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Hon, Doctor in Law of the University of Calcutta; 

Hon. Member of the Bombay Asiatic Society; 

Member of the koyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the Oriental Society of Germany; 
Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford. 




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JL HE following pages are the result of an endeavour to furnish 
English students of Sanskrit with a correct edition of the most 
celebrated drama of India's greatest dramatist. About a century 
has elapsed since Sir W. Jones discovered that there existed in 
India a number of Natakas or Sanskrit dramas, many of them of 
great antiquity ; some abounding in poetry of undoubted merit, 
and all of them containing valuable pictures of Hindu life and 
manners. Eager to apply the means thus gained of filling what 
was before an empty niche in the Temple of Sanskrit Literature, 
Sir W. Jones addressed himself at once to translate into English 
the Sakuntala, which he was told was the most admired of all the 
extant plays. 

This work is by the illustrious Kalidasa, who is supposed by some 
native authorities (though on insufficient grounds) to have lived in 
UjjayinI, the capital of king Vikramaditya, whose reign is the 
starting-point of the Hindu era called Samvat, beginning 57 years 
B.C. Kalidasa is described as one of the 'nine gems' of that 
monarch's splendid court. It seems, however, more probable that 
Kalidasa flourished in the third century of the Christian era 
(see p. 474 of Indian Wisdom, published by W. H. Allen & Co., 
13, Waterloo Place, London). The Sakuntala is acknowledged on 
all hands to be the masterpiece of the great Indian poet. Indeed, no 
composition of Kalidasa displays more the richness and fertility of 
his poetical genius, the exuberance of his imagination, the warmth 
and play of his fancy, his profound knowledge of the human heart, 
his delicate appreciation of its most refined and tender emotions, his 
familiarity with the workings and counter-workings of its con- 
flicting feelings, in short, more entitles him to rank as 'the 
Shakespeare of India.' On the Continent such men as Goethe, 



Schlegel, and Humboldt have all expressed their admiration of the 
Hindu poet's greatest work. Goethe's four well-known lines, 
written in 1792, are 

' Willst du die Bliithe des frtihen, die Friichte des spateren Jahres, 
Willst du was reizt und entzuckt, willst du was sattigt und nahrt, 
Willst du den Himmel, die Erde, mit einem Namen begreifen : 
Nenn' ich Sakontald dich, und so ist Alles gesagt V 

Unfortunately the Pandits omitted to inform Sir W. Jones that 
the multiplication of manuscripts of this play, consequent upon 
its popularity, had led to a perplexing result, not, however, 
unexampled, as has since been proved by what has happened to 
the Ramayana, namely, that the numerous manuscripts separated 
themselves into two classes : the one, embracing all those in Deva- 
nagari writing, which, without being uniform, had still a community 
of character ; the other, all those in Bengali. 

These two classes of MSS. are usually distinguished by the 
names ' Deva-nagari recension ' and ' Bengali recension/ which 
terms may conveniently be adopted. The Deva-nagari recension 

1 Thus translated by Mr. E. B. Eastwick : 

' Wouldst thou the young year's blossoms and the fruits of its decline, 

And all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, fed, 
Wouldst thou the earth, and heaven itself in one sole name combine ? 
I name thee, Sakuntala ! and all at once is said.' 

Augustus William von Schlegel, in his first Lecture on Dramatic Literature, says : 
' Among the Indians, the people from whom perhaps all the cultivation of the human 
race has been derived, plays were known long before they could have experienced any 
foreign influence. It has lately been made known in Europe that they have a rich 
dramatic literature, which ascends back for more than two thousand years. The only 
specimen of their plays (Nataks) hitherto known to us is the delightful Sakontala, 
which, notwithstanding the colouring of a foreign climate, bears in its general structure 
a striking resemblance to our romantic drama.' 

Alexander von Humboldt, in treating of Indian poetry, observes : ' The name of 
Kalidasa has been frequently and early celebrated among the western nations. This 
great poet flourished at the splendid court of Vikramaditya, and was, therefore, 
contemporary with Virgil and Horace. The English and German translations of the 
Sakuntala have excited the feeling of admiration which has been so amply bestowed 
upon Kalidasa. Tenderness in the expression of feelings, and richness of creative 
fancy, have assigned to him his lofty place among the poets of all nations.' In another 
place he says : ' Kalidasa is a masterly describer of the influence which Nature 
exercises upon the minds of lovers. The scene in the forest, which he introduced in 
the drama of Vikrama and Urvas'I, is one of the most beautiful and poetical produc- 
tions which has appeared in any time.' 


is thought by most scholars to be the older and purer. Many of 
the readings of the Bengali, however, have been defended by 
Dr. R. Pischel and others ; and this recension has been followed 
by the Sahitya-darpana, one MS. of which bears the date 1504 
of our era. The MSS. of the Deva-nagari class are chiefly found 
in the Upper Provinces of India, where the great demand has 
produced copyists without scholarship, who have faithfully tran- 
scribed what they did not understand, and, therefore, could not 
designedly alter. On the other hand, the copyists in Bengal 
have been Pandits whose cacoethes for amplifying and interpolating 
has led to much repetition and amplification. Many examples 
might here be adduced; but I will only refer to the third Act 
of the Bengali recension, where the love-scene between the King 
and Sakuntala has been expanded to four or five times the length 
it occupies in the MSS. of the Deva-nagari recension. Even the 
names of the dramatis personse have been altered : Dushyanta is 
changed into Dushmanta ; Anasuya into Anusiiya ; Vatayana into 
Parvatayana ; Sanumati into Misrakesi ; Taralika into Pin-galika ; 
Dhanamitra into Dhanavriddhi ; Markandeya into San-kocana. 

Unhappily it was a MS. of this recension, and not a very 
good specimen of its class, that Sir W. Jones used for his trans- 
lation. From him, therefore, was gained, about a century ago, 
the earliest incorrect knowledge of this, the first Sanskrit play 
known to Europeans. No edition of the text appeared till about 
forty years afterwards, when one was produced in 1830, after 
immense labour, at Paris, by M. Che'zy. He deserved great credit 
for the difficulties he surmounted ; but his edition was also from a 
MS. of the Bengali recension. It abounded also in typographical 
and other more serious errors. An edition of the Sakuntala was 
subsequently printed in Calcutta, also from Bengali MSS. and in 
Bengali character, by Prema-c'andra, dated Saka 1761 (A.D. 1839). 
Several editions of the Bengali recension have been printed at 
Calcutta in the Deva-nagari character; one in 1860 by Prema- 
candra (under the superintendence of Professor E. B. Cowell), for 
European scholars ; others in 1864 and 1870. 

It was reserved for Dr. Boehtlingk to be the first to edit the 
Deva-nagari recension of this play at Bonn in the year 1842. No 
other edition of the text of this recension was published until my 
first edition in 1853. An edition of the same recension was 
published at Bombay in 1861, and one at Breslau in 1872 by 

viii PREFACE. 

Dr. Burkhard, Professor in the University of Bonn, to which is 
added a glossary. 

The translations which have been published since that of Sir 
W. Jones and the German version of his translation by Forster, 
in 1791, are first, the French of M. Chezy; subsequently the 
German of Hirzel, Riickert, and Boehtlingk ; a Danish translation 
by Hammerich ; and more recently, another German translation in 
prose and verse by Meier ; not to speak of Danish and Italian 
versions of Sir W. Jones' English ; and my own English transla- 
tion, the fourth edition of which was published (by W. H. Allen & 
Co., 13, Waterloo Place, London) in 1872. 

The great Indian dramatist only wrote two other dramas. 
Of the Vikramorvasi, the twin play of the Sakuntala, two editions 
have appeared on the Continent ; one at Bonn, by Lenz, and a 
more perfect one at St. Petersburg, by Bollensen : an edition of 
this play was also printed at the Education press in Calcutta in 
1830, and one by myself in 1849, and another at Calcutta in 1869. 
Translations by Hoefer and Hirzel have been published in Germany, 
and in England by Wilson in prose and verse, and a literal transla- 
tion in English prose by Professor Cowell. The third play, called 
Malavikagnimitra, was edited at Bonn, by Tullberg; and a more 
correct edition, with English notes, by Shankar P. Pandit, was 
published at Bombay in 1869. This drama has been ably trans- 
lated into German by Professor Weber. 

I am bound to acknowledge that I made free use of Dr. 
Boehtlingk's edition of the text of the Sakuntala in preparing 
the first edition for the press. The merit of his work can hardly 
be overrated; but I may, without presumption, say that I dis- 
covered many better readings, corrected a few errors, and introduced 
much original matter in the shape of annotations. It is no 
disparagement of Dr. Boehtlingk's labours to say that his edition 
does not adapt itself to the exigencies of an English student. The 
notes are in German ; they are printed at the end of the volume 
a practical obstacle to their utility; and they frequently contain 
corrections of the text. My experience has led me to prefer a 
system of synopsis, both in respect of the notes and metres. 

In regard to the text of the present volume, if I have succeeded 
in producing a more correct edition of the Deva-nagari recension, 
than those of Dr. Boehtlingk and Dr. Burkhard, the merit is due 
to the more ample materials which have been placed at my com- 


mand. In preparing the first edition I took care to avail myself of 
Dr. Boehtlingk's corrections of himself, and his after-thoughts at 
the end of his work, as well as of such critical remarks as coincided 
with my own views. Often working independently of him, I 
arrived at similar results, because I had access to all the materials 
whence his Apparatus Criticus was composed. Dr. Boehtlingk's 
edition was not prepared (as he has himself explained) from original 
MSS. Professors Brockhaus and Westergaard, having more or less 
carefully collated certain MSS. in the East India House Library 
and in the Bodleian at Oxford, and made partial extracts from three 
native Commentaries, handed over the results of their labours to 
him. All these MSS. and Commentaries were placed at my 
disposal, and most of them left in my possession until the com- 
pletion of my work. Not a passage was printed without a careful 
collation of all of them, and the three Commentaries were consulted 
from beginning to end. 

The MSS. which I principally used, were 

1. A MS. from the Colebrooke Collection, and therefore from 
the Eastern side of India, numbered 1718. 

2. A MS. from the Mackenzie Collection, and therefore from 
Southern India, numbered 2696. 

3. A MS. from the Taylor Collection, and therefore from 
Western India, numbered 1858, dated Saka 1734. 

All these belong to the India Office Library, and represent the 
three Indian Presidencies respectively. 

4. A copy of a very good MS. at Bombay, presented to me by 
Mr. Shaw of the Bombay Civil Service. 

5. An old Bengali MS. belonging to the India Office Library, 
numbered 1060. 

6. A very old Bengali MS. from the Wilson Collection in the 

I consulted other Bengali MSS., but rarely admitted readings 
from them, unless supported by some one of the Deva-nagari. 
Thus the verses which I inserted at the beginning of the third Act 
are supported throughout by my own and the Taylor MS., and 
partially by that of the Mackenzie Collection. 

The following are the three Indian Commentators 
1. Katavema, whose commentary, from the Mackenzie Collection 
at the India Office, is the only one in the Nagarl character. He 
was the son of Kata Bhupa, minister of Vasanta (himself the author 



of a dramatic work called Vasanta-rajiya), king of Kumara-giri, 
a place on the frontiers of the Nizam's dominions. He must 
have lived after the commencement of the sixteenth century, 
as he quotes Halayudha, the author of the Kavi-rahasya (see 
Westergaard's preface to the Radices Linguae Sanskritse). This 
commentary is very corrupt, but where it is intelligible, is of 
great use in throwing light on the more difficult passages of this 

2. San-kara, whose commentary, from the Wilson Collection in 
the Bodleian Library, is on the Bengali recension, and written in 
the Bengali character. In many places it agrees with the readings 
of the Deva-nagari recension, or at least notices them. 

3. 6andra-sekhara, whose commentary, belonging to the India 
Office, is also on the Bengali recension, and generally only repeats 
the words of San-kara. If this (5andra-sekhara is the same person 
as the father of Visva-natha, author of the Sahitya-darpana, 
he probably lived in the fifteenth century. 

I never failed to consult the three commentaries before deciding 
on the reading of my text, and made their interpretations the basis 
of the literal translations of the metrical part of the play given in 
the notes. 

In this second edition, I have constantly consulted Dr. Burkhard's 
text and glossary, and where better readings have been discovered, 
they are generally mentioned in my notes. 

On comparing the present edition with the previous one, it will 
be observed that the red type has been dispensed with, and the 
Sanskrit interpretation of the Prakrit passages has been given in 
small type below. 

In the Hindu drama, as is well known, the women and 
inferior characters speak in Prakrit the name given to the collo- 
quial Sanskrit, prevalent throughout a great part of India in 
early times. This spoken form of Sanskrit, which was really the 
precursor of the present vernacular tongues, must have varied 
greatly, and particular dialects must have belonged to particular 
districts and classes of men. There is, however, but one principal 
Prakrit, peculiar to the plays, viz. the Maharashtri, although 
specimens of some varieties occasionally occur, and two of them 
may be found in the interlude between the fifth and sixth Acts 
of this play (see p. 217, note 2, and see Indian Wisdom, p. xxix, 
note 2). 


Other improvements and alterations will be noticed. For 
example, the rules of Sandhi have generally been carried out, 
even in the Sanskrit interpretation of the Prakrit ; the text 
and renderings in the notes have been carefully revised, and 
reference has been constantly made to Dr. Burkhard's edition; 
the stage-directions and names of the speakers have been printed 
in small type. 

Mr. E. L. Hogarth, M. A., of Brasenose College, who has 
acted as Deputy Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford during my 
absence in India, has superintended the progress of this second 
edition of the Sakuntala. through the press, and has added a 
useful index. 

My grateful acknowledgments are due to the Delegates of the 
Clarendon Press for the encouragement they are giving to the 
study of Sanskrit and Oriental literature generally, by undertaking 
the publication of standard works like the Sakuntala. 


CAIKO, March 1876. 


[The commonest abbreviations are not given.] 

Amara-k. = Amara-kosha. 

B. and R. = Boehtlingk and Roth. 

Beng. = Bengali (MSS.) or Bengali recension. 
Bhartri-h. = Bhartri-hari (Bohlen's ed.) 
Bhatti-k. = Bhatti-kavya. 

C. = the commentator Candra-fekhara. 
chap. = chapter. 

cl. = class of verbs. 

Deva-n. = Deva-nagari (MSS.) or Deva- 
nagari recension. 

Diet. = my Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 

Draupadl-h. = Draupadi-harana in Johnson's 
Selections from the Maha-bharata. 

ed. = edition. 

GIta-g. = Gita-govinda (Lassen's ed.) 

Gram. = my Sanskrit Grammar, 4th ed. 

Hari-v. = Hari-vansa, the last Book of the 

Hitop. = Hitopadesa (Johnson's 1st ed.) 

I. O. = India Office. 

K. = the commentator Katavema. 

Kumara-s, = Kumara-sambhava. 

1. = line. 

Laghu-k. = Laghu-kaumudl. 

Maha-bh. Sel.= Johnson's Selections from 

the Maha-bharata. 
Malati-m. = Malatl-madhava (the Calcutta 

ed. 1830). 

Malavik. = Malavikagnimitra (Tullberg's ed.) 
Megha-d. = Megha-duta. 
Mriddh. or Mri<5ifhak. = Mriddhakatika (Cal- 
cutta ed.) 
Mudra-r. = Mudra-rakshasa (Calcutta ed. 


Nalod. = Nalodaya. 
Pan. = Panini (Boehtlingk's ed.) 
Prak. =Pr5krit. 
Raghu-v. = Raghu-vansa. 
Ramay. = Ramayana (Schlegel's ed.) 
Ratn. = Ratnavali (Calcutta ed. 1832). 
rt. = root. 

S'. = the commentator S'an-kara. 
Sahit.-d. = Sahitya-darpana (Calcutta ed. 


Sk. = Sanskrit. 
Vikram. = Vikramorvasl. 
Vishnu-p. =s Vishnu-purana (Wilson's trans- 
lation, large ed.) 


1 ' (That visible form, viz. water) which (was) the first creation of the 
Creator ; (that, viz. fire) which bears the oblation offered-according-to- 
rule ; and (that visible form, viz. the priest) which (is) the offerer-of-the- 
oblation ; (those) two (visible forms, viz. the Sun and Moon) which regulate 
time ; (that, viz. ether) which perpetually pervades all space, having the 
quality (sound) perceptible by the ear ; (that, viz. the earth) which they 
call the originator of all created-things ; (that, viz. the air) by which 
living beings are furnished with breath may Isa [the supreme Lord], 
endowed with [manifested in] these eight visible forms, preserve you ! ' 
The play begins and ends with a prayer to S'iva (see the last note in this 
play). After every relative pronoun some case of p/ratyaJcshd tanuh must 
be supplied. Srishtir ddyd: see Manu i. 8 10, apa eva sasarja ddau, 
1 (the Creator) first created the waters.' Vidhi-hutam = veda-vidhdnena 
agnau kshiptam, C. Hotrl = dikshita-mayl tanuh, K., yajamdna-rupd 
tanuh, C., ' the Brahman who is qualified by initiation to offer the obla- 
tion/ Kdlam vidJiattah = samayam kurutah, C. ; = srijatah, S'. Hence 
the Sun is called divd-kara, ' maker of the day ; ' and the Moon, nisd-kara, 
'maker of the night.' Sruti-vi : the Hindus reckon five elements, viz. 
water, fire, ether, earth, and air. Ether (dkdsa] is held to be the vehicle 
of sound, or of that quality which is the object of perception to the ear 
(see Manu i. 75). Vydpya sthitd, i.e. 'keeps pervading.' Compare 

Verse 1. The metre is SBAGDHABA (a variety of PEAKRITI), in which there are 
twenty-one syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 

II ^M*HlfljSlltcO\'W II 


vydpya sthitam rodasl in the opening of Vikramorvasl. StJid is joined 
with an indecl. part, to express continuity of action. Visvam=prapan6am, 
'the whole visible universe,' K. Sarva-bhuta-prakritih, so reads Kata- 
vema, followed by my own MS., and supported by Manu ix. 37, lyam 
bhumir bhutdndm sdsvatl yonir ucyate, ' this earth is called the primeval 
womb \yonih-kdranam, Kul.] of all created things.' The other MSS. 
have sarva-vya-prakritih. Prakritih = updddna-kdranam, K. ; = utpatti- 
sthdnam, C.; = niddnam, S'. Prapannah = upetah, K. The Bengali MSS. 
have prasannah. The worshippers of S'iva, who were Pantheists in the 
sense of believing that S'iva was himself all that exists as well as the 
cause of all that is, held that there were eight different manifestations 
of their god, called Rudras (viz. Rudra, Bhava, Sarva, Isana, Pasu-pati, 
Bhima, Ugra, Maha-deva), and that these had their types or representatives 
in the eight visible forms enumerated here. So the Vishnu-purana (Wilson, 
p. 58, large ed.), ' Brahma assigned to them their respective stations : 
water, the sun, earth, fire, air, ether, the officiating Brahman \dlkshito 
brdhmanah], and the moon ; these are termed their visible forms [tana- 
vah].' In the opening of Malavik. mention is made of S'iva upholding 
the universe by means of these forms, ashtdbhis tanubhir bibhratah 
Jcritsnam jagad api. See also Kumara-s. iv. 76. S'an-kara, with far- 
fetched subtilty, points out how each of these types of S'iva is intended 
by the poet to correspond with circumstances in the life of S'akuntala. 
Thus, yd srislitih, &c., is compared with the sentiment in verse 43 ; and 
ye dve, &c., with the two female friends. 

1 'At the end of the Nandi, the Sutra-dhara (speaks).' In the Hindu 
drama every piece commences with a prologue, which is preceded by the 
Nandi or opening benediction, invoking the favour of some deity. It is 
called Nandi because it rejoices the hearts of the gods ; nandanty asydm 
surd yasmdt tena ndndl praklrtitd, S'. The Sahitya-darpana (p. 135) 
says, ' "What is recited in praise of a deity, a Brahman, a king, or the like, 
combined with a benediction, is called Nandi.' It is said to be employed 
vighnopasdntaye, 'for the removal of obstacles.' The Sutra-dhara was 
the principal manager who regulated the thread or rules of the drama ; 

yena nartaniya-katJid-sutram prathamam sucyate, S'. He is otherwise, 
especially when not a Brahman, called the Sthapaka, 'he who fixes or 
establishes the action of the play;' kdvydrtJia-sthdpandt, C. Sthdpakah 
sutradlidra-sadrisa-gundkdrah, ' the Sthapaka has qualities and an ap- 
pearance like those of the Sutra-dhara,' Sahit.-d. p. 137, 1. 6. Sutra- 
dhdra-padena atra sthdpako 'bhimatah sutradhdra-samdndkdratvdt, S'. 
Bharata says, Sutradhdrah pathen ndndlm madhyamam [prathamam, C.] 
svaram dsritah, 'the Sutra-dhara should recite the Nandi, employing a 
tone neither high nor low.' He was generally a Brahman, and therefore 
qualified to recite the Nandi in his own person. He did so, however, as 
a Brahman, and not in his character of manager, which he did not assume 
till he had concluded the Nandi. Ndndy-ante siltradhdrah is therefore 
equivalent to ' at the end of the Nandi, or after reciting the Nandi, the 
Sutra-dhara continues speaking.' So Candra-sekhara, Ndndl, etad-ante 
sutradhdro vadati, ndndlm pathitvd anyad vadati ity arthah. Hence the 
word pravisya, 'entering/ is not required; the reciter of the Nandi 
remaining on the stage in the character of manager. \Iti nayena 
ndndy-ante sutradhdra-praveso 'pdstah, C.] If the manager happened 
not to be a Brahman, he seems to have had no right to the title Sutra- 
dhdra, nor could he recite the Nandi, but in that case some Brahman 
pronounced the blessing, and the manager was called Sthapaka. Such, 
at least, seems to be the meaning of Bharata's aphorism \ran-ga-pujdm 
vidhdya ddau sutradhdre vinirgate sthdpakah praviset pascdt sutradhdra- 
gundkritih], though all the extant plays make the Sutra-dhara first recite 
the benediction, arid then carry on the dialogue. The Sahit.-d., p. 137, 
has the following : Iddnlm purva-ran-yasya samyak-prayogdbhdvdd ekct 
eva sutradJidrah sarvam proyojayati iti vyavahdrah sa sthdpakah, ' in these 
days, from the want of a complete performance of the Purva-ran-ga, the 
custom is that the Sutra-dhara alone does all, and he is the Sthapaka.' 
The blessing is usually followed by some mention of the author of the 
piece, an appeal to the favour of the audience, and a short dialogue 
between the manager and an attendant actor (pdripdrsvika). In the 
present play, an actress sings a song for the amusement of the audience. 
2 'Looking towards the tiring-room,' which was behind the stage, 

B 2 

' looking behind the scenes.' Nepaihyam-=vyatiriktam yavanikantaritam, 
varnikd-grahanddi-yogyam nata-varga- stJtdnam, K. ' } = bhushana-sthdnam 
ran-gdd vahih-stham, C., S 7 . In a Hindu theatre, a curtain [apatl, pata, 
yavanikd] suspended across the stage, answered the purposes of scenes. 
Behind it there was the space called nepathya, where the decorations were 
kept, and where the actors attired themselves and remained in readiness 
before entering the stage ; whither also they withdrew on leaving it. 
When an actor was to come on hurriedly, the stage-direction is patdksJie- 
pena or apafl-kshepena, ' with a hurried toss of the curtain/ When he 
was to say something whilst hidden from the audience in this space 
behind the curtain, the direction is nepathye, '(a voice) in the postscenium.' 
As to nepathya-vidlidnam in the next line [=.prasddhana-kriyd, S'.], it may 
be translated, ' the act of decoration/ ' making the toilet,' or perhaps, ' the 
arrangements of the tiring-room.' Nepathye yad vidhiyate tan nepathya- 
vidhanam. Katavema has naipathya. Nepathyam vidhd-=nepathyam ra6 
or nepathyam kri. Compare Ratnavall, p. 2, 1. 16. 

1 'For the most part (composed of) learned [educated] men.' The 
audience consisted chiefly of good judges [abhirupa = vidvas, pandita, 
K., C.] So rdshtram sudra-bhuyishtham, Manu viii. 22. 

2 ' With the new drama called " Token-S'akuntala," or " Ring-(recog- 
nized) S'akuntala." ' Abhijndna-sakuntald is an anomalous compound 
(Gram. 775); n t one i n which the terms are inverted, but one in which 
there is uttara-pada-lopa or madhyama-pada-lopa, ' elision of the second 
member.' On the authority of Candra-sekhara, the second member to be 
supplied is smritd, 'recognized;' and abhijiidna is 'the token of recog- 
nition the ring.' The compound will thus be equivalent to dbJiijndna- 
smritd Sakuntald, ' S'akuntala recognized by the token.' So sdka-pdrthiva, 
' the king of the era,' is equivalent to sdka-priya-pdrthiva, ' the king 
beloved by the era.' 

3 ' Therefore let care be applied by each to his own part [or character]/ 
'let pains be taken by all in their several parts.' Pratipdtram=pdtre 
j}dtre, K. Tai=tasmdt, K. So sveshu sthdnesJir avahitair bhavitavyam, 
Vikram., Act I. 



1 ' By reason of your honour's good assignment of the parts of the play 
(to the several actors), nothing will be wanting ; ' i. e. ' by reason of your 
skill in casting the characters, nothing is likely to go amiss in the acting;' 
or, 'by reason of (our) good acting, nothing will be wanting to your 
honour;' or, 'by reason of your honour's (skill in the) management of 
the play,' &c. Such are the various interpretations of Katavema, Candra- 
sekhara, and S'an-kara : the first seems preferable. So yah prayogo 
Hhavutishu nibaddhah, Vikram., Act II. [prayoyam nibaiidh = prayogam 

2 hutdrtham=satyam, S'. ;=satydrtham, K., 'the real truth,' 'the true 
state of the case.' 

3 'I do not consider skill-in-the-representation-of-plays to be good 
[perfect] until (it cause) the satisfaction of the learned (audience); the 
mind of those even who are very well instructed has no confidence in 
itself.' alavad=sushthu, C. A-pratyaya, 'distrustful of,' (with loc.) 

Verse 2. AEYA or GATHA, in which there are thirty Matras or measures (a short 
syllable containing one, and a long, two) in the first half-verse, and twenty-seven in 
the second. Each foot must contain four measures, except the sixth of the second 
half-verse, which contains one ; and the half -verse must be divided by a pause at the 
end of the third foot. 


fir f? 

* ii ? ii 

^ ' 

II ffil 

1 Sruti-prasddana-tah = sravanendriya-tarpandt,K. Some MSS. insert 
san-gltdt karanlyam. 

2 Lit. 'having placed over,' 'having made the prominent subject.' 
Hence, adhikritya=krite, 'about,' 'concerning/ 'with reference to,' Pan. 
iv. 3, 87. So, in the next sentence: 'Assuredly let a song be sung 
concerning this very summer season, (so) suited to enjoyment \upabhoga- 
kshamd], that has not long set in.' As to nanu, see Pan. viii. i, 43. 

3 ' For now (are) the days on-which-there-are-grateful-bathings-in-the- 
water (and) on-which-silvan-breezes-are-fragrant-from-contact-with-the- 
trumpet-flower : (now are the days) on-which-sleep-is-easily-induced-in- 
very-shady-spots (and) which-are-delightt'ul-at-their-close.' Pracdhdya 
prakrishta-tthdya yatra tat sthdnam pracfJidyam tasmin sulabhd nidrd 
yeshu te tathoktdh, K. ; see p. 37, note i of this book. A short vowel 
is the substitute for the long final of a fern, noun, when compounded 
with such prepositions as pra, ati, &c.; thus pragrlva from grlvd; 
atintdla from mold; see Laghu-k. 1003. Parindma = 

kdla, ' the evening,' K. 

Verse 3. AEYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

f rf I 

1 ' Loving [amorous] fair-ones make ear-rings of the S'irisha-blossoms 
that-are-very-gently-kissed by bees (and) the points-of-whose-filaments- 
are-very-delicate.' According to S'an-kara, Jcesara = kifijalka, and the 
whole compound is a Bahuvrihi, agreeing with sinsha-kusumdni. There 
is an allusion to the blossoms of the S'irlsha being thus used in Megha- 
duta 67, cdrukarne sirlsham; and Raghu-v. xvi. 48, 61. Compare also 
karna-sirlsha-rodhi, at the end of Act I. of this play; and Ritu-s. ii. 18, 
kritdvatansaih kusumaih, &c. Avatansayanti is a nominal verb from 

2 ' On every side, the audience, having all the feelings of its soul fixed 
on the melody, is as if formed into a picture,' i. e. motionless or riveted 
with attention. Alikhita=niscala, K. ; ran-ga applies to the audience as 
well as to the stage. Prakarana, ' a subject,' ' story," ' poem.' 

3 ' By your reverence ;' arya-misraih is here an epithet of the manager, 
the respectful plural being used. In Vikramorvasi, Act I, arya-vidagdha- 

Verse 4. A variety of AKYA called UDGATHA or GITI, used in Prakrit. It consists 
properly of four quarter-verses, containing eighteen measures in the fourth quarter as 
well as in the second (see verse 69). But in this example the line is divided irregu- 

v- v^|wv- J wwj || v^ v- I w w|v>w I 

|v-> V/ I v VJ I ww| 11^ w|v^v-< | 

The first syllable of the second foot [dumbia] is short by a license peculiar to Prakrit 
prosody. (See Colebrooke's Essays, new ed., vol. ii. p. 65, note.) 


iftcTJPTT!! flf^H UW 



misrdh, ' respectable and intelligent persons,' occurs as an epithet of the 
audience. Misra, 'mixed,' in a compound of this kind has the force of 
' gentleman.' A-jnapta, ' ordered/ ' arranged,' ' announced.' 

1 Adhikriyatam=prakatl-kriyatdm, K., i. e. 'let it be made the subject 
of exhibition,' 'let it be brought prominently forward;' see p. 6, note 2. 
Some read prayoge; compare in Eatnavall, p. 2, 1. 15, natika prayogena 

2 The rule is, that the conclusion of the prelude should prepare the 
audience for the entrance of one of the dramatis personse. Hence, the 
manager exclaims, ' I was forcibly carried away by the ravishing melody 
of thy song, like king Dushyanta here by the very fleet antelope.' Pra- 
sabJtam, a kind of adverbial indeclinable participle from an old form sabh 
(=rfc. safi) with pra, and meaning 'forcibly,' 'violently;' (see Gram. 
567.) _ 

Verse 5. &LOKA or ANUSHTUBH, consisting of four Padas of eight syllables. 

The first four syllables and the last syllable of each Pada may be either long or short. 

: H 

n TiTf: 

: II TTTR ft 

1 ' long-lived one !' a respectful mode of addressing kings. Candra- 
sekbara quotes a verse of Bharata, Vaded rdjnlm {a 6etim fa bhavatiti vidu- 
sTiakah, dyusJiman rathinam suto vriddham tdteti detarah. Cf. Manu ii. 1 25. 

2 ' Casting (my) eye on the black-antelope and on thee with-thy-strung- 
bow I behold, as it were, Siva visibly present chasing the deer.' Adhi-jya, 
f having the string [jy<t\ up ;' at the end of the chase the bow would be 
sithila-jya : see verse 40. Sa-jya is used like adhi-jya. Pinakin is 
S'iva, armed with his bow called Pindka. [So the bow of Vishnu has a 
name Sarn-ga, and that of Arjuna, Gatidlva, Megha-d. 48, 50.] In illus- 
tration, Katavema refers to Raghu-v. xi. 44, DJianuh, yena vrisha-dhvajo 
vanam asrijad vidruta-kratu-mriganusarinam. S'iva, not having been 
invited to Daksha's celebrated horse-sacrifice, was so indignant, that with 
his wife he suddenly presented himself, confounded the sacrifice, dispersed 
and mutilated the gods, and chasing Yajna, ' the lord of sacrifice/ who 
fled in the form of a fleet deer, overtook and decapitated him. The 
Vayu-purana makes Siva create a manifestation of himself as a monstrous 
being named Vlra-bhadra, who pursues Yajna in the form of a deer : see 
Vishnu-purana, p. 65. 

Verse 6. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verse 5. 






1 'There he is now, gracefully by the bending of his neck fixing a 
glance ever and anon at the chariot which pursues him, by (the contrac- 
tion of) the hinder half (of his body) repeatedly drawing himself into the 
fore-(part of his) body through fear of the descent of the arrow ; strewing 
the road with grass half-chewed which drops from his mouth kept open 
from exhaustion. See ! by reason of his lofty boundings he springs 
forward chiefly in the air, little on the ground.' For baddha-drishti, com- 
pare Raghu-v. i. 40, syandandbaddlia-drislitishu. Pravishtah purva-kdyam 
is equivalent to pravishta-purva-kayah, lit. 'entering the fore-part of his 
body,' a Bahuvrlhi compound analogous to baddlia-drishtih and klrna- 
vartmd. In regard to Darbha or Kusa grass, see note to verse 15. 

2 ' [With surprise.] How now ! the deer has become visible with diffi- 
culty [lit. with effort] to me pursuing (him).' Dr. Burkhard reads this line 
thus : Sa esJta katham anupadam eva pi*ayatna-preksJianiyah samvrittah. 

3 ' Because the ground is full of hollows, I have slackened the speed of 
the chariot by drawing in the reins.' Utkhdtinl, lit. ' full of excavations.' 

* ' Separated by a longer interval or distance.' 

5 The expressions nirupya and ndtayitvd, which occur so frequently in 

Verse 7. SBAGDHABA. See verse i. 

1 1 

the stage-directions, are synonymous, and may both be translated by 
'acting,' 'gesticulating,' 'exhibiting by gesticulation.' The properties 
and paraphernalia of the Hindu stage were as limited as the scenery ; 
and though seats, thrones, weapons, and cars were introduced, yet much 
had to be supplied by the imaginations of the spectators, assisted by the 
gesticulations of the actors. Thus, though the car of Dushyanta might 
have been represented on the stage, the horses would be left to the 
imagination, and the speed of the chariot would only be indicated by the 
gesticulations of the charioteer. 

1 ' The reins being loosed, these chariot-horses gallop along as if with 
impatience of the speed of the deer [i. e. impatient or emulous of its 
speed], having the fore-part of their bodies well stretched out, having the 
chowrie which forms their crest motionless, having the ears erect yet 
firmly fixed [or bent backwards], not to be overtaken even by the dust 
raised by themselves.' The 6dmari or chowrie, formed of the white 
bushy tail of the Yak or Bos Grunniens, served for whisking off flies ; 
and was used as an emblem of princely rank. It was placed as an 
ornament between the ears of horses, like the plume of the war-horse of 
chivalry. The velocity of the chariot caused it to lose its play and appear 
fixed in one direction, like a flag borne rapidly against the wind. 
A similar idea occurs in Act I. of the Vikramorvasi, titrdramblia-vinisca- 
lam hayasirasi tdmaram. There is some difficulty in nibhritordhva- 
karndh. The commentator explains nibJirita by niscala, ( motionless.' 
The most usual sense of nibhrita is 'secret,' 'modest,' 'depressed,' 'low' 
(Gita-g. ii. ii, ii. 21; Hitop. passim). In Raghu-v. viii. 15 the sky 
is described as nibhritendu, 'having its moon nearly set' (-^astamayd- 
sannacandra). Hence might flow the acceptation 'bent backwards.' 
The ears of a horse while running at full speed would be not only erect, 
but probably bent backwards so as to present the least resistance to the 

Verse 8. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI or SAKKAR! or SARKARI), con- 
taining fourteen syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 

C 2 


rTOT f? 

wind. This interpretation is confirmed by the reading of the Bengali 
MSS., fyuta-karna-bJumga ; but if the sense niscala be insisted on, 
translate 'having the ears erect and immovable/ 

1 ' Truly, the horses are [or appear as if] outstripping the horses of the 
Sun, and the horses of Indra,' i. e. the speed of the chariot seems like that 
of the Sun or the Wind. Harito is taken by some commentators as 
gen. case of harit, 'the Sun,' and harln as ace. case plural of Jiari, 
1 a horse.' But 6a after harln indicates that both Jiarito and harln are 
ace. cases after atltya. In the Rig-veda we find hari (dual) and harayah 
and Jiaribhih, (I. 16, i ; 101, 10; 16, 4 ; 52, 8) for 'the horses of Indra;' 
and haritah for ' the seven horses of Surya or the Sun' (I. 50, 8 ; 1 15, 4). 
In Nirukta i. 1 5 the different vehicles of the gods are given, and among 
them kari Indrasya, Tiaritah ddityasya. Hence Indra is called hari-haya 
or Tiari-vahana (Vikram., Act III), and in Eig-veda, Jiari-yojana ; and 
the Sun is called harid-asva. One name of the Sun is saptasva, ' having 
seven horses/ The Bengali MSS. read katTiam atltya Tutrinam Jiarayo, 
&c., but harito Tiarlnsca is supported by all the Deva-nagarT MSS., and by 
a parallel passage in Vikram., Act I, anena ratha-vegena vainateyam api 

2 ' That which in my sight (appeared) minute suddenly attains magni- 
tude ; that which was divided in half becomes as if united ; that also 
which is by nature [really] crooked (appears) even-lined [straight] to my 
eyes. Nothing (seems) at a distance from me nor at my side even for a 
moment, by reason of the velocity of the chariot/ This is a method of 
describing great velocity of motion, which may be well appreciated by 
any one, in these days, who may have taken notice of the effect produced 
upon adjacent objects by an express railway speed of a mile a minute. 

Verse 9. SIKHARINI (a variety of the ATYASHTI), containing seventeen syllables to 
the Pada or quarter- verse, each Pada being alike. 



I II 3[frf t^ ^TPTirflT II 

1 '"With himself as the third,' or 'with himself making the third/ 
i.e. himself and two others. This is a not unusual compound. Com- 
pare the expression, Pdndavd mdtri-sTiashtdh, ' the Pandavas with 
their mother as the sixth,' i. e. five persons, or six counting their 
mother. Again, thdya-dvitlyo Nalah, 'Nala made two by his shadow,' 
'umbra geminatus' (Nala v. 25). Also, adhlte caturo veddn akhyana- 
pancamdn, ' he reads the four Vedas with the Akhyanas as a fifth' (Nala 
vi. g). A similar idiom prevails in Greek, avros being used after ordinal 
numbers : thus, Trepirros avros, ' himself with four others,' Thucydides 
I. xlvi. Similarly, rpirov fip.iTd\avTov, 'two talents and a half/ and 
v, 'six talents and a half/ Herodotus I. 15, 50. 

Verse 10. MALINI or MANINI (a variety of ATI-SAKVAR! or ATI-SAKKARI), con- 
taining fifteen syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 



n <\* it 

t I " ^fir Trehfi ^dfw n 

1 'Not indeed, not indeed must this arrow (of thine) be allowed to 
descend upon this tender body of the deer, like fire upon a heap of 
flowers. Where, forsooth, on the one hand (ca), is the very frail exist- 
ence of fawns'? and where, on the other (ca), are thy sharp-falling 
adamantine shafts 1 ' i. e. Where is the suitability or congruity between 
the one and the other 1 What has the one to do with the other 1 How 
great a contrast or difference is there between the one and the other ! 
Let not your shafts waste their strength upon an object so frail and 
tender, but let them be directed towards a mark more fitted to prove 
their adamantine qualities. This repetition of kva to express great 
contrast or unsuitability between two things is not uncommon. It is 
used by Kalidasa again at the end of the Second Act of this play, kva 
vayam, &c. ; also in Megha-duta 5, thus, ' Where is a cloud which is 
a collection of vapour, fire, water, and wind ] and where the meaning of 
messages to be received by intelligent mortals V i. e. Why deliver a 
message intended for intelligent human beings to a cloud 1 ? What pos- 
sible connection can there be between objects whose nature is so different 1 
See also Raghu-v. i. 2, ' Where is the race sprung from the sun ? and 
where my scanty powers of mind V The majority of MSS. read pushpa- 
rasau, some tula-rdsau, ' on a heap of cotton/ 

2 ' Therefore withhold your well-aimed [lit. well fitted to the bow] 
arrow. Your weapon is for the deliverance of the distressed, not to 
inflict a wound on the innocent.' SandJid is properly ' to unite or fix 
an arrow to a bow,' hence 'to take aim' (Draupadi-h. 149); and sandha- 
nam, ' the act of taking aim.' Prdhartum is here used where prahara- 
naya might be expected, but the infinitive is interchangeable with the 
dative, and frequently has the force of that case. 

Verse 11. SLOKA or ANDSHTDBH. See verse 5. 


1 ' This is worthy of your honour, who art the light of the race of 
Puru/ i. e. an illustrious descendant of Puru. Compare in Vikramorvasi, 
Act I, sadris'am idam soma-vansa-sambhavasya. In English we have 
the same idiom, ' this is just like [i. e. worthy of] one born in the Lunar 
race/ The two great lines or dynasties of kings according to Hindu 
mythology were the Solar and the Lunar. The Solar begins with 
Ikshvaku the son of Vaivasvata, the son of Vivasvat, or the Sun, and is 
carried on through Kakutstha, Dillpa, Raghu, Aja, and Dasaratha, to his 
son, the great liama-candra, hero of the Ramayana. Under the Lunar 
come Puru, Dushyanta, Krishna, and the heroes of the Maha-bharata, 
as, i. Soma; 2. his son, Budha; 3. his son, Pururavas ; 4. his son, Ayus; 
5. his son, Nahusha ; 6. his son, Yayati ; 7. his sons, Puru and Yadu. 
From Puru were descended Tansu, Anila, Dushyanta, and Bharata. 
From his brother Yadu came Satvata, S'ura, Vasu-deva, and his sons 
Bala-rama and Krishna. From Bharata the son of Dushyanta and 
descendant of Puru came, after a time, Ajamidha, Samvarana, Kuru, 
S'antanu, Bhishma, and Krishna-dvaipayana or Vyasa. The latter was 
the father of Dhrita-rashtra and Pandu. The quarrels of the hundred 
sons of Dhrita-rashtra with their cousins, the five sons of Pandu (all of 
them being thus descended from Kuru and Puru), form the subject of the 
Maha-bharata. These two separate Solar and Lunar lines were occasion- 
ally intermixed by marriage, and a cross occurs at the very beginning, by 
the marriage of Ha (Ida), daughter of Vaivasvata, with Budha. Parasu- 
rama, as a Brahman, belonged to neither dynasty, but was connected with 
the Solar on his mother's side (see note to verse 22). 

2 ' This well becomes you, whose family belongs to the line of Puru, 
(therefore) be rewarded with a son gifted with all vii'tues, (and who shall 
become) a universal emperor.' A 6akravartin is one who reigns over a 
(akra, or country reaching from sea to sea. According to the Vishnu- 
purana, a cakravartin is one in whose hand the cakra, or discus of 
Vishnu, is delineated. There have been twelve of these emperors, com- 
mencing with Bharata, the son of Dushyanta. 

Verse 12. SLOKA or ANDSHTUBH. See verse 5. 

1 6 





(rt<4(: *fi3\TT' I 

1 This exclamation usually serves to ratify any auspicious prayer or pro- 
phecy uttered by a Brahman. Brahmana-va6as may be supplied, ' the word 
of a Brahman is accepted.' See the same phrase in Vikram., Act II. 

2 Compare Raghu-vansa xiv. 70, i. 49. 

3 Upa-mdlinl-firam, 'near the banks of the Malinl ;' see Gram. 760. b. 

4 'If it be not (the cause of) the neglect of any other duty,' or 'if it 
does not interfere with the discharge of any other duty.' 

6 'Beholding the pleasing rites of the hermits, all the hindrances to 
which are warded off (by you), you will think to yourself, how much this 
arm of mine, marked with the scar of the bow-string, defends !' Tapo- 
dhana, ' a devotee/ or 'one rich in devotion/ A parallel passage occurs in 
Raghu-v. xviii. 47, ' The earth was preserved by his arm, though without 
the mark of the scar formed by the bow-string' (abaddha-maurvl-kina- 
Idhchanena). The ancient Hindus extracted from the leaves of the 
Murva plant (Aletris) very tough, elastic threads, with which they made 
their bow-strings (maurvT), and which, for that reason, were ordained by 
Manu to form the girdle or zone of the military or Kshatriya class. 
Manu ii. 42. 

Verse 13. AKTA or GATE A. See verse 2. 



| ii u 

1 Soma-tlrtha is a place of pilgrimage in the West of India, on the 
coast of Gujarat, near the temple of Somanath. It is also called Prabhasa. 
The fable is that Soma, or the Moon, was here cured of the consumption 
brought upon him by the imprecation of Daksha, his father-in-law 
(Maha-bh., S'alya-p. 2011; Vishnu-p. p. 561). A tlriha is a place of 
pilgrimage, generally on the bank of some sacred stream, or near some 
holy spring. The word is derived from trl, ( to cross over,' implying that 
the stream has to be passed through, either for the washing away of sin, 
or for extrication from some difficulty or adverse destiny. Thousands of 
devotees still flock to the most celebrated Tirthas, Benares, Haridwar, &c. 

2 Atmanam, 'ourselves/ The sing, is used for du. and pi., Gram. 232. 

3 Abhoga = vistdra, ' extension,' ' amplitude ;' paripurna-ta, ' fulness.' 
S'., in explaining parinaha in the sense of ' circumference,' gives abhoga 
as a synonym. In Megha-d. 90, gandablioga is explained by kapola- 
mandala, ' the orb of the cheek ; ' and by ganda-sthala, ' the region of the 
cheek ;' and standbhoga is said to mean ' fulness of breast.' Translate, 
' Even without being told, it may be known indeed that here (we are 
within) the expanse [or exuberant fulness] of the sacred grove.' 


1 8 


1 ' For here are the (grains of) wild-rice beneath the trees, fallen from 
the mouths [openings] of the hollow-trunks (kotara) filled with parrots ; 
in other places the polished stones (used) for crushing the fruit of the 
In-gudi are plainly observed ; the fawns too, with undeviating step [i. e. 
not starting aside] from having acquired confidence, bear the sound (of 
the voice); and the paths of the reservoirs are marked with lines by the 
drippings from the ends of the bark -clothes/ Mukha is used for any 
opening. Garbha, as the last member of a compound, often denotes 
' filled with/ as furna-garbha nadih, ' a tube filled with powder.' The 
Ingudl, commonly called Ingua or Jiyaputa, is a tree from the fruit of 
which necklaces were made of a supposed prolific efficacy ; whence the 
botanical name Nagelia Putran-jiva or Jiva-putraka. In Haghu-v. 
xiv. 8 1 there is an allusion to the fruit being used by hermits to supply 
oil for lamps, and in Act II. to its furnishing them with ointment. The 
synonym for the tree in the Amara-kosha is ta/pasa-taru, ' the anchorite's 
tree.' S'. calls it muni-padapa. Abhinna-gati may perhaps be translated 
'not running away/ K. explains it by avihata-gati, 'not stopping in 
their walk/ So abhinna-svara, ' one who does not hesitate in speaking/ 
The sense of the last line is determined by a passage at the end of this 
Act, where the dust is described as falling 'on the bark dresses, moist 
with water, hung up (to dry) on the branches of trees ' (vitapa-vishakta- 
jalardra-valkaleshu, verse 32). In carrying these dresses from the tank 
(toyadhara) to the trees, a line would be formed by the drippings from 
the edges [sikhd=an6ala, Schol.] 

Verse 14. SABDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI), containing nineteen sylla- 
bles to the quarter-verse, each quarter-verse being alike. 

ig ii wsf: " 

1 ' The trees have their roots washed by the waters of canals [trenches], 
tremulous in the wind ; the tint of (those trees which are) bright with fresh- 
sprouts is diversified [partially obscured] by the rising of the smoke of the 
clarified butter (burnt in oblations); and in front, these young fawns, 
free from timidity, leisurely graze on the lawn of the garden, where the 
stalks of Darbha grass have been mown.' The commentators explain 
bhinna by anyafha-bhuta, 'altered,' 'made different;' but it may also 
mean 'broken,' 'interrupted,' 'partially obscured.' Arvdk = agratah, 'in 
front,' ' near.' Darbha is another name for Kusa or sacrificial grass (Poa 
Cynosuroides). This was the plant held sacred by the Hindus, as verbena 
was by the Romans. Ground prepared for a sacrifice was strewn with 
the blades of this grass. The officiating Brahmans were purified by 
sitting on it, and by rubbing it between their hands. Its sanctifying 
qualities were various, see Manu ii. 43, 75, 182 ; iii. 208, 223, 255, 256; 
iv. 36; v. ng; xi. 149; and Vishnu-p. p. 106. Its leaves are very long, 
with tapering points of which the extreme acuteness is proverbial ; whence 
the expression kusdgra-buddTii (Raghu-v. v. 4), ' one whose intellect is as 
sharp as the point of a Kusa leaf.' In Atharva-v. xix. 28 this grass is 
addressed as a god. According to the commentators this verse and the 
last afford examples of anumdnalan'Jcara, or figure called 'Inference.' 

Verse 15. MANDAKKANTA (a variety of ATYASHTI), containing seventeen syllables to 
the quarter- verse, each quarter-verse being alike. This is the metre of the Megha-duta. 

D 2, 


3*: i 
I ii ^fk fa*jSRi: 

TTWT II *lfX'jfiHJNfM'H ^ II 

" rT I n 

HfaviMRt iTtrfin 

1 Compare Manu viii. 2. Dr. Burkhard has vinlta-vesha-pravesydni. 

2 ' Giving over his ornaments and bow (to the care) of the charioteer.' 
Observe the use of the gen. after upanlya; see Gram. 858. 

3 Lit. 'let the horses be made wet-backed,' i.e. let them be watered 
and refreshed. ' Let their fatigue be removed by giving them water and 
by rubbing their backs,' S'. 

4 ' Acting an omen,' or ' acting as if he observed an omen,' lit. ' mani- 
festing a sign.' Nimitta is any omen or sign, such as the throbbing of the 
arm or eyelid. If this was felt on the right side it was a good omen in 
men ; if on the left, a bad omen. The reverse was true of women. 

5 ' This hermitage is tranquil [i. e. a peaceful spot, undisturbed by 
passion or emotion], and yet my arm throbs; whence can there be any 
result of this in such a place ? But yet the gates of destiny are every- 
where.' A quivering sensation in the right arm was supposed to 
prognosticate union with a beautiful woman. See Raghu-v. xii. 90; 
Bhatti-k. i. 27; Vikram., Act II. 

Verse 16. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 


I ii fro* n 

u WTT: 

1 ' To the right of the grove of trees.' Dakshinena governs the ace. 
case as well as the gen. See Pan. ii. 3, 31; v. 3, 35. 

2 ' With watering-pots (of a size) proportioned to their strength,' or 
' with watering-pots suited to their size,' i. e. not too large for a woman 
to carry. 

3 ' If this (beautiful) figure, rarely met with [or difficult to be found] 
in the inner apartments of palaces [i. e. in harams], belongs to people 
living in a hermitage, then indeed the shrubs of the garden are distanced 
[surpassed] in excellencies by the (wild) shrubs of the forest.' Sir W. Jones 
translates, ' the garden-flowers must make room for the blossoms of the 
forest, which excel them in colour and fragrance.' The suddhanta is the 
antah-pura or ' inner suite of apartments, appropriated to women ; ' called 
also the avarodha or ' private quarter,' shut out from the rest of the house 
and strictly guarded, ffaram is the equivalent Arabic word. 

4 ' Occupied in the manner described.' A noticeable Bahuvrlhi com- 

Verse 17. ART A or GATHA. See verse 2. 

-- r O * 



n ^fir 
^nn i 


: fti- 

1 Mdlika or mallika is a kind of double jasmine with large flowers, 
sometimes called ' Arabian jasmine ; ' from its delicious perfume, and 
abundant nectar, much frequented by bees. See Raghu-v. xvi. 47. 

2 Alavala, 'the trench for water round the root of a tree.' See 
Raghu-v. i. 51; also Vikram., end of Act II. (taror muldlavalam). 

3 'Truly his reverence Easyapa is (a man) of little discrimination, 
inasmuch as he appoints her to the duties [manner of life] of the her- 
mitage [i. e. imposes upon her a hermitage-life ; a mode of life such as is 
usual in a hermitage].' The sage Kanva is here called ' a descendant of 
Kasyapa.' As a sage and Brahman he might especially claim this 
celebrated personage as his progenitor ; but Kasyapa, who was the son 
of Marici [who was the son of Brahma, and one of the seven Prajapatis], 
was a progenitor on a magnificent scale, as he is considered to have been 
the father of the gods, demons, man, fish, reptiles, and all animals, by 
Aditi, and twelve other daughters of Daksha. He is supposed by some 
to be a personification of the race who took refuge in the central Asiatic 





inn i 

cliain, in which traces of his name may be found, as Koh-kas (or 
Caucasus), the Caspian, Kasmlra, &c. (Wilson's Hindu Theatre, vol. ii. 
p. 12.) 

1 ' The sage who expects to make this artlessly-charming form capable 
of (enduring) penance, certainly attempts to cut a branch of the hard 
S'anii wood with the edge of the blue lotus-leaf.' Avyaja-manokaram, 
'that which captivates without art or ornament/ 'naturally beautiful.' 
For an account of the different orders of Eishis or sages, see rishi in my 
Sanskrit-English Dictionary. The S'ami" tree is a kind of acacia (Acacia 
Suma), the wood of which is very hard, and supposed by the Hindus to 
contain fire. \Saml dbhyantara-lina-pdvaka, Raghu-v. iii. 9. See also 
Manu viii. 247.] Sacred fire is kindled by rubbing two dried pieces 
together. The legend is that Pururavas generated primeval fire by 
rubbing together two branches of the S'ami and Asvattha tree. Other 
kinds of wood are also held sacred by the Hindus, such as the Vilva (Bel), 
and only Brahmans are allowed to use them as fuel. 

Verse 18. VAKSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI), containing twelve syllables to the 
quarter-verse, each quarter-verse being alike. 


1 'This blooming [or youthful] body of hers, by (reason of) the bark 
dress fastened with delicate knots upon her shoulder (and) covering the 
orbs of her two breasts, does not exhibit (the fulness of) its own charms, 
like a flower enveloped by a calyx of pale leaves.' The first meaning of 
push, like bJiri, is ' to nourish' or ' be nourished.' Thence, like bhri, it 
passes into the sense of ' maintain/ ' support,' ' bear ;' and thence into 
that of ' possess,' ' enjoy,' ' exhibit,' ' make to appear.' In these last senses 
it may be used actively, though conjugated in cl. 4. (See Manu ix. 37 ; 
Ramay. ii. 94, 10; Raghu-v. xvi. 58; Haha-bh. vol. ii. p. 186, 1. 2607.) 
It is curious that our English word exhibition may have the sense of 
'maintenance' (cf. Lat. exhibeo). Two Bombay MSS. read svdm abhi- 
Jchyam instead of svdm na sobhdm : the meaning would then be, ' main- 
tains its own beauty' \abhikhya is so used, Raghu-v. i. 46]; and this 
reading would be more consistent with what follows, but by the next 
word athava, as the commentators observe, svoktam aJcshipati, he corrects 
his previous remark. Pi-naddha = api-naddha from api-nah. 

2 ' Or rather, granted that the bark dress be ill suited to her figure, 
yet it really does [lit. it does not not] possess the charm of an embellish- 

Verse 19. MALINI or MANINI (a variety of ATI-SAKVAEI). See verse 10. 


f?TJT^t cTEfT FTSjff f^flfif 

ment ;' or less literally, ' it really does act as an embellishment to set off 
the beauty of her person.' Other instances are found in Kalidasa of two 
negatives employed to strengthen an affirmative. See Megha-d. 106. 

1 ' The lotus, though intertwined [or overspread] with the S'aivala, is 
charming ; the speck, though dark, heightens [lit. extends] the beauty of 
the moon ; this graceful one even with her bark-dress is more lovely ; for 
what is not an embellishment of sweet forms T i. e. everything serves as 
an ornament to heighten the beauty of a figure which is naturally beauti- 
ful. Sarasi-jam, lit. ' that which is born in a pool/ a name applicable 
to any aquatic plant, but especially to the different kinds of lotus (Nelum- 
bium or Nymphgea). This beautiful plant the varieties of which, blue, 
white, and red, are numerous bears some resemblance to our water-lily. 
It is as favourite a subject of allusion and comparison with the Hindu 
poets as the rose with the Persian. It is often figuratively used to 
express beauty, as 'lotus-face' or 'the lotus of the face/ 'lotus-hands/ 
'lotus-feet' (Gita-g. passim). It is also used by women as an ornament 
(Act III. of this play), and as a cooling remedy (Ratn., Act II). The 
S'aivala (Vallisneria) is an aquatic plant which spreads itself over ponds, 
and interweaves itself with the lotus. The interlacing of its stalks is 
compared in the S'rin-gara-tilaka (verse i) to braided hair (dhammilla). 
See Sir ~W. Jones' Works, vol. iv. p. 113. The spots on the moon were 
thought to resemble those on an antelope, and hence one of the moon's 
names, harina-kalan-ka, ' deer-spotted.' 

The following verse, which is found in the Beng. MSS. immediately 
after verse 20, and has been adopted by the Calcutta edition, is omitted 
in all the Deva-n. MSS., and in the commentaries of S'. and K. It is 
probably spurious, as it repeats the same sentiment less poetically and 
with some harshness of expression : 

Verse 20. MALINI or MANINI (a variety of ATI-SAKVARI). See verse 10. 




a >^ "^ id PM n 

' The bark-dress, though rough, is beautiful on this fawn-eyed one. It 
does not in one's mind cause the slightest impairment of her beauty [or, 
of my liking for her] ; just as its own rough tissue of stalks on the 
lotus-bed whose lotuses have expanded, so as slightly to release the neck- 
of-the-flower,' i. e. the pedicle, or that part of the stalk immediately 
under the flower. 

1 ' This Kesara tree, with its fingers of young shoots set in motion 
by the wind, bids me hasten as it were (towards it). I will just go and 
pay my respects to it.' The Kesara (Mimusops Elengi) is the same as 
the Bakula or Vakula, frequent mention of which is made in some of 
the Puvanas, and in Ratn., Act III. It bears a strong-smelling flower, 
which is even placed among the flowers of the Hindu paradise. The tree 
is very ornamental in pleasure-grounds. The caus. of sam-bhu often 
means ' to honour, or pay one's respects to another in person.' Motion 
towards the object seems usually, though not always, implied. Thus, 
sambhdvayamo rdjarshim, Vikram., Act I; cf. Raghu-v. v. 2, x. 56. 

2 'What for!' Dr. Burkhard omits this. 

8 'Possessed of a creeper.' Sa-natha, lit. 'having a lord or master;' 



II *<\ II 

it is so used towards the end of this Act, where the devotees are said 
to be sa-ndthdh, ' possessed of a guardian ' in Dushyanta. A compound 
verb sandthi-kri, ' to cause to be possessed of a master,' occurs in Act II. 
of this play, and in Hitop. 1. 797. But here sa-ndtha=saJiita, dvitlya, 
yukta, 'accompanied,' 'joined,' 'furnished with.' The transition into 
this meaning may be understood from Act VI. of this play, and from 
Vikram., Act II, where an arbour (mandapa) is said to be mani-sild- 
patta-sandtha, ' having a slab of marble as its master,' i, e. in which the 
most prominent object is a marble seat; or in plain words, 'an arbour 
furnished with a marble seat.' Similarly in Act II. of this play the 
sui'face of a stone seat (sild-tala) is said to be vitdna-sandtha, ' furnished 
with a canopy ' by the shade of a tree. Of. also Lakshml-sandtJia, ' pos- 
sessed of Fortune,' and kusuma-sandtJm, ' decked witli flowers,' Vikram., 
Act IV. See also Malatl-m. p. 58, 1. 2; Megha-d. ver. 97; Malavik. 
p. 5, 1. 9. 

1 ' Hence most truly art thou (named) Priyam-vada ' (i. e. priyam, 
'what is agreeable,' and vada, 'one who speaks;' cf. fjLf\i<pdoyyos). 

2 ' Though agreeable (still it is) the truth (that) PriyamvadS says to 
S'akuntala. Truly her lip has the colour of a young bud, her two arms 
resemble flexile stalks. Attractive youth, like the blossom, pervades her 
limbs.' Adhara, properly 'the lower lip/ as distinguished from oshtha 
(i. e. ava-stha), ' the upper lip.' San-naddTiam = sarvato vyapakam, 
Schol. _ 

Verse 21. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

\j ^j v V 'W V -- wwww v^ w -- 

E 2 


i *r 

1 ' Here is the young Malika [a kind of double jasmine, see p. 22, n. i] 
named by you the Light of the Grove, the self-elected wife of the Saha- 
kara. Have you forgotten it?' The Sahakara is a sort of fragrant 
Mango tree. Its union with other plants seems a favourite idea with 
Kalidasa ; for in Raghu-v. viii. 60, allusion is made to its marriage with 
the Phalini or Priyan-gu. It is said to be a great favourite with bees 
(Eaghu-v. vi. 69). In Ratn. p. n, 1. 7, it is spoken of as mandald- 
yamana, ' forming a circle.' Svayamvara-vadhu, ' a wife by self-election.' 
The Svayamvara, or ' selection for one's self,' was a form of marriage in 
which a princess made a free public choice of a husband from a number 
of assembled suitors. In very early times the princesses of India seem 
to have enjoyed this singular privilege. It is not mentioned amongst the 
forms of marriage in Manu iii. 21, &c. ; but the provision which is made 
in Manu ix. 90, proves that a similar custom prevailed at that period. 
"When marriageable, she is there told to wait for three years ; and after 
that time, if she fail to obtain a suitable husband, she is to choose for 
herself; [samana-ydti-gunam varam svayam vrinlta, Schol.] She is then 
called Svayamvara. In the Maha-bh. we have a beautiful account of the 
Svayamvara of Damayantl (who chooses Nala), and of DraupadI (who 
chooses Arjuna); and in Raghu-v. vi. of the Svayamvara of Indumati, 
sister of Bhoja, king of Vidarbha (who chooses Aja, the son of Eaghu). 
See also Nalod. i. 30. Even the goddess Lakshm! is said to have exercised 
this privilege. See the allusion to the Lakshml-svayamvara at the begin- 
ning of Act III. of Vikram. Vi-smrita is also used transitively between 
verses 129 and 130 of this play. In Raghu-v. xix. 2, vi-smrita has an 
ace. after it. See Gram. 896; Pan. iii. 4, 72. 



n ?rftRinf H 

a K I il^*j*i*4i'=H 

1 'At a charming season, indeed, has the union between this pair, the 
(Malika or jasmine) creeper and the (Sahakara) tree, taken place. The 
Light of the Grove (has) youthfulness by (its) fresh blossoms [i. e. its 
fresh blossoms give it all the bloom of a young bride], and the Sahakara 
is capable of enjoyment by reason of (its) young shoots (just) formed.' 
Vyatikara is properly 'mutual action,' 'co-operation;' hence ' union,' 
'blending,' 'intertwining,' 'intermingling.' See Megha-d. 15. So also 
vyatikara-sukham, 'mutual enjoyment.' The prepositions vi and ati in 
composition imply both reciprocity and contrariety : hence, in Hi top. 
1. 2319, vyatikara signifies 'reverse,' 'turn in affairs.' Baddha-pallavataya, 
' by the state of young shoots formed on it.' This is an idiomatic use of 
the instr. case of the abstract noun in td, to denote ' by reason of,' ' on 
account of.' Bandh often means 'to form,' 'produce;' thus, badhnanti 
phalam (Raghu-v. xii. 69) ; drumeshu svayam phalam baddham (Ku- 
mara-s. v. 60). Upabhoga-kshama occurs in connection with grlshma- 
samaya in p. 6, n. 2, and in Vikram., Act III, with avakasa. The first 
meaning of ksJiama is 'patient,' 'enduring.' Here and elsewhere it= 
yogya, ' capable,' ' suitable ;' so drishti-ksTiama, ' capable of being seen,' 
'visible.' So in verse 22, kshatra-parigraha-kshama, ' capable of marriage 
with a Kshatriya.' 

30 II ^sTTO[T=prc3T II 30 



1 Apt nama, 'would that!' In this sense it occurs also in Vikram., 
Act III, apt nama Pururava bhaveyam, ' would that I were Puru- 
ravas ! ' 

2 ' Can this (lady) possibly be sprung from a wife dissimilar in class 
(to that) of the father of the family!' Api nama here =' may be/ 'can it 
possibly be/ ' I wonder whether/ expressive of some doubt [evam sambha- 
vyate, Schol.] Kshetra=kalatra, 'a wife;' a-savarna=-asamana-jatlya, 
1 of a different (and inferior) tribe or caste.' A Brahman might marry a 
Kshatriya, i. e. a woman of the military or kingly class next below him 
(Manu iii. 13), and the female offspring of such a marriage would belong 
to the mixed class called murdlidbhishikta or murdhavasikta, ' head- 
anointed' (Manu x. 6), and would be a suitable object of affection for a 
Kshatriya, who in his kingly character was a murdhabhishikta also. But 
if S'akuntala were a pure Brahman! woman, both on the mother's and 
father's side, she would be ineligible as the wife of a Kshatriya (Manu 
iii. 13). 

3 ' But, have done with [away with] doubt.' Atliava is used to correct 
a previous thought [pakshantare]. Kritam used adverbially (like alani) 
requires the instr. case. 

Verse 22. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verse 18. 

3 I 

*nrt fi 

1 ' Without any doubt she is capable of marriage with a Ksliatriya, 
since my honourable soul has a longing towards her : for in matters that 
are subjects of doubt, the tendencies [inclinations, promptings] of the 
hearts of good men are an authoritative guide (to the truth).' The 
meaning is, ' If this damsel be the daughter of a Brahman by a Brahman! 
[or woman of the same caste], then why should I be conscious of a sudden 
liking for one whom I could never hope to marry 1 This feeling of 
sympathy could only arise towards a legitimate object : for in such 
matters, the secret prompting [inner voice] of the heart is decisive.' 
He therefore concludes that she must have been of mixed origin, with 
some Kshatriya or regal blood in her veins; and discovers afterwards 
that she was, in fact, the daughter of the Kajarshi Visvamitra (originally 
of the Kshatriya or regal tribe) by an Apsaras. Dushyanta, as a king, 
belonged of course to the Kshatriya caste. This caste came next to the 
Brahmanical, and according to Manu (i. 87) sprang from the arm of 
Brahma. They wore a girdle of murvd and a sacrificial cord of hemp 
(Manu ii. 42, 44), and were properly soldiers. They were said to have 
been exterminated by Parasu-rama, the representative of the Brahmanical 
tribe, in revenge for the murder of his father, the sage Jamadagni, by the 
sons of Kartavlrya. This fable is founded on the historical fact that, at 
some period or other, struggles, arising out of mutual jealousy of each 
other's encroachments, took place between the military and sacerdotal 
classes; and that the former did in the end succumb to the superior 
power and intelligence of the Brahmans. The example of Visvamitra 
proves that it was possible for a Kshatriya, by the practice of religious 
austerities, to raise himself to the rank of a Brahman. Other anomalies 
of caste occur. A number of men, half warriors, half priests, Kshatriyas 
by birth, and Brahmans by profession, called An-girasas or ' descendants 
of An-giras,' were said to have sprung from Nabhaga (Vishnu-p. p. 359; 
Maha-bh. Sel. p. 23). Kings were never chosen from the Brahmanical 
class, but were properly Kshatriyas (Manu vii. 2); though there was no 
positive law against their belonging to the two inferior classes of Vaisyas 
and S'udras, or even to three mixed classes (san-Jcara) formed by inter- 
marriage with the others, viz. Murdhabhishiktas, Mahishyas, and Karanas 
(Manu x. 6). One dynasty of kings of the line of Nanda were actually 
S'udras, and kept the Kshatriyas in subjection (Vishnu-p. p. 467). In 


3Tf[ffo5T II 



II * II 

fact, the king was but a high officer appointed to train the army, instruct 
in military exercises, administer justice, and execute the laws. These 
onerous duties were sufficient to deter the Brahmans from desiring a rank 
inconsistent with their love of dignified repose. Aryam=sa-maryadam, 
'correct,' 'upright' (Schol.) Pramdnam, 'that by which anything is 
measured;' hence, 'a criterion or standard of truth,' ' a sure guide/ 'an 
authority' [prama-karanam, 'a cause of true knowledge,' Schol.] In 
this sense it is usually found in the singular number, neuter gender, 
though in apposition to a masculine or feminine noun, or even to a plural 
noun, as here. Thus also, Vedah pramdnam, ' the Vedas are an authority.' 
See also Hitop. 11. 169, 1465. Pravritti, 'onward course;' hence, 'a 
course of action,' ' tendency,' ' inclination.' 

1 ' Nevertheless [however the suggestions of my heart are to be relied 
upon] I will accurately ascertain about her.' Upalapsye=jndsye, 'I will 
inform myself.' 

2 Nava-mdlika, see p. 22, n. i. 

3 Madhu-kara, 'a honey-maker,' 'a bee;' cf. Lat. mellificus, mellifer. 
* Literally, ' turns towards,' ' attacks,' ' assaults.' 

6 ' Good \ even her repulse is charming.' 

6 ' In whichever direction the bee turns towards (her), in that direction 

Verse 23. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAG ATI). See verses 18, 22. 


rnpr*n: finfa 

her rolling eye is darted ; bending her brows through fear, she is already 
learning coquettish-movements of the eye even though (as yet) uninflu- 
enced-by-love.' Yaiah and tatah are properly 'whence' and 'thence;' 
tatah=tasmdt sthanat, 'from that place,' S'. Shat-Sarana, 'a six-footed 
insect,' ' a bee.' Drishti-vibhrama, ' coquettish play of the eye,' ' amorous 
or sidelong glances/ 'rolling motion of the eyes, indicative of amorous 
feelings' ( = drishti-vildsa, S'.) 

1 ' Thou touchest repeatedly her quivering eye, whose outer-corner 
moves (playfully); going close to her eai-, thou art softly humming as if 
whispering a secret (of love); thou art drinking the lip, containing all 
the treasures of delight, of her waving her hand ; (whilst) we, bee ! 
through (the necessity for) inquiring into the truth (of her origin), are 
disappointed (of immediate fruition), thou indeed art in the full enjoyment 
(of thy desire).' In other words, ' Whilst I am kept in suspense by the 
necessity of ascertaining whether she be a Brahman! or a Kshatriya 
woman, thou art in the act of enjoying her charms.' Vyadhunvatyah, 
gen. case of the pres. part. fern, agreeing with asyah understood. Dhu 
with m and a, ' to shake about.' Verbs of cl. 5 reject the nasal in the fern, of 
this participle, see Gram. 141. c, Pan. vii. i, 80. Rati-sarvasvam = rati- 
nidhdnam, ' entirely made up of delight/ ' whose whole essence is delight.' 
So khadga-sarvasvah, 'one whose whole property consists of a sword.' 
Adhara, properly ' the lower lip/ in contradistinction to oshtha (i. e. ava- 
stha), ' the upper lip/ but here simply ' the lip.' Adharam pivasi, ' thou 
art drinking (the moisture of) the lip.' Cf. adharam pdtum pravritta 
(Vikram., Act IV), and adhara-madhu ('the nectar of the lip') pivanti 
(Bhartri-h. i. 26). Hata here = mano-Jiata, 'disappointed/ or rather 'kept 
in anxious suspense.' Kritl = kritdrthah or krita-krityah, 'one who has 
gained the object of his desire, and is in full enjoyment of it.' 

Verae 24. &IKHABIN! (a variety of ATYASHTI). See verse 9. 



TR7 I 


II M'lfll f^Tr^T 

1 Literally, 'ill-trained;' hence, ' ill -behaved,' 'ill-mannered.' 

2 'Who (are) we to rescue (yo\i)]' i.e. 'who are we that we should 
be able to rescue you? what power have we to rescue you?' \avayoh 
ko 'dhikarah, S'.] In a passage further on (ka tvam visrashtavyasya, &c.) 
K. explains ka by na prabJiu, avasa, ' powerless.' All the Deva-n. MSS. 
read parittddum (Sk. paritratum), but the Beng. read parittane (Sk. 
paritrdne), and the Calcutta kd sattl amhe parittane. The infinitive 
may well stand for the dative paritranaya (see p. 14, n. 2), especially 
in Prakrit, which has no dative. A precisely similar construction 
occurs in the Malavik. p. 55, 1. 13, kd vayam jetum; and again, p. 40, 
1. 1 6, ke dvdm parigrahdya (Prak. pariggahassa, the gen. being put for 
Sanskrit dative). 



^nftmft; <P 


t II 

ftifrr ^nrrf?^ i ^f tot 


1 ' Who is this that is practising rudeness towards the gentle maidens 
of the hermits, (and that too) whilst a descendant of Puru [see p. 15, 
n. i], a chastiser of the ill-behaved, is governing the earth?' Sasati, loc. 
of the pres. part., used here absolutely, and liable in this root and in 
roots of cl. 3 to be confounded with the 3rd pers. pi. present tense. 
Mugdhasu=apraudhasu ) apragalbhasu, ' gentle,' ' timid,' 'modest,' 'inno- 
cent,' Schol. 

2 Aty-akita = mahd-bhlti, 'great danger.' According to some, 'great 
outrage/ ' great crime.' The same word occurs in the beginning of Acts 
IV. and V. of Vikram. Cf. also Malavik. 55, 19 ; 56, 4. 

3 'I trust your devotion prospers,' 'does your piety thrive]' 'is all 
well with your acts of devotion?' This was the regular salutation on 
meeting a Brahman. According to Manu, kufalam implies an inquiry 
respecting the well-being of a Brahman's acts of penance, at all times 
liable to be obstructed by evil spirits and demons. Manu ii. 127. See 
also Ramay. i. 52, 4. 

Verse 25. ARTA or GATHA. See verse a. 

-- ~ 

II 36 


1 ' Now (indeed it does prosper) by the acquisition of a distinguished 
guest.' The rites of hospitality were enforced amongst the Hindus by 
very stringent regulations. The observance of them ranked as one of 
the five great sacraments (mahd-yajna), under the title of nri-yajha or 
manushya-yajiia, 'the man-sacrament.' Brahma, Prajapati, Indra, Fire, 
the Vasus, and the Sun were supposed to be present in the person of a 
guest, and to partake of the food that was given to him (Vishnu-p. 
p. 306). No wonder then that reverence of him was said to be conducive 
to wealth, to fame, to life, and to a heavenly reward (Manu iii. 106). 
On the other hand, no punishment was thought too severe for one who 
violated these rites. If a guest departed disappointed from any house, 
his sins were to be transferred to the householder, and all the merits 
of the householder were to be transferred to him (Vishnu-p. p. 305 ; 
Hitop. 1. 361). Some of the things which were to be offered to a guest 
l>y even the poorest man were food, vegetables, water for the feet, and 
if more could not be given, ground on which to lie (Manu iii. 101; 
Vishnu-p. p. 308). 

2 The argha or arghya was a respectful offering to Brahmans of rice, 
Durva grass, flowers, fruit, &c., with water in a small boat-shaped vesseL 
Cf. Ramay. i. 20, 9. 10; "Wilson's note, Megha-d. 5. Upahara=.anlya 
prayatcha, ' having fetched, present.' 

* ' This (which we have brought with us for watering our plants) will 
serve as water for the feet/ "Water for the feet was one of the first 
things invariably presented to a guest in all Eastern countries. Should 
a guest arrive, a seat is to be offered to him, and his feet are to be 
washed and food is to be given him (Vishnu-p. p. 305. Cf. also Luke 
vii. 44). Idam, i. e. vrikshartham amtam udakam, Schol. 

4 Sunrita gir, ' kind yet sincere language,' ' complimentary and friendly 
words without flattery' (priyam satyam &a vacanam). This is one of 


the four things with which even the poorest man was to greet a guest. 
' Grass and earth to sit on, water to wash the feet, and fourthly, 
friendly yet sincere speech (vdk sunrita) are never refused in the 
houses of the good, even though they be poor.' Manu iii. 101 ; 
Hitop. 1. 301. 

1 'On the raised-seat under the Saptaparna tree, cool with much 
shade, having sat down for a short time, let your honour cause removal 
of fatigue.' According to S'. pracchdya=prakrishtd yd chdyd, 'excessive 
shade.' The other commentators explain it by prakrishtd chdyd yatra 
desah, ' a place where there is excessive shade,' and by prakrishtd chaya, 
yasydh, 'having excessive shade.' A parallel passage occurs in the 
Malavik. p. 3, 1. 20, pracchdya-sltale sildpattake nishannd, &c. It 
seems clear that pro, in this word gives intensity to the original idea. 
It is needless to regard it either as a Tatpurusha or Karmadharaya com- 
pound, although it is in such compounds especially that chaya becomes 
chaya. (See p. 6, n. 3, and Raghu-v. iv. 20, xii. 50; Megha-d. 103; Pan. 
ii. 4, 22. 25.) Sapta-parna, 'a tree having seven leaves on a stalk,' 
called also vishama-dchada, 'having an odd number of leaves,' and 
visala-tvac, 'having a broad bark' (Raghu-v. iv. 23). Vedikd=visrdma- 
sthdnam, ' place of repose or rest.' It was probably a quadrangular 
raised-seat, something in the form of an altar, and covered with a roof 
supported by pillars, used as a kind of arbour for sitting or standing 
under. In this case it seems to have been erected under a Sapta- 
parna tree. Saptaparna-ndmno vrikshasya tale nirmitd yd vedikd, S'. 
According to Sir W. Jones this tree, when full-grown, is very large ; 
when young, light and elegant. Muhurta is properly an Indian hour 
of forty-eight minutes or two Dandas, but is used for any short space 
of time. 



"^t ^ wt i ^"STTrMfaTf 


Prt f! *1 W I fl^\Mr^|Tlt I " 


1 Atma-gatam and sva-gatam (lit. 'gone to one's self) used in 
theatrical language, like ' aside,' to denote that the words which follow 
are spoken privately, as if to the speaker's self, and not in the hearing 
of any one but the audience ( = ananya-prakasam). Gata, 'gone,' is used 
loosely at the end of a compound to express relationship and connexion 
without necessary implication of motion. It may mean simply 'in con- 
nexion with,' 'in relation to;' or, as here, 'with exclusive reference to,' 
* addressed exclusively to.' 

2 ' How now \ can it really be that, having looked upon this man, I 
am become susceptible of [lit. accessible to] an emotion inconsistent with 
a grove devoted to penance 1 ?' Vikdra is any alteration or transition 
from the natural and quiescent state of the soul ; hence any emotion, 
whether of joy, grief, anger, &c. Kim is used kutsayam, ' disdainfully,' 
and=aAam eva jdtam, 'how can it have happened 1 ?' The use of the 
gen. after gamariiyd is noticeable. 

3 Sauhdrda, ' friendship,' an abstract noun from su-Tirid. Observe that 
both su and hrid are vriddhied (see Gram, page 63, Prelim. Obs. c). 

4 Jandntikam, ' aside to a person standing near.' This is a theatrical 
direction similar to dtma-gatam, but the speech which follows is sup- 
posed to be audible by one other person, to whom a private signal is 


I TTWfH WTTfr?5*r 

f^nar^ft rf 

made. ' That which is spoken apart from the rest, with a signal, such 
as holding up three fingers of the hand (trij)atdka), being a mutual 
speech (between two), is called janantikam? S'. and Sahit.-d. p. 177. 

1 ' Who can this be (who being) lively (yet) dignified in mien, appears 
as if endowed with majesty (while) speaking to us sweetly.' Catura, 
' lively,' ' sprightly,' ' animated,' may perhaps mean here, ' polite,' ' cour- 
teous,' in relation to madhuram alapan. Gambhira, 'profound/ is used 
metaphorically for one whose thoughts and feelings are deep or sup- 
pressed, ' reserved,' ' dignified,' ' not betraying emotion.' The oldest MS. 
reads mahuram; the others mahuram piam; but p/iam belongs properly 
to the margin. 

2 Prakdsam, 'aloud,' another theatrical direction denoting that the 
words which follow are to be made audible to all, those which precede 
having been spoken aside. 

3 'Which race of royal-sages is adorned by your honour?' Ka-tama, 
^which out of many?' A Kajarshi is a king or man of the Kshatriya 
and military class who has attained to the rank of a Eishi or saint by 
the practice of religious austerities. Such were Ikshvaku, Pururavas, 
Dushyanta, &c. There are six other classes of Eishis. The Kajarshi is 
inferior to the Brahmarshi or ' Brahman-saint,' but it was possible for 
a Kajarshi to raise himself to the rank of the latter, and therefore to the 
state of a Brahman, by very severe penance, as exemplified in the story 
of the celebrated Visvamitra, son of Gadhi, and father of S'akuntala. See 
p. 43, n. i; also Rarnay. i. 20, 20; 65, 18; Astra-siksha, 118. 

* ' "With its people pining by separation,' i. e. by your absence. 

do II trfWilM'$l$*fl<4J< II 


Ip rn^r I n WIT** n 



1 ' Or on what account has your person, so very delicate [unaccustomed 
to hardships] as it (evidently) is, been brought to the point of (undergoing) 
the fatigue of visiting a grove of penance ?' 

2 ' (my) heart I be not uneasy, this Anasuya is giving utterance to 
all thy thoughts,' i. e. is making inquiry about all those points about 
which thou art anxious (such as, who this stranger is, whence he has 
come, &c.) 

3 ' Or how shall I make concealment of myself?' i. e. how shall I hide 
my real character? how shall I dissemble ? Apa-hdra=vancana, 'decep- 
tion,' K., or = ni-hnava or san-gopana, ' concealment,' ' dissimulation.' 
This is a very unusual sense of the word, but all the Deva-n. MSS. agree 
in reading apdhara. The Beng. have parikdra, which is also explained 
by san-gopana. The oldest Beng. MS. (India Office, 1060) omits the 
words from katham va to karomi. 

4 '0 lady!' voc. of bJtavatl. A BrShman is to be accosted with the 
respectful pronoun bTiavat, and to any woman not related by blood, the 
address bhavati, 'Madam,' or subhage bhagini, 'amiable sister,' is to be 
used (Manu ii. 128, 129). 

5 ' I, that very person appointed by his majesty, the descendant of 
Puru, for the supervision of religion, have arrived at this sacred grove, 
for the purpose of ascei-taining whether the (religious) rites are free from 
obstruction.' The sacrifices of holy men were liable to be disturbed by evil 

: u 

'l! II 


spirits called Rakshasas the determined enemies of piety. No great 
religious ceremony was ever carried on without these demons attempting 
to impede its celebration ; and the most renowned saints were obliged on 
such occasions to acknowledge their dependence on the strong arm of the 
military class for protection. The idea that holy men, who had attained 
the utmost spiritual power, were unable to cope with the spirits of evil, 
and the superiority of physical force in this respect is remarkable. (See 
Ramay. bk. i. chaps. 20, 21, 32; and end of Act III. of this play.) In 
point of fact the Rakshasas were poetical representations of the wild 
aborigines of the woods. 

1 Sa-ndthah, 'possessed of a guardian ;' see p. 26, n. 3. 

2 ' Understanding the gestures of both,' i. e. of S'akuntalS and Dush- 
yanta. Akdra=ceshta or in-gita, '& gesture/ 'sign,' or rather the state 
of mind as evidenced by gestures and outward appearances, such as 
change of colour, <fec. 

3 ' What would then happen ]' i. e. if he were near at hand, what would 
he do 1 Schol. 

* 'He would make this distinguished guest happy [possessed of the 
object of his desire] with all the substance of his life/ i. e. he would do 
worthy honour to his guest by offering him the best of his substance and 
property. Sarva-sva, see p. 33, n. i. S'. explains sarva-svam by phala- 
mulddikam, ' fruits, roots, and other necessaries of life.' Fruits and roots 


4 2 





were the chief food of anchorites, and constituted their whole substance. 
With an offering of these they were commanded to honour every one who 
came to their hermitage (Ramay. i. 52, 16; 61, 4; Manu vi. 7). The 
allusion, however, evidently is to S'akuutala, who might be regarded as 
the holy father's most valuable possession. 

1 ' Get off with you ! having formed some (idea) in your heart, you are 
speaking.' Hridaye or manasi kri is not an unusual idiom for 'to turn 
or cogitate in the mind' (see Ramay. ii. 64, 8). Apetam is the 2nd 
du. impv. of i, ' to go,' with apa. 

2 Sakhl-gatam,' relating to your friend.' (Sakuntala-vishayakam, Schol.) 
This use of gata is noticeable, see note on dtma-gatam, p. 38, n. i. Only 
one Deva-n. MS. reads bhavatyau ; but this is supported by the oldest 
Bengali, which also adds kimapi. 

