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Full text of "Salmon Falls Creek fish inventory"

BLM LIBRARY 




88040584 




Salmon Falls Creek 
Fish Inventory 




5 







IDAHO BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL BULLETIN NO. 95-2 



FEBRUARY 1995 



Hi 



SALMON FALLS CREEK FISH INVENTORY 



Challenge Cost Share Project 



Charles D. Warren 

Regional Fishery Biologist 

and 

Fred E. Partridge 

Regional Fishery Manager 

Idaho Department of Fish and Game 



1995 

Prepared for the Boise District 
Bureau of Land Management 










ABSTRACT 

Salmon Falls Creek fisheries and instream habitat was 
investigated between Lily Grade and Salmon Falls Creek Dam in 
1994. This reach of Salmon Falls Creek is within a remote, 
narrow steep sided canyon with .limited access. The source of 
most of the water within the stream is from springs and seepage 
around the dam since none is released directly from the dam 
itself. Water quality is good but the lack of annual flushing 
flows has resulted in a narrow riparian zone with dense 
vegetation encroaching on the stream channel and a deep build up 
of fine sediments in most pools. Habitat features are nearly 
identical at all sites investigated with numerous pools created 
by the presence of large boulders which have fallen into the 
stream from the surrounding steep canyon walls. 

Fish survey results indicate a fish community dominated by 
numerous nongame and game fish species including smallmouth bass 
Micropterus dolomieui and wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss 
from Lily Grade upstream with a shift to one dominated 
exclusively by rainbow and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis 
immediately below the dam. Salmonid spawning habitat appears to 
be limited by the presence of large quantities of fine sediments 
in most sections. Bull trout S. conf luentus and leatherside chub 
Gila copei , both species of special concern, were speculated to 
be present within this reach of Salmon Falls Creek but none were 
found in any of the surveys. 



INTRODUCTION 

Salmon Falls Creek downstream of Salmon Falls Creek Dam in 
south central Idaho was investigated in 1994 with a Challenge 
Cost Share project between the Idaho Department of Fish and Game 
and the Boise District of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) . 
The project plan was to inventory and measure distribution of 
fish species within the reach; collect biological data from game 
fish species sampled; gather habitat usage and biological data on 
any fish species of special concern sampled; and to identify 
natural and manmade barriers to movement of fish within the 
reach. 

Study Area Description 

Most of Salmon Falls Creek water originates in Nevada before 
flowing northward into Idaho where it is impounded by Salmon 
Falls Creek Dam at river mile 46, 11 km west of the town of 
Rogerson. Downstream of the dam, Salmon Falls Creek flows 
through a narrow steep sided canyon until it approaches its 
confluence with the Snake River between the towns of Buhl and 
Hagerman, Idaho. The only major tributaries to the 48 km (30 
river miles) reach of Salmon Falls Creek between the dam and 
Balanced Rock is Cedar Creek and Devil Creek, both of which are 
dry during the summer due to irrigation diversions. Within this 
reach vehicle access is limited to crossings at Balanced Rock, 
Lily Grade and Salmon Dam. Foot access is extremely difficult 
due to the vertical walls of the canyon which varies from 80 to 
90 meters deep. The reach between Salmon Falls Creek Dam and 
Balanced Rock is relatively unimpacted by human influences and 
has been considered for listing as a Wild And Scenic River with 
the BLM upstream of Lily Grade. 

Flows within lower Salmon Falls Creek are greatly modified 
by the dam since its construction in 1910. Virtually all of the 
water is diverted into a canal "bypassing the natural stream 
channel, except that during an emergency water may be spilled 
over the rim into the canyon from the canal. The only releases 
made into the canyon since the dam was constructed were from May 
11 to June 29, 1984 and April 22-30, 1985 (Harenberg et al. 
1987) . Water does leak out from the reservoir into the lower 
canyon through crevices in the rock strata around the dam. This 
leakage probably amounts to less than 0.30 m 3 /second (10.6 
ft 3 /second) . Instream flows probably increase slightly by the 
time it reaches Lily Grade (river mile 31) with downstream ground 
water influence. With the loss of the natural hydrologic cycle 
downstream of Salmon Falls Creek dam there is no longer stream 
bed scouring and flooding. Without water flowing directly from 
upper Salmon Falls Creek there is also no longer an influx of 
sands, fine sediments or gravels from upstream erosion. Many 
sites throughout the reach have numerous large boulders from the 



inner canyon walls piled into the stream bed. Since there is no 
annual over bank flooding, the riparian zone is narrow with 
vegetation encroaching on the stream channel. Riparian shrub 
species include rose Rosa woodsii , coyote willow Salix exique , 
red-osier dogwood Cornus stolonifera , golden currant Ribes 
aureum , poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans , and a few other 
species. Dominant herbaceous species include cattail Tvpha spp . , 
reed Phragmites spp . , Nebraska sedge Carex nebraskensis , beaked 
sedge Carex spp . , spikerush Eleocharis spp . , baltic rush Juncus 
bealticus , bulrush Scirpus spp . , meadow foxtail Alopecurus 
pratensis . horsetail Equisetum spp . , goldenrod Solidaqo spp . , and 
mint Mentha spp . . Upland vegetation within the canyon is 
dominated by several grass species with big sagebrush Artemesia 
tridentata . and rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus spp . (J. Klott, BLM 
pers. comm.). There has been no grazing by livestock within this 
reach of the canyon since 1984. 

The fishery in this reach of Salmon Falls Creek historically 
included anadromous Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha . 
steelhead trout 0. mykiss and other native species normally found 
below Shoshone Falls. Anadromous fish are known to have spawned 
and reared in the mainstem and tributaries of the Snake River up 
to Shoshone Falls until the construction of Swan Falls, Brownlee 
and Oxbow dams (Idaho Dept. Fish and Game 1992) . Recent 
incidental fishing reports from Salmon Falls Creek indicate 
populations of wild rainbow/redband trout 0. mykiss , introduced 
brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus 
dolomieui . One angler reported last catching bull trout S. 
conf luentus downstream of the Balanced Rock crossing as recently 
as the early 1960's. Hatchery reared rainbow trout 0. mykiss are 
currently stocked at the Balanced Rock Park. 

