m m^c I'M /f'f.' 4?^ V DINO ROOM NY PUBLIC LIBRARY THE BRANCH LIBRARIES 3 3333 08104 1820 Saint Joan f BOOKS BY MARK TWAIN ST. JOAN OF ARC THE INNOCENTS ABROAD' ROUGHING IT THE GILDED AGE A TRAMP ABROAD FOLLOWING THE EQUATOR PUDD'NHEAD WILSON SKETCHES NEW AND OLD THE AMERICAN CLAIMANT CHRISTIAN SCIENCE A CONNECTICUT YANKEE AT THE COURT OF KING ARTHUR THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF JOAN OF ARC LIFE ON THE MISSISSIPPI THE MAN THAT CORRUPTED HADLEYBUHG THE PRINCE AND THE PAUPER THE $30,000 BEQUEST THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER TOM SAWYER ABROAD WHAT IS MAN? THE MYSTERIOUS STRANGER ADAM'S DIARY A DOG'S TALE A DOUBLE-BARRELED DETECTIVE STORY EDITORIAL WILD OATS EVE'S DIARY IN DEFENSE OF HARRIET SHELLEY AND OTHER ESSAYS IS SHAKESPEARE DEAD? CAPT. STORMFIELD'S VISIT TO HEAVEN A HORSE'S TALE THE JUMPING FROG THE 1,000,000 BANK-NOTE TRAVELS AT HOME TRAVELS IN HISTORY MARK TWAIN'S LETTERS MARK TWAIN'S SPEECHES HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK [ESTABLISHED 1817] he believed that she had daily speech with angels Saint Joan f CA<_v,,es oTWark Twain With Illustrations in Color by HOWARD PYLE Decorations in Tint by WILFRED J. JONES Harper C& Brothers Publishers New York and London . . . ST. JOAN OF ARC Copyright, 1897, 1919, by Harper & Brothers Printed in the United States of America Published May, 1919 B-T T OF THE OF A/EW YORK A ILLUSTRATIONS She Believed That She Had Daily Speech with Angels Frontispiece The Triumphal Entry into Rheims Facing p. 6 Guarded by Rough English Soldiers " 12 A Lithe, Young, Slender Figure " 20 . ' I ' * 4. I I AUTHOR'S NOTE The Official Record of the Trials and Rehabilitation of Joan of Arc is the most remarkable history that ex- ists in any language; yet there are few people in the world who can say they have read it: in England and America it has hardly been heard of. Three hundred years ago Shake- speare did not know the true story of Joan of Arc; in his day it was un- known even in France. For four hun- dred years it existed rather as a vague- ly denned romance than as definite and authentic history. The true story remained buried in the official archives of France from the Rehabilitation of 1456 until Quicherat dug it out and gave it to the world two generations ago, in lucid and understandable mod- ern French. It is a deeply fascinating story. But only in the Official Trials and Rehabilitation can it be found in its entirety. M. T. TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE 1 To arrive at a just estimate of a renowned man's character one must judge it by the standards of his time, not ours. Judged by the standards of one century, the noblest char- acters of an earlier one lose much of their luster; judged by the standards of to-day, there is probably no illustrious man of four or five centuries ago whose character could meet the test at all points. But the character of Joan of Arc is unique. It can be measured by the standards of all times without misgiving or apprehension as to the result. Judged by any of them, judged by all of them, it is still flaw- less, it is still ideally perfect; it still occupies the loftiest place possible to human attainment, a loftier one than has been reached by any other mere mortal. When we reflect that her century was the brutalest, the wickedest, the rottenest in his- 1 From Personal Recollections f Joan of Arc, by Mark Twain TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE tory since the darkest ages, we are lost in won- der at the miracle of such a product from such a soil. The contrast between her and her cen- tury is the contrast between day and night. She was truthful when lying was the common speech of men; she was honest when honesty was become a lost virtue; she was a keeper of promises when the keeping of a promise was ex- pected of no one; she gave her great mind to great thoughts and great purposes when other great minds wasted themselves upon pretty fancies or upon poor ambitions; she was modest, and fine, and delicate when to be loud and coarse might be said to be universal; she was full of pity when a merciless cruelty was the rule; she was steadfast when stability was unknown, and honorable in an age which had forgotten what honor was; she was a rock of convictions in a time when men believed in nothing and scoffed at all things; she was unfailingly true in an age that was false to the core; she maintained her personal dignity unimpaired in an age of f awnings and servilities; she was of a daunt- less courage when hope and courage had perished in the hearts of her nation; she was spotlessly pure in mind and body when society in the highest places was foul in both she was all TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE XI these things in an age when crime was the com- mon business of lords and princes, and when the highest personages in Christendom were able to astonish even that infamous era and make it stand aghast at the spectacle of their atrocious lives black with unimaginable treach- eries, butcheries, and bestialities. She was perhaps the only entirely unselfish person whose name has a place in profane history. No vestige or suggestion of self-seek- ing can be found in any word or deed of hers. When she had rescued her King from his vaga- bondage, and set his crown upon his head, she was offered rewards and honors, but she refused them all, and would take