made it as his 

monument for hie father, Amon Re, king of gods, again erecting for him 



352 THE SACRED BOOKS 

King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands : 
Nibmare, Heir of Re ; Son of Re, Lord of Diadems : Amen- 
hotep III., Ruler of Thebes, is satisfied with a building for 
his father Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, in Southern Opet 
(Luxor), of fine white sandstone, made very wide and large 
and its beauty increased. Its walls are of electrum, its floor 
is of silver, all the portals are wrought with . . . , its 
towers reach heaven, and mingle with the stars. When the 
people see it, they give praise to his Majesty. 

It is the King Nibmare who hath satisfied ls the heart of 
his father, Amon, lord of Thebes, who hath assigned to him 
every country, the Son of Re, Amenhotep III., Ruler of 
Thebes, Brilliance of Re ... 

His Majesty made another monument, for his father, 
Amon ; making for him an enclosure as a divine offering over 
against Southern Opet ; a salubrious place for my 14 father 
at his beautiful feast. I erected a great temple 15 in its 
midst like Re when he rises in the horizon. It is planted 
with all flowers; how beautiful is Nun in his pool at every 
season ; more is its wine 10 than water, like a full Nile, born 
of the lord of eternity. Many are the goods of the place, 
the impost of all countries is received, numerous tribute is 
brought before my father, being the offerings of all lands. 
He hath assigned to me the princes of the south countries; 
the Southerners are like the Northerners, and each one is 

Luxor anew, of fine white sandstone, made very, very high and wide, 
adorned with electrum throughout, and all splendid, costly stones; a 
rest for Amon, a place of rest for the lord of pods, made like unto his 
horizon in heaven. That he might be given life." Statements like: 
"who built temples . . . sculptured their statues; that which was of 
brick was rebuilt of stone"; or: "who again erected Luxor anew," of 
course refer to the older Middle Empire temple which Amenhotep III. 
enlarged or rebuilt. 

is Literally, " washed." 

i* A sudden change to the first person. 

16 The only " great temple " of Amenhotep III. which is " over 
against Luxor is the temple of Mut, which could hardly be lef erred to 
here without some reference to the goddess. Hence there may be some 
undiscovered building of Amenhotep III, in the unexplored ground 
between Luxor and Karnak, to which reference is here made. 

i Literally, " more to it is wine," a common phrase. 



< \TY77? 




GOO OF MUSIC AND DANCE. PROTECTOR OF CHILDREN YET HALF 
EAT A DWARF WITH A LONG TAIL 






LITERATURE OF THE EAST 353 

like his neighbor; their silver, their gold, their cattle, every 
splendid costly stone of their countries, by millions, hundred 
thousands, ten thousands, and thousands. I have done it for 
the one who begat me, in the uprightness of my heart, accord- 
ing as he appointed me to be the sun of the Nine Bows. 

King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Nibmare, part of Re; 
Son of Re: Ameuhotep III., Ruler of Thebes. I made 
another monument for him who begat me, Amon-Re, lord of 
Thebes, who established me upon his throne, making for him 
a jjjeut barge 17 for the " Beginning-of-the-River " named 
" Amon-Re-in-the-Sacred-Barge," of new cedar which his 
Majesty cut in the countries 18 of God's-Land. It was 
dragged over the mountains of Retenu by the princes of all 
countries. It was made very wide and large, there is no 
instance of doing the like. Its ... is adorned with silver, 
wrought with gold throughout, the great shrine is of electrum 
so that it fills the laud with its brightness; its bows, they 
repeat the brightness ; they bear great crowns, whose serpents 
twine along its two sides; they exercise protection behind 
them. Flagstaves are set up before it 19 wrought with elec- 
trum, two great obelisks are between them; it is beautiful 
everywhere. The gods of Pe make jubilee to it; the gods 
of Nekhen praise it ; the two Nile-gods of the South and the 
North, they embrace its beaiity, its bows make Nun to 
shine 20 as when the sun rises in heaven, to make his beautiful 
voyage at his feast of Opet on his western voyage of a million 
of millions of years. 

King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Nibmare, Son of Re: 
Amenhotep III., Ruler of Thebes, 21 who is vigilant to seek 
that which is useful, the King, who has erected another monu- 
ment for Amon, making for him a very great portal over 

" A similar barge with details of measurements in the Harris Papyrus. 
i The same statement by Thutmosc IV. on Lateran obelisk. 
"The shrine, which was set up amidships; it is here regarded as a 
temple, and equipped therefore with flagstaves and obelisks. 

deferring to the reflection in the water, here called Nun, the same 
in the Anydos stela of Thutmofle I. 

at He speaks now of the ruim-d pylon behind the great hall of columns, 
known as Pylon III. at Knrnak. 
VOL. II. 23. 



354 THE SACRED BOOKS 

against Amon-Ke, lord of Thebes, wrought with gold through- 
out. The Divine Shadow, 22 as a ram, is inlaid with real 
lazuli wrought with gold and many costly stones ; there is no 
instance of doing the like. Its floor is adorned with silver; 
towers are over against it. Stelce of lazuli are set up, one 
on each side. Its pylons reach heaven like the four pillars 
of heaven; its flagstaves shine more than the heavens, 
wrought with electrum. His Majesty brought gold for it in 
the land of Karoy on the first victorious campaign, slaying 
the wretched Kush. 

King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nibmare, beloved of 
Amon-Re, Son of Re : Amenhotep III., Ruler of Thebes. I 
made other monuments for Amon, whose like hath not been. 
I built for thee thy house of millions of years in the ... of 
Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, named Khammat, 23 august in 
electrum, a resting-place for my father at all his feasts. It 
is finished with fine white sandstone ; it is wrought with gold 
throughout ; its floor is adorned with silver, all its portals are 
of gold. Two great obelisks 24 are erected, one on each side. 
When my father rises between them, I am among his follow- 
ing. I have offered to him thousands of oxen, limbs for the 
choicest of hindquarters. 

[Here the stela turns suddenly to a chant of the god 
Amon praising King Amenhotep for his building.] 

Utterance of Amon, king of gods : 

My son, of my body, my beloved, Nibmare, 

My living image, whom my limbs created, 

Whom Mut, mistress of Ishru in Thebes, bore to me, 

Mistress of the Nine Bows who brought thee up as sole lord 

of the people. 
My heart greatly rejoices when I see thy beauty, 

22 The immaterial or intangible part of a god conceived as a shadow, 
a common conception both for gods and men. 

23 This is the name of the Soleb temple in Nubia; it means: " Shining 
(or rising) in (or as) Truth," which is also one of Amenhotep III.'s 
names, either in the full titulary, or alone. 

2* These obelisks are not shown on Lepsius' plan, but they are also 
mentioned in the ram inscriptions. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 355 

I work a wonder for thy Majesty, and thou renewest youth, 
According as I have set thee as the Sun of the Two Lands. 

When I turn my face to the south, I work a wonder for thee ; 

I cause the chiefs of Kush, the wretched, to turn to thee, 

Bearing all their tribute upon their backs. 

When I turn my face to the north, I work a wonder for thee ; 

I cause the countries of the ends of Asia to come to thee, 

Bearing all their tribute upon their backs. 

They present themselves to thee with their children, 

In order that thou mayest give to them the breath of life. 

When I turn my face to the west, I work a wonder for thee ; 
I cause thee to seize the Tehenu, so that there is no remnant 

of them. 
They are building 25 in this fortress in the name of my 

Majesty; 

Surrounded with a great wall reaching to heaven, 
Settled with children of the chiefs of the Nubian Troglodytes. 

When I turn my face to the Orient, 26 I work a wonder for 

thee; 

I cause to come to thee the countries of Punt, 
Bearing all the pleasant sweet woods of their countries, 
To crave peace with him, and breath of thy giving. 

Xing of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ruler of the Nine Bows, 
Lord of the Two Lands, Nibmare, son of Re, his beloved 
Amenhotep III., Ruler of Thebes, with whose monuments 
the heart of the gods is satisfied ; that he may be given life, 
stability, satisfaction, health; that his heart may be joyful, 
like Re, forever. 

** As slaves ? 

The usual word for "east" is not employed, but a term meaning 
" sunrise." 



THE GEEAT EMPIKE 

(1600 B.C.-525 B.C.) 



THE EPIC OF PENTA-OUR 
(THE TRIUMPH OF RAMSES n.) 



" The panegyric of a scribe, Penii-our, has invested Ramses 
with the power of a god'' 



PROP. s. BIRCH. 



EGYPT'S CHIEF EPIC POEM 

(INTRODUCTION) 

THE epic poem of Penta-our is by far the finest existing 
literary effort inspired by the wars of the Great Em- 
pire. It has made its author the best known of Egyptian 
poets. Penta-our was the palace scribe of Eamses II., a 
warlike emperor of the Nineteenth Dynasty, almost as 
noted as the earlier conqueror Thutmose. The military 
career of Kamses II. culminated in one great moment when 
in a close-fought battle his troops fled and he alone, or almost 
alone, charged in desperation upon the multitude of his foes. 
Again and again he charged, until his own troops ral- 
lied to his support and swept the enemy completely from 
the field. 

In this epic triumph of the mighty hero, exaggerated 
though it doubtless is in the telling, the poet found inspira- 
tion for a really powerful pa3an of pride and exultation. 
Ramses himself was so delighted with the poem that he had 
it carved on wall after wall of his great buildings. It has 
thus become, except for the Book of the Dead, the most 
widespread and most noted of the remains of Egyptian 
literature. 

This campaign of Ramses has been carefully studied and 
its progress traced as a piece of military strategy. He was 
marching against the Hittites, who, since the days of Thut- 
mose III., had regained their full independence and their 
power. Apparently Ramses, in the reckless eagerness of his 
march, left most of his ;ir"iy far behind him. The Hittite 
forces then suddenly attacked the advanced division and put it 
to flight. The Pharaoh then cluirired the Hittites in his 
chariot. Probably some of them h;i<l scattered to plunder 
the abandoned camp. Probably, also, Ramses had captive 
lions, trained to battle, whom he loosed against the foe. Per- 



360 THE SACRED BOOKS 

haps, also, he had a few uncounted hundreds of his household 
guards at his back. At any rate by some means he hurled 
back the Hittites and held them in check until the slower 
divisions of his army arrived and made his success complete. 
This victory, by which Kamses once more broke the Hittite 
strength, is known to history as the battle of Kadesh. 



THE TRIUMPH OF RAMSES II. 1 

Beginning of the victory of King Ramses Miamun may 
he live forever ! which he obtained over the people of the 
Khita, of Naharain, of Malunna, of Pidasa, of the Dardani, 
over the people of Masa, of Karkisha, of Qasuatan, of Car- 
chemish, of Kati, of Anaugas, over the people of Akerith and 
Mushanath. 

The youthful king with the bold hand has not his equal. 

His arms are powerful, his heart is firm, 

His courage is like that of the god of war, Monthu, in the 

fight. 

He leads his warriors to unknown peoples. 
He seizes his weapons, and is a wall of iron for his warriors, 
Their shield in the day of battle. 
He seizes his bow, and no man offers opposition. 
Mightier than a hundred thousand united together goes he 

forward. 

His courage is firm like that of a bull which seizes . . . 
He has smitten all peoples who had united themselves 

together. 

No man knows the thousands of men who stood against him. 
A hundred thousand sank before his glance. 
Terrible is he when his war-cry resounds ; 
Bolder than the whole world ; 

Dreadful as the grim lion in the valley of the gazelles. 
His command will be performed. 
No opponent dares to speak against him. 
Wise is his counsel. Complete are his decisions, 
When he wears the royal crown Atef and declares his will, 
A protector of his people against unrighteousness. 
His heart is like a mountain of iron. 
Such is King Ramses Miamun. 

i This translation is based on that of the famous German Egyptologist 
and Pasha, Dr. Henry Brugsch. 

361 



362 THE SACRED BOOKS 

After the King had armed his people and his chariots, 

And in like manner the Shardonians, which were once his 

prisoners. 

Then was the order given them for the battle. 
The king took his way downward, 
And his people and his chariots accompanied him, 
And followed the best road on their march. 

In the fifth year, on the ninth day of the month Payni, 
The fortress of Khetam of the land of Zar opened to the 

King. 

As if he had been the god of war, Monthu himself, 
The whole world trembled, and terror seized all enemies 
Who came near to bow themselves before the King. 
And his warriors passed by the path of the desert, 
And went on along the roads of the North. 

Many days after this the King was in the city of Ramses 

Miamun 
Which is situated in Zahi. After the King had marched 

upward, 

He reached . . . and arrived as far as Kadesh. 
Then the King passed by in their sight 
Like his father Monthu, the lord of Thebes. 
He marched through the valley of the river Anmatha, 
With him the first legion of Amon, 
Amon, who secures victory to the King Ramses Miamun. 
And when the King approached the city, 
Behold, the miserable King of the hostile Khita had arrived. 
He had assembled with him all the peoples 
From the uttermost ends of the sea to the people of Khita. 
They had arrived in great numbers : 
The people of Naharain, the people of Arathu, of the Dar- 

dani, 

The Masu, the Pidasa, the Malunna, the Karkish, 
The Leka, Qazuadana, Carchemish, Akarith, Kati, 
The whole people of Anaugas, every one of them, 
Mushanath, and Kadesh. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 863 

He had left no people on his road without bringing them with 

him. 
Their number wa endless; nothing like it had ever been 

before. 
They covered mountains and valleys like grasshoppers in 

number. 

He had not left silver nor gold with his people ; 
He had taken away all their goods and possessions, 
To give to the people who accompanied him to the war. 

Now had the miserable King of the hostile Khita 

And the many peoples which were with him hidden them- 
selves 

In an ambush to the northwest of the city of Kadesh, 

While Pharaoh was alone, no other was with him. 

The legion of Amon advanced behind him. 

The legion of Phra crossed the ditch west of the town of 
Shabatuna, 

Divided by a long interval from the legion of Ptah, 

In the midst, in the direction toward the town of Arnama. 

The legion of Sutekh marched on by their roads. 

And the King called together all the chief men of his war- 
riors. 

Behold, they were at the lake of the land of the Amorites. 

At the same time the miserable King of Khita 

Was in the midst of his warriors, which were with him. 

But his hand was not so bold as to venture battle with 

Pharaoh. 

Therefore he drew away the horsemen and the chariots, 
Which were numerous as the sand ; 
And they stood three men on each war-chariot. 
Assembled in one spot were the best heroes of the army of 

Khita, 

Well appointed with all weapons for the fight. 
Yet they did not dare to advance. 

They stood in ambush northwest of the town of Kadesh. 
Then they went out from Kadesh, on the side of the south, 



364 THE SACRED BOOKS 

And threw themselves into the midst of the legion of Phra- 

Hannakhis, 

Which gave way, and was not prepared for the fight. 
There Pharaoh's warriors and chariots gave way before them. 
And Pharaoh had placed himself to the north of the town of 

Kadesh 

On the west side of the river Arunatha. 
Then they came to tell the King. 

Then the King arose like his father Monthu ; 

He seized his weapons and put on his armor, like Baal in his 

time. 

And the noble pair of horses which carried Pharaoh, 
And whose name was " Victory in Thebes," 
They were from the court of King Ramses Miamun. 
When the King had quickened his course, 
He rushed into the middle of the hostile hosts of Khita, 
All alone, no other was with him. 
When Pharaoh had done this, he looked behind him, 
He was surrounded by two thousand five hundred pairs of 

horses, 

And his retreat was beset by the bravest heroes 
Of the miserable King of the people of Khita, 
And by all the numerous peoples that were with him, 
Of Arathu, of Masu, of Pidasa, of Keshkesh, 
Of Malunna, of Qazuadana, of Khilibu, of Akerith, 
Of Kadesh, and of Leka. 
And there were three men on each chariot, 
And they were all gathered together. 2 

" And not one of my princes, not one of my captains of the 

chariot, 

Not one of my chief men, not one of my knights was there. 
My warriors and my chariots had abandoned me, 
Not one of them was there to take part in the battle. 

2 The style of the narrative changes here and Ramses begins to 
speak for himself. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 365 

"Thereupon speaks Pharaoh: 'Where art thou, my father 

Amon? 

If this means that the father has forgotten his son, 
Behold have I done anything without thy knowledge, 
Oh have I not gone and followed the judgments of thy 

mouth ? 

Never were the precepts of thy mouth transgressed, 
NOT have I broken thy commands in any respect. 
The noble lord and ruler of Egypt, 

Should he bow himself before the foreign peoples in his way ? 
Whatever may be the intention of these vile herdsmen, 
Amon should stand higher than the miserable one who knows 

no God. 



" Shall it have been for nothing 

That I have dedicated to thee many and noble monuments, 

That I have filled thy temples with my prisoners of war, 

That I have built to thee temples to last many thousands of 
years, 

That I have given to thee all my substance as household fur- 
niture, 

That the whole united land has been ordered to pay tribute 
to you, 

That I have dedicated to thee sacrifices of ten thousands of 
oxen, 

And of all the good and sweet-smelling woods ? 

Never did I withhold my hand from doing that which thy 
wish required. 

I have built for thee propyla and wonderful works of stone, 

I have raised to thee masts for all times, 

I have conveyed obelisks for thee from the island of Elephan- 
tine, 

It was I who had brought for thee the everlasting stone, 

Who caused the ships to go for thee on the sea, 

To bring thee the productions of foreign nations. 

Where has it been told that such a thing was done at any other 
time? 



366 THE SACRED BOOKS 

" * Let him be put to shame who rejects thy commands, 

But good be to him who acknowledges thee, O Amon ! 

I have acted for thee with a willing heart ; 

Therefore I call on thee. Behold now, Amon, 

I am in the midst of many unknown peoples in great num- 
bers. 

All have united together, and I am all alone ; no other is with 
me; 

My warriors and my charioteers have deserted me. 

I called to them, and not one of them heard my voice. 

But I find that Amon is better to me than millions of war- 
riors, 

Than hundreds of thousands of horses, 

Than tens of thousands of brothers and sons, 

Even if they were all united in one place. 

The works of a multitude of men are as nothing ; 

Amon is better than they. 

What has happened to me here is by the command of thy 
mouth, 

Amon, and I will not transgress thy command. 
Behold I call upon thee at the uttermost ends of the world/ 

" And my voice found an echo in Hermonthis, 

And Amon heard it and came at my cry. 

He reached out his hand to me, and I shouted for joy. 

He called out to me from behind : 

' I have hastened to thee, Ramses Miamun. I am with thee. 

1 am he, thy father, the Sun-god Re. My hand is with thee. 
Yes ! I am worth more than hundreds of thousands united in 

one place. 

I am the lord of victory, the friend of valor; 
I have found in thee a right spirit, and my heart rejoices 

therein.' 

" All this came to pass. 

I was changed, being made like the god Monthu. 

I hurled the dart with my right hand, 

I fought with my left hand. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 367 

I was like Baal in his time, before their sight. 

I had met two thousand five hundred pairs of horses ; 

I was in the midst of the charioteers ; 

But they were dashed in pieces before my horses. 

Not one of them raised his hand to fight ; 

Their courage was sunken in their breasts, 

Their limbs gave way, they could not hurl the dart, 

Nor had they the courage to thrust with the spear. 

I made them fall into the waters just as the crocodiles fall in. 

They tumbled down on their faces one after another. 

I killed them at my pleasure, so that not one looked back 

Behind him, nor did another turn around. 

Each one fell, he raised himself not up again. 

" There stood the miserable King of the Khita 

In the midst of his warriors and his chariots, 

To behold the fight of the King. He was all alone; 

Not one of his warriors, not one of his chariots was with him. 

There he turned round for fright before the King. 

Thereupon he sent the princes in great numbers, 

Each of them with his chariot well equipped with the wea- 
pons: 

The King of Arathu and him of Masa, 

The King of Malunna and him of Leka, 

The King of the Dardani and him of Keshkesh, 

The King of Carchemish and him of Khilibu. 

There were all the brothers of the King of Khita united in 
one place 

To the number of two thousand five hundred pairs of horses. 

They forthwith rushed right on, 

Their countenance directed to the flame of fire (Pharaoh's 
face). 

" I rushed down upon them. Like Monthu was I. 
I let them taste my hand in the space of a moment. 
I dashed them down, and killed them where they stood. 
Then cried out one of them to his neighbor, saying, 
* This is no man. Ah ! woe to us ! 



368 THE SACRED BOOKS 

He who is in our midst is Sutekh, the glorious ; 

Baal is in all his limbs. Let us hasten and flee before him. 

Let us save our lives ; let us try our breath.' ' 

As soon as any one attacked him, 

His hand fell down and every limb of his body. 

They could not aim either the bow or the spear. 

They only looked at him as he came on in his headlong career 

from afar. 
The King was behind them like a griffin. 

" I struck them down ; they did not escape me. 

I lifted up my voice to my warriors and to my charioteers, 

And spake to them, ' Halt ! Stand ! 

Take courage, my warriors, my charioteers! 

Look upon my victory. I am alone, but Amon is my helper, 

And his hand is with me.' 