Prior to the construction of Salmon Falls Creek Dam, the 
hydrologic cycle of the lower Salmon Falls Creek system probably 
simulated todays cycle at the U.S.G.S. gaging station near San 
Jacinto, Nevada. In records published for the period between 
1910 and 1993 (Harenberg, et al. 1993) the highest annual mean 
discharge at this site was 439 ft 3 /second (cfs) in 1984 and the 
lowest annual mean discharge was 45 cfs in 1934. The highest 
daily mean discharge ever recorded was 3,620 cfs on May 16, 1984 
and the lowest daily mean was 3.2 cfs on September 4, 1961. 



METHODS 

A total of four sites between Lily Grade and Salmon Falls 
Creek dam were investigated for fish species composition and 
instream habitat (Figure 1) . Fish were also sampled at the 
Balanced Rock Park (approximately river mile 16) within a 234 m 
long reach, but no habitat assessment was made there. Habitat 
and flows in this reach have been altered by road and park 
construction which backs water up in the channel for several 



N 

A 



HWY 30 
* SH Buhl 



Lega 
Descriptions 

Site 1: SW1/4, SEC30, RUE, T11S 

Site 2: SW1/4, SEC10, RUE, T12S 

Site 3: SE1/4, SEC7, R15E, T13S 

Site 4: SW1/4, SEC6, R15E, T14S 





Hwy 93 



Holltster 



Legend 

Highway or county road 
Stream 



5 km 

I 1 



Rogerson 



Figure 1. Map of Salmon Falls Creek depicting survey sites. 



hundred meters. Total length of each site between Lily Grade and 
Salmon Falls Creek dam ranged from 98 to 190 m long. An effort 
was made to select sites which appeared to represent habitat 
types within the reach. Prior to the survey, a video tape was 
made of the entire stream from Balanced Rock to Salmon Falls 
Creek dam from fixed wing aircraft. The purpose of this was to 
identify possible fish barriers as well as access sites into the 
canyon. 

Fish were sampled at each site by electrof ishing with the 
sampling crew working their way upstream. At the Balanced Rock 
Park site a drift boat with a Coffelt WP-15 Electrof isher 
powered with a Honda 5000 generator was used. Utilizing the boat 
hull as the cathode and two anodes suspended off the bow, two 
crew members acted as netters and one crew member rowed and 
controlled the electrical output. All fish stunned were netted 
and put into a live well in the boat. At the other four sites 
fish were sampled with a Smith-Root Model 15-A backpack shocker 
with two to three crew members working as netters and one 
additional crew member receiving netted fish into a bucket. Two 
passes were made at the four sites that the backpack shocker was 
used. All fish were identified, measured, and enumerated from 
each pass. Scale samples and weights were taken from some of the 
game fish species. A Seber LeCren (1967) two pass population 
estimate was made for game fish species. Fish population 
densities were estimated based on total surface area of site 
sampled and total population estimates. Length-at-age was 
estimated from scale samples at each site. Ten each of the brook 
and rainbow trout sampled from Site 4 were preserved on ice in 
the field then frozen and transported to the Fish and Game Fish 
Health Laboratory to be tested for Bacteria Kidney Disease (BKD) 
Renibacterium salmoninarum and whirling disease Myxosoma 
cerebralis . For BKD testing the 10 fish were pooled into 2 
groups of 5 fish each. Tests were run utilizing the Enzyme 
Linked Immuno-Sorbant Assay (ELISA) and Flourescent Antibody Test 
(FAT) procedures. 

Habitat assessments were made where possible utilizing Idaho 
Department of Fish and Game standardized stream survey procedures 
which are based on methods described by Platts et al. (1983) and 
Rosgen (1985) . Four to ten transects were systematically 
selected for habitat measurements throughout each sample site. 
Features measured across transects include total stream width, 
total depth, water column habitat type and substrate class at 
one-fourth, one-half, and three-fourths the distance across the 
transect. Total stream discharge volume was measured at the Lily 
Grade site on August 4, 1994 using a Marsh-McBirney flow meter 
and methods described by Platts et al. (1983). 

Water temperature profiles" were measured at two sites on 
Salmon Falls Creek using continuously recording Ryan TempMentor 
thermographs. A thermograph was set approximately 20 m upstream 



of the Lily Grade crossing within site one between the dates of 
May 14 and September 22, 1994 and a thermograph was set 
approximately 10 m upstream of the Lateral 10 power plant outflow 
between June 11 and October 17, 1994. Both thermographs were 
completely submerged within the main channel of the stream and 
set to record ambient water temperature every 3 minutes. 



RESULTS 

Due to the nature of the steep narrow canyon and the side 
view from the fixed wing aircraft, portions of the stream 
channel between Lily Grade and Salmon Falls Dam were not covered 
on the video tape. However, the majority of the stream was 
observed. Large rock slides with boulders exceeding 3 meters 
across are common throughout the canyon and in many areas cover 
the entire stream channel. Although these slides have filled the 
canyon bottom, in most cases they are not barriers to fish 
movement. Inspection of some of these slides at sample sites 
found water flowing under and through the boulders which allowed 
fish to pass these slides. Not all slides were inspected and it 
is possible that a large slide area near site 3 may be an 
upstream barrier at current water flows. Additional barriers to 
fish movement in Salmon Falls Creek are seasonal dams located at 
several irrigation pump sites between Balanced Rock and the Snake 
River. Besides the dams, pumping during low water years can 
dewater short reaches of the stream during the summer. 

Fish sampled in Salmon Falls Creek in 1994 included hatchery 
and wild rainbow trout, brook trout, smallmouth bass, largescale 
sucker Catostomus macrocheilus , bridgelip sucker C. columbianus , 
redside shiner Richardsonius balteatus, northern squawfish 
Ptychocheilus oregonensis , speckled dace Rhinichthvs osculus, 
longnose dace R. cataractae , chiselmouth chub Acrocheilus 
alutaceus and mottled sculpin Cottus bairdi (Tables 1-5) . 
Smallmouth bass were present up through site 2. Brook trout were 
only sampled in the upper two sites. Although wild rainbow trout 
were not sampled at Balanced Rock, they were found in all other 
sites. Wild rainbow trout were observed below Balanced Rock at 
Magic Water pump site in April, 1993 (Warren and Partridge, In 
Press). Nongame fish were sampled at all sites except site 4. 