3 'His reverence Kasyapa [see p. 22, n. i] lives in the constant 
practice-of- devotion [or in perpetual celibacy].' Brahman is properly 
the Supreme Spirit from which all created things are supposed to 
emanate and into which they are absorbed. It may also mean the 
Veda, or holy knowledge. S 7 . explains brahman by tapas, i. e. bodily 
mortification and penance ; K. by brahma-carya, ' the practice of 


^: i ^ftsr 

1 ' There is a certain Rajarshi [see p. 39, n. 3] of great majesty, whose 
family name is Kausika/ i. e. the celebrated Visvamitra (descendant of Kusa 
or Kusika), whose story is told in Ramay. bk. i. chaps. 35 and 51-65. 
He is there described as the son of Gadhi (a prince of the Lunar dynasty, 
king of Gadhi-pur, or the ancient Kanouj), who is the son of Kusa-natha, 
who is the son of Kusa or Kusika. According to Vishnu-p. the following 
is the pedigree of Visvamitra. One of the sons of Pururavas, a prince 
of the Lunar dynasty (see Vikramorvasi), was Amgvasu. Thence in 
direct succession came Bhima, Kancana, Jahnu, Sumantu, Ajaka, Vala- 
kasva, and Kusa. The latter had two sons, Kusamba and Kusa-natha; 
but Gadhi was son of Kusamba, and was said to be an incarnation of 
Indra (hence sometimes called Kausika); for Kusamba had engaged in 
great penance, to obtain a son who should be equal to ludra ; and the 
latter becoming alarmed, took upon himself the character of Kusamba's 
Bon. Gadhi had a daughter, Satyavati, who married a Brahman named 
Ricika, son of Bhrigu. This Ricika with the view of securing to him- 
self a son who should be an illustrious Brahman, and to his father-in-law 
a son of great prowess made two messes of food, one for his own wife, 
and the other for the wife of Gadhi ; infusing into one the qualities 
suited to a Brahman, and into the other the properties of power and 
heroism. The two wives exchanged messes, and so it happened that the 
wife of Gadhi had a son, Visvamitra, who, though a Kshatriya, was born 
with the inclinations of a Brahman ; and the wife of Ricika had a son, 
the sage Jamad-agni, who was the father of the warrior-priest Paras'u- 
rama, she having by her entreaties induced her husband to transfer the 
effects of the exchange of food from her son to her grandson. There is 
something like anachronism in the history of Visvamitra. Satyavati, his 
sister, was the grandmother of Parasu-rama, and it was not till the close 
of the latter's career that Rama-candra appeared on the field and became 
the pupil of Visvamitra. At any rate the Rishi must have been very old. 
Indeed, in the Ramayana he is stated to have mortified himself for two 
thousand years before he attained the rank of a Rishi ; for many years more 
before his cohabitation with Menaka, which led to the birth of S'akuntala ; 

G 2 



i arMhfft rr fan 

a IT m 
t ftnn i 


and for many thousand years more before he became a Brahman. It 
was not till after this period that he became the preceptor of Rama- 
dandra. No chronological inconsistency is too monstrous for Hindu 

1 ' Know him (to be) the father of our dear friend ; but father Kanva 
is the (reputed) father of her, through the fostering of her body, &c., 
when deserted.' Prab7iava=janma-/teiu, 'the operative cause of being,' 
i. e. a father. 

2 The story of Visvamitra, as told in the Hamayana, is briefly this. On 
his accession to the throne in the room of his father Gadhi, in the course 
of a tour through his dominions, he visited the hermitage of the sage 
Vasishtha (one of the ten Brahmadikas or Prajapatis, sons of Brahma). 
There the cow of plenty, which granted its owner all desires, and was 
the property of Vasishtha, excited the king's cupidity. He offered the 
Muni untold treasures in exchange for the cow, but being refused, pre- 
pared to take it by force. A long war ensued between the King and 
the Muni (symbolical of the struggles between the Kshatriya and Brah- 

45 ii inns^: u 

manical classes) which ended in the defeat of Visvamitra, whose vexation 
was such, that he devoted himself to tremendous austerities, hoping to 
force the gods to make him a Brahman that he might fight with the 
saint Vasishtha on equal terms. The Ramayana goes on to recount how, 
by gradually increasing the rigour of his bodily mortification through 
thousands of years, he successively earned the title of Rajarshi (i. 57, 5), 
Rishi (63, 2), Maharshi (63, 19), and finally, Brahmarshi (65, 18). Not 
till he had gained this last title did Vasishtha consent to acknowledge 
his equality with himself, and ratify his admission into the Brahmanical 
state. It was at the time of Visvamitra's advancement to the rank of 
a Rishi, and whilst he was still a Kshatriya, that Indra and the gods, 
jealous of his increasing power exhibited in his transporting king 
Tri^an-ku to the region of the stars, and in saving S'unahsepa, the son 
of his own brother-in-law Ricika, out of the hands of Indra, to whom he 
had been promised by king Ambarlsha as a victim in a sacrifice sent 
the nymph Menaka, to seduce him from his life of continence. The 
Ramayana records his surrender to this temptation, and relates that the 
nymph was his companion in the hermitage for ten years, but does not 
allude to the birth of S'akuntala during that period. It only informs 
us that at the end of ten years the Rishi extricated himself from this 
hindrance (niyama-vigTina), and abandoning the nymph, departed into 
another region. See Indian Wisdom, p. 363. 

1 ' Such is the dread which the (inferior) gods have of the devotion 
of others !' Indra and all the deities below Brahman are really, according 
to the Hindu system, finite beings, whose existence as separate deities 
will one day terminate, and whose sovereignty in Svarga, or ' heaven,' 
is by no means inalienable. They viewed with jealousy and alarm any 
persistency by a human being in acts of penance which might raise him 
to a level with themselves; and if carried beyond a certain point, might 
enable him to dispossess them of paradise. Indra was therefore the 
enemy of excessive devotion, and had in his service numerous nymphs 
(apsaras), such as Menaka, Rambha, and UrvasI, who were called his 
' weapons ' (Indrasya praharanani, Vikram., Act I), and who were con- 
stantly sent by him to impede by their seductions the devotions of holy 

II ^f m 51 1 1 ^(05 *?T?5H II 



b 3 * 



TTTT7 qwnrqnKti^^s^n 1 **ti^f*iijejj ^tj fHg I 

1 ' Then at the season of the descent of Spring, having looked upon the 
intoxicating beauty [form] of that (nymph).' Some commentators con- 
sider vasantoddra to be a compound of vasanta and uddra; but oddra 
is a legitimate Prakrit contraction for avatdra, although avaddra would 
be equally correct. Cf. odansayanti for avatansayanti (p. 7, n. i), Jiodi 
for havadi or bhavati, jedi for jayadi or jayati, &c. Avatdra is from 
ava-tri, ( to descend/ and applies especially to the descent of a god from 
heaven. Vasanta, ' the Spring,' is often personified as a deity. See 
Vikram., Act II, Pekkhadu bhavam vasantdvaddrasuidam assa ahird- 
mattanam pamadavanassa, ' let your honour observe the delightfulness 
of this pleasure-garden manifested by the descent of Spring.' Unmd- 
dayitrikam is for the neut. unmddayitri, ' that which causes to go mad 
or be intoxicated' ( = adhairya-janakam, 'causing unsteadiness'). 

2 ' What (happened) afterwards is quite understood [or guessed by 
me].' The suffix tdt, in words like parastdt, adhastdt, may stand for the 
nominative case, as well as for abl. and loc. (Pan. v. 3, 27). Hence 
parastdt = para-vrittdntah, 'the rest of the story/ 'the subsequent 

3 ' Exactly so/ ' how can it be otherwise ? ' Athakim is a particle of 

4 ' It is fitting (that she should be the daughter of an Apsaras). How 

Verse 26. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n. 




II ^RW 5f'f -tf'cST 

otherwise could there be the birth of this beautiful-form amongst mortal 
females ? the tremulously-i-adiant flash does not rise from the surface of 
the earth (but descends from the skies).' Apsarah-sainbhavatvam is to 
be supplied before upapadyate. According to EL, prabhd-taralam (i. e. 
prabhayd cahtalam) jyotis = vidyut, 'lightning;' but S'. applies it also 
to the beams of the sun and moon. The comparison of the unearthly 
beauty of a nymph to the radiance of lightning is common. Cf. 
Megha-d. 40. 

1 ' My desire has found (free) scope,' i. e. since it is certain that she 
is not a Brahman! woman (aavarnatva-nis6ayat, ' from the certainty of 
her not being of the same class with the holy father '), it is clear that my 
desire is directed towards an attainable object. Avakasa means 'free 
course,' 'range,' 'power of expatiating.' Cf. p. 55, 1. 3, labdhdvakasa 
me prdrthand ; K. there explains it by Idbdliasrayah or sdrtho me 

2 ' Nevertheless, having heard her friend's prayer for a husband uttered 
in joke [see p. 30, 1. i], my heart is held in suspense and anxious/ i. e. 
anxious to know the truth, as to whether she is really destined for 
marriage, or for an ascetic life ; and fearful lest at some former time her 
husband may have been decided upon (purvam asyd varo nirmto na vd, 
K.) S'. interprets vara-prartfiand by svdmy-abhildsha, ' wish for a 
husband.' Dhrita-dvaidhlbhdva-kdtaram is a complex Dvandva com- 
pound. Dvaidhl-bhdva, ' a state of difference, distraction, doubt.' 

3 'Looking with a smile at S'akuntala, (and then) turning her face 
towards the hero-of-the-poem ;' lit. ' having become with her face turned,' 
&c. All the Deva-n. MSS. have this latter clause. Ndyaka, in dramatic 
poetry, is the leading character or hero of the poem, and ndyikd, the 
heroine. Romeo, in Shakespeare, would be the ndyaka, and Juliet the 
ndyikd. In every Hindu play there is also a prati-ndyaka, or 'anti- 
hero,' and an upa-ndyaka, or 'sub-hero.' See Indian Wisdom, p. 467. 

at n ^rfasTT^si^rfrs* ii 48 


1 ' S'akuntala threatens [reproves] her friend with her finger,' i. e. 
makes a threatening or chiding gesture, as if she were angry with her 
friend for leading Dushyanta to pursue his interrogatories, and were 
ashamed at the revelation of the particulars of her history (dtmano 
vrldd-janaka-svavrittdntodgJiatanam, K.) According to S\ this is an 
example of the coquettish gesture called lalita, i. e. though she was really 
eager to hear all that her lover had to say, yet by her outward gestures 
she appeared to be the reverse (priyajana-katha-susrushur api vahis 

2 'Rightly judged by your ladyship; from an eagerness to hear (all 
the particulars of) the history of pious people, there is still something 
(that remains) to be asked by us.' 

3 ' Enough of deliberating ; ascetic people may surely be questioned 
unreservedly [freely].' Aniyantrananuyoga=aniyama-prasna,, 'one to 
whom a question may be put without any restraint or ceremony,' K. 
Alain, in the sense of prohibiting or forbidding, is more usually found 
with instr. case of a noun, but, like khcdu, it may sometimes be used in 
this sense with an indeclinable participle in tvd and ya, thus alam 
dattvd, ' enough of giving,' or ' having given, it is enough ;' so Khalu 
jntva, 'having drunk, hold!' See Gram. 918. a. The Beng. MSS. read 
alam vitaritena. 



1 ' I wish to ascertain (respecting) your friend Is this monastic vow, 
(so) opposed to the ways of love, to be observed by her (merely) until 
her gift-in-marriage ; or else (oho), will she dwell to the end (of her 
life) along with the female deer, her favourites (from) having eyes like 
her own 1 ?' Dr. Boehtlingk remarks that sakhlm te jhdtum icchdmi kim 
anayd, &c., is equivalent to jndtum icchdmi kim sakhyd te, &c., 'I wish 
to know whether this vow is to be observed by thy friend/ &c. He 
gives instances of a similar construction in Draupadi-h. iv. 5 ; Maha-bh. 
iii. 269. Vaikhdnasa, 'relating to a vikhdnasa or hermit;' tena kritant 
yrroktam vd vratam vaikhdnasam, tat tu niyatdranya-vdsa-rupam, 'the 
vow which is performed by him or enjoined on him is called vaikhanasa, 
and that consists in always living in the woods,' S'. A praddndt-=.pra,- 
ddna-paryantam, or a vivdhdt, ' up to the period of her marriage.' In 
the time of Manu every Hindu girl was given away in marriage before 
the season of maturity (ritoh prdk pradana-kdlah), and that father in- 
curred great disgrace who did not so give her away. It was deemed 
highly reprehensible if the betrothed husband did not take her to his 
own house, when the marriageable period of life arrived; (see Manu ix. 4, 
with commentary.) Vydpdra-rodhi madanasya = kdma-kriyd-nivdrakam t 
'hindering amatory actions.' According to K. dtma-sadri^ekshana-valla- 
bhdbhir may be optionally resolved into dtma-sadrtiekshana-vallabhd dbhir. 
Aho, a particle of doubt, is used pakshdntare or vikalpe, i. e. antithetically, 
in stating an opposite alternative. 

2 ' Even in the practice of religious duties this person [S'akuntala] is 
subject to (the will of) another [viz. Kanva]; nevertheless, it is the 
settled purpose of the Guru to give her away to a husband suited to her.' 
Ay am janah may possibly mean ' we.' The same expression occurs in 

Verse 27. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVABI). See verse 8. 


HO u ^rsTTtT^r^nT?^ n 5 

tnn ii 'HTWIK*^ u 


Act IV. Manu (ix. 2, 3) declares that women were never to be deemed 
fit for independence. Day and night they were to be held by their 
protectors in subjection. But in certain matters, such as lawful recrea- 
tions, and if they chose to enter upon a religious life, they were to be 
left at their own disposal. It seems that even in those matters S'akuntala 
was not her own mistress. The holy father had enjoined a life of 
penance upon her, but had settled that it should not be perpetual. Api 
idb&ena dharmacaranasya 8va-6handa-karamyatvam sucitam, 'by the 
word " even" it is indicated that the duties of religion are generally to 
be performed as a voluntary act,' K. Amara-sinha explains sankalpah by 
mdnasam karma, 'a mental act or resolution.' Vararu<5i's rule (i. 22) 
by which the Sanskrit guru becomes garua in Prakrit only applies to the 

1 ' This prayer is not difficult of realization,' i. e. a suitable husband, 
about whom there is this wish, is not difficult to be obtained ; prarthana- 
fabdena tad-vishayo varo lakshyate, K., i.e. prdrthana is the prayer 
supposed to have been made by Kanva, that he might find a suitable 
husband for his foster-child. 

2 ' (my) heart I become hopeful [possessed of desire] ; now the 
certainty (of what was a matter) of doubt has come to pass. That which 
thou suspectedst (to be) fire, the same (is) a gem capable of being 
touched.' Sandeha-nirnaya, ' arriving at positive certainty on a doubtful 
point.' This was the doubt mentioned just before verse 22, see note to 
verse 22. Antah-karana is there used for Tiridaya. Tad [Sakuntald- 
rupam vastu\ agnim tarkayasi, 'the thing [viz. S'akuntala] which thou 
imaginedst fire/ S'. The power of a Brahman, especially if exhibited 
in anger, is compared to fire (verse 41 of this play; Bhatti-k. i. 23; 
Mah5-bh. i. 3010). There may be some allusion to this here, or it may 

Verse 28. ABTA or GATHA. See verse a. 

sf? i ^ f^ ft srf^rarrt ^f^fffMra 

| II 


i *r 

simply mean that, supposing S'akuntala to have been a Brahman! woman, 
she would have been as inapproachable to a Kshatriya as a flame of fire. 
Sparsa-Jcshama-=zsamparJca-yogya, see p. 29, n. i, at end. 

1 A-sambaddha, properly ' unconnected ;' hence, ' absurd/ ' nonsensical.' 
A-baddha is used with the same acceptation. 

2 Cf. p. 36, n. i. S'. quotes an aphorism of Bhrigu, 'Whosoever does 
not reverently honour an unknown guest, weary with travelling, and 
hungry and thirsty, him they call (equal in guilt to) the slayer of a 

3 'Wishing [making a movement] to arrest (her departure, but) 
checking himself.' So read all the Deva-n. MSS. The Beng. have, 
uttliaya, jighrikshur iva iccliam nigrihya, 'rising up as if desirous of 
holding her (and then) restraining his intention.' It appears from p. 38, 
1. 3, that the whole party were seated. The Bengali reading supposes 
that, with the idea of arresting her departure, he started up and then 
checked himself. 

: II 

u iitM rcn*! ii 



I ^ WR? I 

1 ' Ah ! what passes in the mind [the state of mind] of a lover has 
not a counterpart in his gestures : for, being about to follow the hermit's 
daughter, all at once I have been restrained from advancing by decorum ; 
although not (really) moving from my place, as if having gone, I have 
turned back again/ i. e. I feel just as if I had gone and turned back. 
Vinayena=7cula-maryadaya, S'. i=sausllyena, K., 'by family honour/ 'by 
honourable, gentlemanly feeling.' Varita-prasara=niruddha-gamana. 

2 ' With a frown.' Bhru-bha/n-ga, ' bending of the brow/ was one of 
the acts of feminine coquetry called su-Tcumara, ' very delicate/ Under 
this head are included all coquettish glances of the eye, S'. See p. 32, n. 6; 
Megha-d. 73. 

3 'Thou owest me two waterings of trees/ or according to Sir W. 
Jones, ' You owe me the labour, according to our agreement, of watering 
two more shrubs.' Me=mahyam. Dhri in the causal, in the sense of 
4 to owe/ requires a dative of the person. 

Verse 29. ARTA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

I w w I / v w II I v V . 


1 ' For her arms have the shoulders drooping, and the lower part [fore- 
arm] excessively red through tossing the watering-pot. Even now her 
unnaturally-strong breathing causes a heaving of her breast ; a collection 
of drops of perspiration, impeding (the play of) the S'irisha in her ears, 
has formed upon her face ; her dishevelled locks, the fillet (that confined 
them) having given way [fallen], are held together with one hand/ JSdhu 
is the arm from the shoulder-joint (ansa) to the wrist, and does not 
include the kardbha, or part from the wrist to the fingers. It is divided 
into two parts, the upper arm, praganda, or that part of the arm from 
the elbow to the shoulder ; and the lower arm, prakoshtha, commonly 
called the fore-arm, extending from the elbow to the wrist. Atilohita- 
talau is a Bahuvrihi comp., in agreement with balm; talau cannot, 
therefore, be translated by 'the palms of the hands.' One meaning of 
tala is ' fore-arm,' and S*. explains it by bhujodara. It may possibly 
mean the under-surface of the arms, which would be reddened by chafing 
against the bark- vesture in lifting the watering-pot. Prarnanadhikdh=.sva- 
bhdvika-mandd adhikah, 'more than natural,' 'undue.' JBaddham, 'formed' 
(see p. 29, n. i). Jdlaka, 'a net-work;' hence, 'a collection' (=samuha). 
S'. observes that her face was spotted with drops of perspiration resembling 
net-work. So svedam anana-vilagna-jalakam, Raghu-v. ix. 68. Karna- 
sirlsha-rodhi, see p. 7, n. i. The drops of perspiration would prevent 
the play of the pendent flower by causing it to adhere to her cheek 
(sthirl-karandt, S. ; samslesha-kdritvat, K.) A similar idea occurs in 
Megha-d. 28, where the lotus of the ears is described as faded by the act 
of removing the perspiration from the cheeks in hot weather. The lotus- 
flower, or one of its petals, furnished as common an ornament for the ear 
as the sirlsha (Megha-d. 69, 46). Paryakuldh=-vikirnah, 'scattered.' 

2 This is probably the ring which was afterwards given to S'akuntalS, 
and served as the abhijndna or ' token of recognition.' 

3 ' Both, reading the letters of the seal with the name (of Dushyanta 

Verse 30. SABDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verse 14. 

II 1 RfV| l 4rR$l$flf41 II 54 



stamped on it), look at each other ;' [asau raja iti kritvd, ' thinking to 
themselves, This is the king/ K.] All the Deva-n. MSS. read ndma- 
mudrdksTiardni. Mudrd is here, not a ' seal-ring/ but ' the seal or 
engraved stone on the ring / ndma-mudra, lit. ' name-seal/ is a seal 
with a name engraved on it, a signet-seal. So in Malavik. p. 5, 1. 9, and 
48, 4, ndga-mudrd-sandtham an-gullyakam, and sarpa-mudrakam an-yu- 
llyakam, ' a ring possessed of a snake-seal/ or ' snake-stone seal.' Anu- 
vacya=pathitva, 'having read/ 'having deciphered.' Va6 and anuvac 
in the causal have generally this sense in dramatic composition. 

1 ' Enough of considering me to be different (from what I am) ; 
(observing) that this (ring) is a present from the king, know me (to be) 
the king's officer/ i. e. do not imagine me to be the king himself; I am 
only the king's servant, and this is his ring, which he has given me to 
serve as my credentials. Alam anyathd samWidvya = alam anyathd 
sambhdvanayd (see p. 48, n. 3). Pratigraho 'yam, i. e. idam an-guri- 
yakam mayi dattam, S'. Pratigrah, especially 'to receive a gift/ with 
gen., e. g. net rdjnah (or nripasya) pratigrlhmydt, ' let him not receive 
any gift from the king/ Manu iv. 84. Pratigrdha, is 'that which is 
received ' (pratigrihyate) ; hence, ' any gift.' 

2 ' "Who art thou (in respect) of what is to be allowed to go and what 

55 innsf: ii MM 


it is to be held back V i.e. what power have you to send me away or 
keep me back? Ka na prabhuh, avasd, K., i.e. you have no right or 
power (see p. 34, n. 2). This use of gen. for dat., and of the fut. pass. 
part, for the verbal noun, is peculiar to Prakrit. The idiom of Sanskrit 
would require visarjandya rodhandya va, ' for loosing or binding.' 

1 ' My wish has found (free) scope/ i. e. I am at liberty to indulge it. 
Prarthand = manoratha, K. ; see p. 47, n. I. 

2 Kutah, 'whence?' 'why so 1 ?' often used where a reason is about to be 
given in verse for some previous statement. Translateable by ' because.' 

3 ' Although she mingles not her speech with my words, (nevertheless) 
she places her ear directly opposite to me speaking [when I speak]. 
Granted that she does not stand with her face towards my face, (still) 
her eye for the most part is not fixed on any other object.' Thus he was 
free to indulge his hopes, without being actually certain of their realization. 
Daddti \niksJiipati, K.] Tcarnam, i.e. avahitd, tatpard asti, 'she is very 
attentive,' S'. Kdmam, 'well !' 'granted !' see p. 24, 1. 10. 

4 ' Be ye near at hand for the protection of the animals of the penance- 
grove.' Sattva=jantu, 'an animal,' S'. Boehtlingk translates it by Wesen, 
1 being,' ' existence,' ' weal,' which is a legitimate acceptation of the word. 

Verse 31. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVAEI). See verses 8, 27. 

^faTR$l$iM*T II 56 


ii *ntr: OF^T ^r fcirfWr<<* 

1 'For the dust, raised by the hoofs of the horses, like a swarm of 
locusts shining in the fading glow of sunset, falls on the trees of the 
hermitage, having bark-garments, moist with water, suspended (to dry) 
on the branches.' For valkaleshu, see p. 18, n. i. Aruna is the glow 
either of sunrise or sunset, more usually the former. Parinataruna, as 
explained by K, is the evening (sayantana) redness of the sun, in contra- 
distinction to the arunodaya or ruddiness of dawn. Salabha-samuha= 
patanga-nivaha, l a multitude of grasshoppers.' 

2 ' An elephant, terrified at the sight of the (king's) chariot, enters the 
sacred grove, scaring the herd of deer, a corporeal interruption, as it were, 
of our penance ; having a (kind of) tether, caused by the clinging of a 
coil of creepers dragged along by his feet; having one of his tusks fixed 
in the trunk of a tree, struck back with a violent blow.' Such is the 
reading of all the Deva-n. MSS. The Bengali have tlvragTidtad abhi- 
mukha-taru-skandha-bhagnaika-danta, 'with a violent blow having broken 
one tusk against the trunk of a tree standing in his way.' For pada 
K. reads kroda, ' the breast.' Valaya = veshtana, ' anything that en- 
circles.' Pdsa = bandhana-rajju, ' a binding-rope.' Murta = murti-mat, 
' possessed of a body,' * corporeal,' as opposed to the spiritual obstruction 
caused by evil spirits, &c. Bhinna-saranga-yuihdh is a Bahuvrihi comp. 
agreeing with gajah, 'an elephant by which (yena) the herd of deer 
(saran-ga-yutham) has been scattered (bhinnam=wkwnam)' This was 
probably a wild elephant (vanya-gaja), from its being frightened at the sight; 
of the chariot (syandand), K. Cf. a scene in Katn. (Calcutta ed., p. 27). 

Verse 32. PUSHPITAGBA, containing twenty-five syllables to the half-verse, each half- 
verse being alike, the first and third quarter- verses ending at the twelfth syllable. 

Verse 33. MANDAKRANTA (a variety of ATYASHTI). See verse 15. 

57 iros^: n MS 




1 ' By this forest-incident.' Vrittanta often means ' incident,' ' event/ 

2 There is no dative case in Prakrit, the genitive supplying its place. 

3 Vijnapayitum, ' to represent respectfully ' to a superior (with two 
accusatives). The phrase sambhdvitatithi-satMro bhuyo prekshana- 
nimittam, 'adequate hospitality to a guest is a cause of seeing (him) 
again,' was probahly a proverb. The two friends were ashamed to 
represent this as an argument for a second visit from Dushyanta, as the 
hospitality they had shewn him had been a-samb7idvita, ' inadequate.' 

4 ' Nay, not so ; I have received all the honours (of a guest) by the mere 
sight of your ladyships.' Puraskrita=satkrita, 'hospitably entertained/ 

6 ' By the point of a young Kusa (leaf)/ Suci, ' a needle,' here used 
for the long tapering point of the leaf of the Kusa grass (see p. 19, n. i). 


tt it ^Tfo?re3l$iM n 58 


n s^fir 


1 A kind of Barleria, with purple flowers and covered with sharp prickles. 

2 ' Pretendedly delaying,' i. e. making some pretext for lingering. 

3 ' I am become indifferent [slackened in my anxiety] about returning 
to the city. Meanwhile having joined my followers, I will make (them) 
encamp at no great distance from the penance-grove.' Ni-vi&, ' to enter,' 
'take up a station,' 'encamp' as an army (Manu vii. 188; Raghu-v. v. 42). 

4 ' From occupying myself about S'akuntala.' SaJcuntala-gocara-pra- 
vartanat, K. Sakuntala-vividha-deshtitatvat, S'. 

6 ' (My) body goes forward (towards my retiuue) ; (my) heart, not being 
in harmony (with my body), runs back (towards S'akuntala), like the silken 
flag of a banner borne against toe wind/ Purah, i. e. agratah senam 
prati, ' forward towards (my) army.' Pascdt, i. e. prishthatah Sakunta- 
lam prati, K. Asainstuta = aparitita, ava^a, f unacquainted,' ' unrelated,' 
' not under control (of the body).' Sam-stu, properly ' to sing or praise 
in chorus.' Hence asamstuta probably means, ' not harmonizing/ ' not in 
concert.' The Beng. MSS. read asamsthitam (=avyavasiham), 'restless,' 
' unstable,' ' ill-regulated.' fanansukcwi6lna-de6a-bhava-vastra-viseshah, 
1 a kind of cloth produced in the land of China,' ' silk,' ' muslin.' 

Verse 34. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

v'w w v^ -- w vy -- v */ -- 


II 3TO frS^: II 

u WIT: Hfe^rfiT fewt f^g^roF: u 
: ii far^rer 11 


1 Vidushaka, ' merry,' ' facetious/ ' good-natured/ is the title given to 
the jocose companion and confidential friend of the ndyaka, or hero of 
the piece. This character is to the hero, what the female companion 
and confidante is to the heroine (ndyikd] of the play. He is his constant 
attendant, and, by a curious regulation, is to be a Brahman, that is to 
eay, of a caste higher than that of the king himself; yet his business 
is to excite mirth by being ridiculous in person, age, and attire. S'. says 
he is grey-haired (palita), hump-backed (kubja), lame (khanja), and with 
distorted features (vikritdnana) ; that the chief part of all that he says is 
humorous and nonsensical ; and that he is allowed access to the female 
apartments (antahpura-cara). In fact, he is a kind of buffoon. His 
attempts at wit, which are never very successful, and his allusions to 
the pleasures of the table, of which he is a confessed votary, are absurdly 
contrasted with the sententious solemnity of the despairing hero, crossed 
in the prosecution of his love-suit. The shrewdness of the heroine's con- 
fidantes never seems to fail them under the most trying circumstances ; 
but the clumsy interference of the Vidushaka in the intrigues of his 
friend, only serves to augment his difficulties, and occasions many an 
awkward dilemma. As he is the universal butt, and is allowed in 
return full liberty of speech, he fills a character very necessary for the 
enlivenment of the otherwise dull monotony of a Hindi! drama. He 
is called by S'. the upa-ndyaka of the piece, or the ndyakasya upa- 
ndyakah, a kind of assistant to the hero (see p. 47, n. 3). K. says, 'The 

I 2 

II ^rfi $1 I tty 55 n coi H 


Vidushaka is the name for a ridiculous, childish man (manavaka), who 
is always at the side of the hero (nayaka-parsva-parivartiri). He is 
the companion of his sports and promoter of his amusement (hasya-kari- 
narma-suhrid, or narma-sativa). In effecting the three objects of 
human life, viz. religious merit, wealth, and pleasure, the family priests 
assist the king in the first ; the heir-apparent (yuva-raja) and the army 
in the second ; the Vidushaka, the parasite (pltha-marda), and the pimp 
(vita) in the third.' For vita, see Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 

1 ' Oh (my evil) destiny ! I am worn out by being the associate of this 
king, who is so addicted to the chase. " Here 's a deer," " there 's a boar," 
"yonder's a tiger;" (in the midst of) such (cries and shouts), even at 
mid-day, is it wandered about from forest to forest, in the paths of the 
woods, where the shade of the trees is scanty in the hot season.' Vayasya 
is properly 'an associate or companion of about the same age' (vayas). 
Iti, ' so saying/ here rather, ' so crying out.' Vana-rdji, ' a row of trees,' 
' a long tract of forest.' A/iindyate, pres. pass, of rt. hind, with prep, a, 
' to wander about ' (an uncommon root) ; understand asmabhih, ' by us.' 
The Prakrit is answerable for the collocation of words in this sentence. 

2 ' The bad-smelling [pungent] waters of mountain-streams, astringent 
from the mixture of leaves, are drunk. At irregular hours a meal, 
consisting chiefly of meat roasted on spits, is eaten.' Katu, 'pungent,' 
' ill-scented.' Stilya-mansa, ' roast-meat,' ' meat cooked on a spit.' 
Bhuyishtha, see p. 4, 1. i, with note. 

3 'Even in the night I cannot lie down comfortably (in my bed) 
through the dislocation of my joints by the galloping of the horse 
[or by my horse's pursuit of the game];' see p. 67, 1. 6, and note i. 
The above is the reading of all the Deva-nagari 1VISS. The Bengali 

6 1 II rgiO*fis|; ii 

I rT^t 

have turaga-yaanam ca saddena, ' by the noise of horses and elephants.' 
Kand, ' to separate grain from the husk/ ' bruise,' ' break,' is not so 
common as khand. Kandita-sandheh agrees with the gen. mama, ' of me,' 
understood after sayitavyam. The instr. case is more usual after the 
fut. pass, part., but not more correct. 

1 'Then at the very earliest dawn I am awakened by the din of 
taking the forest by the sons of slaves hunting the birds.' Mahati 
pratyushe, lit. ' at great dawn ' (cf. mahd-rdtra, ' mid-night,' and the 
French ' de grand matin '). Dasyah-putraih stands for ddsl-putraih, and 
is to be regarded as one compound. According to Pan. vi. 3, 22, the 
genitive in this compound is used in abusing and reviling (dkrose); so 
mishalyah-putraih for vrishall-putraih. Vana-grahana, ' surrounding and 
taking possession of a wood for the purpose of hunting the animals it 
contains' (mriga-grahanartham, K.) Those who do so are called, further 
on in this Act, vana-grdhinah (=.vandvarodliaTcdh, K.), 'those who inclose 
a wood and obstruct the points of egress.' 

2 ' Even with all this my trouble does not come to an end ; (for) after- 
wards upon the (old) boil [scar], (another) small boil is produced.' lyata 
=etavatd, ' by this much,' ' by so much.' Nishkrdmati=sdmyati, ' ceases.' 
Pitakd=visp7iotaka, 'a pustule,' 'a small boil/ 'a pimple.' This was 
probably a proverbial phrase, cf. ayam aparo gandasya upari visphotah, 
Mudra-r. p. 120, 1. 14. 

3 'For indeed yesterday, while we were left behind, a hermit's 
daughter, named S'akuntala, through my ill-luck was presented to the 

II 'WfM$H5f$fff5fl II 62 



f^f|W I 

j u 
r cBtrr i 

view of his Highness, who had entered the grounds of the hermitage in 
pursuit of a deer,' i. e. it was all my ill-luck that made him see her. 
Asmdsu avahinesTiu = pa'scat patitesliu, 'dropped behind,' 'fallen in the 
rear,' S'. 

1 ' Even to-day (the light of) dawn (broke) upon the eyes (of him) 
thinking of that very (damsel);' i.e. according to C. jdgrata eva rajanl 
nirgata, ' the night passed away whilst he was still awake.' K. remarks, 
' By this it may be inferred that with thinking of her he had not closed 
his eyes all night.' Akshnoh, i. e. drisor unmllatoh satoh, ' on his eyes 
being (still) open.' Satoh in the commentary shews that akshnoh is loca- 
tive dual. 

2 ' What is to be done 1 Meanwhile I will (be on the look out to) see 
him, when he has performed (his) usual toilet. Here comes my dear 
friend in this very direction, attended by Yavana women, having bows 
in their hands, and wearing garlands of wild-flowers. Be it so; I will 
stand as if crippled by paralysis of my limbs.' Ka gatih, ' what resource !' 
i. e. what remedy or what expedient can be devised 1 This is a common 
phrase in Prakrit ; it occurs again in Act V. Kidacara-parikammam 
(= Sk. kritdcara-parikarmanam) is the reading of one of the oldest 
MSS. [India Office, 1060], and of C. K. reads pratikarmdnam ; but 
parikarma and pratikarma have the same sense, viz. ' decoration after 
purification of the body,' ' rubbing it with perfumes after bathing.' Most 
of the Deva-n. MSS. have parikkamam for parikramam, ' circumambula- 


ii WIT: 



tion/ Favam, properly a Muhammadan woman, a native of Yavana or 
Arabia, but applied also to a native of Greece. Wilson in the Vikramor- 
vasi (Act V, p. 261), where the same word occurs, remarks that Tartarian 
or Bactrian women may be intended. The business of these attendants 
was to act as the bearers of the king's bow and arrows. At the end of 
Act VI. a Yavanl enters again, sdrn-ga-hastd, 'carrying a bow/ A 
commentator remarks, Yavanl yuddha-kale rdjno 'stram daddti, 'the 
Yavanl in the time of war gives weapons to the king.' K. says, Yavanl 
sastra-dhdrim, ' the Yavanl is the weapon-bearer.' An-ga-bhan-ga, properly 
' palsy or paralysis of the limbs/ K. observes that the Vidushaka here acts 
the mshkambha, which he defines as an adhama-pravesakah, or inferior 
introductory scene, coming between two acts (an-kayor madhya-varti), 
and performed by inferior actors (nica-pdtra-prayojitah). Its object is 
to connect or bind together the story of the drama and the subdivisions 
of the plot (kathd-san-ghattandrtham), by concisely alluding to what has 
happened in the intervals of the acts, or what is likely to happen at the 
end (bhutdnam bhdvindm api sankshepena sucanat). In the following 
stage-direction, danda-kdshtha=yashti, '& stick/ ' staff of wood/ Trans- 
late, ' he stands leaning on a staff/ 

1 ' Granted my beloved is not easy to gain, still my heart encourages 
(itself) by observing her gestures (of love). Even though love has not 
accomplished its object, the desire of both (of us) gives [causes] enjoy- 
ment/ Kdmam, see p. 55, n. 3. Na sulabhd, i. e. from her relationship 
to the Rishi, K. Tad-bhdva-darsandsvdsi is the reading of all the Beng. 
MSS. and of S'. The Deva-n. read tad-bhdva-darsandydsi, where dydsi 
means ' active,' ' kept in activity/ But K., though the MS. gives dydsi, 
explains it by santushyati, 'is cheered,' and by dsvdsitam, 'consoled/ 

Verse 35. ABTA or GATHA. See verse 2. 
I w w J w w jj <~> u 



rl I 

hdva=sringdra-ceshta, 'the expression of amorous sentiments by ges- 
tures.' The gestures here referred to are described in the next verse, 36. 
Darsana is either 'seeing,' 'looking at' (avalokana, S'.), or 'exhibit- 
ing,' 'shewing' (=sakshat-karana, K.) In the latter case, translate, 'by 
her exhibition of amorous gestures.' Ubhaya = nayaka-nayikayoh or 
stri-purushayoh. Prarthana=dbhilasha, 'longing.' 

1 This is a long Bahuvrlhi comp., agreeing with prarthayita. Translate, 
' thus the suitor, who judges of the state of feeling of his beloved one by 
his own desires, is deluded.' Evam=vakshyamana-praJcarena, 'in the 
following manner,' ' in the way about to be mentioned,' K. Abhiprdya 
=abhildsha. Sambhavita=kalpita, 'imagined,' or san-kita, 'suspected.' 
Ishta-jana=manogata-vyakti, 'the individual in one's thoughts.' Prar- 
thayitd=kdmukah or ydfakah. Vidambyate^apahasyate, ' is mocked,' ' is 
made a fool of;' supply kdmena, 'by love.' The stage-direction smitam 
kritvd implies that he is to smile at his own folly in supposing that 
she was as fond of him as he was of her, merely because her gestures 
were coquettish. 

2 ' Whereas by her, even though casting her eyes in another direction, 
a tender glance was given [lit. it was looked tenderly] ; and whereas 
by the weight of (her) hips she moved [lit. it was moved by her] slowly, 
as if from dalliance ; and whereas by (her) detained in these (words), " Do 
not go" [see p. 52, 1. 4], that friend was addressed with disdain; all that 
certainly had reference to me [or was directed at me]. Ah ! (how) a 
lover discovers (what is) his own !' Vikshitam is here the past pass, part., 
and snigdham an adverb, S'. Avaruddhaya or, according to some MSS., 
uparuddhayd^-Jcrita-ga/rnana-bddJiayd or krita-gati-vydghdtayd. Mat- 
pardyanam^mad-visTiayakam, ' relating to me.' Aho here denotes wonder 

Verse 36. SARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHBTTI). See verses 14, 30. 


(asdarye, K.) Svatam=.dtmiyatam or svaklyatam, i.e. mat-Tcritam sarvam 
idam, 'all that was done on my account.' Although her gestures ap- 
peared to be unfavourable, yet it was easy to refer them to myself 
(dtma-visTiayatvaropa iti mantavyam, K.) 

1 ' Still in the same position,' i. e. leaning on his stick, as if an-ga- 
bhan-ga-vikala, ' crippled by paralysis of his limbs.' See p. 62, 1. 5. 

2 ' My hands are not capable of extension [lit. do not go forward], 
therefore by words merely are you wished victory [lit. you are made to 
be victorious],' i. e. I cannot greet you with the usual anjali or salutation 
made by joining the hands and applying them to the forehead ; you must 
therefore be contented with the salutation Jayatu I or Vijayi bhava I 
This is the reading of two old MSS. [India Office, 1060; Bodleian, 233]. 
The Calcutta ed., without the support of these MSS., adds jayatu, jayatu 
bTiavdn, ' let your Majesty be victorious.' This is sufficiently implied in 
jdpyase, which is not derived from jap, ' to repeat,' ' mutter/ but rather 
from the causal of ji, ' to conquer.' If from jap it could only mean ' you 
are caused to mutter,' whereas the sense of jdpyase, as the 2nd pers. sing. 
pres. pass, of the causal of ji, is quite suitable, and, moreover, conforms 
to the interpretation of K. (vijayl bhava}, and to that of the Calcutta 
ed. (jaydrho 'si). Lassen considers Sanskrit jdpyase:=Pr5krit jadbiasi, 
although, with Chfey, he refers it to jap (Instit. Ling. Prak. p. 361). 
Most of the Deva-n. MSS. read jldbaissam for jwayishydmi, ' I will 
cause to live,' ' I will wish life/ i. e. I will salute you with tiram jlva, 
' long life to you !' Cf. p. 68, 1. 9. 

3 ' Why indeed, having yourself troubled (my) eyes, do you inquire the 





cause of (my) tears !' Thus explained by S'. yaiha ko 'pi kasyacin netrayor 
an-guly-adikam pravesya pricchati bhavatas cakshushor asm katham ayati 
tatha tvam api, ' you are like a person who, after thrusting a finger, 
&c., into the eyes of any one, asks, How does a tear come into your 
eyes?' The Vidushaka probably here quotes some proverb, and the king 
observes in the next line that he does not understand its application in 
the present case. 

1 Bhinnariham = sphutdrtham, 'clearly,' 'distinctly,' C. 

2 ' "When the reed imitates the character [gait] of the Kubja (plant), is 
that by its own power ; (or) is it not (by the force) of the current of 
the river 1' Vetasa, a large reed or cane (Calamus Rotang) growing in 
Indian rivers. Kubja or kubjaka, properly 'hump-backed,' but also the 
name for a crooked aquatic plant (Trapa Bispinosa), called also vari-kubja 
and jala-kubja. S'. says it is sometimes called kuvalaya, but this is 
usually applied to a species of water-lily. He also mentions a reading 
kunja, 'an arbour,' instead of kubja. Possibly this is the reading to 
which the kujja of the Deva-n. MSS. is to be referred, as (according 
to Vararuci ii. 33) khujja is Prakrit for kubja. There is doubtless a 
double meaning in the word, but the first allusion is to the Kubja 
plant. To appreciate the Vidushaka's pleasantry in comparing himself 
to an upright reed, accidentally transformed into a crooked plant, we 
must bear in mind that his natural form was that of a lame, hump- 
backed man (see p. 59, n. i). 





i i 


1 ' By you, having thus relinquished the affairs of the kingdom, it is 
to be lived as a forester [lit. it is to be existed by you having the manner 
of life of a forester], in a wild unfrequented region like this. Since (then) 
I truly am become no (longer) master of my own limbs, whose joints are 
shaken about by daily chases after wild beasts, therefore I will beg you as 
a favour to let me go just for one day to rest myself (cf. p. 60, 1. g, with, 
note 3). A-mdnusJia-sancdre, lit. ' untrodden by man/ Taylor MS. Sandhi- 
bandha or sandhi-bandhana, properly ' the ligament or tendon which binds 
the joints together.' Pra-sad in causal Atm. is ' to beg a favour (prasdda) 
from any one.' 

2 Vi-klava, according to K. = vi-hvala, pardn-mukha, ' distracted,' 
' averse,' ' turning from,' ' disinclined.' Some read nir-utsuka, ' in- 

K 2 


11?$ ii 

P<< 0*1+1 u 


: i 

1 * I am not able to bend this strung bow, having-the-arrow-fixed-on- 
it, against the deer, by whom, possessing (the privilege of) dwelling in 
the society of (my) beloved, instruction in beautiful glances is as it were 
given (to her).' Adhi-jya, see p. 9, n. 2. Ahita-sayakaarpita-sdyaka, 
S'. Upetya, lit. 'having undergone' (=prapya, S'.); hence upeta, 
' possessed of.' 

2 Compare the same expression, p. 42, 1. 2, with note. 

3 ' By me a cry has been made in the wilderness/ i. e. I have spoken in 
vain, no one listens (ko 'pi na srinoti, C.) A kind of proverbial phrase ; 
cf. aham idam stinye raumi, Jcim na srinoshi me, Maha-bh. i. 3022 ; also 
Amaru-sataka, 76. 

4 ' What else (ought I to have in my mind) I The words of a friend 
ought not to be disregarded by me; so (thinking to myself) I stand 
here.' Understand hridaye kartavyam after kim any at ; and Tiridaye 
kritva after iti. 

Verse 37. PDSHPITAGBA, in which each half-verse is alike. See verse 32. 

^^^ __|| _ 

69 n fe?rW*s^: u 


I %^T M f 


1 'Is it in eating sweetmeats (that you require my assistance)?' The 
Calcutta ed. and my own Bombay MS. read Jchanjide, which might 
equally stand for the Sanskrit khadikayam, but the above is the reading 
of the oldest MSS. Khadikayam is given on the authority of C. and the 
Bodleian MS. (233). According to Pan. iii. 3, 108, Vart. i. khadika is 
an admissible form. 

2 Lit. ' the opportunity is taken,' i. e. now is a good opportunity ; 
now is the time ; I am all attention (avadhdnam kritam, C.); I have 
nothing else to do but to listen. KsTiana may mean nirvyapdra-sthiti 
or vydpdrdntara-rahita-sihitl, ' the state of having no other occupation/ 
i. e. leisure, opportunity (see Amara-kosa) . The above is the reading 
of the oldest MS. and of Katavema. S'. has grihltah pranayah, and the 
Deva-n. MSS. sugrihlta ayarn janah, 

3 Cf. the Hindustani ^ (jj$. 

4 S'an-kara quotes an "aphorism of Bharata, as follows: 'A universal 
monarch is to be addressed by his attendants with the title of bhatta 
( = bhartd).' See Sahit.-d. p. 1 7 8. K. remarks that only inferior attendants 
ought to use this title ; the others, svamin or deva. 

7T5 I " ffr fHMim ^mrofrRT ^ *: rf^r n 


f^rfit H ?b u 

a inn i b ^ ^isjimfir*i!rt H^fift vCfgm fire fir i 

1 ' There stands his Majesty eager to give (some) order, casting a look 
in this direction.' Utkantha=^udgrlva, 'having the neck erect with 
expectation,' K. Here utTcantTia^=.udyata, 'ready,' 'on the point of/ 

2 'Though observed to have evil effects [or regarded as a vice], the 
chase has proved only an advantage [or is only a merit] in our master.' 
See p. 71, n. 5 at end. One MS. reads adrishta-doshdpi, ' certainly hunting 
shews no ill effects in our master.' 

3 'For truly his Majesty, like a mountain-roving elephant, exhibits 
[bears, possesses] a body, whose fore-part is hardened by the incessant 
friction of the bow-string, patient of the rays of the sun, not affected 
by the slightest fatigue [or not weakened one atom by the toils of the 
chase], though losing flesh [reduced in bulk] not (in a manner) to be 
observed, by reason of (increased) muscular development, (and) all life 
and energy.' A-sphdlana=;karshana, 'rubbing/ 'drawing;' the idea 
generally implied is that of moving or flapping backwards and forwards. 
Purva=purva-bhdga. Klea-lesair, so read S'. and the India Office MS. 
1060. K. passes it over. The others read sveda-lesair, but sveda was pro- 
bably accidentally written for Jcheda, the synonym for kleia. Vyayatatvat 
hrita-vyayamatvat (6.) and dridhatvat (K.) It is the state produced 

Verse 38. MALINI or MANINI (a variety of ATI-SAKVARI). See verses lo, 19, 20. 


by vyayama, ' athletic and manly exercise of the muscles of the body.' 
A-laks1iya,=-naj vibhavya, 'imperceptible.' Compare Act VI. ver. 138, 
kshmo '2)i nalakshyate, and Act VII. ver. 1 74, avatlrno 'pi na lakshyate ; 
also Hitop. 1. 2631, kayah kshiyamdno na lakshyate. Prana-sdra, ' whose 
whole essence or substance consists of life and spirit' (cf. vajra-sara, 
ver. 10). ibharti, see p. 24, n. i. 

1 'The forest has its beasts of prey tracked, why then is it stayed 1 ?' 
i. e. why do you delay ? The first clause is the reading of the Deva-n. 
MSS. ; the second is that of the oldest MS. (I. O. 1060), supported by K. 
Kimiti, cf. Hitop. 1. 2618; Gita-g. ix. 7. Grihlta=jnata, 'found out,' 
'discovered.' The Beng. MSS. insert praddra-sucita, 'indicated by their 
tracks,' after grihita. 

2 Mathavya (in the Beng. MSS. Madhavya) is the Vidushaka's name. 

3 'Be firm in your opposition,' 'persevere in throwing obstacles in 
his way.' 

4 Pra-lap=yadvd tadvd bhdsh, 'to talk nonsense,' 'to talk idly.' 
Vaidheyamurkha, 'a fool,' 'blockhead.' 

6 'The body (of the hunter) having the waist attenuated by the re- 
moval of fat becomes light (and) fit for exertion ; moreover the spirit of 

Verse 39. SARDULA-VIKBIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36. 

n i 

living creatures is observed (to be) affected with various emotions, 
through fear and anger ; and that is the glory of the archers when the 
arrows fall true on the moving mark. Falsely indeed do they call 
hunting a vice; where (is) there such a recreation as this 1 ?' Medas, 
'adeps or feA,'=sthaufya-janaka-dhdtu, 'a secretion causing fatness,' K. 
It performs the same functions to the flesh that the marrow does to the 
bones ; its proper seat is in the belly (udara) ; hence the flesh is called 
medas-krit, 'the maker of adeps.' Cheda=na&a, 'destruction,' 'removal,' 
'reduction' (cf. gharma-ccheda, 'the cessation of the heat,' Vikram., 
Act IV). Utthana-yogyam, the Beng. MSS. read utsaha-yogyam, but 
utsaha is merely a synonym for utihana, which is applied to any kind of 
manly exertion. K. says it here refers especially to the act of mounting 
on horse-back. Sattvandm, i. e.jantundm sinhddlndm, ' of animals such as 
lions, &c/ Sattva may include both the hunters and the hunted. Vikriti- 
mat, ' affected with vikriti or vikdra' i. e. any emotion which causes a 
change from the prakriti, or ' natural and quiescent state of the mind ' 
(parityaJcta-prakritikam, K.); see p. 38, n. 2. Bhaya-krodhayoh (satoK) = 
bhaye krodhe ca. Utkarsha=pratishthd, ' fame,' ' honour,' S'. Vyasanam, 
see Manu vii. 47, 50, where hunting is designated as one of the ten vices 
(vyasandni) of kings, and is, moreover, included amongst the four most 
pernicious (kashtatama). 

1 Utsaha-hetuka, 'one who encourages or incites to exertion;' opposed 
to utsdha-bhan-ga-kara, 'one who damps another's zeal,' Hitop. 1. 1987. 

2 'His Majesty has returned to his natural state [i.e. is no longer 
eager after the excitement of hunting] ; but thou, wandering from forest 
to forest, wilt probably fall into the jaws of some old bear, greedy after 
a human nose.' Prakriti, 'the natural, quiescent state of the soul,' aa 


opposed to vikriti ; see above. Ahindan, see p. 60, 1. 2 ; Dasa-kumara- 
carita, p. 151, 1. 6, says, bhallukd manusliydndm ndsikdm grihnanti, ' bears 
seize the human nose.' The Beng. read sriydla-mriga-lolupasya, ' eager 
after a jackal or deer.' RiMhassa is Prakrit for rikshasya, Vararuci 
iii. 30. 

1 ' Let the buffaloes agitate-by-their-plunges the water of the tanks, 
repeatedly struck with their horns ; let the herd of deer, forming groups 
under the shade, busy themselves in rumination ; let the bruising of the 
Musta grass be made in (undisturbed) confidence by the lines [herds] of 
boars in the pool ; and let this my bow, having-the-fastening-of-its-string- 
loose, get repose.' Gdhantdm=lolayantu, 'let them agitate, stir,' K., 
hence luldpa is one of the names for a buffalo. Gdh, properly, ' to plunge 
into,' 'plunge about in.' Nipdna^dhdva, 'a reservoir or trough near a 
well' (upaTfupa). Romantha = adhara-calana, 'the moving of the lower 
lip or lower jaw,' K., and bhuktasya punar dkrishya or udglrya farvanam, 
' the chewing of what has been eaten after drawing or vomiting it up 
again,' i. e. 'chewing the cud,' S^., C. Abhyasyatu=^paunahpunyena 
karotu, 'perform again and again,' C. Tatibhih=yuthaih, 'by herds.' 
The Beng. read vardha-patibhir, ' by the chiefs of the boars.' There is no 
difficulty in tatibhir ; many herds of animals form lines or tracks in 
moving from one place to another, or in grazing. Musta, a sort of 
fragrant grass (Cyperus Rotundus) eaten by swine, which are hence 
called mustdda. Ksliati=viddrana, ' tearing,' 'uprooting,' K. ; = lunthana, 
' rolling,' S'. The grass would probably be bruised by their trampling 
and rolling on it, as well as by their eating it. Sithila-jyd-bandha = 
avaropita-guna. S'. and C. observe that the above verse furnishes an 
example of the figure called Jdti or Svabhdvokti, i. e. a description of 
living objects by circumstances or acts suited to their character. They 
also notice the change of construction from the nom. to the instr. in the 

third line, and its resumption in the fourth. 

Verse 40. SARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 39. 


: i 




1 Prabhavisknu, ' the mighty one,' equivalent to our expression ' your 

2 Vctna-grahina7i=vandvarodhaka7i, see p. 61, n. i. 

3 ' In ascetics with whom quietism [a passionless state] is predominant 
(over all other qualities), there lies concealed a consuming energy [fire]. 
That (energy), like sun-crystals, (which are) grateful [cool] to the touch, 
they put forth, from (being acted upon by) the opposing-influence of other 
forces/ i. e. the inhabitants of this hermitage, however passionless they 
may be, and however kind when unprovoked, contain within themselves 
a latent energy, which, when roused by opposing influences, will be put 
forth to the destruction of those who molest them; as a crystal lens, 
however cool to the touch in its natural state, will emit a burning heat 
when acted upon by the rays of the sun. /Sama-pradhdneshu, ' in whom 
stoicism or self-control is everything;' who regard exemption from all 
passion and feeling as the swmmum bonum. Surya-Jcdnta, lit. 'beloved 
by the sun;' also called surya-mani, 'the sun-gem,' and dlptopala, 'shining 
stone/ a stone resembling crystal. Wilson calls it a fabulous stone with 
fabulous properties, and mentions a fellow-stone called tandra-kanta, 

Verse 41. UPAJATI or AKHTANAKI (a variety of TBISHTFBH), each quarter-verse 
being either Upendra-vajrd or Indra-vajra, the former only differing from the latter 
in the first syllable. 



ii faMiini't *taTnfff: n 



: i 
: ii 

' moon-beloved,' or dandra-mani, ' moon-gem.' It may be gathered from 
this passage that its properties resembled those of a glass lens, which 
instrument may possibly have been known to the Hindus at the time when 
this play was written. The following parallel sentiment is from Bhartri-h. 
ii. 30 : Tad acetano 'pi padaih sprishtah prajvalati savitur atikdntah, 
tat tejasvl purushah para-krita-nikritam katham sdhate, ' since even the 
lifeless (stone) beloved of the sun, when touched by its rays, burns ; how 
then can the man of spirit put up with an injury inflicted by another 1 ?' 
Abhi-bhava=tiras-kdra, ' insult,' K. The sun's rays, disturbing the natural 
state of the stone, are compared to the hunter's disturbing the hermitage 
and provoking its inhabitants. Vamanti, so read all the Deva-n. MSS. 
and K. The Beng. have sparfanukuld api surya-kantas, te hy anya-tejo- 
'bhibhavad dahanti, ' although the sun-crystals be grateful to the touch, 
yet, from the influence of other heat, they burn.' 

1 This is inserted on the authority of Katavema and one MS. (India 
Office, 2696). The Beng. read bho utsaha-hetuka nishkrama. 

2 'Your arguments for exertion (in the chase) have fallen (to the 
ground),' i. e. all that you have alleged in praise of hunting, with the 
view of rousing the king's ardour, has been in vain. 

3 Some read bhavanto; but the fern, bhavatyo (supported by K.) seems 
more correct, as the female attendants, called Yavani, are intended. See 
p. 62, n. 2, in the middle. 

4 'Fulfil your office (of door-keeper),' i.e. dvdra-stho bhava, 'stand at 
the door,' C. 


trar i 



1 ' (The place) has now been made clear of flies by your Majesty,' i. e. 
we are now left alone, and no one can interrupt us. Nir-mdksliikam^ 
nir-janam, 'free from people,' S'., C. According to Pan. ii. i, 6, nirma- 
Jcshikam is an Avyayibhava compound, but it is here used adjectively. 
The Prakrit conforms to Vararuci iii. 30. The phrase occurs again in the 
beginning of Act VI. Has maksMka here at all the sense of the French 
mouchard, 'a spy,' which is derived from mouche, 'a fly 1 ?' 

2 ' On this stone-seat, furnished with a canopy,' &c. See p. 26, n. 3. 

3 Lit. 'thou hast not obtained the fruit [benefit] of thy eyes, since 
the best of things worthy to be seen has not been seen by thee,' i. e. 
until you have seen S'akuntala, you may consider your eyes as barren, 
and created in vain ; when they have fallen upon this object, they may 
then be said to have yielded some fruit. So in Vikram., Act I, the king, 
speaking of UrvasI, says, yasya netrayor abandhyayoh (not barren) 
pathi sthita tvam. Cf. also Gita-g. ix. 6, Harim avalokaya saphalaya 
nayane, ' look upon Hari (and) make thy eyes fruitful.' 

77 H snrs^f: H * 

n b 

i H^T f^i 

1 ' Every one regards his own as beautiful ; but I speak in reference 
to that same S'akuntala who is the ornament of the hermitage.' Atmtyam 
is given in one Bombay MS. (India Office, 1858), and is supported by 
K. Laldma=alan-kdra. Adhikritya, see p. 6, n. 2. Cf. mudram adhi- 
kritya bravimi, Malavik. p. 49, 1. 11; also Raghu-v. xi. 62; Kumara-s. 
iv. 38. 

2 'I will not give him an opportunity (of speaking about her).' Se 
= asya or asyah; K. here interprets it by the former. Avasara = 
vdg-avasara. ' I will not hold a conversation with him respecting 
S'akuntala/ S". 

3 ' If she be a hermit's daughter, she is not (fit) to be wooed (by you) ; 
what (good) then (is to be got) by her seen?' This reading is adopted 
from the Beng. MSS. 

4 ' The heart of the descendants of Puru does not engage in (the pursuit 
of) a forbidden object;' see p. 31, n. i. The Beng. and two Deva-n. MSS. 
(India Office, 2696, and my own) insert the following curious verse before 
the above sentence : Murkha, Nirdkrita-nimesTidbliir netra-pan-ktibhir 
unmukhah Navdm indu-kaldm lokah kena bhdvena pasyati, ' fool ! 
with what feeling [or sentiment] do people look at a new digit of 
the moon, turning up their faces with a row of eyes free from 

: n ^r n 
sag H 


l t> S n 

1 ' (Although the reputed) offspring of the sage, she is really sprung 
from a celestial nymph, (and was) found (by him when) deserted by her; 
like a severed flower of the Nava-mallika fallen on the sun-plant.' The 
Nava-mallika (p. 22, n. i) is a delicate and tender plant (atikomala- 
pushpa-bheda, C.) which, as a creeper, depends on some other tree for 
support ; the arka, Asclepias, or Calotropis Gigantea, is a large and 
vigorous one (see Sir "W. Jones, vol. v. p. 102); hence the former is 
compared to Sakuntala, the latter to the sage Kanva. S'. explains 
arkopari by raver upari, 'upon the sun;' but hints that some interpret 
arka by arka-pushpa. Sura-yuvati, see p. 44, n. 2. According to K., 
kila is used vdrtayam, 'it is reported;' but S'. interprets it by niscitam, 
'certainly.' Sithilam=vrintac cyutam, 'fallen from the stalk,' C. The 
correspondence of the words in the first line with those in the second 
is noticeable; sura-yuvati with nava-mallika, muni with arka, apatya 
with kusuma, ujjhita with tithila, adhigata with cyuta. 

2 ' Just as to any one [lit. of any one] having lost his relish for dates, 
there may be a great desire for the tamarind ; so is this desire of your 
Majesty (for S'akuntala), slighting the jewels of women in (your own) 
inner apartments.' Pinda-kJiarjura, ' a kind of Kharjura, or date tree,' 
here probably used for the fruit, and therefore in the neuter. Tintidika 
or tintidl, 'the tamarind tree.' Udvejitah = vaimanasyam prdpitah, 
'brought to a change of mind or feeling.' Itthia, ittJiika, and itfhl are 
Prakrit equivalents for strl. See Lassen's Instit. Prak. p. 182, note. 

Verse 42. ABTA or GATHA. See verse a. 




f^fil^lT frTT ^ I 

: ii tf H 


1 ' "Was she endowed with the properties of life by the Creator after 
delineating her [placing her] in a picture, or was she rather formed by 
the mind by a concentration [assemblage, selection] of lovely forms 1 She 
appears to me like a matchless [the last] creation of the loveliest of women 
[or like another creation of the goddess of beauty], when I recollect 
[recollecting] the omnipotence of the Creator, and her (graceful) person/ 
i.e. whatever was the method of her creation, whether she was formed 
by the divine power of Brahma by first painting a faultless figure and 
then breathing into it the principle of life, or by the mind by collecting 
into one ideal model a combination of various exquisite forms, it is clear 
that she is an unequalled beauty (or, she appears to me as another creation 
of the goddess Lakshmi). Strl-ratna is explained by S'. and C. to mean 
Lakshmi ; but it may be referred to the antahpura-strl-ratna mentioned 
before, as apara=apurvd, 'matchless/ 'peerless/ 'without a fellow/ na 
wdyate para, K. and S'. Citre = dlekhye. Nivesya=vinyasya, 'having 
placed, fixed, committed.' Parikalpita=sampddita or sampanna, 'en- 
dowed with,' 'provided with,' K. Yoga, at the end of a compound, is 
often used in a vague manner ; sattva-yoga may mean ' a combination of 
the various properties of being and life.' K. refers to verse 146, beginning 
Yad yat sadhu na 6itre syat, which asserts that the figure of S'akuntala 

Verse 43. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of &AKVAH!). See verses 8, 27, 31. 

fcO II ^STHsiM^lfTc'}*! II OO 

trar i 


was faultless. Rupoccaya = fandrady-upamana-va&tu-8aniu6caya, i. e. 
collecting together such models of beauty as the moon, fec., for the 
purpose of forming one ideal perfect form, by a selection from each, K. 
Manasd kri, or klrip, 'to form by means of the mind;' hence often 
simply, ' to imagine ;' and hence, mano-kdlpitam, ' an idea.' There may be 
an allusion here to the mind-born sons of Brahma. Vidhind=vid7idtrd. 
K. observes that, being dissatisfied with the thought contained in the 
first line, he asserts in the second that her limbs were too delicate to 
have been fashioned by the hand in a picture ; they must, therefore, have 
been formed in the mind. Stri-ratna=stri-sreshtha, C. Jdtau jdtau 
yad utkrishtam taddhi ratnam pracakshate, ' whatever is best of its kind 
that indeed they call ratna (a gem)/ C. The connection of anucintya 
with the dative case me is unusual, but not without precedent. The Beng. 
MSS. read 6itte for citre. 

1 'The supplanter/ The verb praty-d-dis=nir-d-kri, 'to reject,' 're- 
move,' ' set aside,' and pratyadesa, ' rejection,' is here used for ' the cause 
of rejection,' i. e. anything which, by its superiority, supplants and brings 
into contempt what was before highly prized. Tayd nija-saundarya- 
mahimnd 'nya-rupavatl-rdpam khcmditam, S*. So also, in the beginning 
of Vikram., Urvasi is called pratyddeso rupa-ga/rvitdydh srl-gawrydh. 

2 ' That faultless form (is) a flower not (yet) smelt, a tender-shoot un- 
plucked [uncut, unhurt] by the nails, an unperforated jewel, fresh honey 
whose flavour (is yet) untasted, and the full [complete] reward of meri- 

Veree 44. &IKHABIKI (a variety of ATTASHTI). See verses 9, 34. 

8 1 

toi-ious deeds. I know not to what possessor [enjoyer] here [of this 
form] Destiny will resort ;' i. e. I know not whom Destiny intends to 
be the enjoyer of her beauty. A-luna = sdkhdvasthita, 'still remaining 
on the branch.' An-dviddha = a-samutklrna, ' unperf orated,' K. (cf. 
Raghu-v. i. 4, manau vajra-samutkirne sutrasya gatih, 'the entrance of 
a thread into a gem perforated by the adamant'). The Beng. MSS. read 
an-dmuktam=a-2)arihitam, dkardd driita-matram, 'not yet put on,' 'only 
just drawn from the mine,' S'. Phalam punydndm, \. e. the fruit of 
many virtuous acts in various former births come to its maturity (pa/ri- 
natl-bhutam), S'. A-Manda = sam-purna, 'unimpaired/ 'entire.' The 
consequences of good deeds performed in former births are sometimes 
not fully enjoyed ; but sometimes they are perfected. Similarly the form 
of S'akuntala is an-ayha, 'faultless' (=pratyavdya-hetu-rahita, K.) Iha, 
i.e. asmin rupa-vishaye, ' with reference to this form,' K. Samupastlidsyati 
=samprdpsyati, 'will attain,' 'arrive at.' This verge is an example of 
the figure called Rupaka, see Indian Wisdom, p. 455. 

1 ' Therefore let your Highness quickly rescue her, lest she fall into 
the hands of some wretched rustic, whose head is greasy with oil of 
In-gudl.' In-gudi, see p. 18, n. i. Mdyathd na, K. 

2 ' Towards your Highness what kind of feeling (was displayed) by her 
eyes'?' AtTia is used in asking a question, S*. Bhavantam antarena = 
bhavan-nimittam, (^.;=bhavan-madhye > S'. The same expression occurs 
in Vikram., Act III, where the interpretation given is bhavantam uddisya, 
i. e. ' with regard to you.' Antarena (similarly used in Malavik. p. 5, 1. 3) 
governs an ace. case, by Pan. ii. 3, 4. Drishli-raga = cakshuh-pmti, 'the 
love of the eyes,' K. So read the Deva-n. MSS., supported by K. and S'. ; 
but the Beng. read citta-rdga. 


ti 82 


1 ' "When I stood facing her, her glance was withdrawn, a smile was 
(feigned to be) raised from some other cause (than love) ; hence love, 
whose course was checked by modesty, was not (fully) displayed by her, 
nor (yet) concealed.' Anya-nimitta, i. e. some other cause than love, 
which was the true one (abhildsJia-vyatirikta, K.) ' By this her love was 
concealed,' K. The Beng. have kathodayam. Vinaya-vdriia-vrittir is to 
be taken with madano, K. Cf. p. 52, n. i. 

2 ' Is it really (to be expected) that she will seat herself on the lap of 
you, barely seen 1 ?' i.e. do you expect to gain her all at once, without 
some effort 1 

3 ' Again, at our mutual departure, her feeling towards me was betrayed 
by her ladyship, although with modesty.' Sakhlbhydm before mithah is 
not supported by the commentators or best MSS. 

Verse 45. DKUTA-VILAMBITA (a variety of JAGATI), containing twelve syllables to 
the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 

83 fitful: u 



1 'For, having proceeded only a few steps, (that) slim one stopped 
without any (real) occasion, saying, " My foot is hurt by a blade of Kusa- 
grass" [p. 57, 1. 16]; and remained with her face turned back (towards me), 
whilst (pretending to be employed in) releasing her bark -dress, although 
not (really) entangled in the branches of the shrubs.' Darbhdn-kurena, 
see p. 57, n. 5 ; p. 19, n. i. Akdnde=akasmdt, K. ; animittam, S'. ; 
= anavasaram, C. One sense of kdnda is ' occasion/ ' opportunity.' 
Vivritta-vadand, i. e. mad-avalokandya, ' for a look at me,' S'. This 
verse is an example of the Samadhi Alan-kara, S'. 

2 ' Therefore be provided with a stock of provender ; I perceive that 
you have made the penance-grove a pleasure -grove [pleasure -garden].' 
Grihita-patheya, ' one who has provided himself with provender or the 
necessaries for a lengthened stay from home.' According to K. = s<m- 
naddha, ' equipped,' ' prepared,' i. e. for rambling in the precints of 
the hermitage. The Vidushaka is characteristically anxious about the 

3 'And what of that?' 

Verse 46. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVAE!). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43- 

M Z 



ff ^: 

ftwrff ^r: 

1 A king might take a sixth part of liquids, flowers, roots, fruit, grass, 
&c. ; but, even though dying with want, he was not to receive any tax 
from a Brahman learned in the Vedas (Manu vii. 131-133). See Indian 
Wisdom, pp. 264, 265. 

2 ' These hermits pay another (kind of) tribute, which, leaving behind 
heaps of jewels, is welcomed [rejoiced in],' i. e. which is welcomed more 
than heaps of jewels. This reading of the oldest Beng. MSS. seems 
preferable to that of the Deva-n. anyad bhdgadJieyam eteshdm rakshaiie 
nipatati, 'another tribute accrues (to me) for their protection.' Ehaga- 
dheya in this sense is masculine, according to Amara-k. S'. and some 
of the Beng. have puny a for any a. 

3 ' That tribute which arises to kings from the (four) classes is perish- 
able ; but hermits [inhabitants of the woods] offer us a sixth part of (the 
merit of their) penance, (which is) imperishable.' Varnebhyah, i.e. the four 
classes of BrShmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and S'udras, according to K., 
S'., and C. Hence it would appear that the Brahmans were liable to 
some kind of tribute as well as the other classes, though Manu exempts 
them. The Beng. have dhanam for phalam. Dadati, third person plural 
(see Gram. 331. Obs.) 

4 'We have accomplished our object,' i. e. in gaining an audience of the 
king, S*. Hanta, an exclamation of pleasure, S'. 

' Oh ! it is to be by the hermits, [it must surely be the hermits] who 

Verse 47. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 26. 


: i 

II ^ f**-W*( I ^fo HTtTlT ^ Ufa^ H 

have deep, calm voices,' i. e. to judge by the tone of the voices which I 
hear, some of the hermits must have arrived. 

1 Properly 'the ground near the gate of the palace' (raja-dvara-pra- 
desa, S'.), but here simply the station of the porter (dvara, U.) 

2 The present for the future. 

3 ' Oh ! the confidence (inspired by the sight) of his person, majestic 
though (it be) ! But this is quite natural in this king very little inferior 
to a Bishi.' Diptimat=^tejasvin, 'splendid/ 'majestic.' Visvasanlyata, 
'the state of being confided in.' Upapanna, 'fit,' 'proper,' 'reasonable,' 
' to be expected/ Cf. Vikram., Act II, upapannam viseslianam asya 
vayoh. RisTii-kalpe, 'resembling a Rishi, but with a degree of inferiority;' 
see Jcalpa iu Diet, and Gram. p. 65. LVII. Dushyanta was a Rajarshi, 
and therefore one degree below a Rishi, see p. 44, n. 2, in the middle ; 
and p. 39, n. 3. The Deva-n. reading is rishibhyo natibhinne rajani, but 
the Beng, is here preferable. 


1 'Although he abides in the Asrama [order] of a royal householder 
, / where e vary Ihing-is-te- be enjoyed, jtet he also day by day accumulates 

the-merit-of-penance through the act of protecting (his subjects). Of 
him also having-his-passions-in-subjection, the (same) sacred title of Muni 
[or Rishi], but (with this difference that it is) preceded by Raja [i. e. 
Hajarshi], repeatedly ascends to heaven, being chanted by pairs of (celestial) 
minstrels.' Adhydkranta = svi-krita, ' appropriated,' ' taken possession 
of,' K. Asrame=dharmdcarana-sthdne, ^L.;=garhasihye, 'the order of 
a householder,' S'. and C. Rakshd-yogat, see p. 79, 1. 7; yogdt, 'in 
consequence of,' ' by reason of,' ' through ' (at the end of comps.) ; cf. Manu 
vii. 144, 'The highest virtue of a king is the protection of his subjects.' 
Cdrana-dvandva = gandharva-mithuna, 'pair of Gandharvas, or celestial 
choristers/ These beings were the musicians or minstrels of Indra's 
heaven, just as the Apsarases were the dancers and actresses ; and their 
business was to amuse the inhabitants of Svarga by singing the praises 
of gods, saints, and heroes. (Jdrana, 'a bard,' 'herald.' Kevalam=eva, 
' certainly,' K. This verse is an example of Vyatireka, i. e. a description of 
the difference of two things compared in some respects to each other, S'. 

2 ' The friend of Indra.' Bala-bhid, ' Indra,' who crushes armies with 
his thunderbolt. Sakhi at the end of some comps. (like rdtri, akshi, &c.) 
changes its final to a, and becomes a noun of the first class (see Gram. 778; 
Pan. v. 4, 87. 91. 98. 102). Indra is the chief of the Suras or secondary gods, 
being inferior to the gods of the Triad ; and corresponds to the Jove or 
Jupiter Tonans of classical mythology. In his lordship over Svarga, or 
paradise, he might be supplanted by any one who could perform a hundred 
Asva-medhas or horse-sacrifices (see p. 45, n. i). He and the other Suras 
were for ever engaged in hostilities with their half-brothers, the demons 
called Asuras or Daityas, the giants or Titans of Hindu mythology, who 
were the children of Kasyapa by Diti, as the Suras were by Aditi (see 
p. 22, n. 3). On such occasions the gods seem to have depended much 
upon the assistance they received from the heroes of the earth, such as 
Dushyanta, Pururavas, &c. 

Verse 48. MANDAKRANTA (a variety of ATT ASHTI). See verses 15, 33. 

8 7 


1 ' This is not wonderful, that he whose arm is as long as the bar of a 
city (gate), should alone govern the entire earth, having the ocean as its dark 
[green] boundary [i. e. as far as the very ocean]. For the gods, constant 
in enmity, in their battles with the demons, expect victory through [in] 
his strung bow and the thunderbolt of Indra.' Parigha=argala, 'the 
bar or bolt which fastens a gate.' In a city-gate it was both massive 
and long (stydna, dlrgha, C.), and therefore an object of comparison highly 
significant of muscular strength. It should be borne in mind that length 
and vigour of arm were prime requisites in the ancient hero, whose fame 
depended on his skill and power in managing a bow. Hence the appositeness 
of such epithets as maha-bdhu and pransu-bahu, ' long-armed.' Bhunakti 
=palayati, C. ; bhuj is often applied to a king in the sense of ruling 
and protecting the earth; cf. kritsndm prilhivlm bhun-kte, Manu vii. 148; 
also Raghu-v. viii. 7, iii. 4. Asansante=icchanti, 'wish for,' 'hope for,' 
' aspire after.' Samitishu surah, &c., this is the Beng. reading ; the 
Deva-n. have swra-yuvatayo baddha-vaird, &c. Daily nth, see last note. 
Adhi-jye, see p. 9, n. 2. The loc. has sometimes the force of the instr. 
Pauruhuta= Aindra, 'belonging to Indra;' Puru-huta, 'much- worshipped,' 
is one of Indra's thousand names. This verse is an example of the 
figure called Dipaka or ' illustration,' S'. ; its use is to throw light, as it 
were, upon an idea by some apposite illustration. See Indian Wisdom, 
P- 455- 

2 Vi-ji, 'to conquer,' is rightly conjugated in Atm. (Pan. i. 3, 19). 

Verse 49. MANDAKRAKTA (a variety of ATTASHTI). See verses 15, 33, 48. 

tb II wV$tl i 3j cj m o5*i II 

II ^rrcnTT^FZrni II 

T: u 

II *TWT*T Tffb^I II 

TOT <5Tftj 

1 ' YOUB Highness is known to the inhabitants of the hermitage (to be) 
staying here.' Asrama-sad-=asrama-vdsin, ' a dweller in a hermitage,' ' a 
hermit;' so naka-sad, 'a dweller in paradise,' 'a god;' hence sad ana, 
1 a house.' Vidita, in construction with the gen., is noticeable ; see Pan. 
iii. 2, 1 88, ii. 3, 67; also Raghu-v. x. 40, viditam tapyamanam tena me 
bhuvana-trayam, ' the three worlds are known to me (as) being harassed 
by him.' 

2 Rakskas=rdkshasa, see p. 40, n. 5. 

3 Rdtram, see p. 86, n. 2. Dvifiyena, see p. 13, n. i. 

4 Sanathl-lcriyatam, see p. 26, n. 3. 


1 'This is a becoming trait in you, an emulator of (your) ancestors. 
Truly the descendants of Puru are ordained (to officiate) in the sacrifices 
of (giving) exemption-from-fear to the distressed ;' i.e. whilst we Brahmans 
are consecrated to officiate in real sacrifices, the highest duty of kings is 
the protection of their afflicted subjects (see p. 86, n. i). So read all the 
Deva-n. and some of the Beng. MSS. The Beng. (Bodleian, 234) has 
satrena, and some begin the verse with upakarini sarvesham, ' the helper 
of all.' Yukta-rupam, cf. p. 15, 1. 3. Apannabhaya-sattreshu-=dpad- 
yatanam bhaya-trane, S'. Dlkshitdh=krita-pratishthdh, 'consecrated.' 

2 Api may be used prasne, 'in asking a question' (cf. p. 35, 1. 9). 

3 ' At first it was overflowing ; (but) now, by the account of the 
Rakshasas, not even a drop is left.' Parivalia is either ' an inundation,' 
or 'a channel for carrying off an excess of water;' the Beng. MSS. have 
aparibddham, ' unchecked.' Vrittdntena=ndma-grcthanena, ' by the 
mention.' _ 

Verse 50. &LOKA or ANOSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, ii, 12, 26, 47. 



u tnTH u 

: i 

IT? I 

1 'I will guard the wheel of your chariot." There seems to be a 
humorous double meaning in fakra-raksha, which may also be translated, 
' the commander of the wing of your army;' the Deva-n. have esa rakkha- 
sado rakkhidomki, ' I am protected from the Rskshasa.' 

2 'The equipped chariot awaits your Majesty's advance to victory; but 
here is Karabhaka just arrived from the city, bearing a message from the 
queen-mother.' Demndm is here in the respectful plural ; so ambabliih 
two lines below. 

3 Atha kim (=vadham, 'yes') is used an-glkritau, see p. 46, n. 3. 




1 ' On the fourth day, (which is now) coming [i. e. on the fourth day 
after to-day], the ceremony [fast] named Putra-pinda-palana [i. e. cherish- 
ing of the body of a son] will take place ; thereat [on that occasion] 
certainly we ought to be honoured- with-a- visit by the long-lived-one [by 
your Majesty, long may you live !].' Most of the Beng. MSS. read putra- 
j)vnda-pdrana, ; but C. substitutes palana, and interprets the phrase by 
pura-deJia-pushti-prada. S'. gives the same interpretation, but reads 
paryupdsana for palana. Pinda, deha-matre iti Medirii, 'according to 
MedinI, pinda has the sense of body,' S'. and 6. Putra refers to the 
king in his relation to the queen-mother. The Deva-n. reading (pravritta- 
pdrana upavasah, ' a fast which has come to an end') is not very 
satisfactory. Upa-vdsa=vrata, 'a religious ceremonial accompanied 
with fasting, but not necessarily a fast.' K. and 6. observe that one 
name for this ceremonial was putra-rdja, and that it consisted in offering 
various presents to the young king of sweetmeats, clothes, &c., just as 
might be done in the present day on the occasion of a birth-day. 
Dlrghdyus, see p. 9, n. i. Vayam is used in plural like devmdm above. 
Sambhavayitavyah, see p. 26, n. I. 

2 ' In this direction the business of the hermits, in the other the 
command of a venerable parent (calls me). Both are not to be neglected. 
How, in such a case, can an arrangement be effected V Dvayam apt, 
' both the one and the other ;' api is often affixed to dvi in this sense ; 
see Amara-k. ii. i, 5; Malavik. p. 16, 1. 22. In Hitop., 1. 2048, dvayam 
without api has the sense of ' both.' 

3 ' Stand between, like Trisan-ku.' The story of this monarch is told 
at length in Ramay. i. 57-60 (see also p. 43, n. i). He is there described 
as a just and pious prince of the Solar race, who aspired to celebrate a 
great sacrifice, hoping thereby to ascend to heaven in his mortal body. 
He first requested the sage Vasishtha to officiate for him ; but, being 

N 2 

9 2 

refused, he then applied to the sage's hundred sons, by whom he was 
cursed and degraded to the condition of a Candala. In this pitiable state 
he had recourse to Visvamitra, who undertook to conduct the sacrifice, 
and invited all the gods to be present ; they, however, refused to attend. 
Upon this the enraged Visvamitra, by his own power, transported Tri- 
san-ku to the skies, whither he had no sooner arrived than he was hurled 
down again, head foremost, by Indra and the gods ; but, being arrested in 
his downward course by VisvSmitra, remained suspended between heaven 
and earth, forming a constellation in the southern hemisphere. The story 
is differently told in some of the Puranas (Wilson's Vishnu-p. p. 371, note). 
They and the Hari-v. describe Trisan-ku as a wicked prince, guilty of 
three heinous sins (san-ku). S. adopts this view of his character, and 
calls him krita-bahutara-malina-karmd raja. Antard = tapovana-sva- 
nagarayor madhye, ( between the hermitage and the city.' The facetious 
allusion to Trisan-ku is quite characteristic of the Vidushaka, and affords 
an example of the Vyahara Alan-kara, S'. and C. 

1 'Verily I am embarrassed. From the difference of the places of the 
two duties [i. e. on account of the distance between the place where the 
two duties have to be performed] my mind is divided in two, as the stream 
of a river driven back [made to recoil] by rocks (lying) before it ' (cf. 'the 
sentiment at verse 34). Purah=agre, 'in front,' 'ahead.' Although 
pratihatam faile, ' which has struck on a rock,' is the reading of the Beng. 
MS. (Bodleian, 233) and most of the Deva-n., yet the other Bengali and 
S'. read failaih, which I prefer. The Deva-n. read srotovaho, gen. case 
of sroto-vah, f. 'a river.' Some MSS. have srotovaham=nadl-sambandhi, 
'belonging to a river' (K., S'., and C.), an adjective agreeing with srotah. 
This verse is an example of the Yathopama Alan-kara, or ' comparison by 
the use of the conjunction yatha.' 

Verse 51. SLOKA or AKUSHTOBH. See versep 5, 6, u, 12, 26, 47, 50. 



i w? nftiw i 




1 ' You have been received by the queen-mother as a son ; therefore let 
your honour, having returned from hence and having announced that my 
mind is intent on [zealous for] the business of the hermits, have the 
goodness to discharge the office of a son towards her Majesty.' Putra iti 
pratigrihltah, i. e. tvam posliita-putro bhavasi, ' you are an adopted 
son,' S'. Some MSS. have putratvam for putra-krityam. 

2 ' Surely you do not suppose me to be afraid of the Rakshasas.' 

3 ' How is this possible in your honour ? ' or, ' how could such a 
thing be thought of in your honour?' Bhavati, loc. sing, of bhavat. 
Sambhavyate may mean, 'is fitting,' 'is consistent.' Maha-brdhmana 
is generally used ironically. 

4 ' I will go, as it should be gone by the younger brother of a king.' 

5 Yuva-rdja, 'the young prince, 7 who was the heir-apparent and 
generally associated with the reigning monarch in the throne. 

6 Vatu, 'a youth,' 'a lad;' here it is equivalent to 'fellow,' 'chap.' 

7 Kaddcid, 'perchance.' Prdrtfiana=abhilashita, 'desire,' 'pursuit,' 





'suit;' i.e. Sakuntala-vislmyanusandliana-rupa-kathd, 'the story of my 
pursuit of S'akuntala,' S'. 

1 ' From reverence for the Rishis,' lit. ' from the venerableness of the 

2 ' Where are we, (and) where a person brought up with fawns out of 
sight of love ? O friend ! let not a word uttered heedlessly in jest be 
taken in earnest.' Kva-dvayam atyantasamhTiavandydm, 'two kva's 
are expressive of excessive incompatibility/ S'. (see p. 14, n. i). Ndga- 
rikdranya-janayoh sambandho nopapadyate iti bhdvah, 'the meaning is 
that a connection between a town-bred person and a forester is not 
possible/ K. Paroksha-manmatha=apratyakska-manmatha or ajndta- 
manmatha or agocara-kdma, ' one who has had no perception or expe- 
rience of love/ ' one who is out of the reach of its influence.' Parihdsa- 
vijalpita = hdsya-bkdshita, K. ; = kautuJca-bhdshita, S". ; cf. parihdsa-vijalpa 
in Act VI. The Beng. MSS. read vikalpila, ' invented.' Paramdrthena 

Verse 52. VAITALITA, containing twenty-one syllables to the half-verse, each half- 
verse being alike, the first and third quarter-verses ending at the tenth syllable. 

95 ii TJflnTTiT^T FCKF**: ii <m 

n mr: 

s f? ftm^Wtffir 111311 

1 'A pupil of the sacrificing-(Brahman) bearing Kusa grass.' Yaja- 

= yajvan, 'a sacrificer,' 'priest '(see Raghu-vansa xviii. n). In 
Telugu it has acquired the sense of ' master.' Cf. tatah pravisato Bharata- 
sisTiyau, Vikram., Act III. Some read yajamdnah sishyah. The transla- 
tion would then be, ' a pupil occupied about a sacrifice/ The pupil, or 
religious student, certainly, did not officiate himself. Sishya, in fact, 
denotes a Brahmacarin, or young Brahman in that state of pupilage 
through which every Brahman had to pass, living in the house of his 
preceptor, who, in return for instruction given, required his assistance 
in various menial offices, in collecting materials for sacrifice, and in asking 
alms. ' Let the student carry water-pots, flowers, cow-dung, fresh earth, 
and Kusa grass, as much as may be useful to his preceptor; let him bring 
wood for the oblation to fire ; let him go begging through the whole 
district,' &c. (Manu ii. 176, &c.) Kusa, see p. 19, n. i. 

2 ' Since on his Highness having merely entered the hermitage, our rites 
have become free from molestation.' So read the oldest MSS. supported 
by K. ; others pravishta evasramam tatra-bhavati, &c. 

3 ' What mention of fitting the arrow (to the bow) 1 for by the mere 
sound of the bow-string from afar, as if by the roar of the bow, he dispels 
the obstacles.' Ka katha, 'what account 1 ?' i. e. what necessity for fitting 

Verse 53. &LOKA or ANUSHTDBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51. 


the arrow ? the expulsion of the demons who impede our rites is effected 
by the mere twanging of the bow, without the use of the arrow (sara-san- 
dhdnam antarena, S'.), in the same manner as a threatening roar often 
suffices to scare those who hear it. Cf. pratiiabdo hi harer hinasti nagdn, 
Vikram., Act I. Hunkara is the roar of any fierce animal. The use of iva 
shews that the figure by which the sound of the bow is thus designated is 
Utpreksha, see Indian Wisdom, p. 454. So Bhatti-k. (x. 44), in giving 
an example of this figure, describes a mountain as stretching out, as it 
were, a huge body between heaven and earth to protect the land from the 
inroads of the sea. 