nothing. All she would take for herself if the King would grant it was leave to go back to her village home, and tend her sheep again, and feel her mother's arms about her, and be her housemaid and helper. The selfishness of this unspoiled gen- eral of victorious armies, companion of princes, and idol of an applauding and grateful nation, reached but that far and no farther. The work wrought by Joan of Arc may fairly be regarded as ranking any recorded in history, when one considers the conditions under which it was undertaken, the obstacles in the way, Xll TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE and the means at her disposal. Caesar carried conquest far, but he did it with the trained and confident veterans of Rome, and was a trained soldier himself; and Napoleon swept away the disciplined armies of Europe, but he also was a trained soldier, and he began his work with patriot battalions inflamed and inspired by the miracle-working new breath of Liberty breathed upon them by the Revolution eager young apprentices to the splendid trade of war, not old and broken men-at-arms, despairing sur- vivors of an age-long accumulation of monoto- nous defeats; but Joan of Arc, a mere child in years, ignorant, unlettered, a poor village girl unknown and without influence, found a great nation lying in chains, helpless and hopeless under an alien domination, its treasury bank- rupt, its soldiers disheartened and dispersed, all spirit torpid, all courage dead in the hearts of the people through long years of foreign and domestic outrage and oppression, their King cowed, resigned to its fate, and preparing to fly the country; and she laid her hand upon this nation, this corpse, and it rose and followed her. She led it from victory to victory, she turned back the tide of the Hundred Years' War, she fatally crippled the English power, TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE Xlll and died with the earned title of Deliverer of France, which she bears to this day. And for all reward, the French King, whom she had crowned, stood supine and indifferent, while French priests took the noble child, the most innocent, the most lovely, the most ador- able the ages have produced, and burned her alive at the stake. Saint Joan f SAINT JOAN OF ARC CHAPTER I HE evidence furnished at the Trials and Rehabilitation sets forth Joan of Arc's strange and beautiful history in clear and minute detail. Among all the multitude of biographies that freight the shelves of the world's libraries, this is the only one whose validity is confirmed to us by oath. It gives us a vivid picture of a career and a personality of so extraordinary a character that we are helped to accept them as actualities by the very fact that both are beyond the inven- tive reach of fiction. The public part of the career occupied only a mere breath of time it covered but two years ; but what a career it was ! The personality which made it possible is one to be reverently studied, loved, and marveled at, but not to be wholly understood and accounted for by even the most searching analysis. }. ^ \\ aJ n '1 fe F SAINT JOAN OF ARC '/i In Joan of Arc at the age of sixteen there was no promise of a romance. She lived in a dull little village on the frontiers of civiliza- tion; she had been nowhere and had seen nothing; she knew none but simple shepherd folk; she had never seen a person of note; she hardly knew what a soldier looked like; she had never ridden a horse, nor had a warlike weapon in her hand; she could neither read nor write; she could spin and sew; she knew her catechism and her prayers and the fabu- lous histories of the saints, and this was all her learning. That was Joan at sixteen. What did she know of law? of evidence? of courts? of the attorney's trade? of legal procedure? Nothing. Less than nothing. Thus exhaust- ively equipped with ignorance, she went be- fore the court at Toul to contest a false charge of breach of promise of marriage; she con- ducted her cause herself, without any one's help or advice or any one's friendly sympathy, and won it. She called no witnesses of her own, but vanquished the prosecution by using with deadly effectiveness its own testimony. The astonished judge threw the case out of court, and spoke of her as "this marvelous child." She went to the veteran Commandant of SAINT JOAN OF ARC Vaucouleurs and demanded an escort of sol- diers, saying she must niarch to the help of the King of France, since she was commissioned of God to win back his lost kingdom for him and set the crown upon his head. The Com- mandant said, "What, you? you are only a child." And he advised that she be taken back to her village and have her ears boxed. But she said she must obey God, and would come again, and again, and yet again, and finally she would get the soldiers. She said truly. In time he yielded, after months of delay and refusal, and gave her the soldiers; and took off his sword and gave her that, and said, "Go and let come what may." She made her long and perilous journey through the en- emy's country, and spoke with the King, and convinced him. Then she was summoned be- fore the University of Poitiers to prove that she was commissioned of God and not of Satan, and daily during three weeks she sat before that learned congress unafraid, and capably answered their deep questions out of her igno- rant but able head and her simple and honest heart; and again she