Fish sampling efforts at Balanced Rock park were not 
effective enough to collect a suitable sample for population 
estimates because of the excessive depth (> 2m) and dense aquatic 
vegetation. Population density estimates for wild rainbow trout 
ranged from 0.8 to 14. 2 /100m 2 at sites 1-4 (Table 6). Brook 
trout density estimates in sites 3 and 4 were 0.8 and 35.0/ 100m 2 , 
respectively. Smallmouth bass density which was only estimated 
at site 1 due to sampling efficiency, was 2.6/100m 2 . Population 



Table 1 . Fish sampled by electrofishing at the Balanced Rock site of Salmon Falls Creek with total length 
frequency in each 1 mm length group, percent of total, mean weight of hatchery rainbow trout 
and smallmouth bass, and total numbers of each species, collected July, 1994. 





Hatchery rainbow 


Smallmouth 


Largescale 


Redside 


Northern 




trout 


bass 


sucker 


shiner 


squawfish 


Length 








Range _ 


.Length Weight 


Length Weight 


Length 


Length 


Lenqth 


(mm) 


no. % no. avg. 


no. % no. avg. 


no. % 


no. % 


no. % 


0-9 












10-19 












20-29 












30-39 












40-49 












50-59 












60-69 












70-79 












80-89 








2 33.3 




90-99 








1 16.7 




100-109 








3 50.0 




110-119 












120-129 




1 50.0 1 20 








130-139 












140-149 












150-159 












160-169 












170-179 












180-189 












190-199 












200-209 












210-219 




1 50.0 1 90 








220-229 










1 50.0 


230-239 


1 100.0 1 124 










240-249 










1 500 


250-259 












260-269 












270-279 












280-289 












290-299 












300-309 












310-319 












320-329 












330-339 












340-349 












350-359 












360-369 












370-379 












380-389 












390-399 












400-409 












410-419 












420-429 












430-439 












440-449 












450459 












460-469 






1 50.0 






470-479 












480-489 












490-499 












500-509 






1 50.0 






510-519 












520-529 












530-539 












540-549 












Number; 


1 1 


2 2 


2 


6 


2 


Avg. 












length: 


235 


165 


483 


S5 


233 


Total 












collected: 


1 1 


2 2 


2 


6 


2 



Table 2 Fish sampled by electrofishing at site 1 of Salmon Falls Creek with total length frequency in each 10 mm length group, percent of total, mean weight of wild rainbow trout and 
smallmouth bass and total numbers of each species, collected July, 1994. 



CO 







Wild rainbow 






Smallmouth 
bass 




Northern 
squawfish 

no. % 


Speckled 
dace 


Mottled 
SCUlPJtL 

Length 

no. % 


Bridgelip 
sucker 

Length 
no. % 


Chiselmoulh 
chub 


Longnose 
dace 


Largescale 
sucker 

Length 
no. % 


Redslde 
shiner 


Length 
Range 


Length 

no. % 


Weight 
no. ava. 


Length 
no. % 


Weight 
no. avg. 


Length 
no. % 


Length 
no. % 


no. % 


.. Length 
no. % 


0-9 
10-19 
20-29 
30-39 
40-49 






















3 20.0 












50-59 
60-69 
70-79 
80-89 
90-99 


1 

1 
1 
1 


3.2 

3.2 

3.2 
3.2 






1 

3 


4.3 

13.0 


1 
3 


8 
11 






2 13.3 

4 26.7 

5 33.3 










9 243 
6 162 
2 5.4 


100-109 
110-119 
120-129 
130-139 
140-149 


1 
2 


3.2 
6.5 


1 
2 


20 
30 


1 


4.3 


1 


20 


1 2.9 

2 5.7 

3 8.6 

4 11.4 


2 100.0 


1 6.7 


1 14.3 
1 14.3 


6 33.3 
S 44.4 


1 50.0 
1 50.0 


1 16.7 

1 16.7 

2 33.3 

1 16.7 


11 29.7 
8 21.6 
1 2.7 


150-159 
160-169 
170-179 
180-189 
190-199 


1 

1 
2 
4 
4 
3 
1 
3 


3.2 

3.2 

6.5 

12.9 


1 
1 
4 


45 
54 
77 


1 
1 
3 
3 

1 


4.3 

4.3 

13 

13 

4.3 


1 
1 
3 
3 
1 


50 

60 
65 
72 
94 


3 8.6 

6 17.1 
9 25.7 

4 114 






1 14.3 

1 14.3 

2 286 


3 16.7 
1 5.6 




1 16.7 




200-209 
210-219 
220-229 
230-239 
240-249 


12.9 
9.7 
3.2 
9.7 


4 

3 
1 

3 


84 

97 

98 

125 


4 
1 

1 
1 


17.4 
4.3 

4.3 
4.3 


4 

1 

1 
1 


107 
138 

148 
180 


2 5.7 
1 2.9 






1 14.3 










250-259 
260-269 
270-279 
280-289 
290-299 


2 
1 

1 

1 


6.5 

3.2 

32 
32 


1 

1 

1 

1 


158 

176 


1 

1 


4.3 
4.3 


1 

1 


252 

260 


















300-309 
310-319 
320-329 
330-339 
340-349 


258 
355 


























350-359 
360-369 
370-379 
380-389 

390-iqq — 


Number: 
Avg. 

length: 

Total 

Collected: 


31 

192 

31 




24 




23 

177 

23 




23 




35 

166 

70 


2 

113 

2 


15 
68 
15 


7 

173 

7 


18 

143 

18 


2 

115 

2 


6 

138 

6 


37 

89 

179 



Table 3 Fish sampled by electrof.shing at site 2 of Salmon Falls Creek with total length frequency in each 10 .mm ttengtn i group, percent of total, 
mean weight of wild rainbow trout and smallmouth bass and total numbers of each species, collected October, 1994. 



to 







Wild rainbow 






Smallmouth 
bass 




Bridgelip 
sucker 

Length 

no. % 


Mottled 
sculpin 

Length 

no. % 


Redside 

shiner 


Speckled 
dace 

no. % 


Northern 
squawfish 


Length 
Range 
(mm) 
0-9 
10-19 
20-29 
30-39 
40-49 


Length 
no. % 


Wek 
no. 


bt_ 


_Lenglb 

no. % 


_WeigM_ 
no. avg. 