1 ' For strewing on the altar,' or 'on the ground near it,' see p, 19, n. i. 

2 Ritvij, 'a priest/ especially 'an officiating priest/ lit. 'one who 
sacrifices at the prescribed time,' from ritu, 'a season/ and ij=yaj, 'io 
sacrifice/ An-ritvig yajham na gacchet, 'one ought not to go to (perform) a 
sacrifice unattended by an officiating Brahrnan.' See Manu iv. 57, ii. 143. 

3 ' In the air/ i. e. speaking in the air. This is an example of akasa- 
Hhasldtam or akasa-vakyam, which is defined by S'. to be dura-stha- 
bhashanam, 'speech at a distance/ or asarlram nivedanam, 'bodiless 
statement ; ' and by K. as apravishtaih saha dla/pah, ' conversation with 
(characters) not on the stage.' It is, in fact, a speech addressed to some 
person outside or off the stage, the actor at the same time fixing his eyes 
in the air, or on some object only visible to himself. Hence in K. akdie 
is followed by the words laksham or laksTiyam baddhva, ' fixing his gaze/ 
Cf. aka$a-baddha-lakshah, Vikram., Act IV; Mudra-r. p. 6, 1. 19; p. 31, 
1. 3. The answer which is supposed to be given is also aka'sa-bhashitam, 
and is not heard by the audience. The actor on the stage pretending to 
listen (srutim abhiriiya) repeats the imaginary reply, always introducing 
it with the words kim bravlshi, Sahit.-d. p. 177- 

4 ' For whom are brought this Usira-ointment and lotus-leaves, with 
fibres attached 1 ?' Uslra=vlrana-kanda, 'the root of Vlrana/ a fragrant 
grass (Andropogon Muricatum) with which a cooling ointment was made. 
Mrindla=visa, 'the fibres of the stalk of the lotus/ 





ii ^fw firwTir: u 

1 ' S'akuntala is excessively indisposed, from injury inflicted by the 
heat [from a sun-stroke] ; is it for the cooling of her body that you 
say (they ai*e brought) 1' Lan-ghandt=.aghatat, K. ; = abhibhavdt, S'. ; = 
paribhavdt, C. Root lan-gh means ' to leap over/ ' overstep/ ' transgress/ 
' to inflict an injury/ ' insult/ Nirvdpana, ' a refrigerant remedy/ from 
the causal of nir-vd, 'to refresh/ 'cool/ cf. nirvdpayitd, ver. 65. 

2 ' Let her be nursed with care ; for she is the (very) breath of his 
reverence (Kanva), the head of (our) society. I also will just deliver 
into the hands of Gautami for her the soothing water consecrated in the 
sacrifice.' Upacar, ' to attend on a patient/ ' administer remedies/ &c. 
Ucc1ivasitam-=pranah, 'breath ;' =.jwanam, 'life/ i.e. as precious as his 
own life. Cf. Lam. iv. 20, 'The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of 
the Lord, was taken/ &c. ; also Kumara-s. vii. 4. Vaitanika-=wtanakTiya- 
l/aga-sambandhin, ' belonging to the sacrifice called vitdna,' ' sacred/ ' holy/ 
See Indian "Wisdom, p. 197. Vitdna is also 'the sacrificial hearth on 
which the sacred fire was kept.' The sdnty-udaka may have been a kind 
of holy water, like the 'eau b^nite' of the Roman Catholics. Gautami, 
the name of the sister of Kanva, K. 

3 The Vishkambha or Vishkambhaka, according to the Sahitya-darpana 
and Katavema's commentary on the opening speech of Act II. of this 
play, is an introductory monologue or dialogue, so called from its con- 
cisely compressing (vi-sJikambJi) into a short space an account of those 
subordinate parts of the plot not enacted before the audience, a knowledge 
of which is essential to the comprehending of the action of the remainder of 
the play (vritta-vartishyamdndndm kathdnsdndm nidarakah, san-ksTiip- 
tdrthas tu vishkambhah, Sahit-d. p. 146; see also p. 62, n. 2 of this play). 
The Vishkambha may occur at the beginning of any of the Acts, even of the 
First, immediately after the Prastavana (dddv an-kasya darsitah). It may 
be spoken by two out of the three sets of characters into which the 
dramatis personse of an Indian play are divided, viz. the inferior (nica), 
who speak Prakrit anuddttoktyd; 'in the low tone;* and the middling 



: H 

fiW'|f<c| Sfoc* f^nf?fr % rTfTf f ^TO HMtfll 

(madhya, madhyama), who speak Sanskrit uddttoktya, ' in the high tone ;' 
but not by the chief (pradlidna), such as the hero, &c. Again, it may be 
spoken by one character in the form of a soliloquy, or by two in the form 
of a dialogue ; and either by characters of the middle class only, when it 
is called Buddha, ' pure ; ' or by those of the middle and lower combined, 
when it is called miira or sanklrna, ' mixed ' (madhyena madhyamd- 
bhyam vd pdtrdbJiyam samprayojitah inddlidh sydt tu sankirno nlda- 
madhyama-kalpitah). Sometimes the charactei-s are exclusively those of 
the inferior class, who speak Prakrit ; sometimes more than two appear 
on the stage at once, in which cases it is properly called Pravesaka, 
though these terms are regarded as identical by the MSS. and com- 
mentators (vishkambha, eva suvyaktaih praveiaka iti smritah, K. ; prave- 
iaka eva vishkambhakah, S'.) The Sahit.-d. restricts the former title still 
further by applying it to an interlude only (praveiako 'nuddttoktya nlca- 
patra-prayojitah, an-ka-dvaydntar vijneyah iestiam msTikambhake yathd). 
In Yikram., Act V, the opening soliloquy is styled Pravesaka both in 
the MSS. and in the Calcutta edition. According to the S&hit-d. the 
present monologue is a S'uddha-vishkambha. In the Beng. MSS. it is 
termed a Pravesaka. 

1 ' I know the potency of penance ; it is (also) known to me that that 
maiden is subject to another [is in a state of tutelage]. But as water 
does not turn back from the valley, (neither) does my heart from that 
(S'akuntala);' i. e. I know that if I attempt to carry her off by force or by 
stealth, the power acquired by penance is such, that the Eishi will effect 
my destruction by a curse, &c. (&dpddind ndam mdhdsyati, S'.) Nimndd, 

Verse 54. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 



scil. efe^afl, 'from low land/ see Hitop. 1. 2651. The Deva-n. MSS., un- 
supported by the commentators, substitute the following for the second 
line of the above verse, Alam asmi tato hridayam tathdpi nedam nivarta- 
yitum, 'nevertheless, I am not able to turn back this heart from that 

1 ' O divine flower-armed (god), by thee and by the moon, who (seem) 
to be worthy of confidence, the whole company of lovers is deceived. 
Why so ? [because] of thee, (there is said to be) the property of having 
flowers for arrows, of the moon the property of having cold beams ; 
both these (properties) are observed to be untrue in such as me; (for) 
the moon emits fire with rays charged with cold ; thou also makest (thy) 
flower-arrows hard as adamant.' The Hindu Cupid or Kama-deva, ' god 
of love,' is the son of Vishnu or Krishna by Lakshmi, who is then called 
Maya or Rukminl. He is armed with a bow made of sugar-cane, the 
string consisting of bees, and with five flower-tipped arrows (whence his 
name Panca-vana) which pierce the heart through the five senses. The 
names of the five arrows (according to Bharata, cited by S'.) are i. 
ffarshana, 'Gladdener;' 2. PraJiasana, ' Exhilarator ; ' 3. Mohana, 
'Fascinator;' 4. Murchana, 'Sense-destroyer;' 5. Vikarshana, ' Distractor.' 
According to K. the names of the five flowers which point these arrows, 
and may be supposed to possess properties similar to those implied in the 
names of the arrows themselves, are i. Aravinda, a kind of lotus; 
2. Aioka; 3. Sirisha; 4. Cuta or Amra, i.e. the mango;' &, Utpala or 
blue lotus. But according to Sir "W. Jones [Hymn to Kama-deva] they 
are I. Campaka; 2. Cuta or Amra; 3. Keiara or N aga-keiara ; 4. 
Ketaka; 5. Vilva or Bilva. In both lists the 6uta occurs. This is 
certainly the favourite flower of the god (cf. the frequent allusions to it 

Verse 55. MALINI or MANINI (a variety of ATI-SAKVARI). See verses 10, 19, 20, 38. 

O 2 


in Glta-g. iii. 12, iv. 6, &c.); but in verse 135 the epithet paiicabhyadhika 
is applied to this flower, and is explained by S'. to mean ' a sixth arrow, 
in addition to the five ' (cf. Vikram., Act II, kimuta upavana-saliakaraih, 
&c.) It is clear that some authorities do not include the mango in the list. 
The Glta-g. (x. 14) mentions five other flowers as occasionally employed 
by the god, viz. the bandhuka, madhuka, nlla-nalina or blue lotus, tila, and 
kunda. Another account includes the Mallika or jasmine amongst the 
five. In Hindu erotic poetry, cooling properties are attributed to the 
rays of the moon, said to distil nectar ; hence some of his names ilta- 
mayuk/ia, hima-ra$mi, hima-kara, amrita-su, sudhd-nidhi, &c. On the 
other hand, the heating effect of these rays on the lover is often alluded 
to, e.g. ltan&us tapandh, Glta-g. ix. 10, iv. 7, v. 3; cf. nandana-vana- 
vdtdh Sikhina iva (Vikram., Act II), and pddds te ainah sukhayanti, 
&c. (end of Act III). Sdrtha = samuha, properly ' a caravan/ Hitop. 
1. 2574- Kutah, p. 55, n. 2. A-yatha,riham=viparlta-kriyam, 'having 
a contrary effect.' Dvayam, see p. 91, n. 2. Garbhaih, see p. 18, 1. 5. 
Vajrasdrl-karoshi, see p. 14, 1. 2. 

1 ' Verily, e'en now the fire of S'iva's wrath burns in thee like the sub- 
marine fire in the ocean ; otherwise how couldst thou, O agitator of the 
soul, with nothing left but ashes, be so scorching towards such as me 1 ?' 
The story of the incineration of Kama-deva by a beam of fire darted 
from the central eye of Siva is thus told in the RamSyana (i. 25, 10): 
'Kandarpa, whom the wise call Kama (Cupid), had formerly a body. 
He once approached Siva, the husband of Uma (ParvatI), soon after his 
marriage, that he might influence him with love for his wife. S'iva 

Verse 56. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI (a variety of TRISHTUBH), each Pada or 
quarter-verse being either Indra-vajra or Upendra-rajrn, the former only differing 
from the latter in the length of the first syllable. See verse 41. 


happened then to be practising austerities, and intent on a vow of chastity. 
He therefore cursed the god of love in a terrible voice, and at the same 
time a flash from his terrific eye caused all the limbs of his body to 
shrivel into ashes. Thus Kama was made incorporeal [whence, as some 
say, is his power over the minds of men] by the anger of the great god, 
and from that time has been called " the bodiless one " (An-an-ga).' Aurva, 
'submarine fire,' called badava or bddava, and personified as the son of the 
saint Urva. The fable is told in Hari-v. (ch. xlv), and is noticed in 
Troyer's Raja-taran-gini (iii. 170). The Rishi Urva, who had gained 
great power by his austerities, was pressed by the gods and others to 
beget children that he might perpetuate his race. He consented, but 
warned them that his offspring would consume the world. Accordingly, 
he created from his thigh a devouring fire, which, when produced, 
demanded nourishment, and would have destroyed the whole earth, had 
not Brahma appeared and assigned the ocean as its habitation, and the 
waves as its food. The spot where it entered the sea was called Badava* 
mukha, ' the mare's mouth.' Doubtless the story was invented to suit 
the phenomenon of a marine jvald-mukJil or ' volcano,' which exhaled 
bitumenous inflammable gas, and which occasionally shewed itself above 
the sea, perhaps in the form of a horse's mouth. Langlois places the 
position of it on the coast north of Malabar. 

1 ' Nevertheless, the fish-bannered (god), even though incessantly bring- 
ing mental anguish, (will be) acceptable to me, if employing (as the 
subject about which he inflicts pain) that (maiden) with long intoxicating 
eyes he so strike (me).' Makara-ketu, a name of Kama-deva, is derived 
from the makara, or marine monster, subdued by him, which was painted 
on his banner (ketu*). 'By the mention of this title, his invincibleness is 
indicated,' S'. Adhikritya-=uddi&ya, 'with reference to,' S'. arid C. ; see 
p. 6, n. 2, and p. 77, n. i; also Raghu-v. xi. 62, idntim adhikritya 

Verse 57. AUYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 


^f Tf 
*ftrftS% SRT 

: II Mb II 

ii Ii 

"Ri ^ 


1 ' In vain, truly, O bodiless (god), hast tliou perpetually been brought 
by me to growth by hundreds of desires. Is it becoming of you, drawing 
your bow to your very ear, (to) discharge (your) arrows even upon me 
(your votary) V San-kalpa = icha, 'wish.' SravanopakantJie akrishya = 
karndntikam ariiya, ' drawing the string of the bow back as far as the 
ear/ Upakantha, ' near,' lit. ' near the neck ;' cf. Raghu-v. ix. 57, akarna- 
krishtam vdnam. Yukta=zutita. The passage from Bhagavan Kamadeva 
(p. 100) to vanamokshah is given on the authority of the Taylor and my 
own Bombay Deva-n. MS., supported by S*. and C. and all the Beng. 
MSS. The Mackenzie MS. has part of the passage, but Colebrooke's omits 
it altogether. 

2 ' Where, indeed, at the conclusion of the rite being permitted to 
depart by those who were present at the sacrifice, shall I refresh myself 
weary with fatigue V Sadasya, 'any assistant or by-ttander at a sacrifice.' 
The Beng. have nirasta-vighnaia tapasvibhih, ' by the hermits whose 
obstacles have been removed.' 

8 ' S'akuntala along with her female friends is passing [lit. causing to 
go] this intensely hot time of the day probably on the banks of the 
Malinl, possessed of inclosures of creepers.' Valaya, properly ' an encir- 
cling hedge ;' here it may mean ' a bower.' 

Verse 58. UPAJATI or AKHTANAKI (a variety of TRISHTUBH). See verses 41, 56. 


1 ' I conjecture that the very delicate one has not long since passed by 
this avenue of young trees, because the cavities of the flower-stalks whose 
flowers have been plucked off by her, do not yet close up, and these 
fragments of tender-shoots are seen (still) unctuous with milky-juice.' 
Vlthi=pan-kti. Sammilanti=san-kucanti, 'contract.' andhana=pra- 
sava-bandhana=vrinta, 'a flower-stalk,' S'. JBandhana-koshds=vrinta- 
bhyantarani, S.;=vrinta-garbhdni, C. Arm, 'these,' i.e. puro-vartinah, 
'lying in front of us.' KUalaya-ccheddh =pattava-khandah. Kshlra- 
snigdhdh=dugdha-cikkanah. When a stalk has been some time broken 
off, it contracts and the milk dries up. ' The duty of gathering flowers 
and cutting stalks for sacrificial purposes might have been entrusted by 
the hermits to S'akuntala ; hence it would be inferred that she had 
passed that way. This is an example of the Anumana Alan-kara,' S*. and 
C. Some of the Deva-n. MSS. omit the above couplet. 

2 ' Oh ! how delightful is this spot by (reason of) the fresh breeze ! ' 
Aho, an exclamation implying approbation (praiansdyam), Sf. Pra- 
vata = prakrishta-vdta, K. ; = pra$asta-vata, ' a good breeze/ S*. (see 
p. 37, n. i). 

3 ' The breeze, fragrant with the lotuses (and) wafting the spray 
[particles] of the waves of the Malinl, is able to be closely embraced by 

Verse 59. ARYA or GATHA. See verse i. 

| w v/ | || w w | |w v^|v^w 

__l __ j__,| __ |__| w | - 

Verse 60. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 3. 

v; w I <x> w I w w || ww I |w v^| 

|w w| ||>w/>^ww| J <*/ J 


iTOT *rfaff*HT I rf^T ff I .. wt 

i w*n 
CTT ^ 

(my) limbs inflamed by the bodiless one.' Sakya (like yogya and some- 
times yukta) gives a passive sense to the infinitive. The Beng. MSS. and 
the Calcutta ed. read iakyo in the nom. case agreeing with pavanah, 
which would appear at first sight to be the better reading. But K. 
expressly states that iakyam is here used adverbially, and quotes a 
parallel passage from Ramayana, iakyam anjalibhih pdtum vdtdh, 'the 
breezes are able to be drunk by the hollowed palms.' A passage may be 
added from the Hitop., vibhutayah iakyam avdptum, ' great successes are 
able to be obtained;' and another from Malavik. verse 58, na Sakyam 
upekshitum kupitd (see also Maha-bh. i. 769). Aravinda, a kind of 
lotus, see p. 25, n. i. Kana-vdhin-=slkara-vdhaka, 'wafting cool spray,' 
S'. An-an-ga, 'the bodiless god,' see p. 100, n. i. A-virala, lit. 'having 
no interstices,' 'close.' The Beng. read nirdayam^=dridham. 

1 ' At the entrance of it where-there-is- white-sand, a fresh line of foot- 
steps is seen, raised in front, depressed behind through the weight of her 
hips.' Avagddhd=nimnd. Pdndu-sikate ( = dhavala-bdluke) is a Bahu- 
vrihi comp. agreeing with dvare. The weight of the hips of a beautiful 
female is a favourite subject of allusion (cf. pa&cdd-natd guru-nitam- 
batayd asydh pada-pan-ktih, Vikrarn., Act IV; Srom-bhdrdd alasa- 
gamand, Megha-d. 81). Hence one of the names of a lovely woman is 
nitambinl, 'having large and handsome hips and loins.' Compare the 
epithet ' Callipyge ' applied to a celebrated statue of Venus. 

2 ' Through the branches.' The Calcutta ed. has vitapdntarito, ' con-. 
cealed by the branches.' 

3 ' The highest object of my eye-sight,' ' the full bliss of my eyes ' ( = netrd- 

Verse 61. ARTA or GATHA. See verse 2. 


n ^fir 

it (fir: 


t II 




nanda, K. ; nayana-nirvriti, cakshuh-sukha, S'.) Nirvana or apavarga 
is properly ' final beatitude, consisting in emancipation from further 

1 ' Yonder the best-beloved object of my wishes, reclining on a stone- 
seat strewed with flowers, is attended by her two friends.' Manoratha- 
priyatama, ' most dear by desire,' i. e. not by actual possession or by any 
other method, K. Sila-patta-=-pashdna-khanda, see p. 76, n. 2. Anvas, 
' to sit near' (anu, as). 

2 ' Are in the act of fanning her.' Upa-mj, ' to fan ;' cf. vy-ajana, ' a fan.' 

3 'Is this wind from the (fan of) lotus-leaves agreeable to theeV see p. 25, 
n. i, in the middle. Api, see p. 89, n. 2. Some Deva-n. MSS. read suhaadi 
for sukhayati, but the above is supported by K. and the oldest MSS. 

4 ' Can this be the fault of the heat 1 or, as is passing in my mind (is it 
owing to love)?' i. e. or is love, as I conjecture, the true cause? 

5 Kritam sandehena, see p. 30, 1. 6, with note. 


1 06 

i rf^fa 



f*iwl 5 HH I ri ^j| 

1 ' This form of my beloved, having the Usira applied to the bosom, 
and having only one armlet (and that formed) of lotus-fibres hanging- 
loose, (is certainly) disordered, but even so is lovely. Granted that the 
heat of the two influences of love and the hot season [or the heat induced 
by the prevalence either of love or of the sultry weather] be equal, still 
disorder is not inflicted on maidens by the hot weather in such a charming 
manner,' i. e. since the disorder apparent in the person of S'akuntala only 
contributes to her beauty, it is clearly not caused by the hot weather, but 
by love. U6lra, see p. 96, n. 4. Two other names for this plant are 
jalaiaya, 'growing in water,' and avadaha, ' allaying fever;' the slender 
fibres of it are now known by the name of Khaskhas, and are used in 
India in trellises for cooling the air. Pra6ithila=adridha, S'. ikomala, 
' withered/ C. ' Her body was so enfeebled that she could not bear the 
weight of two armlets or bracelets ; she therefore had only one, and that 
made, not of gold, but of lotus-fibres (mrinala-ghatita) tied loosely round 
the arm/ S'. Sabdd?ia=sa-plda, C. ;sa-vyadha, K. 'diseased/ 'deranged.' 
Tadapi, ' even so ;' even in this manner or under these disadvantages ; tad 
is here used adverbially. This reading is supported by the oldest MSS. 
and by K.; but some of the Deva-n. have kimapi ramamyam, 'somewhat 
pleasing.' Kdmam, see p. 55, n. 3. Prasarayoh, lit. ' of the two preva- 
lences ;' prasara=prasan-ga, 'attachment/ 'connection/ S'. ; but the simple 
meaning is ' spreading/ ' prevalence.' 

2 Tan-nimitta, ' resulting from it/ i. e. arising from love. 

Verse 62. SIKHABINI (a variety of ATYASHTI). See verses 9, 24, 44. 


mf^ftt ^ ^ 

u n i 

: L" 

a ^rfe i 'wrtftTrTrT trer i >r^ i TT^nfH rn^fl^ i 

c ^HT I f% 
I fsK^t I 


1 ' We are not indeed intimately conversant with matters relating to 
love ; but as the condition of lovers is heard of (by us) in legendary tales, 
of such a kind I perceive is thy (condition). Say, from what cause (is) 
thy disorder 1 (for) indeed without being accurately acquainted with the 
disease, (there) can be no application of the remedy.' An-abhyantare, 
nom. du. fern, of a Bahuvrihi or compound adjective formed from the 
substantive abhyantara, ' interior,' ' inside,' by prefixing the privative an, 
in the same manner as in an-antara, ' uninterrupted.' An-abliyantara, 
lit. ' one not admitted to the inside.' Cf. ganabhyantara, ' one who is a 
member of a religious association.' Madana-gatasya, see p. 38, n. i. 
Itihdsa=purd-vritta, S'. Ni-bandha, ' a composition,' ' narrative.' 

P 2, 

1 08 

^forest ^jftifo 


rf^T f? 


i ^f ^n wsffrr i 
: i eirrc9 rtr^^wi'Ml ^'n srf r 

1 ' My attachment [affection] even now is strong.' Abhi-nive&a implies 
' firm attachment to' or 'intense pursuit of any object (here = a6^ife/ia). 

2 ' Thy limbs are wasting away [lit. thou art abandoned by thy limbs]. 
Thy lovely complexion alone deserts thee not.' 

3 ' For, indeed, her face has its cheeks excessively emaciated, her bosom 
has its breasts destitute of firmness, her waist is more slender, her shoulders 
are quite drooping, her complexion is pale ; she being tormented by love 
appears both deplorable and (yet) lovely, like a Madhavi-creeper touched 
by the wind, the scorcher of (its) leaves.' Kshdma-kshdma-Tcapola-=- 
atikrUa-ganda, S'. The repetition of kshama may imply 'becoming 
gradually every day more and more emaciated,' as Priyamvada had said 
anu-divasam parihlyase an-gaih. Kdlhinya-mukta, the Beng. have yukta, 

Verse 63. SARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 
39 40- 


fin wi 


but the loss of firmness in the breasts would rather be a eign of debility. 
Prakdma=atyari1iam, 'excessively/ S'. So the commentator on Gita-g. 
iv. 17, vii. 40, explains nikdmam by atUayena. Similarly kamam has 
the sense of niscitam, ' certainly.' May the meaning not be ' stoop of 
their own accord,' i. e. ' languidly,' ' listlessly/ from their being allowed to 
fall without any effort being made to raise them 1 Soshanena=ioshakena, 
i. e. by the wind that dries up the leaves and causes them to fall (pattra- 
pataka-vayuna), K., S'. Mddham, a large and beautiful creeper bearing 
white fragrant flowers, constantly alluded to in the plays (see p. 1 1 2, n. 3). 

1 ' To whom else shall I relate it (if not to you, my two friends) V Yadi 
kathamyam tada bhavatibliyam, S'. 

2 ' Our importunity is on this very account. Grief shared with affec- 
tionate friends becomes supportable suffering.' Nir-bandha, ' urgency/ 
' pressing solicitation/ 

3 ' This maiden being questioned by the persons who are the partners of 
her sorrows and joys, will most certainly declare the cause of her anguish 
(now) concealed in her breast. Although (I was) looked upon longingly 
by her repeatedly turning round, I (nevertheless) at the present moment 

Verse 64. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of ^AKVAHI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46. 

II WH $1 1 1 31 $ *!<">* " 1 I O 


experience an uneasy-anxiety for hearing (her reply).' Jana=sakhl- 
jana; though used in sing., it may have a plural signification. Sama- 
duhJcha-sukha, ' one who has the same joys and sorrows' (cf. sama-duhkha- 
sukTiah plyate locanabhydm, Vikram., Act I). Bald, properly ' a girl 
sixteen years of age/ S'. Na na vakshyati=vakshyati eva, S'. ; two 
negatives give intensity to the affirmative (dvau nishedhau prakritam 
artham gamayatah, S'.) ; see p. 24, n. 2. Mani-gatam=hridaya-st7iam, 
see p. 38, n. i. Atrantare=asminn avasare, K. !ravana-kataratdm-=. 
Sakuntald-prativacana-iravana-bliirutdm. According to Bharata the four 
ways by which a maiden encouraged the advances of her lover were lekha- 
prasfhapana, 'sending a letter;' snigdha-vikshita, ' a loving glance ;' mridu- 
bhdshita, l soft speech ;' and dutl-sampreshana, ' sending a messenger,' S'. 
Although S'akuntala had favoured her lover with one of these tokens, yet 
he was fearful that, when about to reply to her friends, she might through 
carelessness (pramddatas) confess to an affection for some other person, S'. 

1 ' Met my eye,' ' crossed my sight,' lit. ' came across the path [range] 
of my sight.' Cf. yasya netrayoh pathi sthitd tvam, Vikram., Act I. 

2 ' Love, indeed, the cause of my fever, has himself become the cooler of 

Verse 65. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 


rff -^5 I 51? TfW 

'IWtjH?r*T I 
*T fff 

it ; as, on the passing off of the heat, a day dark with clouds (which was 
at first hot, becomes afterwards the cooler) of living creatures.' This 
refers to the clouds which rise and disperse at the end of the hot season, 
making the air fearfully close and stifling ; until at last a downpour comes 
and with it cool weather. Smara, ' the ideal one,' is one of the names of 
Kama-deva, from smri, 'to recollect;' see p. 100, n. i. Nirvapayita, 'the 
extinguisher,' 'refresher,' 'cooler' (see p. 97, n. iy,=sukha-hetuh, 'the cause 
of pleasure,' S'. Tapatyaye=grlshmante, ' at the end of the hot season,' K. ; 
K. and S'. quote a parallel passage from the Katnavali (p. 64), tapati prd- 
vrishi nitaram abhyarna-jaldgamo divasah, ' in the rainy season when the 
rain is near at hand the day is especially hot.' Some of the Deva-n. 
HSS. read ardha-fyama, ' half-obscured,' which is not supported by any of 
the commentators, nor by the oldest MSS. 

1 ' Then if (it be) approved by you, so act, that I may be commiserated 
by the royal sage. Otherwise most certainly (it will happen that you 
will have to) pour out for me water with sesamum-seed ;' i. e. you will 
have to celebrate my funeral obsequies. Oblations to the spirits of 
deceased relatives, called S'raddha, generally consisted in offering a cake 
made of rice and milk (pinda-nirvdpana), or in pouring out water (udaka- 
ddna, udaka-kriya), or water and sesamum seed mixed. In the latter 
case it was called tilodaka-dana, tila-tarpana, &c. The ceremony as 
performed by Brahmans is described in Manu iii. 203, &c. ; see especially 
iii. 223. Dattva sapavitram tilodakam, 'having poured out water with 
sesamum seed and Kusa grass.' See Indian Wisdom, pp. 208, 253, &c. 
K. refers in illustration to a verse towards the end of Act VI. of this 
play, where Dushyanta says, Nunam prasuti-vikalena maya prasiktam 
dliautairu-ieshatn udakam pitarah pivanti, 'in all probability my 
(deceased) ancestors are (now) drinking the only offering-of-water that is 
left to them, (consisting of) glistening tears poured forth by me destitute 
of posterity.' Sincatamnirvapatam, K. Vartetham, sometimes vrit has 
the sense of ' to behave,' ' to act.' 



c ^fe i f^wi i 

I B ^^tWT ^^<* KH iU.*ll I 

1 ' She is far gone in love, and unable to bear loss of time,' i. e. her 
love has reached that point which brooks no delay. Cf. durarudho 'sydh 
pranayah, Vikrara., beginning of Act IV. Vammaha or bammaha is 
the proper Prakrit equivalent for manmatha, according to Vararuci 
ii. 38, iii. 43. Lassen, Instit. PrSk. p. 245, although the MSS. give 

2 ' He on whom she has fixed her affections is the ornament of the 
Pauravas [p. 15, n. i], therefore her love is fit to be approved/ or 'it is 
proper that her love should meet with our approval.' Yuktam is here 
used like 6akyam, see p. 103, n. 3. Baddha-bhava, cf. yasmin baddha- 
bMva asi tvam, Vikram., beginning of Act III. 

3 ' Where should a great river end its course excepting at the ocean 1 
What (tree) excepting the Sahakara [mango] can support the Atimukta 
[Madhavl creeper] with (its) new sprouts 1' Ava-tfl (properly ' to descend ' 
or 'alight') is here applied to the disemboguing of a river into the ocean. 
Yathd maha-nadi samudram pravisati, tatha rupavatl tvam Dushyante 

evanurakta, S'. The Sahakara is described p. 28, n. i. The Atimukta is 
the same as the Madhavi or vernal creeper, called also Vasanti and 
Pundraka (see p. 108, n. 3). 'The beauty and fragrance of the flower of 
this creeper give them a title to all the praises which Kalidasa and 
Jayadeva bestow on them. It is a gigantic and luxuriant climber ; but 
when it meets with nothing to grasp, it assumes the form of a sturdy tree, 
the highest branches of which display, however, in the air, their natural 
flexibility and inclination to climb,' Sir W. Jones, vol. v. p. 124. 

1 ' Why need we wonder at this, since the constellation Visakha courts 
[goes after] the young -moon?' i.e. if the constellation Visakha (or the 
sixteenth lunar asterism, which is frequently written in the dual Visakhe, 
as containing two stars) is eager for a union with the Moon, why need we 
wonder at S'akuntala's desire to be united with a prince of the Lunar race 1 
Sasan-ka-lekhd is properly ' a digit of the moon,' or the moon in its most 
beautiful form when quite young. A complete revolution of the moon, 
with respect to the stars, being made in twenty-seven days, odd hours, the 
Hindus divide the heavens into twenty-seven constellations [asterisms] or 
lunar stations, one of which receives the moon for one day in each of his 
monthly journeys. As the Moon [Candra] is considered to be a masculine 
deity, the Hindus fable these twenty-seven constellations as his wives, and 
personify them as the daughters of Daksha. Of these twenty-seven wives 
(twelve of whom give names to the twelve months) Candra is supposed 
to shew the greatest affection for the fourth (Hohim), but each of the 
others, and amongst them Visakha, is represented as jealous of this 
partiality, and eager to secure the Moon's favour for herself. Dushyanta 
probably means to compare himself to the Moon (he being of the Lunar 
race, p. 15, n. i), and S'akuntala to Visakha. The selection of Visakha, 
rather than Rohini, may perhaps be explained by a reference to p. 6, 1. 6, 
where we learn that the summer-season had barely set in at the period 
when the events of the drama were supposed to be taking place. If 


n ' 

trnft*T I rT^TT f? 

M i 

therefore the season corresponded to the middle of May, the month would 
probably be Vaisakha, and Visakha would, therefore, be appropriately 
chosen before RohinT. This passage may also be interpreted, but not so 
consistently with the fable, by referring m&akhe to the two female friends, 
and sasdn-Jca-lekha to S'akuntala. The meaning would then be, ' It is not 
to be wondered at that these two friends should follow S'akuntala and 
assist in carrying out her schemes, any more than that the two stars 
of Visakha should go after the young moon.' Anuvartete-=anusarataTi y 
K. Cf. in Vikram., Act I, Citralekha-dvitiyam priya-sakhim Urva&im 
grihitvd Visakhd-saMta iva bhagavdn So-met upasihitah sa rdjarshih. 

1 ' (Your) " unobservedly " will require thought, (your) " quickly " (is) 
easy.' This use of iti in quoting previous words is noticeable. 

2 'For this golden bracelet, having its jewels sullied by the tears 

Verse 66. HARINI (a variety of ATYASHTI), containing seventeen syllables to the 
Pacla or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 

(rendered) scorching from internal fever night after night flowing from 
the outer-corner-of-my-eye which rests on my arm, slipping, slipping down 
[i. e. as it constantly slips down] from the wrist, without pressing on 
[catching on, hitching on] the scars (that are caused) by the friction of 
the bow-string, is repeatedly pushed back by me.' Vivarna-mani-krita, lit. 
' made into a colourless gem/ ' made so that its jewels are devoid of colour.' 
Apdn-ga = netra-pranta. Pravartibhih = skhaladbhih. An-atilulita = an- 
atisakta, 'not closely adhering,' K.;=nabhilupta, S'. and C. The same 
word occurs at the end of this Act, where allusion is made to the flowery 
couch of S'akuutala, sarira-luUta, ' which her body had pressed.' One 
sense of root lul is certainly to 'adhere,' 'stick,' 'cleave.' The Deva-n. 
MSS. all have an-abhilulita with the same meaning, unsupported by K. 
and the other scholiasts, and the oldest Beng. MSS. Through emaciation 
and disuse of the bow (cf. p. 70, 1. 8, with p. 67, 1. 12) the callosities on 
the fore-arm, usually caused by the bow-string, were not sufficiently 
prominent to prevent the bracelet from slipping down from the wrist 
to the elbow, when the arm was raised to support the head. This is a 
favourite idea with Kalidasa to express the attenuation caused by love 
(cf. Megha-d. 2, kanaka-valaya-bhransa-rikta-prakoshthah, ' having the 
fore-arm bare by the falling of the golden bracelet).' The Beng. have an- 
atilulita-jya-ghatankad, agreeing with mani-bandhandt, which would 
appear at first sight to be the better reading. I have followed K. and 
the Deva-n. MSS. in making this compound agree with valayam. It may, 
however, as K. observes, be taken adverbially. Mani-bandhana, 'the 
place for binding on jewels,' ' the wrist.' 

1 ' Let a love-letter be composed for him. Having hidden it [made it 
hid] in a flower, I will deliver it into [cause it to reach] his hand under 
the pretext of [as if it were] the remains (of an offering presented) to 
an idol.' Madana-lekhah=anan-ga-lekhah, C. ',=-snw.ra-bhava-sucakam 
lekham, S'. Sumano-gopita=kusuma-san-gupta, S'. Devatd-seshapade- 
&ena, the Beng., supported by S'., read devata-sevdpadesena, 'under pretext 
of honouring a divinity.' K. reads devata-vyapadesena, with the word 
prasdda inserted in the margin. Devata-sesha is supported by C., and 

Q 2 



d i 

ff ^(^f I 

u 'r u 

explained by him as nirmalya, 'the remains of an offering of flowers 
presented to an idol.' Garlands of flowers were so offered. A love-letter 
was one of the four recognized modes of encouraging a lover (see 
p. 109, n. 3). 

1 'This very injunction [suggestion] of my friend is weighed (in my 
mind)/ i. e. I must consider before I can consent to it. This is the reading 
of the two oldest MSS. One, however, has sahi or sahi. 

2 ' Therefore just think of some pretty composition in verse, accompanied 
by an allusion to yourself.' Upanyasa-purva, lit. ' preceded [headed] by 
an allusion.' Lalita-pada-bandhana, cf. lalitdrtha-bandham, Vikram., 
Act. II ; pada-bandhana, lit. ' the connection or composition of quarter- 
verses/ cf. paddni, ver. 68 of this play. 


1 'That very one, timid one, from whom thou apprehendest a 
refusal, stands pining for a union with thee. The lover may or may not 
win Fortune, (but) how, being beloved (by her), should he be difficult-to- 
be-won by Fortune V Srl=Lakshmi, ' the goddess of beauty and fortune,' 
here identified with S'akuntala or with the object of the lover's hopes and 
aspirations. The commentators throw no light on this passage. The 
meaning seems to be, ; There is always a doubt whether the suitor will 
gain favour with Fortune, or with the beautiful maiden who may be the 
object of his love, but when it is certain that he is beloved by her, how 
can she have any difficulty in gaining him ? for there surely will be no 
doubt of his being willing to accept her favours, however uncertain may 
be her encouragement of his advances.' The verse which follows this in 
the Beng. MSS. is probably spurious. 

2 ' thou undervaluer of thine own excellences, who now would ward 
off with the skirt of a garment the autumnal moonlight, the cooler of his 
body 1 ?' i. e. (according to S'.) this prince is too sensible to be averse to a 
union with one so beautiful as thou art. Nirvdpayitrim, cf. nirvapayita, 
ver. 65, and see p. 97, n. i. Patantena, cf. in Act V. patantena mukham 
dvritya roditi. 

3 f I am now (acting) under (your) directions,' i. e. it is by your orders 
that I do this ; niyojitdsmi bhavatlbhydm giti-karatie, ' I am directed by 
you to compose verses,' S'. ; 'I am only following your directions, therefore 
you are responsible if I meet with a repulse,' 8*. 

Verse 67. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 23. 

n 118 


1 ' Fitly, indeed, do I gaze on my beloved with an eye that forgets to 
wink, because the countenance of her composing [whilst she is in the act 
of composing] verses has one eyebrow raised ; (and) by her thrilling cheek 
she discloses her affection for me.' Vismrita-nimeshena is very expressive 
of a fixed, earnest gaze. Chezy translates, ' spectacle enclianteur \ dout 
je serais jaloux que le moindre clignement d'reil me privat un instant !' 
KantaJcita, lit. ' having the downy hair of the cheek erect like thorns ' (= 
pulakancita). The erection of the hair of the body (pulaka, roma-kantaka, 
romdndana) indicates exquisite delight, according to the notions of the 
Hindus. Cf. Vikram., Act I, mama angatn sa-roma-kantakam an- 

2 * But the writing-materials indeed are not at hand.' Most of the 
MSS. have hu for Sanskrit khalu. Lassen (Instit. Prak. p. 192) shews 
that kkhu is the proper form after a short vowel. 

3 ' Engrave the letters [make engraving of the letters] with your nails 

Verse 68. AEYA or G-ATHA. See verse 2. 


on this lotus-leaf smooth as a parrot's breast.' SuJcodara, 'a parrot's 
breast,' it also means 'a leaf of the Tallsa tree' ( = tallia-pattra); in Vikram., 
Act IV, the colour of a scarf is compared to the same thing (Sukodara- 
Syamam standntukam), and in Maha-bh. ii. 1035, the colour of horses 
(iukodara-saman hayan). The Prakrit is answerable for nikshipta-varnam 
kuru. This is the reading of all the Deva-n. MSS. ; the Beng. have pada- 
cclieda-Hhaktya nakhair dlikhyatdm. 

1 'Thy heart I know not, but day and night, cruel one, Love 
vehemently inflames the limbs of me, whose desires are centred in thee.' 
Such is the reading of the Taylor MS. and my own. The other Deva-n. 
agree, but give manorahaim for manorathani, in concord with an-gani. 
Manorahdi and manorahae may both stand for the Sanskrit gen. fern. 
manoratliayah (in concord with mama), and both are equally admissible 
into the metre (Lassen's Instit. Prak. pp. 304, 305, 147). The inter- 
pretation of Candra-sekhara supports this reading (nishkripa tapayati 
ballyas tvad-abhimukha-manorathdyd an-gani). This verse is called 
by Katavema the upanydsa or ' allusion,' see p. 1 1 6, n. 2 ; see also the 
next note on verse 70. 

Verse 69. UDGATHA or GITI. See verse 4. 


1 2O 

: H$OII 

1 ' Thee, O slender-limbed one, Love inflames ; but me he actually con- 
sumes incessantly ; for the Day does not so cause the lotus to fade as it 
does the moon/ Kumuda or Jcumudvatl is a kind of lotus, which blossoms 
in the night and fades by day (Jcumudvatl candra-virahena santapta 
bhavati, S'.), here compared to S'akuntala. Kwmudvatl is usually ' a group 
of lotuses.' iSa&anka, ' hare-marked,' i. e. the moon. Dushyanta again 
compares himself to the moon (cf. p. 113, n. i). This with the pre- 
ceding verse, according to S'. and C., is an example of the figure called 

2 ' "Welcome to the speedy (fulfilment of thy) desire ! ' or ' welcome to 
the object of thy desire which does not delay (its appearance).' The Beng. 
insert sanvihita-phalasya or tintita-phalasya. 

8 ' Thy limbs, which closely press the couch of flowers, (and are) fra- 
grant by the crushing of the quickly-faded lotus-fibres, being grievously 

Verse 70. AKYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

ItS V/ V W I V V-|v^W I] VVw 

W O W W 1 W wl || w <-/ 

Verse 71. AETA or GATHA. See verse 2. 


i si'sf'rfc'iT ^ic^wr finrfrr u 

inflamed, do not deserve (to perform) obeisance;' i. e. are excused the 
usual salutation. In consideration of the state of your bodily frame, you 
are privileged to keep your recumbent posture even before me. Upacdram, 
i. e. mat-krite vinayadi-rupam. San-dani, lit. ' to press the teeth closely 
together;' hence sandasTita, 'coming in close contact with.' Cf. Raghu-v. 
xvi. 65, sandashta-vastreshu nitamheshu, 'on (their) hips to which garments 
were closely fitted.' Our English word 'bite' has the same acceptation. 
Aiu-klanta, &c. The Beng. have au-vimardita-mrinala-valayani or 
aiu-vivarnita (= mlanl-bhuta, C.), &c., 'having bracelets of lotus- 
fibres that have quickly faded (from the heat of her limbs).' Cf. 
p. 106, n. i. 

1 ' Will our friend deign to take a seat here on the stone T cf. p. 76, 1. 3. 
The stone-seat served also for the couch of S'akuntala, S*. Anugrihnatu, 
' let him favour,' is the reading of K. For anugenhadu Dr. Burkhard 
reads alan-kwedu (= Sanskrit alan-karotu). 

2 ' But affection for my friend prompts me to be the speaker of some- 
thing superfluous/ i. e. of what has been so often repeated as to be already 
sufficiently well-known. Punar-ukta, which properly means 'said again,' 
' repeated,' has, in dramatic composition, acquired the acceptation of 
' superfluous,' and sometimes simply ' additional.' Thus in the Vikram., 
Act III, the torches are said to be punar-uktaS candrikayam, ' rendered 
superfluous in the moonlight ;' and in Act V. of that play, tears dropping 
from the eyes on the breast are said to cause muktavall-viracanam punar- 
uktam, ' the formation of an additional necklace of pearls.' Cf. also kim 
punar-uktena, Malavik. p. 63, 1. 5. Sakhl-snehah = sakhl-vishayaka- 


a ^rnr^^r f^^r^iftnft WT^rrftiT^ ^T?TT Hfirfa^fHr<iM ^ft vt: i 


1 ' That (which you have to say) ought not to be suppressed [omitted], 
for that-which-was-intended-to-be-spoken and is not spoken produces 
subsequent regret.' Anu-tdpa, ' after-pain/ i. e. repentance. Vivakshita, 
from the desid. of root vac. 

2 ' It is to be become by the king [the king ought to be] the remover of 
the suffering of one dwelling in his kingdom (who has) fallen into trouble ; 
such is your duty.' The Beng. have arama-vdsino for visliaya-vasino. 
The latter reading is supported by K. 

3 ' No other than this/ i. e. nothing short of this ; this is exactly my 

4 ' Therefore (know that) this our dear friend has been reduced to this 
altered condition by the divinity Love on thy account.' Ud-dtiya, ' aiming 
at,' 'regarding/ see p. 101, n. i. Avasthdntara, 'another state/ i. e. an 
alteration from the natural and healthy state. Aropita=prdpitd, S*. 

5 Avalambitum, properly 'to cling to/ 'depend upon;' here used 
transitively, ' to sustain/ ' support.' 

6 Cf. Vikram., Act II, sddhdrano 'yam ubhayoh pranayah. 



a " \ 


1 ' What (can you mean) by detaining the Eajarshi, who is pining (by 
reason of) separation from his royal-consorts?' Antah-pura, 'the inner 
part of the palace,' 'the female apartments,' here put for the occupants 

2 ' thou that art near my heart, if this heart of mine which is devoted 
to no other, thou judgest to be otherwise, (then) O lovely-eyed one, being 
(already) slain by Love's shafts, I am slain again/ i. e. I suffer a second 
death. Cf. Bhartri-h. i. 63, hatam api nihanty eva madanah. Hridaya- 
sanniMte=man-mano-vasthayini, ' O thou that abidest in my heart,' S'. ; 
= cittdrudhe, C. Madira, ' wine,' as applied to Ikshana, ' the eye,' is said 
by S'. to be equivalent to sundara, ' beautiful ; ' or to Ishad-ghurnana-illa, 
' slightly inclined to roll about.' ' Wine-eyed ' may mean ' one whose eyes 
intoxicate like wine.' 

Verse 72. DRCTA-VILAMBITA (a variety of JAGAT!). See verse 45. 

R 2 


1 ' Even in the multitude of (my) wives [however numerous may be my 
wives] there (will be) but two chief-glories of my race, the sea-girt earth 
on the one hand (ca), and on the other (ca) this friend of yours,' i. e. there 
will be but two sources of glory to my race, viz. the sea-girt earth and 
S'akuntala. Prati-shthd=utkarsha-7ietu, 'a cause of renown,' 'a dis- 
tinguished ornament,' S*. ; properly ' a cause of stability,' ' a support.' 
ParigraJia-bahutve=kalatra-bahulye. The Deva-n. MSS. read samudra- 
vasand, 'clothed in the ocean,' 'having the ocean for its garments' (samudra 
eva vastrdni yasydh, S".) The Beng. all have samudra-rasand, which is 
literally 'sea-girt' (rasand=mekhala), and seems to be the better reading. 
Cf. Hitop. 1. 2542. Confusion between rasand and vasand may easily 
have arisen. Ca ca, see p. 14, n. i. 

2 In the Beng. MSS. the dialogue which follows these words has several 

3 Lit. ' let us cause it to join (its mother),' ' let us lead it to its mother.' 
Mdtrd saha iti anushan-ga, S'. Some word like patya, 'See !' may be 
supplied before yathd in the sentence preceding. 

Verse 73. SLOKA or ANCSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53. 


11 $8 11 

1 ' Does not this person, thy humble-servant [thy adorer], remain near 
thee ? ' i.e. am not I here to wait upon thee, in place of thy friends 1 The 
Beng. add sakhl-Wiumau. Arddhayita=pari6arakali, 'an attendant,' S'., 
but it is also ' the worshipper of a deity,' and therefore implies adoration 
as well as service. There is designedly a ' double-entendre.' 

2 ' Shall I set in motion moist breezes by (means of) cool lotus-leaf-fans 
which-remove langour ] or placing thy feet, brown as the lotus, O round- 
thighed (maiden), in (my) lap shall I rub them soothingly?' Karabhoru, 
voc. case of karabhoru; according to Pan. iv. i, 69, uru, 'a thigh or hip,' 
at the end of this and some other compounds becomes uru,, and is declined 
like vadhu; and Jcarabhoruh is said to be equivalent to vrittoruh stri, ' a 
woman with round thighs.' Kardbha is ' the thick part of the hand/ ' the 
part between the wrist and the fingers;' it is also 'a young elephant.' 
Dr. Boehtlingk considers that the comparison is taken from the first of 
these senses. It may with more reason be taken from the other ; for from 
the following gloss of U. it seems probable that as kara stands for both the 
human hand and the trunk of an elephant, and karabTia for the upper 

Verse 74. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVAKI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 
46, 64. 

$r< if oil I 

I ii rgmr n-d(Wfk n 


part of the hand, so the latter word may be taken for the same part of an 
elephant's trunk. KaraHkah prdny-an-gam (' is part of an animal') tadiva 
urur yasyah ubha-lakshanam idam tad uktam, hasti-hasta-nibhair ('like 
an elephant's trunk') vrittair ('round') asthabhaih JcardbJwpamaih prdpnu- 
vantyurubhih iaivat striyah suKham anan-gajam. The epithet may there- 
fore mean ' having thighs gracefully tapering like the trunk of an 
elephant.' Cf. Jcarabhopamoruh, Raghu-v. vi. 83, and dvirada-ndsoruh, 
Bhatti-k. iv. 17. Samvahaydmi = mar day ami ; sam-vah (or more 
correctly sam-vah in the causal) is applied especially to the rubbing or 
shampooing of the limbs. Padma-tdmrau, Chdzy observes that the 
Hindu women extracted a rosy-coloured dye from a plant called Law- 
sonia Inermis, with which they were in the habit of dyeing their nails 
and fingers, as well as their feet. Cf. stri-nakha-patalam kuruvaJcam, 
Vikram., Act II. 

1 ' I will not make myself in fault with those whom I am bound to 
respect [towards those who are worthy of respect],' i. e. with my foster- 
father and others. 

2 'The day is not (yet) cool.' A-parinirvanaan-apagata-tlvrdtapa, 
' having its great heat not yet passed off;' ' it was still noon/ S'. Some 
MSS. have a-nirvana, and others apa-nirvdna (=a-nirvdna, nirvdna- 

3 ' Having left the couch of flowers (and) the covering of thy bosom 

Verse 75. ABTA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

ft* 5c^zrf?r fc*4f?f: i ^rft ^ 

formed of lotus leaves, how wilt thou go in the heat, with thy limbs (too) 
delicate for hardships'?' Paribddha-pelava = duhkhdsahishnu, 'incapable 
of bearing hardship.' The Beng. have komala for pelava. 

1 ' Even though inflamed by Love, I have not the power (of disposing) 
of myself/ i. e. yena tvam-manoratha-puranam kriyate, ' so that your 
wishes may be fulfilled/ S'. 

2 ' Having seen it, his reverence the head-of-your-society who knows- 
the-law will not take (it as a) fault in you/ i. e. will not attribute blame 
to you in this matter. Drishtva te is supported by the concurrent 
authority of the Taylor, Mackenzie, and Colebrooke MSS. Vidita-dharmd, 
see Pan. v. 4, 124; dJiarma at the end of a Bahuvrlhi comp. becomes 
dharman (cf. yuvam kshatriya-dharmanau, Hitop. 1. 2473). 

3 ' Many daughters of Rajarshis [p. 44, notes i and 2] are heard to have 
been married by the marriage (called) Gandharva, and (even) they have 
received the approval of their fathers [been approved by their fathers].' 
The Gandharva marriage is one of the forms of marriage described in 
Manu iii. 22, &c. It is a marriage proceeding entirely from love (kdma- 
samblmva) or the mutual inclination (anyonyeccha) of a youth and maiden, 
and concluded without any ceremonies and without consulting relatives, 
see Manu iii. 32; Indian Wisdom, p. 199. Gdndharvah = paraspara- 
bliasliaya krito vivahah, K. The long scene which follows this verse in 
the Beng. MSS. is omitted in all tUe Deva-n., and must be regarded as 
an interpolation. 

Verse 76. &LOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, u, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53, 73. 


I $l$*dc4l 

I ^u+imff 


<sr n 1*1 q* i i 

1 'I will again take counsel with my female friends.' Ann-man in 
the causal may mean ' to ask the consent of/ ' to cause or to induce to 

2 ' (As) by the bee (the honey) of the fresh, untouched tender blossom, 
(so) now by me eager-to-allay-my -thirst must the nectar of this under-lip 
of thine be gently stolen, O fair one, (ere I can let thee go).' A-pari- 
kshata, lit. ' unhurt,' ' uninjured,' applied to a virgin. Adhara, compare 

P- 33. ^ i. 

3 ' [Behind the scenes.] O female-6akravaka, bid farewell to thy mate ; 
the night is at hand [arrived].' CaJcravaka-vadhuka (Pan. vii. 4, 13), i.e. 

Verse 77. AUPACCHANDASIKA, containing eleven syllables to the first Pada or 
quarter-verse, and twelve to the second, each half-verse being alike. 

v_; v_/ -- 1^1^ -- wv^ u \-> -- 

n inr: Hfrsifir tiT^rwr *mrft TOOT ^ u 

a w^r i ^w^nf w ^Trtt 

i b ff ?r ^TT^T ^nf^ i c ^ i 

the Cakravaki or female of the Ruddy goose, commonly called the Brah- 
mam duck (Anas Casarca). The male and female of these birds keep 
together during the day (whence one of their names, dvandva-6ara, ' going 
in pairs') and are, like turtle-doves, patterns of constancy and connubial 
affection ; but the legend is that they are doomed to pass the night apart 
(whence the name ratri-milesha-gdmin) in consequence of a curse pro- 
nounced upon them by some saint whom they had offended. Accordingly, 
as soon as night commences, they take up their station on opposite banks 
of a river, and call to each other in piteous cries. The name rathom-ga or 
ratha-pdda, ' chariot-footed,' sometimes given to them, indicates some 
peculiar formation of the feet. Constant allusion is made to their habits ; 
thus in Vikram., Act IV, sahacarlm dure matvd viraushi samutsukah; 
cf. also Megha-d. 82, and Raghu-v. viii. 55. 

1 ' To ascertain the state of my bodily health.' Prakrit has no dative, 
but gives the force of that case to the genitive. 

2 ' Concealed by the branches ;' see p. 104, n. 2. 

8 ' With a vessel in her hand.' One MS. has udaka-patra-hasta, ' with 
a vessel of water in her hand.' 

1 3O 

u c 

I ii f fir jrftsnn: n 

II ^HlrH'lif U 

II I^*T r*i b rfi!HI 

t II 

a *w i ^rfk H ftfN: i b 



1 ' venerable mother ! there is a change for the better in me.' 
Nairujyam kincid idanlm vrittam, ' there is now some freedom from 
pain/ S'. Ajje is the reading of the oldest MSS., supported by S'. and C. 
Viiesha is 'a change for the better,' in contradistinction to vikara, 
' a change for the worse.' The very same expression occurs in Malavik. 
p. 46, 1. 9. 

2 ' With this Darbha- water/ i. e. water and Kusa grass, mixed and used 
for the 6anty-udaka, mentioned at p. 97, 1. 3; see also p. 19, n. i, in 
the middle. 

3 'O heart, even before, when the object-of-thy-desire readily presented 
itself, thou didst not abandon (thy) anxiety. How (great) now (will be) 
the anguish of thee regretful (and) dispirited ! [After advancing a step, 
standing still again, aloud\ bower of creepers, remover of my suffering, 



I bid thee adieu, (hoping) to occupy (thee) again [to have enjoyment of 
thee again]/ Prathamam eva, &c., see p. 120, \. 5. SuJchopanate, compare 
yad upanatam duhkham sukham tat, Vikram., end of Act III. Vi-ghafita 
'broken,' 'distracted with grief.' Paribhoassa, the genitive in Prakrit 
used for the Sanskrit dative, see p. 129, n. i. ParibJiogdya, cf. pari- 
bhukta, p. 132, 1. i. 

1 'Alas! the fulfilment of desired objects has hindrances [there are 
many obstacles in the way of the accomplishment of one's wishes] ; for 
by me the face of the lovely- eyelashed-eyed (maiden), having its upper 
and lower lip repeatedly protected by (her) fingers, beautiful in stammering 
out the syllables of denial, turning (away from me) towards the shoulder, 
was with some difficulty raised but not kissed.' Anguli-samvrita = 
angulibhydm pihita, S'. AdharosTitha, see p. 33, n. i, in the middle. 
Pratishedhakshara, i. e. na mamddharam cumbanlyam [unnamaniyam], 
' my lips must not be kissed/ S'. and C. Alam alam ma iti prdbhritibhih, 
by such expressions as ' enough/ ' enough/ ' don't/ K. Some of the Deva-n. 
MSS. read pratishedhdntara. AksTiara is 'a syllable/ as well as ' a letter.' 
Ana-vivarti=tiryak-kritam, 'turned on one side/ C. It may, however, 
also mean 'revolving on the shoulders' (anSayor vivarti). S'. mentions 
another reading, an-ga-vivarti=kroda-ghurnamdnam. Pakshmaldkshl= 
cdru-bahu-pakshma-yuktam, or pra&asta-pakshma-yuktam aksTii yasydh, 
' who has eyes with beautiful eye-lashes/ S'. and C., i. e. whose eye-lashes 
are brown like the leaf of a lotus, C. The Hindu women used collyrium 
to darken the eye-lashes and eye-brows. Pakshmala is properly ' possessed 
of eye-lashes' (pakshma-vat), an adjective formed from pakshman as sidh- 
mala from sidhman, Pan. v. 2, 97; Gram. 80. LXXX. Ut-pakshmala, 

Verse 78. AUPACCHANDASIKA. See verse 77. 

S 2 



' having upturned eye-lashes,' occurs about the middle of the Second Act 
of Vikram. Katham-api, 'somehow or other/ 'hardly,' compare p. 128, 
1. 12. Na cumbitam tu is the reading of the Calcutta ed. and of the 
Sahit.-d. p. 1 1 6, supported by C. 

1 ' Or rather, I will remain for a brief space in this bower of creepers 
(once) occupied, (but now) abandoned by my beloved.' Athava, see p. 30, 
n. 3, and p. 24, n. i, at the end. Paribhukta, 'compare pariWiogaya, p. 130, 
n. 3, at the end. Muhurtam, see p. 37, n. i, at the end. 

2 ' Here on the stone-seat is her flowery couch impressed by her form ; 
here is the faded love-letter committed to the lotus-leaf with her nails ; 
here is the lotus-fibre bracelet slipped from her hand having my eyes 
fixed on such (objects as these) I am not able to tear myself away [go out 
hastily] from the Yetasa-arbour, even though deserted (by her).' Sarlra- 
lulita=deha-s(wghrisTita, 'rubbed by the body;' see anatilulita, p. 114, 
n. 2. Silaydm, see p. 105, n. i, and p. 121, n. i. Kldnta, S'. and the 
Beng. MS8. read kdnta, 'charming,' 'dear.' Visabharana = mrinala- 
valaya, see p. 106, n. i. Asajyamanekslianaaropyamanekshana. Vetasa- 
grihat=lata-mandapdt, 'from the arbour of creepers,' see p. 104, 1. 1. 

Verse 79. SAEDULA-VIKBIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 39, 
4; 63. 


a bo n 

I n ft ftreKrer: n 

1 ' \In the air.] The evening sacrificial rite being commenced, the 
shadows of the Rakshasas, brown as evening clouds, scattered around the 
altar which bears the consecrated fire, are flitting about in great numbers, 
producing consternation.' AkdSe, see p. 96, n. 3. Savana-karmani= 
Tioma-karmani. Sampravritte = upakrdnte. Pari-tas, 'on all sides of,' 
' around,' here governing an accusative. Praklrndh is the reading of the 
oldest MSS. ; S'. reads vistlrndh; the Deva-n. prayastdh, ' striving/ ' using 
effort.' HutaSanavaflm = ahitdgnim. Bhayam ddadJidndh = trdsam 
utpddayantyah. KapiSa, properly ' ape-coloured,' generally ' brown,' 
' dark -brown.' PUitdSandndm = rdkshasdndm. The Rakshasas (see 
p. 40, n. 5) were remarkable for their appetite for raw flesh (piiita). 

2 Observe the use of ayam, ' this one,' with the first person of the verb. 
Dr. Burkhard reads ayam aham for ayam ayam; cf. p. 136, 1. 7, ayam 
dham bhoh, 

Verse 80. VASANTA-TILAKA (& variety of SAKVAEI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74. 


II Witt Uf^HTJ ci<*iiq-qitrHfi<fi<4i *n*4i 





1 See the note on the term Vishkambha, p. 97, n. 3. 

2 'Although my heart is comforted by the thought that S'akuntalS has 
become completely happy in being united to a husband worthy of her by 
a Gandharva marriage ; nevertheless, there is still some cause for anxiety 
[there is still something to be thought about].' GdndJiarvena, see p. 127, 
n. 3. Anurupa-bJiartri-gdmirii, the Beng. have anurupa-bTiartri-bhaginl. 
Iti may often be translated by 'so thinking/ see p. 140, n. 2. 


ftfcf I "fan*; 


rff TTW 


1 ' Such distinguished characters as these do not become opposite in 
their qualities (to what they formerly were). But I know not now what 
reply the father will make when he has heard this intelligence/ Akriti, 
properly 'form,' 'figure.' Kintu is inserted by the Mackenzie MS., supported 
by K. Pratipatsyate=abhidhdsyati, S'. ;= prativakti, K. ; Westergaard 
gives 'respondere' as one sense of pratipad (cf. tac chrutva tatheti pratya- 
padyata, Ramay. i. 10, 15). It might be translated, 'what he will think 
of the matter,' ' what he will do,' ' whether he will ratify it.' 

2 ' The maiden is to be given to a worthy (husband), such was the first 
purpose-of-his-heart.' San-kalpa=mano-ratha, S'. ; properly 'a resolve/ 
'mental determination' (see p. 49, 1. 5, with note 2 at the end). 

n 136 





ii wnnm ii e 



1 ' Is not the guardian-deity of our dear friend S'akuntala to be honoured 
(with an offering) T Saubhdgya-devata, ' the tutelary deity,' ' the deity who 
watches over the welfare of any one.' The Beng. read devatdh, ' deities,' 
and S'. adds shasJitika-gaun-prahhritayah, ' such as Shashtika [Durga], 
Gauri, &c.' 

2 ' [.Behind the scenes .] It is I, ho there !' Nepathye, see p. 3, n. 2. 
Ayam aham agato 'smi iti arthah, S'. See Manu ii. 122, &c., 'After 
salutation, a Brahman must address an elder, saying, "I am such a one" 
(asau namaham), pronouncing his own name. If any persons (through 
ignorance of Sanskrit) do not understand the form of salutation (in which 
mention is made) of the name, to them should a learned man say, " It is I " 
(aham iti), and in that manner should he address all women. In the saluta- 
tion he should utter the word bhoh (bhoh-iabda), for the particle bhoh is held 
by sages to have the same property with names (fully expressed)/ 

3 ' (It seems) as if an announcement were made by a guest [as if a 
guest were announcing himself].' So read the Beng. MSS., the Deva-n. 
have atithlndm. 

4 'With her heart she is not near,' i. e. her heart is absent with 


n t^ H 



1 ' Woe ! thou that art disrespectful to a guest ! that (man) of whom 
(thou art) thinking to-the-exclusion-of-every-other-object-from-thy-mind, 
(so that) thou perceivest not me, rich in penance, to have approached, 
shall not recall thee to his memory, even being reminded ; as a drunken- 
man (does not recall) the talk [speech] previously made (by himself).' 
Atithi-paribhdmni, see p. 36, n. i ; the Beng. have katham atithim pari- 
bhavasi. Vetsi = viblm vay asi, S'. J3odhitah = smaritah, S'. Kritam, i. e. 
dtmanaiva, S'. ; katham kri=rooi kath, 'to speak,' 'tell,' 'say;' and 
katham kritdm=kathitdm, 'what is spoken,' 'said.' 

2 'A very unpleasant thing has occurred. S'akuntala, in her absence of 
mind, has committed an offence against some person deserving of respect. 

Verse 81. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 23, 67. 


[Looking on in front^\ Not, indeed, against some (mere ordinary) person ; 
(for I see that) it is the great Bishi Durvasas, easily-provoked to anger. 
After uttering such a curse, he has turned back with a step tremulous, 
bounding, and difficult to be checked through its impetuosity.' Sunya- 
hridayd, lit. ' empty -hearted,' one whose heart is engrossed with some 
other object. Vega-catula, &c. This is the reading of the Mackenzie 
MS., and seems to have been that of K. All the Deva-n. have upphulla 
for the Sanskrit utphula, from root sphul, ' to leap,' allied to sphur. As 
to the Prakrit upphulla, it may be observed that many consonants in 
Prakrit are too weak to sustain themselves singly, and that if elision does 
not take place, the consonant is sometimes doubled. Thus sukklia or 
suha may be written for the Sanskrit sukha, and nihitta or riihia for 
nlhita, Lassen's Instit. Prak. p. 276, 3. The oldest Beng. MS. has avirala- 
padoddharaya, and the Calcutta ed. avirala-pdda-tvarayd gatya. Dur- 
vasas is a saint or Muni, represented by the Hindu poets as excessively 
choleric, and inexorably severe. The Puranas and other poems contain 
frequent accounts of the terrible effects of his imprecations on various 
occasions, the slightest offence being in his eyes deserving of the most 
fearful punishment. On one occasion he cursed Indra, merely because 
his elephant let fall a garland which he had given to this god; and 
in consequence of this imprecation all plants withered, men ceased to 
sacrifice, and the gods were overcome in their wars with the demons (see 
Vishnu-p. p. 70). For Maharshi, see p. 39, n. 3, and p. 44, n. 2. 

1 ' Who beside Fire will have (such) power to consume V S'. alone has 
tathd (taha) at the end of this sentence. The wrath of a Brahman is 
frequently compared to fire (see p. 74, n. 3, and p. 50, n. 2). 

2 ' Therefore, bowing down at his feet, persuade him to return, whilst 
I prepare a propitiatory offering and water.' The Beng. have patitva, 
' having fallen/ for pranamya. ArghyodaJca, see p. 36, notes 2 and 3. 




Wrft n 


c wfti i 


I HWRfrflf 

1 ' She acts the gathering up of the flowers.' Uccaya has the same 
sense as samuccaya, 'collecting together in a heap,' see p. 79> 1- 8. 

2 '"Whose friendly-persuasion will this crooked-tempered (person) 
accept? however, he was somewhat softened [he was made a little 
merciful].' Prakriti-vakra, ' one whose disposition is crooked or harsh,' 
' ill-tempered,' ' cross-grained.' 

3 ' Even this (somewhat) was much for him ; say on.' 

4 'Considering (it is) the first- time, this one offence of the daughter, 
who is unaware of the potency of penance, is to be pardoned by your 

T 2 

1 40 


d i i i 

II ^ff ifLffcWif; U 

a r: i b inft ^ ^HH^m*Tfai ^rffii i 

ftnrsr i rt 

reverence.' PratJiamam iti, the Beng., supported by K., have prathama- 
bhaktim avekshya, ' in consideration of her former devotion.' 

1 ' " My word must not be falsified ; but at the sight of the jewel-of- 
recognition, the curse shall cease :" so speaking, he withdrew himself from 
sight [vanished].' Abhijnanabharana, lit. 'the recognition-ornament,' 
'the token-ring,' see p. 4, n. 2. Narihadi (= Sanskrit na arhati) is 
correct, according to Lassen's Instit. Prak. p. 193, 10. The MSS. fre- 
quently read ndruhadi, as on p. 54, 1. 5. Svayam antarhitah, lit. ' he 
became self-hidden.' 

2 'A ring stamped with his name was by that Rajarshi himself, at his 
departure, fastened on (her finger) as a souvenir. In that [with that], 



v< THI 

: II 

i ^Hci'iij^rw i w i 

i Tsjrrrffar ^ ufrT<=5^r f^^ro^ i c 

S'akuntala will be possessed-of-a-resource-in-her-own-power.' Sva-nama- 
dfieyan-kitam, see p. 53, notes 2 and 3. Smaranlyam iti, properly 
' saying, " It is a remembrance." ' Iti often involves the sense of ' saying,' 
'thinking,' &c., see p. 60, n. i. The Beng. MSS. add tfakuntala-Tiaste, but 
not the Deva-n. nor K. For tasmin, S*. has tasmdt. 

1 ' Our dear friend, her face resting on her left hand, (is motionless) as 
if in a picture,' see p. 7, n. 2. 

2 Bhartri-gata, 'relating to her husband/ see p. 42, n. 2. 

3 'Let this circumstance remain in the mouth of us two only. Our 
dear friend being of a delicate nature must be spared [preserved],' i. e. 
she must not be told about this imprecation, lest her feelings be so 
hurt, that her delicate constitution be injured. Vrittantah, i. e. iapa- 
vrittdntah, S'. 

: n 

rnr: nfe^rfa *pftfr*nr: f^rai: H 


1 'Arisen from sleep,' =suptdnantaram utthitah,']\ist arisen after sleep,' S'. 

2 ' I am commissioned by his reverence Kasyapa, (who has just) returned 
from his pilgrimage [residence abroad], to observe the time of day. 
Having gone out into the open air, I will just see how much of the night 
remains.' Pravdsdt, i. e. soma-tirthdt, see p. 17, n. i. Prakaa=vivrita- 
pradeia, 'an open spot,' K. ;=catvara, 'a court-yard,' S'. 

3 'On the one side the lord of the plants [the Moon] descends to 
the summit of the western mountain ; on the other side (rises) the Sun, 
whose forerunner Aruna [the Dawn] has just become visible. By the con- 
temporaneous setting and rising of the two luminaries, human beings are 
warned, as it were, in their different states,' i. e. by the alternations of 
these luminaries, the vicissitudes of human life are indicated. The Moon 
is called Oshadht-pati, ' lord of medicinal plants,' being supposed to exer- 
cise some influence over the growth of such plants. Cf. Deut. xxxiii. 14, 
' The precious fruits brought forth by the sun, and the precious things put 
forth by the moon.' Oshadhl is described as ' dying (phala-pakdntd, Manu 
i. 46) after the ripening of its fruit.' Asia is the name for the mountain 
in the West, behind which, in Hindu poetry, the sun and moon are 
supposed to set, as Udaya is the name of that over which they are 
supposed to rise. Arka is a name of Siirya, ' the Sun.' He is represented 
as seated in a chariot drawn by seven green horses, or by one horse with 
seven heads (whence his name Saptdiva), and before him is a lovely youth 

Verse 82. VASANTA-TILAKA. See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 64, 74, 80. 


jftrfa IN <fi*jlrft 

without legs, who acts as his charioteer, and who is called Aruna, or Dawn 
personified. Aruna is the son of Kasyapa and Vinata, and elder brother 
of Garuda. His imperfect form may be allusive to his gradual or partial 
appearance, his legs being supposed to be lost, either in the darkness of 
the departing night, or in the blaze of the coming day. With this verse 
cf. Mricchak. p. 321, 1. 4, thus translated by Wilson, 'In heaven itself the 
sun and moon are not free from change (vipattim labhete); how should we 
poor weak mortals hope to escape it in this lower world 1 One man rises 
but to fall, another falls to rise again,' &c. 

1 ' The moon having disappeared, even the lotus no longer gladdens my 
sight, its beauty being now only a matter of remembrance. The sorrows 
produced by the absence of a lover are beyond measure hard to be 
supported by a tender-girl.' Some species of the lotus open their petals 
during the night, and close them during the day, whence the Moon is 
often called the Friend, Lover, or Lord of the lotuses (kumuda-bandhava, 
kumudlnl-ndyaka, kumude&a). For dbala-janasya, the Beng. have abald- 
janena; the genitive is equally admissible. Cf. svabhavas tasya durati- 
kramah, Hitop. 1. 1945. 

The following are given after verse 83 in the Beng. MSS. and in the 
Calcutta and French editions, supported by S'., but not in the Deva-n. 
nor in K. : 

^ fq HI ti I r*a if^ff rtf*S n ig fr"< n^fa *rert 

: n 

f ^T 


' Moreover, the early dawn impurples the dew-drops upon the jujubes ; 

Verse 83. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVAKI). See verse 82. 


the peacock, shaking off sleep, quits the Darbha-grass thatch of the cottage ; 
and yonder the antelope, rising hastily from the border of the altar im- 
pressed by his hoofs, afterwards raises himself on high, stretching his 
limbs. Moreover, after planting his foot on the head of Sumeru, lord of 
mountains, the Moon, by whom, dispersing the darkness, the central 
palace of Vishnu has been invaded, even he, descends from the sky 
with diminished beams. The highest ascent of the great terminates in 
a fall.' 

1 ' "With a hurried toss of the curtain.' Patakshepena (so read all the 
Deva-n. MSS. and K.) is from pata, with the same sense as apatl, i. e. the 
curtain separating the stage from the nepathya (see p. 3, n. 2) and dkshepa, 
1 tossing aside.' The Beng. reading is apatl-kshepena. Patdkshepena= 
yavanikdpa/nodanena, K. ;=akasmdt, 'suddenly,' S'. According to K., 
the entrance of an actor under the influence of flurry caused by joy, 
sorrow, or any other emotion (harsJia-fokadi-janita-sambhrama-yuktasya) 
is made with a toss of the curtain. 

2 ' It is not unknown to this person [myself], however withdrawn (she 
may be) from worldly concerns, that an indignity has been wrought 
towards S'akuntala by that king.' Evam nama is the reading of the 
Mackenzie MS., supported by K. Na etat na vlditam is given on the 
authority of K. Imassa is inserted from the old MS. (India Office, 1060); 
S 7 . has amushya janasya. The other Deva-n. MSS. read yady api nama 
vishaya-paran-mukhasydpi janasya etan na viditam tathdpi tena, &c. 
The margin of the Beng. MS., as well as that of Chdzy, has a note referring 
vishaya-pardn-mukhasya janasya to Kanva ; but a comparison of other 
passages shews that by ayam janah the person or persons speaking 
are commonly intended (cf. p. 125, 1. 6, and p. 156, 1. 12). An-dryam, 
lit. ' anything unworthy or dishonourable,' ' ungentlemanly conduct,' i. e. 
according to S 7 . and C., Sakuntald-wsmarana-rupam, 'consisting of the 
forgetting of S'akuntala.' 


: i 


^T^rt ^rfti 

i m 

1 'The time for (making) the burnt-offering;' see p. 148, n. i. 

2 ' Although wide-awake, what shall I do 1 My hands and feet do not 
move-freely in their own usual occupations. Let Love now be possessed 
of his wish [enjoy his triumph], by whom our innocent-minded friend has 
been made to place confidence in that perfidious man.' Uciteshu karanl- 
yeshu, such as 'gathering flowers,' &c., S'. Sa-kamah = kritarthi, ' one who 
has attained his end,' S'. (cf. bhavatu panca-vdnah kritl, Vikram., Act II). 
Asatya-sandha, lit. 'one who is not true to his contract (sandhd) ;' =asatya- 
pratijna, $'.; = mithyd-pratijna, 6. Suddha-hridaya is the reading of two 
Deva-nagari MSS. and of the Bengali. Pada=sthdna, 'a place,' S'. ; 
=vyavasaya or vyavasiti, 'industry,' 'application,' 'business,' C. and 
Amara-k. Hence padam Jcri in the causal must mean ' to cause to have 
dealings or transactions with,' ' to cause to apply one's self,' ' to cause to 
take up a station ;' whence may easily flow the interpretation, ' made to 
trust.' Cf. a similar phrase in Kumara-s. vi. 14, where also the com- 
mentators explain pada by vyavasdya. 

3 ' Or rather, it is the curse of Durvasas that has caused the change.' 
Athavd, see p. 24, 1. 10; p. 30, n. 3. Vikdrayati, see p. 130, n. i. 

II T?^ I *TS* II 



I 3 

WW d r^ I 

1 'Among ascetics inured-to-hardships, who is to be solicited (to carry 
the ring to the king)? Assuredly, even though I were convinced that 
blame was attributable to S'akuntala, I should not have the power to 
make known to father Kasyapa, (just) returned from his pilgrimage, that 
S'akuntala is married to Dushyanta, and is pregnant. Such being the 
case, what is to be done by us?' DuTiJcha-ille, so read all the Deva-n. ; 
the oldest Bengali, supported by C., has nirduhJcha-iitale. Sakhl-gdmin, 
see p. 42, n. 2. Vyavasitd, past pass. part, of vy-ava-so, 'to determine,' 
' resolve,' ' strive ;' also ' to be persuaded,' ' convinced,' as in Ramay. ii. 
12, 6 1, safim tvam vyavasyami. Paraydmi is either the causal form of 

pri, meaning ' to conduct across,' ' bring over,' ' accomplish,' ' fulfil,' and 
thence 'to be able,' or is a nominal from para, 'the opposite bank 
(of a river),' ' the other side,' ' the end.' Itiham-gate, i. e. evam-prdpte 

2 'Hasten to celebrate [complete] the festivities at the departure of 
S'akuntala.' Prasthdna-kautuka =praydna-man-gala, ' festive solemnities 
which take place at the departure of a member of the family.' 





1 ' To inquire (whether she had had) a comfortable sleep.' Pucchidum 
for prashtum, so reads my own Bombay MS., supported by a parallel 
passage in Malavik. 44, 7, suham pucchidum dgala. The other Deva-n. 
have suha-saida-puctihia for sukha-iayita-pracchika, which is given as 
another reading in Malavik. Dr. Boehtlingk remarks that the agent may 
be used with the sense of a fut. part, active, and refers to Pan. iii. 3, 10. 

2 'By father Kanva [see p. 22, n. 3] having of his own accord em- 
braced her whilst her face was bowed down with shame, she was thus 
congratulated [congratulation was made], " Hail (to thee) ! the oblation of 
the sacrificing priest, although his sight was obscured by the smoke, fell 
directly into the fire;"' see n. 3 below. Dhumdkulita, cf. p. 65, 1. 7. 
Yajamdna, see p. 95, n. i. 

3 ' My child, as knowledge delivered over to a good student (is not to 
be deplored, so has it) come to pass that thou art not to be sorrowed for. 
This very day I dismiss thee protected by [under the escort of some] 

U 2 

ii ^rfW$iii3ijifio'5*i ii 1 4" 

Pashis to the presence of (thy) husband.' Compare Manu ii. 114,' Learning 
having approached a Brahman said to him, "I am thy divine treasure, 
deliver me not to a scorner, but communicate me to that student who 
will be a careful guardian of the treasure." ' The Beng. and K. insert me 
before a&ocanlyd, and read parigrihltdm for pratirakshitam. 

1 ' By an incorporeal [without body, without visible speaker] metrical 
speech (addressed to him from heaven), when he had entered the fire- 
sanctuary.' Sarlram vina, i. e. akde Sarasvatyd nivedltah, ' he was in- 
formed by Sarasvati (by a voice) in the sky,' S'. ; see p. 96, n. 3. Agni- 
&arana=agny-dgara, 'the place where the sacred fire was kept ;'=yajna- 
&ald, ' hall of sacrifice.' Fire is an important object of veneration with 
the Hindus, almost as much so as with the ancient Persians. Perhaps the 
chief worship recommended in the Vedas is that of Fire and the Sun. 
According to Manu, Brahmans when they married and became house- 
holders, were to kindle with two pieces of the hard S'ami, Aram, or 
Khadira wood, or with a piece of the S'ami and Asvattha wood (see p. 23, 
n. i), a sacred fire (homdgni, grihyagni, hutdgnt), which they were to 
deposit in a cavity or hearth called agni-kunda or vitdna (Indian Wisdom, 
p. 197), in some hallowed part of the house (or, like the Persians, in some 
sacred building proper for the purpose) called ayny-dgdra (Manu iv. 58), 
Jioma-dld, agni-griha, and which they were to keep lighted throughout 
their lives, using it first for their nuptial ceremony (Manu ii. 231, iii. 
171); and for the regular morning and evening oblations to Agni (homa, 
hotra), performed by dropping clarified butter &c. into the flame, with 
prayers and invocations (Manu xi. 41, iii. 81, 84, 85 ; see also p. 133, n. I 
of this play); for the performance of solemn sacrifices (Manu ii. 143); for 
the S'raddha or obsequies to departed parents and ancestors (Manu iii. 
212 sqq. ; see also p. in, n. i of this play); and, finally, for the funeral 
pile. The perpetual maintenance of this sacred fire was called agni-hotra, 
agny-ddhdna, agni-rakshana ; and the consecration of it, agny-ddheya 




(Manu ii. 143) ; and the Brahman or householder who maintained it, agni- 
hotrin, dhitdgni, agny-dhiia, sdgnika. At Benares even to this day many 
Agni-hotras are kept burning. Sometimes the householder did not him- 
self attend to the sacred fire, but engaged an officiating priest (ritvij, 
yajamdna, agnldhra, see p. 95, n. i ; p. 96, n. 2). The Brahman who did 
not maintain a fire was called an-dhitdgni (Manu xi. 38). According to 
Manu iii. 212 (with commentary) there were three periods when he was 
necessarily without it, viz. just before his investiture, before his marriage 
after the completion of his studentship, and at the death of his wife ; but 
the usual daily oblation was then to be placed in the hand of a holy 
Brahman, who is said to be one form of fire (see p. 74, n. 3; p. 50, n. 2). 
Sacred fire is sometimes considered to be of three kinds (tretd, ' the triad of 
fires') : I. Gdrhapatya, ' nuptial or household ;' 2. Ahavanlya, ' sacrificial,' 
taken from the preceding ; 3. Dakshina, ' that placed towards the south,' 
taken from either of the former; see Manu ii. 231. The man who 
maintained all these three was called tretdgni. See Indian Wisdom, 
p. 198, n. i. 

1 ' [Having recourse to Sanskrit J] Know that (thy adopted) daughter, 
Brahman, has conceived a glorious-germ [seed] implanted [lodged, 
deposited] by Dushyanta for the welfare of the earth, as the S'aml-tree is 
pregnant with fire.' Saml, 'a kind of thorny acacia' (see the last note, 
and p. 23, n. i). The legend is that the goddess Parvati, being one day 
under the influence of strong passion, reposed on a trunk of this tree, 
whereby an intense heat was generated in the pith or interior of the 
wood, which ever after broke into a sacred flame on the slightest attrition. 
Ahita=arpita. Tejah = 6ukra, C. (cf. Raghu-v. ii. 75; Megha-d. 45.) 
' By this it was indicated that S'akuntala would have a son in glory equal 
to Agni,' S'. 

Verse 84. &LOKA or ANUSHTDBH. See verses 5, 6, ix, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53, 
73, ?6. 

i m 

r*;? til fWT H^ I c rR 

1 ' O friend, how pleased I am ! but when I think that this very day 
S'akuntala is being conveyed away (to her husband's house), I feel a satis- 
faction mingled with regret.' Iti, ' so thinking,' see p. 140, n. 2. UtkantJid- 
sadfiarana, lit. ' in common with regret or sorrow.' ' I am partly glad, 
partly sorry,' S". 

2 ' (Only) let this (our) poor-sister be made happy.' Tapasvin, ' a 
devotee,' also denotes ' a person in a pitiable state,' ' a poor wretch.' Nir- 
vritd=susthita-cittd, S'. 

3 ' Therefore in this cocoa-nut box, suspended on a bough of the mango, 
a Kesara-garland, capable of (keeping fresh for) the intervening period, 
was with this very object deposited by me. Therefore make it rest on 
(my) hand [take it down and give it to me].' Ndrikera or ndriJcela, ' the 
cocoa-nut,' ' the fruit of the cocoa-nut tree.' Cuta or dmra, ' the mango 
tree.' Kdldntara-kshamd=mrala-kdla-sthdyinl, S'. Keiara-mdlikd, 'a 
wreath made of the flowers of the Bakula,' see p. 26, n. i. This was 


i fmra^r 
*7t rf fa I 


probably a man-gala-pushpa-mayl srak, or 'garland made of auspicious 
flowers/ to be suspended round the neck of S'akuntala, such as that 
described in Raghu-v. vi. 84. S'. and the Beng. read Jceiara-gundah or 
lteara-6urnah, and S'. observes that the fragrant dust of this plant is 
much used by women in making unguents (udvartandni). 

1 'Whilst I also will compound auspicious unguents composed of 
Mriga-rocana, holy earth, (and) Durba sprouts.' Mriga-rocana is said to 
be either the concrete bile of a deer or an exudation from his head, used 
as a medicine, a yellow dye or a perfume (see go-rocand in Diet.) The 
latter word is the reading of the Beng. MSS. Tlrtha-mrittika is earth 
brought from Tlrthas or holy bathing-places (see p. 17, n. i). Durba or 
durva, ' bent-grass,' a kind of sacred grass, not quite so sacred as darbJia, 
but possessing many virtues, and used for the argha (see p. 36, n. 2). Sir 
W. Jones says of it, ' Its flowers, in their perfect state, are among the 
loveliest objects in the vegetable world, and appear, through a lens, like 
minute rubies and emeralds. It is the sweetest and most nutritious 
pasture for cattle, and its usefulness, added to its beauty, induced the 
Hindus to believe that it was the mansion of a benevolent nymph.' Samd- 
lambhana is the act of smearing the body with coloured perfumes, such 
as saffron, sandal, &c. ; the plural is here used for the unguents them- 
selves, which are said to be man-gala, ' conducive to good fortune.' The 
Beng. have samdlambhanam. 

2 ' Sarn-garava and the (other) good-people ;' see p. 7, n. 3. The Beng. 
have Sdrn-garava-6dradrata-mirdh. According to S'. and C. these were 
the names of two iishydh, ' religious students,' pupils of Kanva. 


H faster n 

: n 

" i *% i 'JitdTy: i 

1 ' Truly these Eishis who are to go to Hastinapur are being called.' 
Sabddyy ante =ahily ante, S'. and C. It is the passive form of the nominal 
iabddyate; S'. has Sabddyante, which would properly mean ' they sound/ 
' make a noise,' Pan. iii. i, 17. ffastindpura, 'city of elephants,' was the 
ancient Delhi, situated on the Ganges, and the residence of Dushyanta. 