" When Menna, my charioteer, beheld with his eyes 

How many pairs of horses surrounded me, 

His courage left him, and his heart was afraid. 

Fright and great terror took possession of his whole body, 

Quickly he spake to me : ' My gracious lord, thou brave 

King, 

Thou guardian of the Egyptians in the battle, protect us. 
We stand alone in the midst of enemies. 
Stop, to save the breath of life for us. 
Give us deliverance, protect us, O King Ramses Miamun.' 

" Then spake I, the King, to my charioteer : 

' Halt ! Stand ! Take courage, my charioteer. 

I will swoop down among them as the sparrow-hawk swoops. 

I will slay them, I will cut them in pieces, 

I will dash them to the ground in the dust ! 

Why, then, is such a thought in thy heart ? 

These are unclean ones for Amon. 

Wretches who do not acknowledge the god.' " 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 369 

And the King hurried onward. 

He charged down upon the hostile hosts of Khita. 

For the sixth time, when he charged upon them, said the 

King: 

" There was I like to Baal behind them in his time, 
When he has strength. I killed them; no one escaped me." 

And the King cried to his warriors, and his chariot-fighters, 
And likewise to his princes, who had taken no part in the 

fight, 

" Miserable is your courage, my chariot-fighters. 
Of no profit is it to have you for friends. 
Ah, if there had been only so much as one of you 
Who showed himself a good warrior for my country ! 
If I had not stood firm as your King, you had been con- 
quered ! 

I exalt you daily to be princes. 
I place the son in the inheritance of his father, 
Warding off all injury from the land of the Egyptians, 
And you forsake me ! Such servants are worthless. 
I made you rich, I was your protecting lord, 
And each of you who complained supplicating to me, 
I gave him protection in his affairs every day. 
No Pharaoh has done for his people what I have done for 

you. 

I allowed you to remain in your villages and in your towns. 
Neither the captain nor his chariot horses did any work. 
I pointed out to them the road from their city, 
That they might find it in like manner 
At the day and the hour when the battle comes on, 
Now behold! A bad service altogether has been performed 

for me. 

None of you stood by, to stretch his hand to me when I 
fought. 

" By the name of my father Amon f 

O that I may be for Egypt like my father, the Sun-god Re ! 

Not a single one of you would watch, 

VOL. II. 24. 



370 THE SACRED BOOKS 

To attend to what concerns his duty in the land of Egypt. 
Such should be the good kind of men, who have been entrusted 
With work for the memorial-places in Thebes, the city of 

Amon. 

This is a great fault which my warriors have committed, 
Greater than it is possible to describe. 
Now behold, I have achieved the victory. 
No warrior and no chariot-fighter was with me. 
The whole world from afar beholds the strength of my arm. 
I was all alone. No other was with me. 
No prince was by my side, of the captains of the chariots, 
No captain of the soldiers, nor any horseman. 
The foreign peoples were eye-witnesses of this. 
They publish my name to the farthest and most unknown 

regions. 

All the combatants whom my hand left surviving, 
They stood there, turning themselves to wonder at what I 

did; 

And though millions of them had been there 
They would not have kept their feet, 
But would have run away. 
For every one who shot an arrow aimed at me, 
His own weapon failed, which should have reached me. 

" When now my warriors and my charioteers saw 

That I was named like Monthu of the victorious arm, 

And that Amon my father was with me, 

And the special favor he had done for me, 

And that the foreigners all lay like hay before my horses, 

Then they came forward one after another 

Out of the camp at the time of evening, 

And found all the people which had come against them, 

The best combatants of the people of Khita, 

And of the sons and brothers of their King, 

Stretched out and weltering in their blood. 

And when it was light next morning in the plain of Kadesh, 

One could hardly find a place for his foot, 

On account of their multitude. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 371 

" Then came my warriors forward to praise highly my name, 

Full of astonishment at what I had done. 

My princes came forward to honor my courage, 

And my chariot-fighters also to praise my strength. 

' How wast thou, great champion of firm courage, 

The savior of thy warriors and of thy chariot-fighters ! 

Thou son of Amon, who came forth from the hands of the 

god, 
Thou hast annihilated the people of Khita by thy mighty 

arm. 

Thou art a good champion, a lord of victory ; 
No other king fights as thou for his warriors in the day of 

battle. 

Thou, O bold one, art the first in the fight. 
The whole world united in one place does not trouble thee. 
Thou art the greatest conqueror at the head of thy warriors 
In the sight of the whole world. 
No one dares to contend with thee. 
Thou art he who protects the Egyptians, 
Who chastises the foreigners. 
Thou hast broken the neck of Khita for everlasting times.' ' 

Thereupon the King answered his warriors 

And his chariot-fighters, and likewise his princes : 

" My warriors, my charioteers, who have not taken part in 

the fight. 

A man does not succeed in obtaining honor in his city 
Unless he exhibits his prowess before his lord, the King. 
Good will be his name if he is brave in the battle. 
By deeds, by deeds, will he win the applause of the land. 
Have I not given what is good to each of you, 
That ye left me, so that I was alone amidst hostile hosts ? 
Forsaken by you, my life was in peril, 
And you breathed tranquilly, and I was alone. 
Could you not have said in your hearts 
That I was a rampart of iron to you ? 
Will any one obey him who leaves me in the lurch 
When I am alone without any followers ? 



372 THE SACRED BOOKS 

When nobody comes of the princes, of the knights, 

And of the chief men of the army, to reach me out his hand ? 

I was alone thus fighting, 

And I have withstood millions of foreigners I all alone. 

" l Victory in Thebes/ and ' Mut is satisfied/ my pair of 

horses, 

It was they who found me, to strengthen my hand, 
When I was alone in the raging multitude of hostile hosts. 
I will myself henceforth have their fodder given to them 
For their nourishment, in my presence, 
When I shall dwell in the palace, 
Because I have found them in the midst of hostile hosts, 
Together with the captain of the horsemen, Menna, my 

charioteer, 

Of all the band of trusted palace servants who stand near me. 
Here are the eye-witnesses of the battle. 
Behold, these did I find." 

The King returned in victory and strength ; 

He had smitten hundreds of thousands in one place with his 

arm. 

When the earth was again light in the morning 
He arranged the hosts of his warriors for the fight, 
And he stood there prepared for the battle, 
Like a bull which has whetted his horns. 
He appeared to them a likeness of the god Monthu, 
Who has armed himself for the battle. 
Likewise his brave warriors, who dashed into the fight, 
Just as the hawk swoops down upon the kids. 

" The diadem of the royal snake adorned my head. 

It spat fire and glowing flame in the face of my enemies. 

I appeared like the Sun-god at his rising at dawn. 

My shining beams were a consuming fire for the limbs of the 

wicked. 

They cried out to one another, ( Take care, do not fall ! 
For the powerful snake of royalty, which accompanies him, 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 373 

Has placed itself on his horse. It helps him. 
Every one who comes in his way and falls down, 
There comes forth fire and flame to consume his body/ ' 

And they remained afar off, and threw themselves down on 

the earth, 

To entreat the King in the sight of his army. 
And the King had power over them 
And slew them without their being able to escape. 
As bodies tumbled before his horses, 
So they lay there stretched out altogether in their blood. 

Then the King of the hostile people of Khita 

Sent a messenger to pray piteously to the great name of the 

King, 

Speaking thus : " Thou art Re-Harmakhu. 
Thou art Sutekh the glorious, 
The son of Nut, Baal in his time. 
Thy terror is upon the land of Khita, 
For thou hast broken the neck of Khita forever and ever." 
Thereupon he allowed his messenger to enter. 
He bore a writing in his hand with the address, 
" To the great double-name of the King." 

May this suffice for the satisfaction of the heart 
Of the holiness of the royal house, the Sun-Horus, 
The mighty Bull, who loves justice, the great lord, 
The protector of his people, the brave with his arm, 
The rampart of his life-guards in the day of battle, 
The King Ramses Miamun. 

The servant speaks, he makes known to Pharaoh, 
My gracious lord, the beautiful son of Re-Harmakhis, as fol- 
lows: 

" Since thou art the son of Amon, 
From whose body thou art sprung, 
So has he granted to thee all the people together. 
The people of Egypt and the people of Khita 



374 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Ought to be brothers together as thy servants. 

Let them be at thy feet. 

The Sun-god Re has granted thee the best inhabitants of the 

earth. 

Do us no injury, glorious spirit, 
Whose anger weighs upon the people of Khita. 
Would it be good if thou shouldst wish to kill thy servants, 
Whom thou hast brought under thy power ? 
Thy look is terrible, and thou art not mildly disposed. 
Calm thyself. 

Yesterday thou earnest and hast slain hundreds of thousands. 
Thou comest to-day, and none will be left remaining to serve 

thee. 

Do not carry out thy purpose, thou mighty King. 
Better is peace than war. Give us freedom." 

Then the King turned back in a gentle humor, 

Like his father Monthu in his time, 

And Pharaoh assembled all the leaders of the army 

And of the chariot-fighters and of the life-guards. 

And when they were all assembled together in one place 

They were permitted to hear the contents of the message 

Which the great King of Khita had sent to him. 

When they had heard these words, 

Which the messenger of the King of Khita had brought to 

Pharaoh, 
Then they answered and spake thus to the King : 

" Excellent, excellent is that ! 

Let thy anger pass away, O great lord our King ! 

He who does not accept peace must offer it. 

Who would content thee in the day of thy wrath ? " 

Then the King gave order 

To listen to the words of him the King of Khita, 

And he let his hands rest, in order to return to the South. 

Then the King went in peace to the land of Egypt 

With his princes, with his army, and his charioteers, 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 375 

In serene humor, in the sight of his people. 
All countries feared the power of the King, 
As of the lord of both the worlds. 
It had protected his own warriors. 
All peoples came at his name, 

Their kings fell down to pray before his beautiful counte- 
nance. 

The King reached the city of Ramses Miamun, 
The great worshiper of Re-Harmakhis, 
And rested in his palace in the most serene humor, 
Just like the sun on his throne. 

And Amon came to greet him, speaking thus to him : 

" Be thou blessed, thou our son, 

Whom we love, Ramses Miamun ! 

May they secure to him without end 

Many thirty years' feasts of jubilee 

Forever on the chair of his father Turn, 

And may all lands be under his feet ! " 



THE GREAT EMPIRE 
(1600 B.c-525 B.C.) 



ROMANCE AND TRAVEL UNDER THE GREAT 

EMPIRE 



" / shall never again be with iliee, I shall never again be in 
the places where thou wilt be." 

THE TALE OP THE TWO BROTHERS. 



TALES OF ROMANCE AND TRAVEL UNDER 
THE GREAT EMPIRE 

(INTRODUCTION) 

THE romances in this section need but little further ex- 
planation to the reader. They are of the type which 
must have constituted the popular reading under the Great 
Empire. The first one, " The Two Brothers," is particularly 
celebrated because it was the piece of fiction first rediscov- 
ered from Ancient Egypt. It was found in 1852 and, as 
Egyptologists had previously known only the solemn side of 
the old Egyptian life, they were amazed to stumble on this 
lighter literature. The story was read everywhere in 
Europe and widely discussed. The old papyrus carried a 
note that it was the property of a prince, who afterward be- 
came King Seti II. of the Nineteenth Dynasty, a grandson 
of the conquering Ramses II. Hence royalty itself had 
dallied over the idle tale. A king had cared to note these 
pictures drawn from peasant life. The thought lends a 
sympathetic interest to the old papyrus. And though we 
have since found other and better pieces of Egyptian fiction, 
" The Tale of the Two Brothers " has always retained its 
popularity. 

The resemblance of its earlier pages to the Bible story of 
Joseph and Potiphar's wife will strike the reader. Indeed 
the closeness of intercourse between the Hebrews and Egyp- 
tians is nowhere more evident than in the similarity of their 
tales. If the reader will turn back to that oldest manuscript 
of Egyptian fiction, " The Tales of the Magicians," he may 
read there a childish version of the folding back of the Red 
Sea for the Israelites, in the story of a magician folding back 
a lake to find a lost ring; and in the story of a page swal- 
lowed by a crocodile, he will find a similarly childish prede- 

379 



380 THE SACRED BOOKS 

cessor of Jonah. What the Hebrews added to the stories was 
dignity, a high and solemn religious meaning. The marvels 
cease to be the purposeless play of infantile minds, and be- 
come of world-wide significance in their symbolizing of 
that omnipotence of deity, from which no man can hide, and 
which not even the might of emperors can oppose. 

As to the " Travels of Unamunu," they have both an histor- 
ical and a religious value. They belong to the Twentieth 
Dynasty, to the reign of Ramses XL, about 1120 B.C., a 
time when the Great Empire had already lost its strength and 
become but the struggling shadow of its former self. Hence 
we find Unamunu, although sent as an envoy by the Egyp- 
tian monarch, receives but dubious welcome in the Pheni- 
cian cities of Syria. One ruler insists decisively that he 
owes no tribute to the Pharaoh. Others seek to slay the 
envoy. It is in this connection that the religious side of the 
tale becomes prominent. Unamunu attributes all his es- 
capes, his successes, to the god, or to the statue of a god, 
which he carries with him. " Amon of the road " is thus 
pictured as a protecting deity for travelers ; and it has been 
suggested that the tale of Unamunu may really have been 
part of a temple-record intended to exalt the value of the 
god. As the papyrus breaks off in the midst of Unamunu's 
most exciting adventure, we can not be sure as to its ulti- 
mate intent. 



ROMANCE AND TEAVEL 



THE TWO BROTHERS 1 

Once there were two brethren, of one mother and one 
father; Anpu was the name of the elder, and Bata was 
the name of the younger. 2 Now, as for Anpu he had a 
house, and he had a wife. But his little brother was to him 
as it were a son ; he it was who made for him his clothes ; he 
it was who followed behind his oxen to the fields ; he it was 
who did the plowing ; he it was who harvested the corn ; he 
it was who did for him all the matters that were in the field. 
Behold, his younger brother grew to be an excellent worker, 
there was not his equal in the whole land ; behold, the spirit 
of a god was in him. 

Now after this the younger brother followed his oxen in 
his daily manner ; and every evening he turned again to the 
house, laden with all the herbs of the field, with milk and 
with wood, and with all things of the field. And he put 
them down before his elder brother, who was sitting with his 
wife; and he drank and ate, and he lay down in his stable 
with the cattle. And at the dawn of day he took bread which 
he had baked, and laid it before his elder brother; and he 
took with him his bread to the field, and he drove his cattle 
to pasture in the fields. And as he walked behind his cattle 
they said to him, " Good is the herbage which is in that 
place"; and he listened to all that they said, and he took 
them to the good place which they desired. And the cattle 
which were before him became exceeding excellent, and they 
multiplied greatly. 

Now at the time of plowing his elder brother said unto 
him, " Let us make ready for ourselves a goodly yoke of oxen 
for plowing, for the land has come out from the water, it is 

i From the translation of Prof. W. Flindera-Petrie. 

* The names of the two brothers are the broken-down names of two 
of the older gods, Anubis and Balti. The latter was a two-headed bull, 
as befits his part in the tale. 

381 



382 THE SACRED BOOKS 

fit for plowing. Moreover, do thou come to the field with 
corn, for we will begin the plowing in the morrow morning." 
Thus said he to him ; and his younger brother did all things 
as his elder brother had spoken unto him to do them. 

And when the morn was come they went to the fields with 
their things ; and their hearts were pleased exceedingly with 
their task in the beginning of their work. And it came to 
pass after this that as they were in the field they stopped for 
corn, and he sent his younger brother, saying, " Haste thou, 
bring to us corn from the farm." And the younger brother 
found the wife of his elder brother, as she was sitting tiring 
her hair. He said to her, " Get up, and give to me corn, 
that I may run to the field, for my elder brother hastened 
me ; do not delay." She said to him, " Go, open the bin, 
and thou shalt take to thyself according to thy will, that I 
may not drop my locks of hair while I dress them." 

The youth went into the stable ; he took a large measure, 
for he desired to take much corn ; he loaded it with wheat and 
barley ; and he went out carrying it. She said to him, " How 
much of the corn that is wanted is that which is on thy 
shoulder ? " He said to her, " Three bushels of barley, and 
two of wheat, in all five ; these are what are upon my shoul- 
der " ; thus said he to her. 3 And she conversed with him, 
saying, " There is great strength in thee, for I see thy might 
every day." And her heart knew him with the knowledge of 
youth. And she arose and came to him, and conversed with 
him, saying, " Come, stay with me, and it shall be well for 
thee, and I will make for thee beautiful garments." Then the 
youth became like a panther of the South with fury at the 
evil speech which she had made to him ; and she feared greatly. 
And he spake unto her, saying, " Behold thou art to me as a 
mother, thy husband is to me as a father, for he who is elder 
than I has brought me up. What is this wickedness that thou 
hast said to me ? Say it not to me again. For I will not tell 
it to any man, for I will not let it be uttered by the mouth 

s The five measures represent over three hundred quarts or, roughly, 
about six hundred pounds, an enormous load justifying the exclama- 
tion of admiring wonder which follows. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 383 

of any man." He lifted up his burden, and he went to the 
field and came to his elder brother; and they took up their 
work, to labor at their task. 

Now afterward, at eventime, his elder brother was return- 
ing to his house ; and the younger brother was following after 
his oxen, and he loaded himself with all the things of the 
field ; and he brought his oxen before him, to make them lie 
down in their stable which was in the farm. And behold the 
wife of the elder brother was afraid for the words which she 
had said. She took a parcel of fat, she became like one who 
is evilly beaten, 4 desiring to say to her husband, " It is thy 
younger brother who has done this wrong." Her husband 
returned in the even, as was his wont of every day ; he came 
unto his house; he found his wife ill of violence; she did 
not give him water upon his hands as he used to have, she did 
not make a light before him, his house was in darkness, and 
she was lying very sick. Her husband said to her, " Who has 
spoken with thee ? " Behold she said, " No one has spoken 
with me except thy younger brother. When he came to take 
for thee corn he found me sitting alone ; he said to me, t Come, 
let us stay together, tie up thy hair ' : thus spake he to me. 
I did not listen to him, but thus spake I to him : i Behold, 
am I not thy mother, is not thy elder brother to thee as a 
father ? ' And he feared, and he beat me to stop me from 
making report to thee, and if thou lettest him live I shall 
die. Now behold he is coming in the evening; and I com- 
plain of these wicked words, for he would have done this 
even in daylight." 

And the elder brother became as a panther of the South ; 
he sharpened his knife; lie took it in his hand; he stood be- 
hind the door of his stable to slay his younger brother as he 
came in the evening to bring his cattle into the stable. 

Now the sun went down, and Bata loaded himself with 
herbs in his daily manner. He came, and his foremost cow 
entered the stable, and she said to her keeper, " Behold thou 
thy elder brother standing before thee with his knife to slay 

4 That is, ehe rubbed herself with the fat BO her body shone in spots 
M though bruised. 



384 THE SACRED BOOKS 

thee; flee. from before him." He heard what his first cow 
had said ; and the next entering, she also said likewise. He 
looked beneath the door of the stable ; he saw the feet of his 
elder brother ; he was standing behind the door, and his knife 
was in his hand. He cast down his load to the ground, and 
betook himself to flee swiftly ; and his elder brother pursued 
after him with his knife. Then the younger brother cried 
out unto Re-Harmakhis, saying, " My good Lord ! Thou 
art he who divides the evil from the good." And Re stood 
and heard all his cry; and Re made a wide water between 
him and his elder brother, and it was full of crocodiles ; and 
the one brother was on one bank, and the other on the other 
bank ; and the elder brother smote twice on his hands at not 
slaying him. Thus did he. And the younger brother called 
to the elder on the bank, saying, " Stand still until the dawn 
of day ; and when Re ariseth, I shall judge with thee before 
him, and he decerneth between the good and the evil. For 
I shall not be with thee any more forever ; I shall not be in 
the place in which thou art; I shall go to the valley of the 



acacia." 



Now when the land was lightened, and the next day ap- 
peared, Re-Harmakhis arose, and one looked unto the other. 
And the youth spake with his elder brother, saying, " Where- 
fore earnest thou after me to slay me in craftiness, when thou 
didst not hear the words of my mouth? For I am thy 
brother in truth, and thou art to me as a father, and thy 
wife even as a mother: is it not so? Verily, when I was 
sent to bring for us corn, thy wife said to me, ' Come, stay 
with me'; for behold this has been turned over unto thee 
into another wise." And he caused him to understand of all 
that happened with him and his wife. And he swore an 
oath by Re-Harmakhis, saying, " Thy coming to slay me by 
deceit with thy knife was an abomination." Then the youth 
took a knife, and cut off his virile member, and cast it into 
the water, and the fish swallowed it. He failed ; he became 
faint ; and his elder brother cursed his own heart greatly ; he 
stood weeping for him afar off ; he knew not how to pass over 
to where his younger brother was, because of the crocodiles. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 385 

And the younger brother called unto him, saying, " Whereas 
thou hast devised an evil thing, wilt thou not also devise a 
good thing, even like that which I would do unto thee? 
When thou goest to thy house thou must look to thy cattle, 
for I shall not stay in the place where thou art ; I am going 
to the valley of the acacia. And now as to what thou shalt 
do for me: it is even that thou shalt come to seek after me, 
if thou perceivest a matter, namely, that there are things 
happening unto me. And this is what shall come to pass, 
that I shall draw out my soul, and I shall put it upon the top 
of the flowers of the acacia, and when the acacia is cut down, 
and it falls to the ground, and thou comest to seek for it, if 
thou searchest for it seven years do not let thy heart be 
wearied. For thou wilt find it, and thou must put it in a 
cup of cold water, and expect that I shall live again, that I 
may make answer to what has been done wrong. And thou 
shalt know of this, that is to say, that things are happening 
to me, when one shall give to thee a cup of beer in thy hand, 
and it shall be troubled; stay not then, for verily it shall 
come to pass with thee." 