Length 

no. % 


Length 
no % 
















1 


7.7 


6 
5 


50.0 

41.7 


2 66.7 




50-59 
60-69 
70-79 
80-89 
90-99 


















1 
1 


12.5 
12.5 


3 

4 
1 
3 
1 


23.1 
30.8 

7.7 
23 1 

77 


1 


8.3 


1 33.3 




100-109 
110-119 
120-129 
130-139 
140-149 










2 


14.3 


2 


37 


1 


125 












1 11.1 

1 11.1 

2 22.2 


150-159 
160-169 
170-179 
180-189 
190-199 
200-209 
210-219 
220-229 
230-239 
240-249 


1 
1 
1 


11.1 
11.1 
11 1 


1 
1 

1 


56 
54 
66 


2 
1 
4 
1 
1 


143 
71 

286 
7.1 
7.1 


2 
1 

4 
1 

1 


45 

59 
63 
84 
86 


2 

2 


25.0 
25.0 












2 22.2 

3 333 


3 


33.3 


3 


84 


1 

1 


7.1 
7.1 


1 
1 


142 
164 


1 


12.5 














250-259 
260-269 
270-279 
280-289 
290-299 


1 

2 


11.1 
22.2 


1 

2 


142 
180 


1 


7.1 


1 


216 


















300-309 
310-319 
320-329 
330-339 
340-349 


































350-359 
360-369 
370-379 
380-389 
390-399 


































Number: 

Avg 

Lgth: 

Total 

Collected 


9 

217 

9 




9 




14 

181 

14 




14 




8 

141 

8 




13 

65 

13 




12 
39 
12 




3 

43 

3 


9 

158 

9 



Table 4 Fish sampled by electrofishlng at site 3 of Salmon Falls Creek with total length frequency in each 1 mm length group, percent of total, mean weight of wild 
rainbow trout and brook trout, and total numbers of each species, collected July, 1 994 







Wild rainbow 
trout 




Brook 
trout 


Bridgelip 
sucker 

Length 
no % 


Chiselmouth 
chub 


Longnose 

Length 

no. % 


Mottled 
sculpin 

Length 
no. % 


Redside 
shiner 

Length 
no. % 


Speckled 
dace 

Length 
no. % 


Northern 
squawfish 


Length 
Range 


Length 
no. % 


We 


gbl_ 
avg. 


Length Weight 
no. % no. avg. 


Lengtb_ 
no % 


Length 
no. % 


no. 


0-9 
10-19 
20-29 
30-39 
40-49 


1 


25 








1 2.6 




2 18.2 


2 100 
7 350 


1 
1 
1 


20 
20 
2.0 






50-59 
60-69 
70-79 
80-89 
90-99 


3 

2 
1 
1 


7.5 
5.0 
2.5 
2.5 






1 125 

4 500 1 5 

1 125 






1 91 

2 18.2 
1 91 

3 273 
1 91 


1 50 

2 100 
2 10.0 
4 20.0 
2 10.0 


1 
2 

19 
13 


20 

4.1 

38.8 

265 


1 50 
1 50 




100-109 
110-119 
120-129 
130-139 
140-149 










1 12.5 1 12 


1 2.6 
7 18.4 

11 28.9 

2 53 
11 28.9 


1 250 

2 50.0 

1 25.0 


1 9.1 




11 


22.4 




1 10.0 

2 20.0 
2 20.0 


150-159 
160-169 
170-179 
180-189 
190-199 


6 

3 
4 
6 
9 
1 
2 


15.0 
7.5 
10.0 
15.0 
22 5 


5 

2 
2 
2 
4 


35 

43 
55 
57 
74 


1 12.5 1 45 


3 7.9 
1 2.6 

1 2.6 














1 10.0 

2 20.0 
1 10.0 
1 10.0 


200-209 
210-219 
220-229 
230-239 
240-249 


25 

5.0 


1 

2 


78 

92 




















250-259 
260-269 
270-279 
280-289 
290-299 


1 


2.5 


1 


138 




















300-309 
310-319 
320-329 
330-339 
340-349 





























350-359 
360-369 
370-379 
380-389 
390-399 


























Number: 

Avg 

length: 

Total 

Collected 


40 

157 

40 




40 




8 8 

96 
8 


38 

129 

38 


4 

125 

4 


11 

68 
11 


20 
60 
20 


49 
85 
49 




2 

75 

2 


10 

155 

10 



10 



Table 5. Fish sampled by electrofishing at site 4 of Salmon Falls Creek with total length 
frequency in each 10 mm length group, percent of total, mean weight offish 
sampled, and total numbers of each species sampled, August, 1 994. 









Wild rainbow 






Brook 








gth 




trout 








trout 






Len 


















Range 


Lenqth 


We 


ght 


Lenqth 


Weiqht 


(mm) 


no. 


% 


no. 


avg. 


no. 


% 


no. 


avg. 


0- 


•9 


















10- 


■19 


















20- 


•29 


















30- 


■39 


















40- 


•49 


1 


2.0 














50- 


■59 


1 


2.0 














60- 


•69 










3 


1.8 






70- 


-79 










14 


8.3 






80- 


-89 






i 




18 


10.7 


1 


4 


90- 


-99 










21 


12.4 






100- 


-109 










27 


16.0 


4 


13 


110- 


-119 


1 


2.0 


1 


18 


15 


8.9 


3 


15 


120- 


-129 










1 


0.6 






130- 


-139 


3 


6.0 


2 


22 


1 


0.6 






140- 


-149 


1 


2.0 






1 


0.6 






150- 


-159 


3 


6.0 


2 


41 


1 


0.6 






160- 


-169 


4 


8.0 


1 


36 










170- 


-179 


5 


10.0 


2 


56 










180- 


-189 


6 


12.0 


3 


60 


1 


0.6 






190- 


-199 


3 


6.0 


1 


92 


13 


7.7 


1 


84 


200- 


-209 


2 


4.0 






11 


6.5 


3 


99 


210- 


-219 


4 


8.0 


2 


112 


15 


8.9 


3 


117 


220- 


-229 


4 


8.0 


2 


113 


10 


5.9 






230- 


-239 


1 


2.0 






8 


4.7 


2 


142 


240- 


-249 


3 


6.0 


1 


140 


6 


3.6 


2 


175 


250- 


-259 


2 


4.0 


1 


162 


2 


1.2 


2 


198 


260- 


-269 


1 


2.0 






1 


0.6 






270- 


-279 


4 


8.0 


4 


205 










280- 


-289 


















290- 


-299 


















300- 


-309 


















310- 


-319 


















320- 


-329 


















330- 


-339 


















340- 


-349 


















350- 


-359 


















360- 


-369 


















370- 


-379 


1 


2.0 


1 


500 










380- 


-389 


















390 


-399 


















Number: 


50 




23 




169 




21 




Avg 




















length: 


194 








141 








Total 


















Collected: 


50 








169 









11 



Table 6. Salmon Falls Creek game fish population estimates, 

standard errors, and densities for sites electrof ished, 

Site 



Date 



7/13/94 10/18/94 8/16/94 8/22/94 



Wild rainbow trout 



Population estimate 
Standard error 
Density (no./ 100 m 2 ) 


32 
1.03 
3.2 


12 
6.00 
0.82 


88 

68.69 
7.88 


131 

120.99 
14.2 


Brook trout 

Population estimate 
Standard error 
Density (no./lOO m 2 ) 


'. 