2 ' There stands S'akuntala at earliest sunrise, with her locks combed- 
and-washed, in the act of being congratulated by the holy -women, (having) 
consecrated wild-rice in their hands, (and) invoking-blessings-with-their- 
offerings.' Sikhd-mdrjitd, lit. ' having her top-knot combed and cleansed,' 
a compound similar to iirah-snata, ' having the head bathed.' The Beng. 
MSS. have krita-majjand. Svasti-vacanikdbhih is here an epithet of the 
women who make the svasti-vdcana, i. e. according to K. 'a gift of 
flowers, sweetmeats (prahelaJca), fruit, or any eatables presented with good 
wishes and prayers for the blessing of some deity.' It is especially the 
blessing which is coupled with the gift. In the present case the hallowed 
rice which they held in their hands, might have constituted the offering 
which accompanied the svasti-vdcana. In Vikram. the Vidushaka is 
propitiated by a svasti-vdcana (or -naka), consisting of a modaka-s'ardva, 
' dish of sweetmeats.' Birthday -gifts, wedding-presents, Christmas-boxes, 

II Tfif: Hf^tyfTT fl 'A fjb Mr<jncra t *rt tyfticOT II 
II 31{itfcM Hfff II 

: u 


t i 

&c., with their accompanying compliments, are the svasti-vafanaka of our 
day. The words vdyana and vayanaka seem to have a similar significa- 
tion, though without any necessary implication of good-wishes. Nlvara, 
' wild-rice/ Manu vi. 1 6. 

1 ' My child, take the title of " Great Queen," indicative of the high 
esteem of (thy) husband.' Jdtd, 'a child,' is used affectionately in 
addressing any young female. Mdhd-devi, 'chief queen ;' cf. p. 124, n. i. 

2 'May it be to thee an auspicious ablution!' i.e. may it bring thee 
good fortune ! May it be an omen of happiness to thee ! 

8 ' Taking up the propitiatory -vessels/ i. e. the vessels containing the 
flowers, unguents, &c., intended to propitiate Fortune in favour of 
SakuntalS. So read all the Deva-n. MSS., excepting one (Colebrooke's), 
which has patrdni. 

1 54 

^fr *nr fa^rfir n 







PiB T n i^focniro ^t^^ I c ^HWUlfir^ii ^TTTOH^WJ JWTV- 

1 d ^rw ^TR: i 

1 ' This (friendly service of yours) too ought to be highly valued (by 
me). The being attired by (you) my friends, will now be a rare 
occurrence. [So she sheds tears.]' Visrijati is the reading of my own 
Deva-n. MS. ; the others have wharati. 

2 '(Thy) person worthy of (the costliest) oraaments is slighted [or 
disfigured] by decorations easily procured ia a hermitage,' i. e. thy beauty, 
which deserves to be set off by golden ornaments, &c., is impaired by such 
decorations as sprouts of DurvS grass, &c., S'. Viprakaryate, K. has 
wkaryate, the Beng. vipraldbhyate and viprataryate. 



: HbMll 

1 ' Was it a mental creation V i. e. were these ornaments created by the 
power of his mind ? K. has srisTitih for siddhih. Cf. p. 79, n. i. 

2 ' Bring hither flowers for S'akuntalS from the trees of the forest.' 

3 ' By a certain tree a fine-linen-robe white-as-the-moon indicative-of- 
good-fortune was made to appear [produced]; by another, juice-of-lac, 
ready for the use of [the dyeing of] the feet was distilled [exuded] ; from 
others, ornaments were presented by the hands [palms] of wood-nymphs 
stretched out (so as to be visible) as far as the wrist, emulating the first 
sprouting of the young-shoots of those (trees).' Kshauma=.vaUcala- 
vastra-bheda, C. Kshaumam manrgalyain=:dukulam manrgalarham, S'. 
Mangalya may mean ' with words of good omen,' ' with blessings and 
prayers for good fortune (kalydna-vdkyaih}, such as, "May she be the 
beloved wife of her lord," ' &c., S'. Indu-pdndu=-candra^dhavala. Avish- 
kritam = ud-bTidvitam, K. ;=danaya prdkaiitam, S'. NishtTiyutah= 
udglrnah. Uaranopabhoga-sulabho, some Beng. MSS. have caranopardga- 
subhago ; the oldest have upabhoga. Here sulabha=Jcshama or yogya, 
'adapted' (cf. Kum5ra-s. v. 69). Laksha=alakta or aldktaka, 'lac,' '& 
red dye,' prepared from an insect, analogous to the cochineal insect. This 
minute red insect is found in great numbers in the Palasa, Indian fig tree, 
and some other trees. It punctures the bark, whence exudes a resinous 

Verse 85. SARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 
59. 40, 63, 79. 

X 2 

II ^TfW$!M$l$'r!fJ*T II 156 

II ^lepiTpSI sft^f ^.mifc! II 
J I 


^iTT H 

: i ^^-^all^^^^,'^i^^l^^ K 

milky juice, with which it surrounds itself in a kind of nest, and which when 
dry may be broken off, and used for various purposes. This hardened 
and reddened substance is variously called gum-lac, shell-lac, stick-lac, &c. 
A-parva, &c. = parva-bhaga-paryantam udgataih. Parva-bhdga=mani- 
bandha, 'the wrist,' K. A, 'as far as,' generally requires the abl. of a 
word not in composition ; thus, a-mani-bandhat panih, ' the hand as far 
as [from] the wrist.' Tat-kisalaya, &c., the Beng. and S". read nah, ' to 
us,' for tat, and Jciialaya-cchaya-parispardhibhih, 'rivalling the hue of 
young shoots.' According to Kavikantha-hara, quoted by S'., ornaments 
are divided into four kinds : i . Avedhya, as ear-rings, <fec. ; 2. Ban- 
dhanlya, as flowers, &c. ; 3. Kshepya or prakshepya, as anklets, foot- 
ornaments, &c. ; 4. Aropya, as necklaces, garlands, &c. 

1 ' By this favour, royal fortune is indicated as (ever) to be enjoyed by 
thee in the house of thy husband.' Abhyupapattya=vrikshanugrahena, 
' by the favour of the sylvan deities.' 

2 ' Returned [come up] from bathing.' Ut-tfl is ' to come out of the 
water,' 'to come to land.' Sojaldd uttlrya, Maha-bh. iii. 211. 

3 ' We [these persons] are unused to ornaments. By our acquaintance. 

157 ^"si: it 


with the art of painting we will make the arrangement of the ornaments 
on thy limbs.' Anubahutta for anupabhukta is the reading of my own 
MS. and the Mackenzie, supported by K. Citra-karma, &c., 'by our 
knowledge of painting/ i. e. we will decorate thee in the manner we have 
seen in paintings (citra-likhane yathabharana-prayogo drishto 'sti tenaiva 
prakdrena, S'.) 

1 ' " This very day will S'akuntala depart," at such (a thought), my 
heart is smitten with melancholy [grief for her loss] ; my voice [throat] is 
agitated by suppressing the flow of tears ; my sight is paralysed by 
anxious thought. So great indeed through affection (is) the mental- 
agitation even of me a hermit. How (much more) then, are householders 
afflicted by new pangs at separation from their daughters !' Iti, see p. 140, 
n. 2. Samsprishtam, Sec., one MS. (India Office, 1060) reads sprishtam 
samutkanthaya. Kanthah, &c., the Beng. have antar-vashpa-bharo- 
parodhi gaditam, 'my voice is obstructed by the weight (ddhikyena, &.) 
of suppressed tears.' Vdshpa, i. e. a$runah purvdvastha, ' the first stage 
or state of a tear,' ' the hot moisture that overspreads the eye, before the 
tear-drop is formed,' K. Dar&ana = nayana, 'eye-sight.' Jada = vishayd- 
grahaka, 'having no perception of external objects;' or =kartavyapari- 
cchedaka, but in this case darana=:jndna, S*. The effect of deep thought 

Verse 86. SARDULA-VIKBIDITA (a variety of ATLDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 
39- 4. 63- 79- 8 S- 

TTW I *!*l H ^ M *4 T Pcf if^tEfT ^^^IT *TfT"=ri*ili 
c TfTH I ^ I 

and abstraction of mind might be to paralyse for the moment the organs 
of vision. S'. quotes an aphorism of Bharata, Nidra-naa ca cintd ca 
bhrantti cotsuka-cetasdm. Nu is used praine, ' in asking a question,' S'. 
Aranyaukas=vdnaprastha or aranya-vdsin, 'one whose dwelling (okas) 
is in the woods,' 'a hermit/ see vanaukas. Gfrihin=grihastha, ' a house- 
holder,' ' the father of a family.' The Brahman was required to divide his 
life into four orders (arama). In the first he was a Brdhmacdrin, or 
' student of religion ;' in the second, a Grihastha, or ' householder ;' in the 
third, a Vanaprastha (Vaikhanasa), or 'anchorite;' in the fourth, a 
Bhikshu, or 'religious mendicant;' see Indian Wisdom, p. 245. 

1 ' Thy decoration [toilet] is completed. Now do thou put on the pair 
of linen vestments.' A Hindu woman's dress generally consisted of two 
pieces ; one covered the breast and shoulders, the other was a long robe 
enveloping the person. AvaMta-mandand=nishpanna-prasddhand. 

2 'Here close-at-hand-stands thy spiritual-father as if (already) 'em- 
bracing thee [about to embrace thee], with an eye overflowing with joy. 
Perform now the customary-salutation.' Ananda-parivdhina, the Beng. 
have ananda-vdshpa-parivahina, cf. p. 89, 1. 13. Acdra, 'good manners,' 
'the usual complimentary greeting.' Padibajjassa for pratipadyasva is 
the reading of my own MS. and the Mackenzie, cf. p. 135, 1. 4. The same 
expression occurs in Vikram., Act II. 


1 ' Daughter, be thou highly honoured of thy husband, as was S'ar- 
mishtha of Yayati. Do thou also obtain a son, a sovereign monarch, as 
she (obtained) Puru.' S'armishtha, according to K.. was the daughter of 
Vrisha-parvan, king of the Asuras or demons, and wife of Yayati, son 
of Nahusha, one of the princes of the Lunar race, and ancestor of Dush- 
yanta, see p. 15, n. i. The S&hitya-darpana (p. 190) cites this verse as 
an example of aiir-vada, ' benediction,' but reads (as also do the Beng.) 
patyur for bhartur, and putram for sutam. Samraj is a sovereign prince, 
who has performed a Rajasuya sacrifice, and exercises despotic sway over 

2 ' This is actually a boon (conferred), not a (mere) benediction.' San- 
tushta-devddlnam avafyam-bhavi vacanam varah, ails tu Jcadacit phala- 
ddyinl vaJc, 'a vara is the promise of a propitiated deity, &c., which 
must necessarily come to pass ; an dSis is a benediction which occasionally 
bears fruit [comes true]/ 6. and S'. 

3 ' My child, this way I do thou at once circumambulate the sacrificial 
fires/ see p. 148, n. i. Sadyo-hut&gnlm^tatkshana-krita-homagnlm, S'. 
The Taylor and my own MS. have sadyohutcm. Sadyo may, however, be 
separated from the next word, and translated 'at once/ 'immediately.' 
The rite of circumambulation is performed by slowly walking round any 
object, keeping the right side towards it. 

Verse 87. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, u, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53, 73, 
76, 84. 

II qrf>f$jH$l'$nMH N I! 1 6O 



1 ' [Pronounces a blessing in the metre of the Rid, i. e. according to the 
usual metre of the Rig-veda.] Let these fires, taken-from-the-sacred- 
hearth [vat'Zanos] whose places are fixed round the altar, fed with (con- 
secrated) wood, having Darhha [Kusa] grass strewed around the margin, 
destroying sin by the perfume of the oblations, purify thee.' Each stanza 
of the Suktas or hymns of the Rig-veda is called a ric. Asya vrittasya 
vedoktds'lrvdda-sadris'atvam agni-prayuktatvadi boddhavyam, 'it is to 
be understood that there is a similarity between the metre of this verse 
and that of the benedictions uttered in the Vedas addressed to fire,' &c., K. 
The verse itself does not occur in the Rig-veda, but the metre is Vedic. 
Doubtless Kalidasa intended it as an imitation of Vedic poetry. That it is 
addressed to Agni constitutes in itself a point of resemblance. Vaitdna, 
see Indian Wisdom, p. 197. Klripta-dhishnydh = racitddhishthdndh. 
Pranta-samstlrna-darbhdh, i. e. pa/riveshu catasrishu dikshu san-klrnd 
darbhd yeskam. At a sacrifice, the fires, severally termed Ahavanlya, 
MdrjaMya, Gdrhdpatya, and Agnldhrlya, were lighted at the four cardinal 
points, east, west, north, and south, and Kusa grass (see p. 19, n. i) was 
scattered round each fire. See Indian Wisdom, p. 205 ; see also Sayana's 
commentary on Rig-v. i. i, 4, and cf. Rig-v. i. 31, 13, 'thou, four-eyed 

Verse 88. TBISHTUP (^ATUSH-PADA, a form of Vedic metre, consisting of four times 
eleven syllables, the first and third Padas resembling the VATOBMI, and the second 
and fourth, the SALINI variety of TRISHTUBH. In the second, however, the first 
syllable is short. 

In Kig-veda i. 59, 5, the first Pada is exactly like the first in the above scheme, 
but the other Padas are arranged differently, as far at least as the seventh syllable. 
Kalidasa, accustomed to the strictness of the later Sanskrit metres, seems here to have 
endeavoured to imitate the Vedic rhythm, in which greater liberty was allowed. Thus 
he produced a verse too irregular to come under any of the later metres, but rather 
too regular for a Vedic hymn. 

161 ii '^fipfsf: ii 

II Hfa^ II 

Agni, blazest as the protector of the worshippers/ &c. Pdlayantu 
(=rakshantu) is the reading of all the Beng. MSS., supported by K., 
S^., and C., but all the Deva-n. MSS. have pdvayantu. 

1 S'. quotes a verse of Bharata, Deva ca, munayai caiva, lin-ginak, 
sddJianai ca [scidhakaS ca, U.] ye, bhagavann iti te vdcyah sarvaih stri- 
pun-napunsaJcaih, ' both gods and also Munis, Lin-gins and Sadhanas 
(1 sddhavas, " saints," see Vishnu-p. p. 300) are to be addressed as " Bha- 
gavan," by all women, men, and eunuchs.' 

2 Cf. Vikram., Act II, bhavdn pramada-vana-mdrgam ddeiayatu. 

5 ' Listen ! listen ! ye neighbouring trees of the penance-grove. She 
who never attempts to drink water first, when you have not drunk, and 
who, although fond of ornaments, never plucks a blossom, out of affection 
for you, whose greatest-holiday [highest-joy] is at the season of the first 
appearance of your bloom, even that same S'akuntala now departs to the 
house of her husband. Let her be affectionately-dismissed by (you) all.' 
Bhoh is a vocative particle, often joined with Sruyatdm, ' listen ! ' Vyava- 
syati, ' makes effort,' may also mean ' resolves upon,' ' makes up her mind ;' 
(with no), ' it never enters into her head.' A-piteshu, the Beng. have a-sik- 
teshu, i. e. ' as long as you remain unwatered.' The Deva-n. reading is 
supported by K., who includes pita among the passive participles, like 

Verse 89. &ARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 
39. 5, 63, 79, 85, 86. 


II '9fH4M$l$i1c4^U 162 

II Wt-&T3 fwT II 

: \ 

gata, sthita, drudha, &c. (Pan. iii. 4, 72), which may have an active signifi- 
cation. Vismrita may be included in the same list, see p. 28, 1. 3. Priya, 
in the sense 'fond of/ may stand at the beginning of a compound, cf. 
<iAoo-o<i'a, <f)i\6gei>os (priydtithi), &c. ; sometimes at the end, e. g. jala- 
priya, ' fond of water.' 

1 ' Acting as if he heard the note of a cuckoo,' lit. ' shewing the note of 
a cuckoo.' Compare nimittam sucayitvd, Vikram., Act H. 

2 ' This S'akuntala is permitted to depart by the trees, the foresters'- 
kinsfolk ; since a song to this effect, warbled by the cuckoo, was employed 
as an answer by them.' Vana-vdsa-bandhubhih=aranya-va$a-snigdhaih y 
1 beloved by foresters.' It may be translated ' her sylvan relatives.' Para- 
bhrita (=pika), lit. ' nourished by a stranger/ The Indian Koi'l or cuckoo 
is supposed to leave her eggs in the nest of the crow to be hatched, but has 
little resemblance to the bird known as the cuckoo in Europe. One of its 
names is vasanta-duta, ' messenger of spring/ Its song is said to be sweet 
(madhura, Eitu-s.), but cannot be compared to that of the nightingale. 
'The beauty of cuckoos is their song,' Hitop. 1. 839. 'On a journey 
(yatrdyam) the note of a cuckoo is indicative of good-fortune (6ubha- 
sutakaK). The answer of the trees was effected by the song of the cuckoo 
(pika-ravenaiva sampannam). Next the answer of the sylvan deities is 
given (by a voice in the air)/ S'. Kola as an adj. means ' soft/ ' sweet/ 
and parabhrita-virutam kalam may be 'the sweet notes of the cuckoo' 
(cf. Raghu-v. viii. 58). 

Verse 90. APARA-VAKTRA, containing eleven syllables to the first Pada or quarter- 
verse, and twelve to the second, each half-verse being alike. 

1 63 ii ^npffsi: ii 

TF*TT: ii e^ ii 

1 ' May her path be pleasantly-diversified [pleasant at intervals] by lakes 
(that are) verdant with-lotus-beds, (may it have) the heat of the sun's 
rays moderated by shady trees, (may) its dust be soft with the [as the] 
pollen from the lotuses, and (may it be cheered by) gentle favourable 
breezes and (be altogether) prosperous.' Ramyantarah=manohara- 
madhyah, S'. ; = manojna-madhyah, Cf., ( having its middle space de- 
lightful,' 'pleasant throughout the intervening distance/ an epithet of 
pantJidh. CJiaya-drumaih chdyd-pradhdnair-vrikshaih, ' trees chiefly 
abounding in shade,' 1&.; = chaya-lakshita-drumaih, 'trees characterized 
by shade,' CX It is a compound similar to iaka-parthwa and dbhijhana- 
SaTcuntala, see p. 4, n. 2. 'That is called a chaya-taru, 'shade-tree,' 
whose under-part (talam) excessively cool shade (atyanta-iltala-^Tidydk) 
does not quit either in the forenoon or afternoon,' S'. and Cf. Niyamita = 
apanlta. Kuie-kaya, lit. 'lying in water ;'ata-paUra, 'a lotus.' Santa 
=6dnta-vega, manda, K. ;=pdtaccarddi-6unya, ' free from robbers,' &c., S'. 
and C. The compound may therefore be translated ' free from molestation 
and having favourable breezes.' Sfcvai ca bhuyat panthdh, this seems to 
have been a phrase commonly used as a parting benediction, like 'A pleasant 
journey to you !' Cf. panthdnas te santu iivdh, Hitop. 1. 1442, Sshit.-d. 
p. 344, Mudra-r. p. 30, 1. 17, and p. 179, 1. 4 of this play. 

2 ' Dear to thee as (thy own) kinsfolk.' Cf. vana-vasa-bandhubhih in 
verse 90. My own Bombay MS. has nnddi (supported by the Calcutta 
edition), the others all nddi for jndti. There is no doubt about the 
doubling of the n when not initial, as Vararuci, iii. 44, gives vinndna for 

s Bhaavadlnam, a Prakrit gen. for Sanskrit dat., see p. 129, n. i. 

Verse 91. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 
46, 64, 74, 80, 82, 83. 

Y 2 


<*<=!<$ i ^TT: 

II <i^ II 

1 My own MS., supported by K., has duhkhena, the others duhkha- 

2 ' One may observe the same (troubled) condition [the same condition 
is observed] of the penance-grove, as the (time of) separation from thee 
approaches/ Samavastha=samavastha, as in Raghu-v. viii. 41. The 
Taylor MS. reads samdvatthd. 

3 ' The deer let fall the mouthfuls of Darbha-grass, the peacocks cease 
(their) dancing, the creepers, as they cast [in casting] their pale leaves, 
appear to shed tears [as it were shed tears].' Udgalita, from ud-gal, lit. 
'to trickle out,' 'drop from.' The Beng. MSS. read -ugginna (=udglrnd), 
1 ejected from the throat or mouth.' Mrigah, all the Deva-n. read milo for 
mrigyah, and in the next line assuni for atruni, apparently in violation 
of the metre. Dr. Boehtlingk has suggested mid and ansu, the latter 
is a legitimate ace. pi. from ansu, the masc. Prakrit equivalent of the 
neuter aim; see Vararuci iv. 15. Parityakta-nartand, the dancing of 

Verse 92, AEYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

1 65 'I 

^rsjjnf ?5T n ^c^rr n 
a I 


the Indian peacock, especially at the approach of rain, in which it is 
said to take especial delight, is frequently alluded to in Hindu poetry. 
Cf. Megha-d. 46, 78; Ritu-s. ii. 6; Bhartri-h. i. 43. Osaria for apasrita, 
see Lassen's Instit. Prak. p. 363. Raghu-v. xiv. 69 contains a sentiment 
precisely parallel to the above, Nrityam mayurdh, kusumani vriksha, 
darbhdn updttdn vijahur harinyah, &c. 

1 ' Father, I will just bid farewell to (my) tendril-sister, the Light of 
the Grove/ i. e. the Nava-malika, or young jasmine-creeper, mentioned at 
p. 28, 1. 3. 

2 ' I know thy sisterly affection for it. Here it is now to the right.' 
Sodarya, ' of whole blood/ ' born from the same womb ' (udara) ; compare 
p. 22, 1. 9. 

3 ' O Light of the Grove, though united with the mango-tree, embrace 
me with (thy) arms-of-branches turned in this direction/ Cuta-san-gatd, 
see p. 28, n. i. Ito-gatdbhih, &c., is the reading of all the Deva-n. MSS. 
(supported by K.) excepting one, which has idogadehim sdhd-bdhuhim for 
ito-gataih 6dkhd-bdhubhih. The feminine noun bdhd is more appropriately 
joined with idklid, but bdhu is admissible, compare p. 26, 1. 2. The Beng. 
have iakhamayair bdhubhih, ' with arms consisting of branches.' 

1 66 

n w^n irftT n 

: n 

1 ' Thou by (thy) merits hast obtained [hast gone to] a husband suited- 
to-thyself, just as originally determined upon by me on thy account : this 
young Malika (creeper) has united itself with the mango-tree ; now (there- 
fore) I am free from solicitude about it and about thee.' San-kalpitam, &c., 
see p. 49, 1. 5; and p. 135, 1. 10 with note 2. Tavdrthetava krite, K. 
Atma-sadriiam = tvat-samam, K. ; rupa-kulddina sva-sadri&am, ' re- 
sembling thyself in beauty, family,' &c., S'. ; see p. 31, n. i. Gatd = 
prdptd, K. ; see p. 161, n. 3 at the end. Sam6ritavati-=san-gatavatl, K. 
My own MS. has sanskritavatl, and the Colebrooke sammitavatl. Vlta- 
cinta = tyakta-varanusandhdna, ' ceased from searching after a hus- 
band,' ST. 

2 'Set out on thy journey hence.' Pratipadyasva, see p. 135, n. i. 

3 ' This (creeper) is (entrusted) as a pledge into the hand of you two.' 
Nikshepa = sthdpya, S'. Tathd sihdpyo rakshyate tatheyam. 

* 'Into whose hands are we committed (by thee)?' Ayam janah, i.e. 
asmad-rupah, >). and (T. 

6 Vi-hri seems here used in the sense of ' to wipe away.' 

6 ' Enough of weeping ! Surely S'akuntala should be cheered [rendered 

Verse 93. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91. 

167 ^ipffsf;: it 


ffi^l cT^T 


a TT7T i ^T^rfTi^Tfr^TftTtft JWT^KT JJJR^^THMU'HMT HT!TT i IT^T 

firm, supported] by you indeed V i.e. you are the very persons who should 
rather support and comfort your friend. Alam ruditva, see p. 48, n. 3. 
Sthirl-kartavya=.tapovana-viraha-kheda-rahitd vidheya, S'. 

1 'When this doe [female deer] grazing in the neighbourhood of the 
hut, slow by (the weight of) her young, has happily brought forth ; then 
you will send some one to announce [as an announcer of] the agreeable 
news to me.' Anag7ia-prasavd=vyasana-rahita-prasutih, 'bringing forth 
without any mishap/ K. Priya, i. e. priya-vdrtd, S*. 

2 ' That same fawn, thy adopted child, tenderly reared with handfuls 
of S'yamaka-grains, on whose mouth, when pricked by the sharp-points of 
the Kusa-grass, sore-healing oil of In-gudi-plants was sprinkled by thee, 

Verse 94. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of ^AKVABI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93. 

1 68 

I ^fi vfenn 

I f3i 5^ y I rfcWTf TTf *ilH^^<r^T I 
1J^ I T'fNf'T 'TOT f^Tf^W F3T 

will not forsake thy footsteps [path].' Vrana-viropana^=.ks1iata-praro- 
Jiaka, S'., lit. ' that which causes a scar to cicatrize.' See ropana in Diet. 
Ingudlnam, see p. 18, n. i. Ku^a-suci, see p. 57, n. 5. Parivardhitaka = 
anukampaya vardhitah, 'compassionately reared,' K.; = attiayenaposhitah, 
'excessively nourished,' S'. and C. The suffix lea sometimes gives the 
sense of compassionating (anuka/mpdydm). So putrakah=anukampitah 
putrah according to Pan. v. 3, 76. The preposition pari may give the 
sense of atUayena noticed by the other commentators. S'yamaka-=vmhi- 
viSesha, ' a kind of rice,' S'. It is rather the grain of a kind of Panic 
grass, eaten by the Hindus. Mushti, ' a handful,' is the first measure of 
capacity, equivalent to ^th of a kunji, T Vth of a kudava, -j^th of a prastha. 
Putra-kritaka=kritrima-putra, 'a factitious or adopted son/ S'. and (T. 
K. explains this compound by referring to Pan. ii. i, 59, so that putra- 
krita, 'made into a son' (i. e. a-putra, ' not really a son'), is like ireni-krita, 
' made into a line,' and puga-krita, ' made into a heap.' 

1 ' "Why dost thou follow me, an abandoner of (my) companions 1 Thou 
indeed wast reared (by me) without (thy) mother [when deprived of thy 
mother] shortly after she had brought thee forth.' Saha-vdsa, lit. 'one 
who lives with another.' The Beng. have acira-prasutoparatayd =pra- 
savavyavahita-kdla-mritaya, ' that died directly after bringing thee 

1 69 

1 ' By-a-vigorous-effort [by firmness] make the tears cease to hang [cling] 
in (thy) upturned-eyelashed eyes, obstructing (their) free-action [impeding 
our business]. In this path in which the undulations of ground [the 
depressed and elevated portions of ground] are not discernible, thy foot- 
steps must certainly be uneven.' Utpakshmanoh, see p. 131, n. i in the 
middle. Uparuddha-vrittim = pratiruddha-vydpdram, ' impeding the 
functions or proper action of the organs of vision,' C. Uparuddha, 
untaritd vrittir vydpdro yena, K. In p. 157, 1. 6, vritti is applied to the 
course of a tear ; but if so translated here, the other epithet, viratdnu- 
bandham, would be superfluous. It is not necessary, however, to connect 
it with nayanayoh, as the passage might be rendered ' make the tears 
that impede our business cease to cling in (thy) upturned-eyelashed-eyes.' 
Vdshpa is 'the hot moisture that precedes the formation of tears,' see 
p. 157, n. i. It is used in the singular. Cf. muiicato vdshpam ushnam, 
Megha-d. 12. Viratanubandlut, my own MS. has vihatdnubandha ; anu- 
bandha, lit. ' binding after,' ' following after ; ' hence ' cleaving,' ' adhering.' 
The Beng. MSS. have 6ithildnubandham=santdrambham (sic?), S'. Visha- 
mi-bhavanti=skhalitdni syuh, 'are liable to trip or stumble,' S'. and CX 
Cf. p. 139, 1. 3. 

2 '"A friend is [or friends are] to be escorted as far as the water's 
brink" such is the sacred precept. This, then, is the margin of a lake. 
Here having given (us) directions, be pleased to return.' Odakdntdt, i. e. 
a + udakdntdt = d jaldntdt (see p. 155, n. 3 near the end). Odakdntdd is 
found in all the Deva-n. MSS. ; my own has odakdntam. Snigdho janah 
may be either 'a friend' or ' friends,' cf. sakhl-jana, p. 1 28, 1. 2, with note I. 
Sruyate, lit. ' it is heard,' i. e. it is enjoined in iruti, ' scripture,' ' holy 

Verse 95. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVAR!). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94. 


I 7O 


n si inrr n 

I i foil 431 n Pin 

1 Kshlra-vriksha, lit. ' milk-tree,' a kind of fig tree, not the Vata or 
Banyan tree (Ficus Indica), nor the Pippala (Ficus Religiosa), but the 
glomerous fig tree (Ficus Glomerata), which yields a resinous milky juice 
from its bark (see p. 1 55, n. 3 in the middle) and is large enough to afford 
abundant shade. 

2 ' What message is to be sent by us (that will be) most appropriate for 
his majesty DushyantaT Yukta-rupa, cf. p. 89, n. i ; and p. 15, 1. 3. 

3 ' Friend, see ! the poor female-C'akravaka, not perceiving her dear 
mate hidden by the lotus-leaves, calls to (him) thus, " Hard (is the lot) I 
suffer;"' see p. 128, n. 3, and cf. in Vikram., Act IV, Sarasi nalinl- 
pattrenapi tvam avrita-vigraham nanu sahacanm dure mated, viraushi 
samutsukah, ' thou indeed (i. e. the male Cakravaka) art sorrowfully crying 
to thy mate thinking her to be far away, although her body is only concealed 
from thee by a lotus-leaf in the lake.' A few lines before this passage, the 
cry is compared to the sound ka Tta. Possibly this may account for the 
somewhat peculiar phrase dukJcaram karemi, here employed as the cry of 
the bird. K. has dushkaram khalu aham tarkayami. It is true that kri 
sometimes has the sense of tark, 'think,' 'imagine' (cf. p. 42, n. i), but 
dushkaram kri is not more harsh than &okam kri, 'to make or suffer 
sorrow.' S^. has dushkaram ayam cakravdkah karoti. Instead of pia 

. i 

three of the MSS. have bi for opi. ' This verse indicates that S'akuntalS 
foresees she is about to experience similar sorrow, in having to endure 
separation from Dushyanta in consequence of the curse' (iapa-tirohita- 
Dushyantam a-lapsyamana), K. 

1 ' Speak not so. Even she [the female CTakravaka], without her 
beloved, passes away the night made too long by sorrow. Expectation (of 
meeting again) makes the pain of separation, however severe, supportable.' 
Gamayati, lit. ' causes to go/ i. e. brings to an end. The Prakrit visda 
= vishdda, 'melancholy.' S'. explains the phrase by visurand-dlrgham, 
Jcheda-dlrgTidm, duhkha-dustardm. Ad-bandha, ' hope,' i. e. prdtar mam, 
san-gamayishyati, ' in the morning he will be united to me.' S*. makes 
this verse an example of the Asvasa Alan-kfira. K. refers to a parallel 
passage in the Megha-d. 10, A6d-bandhah kusuma-sadriiah [sic] prdyaio 
Jiy an-gandnam sadyah-pdti pranayi hridayam viprayoge runaddhi. 

2 ' Having placed in front,' i. e. ' having introduced,' ' having pre- 

Verse 96. AETA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

-- \ ww [v-'w ||^ w|ww |w w| *^v^| 

Z 2 


1 ' Having well considered us as rich in devotion, and the exalted family 
of thyself, and that (free) flow of affection of this (maiden) towards thee 
[or the spontaneous flow of affection springing up in you for her] not in 
any manner brought about by relatives ; she is to be regarded by thee, as 
(one) amongst (thy) wives, after raising her to an equality of rank [or 
with equal respect]. Beyond this is dependent on destiny, nor indeed 
ought that to be called in question by a wife's relations.' Samyama- 
dhandn, ' this implies that they were worthy of respect,' K. Uccaih- 
kulam, &c., 'this implies that he would act with justice,' K. ; see p. 15, 
n. r. Kathamapi=dur-graTiena, S'. and (X Cf. p. 131, 1. 6. A-bdndhava- 
kritdm, see p. 127, n. 3. Sneha-pravrittim=prema-ceshtdm, (X Sdma- 
nya-pratipatti-purvakam=sddJidrana-gaurava-purahsaram, ' preceded by 
equal respect;' yadrUena gauravena apard vadhur dlokyate tadriSena 
iyam, &c., S'. Pratipatti is either ' the act of preferring to rank/ or ' the 
respect paid to rank.' Purva or purvaka at the end of a compound often 
simply denotes the manner in which anything is done, trans! ateable by 
'with' or 'after' (cf. sa bhavantam andmaya-praina-purvakam idam aha, 
p. 198, 1. 2; also p. 1 1 6, n. 2). Ddreshu, S". explains thus, ddra-abdah 
pum-lin-gah kalatra-vdcako nitya-bdhuvacandntah, ' the word ddra, mean- 
ing a wife, is of the masculine gender, and always has a plural termination.' 
Ddrdh therefore may be either wives or wife. Atah-param, <fec., ' here he 
tells the reason why he does not demand higher rank or greater honour 
for S'akuntala/ S'. In the first line, my own MS. reads asmdn sddhu 
samlkshya samyama-pardn. All marriages in the East are arranged 
by the relatives of the parties. 

Verse 97. &ARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 39, 
4> 63, 79. 8 5 86, 89. 


*n w uriN 

1 ' We (are) acquainted with worldly affairs/ ' we know the ways of the 
world' (=loka-vyavahdra-jndh, SC.) 

2 ' There is no subject out of the reach [agocarah, S'.] of the intelligent,' 
i. e. wise men are conversant with all subjects. 

3 ' Pay respectful attention to (thy) superiors. Act the part of a dear 
friend towards (thy) fellow-wives [rival wives]. Even though wronged 
[treated harshly] by thy husband, do not out of anger shew [go to] a 
refractory-spirit. Be ever courteous towards (thy) attendants ; not puffed 
up [arrogant] in prosperity in this manner young-women attain the 
station [title] of housewife [matron]. Those of an opposite character are 
house-banes [banes of the family].' The Sahit.-d. p. 185 adduces this as 
an example of the figure Upadishta, which is defined as manohdri vdkyam, 
idstrdnusdratah. S'. quotes the following aphorism, Parisan-grihya id- 
strdrtham yad vdkyam dbhidhlyate vidvan manoharam jneyam upa- 
dishfam tad eva tu. Gurun = sva$urddm, 'father-in-law,' &c., Cf. A Guru 
is not only a father or a father-in-law, but also a preceptor, and in fact 
any male relation entitled to gaurava, ' respect.' Surushas i va=a/rddhaya. 
Vrittim, some of the Beng. and the Sahit.-d., supported by S'., read vrittam 

Verse 98. SARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 
39. 4. 6 3 79. 8 5. 86, 89, 97. 

J 74 
if if *ft i 



TTTT I <jnrf W*I^IH.M I " rTRT 

= caritram, 'action/ 'deed,' 'behaviour,' 'demeanour.' Viprakrita-= 
jnditd, Cf.;=krita-vipriyd, 'offended/ S". Pratipam=pratikulyam. ETm- 
yishtham=atiiayena. Dakshina=sa-sneha. Bhagyeshu, the Beng. and 
S^. have bhogeshu=sukheshu, ' in enjoyments/ 'in pleasures/ in which case 
anutsekinl will mean ' not given to excess/ The latter word is literally 
' spouting up' like a fountain. Compare anutseJco lakshmyam, Bhartri-h. 
ii. 54. Padam=abdam, 'a title/ S'. ;=vyavasa,yam or pratishtham, G. 
Vamdh = tad-viparita-karinya7i, S^. ; = tad-viruddhdh, (7. 

1 ' Lay to heart/ ' treasure up in thy heart/ ' ponder well/ 

2 'Priyamvada and my other dear friends;' cf. fcarn-garava-miirah, 
p. 151, 1. 7, with note. My own MS. and two others insert kim. 

3 'Are to be given away in marriage.' Cf. p. 48, 1. 10, with note 
thereon. Ime api; the dual terminations I, u, e do not coalesce with 
following vowels, see Gram. 38 ; Pan. i. i, n. 

1 75 


1 ' How now, removed from my foster-father's side, like a tendril of the 
sandal-tree uprooted from the slopes of Malaya, shall I support life in a 
strange place V The Candana or sandal tree (a-dvraXov), Sirium Myrti- 
folium, is ' a large kind of myrtle with pointed leaves/ the wood of which 
affords many highly esteemed perfumes, unguents, &c., and is celebrated 
for its delicious scent. It is found chiefly on the slopes \tata, upatyaka, 
Raghu-v. iv. 46, 48] of the Malaya mountains, which are thence called 
candanacala, the tree being sometimes called Malaya-ja, ' Malaya-born.' 
Frequent allusion is made to this tree being infested by snakes (see 
Raghu-v. iv. 48; Hitop. 1. 1582). Tara, of which the Sanskrit equivalent 
is probably tata, is the reading of all the Deva-n. MSS. It is synonymous 
with utsan-ga, 'the slope of a hill,' so that Malayasya utsamigat exactly 
answers to tatasya-an-kat [anka^utsanga, Amara-k. iv. i, 4], D and r 
are certainly interchangeable in Sanskrit and Prakrit, and the substitution 
of d for t is usual. L, however, is the more common substitute, and it 
might be supposed that Malaya-tara was for Malay a-tala=. Malayasya 
upatyaka, Raghu-v. iv. 46. 

2 ' Stationed in the honourable post of wife to a nobly-born husband ; 
(and) incessantly [every moment] distracted with his affairs important 
from his dignity ; having very shortly given birth to a pure son, like as 
the Eastern-quarter (gives birth to) the Sun, thou wilt not take account, 
daughter, of the sorrow produced by separation from me.' Abhijana- 

Verse 99. HARIXI (a variety of ATYASHTI). See verse 66. 

II I 76 

: i 


I <f ^R q TOT 

ii inn ep^r u 


% ^ 

: flfarTT 


vato=kutinasya, see p. 15, n. i. Akulavyagra, 'perplexed,' 'intently 
occupied,' S'. ; = sasamhhramd, ' bewildered,' K . Acirat = gamanavyavahita - 
samaye, 'immediately on thy arrival.' Pmti iva, &c.-=yatM purva-dik 
pavitra-janakam suryam, S'. 

1 AtmcmamadheyanJcita, see p. 53, notes 2 and 3, and p. 140, 1. 9, with 
note 2. 

2 'Excessive affection is apt to suspect evil.' Ati-snehaJi, so reads the 
Taylor MS. as well as my own, supported by K. S'. observes, tathd coktam 
kirdte, prema paSyati bhaydni apade 'pi, ' and so it is said in the Kira- 
tarjunlya, " Affection sees causes of alarm [or dangers], even without foun- 
dation." ' (See KirSt. ix. 70.) 

3 ' The sun has ascended to another division (of the sky).' The 
Mackenzie MS. has yugantam adhirudhah; the Calcutta edition, durani 
adhinidhah; Chdzy, gaganantaram adhirudhah. According to (X, yuga 

a __._ I 

a mm 

is by some considered equivalent to prahara, ' a division of the day, com- 
prising one-eighth of the sun's diurnal revolution, or three hours;' by 
others, to hasta-catushtaya, ' a space of four cubits.' Dr. Boehtlingk 
translates, 'The sun has already entered the afternoon-quarter of the 

1 ' Having become for a long time the fellow-wife of the Earth bounded by 
the four cardinal-points, having settled-in-marriage thy matchless-warrior 
son Daushyanti, in-company-with thy husband (Dushyanta), who shall have 
(first) transferred the cares of government [the burthen of family-cares] 
to him, thou shalt again set foot in this tranquil hermitage/ Catur-anta- 
mahl seems to be equivalent to catur-dig-anta-mahl, i. e. ' the earth as far 
as the four quarters,' ' the entire earth.' The Beng. have a parallel phrase 
sa-dig-anta-mahi. K. explains it by catvdrah antah yasyah sd. Cf. p. 124, 
1. 4. Daushyanti is a regular patronymic, from Dushyanta, as Dakshi, 
' a descendant of Daksha,' from Daksha ; Aindri from Indra, &c. (see 
Gram.Si.X). A-pratiratham=asat-paripanthinam, ( having no antagonist,' 
=a-jpratirathikam, K.; ratha being put for rathika or rathin, 'a warrior 
who fights from a chariot.' Nive^ya = vivdhya, 'having caused to marry,' 
K. ; nivU has this sense in Mah5-bh. i. 7138. Tad refers to Daushyanti. 
Arpita, &c., cf. aham api sunau vinyasya rdjyam, Vikram., Act V; also 

Verse 100. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94, 95. 

A a 


a i 

I rTT 

a i ML^H 'iHHMcii i 

I fHHrtdl H^T I 

Manu vi. 2, 3, ' When the father of a family perceives his own wrinkles 
and grey hair, committing the care of his wife to his sons, or 
accompanied by her, let him repair to the woods,' i. e. let him enter 
upon the third quarter of his life, that of a hermit (see p. 157, n. I 
at the end). ante, cf. p. 20, 1. 12. Karishyasi padam, cf. p. 145, 
n. 2 at the end. 

1 ' Allow the father to return ; or rather, (since) even for a long time 
she will go on talking again and again in this manner, let your reverence 
return,' i. e. return at once yourself, without asking her permission. To 
depart without asking leave, is contrary to all Hindu ideas of politeness. 
Athava, see p. 30, n. 3. 

2 'The prosecution of (my) devotions is interrupted (by this de- 
tention).' Compare in Vikram., Act V, uparudhyate me a6rama-vasa~ 

3 ' Therefore do not beyond measure sorrow on my account.' Ukkantha 
for Sanskrit utJcantha or utkanthasva is the reading of my own MS. 
Ma ukkanthidum seems questionable. K. has Bhuyo 'pi tapa- 
carana-plditam tatasya iarlram atimatram mama krite uikanthitam 

1 79 ii 'Sjprf *$: ii 

; ?ffaTTcfr* 


1 ' How, my child, will the grief of me, looking at the oblation of rice- 
graiiis formerly offered by thee, germinating at the door of the cottage, 
ever be assuaged [ever go to assuagement] V Carita, so reads the Cole- 
brooke MS. ; the others have racita-purvam-=purd-mhitam, S'. Carita is 
supported by caru, ' an oblation of rice.' The bolt, or griha-bali, is a 
particular kind of offering, identical with the bhuta-yajna, i. e. a sacrifice 
for all creatures, but especially in honour of those demigods and spiritual 
beings called griha-devatah, ' household deities,' which are supposed to 
hover round and protect households (Manu iii. 80), or to whom some par- 
ticular part of the house is sacred. This offering was made by throwing 
up into the air (Manu iii. 90), in some part of the house, generally at the 
door (Manu iii. 88), the remains of the morning and evening meal of rice 
or grain ; uttering at the same time a mantra or prayer to some of the 
inferior deities, according to the place in which it was made (Manu iii. 87, 
&c.), whether to Indra with his followers the Maruts, or to Kuvera with 
his followers the Guhyakas, Kinnaras, Yakshas, &c., or to the spirits of 
trees, waters, &c. (Manu iii. 88, 89). According to Colebrooke it might 
be presented with the following Pauranik prayer, ' May gods, men, cattle, 
birds, demigods, benevolent genii, serpents, demons, departed spirits, 
blood-thirsty savages, trees, and all who desire food given by me may 
reptiles, insects, flies, and all hungry beings or spirits concerned in this 
rite, obtain contentment from this food left them by me !' It was some- 
times offered by the women of the house, who might assist in any sacrifice, 
provided they abstained from repeating the Mantras (Manu iii. 121), and 
as the offering was intended for all creatures, even the animals were 
supposed to have their share in it (Manu iii. 92). In point of fact the 
crows, dogs, insects, &c. in the neighbourhood of the house were the real 
consumers of it (whence bali-pushta, bali-bhuj, griha-bali-bhuj, as names 

Verse 101. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

A a 3 

1 80 


of a crow, crane, sparrow, &c., compare Hitop. 1. 1076), and such of the 
grains as escaped being devoured by them would be likely to germinate 
about the threshold. This ball formed one of the five great religious rites, 
sometimes called sacraments, which the householder who maintained a 
perpetual fire (see p. 148, n. i) had daily to perform (Manu iii. 67, iv. 21). 
See Indian Wisdom, pp. 203, 251. It was in honour of all creatures of 
every description, but particularly of those not provided for by the other 
four sacrifices. It might have reference, however, to the deities and beings 
honoured in the other sacraments. That it had especial reference to the 
Griha-devatah is indicated in Manu iii. 117, with commentary; and in the 
Mricchakatika, where Carudatta, after fulfilling the Deva-karya, or second 
of the five rites (cf. p. 140, 1. 17), is described as offering the bali to the 
household gods around the threshold. His speech, as he offers it, corre- 
sponds remarkably with that of Kasyapa, Ydsam balih sapadi mad- 
griha-dehallnam, hansaii ca samsa-ganaii ca vilu/pta-purvah, tdsv eva sam- 
prati vii-udha-trinan-kurasu, vljdnjalih patati kita-mukhdvalidhah. See 
Mricch., Act I, verse i. For iivas te panthdnah santu, in the next line, 
see p. 163, n. i at the end. 

1 So read all the Deva-n. for antarihidd, cf. p. 140, 1. 6. 

2 ' The course of affection views it thus.' The Beng. MSS. have sneha- 
vrittir, and one (I. 0. 1050) evam Sansirii for evam dariinl. Yasmin 
vishaye sneho bhavati tad-asdnnidhydd etddriSa eva kramo bJiavati, S'. 

3 Hanta, here an exclamation of joy (harshe, S'.) 



1 ' My natural serenity of mind/ ' my natural good spirits.' A load of 
anxiety is taken off my mind. 

2 ' Verily a girl is another's property. Having to-day sent her to her 
husband, this my conscience has become quite clear, as if (after) restoring a 
deposit.' Kanyd-rupo 'rthah, &c., ' the property consisting of a girl belongs 
to another,' S'. and C. Parigrdhltuh=parinetuh. Hence parigraha, 'a 
wife,' see p. 124, 1. 3. The ceremonies of marriage are described by Cole- 
brooke in the Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. pp. 288-31 1, thus : The bride- 
groom goes in procession to the house of the bride's father. The bride is 
given to him by her father, and their hands, on which turmeric has been 
previously rubbed, are bound together with Kusa grass. The bridegroom 
next makes oblations to the sacred household fire, and the bridegroom 
drops rice into it. The bridegroom solemnly takes her hand in marriage 
(whence he is called pani-grahltri, and marriage pdni-grahana), and leads 
her round the sacred fire (whence he is called parinetri). The bride steps 
seven times, and the marriage is then irrevocable. VUadahprasannak, 
'serene,' 'tranquil,' K. ; = susthah, S'. Cf. manasah prasddah,^Vik.rsuifi., 
Act V. Prakdmar)i=atyartham,, see p. 108, n. 3. The Beng. reading is 
jdto 'smi samyag vUaddntardtmd, cirasya nikshepam ivarpayltva. 

Verse 102. INDEA-VAJRA (a variety of TRISHTUBH), containing eleven syllables to 
the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 


: ll 




1 In the Beng. MSS. the speech of the Chamberlain at p. 186 com- 
mences the Act. 

2 'Turn (thy) attention to the interior of the music-hall. In a soft 
and clear song harmonious sounds are heard [the union of notes is heard].' 
livardndm yatra nrityddikam bhavati sa san-gita-sald, ' a music-saloon is 
a place where dancing &c. is performed before princes,' S'. Avadhdnam, 
K. has avadhdranam. Gltydm=dhruvdydm, K. Prakrit gidie may 
stand for instr., gen., or loc. cases. Svara-samyoga, K. has svara-yoga. 
Both expressions occur in Mricch. (p. 33, 1. 2 ; p. 94, 1. i; p. 222, 1. 5; 
p. 339, 1. 9), and in the Malavik. (p. 67, 1. 6, with note). 

3 ' Is practising singing,' lit. ' is making acquaintance with the Varnas.' 
Paricaya=abJiydsa, C?. Varna, ' the order or arrangement of a song.' 
It may also mean ' a musical mode.' These modes are numerous, per- 
sonified either as male (R&ga) or female (Raginl). According to S'. and 
CX, the Varnas intended here are of four kinds, the first two corresponding 
with the division of the Bhavas, or 'affections.' Gltishu catvdra varnd 
bhavanti yad aha BJiaratali, Sthdyl tathaiva Sancdri tathd RoTidva- 
rohinau. Varndi catvdra evaite kathitdh sarva-gltishu. 

1 83 


tnn i 

1 ' Bee, how (can it be) that thou, eagerly-longing for fresh honey, 
after having so kissed the mango-blossom, shouldst (now) be forgetful of 
it, being altogether satisfied with (thy) dwelling in the lotus !' Cuta- 
manjarl=dmra-kalikd, S'. Cf. inVikram., Act II, Ishad-baddha-rajah- 
kandgra-kapUd 6ute navd manjarl. Kamala-vasati=kamaldvasthiti, CX 
The fondness of the bee (which in Sanskrit is masculine) for the lotus is 
so great that he will remain for a long time in the interior of the flower. 
Cf. na pan-kajam tad yad alma-shatjyadam, ' that is not a lotus which has 
no bee clinging to it,' Bhatti-k. ii. 19; also guiijad-dvirepho 'yam ambuja- 
sthah, 'the murmuring bee remaining in the lotus,' Ritu-s. vi. 15; and 
idam runaddhi mdmpadmam antah-kvanita-shafpadam^ikram., Act IV. 
Madhu-kara, see p. 33, n. i. Vismrita, see p. 161, n. 3. In Prakrit, two 
forms mar and sumar are used for smri; the first becomes mhar after a 
preposition (as in vimhao for vismayah, Vararuci iii. 32); but vimarido 
would be equally correct according to Vararuci iii. 56. K. observes that, 
under the figure of a bee, Hansapadika covertly reproves the king for 
having forgotten her. S'. and C". call this verse a Pracchddaka, and the 
following from Kavi-kanthahara is quoted, anydsaktam patim matvd 
prema-vicc/ieda-manyund mnd-purahsaram gdnam striydh pracchddako 

2 ' Oh, what an impassioned strain !' lit. a song overflowing with affec- 
tion or passion. Raga-parivdhinianurdga-nishyandinl, S'. ;=&awa- 
sampurnd, K. Cf. p. 89, n. 3. 

Verse 103. APARA-VAKTRA. See verse 90. 


: I 




^ 1 ' The meaning of the words,' lit. ' of the letters or syllables.' 

2 ' This person [j^er'I] once made love (to her) ; therefore I am incurring 
her severe censure on account of the queen Vasumatl.' Krita-pranayah =. 
krita-prem<L Ay am janah, i. e. mad-rupah, ' consisting of me,' S'. Cf. 
p, 144, n. 2. Vasumatl is a name for the earth, cf. p. 124, n. i. Anta- 
rena, with accusative, see p. 81, n. 2. After krita-pranayo 'yam janah, 
the Calcutta edition adds ity akshardrthah, 'such is the meaning of the 

3 'There is not now any liberation for me (suffered to be) seized by 
her with the hands of others by-the-hair-on-the-crown-of-my-head (and) 
beaten, any more than for a sage-with-suppressed-passions (if taken un- 
awares) by a lovely-nymph.' SiJchandaka is ' the lock of hair left on the 
crown of the head at tonsure.' This was the only portion of hair suffered 
to remain on the head of a Brahman ; but in the case of the military class, 
three or five locks, called kdka-pakshdh, were left on each side. The two 
ceremonies of tonsure are included by Manu among the twelve S'anskaras 
or rites which every Brahman had to undergo. The first, or cuda-karana, 
took place from one to three years old, generally after teething (Manu ii. 
35) ; the second, or final tonsure keidnta, in the sixteenth year from con- 
ception (ii. 65). Moksha has here a double sense, ' liberation of the body 

1 85 


I n ^fir fawir: u 

u 'snwnr* n 

nfir: i 

from danger,' aud ' liberation of the soul from further transmigration ; ' 
see n. 3 below. The last was the great object of sages and devotees in 
their bodily mortifications, but was often obstructed by the seductive 
artifices of Indra's nymphs (see p. 45, n. i). 

1 ' In the courtly [fashionable] style.' Pravlnasya ritya, K. Ndgarika 
here means more than ' polite.' It implies ' insincerity,' as when a man 
shews exaggerated attention to his first mistress, while he is courting some 
one else. 

2 Ka gatih, see p. 62, 1. 2, with note 2. 

3 ' When a being (in other respects) happy becomes conscious-of-an 
ardent-longing on seeing charming objects and hearing sweet sounds, then 
in all probability, without being aware of it, he remembers with his mind 
the friendships of former births, firmly-rooted in his heart.' Ramyani, i. e. 
vastuni, S'. For ramydni K. has rupdni and sthitdni for sthirdni. A-bodha- 
purvam, ' without any previous intimation or suggestion/ ' unconsciously.' 
Compare the similar expressions, a-mati-purvam,a-buddhi-purvam,' without 
any previous idea.' The doctrine of transmigration is an essential dogma 

Verse 104. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVAR!). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94, 95, 100. 

B b 

1 86 



of the Hindu religion; see Indian Wisdom, p. 67. Dim recollections of 
occurrences in a former life are supposed occasionally to cross the mind, and 
the present condition of every person is supposed to derive its character 
of happiness or misery, elevation or degradation, from the virtues or vices 
of a previous state of being. The consequences of actions in a former 
birth are called vipaka. 

1 The Kancukin or Chamberlain was the attendant on the women's 
apartments. S*. and Cl quote the following from Bharata : Antahpura- 
6wro vriddho vipro guna-gandnvitah sarva-karydrtha-kuialah kancuklti 
abhidhlyate. Jard-vaiklavya-yuktena vi&ed gatrena kancukl, 'the character 
styled Kancukin is an attendant in the inner apartments, an old man, a 
Brahman, endowed with numerous good qualities, and a clever man of 
business. The Kancukin should enter with a body decrepit and tottering 
from age.' Compare this scene, and the speeches of the Chamberlain, with 
the opening scene of Act III. of Vikram. 

2 ' The wand [staff of office] which was assumed by me, having to watch 
over the royal female apartments, thinking, " It is a matter of form," much 
time having elapsed since then, that same (wand) has become (indispen- 
sable, or a useful crutch) for the support of me whose step falters in 
walking.' Vetra-yashfi, properly ' a cane-stick/ used as a badge of office, 
like the gold stick or black rod in European courts. Avahitena, lit. 
' attentive,' ' careful,' ' watchful,' i. e. appointed to a careful superintendence 
or watch* So read all the Deva-'n. ; the Beng., with S'., have adhikritena, 
ii e. ' by me set over,' &c. Avarodha-griheshu, see p. 21, n. 3. Bahutithe 
bahu-san-khye, Che"zy. K. observes that bahu is here treated as a 
numeral, titlw. being a kind of ordinal suffix (Gram. p. 66. LXIII). 

Verse 105. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94, 95, 100, 104. 

1 87 u Tjwts^: ii 

I f rf: 

inn: inn: 

1 ' But (why should I hesitate 1) this office of supporting the world 
does not (admit of) repose.' Athava, see p. 30, n. 3. Loka-tanira, one 
meaning of tantra is ' supporting a family.' 

2 ' Because the Sun having but once (and once) only yoked his steeds 
travels onwards ; night and day the wind (also travels) ; S'esha has the 
burden of the earth always resting (on his head). This also is the duty 
of him whose subsistence is on the sixth part (of the produce of the soil).' 
Kutdh, see p. 55, n. 2. BTidnu, 'the Sun;' see p. 142, n. 3. 'In other 
chariots the horses are yoked again after an interval of rest, but the horses 
df the Sun are allowed no repose,' S'. Surya evambhutah san praydti, S'. 
Gandha-vaha, lit. ' the scent-bearer, ' = vdyu, S'. Sesha=Ananta, a mytho- 
logical serpent, the personification of eternity (ananta-td] and king of the 
Nagas or snakes who inhabit the lowermost of the seven Patalas or in- 
fernal regions. His body formed the couch of Vishnu, reposing on the 
waters of Chaos, whilst his thousand heads were the god's canopy. He is 
also said to uphold the world on one of his heads. He has become incar- 
nate at various times, especially in the god Bala-rama, the elder brother of 
Krishna. Ahita, see p. 149, n. i. Shashihdn^a-vritter, see p. 84, n. i. 

Verse 106. INDEA-VAJEA (a variety of TKISHTUBH), containing eleven syllables to 
the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 

\^i >^w v_; 

B b 3 


: in os n 

i HI 

ii ^rTTH u 


1 ' Having supported his subjects as bis own cbildren, wearied in mind 
he seeks seclusion, as the chief of the elephants scorched by the sun, after 
conducting the herds to their pastures, in the (heat of the) day (seeks) a 
cool spot.' Tantrayitva, from a nominal verb tantraya (see p. 187, n. i), 
is the reading of all the Beng. MSS., supported by K. ; two of the Deva-n., 
iantvayitva ; the Mackenzie, harshayitva. Srdnta-mandh is the reading 
of the Mackenzie, supported by K. ; the other Deva-n., idnta-mandh, 
'composed in mind.' Sancdrya, lit. 'having caused to move about or 
graze,' bhramayitvd, S*. Vivikta=vijana-pradea. Divd = madhyahne, 
1 in the middle of the day.' Dvipendrah = kasti-rdjah = yutha-ndtlwih, 
' a large elephant, the leader of a wild herd.' 

2 ' Having heard, your Majesty must decide (what is to be done).' K. 
supplies yat kartavyam. Pramdnam, see p. 31, n. i at the end. 

3 Atha Jam is used svlkdre, S'. (see p. 46, n. 3). 

4 'In the form enjoined by the scriptures' (=ruti-bodhitena pra- 
kdrena, S'.) _ 

Verse 107. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI (a variety of TKISHTCBH). See verse 41. 


I rt 

1 Ayni-iarana, see p. 148, n. i. Mdrga, see p. 161, 1. 4, with note. 

2 ' The attainment of the object (of their ambition) is followed by pain.* 
fiaritartliata^rdjya-praptih, 'the attainment of the throne,' S'. Duh- 
khottara=kheda-samvalitd, ' encompassed with trouble,' S'. 

3 ' The-attainment-of-the-object-of-ambition satisfies anxious longing 
merely; the very business of guarding what has been obtained, harasses. 
Royalty [the office of king], like a parasol, the handle of which is held in 
the hand, is not for the removal of great fatigue without leading to 
fatigue.' Autsukyam=utkantha, 'longing,' ' eager desire ;' such as kadd 
raja bhavisliydmltyddi, 'when shall I become king, &c.T tarn eva duhJcha- 
ddyirii pratishthd avasddayati, ' that (desire) certainly the harassing attain- 
ment-of-the-highest-rank allays,' 6. S'. reads pratishthdm, and places it in 
opposition to autsukya-matram, making rdjyam nom. to avasddayati. 
The Beng. MS. [I. 0. 1060] gives pratishthdm in the margin, and this 
reading is certainly supported by a parallel passage (sddayanti pra- 
tishthdm, &c.) in the beginning of Act III. of Vikram. C. also notices 

Verse 108. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94, 95, 100, 104, 105. 


this reading, but adopts the one in the text and censures the interpretation 
of S*. Pratishthd may have the sense I have given, which agrees with 
the prdrthitdrthadhigamah and caritdrthatd of the preceding lines. Ati- 
irama may either refer to the trouble which the king has undergone in 
arriving at the object of his ambition, or to the troubles of his subjects 
which it is his office to remove. In the latter case na ca iramdya will 
mean ' without leading to personal trouble or weariness.' The Indian 
chattra, or parasol, from the shelter it affords has been chosen as one of 
the insignia of royalty. It is very heavy, and being fixed on a long pole 
greatly fatigues the person holding it. It is always borne by a servant ; 
but here the king is figuratively made to bear it himself, so that he 
cannot give shelter to himself and others, without undergoing great per- 
sonal fatigue. Na ca iramdya is found in all the Deva-n. MSS. ; the 
Beng. have yathd framdya, i.e. 'royalty does not so much lead to the 
removal of fatigue as to fatigue.' According to K., who repeats the first 
negative before na ca Sramdya, the two negatives are here employed 
affirmatively, i. e. to affirm that royalty does lead to personal fatigue. ' It 
is not for the removal of great fatigue and not not for fatigue.' Cf. a 
similar use of two negatives on p. 24, 1. 10, with note. 

1 Vaitdlika = vandin, 'a herald,' C.; = stuti-pathaka, ' a panegyrist/ S'. 
He was a kind of herald or crier, whose duty was to announce, in measured 
verse, the fixed periods into which the king's day was divided. The strain 
which he poured forth usually contained allusions to incidental circum- 
stances. In Vikram. and Ratn., only one Vaitalika appears, but here and 
in the Malavik. there are two. In Vikram., Act II, he announces the 
sixth hour or watch of the day, about two or three o'clock, at which 
period alone the king is allowed to amuse himself. From the Dasa- 
kumara it appears that a king's day and night were supposed to be 
divided into eight portions of one hour and a half, reckoned from sunrise, 
for distributing which strict directions are given, thus : Day i. The 
king being dressed, is to audit accounts; 2. He is to pronounce judgment 
in appeals ; 3. He is to breakfast ; 4. He is to receive and make presents; 

191 ii TWf-: tt 



i r*--* 


5. He is to discuss political questions with his ministers ; 6. He is to 
amuse himself; 7. He is to review his troops; 8. He is to hold a military 
council. Night i. He is to receive the reports of his spies and envoys; 
2. He is to sup or dine ; 3. He is to retire to rest, after the perusal of 
some sacred work ; 4 and 5. He is to sleep ; 6. He is to rise and purify 
himself; 7. He is to hold a private consultation with his ministers, and 
instruct his officers; 8. He is to attend upon the Purohita, or family 
priest, for the performance of religious ceremonies. See Wilson's Hindu 
Theatre, vol. i. p. 209. 

1 ' Indifferent to thine own ease, thou endurest toil every day for the 
sake of (thy) people. But thy regular-business is of this very kind. For 
the tree suffers intense heat with its head (while) it allays by (its) shade 
the heat of those seeking (its) shelter.' Athavd, see p. 30, n. 3. Vrittir, 
some of the Beng., supported by K. and S'., have srishfir. 

2 ' Having assumed the mace [sceptre] thou restrainest those who 
advance on the wrong road [set out on bad courses]; thou composest 
differences; thou art adequate to the protection (of thy people). Let 
kinsmen make their appearance forsooth in affluent circumstances [when 
there is abundant property], but in thee the whole duty of a kinsman is 
comprehended towards thy subjects.' Atta-danda=grihlta-danda; danda, 
'a magistrate's staff,' taken as a symbol of punishment and justice; it 
is sometimes 'the sceptre of a king;' hence danda-dhara, dandin, 'staff- 
bearer,' &c., are names for Yama, the god of justice and lord of punish- 
ment. Vimdrga, some have kumarga, ' bad ways.' Kalpase = sam- 
padyase, K. Manu furnishes several examples of klrip in the sense of ' to 
be sufficient,' 'to be fit' (see ii. 151, ii. 266, vi. 20; also Raghu-v. viii. 40). 

Verses 109 and 110. MALINI or MANINI (a variety of ATI-SAKVABI). See verses 
10, 19, 20, 38, 55. 

I 192 


W I ii ^ftr 


: I 

infill ^ 4^ 

f*lrq I <?ss<5 ( 

Trt r$\ \ 

Atanushu vibhaveshu=utsaveshu, 'at times of festivity.' Kttkshim-bhari- 
bhis taih Jam prayojanam, ' what is the use of these parasitical gluttons 
as relations 1 ' K. The Calcutta ed. and S'. have samvibltaktah for santu 
ndma. The meaning may certainly be, * let kinsmen make their appearance 
(i. e. start up they will on all sides) when there is plenty of property to 
divide.' K. refers to verse 155, towards the end of Act VI. of this play, 
yena yena viyujyante prajah, &c., ' let it be publicly announced that of 
whatever dear kinsman his subjects are deprived, Dushyanta will be (in 
the place of) that (kinsman) to them, the wicked excepted.' 

1 The use of ete with ist pers. pi. of the verb is noticeable, see p. 1 33, n. 2. 

2 'The terrace of the fire-sanctuary, with the cow (that yields the 
ghee) for the oblations close by, is beautiful after its recent purification.' 
Sa-irlka, lit. 'possessed of the goddess of beauty;' a bold metaphor, 
used elsewhere by Kalidasa. Homa-dhenu, agni-&arana, see p. 148, n. i. 

3 'Has the devotion [penance] of the ascetics, who have collected a 
store of penitential merit, been frustrated by impediments 1 or else has 
any harm been inflicted by any one on the animals grazing in the sacred 

Verse 111. SARDULA.-VIKBIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 
39. 5, 63, 79- 8c 86, 89, 97, 98. 


u Wet: 

grove ? Or is it that the flowering of the creeping plants has been checked 
[stopped, stunted] through my misdeeds ? Thus my mind, in which so 
many doubtful-conjectures have arisen, is perplexed with an inability to 
decide.' Upodha=samprapta, K. Vighnais, see p. 40, n. 5. Dharma- 
ranya-careslm prdnishu, cf. p. 13, 1. 3. Aho svit, used as particles of 
doubt, see Gram. 717. h. Prasavah, i.e. pushpa-phaladi, 'the flower, 
fruit, &c.,' K. Apa-caritaih = dur-dcdraih. 

1 ' To pay homage to.' Sdbhaj is one of the few dissyllabic roots. 

2 ' Granted that this king eminent-in-virtues [of high parts] swerves not 
from rectitude; (and that) not one of the classes, (not) even the lowest, 
addicts itself to evil courses; nevertheless with my mind perpetually 
familiarized to seclusion I regard this thronged (palace) as a house en- 
veloped in flames.' Kamam occurs frequently in this sense (cf. p. 24, 
1. 10; p. 55, n. 3). Abhinna-sthitih=avihata-maryadah, K. ;=sa-mar- 
yadah, S'. Asau, so read the Beng. and the Mackenzie 1VISS. ; the others 
have dho. Varnanam, i. e. brahmanddlndm. Apdknsltfo 'pi, ' even the 
lowest (class).' The castes were originally four in number: i. Brahmans 
or priests; 2. Kshatriyas or soldiers; 3. Vaisyas or merchants and husband- 
men ; 4. Sudras or slaves ; see p. 84, n. 3. A-patha, ' a wrong road,' ' a bad 

Verse 112. SIKHARINI (a variety of ATYASHTI). See verses 9, 24, 44, 62. 

c c 


: I 

road ;' a common metaphor, like a-marga, un-mdrga, vi-marga, to express 
wicked courses. Idam janakirnam, i. e. idam puro-varti nripdnganam, 
' this royal court before my eyes,' & ; jandklrnam may perhaps be used, 
as in Vikram., Act II, 1. 2, for a substantive, meaning 'a crowded thorough- 
fare/ Hutavaha-parlta=-lagnagni, & 

1 'I also regard (these) people here devoted to pleasure, as one-who- 
has-performed-his-ablutions (regards) one-smeared (with dirt), as the pure 
the impure, as the waking the sleeping, as he-whose-motion-is-free the 

2 See p. 20, n. 4. One MS. has durnimittam, 'a bad omen.' 
8 Vametara, ' other than left,' ' right.' 

4 'The protector of the (four) classes and (four) orders;' see p. 193. 
n. 2, and p. 157, n. i at the end. 

6 'Haying but just quitted the seat (of justice);' see p. 190, n. i. 

Verse 113. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

195 'I TOsip u 



i u^w^wr ^r i sfRir i 

1 ' This is certainly a subject of rejoicing [to be rejoiced at] ; nevertheless 
we here are indifferent parties [have nothing to do with it],' i. e. our 
merits and interests have nothing to do with his conduct. This favour 
and protection is only what might be expected from his benevolent nature. 
It is possible that by vayam madhyasthah may be meant, ' we are indif- 
ferent persons,' ' we have no suit to urge nor petition to present.' 

2 ' Because trees become bent down by the growing-weight of fruit ; 
clouds hang down the more (when charged) with fresh rain ; good men 
are not made arrogant by abundant riches; this is the very nature of 
the benefactors of others.' Kutah, see p. 55, n. 2. Bhuri, generally 
found in composition, but not always; see Maha-bh. xii. 1410. Most of 
the Beng. MSS. have dura. This verse occurs in Bhartri-h. (ii. 62, ed. 
Bohlen), where udgamaih is adopted for agamaih, and another reading 
bhumi for bliuri is noticed. Oriental poets are fond of adducing trees 
and clouds as examples of disinterested liberality. ' The tree does not 
remove its shade from him who cuts it down,' Hitop. 1. 353. 

3 ' The Rishis appear to have serene complexions. (Hence) I conclude 
they have some business that inspires confidence,' or 'some quiet and 
easy business.' Prasanna-mukha-varndh, so read two of the Deva-n. MSS., 
supported by a similar compound in Malavik. p. 55, 1. 20. The Cole- 
brooke MS. has mandana, and my own pan-kaa for vanna. 

Verse 114. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 23, 67, 81. 

C C 2 

1 96 

in M 



TJI ^ TT#| TOtf^ I 

tnn i 


i "Ns i^f 
ftf? i 

1 fsfc*l4 

1 '"Who is this veiled-one, the loveliness of whose person is not 
fully displayed?' Svid is a particle of question and douht. Avagunthana 
=mastakdechadana-vastra, Cf. The second half of this verse is clear. 

2 ' My conjecture full of curiosity being hindered (by the veil) does not 
succeed.' The Mackenzie MS., supported by K., has padiTiddi for prati- 
bMti (in place of pasaradi for pi-asarati, the reading of the other Deva-n.) 
and padihado for pahido, the reading of the others. 

3 ' Ought not to be gazed at.' A-nirvarnanlya^=a-darianlya. 

* ' Having reflected on [called to mind] the affection of thy lord, be 
firm.' JBhava=sneJia (cf. p. 112, n. 2). The Beng. have smritvd for ava- 
dharya. Arya-putra, ' son of a venerable parent,' is the regular dramatic 
mode of addressing a husband. 

5 ' They have some message from the preceptor.' 

Verse 115. ABTA or GATHA. See verse 2. 




1 Nirvighna-tapasah, cf. p. 35, n. 3. JJOT, see p. 89, n. 2. 

2 ' Whence (can there be) obstruction to the religious rites of the good, 
thou being (their) defender? How should darkness appear, the Sun 
emitting light [when the Sun shines]?' Tapati,\oc. of the pres. part., 
here used absolutely. Gharman6au=surye, SC 

3 ' My title of Raja has indeed significancy.' The Eishis had, in the 
preceding verse, compared the king to the Sun, and rdjan is derived from 
raj, 'to shine.' It is, however, probable that the play is on the words 
rdjan and rakshitri. Cf. Manu vii. 3, rakshdrthdm asya sarvasya rdjd- 
nam asrijat prabhuh, 'the Supreme Being created a king for the protection 
of this universe.' Dr. Boehtlingk remarks that in these cases ' it little 
signifies whether the derivation be true or false. In Maha-bh. xii. 1032, 
rdjan is derived from raw/, ' to conciliate.' 

4 ' Is his reverence Kasyapa prosperous for the welfare of the world ? ' 

Verse 116. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, u, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53, 73, 
76, 84, 87. 

! ?rf*ni!rii^(5iip>R n 198 



sfa ^T: 


see p. 35, n. 3. BTiagavdl, &c., when the letter I is preceded by 
t, d, or n dental, it requires the assimilation of the letters to itself, and in 
the case of dental n, the mark called Candra-vindu is written over, to shew 
that the I substituted for it has a nasal sound, Laghu-k. No. 79, see Gram. 56. 

1 ' Saints have prosperity in their power. He with inquiries about 
your safety says this to your Highness.' It will be readily remarked that 
the character of these Eishis is evidently that of plain, honest, independent 
men. Siddhimantah, lit. ' men endowed with or capable of perfection/ 
'saints/ Vishnu-p. p. 45. Andmaya, see Manu ii. 127, 'Let a man ask a 
Brahman, on meeting him, as to his kuiala; a Kshatriya, as to his and- 
maya; a Vaisya, as to his kshema; and a Sudra, as to his drogya' The 
king was of course a Kshatriya, see p. 31, n. i. 

2 The third sing. aor. Atm. of upa-yam, ' to marry/ is either updyata or 
updyansta, Pan. i. 2, 16. The Beng. have upayeme, perf. 

3 ' Thou art esteemed by us the chief of the worthy, and S'akuntala, in- 
carnate virtue. Brahma [Fate], bringing together a bride and bridegroom 
of equal merit, has after a long time (now first) incurred no censure.' 
Nah, the Colebrooke MS. reads yat. Vadhu-varam, a Dvandva comp. 
in the neuter gender. Vdcyam na gatah, probably this refers to the blame 
popularly laid on Fate for preventing the smooth course of true love. 

Verse 117. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGAT!). See verses 18, 22, 23, 67, 8 1, 114. 






I T 

f^t VRSfi^Sfi ^oU^l ll^fcH i/U-^-^'*"^ 1 " 

b f^i 

1 ' Therefore now let her, being quick with child, be received, for the 
joint discharge of religious-rites,' i. e. those Sanskaras or rites, which were 
performed for the child before and after birth, probably by the parents 
conjointly (saha) see Manu ii. 27, &c. 

2 'Her elder-relatives were not referred to by her; nor by you was any 
kinsman asked ; (the affair) having been transacted quite privately [lit. 
one with the other], what has each one to say to the other?' Guru-jana, 
see p. 173, n. 3 in the middle. The Deva-n. MSS. have imde for imina. 
The latter, which is the reading of the oldest Beng., I have retained on 
account of the metre. There is no reason why in Prakrit imina should 
not be used for the fern, instr., since imassim is admissible for the fern. 
loc. ; see p. 37, 1. 2. Ekaikam=anyonyam, 'mutually,' Sf. and CX Bhan- 
nadu is the reading of some of the Beng. MSS. followed by the Calcutta 
edition ; I have written bhannadu for bhanadu, on account of the metre, 
and on the authority of Lassen's Instit. Prak. p. 277. The Deva-n. have 
kim bhanami, which reading violates the metre and makes the construction 
of the sentence very obscure. They also read eJckam ekkassa. Eka may 
be for eka-janah, applicable to either gender. The commentary of (X is 
in favour of the above interpretation. 

Verse 118. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 


1 'Truly, the import of this speech [that which is proposed by this 
speech] is (like) fire.' The Mackenzie MS. inserts eso after kJchu. 

2 ' Such-persons-as-your-Majesty are certainly full well acquainted with 
the ways of the world.' Loka-vrittanta-nis7matah = loka-vyavaliara- 
jnatah, & Ni-shndta (=abhijfia, (T.), lit. 'bathed in ;' hence ' conversant 
with.' The Sahit-d. (p. 193) reads bhavdn loka-vrittante nishnatah. 

3 'People suspect a married woman [woman who has a husband] re- 
siding wholly in her kinsmen's family, although chaste, (to be) the reverse. 
Hence a young woman is preferred by her own relatives (to be) near her 
husband, even though she be disliked by him.' JAati-ku=nija-griha- 
vasimm, & Anyatha, i.e. vyabhicarimm, 'unchaste,' S*. Ishyate=akan- 
kshyate, S'. Tad-apriydpi, the Beng., my own MS., and the Shit.-d. read 
priydpriyd va, 'liked or disliked ;' but K. supports the other reading. 

Verse 119. VAN^A-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 23, 67, 81, 
114, 117. 


a WTiT I TT TT c5^Sf^ I ^M^UIlfH jTT^WS^i^RTf* I riiCMI 

' On account of dislike to a deed done, is opposition to justice be- 
coming in a king 1' This is the reading of the oldest Bengali, and I have 
adopted it as preferable to that of the Deva-n., kim krita-karya-dvesho 
dharmam prati mmukhata kritavajna. Dr. Boehtlingk suggests that krita- 
vajnd is probably an interpolation from the margin. 

2 ' Whence is this inquiry (accompanied) by the fabrication of a false- 
hood ? ' Avidyamandrthasya kalpanaya kritah prainah, K. According 
to Dr. Burkhard, ' inquiry about a crime which has not been committed.' 

3 ' These changes-of-purpose [fickleness of disposition] mostly take effect 
[wax strong] in those who are intoxicated with sovereign -power.' Mur- 
chanti=vardhante, S*. ; = vydpnuvanti, K. (cf. Raghu-v. xii. 57, vi, 9, x. 
80). Root murch has generally the opposite sense, 'to lose strength/ 
' faint away.' It is applied to the thickening of darkness, in Vikram., 
Act III, tamasdm nUi murcJiatdm. 

4 ' I am especially aimed-at-by-this censure,' i. e. I am the especial 
object of this censorious remark about ' persons intoxicated with power.' 

D d 


^ 75 

ii ^fir 


J I P 



1 ' Not settling-in-my-mind [not deciding or determining] whether this 
form of unblemished beauty thus presented (to me) [brought near to me] 
may or may not have been formerly married [by me] ; verily I am neither 
able to enjoy nor to abandon (it), like a bee at the break of day, the 
jasmine-blossom filled with dew.' AklisJita-Jcdnti^anavadya-saundar- 
yam, K. Parigrihltam, see p. 181, n. 2. A-vyavasyan (=a-ni$cinvan), so 
reads K. ; I have ventured to follow him, although nearly all the Deva-n. 
MSS. have vyavasyan (cf. p. 146, 1. 2, n. i ; and p. 161, 1. 9). If 
vyavasyan is retained, it must be translated ' deliberating,' ' striving to 
discover.' Antas-tushara, lit. ' having dew in the interior.' 

2 'Why do you sit [is it sat] so silent?' Kimariham maunam kritam 
asli, S*. Cf. Mm tushnlm evdste, Vikrain., Act IV, 

3 Smkaranam ( = vivdham, S".), 'making one's own,' i.e. 'taking in 

4 'How, then, shall I act towards her, bearing evident signs of pregnancy, 
doubting myself to be her husband.' Kcttham pratipatsye may mean 
' how shall I make any reply 1 ' referring to kim josham asyate in the 
previous speech; or, 'how shall I receive her 1 ?' see p. 135, n. i. 

Verse 120. MALINI or MANIOT (a variety of ATI-SAKVARI). See verses 10, 19, 
20, 38, 55, 109, no. 


3 m PERT 

lrfT ^T*rt 



: i 

1 ' Is the sage after-consenting to his daughter, who had been seduced 
[carnally-embraced] by thee, to be (thus) insulted forsooth? (he) by 
whom allowing his stolen property [i. e. Sakuntala] to be kept [taken], 
thou hast been made as it were a justified ravisher [robber].' Kritabhi- 
mar6am=krita-samspar6am=krita-san-gra7ianam, K. The first sense of 
abhi-mrii is 'to touch,' 'to handle.' Here, as in pard-mrii (Bhatti-k. 
xvii. 38), there is an implication of carnal connexion. Mushtam, the 
Taylor MS. has ishtam, and the Beng. dushtam. It must be borne in 
mind that Sakuntala was married to Dushyanta, according to the Gan- 
clharva form (p. 127, n. 3), during the absence of her foster-father (see 
pp. 134, 135, with notes). Pratigrahayata, the causal may sometimes 
give the sense of ' allowing ' or ' permitting,' as in naiayati, ' he suffers 
to perish.' Pdtri-krita, is a Cvi compound, formed from pdtra, neut. 'a 
receptacle,' applied to express any deserving or worthy person (see Manu 
iv. 227). 

Verse 121. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI (a variety of TEISHTUBH). See verses 41, 107. 

D d 2 



ii Trams* ii b 


i ^ ^i^-4 i c 
i r 1! 'TTH ^ inn 

1 K., S*., and the old Beng. MS. interpret soanlo by 6ocariiya, ' to be 
sorrowed for;' but CK has Sodhanlya, and is followed by Che*zy and the 
Calcutta edition. The meaning will then be, 'I myself am now to be 
cleared [justified] by myself.' All the MSS., except one, insert me. 

2 ' Now that my marriage is called-in-question, this is not the (proper) 
form-of -address ;' see p. 196, n. 4. All the MSS. agree in reading samu- 
dddro for samuddcdro; otherwise it might be suspected that samudahdro 
was the correct word, to which samuddcdro must be here equivalent. 

* 'It is not becoming in thee, having awhile since in the hermitage so 
seduced, after-a-formal-agreement, this person [myself] naturally open- 
hearted, to repudiate her with such words.' Uttdna, 'shallow,' 'unre- 
served,' is the opposite of gambhlra, 'deep,' 'reserved;' see p. 39, n. i. 
Samaya-purvam, cf. p. 198, 1. 3; and p. 172, 1. 4, with note. 

4 ' Peace \ a sin !' i. e. Silence ! let me not listen to such sinful words ; 
or, if no stop is placed after bantam, 'May the sin be palliated !' This seems 
to be the usual formula in the plays for averting the ill effects of blasphe- 
mous, malevolent, or lying words. Sometimes the stage-direction karnau 
pidhdya is omitted, compare Acts vii. 57; Mricchak. p. 36, 1. 5; p. 230, 
1. 6; p. 306, 1. 9; p. 329, 1. 1 ; Malavik. p. 69, 1. 10 ; Mudra-r. p. 24, 1. 5. 


a ?t<j 

TTT ^ 

II j^TT 


1 ' Why seekest thou to sully the royal-title [race, family] and to ruiii 
this person [myself] ; as a stream that-carries-away-its-own-banks (disturbs) 
the clear water (and overturns) the tree on its margin 1 ?' Vyapadeiam, i.e. 
kulam nama vd, ' either family or name,' Cl ; vyapadiiyate anena iti vya- 
padeiah kulam, S'. Avilayitum, infin. of a nom. verb from avila, 'turbid/ 
Sindhuh, ' a river,' in classical Sanskrit is generally fern., in the older 
language generally masc. ; when Sindhu means ' the district Scinde ' it is 
usually masc. 

2 ' In all probability the ring slipped from (the finger of) thee as thou 
wert offering homage to the water at SacTs holy-pool, within Sakravatara.' 
Stakra is a name of Indra, and Stakravatara some sacred place of pilgrimage 
where he descended upon earth. Shcl is his wife, to whom there was pro- 
bably a Tirtha, or holy bathing-place (see p. 17, n. i), consecrated at this 
place, where Sakuntala had performed her ablutions. 

Verse 122. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 



1 ' This is that which is said [thus is proved the truth of the proverb], 
"Woman-kind is ready-witted."' Strainam=strl-jatih, 'the female sex/ 
~K. The Beng. have idam tat pratyutpanna-matitvam strinam; cf. Hit op. 
1. 2320, where pratyutpanna-matih is the name given to the ready-witted 
fish. See also Hitop. 1. 2338, 'The food of women is said to be two-fold, 
their wit four-fold, their cunning six-fold, and their passion eight-fold." 

2 ' Here, however, sovereignty has been shewn by destiny.' A similar 
sentiment occurs further on in this play, and at the beginning of Act IV. of 
Vikram., bhavitavya-td atra balavafi, ' here destiny has shewn its power.' 

3 Dr. Boehtlingk considers that irotavyam is here taken as a sub- 
stantive, and construes, ' The moment-for-hearing (what else you have to 
say) has now arrived' (cf. p. 1 10, 1. g). As the pass. part, is often used sub- 
stantively the translation may be, ' what took place is now to be heard.' 

4 ' Lying in a lotus-leaf-cup.' As to gatam, see p. 38, n. i. 
6 Sannihitam, see p. 150, 1. 10, with note 3. 

6 ' Having eyes with long outer corners.' This was the fawn mentioned 
in verse 94. 


f mifi 

a TTfiWTTt I WTHI iTl^rHVjH fq cj fri I*! ^^ P**i li 

t i IT^T 

i b *TIT>TTJT i ^nf^H T^rftrfR i 

1 Upacchanditah=jala-pandya preritah, 'was coaxed to drink the water,' 
*;;>.,= pralobhitah, 'enticed/ 'coaxed/ Che'zy. According to Pan. i. 3, 47, 
upa-cchand means 'to conciliate privately by flattering or coaxing language.' 
Cf. Kaghu-v. v. 58, where Stenzler translates it by obsecro, 'supplicate/ 'beg.' 

2 Hastabhydsa, lit. 'use of the hand/ i.e. 'stroking with the hand,' 
' caressing ; ' with upa-gam, to approach for fondling/ ' to allow to be 
caressed/ ' to entrust one's self into any one's hands ' (cf. p. 209, 1. 10). 

3 Pranayah here, ' trust/ 'confidence' ( = vivdsah, S'.) Sagandheshu, ' in 
relatives.' Sagand7ia=sadria = sanni7iita. Gandha=sambandha, Sf. 

4 So reads my own MS. K. has drannaa (Lassen's Instit. Pr5k. p. 187), 
and interprets it by dranyakau. Some read drannao, which seems to be 
an error for arannado nom. pi. fern. The feminine is admissible on the 
principle of the superiority of the human species over animals. 

5 ' Voluptuaries are allured by such false honied words as these of 
women turning (them) away from their own duty.' The Taylor and my 
own MS. have nirvartimndm, which has been adopted in B. and E-.'s 
dictionary and by Dr. Burkhard ; if this reading be preferred, translate 


'of women seeking to accomplish their own ends.' The Mackenzie has 
yoshitdm madhura-glrbhih for anritamaya-vdn-madhubhih. 

1 According to P5n. ii. 2, 38, tdpasa-vriddhd is a legitimate compound, 
although vriddha-tdpasl would be more usual. 

2 'The untaught cunning is observed of females (even) in-those-that-are- 
not-of-the-human-race [i. e. even in animals] ; how much more (of those) 
who are endowed with reason [i. e. of women] ! The female cuckoos, as- 
is-well-known [MaZw] allow their own offspring to be reared by other birds, 
before soaring in the sky.' A-mdnushlshu, i. e. mdnusha-jdti-vyatiriktdsu 
tiryag-jdtisliu, K. Pratibodhavatyah =jndninyali = caitanya-bhdjah, S*. ; 
the most obvious sense, if the context would allow it, would be, ' those 
women who have received instruction.' Para-bhntdh, see p. 162, n. 2. 