won her case, and with it the wondering admiration of all that august company. SAINT JOAN OF ARC And now, aged seventeen, she was made Commander - in - Chief, with a prince of the royal house and the veteran generals of France for subordinates; and at the head of the first army she had ever seen, she marched to Orleans, carried the commanding fortress of the enemy by storm in three desperate assaults, and in ten days raised a siege which had defied the might of France for seven months. After a tedious and insane delay caused by the King's instability of character and the treacherous counsels of his ministers, she got permission to take the field again. She took Jargeau by storm; then Meung; she forced Beaugency to surrender; then in the open field she won the memorable victory of Patay against Talbot "the English Lion," and broke the back of the Hundred Years' War. It was campaign which cost but seven weeks of time; yet the political results would have been cheap if the time expended had been fifty years. Patay, that unsung and now long- forgotten battle, was the Moscow of the Eng- lish power in France; from the blow struck that day it was destined never to recover. It was the beginning of the end of an alien do- SAINT JOAN OF ARC minion which had ridden France intermittently for three hundred years. Then followed the great campaign of the Loire, the capture of Troyes by assault, and the triumphal march past surrendering towns and fortresses to Rheims, where Joan put the crown upon her King's head in the Cathedral, amid wild public rejoicings, and with her old peasant father there to see these things and believe his eyes if he could. She had restored the crown and the lost sovereignty; the King was grateful for once in his shabby, poor life, and asked her to name her reward and have it. She asked for nothing for herself, but begged that the taxes of her native village might be remitted forever. The prayer was granted, and the promise kept for three hundred and sixty years. Then it was broken, and remains broken to-day. France was very poor then, she is very rich now; but she has been collect- ing those taxes for more than a hundred years. Joan asked one other favor: that now that her mission was fulfilled she might be allowed to go back to her village and take up her humble life again with her mother and the friends of her childhood; for she had no pleasure in the cruelties of war, and the sight of blood SAINT JOAN OF ARC and suffering wrung her heart. Sometimes in battle she did not draw her sword, lest in the splendid madness of the onset she might forget herself and take an enemy's life with it. In the Rouen Trials, one of her quaintest speeches coming from the gentle and girlish source it did was her naive remark that she had "never killed any one." Her prayer for leave to go back to the rest and peace of her village home was not granted. Then she wanted to march at once upon Paris, take it, and drive the English out of France. She was hampered in all ways that treachery and the King's vacillation could de- vise, but she forced her way to Paris at last, and fell badly wounded in a successful assault upon one of the gates. Of course her men lost heart at once she was the only heart they had. They fell back. She begged to be allowed to remain at the front, saying victory was sure. "I will take Paris now or die!" she said. But she was removed from the field by force; the King ordered a retreat, and actually disbanded his army. In accordance with a beautiful old military custom Joan devoted her silver armor and hung it up in the Cathedral of St. Denis. Its great days were over. VI. vV* "* triumphal entry into Rheims SAINT JOAN OF ARC Then, by command, she followed the King and his frivolous court and endured a gilded captivity for a time, as well as her free spirit could; and whenever inaction became unbear- able she gathered some men together and rode away and assaulted a stronghold and capt- ured it. At last in a sortie against the enemy, from Compiegne, on the 24th of May (when she was turned eighteen), she was herself captured, after a gallant fight. It was her last battle. She was to follow the drums no more. Thus ended the briefest epoch-making mili- tary career known to history. It lasted only a year and a month, but it found France an English province, and furnishes the reason that France is France to-day and not an English province still. Thirteen months! It was in- deed a short career; but in the centuries that have since elapsed five hundred millions of Frenchmen have lived and died blest by the benefactions it conferred; and so long as France shall endure the mighty debt must grow. And France is grateful; we often hear her say it. Also thrifty: she collects the Domremy taxes. rtf ** * CHAPTER II OAN was fated to spend the rest of her life behind bolts and bars. She was a prisoner of war, not a criminal, there- fore hers was recognized as an honorable captivity. By the rules of war she must be held to ransom, and a fair price could not be refused if offered. John of Luxembourg paid her the just compliment of requiring a prince's ransom for her. In that day that phrase repre- sented a definite sum 61,125 francs. It was of course supposable that either the King or grateful France, or both, would fly with the money and set their fair young benefactor free. But this did not happen. In five and a half months neither King nor country