- 


8 
0.82 


322 

93.34 
35.04 


Smallmouth bass 

Population estimate 
Standard error 
Density (no./lOO m 2 ) 


25 
2.55 
2.57 


_b 


- 


- 



* Standard error of population estimate of brook trout at site 3 
not calculable with second removal pass catch equal to 0. 

b Both first and second removal pass catches were equal to 7 
smallmouth each at site 2. 



12 



estimates were not made on nongame fish due to sampling 
inefficiencies on small fish. 

Length-at-age estimates for some of the game fish sampled 
are given in Tables 7 and 8. There is no length-at-age estimate 
table for wild rainbow trout from site 1 or brook trout from 
sites 3 or 4 because only age + and 1 + fish were sampled from 
these sites. Mean back calculated length to age 1 for 15 rainbow 
trout sampled from the 1993 year class at site one was 145 mm 
with a standard deviation of 33.59. Mean back calculated length 
to age 1 for 5 brook trout sampled from the 1993 year class at 
site 4 was 134 mm with a standard deviation of 26.48. Of scale 
samples taken from brook trout at site 3, only one was age 1 + and 
the rest were age + . 

Fish health laboratory test results for BKD were positive- 
low utilizing the ELISA procedure and negative utilizing the FAT 
procedure on both rainbow and brook trout. Whirling disease 
samples were negative for brook trout but presumptive positive 
for rainbow trout. The presumptive positive designation was 
given since Myxobolus sp. spores were found by digestion method 
although no M. cerebralis were confirmed present in histological 
samples. Also, whirling disease positive fish were stocked into 
Salmon Falls Creek in Nevada upstream of Salmon Falls Creek 
Reservoir in the 1980' s. 

Instream substrate consisted mainly of fines (sand and 
organic silt) and boulder. These two groups accounted for 85 to 
95 percent of the substrate in sites 1-4 (Table 9) . The highest 
gradient measured was within site 4 which was 5% over the entire 
98 m reach. Due to the areas of boulders, the stream gradient is 
a stair step system of flat pool/run areas above boulder areas 
with steeper gradients. Stream channel type for all sites 
surveyed was confined. Total stream discharge as measured at 
Lily Grade on August 4, 1994 was 11.87 cfs. Maximum water 
temperature at Lily Grade between May 14 and September 22, 1994 
was 25.8 C (Table 10). Above the Lateral 10 hydro inflow between 
June 11 and October 17, 1994, it was 22.2 C. Daily average water 
temperatures averaged 1.6 C warmer at Lily Grade than downstream 
near Lateral 10 hydro, with a maximum difference of 3 C on August 
6, 1994. 

DISCUSSION 

The Salmon Falls Creek fishery indicates that water quality 
is relatively good within the reach between Salmon Falls Creek 
Dam and Lily Grade. Instream and riparian habitat conditions, 
however, have been significantly altered by the decrease in 
stream flows from the diversion of water at Salmon Falls Creek 
Dam. Within this reach there exists a gradient in fish community 

13 



Table 7. Back calculated length-at-age (mm) for smallmouth 
bass sampled from Salmon Falls Creek. Standard 
deviation is in parenthesis. 

Site 1, July 13, 1994 



Year 


Number 




Mean lengt 


h 


at annulus 




class 


of 


fish 


1 


2 




3 


4 


1993 




3 


62 
(0.96) 










1992 




9 


88 
(7.33) 


148 
(17.70) 








1991 




2 


82 
(8.08) 


153 
(19.62) 




218 
(17.25) 




1990 




1 


65 
(-) 


102 
(-) 




153 
(-) 


193 
(-) 


Weighted 
















average 
length 






80 


145 




196 


193 



Weighted 

average 

length 



Site 2, October 18, 1994 



Year 


Number 




Mean 


length at 


annu 


lus 




class 


of fish 


1 




2 






3 


1993 


7 


105 
(12.23) 












1992 


9 


72 
(2.33) 




117 
(6.51) 








1991 


2 


81 
(18.47) 




142 
(6.22) 






199 
(7.16) 



91 125 199 



14 



Table 8. Back calculated length-at-age (mm) for wild rainbow 
trout sampled from Salmon Falls Creek. Standard 
deviation is in parenthesis. 



Year 
class 



Number 
of fish 



Site 2, October 18, 1994 ^_ 

Mean length at annulus 



1993 



117 
(15.83 



1992 



124 
(35.68) 



171 
(89.75) 



Weighted 

average 

length 



120 



171 



Site 3, August 16, 1994 



Year 
class 



Number 
of fish 



Mean length at annulus 
12 3 



1993 



17 



128 
(14.74) 



1992 (none sampled) 



1991 

Weighted 

average 

length 



114 
(-) 



127 



168 
(-) 



168 



223 
(-) 



223 



15 



Table 8. Continued. 

Site 4, August 22, 19 94 



Year 
class 


Number 
of fish 

14 


Mean 
1 


length at 
2 


annulus 
3 


1993 


98 

(16.71) 






1992 


6 


110 
(17.02) 


199 
(26.56) 




1991 


1 


129 
(-) 


220 
(-) 


297 
(-) 



Weighted 

average 

length 103 202 297_ 



16 



Table 9. Habitat data collected from all sites surveyed in the 
Salmon Falls Creek drainage, 1994. 





1 


2 


Site 


3 


4 


Reach length (m) 
Mean width (m) 


190.6 
5.1 


150.0 
9.7 




147.0 
7.6 


97.8 
9.4 



Mean depth (cm) 49.1 20.8 36.4 43.5 



Habitat (%) 










Pool 


43.3 


0.0 


67.0 


80.0 


Run 


43.3 


29.0 


8.0 


0.0 


Pocket 


3.3 


25.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Riffle 


6.7 


8.0 


25.0 


20.0 


Backwater 


3 .3 


21.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Dry 


0.0 


17. a 


0.0 


.0 


Substrate Class (%) 










Sand 


41.0 


50.0 


54.6 


22.3 


Gravel 


6.7 


3.8 


4.6 


4.0 


Rubble 


8.3 


0.4 


0.0 


5.0 


Boulder 


44 .0 


45.8 


40.8 


68.7 


Bedrock 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 



Exposed rock outcroppings . 