3 'What other (person) now would act like [in imitation of] thee, that 
putting on the garb of virtue resemblest a grass-concealed well ? ' Prati- 
patsyate, see p. 135, 1. 4, with note i. 

Verse 123. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See next verse. 

2 op 


1 ' For (when) I, whose state of feeling was dreadfully-severe from the 
absence of (all) recollection, (persisted in) not admitting that affection had 
privately existed (between us) ; it (seemed) as if (the god) Smara's bow 
was snapped asunder by that very -red-eyed one with excessive anger, on 
the parting of her curved eyebrows.' The double-entendre in the word 
Smara, which means ' recollection' as well as 'the god of Love/ is notice- 
able (see the notes on Kama-deva, p. 99, n. i, and p. 100, n. i). The figure 
by which the eyebrows of a beautiful woman are compared to Cupid's bow 
is common, and the glances from the eye are by a similar metaphor often 
likened to arrows discharged from it. Sakuntala is said to break the bow 
by the parting of her eyebrows, which were contracted in anger. Possibly 
one effect of anger might be to wrinkle the brow, which would appear to 
separate the eyebrows. 

2 Lit. 'a wilful, self-willed woman/ 'one who acts on the impulse of 
the moment.' It may have this sense here, but S*. interprets it by ganikd, 
' a wanton, unchaste woman.' 

3 ' Thus a self-committed hasty action, when not counteracted, leads-to- 

Verse 124. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94, 95, 100, 104, 105, 108, 123. 

E e 

(I '?rfvis<l 1 {5I<Jr( 1 (cJ*l II 2 I O 

ftphi i 

keen-remorse [burns].' Most of the Deva-n. MSS. have parihatam for 
apratihatam ; the Mackenzie has pratihatam ; the oldest J$eng.aj)rati?iatam. 
Cdpalam is 'any action proceeding from thoughtlessness or over-precipita- 
tion.' Ddka&i, the Hindus connect a burning or smarting sensation with the 
idea of remorse of conscience (cf. manas-tdpa, paicat-tdpa, anu-tdpa, &c.) 

1 ' Therefore a union, especially (when) in private, ought to be formed 
with -great-circumspection [after having made proper inquiry or ex- 
periment, i. e. after investigating each other's character and circum- 
stances]. Thus (is it that) between those who know not (each other's) 
hearts, friendship becomes enmity.' Parlkshya, the Beng. have samlk- 
shya. San-gatam rahah=ra7iasi san-gamah, K. 

2 'Do you reproach us with accumulated accusations [faults] ]' Most of 
the Deva-n. MSS. have samyuta-doshaksharena kshinutfta. The above is 
the reading of the oldest Beng., supported by K., who has sambhrita-dosha- 

3 Sdsuyam, 'scornfully,' 'sarcastically;' lit. 'with detraction.' 

4 Adharottaram = nikrishta-pradJianyam, 'ascendancy of the low/ 
' placing that at the top which ought to be at the bottom,' CX In Manu 
viii. 53, the word occurs in the sense of 'confused and contradictory state- 
ment ;' and again in viL 2 1, it is applied to express the confusion of ranks 
[adharam=iudrddi; uttaram=pradhanani] which would ensue, if justice 
were not duly administered by the king. It may be translated here ' con- 
fusion of principles,' ' inversion of the proper order of things,' and pro- 
bably refers to the ironical statement in the succeeding verse. Hence the 
meaning may be, ' You have been taught upside down or backwards.' In 
other words, ' The usual definition of the fourth Pramana (iabda] is dpta- 
vdkya, you would make it andpta-vdkya, the words of an improper 
person.' See Indian Wisdom, pp. 72, 92. Adharottara may mean 'reply 
to a statement ' or ' question and answer.' 

Verse 125. &LOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, u, 12, 26, 47, 50, &c., 87. 



: i 

!! i ^p=[f%iTt 

I n TTm^ ufir n 


f? ^ Tng?n ^irtg^ n 

1 ' The declaration of that person who from birth is untrained to guile 
(is) without authority. Let those persons, forsooth, by whom the de- 
ceiving of others is studied, calling it a science, be (alone considered) 
worthy of belief.' Ajanmanah, see p. 155, n. 3 at the end. A-pramdnam 
= a-yatJidrtham, ?. Ati-sandhdnam, cf. p. 99, 1. 2. Apta-vacah = ya- 
thartha-vacandh, Sf. ; =pramdna-vdcah, K. 

2 Vinipdta, ' ruin,' ' destruction,' = pratyavdya, K. ; = naraka-ya- 
mana, S^. 

3 ' She is, then, your wife ; either abandon her or take her ; for the 
authority over wives is admitted to be unlimited [reaching everywhere, 
unbounded].' Kdntd, the Beng. MSS. have patm. Sarvato-mukhi, lit. 
'looking or facing in every direction ;' = sarva-karana-samart}wi, 'omni- 
potent,' ' able to do everything,' Cf.;=sarva-prakdrena, 'of every kind,' & 

Versel26. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI (a varietyof TEISHTUBH). See verses 41, 107, 121. 
Verse 127. SLOKA or ANOSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, &c., 125, 

E e 2 

x 212 



I u ^STrfirew u 
u fwHn n 



"^T ^ 

1 ' naughty one, dost thou affect independence [art thou determined 
to have thy own way]?' Puro-bhdgini= dushte, K. ; = doshaikadarini, 
doshaika-drik, &. and C>. Puro-bhdgin first means ' one who takes the first 
share or more than his proper share/ i. e. 'a grasping character' (cf. Vikram., 
end of Act III, ma mam puro-bhagim iti samarihayasi] ; then, ' malevo- 
lent/ 'censorious ; ' lastly, as here, ' a wilful, perverse person.' Most of the 
Deva-n., unsupported by the commentators, have purobhdge. Svatantrya, 
cf. Manu ix. 3, na strl svdtantryam arhati; and see p. 49, n. i. 

2 ' If thou art so, as the king asserts, what (connexion will remain) to 
Verse 128. DBDTA-VILAMBITA (a variety of JAGAT!). See verses 45, 72. 



wrf : 

T f? 

: I 

the father with thee fallen from thy family [an outcast from thy family] ] 
but if thou art conscious that thy own marriage-vow [conduct] is free-from- 
taint [pure], even slavery will be supportable in thy husband's household.' 
Kim pitur, some Beng. MSS. have kirn punar utkulaya, i. e. kula-vyava- 
hardtikmmena vidyamanaya, Sf. Vrata=-caritra, K. \=.pati-vrata, Su 

1 ' We must set off on our return/ lit. ' we must finish our business.' ' 

2 ' The moou awakes [expands] the night-lotuses only, the sun the day- 
lotuses only ; for the character [feelings] of those who control their 
passions recoils [turns away with abhorrence] from embracing the wife 
of another.' Kumuda is a kind of lotus, which blossoms in the night 
(see p. 1 20, n. i); the pan-ka-ja, or mud-born lotus, opens its petals only 
in the day. Bodhayati=prakdayati. Parigraha, see p. 181, n. 4. 

3 Anya-san-gdt, i. e. anyasydl} kantdyah san-gdt, ' on account of union 
with another wife.' Vismrita, see p. 161, n. 3 at the end ; Gram. 896. 

4 Guru-ldgJiava is properly a kind of abstract noun formed from the 
Dvandva guru-laghu, the Vriddhi taking place in the second member of 
the compound instead of the first. The sense will then be, ' I ask your 
reverence as to the greater and the less [i. e. the heavier and the lighter] 
sin.' This is addressed to the Brahman who acts as the Purohita, whose 
duty it would be to advise the king as to which was the more or less sinful 
course. This sense of guru-ldghava is supported by several other passages 
(Maha-bh. xii. 1273, iii. 10572; Manu ix. 299). The more obvious sense 
would be, ' the alleviation [solution] of a grave matter.' 

Verse 129. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

\^ <^> I v^v-< ! -- ||^<^i I * w w J .w >^| -- |vj 

II *rfrIM!tl$fle4JMI 214 

rTR^T TRRT^W^ fnrj 

t IH*]fin4f% 

1 'In a doubt as to whether I may be infatuated or she may speak 
falsely, shall I become a repudiator of my wife, or denied by contact 
with another's wife V Aho, see p. 49, n. i at the end. 

2 ' A son who has the mark of the Cakra [or discus] in his hand.' 
When the lines of the right hand formed themselves into a circle, this 
was the mark of a future hero and emperor. Cakra-vartin, ' one whose 
empire extends to the horizon (cakra) or from sea to sea' (see p. 15, n. 2). 

3 ' If the Muni's daughter's-son shall be endowed with this mark, having 
congratulated her thou shalt introduce her to the female-apartments.' Dau- 
Tiitra, from duhitri, is like pautra, from putra. Suddhdnta, see p. 2 1, n. 3. 

4 ' Grant me admission or entrance,' ' open to receive me,' i. e. let me 

Verse J30. SLOKA or ANDSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, &c., 127. 


it ^fir ^?ft nfw?n i frrefiren *^ gdwT ^? Traferftps i 

f%*?nrfiT II 


II ^ITcircn II 

: i 


r: i 

remain no longer in the land of the living. Mama praveGdya dvidhd 
lhava, Sf. The Beng. MSS. have antaram-=avakdam instead of vivaram. 

1 ' That young-creature upbraiding her own fprtunes, throwing up her 
arms, and beginning to weep,' or 'and beginning to weep with repeated 
uplifting of her arms.' Sdhutkshepam (so read all the MSS.) = 6afoZ 
utkshipya; this is an instance of an adverbial indecl. part, of repetition 
compounded with a noun (bhujoccdlanam yathd bhavati evam kranditum 
pravrittd, S".) Examples of this participle are numerous in Bhatti-k., as 
in ii. n, Latdnupdtam kusumdni agrihndt, &c. ; see Gram. 567. 

2 'A single flash-of-light in female shape having snatched her up near 

Verse 131. SALINI (a variety of TRISHTUBH), consisting of eleven syllables to the 
Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 

i wifa 

: II Pc(c4l*l II 

: n 

Apsaras-tirtha went off (with her).' Stri-samsihdnam, i. e. striyd iva 
akritir yasya, S^. Ardt=antike, nikate, K. and S^. Jyotih=tejah. Jagdma, 
the Beng. and the Mackenzie MSS. have tiro-bhut, ' disappeared.' 

1 ' Granted, I remember not the repudiated Muni's daughter (to be my) 
wife ; nevertheless (my) heart being powerfully agitated forces me as it 
were to believe (her).' Kamam=atyartham, K. Kdmam kdmanumatau, 
!>. (cf. p. 24, 1. 10; p. 55, n. 3). Pratydyayati, i. e. tatparigrahe, SC 

Verse 132. AEYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 


i: II 


:(ej<ui ^ u 

1 Praveiaka, see p. 97, n. 3. 

2 'Then enters the king's-brother-in-law (as) superintendent of the 
city-police, and two policemen [guards] bringing a man (with his hands) 
bound behind.' Nagarikah=nagaradhikarl, 'superintendent of the city/ 
$' ;-=^nagare niyuktah, ' one set over the city,' K.; here 'the chief of the 
police.' Syala (also written syala) = rashtriya or rashtrlya (Amara-k.) 
The king's brother-in-law, who here acts as superintendent of police, is a 
character not unfrequently introduced in the plays (cf. Mricchak. p. 224, 
1. 4; p. 227, 1. 12; p. 230, 1. 1, in which passages he is called rdja-iyalah 
and rdshtriya-iyalah). K. observes that the policemen and the fishermen 
in this scene speak the Magadhi form of Prakrit (see Lassen's Instit. Pr5k. 
p. 391), but SC affirms that the fisherman speaks the Stakara dialect (caura- 
pdtras tu Sakdra-namadheyah 6akdra-prdya-bhdshandi), see Lassen's 
Tnstit. Prak. p. 422. Both SL and K. have omitted to make mention of 
the dialect spoken by the Syala or Nagarika. According to Visvanatha 
(Sahit.-d. p. ]8o, 1. 12) he ought to speak the Dakshinatya form of 
Prakrit. In the Beng. MSS., and some of the Deva-n., he is certainly 
made to speak a dialect distinct from the other characters of this scene, 
but in the best MSS. pure Prakrit forms are found in the speeches 
attributed to him. Indeed, as brother-in-law of the king, he must have 
been a Kshatriya, or one of the military caste. 

3 ' thief ! ' Kunibhila or kumbhilaka seems to be identical with kum- 
bhila, kuinhhllaka, kurtibhlra, kurribhlraka, &c. Compare in the beginning 
of Act V. of Vikram., mani-kumbfuraka, ' gem-stealer ' (applied to the 
bird who swallowed the crest-jewel) ; and at the end of Act II, loptrena 
sucitasya kumbhlrakasya ; and in Malavik., oho kumbhllakaih parihara- 
nlyd candrikd. 

* ' The setting of which is engraven with his name.' Afani-bandhana, 
which usually signifies ' the wrist,' is here the place of the setting 


II ^Tm$il1^|5flrt1 II 2 1 8 

* ii WiT7Rnrf^mTT n 



fsifrr. \ 

! I HI 


: i d tHTwr; i n*Hwir*iAirii T?: i e refi i 


[technically, the collet, ^ ^^> nigln dcm\ of the jewel which formed 
the mudra or seal of the ring, mentioned p. 53, n. 3. Manih khacyate 
yasminn iti mani-bandJianah, K. The name might have been engraven 
on the stone itself, or on the gold in which it was set. Utkfl is used in 
the sense of 'excavating,' in Maha-bh. i. 5813; and samutkirna with the 
meaning ' perforated/ in Raghu-v. i. 4. 

1 ' With a gesticulation of fear.' The ka added to ndtita may possibly 
signify a poor, sorry, or ludicrous gesture. It is often pleonastic, but in 
the plays it will sometimes be found affixed to the past passive participle, 
to which it gives the sense of a verbal noun. Thus itdbhrantaka and apa- 
vdritaka (Mricchak. p. 171) for udbhrdnti and apavdrana. 

2 ' Your honour.' Jiftava = mdnya, &, ' venerable,' * respectable/ to 
which miira may be added (see p. 7, n. 3). 

3 '"Was it forsooth a present given by the king (to thee), imagining 
(thee to be) an illustrious Brahman?' Pratigraha (see p. 54, 1.2, with 
note) is especially ' a donation to a Brahman at suitable periods.' Kritvd, 
'thinking/ see p. 170, n. 3 in the middle; and cf. Malavik. p. 23, 1. 9, 
parakdryam iti kritvd; also Mricchak. p. 147, 1. 5. 

* Verbs of ' asking ' in Sanskrit govern a double accusative case, one of 
which is retained after the past passive participle. 

5 Sucaka, ' informer/ is the name of one of the rakshinah, or ' policemen.' 

ii w ii 

1 Abutta, 'a sister's husband,' or 'brother-in-law,' according to Amara-k. 
vii. 12. In Mricchak. p. 339, 1. 12, this word is applied as a title of respect 
by a son to his father ; but Dr. Boehtlingk conjectures that this may be 
an error for dvuka, the regular theatrical term for ' father.' According to 
Dr. Burkhard, abutta= Sanskrit bhdva, 'an honourable sir,' 'gentleman.' 

2 ' I make the support of my family by nets, hooks, and the other con- 
trivances for catching fish.' Udgala or udgara=valiia or vadtia, ' a fish- 
hook/ K. Jdla-valisa-ppahudihimjdla-vadia-prabhritibhih is the read- 
ing of the Bengali Recension. Jdlodgdra may mean ' the casting of nets.' 

3 This is spoken ironically, as, according to Manu(x. 46-48), the nishdda, 
or fisherman caste, was one of the lowest. ' Those who are considered as 
low-born shall subsist only by such employments as the twice-born despise. 
Nishadas (must subsist) by catching fish,' &c. Any occupation which in- 
volved the sin of slaughtering animals (excepting in the case of sacrificing 
to the god S'iva) was considered despicable. Butchers and leather-sellers 
were as great, or even greater, objects of scorn. 

* 'That occupation in which one was born, as-the-saying-is (Jala), 

Verse 133. VAITALIYA. See verse 52. 

F f 2, 

2 2O 

though in-bad-repute, verily must not be abandoned. The same Brahman, 
who is savage in the act of slaughtering animals, may be (of a disposition) 
tender with compassion.' Saha-ja^=Jcula-Jcramdnugata, 'inherited from 
one's forefathers.' See Indian Wisdom, p. 140 and note. Manu is very 
peremptory in restricting special occupations to the different castes, 
especially to the mixed and lowest castes, formed by intermarriage with 
the others. ' A man of the lowest class, who, through covetousness, lives 
by the acts of the highest, let the king strip of all his wealth and banish. 
His own office, though badly performed, is preferable to that of another, 
though well performed ; for he who lives by the duties of another class, 
immediately falls from his own' (Manu x. 96, 97). Hence we find the 
employments of fishing, slaughtering animals for food, leather-selling, 
basket-making, burning the dead, &c. &c., assigned to men born in certain 
impure castes, and confined perpetually to their descendants. To the 
higher and purer castes a greater variety of employment was allowed. 
observes that the Brahman is called Shat-karman, from the precept of 
Manu (i. 88), which enjoins upon him six occupations, viz. reading, 
teaching, sacrificing, assisting others to sacrifice, giving, and receiving. 
See Indian Wisdom, p. 244. tJnder certain circumstances he was allowed 
by Manu to engage even in trade, and other employments. The sacrifice 
of animals was enjoined only on the priests of the god Siva. The 
Brahman, in the worship of this god, might have to kill animals ; but 
this was as much a necessary part of his business, as killing fish, of the 
fisherman, and was no proof of any natural cruelty of disposition. S 7 . 
defines a Srotriya Brahman thus : Janmana Brahmano jneyah, sanskd- 
rair dvija ucyate^ vidyaya yati vipratvam, tribhih Srotriya ucyate, ' birth 
constitutes the title Brahman; sacramental rites (especially that of in- 
vestiture with the sacred thread), the title Dvija, or twice-born ; know- 
ledge, the title Vipra ; and all three Srotriya.' The usual definition of 
this word is, a Brahman conversant with Sruti, or scripture. 

1 The Rohita or Rohi fish (Cyprinus Rohita), lit. 'red-fish,' is a kind of 
carp, found in lakes and ponds in the neighbourhood of the Ganges. It 
grows to the length of three feet, is very voracious, and its flesh, though 


c ?f? I *T*5i 


iffaft ^n^rfi^: i TR^tir wr i 


: i c inn i 

coarse, is eaten. Its back is olive-coloured, its belly of a beautiful golden 
hue, its fins and eyes red. 

1 '0 Januka, the villain stinking (as he does) of raw flesh (is) doubtless 
a fisherman.' Januka is the name of the other policeman, who is supposed 
to have detected the thief (jdnuJca iti cora-jnatur apara-padater nama, S'.) 
Some Beng. MSS. havejafoia (=jdluka). Visra-gandhi= dmisha-gandhi, 
CX Go-ghdtl, the killing of a cow (go-hatya), is reckoned by the Hindus 
a most heinous crime (cf. Hitop. 1. 162). Hence go-ghdtin, 'cow-killer,' 
is applied as a reproachful epithet to any rogue or low person. Thus in 
the Mricchak. p. 299, 1. 4; p. 317, 1. 2, the (Tandala is called go-Tia or 

2 ' (But) the finding [seeing, shewing] of the ring by him must be 
(more closely) inquired into.' Vimarshtavyam=jij)idsitavyam, Sf. Root 
mri& with vi has usually the sense of 'to consider,' 'investigate;' but if 
the root be mrij, the sense would be ' must be pardoned,' ' overlooked.' 
K. has vimdrshtavyam, from mrij. 

3 Granthi-bTiedaka, ( cut-purse,' lit. 'knot- breaker' or ' knot-cutter.' The 
Hindus generally carry their money tied up in a knot in one end of a 
cloth, which is bound round .the waist. 


1 ' My hands tingle [my fingers itch] to bind a flower (about the head) 
of this victim [criminal about to be executed].' All the Deva-n. MSS. 
have swnianah pinaddhum, excepting the Mackenzie, which has sumaha- 
nam for iumano. The Beng. have got rid of the difficulty by substituting 
vyapddayitum, 'to kill.' It is clear from what follows that the two 
policemen expected that their master would return with the king's order 
for putting the fisherman to death. From the Malati-m. and other plays, 
it is evident that a person about to be offered as a victim to Siva or 
Durga had a wreath of flowers bound round the head. This was also 
the case with common criminals, previous to their execution. 




u ^fii $?s^ trfrTj^J^nr circtfrr u 


w*4"a;rf II 

1 ' Thou wilt be food for [an offering to] the vultures, or wilt see the 
face of a dog.' Gridhra-bali, see p. 179, n. i. Suno mukham, so read 
all the Deva-n. MSS., excepting the Mackenzie, which omits the clause 
entirely. Dr. Boehtlingk has adopted as an emendation, iiiuno muTiam, 
i. e. iUor [not iiiuno~\ mukham, and translated ' or thou wilt see the face 
of (thy) child (once more).' He has supported this interpretation by a 
reference to two other passages, one in Act VII. of this play (putra- 
mukha-daranena), another in Mricchak. p. 303, 1. 4. Doubtless putra- 
mukham drii is a common phrase, but the whole point of this passage 
seems to me to lie in the ludicrous substitution of 6unah for putrasya. 

2 Yama-sadana, ' the abode of Yama,' i. e. the infernal city, Yama-pur, 
whither the Hindus believe a departed soul immediately repairs, and 
receives a just sentence from Yama, the Hindu Pluto or Minos. The 
name Yama, i. e. Restrainer or Punisher (from yam, ' to restrain'), is given 
to him as judge of departed spirits and god of punishment. 

3 This is said ironically, in reference to p. 219, 1. 7, n. 3. 

4 Prasdda, properly ' a favour/ here ' a present,' ' a gift.' 

t II 9INUIH uP?! II 


: i 

1 ' This (fellow) forsooth (may well say he) has been favoured, who, 
after being made to descend from the stake, has been mounted on the 
withers of an elephant.' Sula, ' a stake for impaling Criminals.' The act 
of impaling was called iularopana, and one who deserved it 6ulya. 
1 Mounting on an elephant ' denotes elevation to high dignity, elephants 
being used in triumphal processions. 

2 This is the reading of K. Most of the Deva-n. have palidoSam ka- 
TieJii (=paritosham kathayd). Translate: ' The present proves [betokens, 
bespeaks] that this ring must be highly prized by the king.' 

3 ' Though naturally reserved [unruffled, deep, profound] he became for 
a moment agitated in mind.' GambJiira, see p. 39, n. i, and p. 204, n. 3. 
K. reads pqjjassu-naano (^paryairu-nayanaK). All Asiatics are skilful 
in concealing emotion. 


ii ^fir 

a * 



1 So read most of the Deva-n. MSB. Matsyikd is not given in the 
Dictionary. Dr. Boehtlingk translates it by Fisch-brut, ' the fry of fish,' 
and observes that it is also the name for a kind of fish called in German 
Schaar. Had the word been matsyika or matsyika, ' a fisherman,' there would 
have been no difficulty. May it not mean ' a fish-woman/ and matsyika- 
Wuirtri, ' this husband of a fish-woman V K. and the Bengali have matsya- 
iatroh, ' enemy of fishes.' Burkhard follows this, and reads maccha-attunotti, 
but in the Vocabulary prefers ma$chia=matsyikd, 'a fish' (1). 

2 ' Let the half of this be the price of your flower (for binding about 
my head).' The fisherman is again ironical. The allusion of course is to 
the flower mentioned at p. 222, 1. 1 1. There is probably a double-entendre 
in sumanah, which may signify ' good -will,' as well as ' flower.' 

3 ' Our first friendship requires to be attested over (some) wine,' i. e. 
we must pledge ourselves over our cups or in drinking each other's health. 
Kadambari, ' an intoxicating liquor distilled from the Kadamba flower.' 
Sdksliikam, compare Malavik. p. 53, 1. 7; Kaghu-v. xi. 48; Hitop. 1. 842. 

1 'Attendance at Apsaras-tirtha (which is wont) to be performed (by 
us) in regular-rotation has been performed by me. Now, whilst (it is) the 
bathing-time of the good people [i. e. of Sakuntala and the nymphs], I 
will with my own eyes ascertain the circumstances [news] of this Rajarshi.' 
Sdnnidhyam (from san-nidha), lit. ' proximity ;' here it denotes ' close at- 
tendance or waiting,' as in Hitop. 1. 1112, anujlvina Sdnnidhyam avaiyam 
karanlyam. In the interlude before Act IV. of Vikram., upasthdna occurs 
with the same sense in a parallel passage : Apsaro-vydpdra-parydyena 
suryasya upasthdne vartamdnayd priya-saJchyd vind vasanta-samaya 
dgata, iti balavad utkanthitdsmi, ' I am mightily troubled that the spring 
season has arrived during the absence of my dear friend, who is in 
attendance upon Surya, according to the regular cycle of nymph's duty.' 
Ud-anta (lit. 'reaching to the end'), 'telling to the end,' 'full tidings,' 'news.' 

2 ' Verily by (my) connexion with Menaka, Sakuntala has now become 
part of myself,' lit. ' my own body,' i. e. ' part of my own flesh and blood,' 
' identified with myself.' As to the nymph Menaka, the mother of Sa- 
kuntala, see p. 44, 1. n with n. 2, and p. 45, n. i. S'arlra-Wiutd, this is 
the same sort of compound as puga-krita or puga-bhuta; see Pan. ii. 1,59, 
and p. 167, n. 2 at the end. Cf. iarlram asi me, 'thou art my body,' 
Malavik. p. 33, 1. 12. 


I qHifu^cftui ii b 

I ft^ I 

I u ^fr ii<h|*inin5 fwin ii 

I b f^f *J 

: nf*!nn%T 


1 Ritutsava, lit. ' the festival of the season,' i. e. the Vasantotsava, or 
' great vernal festival,' in celebration of the return of spring, and said to 
be in honour of the god Krishna. Originally his son K&ma-deva, the god 
of love, must have been the object of worship in this festival. It is 
identified with the Holi or Dola-yatra, the Saturnalia, or rather, Carnival 
of the Hindus, when people of all conditions take liberties with each other, 
especially by scattering red powder and coloured water on the clothes of 
persons passing in the street, as described in Ratnavali, pp. 5, 6, 7, where 
syringes and waterpipes are used by the crowd. Flowers, and especially 
the opening blossoms of the mango, would naturally be much used for 
decoration at this festival, and as offerings to the god of love. It was 
formerly held on the full moon of the month Caitra, or about the begin- 
ning of April, but now on the full moon of Phalguna, or about the 
beginning of March. The other great Hindu festival, held in the autumn, 
about October, is called Durgotsava or Durgd-pujd, being in honour of 
the goddess Durga. 

2 Pranidhana, ' profound meditation,' or that mental faculty by 
which divine beings were supposed to be able to ascertain future 
events. The verb pra-ni-dhd (sometimes with manas) is primarily ' to 
fix in ;' hence ' to fix the mind on,' ' be intent on.' Compare mayd 
pranidhdna-sthitaya atydhitam upalabdham, Vikram. (interlude before 
Act' IV). 

3 Tiras-karini, a kind of magical veil, rendering the wearer invisible. 

Gg 2 

II ^rfW$i|*l3ieyrtrt*^ II 228 

1 ' reddish pale-green mango-blossom, the very essence of the life of 
the vernal month, thou art seen (by me, and) I bid thee hail, auspicious- 
harbinger of the season.' A-tdmra-Jiarita-pandura, this kind of Dvandva 
Bahuvrihi compound, expressing varieties of colour, is noticed by Pan. ii. i, 69 
(cf. krisJina-iukla, lohita-Savala, &c.) A prefixed, implies diminution, and is 
equivalent to Ishat. So a-pdndu, ' yellowish,' or ' slightly yellow,' Vikram., 
Act II. Jlva-sarvasva, lit. ' whose whole substance is constituted of life/ 
see p. 33, n. i in the middle. Some MSS. have jlva-sarvasvam, agreeing 
with tvdm. Man-galam, ' anything auspicious,' ' any symbol or sign of 
happiness;' in this latter sense it seems to be used here. The goddess 
DurgS is called in the same way sarva-man-gala, 'presiding over the 
happiness of the whole world.' Situ is evidently here the season par 
excellence, the season of all others. Prasddaydmi, lit. ' I ask thee to be 
favourable,' ' I entreat thee to be propitious.' 

2 Para-bhritikd, 'the female of the Indian cuckoo,' see p. 162, n. 2. 

Verse 134. ABTA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

In the last Pada the syllables mam and e are considered short by a license peculiar 
to Prakrit prosody. 



feirhn i 

I d ^f^ HHlfq y^^H^HMtc^W I e 

i THI ^SRH? *^ aftf^Tnr i ff^nfwff r^*r i f 

1 Bandhana, i. e. prasava-bandhana, ' the foot-stalk of the flower,' see 
p. 103, 1. 3, n. i. 

2 { Having joined the hands together,' or ' having placed them one over 
another.' Kapota is properly ' a dove or pigeon ;' but K. informs us that 
it is also the name for a mode of joining the hands. Probably the hands 
and fingers were brought into a position bearing some fancied resemblance 
to a pigeon. S*. and CT. quote the following verse, which seems to intimate 
that this position was significant of humble entreaty, respectful representa- 
tion, or fear : Sarva-parSva-samaileshat kapotah sarva-ilrshakah [sarpa- 
ilrshakah, &], bhltau mjiiapane caiva vinaye ca prayujyate. 


II ?fiT 

ii tffii ii 


1 ' mango-sprout, thou art offered by me to Kama-deva (now in the 
act of) taking-up-his-bow. Become the most excellent arrow of the five, 
having-for-thy-mark maidens whose lovers are journeying (to some distant 
land).' As to Kama and the epithet jmncabhyadhika ( = ireshtTia, K. \ 
sJuzshtha, f$.), see p. 99, n. I. Pathika-jana-yuvati, cf. Megha-d. ver. 8, 
pathika-vanitah. With reference to the offering of flowers to Kama-deva, 
cf. Ratn. pp. 14, 17. 

2 'With a hurried toss of the curtain/ see p. 144, n. i. 

3 ' Do not so, thou thoughtless woman ! ' An-dtmajna (-=atma-paricaya- 
rahita), lit. ' one who does not know his own nature.' It denotes here, 
' one who is thoughtless about orders.' As to the Kancukin or Chamber- 
lain, see p. 1 8 6, n. i. 

* ' When even by the vernal shrubs, and by the feathered tribes [birds] 
their inhabitants, the commands of the king are made the rule [obeyed].' 
Pramdna is ' a rule or standard of action,' and pramanl-kri, ' to receive 
as a rule,' 'to admit as authority' (cf. p. 188, 1. 5). 

Verse 135. AKYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 




rrsrff : i 


1 ' The bud of the mangoes, though long since protruded, does not form 
[gather] its own pollen [dust]. The Kuruvaka flower, though all ready to 
blossom, remains in its budding state. The note falters in the throats of 
the male-cuckoos, though the cold-dews are passed. I suspect even Smara, 
being daunted, arrests [replaces] the shaft half-drawn from (his) quiver.' 
Badhnati, see p. 29, n. i in the middle ; and compare Ishad-baddlia-rajah- 
kanagra-kapiia cute navd manjarl, Vikram., Act II. Sannaddham= 
pushpitum udyatam, Sf. ;=vikasonmukham, K. (cf. p. 27, 1. 6, n. 2). Sthi- 
tam, cf. p. i, 1. 2. Kuruvaka is either the crimson amaranth, or a purple 
species of Barleria. Tat-korakdvasthaya=kalikd-daaya, SC; i. e. na vikd- 
sitam, (7. Skhalitam = gadgaditam, K. SfUira, properly ' the dewy 
season,' or ' season of hoar-frost.' The Hindus divide the year into six 
seasons of two months each, viz. i. Spring, Vasanta, beginning about the 
middle of March, or according to some, February; 2. Summer, Grlshma; 
3. Rains, Varshd; 4. Autumn, S'arad; 5. Winter, Hemanta; 6. Dews, 
S'ttira. Pans-kokildndm rutam, cf. parabhrita-virutam, p. 162, 1. 4, with 
note. Samharati, cf. p. 14, 1. 3. It is clear that sam-hri and prati- 
sam-hri may have the sense of ' replace,' in reference to a quiver, as in 
Maha-bh. iii. 772, we have samharasva punar vdnam. See also Raghu-v. 
iii. 64. Smara, see p. 209, n. i. 

2 ' (But) few days (have elapsed) to us sent to the feet of his Majesty 

Verse 136. SARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 
39. 4. 63, 79- 8 5, 86, 89/97, 98, in. 




i i "faftrftra 




~ i 


by Mitra-vasu, the king's brother-in-law.' Kati, like kiyat, may be either 
interrogative or indefinite. So kati paddni gatva, Ratn. p. 14, 1. 6. After 
divasdni, K. supplies gatdni, 'have passed.' This construction of the 
genitive after gata, expressing the lapse of time, is not uncommon. Cf. 
ashta-pafica&atam ratryah iayanasya adya me gatdh, Maha-bh. xiii. 7732; 
adya daiamo mdsas tdtasya uparatasya, Mudra-r. p. 80, 1. n. Mdso 
jatasya, Pan. ii. 2, 5- Pdda-mulam, lit. 'the root of the feet/ 'the heel.' 
The phrase pdda-mulam jireshitah, expressive of the most humble servitude, 
occurs elsewhere ; see Mudra-r. p. 16, 1. 8; and p. 64, 1. 16. Rashtriyena, 
see p. 217, n. 2 ; the king's brother-in-law probably acted as a kind of 

1 AgantuJcataya, 'since we are but just arrived,' or 'by reason of our 
being strangers;' see note on baddha-pallavatayd, p. 29, 1. i. 

2 ' By us ;' see note to ayamjanah, p. 144, 1. 2, and cf. p. 109, 1. 8. 

3 Utsava-priydh, 'fond of festivals,' see p. 161, n. 3 at the end. 

4 ahull-bhutam=sakala-viditam, 'generally known,' 'notorious,' S*. 

5 ' Has not the scandal about the repudiation of Sakuntala reached your 
ladyships' ears'?' Karna-patha, lit. 'the path or range of the ears,' cf. 


dar&ana-patlia, p. no, 1. 2; and locana-patham yantya, Ivatn. 1. 2. 
Kaulma = loka-vada, ' report/ K.;=;parI'yacZa or apavada, ' evil report/ XX 
It is derived from kula, ' a family/ and may signify ' report relating to 
family or private matters/ ' family scandal/ It is so used in Vikram., 
Act II, etat kaulmam vijrimbJiate. 

1 This supposes a Sanskrit stem rashtri or rdshtrin instead of the 
more usual rashtriya. 

2 ' He abhors (everything) pleasurable. He is not, as formerly, respect- 
fully-waited-on every day by (his) courtiers [counsellors, ministers]. He 
spends his nights, without even closing his eyes, in tossing [rolling] about 
on the edge of his couch. When, out of politeness, he addresses the usual- 
civil speeches to the women of the palace, then he blunders in (their) 
names and becomes for a long while disconcerted [abashed] with shame/ 
Ramyam, i. e. srak-candana-vanitddi, ' garlands, sandal, women, &c./ K. ; 
in fact, ' the pleasures of sense.' Prakritibhih=sacivaih, Cf. ; = 6ishtaih, S". 
Ucitam=arhdm=tatkala-yogyam, K. ; see p. 145, 1.5. Antahpurebhyo, 
see p. 123, n. i. Gotreshu = namasu, SC and (u.;=.ndmadheyesJtu, K. 
Skhalitah=viparyastah, K., i.e. 'by mistake he utters the name of 

K. and ?. To indicate a lover's absence of mind or rather 

Verse 137. ^ABDULA-VIKEJDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verse 136. 

H h 

2 34 


ti cffft ufa^rftr *< ^ar^mti $14311 TJWT 

ff^T ff 

the one engrossing object of his thoughts, Hindu poets are fond of making 
him fall into the trap of calling others by the name of his mistress (cf. 
Kumara-s. iv. 8 ; also Eaghu-v. xix. 24, ndma vallabha-janasya te mayd 
prapya bhdgyam api tasya Jcdn-Jcshyate iti tarn gotra-viskluilitam ucur 
an-gcmdh, 'the women thus addressed him, making mistakes in their 
names [calling them by the name of his beloved], since I have received 
the name of thy beloved I desire also her lot ;' also Pravesaka to Act II. 
of Vikram., yan-nimittam Wia/rtd utJcantliitas tasyah striyd ndmna bJiwtrd 
devl dlapitd; and another passage in the Vishkambha at the opening of 
the next Act, tayd purushottaina iti vaktavye pururavaslti nirgata vani). 
1 ' In consequence of this mental derangement of his Majesty.' Vaima- 
nasya, abstract noun from vi-manas, 'disordered or changed in mind/ 
'absent in mind' (Gram. p. 67, LXXVII). Prdbhavato (= rdjtiah, Ch^zy ; 
=prabhoh, K.), gen. of prabhavat, 'ruling,' 'one who rules;' it seems to 
be used like prabhu and prabhavishnu in addressing or speaking of kings 
(cf. ndsti prdbhavato 'parddhah, Vikram., Act II. at the end). 




a Win 

1 ' Scorning distinguished [superior] forms of decoration ; wearing but 
a single golden bracelet fastened [placed] on the left fore-arm ; with lips 
bloodless from sighing ; with eyes very red from sleeplessness (caused) by 
thought (upon Sakuntala) ; through the excellence of his own (inherent) 
lustre, though he be attenuated he is not observed (to be so), like a 
magnificent gem (whose surface is) ground away by the polishing-stone/ 
Pratyadishfa-viSesha-mandana-vidhih = nirdkrita-vi^ishtdlanrkdra-vidhd- 
nah, Sf. (cf. Megha-d. ver. 92, and prasddhana-vidhefy prasadhana-vUe- 
shah, Vikram., Act II). Prakoshfha (see p. 53, n. i)-=-kurpara-mani-la,n- 
dhana-madhyabhdga, K. (cf. p. 114, n. 2). JBibhratdadhat; in the pres. 
part. Par. of verbs of cl. 3, the nom. is identical with the stem (Gram. 14 1. a)., rakta-hlna, 'bloodless/ 'pale.' The effect of long 
and deep sighs would be to draw the blood away from the lipa (cf. Megha-d. 
verses 83, 89). Uintd-jdgarana, i.e. tfakuntala-vishayinyd cintayd, $>. 
Gundt = utkarshdt, K. Sanskdra = 6dna, K. ; =prastara-vttesha; (sanskdra, 
has the sense ' polishing ;' cf. Hitop. 1. 15); 6dnottikhitah=6dnodghrishtah, 
K. Ndlakshyate (i. e. na dl], see p. 70, n. 3 at the end. 

2 ' Previously this paralysed [blighted] heart slumbered even whilst-it- 
was-being-roused-from-sleep by my fawn-eyed beloved. Now it is broad- 

Verse 138. SARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, &c,, 137. 
Verse 139. ARTA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

y 'y V -- 

H h 2 

ii 236 



I ii ^fii 

TffTCT5f 5 

ERTfT <5^t I n ? fir f?rw?r: n 

b - 

i r WTO i in^ (VfsiifWrt^n ^TfT5nftfif i 

awake to the anguish of remorse.' Anu$aya-duhkhaya=pacattdpa-khe- 
ddya. Samprati, i. e. tad-virahe, S'. Vibuddham=jdgritam, S'. 

1 ' He is again attacked [seized, afflicted] by a Sakuntala-fever,' i. e. he 
is again love-sick for S'akuntala. Langhita, see p. 97, n. i. 

2 ' Having committed that to writing [to a letter], let it be sent to me;' 
or, ' having written that in a letter, let it be given (to some messenger)/ 
DlyatampraMyatam, S'. 

3 Sva-niyogam antahpurdveksha-rupam, ' thy stated business consisting 
of superintendence of the female apartments,' S'. Vdtayana, this is the 
name of the Kancukin, see p. 186, n. i. 



r sfir 


: n 


1 Nirmakshikam, see p. 76, 1. 2, n. i. MaksTiikaya apy abhavdn nirja- 
nam, S^. 

2 ' Misfortunes rush in through the (first) hole (they can find),' i. e. mis- 
fortunes are continually on the watch for an opening or vulnerable point 
by which to assail us; they seize the first opportunity that offers for 
attacking us ; they quickly succeed each other before we have time to 
stand on our guard. This must have been a common proverb, something 
like our ' Misfortunes never come alone.' The king observes that ' this 
which is a saying commonly current among men is quite consistent and 
true [a-vy 'abhicdri] in his own case,' and he then proceeds to explain why 
\kutas, see p. 55, n. 2] in the subsequent verse. Randhra^-chldra, K. 
Upanipatino = samdpatanti, K. Anarihah = dpadah, K. Tad ucyate, 
i.e. lokena, K. ; avyabhicari=:awparydsi (i.e. ndnyathd bhavatt), K. ; 
=.avaiyam-bhdvi or yatJidriham, Sf. Dr. Boehtlingk translates, 'The un- 
fortunate fall into a hole [grave]/ which seems supportable by a reading 
randhroparipdtino 'narthd, noticed by K., although not adopted by him. 
Cf. Bhartri-h. ii. 86, prdyo gacchati yatra bhdgya-rahitas tatraiva ydnty 

3 ' No sooner is this my soul freed from the darkness that obstructed 
the remembrance of my love for the sage's daughter, than a mango- 
blossom-shaft, O my friend, is fixed on (his) bow by the heart-born (god) 

Verse 140. DROTA-VILAMBITA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 45, 72, 128. 






I I 

now-about-to-shoot-at-me.' The occurrence of ca in each clause denotes 
immediate connexion or succession, expressed in English by ' no sooner 
than/ 'so soon as,' 'scarcely when,' &c. (cf. verse 131 and Kumara-s. 
iii. 58). Manasi-ja, 'born in the mind or heart,' a name of Kama-deva 
(see p. 100, n. i). Prdharishyat, 'about to strike,' participle of the 
2nd future. Cuta-iara, see p. 99, n. i in the middle. The verse which 
follows this in the Beng. and Mackenzie MSS. is probably spurious. 

1 I have adopted vdnam from the oldest Beng. MSS. & and (7. have 
vanan. The Deva-n. vvahim (=vyadhim). K. reads vvdham (=vyadham), 
'a hunter,' 'shooter.' May not vyddhi, like vyadha, signify 'hunting/ 
* shooting/ ' sport ]' in which case the Deva-n. reading might be retained. 

8 'The mighty power of a Brahman is seen (by me).' This is said 
ironically in reference to the Vidiishaka's ridiculous attempt to destroy 
the arrows of K5ma-deva. 

3 Lit. ' a near attendant/ i. e. an attendant about one's person. 

4 Ati-vah, in causal, has the sense 'to pass time.' Cf. Raghu-v. xix. 47, 
ix. 70. 

5 Citra-phalaka, ' a picture-tablet/ ' a tablet for painting.' The same 
expression occurs in Katn. p. 21, 1. 8, and p. 22, 1. i, and Vikram., Act 
II. As to gatdm, here meaning 'committed to/ see p. 206, n. 4. 




H ^firinn PPIT ftmn n 


ntqw<4i: uiTiiT* i 

1 Mani-iilapattaka-sanatha, ' furnished with a marble seat,' see p. 26, 
n. 3. 

2 'With the agreeableness of its flowery offerings,' 'with its charming 
flowery gifts.' Upahdra, or according to the commentators upacara = 
kusumddi-vistdra, SC Flowers were used as complimentary presents or 
offerings, especially to the god of love. 

3 Bahu-mukha (lit. ' having many faces'), ' manifold,' ' excessive.' Bahu- 
madam (^=bahu-matarn) is another reading. 

* So read all the MSS. except my own, which omits sa. Sa may be used 
to emphasize other pronouns, and sa Wiavan therefore =ille tu, i.e. 'your 
honour, that same person to whom alone I mentioned the circumstances.' 



ii m?T u 



1 PariMsa-vijalpa, see p. 94, 1. 5. As to bhutdrtha, see p. 5, n. 2. 

2 '"Whose brains [intellect] are like a lump of clay/ 'whose under- 
standing is dense as a clod of earth.' (Cf. the expressions ' clod-pated,' 
'clod-poll/ 'blockhead,' &c.) Some MSS. have manda-buddhina. As to 
Wiavitavya-td balavatl, see p. 206, n. 2. 

3 ' Have not hearts that give place to sorrow,' ' do not give themselves 
up to uncontrolled grief.' Pdtra, 'a receptacle,' see p. 203, n. i at the 
end. I have followed Katavema's reading. That of the other Deva-u. MSS., 
soa-vattavva, is hardly intelligible. 

4 Sam-avasthd, with the sense of avastha, ' state,' ' condition,' occurs 
not unfrequently in the plays. Cf. Malavik. p. 66, 1. i; p. 68, 1. 15. See 
also p. 1 64, 1. 6 of this play, where it has the sense of samavastha. 

241 TOI: ii 

: i 

T%t I 

1 '(The thought) that after her repudiation from hence, (when) she 
attempted to follow her attendants, the Guru's pupil, (who claimed 
obedience) like-the-Guru-himself, repeatedly saying to her in a loud 
voice, " Stay," she cast on me inexorable [cruel, hard-hearted] a second 
look bedimmed with gushing tears ; that (it is which) torments me like 
an envenomed shaft/ Itah, i.e. mattah, 'by me,' S'. Vyavasila-=yat- 
nam kritavatl, S'. Muhus tishtha, &c., see p. 213, 1. i. Guru-same, 
i. e. alan-ghyddeiataya. 

2 ' Alas ! such is the force of absorption in one's own object that I am 
actually pleased by his distress (instead of compassionating it).' Paratd 
means here ' the being addicted to.' Some Beng. MSS. have a-kajja-parada. 
Sva-karya, i.e. 'relating to S'akuntala,' S'. Cf. p. 207, 1. 7. 

3 ' Who else could presume [would have the power] to-lay-a-finger-on 
[touch, bear off] the idol of (her) husband 1 ?' Kah anya, cf. p. 208, 11. 8, 9. 
Pati-devata, ' the goddess of her husband/ or as we should say, ' a wife 
idolized by her husband.' This is probably the sense of this expression, 
which is found in all the Deva-n. MSS. The Beng. have pati-vratdm, 
' a wife devoted to her husband.' Pari-mdrshtum (so read all the Deva-n.) 
must come from pari-mrij, ' to wipe off,' ' remove.' It may be used like 

Verse 141. SIKHARINI (a variety of ATYASHTI). See verses 9, 24, 44, 62, 112. 

i i 

II ^rfa$tM$l<JfM*HI 242 

r nfir^tv: i 


pari-mrU, 'to lay hold of;' cf. p. 203, n. i. One MS. (I. 0. 1060) has 
para-mwrshtum (from para-mri), ' to seize,' ' lay violent hands on,' and this 
reading is adopted by the St. Petersburg dictionary and by Dr. Burkhard. 

1 Jdnma-pratishthd = janma-stJmnam, 'place of birth;' = mdta, 
'mother/ Che'zy. Janma-pratishthd-=jana/n/i, S'. Dushyanta speaks of 
S'akuntalS to the Vidushaka as, ' thy friend.' So the Yaksha speaks of 
his wife to the Cloud, in Megha-d. 87, 93. 

2 ' Truly the state-of-mental-delusion [delirium, hallucination] is to be 
wondered at, not the recovery-from-it [the awakening from it].' S'. ex- 
plains sammoha by ' forgetfulness,' and pratibodha by ' recollection.' 

3 Pdrayatah, ' are able,' from the causal of root pri, meaning properly 
'to carry over,' 'conduct,' 'achieve,' &c. ; cf. p. 146, 1. 2. In Prakrit 
and more modern Sanskrit (as also in Bengali) it has, as here, the sense 
' to be able.' It may come from a nominal verb from para, ' the other 

Side.' (Cf. Tre'pa, Trepas, irepd<o, nepatva>.) 

243 H *nsft : u 


1 ' Was it a dream 1 or an illusion-of-magic 1 or a mental-delusion 1 
or (the result of my) good-works so far indeed rewarded (and then) 
marred 1 It has certainly passed away, never to return ; (and so has 
become) the steep precipice of my heart's-fondest-hopes.' Such is the 
reading of all the Deva-n. MSS., and doubtless the true one. In the 
third and fourth Padas I have adopted eva and prapdtah (in place of 
ete and prapdtdh) from the Mackenzie, the former supported by K. Maya, 
i. e. indra-jdlddi-kriya, S*. Bhrama, one so affected imagines that to be 
present which does not really exist (asad api sdkshdt-karoti, S'. and (T.) 
Punyam, i. e. svaklyam sukritam, K. Tdvat-phalam eva, i. e. darana- 
phalam eva, K. ; dar$ana-mdtra-phalam, (T., ' fruitful so far only as the 
sight of S'akuntala,' K. Klishtam (cf. p. 201, 1. 13); the best explanation 
of this idea will be found in p. 80, 1. 7, with n. 2, and in n. 2 below. 
Asannivrittyai, cf. Raghu-v. viii. 48, para-lokam asannivrittaye gatasi, 
'thou art gone to the other world never to return/ S'. thus explains 
the second half of the verse, 'As a man after .ascending the peak of a 
mountain falls headlong, so my hopes after ascending to the sight of 
S'akuntala are precipitated.' As to tata, see p. 175, n. r. Amara-k. (ii. 
3, 4) gives atata as a synonym of prapdta and bhrigu, each of these words 
signifying ' a precipice,' but there is no reason why atata should not be 
used as an epithet of prapdta, to denote a very precipitous declivity. The 
Beng. MSS. read klriptam nu tdvat plialam eva punyaih, asannivrittau 
tad [asannivrittyai tad\ atwa manye manorathdnam atata-prapatam. 

2 ' Is not the very ring a proof that there may be an unexpected meeting 
with that which must necessarily come ?' Nanu often = Latin nonne. 

Verse 142. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI (a variety of TRISHTUBH). See verses 41, 107, 
121, 126. 



1 'Verily, O ring, the-merit-of-thy -good- works like mine is judged 
[proved] to be insignificant [slender] by the reward [result] ; since after- 
gaining-a-station on the charming-rosy-nailed fingers of that-lady thou 
hast fallen (from it).' The doctrine of laying up a store of merit by good 
deeds performed in the present and former births is an essential part of the 
Hindu creed (see last verse, and cf. p. 185, n. 3). Aruna-nakha, see p. 125, 
n. 2 at the end. Aruna may imply ' ruddy as the dawn,' see p. 142, n. 3. 

2 'By my curiosity also he (would be) incited (to tell the reason).' 
Kautukala = iravanotkanthd, 'desire of hearing,' S'. AMrita = dhata, 
prerita,K. Cf. tarn vara-dandya dkdraydmdsa, Ramay. ii. 13, 2. S'. reads 
vddita, ' made to speak,' for dkarita. The Beng. MSS. have vyapdrita. 

3 Pratipatti, cf. p. 172, 1. 4, with note thereon. 

Verse 143. POSHPITAGRA. See verses 32, 37. 

245 n TOSU: 



: i 

1 ' Count [spell] hereon [i. e. on this ring] one by one each day the 
letters of my name until thou reachest the end. So soon, loved one, 
(as thou hast spelt the whole name) a messenger will come into thy 
presence who- will-conduct thee to the entrance of my private-apartments.' 
Ndmdksharam, cf. p. 53, 1. 6. Gfacchasi, so reads the Taylor MS. as well 
as my own, supported by the Calcutta ed. ; the others, gacchati. Netd, 
the noun of agency has sometimes the sense of a future participle, and 
may govern the case of the verb. So vaktd vdJcyam, ' one who is about 
to speak a speech,' Draupadi-h. 32. Indeed the nom. masc. of this form 
of noun is identical with the 3rd pers. of the ist future. 

2 ' Verily (this) charming period (of expectation) was by Destiny made 
(to pass away) without-the-appointment-being-kept,' or ' Destiny caused 
that the delightful appointment-of-a-period (for the reunion of these lovers) 
should fail of being kept.' Vi-sam-vad is ' to fail in keeping a promise 
or agreement.' Cf. phale visamvadati, Vikram., Act II. 

3 The Vidushaka designedly uses the dialect of the fisherman; see 
p. 220, 1. 4 sq.; p. 217, n. 2. 

Verse 144. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of &AKVARI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94, 95, 100, 104, 105, 108, 123, 124. 


: i 

ft^T I 


1 Compare p. 205, 11. 12, 13, n. 2. 

2 'How (couldest) thou (allow thyself) to be immersed in the water, 
having abandoned that hand with (its) slender delicate fingers? But 
(where is the wonder 1 for) an inanimate-object may well not distinguish 
excellence. How (was it that) even by me (my) beloved was rejected V 
<mdhura=unnatanata, ' undulating ;'=ramya, 'beautiful,' (X Athava, 
see p. 30, n. 3. 

Verse 145. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 23, 67, Si, 
114, 117, 119. 



1 5rr$ i 


1 ' Why am I to be devoured by hunger (while he is apostrophizing his 
ring) T A very characteristic remark, see p. 59, n. i in the middle. 

2 ' The presence of the prevailing sentiment (love, rati) is delightful by 
its sweet abiding in every part. My sight stumbles as it were amidst 
the depressions and prominences;' i.e. the relief or appearance of pro- 
jection and depression in the picture is so well managed that my eye is 
deceived, and seems to follow the inequalities of surface. For anu-pravefa, 
cf. Raghu-v. iii. 22 ; and for avastMna, Sa.hit.-d, p. 75, 1. 2. It may 
mean ' by the sweet position of the figures,' but bhdva means here rati. 

3 ' Whatever is not well (executed) in the picture [whatever falls short 

Verse 146. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53, 73, 
76, 84, 87, 125, 127, 130. 

, p* 

of perfect beauty], all that is wrongly (portrayed). Nevertheless her 
loveliness is in some measure possessed by the drawing;' i.e. the artist 
has to some extent made a likeness, though very inferior to the original. 
Rekhd=lekhana, 'a sketch,' 'delineation,' K. The Beng. have lekhayd. 

1 Mogha-drishti, cf. p. 76, 1. 10, n. 3; Bhatti-k. v. 19. 

2 ' I imagine that she who is delineated as if a little fatigued at the side 
of the mango-tree, the tender shoots of which are glistening after her 
watering (of them), with arms extended in a peculiar manner, with a face 
having drops of perspiration breaking out (upon it), with locks of hair 
the flowers of which have escaped through the slackened hair-band this 
(I imagine) is S'akuntala, the other two (are her) female friends.' Udrdnta, 



' " ^ ^ 

ii fn^i'di ^K\ ii 

I ^N'rtty f^^'Mjci'sR I 

lit. ' vomited up,' here ' dropped off/ ' fallen down.' Udbhinna-sveda- 
vinduna, cf. p. 70, n. 3 ; hence in line 9 of that page, sveda-le&air dbhinnant 
is a better reading than Ideia-le&air. ViGeshato 'pasritabhyam, it appears 
from a subsequent passage that she is represented in the act of warding 
off the bee mentioned at p. 32, 1. 4. Itare, nom. dual feminine. 

1 ' Here is a sign of my passion ; the soiled impression of (my) per- 
spiring fingers is observed on the edges of the picture, and a tear here 
[this tear] fallen from (my) cheek is perceptible from the coming out of 
the colour.' However offensive to our notions of good taste, it is certain 
that in Hindu erotic poetry, perspiration is considered to be one of the 
signs of passionate love. So in the Vikram., anrguli-svedena me lupyante 
akshardni; cf. also Raghu-v. vii. 19, svinndn-gulih sanwavrite kumarl, &c. 
Varnikd (varna) is the reading of K., supported by most of the Beng. 
MSS., which have varnaka. The other Deva-n. have vartikd, which may, 
like varii, mean ' collyrium,' ' pigment.' Varnikocchvasat means ' from 
the brightness (i. e. coming out) of the pigment ;' Prema-candra explains 
it by ran-gasya utphullatvat. Kapola-patita, ' fallen from my cheek,' or 
perhaps * fallen on the cheek ' (of the portrait). 

2 Lit. ' pleasure-ground,' i. e. landscape ; lieu de la scene, Che'zy. 

Verse 147. ART A or GATHA. See verse 2. 

-- I Vs w w vs I -- -- -- ^ ~ ^ ~ ^ u 

K k 


I n iran^r* u b Hi I 3SRt f^i ^rT fc^f? ^1 

1 ' (While) again and again making much of her (image) committed to 
a picture, having previously repudiated my beloved when she came into 
my presence, I have become, friend, (as it were) possessed of a longing 
for the waters-of-the-mirage, after passing by a river in-my-road having- 
plenty-of- water;' i.e. I am like one who prefers the shadow to the sub- 
stance, the semblance to the reality. Citrarpitam=citra-gatam, see p. 238, 
n. 5. Sroto-vaha, beautiful women are often compared by Hindu poets 
to rivers, which in Sanskrit are generally feminine. Nikama-jaldm, 
'yielding abundance of water, as much as can be desired ;' as to nikdma 
in this sense, see p. 108, n. 3 in the middle. Mriga-trishnikd, lit. 'thirst 
of deer,' ' a vapour floating over waste places, which appears at a distance 
like water, and deceives men and animals.' 

Verse 148. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVABI). See verses 8, 27, 31, &c., 144. 




a ^T^ tT^HTfa I ^C.fMri<=MH^T fi^mrt* cS^f^^fnt HT'WT'lf 

1 ' The river Malim ought to be drawn [made] with a pair of swans 
[flamingoes] resting on a sandbank ; (and) on both sides of it the sacred 
hills-contiguous to Himalaya [Gauri's father], with-some-deer-reclining 
(on them) ; and I wish under a tree, on-whose-boughs-some-bark-garments- 
are-suspended, to form a doe rubbing (her) left eye on the horn of a black 
antelope.' Hansa, a kind of wild-goose of a white colour, with golden 
wings ; something between a swan and a flamingo. It serves the god 
Brahma as a vehicle, and hence the hansa-ndda or ' cry' of this bird has 
a sacred character, just as the cry of the swan, with the Greeks ; the voice 
of a beautiful woman is even compared to it (Bhatti-k. v. 18). Mdlinl, 
cf. p. 103, 1. 6; p. 16, 1. 7. Paddh=pratyanta-parvatdh, 5~>.;=paryanta- 
parvatdh, K. Gaurl-guroh-=Himalayasya, S'. ; Himalaya, the god of the 
great snowy range, was the father of Gauri, the wife of S'iva, whence she 
is called Parvatl, Himavat-suta, Hima-ja, &c. S'dkhd-lambita-valTcala, cf. 
vitapa-visliakta-jaldrdra-valkalesTiu, verse 32, and p. 18, n. i at the end. 

2 ' With multitudes of long-bearded monks.' Lamba, lit. ' hanging 
down;' kurca=ma4ru,S'. The Mackenzie reads lamba-kucchanam padi- 
Jcamma kuvvdnena tabasanim niarena. 

3 The meaning may be, 'there is another of S'akuntala's ornaments 
intended (to be drawn) on this picture (but) forgotten by me.' 

: Verse 149. SARDULA-VIKRIDITA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, 30, 36, 
39. 4. 6 3 79' 8 5 86, 89, 97, 98, iir, 137, 138. 

K k 2 


n wravnr re^ i ffr u 

tt I fife 

1 ' A Sirisha-blossom, with its stalk fastened in her ear, (and) its-fila- 
ments-hanging-down-to-her-cheek, has not been drawn [made], O friend. 
Nor has a necklace-of-lotus-fibres, soft-as-the-rays-of-the-autumnal-moon, 
been formed in the midst of her bosom.' andhana=prasava-bandhana 
=vrinta, S'. and C'. (cf. p. 103, n. i, and p. 229, n. i). tfirlsha, see p. 7, 
n. i, and p. 53, n. i. The blossom of a plant is neuter in Sanskrit. 

2 With regard to this passage and what follows, compare pp. 32, 33, 
34. As to rakta-kuvalaya, <fec., see p. 25, n. i. As to dasyah-putra, 
see p. 6 1, n. i. _ 

Verse 150. VAN&A-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 23, 67, 81, 
114, 117, 119,145. 


i ^rft? nt: 


1 Ht ^T ^ *!TO% fif^ftr I frft rff 

f: i 

1 ' Wherefore dost thou undergo the fatigue of hovering round about ] 
There [esJid] resting-on-a-flower the-devotedly-attached female-bee, although 
being thirsty, waits for thee ; nor indeed without thee will she sip (its) 
nectar.' Paripatana, ' flying round about/ the first sense of pat is ' to fly.' 

2 ' For-once-now this (bee) is warned-off [kept off] quite in a courteous 
manner.' The meaning is somewhat obscure, but there seems to be a 
satirical allusion to the king's polite address to the bee, followed as it is 
by a threat. 

3 ' This race (of animals), however (it may be) driven off, is perverse.' 
The Beng. MSS. and K. have pratishiddha-vama. Vdma, properly ' left/ 
' not right;' hence 'turned from the right/ ' reverse/ 'perverse/ 'refractory.' 

4 ' If, O bee, thou touchest the Bimba-lip of (my) beloved, charming as 

Verse 151. ARYA or GATHA. See verse i. 

Verse 152. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVABI). See verses 8, 27, 31, &c., 148. 


^ ,u- *- K *- 


I f^i 

the uninjured blossom of a young tree, that very (lip which has been) 
tenderly drunk by me in love's banquets, (then) I will make thee im- 
prisoned in the hollow of a lotus' (cf. verse 77, with note). Bimbddhara, 
' lip like the Bimba,' i. e. of a bright red colour, like the gourd of the 
Bimba (Momordica Monadelpha), a cucurbitaceous plant. So bimbddhard- 
laktakah, Malavik. p. 30, 1. i; Raghu-v. xiii. 16. Compare our expression, 
'cherry-lip.' Kamalodara-bcf, see p. 183, n. i. Bandhana seems here 
to mean ' the place of imprisonment.' 

1 ' How should he not stand in awe of one who has (threatened him 
with) so severe a punishment V Tikshna-danda, ' severe in punishing,' ' a 
strict disciplinarian.' The Prakrit equivalent of tikshna is tinha, accord- 
ing to Vararuci iii. 33, although most of the MSS. have tikkhana. Root bM 
in Sanskrit is usually joined with an abl., but the gen. is admissible (Gram. 
855, 859); K., however, observes that this construction is peculiar to 
Prakrit (cf. dakshinya-paScattapasya bibhemi, Vikram., end of Act II). 

2 ' Even I now did not understand the thing ; how much less should he 
perceive that it was painted?' An-avagatartha, so reads the Mackenzie 
MS., supported by K. ; the others, avagatdrthd. 

3 ' Why has this ill-natured-act been perpetrated (by you) 1 ' Pawo- 
bhdgya, see p. 212, n. i. K. observes, purobhagi= dosluiiJca-darii= dush- 
tah, tasya karma pawrcibhagyam, and refers to Pan. v. i, 124. 



1 ' My beloved is once more transformed into a picture by thee reviving 
the recollection of me enjoying the bliss of beholding her just-as-if (she 
were) present before my eyes, having my (whole) soul wrapped-up-in-her.' 
Tan-may ena=Scikuntald-mayena, S'., lit. 'with a heart made of S'akun- 
tala,' i. e. wholly absorbed by her. 

2 Viharati, 'wipes away,' or 'sheds;' see p. 166, n. 5, and p. 154, n. i. 

3 ' This demeanour of (one in a state of) separation, opposing first one 
thing and then another, is singular [unexampled, without a precedent].' 
Purvapara-virodhl may mean ' setting itself against everything from first 
to last,' or ' from first to last untoward.' Lovers, when separated from 
each other, were supposed to find comfort and amusement in various 
trifling employments expressive of their passion (see Megha-d. 86) ; but 
here was the case of one whom nothing could divert. 

4 ' (The hope of) meeting her in sleep is rendered vain through (my) 
wakefulness. Moreover the (blinding) tears (that fill my eyes) will not 
permit me to behold her even represented-in-a-picture.' Vdshpa, see p. 157, 
n. i in the middle. Khill-bhutadur-ldbha, S'. In Hindu poetry dreams 
and pictures are the regular standing artifices of lovers for tricking them- 
selves into fictitious unions with their mistresses; just as sleeplessness 
and tears are the regular standing impediments to such devices. Of. 

Verse 153. ARYA or GATHA. See verse i. 

Verse 154. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53, 73, 
76, 84,87, 125, 127, 146. 


ii vjm it 

n < 

rTR *R usn ^Wf I > 


Megha-d. 104, Tvam alikTiya airais tavan muhur upacitair drishtir 
alupyate me kruras tasminn api na sdhate san-gamam nau kritdntah. 
See also Megha-d. 89, and Vikram., Act II, KatJiam upalabhe nidrdm 
svapne samagama-karinim ; na ca suvadandm alekhye 'pi priyam sama- 
vapya tarn mama nayanayor udvashpatvam sakhe na Hhawshyaii. 

1 Pramdrjita, ' atoned for/ lit. ' wiped clean/ ' wiped out.' 

8 Vartikd-karandaka, 'box of colours,' see p. 249, n. i. 

3 Antara, 'on the way,' 'midway.' The same expression occurs in 
p. 257, 1. 1 4. See also Malavik. p. 8, 1. 1 8. As to Vasumati, see p. 184, n. 2. 

* ' I took myself off/ ' I made my escape,' lit ' by me my own person 
was carried off.' The Prakrit is responsible for this idiom and con- 
struction. Nirvdhita is the reading of most of the Deva-n. MSS., and 


: H 

" ^if H^T*T*ffJ'^fTH7T3?fI I c!"!u if 

i c 

there seems no reason why it should not stand with the sense ' carried 
away,' ' borne off.' K. has nirvdsita, ' expelled.' Some of the Bengali, 
nihnavida for nihnuta, ' concealed.' S'. has nirgata. 

1 ' Rendered insolent hy my great attention to her.' 

2 ' From the bane of the inner apartments.' Kdla-kuta, at the churning 
of the ocean, after the deluge, by the gods and demons, for the recovery 
or production of fourteen sacred things, a deadly poison called Kala-kuta 
or Halahala was generated, so virulent that it would have destroyed the 
world, had not the god S'iva swallowed it. Its only effect was to leave 
a black mark on his throat, whence his name Nlla-kantha. K. has kala- 
Tiddo (=:kalahat), 'from the strife,' and S'. kutdt, 'from the snare.' 

3 'Call me in the palace (named) Megha-praticchanda.' Sfdbda may 
form either a nominal or a verb of the loth class ; cf. p. 152, n. i. 

4 'Although his heart [affection] is transferred to another.' Cf. in 
Vikram., Act III, Anya-san-kranta-premano nagard adhikam dakshind 

L 1 

W ^lf^|M^I | $'rtc4H N II 258 



f^i I M^Jwi Tf 

'i*un=ijfonMn*ii 4i<.4il*j*mrejn*i x I 

1 * By reason of the length of the calculation of the various-items -of- 
revenue, only one case among the citizens has been brought under con- 
sideration.' Artha-jdtasya, &c., some of the Beng. have raja-karyasya 
bdhulataya. Bahulataya, cf. pattavataya, p. 29, n. i. 

2 ' It is reported that his wife, the daughter of the foreman of a guild 
belonging to Ayodhya, has even now just completed the ceremony (per- 
formed) at the quickening (of the unborn child).' Saketakasya, Saketa is 
a name of Ayodhya, ' the invincible city,' the ancient capital of Rama- 


I ii froro i T: nftru ii d 



candra and founded by Ikshvaku, the first of the monarchs of the Solar 
dynasty (see p. 15, n. i). It was situated on the river Sarayu in the 
North of India, and is now called Oude. S'reshthin, ' the head of a guild 
or corporation practising the same trade.' Pum-savana, 'the rite per- 
formed on the quickening of the foetus,' is the second of the twelve purifi- 
catory ceremonies enjoined by Manu on the three superior classes (ii. 27, 
&c.) It comes next in order to the garbhddhana or ' ceremony on con- 
ception ;' cf. p. 199, 1. i, with note; see Indian Wisdom, p. 246. 

1 Garbhah = garbha-sthah putrah, 'the child in the womb/ K. 

2 See the translation of this verse, p. 191, n. 2 at the end. 

3 'Like grateful-rain at the right season.' Pravrishtam^pi'ahrishta- 
varshanam. Some of the Beng. have pavittliam (=pravishtam). 

Verse 155. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, &c., 154. 

L 1 a 


1 ' The goods of families who are bereft of support through the failure 
of lineal descendants, pass over to a stranger at the decease of the re- 
presentative-of-the-original-stock.' Mula-pwusha, ' the man who repre- 
sents the original progenitor, from whom, in a direct line, the family is 
descended,' ' the eldest surviving son,' lit. ' the stock-man.' 

2 'The misfortune be averted !' compare p. 194, 1. 8. 

3 ' Although myself was implanted (in her womb), verily (my) lawful 
wife, the glory of (my) family, was repudiated by me, like the earth sown 
with seed at the right-season, about to become adequate to the production 
of mighty fruit.' Samropite atmani=.svasmin upte sati, K., lit. 'myself 
being sown,' ' she being sown with myself/ i. e. ' she bearing my second 
self in her womb.' According to the Hindu notion, a child is a repro- 
duction of one's self. Atmaiva patnya jdyate, K. Kvla-pratishtka, see 
p. 124, n. i. Kalpishyamdnd, see p. 191, n. 2 in the middle. Vasun- 
dhard, cf. p. 184, n. 2. _ 

Versel56. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI (a variety of TBISHTCBH). See verses 41, &c., 142. 



I * fawtTT n 

u sjfw fft^^crmn u 

HUT i 

worftr i 

1 ' "Woe is me \ the ancestors of Dushyanta are brought to a critical 
situation ; because Thinking to themselves, Who, alas \ after this (man), 
in our family, will offer (us) the oblations prepared according to scriptural- 
precept? in all probability,' &c. ; see p. in, n. i. Pinda-bhdjahpita- 
rah, S'., lit. ' partakers of oblations to the dead/ i. e. the Manes of de- 
ceased ancestors for whom the S'raddha was performed. Kutah, see p. 55, 
n. 2. Asmdt, i.e. Dushyantat, S'. Dhautd6ru-6esha, compare the analogous 
compounds tvag-asthi-6esha, 'having nothing left but skin and bone;' 
ndma-Sesha, 'having nothing surviving but a name.' The Beng. MSS. 
read dJiMutM^ru-sekam. The duty of performing the S'raddha devolved on 
the eldest son or on the nearest surviving relative. If no one survived to 
celebrate this rite, the Manes of deceased progenitors sank from their 
celestial abode to the lower regions. Cf. Raghu-v. i. 66, 67 ; see Indian 
Wisdom, p. 253 sqq. 

Verse 157. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVABI). See verses 8, 27, 31, 43, 46, 
64, 74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94, 95, 100, 104, 105, 108, 123, 124, 144, 148, 152. 


IT! rff 


$l$f(r4i ^Hl'JIfJili*!! ^^^^'l^l ^^li^ I <($H|JtTr*TFT ^T ^^ (T5IT- 

1 ' A light being really (near at hand) this-man by reason [fault] of the 
screen (which covers it) experiences (all the) ill-effects of darkness.' Dr. 
Boehtlingk proposes to interpret andhaara-dosam by andhakara-dosham, 
' dark night,' or ' the darkness of night,' but this seems hardly a legitimate 
compound, nor does the sense require it. 

2 ' Longing for their portions of the sacrifice.' Janna is the Prakrit 
equivalent for yajna (Vararuci iii. 44). Great sacrifices were performed 
by kings in celebration of auspicious events, especially after marriage, in 
the hope of securing issue, and Indra as well as the inferior gods were in- 
vited to partake of portions set apart for them. These sacrifices were 
accompanied by largesses to the Brahmans, and festivities, in which the 
gods were supposed to be eager to participate. Cf. Hamay. i. 13, 6. 8. 
The mother of Indra was Aditi, who was the wife of Kasyapa (see p. 2 2, 
n. 3). It appears from Act VII. of this play that S'akuntala was at this 
time enjoying an asylum with the illustrious pair Kasyapa and Aditi in 
some sacred retreat, where they were engaged in acts of mortification and 

3 ' Therefore it is proper to wait for this period.' This is the reading 
of K. Some of the Deva-n. have td na juttam kalam, &c. (=tasmdn na 
yuktam kalam, &c.) 

263 n 

fo i n 

_ __ . 


n u fa 3*1 


: I 

1 See p. 218, n. i, i. e. udbhramanena akaiam pratyudgamena, K. 

2 Abrahmanyam ('Help ! to the rescue !'), according to Amara-k. i. 7, 
14, is abadhyoktau, i. e. implies an assertion that the thing in question is 
not to be killed. Abadhyo 'ham ity arthah, Sf., ' the meaning is that, as a 
Brahman, my person is sacred and inviolable.' Cf. in the Uttara-Kama- 
caritra, p. 30, 'Then by a Brahman, having placed his dead son at the 
royal gate, a cry of " Abrahmanya" was set up, accompanied by a smiting 
on the breast.' A-brahmanya, lit. ' (anything) unworthy of a Brahman.' 

3 So reads my own MS. One Deva-n. has pratyagatah, the others simply 
karnam dattva. The Beng. pratydgata-cetanah. 

* ' Fallen into danger,' ' placed in jeopardy.' As to gata, see p. 38, n. i. 

5 Atta-gandha=atta-garva, 'humbled,' 'having the pride taken down/ 
'insulted.' Compare in the Maha-bh. rdjyam atta-lakshmi, 'a kingdom 
stripped of its wealth/ According to some, atta-gandha=arta-kantha, 
1 throttled,' ' strangled.' 

8 ' By some demon of invisible form, having seized [overpowered] him, 
he has been mounted on a pinnacle of the palace (called) Megha-prati- 
cchanda.' Sattva=bhuta, 'a goblin,' 'evil spirit.' 



1 Griha, 'a house,' or 'a wife,' is masc. in the plural (Amara-k. ii. 5). 
The Sahit.-d. (p. 190) inserts ndma, 'forsooth,' after mamdpi. 

2 ' Even one's own false-steps (proceeding from) heedlessness (occurring) 
day by day cannot be altogether ascertained. Is there (then) the power 
to know in every case by what road each of my subjects is walking V lit. 
'by what road who among my subjects,' &c. Tavat=sakalyena ) K. Pra- 
mdda-skhalitam, 'tripping from carelessness,' 'stumbling,' 'blundering.' 
A-eshatah=sdkatyena, K. According to K., this last clause presents an 
example of kdku, which is defined as ' a change in the tone of the voice,' 
'giving emphasis.' Thus, 'Is there the power?' becomes equivalent to 
'there certainly is not the power' (see Sahit.-d. p. 24). Kdku is con- 
stantly used by Pandits of a sentence spoken interrogatively, and so with 
a change of voice. 

3 Avidha Ity dkro&e. The interjection avidhd is used in calling for 
assistance, K. Translate, 'Help! help!' Two of the MSS. have aviha 
for avidha; the Mackenzie, aviddho; my own, avidu. Aviha and aviha 
seem to be interchangeable. Avihd occurs in Malavik. p. 12, 1. 22 ; p. 24, 
1. 7 ; p. 56, 1. 8. Dr. Boehtlingk suggests that avida in Mricchak. p. 213, 
1. 6 ; p. 312, 1. 9, may be for aviha or aviha. 

4 Gati-bhedena, ' with hurried broken steps ;' tvarita-gamanena ity 
arthah, K. _ 

Verse 158. UPAJATI or AKHYANAK! (a variety of TBISHTUBH). See verse 41, 107, 
121, 126, 142, 156. 





1 PaSc'ad-avanata-irodharam, a Bahuvrihi compound agreeing with 
mam. Some MSS. have praty-avanata. 

2 As to Favam and Sarn-ga-hastd, see p. 62, n. 2. 

3 Hastavdpa=jyag7idta-varana, ^;-=.anguli-trdna, 'a guard to protect 
the hand or fore-arm from the bow-string,' 'an arm-guard,' 'a finger- 
guard/ from hasta, 'a hand/ or 'the lower arm/ and dvapa, 'a band' or 
' bracelet ;' cf. p. 114, n. 2. The Beng. have hastdvdra. 

4 ' Here, thirsting for (thy) fresh throat-blood, will I slay thee struggling, 
as a tiger (slays) a beast. Let Dushyanta now, who grasps his bow to 
remove the fear of the oppressed, be thy refuge [protector].' Artdndm, 
&c., cf. p. 14, 1. 4. Atta-dhanva, cf. p. 230, 1. i. 

Verse 159. PRAHAESHINI (a variety of ATIJAGATI), containing thirteen syllables to 
the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 

M ra 


J11 II ttlflirSfOilM II 

Hl "fi? 

1 Avidha, see p. 264, n. 3. My own MS. has aviha in this place. 

2 ' Priding thyself on the power of rendering thyself invisible.' Tiras- 
karinl is properly a veil to cover the head, used by celestial beings to 
render themselves invisible (cf. p. 227, 1. 5). It is here the science or art, 
peculiar to such beings, of so concealing themselves. This interpretation 
is supported by the gloss of Ran-ganatha on tiraskarim-pracchannd in 
Act II. of Vikram. ; tiraskarinl = anta/rdkana-vidya. It answers to 
the 6ikha-bandhani vidya, ' art of tying [covering] the top-knot,' called 
a-pardjitd in a preceding page. 

3 'He it is fits the arrow (to the bow) who will slay thee worthy- 
of-death, and save a Brahman worthy-of-preservation. For the flamingo 
extracts [takes] the milk (and) leaves behind the water that is mixed 
with it.' The Hindus imagine that the Hansa or flamingo (see p. 251, 
n. i) has the power of separating milk from water. Compare Maha-bh., 

Verse 160. &LOKA or ANUSHTDBH. See verses 5, 6, 11, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53, 73, 
76, 84, 87, 125, 127, 130, 146, 154, 155. 




S'akuntalopakhyana, vii. 88, Prdjhas tu jalpatam punsam irulvd vdcah 
ubhdubhdh, gunavad vdkyam ddatte, hansah kshiram ivambhasah (i. 
3078). Bhartri-h. (ii. 15) has the following sentiment : 'Brahma [whose 
vehicle is the flamingo] when very angry with this bird, can destroy his 
nest among the lotuses, but cannot deprive him of that celebrated and 
inestimable faculty which he possesses, of separating milk from water.' 
The reference is probably to the milky juice of the water-lily, which would 
be its natural food, and to which allusion is often made by the Hindu 
poets. As to rakshati, see p. 85, n. 2. 

1 Mdtali is the charioteer of Indra. In the pictures which represent 
this god mounted on his other vehicle, an elephant (called Airavata), 
Matali is seen seated before him on the withers of the animal, acting as 
its driver. In the drama, however (see p. 12, n. i), Indra is generally 
borne in a chariot drawn by two horses (called Hari or Harayah), which 
were guided by Matali. 

2 'The demons are made by Indra thy mark; let this bow (of thine) 
be drawn against them. Not on a friendly-person are dreadful arrows 
directed [fall] by the good, [but rather] eyes soft-with-(looks of)-favour.' 
Asurdh, &c., see p. 86, n. 2 ; p. 87, n. i. 

3 'He by whom I was being slaughtered like a sacrificial victim, is 

Verse 161. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 23, 67, 81, 
114, 117,119, 145, >5<>- 

M m 2 

II ^HsTR^rojilrt*^ II 
?TiTfo5t H ^ftjRTTH II 

; I 


greeted with a welcome by this man !' Ishti-pa&u-mdram mdritah=ishti- 
paiur iva mdritah, K. This kind of adverbial compound is noticed in 
Pan. iii. 4, 45. 46. So aja-naiam nashtah is equivalent to a/a iva nash- 
tah, and ghrita-nidhdyam nihitah to ghrita iva nihitah. 

1 The Mackenzie MS. has yadartham, supported by some of the Bengali. 

2 Kdlanemi, son of the demon Hiranya-kasipu, was a Daitya or Asura 
(see p. 86, n. 2) with a hundred arms and as many heads. These Daityas 
were sometimes called Danavas, from their mother Danu, who as well as 
Diti was one of the wives of Kasyapa and daughters of Daksha. The 
Eakshasas, or cannibal demons who, for the sake of human flesh, waged 
perpetual war with men, as the Daityas did with the gods, were related to 
the Daityas. 

3 Ndrada is a celebrated divine sage or Bishi, usually reckoned among 
the ten Prajapatis or Brahmadikas first created by Brahma, and called his 
sons. He acts as a kind of messenger of the gods (see the end of Act V. 
of the Vikramorvasi). 

4 'Verily that (troop of demons) is not to be subdued by thy friend 
Indra ; thou, at the head of the fight, art appointed [termed, called] its 
destroyer. That nocturnal darkness which the sun has no power to 

Verse 162. PBAHARSHINI (a variety of ATIJAGATI). See verse 159. 


R I 


: i 



remove, the moon dispels.' Sctta-kratu, 'lord of a hundred sacrifices;' 
another of Indra's thousand names. He is so called because the rank 
which he occupies is unattainable excepting through a hundred Asva- 
medhas, or ' horse-sacrifices ' (see p. 86, n. 2). Sapta-saptih, ' drawn by 
seven steeds;' see p. 12, n. i. Candrah, the appositeness of this com- 
parison depends on the fact that Dushyanta's pedigree was traceable to 
the moon (see p. ig, n. 2 ; p. 1 13, n. i). 

1 Atta-iastra, cf. atta-dandah, p. 191, 1. 4, and atta-dhanva, p. 265, 1. 12. 

2 ' Fire blazes up when the fuel is stirred ; the snake when irritated 
expands its hood ; verily a man generally regains his own high-spirited- 
ness [greatness, courage] through being roused-to-action [shaken, excited].' 
Phanam kurute, lit. 'makes a hood;' phana, 'the expanded hood of the 
cobra.' Kshobhat, K. has kopat. My own MS. and the Mackenzie have 
jantuh for hi janah. Most of the Bengali MSS. read tejasvl sankshobhdt, 
prdyah pratipadyate tejah. 

3 Indra, as the Hindu Jove, is lord of the atmosphere and winds (see 
p. 86, n. 2). 

Verse 163. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

-- |-^|--|| ~- |---| - I--. |- 



ii ^fiT PHNM^I: ^%" n 

n ^fts: n 

1 ' Having made acquainted with the circumstance ;' Pisuna, ' informer,' 
is the name of the minister (cf. p. 236, 1. 10). 

2 ' Let the-powers-of-thy mind be wholly and solely (exerted) to protect- 
by-good-government (my) subjects. This (my) braced [strung] bow is (for 
a time) occupied in a different employment.' Tdvat, cf. p. 264, 1. 3. The 
root pal, ' to protect,' in reference to a king or his officers, implies pro- 
tection by a just administration of the laws. Samyak pal occurs frequently 
in the sense of ' to govern justly.' Adhi-jyam, see p. 9, n. 2 ; and cf. p. 67, 
1.12; p. 87, 1.8. 

Verse 164. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 53, 
73, 76, 84, 87, 125, 127, 146, 154, 155, 160. 


: H 


: n ^rR?w n 

__ _ 


1 'Although I have executed (his) commission, after-such-a-distinguished 
reception (on the part) of Indra, I consider myself as unworthy (of so 
much honour). 1 Satkriyd-viieshat, cf. p. 41, 1. 9 ; p. 134, 1. 18. The 
ablative may imply ' in consequence of/ ' after.' An-upayuktam, i. e. tddrik- 
satkriydya ayogyam, Ch^zy. Samarihaye=.avagacdhami. 

2 Ayushman, cf. p. 9, n. i. 

3 ' Your Highness makes light of the prior benefit (conferred by you) 
on Indra, (compared) with the (subsequent) mark-of-distinction (conferred 
by him on you). He too (Indra) takes no account of the distinguished 
honours (bestowed) on your Highness, being-filled-with-admiration at your 
heroic-achievement.' Prathamopakritam, i.e. rdksJiasa-jaya-rupam purvo- 
pakdrcmtyK. Pratipattya=sambhdvanayd. Avaddna=paurus7ia, ( &,Aeed 
of heroism,' K. The Colebrooke MS. has toshito for vismito. Satkriyd- 
gundn-=samWidvand-viieshdn, K. Guna is used at the end of a com- 
pound with the sense of viiesha (cf. sambhdvand-guna, verse 168). The 
Beng. reading is, Upakritya hares tathd bhavdn laghu satkdram avekshya 
manyate, ganayaty avaddna-sammitdm bhavatah so 'pi na satkriydm 

* 'That honorary-distinction on the occasion of (his) dismissing (me) 

Verse 165. VAITAL!YA. See verses 52, 133. 


was certainly beyond the compass [reach, place] of my hopes/ i. e. exceeded 
all my expectation. A-bhumi=a-sthdna, 'want of place ;'=a-vishaya, 
'beyond the reach,' K. Cf. p. 285, 1. 7, and Malavik. p. 35, 1. 4, abhumir 
iyam mdlavikdydh. 

1 ' For a garland of Mandara (flowers), marked with yellow-sandal from 
(its) rubbing on (his) breast, was fastened (round the neck) of me, made 
to sit on half his throne, before the eyes of the gods, by Indra, smiling 
and looking up at (his son) Jayanta, (who was) standing by and inwardly 
longing (for the same honours).' Amrishta, the breast of Indra was dyed 
yellow with a fragrant sandal-wood called Hari-candana (cf. Kumara-s. 
v. 69), and the garland, from coming in contact with it, became tinged 
with the same colour. Wreaths and garlands of flowers were much used 
by the Hindus as marks of honorary distinction, as well as for ornaments 
on festive occasions, and to adorn sacrificial victims (cf. p. 222, 1. n, n. i). 
They were suspended round the neck (see p. 150, n. 3), or placed on the 
head. Mandara is one of the five ever-blooming trees of Svarga, or Indra's 
heaven. Another of these trees is said to be the Hari-candana mentioned 
above, and another the Santana ; but the two most celebrated are the 
Parijata and the Kalpa-druma, or tree granting all desires. Jayanta is 
the son of Indra by his favourite wife Paulomi or Staci. 