stirred a hand nor offered a penny. Twice Joan tried to escape. Once by a trick she succeeded for a moment, and locked her jailer in behind her, but she was discovered and caught; in the other case she let herself down from a tower sixty feet high, but her rope SAINT JOAN OF ARC was too short, and she got a fall that disabled her and she could not get away. Finally, Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, paid the money and bought Joan ostensibly for the Church, to be tried for wearing male attire and for other impieties, but really for the Eng- lish, the enemy into whose hands the poor girl was so piteously anxious not to fall. She was now shut up in the dungeons of the Castle of Rouen and kept in an iron cage, with her hands and feet and neck chained to a pillar; and from that time forth during all the months of her imprisonment, till the end, several rough Eng- lish soldiers stood guard over her night and day and not outside her room, but in it. It was a dreary and hideous captivity, but it did not conquer her: nothing could break that in- vincible spirit. From first to last she was a prisoner a year; and she spent the last three months of it on trial for her life before a formid- able array of ecclesiastical judges, and dis- puting the ground with them foot by foot and inch by inch with brilliant generalship and dauntless pluck. The spectacle of that solitary girl, forlorn and friendless, without advocate or adviser, and without the help and guidance of any copy of the charges brought against her 10 SAINT JOAN OF ARC or rescript of the complex and voluminous daily proceedings of the court to modify the crushing strain upon her astonishing memory, fighting that long battle, serene and undis- mayed against these colossal odds, stands alone in its pathos and its sublimity; it has nowhere its mate, either in the annals of fact or in the inventions of fiction. And how fine and great were the things she daily said, how fresh and crisp and she so worn in body, so starved, and tired, and har- ried! They run through the whole gamut of feeling and expression from scorn and defiance, uttered with soldierly fire and frankness, all down the scale to wounded dignity clothed in words of noble pathos; as, when her patience was exhausted by the pestering delvings and gropings and searchings of her persecutors to find out what kind of devil's witchcraft she had employed to rouse the war spirit in her timid soldiers, she burst out with, "What I said was, 'Ride these English down and I did it myself!" and as, when insultingly asked why it was that her standard had place at the crowning of the King in the Cathedral of Rheims rather than the standards of the other captains, she uttered that touching speech, SAINT JOAN OF ARC 11 "It had borne the burden, it had earned the honor" a phrase which fell from her lips without premeditation, yet whose moving beauty and simple grace it would bankrupt the arts of language to surpass. Although she was on trial for her life, she was the only witness called on either side; the only witness summoned to testify before a packed jury commissioned with a definite task: to find her guilty, whether she was guilty or not. She must be convicted out of her own mouth, there being no other way to accomplish it. Every advantage that learning has over igno- rance, age over youth, experience over inexperi- ence, chicane over artlessness, every trick and trap and gin devisable by malice and the cun- ning of sharp intellects practised in setting snares for the unwary all these were employed against her without shame; and when these arts were one by one defeated by the marvelous intuitions of her alert and penetrating mind, Bishop Cauchon stooped to a final baseness which it degrades human speech to describe: a priest who pretended to come from the region of her own home and to be a pitying friend and anxious to help her in her sore need was smug- gled into her cell, and he misused his sacred 12 SAINT JOAN OF ARC office to steal her confidence; she confided to him the things sealed from revealment by her Voices, and which her prosecutors had tried so long in vain to trick her into betraying. A concealed confederate set it all down and de- livered it to Cauchon, who used Joan's secrets, thus obtained, for her ruin. Throughout the Trails, whatever the fore- doomed witness said was twisted from its true meaning when possible, and made to tell against her ; and whenever an answer of hers was beyond the reach of twisting it was not allowed to go upon the record. It was upon one of these latter occasions that she uttered that pathetic reproach to Cauchon: ''Ah, you set down everything that is against me, but you will not set down what is for me." That this untrained young creature's genius for war was wonderful, and her generalship worthy to rank with the ripe products of a tried and trained military experience, we have the sworn testimony of two of her veteran subordinates one, the Due d'Alengon, the other the greatest of the French generals of the time, Dunois, Bastard of Orleans; that her genius was as great possibly even greater in the subtle warfare of the forum we have for witness Guarded by rough English soldiers SAINT JOAN OF ARC 13 the records of the Rouen Trials, that protracted exhibition of intellectual fence maintained with credit against the master-minds of France; that her moral greatness was peer to her intellect we call