17 



Table 10. Daily minimum, maximum and average water temperatures 
(Celcius) recorded at Lily Grade and immediately 
upstream of the Lateral 10 hydropower outflow. 





Salmon Falls Creek 
Grade 

May 14 - Sept. 22, 


at Lily 
1994 


Salmon Falls Creek 
upstream of Lateral 10 
hydropower outflow 
June 11 - Oct. 17, 1994 




MAXIMUM 
MINIMUM 
AVERAGE 


25.8 
10.3 
18.9 




MAXIMUM 24.0 
MINIMUM 13 . 
AVERAGE 18.2 


DATE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


•AVERAGE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


14-May-94 


18.2 


13.3 


15.9 








15 -May- 9 4 


16.9 


15.0 


15.8 








16-May-94 


14.8 


13.1 


13.9 








17-May-94 


14.1 


11.5 


12.8 








18-May-94 


13.6 


11.4 


12.5 








l9-May-94 


13.1 


10.9 


12.2 








20-May-94 


13.2 


10.7 


12.0 








21-May-94 


16.5 


10.3 


13.4 








2 2 -May- 9 4 


18.4 


12.3 


15.3 








23-May-94 


20.2 


13.9 


17.0 








24-May-94 


21.1 


15.0 


18.1 








25-May-94 


21.8 


15.6 


18.7 








26-May-94 


21.9 


16.5 


19.4 








27-May-94 


19.6 


17.2 


18.4 








28-May-94 


18.7 


15.0 


17.0 








29-May-94 


20.2 


15.1 


17.6 








3 0-May-94 


21.1 


15.2 


18.3 








31-May-94 


19.3 


16.2 


17.2 








01-Jun-94 


19.3 


14.8 


16.6 








02-Jun-94 


20.3 


14.4 


17.5 








03-Jun-94 


21.5 


16.8 


19.1 









18 



DATE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


04-Jun-94 


21.4 


16.2 


19.0 








05-Jun-94 


22.4 


16.5 


19.5 








06-Jun-94 


20.4 


16.2 


18.1 








07-JUT1-94 


16.5 


13.1 


15.0 








08-Jun-94 


18.3 


12.3 


15.3 








09-Jun-94 


19.9 


13.7 


| 16.8 








10-Jun-94 21.1 


14.8 


18.0 








ll-Jun-94 


21.4 


16.5 


19.2 


21.3 


15.3 


18.3 


12-Jun-94 


22.0 


18.0 


20.1 


20.7 


16.5 


18.7 


13-Jun-94 


20.9 


17.8 


19.3 


19.1 


15.7 


17.7 


14-Jun-94 


18.9 


14.4 


16.7 


18.8 


13.2 


15.7 


15-Jun-94 


18.7 


13.3 


16.1 


19.1 


13.1 


15.5 


16-Jun-94 


18.0 


13.4 


15.8 


18.3 


13.0 


15.4 


17-Jun-94 


19.3 


13.3 


16.4 


19.6 


13.0 


16.1 


18-Jun-94 


21.0 


15.3 


18.1 


20.8 


14.3 


17.3 


19-Jun-94 


22.0 


16.2 


19.1 


21.6 


15.0 


17.9 


20-Jun-94 


22.8 


17.4 


20.2 


22.2 


15.8 


18.6 


21-Jun-94 


22.0 


18.6 


20.5 


20.6 


16.7 


18.6 


22-Jun-94 


22.8 


18.2 


20.6 


22.0 


16.5 


18.9 


23-Jun-94 


23.6 


18.0 


20.8 


22.5 


16.2 


19.0 


24-Jun-94 


23.2 


17.8 


20.6 


21.8 


15.7 


18.5 


25-Jun-94 


24.1 


18.3 


21.3 


22.8 


15.9 


19.0 


26-Jun-94 


22.3 


18.8 


20.8 


20.6 


15.9 


18.0 


27-JUT1-94 


21.0 


16.4 


19.0 


20.0 


14.1 


17.1 


28-Jun-94 


22.6 


17.1 


19.9 


22.0 


15.3 


18.5 


29-Jun-94 


24.0 


18.9 


21.3 


22.5 


16.6 


19.3 


30-Jun-94 


23.6 


19.0 


21.4 


22.6 


16.3 


19.2 


Ol-Jul-94 


24.1 


18.7 


21.5 


23.0 


16.2 


19.2 


02-Jul-94 


22.1 


19.1 


20.8 


1 21.3 


16.6 


18.7 



19 



Table 13. Continued. 