2 'The heaven of Indra, friend of the gods, has been made free from 
the plague of the Danavas by two (means) ; now by thy flat-jointed arrows, 

Verse 166. UPAJATI or AKHTANAKI (a variety of TRISHTUBH). See verses 4i,&c.,i58. 
Verse 167. DRUTA-VILAMBITA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 45, 72, 128, 140. 

273 it *rns|?: u 

and formerly by the claws of the man -lion.' Sura-sakha, see p. 86, n. 2. 
Tri-diva=:svarga, each of the superior Hindu gods has a heaven or para- 
dise of his own. That of Brahma is called Brahma-loka, situated on the 
summit of Mount Meru ; that of Vishnu, Vaikuntha, on the Himalayas ; 
that of Siva and Kuvera, Kailasa, also on the Himalayas ; that of Indra, 
Svarga or Nandana. The latter, though properly on one of the points of 
Mount Meru, below Brahma's paradise, is sometimes identified with the 
sphere of the sky or heaven in general. Uddhrita-da, lit. ' having the 
thorns of Danavas extracted.' Kantaka, 'a thorn,' is often used for a 
noxious person or thing. Danava, see p. 268, n. 2. Nata-parvabMh=. 
nimna-parvabhih (natani anunnatani parvdni yesham, K.) Cf. nata- 
ndsika, 'flat-nosed;' also Ram&y. i. i, 64, iarenanata-parvana [bibheda 
sapta-taldii], which should be resolved into iarena dnata-parvand, not 
anata, &c. Puruska-ke$arin=nara-sinha, 'the man-lion,' i.e. Vishnu; 
for in this monstrous shape of a creature half-man, half-lion, which was 
his fourth Avatara or incarnation, Vishnu delivered the three worlds, or 
earth, Patala, and heaven, from the tyranny of an insolent demon called 
Hiranya-kasipu, who had usurped the sovereignty of Indra (see Vishnu-p. 
p. 126 ; Indian Wisdom, p. 331). 

1 'Verily, when servants [delegates] succeed in mighty enterprises, 
understand thou that (there has been) peculiar condescension [distinguished 
capacity] on-the-part-of (their) masters. How indeed could Aruna be the 
disperser of the-shades-of-night, if the thousand -ray ed-one did not place 
him in front (of his car) V Niyojyahsevakah, S'. Sambhdvana-gunam 
=satkdra-vi6esham, K. (see p. 271, n. i). Sambhdvand may mean 'fit- 
ness,' 'capability,' as well as 'honour.' The condescension consisted in 
placing Dushyanta in front of the battle, just as the Sun places the Dawn 
in front of his chariot. Sahasra-kirana is one of the innumerable names 
for the Sun. As to Aruna, 'the Dawn,' see p. 142, n. 3. Dhuri=:rathdgre, 
S'. ;-=.agre, puro-bhdge, K. 

Verse 168. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVAEI). See verses 8, 27, 31, &c., 157. 

N n 


i *fteH*nflflii u w 1 *?* 1 3 : i 

1 ' Behold the sublimity [beauty, auspiciousness] of (thy) own fame that 
has reached to the vault of heaven. With the tints remaining from the 
colours (used in the toilet) of the heavenly fair-ones, these inhabitants of 
the sky are painting [tracing] thy exploits on vestments [tapestry, leaves] 
of the Kalpa-tree, thinking of verses suitable for singing.' Vicchitti 
ran-ga, rdga, S'. and (X ViccTiitti-&eshaih=vttishtair varnaih, K., i.e. 
kusuma-kasturikd-candanddibhih, ' with flowers, musk, sandal, and other 
cosmetics.' The first sense of the word is ' excision/ ' cutting off;' it rarely 
has the sense required here, of ' rouge,' ' paint.' Compare bhakti-ccheda, 
'the coloured streak (marking Vaishnava) devotion,' Megha-d. verse 20. 
tSura-sundarinam = divya-strlndm. Kalpa-latanukeshu = kalpa-latd- 
vastreshu, S'. and CT. The first sense of aniuka is ' cloth,' ' tapestry ;' it is 
eaid to bear the meaning ' leaf,' and may be so used here ; in which case 
the idea may be that the gods are writing Dushyanta's memoirs on the 
leaves of the Kalpa tree. K.'s comment is not quite clear, kalpa-latdsu 
aniukabha/randdi [no] mdyante iti prasiddha ; but it seems likely, especially 
if reference is made to p. 155, n. 3 of this play, that he intends to imply 
that the Kalpa tree, which was a tree yielding everything (see p. 272, n. i), 
produced the vestments or tapestry on which they might be supposed to 
design the adventures of Dushyanta. Giti-kshamam=gdna-yogyam is 
the reading of K. and the Bengali ; most of the Deva-n. MSS. have glta- 
kshamam (cf. p. 29, n. i at the end). Artha-bandham=padam, 'a verse,' 
'word;' artho badhyate anena iti artha-bandhah padam, K. ; cf. tulydnu- 
rdga-piiunam lalitartha-bandham pattre niveiitam itddTiaranam priydydh, 
&c., Vikram., Act II. 

Verse 169. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI. See verses 41, 107, 121, 126, 142, 156,158,166. 


*ffirfe?: i 


1 'In which course [path, orbit] of the (seven) winds are we now 
moving V The Hindus divide the heavens into seven Margas or Pathas, 
i. e. paths, courses, orbits (like the stories of the Mussalman creed), assign- 
ing a particular vdyu or wind to each. Cf. Vishnu-p. p. 212. The first 
of these seven, vdyu-mdrgdh or vdyu-pathas, is identical with the bhuvar- 
loka, or atmospheric region, extending from the bhur-loka, or terrestrial 
region [comprising the earth, and the adho-loka, called Patala], upwards 
to the sun. The wind assigned to this Marga is called dvaha, and its 
office is to bear along the atmosphere, clouds, meteors, lightning, &c. 
The other six make up the svar-loka or heavenly region with which 
Svarga is often identified (cf. p. 272, n. 2) in the following order : The 
2nd Marga is that of the sun, and its wind, called pravaha or pravdha, 
causes the sun to revolve ; 3rd, that of the moon, its wind samvaha or 
samvdJia impels the moon ; 4th, that of the nakshatra, or lunar con- 
stellations, its wind udvaha causes the revolution of these asterisms ; 
5th, that of the graha, or planets, its wind vivdha bears along the seven 
planets ; 6th, that of the saptarshi, or seven stars of the Great Bear, its 
wind parivaha bears along these luminaries, as well as the svar-gawgd, or 
heavenly Ganges \saptarshi-cakram svar-gawgdm shashtliah parivahas 
tatJid] ; it appears from the next verse that this was the Marga in which 
Indra's car was at the moment moving ; 7th, that of dhruva, or the polar- 
star, the pivot or axis of the whole planetary system, to which, according 
to the Vishnu-p. (pp. 230, 240), 'all the celestial luminaries are bound by 
aerial cords, and are made to travel in their proper orbits, being kept in 
their places by their respective bands of air.' According to the Brah- 
manda-p., from which, as quoted by K., the above account is taken, the 
wind of the seventh Marga, causing the revolution of the polar-star, is 
pardvdha [1 pardvalia]. All the Deva-n. MSS. read katarasmin for 
katamasmin; sometimes katara is used for katama. 

2 ' They call this road, freed-from-all-impurities-by-the-second-stride-of- 

Verse 170. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 27, 31, &c., 168. 

N n 2 



Vishnu, (the road) of that wind Parivaha, which bears along the triple- 
flowing-river [Ganges] located in heaven, and causes the stars [of the 
Great Bear] to revolve, duly-distributing-their-rays.' See the last note. 
Tri-srotas=svar-gan-ga=manddkim, K. The Ganges was supposed to 
take its rise in the toe of Vishnu [whence one of its names, Vishnu-padl\ ; 
thence it flowed through the heavenly sphere, being borne along by the 
wind Parivaha and identified with the Mandakim, or Milky way : its 
second course is through the earth; but the weight of its descent was 
borne by Siva's head, whence after wandering among the tresses of his 
hair, it descended through a chasm in the Himalayas : its third course is 
through Patala, or the lower regions, the residence of the Daityas and 
Nagas, and not to be confounded with Naraka, 'hell/ 'the place of 
punishment.' Gagana-pratisht'hdm-=dkdia-sthdm, S'. and Cf. ; were it 
not for this interpretation I should translate ' the glory of the skies ;' cf. 
p. 260, 1. ir. There is doubtless a double-entendre. Jyotlnshi, &c., i.e. 
saptarshlndm dhishnydni, K. Pravilihakta-raimih, i. e. asan-klrna-rai- 
mayas tejdnsi ya&min karmani tat tathoktam, K. Vartayati=sancdrayati, 
K. Dvitlya-Tiari , i. e. dvitlyena harer vishnor vikramena pada-nydsena 
nirdosham, K. Tasya vdyor, &c., i. e. tasya parwdhdkhyasya vdyor 
mdrgam panthdnam imam grihnanti dmananti. Parivaho [sic] ndma 
svar-gan-gdm saptarshi-mandalam pravartayati shashtho vdyu-skandho 
yaihoktam Brahmdnda-purdne, K. The story of Vishnu's second stride 
was this An Asura or Daitya (see p. 86, n. 2) named Bali or Mahabali, 
a descendant of Hiranya-kasipu had, by his devotions, gained the dominion 
of Heaven, Earth, and Patala. Vishnu undertook to trick him out ot 
his power, and assuming the form of a Vamana, or dwarf (his fifth Avatara), 
he appeared before the giant, and begged, as a boon, as much land as he 
could pace in three steps. This was granted, and the god immediately 
expanded himself till he filled the world, deprived Bali at the first step, 
of earth ; at the second, of heaven ; but, in consideration of some merit, 
left Patala still under his rule. Another account makes him comprehend 
earth in his first step, the region of the air in his second, and heaven in 
his third. Hence tri-vikrama, tri-pdda, as names of Vishnu. See Indian 
"Wisdom, p. 331, n. i. The Beng. MSS. have, in place of tasya dvitlya 
&c., tasya vyapeta-rajasah pravahasya vdyor margo dvlftya-hari-vikrama- 
puta eshah. 

1 ' Hence, indeed, do-I-feel-a-delightful-repose in all my senses [organs] 
external and internal,' lit. ' hence my inner soul along with my external 


I ii 

: I 

l4 ri I 

tnn i 

ror TW s^RT: 11 <\$<\ 11 

organs feels (a pleasurable) repose.' Cf. in Vikram. end of Act IV, tvad- 
darianena prasanno me savdhydntardtmd; i. e. ' body and soul,' ' my ex- 
ternal and internal being,' ' my outer and inner man.' And again, UrvaSl- 
gdtra-spartdd iva nirvritam me sa-hridayam iariram. The organs of 
sense (indriya) according to the San-khya system are divided into two 
classes, external, vdhyendriya ; and internal, antar-indriya. The external 
are of two kinds : the five ' organs of perception,' jndnendriya, viz. the ear, 
eye, skin, tongue, and nose ; and the five ' organs of action,' karmendriya, 
viz. the throat, hand, foot, organ of excretion, and that of generation. 
The internal organs are three, viz. manas, 'the mind,' or organ of thought; 
buddhi, ' the reason,' or organ of apprehension ; ahan-kdra, ' individuality,' 
or ' self-consciousness/ Citta, ' the heart,' or organ of feeling, is some- 
times added. The Amara-k. (i. 4, 17) divides the Indriyas into two 
grand classes : i. karmendriydni ; and 2. buddhlndriydni or dhmdriydni, 
' intellectual organs ;' the latter comprises the jnanendriydni with manas ; 
this seems to be the popular division. Cf. Vikram., Act III, bhavitavya- 
tdnuvidhayini buddhlndriydni. 

1 ' We have descended to the path of the clouds,' i. e. to the atmospheric 
region between the sun and the earth, the Marga of the clouds and of the 
Avaha wind (see p. 275, n. i). The chariot must, therefore, have traversed 
with the speed of lightning, the four intervening MSrgas of the planets, 
lunar constellations, moon, and sun. If the Beng. reading, pravahasya, 
be adopted in the last verse, the transition would merely be from one 
Marga to the next. 

2 'Here [ayani] by the Catakas flying forth through the interstices 
of the spokes, and by the horses glistening with the flash of the lightnings, 
thy chariot, the rings [circumferences] of whose wheels are bedewed with 

Verse 171. MALINI or MANINI. See verses 10, 19, 20, 38, 55, 109, no, 120. 

II Wm i? 1 1 ^1 J fl rt*1 II 278 

st I 




mist, betrays (our) progress over clouds whose bellies are pregnant with 
rain/ Ara=nemy-avashtambha ; the Beng. MSS. and the Mackenzie 
read aga, 'a mountain.' Ara-vivarebhyai cakrdvayavdndm vivarebhyo 
antardla-prade6ebhyah, K. Nishpatadbhih=nirgacchadbhih, K. (see p. 253, 
n. i at the end). The CTataka is a kind of cuckoo. The Hindus suppose 
that it drinks only the water of the clouds, and their poets usually intro- 
duce allusions to this bird in connexion with cloudy or rainy weather 
(see Megha-d. verses g, 23, 113; Raghu-v. xvii. 60). So trishakulaU 
cataka-pakshinarn kulaih praydcita valdhakdh, Eltu-s. ii. 3. Haribhir= 
aivaih, especially Indra's horses (see p. 12, n. i, and cf. Eaghu-v. iii. 43). 
Acira-bhdsdm = vidyutdm, S'. Gatam, &c., tesham meghandm upari 
urdhva-bhdge gatam gamanam, K. PUunayati=sucayati, K. 

1 ' The earth descends as it were from the summit of the upward-rising 
[emergent] mountains. The trees, from the elevation [coming-into-view, 
rising, appearing] of (their) trunks, lose their state of being enveloped 
[concealed, wrapped] in their foliage. The rivers whose-waters-were-lost- 
in-narrowness, become visible [acquire manifestation] from the expansion 
(of their waters). Behold ! the earth is being brought up to my side 
[near me], as if by some one flinging it upwards.' In the same way to a 
voyager in a balloon at a very great height, the surface of the earth would 
seem flat, the trees would be compressed within their foliage like mush- 
rooms, and the rivers shrivel into threads or tiny rivulets; but, on 
descending, the mountains would appear to stand out, and the earth to 
recede from them, the trees would exhibit their elevation, and the rivers 
their breadth of water. Unmajjatdm=udgacchatdm,K. Avarohati=adho- 
gacchati, K. ParndWiyantara . The Colebrooke MS. and my own have 

Verse 172. SAEDULA-VIKRIDITA. See verses 14, 30, 36, 39, 40, 63, 79, 85, &c., 149. 

279 N jnnsfj: it 


: i 

TTTlfc?: I 

parna-svdntara ; the Taylor, parneshvantara ; the Mackenzie, parna-pra- 
stara; K., parndntara-vilinam. Skandhodayat=JcrodavirbTiavdt,~K. San- 
tdnat=jala-vistarat, K. ; the other Deva-n. have santdnais. Tanubhdva , 
tanubhdvena sukshmatvena adrishtarp, salilam ydsdm, K. Vyaktim bha- 
janti, i. e. vyaktd bhavanti, K. 

1 ' What mountain yonder is seen, bathing itself in the eastern and 
western ocean, pouring down a golden stream like a bar [bank, gate] of 
evening clouds V Parigha occurs in p. 87, 1. 6, meaning 'the bar of a 
gate,' but it may also denote the gate itself. Sdnu-mat, lit. ' possessed of 
table-land,' ' a mountain having extensive level ground on its summit.' 

2 Hema-kuta, ' golden-peaked,' a sacred range of mountains lying among 
the Himalaya chain, and apparently identical with, or immediately ad- 
jacent to Kailasa, the paradise of Kuvera, the god of wealth, as it is here 
described as the mountain of the Kimpurushas, or servants of Kuvera. 
They are a dwarfish kind of monster, with the body of a man and the 
head of a horse, and are otherwise called Kinnara (ava-mukha, turan-ga- 
mukJia). This mountain is also here described as 'the scene [place, field] 
of the perfect fulfilment of penance.' The Mackenzie MS. has tapasvindm 
for tapasdm. 

3 'That Praj&pati [Kasyapa], who sprang from Marici, the Self- 
existent's-son [i. e. from Marici, son of Brahma], (and who is) the father of 
the gods and demons, practices penance here along with his wife (Aditi).' 
An account of Kasyapa, who, as son of Marici, is called Marica, is given 

Verse 173. SLOKA or ANCSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, n, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, &c., 164. 


in }). 22, n. 3, and p. 86, n. 2. He is here said to be one of the Prajapatis, 
or fathers of all created things, who were Brahma's sons, created by him 
to supply the universe with inhabitants, and who, after fulfiling their 
mission, retired from the world to practise penance and prepare for death. 
The VSyu-purana certainly reckons Kasyapa, with his father-in-law Daksha 
and other sages, among the Prajapatis, but he does not belong to the seven 
original Prajapatis of whom his father Marici is one, nor to the ten enume- 
rated by Manu (i. 35). Of the thirteen daughters of Daksha married to 
Kasyapa, the eldest, and his favourite wife, was the Aditi introduced here, 
from whom were born the gods and particularly the twelve Adityas, the 
several representatives of the sun in the twelve months of the year. From 
Diti, Danu, and others of the remaining twelve, came the Asuras or demons ; 
and, from Vinata, Aruna, 'the Dawn' (see p. 142, n. 3), and Garuda, 'the 
vehicle of Vishnu and king of birds.' Svdyambhuvat= Brdhma-sunoh, K. 
Surdsura-guruh, as to guru, see p. 173, n. 3, and p. 91, 1. 3. Sa-patriikas, 
i. e. patnyd, Aditya saha (cf. sa-strika, sa-inka, &c.) 

1 Anatikramanlya, cf. p. 68, 1. 7 ; p. 91, 1. 3. Sreyansi = iubJidni, 
kaiyapa-dar^ana-namaskdrddiniy 'lucky occasions,' 'opportunities for 
obtaining blessings, such as visiting and paying homage to Kasyapa.' 

2 Pradakshinl-kritya, see p. 159, 1. 8. 

8 ' A noble resolve,' ' a prime idea,' = mukhydh pakshah, K. ; cf. 
P- 205, 1. 7. 

* ' The circumferences of the chariot-wheels cause no sound, and no 

Verse 174. VANS A-STHAVILA (a variety of JAG ATI). See verses 18, 22, 23, &c., 161. 

28 1 

t I 

dust is seen rising-in-advance (of us) ; the chariot of thee reining-in (thy 
steeds), although it has descended (to the earth), is not observed (to have 
done so) by-reason-of-its-not-touching the surface of the ground.' Upodha- 
&abddh=prdpta-dhvanayah,1i!i. (cf. upodha-raga, Vikram., Act II). Pra- 
vartamdna may mean 'rising in front of us' (cf. p. n, 1. 3). Nirundha- 
tah=m(/rihnatah, K. ^Va lakshyate, see p. 70, n. 3 at the end. In Vikram., 
Act I, when the car of Pururavas touches the ground, the direction is 
rathavatara-Tcshobham ndtayantl, ' acting the concussion (caused) by the 
descent of the chariot. 1 Such, Matali remarks, is the difference between 
the car of Indra and that of mortal heroes. 

1 'Where stands yon sage, towards [facing] the sun's orb, immovable 
as the trunk-of-a-tree, (his) body half-buried in an ant-hill, with (his) 
breast closely-encircled by a snake's-skin, round the throat excessively 
pinched by a necklace (formed) of the tendril of a withered creeper, wear- 
ing a circular-mass-of-matted-hair enveloping (his) shoulders (and) filled 
with bird's-nests.' Valmlkardha, &c., so read K. and the Mackenzie MS. ; 
the other Deva-n., valmlJcdgra. Valmika (=krimi-krita-mrittiJcacaya) is 
the mound of earth thrown up by the large ants of India. These hillocks 
sometimes rise, in Bengal, to the height of eight or ten feet, and are held 
sacred; (see Manu iv. 46. 238.) Such was the immovable impassiveness 
of this ascetic, that the ants had thrown up their mound as high as his 
waist, without being disturbed, and the birds had built their nests in his 
hair. Sandashta-s=aSlis7ita-nirmokena, cf. p. 120, n. 3. The serpent's 
skin was used by the ascetic in place of the regular Brahmanical cord, 
called yajnopavlta ; see Indian Wisdom, p. 201. Latd-pratdna=latd-san- 

Verse 175. SABDULA-viKRlpiTA (a variety of ATIDHRITI). See verses 14, &c., 172. 

O O 


: i 

tana, ' the spreading part of a creeper.' Jata-mandala is the circle or 
bundle of matted entangled hair which ascetics allowed to grow on the 
crown of their heads, and which fell in long clotted tresses over the back 
and shoulders. Jata is, especially, Siva's hair so plaited and arranged, 
through which the Ganges meandered before its descent upon the earth. 
Nicitam = puritam, K. Sthdnuh = dk7id-hmas taru-skandhah. Abhy- 
arkavirnfoamsurya-mandalabhimukham, K. The Mackenzie MS. has 
adhyarka . 

1 Kashtam kricchram tapo yasya sa tathoktah, K. 

8 ' Possessed of the Mandara-tree reared by Aditi/ This was one of the 
five trees of Svarga (see p. 272, n. i), and is probably the tree intended 
here, as, in verse 176, the Kalpa tree also is said to have graced Kasyapa's 
retreat, which the commentator thence infers to have been located in part 
of Svarga. Mandara, ' the coral tree/ may also mean ' swallow-wort.' 

3 Amrita, ' the beverage of immortality,' ' the nectar ' of the Hindu gods, 
supposed to be a liquid substance distilled by the moon, who is thence 
called amrita-su, ' nectar-producer ;' amritadJiara, ' nectar-repository/ 

* Avatarishyati iti ieshah, S 7 . ; i. e. supply avatarishyati. 




i y* 

t n ^ si? n 

i n 

I f^OTjfif^frf 

1 ' (The place) to which other sages aspire by (their) penances, (where 
there is) habitual [suitable, adequate] support of life by air in a grove in- 
which-the-Kalpa-tree-is-found ; (where there is) the performance of reli- 
gious ablutions in water, brown with the dust of the golden lotus ; (where 
there is) meditation (while seated) on jewelled slabs of marble, (and) re- 
straint (of the passions) in the presence of celestial nymphs ; in (such a 
place as) this these (sages) are performing penance/ Prdndndm vrittih= 
jivanam, K. The Hindus imagine that supporting life upon air is a proof 
of the highest degree of spirituality to which a man can attain. Sat-Jcalpa- 
vriksTie = vidyamdna-kalpa-drume, K. ; = vidyamdna-kalpa-tarau, S'. and (X 
The Colebrooke MS. has san-kalpa-vriksfte ; this use of sat is noticeable. 
Sild-tala, 'the surface of a stone slab or seat ;' cf. p. 76, 1. 3. Vibudha-stri 
divyan-gana, K. Samyama-=niyatendriyatva, K. .Ebhih sat-Jcalpa-vri- 
kshatvadikair vUesJiair ay am pradeah svarga iti pratlyate, ' by these attri- 
butes of the Kalpa tree, &c., it is inferred that this place was part of Svarga,' 
K. As to the Kalpa tree, see p. 272, n. i. Tat, &c., i.e. yat sthdnam 
anye kan-ksfianti tasmin svarga-pradeie ami munayas tdni phaldni pari- 
hritya tapasyanti iti anena tesTidm moksliarthitvam gamyate, K. 

' Verily the aspirations [desire] of the great soar upwards [are ever 
mounting upwards].' Utsarpiniudgamana-lla=zatUayinl, K. 

8 As to altaie and Jcim bravlshi, see p. 96, n. 3. 

4 ' Being questioned by Dakshayani [i. e. his wife Aditi] respecting the 

Verse 176. ^ARDULA-VIKRIDITA. See verses 14, 30, 36, 39, 40, 63, 79, 85, &c., 175. 

o o a 

it 284 



I ii ^fir fsnr: n 

duties [duty] of a wife devoted to her husband, he is recounting them [it] 
to her, in company with the wives of the Maharshis.' Ddkshayani is a 
patronymic applicable to any of the daughters of Daksha (see p. 279, n. 3). 
Pati-vratd, cf. p. 241, n. 3. Adhikritya, see p. 6, n. 2. MaharsM, 'a great 
saint ;' the Maharshi was one step in advance of the Rishi or simple ' saint.' 
The classification of Rishis varies, hut the following seems to he the usual 
gradation: i. Rishi; 2. Maharshi ; 3. Paramarshi; 4. Devarshi; 5-Brah- 
marshi. Amara mentions two other orders, Kandarshis and S'rutarshis. 
The Rajarshi was a mixed order (see p. 39, n. 3). 

1 ' We must await the leisure of saints." So reads the Mackenzie MS., 
supported, apparently, by K. Munayah is of course the nominative, but 
such is the terseness of compounds like pratipdlydvasarah that a literal 
English translation is impossible. The other Deva-n. have pratipdlyd- 
vasarah khalu prastdvah. 

2 The Asoka (Jonesia Asoka) is one of the most beautiful of Indian 
trees. Sir ~W. Jones observes that 'the vegetable world scarce exhibits 
a richer sight than an Asoka tree in full bloom. It is about as high as 
an ordinary cherry tree.' The flowers are very large, and 'beautifully 
diversified with tints of orange-scarlet, of pale yellow, and of bright orange, 
which form a variety of shades according to the age of the blossom.' 

3 ' Opportune time' is one of the meanings of antara. As to gurave, 
cf. p. 173, n. 3 in the middle. Kasyapa was the reputed father of 

* 'I go-to-do (what I proposed),' 'I will-do (as I said);' cf. p. 213, 
1. i, and p. 17, 1. 8. 


f? TrfH^ 

a TT ^75 

ff ^ I 

1 Nimittam sucayitva, (=Sakunam nirupya, K.), see p. 20, n. 4. 

2 ' I expect not to (obtain my) desire ; why, arm, throbbest thou 
(thus) vainly? For happiness formerly scorned turns to misery.' K. 
observes that manorathaya here^manoratham praptum, and refers to 
Pan. ii. 3, 14; so phalebhyo yatiphalany dhartum yati. As to the 
throbbing of the arm, see p. 20, n. 5. Sreyah=iibham, i.e. Sakuntala- 
rupam, 'consisting of S'akuntalS,' K. Hi parivartate, K. has vipari- 
vartate and sat parivartate. 

8 ' Act not so wildly [do not commit such a wild, wilful act]. What ! 
has he gone already to his own nature 1' Cf. Haghu-v. iii. 42. Prakriti, 
'one's natural character;' cf. p. 72, n. 2. Gata, see p. 161, n. 3 at the end. 

4 'This is no place for petulance [insolence] ;' cf. p. 271, 1. n. 

6 'Who is this child with unchild-like disposition [nature], closely 
attended by two female ascetics'?' Anubadhyamdna, the Mackenzie MS. 
has anugamyamana. Anubandha, lit. ' tying after,' ' following at the 
heels,' ' sticking closely to,' very forcibly expresses the close attendance of 
a nurse upon a child. 

6 ' He forcibly drags to play (with him) a lion's cub that-has-but-half- 
sucked-its mother's dug, (and) whose-mane-is-disordered-by-rough-hand- 
ling,' or 'he forcibly drags from its mother,' &c. 

Verses 177 and 178. &LOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, 11,12, 26, 47, 50, 51, 
53 73, ?6, 84, 87, 125, 127, 146, 154, 155, 160, 164. 


n TITT: jrfV^rfrf *rerfrffEji*iT fnTfaTteri '^ra: u 
3775: i 

i ^mi 


i sr 1 Tnjrranr i 

i r ^^ ?r ^rwt i 

fti | c ^^f ^g *5iri*!fl RT 

g^rft? i d ^ i 

1 ' Why dost thou teaze the animals (cherished by us as if) not-differing- 
from-our-ofispring?' Sattvani, cf. p. 55, n. 4. Nir-vtieshani, cf. swta- 
nirvtieshah nakulah, 'the ichneumon dear to him as a son,' Hitop. 1. 2721, 
and mushika-nirviiesha, Hitop. 1. 2395. 

2 ' It must certainly be my childlessness that causes me to yearn 
(towards this child).' Vatsala or vatsalya is, properly, the yearning 
affection of a cow for its calf, or a parent for its offspring. 

3 La/ntgkayatiakframati, K. Cf. p. 97, n. i. 

4 K. quotes a passage from the Vasanta-rajlya to shew that different 
movements of the lips, such as biting the lip, pouting the under-lip, &c., 
were significant of various emotions. The text is corrupt, but it appears 
that adhara-darSana=adhara-prasarana is \an-adare\ a gesture of con- 
tempt. Cf. Psalm xxii. 7, 'All they that see me laugh me to scorn ; they 
shoot out the lip.' 

287 ii TOnftsu: n it* 




1 ' This child appears to me (to possess) the germ [rudiment] of mighty 
energy [spirit, courage]. He stands like fire in a state of scintillation [in 
a smouldering state], waiting (only) for fuel (that it may blaze up)/ 
Edhdpekshah=iindhandni kankshinl, K. The Bengali MSS. have edhah- 

2 'The mark of a universal emperor;' see p. 15, n. 2, and p. 214, 
n. 2. 

3 'His hand stretched forth to beg for a coveted object, having the 
fingers connected by a web, appears like [shines like] a single lotus- 
blossom, the spaces between whose petals is imperceptible, expanded by 
the early dawn, whose-glow-is-just-kindled.' Pranaya = prdrthatm, S'. 
Jala, &c. ; jdkshu antareshu grathitah samhatd an-gulayo yasya, K. For 
grathitdn-gulih, S'. has samfiatdn-gulih-=samilishtdn-gulih, and remarks 

Verse 179. SLOKA or ANUSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, u, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, &c., 178. 
Verse 180. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 23, &c., 174. 

u 288 


I r 


rf 5 

that a hand whose fingers were thus united was indicative of great valour 
(mahd-purushatva). He adds jala-pada-lihujaviti nara-narayana-viSesha- 
nam uktam, 'webbed-feet and webbed-handa are said to be character- 
istics of Nara and Narayana.' Hindu poets reckon thirty-two marks of 
greatness, and he who possessed them all was said to be dvdtrin6al~laksha- 
nopetah. The child's fingers, being drawn together by this membrane or 
web, would bear some resemblance to an expanding lotus-flower, the 
fingers answering to the long petals, which would be only separated 
towards the top. This seems to be the sense : my first inclination was to 
translate, ' having the fingers regularly marked with reticulated lines,' or 
' having the fingers drawn together into (the form of) a bud.' Alakshya 
(=adriSya, K.), so read all the Deva-n. MSS. excepting my own, which 
has alakshya, with the Beng. ; &., however, has alakshya. Pattrdntaram 
= dala-vivaram, K. and S'. Iddha-rdgayd navoshasd, &c. ; ushas, 'the 
dawn,' is usually neuter in classical Sanskrit. In the Vedas, as here, it 
is feminine. Thus in Eig-v. i. 46, i, Esho ushd apurvya vyucchati priya 
divah; see also Rig-v. i. 48, 3. 5. 7. 8. 13; i. 62, 8; i. 92, 4; and i. 113, 
4, &c. It is possible that the feminine noun ushd may form its vowel 
cases from ushas, as jard from jaras ; nom. jard, jarasau, jarasah; instr. 
jarasa, jardbhydm, jarabhih, &c. (see Gram. 171). The following is the 
corrupt gloss of S'. : ushah-pratyushasi klwam pihaprasvdntu yoshatiti 
koshah. K. explains navoshasd as a Bahuvrihi, 'by the early-dawned 
one,' navam usho yasydh sd navoshd prdtahsandhyd tayd bhinnam 
vikasitam. As to pan-kaja, see p. 213, n. 2. 

1 This pleonastic word, according to Lassen (Instit. Prak. p. 118), is 
derived from the Sanskrit krite, and is equivalent to pertinens ad, ' in the 
cottage belonging to me,' &c. Some MSS. omit the word. 


: I 

lt ^T 1 ^ ^tfc^W I n ^fir Tiroff f&fa* ^fir n 

1 ' I have a great fancy for this unmanageable (child).' Durlalita, i. e. 
durlabham Ipsitam yasya (S'.), ' difficult to be coaxed or pleased,' ' way- 
ward,' 'naughty.' K. reads durlasitaya and interprets by dhurtaya, 
' roguish,' ' mischievous.' The causal sense of the root lal is ' to coax,' 
though dur-ldlita might then be expected. The primitive idea is certainly 
that of ' sporting/ ' toying,' ' taking pleasure,' as in the root las. So in 
Vikram., Act II, the king complains that his eye-sight has become durlali- 
tam, i. e. ' difficult to be pleased,' 'fastidious,' by looking on Urvasi, and that 
the beauties of Nature have no longer any charms for him ; upavana- 
latasu cakshur na badhndti dhritim tad-an-ganaloka-durlalitam. The 
commentator there explains the word by dvvr-agrastam. In Sahit.-d. 
p. 193, 1. 1, the following is cited from the Maha-bh.: DJiik dhik suta kim 
kritavan asi vatsasya me prakriti-durlalitasya, where durlalita is ex- 
plained by durvilasita. 

2 ' Happy (those parents who), carrying (their) little-sons fondly-soli- 
citing-a-refuge-in-their-lap, having-buds-of-teeth-just- [scarcely, slightly] 
visible by their innocent [causeless, without reason] smiles, while-at- 
tempting-charming-prattle-in-indistinct-accents, are soiled by the dust of 
their (infantine) limbs ! ' A-lakshya, a is here the prefix of diminution 
(see p. 228, n. i). Pranayinah=prarihakah ) gfc and (X Malirii, the 
Beng. have parushl. This is the verse with which Che'zy is enraptured : 
'. . . strophe incomparable, que tout pere, on plut6t toute m^re, ne 
pourra lire sans sentir battre son cceur, tant le poete a su y rendre, avec 
les nuances les plus dedicates, 1' expression vivante cle 1'amour maternel.' 

Verse 181. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVABI). See verses 8, 27, 31, &c., 1 70. 


|| 290 


TOm<7torfr u b 



U "3TJT**! I ^WrfH II 

I ! Tnni 'l*U*irri I 


1 ' gentle sir/ lit. ' thou with auspicious countenance.' According 
to the Sahit.-d. (p. 179, 1. 16) bhadra-mukha and saumya are the titles 
used by the inferior characters in addressing the king's son : saumya 
lihadra-mukhety evam adhamais tu kumarakah. They do not seem to be 
so restricted, as in Act V. the Beng. MSS. make Gautami address the 
king himself as bhadra-mukha; and K. extends the application of both 
terms to any manya, honourable person : hadra-mukheti mdnyasydman- 
trane yathoktam saumya bhadra-mukhety evam manyo rdjnah suto va. 

2 ' Release the young lion being tormented in childish play by this 
(boy) the-grasp-of-whose-hand-is-difficult to unloose.' Some MSS. have 
maindam or maindaam for mrigendram; the Mackenzie, miindam. 

8 ' How is it that by thee, whose behaviour is opposed to (the peaceful 
character of) a hermitage, (thy) father's humanity [forbearance], that- 
delights-in-the-protection-of-the-animals, is thus outraged ; like the sandal- 
tree by the young of the black serpent V Asrama-wruddha, cf. p. 38, 1. 5. 
Samyama=6ama } K., 'a vow to forbear hurting animals.' Kim iti=kim- 

Verse 182. KATHODDHATA (a variety of TRISH?UBH), containing eleven syllables to 
the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 


artham, K. ; iti is frequently thus joined with Jdm (compare p. 71, 1. i). 
Janmanas=janmano hetoh, K. So prabJiava=janma-hetu, p. 44, 1. 4, 
n. i ; otherwise I should translate ' from thy birth/ The Beng. MSS. have 
janmadas and sanyami agreeing with it. Sukho, the Mackenzie and K. 
have guno (=dharmah, K.) Candanam, as to the sandal, see p. 175, n. i. 
This celebrated tree seems to have paid dearly for the fragrance of its 
wood: 'The root is infested by serpents; the blossoms by bees; the 
branches by monkeys ; the summits by bears. In short, there is not a 
part of the sandal-tree which is not occupied by the vilest impurities' 
(Hitop., Book II, verse 163). 

1 'His behaviour, (which is) conformable to his mien, says as much 
[bespeaks it, betokens it].' Kathayatl, compare p. 224, 1. 7. 

2 ' Such (being) the-thrill-of-delight in the limbs of me touched by this 
scion of the family of some one (unknown to me) ; what bliss must he 
cause in the heart of that happy-man from whose body [loins] he sprang !' 
Hindu poets are fond of alluding to the thrilling effect of the touch of a 
child on the limbs of its parent, and vice versd. Compare the parallel 
passages in the Vikram., Act V, and the following from the Maha-bh., 
Putra-spariat sukhatarah spario loke na vidyate. An-gdt, some MSS., 
including my own, have ankdt, 'from whose loins.' Kritinah-=.bha- 
gyavatah, ' fortunate.' Kritin is properly ' one who has accomplished the 
desire of his heart.' _ 

Verse 183. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKi(a variety of TRISHTUBH). See verses 41, &c., 169. 

P p 2 

u 292 

u ^41 ftjjtr^ n 


rfifw i 

1 'The speaking -resemblance of form;' 'la ressemblance parlante,' 

2 Upalalayan, 'fondling ;' see p. 289, n. 2. 

3 Vyapade&ah, 'family;' see p. 205, n. i. 

4 ' This (custom of retiring to a hermitage) is the last family-observance 
of the descendants of Puru. (They) who first of all for the sake of pro- 
tecting the earth choose a residence in palaces abounding-in-all-the- 

Verse 184. AUPACCHANDASIKA. See verses 77, 78. 


tnn u 

pleasures-of-sense, to them [of them] the roots of trees, where the one reli- 
gious vow of ascetics [i. e. control of the passions, mortification] is rigidly 
maintained, become a dwelling-place.' Rasadhikeshu, the Bengali MSS. 
have sudhdsiteshu, ' white with stucco or chunam/ Uianti (3rd pi. pres. 
of vai, Gram. 324, 6^6)=ic(ffianti, & ;=vanchanti, K. Taru-rtiuldni, so 
Manu enjoins that the hermit is to be vijitendriyo dharaiayo vriksha-mula- 
niketanah, ' his passions kept in subjection, sleeping on the bare ground, 
dwelling at the roots of trees,' vi. 26. It seems to have been a practice 
in ancient India for kings when they had reigned sufficiently long, to 
retire from the charge of government and betake themselves to penitential 
exercises. They first associated the Yuva-raja or heir-apparent with 
themselves, and then left him in quiet possession of the throne. 

1 ' But this (sacred) place is not (accessible) to mortals by their own 
means [condition].' Vishayah=prade$ah, Che'zy. The Mackenzie MS. 
has katham for na. 

2 ' In consequence of her relationship to a nymph.' Deva-guros= Kai- 

II ^fa$|M!yeJidtJ'M 294 

I n 


*iign<5Hi i 

1 So reads the Mackenzie MS. The others tarhy anaryah para-dara- 

2 Sbkuntapakshin, '& bird.' By joining it with lavanyam, the her- 
mitess unconsciously pronounces S'akuntala. Sukuntasya pakshino lava- 
nyam. Sakunta-ldvanyam sleshena Scikuntald-Sabdah uktah, Chezy. 

3 For ambd (the reading of the Mackenzie MS., supported by K.) some 
have ajju for Sanskrit ajjuka, and again, subsequently, ajjua for ajjuka, 
where K. has ajjad for aryakd or drya. I have everywhere followed K. 
in rejecting ajjuka, as, according to Amara-k.-(i. i, 7, n) and Sahit.-d. 
(p. 179 at the end), this word, in theatrical language, is applied only to 
a veiyd or harlot. 

4 ' Perhaps the mention of a mere name, like the mirage-of-the-desert, 
is destined to (cause) me bitter-disappointment.' Mriga-trishniM, see 




a ^TT I ^t T ^ >T5*T^TB: I 
T ^Mrt I c TT ^T TT ^ I 

p. 250, n. i at the end. Nama-matra-prastavo may mean 'the occasion 
of a mere name,' but the verb pra-stu has the sense of 'mentioning,' 
'declaring.' Kalpate, 'is sufficient,' or simply 'becomes a cause of;' cf. 
p. 191, 1. 5; p. 260, 1. 12. 

1 A peacock, whether living or in the form of a toy, seems to have been 
a favourite plaything. So the boy in the fifth Act of the Vikramorvasl, 
yah suptavan madan-ke tarn me jdta-kaldpam preshaya Sikhinam. For 
aryake the Beng. have antike. Antika-=bhaginljyeshtTw=d1iatrl,, S'. 

2 'The amulet,' 'the talisman,' lit. 'the guardian casket,' 'the magical 
casket.' One sense, however, of karandaka is ' a kind of plant ' or ' herb ' 
(cf. next note). It was probably a kind of locket, containing some herb 
with talismanic properties, worn round the waist, to serve as an amulet. 
Karandaka certainly usually signifies ' a little box/ but it may possibly be 
the name for the herb itself. K. explains it by rakshd-ghutika [? gutikd\, 
' a magical ball.' Some of the Beng. have raksha-kando ; ?. and C"., 
raksJtd-gando and rakshd-gandako. 

3 'This herb, called Aparajita [unconquered, invincible], was given 



b rf 



' " 



by his reverence Kasyapa to this child, on. the occasion of the natal 
(ceremony).' As to the name apardjita, compare p. 266, n. 2. The jdta- 
karman is the fourth of the twelve Sanskaras or purificatory rites, de- 
scribed in Manu (ii. 27, &c.), and the first after the child's birth (cf. p. 258, 
n. 2; p. 199, n. i). It was performed by giving the child honey and 
clarified butter out of a golden spoon, before separating the navel-string. 
1 Atha here=yadi tu, ' supposing now/ ' but if (cf. atha tu, verse 128). 


tnn ii 

n inr: 

i IT? 


1 'Even this contradiction convinces me.' Pratydyayati, 'causes me to 
believe,' 'me inducit ad credendum' (cf. p. 216, 1. 12). 

2 JSka-vem-dhara, cf. Megha-d. verse 90, sarayanti eka-venim karena; 
and verse 98, abala-veni-m,oTcsTiotsukani. The Hindu women collect their 
hair into a single long braid, as a sign of mourning, when their husbands 
are dead, or absent for a long period. 

3 ' Even at the time of metamorphose,' i. e. even on an occasion when it 
ought to have changed its form. As to prakriti, ' the natural form or 
state/ as opposed to vikara, cf. p. 71, 1. 10. Oshadhi, see p. 295, n. 3. 

* ' I had no hope in my own destiny,' ' I had no trust in my fortunes.' 
5 Compare p. 262, lines 7 and 8. 


n : 3Tfa$ni3rc*rtc3*i n 2 9^ 



I rf^f 

1 ' She who, wearing a pair of dark -grey vestments, having a counte- 
nance emaciated by penitential-exercises, bearing (on her head) a single 
braid of hair, chaste [pure] in her behaviour, undergoes a long vow of 
separation from me, excessively unmerciful.' Vasane, ace. du. neut. ; see 
p. 158, n. i, and cf. vasasl in Mricchak., Act IV. It seems that men's 
clothes, as well as women's, consisted of two pieces (cf. Bhatti-k. iii. 20, 
manorame vastre, which in one commentary is rendered by manoramam 
vastra-dvayam and in the other by ceto-hdrinl vastre). Pari-dhusare, as 
the preposition a is employed diminutively, so the prepositions pari and 
sam give force and intensity, much as mpi and <n>v in Greek, and per and 
con in Latin. Pari is even more intensitive than sam: thus, sam-dpti, 
1 completion,' pari-samdpti, ' entire completion ; ' sam-purna, ' very full,' 
pari-purna, 'completely filled;' sam-6ushka, 'dried up,' pari-iushka, 
' quite dried up ;' d-pdndu, ' palish,' pari-pdndu, ' very pale ;' pari-Srdnta, 
'completely wearied,' &c. &c. Dhritaika-veni, see p. 297, n. 2. 5. and 
C". quote the following from Bharata : amaldsv avadhdranam [? amald 
avadhdranam, S'.] alakdndm ca kalpanam anulepana-sanskaram na 
kurydt pathikdngand (' a woman whose husband is absent on a journey,' 
cf. p. 230, n. i); pdndu-cthdyd kriia-tanur veni-yuta-iiroruhd lambdlakd 
dma-veid wbhushana-vivarjitd. 

2 Arya-putra, see p. 196, n. 4. 

3 'Furnished with a lucky talisman,' 'protected by an auspicious 

* The feminine anibd makes its vocative amba, see Gram. 108. d. 

Verse 185. AOPAC^HANDASIKA. See verses 77, 78, 184. 



fermfa H 

1 ' By-the-kindness-of-fortune, lovely-faced-one, thou standest (once 
again) before me, the darkness of whose delusion is dispelled by recollec- 
tion. At the end of the eclipse, Rohim has been (again) brought to a 
union with the moon.' Dishtya is generally an exclamation equivalent 
to ' Hail !' 'good luck !' corresponding to Shakespeare's 'Now fair befall 
thee ! ' I have preferred to regard it here as an adverbial instr. case, ' by 
the kindness of destiny,' ' fortunately,' ' happily.' Uparaga, the following 
is the Hindu notion of eclipses : A certain demon, which had the tail of 
a dragon, was decapitated by Vishnu at the churning of the ocean ; but, 
as he had previously tasted of the Amrita or nectar reproduced at that 
time, he was thereby rendered immortal, and his head and tail, retaining 
their separate existence, were transferred to the stellar sphere. The head 
was called Rahu, and became the cause of eclipses, by endeavouring, at 
various times, to swallow the sun and moon. Rohinl, as to the love of 
the Moon for Rohim, the fourth lunar constellation, see p. 113. n. i. 

2 Lit. ' having tears in her throat,' i. e. ' having her voice choked with 

Verse 186. ARYA or GATHA. See verse 2. 

Q q 2 



tears/ Vdshpa, not the tear itself, but the lachrymal moisture (see p. 169, 
n. 2) which may find its way into the throat and impede the utterance. 

1 ' Though the (utterance-of) the word "victory" be obstructed by (thy) 
weeping, victory-has-been-gained by me, since thy unadorned countenance, 
having-the-surface- [skin] -of-its-lips-pale-red, has been seen (by me).' 
Jaya-idbda, the word ' Victory ! ' i. e. jayatu or vijayl bhava was the 
regular form of saluting kings (cf. p. 65, n. 2). Asanskdram, so reads the 
Taylor MS.; the others have asanskdra-p, which violates the usual caesura. 
If the latter be retained, translate ' the skin of whose lips is pale red from 
the absence of colouring or paint.' There is no doubt that unpainted lips 
were a sign of mourning, but this is sufficiently implied in pdtaloshtJia, 
and it is a question whether sanskdra can ever mean ' paint.' Some of 
the Beng., and amongst them the old MS. (Bodleian, 233), supported by 
S'. and Cf., read a-sanskaral loldlakam idam muTcham, ' this countenance, 
having its curls hanging loosely from want of dressing.' Oshtha-puta, 
( the covering of the lip ; ' so akshi-puta, ' the skin covering the eye,' ' the 
eye-lid.' The student is reminded that in a compound, oshtTia optionally 
causes the elision of a preceding a (Gram. 38. &). The Mackenzie MS. has 
pataloshtham mukham priye. 

2 S'an-kara quotes the following from Bharata : KakuhWi pranipdtaU 
ca bhdgya-nindddiblds tathd, evam krite ca rtarlndm purusho 'ti-priyo 
bTiavet. _ 

Verse 187. SLOKA or ANOSHTUBH. See verses 5,6, IT, 12, 26, 47, 50, 51, &c., 179. 


i tjf 

1 ' fair one \ let the unpleasant-feeling [unpleasantness] of (my) repu- 
diation (of thee) depart from thy heart. Somehow -or-other at that time 
the infatuation of my mind was strong. For such, for the most part, 
is the behaviour of those over-whom-(the quality of)-darkness-has-the- 
mastery, ou happy-(auspicious)-occasions. A blind man shakes off even 
the garland thrown on his head, suspecting it to be [with the suspicion of 
its being] a snake.' Vyallkam=zapriya.m, K. ;=vipriyam, <J. Apaitu, 
some of the Beng. MSS. have upaitu, which is unintelligible. Kimapi, 
i. e. anirvadanlya-rupam yathd sydt, ' in a manner not to be explained/ S^. 
Tadd=pratydde6a-kdle, ' at the time of repudiation.' Prdbala-tamasam, 
i. e. prabalam ajndnam yesham te tathoTctdh, K. According to the Hindu 
philosophy there were three qualities or properties incident to the state of 
humanity, viz. i. Sattva, 'excellence' or 'goodness' [quiescence], whence 
proceed truth, knowledge, purity, &c. 2. Rajas, 'passion' or 'foulness' 
[activity], which produces lust, pride, falsehood, &c., and is the cause of 
pain. 3. Tamas, 'darkness' [inertia], whence proceed ignorance, in- 
fatuation, delusion, mental blindness, &c. Subheshu=sat-karmasu, 'in 
auspicious matters,' S'. Vrittayahvyavahdrdh, S*. Dhunoti=nirasyati, 
K. Srajam, see p. 272, n. i. 

2 ' Assuredly my (evil deeds), committed in a former (birth), opposed 
to virtuous conduct, were in those days drawing towards (their appointed 
evil) issue, (seeing) that my husband, although of-a-compassionate-nature, 
became unfeeling towards me.' Purd-Jcritam, i. e. janmantara-karma, S'. 

Verse 188. HARIN! (a variety of ATYASHTI). See verses 66, 99. 

it 302 

i rTR^l p fe c> H *5*H f^ Wnra ^^ 



(see p. 185, n. 3 at the end). Parindma-mukJiam \_parinatabhimukham, 
K.], 'about to issue in their appointed fruit, in their matured result,' 
' ripe for an evil result.' Parinama is ' the last stage of anything/ ' the 
stage of maturity,' ' the final result : ' mukha, like unmukha (lit. ' looking 
towards'), has here the sense of 'tending towards,' 'being about,' 'being 
on the point.' 

1 Cf. p. 272, 1. 8; and uddharen no hridaya-ialyam, Vikram., Act I. 

2 ' graceful lady ! I should in a manner be freed from (niy) remorse 
by wiping off that moisture now clinging to thy slightly curved eye-lashes, 
which formerly, (in the form of) a tear-drop corroding thy lip, was un- 
noticed [overlooked] by me through mental-delusion.' Purvam, i. e. pra- 
tyadeSa-velayam. Paribddhamanah=pldayan, S'. A-kutila, cf. d-tamra, 
p. 228, 1. 3, and p. 298, n. i. Vigatanu&ayo==apagata-pa&cdttapah. For 
vashpam some of the Beng. have kdnte, unsupported by any of the Deva-n. 
MSS. The repetition of vdshpa seems at first unnecessary, but not if it 
be borne in mind that vdshpa is properly ' the moisture in the eye/ and 
vdshpa-vindu, ' the tear-drop when it has left the eye' (see p. 169, n. i in 
the middle). 

Verse 189. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 27,31, 43,46,64, 
74, 80, 82, 83, 91, 93, 94, 95, 100, 104, 105, 108, 1 23, 124, 144, 148, 152, 157, 168, 1 70, 181 . 


I *f cT^T 'S 




n w?n Trf^rftf fnrfe: u 
*. i 

1 A noun formed from the causal verb explained at p. 297, n. i. 

z ' Therefore let the creeper receive again (its) flower, as a pledge [mark, 
token] of its inseparable-union with the (spring) season,' i. e. receive thou 
back this ring, as the beautiful twining plant receives again its blossom, 
in token of its reunion with the spring. Tena hi, with the sense of 
'therefore,' occurs very frequently in dramatic composition (cf. p. 81, 1. 2, 
p. 83, 1. 4, and p. 85, 1. 5). Ritu, see p. 228, n. i at the end. Samavdya, 
1 inseparable or intimate connexion.' The Bengali MSS. have ritu- 
samagamdansi (the Bengali recension, ritu-samdgama-cihnam), and S'. 

3 Dishfyd, see p. 299, n. i. As to putra-muMa, &c., see p. 223, n. i. 

* Akhandala is one of a class of epithets (such as puran-dara, bala-bhid, 
giri-bMd, &c.) applied to Indra, as breaking cities, mountains, &c., into 
fragments with his thunderbolt (see p. 86, n. 2). 

30$ II ^fH^rRSI^pTTcS'T II 304 

fit* 1 

tnrr i 
l I 

u inr: 

II ^0.0 II 

1 ' Allows thee a sight (of him),' i. e. ' graciously permits thee to be pre- 
sented to him,' ' vouchsafes thee an audience/ 

2 'But on joyful [festive] occasions the (usual) practice must be ob- 
served.' The Mackenzie MS. has gantavyam for dcaritavyam. 

3 '0 DakshSyim [i.e. Aditi, see p. 284, n. 3], this is he that marches 
foremost at the head of thy son's [Indra's] battles, the so-called Dush- 
yanta, the lord [protector] of the earth, through whose bow that edged 
thunder-bolt of Indra, having rested from its work, has become (a mere) 
ornament.' Rana-iirasi, cf. p. 268, 1. 12, and p. 87, n. i. Kotimat=z 
sagram=tlkshnam. Kultiam^vajram. Maghonah, gen. of Maghavan, 
a name of Indra, see declension in Gram. 155. c. 

Verse 190. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of &AKVARI). See verses 8, 2 7, 3 1 , 43, 46, 64, 

1 ' His dignity may be inferred from his form,' lit. ' his form has its 
dignity inferrible.' 

2 ' With an eye that betrays [betokens] affection for (thee as for) a son.' 
Piiuna, cf. p. 277, 1. 8. 

3 ' This is that pair [Aditi and Kasyapa], the offspring of Daksha and 
Marici, one remove from the Creator [Brahma], which (said pair) sages 
call the cause [origin, author, maker] of the solar-light subsisting in twelve 
forms [having a twelve-fold subsistence], which (pair) begot the ruler of 
the three worlds, the lord of the (gods who are the) sharers of (every) 
sacrifice, (and) in which (pair) Narayana (or Vishnu), he (who was) even 
superior to the Self-existent [Brahma], chose [made] the site for (his) 
birth.' Dvadaia-dha, there are twelve Adityas or forms of the Sun, which 
represent him in the several months, or, as some say, attend upon his car 
(see p. 279, n. 3). They are the children of Aditi and Kasyapa, and the 
gods Vishnu and Indra are reckoned among them. The other ten, ac- 
cording to the Vishnu-p. (p. 234), are Dhatri, Aryaman, Mitra, Varuna, 
Vivasvat, Pushan, Parjanya, Ans*a, Bhaga, and Tvashtri ; but the names 
of the Adityas vary in the other Puranas. Tejasah, i. e. suryatmakasya, 
'consisting of the sun/ K. ;=.suryasya, S'.;=adityasya, Che'zy. Bhu- 
vana-trayasya, i. e. svarga-martya-pdtalasya, S'. (see p. 3 14, n. 2). Yajna- 
bhageivaram may simply mean ' the lord of a share of (every) sacrifice ; ' 

Verse 191. ^ARDULA-VIKBIDITA. See verses 14, 30, 36, 39, 40, 63, 79, 85, &c., 176. 

E r 

TTTT u uftsnrw 11 



it seems, however, likely that yajna-bhdga is here synonymous with Jcratu- 

bhuj, ' a god/ though yajna-bhdj would be the more usual form. Atma- 

bhuvah [abl. from dtma-bhu] = svayambhuvah=brahmanah, K. and (X 

Parah = ^reshfhah. Purusha = Vishnu, K. ; = Ndrdyana, S'. and CX 

Bhavdya =janmane, K. ; = avatdrdya, S'. Aspadam=pratishthdm = 

sthitim, K. and SC Upendrdvatdrasya kdranam uktam bhavati, K. Dvan- 

dvam=mithunam=stri-punsayor yugalam. Srashtur=Brahmana7i, K. 

and S'. JSkdntaramekantaritam, S'. ; e&aA purusho antaram vyavadhd- 

nam yasya tat tathoktam. Brdhmano Marldih, Marlceh Kaiyapah, Brafi- 

mano DaksTuih, Dakshdd Aditir iti ekantaram, K. Ekah purusho antaram 

antardhdnam yasya tad dvandvam, Ch^zy. As Kasyapa and Aditi were 

the grandchildren of Brahma, they were only removed from him by Marici 

and Daksha, their parents and his children (see p. 279, n. 3). Vishnu, as 

Narayana, or the Supreme Spirit (purusha), moved over the waters before 

the creation of the world, and from his navel came the lotus from which 

BrahmS sprang. As Vishnu, or the Preserver, he became incarnate in 

various forms, and chose Kasyapa and Aditi, from whom all human beings 

were descended, as his medium of incarnation or place of birth, especially 

in the Avatara in which he was called ' Upendra ' (or Indrdnuja, Indra- 

varaja), 'Indra's younger brother' (according to some identified with 

Krishna), and in his Vamana or Dwarf- Avatara (see p. 275, n. 2). Puru- 

sha is properly ' that which sleeps or abides in the body' [pttrt iete\. The 

worshippers of Vishnu identify him with Narayana and with Brahma, 

and name him Maha-purusha, Purushottama, i. e. ' the Supreme Spirit,' 

thus exalting him above Brahma, the Creator. Kalidasa seems by this 

verse to include himself among the Vaishnavas. 

1 Ubhdbhydm [dat. dual], i.e. Aditi-Mdrlcdbhydm, S'. Vdsavdnu- 
yojyah = Indrdjndkdri, 'Indra's servant,' S'. The Bengali MSS. have 
vasava-niyojyo (cf. p. 273, 1. 3). 

2 A-pratiratha, 'an invincible hero;' see p. 177, 1. 6, n. i in the middle. 




1 '(Thy) husband (being) like Indra, thy son resembling Jayanta 
[Indra's sou], no other blessing (would be) suitable to thee ; mayst thou 
be like Paulomi !' (see p. 272, n. i at the end.) As to AkJiandala, see 
p. 303, n. 4. 

2 As to the title Prajapati, see p. 279, n. 3. 

8 ' All hail ! the virtuous S'akuntala, (her) noble offspring, your High- 
ness (Dushyanta) ! Piety [faith], Fortune [wealth], Action ; this trio is 
here combined.' Sad, i. e. ubhaya-kula-guna-sampannam. SraddJid, 
being feminine, of course represents S'akuntala ; vittam, being neuter, her 
offspring (apatyam), viz. Sarva-damana or Bharata; and vidhi, being 
masculine, Dushyanta. VidTii, according to (T., is veda-bodhitdcarana, 
'putting in practice the precepts of the Vedas;' it may, perhaps, imply 
power as exhibited in action. Cf. Raghu-v. ii. 16, babhau sd tena satdm 
matena iraddheva sdksJidd vidTiinopapannd, ' she (accompanied) by him, 
who was honoured by all good men, appeared [shone forth] like Faith 
visibly manifested, accompanied by action [works].' 

Verses 192,193. SLOKA or ANDSHTUBH. See verses 5, 6, 11,12, 26,47, 5& c -t 

R r s 



1 ( First (came) the accomplishment of my desires ; afterwards, the 
sight (of thee): Hence thy favour (towards me) has indeed been un- 
precedented.' S'. explains thus Sakuntald-prapakam bhavad-darfanam 
bhavishyati iti evam mamabhipretam dslt, tdvat prabhdvad dariana-jrtir- 
vam nirvyudham. Tatha ca naimittikanantaram nimittotpattir iti anu- 
grahasyapurvatvam iti bTidvah, ' my desire was that the sight of thee 
might lead to my recovery of S'akuntala. But (my meeting her) was 
arranged through (thy) divine power, before my presentation to thee. 
Thus after the effect was the appearance of the cause. The meaning is, 
that the favour (of my seeing thee and receiving thy blessing) did not 
precede (the attainment of my desire), and hence that the favour was 
unprecedented, as the accomplishment of my wishes ought naturally to 
have resulted from thy blessing.' There seems to be a double meaning 
in apurvah. 

2 ' First appears the blossom, then the fruit ; first the rising of clouds, 
afterwards the rain. This (is) the regular-course of cause and effect ; but 
the success-of-my-wishes (came) before thy favour.' Naimittika, ' what is 
connected with the nimitta or is dependant on it,' 'the effect.' Puras= 
prathamatas, S'. Sampadah (nom. p\.)=abhls7ita-siddhih, S'. ; it is clearly 
meant to be synonymous with abhipreta-siddhih just above. 

8 'Thus (it is that) the creators of-all-beings perform favours.' Vidhdtri 
must here be equivalent to Prajapati (see p. 279, n. 3). 

Verse 194. VANSA-STHAVILA (a variety of JAGATI). See verses 18, 22, 33, &c., 180. 


fiv^ nTTil s ft*T ?fwnf1 

I rfflf- 

1 Kasyacit kalasya, i. e. kasminicit Tcale, CX 

2 Called Kasyapa as being of the race of Kasyapa (see p. 22, n. 3). 

8 ' As if one were to say, " (that) is not an elephant," its form being 
before one's eyes, and doubt were to arise (in one's mind) on its walking 
past, but conviction were to take place after seeing its footsteps ; of such 
a kind has been the change of my mind,' i. e. my mind has passed through 
similar transitions. Thus, as K. observes, when Dushyanta first saw 
S'akuntala, he repudiated her (see p. 200, 1. 2, and p. 201, 1. 4) ; when she 
passed out of his presence, he began to relent and doubt (see verse 131) ; 
and when he saw the ring, he was convinced she was his wife. Neti, see 
p. 140, n. 2. Samaksha-rupe, i.e. samaksha-vidyamdna-rupe, (7. Paddni 
=pada-cihndni, (T. Vikdra=svarupdnyathd-bhdva, S'. May not sam- 
&ayah apply to both lines ? thus : ' As if there were a doubt that that is not 
an elephant, while he is marching along, his form obvious to the eye.' 

4 The Mackenzie MS. and my own have aparddha; the others, apacara. 

5 'After [in consequence of] her descent to Apsaras-tirtha,' see p. 271, 

Verse 195. UPAJATI or AKHYANAKI. See verses 41, 107, izi, 126, 142, 156, &c., 183. 


U ^'Irf II 


n. i, and p. 215, 1. 18. According to &, Apsaras-tlrtha=saci-tlriha (see 
p. 205, 1. 12). Menaka was S'akuntala's mother (see p. 44, 1. n). 

1 ' That this thy poor faithful [lawful] wife was repudiated in consequence 
of the curse of Durvasas, and on no other account, and this same (curse) has 
terminated on the sight of the ring.' Ditrvasas, see p. 1 37, n. 2. Tapasvinl 
=anukampya, S*. (cf. p. 246, 1. 7). SaJia-dharma-cdrini=pati-vratd, S'. 

2 Vacaniyat, i. e. sddhvi-nirakarana-rupapavddat. Vacamyam=vd- 
cyam, p. 198, 1. 12. 

3 The Colebrooke and Mackenzie MSS. and my own have sattam or 
satam (=&aj)tam), supported by S 1 . The Taylor has saccam (=satyam), 
supported by K. and the Bengali. 

4 Sunya-hridayayd, cf. p. 137, 1. n, with n. 2. 

5 'Thou hast gained thy object." Caritarthd=labdhdrtha=kritdrthd. 
The Mackenzie has viditdrthd. 



*TOT ^rT c^^l HWill^S II 

1 ' Thou wast repulsed in consequence of the curse, (thy) husband being 
harsh [cruel] through the obstruction of (his) memory; (but now) indeed, 
on (the heart of) him freed from darkness, thy influence-is-supreme. 
(Even as) an image has no effect on the surface of a mirror whose bright- 
ness is tarnished with dirt, but on a clean-one easily makes impression 
[gains admission].' Smriti-rodha, the Mackenzie has smriti-dosha. Apeta- 
tamasi, cf. p. 301, n. i. Prabhutd, K. refers to verse 73, p. 124. tfhaya 
=prativimbam. Murthativydpnoti, K. ; = sphurati, S'. (see p. 201, n. 3). 
Malopahata-prasdde = maldpagata-prasannatve, Sf. ; = mdlinyena nashtd 
prasannatd, K. SulabTidvaJcdid-=sukhena Idbhyah praveSo yasyah=.prd- 
ptavasthitih, S'. (cf. p. 47, 1. 3). S'. observes that darpana-tale answers to 
bhartari; malopahata to smriti-rodha ; thdyd to prdbhutd; and, we may 
add, iuddhe to apeta-tamasi. 

2 Atra, &c., i.e. asyam Sakuntaldydm, kuloddharaka-putrotpddakatvena, 
' in this S'akuntalS, because she has given birth to a son, the upholder of 
my family 1 ?' K. ; cf. p. 260, 1. n, and p. 124, 1. 3. 

3 Tena prakdrena kuloddharakatvena bhavishyantam, K. Cakravarti- 
namsdrvabhaumam, ' a monarch of the whole earth,' K. (see verse 12). 

4 ' Previously (as) an-invincible-warrior, having crossed the ocean in a 
chariot whose motion is not (made) unsteady by uneven-ground, he will 

Verse 196. VASANTA-TILAKA (a variety of SAKVARI). See verses 8, 2 7, 3 1 , 43, 46, 64, 


Verse 197. SIKHABIN! (a variety of ATTASHTI). See verses 9, 24, 44, 62, 112, 141. 


subjugate the earth, consisting of seven islands. Here, from his forcible 
taming of the animals, he (is called) Sarva-damana ; but (then) he will 
acquire the appellation Bharata, from his support of the world.' EatJiena, 
see p. 9, 1. 2. An-utkhdta (nimnonnata-pradeasydbhdvdd anutkhd- 
tam, K.), so reads the Mackenzie MS., supported by K. ; the others, ati- 
udghdta; cf. p. 10, 1.6, with n. i. Stimita^-anishkampa, K.;=aprati- 
bandhdrtha-durgamanena, S'. ' By this epithet it is indicated that the 
chariot would have the power of going in the air' (tena vUeshanena ra- 
thasya dkd&agdmitvam sucitam), K. Sapta-dmpdm, according to the 
mythical geography of the Hindus, the earth consisted of seven islands, or 
rather insular continents, surrounded by seven seas. That inhabited by 
men was called Jambu-dvipa, and was in the centre, having in the middle 
of it the sacred mountain Meru or Sumeru, inhabited by the gods. About 
Jambu flowed the sea of salt-water (lavana), which extends to the second 
Dvlpa, called Plaksha, which is in its turn surrounded by a sea of sugar- 
cane juice (ikshu). And so with the five other Dvipas, viz. S'almali, Kusa, 
Kraunca, S'aka, and Pushkara, which are severally surrounded by the 
seas of wine (sura), clarified butter (sarpis), curds (dadhi), milk (dugdTia), 
and fresh-water (Jala), Vishnu-p. p. 166; see Indian "Wisdom, p. 419. 
A-pratiratha=^a-tu1yaratJia=mahdrat7ia } S'. (see p. 177, n. i in the middle). 
Iha = asmin dirame, K. Sattvanam prdnindm sinhadlndm, S'. ; = 
iarabha-sinhddlnam, K. Prasabha-damandt = balatkdrena mardandt. 
The name Bharata is derived from root bhri, ' to bear,' ' support.' Many 
Indian princes were so named, but the most celebrated was this son of 
Dushyanta and Sakuntala, who so extended his empire that from him the 
whole of India was called Bharata or Bharata-varsha ; and whose de- 
scendants, the sons of Dhrita-rashtra and Pandu, by their quarrels, formed 
the subject of the MahS-bharata (see p. 15, n. i). 

' We invoke all blessings on him for whom the prescribed-rites were 
performed by your Holiness,' or * we have high hopes and expectations of 
him/ &c. As to krita-sanskdre, see p. 258, n. 2, and p. 199, n. i. 

3 T 3 

: i 

1 ' Let Kanva also be made acquainted with all the circumstances.' S'. 
has jndta-mstarah ; the Beng. MSS., vijnatarthah. 

2 Here, and in the insertion of me in the next line, I have followed the 
Mackenzie MS. and my own, as I have often done, if supported by K. 

3 ' Notwithstanding, he must be questioned by us about (this) joyous- 
event. Ho ! there !' S'ishydndm madhye ko atra tishthati iti arthah, 
' which among my pupils is in waiting here 1 such is the meaning of kah, 
&c.,' S'. Compare p. 69, 1. 1 1 ; p. 263, 1. 5. 

s s 

" ?rfHsM1^l$i1rtii II 3^4 

: I 

Tj*roTff ufire 

: i 

: i 

1 Here I have followed the Colebrooke MS. The others have sdpatya- 
dara-sahitah ; the Bengali, sdpatya-ddrah. 

2 ' May Indra be bountiful of (his) rain towards thy subjects I Do thou 
also, abundantly-dispensing [diffusing] sacrifices, gratify [satisfy] the gods 
[inhabitants of heaven] to the full. Thus pass (both of you) periods [re- 
volutions] of hundreds of ages with reciprocal friendly acts, laudable on 
account of the favours (thus conferred) on both worlds ;' i. e. you by sacri- 
ficing, and Indra by showers, confer benefits on the inhabitants of Svarga 
and the earth respectively. The two worlds are of course Heaven and 
Earth, not including the third world Patala (see p. 275, n. 2). Vidaujas 
or Vidojas is one of Indra's names, see p. 303, n. 4. Prajya-vrishti= 
pracura-varshana. Vitata-yajna-=.vistrita-yaga, K. Svarginah=.devan, 
K. Prlnaya alam=alam bhavaya, T^.; = atyarthena santoshaya, Sf. 
Yuga-6ata-parivartdn=yugdndm iatdni tesham parivartandni. 

3 K. has ireyasi and interprets it by dharme. S'. has the same and 
explains it by praiasta-kritye. 

Verse 198. MALIN! or MANINI (a variety of ATI-SAKVARI). See verses io,&c., 171. 


^ ffRffcTT 

1 'Is there any favour still greater than this? As (however) on this 
occasion his Holiness desires to confer a favour, then let this saying of 
Bharata be (fulfilled).' Atah param, i. e. adhikam. Atra praindrthe 
kdkur anusandheyd, see p. 264, n. 2. The Bharata here intended must 
not he confounded with the young prince. He was a holy sage, the 
director or manager of the gods' dramas, and inventor of theatrical repre- 
sentations in general. He wrote a work containing precepts and rules 
relating to every branch of dramatic writing, which appears to have been 
lost, but is constantly quoted by the commentators. He seems to have 
superintended the exhibition of the drama called Lakshmi-svayamvara 
(composed by Sarasvati, see p. 28, n. i) in Indra's heaven. See Vikram., 
Act III, and middle of Act II, Munind Bharatena yah prayogo bha- 
vatisJiu ashta-rasdirayo nibaddhah, &c. It was not unusual to close the 
plays by quoting one of Bharata's verses ; compare the conclusion of the 
Ratnavali. The commentator supposes that there is here an intentional 
ambiguity as to whether this verse is spoken in the name of the young 
prince or of the sage. 

2 'Let the king exert himself for the welfare of his subjects. Let 
Sarasvati be honoured among (those who are) mighty in the scriptures 
[lovers of literature]. Moreover, may the purple-god [S'iva], who-is-self- 
existent, (and) whose-Energy-is-everywhere-diffused, put an end to my 
future birth [deliver my soul from passing into another state of being].' 
Pravartatdm=.prayatatdm. Sarasvati (=J3hdratl, K.) is the wife of the 
god Brahma. She is the goddess of speech and eloquence, patroness of 
the arts and sciences, and inventress of the Sanskrit language. Sara- 
svati signifies ' flowing,' and is also applied to a river. Sruti-mahatdm, &c., 
some MSS. have iruti-mahatl mahiyasdm; K. iruta-mahatdm. According 
to the latter, ruta=6astra, mahatdm= reshthdnam. I see no reason why 
mahatdm should not be the gen. pi. of the pres. part, regularly formed 
from mah, 'to honour.' S'ruti-maJiatdm might then mean 'lovers of 
literature.' Mdhlyatdm=pujyatdm, K. Nlla-loMtdh, 'blue and red;' 
i. e. according to K., vdma-bhdge nilah, dakshina-Wiage lohitah, ' on the 

$ & 2 

: f II 

: ii 


left side blue, on the right side red.' S'iva is usually represented as borne 
on a bull, his colour, as well as that of the animal he rides, being white, 
to denote the purity of Justice over which he presides. In his destroying 
capacity, he is characterized by the quality tamas (see p. 301, n. i) and 
named Rudra, Kala, &c., when his colour is said to be purple or black. 
' In the beginning of the Kalpa, as Brahma purposed to create a son, a 
youth of purple complexion [blue and red, nlla lohita] appeared, crying 
and running about [ru, dru, whence Rudra],' Vishnu-p. p. 58. Some 
refer this name to the colour of his throat (see p. 257, n. 2). Parigata- 
iaktih; prdptd Saktih Pdrvatl yena sa tathoktah. Hence, Sakti=Pdrvatl, 
S'iva's wife. The wives of the deities were supposed to personify their 
energy or active power. Atma-bhu, although properly a name of BrahmS, 
is applied equally to Vishnu and S'iva by those who give the preference 
to these deities. Exemption from further transmigration and absorption 
into the divine Soul is the summum bonum of Hindu philosophy (cf. 
p. 184, n. 3 at the end). Kalidasa indulges the religious predilections of 
his fellow-townsmen by beginning and ending the play with a prayer to 
S'iva, who had a large temple in Ujjayim, the city of king Vikramaditya, 
and abode of the poet. Both actors and spectators would probably repeat 
the prayer after the speaker and appropriate it to themselves. 

Verse 199. RUC"IBA or PRABHAVATI (a variety of ATIJAGATI), containing thirteen 
syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse, each Pada being alike. 


In the following Index the first number refers to the page, the second to the line. When, 
however, a number is followed by one of the letters a , b , c , d , the number and line of the verses 
are indicated. 

n. after a number = note ; after a word = neuter; ind. = indeclinable participle. 

denotes that the word or part of the word under reference has to be supplied. 

A hyphen before a word denotes that the word occurs at the end of a compound. 

Prakrit words have been referred to under their Sanskrit equivalents. 

Words explained in the notes but not found in the text are printed in Roman type. 

- in a-tas, a-tra, a-tha, &c. 
a-, before consonants, in a-kath- 

ita, &c.; an-, before vowels, 

in an-agha, &c. 
anfa, io6 (1 ; vivartin, 78". 
antfu, 2O b (hima) ; n6 b 

anjuka, 34 b ; :69 b . 
ansa, 3O a ; 175; du. 63 b . 
a-kathita, 17, 14; 229, 11. 
a-kdnde, 46", n. 
a-Mma, adj. 23 d . 
a-karana, 222, 14; 247, 4. 
a-kale, 260, I, 2. 
a-krita, 51, 9 (satkdra) ; 35 b . 
a-kaitava, adj. 208, 12. 
a-klishta, 120* (kdnti). 
-aksha (for akshi), 78; i24 c . 
a-kshama, adj. 112,4; , f, 8 d . 
a-kshayya, adj. 47 b . 
a-kshara, n. 53,6; 78 b ; I44 b ; 

artha, 184, 2. 
akshi, n. 62, 2 ; 65, 7 ; (at end 

of a comp. -aksha.) 
a-khanda, adj. 44. 
a-grihita, 230, 8 (^artha). 
agni, io b ; 28 b , &c. ; 3arana, 

148, 4; 189, 4. 
agra, 229,6; iqo n ; tas, adv. 

76, 6. 13; 212, a ; bhumi, 

263, 12; ydyin, 190"; 

hasta, 252, 10. 
araTca, 74; i8i c ; 66 C , &c. 
ankita, i^ A ; 140, 9; 176, 7. 
ankura, 228, 1 ; I35 a ; 230, 3. 
ew^a, 2i b ; 277,1; bhanga, 

62, 5. 

angand, 2j d (harina ). 
anguli or z, 48, 1 ; 78 a ; 143 d . 
angullya, 53, 5 ; %a, 54, 5 ; 

233. 4- 

a-dala, adj. i75 d . 
a-tintanlya, 243, 5. 
o-A'ra, 6, 6 (/>ram'a) ; <ft, 

99; ena, 262,8; m, adv. 

103, 2 ; bhds, i/i b . 
a-fdana, adj. 145. 
a-jayya, adj. i62 a . 
a-jasram, adv. 58*. 
a-jnatvd, ind. 107, 1 1. 
atavi, 60, i ; 72, 3. 
a-tata, 142^ (prapdta). 
a-tanu, I io c . 
a-tas, 27, 2; 72,6; 125, &c.; 

param, 97 d ; 315, 2. 
az-4ramya,ind. 250,8; 263,11. 
ati-krdmat, I95 b . 
atithi, 17, 2 (safcara); 36, 2. 
ati-dura, 58, 6. 
ati-nishkaruna, adj. 185. 
ali-parisphuta, adj. H5 a . 
ati-pdta, m. 16, 7, 8. 
ati-pinaddha, 23, 8. 
ati-mdtram, adv. 29, 4; 30*. 
ati-mukta, 112,12 (7a<a). 
ati-ranhas, adj. 5 b . 
ati-rush, adj. i24 d . 
ati-lola, adj. io c . 
atl-lohita, 1 24 (' 
ati-vah, cans. 238, 9. 
ati-dithila, 257, 10. 
ati-^rama, io8 c (apanayana). 
ati-san-dhd, pass. 99, i, 2. 
ati-sandhdna, 126 (para ). 
ati-sandhdya, ind. 211, 7. 
ati-sneha, m. 176, n. 
aIa, part. 142. 
atitya, ind. 1 2, 2; 148; 274, 2. 
aty-antam, adv. 27. 
aty-aya, 65* (tapa). 
aty-artham, adv. I75 b . 
aty-dhita, 35, 6. 

, adv. 91, 4; 311, 4, &c. ; 

bhavat, 194, n; bhavati, 

52, II, &c. ; antare, 64*. 

tha, i, i; 196, 2 ; 8r, 7 ; 

296, 5, n. ; fcim, 46, 7, n. ; 

90,11; 188,9; va, 30,5, n. 

arfas, pron. 9, 8 ; 8 d ; 48* ; 1 75 d , 


A-diti, f. 279, n. 3 ; 282, 4. 
a-drishta, 263, n (rpa). 
adbhuta, n. 215, 8. 
adWr, 4, 2 ; 147, n, &c. ; 

prabhriti, 165, 7; api,3o b . 
a-dhanyatd, 61, 6. 
adhara, m. 21"; 24; 77; 

286, 14; uttara, 210, 7; 

oshtha, 78*. 

a-dharma, 213, 7, 8 (bhiru). 
adhas, adv. 104, 2; with gen. 

I4 a ; mukha, 47, I. 
adMka, 20 (manojna') ; 3o b 

adhi-kdra, 40, 8 (dharma ) ; 

189, 7- 

adhi-kri, pass. 8, i. 
adhi-kritya, ind. 6, 4, n. ; 6, 

6; 77,3- 

adhi-kship, 210, 4, 5. 
adhi-kshipta, 201, 8. 
adhi-gata, 41. 
adhi-gamya, ind. 189, 8. 

adhi-rudha, 271, 2 (ratha). 
adhi-rohat, 274, 9. 
adhi-rohin, 203, 3 (dura )* 
adhi-tfaydna, part. 105, i. 
ae^J, pass. 126. 
adhund, adv. 167. 
adhy-dkrdnta, 48". 
adhy-ds, 236, 8. n. 
an-agha, adj. 44 ; 167, 3 

An-anga, 58 b ; 6o b . 
an-atikramamya^S, 1 ] ; 280,2. 
an-atikruddha, adj. 313, 8. 
an-atipdtya, 187, i. 
an-atilulita, 66, n. 
an-anurupa, 24, 10. 
an-antaram, adv. I94 b ; 5, 8. 
an-anyapardyana, adj. 72*. 


an-anyamanasa, adj. 8i a . 
an-apatya, 258, 13; ta, 258, 

14; 286, 10. 

an-a&A.t/ria,adj.2o7,u ; 248,7. 
an-abhyantara, adj. 107, 8. 
anrobhyarthaniya, 77, 6. 
an-artha, m. 237, 5. 
an-avagata, 254, 8 (artha). 
atiHivarata, 38*. 
an-avalepa, 248, 2. 
an-avdpta, 76, 10. 
-4re-asM#a, 22, 3. 7, &c. 
an-dgas, n b . 
an-dghrdta, 44*. 
an-atmajna, 230, 5. 
an-amaya, 198, 2 (pra.?tt#). 
an-ayasa, adj. 69, 2. 
an-drambha, m. 107, 12. 
an-drya, 144, 3; 208, 8. 
cm-aviddha, 44 b . 
an-dsvadita, 44 b (rosa). 
a-nimitta, i8i a (hdsa). 
a-niyata, 60, 3 (velam, adv.) 
a-niyantrana, 48, 6 (anw- 

a-nirvarnaniya, 196, 9. 
anila, 176*. 

a-nifam, adv. 57*; 70*. 
an-i3a, 67, 7. 
anu-Jcamp, pass. 247, 4. 
anu-kampanlya, in, 3. 

anu-kampita, 299, 4, 5. 
anu-kampin, adj. 54, 7 ; 207, 1 . 
anu-kdrin, 50* ; 238, 6 ; 21*. 
anu-kula, 41; 88, 18; pi 4 . 
anu-krita, 208, 10. 
aw-wfcta, 122, 2. 
anu-krama, 218, 10. 
awM-ifo-o&i,ioo, i; 139,8 (sa). 
anu-gantavya, 169, 4. 
anu-gam, 180, 5 ; 214, 16. 
awM-j/riAzta, 88, 16; 224,4,&c. 
anu-grah, 121, 2. 
anu-graha, 42, 7 ; 197, 16 ; 

308, 3 ; 198*. 
anu-dintya, ind. 43*. 
an-u66alat, 29*". 
anu-ja, 93, 7 (rajan }. 
anu-jnd, 57, 5, 6; 89 d . 
anvrjndta, 102, 6; 163, 5; 

198, 8. 

anu-tdpa, 122, 2. 
anu-tishthat, 291, 6. 
an-utkhata, 197*. 
an-utsekin, 98. 
anu-divasam, adv. 1 08, 6. 
an-uddJiata, 114. 
anu-dhdvana, 60, 4. 
anu-naya, 139, 7. 
anu-patat, 7 a ; 10, 4. 
anu-padam, adv. 89, 7. 
a-wpapanna, 240,11; 309,10. 

an-upabhukta, 156, 12. 
an-upayukta, 271, 5. 
anu-prati-shthd, 212, 5. 
anu-pravefa, 247, 10 (bhdva). 
anu-badhyamdna, 285, 8, 9. 
anu-bandka, 95 b ; 285, n. 5. 
anu-bodhita, 8, 3. 
anu-bhavat, 153". 
anu-bhavitavya, 156, 3. 
anu-bhdva, 305, 2. 
anu-bhdvin, 254, 8, 9. 
anu-bhu, 109; 253,3; 262,5. 
anw-mato, 111,2; 90*; neut. 