the Rouen Trials again to witness, with their testimony to a fortitude which pa- tiently and steadfastly endured during twelve weeks the wasting forces of captivity, chains, loneliness, sickness, darkness, hunger, thirst, cold, shame, insult, abuse, broken sleep, treach- ery, ingratitude, exhausting sieges of cross- examination, the threat of torture, with the rack before her and the executioner standing ready: yet never surrendering, never asking quarter, the frail wreck of her as unconquerable the last day as was her invincible spirit the first. Great as she was in so many ways, she was perhaps even greatest of all in the lofty things just named her patient endurance, her stead- fastness, her granite fortitude. We may not hope to easily find her mate and twin in these majestic qualities; where we lift our eyes high- est we find only a strange and curious contrast there in the captive eagle beating his broken wings on the Rock of St. Helena. CHAPTER III [HE Trials ended with her con- demnation. But as she had conceded nothing, confessed nothing, this was victory for her, defeat for Cauchon. But his evil resources were not yet exhausted. She was per- suaded to agree to sign a paper of slight import, then by treachery a paper was substituted which contained a recantation and a detailed con- fession of everything which had been charged against her during the Trials and denied and repudiated by her persistently during the three months; and this false paper she ignorantly signed. This was a victory for Cauchon. He followed it eagerly and pitilessly up by at once setting a trap for her which she could not escape. When she realized this she gave up the long struggle, denounced the treason which had been practised against her, repudiated the false confession, reasserted the truth of the testimony which she had given in the Trials, SAINT JOAN OF ARC 15 and went to her martyrdom with the peace of God in her tired heart, and on her lips endear- ing words and loving prayers for the cur she had crowned and the nation of ingrates she had saved. When the fires rose about her and she begged for a cross for her dying lips to kiss, it was not a friend but an enemy, not a Frenchman but an alien, not a comrade in arms but an English soldier, that answered that pathetic prayer. He broke a stick across his knee, bound the pieces together in the form of the symbol she so loved, and gave it her; and his gentle deed is not forgotten, nor will be. CHAPTER IV WENTY-FIVE years after- ward the Process of Reha- bilitation was instituted, there being a growing doubt as to the validity of a sovereignty that had been rescued and set upon its feet by a person who had been proved by the Church to be a witch and a familiar of evil spirits. Joan's old gen- erals, her secretary, several aged relations and other villagers of Domremy, surviving judges and secretaries of the Rouen and Poitiers Processes a cloud of witnesses, some of whom had been her enemies and persecutors came and made oath and testified; and what they said was written down. In that sworn testimony the moving and beautiful history of Joan of Arc is laid bare, from her childhood to her martyr- dom. From the verdict she rises stainlessly pure, in mind and heart, in speech and deed and spirit, and will so endure to the end of time. SAINT JOAN OF ARC 17 She is the Wonder of the Ages. And when we consider her origin, her early circumstances, her sex, and that she did all the things upon which her renown rests while she was still a young girl, we recognize that while our race continues she will be also the Riddle of the Ages. When we set about accounting for a Napoleon or a Shakespeare or a Raphael or a Wagner or an Edison or other extraordinary person, we understand that the measure of his talent will not explain the whole result, nor even the largest part of it; no, it is the atmos- phere in which the talent was cradled that ex- plains; it is the training which it received while it grew, the nurture it got from reading, study, example, the encouragement it gathered from self-recognition and recognition from the outside at each stage of its development: when we know all these details, then we know why the man was ready when his opportunity came. We should expect Edison's surroundings and atmosphere to have the largest share in dis- covering him to himself and to the world; and we should expect him to live and die undis- covered in a land where an inventor could find no comradeship, no sympathy, no ambition- rousing atmosphere of recognition and applause 18 SAINT JOAN OF ARC Dahomey, for instance. Dahomey could not find an Edison out; in Dahomey an Edison could not find himself out. Broadly speaking, genius is not born with sight, but blind; and it is not itself that opens its eyes, but the subtle influences of a myriad of stimulating exterior circumstances. We all know this to be not a guess, but a mere commonplace fact, a truism. Lorraine was Joan of Arc's Dahomey. And there the Riddle confronts us. We can understand how she could be born with military genius, with leonine courage, with incomparable fortitude, with a mind which was in several particulars a prodigy a mind which included among its specialties the lawyer's gift of detecting traps laid by the adversary in cunning and treacher- ous arrangements of seemingly innocent words, the orator's gift of eloquence, the advocate's gift of presenting a case in clear