And the youth went to the valley of the acacia; and his 
elder brother went unto his house ; his hand was laid on his 
head, and he cast dust on his head ; he came to his house, and 
he slew his wife, he cast her to the dogs, and he sat in mourn- 
ing for his younger brother. 

Now many days after these things, the younger brother 
was in the valley of the acacia; there was none with him; 
he spent his time in hunting the beasts of the desert, and ho 
came back in the even to lie down under the acacia, which 
bore his soul upon the topmost flower. And after this he 
built himself a tower with his own hands, in the valley of 
the acacia ; it was full of all good things, that he might pro- 
vide for himself a home. 

And he went out from his tower, and he met the Nine 
Gods, who were walkiiu; forth to look upon the whole land. 
The Nine Gods talked one with another, and they said unto 
him, " Ho! Bata, bull of the Nine Gods, art thou remaining 

VOL. II. 25. 



386 THE SACRED BOOKS 

alone 2 Thou hast left thy village for the wife of Anpu, thy 
elder brother. Behold his wife is slain. Thou hast given 
him an answer to all that was transgressed against thee." 
And their hearts were vexed for him exceedingly. And Re~ 
Harmakhis said to Khnumu, 5 " Behold, frame thou a woman 
for Bata, that he may not remain alive alone." And 
Khnumu made for him a mate to dwell with him. She was 
more beautiful in her limbs than any woman who is in the 
whole land. The essence of every god was in her. The 
seven Hathors came to see her: they said with one mouth, 
" She will die a sharp death." 

And Bata loved her very exceedingly, and she dwelt in his 
house; he passed his time in hunting the beasts of the 
desert, and brought and laid them before her. He said, 
" Go not outside, lest the sea seize thee ; for I can not rescue 
thee from it, for I am a woman like thee ; my soul is placed 
on the head of the flower of the acacia; and if another find 
it, I must fight with him." And he opened unto her his 
heart in all its nature. 

Now after these things Bata went to hunt in his daily 
manner. And the young girl went to walk under the acacia 
which was by the side of her house. Then the sea saw her, 
and cast its waves up after her. She betook herself to flee 
from before it. She entered her house. And the sea called 
unto the acacia, saying, " Oh, would that I could seize her ! " 
And the acacia brought a lock from her hair, and the sea 
carried it to Egypt, and dropped it in the place of the fullers 
of Pharaoh's linen. The smell of the lock of hair entered 
into the clothes of Pharaoh; and they were wroth with the 
fullers of Pharaoh, saying, " The smell of ointment is in 
the clothes of Pharaoh." And the people were rebuked 
every day, they knew not what they should do. And the 
chief fuller of Pharaoh walked by the bank, and his heart 
was very evil within him after the daily quarrel with him. 
He stood still, he stood upon the sand opposite to the lock of 
hair, which was in the water, and he made one enter into 

5 Khnumu is the creating or modeling god, always called on for work 
of this type. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 387 

the water and bring it to him; and there was found in it a 
smell, exceeding sweet. He took it to Pharaoh; and they 
brought the scribes and the wise men, and they said unto 
Pharaoh, " This lock of hair belongs to a daughter of Re- 
Harmakhis: the essence of every god is in her, and it is a 
tribute to thee from another land. Let messengers go to 
every strange land to seek her: and as for the messenger 
who shall go to the valley of the acacia, let many men go 
with him to bring her." Then said his Majesty, " Excellent 
exceedingly is what has been said to us " ; and they sent 
them. And many days after these things the people who 
were sent to strange lands came to give report unto the King : 
but there came not those who went to the valley of the acacia, 
for Bata had slain them, but let one of them return to give 
a report to the King. His Majesty sent many men and 
soldiers, as well as horsemen, to bring her back. And there 
was a woman amongst them, and to her had been given in her 
hand beautiful ornaments of a woman. And the girl came 
back with her, and they rejoiced over her in the whole land. 

And his Majesty loved her exceedingly, and raised her to 
high estate ; and he spake unto her that she should tell him 
concerning her husband. And she said, " Let the acacia be 
cut down, and let one chop it up." And they sent men and 
soldiers with their weapons to cut down the acacia; and 
they came to the acacia, and they cut the flower upon which 
was the soul of Bata, and he fell dead suddenly. 

And when the next day came, and the earth was lightened, 
the acacia was cut down. And Anpu, the elder brother of 
Bata, entered his house, and washed his hands ; and one gave 
him a cup of beer, and it became troubled ; and one gave him 
another of wine, and the smell of it was evil. Then he took 
his staff, and his sandals, and likewise his clothes, with his 
weapons of war ; and he betook himself forth to the valley of 
the acacia. He entered the tower of his younger brother, 
and he found him lying upon his mat ; he was dead. And he 
wept when he saw his younger brother verily lying dead. 
And he went out to seek the soul of his younger brother 



388 THE SACRED BOOKS 

under the acacia-tree, under which his younger brother lay 
in the evening. He spent three years in seeking for it, but 
found it not. And when he began the fourth year, he de- 
sired in his heart to return into Egypt ; he said, " I will go 
to-morrow morn " : thus spake he in his heart. 

Now when the land lightened, and the next day appeared, 
he was walking under the acacia ; he was spending his time 
in seeking it. And he returned in the evening, and labored 
at seeking it again. He found a seed. He returned with it. 
Behold this was the soul of his younger brother. He brought 
a cup of cold water, and he cast the seed into it ; and he sat 
down, as he was wont. Now when the night came his soul 
sucked up the water; Bata shuddered in all his limbs, and 
he looked on his elder brother; his soul was in the cup. 
Then Anpu took the cup of cold water, in which the soul of 
his younger brother was ; Bata drank it, his soul stood again 
in its place, and he became as he had been. They embraced 
each other, and they conversed together. 

And Bata said to his elder brother. " Behold, I am to be- 
come as a great bull, which bears every good mark; no one 
knoweth its history, and thou must sit upon my back. 6 
When the sun arises I shall be in the place where my wife is, 
that I may return answer to her ; and thou must take me to 
the place where the King is. For all good things shall be 
done for thee; for one shall lade thee with silver and gold, 
because thou bringest me to Pharaoh, for I become a great 
marvel, and they shall rejoice for me in all the land. And 
thou shalt go to thy village." 

And when the land was lightened, and the next day ap- 
peared, Bata became in the form which -he had told to his 
elder brother. And Anpu sat upon his back until the dawn. 
He came to the place where the King was, and they made 
his Majesty to know of him; he saw him, and he was ex- 
ceeding joyful with him. He made for him great offerings, 

Bata now becomes an Apis, the holy bull worshiped as containing 
the spirit of a god. When an Apis died his successor was sought 
everywhere by the priests and was recognized by certain secret marks. 
Until he was found the land remained in mourning. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 389 

saying, " This is a great wonder which has come to pass." 
There were rejoicings over him in the whole land. They 
presented unto him silver and gold for his elder brother, who 
went and stayed in his village. They gave to the hull many 
men and many things, and Pharaoh loved him exceedingly 
above all that is in this land. 

And after many days after these things, the bull entered 
the purified place; he stood in the place where the princess 
was ; he began to speak with her, saying, " Behold, I am alive 
indeed." 7 And she said to him, " And, pray, who art 
thou ? " He said to her, " I am Bata. I perceived when 
thou causedst that they should destroy the acacia of Pharaoh, 
which was my abode, that I might not be suffered to live. 
Behold, I am alive indeed, I am as an ox." Then the prin- 
cess feared exceedingly for the words that her husband had 
spoken to her. And he went out from the purified place. 

And his Majesty was sitting, making a good day with her : 
she was at the table of his Majesty, and the King was ex- 
ceeding pleased with her. And she said to his Majesty, 
" Swear to me by God, saying, ' What thou shalt say, I will 
obey it for thy sake. 7 ' He barkened unto all that she said, 
even this. " Let me eat of the liver of the ox, because he is 
fit for naught " : thus spake she to him. And the King was 
exceeding sad at her words; the heart of Pharaoh grieved 
him greatly. And after the land was lightened, and the next 
day appeared, they proclaimed a great feast with offerings 
to the ox. And the King sent one of the chief butchers of 
his Majesty, to cause the ox to" be sacrificed. And when he 
was sacrificed, as he was upon the shoulders of the people, he 
shook his neck, and he threw two drops of blood over against 
the two doors of his Majesty. The one fell upon the one 
side, on the great door of Pharaoh, and the other upon the 
other door. They grew as two great Persea trees, and each 
of them was excellent. 8 

* The Apis was free to wander anywhere. Hence in this impersona- 
tion Bata can stroll through the palace at will 

Peraea tree* were sacred to the great god Osiris. Two were often 
planted at the entrance to his temj !-. 



390 THE SACRED BOOKS 

And one went to tell unto his Majesty, " Two great Persea 
trees have grown, as a great marvel of his Majesty, in the 
night by the side of the great gate of his Majesty." And 
there was rejoicing for them in all the land, and there were 
offerings made to them. 

And when the days were multiplied after these things, his 
Majesty was adorned with the blue crown, with garlands of 
flowers on his neck, and he was upon the chariot of pale gold, 
and he went out from the palace to behold the Persea trees : 
the princess also was going out with horses behind his 
Majesty. And his Majesty sat beneath one of the Persea 
trees, and it spake thus with his wife : " Oh thou deceitful 
one, I am Bata, I am alive, though I have been evilly en- 
treated. I knew who caused the acacia to be cut down by 
Pharaoh at my dwelling. I then became an ox, and thou 
causedst that I should be killed." 

And many days after these things the princess stood at 
the table of Pharaoh, and the King was pleased with her. 
And she said to his Majesty, " Swear to me by God, saying, 
' That which the princess shall say to me I will obey it for 
her/ " And he barkened unto all she said. And she com- 
manded, " Let these two Persea trees be cut down, and let 
them be made into goodly planks." And he barkened unto 
all she said. And after this his Majesty sent skilful crafts- 
men, and they cut down the Persea trees of Pharaoh; and 
the princess, the royal wife, was standing looking on, and they 
did all that was in her heart unto the trees. But a chip flew 
up, and it entered into the mouth of the princess; she swal- 
lowed it, and after many days she bore a son. And one went 
to tell his Majesty, " There is born to thee a son." And 
they brought him, and gave to him a nurse and servants ; and 
there were rejoicings in the whole land. And the King sat 
making a merry day, as they were about the naming of him, 
and his Majesty loved him exceedingly at that moment, and 
the King raised him to be the royal son of Kush. 

Now after the days had multiplied after these things, his 
Majesty made him heir of all the land. And many days 
after that, when he had fulfilled many years as heir, his 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 391 

Majesty flew up to heaven. And the heir said, " Let my 
great nobles of his Majesty be brought before me, that I may 
make them to know all that has happened to me." And they 
brought also before him his wife, and he judged with her 
before him, and they agreed with him. They brought to him 
his elder brother; he made him hereditary prince in all his 
land. He was thirty years King of Egypt, and he died, and 
his elder brother stood in his place on the day of burial. 

Excellently finished in peace, for the lea of the scribe of 
the treasury Kagabu, of the treasury of Pharaoh, and for 
the scribe Hora, and the scribe Meremapt. Written by the 
scribe Anena, the owner of this roll. He who speaks against 
this roll, may Tahuti smite him. 



392 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE DOOMED PRINCE ' 

There was once a King 2 to whom no man-child was born. 
His heart was very sad thereat ; he asked for a boy from the 
gods of his time, and they decreed that one should be born 
to him. He lay with his wife during the night, and she 
conceived ; when the months of the birth were accomplished, 
lo, a man-child was born. When the Hathors came to decree 
him a destiny, they said, " He shall die by the crocodile, or 
by the serpent, or indeed by the dog." When the people who 
were with the child heard this, they went to tell his Majesty, 
1. h. s., and his Majesty, 1. h. s., was sad at heart thereat. 
His Majesty, 1. h. s., had a stone house built for him on the 
mountain, furnished with men and all good things of the 
dwelling of the King, 1. h. s., for the child did not go out of it. 
And when the child was grown, he went up on to the terrace 
of his house, and he perceived a greyhound who ran behind 
a man walking on the road. He said to his page who was 
with him : " What is it that runs behind the man passing 
along the road ? " The page said to him, " It is a grey- 
hound." The child said to him, " Let one be brought to me 
exactly like it." The page went to repeat this to his Majesty, 
1. h. s., and his Majesty, 1. h. s., said, " Let a young running 
dog be taken to him, for fear his heart should be saddened." 
And lo, the greyhound was taken to him. 

And after the days had passed in this manner, when the 
child had acquired age in all his limbs, he sent a message to 
his father, saying, " Come ! why be like the sluggards ? Al- 
though I am doomed to three grievous destinies, yet I will 
act according to my will. God will not do less than he has 

1 This and the following tale are from the translations of Sir Gaston 
Maspero. 

2 The author does not state explicitly the country to which he refers, 
but to designate the father of our hero lie employs the word nsut, the 
official title of the kings of Egypt. It is therefore in Egypt that all 
the events occur that are recounted at the beginning of the story. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 393 

at heart." One listened to that which he spake, one gave him 
all kinds of weapons, and also his greyhound to follow him, 
and transported him to the eastern coast. 3 One said to him, 
" Go where thou desirest." His greyhound was with him ; 
he went therefore as he fancied across the country, living on 
the best of all the game of the country. Having arrived to 
fly 4 to the prince of Naharinna, 5 behold there was no son 
born to the prince of Naharinna, only a daughter. Now, he 
had built a house with seventy windows which were seventy 
cubits above the ground. He caused all the sons of the 
princes of the country of Kharu to be brought, and he said to 
them, " To him who shall reach the window of my daughter, 
she shall be given him for wife." 

Now, many days after these things were accomplished, 
while the princes of Syria were engaged in their occupation 
of every day, the prince of Egypt, having come to pass into 
the place where they were, they conducted the prince to their 
house, they brought him to the bath, they gave provender to 
his horses, they did all manner of things for the prince, they 
perfumed him, they anointed his feet, they gave him of their 
loaves ; they said to him, by way of conversation, " Whence 
comest thou, goodly youth ? " He said to them, " I am the 
son of a soldier of the chariots of the land of Egypt. My 
mother died, my father took another wife. When children 
arrived she hated me, and I fled before her." They pressed 
him in their arms, they covered him with kisses. Now, after 

The eastern coast of Syria is compared with Egypt. We find, in 
fact, that the prince arrives at the country of Naharinna. Naharinna 
is known also as Naharaina: marriages of Egyptian princes with Syrian 
princesses are numerous in real history. 

*The word put, employed several times in our text to define the 
action of princes, really means " to fly, to fly away," and it is solely 
by error that it has been translated " to climb." Is it possible that the 
prince of Naharinna imposed a magic test on the suitors? I am dis- 
posed to believe this, because further on the son of the king of Egypt 
" conjured his limbs " before entering into the competition. 

3 It may be thought strange that this prince, unknowing of the 

history of the princess of Nahnrinna, should arrive in the country where 

she was with the intention of flying to acquire her. Hut tiion the 

ian author nion-ly intended to acquaint his reader beforehand 

with what was about to happen. 



394 THE SACRED BOOKS 

many days had passed in this way, he said to the princes, 
" What are you doing here ? " They said to him, " We pass 
our time doing this : we fly, and he who shall reach the win- 
dow of the daughter of the prince of Naharinna, she shall be 
given him for wife." He said to them, " If it please you, I 
will conjure my limhs, and I will go and fly with you." 
They went to fly, as was their occupation of every day, and 
the prince stood afar off to behold, and the face of the daugh- 
ter of the prince of Naharinna was turned to him. Now, 
after the days had passed in this manner, the prince went to 
fly with the sons of the rulers, and he flew, and he reached 
the window of the daughter of the chief of Naharinna; she 
kissed him, and she embraced him in all his limbs. 

They went to rejoice the heart of the father of the princess, 
and said to him, " A man has reached the windows of thy 
daughter." The prince questioned the messenger, saying, 
" The son of which of the princes ? " They said to him, 
" The son of a soldier of chariots who comes as a fugitive 
from the country of Egypt to escape his step-mother when 
she had children." The prince of Naharinna became very 
angry ; he said, " Shall I give my daughter to a fugitive from 
the land of Egypt ? Let him return there ! " They went 
to say to the prince, " Return to the place from whence thou 
art come." But the princess seized him, and she sware by 
God, saying, " By the life of Phra-Harmakhis ! 6 if he is 
taken from me, I will not eat, I will not drink, I will die im- 
mediately." The messenger went to repeat all that she had 
said to her father, and the prince sent men to slay the young 
man while he was in her house. The princess said to them, 
" By the life of Phra ! if he is killed, by sundown I shall be 
dead; I will not spend one hour of life apart from him." 
They went to tell her father. The prince caused the young 
man to be brought with the princess. The young man was 
seized with terror when he came before the prince, but the 
prince embraced him, he covered him with kisses, he said to 

One would expect to find a Syrian princess swear by Baal or Astarte; 
the author, not considering the matter closely, twice puts in her mouth 
the Egyptian form of oath by Phra-Harmakhis and by Phra. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 395 

him, " Tell me who thou art, for behold, thou art to me as a 
son." The young man said, " I am the son of a soldier of 
chariots of the country of Egypt. My mother died, and my 
father took another wife. She hated me, and I fled before 
her." The chief gave him his daughter to wife ; he gave him a 
house, vassajs, fields, also cattle, and all manner of good 
things. 

Now, when the days had passed thus, the young man said 
to his wife, " I am doomed to three destinies the crocodile, 
the serpent, the dog." She said to him, " Let the dog be 
killed that runs before thee." He said to her, " If it please 
thee, I will not kill my dog that I brought up when it was 
little." She feared for her husband greatly, greatly, and she 
did not let him go out alone. Now it happened that one 
desired to travel; the prince was escorted to the land of 
Egypt, to wander about the country. Now behold, the croco- 
dile of the river came out of the river, and he came into the 
midst of the town where the prince was; they shut him up 
in a dwelling where there was a giant. The giant did not 
let the crocodile go out, but when the crocodile slept the giant 
went out for a stroll; then when the sun arose, the giant 
returned every day, for an interval of two months of days. 7 
And after that the days had passed in this manner, the prince 
remained to divert himself in his house. When the night 
came, the prince lay down on his bed, and sleep took posses- 
sion of his limbs. His wife filled a vase with milk, and 
placed it by her side. When a serpent came out of its hole 
to bite the prince, behold, his wife watched over her husband 
with close attention. Then the maid-servants gave milk to 
the serpent; it drank of it, it became drunk, it lay on its 
back, and the wife cut it in pieces with blows of her hatchet. 
Her husband was awakened, who was seized with astonish- 
ment, and she said to him, " Behold, thy god has given one 
of thy fates into thy hand ; he will give thee the others." He 

^ The giant and the crocodile are two astronomical personages, the 
H of two important constellations which arc H.MMI li-mred, among 
un the roof of the Ramesseum. It seems that tho K \ had sent 



<I"\vn to earth to accomplish the destiny predicted by the seven 
Hathora. 



396 THE SACRED BOOKS 

presented offerings to the god, he adored him, and exalted 
his power all the days of his life. 

And after the days had passed in this manner, the prince 
came out to walk near his domain, and as he never came 
out alone, behold, his dog was behind him. His dog started 
in pursuit of the game, and he ran after the dog. When 
he reached the river, he went down the bank of the river 
behind his dog, and the crocodile came out and dragged him 
to the place where the giant was. He came out and saved 
the prince ; then the crocodile said to the prince, " Lo, I am 
thy destiny that pursues thee ; whatever thou mayest do, thou 
wilt be brought back on to my path to me, thou and the giant. 
Now, behold, I am about to let thee go; if the . . . thou 
wilt know that my enchantments have triumphed, and that 
the giant is slain ; and when thou seest that the giant is slain, 
thou seest thy death." And when the earth lightened, and 
the second day was, then came . . . 

[The prophecy of the crocodile is so much mutilated that I 
can not guarantee its exact meaning; we can only guess that 
the monster set some kind of fatal dilemma before his adver- 
sary ; or that the prince fulfilled a certain condition, and suc- 
ceeded in overcoming the crocodile, or that he did not fulfil it, 
and that " he saw his death." Ebers has restored this epi- 
sode in a different way. He has supposed that the giant was 
not able to save the prince, but that the crocodile proposed to 
him to spare the prince under certain conditions.] 