135. 6. 

aww-maw, cans. 128, 2. 
anu-manyamdna, 121*. 
aniwnana, 208, 8 (hridaycf). 
anumanalan-kfira, 19, n. I. 
anu-yatrika, 58, 5 ; 93, 9, 10. 
anu-yasyat, 29*. 
anu-yoga, 48, 6. 
anu-yojya, 306, 4 (-yasara ). 
anu-rakta, 151*. 
anu-rdga, 68 b ; 121, 5, &c. 
anu-rupa, 21, 6; 29, 9; 134, 

5, &c. 

anu-lipta, i7i b . 
anu-lepana, 96, 2 (ufircf). 
anu-vd6ya,\aA. 53, 6; 258,11. 
anu-viddha, 20*. 
anu-vrit, 71, 7; 113, 2. 


anu-$ds, 214, 6. 
anu-Gasaniya, 1 73, 2. 
anu-shtha, 3, 2, 3 ; 93, I ; 

187, 9 . 

anu-shthdna, 1 78, 6 (tapas ). 
anu-shthita, 211, 13. 
anu-sdra, 61, 4, 5 ; 285, 8. 
anu-sdrin, 9, 2; 6 b (mriga ). 
anu-sri, 34, 14; 168, 2. 
anu-smrita, 233, 5. 
anu-smritya, ind. 67, 10; 240, 

, adj. 53, 5 ; 54, 6. 
anrita-maya, 207, 7. 
an-eka$as, adv. 296, n. 
anta, 2, i; I44 b j 260, i; 17* 

antar in karana, 22*; 276, 

2 ; pm, 123, 2 ; pi. 137; 

93, 14; dtman, io2 d ; 276, 

2; &a, 23, 5; 129, 3; 

<7(rfa, 1 66*; Ma, 140, 6; 

83* ; apa, 66 ; tushdra, 

anara, 182, 4; 10, 7 ; 284, 

5; I04 d , &c. ; e, 13, 5; 

ea, with ace. 8 1, 7i n- 

104, 5 (vitapa ). 
antard, adv. 91, 6; 256, 9, &c. 
antariktha, 1 23 C ("jramana). 

i antika, i66 a (stha); cf.jana . 
antya, adj. 292, 14. 
andha, i88 d ; c ^ara, 262,4,5. 
any a, 6, 2 ; i64 b ; tama, 153, 

2 ; tara, 1 24, 1 1 ; tas, 36" ; 

<&a, 72 a ; U9 b ; in, 3,&c.; 

anyo-'nya, 121, 5; 198. 
a-nydya, 294, 2. 
anv-aya, m. 292, 13. 
anv-ds, pass. 105, i. 
anv-ita, i^6 b . 

anv-ish, 102,8; 124,9; 216,3. 
anv-esha, 24 d (tattvu~). 
anv-e8hin,5J,2(asmad); 284, 

5 (antara ). 
ap, pi. i6o b . 
apa-krishfa, 1 1 2 b . 
apa-ghnat, 88 C . 
apa-farita, m c . 
apa-6ita, 38. 

apatya, n. 42"; ^'a^a, 123. 
a-patha, 1 1 2 b . 

apa-de4a, m. 83,8. 10; 115,2. 
apa-nayana, 1 08 (atUra ma). 
apa-nl, 75, 5 ; 159. 
a-para, 43; 83, 10; 228, i. 
apa-rakta, I38 b (''ad'Aara). 
a-pardjitd, 295, 14. 
apa-rdddha, 137, n; 309, 2. 
apa-rddh, caus. 126, 2. 
apa-rddha, m. 139, 14. 
a-parikshata, 77*. 
a-paridaya, 207, 2. 
a-paritita, 292, 7. 
a-paridfliinna, 260, 15. 
a-pariMheda, in d (dkula). 
a-paritosha, 271, 7. 
a-parinirvdna, 126, 4. 
apa-vddin, 71, 4. 
apa-rdrya, ind. 88, 1 7 ; 203. i . 
a-pafyat, 1 70, 9. 
apa-srita, 92 b ; 248,12. 
apa-hdya, ind. I48 a . 
apa-hdra, 40, 6, n. 
apd-kri, i62 d . 

apdnga, 24* ; 66 b ; 206, 1 3. 
opt, 2 b 591,3; 35, 9 ; 89, 1 1, 

&c.; Ja, 16, 8; 19, i,&c.; 

nama, 30, 1, n. ; 30, 5, n. 

a-purva, 8, 1 ; 255, 5 ; 308, 2. 
ape, i88 a . 

apeksh, go, 6; 257, 9. 
apekshd in edhdpeksha, i79 b - 
apekshita, 118"; 258, 7. 
apeta, I96 b (<aaa). 

oft, 53". 
a-pragalbha, 82, 2. 
a-pratipadyamdna, 124**. 
a-pratibuddha, 229, 13. 
a-pratiratha, ioo b ; 306,8. 
a-pratiloma, 292, 7. 
a-pratihala, 209, 1 2. 



a-pratyaya, adj. 2 b . 
a-pramatta, 221,10. 
a-pramana, adj. I26 b . 
a-priya, 137, 10; n^ d (tad). 
apsaras, f. 44, 12 ; 46, 5, &c.; 

tlrtha, 131; 226, 4. 
dbald-jana, m. 83. 
a-bdndhavakrita, 97*". 
a-bdlasattra, adj. 285, 9. 
a-bodkapurvam, adv. iO4 c . 
a-brakrnanya, 263, 3, n. 
a-bhaya, 5o b . 
abhijana-vat, 99". 
abhi-jatam, adv. 253, 7. 
dbhi-jna, 201, n. 
abhi-jiidta, 34, n. 
abhi-jnana, 140, 4, 5, &c. ; 

3akuntala, n. i , i ; 4, 3, n. ; 

7, 8, &c. 
dbhi-tas, I49 b (with ace.); 307, 


abhi-dha, 34, u, 12. 
abhi-nand, 72, 7 ; 84, 5 ; 1 1 2, 6. 
abhi-nandaniya, 195, 2. 
abhi-nandita, 76 b ; 147, 8; 

259. 15- 

abhi-nandya, ind. 214, n. 
abJii-nandyamana, 152, 8. 
tibhi-nayat, 134, 2. 
abhi-nava, 6i b ; 192,4; 19. 
dbhi-niveda, 108, 2. 
abhi-niya, ind. 96, 3. 
a-bhinna, 38 b ; ^a<i, 14 ; 

sthiti, ii2 ft . 
abhi-praya, 64, i. 
abhi-preta, 251, 7; 308, 2. 
abhi-bhava, 4i d . 
abhi-bhu, pass. 264, 2. 
abhi-bhuyamana, 34, 4, 5 ; 

35. 7- 

abhi-mata, 57 a ; 224, n. 
abhi-marfa, I2i tt (krita ). 
abhi-mukha,2,2; 3i b ; 45 a ,&c. 
abhi-rama, 7 a ; 78 b . 
abhi-rupa, 250, u; 4, 2. 
abhi-langh, 252, 12. 
abhi-ldska,m. 78,5 ; 94, 3, &c. 
abhi-ldshin, adj. 22 b . 
abhi-vad, caus. 88, 2 ; 197, 7. 
abhi-vrit, 21, 7; 32, 4; 23*. 
abhi-vyakta, 202, n. 
abhi-sheka, 1 56, 6 ; 1 76 b . 
abhi-hita, i()O b . 
abhitiu, m. 'a rein,' 10, 10. 
a-bhutala-spara-td, 174. 
a-bhumi, 271,11; 285, 7. 
abhy-akta, 1 1 3*. 
abhy-adhika, I35 b (pan<fan). 
abhy-antara, I72 b ; 205,12; 

218, 6, &c. 

abhy-arkavimbam, adv. 1 75"*. 
abhy-arth, 146, I, 2. 
abhy-arthann, 42, 7; 78, 6. 

abhy-arthita, 291, 6 (yatJia). 
abhy-as, 40**. 

abhy-asa, 207, 2 ; 209, 10. 
abhy-ukshya, ind. 130, 5. 
abhy-iit-thd, 120, 6. 
abhy-udaya, 304, 8. 
abhy-unnata, 6i a . 
abhy-upayata, 211,6. 
abhy-upapatti,i 22,10; 156,2. 
abhra, ' a cloud,' 6s b (fyama). 
a-mangala, 194, 8; 260, 4. 
amarefvara, 272, 6. 
amdtya, m. 236,10; 258, 6. 

14, &c. 

a-mdnusha, 67, 4; 123*. 
a-mrita, 282, 7 (hrada). 
ambd,go,g; 92,5; 294, 6, &c. 
ambu, H4 b ; ra^', 56 b . 
ambhas, I5 a ; 30; I22 b , &c. 
a-yathartha, adj. 55 b . 

i, interj. 210, 4; 253, 2,&c. 
aye, interj . 2 1 , 4. 5 ; 84, 1 1 , &c. 
ara, 171" 

ava-daya, 134, 2 

aranya, n. 40, 9 ; oa, 8 C . 

aravinrfa, 6o a (surabhi). 

aruna, 143; 32; 82 b ; 168. 
a, 82 b ; 9i b ; 99; 42 b . 

arghaorarghya,$6,3; 138,4. 

arcana, 229, 7. 9. 

ardaniya, 136, 2, 3. 

artita, 196, 14. 

artha, 52 b ; io2 a ; 216,2, &c.; 
ar<Ae, 93 a ; w, 96, i ; io5 d , 
&c.; ja<a, 258, 6; 6aw- 
<?Aa, 169"; a<, 197, 16; 
sandaya, 258, 13, 14. 

arthin, 159" (itonita ). 

ardha, 9 b ; 7 ; 7 b , &c. 

arpita, 79 b ; ioo c ; I38 a ; I48 b ; 
!- o a . va ^ I 4 1 c_ 

weak, adv. 1 5 (with loc.) 
r. arA, arhati, 7i b ; 93, I, &c. 
arAa, adj. 137, 10 (pw/o ). 
arhat, 1 1 7 a . 
a-lakehita, 95. 
a-lakshya, adj. 38; 180. 
a-langhaniya, 8 C . 
aZam, adv. 48, 6 ; 54, 2 ; 166, 

9; karana, 154, 12; kara, 

24, u ; % r i, 39, 5. 
alinda, 192, 5 (agni-farana '). 
a-luna, 44 a . 


233. 4- 

ava-kafa, ig6 d ; labdha ,^, 3. 
ava-gata, 107, 14 ; 310, i , &c. 
ava-gam, 44, 4 ; 46, 5 ; 66, 2. 
ava-gddha, 279, 4 ; 282, 7, 

8; 6l, 

ava-gdha, 3 a (salila ), 
ava-gunthana, 201, 10; jja<, 

H5 a -' 
a-vadana, adj. 35, 10. 

avatansaya, -yati, 4 b . 
ai?a-<arawa, 278,4; 309, 15. 
ava-tdra, 46, 2 (vasawte ). 
ava-tdrya, ind. 224, 4. 

ava-tlrya, ind. 20, 3 ; 282, n. 
at;o-<ri, 19, 10 ; 20, 2; 112, 

II, &C. 

ava-dana, i65 b . 
ava-dhana, 182, 4. 
ava-dhi, m. 245, 9. 
ava-dhlrana, 1 16, 9 ; a, f. 67**. 
ava-dhmia, i45 d ; i77 b . 
ava-dhri, caus. 174, 3. 
ava-nata, 147, 7; 265, 2. 
ara-maniw, 117, 4; 260, 6. 
ava-ruddha, 36. 
ava-ruh, if2 & . 

avarodha-griha, iO5 b ; 144". 
ava-lamb, 122,11; 212,11. 
ava-lambana, ios d (artham). 
ava-lambita, 150, 8 (3akha). 
ava-lambin, 192, 6 (awsa). 
ava-lambya, ind. 62, 7. 
ava-lldha, 7 C - 
ava-lepa, 248, 2. 
cwa-Zo&, 53, 6. 
ava-lokayat, 58, 2. 
ava-lokya, ind. 2, 2 ; 9, 3, &c. 
ava-Sishta, 142, 5. 
ava-tfesha in a, 68, II. 
ava-deshita, 89, 14. 
avafyam, adv. 91, 1 ; in, 3. 
ava-sad, caus. io8 a . 
ara-sara, m. 34, 10; 77, 5. 
ava-sdna, 240, 2 ; 310, 3. 
ava-sita, 2, 3; 158, 2 (man- 

ava-seka, 248, 13. 

ava-stha, 107,10; 186,3; 2 34, 

15, &c. ; antara, 122, 9. 
ava-sthdna, 247, 10. 
ava-sthita, 214, 12. 
at-a-hita, ios a ; 119,4; 197,3. 
ava-hlna, 61, 4. 

a-vighna, 40, 8 (kriya). 
a-vijnata, 139, 13. 
a-vitatha, 108, 9. 
avidhd, 264, 8, n. ; 266, 7. 
a-vinaya, 2 b ; 285, 7. 
a-vinita, 252, 16; 286, 5- 
a-viralam, adv. 6o b . 
a-vilambitam, adv. 85, 5 ; 

1 13.4- 

a-vilambin, adj. 120, 5. 
a-vilambya, ind. 295, 9. 
a-vi^rdnta, 255, 7. 
a-vi^rdma, adj. 187, 3. 
a-vishaya, adj. 173, 5. 
aw, 165, 4; 84 b ; 113''. 



aveksh, 205, 10. 
avekshi-ta, 202, 5 (dharma ) 
a-vyakttt, i8i b . 
a-vyabhidarin, adj. 237, 5, 6. 
a-vyavasyat, i2o b . 
a-rydja, i8 a (manohara). 
r. a atfnati, 60, 4 (pass.) 
a^ana,8o d (pisita); 265,15 
a-4arana, 124, n; 240, 15. 
a-tikshita, 123*, 126". 
a-4teira, adj. 66 a . 
a-4udi, 113*. 

a-3unya, adj. 75, 6; 236, 16. 
a-geshatas, adv. I58 d . 
a-s'oka, 284, 4 (vrik$ha). 
a-3odanlya, 147, 10. 
a<frit, 65, 7; 66 b ; I47 b , &c. 
a-4ruta, 232,1 (prra). 
atfra, 1 7, 10. 
ashian, i d . 

r. a, a<t, 3, a ; 5 a , &c. 
a-samfayam, adv. 22 a ; 129,2. 
a-sanskdra, adj. i87 b . 
a-samstuta, 34*. 
a-sakta, 46 d . 
a-a<, n. m b ; 201, 4. 
a-salya, 145, 7 (sandha). 
a-sannivritti, f. 142. 
a-sannihita, 136, 12. 
a-sambaddha, 51, 6, n. 
a-sambhavita, 57* *' n - 
a-savarna, 30, 5 (ks1ietra). 
a-sadhudar&n, adj. 22, n. 
a-sdnnidhya, n, 88, 12. 
.4swra, i6i a ; i73 b ; 274,9. 
a-sulabha, 243, 7 (sthdna). 
asuyd, 225, 3; cf. sasuyam. 
asta, 82 (i!ikhara). 
astra, n. 266, n. 
asmad, 30, i ; 34, 7 ; 40, 8, 

&c.; 57, 2 (anwsfo'); 93, 

14; 214, 8. 

a-svastha, 96, 4 ; 105,11. 
r. a7t, i c ; 24, 5; 27, 4, &c. 
-a&a (for ahan), 67, 5. 7, 8. 
, 158". 

a/to, interj. 36 d ; 95, 4 ; 103, 5. 

a- in a-tamra, &c., 1 34* ; 181*. 

a, prep, with abl, 2 a ; 27"; 169, 

4; 126*. 

d-kampita, 176, 9. 
d-karn, 163, 3 ; 182, 8. 
d-icarnya, ind. 13,4; 185. 6. 
d-kdra, 41, 4; 291, 4. 
d-kdrita, 244, n. 
dkds'a,226, 2,&c. ; 6,96, 2, &c. 

d-kutila, 189 

a-kuhla, 189. 

d-kula, 67, 5 ; 99 b ; i-kritya, 
ind. 65, 7; iJ)hnta, 92, 2. 

dJculita, 147, 8 (dhuma ). 
d-kriti, 2O d ; 38, 10; 135, 2. 
d-krish, pass. 207, 7, 8. 
d-krishf.a, 9, 8 ; 33 b . 
d-krishya, ind. 58. 
d-krand, 34, 7. 
A-khandala, 303, 14 ; iQ2 a . 
a-khya,f. ig, 13 ; I97 d . 
akhydyin, 24. 
d-gata, 89, 7. 

-?an, 2,3,4; 34 3 ; J33-4 
249. 8. 

d-gama, 221, 3; 223, 4; 114* 

d-gamana, 187, 2, 3; 222,1. 

d-gdmin, adj. 90, 17. 

d-ghdta, 33 a (<imi). 

d-dakshita, 240, 3; 297, ir. 

a-^ar, 25 b . 

d-darita, 144, 4. 

d-daritavya, 304, 8. 

o-daro, 62, 2 ; 158, 7; iOj a . 

d-ddhddin, ig b (parindhcf). 

d-jiva, m. 219, 7; 223,11. 

d-jnapta, 7, 8; 155,4. 

d-jnapti, 90, 7 (Aom). 

a-ji;ia, caus. 3, 2 ; 10, 12, &c. 

d-jnd, 88, 6, &c. ; ftarz, 308, 1 1 . 

ajya, is b (dhuma). 

d-tanka, m. 106, 8; 108, 5. 

d-tapa,g6, 4; 75 b ; tra, lo& d . 

d-tamra, 134*, n. 

dtitheya, adj. 16, 8. 

dtiihya, n. 36, 5, 
dtura, adj. 170, 9. 

a,iiQ<>'(^danda); gandha, 
263, 9, n.; s'astra, 269, 1, n. 
-dtmaka in ddha, 4i b . 
atman, a b ; 17,10; dtmand- 
tritiya, 13, II ; krita, 209, 
1 2 ; gatam, 38, 4, n. ; <7O*j', 
293. I ; ja, 42, 10 ; &M, 
191; 199^ 
dtmiya, 77, 2. 
d-dadhdna, 8o c . 
d-dara, m. 227, 4. 

a, 265, 8. 
d-ddya, ind. 95,2; 153, 1 3, &c. 
-adt, 44, 5 ; 207, 7 (evarn ). 
Adityas (twelve), 305, n. 3. 
d-dis, 151, 7; caus. 161, 4. 
d-dishta, 142, 4; 227, I. 

a, adj. i a ; 89. 
d-dhd, 4, 4. 
d-dhdra, i4 d (toya). 
d-dhi, m. 98 d ; %C<M, 64 b . 
dnana, 31; 63 a ; 68 a . 
d-nanda, 158, 6 (parivdhin). 
d-nl, 238, ii ; 249,6; I72 d . 
d-nita, 309, i. 
r. ap, dpnoti, I3 b ; 16, 2. 
dpagd, 172. 
d-pana, 225, 10 (4aundika). 

a-panna, 72, 2 ; 5o b ; 122,4; 

satti-a, 146, 3, 4; 199, i. 
ap<a, i26 d (me?). 
dbutta, 219, 2 ; 222, 4. 7, &c. 
d-bharana, 20, 5 ; 79, 85 d , &c. 
d-bhoga, m. 1 7, 14, n. 
am, interj. 100, 2. 
d-mantr, 128, 14; 165, 2, &c. 
d-marda, 178". 
d-mrishta, i66 c . 
anra, 230, 5 ( c kalil:d). 
dyata, 57 b (nayana). 
d-yatta, 97 d (bhdyya?). 
d-ydta, 40, 9; 232, 12. 
d-ydsa, 120, 8; 135,11. 
d-ydsayitri, 109, 2. 
ayws, 91, i; 307, 8; ma<, 9, 

4, n. ; 10, 6. 10; 281, 2. 

, 170, 9. 
aranyaka, 57, 5; 47 b , &c. 
d-rabk, 136, 5; 230, 6. 
d-rabhya, ind. 106, 6. 
d-rambha, 227,2 (nir-utsava). 
drat, 131. 
d-rddh, 7, 5, 6. 
d-rddhayitri, 1 25, 6, 

udha,!^, 13; m d ; 261,8. 
d-ropita, 122, 10; 263, 12. 
d-ropya, ind, 236, 1 2 ; 265, 16. 
d-rohana, 270, 9. 
arta, n b ; 159; 263, 5. 
drti, 122, 4 (Aora). 
drdra, 20, 6 (^prishtha). 
an/a, 3,2; 5, 2 ; 22 b , &c. ; a, f. 

2, 3 ; %-a, 295, i ; putra, 

196, II ; mi6ra, 7, 8, n. 
d-laksh, pass. 63 ; I38 d . 
d-lakshya, adj. 181", u. 
d-lapat, 38, 10 sq. 
dlavdla, 22, 6 (purana~). 
d-ldpa, m. 21, 4; 39, 4. 
d-likhita, f, 4 ; 248, 14. 
dlikhitu-kdma, 250, n, 12. 
n-ling, 6o b ; 298, 7. 
-^o/c, pass. 279, 5. 
-foa, 9 a ; 33 d . 
,-varana, 75* (*tona). 
d-vahat, 57". 

pa, 265, 7 (hasta ). 
a-vdrya, ind. 252, 10. 

d, caus. 313, 15. 
dvilaya, -yati, i22 a . 
avis, ' evidently,' in c krita, 82, 
10 1; 82 b ; 85"; bhu, ii6 b . 
d-vrij, caus. 30, 3. 
d-vritya, ind. 129, 6 ; 209, 10. 

0a, 125,6; 139,4; 295,6. 
d-vedya, ind. 92, 6. 

, 28 b ; 242, 2. 
i-fankamdna, 202,12. 
fankd, 107, 2; I5 d . 
^a, 293, 6 ; bandJut, 96 b . 



a-ias, 160, I; 312, 2. 
a$is, 153, 8; 159, 6; 192*. 
a-'w, 71* (kldnta). 
dMarya, 278, 4; 215, 4, &c. 
a-4rama, 13, 3; 16, 7; 48*; 

1 94, 1 1 (vania) ; pada, 1 6* ; 

sad, 88, 8.' 
a-3raya, i8i c (unka ). 
dtfrayin, 230, II (tad). 
a-ifri, 170, 2. 

<2-^ri<t/a,ind. 7,5 ; 21,10; 149,3. 
a-$lishya, ind. 150, 1 ; 174, 12. 
a-s'ras, 140, 8 ; 261, 3. 
atfvasin, 35* (darfana ). 
as, interj. 137, 4; 252, II. 
r. as, as<e, 284, 4; 202, 8. 
a-sanga, 33 b . 

d-sajyamdna, 79 (ikshand). 
dsana, 88, i; 153, I (s^Aa). 
a-sanna, 238, 8. 
faina, 76, 3 (sukha ). 
d-starana, 105, i. 
agpada, 191. 
a-phalana, 38*. 
d-harana, 16, 6. 
ahavaniya, 149, n. 
d-hdra, 60, 4 
a-hinfl, 60, 2. 
d-hindat, 72, 3. 
a-hita, 37 b ; 84" ; io6 c . 
d-huti, (. 147, 9. 
a-A/i, 155, 5 

aAo, 2 7 d ; 1 3o b ; 'Wd, 1 1 i c . 
d-hve, pass. 69, 15. 

t- in i-tara, i-tas, &c. 

r. i, e/i, ioi a . 

ikshu,, 265, 2. 

ingndl, I4 b , n. ; 81, 3 ; 94". 

i-tara, 16, i ; 130,12; 248, 15. 

f-<as, 2, 3; 141*, &c. ; i<as 

t'tos, 91, 3; gata, 134, n ; 

mukha, 222, 17, &c. 
&i, 10,6; 60, i ; 134, 5, &c. 
iti-hdsa, 107, 9 (nibandha). 
ittham, 207,4; 2O 9> J 2 ; <7ata, 

146, 4; bhuta, 114, 9. 
t'cifam, 8, 3; 9,8; 10,4; I2; 

2o c ; 22,11.12; 76,2; 171". 
i-dantm, 7, 5 ; 9, 8, &c. 
iddha, i8o c (ra</a). 
fwdw, 55 ac ; 85* (pdidu). 
indra, io7 d ; A:a, 287, 5 

(mriga ); Indra, 284, 5. 
indhuna, i63 (<?alita}. 
iyat, 61, 2 ; 134, 6; 137, 2. 
wa, adv. 7, 5; 6 b ; 239, 17, &c. 
r. ts/t, idchuti, 44, 8 ; 88, 6 ; 

176, 2 ; 119 (pass.) 
t'sAw, 39; 266, 12. 
i*hta, 197,9; 83; jana,6^,i. 
i$hii,S8,i2(.vighna); 134,10; 

267, 10 (pa.s f M-m<mim.) 

iha, 1 6 ; 44 d , &c. ; slha, 88, 8 

ikshana, 27*; 72*=; 79. 

ilisMta, n. 45*. 

fdnV or a, 39 d ; 86 ; 9o d , &c, 

Ipsita, m. 6-j A . 

irita, 26, 2 (^a 

/^a, ' Siva,' i d . 

Uvara, 272,6; i68 b ; igi's&c 

ishat, adv. 4" ; 248, 14. 

r. /, IAa<e, 122". 

ukta, 121,6 (punar ) ; 203, 1 1 
M#ra, 44, 1 1 ; 102, 9 (dtapa) 
udita, 38, 2; 201, 2; 137, &c 
wi-faya, 43 b ; 139, 5. 
uMais, adv. I4i b ; %'Za, 97* 
ud-thid, 162. 
ut-thvasita, n. 97, 2. 
u6-6hvasa, I47 b 
UjjayinI, 316, n. 
ujjhita, 42" ; 44, 4. 7. 
ujjhitvd, ind. 32, 3 ; 67. 4. 
wto/a, 36, 3; 57, 6; 101 b , &c. 
uta, I23 b (Hi); ih'm uta, 

74 ad ; 105, ii, 12. 
ut-kantha, -kanthate, 178, 9. 
ut-kanthd, 86* ; 150, 3. 5; 

7> 3 (djiidpanotkantha). 
ut-kanthita, 185, 7. 
ut-karsha, 39. 
ut-kirna, 217, 5. 
ut-kula, adj. i28 b . 
ut-kshipat, i72 d . 
ut-kshipya, ind. I3i d . 
ut-kshepann, 3O a (ghata ). 
ut-kshepam, ind. i3i b (ba/iM). 
ut-khdtin, adj. 10, 6. 
ut-tam, 40, 4. 
ut-tara, 189, 9 ; 210, 7 (adha- 

ra); 211, 13. 
utlariya, 256, 14. 
ut-tdna, 204, 6 (hridaya). 
ut-tlrna, 156, 6 ; 157, 3. 
ut-thd, 57, 9 ; 47 a . 
ut-thdna, 39 a (yogya). 
ut-thdya,h\d.8S,i; 107,5, &c. 
ut-thita, 142, 2 ; 85; 187, 2. 
ut-paJcchman, adj. 95 a . 
ut-pad, caus. 79, 4; 88, 13. 
utpala, 18 (wtZo). 
ut-preksha, 95, n. 3. 
ut-phula, 137, 13. 
itt-sarpin, adj. 283, 8. 
ut-sava, 89 ; 232, 9 ; 234, 4. 
ut-sah, 187, 3; 241, ii. 
ut-sdha, 71, 4 ; 72, 2 ; 75, 2. 
utsuka, ()"]", 124,8; 234,16. 
ut-srijya, ind. 75* ; 267. I. 
udaka, 36, 3; 97,3; I57 d ,&c. 
ud-agra, 7 d (pluta-tva). 
uda-dhi, 49* (fydma-8lman). 
ud-anta, ' news,' 226, 6. 

T t 

ud-aya, 152, 7 (surya ) ; 82. 
udara, 39*; I9 d ; 118, 10, &c. 
uddra, adj. 205, 7; 279, 2. 
ud-dhrita, 47, 3, 4. 

ud-gata, 32, 3. 

ud-gama, I5 b (djya-dhuma ). 

ud-galita, 92*. 

ud-gdra, 219, 4 (jdla ). 

ud-di3, 265, 15. 

ud-difya, ind. 122, 9; fcirn , 

192, 7. 

ud-dish;a, 153, i ; 214, 9. 
wd-a 1 6^0,103,5; 237, 3; 244, 8. 
ud-dhata, 8 C . 
ud-dhrita, i67 b ; 302, 2. 
ud-bhinna, 248, 1 2. 
ud-bheda, 85"* (kisalaya ). 
udbhrdntalca, 263, i, n. 
ud-yamya, ind. 13, 12 ; 16, 


ud-ydna, I7 b (Jaa) ; 227, 5. 
ud-vdnta, 248, ii. 
ud-vikshya, ind. i66 b . 
ud-vegttj 261, 2 (viguna }. 
ud-vejita, 78, 4. 
un-nata, 95 ; 247,11. 
un-namita, 68 ; 78 d . 
un-nidra, adj. I37 b . 
un-majjat, 172". 
un-matta, 228, 8 ; 254, 3, &c. 
un-mddayitri or A;o, 46, 2, n. 
un-mulita, 174, 13. 
upa-kantha, 58 (rfravana ). 
upa-kdrin, n^ & (para ). 
upa-krita, 165*. 
upa-klrip, caus. 138, 4. 
upa-gata, 26, 9 ; 207, 3, &c. 
upa-gama, 14. 

upa-gamya, ind. 87, 9 ; 188, 3. 
upa-ghdla, 65, 5 (gd(ra). 
upa-dar, 97, i. 
upa-ddra, Ji b . 
upa-ddhandita, 207, 2. 
upa-jtvin, 223, 3 (jdla). 
upatyakd, 188, 4. 
upa-dishta, 173, n. 3. 
upa-de4a, m. 37 d ; 174, 2. 
upa-nata, 1 20" ; 130,8; 202, 

5 (sukha ). 
upa-nipdtin, 237, 5. 
upa-nl, 256, 10 ; 258, 10. 
upa-nita, 40, 2. 
Mpa-wiy,ind. 20, 5 (with gen.) 
upa-nyasta, 200, 2. 
upa-nydsa, 116, 6; 200, 4. 
upa-pad, 46, 9. 
upa-panna, 19, 7 > ^5 I2 5 

I27 b , &C. 

upa-bhoga, 85*" ; kshama, 6, 

6 ; 29, 2, n. 

upa-md, 208, 9 (kupopama). 
upa-mdlinltiram, adv. 16, 7. 



upa-yam, 198, 7. 
upa-yamya, ind. 308, 1 1 sq. 
upa-rdga, ' eclipse," i86 b . 
upari, prep. 61, 3; 42 b ; 171". 
upa-ruddha, 95* (vritti), 
upa-rudh,$'j,2; 74,5; 178,6. 
upa-rodha,ig,g;]g^,g; 258,4. 
upala, i4 b . 
upa-lakshana, 142, 4. 
upa-lakshita, 48, 3. 
upa-labdha, 302, ir. 
upa-labh, 32, i ; 227, 6. 
upa-labhya, ind. 291, 6. 
upa-lambha, 40, 9; 129, 2; 


upa-ldlayat, 292, 8. 
upa-vana, 15 (&Ait) ; 83, 4. 
wpa-t'asa, 90, 18. 
upa-vi3, 38, 3; 76,3; 121,3. 
upa-vifya, ind. 37, 3 ; 153, 13. 
upa-vislita, 76, 8 ; 117, 7, &c 
pa-y, 105, 4. 
upa-vijya, ind. 105, 5. 
upa-ve^ita, 271, 12. 
upa-samharat, 267. 7- 
upa-sarpanlya, 222, 9. 
upa-sritya, ind. 35, 1 ; 120, I 
upa-srip, 70, 3 ; 90, 1 5 ; 1 5 2, 9 
upa-sthdtavya, 4, 4. 
upa-sthita, 13, 6 ; 8i b ; 207, 1. 
upa-hata, 196. 
upa-hdra, 239, 6. 
upa-hita, 19 ; 141, 2. 
upa-hri, 36, 3 ; 84, 2 ; 88, 4. 
upd-gata, 261, 13. 
updya, m. 113, 4; 140, 10 ; 


updyana, 154, 10 (hasta). 
upd-labdha, 102, i; 184, 6. 
upd-labh, 24,2', 246, II. 
upd-lambhana, 184, 5. 
upd-vrit, 20, 6. 
upd-vritta, 142, 4. 

upeksh, 1 08, 6. 
upekshita, 189*. 
upeta, 1 2 b (guna). 
upetya, ind. 28, 5 ; 37; 7* * 
upodha, in* (tapas) ; 1 74* 
M/rfa, 260, 2 ; I56 d (mja). 

i,du. 34,6:41, 4; 85,9,&c. 
35 b ; 2 7i.7: i67 a ,&c, 

s, n. 63*; 196, 10 ; 175". 

ul-likhita, i38 d . 
u&ra, 62* ; 96, 2. 
ushas, f. i8o d (waa). 
ushna, adj. 56"*; m. n. 109. 

, 233, 5; 309, 3(pwrai). 
writ, 74 C (karabha ). 

riksha, 72, 4 (jlrna). 
rl6, 160, i (dhandas). 
ritu,, 6, 4; I34 b ; 303, 5; 

utsava, 227, i. 
rife, with abl. 102, 8; I55 b . 
ritv-ij, 96, i, n. 
mAt, i8 a ; 94, 2; 192. 7; 283, 

n. 4, &c.; kalpa, 85, 12. 

c. 52, 8 ; 76, 8; 156, 6, &c. 
e&a, 30 d ; 49 b ; 131^, &c.; tas 

tas, 82 ab ; de4a, 121,2; 

antara, igi A ; aha, 67, 7, 

8; eka, n8 b i 144". 
ekdkin, 228, 6. 
etad, 5 b ; 10, 7; 26, 2; 151*, 

&c. ; nimitta, 1 50, 9. 
etddrtia, 67, 4. 
etavat, 145, 9; 174,2; 281,2. 
edAa, i79 b (apeksha}. 
edhita, 52*. 

C7ia,7,5; 13,1; 23,5.9:81,2. 
et>a,io,4; 17, 2; 65*; 93 a ,&c. 
euam, 30,1 ; 55, 2,&c.; mdha, 

!O9 b ; vritta, 260, 2 ; guno- 

peta, I2 b ; tarkin, 291, 5; 

dartin, 180, 10 ; adi, 207, 

7; prdya, 188. 

aindra, 269, i (ratha). 
Airavata, 267, n. i. 
, 201, 6 

ofeos,86 c ; 173,2; i69 d (dira) 
oshadhi or z, 82* ; 295, 14. 
, 78"; i87 b (pdfala ). 

aurasa, adj. 286, 9. 
, m. 56*". 

-.2; 34. 7: 38, 55 53 a : 
62, 2 ; kasmdt, I45 d ; cf./fcim. 

" 239, 17. 
kantuka, 208, 9 (dharma ). 
kandukin, 186, i. 2; i93,3,&c. 
A;a/w or /ca, adj. 60, 3. 
kana, 6o a (vdhin). 
kantaka, 167*". 
kantakita, 68 b . 
kantha, m. 86 b ; 1 36, &c. 
kandita, 60, 5 (sandhi). 
kanduyamdna, I49 d . 
Kanva, 16, 6; 22, n, &c. 
ka-tama, 6, 4; 7, 5 ; 39, 5, n. 
ka-tara, 275, i. 

88, i3\'rdtra). 
r.kath, kathayati, 5, 4 ; 1 7, 6; 

283, n; 291, 4, &c. 
katham, 10,4; 40, 6, &c. ; api, 

78 d ; 97 b ; Va, 18, 2. 
kathayitavya, 233, 4. 

3; 8i d ; 293, 12. 
kathita, 105, 2 ; i'a<. 239, 15. 
kadamba, 251, 5; %-a, 4O b . 
kadd, 128, 6 ; fid, 93, 14, &c. 
kanaka, 66 d ; rasa, 279, 4. 
Kandarpa, 102, i; 238, 2. 
kanyakd, 21, 5 ; 94, 3 ; 76*. 
kanyd, 25 b ; io2 a ; jana, 82,2. 
kapifa, 8o d ; I76 b . 
kapota, 229, 14 
kapola, 63* ; 68 b ; 
kamala, iO3 c ; I52 d . 
kamalini, 91" (harita). 
kara, m. 24; I45 b ; i8o b ; 

iaZa, 8s c ; rwAa, 44". 
-/i-ara in madhu , 32, 4, &c. 
karaniya, 5, 8 ; 145, 5, 6, &c. 
karandaka, 256, 4 ; 295, 4. 
karabha, 74 ( rM). 
Kardbhaka, 90, 7. 15. 16. 
karuna, 212, 7 (parideviri). 
karna,S b ; 24 b ; 30; 21,3, 

&c. ; patha, 232, n. 
kartavya, 125". 
ftarmaw,37,5; 95,5; i68 a ,&c. 
^aZa, 90; 182, 5 (ri>iuddha). 
kalatra, n. 196, 9 (^ara). 
kalada, 30, 3. 

kalikd, 228, 8 ; 230,6; 136". 
kalusha, 86 b ; 141. 

vriksha, i"j6 & ; latd, 169^. 
kalpand, 201, 4 (a-sat). 
kalpita, 220, 4. 
kalpishyamdna, 156. 
kalydna, 134, 5 (nirvritta ). 
kavala, 92*. 

Kasyapa, 22,n. 3; 279, n. 3. 
-kasha in kulam , 122 b . 
kashdya, 60, 2. 
kashta, 258, 14 ; tapas, 282, 2. 
kaku, 264, n. 2. 
r. kanksh, kdnkshati, i j6 d . 
kdndana,!^ ; ij6 b (padma). 
kdthinya, 63* (mukta-stana). 
kdtara,4l,4; <5,64 d ; bltdva, 

130, 8; i-bhuta, 35, 7. 
Icadambarl, 225, 10. 
kdnta, 77, 2; a, f. i27 a ; I53 b . 
&an&, i2O a (a-klhhta). 
kdma,6^ & ; I45,6,&c.;m,adv. 

24,10; 31, n.; 35 a ; 112"; 

Kdma-deva,ioo, i ; 99, n. i. 
kdmayamdna, 107, 9, 10. 
kdmin, $6 d ; jana, 99, 2. 
iaj/a, 7 b (ptirva ) ; 8 a . 
-jfcara in baldt, sat, salia . 
kdrana, 65, 7; 66, 7; i9i a . 
kdrita, 145, 7. 

-kdrin, 44, 12 ; 187, 2 ; J53 b . 
kdrmuka, 6 a (adhijya ). 
kdrya,i49*; 310, 13; 16,7, &c. 
, i b ; 28, 6; is6 d , &c. ; 



kufa, 257, 6; Kdla-nemi, 
268, 7; harana, 112, 4; 
antara-kshama, 150, 9. 

Kdlidasa, 4, 2 ; 315, n. 2. 

Kas'yapa, 22,11,12 ; 42, 9. 

kashtha, 62, 7; 238, 2. 3. 

fci'wrt, I3 b (anka). 

kitava, 212,4. 

4*m, see &a; A-j'm wta, 74 nd ; 
in ah ; aX i88 b ; dkhya, 
2 93. 7 ; #t> 7 1 . i; i82 b ; 
uta, I23 b ; #;ai, 215, 10; 
tu, 47, 3, &c.; nimittam, 
26, 7; purusha, 279, 7. 

fa'yctf, 13"; 142, 5; 244, 14. 

kirana, $8 b (ravi) ; i68 d . 

Tcila, adv. i8 a ; 36*; I33 a ,&c. 

letialaya ( = kisalaya), 59**. 

kfoalaya, n. 44* ; ii5 b ; I5 b . 

kidrisa, 81, 7; 223, n. 

irna, 7 C (^vartman). 

kutila, adj. 124; i89 c . 

kutumba, ioo c ; 219, 4. 

kunapa, 265, 15 (a 

kutas, 8, 4; i6 a ; 55, 3, n. 

kutuhala, 89, u; 196,6. 

kutra, 112, 11; 217, 4, &c. 

kunda, 120. 

r. ip, caus. 269, 8. 

kupita, 230, 4. 

kuhja, 66, 4, n. (lild). 

kumdra,8s, 7, &c. ; %-a, 85, 2. 

kumuda, n. 129". 

kumud-rati, 7o b ; 83*. 

kumbhila or % - a, 217. 4- 

kuravaka, n. 58, i; I36 b . 

fcZa, 40 b ; 98 d , &c. ; pa/, 
16, 1 2 ; 97, 2, &c. ; pratish- 
thd, i56 b ; vrata, 292, 14; 
ankura, i8y-. 

kulyd, i5 a (ambhas'). 
kuvalaya, 252, 9. 
&M&I, 57, 16; 95, 2 ; 94*". 
kufala, 198, 2 (svddhina?). 
kufalin, 197, 17. 
ktvle-faya, 91. 
kusuma, 4 b ; i9 d 

kupa, 208, 9. [i. 

fcMfa, 251, 5 (lamba ). 

kulan-kasha, adj. I22 b . 

r. frri, karoti, &c. ; 14, 6, &c.; 
I52 d (caus.); padam kri, 
ioo d ; manasa kri, 43 b , n.; 
hridaye kri, 42, 2, n. ; 68, 4. 

fcnta, 36, 5; 76, 2, &c. ; e, 
with gen. 178, 9; m, with 
inst. 30, 6 ; 105, 13 ; kdrya, 
201, 2; pranaya, 184, 4; 
fsanskdra, 312, 2 ; san- 

artha, 41, 9. 

-kritaka, 94**, &c. (putra). 
kritin, 24?, n. ; i83 d . 
/m'fa/a,n.5i a ; 93,1 ; 99 b ; no d . 
kritvd, ind. 218, 4. 
kritsna, adj. 49 b . 
kri$a, 39" (^udara) ; 114, 7. 
r. krixh, karshati, I78 b . 
krishfa, I36 d (ardha ). 
krishna,' black ;' mriga, 1 49 d ; 

sorpa,i82 d ; ara,6 a ; 13,5. 
Hrip, kalpate, no b ; 294,15. 
klripta, 88 a ^dhishnya). 
ketu, 34 b . 
kevala, adj. i64 a ; i, adv. 22, 

8 ; 48 d ; 108, 6. 
&etfa, 248, ii. 

kefara, 4 ft ; 26, 2 ; 150, 9, &c. 
ketfarini, f. 286, 12. 
kaitava, 207, 11; cf. o. 
kokila, 162, i; 136. 
kotara, 14". 
koti-mat, igo d . 
kopa, m. 208, 12 ; 560. 
komala, 2i ft ; 77 a ; 145-. 
koraka, 13. 
koldhala, 61, i. 
kosha, 59* (bandhana ). 
kautuka, 146, 7 (prasthdna ). 
kautuhala, n. 39, 3 ; 44, 7. & c - 
kaulina, 232, 12. 
Kautika, 43, 2, n. 
r. krand, krandati, I3i b . 
krama, m. 194. 
fcnya, 1 3 ft ; 1 76 b , &c. ; cf. sa<. 
r. &rzd, kridati, 289, 2. 
krldanaka, 287, 5 ; 295, 2. 
krura, adj. I4i d ; 38 a . 
krodha, m. 39 b . 
kraurya, n. 299, 2. 
r. klam, kldmyati, 235, 7- 
klama, 74 a (vinodin). 
kldnta, 102, 7; 79 b ; 192, 2; 

tara, 6$ b . 

Minna, i7i d (nemt). 
r., klitfndti, io8 b . 
klishta, 63" (macfana ); I42 b . 
klefa-letia, 38 b , n. ; see 248, n. 2. 
&ra, 102,6; 1 60, 6, &c. ; fcra 

frw, io cd ; 52 a ; <?wi, I4 b . 
kshana, m. 8, 3 ; 69,9 ; kshandt, 

278, 2; rw, adv. 9 d . 
kshata, 46 a . 
kshati, 40 (musfa ). 
kshatra, 22* (^parigraha). 
kshapd, I37 b . 

kshayin, adj. 47 a . 
kshdma,6$ . '. 
r. fe/ti, caus. kshapayati, igg' 
kshiti, i84 b (rakshdrthain). 
T. kship, kshipati, 230, 3. 
kshipta, i88 d . 

T t 2 

kshlna, I38 d . 

kshlra, 59 b (snigdha) ; i6o b ; 

vriksha, 170, 2. 
kshetra, 30, 5, n. ; 279, 8. 
kshetrin, 202, 12. 
kshepa in sa-drishtf. 
kshobha, i6,^ b . 
kshauma, 8s a ; yugala,i$8, 3. 

khanda-tfas, adv. 220, 4. 
kharjura, 78, 4 (pinda ). 
khalu, 4, 2 ; 8,3; io a ; 123 d . 
khddikd,, 69, 5 (modaka ). 
khdditavya, 247, 2. 
r. &Mc?, khidyate, iO9 a . 
khill-bhuta, i54 a . 
khura, 32" (turaga '), 
kheda, 189, 7; 253, 3. 

gagana, 1 70* (pratishtha). 

Gangd, 246, 2 (srotas). 

gaja, m. 33 d ; I95 a . 

r. ^an, ganayati, 99 d ; I44 b . 

gana, 268, 7 (danava ). 

ganand, 258, 6 (bahula-td). 

ganda, i5O b ; 61, 3. 

grato, 17, 3; 93 b ; 38, n. i; 

neut. 171; bhartri , 141, 3; 

madana , 107, 8 ; sakhl , 

42, 5, n. ; cf. dtma, sva ; 

vat, 1 80, 4. 

grai, 14; iO5 d ; 62, 2, &c. 
gatvd, ind. 19,8; 29 b ; 46 b , &c. 
gantavya, 93, 7. 
gandha, 88 C ; 263, 9 ; vaha, 

io6 b . 

-gandlii, 221, 5 (w'sra ). 
r. gram, gadthati, 21, 5 ; 34* ; 

57, 8, &c. ; caus. 102, 10. 
gamana, 51, 10; 57,6; 58,5. 
gamariiya, 38, 6. 
gambhlra, 38, 10; 224, 12. 
garbha, 259, 2 ; I4 a ; 55, &c. 
garvita, 257, 2 ; 266, 11. 
r. gra, 36 (mo gras). 
? ara, 65, 5 ; 38 ; 7i b , &c. 
gandharva, 76* ; 134, 4. 
-gamin,i34, 5 ; 146, 2 ; 258,13. 
garhapatya, 149, n. 
Gdlava, 313, 14. 
r. graA, gahate, 4O a . 
^V, 36, 5. 

giri,6o, 3; 188, 4; <fara, 38 d . 
<7<a, 7, 4; 48; 185, 6, &c. ; 

O ragra, 5 a . 
<7?rt, 182,5; 1 ^3, 7; kghama, 


iA:a, 118, 7. 

wa, i b ; I7 b ; 70,6; 135,2; 

i38 c (e;as ) ; TO, 135, 1.0. 
guru, 7 1 b (paritdpa) ; 99 b ; 

m. 49,4; 98 a ; i73 b ; <a, 

36 b ; >na, 81, 5; 91, 3; 



Il8 a , &c. ; laghava, 213, 

10; sishya, I4i b . 
gudha, 4i b . 

gridhra, 222, 17 (bali). 
griha, 1 56, 2 ; 79* (vetasa ) ; 

pi. 264, 2 ; i-bhu, i84 d . 
grihin, 86 d ; i f. 98 d ; 99 a 
' (pada). 
grihita, 69, 9 ; 105"; 172,7; 

184, 8 ; 71, i, &c. ; dhanu, 

I35 a - 

grihitvd, ind. 94, I, &c. 
r. jrai, gdyati, 6, 4. 7; 183, i. 
go-ghatin, 221, 5. 
gotra, 43, 2; 137*. 
gopita, 115, 3 (s^-mawa* ). 
Gautama, 86, 4, &c. ; I, f. 51, 

6; 97, 3, &c. ; 44, 10 (tira). 
gaurava, 6i a ; 94, 2 (rishi ). 
Gaurl-guru, I49 b . 
grathita, 4, 3 ; i8o b (jdla). 
granthi, 1 9* ; 2 2 1 , 8(6A edaka) . 
T. grak, grikndti, 20, 5; 77 d ; 

127*; 52 b ; 51, ii ; 127, 6. 
grahana, 61, i, 2 (t'aa). 
graha, 290, 4. 
grahin, 74, 4 (mna). 
griva, 7 a (bhanga). 
grlshma, 62 d ; samaya, 6, 6. 
r. grfai, caus. glapayati, 7o b . 

ghat a, 21, 6 (8e<?awa); 30*. 
ghana, H4 b ; 171; i94 b . 
gharma, 1 1 6 b (an^) ; am- 

bAa, 30. 
0fta<a, 66 C O'ya). 
r. ghush, pass. I55 b . 
ghoshayitarya, 259, 14. 

<fo,i; i6 a ; da <fa,io cd ; 73 b ; 

i40 bd . 
dakita, i$6 A . 
6ukra, go, 4 (raksha) ; var- 

&w,i2 b ,n.; 162; 214,9, &c.; 

vdka, 128, 14; i, f. 170, 9. 
dakshus, n. 6* ; 76,10; i6i d . 
datula, 137, 13 
datur-, ioo a ( 
datura, adj. 38, 10, n. 
Caturikd, 238, 8 ; 247, 7, &c. 
daturtha, 90, 17; 142, i, &c. 
dandana, 175, i ; i82 d . 
<5adra,i5O c ; i62 d ;m8, 99, 1. 
dapala,!^ (pavana ) ; 93,14. 
r. <?ar, darati, is d ; 8c c . 
-rfara, 24 b ; 38 d ; 67, 5, &c. 
Parana, 46"; 74 d ; 85 b ; 49,4 

(dharma ); 178, 8 (tapas). 
farita,ioi & ; n8 b ; neut. 209, 

5, -48,3(8^:; i69 d (md); 

cf. eu; artha, 310, 12 ; 

artha-td, 189, 9. 
data, adj. 39; 24* ("apanga"). 

dalita, i63 a (indhana}. 

ddtaka, I7l a . 

<fapa, 9, 2; 58; 190". 

6apala, 209, 12 ; 285, 5. 

tamara, 8 b , n. 

Parana, 48, n. 

-ddrin, 41 , 2 (dharma?); 167, 2. 

dikitsitavya, 236, 5. 

dikkana, Si, 3. 
<a, 39 b ; vntti, 7, 4; 64, i. 
ra, 49 a ; 113,2; 43 a ; 146", 
&c. ; karman, 156, 12 ; 
^ate, I54 b ; phalaka, 238, 
10, &c.; arpita, I48 b ; J- 
*n'a, 153 d . 

ditrita, 288, 3 (mraa ). 

-AW, 9 d ; 83, 7; 239, 17. 

r. dint, dintayati, 83, 7, &c. 

dintaniya, 114, 2; 13^, 6. 

dintayat, 62, 1 ; 202, 10. 

<*iwta, 141, 3; 86 b ; 138. 

dintita, 1 1 8, 7 ; neut. 40, 4. 

ena, 1 78, 3 ; dya, ioo a ; 

H7 d ; wi, I37 d ; cf. a. 
diraya, ti, 222, 7. 
A'ATMI, 249, 2 (6Aam); 303, 5. 
Cma, ' China ;' an3tika, 34 b . 
r. drf, caus. dodayati, 1 7, 10. 
dumbita, 4* ; 78 d . 
(fMa, 150, 8; 228, i. 8, &c. ; 

"man/art, i O3 b ; 3ara, 1 4o d . 
detl, 228, i ; 249, ii. 
detas, n. 2 b ; 34*; 67, ii, &c. 
ded,i6,'j; 214,9.10; I52 c ,&c. 
deshtamdna, I59 b . 
deshtd, 51, 12. 
desh/ita, m b ; neut. 291, 4. 
dynta,42*; 143 d . 

dhanda-, see st?a. 

dhandas, 160, i ; iaya,i48, 4. 

dhanna, 208, 9 (trina ). 

dhavi, f. 63 b . 

dhdyd, 21,10580; iO9 d ; 108, 

7; 196; druma, 9i b . 
r. J/arf, dhinatti, &c., i8 d . 
dhinna, I5 C (darbhdnkura). 
dheda, 39"; 237, 2; 259, 17. 
dhedin, 112, 2 (samtaya ). 

-ja in dtma, &c. 
jayhana, 6i a (gaurava~). 
jatd, 1 75 ^m 
jada, 86 b . 
r.jantCzus.janayatitScP ; 122, 

2; 214, 10. 
jana, 1 7 a ; 64 a ,n.; ayamjanah, 

49,4; t44,2;an<itam,38,9. 
,/awawa, i04 d (atttaro); 293, 

6; i, f. 168, 3; 262, 6, &c. 
janita, 39, 4 ; 44, 7. 
jantu, m. iO4 b ; 189, 8. 

janman, n. 1 2 ; 126"; iS 
n. ; pratishihd, 242, i. 

Jaya, 187* 

Jayanta, i66 b ; 

./aZa, 32 b ; 8g ; rf&i, 197*. 

jfava, 8 d ; 9 d (ratha ). 

jdgarana, 138. 

j'aia, 28"; 65*; 102"; 258,6 
(artAa ); a, f. 129,11 ; 153, 
3; karman, 296, I. 

ja<i, f. 218, 8 ; 253, 9. 

jati or svabhavokti, 73, n. I. 

Jdnuka, 221, 5. 

jdya, 258, 19. 

/ate, 219, 4; i8o b ; ka, 30. 

r.ji, 71,1; 85, 2; I97 b ; 65,3. 
, 187". 

jlrna, 72, 4 (riksha); i7n b . 
.JFv, jivati, 68, 9 ; 306, 6. 

,ii'a, 6s b ; arra-sj;a, 134*. 

jwita, e ; 122,11; 266,9; 
sarva-8ra, 41, 9, n. 

r.jribh,jrimbhate, 286, 3. 

josham, adv. 202, 8. 

-jna, 173, 3; 258, 4; 20. 

r. jnd,jdndti, I3 b ; 17, 14, &c. 

jndta, too, 2. 

rt, 163, 5 ; no c ; 119*. 
, 38" ; 66 ; bandha, 40"*. 

jyotis, 26 b ; i3i d ; pi. i7o b . 

jyotsna in vana, 28, 3, &c. 

r. jval, jvalati, $6 b ; 163*. 

dimbha, 290, 4 (lild). 

ta- in tas, <ra, &c. ; see tad. 
tata, 174, 13 ; I22 b (taru). 
ta-tas,g,t; 54 b ; 23 b ,n.;ia<as, 

140, 2 ; prabhriti, no, 7. 
taii, 40 (vardha ). 
tat-tva, 24 d ; <as, 32, 1. 
ta-tra,66, 7 ; 102, 10 ; bhavat, 

22, n ; bhavati, 81, 5, &c. 
ta-thd, 20,9; 13,10, &c. ; a/3i, 

32, I, &c. ; /ti, 12, 2, &c. ; 

tathya, 27, 4. 

<ad, 94 d , &c. ; cf. yad ; tena, 

10, 7 ; <ewa hi, 10, 10 ; 303, 

5, &c.; tut, adv. 4, 4 ; api, 

62 b ; anantaram, i94 b ; 

m'mjY<a,adj.io6, 7; maya, 

adj. 153*. 
fa-da, 28, 5, &c. ; cf.yadd; 

prabJiriti, 233, 6. 
r. tan, tanoti, 20''. 
tanaya, 99 ; ioo b ; a, f. 132". 
tanu, i d ; tanvi, f. 20; 46 b ; 

5rarz, 70*; bhdva, 172. 
tantra, 187, 4 (Zo^a ). 
tantrayitvd, ind. 107*. 
r. top, tapati, 69* ; 70*. 
tapo, 65 b (atyaya). 



tapat, n6 b . 

tapas, 3;, 9; 54", &c. ; pi. 279, 
7 ; 1 7C d ; kthama, 1 8 b ; vin, 

13. 6 ; 21, 5; 48,6; 150,5, 

n. ; dhana, 13"; i?cwui,i7, 
14, 15; 20,4. 
tapasya, -yati, 1 73 b ; 1 76 d . 
topta,6o b ; 247, 4 (anufaya ). 
tamas, n6 b ; I4o b ; i88 c , n. 
taranga, 60* (Ufalini ). 
tarala, i6 b (prabhd ). 
Taralikd, 256, 9. 14. 
taras-vin, 258, 13. 
fcm, 14*; H4 a ; mula, i84 d . 
taruua, 248, 13. 
T.tark,ayati,22,e,; 248,9.11. 
tarka, 107, 14 ; 196, 6, &c. 
-tarkin in evam, 291, 5. 
r. to;/, caus. 48, I. 
torAf, 253,11; yadi, 2, 3. 
tafa, 26 b ; iai,a(#flo); 3o tt ,n. 
tadayitvd, ind. 217, 3. 
tddita, 40*. 
tddyamdna, 184, 9. 
<ata, 22,4; 154,17; i6S, 4,&c. 
tadrida, 107, 10 ; 135, '2, &c. 
<apa. m. 9i b ; 62; 65", &c. 
fcrpasa,6 1 , 5 ; 94, 3(k(myakd) ; 
*> f - 153. 2 ; vriddha, 208, 2. 
<amra, 74 d (padma ); 134*. 
<a?a, 74 b (vrinta). 
tdrat,2,3; 6,6; 17,8 10:158*, 
&c. ; ydvat, 19, 9, 10; 
ma, 203, 5. 

tintidikd, 78, 4. 

timira, n. i62 d . 

tiras-karint, 227, 5; 266, II. 

&7a, in, 4, n. ( rfota). 

tts&?za, 254, 2 (danda). 

tirna, I97 a (jaladhi). 

tirtha, 17, 3, n. ; 151, i, &c. 

tora, adj. 109; 33* (nghdta). 

tu, 34, 1 1 ; 78 d , &c. ; cf. kintu. 

tura-ga, 32*; 60, 4. 

turanga, io6 a (yukta ). 

tulya, 1 1 7 (guna}. 

tushdra, 1 20 (antar ). 

Ma, I36 d (ardha-kri8hta). 

tushnlm, adv. 182, 8. 

trtna, 208, 9 (dhanna). 

tritiya, 13, n, n. (dtmana ). 

trishita, i5i a . 

e;'as, 4i bd ; 179*; 84*. 

taikshnya, n. too, 2. 

<a7a, 94 b ; 81, 3 (ingudl ). 

toya, I76 b ; I4 d (d.dha,ra). 

toshita, i65 b (avaddna ). 

tyakta, I56 b . 

r. yq/, tyajati, 127*. 

4ydgin, iy> (ddra). 

-tra in dtapa , io8 d . 

traya, n. igi 1 * (6AwrrtMa). 

<rana, u b . 

tri,tisri, (. 248, 4; diva, i6/ b ; 

8rotas, 1 70* ; Tn-^anku, 

91, 6. 

tritaya, n. I93 b . 
tretagni, 148, n. I. 
r. <?, trdyate, 240, 9. 
taa, 5, 4; I2, &c. ; tvat-tas, 

22, 4; in comp. trad-, e.g. 

1 69 d (darita) ; 1 64 a (/nai). 
<a<5, 1 75 a (sarpa ). 
r, tvar, tvarate, 146, 7 ; 15 2, 2 ; 

176, 13; caus. 26, 2. 
229, I. 

r. dan.4, datfati, 296, 7. 

Daksha, 19 i d . 

dak8hina,()8 c ; ena,2 1,4 ; 165,4. 

dakshina, 149, n. 

danda, no a , n. ; io8 d ; 62, 7. 

datta, 70, 3; 1 24, 8 (drishti}. 

dattvd,ind.2 i.3,&c. (karriam ). 

dadat, 6 a . 

dadhdna, 84 a . 

danta, 33 a ; i8i a ; 286,3. 

damana, 197 (prasabha '). 

dayamdna, 4 b . 

darpana, ig(> d (tala}. 

darbha, 7; 15, n. ; 88 b . 

dardana, 17,10; 2 1,7:35*; 86 b . 

darfaritya, 196, 7; 248, 5, c. 

dartfayat, 221, 2. 

dartfayitaryn , 310, 10. 

dar&ita, 61, 6; 206, 4. 

-dardin,2 2, 1 1; 1 80,10 (erar). 

rfato, 74 b ; 75* (nalinf). 

da*d, 82 d (antara). 

dasyu, m. i2i d . 

r. dah, dahati, 70*; I4i d , &c. 

r. da, daddti, 21,6; 1 3 ; c , &c. 

Dakshayani, 283,10; 304,12. 

ddkshinya, 137. 

Danava, 268, 7; i67 b . 

ddpita, 223, 13. 

dara, 293,9; 294,2;} c ,n. 

ddraka, 298, 5. 

ddruna, 1 24" ; 245,7; i6i d . 

ddsya, n. I28 d . 

ddsydh-putra, 61, i,n. ; 75,2. 

ddhdtmaka, 4i b . 

div, 274, 9; efa'aa, 69*; io7 d ; 

divas-paii, 269, 13. 
dmf,io6 b ;ofcas,27i,i2; i69 d . 
divasa, m. 3 b ; 126, 4 ; 144*. 
dishta, n. 59, 4. 
dishtyd,i86 A ; 112,10; 193*. 
dlkshita, 5o b . 
cZ"/?a, 262, 4. 
dipaka, 87, n. I. 
dipti-mat, 85, n. 

5 d ; m, adv. 259, 16; 

dyus, 91,1; 307, 8. 
duJikha, n. 109, 5; 64", &c. 

cna, 130, 12; 164, 3; s!te, 

146, I; uttara, 189, 9. 
du f /khita, 242, 10 (viyoga?). 
dur- or C?MS- in saha, 83*; 

avdpa, 50, 2; apa, 67 d ; 

asarf, 10, 8; ito, n. 88 C ; 

Dur-jaya, 2 68, jfmofa, 290, 

4; lablia, I7 a ; 154, 2; Za- 

Kto, 289, 4; t'am, 137, 13; 

Dur-vdsas, 137, 12 ; vinUa, 

34,4; 25"; &ara, 170, 9. 
Durga-puja, 227, n. I. 
r. dwsA, caus. 298, 5 ; 182. 
dnshfa. 34, 4 (mad/iukaru). 
Dushyanta, 5 b ; 95, 4, &c. 
duhitri, 17, 2; 198, 7; jano, 

m. 139, 13, 14. 
duyamana, I32 b . 
rftlra, 112, 4 (gata} ; e, 9 d ; 

m, adv. 9, 8 ; <os, 53* ; 

i-krita, 1 7 b . 
durbd, 151, I. 
duMta, in. 
r. dritf, pagyati, 6 b ; 17,5; 16, 

7; 55 b ,&c.; ^a,^a, 7 d ; 10, 

12; caus. 35, 7; 247, 8, &c. 
drifya, 97; i4/ b . 
drishta,l6,ii; 238,5; 257,14. 
driiihti,24*; 70, 3, &c. ; rdga, 

8l, 7; vibhrama, 23 d , n. 
drishtvd, ind. 35, 4; 127, 5. 
dem, 44, 1 1 ; 45, 2 ; 70, 7, &c. ; 

efe'I, 90, 1 7 ; 1 84, 4 ; pi. 90, 

7; V. 293.4; <o, 85"; 

136, 2; 241, ii (pat?*). 
de4a, 10, 8; ig* (skandha ); 

39, 6; antara, 175, i. 
Daitya, 49". 

dat'ya,n.i7,3; 135,11; 299,6. 
do8ka,i2?, 6; 105, 12 ; 262,5. 
daitvdrika, 69, 12 ; 7> i> &c. 
Daushyanti, ioo b . 
dauhitra,m. 214, io(mMi ). 
rfyo, f. 48. 
drashfavya, j6, 10. 
druta-padam, adv. 257, 7- 
druma, 32 d ; 46 d ; 9i b . 
rfm, i b ; 52, 8; 85, 2; 73". 
dvandva, 48 c ((?ara/;o); i9i d . 
dvaya,n. 9 1 ,3 ; : 5 b ; 8 2 c (tejas). 
dvada$a-dhd, 191* (stliita). 
dvdra, n. 20, 1 1 ; i6 b ; 6i b , &c. 
dtTt'-in^'a, 123 d ; 160*; rfAa, 

229, 12 ; pa, io7 d (.tWm). 
dvitiya&J, 3:88,13 (sdrathi ). 
T. dvish, dv&ihti, 137*. 
dvipa, I97 b (saptan ). 
dvetha, 20 r, 2 (krita-kdrya). 
dvaidha-,' twofold,'in 

47, 4; l-bhu, 51*. 

dhana, 8i b (<apas) ; 97* 
Dhana-mitra, 258, 13. 



dlianu, 135* (grihtta ). 

dhanus, n. 20, 5 ; 37 b , &c. 

dhanya, adj. i8i d . 

dhanran, 159 (atta). 

dhanvin, 39. 

-dhara, 24, 2; is6 d ; 297, 7. 

dharitri, 49*. 

dharma, 22, 12 (agrama ) ; 
io6 d , &c. ; karya, 187, i; 
kriyd, 116*; 6arana, 49, 
4 ; farin, 41,2; dara, 293, 
9; patni, 1 56* ; adhikdra, 
40, 9 ; abhisheka-kriyd, 
I76 b ; aranya, 40, 8, &c.; 
avekshi-td, 202, 5. 

dharman in vidita , 127, 5, n. 

dhatri, 43 d . 

dAara, i8 c (pattra ). 

-dhdrin, 62, 4 (maZa). 

r. (War, dhdvati, 8 d ; 34". 

dfa'fc, interj. 57, 2 ; 137, 10, &c. 

dhishnya, 88> (Uripta ). 

dhi-mat, 173. 5- 

dMra, 84, 1 1; 196, 12. 

dhivara, 218, 6 ; 225, 9, &c. 

rfAwr, i68 d . 

r. d&w, dhunoti, i88 d . 

dhuma, I5 b ; 147, 8. 

r. d&ri, caus.52,8; 175, I, &c. 

d/trita, 20, 2; io8 d ; i85 b . 

dhrishta, 34, 2 ; 252, 14. 

dhenu, 192, 4 (homa). 

dhauta, 15* ( mwZa); I57 d . 

dhydtvd, ind. 240, 8. 

dhydna, 176; 235,85.310,1. 

dhruvam, adv. i8 c . 

dhvansita, 75, a. 

wa, 5, 2 ; 2 ; na wa, 64 b , n. 
nakha, 118, 10; 79 b ; i67 d . 
nagara, 58, 5 ; 61,6; 49 b ,&c. 
r. a^ ndtayati, 13,1; 2 70, 9. 
na^i, 3, i. 

wato, 95; 167 (par?an). 
nadt, 60, 3; 66, 5. 7, &c. 
anw, 6, 6 ; 90, 1 3 ; 93, 9, &c. 
r. rcand, caus. nandayati, 83 b . 
nandana, 307, 9 (kula). 
-nandin, 193, 2 (su-6arita). 
r. mam, caus. namayati, 37*. 
namas, 282, 2. 
7&awira, adj. 114*. 
nayana, 9"; 36*; 151, 7, &c. 
nara, 72, 3 ; pai, 112*. 
nartana, 92* (parity alcta). 
nalinl,g6, $(pattra) ; 74 b ,&c. 
nara, 4, 3 ; 44 b , &c. ; mdliM 

ormaUikd,22,e,; 42 b ; i- 

ibrtto, 192, 2. 

nashta, i5 d (a3anka); 172. 
nafca, 274, 3 (prishtha). 
naga, s8 d . 
ndgarika, 185, 2; 217, 2. 

-initul;a, n. 4, 3 ; 8, I ; 316, 5. 

ndtayitvd, 10, n. 5 ; 105, 9. 

ndtitaka, 218, I, n. 

ndtya, 128, 12. 

ndtidure, with gen. 58, 6. 

ndtiparisphufa, 115*. 

ndndi, 2, i, n. 

ndma, adv.8,i; 20, 4; 62,6,&c. 

namcm, 239, i7,&c.; as, 294, 
i ; dheya, 28, 2, 3; 43, 2, 
&c. ; mudra, 53, 6, &c. 

ndyaka, 47, 5, n. 

Ndrada, 154, 15 ; 268, 9. 

ndrikera, 150, 8. 

ndsikd, 72, 3. 

nVi-j&;crsya,ind.59,3; io2,7,&c. 

nih-santgayam, adv. 221,5, & c - 

ni-kdmam, adv. 60, 5 ; 1 48, n. 

iri-kshipta, 150, 9; 118, 10 

ni-kshepa, 166, 5. 

ni-grifiya, ind. 51, II ; 180, 4. 

ni-dita, 1 75. 

m>'a, 145, 5 (karamya). 

nitamba, 36 b . 

ni-darfana, 71, 8. 

ni-ddgha, 62" (prasara~). 

ni-defa, 271, 4 (anushlhita ). 

nidrd, 3 b (sulabha-nidra). 

ni-dhaya, ind. 74. 

nindat, 131*. 

nindita, 260, 8. 

ni-pata, io d . 

ni-pdna, 40*. 

nipuna, adj. 249, 2 ; f, adv. 

184, 6; <a, 247, 13. 
ni-bandha, 107, 9 (ttf&aM ). 
ni-bhrita,8 b ; vn, 1 1 3 ,4 ; 1 1 4, 2 . 
ni-magna, I45 b ; 175*. 
ni-mitta, 20, 1 1 , n. ; 45 b , &c. ;,etad; naimittika, 

i 94 c . 

ni-mesha, 118, 2 (msmrita ). 
nimna, 54 b ; 247, n. 
ni-yata, 184; cf. o. 
ni-yantrita, 23, 8, 9. 
wt-2/a7n,i57 b ;82 d ; no* (caus.) 
{-2/ama,44,i2; 296,16; i85 b . 
ni-yamita, g\^. 
ni-yukta, 22, 6; 40, 8. 
ni-yuj, 22, 12. 
ni-yujya, ind. 17, 2. 
ni-yoga,s,2; 22,8; 75,6; 236,16. 
ni-yojita, 117, 7. 
ni-yojya, m. 168*. 
nir-abhildsha, 109* (sukha). 
nir-avalamba, 259, 17. 
nir-akarana, 240, 14. 
nir-dbddha, 130, 4. 
nir-dyata, 8. 
nir-dtfa, 266, 8. 
nir-utsava, 227, 2 (drambha). 
ni-rudhya, ind. 52, 3. 

ni-rundhat, 1 74. 
nir-upaplaca, adj. 95, 5. 
ni-rup, 17, 12; 22, 9. 
m'-?'p2/a,,i2,n.; 2i,7,&c. 
nir-gata, 142, 5 ; 136*. 
nir-gam, 79 d . 
nir-ghrina, 69 b . 
nir-naya, 28* (sandeha ). 
nfa-dU, 222, 12. 
nir-difat, 307, n. 
nir-ditya, ind. 194, 10. 
nir-dishfa, 63, 1 , &c. (yatha). 
nir-bandha, 109, 5. 
nir-makshika, 76, 2 , n. ; 2 3 7, 2 . 
nir-md, 149. 
nir-rap, 84, 4. 
nir-varnya, ind. 105, 13, &c. 
nir-vartaniya, 226, 4. 
nir-vartita, 226, 4. 
nir-vah, caus. 123, n, 12. 
nir-vdna, 104, 6 (weiro ). 
nir-vdpana, 97, I. 
nir-vdpayitri, 65* ; 1 1 7, 4, 5. 
nir-vdhita, 256, 15. 
nvr-vighna, 197, n (^tapas). 
nir-vinna, 59, 5. 
nir-vis'esha, 286, 5. 
nir-vrit, caus. 140, 13 ; 146, 8. 
nir-vrita, 134, 5 ; 150, 6 ; 103. 
nir-vriti, 183. 
nir-vritta, 134, 4; 258, 18. 
nir-vritti (fornir-vnti), 282,7. 
ni-rapana, 'oblation,' I57 b . 
ni-vartin, 207, 7 (dtmakdrya ). 
ni-vas, 27 d . 
ni-vasana, 167, 8. 
ni-vdsa, i84 b . 

ni-vid, caus. 40, 6; 51, 7, &c. 
ni-vi3, caus. 58, 6. 
ni-vrit, 54**; 139, 12,&c. ; caus. 
74, 4; 138, 3; 52, 9, &c. 
ni-vritti, 313, 16 ($apa). 
ni-vritya, ind. 212, 10. 
ni-vedayitri, 167, 3 (priya ). 
ni-vedita, 136, 9. 
ni-vedya, ind. 222, I. 
nt-ve^ayat, 245, 2. 
ni-vesita, i4O d . 
ni-vesya, ind. 43"; ioo h . 
nis, cf. a-nifam; niti ni4i, 66 b . 
ni-famya, ind. 104". 
ni-$ita, io d (nipdta). 
ni-shanna, I49 b ; 151*. 
ni-shad, 153, 12 ; 239, 8. 
ni-shid, 94 b . 
ni-shidh, 285, 7. 
nirsheddharya, 74, 5. 
ni-shevitarya, 27*". 
nigh-kampa, 8 b . 
nish-kram, 61, 3; 222, 2. 
nish-kranta, 8, 7; 20, 9, &c. 
ni-shfhyuta, 85*". 
ni-shndta, 200, 6. 



nish-patat, 171*. 
ni-shyanda, I4 d . 
ni-sarga, 82, 2. 
nis-tamas in %-a, 1 70. 
ni-synndin, 279, 4, 5 (rasa ). 
ni-hantri, i62 b . 
ni-hita, 295, 10 (uras).,nayati,igS d ; 96,3; 150,3. 
nirfa, 175 (fakunta ). 
nita, 58*5 241, 9. 
nlyamdna, 34 b . 
wifo, 'blue;' lohita,l<)<) c ; ut- 

pala, 18. 

Nila-kantha, 257, n. 2. 
nmzra, 14"; 84,2; 152, 7; 

bali, ioi b . 
, 5, 8; 43 b , &c. 
nunam, 30,3; 37,5; 56*, &c. 
nri-pa, 47*. 
netri, 144*. 

netra, 104, 6 (^nirvana). 
nepathya, 2,2; e, 3, n. 2 ; 13, 

2, &c. ; vidhdna, 2, 3. 
nem, I7i d ; if^^rathanga ). 
naipuna, 157, 2. 
naimittika, 194 (nimitta ). 
naiita, adj. i62 d . 
nau-vyasana, 258, 12. 
ny-asta, 62* ; 66 b (bhuja). 
ny-dsa, iO2 d . 

pakshman, 189 (d-kutila). 

pakshmala, 78 (a/b/it). 

panka-ja, n. 129* ; i8o d . 

pankti, 6i b . 

pandan, I35 b (abhyadhika). 

Panda-vSna, 99, n. I. 

pa/a, 1 17, 5; 209, 10 (a<a); 

dkshepa, 144, i ; 230, 4. 
patu-tva, 123*. 
patta,ioz>,i(itild);ka, 239,6. 
pathitvd, ind. 265, I. 
r. pa<, patati, 32; 72,4; 81, 

3; i6i d ; caus. 122"; 238,3. 
patana, 7 b (faro ). 
2>a<i, 1 6, 12; 82,&c.; devatd, 

241, 11; vratd, 283, 10. 
patita, 147, 9; i47 b ; 296, 2. 
pattra, i8 c (dhdrd) ; 60, 2 ; 96, 

3(aZinz); 2-,8,7(arudha). 
pattrikd, 258, 10. 
pattrin, 230, u. 
patrii, 156* (dharma ); ka, 

2 5 8,i5(&a/m); i73 b (a)- 
jjaiA, 275, i. 

-patha, 13, 5; I4 d ; no, 2. 
pathika, I35 b . 
pathin, 9i d ; 166, 3; 179, 4. 

40, i; 

; ioo; 95" 

145, 7, n. ; i6 a (d3rama); 
68 a ,&c. ; paM,6i b ; 6aw- 
dhana, 116, 7; antara, 34, 
2. 13, &c. 

padavl, 94 d ; 277, i 

padma, I76 b ; 74 d ( <am?-a). 

panna-ga, m. 16^. 

pay as, n. 21, 6; i94 b ; da, 
8o d ; dhara, 24, 2. 

para, 260,1; 196,9 (kalatra); 
191; m, adv. with abl. 122, 
7; I57 a ; cf.atah ; ta,2^\, 
6; bhrita, 90; a, f. 12 3 d ; 
bhritikd, 228, 8. 6; %a, 
^ i 5; 54 a ; O rasa, 49, 4; 
parasparam, 53, 6. 

parakiya, iO2 a ; 184,9. 

para-ma, 'best;' artha, 52 b ; 
artha-tas, 107, n ; 205, 4. 

paras-tat, adv. 46, 5, n. 

pardn-mukha, 144, 2; I29 b . 

para-mrigya, ind. 205, 8. 

-pardyana, 36 d (macT) ; 72*. 

para-vrit, 167, 8. 

pard-vritta, 215, 12. 

pari-karman, 62, 2, 3. 

pari-kalpita, 43". 

pari-kram, 26, 3, &c. 

pari-kramya, ind. 20, 10, &c. 

pari-kshata, 57, 16. 

pari-kshipta, 104, i (aetasa ). 

pari-gata, I99 d ; 269, 13. 

pari-grihlta,i 2O b (prathama). 

pari-grihya, ind. 88, 5. 

pari-gralia, 22*; I29 b ; 132*; 
bahu-tva, 73*. 

pari-grahltri, iO2 b . 

pari-daya, 156, 12 ; 182, 6. 
pari-farat, 313, 2. 
pari-ddrikd, 238, 8. 
pari-dita, 112; cf. a. 
pari-dumbya, ind. iO3 b . 
pari-ddhanna, 227, 5. 
pari-jana, 75, 4. 7; 98". 
pari-jiid, 227, 3. 
pari-jndta, 83, 7. 
pari-nata, 32; 130, 5. 
pari-naya, 203, 2 ; 204, 4. 
pari-ndma, 3 b ; 299,2; 301,5. 
pari-naha, I9 b . 
pari-nita, "j6 b ; 146,3; 200,12. 
pari-netri, 119. 
pari-ias, 8o b ; 88 a . 
pari-tdpa, 7i b ; log 4 . 
pari-tosha, 2 a ; 150, 3. 
pari-tyakta, 92" ; 247, 4, &c. 
pari-tyaj, 212, 5. 
pari-tyajat, 164, 3. 
pari-tydgin, 168, 2 ; 293, 9. 
pari-trai, 34, 3. 4. 7; 81, 2. 
pari-datta, 147, 10. 
pari-devin, 212, 5. 
pari-dhd, 158, 2. 4. 
pari-dhusara, adj. 185*. 
pari-patana, 253, 2, 3. 
pari-pd, caus. 58, i ; i64 a . 

pari-pdlana, io8 b . 
pari-bddhamdna, i89 b . 
pari-bddhd, 75 b (peZava). 
pari-bhdvin, 78, 5; 137, 4. 
pari-b/mkta, 132, i, 2. 
pari-bhoga, 130, n. 
pari-bhrashta, 1 74, 1 3 ; 246, 3 . 
pari-mukta, 223, 9. 
pari-mrtj, 241, n. 
pari-lagna, 58, i (.<aMa). 
pari-varta, 198. 
pan'-vartin, 165, 7; 227, 5, 6. 
pari-vardhita,282,4; ka,^ c . 
pari-vaha, i7o d . 
pari-vdra, 63, i. 
pari-vdhin, 158, 6; 183, 7. 
pari-vrit, I77 b . 
pari-vrita, 62, 4. 
pari-3rama, 37, 3 ; 40, i. 
pari-3rdnta, 37, 5; 52, n. 
pari-shad, f. 4, 2 ; 6, 2. 
pari-shvajamdna, 158, 6. 
pari-shvajya, ind. 147, 7. 
pari-shvanj, 1 74, 5 ; 176,4, &c. 
pari-samdpta, no d . 
pari-samdpya, ind. 134, 10. 
pari-haraniya, 93, 9. 
pari-hd, pass. 5, 2 ; 108, 6, &c. 
pari-hdrya, 77, 9; 122, 2. 
pari-hdsa, 47, 3; 52 b ; 240,3. 
pari-hri, 128, 12 ; 258, 4. 
parikshya, ind. 125". 
parlta, H2 d (hutavaha ). 
parusha, 2 12,8(pratydde3a). 
paroksha, 303, 16; 52 a . 
parna, I72 b ; cf. sapta. 
pary-anta, 167, 2 (utaja ). 
pary-dkula, 3O d ; 5 7, 5 ; 2 1 6, 7. 
pary-dpta, 135, 14. 
pary-dya, 226, 4. 
2wy-MfeztA - a,39,6; 106,7; 22 4j 

12 (7nanas); l-bhu, iO4 b . 
pary-updsana, 38, 2. 
parvata, 279, 7. 
parvan, 167; bhdga, 85. 
pallava,26, 2; 89 b ; 152*, &c. 
pallavita, 112, 12. 
palvala, 40. 

pavana, m. 15" ; 6o b ; 9i d . 
past*, 133"; I59 b ; 267, 10. 
pa^da, 7 b (ardha). 
patfddt, adv. 34 a ; 61 a ; 245, 2, 

&c.; %ipa, 233,6; 234, 13. 
pafyat, 29, 2. 

r. pa, pivati, 89* ; I5l b ; 60,3. 
r. pa, caus. pdlayati, 306, 6. 
pdndula, adj. i3O b . 
pdladdara, 218, 8; 252, 12. 
pdtala, 3 a ; i87 b . 
pdndu, I9 d ; 6i b ; 8s; U5 b . 
pdndura, adj. 63 b ; 134*. 
pdtra, 129, 7 ; 240, 1 2, &c. ; cf. 

pratf; i-krita,i2l d . 



pdtheya, 83, 4 (grihifa ). 
pdda,^, 138, 3, &c.; I49 b ; 

pa, 2 1, 6 ; 23, 5 (antarita) ; 

60, 1 ; mula, 231,9; van- 

dana, 307, 2 ; udaka, 36, 3. 
papa, 1 76, 1 1 (4anMn) ; i 55 b ; 

m, interj. 204, 9. 
parijata, 272, n. i. 
pdritoshika, n. 224, 7. 
pariparsvika, 2, n. i. 
parthiva, 55, 10 ; 199*. 
parted, 9 d ; i72 d ; 227, 5; c, 

248, 14. 

pdlana, 90, 18; 232, I. 
pdlikd, 227, 5 (udydna). 
pdvaka, 147, 9; 200, 4. 
pavana, 99; I49 b . 
pa&i, 33 b . 
pitakd, 6 1, 3. 
pinda, 240, 4 (mnd); 90, 18; 

kharjura, 78, 4 ; 6M/, 

261, 8. 

jpftro, 44, 5 ; ! 74. * 2 > & c - , du. 

305,5; pi. ?6 b ; I 5 7 d . 

pitrya, adj. 259, 2. 

pi-dhaya, ind. 204, 8. 

pi-naddha,i() A ; i66 d ; 140,10. 

pi-nah for api-nah, 222, 12. 

Pindkin, 'Siva,' 6 b . 

pipdsat, 77. 

^jtrfito, 8o d (<Wana). 

j>iVtfwa,305,4(pnti); Ptiima, 
236, 10 ; 270, i. 

pifunaya, -yati, I~JI A . 

T. pid, pidayati, 86 d . 

pidd, 57, 8 (a^rana); 61, 3. 

pidita, 1 78, 8 (tapa&'arana ). 

pita, I52 b ; cf. a. 

pum-savana, 258, 19, n. 

puns-kokila, 136. 

#M?a, i87 b (oshfha ). 

punya,4.8 d ; 17,10; neut.44 c . 

putra, I2 b ; 16, 2, &c. ; A;a, 
286, 12 ; 297, 2 ; kritaka, 
94 d ; 206, 13 ; kritya, 93, 
i ; pinda-pdlana, 90,18, n. ; 
m, 313, 15. 

punar, 6, 4 ; 9, 8, &c. ; M&ta, 
121, 6; dari!ana, 247, 5 ; 
bhava, I99 d . 

/wra, 1 94, 2 : 2 2 1 , i o ; cf. antar. 

pura-tas, adv. 164, 3. 

pwras, 34 a ; 5i b ; 137,11; 193. 
3; i94 d ; sara,82 b ; krita, 
57, 14, n.; kritya, ind. 171, 
6 ; 193, 3: tat, 6i ; dhas, 
215, i; bhagin, 212, ii; 
Aito, 193, 3 

^MJ-a. 44,10; i67 d ; I97 b , &c.; 
%-/ito, 301, 4. 

Purw, T2 a ; 15, 2, n. ; 87 b . 

purusha, 54, 3 (rajan ); 217, 
2; 191; 

r. p.$A, pushyiti, 19 ; 24, 1 1 ; 
123 d (cans.) 

; 44* ; maya, 79*. 

i.pu,pundti,i'j, 10; 
2)M/a, 137, 10 (arha). 
purana, 22, 6 (aZaraZa ). 
purayitavya, 251, 4. 
^pr;a, 38 11 ; 50* ; 131, i,&c. ; 

W, 239, 16; 104, n. ; 148", 

&c. ; ka, 97, n.; 198, 3; 

kdya, 7 b ; ^aia, 74, 4 ; 

vritta, 213, 7 ; apara, 255, 

5; 279,4; ardha, 107,5; 

purve-dyus, adv. 274, 9. 
r. pn, caus. pdrayati, 146, 2 ; 

242, ii. 

pritfhd, 294, 2 (para-ddra). 
prithivt, 1 25, 2 ; 279, 2 ; 306, 6. 
prishfa, n8 a ; 218,8; 283,10. 
pri8hlha,2O,6 ^74,3 (noia); 

<as, 228, i. 

pelava, adj 22,5; 75 b ; 141,7. 
potaka, 124, 8, 9; 206, 13. 
paura, 57, 2 ; karya, 236, 1 2 ; 

258, 7- 

.Paurava,25 a ;4o, 8; 77,9,&c. 
Pauruhuta, adj. 49 d . 
paurobhdgya, n. 254, II. 
Paulomi, i92 b . 
pra-kara, 141 (vdshpa ). 
pra-karana, 7, 5, n. 
pra-kamam, adv. 102; 63 b . 
pra-ka3, caus. 34, 10. 
pra-kafa, 32 c (arwa); 142,5; 

m, adv. 39, 4, n. ; 40, 7, &c. 
pra-kirna, 8o b . 
\pra-kriti, i c ; 9 C ; 72, 2, n.; 139, 

7 (vakrd) 1297,9; pi. 137'. 
pra-koshtha, 53, n. i; 138*. 
pra-krid, l"jS b . 
pra-grah, 13, 8. 
pra-graha, 20, 2 ; 282, 3. 
pra-Mhaya, 3 b ; 37, 2, n. 
r. pradh, priMhati, 39, 3; 42, 

5 ; 65, 8 ; 147, 2, &c. 
praja, (. pi. 107* ; i io d , &c. ; 

pa^, 173*; 282, 4. 
pra-jdgara, 114, 7; 154*. 
pra-naya,i22,i3; 184,4; 207, 

4;' 180*, &c.; t-a/, I48 d . 
pra-nam, 163, 6 ; 306, 4. 
pra-namyci, ind. 138, 3. &c. 
pra-.yayin, i8i c . 
pra-nidhdna, 227, 3. 
pra-jtpa<ya,ind. 300,9 ; 306,3. 
pra-tanu, i43 b . 
pra-tapta, 107 (raw ). 
pra-tarka, m d . 
pra-tdna, I75 b (latd). 
pra-tdmra, 138 (wayawa). 
pra-tdrya, ind. 204, 7. 
pra*i,prep.55, 2; 58, 5; 102,1. 
prati-kdra, 107, 12. 

prati-kula, adj. 17, 3. 
prati-kriti, 238, j i ; 257, 3, &c. 
prati-kshanam, adv. 99 b . 
prati-gam, 57, 3 ; 169, 5. 
prati-grihlta, 16, 4 ; 92, 5 ; 


prati-grah,i6,8 ; 139,7; 199,1. 
prati-graha, m. 54, 2 ; 218, 4. 
prati-grdhayat, 121. 
prati-Mhanda, 2$7,6(meghu ). 
prati-dinam, iO9 b . 
prati-dvandvin, }>5 d . 
prati-nt-vrit, 211, 14. 
prati-nivritta, 29** ; 137, 13. 
prati-nivritya, ind. 92, 6. 
prati-patti, 97; 165*, &c. 
pra<i-/)ad,i35,4; 158,7; 166, 

3; 202, 12; 208, 10; i63 b . 
prati-panna, 186, 3. 
pra<i-pa,caus. 21,10; I5i b , &c. 
prati-pdtram, adv. 4, 4. 
prati-pddaniya, 135, 10. 
prati-pdlya, 284, 2 (acasara). 
prati-bandha, 71, 6 (sthira) ; 

%a, 301, 4 (su-6arita) . 
prati-buddha, 145, 5. 
prati-bodha, 242,4; ra<, 1 23 b . 
prati-bodhita, 61, 2. 
prati-bodhyamdna, 139*. 
prati-bhd, 26, 10; 43; 179*. 
prati-md, 192* (Jayantcf). 
prati-rakshita, 147, n. 
prati-rupaka in a, 51, 12. 
prati-vadana, 203, i^tpratya- 

ya) ; l-krita, go d . 
prati-vdtam, adv. 34 b . 
prati-vidheya , 91,4. 
prati-shiddha, 230, 5 ; 187*. 
prati-shedha, 78 b (^alcshard). 

a^-sftr7ia,73 a ,n.; 108"; 242, 

i; 170"; i 5 6 b (fcZa). 
prati-shthdpita, 224, 5. 
prati-shthita, 152, 7. 
prati-sam-hri, n a . 
prati-satnhrita, 14, 6. 
prati-sri, caus. 66 d (pass.) 
prati-hata, 13"; 51*"; 260,4, 

n. ; 194, 8; cf. a. 
pratl-hdra, 85, 2 ( fcAMmi). 
prati-hita, 196, 6; incorrect 

for prati-hata. 
pratl, caus. I32 b ; 297, 6. 
pratiti, f. 195. 
pratlpam, adv. (wit 
pratish, 239, 7. 
prallshya, ind. 222, 2. 16. 
prati-Jidrl, f. 189, 5, &c. 
praty-aksha, i d ; 121,5, & c - J 

i-Av i, 226, 6 ; l-krita, 296, 9. 
praty-abhijAdta, 299, 3.. 
praty-abhij ndna, 176, 6. 
praty-abhihita, 245, 2. 
praty-aya,2o$, 12; 209. 9. &c. 



praty-arpita, iO2 d (nyasa). 
pi-ati/-aveksh!ta, 236, 7. n. 
praty-avekshya, ind. 20, 6. 
praty-aJiam, 48 b ; 67, 5; 137*. 
praty-akhdta, 234, 4. 
praty-dgata, 263, 4 (prona). 
praty-a-daksh, 204, 7. 
praty-adi$at, 309, i, 2. 
praty-adishta, 216, 2 ; 132*; 


praty-ddefa, So, 2,n.; 141*, &c. 
praty-ddetin, 310, 7. 
praty-dyana, 303, 2 (A-aZa). 
praty-d-ling, 165, 6. 
praty-asanna, 55, 10. 
praty-utpanna, 206, 2 (^mati). 
praty-usha, 61, i. 
r. prath, caus. prathayati, 68 b . 
prathama, 85, 10 ; 106, 6 ; 

i65; m,7,8;8i d ;89 a ,&c. 
prathita, 209, 5. 
pradakshini-kri, 1 59, 8 ; 2 80, 2 . 
pra-dana, 27"; 49, 5. 
pra-dipa, 15, 2. 
pra-deya, 174, 10. 
pra-desa,^,^; 188,13; 281,4. 
pra-dhdna, 41* (rfama ). 
pra-panna, i d . 
pra-pdta, 14.2^. 
pra-bala, i88 c (<amas). 
pra-buddha, 113". 
pra-bodha, 236, 10. 
pra-bhava, 44, 4, n. 
pra-bhavat, m. 234, 4. 
pra-bhavishnu, 74, 2, n. 
pru-bhd, 26 b (tarala). 
pra-bhdta, 62, 2 ; 142, 6. 
pra-bhava, 43, 3 ; 95,4; 154, 

17; m, 39, i. 
pra-bhu, 71,7; <a, 1 2 7 b ; 1 96 b ; 

<t)a, 206, 4. 
pra-bhu, 54, 10; 127,3; 138, 

i; 162; 173". 
pra-bhriti, adv. 1 10, 2.7; 165, 

7 (ddyo); 233, 6. 
pra-bhroshta, 139, 4; 205,13. 
pra-matta, 8i d . 
pra-mada, adj . ' wanton ; ' a, f. 