DATE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


03-JU1-94 


21.4 


17.3 


19.4 


20.0 


14.8 


17.3 


04-JU1-94 


20.8 


16.0 


18.4 


20.0 


14.1 


16.8 


05-JU1-94 


19.5 


16.9 


18.1 


18.2 


15.2 


16.6 


06-Jul-94 


18.5 


15.0 


16.6 


19.1 


13.6 


16.0 


07-JU1-94 


21.2 


15.3 


18.1 


21.2 


14.6 


17.8 


08-Jul-94 


22.8 


17.1 


19.9 


22.1 


15.7 


18.9 


09-JU1-94 


22.0 


18.4 


20.5 


21.6 


16.4 


19.0 


lO-Jul-94 


22.6 


18.3 


20.2 


21.4 


16.3 


18.5 


ll-Jul-94 


22.3 


17.0 


19.7 


20.9 


14.7 


17.7 


12-JU1-94 


22.4 


17.1 


19.7 


21.4 


15.0 


17.8 


13-Jul-94 


22.8 


17.5 


20.1 


21.2 


15.3 


18.1 


14-JU1-94 


23.2 


18.1 


20.6 


21.9 


15.8 


18.6 


15-JU1-94 


23.7 


18.3 


21.0 


22.5 


15.9 


19.0 


16-Jul-94 


24.1 


19.5 


21.8 


22.4 


16.4 


19.3 


17-JU1-94 


24.9 


20.2 


22.5 


22.6 


17.1 


19.8 


18-JU1-94 


24.5 


20.2 


22.3 


22.4 


17.1 


19.7 


19-JU1-94 


23.5 


19.4 


21.5 


21.6 


15.9 


18.8 


20-Jul-94 


23.8 


18.6 


21.2 


22.3 


15.8 


19.0 


21-JU1-94 


24.3 


19.4 


21.8 


23.4 


16.5 


19.9 


22-JU1-94 


24.1 


20.2 


22.2 


23.4 


17.0 


20.1 


23-JU1-94 


23.3 


20.8 


22.1 


22.1 


18.5 


20.0 


24-JU1-94 


24.0 


19.6 


21.8 


22.7 


17.1 


19.8 


25-Jul-94 


25.3 


20.5 


22.8 


23.8 


17.4 


20.5 


26-JU1-94 


25.8 


21.1 


23.4 


23.9 


18.0 


20.8 


27-JU1-94 


25.1 


21.7 


23.4 


24.0 


18.6 


20.9 


28-JU1-94 


24.6 


21.1 


22.7 


23.5 


18.0 


20.5 


29-JU1-94 


23.0 


20.4 


21.8 


22.0 


17.4 


19.8 


30-JU1-94 


23.5 


20.8 


22.0 


22.0 


18.0 


19.9 



20 



Table 13. Continued. 



DATE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


31-JU1-94 


23.5 


20.4 


21.9 


22.6 


17.6 


20.0 


Ol-Aug-94 


23.3 


20.1 


21.7 


22.6 


17.6 


20.0 


02 -Aug- 9 4 


23.1 


19.6 


21.4 


23.0 


17.1 


19.9 


03-Aug-94 


24.2 


19.3 


21.7 


22.8 


17.0 


20.0 


04-Aug-94 


25.3 


20.5 


22.8 


23.1 


17.0 


20.1 


05 -Aug- 9 4 


25.6 


21.0 


23.2 


23.2 


17.4 


20.2 


06 -Aug- 9 4 


24.6 


20.4 


22.4 


22.3 


16.5 


19.4 


07 -Aug- 9 4 


24.4 


19.9 


22.2 


22.4 


16.3 


19.4 


08 -Aug- 9 4 


22.5 


20.8 


21.7 


20.7 


17.2 


19.0 


09 -Aug- 9 4 


23.2 


19.1 


21.1 


21.4 


16.2 


18.7 


10 -Aug- 9 4 


21.8 


20.0 


21.0 


20.2 


17.1 


18.7 


ll-Aug-94 


23.3 


19.1 


21.2 


22.2 


16.4 


19.1 


12-Aug-94 


23.6 


20.1 


21.8 


21.2 


17.3 


19.4 


13-Aug-94 


24.1 


20.2 


22.1 


22.4 


16.8 


19.6 


14-Aug-94 


24.3 


20.3 


22.2 


22.3 


16.8 


19.8 


15-Aug-94 


23.9 


20.2 


22.0 


21.6 


16.8 


19.4 


16 -Aug- 9 4 


23.2 


19.1 


21.1 


20.8 


15.8 


18.4 


17-Aug-94 


22.6 


18.4 


20.5 


20.9 


15.5 


18.2 


18 -Aug- 9 4 


22.6 


18.7 


20.6 


21.0 


15.6 


18.4 


19-Aug-94 


22.3 


18.9 


20.5 


20.5 


15.6 


18.2 


20-Aug-94 


22.1 


19.0 


20.5 


20.7 


15.9 


18.5 


21-Aug-94 


22.6 


19.5 


21.0 


21.2 


16.4 


18.8 


22-Aug-94 


21.3 


18.5 


20.0 


19.3 


15.3 


17.5 


23-Aug-94 


20.7 


16.8 


18.8 


19.6 


14.3 


17.0 


24-Aug-94 


21.3 


17.4 


19.3 


19.9 


14.7 


17.4 


2 5 -Aug- 9 4 


21.3 


17.5 


19.4 


20.1 


15.0 


17.6 


26-Aug-94 


20.8 


17.6 


19.3 


19.9 


14.8 


17.5 


27-Aug-94 


20.4 


17.5 


18.9 


19.4 


15.3 


17.4 



21 



Table 13. Continued. 



DATE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 




28-Aug-94 


21.3 


17.7 


19.5 


20.3 


15.6 


17.9 




29-Aug-94 


20.4 


17.7 


19.1 


19.2 


15.2 


17.2 




30-Aug-94 


19.3 


16.2 


17.8 


18.2 


14.1 


16.2 




31-Aug-94 


19.3 


15.5 


17.4 


18.7 


13.7 


16.3 




Ol-Sep-94 


19.5 


16.0 


17.7 


19.0 


14.2 


16.6 




02-Sep-94 


19.0 


16.1 


17.6 


18.6 


14.5 


16.6 




03-Sep-94 


19.3 


16.1 


17.7 


18.7 


14.8 


16.7 




04-Sep-94 


18.6 


15.6 


17.1 


18.1 


14.1 


16.0 




05-Sep-94 


18.4 


14.7 


16.6 


18.1 


13.2 


15.7 




06-Sep-94 


19.3 


15.3 


17.2 


18.9 


14.0 


16.3 




07-Sep-94 


19.9 


16.5 


18.1 


19.2 


14.9 


17.0 




08-Sep-94 


20.2 


16.9 


18.5 


19.2 


15.0 


17.1 




09-Sep-94 


19.2 


16.5 


17.9 


18.1 


14.4 


16.2 




10-Sep-94 


17.7 


14.8 


16.3 


17.4 


13.4 


15.3 




ll-Sep-94 


16.8 


14.1 


15.5 


16.8 


13.2 


15.0 




12-Sep-94 


15.7 


13.9 


14.9 


16.3 


13.4 


14.8 




13-Sep-94 


16.0 


13.6 


14.8 


16.6 


13.5 


14.9 




14-Sep-94 


15.7 


13.6 


14.6 


16.8 


13.4 


14.8 




15-Sep-94 


16.4 


13.2 


14.8 


17.1 


13.3 


15.0 




16-Sep-94 


16.8 


13.4 


15.0 


17.4 


13.3 


15.3 




17-Sep-94 


17.1 


14.0 


15.6 


17.6 


13.6 


15.5 




18-Sep-94 


18.0 


14.4 


16.1 


17.6 


14.1 


15.7 




19-Sep-94 


17.9 


14.7 


16.2 


17.9 


13.9 


15.8 




20-Sep-94 


17.6 


14.7 


16.1 


17.6 


14.1 


15.7 




21-Sep-94 


17.2 


14.6 


15.9 


17.4 


13.9 


15.6 




22-Sep-94 


16.8 


13.7 


15.1 


17.4 


13.6 


15.3 




23-Sep-94 








17.4 


13.3 


15.2 




24-Sep-94 








17.3 


13.2 


15.1 





22 



Table 13. Continued. 