" Thou wilt swear to me to slay the giant ; if thou dost 
refuse this, thou shalt see death." And when the earth 
lightened, and a second day was, the dog came up and saw 
that his master was in the power of the crocodile. The 
crocodile said again, " Wilt thou swear to slay the giant ? " 
The prince replied, " Why should I slay him who has watched 
over me ? " The crocodile said to him, " Then shall thy des- 
tiny be accomplished. If, at sundown, thou wilt not make 
the oath that I demand, thou shalt see thy death." The dog, 
having heard these words, ran to the house, and found the 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 397 

daughter of the prince of Naharinna in tears, for her husband 
had not reappeared since the day before. When she saw the 
dog alone, without its master, she wept aloud, and she tore 
her breast ; but the dog seized her by her robe, and drew her 
to the door, as asking her to come out. She arose, she took 
the hatchet with which she had killed the serpent, and she 
followed the dog to that part of the shore where the giant 
was. She then hid herself in the reeds, and she neither drank 
nor ate ; she did nothing but pray the gods for her husband. 
When evening arrived the crocodile said again, " Wilt thou 
swear to slay the giant ? if not, I will take thee to the shore, 
and thou shalt see thy death." And he replied, " Why should 
I slay him who has watched over me ? " Then the crocodile 
took him to the place where the woman was, and she came 
out of the reeds, and, behold, as the crocodile opened its jaws, 
she struck it with her hatchet, and the giant threw himself 
on it and killed it. Then she embraced the prince, and she 
said to him, " Behold, thy god has given the second of thy 
fates into thy hands ; he will give thee the third." He pre- 
sented offerings to the god, he adored him, and exalted his 
might all the days of his life. 8 

And after this enemies entered the country. For the sons 
of the princes of the country of Kharu, furious at seeing the 
princess in the hands of an adventurer, had assembled their 
foot-soldiers and their chariots, they had destroyed the army 
of the chief of Naharinna, and they had taken him prisoner. 
When they did not find the princess and her husband, they 
said to the old chief: "Where is thy daughter and that son 
of a soldier of chariots from the land of Egypt, to whom thou 
hast Driven her as wife? " He answered them: " He is gone 
with her to hunt the beasts of the country how should I 
know where they are?" Then they deliberated, and they 
said one to another: " Let us divide into small bands, and go 
hither and thither over the whole world, and he who shall 
find them let him slay the youne: man, and let him do as 

From here onward the original manuscript is entirely lost and the 
restoration is entirely modern, a piece of guesswork built on the style 
of similar stories. 



398 THE SACRED BOOKS 

pleases him with the woman." And they departed, some to 
the east, and some to the west, to the north, to the south; 
and those who had gone to the south reached the land of 
Egypt, at the same time that the young man was with the 
daughter of the chief of Naharinna. But the giant saw 
them ; he hastened to the young man, and said to him : " Be- 
hold, seven sons of the princes of the country of Kharu come 
to seek thee. If they find thee, they will slay thee, and will 
do with thy wife as it pleases them. They are too many 
for thee to resist ; flee from them ; and for me, I will return 
to my brothers." Then the prince called his wife, he took 
his dog with him, and they all hid themselves in a cave of the 
mountain. They had been there two days and two nights 
when the sons of the princes of Kharu arrived with many 
soldiers, and they passed before the mouth of the cave with- 
out any of them perceiving the prince ; but as the last of them 
came near, the dog went out against him and began to bark. 
The sons of the princes of Kharu recognized him, and they 
came back and went into the cave. The wife threw herself 
before her husband to protect him, but, behold, a lance struck 
her, and she fell dead before him. And the young man slew 
one of the princes with his sword, and the dog killed an- 
other with his teeth, but the rest struck them with their 
lances, and they fell to the ground unconscious. Then the 
princes dragged the bodies out of the cave, and left them 
stretched on the ground to be devoured by wild beasts and 
birds of prey, and they departed to rejoin their companions 
and divide with them the lands of the chief of Naharinna. 

And behold, when the last of the princes had departed, the 
young man opened his eyes, and he saw his wife stretched 
on the ground by his side, as dead, and the dead body of his 
dog. Then he trembled, and he said : " In truth, the gods 
fulfil immutably that which they have decreed beforehand. 
The Hathors have decided, from my infancy, that I should 
perish by the dog, and behold, their sentence has been exe- 
cuted, for it is the dog which has betrayed me to mine ene- 
mies. I am ready to die, because, without these two beings, 
who lie beside me, life is intolerable to me." And he raised 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 399 

his hands to the sky, and cried : " I have not sinned against 
you, O ye gods ! Therefore grant me a happy burial in this 
world, and to be true of voice before the judges of Amentit." 
He sank down as dead, but the gods had heard his voice, the 
Ennead of the gods caine to him, and Re-Harmakhis said to 
his companions : " The doom is fulfilled ; now let us give a 
new life to these two wedded people, for it is good to reward 
worthily the devotion which they have shown one to the 
other." And the mother of the gods approved with her head 
the words of Re-Harmakhis, and she said : " Such devotion 
deserves very great reward." The other gods said the same ; 
then the seven Hathors came forward, and they said : " The 
doom is fulfilled ; now they shall return to life." And they 
returned to life immediately. 9 

In his conclusion, Ebers relates that the prince reveals to the 
daughter of the chief of Naharinna his real origin, and that he returns 
to Egypt, where his father receives him with joy. He speedily returns 
to Naharinna, defeats his murderers, and replaces the old chief on his 
throne. On his return, he consecrates the booty to Amonra, and passes 
the remainder of his days in complete happiness. 

Nothing could be better conceived than this ending; I do not, how- 
ever, believe that the ancient Egyptian writer had the compassion for 
his heroes that is so ingeniously shown by the modern author. Des- 
tiny does not allow itself to be set aside in the ancient East, and does 
not permit its decrees to be evaded. At times it suspends their execu- 
tion, but never annuls them. If Cambyses is condemned to die near 
Ecbatana, it is in vain for him to fly from Ecbatana in Media on the 
appointed day he finds in Syria the Ecbatana with which the gods 
threatened him. When a child is doomed to perish violently in his 
twentieth year, his father may shut him in a subterranean abode; to 
that place Sindbad the sailor is led by fate, and by mischance will 
slay the doomed victim. I do not believe that the hero of this story 
escaped this law; he triumphed over the crocodile, but the dog, in the 
ardor of battle, mortally wounded liis master, and fulfilled, without 
intending it, the prediction of the Hathors. 



400 THE SACRED BOOKS 



THE TRAVELS OF UNAMUNU 

In the year 5, the 16th day of the third month of the 
Harvest, on that day, Unamunu, the senior member of the 
hall l of the temple of Amonra, king of the gods, lord of 
Karnak, started to procure wood for the very august bark of 
Ainonra, king of the gods, which is on the Nile, Amau'usi- 
hait. 2 

The day that I arrived at Tanis, the place where Smendes 
and Tantamanu were, I placed in their hands the rescripts of 
Amonra, king of the gods. 3 They caused them to be read 
in their presence, and they said, " Let it be done, let it be 
done, according to that which Amonra, king of the gods, our 
master, has said." I remained till the fourth month of the 
Harvest in Tanis, then Smendes and Tantamanu sent me with 
the ship's captain, Manga buti, and I embarked on the great 
sea of Syria on the first of the fourth month of the Harvest. 
I arrived at Dora, a city of Zakkala, and Badilu, its prince, 
caused ten thousand loaves to be brought to me, an amphora 
of wine, a haunch of beef. A man of my vessel deserted, 
taking a gold vase five tabonu in weight, five silver vases of 
twenty tabonu, and a small bag of silver of eleven tabonu, 
which made a total of five tabonu of gold and thirty-one 
tabonu of silver. I arose early in the morning, I went to 
the place where the King was, I said to him, " I have been 

* The title Samsu hai is best known to us by the representations in 
the tombs of the Memphite and first Theban Empires, but it continued, 
at least in the temples, up to the end of the pagan civilization of Egypt. 
The persons who bear it are seen superintending carpenters' work, and 
that is perhaps why Unamunu was chosen as the ambassador of the 
god in the expedition to procure wood. The translation given renders 
the Egyptian term word for word, but does not give the meaning. 1 
retain it, however, for want of a better. 

2 This is the official name of the great bark of Amon of Karnak. 

s Amonra was supposed to reign over Thebes, and the high priest was 
merely the official who executed his commands on earth. Official acts 
therefore frequently took the form of decrees issued by the god, and 
this was the case in this instance. 



LITERATURE OF THE tAST 401 

robbed in thy port. Now, it is thou, the priuce of this coun- 
try, who art its inquisitor ; seek my gold ! Alack, this silver, 
it belongs to Amonra, king of the gods, lord of the countries, 
it belongs to Smendes, it belongs to Hrihoru, my lord, and to 
other nobles of Egypt, it is thine, it belongs to Waradi, it 
belongs to K'akamaru, it belongs to Zikarbal, prince of By- 
blos." 4 He said to me, " To thy wrath, and to thy kind- 
ness ! 5 But, behold, I know nothing of this tale that thou 
tellest me. If the thief is of my country, and has gone down 
into thy vessel and stolen thy silver, I will repay thee from 
my treasure, until the thief himself is found; but if the 
thief who has robbed thee is thine, and if he belongs to thy 
vessel, remain several days near me, that I may seek for 
him." 

I was nine days ashore in this port, then I went to him, 
and I said to him, " So ! thou findest not my silver. I will 
go, as well as the ship's captain, with those who go to the 
port of Tyre. If thou findest my money, keep it by thee, 
and when I return to Egypt I will stop here and take it." 
He consented to this, and on the 20th of the fourth month of 
the Harvest, I embarked again on the great sea of Syria. I 
arrived at the port of Tyre, I told my story to the prince of 
Tyre and I complained of the prince of Dora who had not 
found the thieves and who had not returned me my money, 
but the prince of Tyre was a friend of him of Dora. He 
said to me, " Be silent, or misfortune will happen to thee." 
I departed from Tyre with the morning, and I went down 
on the great sea of Syria to go to the place where was Zikar- 
bal, prince of Byblos. Now there were some Zakkala with a 

*The meaning of this long enumeration appears to be: the stolen 
money was the property both of those who had entrusted it to Unam- 
unu, Hrihoru, and Amon of whom Hrihoru was high priest, Smendes, 
Tantamanu, and the other Egyptian princes; and also of the foreigners 
for whom it was intended, whether as a gift, or as a price for the re- 
quired wood. One of these latter, Zikarbal, is the prince of Byblos 
whom we shall meet with later; we know nothing of the other two, 
Waradi and Makamaru. 

This is a polite form of address, both Syrian and Egyptian: "I 
utmiit beforehand to thy wrath or to thy kindness, according aa my 
explanations please or displease thee." 
VOL. II. 2C. 



402 THE SACRED BOOKS 

coffer on the vessel; I opened the coffer, I found the silver 
in it, thirty tdbonu, I took possession of them. I said to 
them, " Behold, I take your silver and it will remain with me 
until you have found my own money. If you say, ' We do 
not know him who has stolen it, we have not taken it,' I shall 
take it nevertheless." When they saw that I was decided, 
they went away, and I arrived at the port of Byblos. I dis- 
embarked, I took the naos which contained the statue of 
Amon, god of the Road. 8 I placed inside it the equipment 
of the god. The prince of Byblos caused to be said to me, 
" Depart from my port." I sent to him, saying, " Why dost 
thou drive me away? Have the Zakkala told thee that I 
have taken their money ? But, behold, the money that they 
had was my own money, which was stolen from me while I 
was in the port of Dora. Now behold, I am the messenger of 
Amon, whom Hrihoru, my lord, has sent to thee to procure 
the necessary wood for the bark of Amon, and the vessel that 
Smendes and Tantamanu gave me has already returned. If 
thou desirest that I depart from thy port, give an order to 
one of the captains of thy vessels that, when one goes to sea, I 
may be taken to Egypt." I passed nineteen days in his port, 
and he spent the time in sending every day to say to me, 
" Depart from my port." 7 

Now, as he sacrificed to his gods, the god seized one of the 
chief pages from among the pages, and caused him to fall 
into convulsions. 8 He said : " Bring the god into the light ! 

This is the image that Hrihoru had given to Unamunu to protect 
him on his expedition. It is an actual ambassador of Amon to the 
foreign princes and gods. 

i The restorations that I have inserted in this paragraph give only 
a very summary account of the events that occurred between Dora and 
Byblos. The original text must have contained two or three episodes 
which I have not mentioned, but to which allusion is made later on: 
the departure of the vessel that had brought Unamunu from Egypt, 
the introduction of the image " Amon of the Road," and the reasons 
for which the prince of Byblos refused to receive Unamunu. 

This is a scene of prophetic mania of the sort that occurred among 
the Israelites. The page, seized by the god, falls into a kind of epileptic 
ecstasy, during which he feels the presence of the image " Amon of the 
Road " ; he gives the prince a command from above which obliges him to 
receive Unamunu. and to do what he requests. Frazer refuses to be- 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 403 

Bring the messenger of Amon who is with him ! Send him 
away, cause him to depart." While the convulsed man was 
in convulsions, that night, I had found a vessel destined for 
Egypt, I had placed all that was mine upon it, and I re- 
garded the darkness, saying : " Let it descend, that I may 
embark the god so that no eye beholds him except mine own," 
when the commandant of the port came to me. He said to 
me : " Stay till to-morrow, by desire of the prince." I said 
to him : " Art thou not he who spent the time in coming to 
me every day saying, ( Depart from my port ' ? And dost 
thou not say to me now, ' Remain here,' so that the vessel that 
I have found may depart, after which thou wilt come to me 
and wilt say again, ' Depart quickly ' ? " He turned his 
back, he went, he told this to the prince, and the prince sent 
to tell the captain of the vessel, " Stay till to-morrow morn- 
ing, by desire of the prince." When it was morning, he sent 
to have me brought up, while the sacrifice was taking place, 
into the castle where he dwells on the sea-coast. I found him 
seated in his upper chamber, his back leaning against the bal- 
cony, while the waves of the great Syrian sea beat behind 
him. I said to him, " By the favor of Amon ! " He said to 
me, "How long is it up to to-day since you left the place 
where Amon is ? " I replied, " Five months and a day up 
to to-day." He said to me, " Come, be true. Where are the 
rescripts of Amon that should be in thy hands? Where is 
the letter of that high-priest of Amon which should be in 
thy hand ? " I said to him, " I gave them to Smendes and 
Tantamanu." He became very angry, he said to me, " Then 
there are no longer rescripts nor letters in thy hands ? And 
where is that vessel of acacia-wood that Smendes gave thee ? 
Where is thy crew of Syrians ? Did he not hand thee over 
to this ship's captain, at the time of departure, to slay thee 
and throw thee into the sea ? If this is so, who will seek for 
the god ? and thou also, who will seek for thee ? " 9 Thus 

lieve with Wiedemann that the god by whom he is possessed is Amon; 
he thinks rather that it is Adonis, because Adonis is the city-god, and 
the privilege of possession over one of the officials of the country be- 
longed rather to him than to a foreign god. 
The prince of Byblos, learning that Unamunu had not the letters 



404 THE SACRED BOOKS 

he spake to me. I said to him, " Was it not an Egyptian 
vessel, and was it not an Egyptian crew, which sailed by 
order of Smendes ? For there are not with him any Syrian 
crews." He said to me, " Are there not twenty vessels lying 
in my port in communication with Smendes? And that 
Sidon, that other town thou wishest to reach, are there not 
there ten thousand other vessels which are in communication 
with Warakatilu, 10 and which sail to his house ? " u 

I was silent at this serious moment. He resumed; he 
said to me, " What commission art thou come here to fulfil ? " 
I said to him, " I am come for the woodwork of the very 
august bark of Amonra, king of the gods. That which thy 
father did, that which the father of thy father did, do thou 
likewise." Thus I spake to him. He said to me, " That 
which they did, and thou givest me to do, I will do it. For- 
merly my ancestors fulfilled this commission because Pharaoh, 
1. h. s., caused six vessels, filled with the merchandise of 
Egypt, to be brought, which were unloaded into their ware- 
houses. Thou, therefore, cause them to be brought to me 
likewise." He had the records of his fathers brought and 
read in my presence and he found that in all a thousand 

of credence with him that he should have had, says openly that he 
suspects him of being an adventurer. Hrihoru and Smendes may have 
sent him with an order to the captain to throw him overboard at sea. 
In that case he might be treated without pity; for if any misfortune 
happened to him and to his statue of " Amon of the Road," who would 
trouble themselves as to his fate? Further on it will be seen that 
Unamunu insists on the fact that if he should disappear, he would be 
sought for to the end of time to avenge his death. It is to some speech 
of this kind, now lost with the missing portions of the text, that the 
prince of Byblos replies here. 

10 Warakatilu is a dialectic form of a name which would be in Hebrew 
Berkatel or Berekotel. 

II Unamunu, as a reply to the suspicions of Zikarbal, reminds him 
that he duly arrived in an Egyptian vessel manned with an Egyptian 
and not a Syrian crew. By this he means to infer that the Egyptian 
princes would not commission Syrians to make away with an Egyptian. 
Zikarbal does not hesitate to silence him and remind him that most 
of the vessels employed in the Egyptian coasting trade were Syrian 
vessels, and in consequence would not scruple to execute any orders 
with regard to an Egyptian that the princes of Egypt might give 
them. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 405 

tabonu of silver 12 was inscribed on his register. He said to 
me, " If the sovereign of Egypt were my lord, and I were his 
servant, he would not have to cause silver and gold to be 
brought, saying, ' Fulfil the commission of Amon.' It was 
not a royal order that was brought to my father. Now I, in 
faith, I myself am not thy servant ; I am not, I myself, the 
servant of him who sent thee. I cry with a loud voice to the 
trees of Lebanon, and the heaven opens, and the wood lies 
stretched on the ground by the sea-coast; 13 but let the sails 
be shown me that thou bringest to take thy boats laden with 
thy wood to Egypt Let the cords be shown me that thou 
bringest to bind the beams that I will cut for thee as gifts. 
If I do not make the cords for thee, if I do not make the sails 
of thy vessels, the fashionings of the bows and stern are 
heavy, they will be broken, 14 and thou wilt die in the midst 
of the sea; 10 for Amon thunders, and he unchains Sutekhu 
in his time. Now, Amon watches over all countries. Above 
all, he rules the land of Egypt, whence thou comest, and per- 

12 The ancient value reckoned in modern values represents 92 kilograms 
of silver. 

is It appears that we should regard this part of the sentence as an 
emphatic expression of the confidence placed by the prince of Bybloa 
in his own powers. He is no servant of Egypt, and in consequence he 
is not a servant of Amon, and Amon has no power over the territory 
occupied by him. If he calls to the cedars of Lebanon to come to the 
sea, the heaven opens, and the trees, uprooted by the god of the coun- 
try, fall of themselves on to the sea-shore. 

i* The Egyptian sea-going vessels had two points that curved inward, 
one at the prow and one at the stern. These were raised above the 
water, and were generally adorned with the heads of divinities, men, or 
animals. These two extremities were supported by cords which, at- 
tached to the prow, passed over spars fixed along the axis of the bridge 
and were fastened to the poop at the height of the rudder. The force 
of the wind and waves greatly strained these outlying portions, and 
continually threatened to carry them off; should they succeed in doing 
BO the vessel would inevitably founder. 

After having said to Unamunu that he was independent of him 
and of Amon, Zikarbal wished to show that he could do more for Una- 
munu than Unamunu could do for him. He demands of Unamunu to 
show him the sails and cordage of the vessels that are to carry the 
wood, and he finds them insufficient; if he, Zikarbal, does not give him 
stronger ones, the vessels of Unamunu will not be able to withstand 
storms and will founder at sea. 



406 THE SACRED BOOKS 

faction issues thence to reach the country where I am. What 
are then these mad journeys they have caused thee to 
take?" 18 

I said to him, " A lie ! There are no mad journeys for 
those to whom I belong. There are no vessels on the Nile 
which do not belong to Amon ; the sea is his, and the trees of 
Lebanon are his, of which thou sayest, ' They are mine/ 
but which are the property of the bark Amanusihait, queen 
of barks. Alack ! Amonra, king of the gods, spake, saying 
to Hrihoru, my lord, ' Send me.' 17 And he sent me with 
this great god. Now behold, thou hast caused this great god 
to dwell for twenty-nine days since he arrived at thy port, 
without knowing whether he was there or not ; and is it not 
he who is there, whilst thou dost bargain about the cedars of 
Lebanon with Amon, their owner? And when thou sayest, 
' The kings of former times sent silver and gold/ in truth, 
if they had sent life and health, they would not have sent 
material presents ; but they sent material presents, instead of 
life and health, to thy fathers. But Amonra, king of the 
gods, it is he who is lord of life and health, it is he who was 
the lord of thy fathers, and they passed their lifetime in sac- 
rificing to Amon. Thou thyself, thou art a good follower of 
Amon. If thou sayest, ' I will do it, I will do it/ to Amon, 
and thou dost execute his order, thou wilt live, thou wilt be 
safe, thou wilt be in health, thou wilt be a blessing to the 
whole of thy country and to thy people. But covet not the 
things of Amonra, king of the gods, for the lion loves his 

18 The connection between the end of this speech and the beginning 
of the next one is not evident at first sight. The transition occurs 
after the passage where Zikarbal points out the danger of death that 
threatens Unamunu during his return. " For Amon, if he watches over 
all countries, watches principally over Egypt, and he has given more 
wisdom to it than to other nations. How does it happen that the 
sovereign of so wise a country commanded such a foolish journey for 
Unamunu as that which had brought him to Byblos?" 