and compact form, the judge's gift of sorting and weighing evidence, and finally, something recognizable as more than a mere trace of the statesman's gift of understanding a political situation and how to make profitable use of such opportuni- ties as it offers; we can comprehend how she could be born with these great qualities, but SAINT JOAN OF ARC 19 we cannot comprehend how they became im- mediately usable and effective without the de- veloping forces of a sympathetic atmosphere and the training which comes of teaching, study, practice years of practice and the crowning and perfecting help of a thousand mistakes. We can understand how the possibilities of the future perfect peach are all lying hid in the humble bitter-almond, but we cannot conceive of the peach springing directly from the almond without the intervening long seasons of patient cultivation and development. Out of a cattle- pasturing peasant village lost in the remote- nesses of an unvisited wilderness and atrophied with ages of stupefaction and ignorance we cannot see a Joan of Arc issue equipped to the last detail for her amazing career and hope to be able to explain the riddle of it, labor at it as we may. It is beyond us. All the rules fail in this girl's case. In the world's history she stands alone quite alone. Others have been great in their first public exhibitions of generalship, valor, legal talent, diplomacy, fortitude; but always their previous years and associations had been in a larger or smaller degree a prepa- ration for these things. There have been no 20 SAINT JOAN OF ARC exceptions to the rule. But Joan was com- petent in- a law case at sixteen without ever having seen a law-book or a court-house before; she had no training in soldiership and no as- sociations with it, yet she was a competent general in her first campaign; she was brave in her first battle, yet her courage had had no education not even the education which boy's courage gets from never-ceasing reminders that it is not permissible in a boy to be a coward, but only in a girl; friendless, alone, ignorant, in the blossom of her youth, she sat week after week, a prisoner in chains, before her assemblage of judges, enemies hunting her to her death, the ablest minds in France, and answered them out of an untaught wisdom which overmatched their learning, baffled their tricks and treacheries with a native sagacity which compelled their wonder, and scored every day a victory against these incredible odds and camped unchallenged on the field. In the his- tory of the human intellect, untrained, inex- perienced, and using only its birthright equip- ment of untried capacities, there is nothing which approaches this. Joan of Arc stands alone, and must continue to stand alone, by reason of the unfellowed fact that in the things La Pvcelle A lithe, young, slender figure SAINT JOAN OF ARC 21 wherein she was great she was so without shade or suggestion of help from preparatory teaching, practice, environment, or experience. There is no one to compare her with, none to measure her by; for all others among the illus- trious grew toward their high place in an at- mosphere and surroundings which discovered their gift to them and nourished it and pro- moted it, intentionally or unconsciously. There have been other young generals, but they were not girls; young generals, but they had been soldiers before they were generals: she began as a general; she commanded the first army she ever saw; she led it from victory to victory, and never lost a battle with it; there have been young commanders-in-chief, but none so young as she: she is the only soldier in history who has held the supreme command of a na- tion's armies at the age of seventeen. Her history has still another feature which sets her apart and leaves her without fellow or competitor: there have been many unin- spired prophets, but she was the only one who ever ventured the daring detail of naming, along with a foretold event, the event's precise nature, the special time-limit within which it would occur, and the place and scored ful- 22 SAINT JOAN OF ARC filment. At Vaucouleurs she said she must go to the King and be made his general and break the English power, and crown her sov- ereign "at Rheims." It all happened. It was all to happen "next year" and it did. She foretold her first wound and its character and date a month in advance, and the prophecy was recorded in a public record-book three weeks in advance. She repeated it the morning of the date named, and it was fulfilled before night. At Tours she foretold the limit of her military career saying it would end in one year from the time of its utterance and she was right. She foretold her martyrdom using that word, and naming a time three months away and again she was right. At a time when France seemed hopelessly and perma- nently in the hands of the English she twice asserted in her prison before her judges that within seven years the English would meet with a mightier disaster than had been the fall of Orleans: it happened within five -=- the fall of Paris. Other prophecies of hers came true, both as to the event named and the time- limit prescribed. She was deeply religious, and believed that she had daily speech with angels; that she saw SAINT JOAN OF ARC 23 them face to face, and that they counseled her, comforted and heartened her, and brought commands to her direct from God. She had a childlike