4 b ; H9 d ; 0ana, 231, 9; 

236, 7; 2 37. 3- 

pra-mana, 2 1,6 ; 2 2 d ; adhika, 

30 b ; i-krita, 230, II. 
pra-mdda, i58 b (skhalita). 
pra-mdrjita, 256, 2. 
pra-mukhe, with gen. i86 a . 
pra-mrijya, ind. 159, 5 ; i89 d . 
pra-yat, 57, 9. 
pra-yatna, 10, 4. 
pra-yam, 223, 14. 
pra-yd, 7 d ; io6 b ; 158. 
pra-yukta, 269, 5 ; 299, 2. 
pra-yoga, 2 a ; 8, i ; <a, 5, 2. 
pra-rudha, i83 d . 

pra-lap, 71,7, n. 
pra-ldpin, 51, 6. 
pra-lobhya, i8o a . 
pra-vartamdna, 1 74 b . 
pra-vartitavya, 232, 4. 
pra-vartin, 66 b . 
pra-vdta, 103, 5, n.; 240, 10. 
pra-vdsa, 142,4; 83; 146,3. 
pra-vibhakta, I7o b (ra3mi). 
pra-vitf, 9, 2 ; 20, 1 1 ; 33 d , &c. ; 

caus. 85, 7; 214, II. 
pra-vifya, ind. 3, i ; 16, 8, &c. 
pra-vishta, 7 b ; 95,4; 282, 5. 
pra-vrit, 77, 9; 164, 3 ; 199*. 
pra-vritta,6,6; I3i b ; 205,4. 
pra-vritti, 22 d ; 97 b ; i8i b . 
pra-vrishta, 259, 15, n. 
pra-vefa, 194, 2; 239,9; I 44>' 

%-a, 97, n. 3 ; 217, 1. 
pra-vetin, 208, 9 (kanduka ). 
pra-veshtavya, 20, 4. 
pra-3am, caus. no b . 
pra-3dnta, 84, n. 
pra-^ithila, 62*. 
praSna, 198, 2 ; 201, 4. 
prashtavya, 48, 4; 107, 3, &c. 
pra-sad, 218, 2 ; 277, 1 ; 308, 

9; caus. 67, 7; I34 b . 
pra-sanna, 195, 9; I22 b . 
pra-sabham, adv. 5 a , n. ; 197. 
pra-sara, 29" ; 62. 
pra-sava, 167, 3; 214,8; ni c . 
pra-savinl, 153, 5 (ira). 
pra-adda, 223, 13; 263, 12 ; 

i6i c ; i94 d ; 196. 
prasddana-tas, 6, 2. 
pra-sddh, caus. 154, 6. 
pra-sddhana,if,4.,8; 251,7. 
pra-sdrita, 287,8; i8o a . 
pra-sikta, 157. 
pra-8utd, 168, 3 ; 293, 4. 
pra-suti, 89; 268, 7; 157. 
pra-suya, ind. 99. 
pra-sri, 65, 2 ; 145, 6 ; 196, 6. 
pra-stdva, 294, 14. 
pra-stdvand, 8, 8. 
pra-sthd, 160, 6; caus. 93, 10. 
pra-sthdna, 82, 10 ; iO5 d , &c. 
pra-sthita,i6,6; 51,10; no a . 
pra-snigdha, I4 b . 
pra-harishyat, 140. 
pra-hasana, 99, n. I. 
pra-hasita, 207, 4. 
pra-hasya, ind. 254, 2. 
pra-hri, ii b ; 57 b . 
prdndu, 49 b . 
prdgra, ii"j & (sara). 
prdjya, igS* (vrishti). 
prdn6, ' eastern ;' prdti, f. 99; 
, adv. 194, 12; 123; 



prdnta, 88 b ; I37 b 

prap, caus. 115, 3. 

prdpita, 244, 9. 

prdpta, 310, 8. 

prdpya, ind. 173, 7. 

pray as, adv. i63 b . 

prdyena, adv. 102, 9 ; 201, 6. 

prdrth, 88,8; 211,11 (pass.) 

prdrthand, 47, 4 ; 50, 2 ; 55, 

3; 35 b : 93, M, &c- 
prdrthayitri, 64, 2 ; 67. 
prdrthita, 131, a ; 189, 8. 
prdsdda, 257, 7; 263, 12. 

27,4; 167, 3, &c.; 232, 
; a, f. 35"; 102, 
8, &c.; tora, 22, 5 ; dar- 
tfana, 63 ; mandana, 8g b ; 
sakhi, 35, 6 ; 98*. 
Priyatn-vadd,2'j, 2 ; 24,1, &c. ; 

miVra, 174, 7. 
r. jori, caus. prmayati, i$8 b . 
priti, 305, 4; wa, 198, 8. 

, 29, 5 ; 62, 3 ; 83, 5, &c. 
prekshana, 57, n (nimitta). 
prekthanlya, 10, 4. 
prekshya, ind. 38, 5 ; 46, 2, &c. 
prerayat, 36 a . 
prerita, 23 b ; 192, 8. 

; 231,9; 268,3. 
pluta, 7 d (udayrapluta-tva). 

phana, 163*. 

phalaka, 238, 10, &c. (<fi<m). 

badava, 101, n. 

baddha, 7, 4; 30; H3 b ; 

drishti, 7* ! pallava-td, 

29, i, n. ; bhdva, 112, 5. 
badhya, 222, n; i6o a . 
r. bandh, badhndti, 136*. 
bandha, 3O d ; 4O d (jyd) ; 96 b 

(a^o); 221, 5 (matsya ); 

cf. mani. 
bandhana, 59 a ; 219, 4 (ma<- 

^a);223,9; 229, 135248, 

n; 150"; I52 d ; cf.mani . 
bandhu, 90*"; 97 d ; 309, i,&c.; 

jana, 123, 12. 
bandhura, 145". 
iaZa, 52, 9; 126, 7 ; w, adj. 

240, 5 ; i88 b ; adv. 2 b ; 96, 

4; I32 b , &c. ; baldt-kdra, 

i78 b . 
Bala-bhid, 86, 4 (8akha). 

li, 135, 14; ioi b (It>ara ); 

222, 17 (gridhra?). 
^allyas, adj. 107, 4; 108, 2 ; 

adv. 69 b ; 286, 14. 
!>aAw, 76"; 79,6; 139,10, &c.; 

"Warn, 7 d ; titha, io-f ; 
tva, 73 a ; dhana-tva, 258, 

U U 



15; dha, 8o c ; patnika, 
258, 15 ; mata, 87 a ; 224, 
10 i 307, 8 ; mantavya, 
154, 2; manyamdna, i48 b ; 
mana, 1 5 3, 3 ; 2 5 7, 2 ; WM- 
Ma, 239,1 2 ; vallabha, 1 23, 
TI ; "Vas, 24*; 64. 

bahula, 'much;' ta, 258, 6; 
l-bhuta, 232, ii. 

bddhana, n. 32, 6. 

bddhd, 32, 4; 100, 1. 

bddhyamdna, 290, 4, 5. 

i<Ha, 21, 6 (pddapa); 152* 
(tar); 285, 9, &c. ; a, f. 
54 a ; 64*; ka, 292, 6. 

&/ta, 165, 7 (3akhd). 

bdhu,i6 & ; 16, i; 30*; 248, 

3 > WiA?/ijpGt/?^j I ^ I , 

bibhrat, I38 b ; 175. 
bimba, 152; see vimba. 
buddhi, 208, 1 2 ; 240, 4. 
r. iwdA, caus. I29 a . 
bubhukshd, 247, 2. 
bodkita, 81. 
brahma-darin, 95, n. I. 
brahman, n. 42, 9 ; m. 84 b ; 

238, 5 (vardas). 
Brahma-loka, 272, n. 2. 
brahmana, 195, 2 ; 218, 4. 
r. bru, bramti, 77,3; 96, 4, &c. 

bhakti, 17, 5 (mdita). 

bhaga-vat, 42, 9 ; 99, i, &c. 

bhagini, 161,4; 165, 2 (latd). 

bhagna, I24 d . 

bhcmga, 1 ]*; 71*; 62,5; 167,7. 

r. 6Aa/, bhajati, H2 b ; 172. 

bhatta, 69, 13, n. 

bhattdraka, 225, 5. 

r. bhan, bhanati, 108, 5, &c. 

bhanita, 294, n. 

bhadra, 72, 6; 295, 2 (mayu- 

raka); a, f. 52, u, &c. ; 

mukha, 290, 3. 


bhara, 100 (kutumba ) 
bharana, ig"j d ; 219,4. 
Bharata, i97 d ; 315, 3 (va- 

bhartri, 69, 1 3 ; 70, 3 ; 8 7 a , &c. ; 

fri, f. 247,8; ma, H9 b . 
i&at'a, 191; I99 d (punar ). 
bhavat, 15, 2 ; 18, 4, &c. ; , f.' 

48, 3 ; bhavati, voc. 40, 7, n. 
bhavana, 184*. 
bhavitavya, i6 b ; 67, 5 ; 69, 3, 

&c. ; td, 240, 4, 5. 
bhasman, s6 d (ava&sha). 
bhdga,84,2; 47 b ; 85; 112*, 

&c.; dheya, 84,4; 236, 2; 

pi. 297, 10. 

-bhdgin, 212, n ; 301, 7. 
bhdyya,n. 97 d ; pi. 98; I3i a . 

-bhdj in pinda , 261, 8. 
bhajana, 135, 13 (pushpa ) ; 

193, 5 ; 206, 8, 9. 
bhdnu, i6o a . 
fc&ara, io6 c (bhumi). 
bhdryd, 258, 16. 
6A5va, 34, 1 1 (rajan ) ; 35", 

n.; 112, 5 (baddha ); 196, 

n; iO4 d ; H4 d (sva); 222, 

14, &c. ; mi$ra, 218, 2. 
bhdvin, 243, 4, 5; 311, 6. 
bhashamana, 3i b . 
-b^as in adira , I7i b . 
bhdsura, 221, i (ratoa ). 
-6Aid, 14" (phala ); cf. l?aZa . 
bhinna, I5 b ; 33; 180^; i86 a 
<i) ; cf. a; deia-tva, 
a ; artham, 66, 2. 
, bibheti, 90, 2, &c. 

2i2,n; 286,i4,&c. 
i, 218, i. 

; 127, 5; 213,8; ia, 

93.3; "6,9; tva,45, 2. 
r. 6A.M,/, bhunakti, 49 b , n. 
bhuja, m. 1 3 b . 
bhuvana, ij2 d ; igo b ; traya, 

i9i b . 
r.bhu,bhavati,io,8; i6 b ; 19, 

9, &c. ; bhavatu, 1 7, 5, &c. 
6Aii, f. 15; 84 a ; 260, 2; cf. 

dtrna ; tala, 174. 
bhuta,i; 5,4(rtAa); 240, 3. 
&M^, 84 a . 

bhutva, ind. 47, 1.5; 62, 6,&c. 
bhumi, 10, 6 ; 85, 2 ; 95, &c. 
bhuyas, adv. 17, 12; 57, ii; 

314, 15 ; bhuyasd, 7 b . 
bhuyishtha, 4, 2 ; 60, 4 ; m, 

adv. 3i d ; 98. 
5Afin', H4 b (vilambin). 
bhiishana, 156, 12. 
r. fe/tri, bibharti, 38 d ; i85 d . 
bhrita, bhritika, Sec., in para . 
bhetavya, 34, 10; 264, 10. 
bheda, 124; 264, 9 (gati~); 

ka, 221, 8 (granthi ). 
bhoktri, 44 d . 
bhogya, 48* (sarra ). 
6Ao, interj.i3, 3 ; 69, n ; 136, 

7, n. ; 161, 7, n., &c. 
-bhran&n,f c (mukha'); 243,7. 
bhrama, 142* (mati}, 
bhramara, 4* ; 32,4; 120". 
bhrashta, I4 a ; 79- 

, 23; 124; bhanga, 52, 

5, n. ; to<a, 68 a . 

ma, pron. 10, 4, &c.; 
Makara-ketu, 57 a . 
Magha-vat or -yaw, 269, 4 ; 

271, 4; I90 d 

mangala, 151, i, 2; 154, 5; 
2 98,5; cf. o. 

muiijari, io3 b (<? 
mani, i$8 A ; 239, 6; "I 

295, 4 ; bandhana, 66 C ; 

217, 4, 5,n. ; i-krita,()6*. 
manrfana, 2o d ;i54, 2; 89 b , &c. 
mandapa, 104, i (laid ); 206, 

8; 238, 9; 239, 6. 
mandala, 175 (jatd). 
mata in bahu, 87 a , &c. 
ma<z, 206, 2 ; I42 a ; 164*. 
matta, 201, 6 (aii'varya ). 
matsara, 2g^,e,(parityakta). 
matsya, 220, 4; 245, 11 (ro- 

hita) ', bandha, 221, 5 ; 

Q bandhana, 219, 4. 
matsyikd, 225, 2 (bhartri). 
mad- in comps., e.g. vadana, 

88,20; 171,6; i)idAa,55 b ; 

56* ; samipa, 90, 2. 
mada, 229, 4 (vibhrama). 
madana, 2"j b ; 45 & ; 100,1, &c.; 

lekha, 115, 2 ; vana, 7z d . 
madira, 57 b ; 72 (ikshana). 
madiya, 107, 14 ; 198,7 ; 144". 

32, 4 ; 24 d , &c. ; Madhu- 

harikd,i 28,8; mdsa,2 29,2. 
madhura, 21,7; 2O d ; 38,10. 
madhya, 63 b ; e, H5 b ; s^a, 

195, 3 ; ahna, 60, i. 
r. maw, manyate, 2 a ; 1 1 2 d , &c. 
manas, 47,4; 5i a ; 140^, &c. ; 

sanlapa, 269, 7 ; manasi- 

j"> 35 b ; 140; </a<a, 64 b ; 

ja, 20; ratha, 30, 3; 47, 

3,&c. ; rama, 143"; vritti, 

51, 12; Aara, i8 a . 
manushya, 232,9; 278,4. 
mantavya in bahu, 154, 2. 
r. mantr, ayate, 40, 4 ; 42, 2 ; 

68, 4, &c. ; caus. 39, 5. 
manda, 58, 5 (autsukya) 571, 

4(wfea/ta); m, s6 b ; 235, 

8 (dhydna ) ; mandam, 

I5 d ; l-krita, 10, 7. 
manddra, i66 d (maZa) ; 282, 

4 (vriksha). 
manmatha, 52 a ; 56; 112,4; 

lekha, m. 79 b . 
manyamdna in bahu, 148*. 
manyu, 310, 12. 
mayukha, 55; 9i b (arAra ). 
mayura, 92 a ; 294, 3 (rnrid ) ; 

ka, 288, 4; 294, 10 ; 295,2. 
maridi, if,o c (dandra); Mari- 

di, 1 73 a ; 1 9 i d (sambhara). 
marut,6^ A ; 275,1; Marut- 

vat, i6s a . 

marshayitavya, 139, 14. 
maZa, 196 (upahuta). 
Malaya, 174, 13 (tata). 
malina, 20 b ; l-bhu, i8i d . 
mallikd in wat>a, 42 b . 



wah at, 6 1, i ; 184, 5 ; 179*, 

&c. ; tara, 225,9; mahar- 

slti, 16, 7; 283, 10; mahd- 

devl, 153, 3; prabhava, 95, 

4; brahmana, 93, 5, &c. ; 

bhdga, 1 1 2 a ; r<ya, 236, 

7, &c. ; arha, 224, 10 ; 

Mahendra, 262, 6 ; 267, 8. 
mahiman, i63 b ; 273, 2. 
maliisha, 40*. 
mahl, ioo a ("sapafnl). 
mahli/a, mahtyate, 199 1 '. 
ma, 19, 9; 36; 8 1, 2, &c. ; 

fimm, 57,14; 243, 4;<h>a<, 

203,5; 23o,5,&c.;swia,98 b . 
manga, 60, 4 (3ulya). 
mangalya, 85*. 
Mathavya, 71, 4. 
Twawava&rt, 263, 9. 
Mritali, 267, I. 8, &c. 
matri, 1 24, 9 ; 294, i ; tnata- 

pitarau,du. 242,10; 296,2. 
-mdtra,82,8(drishta); 65, 2 

(ada); lo8 a ; 294, 14, &c. 
mddhavi, 6 3 d ; mandapa, 238, 

9; 239,6. 
tndnaniya, 126, 2. 
manayitavya, 227, 4. 
mdnasa, 155, 2; 92, 6 (vj/a- 

<7ra); 8i a (an-anya). 
mdnusha, m. 293, i ; z, f. 26 a . 
mdyd, 142". 

mdrana, 222, 14 (a-kdrana). 
mdrita, 267, 10. 
Mar'ita, 281, 4; 283, 9, &c. 
Mdrltandeya, 288, 3. 
mdrga, 161, 4; 95 d ; I7o d , n. 
mdrjana, 153, 10 (sukha). 
marjita, 152, 7 (.<tikhd). 
mala, 6a, 4 ( d&amt); i66 <1 . 
mdlikdfi^o, 10 (ketfara ); na- 

w,22,5 ; 28,3 ; 32,3;93",&c. 
lfa2tn?,TO > 7; 102,10; 6o a ,&c. 
masa. 229, 2 (madhu ); I34 a . 
Mitrd-vasu, 231, 8. 
mithas, 82, 10 (prasthdna); 

198, 7 ($amaya). 
mithima, 28, 6 (pddapa); 

i49 a (hansa ). 
mithya, adv. 39 d ; 130". 
r. m?Vr, mitrayati, 31*. 
-mitfra, 36, 3 (pAaZa ); 151, 

7; 160,6; i6o b (tacT); cf. 

aryaf, bhdva. 
muJiula, i8i a (danta). 
mukta, 8"; 63 ft ; 132,2; 140*; 

1 94, 1 2 (asana} ; 3 1 o, 5 , &c. 
mukha, 7 C ; I4 a ; 68,3; 222, 

17, &c.; 47, i (adhas ). 
niwjdha, 2^. 
r. wittf?, munSati, 128, 2. 4; 

92 b ; 130,9; 10, 10 (pass.); 

caus. 58, 2. 

mudrd, 53, 6 ; 205, 8, &c. 

mwwi, 193, 3; 197,11; I2i b . 

mushta, 121. 

mushti, 94 C . 

mustd, 40 (&sAai). 

muhus, 7 a ; 40 a ; 78*, &c. 

muhuria, 26, 5; 37, 3; 132, 

2, &c. 

mudha, i3O a . 
markka, 84, 4. 
r. miirdh, murdhati, 201, 6; 


murta, 33, n. 
miirti, 175*; ia, 1 1 7 b , where 

read murtimati for murtf. 
murdhan, 109; j'a, 3O d . 

, 15" (dhauta ); 184^ 

miiZya, 223,13; 225, 5 (SM- 

mamas ). 
mushaka, 266, 8. 
r. 7r/, caus. 221, 3. 
mriga, g, 2. 3. 6; 10, 4. 7> & C M 

trishnika, I48 d ; 294, 14; 

potaha, 124, 8; 206, 13; 

rafowa, 151, i; indraka, 

287, 5 ; 290, 5. 
mrigayd, 55,10 (viharin) 559, 

'4 (^a); 67, 10, &c. 
mrindla, 62"; i5O d (*M<ra) ; 

raf, 96, 3. 
mrittikd, 151,1 (tirtha ) ; ma- 

yuraka, 288, 4; 294, 10. 
mrid, 294, 3 (mayura) ; pin- 

da-buddhi, 240, 4. 
mridu, adj. io b ; 91; I33 b ; 

adv. 24 b . 
megha, 277, i (parfavi); 279, 

5 (parigha) ; "pratiMhan- 

da, 257, 6; 261,3; 263,11. 
medas, 39*. 
medirii, 172". 
Menakd, 44, 1 1 ; 2 26, 6 ; 241, 


moksha, 184, 10; 58* (r<aya). 
mogha, 248, 7 (drishti). 
mofayitvd, ind. 52, 9. 
mudita, 54, 7. 
modalia-khadika, 69, 5. 
moha, 233, 6; 245, 7; 261, 

13; i86* (toias); 189*. 
mohana, 99, n. i. 
maiirvi, f. I3 b , n. 

yet, 22, 12; i8 b , &c. ; yea, 
22, 5; 76, 10, &c. ; ytf 
<a, 28 b ; 47; 237, 5 ; /ad- 
j/a< tat-tad, 146* 

yajamdna, 147, 9; 

95. 2 - n - 

yajna-bhdga, 262,7 (utsnka) 

Yajnabhdgesvara, igi b . 
yajnopavita, 281, n. I. 

U U 2 

r. yat,yatate, 314, 13. 

ya-tas, 67 b ; 118,3; 229,11; 
yatah tatas-tatas, 23 ab ; 
prabhriti, no, 2. 

yoii, m. 184 (wate). 

yatna, m. 4, 4. 

ya-tra, 69, 7; I75 d . 

ya-lhd, 17, 14; 5i b ; 105,12; 
124, 8; 90; evam, 55, 
2; tathd, 57, 8, 9; 74, 
4, 5, &c. ; kdmam, 236, 8 ; 
63, i, &c. ; abhyarthita, 
291, 6; likhita, 254, 8; 
$akti, adv. 314, 13; $ruti, 
adv. I57 a ; 8ukham, 74; 
uktam, 14, 6, &c.; 21, 12 
(vydpdra) ; vddiehta, 153, 
i (vydpdra). 

yathopamalan-kara, 92, n. I. 

yacZ, 36 abc ; 39; 49*; 230, 

5. 7> cf. under ya; artham, 

268, 2. 

rfa tadd, 139, 12; 167,3; 

2 '3. 7! tadd prabhriti, 

233, 4. 6. 

1, 5, &c. ; yaditarhi, 

2, 3; tdvat, 214, 4, &c. ; 

api, 3i a ; evam, 80, 2. 

, 223, 8 (sadana). 
yamita, 3o d (eka-hasta). 
Yaydti, 87". 

yurani, 62, 4, n. ; 265, 6. 
yatfas, 274, 3. 
yashti, io5 b (veira ). 
r. yd, ydti, 82"; 86 a ; 98 d , &c. 
ydta, 36 b . 

yddris'a tddrida, 107, 9, 10. 
ydna, 226, 2 (dkdfa ); 271, 2. 
ydvat, adv. 20, n ; 21, 4. 10 ; 

26, 3 ; prep, with ace. 233, 

2 ; tdvaf, 20, 5, 6 ; cf. 

yukta, io6 a (turanga) ; 51, 

9; 58 d ; 112, 6 ; 174, 10, 

&c. ; rupa, with gen. 1 2 a ; 

170, 5 ; with loc. 50". 
yuga,i<)*>(stana); i()8 c (i!ata); 

pad, adv. 82; antara, 176, 


yugala, 158, 3 (kshauma ). 
r. yuj, pass, yujyate, 197, 9; 

136,5; 225,7; 253, 2, &c. 
yuvan, ' a youth ;' yuvati, f. 

42 (sm); 62 d ; 98 d ; 

rdja, 93, 12; 292, n. 2. 
yiishmad, 309, 2 (sagotra). 
yutha, 33 C (saranga?); 107*. 
yo^a, 43 a (sattva ) ; 1 86 b ; 

T/0#a/,, 48 b (rakshn). 
yoyya, 192**; 39" (utthdna '). 
yauvana, 24, 2; 2i b ; 29,1. 



rakta, 252, 9 (kuvalaya). 
r. rahsh, rakshati, I3 b ; 127, 

2; 257, 3; i6o. 
raksha in dakra-rakshi-bhuta, 

go, 4. 

rakshana, no". 
rakshanlya, 141, 7- 
rakshas, 88,12; 93, 3 (6At- 

raksha, 55, 9 ; 48 b (yogaf) ; 

295, 4 (karandaka); 298, 

5 (raa<7aZa). 
rakshita, 34, 7 (rdjan ). 
rakshitri, 110,35194,11; 116*. 
rakshin, 217, 2, 3, &c. 
rakshya, i6o. 
rawgra, 7, 5, n. 
radayat, 68*. 
ra6ita, I5o d . 

rajani, 128, 14; 142,6; 96*. 
ra/as, 91; 136*; 174*, &c. ; 

301, n. I ; pi. 8 C . 
rawa, i62 b ; 190* 
rata, I52 b ( 
rati, 35 b ; sarvasva, 24 p . 
raina, 28 b ; 84,5 (ras'i); 43 

(<ri); 44 b ; 224, 10, &c. 
ratta, 9, 2; 10, 6, 7. 12, &c. ; 

anga, 2 77, i ; 1 74* (weit). 
rathya, 8*. 
randhra, 237, 5. 
r. ram., ramati, 241, 6 ; caus. 

237. 3- 
ramanlya, 3 b ; 28,6; 32, 6, &c.; 

fa,'239, 7; <ea, 234, 15. 
ramya, 13"; 137*; taa, 294, 

10; antara, 91*, 
raa, 162, i (kokila ). 
ram, 38 b (kirana) ; 107 

rod mi, 10, 6 (samyamana) ; 

8; 1 7o b (pravibhakta ). 
rasa, 44 b ; 77 d ; 279, 4 (& 

nafca ); adhika, 184*. 
rasand for rafana, 73 b (sownu- 

rahas, 1 24* ; 1 25*, n. ; rahasi, 

adv. 233, 5. 

rahasya, 24 b (dkhydyin). 
rdkshasa, 89, 13 (vrittdnta'). 
rdga, 7, 4 ; 5 (g>i<a); I 

81, 7(draM); 183, 7,&c. 
rdjakiya, 217, 5. 
rdjan, 5*; 9, 2, 3, &c. ; kula, 

221,6; 227,2; karya,6j, 

4; dhdni, 314, 3; bhdva, 

34, ii ; rdjarshi, 39, 5, n.; 

76*, &c. ; c lakshml, 156, 3. 
ra/z, 60, i (#ana); 180, 2. 
rdjya, n. io8 d . 
-rdtra, 88, 13 (katipaya ). 
rdtri, 60, 5 ; 69* ; rdtrin-di- 

vam, io6 b . 

^i, io b (pushpa ); 84, 5 

(ratna ) ; 56 b (am6it). 
rdshtri or rdshtrin, 233, n. I. 
rasktriya, 231, 8. 
riktha, 259, 2. 
r. ru6,ro6ate, 74, 2; 116,2, &c. 

?, I5 b (kisalaya ). 
ruj, f. 57*. 
rztto, 1 36. 

r. rw/Z, roditi, 154, 5 ; 209, 10. 
rudat, 168, 5; 215, i. 
rudita, 68, 5. 
ruditvd, ind. 166, 9. 
Riidras, eight forms of ?iva,2,n. 
ruksha, iqfa (smriti-rodha ). 
rupa, 38, 8 ; 46, 2 ; 26 a ; 44; 

a, 80, 2 ; u<%aya, 43 b . 
rupaka, 80, n. 2. 
rupayitva, ind. 103, 5 ; 119, I. 
rekhd, 14*; I46 b ; 147*. 
renw, 32" ; 91; 1 76 b (padma). 
Eaivataka, 69, 15 ; 75, 5, &c. 
rofand, 151,1 (mriga ). 
roddhavya, 54, n. 
rodha, 196* (smriti?). 
-rodhin, 30; 140*. 
romantha, 40*. 
roshana-ta, gB h . 
Rohini, 1 86 b . 
rohita, 220, 4, &c. ^matsya). 

r. ?afcsA, lakshayati, -te, 52 
ii ; 209,6; 145; pass. 39 

i; 39 b ; J74*- 

lakshana, 202,11; 214,10; 

287,' 10. 

lakshita, 275, i. 
lakthi-kri, 293, 12. 
lakshman, n. 2O b . 
lakshmi, 2O b ; 156, 3 (rdjan ). 
lakshya, 39 ; 1 35 b ; cf. a, a. 
fe^na, 33* ; 256, 14 (vitapa). 
laghu, 39 ; 1 29, 1 1 (gantdpa) ; 

adv. 81, 2 ; 165*. 
r. langh, caus. 286, 12. 
langhana, 96, 4. 
langhita, 236, 4. 
r. Zajj;, lajjate, 57, 12 ; 201, 10. 
a;>a, 41, 3; 46, 3; 147, 7. 
Jafa, 1 7 b (rana) ; 26, 9 ; 28, 

5. 6 ; 63 d , &c. ; mandapa, 

104, i; valaya, 130, 10; 

132, 2 ; valaya-vat, 102, 9. 
Idbdha, 104, 6; 181, i ; io8 b ; 

avakdi?a, 47, 3 ; 55, 3. 
r. a6A, labhate, 30, i ; 62,6; 

4O d ; 67; 211, 7 (pass.) 
lamba, 251, 5 (Mr<?a). 
lambita, 149 (s'akhd ). 
laldma, 77, 2, 3 ; 112, 5. 
lalita, 1 1 6, 7 (pada-ban- 

Idkshd, 85 b (ra*a). 

layhava, 213, 10 (guru ). 
Idbha, 36, 2. 

a.n?/a,i46 b 5115* (sarlra ) ; 

294, 4 (gakunta ) ; maya, 

108, 7. 

r. ZttA, likhati, i(y A . 
likhita, 238, 10 ; 249, 5 ; 258, 


likhitavya, 250, 9. 
Ziza, 149* (saikata ) ; <a, 

I72 b (jxirnabhyantara '). 
Hid, 66, 4 (kubja ) ; 290, 4. 
lubdhaka, 61, i (3akuni). 
lulita, 79 a (Asrira ). 
ZeArAa, 115, 2 (madana ) ; /9 b 

(manmatha ) ; 145, 9. 
lekhana, 118, 8 (sd(lJtana). 
lekhd, 113, 2 (s'a^<m/ra). 
Ze^a, 38 b (kleta ). 
loka, 82 d ; 109* (Aefos) ; 278, 

4 (manushya ) ; tantra, 

187,4; anugraTia,ig'j, 16; 

I98 d . 

lotana, 2$> (lola). 
lobha, 48, 3, 4 (4raana). 
lobhanlya, 2i b ; 152*. 
ZoZa, 23 b (lodana) ; cf. ai. 
lolupa, 72, 3 (nara-ndsikd ). 
loMta, 30* ; 199; cf. a/i. 
laukika, 173, 3 O'na). 

vanfa, 15, 2 (Purit ); 12*; 

39, 5. &<= 

raktavya, 171, 7; 203, ii. 
vaktu-kdma, adj,47,6; 107, 6. 
vakra, 9; 139, 7 (prakriti'). 
vakshas, i66 c . 
r. ra<?, vakti, 40, 7; 94, i ; 69, 

7 ; 64*" ; pass, udyate, 88,20; 

206, 2; 214, 8, &c. ; caus. 

vadana, 42, 2 ; 54, 6 ; 313, 14, 

&c. ; mad , 88, 20, &c. ; cf. a. 
vadanlya, n. 310, 5. 
radas, 68, n ; 72, 6; 237, 6. 
ra/ra, 49 d ; sara, io d ; srtr- 

*r*. 55 d - 
vandita, 294, 8. 
VO/M, in. 93, 14. 
vata, adv. 10. 
ra^sa, 287, 5; 307, 8, &c. ; a, 

f. 130, 5; 159, 2,8, &c. 
vatsala, 294, 8 (matrf*) 5313, 

i (duhitri ). 

vatsalaya, -yati, 286, 10. 
r. #at, vadati, 39 d ; 79, 2 ; 

128"; 130*; i4i b . 
vadana, 32, 4; 30; 46, &c. 
vadhukd, 128,14 (dakra cdka ) . 
vadhu, 28, 2; 97 d ; 167, % 

(mriga ) ; jana, 1 74, 2 ; 
, 117. 
(cato) ; 1 76* ; graha- 

na-kotdhala, 61, i, a ; grd- 
hin, 74, 4; dara, 67, 5 
(vritti) ; jyotsni, 28, 3 ; 
29, i, &c. ; devatd, 8_^ c ; 
pushpa, 62,4; O ra/i, 60, 
I ; 1 80, 2 ; latd, 1 7 b ; rasa, 
252, 2 ; 9O b ( bandhu) ; 
okas, 173, 2. 

vanas-pati, 155, 5; 156,6, 7. 

r. vand, vandate, 158, 9. 

vandana, 307, 2 (pdda). 

vandamdna, 205, 1 2 ; 246, 2. 

IN D E X. 

vdkya, 68, 7 (suhrid ) ; 315,3. 
vdd, 3i; 207, 7; 137. 
vddanaka, 152, 8 (svasti }. 

r. ram, vrnnati, 41^. 
vayasya, 59, 4, n. ; 65, 2 ; 68, 

1 i , &c. ; ka, 225,9 ( P'% a ) '> 

bhdva, 59, 4. 
wra, 30,1; 49, 5; 159, 6; 

117, &c. ; cf. 

prdrthand, 47, 4. 
varaha, 59, 5 ; 40 ( 
-vardasa ( = vardas~), 238, 5 

-varjam, 153, 8 (Gautamf). 
varjayitvd,\nd.H2,ii ; 296, 2. 
mrrca, 195,9 (wiMa); i69 b ; 

118, n; i8i b (avyakta ) ; 

pi. 47* ; ii2 b ; paridaya, 

182, 6; a4rama, 194, n. 
varnikd, 147^ (uddhrdsa). 
vartikd, 249, 6 ; 256, 4. 
-*rtm,io,8 ; 13, 5 ; cf. dakra. 
vartman, 7 C (fora). 
valaya, 33 h ; 62 a ; 102,9; 66 d 

(anoAa); i3S b , &c. 
vaM;a/a,i4 d ; 23,8; I9 b ; 24,10. 
valmika, i75 ft - 
vallabha, adj. 27; a, f. 123, 

ii (bahu-vallabha). 
r. ratf, vashti, &c., i84 b . 
t-a^a in para, 49, 4. 
va&n, 48; I29 b , 
Vasishtha, 91, n. 3. 
vasati, 48* ; 103; cf. saha. 
vasana, i85 a . 
vasanta, 46, 2, n. (avatara) ; 

masa, I34 a ; utsava, 227, 

n. i; 230, 5. 
vasana, part. 185*. 
vasu-dhd, 2 1 4, 1 8* ; 1 97 b ; 

26 b . 

vasun-dhard, 156*. 
vasti-mati, 25* ; 

184,4; 2 56, 9' 10 - 
vastu, 4, 3. 

r. vah, vahati, i a ; I7o a . 
-va& in srotos , 5i b . 
-vdha in ganda , huta. 
vahat, 181. 

vaAwt, 56*; 88 d ; I79 b . 
ra, 39, 6 ; 40, i. 6, &c. ; ka- 

tham, 26"; kim, 116, 2; 

i68, &c.; cf. athcf. 

vadya, adj. 97 d ; neut. 

'm, m. 12, 2 ; 13, 8 ; 20, 7. 
vatikd, 21,4 (vriksha ). 
vana, 13, 5 ; io a ; 53*; 55 d , 

&c. ; 238, 2 (Kandarpa ) ; 

asana, 62, 3. 

ta, 3 a ; 26, 2 ; 74*, &c. 
Vatayana, 236, 16. 
-vddin, 121,6; 211,6 (satya). 

2 53> 9 5 itara, 194, 6. 
vayu, I7o d . 
varana, 252, 16. 

, 171 (garbhodara). 
varita, 29* (prasara); 45; 

2 53> 7- 

A^a, 86 b ; 95 b ; i89 bd . 
vdsa, 9O b (t)ana); 252, 2 ; cf. 


vasantika, 230, 10. 
Vasava, 306, 4 (anuyojya). 
-vasin, 19, 9 (a/x>ana) ; 122, 

4 (vishaycf); 188,4; afra- 

ma, 20, 6; I7 a ; 188,12. 

<JAa in sdrtha , 258, 12. 
-vdhin in kana, 6o a . 
vdhydntah-karana, 276, 2. 
vi-karshana, 99, n. i. 

vi-kdra, 38, 5. 6, n. ; 107, 1 1 ; 

.297, 95 !95 d - 
vi-kri, caus. 145, 8. 
vikriti-mat, 39 b . 
vi-krish, pass. i6i b . 
vi-klrip, pass. 116, 4. 
vi-krama, 170 (Hari ). 
Vikramaditya, 316, n. 
vi-kraya, 221, a. 
vi-kriya, 296, 9. 
vi-klava, 67, n; 78 b ; io5 d ; 

240, 14 ; 269, 8. 
vi-gata, i89 d (anu3aya). 
vi-gam, caus. I37 b . 
vi-guna, 261, 2 (udvega). 
vi-ghatita, 130, 9. 
vi-ghna, 1 3 a ; 40, 8 ; 44, 1 a ; 

vi-dar, caus. 202, 6 ; 258, 15. 
vi-ddrayat, 202, 3. 
vi-ddrya, ind. 48, 6; 214, 3. 
vi-dintayat, 8i a . 
vi-dintya, ind. 92, 5 ; 97", &c. 
vi-ddhitti, 169* (^es/ia). 
vi-ddhinna, 9''. 
vi-jaya, 49 d ; 90, 6; 269, 1. 
vi-jalpa, 240, 3 (parihdscf). 
vi-jalpita, 52 b (parihdsa ). 
vi-ji, 87,10; 89, 9; 190, 3, &c, 
m-jnd, caus. 57, 12 ; 188, n. 


vi-jiidna, 2 a (prayoga ). 
vi-jridpita, 139, 12. 
vitapa, 2 i a ; 32 b ; 104, 5, &c. 
vi-damb, 66, 4 ; 64, 2 (pass.) 
i viddla, 266, 8. 
Vid-aujas or Vid-ojas, 198*. 
\vi-tata, I98 b (yajna). 
I vi-tdna, 76, 3 (sandtha). 
vi-tn, 194, 9; 304, i. 
vitta, n. I93 b . 

r. Wd, i?e/, 8i b ; 1 28 ; I58 d . 
vidita, 54 a ; 88, 8, &c. ; dhar- 

man, 127,5; bhakti, 17,5. 
viditvd, ind. 41, 4. 
vi-dushaka, 59, 2, 3, n. 
viddha, 94 b (kus'a-sudi ). 
vidyd, 147, 10 ; I26 d . 
vidvas, 2 a . 
vi-dhd, i b . 
vi-dhdtri, pi. 308, 9. 
vi-dhdna, 2, 3 (nepathya ). 
vi-dhi, 43 b ; 44 d ; 134, 4 (i?i- 

vdha); 188,12; 138"; I93 b , 

&c. ; fa, adv. 196, 14; 

huta, adj. i a . 
vi-nata, 63'' (prakdma ). 
vi-naya, 29* 45 (vdrita) ; 

127, 2. 
vfna, prep, with ace. 148, 4 ; 

withinst. 168, 3; 96"; 15 i b . 
vi-nindita, I33 a . 
vi-nipdta, m. 211, 9. n. 
vi-niyoga.,156, i ^(dbharana ). 
m-nivartita, 190 (karman). 
vi-nivefa, 147" (anguli ). 
vi-nita, 20, 4 (vesha). 
vi-nud, caus. 102, 7; 150, 5. 
vi-noda, 37 3 (pariVrama ); 

39 d ;<Aaa, 236, 8; 249,5. 
vi-nodin, 74 a (klama ). 
vindu, 89, 1 3 ; 248,12; i89 b . 
vi-panna, 258, 13. 
vi-paryaya, 214, 1 1 . 
vipula-td, 9 a . 

vi-pra-kri, 286, 5, 6 ; 1 54, 8, 9. 
vi-prakrita, 98 b ; i63 a . 
vi-prakrishta, 10, 7 (aw<ara). 
vi-pralabdha, 212, 4. 
\vi-pra-labh, 213, 3. 
I vi-buddha, i39 b . 
j vi-budha, 1 76 (s<rz). 
vi-bhava, 99** ; no c ; 227,3. 
vi-bhd, i8o b . 
vi-bhdta, n. 120". 
vibTiu-tva, 43 d . 
vi-bhu, caus. 29, 75141,4; I43 b . 
vi-bhettri, 168. 
vi-bhrama, 23 d (drishti ) ; 

229, 4. 

! vi-marda, 295, 6. 
j vi-marshtavya, 221,6. 
! ri-mdnita, 235, 6. 
I vi-manya, 1 2 1 b . 



vi-mdrga, lio a (prasthita). 

vimukha-ta, 201, 2. 

vi-modayat, 46. 

nimba, I75 d ; 152 (adhara). 

vi-yat, ' the air,' 7 d . 

vi-yuj, pass. 155*. 

vi-yoga, 54, 5 (angalf); 164, 

6 ; 242, 10 (bhartrf). 
ri-rat, 151, 2; 153, 14. 
vi-radita, 76, 3. 
vi-rata, 95 b . 

ri-ra/H,34, 2, &c.; caus. 288, 2. 
virala, 60, i. 
vi-rasa, adj. 301, 6. 
vi-raha, 185, 6, &c. ; Ja, 99 d ; 

d^Ma,96 b ; paryutsuka, 

39, 6; 123, 2; margra,255, 

5 ; c vrata, 185*. 
vi-rahita, 168,4; 180, 7. 
rf-rte, 90*. 

vi-ruddha, 182* (adrama ). 
vi-rudha, ioi b . 
-virodhin, 38, 5 (tapovana) ; 

135.2.3 (0wa); 255,5. 
virropana, 94* (wrana ). 
vi-laktha, 137* (vridd ). 
ri-lagna, 189 (pakshman ). 
vi-lambin,i i4 b (6Aari 3 ) ; 1 5O b . 
vi-lambya, ind. 58, 2. 
vi-lfigfi, 36 b . 
vi-lubh, caus. 238, 6. 
vi-lokayat, 21,10,11; ioi b . 
vi-lokita, 37 d (mugdha). 
ri-lokya, ind. 38, 7 ; 47> 5. & c - 
vi-vakshita, 122, 2. 
ri-tara, 214, 18; 171* (ara). 
m-^varjaniya, 133". 
vi-varna. 298,3; mani-krita, 


vi-vartuna, I37 b . 
vi-vartita, 23 {bhru). 
vi-vartin, 78 (an^a). 
vi-vardhita, 168, 3. 
vi-vada, I ro b ; 297, 6. 
vi-vaha, 76*; vidhi, 134, 4; 

308, ii. 

vi-vikta, n. io/ b ; 112. 
vi-vrita, 7 C ; 45 d . 
vi-vritta, ^6 C (vadana). 
vi-vritya, ind. 64. 
vi-vriddhi, 58 b . 
vi-^ank, 67 b ; H9 b . 
vifada, adj. 102. 
virtfakhd, du. 113, 2, n. 
vi-$uddha, 182, 5; 219, 7. 
vi-3esha, 130, 2 ; 281, 2 : ewa, 

201, 8; at, 125"; atithf, 

36, 2; 41, 9; oAv-itf , 135, 

2; 234,15; a, 248,12; 

narfaia, 138". 
vi-$rabdha, 135, 2; 195, 9 

(^Jcdrya) ; w, adv. 40. 
vi-sram, 67, 8; caus. 216, 3. 

vi-srama, 62, 6. 
vi-tframbfui, 105, 2 (kathitci). 
vi-s'ranta, 69, 2 ; cf. a. 
vi-3rama, 40** ; cf. a. 
vi-^lesha, 86 d (duhkha). 
ritfva, i b . 

i-t-<ft;a, 207, 5 ; 303, 7. 
vi-^vasaniya, 99, i ; <a, 85,11. 
vi-fvasto, 23, 5. 
Visva-mitra, 43, n. I ; 44, n. 2 ; 

. 91, n. 3- 
vi-s'vasa, 39, 4; 14 (upa- 

viha, 209, 9. 
vi-shakta, 32 b (vitapa ). 
vi-shanna t 59, 2. 
vishama, 303, 2 ; i-6&u, 95 d . 
; 144 

2 ; 293, i ; cf. a; vasin, 

122, 4. 

viehayin, 207, 8. 
vi-shdda, 105, 9 ; 96*, &c. 
vi-shkambha or A;a, 97, 5, n.; 

134. i- 

vi-shtambhita, 111. 
Vishnu, 305, n. 3. 
*-ta, 71*; 79 C (dbharana). 
vi-samvadita, 245, 9. 
vi-sarjana, 271,11. 
vi-sarjita, 134, 10. 

-*n/, 55 ; 6 7. 7; 154. 3 ; c a us - 

97,3; 145,10; 167, 4, &c. 
viririjya, ind. 51, 9 ; 181, I. 
vi-stdra, 313, i (^rw<i 3 ). 
vi-starayitrika, 24, 2 (payo- 

dhara ). 
vi-sphw, 194, 6. 
vi-smaya, 79, 4 ; 2 15, 20 ; f, 

283, 2 ; 295, 10 ; cf. o. 
vi-smayaniya, 242, 4. 
vi-smarana, 124*. 
vi-smapiia, 292, 6, 7. 
vi-smita, 154, 13. 
vi-smri, 28,5; 167, 6; 240, 2. 
vi-smrita, 8, 3 ; 28, 3, n. ; n8, 

2; 213, 7, &c.;t?a, 239,17. 
visra, 221, 5 (gandhi). 
vi-srashtavya, 54, 10, 11. 
vi-hasya, ind. 54, 6 ; 78, 3 ; 

219, 6. 
vi-hd, 172*". 

vi-haya, ind. 84, 5 ; I45 b . 
vi-hayas, 313, 14. 
vi-hdrin, 55, 10 (mrigayd ). 
vi-hri, 1 66, 7. 
vikshita, 36", n. 
vikshya, ind. 104*. 
r. ry, caus. vljayati, 105, 8. 
BI/'O, 260, 2; i56 d ; 179*. 
i;tto, 93 d (A'nto); 184, 10 

t, 103, 2 (pddapa?). 
vtra, 153, 5 (prasai'ini). 

vt-rudh, iu c . 

virya, 54". 

r. r-i, caus. vdrayati, 117, 5 ; 

252, 14 (pass.) 
vriksha, 22,4 (dtframa?) ; ~ka, 

26, 3. io(kes'ara) ; vdtikd, 

?i,4;se<<ana, 22,9; 52,11. 
r. wry, caus. varjayati, i6o b . 
r. r.n', vartate, 12, 2 ; 42, 9 ; 

80,4; 90, 2; in, 2, n.; 

125, 2. 7, &c. ; caus. I7o b . 
vritta, I24 b ; 213, 7 (purva), 

&c. ; manoratha,6() b ; anta, 

57.5: 75.2; 89, 13; 200, 

6, &c. 
t-rtW, 67, 5; 45; 86 b ; 95"; 

185,2 ;i09 b ;i29 b ;i88 c ,&c. 
vHtkd, 58*; 216,3; I 77 a - 
vriddha, 208, 2 (tapasa ) ; 

iaka.lya, 283, 9. 
r. vridh, vardhate, 35, 9; 286, 

6; 303,11. 
vrinta in fato, 74 b . 
rrishti, igS 8 (prdjya ). 
vega, 10, 7; nadf, 66, 5. 7; 

ratha , 10, 1 2 ; 1 7, 1 2 ; ara- 

tarana, 278, 4. 
t-ent or i, 297, 7 

dAara) ; i85 b (dhritaika ). 
retasa, 66, 4 ; 104, i ; griha, 

7 9 d 
w/m, I05 b (yashti); Vetra- 

vatt, 189, 4; 192, 7, &c. 
vedana, 109, 6 (sahya). 
redi or vedl, 96, i ; 8o b ; 88 a . 
vedikd, 37, 2, n. 
r. vep> repate, 1 1 6, 9 ; 1 96, 1 1 ; 

212, n. 
vepathu, 3o b (stana ) ; mat, 


veld, 102, 9; 142, 4 ( c upala- 
kshana); 145,2 (Ao?na ),&c. 

re/a (for vesha), 234, 13. 

vesha, 20, 4 (riwzia ); 75, 5 

vaikuntha, 272, n. 2. 

vobZavya,86 c ; 309,15 (^/ra- 

vaikkdnasa, m. 13, ii; adj. 


vaitdna, S8 d . 
vaitdnika, 97, 2, 3. 
vaitdlika, 190, 2. 
vaidkeya, 71, 7. 
vaimanasya, 234, 4. 
vaira, 49 (afe^a); i-lhu, 

I25 b . 

vy-akti, Ij2 c . 
vy-agra, 92, 6 (mdnasa). 
vy-atikara, 28, 6, n. 
vy-atireka, 86, n. I. 
vy-ap/idc^a, 122"; 292, 9. 
Dy-apadhana,' a screen,' 262,4. 

I N D K X. 


ry-al'ika, i88 a (pratydde&i ). 

vij-ava-so, i8 d ; 89*. 
vy-avaharin, 258, 1 2 ; (samu- 


vy-avahita, 215, 2 (,tfpa). 
vy-asana, 39 d ; 258, 12(waw ); 

udaya, du. 82. 
vy-adhi, m. 236, 4. 
vy-adhunvat, 24, n. 
vy-dpddyamdna, 13, I. 
vy-apara, 27 b ; 58, 7, &c. ; 

294, 2 ; cf. yathokta , ya- 

thoddishta . 
vy-dpin, 175 (nsa). 
vy-dprita, l6^>; 296, 16. 
vy-dpya, ind. i b . 
vyayata-tva, 38 C , n. 
vyaharalan-kara, 91, n. 3. 
r. wo?', vmjati, 9*. 
vrana, 94 a (viropana). 
vrata, 27"; 128; 184; i85 d . 
vratati, 33 b . 
vratin, in a . 
wirfa, 156, 4; I37 d . 

r. rfa/c, tfaknoti. 58, 6 ; 108, 3; 

I2o d ; desid. sikshate, 23. 
tfakuni, 61, i (lubdhaka). 
fakunta, 175 (nlda-ni<!ita'); 

lavanya, 294, 4. 
Sakuntald, i, i; 4, 3; 26, i. 

5, &c. 

; cf.yathd . 

iSa/cra/Indra;' aratara, 205, 

12; 218, 6. 
r. 3ank, tfankate, i36 d . 
tonka, i88 d (ahi); 309, 10 

(aparddha ) ; 44, 1 1 (jdta- 

-tonkin, 1 76, 1 1 ( papa ) ; 205, 

4 (parapariyraha *). 
Scadi-tirtha, 205, 12; 246, 2. 
s'ate, 58"; I98 (yj/a); Sata- 

kratu, i62 a ; 273, 2. 
dapta, 310, 7. 
tfaptvd, ind. 137, 13. 
r. tfa&d, tabdayati, 257, 7. 
fabda, 1 4 C ; 44, 7 (ujjhitcf) ; 4.8^, 

&c. ; anusara, 285, 8. 
4dbd.aya, -yate, 152, 3 (pass.) 
r. rfam, caus. 17, 3 ; iO9 d . 
, ioi a ; pradhdna, 41*. 

Guyana, 107, 5 ; kusuma, 71"; 

75 a ; bhumi, 216, 7. 
iayita, 147, 2 (sukha ). 
tiayitavya, 60, 5. 

79 a ; 137'' (prdnta). 
, 7 b ; io d ; 13, i, &c. ; 
24 d ; i6i b ; 265, 7. 

48,4, &c. 
tfarad, 150 (dandra). 
s'aravya, n. 161*. 
4anra, io b ; 44, 4; 97, i, &c.; 

bhuta, 226, 7. 
S'armishtha, 87*. 
falabha, 32 d (samttArt). 
Salya, I4i d ; 302,2 (vishdda ). 
3a3a, ' a hare ;' anka, 7 b ! 

129*; 113, 2 (lekhd). 
fa/tin, 83"; i86 b . 
fas'vat, adv. 1 1 2. 
itaxtra, u b ; 269, I (dtta). 
Sfdltalya in vriddha , 283, 9. 
tMa, 58, i (kurai-aka ) ; 46**; 

149; 6a/a, 165, 7. 
itdkhin, m. i5 a . 
tfdthya, I26 a . 
sdnta, i6 a ; 9i d ; ioo d ; 7K, 

interj. 204, 9. 
&i?jta', 97, 3 (udaka). 
s'apa,i^o,K,; 145,8; 215, 2, &c. 
S'dradvata, 193, 7, &c. 
tfarnga, 265,16; hasta, 265, 

6 ; Sfdrnga-rava, 161, 5 ; 

1 93, 6, &c. ; 1 60, 6 (mi3m). 
tidrdula, 59, 5 ; I59 b . 
tfaZrt, 182, 4 (sangUa ). 
3alina-td, 82, 10. 
S'almali, 312, n. 
^aua, 52 ft (mriga); 295, 6. 
3dvata, 42, 9. 
tfdsat, 25*. 

tfdsana, 222, 1. 16; 230,1 i,&c. 
tfdsitri, 25 a ; 252, 16. 
$iksh, sikshate, 23 ; see ^ai. 
stiksMta, 2 b ; cf. o. 
dikhandaka, 184, 8. 
tikhara, if2 a . 
tikhd,8 >> ; I4 d ; 152, 7; 4* 

tfithila, 4o d ; 42*"; 248,11. 
tfithilaya, -yati, 23, 9. n. 
.^'ras, 130, 5; i88 d ; cf. rana; 

dhara, 265, 2. 
Sirisha, 4 b ; 30; I5o b . 
^z'Za, 79 a ; to/a, 76, 3; 176; 

patta, 105, i ; pattaka, 

239'. 6. 

.ft'ra, adj. 9i d ; 179, 4. 
Siva, 2, n. ; 315, n. I. 
, 136 ; 237, 2. 
, 294, i ; I5 d (harina ); 
^8 l> (simha); i82 fl (sarpa). 
, 95, 2, 3; 142, 2, 3, &c. 
Ukara, ifi A (klinna-nemi). 
sighram, adv. 114, 2. 
^Ito, io7 d ; ratfmi-tva, 55". 
$itala,$T, 2 (pratthdya?) ; 74". 
-firsha, 8 1, 3 (6ikkana). 
ila, 59, 4 (mrigayd)\ 146, i 
(duAkha) : , i^^^uddha ). 
fata, i4 a ; tidara, 118, 10. 

rf(?, f. 99 d . 

^M<fi, adj. U3 a ; 128. 

Juddha, I96 d ; ^zte, 185 ; 

hridaya, 145, 7; anta, 

17"; 214, ii. 
tiubha, n. pi. 194, 8 ; 188. 
sunya, 79 d ; 266, 5 ; 205, 9 

(angullyaka ) ; hridaya, 

137, "; 3^0.9- 

^wZa, 224, 4. 
Sulya, 60, 4 (mana). 
dringa, 40"*; I49 d . 
iringara, 41,3 (lajjd). 
tesha, 115, 2 (devald ); i57 d ; 

1691 (viddhitti ) ; S'esha, 

io6 c . 

faithilya, 309, i (smrttf). 
s'aila, 5i b ; 172". 
4aii-ala, 20*. 
^oi'a, ioi a ; 1 80, 5; pdtra t 

240, 12 (dtman). 
tfodaniija, 123, 12 (bandhu-ja- 

na); 204,3; 2 43.75 2 44'6. 
^0(?ya, 63. 

ftonita, I59 a (arthiri). 
tfobhana, si 8, 4. 
^o*A, 19; 83 b . 
dobhin, 252, 9 (pallava ). 
soshana, 63 d . 

s'aundika, 225, n (dpana). 
Ayama, 49"; 65 b (abhra). 
fydmdka, 94. 
st/aZa, 217, 2, &c. 
s'rad-dhd, I93 b . 
tfrad-dheya, 211,11. 
tframa, 7; 102, 7 

Havana, 48, 3 ; 58 ; kdtara- 

td, 64 d . 

Iraddha, in, n. I. 
Crania, io7 b (maas). 
^t, 67 ; 24, 1 1 (alankdra?) ; 

260, i (Puruvans'a ). 
T. $ru, tirinoti, 21, 4 (pass.); 

105, 2, &c. ; desid. ^us'rii- 

i-hate, 98 a . 
rfrMto,47,4; 110,9; 233.2:313, 

i (vistdra) ; vat, 242, i. 
^rwii, 96, 3 ; cf. yathd ; pra- 

sddana-tas, 6, 2 ; mahat, 

i99 b ; vishaya-guna, i b . 
frutvd, ind. 188, 5 ; 297, 9. 
tfreyas, n. 260, 6 ; i77 b ; 314, 

13; pi. 280, 2. 
greshthin, 258, 18. 
/rotot>z/a,no,9; 206,6; 232,6. 
grotriya, I33 b , n. 
tfrauta, 188, 12. 
tfldghaniya, ig& d . 
tildyhya, 99 a . 
^t-an, 222, 17. 
ivd-pada, 67, 6 ( 



shat-karman, 220, n. 

shash, ' six ;' 6arana, 24" ; 

pada, 77 b ; &/w#a, 47 b . 
shashtha, 84, 2 (bhdga) ; 
i, adj. io6 d . 

sa, i8 c ; 22, it ; 40,8; 239, 

15, &c. 

sam-yata, 282, 3 (pragraha'). 
sam-yantrita, 282, 14. 
sam-yama, 1 76 ; 1 8 2 b ; dhana, 

97 a - 

sam-yamana, 10, 
sam-yuj, caus. 124, 9. 
sam-yoga, 182, 5 (wara). 
sam-rambha, 286, 6. 
sam-ropita, 156*. 
sam-laksh, 278, 4 (pass.) 
sam-vardhana, 44, 5. 
sam-vali, caus. 74 d , n. 
sam-vddin, 292, 6. 
sam'-vibhakta, 109, 5. 
az-.nfa,45 d ; 78 a (a^MZf). 
sam-vritta, 10, 4. 7; 29, i ; 

38, 6; 61, 4; 206, 6, &c. 
sam-faya,!^; I95 b ; 261, 8; 

263, 7 (gata); ddhedin, 

112, 2. 

sam-^ayita, 204, 4. 
sam-fraya, 119*; 182. 
sam-^rita, iog d ; 239, n (Za- 

sam-sarga, 3 a ; 244, 8 (hasta ) ; 

298, 5 (gdtra ). 
san-skdra, 1 38 d (ullikhita) ; 

312, 2 (krita ). 
san-skrita, 149, 3. 
sam-starana, 96, i 
sam-stirna, 88 b . 
sam-sthana, 131 ( 
sam-sthita, 102, 6. 
sam-sprishta, 86 a . 
sam-smaramya, 8 
sam-hri, I36 d . 
sam-hrita, 45*. 
sa-kdma, 145, 6. 
sa-kdfam, with gen. 147, n; 

296, 19; at end of comp. 

147, 2 ; 192, 7 (mod ) ; 268, 

2 (6Aaw). 

sa-kusumdstarana, 105, i. 
sdkrit, adv. 1 84, 4 ; 106*. 
sakta, 49 C (zjaira). 
-sakha ( = sakhi) in Balabhid t 

86, 4, n. ; sm, 167*. 
sakhi, 71, 6 ; 77, 9, &c. ; J, f. 

21, 2 ; 22, 2 ; 42, 5. 9, &c.; 

i-jana, 128, 2; 174, 5. 
sa-Jchedam, 102, 6. 
sa-gandha, 207, 4. 
sa-gotra, adj. 309, 2. 
san-kara, 60, 

satt-lcalpa, 49, 5 ; 58" ; 135, 1 1. 
san-kalpita, 93*. 
san-klrtita, 239, 16. 
Sanskrit, 293, 9. 
san-ltranta, 250, 9; 257, 9. 
san-lcsltobita, 67, 6. 
sanga, 213, 7 (anya). 
san-gama, 67* (Misti^a). 
sdn-yata, 29,9; 119,2; 165,6. 
sangin, ii3 b (sukha ). 
san-gtta, 182, 4 ( 
sa-fintam, 98, 3. 
sad-darita, see under sa<. 
saj/a, 90, 6; 153, 14. 
san-daya, 258, 14 (artha ). 
saii-dar, caus. 74 b . 
sanddra, 67, 4 (a-mdnugha). 
san-darya, ind. 107. 
san-6i, 48 b . 
san-dintya, ind. 169. 
r. a?y, sajjati, 167, 8. 
san-jata, 33 b (pa3a). 
san-jnd, caus. 185, 2. 
sa<, 1 1 6 a ; saz, f. 1 1 9" ; darita, 

48,3;Mra,i6,8; i7,'2;27i, 

I2,&c.;^n'^a,ind. 188,13; 

kriya, Ii7 b ; 271,4; l6,<> d ; 

<a 55, 9 ; 39 b ; I 4 6 , 4, &c. 

(apanna ) ; 264, 2 ; 301, n. 

i,&c.; purusha, 114. 
sa-trishnam, 64. 
sattra, 5o b (abhaya). 
satya, 94, 2 ; 211,6 (vadin) ; 

O m,adv.i2,2;67,5;92,2,&c. 
sa-tvaram, 35, i ; 266, 3. 
-gad in atframa , pari-shad. 
sadana, 223, 8 (Yarna ). 
sa-dayam, 77 b ; I52 b . 
sadasya, 102, 6. 
*w/, adv. 106. 
sadritfa, 15,2 (with gen.); I92 b 

(withinst.); 234,13; 274, 

2, &c.; atoa , 27; 93 b . 
sa-drishtikshepam, 34, 3 ; 1 24, 


sadyas, adv. 159, 8. 
sa-natha, 41,2; 26, 9 ; 7^1 3 ; 

239, 6 ; Hb-i, 88, 14. 
sa-ni/is'vdsam., 1 3 1 , i ; 1 79, i ,&c. 
san-tati, 259, 10. 17; 260, 15. 
san-tapta, 127, 2 (mac&ma ). 
san-tdna, 172. 
san-tana, 272, n. I. 
san-tdpa, 107, 4; 129, 11 

(laghu ); 130, 9.10; 269, 

7 (nianas ). 
san-dasJita, 7i a ; 175*. 
san-digdha, 208,1 2 (buddhi). 
san-difya, ind. 169, 5. 
san-dishta, 238, 8; 310, 9. 
san-dri4, pass. I23 b . 
san-defa, 172, 7; 188, 4; 196, 

14; 211,13. 

san-deshtavya, 170, 6. 
san-deha, 30, 6 ; 105, 13, &c. ; 
nirnaya, 28 a ; poda, 22 C . 
san-dhd, 266, 12. 15. 
san-dkd in a-satyasandha. 
san-dhdna, 9 b ; 13, i ; ii 

san-dhi, 60, 5 (kaifdita ) ; 

bandha, 67, 6. 
sandhyd, 8o d . 
san-naddha, 2i b ; I36 b . 
san-nikrishta, 72,6 (dtframa ). 
san-nidhi, 1 76 (vibudha-strl- 

san-nipdtya, io a . 
san^nihita, 16, 12 ; 41, 5 ; 55, 

9; 81, 5; 206, 9, &c. 
sa-patni, ioo a (maAz); fta, 

adj. I73 b ; jana, 98*. 
sa-parivdha, adj. 89, 13. 
o^iom,i97 b (di'pa); parna, 

37, 2, n. ; sapti, 162. 
saptarshi, 275, n. I. 
sa-prandmam, 16, 3; 88,5,&c> 
sa-baldtkdram, 256, 10. 
sa-bahumanam, 279, 2. 
r. sabhdj, sabhdjayati, 193, 2. 
sa-bhrubhangam, 52, 5, n. 
sama, 6i c , &c. ; m, adv. 176, 

4; with inst. 27 d ; 52"*; de3a, 

10, 8; rekha, 9; vayo- 
, 38, 8 ; duhkha-sukha, 

sam-aksha, i95 a (rwpa); jn, 

with gen. 271, 12. 
sa-madana, 98, 2 (avastha). 
sam-antdt, adv. 17, 13; 227, 

i ; 266, 4. 
sam-aya, 46, 2 ; 296,1; 198,7 

(mithah ) ; purvam, 204,6. 
sam-arth, 72; 271, 5. 7. 
sam-arpita, 166, 7; 232, I. 
sam-avalokya, ind. i3 a . 
sam-avasthd, 164, 6; 240, 14. 
sam-avdya, 303, 5 (ritu). 
sam-dgata, 1 34, 1 1 ; I93 b . 
sam-dgama, 242, 6 ; 243, 5 ; 

*54 a - 

sam-ddhi, 45, 2. 
sam-dnayat, 117. 
sam-dpta, 316, 5. 
sam-a?ar?)/iaia,isi,2; 152,4. 
sam-d-tfvas, 262, 2 ;caus. 263,1. 
sam-dtfvdsayat, 262, 6. 
sam-dsddita, 217, 5. 
sam-iti, 49. 
sam-idh, 16, 6 (aAarawa); 

w, 88 b . 
samipa, 214, 12 (^nayana); 

tn, 304, 6 (guru ) ; e, 90, 2 

(mad ); with gen. 125, 2. 6. 
sam-uddddra, 204, 5. 
samudgaka, 150, 8. 



sam-udra, 279, 4 ; ra3ana, 

73 b > vyavaliann,2i- t '&,i2. 
sam-un-nam, caus. 128, 12. 
sam-upagata, i86 b . 
sam-upa-sthd, 44*. 
sam-uha, 3 
sam-ridd/ii, 114. 
sam-etya, ind. 58, 5, 6. 
sam-patti, 312, 4. 
sam-pad, 189, 8; caus. 113, 5. 
sam-pad, f. pi. 260, i; i94 d . 
sam-padita, 303, 13. 
sam-pidita, I75 b (atyartha). 
sam-prati,6,J; 10,8; I32,i,&c. 
sam-pravritta, 8o a . 
sam-prasthita, 140, 9. 
sam-prahdra, 2 74, 9 (utsu7ca). 
sam-prdpta, 188, 5. 
sam-preshya, ind. io2 b . 
sam-bandha, 226, 7; 293, 3. 
sam-bhava, 30, 5; 46, 5; 26*. 
sam-bhavand, f. 257, 9; 269, 

4; guna, i68 b . 
sam-bhdvantya, 305, 2. 
sam-bhdvayitavya, 91, i. 
sam-bhdvita, 64, i; 236, n. 
sam-bhdvya, ind. 54, 2. 
sam-bhu, caus. 26, 3, n.; 93, 5. 
sam-bhrita, i57 a ; 210,4 (do- 


sam-bhrama, 32, 3 (udgata). 
sam-bhrdnta, 35, 4; 56, 8. 
sam-mata, 224, 8. 
sam-mdrjana, 192, 4. 
sam-mita, 223, 13 (mulya ). 
sam-mll, 59*. 
sam-mukha, 31 (a/iawa ). 
sam-moha, 242, 4; i88 b ; 309, 


samy-ak, adv. 8, 3 ; 24,5 ; 48, 3. 
sam-rdj, 8y b . 
-sara in prdgra , 1 1 7 
saras, 91*; 169, 5 

sarasi-ja, n. 20*, n. ; $aras- 

vaZz, i99 b . 
sa-rosham, 41, 6; 51,1; 72, i. 

; 296, 7. 

sa?Ta, i c ; 19, 7; 38, 3. 7, &c.; 
te, 7, 5; i27 b (mukha); 
tra, adv. i6 b ; M, 16, 2; 
Sarva-damana, 286,7 ; 2 94> 
4; 197; 6Ao<72/a, 48*; sra, 
24, n. ; cf. rati-sarvasva, 

sa-lajja, 121, 3. 

salila, 3; 32, 3 ; 40*, &c. 

savana, 80"- (A;armaw). 

sa-vanasana, 88, 20. 

sa-vashpam, 244, 13. 

sa-vdkyantahkarana,2j6, 2,n. 

sa-vitarTcam, 105, n. 

savitri, 176, 13; i29 a . 

sa-vimar^am, 180, 10. 

sa-visha, 14 i d . 

ea-vishddam, 200, 13 ; 205, 10. 

sa-vismayam, 10, 3 ; 149, i , &c. 

sa-vydjam, 58, 2. 

sa-vridam, 158, 8. 

sa-dara, 265, 8; 6apa-hasta, 

9, 2. 

sa-$ishya, 1 7, 8. 
sa-tfrtka, adj. 192, 4. 
sa-sakhijana, 102, 10. 
sa-sambhramam, 13, 7; 3 2 > 

2, &c. 

sa-strika, 188, 4. 
sa-sneham, 105, 5. 
sa-spriham, 32, 5. 
sa-smitam, 34, 6 ; 47, 5, &c. 
r. saA, sahate, 14; 112, 12; 

caus. sdhayati, g6 b . 
, prep, with inst. ai, 12 

58, 3, &c. ; &ara, 28, 2 

29, 2, &c. ; <?ara, 128, 14 

1 70, 8 (priya ) ; 

na, 199, i; dTiarma-<Sarini, 
180,4; 310, 2; ydyin,ijg, 
5 ; vasati, 37 ; -yasa, 168, 
2 ; aya, see sahdya. 

sa-harsham, 12,1; 89, 3, &c. 

sahasd, adv. 9*; 108, 2 ; 120, 1. 

sahasra-kirana, i68 d . 

sahdya, 69, 2. 

sa-hasam, 24, i. 

Aito, 193, 3; 265, 7; 307, 
2 (ddraka ); 314, 2. 

sahishnu, 38 b (ravi-kirancf"). 

sahya, 109, 6 (ved!awa). 

Sdketaka, 258, 18. 

sdkshdt, adv. 6 b ; 148*; I53 a . 

sdkshika,22K l ,ici(kddambari). 

sdgara, 112, 10. 

sddaram, 90, 8 ; 188, 6. 

sddrifya, 294, 8. 14. 

r. sadA, caus. 1 8 b ; 17,8; 284,9. 

sddhana, 118, 8 (ZeMaia ). 

sddhdrana, 122, 13; 150, 3 

sddhu, adj. 2; 146*; I93 a ; m. 

214,9; adv - 7>4! 32,6; n a , 

&c. ; jana, 226, 5. 
sddkvasa, 35, 10. 
sdnukrotfa, 139, 8; 301, 5. 
sdnu-mat, m. 279, 5; 

maii, f. 226, 2,3; 239,io,&c. 
sdnutfaya, 130, 9. 
sdndhya, adj. 279, 5. 
sdnnidhya, 226, 4. 
sdbddha, 62 b . 

sdbhildsha, 28*; m, 105, 13. 
sdmdnya, 97. 

sawipratoi.adv. 6 1 ,6 ; 76,2, &c. 
sdyaka, u a ; 37 b . 
sdyan-tana, adj. 8o a . 

X X 

sdranga, 5 b ; 9, 8 ; yutha,3$ c ; 

sdrathi, 88, 20; 267, 8 (rwa- 

hendra ); dvittya, 88, 13. 
sdrtha, 99, 2 (kdmi-jana); 

vdha, 258, 12 ; 261, 2. 
sardham, adv. with inst. 100 ; 

304, 10. 

savadhdnam, 252, n. 
sdvatfesha, adj. 68, u. 
sdsuyam, 36 ; 210,6. 
sinha, 286, 3 ; 3ava, 295, 6 ; 

~&Vtt, 1 78 b . 

sikatd, 6i b (pdndu-sikata). 
r. i<f, sindati, in, 3; 141, 9. 
siddha, 84, 9 (artha). 
siddhi, 131, 2 (artha); 155, 

2; kshetra, 279, 8; ma<, 

198, 2. 

T. sidh, sidhyate, %9 C ; i68 a . 
sindhu, f. I22 b . 
siman in udadhi-sydma , 49*. 
sit- in SM-iaro, su-taram, &c. 
su-Jcara, 114, 2. 
su-kumdra, 4 a ; 116, 2; 118, 

10; <ara, 40, 1. 
su-krita, n. 93 b . 

mdrjana, 153, 10; sangin, 
H3 b ; asma, 76, 4; apa- 
wato, 130, 8; 202, 5. 

sukhdya, sukhdyate, 105, 6. 

sukhita, iO4 b . 

sukhin, 189, 8. 

su-darita, I43 a ; 193, 2; 301, 
4 (?pratibandhaka). 

suta, m. 87 b ; i92 a ; a, f. 67, 
10; i2i b ; i4o a . 

su-tanu, 103, 2; i88 a ; 189". 

su-tardm, adv. 200, 6. 

swrduhsaha, 83 d . 

SMwcZara,f.z,i23,5; i26,4,&c.; 
sura-sundari, i69 a . 

SM^a, H3 a ; 139*; 142, 2 

su-bhaga, 3 a ; 103, 5 (pra- 

rato); 62 d . 
su-manas, 115, 3 (gopita); 

151,5; 222,11; mulya, 

225, 5. 
su-mukha, f. ?, i86 a . 

i67 a ; sundarl, ify* ; asu- 

ra, i73 b (guru). 
su-rabhi, 3 a ; 6o a ; 7i a ; 229,13. 
su-labha, 3 b ; 35*; 85*" (wpa- 

bhoga ); kopa, 137, 12; 

avakd$a, i()6 A . 
su-vihita, 5, 2 (prayoga-td). 
Su-vratd, 288, 2; 296, 16. 
su-^ishya, 147, 10. 



su-hrid, 68, 7; jana, i6i c . 
r. su or SM, sak, I9i b . 
8ukshma,()*; 19" (grantht). 
r. sud, sudayati, 14*" (pass.) 
sudaka, 153, 3 (&aAmano); 

Sudaka, 218,10; 22i,io,&c. 
sudayat, 20, n. 
sudayitva, ind. 162, i ; 194, 5. 
sudi, 5 7> 1 6 (kuifa) ; 94 b . 
sudita, 114,6; 148,2; 156, 2. 
swto, 9, 2. 3. 8 ; 17, 10, &c. 
sutra, 1 5O d (mrinaZa^ ; dkdra, 

2, 2, n. ; 3, n. 2, &c. 
sunrita, 36, 5. 
surya, 102, 9; kdnta, 41; 

udaya, 152, 7. 
srifhti, I s ; 43 (striratna ). 
seka, 32, 3 (salila ). 
sedana, 22,9 (vriksha ) ; 52,8. 

1 1 ; ghata, 2 1, 6. 
sena-pati, 69, 15 ; 70, 2. 5,&c. 
r. sev, sevate, 137* (pass.) 
sew/, 156, 7 
sevita, 224, 14, 
saikata, I49 a (R?ia-Aansa). 
sainika, 74, 4, 5. 
soddhvasam, 310, 4. 
sodara, 22, 9 ( Q neAa). 
sodarya, 165, 4 (sneAa). 
sodvegam, 295, 3. 
sopdna, 265, 16 (wwrga). 
Soma-tirtha, 1 7, 3. 
Soma-rdta, 188, n. 
sauiumara, 252, 2. 
gaubhdgya, 274, 3 ; devatd, 

T36, 2. 

saumya, i6i c (prasdda ). 
sauhdrda, n. 38, 8, n. 
sauhrida, iO4 d ; 125 
skandha, 2 24, 
dfiSa, 19*- 
r. skhal, skhalati, 247, ii. 
skhalita, 139, 3; I36 c ; t i37 d - 

! sthapaka, 2, n. I. 

! sthapayitva, ind. 282, 9. 

b 225,10. 
);i 72 b ; 

stimita, 197* (gati). 
stutya, 273, 2. 
stokam, adv. 7 d ; 1 9, 8 ; 2 74, 2 . 

5 ; "samsthdna, 131. 
straina, n. 206, 2. 
-<&a, 195, 3 (madhya ) ; i66 

(aw^a); dsana , 153, i; 

182, 2, &c. 
r. t&a, tishthati, 29, 2; 35, 

10, &c. ; caus. sthdpayati, 

13, 10; 19, 9, 10, &c. 
sthanu, I75 d . 
sthdna, 131, i; 236, 8 (vino- 

da ); 291, 4 (pratyaya); 

sthdne, adv. 1 18, 2 ; 194, 2 ; 

286, 6. 

, i b ; 21, n; 68, 7; 99 a ; 

229, 12 ; i36 b , &c. 

sthitvd, ind. 34, 2. 13; 130, 

10, &c. 

4 d (bhdva ); td, 95 b ; 

pratibandha, 71,6; 

tavya, 166, 9. 
sndta, 113*. 
sndna, 157, 3 
snigdha, 59 b ; 169, 4, 155", 

&c. ; m, adv. 36*; jana, 

109, 5 ; drishti, 114, 6. 

ai&, snihyati, 286, 9. 
sneha, 22, 9 (sodara ); 121, 5 

(aMI); 86 C ; 8 9 b , &c.; 

pravritti, 97 b ; 180, 10. 
r. spand, spandate, 177*. 
sparfa, 103, 5; i3O b (para- 

gtrl); 174, &c. ; kshama, 

28 b ; anukula, 41. 
r. sjpn^, sprifati, 24*; 48. 
sprisTita, 63 d . 

r. spn'A, sprikayati, 289, 4. 
T.8phur,8phurati,i6*; 222,11. 
sphulinga, ifg b (^avastha). 
sma, 98 b (ma). 
smara, I24 d , n.; Smara, 65*; 

smy,raniya, 140, 9, 10. 

smdrita, 204, 3. 

smita, i66 b (into ); smitam 

kritvd, 64,1; 88,19, &c. ; 

cf. sa. 
r. mri, smarati, 1 34, 1 2 ; 104; 

202, ii ; 132*, &c. 
smrita, 117*; 224,11; i62 b ; 

3i. 7- 
smriti, 215, 2 ; 302, II, &c. ; 

ma, 313, 1 6. 
smritvd, ind. 165, 1. 


Tia, 7; 33 d . 

sydla, see fydla. 

sransin, 3O d . 

sraj, f. i88 d . 

srashtri, i a ; i9i d . 

srasta, 66 d ; 30" (ana). 

srotas, 5i b ; 246,2; cf. trfj 
t;aA, 5i b ; vaAa,i48 c ; 1498. 

sra, adj. 19; 75, 5; karya- 
paratd, 241, 6; gatam, 34, 
ii; 67, 9, &c. ; ddhanda- 
ddrm, 209, 8 ; ddhanda-tas, 
51, 10; jana, I4i a ; <a, 
36 d ; pramdTia, 21,6 (a7iw- 
rwpa) ; c bhdva, I I4 d ; 204, 
6 {_tt#aa) ; /Aa', see a; 
adhma, 140, 10 (updya) ; 
198, 2(i^aZa); apatya. 
314, 2 (ddra-sahitd); c i- 
karana, 202, 10. 

r. st-a*!, svanati, 24. 
svapna, 142"; 154*. 
svabhavokti, 73, n. I. 
sra2/am,65,7; 140,5.10; 188, 

12, &c. ; t-ara, 28, n. i ; 

vara-vadhu, 28, 2. 
srara, 84, 1 1 ; 263, 5 (drta) ; 

"samyoga, 182, 5. 
svarga, 272, n. 2; 282, 7; 

mdrga, 275, i. 
svargin, igS b . 
sv-asti, 152, 8 (ca<fanaia). 
sv-agata, 120, 5; 153, 12; 

267, 8. 10. 
svdtantrya, 212,11. 
svddu, 303, 13 (pAa/a). 
svdmin, 70, 6 ; 7 1, i ; 74, 1 1 , &c. 
Svdyambhuva, 173*. 
svdsthya, 181, 1. 

svinna, 147" (anguU). 
sveda, 248, 12 (vindii). 
svaira, ii3 b (gati). 

hansa, 149"; i6o b ; Hansa- 
padikd, 182, 6; 184, 6. 
24 d , n. ; 32"; 72 d . 
, hanti, I59 b ; 160*. 

c bhoh, 180, 10. 
hantavya, 13, 3. 13. 
-hara, 90, 7 (o/iioprf ); 122, 

4 (arti) ; cf.manas ; Hara, 


harana, 112, 4 (/tafor). 
Aa?*i, m. 12, 2, n.; I7i b ; Hari, 

i6i; 268, 2; i66 d ; 167*; 

dandana, i66 c ; vikrama, 

I7o c . 
harlna, i49 b ; &a, io c ; ^'SM, 

I5 d ; angand, 27*. 
Aar&, m. 12, 2, n. 
harita, 91* (kamalinf) ; pdn- 

dura, 134 s . 
harshana, 99, n. i. 
AaZa, interj. 22,4. 8; 26, 5,&c. 
Aaris, n. I. 
Aat-ya, 88 C (gandha). 
T. has, hasati, 289, 2. 
hasita, 45 b . 
hasta, g, 2 ; 13,12; 115,3, 

&c. ; %-a, 2 29, 14 (kapota ) ; 

abhydsa, 207, 2 ; 209, 10 ; 

dvdpa, 265, 7- 
hastin, 224, 4 (skandha). 
\Hastind-pura, 152, 2. 
Ao, interj. 137, 10 ( 

1 80, 2, &c. 

r. Aa, jahdti, 94 ; 1 2o d . 
-hdraka, 130, 10 (santdpa ). 
hdrin, 5 a ; 188, 4; 188, 7 

, i8i a 



H6,7; 10,8; tenahi, 303, 5,n. 
hita, 199* (prakritf). 
hima, 55 (garbha); Hima- 

vat, 188, 3; anu, 2O b . 
Hiranya-kasipu, 272, n. 2. 
hun-Jcara, 53 b . 

i a (vidhi ); vaha, 138, 

159, 8 ; atfana-vat, 8o b . 
/Mj'to, 5 ft ; 242, 2. 
hridaya, 40, 4 ; 1 34, 6, &c. ; 

anumana, 208, 8. 
; 65 

155, 5 (a 
109* (loka); ka, 72, 2 

Hema-lcuta, 279, 7. 

hotri, fem. trl, i a . 

homa, 145, 2 (vela); "dhenu, 

192, 4. 

Holi festival, 227, n. I. 
hyas, adv. 61, 4. 
hrada, 282, 7 (amrita ). 
r. hrl,jihreti, 304, 6. 


anu-sarana, 67, 

nstra, add 266, 15 ; 267, 7. 

n-gandavilamMn, 150'' (i"e- 

uktva, ind. 51, 10. 
uttarotara, 120, n. I. 
upa-nyasa, 119, n. I. 
Tcuravaka, add or kurumka 


Page 34, line 7, for U^I Tf F^T^ read 

51, ii, for ?J^Hread Sflfgir . 

60, 7, for WTftj read ^TTFT or rather 

66, 8 of notes, for sphutartham read sphutartham 

108, ,, 14, for fref^lpT read 

124, 4, for T^nn read 

147, 4 of notes, for -pra66hika read -pritchika 

196, 6, for trfrf^t read 

196, 15, for nfTrfsTin rg ad 

,, 198, 10, for iJlft'fTTt read 

265, 2, for WRT^ read 

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