1T I.e., Send a statue of Amon with Unamunu, which would contain 
some of the power of Amon, and would be the divine ambassador by 
the side of the human ambassador. It is the statue of " Amon of the 
Road " which is referred to immediately afterward, when Unamunu says, 
" Hrihoru sent me with this great god." 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 407 

own. 18 And now, cause my scribe to come to me, that I may 
send him to Smendes and Tantamanu, the protectors whom 
Amon has placed in the north of his country, that they may 
cause to be brought all of which I say, ' Let it be brought/ 
before I return to the south and dispatch thy miserable rem- 
nants, all, all." Thus I spake to him. I gave my letter to 
his messenger ; he placed on a vessel the bridge, the head of 
the bows, the head of the stern, 19 and four other beams shaped 
with a hatchet, seven pieces in all, and he sent them to Egypt. 
His messenger went to Egypt, and he returned to me in 
Syria in the first month of winter. Smendes and Tanta- 
manu sent four jugs and a basin of gold, five jugs of silver, 
ten pieces of royal linen for ten cloaks, five hundred rolls of 
fine papyrus, five hundred ox-hides, five hundred cords, 
twenty sacks of lentils, and thirty bales of dried fish; and 
Tantamanu sent me five pieces of royal linen for five cloaks, 
a sack of lentils, five bales of dried fish. The prince re- 
joiced, he levied three hundred men and three hundred oxen, 
he put officers at their head to cut down the trees ; they felled 
them, and the trees lay on the ground all the winter; then 
in the third month of the Harvest they were brought to the 
sea-coast. The prince came out, he stood near them, he said 
to me, " Come." As I came near him, the shadow of his 
umbrella 20 fell on me, and Penamanu, one of the familiar 
friends who were with him, placed himself between the prince 
and me, saying, " The shadow of Pharaoh, 1. h. s., thy master, 
falls on thee." 21 But the prince was angry with him, and 

is In other words, " Give the wood to Amon gratuitously and do not 
ask him to pay thee; for Amon is a lion, and the lion likes not to be 
deprived of his prey." The sentence is probably a well-known proverb. 

iThe bark of Amon had rams' heads at the prow and stern; it is 
the baulks of wood intended for these two heads that Zikarbal sends as 
a preliminary present, to arouse the generosity of Hrihoru and Smendes. 

20 This is an umbrella similar to that one sees figured in Assyrian 
bas-reliefs, and which is held above the head of the king by a eunuch or 
an officer standing behind him. 

21 The meaning of this remark, which was clear to an Egyptian, ia 

lear to us. I think it is founded on the idea, prevalent in the 
East, that every person on whom the shadow of a powerful being falls, 
whether of a god, a genius, or a king, is under the protection and also 



408 THE SACRED BOOKS 

said to him, " Let be ! " I went up to him, and he spake to 
me, saying, " Lo, the commission that my father executed of 
old, I have executed myself also, even though thou hast not 
done for me what thy fathers did. Now do thou behold! 
Thy wood has arrived to the last piece, and it is there; do 
now according to thy heart and come to lade it, for is it not 
to thee that it is given? Nevertheless do not come to con- 
template the terrors of the sea, or if thou dost contemplate the 
terrors of the sea, contemplate also mine own. 22 Alas! I 
have not had done to thee that which was done to the envoys 
of Khamois, who dwelt seventeen years in this country and 
died here." He said to his intimate, " Take him to see their 
tomb in which they are laid." I said, " Do not cause me to 
see it. Khamois, the men he sent as ambassadors were only 
people of his household; there was not a god as one of his 
ambassadors. Notwithstanding thou sayest to me ' Hasten, 
see thy peers.' 23 Why dost thou not rather rejoice, and 
cause a stela to be erected on which thou shalt say, ' Amonra, 
King of the gods, sent Amon of the Road to me as his divine 
ambassador, with Unamunu as his human ambassador, for 
wood for the very august bark of Amonra, King of the gods. 
I felled it, I loaded it, I supplied my vessels and my crews 
and I sent it to Egypt, to obtain ten thousand years of life 
from Amon more than those ordained for me: May it be 

under the authority of that being. Penamanu, seeing the shadow of 
the umbrella of the prince of Byblos fall on Unamunu, said to him jeer- 
inply that "the shadow of his Pharaoh falls on him" that is, in 
other words, that henceforth his Pharaoh and his master will be no 
other than the prince of Byblos, whose shadow falls on him." 

22 I think this passage must be taken thus: After having handed 
over the wood to Unamunu, the prince of Byblos, who had not yet for- 
given the inadequate nature of the gifts he had received, adds, " And 
now depart quickly, even if the weather is bad; and if thou dost allow 
thyself to consider the rage of the sea when thou art starting, think 
that my wrath may be still worse than that of the sea, and that thou 
mayest run the risk of meeting with the same fate as the envoys of 
Khamois, whom I kept prisoners here till their death." 

23 Unamunu here develops the theme already indicated above, that 
his embassy is not an ordinary one, but that it includes a god " Amon 
of the lload ." lie complains therefore that the prince should think of 
comparing him with the merely human envoys of Khamois, and repre- 
senting them as on the same footing with himself. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 409 

thus ! ' When, after other times, a messenger shall come 
from the land of Egypt who shall understand the writing, 
when he reads thy name on thy stela, thou shalt receive the 
water of Amentit, like the gods who dwell there." 24 He 
said, " That which thou hast said- is a great theme for dis- 
course." I said to him, " The many words thou hast said to 
me, when I shall have arrived at the place where the chief 
prophet of Amon is, and when he shall have seen how thou 
hast executed his commission, he will cause gifts to be brought 
thee." 

I went to the sea-shore where the wood lay, and I per- 
ceived eleven vessels that had come in from the sea, and that 
belonged to the Zakkala with this mission, " Let him be im- 
prisoned, and let there be no boat of his that goes to the land 
of Egypt." I sat down, I wept. The secretary of the prince 
came ; he said to me, " What is the matter ? " I said to him, 
" Dost thou not see the herons that go down to Egypt ? Be- 
hold then, they return to fresh waters; but alas! how long 
shall I remain abandoned ? For seest thou not yonder those 
who come to imprison me again ? " He went, he spake to the 
prince; the prince wept because of the woeful words that 
were spoken to him. He sent his secretary, who brought me 
two amphora? of wine and a sheep, and he caused Tantanuit, 
a girl-singer of Egypt who was with him, to be brought to me, 
saying, " Sing to him, that his heart may make pleasant 
fancies." And he sent to me, saying, " Eat, drink, that thy 
heart may not make fancies. Thou shalt hear all that I have 
to say to-morrow morning." When it was morning, he sent 
for his people to the mooring-place ; he stood in the midst of 
them, and he said to the Zakkala, " What is your manner of 
coming? " They said to him, " We are come in pursuit of 
those broken vessels that thou art sending to Egypt with thy 
accursed comrades." He said to them, " I can not hold the 
messenger of Amon captive in my country. Let me send him 
off, and then hasten after him to take him prisoner." 

He let me embark, he sent me off ; I left the seaport, and 

* A a recompense for the sorvicr n-ndnvd by the prince, his " double " 
hall have the libations of fresh water that the blessed enjoy in Hades. 



410 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the wind drove me on to Alasia. 25 They of the city came 
out against me to kill me, and I was dragged in the midst of 
them to the place where was Hatibi, the princess of the city. 
I found her coming out of one of her dwellings and entering 
another. I implored her, saying to the people standing near 
her, " Is there not one among you who understands the lan- 
guage of Egypt?" One of them said, "I understand it." 
I said to him, " Say to the Lady, ' I have heard it said even 
in the city of Thebes and in the place where Amon is, " If 
injustice is done in every city, justice is done in the country 
of Alasia," yet behold injustice is done here every day.' ' 
She said, " Alas ! what is it thou sayest ? " I said to her, 
" Now that the sea has become furious, and the wind has 
thrown me on the land where thou art, dost thou not permit 
me to be brought before thee to be slain? Now I am a 
messenger of Amon. Verily, behold, I shall be sought for to 
the end of time. And as to this crew of the prince of Byblos 
which they seek to slay, if their lord finds afterward ten of 
thy crews, will he not slay them as a reprisal ? " She caused 
her people to be assembled ; they were arrested, and she said 
to me, " Go rest. . . ." 

26 Alasia is probably on the island of Cyprus. 



THE AGE OF WEAKNESS 

(525 B.C.-A.D.) 



THE BOOK OF THE BREATHS OF LIFE 



"Conceal it! Conceal it! 
Let it not be read by any one" 



BOOK OP BREATHS. 



THE BOOK OF THE BREATHS OF LIFE 

(INTRODUCTION) 

4 4 rilIIE final stages of the Egyptian religion are marked by 
A a renewed popularity of all its more barbarous ele- 
ments. Despairing, as it would seem, of discovering the 
higher wisdom that the more philosophic of the priests sup- 
posed that religion to conceal, the simpler-minded sought to 
work out their own salvation by restoring the worship of the 
gods to its most primitive forms." It is thus that Mr. A. H. 
Gardiner sums up the peculiar status of religion in the later 
Egyptian days. Egypt had become a priestly State. The 
Pharaohs were but the servants of the priesthood; and the 
latter maintained their hold upon the minds of the populace 
by countenancing a religious ceremonial of pompous formu- 
lae in which the thinking classes had little remaining belief. 

Among the priests themselves there was much speculation 
as to the future, and their thought found expression in vari- 
ous books, of which the Breaths of Life is the most impres- 
sive. This little book seems to have largely usurped, among 
the priesthood, the rank of the older Book of the Dead. That 
is to say, it was buried with each priest, though with emphatic 
warning that it must be kept secret. Its hope and value for 
the life beyond were not to be shared with other people. 
How far the entire priesthood were committed to the doc- 
trines of this book we do not know ; but amid their " myster- 
ies " it is quite possible that the doctrine of transmigration, 
which this work suggests, held a considerable rank. Cer- 
tainly their ideas of the future had no longer the simple 
animalism of the earlier stages. The speculations of ancient 
Egypt carry us far into the realm of modern philosophy. 



418 



THE BOOK OF THE BREATHS OF LIFE 



Commencement of the Book of Respirations 

made by Isis for her brother Osiris, 

to give life to his soul, 

to give life to his body, 

to rejuvenate all his members anew; 

that he may reach the horizon with his father, the Sun ; 

that his soul may rise to Heaven in the disk of the Moon ; 

that his body may shine in the stars of Orion on the bosom 

of Nut; 1 

in order that this may also happen 
to the Osiris, divine Father, Prophet of Amon-Re, King of 

the gods, 

Prophet of Khem, of Amon-Re, bull of his mother, 
in his great abode, 
Asar-aau, justified, 

Son of the Prophet of the same order, Nes-paut-ta-ti, justified, 
Conceal it! conceal it! 
Let it not be read by any one. 

It is profitable to the person who is in the divine Netherworld. 
He liveth in reality millions of times anew. 

ii 
Words spoken: 

Hail to the Osiris N ! . . , 2 thou art pure ; 

thy heart is pure, 

thy fore-part is purified, 

thy hind-part is cleansed, 

thy middle is in Bat 8 and natron. 

No member in thee is faulty. 

1 Nut personified the Upper Hemisphere of Heaven. 

2 Here was written the name of the deceased. 

Probably a substance used for purifying and perfuming. 

414 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 415 

The Osiris N is made pure by the lotions 

from the Fields of Peace, at the North of the Fields of Sane- 

hem-u. 4 

The goddesses Uati and Suben have purified thee 
at the eighth hour of the night 
and at the eighth hour of the day. 
Come Osiris N ! 

Thou dost enter the Hall of the Two Goddesses of Truth. 
Thou art purified of all sin, of all crime. 
Stone of Truth is thy name. 

in 
Hail to the Osiris 1ST! 

Thou, being very pure, dost enter the Lower Heaven. 

The Two Goddesses of Justice have purified thee in the Great 

Hall. 

A purification hath been made to thee in the Hall of Seb. 
Thy members have been purified in the Hall of Shu. 6 
Thou seest Re in his setting, 
as Atum 6 in the evening. 
Amon is near to thee, to give thee breath, 
Ptah, to form thy members. 
Thou dost enter the horizon with the Sun. 
Thy soul is received in the bark Neshem 7 with Osiris. 
Thy soul is divinized in the Hall of Seb. 
Thou art justified forever and ever. 

IV 

Hail to the Osiris NI 

Thine individuality is permanent. 

Thy body is durable. 

Thy mummy doth germinate. 

Thou art not repulsed from heaven, neither from earth. 

Thy face is illuminated near the Sun. 

Thy soul liveth near to Amon. 

The earth. e The setting sun. 

Heaven. 7 The solar bark. 



416 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Thy body is rejuvenated near to Osiris. 
Thou dost breathe forever and ever. 



Thy soul maketh thee offerings, each day, 
of bread, of drinks, of oxen, of geese, of fresh water, of con- 
diments. 

Thou comest to justify it. 
Thy flesh is on thy bones, 
like unto thy form on earth. 
Thou dost imbibe into thy body. 
Thou eatest with thy mouth. 
Thou receivest bread, with the souls of the gods. 
Anubis doth guard thee. 
He is thy protection. 

Thou art not repulsed from the gates of the Lower Heaven. 
Thoth, the doubly great, the Lord of Sesennu, cometh to thee. 
He writeth for thee the Book of Breaths, with his own fingers. 
Thy soul doth breathe forever and ever. 
Thou dost renew thy form on earth, among the living. 
Thou art divinized with the souls of the gods. 
Thy heart is the heart of Re. 
Thy members are the members of the great god. 8 
Thou livest forever and ever. 

VI 

Hail to the Osiris NI 

Amon is with thee each day 

to render thee life. 

Apheru openeth to thee the right way. 

Thou seest with thine eyes ; 

thou hearest with thine ears ; 

thou speakest with thy mouth ; 

thou walkest with thy legs. 

Thy soul is divinized in Heaven, 

to make all the transformations it desireth. 

a Osiris. 




TMOTM TNI IBIS-HEADED GOD OF BOOKS. OF WRITING AND OF ALL 
SCIENCE THE CHIEF FRIEND OF MAN AFTER DEATH 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 417 

Thou makest the joy of the sacred Persea in An. 
Thou awakenest each day. 
Thou seest the rays of Re. 
Amon cometh to thee with the breath of life. 
He granteth to thee to breathe in thy coffin. 
Thou comest on earth each day, 
the Book of Breaths of Thoth being thy protection. 
Thou breathest by it each day. 
Thine eyes behold the rays of the disk. 
Truth is spoken to thee before Osiris. 
The formula? of justification are on thy body. 
Horus, the defender of his father, protecteth thy body. 
He divinizeth thy soul as well as those of all the gods. 
The soul of Re giveth life to thy soul. 

The soul of Shu filleth thy respiratory organs with soft 
breath. 9 

VII 

Hail to the Osiris N! 

Thy soul doth breathe in the place thou lovest. 

Thou art in the dwelling of Osiris, who resideth in the West. 

Thy person is most pure. 

Thou dost arrive in Abydos. 

He (Osiris) filleth thy dwelling Hotep with provisions. 

VIII 

Hail to the Osiris N ! 

The gods of all Egypt come to thee. 

Tlmu art guided toward the end of centuries. 

Thy soul liveth. 

Thou dost follow Osiris. 

Thou breathest in Rusta. 

c\\re is taken of thee by the Lord of Sati 
and by the great god. 
Thy bodv livc'li in Tattu and in Nifur. 
Thy soul livctli in Heaven forever. 



version: " unitrth itself to the breath of thy nostrils." 
VOL. II. 27. 



418 THE SACRED BOOKS 

IX 

Hail to the Osiris NI 

Sechet prevaileth against what is injurious to thee. 

Har-aa-hetu taketh care of thee. 

Har-shet doth form thy heart. 

Har-maa doth guard thy body. 

Thou continuest in life, health, and strength. 

Thou art established upon thy throne in Ta-ser. 

Come, Osiris "Nl 

Thou appearest in thy form. 

Strengthened by thine ornaments 10 

thou art prepared for life. 

Thou remainest in a healthful state ; 

thou walkest, thou breathest everywhere. 11 

The Sun doth rise upon thine abode. 

Like unto Osiris, thou breathest, thou livest by his rays. 

Amon-Re giveth life to thee. 

He doth enlighten thee by the Book of Breaths. 

Thou dost follow Osiris and Horus, Lord of the sacred bark 

Thou art as the greatest of the gods among the gods. 

Thy beautiful face liveth in thy children. 

Thy name doth always prosper. 

Come to the great temple in Tattu. 

Thou wilt see him who resideth in the West, 

in the ^Torfestival. 

Delicious is thy perfume as that of the blessed ; 

great thy name among the elect. 

x 
Hail to the Osiris N! 

Thy soul liveth by the Book of Breaths. 
Thou unitest thyself to the Book of Breaths, 
Thou dost enter the Lower Heaven ; 

10 Those of the mummy. 

11 This is the acknowledgment of the resurrection effected by th 
ceremonies of the mummification. I am indebted to the friendly aid of 
M. Chabas for the translation of this and one or two other passages. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 419 



thine enemies are not there. 

Thou art a divine soul in Tattu. 

Thy heart is thine ; 

it is no longer separated from thee. 

Thine eyes are thine; 

they open each day. 



Words spoken by the gods who accompany Osiris, to the 

Osiris N : 

Thou dost follow Re. 
Thou dost follow Osiris. 
Thy soul livest forever and ever. 
Words spoken by the gods who dwell in the Lower Heaven, 

like Osiris of the West, to the Osiris N : 
Let them open to him at the gates of the Lower Heaven. 
He is received in the divine Netherworld, 
that his soul may live forever. 
He buildeth a dwelling in the divine Netherworld. 
He is rewarded. 

He hath received the Book of Breaths, 
that he may breathe. 



XII 

Royal offering to Osiris who resideth in the West, 

great god, Lord of Abydos, 

that he may give offerings 

of bread, of hak, of oxen, of geese, of wine, of the liquor 

dket, of bread Hotep, 
of good provisions of all kinds, 
to the Osiris N. 
Thy soul liveth. 
Thy body doth germinate, 
by order of Re himself, 
without pain, without injury, 
like unto Re forever and ever. 



420 THE SACRED BOOKS 

XIII 

O Strider, coming out of An, 12 

the Osiris N hath not committed any sin. 
O Mighty of the Moment, coming out of Kerau. 

the Osiris N" hath not done any evil. 
O Nostril, coming out of Sesennu, 13 

the Osiris N hath not been exacting. 
O Devourer of the Eye, coming out of Kerti, 

the Osiris N hath not obtained anything by theft. 
O Impure of visage, coming out of Rusta, 

the Osiris N hath not been angry. 
O Lion-gods, coming forth from heaven, 

the Osiris N hath not committed any sin by reason 
of hardness of heart, 
O Fiery-Eyed, coming out of Sechem, 

the Osiris N hath not been weak. 

XIV 

O ye gods who dwell in the Lower Heaven, 

harken unto the voice of Osiris N". 

He is near unto you. 

There is no fault in him. 

No informer riseth up against him. 

He liveth in the truth. 

He doth nourish himself with truth. 

The gods are satisfied with all that he hath done. 

He hath given food to the hungry, 

drink to the thirsty, 

clothes to the naked. 

He hath given the sacred food to the gods, 

The funeral repasts to the pure Spirits. 

No complaint hath been made against him before any of the 

gods. 

Let him enter then into the Lower Heaven 
without being repulsed. 
Let him follow Osiris, with the gods of Kerti. 

12 Heliopolis. " Hermopolis. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 

He is favored among the faithful, 14 

and divinized among the perfected. 

Let him live ! 

Let his soul live ! 

His soul is received wherever it willeth. 

He hath received tjie Book of Breaths, 

that he may breathe with his soul, 

with that of the Lower Heaven, 

and that he may make any transformation at his will, 

like the inhabitants of the West; 15 

that his soul may go wherever it desireth, 

living on the earth forever and ever. 

xv 

He is towed, like Osiris, into the Great Pool of Khons. 

When he has retaken possession of his heart 

the Book of Breaths is concealed in the coffin. 