faith in the heavenly origin of her ap- paritions and her Voices, and not any threat of any form of death was able to frighten it out of her loyal heart. She was a beautiful and simple and lovable character. In the records of the Trials this comes out in clear and shining detail. She was gentle and win- ning and affectionate; she loved her home and friends and her village life; she was miserable in the presence of pain and suffering; she was full of compassion: on the field of her most splendid victory she forgot her triumph to hold in her lap the head of a dying enemy and comfort his passing spirit with pitying words; in an age when it was common to slaughter prisoners she stood dauntless between hers and harm, and saved them alive; she was forgiving, generous, unselfish, magnanimous; she was pure from all spot or stain of baseness. And always she was a girl; and dear and wor- shipful, as is meet for that estate: when she fell wounded, the first time, she was frightened, and cried when she saw her blood gushing from her breast ; but she was Joan of Arc ! and 24 SAINT JOAN OF ARC when presently she found that her generals were sounding the retreat, she staggered to her feet and led the assault again and took that place by storm. There is no blemish in that rounded and beautiful character. How strange it is! that almost invariably the artist remembers only one detail one minor and meaningless detail of the personality of Joan of Arc: to wit, that she was a peasant girl and forgets all the rest; and so he paints her as a strapping, middle-aged fishwoman, with costume to match, and in her face the spiritu- ality of a ham. He is slave to his one idea, and forgets to observe that the supremely great souls are never lodged in gross bodies. No brawn, no muscle, could endure the work that their bodies must do; they do their miracles by the spirit, which has fifty times the strength and staying power of brawn and muscle. The Napoleons are little, not big; and they work twenty hours in the twenty-four, and come up fresh, while the big soldiers with the little hearts faint around them with fatigue. We know what Joan of Arc was like, without asking merely by what she did. The artist should paint her spirit then he could not fail to SAINT JOAN OF ARC 25 paint her body aright. She would rise before us, then, a vision to win us, not repel: a lithe young slender figure, instinct with "the un- bought grace of youth," dear and bonny and lovable, the face beautiful, and transfigured with the light of that lustrous intellect and the fires of that unquenchable spirit. Taking into account, as I have suggested before, all the circumstances her origin, youth, sex, illiteracy, early environment, and the ob- structing conditions under which she exploited her high gifts and made her conquests in the field and before the courts that tried her for her life she is easily and by far the most ex- traordinary person the human race has ever produced. CONCLUSION l OAN'S brother Jacques died in Domremy during the Great Trial at Rouen. This was I 'according to the prophecy which Joan made that day in the pastures the time that she said the rest of us would go to the great wars. When her poor old father heard of the martyr- dom it broke his heart and he died. The mother was granted a pension by the city of Orleans, and upon this she lived out her days, which were many. Twenty-four years after her illustrious child's death she traveled all the way to Paris in the wintertime and was present at the opening of the discussion in the Cathedral of Notre Dame which was the first step in the Rehabilitation. Paris was crowded with people, from all about France, who came 1 From Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, by Mark Twain. SAINT JOAN OF ARC 27 to get sight of the venerable dame, and it was a touching spectacle when she moved through these reverend wet-eyed multitudes on her way to the grand honors awaiting her at the cathe- dral. With her were Jean and Pierre, no longer the light-hearted youths who marched with us from Vaucouleurs, but war-worn veterans with hair beginning to show frost. After the martyrdom Noel and I went back to Domremy, but presently, when the Con- stable Richemont superseded La Tremouille as the King's chief adviser and began the com- pletion of Joan's great work, we put on our har- ness and returned to the field and fought for the King all through the wars and skirmishes until France was freed of the English. It was what Joan would have desired of us; and, dead or alive, her desire was law for us. All the survivors of the personal staff were faith- ful to her memory and fought for the King to the end. Mainly we were well scattered, but when Paris fell we happened to be together. It was a great day and a joyous; but it was a sad one at the same time, because Joan was not there to march into the captured capital with us. Noel and I remained always together, and I was by his side when death claimed him. It 28 SAINT JOAN OF ARC was in the last great battle of the war. In that battle fell also Joan's sturdy old enemy Talbot. He was eighty-five years old, and had spent his whole life in battle. A fine old lion he was, with his flowing white mane and his tameless spirit ; yes, and his indestructible energy as well ; for he fought as knightly and vigorous a fight that day as the best man there. La Hire survived the martyrdom thirteen years; and always