DATE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


MAXIMUM 


MINIMUM 


AVERAGE 


25-Sep-94 








17.2 


13.2 


15.1 


26-Sep-94 








16.8 


13.4 


15.0 


27-Sep-94 








16.8 


13.4 


14.9 


28-Sep-94 








16.8 


13.3 


15.1 


29-Sep-94 








15.7 


14.9 


15.3 


30-Sep-94 








15.0 


14.5 


14.7 


Ol-Oct-94 








16.8 


14.2 


15.3 


02-Oct-94 








15.8 


13.1 


14.6 


03-Oct-94 








13.1 


11.8 


12.5 


04-Oct-94 








12.8 


11.1 


11.9 


05-Oct-94 








13.7 


12.1 


12.9 


06-Oct-94 








13.4 


11.6 


12.6 


07-Oct-94 








13.4 


11.4 


12.4 


08-Oct-94 








13.7 


11.1 


12.4 


09-Oct-94 








14.3 


11.6 


12.9 


10-Oct-94 








14.3 


12.1 


13.2 


ll-Oct-94 








14.6 


12.4 


13.4 


12-Oct-94 








13.6 


11.8 


12.8 


13-Oct-94 1 






13.1 


12.1 


12.6 


14-Oct-94 








12.4 


11.0 


11.7 


15-Oct-94 








11.1 


9.5 


10.4 


16-Oct-94 








11.6 


10.0 


10.7 


17-Oct-94 








12.1 


10.4 


11.3 



23 



types ranging from a cool water fish community with significant 
numbers of smallmouth bass at the Lily Grade site to a cold water 
fish community dominated by brook trout at the dam site. 

Habitat and water temperature conditions at the Lily Grade 
site are well within the range of conditions reguired for 
smallmouth bass survival and reproduction. Carlander (1977) 
cites numerous sources stating that smallmouth bass egg laying 
begins when rising water temperatures reach 13° - 15°C. This 
temperature had already been reached at site 1 by the time the 
thermograph was put in on May 14, 1994. Substrate reguirements 
for smallmouth bass egg laying varies enough to probably not be a 
significant limiting factor to the species within this reach. 
The absence of smallmouth bass upstream of site 2 can only be 
speculated on. There is either a natural fish barrier possibly 
in the form of cascades or flow becomes subterraneal through rock 
slides, or water temperatures are modified enough from spring 
flows to favor only cold water fish species. Most likely it is a 
function of both since the aerial video tape does reveal narrow 
sections of the canyon with enough rocks in the bottom to obscure 
the stream course. If smallmouth bass are capable of migrating 
upstream, growth and reproduction may be limited by the cooler 
water temperatures. 

Cooler downstream water temperatures just above Lateral 10 
hydro are probably the result of significant spring inflows that 
occur along canyon walls below Lily Grade. Warmer temperatures 
in the Lily Grade area are a result of relatively low flows and 
the radiator effect of large black boulders in the stream 
channel. Water temperatures in sites 3 and 4 were not monitored, 
but the numerous brook trout indicate that temperatures are 
probably not excessively high. Temperatures are probably cooler 
and more stable as you approach the dam since water sources come 
mainly through the rock strata. 

The high variability in densities of trout among sites 
indicates that the population may be limited by natural 
recruitment from younger year classes. Considering the lack of 
clean gravel at most sites, wild rainbow trout recruitment may be 
limited by a lack of successful spawning habitat. Although there 
is no significant influx of sediments from upstream sources, the 
modified flows below the dam no longer flush out silt from the 
areas of low velocity. Fine materials continue to enter the 
stream along the canyon due to natural erosion levels. As a 
result many of the pools and shoreline areas are laden with a 
deep layer of silt favoring the encroachment of shoreline 
vegetation. Since there is also no annual flooding there are few 
willows and cottonwoods thus very little instream woody debris. 
Most of the instream cover is provided by large boulders from the 
canyon walls. 



24 



Two fish species of special concern, bull trout and 
leatherside chub Gila cooei that might of been in Salmon Falls 
Creek were not found. High water temperatures, lost of migration 
due to Salmon Falls Dam and brook trout introductions may have 
all played a part in the loss of bull trout from this portion of 
the drainage. Brook trout and altered flows may be the reason 
nongame fish were not found at site 4 . Leatherside chub may 
never have been in the drainage but have been documented further 
up the Snake River drainage (Simpson and Wallace 1978) . 



25 



LITERATURE CITED 

Carlander, K.D. 1977. Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology, 
Vol. II. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. 

Harenberg, W.A. , H.G. Sisco, I. O'Dell, and S.C. Cordes. 1987. 
Water Resources Data, Idaho, Water Year 1985. U.S. 
Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, Boise. 

Harenberg, W.A., M.L. Jones, I. O'Dell, T.S. Brennan, A.K. 

Lehmann, and A.M. Tungate. 1993. Water Resources Data, 
Idaho, Water Year 1993. U.S. Geological Survey, Water 
Resources Division, Boise. 

Idaho Department of Fish and Game. 1992. Anadromous Fish 
Management Plan 1992-1996, Boise. 

Platts, W.S., W.F. Megahan, and G.W. Minshall. 1983. Methods 
for evaluating stream, riparian, and biotic conditions. 
USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range 
Experiment Station. General Technical Report INT-138. 

Rosgen, D.L. 1985. A stream classification system. Presented 
in: Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling 
Conflicting uses. First North American Riparian Conference, 
USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range 
Experiment Station. General Technical Report RM-12 0. 

Seber, G.A.F. and E.D. LeCren. 1967. Estimating population 

parameters from catches large relative to the population. 
Journal of Animal Ecology 36:631-643. 

Simpson, J.C. and R.L. Wallace. 1978. Fishes of Idaho. 
University Press of Idaho, Moscow, 237 pp. 

Warren, CD. and F.E. Partridge. In Press. Regional Fisheries 
Management Investigations. Job 4-c. Idaho Department of 
Fish and Game, Job Performance Report. Project F-71-R-18. 
Boise. 



26 






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