It is covered with writing upon Suten, 

both inside and outside, and 

placed underneath his left arm, 

evenly with his heart ; . . . 

When the Book has been made for him 
then he breathes with the souls of the gods forever and ever. 

It is finished. 

n Another version : " the living." 
is Literally, "the Westerners." 



THE AGE OF WEAKNESS 

(525 B.O.-A.D.) 



ROMANCES 



" The two formulas that are written there, if thou recitest the 
firtt thou shall charm the heavens, the earth, the world of the 
night, the mountains, the waters; thou shalt understand that 
which the birds of the heaven and the reptiles say, as many as 
they are." 

PRINCE SATNI AND THE MAGIC BOOK. 



KOMANCES OF THE AGE OF WEAKNESS 

(INTRODUCTION) 

IN" turning to these romances of the final period of Ancient 
Egypt, we would ask the reader to note especially the open- 
ing tale, " The Princess Possessed by a Demon." It has an 
historical interest exceeding its value as romance. It is our 
first proved literary forgery. The priests of this late period, 
wishing to do honor to their god, revived an old legend, which 
may well have been founded on fact, and wrote the tale down 
on papyrus. This would have been a natural and honest 
thing to do. But the priests went a step further. To make 
their tale more convincing, perhaps with some practical busi- 
ness end in view, they tried to make the papyrus look like 
an old record contemporary with the event it described. So 
they employed archaic words, inserted the names of ancient 
personages, and, in general, tried to forge an antique 
document. 

It is an impressive comment upon the progress of our 
modern Egyptology that our scientists were easily able to 
detect this deceit. In other words, they know more of the 
Egyptian Great Empire of 1300 B.C. than was known to the 
Egyptians themselves in 300 B.C. These later Egyptian 
priests wrote the old kings' names wrongly, knew little of 
the old events, and, in short, blundered at every step. Their 
forgery may have deceived their own age ; it only misled our 
scientists into momentarily rejecting the tale as altogether 
false. 

Recent discoveries have shown that there was a real truth 
dimly behind the legend. Egyptian gods were, in the great 
days of Ramses II., sometimes sent abroad to bring health to 
foroiim rulers. One was probably sent to a distant Hittite 
princess perhaps for the " Bekhten " of the tale we may 

425 



426 THE SACRED BOOKS 

read " Bactria " whose sister was wedded to Ramses. 
Hence, there is really a backing for the tale, though the whole 
has been shifted so as to lay emphasis chiefly on the latter 
part, the mystic power of the god Khonses and his demand 
that he shall be returned to Egypt. 

The story of Satni and the Magic Book, while of late 
date, was of a general type which seems to have been very 
popular in Egypt. It revels in magic and demonology and 
in the supernatural of every sort. The Egyptian religious 
faith, at least among the masses, had sunk into gross 
superstition. 



ROMANCES OF THE AGE OF WEAKNESS 



THE PRINCESS POSSESSED BY A DEMON. 1 

Lo, his Majesty was in Naharin according to his yearly 
custom, while the chiefs of every country came bowing down 
in peace because of the fame of his Majesty. From the 
marshes 2 was their tribute; silver, gold, lapis lazuli, mala- 
chite, and every sweet wood of GodVLand were upon their 
backs, each one leading his neighbor. 

Then the chief of Bekhten caused his tribute to be brought, 
and he placed his eldest daughter in front thereof, praising 
his Majesty, and craving life from him. Now, she was ex- 
ceedingly beautiful to the heart of his Majesty, beyond every- 
thing. Then they affixed her titulary 3 as, " Great King's- 
Wife, Nefrure." When his Majesty arrived in Egypt, she 
fulfilled all the functions of king's-wife. 

When the year 23, the tenth month, the twenty-second day, 
came, while his Majesty was in Thebes, the victorious, the 
mistress of cities, performing the pleasing ceremonies of his 
father, Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, at his beautiful feast of 
Southern Opet Luxor, his favorite seat, of the beginning of 
the world, came one to say to his Majesty : " A messenger of 
the chief of Bekhten has come, bearing many gifts for the 
KingVWife." Then he was brought before his Majesty, 
together with his gifts. He said, praising his Majesty: 
" Praise to thee, Sun of the Nine Bows 1 Give us life from 
thee." So spake he, smelling the earth before his Majesty. 
He spake again before his Majesty : " I come to thee, O 
King, my lord, on account of Bentresh, thy great 4 sister of 

iThls is the most recent translation, being from Prof. Breaated's 
"Ancient Records: Egypt." 

* At the northern limits of the earth. 

To all seals and documents; that is, she takes an official Egyptian 
name on becoming queen. 

* Possibly to be rendered " oldest." 

427 



4,28 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the King's-Wife, Nefrure. Sickness has penetrated into 5 her 
limbs. May thy Majesty send a wise man to see her." 

Then said his Majesty : " Bring to me the sacred scribes 
and the officials of the court." They were led to him imme- 
diately. Said his Majesty : " Let one read to you, till ye 
hear this thing. Then bring me one experienced in his heart, 
who can write with his fingers, from your midst." The 
King's scribe, Thutemhab, 6 came before his Majesty, and his 
Majesty commanded that he go to Bekhten together with 
this messenger. 

The wise man arrived in Bekhten ; he found Bentresh in 
the condition of one possessed of a spirit. He found her 
unable to contend with him. 

The chief of Bekhten repeated in the presence of his 
Majesty, 7 saying: "O King, my lord, let his Majesty com- 
mand to have this god brought . . ." Then the wise man 
whom his Majesty had sent, returned to his Majesty in the 
year 26, the ninth month, at the feast of Amon, 8 while his 
Majesty was in Thebes. 

Then his Majesty repeated it before Khonsu-in-Thcbes- 
Beautif ul-Eest, saying : " O my good lord, I repeat before 
thee concerning the daughter of the chief of Bekhten." 9 

5 Literally, " has mingled with." 

e A man of this name and of the same office lived in the time of 
Ramses II., and his stela is in Leyden. 

7 This alone would indicate that the chief of Bekhten, finding the 
wise man unable to cast out the spirit, went himself tc Egypt to ask 
that the god be sent to do so. The loss between the two parts of the 
stela, just below this point, makes it difficult to trace the connection, 
but it seems more probable that the words of the chief of Bekhten are a 
message, sent by the returning wise man to Ramses, for it is clear that 
he received some message at the beginning of line 13; and, further, 
the chief of Bekhten is found in Bekhten by the god on his arrival 
there. The chief, therefore, certainly remained in Bekhten. 

8 As the god later consumes one year and five months in going to 
Bekhten, the round trip between Egypt and Bekhten should take some 
thirty-four months. This exactly suits the above passage, according to 
which the returning wise man has been absent nearly three years, which 
allows for a short stay in Bekhten. 

Two gods, both named Khonsu, had temples in Thebes. This bring- 
ing of the one Khonsu to consult with the other, the supposed miracle 
of one's bowing assent, and all the rest, all fits in with the debased 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 429 

Then they led Khonsu-in-Thehes-Beautiful-Rest to Khonsu- 
the-Plan-Maker, the great god, smiting the evil spirits. Then 
said his Majesty before Khonsu-in-Thebes-Beautiful-Rest: 
" O thou good lord, if thou inclinest thy face to Khonsu-the- 
Plan-Maker, the great god, smiting the evil spirits, he shall 
be conveyed to Bekhten." There was violent nodding. 
Then said his Majesty: " Send thy protection with him, that 
I may cause his Majesty to go to Bekhten, to save the daughter 
of the chief of Bekhten." Khonsu-in-Thebes-Beautiful-Rest 
nodded the head violently. Then he wrought the protection 
of Khonsu-the-Plan-Maker-in-Thebes four times. 

His Majesty commanded to cause Khonsu-the-Plan-Maker- 
in-Thebes to proceed to a great ship, five transports, numerous 
chariots and horses of the east and west. 

This god arrived in Bekhten in a full year and five months. 
Then the chief of Bekhten came, with his soldiers and his 
nobles, before Khonsu-the-Plan-Maker. He threw himself 
upon his belly, saying : " Thou comest to us, thou art welcome 
with us, by command of the King Usermare-Setepnere 
Ramses II." 

Then this god went to the place where Bentresh was. 
Then he wrought the protection of the daughter of the chief 
of Bekhten. She became well immediately. 

Then said this spirit which was in her before Khonsu-the- 
Plan-Maker-in-Thebes : " Thou comest in peace, thou great 
god, smiting the barbarians. Thy city is in Bekhten, thy 
servants are its people, I am thy servant. I will go to the 
place whence I came, to satisfy thy heart concerning that, 
on account of which thou comest. But let thy Majesty com- 
mand to celebrate a feast-day with me and with the chief of 
ten." Then this god nodded to his priest, saying, 
" Let the chief of Bekhten make a great offering before this 
spirit." While these things were happening, which Khonsu- 
ker-in-Thebes wrought with the spirit, the chief 
of Bekhten stood with his soldiers, and feared very greatly. 
lie made a great offering before Khonsu-the-Plan-Maker- 



practises of the later Egyptians, but hardly with the Great Empire 
which it purports to present. 



430 THE SACRED BOOKS 

in-Thebes and the spirit ; and the chief of Bekhten celebrated 
a feast-day with them. Then the spirit departed in peace 
to the place he desired, by command of Khonsu-the-Plan- 
Maker-in-Thebes, and the chief of Bekhten rejoiced very 
greatly, together with every man who was in Bekhten. 

Then he took counsel with his heart, saying : " I will cause 
this god to remain with me in Bekhten; I will not permit 
that he return to Egypt." Then his god tarried three years 
and nine months in Bekhten. 

Then the chief of Bekhten slept upon his bed, and he saw 
this god coming to him, to forsake his shrine ; he was a hawk 
of gold, and he flew upward toward Egypt. He (the chief) 
awoke in a fright. 

Then he said to the priest of Khonsu-the-Plan-Maker-in- 
Thebes : " This god, he is still with us ; let him depart to 
Egypt ; let his chariot depart to Egypt." Then the chief of 
Bekhten caused his god to proceed to Egypt, and gave to him 
very many gifts of every good thing, very many soldiers 
and horses. 

They arrived in peace at Thebes. Then came the city of 
Thebes, and . . . 10 the-Plan-Maker-in-Thebes to the house of 
Khonsu-in-Thebes-Beautiful-Rest. He set the gifts which 
the chief of Bekhten had given to him, of good things, before 
Khonsu-in-Thebes-Beautiful-Rest, but he gave not everything 
thereof into his house. Khonsu-the-Plan-Maker-in-Thebes 
arrived at his palace in peace the year 33, the second month, 
the ninth day, of King Usermare-Setepnere ; that he might 
be given life, like Re, forever. 

10 Khonsu has probably been omitted by mistake. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 431 



PRINCE SAT1STI AND THE MAGIC BOOK 

At one time there was a king named Usimares, 1. h. s., 1 and 
this king had a son named Satni-Khamois, and the foster- 
brother of Satni-Khamois was called Inaros by name. And 
Satni-Khamois was well instructed in all things. He passed 
his time wandering about the necropolis of Memphis, to read 
there the books of the sacred writings and the books of the 
" Double House of Life," 2 and the writings that are carved on 
the stelce and on the walls of the temples; he knew the 
virtues of amulets and talismans, he understood how to com- 
pose them and to draw up powerful writings, for he was a 
magician who had no equal in the land of Egypt. 8 

Now, one day, when he was walking in the open court of 
the temple of Ptah, reading the inscriptions, behold, a man 
of noble bearing who was there began to laugh. Satni said 
to him, " Wherefore dost thou laugh at me \ " The noble 
said, " I do not laugh at thee, but can I refrain from laughing 
when thou dost decipher the writings here which possess no 
power ? If thou desirest truly to read an efficacious writing, 
come with me. I will cause thee to go to the place where 
the book is that Thoth wrote with his own hand, and which 
will put thee immediately below the gods. The two formula 

i From Sir Gaston Maspero's translation. This is a restitution, and 
the original text of the first two pages is destroyed. Uasimariya is 
the prenomen of Ramses II., which the Greeks transcribed Usimares, 
from the pronunciation current at the time of the Ptolemies. 

* That is to say, the magic books of the sacerdotal library. We have 
direct tvidence of the activity of the Egyptian scholars and sorcerers in 
the text published by Daressy, " Note sur une inscription hitratique d'uw 
matt aba d'.-l 6o*tr." 

The author of the romance did not invent the character of his hero 
Khamuasit, Khamois. He found it ready to hand. In one of the Louvre 
Papyri (No. 3248) there is a series of magic formulae the invention of 
which is attributed to this prince. The note giving this attribution 
Btatea that he found the original manuscript under the head of a mummy 
in the necropolis of Memphis, probably during one of those deciphering 
expedition! spoken of in our text. 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

that are written there, if thou recitest the first of them, thou 
shalt charm the heaven, the earth, the world of the night, 
the mountains, the waters; thou shalt understand what all 
the birds of heaven and the reptiles say, as many as there 
are. Thou shalt behold the fish, for a divine power will 
bring them to the surface of the water. If thou readest the 
second formula, even when thou art in the tomb, thou shalt 
resume the form thou hadst on earth ; thou shalt also behold 
the sun rising in the heavens, and his cycle of gods, also the 
moon in the form that she has when she appears." Satni said, 
" By my life ! let it be told me what thou dost wish for, and 
I will do it for thee; but lead me to the place where the 
book is." The noble said to Satni, " The book in question 
is not mine ; it is in the midst of the necropolis, in the tomb 
of Nenoferkephtah, son of the King Merenephthis, 1. h. s. 
Beware, indeed, of taking this book from him, for he will make 
thee bring it back, a forked stick and a staff in thy hand, 
a lighted brazier on thy head." 

From the hour when the noble spake to Satni he knew 
no longer in what part of the world he was ; he went before 
the King, and he said before the King all the words that 
the noble had said to him. The King said to him, " What 
dost thou desire?" ]Ie said to the King, "Permit me to 
go down into the tomb of Kenoferkephtah, son of the King 
Merenephthis, 1. h. s. ; I will take Inaros, my foster-brother, 
with me, and I shall bring back that book." He went to 
the necropolis of Memphis with Inaros, his foster-brother. 
He spent three days and three nights searching among the 
tombs which are in the necropolis of Memphis, reading the 
sielce of the " Double House of Life," reciting the inscrip- 
tions they bore. On the third day he recognized the place 
where Nenoferkephtah was laid. When they had recognized 
the place where Nenonferkephtah was laid, Satni recited a 
writing over him; a gap opened in the ground, and Satni 
went down to the place where the book was. 4 

* Some of the Hermetic books were supposed to have been taken in this 
way from the tomb of the sage who had written them, and as early as 
the GrsECo-Roman period this conception had reached the West. The 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 433 

[What he first saw we do not know. From the fragment 
discovered by Spiegelberg it appears that the man met in 
the forecourt of the temple of Ptah was Xenoferkephtah 
himself, who only kept his wife and son with him in his 
tomb temporarily, and desired to have them there perma- 
nently, and that he reckoned on making use of Satni to 
transfer their mummies from Coptos, where they had 
been buried, to the Meinphite "necropolis. Satni, in too 
much haste to go down into the tomb, had not fulfilled all 
the necessary rites, and could not open the door. Nenofer- 
kephtah appeared to him and pointed out to him the expiatory 
sacrifices demanded by the Manes. Crows and vultures con- 
ducted him in safety to the appointed place, and at the spot 
on which they settled there was a stone that Satni raised 
immediately and which masked the entrance to the tomb.] 

Wlieu he entered, behold, it was as light as if the sun 
shone there, for the light came from the book and lighted 
all around. And Xenoferkephtah was not alone in the 
tomb, but his wife Ahuri, and Maihet his son, were with 
him; for though their bodies reposed at Coptos, their 
double 5 was with him by virtue of the book of Thoth. And 
when Satni entered the tomb, Ahuri stood up and said to 
him, "Thou, who art thou?" He said, "I am Satni- 
Khamois, son of the King Usimares, 1. h. s. ; I am come to 
have that book of Thoth, that I perceive between thee and 
X< -noferkephtah. Give it me, for if not I will take it from 
thee by force." Ahuri said, " I pray thee, be not in haste, 

celebrated romance of Antonius Diogenes was put together in this way. 
According to the testimony of Pliny (xxx. 2), the philosopher Demo- 
critus of Abdera acquired his knowledge of magic from Apollobechis 
of Coptos, and from Dardanus the Phenician, rnlitminilms Dnnlani in 
tepulchrum ejus petitis; he owed his chemical knowledge to the works 
of Ostanes, which he discovered in one of the columns of the temple at 
Mrmphis. 

B The ka, or double, was born with tho child, prow up with the man, 
and still subsisting aftor death, dwelt in tho t<>ml>. It was necessary to 
feed, clothe, and :inm<. it: and it WMS to it that the funerary offerings 
were presented. As Hi; MOWS, it could leave the place where 

its corpse was, and dwell in the tomb of some other member of th- 
family. 

VOL. II. 28. 



434 THE SACRED BOOKS 

but listen first to all the misfortunes that came to me because 
of this book of which thou sayest, ' Let it be given to me.' 
Do not say that, for on account of it we were deprived of 
the time we had to remain on earth. 

" I am' named Ahuri, daughter of the King Merenephthis, 
1. h. s., and he whom thou seest here with me is my brother 
Nenoferkephtah. We were born of the same father and 
the same mother, and our parents had no other children 
than ourselves. When I was of age to marry, I was taken 
before the King at the time of diversion with the King ; 6 I 
was much adorned and I was considered beautiful. The 
King said, ' Behold, Ahuri, our daughter, is already grown, 
and the time has come to marry her. To whom shall we 
marry Ahuri, our daughter ? ' Now I loved Nenof erkephtah, 
my brother, exceedingly, and I desired no other husband 
than he. 7 I told this to my mother; she went to find the 
King Merenephthis, she said to him, ' Ahuri, our daughter, 
loves Nenoferkephtah, her elder brother; let us marry them 
one to the other according to custom.' When the King had 
heard all the words that my mother had said, he said, 
' Thou hast had but two children, and wouldst thou marry 
them one to the other? Would it not be better to marry 
Ahuri to the son of a general of infantry, and Nenofer- 
kephtah to the daughter of another general of infantry ? ' 
She said, ' Dost thou wrangle with me ? 8 Even if I have no 

One sees, from the pictures on the Pavilion of Medinet Habu, that 
the King went every day to the harem to amuse himself there with his 
wives; it was probably that part of the day that this story speaks of as 
" the time of diversion with the King." 

? The universal custom in Egypt was for the brother to marry one of 
his sisters. The gods and the kings themselves set the example, and the 
custom of these marriages, which to us appear incestuous, was so firmly 
seated, that the Ptolemies eventually complied with it. The celebrated 
Cleopatra had her two brothers in succession as husbands. 

8 The part of the text that is preserved commences here. In the 
restitution that precedes it I have attempted, as far as possible, to use 
expressions and ideas borrowed from the remaining pages. It must 
therefore be understood that the preceding pages do not by any means 
represent the contents of the two lost leaves of demotic. Without de- 
veloping the events in detail I have confined mvself to reconstructing a 
general beginning that will enable readers to understand the story. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 435 

children after those two children, is it not the law to marry 
them one to the other ? I shall marry Nenoferkephtah to 
the daughter of a commander of troops, and Ahuri to the 
son of another commander of troops, and may this turn to 
good for our family.' As this was the time to make festival 
before Pharaoh, behold, one came to fetch me, one led me 
to the festival; I was very troubled, and I had no longer 
the manner of the previous day. Now Pharaoh said to me, 
' Is it not thou who didst send me those foolish words, " Marry 
me to Nenoferkephtah, my eldest brother " ? ' I said to 
him, i Well ! let me be married to the son of a general 
of infantry, and let Nenoferkephtah be married to the 
daughter of another general of infantry, and may this turn 
to good for our family.' I laughed, Pharaoh laughed. 
Pharaoh said to the major-domo of the royal house, ' Let 
Ahuri be taken to the house of Nenoferkephtah this very 
night; let all manner of fine presents be taken with her/ 
They took me as spouse to the house of Nenoferkephtah, and 
Pharaoh commanded that a great dowry of gold and silver 
should be taken to me, and all the servants of the royal house 
presented them to me. Xenoferkephtah spent a happy day 
with me; he received all the servants of the royal house, 
and he slept with me that very night, and he found me a 
virgin, and he knew me again and again, for each of us loved 
the other. And when the time of my monthly purifications 
was come, lo, I had no purifications to make. One went to 
announce it to Pharaoh, and his heart rejoiced greatly thereat, 
and he had all manner of precious things of the property 
of the royal house taken, and he had very beautiful gifts 
of gold, of silver, of fine linen, brought to me. And when 
the time came that I should be delivered, I brought forth 
this little child who is before thce. The name of Maihet 
was piven him, and it was inscribed on the register of the 
' Double House of Life.' 9 

The " Double House of Life " was, as E. de Roiiffe" has shown, the col- 
lege of hiorojframmarians versed in tlio knowledge of the sacred books; 
each of the proat Egyptian tomplpw had its " double house of life." This 
of the story might lead one to think that the scribes belonging 



436 THE SACRED BOOKS 

" And many days after that, Nenoferkephtah, my brother, 
seemed only to be on earth to walk about in the necropolis 
of Memphis, reading the writings that are in the tombs of 
the Pharaohs, and the steles of the scribes of the ' Double 
House of Life/ 10 as well as the writings that are inscribed 
on them, for he was greatly interested in writings. After 
that there was a procession in honor of the god Ptah, and 
Nenoferkephtah entered the temple to pray. Now while 
he walked behind the procession, deciphering the writings 
that are on the chapels of the gods, an old man saw him 
and laughed. Nenoferkephtah said to him, ' Wherefore 
dost thou laugh at me ? ' The priest said, ' I am not laugh- 
ing at thee; but can I refrain from laughing when thou 
readest here writings that have no power? If thou verily 
desirest to read a writing, come to me. I will cause thee 
to go to a place where the book is that Thoth wrote with 
his hand himself, when he came here below with the gods. 
The two formula that are written there, if thou recitest 
the first thou shalt charm the heavens, the earth, the world 
of the night, the mountains, the waters; thou shalt under- 
stand that which the birds of the heaven and the reptiles 

to it held some sort of civil position, but this was not the case. The 
scribes of the " Double House of Life," like all the learned men of Egypt, 
were astrologers, diviners, and magicians. The children of kings, princes, 
and nobles were brought to them; they drew the horoscope, they pre- 
dicted the future of the new-born babe, they indicated the best names, 
the special amulets, the precautions to be taken according to circum- 
stances, to circumvent as far as possible the indications of ill-fortune. 
All the information given by them was inscribed on registers which 
probably served to draw up calendars of propitious and unpropitious 
days. 