fighting, of course, for that was all he enjoyed in life. I did not see him in all that time, for we were far apart, but one was always hearing of him. The Bastard of Orleans and D'Alengon and D'Aulon lived to see France free, and to testify with Jean and Pierre d'Arc and Pasquerel and me at the Rehabilitation. But they are all at rest now, these many years. I alone am left of those who fought at the side of Joan of Arc in the great wars. She said I would live until these wars were forgotten a prophecy which failed. If I should live a thousand years it would still fail. For whatsoever had touch with Joan of Arc, that thing is immortal. Members of Joan's family married, and they have left descendants. Their descendants are of the nobility, but their family name and blood SAINT JOAN OF ARC 29 bring them honors which no other nobles re- ceive or may hope for. You have seen how everybody along the way uncovered when those children came yesterday to pay their duty to me. It was not because they are noble; it is because they are grandchildren of the brothers of Joan of Arc. Now as to the Rehabilitation. Joan crowned the King at Rheims. For reward he allowed her to be hunted to her death without making one effort to save her. During the next twenty- three years he remained indifferent to her mem- ory; indifferent to the fact that her good name was under a damning blot, put there by the priests because of the deeds which she had done in saving him and his scepter; indifferent to the fact that France was ashamed, and longed to have the Deliverer's fair fame restored. In- different all that time. Then he suddenly changed and was anxious to have justice for poor Joan himself. Why? Had he become grateful at last? Had remorse attacked his hard heart? No, he had a better reason a better one for his sort of man. This better reason was that, now that the English had been finally expelled from the country, they were beginning to call attention to the fact that this 30 SAINT JOAN OF ARC King had gotten his crown by the hands of a person proven by the priests to have been in league with Satan and burned for it by them as a sorceress therefore, of what value or au- thority was such a Kingship as that? Of no value at all; no nation could afford to allow such a king to remain on the throne. It was high time to stir now, and the King did it. That is how Charles VII. came to be smitten with anxiety to have justice done the memory of his benefactress. He appealed to the Pope, and the Pope ap- pointed a great commission of churchmen to examine into the facts of Joan's life and award judgment. The Commission sat at Paris, at Domremy, at Rouen, at Orleans, and at several other places, and continued its work during several months. It examined the records of Joan's trials, it examined the Bastard of Orleans, and the Duke d'Alengon, and D'Aulon, and Pasquerel, and Courcelles, and Isambard de la Pierre, and Manchon, and me, and many others whose names I have made familiar to you; also they examined more than a hundred witnesses whose names are less familiar to you friends of Joan in Domremy, Vaucouleurs, Orleans, and other places, and a number of judges and SAINT JOAN OF ARC 31 other people who had assisted at the Rouen trials, the abjuration, and the martyrdom. And out of this exhaustive examination Joan's character and history came spotless and perfect, and this verdict was placed upon record, to remain forever. I was present upon most of these occasions, and saw again many faces which I have not seen for a quarter of a century; among them some well -beloved faces those of our generals and that of Catherine Boucher (married, alas!), and also among them certain other faces that filled me with bitterness those of Beaupere and Courcelles and a number of their fellow- fiends. I saw Haumette and Little Mengette edging along toward fifty now, and mothers of many children. I saw Noel's father, and the parents of the Paladin and the Sunflower. It was beautiful to hear the Duke d'Alengon praise Joan's splendid capacities as a general, and to hear the Bastard indorse these praises with his eloquent tongue and then go on and tell how sweet and good Joan was, and how full of pluck, and fire, and impetuosity, and mischief, and mirthfulness, and tenderness, and com- passion, and everything that was pure and fine and noble and lovely. He made her live again before me, and wrung my heart. 32 SAINT JOAN OF ARC I have finished my story of Joan of Arc, that wonderful child, that sublime personality, that spirit which in one regard has had no peer and will have none this: its purity from all alloy of self-seeking, self-interest, personal ambition. In it no trace of these motives can be found, search as you may, and this cannot be said of any other person whose name appears in pro- fane history. . With Joan of Arc love of country was more than a sentiment it was a passion. She was the Genius of Patriotism she was Patriotism embodied, concreted, made flesh, and palpable to the touch and visible to the eye. Love, Mercy, Charity, Fortitude, War, Peace, Poetry, Music these may be symbolized as any shall prefer : by figures of either sex and of any age; but a slender girl in her first young bloom, with the martyr's crown upon her head, and in her hand the sword that severed her country's bonds shall not this, and no other, stand for Patriotism through all the ages until time shall end? THE END ST.