10 It is not easy to understand at once what " the steles of the scribes 
of the Double House of Life " can have been to which Satni and Neno- 
ferkephtah attached so great importance. I think we must take them 
to be the talisman-sfete of which the Pseudo-Callisthenes, the Hermetic 
writers and, after them, the Arab authors of Egypt, told so many mar- 
vels. The only ones that have come down to us, such as the " Metternich 
Stela," contain charms against the bite of venomous creatures, serpents, 
spiders, centipedes, and against savage animals. It would be sup- 
posed that such a student of magic as Nenoferkephtah would pore over 
monuments of this kind in hopes of discovering some ancient powerful 
formula forgotten by his contemporaries. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 437 

say, as many as they are ; thou shalt see the fish of the deep, 
for a divine power will rest on the water above them. If 
thou readest the second formula, even after thou art in the 
tomb, thou shalt resume the form that thou hadst on earth; 
also thou shalt see the sun rising in the heavens, with his 
cycle of gods, and the moon in the form she has when she 
appears.' u Nenoferkephtah said to the priest, ' By the life 
of the King, let me be told what good thing thou dost wish 
for, and I will cause it to be given to thee if thou wilt lead 
me to the place where the book is.' The priest said to 
Xenoferkephtah, * If thou desirest that I should send thee 
to the place where the book is thou shalt give me a hundred 
pieces of silver 12 for my burial, and thou shalt cause the two 
coffins 13 of a wealthy priest to be made for me.' Keno- 
ferkephtah called a page and commanded him that the hun- 
dred pieces of silver should be given to the priest, also he 
caused the two coffins to be made that he desired; in short, 
he did all that the priest had said. The priest said to 
Nenoferkephtah, ' The book in question is in the midst of 
the sea of Coptos 14 in an iron coffer. The iron coffer is 

11 The powers accorded to its possessor by the second part of the book 
of Thoth are the same as those assured by knowledge of the prayers in 
the "Funerary Ritual"; chapter xviii gives the power of passing un- 
harmed through fire; chapter xxiii possesses the charms necessary for 
the personal security of the man who knows them by heart; and so forth. 
The book of Thoth secured for the dead the power of animating his 
mummified body and using it as he. pleased; and for the living the sight 
not of the solar orb, but of the god himself concealed in the orb, and 
the gods who accompanied him. 

12 The text mentions one hundred tabonu. The tdbonu weighed on an 
average 89 to 91 grammes. One hundred tabonu would therefore repre- 
sent between 8 kil. 900 gr. and 9 kil. 100 gr. of silver, which "in 
weight " \vould exceed 360 dollars. 

18 The Egyptian word is illegible. There is nothing surprising in the 
priest's request, for those who know something of the customs of the 
country. It is merely the expression of a good wish for a good burial 
qaise no/re which is found on funerary steles of all periods. As 
in China, it is quite possible that the gift of a coffin would be highly 
esteemed. The " two coffins " of the priest were necessary for a wealthy 
interment. In addition to the cartonnage every mummy of distinction 
had two wooden coffins, one inside the other, as can be seen in our 
mum-limn. 

M 'I he word employed here is iaumn. "the sea." It means the Nile. 



438 THE SACRED BOOKS 

in a bronze coffer ; the bronze coffer is in a coffer of cinnamon 
wood ; the coffer of cinnamon wood is in a coffer of ivory and 
ebony ; the coffer of ivory and ebony is in a coffer of silver ; 
the coffer of silver is in a coffer of gold, and the book is in 
that. And there is a schene 13 of reptiles round the coffer 
in which is the book, and there is an immortal serpent 16 
rolled round the coffer in question/ 

" From the hour that the priest spoke to Nenoferkephtah 
he knew not in what part of the world he was. He came 
out of the temple; he spake with me of all that had hap- 
pened to him ; he said to me, ' I go to Coptos, I will bring 
back that book, and after that I will not again leave the 
country of the north.' But I rose up against the priest, 
saying, ' Beware of Amon for thyself, because of that which 
thou hast said to Nenoferkephtah ; for thou hast brought 
me disputing, thou hast brought me war; and the country 
of the Thebaid, I find it hostile to my happiness.' 17 I 
raised my hand to Nenoferkephtah that he should not go to 
Coptos, but he did not listen to me ; he went before Pharaoh, 
and he spake before Pharaoh all the words that the priest 
had said to him. Pharaoh said to him, ' What is the desire 
of thy heart ? ' He said to him, ' Let the royal cange be 
given to me fully equipped. I shall take Ahuri, my sister, 
and Maihet, her little child, to the south with me; I shall 
bring back the book, and I shall not leave this place again.' 
The cange, fully equipped, was given to him; we embarked 
on it, we made the voyage, we arrived at Coptos. When 

Where it crosses the nome the Nile bore a special name. The " river of 
Coptos " is that part of the Nile that traverses the nome of Coptos. 

is The schene at the Ptolemaic period measured about 12,000 royal 
cubits of 52 centimeters each. 

18 The immortal serpent is perhaps the great serpent that is still sup- 
posed to live in the Nile, and of which the fellahin tell strange stories. 

IT The district of the Thebaid and the city of Thebes are represented 
under the form of a goddess. It is therefore possible that the " hostility 
of the country of the Thebaid " was not the hostility of the inhabitants, 
who received the visitors cordially when they landed at Coptos, but the 
hostility of the goddess in whom the country of the Thebaid was in- 
carnate, and who would be unwilling to see the book removed that had 
been placed under her charge by Thoth. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 459 

this was told to the priests of Isis of Coptos, and to the 
superior of the priests of Isis, behold they came down to 
us; they came without delay before Nenoferkephtah, and 
their wives came down before me. We disembarked, and 
we went to the temple of Isis, and of Harpocrates. Neno- 
ferkephtah caused a bull to be brought, a goose, and wine; 
he presented an offering and a libation before Isis of Coptos, 
and Harpocrates. We were then conducted to a house which 
was very beautiful and full of all manner of good things. 
Nenoferkephtah spent five days diverting himself with the 
priests of Isis of Coptos, while the wives of the priests of 
Isis of Coptos diverted themselves with me. When the morn- 
ing of the following day came Nenoferkephtah caused a large 
quantity of pure wax to be brought before him ; he made of 
it a bark filled with its rowers and sailors, he recited a spell 
over them, he brought them to life, he gave them breath, he 
threw them into the water, he filled the royal cange with 
sand, he said farewell to me, he embarked, and I placed my- 
self on the sea of Coptos, saying, ' I know what will happen 
to him.' 

" He said, ' Rowers, row for me, to the place where the 
book is,' and they rowed for him, by night as by day. When 
he had arrived there in three days, he threw sand in front 
of him, and a chasm opened in the river. When he had 
found a schene of serpents, of scorpions, and of all manner 
of reptiles round the coffer where the book was, and when 
he had beheld an eternal serpent round the coffer itself, he 
recited a spell over the schene of serpents, scorpions, and 
reptiles who were round the coffer, and it rendered them 
motionless. 18 He came to the place where the eternal serpent 
was; he attacked him, he slew him. The serpent came to 
life, and took his form again. He attacked the serpent a 

"Literally, "They did not carry themselves off." It is the same 
expression used in the " Story of the Doomed Prince," to mark the ma^ic 
proceeding employed by the princes to reach the window of the daughter 
of tin- Hi i-f of Naharinna. Ono of tin- Lcyden papyri and a papyrus in 
the Louvre, "The Harris Mnpic Papyrus," contain spells against scor- 
pions and rrptiles, of the kind placed by the author in the mouth of 
Nenoferkephtah. 



440 THE SACRED BOOKS 

second time; he slew him. The serpent came to life again. 
He attacked the serpent a third time; he cut him in two 
pieces, he put sand between piece and piece; the serpent 
died, and he did not again take his previous form. 19 Neno- 
ferkephtah went to the place where the coffer was, and he 
recognized that it was an iron coffer. He opened it and he 
found a hronze coffer. He opened it and found a cinnamon- 
wood coffer. He opened it and found an ivory and ebony 
coffer. He opened it and found a silver coffer. He opened 
it and found a gold coffer. He opened it and found that 
the book was inside. He drew the book in question out of 
the gold coffer, and recited a formula of that which was writ- 
ten in it; he enchanted the heaven, the earth, the world of 
the night, the mountains, the waters ; he understood all that 
was spoken by the birds of the heaven, the fish of the waters, 
the beasts of the mountain. He recited the other formula of 
the writing, and he beheld the sun as it mounted the sky with 
his cycle of gods, the moon rising, the stars in their form; 
he beheld the fishes of the deep, for a divine force rested on 
the water above them. He recited a spell over the water, 
and it made it return to its former shape, he reembarked; 
he said to the rowers, ' Row for me to the place where Ahuri 
is.' They rowed for him, by night as by day. When he 
arrived at the place where I was, in three days, he found me 
sitting near the sea of Coptos. I was not drinking nor eat- 
ing; I was doing nothing in the world; I was like a person 
arrived at the ' Good dwelling.' 20 I said to N enofcr- 
kephtah, ' By the life of the King! Grant that I see this 
book for which you have taken all this trouble.' He put 
the book in my hand, I read one formula of the writing which 
was there; I enchanted the heaven, the earth, the world of 
the night, the mountains, the waters; I understood all that 
was spoken by the birds of the heaven, the fish of the deep, 

i This struggle with serpents, guardians of a book or of a place, is 
based on a religious idea. At Denderah, for instance, the guardians of 
the doorways and crypts are always figured under the form of vipers, as 
are also the guardians of the twelve regions of the lower world. 

20 This is one of the euphemisms employed in Egypt to designate the 
workshop of the embalmers, and also the tomb. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 441 

and the quadrupeds. I recited the other formula of the 
writing. I beheld the sun which appeared in the heaven 
with his cycle of gods, I beheld the moon rising, and all 
the stars of heaven in their form; I beheld the fish of the 
water, for there was a divine force which rested on the water 
above them. As I could not write, I said so to Nenofer- 
kephtah, my brother, who was an accomplished scribe and a 
very learned man; he caused a piece of virgin papyrus to 
be brought, he wrote therein all the words that were in the 
book, he soaked it in beer, he dissolved the whole in water. 
When he saw that it had all dissolved, he drank, and he 
knew all that was in the writing. 21 

" We returned to Coptos the same day, and we made merry 
before Isis of Coptos and Harpocrates. W T e embarked, we 
set off. We reached the north of Coptos, the distance of a 
schene. Kow behold, Thoth had learned all that had hap- 
pened to Xenoferkephtah with regard to this book, and Thoth 
did not delay to plead before Re, saying, ' Know that my 
right and my law are with Nenoferkephtah, son of the King 
Merenephthis, 1. h. s. He has penetrated into my abode, 
he has pillaged it, he has taken my coffer with my book of 
incantations, he has slain my guardian who watched over 
the coffer.' One 22 said to him, ' He is thine, he and all 
his, all of them.' One sent down a divine force from heaven 
saying, ' Kenoferkephtah shall not arrive safe and sound 
at Memphis, he and whoever is with him.' At this same 
hour Maihet, the young child, came out from under the awn- 
ing of the cange of Pharaoh. He fell in the river, and while 
he praised Re, all who were on board uttered a cry. Neno- 
ferkephtah came out from below the cabin; he recited a spell. 

21 This proceeding of Nenoferkephtah has been employed at all periods 
in the East. In ancient Babylon, as now at Bagdad and Cairo, bowls 
of unglazed pottery were made on which magic formulas against various 
maladies were written in ink. Into them water was poured, which 
partially removed the ink, and which was swallowed by the patient. 
However much the ink remained at the bottom of the bowi, the cure was 
certain. 

22 Here " One " ia Re, king of the gods, and at the beginning of time 
the Pharaoh of Egypt. 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

over the child, and brought him up again, for there was a 
divine force which rested on the water above him. He re- 
cited a spell over him, he made him tell all that had happened 
to him, and the accusation that Thoth had brought before Re. 
We returned to Coptos with him, we had him carried to the 
' Good Dwelling/ we waited to see that care was taken of 
him, we had him embalmed as beseemed a great one, we laid 
him in his coffin in the cemetery of Coptos. Nenoferkephtah, 
mj brother, said, ' Let us go ; do not let us delay to return 
until the King has heard what has happened to us, and his 
heart is troubled on this account.' We embarked, we parted ; 
we were not long in arriving at the north of Coptos, the dis- 
tance of a schene. At the place where the little child Maihet 
had tumbled into the river, I came out from below the awn- 
ing of the cange of Pharaoh, I fell into the river, and while 
I praised Re all who were on board uttered a cry. It was 
told to Kenoferkephtah, and he came out from below the 
awning of the cange of Pharaoh. He recited a spell over 
me, and he brought me up again, for there was a divine 
force which rested on the water above me. He took me out 
of the river, he read a spell over me, he made me tell all 
that had happened to me, and the accusation that Thoth 
had brought before Re. He returned to Coptos with me, 
he had me carried to the * Good Dwelling,' he waited to see 
that care was taken of me, he had me embalmed as beseemed 
a very great personage, he had me laid in the tomb where 
Maihet, the little child, was already laid. He embarked, 
he set out ; he was not long in arriving at the north of Coptos, 
the distance of a schene, at the place where we had fallen into 
the river. He communed with his heart, saying, i Would 
it not be better to go to Coptos, and take up my abode with 
them ? If, on the contrary, I return at once to Memphis, 
and Pharaoh questions me on the subject of his children, 
what could I say to him ? Could I say thus to him : ' I took 
thy children with me to the nome of Thebes; I have killed 
them, and I live. I returned to Memphis still living ' ? He 
caused a piece of royal fine linen that belonged to him to 
be brought, he made of it a magic band, he tied the book 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 443 

with it, he put it on his breast, and fixed it there firmly. 23 
Nenoferkephtah came out from below the awning of the 
cange of Pharaoh, he fell into the water, and while he praised 
Re all who were on board uttered a cry, saying, ' Oh, what 
great mourning, what lamentable mourning ! Is he not gone, 
the excellent scribe, the learned man who had no equal ! ' 

" The cange of Pharaoh went on its way, before any one in 
the world knew in what place Nenoferkephtah was. When 
it arrived at Memphis one informed Pharaoh, and Pharaoh 
came down in front of the cange. He was wearing a mourn- 
ing-cloak, and all the garrison of Memphis wore mourning- 
cloaks, as well as the priests of Ptah, the high priest of 
Ptah, and all the people who surround Pharaoh. 24 And lo ! 
they beheld Nenoferkephtah, who was fixed on to the rudder- 
oars of the cange of Pharaoh by his knowledge as an excellent 
scribe. 25 They raised him, they saw the book on his breast, 
and Pharaoh said, ( Let the book that is on his breast be 
taken away.' The courtiers of Pharaoh, as well as the priests 
of Ptah and the high priests of Ptah, said before the King, 
' Oh, our great lord may he have the duration of Re ! 
ho is an excellent scribe and a very learned man, this Xcno- 
ferkephtah ! ' 26 Pharaoh had him placed in the * Good 

23 One of the magic books of the Ley den Museum professes to be a 
copy from the original "discovered at the neck of King Usimares, in 
the tomb." Another copy of the same work, which belongs to the Cairo 
Museum, was found in the coffin of Tatumaut, priestess of Amon, placed 
at the base of the neck. 

24 Qanbuatiu, " the people of the corner," those who stand at the four 
sides of the king and of the hall in which he gave audience. 

25 Xenoferkephtah having disappeared beneath the river, " no one 
knew in what place he was"; at Memphis he is found attached to the 
rudder-oars of the royal bark, and the text is careful to add that it was 
" in his quality of excellent scribe." This prodigy was due to the pre- 
caution he had taken in fixing the book of Thoth to his breast; its magic 
virtue had raised the corpse and attached it to the oara without human 
intervention. 

The exclamation of the priests of Ptah, which at first nothing ap- 
pears to justify, is an indirect reply to the order of the King. The King 
commands them to take the book of Thoth, which had already caused the 
death of throe persons. The priests did not dare to disobey him openly, 
but by remarking that Xcnoferkephtah was a great magician, they in- 
timated to him that all the science in the world could not protect men 



444 THE SACRED BOOKS 

Dwelling ' for the space of sixteen days, clothed with stuffs 
for the space of thirty-five days, laid out for the space of 
seventy days, and then he was laid in his tomb among the 
' Dwellings of Kepose.' 

" I have told thee all the sorrows that came to us on ac- 
count of this book, of which thou sayest, ' Let it be given me.' 
Thou hast no right to it; for, on account of it, the time we 
had to remain on the earth was taken from us." 

Satni said, " Thuri, give me that book that I see between 
thee and Nenof erkephtah ; if not, I will take it from thee by 
force." Nenoferkephtah raised himself on the bed and said, 
" Art thou not Satni, to whom that woman has told all those 
misfortunes that thou hast not yet experienced? Art thou 
capable of obtaining this book by the power of an excellent 
scribe, 27 or by thy skill in playing against me ? Let us two 
play for it." M Satni said, " Agreed." Then they brought 
the board before them, 29 with its " dogs," and they two 
played. Nenoferkephtah won a game from Satni ; 30 he re- 

against the vengeance of God. By what misfortunes would not the as- 
sistant be menaced who took the book without the knowledge of sorcery 
possessed by Nenof erkephtah ! -The event proves that this somewhat 
subtle interpretation of the text is correct. The King comprehended the 
fears of his courtiers, and revoked the imprudent order given by him; 
for the book of Thoth was still on the mummy of Nenof erkephtah when 
Satni came to take it. 

27 In other words, by a trial of magic skill between magicians of equal 
power. 

28 The game of draughts was the favorite amusement of the dead ; there 
were often deposited in the tomb with them a draughtsboard, daughts- 
men, and some small knuckle-bones to regulate the movement of the 
pieces. A certain vignette of the " Funerary Ritual " shows the owner 
playing thus in the other world, in a small pavilion or under the vault 
of a hypogeum. The modern Egyptians have at least two games, the 
munkalah and the tab, which should present analogies with Satni's 
games against Nenoferkephtah. 

2 The playing pieces were called "dogs"; in the museums there are 
some examples with the head of a dog or jackal. It is the same name 
given them by the Greeks, and also the same by which those of the 
game of tab are known at the present time in Egypt. I use the word 
" board " to render the Egyptian term, for want of a more appropriate 
expression; it is the small board, divided into compartments, on which 
the dogs are moved. There are two in the Louvre, one of which bears 
the cartouche of Queen Hatshopsuitu, Eighteenth Dynasty. 

so Nenoferkephtah has won a game; this advantage allows him to 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 445 

cited his magic over him, he placed over him the playing-board 
which was before him, and he caused him to sink into the 
ground up to the legs. He did the same with the second 
game; he won from Satni, and he caused him to sink into 
the ground up to the waist. He did the same with the third 
game, and he caused Satni to sink into the ground up to 
the ears. After that, Satni attacked Nenoferkephtah with 
his hand; Satni called Inaros, his foster-brother, saying, 
" Do not delay to go up on to the earth ; tell all that has 
happened to me before Pharaoh ; bring me the talismans of 
my father Ptah, 31 as well as my books of magic." He went 
up without delay on to the ground; he recounted before 
Pharaoh all that had happened to Satni, and Pharaoh said, 
" Take him the talismans of his father as well as his books 
of incantations." Inaros went down without delay into the 
tomb ; he placed the talismans on the body of Satni, and he 
at once rose to the earth. Satni stretched out his hand to- 
ward the book and seized it ; and when Satni came up out of 
the tomb, the light went before him and darkness came be- 
hind him. 32 Ahuri wept after him, saying, " Glory to thee, 
O darkness ! Glory to thee, O light ! All of it is departed, 
all that was in our tomb." 33 Nenoferkephtah said to Ahuri, 
" Do not afflict thyself. I shall make him bring back this 
book in due time, a forked stick in his hand, a lighted brazier 

recite his book of magic, which results in depriving Satni of part of his 
magic power. Nenoferkephtah puts the board in front of him over his 
adversary, which action has the same virtue as that of the magic ham- 
mer, and causes his feet to sink into the ground. 

i The title of "father" is that which the King, descendant and 
actually "son" of the Sun, confers on all the gods; here the special 
reason for it was the fact that Khamois was high priest of the Mem- 
phite Ptah. The talismans of Ptah are not otherwise known to us; 
it is interesting to ascertain from this passage that their virtue was 
considered superior to the talismans of Thoth that Nenoferkephtah 



"The book of Thoth; Satni, when carrying it off, takes away the 
light and leaves darkness. 

"Thus, in the "Book of Hades," every time that the pun. having 

rsed one of the hours of the night, departs to enter tin- following 

hour, the Manes and the godn that IIP leaves pi mured into darkness for 

v throe hours, till he return*, utter exclamations in his honor, and 

lament their return to darkness. 



446 THE SACRED BOOKS 

on his head." 34 Satni went up out of the tomb, and he 
closed it behind him as it was before. Satni went before 
Pharaoh, and he recounted to Pharaoh all that had happened 
to him on account of the book. Pharaoh said to Satni, 
" Eeplace this book in the tomb of Nenoferkephtah, like a 
wise man ; if not, he will force thee to take it back, a forked 
stick in thy hand, a lighted brazier on thy head." But Satni 
did not listen to him ; he had no other occupation in the world 
than to spread out the roll and to read it, it mattered not to 
whom. 35 

After that it happened one day, when Satni was walking 
on the forecourt of the temple of Ptah, he saw a woman, very 
beautiful, for there was no woman who equaled her in 
beauty ; 30 she had much gold upon her, and there were young 
girls who walked behind her, and with her were servants to 
the number of fifty-two. 37 From the hour that Satni beheld 
her he no longer knew the part of the world in which he was. 
Satni called his page, saying, " Do not delay to go to the 

8* In all magic rites the fire or the sword, or, in default of the sword, 
a metal weapon pointed or forked, is necessary for the invocation and 
expulsion of spirits. On the lead rolls found in African cemeteries, 
Typhon and the evil Egyptian genii summoned by the sorcerer are at 
times figured lance in hand and with a flame on the head. Krall has 
thought that this represents a courier in this story. 

85 This kind of overpowering obsession produced by a magic writing 
is forcibly described in other texts. It was thus that Prince Didufhoru, 
having discovered chapter xliv of the " Book of the Dead," " saw no 
more, heard no more, so much did he recite this pure and holy chapter; 
he did not approach women, he ate neither flesh nor fish." Abstinence 
and chastity were in fact indispensable conditions for the exercise of 
those superhuman powers that books of magic conferred on their pos- 
sessors, as will be seen in the course of this romance. It is by the in- 
continence of Satni that Nenoferkephtah hopes to recover his talisman. 

36 The part played by Tbubui in this episode is in conformity with the 
universal ideas of demonology, and shows us the nature of the person- 
age. She is no other than Ahuri returned to earth to seduce Satni 
and render him incapable of making use of his magic powers; when she 
has accomplished this, Xenoferkephtah will come in his turn and force 
him to return the book of Thoth. 

a? Thus, as Wiedemann has very ingeniously observed, the fifty-two 
pages who accompany Tbubui are the fifty-two playing pieces of the 
magic chess-board, animated and incarnated to serve as escort to the 
princess Ahuri in her excursion into the world of the living. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 447 

place where that woman is and learn who she is." The young 
page made no delay in going to the place where the woman 
was. He addressed the maid-servant who walked behind 
her, and he questioned her, saying, " What person is that ? " 
She said to him, " She is Tbubui, daughter of the prophet of 
Bastit, lady of Ankhutaui, who now goes to make her prayer 
before Ptah, the great god." When the young man had re- 
turned to Satni he recounted all the words that she had said 
to him without exception. Satni said to the young man, 
" Go and say thus to the maid-servant, ' Satni-Khamois, son 
of the Pharaoh Usimares, it is who sends me, saying, " I will 
give thee ten pieces of gold that thou mayest pass an hour 
with me." 88 If there is necessity to have recourse to vio- 
lence, he will do it, and he will take thee to a hidden place, 
where no one in the world will find thee. 7 ' When the young 
man had returned to the place where Tbubui was, he addressed 
the maid-servant, and spake with her, but she exclaimed 
against his words, as though it were an insult to speak them. 
Tbubui said to the young man, " Cease to speak to that 
wretched girl ; come and speak to me." The young man 
approached the place where Tbubui was ; he said to her, " I 
will give thee ten pieces of gold if thou wilt pass an hour 
with Satni-Khamois, the son of Pharaoh-Usimares. If there 
is necessity to have recourse to violence, he will do so, and 
will take thee to a hidden place where no one in the world 
will find thee." Tbubui said, " Go, say to Satni, * I am a 
hierodule, I am no mean person ; if thou dost desire to have 
thy pleasure of me thou shalt come to Bubastis into my house. 
All will be ready there, and thou shalt have thy pleasure of 
me, and no one in the world shall know it, and I shall not 
have acted like a woman of the streets/ ' When the page 
had returned to Satni, he repeated to him all the words that 
she had said without exception, and he said, " Lo, I am satis- 
fied." lint all who were with Satni began to curse. 

Satni caused a boat to be fetched, he embarked, and de- 
layed not to arrive at Bubastis. llo wont to the west of 

Ten tabonu in gold m;i<lc ln>t \vcrn 800 and 010 gramme* of gold, or 
about 600 dollars " in weight," but far more in actual value. 



448 THE SACRED BOOKS 

the town, until he came to a house that was very high ; it had 
a wall all around it, it had a garden on the north side, there 
was a flight of steps in front of it. Satni inquired, saying, 
" Whose is this house ? " They said to him, " It is the house 
of Tbubui." Satni entered the grounds, and he marveled at 
the pavilion situated in the garden 39 while they told Tbubui ; 
she came down, she took the hand of Satni, and she said to 
him, " By my life ! the journey to the house of the priest of 
Bastit, lady of Ankhutaui, at which thou art arrived, is very 
pleasant to me. Come up with me." Satni went up by the 
stairway of the house with Tbubui. He found the upper 
story of the house sanded and powdered with sand and 
powder of real lapis lazuli and real turquoise. There were 
several beds there, spread with stuffs of royal linen, and also 
many cups of gold on a stand. They filled a golden cup with 
wine, and placed it in the hand of Satni, and Tbubui said to 
him, " Will it please thee to rest thyself ? " He said to her, 
" That is not what I wish to do." They put scented wood 
on the fire, they brought perfumes of the kind that are sup- 
plied to Pharaoh, and Satni made a happy day with Tbubui, 
for he had never before seen her equal. Then Satni said 
to Tbubui, " Let us accomplish that for which we have come 
here." She said to him, " Thou shalt arrive at thy house, 
that where thou art. But for me, I am a hierodule, I am 
no mean person. If thou desirest to have thy pleasure of 
me thou shalt make me a contract of sustenance, and a con- 
tract of money on all the things and on all the goods that are 
thine." 40 He said to her, " Let the scribe of the school be 
brought." He was brought immediately, and Satni caused 
to be made in favor of Tbubui a contract for maintenance, 

39 This description corresponds very exactly with various plans of 
Egyptian houses that are figured in the pictures in the Theban tombs. 
To take one that I have figured in " Egyptian Archaeology " one sees the 
high wall, the doorway, the flight of steps, the great garden, and the 
house of two stories in the garden. 

*o Tbubui here conforms to the jurisprudence of the Ptolemaic period, 
according to which the existence of two transactions, one of " sus- 
tenance " and the other of " money," is necessary to assure a legal basis 
for the union of a man and a woman. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 449 

and he made her in writing a dowry of all his things, all the 
goods that were his. An hour passed; one came to say this 
to Satni, " Thy children are below." He said, " Let them 
be brought up." Tbubui arose, she put on a robe of fine 
linen, 41 and Satni beheld all her limbs through it, and his 
desire increased yet more than before. Satni said to Tbubui, 
" Let us accomplish now that for which I came." She said 
to him, " Thou shalt arrive at thy house, that where thou art 
But for me, I am a hierodule, I am no mean person. If 
thou desirest to have thy pleasure of me thou wilt cause thy 
children to subscribe to my writing, that they may not seek 
a quarrel with my children on the subject of thy possessions." 
Satni had his children fetched and made them subscribe to 
the writing. Satni said to Tbubui, " Let me now accom- 
plish that for which I came." She said to him, " Thou 
shalt arrive at thy house, that where thou art. But for me, 
I am a hierodule, I am no mean person. If thou dost desire 
to have thy pleasure of me thou shalt cause thy children to be 
slain, so that they may not seek a quarrel with my children 
on account of thy possessions." Satni said, " Let the crime 
be committed on them of which the desire has entered thy 
heart." She caused the children of Satni to be slain before 
him, she had them thrown out below the window, to the dogs 
and cats, 42 and they ate their flesh, and he heard them while 

"This is the great robe of transparent linen, sometimes supple and 
falling in soft folds, sometimes stiff and starched, which the women are 
wearing in pictures of the interior of the second Theban period. The 
whole body was visible through this transparent veiling, and the 
Egyptian artists have not failed to indicate the details that show the 
extent to which the garment left the body visible. Several of the mum- 
mies found at Deir el Bahari, among others those of Thutmose III. and 
Ramses II., had bandages of this linen next to their skin, of which 
specimens can be seen in the Cairo Museum; it has yellowed with time 
and by the perfumes with which it was soaked at the time of the em- 
balmment, but the ancient paintings have not exaggerated when they 
represented the ladies clothed in it as almost nude. Examining them, 
one understands what the gauzes of Cos must have been that the classical 
writers called "woven air " 

In the same way, according to Egyptian tradition, the eunuch 
Bagoas, having murdered the Persian King, Okhos, threw his body to 
thecaU. 

VOL. II. 29. 



450 THE SACRED BOOKS 

he was drinking with Tbubui. Satni said to Tbubui, " Let 
us accomplish that for which we have come here, for all that 
thou hast said before me has been done for thee." She said 
to him, " Come into this chamber." Satni entered the cham- 
ber, he lay down on a bed of ivory and ebony, in order that 
his love might be rewarded, and Tbubui lay down by the 
side of Satni. He stretched out his hand to touch her ; she 
opened her mouth widely and uttered a loud cry. 43 

When Satni came to himself he was in a place of a furnace 
without any clothing on his back. After an hour Satni per- 
ceived a very big man 44 standing on a platform, with quite 
a number of attendants beneath his feet, for he had the 
semblance of a Pharaoh. Satni was about to raise himself, 
but he could not arise for shame, for he had no clothing on 
his back. This Pharaoh said, " Satni, what is the state in 
which you are ? " He said, " It is Nenoferkephtah who has 
had all this done to me." This Pharaoh said, " Go to Mem- 
phis; thy children, lo! they wish for thee. Lo! they are 
standing before Pharaoh." Satni spake before this Pha- 
raoh, " My great lord the King mayest thou have the 
duration of Re how can I arrive at Memphis if I have no 
raiment in the world on my back ? " This Pharaoh called a 
page, who was standing near him, and commanded him to 
give a garment to Satni. This Pharaoh said, " Satni, go to 

Examples of these transformations at the moment of amorous in- 
dulgences are not rare in popular literature. Generally they are pro- 
duced by the intervention of a good genius, a thaumaturgus or a saint, 
who comes to rescue the hero from the bonds of the succubus. Else- 
where it is the succubus herself who affords herself the malicious pleas- 
ure of terrifying her lover by a sudden metamorphosis. This last con- 
ception has often been made use of by European writers, and particularly 
by Cazotte, in his " Diable Amoureux." An obscene detail, which occurs 
several lines further on, and which I have not translated, proves that 
here, as in all tales of the kind, Tbubui was forced to yield herself en- 
tirely in order to get her enemy into her power. As soon as she had 
done so, she opened an enormous mouth and emitted a gale of wind: 
Satni lost consciousness, and during his fainting fit he was carried far 
away from the house. 

<* A figure of more than human size was at that period the mark by 
which one recognized gods or genii when they manifested themselves to 
mankind. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 451 

Memphis. Thy children, behold they live, behold they are 
standing before the King." 45 Satni went to Memphis ; 
he embraced his children with joy, because they were in life. 
Pharaoh said, " Is it not drunkenness that has caused thee to 
do all that ? " Satni related all that had happened to him 
with Tbubui and Nenoferkephtah. Pharaoh said, " Satni, 
I have before come to thine aid, saying, ' They will slay thee, 
if thou dost not return that book to the place where thou 
didst take it for thyself, but thou hast not listened to me up 
to this hour.' Now take back the book to Nenoferkephtah, a 
forked staff in thy hand and a lighted brazier on thy head." 
Satni went out before Pharaoh, a fork and a staff in his hand 
and a lighted brazier on his head, and he descended into the 
tomb where Nenoferkephtah was. Ahuri said to him, 
" Satni, it is Ptah the great god who brings thee here safe 
and sound." 46 Xenoferkephtah laughed, saying, " This is 
what I said to thee before." Satni began to talk with Neno- 
ferkephtah, and he perceived that while they talked the sun 
was altogether in the tomb. 47 Ahuri and Nenoferkephtah 
talked much with Satni. Satni said, " Nenoferkephtah, is it 
not something humiliating that thou askest ? " Nenofer- 
kephtah said, " Thou knowest this by knowledge, that Ahuri 
and Maihet, her child, are at Coptos, and also in this tomb, 
by the art of a skilful scribe. Let it be commanded to thee 
to take the trouble to go to Coptos and bring them hither." * 

"One sees from the King's remarks that he is Nenoferkephtah, and 
that all the preceding scene of coquetry and murder was merely a magi- 
cal deed; Satni, rendered impure and a criminal, loses his supernatural 
power. 

Satni was high priest of Ptah; the protection of the god had saved 
him from the magicians, and it is this that Ahuri avows, probably not 
without some vexation. 

T In returning the magic book, Satni had brought back light into the 
tomb, of which he had deprived it when he carried off the talisman. 

8The "double" ought to live where the body is buried. Nenofer- 
kephtah had screened the " double " of Ahuri and Maihet from that law 
by " the art of an able scribe," that is, by magic, and had given them 
hospitality in his own tomb; but this was a precarious position that 
mi^ht be changed at any moment. Satni, dofcntocl in the stru^jlo for 
tho possession of the book of Thoth, owed some indemnity to the con- 
queror, who imposed on him the obligation to go to Coptos to find Ahuri 



THE SACRED BOOKS 

Satni went up out of the tomb; he went before Pharaoh, 

he related before Pharaoh all that Nenoferkephtah had said 

to him. Pharaoh said, " Satni, go to Coptos and bring back 

Ahuri and Maihet her child." He said before Pharaoh, 

" Let the cange of Pharaoh and its crew be given me." The 

cange of Pharaoh and its crew were given him ; he embarked, 

he started, he did not delay to arrive at Coptos. One told 

the priests of Isis, of Coptos, and the high priest of Isis; 

behold, they came down to him, they came down to the bank. 

He disembarked, he went to the temple of Isis of Coptos, 

and Harpocrates. He caused a bull, a goose, and some wine 

to be brought ; he made a burnt-offering and a libation before 

Isis of Coptos, and Harpocrates. He went to the cemetery 

of Coptos with the priests of Isis and the high priest of Isis. 

They spent three days and three nights searching among the 

tombs that are in the necropolis of Coptos, moving the steles 

of the scribes of the Double House of Life, deciphering the 

inscriptions on them; they did not find the chambers where 

Ahuri and Maihet her child reposed. Nenoferkephtah knew 

that they did not find the chambers where Ahuri and Maihet 

her child reposed. He manifested himself under the form 

of an old man, a priest very advanced in years, he presented 

himself before Satni. 49 

Satni saw him ; Satni said, " Thou seemest to be a man 
advanced in years, dost thou not know the house where Ahuri 
and Maihet her child repose ? " The old man said to Satni, 
" The father of the father of my father said to the father of 
my father, i The chambers where Ahuri and Maihet her 
child repose are below the southern corner of the house of 
the priest. . . .' " 50 Satni said to the old man, " Per- 

and Maihet and bring them to Memphis. The union of the three mum- 
mies would ensure the union of the three " doubles " for all time. 

49 This is at least the second transformation performed by Nenofer- 
kephtah in that part of the story that has been preserved. The ordinary 
Manes had the right to assume all the forms they wished, but they could 
only render themselves visible in very rare cases. Nenoferkephtah owes 
to his quality of magician the power to do with ease what was forbidden 
to them, and to appear at one time as a king, at another as an old man. 

so The text is too much damaged in this place to allow of the resti- 
tution being regarded as certain. 



LITERATURE OF THE EAST 453 

chance the priest . . . hath injured thee, and therefore it is 
that thou wouldest destroy his house." 51 The old man said 
to Satni, " Let a good watch be kept on me while the house 
of the priest ... is destroyed, and if it happens that Ahuri 
and Maihet her child are not found under the southern corner 
of the house of the priest ... let me be treated as a crim- 
inal." A good watch was kept over the old man ; the cham- 
ber where Ahuri and Maihet her child reposed was found 
below the southern angle of the house of the priest. . . . Satni 
caused these great personages to be carried to the cange of 
Pharaoh, and he then had the house of the priest ... re- 
built as it was before. Xenoferkephtah made known to 
Satni that it was he who had come to Coptos, to discover for 
him the chamber where Ahuri and Maihet her child reposed. 
Satni embarked on the cange of Pharaoh. He made the 
voyage, he did not delay to arrive at Memphis, and all the 
escort who were with him. One told Pharaoh, and Pharaoh 
came down before the cange of Pharaoh. He caused the 
great personages to be carried to the tomb where Nenofer- 
kephtah was, and he had the upper chamber all sealed as 
before. This complete writing, wherein is related the his- 
tory of Satni-Khamois and Nenoferkephtah, also of AJburi his 
wife and Maihet his son, has been written by the scribe 
Ziharpto, the year 35, in the month of Tybi. 

si By destroying the " house," i.e., the tomb of an individual, his 
funerary cult was rendered impossible, the " double " was starved and 
ran the risk of perishing, thus arousing the wrath of the "double," 
which showed itself in apparitions, attacks, possessions by spirits and 
maladies from which the living suffered. The law was very severe on 
those who, by demolishing a tomb, risked the letting loose of various 
ills. Nevertheless, it happened at times that people who cherished 
hatred against some deceased persons would run the risk. Satni feared 
that his informant might profit by his researches to satisfy his hatred 
and render him an involuntary accomplice in his crime. 



THE END 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

A general knowledge of ancient Egyptian history should pre- 
cede the reading of the texts. This can be gained in a very 
full version and in interesting literary style in Sir Gaston Mas- 
pero's three successive volumes, which include Babylonia and 
Syria as well as Egypt: 

"The Dawn of Civilization" (Appleton, New York, 1894). 
"The Struggle of the Nations" (Appleton, New York, 1897). 
"The Fall of the Empires" (Appleton, New York, 1900). 

Or it can be gained in much briefer form from 
JAMES H. BREASTED, "History of Egypt." 

A full and very scholarly history in several volumes, as told 
by the monuments themselves, is: 

W. FLINDERS-PETRIE, "History of Egypt" (Scribner, New York, 
1897). 

For the actual texts and some account of them the most 
available sources are: 

For historical texts, 

J. H. BREASTED, "Ancient Records of Egypt" (five volumes, 
University of Chicago, 1905). 

For stories and biographies, 

G. C. L. MASPERO, "Popular Stories of Ancient Egypt" (Putnam, 
New York, 1915). 

W. FLWDERS-PBTRIE, "Egyptian Tales" (two series, Methuen, 
London, 1899). 

For the Book of the Dead, 

E. A. W. BUDGE, "The Papyrus of Ani." 



456 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

For other texts and for general discussion of their meaning 
and worth, read 

J. H. BREASTED, "Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient 
Egypt" (Scribner, New York, 1912). 

E. A. W. BUDGE, "The Gods of the Egyptians" (London, 1904). 

LEWIS SPENCE, "Myths and Legends of Ancient Egypt" (Stokes, 
New York). 

"Life in Ancient Egypt" (especially chapter 15), by Erman. 

"Records of the Past" (eighteen volumes, now much out of date), 
by A. H. Sayce and others. 

"Journal of Egyptian Archaeology" (begun in 1914 and still con- 
tinuing). 






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